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An integrated approach to studying settlement systems on the Northwest Coast : the Nuxalk of Bella Coola,.. Lepofsky, Dana Sue 1985

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AN INTERGRATED APPROACH TO STUDYING SETTLEMENT SYSTEMS ON THE NORTHWEST COAST: THE NUXALK OF BELLA COOLA,  B.C.  by Dana Sue L e p o f s k y B.A.,  The U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n , 1 9 8 0  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L FULFILMENT  OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER,  OF ARTS in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y )  We a c c e p t t h i s  t h e s i s as conforming  to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA O c t o b e r 1985 (c)  Dana S u e L e p o f s k y , 1 9 8 5  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s for  s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be granted by the head of  department or by h i s or her  representatives.  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s for  f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  Department of  /VMIrt/PT^le^ij;-  6PCXDIO^(J  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T  1Y3  Date  written  -.ii-  Abstract  The m a j o r prehistoric  f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e d the  Nuxalk of  the  B e l l a Coola valley  D e t a i l e d d a t a on s e t t l e m e n t , socio-political Ethnographic,  ethnohistoric,  theoretical  comparable only with study both  the  the  natural  relevant  study  studies  determinants  and c u l t u r a l  apart  from o t h e r  investigate  the  energy  environment a cultural  other aquatic  mineral  resources, trade,  settlement  the data  produced a c c o r d i n g to  studies are  of  patterns  presented. data  have  from  the  Nuxalk.  framework  other  concerned In  that  would have  employed here a l s o  studies.  Here,  different  been  sets  Salmon-settlement  relative  several  determinants  several  (the  r e s o u r c e ^ animal  sites,  importance  different  i s measured i n a d i f f e r e n t A rank  from  Each  sites  presence  order of  of are  of  resources,  s h e l t e r from t h e e l e m e n t s and p r o t e c t i o n  set.  this  are compiled  a single species at  resources, plant  each determinant of  Nuxalk are  g a i n s and s e t t l e m e n t .  s t u d i e s c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e  salmon,  nature  study.  Nuxalk.  resources at a single s i t e .  raiding);  Many  settlement  importance of  compared a c c o r d i n g t o e i g h t  the  of  Coast.  t h e a n a l y s e s and methodology  w h i l e s i t e catchment several  Northwest  to the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y of  late  the  approach a p p l i e d i n t h i s t h e s i s d i f f e r s  i s examined w i t h i n  The n a t u r e  in this  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  the p o t e n t i a l  the  and  the  purpose.  s t u d i e s on t h e  determinant  this  this  system of  are examined  s u b s i s t e n c e , environment  and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c w o r l d s o f  been c o m p i l e d f o r The  settlement  from  manner a c c o r d i n g  each v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n  i t s a c c e s s i b i l i t y to each determinant  is  analysed.  to  -iii-  From t h i s ,  an o v e r a l l  determinants, settlement  r a n k i n g of  i s generated.  s y s t e m s of  other  i d e n t i f y i n g more g e n e r a l systems of  Northwest  plants  Coast  settlement  a variety  of  requirement groups,  of  primary  groups,  concerning the  a s a means  presence of  a range of  r e s o u r c e s and c u l t u r a l  attributes  a s u i t a b l e Nuxalk v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n .  r e s o u r c e s from a s i n g l e l o c a t i o n .  settle  other  it  food  resources, c r i t e r i a for  factors  seem t o  was t h e  the  instances  d i d not have  The  offer  a  presence  of  minimum  Among o t h e r  In t h e  i n areas that  i s hoped t h a t  anthropology  economically  important  this  by o f f e r i n g plants.  study  coastal  greatest where  a range  i n f l u e n c e d the  contributes  new m e t h o d s  Previously  N u x a l k e l d e r s a d d s t o t h e body o f  of  decision  knowledge  for  to  the  field  from  c o n c e r n i n g l a n d u s e among the  of  quantifying  uncollected information  p e o p l e s p e c i f i c a l l y , a n d t h e p e o p l e s of  general.  settlement  in a specific location.  Additionally, ecological  (cultural)  the  peoples.  was among t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t  situated  the  of  pre-contact  l o c a t i o n i n t h e B e l l a Cool a v a l l e y .  v i l l a g e s were  resources,  Nuxalk  Coast  p r e f e r r e d v i l l a g e s i t e s were t h o s e w h i c h o f f e r e d  number o f  to  other  Northwest  the  which combines a l l  Nuxalk r e s u l t s a r e then compared t o  Native  and f i s h ,  preferred  The  statements  Results indicate that especially  settlements  Northwest  Coast  in  the  -ivTable of Contents  A  B  S  T  R  A  C  T  .  i  :  L  LIST OF TABLES....................................................... v i i i LIST OF F I G U R E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . : . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LIST OF  ^  APPENDICES................................................... X  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Chapter I. REVIEW OF METHODS AND  x i THEORIES USED TO EVALUATE  DETERMINANTS OF SETTLEMENT PATTERNS..............................  1  Introduction.....................................................  1  Theories Used i n Settlement Pattern Studies Introducti on................................................  3  Assumptions and Parameters of Settlement Pattern Studies....  4  Minimizing E f f o r t as a Goal  8  in Settlement Systems...........  Determi ni ng Important Resources.............................  0  Advantages of a Broad Resource Base.........................  1  2  1  4  1  Predicting Settlement Patterns According to Resource Distribution...............................................  On Reconstructing Past Environments......................... 15 Summary Methods Used to Determine Settlement  1  7  Patterns I  Site Catchment Analysis - Introduction....... What i s Site Catchment Analysis.............................  1  8  Review of Site Catchment Method and Theory..................  9  Site Catchment Analysis - Summary...........................  2  3  Salmon and Settlement Studies - Introduction................  3  Salmon and Population Studies...............................  4  1  2  2  7  -V-  Salmon and Settlement  Studies...............................29  Salmon Studies - Summary....................................31 Summary of Settlement Studies Method and Theory..................33 Chapter 11. THE NUXALK: ETHNOGRAPHIC DATA Introduction.....................................................35 Ethnographic Background.......................................... 35 Settlement  Data..................................................40  Contact Between Vi11 Physical  ages.........................................54  Nature of the Village...................................55  The Vi11 age Uni t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Resource Ownership and Rank......................................63 Settlement Patterns and Resource Use.............................66 Resources Received Through  Trade.................................70  Relationshi ps With Other Groups.................................. 72 Chapter I I I . ECOLOGICAL DATA Introduction  —  77  Aquatic Resources.  77  Salmon  77  Other F i s h  .  ..81  Seafood and.Sea Mammals....  86  Water and Land B i r d s Mamma Is.......  88 — --  ..91  P l a n t R e s o u r c e s . . . . . — -.... - • •. -... - - -... - - - - - - - -........... - - - -. .93 M i n e r a l Resources  94  Nuxalk S e a s o n a l R o u n d — Summary............—  ;  95 '  •  96  Chapter IV. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DETERMINANTS AND NUXALK SETTLEMENT Introducti on.................................................... 400 Methods Defining Determinants........................................... 101 Defi ni ng Vi11 age Uni t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102  - v i -  Determinants  of Village  Location  S a l m o n Spec i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 6 Other Aquatic Plant  Resources.....................................108  Resources.............................................109  Animal  Resources............................................109  Mineral  Resources...........................................110  Trade.......................................................110 P r o t e c t i o n from  Raids.......................................111  S h e l t e r from t h e E l e m e n t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i n Accessibility  of  Limitations of  Resources.......................................111  Data..............................................112  The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n S a l m o n a n d S e t t l e m e n t s Introduction  114  Methods....... Results- A v a i l a b i l i t y of Salmon..  .  114  . . . . .  115  Di s cuss i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . — . . . . . . . . . J . ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n O t h e r A q u a t i c  119  Resources and Settlements  Methods...  ..125  Results- A v a i l a b i l i t y of Aquatic Resources  125  Discussion...  . - . 128 .  The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n P l a n t R e s o u r c e s a n d S e t t l e m e n t s Methods D e l i n e a t i o n of  129 Cover-types.............................129  Assigning Values f o r C o v e r - t y p e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 1 Accessibility  of Cover-types  to  Settlements............133  R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n Delineation of Cover-types. Assigning Values Accessibility  ..........135  for C o v e r - t y p e s . . . . . .  of Cover-types  to Settlements  *•  135 142  -vii-  The Relationship Between Animal Resources and Settlements Methods..................................................... 151 Results and Discussions.....  152  The Relationship Between Mineral Resources and Settlements  155  The Relationship Between Trade and Settlement  155  The Relationship Between Protection from Raids and Settlement.... 158 The Relationship Between Shelter from the Elements and Settl ements Summary  .159 1  6  0  Chapter V. SETTLEMENT REVIEW OF OTHER NORTHWEST COAST GROUPS Introduction.  167  Settlement Summaries Tlingit............................  168  Tsimshian.  171  Southern Kwakiutl........................................... 174 West Coast.................................................. 176 Coast S a l i s h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Summary and Conclusion........................................... 184 Chapter VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS..................................  187  BIBLIOGRAPHY......................................................... 191 APPENDICES........................................................... 205  - v i i i -  L I S T OF TABLES  I.  List  o f Known N u x a l k V i l l a g e s a n d Camps . .  II.  H o u s e s a n d S h e l t e r s Used by t h e N u x a l k .  ..59  III.  Trade  ..73  IV.  Yearly  V.  Mean P o u n d W e i g h t  Items o f t h e Nuxalk H a r v e s t i n g C y c l e o f Nuxalk P l a n t and Animal  Tributaries VI.  Total  ...43  Resources?.97  (MW) by S p e c i e s o f S a l m o n P r o d u c i n g S t r e a m s a n d  and N e a r e s t V i l l a g e U n i t  Mean P o u n d W e i g h t  C o e f f i c i e n t of V a r i a t i o n  116  (tMW^ S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n  (SD) a n d  (CV) o f S a l m o n P r o d u c i n g S t r e a m s a n d  Nearest V i l l a g e U n i t VII.  117  The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n A c c e s s i b i l i t y  t o Salmon and S t a b l e  Salmon  Runs by V i l l a g e U n i t s a n d S e t t l e m e n t S i z e  118  VIII.  V i l l a g e U n i t s Having Most D i r e c t A c c e s s t o A q u a t i c  R e s o u r c e s .127  IX.  I n d i c e s of P l a n t Values  137  X.  Cover-types  145  XI.  M i n i m u m a n d Maximum S e a s o n a l A b u n d a n c e a n d Y e a r l y  P r e s e n t i n V i l l a g e U n i t s Catchments Index  Values  of  P l a n t Resources i n Selected V i l l a g e Units  146  XII.  Cover-types  153  XIII.  Animal  XIV.  V i l l a g e U n i t A c c e s s t o T r a d e Goods  i n which Animal  R e s o u r c e s were Found  Resources A v a i l a b l e to S e l e c t e d V i l l a g e Units Originating  154  from the B e l l a  Coola  Valley  156  XV.  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between V i l l a g e U n i t s and D e t e r m i n a n t s  162  XVI.  Overall to  Rank O r d e r o f V i l l a g e U n i t s A c c o r d i n g t o T h e i r  Determinants  Relationship 1 6 3  -ixL I S T OF FIGURES  1.  Location  o f the B e l l a Cool a V a l l e y  i n the Central  Coast  2.  Known A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s  3.  Locations  o f Known N u x a l k  V i l l a g e s a n d Camps  4.  Locations  o f Known N u x a l k  V i l l a g e s a n d Camps i n t h e L o w e r B e l l a C o o l a  i n the B e l l a Cool a Region  37 42 52  Valley  53  5.  V i l l a g e Units  i n t h e B e l l a Cool a V a l l e y  103  6.  Village Units  i n t h e Lower B e l l a Cool a V a l l e y  104  7.  Monthly  8.  Pre-contact Distribution of Cover-types  136  9.  Plant  Values f o r Cover-types  140  10.  Monthly  Index:  141  11.  Time I Contours : from Select'Vi llage Units  12.  Minimum a n d Maximum S e a s o n a l  Mean W e i g h t  Index  Village  Plant  Units  (MW) V a l u e s o f S a l m o n S t r e a m s  Values  f o r Cover-types  Abundance  of Plant  120  143 Resources i n S e l e c t e d 147  -x-  L I S T OF APPENDICES  I.  Plant  Resources U t i l i z e d  II.  Animal  III.  R e c o r d e d Mean W e i g h t s  Resources U t i l i z e d  by t h e N u x a l k by t h e N u x a l k  (MW) p e r Y e a r  Valley IV.  Dominant  o f Streams  205 211 i n the B e l l a Cool a 214  Species i n Cover-types  215  -xi-  Acknowledgements  I  appreciate  J.E.M.  Kew,  qualified to  Dr.  R.  input  In  advice  Pearson  Kuhnlein  Cool a .  the  and H.V.  to t h i s for  presenting  I would  Bouchard  a n d D o r o t h y Kennedy  gathered  concerning the  Department of in  Bella Coola,  invaluable Nuxalk. this  for  The  and O c e a n s  and B e l l a C o o l a ' s  National  Museum o f  t h e s i s by s u p p l y i n g  Phil  the p h y s i c a l Ethnology  to conduct  and  Randy  information  s u p p l i e d by  they  had  the  Forestry  personnel  Tony K a r u p ,  environment  Division,  interviews  thanks  Bella  Hobler,  Officer,  Drs.  Also,  t o work i n  and Department o f Conservation  unique  expertise.  privilege  information  Man,  funding  a n d f a c i l i t a t i n g my u s e o f  areas of  s u p p l y i n g me w i t h  i n h e l p i n g me u n d e r s t a n d  The  the  members,  Each o f f e r e d  l i k e to acknowledge  Nuxalk.  Fisheries  o f my c o m m i t t e e  Kuhnlein.  thesis in their  first  addition,  and s u p p o r t  of  was  the  contributed  with  Nuxalk  unpublished manuscripts concerning  to  elders  the  Nuxalk. It  i s because of  the  g r a c i o u s l y by my f r i e n d s its I  end.  I'd  suggestions, and f a m i l y  Maya  l i k e to mention, family,  Underhill,  Moira  figures  of  constant  I was a b l e t o  Berringer,  Nancy T u r n e r ,  thesis.  source of  I would l i k e to  encouragement  -  that  so  see t h i s  thesis  hope  and s p e c i a l and t h e  they  r e s t of  my  Anne  i n the  t h a n k h e r e v e n more is reflected  know I  K u r z a n d WANG I n c .  represented  to  basis.  Michael M'Gonigle,  Werner  is partially  offered  i n the  Keith Jardine,  Wendy W i c k w i r e ,  I r v i n e has g i v e n  this  on a n i n d i v i d u a l  in particular,  Ken L e r t z m a n ,  Pat  support  that  and l o v e  l i k e t o t h a n k them c o l l e c t i v e l y h e r e  a p p r e c i a t e what each has g i v e n  would  support  The  beautiful  for  being  i n the e n t i r e  a  work.  -xiiWhat  I h a v e received, f r o m t h e p e o p l e o f  B e l l a C o o l a goes f a r beyond  k n o w l e d g e t h a t was o f f e r e d t o me c o n c e r n i n g N u x a l k The  l o v e l y way  Walkus, Moody,  Dr.  S p e c i f i c a l l y , I'd  like  to  thank,  Willie  t h e l a t e M a r g a r e t S i w a l l a c e and A l i c e T a l l i o , Sarah Saunders,  Band o f f i c e . of  t r a d i t i o n a l land use.  I was s u p p o r t e d a n d a c c e p t e d by t h a t c o m m u n i t y w i l l  w i t h me a l w a y s .  Finally,  David  I would l i k e  Margaret S i w a l l a c e .  made h e r a t r u e  Hunt,  Aaron Hans,  s c h o l a r and a r e a l  Hans,  be  Felicity  Clayton Mack,  J a m e s Hans a n d t h e  to dedicate t h i s t h e s i s to the  Her l o v e of  the  Sandy  Nuxalk memory  g a t h e r i n g and s h a r i n g knowledge  i n s p i r a t i o n to  others.  -1-  Chapter  I  REVIEW OF METHODS AND THEORIES  USED TO  DETERMINANTS OF SETTLEMENT  EVALUATE  PATTERNS  Introduction Although Northwest there  e x p l i c i t studies of settlement patterns  Coast l i t e r a t u r e  ( e g . Pomeroy  1980; Whitlam 1 9 8 3 ; B e r n i c k 1983)  h a s b e e n much d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e o f f o o d  on s e t t l e m e n t 1985;  ( e g . M i t c h e l l 1971;  Cavanaugh  Burley  1 9 8 3 ; Ham 1 9 8 2 ) .  1980; C a l v e r t  Rarely,  however,  settlement viewed i n a l a r g e r c u l t u r a l context see Nolan thesis  1977).  1980; S t i e f f e l  i s Northwest  ( f o r a notable  In c o n t r a s t t o o t h e r N o r t h w e s t  Coast  resources  Coast  exception  studies,  this  p r o v i d e s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a range o f n a t u r a l and  cultural in  a r e few i n t h e  features  on s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s  the l a t e pre-contact period.  determinants  i s assessed within  of the B e l l a Coola V a l l e y  The r e l e v a n c e o f e a c h o f  Nuxalk  these  t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c framework  of the  Nuxalk o f t h a t e r a . The  Nuxalk  Indians  t r a d i t i o n a l l y l i v e d a l o n g s e v e r a l c h a n n e l s and  v a l l e y s of the c e n t r a l coast a r e a , information dictates that the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y  however  t h i s study  the a v a i l a b i l i t y of  be c o n f i n e d t o t h e i n h a b i t a n t s  only.  The B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y N u x a l k w e r e a r e l a t i v e l y late  pre-contact times.  settlement  sedentary  people i n  Large v i l l a g e s l o c a t e d along the B e l l a Coola  R i v e r were used t h r o u g h o u t camps f r o m w h i c h o t h e r  of  the year  as permanent  r e s i d e n c e s o r as base  seasonal a c t i v i t i e s could take  h a d t o s e r v e many f u n c t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t  place.  the seasons,  c o n s t r a i n t s w o u l d h a v e b e e n p l a c e d upon s i t e l o c a t i o n .  Since the several  -2-  D e t a i l e d d a t a on s e t t l e m e n t , socio-political this  and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c w o r l d s o f  a n a l y s i s of  compiled for  the  Nuxalk s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s .  data c o l l e c t e d through ethnohistoric  s u b s i s t e n c e , environment  fieldwork  from the  this  settlement  information  IV.  In C h a p t e r  plant  literature,  In C h a p t e r s of  II  eight determinants,  r e s o u r c e s , animal  approaches useful  and I I I  relevant  salmon, other  resources, mineral  i n f l u e n c e on s i t e s e l e c t i o n .  aquatic  resources, trade,  location as the is  of  Each d e t e r m i n a n t  the a v a i l a b l e data to determine settlement.  sum t o t a l  then examined.  of  all  The a c t u a l  determinants,  In C h a p t e r V ,  s e t t l e m e n t data from f i v e o t h e r statements  effect  i t s potential  of  shelter  i n f l u e n c e on  In t h e c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r  system i s summarized,  and t h e r e l e v a n c e of  (VI  as w e l l  locations,  ) the  t h i s study  the  and g e n e r a l  a r e made c o n c e r n i n g s e t t l e m e n t on t h e c o a s t i n t h e  pre-contact era.  their  i s compared t o  Northwest Coast groups,  from  differently  settlement  the Nuxalk p a t t e r n  Chapter  resources,  each d e t e r m i n a n t ,  on s p e c i f i c  the  detail.  determine  i s measured  to  aspects of  the a n a l y s i s chapter - -  t h e e l e m e n t s and p r o t e c t i o n from r a i d s , a r e examined t o  according to  were  parameters  the Nuxalk are presented i n  forms the d a t a base o f IV,  the assumptions,  studies in archaeology;  and c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t  This  as  purpose.  t h e s i s are o u t l i n e d .  natural  of  and e c o l o g i c a l  and l i b r a r y r e s e a r c h , as w e l l  I n t h i s c h a p t e r we b e g i n w i t h a r e v i e w o f and m e t h o d s o f  the  Nuxalk form the b a s i s  Ethnographic  and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n this  and  Nuxalk  late settlement  i s discussed.  -3-  Theories  Used i n S e t t l e m e n t  Pattern  Studies  Introduction Studies of  the  of  settlement  p a s t 15 y e a r s ,  approach".  patterns,  l i k e much o f  have been g r e a t l y  An u n d e r l y i n g  patterns  s t u d i e s t h a t adhere  a r e t h e r e s u l t s of  i n t e r a c t i o n of  two v a r i a b l e s -  1968:54).  focus i n such s t u d i e s i s o f t e n  The  subsistence,  to  the  environment  e x c l u s i o n of  other  little  overall  intergration  into  to  "the  and t e c h n o l o g y "  aspects of  the  this  simple (Trigger  almost wholly  What we a r e l e f t w i t h a r e mere r e c o n t r u c t i o n s o f with  thinking  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e " e c o l o g i c a l  assumption of  approach i s t h a t settlement  anthropological  on  socio-economy.  the s u b s i s t e n c e  the c u l t u r e as a whole  cycle,  (cf.  Roots  1983). In  t h i s chapter approaches  reviewed, In  and the  l i g h t of  paterns  —  underlying  t h i s review,  for  examining  assumptions  two m e t h o d s  salmon-settlement  settlement  systems  and p a r a m e t e r s  used to  are  are d i s c u s s e d .  investigate  settlement  s t u d i e s and s i t e c a t c h m e n t a n a l y s i s ,  are  examined. Before by t h e  we b e g i n t h e  review,  c l a r i f i c a t i o n i s needed f o r what i s  terms s e t t l e m e n t  pattern  and s e t t l e m e n t  settlement The  pattern  settlement  between  several  refers to  system,  interpreted  through  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  on t h e o t h e r  cultural  reconstructed through  the  system.  hand,  sites  refers to  v a r i a b l e s and s e t t l e m e n t s .  archaeological excavation;  a study  of  In t h i s on t h e  the The  study,  ground.  interaction f o r m e r c a n be  the l a t t e r can only  the l a r g e r c u l t u r a l  meant  system.  be  -4Assumptions  and Parameters  A b a s i c assumption t h a t people w i l l  of Settlement  energy  gains  group.  This  concept  specifically  their  efforts  a r e viewed as the dominant  i s n o t new t o a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l  t o m i n i m i z e movement c o s t s  1962).  theories that  Most r e c e n t l y  strategy"  theory  (Krzywicki  spacing of  i n the 1960's  groups  Most of a  The i d e a  settlements  and l a t e r (eg.  i t has been encompassed i n " o p t i m a l  among h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r  goal  literature.  1 9 3 4 ; Wobst 1 9 7 4 ) ,  gained p o p u l a r i t y  thought i s  f o r maximum g a i n s .  was f i r s t e n c o m p a s s e d i n t h e n o t i o n o f h e x a g o n a l  "minimax"  Studies  underlying ecological anthropological  t r y to minimize  often,  Pattern  i n the  Burling  foraging  (eg. Winterhalder  and Smith  1981). T h a t t h e f o c u s on e n e r g y  (usually  popularity  i n studies of settlement  difficulty  of q u a n t i t a t i v e l y  on t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y , gather  than  subsistence)  patterns  i s l a r g e l y due t o t h e  measuring other  non-material  on o t h e r  aspects of a c u l t u r e .  information  c a n be c o m p i l e d f r o m e t h n o g r a p h i c  consultants  today.  factors.  share.  Much o f  s o u r c e s o r from  D i s c u s s i o n s of food and o t h e r  which people can comfortably  Present-day  to this  native  r e s o u r c e s ate a t o p i c field quantifications  of  system.  D a t a on r e s o u r c e u s e may a l s o be r e l a t i v e l y more a v a i l a b l e than other  information  about  conditions  a t the s i t e lend themselves  or mineral  remains,  Unfortunately,  Data  a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n c a n a l s o be u s e d t o a s s e s s t h e  i n f l u e n c e o f r e s o u r c e s on t h e s e t t l e m e n t  archaeologists  such  a c c e s s a n d u s e o f r e s o u r c e s a r e much e a s i e r  information  r e s o u r c e abundance  has gained  then  there  i t i s often  the social  to preservation  to  system.  If  of plant,  animal  i s d i r e c t evidence of resource use.  impossible to determine  relative  importance of these natural  problems  of d i f f e r e n t i a l  accurately the  r e s o u r c e s t o one a n o t h e r  preservation.  because  of  -5This narrow  a c c e s s i b i l i t y of  Other c u l t u r a l  apparent  factors  settlement "ecological factors  location.  This  determinism"  focus  utility  of  literature  narrow  s o l e l y on e n e r g y  Whittam  In  account for  Erwin 1985;  Abbott,  models  i s a l s o apparent  energy  fact,  the  determining  and t e r r a i n ,  critical  resources,  to  trade  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  of  s o c i e t y ' s technology  that ecological  aspects of  the  society.  limit  Keene 1 9 8 3 ;  the  of viewing  Jochim  of  1976,  even  the animals  factors (Caraco,  Reichman 1977; The  territory  Martindale Smith,  (eg.  and  Grant,  inadequacy  human b e h a v i o r  for  i n those cases  of  such  Yesner  1981;  review). energy  g a i n s w h i c h have (1)  natural  been  suggested  variables,  s p a c i n g due t o c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h o t h e r a desire to routes;  to e x p l o i t  (Hill  termed  f a i l u r e o f many o p t i m a l  nutrients  location include  weather  prestige  the  (eg.  Willson 1971).  1983  i n a d d i t i o n to  (3)  is,  may u l t i m a t e l y  by o t h e r  G l a s s e r 1984;  see a l s o M a r t i n  (2)  other  shows t h a t  i n s t u d i e s of  as i n f l u e n c i n g s e t t l e m e n t  that  foraging behavior  overriden  and A b b o t t 1978;  Other f a c t o r s  in  be  However,  w h i c h c a u t i o n s us a g a i n s t  r i s k and p r e d a t i o n ,  Grant,  for  optimization  were o r i g i n a l l y developed  mating,  Smith 1981;  shape a l l  s t r i c t l y i n terms of  Butzer 1982:258).  1980;  w h i c h may  T h e r e i s a n i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e body  energetic c r i t e r i a are often defense,  1968:54),  i n e c o l o g i c a l anthropology  f o r a g i n g models to which they  kinship, etc.)  f o c u s r e s u l t s i n what has been  (Trigger  t h i s approach.  human b e h a v i o r 1983;  warfare,  a  prehistoric cultural  played a s i g n i f i c a n t role  are considered s o l e l y to  The  desire  (eg.  the  can l e a d to  i n t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d t e n d t o be i g n o r e d .  t h e s e f a c t o r s may i n f a c t h a v e  1981,  resource-use information  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n by a r c h a e o l o g i s t s o f  system. less  relative  1971:56;  socialize, (6)  (4)  security,  access to l a b o r ;  (7)  r e s o u r c e s f r o m an a r e a , Jochim 1976:49;  ie.  groups  (5)  for  access  suitability  and  (8)  1981:89,154).  a  -6These  factors  r e q u i r e some a d d i t i o n a l  involves possible deterrents particularly  Similarly, in  degree of  settlement  southwestern  United  first  factor  environment.  location will  be  In partly  s h e l t e r a v a i l a b l e i n any g i v e n l o c a t i o n .  a c c e s s t o s u n l i g h t may a l s o be o f  the w i n t e r or i n cool  The  or i n c e n t i v e s i n the l o c a l  i n h o s p i t a b l e environments  d i c a t e d by t h e  discussion.  environments  States  (eg.  prime importance, e s p e c i a l l y  the c l i f f  are predominately  d w e l l i n g s of  l o c a t e d on  the  south-facing  slopes). The social  s e c o n d , t h i r d and f o u r t h t i e s with  neighbouring  f a c t o r s are r e l a t e d to  groups.  Even i f  relations  neighbouring groups are a m i c a b l e , there are l i m i t s foraging  that  a g r o u p may u n d e r t a k e  someone's  territory.  Northwest  Coast hunter-gatherers,  g u a r d e d among g r o u p s . f e a r of  attack  This  of  among  strictly  are far  i n c r e a s i n g d i s t a n c e from  Conversely,  t r a d e and t r a n s p o r a t i o n listed  here i n t h a t  b o t h a s a means o f  (however they  upon  where t e r r i t o r i e s were o f t e n  increase with  neighbouring peoples.  economy,  are i n t r u d i n g  of  a d e s i r e to  from  the  s o c i a l i z e may  take  afield.  other determinants with  the e x t e n t  u t i l i z i n g harvesting areas that  the l a r g e r group.  Access to  with  s i t u a t i o n i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n the extreme  may p r e v e n t  someone f a r t h e r  the  S i m i l a r l y , a s a r e s u l t o f more h o s t i l e r e l a t i o n s ,  home b a s e , a s t h e d a n g e r s safety  before they  to  the nature of  are d e f i n e d ) ,  r o u t e s and l a b o r d i f f e r they  directly involve  from social  E x c h a n g e p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t  r o l e i n the  gaining access to  resources  as w e l l  important  a s a means o f  cementing s o c i a l  the ties local  ties.  -7-  Similarly,  proximity  neighbouring critical  people and i n f o r m a t i o n .  r o u t e s means  increased access to  Access to a l a r g e r labor force  t i m e s i n t h e e c o n o m i c c y c l e may be e s s e n t i a l  populated  areas.  therefore  may p l a y  The  to transportation  A l l are advantageous  to the l o c a l  a significant role  in determining  society's available technology,  environment  will  also affect  resource which i s r e a d i l y  settlement  knowledge  it  (or to e x p l o i t  Furthermore,  of the n a t u r a l  certain resources.  the type  (Jochim  i t i n a given  set of  of a v a i l a b l e technology  prestige,  s t u d i e s on t h e N o r t h w e s t w h i c h was o f t e n  might motivate  environmental may a l s o may b e  Coast.  consideration in  A h i g h v a l u e was p l a c e d o n  a c q u i r e d by a m a s s i n g i m p o r t a n t  people to t r a v e l  been  1981:139).  A d e s i r e f o r p r e s t i g e may a l s o b e a n i m p o r t a n t settlement  A  the technological  d i c t a t e p r e f e r e n c e s f o r s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n s where t h e t e c h n o l o g y used most e f f i c i e n t l y  location.  a c c e s s i b l e t o a c e r t a i n g r o u p may n o t h a v e  b e c a u s e t h e p e o p l e do n o t h a v e  parameters).  socio-economy and  to u t i l i z e  e x p l o i t e d by a n o t h e r to e x p l o i t  i n sparsely  and knowledge  the a b i l i t y  at  farther  resources.  a f i e l d t h a n was m o s t  This  energy  efficient.  the  That other  factors  importance  of s t u d y i n g  settlements.  It  play  to enter Since  terms,  the r e l a t i o n s h i p of  then  framework.  (Jochim  begin.  "If  such r e l a t i o n s h i p s be  human b e h a v i o r  1981:164;  settlement  negate  subsistence to  i s viewed  one p o i n t  s e e a l s o Keene  systems,  they  in  a t which 1975).  concerning subsistence practices i s r e l a t i v e l y  accessible to researchers studying place to  that  systems does n o t  subsistence c e r t a i n l y provides  the system f o r study"  information  i n settlement  i s e s s e n t i a l , however,  examined w i t h i n a c u l t u r a l systematic  a role  are a  more logical  -8-  Minimizing  E f f o r t as a Goal  Although postulate  the u t i l i t y  i n Settlement  Systems  o f an a b s o l u t e m a x i m i z a t i o n  as t h e s o l e mechanism s h a p i n g s e t t l e m e n t  questionable,  minimizing  effort  does appear  The n o t i o n  of minimizing e f f o r t  is  settlement  s t u d i e s by s t a t i n g  be l o c a t e d t o m i n i m i z e Jochim  1976:48-9,  a settlement sites will  increases.  locations  a l l other cultural  Distance  ( c f . Jochim  appropriately  and Higgs  particularly of  rather  consideration.  In a l l b u t f l a t ,  reached v i a a s t r a i g h t take  This  unbroken  l i n e from another  t r a n s l a t e s i n t o m i n i m i z e d work  By m i n i m i z i n g  energy  energy  will  value,  the notion  output,  expenditure  uneven  is partially  a factor  then, important  o r work  o f group  a certain  terrain.  terrain, point.  effort  that  into  r a r e l y c a n a p o i n t be  Time-distances  would  area.  to important  effort  o r energy  resources expenditure.  i n terms  specifically  of  translates  d i r e c t l y a s t h e number  He a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t size.  The i d e a  ( 1 9 6 2 ) who s u g g e s t e d  Lee ( 1 9 7 2 : 1 8 1 )  kilometers walked i n p u r s u i t of food. factor  from  different  to travel  the net gain of a resource,  be i n c r e a s e d .  of energy  than l e s s  o f a c c e s s must be t a k e n  location of a s i t e i n close proximity  ultimately  (see a l s o  " t i m e - d i s t a n c e " measure i s  i n t o a c c o u n t more m e a n d e r i n g p a t h s t o a r e s o u r c e The  to  d i s t a n c e i s more  involved  t i m e - d i s t a n c e was a l s o e x p l o r e d by C h i s h o l m points  tend  factors are equal,  i n areas of rough and/or  i n measures o f d i s t a n c e ,  sites will  c a n be measured i n s e v e r a l  measured i n terms o f t h e time  important  i n resource acquisition  resources  (1970) suggested t h a t  d i s t a n c e than d i s t a n c e i t s e l f .  of  1981:141).  t o r e s o u r c e s , however,  Vita-Finzi  goal  c o s t s i n c r e a s e as d i s t a n c e  be l o c a t e d c l o s e r t o more i m p o r t a n t  procurement  ways.  If  Procurement  systems i s  that  the distance to important  1981:140).  optimization)  t o be o n e i m p o r t a n t  hunter-gatherers. translated into  (or  of  the distance  That i s , as t h e group  size  -9increases,  so w i l l  the travel  d i s t a n c e r e q u i r e d f o r an a d e q u a t e  food  supply. Lee's to  d e f i n i t i o n o f work  a l l other cases.  effort  ( w h i c h he t e r m s  and energy critical  expenditure  food  "pursuit  time")  in exploiting,  to include, transporting  c a n be f u r t h e r  and " p u r s u i t t i m e " ,  Presumably  harvesting  and f o r s t o r a g e  exploitation  Work e f f o r t ,  effort.  the total  involved  amount  of energy  (1981) broadens i n harvesting  1983:614).  Although  the other  activity.  o r the time to  Winterhalder  resources would  processing time,  both  also  for  s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n t h e n o t i o n  then,  expended  this notion  a food  c a n be more f u l l y  of  translated  on a r e s o u r c e b e f o r e  it is  variables,  to include the r i s k  (see a l s o Wilmsen 1 9 7 3 : 6 - 1 0 ;  Martin  outcome  (Keene  of a l o s s or the  1981:179,  from  a s " t h e r i s k o f c o m i n g home empty h a n d e d "  Keene d o e s s u g g e s t h o w e v e r ,  viewed over  a long term,  ultimately y i e l d greater (ibid.:179).  that  f o r a g i n g c a n be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o  (Keene  s t a b l e r e s o u r c e may  than one w i t h w i d e l y  For plant  Wiessner  p r e d i c t a b i l i t y s h o u l d be  a s a more p r o d u c t i v e , harvests  output  "cost" to the harvesting  r i s k as " t h e p r o b a b i l i t y  1981:179).  productivity  further  i t i s a potential  o f an u n f o r t u n a t e  as w e l l  even  t h i s c a n n o t be d i r e c t l y t r a n s l a t e d a s e n e r g y  Keene d e f i n e s  possibility 1977:5),  time  used.  Keene  like  of  o r the time taken  time of non-animal  immediate consumption  finally  work  and d i s t r i b u t i n g  ( c f . Jochim 1976:27;  be i n c l u d e d i n t h e n o t i o n o f p u r s u i t t i m e ;  into  of  " t h e amount  d e f i n e d as "search t i m e " ,  a r e s o u r c e once i t i s l o c a t e d  1981b:68).  i n s c o p e t o be a p p l i e d  ( 1 9 7 1 : 6 0 ) e l a b o r a t e s on t h e n o t i o n  to locate the resource,  capture  i s too narrow  resources."  "Exploiting" taken  Hill  effort  fluctuating  resources r i s k of f a i l u r e  at  the degree o f p r e d i c t a b i l i t y t h a t  once  -10the  plant  i s located i t will  Each o f  the concepts of  be b e a r i n g t h e  Jochim  o f measurement a r e a r e l a t i v e c u l t u r a l  whether  i n a few h o u r s o f  (1983:160)  p o i n t s out  phenomenon.  For  Determining  that  instance,  s e a r c h t i m e may mean t h e d i f f e r e n c e  the between  it  distance  i s most i m p o r t a n t  i s being measured.  