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An integrated approach to studying settlement systems on the Northwest Coast : the Nuxalk of Bella Coola,.. 1985

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AN INTERGRATED APPROACH TO STUDYING SETTLEMENT SYSTEMS ON THE NORTHWEST COAST: THE NUXALK OF BELLA COOLA, B . C . by Dana Sue L e p o f s k y B . A . , The U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n , 1 9 8 0 A T H E S I S SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER, OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y a n d S o c i o l o g y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA O c t o b e r 1 9 8 5 (c) Dana Sue L e p o f s k y , 1985 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for s cholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of /VMIrt/PT^le^ij;- 6PCXDIO^(J The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date - . i i - A b s t r a c t The m a j o r f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d t h e s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m o f t h e l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c N u x a l k o f t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y a r e e x a m i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y . D e t a i l e d d a t a o n s e t t l e m e n t , s u b s i s t e n c e , e n v i r o n m e n t a n d t h e s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c w o r l d s o f t h e N u x a l k a r e p r e s e n t e d . E t h n o g r a p h i c , e t h n o h i s t o r i c , a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l d a t a h a v e b e e n c o m p i l e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . T h e t h e o r e t i c a l a p p r o a c h a p p l i e d i n t h i s t h e s i s d i f f e r s f r o m o t h e r c o m p a r a b l e s t u d i e s o n t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t . Many s t u d i e s a r e c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n e n e r g y g a i n s a n d s e t t l e m e n t . I n t h i s s t u d y t h e p o t e n t i a l d e t e r m i n a n t s o f s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s a r e c o m p i l e d f r o m b o t h t h e n a t u r a l a n d c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e N u x a l k . E a c h d e t e r m i n a n t i s e x a m i n e d w i t h i n a c u l t u r a l f r a m e w o r k t h a t w o u l d h a v e b e e n r e l e v a n t t o t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y N u x a l k . The n a t u r e o f t h e a n a l y s e s a n d m e t h o d o l o g y e m p l o y e d h e r e a l s o s e t s t h i s s t u d y a p a r t f r o m o t h e r s e t t l e m e n t s t u d i e s . S a l m o n - s e t t l e m e n t s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a s i n g l e s p e c i e s a t s e v e r a l s i t e s , w h i l e s i t e c a t c h m e n t s t u d i e s c o n c e n t r a t e o n t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f s e v e r a l r e s o u r c e s a t a s i n g l e s i t e . H e r e , s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t s i t e s a r e c o m p a r e d a c c o r d i n g t o e i g h t d i f f e r e n t d e t e r m i n a n t s ( t h e p r e s e n c e o f s a l m o n , o t h e r a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e s , p l a n t r e s o u r c e ^ a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s , m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s , t r a d e , s h e l t e r f r o m t h e e l e m e n t s a n d p r o t e c t i o n f r o m r a i d i n g ) ; e a c h d e t e r m i n a n t i s m e a s u r e d i n a d i f f e r e n t m a n n e r a c c o r d i n g t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d a t a s e t . A r a n k o r d e r o f e a c h v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n i s p r o d u c e d a c c o r d i n g t o i t s a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o e a c h d e t e r m i n a n t a n a l y s e d . - i i i - F r o m t h i s , an o v e r a l l r a n k i n g of s e t t l e m e n t s w h i c h c o m b i n e s a l l t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s , i s g e n e r a t e d . The N u x a l k r e s u l t s a r e t h e n c o m p a r e d t o t h e s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m s of o t h e r N o r t h w e s t C o a s t g r o u p s , a s a means of i d e n t i f y i n g more g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e p r e - c o n t a c t s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m s o f N o r t h w e s t C o a s t N a t i v e p e o p l e s . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f a r a n g e o f f o o d r e s o u r c e s , e s p e c i a l l y p l a n t s a n d f i s h , was among t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i a f o r a p r e f e r r e d s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y . T h e p r e s e n c e o f a v a r i e t y of o t h e r r e s o u r c e s a n d c u l t u r a l a t t r i b u t e s was t h e minimum r e q u i r e m e n t o f a s u i t a b l e N u x a l k v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n . Among o t h e r c o a s t a l g r o u p s , p r e f e r r e d v i l l a g e s i t e s w e r e t h o s e w h i c h o f f e r e d t h e g r e a t e s t number o f r e s o u r c e s f r o m a s i n g l e l o c a t i o n . I n t h e i n s t a n c e s w h e r e p r i m a r y v i l l a g e s w e r e s i t u a t e d i n a r e a s t h a t d i d n o t o f f e r a r a n g e o f r e s o u r c e s , o t h e r ( c u l t u r a l ) f a c t o r s seem t o h a v e i n f l u e n c e d t h e d e c i s i o n t o s e t t l e i n a s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t i s h o p e d t h a t t h i s s t u d y c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e f i e l d of e c o l o g i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g y by o f f e r i n g new m e t h o d s f o r q u a n t i f y i n g e c o n o m i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t p l a n t s . P r e v i o u s l y u n c o l l e c t e d i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m N u x a l k e l d e r s a d d s t o t h e b o d y o f k n o w l e d g e c o n c e r n i n g l a n d u s e among t h e N u x a l k p e o p l e s p e c i f i c a l l y , a n d t h e p e o p l e s of t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t i n g e n e r a l . - i v - Table of Contents A B S T R A C T . i : L LIST OF TABLES....................................................... v i i i LIST OF F I G U R E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . : . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ^ LIST OF APPENDICES................................................... X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i Chapter I. REVIEW OF METHODS AND THEORIES USED TO EVALUATE DETERMINANTS OF SETTLEMENT PATTERNS.............................. 1 Introduction..................................................... 1 Theories Used in Settlement Pattern Studies Introducti on................................................ 3 Assumptions and Parameters of Settlement Pattern Studies.... 4 Minimizing Effort as a Goal in Settlement Systems........... 8 Determi ni ng Important Resources............................. 1 0 Advantages of a Broad Resource Base......................... 1 2 Predicting Settlement Patterns According to Resource Distribution............................................... 1 4 On Reconstructing Past Environments......................... 15 Summary 1 7 Methods Used to Determine Settlement Patterns Site Catchment Analysis - Introduction....... I 7 What is Site Catchment Analysis............................. 1 8 Review of Site Catchment Method and Theory.................. 1 9 Site Catchment Analysis - Summary........................... 2 3 Salmon and Settlement Studies - Introduction................ 2 3 Salmon and Population Studies............................... 2 4 - V - Salmon and Settlement Studies...............................29 Salmon Studies - Summary....................................31 Summary of Settlement Studies Method and Theory..................33 Chapter 11. THE NUXALK: ETHNOGRAPHIC DATA Introduction.....................................................35 Ethnographic Background.......................................... 35 Settlement Data..................................................40 Contact Between Vi11 ages.........................................54 Physical Nature of the Village...................................55 The Vi11 age Uni t................................................. 58 Resource Ownership and Rank......................................63 Settlement Patterns and Resource Use.............................66 Resources Received Through Trade.................................70 Relationshi ps With Other Groups.................................. 72 Chapter III. ECOLOGICAL DATA I n t r o d u c t i o n — 77 Aquatic Resources. 77 Salmon 77 Other Fish . ..81 Seafood and.Sea Mammals.... 86 Water and Land B i r d s 88 Mamma Is....... — - - ..91 P l a n t Resources..... — -.... - • •. -... - - -... - - - - - - - -........... - - - -. .93 M i n e r a l Resources 94 Nuxalk Seasonal Round— 95 Summary............—; ' • 96 Chapter IV. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DETERMINANTS AND NUXALK SETTLEMENT Introducti on.................................................... 400 Methods Defining Determinants........................................... 101 Defi ni ng Vi11 age Uni t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 - v i - D e t e r m i n a n t s o f V i l l a g e L o c a t i o n S a l m o n S p e c i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 6 O t h e r A q u a t i c R e s o u r c e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 8 P l a n t R e s o u r c e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 9 A n i m a l R e s o u r c e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 9 M i n e r a l R e s o u r c e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 0 T r a d e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 0 P r o t e c t i o n f r o m R a i d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 S h e l t e r f r o m t h e E l e m e n t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i n A c c e s s i b i l i t y o f R e s o u r c e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 L i m i t a t i o n s o f D a t a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 2 T h e R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n S a l m o n a n d S e t t l e m e n t s Introduction 114 Methods . . . . . . . . 114 Results- Avai lab i l i ty of Salmon.. . . . . . 115 Di s cuss i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . — . . . . . . . . . J . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n O t h e r A q u a t i c R e s o u r c e s a n d S e t t l e m e n t s Methods... ..125 Results- Avai labi l i ty of Aquatic Resources 125 Discussion. . . . - . 128 . The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n P l a n t R e s o u r c e s a n d S e t t l e m e n t s M e t h o d s 129 D e l i n e a t i o n o f C o v e r - t y p e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 9 A s s i g n i n g V a l u e s f o r C o v e r - t y p e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 1 A c c e s s i b i l i t y o f C o v e r - t y p e s t o S e t t l e m e n t s . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 3 R e s u l t s a n d D i s c u s s i o n D e l i n e a t i o n o f C o v e r - t y p e s . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 5 Assigning Values for Cover- types . . . . . . *• 135 Accessibi l i ty of Cover-types to Settlements 142 - v i i - The Relationship Between Animal Resources and Settlements Methods..................................................... 151 Results and Discussions..... 152 The Relationship Between Mineral Resources and Settlements 155 The Relationship Between Trade and Settlement 155 The Relationship Between Protection from Raids and Settlement.... 158 The Relationship Between Shelter from the Elements and Settl ements .159 Summary 1 6 0 Chapter V. SETTLEMENT REVIEW OF OTHER NORTHWEST COAST GROUPS Introduction. 167 Settlement Summaries Tli n g i t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Tsimshian. 171 Southern Kwakiutl........................................... 174 West Coast.................................................. 176 Coast Salish................................................ 180 Summary and Conclusion........................................... 184 Chapter VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.................................. 187 BIBLIOGRAPHY......................................................... 191 APPENDICES........................................................... 205 - v i i i - L I S T OF TABLES I . L i s t o f Known N u x a l k V i l l a g e s a n d Camps . . . . . 4 3 I I . H o u s e s a n d S h e l t e r s U s e d by t h e N u x a l k . . . 5 9 I I I . T r a d e I t e m s o f t h e N u x a l k . . 7 3 I V . Y e a r l y H a r v e s t i n g C y c l e o f N u x a l k P l a n t a n d A n i m a l R e s o u r c e s ? . 9 7 V . Mean P o u n d W e i g h t (MW) by S p e c i e s o f S a l m o n P r o d u c i n g S t r e a m s a n d T r i b u t a r i e s a n d N e a r e s t V i l l a g e U n i t 116 V I . T o t a l Mean P o u n d W e i g h t ( t M W ^ S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n (SD) a n d C o e f f i c i e n t o f V a r i a t i o n (CV) o f S a l m o n P r o d u c i n g S t r e a m s a n d N e a r e s t V i l l a g e U n i t 117 V I I . The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n A c c e s s i b i l i t y t o S a l m o n a n d S t a b l e S a l m o n Runs by V i l l a g e U n i t s a n d S e t t l e m e n t S i z e 118 V I I I . V i l l a g e U n i t s H a v i n g M o s t D i r e c t A c c e s s t o A q u a t i c R e s o u r c e s .127 I X . I n d i c e s o f P l a n t V a l u e s 137 X . C o v e r - t y p e s P r e s e n t i n V i l l a g e U n i t s C a t c h m e n t s 145 X I . M i n i m u m a n d Maximum S e a s o n a l A b u n d a n c e a n d Y e a r l y I n d e x V a l u e s o f P l a n t R e s o u r c e s i n S e l e c t e d V i l l a g e U n i t s 146 X I I . C o v e r - t y p e s i n w h i c h A n i m a l R e s o u r c e s w e r e F o u n d 153 X I I I . A n i m a l R e s o u r c e s A v a i l a b l e t o S e l e c t e d V i l l a g e U n i t s 154 X I V . V i l l a g e U n i t A c c e s s t o T r a d e Goods O r i g i n a t i n g f r o m t h e B e l l a C o o l a V a l l e y 156 X V . R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n V i l l a g e U n i t s a n d D e t e r m i n a n t s 162 X V I . O v e r a l l Rank O r d e r o f V i l l a g e U n i t s A c c o r d i n g t o T h e i r R e l a t i o n s h i p t o D e t e r m i n a n t s 1 6 3 - i x - L I S T OF FIGURES 1 . L o c a t i o n o f t h e B e l l a C o o l a V a l l e y i n t h e C e n t r a l C o a s t 37 2 . Known A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a R e g i o n 42 3. L o c a t i o n s o f Known N u x a l k V i l l a g e s a n d Camps 52 4. L o c a t i o n s o f Known N u x a l k V i l l a g e s a n d Camps i n t h e L o w e r B e l l a C o o l a V a l l e y 53 5 . V i l l a g e U n i t s i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a V a l l e y 103 6. V i l l a g e U n i t s i n t h e L o w e r B e l l a C o o l a V a l l e y 104 7. M o n t h l y Mean W e i g h t (MW) V a l u e s o f S a l m o n S t r e a m s 120 8. P r e - c o n t a c t D i s t r i b u t i o n o f C o v e r - t y p e s 136 9. P l a n t I n d e x V a l u e s f o r C o v e r - t y p e s 140 1 0 . M o n t h l y P l a n t Index: V a l u e s f o r C o v e r - t y p e s 141 1 1 . Time I Contours : from Select'Vi llage Units 143 1 2 . M i n i m u m a n d Maximum S e a s o n a l A b u n d a n c e o f P l a n t R e s o u r c e s i n S e l e c t e d V i l l a g e U n i t s 147 - x - L I S T OF APPENDICES I . P l a n t R e s o u r c e s U t i l i z e d by t h e N u x a l k 205 I I . A n i m a l R e s o u r c e s U t i l i z e d by t h e N u x a l k 211 I I I . R e c o r d e d Mean W e i g h t s (MW) p e r Y e a r o f S t r e a m s i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a V a l l e y 214 I V . D o m i n a n t S p e c i e s i n C o v e r - t y p e s 215 - x i - A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s I a p p r e c i a t e t h e a d v i c e a n d s u p p o r t o f my c o m m i t t e e m e m b e r s , D r s . J . E . M . K e w , R. P e a r s o n a n d H . V . K u h n l e i n . E a c h o f f e r e d u n i q u e a n d q u a l i f i e d i n p u t t o t h i s t h e s i s i n t h e i r a r e a s o f e x p e r t i s e . A l s o , t h a n k s t o D r . K u h n l e i n f o r f i r s t p r e s e n t i n g t h e p r i v i l e g e t o w o r k i n B e l l a C o o l a . I n a d d i t i o n , I w o u l d l i k e t o a c k n o w l e d g e P h i l H o b l e r , Randy B o u c h a r d a n d D o r o t h y K e n n e d y f o r s u p p l y i n g me w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y h a d g a t h e r e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e N u x a l k . T h e i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f F i s h e r i e s a n d O c e a n s a n d D e p a r t m e n t o f F o r e s t r y p e r s o n n e l i n B e l l a C o o l a , a n d B e l l a C o o l a ' s C o n s e r v a t i o n O f f i c e r , Tony K a r u p , w a s i n v a l u a b l e i n h e l p i n g me u n d e r s t a n d t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e N u x a l k . The N a t i o n a l Museum o f M a n , E t h n o l o g y D i v i s i o n , c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s t h e s i s by s u p p l y i n g f u n d i n g t o c o n d u c t i n t e r v i e w s w i t h N u x a l k e l d e r s a n d f a c i l i t a t i n g my u s e o f u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e N u x a l k . I t i s b e c a u s e o f t h e s u g g e s t i o n s , s u p p o r t a n d l o v e o f f e r e d s o g r a c i o u s l y by my f r i e n d s a n d f a m i l y t h a t I was a b l e t o s e e t h i s t h e s i s t o i t s e n d . I ' d l i k e t o t h a n k t h e m c o l l e c t i v e l y h e r e i n t h e hope t h e y know I a p p r e c i a t e w h a t e a c h h a s g i v e n on a n i n d i v i d u a l a n d s p e c i a l b a s i s . I w o u l d l i k e t o m e n t i o n , i n p a r t i c u l a r , K e i t h J a r d i n e , a n d t h e r e s t o f my Maya f a m i l y , Ken L e r t z m a n , Wendy W i c k w i r e , M i c h a e l M ' G o n i g l e , Anne U n d e r h i l l , P a t B e r r i n g e r , Nancy T u r n e r , W e r n e r K u r z a n d WANG I n c . The s u p p o r t M o i r a I r v i n e h a s g i v e n i s p a r t i a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e b e a u t i f u l f i g u r e s o f t h i s t h e s i s . I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k h e r e v e n more f o r b e i n g a c o n s t a n t s o u r c e o f e n c o u r a g e m e n t - t h a t i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e e n t i r e w o r k . - x i i - What I h a v e received, f r o m t h e p e o p l e o f B e l l a C o o l a g o e s f a r b e y o n d t h e k n o w l e d g e t h a t was o f f e r e d t o me c o n c e r n i n g N u x a l k t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d u s e . The l o v e l y way I was s u p p o r t e d a n d a c c e p t e d by t h a t c o m m u n i t y w i l l b e w i t h me a l w a y s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , I ' d l i k e t o t h a n k , W i l l i e H a n s , F e l i c i t y W a l k u s , t h e l a t e M a r g a r e t S i w a l l a c e a n d A l i c e T a l l i o , C l a y t o n M a c k , S a n d y M o o d y , S a r a h S a u n d e r s , D a v i d H u n t , A a r o n H a n s , J a m e s Hans a n d t h e N u x a l k B a n d o f f i c e . F i n a l l y , I w o u l d l i k e t o d e d i c a t e t h i s t h e s i s t o t h e memory o f D r . M a r g a r e t S i w a l l a c e . H e r l o v e o f g a t h e r i n g a n d s h a r i n g k n o w l e d g e made h e r a t r u e s c h o l a r a n d a r e a l i n s p i r a t i o n t o o t h e r s . -1- C h a p t e r I REVIEW OF METHODS AND THEORIES USED TO EVALUATE DETERMINANTS OF SETTLEMENT PATTERNS I n t r o d u c t i o n A l t h o u g h e x p l i c i t s t u d i e s o f s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s a r e f e w i n t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t l i t e r a t u r e ( e g . P o m e r o y 1 9 8 0 ; W h i t l a m 1 9 8 3 ; B e r n i c k 1 9 8 3 ) t h e r e h a s b e e n much d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e o f f o o d r e s o u r c e s on s e t t l e m e n t ( e g . M i t c h e l l 1 9 7 1 ; B u r l e y 1 9 8 0 ; C a l v e r t 1 9 8 0 ; S t i e f f e l 1 9 8 5 ; C a v a n a u g h 1 9 8 3 ; Ham 1 9 8 2 ) . R a r e l y , h o w e v e r , i s N o r t h w e s t C o a s t s e t t l e m e n t v i e w e d i n a l a r g e r c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t ( f o r a n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s e e N o l a n 1 9 7 7 ) . I n c o n t r a s t t o o t h e r N o r t h w e s t C o a s t s t u d i e s , t h i s t h e s i s p r o v i d e s a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a r a n g e o f n a t u r a l a n d c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s o n s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s o f t h e B e l l a C o o l a V a l l e y N u x a l k i n t h e l a t e p r e - c o n t a c t p e r i o d . The r e l e v a n c e o f e a c h o f t h e s e d e t e r m i n a n t s i s a s s e s s e d w i t h i n t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f r a m e w o r k o f t h e N u x a l k o f t h a t e r a . The N u x a l k I n d i a n s t r a d i t i o n a l l y l i v e d a l o n g s e v e r a l c h a n n e l s a n d v a l l e y s o f t h e c e n t r a l c o a s t a r e a , h o w e v e r t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n d i c t a t e s t h a t t h i s s t u d y be c o n f i n e d t o t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y o n l y . The B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y N u x a l k w e r e a r e l a t i v e l y s e d e n t a r y p e o p l e i n l a t e p r e - c o n t a c t t i m e s . L a r g e v i l l a g e s l o c a t e d a l o n g t h e B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r w e r e u s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r a s p e r m a n e n t r e s i d e n c e s o r a s b a s e camps f r o m w h i c h o t h e r s e a s o n a l a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d t a k e p l a c e . S i n c e t h e s e t t l e m e n t had t o s e r v e many f u n c t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e a s o n s , s e v e r a l c o n s t r a i n t s w o u l d h a v e b e e n p l a c e d u p o n s i t e l o c a t i o n . - 2 - D e t a i l e d d a t a on s e t t l e m e n t , s u b s i s t e n c e , e n v i r o n m e n t a n d t h e s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l a n d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c w o r l d s o f t h e N u x a l k f o r m t h e b a s i s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s o f N u x a l k s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s . E t h n o g r a p h i c a n d e c o l o g i c a l d a t a c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h f i e l d w o r k a n d l i b r a r y r e s e a r c h , a s w e l l a s e t h n o h i s t o r i c a n d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e , w e r e c o m p i l e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . I n t h i s c h a p t e r we b e g i n w i t h a r e v i e w o f t h e a s s u m p t i o n s , p a r a m e t e r s a n d m e t h o d s o f s e t t l e m e n t s t u d i e s i n a r c h a e o l o g y ; a p p r o a c h e s u s e f u l t o t h i s t h e s i s a r e o u t l i n e d . I n C h a p t e r s I I a n d I I I r e l e v a n t a s p e c t s o f t h e n a t u r a l a n d c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e N u x a l k a r e p r e s e n t e d i n d e t a i l . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r m s t h e d a t a b a s e o f t h e a n a l y s i s c h a p t e r - - C h a p t e r I V . I n C h a p t e r I V , e i g h t d e t e r m i n a n t s , s a l m o n , o t h e r a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e s , p l a n t r e s o u r c e s , a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s , m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s , t r a d e , s h e l t e r f r o m t h e e l e m e n t s a n d p r o t e c t i o n f r o m r a i d s , a r e e x a m i n e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r i n f l u e n c e o n s i t e s e l e c t i o n . E a c h d e t e r m i n a n t i s m e a s u r e d d i f f e r e n t l y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a t o d e t e r m i n e i t s p o t e n t i a l i n f l u e n c e o n l o c a t i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t . The a c t u a l e f f e c t o f e a c h d e t e r m i n a n t , a s w e l l a s t h e sum t o t a l o f a l l d e t e r m i n a n t s , o n s p e c i f i c s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n s , i s t h e n e x a m i n e d . I n C h a p t e r V , t h e N u x a l k p a t t e r n i s c o m p a r e d t o t h e s e t t l e m e n t d a t a f r o m f i v e o t h e r N o r t h w e s t C o a s t g r o u p s , a n d g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s a r e made c o n c e r n i n g s e t t l e m e n t o n t h e c o a s t i n t h e l a t e p r e - c o n t a c t e r a . I n t h e c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r ( V I ) t h e N u x a l k s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m i s s u m m a r i z e d , a n d t h e r e l e v a n c e o f t h i s s t u d y i s d i s c u s s e d . -3- T h e o r i e s U s e d i n S e t t l e m e n t P a t t e r n S t u d i e s I n t r o d u c t i o n S t u d i e s o f s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s , l i k e much o f a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g o f t h e p a s t 15 y e a r s , h a v e b e e n g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e " e c o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h " . An u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n o f s t u d i e s t h a t a d h e r e t o t h i s a p p r o a c h i s t h a t s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s a r e t h e r e s u l t s o f " t h e s i m p l e i n t e r a c t i o n o f two v a r i a b l e s - e n v i r o n m e n t a n d t e c h n o l o g y " ( T r i g g e r 1 9 6 8 : 5 4 ) . The f o c u s i n s u c h s t u d i e s i s o f t e n a l m o s t w h o l l y o n s u b s i s t e n c e , t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m y . What we a r e l e f t w i t h a r e m e r e r e c o n t r u c t i o n s o f t h e s u b s i s t e n c e c y c l e , w i t h l i t t l e o v e r a l l i n t e r g r a t i o n i n t o t h e c u l t u r e a s a w h o l e ( c f . R o o t s 1 9 8 3 ) . I n t h i s c h a p t e r a p p r o a c h e s f o r e x a m i n i n g s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m s a r e r e v i e w e d , a n d t h e u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n s a n d p a r a m e t e r s a r e d i s c u s s e d . I n l i g h t o f t h i s r e v i e w , two m e t h o d s u s e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e s e t t l e m e n t p a t e r n s — s a l m o n - s e t t l e m e n t s t u d i e s a n d s i t e c a t c h m e n t a n a l y s i s , a r e e x a m i n e d . B e f o r e we b e g i n t h e r e v i e w , c l a r i f i c a t i o n i s n e e d e d f o r w h a t i s m e a n t by t h e t e r m s s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n a n d s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m . I n t h i s s t u d y , s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n r e f e r s t o t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s i t e s on t h e g r o u n d . The s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , r e f e r s t o t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n s e v e r a l c u l t u r a l v a r i a b l e s a n d s e t t l e m e n t s . The f o r m e r c a n be r e c o n s t r u c t e d t h r o u g h a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e x c a v a t i o n ; t h e l a t t e r c a n o n l y b e i n t e r p r e t e d t h r o u g h a s t u d y o f t h e l a r g e r c u l t u r a l s y s t e m . -4- A s s u m p t i o n s a n d P a r a m e t e r s o f S e t t l e m e n t P a t t e r n S t u d i e s A b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n u n d e r l y i n g e c o l o g i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l t h o u g h t i s t h a t p e o p l e w i l l t r y t o m i n i m i z e t h e i r e f f o r t s f o r maximum g a i n s . M o s t o f t e n , e n e r g y g a i n s s p e c i f i c a l l y a r e v i e w e d a s t h e d o m i n a n t g o a l o f a g r o u p . T h i s c o n c e p t i s n o t new t o a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . The i d e a was f i r s t e n c o m p a s s e d i n t h e n o t i o n o f h e x a g o n a l s p a c i n g o f s e t t l e m e n t s t o m i n i m i z e movement c o s t s ( K r z y w i c k i 1 9 3 4 ; W o b s t 1 9 7 4 ) , a n d l a t e r i n t h e " m i n i m a x " t h e o r i e s t h a t g a i n e d p o p u l a r i t y i n t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s ( e g . B u r l i n g 1 9 6 2 ) . M o s t r e c e n t l y i t h a s b e e n e n c o m p a s s e d i n " o p t i m a l f o r a g i n g s t r a t e g y " t h e o r y among h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r g r o u p s ( e g . W i n t e r h a l d e r a n d S m i t h 1 9 8 1 ) . T h a t t h e f o c u s on e n e r g y ( u s u a l l y s u b s i s t e n c e ) h a s g a i n e d s u c h p o p u l a r i t y i n s t u d i e s o f s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s i s l a r g e l y d u e t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f q u a n t i t a t i v e l y m e a s u r i n g o t h e r n o n - m a t e r i a l f a c t o r s . D a t a on t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y , a c c e s s a n d u s e o f r e s o u r c e s a r e much e a s i e r t o g a t h e r t h a n i n f o r m a t i o n on o t h e r a s p e c t s o f a c u l t u r e . Much o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n c a n be c o m p i l e d f r o m e t h n o g r a p h i c s o u r c e s o r f r o m n a t i v e c o n s u l t a n t s t o d a y . D i s c u s s i o n s o f f o o d a n d o t h e r r e s o u r c e s ate a t o p i c w h i c h p e o p l e c a n c o m f o r t a b l y s h a r e . P r e s e n t - d a y f i e l d q u a n t i f i c a t i o n s o f r e s o u r c e a b u n d a n c e a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n c a n a l s o be u s e d t o a s s e s s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f r e s o u r c e s o n t h e s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m . D a t a on r e s o u r c e u s e may a l s o be r e l a t i v e l y m o r e a v a i l a b l e t o a r c h a e o l o g i s t s t h a n o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e s o c i a l s y s t e m . I f c o n d i t i o n s a t t h e s i t e l e n d t h e m s e l v e s t o p r e s e r v a t i o n o f p l a n t , a n i m a l o r m i n e r a l r e m a i n s , t h e n t h e r e i s d i r e c t e v i d e n c e o f r e s o u r c e u s e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t i s o f t e n i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e a c c u r a t e l y t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s t o o n e a n o t h e r b e c a u s e o f p r o b l e m s o f d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e s e r v a t i o n . - 5 - T h i s r e l a t i v e a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f r e s o u r c e - u s e i n f o r m a t i o n c a n l e a d t o a n a r r o w r e c o n s t r u c t i o n by a r c h a e o l o g i s t s o f t h e p r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r a l s y s t e m . O t h e r c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s ( e g . w a r f a r e , k i n s h i p , e t c . ) w h i c h may b e l e s s a p p a r e n t i n t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d t e n d t o be i g n o r e d . H o w e v e r , t h e s e f a c t o r s may i n f a c t h a v e p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n . T h i s n a r r o w f o c u s r e s u l t s i n w h a t h a s b e e n t e r m e d " e c o l o g i c a l d e t e r m i n i s m " ( T r i g g e r 1 9 6 8 : 5 4 ) , t h a t i s , t h a t e c o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d s o l e l y t o s h a p e a l l o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e s o c i e t y . The f o c u s s o l e l y on e n e r g y o p t i m i z a t i o n may u l t i m a t e l y l i m i t t h e u t i l i t y o f t h i s a p p r o a c h . T h e r e i s a n i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e b o d y o f l i t e r a t u r e i n e c o l o g i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g y w h i c h c a u t i o n s u s a g a i n s t v i e w i n g human b e h a v i o r s t r i c t l y i n t e r m s o f e n e r g y ( e g . K e e n e 1 9 8 3 ; J o c h i m 1 9 7 6 , 1 9 8 1 , 1 9 8 3 ; B u t z e r 1 9 8 2 : 2 5 8 ) . I n f a c t , t h e f a i l u r e o f many o p t i m a l f o r a g i n g m o d e l s t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e f o r a g i n g b e h a v i o r o f t h e a n i m a l s f o r w h i c h t h e y w e r e o r i g i n a l l y d e v e l o p e d s h o w s t h a t e v e n i n t h o s e c a s e s e n e r g e t i c c r i t e r i a a r e o f t e n o v e r r i d e n by o t h e r f a c t o r s - t e r r i t o r y d e f e n s e , m a t i n g , r i s k a n d p r e d a t i o n , n u t r i e n t s ( C a r a c o , M a r t i n d a l e a n d W h i t t a m 1 9 8 0 ; E r w i n 1 9 8 5 ; G l a s s e r 1 9 8 4 ; R e i c h m a n 1 9 7 7 ; S m i t h , G r a n t , G r a n t , A b b o t t , a n d A b b o t t 1 9 7 8 ; W i l l s o n 1 9 7 1 ) . The i n a d e q u a c y o f s u c h m o d e l s i s a l s o a p p a r e n t i n s t u d i e s o f human b e h a v i o r ( e g . Y e s n e r 1 9 8 1 ; S m i t h 1 9 8 1 ; s e e a l s o M a r t i n 1983 r e v i e w ) . O t h e r f a c t o r s i n a d d i t i o n t o e n e r g y g a i n s w h i c h h a v e b e e n s u g g e s t e d a s i n f l u e n c i n g s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n i n c l u d e ( 1 ) n a t u r a l v a r i a b l e s , i e . w e a t h e r a n d t e r r a i n , ( 2 ) s p a c i n g d u e t o c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h o t h e r g r o u p s f o r c r i t i c a l r e s o u r c e s , ( 3 ) a d e s i r e t o s o c i a l i z e , ( 4 ) s e c u r i t y , ( 5 ) a c c e s s t o t r a d e a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s ; ( 6 ) a c c e s s t o l a b o r ; ( 7 ) s u i t a b i l i t y o f s o c i e t y ' s t e c h n o l o g y t o e x p l o i t r e s o u r c e s f r o m a n a r e a , a n d ( 8 ) a d e s i r e f o r p r e s t i g e ( H i l l 1 9 7 1 : 5 6 ; J o c h i m 1 9 7 6 : 4 9 ; 1 9 8 1 : 8 9 , 1 5 4 ) . -6- T h e s e f a c t o r s r e q u i r e some a d d i t i o n a l d i s c u s s i o n . The f i r s t f a c t o r i n v o l v e s p o s s i b l e d e t e r r e n t s o r i n c e n t i v e s i n t h e l o c a l e n v i r o n m e n t . I n p a r t i c u l a r l y i n h o s p i t a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t s s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n w i l l be p a r t l y d i c a t e d by t h e d e g r e e o f s h e l t e r a v a i l a b l e i n a n y g i v e n l o c a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , a c c e s s t o s u n l i g h t may a l s o be o f p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e w i n t e r o r i n c o o l e n v i r o n m e n t s ( e g . t h e c l i f f d w e l l i n g s o f t h e s o u t h w e s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s a r e p r e d o m i n a t e l y l o c a t e d o n s o u t h - f a c i n g s l o p e s ) . The s e c o n d , t h i r d a n d f o u r t h f a c t o r s a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s o c i a l t i e s w i t h n e i g h b o u r i n g g r o u p s . E v e n i f r e l a t i o n s w i t h n e i g h b o u r i n g g r o u p s a r e a m i c a b l e , t h e r e a r e l i m i t s t o t h e e x t e n t o f f o r a g i n g t h a t a g r o u p may u n d e r t a k e b e f o r e t h e y a r e i n t r u d i n g upon s o m e o n e ' s t e r r i t o r y . T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e e x t r e m e among N o r t h w e s t C o a s t h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r s , w h e r e t e r r i t o r i e s w e r e o f t e n s t r i c t l y g u a r d e d among g r o u p s . S i m i l a r l y , a s a r e s u l t o f more h o s t i l e r e l a t i o n s , f e a r o f a t t a c k may p r e v e n t u t i l i z i n g h a r v e s t i n g a r e a s t h a t a r e f a r f r o m home b a s e , a s t h e d a n g e r s i n c r e a s e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e s a f e t y o f t h e l a r g e r g r o u p . C o n v e r s e l y , a d e s i r e t o s o c i a l i z e may t a k e someone f a r t h e r a f i e l d . A c c e s s t o t r a d e a n d t r a n s p o r a t i o n r o u t e s a n d l a b o r d i f f e r f r o m t h e o t h e r d e t e r m i n a n t s l i s t e d h e r e i n t h a t t h e y d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e s o c i a l t i e s w i t h n e i g h b o u r i n g p e o p l e s . E x c h a n g e p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e l o c a l e c o n o m y , b o t h a s a means o f g a i n i n g a c c e s s t o i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e s ( h o w e v e r t h e y a r e d e f i n e d ) , a s w e l l a s a means o f c e m e n t i n g s o c i a l t i e s . -7- S i m i l a r l y , p r o x i m i t y t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s means i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s t o n e i g h b o u r i n g p e o p l e a n d i n f o r m a t i o n . A c c e s s t o a l a r g e r l a b o r f o r c e a t c r i t i c a l t i m e s i n t h e e c o n o m i c c y c l e may be e s s e n t i a l i n s p a r s e l y p o p u l a t e d a r e a s . A l l a r e a d v a n t a g e o u s t o t h e l o c a l s o c i o - e c o n o m y a n d t h e r e f o r e may p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n . The s o c i e t y ' s a v a i l a b l e t e c h n o l o g y , a n d k n o w l e d g e o f t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t w i l l a l s o a f f e c t t h e a b i l i t y t o u t i l i z e c e r t a i n r e s o u r c e s . A r e s o u r c e w h i c h i s r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o a c e r t a i n g r o u p may n o t h a v e b e e n e x p l o i t e d by a n o t h e r b e c a u s e t h e p e o p l e do n o t h a v e t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l k n o w l e d g e t o e x p l o i t i t ( o r t o e x p l o i t i t i n a g i v e n s e t o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l p a r a m e t e r s ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e t y p e o f a v a i l a b l e t e c h n o l o g y may a l s o d i c t a t e p r e f e r e n c e s f o r s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n s w h e r e t h e t e c h n o l o g y may b e u s e d m o s t e f f i c i e n t l y ( J o c h i m 1 9 8 1 : 1 3 9 ) . A d e s i r e f o r p r e s t i g e may a l s o b e an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n s e t t l e m e n t s t u d i e s on t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t . A h i g h v a l u e was p l a c e d o n p r e s t i g e , w h i c h was o f t e n a c q u i r e d by a m a s s i n g i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e s . T h i s m i g h t m o t i v a t e p e o p l e t o t r a v e l f a r t h e r a f i e l d t h a n was m o s t e n e r g y e f f i c i e n t . T h a t o t h e r f a c t o r s p l a y a r o l e i n s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m s d o e s n o t n e g a t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s t u d y i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s u b s i s t e n c e t o s e t t l e m e n t s . I t i s e s s e n t i a l , h o w e v e r , t h a t s u c h r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e e x a m i n e d w i t h i n a c u l t u r a l f r a m e w o r k . " I f human b e h a v i o r i s v i e w e d i n s y s t e m a t i c t e r m s , t h e n s u b s i s t e n c e c e r t a i n l y p r o v i d e s one p o i n t a t w h i c h t o e n t e r t h e s y s t e m f o r s t u d y " ( J o c h i m 1 9 8 1 : 1 6 4 ; s e e a l s o K e e n e 1 9 7 5 ) . S i n c e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g s u b s i s t e n c e p r a c t i c e s i s r e l a t i v e l y more a c c e s s i b l e t o r e s e a r c h e r s s t u d y i n g s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m s , t h e y a r e a l o g i c a l p l a c e t o b e g i n . -8- M i n i m i z i n g E f f o r t a s a G o a l i n S e t t l e m e n t S y s t e m s A l t h o u g h t h e u t i l i t y o f an a b s o l u t e m a x i m i z a t i o n ( o r o p t i m i z a t i o n ) p o s t u l a t e a s t h e s o l e m e c h a n i s m s h a p i n g s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m s i s q u e s t i o n a b l e , m i n i m i z i n g e f f o r t d o e s a p p e a r t o be one i m p o r t a n t g o a l o f h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r s . The n o t i o n o f m i n i m i z i n g e f f o r t i n r e s o u r c e a c q u i s i t i o n i s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o s e t t l e m e n t s t u d i e s by s t a t i n g t h a t s i t e s w i l l t e n d t o be l o c a t e d t o m i n i m i z e t h e d i s t a n c e t o i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e s ( s e e a l s o J o c h i m 1 9 7 6 : 4 8 - 9 , 1 9 8 1 : 1 4 0 ) . P r o c u r e m e n t c o s t s i n c r e a s e a s d i s t a n c e f r o m a s e t t l e m e n t i n c r e a s e s . I f a l l o t h e r c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s a r e e q u a l , t h e n , s i t e s w i l l be l o c a t e d c l o s e r t o more i m p o r t a n t r a t h e r t h a n l e s s i m p o r t a n t p r o c u r e m e n t l o c a t i o n s ( c f . J o c h i m 1 9 8 1 : 1 4 1 ) . D i s t a n c e t o r e s o u r c e s , h o w e v e r , c a n be m e a s u r e d i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t w a y s . V i t a - F i n z i a n d H i g g s ( 1 9 7 0 ) s u g g e s t e d t h a t d i s t a n c e i s more a p p r o p r i a t e l y m e a s u r e d i n t e r m s o f t h e t i m e i n v o l v e d t o t r a v e l a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e t h a n d i s t a n c e i t s e l f . T h i s " t i m e - d i s t a n c e " m e a s u r e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t i n a r e a s o f r o u g h a n d / o r u n e v e n t e r r a i n . T h e i d e a o f t i m e - d i s t a n c e was a l s o e x p l o r e d by C h i s h o l m ( 1 9 6 2 ) who s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n m e a s u r e s o f d i s t a n c e , p o i n t s o f a c c e s s m u s t be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I n a l l b u t f l a t , u n b r o k e n t e r r a i n , r a r e l y c a n a p o i n t b e r e a c h e d v i a a s t r a i g h t l i n e f r o m a n o t h e r p o i n t . T i m e - d i s t a n c e s w o u l d t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t m o r e m e a n d e r i n g p a t h s t o a r e s o u r c e a r e a . The l o c a t i o n o f a s i t e i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e s u l t i m a t e l y t r a n s l a t e s i n t o m i n i m i z e d w o r k e f f o r t o r e n e r g y e x p e n d i t u r e . By m i n i m i z i n g e n e r g y o u t p u t , t h e n e t g a i n o f a r e s o u r c e , i n t e r m s o f e n e r g y v a l u e , w i l l be i n c r e a s e d . L e e ( 1 9 7 2 : 1 8 1 ) s p e c i f i c a l l y t r a n s l a t e s t h e n o t i o n o f e n e r g y e x p e n d i t u r e o r w o r k e f f o r t d i r e c t l y a s t h e number o f k i l o m e t e r s w a l k e d i n p u r s u i t o f f o o d . He a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e d i s t a n c e f a c t o r i s p a r t i a l l y a f a c t o r o f g r o u p s i z e . T h a t i s , a s t h e g r o u p s i z e - 9 - i n c r e a s e s , s o w i l l t h e t r a v e l d i s t a n c e r e q u i r e d f o r an a d e q u a t e f o o d s u p p l y . L e e ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f w o r k e f f o r t i s t o o n a r r o w i n s c o p e t o be a p p l i e d t o a l l o t h e r c a s e s . H i l l ( 1 9 7 1 : 6 0 ) e l a b o r a t e s on t h e n o t i o n o f w o r k e f f o r t ( w h i c h he t e r m s " p u r s u i t t i m e " ) t o i n c l u d e , " t h e amount o f t i m e a n d e n e r g y e x p e n d i t u r e i n e x p l o i t i n g , t r a n s p o r t i n g a n d d i s t r i b u t i n g c r i t i c a l f o o d r e s o u r c e s . " " E x p l o i t i n g " c a n be f u r t h e r d e f i n e d a s " s e a r c h t i m e " , o r t h e t i m e t a k e n t o l o c a t e t h e r e s o u r c e , a n d " p u r s u i t t i m e " , o r t h e t i m e t a k e n t o c a p t u r e a r e s o u r c e o n c e i t i s l o c a t e d ( c f . J o c h i m 1 9 7 6 : 2 7 ; W i n t e r h a l d e r 1 9 8 1 b : 6 8 ) . P r e s u m a b l y h a r v e s t i n g t i m e o f n o n - a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s w o u l d a l s o b e i n c l u d e d i n t h e n o t i o n o f p u r s u i t t i m e ; p r o c e s s i n g t i m e , b o t h f o r i m m e d i a t e c o n s u m p t i o n a n d f o r s t o r a g e s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n t h e n o t i o n o f e x p l o i t a t i o n e f f o r t . Work e f f o r t , t h e n , c a n be more f u l l y t r a n s l a t e d i n t o t h e t o t a l amount o f e n e r g y e x p e n d e d on a r e s o u r c e b e f o r e i t i s f i n a l l y u s e d . K e e n e ( 1 9 8 1 ) b r o a d e n s t h i s n o t i o n e v e n f u r t h e r t o i n c l u d e t h e r i s k i n v o l v e d i n h a r v e s t i n g a f o o d ( s e e a l s o W i l m s e n 1 9 7 3 : 6 - 1 0 ; M a r t i n 1 9 8 3 : 6 1 4 ) . A l t h o u g h t h i s c a n n o t be d i r e c t l y t r a n s l a t e d a s e n e r g y o u t p u t l i k e t h e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s , i t i s a p o t e n t i a l " c o s t " t o t h e h a r v e s t i n g a c t i v i t y . K e e n e d e f i n e s r i s k a s " t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f a l o s s o r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f an u n f o r t u n a t e o u t c o m e ( K e e n e 1 9 8 1 : 1 7 9 , f r o m W i e s s n e r 1 9 7 7 : 5 ) , a s w e l l a s " t h e r i s k o f c o m i n g home empty h a n d e d " ( K e e n e 1 9 8 1 : 1 7 9 ) . K e e n e d o e s s u g g e s t h o w e v e r , t h a t p r e d i c t a b i l i t y s h o u l d b e v i e w e d o v e r a l o n g t e r m , a s a more p r o d u c t i v e , s t a b l e r e s o u r c e may u l t i m a t e l y y i e l d g r e a t e r h a r v e s t s t h a n o n e w i t h w i d e l y f l u c t u a t i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y ( i b i d . : 1 7 9 ) . F o r p l a n t r e s o u r c e s r i s k o f f a i l u r e a t f o r a g i n g c a n be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o t h e d e g r e e o f p r e d i c t a b i l i t y t h a t o n c e -10- t h e p l a n t i s l o c a t e d i t w i l l be b e a r i n g t h e u s a b l e p a r t . E a c h o f t h e c o n c e p t s o f s e a r c h a n d p u r s u i t t i m e a n d r i s k w i l l a l s o be i n f l u e n c e d by c u l t u r a l v a l u e s . J o c h i m ( 1 9 8 3 : 1 6 0 ) p o i n t s o u t t h a t s c a l e s o f m e a s u r e m e n t a r e a r e l a t i v e c u l t u r a l p h e n o m e n o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n a f e w h o u r s o f s e a r c h t i m e may mean t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n w h e t h e r a r e s o u r c e i s c o n s i d e r e d o b t a i n a b l e o r n o t by a p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p ( s e e a l s o J o c h i m 1 9 8 1 : 9 2 ) . D e t e r m i n i n g I m p o r t a n t R e s o u r c e s O b v i o u s l y , i t i s m o s t i m p o r t a n t t o d e t e r m i n e n o t o n l y t h e c o r r e c t d i s t a n c e m e a s u r e , b u t a l s o t o w h a t r e s o u r c e ( o r r e s o u r c e z o n e ) t h e d i s t a n c e i s b e i n g m e a s u r e d . T h i s i s n o t a s e a s y a s i t s o u n d s , a n d i n f a c t , a r c h a e o l o g i s t s o f t e n s i d e s t e p t h i s i s s u e ( e g . Wood 1 9 7 8 ) . An a s s e s s m e n t m u s t be made o f t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e r e s o u r c e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p e o p l e who u s e d t h e m . W i t h o u t d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t s f r o m i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e o n r e s o u r c e s e l e c t i o n , t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i s t c a n o n l y s p e c u l a t e a b o u t w h i c h a t t r i b u t e may be s i g n i f i c a n t . A f t e r t h o r o u g h l y e x a m i n i n g t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c l i t e r a t u r e , J o c h i m a r r i v e d a t a l i s t o f f o o d a t t r i b u t e s w h i c h w e r e r e c o g n i z e d a s b e i n g i m p o r t a n t by s e v e r a l h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r g r o u p s ( J o c h i m 1 9 7 6 : 1 9 - 2 1 , 1 9 8 1 : 8 2 , 8 9 ) . T h e s e a t t r i b u t e s a r e , w e i g h t , f a t c o n t e n t , t a s t e r e q u i r e m e n t s , v a r i e t y i n t h e d i e t , d e n s i t y , a g g r e g a t i o n s i z e , m o b i l i t y a n d n o n - f o o d y i e l d s . F o r t h e h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r , w e i g h t a n d t a s t e a r e t h e t w o m o s t c o m m o n l y m e n t i o n e d s u b j e c t i v e a t t r i b u t e s o f p r e f e r r e d f o o d s ( J o c h i m 1 9 8 1 : 8 9 ) . The n o t i o n o f w e i g h t i s c l e a r l y m o s t a p p l i c a b l e f o r a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s . I n a d a p t i v e ( i e . n o n - s u b j e c t i v e ) t e r m s w e i g h t t r a n s l a t e s t o h i g h e r y i e l d p e r c a t c h . T a s t e o f f o o d s , t o o h a s r e a l a d a p t i v e v a l u e . T h o s e f o o d s w h i c h -11- a r e b e t t e r t a s t i n g a r e o f t e n t h o s e w h i c h h a v e a h i g h f a t c o n t e n t . F a t i s an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f e n e r g y a n d v i t a m i n s a n d i s s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r o t e i n c o n t e n t ( i b i d . 8 2 - 8 3 ) . I n f a c t , a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r s do s e l e c t f o r t h o s e a n i m a l p a r t s w i t h t h e h i g h e s t f a t c o n t e n t ( S p e t h 1 9 8 3 ) . F a t - r i c h f o o d s i n t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t d i e t i n c l u d e d o o l i g a n ( K u h n l e i n , C h a n , Thompson a n d N a k a i 1 9 8 2 ) , f a t t y s a l m o n a n d g a m e . S p e t h ( 1 9 8 3 : 1 5 4 - 1 5 5 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r s may s e e k f o o d s h i g h i n c a r b o h y d r a t e s a s w e l l a s t h o s e h i g h i n f a t . Some c a r b o h y d r a t e i s e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e p r o p e r m e t a b o l i s m o f p r o t e i n by h u m a n s . F o o d s h i g h i n c a r b o h y d r a t e s may a l s o be s e l e c t i v e l y c h o s e n f o r t a s t e a p p e a l . On t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t f o o d s c o n t a i n i n g c a r b o h y d r a t e w o u l d i n c l u d e t h e b e r r i e s , r o o t f o o d s a n d a n i m a l o r f i s h l i v e r ( s e e P e n n i n g t o n a n d C h u r c h 1 9 8 0 f o r c a r b o h y d r a t e c o n t e n t o f t h e s e f o o d t y p e s ) . O t h e r n u t r i t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s ( v i t a m i n s , m i n e r a l s , f i b e r , f o r e x a m p l e ) a r e a l s o i m p o r t a n t a t t r i b u t e s o f f o o d . A l t h o u g h J o c h i m ( 1 9 8 3 : 1 5 9 ) p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e s e w o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n s u b j e c t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f p r e i n d u s t r i a l p e o p l e s , t h e y n o n e - t h e - l e s s w o u l d h a v e b e e n i m p o r t a n t a d a p t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t s . W i t h a g r o w i n g b o d y o f l i t e r a t u r e on n u t r i t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s o f N o r t h w e s t C o a s t i n d i g e n o u s f o o d s ( K e e l y 1 9 8 0 ; K u h n l e i n , C h a n , Thompson a n d N a k a i 1 9 8 2 ; K u h n l e i n , T u r n e r a n d K l u c k n e r 1 9 8 2 ; H o o p e r 1 9 8 4 ; T u r n e r a n d K u h n l e i n 1 9 8 3 ) , i t w i l l s o o n be p o s s i b l e t o e x a m i n e how s u c h r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e m e t by t h e d i e t a r y p a t t e r n s o f a h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r g r o u p . A d e s i r e f o r v a r i e t y i n t h e d i e t a l s o i n s u r e s a number o f d i f f e r e n t f o o d s c o n s u m e d . T h e s e h o p e f u l l y c o n t r i b u t e t o a r a n g e a n d b a l a n c e o f n u t r i e n t s i n t h e d i e t . D e n s i t y , a g g r e g a t i o n s i z e a n d m o b i l i t y w i l l a l s o a f f e c t w h i c h r e s o u r c e s a r e e x p l o i t e d . J o c h i m ( 1 9 7 6 : 5 6 - 6 0 ) u s i n g t h e g r a v i t y m o d e l -12- f r o m l o c a t i o n a l g e o g r a p h y ( s e e H a g g a r t 1 9 6 5 ) m e a s u r e d t h e amount o f i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n s e t t l e m e n t a n d r e s o u r c e s . He f o u n d t h a t t h o s e r e s o u r c e s w h i c h a r e l e a s t m o b i l e , m o s t d e n s e a n d l e a s t c l u s t e r e d w i l l be p r e f e r r e d . T h e s e a t t r i b u t e s a r e l i n k e d t o t h e n o t i o n s o f s e a r c h a n d p u r s u i t t i m e m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r . T h o s e r e s o u r c e s t h a t a r e d e n s e l y p a c k e d i n t i m e a n d s p a c e ( e # . s a l m o n a n d c a r i b o u ) w i l l be p r e f e r r e d ( J o c h i m 1 9 8 1 : 1 0 2 ) . P l a n t s p e c i e s w h i c h p r o d u c e e a c h y e a r i n t h e same l o c a l i t y w o u l d a l s o f a l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t q u a l i t y , n o t o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d , i s t h e s e a s o n a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a r e s o u r c e r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r s . L a t e summer a n d e a r l y f a l l i s u s u a l l y t h e p e a k t i m e o f m o s t h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r s u b s i s t e n c e c y c l e s . A t t h i s t i m e t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f r e s o u r c e s w h i c h c o u l d f u l f i l t h e s u b s i s t e n c e n e e d s o f t h e g r o u p . T h i s i n t u r n c o u l d r e s u l t i n a r a n g e o f s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I n l a t e w i n t e r a n d e a r l y s p r i n g , h o w e v e r , when s t o r e s a r e l o w , t h e c h o i c e o f s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n s i s more r e s t r i c t e d t o a r e a s a r o u n d t h o s e f e w a v a i l a b l e a n d e s s e n t i a l r e s o u r c e s . A d v a n t a g e s o f a B r o a d R e s o u r c e B a s e Once i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e s h a v e b e e n i d e n t i f i e d , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m . H i l l s t a t e s t h a t f o r m o b i l e h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r g r o u p s t h e s i n g l e m o s t c r i t i c a l r e s o u r c e i n any g i v e n s e a s o n w i l l a f f e c t t h e l o c a t i o n o f a s i t e . L e e ( 1 9 6 9 : 6 0 - 6 1 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s i s t h e c a s e f o r t h e i K u n g B u s h m e n . He n o t e s t h a t d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e m o s t c r i t i c a l r e s o u r c e o f t h e ! K u n g , w h i c h i s w a t e r , r e s t r i c t s p e o p l e s ' movement a c r o s s t h e l a n d s c a p e , a n d t h e r e b y d e t e r m i n e s u l t i m a t e l y w h e r e v i l l a g e s a r e t o b e l o c a t e d . The n o t i o n t h a t a s i n g l e c r i t i c a l r e s o u r c e d e t e r m i n e d s i t e l o c a t i o n -13- f o r m o b i l e h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r g r o u p s i s t o o s i m p l i s t i c . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t t h e a b s e n c e o f w a t e r i n an a r e a makes i t u n s u i t a b l e f o r h a b i t a t i o n , t h e c o n v e r s e i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y s o . T h a t i s , i f an a r e a i s p l e n t i f u l i n o n e c r i t i c a l r e s o u r c e , b u t a b s e n t i n o t h e r s , i t w i l l n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be c h o s e n a s a s e t t l e m e n t s i t e . T h i s p o i n t i s e n c o m p a s e d i n t h e n o t i o n o f " n e c e s s a r y a n d s u f f i c i e n t c a u s e s " f r o m p h i l o s o p h y o f s c i e n c e ( c f . C o h e n a n d N a g e l 1 9 3 4 : 2 5 0 ) . T h a t i s , t h e p r e s e n c e o f w a t e r i s a n e c e s s a r y f a c t o r f o r s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n , b u t a l o n e i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t . A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s c o n d u c t i n g s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s t u d i e s s h o u l d t a k e c a r e t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h e s e two q u a l i t i e s . T h i s i d e a i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c l i t e r a t u r e . The G / w i B u s h m e n , f o r i n s t a n c e , " a r e c o n c e r n e d n o t w i t h t h e r e l a t i v e r i c h n e s s o r p o v e r t y o f an a r e a i n a s i n g l e i t e m , b u t w i t h t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a n e x u s o f r e s o u r c e s w h i c h t h e y r e q u i r e t o f i l l a w i d e r a n g e o f n e e d s a n d i n a l l s e a s o n s o f t h e y e a r " ( S i l b e r b a u e r 1 9 7 2 : 2 9 4 ) . S i m i l a r l y , W i l m s e n ( 1 9 7 3 : 8 ) o b s e r v e d t h a t " s p a t i a l a l l o t m e n t s t o e a c h b a n d u n i t a p p e a r t o be d e m a r c a t e d i n s u c h a way t h a t a c c e s s t o s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t p l a n t p r o d u c i n g a r e a s i s a s s u r e d . C o m p e n s a t i o n i s t h u s made f o r f l u c t u a t i o n s i n a r e a l p r o d u c t i v i t y , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y e a c h g r o u p h a s a n a p p r e c i a b l y b e t t e r c h a n c e o f m e e t i n g i t s r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h i s t y p e o f r e s o u r c e . " S e v e r a l s p e c i f i c r e a s o n s h a v e b e e n p u t f o r t h a s t o why h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r s w i l l n o t o v e r c o n c e n t r a t e on a s i n g l e r e s o u r c e . S u c h n o n - s p e c i a l i z e d b e h a v i o r i s f a v o r a b l e b e c a u s e ( 1 ) i t d e c r e a s e s r i s k o f f o r a g i n g f a i l u r e by s p r e a d i n g t h e c h a n c e o f f a i l u r e o u t among s e v e r a l r e s o u r c e s , ( 2 ) i t may p r e s e n t a c o n t r a s t o f l o w a n d h i g h p r e s t i g e i t e m s , ( 3 ) i t a l l o w s f o r hew r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n by c r e a t i n g a d u a l e c o n o m i c f o c u s , a n d ( 4 ) i t s a t i s f i e s t h e n e e d f o r v a r i e t y i n t h e d i e t ( J o c h i m 1 9 7 6 : 2 7 ) . -14- A s m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , a r a n g e o f r e s o u r c e s i n t h e d i e t i s n o t i m p o r t a n t s o l e l y b e c a u s e o f t h e e n e r g y g a i n s , b u t a l s o b e c a u s e o f t h e i n c r e a s e d l i k e l i h o o d o f s u p p l y i n g n e c e s s a r y a m o u n t s o f e s s e n t i a l v i t a m i n s a n d m i n e r a l s . The a b s e n c e o f a n y e s s e n t i a l n u t r i e n t i n t h e d i e t w o u l d b e p h y s i c a l l y d e b i l i t a t i n g . T h a t a b a l a n c e d i n d i g e n o u s d i e t i n c l u d e s a r a n g e o f f o o d t y p e s ( K u h n l e i n 1 9 8 3 ) i s n o t a c c i d e n t a l . J o c h i m p o i n t s o u t t h a t s p e c i a l i z e d s e t t l e m e n t s f o r a s i n g l e r e s o u r c e do e x i s t , b u t t h e y a r e v e r y r a r e . S u c h s i t e s a r e l o c a t e d a t t h e s o u r c e o f t h e r e s o u r c e ( i . e . a r o c k q u a r r y ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , he s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y " a r e e i t h e r e x t r e m e l y s h o r t - t e r m o r e l s e h i g h l y d e p e n d e n t u p o n o t h e r s i n a c o m p l e x s e t o f e c o n o m i c e x c h a n g e s " ( i b i d . : 1 5 2 ) . P r e d i c t i n g S e t t l e m e n t P a t t e r n s A c c o r d i n g t o R e s o u r c e D i s t r i b u t i o n The a b o v e d i s c u s s i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t i d e a l l y , s e t t l e m e n t s w i l l be p l a c e d s u c h t h a t a maximum number o f p r o f i t a b l e r e s o u r c e s c a n b e e x p l o i t e d f r o m a g i v e n s p o t w i t h t h e l e a s t a m o u n t o f e n e r g y o u t p u t . I n t h i s w a y , t h e g r o u p c a n h a v e a r e l a t i v e l y more s e d e n t a r y s e a s o n a l r o u n d . I n m o s t h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r g r o u p s , h o w e v e r , t h e s e a s o n a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c e r t a i n r e s o u r c e s r e q u i r e s t h a t s h o r t t e r m r e s o u r c e p r o c u r e m e n t camps be s e t u p . S u c h c a m p s e n a b l e p a r t o f t h e g r o u p t o r e m a i n a t t h e b a s e c a m p , t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g t h e s e d e n t a r i n e s s o f a t l e a s t p a r t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . The d e c i s i o n t o move t h e b a s e camp o r s e t up a l i m i t e d o c c u p a t i o n s i t e m u s t be w e i g h e d f o r e a c h r e s o u r c e . R e s e a r c h on p r e h i s t o r i c s i t e l o c a t i o n i n S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t e m p o r a r y camp a n d v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n ( T a r t a g l i a 1 9 8 0 : 1 8 8 ) : " B a s e camps a r e l o c a t e d t o m i n i m i z e d i s t a n c e s b e t w e e n v i l l a g e s i t e s a n d s p e c i a l i z e d r e s o u r c e s . V i l l a g e s i t e s a r e l o c a t e d t o m i n i m i z e d i s t a n c e s b e t w e e n a number o f d i v e r s e r e s o u r c e s ; t h e d o m i n a n t -15- r e s o u r c e i s l o c a t e d t o m i n i m i z e t h e d i s t a n c e t o o t h e r s e c o n d a r y r e s o u r c e s . V i l l a g e s a n d b a s e camps w h i c h a r e n o t l o c a t e d n e a r c r i t i c a l r e s o u r c e s a p p e a r t o be s i t u a t e d p r i m a r i l y a l o n g a c c e s s r o u t e s c r o s s i n g t h e m o u n t a i n o u s t o p o g r a p h y a n d / o r c o n t a c t z o n e s b e t w e e n c o a s t a l a n d i n l a n d s i t e s . The n a t u r e o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e r e s o u r c e may a l s o a f f e c t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n w h i c h i s a d a p t e d . H e f f l e y ' s ( 1 9 8 1 ) a n a l y s i s o f d a t a f r o m t h r e e n o r t h e r n A t h a p a s k a n h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r g r o u p s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e i r s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o w h e t h e r t h e r e s o u r c e s b e i n g e x p l o i t e d w e r e ( 1 ) c l u m p e d , m o b i l e a n d u n p r e d i c t a b l e ( e g . c a r i b o u ) , ( 2 ) s t a b l e a n d e v e n l y s p a c e d ( e g . s m a l l g a m e ) , o r ( 3 ) c l u m p e d a n d p r e d i c t a b l e ( e g . c a c h e d r e s o u r c e s ) . She f o u n d s e t t l e m e n t s c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o r e s o u r c e s w h i c h f e l l i n t o t h e f i r s t c l a s s , w h i l e s m a l l s e t t l e m e n t s w e r e e v e n l y d i s p e r s e d t o e x p l o i t r e s o u r c e s w h i c h f e l l w i t h i n t h e s e c o n d g r o u p i n g ; r e s o u r c e s w h i c h f e l l i n t o t h e t h i r d g r o u p a l s o a l l o w e d f o r a g g r e g a t i o n o f u s e r s ( H e f f l e y 1 9 8 1 : 1 4 6 ; s e e a l s o W i l m s e n 1 9 7 3 : 6 - 8 ) . R e s o u r c e o w n e r s h i p w i l l a l s o a f f e c t s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t on t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t w h e r e v a l u a b l e l a n d was c a r e f u l l y a p p o r t i o n e d . C a l v e r t ( 1 9 8 0 ) f o u n d t h a t a c c e s s t o s u c h h o l d i n g s i s a l s o e v i d e n t i n v a r y i n g f o o d p a t t e r n s b e t w e e n s i t e s . S u c h c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s may c a u s e a d e v i a t i o n f r o m t h e e x p e c t e d s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s . On R e c o n s t r u c t i n g P a s t E n v i r o n m e n t s D i f f i c u l t i e s o f r e c o n s t r u c t i n g p a s t s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m s do n o t l i e o n l y i n t h e c u l t u r a l r e a l m , b u t a l s o i n t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . S u c h c r i t i c i s m s h a v e b e e n p u t f o r t h a s s h o r t c o m i n g s o f b o t h s i t e c a t c h m e n t a n d s a l m o n - s e t t l e m e n t s t u d i e s ( e g . F o l e y 1 9 7 7 : 1 8 2 ; H o d d e r a n d O r t o n 1 9 7 6 : 2 3 3 ; P r i t c h a r d 1 9 7 7 ) . A l l s u c h s t u d i e s i n v o l v e a s s e s s i n g -16- t h e p r e s e n t - d a y e n v i r o n m e n t a n d e x t r a p o l a t i n g t o t h e t i m e t h e s i t e was o c c u p i e d . A s s u m p t i o n s t h a t t h e l o c a l e n v i r o n m e n t h a s n o t b e e n g r e a t l y a l t e r e d t h r o u g h t i m e may l e a d t o e r r o n e o u s c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m . I n many c a s e s t h e l o c a l e n v i r o n m e n t ( i n p o s t - P l e i s t o c e n e t i m e s ) c a n be a d e q u a t e l y r e c o n s t r u c t e d f o r u s e i n s e t t l e m e n t s t u d i e s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a n d r e s o u r c e s c a n be r e c r e a t e d t h r o u g h acknowledge o f l o c a l e c o l o g y . D o c u m e n t a t i o n i s o f t e n a v a i l a b l e w h i c h o u t l i n e s t h e m o s t r e c e n t h u m a n - i n d u c e d c h a n g e s o n t h e l a n d s c a p e . R e s o u r c e d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n s i m i l a r u n d i s t u r b e d e n v i r o n m e n t s w i l l g i v e c l u e s a s t o t h e o r i g i n a l h a b i t a t s . I n f o r m a t i o n on p r e f e r r e d h a b i t a t s o f l a n d mammals c a n r e s u l t i n p a s t d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f a n i m a l s i n a g i v e n a r e a . L i k e w i s e , p a s t d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f s a l m o n a n d o t h e r a q u a t i c s p e c i e s c a n be r e c o n s t r u c t e d . T h e m o s t s e v e r e c h a n g e s t o t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s h a s o c c u r r e d o n l y i n v e r y r e c e n t h i s t o r i c a l t i m e s . E a r l y d o c u m e n t a t i o n by f i s h e r i e s a g e n c i e s c a n be h e l p f u l i n r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . E x a c t p r e c o n t a c t n u m b e r s a r e more d i f f i c u l t t o r e c r e a t e , b u t r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e s b e t w e e n a n d w i t h i n w a t e r w a y s a r e c e r t a i n l y o b t a i n a b l e . I n f a c t , r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e s a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n s may be a l l t h a t i s n e e d e d i n s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s t u d i e s . S i n c e t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a s a w h o l e i s v i e w e d w i t h i n a c e r t a i n s e t o f c u l t u r a l p a r a m e t e r s t h e " r e a l v e r s u s p e r c e i v e d " e n v i r o n m e n t may b e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m o n e a n o t h e r ( B u t z e r 1 9 8 2 : 2 5 2 ) . The p e r c e i v e d e n v i r o n m e n t i s " t h a t p a r t o f t h e r e a l e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t i s p e r c e i v e d by human b e i n g s , w i t h m o t i v e s , p r e f e r e n c e s , modes o f t h i n k i n g a n d t r a d i t i o n s d r a w n f r o m t h e i r s o c i o e c o n o m i c c o n t e x t " ( i b i d . : 2 5 3 ; s e e a l s o K i r k 1 9 6 3 ; J o c h i m 1 9 8 3 : 1 5 8 ) . A t t e m p t s t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h e r e a l a n d p e r c e i v e d e n v i r o n m e n t s s h o u l d be a f o c u s o f a l l r e s e a r c h e r s s t u d y i n g s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m s . -17- Summary I n s u m , i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s i f t h e y a r e v i e w e d w i t h i n t h e l a r g e r s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m . P e o p l e w i l l t r y t o m i n i m i z e t h e i r e f f o r t f o r maximum g a i n s , b u t t h e s o c i e t y ' s g o a l s m u s t be d e f i n e d w i t h i n a c u l t u r a l f r a m e w o r k s p e c i f i c t o t h a t g r o u p . B o t h e n e r g y a n d non e n e r g y f a c t o r s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d . E n e r g y n e e d s w i l l be m e t t h r o u g h a r a n g e o f i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e s . S e t t l e m e n t s s h o u l d b e l o c a t e d s u c h t h a t a r a n g e o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s c a n b e more e a s i l y a c c e s s e d f r o m a s i n g l e l o c a t i o n . Two m e t h o d s u s e d t o s t u d y s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s s a l m o n - s e t t l e m e n t s t u d i e s a n d s i t e c a t c h m e n t a n a l y s i s a r e r e v i e w e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . The m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a n d t h e o r e t i c a l b a s e s o f e a c h w i l l be e x a m i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c r i t e r i a o u t l i n e d a b o v e . The s h o r t c o m i n g s a n d u t i l i t y o f e a c h w i l l be o u t l i n e d . M e t h o d s U s e d t o D e t e r m i n e S e t t l e m e n t P a t t e r n s S i t e C a t c h m e n t S t u d i e s I n t r o d u c t i o n S i t e c a t c h m e n t a n a l y s i s i s a m e t h o d w h i c h i s commonly u s e d by a r c h a e o l o g i s t s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e t t l e m e n t a n d l a n d r e s o u r c e s . S i t e c a t c h m e n t s t u d i e s , l i k e o t h e r l o c a t i o n m o d e l s , a r e b a s e d on t h e i d e a t h a t r e s o u r c e s p h y s i c a l l y c l o s e r t o t h e s i t e w i l l p l a y a m o r e m a j o r r o l e i n t h e economy o f t h a t s i t e a n d t h o s e a t i n c r e a s i n g d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e s i t e w i l l p l a y a d e c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t r o l e . S i n c e i t s f i r s t -18- a p p l i c a t i o n t o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a by V i t a F i n z i a n d H i g g s ( 1 9 7 0 ) , many r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e u s e d t h i s m e t h o d t o e x a m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f a s i t e a n d i t s s u r r o u n d i n g e n v i r o n m e n t . S e v e r a l v a r i a t i o n s on t h e o r i g i n a l a p p r o a c h h a v e b e e n a t t e m p t e d , b u t w i t h f e w e x c e p t i o n s , t h e b a s i c m e t h o d a n d t h e o r y a p p l i e d by V i t a - F i n z i a n d H i g g s r e m a i n e s s e n t i a l l y t h e s a m e . What i s S i t e C a t c h m e n t A n a l y s i s ? I n s i t e c a t c h m e n t s t u d i e s a n a r e a i s d e l i m i t e d a r o u n d a s i t e t o r e p r e s e n t t h e z o n e o f p o t e n t i a l l y h i g h r e s o u r c e u s e by t h e s i t e ' s i n h a b i t a n t s . The s i z e o f t h e " c a t c h m e n t " i s m o s t o f t e n d e t e r m i n e d b y e t h n o g r a p h i c s t u d i e s o f l a n d u s e p a t t e r n s . T h o s e m o s t o f t e n u s e d i n c a t c h m e n t s t u d i e s a r e C h i s h o l m ' s ( 1 9 6 2 : 4 0 ) f i g u r e s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l g r o u p s o f o n e t o t h r e e o r f o u r km f r o m a s i t e , a n d L e e ' s ( 1 9 6 9 : 5 9 ) d i s t a n c e o f o n e d a y ' s w a l k , o r 10 km r a d i u s f r o m a s i t e f o r h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r g r o u p s . The s h a p e o f t h e c a t c h m e n t a r e a u s e d i s u s u a l l y c i r c u l a r , a s i t i s a s s u m e d t h a t " a r e a s o f movement w i l l t e n d t o w a r d c i r c u l a r i t y " ( E l l i s o n a n d H a r r i s s l 9 7 2 : 1 1 8 ) . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s made b e c a u s e , i n g e n e r a l , a c i r c l e d e l i n e a t e s t h e a r e a u n i f o r m l y a c c e s s i b l e f r o m a s i n g l e p o i n t . W i t h i n t h e d e s i g n a t e d c a t c h m e n t a r e a a s e r i e s o f c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s i s d r a w n t o r e p r e s e n t t i m e o r d i s t a n c e c o n t o u r s f r o m t h e s i t e o u t w a r d s . R e s o u r c e z o n e s , w h i c h a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r e s o u r c e s t h a t may h a v e b e e n i m p o r t a n t t o t h e s i t e ' s i n h a b i t a n t s , a r e d e l i n e a t e d w i t h i n t h e c a t c h m e n t a r e a . The r e s o u r c e z o n e s c l o s e s t t o t h e s i t e a r e i n t e r p r e t e d t o be t h e m o s t e c o n o m i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t a t t h e s i t e i n q u e s t i o n . F l a n n e r y ( 1 9 7 6 b ) a p p r o a c h e s s i t e c a t c h m e n t m e t h o d s a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t l y . He a t t e m p t s t o d e t e r m i n e how f a r t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e s i t e m u s t h a v e g o n e t o p r o c u r e t h o s e r e s o u r c e s f o r w h i c h t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e w i t h i n t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e . F r o m t h i s he d e f i n e s t h e e x t e n t o f t h e c a t c h m e n t . T h u s , t h e c a t c h m e n t b o u n d a r i e s a r e n o t a s s i g n e d a r b i t r a r i l y by t h e a r c h a e o l o g i s t . Of c o u r s e , t h i s a p p r o a c h i s n o t a p p l i c a b l e t o a s e t t l e m e n t s u r v e y o r t o an e x c a v a t i o n w i t h p o o r p r e s e r v a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e r e m a i n s . M o r e o v e r , t h i s a p p r o a c h d o e s n o t i n c o r p o r a t e l o c a l e x c h a n g e o f i t e m s . I d e a l l y , d e t a i l e d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a s h o u l d be u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a . R e s o u r c e z o n e s , h a v e b e e n " w e i g h t e d " by some r e s e a r c h e r s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r a r e a l e x t e n t w i t h i n t h e c a t c h m e n t a r e a , s u c h t h a t t h e m o s t e x t e n s i v e a r e a s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h o s e m o r e p h y s i c a l l y c o n s t r a i n e d ( e g . Adams 1 9 7 7 ) . I t i s u n c l e a r , h o w e v e r , how l a n d a r e a w i l l a a u r a t e l y r e l a t e t o e c o n o m i c v a l u e o f d i f f e r e n t r e s o u r c e s . To be s u r e , t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n a r e a l e x t e n t b e l o w w h i c h a z o n e w i l l n o t p l a y a m a j o r r o l e i n t h e e c o n o m y ; f o r l a r g e r e s o u r c e z o n e s , t h e r e may a l s o be a s i m i l a r t h r e s h o l d b e y o n d w h i c h t h e a r e a l e x t e n t o f t h e z o n e i s no l o n g e r i m p o r t a n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g i t s e c o n o m i c v a l u e . I f t h e r e s o u r c e o c c u r s i n g r e a t e n o u g h d e n s i t y , a l a r g e r a r e a may n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be o f g r e a t e r e c o n o m i c i m p o r t a n c e g i v e n a c e r t a i n p o p u l a t i o n s i z e a t a s e t t l e m e n t . R e v i e w o f S i t e C a t c h m e n t M e t h o d a n d T h e o r y S i m i l a r t o o t h e r a p p r o a c h e s t o s t u d y i n g s e t t l e m e n t , c r i t c i s > m s o f s i t e c a t c h m e n t a n a l y s i s a r e o f t e n r e l a t e d t o i t s n a r r o w c u l t u r a l f o c u s . S u c h c r i t i c i s m s a r e a c t u a l l y t w o f o l d — t h e y a r e d i r e c t e d a t t h e d i s r e g a r d by some r e s e a r c h e r s o f b o t h t h e i n t e r n a l w o r k i n g s o f a s e t t l e m e n t , n a m e l y i t s c u l t u r e , a n d a t o t h e r e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e i t . W i t h i n t h e s i t e t h e r e s o u r c e p o t e n t i a l n e e d s t o be q u a n t i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o c u l t u r a l g o a l s ( c f . D e n n e l l 1 9 8 0 : 1 4 ; R o p e r -20- 1 9 8 2 : 4 6 1 ) . E x t e r n a l f a c t o r s a r e i g n o r e d b e c a u s e s i t e c a t c h m e n t s t u d i e s g e n e r a l l y f o c u s on a s i n g l e s i t e ( o r s i t e t y p e ) . The f r a m e w o r k c a n b e b r o a d e n e d a n d some c r i t i c i s m s a d d r e s s e d i f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s i t e s i s a l s o e x a m i n e d ( c f . D a v i d s o n 1 9 8 0 : 2 2 ; B i n t l i f f 1 9 8 0 : 4 4 ; R o o t s 1 9 8 3 : 1 9 6 ) . S i m i l a r l y , i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s a c c u r a t e l y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f r e s o u r c e s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e s i t e a n d s i t e l o c a t i o n , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s i n t h e r e g i o n a s a w h o l e m u s t a l s o be e x a m i n e d ( H o d d e r a n d O r t o n 1 9 7 6 : 2 3 5 ; F l a n n e r y 1 9 7 6 a : 9 3 ) - A n o t h e r c r i t i c i s m o f some c a t c h m e n t s t u d i e s i s t h a t t h e y o f t e n o n l y e x a m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f a s i n g l e r e s o u r c e t o t h e s i t e ( c f . R o p e r 1 9 7 9 : 1 2 6 ) . By e x a m i n i n g a s i n g l e r e s o u r c e t h e a n a l y s i s i s s u b j e c t t o t h e b i a s o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r who h a s d e c i d e d b e f o r e h a n d w h a t i s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e t o t h a t s i t e . The w h o l e p u r p o s e o f c a t c h m e n t s t u d i e s i s , h o w e v e r , t o a n a l y z e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f r e s o u r c e s t o t h a t s i t e . F u r t h e r m o r e , a s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a s i n g l e r e s o u r c e w i l l h a v e s u b s t a n t i a l e n o u g h i n f l u e n c e on a s i t e t o w a r r a n t d o i n g an a n a l y s i s o f i t a l o n e . S e v e r a l o t h e r c r i t i c i s m s h a v e a l s o b e e n r a i s e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e m e t h o d s w h i c h a r e u s e d i n c a t c h m e n t s t u d i e s . The m o s t b a s i c p r o b l e m , w h i c h i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e s t r i c t e d t o c a t c h m e n t s t u d i e s , i s m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , s m a l l e r , s i n g l e p u r p o s e s i t e s a r e o f t e n n o t v e r y v i s i b l e i n t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d . A s m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , t h e s e s i t e s , b e c a u s e t h e y a r e o f t e n c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n , a r e more l i k e l y t o show a c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s i t e l o c a t i o n a n d r e s o u r c e d i s t r i b u t i o n . F u t t h e r m o r e , i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s a d e q u a t e l y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f a s i t e a n d i t s s u r r o u n d i n g e n v i r o n m e n t , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s i t e ' s f u n c t i o n ( C a s s e l s 1 9 7 2 : 2 1 4 ) . I f t h e f u n c t i o n -21- a s s i g n e d t o t h e s i t e i s i n c o r r e c t , e r r o n e o u s n o t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e s i t e ' s economy w i l l be d e v e l o p e d . A n o t h e r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m p r e s e n t i n m o s t c a t c h m e n t s t u d i e s i n v o l v e s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c a t c h m e n t b a s i n i t s e l f . The g e n e r a l a c c e p t a n c e o f L e e ' s ( 1 9 6 9 ) a n d C h i s h o l m ' s ( 1 9 6 2 ) d i s t a n c e f i g u r e s f o r h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r s a n d a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s r e s p e c t i v e l y , b r i n g s up a q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e s i z e o f t h e c a t c h m e n t a r e a . A l i t e r a t u r e s e a r c h t o i n v e s t i g a t e d i f f e r e n t c a t c h m e n t a r e a s o f d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s (Adams 1 9 7 7 : 2 ) r e i n f o r c e d t h e 3 - 4 km d i s t a n c e s u g g e s t e d by C h i s h o l m . N o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l g r o u p s , h o w e v e r , w e r e f o u n d t o t r a v e l f r o m 5 t o 10 km f r o m "home b a s e " t o c o l l e c t p l a n t r e s o u r c e s ( i b i d . : 2 - 3 ) . D e n n e l l ( 1 9 8 0 : 5 ) f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s e f i g u r e s a r e i n f a c t m o s t a p p l i c a b l e t o g r o u p s r e l y i n g h e a v i l y u p o n p l a n t f o o d s . F u r t h e r m o r e , s u c h e t h n o g r a p h i c e x a m p l e s a r e c i t e d f r o m a r e a s w h e r e w a t e r may be a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g movement a c r o s s t h e l a n d s c a p e . I t i s unknown how f a r p e o p l e w i l l r e g u l a r l y t r a v e l i n an a r e a w h e r e t h e r e i s an a b u n d a n c e o f w a t e r , s u c h a s t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t . The p r e s e n c e o f many n a v i g a b l e w a t e r w a y s i n c r e a s e s o n e ' s a b i l i t y t o t r a v e l d i s t a n c e s by o f f e r i n g d r i n k i n g w a t e r a n d an e f f i c i e n t means o f t r a v e l . Much g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e s t h a n t h e 5 t o 10 km s u g g e s t e d by Adams f o r h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r g r o u p s c o u l d be t r a v e l e d by someone who had e x t e n s i v e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e w a t e r w a y s . The C o a s t S a l i s h , f o r e x a m p l e , a r e r e p o r t e d t o h a v e t r a v e l l e d r e g u l a r l y o v e r 60 k i l o m e t e r s t o p r o c u r e s e a s o n a l r e s o u r c e s ( B a r n e t t 1 9 5 5 : map f a c i n g p a g e 2 4 ) . H a z a r d s o f w a t e r t r a v e l a n d t h e r a n g e o f t h e v e s s e l i t s e l f a r e a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s t o be c o n s i d e r e d when d e t e r m i n i n g t i m e - d i s t a n c e o f m a r i t i m e c o m m u n i t i e s ( M c G o v e r n 1 9 8 0 : 2 0 1 ) . -22- An a d d i t i o n a l , m a j o r c r i t i c i s m o f t h e c a t c h m e n t a r e a c o n c e p t i n v o l v e s t h e s h a p e o f t h e a r e a u s e d . I n m o s t c a t c h m e n t s t u d i e s , c i r c l e s o f a d e s i g n a t e d r a d i u s a r e s i m p l y p l a c e d a r o u n d a s i t e w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e t i m e - d i s t a n c e f a c t o r . A l t h o u g h m o s t p e o p l e r e c o g n i z e t h e u t i l i t y o f t h e t i m e - d i s t a n c e c o n c e p t , i t i s s e l d o m u s e d . T h i s i s p r e s u m a b l y b e c a u s e i t i n v o l v e s k n o w i n g a h e a d o f t i m e t h a t a c a t c h m e n t a n a l y s i s i s g o i n g t o be d o n e s o t h a t t i m e d i s t a n c e f i g u r e s c a n be c o l l e c t e d i n t h e f i e l d . I n r e a l i t y , t h e c a t c h m e n t s i z e a n d s h a p e a r e m o d i f i e d by many e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e s i t e . A s m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , r e l a t i o n s w i t h n e i g h b o u r i n g g r o u p s ( s e e a l s o H i g g s a n d V i t a - F i n z i 1 9 7 2 : 3 3 ; C a s s e l s 1 9 7 2 : 2 0 8 ) , t h e d e n s i t y a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e r e s o u r c e s t h e m s e l v e s , a s w e l l a s t h e s i z e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t t h e s i t e , w i l l a l s o a f f e c t c a t c h m e n t s i z e a n d s h a p e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c a t c h m e n t a r e a w i l l v a r y f r o m s e a s o n t o s e a s o n a n d y e a r t o y e a r w i t h i n a g r o u p a s t h e a b o v e f a c t o r s c h a n g e o v e r t i m e . The c a t c h m e n t a r e a , t h e n , i s b e s t v i e w e d a s a v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e p o t e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a v a i l a b l e by c h o o s i n g t h a t s i t e l o c a t i o n . A s D a v i d s o n ( 1 9 8 0 : 2 6 ) p o i n t s o u t , " i t c a n s a y n o t h i n g a b o u t t h e r e s o u r c e s w h i c h w e r e c h o s e n o n c e t h e f i e l d o f p o t e n t i a l r e s o u r c e s was i t s e l f c h o s e n . " T h i s i s w h e r e n o n - e n e r g y c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s w i l l b e g i n t o m e d i a t e d e c i s i o n s . The u s e o f c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s w i t h i n t h e c a t c h m e n t a r e a h a s a l s o b e e n s u b j e c t t o c r i t i c i s m s . J a c k s o n ( 1 9 7 2 ) a n d B i n f o r d ( 1 9 8 2 ) i l l u s t r a t e t h a t f o r b o t h a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s a n d h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h e p a t t e r n o f r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n i s n o t b e s t v i e w e d a s a s e r i e s o f c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y s o i n a r e a s o f l o c a l i z e d a n d p a t c h y r e s o u r c e d i s t r i b u t i o n . I n a r e a s o f l e s s p a t c h y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s , t h e a m o u n t o f a c t i v i t y i s s a i d t o d e c r e a s e l o g a r i t h i m i c a l l y i n i n t e n s i t y o v e r d i s t a n c e , s u c h t h a t a " s e r i e s o f c o n c e n t r i c b u t a s . j p i e t r i c a l f r a m e s " ( C l a r k e 1 9 7 2 : 8 5 2 ) b e t t e r r e p r e s e n t s t h e p a t t e r n o f r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e i s no g u a r a n t e e t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d u s e w i l l b e c i r c u l a r , e s p e c i a l l y i n a r e a s w h e r e r e s o u r c e o w n e r s h i p i s h i g h l y t e r r i t o r i a l . Use o f e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a w i l l be e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l h e r e ( c f . T a r t a g l i a 1 9 8 0 ) . C o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s w i t h i n t h e c a t c h m e n t a r e a a r e p e r h a p s b e s t v i e w e d n o t a s a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p a t t e r n s o f e x p l o i t a t o n , b u t s i m p l y a s a v i s u a l a i d t o i l l u s t r a t e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e s i t e . S i t e C a t c h m e n t S t u d i e s - Summary I n s u m , a l t h o u g h s i t e c a t c h m e n t a n a l y s i s h a s r e c e i v e d much c r i t i s m f o r i t s s h o r t - c o m i n g s , i t i s s t i l l v e r y u s e f u l m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y . When u s i n g s i t e c a t c h m e n t m e t h o d s , t h e b a s i c p a r a m e t e r s o f s e t t l e m e n t s t u d i e s m u s t n o t be i g n o r e d . The s i t e i t s e l f m u s t be v i e w e d w i t h i n i t s c u l t u r a l f r a m e w o r k , a n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f e a c h s i t e t o o t h e r s i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m s h o u l d a l s o be e x a m i n e d . G i v e n t h i s , t h e m e t h o d s c a n be u s e f u l f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n f l o r a l a n d f a u n a l r e s o u r c e s a n d a s e t t l e m e n t . H o w e v e r , s i t e c a t c h m e n t a n a l y s i s h a s n o t t o my k n o w l e d g e b e e n u s e d f o r f i s h r e s o u r c e s . T h i s a p p r o a c h w o u l d f o r m a n i c e c o m p l e m e n t t o m e t h o d s u s e d i n s a l m o n - s e t l e m e n t s t u d i e s . S a l m o n a n d S e t t l e m e n t S t u d i e s I n t r o d u c t i o n The i m p o r t a n c e o f s a l m o n among N o r t h w e s t C o a s t p e o p l e s h a s s p a r k e d -24- t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s a l m o n a n d o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e s ( e g . M a t s o n 1 9 8 3 ; W h i t l a m 1 9 8 3 ) . S t u d i e s w h i c h d i r e c t l y a d d r e s s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s a l m o n a n d s e t t l e m e n t a r e a c t u a l l y f e w ( H o b l e r 1 9 8 3 ; P o m e r o y 1 9 8 0 ) ; m o s t e x a m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p o p u l a t i o n a n d s a l m o n (Kew 1 9 7 6 ; S n e e d 1 9 7 1 ; B a u m h o f f 1 9 6 3 ; a n d D o n a l d a n d M i t c h e l l 1 9 7 5 ) . T h e s e s t u d i e s a r e a l s o p e r t i n e n t t o t h i s t h e s i s a s p o p u l a t i o n n u m b e r s a r e u s e f u l i n d i c a t o r s o f s e t t l e m e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n s . I n a l l o f t h e s e s t u d i e s p r e s e n t - d a y s a l m o n n u m b e r s a r e u s e d t o e x t r a p o l a t e b a c k t o t h e p a s t . M o r e d e t a i l e d m e t h o d s e m p l o y e d i n e a c h a r e r e v i e w e d b e l o w . S a l m o n a n d P o p u l a t i o n S t u d i e s Kew ( 1 9 7 6 ) f o r m u l a t e d a model o f s a l m o n a b u n d a n c e i n t h e F r a s e r R i v e r w a t e r s h e d b a s e d on p r e s e n t - d a y f i g u r e s f r o m t h e F e d e r a l D e p a r t m e n t o f F i s h e r i e s a n d I n t e r n a t i o n a l P a c i f i c S a l m o n F i s h e r i e s C o m m i s i o n . T h o s e r u n s w h i c h h a d b e e n g r e a t l y r e d u c e d i n number a s a r e s u l t o f p r e s e n t - d a y i n d u s t r y o f t h e w a t e r s h e d , w e r e a s s i g n e d i n c r e a s e d e s t i m a t e d n u m b e r s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t i s n o t e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d how i t was d e t e r m i n e d w h i c h r u n s w e r e a f f e c t e d i n t h i s w a y , by w h a t amount t h e s e f i g u r e s w e r e a l t e r e d , a n d how t h e new f i g u r e s w e r e d e r i v e d . To r e p r e s e n t s a l m o n more a c c u r a t e l y a s a f o o d r e s o u r c e , t h e d e r i v e d s a l m o n r u n n u m b e r s w e r e c o n v e r t e d t o a e n e r g y ( c a l o r i c ) v a l u e . Kew n o t e s ( a f t e r I d l e r a n d C l e m e n s 1 9 5 9 ) t h a t t h e t o t a l e n e r g y v a l u e o f s a l m o n i s r e d u c e d , due t o l o s s o f b o d y f a t s , t h e g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e t h e s a l m o n s w i m s u p s t r e a m . T a k i n g t h i s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h e v a l u e o f s a l m o n a s a f o o d s o u r c e ( i n t e r m s o f i t s e n e r g y v a l u e ) , was c a l c u l a t e d f o r e a c h g r o u p l i v i n g a l o n g t h e F r a s e r s y s t e m . -25- Several points were brought to light concerning the nature of salmon in the study area, and i t s relevance to human populations. F i r s t , i t i s pointed out that the salmon which reached the upriver groups, and particularly those groups occupying the tributaries, were i n f e r i o r energy-wise to those accessible to the down-river populations. In addition to inferior quality, the fish available to up-river groups were fewer in number and more likely to fluctuate in size from year to year than those further down the river. This difference in quality of the salmon resource along the river suggested to Kew that the confluences of the river were preferred places of residence. In fact, preliminary examinations of population densities and salmon abundance in the Fraser suggest "correlations becoming very close i f the salmon variable i s expressed as caloric value and averaged over the two middle years of the [four year] cycle." (ibid.:8). Unfortunately, these data were not presented in any further detail. In additon to abundance of salmon, Kew considered the accessibility of the resource. Accessibility, he suggested, is related to two types of factors, natural and technological. In the Fraser system Kew noted a trend towards increasing accessibility upstream due to the natural conditions of the river. However, where salmon are the least accessible, that i s , at the mouth of the river, they have the greatest energy-value, and vice versa. The data suggest that technology will tend to be more complex and elaborate when i t pays, namely where access is d i f f i c u l t and value is greatest (ibid.:10). One final point concerning Kew's work is that the model presented does not allow for fluctuations in the pattern. Kew himself was also aware of this limitation in the model, as stated in page 5. The rigidity -26- o f t h e m o d e l i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e d a t a when c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e t e s t e d b e t w e e n s a l m o n n u m b e r s a n d p o p u l a t i o n . H e r e , s a l m o n n u m b e r s f r o m t h e m i d d l e two y e a r s o f t h e c y c l e w e r e a v e r a g e d t o g e t h e r ; t h e h i g h s a n d l o w s w e r e n o t c a l c u l a t e d , t h u s , u n p r e d i c t e d e c o l o g i c a l d i s a s t e r s , f o r i n s t a n c e a r e n o t i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e m o d e l . I t w o u l d h a v e b e e n i n t e r e s t i n g t o t e s t w h e t h e r p o p u l a t i o n n u m b e r s a r e m o r e c l o s e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e a r e a o f h i g h e s t o v e r a l l a b u n d a n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e c y c l e , o r w i t h t h o s e a r e a s w h i c h a r e c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r d u r i n g a l l y e a r s . A s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h t o a s s e s s i n g s a l m o n r e s o u r c e s a n d t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n s was a t t e m p t e d by B a u m h o f f ( 1 9 6 3 ) i n N o r t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , a n d l a t e r by S n e e d ( 1 9 7 2 ) i n t h e F r a s e r R i v e r s y s t e m . I n o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e number o f s a l m o n a v a i l a b l e t o e a c h g r o u p , s t r e a m s w e r e c a t e g o r i z e d a s p r i m a r y , s e c o n d a r y , o r t e r t i a r y , d e p e n d i n g o n t h e number o f e a c h s a l m o n s p e c i e s p r e s e n t . P r o d u c t i v i t y o f e a c h s t r e a m was c a l c u l a t e d by m u l t i p l y i n g t h e m i l e a g e o f p r i m a r y s t r e a m s i n e a c h g r o u p ' s t e r r i t o r y by 2 , l e a v i n g t h e s e c o n d a r y s t r e a m m i l e a g e a s i s , a n d d i v i d i n g t h e m i l e a g e o f t h e t e r t i a r y s t r e a m by t w o . The t o t a l number f o r e a c h g r o u p was t o r e p r e s e n t t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f s a l m o n w i t h i n e a c h g r o u p ' s t e r r i t o r y . B o t h B a u m o f f a n d S n e e d f o u n d a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n o f s a l m o n n u m b e r s a n d human p o p u l a t i o n . B a u m o f f ' s r e s u l t s w e r e s i m p l y p l o t t e d on a s c a t t e r p l o t s o no e x a c t c o r r e l a t i o n f i g u r e was g i v e n ; S n e e d , h o w e v e r , s u g g e s t e d t h a t 87% o f t h e t o t a l v a r i a t i o n i n p o p u l a t i o n n u m b e r s was e x p l a i n e d by v a r i a t i o n i n t h e f i s h r e s o u r c e . B o t h S n e e d ' s a n d B a u m o f f ' s s t u d i e s a r e n o t e w o r t h y . H o w e v e r , t h e i r r e s u l t s a r e n o t u n e q u i v o c a l . The m e t h o d s e m p l o y e d t o d e t e r m i n e s a l m o n a b u n d a n c e w e r e q u i t e i n e x a c t . The r e s u l t s a r e p e r h a p s b e s t v i e w e d o n l y a s r e l a t i v e f i g u r e s . D o n a l d ' 5 a n d M i t c h e l l ' s ( 1 9 7 5 ) a p p r o a c h f o r e x a m i n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s a l m o n t o s e t t l e m e n t s i s by f a r t h e m o s t s o p h i s t i c a t e d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y . D o n a l d a n d M i t c h e l l s e t o u t t o t e s t v a r i o u s m o d e l s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r o l e o f t h e p o t l a t c h a s a l e v e l i n g m e c h a n i s m f o r r e s o u r c e v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n t h e S o u t h e r n K w a k i u t l a r e a . To a c h i e v e t h i s g o a l , s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p o t l a t c h r a n k o f e l e v e n S o u t h e r n K w a k i u t l g r o u p s i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h i s c e n t u r y a n d s e v e r a l o t h e r v a r i a b l e s w e r e r u n . T h e f i r s t v a r i a b l e , s a l m o n a b u n d a n c e w i t h i n e a c h g r o u p ' s t e r r i t o r y , was d e t e r m i n e d by c a l c u l a t i n g t h e m e d i a n e s c a p e m e n t number o v e r a s e v e n t e e n y e a r p e r i o d f r o m 1 9 5 0 - 1 9 6 7 . The s e c o n d v a r i a b l e , f l u c t u a t i o n i n s a l m o n n u m b e r s f r o m t e r r i t o r y t o t e r r i t o r y , was m e a s u r e d a c c o r d i n g t o d e g r e e o f v a r i a t i o n a r o u n d t h e m e d i a n e s c a p e m e n t v a l u e . B o t h s a l m o n a b u n d a n c e a n d f l u c t u a t i o n f i g u r e s w e r e q u i t e v a r i a b l e f r o m t e r r i t o r y t o t e r r i t o r y . The f i n a l v a r i a b l e c o r r e l a t e d t o g r o u p r a n k was t h e t o t a l human p o p u l a t i o n n u m b e r s f o r e a c h g r o u p a t two p o i n t s i n t i m e , t h e 1 8 3 0 ' s a n d t h e 1 8 8 0 ' s . T h i s l a t t e r v a r i a b l e i s o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o t h i s t h e s i s a s p o p u l a t i o n n u m b e r s i n d i c a t e t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f a l o c a t i o n f o r s e t t l e m e n t . D o n a l d s a n d M i t c h e l l ' s t e s t y i e l d e d some v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s . A v e r y h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n was f o u n d b e t w e e n r a n k a n d human p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e l & 3 0 ' s , w i t h p o p u l a t i o n a c c o u n t i n g f o r 84% o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i n l o c a l g r o u p r a n k . A l s o i m p r e s s i v e l y h i g h i s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n m e d i a n s a l m o n n u m b e r s i n a t e r r i t o r y a n d p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e 1 8 3 0 ' s , w h e r e s a l m o n n u m b e r s a c c o u n t f o r 72% o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i n l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n n u m b e r s . F i n a l l y , m e d i a n s a l m o n n u m b e r s a c c o u n t f o r 54% o f t h e v a r i a t i o n i n l o c a l g r o u p r a n k . V a r i a t i o n i n s a l m o n n u m b e r s a c c o u n t s f o r l i t t l e o f t h e v a r i a b i l i t y i n b o t h p o p u l a t i o n n u m b e r s o r r a n k . T h e s e f i g u r e s s u g g e s t t o -28- D o n a l d s a n d M i t c h e l l t h a t a n a b u n d a n t s a l m o n r e s o u r c e w i l l a t t r a c t p e o p l e t o a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n . T h i s i n t u r n w i l l r e s u l t i n a h i g h p o t l a t c h r a n k f o r t h a t l o c a l g r o u p , p r e s u m a b l y b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e b e t t e r a b l e t o a m a s s s u r p l u s g o o d s f o r a p o t l a t c h . D o n a l d i a n d M i t c h e l l ' s a n a l y s i s , a l t h o u g h t h o r o u g h , i n c o r p o r a t e s o n l y a v e r y s m a l l s a m p l e s i z e . When D o n a l d a n d M i t c h e l l a d d e d f i v e a d d i t i o n a l g r o u p s t o t h e r a n k i n g c a l c u l a t i o n s t h e r e s u l t s a r e somewhat a l t e r e d . H e r e , t h e m e d i a n s a l m o n n u m b e r s a c c o u n t f o r 76% o f t h e v a r i a n c e i n r a n k , a s o p p o s e d t o 54% p r e v i o u s l y , a n d p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e 1 8 3 0 ' s a c c o u n t s f o r 41% o f t h e v a r i a n c e i n r a n k a s o p p o s s e d t o 8 4 % . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e p e r c e n t c o r r e l a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n t o s a l m o n n u m b e r s i s n o t g i v e n i n t h e s e c a l c u l a t i o n s . T h e s e c a l c u l a t i o n s c e r t a i n l y do n o t d i s p u t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e r o l e o f s a l m o n , b u t t h e r e i s room f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . D o n a l d ! * a n d M i t c h e l l ' s d a t a s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e i s a minimum a b u n d a n c e o f s a l m o n w h i c h i s e s s e n t i a l t o e a c h g r o u p , b u t b e y o n d t h i s , t h e n u m b e r s may be s u p e r f l u o u s . T h i s i s a s i m i l a r c o n c e p t t o t h a t d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r c o n c e r n i n g t h e e c o n o m i c v a l u e o f l a r g e l a n d h o l d i n g s ( s e e p a g e 1 9 ) . I n t h i s c a s e , t h e s e c o n d r a n k e d g r o u p i n D o n a l d s a n d M i t c h e l l ' s l i s t h a s c o m p a r a t i v e l y l o w s a l m o n n u m b e r s , a n d v e r y h i g h f l u c t u a t i o n a r o u n d t h i s n u m b e r . I f h i g h s a l m o n n u m b e r s w e r e t h e s o l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n a t t r a c t i n g p e o p l e t o t h i s g r o u p ' s t e r r i t o r y , t h e r e w o u l d be some v e r y d i s a p o i n t i n g y e a r s . T h i s s u g g e s t s , ( 1 ) t h a t t h e r e i s a minimum number o f s a l m o n t h a t s u s t a i n s t h i s g r o u p ' s h i g h r a n k i n g p o s i t i o n , o r ( 2 ) t h a t o t h e r f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e d i t s r a n k . One f i n a l p o i n t c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l e v a n c e o f D o n a l d } a n d M i t c h e l l ' s s t u d y t o t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t t h e y w e r e t e s t i n g t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f a n e n t i r e g r o u p t e r r i t o r y by m e a s u r i n g t h e p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n t h a t -29- t e r r i t o r y . They w e r e n o t t e s t i n g t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f a s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n f o r s e t t l e m e n t a s I w i l l a t t e m p t t o do i n t h e N u x a l k c a s e . The S o u t h e r n K w a k i u t l t e r r i t o r i e s r a n g e d i n s i z e f r o m a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 s q u a r e m i l e s t o o v e r 3 5 s q u a r e m i l e s ; some t e r r i t o r i e s w e r e b r o k e n up i n t o s e v e r a l s m a l l l o c a t i o n s . W i n t e r v i l l a g e s a s w e l l a s s e a s o n a l e x p l o i t a t i o n s i t e s w e r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e s e t e r r i t o r i e s . S a l m o n a n d S e t t l e m e n t S t u d i e s H o b l e r ( 1 9 8 3 ) a t t e m p t e d t o t e s t e m p i r i c a l l y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s a l m o n t o s i t e s i n t h e C e n t r a l C o a s t r e g i o n , s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e B e l l a C o o l a - B e l l a B e l l a a r e a . T e s t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e r u n b e t w e e n t h e v a r i a t i o n i n d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e number a n d k i n d o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s w i t h i n a 5 km r a d i u s o f a s t r e a m a n d t h e number o f s a l m o n p r o d u c e d t o d a y i n t h a t s t r e a m . I n t h e B e l l a C o o l a a r e a o n l y a s l i g h t c o r r e l a t i o n s h o w e d b e t w e e n t h e s a l m o n s p a w n i n g s t r e a m s a n d t h e s e v e r a l s i t e t y p e s . H o b l e r a t t r i b u t e d t h e c o r r e l a t i o n n o t t o t h e p r e s e n c e o f s a l m o n a l o n e , b u t t o t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f s u i t a b l e s e t t l e m e n t a r e a s b e c a u s e o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e v a l l e y ' s t e r r a i n , a n d t o t h e o o l i g a n r u n o c c u r r i n g s e v e r a l m o n t h s a f t e r t h e s a l m o n r u n s h a v e e n d e d . I n t h e B e l l a B e l l a r e g i o n t o t h e w e s t , a s i m i l a r t e s t was r u n . H e r e t h e t e r r a i n i s f l a t t e r , a n d o o l i g a n do n o t r u n . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s s h o w e d o n l y a v e r y s l i g h t c o r r e l a t i o n , a n d i n some c a s e s a s l i g h t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s a n d t h e number o f s a l m o n i n a s t r e a m . T h e s e r e s u l t s s u g g e s t t o H o b l e r t h a t , "when o t h e r f a c t o r s a r e h e l d c o n s t a n t , i m m e d i a t e p r o x i m i t y t o s a l m o n s p a w n i n g s t r e a m s was n o t a n i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t o f s i t e l o c a t i o n ( i b i d . : 1 5 4 - 1 5 5 ) . A f e w a d d i t i o n a l p o i n t s s h o u l d be b r o u g h t o u t c o n c e r n i n g H o b l e r ' s - 30 - s t u d y . F i r s t , t h e r e i s a s t r o n g b i a s i n t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d o f t h i s a r e a f o r s i t e s l o c a t e d a l o n g w a t e r w a y s . S i t e s i n o t h e r h a b i t a t s a r e n o t w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d . T h a t no c o r r e l a t i o n s h o w e d up i n t h e B e l l a B e l l a c a s e b e t w e e n s a l m o n a n d s i t e s i s e v e n more s u p r i s i n g when t h i s i s t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The g r o s s l e v e l a t w h i c h H o b l e r c o n d u c t e d h i s s t a t i s t i c a l s t u d y may h a v e a f f e c t e d h i s r e s u l t s . H o b l e r s i m p l y c o r r e l a t e d number a n d k i n d o f s i t e w i t h s a l m o n n u m b e r s , b u t d i d n o t make any d i v i s i o n a c c o r d i n g t o s i t e s i z e . * We w o u l d n o t e x p e c t a v e r y s m a l l m i d d e n s i t e t o c o r r e l a t e w i t h s a l m o n n u m b e r s i n t h e same way a s a l a r g e s i t e o f s e e m i n g l y same t y p e . T h a t no c o r r e l a t i o n was e v i d e n t i n t h e a n a l y s i s , a l t h o u g h s a l m o n was c e r t a i n l y a v e r y i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e t o t h e C e n t r a l C o a s t p e o p l e i s somewhat s u s p i c i o u s , a n d w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t t h e a n a l y s i s n e e d s t o be r e f i n e d , o r t h a t o t h e r v a r i a b l e s a r e more i m p o r t a n t i n t h i s c a s e . A l s o w o r k i n g i n t h e B e l l a B e l l a a r e a , P o m e r o y ( 1 9 8 0 ) a t t e m p t e d t o c o r r e l a t e b o t h t h e number a n d y e a r l y v a r i a t i o n i n a b u n d a n c e o f s a l m o n p r e s e n t i n e a c h e t h n o g r a p h i c g r o u p t e r r i t o r y o f t h e B e l l a B e l l a . U s i n g n u m b e r s f r o m m o d e r n s a l m o n f i s h e r i e s , P o m e r o y f o u n d t h a t : " f r o m y e a r t o y e a r e a c h e t h n o g r a p h i c g r o u p , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f [ ] t w o g r o u p s . . . w o u l d h a v e s u f f i c i e n t r e s o u r c e s , b u t p r o b a b l y n o t a t t h e same r i v e r s o r s t r e a m s e a c h y e a r . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t when o b s e r v i n g t h e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h CVs [ v a r i a t i o n ] , i n d i c a t i n g p o s s i b l e y e a r l y v a r i a t i o n i n s a l m o n i n t h e B e l l a B e l l a s t r e a m s . . . . The p e o p l e w o u l d h a v e b e e n a w a r e o f t h i s a n d c o m p e n s a t e d by u s i n g r i v e r s o r s t r e a m s a l t e r n a t i v e l y , b a s e d o n t h e i r k n o w l e d g e o f w h i c h o n e s i n p a r t i c u l a r y e a r w e r e m o s t p r o d u c t i v e " ( i b i d . : 8 9 ) . G i v e n t h e n u m b e r s p r o d u c e d i n h i s a n a l y s i s , P o m e r o y e x a m i n e d t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e y e a r l y a b u n d a n c e o f s a l m o n i n e a c h s t r e a m t o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s . P o m e r o y ' s a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t m i d d e n s i t e s * I a p p r e c i a t e t h e d i s c u s s i o n w i t h D r . D. A b e r l e c o n c e r n i n g t h i s p o i n t . -31- w e r e e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d a r o u n d s t r e a m s w i t h b o t h l o w a n d h i g h a b u n d a n c e a n d v a r i a b i l i t y f r o m y e a r t o y e a r . The s i z e o f t h e m i d d e n i t s e l f a l s o s h o w s no c o r r e l a t i o n t o l e n g t h o r s i z e o f r u n . The r e s u l t s do i n d i c a t e , h o w e v e r , t h a t f i s h t r a p s i t e s a r e more n u m e r o u s a r o u n d s m a l l e r s t r e a m s w i t h l i m i t e d n u m b e r s o f s p e c i e s . T h a t P o m e r o y ' s a n a l y s i s s h o w s l i t t l e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s i t e t y p e a n d s a l m o n s t r e a m i s n o t s u p r i s i n g . L i k e H o b l e r ' s s t u d y , P o m e r o y ' s s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n n e e d s t o be r e f i n e d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s e l e c t i o n o f s i t e s t h e m s e l v e s may n o t be e n t i r e l y r a n d o m . A p o r t i o n o f P o m e r o y ' s s i t e s w e r e l o c a t e d by i n f o r m a n t s ; t h e o t h e r s w e r e l o c a t e d t h r o u g h a n " i n t e n s i v e s u r v e y " ( i b i d.:93). U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a l l P o m e r o y ' s i n f o r m a n t s w e r e m e n , w h i c h may h a v e b i a s e d t h e s i t e i n v e n t o r y a c c o r d i n g t o m a l e - d o m i n a t e d a c t i v i t i e s ( i e . f i s h i n g ) . M o r e o v e r , he d o e s n o t d e s c r i b e h i s s u r v e y t e c h n i q u e s , a n d we a r e l e f t w o n d e r i n g w h i c h a r e a s w e r e s u r v e y e d a n d why t h e y w e r e c h o s e n . The m o s t a p p a r e n t s i t e t y p e i n t h e C e n t r a l c o a s t r e g i o n i s a s i t e w i t h s h e l l m i d d e n r e m a i n s . S h e l l m i d d e n s a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y w i n t e r o c c u p a t i o n s i t e s o n t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t , a n d t h e r e f o r e may h a v e l i t t l e r e l a t i o n t o t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e summer a n d f a l l f i s h e r i e s . T h a t f i s h t r a p s a r e more n u m e r o u s a r o u n d s m a l l e r , l e s s p r o d u c t i v e s t r e a m s i s e x p e c t e d i f m o r e t r a p s e n a b l e a m o r e e f f i c i e n t h a r v e s t o f t h e s a l m o n r u n . M u l t i p l e t r a p s may n o t h a v e b e e n n e c e s s a r y i n m o r e a b u n d a n t l y - p r o d u c i n g a r e a s . S a l m o n S t u d i e s - Summary To be u s e f u l t o t h e s t u d y o f N o r t h w e s t C o a s t s e t t l e m e n t s t h e m e t h o d s e m p l o y e d i n e a c h o f t h e s e s t u d i e s n e e d s t o be b r o a d e n e d t o i n c l u d e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f c u l t u r a l c o n s t r a i n t s . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f K e w ' s w o r k , -32- n o n e o f t h e o t h e r s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d h e r e t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f t h e s a l m o n r e s o u r c e . A c c e s s i b i l i t y o f s a l m o n i s somewhat a n a l o g o u s t o t h e c o n c e p t o f t i m e - d i s t a n c e d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . I t i s n o t e n o u g h t o r e c o r d s a l m o n n u m b e r s a v a i l a b l e f o r h a r v e s t i n g w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g e a s e o f h a r v e s t i n g . S i z e o f t h e l a b o r f o r c e a s w e l l a s t h e a v a i l a b l e t e c h n o l o g y s h o u l d a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d i n s t u d i e s o f t h i s k i n d . A l s o w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f K e w , no o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r a t t e m p t s t o d e t e r m i n e how t h e s a l m o n s t r e a m s h a v e b e e n a l t e r e d o v e r t i m e by e n v i r o n m e n t a n d / o r c u l t u r a l d i s t u r b a n c e s . Kew t r i e s t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r t h e s e c h a n g e s by a d j u s t i n g t h e f i g u r e s t o r e p r e s e n t more a c c u r a t e l y p r e c o n t a c t t i m e s . A s we do n o t know t h e e x a c t m e t h o d s w h i c h w e r e e m p l o y e d , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e v a l u a t e i t s s u c c e s s . R e g a r d l e s s , t h e a t t e m p t i s n o t e w o r t h y , a n d s i m i l a r s t u d i e s s h o u l d a l s o be a w a r e o f p o s s i b l e c h a n g e s i n s a l m o n n u m b e r s t h r o u g h t i m e . I n e a c h o f t h e c a s e s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d h e r e a t t e m p t s w e r e made t o r e l a t e a p r i o r i c r i t i c a l r e s o u r c e s , n a m e l y s a l m o n , t o s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s . The r e s u l t s a r e n o t a s c o n c l u s i v e a s o n e m i g h t e x p e c t . I n t h e F r a s e r R i v e r a n d n o r t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a s t u d i e s , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s a l m o n a n d s e t t l e m e n t i s p a r t i a l l y c o n f i r m e d , b u t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n i s much w e a k e r i n t h e c e n t r a l c o a s t a r e a . S e v e r a l r e a s o n s ( i e . s a m p l e b i a s , i n a p p r o p r i a t e s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , s m a l l s a m p l e s i z e , e t c . ) may p a r t i a l l y be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e m i n i m a l c o r r e l a t i o n . M o r e l i k e l y , h o w e v e r , t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e s e s t u d i e s t o i n c l u d e o t h e r c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s l i m i t s t h e i r v a l u e a s p r e d i c t i v e m o d e l s o f s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s . -33- Sumrnary o f S e t t l e m e n t S t u d i e s M e t h o d a n d T h e o r y I n s u m , i f s e t t l e m e n t s t u d i e s a r e t o be m e a n i n g f u l , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l p o i n t s w h i c h m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d . T h e r e s e a r c h e r m u s t r e c o g n i z e t h a t a number o f d e t e r m i n a n t s i n f l u e n c e d t h e s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n o b s e r v e d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y . V a r i a b l e s f r o m b o t h t h e n a t u r a l a n d c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t m u s t be e x a m i n e d , a n d e a c h s h o u l d be e x a m i n e d w i t h i n a c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . I n f o r m a t i o n on w h i c h e l e m e n t s a r e l i k e l y t o h a v e p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e c a n be f o u n d i n w r i t t e n e t h n o g r a p h i e s a n d t h r o u g h e t h n o g r a p h i c f i e l d w o r k . When t h e s e s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n a r e n o t d i r e c t l y a v a i l a b l e , i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m o t h e r s i m i l a r e n v i r o n m e n t s w i l l p r o v e u s e f u l . T h e r e s e a r c h e r s h o u l d be c a u t i o n e d a g a i n s t d e c i d i n g b e f o r e h a n d w h a t i s t h e s o l e i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r on s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n . The r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s s h o u l d be u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h f a c t o r s a r e i n f l u e n t i a l . An u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n o f a l l s e t t l e m e n t s t u d i e s i s t h e n o t i o n t h a t p e o p l e w i l l t r y t o m i n i m i z e e f f o r t i n a l l e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s w i l l be m a n i f e s t e d i n s e t t l e m e n t s by m i n i m i z i n g d i s t a n c e t o i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e s . E f f o r t s i n v o l v e d i n e x t r a c t i n g r e s o u r c e s , e n c o m p a s s e d i n t h e n o t i o n s o f w o r k e f f o r t a n d r i s k d e s c r i b e d a b o v e m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d when e v a l u a t i n g m i n i m i z a t i o n o f e f f o r t . H o w e v e r , s i n c e e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s a r e o n l y one a s p e c t o f b e h a v i o r w h i c h g o v e r n s s e t t l e m e n t d e c i s i o n s , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e s a n d s e t t l e m e n t w i l l r a r e l y be s o s i m p l i s t i c ; o t h e r d e c i s i o n s w i l l b e g i n t o m e d i a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e t w o . A d d i t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r a n a l y s e s w h i c h do c o n s i d e r r e s o u r c e s a s p o s s i b l e d e t e r m i n a n t s . I n s t u d i e s o f t h i s k i n d e x t r a p o l a t i o n s f r o m t h e p r e s e n t - d a y e n v i r o n m e n t b a c k t o t h e p a s t a r e o f t e n n e c e s s a r y . I n o r d e r t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s , a d e t a i l e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e c o l o g y o f t h e s t u d y a r e a m u s t be a c h i e v e d . T h i s i n c l u d e s a k n o w l e d g e o f c h a n g e s i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t t h r o u g h t i m e - - b o t h n a t u r a l a n d h u m a n - i n d u c e d . M e t h o d s u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e s o u r c e s i n t h e p a s t n e e d n o t y i e l d a b s o l u t e f i g u r e s o f r e s o u r c e a b u n d a n c e . B e c a u s e o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a n g e , a n d p e r h a p s s e v e r a l o t h e r unknown f a c t o r s , i t i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e p a s t d i s t r i b u t i o n s w i t h t h i s k i n d o f a c c u r a c y . G i v e n t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s , t h e r e s u l t s s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d a s a r e l a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e p a s t s i t u a t i o n . A r e l a t i v e o r d e r i n g o f r e s o u r c e a v a i l a b i l i t y a c c o r d i n g t o l o c a t i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t l y i n f o r m a t i v e w i t h o u t s t r e t c h i n g t h e d a t a b e y o n d i t s l i m i t s . U s i n g t h e p a r a m e t e r s o u t l i n e d a b o v e , t h e N u x a l k e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a a r e r e v i e w e d i n d e t a i l i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . S p e c i f i c s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i n f o r m a t i o n , s u c h a s r e s o u r c e u s e , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s , a n d i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e N u x a l k s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s s p e c i f i c a l l y , a r e h i g h l i g h t e d . A r e v i e w o f t h e N u x a l k e n v i r o n m e n t a s i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n a t t h e t i m e b e f o r e E u r o p e a n c o n t a c t i s p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r I I I . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c a n d e c o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l f o r m t h e d a t a b a s e f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m o f t h e p r e c o n t a c t N u x a l k . -35- C h a p t e r I I T H E N U X A L K : E T H N O G R A P H I C D A T A I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s c h a p t e r s u m m a r i z e s t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a r e l e v a n t t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m o f t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y N u x a l k i n t h e l a t e p r e - c o n t a c t / e a r l y c o n t a c t e r a . I n f o r m a t i o n h a s b e e n c o m p i l e d f r o m h i s t o r i c a c c o u n t s , e t h n o g r a p h i e s , a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a a n d N u x a l k c o n s u l t a n t s l i v i n g o n t h e r e s e r v e t o d a y . D e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n o n s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s , t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n a n d b e t w e e n v i l l a g e s , d i r e c t r e s o u r c e a c q u i s i t i o n , a n d r e s o u r c e s a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h e x c h a n g e , a n d r e l a t i o n s w i t h n e i g h b o u r i n g g r o u p s , a r e d i s c u s s e d . E t h n o g r a p h i c B a c k g r o u n d B e f o r e t h e a r r i v a l o f E u r o p e a n s o n t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t , t h e N u x a l k p e o p l e o c c u p i e d t h e e n t i r e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y a n d t h e s u r r o u n d i n g v a l l e y s o f f t h e D e a n C h a n n e l , N o r t h a n d S o u t h B e n t i n c k A r m s , a n d K w a t n a I n l e t s ( M c l l w r a i t h 1 9 4 8 ) . T h e t e r m N u x a l k i s u s e d h e r e t o d e s c r i b e t h o s e p e o p l e l i v i n g i n e a c h o f t h e a r e a s d e s c r i b e d b e l o w , a l t h o u g h i t i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e t e r m u s e d t r a d i t i o n a l l y t o d e s c r i b e o n l y t h o s e p e o p l e i n h a b i t i n g t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y . A t t h e t i m e o f c o n t a c t t h e N u x a l k h a d e s t a b l i s h e d v i l l a g e s t h r o u g h o u t t h i s a r e a . M u c h o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g t e r r a i n w a s u t i l i z e d f o r r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n . T h e N u x a l k d i d n o t h a v e a s i n g l e n a m e f o r a l l i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e v a l l e y s , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e y d i d n o t s e e t h e m s e l v e s a s a s i n g l e u n i f i e d g r o u p . W i t h i n e a c h v a l l e y p e o p l e w e r e k n o w n b y a c o l l e c t i v e n a m e , a f a c t t h a t i n d i c a t e s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c u n i t y . T h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y w e r e k n o w n a s -36- the Nuxalkmx*, those from South Bentinck as the Talyumx, the Dean Channel people were c a l l e d the Sucfcmx, and those from Kwatna I n l e t were the K'wafcnamx (Mcllwraith 1948:13; Kennedy and Bouchard 1976: 8-9). The B e l l a Coola v a l l e y i s located at the end of a long i n l e t more than 120 km from the sea, i n the central coast region of B r i t i s h Columbia (figure 1). The v a l l e y , which runs east to west, i s bounded to the north, south and east by t a l l , steep mountains, some of which r i s e over 2000m. The v a l l e y f l o o r i s transected by the B e l l a Coola River, which flows along i t s e n t i r e length, and several smaller r i v e r and streams. To the extreme east, the B e l l a Coola River flows from the Atnarko and Talchako t r i b u t a r i e s , which emerge from narrow, rugged canyons. To the west, the B e l l a Coola River opens out into North Bentinck Arm, which i n turn flows into Burke Channel before reaching the open sea. Similar to much of the B r i t i s h Columbia coast, the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y i s c l a s s i f i e d by Krajina (1970) as Coastal Western Hemlock b i o t i c zone. The v a l l e y i s characterized by the usual coastal weather patterns, however the western end of the v a l l e y i s somewhat milder than the eastern end. Toward the west the winters are rainy, but do not get very c o l d . Further up the v a l l e y there i s l e s s r a i n (about 25 inches per year as compared to 54 inches at the western end; Canada, Atmospheric Environmental Service 1967:5,38), but the weather i s generally more severe. Lieutenant Johnstone of Capt. Vancouver's crew was, i n 1793, the f i r s t white man to v i s i t the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y . . His mission was to explore Burke Channel, North and South Bentinck Arms, Labouchere Channel * Orthography of Nuxalk words from Bouchard and Kennedy 1976, unless otherwise noted. -37- F i g u r e 1. L o c a t i o n o f t h e B e l l a C o o l a V a l l e y i n t h e C e n t r a l C o a s t -38- and the head of the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y i n June 3 of that year . He stayed only long enough to trade with people l i v i n g in the v i l l a g e at the mouth of the B e l l a Coola (Qumquis), before heading back to the sea . Although Johnstone was the f i r s t white man a c t u a l l y to v i s i t B e l l a Coo la , there i s l i t t l e doubt that news of the white men had already reached the Nuxalk; Captain Cook and h i s men had reached the west coast and Vancouver Is land 15 years e a r l i e r , and the maritime trade for sea o t ter p e l t s had begun. Only one month a f te r Johnstone's v i s i t , Alexander Mackenzie a r r i v e d at the upper end of the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y i n search of an overland route to the c o a s t . Mackenzie made h i s way down the v a l l e y stopping and t rad ing at var ious v i l l a g e s . Once he reached the opean s e a , he turned around and went back. Mackenzie 's journey in the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y took l e s s than three weeks. Contact with the white man was minimal among the Nuxalk for the next 40 y e a r s , u n t i l the Hudson's Bay Company set up f o r t s on the B r i t i s h Columbia Coast . For t McLoughlin was es tab l i shed i n B e l l a B e l l a in 1833 and c losed in 1843 (Kopas 1970:53,139). Three small t rad ing posts were set up i n B e l l a Coola some time a f te r t h i s , which introduced an European in f luence i n the v a l l e y . Notably the establishment of a Hudson's Bay post in B e l l a Coola i n 1867 had considerable i n f l u e n c e . It was l a t e r abandoned i n 1882 (Kopas 1970:139,140). By the mid 1800*s much of the Nuxalk t r a d i t i o n a l way of l i f e had been severe ly d i s r u p t e d . Th is was a r e s u l t of an outbreak of smallpox as we l l as a steady supply of l i q u o r from the t raders to the Nuxalk. In the l a t e 19th century and even i n the ear ly part of t h i s century , severa l missions were es tab l ished i n B e l l a Coo la . V i l l a g e s broke up and became deser ted. People from a l l over the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y gradual ly moved to the - 3 9 - sett lement at the mouth of the r i v e r while inhabi tants of the other v a l l e y s moved to other "main" v i l l a g e s . Some v i l l a g e s were s t i l l occupied seasonal ly at l e a s t to the time just p r i o r to the turn of the century , to procure var ious resources (Boas 1891:48; Hawthorn 1949-55). In the 1920's the remaining inhabi tants f i n a l l y moved to the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y settlement (Mcl lwrai th 1948:16). Many people at t h i s time took employment with one of the canneries operat ing i n the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y or Kimsquit ( W i l l i e Hans, Nuxalk e l d e r , personal communication). I t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine populat ion f igures for the Nuxalk p r i o r to European con tac t . Mcl lwra i th (1948:5) suggests that the populat ion must have been " in the thousands". Duff (1964:39) estimates there were approximately 2,000 people i n 1835, p r i o r to the d r a s t i c dec l ine i n numbers as a r e s u l t of introduced d i s e a s e s . Very ear ly accounts by the explorers suggest that the number of Nuxalk inhab i t ing t h i s area may have been even greater than the records i n d i c a t e . Unfor tunate ly , s ince most ear ly contact was concentrated i n the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y , we are l e f t with populat ion estimates only for the Nuxalkmx of the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y . Mackenzie estimated that 200 people l i v e d i n the v i l l a g e of Nus^alst (Mackenzie 1962:223). L t . Johnstone, who v i s i t e d Q u m q u t s at the mouth of the B e l l a Coola R i v e r , suggested a f igure of 300 people for that v i l l a g e (Vancouver 1967:272). Assuming that these v i l l a g e s are at the la rge end of the s c a l e , we can conserva t ive ly estimate an average f igure of 100 people per v i l l a g e i n the v a l l e y . I f we mul t ip ly t h i s by 27, the number of v i l l a g e s recorded by Mcl lwra i th for the v a l l e y , we a t t a i n a populat ion f i g u r e of 2700 fo r the v a l l e y a lone . - 4 0 - In my research , however, I have c o l l e c t e d data on almost double the number of v i l l a g e s estimated by Mcl lwra i th in the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y . Although I am unable to determine contemporaneity for many of them, I b e l i e v e that 27 i s a somewhat conservat ive estimate fo r the number of v i l l a g e s at any one t ime. Mcl lwra i th (1948:11) s ta tes that the o r i g i n a l s e t t l e r s to the v a l l e y es tab l ished 45 separate v i l l a g e s which would almost double the populat ion est imate . Regardless , the f igure of 2700 does not take in to account the inhabi tants of the other areas occupied by the Nuxalk, and must be considered a conservat ive est imate . Settlement Data There i s a good deal of fragmentary data on Nuxalk v i l l a g e sett lement patterns at the time of contact and i n the per iod fo l lowing (eg. Mcl lwra i th 1948; Tolmie 1963; Boas 1898; Boas 1891; and Smith 1920-1924). Unfortunately these re ferencs are simply l i s t s of where v i l l a g e s were l o c a t e d . To date , there e x i s t s no comprehensive account of why they were located where they were. Nuxalk v i l l a g e s were undoubtedly an impressive s i t e to any t r a v e l l e r i n the a rea . Yet , unfortunate ly people d id not record other aspects of the settlement system. S p e c i f i c funct ions of s p e c i a l i z e d s i t e s ( e . g . resource processing s i t e s ) were l ikewise ignored . Th is gap i n informat ion i s p a r t i c u l a r l y apparent when the Nuxalk data i s compared to that of other Northwest Coast groups. Futhermore, s ince the ethnographers worked only with the Nuxalk who were l i v i n g i n the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y , the data may be heav i ly biased i n favor of the v a l l e y . Th is i s exempl i f ied by the fac t that over one ha l f of the recorded Nuxalk v i l l a g e s are located i n the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y a lone , whi le the other h a l f are scat tered over North and South Bentinck Arms, Kwatna, and the Dean Channel . -41- The a rchaeo log ica l record for the B e l l a Coola region i s of l i t t l e value i n determining pre-contact settlement patterns in the a r e a . Since most data r e s u l t from surveys that were conducted of fshore ( i e . from a boat ) , the s i t e d i s t r i b u t i o n may be heav i ly biased not only towards c o a s t a l s i t e s , but towards those s i t e s with high v i s i b i l i t y , for example, where s h e l l middens occur . F igure 2 i l l u s t r a t e s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of known archaeo log ica l s i t e s i n the B e l l a Coola r e g i o n . Excavations have been conducted at both Kwatna and Kimsqui t , however comprehensive reports have not yet been publ ished (see Hobler 1970 for pre l iminary r e p o r t ) . In the absence of extensive a rchaeo log ica l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s in a l l areas t r a d i t i o n a l l y occupied by the Nuxalk we w i l l never know how c l o s e l y the pattern descr ibed here represents the pas t . Th is study, however, focuses predominantly on the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y i t s e l f , the area most thoroughly documented. Table I l i s t s a l l the Nuxalk v i l l a g e s and camps recorded by ear ly and present-day ethnographers. The i r l o c a t i o n s are p lo t ted on f igures 3 and 4. Although the l i s t i s qui te ex tens ive , i t i s fa r from complete. Smith (1920-24) s ta tes that "there were p o s s i b l y three to four hundred named places between the mouth of the B e l l a Coola River and Stewie, of which only a few have been recorded" . Of t h i s t o t a l the major i ty of places were probably used for resource procurement. Th is i s where the data are most severely l a c k i n g , as a l l but a few of the named places c o l l e c t e d here are v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , as many authors d id not record the time at which the v i l l a g e s were occupied , d e f i n i t i o n of contemporaneaous patterns i s d i f f i c u l t . We can assume, however, that i n the case of the very ear ly observers (Mackenzie, Tolmie , and Palmer) , they recorded -42- F i g u r e 2. Known A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a R e g i o n . From H o b l e r 1982:4' Village* BELLA COOLA VALLEY 1. SlaaxL 3. SnuAlat 4. Q wliyufc 5. Stwix 6,/taya-i; or twina'-t 8. NuAli*xw Meaning** VILLAGES not known TABLE I LIST OF NUXALK VILLAGES AND CAMPS (from east to west) Reference(s)** 2. Name not known not known "place of the falls"(3) "apparently-blocked area"(ll) 3,4,5,6,7,9,11 "place of herbage"(3) "low vegetation only"(ll) not known "black bear footprint"(11) "visible footprint" 7. Name not known not known "where there are no f a l l s ( 3 , l l ) 3,4,11 3,4,5,6,7,9,11 11 5 3,4,5,6,7, 8,9,10,11 Comments** Mcllwarith (1948:12) states that he never heard of this village People shorter than the Nuxalk lived here. They were called Sahalie in Chinook, which means "way up"(5). The largest of the upper river towns (3,4,5); occupied at the time of Mackenzie (3), and s t i l l occupied in the late 19 century (7). This place was a great fishing ground; there were many camps there and possibly a village on the south side of the river (5). Mackenzie (1962:214) saw one large house surrounded by several small huts on s t i l t s . On his return t r i p five additional houses had been built (p.254); Mcllwraith (1948:10) suggests that this i s because this village's weir survived a flood that other villages did not. Tolmie (1963) saw six houses at this village. Village* Meaning,** Referenced ) 9. Numc "sound of berries being 11 crushed"(ll) 10. Nuxnu'^skani "place of many soapberries" (11) 11 11. As'q'neaLh (4) or Ascani (from asc "spray") 4,5,11 12. Nusqalst "the place of sqalstutl"(3) 3,4,5,6 (a stone used for tools) 7,9,10,11 13. Nunutwinm "visible inter-mittenly"(ll) 5,11 14. Assanani "the concave town" or "Bay town" 3,4,5,6 (3,4) (assan "in the corner") 7,8,9,11 15. anneolekootsi(5) not known 5 16. Name not known not known 5 17. Salmt not known 11 18. Tlatlekeytoch(8) not known 8 19. Nukic ...... "where there i s a whirpool" 3,4,5,6, (3,4,11) 7,8,9,11 20. Uqmik "hunched over"(ll) 3,4,5,11 21. Snut.li "place of dog salmon" 3,4,5,6, (3,4,5,11) 7,11 Comments** Smith (1920-24) records a village in the same location, but he dose not give a name. He says i t i s occupied by both Interior and Nuxalk people. This village was made up of four elevated houses and seven built on the ground. The population was approximately 200 people (10). Smith (1920-24) i s not sure whether this i s a village or a place name. If i t i s a village i t i s very old. Reported to have had five(8), or six (5) houses. Occupied at the time of Mackenzie (3). There i s question i f this i s a village (5). Smith was unable to locate this village. Reported to have had five houses (8). Reported to have had four houses (8). Abondoned in the f i r s t half of the 20th century (3). Occupied at the time of Mackenzie (3). Occupied at the time of Mackenzie(3). There may have been two large villages here (5). Village* Meaning** 22. Tsxoaxqa'ne (6) not known Refecence(s)** 6,7 23. Nuqa'xmac 24. Clkt 25. Nu'ixmaq^s 26. Snu?unik wlxs 27. Curnu-t 28. Squmafc "where there are many lady 3,4,5,6,7,11 ferns" (3,4,11) "bald eagle"(ll) 3,4,5,11 "place of foul water"(3,4) 3,4,5,11 "place of mud smelling of rotting f i s h " ( l l ) "on the point"(3,4,ll) 3,4,5,9,11 "where river i s deep enough 3,4,5,6,7,8,11 to cover stones, but shallow enough for rapids" (3). or "obstructions in the water"(11) not known 3,4,5,11 29. Snxfc "sunny" or "fallen sun" (3,4,11) 3,4,5,6,7,11 30. Qbutz (4) or not known TcixtcixwtELpa'ts "where there i s much tcixtcixwlelp" a hollow stemmed plant (3) 31. uVusq^p 32. Atq'laxt "The treeless place"(3) or "bare place"(ll) "stockaded (fenced) place (11) 3,4 3,4,5,11 4,11 33. Klisheooalletoch (8) not known 34. Name not known not known 8 5 Comments** Mcllwraith (1948:12) states that he never heard of this village. This was a very large town (4,5). It was a very good spot for trapping (5). This was a small village (5). This was a very large village (3,4,5). This was a large town (5). Reported to have had six houses (8). Occupied at the time of Mackenzie (3). There were many houses here (5). Occupied at the time of Mackenzie (3) This was a f a i r l y large town (3,5). It was abandoned early on the 20th century (4), and occupied at the time of Mackenzie (3), This i s a very old town (3), A very old town (4). Where most of the valley inhabitants were l i v i n g in the early 1900's u n t i l the flood of 1936 (11). Eleven houses were located here (8), Smith noted many houses in this location(5). Village* Meaning** Refecence(s)** 35. Nusmafafcayx (from sma "legend"; 11) 5,11 36. Cwankus "cold spring of water" (11) 11 37. Name not known not known 5 38. Numû k (from muk "red"; 11) 11 39. Name not known not known 5 40. Qumquts "salty" (3,4) 3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11 41. Scki«£ "what has been divided"(3,ll) 3,4,5,6,7 42. T'sati. m (4) not known 4 43. Aima' ts not known 3,4 44. Anucquc "labretted" (3,11) 3,4,5,11 45. Assa-qta not known 11 46. Saqta (6) not known 6 47. Selkuta (6) not known 6 48. Txeixtskune (6) not known 6 49. OsmaxikeLp (6) not known 6 50. Tfcoqo tfc "small mound" (3) 3,4 Comments** This was a very large village, with many slaves and chiefs (3,4). Six (10), eleven and thirteen houses (8,13) were located here at different times. It was s t i l l inhabitated in the 1920's. Occupied at the time of Mackenzie(3), This i s a very old village. A small town. Possibly occupied at the time of Mackenzie (3). A very large town (4), Mcllwraith (1948:12) states that he never heard of this village. ditto. ditto. Village* 51. Afcqlaxt Meaning** "fenced place"(3,4,ll) 52. T'itsal (5) not known 53. Tsafc "short feet" (3,4) or "salty feet" (11) 54. Qameix not known NORTH and SOUTH BENTINCK ARM VILLAGES 55. Numamis "place of f l i e s " ( 3 , 5 , l l ) 56. Nusxiq (from nusx "clover; 4) 57. Qoalna (6) not known 58. Safcya not known 59. TsoaLtmem (3) not known 60. Qnklst island (3) 61. Name not known not known 62. Kxdis (3) not known Reference(s)** 3,4,5,6,8,11 5 3,4,5,11 3 3,4,5,11 3,4,5,6,11 6,7 3,6,11 3 3,11 5 3 Comments** This town had seven houses (8); i t was stockaded (3). It was inhabitated u n t i l 1870, and was occupied during Mackenzie's time (3). The houses were built on piles because of flooding (4,5). This i s the winter village for the people l i v i n g at no. 55 (3,4) This was probably a hunting spot, not a village (3). See comment no. 53. This i s a very old village; i t was deserted before Mackenzie's time (4), Food for this village was obtained from an ocean trap (3). ditto. Occupied at the time of Mackenzie (3). In the summer the inhabitants of this village lived here in order to be near their f i s h trap; they moved to a f o r t i f i e d village at the base of a mountain for the winter(3). It i s not certain i f this i s a town or the fishing camp for the people of no. 63 (3). Village* 63. Nuik Meaning** not known Reference(s)** 3,4,5,6,7,11,12 64. Talyu or 3,4,5,6,8,11 Tqwantoa (3) "facing" (ie. no. 63) 65. Asi-x^ "end of i n l e t " (11) or 3,4,5,6,7,11 "at the head" (3) 66. K^apx not known 3,4,6,7,11 67. Name not known not known 5 KWATNA VILLAGES 68. InufckEmitL (4) or Sinalk (4) "where i t a l l spoke" (4) 4 69. iixtixkutank "big boulder" or "big "bellied person (11) 11 Comments** This was a populated town, occupied at the time of Mackenzie (3); a few people s t i l l lived here in the early 20th century (12). Kennedy and Bouchard (1976) c a l l this town Axeti (meaning "mound"). As this village i s located on a mound, and i s located in the same spot on the map as Axeti, Axeti i s place name given by informants for a village in the Dean, I think that the informants may have recalled the name incorrectly, and that these villages are the same. Reported to have had four houses (8), also a double stockade made of s p l i t trees (4). Willie Hans (personal communication) says this i s the largest of the South Bentinck villages. People s t i l l lived here in the early 20th century (12). A large population; occupied at the time of Mackenzie, and deserted in the early 20th century (3,4), The name may be in the Rivers Inlet language. A f a i r l y large town., deserted long ago (3,4) Willie Hans (personal communication) says a people s t i l l lived here in the early 20th century. Village* Meaning** 70. Knc "any whale" (11) AqEtJ q (4) not known 71. Palcwana "big" (11) Anu 1tzeixLLx (4) not known 72. AnuLxu'mxwmi "undergound sound caused Anuq(owlst) (4) not known 73. Waxwas not known 74. Nu'tLltLiqolEnk (4) not known 74. Sinuxm'x (4) not known 76. Qussalq not known 77. Ciqsi not known 78. Cu'sila not known DEAN CHANNEL VILLAGES 79. Sifctmtimut "appears suddenly" 80. A£ - X l i q w "crevasse pattern c r i s s - crossed in rock" (11) 81. Umftum "sound of small waves splashing on shore" 82. Name not known not known 83. Sx*ax^ilk not known 84. Name not known not known 85. Asktta (3) not known Reference(s)** Comments** 4,11 Mcllwraith (1922-24) and Kennedy and Bouchard 1976) recorded very different names for this village, but the location i s the same. 4,11 This i s the largest of the outside villages (4). See comment for village no. 70. 4,11 See comment for village no. 70. 4,11 4 4 11 11 i I 11 11 11 11 5,11 11 5 3 V i l l a g e * 86. Siwalos (3) Meaning*-* Reference(sy "where canoes are l e f t " (3) 3 87. Ixwcnk (3) not known 3 88. Nusqapts (3) "place of many spring 3 salmon" (3) 3 89. Axati "occupied mound" (3) or 3,11 "mound (11) 90. Nucq^alst "many spawning sockeye 3,11 salmon" (3) 91. U'tsea (4) not known 4 92. Name not known not known 4 93. Nu/ll "canyon" (3,11) 3,4,7,11 94. Us?usqVp "no trees" (4) or 4,11 "bare place (11) 95. AnutL'l'x (4) not known 4 96. Txa&sik "behind the village" (11) 11 97. SotsL (6) not known 6 98. Sack w not known 3,4,6,11 Comments ** Together with sutkelta ("winter t r a i l " ) , which was located opposite i t , i t may have been a a single village, or just a camp (3). This may not have been a village (3). Occupied at the time of Mackenzie (3). It was a very large town (3). A small town (3). Occupied during Mackenzie's time (3). i O I This was a large village occupied at the time of Mackenzie(3). Mcllwraith (1922-24) does not give a name for this village, but the location i s the same. It was s t i l l occupied in the late 19th century (7). Occupied during Mackenzie's time (3). A large and important village, occupied at the time of Mackenzie (3), and s t i l l occupied in the late 19th century(7). Village* 99. Nudist 100. QalLcik 101. Snuwapata'x Meaning** not known not known "closed at the mouth of the river" Reference(s)** 3,4,11 4 11 Comments** Occupied at the time of Mackenzie (3). * A l l spellings of villages are from Kennedy and Bouchard (1976) unless otherwise indicated. ** Numbers refer to references below. 3. Mcllwraith, T.F. (1948); 4. Mcllwraith, T.F. (1922-24); 5. Smith, Harlan I. (1920-24); 6. Boas, Franz (1898); 7. Boas, Franz (1891); 8. Tolmie, William F. (1963); 9. Palmer, H.S. (1963); 10. Mackenzie, A. (1962); 11.Kennedy, Dorothy and R. Bouchard (1976); 12. Willie Hans, Nuxalk elder, personal communication; 13. Schoolcraft (1855) F i g u r e 3. L o c a t i o n s o f Known N u x a l k V i l l a g e s a n d Camps C o m p i l e d by a u t h o r . -53- F i g u r e 4. L o c a t i o n s o f Known N u x a l k V i l l a g e s a n d Camps i n t h e L o w e r B e l l a C o o l a V a l l e y C o m p i l e d by a u t h o r . - 5 4 - v i l l a g e s that were then occupied, as they were not attempting reconst ruct ion . This becomes more of a problem with the la ter ethnographers (Mcl lwrai th, Smith, Kennedy and Bouchard, Boas), but Mcl lwra i th 's attempts at showing the temporal re la t ionsh ips of settlements are of some help (Mcllwraith 1948:6-17). The v i l l a g e locat ion maps i l l u s t r a t e var iable d i s t r i b u t i o n s of v i l l a g e s throughout the Nuxalk t e r r i t o r y . Although v i l l a g e s were scattered through the outer channels, the heads of the channels (Kwatna, Kimsquit and the head of South Bentinck Arm) were much more densely populated than the channel arms. In the Be l la Coola v a l l e y , v i l l a g e s were densely d is t r ibuted along i t s ent i re length; the v a l l e y ' s mouth, however, was much more heavi ly populated, ind ica t ing that i t was the preferred area for settlement within the v a l l e y . Contact Between V i l l a g e s The re la t ionship between Nuxalk v i l l a g e s i s not well documented. That inhabitants within a va l ley share a common c o l l e c t i v e name suggests that they are more connected to one another than to the Nuxalk l i v i n g in other areas. Mcl lwraith (1948:17) stated that "they had common in teres ts that threw them into contact with one another". Presumably, he meant i n t e r v i l l a g e trade, intermarriage, and occasional ly aid in r a i d s . That such a re la t ionsh ip did ex is t i s i l l u s t r a t e d by a recorded instance when the salmon weir at the v i l l a g e of Nuj.irx'" survived a f lood that those of other surrounding v i l l a g e s did not (see Table I, comment no .8 ) . During th is time of potent ia l c r i s i s , members of other v i l l a g e s were able to share the resources of th is v i l l a g e . The Nuxalk rare ly engaged in ra ids on one another (Mcllwraith 1922-24). -5 5- Travel between v i l l a g e s would have been easy. Water t rave l was presumably the preferred mode of t rave l and would only have presented a problem when the water was except ional ly turbulent . Normally, i t took approximately 2 1/2 hours to t rave l eight miles downstream in a canoe (c f . Mackenzie 1962:218), and about 6 1/2 hours to make the same t r i p upstream (Wi l l ie Hans, Nuxalk e lde r , personal communication). With v i l l a g e s being on an average distance of one to two miles apart (Hawthorn 1949-1955), access to the neighbouring v i l l a g e would have been easy. Physical Nature of the V i l l age Much information can be put together concerning the physical nature of the Nuxalk v i l l a g e . Mcllwraith (1948:17) records that the v i l l a g e was comprised of anywhere from two to t h i r t y longhouses b u i l t in rows along the banks of the r i ve r or ocean. A l l other early ethnographers, however, do not record even the largest v i l l a g e s as having more than th i r teen v i l l a g e of Nucqalst ) . These houses termed s u i t l * (Smith 1920-24), varied in s i z e , measuring about 100-120 feet in length by 40 feet in width (Mackenzie 1962:222-223; Smith 1920-24 records them as being only 50 feet by 40 f e e t ) . Houses of poorer minmints were general ly smal ler , measuring approximatley 20 feet by 25 feet (Smith 1920-24). Several of the v i l l a g e s had some or a l l of the houses b u i l t on s t i l t s , sometimes up to 25 feet from the ground ( ib id . :230 ) . This was to prevent f lood ing , and to of fer support againsts attacks from neighbouring groups (Smith 1920-24; Mcllwraith 1948:17). Inside the houses there was ei ther a *Th is s p e l l i n g of th is term and a l l others from Smith 1920-1924 are taken d i rec t l y from the o r i g i n a l f i e l d notes. No attempt has been made to change them into modern orthography. Mackenzie for the -56- centra l f i r e place with a smoke hole in the roof (Mcllwraith 1948:142; F e l i c i t y Walkus, Nuxalk e lder , personal communication), or a ser ies of three to f i v e hearths which l ined the center of the b u i l d i n g . Around the f i r e , along both sides of the house and across the back were four to eight s idewal l pa r t i t i ons which formed the bedrooms and storage space of each family (Smith 1920-24). Mackenzie (1962:223) described the arrangement in th is manner: "The whole length of the bui ld ing on e i ther side i s divided by cedar planks into par t i t ions of apartments of seven feet square, in the front of which are boards about three feet w i d e . . . . " The f l o o r in these smaller par t i t ions could a lso be moved in parts in order that small f i r e s could be b u i l t for cooking for the family (Mcllwraith 1948:142). The back of the longhouse was occupied by the "chief" and family (Mackenzie 1962:214); a small room was also located along the back which held dance paraphenalia (Smith 1920-24). Beams running across the c e i l i n g were used for storage and drying (Mackenzie 1962:233). The roofs of the longhouses were sloping (Mcllwraith 1948:17). At one end of the structure was a large door, which opened out to a wooden sidewalk extending from one end of the settlement to the other (Mcllwraith 1948:17). The outside of the houses were sometimes painted, "espec ia l ly those of the ch ie fs and medicine men" (Palmer 1863:6). In ter ior storm houses (oopuata, Smith 1920-24) were sometimes b u i l t i n the center of the house for protect ion against snow storms. M u l t i - l e v e l houses c a l l e d alnucha (Smith 1920-24), which were s imi la r to these structures may have a lso been present at some sett lements. In addi t ion to the longhouses (ca l led smokehouses by the Nuxalk elders today), several other structures made up the v i l l a g e settlement (see Table I I ) . Mackenzie noted "a considerable number of other bui ld ings or sheds which are used as kitchens and places for curing the i r j-csh. -57- (Mackenzie 1962:222). Light framed temporary houses were termed tchal twhant l t while those s p e c i f i c a l l y for drying salmon were ca l led anewspanyesta (Smith 1920-24). Mackenzie describes one of these structures at the v i l l a g e of Nuxlxw in d e t a i l as fo l lows: " large bui ld ing in the middle of the v i l l a g e , which at f i r s t I took for the hal f f in ished frame of a house. The ground plot of i t was 50 feet by 45 fee t , each end i s framed by four stout posts , f ixed perpendicular ly in the ground. The corner ones are p l a i n , and support a beam of the whole length , having three intermediary props on each s i d e , but of a larger s i z e , and eight or nine feet in height . In the area of the bui ld ing there were the remains of several f i r e s " ( ib id . :224 ) . Mackenzie v i s i t e d the Be l la Coola va l ley in J u l y , the height of the subsistence procurement season. The structure described above may have functioned for a shared subsistence a c t i v i t y by the v i l l a g e members, or as a temporary work area set up for the neighboring v i l l a g e r s who came to th is v i l l a g e as a resul t of the f l o o d . Another habi tat ion structure that was used in the past i s the t s i ' p a , * or underground house (Bouchard 1971-1977; Mcl lwraith 1922-24; Smith 1920-24). T s i ' p a were supposed to be very common around the Nuxalk t e r r i t o r y (Bouchard 1971-1977); they have been recorded at the extreme eastern end of the Atnarko R iver , near Assannay Creek (Mcllwraith 1922-24), on the west s ide of Thorsen Creek, at Stewie, Newskultz (Smith 1920-24), at the present v i l l a g e s i t e ( F e l i c i t y Walkus, Nuxalk e lder , personal communication; Smith 1920-24), and at Kimsquit (Mcllwraith 1948:341). L i t t l e i s known about the structure of these houses, except *Randy Bouchard (Native Indian Language Pro jec t , personal communication) pointed out that the term t s i ' p a comes from the Inter ior Sa l i sh word for underground storage, that i s cipwa. It i s not related to the word for pi thouse. This may suggest the i r use as a storage f a c i l i t y . In f a c t , the Tsimshian people are reported to have used them for root storage (Drucker 1950:252). -58- that they had earth-covered roofs which s lanted towards the ground with a small por t ion of the s ides of the s t ruc ture v i s i b l e above ground. T s i ' p a u s u a l l y measured 20 by 15 feet in s i z e . The doorway to the house was s i m i l a r to that of an above ground house, but i t a lso was set a few feet below the ground s u r f a c e , with a couple of steps leading down to i t . There was a c e n t r a l p i t for the f i r e , which i s surrounded on a l l s ides by s t a g i n g s , presumably for s leep ing and storage (Bouchard 1971-1977; Mcl lwra i th 1948:341; Smith 1920-24). L i t t l e i s known about the funct ion of the t s i ' p a . A consultant working with Bouchard suggested only r i c h people l i v e d i n the regular smoke-houses a l l winter as they had furs to keep themselves warm (Bouchard 1971-1977; c f . Smith 1920-24). Perhaps t s i ' p a were used during the co ldest months for s l e e p i n g . These s t ruc tures have not been used for a very long t ime. They may have dropped out of use before Mackenzie 's v i s i t , as he does not record t h e i r presence. Without fur ther da ta , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to f i t t s i ' p a in to the o v e r a l l sett lement system. Table II l i s t s the other s t ruc tures recorded to have been used by the Nuxalk. The V i l l a g e Unit The number of inhab i tants at any Nuxalk v i l l a g e can only be est imated. Anywhere from two to three to ten f a m i l i e s may have l i v e d i n a s i n g l e house (Mcl lwrai th 1948:142; A l i c e T a l l i o , Nuxalk e l d e r , personal communication). Tolmie (1963:306) in 1835, recorded 25 inhabi tants i n each of the 13 houses at the v i l l a g e of Qumquts, g iv ing a t o t a l populat ion of 325 fo r that v i l l a g e . The average household composit ion at the time would have been approximately 14 adul ts and 8 c h i l d r e n . - 59 - TABLE II . HOUSES AND SHELTERS USED BY THE NUXALK (from Smith 1920-1924) S t r u c t u r e * Descr ip t ion s u i t l la rge h a b i t a t i o n s t ruc tures located at the v i l l a g e s , measuring 20-50 feet by 15-40 feet i n t e r i o r storm houses b u i l t i n the center of s u i t l as p ro tec t ion against winter snow storms oopuanta alnucha t s i p a tchel twhant l newspanyesta qua lsan t l okoxk 'ant l skimnamtl t a p e l s t s i m i l a r to s u i t l , except without a foundat ion , and sometimes having as many as four l e v e l s a semi-subterranean house, poss ib ly used during the co ld winter months — •they are approximately 3 feet in to the ground, and 20 by 15 feet i n s i z e a temporary l i g h t frame house made of cedar same as above, but used to smoke salmon a commonly used s t ructure which was covered with c o n i f e r boughs— It var ied i n s i z e from 10 to 15 fee t long a house which was covered by skunk cabbage leaves a house which was covered by moose s k i n s . I t was not very common, and was only used when timber was i n short supply * * a dry rock she l te r used for temporary camps and s h e l t e r s — drying racks for mountain goat meat may have been kept at such l o c a t i o n s * S p e l l i n g s o f s t ruc tures are taken d i r e c t l y from Smith 's o r i g i n a l f i e l d no tes . No attempt has been made to change them in to the modern orthography. **Moose entered the B e l l a Coola area a f t e r the 1940's. Another type of sk in was probably used p r i o r to t h i s t ime. - 6 0 - In theory , a s i n g l e v i l l a g e was made up of descendants of the " f i r s t people" , that i s , the o r i g i n a l Nuxalk s e t t l e r s to come to the area (Mcl lwra i th 1948:4). I t i s be l ieved that the f i r s t people formed a v i l l a g e community with hunting grounds i n the v i c i n i t y . T h e s e were pre ferab ly small v a l l e y s opening up onto the main B e l l a Coola v a l l e y . Each group a l s o possessed "a s u i t a b l e part of the r i v e r for the salmon weir" ( i b i d . : 1 8 ) . An a n c e s t r a l fami ly a l s o shared var ious non-mater ia l p re roga t ives , such as dances, names and genera l ly the s ta tus of the group ( i b i d . : 1 4 1 ) . Mcl lwra i th (1948:20) and Boas (1891) both suggest that i n order to keep prerogat ives wi th in the a n c e s t r a l fami ly (or minmints) , v i l l a g e endogamy was p r e f e r r e d . The i d e a l mate then, being from the ances t ra l fami ly of your father or mother (Mcl lwrai th 1948:374), thus perpetuat ing the not ion of a s i n g l e fami ly per v i l l a g e . Rossman and Rubel (1971:116), however, a f t e r studying M c l l w r a i t h ' s f i e l d notes , s tate that such endogamous marriages were i n fac t ra re . Instead, such marriages were more of ten used to "renew [ ] r e l a t i o n s between households a f t e r those l i n k s had grown weak with time" ( i b i d . : 1 1 7 ) . In economic terms i t i s more p r o f i t a b l e to create a marriage a l l i a n c e with other households, as an i n d i v i d u a l ' s opt ions are thus broadened. Th is i s exempl i f ied i n the case of the f looded v i l l a g e s mentioned e a r l i e r . Without some kind of s o c i a l t i e , the s u r v i v i n g v i l l a g e would not have been required to give a i d . Marriage with people who themselves were prosper ing appears to have been a common means of secur ing and maintaining pres t ige among the Nuxalk. G e n e r a l l y , i t was be l ieved that the more wives a man had, the greater h i s wealth and fame would be (Mcl lwrai th 1948:335). T h i s , - 6 1 - however, i s not simply a r e s u l t of the f a c t that polygamous marriages are inherent ly p r e s t i g i o u s , but because i t i s the woman's fami ly who a ids a husband i n accumulating wealth to po t la tch and f e a s t . Futhermore, a f te r a marr iage, a man has access to a l l the belongings of h i s w i f e ' s family ( i b i d . : 3 9 3 ) . I f the husband ever f e e l s that he has over- indebted h i s w i f e ' s fami ly a "ceremonial marriage" i s arranged between a young g i r l i n h i s fami ly to a f i c t i t i o u s husband from the w i f e ' s group. In t h i s way the w i f e ' s fami ly w i l l receive g i f t s from the marr iage, whi le the husband's fami ly w i l l have renewed i t s t i e s with t h i s f a m i l y . According to Mcl lwra i th (1948:425), "ceremonial marriages [are] one of the many methods used by the B e l l a Coola to enter i n t o f i n a n c i a l dea l ings with an i n f l u e n t i a l c h i e f " . The c rea t ion of marriage a l l i a n c e s with prospering v i l l a g e s to gain access to a broadened economic base i s a lso documented i n Nuxalk mythology. According to the o r i g i n myth of the v i l l a g e of Stwix, when the v i l l a g e was prosper ing as a resu l t of an abundance of salmon, "people came from fa r and near to pledge t h e i r daughters to the f ishermen" (Mcl lwra i th 1948:311). S i m i l a r l y , i n the o r i g i n myth of the v i l l a g e of S n u t l i , i t i s wr i t ten that people were able to move to Stwix because "a number of t h e i r daughters had married [ t h e i r ] c h i e f s " ( i b i d . : 3 1 3 ) . Rossman and Rubel a lso disagree with Mcl lwra i th as to the ro le of the v i l l a g e as a socio-economic group. Mcl lwra i th s ta tes that i t i s the v i l l a g e that i s the most important p o l i t i c a l un i t ( i b i d . : 1 4 1 ) . Rossman and Rubel (1971:110), however, suggest that "the household i s the most s i g n i f i c a n t un i t of s o c i a l s t ruc ture operat ive i n economic ass is tance and p o t l a t c h i n g " . They c la im that the v i l l a g e , on the other hand, " i s charac ter i zed by a s ingu la r absence of group s o l i d a r i t y " ( i b i d . : 1 1 0 ) . Probably , the t ru th l i e s somewhere i n the middle. That a v i l l a g e funct ions as an economic un i t i s evident from the fac t that i t shares hunting and gathering grounds. Ceremonies shared by the v i l l a g e un i t a lso served to bond the members of the group (Stot t 1975:7). Although a v i l l a g e as a whole may not be the po t la tch ing u n i t , there was most c e r t a i n l y s o c i a l and economic cooperat ion between houses. Nuclear fami ly un i ts were of l i t t l e s o c i a l or economic importance among the Nuxalk. Within a household a nuclear fami ly may have cooked i t s meals or done other domestic chores , such as gather ing food or f i rewood, separate ly from the remaining f a m i l i e s (Mcl lwrai th 1948:147). U l t i m a t e l y , however, there would have been few d i s t i n c t i o n s . As other members of the household are those with whom the fami ly would pot la tch and f e a s t , there would have been much shar ing of tasks and resources . As mentioned e a r l i e r , the minmints held access to a l l s t r a t e g i c resources. Hunting and c o l l e c t i n g grounds, termed so l ' l oam or s lxsnlmsta ("food supp ly" ; Mcl lwra i th 1948:131). were claimed by the " F i r s t People" i n the v i c i n i t y of the v i l l a g e they s e t t l e d . Rights of access to these p l o t s were by membership, or a s s o c i a t i o n through marriage to the minmints. These p l o t s would not have been p r a c t i c a l l y important , and were therefore seldom used. Rights to such land hold ings were d i f f i c u l t to mainta in , but may have become an issue of pr ide ( i b i d . : 1 3 2 ) , s ince i t i s be l ieved among the Nuxalk that "a person who l a c k s hunting grounds i s l i t t l e bet ter than a s l a v e , whereas one who has much land i s important" ( i b i d . : 1 3 2 ) . In a d d i t i o n to s o l ' l o a m , f i s h i n g s i t e s were a lso owned by the a n c e s t r a l f a m i l y . These l o c a t i o n s inc luded s t re tches of the r i v e r for salmon weirs and ool igan n e t s , as we l l as rocks from which f i s h could be -63- caught with scoopnets ( i b i d . : 1 3 5 ) . Unl ike the land h o l d i n g s , the number of people us ing these l o c a t i o n s was l i m i t e d , as only a c e r t a i n number of t raps could be placed along the wei r . Because they were l i m i t e d i n number, these s e c t i o n s , as we l l as the ool igan net l o c a t i o n s , were operated by c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s wi th in the minmints ( i b i d . : 1 3 6 ) . Resource Ownership and Rank Rank among the Nuxalk, as with most Northwest Coast groups, was expressed by the use of food and wealth resources, which i n turn were d i s t r i b u t e d among the populat ion as an a f f i rma t ion of s t a t u s . Mcl lwra i th (1948:141) i n h i s publ ished works s ta tes tha t , un l ike most other coas ta l groups, rank among the Nuxalk was not s t r i c t l y h e r e d i t a r y . Several men i n each v i l l a g e could be of equal weal th , and therefore of equal s t a t u s . In such cases there was no dominant f i g u r e . In h i s unpublished notes , however, Mcl lwra i th wr i tes extens ive ly about the t y i or hered i tary ch ie f (Mcl lwrai th 1922-24; c f . Rossman and Rubel 1971:114-115). Although there was no f i x e d rule of pr imogeni ture, the " c h i e f l y " or t y i p o s i t i o n would have been l i m i t e d to a very small number i n each v i l l a g e . In f a c t , when Mackenzie (1962) t r a v e l l e d down to the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y in 1793 he c o n t i n u a l l y met at each v i l l a g e a s i n g l e man of wealth to whom people paid deference. Unfor tunate ly , the use of the term " c h i e f " i n the ear ly accounts and ethnographies for anyone who i s wealthy, makes i t d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t t h e i r ac tua l ro le i n the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l system. Slaves were a l s o a part of the Nuxalk s o c i a l h ie ra rchy . They may have made up as much as 30-40% of the t o t a l Nuxalk populat ion (Mcl lwrai th 1948:58). Both poor people and t y i l i v e d together i n the same household (Mcl lwrai th 1922-24). -64- I t i s not we l l understood what connection c h i e f s (or t y i ) had with the product ion of resources . Mc l lwra i th (1948:16) s ta tes that c h i e f s were responsible for acqu i r ing^ the i r own foods . Mackenzie reports seeing a c h i e f t rawl ing for salmon with a crew of men (Mackenzie 1962:248). Slave ownership would mean d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n was not necessary. In f a c t , c h i e f s were known to trade s laves to commoners for salmon (Smith 1920-24). Mackenzie (1962:222) noted t h a t , "before the door of the c h i e f ' s res idence , [were] four heaps of salmon, each of which cons is ted of between three and four hundred f i s h . Sixteen women were employed i n c lean ing and preparing them." He goes on to say: I t i s on t h i s r i v e r alone that one man appears to have an exc lus ive and hered i tary r ight to what was necessary to the existence of those assoc ia ted with him. I a l l u d e to the salmon wei r , or f i s h i n g p l a c e , the so le r ight to which confers on the ch ie f the a r b i t r a r y power. Those embankments could not have been formed without very great and assoc ia ted l abor ; and as might be supposed, on the cond i t ion that those who a s s i s t e d i n const ruc t ing i t should enjoy a p a r t i c i p a t i n g r ight i n the advantages to be der ived from i t . Never the l e s s , i t ev ident ly appeared to me, that the c h i e f ' s power over i t and the people , was unl imi ted and without c o n t r o l . No one could f i s h without h i s permiss ion , or car ry home a la rger por t ion of what he had caught, than was set apart for him. No one could b u i l d a house without h i s consent; a l l h i s commands appeared to be fol lowed with i m p l i c i t obedience. The people at large seemed to be on a per fec t equa l i t y (Mackenzie 1962:259-260). Th is suggests extensive c o n t r o l by the c h i e f over the product ion of resources , and s i m i l a r l y , greater access to these resources than the remainder of the populace. Food and wealth goods c o l l e c t e d by " c h i e f s " were d i s t r i b u t e d among the populace i n a number of ways. P o t l a t c h e s , which receive so much a t t e n t i o n i n Northwest Coast l i t e r a t u r e , probably only played a minor ro le i n t h i s f u n c t i o n . Among the Nuxalk, pot la tches were uncommon, and were r e s t r i c t e d to a s i n g l e month of the year (Mcl lwra i th 1948:1830). However, when they d id occur , they were seen as "one of the ways in which -65- a c h i e f helps poor people of h i s v i l l a g e " ( i b i d : 1 9 5 ) . More common were a s e r i e s of f e a s t s which occured i n the ear ly f a l l or s p r i n g . During that time c h i e f s made t r i p s to neighbouring groups, e s p e c i a l l y the B e l l a B e l l a , to br ing them food and to receive presents i n re tu rn . Any pres t ige that was brought to the c h i e f through t h i s d isp lay of wealth was presumably shared by members of the household. I t would therefore be i n the i n t e r e s t of the l ineage members to a i d the c h i e f i n a c q u i s i t i o n of surp luses so that the household as a whole could e levate t h e i r s o c i a l s tand ing . F i n a l l y , there were a s e r i e s of dances and feas ts that occurred throughout the year except during the height of the salmon season (Mcl lwrai th 1948:288). L i t t l e i s known about these events; they were probably l e s s spectacular than the p o t l a t c h and other s p e c i a l f e a s t s recorded by ethnographers. Food was d i s t r i b u t e d at these gather ings , probably by the c h i e f s or other wealthy members of the household, to commoners. These events probably were an important mechanism fo r r e d i s t r i b u t i n g food c o l l e c t e d by the c h i e f s . In a d d i t i o n to these la rge pub l i c d i s p l a y s i n v o l v i n g c h i e f s , shar ing of food and produce between commoners occured on a d a i l y b a s i s . Fishermen, for i n s t a n c e , who had r igh ts to c e r t a i n l o c a t i o n s , were ob l igated to share t h e i r catch with whomever asked. S i m i l a r l y , when a net was being pu l l ed out of the r i v e r , a passerby who helped to car ry the net might take a por t ion of the y i e l d . Th is p r a c t i c e s t i l l occurs i n B e l l a Coola today. I f someone wants ool igan grease they need only to "help as much as they can" and they w i l l receive grease i n return (Hawthorn 1949-1955). When a la rge number of steelhead were caught, they were d i s t r i b u t e d to many f a m i l i e s ( W i l l i e Hans, Nuxalk e l d e r , personal -66- communication; Hawthorn 1949-1955). Hunted resources, t o o , were shared i n the past i n a s i m i l a r way. I f hunters caught severa l mountain goats , or other la rge game, they were expected to i n v i t e t h e i r neighbours to a f e a s t (Mcl lwra i th 1948:286). Such acts served both to increase the s ta tus of the p r o v i d e r , as we l l as more evenly d i s t r i b u t e the resources among the popu la t ion . Th is form of r e c i p r o c a l exchange was probably the most s i g n i f i c a n t method whereby food was shared i n the community. Settlement Patterns and Resource Use Although there are many gaps in the da ta , the general nature of the Nuxalk sett lement system can be d e s c r i b e d . The main Nuxalk v i l l a g e s funct ioned both as resource processing s i t e s as we l l as permanent set t lements . Most v i l l a g e s were s i tua ted near the r i ve r or i n the i n l e t s i n order to f a c i l i t a t e access to var ious f i s h resources. Small excursions were made from the main v i l l a g e to obtain other resources that were not read i ly a c c e s s i b l e . Small temporary camps would have been located at d i f f e r e n t resource ex t rac t ion and processing s i t e s wi th in each minmints t e r r i t o r y for such t r i p s that required over -n ight s t a y s . These camps were u t i l i z e d as resources became seasonal ly a v a i l a b l e and/or as they were needed. Process ing of the resources c o l l e c t e d during such excursions was accomplished both at these smal ler s i t e s , and at the main v i l l a g e s (Margaret S i w a l l a c e , Nuxalk e l d e r , personal communication). Although temporary camps played a c r i t i c a l ro le i n the Nuxalk sett lement system, very l i t t l e i s known about them (see Table I, nos . 