archaeologists often  a s s e s s m e n t m u s t be made o f according to  to determine  This  (or  not only  i s not as easy as i t  relative  t h e p e o p l e who u s e d t h e m .  the  s o u n d s , and  Wood 1 9 7 8 ) .  importance of Without  correct  resource zone)  side step t h i s i s s u e (eg. the  the  the  s p e c u l a t e about which a t t r i b u t e thoroughly  arrived at a l i s t important  of  by s e v e r a l  i n the d i e t ,  d e t a i l e d accounts  literature,  from  only  Jochim  f o o d a t t r i b u t e s w h i c h were r e c o g n i z e d as hunter-gatherer are, weight,  density,  An  may be s i g n i f i c a n t .  examining the ethnographic  These a t t r i b u t e s  in  resources  i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e on r e s o u r c e s e l e c t i o n , t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i s t c a n  After  group  Resources  d i s t a n c e measure, but a l s o t o what r e s o u r c e  variety  scales  1981:92).  Important  Obviously,  89).  a l s o be  a r e s o u r c e i s c o n s i d e r e d o b t a i n a b l e o r n o t by a p a r t i c u l a r  (see a l s o Jochim  fact,  part.  s e a r c h and p u r s u i t t i m e and r i s k w i l l  i n f l u e n c e d by c u l t u r a l v a l u e s .  difference  usable  groups fat  (Jochim  content,  aggregation  size,  being  1976:19-21,  taste  1981:82,  requirements,  mobility  and  non-food  yields. For  the  mentioned  hunter-gatherer,  subjective attributes  n o t i o n of weight adaptive catch.  w e i g h t a n d t a s t e a r e t h e two m o s t  (ie. Taste  p r e f e r r e d foods  i s c l e a r l y most a p p l i c a b l e f o r  non-subjective) of  of  foods,  too  terms w e i g h t  has r e a l  (Jochim 1981:89).  animal  resources.  t r a n s l a t e s to  adaptive  commonly  value.  The In  higher y i e l d  Those  foods  per  which  -11are better  t a s t i n g are often  an i m p o r t a n t  source of  with protein content suggests that highest fat diet  Speth  energy  (ibid.  content  (Speth  In  fact,  do s e l e c t f o r  1983).  (Kuhnlein,  FatChan,  root  (1983:154-155)  for  the  suggests that  foods  Thompson  Coast  or f i s h l i v e r  Other n u t r i t i o n a l  requirements of  hunter-gatherers  that  1982),  fatty  may s e e k  foods  p r o t e i n by h u m a n s .  Chan,  taste  of  Thompson  (vitamins, of  food.  p e o p l e s , they  On  group.  r a n g e and b a l a n c e o f  and Nakai  Coast 1982;  A desire for  foods consumed. i n the  Jochim  in  berries, for  for  Jochim  subjective  literature  indigenous foods Kuhnlein,  variety  (Keely  T u r n e r and  it will  been on  1980;  Kluckner  s o o n be p o s s i b l e patterns  of  a  i n the d i e t a l s o i n s u r e s a  These h o p e f u l l y c o n t r i b u t e t o  a  diet.  a g g r e g a t i o n s i z e and m o b i l i t y w i l l  resources are e x p l o i t e d .  fiber,  Although  W i t h a g r o w i n g body o f  Northwest  nutrients  is  the  n o n e - t h e - l e s s would have  T u r n e r and K u h n l e i n 1 9 8 3 ) ,  different  Density,  appeal.  minerals,  how s u c h r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e m e t by t h e d i e t a r y  hunter-gatherer  Foods h i g h  a n d C h u r c h 1980  t h e s e w o u l d n o t have been  requirements.  attributes  Hooper 1984;  number o f  Coast  Some c a r b o h y d r a t e  (see Pennington  attributes  preindustrial  adaptive  nutritional  examine  the  types).  requirements  (1983:159) p o i n t s out  1982;  these food  are also important  Kuhnlein,  and Nakai  foods c o n t a i n i n g carbohydrate would i n c l u d e the  carbohydrate content of  important  i n the Northwest  as those high i n f a t .  proper metabolism of  f o o d s and a n i m a l  example)  associated  those animal p a r t s w i t h  rich  is  archaeological evidence  c a r b o h y d r a t e s may a l s o be s e l e c t i v e l y c h o s e n f o r Northwest  Fat  game.  high i n carbohydrates as w e l l essential  content.  and v i t a m i n s a n d i s s t r o n g l y  82-83).  hunter-gatherers  included ooligan  salmon and  t h o s e w h i c h have a h i g h f a t  (1976:56-60)  also affect  which  using the g r a v i t y  model  to  -12from l o c a t i o n a l geography i n t e r a c t i o n between  (see H a g g a r t 1965)  m e a s u r e d t h e amount  s e t t l e m e n t and r e s o u r c e s .  He f o u n d  that  of  those  r e s o u r c e s w h i c h a r e l e a s t m o b i l e , most dense and l e a s t c l u s t e r e d w i l l preferred.  These  attributes  are l i n k e d to the  p u r s u i t time mentioned e a r l i e r . in  t i m e and space (e#.  1981:102).  Plant  would a l s o f a l l  fall At the of  salmon and c a r i b o u ) w i l l  into this  of  resources that  quality,  settlement  however,  packed  (Jochim  i n t h e same l o c a l i t y  not o f t e n  c o n s i d e r e d , i s the seasonal  others.  L a t e summer and  i s u s u a l l y t h e peak t i m e o f most h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r i s a greater variety  s u b s i s t e n c e needs of  are densely  category.  a resource r e l a t i v e to  t h i s time there  s e a r c h and  be p r e f e r r e d  s p e c i e s which produce each y e a r  Another important availability  Those  n o t i o n s of  be  the  group.  This  location possibilities.  when s t o r e s a r e l o w ,  of  early  subsistence cycles.  resources which could  fulfil  i n t u r n c o u l d r e s u l t i n a range  In l a t e w i n t e r  the choice of  and e a r l y  spring,  settlement locations i s  more  r e s t r i c t e d to  a r e a s a r o u n d t h o s e f e w a v a i l a b l e and e s s e n t i a l r e s o u r c e s .  Advantages  a Broad Resource  of  Once i m p o r t a n t determine t h e i r  r e s o u r c e s have been i d e n t i f i e d ,  r e l a t i o n s h i p to  for mobile hunter-gatherer any g i v e n suggests  season w i l l that  the  groups  affect  t h i s i s the case f o r  peoples'  movement  settlement  the  the  system.  a site.  i K u n g Bushmen.  resource of  across the  it  i s necessary Hill  s i n g l e most c r i t i c a l  the l o c a t i o n of  d i s t a n c e from the most c r i t i c a l restricts  Base  the  !Kung,  Lee  to  states  resource  that in  (1969:60-61)  He n o t e s  that  which i s  water,  l a n d s c a p e , and t h e r e b y  determines  u l t i m a t e l y w h e r e v i l l a g e s a r e t o be l o c a t e d . The  notion that  a single critical  resource determined s i t e l o c a t i o n  -13for mobile hunter-gatherer little  doubt t h a t the absence of  habitation, plentiful  the converse  (cf.  Cohen a n d N a g e l for  settlement  take care to  d i s t i n g u i s h between  of  necessarily so.  site.  1934:250).  Anthropologists  That i s ,  This  for of  instance,  t h e s e two  an a r e a i n a s i n g l e i t e m ,  observed  the year"  require  to  it will  (Silberbauer  is  not  is  pattern  in  of water  not studies  should  qualities.  but with  fill  for  i s encompased  l o c a t i o n , but alone  conducting settlement  is  an a r e a  That i s , the presence of  "are concerned not w i t h  resources which they  seasons of  point  there  unsuitable if  in others,  i d e a i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the ethnographic  Bushmen,  Although  i n an a r e a makes i t  r e s o u r c e , but absent  sufficient.  poverty  water  simplistic.  " n e c e s s a r y and s u f f i c i e n t c a u s e s " f r o m p h i l o s o p h y  a necessary f a c t o r  This  i s too  be c h o s e n a s a s e t t l e m e n t  the notion of science  i s not  i n one c r i t i c a l  necessarily  is  groups  literature.  the  relative  G/wi  richness  the a v a i l a b i l i t y of  a wide range of  1972:294).  The  a  or nexus  needs and i n a l l  S i m i l a r l y , Wilmsen  (1973:8)  that  " s p a t i a l a l l o t m e n t s t o e a c h b a n d u n i t a p p e a r t o be d e m a r c a t e d i n s u c h a way t h a t a c c e s s t o s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t p l a n t p r o d u c i n g a r e a s i s assured. C o m p e n s a t i o n i s t h u s made f o r f l u c t u a t i o n s i n a r e a l p r o d u c t i v i t y , and c o n s e q u e n t l y e a c h group has an a p p r e c i a b l y b e t t e r chance of meeting i t s requirements f o r t h i s type of r e s o u r c e . " Several  s p e c i f i c r e a s o n s have been p u t  hunter-gatherers  will  not  non-specialized behavior foraging  it  focus,  i s favorable  (2)  because  i t may p r e s e n t a c o n t r a s t o f  allows for  hew r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  and  s a t i s f i e s t h e need f o r  1976:27).  (4)  it  as t o  why  on a s i n g l e r e s o u r c e .  f a i l u r e by s p r e a d i n g t h e c h a n c e o f  resources, (3)  overconcentrate  forth  (1)  it  decreases r i s k  f a i l u r e o u t among  by c r e a t i n g a d u a l i n the  diet  of  several  l o w and h i g h p r e s t i g e  variety  Such  items,  economic (Jochim  -14As m e n t i o n e d important  e a r l i e r , a range  s o l e l y because of  i n c r e a s e d l i k e l i h o o d of and m i n e r a l s . physically range of  The  do e x i s t , of  the  but  they  resource  set of  above  i s not  rare.  essential  or e l s e highly  dependent  to  Resource  ideally,  resources requires that  set up.  S u c h camps e n a b l e p a r t  profitable  thereby The  i n c r e a s i n g the  however, short  m u s t be w e i g h e d  for  group  sedentariness of  each  the  seasonal  to  location  the  at least part  output.  of  of  camps  the base the  In round.  availability  be  camp,  population.  s e t up a l i m i t e d o c c u p a t i o n  site  resource.  p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  (Tartaglia  be  seasonal  remain a t  R e s e a r c h on p r e h i s t o r i c s i t e l o c a t i o n i n S o u t h e r n illustrates  energy  term r e s o u r c e procurement  the  d e c i s i o n t o move t h e b a s e camp o r  in  r e s o u r c e s c a n be  t h e l e a s t amount o f  of  they  upon o t h e r s  settlements w i l l  t h e g r o u p c a n h a v e a r e l a t i v e l y more s e d e n t a r y  certain  source  Distribution  this  groups,  resource  he s u g g e s t s t h a t  from a given  In most h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r  be  includes a  a single  exploited way,  spot with  vitamins  (ibid.:152).  According  a maximum number o f  the  i n the d i e t would  for  Furthermore,  d i s c u s s i o n suggests that  placed such t h a t  of  Such s i t e s a r e l o c a t e d a t t h e  economic exchanges"  Patterns  not  accidental.  specialized settlements  short-term  P r e d i c t i n g Settlement The  1983)  is  a l s o because of  any e s s e n t i a l n u t r i e n t  a rock q u a r r y ) .  "are e i t h e r extremely a complex  that  are very  (i.e.  but  That a balanced indigenous d i e t  (Kuhnlein  out  gains,  s u p p l y i n g n e c e s s a r y amounts  debilitating.  Jochim points  resources i n the d i e t  the energy  absence of  food types  of  California  temporary  camp a n d  village  1980:188):  " B a s e camps a r e l o c a t e d t o m i n i m i z e d i s t a n c e s b e t w e e n v i l l a g e s i t e s and s p e c i a l i z e d r e s o u r c e s . V i l l a g e s i t e s are l o c a t e d to minimize d i s t a n c e s b e t w e e n a number o f d i v e r s e r e s o u r c e s ; t h e d o m i n a n t  -15resource i s l o c a t e d t o minimize the d i s t a n c e to other secondary resources. V i l l a g e s a n d b a s e camps w h i c h a r e n o t l o c a t e d n e a r c r i t i c a l r e s o u r c e s a p p e a r t o be s i t u a t e d p r i m a r i l y a l o n g a c c e s s r o u t e s c r o s s i n g the mountainous topography and/or c o n t a c t zones between c o a s t a l and i n l a n d s i t e s . The nature  nature  o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e r e s o u r c e may a l s o a f f e c t  of the settlement  analysis  of data  from t h r e e  groups r e v e a l e d t h a t the  pattern which i s adapted.  their  settlement  r e s o u r c e s b e i n g e x p l o i t e d were  (eg.  caribou),  centrally class,  also  varied according to  while  spaced  s m a l l s e t t l e m e n t s were e v e n l y  within  group  whether  c l u m p e d , m o b i l e and u n p r e d i c t a b l e ( e g . small game),  (eg. cached r e s o u r c e s ) .  the second g r o u p i n g ;  She f o u n d into  o r (3)  settlements the f i r s t  dispersed to exploit  resources which f e l l  also allowed f o r aggregation  of u s e r s  (Heffley  resources  i n t o the 1981:146; see  Wilmsen 1973: 6 - 8 ) . Resource ownership w i l l  particularly carefully  relevant  also affect  on t h e N o r t h w e s t  apportioned.  also evident  Calvert  i n varying  food  f a c t o r s may c a u s e a d e v i a t i o n  On R e c o n s t r u c t i n g P a s t Difficulties only  patterns  (1981)  hunter-gatherer  l o c a t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o resources which f e l l  which f e l l third  Athapaskan  (1)  (2) s t a b l e and e v e n l y  clumped and p r e d i c t a b l e  is  northern  Heffley's  the  environment. s i t e catchment  C o a s t where  (1980)  found  patterns  between  patterns.  This  valuable  l a n d was  a c c e s s t o such sites.  is  holdings  Such c u l t u r a l  settlement  patterns.  Environments  realm,  settlement  s y s t e m s do n o t l i e  but also i n the reconstruction of the natural  Such c r i t i c i s m s  have been p u t f o r t h  and s a l m o n - s e t t l e m e n t  and O r t o n 1 9 7 6 : 2 3 3 ;  that  from the expected  of reconstructing past  i n the c u l t u r a l  settlement  P r i t c h a r d 1977).  studies  as shortcomings of  (eg. Foley  1977:182;  A l l such s t u d i e s i n v o l v e  both  Hodder  assessing  -16the  present-day  occupied.  environment  Assumptions  a l t e r e d through settlement  The  system.  local  the  environment  I n many c a s e s t h e l o c a l  times)  c a n be a d e q u a t e l y  t i m e t h e s i t e was  has n o t been  acknowledge o f  environment  reconstructed for  local  l a n d r e s o u r c e s c a n be r e c r e a t e d  ecology.  Documentation  i s often  as t o  the  original  l a n d mammals c a n r e s u l t Likewise,  habitats.  through  The m o s t s e v e r e c h a n g e s t o i n very  landscape.  fact,  relative  needed i n s e t t l e m e n t  pattern  studies.  environment  may be q u i t e  The p e r c e i v e d e n v i r o n m e n t  environment  that  see a l s o K i r k  d i s t i n g u i s h between of  all  parameters  1963;  the r e a l  researchers studying  part  but  Jochim 1983:158).  the  of  relative  that  "real  systems.  the  Attempts  is  as a whole versus (Butzer  real preferences,  socioeconomic  and p e r c e i v e d e n v i r o n m e n t s settlement  these  obtainable.  with motives,  drawn f r o m t h e i r  area.  Early  f r o m one a n o t h e r  i s "that  of  reconstruction.  recreate,  i s p e r c e i v e d by human b e i n g s ,  t h i n k i n g and t r a d i t i o n s  (ibid.:253;  times.  Since the environment  different  1982:252).  modes o f  in  are c e r t a i n l y  cultural  give  species can  a b u n d a n c e s a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n s may be a l l  viewed w i t h i n a c e r t a i n s e t of  perceived"  aquatic  recent h i s t o r i c a l  and w i t h i n w a t e r w a y s  will  the d i s t r i b u t i o n of  by f i s h e r i e s a g e n c i e s c a n be h e l p f u l  between  which  animals in a given  salmon and o t h e r  E x a c t p r e c o n t a c t n u m b e r s a r e more d i f f i c u l t t o  is  in  on p r e f e r r e d h a b i t a t s  i n past d i s t r i b u t i o n s of  r e s o u r c e s has o c c u r r e d o n l y documentation  Information  past d i s t r i b u t i o n s of  be r e c o n s t r u c t e d .  In  use  available  t h e m o s t r e c e n t h u m a n - i n d u c e d c h a n g e s on t h e  abundances  the  (in  Resource d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n s i m i l a r undisturbed environments clues  greatly  studies.  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  outlines  the  to  t i m e may l e a d t o e r r o n e o u s c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g  post-Pleistocene settlement  that  and e x t r a p o l a t i n g  context"  to  s h o u l d be a  focus  -17-  Summary In  sum, i t  s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s  are viewed w i t h i n the l a r g e r settlement system. minimize t h e i r e f f o r t  such t h a t single  specific  to that  f a c t o r s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d .  through a range of  important resources.  a range of  to  group.  Both  Energy needs w i l l  Settlements  energy  be met  s h o u l d be l o c a t e d  t h e s e r e s o u r c e s c a n be more e a s i l y a c c e s s e d f r o m a  location.  Two m e t h o d s  used to  study  settlement patterns  salmon-settlement  s t u d i e s and s i t e c a t c h m e n t a n a l y s i s a r e r e v i e w e d i n t h e sections.  The m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a n d t h e o r e t i c a l b a s e s o f  examined a c c o r d i n g t o utility  try  they  f o r maximum g a i n s , b u t t h e s o c i e t y ' s g o a l s m u s t be  d e f i n e d w i t h i n a c u l t u r a l framework a n d non e n e r g y  People w i l l  if  of  each w i l l  M e t h o d s Used t o  S i t e Catchment  the c r i t e r i a  o u t l i n e d above.  The  following each w i l l  be  s h o r t c o m i n g s and  be o u t l i n e d .  Determine  Settlement  Patterns  Studies  Introduction S i t e c a t c h m e n t a n a l y s i s i s a m e t h o d w h i c h i s commonly archaeologists resources. on t h e  u s e d by  t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e t t l e m e n t and l a n d  S i t e catchment s t u d i e s , l i k e  idea that  other  l o c a t i o n models, are based  resources p h y s i c a l l y c l o s e r to the  m a j o r r o l e i n t h e economy o f from the s i t e w i l l  that  site  and t h o s e a t  play a decreasingly important  site will  p l a y a more  increasing distance  role.  Since i t s  first  -18application  t o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a by V i t a  researchers  have  used t h i s method  and i t s s u r r o u n d i n g e n v i r o n m e n t . a p p r o a c h have been a t t e m p t e d , and t h e o r y  What i s S i t e C a t c h m e n t In  s i t e catchment  represent  ethnographic catchment groups  or four  d i s t a n c e o f one d a y ' s w a l k ,  because,  groups.  high  from a s i n g l e  i s most o f t e n  (1962:40)  Those most o f t e n  and L e e ' s  The s h a p e o f t h e c a t c h m e n t " a r e a s o f movement  and H a r r i s s l 9 7 2 : 1 1 8 ) .  used i n  figures for agricultural  o r 10 km r a d i u s f r o m a s i t e  a circle  drawn  This  (1969:59) for  area used i s u s u a l l y  will  tend  assumption  toward i s made  delineates the area uniformly a c c e s s i b l e  point.  to represent  Resource zones, important area.  time or d i s t a n c e contours  from t h e s i t e  w h i c h a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r e s o u r c e s t h a t  to the s i t e ' s inhabitants,  most e c o n o m i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t (1976b)  differently. s i t e must have  outwards. been  are d e l i n e a t e d w i t h i n the catchment t o be t h e  a t the s i t e i n question.  approaches  He a t t e m p t s  circles  may h a v e  The r e s o u r c e z o n e s c l o s e s t t o t h e s i t e a r e i n t e r p r e t e d  Flannery  to  d e t e r m i n e d by  Within the designated catchment area a s e r i e s of c o n c e n t r i c is  method  r e s o u r c e u s e by t h e s i t e ' s  km f r o m a s i t e ,  a s i t i s assumed t h a t  in general,  the basic  r e m a i n e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same.  s t u d i e s o f l a n d use p a t t e r n s .  (Ellison  on t h e o r i g i n a l  few e x c e p t i o n s ,  of the "catchment"  studies are Chisholm's  circularity"  many  the relationship of a s i t e  variations  and Higgs  (1970),  s t u d i e s an a r e a i s d e l i m i t e d around a s i t e  The s i z e  hunter-gatherer  and H i g g s  Analysis?  o f one t o t h r e e  circular,  but with  t h e zone o f p o t e n t i a l l y  inhabitants.  t o examine Several  a p p l i e d by V i t a - F i n z i  Finzi  s i t e catchment methods  to determine  gone t o p r o c u r e t h o s e  a little  how f a r t h e i n h a b i t a n t s  resources f o r which there  of the is  evidence within of  the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e .  the catchment.  arbitrarily  Thus,  by t h e  the catchment boundaries  archaeologist.  applicable to a settlement preservation  of  incorporate  local  data  F r o m t h i s he d e f i n e s t h e  Of  survey  of  Moreover,  items.  their  areal  extensive  extent  within  constrained  ethnographic  "weighted"  land area w i l l resources.  aaurately  To be s u r e , not  play  Adams  relate there  a major  data.  1977).  such t h a t  important It  the  to economic v a l u e  i n the economy;  of  in determining  at  Review  a  of  be o f  how  below which a  large  resource  areal  extent  i t s economic v a l u e .  a larger  g r e a t e r economic importance g i v e n  S i t e Catchment  a r e a may  a certain  zones, of If  not population  to other  Method and T h e o r y  approaches  to  s i t e catchment a n a l y s i s are often Such c r i t i c i s m s d i s r e g a r d by settlement,  quantified  however,  settlement.  Similar  influence  more  different  extent for  are a c t u a l l y  it.  its culture,  Within  the  both and a t  s i t e the  according to c u l t u r a l  settlement,  related to  twofold  some r e s e a r c h e r s o f namely  studying  the  are d i r e c t e d at  internal workings  other  external  resource potential  goals  critcis>ms  i t s narrow c u l t u r a l  — they  (cf.  Dennell  to  most  those  i s unclear,  r e s o u r c e o c c u r s i n g r e a t enough d e n s i t y ,  necessarily size  important  the  than  t h e r e may a l s o be a s i m i l a r t h r e s h o l d b e y o n d w h i c h t h e t h e z o n e i s no l o n g e r  not  by some r e s e a r c h e r s a c c o r d i n g  i s a c e r t a i n areal  role  poor  detailed archaeological  the catchment a r e a ,  (eg.  with  not  t h i s approach does  Ideally,  a r e a s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be more  physically  zone w i l l  have been  assigned  c o u r s e , t h i s approach i s  s h o u l d be u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h Resource zones,  not  o r t o an e x c a v a t i o n  resource remains. exchange  are  extent  of  factors needs t o  1980:14;  of focus.  the a which be Roper  -201982:461).  External  factors  are  ignored because s i t e catchment  studies  (or  c a n be  generally  f o c u s on a s i n g l e s i t e  broadened  a n d some c r i t i c i s m s a d d r e s s e d i f  is  a l s o examined  1983:196).  (cf.  Similarly,  resources surrounding resources  Davidson  i n the  Orton 1976:235;  the  to  Flannery  the  The  Bintliff  1980:44;  s i t e and s i t e l o c a t i o n ,  some c a t c h m e n t  r e l a t i o n s h i p of  studies  a s i n g l e resource to  is,  however,  to  Furthermore, will  of  Several  that  analyze  site.  the  it  enough  The  whole  other  it  studies.  very  these  record.  studies,  Unfortunately,  what i s the of  only  to  the  most  catchment that  that a single  studies  site. resource  doing  an  s i t e s , because they are o f t e n a r e more  l i k e l y to  r e l a t i o n s h i p of the  a s i t e and i t s  surrounding  s i t e ' s function  record.  As  concerned with  in order  which  s i n g l e purpose  is  to  (Cassels 1972:214).  sites  mentioned  site  location  assess adequately  environment,  it If  in  resource  show a c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n  Futthermore,  methods  i s misrepresentation  smaller,  v i s i b l e i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  and r e s o u r c e d i s t r i b u t i o n .  determine  and  i s subject  The m o s t b a s i c p r o b l e m ,  archaeological  to  of  Roper  criticisms have a l s o been r a i s e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e  the  exploitation,  (cf.  i n f l u e n c e on a s i t e t o w a r r a n t  n e c e s s a r i l y r e s t r i c t e d to catchment  earlier,  site  resources to  is unlikely  not  not  (Hodder  of  alone.  which are used i n catchment  are often  relationship  distribution  analysis  purpose  r e l a t i o n s h i p of  as d i s c u s s e d above,  have s u b s t a n t i a l  analysis  a s i n g l e resource the  the  r e s e a r c h e r who h a s d e c i d e d b e f o r e h a n d  resource to  Roots  i s t h a t they often  bias  important  the  sites  1976a:93)-  By e x a m i n i n g  the  the  a l s o be e x a m i n e d  1979:126). of  framework  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  assess accurately  r e g i o n as a whole must  Another c r i t i c i s m of examine  1980:22;  in order the  site type).  is  the  the  important function  -21assigned to site's  the s i t e i s i n c o r r e c t , erroneous n o t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g  economy w i l l  be  developed.  Another methodological  p r o b l e m p r e s e n t i n most c a t c h m e n t  i n v o l v e s the nature  of  acceptance of  (1969) and C h i s h o l m ' s  Lee's  hunter-gatherers concerning the  the catchment basin i t s e l f .  the catchment a r e a .  i n v e s t i g a t e d i f f e r e n t catchment areas of r e i n f o r c e d the 3-4 however,  collect  plant  that  (1962)  The  general  distance figures  A l i t e r a t u r e search  different  groups  km d i s t a n c e s u g g e s t e d by C h i s h o l m .  were found t o  travel  resources ( i b i d . : 2 - 3 ) .  (Adams  f r o m 5 t o 10 km f r o m Dennell  (1980:5)  to 1977:2)  "home b a s e "  further  such ethnographic  w a t e r may be a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r landscape.  It  where t h e r e  i s an a b u n d a n c e o f  suggests  relying  heavily  i s unknown  examples are c i t e d from areas  i n d e t e r m i n i n g movement  how f a r  people w i l l  water,  p r e s e n c e o f many n a v i g a b l e w a t e r w a y s  across  regularly travel  such as the  Northwest  Much g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e s t h a n t h e 5 t o hunter-gatherer  i n an a r e a  Coast.  increases one's a b i l i t y to  knowledge of  10 km s u g g e s t e d by Adams  g r o u p s c o u l d be t r a v e l e d by someone who had  the waterways.  The C o a s t S a l i s h ,  for  example,  where  the  The  travel  d i s t a n c e s by o f f e r i n g d r i n k i n g w a t e r a n d an e f f i c i e n t means o f  travel. for  extensive are  reported  h a v e t r a v e l l e d r e g u l a r l y o v e r 60 k i l o m e t e r s t o p r o c u r e s e a s o n a l  resources  (Barnett  and t h e range o f  1955:  map f a c i n g page 2 4 ) .  the vessel  Hazards of water  i t s e l f are a d d i t i o n a l  f a c t o r s to  c o n s i d e r e d when d e t e r m i n i n g t i m e - d i s t a n c e o f m a r i t i m e (McGovern  to  foods.  Furthermore,  to  for  Non-agricultural  t h e s e f i g u r e s a r e i n f a c t most a p p l i c a b l e t o groups  upon p l a n t  studies  a n d a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s r e s p e c t i v e l y , b r i n g s up a q u e s t i o n  s i z e of  groups,  the  1980:201).  travel  be  communities  -22An a d d i t i o n a l , m a j o r c r i t i c i s m the  shape of  designated  the area used.  radius are  of  the t i m e - d i s t a n c e  of  the  going to  involves  the catchment  In most c a t c h m e n t  area concept  studies, circles  simply p l a c e d around a s i t e w i t h o u t factor.  Although  time-distance concept,  because i t  of  knowing  it  ahead of  This  of  a  consideration  most p e o p l e r e c o g n i z e  i s seldom u s e d .  involves  is  the  utility  presumably  time t h a t a catchment a n a l y s i s  be d o n e s o t h a t t i m e d i s t a n c e f i g u r e s c a n be c o l l e c t e d i n  is the  field. In r e a l i t y , external the  the catchment  factors  site.  in addition  As mentioned  a l s o Higgs  population  a n d s h a p e a r e m o d i f i e d by many  the d i s t r i b u t i o n of relations with  1972:33;  the  s e a s o n and y e a r  site, nature  will of  also affect  a group  surrounding  neighbouring groups  (see  the d e n s i t y  as w e l l  as the  catchment  size  the catchment area w i l l  to y e a r w i t h i n  resources  Cassels 1972:208),  the r e s o u r c e s themselves,  a t the  Furthermore,  to  earlier,  and V i t a - F i n z i  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  size  s i z e of and  and the  shape.  vary from season  as the above f a c t o r s change  to over  time. The c a t c h m e n t of  the  potential  As  Davidson  area,  then,  environment  (1980:26)  This  a v a i l a b l e by c h o o s i n g t h a t  points out,  w h i c h were c h o s e n once the chosen."  i s best viewed as a v i s u a l  " i t can say n o t h i n g  f i e l d of  i s where non-energy  potential cultural  representation site  about  the  r e s o u r c e s was  factors will  location. resources  itself  begin to  mediate  decisions. The  use of  concentric circles within  subject to c r i t i c i s m s . for of  both  Jackson  the catchment  (1972) and B i n f o r d  a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s and h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r s  resource e x p l o i t a t i o n  a r e a has a l s o  (1982)  illustrate  respectively,  i s not b e s t viewed as a s e r i e s of  the  been that  pattern  concentric  circles.  This  i s e s p e c i a l l y so i n a r e a s o f  distribution.  In a r e a s o f  less  amount o f  activity  distance,  such t h a t a " s e r i e s of  (Clarke  1972:852)  Furthermore, circular,  better  there  Tartaglia  s i m p l y as a v i s u a l  S i t e Catchment In for  its  sum,  -  short-comings,  it  is still  a settlement. been used f o r t o methods  the  The  highly here  the catchment area  patterns  of  are  exploitaton, site.  very useful methodologically. of  each s i t e to o t h e r s  Given t h i s ,  i n the  and f a u n a l  used i n salmon-setlement  settlement useful  resources  s i t e c a t c h m e n t a n a l y s i s h a s n o t t o my This  studies  its cultural  t h e m e t h o d s c a n be  floral  When  settlement  s i t e i t s e l f m u s t be v i e w e d w i t h i n  f i s h resources.  Salmon and S e t t l e m e n t  of  be  a n a l y s i s h a s r e c e i v e d much c r i t i s m  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  However,  exploitation.  be e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l  the b a s i c parameters  and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of  determining  is  over  frames"  l a n d use w i l l  i l l u s t r a t e d i s t a n c e from the  s y s t e m s h o u l d a l s o be e x a m i n e d . for  the  Summary  using s i t e catchment methods,  framework,  resource  resource ownership  data w i l l  s i t e catchment  m u s t n o t be i g n o r e d .  of  that traditional  as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a i d to  Studies  although  the pattern  Concentric c i r c l e s within  perhaps best viewed not but  represents  ethnographic  1980).  resources,  c o n c e n t r i c but as.jpietrical  i s no g u a r a n t e e  Use o f  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  resource  decrease l o g a r i t h i m i c a l l y i n i n t e n s i t y  e s p e c i a l l y i n a r e a s where  territorial. (cf.  i s said to  patchy  l o c a l i z e d and p a t c h y  approach would form a n i c e  and  knowledge complement  studies.  Studies  Introduction The  importance  of  s a l m o n among N o r t h w e s t C o a s t p e o p l e s h a s  sparked  -24the  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  the  Northwest  Coast t r a d i t i o n a l  cultures  S t u d i e s which d i r e c t l y address settlement  are a c t u a l l y  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  population  and M i t c h e l l  distributions.  i n each are reviewed  Salmon and P o p u l a t i o n Kew ( 1 9 7 6 )  formulated  and I n t e r n a t i o n a l  of the watershed,  To r e p r e s e n t  figures  upstream.  from the Federal  methods  Department  o f body  this  t o a energy  1959) t h a t fats,  Those  numbers.  ( i n terms of i t s energy  the t o t a l the greater  living  along the Fraser  system.  value),  which  were  resource, the  (caloric) energy  value.  derived Kew n o t e s  v a l u e o f salmon i s  d i s t a n c e the salmon  into c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the value  source  figures  of  derived.  s a l m o n more a c c u r a t e l y a s a f o o d  and Clemens  Taking  these  River  present-day  were a s s i g n e d i n c r e a s e d e s t i m a t e d  i n t h i s w a y , by w h a t amount  due t o l o s s  of  salmon  i n the Fraser  r e d u c e d i n number a s a r e s u l t o f  salmon r u n numbers were c o n v e r t e d  reduced,  indicators  More d e t a i l e d  o f salmon abundance  a n d how t h e new f i g u r e s w e r e  Idler  studies are also  i t i s n o t e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d how i t was d e t e r m i n e d  r u n s were a f f e c t e d  the  1971;  P a c i f i c Salmon F i s h e r i e s C o m m i s i o n .  r u n s w h i c h had been g r e a t l y  (after  Sneed  numbers a r e u s e f u l  back t o t h e p a s t .  a model  Fisheries  altered,  These  most examine  Studies  b a s e d on p r e s e n t - d a y  Unfortunately,  1975).  1983).  below.  watershed  industry  1980);  (Kew 1 9 7 6 ;  of  salmon and  In a l l o f these s t u d i e s p r e s e n t - d a y  numbers a r e u s e d t o e x t r a p o l a t e employed  and salmon  aspects  1983; Whitlam  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  to t h i s t h e s i s as p o p u l a t i o n  settlement  ( e g . Matson  f e w ( H o b l e r 1 9 8 3 ; Pomeroy  Baumhoff 1963; and Donald pertinent  salmon and o t h e r  swims  of salmon as a  was c a l c u l a t e d f o r e a c h  group  food  -25-  Several points were brought to l i g h t concerning the nature of salmon in the study area, and i t s relevance to human populations. F i r s t , i t i s pointed out that the salmon which reached the upriver groups, and p a r t i c u l a r l y those groups occupying the t r i b u t a r i e s , were i n f e r i energy-wise to those accessible to the down-river populations.  o r  In  addition to i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y , the f i s h available to up-river groups were fewer in number and more l i k e l y to fluctuate in size from year to year than those further down the r i v e r .  This difference i n quality of the  salmon resource along the r i v e r suggested to Kew that the confluences of the r i v e r were preferred places of residence.  In f a c t , preliminary  examinations of population densities and salmon abundance in the Fraser suggest "correlations becoming very close i f the salmon variable i s expressed as c a l o r i c value and averaged over the two middle years of the [four year] cycle." (ibid.:8).  Unfortunately, these data were not  presented in any further d e t a i l . In additon to abundance of salmon, Kew considered the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the resource.  A c c e s s i b i l i t y , he suggested, i s related to two types of  f a c t o r s , natural and technological.  In the Fraser system Kew noted a  trend towards increasing a c c e s s i b i l i t y upstream due to the natural conditions of the r i v e r .  However, where salmon are the least accessible,  that i s , at the mouth of the r i v e r , they have the greatest energy-value, and vice versa.  The data suggest that technology w i l l tend to be more  complex and elaborate when i t pays, namely where access i s d i f f i c u l t and value i s greatest (ibid.:10). One f i n a l point concerning Kew's work i s that the model presented does not allow f o r fluctuations in the pattern.  Kew himself was  aware of t h i s l i m i t a t i o n i n the model, as stated in page 5.  also  The r i g i d i t y  -26of  t h e model  i s consistent with  the  c o r r e l a t i o n s were t e s t e d between  treatment  the  ecological It  i n s t a n c e are not  w o u l d have been i n t e r e s t i n g t o  more c l o s e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h throughout  the c y c l e ,  during a l l  years.  to  local  approach  (1972)  number o f  dividing  the mileage of  e a c h g r o u p was t o  as p r i m a r y ,  group's  l e a v i n g the  territory.  Sneed,  however,  results  Sneed's are not  as r e l a t i v e  in  salmon w i t h i n  inexact.  i n the  total  a high c o r r e l a t i o n  fish  variation  The  of  population  resource.  s t u d i e s are noteworthy. The m e t h o d s  in  for  each  given;  the  and  number  s o no e x a c t c o r r e l a t i o n f i g u r e was  unequivocal.  Baumoff's  total  on  each  stream m i l e a g e as i s ,  of  group,  stream  simply  and B a u m o f f ' s  figures.  each  streams  The  in  depending  r e s u l t s were  s u g g e s t e d t h a t 87% o f  abundance were q u i t e  primary  of  their  River  or t e r t i a r y ,  s t r e a m by t w o .  productivity  numbers was e x p l a i n e d by v a r i a t i o n Both  higher  (1963)  i n the Fraser  B o t h B a u m o f f and S n e e d f o u n d  on a s c a t t e r p l o t  are  abundance  Productivity  secondary  s a l m o n numbers a n d human p o p u l a t i o n . plotted  numbers  by B a u m h o f f  secondary,  the t e r t i a r y  represent the  model.  salmon a v a i l a b l e t o each  each salmon s p e c i e s p r e s e n t .  by 2 ,  the  t o a s s e s s i n g salmon r e s o u r c e s and  by S n e e d  to assess the  territory  into  highest overall  was c a l c u l a t e d by m u l t i p l y i n g t h e m i l e a g e o f group's  averaged  unpredicted  population  p o p u l a t i o n s was a t t e m p t e d  streams were c a t e g o r i z e d t h e number o f  incorporated  Here,  those areas which are c o n s i s t e n t l y  N o r t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , and l a t e r In o r d e r  when  the c y c l e were  t e s t whether  the a r e a of  or with  A slightly different  system.  of  h i g h s and lows were not c a l c u l a t e d , t h u s ,  disasters, for  relationship  the data  s a l m o n numbers a n d p o p u l a t i o n .  s a l m o n numbers f r o m t h e m i d d l e two y e a r s together;  of  employed t o  However, determine  their salmon  r e s u l t s are perhaps best viewed  only  Donald'5and M i t c h e l l ' s of  salmon t o  settlements  methodologically. concerning the  statistical Southern other  the  t e s t s of  Kwakiutl  i s by  Donald  r o l e of  variation within  (1975)  the  second v a r i a b l e , territory,  groups  over  correlated group  at  to  group  two p o i n t s i s of  indicate  the  group  with  rank.  Finally, group  in  Both  variability  half  of  variable,  p e r i o d from  degree  to  of  The  1880's.  between  i n both  84% o f  within  The to  around  and p o p u l a t i o n  numbers o r  the figures  variable  numbers This  for  each  latter numbers  interesting results.  a n d human p o p u l a t i o n the  variation  in  i s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between  i n salmon numbers  population  several  settlement.  rank  i n the  in local  account for  eleven  median  final  human p o p u l a t i o n  the v a r i a t i o n  salmon numbers  and  to t h i s t h e s i s as p o p u l a t i o n  accounting for  of  of  and f l u c t u a t i o n  territory.  a location for  in a territory  rank  1950-1967.  variation  1 8 3 0 ' s and t h e  impressively high  resource  goal,  from t e r r i t o r y  salmon abundance  interest  models  salmon abundance  in time,  Variation  various  t h i s century  total  72%  test  the p o t l a t c h  s a l m o n numbers  the  relationship  achieve this  M i t c h e l l ' s t e s t y i e l d e d some v e r y  account f o r  rank.  To  r a n k was t h e  particular  Also  median  area.  a seventeen year  from t e r r i t o r y  population  s a l m o n numbers numbers  first first  h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n was f o u n d  l&30's,  to  was d e t e r m i n e d by c a l c u l a t i n g t h e  s u i t a b i l i t y of  Donaldsand  the  as a l e v e l i n g mechanism f o r  was m e a s u r e d a c c o r d i n g t o  variable  very  The  fluctuation  quite variable  set out  Kwakiutl  i n the  examining  sophisticated  t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between  median escapement v a l u e . were  for  the most  potlatch  Southern  territory,  e s c a p e m e n t number  far  and M i t c h e l l  v a r i a b l e s were r u n .  each group's  approach  54% o f  1830's,  population the  accounts for rank.  These  in  A the  local median  where  salmon  numbers.  variation  in  little  the  of  figures  local  suggest  to  -28-  Donaldsand to  Mitchell  a particular  rank  for  location.  that local  amass s u r p l u s g o o d s Donaldiand a very  small  groups  to  Here,  t h a t an a b u n d a n t This  group, for  a  the  When D o n a l d  s a l m o n numbers  variance  i n rank  r e s u l t s are  account  for  to  salmon,  there  Donald!*and  M i t c h e l l ' s data  salmon which  is essential This  economic  this  second ranked  c a s e , the  comparatively number. people  If  to t h i s  years.  This  suggests,  sustains this  group's  influenced i t s One study entire  final  to  suggest  value  to each group,  of  large  group  territory, (1)  but  and v e r y  high  dispute  the  i s a minimum this,  rank, for  the in  these  importance  abundance  the  numbers  that discussed e a r l i e r ( s e e page 1 9 ) .  Mitchell's list fluctuation  i s a minimum number  In  has  around  sole consideration  high ranking p o s i t i o n ,  in  investigation.  t h e r e w o u l d be some v e r y  that there  altered.  variance  beyond  i n Donaldsand  only  additional  i s not given  land holdings  this  attracting disapointing  of  salmon  that other  that  or  (2)  factors  of  D o n a l d } and M i t c h e l l ' s  rank. point  concerning the  relevance  t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t they were t e s t i n g  group  to  1830's accounts  further  that there  s a l m o n numbers w e r e t h e  group's  do n o t  i s room f o r  low salmon numbers,  high  able  Unfortunately,  i s a s i m i l a r concept to  concerning the  the  s a l m o n numbers  of  may be s u p e r f l u o u s .  potlatch  added f i v e  i n the  as o p p o s s e d t o 84%.  These c a l c u l a t i o n s c e r t a i n l y  of  people  incorporates  somewhat  76% o f  and p o p u l a t i o n  population  but  thorough,  and M i t c h e l l  calculations. r o l e of  in a high  because t h e y were b e t t e r  ranking c a l c u l a t i o n s the  percent c o r r e l a t i o n of  the  result  M i t c h e l l ' s a n a l y s i s , although  the median  of  will  attract  potlatch.  a s o p p o s e d t o 54% p r e v i o u s l y , 41%  in turn  presumably  sample s i z e .  the  salmon r e s o u r c e w i l l  territory  by m e a s u r i n g  the  the  population  s u i t a b i l i t y of within  that  an  -29territory. for  They w e r e  settlement  Kwakiutl  not  as I w i l l  territories  Winter  located within  Salmon  salmon t o  sites  Coola-Bella variation within  between  the  attributed  the  of  the  of  negative  factors  and t o  15  location  The  Southern  square m i l e s  up i n t o  several  exploitation  to  small  sites  were  empirically  Coast of  region,  to  relationship  s p e c i f i c a l l y the  correlations  were  number o f  area only and t h e  the  settlement ooligan  of  Bella  run between  number a n d k i n d o f  streams not  the  the  archaeological  sites  salmon produced  today  a slight correlation  several  presence of  site  types.  Hobler  salmon a l o n e ,  areas because of run o c c u r r i n g  showed  but  the  nature  several  months  to  of  the  after  ended. to  the w e s t ,  and o o l i g a n  a very  i n a stream.  do n o t  between  immediate  determinant points  a similar test run.  slight correlation,  of  The  suggest proximity  site  was r u n .  r e s u l t s of  Here  this  a n d i n some c a s e s a  archaeological  These r e s u l t s  are held constant,  A few a d d i t i o n a l  test  the  the  correlation  was n o t a n i m p o r t a n t  were broken  as seasonal  B e l l a Coola  suitable  only  Nuxalk c a s e .  from a p p r o x i m a t e l y  a s t r e a m and t h e  spawning  is flatter,  showed  salmon  of  B e l l a B e l l a region  terrain  slight  Tests  the c o r r e l a t i o n  terrain,  analysis  Central  of  salmon runs have In  the  i n the  salmon  limitation  valley's the  attempted to  In  a specific  Studies  in distribution  stream.  of  territories.  Bella area.  in that  the  these  a 5 km r a d i u s  do i n t h e  in size  v i l l a g e s as w e l l  (1983)  suitability  some t e r r i t o r i e s  and S e t t l e m e n t  Hobler  the  attempt to  ranged  o v e r 35 s q u a r e m i l e s ; locations.  testing  s i t e s and t h e  to Hobler t h a t , to  salmon  number  "when  spawning  other  streams  location  (ibid.:154  -155).  s h o u l d be b r o u g h t o u t  concerning  Hobler's  -30study. this  First,  area for  not well  there sites  i s a strong b i a s i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d l o c a t e d along waterways.  represented.  c a s e between  Sites i n other  of  habitats  are  T h a t no c o r r e l a t i o n showed up i n t h e B e l l a B e l l a  salmon and s i t e s  i s e v e n more s u p r i s i n g when t h i s  is  taken  into consideration. The  gross l e v e l  have a f f e c t e d  a t which Hobler conducted h i s s t a t i s t i c a l  his results.  s i t e w i t h salmon numbers, size.*  Hobler but  d i d n o t make any d i v i s i o n a c c o r d i n g t o  a very  small  midden s i t e t o c o r r e l a t e  same way a s a l a r g e s i t e o f  T h a t no c o r r e l a t i o n was e v i d e n t certainly  important  resource to the Central  s u s p i c i o u s , and would s u g g e s t t h a t  refined,  or that  both the  number a n d y e a r l y  i n each ethnographic  group  variation  territory  is  n u m b e r s f r o m m o d e r n s a l m o n f i s h e r i e s , Pomeroy  be  (1980) attempted  the  found  with  in this case.  i n abundance of  of  site  s a l m o n was  Coast people  o t h e r v a r i a b l e s a r e more i m p o r t a n t  of  type.  the a n a l y s i s needs t o  A l s o w o r k i n g i n t h e B e l l a B e l l a a r e a , Pomeroy  present  s e e m i n g l y same  i n the a n a l y s i s , although  somewhat  correlate  may  s i m p l y c o r r e l a t e d number a n d k i n d  We w o u l d n o t e x p e c t a v e r y  salmon numbers i n t h e  study  to  salmon  Bella Bella.  Using  that:  "from y e a r to y e a r each ethnographic group, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of [ ] two g r o u p s . . . w o u l d h a v e s u f f i c i e n t r e s o u r c e s , b u t p r o b a b l y n o t a t t h e same r i v e r s o r s t r e a m s e a c h y e a r . This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t when o b s e r v i n g t h e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h CVs [ v a r i a t i o n ] , i n d i c a t i n g p o s s i b l e y e a r l y v a r i a t i o n i n salmon i n the B e l l a B e l l a s t r e a m s . . . . The p e o p l e w o u l d h a v e b e e n a w a r e o f t h i s a n d c o m p e n s a t e d by u s i n g r i v e r s o r s t r e a m s a l t e r n a t i v e l y , b a s e d on t h e i r k n o w l e d g e o f w h i c h ones i n p a r t i c u l a r y e a r were most p r o d u c t i v e " ( i b i d . : 8 9 ) . Given  the  numbers p r o d u c e d i n h i s a n a l y s i s , P o m e r o y  a s s o c i a t i o n of  the y e a r l y  archaeological  sites.  *  I  abundance of  Pomeroy's  examined  salmon i n each stream  to  a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t midden  a p p r e c i a t e the d i s c u s s i o n w i t h Dr.  D.  the  Aberle concerning t h i s  sites  point.  -31-  were e v e n l y  d i s t r i b u t e d a r o u n d s t r e a m s w i t h b o t h l o w and h i g h  and v a r i a b i l i t y  from y e a r  to year.  The  shows no c o r r e l a t i o n t o  length or s i z e  however,  sites  with  that  f i s h trap  l i m i t e d numbers o f That Pomeroy's  suprising.  (ibid.:93).  (ie.  techniques, they  the  A portion of  a l l Pomeroy's  s i t e inventory Moreover,  s e l e c t i o n of Pomeroy's an  according to  sites  sites  were  "intensive  male-dominated  shell  s i t e type  midden r e m a i n s .  winter occupation sites  may h a v e l i t t l e  r e l a t i o n to  the  i n the Central  S h e l l middens on t h e  survey  l o c a t i o n of  Coast,  harvest of  the  more a b u n d a n t l y -  producing  Salmon S t u d i e s -  Summary  be u s e f u l  to the  i n each of  and  t h e summer a n d  T h a t f i s h t r a p s a r e more n u m e r o u s a r o u n d s m a l l e r ,  salmon r u n .  coast  are  Northwest  s t r e a m s i s e x p e c t e d i f more t r a p s e n a b l e a more  employed  site  i n f o r m a n t s were men,  productive  To  type  Pomeroy's  he d o e s n o t d e s c r i b e h i s  The m o s t a p p a r e n t  characteristically  fisheries.  study,  site  a n d we a r e l e f t w o n d e r i n g w h i c h a r e a s w e r e s u r v e y e d a n d why  i s a s i t e with  therefore  Hobler's  In a d d i t i o n ,  random.  Unfortunately,  fishing).  were c h o s e n .  region  r e s u l t s do i n d i c a t e ,  the o t h e r s were l o c a t e d t h r o u g h  w h i c h may h a v e b i a s e d t h e activities  The  c o r r e l a t i o n between  Like  n e e d s t o be r e f i n e d .  l o c a t e d by i n f o r m a n t s ;  run.  also  a r e more numerous a r o u n d s m a l l e r s t r e a m s  a n a l y s i s shows l i t t l e  t h e m s e l v e s may n o t be e n t i r e l y  survey"  of  the midden i t s e l f  species.  and salmon s t r e a m i s n o t classification  size of  abundance  fall  less  efficient  M u l t i p l e t r a p s may n o t h a v e b e e n n e c e s s a r y  in  areas.  study  of  Northwest  Coast  settlements the  t h e s e s t u d i e s n e e d s t o be b r o a d e n e d t o  i n f l u e n c e of c u l t u r a l c o n s t r a i n t s .  With the e x c e p t i o n of  methods  include Kew's  the  work,  -32none o f of  the  the o t h e r  studies reviewed  salmon r e s o u r c e .  the concept of  of  harvesting.  technology  the  environment  the exception  and/or  times. it  of  cultural  the  figures  i s d i f f i c u l t to evaluate  In e a c h o f  The  River  success.  through  resources,  r e s u l t s are not  and n o r t h e r n  namely  salmon,  California  studies,  coast area.  limits  their  Several  s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , small  be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  f a i l u r e of value  which  were the  these  the minimal s t u d i e s to  to  but  reasons  to  settlement expect.  the c o r r e l a t i o n  In  (ie.  sample etc.)  i s much  bias,  may  correlation.  More  include other  cultural  settlement  the  between  the c o r r e l a t i o n  sample s i z e ,  as p r e d i c t i v e models of  of  w e r e made  a s c o n c l u s i v e a s one m i g h t  weaker  however,  accurately  Regardless,  here attempts  i s p a r t i a l l y confirmed,  partially  more  for  time.  salmon and s e t t l e m e n t  inappropriate  by  a n d s i m i l a r s t u d i e s s h o u l d a l s o be a w a r e  critical  i n the c e n t r a l  time  to  t o compensate  e x a c t methods  its  the case s t u d i e s reviewed  relate a priori  kind.  researcher attempts  represent  ease  available  this  Kew t r i e s  to  know t h e  p o s s i b l e c h a n g e s i n s a l m o n numbers  Fraser  as the  to  to  considering  have been a l t e r e d o v e r  disturbances.  As we do n o t  attempt i s noteworthy,  patterns.  no o t h e r  analogous  i s n o t enough  without  f o r c e as w e l l  Kew,  salmon streams  t h e s e c h a n g e s by a d j u s t i n g  employed,  labor  harvesting  It  s h o u l d a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d i n s t u d i e s o f  how t h e  precontact  for  account a c c e s s i b i l i t y  s a l m o n i s somewhat  discussed e a r l i e r .  available  Size of  Also with determine  A c c e s s i b i l i t y of  time-distance  r e c o r d s a l m o n numbers  here takes i n t o  likely,  patterns.  factors  -33-  Sumrnary In  of  Settlement  sum,  if  S t u d i e s Method  settlement  s t u d i e s a r e t o be m e a n i n g f u l ,  p o i n t s w h i c h m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d . number o f  determinants  archaeologically. environment cultural  ethnographic directly prove  useful.  beforehand The  The  When t h e s e  information  the  pattern  natural  in written  sources of  from other  the  that  a  have  ethnographies  andthrough  are  not  s i m i l a r environments  a n a l y s i s s h o u l d be u s e d t o  a  and c u l t u r a l  information  sole influencing factor  several  observed  r e s e a r c h e r s h o u l d be c a u t i o n e d a g a i n s t  what i s the  r e s u l t s of  settlement  on w h i c h e l e m e n t s a r e l i k e l y t o  r o l e c a n be f o u n d  available,  are  a n d e a c h s h o u l d be e x a m i n e d w i t h i n  Information  fieldwork.  there  r e s e a r c h e r must r e c o g n i z e  from both  m u s t be e x a m i n e d ,  p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t  The  i n f l u e n c e d the  Variables  context.  and T h e o r y  will  deciding  on s e t t l e m e n t  location.  determine which f a c t o r s  are  influential. An u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n o f people w i l l  try  be m a n i f e s t e d resources.  to minimize  n o t i o n s o f work  involved  effort  evaluating minimization are only  one a s p e c t o f  r e l a t i o n s h i p between simplistic;  other  between  two.  the  Additional  effort  in settlements  Efforts  all  in a l l  notion  that  This  will  economic a c t i v i t i e s . distance to  in extracting  r e s o u r c e s , encompassed i n  important the  a n d r i s k d e s c r i b e d a b o v e m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d when of  effort.  behavior  important  However,  s i n c e economic  which governs  settlement  begin to mediate  g u i d e l i n e s are necessary  present-day  In  for  the  activities  decisions,  r e s o u r c e s and s e t t l e m e n t w i l l  decisions will  from the  s t u d i e s i s the  by m i n i m i z i n g  r e s o u r c e s as p o s s i b l e d e t e r m i n a n t s . extrapolations  settlement  the  r a r e l y be  relationship  a n a l y s e s w h i c h do c o n s i d e r  s t u d i e s of  environment  this  kind  back t o t h e  past  are  so  often of  necessary.  In o r d e r  the ecology of  knowledge  the  to accomplish t h i s ,  study  a detailed  a r e a m u s t be a c h i e v e d .  of changes i n the environment  through  This  time - -  understanding includes a  both  natural  and  human-induced. Methods  used to  determine  not y i e l d absolute f i g u r e s of environmental virtually accuracy. relative  change,  a v a i l a b i l i t y of  r e s o u r c e abundance.  and p e r h a p s  several  impossible to determine  of  other  Because  unknown  it  is  this kind  of  r e s u l t s s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d  the past s i t u a t i o n .  A relative  ordering  resource a v a i l a b i l i t y according to l o c a t i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t l y without  s t r e t c h i n g the d a t a beyond  Using the parameters reviewed  in detail  information,  o u t l i n e d above,  i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the A review of  the time before combination of data base f o r Nuxalk.  socio-economic r e l a t i o n s ,  the ethnographic the a n a l y s i s of  i s presented  patterns  and  specifically,  settlement  are  a s i t w o u l d have been  i n Chapter  III.  and e c o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l  the  d a t a are  S p e c i f i c socio-economic  Nuxalk environment  European c o n t a c t  of  informative  the Nuxalk ethnographic  Nuxalk s e t t l e m e n t the  as a  limits.  i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter.  such as r e s o u r c e u s e ,  highlighted.  its  need  of  factors,  past d i s t r i b u t i o n s with  Given these l i m i t a t i o n s , the representation  resources i n the past  system of  the  at  The form  precontact  the  -35Chapter THE  NUXALK:  II  ETHNOGRAPHIC  DATA  Introduction This  chapter  discussion the from  late  of  summarizes  the settlement  pre-contact/early  historic accounts,  consultants  living  settlement  direct  exchange,  and r e l a t i o n s  people  people  living from  terrain a  did  i n each  of  the term  the Bella villages  name  were  economic  era.  Information  to  Detailed  a  valley  Nuxalk  has been  archaeological data  today.  and Nuxalk  information within  groups,  in  compiled  and  on between  and resources acquired  neighbouring  Europeans  through  are discussed.  B e l l a Coola  unity.  North  the areas  Coola  valley  Nuxalk  valley.  throughout  At  this  for resource  as a single  area.  of  Much  unified  of  the Bella  and  the  i t  that Coola  Kwatna those  i s  those  people  the Nuxalk had  surrounding did not  suggesting  group.  a fact  only  contact  of  Nuxalk  to describe  The Nuxalk  the valleys,  by a c o l l e c t i v e name, The i n h a b i t a n t s  the time  Arms,  although  to describe  exploitation. of  here  below,  the  surrounding  Bentinck  i s used  described  Coast,  and the  and South  traditionally  for a l l inhabitants  known  on t h e Northwest  The term  used  not see themselves  people  of  1948).  was u t i l i z e d  single  with  t h e Dean C h a n n e l ,  (Mcllwraith  established  the B e l l a Coola  acquisition,  the entire  Inlets  inhabiting  of  ethnographies,  resource  the a r r i v a l  off  derived  relevant  Background  occupied  valleys  contact  data  the socio-economic structure  villages,  Before  system  on t h e r e s e r v e  patterns,  Ethnographic  the ethnographic  Within  each  indicates valley  that  have  they  valley socio-  were  known  as  -36the Nuxalkmx*, those from South B e n t i n c k as the Talyumx, the Dean Channel people were c a l l e d the Sucfcmx, and those from Kwatna I n l e t were the K'wafcnamx ( M c l l w r a i t h 1948:13; Kennedy and Bouchard  1976:  8-9).  The B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y i s l o c a t e d a t the end of a l o n g i n l e t more than 120 km from the sea, i n the c e n t r a l c o a s t r e g i o n o f B r i t i s h (figure 1).  The v a l l e y , which runs east t o west, i s bounded t o the  n o r t h , south and east by t a l l , 2000m.  Columbia  steep mountains, some of which r i s e over  The v a l l e y f l o o r i s t r a n s e c t e d by the B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r , which  f l o w s a l o n g i t s e n t i r e l e n g t h , and s e v e r a l s m a l l e r r i v e r and streams. the extreme  To  e a s t , the B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r f l o w s from the Atnarko and  Talchako t r i b u t a r i e s , which emerge from narrow, rugged canyons.  To the  west, the B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r opens out i n t o North B e n t i n c k Arm, which i n t u r n f l o w s i n t o Burke Channel b e f o r e r e a c h i n g the open s e a . S i m i l a r t o much of the B r i t i s h Columbia c o a s t , the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y is classified  by K r a j i n a (1970) as C o a s t a l Western Hemlock b i o t i c  The v a l l e y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the u s u a l c o a s t a l weather  zone.  patterns,  however the western end of the v a l l e y i s somewhat m i l d e r than the e a s t e r n end.  Toward the west the w i n t e r s a r e r a i n y , but do not get very c o l d .  F u r t h e r up the v a l l e y t h e r e i s l e s s r a i n (about 25 i n c h e s per year as compared t o 54 i n c h e s a t the western end; Canada, Atmospheric Environmental S e r v i c e 1967:5,38),  but the weather  i s g e n e r a l l y more  severe. L i e u t e n a n t Johnstone of Capt. Vancouver's crew was, f i r s t white man  to v i s i t  the B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y . .  i n 1793, the  H i s m i s s i o n was  e x p l o r e Burke Channel, North and South B e n t i n c k Arms, Labouchere  * Orthography o f Nuxalk words from Bouchard and Kennedy 1976, otherwise noted.  to  Channel  unless  -37-  Figure  1.  Location  of  the B e l l a  Coola V a l l e y  i n the C e n t r a l  Coast  -38-  and the head of the B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y  i n June 3 of t h a t y e a r .  o n l y l o n g enough to t r a d e w i t h people l i v i n g i n the v i l l a g e of the B e l l a C o o l a (Qumquis), Johnstone was the f i r s t  He stayed  at  the  b e f o r e heading back t o the s e a .  white man a c t u a l l y  to v i s i t  l i t t l e doubt t h a t news of the white men had a l r e a d y  mouth  Although  Bella Coola,  there  reached the  Nuxalk;  is  C a p t a i n Cook and h i s men had reached the west c o a s t and Vancouver I s l a n d 15 y e a r s e a r l i e r ,  and the maritime t r a d e f o r  Only one month a f t e r J o h n s t o n e ' s v i s i t , at  the upper end of the B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y  route t o the c o a s t .  sea o t t e r p e l t s had begun. Alexander Mackenzie  i n search of an overland  Mackenzie made h i s way down the v a l l e y  t r a d i n g at v a r i o u s v i l l a g e s . around and went back.  arrived  s t o p p i n g and  Once he reached the opean s e a , he  turned  M a c k e n z i e ' s journey i n the B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y  took  l e s s than t h r e e weeks. Contact w i t h the white man was minimal among the Nuxalk f o r 40 y e a r s , u n t i l  the Hudson's Bay Company s e t up f o r t s  Columbia C o a s t .  (Kopas 1970:53,139).  s e t up i n B e l l a C o o l a some time a f t e r i n f l u e n c e i n the v a l l e y .  Three s m a l l t r a d i n g  Notably the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  1867 had c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e .  abandoned i n  (Kopas 1970:139,140).  as a steady supply of l i q u o r  It  of an outbreak  from the t r a d e r s  19th c e n t u r y and even i n the e a r l y were e s t a b l i s h e d i n B e l l a C o o l a .  p o s t s were  of a Hudson's Bay post  By the mid 1800*s much of the Nuxalk t r a d i t i o n a l T h i s was a r e s u l t  1833  t h i s , which i n t r o d u c e d an European  i n B e l l a Coola i n  severely disrupted.  next  British  F o r t McLoughlin was e s t a b l i s h e d i n B e l l a B e l l a i n  and c l o s e d i n 1843  1882  on the  the  was l a t e r  way of l i f e had been of smallpox as w e l l  to the Nuxalk.  p a r t of t h i s c e n t u r y ,  In the  late  several missions  V i l l a g e s broke up and became d e s e r t e d .  People from a l l over the B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y  g r a d u a l l y moved t o  the  -39-  settlement  at the mouth of the r i v e r  v a l l e y s moved t o other  "main" v i l l a g e s .  o c c u p i e d s e a s o n a l l y at l e a s t century,  while  of the  Some v i l l a g e s were  to the time j u s t  prior  settlement  finally  ( M c l l w r a i t h 1948:16).  other  still  to the t u r n of  to procure v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e s (Boas 1891:48; Hawthorn  In the 1920's the remaining i n h a b i t a n t s valley  inhabitants  1949-55).  moved to the B e l l a Coola  Many people at t h i s time took  employment w i t h one of the c a n n e r i e s o p e r a t i n g i n the B e l l a Coola or K i m s q u i t ( W i l l i e Hans, Nuxalk e l d e r , It  is difficult  t o European c o n t a c t .  the  valley  p e r s o n a l communication).  to determine p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s f o r the Nuxalk Mcllwraith  (1948:5) suggests t h a t the  population  must have been " i n the t h o u s a n d s " .  Duff  approximately  p r i o r t o the d r a s t i c d e c l i n e  2,000 people i n 1835,  prior  (1964:39) e s t i m a t e s t h e r e were  numbers as a r e s u l t of i n t r o d u c e d d i s e a s e s .  in  Very e a r l y accounts by the  e x p l o r e r s suggest t h a t the number of Nuxalk i n h a b i t i n g t h i s a r e a may have been even g r e a t e r early  than the r e c o r d s i n d i c a t e .  Unfortunately,  c o n t a c t was c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y ,  s i n c e most  we are  left  w i t h p o p u l a t i o n e s t i m a t e s o n l y f o r the Nuxalkmx of the B e l l a Coola valley.  Mackenzie estimated  Nus^alst  (Mackenzie  t h a t 200 people l i v e d i n the v i l l a g e  1962:223).  mouth of the B e l l a Coola R i v e r , village  (Vancouver 1967:272).  Lt.  J o h n s t o n e , who v i s i t e d Q u m q u t s  suggested a f i g u r e  100 people per v i l l a g e  Assuming t h a t these v i l l a g e s a r e at  i n the v a l l e y .  number of v i l l a g e s r e c o r d e d by M c l l w r a i t h p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e of 2700 f o r the v a l l e y  If  an average  we m u l t i p l y  f o r the v a l l e y , alone.  at  of 300 people f o r  l a r g e end of the s c a l e , we can c o n s e r v a t i v e l y e s t i m a t e of  of the that  the figure  t h i s by 27, we a t t a i n a  the  -40-  In my r e s e a r c h , however, number of v i l l a g e s estimated  I have c o l l e c t e d data on almost double by M c l l w r a i t h  i n the B e l l a C o o l a  the  valley.  Although I am unable to determine contemporaneity f o r many of them, b e l i e v e t h a t 27 i s a somewhat c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e v i l l a g e s at any one t i m e . settlers  t o the v a l l e y  Mcllwraith  R e g a r d l e s s , the f i g u r e  estimate.  Data  There i s a good d e a l of fragmentary  data on Nuxalk v i l l a g e  at the time of c o n t a c t and i n the p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g  1920-1924).  1948;  Tolmie 1963;  Unfortunately  v i l l a g e s were l o c a t e d .  Boas 1898;  Boas 1891;  To d a t e ,  and Smith where  t h e r e e x i s t s no comprehensive account of  an i m p r e s s i v e s i t e t o any t r a v e l l e r  Nuxalk v i l l a g e s were undoubtedly  i n the a r e a .  Yet,  people d i d not r e c o r d other a s p e c t s of the s e t t l e m e n t f u n c t i o n s of s p e c i a l i z e d s i t e s ( e . g . ignored.  settlement  (eg.  these r e f e r e n c s are simply l i s t s of  why they were l o c a t e d where they were.  likewise  of 2700  of the other a r e a s occupied by  the N u x a l k , and must be c o n s i d e r e d a c o n s e r v a t i v e  Mcllwraith  original  e s t a b l i s h e d 45 s e p a r a t e v i l l a g e s which would  does not take i n t o account the i n h a b i t a n t s  patterns  f o r the number of  (1948:11) s t a t e s t h a t the  almost double the p o p u l a t i o n e s t i m a t e .  Settlement  I  unfortunately system.  Specific  r e s o u r c e p r o c e s s i n g s i t e s ) were  T h i s gap i n i n f o r m a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  the Nuxalk data i s compared to t h a t of other Northwest  apparent when  Coast g r o u p s .  Futhermore, s i n c e the ethnographers worked o n l y w i t h the Nuxalk who were l i v i n g i n the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y , of the v a l l e y .  the data may be h e a v i l y b i a s e d i n  This i s exemplified  by the f a c t  t h a t over one h a l f  r e c o r d e d Nuxalk v i l l a g e s are l o c a t e d i n the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y while  the other h a l f  favor of  alone,  are s c a t t e r e d over North and South Bentinck Arms,  Kwatna, and the Dean C h a n n e l .  the  -41The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d f o r the B e l l a Coola r e g i o n i s of value i n determining pre-contact most data r e s u l t boat),  settlement  patterns  i n the a r e a .  from s u r v e y s t h a t were conducted o f f s h o r e  the s i t e d i s t r i b u t i o n may be h e a v i l y b i a s e d not only  (ie.  Figure 2 i l l u s t r a t e s  for  of  both Kwatna and K i m s q u i t , however comprehensive r e p o r t s report).  the absence of e x t e n s i v e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n  areas t r a d i t i o n a l l y the p a t t e r n  example,  E x c a v a t i o n s have  have not yet been p u b l i s h e d (see Hobler 1970 f o r p r e l i m i n a r y In  from a  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  known a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s i n the B e l l a Coola r e g i o n . been conducted at  Since  towards  c o a s t a l s i t e s , but towards those s i t e s w i t h h i g h v i s i b i l i t y , where s h e l l middens o c c u r .  little  all  o c c u p i e d by the Nuxalk we w i l l never know how c l o s e l y  d e s c r i b e d here r e p r e s e n t s the p a s t .  This study,  f o c u s e s predominantly on the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y i t s e l f ,  however,  the area most  t h o r o u g h l y documented. Table I  lists all  the Nuxalk v i l l a g e s and camps r e c o r d e d by e a r l y  present-day ethnographers. 4.  Although the l i s t  T h e i r l o c a t i o n s are p l o t t e d  i s quite extensive,  it  i s far  and  on f i g u r e s 3 and  from c o m p l e t e .  Smith  (1920-24) s t a t e s t h a t " t h e r e were p o s s i b l y t h r e e to f o u r hundred named p l a c e s between the mouth of the B e l l a Coola R i v e r and S t e w i e , o n l y a few have been r e c o r d e d " .  Of t h i s t o t a l the m a j o r i t y  were p r o b a b l y used f o r r e s o u r c e procurement. most s e v e r e l y l a c k i n g , as a l l here are v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n s .  is difficult.  very e a r l y  of p l a c e s  T h i s i s where the data  are  but a few of the named p l a c e s c o l l e c t e d F i n a l l y , as many a u t h o r s d i d not r e c o r d the  time at which the v i l l a g e s were o c c u p i e d , d e f i n i t i o n patterns  of which  We can assume, however,  o b s e r v e r s (Mackenzie,  of contemporaneaous  t h a t i n the case of  T o l m i e , and P a l m e r ) ,  they r e c o r d e d  the  -42-  F i g u r e 2. Known A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a From H o b l e r 1982:4'  Region.  TABLE I LIST OF NUXALK VILLAGES AND CAMPS (from east to west) Meaning**  Village*  Reference(s)**  BELLA COOLA VALLEY VILLAGES not known 1. SlaaxL  2. Name not known  not known  3. SnuAlat  "place of the f a l l s " ( 3 ) "apparently-blocked a r e a " ( l l )  4. Q liyufc  "place of herbage"(3) "low vegetation o n l y " ( l l )  w  5. Stwix  not known  6,/taya-i; or twina'-t  "black bear footprint"(11) " v i s i b l e footprint"  7. Name not known  not known  8. NuAli*x  "where there are no falls(3,ll)  w  Comments**  Mcllwarith (1948:12) states that he never heard of t h i s v i l l a g e People shorter than the Nuxalk l i v e d here. They were c a l l e d Sahalie i n Chinook, which means "way up"(5).  3,4,5,6,7,9,11 3,4,11 3,4,5,6,7,9,11  The largest of the upper r i v e r towns (3,4,5); occupied at the time of Mackenzie (3), and s t i l l occupied i n the l a t e 19 century (7).  11 5  3,4,5,6,7, 8,9,10,11  This place was a great f i s h i n g ground; there were many camps there and possibly a v i l l a g e on the south side of the river (5). Mackenzie (1962:214) saw one large house surrounded by several small huts on s t i l t s . On h i s return t r i p f i v e a d d i t i o n a l houses had been b u i l t (p.254); Mcllwraith (1948:10) suggests that t h i s i s because t h i s v i l l a g e ' s weir survived a flood that other v i l l a g e s did not. Tolmie (1963) saw s i x houses at this village.  Village* 9. Numc  Meaning,** "sound of berries being crushed"(ll)  Referenced ) 11  10. Nuxnu'^skani  "place of many soapberries" (11)  11. As'q'neaLh (4) or Ascani  (from asc "spray")  12. Nusqalst  "the place of sqalstutl"(3)  (a stone used f o r tools)  13. Nunutwinm  "visible inter-mittenly"(ll)  Comments**  11 4,5,11  Smith (1920-24) records a v i l l a g e i n the same l o c a t i o n , but he dose not give a name. He says i t i s occupied by both Interior and Nuxalk people.  3,4,5,6  7,9,10,11  5,11  This v i l l a g e was made up of four elevated houses and seven b u i l t on the ground. The population was approximately 200 people (10). Smith (1920-24) i s not sure whether t h i s i s a v i l l a g e or a place name. I f i t i s a v i l l a g e i t i s very o l d . Reported to have had f i v e ( 8 ) , or s i x (5) houses. Occupied a t the time of Mackenzie ( 3 ) .  14. Assanani  "the concave town" or "Bay town"  3,4,5,6  (3,4) (assan " i n the corner")  7,8,9,11  There i s question i f t h i s i s a v i l l a g e (5). Smith was unable to locate t h i s v i l l a g e .  15. anneolekootsi(5) not known  5  16. Name not known  not known  5  Reported to have had f i v e houses ( 8 ) .  17. Salmt  not known  11  Reported to have had four houses (8). Abondoned i n the f i r s t h a l f of the 20th century ( 3 ) . Occupied at the time of Mackenzie (3).  18. Tlatlekeytoch(8) not known 19. Nukic 20. Uqmik 21. Snut.li  ......  "where there i s a whirpool" (3,4,11) "hunched o v e r " ( l l ) "place of dog salmon" (3,4,5,11)  8 3,4,5,6, 7,8,9,11 3,4,5,11 3,4,5,6, 7,11  Occupied at the time of Mackenzie(3). There may have been two large v i l l a g e s here (5).  Refecence(s)** 6,7  Village* Meaning** 22. Tsxoaxqa'ne (6) not known 23. Nuqa'xmac  "where there are many lady ferns" (3,4,11)  24. Clkt  "bald e a g l e " ( l l )  3,4,5,11  This was a small v i l l a g e (5).  25. Nu'ixmaq^s  "place of foul water"(3,4) "place of mud smelling of rotting f i s h " ( l l )  3,4,5,11  This was a very large v i l l a g e  26. Snu?unik lxs  "on the p o i n t " ( 3 , 4 , l l )  27. Curnu-t  "where river i s deep enough 3,4,5,6,7,8,11 to cover stones, but shallow enough for rapids" (3). or "obstructions i n the water"(11)  Reported to have had s i x houses (8). Occupied at the time of Mackenzie (3).  28. Squmafc  not known  There were many houses here (5). the time of Mackenzie (3)  29. Snxfc  "sunny" or " f a l l e n (3,4,11)  w  3,4,5,6,7,11  Comments** Mcllwraith (1948:12) states that he never heard of t h i s v i l l a g e .  3,4,5,9,11  3,4,5,11 sun"  30. Qbutz (4) or not known TcixtcixwtELpa'ts "where there i s much t c i x t c i x w l e l p " a hollow stemmed plant (3)  3,4,5,6,7,11  3,4  31. uVusq^p  "The treeless place"(3) or "bare p l a c e " ( l l )  3,4,5,11  32. Atq'laxt  "stockaded (fenced) place (11)  4,11  This was a very large town (4,5). It was a very good spot f o r trapping (5).  (3,4,5).  T h i s was a large town (5).  Occupied at  This was a f a i r l y large town (3,5). I t was abandoned early on the 20th century (4), and occupied at the time of Mackenzie (3), This i s a very old town (3),  A very old town (4). Where most of the v a l l e y inhabitants were l i v i n g i n the early 1900's u n t i l the flood of 1936 (11).  33. Klisheooalletoch (8) not known  8  Eleven houses were located here (8),  34. Name not known  5  Smith noted many houses i n t h i s location(5).  not known  Village*  Meaning**  Refecence(s)**  Comments**  35. Nusmafafcayx  (from sma "legend"; 11)  36. Cwankus  "cold spring of water" (11)  11  37. Name not known  not known  5  38. Numu^k  (from muk "red"; 11)  11  39. Name not known  not known  5  40. Qumquts  " s a l t y " (3,4)  41. Scki«£  "what has been d i v i d e d " ( 3 , l l )  42. T'sati. m (4)  not known  4  43. Aima' ts  not known  3,4  44. Anucquc  "labretted" (3,11)  45. Assa-qta  not known  11  46. Saqta (6)  not known  6  Mcllwraith (1948:12) states that he never heard of t h i s v i l l a g e .  