7, 54, 55, 60, 62 for a l i s t of known campsites i n the Nuxalk t e r r i t o r y ) . Where these s i t e s were l o c a t e d , or i f they were used at a l l , must have depended on the nature of the resource and i t s d is tance from the main -67- set t lement . I f a resource was located very c l o s e to the v i l l a g e , as was the case for many of the plant resources , d a i l y t r i p s could be made to c o l l e c t i t , without wasting too much e f f o r t in t r a v e l each day. I t i s important to remember, however, that d is tance i s most accurate ly measured i n terms of " t ime-d is tance" ; t h i s i s an e s p e c i a l l y important concept for the rough and densely fores ted t e r r a i n of the Nuxalk t e r r i t o r y . U l t i m a t e l y , the length of stay at a resource ex t rac t ion s i t e may have been l i m i t e d by the ease with which that resource could be t ranspor ted . For very heavy or bulky resources i t may have been more e f f i c i e n t to set up a temporary camp so that processing could be done p a r t i a l l y at the s i t e . In t h i s way, a greater amount of the resource could be brought back to the v i l l a g e i n fewer t r i p s . Most Nuxalk f i s h i n g required l i t t l e t r a v e l i n g from the main v i l l a g e . The salmon weir and the oo l igan l o c a t i o n were wi th in easy access to those B e l l a Coola v a l l e y sett lements s i tua ted along the main r i v e r . Those groups that d id not own weirs may have had to t r a v e l some distance to var ious d i p - n e t t i n g l o c a t i o n s . Other f i s h resources may have a lso required longer d is tance t r a v e l . In the ear ly 1900's t r i p s were made to Stewie from the the l o c a t i o n of the present-day sett lement to f i s h for s tee lhead . I t took at l e a s t one day 's t r a v e l to reach the d e s t i n a t i o n . Once t h e r e , two f u l l days would be spent f i s h i n g ( W i l l i e Hans, Nuxalk e l d e r , personal communication; Hawthorn 1949-1955). The Nuxalk may have t r a v e l l e d as fa r as Char lo t te Lake i n the In te r io r to set up t raps for lake bound t rout (Lane 1953:107). When the time to c o l l e c t p lant resources approached, a group of teenagers was sent to inves t iga te readiness for h a r v e s t i n g . When the resources were l o c a t e d , the group would return to the v i l l a g e to gather -68- people to c o l l e c t the resource. E l d e r l y people and very young c h i l d r e n would not go on these t r i p s ; the composit ion of work groups depended on the resource being c o l l e c t e d . No women would go out alone (Mcl lwrai th 1922-24). Genera l ly women were more involved than men i n the gather ing of p lant resources , but t h i s was by no means a hard and f a s t r u l e . Aga in , whether or not people would camp at the resource spot depended on the nature of the resources , and the d istance to the v i l l a g e . Once the resource was c o l l e c t e d i t was brought back to the v i l l a g e where the e l d e r l y people would process i t (Margaret S iwa l l a c e , Nuxalk e l d e r , personal communication). Excursions l a s t i n g longer than a s i n g l e day were most c e r t a i n l y made to procure the major i ty of animal resources. Access to s u i t a b l e hunting spots for mountain goats , which were found at high e l e v a t i o n s , sometimes required a walk of three or more days. Approximately three men would p a r t i c i p a t e i n such an expedi t ion ( W i l l i e Hans, Nuxalk e l d e r , personal communication). Overnight camps would be made along the way. Once the f i n a l des t ina t ion was reached a s t ruc ture was b u i l t fo r p ro tec t ion against the ra in c o n s i s t i n g of a f l a t roof of cedar boughs supported against a t r e e . Each year , i f they returned to that spot , f resh boughs would be used. H ides , sewn together and stretched f l a t over severa l s t i c k s were a lso used as p ro tec t ion ( i b i d . ; see nos. 7 ,9 , Table I ) . Once an animal had been k i l l e d i t was p a r t i a l l y d r ied on a rack over a large f i r e ; i n t h i s way the meat could be c a r r i e d down to the v i l l a g e more e a s i l y ( i b i d . ) . Approximately four days would be spent at a s i n g l e hunting l o c a t i o n at any one t ime. Once the meat was p a r t i a l l y d r ied the crew would return to the v i l l a g e where the meat could be fur ther processed. Trapping and hunting fo r other animals continued on the t r i p home. Once at the v i l l a g e , the hunters would rest for four days before heading out again ( i b i d . ) - During the height of the hunting season (ear ly f a l l ) the v i l l a g e served as a home base for the hunters . Hunting t r i p s which required t r a v e l i n g greater d is tances from the v i l l a g e were probably not very common, but d id o c c a s i o n a l l y occur . The Nuxalk are reported to have travelled as fat" as Kleena Kleena v a l l e y at the head of Knight In le t to hunt beaver (Lane 1953:108), and to the i n t e r i o r uplands to hunt waterfowl on the lakes there (Mcl lwra i th 1948:3). Long d istance excursions a l s o occured fo r s p e c i a l non-subsistence resources. Obs id ian , for i n s t a n c e , was obtained by the Nuxalk from Anahim Peak i n the I n t e r i o r . According to two Nuxalk e l d e r s , s ince the peak belonged to the Algatcho C a r r i e r s , the Nuxalk may sometimes have had to sneak up to the peak at night to obtain the stone (Clayton Mack, W i l l i e Hans, Nuxalk e l d e r s , personal communications). Apparently i t depended on the state of current r e l a t i o n s with the A lgatcho. On other occasions permission was f i r s t obta ined. One a d d i t i o n a l comment should be made concerning the use of temporary resource ex t rac t ion s i t e s by the Nuxalk. Although i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine with such a smal l sample, i t seems that the Nuxalk who l i v e d outs ide the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y may have had a more mobile seasonal round than the B e l l a Coola Va l l ey Nuxalk. That i s , there are three recorded instances i n the data ( v i l l a g e s nos . 60, 62, 55, Table I) of people occupying a temporary camp during the salmon season, and moving to a more permanent sett lement in the winter months. A l l of these instances occur outs ide the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y . Archaeo log ica l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n the area may some day c l a r i f y t h i s p o i n t . -70- Resoutrees Received Through Trade Several resources were not procured d i r e c t l y by the Nuxalk, but were acquired through trade with neighbouring groups. Patterns of Nuxalk exchange were not we l l documented. References are sparse , and most e x p l i c i t references are from the l i t e r a t u r e of the In te r io r people . Publ ished sources do suggest that trade between the Nuxalk and surrounding groups to the east and west was an important and es tab l ished part of the Nuxalk socio-economic system. Trade between the Nuxalk and the northern peoples , however, was very ra re . In f a c t , mountain sheep spoons are the only item recorded i n the l i t e r a t u r e that was traded from a northern group to the Nuxalk (Smith 1920-24). Trade between the Nuxalk and neighboring groups prospered i n part because of the geographical l o c a t i o n of the Nuxalk, of whom i t was s a i d , : "They, by reason of t h e i r p o s i t o n , have held the most important na tura l pass and trade route through the Coast Range, from the ocean to the I n t e r i o r , which e x i s t s between the Skeena River and the F r a s e r , a d is tance exceeding 400 m i l e s . . . I t has induced them to engage i n i n t e r t r i b a l t rade" (Wi lson, i n t r o d u c t i o n to Boas 1891:407). When the fur trade began on the coast the C h i l c o t i n were forced to trade through the Nuxalk because the Nuxalk p roh ib i ted passage to the coast (Palmer 1863:19). Although the mountains separat ing the i n t e r i o r and the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y were formidable , they were f requent ly t raversed by nat ive people. Several t r a i l s connected the two reg ions , but one route i n p a r t i c u l a r seems to have been most heav i ly used . Th is path went through the B e l l a Coola V a l l e y , "thence northward to Salmon R i v e r , and then along the north s ide of Blackwater River to the Upper F r a s e r " . The C h i l c o t i n Indians of the In te r io r c a l l e d t h i s the "grease t r a i l " because the most valued item received from the coast was oo l igan o i l ( i b i d . : 1 6 2 ) . -71- The C h i l c o t i n were not the only group to use the grease t r a i l p r e h i s t o r i c a l l y . I t was "not uncommon fo r them [the Indians] to come [from] as fa r as the Peace River country" (Smith 1924:49). I t i s never mentioned i n the l i t e r a t u r e that the Nuxalk used t h i s t r a i l to t rade . In f a c t , with the exception of t r i p s made to the B e l l a B e l l a reg ion , exchange i n v o l v i n g the Nuxalk seemed to have most f requent ly occured wi th in the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y i t s e l f . It i s not c l e a r from the ethnographies who was a c t u a l l y involved i n these t rad ing ventures. McCle l lan (1981:388) suggests that much of the east-west trade i n B r i t i s h Columbia "was a c t u a l l y s t ructured as a k ind of r e c i p r o c i t y system between rea l or f i c t i v e k i n . . . t h a t could be l i n k e d through k insh ip or marr iage ." Among the T l i n g i t "men of ten married women of the i n t e r i o r t r i b e s fo r the so le purpose of secur ing greater trade advantages" (Olson 1916:219, quoted i n Lane 1953:115). A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n seems to have ex is ted fo r the Nuxalk and the In te r io r peoples ( c f . Lepofsky 1982). The nature of the exchange between the Nuxalk and the c o a s t a l peoples , however, i s much l e s s wel l understood. Nuxalk c h i e f s seemed to c o n t r o l much of the exchange that took p l a c e . I t was the wealthy among the Nuxalk who were able to accumulate goods fo r t r a d e , as they had the a id of s laves and other commoners wi th in the minmints. Th is i s evident i n Vancouver's accounts of the Nuxalk where the presence of a c h i e f was noted during each t rad ing venture (Vancouver 1967:279,281). The time of the year when t rad ing occurred i s not we l l documented. Severa l ethnographies s ta te that such v i s i t s occurred at l eas t once a year (eg. Farrand 1899:645; Smith 1924b:49), but the season i s not exact ly c l e a r . I t seems that t rad ing most of ten took place at the height of the Nuxalk harvest of the salmon and o o l i g a n . Indeed, these would have been -72- very important items of t r a d e . For In te r io r people , the time of the oo l igan run i n spr ing would have been p r o f i t a b l e for t rade , s ince t h e i r food supp l ies were grea t ly reduced a f t e r a long winter . Trading p a r t i e s to the Nuxalk have a lso been recorded during the f a l l , winter and summer (Smith 1920-24; Mackenzie 1962:237-238). I have compiled from the a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e a l i s t of almost 50 commodities which moved back and f o r t h i n the Nuxalk exchange system (see Table I I I ) . Although the l i s t i s by no means complete, severa l genera l i za t ions concerning the nature of goods moved can be made. The major i ty of items passing from the Nuxalk eastwards were t y p i c a l l y subsistence goods. In f a c t , d r ied salmon i s most of ten mentioned i n the l i t e r a t u r e as an item traded to the I n t e r i o r . Goods moved to the coast from the In te r io r were l a r g e l y non- foods. B e r r i e s , bu lbs , and car ibou meat are except ions . Since saskatoons, severa l types of b l u e b e r r i e s , soapberr ies and la rge mammals occur i n the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y i n vary ing abundance, traded items may have only been minor supplements to the d i e t , or occas iona l exo t ic and s p e c i a l foods . The remaining i tems, dyes, hides and hide products , are most c e r t a i n l y non-food i tems. In f a c t , severa l of these goods were h igh ly valued among the Nuxalk (Mcl lwrai th 1948:392). Trade between the Nuxalk and other c o a s t a l people appears to have been more evenly balanced i n terms of the movement of u t i l i t a r i a n versus n o n - u t i l i t a r i a n i tems. Re la t ionsh ips with Other Groups In a d d i t i o n to t rad ing r e l a t i o n s , the Nuxalk in te rac ted on other l e v e l s with t h e i r neighbours. The C h i l c o t i n and C a r r i e r were of ten i n contact with the Nuxalk, p a r t i c u l a r l y those who occupied the upper v a l l e y . During the winter months when supp l ies were low among the TABLE III TRADE ITEMS OF THE NUXALK* Kwakuitl (Ft. Rupert, Rivers Inlet) Bella Bella Nuxalk dried seaweed (8) sea canoes (15) highbush cranberries(8) crabapples(8) food boxes, inlaid with opercula (15) — boxes of yew wood (15) - <- <- <- <- <- <- herring eggs (5,7,14) dried seaweed (8,9,13,14) highbush cranberries (8,9,13) crabapples (8,9) cedar bark (5,7) mussels (10,12) -> -> -> -> -> dentalia (2,6,10,15) abalone (6) copper (3,6,7,10) < <- <- salmon roe (5,7) dried salmon (3,5,6,7,9,14,15)- -salmon (6,14) salmon o i l (15) -ooligan grease (3,6,9,14) -sorrel (7) -hemlock cakes (4,5,7,15) -elderberries (15) -highbush cranberries (8,15) — -crabapple (8,15) -yellow lichen (15) -dyed mountain goat wool (15)— red cedar bark (15) dyed alder bark (15) blankets (15) Carrier +/or Chilcotin -mineral paints (3,6,15) — boxes and dishes (6) -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> <- -> <- -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> Shuswap i w i Kwakuitl (Ft. Rupert, Rivers Inlet) Bella Bella Nuxalk <- <- <- <- <- <- <- <- <- <- <- <- Carrier +/or Chilcotin blueberries (8,9,13) -saskatoons (6) -soapberries (5,6,7,8,14,15) -avalanche l i l y corms (9) -caribou meat (6,14) -caribou skins (1) Shuswap —> —> —> —beaver skins (15) —goat skins (6) — f u r s (6; contact?) —snowshoes (6) > —caribou sinew (15) —white paint (15) —yellow lichen (15) —obsidian (3,10,11,15) > —slaves, women (1,3) * Numbers in parentheses refer to references listed below. Arrow lines indicate the direction of trade from the source location. Although there i s not complete data, i t i s assumed here that a l l items stop at a l l groups for which arrow lines pass through. References. 1. Mcllwraith 1948; 2. Teit 1909b; 3. Lane 1953; 4. Vancouver 1967; 5. Kopas 1970; 6. Teit 1909a; 7. Mackenzie 1962; 8. Turner 1975; 9. Turner 1978; 10. Ham 1975; 11. Wilmeth 1973; 12. Wilmeth 1978; 13. Turner 1973; 14. These goods are s t i l l traded today; Sarah Saunders, Nuxalk consultant, personal communication; 15. Smith 1920-24. -75- I n te r io r people i t was not not uncommon for many of them to move to the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y to l i v e with " f r i e n d s " (Lane 1953:113; Goldman 1940:352). The Nuxalk, however, "seldom ventured fa r from t h e i r homes on the sea coast or on the lower reaches of the r i v e r s ; and they seem (according to T e i t , [1909a:761]), to have a great deal of awe of enter ing the forbidden and unknown vastness of the mountains". Re la t ions between the Nuxalk and the In te r io r peoples were qui te amicable; they ra re ly engaged i n ra id ing or war with one another. In f a c t , the C h i l c o t i n s were even known to j o i n the Nuxalk i n support of Nuxalk ra ids (Lane 1953:116). Further t i e s between the two groups were formed through in te rmarr iage , e s p e c i a l l y with the upper v a l l e y Nuxalk (Lane 1953:192; Smith 1920-24). According to Lane (1953:192), the In te r io r people a lso " s o l d " t h e i r women to the Nuxalk. The Nuxalk o c c a s i o n a l l y i n v i t e d I n t e r i o r peoples to t h e i r winter ceremonials (Mcl lwra i th 1948:18). Re la t ions with groups to the west and north were somewhat more s t r a i n e d . Those Nuxalk groups l i v i n g c lose to other t r i b e s had f a i r l y regular i n t e r a c t i o n s i n much the same way as the upper v a l l e y Nuxalk had with the I n t e r i o r people . South Bentinck Arm inhabi tants l i v e d wi th in walking d is tance of the Rivers In le t people; consequently the two groups of ten in termarr ied ( W i l l i e Hans, Nuxalk e l d e r , personal communication ; Mc l lwra i th 1948:22). L ikewise , the K i t lope of Gardner Channel had more i n t e r a c t i o n with the people of K imsqui t , and of ten married them (Mcl lwrai th 1948:17). The fur ther away from the Nuxalk t e r r i t o r y , however, the more s t ra ined the r e l a t i o n s seem to have been. The B e l l a B e l l a only maintained a tenuous r e l a t i o n with the Nuxalk (Mcl lwrai th 1948:171). Th is was i n s p i t e of the fac t that they were involved i n a trade r e l a t i o n with the Nuxalk, and o f ten married the people of -76- Kimsqui t . Re la t ions with southern groups were minimal , but amicable (Stot t 1975:107). Any rea l threat of at tack came from fur ther west, from the Kwakiutl and Kingcome In le t peop le * , as wel l as fur ther to the n o r t h , from the K i t k a t l a and the Haida; (Mcl lwrai th 1948 11:339; Mcl lwra i th 1922-24; Palmer 1863:6). The threat of ra ids was much more severe for the outer Nuxalk groups than for the people occupying the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y . Several v i l l a g e s had stockades made of v e r t i c a l cedar boards. The people of T a l y u , the v i l l a g e most f requent ly a t tacked , b u i l t a large double stockade made o f : " v e r t i c a l logs t i g h t l y lashed together on the i n s i d e of which a p lat form ran around near the top from which defenders had a vantage p o i n t . There was a water gate through which canoes could come at high t i d e " (Kopas 1970:182). In s p i t e of occas iona l h o s t i l i t i e s , the Nuxalk engaged i n ceremonial a c t i v i t i e s with many of these people . Mc l lwra i th (1948:338) s ta tes that during the winter months such "enemies" were i n v i t e d as guests to some dances. Indeed, the Nuxalk are reported to have pot latched i n post contact times with the people of A l e r t Bay, Fort Rupert , Knight I n l e t , Bute In le t and Rivers In le t (Mcl lwra i th 1948 1:22; W i l l i e Hans, personal communication). *Boas (1966:110-116) gives a lengthy account of a Kwakuitl-Nuxalk war. Chapter II I ECOLOGICAL DATA In t roduct ion The Nuxalk u t i l i z e d a wide range of food and non-food resources throughout the year . Each was harvested and exp lo i ted i n a manner p a r t i c u l a r to that resource. Th is sec t ion descr ibes those resources and processes . S c i e n t i f i c names for each of the p l a n t , animal and f i s h species mentioned i n t h i s chapter are l i s t e d i n Appendices I and II . Aquatic Resources Unless otherwise i n d i c a t e d , the folowing data concerning the f i s h and s h e l l f i s h s p e c i f i c to the B e l l a Coola region were suppl ied as personal communications from the F i s h e r i e s and Ocean personnel i n B e l l a C o o l a . Salmon P a c i f i c salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. ) are among the most important f i s h resources to the Nuxalk economy. P r i o r to extensive change i n the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y , a l l f i v e species of P a c i f i c salmon i n c l u d i n g even and odd runs i f p ink , ran i n great numbers i n the B e l l a Coola River (Aro and Shepard 1967:317). If the present-day d i s t r i b u t i o n r e f l e c t s the pas t , salmon were a v a i l a b l e to the Nuxalk a l l along the s t re tches of the main r i v e r . M u l t i p l e spawning populat ions of each s p e c i e s , each with i t s own spawning ground, comprised the runs. Today the d i f f e r e n t salmon species enter the B e l l a Coola River each year from the spr ing through the end of f a l l . Catches i n s ide streams were usua l l y l i m i t e d to no more than three -78- of the f i v e spec ies (chinook and sockeye usua l l y kept to the main waterways). Even those catches were fa r smal ler than those from the main r i v e r . Salmon could be harvested i n the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y any time a f t e r enter ing the r i v e r system, and before they spawned. Chinook, or spr ing salmon, are the f i r s t salmon species to enter the B e l l a Coola River system i n the s p r i n g , u s u a l l y sometime i n May. Once i n the B e l l a Coola they proceed d i r e c t l y to t h e i r spawning grounds. Few of the Chinook populat ion spawn i n the lower B e l l a Coola River t r i b u t a r i e s ; the major i ty t r a v e l up to the Atnarko to spawn. Chinooks migrate s low ly , and may take over one month to reach t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n . Actua l spawning s t a r t s i n August, and continues as l a t e as November, with peak time i n mid September. Springs are the l a rges t of the B e l l a Coola salmon, weighing on average, 20 pounds*. Summer and ear ly f a l l runs of sockeye and coho enter the B e l l a Coo la . Sockeye are a smal l salmon, weighing on average 4 pounds. Th is species spawns fa r up the Atnarko t r i b u t a r y , even as fa r as Lonesome Lake. The spawning season i s shorter than fo r other s p e c i e s , beginning i n mid-September, reaching a peak soon a f t e r , and ending i n November. Sockeye are common i n the B e l l a Coola River today; according to Nuxalk myths they were r e l a t i v e l y rare i n the past (Mcl lwrai th 1948:87). Coho spawn l a t e i n the season, beginning and peaking sometime i n October, and cont inuing as l a t e as February. The t r i b u t a r i e s of the lower B e l l a Coola River are the pre fer red l o c a t i o n for spawning. The average weight of t h i s species i s approximatey 10 pounds. Pinks and chums run i n the B e l l a Coola system as ear ly as J u l y . Both *Salmon weights are provided from Dan Wagner, F i s h e r i e s and Oceans, B e l l a C o o l a , personal communication. - 79 - odd and even year pinks run i n the B e l l a Coola-Atnarko system (Aro and Shepard 1967:282). Pinks spawn from mid-August to October , with the peak time being around September. For at l e a s t the past AO years (the durat ion of recorded F i s h e r i e s and Oceans es t imates ) , pinks have been the most abundant salmon species i n the B e l l a Coola R i v e r . Th is may be as a resu l t of under -exp lo i t a t ion of t h i s species i n the cannery days when other spec ies were pre fer red (Nuxalk e l d e r , personal communication). Only 15 to 20% of t h i s species spawns i n the t r i b u t a r i e s of the B e l l a Coola R i v e r ; the remainder t r a v e l up the Atnarko. Pinks are the smal lest B e l l a Coola salmon, weighing approximately 3 pounds. In c o n t r a s t , chum salmon are f a i r l y l a rge salmon, weighing on an average, 14 pounds. Chums t y p i c a l l y spawn c lose to s a l t water; i n the B e l l a Coola system, they concentrated i n small t r i b u t a r i e s and creeks i n the lower 20 mi les of the v a l l e y . Spawning times are from August to November, with peak time being at the end of August. A f te r pink salmon, chums are the most common species i n the B e l l a Coola River today. Aga in , t h i s may be due to u n d e r e x p l o i t a t i o n . They were the l e a s t favored of the salmon species among the Nuxalk (Mcl lwrai th 1948:337), and may have l i kewise been l e s s pre fer red by the ear ly salmon i n d u s t r y . Salmon were caught by the Nuxalk i n a number of ways. The most common and product ive method employed a la rge dam b u i l t across the r i v e r at each Nuxalk v i l l a g e s i t e on the B e l l a Coola R i v e r . These, dams, more of ten re fer red to as weirs i n the l i t e r a t u r e , were usua l l y b u i l t at rapids (Smith 1920-24). Dams spanned the r i v e r ; they were as much as 50 feet i n breadth , and 14 to 15 deep on the upr iver s ide (Berr inger 1982:107). The middle t h i r d of the dam, constructed of large t r e e s , rose over 4 fee t above the water l e v e l . F i s h t r a p s , " in to which the salmon -80- would f a l l as they attempted to jump over the f a l l s " (Mackenzie 1962:358), were placed a l l along both s ides of t h i s sec t ion of dam. The outer two t h i r d s of the cons t ruc t ion was a secondary dam, which rose up to 6 fee t above the water l e v e l ; passages through t h i s b a r r i e r led the salmon r ight i n t o t raps placed on the other s ide ( i b i d . : 3 5 8 ; Smith 1920-24). I t was these t raps that were owned by i n d i v i d u a l f ishermen. The p o s i t i o n of some t raps was more product ive than others (Berr inger 1982:107); perhaps the more product ive ones belonged to the c h i e f s . F i n a l l y , d ipne t t ing was conducted at these dams at the point where the water passed overtView.(Mackenzie 1962:358). Several other methods were used by the Nuxalk to harvest salmon, depending on the s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n of the harvest (see Berr inger 1982 for a more d e t a i l e d account of the fo l low ing summary). Toggl ing harpoons were employed i n areas where the f i s h could be e a s i l y seen, such as e s t u a r i e s where salmon congregate, r i v e r b a r s , conf luences , and c l e a r shallow streams. Such streams would have been owned by the minmints. Trawl n e t s , towed between two canoes, were a lso used on the B e l l a Coola and Atnarko R i v e r s . Th is technique was e s p e c i a l l y used fo r chinook and sockeye i n J u l y . T i d a l t r a p s , constructed of s tones , were located i n the i n t e r - t i d a l zone at some of the i n l e t v i l l a g e s . Berr inger ( i b i d . : 7 2 ) suggests that e i t h e r these s i t e s were owned l i k e other f i s h i n g v i l l a g e s i t e s , or they were a common resource fo r a l l neighbouring v i l l a g e s . The l a t t e r seems l e s s l i k e l y , as these t raps would have required much labor to c o n s t r u c t . Without a s i n g l e c h i e f to monitor the work, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to imagine how such a cons t ruc t ion would have been b u i l t . Weirs were a l s o used by the Nuxalk i n t r i b u t a r y streams of the B e l l a Coola R i v e r . These, however, "were l e s s product ive (presumably) than the -81- l a rge r i v e r t raps of the a rea" ( i b i d . : 7 8 ) . These devices were used for summer and f a l l runs. The we i r , and assoc ia ted t r i b u t a r y could have been owned by each minmints. Traps were a l s o placed i n the smal ler streams owned by each minmints. One a d d i t i o n a l l a rge s t y l e trap may have been used on the B e l l a Coola R i v e r , but t h i s type i s not we l l known ( i b i d . : 1 0 8 ) . Once the salmon was caught i t was brought d i r e c t l y to the v i l l a g e (or camp, depending on v i l l a g e a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the salmon stream) to be processed. Temporary "salmon houses" without s ide w a l l s , were set up near the v i l l a g e i n order to process spr ing salmon o n l y . Only men were allowed at these s t ruc tures as there was a strong taboo fo rb idd ing women and c h i l d r e n from processing t h i s p a r t i c u l a r species (Smith 1920-24). A l l the par ts of the salmon, except the innards , were used by the Nuxalk. Each p a r t , i n c l u d i n g the bone, was smoked over an a lder f i r e . Troughs were placed under the f i r e to c o l l e c t o i l which was rendered as a resu l t of t h i s p rocess . Roe from the salmon were a lso processsed and eaten f r e s h . The smoked salmon was eaten immediately, or s tored fo r l a t e r use (Mcl lwra i th 1948:226; Kuhnlein 1983:6). Other F i s h Ool igans , a t i n y f a t - r i c h f i s h , were a very important component of the Nuxalk d i e t ( c f . Kuhnlein 1982). Ool igans run i n great numbers i n the ear ly s p r i n g , predominantly i n the B e l l a Coola R i v e r , but a lso i n Necleetsconnay River to the n o r t h , and i n smal l numbers i n the s ide streams to the south of Necleetsconnay. These f i s h were probably harvested only i n the main r i v e r and i n Necleetsconnay as the other runs would not have y ie lded a s i g n i f i c a n t harves t . -82- Ooligans arrive in Bella Coola waters some time in late March or April . At f i r s t , a few stragglers w i l l appear in the river. These were traditionally caught with dip-nets by fishermen (Mcllwraith 1948:758). Women were not permitted near the river at this time (Smith 1920-24). Later in the season, ooligan appear in very large numbers for over one month. Spawning occurs in the side streams in the lower four miles of the river (Tony Karup, conservation officer, Bella Coola, personal communication). Traditionally, large nets were fixed where the river was approximately 3 feet deep and had a f a i r l y strong current. The net locations were owned by the minmints thereby restricting access to the lower valley villages. Large quantities of ooligans could be caught with these nets, a "single net w i l l sometimes take several thousand f i s h " (Mcllwraith 1922-24). Once caught, the fish were carried in baskets from the canoes to large pits, in later times replaced by large bins (Kuhnlein 1982) owned by each minmints. These pits were located 10 to 15 feet from the bank, and were 3 to 4 feet deep. The fis h were kept in the pits for ten days to 2 weeks to putrify, at which time they were rendered for grease. Ooligan not processed this way was dried whole. Both the dried fish and the grease were important foods throughout the winter months (Mcllwraith 1922-24). Ooligan harvest, because of i t s importance and intensive use of labor, took priority over other economic functions for a significant portion of the economic cycle. Concerning this point, Mcllwraith 1922-24 records that: "During the olachen run, and especially during the time of refining, almost a l l other activities are suspended, and men, women and children alike share in the work at the river. If putrefaction [sic] i s too advanced much of the greases [sic] i s lost, while unless a sufficient time i s allowed to elapse before boiling, the fish i s not -83- sof t enough. Warm weather hastens the r o t t i n g , and i f t h i s combines with a heavy catch of f i s h , everyone i s forced to take part i n order to complete the r e f i n i n g at the proper t i m e . . . " Even today, v i l l a g e r s s t a r t p o s i t i o n i n g t h e i r nets i n t o the r i v e r at the end of March, and by the time they "are ca r ry ing grease home, i t has been a good month's work" (Hawthorn 1949-1955). Another spec ies which formed an important part of the Nuxalk d ie t i s the steelhead t r o u t . Average steelhead weight i s 30 pounds. There are two runs of steelhead i n the B e l l a Coola R i v e r . Both runs spawn i n the Atnarko. The "summer run" , which begins i n l a t e May or ea r l y A p r i l , i s sexua l ly immature, and stays i n f r e s h water hold ing pools i n the upper B e l l a Coola River to mature. Th is i s the prime l o c a t i o n to harvest them. "They don ' t come down [from Stewie] and we have to go up. We t ry to f i s h down here and don ' t catch anyth ing , and t h a t ' s the only way i s for us to go up t h e r e , and then we get the f i s h " ( W i l l i e Hans, Nuxalk e l d e r , personal communication). The second run begins i n October or November and cont inues throughout the winter months; these species continue to spawn u n t i l May. Steelhead a lso spawn today to a much smal ler extent i n a few s ide creeks of the B e l l a Coola River — Tatsquan Creek, Nuxalk Creek, a small channel to the south of Necleetsconnay R i v e r , two unnamed creeks west of S n o o t l i Creek, East and West A i r p o r t Creeks , F i s h Creek, and Hagensborg Slough. Although not always i n l a rge numbers, (there are a few thousand i n the B e l l a Coola-Atnarko today; Tony Karup, conservat ion o f f i c e r , B e l l a C o o l a , personal communication), f r e s h steelhead would have been a v a i l a b l e i n the r i v e r year round. L ike salmon, the only time they are not good fo r harvest ing i s a f t e r they spawn. Steelhead were taken with spears , hook and l i n e s , and nets (Smith 1920-24). Access to the bulk of steelhead resources would not have been r e s t r i c t e d by minmints ownership, as they were taken i n the main B e l l a Coola R i v e r , and t h i s was not an owned -84- l o c a l i t y . Coasta l Cutthroat t rout are a lso present i n the B e l l a Coola R i v e r , and were harvested by the Nuxalk. They are much smal ler than t h e i r steelhead r e l a t i v e , weighing on average 4 pounds. Pre fer red hold ing and spawning areas fo r t h i s species are i n the Atnarko R i v e r . Cutthroats a lso spawn i n fewer numbers i n s ide creeks i n the s p r i n g . S p e c i f i c spawning l o c a t i o n s inc lude Tatsquan Creek, East and West A i r p o r t Side Creeks, S n o o t l i Creek, F i s h Creek, Hagensborg Slough, Salloomt River and Noosgulch Creek. They were taken p r i o r to spawning with spears and nets (Smith 1920-24), probably at the mouth of the minmints-owned streams. The Atnarko spawners would have been a c c e s s i b l e to a l l . As cut throat occurred i n much greater numbers i n the B e l l a Coola system i n the past than they do today, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l importance i n the d i e t . Do l ly Varden t rout a l s o occur i n the B e l l a Coola River i n small numbers. L ike c u t t h r o a t , t h e i r pre fer red spawning area i s the Atnarko. I t i s not documented, however, whether these f i s h were exp lo i ted by the Nuxalk. Several other f i s h spec ies were of minor importance among the Nuxalk. Herr ing were a v a i l a b l e i n small numbers (they are no longer a v a i l a b l e i n the area today) i n the B e l l a Coola estuary two times per year (Smith 1920-1924). Herr ing spawn along the north and south shores of North Bentinck Arm from B a c h e l o r ' s Bay eastward, along the mouth of South Bentinck Arm south to the middle of the i n l e t , and along the east and west s ides of Burke Channel , from the mouth of Kwatna In le t southwards (Cheston e t . a l . 1975). The f i r s t run l a s t s only 15 to 20 days, during March. They were taken by the Nuxalk by means of a d ip -net at t h i s t ime. The f i s h were roasted , bo i l ed and smoked as we l l as -85- processed to render what l i t t l e o i l they have at t h i s time of year . Eggs of the her r ing were a lso c o l l e c t e d on hemlock boughs. The second run, sometime i n September, was harvested with f i s h t raps constructed on the t i d a l f l a t s on both s ides of the mouth of the B e l l a Coola R i v e r . These her r ing are " r i c h i n o i l l i k e eulachon" and were processed for that purpose (Smith 1920-24). Presumably both d ip rce t and t rap l o c a t i o n s at the r i v e r ' s mouth, as we l l as l o c a t i o n s fo r boughs to c o l l e c t her r ing eggs were most l i k e l y owned by the minmints at the mouth of the r i v e r . Other f i s h species u t i l i z e d by the Nuxalk inc lude s ta r ry f lounder (Kennel ly 1982), rock and l i n g c o d , ha l ibu t ( W i l l i e Hans, Nuxalk e l d e r , personal communication), and var ious species of perch and so le (Kennedy and Bouchard 1976:30). A few s t a r r y f lounder have been found i n the t i d a l f l a t s around B e l l a C o o l a , but the major i ty of them would have been at sandy beaches around Kwatna and Restorat ion Bay ( A l i c e T a l l i o , Nuxalk e l d e r , personal communication). These f i s h were harvested i n unowned, open waters, but were more a c c e s s i b l e to the v i l l a g e s at the r i v e r ' s mouth. Rock cod are located near the head of South Bentinck Arm and eastwards, i n the shallow waters along the s h o r e l i n e . A few s t ray species may o c c a s i o n a l l y be found c l o s e r to B e l l a Coo la . L ing cod , which are a deep water f i s h , are common i n the Labouchere Channel a r e a . Ha l ibut were taken by the Nuxalk at Namu, Kwatna, and Kimsqui t . They were eaten f r e s h or dr ied (Smith 1920-24). Both h a l i b u t and l i n g cod are deep water f i s h which stay c l o s e to the grave l bottoms. Both of these species were taken by the Nuxalk i n the past with wooden hooks (Smith 1920-24; W i l l i e Hans, Nuxalk e l d e r , personal communication). With the except ion of rock c o d , which may have been more p r o f i t a b l y speared from -86- s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n s i n South Bent inck, access to these resources would not have been r e s t r i c t e d by minmints ownership. Seafood and Sea Mammals Several types of s h e l l f i s h were part of the Nuxalk d i e t , although some of the nearest l o c a t i o n s of these resources were 50 mi les away. Exp lo i ted b iva lves inc lude l i t t l e - n e c k clams, butter c lams, mud clams and cock les (Smith 1920-24). The c l o s e s t sources of clams for the Nuxalk was i n B e l l a B e l l a t e r r i t o r y at Restorat ion Bay, at the head of Kwatna I n l e t , and var ious l o c a t i o n s near Namu. Large s h e l l mounds recorded by Smith at Elcho Harbour suggest that clams were harvested there too (Smith 1920-24). Clams were sa id to be most e a s i l y gathered at the time of a b ig t i d e , during a f u l l moon (Mcl lwra i th 1922-24). They were eaten both raw and cooked, and were sometimes d r ied (Smith 1920-24). The large C a l i f o r n i a mussel , a lso gathered by the Nuxalk, were loca ted i n smal l numbers at T a l l i o cannery ( i b i d . ) , Kwatna ( A l i c e T a l l i o , Nuxalk e l d e r , personal communication) and F ischer Channel and points westwards. The s h e l l s of these animals were valued among the Nuxalk as knives to cut and c lean salmon (Mackenzie 1962:258; Smith 1920-24). Mussels were most of ten gathered whi le v i s i t i n g or t rad ing with the B e l l a B e l l a (Smith 1920-24). Clams and mussels were considered to be poisonous for approximatley "one week during the f i r s t two moons of warm weather each year" (Smith 1920-24), presumably because of red t i d e danger. The ethnographic accounts s ta te that abalone was not eaten i n the past by the Nuxalk as i t was located too fa r away, but some Nuxalk eat i t today (Kuhnlein 1984:795). T r a d i t i o n a l l y , i t s s h e l l , which was acquired through t r a d e , was h igh ly p r i zed fo r making b r a c e l e t s . Dentalium, which -87- were a l s o valued by the Nuxalk for t h e i r s h e l l , were taken by use of a spear (Smith 1920-24). Various species of crabs were c o l l e c t e d by the Nuxalk at K i t l o p e and Kwatna (Mcl lwrai th 1922-24; A l i c e T a l l i o , Nuxalk e l d e r , personal communication), us ing a spear from a s a l t water canoe (Smith 1920-24). Several other sea creatures were c o l l e c t e d by the Nuxalk. Sea u r c h i n s , located at the head of North Bentinck Arm, were taken with scoop nets and eaten raw wi th in one to two days (Smith 1920-24). Sea cucumbers, which were located i n South Bentinck Arm and near B e l l a B e l l a , were taken by the Nuxalk with a d ipTte t or spear , at low t i d e and then b o i l e d fo r f o o d . Octopus and e e l s , and barnacles were eaten by the Nuxalk when i n the B e l l a B e l l a region and fur ther westwards (Smith 1920-24). The above mentioned f i s h and seafoods, with the exception of salmon, oo l igan and the t rout s p e c i e s , probably played only a minor ro le i n the d ie t of the Nuxalk i n h a b i t i n g the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y . Since most spec ies were located qui te some d is tance from the v a l l e y , catches would have been l a r g e l y o p p o r t u n i s t i c . None of these resources were located i n the area commonly used (and therefore owned) by the B e l l a Coola v i l l a g e s . Permission to c o l l e c t these resources (that i s , those that were not c o l l e c t e d on the open s e a ) , must have come from other Nuxalk people , such as those l i v i n g i n Kwatna, or from t h e i r B e l l a B e l l a neighbors l i v i n g fu r ther westward. Sea mammals, although only o c c a s i o n a l l y used by the Nuxalk, were h igh ly p r i z e d . Hair sea ls and northern sea l i o n s were seasonal ly a v a i l a b l e i n the B e l l a Coola River system as they fol lowed the her r ing and the oo l igans in land i n the s p r i n g . Both s e a l and sea l i o n s w i l l -88- t r a v e l qui te c lose to the r i v e r mouth, and sometimes a l i t t l e way up the r i v e r (Cowan and Guiget 1956). Both species were k i l l e d with harpoons i n open, unowned waters (Mcl lwra i th 1948:272; Kennedy and Bouchard 1976:30). Kwatna i s reported to have been a prime harvest ing area ( A l i c e T a l l i o , Nuxalk e l d e r , personal communication). Migrat ing sea ls (and p o s s i b l y sea l i o n s ) may a lso have been caught by means of a t i d a l trap set i n the bays to in te rcept them (Mackenzie 1962:242). Skins of both animals were used fo r making m o c c a s i n s , blankets and sacks . The stomachs were used f o r conta iners ( W i l l i e Hans, Nuxalk e l d e r , personal communication; Smith 1920-24; Kennedy and Bouchard 1976:30). Sea o t t e r s were a lso taken by the Nuxalk i n r e l a t i v e l y small numbers. Sea o t t e r s w i l l not t r a v e l past the mouth of the r i v e r . They were taken with bow and arrow, spears , or c l u b s . They were pr i zed among the Nuxalk fo r t h e i r p e l t s and p o s s i b l y fo r t h e i r meat (Smith 1920-24). Access to sea mammals seems not to be r e s t r i c t e d by ownership of the hunting a r e a , but by ownership of the p ro fess ion i t s e l f (Mcl lwra i th 1948:272). In t h i s way, access was l i m i t e d to a p r i v i l e d g e d few. Traps set at the r i v e r ' s mouth were l i k e l y owned by the v i l l a g e s s i tua ted the re . Water and Land B i rds Several k inds of water fowl were used by the Nuxalk. Although waterfowl were not a v a i l a b l e in the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y i n la rge numbers, there were areas of concentrat ion where these species could be harvested p r o f i t a b l y . Migratory waterfowl passed through the B e l l a Coola a r e a , stopping at the e s t u a r i e s and wetlands i n the win ter , f a l l and s p r i n g . Changes i n the wetlands through time as a resu l t of changes i n the r i v e r , -89- and recent dec l ine i n numbers of waterfowl (Tony Karup, Conservation O f f i c e r , B e l l a C o o l a , personal communication), make i t d i f f i c u l t to determine pre-contact numbers and d i s t r i b u t i o n of these s p e c i e s . Ducks and geese are reported today near the mouth of S n o o t l i Creek, approximately one mile east of the mouth of Salloomt R i v e r , and at wet areas to the east of the mouth of the main r i v e r , and on the t i d a l f l a t s . Although i t cannot be determined how t h i s re la tes to the pas t , i t i s known that the t i d a l f l a t s were the prime area fo r harvest ing waterfowl. The t i d a l f l a t s at South Bentinck and Kwatna are reported to have large numbers of ducks (espec ia ly m a l l a r d s ) , geese and swans. Greater numbers of waterfowl tend to nest at South Bentinck than B e l l a Coola where only geese and a few ducks nest (Rick McKelvey, Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e , personal communication). The prefered time f o r tak ing water fowl i s i n the win ter , as they " taste l i k e f i s h " i n the summer months (James Hans, Nuxalk gu ide , personal communication). Ducks and geese were taken with a bow and arrow (Smith 1920-24). Geese were a l s o captured at n ight with la rge nets operated by men i n canoes (Mcl lwra i th 1948:271). Another method used to capture ducks was by s e t t i n g a l a rge net on the t i d a l f l a t s . Th is required the e f f o r t of at l e a s t four men working together; severa l ducks at a time could be caught with t h i s method ( W i l l i e Hans, Nuxalk e l d e r , personal communication; c f . Edwards 1979:8-10). Both ducks and geese were b o i l e d and eaten f r e s h or d r ied fo r l a t e r use . Eggs from these species may have a lso been c o l l e c t e d from the f l a t s ( W i l l i e Hans, F e l i c i t y Walkus, Nuxalk e l d e r s , personal communications). R e s t r i c t i o n s on hunting waterfowl , l i k e sea mammals, may be re la ted to ownership of the pro fess ion i t s e l f . Mc l lwra i th (1948:271) records -90- that goose hunting with la rge nets may have been thus c o n t r o l l e d . Perhaps i t was the net which was a c t u a l l y owned; t h i s could a lso have been the case with the la rge duck nets descr ibed above. I f access was not r e s t r i c t e d , the v i l l a g e s located c l o s e s t to the t i d a l f l a t s would have been best s i tua ted to harvest waterfowl . Other harvest ing l o c a t i o n s along the r i v e r may have been c o n t r o l l e d by the minmints. The Nuxalk u t i l i z e d severa l other types of water and land b i rds i n t h e i r d i e t . Eagles are common throughout the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y bottomlands, wherever there i s food fo r them to eat . They are most concentrated i n the lower reaches of the r i v e r , where the f i s h f i r s t en te r . Eagles were taken with snares , and the meat eaten i n l a t e f a l l . The feathers and other par ts were ceremonia l ly important (Smith 1920-24). Snare l o c a t i o n s were probably owned by the minmints. Herr ing g u l l s , which were common i n the lower 10 mi les of the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y (Tony Karup, Conservat ion O f f i c e r , B e l l a C o o l a , personal communication), were caught with bow and arrow during the summer and winter t ime. There would have been no r e s t r i c t i o n by the minmints on the harvest ing of the g u l l s . Ruffed grouse were once qui te abundant i n the B e l l a Coola f o r e s t s ; these species were taken f a i r l y f requent ly with bow and arrow i n the f a l l and winter t ime. I t i s recorded that the Nuxalk a l s o ate p u f f i n s (Smith 1920-1924), but t h i s must have only ocurred on t r i p s to the outer c o a s t . T r i p s to the i n t e r i o r to hunt would have y i e l d e d common loons and p o s s i b l y other waterfowl . These spec ies were abundant on these lakes during the summer nest ing months, at which time they were e a s i l y taken with a bow and arrvw (Smith i b i d . ) . Access to these and other b i r d s which were hunted by bow and arrow do not seem to have been r e s t r i c t e d by minmints ownership. -91- Mammals Of the larger animal foods, mountain goats were the most economically important to the Nuxalk. Mountain goats are very rare in the Bella Coola valley today, but elders say they can remember a time when the local mountains were "covered" with goats (Hawthorn 1949-1955). They were reported to travel in packs sometimes as large as 25 to 30 animals (Clayton Mack, Nuxalk elder, personal communication). Goats were heavily harvested in the 1930's in the Bella Coola valley (ibid.). As they can only survive a harvest of 2 to 5% to maintain their population, their numbers were drastically reduced. In addition, they are quite easy to over-exploit as they are very trusting animals (Tony Karup, Conservation Officer, Bella Coola, personal communication). Goats l i v e high in the mountains at or above timberline, coming down to lower elevations in the winter months to escape the snow (Cowan and Guiget 1956). Some actually come down to sea level, but most w i l l travel to the southern slopes of the mountains (Tony Karup, personal communication). Mountain goats were traditionally hunted throughout the year for several purposes. The peak season for meat was during the f a l l when they are the fattest. During this time, bow and arrows, snares and dogs were used to catch them (Mcllwraith 1948:272; Smith 1920-24). Snares were set in the paths commonly used by goats. This device could capture up to 19 animals at any one time. This method would have involved larger hunting parties to process the meat and carry i t home. Smaller hunting parties of three men used the bow and arrow . On these occasions only a single goat was taken. Once the animal was k i l l e d i t was skinned and partially dried by smoking to f a c i l i t a t e transport. The skin was used as a device -92- to car ry the meat home (Margaret S i w a l l a c e , Nuxalk e l d e r , personal communication; Smith 1920-24). During co lder months the meat was of ten cached i n the snow (Clayton Mack, Nuxalk e l d e r , personal communication). Mountain goat meat and ta l low were h igh ly p r i z e d , and considered to be food for " t i h e e s , nobles and important persons" (Smith 1920-24). A l l par ts of the mountain goat , except e n t r a i l s , were used. Goats hunted from January to A p r i l were considered to produce r e l a t i v e l y poor meat, but the wool was h igh ly va lued . In winter the wool was long and t h i c k . A lance was used to capture them at t h i s time i n order not to damage the wool . Wool was l a t e r woven in to b lankets . Mountain goat horns were used to make spoons and barbs for catch ing spr ing salmon; the stomach was used as a conta iner f o r oo l igan grease. Black t a i l e d deer and mule deer were a lso regu la r l y hunted by the Nuxalk. The black t a i l e d deer i s found i n South Bentinck and i n the lower s t re tches of the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y . The mule deer occupies the t e r r i t o r y east of t h i s , beginning at Stewie. Both species spend the summer at the tops of mountains, but come down i n ear ly winter when the snow makes i t impossib le to f e e d . They occupy deciduous f o r e s t s where they can f i n d food; i n a d d i t i o n , b lack t a i l e d deer are of ten seen on the t i d a l f l a t s at t h i s time of year . I t was during ear ly winter that deer were hunted (Clayton Mack, Nuxalk e l d e r , personal communication). Deer were taken with much the same methods as mountain goat . That i s , with bow and arrows, i n snares , or with c lubs or knives a f t e r being cornered by dogs. As with goats , the meat was dr ied and stored f o r l a t e r use. The sk ins were used fo r bedding, moccasins, l e g g i n g s , and the bones were used fo r simple points fo r arrows (Smith 1920-24). L ike a l l hunting grounds, p laces where deer and goat were hunted were - 9 3 - o w n e d b y t h e m i n m i n t s . H o w e v e r , h u n t i n g m a y h a v e b e e n r e s t r i c t e d t o h i g h s t a t u s p e o p l e . T h e c a p t u r e o f t h e s e a n i m a l s c e r t a i n l y b r o u g h t i n c r e a s e d s t a t u s . I n 1 8 6 2 i t w a s r e c o r d e d t h a t C h i e f " P o c h l a s s " [ P o o t l a s s ] s h o t 2 0 d e e r a t a s i n g l e t i m e f o r s o m e w h i t e m e n ( B a r r e t - L e n n a r d 1 8 6 2 : 2 1 6 ) . T h i s w o u l d h a v e a f f i r m e d t h e c h i e f ' s s t a t u s t o t h e g r o u p . O t h e r l a r g e a n d s m a l l g a m e w e r e u t i l i z e d b y t h e N u x a l k i n m u c h s m a l l e r q u a n t i t y . A p p e n d i x I I l i s t s t h e s e a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s a n d t h e v a r i o u s p a r t s w h i c h w e r e u s e d b y t h e N u x a l k . P l a n t R e s o u r c e s T h e N u x a l k u t i l i z e d p l a n t s f o r f o o d , m e d i c i n e , a n d a w i d e v a r i e t y o f f u n c t i o n a l i t e m s ( c f . T u r n e r 1 9 7 3 ; S m i t h 1 9 2 8 ; S m i t h 1 9 2 0 - 2 4 ) . R i g h t s o f a c c e s s t o t h e s e r e s o u r c e s d e p e n d e d o n m i n m i n t s m e m b e r s h i p . C o l l e c t i n g p l a n t r e s o u r c e s w a s p r e d o m i n a n t l y a w o m a n ' s t a s k , a l t h o u g h m e n a n d c h i l d r e n a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d . T h e s e p o s i t i o n s w e r e n o t r e s t r i c t e d , a n d a l l w o m e n p a r t i c i p a t e d . T h e p r e r o g a t i v e i n v o l v i n g p l a n t r e s o u r c e s w a s t h a t o f t h e " f i r s t p i c k e r " , a p o s i t i o n w h i c h b e l o n g e d t o o n e w o m a n p e r v i l l a g e , p r e s u m a b l y a w o m a n o f h i g h s t a t u s ( M c l l w r a i t h 1 9 4 8 : 2 6 5 ) . O n c e s h e h a d p i c k e d t h e f i r s t f r u i t , a l l p e o p l e c o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e h a r v e s t . P l a n t s w e r e p r o c e s s e d i n a n u m b e r o f w a y s . B e r r i e s w e r e c o n s u m e d a s f r e s h f r u i t o r e i t h e r s u n - d r i e d o r s m o k e d f o r l a t e r u s e . C e r t a i n f r u i t s w e r e a l s o s t o r e d i n w a t e r o r g r e a s e f o r l a t e r u s e . R o o t f o o d s w e r e s t e a m e d a n d e a t e n f r e s h o r s t o r e d . I n n e r b a r k f r o m t r e e s w a s b o t h e a t e n f r e s h a n d p r o c e s s e d f o r s t o r a g e . G r e e n s o f c e r t a i n p l a n t s w e r e e a t e n f r e s h e a c h s p r i n g . T e a s w e r e h a r v e s t e d a n d s t o r e d f o r l a t e r u s e . A p p e n d i x I l i s t s t h e p l a n t r e s o u r c e s u t i l i z e d b y t h e N u x a l k . T h e -94- h a b i t a t i n w h i c h e a c h p l a n t i s m o s t l i k e l y t o b e f o u n d , t h e v a r i o u s p a r t s u t i l i z e d , a n d t h e i r p u r p o s e , a r e i n c l u d e d . M i n e r a l R e s o u r c e s O t h e r t h a n t h e p l a n t a n d a n i m a l p a r t s u s e d f o r t o o l s ( i e . l a r g e m a m m a l b o n e p o i n t s , m u s s e l k n i v e s , g o a t h o r n s p o o n s , c r a b a p p l e w o o d d i g g i n g s t i c k s , e t c . ) , t h e N u x a l k a l s o u t i l i z e d s e v e r a l m i n e r a l s . T h e m o s t c o m m o n l y u s e d , a n d p r o b a b l y t h e m o s t p r i z e d , w a s a g r e e n s t o n e . I t i s r e p o r t e d i n t h e e t h n o g r a p h i e s t h a t t h i s s t o n e c o u l d o n l y b e c o l l e c t e d f r o m N e w s k u l t z M o u n t a i n ( M t . N u s a t s u m ) o n t h e n o r t h s i d e o f t h e r i v e r b e h i n d t h e v i l l a g e o f N u s q a l s t ( n o , 1 2 , T a b l e I ) . O n t h e n o r t h s i d e o f t h i s m o u n t a i n w a s a n a r r o w p r e c i p i c e i n t o w h i c h p e o p l e w e r e l o w e r e d t o m i n e t h e s t o n e ( F e l i c i t y W a l k u s , N u x a l k e l d e r , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ; S m i t h 1 9 2 0 - 2 4 ) . A n o t h e r q u a r r y w a s d i s c o v e r e d o n a n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s u r v e y a b o u t o n e m i l e d o w n t h e S a l l o o m t R i v e r , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7 5 m i l e s a b o v e t h e b a s e o f t h e m o u n t a i n . V a r i o u s t o o l s , i n c l u d i n g a d z e s , c y l i n d r i c a l h a n d h a m m e r s , a n d c h i s e l s w e r e m a d e o f t h i s r a r e s t o n e . R e m a i n s o f t h e s e t o o l s h a v e b e e n f o u n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e v a l l e y . I t i s n o t d o c u m e n t e d i f t h i s r e s o u r c e l o c a t i o n w a s c o m m o n l a n d o r o w n e d b y a p a r t i c u l a r m i n m i n t s . I f t h e l a t t e r i s t h e c a s e , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e v i l l a g e o f N u s q a l s t a n d t h e u n n a m e d v i l l a g e a t t h e m o u t h o f t h e S a l l o o m t R i v e r h a d r i g h t s o v e r t h e r e s o u r c e . R e d a n d b l a c k - c o l o r e d p i g m e n t s w e r e u s e d b y t h e N u x a l k f o r p a i n t s . S o u r c e l o c a t i o n s f o r t h e r e d p i g m e n t i n c l u d e a s p o t n e a r t h e v i l l a g e o f S n x t , n e a r T h o r s e n C r e e k , a b o v e B u r n t B r i d g e i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y , a n d i n K w a t n a ( M c l l w r a i t h 1 9 2 2 - 2 4 ; S m i t h 1 9 2 0 - 2 4 ) . T h i s p i g m e n t w a s h i g h l y p r i z e d a n d i n d e m a n d ; i t i s o n e o f t h e i t e m s o f t r a d e b e t w e e n t h e -95- Kwakiutl from Fort Rupert and the Nuxalk (Smith 1920-24). An unidentified black paint ( i t may simply be a charcoal paint) i s reported to be very common the valley, and was used to paint pictographs (Felicity Walkus, Nuxalk elder, personal communication). Sandstone, probably from the river bed, was used for grinding and sawing (Clayton Mack, Nuxalk elder, personal communication; Smith 1920-24). Clay, probably from the river bed, was used to seal boxes (Smith 1920-24). The Nuxalk Seasonal Round The timing of acti v i t i e s undertaken by the Nuxalk throughout the year was closely tied to the seasonal procurement of resources. This i s apparent in the Nuxalk traditional calendar: (assembled from Mcllwraith 1922-24 and Drucker 1958) January February March April May June July August September October "what weeps away food" "angry moon" "facing both ways (ie. to summer and winter) "moon when there i s nothing" "when herring spawn" "time for making salmon weirs" "ooligan net time" "time for making hand nets for ooligans" "spring salmon moon" "time for eating spring salmon" "solstice moon" "time when sockeyes arrive" "time for eating dog salmon" "time for eating cohoes" "time for gathering squalm (a fern root) "moon when they begin to dance" -96- November "time f o r k u s u i t " "time when they play games" December " s i t down" ( i e . when the sun r e s t s ) "time when the dancing ends" As resources became s e a s o n a l l y a v a i l a b l e they o f t e n had to be harvested and processed w i t h i n a very short time. This required c a r e f u l l y timed movements to the d i f f e r e n t resource l o c a t i o n s . Locations of prime resources u t i l i z e d by the Nuxalk are given i n Appendices I and I I . Harvest times are given i n Table IV. Summary The d i s c u s s i o n s i n c l u d e d i n the two preceding chapters o u t l i n e r e levant aspects of the socio-economic system, as w e l l as the known settlement data of the Nuxalk. The f u n c t i