47. Selkuta (6)  not known  6  ditto.  48. Txeixtskune (6) not known  6  49. OsmaxikeLp (6) not known  6  50. Tfcoqo tfc  "small mound" (3)  5,11  3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11  3,4,5,6,7  3,4,5,11  3,4  This was a very large v i l l a g e , with many slaves and c h i e f s (3,4). Six (10), eleven and t h i r t e e n houses (8,13) were located here at d i f f e r e n t times. I t was s t i l l inhabitated i n the 1920's. Occupied at the time of Mackenzie(3), This i s a very o l d v i l l a g e . A small town. Possibly occupied at the time of Mackenzie (3). A very l a r g e town (4),  ditto.  Village* 51. Afcqlaxt  Meaning** "fenced place"(3,4,ll)  52. T ' i t s a l (5)  not known  53. Tsafc  "short f e e t " (3,4) or  Reference(s)** 3,4,5,6,8,11  5 3,4,5,11  "salty f e e t " (11) 3 54. Qameix  not known  NORTH and SOUTH BENTINCK ARM VILLAGES  Comments** This town had seven houses (8); i t was stockaded (3). I t was inhabitated u n t i l 1870, and was occupied during Mackenzie's time ( 3 ) .  3,4,5,11  55. Numamis 56. Nusxiq  "place of f l i e s " ( 3 , 5 , l l ) (from nusx "clover; 4)  57. Qoalna (6) 58. Safcya  not known not known  6,7 3,6,11  59. TsoaLtmem (3)  not known  3  60. Qnklst  island (3)  61. Name not known  not known  5  62. Kxdis (3)  not known  3  3,4,5,6,11  3,11  The houses were b u i l t on p i l e s because of flooding (4,5). This i s the winter v i l l a g e for the people l i v i n g at no. 55 (3,4) T h i s was probably a hunting spot, not a v i l l a g e (3).  See comment no. 53. This i s a very old v i l l a g e ; i t was deserted before Mackenzie's time (4),  Food f o r t h i s v i l l a g e was obtained from an ocean trap (3). ditto.  Occupied at the time of Mackenzie ( 3 ) .  In the summer the inhabitants of t h i s v i l l a g e l i v e d here i n order to be near t h e i r f i s h trap; they moved to a f o r t i f i e d v i l l a g e at the base of a mountain for the winter(3).  I t i s not c e r t a i n i f t h i s i s a town or the f i s h i n g camp f o r the people of no. 63 (3).  Village* 63. Nuik  Meaning** not known  64. Talyu or Tqwantoa (3)  "facing" ( i e . no. 63)  Reference(s)** 3,4,5,6,7,11,12  3,4,5,6,8,11  Comments** This was a populated town, occupied at the time of Mackenzie (3); a few people s t i l l l i v e d here i n the early 20th century (12). Kennedy and Bouchard (1976) c a l l t h i s town Axeti (meaning "mound"). As t h i s v i l l a g e i s located on a mound, and i s located i n the same spot on the map as A x e t i, Axeti i s place name given by informants for a v i l l a g e i n the Dean, I think that the informants may have recalled the name i n c o r r e c t l y , and that these v i l l a g e s are the same. Reported to have had four houses (8), also a double stockade made of s p l i t trees (4). W i l l i e Hans (personal communication) says t h i s i s the largest of the South Bentinck v i l l a g e s . People s t i l l l i v e d here i n the early 20th century (12).  65. A s i - x ^  "end of i n l e t " (11) or "at the head" (3)  3,4,5,6,7,11  A large population; occupied at the time of Mackenzie, and deserted i n the early 20th century (3,4),  66. K^apx  not known  3,4,6,7,11  The name may be i n the Rivers I n l e t language. A f a i r l y large town., deserted long ago (3,4) W i l l i e Hans (personal communication) says a people s t i l l l i v e d here i n the early 20th century.  67. Name not known  not known  KWATNA VILLAGES 68. InufckEmitL (4) or Sinalk (4) "where i t a l l spoke" (4) 69. i i x t i x k u t a n k  "big boulder" or "big " b e l l i e d person (11)  5  4  11  Village* 70. Knc AqEt q (4) J  Meaning** "any whale" (11) not known  Reference(s)** 4,11  Comments** Mcllwraith (1922-24) and Kennedy and Bouchard 1976) recorded very d i f f e r e n t names f o r t h i s v i l l a g e , but the location i s the same.  71. Palcwana " b i g " (11) Anu tzeixLLx (4) not known  4,11  This i s the largest of the outside v i l l a g e s (4). See comment f o r v i l l a g e no. 70.  72. AnuLxu'mx mi "undergound sound caused Anuq(owlst) (4) not known  4,11  See comment f o r v i l l a g e no. 70.  73. Waxwas  4,11  1  w  not known  74. Nu'tLltLiqolEnk (4) not known  4  74. Sinuxm'x (4)  not known  4  76. Qussalq  not known  11  77. C i q s i  not known  11  78. Cu'sila  not known  11  DEAN CHANNEL VILLAGES 79. Sifctmtimut "appears suddenly"  11  80. A £ - X l i q  "crevasse pattern c r i s s crossed i n rock" (11)  11  "sound of small waves  11  w  81. Umftum  splashing on shore" 82. Name not known  not known  83. Sx*ax^ilk  not known  84. Name not known  not known  85. Asktta (3)  not known  5,11 11 5 3  i I  Village* 86. Siwalos (3)  Meaning*-* "where canoes are l e f t " (3)  Reference(sy 3  Comments ** Together with sutkelta ("winter t r a i l " ) , which was located opposite i t , i t may have been a a s i n g l e v i l l a g e , or just a camp (3).  87. Ixwcnk (3)  not known  3  This may not have been a v i l l a g e (3).  88. Nusqapts (3)  "place of many spring salmon" (3)  3 3  Occupied at the time of Mackenzie was a very large town (3).  89. Axati  "occupied mound" (3) or "mound (11)  3,11  A small town ( 3 ) .  90. Nucq^alst  "many spawning sockeye  3,11  Occupied during Mackenzie's time ( 3 ) .  (3). I t  i  salmon" (3) 91. U'tsea (4)  not known  4  92. Name not known  not known  4  93. Nu/ll  "canyon" (3,11)  94. Us usqVp  "no trees" (4) or  ?  3,4,7,11  O I  This was a large v i l l a g e occupied a t the time of Mackenzie(3). Mcllwraith (1922-24) does not give a name for t h i s v i l l a g e , but the l o c a t i o n i s the same. I t was s t i l l occupied in the l a t e 19th century ( 7 ) .  4,11  "bare place (11) 95. AnutL'l'x (4)  not known  96. Txa&sik  "behind the v i l l a g e " (11) 11  97. SotsL (6) 98. Sack  not known not known  w  4  6 3,4,6,11  Occupied during Mackenzie's time (3).  A large and important v i l l a g e , occupied at the time of Mackenzie (3), and s t i l l occupied i n the l a t e 19th century(7).  Village* 99. N u d i s t 100. QalLcik 101. Snuwapata'x  Meaning** not known not known "closed at the mouth of the r i v e r "  Reference(s)** 3,4,11  Comments** Occupied at the time of Mackenzie (3).  4 11  * A l l spellings of v i l l a g e s are from Kennedy and Bouchard (1976) unless otherwise i n d i c a t e d . ** Numbers refer to references below. 3. Mcllwraith, T.F. (1948); 4. Mcllwraith, T.F. (1922-24); 5. Smith, Harlan I. (1920-24); 6. Boas, Franz (1898); 7. Boas, Franz (1891); 8. Tolmie, William F. (1963); 9. Palmer, H.S. (1963); 10. Mackenzie, A. (1962); 11.Kennedy, Dorothy and R. Bouchard (1976); 12. W i l l i e Hans, Nuxalk elder, personal communication; 13. Schoolcraft (1855)  Figure  3.  L o c a t i o n s o f Known N u x a l k C o m p i l e d by a u t h o r .  Villages  a n d Camps  -53-  Figure  4. L o c a t i o n s o f Known N u x a l k Lower B e l l a C o o l a V a l l e y C o m p i l e d by  author.  V i l l a g e s and Camps  in  the  -54-  v i l l a g e s that were then o c c u p i e d , as they were not reconstruction.  attempting  T h i s becomes more of a problem with the  ethnographers ( M c l l w r a i t h ,  later  Smith, Kennedy and Bouchard, B o a s ) , but  M c l l w r a i t h ' s attempts at showing the temporal r e l a t i o n s h i p s of settlements are of some help ( M c l l w r a i t h The v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n maps i l l u s t r a t e v i l l a g e s throughout the Nuxalk t e r r i t o r y .  1948:6-17). v a r i a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n s of Although v i l l a g e s were  s c a t t e r e d through the outer c h a n n e l s , the heads of the channels (Kwatna, Kimsquit and the head of South Bentinck Arm) were much more densely populated than the channel arms.  In the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y ,  villages  were densely d i s t r i b u t e d along i t s e n t i r e l e n g t h ; the v a l l e y ' s mouth, however, was much more h e a v i l y populated, i n d i c a t i n g that i t p r e f e r r e d area f o r settlement w i t h i n  was the  the v a l l e y .  Contact Between V i l l a g e s The r e l a t i o n s h i p between Nuxalk v i l l a g e s i s not w e l l documented. That i n h a b i t a n t s w i t h i n a v a l l e y share a common c o l l e c t i v e name suggests that they are more connected to one another than to the Nuxalk l i v i n g other a r e a s .  Mcllwraith  (1948:17) s t a t e d that "they had common i n t e r e s t s  that threw them i n t o contact with one a n o t h e r " . intervillage  trade,  in  intermarriage,  Presumably, he meant  and o c c a s i o n a l l y a i d i n r a i d s .  That  such a r e l a t i o n s h i p d i d e x i s t i s i l l u s t r a t e d by a recorded instance when the salmon weir at the v i l l a g e of Nuj.irx'"  survived a f l o o d that those of  other surrounding v i l l a g e s did not (see Table I,  comment n o . 8 ) .  During  t h i s time of p o t e n t i a l c r i s i s , members of other v i l l a g e s were able to share the resources of t h i s v i l l a g e . on one another  (Mcllwraith  1922-24).  The Nuxalk r a r e l y engaged i n r a i d s  - 5 5T r a v e l between v i l l a g e s would have been easy.  Water t r a v e l was  presumably the p r e f e r r e d mode of t r a v e l and would only have presented a problem when the water was e x c e p t i o n a l l y t u r b u l e n t . approximately 2 1/2 hours to t r a v e l (cf.  Mackenzie 1962:218), and  Normally, i t  took  e i g h t m i l e s downstream i n a canoe  about 6 1/2  upstream ( W i l l i e Hans, Nuxalk e l d e r ,  hours to make the same t r i p  personal communication).  With  v i l l a g e s being on an average d i s t a n c e of one to two miles apart  (Hawthorn  1949-1955), access to the neighbouring v i l l a g e would have been easy.  P h y s i c a l Nature of the  Village  Much information can be put together of the Nuxalk v i l l a g e .  Mcllwraith  concerning the p h y s i c a l nature  (1948:17) records that the v i l l a g e was  comprised of anywhere from two to t h i r t y longhouses b u i l t the banks of the r i v e r  or ocean.  i n rows along  A l l other e a r l y ethnographers,  do not record even the l a r g e s t v i l l a g e s as having more than  thirteen  Mackenzie f o r v i l l a g e of N u c q a l s t ) .  These houses termed s u i t l * (Smith  however,  the  1920-24),  v a r i e d i n s i z e , measuring about 100-120 f e e t i n length by 40 f e e t width (Mackenzie  1962:222-223; Smith 1920-24 records them as being only  50 f e e t by 40 f e e t ) .  Houses of poorer minmints were g e n e r a l l y  measuring approximatley  20 f e e t by 25 f e e t (Smith 1920-24).  the v i l l a g e s had some or a l l of the houses b u i l t to 25 f e e t from the ground ( i b i d . : 2 3 0 ) . and to o f f e r  in  on s t i l t s ,  T h i s was to prevent  smaller,  S e v e r a l of sometimes up flooding,  support a g a i n s t s a t t a c k s from neighbouring groups (Smith  1920-24; M c l l w r a i t h  1948:17).  Inside  the houses there was e i t h e r  a  * T h i s s p e l l i n g of t h i s term and a l l others from Smith 1920-1924 are taken d i r e c t l y from the o r i g i n a l f i e l d n o t e s . No attempt has been made to change them i n t o modern orthography.  -56c e n t r a l f i r e place with a smoke hole i n the roof ( M c l l w r a i t h 1948:142; F e l i c i t y Walkus, Nuxalk e l d e r ,  personal communication), or a s e r i e s of  three to f i v e hearths which l i n e d the center of the b u i l d i n g . fire,  Around the  along both s i d e s of the house and across the back were four  to  e i g h t s i d e w a l l p a r t i t i o n s which formed the bedrooms and storage space of each family  (Smith 1920-24).  Mackenzie (1962:223) d e s c r i b e d the  arrangement i n t h i s manner: "The whole l e n g t h of the b u i l d i n g on e i t h e r s i d e i s d i v i d e d by cedar planks i n t o p a r t i t i o n s of apartments of seven f e e t square, i n the f r o n t of which are boards about three f e e t w i d e . . . . " The f l o o r i n these smaller p a r t i t i o n s could a l s o be moved i n p a r t s order that small f i r e s could be b u i l t ( M c l l w r a i t h 1948:142). " c h i e f " and family  f o r cooking f o r the  family  The back of the longhouse was occupied by the  (Mackenzie 1962:214); a small room was a l s o l o c a t e d  along the back which held dance paraphenalia (Smith 1920-24). running across the c e i l i n g were used f o r storage and d r y i n g 1962:233).  (Mackenzie  At one end of the s t r u c t u r e was a l a r g e door, which opened out  to a wooden sidewalk extending from one end of the settlement ( M c l l w r a i t h 1948:17).  painted, 1863:6). built  Beams  The roofs of the longhouses were s l o p i n g ( M c l l w r a i t h  1948:17).  other  in  to  the  The o u t s i d e of the houses were sometimes  " e s p e c i a l l y those of the c h i e f s and medicine men" (Palmer I n t e r i o r storm houses (oopuata,  Smith 1920-24) were sometimes  i n the center of the house f o r p r o t e c t i o n against snow storms.  Multi-level  houses c a l l e d alnucha (Smith 1920-24), which were s i m i l a r  to  these s t r u c t u r e s may have a l s o been present at some s e t t l e m e n t s . In a d d i t i o n to the longhouses ( c a l l e d smokehouses by the elders today), (see Table I I ) .  s e v e r a l other s t r u c t u r e s made up the v i l l a g e Mackenzie noted "a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of  Nuxalk settlement  other  b u i l d i n g s or sheds which are used as k i t c h e n s and places for c u r i n g t h e i r j-csh.  -57(Mackenzie  1962:222).  tchaltwhantl  t  L i g h t framed temporary houses were termed  while those s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r d r y i n g salmon were c a l l e d  anewspanyesta (Smith 1920-24).  Mackenzie d e s c r i b e s one of  these  s t r u c t u r e s at the v i l l a g e of Nuxlxw i n d e t a i l as f o l l o w s : " l a r g e b u i l d i n g i n the middle of the v i l l a g e , which at f i r s t I took f o r the h a l f f i n i s h e d frame of a house. The ground p l o t of i t was 50 f e e t by 45 f e e t , each end i s framed by four stout p o s t s , f i x e d p e r p e n d i c u l a r l y i n the ground. The corner ones are p l a i n , and support a beam of the whole l e n g t h , having three intermediary props on each s i d e , but of a l a r g e r s i z e , and eight or nine f e e t i n height. In the area of the b u i l d i n g there were the remains of several f i r e s " ( i b i d . : 2 2 4 ) . Mackenzie v i s i t e d the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y i n J u l y , the height of s u b s i s t e n c e procurement season.  the  The s t r u c t u r e described above may have  functioned f o r a shared subsistence a c t i v i t y  by the v i l l a g e members, or  as a temporary work area set up f o r the neighboring v i l l a g e r s who came to t h i s v i l l a g e as a r e s u l t of the f l o o d . Another h a b i t a t i o n  s t r u c t u r e that was used i n the past i s the  or underground house (Bouchard 1971-1977; M c l l w r a i t h 1920-24). territory  1922-24; Smith  T s i ' p a were supposed to be very common around the  Nuxalk  (Bouchard 1971-1977); they have been recorded at the extreme  eastern end of the Atnarko R i v e r , near Assannay Creek  (Mcllwraith  1922-24), on the west s i d e of Thorsen Creek, at Stewie, 1920-24), at  the present v i l l a g e  site  (Felicity  Newskultz  Walkus, Nuxalk  personal communication; Smith 1920-24), and at Kimsquit 1948:341).  tsi'pa,*  (Smith  elder,  (Mcllwraith  L i t t l e i s known about the s t r u c t u r e of these houses,  except  *Randy Bouchard (Native Indian Language P r o j e c t , personal communication) pointed out that the term t s i ' p a comes from the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h word f o r underground s t o r a g e , that i s cipwa. It i s not r e l a t e d to the word f o r pithouse. T h i s may suggest t h e i r use as a storage f a c i l i t y . In f a c t , the Tsimshian people are reported to have used them f o r root storage (Drucker 1950:252).  -58t h a t they had e a r t h - c o v e r e d r o o f s which s l a n t e d towards the ground w i t h a s m a l l p o r t i o n of the s i d e s of the s t r u c t u r e v i s i b l e above g r o u n d . u s u a l l y measured 20 by 15 f e e t i n s i z e .  The doorway to the house was  s i m i l a r t o t h a t of an above ground h o u s e , but i t  a l s o was s e t a few f e e t  below the ground s u r f a c e , w i t h a couple of s t e p s l e a d i n g down to There was a c e n t r a l p i t  f o r the f i r e ,  Tsi'pa  which i s surrounded on a l l  it. s i d e s by  s t a g i n g s , presumably f o r s l e e p i n g and s t o r a g e (Bouchard 1971-1977; Mcllwraith  1948:341; Smith 1920-24).  Little  i s known about the f u n c t i o n of the t s i ' p a .  A consultant  working w i t h Bouchard suggested o n l y r i c h people l i v e d i n the  regular  smoke-houses a l l w i n t e r as they had f u r s t o keep themselves warm (Bouchard 1971-1977; c f . the c o l d e s t months f o r a very l o n g t i m e . visit,  to f i t  sleeping.  Perhaps t s i ' p a were used d u r i n g  These s t r u c t u r e s have not been used f o r  They may have dropped out of use b e f o r e M a c k e n z i e ' s  as he does not  difficult  Smith 1920-24).  record t h e i r  presence.  Without  t s i ' p a i n t o the o v e r a l l s e t t l e m e n t  further  system.  l i s t s the o t h e r s t r u c t u r e s recorded to have been used by the  The V i l l a g e  data, i t Table  is  II  Nuxalk.  Unit  The number of i n h a b i t a n t s at any Nuxalk v i l l a g e can o n l y be estimated.  Anywhere from two to t h r e e t o t e n f a m i l i e s may have l i v e d  a s i n g l e house ( M c l l w r a i t h 1948:142; A l i c e T a l l i o , Nuxalk e l d e r , communication). each of the  Tolmie (1963:306) i n 1835,  in  personal  recorded 25 i n h a b i t a n t s  in  13 houses at the v i l l a g e of Qumquts, g i v i n g a t o t a l  p o p u l a t i o n of 325 f o r t h a t v i l l a g e .  The average household c o m p o s i t i o n at  the time would have been a p p r o x i m a t e l y  14 a d u l t s and 8 c h i l d r e n .  -59TABLE II.  Structure*  HOUSES AND SHELTERS USED BY THE NUXALK (from Smith 1920-1924) Description  suitl  large habitation structures located at the v i l l a g e s , measuring 20-50 f e e t by 15-40 f e e t  oopuanta  i n t e r i o r storm houses b u i l t i n the c e n t e r of s u i t l as p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t w i n t e r snow storms  alnucha  s i m i l a r to s u i t l , except without a f o u n d a t i o n , and sometimes having as many as f o u r l e v e l s  tsipa  a s e m i - s u b t e r r a n e a n house, p o s s i b l y used d u r i n g the c o l d w i n t e r months — •they are approximately 3 f e e t i n t o the g r o u n d , and 20 by 15 f e e t i n s i z e  tcheltwhantl  a temporary l i g h t cedar  newspanyesta  same as above, but used t o smoke salmon  qualsantl  a commonly used s t r u c t u r e which was covered w i t h c o n i f e r boughs— It v a r i e d s i z e from 10 to 15 f e e t l o n g  frame house made of  in  okoxk'antl  a house which was covered by skunk cabbage leaves  skimnamtl  a house which was covered by moose s k i n s . I t was not very common, and was only used when timber was i n s h o r t s u p p l y * *  tapelst  a dry rock s h e l t e r used f o r temporary camps and s h e l t e r s — d r y i n g racks f o r mountain goat meat may have been kept at such l o c a t i o n s  * S p e l l i n g s o f s t r u c t u r e s a r e taken d i r e c t l y from S m i t h ' s o r i g i n a l f i e l d notes. No attempt has been made t o change them i n t o the modern orthography. **Moose e n t e r e d the B e l l a C o o l a a r e a a f t e r the 1 9 4 0 ' s . Another type of s k i n was p r o b a b l y used p r i o r t o t h i s t i m e .  -60-  In  t h e o r y , a s i n g l e v i l l a g e was made up of descendants of the  people",  t h a t i s , the o r i g i n a l Nuxalk s e t t l e r s to come t o the  (Mcllwraith  1948:4).  It  i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the f i r s t  "first  area  people formed a  v i l l a g e community w i t h h u n t i n g grounds i n the v i c i n i t y . T h e s e were preferably  s m a l l v a l l e y s opening up onto the main B e l l a Coola  Each group a l s o possessed "a s u i t a b l e p a r t weir"  (ibid.:18).  prerogatives,  of the  river  valley.  f o r the salmon  An a n c e s t r a l f a m i l y a l s o shared v a r i o u s n o n - m a t e r i a l  such as d a n c e s , names and g e n e r a l l y the s t a t u s of the group  (ibid.:141). Mcllwraith  (1948:20) and Boas (1891) both suggest t h a t i n order  keep p r e r o g a t i v e s w i t h i n  the a n c e s t r a l f a m i l y  endogamy was p r e f e r r e d .  The i d e a l mate t h e n , being from the  f a m i l y of your f a t h e r  or mother  (Mcllwraith  the n o t i o n of a s i n g l e f a m i l y per v i l l a g e . however, a f t e r  studying M c l l w r a i t h ' s  endogamous marriages were i n f a c t more o f t e n used t o "renew [  1948:374), thus  rare.  ancestral perpetuating  Rossman and Rubel (1971:116),  Instead,  such marriages were  ] r e l a t i o n s between households a f t e r In  those  economic terms i t  is  t o c r e a t e a marriage a l l i a n c e w i t h other h o u s e h o l d s , as  an i n d i v i d u a l ' s o p t i o n s are thus broadened.  This i s exemplified in  case of the f l o o d e d v i l l a g e s mentioned e a r l i e r . social tie,  village  f i e l d n o t e s , s t a t e t h a t such  l i n k s had grown weak w i t h t i m e " ( i b i d . : 1 1 7 ) . more p r o f i t a b l e  (or m i n m i n t s ) ,  to  Without  the  some k i n d of  the s u r v i v i n g v i l l a g e would not have been r e q u i r e d to  give  aid. M a r r i a g e w i t h people who themselves were p r o s p e r i n g appears to have been a common means of s e c u r i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g p r e s t i g e among the Nuxalk. greater  Generally, i t  was b e l i e v e d t h a t the more wives a man h a d ,  h i s wealth and fame would be ( M c l l w r a i t h  1948:335).  This,  the  -61however, i s not simply a r e s u l t of the f a c t inherently  p r e s t i g i o u s , but because i t  t h a t polygamous marriages a r e  i s the woman's f a m i l y who a i d s a  husband i n accumulating wealth t o p o t l a t c h and f e a s t . a m a r r i a g e , a man has a c c e s s t o a l l (ibid.:393). wife's  If  Futhermore,  the b e l o n g i n g s of h i s w i f e ' s  after  family  the husband ever f e e l s t h a t he has o v e r - i n d e b t e d h i s  f a m i l y a " c e r e m o n i a l m a r r i a g e " i s arranged between a young g i r l  h i s f a m i l y t o a f i c t i t i o u s husband from the w i f e ' s the w i f e ' s  family w i l l  t i e s with t h i s f a m i l y .  (1948:425), " c e r e m o n i a l marriages  methods used by the B e l l a C o o l a t o e n t e r influential  In  r e c e i v e g i f t s from the m a r r i a g e , w h i l e  husband's f a m i l y w i l l have renewed i t s to Mcllwraith  group.  [are]  t h i s way the According  one of the many  i n t o f i n a n c i a l d e a l i n g s w i t h an  chief".  The c r e a t i o n of marriage a l l i a n c e s w i t h p r o s p e r i n g v i l l a g e s t o a c c e s s t o a broadened economic base i s a l s o documented i n mythology.  in  gain  Nuxalk  A c c o r d i n g to the o r i g i n myth of the v i l l a g e of S t w i x ,  when  the v i l l a g e was p r o s p e r i n g as a r e s u l t of an abundance of salmon, "people came from f a r and near t o pledge t h e i r (Mcllwraith Snutli,  it  1948:311).  Similarly,  daughters to the f i s h e r m e n "  i n the o r i g i n myth of the v i l l a g e  of  i s w r i t t e n t h a t people were a b l e to move to Stwix because "a  number of t h e i r  daughters had m a r r i e d  [their] chiefs" (ibid.:313).  Rossman and Rubel a l s o d i s a g r e e w i t h M c l l w r a i t h as t o the v i l l a g e as a s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p . v i l l a g e t h a t i s the most important  Mcllwraith  states that i t  p o l i t i c a l unit  (ibid.:141).  r o l e of is  the  the Rossman  and Rubel (1971:110), however, suggest t h a t "the household i s the most significant unit potlatching".  of s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o p e r a t i v e i n economic a s s i s t a n c e and  They c l a i m t h a t the v i l l a g e ,  on the other hand, " i s  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s i n g u l a r absence of group s o l i d a r i t y "  (ibid.:110).  P r o b a b l y , the t r u t h l i e s somewhere i n the m i d d l e . f u n c t i o n s as an economic u n i t  That a v i l l a g e  i s e v i d e n t from the f a c t t h a t i t  h u n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g grounds.  shares  Ceremonies shared by the v i l l a g e  unit  a l s o served t o bond the members of the group ( S t o t t  1975:7).  v i l l a g e as a whole may not be the p o t l a t c h i n g u n i t ,  t h e r e was most  certainly  Although a  s o c i a l and economic c o o p e r a t i o n between h o u s e s .  Nuclear f a m i l y u n i t s were of l i t t l e  s o c i a l or economic importance  among the Nuxalk.  W i t h i n a household a n u c l e a r f a m i l y may have cooked  i t s meals or done  other domestic c h o r e s , such as g a t h e r i n g food or  f i r e w o o d , s e p a r a t e l y from the Ultimately,  remaining f a m i l i e s  (Mcllwraith  1948:147).  however, t h e r e would have been few d i s t i n c t i o n s .  As  other  members of the household are those w i t h whom the f a m i l y would p o t l a t c h and f e a s t ,  t h e r e would have been much s h a r i n g of t a s k s and r e s o u r c e s .  As mentioned e a r l i e r , resources.  the minmints h e l d a c c e s s t o a l l  strategic  Hunting and c o l l e c t i n g g r o u n d s , termed s o l ' l o a m or s l x s n l m s t a  ("food s u p p l y " ; M c l l w r a i t h  1948:131). were claimed by the " F i r s t P e o p l e "  i n the v i c i n i t y of the v i l l a g e they s e t t l e d .  R i g h t s of a c c e s s t o  p l o t s were by membership, or a s s o c i a t i o n through marriage t o minmints.  the  These p l o t s would not have been p r a c t i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t ,  were t h e r e f o r e to m a i n t a i n ,  seldom u s e d .  these  R i g h t s t o such l a n d h o l d i n g s were  but may have become an i s s u e of p r i d e ( i b i d . : 1 3 2 ) ,  and  difficult since  it  i s b e l i e v e d among the Nuxalk t h a t "a person who l a c k s h u n t i n g grounds i s l i t t l e better  than a s l a v e , whereas one who has much l a n d i s  important"  (ibid.:132). In a d d i t i o n t o s o l ' l o a m , f i s h i n g s i t e s were a l s o owned by the ancestral family.  These l o c a t i o n s i n c l u d e d s t r e t c h e s of the  river  for  salmon w e i r s and o o l i g a n n e t s , as w e l l as rocks from which f i s h c o u l d be  -63caught w i t h scoopnets ( i b i d . : 1 3 5 ) .  U n l i k e the l a n d h o l d i n g s , the number  of people u s i n g these l o c a t i o n s was l i m i t e d , t r a p s c o u l d be p l a c e d a l o n g the w e i r .  as o n l y a c e r t a i n number of  Because they were l i m i t e d  in  number, t h e s e s e c t i o n s , as w e l l as the o o l i g a n net l o c a t i o n s , were operated by c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the minmints  (ibid.:136).  Resource Ownership and Rank Rank among the N u x a l k ,  as w i t h most Northwest Coast g r o u p s , was  expressed by the use of food and wealth r e s o u r c e s , which i n t u r n were d i s t r i b u t e d among the p o p u l a t i o n as an a f f i r m a t i o n  of s t a t u s .  Mcllwraith  (1948:141) i n h i s p u b l i s h e d works s t a t e s t h a t , u n l i k e most other groups,  rank among the Nuxalk was not s t r i c t l y  i n each v i l l a g e c o u l d be of equal w e a l t h ,  and t h e r e f o r e  In such cases t h e r e was no dominant f i g u r e . however, M c l l w r a i t h  writes  ( M c l l w r a i t h 1922-24; c f . was no f i x e d  extensively  c o n t i n u a l l y met at paid deference.  about the t y i  or h e r e d i t a r y  the " c h i e f l y " or t y i  down t o the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y  Unfortunately,  their  Although  there  p o s i t i o n would In  fact,  when  i n 1793 he  the use of the term " c h i e f " i n the  actual  makes i t  r o l e i n the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m .  were a l s o a p a r t of the Nuxalk s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y .  Both poor people and t y i  l i v e d together  early  difficult Slaves  They may have made up  as much as 30-40% of the t o t a l Nuxalk p o p u l a t i o n ( M c l l w r a i t h  1922-24).  chief  each v i l l a g e a s i n g l e man of wealth to whom people  accounts and ethnographies f o r anyone who i s w e a l t h y , to i n t e r p r e t  status.  In h i s u n p u b l i s h e d n o t e s ,  t o a very s m a l l number i n each v i l l a g e .  Mackenzie (1962) t r a v e l l e d  S e v e r a l men  of equal  Rossman and Rubel 1971:114-115).  r u l e of p r i m o g e n i t u r e ,  have been l i m i t e d  hereditary.  coastal  1948:58).  i n the same household ( M c l l w r a i t h  -64It  i s not w e l l understood what c o n n e c t i o n c h i e f s (or  the p r o d u c t i o n of were  resources.  Mcllwraith  had w i t h  (1948:16) s t a t e s t h a t c h i e f s  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a c q u i r i n g ^ t h e i r own f o o d s .  a chief trawling  tyi)  Mackenzie r e p o r t s s e e i n g  f o r salmon w i t h a crew of men (Mackenzie  1962:248).  S l a v e ownership would mean d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n was not n e c e s s a r y . fact,  c h i e f s were known t o t r a d e  1920-24). chief's  In  s l a v e s t o commoners f o r salmon (Smith  Mackenzie (1962:222) noted t h a t ,  " b e f o r e the door of  the  r e s i d e n c e , [were] f o u r heaps of salmon, each of which c o n s i s t e d  of between t h r e e and f o u r hundred f i s h . c l e a n i n g and p r e p a r i n g t h e m . "  S i x t e e n women were employed i n  He goes on to s a y :  I t i s on t h i s r i v e r a l o n e t h a t one man appears t o have an e x c l u s i v e and h e r e d i t a r y r i g h t to what was n e c e s s a r y to the e x i s t e n c e of those associated with him. I a l l u d e to the salmon w e i r , or f i s h i n g p l a c e , the s o l e r i g h t t o which c o n f e r s on the c h i e f the a r b i t r a r y power. Those embankments c o u l d not have been formed without very g r e a t and a s s o c i a t e d l a b o r ; and as might be supposed, on the c o n d i t i o n t h a t those who a s s i s t e d i n c o n s t r u c t i n g i t s h o u l d enjoy a p a r t i c i p a t i n g r i g h t i n the advantages t o be d e r i v e d from i t . Never the l e s s , i t e v i d e n t l y appeared t o me, t h a t the c h i e f ' s power over i t and the p e o p l e , was u n l i m i t e d and without c o n t r o l . No one c o u l d f i s h without h i s p e r m i s s i o n , or c a r r y home a l a r g e r p o r t i o n of what he had c a u g h t , than was s e t a p a r t f o r h i m . No one c o u l d b u i l d a house without h i s c o n s e n t ; a l l h i s commands appeared t o be f o l l o w e d w i t h i m p l i c i t obedience. The people at l a r g e seemed t o be on a p e r f e c t equality (Mackenzie 1962:259-260). T h i s suggests e x t e n s i v e c o n t r o l by the c h i e f over the p r o d u c t i o n of r e s o u r c e s , and s i m i l a r l y , g r e a t e r  a c c e s s t o t h e s e r e s o u r c e s than  the  remainder of the p o p u l a c e . Food and wealth goods c o l l e c t e d by " c h i e f s " were d i s t r i b u t e d among the populace i n a number of ways. attention  i n Northwest Coast l i t e r a t u r e ,  role in t h i s function. were  P o t l a t c h e s , which r e c e i v e so much  Among the Nuxalk,  p r o b a b l y o n l y p l a y e d a minor p o t l a t c h e s were uncommon, and  r e s t r i c t e d t o a s i n g l e month of the year ( M c l l w r a i t h  1948:1830).  However, when they d i d o c c u r , they were seen as "one of the ways i n which  -65a c h i e f h e l p s poor people of h i s v i l l a g e "  (ibid:195).  More common were a s e r i e s of f e a s t s which occured i n the e a r l y or s p r i n g .  During t h a t time c h i e f s made t r i p s t o n e i g h b o u r i n g g r o u p s ,  e s p e c i a l l y the B e l l a B e l l a , t o b r i n g them food and t o return.  receive presents  Any p r e s t i g e t h a t was brought t o the c h i e f through t h i s  of wealth was presumably shared by members of the h o u s e h o l d . therefore  be i n the i n t e r e s t  in  display  It  would  of the l i n e a g e members to a i d the c h i e f  a c q u i s i t i o n of s u r p l u s e s so t h a t the household as a whole c o u l d their  fall  in  elevate  s o c i a l standing.  Finally,  t h e r e were a s e r i e s of dances and f e a s t s t h a t o c c u r r e d  throughout the year except d u r i n g the h e i g h t of the salmon season ( M c l l w r a i t h 1948:288).  Little  i s known about these e v e n t s ; they were  p r o b a b l y l e s s s p e c t a c u l a r than the p o t l a t c h and o t h e r recorded by e t h n o g r a p h e r s .  Food was d i s t r i b u t e d at  special feasts  these  gatherings,  p r o b a b l y by the c h i e f s or o t h e r wealthy members of the h o u s e h o l d , t o commoners.  These events p r o b a b l y were an important  redistributing  mechanism f o r  food c o l l e c t e d by the c h i e f s .  In a d d i t i o n t o these l a r g e p u b l i c d i s p l a y s i n v o l v i n g c h i e f s , s h a r i n g of food and produce between commoners occured on a d a i l y b a s i s . F i s h e r m e n , f o r i n s t a n c e , who had r i g h t s t o c e r t a i n l o c a t i o n s , were o b l i g a t e d to share t h e i r  c a t c h w i t h whomever a s k e d .  net was being p u l l e d out of the  river,  a passerby who helped t o c a r r y  net might take a p o r t i o n of the y i e l d . B e l l a Coola today.  If  were d i s t r i b u t e d  This practice s t i l l  r e c e i v e grease i n  to  return  When a l a r g e number of s t e e l h e a d were c a u g h t ,  to many f a m i l i e s  the  occurs i n  someone wants o o l i g a n grease they need o n l y  "help as much as they c a n " and they w i l l (Hawthorn 1949-1955).  S i m i l a r l y , when a  ( W i l l i e Hans, Nuxalk e l d e r ,  they  personal  -66communication; Hawthorn  1949-1955).  i n the past i n a s i m i l a r way. or other feast  If  Hunted r e s o u r c e s , t o o , were shared hunters caught s e v e r a l mountain  l a r g e game, they were expected t o i n v i t e  ( M c l l w r a i t h 1948:286).  s t a t u s of the p r o v i d e r , among the p o p u l a t i o n .  their  as w e l l as more evenly d i s t r i b u t e  Patterns  system can be d e s c r i b e d .  the g e n e r a l nature  The main Nuxalk  Most v i l l a g e s were s i t u a t e d near the  river  e x c u r s i o n s were made from the main v i l l a g e readily  l o c a t e d at  accessible.  different  resource e x t r a c t i o n  minmints t e r r i t o r y f o r such t r i p s camps were u t i l i z e d they were needed.  that  e x c u r s i o n s was accomplished both at villages  (Margaret S i w a l l a c e ,  Although temporary settlement 54,  55,  60,  resources that  camps would have been  and p r o c e s s i n g s i t e s w i t h i n each  required over-night  stays. and/or  these s m a l l e r  Nuxalk e l d e r ,  s i t e s , and at  personal  r o l e i n the  of known campsites i n the Nuxalk  Where these s i t e s were l o c a t e d , or i f of the  as  main  Nuxalk nos.  territory).  they were used at a l l ,  r e s o u r c e and i t s  the  communication).  system, very l i t t l e i s known about them (see T a b l e I,  depended on the nature  These  r e s o u r c e s c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g such  camps p l a y e d a c r i t i c a l  62 f o r a l i s t  inlets  Small  as r e s o u r c e s became s e a s o n a l l y a v a i l a b l e P r o c e s s i n g of the  the  villages  or i n the  t o o b t a i n other  Small temporary  of  permanent  i n o r d e r to f a c i l i t a t e a c c e s s to v a r i o u s f i s h r e s o u r c e s .  were not  the  community.  f u n c t i o n e d both as resource p r o c e s s i n g s i t e s as w e l l as settlements.  resources  and Resource Use  Although t h e r e are many gaps i n the d a t a , Nuxalk s e t t l e m e n t  the  the  r e c i p r o c a l exchange was probably  most s i g n i f i c a n t method whereby food was shared i n the  Settlement  neighbours t o a  Such a c t s served both t o i n c r e a s e  T h i s form of  goats,  must have  d i s t a n c e from the  main  7,  -67settlement.  If  a r e s o u r c e was l o c a t e d very c l o s e t o the v i l l a g e ,  the case f o r many of the p l a n t collect i t , important  r e s o u r c e s , d a i l y t r i p s c o u l d be made to  without wasting too much e f f o r t  to  in travel  each d a y .  rough and d e n s e l y f o r e s t e d t e r r a i n Ultimately,  been l i m i t e d  of the Nuxalk  is  by the ease w i t h which t h a t  concept f o r  territory.  the l e n g t h of s t a y at a r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n  For very heavy or bulky r e s o u r c e s i t  resource could  s i t e may have  be t r a n s p o r t e d .  may have been more e f f i c i e n t  up a temporary camp so t h a t p r o c e s s i n g c o u l d be done p a r t i a l l y site.  It  remember, however, t h a t d i s t a n c e i s most a c c u r a t e l y measured  i n terms o f " t i m e - d i s t a n c e " ; t h i s i s an e s p e c i a l l y important the  as was  In t h i s way, a g r e a t e r  back to the v i l l a g e i n fewer  amount of the  to  at  set  the  r e s o u r c e c o u l d be brought  trips.  Most Nuxalk f i s h i n g r e q u i r e d l i t t l e  t r a v e l i n g from the main v i l l a g e .  The salmon weir and the o o l i g a n l o c a t i o n were w i t h i n easy a c c e s s to those B e l l a Coola v a l l e y settlements  s i t u a t e d a l o n g the main r i v e r .  groups t h a t d i d not own w e i r s may have had t o t r a v e l various dip-netting l o c a t i o n s .  some d i s t a n c e t o  Other f i s h r e s o u r c e s may have a l s o  required longer distance t r a v e l .  In  the e a r l y  1900's t r i p s were made t o  Stewie from the the l o c a t i o n of the p r e s e n t - d a y s e t t l e m e n t steelhead.  It  Once t h e r e ,  two f u l l  elder,  took at  Those  l e a s t one d a y ' s t r a v e l  to  to f i s h  reach the d e s t i n a t i o n .  days would be spent f i s h i n g ( W i l l i e Hans, Nuxalk  p e r s o n a l communication; Hawthorn 1949-1955).  The Nuxalk may have  t r a v e l l e d as f a r as C h a r l o t t e Lake i n the I n t e r i o r t o s e t up t r a p s l a k e bound t r o u t  for  (Lane  for  1953:107).  When the time to c o l l e c t p l a n t t e e n a g e r s was sent t o i n v e s t i g a t e  r e s o u r c e s a p p r o a c h e d , a group of readiness for h a r v e s t i n g .  When the  r e s o u r c e s were l o c a t e d , the group would r e t u r n t o the v i l l a g e to  gather  -68-  people t o c o l l e c t the  resource.  would not go on these t r i p s ; the  the c o m p o s i t i o n of work groups depended on  r e s o u r c e being c o l l e c t e d .  1922-24). of p l a n t  E l d e r l y people and very young c h i l d r e n  No women would go out a l o n e  (Mcllwraith  G e n e r a l l y women were more i n v o l v e d than men i n the r e s o u r c e s , but t h i s was by no means a hard and f a s t  A g a i n , whether  or not people would camp at the  the nature of the  gathering rule.  resource spot depended on  r e s o u r c e s , and the d i s t a n c e to the v i l l a g e .  resource was c o l l e c t e d i t  Once the  was brought back to the v i l l a g e where  e l d e r l y people would p r o c e s s i t  (Margaret S i w a l l a c e , Nuxalk  the  elder,  p e r s o n a l communication). E x c u r s i o n s l a s t i n g l o n g e r than a s i n g l e day were most c e r t a i n l y made to procure the m a j o r i t y  of animal r e s o u r c e s .  Access to s u i t a b l e  hunting  s p o t s f o r mountain g o a t s , which were found at h i g h e l e v a t i o n s , sometimes r e q u i r e d a walk of t h r e e or more d a y s . participate  i n such an e x p e d i t i o n ( W i l l i e Hans, Nuxalk e l d e r ,  communication). final  O v e r n i g h t camps would be made a l o n g the way.  d e s t i n a t i o n was reached a s t r u c t u r e was b u i l t  a g a i n s t the r a i n c o n s i s t i n g of a f l a t against a tree. would be u s e d .  Each y e a r , i f  they  an animal had been k i l l e d i t  easily  for  personal Once the  protection  roof of cedar boughs supported  returned t o t h a t s p o t , f r e s h boughs  H i d e s , sewn t o g e t h e r and s t r e t c h e d f l a t over s e v e r a l  s t i c k s were a l s o used as p r o t e c t i o n  fire;  Approximately t h r e e men would  (ibid.;  was p a r t i a l l y  see n o s . 7 , 9 ,  Table I ) .  Once  d r i e d on a rack over a l a r g e  i n t h i s way the meat c o u l d be c a r r i e d down t o the v i l l a g e more (ibid.).  Approximately f o u r days would be spent a t a s i n g l e h u n t i n g l o c a t i o n at any one t i m e .  Once the meat was p a r t i a l l y  to the v i l l a g e where the meat c o u l d be f u r t h e r  d r i e d the crew would processed.  h u n t i n g f o r o t h e r a n i m a l s c o n t i n u e d on the t r i p home.  return  T r a p p i n g and  Once at  the  village,  the hunters would r e s t f o r f o u r days b e f o r e heading out a g a i n  (ibid.)-  During the h e i g h t of the h u n t i n g season ( e a r l y f a l l )  the  v i l l a g e served as a home base f o r the h u n t e r s . Hunting t r i p s which r e q u i r e d t r a v e l i n g  greater  d i s t a n c e s from the  v i l l a g e were p r o b a b l y not very common, but d i d o c c a s i o n a l l y o c c u r . Nuxalk a r e  r e p o r t e d to have travelled as fat" as Kleena Kleena v a l l e y  the head of Knight I n l e t t o hunt beaver interior  The  (Lane 1953:108), and t o  uplands t o hunt waterfowl on the l a k e s t h e r e  at  the  ( M c l l w r a i t h 1948:3).  Long d i s t a n c e e x c u r s i o n s a l s o occured f o r s p e c i a l n o n - s u b s i s t e n c e resources.  O b s i d i a n , f o r i n s t a n c e , was o b t a i n e d by the Nuxalk  Anahim Peak i n the I n t e r i o r .  from  A c c o r d i n g to two Nuxalk e l d e r s , s i n c e the  peak belonged t o the A l g a t c h o C a r r i e r s , the Nuxalk may sometimes have had to sneak up t o the peak at n i g h t t o o b t a i n the stone ( C l a y t o n Mack, Willie  Hans, Nuxalk e l d e r s , p e r s o n a l communications).  depended on the s t a t e of c u r r e n t o c c a s i o n s p e r m i s s i o n was f i r s t  Apparently  r e l a t i o n s w i t h the A l g a t c h o .  it  On o t h e r  obtained.  One a d d i t i o n a l comment s h o u l d be made c o n c e r n i n g the use of resource e x t r a c t i o n s i t e s by the Nuxalk. determine w i t h such a s m a l l sample, i t  Although i t  temporary  is difficult  to  seems t h a t the Nuxalk who l i v e d  o u t s i d e the B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y may have had a more mobile s e a s o n a l round than the B e l l a Coola V a l l e y Nuxalk.  That i s , t h e r e a r e t h r e e  i n s t a n c e s i n the d a t a ( v i l l a g e s n o s . 60,  62, 55, T a b l e I)  recorded  of people  o c c u p y i n g a temporary camp d u r i n g the salmon s e a s o n , and moving t o a more permanent s e t t l e m e n t  i n the w i n t e r months.  o u t s i d e the B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y . a r e a may some day c l a r i f y  this  A l l of these i n s t a n c e s occur  Archaeological investigations in point.  the  -70-  Resoutrees Received Through Trade S e v e r a l r e s o u r c e s were not p r o c u r e d d i r e c t l y  by the Nuxalk,  a c q u i r e d through t r a d e w i t h n e i g h b o u r i n g g r o u p s . exchange were not w e l l documented. explicit  Patterns  of  but were  Nuxalk  References a r e s p a r s e , and most  r e f e r e n c e s a r e from the l i t e r a t u r e of the I n t e r i o r  people.  P u b l i s h e d s o u r c e s do suggest t h a t t r a d e between the Nuxalk and s u r r o u n d i n g groups t o the e a s t and west was an important p a r t of the Nuxalk s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s y s t e m .  and e s t a b l i s h e d  Trade between the Nuxalk and  the n o r t h e r n p e o p l e s , however, was v e r y r a r e .  In  fact,  mountain sheep  spoons are the o n l y item recorded i n the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t was t r a d e d a n o r t h e r n group to the Nuxalk  (Smith  from  1920-24).  Trade between the Nuxalk and n e i g h b o r i n g groups prospered i n because of the g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n of the Nuxalk,  of whom i t  part  was  said,:  "They, by reason of t h e i r p o s i t o n , have h e l d the most important n a t u r a l pass and t r a d e route through the Coast Range, from the ocean t o the I n t e r i o r , which e x i s t s between the Skeena R i v e r and the F r a s e r , a d i s t a n c e exceeding 400 m i l e s . . . I t has induced them to engage i n i n t e r t r i b a l t r a d e " ( W i l s o n , i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Boas 1891:407). When the f u r  t r a d e began on the c o a s t the C h i l c o t i n were f o r c e d t o  trade  through the Nuxalk because the Nuxalk p r o h i b i t e d passage t o the c o a s t (Palmer  1863:19).  Although the mountains s e p a r a t i n g the i n t e r i o r v a l l e y were f o r m i d a b l e , Several t r a i l s  they were f r e q u e n t l y  and the B e l l a C o o l a  t r a v e r s e d by n a t i v e  connected the two r e g i o n s , but one route i n  particular  seems t o have been most h e a v i l y u s e d . T h i s path went through the Coola V a l l e y ,  people.  Bella  "thence northward t o Salmon R i v e r , and then a l o n g the  s i d e of Blackwater R i v e r t o the Upper F r a s e r " . the I n t e r i o r c a l l e d t h i s the  "grease t r a i l "  r e c e i v e d from the c o a s t was o o l i g a n o i l  north  The C h i l c o t i n I n d i a n s  of  because the most v a l u e d item  (ibid.:162).  -71-  The C h i l c o t i n were not the o n l y group to use the grease prehistorically.  It  was "not uncommon f o r them [the  [from] as f a r as the Peace R i v e r c o u n t r y "  trail  I n d i a n s ] t o come  (Smith 1924:49).  It  is  never  mentioned i n the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t the Nuxalk used t h i s t r a i l t o t r a d e . fact,  w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of t r i p s made t o the B e l l a B e l l a  region,  exchange i n v o l v i n g the Nuxalk seemed to have most f r e q u e n t l y w i t h i n the B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y It  east-west  system between  r e a l or f i c t i v e  through k i n s h i p or m a r r i a g e . " of the i n t e r i o r  tribes  k i n . . . t h a t c o u l d be  Among the T l i n g i t  (cf.  the c o a s t a l p e o p l e s , however,  It  the minmints.  i s much l e s s w e l l u n d e r s t o o d .  as they had the a i d of s l a v e s and o t h e r  This i s evident  took accumulate  commoners w i t h i n  i n V a n c o u v e r ' s accounts of the  where the presence of a c h i e f was noted d u r i n g each t r a d i n g  Nuxalk  venture  1967:279,281).  The time of the year when t r a d i n g  o c c u r r e d i s not w e l l documented.  S e v e r a l e t h n o g r a p h i e s s t a t e t h a t such v i s i t s o c c u r r e d a t year  peoples  of the exchange between the Nuxalk and  was the wealthy among the Nuxalk who were a b l e to  goods f o r t r a d e ,  (Vancouver  trade  A similar  Nuxalk c h i e f s seemed t o c o n t r o l much of the exchange t h a t place.  least  once a  (eg. F a r r a n d 1899:645; Smith 1924b:49), but the season i s not  clear.  It  of  "men o f t e n m a r r i e d women  f o r the s o l e purpose of s e c u r i n g g r e a t e r  The nature  the  linked  seems t o have e x i s t e d f o r the Nuxalk and the I n t e r i o r  Lepofsky 1982).  in  s t r u c t u r e d as a k i n d  advantages" (Olson 1916:219, quoted i n Lane 1953:115). situation  involved  M c C l e l l a n (1981:388) suggests t h a t much of  t r a d e i n B r i t i s h Columbia "was a c t u a l l y  reciprocity  occured  itself.  i s not c l e a r from the e t h n o g r a p h i e s who was a c t u a l l y  these t r a d i n g v e n t u r e s .  In  seems t h a t t r a d i n g most o f t e n took p l a c e at  Nuxalk h a r v e s t of the salmon and o o l i g a n .  Indeed,  the h e i g h t  exactly of  the  these would have been  -72-  very important  items of t r a d e .  For I n t e r i o r p e o p l e , the time of  o o l i g a n run i n s p r i n g would have been p r o f i t a b l e f o o d s u p p l i e s were g r e a t l y  for trade,  reduced a f t e r a l o n g w i n t e r .  t o the Nuxalk have a l s o been recorded d u r i n g the f a l l , (Smith 1920-24; Mackenzie I  the  since  Trading  their parties  w i n t e r and summer  1962:237-238).  have compiled from the a v a i l a b l e  literature a l i s t  of almost  50  commodities which moved back and f o r t h i n the Nuxalk exchange system (see Table III).  Although the l i s t  i s by no means c o m p l e t e ,  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the nature majority  of goods moved can be made.  of items p a s s i n g from the Nuxalk eastwards were  s u b s i s t e n c e goods.  In f a c t ,  The  typically  d r i e d salmon i s most o f t e n mentioned i n  l i t e r a t u r e as an item t r a d e d to the I n t e r i o r . from the I n t e r i o r were l a r g e l y n o n - f o o d s . meat a r e e x c e p t i o n s .  several  Goods moved t o the c o a s t  B e r r i e s , b u l b s , and c a r i b o u  S i n c e s a s k a t o o n s , s e v e r a l t y p e s of  blueberries,  s o a p b e r r i e s and l a r g e mammals occur i n the B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y i n  varying  abundance, t r a d e d items may have o n l y been minor supplements to the or o c c a s i o n a l  e x o t i c and s p e c i a l f o o d s .  The remaining i t e m s ,  h i d e s and h i d e p r o d u c t s , a r e most c e r t a i n l y  non-food items.  s e v e r a l of these goods were h i g h l y v a l u e d among the Nuxalk 1948:392).  the  In  diet,  dyes, fact,  (Mcllwraith  Trade between the Nuxalk and other c o a s t a l people appears t o  have been more e v e n l y balanced i n terms of the movement of versus n o n - u t i l i t a r i a n  utilitarian  items.  R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h Other Groups In a d d i t i o n t o t r a d i n g l e v e l s with t h e i r  neighbours.  c o n t a c t w i t h the N u x a l k , valley.  relations,  the Nuxalk i n t e r a c t e d  on other  The C h i l c o t i n and C a r r i e r were o f t e n  particularly  those who o c c u p i e d the upper  D u r i n g the w i n t e r months when s u p p l i e s were low among the  in  TABLE III TRADE ITEMS OF THE NUXALK* (Ft.  Kwakuitl Rupert, Rivers Inlet)  dried seaweed (8) sea canoes (15) highbush cranberries(8) crabapples(8) food boxes, i n l a i d with opercula (15) — boxes of yew wood (15) -  <<<<<<-  Bella Bella  Nuxalk  Carrier +/or Chilcotin  Shuswap  -> -> -> -> -> ->  herring eggs (5,7,14) dried seaweed (8,9,13,14) highbush cranberries (8,9,13) crabapples (8,9) cedar bark (5,7) mussels (10,12) dentalia (2,6,10,15) abalone (6) copper (3,6,7,10) < salmon roe (5,7) dried salmon (3,5,6,7,9,14,15)-salmon (6,14) salmon o i l (15) <-ooligan grease (3,6,9,14) -sorrel (7) <-hemlock cakes (4,5,7,15) -elderberries (15) -highbush cranberries (8,15) — -crabapple (8,15) -yellow lichen (15) -dyed mountain goat wool (15)— red cedar bark (15) dyed alder bark (15) blankets (15) -mineral paints (3,6,15) — boxes and dishes (6)  -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> -> <-> <->  -> ->  -> -> -> -> -> -> ->  i  w i  (Ft.  Kwakuitl Rupert, Rivers Inlet)  B e l l a Bella  Nuxalk <<<<<<<<<<<<-  Carrier +/or Chilcotin blueberries (8,9,13) -saskatoons (6) -soapberries (5,6,7,8,14,15) -avalanche l i l y corms (9) -caribou meat (6,14) -caribou skins (1) —beaver skins (15) — g o a t skins (6) — f u r s (6; contact?) —snowshoes (6) — c a r i b o u sinew (15) —white paint (15) — y e l l o w l i c h e n (15) — o b s i d i a n (3,10,11,15) — s l a v e s , women (1,3)  Shuswap  —> —> —>  >  >  * Numbers i n parentheses refer to references l i s t e d below. Arrow l i n e s indicate the d i r e c t i o n of trade from the source l o c a t i o n . Although there i s not complete data, i t i s assumed here that a l l items stop at a l l groups for which arrow l i n e s pass through. References. 1. Mcllwraith 1948; 2. T e i t 1909b; 3. Lane 1953; 4. Vancouver 1967; 5. Kopas 1970; 6. T e i t 1909a; 7. Mackenzie 1962; 8. Turner 1975; 9. Turner 1978; 10. Ham 1975; 11. Wilmeth 1973; 12. Wilmeth 1978; 13. Turner 1973; 14. These goods are s t i l l traded today; Sarah Saunders, Nuxalk consultant, personal communication; 15. Smith 1920-24.  -75-  I n t e r i o r people i t  was not not uncommon f o r many of them t o move t o  the  B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y t o l i v e w i t h " f r i e n d s " (Lane 1953:113; Goldman 1940:352).  The Nuxalk, however, "seldom ventured f a r  the sea c o a s t or on the lower reaches of the (according to T e i t ,  from t h e i r  homes on  r i v e r s ; and they seem  [1909a:761]), to have a g r e a t d e a l of awe of  entering  the f o r b i d d e n and unknown v a s t n e s s of the m o u n t a i n s " . R e l a t i o n s between the Nuxalk and the I n t e r i o r p e o p l e s were  quite  a m i c a b l e ; they r a r e l y engaged i n r a i d i n g or war w i t h one a n o t h e r . fact,  In  the C h i l c o t i n s were even known t o j o i n the Nuxalk i n support of  Nuxalk r a i d s (Lane 1953:116). formed through i n t e r m a r r i a g e ,  F u r t h e r t i e s between the two groups were e s p e c i a l l y w i t h the upper v a l l e y Nuxalk  (Lane 1953:192; Smith 1920-24).  A c c o r d i n g t o Lane ( 1 9 5 3 : 1 9 2 ) ,  I n t e r i o r people a l s o " s o l d " t h e i r women t o the Nuxalk.  the  The Nuxalk  o c c a s i o n a l l y i n v i t e d I n t e r i o r peoples to t h e i r winter ceremonials (Mcllwraith  1948:18).  R e l a t i o n s w i t h groups to the west and n o r t h were somewhat more strained.  Those Nuxalk groups l i v i n g c l o s e t o o t h e r t r i b e s had  fairly  r e g u l a r i n t e r a c t i o n s i n much the same way as the upper v a l l e y Nuxalk had w i t h the I n t e r i o r p e o p l e .  South B e n t i n c k Arm i n h a b i t a n t s l i v e d  within  w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e of the R i v e r s I n l e t p e o p l e ; c o n s e q u e n t l y the two groups often intermarried Mcllwraith  (Willie  1948:22).  Hans, Nuxalk e l d e r ,  p e r s o n a l communication ;  L i k e w i s e , the K i t l o p e of Gardner Channel had more  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the people of K i m s q u i t , and o f t e n m a r r i e d them (Mcllwraith  1948:17).  The f u r t h e r  away from the Nuxalk  territory,  however, the more s t r a i n e d the r e l a t i o n s seem t o have b e e n . B e l l a o n l y m a i n t a i n e d a tenuous r e l a t i o n w i t h the Nuxalk 1948:171). trade  The B e l l a  (Mcllwraith  T h i s was i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t they were i n v o l v e d i n a  r e l a t i o n w i t h the N u x a l k , and o f t e n m a r r i e d the people of  -76Kimsquit.  R e l a t i o n s w i t h southern groups were m i n i m a l , but  ( S t o t t 1975:107).  Any r e a l t h r e a t of a t t a c k  came from f u r t h e r  the K w a k i u t l and Kingcome I n l e t p e o p l e * , as w e l l as f u r t h e r from the K i t k a t l a 1922-24; Palmer  and the Haida;  amicable  ( M c l l w r a i t h 1948 11:339;  west,  to the  from  north,  Mcllwraith  1863:6).  The t h r e a t of  r a i d s was much more severe f o r the o u t e r Nuxalk groups  than f o r the people occupying the B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y . had s t o c k a d e s made of v e r t i c a l v i l l a g e most f r e q u e n t l y  cedar b o a r d s .  attacked,  built  Several  villages  The people of T a l y u ,  the  a l a r g e double stockade made o f :  " v e r t i c a l l o g s t i g h t l y l a s h e d t o g e t h e r on the i n s i d e of which a p l a t f o r m ran around near the top from which defenders had a vantage point. There was a water gate through which canoes c o u l d come at h i g h t i d e " (Kopas 1970:182). In  s p i t e of o c c a s i o n a l h o s t i l i t i e s ,  a c t i v i t i e s w i t h many of these p e o p l e .  the Nuxalk engaged i n Mcllwraith  ceremonial  (1948:338) s t a t e s  that  d u r i n g the w i n t e r months such "enemies" were i n v i t e d as guests t o some dances.  Indeed,  the Nuxalk a r e  r e p o r t e d t o have p o t l a t c h e d i n post  c o n t a c t times w i t h the people of A l e r t Bay, F o r t R u p e r t , Bute I n l e t and R i v e r s I n l e t  ( M c l l w r a i t h 1948 1:22;  Willie  Knight  Inlet,  Hans, p e r s o n a l  communication).  *Boas (1966:110-116) g i v e s a l e n g t h y account of a K w a k u i t l - N u x a l k  war.  Chapter  III  ECOLOGICAL DATA  Introduction The Nuxalk u t i l i z e d  a wide range of food and n o n - f o o d  throughout  the y e a r .  particular  to that resource.  processes.  Each was h a r v e s t e d and e x p l o i t e d  Scientific  resources  i n a manner  T h i s s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s those r e s o u r c e s and  names f o r  each of the p l a n t ,  s p e c i e s mentioned i n t h i s c h a p t e r  are l i s t e d  animal and  fish  i n Appendices I and  II.  A q u a t i c Resources U n l e s s otherwise  indicated,  the f o l o w i n g  data c o n c e r n i n g the f i s h and  s h e l l f i s h s p e c i f i c t o the B e l l a C o o l a r e g i o n were s u p p l i e d as p e r s o n a l communications from the F i s h e r i e s and Ocean p e r s o n n e l i n B e l l a  Coola.  Salmon P a c i f i c salmon (Oncorhynchus s p p . ) are among the most important r e s o u r c e s t o the Nuxalk  economy.  Prior  to e x t e n s i v e  change i n the  Coola v a l l e y ,  all  runs i f  ran i n g r e a t numbers i n the B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r  pink,  If  salmon were a v a i l a b l e Multiple  the p r e s e n t - d a y  distribution  to the Nuxalk a l l  reflects  (Aro and the  past,  along the s t r e t c h e s of the  main  spawning p o p u l a t i o n s of each s p e c i e s , each w i t h i t s  spawning ground, comprised the e n t e r the B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r fall.  Bella  f i v e s p e c i e s of P a c i f i c salmon i n c l u d i n g even and odd  Shepard 1967:317).  river.  fish  runs.  own  Today the d i f f e r e n t salmon s p e c i e s  each year from the s p r i n g through the end of  Catches i n s i d e streams were u s u a l l y l i m i t e d to no more than t h r e e  -78of the f i v e waterways). river.  s p e c i e s (chinook and sockeye u s u a l l y kept t o the Even those c a t c h e s were f a r  main  s m a l l e r than those from the  main  Salmon c o u l d be h a r v e s t e d i n the B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y any time  after entering  the  river  s y s t e m , and b e f o r e they  C h i n o o k , or s p r i n g salmon, are the f i r s t  spawned.  salmon s p e c i e s t o enter  the  B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r system i n the s p r i n g , u s u a l l y sometime i n May.  Once i n  the B e l l a C o o l a they proceed d i r e c t l y  Few of  to t h e i r  spawning grounds.  the Chinook p o p u l a t i o n spawn i n the lower B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r the m a j o r i t y t r a v e l up t o the Atnarko to spawn. and may take over one month t o starts  S p r i n g s are the l a r g e s t  weighing on a v e r a g e , Summer and e a r l y  destination.  slowly,  A c t u a l spawning  20 p o u n d s * . fall  runs of sockeye and coho e n t e r  up the Atnarko t r i b u t a r y , even as f a r  The spawning season i s s h o r t e r  i n mid-September,  in  of the B e l l a C o o l a salmon,  the  Bella  Sockeye are a s m a l l salmon, weighing on average 4 pounds.  s p e c i e s spawns f a r Lake.  Chinooks migrate  i n A u g u s t , and c o n t i n u e s as l a t e as November, w i t h peak time  mid September.  Coola.  reach t h e i r  tributaries;  than f o r o t h e r  r e a c h i n g a peak soon a f t e r ,  as Lonesome  s p e c i e s , beginning  and ending i n  November.  Sockeye are common i n the B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r t o d a y ; a c c o r d i n g to myths they were r e l a t i v e l y  r a r e i n the past  This  Nuxalk  ( M c l l w r a i t h 1948:87).  Coho  spawn l a t e i n the s e a s o n , b e g i n n i n g and peaking sometime i n O c t o b e r , and c o n t i n u i n g as l a t e as F e b r u a r y . R i v e r are the p r e f e r r e d this  The t r i b u t a r i e s  location for  s p e c i e s i s approximatey  spawning.  of the lower B e l l a C o o l a The average weight of  10 pounds.  P i n k s and chums run i n the B e l l a C o o l a system as e a r l y as J u l y .  Both  *Salmon weights are p r o v i d e d from Dan Wagner, F i s h e r i e s and Oceans, B e l l a C o o l a , p e r s o n a l communication.  -79odd and even year p i n k s run i n the B e l l a C o o l a - A t n a r k o system (Aro and Shepard 1967:282).  P i n k s spawn from mid-August t o O c t o b e r , w i t h the peak  time being around September. d u r a t i o n of  For at l e a s t the past AO y e a r s  recorded F i s h e r i e s and Oceans e s t i m a t e s ) ,  (the  p i n k s have been the  most abundant salmon s p e c i e s i n the B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r .  T h i s may be as a  r e s u l t of u n d e r - e x p l o i t a t i o n of t h i s s p e c i e s i n the cannery days when o t h e r s p e c i e s were p r e f e r r e d  (Nuxalk e l d e r ,  p e r s o n a l communication).  Only 15 t o 20% of t h i s s p e c i e s spawns i n the t r i b u t a r i e s Coola R i v e r ; the  remainder t r a v e l  up the A t n a r k o .  of the B e l l a  P i n k s are the  smallest  B e l l a C o o l a salmon, weighing a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 pounds. In c o n t r a s t , chum salmon a r e f a i r l y average,  14 pounds.  Chums t y p i c a l l y  l a r g e s a l m o n , weighing on an  spawn c l o s e t o s a l t w a t e r ; i n  B e l l a C o o l a s y s t e m , they c o n c e n t r a t e d i n s m a l l t r i b u t a r i e s the lower 20 m i l e s of the v a l l e y .  and c r e e k s i n  Spawning times a r e from August to  November, w i t h peak time being at the end of A u g u s t .  After  pink s a l m o n ,  chums a r e the most common s p e c i e s i n the B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r t o d a y . t h i s may be due t o u n d e r e x p l o i t a t i o n . salmon s p e c i e s among the Nuxalk  the  Again,  They were the l e a s t f a v o r e d of  the  ( M c l l w r a i t h 1948:337), and may have  l i k e w i s e been l e s s p r e f e r r e d by the e a r l y salmon i n d u s t r y . Salmon were caught by the Nuxalk i n a number of ways. common and p r o d u c t i v e method employed a l a r g e dam b u i l t at  each Nuxalk v i l l a g e s i t e on the B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r .  often  r e f e r r e d t o as w e i r s i n the l i t e r a t u r e ,  r a p i d s (Smith 1920-24).  Dams spanned the  a c r o s s the  river;  river  These, dams, more  were u s u a l l y b u i l t  at  they were as much as 50  f e e t i n b r e a d t h , and 14 t o 15 deep on the u p r i v e r s i d e 1982:107).  The most  (Berringer  The middle t h i r d of the dam, c o n s t r u c t e d of l a r g e t r e e s ,  over 4 f e e t above the water l e v e l .  Fish traps,  rose  " i n t o which the salmon  -80would f a l l as they attempted t o jump over the f a l l s " 1962:358), were p l a c e d a l l outer  (Mackenzie  a l o n g both s i d e s of t h i s s e c t i o n of dam.  The  two t h i r d s of the c o n s t r u c t i o n was a secondary dam, which rose up  to 6 f e e t above the water l e v e l ; salmon r i g h t 1920-24).  passages through t h i s b a r r i e r  i n t o t r a p s p l a c e d on the o t h e r  It  side (ibid.:358;  led  Smith  was t h e s e t r a p s t h a t were owned by i n d i v i d u a l  fishermen.  The p o s i t i o n of some t r a p s was more p r o d u c t i v e than o t h e r s 1982:107); perhaps the more p r o d u c t i v e ones belonged t o the Finally,  d i p n e t t i n g was conducted at  these dams at  the  (Berringer  chiefs.  the p o i n t where the  water passed overtView.(Mackenzie 1962:358). S e v e r a l o t h e r methods were used by the Nuxalk t o h a r v e s t depending on the a more d e t a i l e d  s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n of the h a r v e s t  salmon,  (see B e r r i n g e r  account of the f o l l o w i n g summary).  1982  for  T o g g l i n g harpoons  were employed i n areas where the f i s h c o u l d be e a s i l y s e e n , such as e s t u a r i e s where salmon c o n g r e g a t e , shallow streams. Trawl n e t s ,  river  b a r s , c o n f l u e n c e s , and c l e a r  Such streams would have been owned by the  towed between two c a n o e s , were a l s o used on the B e l l a C o o l a  and Atnarko R i v e r s . sockeye i n J u l y .  T h i s t e c h n i q u e was e s p e c i a l l y used f o r chinook and  Tidal traps,  i n t e r - t i d a l zone at suggests t h a t e i t h e r  c o n s t r u c t e d of s t o n e s , were l o c a t e d i n  some of the i n l e t v i l l a g e s . these s i t e s were owned l i k e  sites,  or they were a common resource f o r a l l  latter  seems l e s s l i k e l y ,  to c o n s t r u c t . difficult  minmints.  Without  Berringer other  (ibid.:72)  fishing  village  neighbouring v i l l a g e s .  The  as these t r a p s would have r e q u i r e d much l a b o r  a s i n g l e c h i e f t o monitor  the work, i t  t o imagine how such a c o n s t r u c t i o n would have been  Weirs were a l s o used by the Nuxalk i n t r i b u t a r y streams of the Coola R i v e r .  the  T h e s e , however,  "were l e s s p r o d u c t i v e  is built. Bella  (presumably)  than  the  -81large  river  t r a p s of the a r e a " ( i b i d . : 7 8 ) .  summer and f a l l  runs.  These d e v i c e s were used f o r  The w e i r , and a s s o c i a t e d t r i b u t a r y c o u l d have been  owned by each minmints.  Traps were a l s o p l a c e d i n the s m a l l e r  owned by each minmints.  One a d d i t i o n a l  used on the B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r ,  streams  l a r g e s t y l e t r a p may have been  but t h i s type i s not w e l l known  (ibid.:108). Once the salmon was caught i t camp, depending on v i l l a g e processed.  t o the v i l l a g e  (or  a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the salmon stream) t o be  Temporary "salmon h o u s e s " without s i d e w a l l s ,  near the v i l l a g e a l l o w e d at  was brought d i r e c t l y  i n order t o p r o c e s s s p r i n g salmon o n l y .  were s e t up Only men were  these s t r u c t u r e s as t h e r e was a s t r o n g taboo f o r b i d d i n g women  and c h i l d r e n from p r o c e s s i n g t h i s p a r t i c u l a r  s p e c i e s (Smith 1920-24).  A l l the p a r t s of the salmon, except the i n n a r d s , were used by the Nuxalk.  Each p a r t ,  i n c l u d i n g the bone, was smoked over an a l d e r  fire.  Troughs were p l a c e d under the f i r e t o c o l l e c t o i l which was rendered as a result  of t h i s  eaten f r e s h .  process.  Roe from the salmon were a l s o p r o c e s s s e d and  The smoked salmon was eaten i m m e d i a t e l y ,  l a t e r use ( M c l l w r a i t h 1948:226; K u h n l e i n  Other  or s t o r e d  for  1983:6).  Fish  Ooligans, a tiny f a t - r i c h the Nuxalk d i e t the e a r l y  (cf.  f i s h , were a v e r y important  K u h n l e i n 1982).  s p r i n g , predominantly  O o l i g a n s run i n g r e a t numbers  i n the B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r ,  Necleetsconnay R i v e r to the n o r t h ,  but a l s o  and i n s m a l l numbers i n the  streams t o the south of N e c l e e t s c o n n a y . h a r v e s t e d o n l y i n the main r i v e r  component of  in  side  These f i s h were p r o b a b l y  and i n Necleetsconnay as the other  would not have y i e l d e d a s i g n i f i c a n t  in  harvest.  runs  -82-  Ooligans a r r i v e i n Bella Coola waters some time i n l a t e March or April.  At f i r s t , a few stragglers w i l l appear i n the r i v e r .  These were  t r a d i t i o n a l l y caught with dip-nets by fishermen (Mcllwraith 1948:758). Women were not permitted near the river at t h i s time (Smith 1920-24). Later i n the season, ooligan appear i n very large numbers f o r over one month.  Spawning occurs i n the side streams i n the lower four miles of  the river (Tony Karup, conservation o f f i c e r , Bella Coola, personal communication).  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , large nets were fixed where the river was  approximately 3 feet deep and had a f a i r l y strong current.  The net  locations were owned by the minmints thereby r e s t r i c t i n g access to the lower valley v i l l a g e s .  Large quantities of ooligans could be caught with  these nets, a "single net w i l l sometimes take several thousand  fish"  (Mcllwraith 1922-24). Once caught, the f i s h were carried i n baskets from the canoes to large p i t s , i n l a t e r times replaced by large bins (Kuhnlein 1982) owned by each minmints.  These p i t s were located 10 to 15 feet from the bank,  and were 3 to 4 feet deep.  The f i s h were kept i n the p i t s f o r ten days  to 2 weeks to p u t r i f y , at which time they were rendered f o r grease. Ooligan not processed t h i s way was dried whole.  Both the dried f i s h and  the grease were important foods throughout the winter months (Mcllwraith 1922-24). Ooligan harvest, because of i t s importance and intensive use of labor, took p r i o r i t y over other economic functions f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t portion of the economic cycle.  Concerning t h i s point, Mcllwraith 1922-24  records that: "During the olachen run, and especially during the time of r e f i n i n g , almost a l l other a c t i v i t i e s are suspended, and men, women and children a l i k e share i n the work at the r i v e r . I f putrefaction [ s i c ] i s too advanced much of the greases [ s i c ] i s l o s t , while unless a s u f f i c i e n t time i s allowed to elapse before b o i l i n g , the f i s h i s not  -83s o f t enough. Warm weather hastens the r o t t i n g , and i f t h i s combines w i t h a heavy c a t c h of f i s h , everyone i s f o r c e d t o take p a r t i n o r d e r t o complete the r e f i n i n g at the proper t i m e . . . " Even t o d a y , v i l l a g e r s  start positioning their  end of M a r c h , and by the time they  n e t s i n t o the  river  "are c a r r y i n g grease home, i t  at  the  has been  a good month's work" (Hawthorn 1949-1955). Another s p e c i e s which formed an important the s t e e l h e a d t r o u t .  p a r t of the Nuxalk d i e t  Average s t e e l h e a d weight i s 30 pounds.  two runs of s t e e l h e a d i n the B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r . Atnarko.  There  are  Both runs spawn i n  the  The "summer r u n " , which begins i n l a t e May or e a r l y A p r i l ,  s e x u a l l y immature,  and s t a y s i n f r e s h water h o l d i n g p o o l s i n the  B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r to mature.  is  is  upper  T h i s i s the prime l o c a t i o n to h a r v e s t  them.  "They d o n ' t come down [from Stewie] and we have t o go u p . We t r y t o f i s h down here and d o n ' t c a t c h a n y t h i n g , and t h a t ' s the o n l y way i s f o r us t o go up t h e r e , and then we get the f i s h " ( W i l l i e Hans, Nuxalk e l d e r , p e r s o n a l communication). The second run begins i n October or November and c o n t i n u e s the w i n t e r months; these s p e c i e s c o n t i n u e t o spawn u n t i l  May.  throughout Steelhead  a l s o spawn today t o a much s m a l l e r e x t e n t i n a few s i d e c r e e k s of  the  B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r — Tatsquan C r e e k , Nuxalk C r e e k , a s m a l l channel t o south of Necleetsconnay R i v e r ,  the  two unnamed c r e e k s west o f S n o o t l i C r e e k ,  E a s t and West A i r p o r t C r e e k s , F i s h C r e e k , and Hagensborg S l o u g h . Although not always i n l a r g e numbers,  ( t h e r e are a few thousand i n  B e l l a C o o l a - A t n a r k o t o d a y ; Tony K a r u p , c o n s e r v a t i o n o f f i c e r , p e r s o n a l communication), river  year  round.  Bella Coola,  f r e s h s t e e l h e a d would have been a v a i l a b l e  in  the  L i k e salmon, the o n l y time they are not good f o r  h a r v e s t i n g i s a f t e r they spawn. and l i n e s , and n e t s  the  S t e e l h e a d were taken w i t h s p e a r s , hook  (Smith 1920-24).  Access t o the bulk of  r e s o u r c e s would not have been r e s t r i c t e d were taken i n the main B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r ,  steelhead  by minmints o w n e r s h i p , as they and t h i s was not an owned  -84locality. Coastal Cutthroat  t r o u t are a l s o p r e s e n t i n the B e l l a Coola  and were h a r v e s t e d by the N u x a l k . steelhead  relative,  They are much s m a l l e r  weighing on average 4 pounds.  than  River,  their  P r e f e r r e d h o l d i n g and  spawning areas f o r t h i s s p e c i e s are i n the Atnarko R i v e r .  Cutthroats  a l s o spawn i n fewer numbers i n s i d e c r e e k s i n the s p r i n g .  Specific  spawning l o c a t i o n s i n c l u d e Tatsquan C r e e k , E a s t and West A i r p o r t  Side  C r e e k s , S n o o t l i C r e e k , F i s h C r e e k , Hagensborg S l o u g h , Salloomt R i v e r and Noosgulch C r e e k .  They were taken p r i o r t o spawning w i t h spears and n e t s  (Smith 1920-24), probably at  the mouth of the minmints-owned  The Atnarko spawners would have been a c c e s s i b l e t o a l l . o c c u r r e d i n much g r e a t e r than they do t o d a y ,  it  As  streams. cutthroat  numbers i n the B e l l a C o o l a system i n the  is difficult  to determine  their  past  traditional  importance i n the d i e t .  D o l l y Varden t r o u t a l s o o c c u r i n the B e l l a C o o l a  R i v e r i n s m a l l numbers.  Like cutthroat,  the A t n a r k o . exploited  It  by the  S e v e r a l other Nuxalk.  year  i s not documented, however,  preferred  whether  these f i s h were  i n s m a l l numbers (they are no l o n g e r  i n the a r e a t o d a y ) i n the B e l l a C o o l a e s t u a r y two times Herring  South B e n t i n c k Arm south to the middle of the i n l e t ,  a l o n g the mouth of and a l o n g the  and west s i d e s o f Burke C h a n n e l , from the mouth of Kwatna (Cheston e t . a l .  