o n i n g nature of the Nuxalk v i l l a g e , both w i t h i n the settlement i t s e l f and to i t s surrounding n a t u r a l and c u l t u r a l environment, has been discussed. S p e c i f i c a t t r i b u t e s of the n a t u r a l environment have a l s o been evaluated. This i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l form the b a s i s of the analyses i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter, which are designed to c l a r i f y the r e l a t i o n s h i p of p o s s i b l e determinants to Nuxalk settlement p a t t e r n s . -97- TABLE IV YEARLY HARVESTING CYCLE OF NUXALK PLANT AND ANIMAL RESOURCES* Resource Months J F M A M J J A S O N D Salmon chinook sockeye coho pink chum Other F i s h ooligan steelhead trout coastal cutthroat trout herring starry flounder rock and l i n g cod halibut sole and perch Seafood and Sea Mammals clams sea urchin sea cucumber hair seal northern sea l i o n s Water and Land Birds ducks, geese and swans eagles g u l l s grouse common loon Mammals mountain goat deer bear lynx ** rabbit porcupine ** beaver ** marmot ** wolverine, martin, mink, racoon, red fox, coyote ot t e r , skunk, weasel, f i s h e r , muskrat - 9 8 - Resource Months J F M A . M J J A S O N D Trees red cedar s i t k a spruce lodgepole pine douglas f i r - wood inner bark hemlock - wood inner bark maple alder birch cherry crabapple - wood f r u i t Cottonwood - wood inner bark Shrubs elderberry - wood f r u i t highbush cranberry red o s i e r dogwood soapberry s a l a l f a l s e azalea alaska blueberry mountain b i l b e r r y oval-leaved blueberry red huckleberry stink currant wild gooseberry swamp gooseberry wild blue currant saskatoon - wood f r u i t nootka rose wild rose wild raspberry blackcaps thimbleberry - f r u i t shoot salmonberry - f r u i t shoot Herbs h o r s e t a i l s - shoots root** -99- Resource Months J F M A M J J A S O N D spiny wood fern bracken fern skunk cabbage - leaves** f r u i t r i c e r o o t l i l y - o f - t h e - v a l l e y star-flowered Solomon's seal hemlock parsley** water parsnip** cow parsnip sweet c i c e l y spreading dogbane s a r s a p a r i l l a bunchberry k i n n i k i n i k blue lupine wild clover fireweed western dock strawberry silverweed n e t t l e s - f i b r e greens Moss "yellow moss"** * From Kuhnlein 1984 and expanded ** No e x p l i c i t data e x i s t which state the time of year these resources were taken; harvest season i s i n f e r r e d here from the nature and d i s t r i b u t i o n of the resource i t s e l f . -100- C h a p t e r IV THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DETERMINANTS AND NUXALK SETTLEMENT I n t r o d u c t i o n I n t h i s c h a p t e r I e x a m i n e t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f s e v e r a l d e t e r m i n a n t s o f t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n s i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y a t t h e t i m e o f E u r o p e a n c o n t a c t . The i d e a b e i n g e x a m i n e d i s t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f a r a n g e o f r e s o u r c e s a n d o t h e r c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s w i l l d e t e r m i n e t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f an a r e a f o r s e t t l e m e n t . The g o a l s o f t h e a n a l y s i s a r e t w o f o l d ~ t o a t t e m p t t o d e f i n e b o t h t h e minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n s , anG t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s o f m o r e p r e f e r r e d l o c a l i t i e s . M i n i m u m r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e t h o s e t h a t a r e b o t h n e c e s s a r y a n d s u f f i c i e n t f o r s e t t l e m e n t ( s e e p a g e 1 3 ) . D e t e r m i n a n t s f r o m b o t h t h e n a t u r a l a n d c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t , w h i c h s t a n d o u t i n t h e e t h n o g r a p h i e s a s b e i n g i m p o r t a n t t o t h e N u x a l k s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s y s t e m , a r e c o n s i d e r e d . M e t h o d s D e f i n i n g D e t e r m i n a n t s The d e t e r m i n a n t s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s h a v e b e e n g r o u p e d i n t o l i k e c a t e g o r i e s , d e p e n d i n g on b o t h t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d e t e r m i n a n t i t s e l f , a n d t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a c o n c e r n i n g i t . E i g h t d e t e r m i n a n t s , o r g r o u p s o f d e t e r m i n a n t s , a r e e x a m i n e d : s a l m o n s p e c i e s , o t h e r a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e s , p l a n t r e s o u r c e s , a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s , m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s , t r a d e , p r o t e c t i o n f r o m r a i d i n g , a n d s h e l t e r f r o m t h e e l e m e n t s . The a n a l y s i s p r e s e n t e d h e r e i s i n t e n d e d t o a s s e s s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f e a c h o f t h e s e d e t e r m i n a n t s on N u x a l k v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n . An a s s u m p t i o n made i n t h i s a n a l y s i s , a s i n o t h e r s e t t l e m e n t s t u d i e s , i s t h a t a s i t e w i l l be l o c a t e d c l o s e s t t o t h o s e d e t e r m i n a n t s t h a t h a v e t h e g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e on i t s s o c i o - e c o n o m y . The p r e s e n c e o r a b s e n c e o f a d e t e r m i n a n t , a n d when -101- a p p l i c a b l e , i t s o v e r a l l a n d s e a s o n a l a b u n d a n c e a t v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y , i s d i s c e r n e d . E a c h v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n i s t h e n r a n k e d a c c o r d i n g t o a c c e s s t o e a c h d e t e r m i n a n t . The t o t a l o f e a c h o f t h e s e r a n k i n g s f o r e a c h v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n p r o v i d e s a means w h e r e b y s e t t l e m e n t l o c a l i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e v a l l e y c a n b e c o m p a r e d t o one a n o t h e r . I n t h i s w a y , a r a n k o r d e r o f v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o a l l d e t e r m i n a n t s , c a n be p r o d u c e d . I t i s mvj e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t h o s e l o c a t i o n s h a v i n g a c c e s s t o t h e g r e a t e s t number a n d k i n d o f d e t e r m i n a n t s w i l l be p r e f e r r e d a r e a s f o r s e t t l e m e n t . T h i s p r q p o s r f i o n . i s t e s t e d i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y b y c o m p a r i n g t h e r a n k o r d e r o f s i t e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f a l l d e t e r m i n a n t s t o t h e known a r e a o f p r e f e r e d s e t t l e m e n t - - t h e l o w e r v a l l e y . I f t h e p r o p o s i t i o n , i s c o n f i r m e d , t h o s e s i t e s i n t h e l o w e r B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y w i l l h a v e a c c e s s t o o r b e i n f l u e n c e d by t h e g r e a t e s t r a n g e o f d e t e r m i n a n t s . M i n i m u m r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r s e t t l e m e n t i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y a r e a b i t more d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h . U n i f o r m i t y o f a c c e s s a n d / o r i n f l u e n c e o f a d e t e r m i n a n t among a l l s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n s i s n o t a s u f f i c i e n t m e a s u r e . S u c h u n i f o r m i t y c a n be f o u n d w i t h d e t e r m i n a n t s w h i c h a r e c l e a r l y e x t r a n e o u s a n d h a d l i t t l e o v e r a l l e f f e c t on s e t t l e m e n t . A m o r e m e a n i n g f u l m e a s u r e o f t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s i s t o c o m p a r e t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h t h a t o f s e t t l e m e n t s . T h i s i s t h e a p p r o a c h t a k e n i n t h i s t h e s i s . M e t h o d s f o r m e a s u r i n g t h e e i g h t d e t e r m i n a n t s a r e n o t i d e n t i c a l f o r e a c h . F o r some t h e r e a r e r e l i a b l e d a t a w h i c h p e r m i t q u a n t i t a t i v e c o m p a r i s o n a n d a n a l y s i s , b u t o t h e r s ( e g . p r o t e c t i o n f r o m t h e e l e m e n t s ) c a n o n l y be q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i s c u s s e d . Among t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s w h i c h a r e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , v a r i a t i o n i n a v a i l a b l e d a t a a l s o r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e t e s t b e u n i q u e f o r e a c h . F u r t h e r m o r e , i n h e r e n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r e s o u r c e s -102- t h e r n s e l v e s n e c e s s i t a t e d i f f e r e n t m e a s u r e m e n t s f o r e a c h . F o r e x a m p l e , d e g r e e o f m o b i l i t y may be a n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n a n a n a l y s i s o f a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s , b u t i t w i l l h a v e l i t t l e r e l e v a n c e t o p l a n t s . P r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d f o r a s s e s s i n g e a c h d e t e r m i n a n t a r e p r e s e n t e d a t t h e s t a r t o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f e a c h . A l t h o u g h t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e a n a l y s e s a r e n o t t h e s a m e , some b a s i c s t e p s a r e i n c l u d e d i n e a c h . F i r s t , t h e s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r o f e a c h d e t e r m i n a n t i s d i s c u s s e d a n d a l l q u a n t i f i a b l e o r q u a l i f i a b l e e l e m e n t s a r e o u t l i n e d . P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o t h e l o c a t i o n o f e a c h d e t e r m i n a n t , a n d i t s a b u n d a n c e . F o r r e s o u r c e s , t h i s r e f e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o q u a n t i f i a b l e a b u n d a n c e , b u t f o r o t h e r a t t r i b u t e s , i t i s a q u e s t i o n o f p r e s e n c e o r a b s e n c e . D e f i n i n g V i l l a g e U n i t s F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s , v i l l a g e s h a v e b e e n g r o u p e d i n t o w h a t I h a v e t e r m e d " v i l l a g e u n i t s " . I n a r e a s o f h i g h s i t e d e n s i t y ( i . e . t h e l o w e r v a l l e y ) , a v i l l a g e u n i t i s c o m p r i s e d o f s e v e r a l v i l l a g e s w h i c h c l u s t e r i n a s i n g l e g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a . T h a t i s , v i l l a g e s t h a t a r e s i t u a t e d c l o s e r t o one a n o t h e r t h a n t o o t h e r s a d j a c e n t t o them a r e c o n s i d e r e d " v i l l a g e u n i t s " . I n t h e u p p e r v a l l e y , w h e r e v i l l a g e s a r e m o r e d i s p e r s e d , v i l l a g e u n i t s o f t e n i n c l u d e o n l y a s i n g l e v i l l a g e . S i t e s f o r w h i c h o n l y a p p r o x i m a t e l o c a t i o n s a r e a v a i l a b l e ( i n d i c a t e d by a b r o k e n a r r o w on t h e m a p s ) a r e n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s e s . T w e n t y " v i l l a g e u n i t s " h a v e b e e n d e l i n e a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y ( s e e f i g u r e s 5 a n d 6 ) . T h i s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l s t e p was t a k e n b e c a u s e c o n t e m p o r a n e i t y o f v i l l a g e s a n d p r e c i s e v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n a r e d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e a c c u r a t e l y . C o n t e m p o r a n e i t y o f s i t e s i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e l a r g e l y b e c a u s e i n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d a t s e v e r a l p o i n t s i n t i m e . M c l l w r a i t h , 5 km 3 miles r — 5 3 , 5 4 N o o s g u l c h R 1 — 36 1 40 , 41, 42 F i g u r e 5. B e l l a C o o l a V a l l e y V i l l a g e U n i t s , i n d i c a t e d by l e t t e r s A t o T -104- F J g u r e 6. L o w e r B e l l a C o o l a V a l l e y V i l l a g e U n i t s , I n d i c a t e d by l e t t e r s A t o E. -105- h o w e v e r , d i d n o t e s e v e r a l v i l l a g e s t h a t w e r e o c c u p i e d a t t h e t i m e o f M a c k e n z i e . F o r o t h e r s i t e s , f o r w h i c h c o m p a r a b l e d a t a do n o t e x i s t , i t c a n be assumed t h a t t h e y w e r e a l s o o c c u p i e d d u r i n g Mackenzie's, time and/or a time just p r i o r t o t h a t , a s i n f o r m a n t r e c a l l o f t h e p a s t i s l i m i t e d , ano few new s i t e s w e r e c r e a t e d a f t e r t h e t i m e o f p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e . T h e r e a r e two m a j o r r e a s o n s why i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o l o c a t e v i l l a g e s i t e s . F i r s t , e t h n o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t p r e c i s e . D e s c r i p t i o n s o f s i t e l o c a t i o n s s u c h a s , " t o u r m i l e s f r o m t h e l a s t v i l l a g e " o r " t e n m i l e s f r o m t n e mouth o f t h e r i v e r " a r e c l e a r l y j u s t e s t i m a t e s by t h e e t h n o g r a p h e r o r i n f o r m a n t . I t i s r a r e t h a t a more e x a c t l o c a t i o n i s g i v e n , and o f t e n t h o s e ( e g . " a t t h e b a s e o f N e w s k u l t z M o u n t a i n " ) a r e a l s o i n e x a c t . The s e c o n d p r o b l e m w i t h l o c a t i n g v i l l a g e s r e s u l t s f r o m m a j o r c h a n g e s i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r a n d s u r r o u n d i n g l a n d s c a p e o v e r t i m e . The r i v e r i s f a s t f l o w i n g ano m e a n d e r i n g ; i t s c o u r s e has d r a s t i c a l l y c h a n g e d e v e n i n t h e m e m o r i e s o f t h e e l d e r l y p e o p l e l i v i n g i n t h e v a l l e y t o d a y . The mouth o f t h e r i v e r i t s e l f , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s s a i d t o have moved e a s t w a r d a l m o s t one m i l e s i n c e t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y ( b a e r 1 9 7 3 : 1 3 ) . P e r h a p s t h e m o s t s e v e r e c h a n g e t o t h e r i v e r and s u r r o u n d i n g t e r r a i n i n r e c e n t n i s t o r y o c c u r r e d i n 1936 a f t e r a v e r y l a r g e f l o o d . As a r e s u l t o f t i i i s t l o o d , ano o t h e r s u b s e q u e n t c h a n g e s i n t h e r i v e r ' s f l o w , many o f t h e o l d s e t t l e m e n t s i t e s have b e e n w a s h e d a w a y . No d o u b t o t h e r s w i l l be s i m i l a r l y d e s t r o y e d i n f u t u r e . The p r o b l e m o f l o c a t i n g v i l l a g e s more a c c u r a t e l y was r e s o l v e d i n a number o f w a y s . I n many c a s e s t h e r e a r e f r o m t h r e e t o n i n e d i f f e r e n t e t h n o g r a p h i c r e f e r e n c e s t o a s i n g l e v i l l a g e , w h i c h s e r v e d t o r e d u c e e r r o r . I n a few i n s t a n c e s S m i t h ( 1 9 2 0 - 2 4 ) , h o w e v e r , r e c o r d e d v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e r i v e r ( i e . t o t h e n o r t h o f , t o t h e s o u t h o f ) w h i c h d i f f e r e d f r o m a l l o t h e r e t h n o g r a p h e r s . I n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s , I -106- h a v e a s s u m e d t h a t S m i t h ' s l o c a t i o n s w e r e i n c o r r e c t . F i n a l l y , t h e l o c a t i o n o f v i l l a g e s a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e s o f t h e B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r a n d s m a l l s t r e a m s i s more d e f i n i t e , b e c a u s e a l t h o u g h t h e r i v e r h a s c h a n g e d l o c a t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n p a r t s , t h e s t r e a m s a r e more s t a b l e . By d e f i n i n g v i l l a g e u n i t s , d e t e r m i n i n g e x a c t v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n o r c o n t e m p o r a n e i t y b e c o m e s l e s s i m p o r t a n t . I n s t e a d , t h e f o c u s i s u p o n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f a g i v e n a r e a , w i t h a g i v e n s e t o f a t t r i b u t e s , f o r s e t t l e m e n t . The c l u s t e r i n g o f s i t e s i n s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n s d e l i n e a t e s s u c h u n i t s g e o g r a p h i c a l l y . By d e f i n i n g v i l l a g e u n i t s we c a n be r e a s o n a b l y c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h e s e t t l e m e n t d a t a a s p r e s e n t e d h e r e a r e s u f f i c i e n t t o r e p r e s e n t a c c u r a t e l y t h e s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s o f t h e l a t e p r e - c o n t a c t p e r i o d o f N u x a l k h i s t o r y . F i n a l l y , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e a n a l y s i s u s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s d i f f e r s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y f r o m o t h e r s e t t l e m e n t s t u d i e s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . S a l m o n - s e t t l e m e n t s t u d i e s e x a m i n e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a s i n g l e r e s o u r c e a t s e v e r a l s i t e s . S i t e c a t c h m e n t s t u d i e s , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , m o s t o f t e n i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f s e v e r a l r e s o u r c e s a t a s i n g l e s i t e . I n t h i s s t u d y , I c o m b i n e m e t h o d s f r o m t h e s e two a p p r o a c h e s , a s w e l l a s i n t r o d u c e new m e t h o d s , i n o r d e r t o e x a m i n e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s e v e r a l d e t e r m i n a n t s , b o t h f o o d a n d n o n - f o o d , on s e v e r a l s i t e s . D e t e r m i n a n t s o f V i l l a g e L o c a t i o n R e l e v a n t a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e p o s s i b l e d e t e r m i n a n t s o f v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n a r e d i s c u s s e d b e l o w . S a l m o n s p e c i e s - D a t a on s a l m o n a b u n d a n c e i n p r e - c o n t a c t t i m e s w e r e d e r i v e d f r o m p r e s e n t - d a y f i s h e r i e s p u b l i c a t i o n s ( F i s h e r i e s a n d O c e a n s n . d . ; Manzon a n d M a r s h a l l 1 9 8 0 ) . D e s t r u c t i o n o f s p a w n i n g g r o u n d s a s a -107- r e s u l t o f l o g g i n g a n d o t h e r h u m a n - i n t r o d u c e d e c o l o g i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e s a s w e l l a s c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g h a v e g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d t h e n u m b e r s o f s a l m o n i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y t o d a y . T h e e l d e r s r e p o r t t h a t t h e number o f s a l m o n h a s b e e n d r a s t i c a l l y r e d u c e d . I t i s s a i d t h a t t h e r i v e r was " b l a c k w i t h f i s h " a n d t h a t when t h e s a l m o n r a n " i t was d i f f i c u l t t o p a d d l e t h e c a n o e w i t h o u t h i t t i n g t h e f i s h " . T h i s i s c l e a r l y n o t t h e c a s e t o d a y . To o v e r c o m e d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h e d a t a , I h a v e g o n e t o t h e e a r l i e s t r e c o r d e d d a t a f o r s p a w n i n g p o p u l a t i o n s i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y s t r e a m s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e a r e o f t e n f e w e r t h a n t h i r t e e n r e c o r d e d y e a r s f o r e a c h o f t h e s m a l l e r s t r e a m s . N o n e t h e l e s s , d a t a w e r e a v e r a g e d o v e r t h i s e n t i r e p e r i o d t o o b t a i n t r e n d s a n d r e l a t i v e s t r e a m c a p a c i t i e s . The D e p a r t m e n t o f F i s h e r i e s a n d O c e a n s h a s r e c o r d e d d r a s t i c c h a n g e s i n s t r e a m c a p a c i t y i n r e c e n t y e a r s e n a b l i n g m o r e a c c u r a t e c o m p a r i s o n s o f t o d a y ' s f i g u r e s w i t h t h o s e o f t h e p a s t . T h e D e p a r t m e n t o f F i s h e r i e s a n d O c e a n s d a t a a p p e a r t o b e g o o d i n d i c a t o r s o f r e l a t i v e s a l m o n a b u n d a n c e by s t r e a m i n t h e p a s t . I n a d d i t i o n t o a b u n d a n c e , o t h e r f a c t o r s a f f e c t e d v i l l a g e a c c e s s t o s a l m o n . W i t h i n t h e m a i n r i v e r i t s e l f l a r g e c a t c h e s w e r e o b t a i n e d w i t h " w e i r s " ( s e e C h a p t e r I I I ) s e t a t i n t e r v a l s a l o n g t h e r i v e r . T h e l o w e r v a l l e y v i l l a g e s w o u l d h a v e h a d t h e f i r s t c h a n c e a t p r o c u r i n g t h e s e f i s h , b u t t h e m a j o r i t y o f f i s h w o u l d h a v e r e a c h e d t h e u p p e r v a l l e y i n o n l y a f e w d a y s t i m e . T h e o r e t i c a l l y t h e u p p e r v i l l a g e s w o u l d h a v e h a d f e w e r f i s h a v a i l a b l e t o t h e m a s v i l l a g e s h a r v e s t e d t h e r e s o u r c e a l o n g t h e l e n g t h o f t h e r i v e r . H o w e v e r , s a l m o n w e r e s o a b u n d a n t i n t h e d a y s b e f o r e t h e c a n n e r i e s t h a t r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n s a l m o n a b u n d a n c e a l o n g t h e B e l l a C o o l a may n o t h a v e t r a n s l a t e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t i a l s a l m o n c a t c h e s by t h e d i f f e r e n t v i l l a g e s . S a l m o n w h i c h r e a c h e d t h e u p p e r p a r t s o f t h e r i v e r c o n t a i n e d l e s s f o o d e n e r g y a s f a t . S a l m o n c e a s e t o f e e d o n c e t h e y e n t e r f r e s h w a t e r a n d t h e i r -108- s o u r c e o f e n e r g y i s s t o r e d b o d y f a t w h i c h t h e y u s e up a s t h e y make t h e i r a s c e n t u p r i v e r t o spawn ( I d l e r a n d C l e m e n s 1 9 5 9 , f r o m Kew 1 9 7 6 ) . The u p p e r v a l l e y v i l l a g e s , t h e n , w o u l d h a v e b e e n h a r v e s t i n g f i s h t h a t w e r e l o w e r i n t o t a l b o d y f a t , a n d t h e r e f o r e p r o b a b l y o f f e r e d f e w e r c a l o r i e s p e r f i s h . I f s a l m o n w e r e s u f f i c i e n t l y a b u n d a n t i n t h e u p p e r r i v e r , t h e l o s s o f f o o d e n e r g y c o u l d b e c o m p e n s a t e d by c o n s u m i n g g r e a t e r n u m b e r s o f f i s h . T h e i r t a s t e , h o w e v e r , may h a v e b e e n i n f e r i o r , due t o h o r m o n a l c h a n g e s i n s p a w n i n g s a l m o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e i s no d o c u m e n t a t i o n s p e c i f i c t o t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y s a l m o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e d e g r e e o f f a t l o s s ( a n d t h e r e f o r e r e d u c t i o n o f f o o d v a l u e ) a s a r e s u l t o f t h e m i g r a t i o n . The r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t l e n g t h o f t h e B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r , a s c o m p a r e d t o t h e F r a s e r , h o w e v e r , s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p r o b l e m w o u l d h a v e b e e n much l e s s s e v e r e i n t h e f o r m e r c a s e . O t h e r A q u a t i c R e s o u r c e s - D e t a i l e d d a t a s i m i l a r t o t h o s e a v a i l a b l e f o r s a l m o n a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r o t h e r a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e s . A s t h e a n a l y s i s i n v o l v i n g e a c h o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s i s s i m i l a r , t h e s e r e s o u r c e s w i l l be a n a l y s e d t o g e t h e r . The r e s o u r c e s i n c l u d e a l l o t h e r r i v e r i n e a n d m a r i n e f i s h s p e c i e s , o t h e r m a r i n e i n v e r t e b r a t e s , w a t e r b i r d s a n d w a t e r - a s s o c i a t e d b i r d s , a n d s e a mammals. L i k e t h e s a l m o n r e s o u r c e , a b u n d a n c e a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n d a t a f o r t h i s s e t o f r e s o u r c e s a r e e x t r a p o l a t e d f r o m p r e s e n t - d a y k n o w l e d g e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y d a t a do n o t a l l o w a s f u l l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n a s t h a t a p p l i e d t o s a l m o n . Q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a on a b u n d a n c e a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r e s e n t - d a y f i s h r e s o u r c e s , m a r i n e i n v e r t e b r a t e s , a n d w a t e r - a s s o c i a t e d b i r d s a s s u m e d t o p a r a l l e l c l o s e l y t h o s e o f t h e p a s t , s i n c e t h e r e i s no d o c u m e n t a t i o n a v a i l a b l e w h i c h s u g g e s t s e x c e p t i o n a l l y h e a v y i m p a c t o n t h e s e r e s o u r c e s . E x t r a p o l a t i o n s t o t h e t i m e o f c o n t a c t seems w a r r a n t e d . D a t a -109- on a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s e a mammals a l s o come l a r g e l y f r o m t o d a y ' s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e b e h a v i o r o f t h e s e a n i m a l s . A l t h o u g h t h e i r n u m b e r s a r e g r e a t l y r e d u c e d t o d a y , t h e i r h a b i t s h a v e p r o b a b l y r e m a i n e d u n c h a n g e d . The s p a r s e s t d a t a e x i s t f o r w a t e r f o w l s p e c i e s . C h a n g e s o f w e t l a n d s c r e a t e d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e s e s p e c i e s , b u t g i v e n some k n o w l e d g e o f r i v e r i n e h a b i t a t s i n t h e p a s t , we c a n s p e c u l a t e a s t o a r e a s o f p a s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s . P l a n t R e s o u r c e s - P l a n t s p e c i e s f r o m a v a r i e t y o f h a b i t a t s w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n a s i n g l e a n a l y s i s . O n l y t h o s e p l a n t s w h i c h w e r e u s e d a s a f o o d o r raw m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s ( s e e A p p e n d i x I ) . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n was made a s i t was f e l t t h a t m e d i c i n a l p l a n t s w o u l d h a v e h a d l i t t l e t o do w i t h t h e l o c a t i o n o f a v i l l a g e s e t t l e m e n t . M e d i c i n a l h e r b s w o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n u s e d w i t h a n y r e g u l a r i t y by t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . E x c u r s i o n s by a s m a l l g r o u p o r s i n g l e p e r s o n t o p r o c u r e p a r t i c u l a r m e d i c i n e s w o u l d h a v e s u f f i c e d t o m e e t t h e n e e d s . I n o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p l a n t s , a t t e m p t s w e r e made t o r e c o n s t r u c t o r i g i n a l p l a n t d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n t h e v a l l e y . A d e t a i l e d h i s t o r y o f l o g g i n g i n t h e v a l l e y e n a b l e d me t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e c e n t l y d i s t u r b e d l o c a t i o n s ( f y i t o k . . Ceiymfa'*,/W+ry <?f fivesfe/-^). F o r t h o s e a r e a s t h a t w e r e l o g g e d , i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e o n t h e t y p e a n d a g e o f t h e t r e e s l o g g e d . T h r o u g h a k n o w l e d g e o f l o c a l f o r e s t s u c c e s s i o n I was a b l e t o u t i l i z e t h i s d a t a t o d e t e r m i n e t h e g e n e r a l n a t u r e o f t h e p r e - c o n t a c t e n v i r o n m e n t . A n i m a l R e s o u r c e s - T h e a n a l y s i s o f a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s i n c l u d e s a v a r i e t y o f l a r g e a n d s m a l l mammals f r o m r i v e r i n e a n d f o r e s t h a b i t a t s . A n i m a l s u s e d f o r b o t h f o o d s a n d raw m a t e r i a l s a r e i n c l u d e d . - 1 1 0 - A n i m a l n u m b e r s h a v e b e e n d r a s t i c a l l y r e d u c e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y . T h i s i s m o s t d r a m a t i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e c a s e o f m o u n t a i n g o a t s . T h e s e a n i m a l s w e r e o n c e p l e n t i f u l i n t h e l o c a l m o u n t a i n s ( S m i t h 1 9 2 0 - 2 4 ) , h o w e v e r , t h e y a r e r a r e t o d a y . S i m i l a r d e c l i n e s i n n u m b e r s a r e p r o b a b l e f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s t r a d i t i o n a l l y e x p l o i t e d by t h e N u x a l k . A s w i t h t h e a n a l y s i s i n v o l v i n g p l a n t r e s o u r c e s , r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f o r i g i n a l a n i m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n t h e v a l l e y w e r e a t t e m p t e d . E a c h s p e c i e s was c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e h a b i t a t i n w h i c h i t was m o s t c o m m o n l y f o u n d . By u s i n g t h e h a b i t a t d e s i g n a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e p l a n t a n a l y s i s , i t was p o s s i b l e t o r e c o n s t r u c t a p l a u s i b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r t h e s e r e s o u r c e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e a b s o l u t e a b u n d a n c e s , a s s u f f i c i e n t d a t a do n o t e x i s t . R e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e , h o w e v e r , m e a s u r e d by a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f h a b i t a t s , i s d i s c e r n a b l e . M i n e r a l R e s o u r c e s - T h i s s m a l l s e t o f h i g h l y p r i z e d r e s o u r c e s i s r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n a m a n n e r s i m i l a r t o t h a t u s e d f o r a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s . T h a t i s , a f t e r r e c o n s t r u c t i n g o r i g i n a l r e s o u r c e l o c a t i o n s i n t h e v a l l e y , t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y a n d t h e r e f o r e r e l a t i v e l o c a l a b u n d a n c e o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s i s s u g g e s t e d . T r a d e - S i n c e t r a d e i t e m s p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e N u x a l k s o c i o - e c o n o m y , a c c e s s t o t r a d e r o u t e s may l i k e w i s e h a v e a f f e c t e d t h e N u x a l k s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , p r e c i s e d a t a o n q u a n t i t y o f g o o d s moved i s i m p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n . I t i s p o s s i b l e , h o w e v e r , t o j u d g e f r o m e t h n o g r a p h i e s w h i c h v i l l a g e s w e r e more l i k e l y t o h a v e b e e n i n v o l v e d i n t r a d i n g v e n t u r e s a s a r e s u l t o f t h e i r l o c a t i o n , s o c i a l a f f i l i a t i o n , a n d / o r a c c e s s t o p r i z e d g o o d s . -111- P r o t e c t i o n f r o n R a i d i n g - O b t a i n i n g m e a s u r a b l e , q u a n t i f i a b l e d a t a c o n c e r n i n g p r e - c o n t a c t w a r f a r e i s q u i t e d i f f i c u l t . T h r e a t o f a t t a c k no d o u b t p l a y e d a p a r t i n d e t e r m i n i n g v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n . A r c h a e o l o g i s t s a n d e t h n o g r a p h e r s a r e a b l e t o n o t e t h e p r e s e n c e o r a b s e n c e o f f o r t i f i e d s i t e s a n d p r o t e c t e d s i t e s , b u t t h e i r v a l u e i s n o t c l e a r , f o r d a t a on w a r f a r e i s s c a n t y ( s e e a l s o T r i g g e r 1 9 6 8 : 6 6 ) . We c a n go no f u r t h e r t h a n a f e w g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t w h a t i s l i k e l y t o h a v e a p p l i e d w i t h i n t h e N u x a l k t e r r i t o r y . S h e l t e r f r o m t h e E l e m e n t s - P r o t e c t i o n f r o m s t o r m a n d f l o o d was no d o u b t an i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t o f p e r m a n e n t N u x a l k s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n . C e r t a i n l y , v i l l a g e s i t e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e N u x a l k a r e a w e r e a f f e c t e d i n d i f f e r e n t w a y s by t h e n a t u r a l e l e m e n t s . T h r o u g h k n o w l e d g e o f t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y t o p o g r a p h y a n d c l i m a t i c p a t t e r n s , some g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s on t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h a r e a s a r e p r o t e c t e d , c a n be m a d e . A c c e s s i b i l i t y o f R e s o u r c e s A s m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , d i s t a n c e i s an i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f r e s o u r c e s t o a g i v e n p o p u l a t i o n . How d i s t a n c e i s m e a s u r e d , h o w e v e r , may d i f f e r f r o m g r o u p t o g r o u p , g i v e n t h e a v a i l a b l e t e c h n o l o g y a n d c u l t u r a l a n d p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t . I n t h e N u x a l k c a s e a s w i t h a l l n o r t h e r n N o r t h w e s t C o a s t g r o u p s , t r a v e l i s much e a s i e r o n w a t e r t h a n l a n d . The l a n d i s r o u g h a n d t h e f o r e s t s a r e d e n s e . W i t h o u t w e l l m a i n t a i n e d p a t h s f o r f o o t t r a v e l , t h e a b i l i t y t o t r a n s p o r t r e s o u r c e s by l a n d i s " l i m i t e d . E v e n w i t h m a i n t a i n e d p a t h s , w h i c h p r e s u m a b l y d i d e x i s t i n a r e a s w h i c h w e r e owned a n d commonly u s e d by members o f t h e m i n m i n t s , t r a v e l w o u l d h a v e b e e n g r e a t l y h a m p e r e d by new g r o w t h a p p e a r i n g e a c h s e a s o n . I t h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t a s t r o n g man c o u l d c a r r y a b o u t 100 -112- pouncis t h r o u g h t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y t e r r a i n ( S m i t h 1 9 2 0 - 2 4 ; t h i s i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e w e i g h t o f o n e d r e s s e d g o a t ) . On t h e w a t e r , h o w e v e r , much g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e s c o u l d be t r a v e l l e d a n d much l a r g e r l o a d s c a r r i e d , w i t h l e s s e f f o r t . T r a v e l b y c a n o e f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r e d on b o t h t h e m a i n r i v e r a n d i t s o u t e r c h a n n e l s . T r a v e l i n t h e o u t e r c h a n n e l s was f a c i l i t a t e d t h r o u g h k n o w l e d g e o f t h e d a i l y t i d e s . I n f a c t , t h e N u x a l k a r e s a i d t o h a v e t r a v e l l e d a s f a r a s V i c t o r i a i n t h e i r s e a c a n o e s ( W i l l i e H a n s , N u x a l k e l d e r , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) . C l e a r l y , a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e s a t much g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e s f r o m a s e t t l e m e n t t h a n t e r r e s t r i a l r e s o u r c e s , c o u l d h a v e b e e n r e g u l a r l y e x p l o i t e d by t h e N u x a l k . A c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s by t h e N u x a l k was a l s o a f f e c t e d by m i n m i n t s o w n e r s h i p . F o r t h e m o s t p a r t , m i n m i n t s h a r v e s t i n g a r e a s w e r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e g e n e r a l v i c i n i t y o f t h e v i l l a g e . I t i s n o t c l e a r , h o w e v e r , w h a t t h e r u l e s o f o w n e r s h i p w e r e f o r t h e m o r e d i s t a n t r e s o u r c e s , o r f o r r e s o u r c e s w h i c h w e r e n o t d i r e c t l y a d j a c e n t t o a n y v i l l a g e ( e g . t h e t i d a l f l a t s i n r e l a t i o n t o u p r i v e r v i l l a g e s ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o a n s w e r s u c h q u e s t i o n s t o d a y . I t m u s t b e a s s s u m e d t h a t i n g e n e r a l , r e s o u r c e s w e r e owned by t h e v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t y n e a r e s t t o t h a t r e s o u r c e . L i m i t a t i o n s o f D a t a C h a n g e i n l o c a l l a n d s c a p e a n d r e s o u r c e s i s a p r o b l e m w i t h a l l e c o l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d s t u d i e s , a n d t h e N u x a l k c a s e i s no e x c e p t i o n . E x t e n s i v e c h a n g e i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y s i n c e E u r o p e a n c o n t a c t h a s g r e a t l y a l t e r e d t h e number a n d k i n d o f r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e v a l l e y . K n o w i n g t h i s , I h a v e d e a l t w i t h e a c h a s p e c t o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t s e p a r a t e l y . A l l r e c o r d e d c h a n g e s i n t h e v a l l e y ' s e n v i r o n m e n t h a v e b e e n n o t e d a n d t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t when r e c o n s t r u c t i n g p a s t r e s o u r c e a v a i l a b i l i t y . The d a t a p r e s e n t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t , a s c l o s e a s i s p o s s i b l e , -113- t h e p r e - c o n t a c t s i t u a t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h i s l i s t o f r e s o u r c e s u t i l i z e d by t h e N u x a l k i s n o t c o m p l e t e . M o s t e t h n o g r a p h e r s w e r e w o r k i n g i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y a f t e r some v e r y s e v e r e c h a n g e s h a d t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e l o c a l s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s y s t e m ( s e e C h a p t e r I I ) . The p r e s e n c e o f t h e c a n n e r i e s , a n d t h e h e i g h t e n e d i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e f u r t r a d e q u i c k l y a l t e r e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l e c o n o m i c p a t t e r n . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p r o b l e m when d e t e r m i n i n g p r e c o n t a c t u s e o f a n i m a l s . Some a n i m a l s w h i c h s u p p l i e d p e l t s o n l y , may n o t h a v e b e e n e x p l o i t e d a s o f t e n i n t h e p a s t a s t h o s e a n i m a l s w h i c h s u p p l i e d b o t h f o o d a n d s k i n s , b e c a u s e t h e r e t u r n on t h e e n e r g y e x p e n d e d i n t h e h u n t w o u l d b e r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r f o r s u c h a n i m a l s . I n c o n t r a s t , c h a n g e s i n t h e u s e o f o t h e r r e s o u r c e s was c e r t a i n l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a d e c r e a s e i n s p e c i e s e x p l o i t a t i o n a s l e s s a c c e s s i b l e a n d / o r l e s s p r e f e r r e d s p e c i e s w e r e no l o n g e r h a r v e s t e d . I t i s a s s u m e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e m o s t c r i t i c a l s p e c i e s t o t h e N u x a l k i n p r e - c o n t a c t t i m e s w e r e t h o s e t h a t c o n t i n u e d t o be u s e d w i t h some r e g u l a r i t y i n l a t e r t i m e s . -114- I h e R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Salmon and S e t t l e m e n t s I n t r o d u c t i o n The B e l l a C o o l a - A t n a r k o s y s t e m i s u n i q u e among B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r i v e r s b e c a u s e o f t h e number and v a r i a b i l i t y o f s a l m o n s p e c i e s ( s e e C h a p t e r I I I , p p . 7 6 - 8 0 ) . The s h e e r numbers o f s a l m o n t r a v e l l i n g up t h e B e l l a C o o l a meant t h a t t h e r e w o u l d have been l i t t l e v a r i a b i l i t y i n numbers o f a v a i l a b l e c a t c h a l o n g t h e l e n g t h o f t h e r i v e r . H o w e v e r , b e c a u s e t h e m a j o r i t y o f c o h o and chum spawn on t h e l o w e r r e a c h e s o f t h e r i v e r , t h e u p p e r v i l l a g e s o n l y hao d i r e c t a c c e s s t o t h r e e s a l m o n s p e c i e s . A n o t h e r m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e i n s a l m o n a v a i l a b i l i t y was b e t w e e n t h e s i d e t r i b u t a r i e s . F o r t h e i n h a b i t a n t s l i v i n g a t t h e t r i b u t a r y mouths t h e s e s t r e a m s w o u l d have been an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f e a s y t o h a r v e s t s a l m o n . M e t h o d I n t h i s a n a l y s i s I e x a m i n e t h e v a r i a t i o n i n number and k i n d o f s a l m o n i n s e v e r a l t r i b u t a r y s t r e a m s a l o n g t h e B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r a s a means o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o s a l m o n among t h e v i l l a g e u n i t s . O n l y t h o s e t r i b u t a r i e s w h i c h had v i l l a g e s s i t u a t e d a t t h e i r mouths a r e i n c l u d e d , s i n c e m i n m i n t s o w n e r s h i p o f t r i b u t a r i e s w h i c h w e r e s i t u a t e d i n b e t w e e n v i l l a g e s w o u l d be i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e . D a t a on s p a w n i n g numbers were c o l l e c t e d f r o m F i s h e r i e s and Oceans c o u n t f o r t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y ( C a j i a d a , F i s h e r i e s and Oceans n . d . ; Manzon and M a r s h a l l 1 9 8 0 ) . B e c a u s e f o o d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f e a c h s p e c i e s i s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n a c t u a l n u m b e r s , t h e a v e r a g e w e i g h t ( i n p o u n d s ) of e a c h s p e c i e s i s m u l t i p l i e d by i t s y e a r l y c o u n t s t o a r r i v e a t a r e l a t i v e e s t i m a t e o f t h e amount o f f o o d s u p p l i e d by t h a t r u n p e r y e a r . T h i s f i g u r e i s t h e n a v e r a g e d o v e r s e v e r a l y e a r s i n d i v i d u a l l y by s p e c i e s , a s w e l l a s f o r a l l s p e c i e s . R e s u l t a n t v a l u e s f r o m t h e s e c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e t e r m e d mean w e i g h t (MW) and t o t a l mean w e i g h t -115- (ttoW). C o m p a r i s o n s o f the d e g r e e o f v a r i a t i o n b o t h w i t h i n a s t r e a m b e t w e e n y e a r s , and b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t s t r e a m s f o r a l l y e a r s , w e r e made a f t e r c a l c u l a t i n g t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n (SO) and c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n (CV) r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r e a c h s t r e a m . R e s u l t s - A v a i l a b i l i t y o f Salmon The t o t a l a n n u a l mean w e i g h t (MW) o f e a c h s t r e a m f o r e a c h s p e c i e s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e V ( s e e Appendix I I I f o r y e a r l y MW f o r e a c h s t r e a m ) . The m a j o r i t y o f s i d e s t r e a m s have o n l y t h r e e s p e c i e s o f s a l m o n p r e s e n t , c o h o , p i n k a n d c h u m . C h i n o o k a r e p r e s e n t i n o n l y t h r e e s i d e s t r e a m s , a n d e v e n t h e s e a r e i n s m a l l n u m b e r s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , s e p a r a t e f i g u r e s f o r t h e B e l l a C o o l a a n d A t n a r k o R i v e r s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e , by f a r t h e g r e a t e s t number o f s a l m o n r e a c h i n g the A t n a r k o w o u l d be t h e p i n k s , Chinook and s o c k e y e , a s t h e o t h e r s p e c i e s spawn m a i n l y i n t h e l o w e r v a l l e y . The l o w e r f o u r m i l e s o f t h e A t n a r k o i s t h e p r e f e r r e d s p a w n i n g a n d h o l d i n g a r e a f o r c h i n o o k . T a D l e VI l i s t s t h e t o t a l mean w e i g h t (tMW) v a l u e s f o r a l l s a l m o n p r o d u c i n g s t r e a m s and t r i b u t a r i e s i n o r d e r f r o m g r e a t e s t t o s m a l l e s t t o t a l mean w e i g h t . S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n and c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n v a l u e s a r e a l s o g i v e n . The v i l l a g e u n i t s w h i c h have g r e a t e s t a c c e s s t o t h e s e s t r e a m s ( i . e . a r e l o c a t e d c l o s e s t t o ) a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t a b l e . T h i s s u p p l i e s a r a n k o r d e r o f v i l l a g e u n i t s a c c o r d i n g t o a c c e s s t o s a l m o n f o u n d i n s i d e t r i b u t a r i e s . In T a b l e V I I t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n s e t t l e m e n t s i z e and b o t h s a l m o n a b u n d a n c e ( d e t e r m i n e d by a d d i n g t o t a l mean w e i g h t v a l u e s o f a l l t r i b u t a r i e s i n a v i l l a g e u n i t ) and s t a b i l i t y o f t h e r e s o u r c e o v e r t i m e TABLE V MEAN ANNUAL POUND WEIGHT (MW)* BY S P E C I E S OF SALMON PRODUCING STREAMS AND TRIBUTARIES AND NEAREST V I L L A G E U N I T * * S t r e a m c o h o P i n k Chum C h i n o o k S o c k e y e N e a r e s t ( f r o m w e s t t o e a s t ) V i l l a g e B e l l a C o o l a / A t n a r k o 3 3 2 , 0 7 6 1 , 7 4 8 , 4 7 1 6 0 9 , 2 4 7 3 5 8 , 5 2 9 2 0 0 , 5 2 9 C - T R i v e r s N e c l e e t s c o n n a y R i v e r 9 , 9 8 0 2 0 , 8 6 6 4 3 , 7 2 9 A , B T a t s q u a n C r e e k 103 1 , 5 1 1 2 2 9 0 D T h o r s e n C r e e k 1 , 2 3 2 1 3 , 9 0 2 2 5 , 5 7 7 E N u x a l k C r e e k 130 1715 4 , 5 5 0 E S k i m l i k s C r e e k 40 120 525 E S n o o t l i C r e e k 1 , 9 3 6 1 9 , 6 5 5 1 2 , 3 2 5 G N o o k l i k o n n i k C r e e k 233 3 , 6 2 3 4252 H F i s h C r e e k 1000 3 , 8 3 1 6 , 4 0 8 H H a g e n s b o r g S l o u g h 1 , 4 6 0 4 , 8 7 5 7 , 3 5 0 H A i r p o r t S i d e C r e e k 2 , 4 6 0 2 , 4 7 8 H S a l l o o m t R i v e r 4 , 1 2 5 1 5 , 9 0 0 3 7 , 8 5 4 1 , 9 9 5 J N u s a t s u m C r e e k 3 , 0 0 0 4 , 8 1 9 6 , 0 1 5 2 , 5 0 0 K N o o s g u l c h R i v e r 5 5 0 5 , 9 6 3 2 , 6 9 2 710 L C a c a h o o t i n C r e e k 458 1 , 3 1 3 M , N * F i s h w e i g h t s u s e d t o c a l c u l a t e MW a r e : c o h o - 10 l b s . ; p i n k - 3 l b s . ; c h u m - 14 l b s . ; c h i n o o k - 20 l b s . ; s o c k e y e - 4 l b s . * * 0 r i g i n a l f i s h c o u n t s a r e f r o m F i s h e r i e s a n d O c e a n s ( n . d ) a n d M a n z o n a n d M a r s h a l l ( 1 9 8 0 ) . B e l l a C o o l a / A t n a r k o a n d N e c l e e t s c o n n a y c o u n t s a r e f r o m 1 9 4 7 - 1 9 8 0 ; a l l o t h e r c o u n t s a r e f r o m 1970 t o 1 9 8 2 . Number o f y e a r s f o r w h i c h c o u n t s t a t i s t i c s w e r e a v a i l a b l e r a n g e f r o m 2 t o 13 y e a r s f o r t h e s e s t r e a m s . -117- T a b l e V I TOTAL MEAN POUND WEIGHT (tMN), STANDARD DEVIATION (SD) AND COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION (CV) OF SALMON PRODUCING STREAMS AND NEAREST V I L L A G E UNIT S t r e a m * t M W * * S D * * * CV ( % ) * * * * N e a r e s t V i l l a g e U n i t 1 . B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r 3 , 3 2 3 , 0 8 5 2 , 2 8 2 , 1 2 6 7 0 . 5 C - T 2 . N e c l e e t s c o n n a y R i v e r 7 0 , 7 0 7 6 1 , 6 9 9 8 7 . 3 A , B 3 . S a l l o o m t R i v e r 5 8 , 1 5 5 5 6 , 3 4 1 9 6 . 9 J 4 . T h o r s e n C r e e k 4 0 , 5 2 1 5 5 , 0 7 3 1 3 5 . 9 E B . S n o o t l i C r e e k 3 3 , 6 1 8 2 3 , 0 1 1 6 8 . 4 G 6 . N u s a t s u m C r e e k 1 1 , 2 1 1 1 0 , 8 4 3 9 6 . 7 K 7 . F i s h C r e e k 1 1 , 0 8 5 4 , 2 2 9 3 8 . 2 H S . N o o s g u l c h R i v e r 9 , 1 0 5 8 , 8 4 9 9 7 . 2 L 9 . H a g e n s b o r g S l o u g h 8 , 0 2 8 1 , 1 7 8 . 8 1 4 6 . 7 H l O . N o o k l i k o n n i k C r e e k 7 , 9 9 2 1 1 , 2 1 3 1 4 0 . 3 H 1 1 . N u x a l k C r e e k 7 , 9 8 0 3 , 2 8 1 4 1 . 1 E 1 2 . A i r p o r t S i d e C r e e k 4 , 9 5 8 3 , 1 0 2 6 2 . 6 H 1 3 . T a t s q u a n C r e e k 3 , 8 5 9 5 , 4 2 7 1 4 0 . 6 D 1 4 . C a c a h o o t i n C r e e k 1770 9 3 0 5 2 . 5 M , N 1 5 . S k i m l i k s C r e e k 6 6 5 1 7 6 . 7 2 6 . 6 E * O r d e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o t o t a l mean w e i g h t v a l u e s * * tMW = £^£n< Mvf , *** SD= wh.e r e MW- no. ...of. sa Imon (species . x' Lb. / weight o.f-> species n,.—• • 3 . . , n2.= 2 . , 5'.salmon species 34 years ' * * * * CV= SD * 100 tMW -118- TABLE V I I THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A C C E S S I B I L I T Y TO SALMON AND STABLE SALMON RUNS BY V I L L A G E UNITS AND SETTLEMENT S I Z E V i l l a g e U n i t s i n Rank O r d e r o f A b u n d a n c e o f S a l m o n i n V i l l a g e U n i t T r i b u t a r i e s * (CV o f V i l l a g e U n i t T r i b u t a r i e s ) 1 . A ( 8 7 . 3 ) 1 . B ( 8 7 . 3 ) 3 . J ( 9 6 . 9 ) 4 . E ( 2 6 . 6 ; 4 1 . 1 ; 1 3 5 . 9 ) 5 . G ( 6 8 . 4 ) 6 . H ( 3 8 . 2 ; 6 2 . 6 ; 1 4 0 . 3 ; 1 4 6 . 7 ) 7 . K ( 9 6 . 7 ) 8 . L ( 9 7 . 2 ) 9 . D ( 1 4 0 . 6 ) 1 0 . M ( 5 2 . 5 ) 1 0 . N ( 5 2 . 5 ) Rank O r d e r o f S i z e o f V i l l a g e U n i t by n o . o f b y n o . o f l a r g e v i l l a g e s i n u n i t v i l l a g e s i n u n i t 1 . E (7) 1 . E ( 5 ) 2 . A ( 4 ) 2 . G ( 2 ) 2 . D ( 4 ) 3 . A ( 1 ) 4 . B ( 3 ) 3 . B (1) 4 . K ( 3 ) 3 . H ( 1 ) 6 . G ( 2 ) 3 . K ( 1 ) 6 . H ( 2 ) 3 . L ( 1 ) 8 . J ( 1 ) 8 . J ( 0 ) 8 . L (1) 8 . D ( 0 ) 8 . M ( 1 ) 8 . M ( 0 ) 8 . N (1) 8 . N ( 0 ) * R a n k i n g r e s u l t s f r o m t h e sum o f tMW v a l u e s f o r a l l t r i b u t a r i e s t o w h i c h e a c h v i l l a g e u n i t h a d a c c e s s . -119- ( e x p r e s s e d a s c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n v a l u e s ) a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r a l l v i l l a g e u n i t s h a v i n g a c c e s s t o s a l m o n p r o d u c i n g t r i b u t a r i e s . A l t h o u g h d e t a i l e d n u m b e r s a r e l a c k i n g , t h e e t h n o g r a p h i e s do s u p p l y some i n f o r m a t i o n on s e t t l e m e n t s i z e . T h i s , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e number o f v i l l a g e s w i t h i n a v i l l a g e u n i t , i n d i c a t e s u i t a b i l i t y o f a l o c a t i o n f o r s e t t l e m e n t . F i n a l l y , t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e ( i n a y e a r ) t h a t s t r e a m s w i t h i n e a c h t e r r i t o r y p r o d u c e s a l m o n ( e x p r e s s e d i n MW v a l u e s ) i s g r a p h i c a l l y p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e 7. I n t h i s w a y , s t r e a m p r o d u c t i v i t y c a n be c o m p a r e d n o t o n l y on an o v e r a l l y e a r l y b a s i s , b u t o n a m o n t h t o m o n t h b a s i s . P r e s u m a b l y , s t r e a m s w h i c h p r o d u c e s a l m o n f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d o f t i m e i n s i g n i f i c a n t a m o u n t s w i l l be p r e f e r r e d r e s o u r c e h a r v e s t i n g a r e a s . The p r e s e n c e o f c h i n o o k , t h e f i r s t s p a w n e r i n t h e s p r i n g , may be o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e i n t h i s w a y , a s t h i s i s t h e t i m e o f y e a r when o t h e r f o o d s t u f f s w o u l d be s c a r c e . D i s c u s s i o n The r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e V I i l l u s t r a t e s e v e r a l p o i n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f s a l m o n t o t h e N u x a l k v i l l a g e s o f t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y . F i r s t , i t i s s e l f e v i d e n t t h a t a l l v i l l a g e u n i t s w i t h i n N u x a l k t e r r i t o r y h a d d i r e c t a c c e s s t o a m a j o r s a l m o n p r o d u c i n g s t r e a m ( B e l l a C o o l a - A t n a r k o o r N e c l e e t s c o n n a y R i v e r s ) . O v e r o n e h a l f o f t h e v i l l a g e u n i t s a l s o h a d a c c e s s t o s i d e s t r e a m s w h i c h p r o d u c e s a l m o n . Of t h e l o w e r v a l l e y u n i t s , F a n d L h a d a c c e s s o n l y t o t h e m a i n r i v e r . F o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f u p p e r v a l l e y u n i t s , h o w e v e r , t h e B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r ( a n d A t n a r k o ) i s t h e o n l y m a j o r s a l m o n p r o d u c i n g s t r e a m t o w h i c h t h e y h a d a c c e s s . O n l y s e c t i o n P o f t h e u p p e r v a l l e y v i l l a g e u n i t s h a d a c c e s s t o -120- 1,500- ,000 - 5 0 0 ' 6 ' ' ' 9 ' ' '12' Bella Coola/Atnarko Rivers T a t s q u o n C r e e k 15- 1 0 - Snootli Creek Nooklikonnik Creek i igi ' i 9 ' ' ' l 2 ' 1 ' F i s h C r e e k Thorsen Creek 9 - , 3- 6 9 Nuxa lk C r e e k 6 9 12 Hagensborg Slough 25 2 0 - 15- 10- V 1 V 1 ' , 2 ' ' ' Sal loomt River • 6 ' ' ' 9 ' • 12' Nootsatsum Creek ' 6 ' 9 ' ' '12' Noosgulch River S k i m l i k s C reek Airport Side Creek C a c a h o o t i n C reek m o n t h s of the y e a r F i g u r e 7 . M o n t h l y Mean W e i g h t (MW) V a l u e s o f S a l m o n S t r e a m s . N o t e v a r i a b l e s = c a l e s . ' . ( 6 = J u n e ; 9 = S e p t . ; 1 2 = D e c ) -121- m a j o r s i d e s t r e a m s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , F i s h e r i e s a n d O c e a n s d a t a f o r t h e s e s t r e a m s a r e l a c k i n g . Of a l l t h e v i l l a g e u n i t s , o n l y H a n d E h a v e a c c e s s t o more t h a n o n e t r i b u t a r y s a l m o n p r o d u c i n g s t r e a m . A s s t a t e d e a r l i e r , t h e r e i s d i f f e r e n t i a l a c c e s s t o s a l m o n r e s o u r c e s o n t h e m a i n r i v e r i t s e l f . The u p p e r v a l l e y v i l l a g e s w o u l d n o t h a v e h a d d i r e c t a c c e s s t o s i g n i f i c a n t h a r v e s t o f e i t h e r c o h o o r chum s a l m o n a s t h e s e s p e c i e s t e n d t o spawn n e a r t h e l o w e r s t r e t c h e s o f t h e r i v e r . T h u s , a l t h o u g h a l l b u t t w o v i l l a g e u n i t s ( A , B ) h a d d i r e c t a c c e s s t o t h e m a i n r i v e r , o n l y t h e l o w e r v i l l a g e u n i t s (C t h r o u g h K) c o u l d h a v e h a d a c c e s s t o a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f a l l f i v e s p e c i e s . O n l y p r e l i m i n a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s b e t w e e n p o p u l a t i o n n u m b e r s a n d a c c e s s t o s a l m o n c a n be a s s e s s e d ( s e e T a b l e V I I ) . B o t h v i l l a g e s i z e a n d number o f v i l l a g e s w i t h i n a v i l l a g e u n i t c a n b e u s e d a s i n d i c a t o r s o f r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n s a n d t h e r e f o r e p r e f e r r e d s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n s . S e v e r a l v i l l a g e s w i t h i n a v i l l a g e u n i t s u g g e s t t h a t t h a t a r e a was e i t h e r o c c u p i e d r e p e a t e d l y t h r o u g h o u t t i m e , o r i f we a s s u m e c o m t e m p o r a n e i t y , l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n s a t a s i n g l e p o i n t i n t i m e . A c c o r d i n g t o d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e e t h n o g r a p h i e s ( s e e T a b l e I ) t h e r e i s a t l e a s t o n e l a r g e v i l l a g e w i t h i n m o s t o f t h e v i l l a g e u n i t s . O n l y s e c t i o n s E a n d G , w h i c h a r e c o m p o s e d o f s e v e n a n d t w o v i l l a g e s r e s p e c t i v e l y , a r e r e p o r t e d t o h a v e m o r e t h a n one l a r g e v i l l a g e . F i v e o f t h e s e v e n v i l l a g e s i n u n i t E a r e r e c o r d e d a s s i g n i f i c a n t i n s i z e ; b o t h s e t t l e m e n t s i n u n i t G a r e r e c o r d e d a s l a r g e v i l l a g e s . B o t h E a n d G h a d a c c e s s t o two o f t h e more p r o d u c t i v e s a l m o n p r o d u c i n g s t r e a m s ( r a n k e d 4 a n d 5). T h e v i l l a g e u n i t s h a v i n g a c c e s s t o t h e m o s t p r o d u c t i v e s a l m o n s t r e a m s , ( u n i t s A , B a n d J ) , h o w e v e r , show no d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s a l m o n a b u n d a n c e a n d n u m b e r s o f l a r g e v i l l a g e s ( s e e T a b l e V I I ) . S c a r c i t y o f s a l m o n i n t r i b u t a r i e s , h o w e v e r , seems t o be m o r e c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v i l l a g e u n i t s i z e . T h o s e v i l l a g e -122- u n i t s h a v i n g a c c e s s t o t h e l e a s t p r o d u c t i v e t r i b u t a r i e s ( u n i t s L , D, M , N; T a b l e V I I ) a r e r a n k e d l o w e s t i n b o t h s c a l e s o f v i l l a g e u n i t s i z e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t o f t h e f o u r l e a s t p r o d u c t i v e s t r e a m s ( n u m b e r s 1 2 - 1 5 , t a b l e V I ) , t w o w e r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v i l l a g e u n i t s w i t h no r e c o r d e d l a r g e v i l l a g e s . The o t h e r s t r e a m s , h o w e v e r , a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a r g e s e t t l e m e n t s w h i c h a l s o h a d a c c e s s t o m o r e p r o d u c t i v e s t r e a m s a n d t h e r e f o r e d i d n o t h a v e t o r e l y on t h e r u n i n t h e l e s s p r o d u c t i v e s t r e a m s . S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n (SD) v a l u e s i n T a b l e V I i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l o f v a r i a t i o n a r o u n d tMW v a l u e s o f s a l m o n s p a w n i n g p o p u l a t i o n s i n s t r e a m s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e i s much f l u c t u a t i o n i n s p a w n i n g p o p u l a t i o n n u m b e r s f r o m y e a r t o y e a r w i t h i n a s t r e a m . By c a l c u l a t i n g CV v a l u e s we a r e a b l e t o c o m p a r e t h e d e g r e e o f f l u c t u a t i o n f r o m o n e s t r e a m w i t h i n a v i l l a g e u n i t ' s t e r r i t o r y t o a n o t h e r . As w i t h s a l m o n a b u n d a n c e , t h e s c a n t y n a t u r e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n d a t a do n o t p e r m i t d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n s t a b i l i t y o f s a l m o n r u n s a n d s e t t l e m e n t s i z e . H o w e v e r , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t by f a r t h e l a r g e s t v i l l a g e u n i t ( u n i t E) h a d a c c e s s t o t h e m o s t s t a b l e o f t h e s a l m o n p r o d u c i n g t r i b u t a r i e s ( i . e . S k i m l i k s , w h i c h h a s a CV v a l u e o f 2 6 . 