d a y s , d u r i n g March. t h i s time.  1975).  per  spawn a l o n g the n o r t h and south shores  of North B e n t i n c k Arm from B a c h e l o r ' s Bay e a s t w a r d ,  at  is  f i s h s p e c i e s were of minor importance among the  (Smith 1920-1924).  southwards  spawning a r e a  Nuxalk.  H e r r i n g were a v a i l a b l e  available  their  The f i r s t  east  Inlet  run l a s t s o n l y 15 t o  They were taken by the Nuxalk by means of a  20 dip-net  The f i s h were r o a s t e d , b o i l e d and smoked as w e l l as  -85-  processed to  render what l i t t l e o i l they have at t h i s time of y e a r .  of the h e r r i n g were a l s o c o l l e c t e d on hemlock boughs.  Eggs  The second r u n ,  sometime i n September, was h a r v e s t e d w i t h f i s h t r a p s c o n s t r u c t e d on the tidal  flats  on both s i d e s of the mouth of the B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r .  h e r r i n g are " r i c h i n o i l l i k e purpose (Smith 1920-24). the  e u l a c h o n " and were p r o c e s s e d f o r  that  Presumably both d i p r c e t and t r a p l o c a t i o n s  r i v e r ' s mouth, as w e l l as l o c a t i o n s f o r boughs t o c o l l e c t  eggs were most l i k e l y  1982),  by the Nuxalk i n c l u d e s t a r r y  rock and l i n g c o d , h a l i b u t  tidal at  flats  A few s t a r r y  river.  flounder  ( W i l l i e Hans, Nuxalk  p e r s o n a l communication), and v a r i o u s s p e c i e s of perch and s o l e and Bouchard 1976:30).  elder,  (Kennedy  f l o u n d e r have been found i n  around B e l l a C o o l a , but the m a j o r i t y  the  of them would have been  sandy beaches around Kwatna and R e s t o r a t i o n Bay ( A l i c e T a l l i o ,  elder,  p e r s o n a l communication).  open w a t e r s , mouth.  at  herring  owned by the minmints at the mouth of the  Other f i s h s p e c i e s u t i l i z e d (Kennelly  These  Nuxalk  These f i s h were h a r v e s t e d i n unowned,  but were more a c c e s s i b l e t o the v i l l a g e s at the  river's  Rock cod are l o c a t e d near the head of South B e n t i n c k Arm and  eastwards,  i n the s h a l l o w waters a l o n g the s h o r e l i n e .  A few  s p e c i e s may o c c a s i o n a l l y be found c l o s e r t o B e l l a C o o l a .  stray  L i n g c o d , which  a r e a deep water f i s h , a r e common i n the L a b o u c h e r e Channel a r e a . H a l i b u t were taken by the Nuxalk at Namu, Kwatna, and K i m s q u i t . were eaten f r e s h or d r i e d  (Smith 1920-24).  Both h a l i b u t  deep water f i s h which s t a y c l o s e to the g r a v e l bottoms.  and l i n g cod a r e Both of  s p e c i e s were taken by the Nuxalk i n the past w i t h wooden hooks 1920-24; W i l l i e e x c e p t i o n of  Hans, Nuxalk e l d e r ,  They  p e r s o n a l communication).  rock c o d , which may have been more p r o f i t a b l y  these  (Smith With the  speared from  -86s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n s i n South B e n t i n c k , a c c e s s t o these r e s o u r c e s would not have been r e s t r i c t e d  by minmints o w n e r s h i p .  Seafood and Sea Mammals S e v e r a l t y p e s of s h e l l f i s h were p a r t of the Nuxalk d i e t ,  although  some of the n e a r e s t l o c a t i o n s of these r e s o u r c e s were 50 m i l e s away. Exploited bivalves include l i t t l e - n e c k c o c k l e s (Smith 1920-24).  clams, butter  c l a m s , mud clams and  The c l o s e s t s o u r c e s of clams f o r the Nuxalk was  i n B e l l a B e l l a t e r r i t o r y a t R e s t o r a t i o n Bay, a t the head of Kwatna and v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s near Namu.  Large s h e l l mounds recorded by Smith  E l c h o Harbour suggest t h a t clams were h a r v e s t e d t h e r e 1920-24). big t i d e ,  Inlet,  too  Clams were s a i d t o be most e a s i l y gathered at d u r i n g a f u l l moon ( M c l l w r a i t h 1922-24).  at  (Smith the time of a  They were eaten  raw and c o o k e d , and were sometimes d r i e d (Smith 1920-24).  The  both  large  C a l i f o r n i a m u s s e l , a l s o gathered by the Nuxalk, were l o c a t e d i n  small  numbers a t T a l l i o cannery ( i b i d . ) , Kwatna ( A l i c e T a l l i o , Nuxalk  elder,  p e r s o n a l communication) and F i s c h e r Channel and p o i n t s westwards.  The  s h e l l s of these animals were v a l u e d among the Nuxalk as k n i v e s to cut and c l e a n salmon (Mackenzie  1962:258; Smith 1920-24).  Mussels were most  o f t e n gathered w h i l e v i s i t i n g or t r a d i n g w i t h the B e l l a B e l l a 1920-24).  (Smith  Clams and mussels were c o n s i d e r e d t o be poisonous f o r  approximatley  "one week d u r i n g the f i r s t  two moons of warm weather  y e a r " (Smith 1920-24), presumably because of ethnographic accounts state Nuxalk as i t  through t r a d e ,  danger.  The  t h a t abalone was not eaten i n the past by the  was l o c a t e d too f a r  ( K u h n l e i n 1984:795).  red t i d e  each  away, but some Nuxalk eat i t  Traditionally,  its  today  s h e l l , which was a c q u i r e d  was h i g h l y p r i z e d f o r making b r a c e l e t s .  Dentalium,  which  -87were a l s o v a l u e d by the Nuxalk f o r t h e i r spear (Smith 1920-24).  s h e l l , were taken by use of a  V a r i o u s s p e c i e s of c r a b s were c o l l e c t e d by the  Nuxalk a t K i t l o p e and Kwatna ( M c l l w r a i t h 1922-24; A l i c e T a l l i o , elder,  p e r s o n a l communication),  Nuxalk  u s i n g a spear from a s a l t water canoe  (Smith 1920-24). Several other urchins,  sea c r e a t u r e s were c o l l e c t e d by the N u x a l k .  l o c a t e d at  n e t s and eaten  Sea  the head of North B e n t i n c k Arm, were taken w i t h scoop  raw w i t h i n one t o two days (Smith 1920-24).  Sea  cucumbers, which were l o c a t e d i n South B e n t i n c k Arm and near B e l l a B e l l a , were taken by the Nuxalk w i t h a d i p T t e t boiled for food.  or s p e a r , at  low t i d e and then  Octopus and e e l s , and b a r n a c l e s were eaten by the  Nuxalk when i n the B e l l a B e l l a r e g i o n and f u r t h e r  westwards  (Smith  1920-24). The above mentioned f i s h and s e a f o o d s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of salmon, o o l i g a n and the t r o u t s p e c i e s , p r o b a b l y p l a y e d o n l y a minor d i e t of the Nuxalk i n h a b i t i n g were l o c a t e d q u i t e largely  the B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y .  some d i s t a n c e from the v a l l e y ,  opportunistic.  None of these  commonly used (and t h e r e f o r e P e r m i s s i o n t o c o l l e c t these  owned)  role i n  the  S i n c e most s p e c i e s  c a t c h e s would have been  r e s o u r c e s were l o c a t e d i n the  area  by the B e l l a C o o l a v i l l a g e s .  r e s o u r c e s ( t h a t i s , those t h a t were not  c o l l e c t e d on the open s e a ) , must have come from o t h e r Nuxalk p e o p l e , such as those l i v i n g i n Kwatna, or from t h e i r further  B e l l a B e l l a neighbors  living  westward.  Sea mammals, a l t h o u g h o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y used by the N u x a l k , highly prized. available  Hair  were  s e a l s and n o r t h e r n sea l i o n s were s e a s o n a l l y  i n the B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r system as they f o l l o w e d the  and the o o l i g a n s i n l a n d i n the s p r i n g .  Both s e a l and sea l i o n s  herring will  -88-  travel river  q u i t e c l o s e t o the  r i v e r mouth, and sometimes a l i t t l e way up the  (Cowan and G u i g e t 1956).  Both s p e c i e s were k i l l e d w i t h harpoons i n  o p e n , unowned waters  (Mcllwraith  1976:30).  r e p o r t e d t o have been a prime h a r v e s t i n g a r e a  Tallio,  Kwatna i s  Nuxalk e l d e r ,  1948:272; Kennedy and Bouchard  p e r s o n a l communication).  (Alice  M i g r a t i n g s e a l s (and  p o s s i b l y sea l i o n s ) may a l s o have been caught by means of a t i d a l  trap  s e t i n the bays to i n t e r c e p t  both  them (Mackenzie 1962:242).  animals were used f o r making m o c c a s i n s ,  S k i n s of  b l a n k e t s and s a c k s .  stomachs were used f o r c o n t a i n e r s ( W i l l i e Hans, Nuxalk e l d e r ,  The personal  communication; Smith 1920-24; Kennedy and Bouchard 1976:30). Sea o t t e r s were a l s o taken by the Nuxalk i n r e l a t i v e l y numbers.  Sea o t t e r s w i l l not t r a v e l  were taken w i t h bow and arrow, the Nuxalk f o r t h e i r  p a s t the mouth of the  s p e a r s , or c l u b s .  p e l t s and p o s s i b l y f o r t h e i r  small river.  They were p r i z e d among meat (Smith  1920-24).  Access t o sea mammals seems not t o be r e s t r i c t e d by ownership of h u n t i n g a r e a , but by ownership of the p r o f e s s i o n i t s e l f 1948:272).  In  s e t at the  They  the  (Mcllwraith  t h i s way, a c c e s s was l i m i t e d to a p r i v i l e d g e d few.  r i v e r ' s mouth were l i k e l y owned by the v i l l a g e s s i t u a t e d  Traps there.  Water and Land B i r d s S e v e r a l k i n d s of water f o w l were used by the Nuxalk. waterfowl  Although  were not a v a i l a b l e i n the B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y i n l a r g e numbers,  t h e r e were a r e a s of c o n c e n t r a t i o n where these s p e c i e s c o u l d be h a r v e s t e d profitably.  M i g r a t o r y waterfowl  passed through the B e l l a C o o l a a r e a ,  s t o p p i n g a t the e s t u a r i e s and wetlands i n the w i n t e r ,  fall  and s p r i n g .  Changes i n the wetlands through time as a r e s u l t of changes i n the  river,  -89and recent d e c l i n e i n numbers of waterfowl Officer,  (Tony K a r u p , C o n s e r v a t i o n  B e l l a C o o l a , p e r s o n a l communication), make i t  difficult  to  determine p r e - c o n t a c t numbers and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f these s p e c i e s . and geese a r e  Ducks  r e p o r t e d today near the mouth of S n o o t l i C r e e k ,  a p p r o x i m a t e l y one m i l e e a s t of the mouth of Salloomt R i v e r , and at  wet  a r e a s t o the e a s t of the mouth of the main r i v e r ,  and on the  flats.  r e l a t e s t o the p a s t ,  Although i t  cannot be determined how t h i s  i s known t h a t the t i d a l waterfowl.  The t i d a l  f l a t s were the prime a r e a f o r  flats  G r e a t e r numbers of waterfowl  tend to nest at  it  harvesting  at South B e n t i n c k and Kwatna are  have l a r g e numbers of ducks ( e s p e c i a l y m a l l a r d s ) ,  tidal  reported  to  geese and swans.  South B e n t i n c k than B e l l a  C o o l a where o n l y geese and a few ducks n e s t ( R i c k McKelvey, Canadian Wildlife  S e r v i c e , p e r s o n a l communication).  The p r e f e r e d time f o r t a k i n g water fowl i s i n the w i n t e r ,  as they  " t a s t e l i k e f i s h " i n the summer months (James Hans, Nuxalk g u i d e , p e r s o n a l communication). (Smith 1920-24).  Ducks and geese were taken w i t h a bow and arrow  Geese were a l s o c a p t u r e d a t n i g h t w i t h l a r g e  operated by men i n canoes ( M c l l w r a i t h  1948:271).  Another method used t o  c a p t u r e ducks was by s e t t i n g a l a r g e net on the t i d a l r e q u i r e d the e f f o r t  nets  flats.  of at l e a s t f o u r men working t o g e t h e r ;  This  s e v e r a l ducks  a t a time c o u l d be caught w i t h t h i s method ( W i l l i e Hans, Nuxalk p e r s o n a l communication; c f .  Edwards 1 9 7 9 : 8 - 1 0 ) .  were b o i l e d and eaten f r e s h or d r i e d f o r l a t e r  elder,  Both ducks and geese use.  s p e c i e s may have a l s o been c o l l e c t e d from the f l a t s  Eggs from these ( W i l l i e Hans,  F e l i c i t y Walkus, Nuxalk e l d e r s , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s ) . R e s t r i c t i o n s on h u n t i n g w a t e r f o w l , t o ownership of the p r o f e s s i o n i t s e l f .  l i k e sea mammals, may be Mcllwraith  related  (1948:271) r e c o r d s  -90t h a t goose h u n t i n g w i t h l a r g e n e t s may have been t h u s c o n t r o l l e d . Perhaps i t  was the net which was a c t u a l l y owned; t h i s c o u l d a l s o have  been the case w i t h the l a r g e duck n e t s d e s c r i b e d above. not  r e s t r i c t e d , the v i l l a g e s l o c a t e d c l o s e s t to the t i d a l  have been b e s t s i t u a t e d t o h a r v e s t w a t e r f o w l . a l o n g the  diet.  flats  would  Other h a r v e s t i n g l o c a t i o n s  s e v e r a l o t h e r t y p e s of water and l a n d b i r d s i n  E a g l e s a r e common throughout the B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y  b o t t o m l a n d s , wherever t h e r e i s food f o r them most c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the lower enter.  a c c e s s was  r i v e r may have been c o n t r o l l e d by the minmints.  The Nuxalk u t i l i z e d their  If  reaches of the  to e a t . river,  They are where the f i s h  E a g l e s were taken w i t h s n a r e s , and the meat eaten i n l a t e  The f e a t h e r s and o t h e r p a r t s were c e r e m o n i a l l y important 1920-24).  first  fall.  (Smith  Snare l o c a t i o n s were p r o b a b l y owned by the m i n m i n t s .  Herring  g u l l s , which were common i n the lower 10 m i l e s of the B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y (Tony K a r u p , C o n s e r v a t i o n O f f i c e r , B e l l a C o o l a , p e r s o n a l communication), were caught w i t h bow and arrow d u r i n g the summer and w i n t e r  time.  would have been no r e s t r i c t i o n by the minmints on the h a r v e s t i n g of gulls.  the  R u f f e d grouse were once q u i t e abundant i n the B e l l a C o o l a  f o r e s t s ; these s p e c i e s were taken f a i r l y the f a l l  There  and w i n t e r  time.  It  is  f r e q u e n t l y w i t h bow and arrow  in  recorded t h a t the Nuxalk a l s o ate  p u f f i n s (Smith 1920-1924), but t h i s must have o n l y o c u r r e d on t r i p s the o u t e r c o a s t . T r i p s to the i n t e r i o r l o o n s and p o s s i b l y other w a t e r f o w l .  to  t o hunt would have y i e l d e d common  These s p e c i e s were abundant on these  l a k e s d u r i n g the summer n e s t i n g months, at which time they were taken w i t h a bow and arrvw (Smith i b i d . ) .  easily  Access t o these and other  birds  which were hunted by bow and arrow do not seem t o have been r e s t r i c t e d by minmints o w n e r s h i p .  -91-  Mammals Of the larger animal foods, mountain goats were the most economically important to the Nuxalk.  Mountain goats are very rare i n the Bella Coola  v a l l e y today, but elders say they can remember a time when the l o c a l mountains were "covered" with goats (Hawthorn 1949-1955).  They were  reported to t r a v e l i n packs sometimes as large as 25 to 30 animals (Clayton Mack, Nuxalk elder, personal communication).  Goats were heavily  harvested i n the 1930's i n the B e l l a Coola valley ( i b i d . ) .  As they can  only survive a harvest of 2 to 5% to maintain t h e i r population, their numbers were d r a s t i c a l l y reduced.  In addition, they are quite easy to  over-exploit as they are very t r u s t i n g animals (Tony Karup, Conservation O f f i c e r , B e l l a Coola, personal communication).  Goats l i v e high i n the  mountains at or above timberline, coming down to lower elevations i n the winter months to escape the snow (Cowan and Guiget 1956).  Some actually  come down to sea l e v e l , but most w i l l t r a v e l to the southern slopes of the mountains (Tony Karup, personal communication). Mountain goats were t r a d i t i o n a l l y hunted throughout the year for several purposes. are the f a t t e s t .  The peak season for meat was during the f a l l when they During t h i s time, bow and arrows, snares and dogs were  used to catch them (Mcllwraith 1948:272; Smith 1920-24). i n the paths commonly used by goats. animals at any one time.  This device could capture up to 19  This method would have involved larger hunting  parties to process the meat and carry i t home. of three men used the bow and arrow . goat was taken.  Snares were set  Smaller hunting parties  On these occasions only a single  Once the animal was k i l l e d i t was skinned and p a r t i a l l y  dried by smoking to f a c i l i t a t e transport.  The skin was used as a device  -92-  t o c a r r y the meat home (Margaret communication; Smith 1920-24).  S i w a l l a c e , Nuxalk e l d e r ,  personal  During c o l d e r months the meat was o f t e n  cached i n the snow ( C l a y t o n Mack, Nuxalk e l d e r ,  p e r s o n a l communication).  Mountain goat meat and t a l l o w were h i g h l y p r i z e d , and c o n s i d e r e d to be food f o r  " t i h e e s , n o b l e s and important  p e r s o n s " (Smith  1920-24).  A l l p a r t s of the mountain g o a t , except e n t r a i l s , were u s e d .  Goats  hunted from January to A p r i l were c o n s i d e r e d t o produce r e l a t i v e l y meat,  but the wool was h i g h l y v a l u e d .  thick.  In w i n t e r  poor  the wool was l o n g and  A l a n c e was used t o c a p t u r e them a t t h i s time i n o r d e r not  damage the w o o l .  Wool was l a t e r  woven i n t o b l a n k e t s .  to  Mountain goat  horns were used t o make spoons and barbs f o r c a t c h i n g s p r i n g salmon; the stomach was used as a c o n t a i n e r f o r o o l i g a n g r e a s e . B l a c k t a i l e d deer and mule deer were a l s o r e g u l a r l y hunted by the Nuxalk.  The b l a c k t a i l e d deer i s found i n South B e n t i n c k and i n  lower s t r e t c h e s of the B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y . territory  The mule deer o c c u p i e s the  e a s t of t h i s , b e g i n n i n g a t S t e w i e .  Both s p e c i e s spend the  summer a t the tops of m o u n t a i n s , but come down i n e a r l y w i n t e r snow makes i t  i m p o s s i b l e to f e e d .  the  when the  They occupy deciduous f o r e s t s where  they can f i n d f o o d ; i n a d d i t i o n , b l a c k t a i l e d deer a r e o f t e n seen on the tidal  f l a t s a t t h i s time of y e a r .  It  was d u r i n g e a r l y w i n t e r  were hunted ( C l a y t o n Mack, Nuxalk e l d e r ,  is,  p e r s o n a l communication).  Deer were taken w i t h much the same methods as mountain g o a t .  That  w i t h bow and a r r o w s , i n s n a r e s , or w i t h c l u b s or k n i v e s a f t e r  being  cornered by d o g s . use.  t h a t deer  As w i t h g o a t s , the meat was d r i e d and s t o r e d f o r  later  The s k i n s were used f o r b e d d i n g , m o c c a s i n s , l e g g i n g s , and the bones  were used f o r s i m p l e p o i n t s f o r arrows (Smith  1920-24).  L i k e a l l h u n t i n g g r o u n d s , p l a c e s where deer and goat were hunted were  -93-  owned  by  status  the  people.  status. deer  In  at  would  minmints.  a  The  1862  Other  i t  large  various  parts  these  for  chief's  small  Appendix  w h i c h were  II  used  Chief  "Pochlass"  men  by  to  the  these  the  r e s t r i c t e d to brought  high  increased  [Pootlass]  (Barret-Lennard  utilized  lists  been  certainly  status  game w e r e  have  animals  that  some w h i t e  may  shot  1862:216).  20  This  group. by  the  animal  Nuxalk  in  much  r e s o u r c e s and  the  Nuxalk.  Resources  The  Nuxalk  functional access plant  to  utilized  items these  (cf.  women  also  had  1973;  participated.  "first  village,  Turner  for  predominantly  participated.  the  plants  r e s o u r c e s depended  r e s o u r c e s was  children  she  of  hunting  recorded  the  and  quantity.  of  was  affirmed  smaller  Plant  capture  s i n g l e time  have  However,  The  picker",  presumably picked the  food,  medicine,  Smith  1928;  on m i n m i n t s a woman's  These  first  of  high  fruit,  not  to  of  Collecting men  and  r e s o u r c e s was one  of  Rights  r e s t r i c t e d , and  (Mcllwraith  a l l people  variety  1920-24).  although  plant  belonged  status  a wide  membership.  task,  involving  a position which  a woman  Smith  p o s i t i o n s were  prerogative  and  woman  that  per  1948:265).  could participate  a l l  in  Once the  harvest. Plants fresh were  were  fruit also  steamed  or  processed i n either  stored  and  in  eaten  fresh  and  fresh  each s p r i n g .  sun-dried  water  fresh  processed for  Appendix  I  lists  a number  Teas the  or  or  or  storage. were plant  ways.  smoked  grease  stored.  of  for  later  Inner Greens  harvested  for  bark of  and  B e r r i e s were later use  use.  .  Root  from  trees  Certain foods was  certain plants stored  resources u t i l i z e d  for by  fruits  eaten  eaten  use.  Nuxalk.  as  were  both  were  later  the  consumed  The  -94-  habitat  in which  utilized,  Mineral  each plant is most  and their purpose, are  likely to be found, the various  included.  Resources  Other than the plant and animal  parts used for tools  (ie.  large  mammal bone points, mussel knives, goat horn spoons, crabapple digging most is  sticks,  etc.), the Nuxalk  commonly used,  and  probably  reported in the ethnographies  from Newskultz behind  Mountain  the village  this mountain  utilized  the most  1920-24).  several  prized,  was  a narrow  (no, 12, Table  precipice  I).  into which  a green be  cylindrical Remains  of  were lowered  to  elder, personal  communication;  archaeological  hand hammers, and chisels were made of this  documented  if this  particular  minmints.  village River  of Nusqalst  had  resource  for the  Snxt, near Thorsen and in Kwatna highly  was  is the case,  75  miles  adzes, rare  stone.  the valley.  common land  and the unnamed village  rights over the  locations  location  If the latter  Red and black-colored Source  tools, including  of these tools have been found throughout  river side  survey about one mile down the Salloomt River, approximately Various  It  collected  side of the  people  The  stone.  On the north  Another quarry was discovered on an  above the base of the mountain.  wood  minerals.  that this stone could only  (Mt. Nusatsum) on the north  of Nusqalst  was  also  mine the stone (Felicity Walkus, Nuxalk Smith  parts  It is  or owned by  it is likely  a  that  at the mouth of the  not  the  Salloomt  resource. pigments were used red pigment  include  Creek, above Burnt Bridge  (Mcllwraith 1922-24;  prized and in demand;  by the Nuxalk a spot  near  for  the  village  in the Bella Coola  Smith 1920-24).  paints.  This pigment  of  valley, was  it is one of the items of trade between  the  -95Kwakiutl from Fort Rupert and the Nuxalk (Smith 1920-24).  An  unidentified black paint ( i t may simply be a charcoal paint) i s reported to be very common the v a l l e y , and was used to paint pictographs ( F e l i c i t y Walkus, Nuxalk elder, personal communication).  Sandstone, probably from  the river bed, was used for grinding and sawing (Clayton Mack, Nuxalk elder, personal communication; Smith 1920-24).  Clay, probably from the  river bed, was used to seal boxes (Smith 1920-24). The Nuxalk Seasonal Round The timing of a c t i v i t i e s undertaken by the Nuxalk throughout the year was closely t i e d to the seasonal procurement of resources.  This i s  apparent i n the Nuxalk t r a d i t i o n a l calendar: (assembled from Mcllwraith 1922-24 and Drucker 1958) January  "what weeps away food" "angry moon"  February  "facing both ways ( i e . to summer and winter) "moon when there i s nothing"  March  "when herring spawn"  April  "time for making salmon weirs" "ooligan net time"  May  "time for making hand nets for ooligans" "spring salmon moon"  June  "time f o r eating spring salmon" " s o l s t i c e moon"  July  "time when sockeyes a r r i v e "  August  "time for eating dog salmon"  September  "time for eating cohoes"  October  "time for gathering squalm (a fern root) "moon when they begin to dance"  -96-  November  "time f o r k u s u i t " "time when they p l a y games"  December  " s i t down" ( i e . when t h e sun r e s t s ) "time when t h e d a n c i n g ends"  As r e s o u r c e s became s e a s o n a l l y a v a i l a b l e they o f t e n had t o be h a r v e s t e d and p r o c e s s e d w i t h i n a v e r y s h o r t t i m e .  This required c a r e f u l l y  movements t o t h e d i f f e r e n t r e s o u r c e l o c a t i o n s .  timed  L o c a t i o n s o f prime  r e s o u r c e s u t i l i z e d by t h e Nuxalk a r e g i v e n i n Appendices I and I I . Harvest times a r e given i n Table IV.  Summary The d i s c u s s i o n s i n c l u d e d i n t h e two p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s o u t l i n e r e l e v a n t a s p e c t s o f t h e socio-economic d a t a o f t h e Nuxalk.  system, as w e l l as t h e known s e t t l e m e n t  The f u n c t i o n i n g n a t u r e o f t h e Nuxalk v i l l a g e ,  both  w i t h i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t i t s e l f and t o i t s s u r r o u n d i n g n a t u r a l and c u l t u r a l environment,  has been d i s c u s s e d .  S p e c i f i c a t t r i b u t e s of the n a t u r a l  environment have a l s o been e v a l u a t e d .  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l form t h e  b a s i s o f t h e a n a l y s e s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r , which a r e d e s i g n e d t o c l a r i f y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of p o s s i b l e d e t e r m i n a n t s t o Nuxalk patterns.  settlement  -97-  TABLE IV YEARLY HARVESTING CYCLE OF NUXALK PLANT AND ANIMAL RESOURCES* Resource J  Salmon chinook sockeye coho pink chum Other  Fish  ooligan steelhead trout coastal cutthroat trout herring starry flounder rock and l i n g cod halibut s o l e and perch Seafood and Sea Mammals clams sea u r c h i n sea cucumber hair seal n o r t h e r n sea l i o n s Water and Land  Birds  ducks, geese and swans eagles gulls grouse common l o o n Mammals mountain goat deer bear l y n x ** rabbit p o r c u p i n e ** beaver ** marmot * * w o l v e r i n e , m a r t i n , mink, racoon, red f o x , coyote o t t e r , skunk, weasel, f i s h e r , muskrat  F  M  A  Months M J J  A  S  O  N  D  -98-  Resource J  Trees red cedar s i t k a spruce l o d g e p o l e pine douglas f i r - wood i n n e r bark hemlock - wood i n n e r bark maple alder birch cherry c r a b a p p l e - wood fruit Cottonwood - wood i n n e r bark Shrubs e l d e r b e r r y - wood fruit highbush c r a n b e r r y red o s i e r dogwood soapberry salal false azalea alaska blueberry mountain b i l b e r r y oval-leaved blueberry red h u c k l e b e r r y stink currant w i l d gooseberry swamp gooseberry w i l d blue currant saskatoon - wood fruit nootka rose w i l d rose w i l d raspberry blackcaps thimbleberry - f r u i t shoot salmonberry - f r u i t shoot Herbs h o r s e t a i l s - shoots root**  F  M  A  .  Months M  J  J  A  S  O  N  D  -99-  Resource J  F  M  A  Months M J J  A  S  O  N  D  s p i n y wood f e r n bracken f e r n skunk cabbage - l e a v e s * * fruit riceroot lily-of-the-valley s t a r - f l o w e r e d Solomon's s e a l hemlock p a r s l e y * * water p a r s n i p * * cow p a r s n i p sweet c i c e l y s p r e a d i n g dogbane sarsaparilla bunchberry kinnikinik blue l u p i n e wild clover fireweed western dock strawberry silverweed nettles - fibre greens Moss " y e l l o w moss"** * From K u h n l e i n 1984 and expanded ** No e x p l i c i t data e x i s t which s t a t e t h e time o f year these resources were taken; h a r v e s t season i s i n f e r r e d here from the nature and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the resource i t s e l f .  -100-  C h a p t e r IV THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DETERMINANTS AND NUXALK SETTLEMENT Introduction In  t h i s chapter  determinants valley the  The i d e a b e i n g e x a m i n e d i s  presence o f a range o f r e s o u r c e s and o t h e r c u l t u r a l  analysis  t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f an a r e a f o r s e t t l e m e n t . are twofold  settlement  localities. sufficient natural  several  of the s u i t a b i l i t y of settlement l o c a t i o n s i n the B e l l a Coola  a t t h e time o f European c o n t a c t .  determine  for  I examine t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f  ~  to attempt  t o d e f i n e both  l o c a t i o n s , anG t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s  for settlement  ( s e e page 1 3 ) .  and c u l t u r a l environment,  being important  will  The g o a l s o f t h e  t h e minimum  o f more  Minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e t h o s e t h a t  factors  that  requirements  preferred  a r e both n e c e s s a r y and  Determinants  from both t h e  which stand out i n the ethnographies as  t o the Nuxalk s o c i o - e c o n o m i c system,  are considered.  Methods Defining The  Determinants  d e t e r m i n a n t s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s have been grouped  l i k e c a t e g o r i e s , d e p e n d i n g on b o t h t h e n a t u r e and t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a c o n c e r n i n g i t . determinants, resources, raiding, The  a r e examined:  animal  aquatic  resources, trade,  o r groups resources,  protection  of plant  from  a n a l y s i s presented here i s intended t o a s s e s s the i n f l u e n c e o f on N u x a l k v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n .  t h i s a n a l y s i s , as i n other  settlement  l o c a t e d c l o s e s t to those determinants its  other  itself,  and s h e l t e r from t h e e l e m e n t s .  each of these determinants in  Eight determinants,  salmon s p e c i e s ,  resources, mineral  of the determinant  into  socio-economy.  studies,  that  An a s s u m p t i o n made  i s that  a site will  have t h e g r e a t e s t  The p r e s e n c e o r a b s e n c e o f a d e t e r m i n a n t ,  be  i n f l u e n c e on a n d when  -101applicable, throughout then  i t s overall the  and s e a s o n a l abundance a t v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n s  B e l l a Coola v a l l e y ,  i s discerned.  Each v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n  ranked a c c o r d i n g to access to each d e t e r m i n a n t .  The  t h e s e r a n k i n g s f o r e a c h v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n p r o v i d e s a means settlement another.  localities In t h i s w a y ,  accessibility It  throughout  is  to a l l  a rank  This  comparing the determinants valley.  If  to the  v i l l a g e locations according  c a n be  order of  determinants w i l l  sites  t h e known a r e a o f  according to prefered  proposition, i s c o n f i r m e d ,  Coola v a l l e y w i l l  of  to  produced. the  be p r e f e r r e d a r e a s  for  prqposrfion. i s t e s t e d i n the B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y  rank  each  one  that those l o c a t i o n s having access to  g r e a t e s t number a n d k i n d o f settlement.  of  whereby  v a l l e y c a n be c o m p a r e d t o  o r d e r of  determinants,  expectation  mvj  the  total  is  by  the a c c e s s i b i l i t y  settlement  those s i t e s  --  the  of  all  lower  i n the lower  Bella  h a v e a c c e s s t o o r be i n f l u e n c e d by t h e g r e a t e s t  range  of  determinants. Minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s  for  settlement  b i t more d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h . of  a determinant  measure.  among a l l  Such u n i f o r m i t y  measure of  the determinants  Methods each.  For  overall  on s e t t l e m e n t .  A more  in this  some t h e r e a r e r e l i a b l e d a t a w h i c h p e r m i t  variation  unique  each.  meaningful  discussed.  (eg.  identical  of  for  quantitative  p r o t e c t i o n from the elements)  Among t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s w h i c h a r e  i n a v a i l a b l e data a l s o r e q u i r e s t h a t the t e s t  Furthermore,  that  thesis.  f o r measuring the e i g h t determinants are not  resources,  influence  i s t o compare t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h  i s the approach taken  be q u a l i t a t i v e l y  for  access and/or  locations i s not a s u f f i c i e n t  effect  c o m p a r i s o n and a n a l y s i s , b u t o t h e r s only  of  are a  c a n be f o u n d w i t h d e t e r m i n a n t s w h i c h a r e c l e a r l y  a n d had l i t t l e  This  Uniformity  settlement  extraneous  settlements.  i n the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y  i n h e r e n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  can  natural be  resources  -102thernselves degree  of  necessitate mobility  resources, followed  but  for  a n a l y s i s of  a s s e s s i n g each determinant  d e t a i l s of  the  analyses  First,  i s d i s c u s s e d and a l l Particular  determinant,  presence or  attention  abundance,  but  the  For for  the  Village purposes  of  a village  unit  valley),  in a single geographical  s i t u a t e d c l o s e r to  one a n o t h e r  considered  "village units".  dispersed,  village units  which only  approximate  on t h e maps) a r e  because  often  not  Procedures  at  the  the  same,  start  the  some of  qualifiable  location this  of  of  the  attributes,  it  basic  each elements  are  each  refers  specifically  i s a question  of  villages  have been grouped  into  areas of  high  (i.e.  That i s , v i l l a g e s  to others upper  adjacent  valley,  include only  study  s t e p was t a k e n  sites  was c o l l e c t e d a t  that  are  them  are  (see  (indicated  by a  Twenty  figures  Sites  to  i s d i f f i c u l t to points  for  broken  "village  5 and 6 ) .  because contemporaneity  several  which  where v i l l a g e s a r e more  l o c a t i o n are d i f f i c u l t  Contemporaneity of  to  villages  a single village.  are a v a i l a b l e  in this  s i t e density  several  i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s e s .  and p r e c i s e v i l l a g e  information  In  area.  the  locations  methodological  accurately.  or  i s comprised of  than  In  have been d e l i n e a t e d  villages  not  resources,  this analysis,  the  This  presented  animal  Units  units".  units"  plants.  specific character  other  "village  arrow  to  are  i s paid to  what I have termed  cluster  example,  absence.  Defining  lower  For  i n an a n a l y s i s o f  quantifiable  and i t s abundance.  quantifiable  For  are  each.  each.  determinant  to  for  factor  have l i t t l e r e l e v a n c e  included in each.  outlined.  measurements  may be a n i m p o r t a n t  it will  Although the steps are  different  of  determine determine  in time.  largely  Mcllwraith,  5 km 3 miles  r—53,54 Noosgulch  1  1  —  R  36 4 0 , 41, 42  F i g u r e 5. B e l l a  Coola  Valley  Village  Units,  i n d i c a t e d by  letters  A to  T  -104-  F J g u r e 6. L o w e r B e l l a C o o l a V a l l e y by l e t t e r s A t o E.  Village Units,  Indicated  -105however,  d i d n o t e s e v e r a l v i l l a g e s t h a t were o c c u p i e d a t t h e t i m e  Mackenzie.  For  of  o t h e r s i t e s , f o r w h i c h c o m p a r a b l e d a t a do n o t e x i s t ,  c a n be assumed t h a t  it  t h e y were a l s o o c c u p i e d d u r i n g  Mackenzie's, time and/or a time just p r i o r to t h a t ,  as informant  s i t e s were c r e a t e d a f t e r  recall  of  t h e p a s t i s l i m i t e d , ano few new  the time of p o p u l a t i o n  T h e r e a r e two m a j o r r e a s o n s why i t sites.  First,  ethnographic  s i t e l o c a t i o n s such a s , f r o m t n e mouth o f ethnographer given,  inexact.  i s d i f f i c u l t to locate i s not p r e c i s e .  Descriptions  t h e r i v e r " a r e c l e a r l y j u s t e s t i m a t e s by  those  village of  " t o u r m i l e s from the l a s t v i l l a g e " or " t e n m i l e s  or informant.  and o f t e n  information  decline.  (eg.  It  i s rare that  the  a more e x a c t l o c a t i o n  " a t the base of  Newskultz Mountain")  The s e c o n d p r o b l e m w i t h l o c a t i n g v i l l a g e s r e s u l t s f r o m  is are also major  c h a n g e s i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r and s u r r o u n d i n g l a n d s c a p e o v e r t i m e . r i v e r i s f a s t f l o w i n g ano m e a n d e r i n g ; even i n the memories of The mouth o f  the r i v e r  i t s c o u r s e has d r a s t i c a l l y c h a n g e d  the e l d e r l y people l i v i n g i n the v a l l e y itself,  for  i n s t a n c e , i s s a i d t o have  e a s t w a r d a l m o s t one m i l e s i n c e t h e t u r n o f  the century  today.  moved  (baer  1973:13).  P e r h a p s t h e m o s t s e v e r e c h a n g e t o t h e r i v e r and s u r r o u n d i n g t e r r a i n r e c e n t n i s t o r y o c c u r r e d i n 1936 tiiis  tlood,  s i t e s have been washed a w a y .  s i m i l a r l y destroyed i n The p r o b l e m o f number o f w a y s .  error.  large flood.  As a r e s u l t many o f  No d o u b t o t h e r s w i l l  of the  be  l o c a t i n g v i l l a g e s more a c c u r a t e l y was r e s o l v e d i n a  In many c a s e s t h e r e a r e f r o m t h r e e t o n i n e  different  references to a s i n g l e v i l l a g e , which served to  In a few i n s t a n c e s S m i t h  which d i f f e r e d  in  future.  ( 1 9 2 0 - 2 4 ) , however,  l o c a t i o n s w i t h r e f e r e n c e to the r i v e r of)  a very  ano o t h e r s u b s e q u e n t c h a n g e s i n t h e r i v e r ' s f l o w ,  old settlement  ethnographic  after  The  (ie.  recorded  to the north o f ,  from a l l o t h e r e t h n o g r a p h e r s .  In  reduce village  to the  south  these i n s t a n c e s ,  I  -106have assumed t h a t S m i t h ' s of  v i l l a g e s at  the c o n f l u e n c e s of  i s more d e f i n i t e , significantly  l o c a t i o n s were  because although  in parts,  the  contemporaneity  becomes l e s s  determining the  s u i t a b i l i t y of  attributes,  settlement.  delineates  such u n i t s  reasonably confident sufficient  to  pre-contact  p e r i o d of it  sites.  In  determinants,  Determinants  S i t e catchment  Relevant  village location the  focus  is  set  both  upon of  v i l l a g e u n i t s we c a n be  data as presented here  settlement  settlement  the  patterns  of  are  the  late  a single resource  s t u d i e s , on t h e o t h e r  i n order  several  hand, most  resources at a  the  on s e v e r a l  at  often  single  f r o m t h e s e two a p p r o a c h e s ,  t o examine  f o o d and n o n - f o o d ,  thesis  studies discussed e a r l i e r .  importance of  I combine methods  Village  or  sites in specific locations  By d e f i n i n g  importance of  new m e t h o d s ,  of  exact  history.  s t u d i e s examine  this study,  as introduce  location  a given a r e a , with a given  from o t h e r  the r e l a t i v e  streams  stable.  The c l u s t e r i n g o f  Nuxalk  location  and s m a l l  has changed  Instead,  settlement  the  s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e a n a l y s i s u s e d i n t h i s  Salmon-settlement  site.  determining  geographically.  differs methodologically  investigate  river  represent a c c u r a t e l y the  Finally,  several  the  important.  t h a t the  Finally,  B e l l a Coola River  s t r e a m s a r e more  By d e f i n i n g v i l l a g e u n i t s ,  for  the  incorrect.  importance of  as w e l l  several  sites.  Location  attributes  of  the p o s s i b l e determinants  of  village  location  are discussed below. S a l m o n s p e c i e s - D a t a on s a l m o n a b u n d a n c e d e r i v e d from p r e s e n t - d a y n.d.;  Manzon a n d M a r s h a l l  in pre-contact  fisheries publications 1980).  Destruction  of  (Fisheries  times  and  were  Oceans  spawning grounds  as a  -107r e s u l t of well the  l o g g i n g and o t h e r  as commercial  human-introduced  f i s h i n g have  B e l l a Coola valley  today.  has been d r a s t i c a l l y r e d u c e d . fish"  a n d t h a t when t h e  without  hitting  the  To o v e r c o m e recorded data  of  those of  be g o o d i n d i c a t o r s o f In a d d i t i o n  "weirs" valley but  the  relative  III)  v i l l a g e s w o u l d have  the m a j o r i t y  river.  of  to  than  thirteen  However,  other  the  set at  d a t a were a v e r a g e d o v e r  streams.  The  for  this  today's  each  entire  Department  i n stream c a p a c i t y figures  with  l a r g e c a t c h e s were o b t a i n e d  f i r s t chance a t  The  lower fish,  in only  t h e upper v i l l a g e s w o u l d have had f e w e r  i n the  days b e f o r e  i n salmon abundance  translated into differential  a  few  fish  the resource along the l e n g t h  salmon were so abundant  to  with  procuring these  reached the upper v a l l e y  to  past.  v i l l a g e access  river.  of  in  F i s h e r i e s and Oceans d a t a a p p e a r  i n t e r v a l s along the  had t h e  canoe  earliest  recorded years  factors affected  itself  relative differences have  gone t o  stream c a p a c i t i e s .  with  today.  i n the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y  them a s v i l l a g e s h a r v e s t e d  C o o l a may n o t  of  the  along the  s a l m o n c a t c h e s by  Bella the  villages.  Salmon w h i c h r e a c h e d t h e upper energy  I have  the  in  salmon  r i v e r was " b l a c k  s a l m o n a b u n d a n c e by s t r e a m i n t h e  f i s h would have  Theoretically  canneries that  different  fewer  Department of  to abundance,  (see Chapter  available  the d a t a ,  as  salmon  t h e number o f  i s c l e a r l y not the case  Nonetheless,  W i t h i n the main r i v e r  days t i m e .  the  has r e c o r d e d d r a s t i c changes  The  numbers o f  that  e n a b l i n g more a c c u r a t e c o m p a r i s o n s o f  the p a s t .  salmon.  the  " i t was d i f f i c u l t t o p a d d l e  t r e n d s and r e l a t i v e  and Oceans  recent years  This  are often  the s m a l l e r streams.  Fisheries  i s said that  spawning p o p u l a t i o n s  there  p e r i o d to o b t a i n  It  salmon ran  fish".  affected  The e l d e r s r e p o r t  d i f f i c u l t i e s with  for  Unfortunately,  greatly  ecological disturbances  as f a t .  Salmon c e a s e t o  parts  of  the  feed once they  river contained less  enter  fresh water  and  food their  -108source of  energy  ascent upriver upper v a l l e y  to  of  If  body  (Idler  u s e up a s t h e y make  and C l e m e n s 1 9 5 9 ,  fat,  and t h e r e f o r e  probably  salmon were s u f f i c i e n t l y abundant  food energy  Their  spawn  f a t which they  f r o m Kew 1 9 7 6 ) .  v i l l a g e s , t h e n , w o u l d have been h a r v e s t i n g  lower i n total fish.  i s s t o r e d body  taste,  spawning salmon.  Unfortunately,  B e l l a Coola v a l l e y r e d u c t i o n of  river,  short length of  there  i s no d o c u m e n t a t i o n  as a r e s u l t of  the B e l l a Coola R i v e r ,  fat  loss  the m i g r a t i o n .  The  as compared t o  t h e p r o b l e m w o u l d h a v e b e e n much l e s s  the  loss  numbers o f  due t o h o r m o n a l  salmon c o n c e r n i n g the degree o f  food value)  suggests that  i n the upper  may h a v e b e e n i n f e r i o r ,  were  fewer c a l o r i e s per  c o u l d be c o m p e n s a t e d by c o n s u m i n g g r e a t e r  however,  The  fish that  offered  their  fish.  changes  specific (and  in  to  the  therefore  relatively  the F r a s e r ,  severe i n the  however, former  case.  Other Aquatic for  Resources -  salmon are not a v a i l a b l e f o r o t h e r  i n v o l v i n g each of  species,  birds,  fish  aquatic resources.  available  As t h e  The  resources include a l l  other marine i n v e r t e b r a t e s ,  other  water  analysis be  r i v e r i n e and m a r i n e  b i r d s and w a t e r - a s s o c i a t e d  t h e salmon r e s o u r c e , abundance and d i s t r i b u t i o n d a t a f o r  resources are extrapolated  Unfortunately salmon.  those  a n d s e a mammals.  Like set of  s i m i l a r to  these resources i s s i m i l a r , these resources w i l l  analysed together. fish  Detailed data  from p r e s e n t - d a y  d a t a do n o t a l l o w a s f u l l  Qualitative  assumed t o  p a r a l l e l c l o s e l y those of  documentation resources.  knowledge.  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n as t h a t  d a t a on a b u n d a n c e a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  r e s o u r c e s , marine i n v e r t e b r a t e s ,  to  the  applied  to  present-day  and w a t e r - a s s o c i a t e d b i r d s the p a s t ,  since there  a v a i l a b l e which suggests e x c e p t i o n a l l y  Extrapolations  this  heavy  is  no  i m p a c t on  t i m e o f c o n t a c t seems w a r r a n t e d .  these Data  -109on a v a i l a b i l i t y  of  the  these  behavior  today, exist  of  their for  s e a mammals  habits  of  i n the  of  resources.  Plant  or  I).  This  of  the  reconstruct  logged, logged. utilize  areas of  Only those  resource are  to  do w i t h  the  i n c l u d e d i n the  l o c a t i o n of  Excursions  of  to  assess the  original logging  plant  i n the  l o c a t i o n s (fyitok..  information  this  data  to  of  determine  any  on t h e  local the  habitats  i n the  group  or  general  A  Appendix  plants  the  of  the  person  needs.  w e r e made  to  detailed recently  areas  the  that  were  trees  s u c c e s s i o n I was a b l e  nature  would  the  single  the  those  t y p e a n d age o f  forest  used as a  by  attempts  determine For  be  settlement.  valley.  fivesfe/-^).  will  (see  regularity  plants,  e n a b l e d me t o  Ceiymfa'*,/W+ry <?f  Through a knowledge  concentration  have s u f f i c e d t o meet  distributions  was a v a i l a b l e  riverine  that medicinal  by a s m a l l  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  valley  of  analysis  a village  data  different  past  of  of  reduced  sparsest  p l a n t s w h i c h were  have been u s e d w i t h  population.  The  create  a variety  knowledge  are g r e a t l y  some k n o w l e d g e  as t o  s p e c i e s from  today's  numbers  wetlands  given  p a r t i c u l a r medicines would  order  disturbed  of  we c a n s p e c u l a t e  herbs would not  procure  history  Changes  from  unchanged.  d i s t i n c t i o n was made a s i t was f e l t  Medicinal  In  their  remained  s p e c i e s , but  -Plant  raw m a t e r i a l  majority  Although  in a single analysis.  h a v e had l i t t l e  to  past,  Resources  dealt with food  species.  these  habitats these  animals.  have p r o b a b l y  w a t e r fowl  distributions  a l s o come l a r g e l y  to  pre-contact  environment.  Animal of  Resources  -The  l a r g e a n d s m a l l mammals  used f o r  both  foods  analysis of from  animal  riverine  a n d raw m a t e r i a l s  are  resources includes a  and f o r e s t included.  habitats.  variety  Animals  -110Animal Bella  numbers  have been d r a s t i c a l l y r e d u c e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s  Coola v a l l e y .  mountain (Smith  goats.  These  1920-24),  numbers  are probable  As w i t h original  for  they  the m a j o r i t y  according to  By u s i n g t h e h a b i t a t i t was p o s s i b l e t o  these resources. abundances,  Resources - T h i s  r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n a manner  plant  the h a b i t a t  resources  in  traditionally  resources, reconstructions  i n w h i c h i t was m o s t  it  i s impossible to  commonly plant  habitats,  determine  Relative  for  absolute  abundance,  however,  is discernable.  small set of  highly  that  prized  used f o r  resources  animal  is  resources.  resource l o c a t i o n s i n the v a l l e y ,  relative  of  species  reconstruct a plausible distribution  s i m i l a r to  and t h e r e f o r e  Each  d e s i g n a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from the  reconstructing original  accessibility  mountains  Similar declines  animal  a s s u f f i c i e n t d a t a do n o t e x i s t .  Mineral  after  of  local  i n the v a l l e y were a t t e m p t e d .  Unfortunately,  m e a s u r e d by a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f  is,  today.  i n the  of  Nuxalk.  distributions  was c a t e g o r i z e d  analysis,  are rare  the a n a l y s i s i n v o l v i n g  animal  the  i s most d r a m a t i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n the c a s e  a n i m a l s were once p l e n t i f u l  however,  e x p l o i t e d by t h e  found.  This  in  local  abundance o f  That the  these resources  suggested.  Trade -  Since trade  socio-economy, Nuxalk  access to trade  settlement  g o o d s moved  system.  trading  and/or  ventures  access to  role  Unfortunately,  as a r e s u l t of goods.  Nuxalk  It  their  the  p r e c i s e d a t a on q u a n t i t y i s p o s s i b l e , however,  w h i c h v i l l a g e s w e r e more l i k e l y t o  prized  i n the  r o u t e s may l i k e w i s e h a v e a f f e c t e d  i s impossible to o b t a i n .  from ethnographies in  i t e m s p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t  have been  location, social  to  of judge  involved  affiliation,  is  -111Protection  fron  Raiding  -  concerning pre-contact warfare doubt  played a part  Obtaining i s quite  in determining  measurable, difficult.  quantifiable Threat of  village location.  are a b l e to note  the presence or absence of  and p r o t e c t e d  sites,  value  scanty  their  (see a l s o T r i g g e r  general  statements  1968:66).  i s not c l e a r ,  for  fortified  no and sites  d a t a on w a r f a r e  We c a n go no f u r t h e r  about what i s l i k e l y to  attack  Archaeologists  ethnographers  but  data  than a  have a p p l i e d w i t h i n  is  few the  Nuxalk  territory.  Shelter doubt  from the Elements  an i m p o r t a n t  Certainly, different  determinant  village sites ways  Coola v a l l e y the degree  by t h e  of  Protection permanent  throughout  natural  topography  -  the  of  Nuxalk s e t t l e m e n t  elements.  Through knowledge  and c l i m a t i c p a t t e r n s , c a n be  measured,  of  resources to a given  with  a l l northern  than  land.  maintained paths land i s "limited. in  may d i f f e r  from group  Northwest  Coast  groups,  l a n d i s rough and t h e for  foot  travel,  season.  statements  travel  forests  element  given In  on  determining  the  the  is  available  Nuxalk c a s e as  i s much e a s i e r on  are dense. transport  Without  u s e d by members o f  water well  resources  which presumably  h a m p e r e d by new g r o w t h  has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t  in  How d i s t a n c e  group,  Even w i t h m a i n t a i n e d p a t h s ,  w o u l d have been g r e a t l y It  to  the a b i l i t y to  a r e a s w h i c h w e r e owned a n d commonly  travel  population.  and c u l t u r a l and p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t .  The  Bella  Resources  however,  technology  the  in  made.  A s m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , d i s t a n c e i s an i m p o r t a n t accessibility  of  some g e n e r a l  no  location.  Nuxalk a r e a were a f f e c t e d  to which areas are p r o t e c t e d ,  Accessibility  f r o m s t o r m a n d f l o o d was  the  did  exist  minmints,  appearing  a s t r o n g man c o u l d c a r r y  by  each  about  100  -112pouncis t h r o u g h approximately  the  B e l l a Coola valley  equivalent  On t h e w a t e r ,  to  however,  terrain  the weight  of  much g r e a t e r  (Smith  one d r e s s e d  the main r i v e r  c h a n n e l s was f a c i l i t a t e d t h r o u g h  fact,  the  Nuxalk are s a i d to  sea canoes aquatic  ( W i l l i e Hans,  ownership.  what the  to  knowledge  of  Nuxalk e l d e r ,  personal  the d a i l y  in  For  the most p a r t ,  communication).  d i s t a n c e s from a s e t t l e m e n t  general  r u l e s of  vicinity  of  minmints harvesting the  o w n e r s h i p were  village.  for  their Clearly,  answer such q u e s t i o n s  villages).  today.  It  Limitations Change  of  (eg.  it  nearest to  is in  the  for tidal  impossible general,  that  l a n d s c a p e and r e s o u r c e s i s a p r o b l e m w i t h  i n the  a l t e r e d t h e number a n d k i n d o f  Knowing  this,  I  resource.  exception.  resources available the  i n the  a c c o u n t when r e c o n s t r u c t i n g p a s t  The d a t a  presented here r e p r e s e n t ,  has valley.  environment  r e c o r d e d changes i n the v a l l e y ' s environment into  all  s i n c e European c o n t a c t  have d e a l t w i t h e a c h a s p e c t o f  All  n o t e d and t a k e n  N u x a l k c a s e i s no  B e l l a Coola valley  greatly  availability.  village  m u s t be a s s s u m e d t h a t  r e l a t e d s t u d i e s , and t h e  E x t e n s i v e change  separately.  however,  Data  in local  ecologically  located  resources, or  Unfortunately,  r e s o u r c e s w e r e owned by t h e v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t y  Nuxalk.  minmints  i s not c l e a r ,  t o any  In  than  a r e a s were  t h e more d i s t a n t  not d i r e c t l y a d j a c e n t  in r e l a t i o n to upriver  It  the  tides.  as V i c t o r i a i n  by  and  frequently  Travel  r e s o u r c e s by t h e N u x a l k was a l s o a f f e c t e d  r e s o u r c e s w h i c h were flats  by c a n o e  r e s o u r c e s , c o u l d h a v e b e e n r e g u l a r l y e x p l o i t e d by t h e  Access to  the  Travel  t r a v e l l e d as f a r  r e s o u r c e s a t much g r e a t e r  terrestrial  within  have  is  goat).  and i t s o u t e r c h a n n e l s .  outer  this  d i s t a n c e s c o u l d be t r a v e l l e d  much l a r g e r l o a d s c a r r i e d , w i t h l e s s e f f o r t . o c c u r r e d on b o t h  1920-24;  have  been  resource  as c l o s e as i s p o s s i b l e ,  -113the  pre-contact  situation.  Additionally, by t h e  Nuxalk  after  traditional  determining only,  p r e c o n t a c t use of  II).  involvement  economic p a t t e r n .  This  animals.  expended  f o o d and s k i n s ,  changes i n the  use of  less  however, were  preferred  that  those  that  c o n t i n u e d to  the the  the  quickly  i n the p a s t as those  because the  other  in  place i n  presence of trade  utilized  altered  Some a n i m a l s w h i c h s u p p l i e d  return  greater  for  r e s o u r c e s was  s p e c i e s w e r e no l o n g e r  the most c r i t i c a l  were w o r k i n g  fur  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a d e c r e a s e i n s p e c i e s e x p l o i t a t i o n and/or  resources  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p r o b l e m when  i n t h e h u n t w o u l d be r e l a t i v e l y  contrast,  The  i n the  may n o t h a v e b e e n e x p l o i t e d a s o f t e n  which s u p p l i e d both  of  s e v e r e changes had t a k e n  (see Chapter  and t h e h e i g h t e n e d  this l i s t  Most ethnographers  some v e r y  socio-economic system  canneries, the  s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t  i s not complete.  B e l l a Coola valley local  it  animals  energy  such a n i m a l s .  In  certainly as l e s s  harvested.  s p e c i e s to the  be u s e d w i t h  on t h e  pelts  Nuxalk  It  accessible is  assumed,  in pre-contact  some r e g u l a r i t y  in later  times  times.  -114Ihe  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Salmon and  Settlements  Introduction The B e l l a C o o l a - A t n a r k o r i v e r s because of Chapter  III,  t h e number and v a r i a b i l i t y o f  pp.76-80).  B e l l a C o o l a meant t h a t numbers o f  The s h e e r numbers o f  salmon s p e c i e s  s a l m o n t r a v e l l i n g up  the r i v e r .  in  However, the  hao d i r e c t a c c e s s t o t h r e e s a l m o n s p e c i e s .  A n o t h e r m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e i n s a l m o n a v a i l a b i l i t y was between For  the  o f coho and chum spawn on t h e l o w e r r e a c h e s o f  the upper v i l l a g e s only  tributaries.  (see  t h e r e w o u l d have been l i t t l e v a r i a b i l i t y  a v a i l a b l e c a t c h along the l e n g t h of  because the m a j o r i t y river,  s y s t e m i s u n i q u e among B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  the i n h a b i t a n t s l i v i n g a t the t r i b u t a r y  s t r e a m s w o u l d have been an i m p o r t a n t  the  side  mouths  s o u r c e of easy t o h a r v e s t  these  salmon.  Method In t h i s a n a l y s i s I e x a m i n e in several  tributary  t h e v a r i a t i o n i n number and k i n d o f  s t r e a m s a l o n g t h e B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r a s a means  d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o s a l m o n among t h e v i l l a g e u n i t s . t h o s e t r i b u t a r i e s w h i c h had v i l l a g e s s i t u a t e d a t t h e i r mouths included, between  salmon  s i n c e minmints ownership of  of  Only  are  t r i b u t a r i e s w h i c h were s i t u a t e d  v i l l a g e s w o u l d be i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e .  D a t a on  in  spawning  numbers were c o l l e c t e d f r o m F i s h e r i e s and Oceans c o u n t f o r t h e B e l l a C o o l a valley ( C a j i a d a , F i s h e r i e s and Oceans n . d . ; food a v a i l a b i l i t y of the average weight  Manzon and M a r s h a l l 1 9 8 0 ) .  e a c h s p e c i e s i s more i m p o r t a n t  ( i n pounds)  run per y e a r .  individually  This  figure  than a c t u a l  numbers,  of e a c h s p e c i e s i s m u l t i p l i e d by i t s  counts to a r r i v e a t a r e l a t i v e e s t i m a t e of that  Because  t h e amount o f  f o o d s u p p l i e d by  i s then averaged over s e v e r a l  by s p e c i e s , a s w e l l a s f o r a l l  species.  f r o m t h e s e c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e t e r m e d mean w e i g h t  yearly  years  Resultant  (MW) and t o t a l  values  mean  weight  -115(ttoW).  Comparisons of  between y e a r s ,  t h e degree of  and between  different  c a l c u l a t i n g the standard d e v i a t i o n respectively,  The t o t a l  of  (SO)  and c o e f f i c i e n t o f  a n n u a l mean w e i g h t  of  Appendix  Chinook  even t h e s e a r e i n s m a l l  III  for yearly  MW f o r e a c h  are present i n only  numbers.  Unfortunately,  three  stream).  salmon r e a c h i n g  the  present,  side streams,  and  separate f i g u r e s f o r  the  B e l l a C o o l a and A t n a r k o R i v e r s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e , of  by f a r t h e  greatest  A t n a r k o w o u l d be t h e p i n k s , C h i n o o k  s o c k e y e , a s t h e o t h e r s p e c i e s spawn m a i n l y i n t h e l o w e r v a l l e y . f o u r m i l e s of  (CV)  (MW) o f e a c h s t r e a m f o r e a c h s p e c i e s i s  s i d e s t r e a m s have o n l y t h r e e s p e c i e s o f s a l m o n  p i n k and chum.  number  variation  Salmon  p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e V (see  coho,  s t r e a m s f o r a l l y e a r s , were made a f t e r  f o r each s t r e a m .  Results- Availability  The m a j o r i t y  v a r i a t i o n both w i t h i n a stream  and The  lower  t h e A t n a r k o i s t h e p r e f e r r e d s p a w n i n g and h o l d i n g a r e a  for  chinook. T a D l e VI  lists  the t o t a l  mean w e i g h t  (tMW)  values for a l l  salmon  p r o d u c i n g s t r e a m s and t r i b u t a r i e s i n o r d e r f r o m g r e a t e s t t o s m a l l e s t  total  mean w e i g h t .  are  also given. (i.e.  S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n and c o e f f i c i e n t o f  v a r i a t i o n values  The v i l l a g e u n i t s w h i c h have g r e a t e s t a c c e s s t o t h e s e  are l o c a t e d c l o s e s t to)  are a l s o presented i n t h i s t a b l e .  streams  This  s u p p l i e s a rank o r d e r of v i l l a g e u n i t s a c c o r d i n g t o a c c e s s t o salmon in side  found  tributaries.  In T a b l e V I I s a l m o n abundance tributaries  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  ( d e t e r m i n e d by a d d i n g t o t a l  in a village unit)  settlement  s i z e and  both  mean w e i g h t v a l u e s o f  and s t a b i l i t y o f  the resource over  all time  TABLE V MEAN ANNUAL POUND WEIGHT (MW)* BY S P E C I E S OF SALMON PRODUCING STREAMS AND TRIBUTARIES AND NEAREST V I L L A G E U N I T * * Stream (from west to e a s t ) B e l l a Cool a / A t n a r k o Rivers Necleetsconnay River Tatsquan Creek Thorsen Creek Nuxalk Creek S k i m l i k s Creek S n o o t l i Creek N o o k l i k o n n i k Creek F i s h Creek Hagensborg Slough A i r p o r t Side Creek Salloomt River Nusatsum Creek Noosgulch River C a c a h o o t i n Creek  coho  Pink  Chum  Chinook  Sockeye  332,076  1 ,748,471  609,247  358,529  200,529  9,980 103 1,232 130 40 1,936 233 1000 1,460  20,866 1,511 13,902 1715 120 19,655 3,623 3,831 4,875 2,460 15,900 4,819 5,963 458  43,729 2290 25,577 4,550 525 12,325 4252 6,408 7,350 2,478 37,854 6,015 2,692 1,313  4,125 3,000 550  1,995 2,500 710  Nearest Village C-T A,B D E E E G H H H H J K L M,N  * F i s h w e i g h t s u s e d t o c a l c u l a t e MW a r e : c o h o - 10 l b s . ; p i n k - 3 l b s . ; c h u m - 14 l b s . ; c h i n o o k - 20 l b s . ; s o c k e y e - 4 l b s . * * 0 r i g i n a l f i s h c o u n t s a r e f r o m F i s h e r i e s a n d Oceans ( n . d ) a n d M a n z o n a n d M a r s h a l l (1980). B e l l a C o o l a / A t n a r k o and Necleetsconnay c o u n t s a r e from 1947-1980; a l l o t h e r c o u n t s a r e f r o m 1970 t o 1 9 8 2 . Number o f y e a r s f o r w h i c h c o u n t s t a t i s t i c s w e r e a v a i l a b l e r a n g e f r o m 2 t o 13 y e a r s f o r t h e s e s t r e a m s .  -117-  T a b l e VI TOTAL MEAN POUND WEIGHT (tMN), STANDARD DEVIATION (SD) AND C O E F F I C I E N T OF VARIATION (CV) OF SALMON PRODUCING STREAMS AND NEAREST V I L L A G E UNIT tMW**  Stream* 1 . B e l l a Coola River 2.Necleetsconnay River 3.Salloomt River 4 . T h o r s e n Creek B . S n o o t l i Creek 6.Nusatsum Creek 7 . F i s h Creek S.Noosgulch River 9.Hagensborg Slough l O . N o o k l i k o n n i k Creek 11.Nuxalk Creek 1 2 . A i r p o r t S i d e Creek 13.Tatsquan Creek 14.Cacahootin Creek 1 5 . S k i m l i k s Creek *  3,323,085 70,707 58,155 40,521 33,618 11,211 11,085 9,105 8,028 7,992 7,980 4,958 3,859 1770 665  Ordered a c c o r d i n g t o t o t a l  * * tMW = £^£ < Mvf , n  mean w e i g h t  SD*** 2,282,126 61,699 56,341 55,073 23,011 10,843 4,229 8,849 1,178.8 11,213 3,281 3,102 5,427 930 176.7  ****  CV= SD * 100 tMW  70.5 87.3 96.9 135.9 68.4 96.7 38.2 97.2 146.7 140.3 41.1 62.6 140.6 52.5 26.6  Nearest Village Unit C-T A,B J E G K H L H H E H D M,N E  wh.e r e MW- no. ...of. sa Imon ( s p e c i e s . x' Lb. / weight o.f-> s p e c i e s 2  SD=  (%)****  values  n,.—• • 3 . . ,5'.salmon species n.= 2 . , 34 years '  ***  CV  -118TABLE V I I THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A C C E S S I B I L I T Y TO SALMON AND STABLE SALMON RUNS BY V I L L A G E UNITS AND SETTLEMENT S I Z E V i l l a g e U n i t s i n Rank O r d e r o f Abundance o f Salmon i n V i l l a g e Unit T r i b u t a r i e s * (CV o f V i l l a g e U n i t T r i b u t a r i e s ) 1. A (87.3)  *  Rank  Order of S i z e by n o . o f villages in unit  of V i l l a g e Unit by n o . o f l a r g e villages in unit  1.  E  (7)  1.  E (5)  1.  B (87.3)  2.  A  (4)  2.  G (2)  3.  J  2.  D (4)  3.  A (1)  4.  E (26.6;  4.  B (3)  3.  B (1)  5.  G  4.  K (3)  3.  H (1)  6.  H (38.2;  6.  G (2)  3.  K (1)  7.  K (96.7)  6.  H (2)  3.  L  (1)  8.  L  8.  J  (1)  8.  J  (0)  9.  D (140.6)  8.  L  (1)  8.  D (0)  10.  M (52.5)  8.  M (1)  8.  M (0)  10.  N  8.  N (1)  8.  N (0)  (96.9) 41.1;  135.9)  (68.4) 6 2 . 6 ; 140.3;  146.7)  (97.2)  (52.5)  Ranking  r e s u l t s f r o m t h e sum o f tMW v a l u e s f o r a l l t r i b u t a r i e s t o w h i c h  each v i l l a g e u n i t had a c c e s s .  -119(expressed village  as c o e f f i c i e n t of  units  having  variation  values)  are presented f o r  a c c e s s to salmon producing t r i b u t a r i e s .  d e t a i l e d numbers a r e  l a c k i n g , the ethnographies  on s e t t l e m e n t  This,  village  size.  unit,  Finally,  i n d i c a t e s u i t a b i l i t y of the l e n g t h of  territory  produce  in  7.  figure  i n a d d i t i o n to  In  salmon  will  chinook, in  the  t h i s way,  a location for  i n MW v a l u e s )  b a s i s , b u t on a month  be p r e f e r r e d first  as t h i s  each presented  c a n be c o m p a r e d n o t o n l y  The  on  Presumably,  time i n  areas.  a  settlement.  significant  presence  i n t h e s p r i n g , may be o f  particular  t i m e o f y e a r when o t h e r  foodstuffs  i s the  information  is graphically  period of  resource harvesting  spawner  some  villages within  t o month b a s i s .  a longer  Although  t h a t streams w i t h i n  stream p r o d u c t i v i t y  streams which produce salmon f o r amounts  t h e number o f  (in a year)  (expressed  t h i s way,  an o v e r a l l y e a r l y  time  do s u p p l y  all  of  importance would  be  scarce.  Discussion The  r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e VI  concerning the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of Coola v a l l e y .  First,  Nuxalk t e r r i t o r y  the  i s s e l f evident  or Necleetsconnay  u n i t s a l s o had a c c e s s t o  lower  valley  the m a j o r i t y  of  salmon to the  had d i r e c t a c c e s s t o  (Bella Coola-Atnarko village  it  units, upper  i l l u s t r a t e several  Nuxalk v i l l a g e s o f  that a l l  a major  village units  salmon p r o d u c i n g  Rivers).  O v e r one h a l f  s i d e streams which produce  F and L had a c c e s s o n l y  valley  points  units,  however,  to  the  Bella  within stream of  the  salmon.  Of  the main r i v e r .  For  the B e l l a Coola River  (and  Atnarko)  i s the only major  salmon p r o d u c i n g stream t o w h i c h they  access.  Only s e c t i o n P of  the upper v a l l e y  village units  had  had a c c e s s  to  -120-  25 1,500-  20,000-  15500  10'6'  '  '9'  Bella Coola/Atnarko  '  '12'  Rivers Snootli  Tatsquon  Creek  V  Creek  Salloomt  15-  Nooklikonnik  1  V  1  ',2'  '  River  Creek  10-  •6'  '  Nootsatsum i igi Thorsen  '  i ' 9  ' ' ' l 2  1  '  Fish  Creek  '6'  9  Creek  months  Figure  7.  6  Creek  Skimliks  12'  9-,  Noosgulch 6  •  Creek  3-  Nuxalk  '9'  Creek  of  9  Slough  Airport  Creek  the  '  '12'  12  Hagensborg  Side  9'  River  Cacahootin  Creek  year  M o n t h l y Mean W e i g h t (MW) V a l u e s o f S a l m o n S t r e a m s . v a r i a b l e s=cales. '.(6=June; 9=Sept. ; 1 2 = D e c )  Note  '  -121major  side streams.  streams more  Unfortunately,  are l a c k i n g .  Of  all  the  Fisheries  village units,  t h a n one t r i b u t a r y  salmon p r o d u c i n g  As s t a t e d e a r l i e r ,  there  the main r i v e r access to species  The  upper  all  only  the  a substantial  of  spawn n e a r t h e  b u t two  of  Only p r e l i m i n a r y  all  lower  five  (C  v i l l a g e s would  B)  populations  villages  within  repeatedly  unit  time,  than  one l a r g e  village.  as s i g n i f i c a n t i n s i z e ; villages. producing  Both  or i f  most p r o d u c t i v e  village  According  (see Table  the  salmon s t r e a m s ,  villages  (see T a b l e V I I ) .  to  and a c c e s s  a n d number  to  of  relatively  I)  descriptive  there  i s a t l e a s t one  Only s e c t i o n s E and G,  in unit  two o f The  (units  are  reported  A,  village units B and J ) ,  of  productive  however,  a n d numbers  of  salmon i n t r i b u t a r i e s ,  seems t o be more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  village unit  size.  are  t o have more  E are  having  large  which  recorded  G are recorded as  t h e more  salmon abundance  Scarcity  to  large  seven v i l l a g e s i n u n i t  settlements  4 a n d 5).  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  size  settlement  villages respectively,  definite  numbers  we assume c o m t e m p o r a n e i t y ,  in time.  Five of  (ranked  Both  village units.  both  main  c o u l d have had a c c e s s  population  preferred  E and G had a c c e s s t o  streams  K)  the  occupied  i n the ethnographies  s e v e n a n d two  Thus,  s u g g e s t t h a t t h a t a r e a was e i t h e r  information  composed o f  river.  these  Several  at a single point  the  the  direct  locations.  populations  v i l l a g e w i t h i n most of  h a v e had  c a n be used as i n d i c a t o r s o f  and t h e r e f o r e  throughout  not  on  species.  a s s o c i a t i o n s between  a village  to  salmon r e s o u r c e s  had d i r e c t a c c e s s t o  through  s a l m o n c a n be a s s e s s e d ( s e e T a b l e V I I ) .  larger  these  H and E have a c c e s s  access to  stretches of  (A,  units  villages within a village unit  for  e i t h e r c o h o o r chum s a l m o n a s  village units  lower v i l l a g e  number  valley  only  data  stream.  is differential  s i g n i f i c a n t harvest  tend to  although river,  itself.  and O c e a n s  large  salmon  access to show  the  no  large however, Those  village  -122units  having  Table  VII)  are  interesting 12-15, large  access to  to  the  least productive  tributaries  ranked l o w e s t i n both  scales of  note  least productive  table VI), villages.  that  of  the  four  two w e r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h The  other  streams,  village unit  however,  have  to  Standard great  deal  streams.  of  run i n the values  less  (SD)  variation  a r o u n d tMW v a l u e s o f  suggests that  numbers  there  from y e a r  i n Table  As w i t h not  permit  salmon abundance,  the  size.  largest village unit  (unit  It  i s expected  that  i n bad y e a r s  have had t o localities. source of The greatest  look  Salmon  food  the  supplements  no  recorded large therefore  there  from y e a r  to  fluctuations  (i.e.  is a in  spawning  By c a l c u l a t i n g CV f r o m one  stream  scanty nature  of  the  population data  it  s t a b i l i t y of  i s i n t e r e s t i n g to  note  that  S k i m l i k s , w h i c h h a s a CV v a l u e  least productive to the  of to  values.  streams would  salmon normally  far  the  i n salmon runs from y e a r l o w mean w e i g h t  do  salmon  by  the most s t a b l e o f  probably  procured from  f r o m t h o s e s t r e a m s c o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d a  d a t a do show t h a t  villages within streams.  for  in  fluctuation  large variations  some o f  (numbers  salmon spawning p o p u l a t i o n s  y e a r w o u l d be m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t i n s t r e a m s w i t h That i s ,  indicate that  had a c c e s s t o  (i.e.  is  streams.  the a s s o c i a t i o n between  E)  N;  another.  However,  salmon producing t r i b u t a r i e s 26.6).  to  the  d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of  r u n s and s e t t l e m e n t  VI  M,  It  s t r e a m s and  to year w i t h i n a stream.  territory  D,  are a s s o c i a t e d with  i s much f l u c t u a t i o n  v a l u e s we a r e a b l e t o c o m p a r e t h e d e g r e e o f w i t h i n a village u n i t ' s  streams  productive  deviation  This  population  r e l y on t h e  L,  size.  v i l l a g e units with  s e t t l e m e n t s w h i c h a l s o h a d a c c e s s t o more p r o d u c t i v e d i d not  (units  those  dependable  year. v i l l a g e u n i t s having units  the v i l l a g e u n i t ,  E,  H,  D;  or they  Table  access  to  VII)  have  a l s o had a c c e s s  T h e r e i s no d e t e c t a b l e a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n  streams w i t h no  large  t o more  numbers o f  the  stable  villages  123ana stream f l u c t u a t i o n . between make.  Unfortunately,  more d e f i n i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s  salmon run s i z e and s t a b i l i t y and s e t t l e m e n t We c a n o n l y  tentatively  state that  size are d i f f i c u l t  t h e most p r o d u c t i v e and  s i d e s t r e a m s may h a v e p o s i t i v e l y a f f e c t e d t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f settlement, slight  whereas the  least productive  n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on  i n any g i v e n y e a r .  locations.  The  i n t h e i r waters  within  length of  village units  upper v a l l e y  (see Table  nos.  patterns.  First,  Bella Coola valley requirement to  for  all  to  s p e c i e s a v a i l a b l e , as w e l l also decreases.  of a casual  is interesting S)  from  is  located  of  on  the  s a l m o n w h i c h a p p e a r s t o be a minimum A c c e s s i b i l i t y from  d e c r e a s e s eastward i n the v a l l e y as the a s t h e number o f  In t h e  that  this  Nuxalk t e r r i t o r y  s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n i n the v a l l e y .  v i l l a g e , however,  i s an  s t r e a m s t o h a v e h a d an e f f e c t  v i l l a g e u n i t s w i t h i n the  had a c c e s s  there  (unit  s u m , a f e w p r e l i m i n a r y c o n c l u s i o n s c a n be drawn  analysis.  harvesting  3,6,8), h o w e v e r It  It  P e r h a p s c h i n o o k do n o t o c c u r i n  settlement  streams  VII,  u n i t w i t h more t h a n o n e v i l l a g e  numbers i n t h e l o w e r v a l l e y  of  if  suggest such a r e l a t i o n s h i p .  sufficient  village  for  Nusatsum,  t h e s a l m o n s e a s o n a n d number a n d s i z e  a prime chinook h a r v e s t i n g a r e a .  In  (Noosgulch,  is  r e s o u r c e s w o u l d have been s c a r c e .  data are not s u f f i c i e n t to determine  i n v e s t i g a t i o n does not  at  present  time a stream  the s i x t e e n s i d e streams  t h o s e s t r e a m s w o u l d have been p r e f e r r e d  a s s o c i a t i o n between  the only  Only t h r e e of  s p r i n g , a t i m e when o t h e r  expected that  villages  for  The p r e s e n c e o f c h i n o o k w o u l d h a v e e x t e n d e d t h e s a l m o n s e a s o n  into early is  an a r e a  settlement.  w h i c h d a t a e x i s t have c h i n o o k Salloomt).  stable  and most v a r i a b l e s t r e a m s had a  A few comments c a n be made c o n c e r n i n g t h e l e n g t h o f productive  to  upper v a l l e y ,  salmon p r o d u c i n g  side  v i l l a g e s appear to  be  number  -124d i s t r i b u t e d evenly This  throughout,  suggests that access to  essential  regardless of salmon p r o d u c i n g  to v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n .  between  mean w e i g h t  village  units  tend  values  the  for  Second,  presence of  s i d e s t r e a m s was  t h e r e may be a s l i g h t  s i d e streams and v i l l a g e  lower  producing areas.  conclusions are  impossible without  least  v i l l a g e w i t h i n most v i l l a g e u n i t s ,  one l a r g e  t h a t those significant  l o c a t i o n s were populations.  s a l m o n numbers w h i c h t e n d location.  Within  decision  to l o c a t e  size,  t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h more p r o d u c t i v e  and s m a l l e r v i l l a g e u n i t s w i t h  more c o m p l e t e  sufficiently Perhaps,  it  to a f f e c t  "rich"  these l i m i t s , however, in a specific  area.  association as  larger streams,  definitive  That there  however,  is  at  does  suggest  resource to  support  very l a r g e or very  s u i t a b i l i t y of other  streams.  not  salmon  More  data.  in this  i s only  the  side  factors  a  small  settlement  begin to mediate  the  -125-  The  Relationship  Between  Other Aquatic  R e s o u r c e s and  Settlements  Methods Since data comparable to other  aquatic  specific.  