6 ) . I t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t l a r g e v a r i a t i o n s i n s a l m o n r u n s f r o m y e a r t o y e a r w o u l d b e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t i n s t r e a m s w i t h l o w mean w e i g h t v a l u e s . T h a t i s , i n b a d y e a r s some o f t h e l e a s t p r o d u c t i v e s t r e a m s w o u l d p r o b a b l y h a v e h a d t o l o o k f o r s u p p l e m e n t s t o t h e s a l m o n n o r m a l l y p r o c u r e d f r o m t h o s e l o c a l i t i e s . S a l m o n f r o m t h o s e s t r e a m s c o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d a d e p e n d a b l e s o u r c e o f f o o d f r o m y e a r t o y e a r . T h e d a t a do show t h a t v i l l a g e u n i t s h a v i n g a c c e s s t o s t r e a m s w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t f l u c t u a t i o n s ( i . e . u n i t s E , H , D; T a b l e V I I ) h a v e no l a r g e v i l l a g e s w i t h i n t h e v i l l a g e u n i t , o r t h e y a l s o h a d a c c e s s t o more s t a b l e s t r e a m s . T h e r e i s no d e t e c t a b l e a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n n u m b e r s o f v i l l a g e s 123- a n a s t r e a m f l u c t u a t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , m o r e d e f i n i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s b e t w e e n s a l m o n r u n s i z e a n d s t a b i l i t y a n d s e t t l e m e n t s i z e a r e d i f f i c u l t t o m a k e . We c a n o n l y t e n t a t i v e l y s t a t e t h a t t h e m o s t p r o d u c t i v e a n d s t a b l e s i d e s t r e a m s may h a v e p o s i t i v e l y a f f e c t e d t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f a n a r e a f o r s e t t l e m e n t , w h e r e a s t h e l e a s t p r o d u c t i v e a n d m o s t v a r i a b l e s t r e a m s h a d a s l i g h t n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on s e t t l e m e n t . A f e w c o m m e n t s c a n be made c o n c e r n i n g t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e a s t r e a m i s p r o d u c t i v e i n a n y g i v e n y e a r . O n l y t h r e e o f t h e s i x t e e n s i d e s t r e a m s f o r w h i c h d a t a e x i s t h a v e c h i n o o k p r e s e n t i n t h e i r w a t e r s ( N o o s g u l c h , N u s a t s u m , S a l l o o m t ) . The p r e s e n c e o f c h i n o o k w o u l d h a v e e x t e n d e d t h e s a l m o n s e a s o n i n t o e a r l y s p r i n g , a t i m e when o t h e r r e s o u r c e s w o u l d h a v e b e e n s c a r c e . I t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h o s e s t r e a m s w o u l d h a v e b e e n p r e f e r r e d h a r v e s t i n g l o c a t i o n s . The d a t a a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e i s an a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n l e n g t h o f t h e s a l m o n s e a s o n a n d number a n d s i z e o f v i l l a g e s w i t h i n v i l l a g e u n i t s ( s e e T a b l e V I I , n o s . 3,6,8), h o w e v e r a c a s u a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n d o e s n o t s u g g e s t s u c h a r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t t h e o n l y u p p e r v a l l e y u n i t w i t h m o r e t h a n o n e v i l l a g e ( u n i t S ) i s l o c a t e d a t a p r i m e c h i n o o k h a r v e s t i n g a r e a . P e r h a p s c h i n o o k do n o t o c c u r i n s u f f i c i e n t n u m b e r s i n t h e l o w e r v a l l e y s t r e a m s t o h a v e h a d an e f f e c t o n s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s . I n s u m , a f e w p r e l i m i n a r y c o n c l u s i o n s c a n be d r a w n f r o m t h i s a n a l y s i s . F i r s t , a l l v i l l a g e u n i t s w i t h i n t h e N u x a l k t e r r i t o r y o f t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y h a d a c c e s s t o s a l m o n w h i c h a p p e a r s t o be a minimum r e q u i r e m e n t f o r s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n i n t h e v a l l e y . A c c e s s i b i l i t y f r o m v i l l a g e t o v i l l a g e , h o w e v e r , d e c r e a s e s e a s t w a r d i n t h e v a l l e y a s t h e number o f s p e c i e s a v a i l a b l e , a s w e l l a s t h e number o f s a l m o n p r o d u c i n g s i d e s t r e a m s a l s o d e c r e a s e s . I n t h e u p p e r v a l l e y , v i l l a g e s a p p e a r t o be -124- d i s t r i b u t e d e v e n l y t h r o u g h o u t , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f s i d e s t r e a m s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t a c c e s s t o s a l m o n p r o d u c i n g s i d e s t r e a m s was n o t e s s e n t i a l t o v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n . S e c o n d , t h e r e may b e a s l i g h t a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n mean w e i g h t v a l u e s f o r s i d e s t r e a m s a n d v i l l a g e s i z e , a s l a r g e r v i l l a g e u n i t s t e n d t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m o r e p r o d u c t i v e s a l m o n s t r e a m s , a n d s m a l l e r v i l l a g e u n i t s w i t h l o w e r p r o d u c i n g a r e a s . M o r e d e f i n i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s a r e i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t more c o m p l e t e d a t a . T h a t t h e r e i s a t l e a s t one l a r g e v i l l a g e w i t h i n m o s t v i l l a g e u n i t s , h o w e v e r , d o e s s u g g e s t t h a t t h o s e l o c a t i o n s w e r e s u f f i c i e n t l y " r i c h " i n t h i s r e s o u r c e t o s u p p o r t s i g n i f i c a n t p o p u l a t i o n s . P e r h a p s , i t i s o n l y v e r y l a r g e o r v e r y s m a l l s a l m o n n u m b e r s w h i c h t e n d t o a f f e c t t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f a s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n . W i t h i n t h e s e l i m i t s , h o w e v e r , o t h e r f a c t o r s b e g i n t o m e d i a t e t h e d e c i s i o n t o l o c a t e i n a s p e c i f i c a r e a . -125- The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n O t h e r A q u a t i c R e s o u r c e s a n d S e t t l e m e n t s M e t h o d s S i n c e d a t a c o m p a r a b l e t o t h o s e a v a i l a b l e f o r s a l m o n do n o t e x i s t f o r o t h e r a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e s e x p l o i t e d b y t h e N u x a l k , t h i s a n a l y s i s m u s t b e l e s s s p e c i f i c . D r a w i n g f r o m t h e d a t a on p r e f e r r e d h a b i t a t s o f t h e s e s p e c i e s ( s e e A p p e n d i x I I ) , a s w e l l a s more s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e f o r a few o f t h e s p e c i e s , t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s t o t h e v i l l a g e u n i t s w i l l be d e s c r i b e d . R e s u l t s - A v a i l a b i l i t y o f A q u a t i c R e s o u r c e s A f e w o f t h e t o t a l a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e s p e c i e s e x p l o i t e d by t h e N u x a l k w e r e a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y i t s e l f . P r e s u m a b l y o t h e r r e s o u r c e s w e r e o b t a i n e d by t h e N u x a l k e i t h e r b y h a r v e s t i n g them d i r e c t l y i n o p e n unowned w a t e r s , o r b y o b t a i n i n g p e r m i s s i o n f r o m n e i g h b o u r i n g g r o u p s i n a r e a s w h e r e r e s o u r c e s w e r e o w n e d . O o l i g a n s , t r o u t , a f e w h e r r i n g a n d s t a r r y f l o u n d e r , a n d t h e s e a mammals ( h a i r s e a l , s e a l i o n , a n d s e a o t t e r ) a r e t h e o n l y a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e s w h i c h w e r e a v a i l a b l e i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y i t s e l f . Of t h e w a t e r b i r d s , o n l y d u c k s , g e e s e , s w a n s , g u l l s a n d e a g l e s a r e a v a i l a b l e i n t h e v a l l e y . T a b l e V I I I l i s t s t h e a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e s t h a t w e r e d i r e c t l y a v a i l a b l e t o t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y N u x a l k , a s w e l l a s t h e v i l l a g e u n i t s t h a t w o u l d h a v e a c c e s s t o t h e s e r e s o u r c e s . A c c e s s i b i l i t y o f e a c h s p e c i e s i s b r i e f l y r e c a p p e d b e l o w . O o l i g a n - A c c e s s t o t h e o o l i g a n r e s o u r c e w o u l d h a v e b e e n r e s t r i c t e d o n l y t o t h e l o w e r r i v e r v i l l a g e s s i n c e o o l i g a n s t e n d t o spawn i n t h e f i r s t f o u r m i l e s o f t h e r i v e r . A l l o o l i g a n n e t l o c a t i o n s w e r e c a r e f u l l y g u a r d e d by t h e m i n m i n t s ; t h e u p p e r v i l l a g e s w o u l d n o t h a v e d i r e c t a c c e s s t o t h i s r e s o u r c e . -126- S t e e l h e a d trout- S t e e l h e a d w e r e a v a i l a b l e t o a l l t h e N u x a l k , a s t h e y c o u l d be t a k e n i n unowned w a t e r s of t h e u p p e r r i v e r w i t h a hook a n d l i n e . T h e y w e r e most a c c e s s i b l e , h o w e v e r , t o t h e v i l l a g e u n i t s l o c a t e d i n t h e u p p e r r e a c h e s o f t h e r i v e r , a s t h e y w e r e m o s t a b u n d a n t a n d e a s i e r t o p r o c u r e i n t h e h o l d i n g p o o l s i n t h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e r i v e r . A c c e s s t o s t e e l h e a d t h a t s p a w n e d i n s i d e c r e e k s o f t h e B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r , w a s p r e s u m a b l y r e s t r i c t e d by m i n m i n t s o w n e r s h i p o f t h o s e s t r e a m s . C u t t h r o a t a n d d o l l y v a r d e n t r o u t - T h e s e s p e c i e s c o u l d b e h a r v e s t e d i n t h e g r e a t e s t n u m b e r s i n t h e u p p e r B e l l a C o o l a a n d A t n a r k o R i v e r s . A c c e s s t o t h o s e c u t t h r o a t w h i c h s p a w n e d i n t h e s i d e c r e e k s o f t h e l o w e r v a l l e y w o u l d h a v e b e e n c o n t r o l l e d by t h e m i n m i n t s . H e r r i n g - A c c e s s t o t h o s e f i s h t h a t d i d e n t e r t h e B e l l a C o o l a s y s t e m was p r o b a b l y r e s t r i c t e d b y t h e v i l l a g e s a t t h e m o u t h o f t h e r i v e r , w h i c h h a d c o n t r o l o f t r a p , d i ^ A e t s , a n d e g g h a r v e s t i n g l o c a t i o n s . F l o u n d e r - T h e s e f i s h w e r e u s u a l l y h a r v e s t e d i n u n o w n e d , o p e n w a t e r s t o t h e w e s t . T h o s e f o u n d a t t h e r i v e r ' s m o u t h w e r e m o r e a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e v i l l a g e s l o c a t e d t h e r e . S e a m a m m a l s - T h e s e r e s o u r c e s w e r e m o s t l y c a u g h t w i t h h a r p o o n s i n o p e n , unowned w a t e r s by t h o s e who h a d t h e p r i v i l e g e o f h u n t i n g t h e m . T r a p s , s e t a t t h e r i v e r ' s m o u t h , w e r e p r o b a b l y owned by t h e v i l l a g e s l o c a t e d c l o s e s t t o t h e m . W a t e r f o w l - A c c e s s t o t h e w a t e r f o w l f r e q u e n t i n g t h e t i d a l f l a t s , by f a r t h e p r i m e h a r v e s t i n g a r e a , w o u l d n o t h a v e a c t u a l l y b e e n r e s t r i c t e d , h o w e v e r , t h e v i l l a g e s l o c a t e d i n t h e n e a r v i c i n i t y w o u l d h a v e h a d g r e a t e r a c c e s s . A c c e s s t o o t h e r a r e a s i n t h e v a l l e y was p r o b a b l y r e s t r i c t e d by m i n m i n t s o w n e r s h i p . H e r r i n g g u l l s - S i n c e g u l l s w e r e t a k e n w i t h bow a n d a r r o w , t h e y c o u l d be c a u g h t by a l l v i l l a g e r s . H o w e v e r , i t was p r o b a b l y t h e l o w e r v a l l e y -127- TABLE V I I I , VILLAGE UNITS HAVING MOST DIRECT ACCESS TO AQUATIC RESOURCES B D E K M N R NX X1' fr^^t" " " " WW i f ** ** ** ** ** ** ** *** ****** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** * ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** * These v i l l a g e u n i t s l i k e l y had exclusive r i g h t s to the harvest of these resources. ** These v i l l a g e u n i t s d i d not have exclusive rights to these resources, but were most s t r a t e g i c a l l y l o c a t e d to harvest them. *** These v i l l a g e u n i t s had, bo th exclusive r i g h t s to tr o u t harvesting l o c a t i o n s , as w e l l as to the main r i v e r t r o u t , where the harvest was not r e s t r i c t e d . -128- v i 1 1 a g e s t h a t m o s t o f t e n e x p l o i t e d t h i s r e s o u r c e b e c a u s e i t was m o s t a b u n d a n t t h e r e . E a g l e s - T h e s e a r e m o s t c o n c e n t r a t e d , a n d p r e s u m a b l y e a s i e s t t o c a t c h , i n t h e l o w e r r e a c h e s o f t h e r i v e r . S i n c e s n a r i n g l o c a t i o n s o f e a g l e s w e r e p r o b a b l y o w n e d , t h e i r c a p t u r e w o u l d h a v e b e e n l a r g e l y r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e l o w e r r i v e r v i l l a g e s . D i s c u s s i o n I t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h c e r t a i n g e n e r a l p a t t e r n s c o n c e r n i n g a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e s . F i r s t , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e v i l l a g e u n i t s a t t h e m o u t h o f t h e r i v e r h a d by f a r t h e g r e a t e s t a c c e s s t o t h i s s e t o f r e s o u r c e s . The a c c e s s i b i l i t y to o o l i g a n t h e l o w e r f i v e v i l l a g e s , a n d e s p e c i a l l y t o t h e m a i n r i v e r u n i t s (C , D , E ) w h e r e o o l i g a n i s m o s t a b u n d a n t , w o u l d h a v e b e e n a g r e a t a d v a n t a g e . The a r r i v a l o f t h e s e f i s h i n t h e e a r l y s p r i n g when s t o r e s w e r e l o w , a n d t h e i r v a l u e a s a c o n t r i b u t o r o f f a t t o t h e d i e t , w o u l d make t h e m a h i g h l y p r i z e d r e s o u r c e . L i k e w i s e t h e w a t e r f o w l a n d s e a m a m m a l s , a l t h o u g h t h e y may n o t h a v e made up a m a j o r p o r t i o n o f t h e d i e t , w o u l d h a v e b e e n v a l u e d f o r t h e w e l c o m e c h a n g e t h e y o f f e r e d . -129- The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f P l a n t R e s o u r c e s and S e t t l e m e n t s M e t h o d s The m e t h o d s u s e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s a r e l a r g e l y t h o s e a p p l i e d i n s i t e c a t c h m e n t s t u d i e s . H e r e , s e v e r a l s t e p s a r e u n d e r t a k e n t o e v a l u a t e b o t h t h e o v e r a l l v a l u e o f p l a n t r e s o u r c e s t o t h e N u x a l k economy and t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l N u x a l k s e t t l e m e n t s . S i n c e t h e a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e s many d i s t i n c t s t e p s , t h e y a r e b r i e f l y r e v i e w e d h e r e t o e n s u r e c l a r i t y . F i r s t , p l a n t s a r e g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r a c c o r d i n g t o s i m i l a r i t y o f a b u n d a n c e s a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n s ; t h e s e g r o u p i n g s a r e t e r m e d c o v e r - t y p e s . T h i s s t e p i s u n d e r t a k e n i n o r d e r t o make t h e a n a l y s i s l e s s c u m b e r s o m e , a s a l a r g e number o f p l a n t s p e c i e s i s c o n s i d e r e d . I n d i v i d u a l p l a n t s w i t h i n e a c h c o v e r - t y p e a r e t h e n e v a l u a t e d s e p a r a t e l y a c c o r d i n g t o an aDSolute r a t i n g . The sum o f t h e s e v a l u e s i n t u r n i s u s e d t o r a t e t h e v a l u e o f e a c h c o v e r - t y p e a s a w h o l e . B e c a u s e p l a n t r e s o u r c e s a r e h i g h l y s e a s o n a l , c o v e r - t y p e v a l u e s a r e a l s o d e t e r m i n e d on a m o n t h l y b a s i s t o i n d i c a t e t h e v a l u e t h r o u g h a s e a s o n . The f i n a l s t e p o f t h e a n a l y s i s i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f e a c h c o v e r - t y p e t o t h e N u x a l k s e t t l e m e n t s t o d e t e r m i n e i f d i f f e r e n t s e t t l e m e n t s do h a v e d i f f e r e n t i a l a c c e s s t o v a l u a b l e p l a n t r e s o u r c e s . A more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f e a c h s t e p o f t h e a n a l y s i s i s g i v e n b e l o w . D e l i n e a t i o n o f C o v e r - t y p e s D i v i s i o n i n t o c o v e r - t y p e s was f a c i l i t a t e d by i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m s e v e r a l s o u r c e s w h i c h d e t a i l t h e g e n e r a l e c o l o g y o f t h e v a l l e y . R e s e a r c h e r s o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s have d i v i d e d t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y i n t o t e n t a t i v e b i o g e o c l i m a t i c z o n e s ( Y o l e e t aj_. 1 9 8 2 ; R o b i n s o n and P o j a r 1 9 8 1 ) . The b a s i s o f t h e c o v e r - t y p e s u s e d h e r e a r e t a k e n f r o m t h e s e s t u d i e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e p l a n t l i s t s s u p p l i e d a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y d e t a i l e d f o r -130- my p u r p o s e s and t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e l o w e r v a l l e y z o n e i s n o t c o r r e c t . The o t h e r m a j o r s o u r c e f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s comes f r o m f i e l d n o t e s on t h e p r e s e n t - d a y r o a d s i d e v e g e t a t i o n a l o n g t h e v a l l e y ( T u r n e r 1 9 8 2 ) . T h e s e n o t e s i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h t h e M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , a s w e l l a s p e r s o n a l k n o w l e d g e o f t h e v a l l e y ' s f l o r a , e n a b l e d me t o d i v i d e t h e u p p e r v a l l e y i n t o c o v e r - t y p e s . Lower v a l l e y c o v e r - t y p e s w e r e d e f i n e d f o l l o w i n g a d e t a i l e d e c o l o g i c a l s t u d y c o m p l e t e d on t h e p r e s e n t - d a y N u x a l k r e s e r v e i n t h e summer o f 1982 ( L e p o f s k y , T u r n e r , and K u h n l e i n 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e s e c o v e r - t y p e s w e r e e x t r a p o l a t e d t o t h e p a r t s o f t h e v a l l e y f u r t h e r e a s t w a r d , w h i c h had s i m i l a r v e g e t a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s . The p l a n t s p e c i e s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e e a c h c o v e r - t y p e a r e p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x I V . S p e c i e s i n c l u d e d h e r e a r e o n l y t h o s e t h a t w e r e u t i l i z e d by t h e N u x a l k e i t h e r f o r f o o d a n d / o r raw m a t e r i a l s and o n l y t h o s e s p e c i e s t h a t o c c u r w i t h r e g u l a r i t y i n e a c h c o v e r - t y p e ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10-20% a b u n d a n c e ) a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e d e s c r i p t i v e l i s t s . I t was f e l t t h a t p l a n t s t h a t o c c u r o n l y r a r e l y i n a c o v e r - t y p e w o u l d p l a y o n l y a m i n o r r o l e i n t h e economy s i n c e t h e e f f o r t n e e d e d t o l o c a t e them w o u l d n e g a t e t h e v a l u e o f t h e r e s o u r c e . O b v i o u s l y , t h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t i n t h e c a s e o f p l a n t f o o d s . Once t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f c o v e r - t y p e s was c o m p l e t e d , t h e p r e - c o n t a c t v e g e t a t i o n p a t t e r n s o f t h e v a l l e y a s a w h o l e w e r e d e t e r m i n e d . L o g g i n g r e p o r t s and maps w h i c h document t h e e a r l i e s t l o g g i n g i n t h e v a l l e y ( b e g i n n i n g i n t h e l a t e 1 9 4 0 ' s ) w e r e e s s e n t i a l h e r e CoWifcia, Mi"-/»;i5lrybf -fwtsb, n . d . ) . T h e s e r e p o r t s n o t o n l y s u p p l i e d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e t y p e s o f t r e e s , b u t a l s o t h e age o f t h e t r e e s t h a t w e r e l o g g e d . G i v e n t h e c o v e r - t y p e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , I was a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e f o r e s t t y p e s i n e a c h a r e a p r i o r t o l o g g i n g . The age o f t h e t r e e s (most o f them b e i n g o v e r 250 y e a r s ) , e n a b l e d me t o d e t e r m i n e what s t a g e o f s u c c e s s i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e -131- d i f f e r e n t a r e a s a t t h e t i m e b e f o r e E u r o p e a n c o n t a c t . The s e c o n d g r o w t h c o v e r - t y p e s a r e r e s u l t a n t s u c c e s s i o n a l s t a g e s a f t e r a f o r e s t h a s b e e n c u t down o r b u r n e d . T h e s e z o n e s o f f e r a w i d e v a r i e t y o f s p e c i e s n o t a v a i l a b l e i n m a t u r e f o r e s t s . I t i s known t h a t t h e N u x a l k , l i k e o t h e r c o a s t a l g r o u p s , d i d i n t e n t i o n a l l y b u r n down p o r t i o n s o f t h e f o r e s t t o i n c r e a s e p l a n t p r o d u c t i v i t y ( N u x a l k e l d e r , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e w h e r e t h e s e p l o t s w o u l d h a v e e x i s t e d i n t h e p a s t . P r e s u m a b l y s u c h p r a c t i c e s w e r e u n d e r t a k e n by e a c h m i n m i n t s , a s p l a n t g a t h e r i n g z o n e s w e r e owned a n d u s e d by e a c h v i l l a g e u n i t . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s , i t i s a s s u m e d t h a t t h e S e c o n d G r o w t h New c o v e r - t y p e s (SGNw a n d SGNd) w e r e l o c a t e d i n t h e a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g e a c h v i l l a g e s e t t l e m e n t . ( T h i s i s p a r t i a l l y c o n f i r m e d by l o g g i n g r e p o r t s ) . O l d e r s e c o n d g r o w t h a r e a s (SGO) seem t o h a v e e x i s t e d i n e x t r e m e l y w e t a r e a s i n t h e l o w e r v a l l e y . O t h e r t h a n a f e w l o c a l i t i e s i n d i c a t e d by t h e l o g g i n g r e p o r t s , t h e p r e - c o n t a c t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s c o v e r - t y p e i n t h e u p p e r v a l l e y i s l a r g e l y u n k n o w n . The C o t t o n w o o d c o v e r - t y p e ( C o t ) i s common t h r o u g h o u t t h e v a l l e y a l o n g t h e B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r . A s s i g n i n g V a l u e s f o r C o v e r - t y p e s The n e x t s t e p o f t h e a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e d a s s i g n i n g r e l a t i v e e c o n o m i c v a l u e s t o e a c h o f t h e p l a n t s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e c o v e r - t y p e s . T h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d by e v a l u a t i n g e a c h s p e c i e s a c c o r d i n g t o e i g h t a t t r i b u t e s : 1 . a b u n d a n c e ; 2 . p e o p l e n e e d e d f o r h a r v e s t ; 3 . a f f e c t o f h a r v e s t ; 4 . p r o c e s s i n g t o u t i l i z e ; 5 . s t o r a b i l i t y ; 6 . y e a r l y r e l i a b i l i t y ; 7 . e a s e o f h a r v e s t ; 8 . u s e s ( s e e T a b l e I X ) . The a t t r i b u t e s a r e i n t e n d e d t o e n c o m p a s s b o t h t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s o f t h e p l a n t i t s e l f , a n d t h e c u l t u r a l r e s t r i c t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n i t s u t i l i z a t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , o n l y s c a n t y i n f o r m a t i o n e x i s t s on t h e n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e s o f t h e p l a n t f o o d s . No d o u b t t a s t e a n d e n e r g y -132- v a l u e , a s w e l l a s t h e p r e s e n c e o f e s s e n t i a l n u t r i e n t s , w e r e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e g u l a r u s e o f p l a n t f o o d s by t h e N u x a l k . E n e r g y v a l u e i s p a r t i a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n a t t r i b u t e 8 , w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e s f o o d a n a n o n - f o o d r e s o u r c e s . I n t h e a b s e n c e o f more i n f o r m a t i o n , i t was d e c i d e d n o t t o i n c l u d e any a s s e s s m e n t s o f t h e n u t r i t i o n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n o f e a c h s p e c i e s . A n o t h e r f a c t o r w h i c h i s n o t a b l y a b s e n t f r o m t h i s a n a l y s i s i s t h e s o c i a l o r p r e s t i g e v a l u e o f t h e s p e c i f i c p l a n t r e s o u r c e s . A g a i n , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o g e t c o n s i s t e n t d a t a c o n c e r n i n g t h i s a t t r i b u t e . J o c h i m ( 1 9 7 6 : 2 6 ) h a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t a r e s o u r c e i s more p r e s t i g i o u s t h e l o w e r i t s d e n s i t y , and t h e h i g h e r i t s w e i g h t , f a t c o n t e n t and n o n - f o o d y i e l d . I am r e l u c t a n t t o a d o p t t h i s i d e a , h o w e v e r , b e c a u s e a l t h o u g h t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s may c e r t a i n l y be r e l a t e d t o p r e s t i g e , i t i s n o t c l e a r e x a c t l y how, and i n w h a t p r o p o r t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , J o c h i m ' s d e f i n i t i o n seems more a p p l i c a b l e t o a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s t h a n p l a n t s . W i t h o u t more d e t a i l e d e t h n o g r a p h i c s t u d i e s , p r e s t i g e v a l u e w i l l have t o be e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s . V a l u e s f o r f o o d and n o n - f o o d u t i l i z e d p l a n t p a r t s have been c a l c u l a t e d s e p a r a t e l y i n t h i s a n a l y s i s , a s i f t h e y w e r e s e p a r a t e s p e c i e s ( i . e . i n s t e a d o f t a k i n g an a v e r a g e o f t h e v a l u e s o f e a c h ) . T h i s was done b e c a u s e , i n m o s t c a s e s t h e r e i s l i t t l e t e m p o r a l o v e r l a p i n t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e two u t i l i z e d p a r t s . To t h e g a t h e r e r , t h e n , i t was a s i f t h e y w e r e c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t r e s o u r c e s . I n a s s e s s i n g t h e v a l u e s o f p l a n t s p e c i e s , a s many r e l e v a n t a t t r i b u t e s f o r w h i c h o a t a w e r e a v a i l a b l e w e r e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s , and s t a n d a r d i z e d j u d g e m e n t s w e r e made. S t i l l , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n t r o l f o r a l l b i a s e s . Much g r e a t e r e m p h a s i s may have b e e n p l a c e d t r a d i t i o n a l l y on t'he s t o r a b i l i t y o f r e s o u r c e s r a t h e r t h a n e a s e o f h a r v e s t i n g . W i t h o u t s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o w e i g h a l l a t t r i b u t e s e q u a l l y . T h a t t h e r e a r e many a t t r i b u t e s w i t h w h i c h t h e p l a n t s -133- a r e m e a s u r e d somewhat r e d u c e s t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t t h e w r o n g e m p h a s i s o n any s i n g l e a t t r i b u t e w i l l g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e t h e r e s u l t s . The v a l u e s o f e a c h c o v e r - t y p e a s a w h o l e w e r e c a l c u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d o m i n a n t u t i l i z e d s p e c i e s , a s w e l l a s t h e s e a s o n a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e p l a n t s f o u n d w i t h i n . T h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d by a d d i n g t o g e t h e r t h e p l a n t v a l u e s f o r e a c h m o n t h i n w h i c h t h e y w e r e h a r v e s t a b l e . T h i s s t e p o f t h e a n a l y s i s was u n d e r t a k e n a s i t i s a s s u m e d t h a t c o v e r - t y p e s w h i c h o f f e r r e s o u r c e s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y f o o d r e s o u r c e s ) f o r a l o n g e r s e a s o n u l t i m a t e l y w i l l be o f g r e a t e r v a l u e t o t h e e c o n o m y . T h a t i s , i f t h e h a r v e s t t i m e s f o r m o s t p l a n t s c l u s t e r a r o u n d s e v e r a l w e e k s o f t h e y e a r , c o v e r - t y p e s w h i c h o f f e r p l a n t r e s o u r c e s a t o t h e r t i m e s w i l l p r e s u m a b l y be more v a l u e d . A c c e s s i b i l i t y o f C o v e r - t y p e s t o S e t t l e m e n t s The f i n a l s t e p o f t h e a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e s d e t e r m i n i n g t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f the settlements to each cover-type. T h i s w a s a c c o m p l i s h e d b y d e l i m i t i n g t h e " c a t c h m e n t a r e a " , o r t h e a r e a t h a t w o u l d h a v e b e e n m o s t o f t e n u s e d by t h e v i l l a g e i n h a b i t a n t s , a r o u n d s e l e c t e d v i l l a g e u n i t s . A s c o v e r - t y p e d i s t r i b u t i o n s t e n d t o b e r e l a t i v e l y h o m o g e n e o u s i n l a r g e a r e a s i n t h e v a l l e y , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t s e l e c t v i l l a g e u n i t s w o u l d b e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f o t h e r s i n a s i m i l a r e n v i r o n m e n t . V i l l a g e u n i t s w e r e s e l e c t e d i n o r d e r t h a t c h a n g e s i n c o v e r - t y p e d i s t r i b u t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e v a l l e y be a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t e d , a n d t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n maps w o u l d n o t be u n n e c e s s a r i l y c o n g e s t e d . F o r t h e m o s t p a r t , a t l e a s t e v e r y o t h e r v i l l a g e u n i t w a s u s e d . 10 V i l l a g e u n i t s , o f a t o t a l o f 2 0 , w e r e t h u s s e l e c t e d . The s h a p e o f t h e c a t c h m e n t was d e c i d e d u p o n a c c o r d i n g t o t i m e - d i s t a n c e s f r o m t h e c e n t e r o f t h e v i l l a g e u n i t t o a maximum d i s t a n c e o f h a l f way t o t h e n e x t v i l l a g e u n i t . T h i s m e t h o d a s s u m e s t h a t e a c h v i l l a g e - 1 3 4 - u n i t w o u l d h a v e u t i l i z e d ( o w n e d ) a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same a r e a l e x t e n t s u r r o u n d i n g i t . C l e a r l y , t h i s i s a v e r y r o u g h e s t i m a t e o f v i l l a g e l a n d u s e . I n f a c t , v i l l a g e s l o c a t e d i n t h e d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d l o w e r v a l l e y w o u l d h a v e h a d much l e s s l a n d a v a i l a b l e t o t h e e a s t a n d w e s t o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t t h a n t h e v i l l a g e s f u r t h e r up t h e v a l l e y . H o w e v e r , s i n c e d e t a i l e d d a t a on l a n d u s e a n d c o n t e m p o r a n e i t y o f s i t e s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e , a v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n h a d t o s u f f i c e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e m e m b e r , h o w e v e r , w h a t we a r e m o s t c o n c e r n e d w i t h h e r e i s d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e l a t i v e s u i t a b i l i t y o f an a r e a f o r s e t t l e m e n t . T h a t g o a l i s n o t c o m p r o m i s e d a l t h o u g h t h e a n a l y s i s i s n e c e s s a r i l y g r o s s . D u r i n g s u r v e y w o r k c o n d u c t e d i n t h e v a l l e y i n 1982 ( L e p o f s k y e i a l . 1 9 8 5 ) , e x p e r i m e n t s i n t h e f i e l d s h o w e d a n a v e r a g e w a l k i n g t i m e o f 2 / 3 km p e r h o u r t h r o u g h t h i c k u n d e r b r u s h i n t h e v a l l e y ' s f o r e s t . I n a r e a s w i t h l e s s d e n s e u n d e r b r u s h , a g r e a t e r w a l k i n g s p e e d was p o s s i b l e . T h e t i m e r e q u i r e d t o c l i m b t h e s t e e p m o u n t a i n s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e v i l l a g e u n i t s was a l s o d e t e r m i n e d . G i v e n t h e t r a v e l t i m e s e s t i m a t e d i n t h e f i e l d , 1 , 2 , a n d 3 h o u r t i m e c o n t o u r s f r o m t h e c e n t e r o f t h e v i l l a g e u n i t c o u l d be d e l i n e a t e d . I n a r e a s w h e r e t i m e c o n t o u r s o v e r l a p p e d w i t h t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e a d j a c e n t v i l l a g e u n i t , t i m e c o n t o u r s w e r e d r a w n o n l y t o t h e n o r t h a n d s o u t h . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , t h e y e a r l y i n d e x v a l u e f o r e a c h v i l l a g e u n i t c o u l d be c a l c u l a t e d . T h i s s t e p o f t h e a n a l y s i s w a s a c c o m p l i s h e d by summing t h e i n d e x v a l u e s f o r e a c h v i l l a g e u n i t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c o v e r - t y p e w i t h i n e a c h c a t c h m e n t a r e a . S e a s o n a l v a l u e s ( i . e . w i n t e r : d e c . , j a n . , f e b . ; s p r i n g : m a r . , a p r . , m a y ; summer: j u n . , j u l . , a u g . ; f a l l : s e p . , o c t . , n o v . ) f o r e a c h c o v e r - t y p e w e r e a l s o c a l c u l a t e d . W i t h i n a s e a s o n , a minimum a n d maximum i n d e x v a l u e was d e t e r m i n e d . -135- R e s u l t s a n d D i s c u s s i o n D e l i n e a t i o n o f C o v e r - t y p e s The p r e - c o n t a c t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o v e r - t y p e s a s d e s i g n a t e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n f i g u r e 8 . S e v e r a l p o i n t s s h o u l d b e made c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o v e r - t y p e d e s i g n a t i o n s u s e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . F i r s t , t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m i s h i g h l y s i m p l i f i e d . R a r e l y c a n o n e d r a w s h a r p d i v i s i o n s b e t w e e n c o v e r - t y p e s , u n l e s s t h e r e i s a d r a s t i c a n d s u d d e n c h a n g e i n t h e l a n d s c a p e ( e . g . a s h a r p e l e v a t i o n a l c h a n g e ) . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s , no l i n e s a r e d r a w n d e l i m i t i n g t h e c o v e r - t y p e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l c o v e r - t y p e s t h a t a r e p u r p o s e f u l l y e x c l u d e d f r o m t h i s a n a l y s i s . T h e s e i n c l u d e a r e a s s u c h a s s w a m p s , b o g s , s c r e e s l o p e s , a n d t r a n s i t i o n a l f o r e s t c o v e r - t y p e s . L o c a t i n g t h e s e a r e a s p r e c i s e l y was n o t p o s s i b l e g i v e n t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a . F u r t h e r m o r e , c o v e r - t y p e z o n e s o f s m a l l e x t e n t w e r e n o t l i k e l y t o h a v e p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e economy ( s e e p . 19 o f t e x t , C h a p t e r I ) . T h e y h a v e b e e n i n c l u d e d i n t h e l a r g e r c o v e r - t y p e s i n t o w h i c h t h e y f a l l . The c o v e r - t y p e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r e s e n t e d h e r e r e p r e s e n t s t h e v a r i o u s s u c c e s s i o n a l s t a g e s o f t h e f o r e s t , a s w e l l a s t h e r i v e r i n e - a s s o c i a t e d f l o r a , o f b o t h t h e u p p e r a n d l o w e r v a l l e y . The s i g n i f i c a n t l y d r i e r e n v i r o n m e n t i n t h e u p p e r r e a c h e s o f t h e v a l l e y i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e number a n d k i n d o f f l o r a l s p e c i e s a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h o u t t h e v a l l e y . T h u s , f l o r a l r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e u p p e r v a l l e y i n h a b i t a n t s w o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be a v a i l a b l e t o t h e l o w e r v i l l a g e s , a n d v i c e v e r s a . A s s i g n i n g V a l u e s f o r C o v e r - t y p e s The r e s u l t s o f t h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e a n a l y s i s , i n v o l v i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t i n d e x v a l u e s a n d t h e v a l u e s o f e a c h c o v e r - t y p e a s a w h o l e f o r a l l p l a n t s p e c i e s a n d b r o k e n down by m o n t h , a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e I X , a n d -136- 126*20'w Upper Bella Coola Valley I Figure 8. Pre-contact Distribution of Cover-types Key: SGNd- Second Growth New-dry; SGOd- Second Growth Old-dry; Cot- Cottonwood; DFw- Douglas Fir-wet; DFd- Douglas Fir-dry; SGNw- Second Growth New-wet; SGOw- Second Growth Old-wet; WHw- Western Hemlock-wet; WHd- Western Hemlock-dry; TF- Tidal Flat -13-7- TABLE IX INDICES OF PLANT V A L U E S * I n d e x o f V a l u e by A t t r i b u t e * * Sum o f S p e c i e s : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 I n d i c e s TREES R e d c e d a r 4 1 1 1 3 3 1 1 15 S i t k a s p r u c e 2 1 1 2 3 3 1 1 14 L o d g e p o l e p i n e 1 1 1 2 3 3 1 1 13 D o u g l a s - f i r wood 3 1 1 2 3 3 1 1 15 i n n e r b a r k 3 1 1 1 3 3 1 2 16 W e s t e r n h e m l o c k wood 3 1 1 2 3 3 1 1 15 i n n e r b a r k 3 1 1 1 3 3 1 2 15 D o u g l a s m a p l e 3 1 1 2 3 3 2 1 16 R e d a l d e r 3 1 1 2 3 3 2 1 16 P a p e r b i r c h 3 _ 1 1 2 3 3 2 1 16 B i t t e r c h e r r y 1 2 1 2 3 3 2 1 15 P a c i f i c c r a b a p p l e wood 3 2 1 2 3 3 2 1 17 f r u i t 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 18 B l a c k c o t t o n w o o d wood 3 1 1 2 3 3 1 1 15 i n n e r b a r k 3 1 1 1 1 3 3 1 13 SHRUBS 20 R e d e l d e r b e r r y wood 4 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 f r u i t 4 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 21 H i g h b u s h c r a n b e r r y 3 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 19 R e d - o s i e r dogwood 4 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 20 S o a p b e r r y 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 18 S a l a l 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 20 F a l s e a z a l e a 4 2 1 3 3 3 3 1 20 A l a s k a b l u e b e r r y 4 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 21 M o u n t a i n b i l b e r r y 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 20 O v a l - l e a f e d b l u e b e r r y 4 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 21 Red h u c k l e b e r r y 4 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 21 18 S t i n k c u r r a n t 2 2 2 3 3 1 3 2 W i l d g o o s e b e r r y 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 20 Swamp g o o s e b e r r y 2 2 2 3 3 1 3 2 18 17 W i l d b l u e c u r r a n t 1 2 2 3 3 1 3 2 S a s k a t o o n wood 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 19 b e r r y 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 20 N o o t k a r o s e 4 2 2 2 1 3 3 2 19 W i l d r o s e 2 2 2 2 1 3 3 2 17 W i l d r a s p b e r r y 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 0 B l a c k c a p 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 20 2 0 T h i m b l e b e r r y 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 s h o o t s 2 2 2 3 1 3 3 2 18 S a l m o n b e r r y 4 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 21 s h o o t s 2 2 2 3 1 3 3 2 18 S p i r e a 4 2 1 2 3 3 3 1 19 W i l l o w s 4 2 1 2 3 3 3 1 19 HERBS 1 16 H o r s e t a i l s t a l k 2 2 2 2 1 3 3 r o o t 2 2 2 2 1 3 2 2 16 S p i n y wood f e r n 4 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 20 B r a c k e n f e r n 4 2 2 1 3 3 1 2 18 S k u n k c a b b a g e l e a v e s f r u i t 2 2 CM  CM  3 3 1 1 3 3 2 2 1 2 16 17 -138- A t t r i b u t e s : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 T o t a l R i c e r o o t T 1 T 1 "3" 1 ~ 2 2 l b L i l y - o f - t h e - v a l 1 ey 2 2 2 3 1 1 3 2 16 S t a r f l o w e r e d Solomon ' s s e a l 2 2 2 3 1 1 3 2 16 H e m l o c k p a r s l e y r o o t 3 2 2 3 1 3 2 2 18 W a t e r p a r s e l y r o o t 3 2 2 3 1 3 2 2 18 Cow p a r s n i p 3 2 2 3 1 3 3 2 19 S w e e t c i c e l y r o o t 3 2 2 3 1 3 2 2 18 S p r e a d i n g d o g b a n e 4 2 1 3 3 3 1 2 0 S a r s a p a r i l l a r o o t 3 2 2 2 1 3 2 2 20 B u n c h b e r r y 2 2 2 3 1 2 3 2 17 K i n n i k i n n i k 3 2 2 3 2 3 2 20 B l u e l u p i n e 4 2 2 1 1 3 2 2 17 W i l d c l o v e r 4 2 3 2 3 2 2 21 F i r e w e e d s h o o t s 4 2 2 3 1 3 3 2 20 W e s t e r n d o c k 3 2 2 3 1 3 3 2 19 S t r a w b e r r y 2 2 2 3 1 1 2 2 15 P a c i f i c s i l v e r w e e d 4 2 3 2 3 3 2 2 21 S t i n g i n g n e t t l e f i b r e 3 2 2 1 3 3 3 1 18 g r e e n 3 2 2 2 1 3 3 2 18 MOSS " y e l l o w m o s s " 4 2 1 2 3 3 3 1 19 * S e e A p p p e n d i x I f o r s c i e n t i f i c n a m e s . * * A t t r i b u t e s : 1 . A b u n d a n c e o f u s a b l e p a r t ( s ) : 1 . v e r y r a r e 2 . somewhat common 3 . common 4 . a b u n d a n t 2 . P e o p l e n e e d e d f o r h a r v e s t : 3 . E f f e c t o f h a r v e s t : 4 . P r o c e s s i n g t o u t i l i z e : 5 . S t o r a b i l i t y : 6 . Y e a r l y r e l i a b i l i t y : 7 . E a s e o f h a r v e s t : 8 . U s e s : 1 . s e v e r a l p e o p l e ; men + / o r women 2 . o n e woman, o r a s m a l l g r o u p o f women 1 . t a k e s s e v e r a l y e a r s t o r e p l a c e 2 . no e f f e c t on o v e r a l l a b u n d a n c e 3 . i n c r e a s e s a b u n d a n c e o f f u t u r e h a r v e s t s 1 . much p r o c e s s i n g 2 . some p r o c e s s i n g 3 . no p r o c e s s i n g 1 . c a r t a o t (was n o t ) s t o r e d 2 . s t o r e d w i t h d i f f i c u l t y ( i n v o l v e s much l a t e r ) 3 . s t o r e d e a s i l y 1 . v a r i a b l e , n o t d e p e n d a b l e 2 . +/- d e p e n d a b l e 3 . r e l i a b l e 1 . d i f f i c u l t 2 . a v e r a g e 3 . e a s y 1 . r a w m a t e r i a l 2 . f o o d -139- f i g u r e s 9 a n d 10 r e s p e c t i v e l y . R e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e IX show t h a t t h e r e i s a w i d e r a n g e o f i n d e x v a l u e s o f p l a n t r e s o u r c e s u t i l i z e d by t h e N u x a l k ( r a n g i n g f r o m a v a l u e o f 1 3 t o 21). C l e a r l y , some p l a n t s w e r e much more v a l u a b l e t h a n o t h e r s a n d m i g h t h a v e h a d an i n f l u e n c e o n s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n . I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t t h e d a t a a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y d e t a i l e d ( i n t e r m s o f m o r e q u a n t i f i a b l e a t t r i b u t e s a n d m o r e s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n s o f p l a n t s p e c i e s ) t o e x a m i n e t h e d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t s p e c i e s a n d s e t t l e m e n t s . V a l u e s o f t h e c o v e r - t y p e s a s a w h o l e ( f i g u r e 9 ) a r e a l s o q u i t e v a r i a b l e . The c o v e r - t y p e w i t h t h e h i g h e s t v a l u e r a t i n g by f a r i s S e c o n d G r o w t h O l d - w e t (SGOw). W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e D o u g l a s F i r - d r y ( D F d ) c o v e r - t y p e , t h e r e m a i n i n g c o v e r - t y p e s c l u s t e r a r o u n d s i m i l a r v a l u e s , w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l m a r g i n . A l t h o u g h a l l p l a n t r e s o u r c e s w e r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e g r a p h s i n f i g u r e 1 0 , o n l y t h e s e a s o n a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f p l a n t f o o d s i s d i s c u s s e d h e r e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o m e a s u r e w h i c h p l a n t s w o u l d h a v e b e e n a v a i l a b l e a t t i m e s o f s t r e s s i n t h e s e a s o n a l r o u n d . N o n - f o o d p l a n t r e s o u r c e s , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , a r e u s u a l l y a v a i l a b l e y e a r r o u n d a n d / o r t h e i r u s e i s u s u a l l y l e s s u r g e n t . I n t h o s e i n s t a n c e s w h e r e c e r t a i n r a w m a t e r i a l s may b e c r i t i c a l , i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n p o s s i b l e t o s t o r e s u f f i c i e n t a m o u n t s t o h a v e them a v a i l a b l e a t a l l t i m e s . The g r a p h s i n f i g u r e 10 i l l u s t r a t e t h a t t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l o f s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n i n a v a i l a b i l i t y o f p l a n t s . The m a j o r i t y o f p l a n t f o o d s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e N u x a l k c l u s t e r a r o u n d t h e m o n t h s f r o m J u n e t o O c t o b e r . S e c o n d G r o w t h O l d - w e t ( S G O w ) , S e c o n d G r o w t h N e w - w e t ( S G N w ) , a n d e s p e c i a l l y t h e T i d a l F l a t ( T F ) z o n e a r e n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s p a t t e r n . B o t h s e c o n d g r o w t h c o v e r - t y p e s h a v e p l a n t f o o d s a v a i l a b l e i n v a r y i n g a b u n d a n c e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r . The peak h a r v e s t t i m e i n t h e TF z o n e , i n c o n t r a s t t o -140- 650- 550- re in > £.450- •*-> >> c -t-> re i f— i -Q. a> I 250- 350- 150- 50- SbNd SGOd C o t bFw DFd SGNw SGOw WHw WHd TF F i g u r e 9. Summary I n a e x V a l u e by C o v e r - T y p e s K e y : SGNd- S e c o n a G r o w t h N e w - d r y ; SGOd- S e c o n d G r o w t h O l d - d r y ; C o t - C o t t o n w o o d ; DFw- D o u g l a s F i r - w e t ; D F d - D o u g l a s F i r - d r y ; SGNw- S e c o n d G r o w t h N e w - w e t ; SGOw- S e c o n d G r o w t h O l d - w e t ; WHw- W e s t e r n H e m l o c k - w e t ; WHd- W e s t e r n H e m l o c k - d r y ; T F - T i d a l F l a t m o n t h s of t h e y e o r F i g u r e 1 0 . M o n t h l y I n d e x V a l u e f o r C o v e r - t y p e s ( 1 2 = D e c ; 3 = M a r c h , e t c . ) -142- o t h e r z o n e s , i s d u r i n g t h e f a l l , w i n t e r a n d e a r l y s p r i n g m o n t h s . C e r t a i n l y , t h e p r e s e n c e o f p l a n t r e s o u r c e s d u r i n g t h e s e m o n t h s w o u l d h a v e b e e n a w e l c o m e c h a n g e i n t i m e s o f p l e n t y , a n d a h i g h l y v a l u e d b a c k - u p m e c h a n i s m i n t i m e s o f s c a r c i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e l a t e w i n t e r a n d s p r i n g . A c c e s s i b i l i t y o f C o v e r - t y p e s t o S e t t l e m e n t s The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f e a c h c o v e r - t y p e t o t h e c a t c h m e n t o f e a c h s e l e c t e d v i l l a g e u n i t i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n f i g u r e 11 a n d T a b l e X . The s e a s o n a l a n d t o t a l a b u n d a n c e o f p l a n t r e s o u r c e s i n e a c h s e l e c t v i l l a g e u n i t a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e XI a n d f i g u r e 1 2 . D r a w i n g c a t c h m e n t l i m i t s a r o u n d t h e v i l l a g e u n i t s i l l u s t r a t e s s e v e r a l p o i n t s c o n c e r n i n g t r a d i t i o n a l r e s o u r c e u s e . F i r s t , i t b e c o m e s a p p a r e n t t h a t l a n d i s h i g h l y r e s t r i c t e d i n t h e l o w e r v a l l e y . Members o f t h e l o w e r v a l l e y v i l l a g e s (A t h r o u g h E ) c o u l d w a l k no m o r e , a n d s o m e t i m e s much l e s s , t h a n o n e h o u r f r o m t h e l i m i t s o f t h e v i l l a g e u n i t b e f o r e e n t e r i n g an a r e a p r e s u m a b l y owned by a n e i g h b o u r i n g v i l l a g e . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t f o r l o w e r vallti v i l l a g e s , m o s t l a n d owned by t h e m i n m i n t s w o u l d be n o r t h a n d / o r s o u t h o f t h e v i l l a g e u n i t , i n t h e W e s t e r n H e m l o c k - d r y (WHd) c o v e r - t y p e o f t h e a d j a c e n t m o u n t a i n s i d e . The h a r v e s t i n g a r e a o f t h e v i l l a g e u n i t s a t t h e r i v e r ' s m o u t h (A a n d C , a n d p e r h a p s B) c o u l d a l s o be e x t e n d e d w e s t w a r d , t o t h e T i d a l F l a t ( T F ) z o n e , a s w e l l a s o n t o t h e m o u n t a i n s i d e s . I t i s n o t c l e a r , h o w e v e r , how t h e p l a n t s o n t h e t i d a l f l a t s w e r e o w n e d . I t i s d o c u m e n t e d t h a t o t h e r g r o u p s ( t h e K w a k i u t l a n d N o o t k a ) d i v i d e d c l o v e r p a t c h e s i n t o r e g u l a r b e d s w h i c h w e r e owned by f a m i l i e s o r i n d i v i d u a l s ( C u r t i s 1 9 1 5 : 4 3 ; D r u c k e r 1 9 5 1 : 5 7 ) . No s u c h s y s t e m i s r e c o r d e d f o r t h e N u x a l k , h o w e v e r , a n d t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e l o w e r v a l l e y v i l l a g e s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y h a d e x t e n s i v e ( i f n o t e x c l u s i v e ) r i g h t o v e r t h i s r e s o u r c e a r e a . F i g u r e 11a. Time C o n t o u r s f r o m S e l e c t V i l l a g e U n i t s , L o w e r V a l l e y ( s e e f i g u r e l i b f o r k e y ) 126° 20' W figure lib. Time Contours from Select Village Units, Upper Valley Key: SGNd- Second Growth New-dry; SGOD- Second Growth Old-dry; Cot- Cottonwood; DFw- Douglas Fir-wet; DFd- Douglas Fir-dry; SGNw- Seond Growth New-wet; SGOw- Second Growth Old-wet; WHw- Western Hemlock-wet; WHd- Western Hemlock dry; TF- Tidal Flat. -• — indicates one hour time contours. -145- TABLE X COVER-TYPES PRESENT IN V I L L A G E UNIT CATCHMENTS V i 1 1 a g e U n i t C o v e r - t y p e s i n T i m e C o n t o u r s 1 h o u r 2 h o u r s 3 h o u r s B m a j o r : m i n o r : . T F , SGOw T F , WHd, WHw SGOw WHd C m a j o r : mi n o r : WHw, TF SGOw, WHd WHa, SGOw WHw.TF WHd E m a j o r : m i n o r : C o t , WHw, SGOw, WHd C o t , WHw, SGOw, WHd WHd G m a j o r : m i n o r : DFw, SGOw, WHw, WHd C o t DFw, WHw SGOw, C o t WHd J m a j o r : m i n o r : WHw . C o t WHw, C o t DFw WHd, WHw DFw K m a j o r : m i n o r : C o t , WHw WHd WHd, C o t WHw WHd, C o t WHw M m a j o r : m i n o r : DFw, DFd C o t , SGOd DFw, C o t , DFd SGOd DFw, C o t DFd P m a j o r : m i n o r : S G O d , DFw, DFd C o t DFW, C o t DFd DFd R m a j o r : m i n o r : DFw C o t DFd DFw, C o t DFd C o t S m a j o r : m i n o r : DFw, DFd C o t DFw, C o t DFd DFw, C o t DFd * S e e t i g u r e y T o r k e y t o c o v e r - t y p e s . -146- TABLE X I MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM SEASONAL ABUNDANCE AND YEARLY I N D E X VALUES OF PLANT RESOURCES IN SELECTED V I L L A G E UNITS S e l e c t e d V i l l a g e U n i t W i n t e r S p r i n g Summer (mi n i mum/maximum)* F a l l Y e a r l y T o t a l * * B 0 / 2 2 5 9 0 / 2 2 0 1 7 0 / 4 2 0 1 6 0 / 2 8 8 1373 C 0 / 2 2 5 9 0 / 2 2 0 1 7 0 / 4 2 0 1 6 0 / 2 8 8 1373 E 0 / 1 4 5 9 0 / 2 2 0 2 2 5 / 4 9 5 1 2 0 / 2 9 5 1374 G 0 / 1 4 5 9 0 / 2 4 0 2 4 5 / 6 2 5 1 5 0 / 3 8 5 1730 J 0 / 9 0 2 0 / 1 3 0 1 6 5 / 4 5 5 9 0 / 2 5 5 1112 K 0 / 9 0 2 0 / 1 1 0 1 4 5 / 3 2 5 6 0 / 1 6 5 756 M 0 / 5 0 20/11 9 5 / 3 3 0 5 0 / 1 4 0 981 P 0 / 5 0 2 0 / 1 0 0 9 5 / 3 5 0 5 0 / 1 4 0 981 R 0 / 3 0 2 0 / 8 0 7 5 / 2 7 0 5 0 / 1 4 0 729 S 0 / 3 0 2 0 / 8 0 7 5 / 2 7 0 5 0 / 1 4 0 729 * Calculated by adding together low (or h i g h r in the case of the maximum values) seasonal index values for each cover-type to which a village unit had access. **Calculated by adding sum totals of index values for each cover-type to which a village unit had access. -147- 600 — 300 — ° ~r i i w Sp s B B C * " T i l l W Sp S F 500 — > a) T3 Z 300 — w Sp R 6 S * s ea sona l abundance: — maximum minimum • vi l lage units with same distr ibution of cover type in catchment areas w SP s F winter, spring, summer, fa l I F i g u r e 12. M i n i m u m a n d Maximum I n d e x V a l u e s o f P l a n t R e s o u r c e s i n S e l e c t e d V i l l a g e U n i t s -148- I n t h e u p p e r v a l l e y v i l l a g e s t h e r e i s l e s s o f an a p p a r e n t c o n f l i c t o v e r p l a n t c o l l e c t i n g a r e a s a s a r e s u l t o f l i m i t e d s p a c e . V i l l a g e s i n t h e u p p e r v a l l e y t e n d t o be s p r e a d much f u r t h e r a p a r t t h a n t h e l o w e r v a l l e y v i l l a g e s . N o t o n l y i s t h e a c t u a l t i m e i n w h i c h a p e r s o n c o u l d w a l k f r o m h i s o r h e r v i l l a g e b e f o r e c r o s s i n g a n o t h e r v i l l a g e ' s c o l l e c t i n g a r e a g r e a t e r h e r e , b u t t h e d i s t a n c e t h a t c o u l d be c o v e r e d i n t h i s t i m e i s a l s o g r e a t e r b e c a u s e o f t h e r e l a t i v e l y s p a r s e f o r e s t u n d e r s t o r y . G r e a t e r a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o b o t t o m l a n d v e g e t a t i o n ( p r e d o m i n a n t l y D o u g l a s F i r - w e t [DFw] z o n e ) by u p p e r v a l l e y v i l l a g e u n i t s , d o e s n o t n e c c e s s a r i l y t r a n s l a t e i n t o a g r e a t e r o v e r a l l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f p l a n t r e s o u r c e s . The c o v e r - t y p e s o f t h e u p p e r v a l l e y a r e g e n e r a l l y c o m p o s e d o f a l e s s e r a b u n d a n c e o f p l a n t s w i t h i n t h e m t h a n t h o s e i n t h e l o w e r v a l l e y . T o t a l v a l u e s c o r e s f o r a l l c o v e r - t y p e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e l o w e r v a l l e y h a s a g r e a t e r a b u n d a n c e a n d / o r d i v e r s i t y o f p l a n t s u t i l i z e d b y t h e N u x a l k . T h i s i s p a r t l y b e c a u s e o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e T i d a l F l a t ( T F ) z o n e i n t h e l o w e r v a l l e y . H o w e v e r , e v e n i f t h e s c o r e f o r t h e TF z o n e i s n o t i n c l u d e d , t h e l o w e r v a l l e y h a s a much h i g h e r r a t i n g ( i . e . t h e sum o f c o v e r - t y p e i n d i c e s ; 1939 w i t h t h e TF s c o r e , o r 1705 w i t h o u t i t , a s c o m p a r e d t o 1354 i n t h e u p p e r v a l l e y ) . G r e a t e r a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o DFw, w h i c h i s among t h e m o s t v a l u a b l e o f t h e c o v e r - t y p e s i n t h e u p p e r v a l l e y , may somewhat c o m p e n s a t e f o r t h e l o w e r a v a i l a b i l i t y o f i t s p l a n t r e s o u r c e s . I t i s e v i d e n t f r o m t h e c a t c h m e n t a r e a s t h a t t h e c o v e r - t y p e s a r e a v a i l a b l e t o e a c h v i l l a g e u n i t i n v a r y i n g a b u n d a n c e . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n d i s t a n c e t o c o v e r - t y p e a n d v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n ( s e e T a b l e X ) . A l l v i l l a g e s a p p e a r t o h a v e a c c e s s t o e a c h o f t h e c o v e r - t y p e s l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e i r g e n e r a l r e g i o n . A c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e SGN c o v e r - t y p e i s n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e X . I t i s a s s u m e d t h a t e a c h v i l l a g e h a d a c c e s s t o t h i s z o n e a t l e a s t i n t h e a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g t h e -149- s i t e . The a b s e n c e o f S e c o n d G r o w t h O l d (SGOw a n d SGOd) z o n e s a r o u n d c e r t a i n v i l l a g e u n i t s i s l i k e l y t o b e t h e r e s u l t o f i n c o m p l e t e d a t a . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e SGN h a b i t a t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e v a l l e y , a n d t h e SGOw z o n e i n t h e l o w e r v a l l e y a r e t h e c o v e r - t y p e s w i t h t h e h i g h e s t o v e r a l l v a l u e r a t i n g s . B e c a u s e t h e s e z o n e s a r e h u m a n l y c r e a t e d , t h r o u g h m a n - l a n d i n t e r a c t i o n , t h e y s h o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d a s f a c t o r s i n d e t e r m i n i n g i n i t i a l v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n . H o w e v e r , we do know t h a t t h e p l a n t s w i t h i n t h e s e c o v e r - t y p e s p l a y e d a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n t h e e c o n o m y . The N u x a l k e n c o u r a g e d e a r l i e r s t a g e s o f s u c c e s s i o n i n t h e f o r e s t s b y b u r n i n g i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e p l a n t y i e l d s , p r e s u m a b l y i n a r e a s more d i s t a n t t o t h e v i l l a g e . E a s y a c c e s s t o t h e s e h i g h y i e l d s u c c e s s i o n c o v e r - t y p e s i n t h e i m m e d i a t e v i c i n i t y o f an e s t a b l i s h e d v i l l a g e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y p l a y e d a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e l o c a l e c o n o m y . T a b l e X I a n d f i g u r e 12 i l l u s t r a t e some o t h e r p o i n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p l a n t r e s o u r c e s a n d i n d i v i d u a l v i l l a g e u n i t s . A c c e s s t o p l a n t r e s o u r c e s a p p e a r s t o d e c r e a s e s t e a d i l y e a s t w a r d i n t h e v a l l e y . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e o n l y i n c r e m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n v a l u e s b e t w e e n a d j a c e n t v i l l a g e u n i t s ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f J a n d K ) , t h e r e i s a l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n s c o r e s a t b o t h e n d s o f t h e v a l l e y . C o m p a r e d i n t h i s w a y , t h e v i l l a g e u n i t s a t t h e m o u t h o f t h e v a l l e y h a d a c c e s s t o much g r e a t e r number a n d k i n d o f p l a n t r e s o u r c e s . A l t h o u g h we c a n n o t d r a w d e f i n i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n h i g h i n d e x v a l u e s a n d s u i t a b i l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s e t t l e m e n t s , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e o n l y t w o v i l l a g e u n i t s c o m p o s e d o f m o r e t h a n o n e l a r g e v i l l a g e ( v i l l a g e u n i t s G a n d E ) a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e l o w e r v a l l e y i n a r e a s w i t h t h e h i g h e s t y e a r l y a b u n d a n c e o f p l a n t r e s o u r c e s . The g r a p h s i n f i g u r e 12 s u g g e s t much v a r i a t i o n i n s e a s o n a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f p l a n t r e s o u r c e s i n e a c h v i l l a g e u n i t c a t c h m e n t . A l l -ISO- v i l l a g e u n i t c a t c h m e n t a r e a s r e a c h t h e i r p e a k h a r v e s t i n summer a n d t h e i r l o w i n w i n t e r a n d s p r i n g . The c a t c h m e n t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e v i l l a g e u n i t e a t t h e m o u t h o f t h e r i v e r ( B , C , E a n d G) h a v e by f a r t h e g r e a t e s t i n d e x v a l u e s f o r t h e w i n t e r a n d s p r i n g m o n t h s . E v e n t h e s e a s o n a l l o w s d u r i n g s p r i n g a r e much h i g h e r i n t h e s e c a t c h m e n t a r e a s . A c c e s s t o a r e l i a b l e s o u r c e o f p l a n t f o o d s d u r i n g t h i s t i m e , when o t h e r s t o r e s w e r e l o w , was c e r t a i n l y a d v a n t a g e o u s . Summary The p r e v i o u s a n a l y s i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e l o w e r v a l l e y v i l l a g e s h a d g r e a t e r a c c e s s t o p l a n t r e s o u r c e s t h a n t h o s e i n t h e u p p e r v a l l e y . T h i s i s e v i d e n c e d by t h e h i g h e r i n d e x s c o r e s f o r t h e s i t e s i n t h e l o w e r v a l l e y , w h i c h i n d i c a t e s b o t h h i g h e r p r o d u c t i v i t y a n d g r e a t e r d i v e r s i t y . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h o s e z o n e s w h i c h o f f e r p l a n t r e s o u r c e s a t p o t e n t i a l l y c r i t i c a l t i m e s i n t h e s u b s i s t e n c e r o u n d a r e l o c a t e d o n l y i n t h e l o w e r v a l l e y . I n c o m p a r i s o n , p l a n t s a v a i l a b l e a t t h e s e t i m e s i n t h e u p p e r v a l l e y a r e q u i t e r a r e . F i n a l l y , o f t h e l o w e r v a l l e y v i l l a g e s , t h o s e v i l l a g e s l o c a t e d a t t h e m o u t h o f t h e r i v e r w e r e b e s t s i t u a t e d t o h a r v e s t p l a n t r e s o u r c e s . A l t h o u g h t h e s e v i l l a g e s w e r e m o s t r e s t r i c t e d i n a r e a , a c c e s s t o h a r v e s t i n g a r e a s t o t h e n o r t h a n d / o r s o u t h , a s w e l l a s t h e h i g h l y v a l u e d , a n d e a s i l y r e a c h e d T i d a l F l a t ( T F ) z o n e t o t h e e a s t o f f e r e d a w i d e v a r i e t y a n d y e a r r o u n d s u p p l y o f f l o r a l r e s o u r c e s . -151- The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n A n i m a l R e s o u r c e s a n d S e t t l e m e n t M e t h o d s The m e t h o d s u s e d h e r e a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e u s e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f p l a n t r e s o u r c e s . A l l l a n d mammals u t i l i z e d by t h e N u x a l k a n d a v a i l a b l e i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y , a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n ( s e e T a b l e X I I ) . D e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e h a b i t s o f e a c h a n i m a l ( t a k e n l a r g e l y f r o m Cowan a n d G u i g u e t 1 S 5 6 ) , e n a b l e d me t o i d e n t i f y e a c h s p e c i e s w i t h t h e c o v e r - t y p e s i n w h i c h t h e y a r e m o s t l i k e l y t o be f o u n d ( T a b l e X I I ) . F r o m t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o v e r - t y p e s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s a n a l y s i s ( F i g u r e 8 ) , a n d t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a n i m a l s w i t h i n e a c h c o v e r - t y p e i t was p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s w e r e m o s t a v a i l a b l e t o t h e N u x a l k s e t t l e m e n t s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , q u a n t i t a t i v e d e t a i l s on t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e a c h s p e c i e s i n t h e v a l l e y h a s n o t b e e n g a t h e r e d . B e c a u s e o f t h e l a c k o f q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a on a n i m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n t h e v a l l e y , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s t o o n e a n o t h e r . Had more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n b e e n a v a i l a b l e i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n p o s s i b l e t o e v a l u a t e d i f f e r e n t a t t r i b u t e s o f e a c h r e s o u r c e i n a m a n n e r s i m i l a r t o t h a t u s e d f o r t h e p l a n t r e s o u r c e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , u s a b l e w e i g h t o f t h e a n i m a l i s a n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f a r e s o u r c e . I n a d d i t i o n t o o f f e r i n g g r e a t e r f o o d v a l u e (more m e a t p e r c a t c h ) , t h e n o n - f o o d b y - p r o d u c t s w i l l a l s o b e p r o p o r t i o n a l l y g r e a t e r . W i t h o u t d e t a i l e d q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a we a r e u n a b l e t o c a r r y t h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e a n a l y s i s t o i t s c o m p l e t i o n . S e a s o n a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s c a n be e v a l u a t e d , h o w e v e r , a n d t h i s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e IV ( p . 9 7 ) . -152- The c a t c h m e n t a r e a s d r a w n i n t h e p r e v i o u s a n a l y s i s a r e a l s o u s e d h e r e . A l t h o u g h a c t u a l m i n m i n t s - o w n e d h u n t i n g g r o u n d s may n o t be d i s t r i b u t e d a s s u g g e s t e d by t h e c a t c h m e n t b o u n d a r i e s , t h e c a t c h m e n t a r e a s h e l p one t o v i s u a l i z e w h i c h a r e a s w e r e m o s t a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e v i l l a g e u n i t s . T h i s i s n o t t o s u g g e s t t h a t o n l y a r e a s o f t h e c l o s e s t p r o x i m i t y w e r e u s e d t o h a r v e s t a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s , b u t i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e y w e r e owned a n d u s e d by t h e c l o s e s t m i n m i n t s . The same t e n v i l l a g e u n i t s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e p l a n t a n a l y s i s a r e u s e d a g a i n h e r e . R e s u l t s a n d D i s c u s s i o n T a b l e X I I I l i s t s t h e a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s t h a t w o u l d h a v e b e e n a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n a 1 t o 3 h o u r d i s t a n c e f r o m s e l e c t v i l l a g e u n i t s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n e a c h c a t c h m e n t i n d i c a t e s t h a t g e n e r a l l y t h e r e a r e no p r e f e r r e d a r e a s w i t h i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y t o h a r v e s t a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s . B o t h t h e u p p e r a n d l o w e r v a l l e y o f f e r r o u g h l y t h e same number a n d k i n d o f a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s . T h a t no d i s t i n c t i o n c a n be made may be a f a c t o r o f s c a n t y d a t a . I f we a s s u m e t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e l y e v e n d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s i s i n f a c t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e a c t u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , i t i s i m p o s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e i f a c c e s s t o a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s was a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e v a l l e y . T h a t i s , t h e p r e s e n c e o f a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s may h a v e b e e n i n t r i n s i c t o s e t t l e m e n t , o r may h a v e h a d l i t t l e e f f e c t . W i t h o u t d i f f e r e n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s , i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h i s . S i n c e e a c h v i l l a g e u n i t h a d a c c e s s t o a r a n g e o f a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s , d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t r i b u t e s o f e a c h a n i m a l ( i e . w e i g h t , n o n - f o o d y i e l d , e t c . ) a r e a l s o n o t r e l e v a n t t o t h i s a n a l y s i s . -153- TABLE X I I COVER-TYPES IN WHICH ANIMAL RESOURCES WERE FOUND* A n i m a l R e s o u r c e C o v e r - t y p e * * M o s t L i k e l y F o u n d W i t h i n R u f f e d g r o u s e WHw, SGOw, DFw, SGOd M o u n t a i n g o a t WHD, DFd C o a s t d e e r WHD, SGOW, WHW, TF M u l e d e e r D F d , S G O d , DFw ( b e g i n n i n g a t S t e w i e ) B l a c k b e a r WHw, SGOw, DFw, SGOd G r i z z l y b e a r WHw, WHd, DFw, DFd L y n x DFw, D F d , SGOd R a b b i t WHw, SGOw, DFw, SGOd P o r c u p i n e DFw, DFd B e a v e r WHw, SGOw, DFw M a r m o t DFd W o l v e r i n e WHd, DFw, DFd M a r t e n WHd, WHw, D F d , DFw M i n k C o t , SGOw, WHw, DFw, SGOd R a c o o n WHw, SGOw, DFw, SGOw Red F o x WHw, DFw, DFd C o y o t e DFd O t t e r ( r i v e r ) C o t , SGOw, WHW S k u n k SGNw, SGOw, C o t W e a s e l C o t , SGow F i s h e r SGOw, S G O d , DFw M u s k r a t C o t , SGOw * S c i e n t i f i c names l i s t e d i n A p p e n d i x I I * * S e e f i g u r e 11 f o r k e y t o c o v e r - t y p e s . TABLE X I I I ANIMAL RESOURCES AVAILABLE TO SELECTED VILLAGE UNITS Village Unit, mmmk '/?//?/// /Www B. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * C * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * E * * * * * * * * * # * * # * * # * G * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * # • J * * * * * * * * * * * * * # * * * * K * * * * * * * # * * * # * * * * * M * * * * * * # * * * * * * * * * P * * * * * # * * * * * * * * * * * R * * * * * # * * * * * * * * * * * s * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * -155- The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n M i n e r a l R e s o u r c e s a n d S e t t l e m e n t s T h e r e a r e f e w m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s c o m m o n l y u s e d by t h e N u x a l k t h a t w o u l d h a v e n o t b e e n r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o a l l t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y p e o p l e . S a n d s t o n e , b l a c k p i g m e n t s , c l a y , a n d r i v e r c o b b l e s , w e r e a c c e s s i b l e a n d a b u n d a n t i n a l l p a r t s o f t h e v a l l e y b o t t o m . O n l y t w o m i n e r a l s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y w e r e m o s t l i k e l y r e s t r i c t e d i n a c c e s s . T h e s e w e r e , t h e r e d p i g m e n t a n d " g r e e n s t o n e " d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r ( o b s i d i a n , w h i c h was a l s o h i g h l y p r i z e d among t h e N u x a l k , was n o t f o u n d i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y ) . I f i t i s a s s u m e d t h a t t h e o w n e r s h i p o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s was t h e p r i v i l e g e o f t h e n e a r e s t m i n m i n t s , t h e n a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e s e r e s o u r c e s w a s r e s t r i c t e d . I f t h i s w e r e t h e c a s e , t h e n v i l l a g e u n i t s J a n d L h a d s o l e a c c e s s t o " g r e e n s t o n e " , a n d v i l l a g e u n i t s E a n d P o n l y , h a d a c c e s s t o t h e r e d p i g m e n t . The p r e s e n c e o f g r e e n s t o n e t o o l f r a g m e n t s a t s e v e r a l a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s i n t h e v a l l e y , a s w e l l a s t h e known i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e r e d p i g m e n t i n t r a d e , s u g g e s t s t h a t a c c e s s t o t h e s e r e s o u r c e s by t h e s e v i l l a g e u n i t s , w o u l d h a v e b e e n a s i g n i f i c a n t e c o n o m i c a d v a n t a g e . The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n T r a d e a n d S e t t l e m e n t s The d i s c u s s i o n p r e s e n t e d h e r e e x a m i n e s t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t v i l l a g e u n i t s w e r e d i f f e r e n t i a l l y i n v o l v e d i n t r a d e . S i n c e no e m p i r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n e x i s t s e x p l i c i t l y r e l a t i n g t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f e a c h v i l l a g e i n t r a d e , t h e a n a l y s i s m u s t r e l y on d a t a c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n l o c a t i o n o f v i l l a g e s a n d t r a d e i t e m s ( s e e C h a p t e r I I ) . T h i s d a t a i s u s e d a s a n i n d i c a t o r o f a c c e s s t o t r a d e g o o d s , b o t h w i t h i n t h e m i n m i n t s t e r r i t o r y , a n d t h r o u g h n e i g h b o u r i n g g r o u p s . The v i l l a g e u n i t s w h i c h h a d a c c e s s t o t h e v a r i o u s t r a d e g o o d s -156- T A B L E X I V V I L L A G E U N I T A C C E S S T O T R A D E G O O D S O R I G I N A T I N G F R O M T H E B E L L A C O O L A V A L L E Y -157- o r i g i n a t i n g w i t h i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e X I V ( s e e T a b l e I I I , C h a p t e r I I f o r t h e c o m p l e t e l i s t o f t r a d e g o o d s ) . B e c a u s e t h e l i s t o f t r a d e g o o d s o r i g i n a t i n g f r o m t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y i s s o s m a l l , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d r a w d e f i n i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g e x c h a n g e p a t t e r n s . h o w e v e r , g i v e n t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e l o w e r v a l l e y v i l l a g e u n i t s d i d h a v e s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r a c c e s s t o t h e s e g o o d s . T h i s b e c o m e s more a p p a r e n t i f we remember t h a t t h e l o w e r r i v e r s a l m o n was o f b e t t e r q u a l i t y ( a n d p e r h a p s m o r e a b u n d a n t ) t h a n t h a t o f t h e u p p e r R i v e r . S i n c e s a l m o n a n d i t s b y - p r o d u c t s a r e some o f t h e m o s t h i g h l y t r a d e d i t e m s , e s p e c i a l l y t o t h e I n t e r i o r p e o p l e s , h a v i n g a c c e s s t o b e t t e r q u a l i t y f i s h w o u l d b e a g r e a t e c o n o m i c a d v a n t a g e . F u r t h e r m o r e , a c c e s s t o t h e o o l i g a n r e s o u r c e o n l y by t h e l o w e r v i l l a g e s , w o u l d h a v e a l s o b e e n a n i m p o r t a n t e c o n o m i c a d v a n t a g e , a s t h i s r e s o u r c e was s o u g h t by b o t h t h e B e l l a B e l l a , a n d I n t e r i o r p e o p l e s . R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h n e i g h b o u r i n g g r o u p s , a s w e l l a s p h y s i c a l l o c a t i o n , w e r e i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r o l e o f a v i l l a g e u n i t i n t r a d e . P h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y a n d c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n u p p e r v a l l e y p e o p l e a n d I n t e r i o r p e o p l e w o u l d h a v e g i v e n t h e u p p e r v a l l e y N u x a l k v i l l a g e s g r e a t e r a c c e s s t o I n t e r i o r g o o d s a n d r e s o u r c e s . C e r t a i n l y , g r e a t e r a c c e s s t o o b s i d i a n f r o m t h e I n t e r i o r w o u l d h a v e b e e n i m p o r t a n t t o t h e N u x a l k . T h a t t h e C h i l c o t i n a n d C a r r i e r p e o p l e s o f t e n i n t e r m a r r i e d w i t h , a n d r e s i d e d a m o n g , t h e u p p e r v a l l e y N u x a l k , s u g g e s t s t h a t a r e c i p r o c a l e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d b e t w e e n C o a s t a n d I n t e r i o r g r o u p s . I t i s n o t d o c u m e n t e d t h a t t h e I n t e r i o r p e o p l e s t r a v e l l e d t o t h e l o w e r v a l l e y t o a c q u i r e o o l i g a n . M o r e l i k e l y , t h e u p p e r v a l l e y N u x a l k f i r s t a c q u i r e d i t t h r o u g h e x c h a n g e w i t h t h e l o w e r v a l l e y v i l l a g e s , a n d i n t u r n t r a d e d i t t o t h e I n t e r i o r p e o p l e . A s a r e s u l t o f t h e i r g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n , t h e N u x a l k o f t h e l o w e r B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y h a d l i t t l e r e g u l a r c o n t a c t w i t h n e i g h b o u r i n g g r o u p s , -158- o t h e r t h a n t h r o u g h t r a d e a n d o c c a s i o n a l f e a s t s . V i l l a g e r s i n t h i s p a r t o f t h e v a l l e y w e r e more l i k e l y t o i n t e r m a r r y w i t h t h e N u x a l k p e o p l e l i v i n g i n K i m s q u i t o r S o u t h B e n t i n c k Arm t h a n w i t h p e o p l e f r o m o t h e r l a n g u a g e g r o u p s . V i l l a g e u n i t s a t t h e m o u t h o f t h e r i v e r w e r e p r o b a b l y m o s t a c t i v e i n t r a d e w i t h c o a s t a l g r o u p s c o m i n g t o t h e v a l l e y , s i m p l y b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e t h e f i r s t v i l l a g e s t h a t w o u l d h a v e b e e n a p p r o a c h e d . T h i s , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r c o n t r o l o f t h e o o l i g a n r e s o u r c e , s u g g e s t s t h a t N u x a l k t r a d e w i t h c o a s t a l p e o p l e s was l a r g e l y c e n t e r e d i n v i l l a g e s o f t h e l o w e r r e a c h e s o f t h e v a l l e y . I n s u m , a l t h o u g h a l l N u x a l k v i l l a g e u n i t s h a d a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s t h a t p e r m i t t e d t h e m t o be i n v o l v e d i n t r a d e , t h e l o w e r v a l l e y v i l l a g e s a p p e a r t o h a v e h a d an a d v a n t a g e . A c c e s s t o o o l i g a n e n a b l e d t h e m t o e x c h a n g e w i t h u p p e r v a l l e y g r o u p s f o r g o o d s o r i g i n a t i n g i n t h e I n t e r i o r , a n d w i t h c o a s t a l p e o p l e c o m i n g t o t h e v a l l e y . R e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e I n t e r i o r p e o p l e a n d t h e u p p e r v a l l e y p e o p l e w e r e c r i t i c a l t o t h e l a t t e r f o r o b t a i n i n g g o o d s w h i c h t h e l o w e r v a l l e y v i l l a g e s c o u l d n o t o b t a i n d i r e c t l y v i a t h e i r own t r a d e r o u t e s . The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n P r o t e c t i o n f r o m R a i d s a n d S e t t l e m e n t s S i m i l a r t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t r a d e , no e m p i r i c a l d a t a e x i s t c o n c e r n i n g v i l l a g e u n i t s a n d p r o t e c t i o n f r o m r a i d s . I n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c l i t e r a t u r e do s u g g e s t t h a t t h r e a t o f r a i d s among t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y N u x a l k was n o t e n o u g h o f a m a j o r c o n c e r n t o d e t e r s e t t l e m e n t . A t t a c k f r o m t h e I n t e r i o r p e o p l e s was a v e r y r a r e o c u r r e n c e ; i n f a c t , t h e I n t e r i o r p e o p l e w e r e known t o a l l y t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e N u x a l k i n t h e i r w a r s . A t t a c k s f r o m t h e w e s t w e r e c e r t a i n l y more common, b u t o n l y t h e o u t e r m o s t v a l l e y v i l l a g e s w e r e t h u s t h r e a t e n e d . The v i l l a g e o f A t g l a x t , l o c a t e d a t - 1 5 9 - t h e m o u t h o f N e c l e e t s c o n n a y R i v e r i s r e p o r t e d t o h a v e h a d a l a r g e s t o c k a d e a r o u n d i t f o r p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t r a i d s . The v i l l a g e o f tsafc, d i r e c t l y t o t h e n o r t h o f Ajjqlax-fc, was b u i l t on p i l e s . T h i s may h a v e a l s o b e e n a p r o t e c t i v e m e a s u r e a g a i n s t r a i d s a s w e l l a s f l o o d i n g . B o t h o f t h e s e v i l l a g e s a r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n v i l l a g e u n i t A . The v i l l a g e o f Q u m q u t s , l o c a t e d a t t h e m o u t h o f t h e B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r ( i n u n i t C ) , was a l s o p a r t l y b u i l t on p i l e s w h i c h may h a v e h a d a d u a l f u n c t i o n h e r e , t o o . T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e N u x a l k v i l l a g e s l o c a t e d f u r t h e r e a s t o f t h i s p o i n t w e r e e v e r b o t h e r e d by r a i d i n g . A l t h o u g h t h e w e s t e r n m o s t v i l l a g e s t o o k p r e c a u t i o n s a g a i n s t r a i d i n g , t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t i t was a c o n s t a n t m e n a n c e t o t h e v i l l a g e i n h a b i t a n t s . The p r e s e n c e o f a s t o c k a d e , a n d p e r h a p s e l e v a t e d h o u s e s , may h a v e b e e n s u f f i c i e n t p r o t e c t i o n f r o m i n v a d e r s . W a r f a r e d o e s n o t seem t o h a v e h a d a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y . The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n S h e l t e r f r o m E l e m e n t s a n d S e t t l e m e n t s A l t h o u g h t h e N u x a l k o f t h e u p p e r a n d l o w e r v a l l e y f a c e d d i f f e r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s , t h e r e a p p e a r s t o b e l i t t l e o v e r a l l d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e e f f e c t s o n t h e s e t t l e m e n t s . The u p p e r v a l l e y p e o p l e f a c e d a c o l d e r a n d more s e v e r e w i n t e r t h a n t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e l o w e r v a l l e y , h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s no s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h i s p r e s e n t e d a d e t e r r e n t t o l i v i n g t h e r e . P r e s u m a b l y , t h e h o u s e s o f f e r e d s u f f i c i e n t w a r m t h d u r i n g t h e c o l d e s t m o n t h s a t w h i c h t i m e o u t s i d e a c t i v i t y w o u l d h a v e b e e n m i n i m a l . F l o o d i n g , h o w e v e r , was a p p a r e n t l y a p r o b l e m f o r a l l v i l l a g e s i n t h e v a l l e y . I n f a c t , p e o p l e a r e r e p o r t e d n o t t o h a v e l i v e d o n i s l a n d s o r n e a r t o t h e r i v e r b a n k s f o r f e a r o f f l o o d s ( S m i t h 1 9 2 0 - 2 4 ) . To c o p e w i t h f l o o d i n g , s e v e r a l v i l l a g e s . b a i l t • . ,. h o u s e s o n p i l e s . S u c h s t r u c t u r e s a r e r e p o r t e d f r o m t h e v i l l a g e s o f (jumquts a n d Tsafc a t t h e m o u t h o f t h e R i v e r , a n d N u s q a l s t a n d NuA&'tt" i n t h e u p p e r v a l l e y . P r o b l e m s o f f l o o d i n g w e r e n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o -160- t h e s e v i l l a g e s , h o w e v e r , a s e v i d e n c e d by a s t o r y w h i c h r e l a t e s a time when t h e v i l l a g e o f NuAti-x" s u r v i v e d a f l o o d i n w h i c h n e i g h b o u r i n g v i l l a g e s d i d n o t f a r e a s w e l l . T h u s , t h e r e do n o t appear t o be s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n e x p o s u r e t o t h e e l e m e n t s t o t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y v i l l a g e s . Where t h e e l e m e n t s c o u l d o f f e r a d e t e r r e n t t o s e t t l e m e n t , t h e p r e s e n c e o f p i l e s a n d s t u r d y s t r u c t u r e s seem t o h a v e o f f e r e d a d e q u a t e p r o t e c t i o n . Summary I n t h e p r e v i o u s a n a l y s e s I h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o e x a m i n e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f a r a n g e o f r e s o u r c e s a n d o t h e r c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s w i l l d e t e r m i n e t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f an a r e a f o r s e t t l e m e n t . S p e c i f i c g o a l s o f t h e a n a l y s i s w e r e t o d e f i n e b o t h t h e minimum r e q u i r e m e n t f o r s e t t l e m e n t a n d t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s o f more p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n s i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y i n t h e l a t e p r e - c o n t a c t e r a . E i g h t g r o u p s o f d e t e r m i n a n t s , e a c h o f w h i c h w e r e i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e e t h n o g r a p h i e s a s i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s o f N u x a l k l i f e , w e r e e v a l u a t e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o N u x a l k s e t t l e m e n t . I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e p a r a m e t e r s o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r I , b o t h c u l t u r a l a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r m i n a n t s , a s t h e y w o u l d h a v e b e e n i n p r e - c o n t a c t t i m e s , w e r e c o n s i d e r e d . The d e t e r m i n a n t s w e r e a s s e s s e d q u a n t i t a t i v e l y o r q u a l i t a t i v e l y , d e p e n d i n g on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d a t a s e t , t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d e g r e e o f i n f l u e n c e o n l o c a t i o n o f N u x a l k v i l l a g e s . M i n i m u m r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n s , t h a t i s , t h o s e t h a t a r e b o t h n e c e s s a r y a n d s u f f i c i e n t , a r e d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e . N o n e t h e l e s s e q u a l a c c e s s t o a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s , a n d m a i n r i v e r s a l m o n , f o r a l l v i l l a g e u n i t s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e s e a r e among t h e minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a s u i t a b l e s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n . S i n c e t h e s e d e t e r m i n a n t s o c c u r r e l a t i v e l y h o m o g e n e o u s l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e v a l l e y i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o -161- i n v e s t i g a t e t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on any p a r t i c u l a r s e t t l e m e n t s i t e . A c c e s s i b i l i t y t o s a l m o n i n s i d e t r i b u t a r i e s , h o w e v e r , d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o b e a minimum r e q u i r e m e n t . T h i s i s s u g g e s t e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o f v i l l a g e u n i t s b o t h away f r o m s i d e s t r e a m s a n d a t v e r y u n p r o d u c t i v e s t r e a m s . S h e l t e r f r o m t h e e l e m e n t s a n d p r o t e c t i o n f r o m r a i d s a r e a l s o among t h e m i n i m u m r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n a s i n d i c a t e d by t h e e f f o r t t a k e n b y c e r t a i n v i l l a g e u n i t s t o s h i e l d t h e m s e l v e s i n t h i s w a y . A l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h e minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o a q u a t i c a n d p l a n t r e s o u r c e s b y t h e v i l l a g e u n i t s . S c a n t y d a t a c o n c e r n i n g t h e p r e s e n c e o f m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s a n d t r a d e i t e m s make t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s . A s s e s s m e n t s o f t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s o f more p r e f e r r e d s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n s c a n be made by e x a m i n i n g t h e r a n k o r d e r o f a l l v i l l a g e u n i t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o a l l d e t e r m i n a n t s . P r e f e r r e d s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n s ( i . e . t h e h e a v i l y p o p u l a t e d l o w e r v a l l e y ) s h o u l d be t h o s e h a v i n g a c c e s s t o a n d b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d by t h e g r e a t e s t number a n d r a n g e o f d e t e r m i n a n t s . T h e r a n k i n g o f v i l l a g e u n i t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o e a c h d e t e r m i n a n t i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e XV. A c c e s s t o m a i n r i v e r s a l m o n , a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s , p r o t e c t i o n f r o m r a i d s , a n d s h e l t e r f r o m t h e e l e m e n t s a r e n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e t a b l e s i n c e t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on s e t t l e m e n t i s r e l a t i v e l y h o m o g e n e o u s t h r o u g h o u t t h e v a l l e y . The o v e r a l l r a n k i n g o f v i l l a g e u n i t s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a l l d e t e r m i n a n t s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e X V I . The r a n k i n g o f v i l l a g e u n i t s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e l o w e r v a l l e y v i l l a g e s h a v e a c c e s s t o t h e g r e a t e s t number a n d k i n d o f d e t e r m i n a n t s . Of t h e l o w e r v a l l e y v i l l a g e s , t h e v i l l a g e s a t t h e m o u t h o f t h e r i v e r ( A - E ) w e r e b e s t s i t u a t e d t o g a i n a c c e s s t o t h e s e r e s o u r c e s . A c c e s s t o a g r e a t e r number a n d b e t t e r q u a l i t y o f s a l m o n ( i n t h e m a i n r i v e r s a n d t r i b u t a r i e s ) , o o l i g a n , s e a m a m m a l s , a n d TABLE XV RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VILLAGE UNITS AND DETERMINANTS* A q u a t i c P l a n t M i n e r a l T r a d e age U n i t Salmon R e s o u r c e s R e s o u r c e s R e s o u r c e s Items T o t a l A 3 3 (3) - 3 12 B 3 2 3 - 3 11 C 0 3 3 - 3 9 b 1 3 ( 3 ) - 3 10 E 3 2 (3) + 3 11 + F 0 1 ( 3 ) - 2 6 G 3 2 3 - 2 10 H 2 2 ( 3 ) - 2 9 I 0 2 ( 3 ) - 2 7 J 3 1 2 + 2 8+ K 2 1 1 - 2 6 L 2 0 ( 2 ) + 1 5+ Ni 1 0 2 - 1 4 N 1 0 2 - 1 4 0 0 0 (2) - 1 3 P 0 0 2 + 4+ Q 0 0 (2) - 1 3 R 0 1 1 - 1 3 S 0 1 1 - 1 3 T 0 1 (1) - 3 * A c c e s s t o a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s , p r o t e c t i o n f r o m r a i d s , and s h e l t e r f r o m e l e m e n t s a r e n o t i n c l u d e d h e r e s i n c e t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e v a l l e y does n o t d i f f e r e n t i a l l y i n f l u e n c e s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f e a c h o f s a l m o n , a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e s , p l a n t r e s o u r c e s and t r a d e i t e m s w i t h e a c h v i l l a g e u n i t i s c a l c u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o o v e r a l l abundance o f e a c h d e t e r m i n a n t w i t h i n e a c h v i l l a g e u n i t . A s c a l e o f 0 , 1 , 2 , 3 was u s e d t o i n d i c a t e a b s e n t , l o w , medium and h i g h a b u n d a n c e . P r e s e n c e o r a b s e n c e o f m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s i s i n d i c a t e d by a (+) o r ( - ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y . V a l u e s w i t h t h e p a r e n t h e s e s c o r r e s p o n d t o v i l l a g e u n i t s f o r w h i c h an a n a l y s i s was n o t c o n d u c t e d ; t h e i r v a l u e s a r e e x t r a p o l a t e d f r o m a d j a c e n t v i l l a g e u n i t s . -163- TABLE XVI OVERALL RANK ORDER OF V I L L A G E UNITS ACCORDING TO THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO DETERMINANTS V i l l a g e U n i t 1 . A 2 . B 3 . E 4 . D 4 . G 6 . C 6 . H 8. J 9 . I 1 0 . F 1 0 . K 1 2 . L 1 3 . M 1 3 . N 1 3 . P 1 6 . 0 1 6 . Q 1 6 . R 1 6 . S 1 6 . T -164- w a t e r f o w l , as w e l l a s p r o d u c t s o f t h e T i d a l F l a t (TF) p l a n t z o n e , s e t s t h i s a r e a a p a r t i n i t s r i c h n e s s o f r e s o u r c e s . M o r e o v e r , and p e r h a p s more i m p o r t a n t l y , a c c e s s t o o o l i g a n s and T i d a l F l a t p l a n t r e s o u r c e s meant t h a t t h e fooo. h a r v e s t i n g s e a s o n was s u b s t a n t i a l l y l o n g e r f o r t h e v i l l a g e s l o c a t e d i n t h i s a r e a t h a n e l s e w h e r e i n t h e v a l l e y . T h i s i n c r e a s e d s e c u r i t y w o u l d have p e r m i t t e d l a r g e r numbers o f p e o p l e t o i n h a b i t t h i s a r e a . I t may have a l s o p e r m i t t e d a r e l a t i v e l y more f l e x i b l e s e a s o n a l r o u n d . T h a t i s , s i n c e p e o p l e w o u l d have been l e s s t i e d t o r e s o u r c e s t e m p o r a l l y l i m i t e d i n a v a i l a b i l i t y t h e y c o u l d t r a v e l f a r t h e r a f i e l d t o c o n d u c t o t h e r t a s k s , s u c h a s t r a d e . Such r e s o u r c e a v a i l a b i l i t y w o u l d have a l s o p e r m i t t e d p e o p l e t o r e m a i n more s e d e n t a r y , a s l e s s t r a v e l was r e q u i r e d t o h a r v e s t s e a s o n a l r e s o u r c e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , a c c e s s t o t h e t i d a l f l a t r o o t c r o p s ( c l o v e r , s i l v e r w e e d ano r i c e r o o t ) may have b e e n i m p o r t a n t n u t r i t i o n a l l y . S i n c e r o o t c r o p s m i g h t have been a s o u r c e o f much n e e d e d c a r b o h y d r a t e s among t h e s e h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r s ( s e e p . 11 o f C h a p t e r I ) , y e a r r o u n d a c c e s s t o t h e s e e a s y t o h a r v e s t f o o a s w o u l d have been a d v a n t a g e o u s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t m o s t o f t h e r e s o u r c e s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s a s p o t e n t i a l l y i n f l u e n c i n g s e t t l e m e n t a r e t h o s e t h a t i n v o l v e t h e l e a s t amount o f p u r s u i t t i m e and t h e r e f o r e t h e l e a s t r i s k . A n i m a l r e s o u r c e s i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y a r e h i g h l y m o b i l e ; t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o m i n g home e m p t y - h a n d e d i s much g r e a t e r t h a n f o r t h e f i s h o r p l a n t r e s o u r c e s . P e r h a p s g i v e n t h e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r r i s k i n v o l v e d , a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s w o u l d p l a y a s e c o n d a r y r o l e i n t h e economy a f t e r t h e more s t a b l e ano p r e d i c t a b l e r e s o u r c e s , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e a b u n d a n c e ( u n l e s s t h e y w e r e s o a b u n d a n t t h a t r i s k was e f f e c t i v e l y m i n i m i z e d ) . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y N u x a l k , i t may have b e e n p r e f e r a b l e t o t r a d e f o r t h e s e r e s o u r c e s f r o m t h e I n t e r i o r p e o p l e w h e n e v e r p o s s i b l e . P r e f e r e n c e o f t h e l o w e r v a l l e y a s an a r e a o f s e t t l e m e n t i s c l e a r l y -165- i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e v a l l e y ' s r e c o r d e d s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n . Of t h e t o t a l 54 known v i l l a g e s i t e s i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y , 4 3 o f t h e m a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e l o w e r r e a c h e s o f t h e v a l l e y . Of t h e 4 3 , 30 s i t e s a r e l o c a t e d a t t h e river's m o u t h . T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e g r e a t e r a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e s o u r c e s n o t o n l y i n t h e l o w e r v a l l e y , b u t a t t h e mouth s p e c i f i c a l l y . T h a t p r e f e r r e d v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n s w e r e r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e l o w e r v a l l e y no d o u b t i n f l u e n c e d t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m y o f t h e v a l l e y . One w o u l d e x p e c t t h a t t h e r e was a p r e f e r e n c e among o t h e r v a l l e y i n h a b i t a n t s f o r s e c u r i n g r e l a t i o n s t h r o u g h m a r r i a g e w i t h t h e l o w e r v a l l e y p e o p l e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t a v a i l a b l e t o p u r s u e t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y i n t h e p r e s e n t c o n t e x t . T h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f a r a n g e o f d e t e r m i n a n t s , r a t h e r t h a n a s i n g l e d e t e r m i n a n t , w i l l i n f l u e n c e t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f an a r e a f o r s e t t l e m e n t i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y , i s s u p p o r t e d . The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a g r e a t e r number a n d k i n d o f b o t h a q u a t i c a n d l a n d r e s o u r c e s i n t h e l o w e r v a l l e y made t h a t a r e a a p r e f e r r e d s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n . T h i s v a r i a b i l i t y i n r e s o u r c e d i s t r i b u t i o n n o t o n l y m e a n t a m o r e a b u n d a n t r e s o u r c e b a s e ( b e c a u s e o f h i g h e r p r o d u c t i v i t y ) , b u t a more s e c u r e b a s e o v e r an e x t e n d e d t i m e p e r i o d . D i v e r s i t y i n t h e a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e b a s e u l t i m a t e l y r e d u c e s t h e c h a n c e s o f a d i s a s t e r o c u r r i n g a s a r e s u l t o f o v e r - c o n c e n t r a t i n g on a s i n g l e r e s o u r c e . F u r t h e r m o r e a w i d e r v a r i e t y o f r e s o u r c e s means t h a t d i f f e r e n t r e s o u r c e s w i l l be a v a i l a b l e f o r h a r v e s t i n g f o r a g r e a t e r p o r t i o n o f t h e y e a r . A r e a s l i k e t h e m o u t h o f t h e v a l l e y , w h i c h o f f e r s r o o t c r o p s f r o m t h e t i d a l f l a t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e l a t e f a l l a n d e a r l y w i n t e r , a n d o o l i g a n i n t h e e a r l y s p r i n g , w i l l be c o n s i d e r a b l y more a t t r a c t i v e f o r s e t t l e m e n t when s t o r e s a r e r u n n i n g l o w a n d l i t t l e f r e s h f o o d i s a v a i l a b l e e l s e w h e r e . -166- P e r h a p s t h e l a r g e s t gap i n t h e a n a l y s e s p r e s e n t e d h e r e l i e s i n t h e a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t r e s o u r c e o w n e r s h i p a n d u s e . B e c a u s e e x a c t l o c a t i o n s o f v i l l a g e owned r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n a r e a s a r e n o t k n o w n , I h a v e h a d t o a s s u m e t h a t t h o s e r e s o u r c e s l o c a t e d c l o s e s t t o a v i l l a g e s e t t l e m e n t w e r e owned a n d c o m m o n l y u s e d by t h a t v i l l a g e . A r e a s o u t s i d e t h e i m m e d i a t e c a t c h m e n t a r e a o f e a c h v i l l a g e w e r e p r o b a b l y a l s o u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y f o r r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n , b u t t h e l a c k o f d a t a d o e s n o t p e r m i t i n c l u s i o n o f t h e s e a r e a s i n t h e a n a l y s e s . The a n a l y s e s a s t h e y a r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e a r e i n t e n d e d o n l y t o e x a m i n e why t h e N u x a l k d e c i d e d t o l o c a t e t h e i r v i l l a g e s w h e r e t h e y d i d . As a r e s u l t o f t h e N u x a l k a n a l y s i s , s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s a r e r a i s e d c o n c e r n i n g s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s i n o t h e r a r e a s . A c u r s o r y e x a m i n a t i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t a n d s e a s o n a l r o u n d s o f o t h e r g r o u p s a l o n g t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t i n d i c a t e a d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n f r o m t h a t o b s e r v e d among t h e N u x a l k . We know t h a t t h e N u x a l k w e r e l e s s m o b i l e t h a n some o f t h e i r c o a s t a l n e i g h b o u r s , b u t t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s a r e u n c l e a r . What a r e t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m o f t h e s e o t h e r g r o u p s ? A r e e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e s t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e d i s c r e p a n c y , o r a r e t h e r e o t h e r f a c t o r s a t p l a y ? I n t h e f o l l o w i n g c o m p a r a t i v e c h a p t e r t h e s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m s o f o t h e r N o r t h w e s t C o a s t a l g r o u p s a r e e x a m i n e d i n o r d e r t o a d d r e s s some o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s . -167- C h a p t e r V SETTLEMENT REVIEW OF OTHER NORTHWEST COAST GROUPS I n t r o d u c t i o n I n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s I h a v e shown t h a t i n t h e N u x a l k c a s e t h e p r e s e n c e o f s e v e r a l r e s o u r c e s d e t e r m i n e d t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f a v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n . A r e v i e w o f r e l e v a n t e t h n o g r a p h i c and e c o l o g i c a l d a t a was p r e s e n t e d i n o r d e r t o e x a m i n e t h e N u x a l k s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m . T e s t s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s o f t h e N u x a l k s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n w e r e a c c o m p l i s h e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t o f t h o s e v a r i a b l e s on s e t t l e m e n t . I t i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d among N o r t h w e s t C o a s t e c o l o g i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s t h a t t h e r e i s much s p a t i a l and t e m p o r a l v a r i a b l i t y i n r e s o u r c e a b u n d a n c e a n a d i s t r i b u t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o a s t , and f u r t h e r m o r e t h a t t h i s v a r i a t i o n l i k e w i s e a f f e c t e d t h e v a r i o u s N o r t h w e s t C o a s t c u l t u r e s d i f f e r e n t i a l l y ( S u t t l e s 1 9 6 2 , 1 9 6 8 ; R i c h e s 1 9 7 9 ) . I f we a c c e p t t h a t t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e s o u r c e s a f f e c t e d s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n s among N o r t h w e s t p e o p l e s , t h e n t h i s v a r i a t i o n i n r e s o u r c e s i s e x p e c t e d t o be m a n i f e s t e d i n d i f f e r e n t s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m s a l o n g t h e C o a s t . I n o r d e r t o e x a m i n e t h i s n o t i o n , s e t t l e m e n t d a t a o f f i v e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t g r o u p s , t h e T l i n g i t , C o a s t T s i m s h i a n , S o u t h e r n K w a k u i t l , West C o a s t ( N o o t k a ) and C o a s t S a l i s h , a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . As t i m e w o u l d n o t p e r m i t a s d e t a i l e d an a n a l y s i s a s p r e s e n t e d f o r t h e N u x a l k , o n l y a summary r e v i e w o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m s o f t h e s e g r o u p s i s p r e s e n t e d h e r e . The c o m p a r i s o n i s n o t meant t o be e x h a u s t i v e , b u t o n l y i l l u s t r a t i v e o f p a t t e r n s . B e c a u s e t h e r e v i e w i s n e c e s s a r i l y a b b r e v i a t e d , -168- o t h e r n o n - e n e r g y ( i . e . c u l t u r a l ) f a c t o r s a r e n o t t h o r o u g h l y i n v e s t i g a t e d . The r e v i e w o f s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s p r o c e e d s n o r t h t o s o u t h a l o n g t h e C o a s t . S e t t l e m e n t S u m m a r i e s T l i n g i t The T l i n g i t I n d i a n s o r i g i n a l l y i n h a b i t e d t h e c o a s t and i s l a n d s o f s o u t h e a s t e r n A l a s k a . T h e i r v i l l a g e s i t e s w e r e s i t u a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h i s a r e a . I n g e n e r a l " p r o x i m i t y o f good f i s h i n g g r o u n d s and s a f e l a n d i n g p l a c e s f o r c a n o e s " a r e c i t e d a s i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i a f o r v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n s ( K r a u s e 1 9 5 6 : 8 6 ) . " F l a t , sandy b e a c h o f a bay s h e l t e r e d f r o m t h e t i d e , on q u i e t i n l e t s , o r a t t h e mouth o r l o w e r c o u r s e o f a r i v e r " w e r e p r e f e r r e d s i t e s ( i b i d . : 8 6 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o O b e r g , t h e T l i n g i t had two p a t t e r n s o f r e s i d e n c e , d e p e n d i n g on t h e l o c a t i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t — t h a t i s , on m a i n l a n d r i v e r s o r o f f s h o r e i s l a n d s . F o r t h o s e g r o u p s s e t t l i n g on t h e b a n k s o f t h e l a r g e m a i n l a n d r i v e r s , s u c h a s t h e S t i k i n e , Taku a n d C h i l K a t , v i l l a g e r e s i d e n c e was more o r l e s s p e r m a n e n t . T h e s e l a r g e r i v e r s o f f e r e d a c o n s t a n t s u p p l y o f f i s h a l m o s t y e a r r o u n d t o t h e r e s i d e n t s . A l l f i v e s p e c i e s o f s a l m o n w e r e p r e s e n t i n t h e s e w a t e r s a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r . The f i r s t s p e c i e s began r u n n i n g s o m e t i m e i n J u l y , and t h e l a s t o f t h e s p a w n e r s r e m a i n e d u n t i l F e b r u a r y . S t e e l h e a d and d o l l y v a r d e n t r o u t began r u n n i n g a b o u t t h e t i m e o f t h e e n d o f t h e s a l m o n s e a s o n and r e m a i n e d u n t i l A p r i l o r M a y , a t w h i c h t i m e t h e o o l i g a n e n t e r e d t h e r i v e r s ' m o u t h s . T h u s , l a r g e v i l l a g e s s i t u a t e d on t h e r i v e r b a n k s c o u l d p r o c u r e v a r i o u s s p e c i e s o f f i s h f r o m a s i n g l e l o c a t i o n f o r a m a j o r p o r t i o n o f t h e y e a r . O n l y i n s p r i n g , d u r i n g t h e o o l i g a n r u n , w o u l d u p r i v e r g r o u p s have t o m i g r a t e t o t h e r i v e r s ' mouths (Oberg 1 9 7 3 : 5 6 - 5 7 ) . -169- On t h e i s l a n d s , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s r e q u i r e d a more t r a n s i e n t s e a s o n a l r o u n d among t h e T l i n g i t . H e r e , " t h e v i l l a g e s w e r e p r i m a r i l y t h e w i n t e r r e s i d e n c e , where t h e p e o p l e d e p e n d e d upon deep s e a f i s h i n g . I n J u l y , e a c h l o c a l c l a n d i v i s i o n w o u l d move t o i t s s a l m o n s t r e a m a n d n o t r e t u r n u n t i l November. I n r e g i o n s w h e r e s a l m o n w e r e s c a r c e , t h e I n d i a n s became e x p e r t s e a l h u n t e r s , and we f i n d a t h r e e f o l d d i v i s i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t . I n M a r c h when t h e w e a t h e r b e g a n t o c l e a r , t h e v a r i o u s c l a n u n i t s w o u l d go t o t h e r o c k s and i s l e t s f a r o u t t o t h e s e a and s p e n d t h e e n t i r e s p r i n g t h e r e , l i v i n g on s e a l m e a t , deep s e a f i s h , s h e l l f i s h and s e a b i r d s ' e g g s . In J u l y t h e y w o u l d move t o t h e i r s a l m o n s t r e a m s , a n d i n November t h e c l a n d i v i s i o n s w o u l d be u n i t e d f o r f o u r months i n t h e i r w i n t e r v i l l a g e s . T h e s e v i l l a g e s w e r e u s u a l l y s i t u a t e d i n q u i e t s h e l t e r e d s p o t s . . . . " ( O b e r g 1 9 7 3 : 5 6 - 5 7 ) . A l t h o u g h Oberg p a i n t s a p i c t u r e o f r e l a t i v e s e d e n t a r i n e s s among t h e m a i n l a n d T l i n g i t a s c o m p a r e d t o t h e i s l a n d g r o u p s , a l l t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a do n o t s u p p o r t t h i s . K r a u s e s t a t e s t h a t e v e n t h o u g h t h e m a i n l a n d T l i n g i t v i l l a g e r s had a c c e s s t o an a b u n d a n c e o f f i s h , t h e y f i s h e d i n v a r o u s p l a c e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r . " T h e y h a v e t o f o l l o w t h e w a n d e r i n g s c h o o l s o f f i s h , s o t h e y f i r s t make a summer camp a t t h e mouth o f t h e r i v e r , l a t e r on a s h a l l o w bay and w i t h hook and l i n e e v e n f o l l o w t h e f i s h o u t i n t o t h e open s e a . T h i s o f t e n makes t h e c a n o e s a s e c o n d home, f o r weeks and e v e n m o n t h s , a n d i n i t t h e y c a r r y a l l t h e i r h o u s e h o l d p o s s e s s i o n s , a s w e l l a s t h e g e a r f o r f i s h i n g and h u n t i n g " ( K r a u s e 1 9 5 6 : 1 2 0 ) . I n a d d i t i o n t o f i s h , o t h e r r e s o u r c e s , s u c h a s y o u n g s h o o t s o f p l a n t s and s e a b i r d e g g s r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e m a i n l a n d v i l l a g e r s t r a v e l l e d a d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e i r homes (Oberg 1 9 7 3 : 6 9 , 7 0 ) . T h e s e a c t i v i t i e s seem t o have b e e n p e r f o r m e d by s m a l l t a s k g r o u p s f r o m e a c h v i l l a g e . I n f a c t , m o s t r e s o u r c e c o l l e c t i n g was p r o b a b l y p e r f o r m e d by s u c h g r o u p s , who c o u l d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y be s e n t o u t f r o m a v i l l a g e t o e x p l o i t s e v e r a l r e s o u r c e s . The v a r i a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s t h r o u g h o u t T l i n g i t t e r r i t o r y seems t o h a v e r e s u l t e d i n d i f f e r e n t n o t i o n s o f r e s o u r c e o w n e r s h i p among t h e T l i n g i t . A l o n g t h e m a i n l a n d r i v e r s where t h e s u p p l y o f f i s h r e s o u r c e s was s o g r e a t , f i s h i n g r i g h t s do n o t seem t o have b e e n a -170- c o n c e r n . On t h e s m a l l i s l a n d s , h o w e v e r , as r e s o u r c e s w e r e much s c a r c e r , s t r e a m s had t o be a p p o r t i o n e d . H u n t i n g g r o u n d s , u s u a l l y c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e h i l l s s u r r o u n a i n g t h e w a t e r s h e d s , w e r e d i v i d e d among a l l v i l l a g e s — l a r g e a n a s m a l l . B e r r y , r o o t a n d c l o v e r p a t c h e s a s w e l l a s r o c k s f o r s e a l i n g w e r e owned by s i n g l e h o u s e s w i t h i n e a c h v i l l a g e ( O b e r g 1 9 7 3 : 5 9 ) . D i f f e r e n t v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e a r e a w e r e o f v a r i a b l e i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e T l i n g i t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s y s t e m . Due t o t h e v a r i a b i l i t y i n r e s o u r c e a b u n d a n c e , v i l l a g e p o p u l a t i o n numbers w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r a t t h e l a r g e r s t r e a m s r i c h i n f i s h r e s o u r c e s ( i b i d . : 5 6 ) . V i l l a g e s l o c a t e d a t t h e mouths o f t h o s e l a r g e r i v e r s w e r e o f g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e . In a d d i t i o n t o a c c e s s t o y e a r r o u n d s u p p l i e s o f f o o d , t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n s w e r e f a v o r e d a s t h e y c o n t r o l l e d t r a d e r o u t e s i n t o t h e I n t e r i o r ( i b i d . : l l ) . I t w o u l d seem t h a t T l i n g i t v i l l a g e l i f e f e l l i n t o w h a t c a n be v i e w e d a s a c o n t i n u u m o f s e d e n t a r i n e s s . On one e x t r e m e w e r e t h o s e m a i n l a n d v i l l a g e s l o c a t e d a t t h e mouths o f r i v e r s . T h e s e p e o p l e c o u l d t a k e f i s h , p l a n t s , s h e l l f i s h a n d l a n d mammals f r o m t h e p e r m a n e n t v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n s . The u p r i v e r g r o u p s , h o w e v e r , w o u l d h a v e had t o s e n d t a s k g r o u p s , o r i n t h e c a s e o f t h e o o l i g a n f i s h e r i e s , t h e e n t i r e v i l l a g e , t o h a r v e s t t h e o u t e r c o a s t a l r e s o u r c e s . The i s l a n d d w e l l e r s w e r e e v e n more m o b i l e a s t h e i r r e s o u r c e b a s e was l e s s c o n c e n t r a t e d and o f t e n f a r t h e r a f i e l d . I n s u m , t h e s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n o f t h e T l i n g i t s u g g e s t t h a t t h e mouths o f t h e m a i n l a n d r i v e r s w e r e t h e p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t . T h e s e v i l l a g e r s had b a s i c a l l y a y e a r r o u n d s u p p l y o f f o o d s t u f f s w i t h i n e a s y r e a c h o f t h e i r p e r m a n e n t v i l l a g e s . One s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n was a b l e t o m e e t a b u l k o f t h e i r e n e r g y n e e d s , t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r , w i t h a minimum e n e r g y e x p e n d i t u r e a s c o m p a r e d t o o t h e r l o c a l i t i e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , a c c e s s -171- t o I n t e r i o r t r a d e r o u t e s f r o m t h e s e l o c a t i o n s meant t h a t t h e s e v i l l a g e s had an e v e n g r e a t e r e c o n o m i c a d v a n t a g e o v e r t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s . C o a s t T s i m s h i a n The C o a s t T s i m s h i a n t r a d i t i o n a l l y o c c u p i e d ^ t h e i s l a n d s and m a i n l a n d c o a s t a r o u n d H e c a t e S t r a i t on t h e N o r t h e r n C o a s t ; t h e i r v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n s c e n t e r e d on t h e S k e e n a R i v e r , e x t e n d i n g i n t o t h e I n t e r i o r , t o G i t s k a n t e r r i t o r y . I n h i s t o r i c t i m e s t h e r e a r e r e p o r t e d t o h a v e been a s many a s 25 T s i m s h i a n s e t t l e m e n t s ( G a r f i e l d and W i n g e r t 1 9 5 1 : 1 0 ) ; t h e r e w e r e many f e w e r i n p r e - c o n t a c t t i m e s , p e r h a p s a s f e w a s t w e l v e ( A l l a i r e 1 9 8 4 : 8 8 ) . R e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e C o a s t T s i m s h i a n s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m i s c o m p l i c a t e d due t o d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n . The d i s p a r i t i e s seem t o a r i s e f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e was much movement and r e l o c a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l C o a s t T s i m s h i a n v i l l a g e s i n t h e e a r l y h i s t o r i c p e r i o d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e m i s s i o n i n f l u e n c e and t h e Hudson's Bay Company. The c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d b e l o w . D r u c k e r ( 1 9 6 5 : 1 1 5 ) s t a t e s t h a t s e v e r a l g r o u p s e s t a b l i s h e d w i n t e r v i l l a g e s " o n i s l a n d s f l a n k i n g M a e t l a k a t l a P a s s . . . s i nee t h e w i n t e r s a r e much m i l d e r t h a n on t h e [ S k e e n a j r i v e r . " G a r f i e l d ( 1 9 5 0 : 3 3 - 3 4 ) , h o w e v e r , r e c o r d s t h a t b e f o r e E u r o p e a n c o n t a c t t h e C o a s t T s i m s h i a n d i d w i n t e r a l o n g t h e l o w e r S k e e n a and u s e d t h e M e t l a k a t l a a r e a o n l y f o r t e m p o r a r y camps on t h e i r way t o t h e Nass o o l i g a n r u n i n t h e s p r i n g . S e t t l e m e n t a r o u n d M e t l a k a H a i s p r o b a b l y a p o s t - c o n t a c t d e v e l o p m e n t a s a r e s u l t o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e t h a t v i l l a g e had d u r i n g h i s t o r i c t i m e s . I n f a c t , A l l a i r e ( 1 9 8 4 : 8 8 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t o t h e r C o a s t T s i m s h i a n g r o u p s had t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l w i n t e r v i l l a g e s a l l a l o n g t h e S k e e n a , b u t c o n c e n t r a t e d e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e u p p e r m i d d l e S k e e n a R i v e r a r e a . T h e s e v i l l a g e s w e r e u s u a l l y l o c a t e d a t t h e mouth o f a t r i b u t a r y . -172- S e v e r a l . c r i t e r i a h a v e b e e n s u g g e s t e d w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f a s p e c i f i c s e t t l e m e n t s i t e . "A h o u s e o r v i l l a g e s i t e was c h o s e n w h e r e a c r a f t c o u l d be r e a d i l y l a n d e d a n d b e a c h e d . A l e v e l , w e l l d r a i n e d l o c a t i o n was a l s o n e c e s s a r y s i n c e h o u s e s h a d o n l y e a r t h o r s a n d f l o o r s . . . . A n o t h e r f a c t o r i n s e l e c t i o n o f a s i t e was t h e e a s e w i t h w h i c h i t c o u l d be p r o t e c t e d f r o m r a i d e r s . The T s i m s h i a n p r e f e r r e d a p o i n t o f l a n d t h a t commanded a v i e w o f w a t e r a p p r o a c h e s , o r was b a c k e d by w o o d s a n d swamp t h a t w o u l d r e t a r d o r d i s c o u r a g e e n e m i e s . " ( G a r f i e l d a n d W i n g e r t 1 9 5 1 : 1 0 ) . The s e a s o n a l r o u n d o f e a c h C o a s t T s i m s h i a n v i l l a g e , l i k e t h a t o f t h e i r T l i n g i t n e i g h b o u r s t o t h e n o r t h , v a r i e d i n d e g r e e o f s e d e n t a r i n e s s . The K i t s e l a s a n d K i t s u m k a l e m , t h e two e a s t e r n - m o s t T s i m s h i a n v i l l a g e s a r e r e p o r t e d t o h a v e s p e n t m o s t o f t h e y e a r a t t h e i r v i l l a g e s . The K i t s e l a s p e o p l e a r e r e p o r t e d t o h a v e l e f t t h e i r v a l l e y o n l y i n t h e s p r i n g t o t r a v e l t o t h e N a s s t o h a r v e s t o o l i g a n . D u r i n g t h e w i n t e r t h e y w e r e a b l e t o h u n t f r o m t h e c a n y o n , a n d d u r i n g t h e summer t h e y c a u g h t t h e i r y e a r ' s s u p p l y o f s a l m o n t h e r e . The l o c a t i o n o f t h e K i t s e l a s v i l l a g e s a l s o m e a n t t h a t t h e y c o u l d a c t a s m i d d l e m e n i n t r a d e b e t w e e n t h e c o a s t a l a n d u p p e r S k e e n a p e o p l e ( A l l a i r e , I n g l i s a n d M a c D o n a l d 1 9 7 9 : 7 0 , 7 1 ) . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e t o t r a d e , t h e s e a s o n a l r o u n d o f t h e K i t s u m k a l e m may h a v e b e e n much t h e same a s t h e K i t s e l a s . T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n may h a v e a l s o a p p l i e d t o some o f t h e o t h e r u p r i v e r g r o u p s ( a s s u m i n g A l l a i r e ' s s e t t l e m e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n i s c o r r e c t ) . I n c o m p a r i s o n , t h e l o w e r S k e e n a v i l l a g e s a p p e a r t o h a v e h a d a much more m o b i l e s e a s o n a l r o u n d . L i k e t h e u p p e r r i v e r p e o p l e , s p r i n g t i m e f o r t h e s e g r o u p s m e a n t m a s s m i g r a t i o n s t o t h e M a s s R i v e r f o r t h e o o l i g a n f i s h e r i e s , w h e r e t h e y a g a i n r e a s s e m b l e d i n t o v i l l a g e u n i t s . N o l a n ( 1 9 7 7 : 3 8 0 - 8 1 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s p a t t e r n o f r e s i d e n c e , a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n r e l a t e s t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e l o w e r N a s s a s a t r a d e l o c a t i o n , w i t h o t h e r t r i b e s . T h a t o t h e r t r i b e s a r e p r e s e n t a t t h e N a s s a t t h i s -173- t i m e m e a n t t h a t s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s became more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e o o l i g a n h a r v e s t i t s e l f . A l s o a t t h i s t i m e s m a l l e r t a s k g r o u p s w e r e s e n t t o f i s h f o r h a l i b u t , h u n t f u r s e a l s a n d c o l l e c t s e a w e e d ( I n g l i s 1 9 7 7 : 2 , f r o m N o l a n 1 9 7 7 : 1 8 8 ) , a n d p o s s i b l y f i s h f o r some e a r l y s a l m o n ( G a r f i e l d 1 9 5 0 : 1 3 ) . A f t e r t h i s t i m e , when t h e s a l m o n b e g a n t o r u n i n May o r d u n e , i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y g r o u p s r e t u r n e d t o t h e S k e e n a t o h a r v e s t s a l m o n a n d b e r r i e s u n t i l t h e f a l l , a t w h i c h t i m e t h e y r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r w i n t e r v i l l a g e s ( D r u c k e r 1 9 6 5 : 1 1 8 - 1 1 9 ) . The s e a s o n a l r o u n d o f t h e C o a s t T s i m s h i a n l i v i n g on t h e i s l a n d s a n d o u t e r c h a n n e l s ( e s p e c i a l l y D o u g l a s C h a n n e l ) t o t h e s o u t h o f t h e S k e e n a was e v e n more t r a n s i e n t s t i l l . S i n c e t h e s e g r o u p s h a d no s a l m o n f i s h i n g r i g h t s t h e y h a d t o d i s p e r s e d u r i n g t h i s s e a s o n f o r b o t h s a l m o n a n d b e r r y h a r v e s t s . S e a w e e d s , o t h e r p l a n t s a n d w a t e r f o w l w e r e a l s o g a t h e r e d d u r i n g t h e f a l l s e a s o n , b e f o r e t h e T s i m s h i a n r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r p e r m a n e n t w i n t e r v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n s ( S i m o n s e n 1 9 7 3 : 1 9 - 2 1 , f r o m N o l a n 1 9 7 7 : 1 9 0 - 1 9 1 ) . The s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n o f t h e C o a s t T s i m s h i a n , c a n be s u m m a r i z e d a s f o l l o w s . B e f o r e t h e c o n t a c t p e r i o d , a n d t h e t i m e when M e t l a k a t l a a r e a t o o k on i n c r e a s e d i m p o r t a n c e , t h e p e r m a n e n t w i n t e r v i l l a g e s o f t h e T s i m s h i a n seemed t o c l u s t e r a l o n g t h e b a n k s o f t h e S k e e n a , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e u p p e r m i d d l e a r e a . S e t t l e m e n t i n t h i s l o c a t i o n p e r m i t t e d r e l a t i v e s e d e n t a r i n e s s , a s a r a n g e o f r e s o u r c e s w e r e a v a i l a b l e t o t h e v i l l a g e r s w i t h minimum m o v e m e n t . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e o n e T s i m s h i a n v i l l a g e o f h i g h e s t r a n k i s l o c a t e d on a n i s l a n d o f f t h e c o a s t o f t h e r i v e r ' s m o u t h ( A l l a i r e 1 9 8 4 : 9 1 ) . T h a t v i l l a g e s i n t h i s a r e a w e r e r e l a t i v e l y m o r e m o b i l e t h a n o t h e r g r o u p s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s a r e a w o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n a p r e f e r r e d h a b i t a t i o n i f t h e d e c i s i o n t o s e t t l e w e r e made -174- o n r e s o u r c e d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d a b u n d a n c e a l o n e . T h e r e seem t o be o t h e r ( c u l t u r a l ) f a c t o r s a t p l a y h e r e a s s u g g e s t e d by t h e s o c i a l i m p o r t a n c e t h e l o w e r N a s s t a k e s d u r i n g o o l i g a n s e a s o n . The o v e r w a t e r r o u t e t o t h e m o u t h o f t h e N a s s w o u l d h a v e b e e n r e l a t i v e l y e a s i e r f r o m t h i s v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n t h a n f r o m o t h e r a r e a s . S o u t h e r n K w a k i u t l T h e K w a k i u t l w e r e c o m p o s e d o f s e v e r a l l o c a l g r o u p s o c c u p y i n g t h e m a i n l a n d c o a s t f r o m S m i t h I n l e t s o u t h t o t h e n o r t h e r n s h o r e s o f t h e G u l f o f G e o r g i a , a n d t h e n o r t h e r n t i p o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . A t l e a s t 2 5 l o c a l g r o u p s h a v e b e e n i d e n t i f i e d ( B o a s 1 8 9 7 : 3 2 8 - 3 3 2 , 1 9 9 : 3 7 - 4 1 ; D o n a l d a n d M i t c h e l l 1 9 7 5 : 3 2 9 ) . The s e a s o n a l r o u n d o f e a c h g r o u p was q u i t e v a r i a b l e , d e p e n d i n g on t h e i r l o c a t i o n , a n d w h i c h r e s o u r c e s w e r e b e i n g s o u g h t . The movement o f e a c h g r o u p was r e s t r i c t e d t o w e l l - d e f i n e d t e r r i t o r i e s w i t h i n w h i c h v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e s w e r e c o l l e c t e d ( c f . B o a s 1 9 6 6 : 2 4 - 2 7 ) . R e a s o n s f o r s p e c i f i c v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n a r e g i v e n a s f o l l o w s : " M o s t o f t h e K w a k i u t l v i l l a g e s s t a n d o n t h e g r a s s y t e r r a c e j u s t a b o v e t h e b e a c h g r a v e l o f some s h e l t e r e d c o v e , w i t h t h e t a n g l e d f o r e s t d i r e c t l y b e h i n d . O v e r l o o k i n g t h e w a t e r , t h e i n h a b i t a n t s w e r e d i f f i c u l t l y s u p r i s e d by t h e e n e m y ; b u t i f p e r c h a n c e a s u d d e n a t t a c k w e r e m a d e , t h e y c o u l d f l e e t h r o u g h t h e r e a r o f t h e h o u s e s i n t o t h e t h i c k e t a n d l i e h i d d e n w h i l e t h e r a i d e r s p i l l a g e d a n d b u r n e d . N e a r l y e v e r y v i l l a g e h a d a f o r t i f i e d r e f u g e a t t o p o f an i n a c c e s s i b l e , r o c k y h i l l . . . . " ( C u r t i s 1 9 1 5 : 9 ) . G e n e r a l l y t h e K w a k i u t l l i v e d i n p e r m a n e n t v i l l a g e s d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r . T h e s e w e r e l o c a t e d a t t h e m o u t h s o f i n l e t s a n d r i v e r s on t h e m a i n l a n d , V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d a n d s m a l l e r i s l a n d s . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e e a c h l o c a l g r o u p a s s e m b l e d f o r v a r i o u s r e l i g i o u s a n d s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . A l t h o u g h r e s o u r c e c o l l e c t i o n c e r t a i n l y s l o w e d down t o a minimum a t t h i s t i m e , some a c t i v i t i e s , s u c h a s s h e l l f i s h c o l l e c t i n g a n d l a n d mammal h u n t i n g c e r t a i n l y t o o k p l a c e , d e p e n d i n g on t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e g r o u p . -175- When d i s t a n t f r o m t h e w i n t e r r e s o u r c e s , s m a l l e r t a s k g r o u p s f r o m e a c h v i l l a g e w e r e p r o b a b l y s e n t o u t t o c o n d u c t t h e h a r v e s t i n g . S p r i n g t i m e m a r k e d t h e c o m i n g o f t h e o i l - p r o d u c i n g f i s h i n t o t h e K w a k i u t l t e r r i t o r y , a n d many p e o p l e r e l o c a t e d t o h a r v e s t t h e s e i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e s . Some g r o u p s a r e r e p o r t e d t o h a v e t r a v e l l e d up t o 3 5 m i l e s t o h a r v e s t h e r r i n g ( C u r t i s 1 9 1 5 : 1 9 ) . A t l e a s t e l e v e n o f t h e v i l l a g e g r o u p s r e l o c a t e d a s v i l l a g e u n i t s t o o n e o f t h e m a j o r o o l i g a n h a r v e s t i n g a r e a s . T h a t i s , t h e y d i d n o t b r e a k i n t o s m a l l e r f a m i l y g r o u p s a t t h e s e l o c a l i t i e s . F o r a t l e a s t o n e v i l l a g e u n i t , l o c a t e d a t t h e h e a d o f K n i g h t I n l e t , no m a j o r r e l o c a t i o n was n e c e s s a r y t o h a r v e s t o o l i g a n ( M i t c h e l l 1 9 7 9 : 1 0 0 ) . The h a r v e s t o f o t h e r f o o d s t u f f s , s u c h a s s e a m a m m a l s , h a l i b u t a n d e a r l y v e g e t a b l e p r o d u c t s a n d s e a w e e d s w o u l d h a v e r e q u i r e d t h a t s m a l l e r g r o u p s f r o m e a c h v i l l a g e a c c o m p l i s h t h e s e t a s k s . F o r g r o u p s l o c a t e d o n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , t h e s m a l l e r i s l a n d s , o r t h e m a i n l a n d c o a s t f a c i n g Queen C h a r l o t t e S o u n d , h a l i b u t was p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t ; h a r v e s t by t h e s e g r o u p s d i d n o t r e q u i r e movement f r o m t h e w i n t e r v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n ( C u r t i s 1 9 1 5 : 2 5 ) . Some s p r i n g r u n s a l m o n may h a v e a l s o b e e n t a k e n a t t h i s t i m e ( W e i n b e r g 1 9 7 3 : 2 4 7 ) . Summer a n d f a l l , h o w e v e r , w e r e t h e m a i n s a l m o n h a r v e s t i n g m o n t h s . Some e n t i r e v i l l a g e s t r a v e l l e d d u r i n g t h e s e s e a s o n s t o h a r v e s t s a l m o n o n t h e e a s t e r n s h o r e s o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d ( M i t c h e l l 1 9 7 9 : 1 0 1 - 1 0 2 ) . A l l l o c a l g r o u p s a p p e a r t o h a v e h a d a c c e s s t o s a l m o n s t r e a m s w i t h i n t h e i r g r o u p t e r r i t o r i e s ( s e e D o n a l d a n d M i t c h e l l 1 9 7 5 : 3 2 9 ) a n d s a l m o n w e r e u s u a l l y t a k e n a t t h e m o u t h s o f s t r e a m s ( i b i d . : 3 2 7 ) . O b v i o u s l y , t h o s e g r o u p s w h i c h h a d t h e i r w i n t e r v i l l a g e s a t s t r e a m m o u t h s , w o u l d h a v e b e e n a b l e t o r e m a i n s e d e n t a r y a t t h i s t i m e . F a m i l y g r o u p s f r o m o t h e r v i l l a g e s p r o b a b l y s e t up c a m p s a t t h e s e h a r v e s t i n g l o c a t i o n s . A g a i n , t h e h a r v e s t -176- o f o t h e r r e s o u r c e s d u r i n g summer a n d f a l l , s u c h a s l a n d m a m m a l s , b e r r i e s a n d r o o t s a n d o t h e r f i s h w o u l d h a v e r e q u i r e d s e t t i n g up s m a l l r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n c a m p s a t v a r i o u s l o c a l i t i e s . I n s p i t e o f t h e l a r g e g a p s i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t d a t a p r e s e n t e d h e r e , some g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s c a n be made c o n c e r n i n g t h e K w a k i u t l s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m . The K w a k i u t l s y s t e m i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by much v a r i a b i l i t y . T h e r e h a v e b e e n d i s c u s s i o n s a b o u t t h e d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n t h e K w a k i u t l t e r r i t o r y ( e g . V a y d a 1 9 6 1 ; W e i n b e r g 1 9 7 3 ) , a n d t h i s i s e v i d e n t i n t h e d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s o f s e t t l e m e n t . E a c h v i l l a g e g r o u p i n e a c h s e a s o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a d i f f e r e n t s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n , r a n g i n g f r o m s e v e r a l camps ( i n s p r i n g , summer a n d f a l l ) t o a s i n g l e v i l l a g e i n t h e w i n t e r , t o s e v e r a l v i l l a g e s l o c a t e d i n a s i n g l e l o c a t i o n ( i n a l l s e a s o n s ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t h a b i t a t s , f r o m o c e a n i s l a n d t o t h e h e a d s o f i n l e t s w e r e c h o s e n f o r w i n t e r v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n s . R e s o u r c e d i s t r i b u t i o n a l o n e d o e s n o t a c c o u n t f o r t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s ; p e r h a p s s o c i o - c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s b e g i n t o i n t e r v e n e h e r e , a s t h e y a p p e a r t o h a v e i n t h e N a s s o o l i g a n f i s h e r i e s o f t h e T s i m s h i a n . R e g a r d l e s s , t h e m o u t h s o f t h e r i v e r s a n d s t r e a m s seem t o b e t h e p r e f e r e d l o c a t i o n f o r s e t t l e m e n t i n a l l s e a s o n s e x c e p t w i n t e r , when more s h e l t e r e d a r e a s a r e s o u g h t . W e s t C o a s t T h e W e s t C o a s t I n d i a n s t r a d i t i o n a l l y o c c u p i e d t h e w e s t e r n p o r t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f b o t h t h e n o r t h e r n a n d s o u t h e r n t i p s , w h i c h b e l o n g e d t o t h e S o u t h e r n K w a k i u t l a n d C o a s t S a l i s h r e s p e c t i v e l y . The W e s t C o a s t p e o p l e a r e g e n e r a l l y d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s a c c o r d i n g t o g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a — N o r t h e r n , C e n t r a l a n d S o u t h e r n . -177- The S o u t h e r n t r i b e s ( h i i t i n a t a n d M a k a h ) a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e d i s c u s s i o n p r e s e n t e d b e l o w , a s t h e i r s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m seems t o d i f f e r s u b s t a n t i a l l y f r o m t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e W e s t C o a s t g r o u p s , a n d t h e d a t a a r e n o t c o m p l e t e . The W e s t C o a s t p e o p l e s p e n t t h e w i n t e r m o n t h s i n p e r m a n e n t v i l l a g e s u s u a l l y l o c a t e d i n t h e p r o t e c t e d i n l e t s , h o w e v e r a f e w g r o u p s h a d v i l l a g e s on t h e o p e n c o a s t . S e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n s w e r e c h o s e n f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s , w i t h s h e l t e r b e i n g o f u p m o s t i m p o r t a n c e . " M o s t w i n t e r v i l l a g e s w e r e l o c a t e d i n t h e u p p e r r e a c h e s o f t h e i n l e t s , i n c o v e s t h a t q u a r t e r e d away f r o m t h e p r e v a i l i n g w i n d s . A l e v e l a r e a a b o v e t h e r e a c h o f w i n t e r s t o r m t i d e s a n d an o p e n s t r e t c h o f s a n d o r g r a v e l b e a c h w e r e a l s o deemed n e c e s s i t i e s . A s h o r t s t e e p ' b a n k ' b e t w e e n t h e h o u s e l e v e l a n d t h e b e a c h p r o p e r seems t o h a v e b e e n p r e f e r r e d t o a l o n g g e n t l e s l o p e ; c a r r y i n g o r d r a g g i n g c a n o e s up a n d down a s h o r t s t e e p p i t c h was p r o b a b l y r e c k o n e d e a s i e r t h a n m a k i n g a l o n g h a u l . . . T h e r e w e r e a f e w g r o u p s who d i d n o t own an ' i n s i d e p l a c e , 1 b u t w i n t e r e d o n t h e s t o r m - l a s h e d o u t e r b e a c h e s . T r a d i t i o n s r e l a t e t h e i r h a r d s h i p s , when t h e y c o u l d n o t l a u n c h t h e i r c a n o e s f o r w e e k s a t a t i m e " ( D r u c k e r 1 9 5 1 : 6 7 ) . T y p i c a l l y , w i n t e r t i m e f o r t h e W e s t C o a s t p e o p l e w a s one o f r e l a t i v e s e d e n t a r i n e s s . L a n d g a m e , w a t e r f o w l , w i n t e r h u c k l e b e r r i e s , o c e a n f i s h , c l a m s a n d d r i f t w h a l e s a r e r e p o r t e d t o h a v e b e e n t a k e n a t t h i s t i m e . The p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n s o f u s e , h o w e v e r , d e p e n d e d on t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e w i n t e r v i l l a g e . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n l a n d g r o u p s a t t h e h e a d s o f i n l e t s d e p e n d e d more h e a v i l y o n l a n d game t h a n o t h e r s ( D r u c k e r 1 9 5 1 : 3 6 ) . S m a l l g r o u p s f r o m t h e m a i n v i l l a g e w o u l d h a v e a c c o m p l i s h e d t h e s e t a s k s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e e t h n o g r a p h i e s , t h e c o m i n g o f s p r i n g m e a n t t h e b r e a k i n g up o f v i l l a g e u n i t s a n d movement t o v a r i o u s l o c a l e s t o h a r v e s t r e s o u r c e s . H e r r i n g , s p r i n g s a l m o n a n d s e a w e e d w e r e r e a d y f o r h a r v e s t i n g i n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h i s s e a s o n a t t h e l o w e r r e a c h e s o f t h e i n l e t s ( D r u c k e r 1 9 5 1 : 4 0 - 4 2 ) . Some g r o u p s w e r e a b l e t o r e m a i n i n t h e i r w i n t e r v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n d u r i n g t h i s s e a s o n w h i l e o t h e r s who h a d t o o f a r t o -178- t r a v e l s e t up t e m p o r a r y camps ( D r u c k e r 1 9 6 5 : 1 5 0 ) . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , w a t e r f o w l c o u l d a l s o b e t a k e n f r o m t h e s e l o c a l e s . H a r v e s t i n g h a l i b u t o r v a r i o u s s e a mammals i n c l u d i n g w h a l e s a n d s e a b i r d e g g s , h o w e v e r , r e q u i r e d m o v i n g a g a i n t o t h e o u t e r b e a c h e s ( D r u c k e r 1 9 5 1 : 4 3 , 1 9 6 5 : 1 5 0 - 5 1 ; A r i m a 1 9 8 3 : 4 7 ) . Young s h o o t s o f v a r i o u s p l a n t s w e r e a l s o c o l l e c t e d a t t h i s t i m e ( A r i m a 1 9 8 3 : 4 7 ) . S h e l l f i s h g a t h e r i n g o n t h e i n l e t s a l s o c o n t i n u e d ( i b i d . : 4 8 ) . By summer t i m e r e s o u r c e c o l l e c t i o n w a s f o c u s e d on t h e o u t e r c o a s t s . " S h e l t e r was l e s s i m p o r t a n t t h a n w a t e r s u p p l y f o r t h e s e s i t e s , f o r o w i n g t o t h e s t e e p n e s s o f t h e l a n d a n d s h a l l o w n e s s o f t h e s o i l many s p r i n g s a n d s m a l l e r s t r e a m s d r y up i n t h e s u m m e r t i m e . A s u i t a b l e b e a c h w a s , o f c o u r s e , a s e s s e n t i a l a s a t t h e w i n t e r q u a r t e r s . . . F i s h i n g s t a t i o n s , o f c o u r s e , w e r e l o c a t e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e f i s h i n g g r o u n d s . The summer v i l l a g e s t h e m s e l v e s f a l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y , f o r t h e y w e r e s i t u a t e d s o a s t o be c o n v e n i e n t f o r sea-mammal h u n t i n g a n d o f f s h o r e f i s h i n g . " ( D r u c k e r 1 9 5 1 : 6 7 ) . W h a l i n g , b e r r y a n d r o o t h a r v e s t s , d e e p s e a f i s h i n g a n d s o c k e y e s a l m o n f i s h i n g , f o r t h o s e g r o u p s who h a d a c c e s s t o s o c k e y e - p r o d u c i n g s t r e a m s , w e r e a l l p u r s u e d a t t h i s t i m e ( D r u c k e r 1 9 5 1 : 5 7 - 5 8 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e e t h n o g r a p h i e s , t h e s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n f o r m o s t W e s t C o a s t g r o u p s d u r i n g t h e summer s e a s o n was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s e v e r a l s m a l l camps a t v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e h a r v e s t i n g l o c a l i t i e s . I n p r e - c o n t a c t t i m e s , t w o o f t h e N o r t h e r n W e s t C o a s t g r o u p s , h o w e v e r , e a c h r e s e t t l e d o n i s l a n d s o f f t h e o u t e r c o a s t a s v i l l a g e u n i t s . H e r e , a l t h o u g h e a c h v i l l a g e r e t a i n e d i t s i n t r e g a l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , t h e y w e r e j o i n e d t o g e t h e r i n a l o o s e p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n c o m m o n l y c a l l e d a " c o n f e d e r a c y " ( D r u c k e r 1 9 6 5 : 1 4 5 ) . The r e a s o n f o r t h e s e l a r g e c o n g r e g a t i o n s o f v i l l a g e s i s n o t c l e a r . I t h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t i t i s i n p a r t r e l a t e d t o a n e e d f o r s u f f i c i e n t -179- p e o p l e t o be a t h a n d t o r e c e i v e p o r t i o n s o f d r i f t w h a l e s b e f o r e s p o i l i n g ( M i t c h e l l 1 9 7 9 : 1 0 6 ) . T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n i s n o t e n t i r e l y a d e q u a t e , a s s m a l l e r , l e s s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d g r o u p s c o u l d h a v e a l s o s u f f i c e d i n s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T h a t i s , s u c h d i s t i n c t g r o u p s c o u l d b e i n v i t e d t o f e a s t when a w h a l e d r i f t e d a s h o r e . I n f a l l , t h e W e s t C o a s t p e o p l e a g a i n b r o k e up i n t o s m a l l g r o u p s a n d moved t o t h e i n n e r c o a s t . Camps w e r e s e t up a t f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s t o h a r v e s t d o g s a l m o n . W a t e r f o w l a n d r o o t s w e r e a l s o s o u g h t d u r i n g t h i s t i m e . A f t e r t h i s , t h e g r o u p s r e a s s e m b l e d i n t h e i r w i n t e r v i l l a g e s . One o t h e r s i t e t y p e w h i c h d o e s n o t f a l l i n t o t h e r e g u l a r s e a s o n a l r o u n d a r e t h o s e w h i c h w e r e u s e d f o r d e f e n s e i n t i m e s o f d a n g e r . " S m a l l i s l a n d s g u a r d e d by p r e c i p i t o u s s i d e s w e r e t h u s u t i l i z e d . P o o r w a t e r s u p p l y , a n d i n c o n v e n i e n c e f o r f o o d a n d f u e l g a t h e r i n g p r e v e n t e d p e r m a n e n t h a b i t a n c y o f t h e s e p l a c e s . T e m p o r a r y s t o c k a d e s w e r e b u i l t w h e r e t h e r e w a s no r e f u g e i s l a n d a v a i l a b l e " ( D r u c k e r 1 9 5 1 : 6 7 ) . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e p a t t e r n o f s e t t l e m e n t d e s c r i b e d e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y may n o t b e e n t i r e l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e p r e - c o n t a c t s i t u a t i o n i n t h e W e s t C o a s t a r e a . R e s u l t s o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l w o r k c o n d u c t e d a t Y u q u o t S o u n d do c o n f i r m t h e p a t t e r n d e s c r i b e d i n e t h n o g r a p h i e s ( D e w h i r s t 1 9 7 8 , a s q u o t e d i n C a v a n a u g h 1 9 8 3 : 3 4 ) . J i m H a g g a r t y , h o w e v e r , a f t e r much r e s e a r c h o n W e s t C o a s t s i t e d i s t r i b u t i o n , s u g g e s t s t h a t 8 0 - 8 5 % o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m d e s c r i b e d i n t h e e t h n o g r a p h i e s may a p p l y o n l y t o a m i d - h i s t o r i c p a t t e r n a n d n o t t h e p r e - c o n t a c t s i t u a t i o n ( J i m H a g g a r t y , a r c h a e o l o g i s t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l M u s e u m , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) . T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by a r c h a e o l o g i c a l w o r k c o n d u c t e d i n H e s q u i a t H a r b o r . S i t e s a t H e s q u i a t ( d a t i n g t o a r l e a s t 1200 y e a r s a g o ) r e p r e s e n t much m o r e p e r m a n e n t r e s i d e n c e p a t t e r n s t h a n t h a t d e s c r i b e d e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y ( C a l v e r t 1 9 8 0 : 2 6 2 - 2 6 3 ) . H a g g a r t y s a n d I n g l i s ' a r c h a e o l o g i c a l w o r k on t h e W e s t -180- C o a s t a l s o s u g g e s t s l o n g t e r m o c c u p a t i o n i n e x p o s e d a n d s e m i - e x p o s e d a r e a s o f t h e c o a s t w h e r e p e o p l e c o u l d h a v e h a d a c c e s s t o a r a n g e o f r e s o u r c e s . T h e i n n e r , p r o t e c t e d a r e a s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , o f t e n o n l y o f f e r a s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e . " T h e p a t t e r n t h a t e m e r g e s i s one o f e m p h a s i s on t h e o u t s i d e w i t h s c h e d u l i n g t o e x p l o i t t h e i n s i d e on a s e a s o n a l b a s i s " ( H a g g a r t y a n d I n g l i s 1 9 8 3 : 1 6 ) . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s u m m a r i z e t h e s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m o f t h e W e s t C o a s t p e o p l e , s i n c e t h e r e i s much v a r i a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t ( s e e C a v a n a u g h 1 9 8 3 : 3 4 ) . W i n t e r v i l l a g e s ( a c c o r d i n g t o t h e e t h n o g r a p h i e s ) w e r e s i t u a t e d i n a v a r i e t y o f l o c a t i o n s — o n i n l e t s , o n t h e m o u t h o f i n l e t s , a n d f u r t h e r up i n l e t s a t r i v e r m o u t h s . Few w e r e r e c o r d e d i n t h i s l a s t l o c a l i t y ( D r u c k e r o n l y r e c o r d s o n e ) . S i t u a t e d n e a r t h e o p e n w a t e r s , v i l l a g e r s h a d a c c e s s t o a g r e a t e r r a n g e o f r e s o u r c e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r . I n f a c t , o n l y summer a n d f a l l s a l m o n r u n s w o u l d h a v e b e e n i n a c c e s s a b l e f r o m t h e o u t e r c o a s t w i t h o u t r e q u i r i n g a m a j o r r e l o c a t i o n o f v i l l a g e i n h a b i t a n t s . I t seems p l a u s i b l e t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e s o u r c e c o l l e c t i o n done a t a d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e o u t e r c o a s t was c o n d u c t e d by s m a l l t a s k g r o u p s s e n t f r o m e a c h v i l l a g e . C o a s t S a l i s h T h e C o a s t S a l i s h t r a d i t i o n a l l y o c c u p i e d b o t h t h e e a s t s i d e o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d a s f a r n o r t h a s S a l m o n Bay a n d t h e m a i n l a n d c o a s t f a c i n g t h e i s l a n d t e r r i t o r y a n d a s f a r i n l a n d a s Y a l e on t h e F r a s e r R i v e r . The C o a s t S a l i s h a r e d i v i d e d i n t o s i x l a n g u a g e g r o u p s , e a c h o f w h i c h a r e i n t u r n c o m p o s e d o f s e v e r a l l o c a l g r o u p s ( S u t t l e s 1 9 7 8 ; B a r n e t t 1 9 5 5 ) . E a c h o f t h e s e l o c a l g r o u p s r e s i d e d i n s e p a r a t e w i n t e r v i l l a g e s i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o o t h e r members o f t h e same l a n g u a g e g r o u p . I n d i v i d u a l -181- s u b s i s t e n c e - s e t t l e m e n t d a t a f o r e a c h o f t h e s e g r o u p s i s q u i t e s c a n t y . The s e a s o n a l r o u n d f o r e a c h g r o u p d o e s a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n q u i t e v a r i a b l e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e a s o n a l r o u n d o f t h e l o c a l g r o u p s o c c u p y i n g t h e l o w e r r e a c h e s o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r a n d i t s t r i b u t a r i e s ( c o l l e c t i v e l y c a l l e d t h e H a l k o m e l e m ) d i f f e r e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y f r o m t h a t o f t h e o t h e r C o a s t S a l i s h g r o u p s . B e c a u s e o f t h i s d i f f e r e n c e , a s w e l l a s t h e a b s e n c e o f c o m p a r a b l y d e t a i l e d d a t a on s e a s o n a l a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e H a l k o m e l e m , t h e H a l k o m e l e m w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y f r o m t h e r e m a i n i n g C o a s t S a l i s h g r o u p s . E a c h l o c a l H a l k o m e l e m g r o u p , c o m p o s e d o f s e v e r a l v i l l a g e s , c l a i m e d a s t r e t c h o f t h e F r a s e r o r a m a j o r t r i b u t a r y ( D u f f 1 9 5 2 : 1 9 ) . F r o m t h i s l o c a t i o n f i v e s p e c i e s o f s a l m o n , s t u r g e o n , t r o u t a n d o o l i g a n s ( i n t h e l o w e r r e a c h e s o f t h e r i v e r ) c o u l d b e c a u g h t . I n a d d i t i o n l a n d mammals a n d p l a n t r e s o u r c e s c o u l d be h a r v e s t e d a l o n g t h e r i v e r o r i n t h e a d j a c e n t m o u n t a i n s ( i b i d . 6 2 , 6 7 , 7 0 , 7 2 , 7 3 ) . A l m o s t no i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e c o n c e r n i n g s e a s o n a l movement a n d e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t e m p o r a r y c a m p s by t h e H a l k o m e l e m . P r e s u m a b l y , much o f t h e s u b s i s t e n c e p u r s u i t s w e r e c o n d u c t e d a t t h e m a i n v i l l a g e , w i t h o c c a s i o n a l s m a l l t a s k g r o u p s b e i n g s e n t o u t t o p r o c u r e v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e s . The w i n t e r v i l l a g e s o f t h e o t h e r C o a s t S a l i s h g r o u p s w e r e l o c a t e d p r e d o m i n a n t l y o n s h e l t e r e d b a y s o r i n l e t s ; h o w e v e r a f e w w e r e s i t u a t e d f u r t h e r i n l a n d n e a r r i v e r m o u t h s a n d f u r t h e r u p r i v e r . S u c h s i t e s w e r e c h o s e n t o p r o t e c t f r o m s t o r m s a n d s t r a n g e r s ( B a r n e t t 1 9 5 5 : 1 8 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , " i n t e r e s t c e n t e r e d u p o n b e a c h s i t e s c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o g a t h e r i n g a n d h u n t i n g g r o u n d s . . . . W i n t e r v i l l a g e s a r e a l w a y s t o b e r e g a r d e d a s t h e f o c i f o r s u c h p u r s u i t s " ( i b i d . : 1 9 ) - A s w i t h o t h e r N o r t h w e s t C o a s t p e o p l e , e c o n o m i c p u r s u i t s w e r e k e p t t o a minimum d u r i n g -182- t h e w i n t e r m o n t h s . I t was n o t u n t i l t h e c o m i n g s p r i n g t i m e t h a t s u c h p u r s u i t s r e s u m e d a m a j o r f o c u s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e e t h n o g r a p h i e s , f o r m o s t v i l l a g e g r o u p s s p r i n g m e a n t l e a v i n g t h e w i n t e r s e t t l e m e n t f o r v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e h a r v e s t i n g a r e a s . Some g r o u p s t r a v e l l e d t o t h e i s l a n d s t o h a r v e s t h a l i b u t , s e a mammals o r h e r r i n g , w h i l e o t h e r s c o l l e c t e d c l a m s , s e a b i r d e g g s , c a m a s a n d p r o b a b l y s e a w e e d . Some a l s o t r a v e l l e d i n l a n d t o h u n t l a n d mammals a t l a k e s a t t h e h e a d s o f i n l e t s ( i b i d . : 2 0 , 2 2 , 2 9 ) . S e v e n v i l l a g e u n i t s o f t h e S q u a m i s h g r o u p s t r a v e l l e d t o t h e o o l i g a n f i s h e r i e s a t t h e r i v e r ' s m o u t h , w h i l e t h e o t h e r e i g h t v i l l a g e s c o u l d h a r v e s t i t f r o m t h e i r w i n t e r v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n ( i b i d . : 3 1 ; M i t c h e l l 1 9 7 9 : 1 0 1 ) . S t i l l a n o t h e r g r o u p i s r e p o r t e d t o h a v e r e m a i n e d s e d e n t a r y d u r i n g t h i s s e a s o n , a n d p e r h a p s , a t l e a s t p a r t o f t h a t v i l l a g e , f o r t h e e n t i r e y e a r p r e s u m a b l y b e c a u s e o f a r e l a t i v e l y a c c e s s i b l e s u p p l y o f s e a s o n a l f o o d s . ( B a r n e t t 1 9 5 5 : 3 3 ; M i t c h e l l 1 9 7 9 : 1 0 1 ) . S e v e r a l o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s w e r e a c c o m p l i s h e d by e n t i r e v i l l a g e s m o v i n g t o h a r v e s t i n g a r e a s , w h i l e o t h e r s may h a v e b e e n c o n d u c t e d by s m a l l e r g r o u p s a t s m a l l e r s e t t l e m e n t s i t e s . Summer a c t i v i t i e s a l s o i n v o l v e d movement by m o s t g r o u p s . Much o f t h e o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e s o u t h e r n g r o u p s a t t h i s t i m e was t o w a r d t h e s a l m o n f i s h e r i e s w h i c h w e r e s o a b u n d a n t n e a r t h e s o u t h e r n arm o f t h e F r a s e r . One chum s a l m o n f i s h i n g s t a t i o n h a s b e e n r e c o g n i z e d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y a t t h e L i t t l e Q u a l i c u m R i v e r s i t e . S i t e l o c a t i o n was c h o s e n b e c a u s e i t w a s : " [ a ] t o p o g r a p h i c a l l y s u i t e d l o c a t i o n , r e l a t i v e l y p r o t e c t e d f r o m t h e e l e m e n t s , e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e by w a t e r c r a f t , a n d a t t h e j u n c t u r e o f s e v e r a l r e s o u r c e z o n e s r e g u l a r l y e x p l o i t e d by t h e i n h a b i t a n t s . . . . t h e s h o r e l i n e w i t h e x p l o i t a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t e d o n t h e r i v e r , t h e i n t e r t i d a l z o n e , n e a r b y s u b t i d a l w a t e r s , a n d i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t t e r r e s t r i a l a r e a s ( B e r n i c k 1 9 8 3 : 2 0 1 ) . O t h e r g r o u p s h a r v e s t e d b e r r i e s , s t u r g e o n a n d c l a m s . H u n t i n g was a l s o c o n d u c t e d . A g a i n , s e v e r a l g r o u p s moved a s v i l l a g e u n i t s a n d s t i l l o t h e r s -183- e i t h e r r e m a i n e d a t t h e i r w i n t e r v i l l a g e s i t e s o r r e t u r n e d t o them a t t h i s t i m e ( B a r n e t t 1 9 5 5 : 1 9 , 2 2 , 2 3 , 2 7 , 2 9 , 3 1 , 3 4 ) . F o r t h o s e g r o u p s n o t a l r e a d y l o c a t e d a t a f i s h i n g s t a t i o n , f a l l t i m e m e a n t a n o t h e r move t o h a r v e s t s a l m o n . F o r some g r o u p s t h i s m e a n t r e t u r n i n g t o t h e i r w i n t e r v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n s ; o t h e r s r e t u r n e d a f t e r t h e s e a s o n was c o m p l e t e d . B o t h v i l l a g e a n d s m a l l e r u n i t s c o n g r e g a t e d a t t h i s t i m e . P u b l i s h e d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t h e a r e a a d d a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e p r e h i s t o r i c s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n o f t h e C o a s t S a l i s h . A s i t e s u r v e y on e a s t e r n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d y i e l d e d t h e r e m a i n s o f " a l i m i t e d number o f c e n t r a l v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n s p r o v i d i n g b a s e s f o r d i v e r s i f i e d e x p l o i t a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s a c c e s s i b l e f r o m t h o s e c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s . T h i s p a t t e r n r e s u l t e d i n a m a j o r i t y o f n u m e r o u s s m a l l s i t e s , a n d a m i n o r i t y o f l a r g e o n e s " ( C a s s i d y 1 9 8 3 : 3 8 ) . I n t h e n o r t h e r n h a l f o f V a n c o u v e r i s l a n d f e w e r s m a l l s i t e s w e r e f o u n d w h i c h may i n d i c a t e e i t h e r t h a t a c e n t r a l v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n s e r v e d a s a b a s e more o f t e n f o r o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s , o r t h a t a g r e a t e r number o f s m a l l s i t e s w a s r e u s e d r e p e a t e d l y ( i b i d . : 3 8 ) . I n d e e d , e v e n g i v e n t h e p a u c i t y o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n u n d e r t a k e n t h u s f a r , i t seems t h a t i n b o t h t h e n o r t h e r n a n d s o u t h e r n p o r t i o n s o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d t h e p e r m a n e n t v i l l a g e a n d s a t e l l i t e camps c h a r a c t e r i z e d much o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n . Some g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e C o a s t S a l i s h p r e h i s t o r i c s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s c a n be m a d e . P e r m a n e n t s e t t l e m e n t s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e o f t h e H a l k o m e l e m , a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n l o c a t e d p r e d o m i n a t e l y on t h e o u t e r c o a s t , b o t h f o r p r o t e c t i o n f r o m t h e e l e m e n t s , b u t a l s o , a n d p r o b a b l y more i m p o r t a n t l y , t o ' h a r v e s t t h e maximum number o f s e a s o n a l r e s o u r c e s f r o m a s i n g l e l o c a l i t y . T h i s a l s o seems t o a p p l y t o a l l e a s t t w o o f t h e -184- s e t t l e m e n t s l o c a t e d f u r t h e r i n l a n d , a t t h e h e a d o f Howe S o u n d a n d t e n m i l e s up t h e T o b a R i v e r . I n b o t h i n s t a n c e s t h e s e v i l l a g e s h a d a c c e s s t o " o u t o f s e a s o n " r e s o u r c e s ( " w i n t e r s a l m o n " f o r one g r o u p , a n d s p r i n g o o l i g a n f o r a n o t h e r ) , w h i c h e x t e n d e d t h e h a r v e s t s e a s o n f r o m t h a t o n e l o c a t i o n b e y o n d t h a t o f o t h e r i n l a n d l o c a l i t i e s . The F r a s e r R i v e r H a l k o m e l e m , t o o h a d a c c e s s t o a n a l m o s t y e a r r o u n d s u p p l y o f r e s o u r c e s f r o m a s i n g l e w i n t e r v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n . W h e t h e r s m a l l s a t e l l i t e camps w e r e s e t up o r e n t i r e v i l l a g e s moved t o h a r v e s t o t h e r r e s o u r c e s n o t a v a i l a b l e f r o m t h e w i n t e r v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n , i s n o t k n o w n . The s e t t l e m e n t l o c a l i t i e s do seem t o be c h o s e n , h o w e v e r , t o m i n i m i z e t r a v e l ( e n e r g y o u t p u t ) t o t h e maximum number o f r e s o u r c e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e a s o n s . Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n s A s t h e p r e v i o u s s u r v e y i l l u s t r a t e d , t h e r e i s much v a r i a t i o n i n s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s b o t h w i t h i n a n d b e t w e e n g r o u p s a l o n g t h e c o a s t . B e c a u s e o f t h e g r e a t d i v e r s i t y i n t e r r a i n a n d r e s o u r c e d i s t r i b u t i o n , a s w e l l a s s o c i o - c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s , e a c h l o c a l g r o u p f o l l o w e d a u n i q u e s e a s o n a l r o u n d . A c c o r d i n g l y , s i t e l o c a t i o n a n d d e g r e e o f s e d e n t a r i n e s s a l s o v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . I n s p i t e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s , some g e n e r a l p a t t e r n s e m e r g e . A l m o s t a l l g r o u p s h a d t h e same c r i t e r i a f o r s p e c i f i c v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n . A s a f e a n d e a s y l a n d i n g p l a c e f o r c a n o e s , s h e l t e r f r o m w i n t e r s t o r m s a n d p r o t e c t i o n f r o m i n v a d e r s w e r e o f p r i m e c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , v i l l a g e s seem t o h a v e b e e n l o c a t e d i n o r d e r t o m a x i m i z e h a r v e s t t o t h e g r e a t e s t number o f r e s o u r c e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e a s o n s . T h a t i s , by l o c a t i n g t h e p e r m a n e n t v i l l a g e i n s u c h a l o c a t i o n , r e s o u r c e c o l l e c t i o n was m o s t e f f i c i e n t . -185- O t h e r c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s , b e y o n d e n e r g y e f f i c i e n c y o r p r o t e c t i o n f r o m r a i d e r s , a l s o p l a y e d a p a r t i n d e t e r m i n i n g s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s . V i l l a g e l o c a t i o n w h i c h i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o p r i z e d c o m m o d i t i e s , s u c h a s t h e N a s s o o l i g a n , o r t r a d e i t e m s a l s o seem t o be p r e f e r r e d a r e a s o f s e t t l e m e n t . P a t t e r n s e m e r g i n g f r o m t h i s r e v i e w c o r r e s p o n d c l o s e l y t o t h e N u x a l k s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m . F e a r o f a t t a c k a n d p r o t e c t i o n f r o m t h e e l e m e n t s w e r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s f o r t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y N u x a l k b e c a u s e t h e v a l l e y i t s e l f o f f e r e d s u f f i c i e n t p r o t e c t i o n . L i k e w i s e , t h e b a n k s o f t h e R i v e r w e r e s u c h t h a t c a n o e a c c e s s was p r o b a b l y n e v e r t o o much o f a p r o b l e m . S i m i l a r t o o t h e r g r o u p s , p r e f e r r e d v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e v a l l e y c l e a r l y was i n t h o s e a r e a s w h i c h o f f e r e d t h e g r e a t e s t number o f r e s o u r c e s ( w h i c h may o r may n o t i n c l u d e s a l m o n ) f r o m a s i n g l e l o c a t i o n . I n t h e f e w c a s e s w h e r e p r i m a r y v i l l a g e s w e r e s i t u a t e d i n o t h e r t h a n " o p t i m a l " l o c a t i o n s , o t h e r ( c u l t u r a l ) f a c t o r s seem t o h a v e i n f l u e n c e d t h e d e c i s i o n t o s e t t l e i n a s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n . E c o l o g i c a l l y , t h e a r e a s i n h a b i t e d by t h e T l i n g i t on t h e m a i n l a n d r i v e r s , t h e C o a s t T s i m s h i a n , a n d t h e F r a s e r R i v e r H a l k o m e l e m a p p e a r t o be m o s t s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y N u x a l k . E a c h o f t h e s e g r o u p s h a d a c c e s s t o l a r g e r i v e r s w i t h a l l f i v e s p e c i e s o f s a l m o n . The p r e s e n c e o f a l l f i v e s p e c i e s m e a n t t h a t f o r t h o s e g r o u p s w i t h r i v e r a c c e s s , t h e s a l m o n h a r v e s t i n g s e a s o n s p a n n e d s e v e r a l m o n t h s . T h i s , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f o t h e r r e s o u r c e s , p e r m i t t e d r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r s e d e n t a r i n e s s f o r t h e s e g r o u p s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e , h o w e v e r , t h a t o t h e r g r o u p s who d i d n o t h a v e a c c e s s t o s u c h r i v e r s ( i e . t h e W e s t C o a s t a n d K w a k i u t l ) , w e r e a l s o a b l e t o a d o p t a more s e d e n t a r y l i f e s t y l e i n some i n s t a n c e s . The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s e v e r a l t y p e s o f -186- r e s o u r c e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e a s o n s made t h i s p o s s i b l e . C l e a r l y , t h e r e a r e many g a p s i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t d a t a p r e s e n t e d h e r e . O u r k n o w l e d g e o f s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m s o n t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t w o u l d g r e a t l y b e n e f i t f r o m a n i n t e g r a t e d a p p r o a c h t o s t u d y i n g s e t t l e m e n t . The s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m s h o u l d be v i e w e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e l a r g e r c u l t u r e o f w h i c h i t was a p a r t . F a c t o r s f r o m s e v e r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c w o r l d o f t h e g r o u p i n q u e s t i o n s h o u l d be e n c o m p a s s e d i n t o a l l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . T e s t s s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d w h i c h e x a m i n e t h e a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n s u c h f a c t o r s a n d s e t t l e m e n t ; e t h n o g r a p h i c a n d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n a l l s u c h a n a l y s e s . O n l y i n t h i s way c a n a f u l l e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p r e h i s t o r i c s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m s on t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t be d e v e l o p e d . -187- C h a p t e r V I SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS T h i s t h e s i s e x a m i n e s t h e m a j o r c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m o f t h e l a t e p r e - c o n t a c t N u x a l k . The m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a n d t h e o r e t i c a l a p p r o a c h o f t h i s s t u d y was s y n t h e s i z e d f r o m o t h e r s e t t l e m e n t s t u d i e s i n t h e c u r r e n t a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l a n d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t m a j o r d r a w b a c k s o f many s e t t l e m e n t s t u d i e s s t e m f r o m ( 1 ) an § p r i o r i a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e e n e r g y m a x i m i z a t i o n p o s t u l a t e , a n d (2) t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a s i n g l e f a c t o r c a n d e t e r m i n e s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s . A l t h o u g h o p t i m i z a t i o n o f e n e r g y d o e s a p p e a r t o be an i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i o n i n human b e h a v i o r i n g e n e r a l , a n d s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n c h o i c e s s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s n o t t h e s o l e m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e b e h i n d s e t t l e m e n t d e c i s i o n s . O t h e r d e t e r m i n a n t s , f r o m b o t h t h e n a t u r a l a n d c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s o f a g r o u p w i l l i n t e r a c t w i t h o n e a n o t h e r t o p r o d u c e an u n i q u e s e t o f s e t t l e m e n t d e c i s i o n s . A s s e s s i n g w h i c h d e t e r m i n a n t s a r e r e l e v a n t t o a g i v e n s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m i s a c r u c i a l a n d d i f f i c u l t f i r s t s t e p i n t h e s e s t u d i e s . W h i l e m o d e l s o f n o n - h u m a n f o r a g i n g b e h a v i o r , a n d t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c l i t e r a t u r e c a n be u s e d t o c o m p i l e a s e t o f p o t e n t i a l l y i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s , t h e r e a r e a l w a y s unknown f a c t o r s . S u c h u n k n o w n s may a f f e c t s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s o r may o n l y h a v e s e c o n d a r y i n f l u e n c e t h r o u g h a n o t h e r v a r i a b l e . D e t e r m i n a n t s w h i c h p o t e n t i a l l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y N u x a l k s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n w e r e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e N u x a l k e t h n o g r a p h i c l i t e r a t u r e a n d i n t e r v i e w s w i t h N u x a l k e l d e r s . The a n a l y s i s f o c u s e d o n e i g h t d e t e r m i n a n t s : t h e p r e s e n c e o f s a l m o n , o t h e r a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e s , p l a n t r e s o u r c e s , a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s , m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s , t r a d e , s h e l t e r f r o m t h e -188- e l e m e n t s a n d p r o t e c t i o n f r o m r a i d s . E a c h d e t e r m i n a n t was e x a m i n e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o i t s p o t e n t i a l i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m y o f t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y N u x a l k . B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y v i l l a g e s w e r e r a n k e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n f l u e n c e by e a c h o f t h e s e d e t e r m i n a n t s . F r o m t h i s , a r a n k o r d e r o f v i l l a g e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a l l d e t e r m i n a n t s , was d e r i v e d . T h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f a r a n g e o f f o o d r e s o u r c e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e a s o n s was m o s t i m p o r t a n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n s i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y . C u l t u r a l ( i . e . n o n - r e s o u r c e ) f a c t o r s a p p e a r t o h a v e h a d o n l y s e c o n d a r y i n f l u e n c e on s e t t l e m e n t d e c i s i o n s . F o r t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y N u x a l k f o o d n e e d s w e r e l a r g e l y met by t h e p l a n t a n d a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e s i n t h e d i e t . W i t h o u t a d e q u a t e d a t a on e n e r g y v a l u e o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o make d e f i n i t i v e s t a t e m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r o l e o f e n e r g y i n f o o d s e l e c t i o n i n t h e N u x a l k d i e t . The B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y d a t a s u g g e s t , h o w e v e r , t h a t e n e r g y f a c t o r s d i d p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n s i t e s e l e c t i o n . E n e r g y o u t p u t f o r t h e h a r v e s t o f t h e s e s p e c i e s was m i n i m i z e d by s e t t l i n g a t t h e r i v e r ' s m o u t h , w h e r e t h e g r e a t e s t number a n d d i v e r s i t y o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s w e r e a c c e s s i b l e . The r i v e r ' s m o u t h , a n d t h e l o w e r v a l l e y g e n e r a l l y , w e r e f o u n d by t h i s s t u d y t o h a v e a c c e s s t o a n d b e i n f l u e n c e d b y , t h e g r e a t e s t number o f d e t e r m i n a n t s . S e t t l i n g i n t h e l o w e r v a l l e y m e a n t i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s t o b o t h f a t - r i c h o o l i g a n a n d c a r b o h y d r a t e - r i c h r o o t c r o p s i n t h e w i n t e r a n d s p r i n g , when o t h e r s t o r e s w e r e l o w . A d d i t i o n a l l y , a c c e s s t o a r a n g e o f o t h e r f o o d s t u f f s t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r w o u l d h a v e met o t h e r n u t r i t i o n a l -189- r e q u i r e m e n t s . I n t u r n , g r e a t e r a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e s e r e s o u r c e s by t h e l o w e r v a l l e y p e o p l e s i n f l u e n c e d o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e N u x a l k s o c i o - e c o n o m y , s u c h a s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t r a d e a n d t h e c r e a t i o n o f m a r r i a g e a l l i a n c e s w i t h o t h e r s l i v i n g i n l e s s " p r e f e r r e d " a r e a s o f t h e v a l l e y . I n t h e f u t u r e , more s o p h i s t i c a t e d t e s t s t h a n t h o s e a p p l i e d h e r e may h e l p o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a n d / o r d e g r e e o f c a u s a l i t y o f e a c h o f t h e s e f a c t o r s o n t h e s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m . C o m p a r i s o n s o f s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m s o f o t h e r N o r t h w e s t C o a s t g r o u p s d u r i n g t h e same t i m e p e r i o d i l l u s t r a t e a p a t t e r n s i m i l a r t o t h a t d e s c r i b e d f o r t h e N u x a l k . N o n - e n e r g y f a c t o r s , s u c h a s f e a r o f a t t a c k , p r o t e c t i o n f r o m t h e e l e m e n t s a n d a c c e s s t o t r a d e r o u t e s , a f f e c t s e t t l e m e n t d e c i s i o n s t o g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r d e g r e e s i n d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s g i v e n t h e p a r t i c u l a r way t h o s e v a r i a b l e s i n t e r a c t i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m . I n t h o s e i n s t a n c e s w h e r e e n e r g y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e o f g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e , s e t t l e m e n t s a r e s i t u a t e d s u c h t h a t a r a n g e o f r e s o u r c e s c a n be h a r v e s t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r f r o m a s i n g l e l o c a t i o n . A g a i n , a t t e m p t s w e r e made t o m i n i m i z e e n e r g y o u t p u t by d e c r e a s i n g b o t h t h e amount o f t r a v e l t o s e v e r a l r e s o u r c e s a n d t h e n e e d c o n t i n u a l l y t o r e l o c a t e s e t t l e m e n t s . T h i s t h e s i s c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e s t u d y o f N o r t h w e s t C o a s t s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m s b o t h t h e o r e t i c a l l y a n d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y . The t e n d e n c y i n t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t s e t t l e m e n t l i t e r a t u r e i s t o f o c u s on a s i n g l e f a c t o r , u s u a l l y s a l m o n , a n d how i t s a b u n d a n c e a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n a f f e c t s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s i t e s . I n t h i s s t u d y no a p r i o r i a s s u m p t i o n s a r e made a s t o t h e s o l e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r . I n s t e a d , s e v e r a l p o t e n t i a l d e t e r m i n a n t s a r e e x a m i n e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r a f f e c t o n i n d i v i d u a l s e t t l e m e n t s a n d t h e s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m a s a w h o l e . M e t h o d s d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s t h e s i s f o r -1904 e x a m i n i n g t h e s e d e t e r m i n a n t s a r e e x p a n d e d f r o m e x i s t i n g t e c h n i q u e s . New f i e l d a n d l a b o r a t o r y t e c h n i q u e s w e r e a l s o i n t r o d u c e d . Much f u t u r e w o r k i s n e e d e d i n t h e s t u d y o f s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m s on t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t . I d e a l l y , m e t h o d s d e v e l o p e d t o a n a l y z e a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m w i l l i n c o r p o r a t e s c a l e s o f m e a s u r e m e n t w h i c h a r e m e a n i n g f u l i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e s o c i e t y i n q u e s t i o n . M o r e e t h n o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h i s n e e d e d t o c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g a t t r i b u t e s s u c h a s t a s t e p r e f e r e n c e , f o o d t a b o o s , e t c . w h i c h w i l l a i d i n o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n r e s o u r c e s e l e c t i o n a n d s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s . R e s e a r c h e r ' s b i a s a s t o t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s m u s t be a v o i d e d . B o t h n e c e s s a r y a n d s u f f i c i e n t f a c t o r s n e e d t o be e x a m i n e d . A r c h a e o l o g i s t s s h o u l d v i e w s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s a s t h e r e m a i n s o f a c o m p l e x s e t o f d e c i s i o n s a l l o f w h i c h i n t e r a c t t o c r e a t e a l a r g e r s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m . -191- REFERENCES CITED A d a m s , K a r e n R. 1977 S i t e C a t c h m e n t A n a l y s i s o f W i l d P l a n t R e s o u r c e s i n t h e H e a v i l y O v e r g r a z e d R i o P u e r c o V a l l e y o f New M e x i c o . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e A n n u a l M e e t i n g , S o c i e t y f o r A m e r i c a n A r c h a e o l o g y , New O r l e a n s . A l l a i r e , L . 1 9 8 4 A N a t i v e M e n t a l Map o f C o a s t T s i m s h i a n V i l l a g e s . I n The T s i m s h i a n , e d i t e d by M a r g a r e t S e g u i n , p p . 8 2 - 9 8 . V a n c o u v e r : UBC P r e s s . , R. I n g l i s a n d G . M a c D o n a l d 1979 G i t l a x d z a w k : E t h n o h i s t o r y a n d A r c h a e o l o g y , I n S k e e n a R i v e r P r e h i s t o r y , e d i t e d by R. I n g l i s a n d G . M a c D o n a l d . N a t i o n a l Museum o f M a n , M e r c u r y S e r i e s , A r c h a e o