the  will  Drawing  from the  II),  as w e l l  Nuxalk,  d a t a on p r e f e r r e d  s a l m o n do n o t e x i s t  for  t h i s a n a l y s i s m u s t be  habitats  of  a s more s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n  s p e c i e s , the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of  these r e s o u r c e s to  these  less  species  available for the v i l l a g e  a  few  units  be d e s c r i b e d .  Results- Availability A few o f  of  the t o t a l  were a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n  Aquatic aquatic  o p e n unowned w a t e r s ,  Resources r e s o u r c e s p e c i e s e x p l o i t e d by t h e  the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y  r e s o u r c e s w e r e o b t a i n e d by t h e  starry are  flounder,  o r by o b t a i n i n g  the only  valley  and t h e  aquatic  itself.  Of  that the  birds,  i n the v a l l e y . the  v i l l a g e u n i t s t h a t w o u l d have each s p e c i e s i s b r i e f l y  only  to  four  m i l e s of  seal,  only  Table  VIII  river  the r i v e r .  sea l i o n ,  lists  Bella  these resources.  by t h e m i n m i n t s ;  otter)  gulls  Nuxalk,  in  Coola  the aquatic  B e l l a Coola v a l l e y  in  and  and sea  swans,  and  resources  as w e l l  as  Accessibility  below.  v i l l a g e s since o o l i g a n s tend to All  groups  a few h e r r i n g  ducks, geese,  access to  recapped  other  them d i r e c t l y  A c c e s s t o t h e o o l i g a n r e s o u r c e would have been  the lower  resource.  (hair  trout,  r e s o u r c e s which were a v a i l a b l e i n the  were d i r e c t l y a v a i l a b l e t o  Ooligan-  Presumably  Nuxalk  p e r m i s s i o n from n e i g h b o u r i n g  Ooligans,  s e a mammals  the water  eagles are a v a i l a b l e  itself.  N u x a l k e i t h e r by h a r v e s t i n g  a r e a s where r e s o u r c e s were owned.  of  available for  r e s o u r c e s e x p l o i t e d by t h e  (see Appendix of  those  ooligan net  restricted  spawn i n t h e  l o c a t i o n s were c a r e f u l l y  the upper v i l l a g e s would not  have  d i r e c t access to  first  guarded this  -126Steelhead  trout-  S t e e l head were a v a i l a b l e t o a l l  the Nuxalk,  c o u l d be t a k e n i n unowned w a t e r s o f t h e u p p e r r i v e r w i t h a hook  most  They were upper  accessible,  reaches of  the  however,  river,  to  the v i l l a g e u n i t s  as they were most abundant  procure i n the h o l d i n g pools i n t h i s p o r t i o n of s t e e l head t h a t presumably  spawned i n s i d e c r e e k s o f  Cutthroat  and d o l l y varden  t h e g r e a t e s t numbers to  trout-  the r i v e r .  These  those  was p r o b a b l y  those  Rivers.  f i s h that  did enter  t h e mouth o f  f i s h were u s u a l l y h a r v e s t e d i n unowned,  them.  r i v e r ' s mouth,  Waterfowl-  open w a t e r s to  to  the  there. r e s o u r c e s were m o s t l y c a u g h t w i t h  unowned w a t e r s by t h o s e who h a d t h e p r i v i l e g e o f  to  which  and egg h a r v e s t i n g l o c a t i o n s .  f o u n d a t t h e r i v e r ' s mouth w e r e more a c c e s s i b l e  S e a mammals- T h e s e  the  system  the r i v e r ,  These  at  valley  the B e l l a Coola  Flounder-  located  in  Access  the lower  di^Aets,  villages  was  minmints.  r e s t r i c t e d by t h e v i l l a g e s a t  Those  to  s p e c i e s c o u l d be h a r v e s t e d  trap,  the west.  to  Access  of  had c o n t r o l  the  streams.  t h o s e c u t t h r o a t w h i c h spawned i n t h e s i d e c r e e k s o f  H e r r i n g - Access to  the  and e a s i e r  they line.  located in  i n t h e upper B e l l a C o o l a and A t n a r k o  w o u l d h a v e b e e n c o n t r o l l e d by t h e  and  the B e l l a Coola R i v e r ,  r e s t r i c t e d by m i n m i n t s o w n e r s h i p o f  as  were p r o b a b l y  harpoons  h u n t i n g them.  in  open,  Traps,set  owned by t h e v i l l a g e s l o c a t e d c l o s e s t  Access to the waterfowl  frequenting  the  tidal  flats,  by  far  prime h a r v e s t i n g a r e a , w o u l d n o t have a c t u a l l y been r e s t r i c t e d ,  however,  t h e v i l l a g e s l o c a t e d i n t h e n e a r v i c i n i t y w o u l d h a v e had  access.  A c c e s s t o o t h e r a r e a s i n t h e v a l l e y was p r o b a b l y  minmints  ownership.  Herring g u l l s -  r e s t r i c t e d by  S i n c e g u l l s w e r e t a k e n w i t h bow a n d a r r o w ,  be c a u g h t by a l l v i l l a g e r s .  However,  i t was p r o b a b l y  greater  the lower  they  could  valley  -127-  TABLE V I I I , VILLAGE UNITS HAVING MOST DIRECT ACCESS TO AQUATIC RESOURCES  B  D E  NX X' fr^^t" 1  " " "  WW  if  **  **  ** ** ** **  ***  ** ** ****** ** K  ** ** ** ** ** ** * **  ** ** ** ** **  M N  R  ** ** ** ** ** **  * These v i l l a g e u n i t s l i k e l y h a d e x c l u s i v e of these resources.  r i g h t s to the harvest  ** These v i l l a g e u n i t s d i d n o t have e x c l u s i v e r i g h t s to t h e s e r e s o u r c e s , b u t were most s t r a t e g i c a l l y l o c a t e d t o h a r v e s t them. *** These v i l l a g e u n i t s had, b o t h e x c l u s i v e r i g h t s to t r o u t h a r v e s t i n g l o c a t i o n s , a s w e l l a s t o the main r i v e r t r o u t , where t h e h a r v e s t was n o t r e s t r i c t e d .  -128vi11 ages t h a t most o f t e n abundant  These  a r e most c o n c e n t r a t e d ,  the lower reaches of  probably  most  there.  Eaglesin  e x p l o i t e d t h i s r e s o u r c e b e c a u s e i t was  owned,  the  river.  and presumably e a s i e s t t o c a t c h ,  S i n c e s n a r i n g l o c a t i o n s o f e a g l e s were  t h e i r c a p t u r e would have been l a r g e l y r e s t r i c t e d t o  the  lower r i v e r v i l l a g e s .  Discussion It  i s p o s s i b l e to  accessibility units of  at  to aquatic resources.  t h e mouth o f  resources.  especially  d i s t i n g u i s h c e r t a i n general  the  r i v e r h a d by f a r  t o the main r i v e r u n i t s  s p r i n g when s t o r e s w e r e l o w ,  although  i s evident  the greatest  concerning  that  the  The  the lower f i v e  and t h e i r  a r r i v a l of  village  access to t h i s  abundant,  these f i s h i n the  v a l u e as a c o n t r i b u t o r o f Likewise  fat  the water  early to  t h e welcome change t h e y  offered.  the  fowl  t h e y may n o t h a v e made up a m a j o r p o r t i o n o f  would have been v a l u e d f o r  set  v i l l a g e s , and  ( C , D , E ) where o o l i g a n i s most  w o u l d make them a h i g h l y p r i z e d r e s o u r c e .  a n d s e a mammals, diet,  it  The a c c e s s i b i l i t y to o o l i g a n  w o u l d have been a g r e a t a d v a n t a g e .  diet,  First,  patterns  the  -129-  The  R e l a t i o n s h i p of P l a n t  R e s o u r c e s and  Settlements  Methods The methods u s e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s a r e l a r g e l y t h o s e a p p l i e d i n catchment s t u d i e s . overall  Here,  several  steps are undertaken  to evaluate both  v a l u e o f p l a n t r e s o u r c e s t o t h e N u x a l k economy and  a c c e s s i b i l i t y of  these resources to the i n d i v i d u a l  Nuxalk  similarity  of  settlements.  p l a n t s are grouped t o g e t h e r  a b u n d a n c e s and d i s t r i b u t i o n s ;  cover-types. cumbersome,  First,  This  step i s undertaken  a s a l a r g e number o f  p l a n t s w i t h i n each c o v e r - t y p e aDSolute r a t i n g .  The sum o f  of each c o v e r - t y p e  these groupings are  if  valuable plant  different  these values i n turn  a n a l y s i s i s given  Because p l a n t r e s o u r c e s a r e  a season.  The f i n a l  step of  highly  the  basis  to  analysis  to the Nuxalk  settlements  access to the  below.  Cover-types  D i v i s i o n i n t o c o v e r - t y p e s was f a c i l i t a t e d by i n f o r m a t i o n sources which d e t a i l the general Forests  b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zones b a s i s of  value  A more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f e a c h s t e p o f  D e l i n e a t i o n of  M i n i s t r y of  Individual  i s used t o r a t e the  s e t t l e m e n t s do have d i f f e r e n t i a l  resources.  less  a r e t h e n e v a l u a t e d s e p a r a t e l y a c c o r d i n g t o an  i n v e s t i g a t e s the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of each c o v e r - t y p e to determine  to  termed  i n o r d e r t o make t h e a n a l y s i s  v a l u e s a r e a l s o d e t e r m i n e d on a m o n t h l y  i n d i c a t e the value through  reviewed  according  plant species i s considered.  as a w h o l e .  seasonal, cover-type  the  the  S i n c e t h e a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e s many d i s t i n c t s t e p s , t h e y a r e b r i e f l y here to ensure c l a r i t y .  site  ecology of  the v a l l e y .  have d i v i d e d t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y (Yole et  the c o v e r - t y p e s  Unfortunately, the plant  aj_. 1 9 8 2 ;  lists  Researchers of into  R o b i n s o n and P o j a r  used here are taken from these  from s e v e r a l the  tentative 1981).  The  studies.  s u p p l i e d are not s u f f i c i e n t l y d e t a i l e d  for  -130-  my p u r p o s e s and t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f The o t h e r m a j o r s o u r c e f o r present-day notes  the lower v a l l e y zone i s not  t h i s a n a l y s i s comes f r o m f i e l d  roadside vegetation  along the v a l l e y  i n combination w i t h the M i n i s t r y of  as p e r s o n a l valley  knowledge of  into cover-types.  detailed ecological t h e summer o f cover-types  1982  IV.  (Lepofsky,  Turner,  as w e l l upper  to the  Nuxalk r e s e r v e  and K u h n l e i n 1 9 8 5 ) . parts of  the v a l l e y  in  These further  eastward,  patterns.  s p e c i e s which c h a r a c t e r i z e each c o v e r - t y p e  are presented  S p e c i e s i n c l u d e d here a r e o n l y t h o s e t h a t were u t i l i z e d food and/or  occur with  i n each c o v e r - t y p e  regularity  raw m a t e r i a l s and o n l y  are i n c l u d e d i n the d e s c r i p t i v e l i s t s . rarely in a cover-type  since the e f f o r t resource.  These  Forests c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ,  s t u d y c o m p l e t e d on t h e p r e s e n t - d a y  the Nuxalk e i t h e r f o r  only  (Turner 1982).  the  Lower v a l l e y c o v e r - t y p e s w e r e d e f i n e d f o l l o w i n g a  w h i c h had s i m i l a r v e g e t a t i o n a l  Appendix  n o t e s on  t h e v a l l e y ' s f l o r a , e n a b l e d me t o d i v i d e t h e  were e x t r a p o l a t e d  The p l a n t  correct.  (approximately It  would p l a y only  was f e l t  that  plants that  a minor r o l e i n the  t h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important  that  abundance) occur  economy  needed t o l o c a t e them w o u l d n e g a t e t h e v a l u e o f  Obviously,  by  those species 10-20%  in  the  i n the case of  plant  foods. Once t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n vegetation  patterns  of  o f c o v e r - t y p e s was c o m p l e t e d , t h e  t h e v a l l e y as a whole were d e t e r m i n e d .  r e p o r t s and maps w h i c h document t h e e a r l i e s t l o g g i n g i n t h e (beginning n.d.).  b u t a l s o t h e age o f classifications, p r i o r to logging. years),  supplied information  t h e t r e e s t h a t were l o g g e d .  The age o f  the trees  e n a b l e d me t o d e t e r m i n e what  (most o f  stage of  valley  on t h e t y p e s  Given  I was a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e f o r e s t  Logging  CoWifcia, Mi"-/»;i5lrybf -fwtsb,  i n the l a t e 1 9 4 0 ' s ) were e s s e n t i a l here  These r e p o r t s n o t o n l y  pre-contact  the  types  of  trees,  cover-type i n each area  them b e i n g o v e r  250  succession characterized  the  -131different The forest  areas at  the  time before  second growth c o v e r - t y p e s  not a v a i l a b l e  other coastal  i n mature  groups,  productivity  Unfortunately,  it  existed  as p l a n t  For  gathering  the purposes of  O l d e r second growth  is largely  zones  (SGO)  seem t o  2.  processing  to u t i l i z e ;  The C o t t o n w o o d  for  8.  both  r e s t r i c t i o n s of  harvest;  storability;  (see Table  IX).  the p l a n t  in i t s utilization.  nutritional  p l o t s would by  values of  The  village  the  Second surrounding reports). wet  i n d i c a t e d by t h e  cover-type  i n the  (Cot)  is  have  areas  logging  upper common  River.  Cover-types  3.  assigning relative  economic  the c o v e r - t y p e s .  affect  6. y e a r l y attributes  itself,  of  harvest;  This  foods.  only  was 1.  4.  r e l i a b i l i t y ; 7.  ease  are intended  encompass  and t h e c u l t u r a l  Unfortunately, the p l a n t  to  each  each s p e c i e s a c c o r d i n g t o e i g h t a t t r i b u t e s :  people needed f o r 5.  forest  i n extremely  this cover-type  the a n a l y s i s i n v o l v e d  harvest;  on t h e  these  i s assumed t h a t  the p l a n t s which c h a r a c t e r i z e  abundance;  involved  the  like  communication).  have e x i s t e d  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  a c c o m p l i s h e d by e v a l u a t i n g  the  of  a  of  Nuxalk,  w e r e owned a n d u s e d by e a c h  along the B e l l a Coola  next step of  values to each of  where  this analysis, i t  unknown.  the v a l l e y  uses  personal  the  such p r a c t i c e s were u n d e r t a k e n  Assigning Values The  that  b u r n down p o r t i o n s  O t h e r t h a n a few l o c a l i t i e s  the p r e - c o n t a c t  throughout  i s known  a wide v a r i e t y  ( T h i s i s p a r t i a l l y c o n f i r m e d by l o g g i n g  areas  the lower v a l l e y .  valley  offer  (SGNw a n d SGNd) w e r e l o c a t e d i n t h e a r e a  each v i l l a g e s e t t l e m e n t .  reports,  It  (Nuxalk e l d e r ,  Presumably  G r o w t h New c o v e r - t y p e s  in  forests.  successional stages a f t e r  zones  i s impossible to determine  i n the p a s t .  minmints,  These  did intentionally  increase plant  contact.  are r e s u l t a n t  h a s b e e n c u t down o r b u r n e d .  species  unit.  European  scanty  No d o u b t  to  of  restrictions  information taste  and  exists  energy  -132value,  as w e l l  as t h e p r e s e n c e o f e s s e n t i a l n u t r i e n t s ,  were  important  f a c t o r s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e g u l a r u s e o f p l a n t f o o d s by t h e Energy v a l u e i s p a r t i a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n a t t r i b u t e f o o d ana n o n - f o o d  resources.  which d i s t i n g u i s h e s  I n t h e a b s e n c e o f more i n f o r m a t i o n ,  d e c i d e d n o t t o i n c l u d e any a s s e s s m e n t s o f each  8,  Nuxalk.  the n u t r i t i o n a l  i t was  contribution  species. Another f a c t o r which i s notably  social  or p r e s t i g e value of  difficult  absent from t h i s a n a l y s i s i s  the s p e c i f i c  plant resources.  Again,  to get c o n s i s t e n t data concerning t h i s a t t r i b u t e .  the it  is  Jochim  ( 1 9 7 6 : 2 6 ) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t a r e s o u r c e i s more p r e s t i g i o u s t h e l o w e r density,  and t h e h i g h e r i t s w e i g h t ,  f a t c o n t e n t and n o n - f o o d y i e l d .  r e l u c t a n t to adopt t h i s i d e a , however, may c e r t a i n l y be r e l a t e d t o p r e s t i g e , what p r o p o r t i o n s .  Furthermore,  resources than p l a n t s .  studies,  prestige value w i l l  Values for separately  parts.  different  how,  and  in  ethnographic  t h e y were s e p a r a t e s p e c i e s ( i . e .  To t h e g a t h e r e r ,  o v e r l a p i n the a v a i l a b i l i t y of  then,  instead  T h i s was done b e c a u s e ,  i t was a s i f  t h e y were  in  the  two  completely  resources. plant species,  a s many r e l e v a n t  f o r w h i c h o a t a were a v a i l a b l e w e r e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s , s t a n d a r d i z e d judgements biases.  were made.  Still,  it  attributes  and  i s impossible to c o n t r o l  Much g r e a t e r e m p h a s i s may have b e e n p l a c e d t r a d i t i o n a l l y  t'he s t o r a b i l i t y o f  r e s o u r c e s r a t h e r than ease of  s u f f i c i e n t information attributes  attributes  u t i l i z e d p l a n t p a r t s have been c a l c u l a t e d  temporal  In a s s e s s i n g t h e v a l u e s o f  all  I am  d e f i n i t i o n seems more a p p l i c a b l e  the values of e a c h ) .  most c a s e s t h e r e i s l i t t l e utilized  i s not c l e a r e x a c t l y  its  have t o be e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s .  i n t h i s a n a l y s i s , as i f of  it  W i t h o u t more d e t a i l e d  f o o d and n o n - f o o d  t a k i n g an a v e r a g e  because although these  Jochim's  t o animal  of  of  equally.  along these l i n e s ,  harvesting.  on  Without  i t was n e c e s s a r y t o w e i g h  T h a t t h e r e a r e many a t t r i b u t e s  for  w i t h which the  all plants  -133-  a r e measured  somewhat  single attribute The the  values  dominant  reduces the  will of  greatly  likelihood that  i n f l u e n c e the  each c o v e r - t y p e  utilized  t h e wrong  results.  as the seasonal  plants  found w i t h i n .  This  values  for  i n w h i c h t h e y were h a r v e s t a b l e . as i t  resources  food  be o f  (particularly  greater  value  to  p l a n t s c l u s t e r around plant  t h e economy. several  resources at other  times w i l l  of  final  step of  the  of  for  presumably  Cover-types  analysis  involves  "catchment  the  village  others  offer  times  most  cover-types  which  for  offer  valued.  Settlements  determining  the a c c e s s i b i l i t y  have been most o f t e n  homogeneous  the  harvest  selected village units.  t e n d t o be r e l a t i v e l y  which  T h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d by  area t h a t would  around  step of  As  delimiting used  by  cover-type  i n large areas i n  the  i t was d e c i d e d t h a t s e l e c t v i l l a g e u n i t s w o u l d be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n a s i m i l a r environment.  changes  in cover-type  represented, congested.  The  For  distribution  the most p a r t ,  shape of  time-distances way  V i l l a g e u n i t s were throughout  a n d t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n maps w o u l d  10 V i l l a g e u n i t s ,  half  or the  inhabitants,  distributions valley,  area",  plant  will  be more  to  the  the  season u l t i m a t e l y  the  the y e a r ,  the settlements to each cover-type.  the  a longer  That i s , i f  weeks o f  Accessibility The  This  i s assumed t h a t c o v e r - t y p e s resources)  to  a v a i l a b i l i t y of  was a c c o m p l i s h e d by a d d i n g t o g e t h e r  a n a l y s i s was u n d e r t a k e n  any  as a whole were c a l c u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g  s p e c i e s , as w e l l  e a c h month  e m p h a s i s on  of  a total  of  the catchment  from the c e n t e r  at  l e a s t every  20,  were  thus  the  selected in order  valley  n o t be other  be  to the next v i l l a g e u n i t .  the  village  that  adequately  unnecessarily village  u n i t was  used.  selected.  was d e c i d e d upon a c c o r d i n g of  of  unit  T h i s method  to  t o a maximum d i s t a n c e  assumes t h a t each  village  of  -134-  u n i t w o u l d have u t i l i z e d surrounding use.  In  it.  fact,  Clearly,  the  t h i s i s a very rough e s t i m a t e of  up t h e  l a n d use and c o n t e m p o r a n e i t y had t o  is  of  settlement.  valley. sites  suffice.  we a r e m o s t c o n c e r n e d w i t h an a r e a f o r  populated  It  However,  here i s determining  That goal  to the  village  land  the  would  settlement  since d e t a i l e d data  are not a v a i l a b l e ,  i s important  extent  lower v a l l e y  l a n d a v a i l a b l e t o t h e e a s t and w e s t of  villages further  representation  t h e same a r e a l  v i l l a g e s l o c a t e d i n the densely  h a v e had much l e s s than  (owned) a p p r o x i m a t e l y  on  a visual  remember, relative  however,  what  suitability  i s not compromised a l t h o u g h  the  of  analysis  necessarily gross. During  1985),  survey  experiments  per hour through less  work c o n d u c t e d  valley  i n 1982  (Lepofsky e i  i n t h e f i e l d showed a n a v e r a g e w a l k i n g t i m e o f  thick  dense u n d e r b r u s h ,  r e q u i r e d to c l i m b the also determined.  i n the  underbrush  i n the  forest.  steep mountains  surrounding  The  the  with  time  the v i l l a g e u n i t s  times estimated i n the f i e l d ,  from the c e n t e r of  2 / 3 km  In a r e a s  a g r e a t e r w a l k i n g s p e e d was p o s s i b l e .  Given the t r a v e l  3 hour time c o n t o u r s  valley's  al.  1,  was 2,  and  v i l l a g e u n i t c o u l d be  delineated.  In a r e a s where t i m e c o n t o u r s o v e r l a p p e d w i t h  the adjacent  village unit,  t i m e c o n t o u r s w e r e drawn o n l y  the boundaries to the  north  of  and  south. Following  this,  calculated.  This  index  for  values  the y e a r l y  step of  Seasonal  mar.,  summer:  cover-type index  may;  e a c h v i l l a g e u n i t c o u l d be  t h e a n a l y s i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d by summing  values jun.,  determined.  (i.e.  jul.,  were a l s o c a l c u l a t e d .  v a l u e was  for  each v i l l a g e u n i t a c c o r d i n g to  catchment a r e a . apr.,  index value  winter:  aug.;  the c o v e r - t y p e dec.,jan.,feb.;  fall:  sep.,  oct.,  the  within  each  spring: nov.)  W i t h i n a s e a s o n , a minimum a n d  for  each  maximum  -135-  R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n Delineation The  pre-contact  analysis  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  classification  system i s h i g h l y  lines  landscape  (e.g.  Several  simplified.  that  unless there  a sharp e l e v a t i o n a l  are purposefully  i n c l u d e a r e a s s u c h a s swamps, cover-types.  Locating  points  Rarely  c a n one d r a w  change).  For  h a v e p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e economy  they  there  are  change  cover-type  zones  of  no  several  These  possible given  likely  I).  sharp  s c r e e s l o p e s , and t r a n s i t i o n a l  data.  Chapter  the  these reasons,  In a d d i t i o n ,  t h e s e a r e a s p r e c i s e l y was n o t  Furthermore,  First,  e x c l u d e d from t h i s a n a l y s i s .  bogs,  the  s h o u l d be made  available to  in  i s a d r a s t i c and sudden  a r e drawn d e l i m i t i n g t h e c o v e r - t y p e s .  cover-types  as d e s i g n a t e d  d e s i g n a t i o n s used i n t h i s a n a l y s i s .  d i v i s i o n s between c o v e r - t y p e s , the  Cover-types  cover-types  i s i l l u s t r a t e d in figure 8.  concerning the cover-type  in  of  small extent  were  (see p.  They h a v e b e e n i n c l u d e d i n t h e l a r g e r c o v e r - t y p e s  forest the not  19 o f into  text,  which  fall. The c o v e r - t y p e  successional flora,  of  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n presented here r e p r e s e n t s  stages of  both  the  the  forest,  i n the upper reaches of  and k i n d o f  floral  the v a l l e y  the upper v a l l e y  the lower  this portion  of  and t h e v a l u e s o f  for  significantly  index values  plant  s p e c i e s a n d b r o k e n down by m o n t h ,  drier  i s r e f l e c t e d i n the the v a l l e y .  Thus,  number floral  necessarily  versa.  Cover-types  the a n a l y s i s ,  plant  various  riverine-associated  i n h a b i t a n t s would not  v i l l a g e s , and v i c e  Assigning Values r e s u l t s of  The  species a v a i l a b l e throughout  resources a v a i l a b l e to  The  as the  upper and l o w e r v a l l e y .  environment  be a v a i l a b l e t o  as w e l l  the  involving  each cover-type are presented  the  as a whole i n Table  individual for IX,  all and  -136-  126*20'w  Upper B e l l a Coola Valley  I Figure 8. Pre-contact D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Cover-types Key: SGNd- Second Growth New-dry; SGOd- Second Growth Old-dry; Cot- Cottonwood; DFw- Douglas Fir-wet; DFd- Douglas F i r - d r y ; SGNw- Second Growth New-wet; SGOw- Second Growth Old-wet; WHw- Western Hemlock-wet; WHd- Western Hemlock-dry; TF- Tidal Flat  -13-7-  TABLE IX INDICES OF PLANT V A L U E S *  Species: TREES Red c e d a r S i t k a spruce Lodgepole pine D o u g l a s - f i r wood i n n e r bark  1  _  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  by  Attribute** 6 7 5  Sum o f Indices  8  1 1  1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1  3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 1  3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 3  1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1  15 14 13 15 16 15 15 16 16 16 15 17 18 15 13  2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1  2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2  3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 3 3 3 1 3 1 3 3  3 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 3  3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3  1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1  20 21 19 20 18 20 20 21 20 21 21 18 20 18 17 19 20 19 17 20 20 20 18 21 18 19 19  2 2 2 2  2 2 2 2  2 2 2 1 3 3  1 1 3 3 1 1  3 3 3 3 3 3  3 2 2 1 2 2  1 2 2 2 1 2  16 16 20 18 16 17  CM CM  4 2 1 3 3 3 W e s t e r n h e m l o c k wood 3 i n n e r bark 3 Douglas maple 3 Red a l d e r 3 Paper b i r c h 1 B i t t e r cherry P a c i f i c c r a b a p p l e wood 3 3 fruit B l a c k c o t t o n w o o d wood 3 3 i n n e r bark SHRUBS 4 Red e l d e r b e r r y wood 4 fruit 3 Highbush c r a n b e r r y 4 R e d - o s i e r dogwood 2 Soapberry 3 Salal 4 False azalea 4 Alaska blueberry 3 Mountain b i l b e r r y Oval-leafed blueberry 4 4 Red h u c k l e b e r r y 2 Stink currant 3 Wild gooseberry 2 Swamp g o o s e b e r r y 1 Wild blue currant 3 S a s k a t o o n wood 3 berry 4 Nootka r o s e 2 Wild rose 3 Wild raspberry 3 Blackcap 3 Thimbleberry 2 shoots 4 Salmonberry 2 shoots 4 Spirea 4 Willows HERBS 2 Horsetail stalk 2 root 4 S p i n y wood f e r n 4 Bracken fern 2 Skunk c a b b a g e l e a v e s 2 fruit  Index o f Value 4 2 3  -138Attributes: Riceroot L i l y - o f - t h e - v a l 1 ey Star flowered Solomon's seal Hemlock p a r s l e y r o o t Water p a r s e l y r o o t Cow p a r s n i p Sweet c i c e l y r o o t S p r e a d i n g dogbane Sarsaparilla root Bunchberry Kinnikinnik Blue l u p i n e Wild clover Fireweed shoots Western dock Strawberry P a c i f i c silverweed Stinging nettle fibre green MOSS " y e l l o w moss"  2  1 T 2  1 2  3 T 2  1  4  2 3 3 3 3 4 3 2 3 4 4 4 3 2 4 3 3  2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 2  3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 1 2 3 3 3 2 1 2  4  2  1  2  3  5 "3" 1  1 1  7 ~2 3  1 1 1 3 3 1  1 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 3  3  3  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  6  8 2 2  Total lb 16  3 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3  2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2  16 18 18 19 18 20 20 17 20 17 21 20 19 15 21 18 18  3  1  19  * S e e Apppendix I f o r s c i e n t i f i c names. **Attributes: 1 . Abundance o f u s a b l e p a r t ( s ) : 1 . v e r y r a r e 2 . somewhat common 3 . common 4. abundant 2.  P e o p l e needed f o r  3.  E f f e c t of  4.  Processing to  5.  Storability:  6.  Yearly  7.  Ease of  8.  Uses:  harvest:  harvest:  utilize:  reliability:  harvest:  1. 2.  s e v e r a l p e o p l e ; men + / o r women o n e woman, o r a s m a l l g r o u p o f women  1. 2. 3.  takes several years to replace no e f f e c t on o v e r a l l a b u n d a n c e i n c r e a s e s abundance o f f u t u r e h a r v e s t s  1. 2. 3.  much p r o c e s s i n g some p r o c e s s i n g no p r o c e s s i n g  1 . c a r t a o t (was n o t ) s t o r e d 2 . s t o r e d w i t h d i f f i c u l t y ( i n v o l v e s much 3. stored e a s i l y 1. 2. 3.  v a r i a b l e , not dependable +/- d e p e n d a b l e reliable  1. 2. 3.  difficult average easy  1. 2.  raw m a t e r i a l food  later)  -139-  figures  9 a n d 10  respectively.  Results presented in Table values of  Clearly,  Nuxalk  direct  sufficiently detailed  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  Values of variable.  (ranging  The c o v e r - t y p e  cover-type, relatively  small  from a v a l u e  with the highest value  With the e x c e p t i o n of  Douglas  that  the  quite  r a t i n g by f a r  c l u s t e r around  and  settlements.  9) a r e a l s o  the  of  quantifiable  p l a n t s p e c i e s ) t o examine  (figure  index  i s unfortunate  p l a n t s p e c i e s and  as a whole  is  Fir-dry  Second (DFd)  similar values, with  all  p l a n t r e s o u r c e s were  i n c l u d e d i n the graphs i n f i g u r e It  is  t o measure w h i c h p l a n t s w o u l d have been a v a i l a b l e a t t i m e s  of  i n the seasonal round.  are usually a v a i l a b l e year  plant  foods  i s discussed here.  N o n - f o o d p l a n t r e s o u r c e s , on t h e o t h e r  round and/or  their  use i s u s u a l l y l e s s  t h o s e i n s t a n c e s w h e r e c e r t a i n raw m a t e r i a l s may b e c r i t i c a l ,  have been p o s s i b l e t o s t o r e s u f f i c i e n t amounts  to  it  10,  hand,  urgent. would  h a v e them a v a i l a b l e  at  times. The  seasonal  graphs  i n f i g u r e 10  variation  available  to the  Flat  i l l u s t r a t e that  i n a v a i l a b i l i t y of  plants.  there  (TF)  i s a great deal  The m a j o r i t y  Nuxalk c l u s t e r around the months  Second Growth O l d - w e t the Tidal  a  margin.  seasonal a v a i l a b i l i t y of  important stress  individual  the remaining c o v e r - t y p e s  Although the  (SGOw).  It  ( i n t e r m s o f more  l o c a t i o n s of  the c o v e r - t y p e s  Growth O l d - w e t  all  i s a wide range of  some p l a n t s w e r e much more v a l u a b l e t h a n o t h e r s  a t t r i b u t e s and more s p e c i f i c  In  there  h a v e h a d an i n f l u e n c e on s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n .  the data are not  only  show t h a t  p l a n t r e s o u r c e s u t i l i z e d by t h e  1 3 t o 21). might  IX  of  plant  from June to  foods  October.  (SGOw), Second Growth New-wet (SGNw), and e s p e c i a l l y  zone a r e n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s to t h i s p a t t e r n .  second growth c o v e r - t y p e s  have p l a n t f o o d s a v a i l a b l e i n v a r y i n g  throughout  peak h a r v e s t  the y e a r .  of  The  t i m e i n t h e TF  zone,  Both abundances  in contrast  to  -140-  650550re in > £.450•*->  >>  c -t->  re i f— i Q. a>  350-  I 25015050SbNd  SGOd  Cot  bFw  DFd  SGNw  SGOw  WHw  WHd  TF  F i g u r e 9. Summary I n a e x V a l u e by C o v e r - T y p e s K e y : SGNd- S e c o n a Growth N e w - d r y ; SGOd- S e c o n d Growth O l d - d r y ; C o t C o t t o n w o o d ; DFw- D o u g l a s F i r - w e t ; DFd- D o u g l a s F i r - d r y ; SGNw- S e c o n d G r o w t h New-wet; SGOw- S e c o n d Growth O l d - w e t ; WHw- W e s t e r n H e m l o c k - w e t ; WHdWestern H e m l o c k - d r y ; TF- T i d a l F l a t  months Figure  10.  Monthly  Index  of Value  the for  yeor  Cover-types  (12=Dec;  3=March,  etc.)  -142other  zones,  Certainly,  i s during the  fall,  winter  and e a r l y  the presence of  plant  r e s o u r c e s d u r i n g t h e s e months w o u l d  been a welcome change  i n times of  mechanism i n t i m e s of  scarcity, particularly  Accessibility The village total  r e l a t i o n s h i p of unit  each c o v e r - t y p e  XI  and f i g u r e  land i s highly  valley  villages  t h a n one h o u r presumably villages, the  E)  the  owned by a n e i g h b o u r i n g m o s t l a n d owned by  and perhaps  (A a n d C , (TF)  however,  documented  that  zone,  as w e l l  This  each s e l e c t e d  seasonal  groups  (the  1915:43;  Drucker  1951:57).  Nuxalk,  however,  and t h e  l o c a t i o n of (if  are  becomes  (WHd) the  apparent  Members o f  the  lower  a n d s o m e t i m e s much e n t e r i n g an  suggests that  for  and/or  cover-type  of  less, area  l o w e r vallti  south  f l a t s were owned. and N o o t k a )  divided  It  the  is  It  not e x c l u s i v e )  r i g h t over  not  clover  individuals  villages this  to  is  No s u c h s y s t e m i s r e c o r d e d f o r the lower v a l l e y  of  the  village units at  the mountainsides.  tidal  Kwakiutl  (Curtis  it  r e g u l a r b e d s w h i c h w e r e owned by f a m i l i e s o r  had e x t e n s i v e  and  B) c o u l d a l s o be e x t e n d e d w e s t w a r d ,  how t h e p l a n t s on t h e other  and s p r i n g .  i l l u s t r a t e s several  w o u l d be n o r t h  area of  as onto  into  they  The  v i l l a g e unit before  harvesting  patches  that  no m o r e ,  i n the Western Hemlock-dry  r i v e r ' s mouth  clear,  First,  lower v a l l e y .  the minmints  The  Flat  X.  village units  village.  adjacent mountainside.  the T i d a l  and T a b l e  c o u l d walk  from the l i m i t s of  village unit,  back-up  Settlements  the catchment of  resource use.  r e s t r i c t e d i n the  (A t h r o u g h  have  12.  catchment l i m i t s around the  points concerning t r a d i t i o n a l that  11  valued  i n the l a t e w i n t e r  to  to  months.  p l a n t resources i n each s e l e c t v i l l a g e u n i t  i n Table  Drawing  and a h i g h l y  Cover-types  is illustrated in figure  abundance o f  represented  of  plenty,  spring  the  suggests  resource  area.  Figure  11a.  Time C o n t o u r s f r o m S e l e c t V i l l a g e U n i t s , (see f i g u r e l i b f o r key)  Lower  Valley  126° 20' W  figure lib. Time Contours from Select Village Units, Upper Valley Key: SGNd- Second Growth New-dry; SGOD- Second Growth Old-dry; Cot- Cottonwood; DFw- Douglas Fir-wet; DFd- Douglas Fir-dry; SGNw- Seond Growth New-wet; SGOw- Second Growth Old-wet; WHw- Western Hemlock-wet; WHd- Western Hemlock dry; TF- Tidal Flat. -• — indicates one hour time contours.  -145TABLE X COVER-TYPES PRESENT IN V I L L A G E UNIT CATCHMENTS V i 1 1 age U n i t 1 hour T F , SGOw  C o v e r - t y p e s i n Time 2 hours 3 hours WHd T F , WHd, WHw SGOw  B  major: minor:  C  major: mi n o r :  WHw, TF SGOw, WHd  WHa, WHw.TF SGOw  WHd  E  major:  C o t , WHw, SGOw, WHd  C o t , WHw, SGOw, WHd  WHd  DFw, SGOw, WHw, WHd Cot  DFw, WHw  WHd  WHw Cot  WHw, Cot  DFw  WHd, WHw  DFw  .  minor: G  major: minor:  J  *  major: minor:  .  SGOw, C o t  K  major: minor:  C o t , WHw WHd  WHd, Cot  WHw  WHd, Cot  WHw  M  major: minor:  DFw, Cot,  DFw, Cot,  DFd SGOd  DFw, Cot  DFd  P  major: minor:  SGOd, DFd Cot  R  major: minor:  DFw Cot  S  major: minor:  DFw, Cot  See t i g u r e y T o r key t o  DFd SGOd DFw,  DFW, DFd  DFd  Cot  DFd  cover-types.  DFd DFw, C o t  DFd Cot  DFw, Cot  DFw, Cot  DFd  DFd  Contours  -146-  TABLE X I MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM SEASONAL ABUNDANCE AND YEARLY I N D E X PLANT RESOURCES I N SELECTED V I L L A G E UNITS  Selected Village Unit B C E G J K M P R S  Winter 0/225 0/225 0/145 0/145 0/90 0/90 0/50 0/50 0/30 0/30  Spring Summer (mi n i mum/maximum)* 170/420 90/220 170/420 90/220 225/495 90/220 245/625 90/240 165/455 20/130 20/110 145/325 20/11 95/330 95/350 20/100 20/80 75/270 20/80 75/270  Fall 160/288 160/288 120/295 150/385 90/255 60/165 50/140 50/140 50/140 50/140  VALUES OF  Yearly Total** 1373 1373 1374 1730 1112 756 981 981 729 729  * Calculated by adding together low (or h i g h r in the case of the maximum values) seasonal index values for each cover-type to which a village unit had access. **Calculated by adding sum totals of index values for each covertype to which a village unit had access.  -147-  600 —  300 —  ° ~r i w  Sp  i s  "  T W  Sp  i  l  l  S  F  BBC*  500 —  >  a) T3  Z  300 — seasonal  abundance:  —  maximum minimum  • w R  Figure  6  S *  v i l l a g e units of cover  Sp w SP s  12. Minimum a n d Maximum I n d e x Selected Village Units  with same d i s t r i b u t i o n  type in catchment areas  F winter, s p r i n g , s u m m e r , f a l I  Values of P l a n t Resources  in  -148-  In over  the upper v a l l e y  villages.  tend  Not  only  greater  because of  Greater Fir-wet  z o n e ) by u p p e r  of  plants within  abundance a n d / o r  partly  valley.  because of  valley  upper v a l l e y ) .  the It  i s evident  X).  of  All  located within  plant  (i.e. it,  Flat  their  which  in varying  region.  Nuxalk.  This  zone i n the  lower  included,  1354  i s among t h e  may somewhat  the  indices;  in  the  most  compensate  the c o v e r - t y p e s  abundance.  are  There appears to  and v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n  A c c e s s i b i l i t y to  t h i s zone a t  has a  cover-type  a c c e s s t o each o f  i n c l u d e d i n the r e s u l t s presented  e a c h v i l l a g e had a c c e s s t o  The  resources.  distance to cover-type  general  Douglas  Total  valley  as compared to  from the catchment areas t h a t  t o have  (TF)  sum o f  i n the upper v a l l e y ,  v i l l a g e s appear  also  a lesser  zone i s not  the  DFw,  is  resources.  the lower  t h e TF  i t s plant  time  i n the lower v a l l e y .  the T i d a l  without  from  does not n e c c e s s a r i l y  p l a n t s u t i l i z e d by t h e  score for  to each v i l l a g e u n i t  valley  (predominantly  composed o f  indicate that  a c c e s s i b i l i t y to  the c o v e r - t y p e s  no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n  not  the  lower a v a i l a b i l i t y of  available  Table  them t h a n t h o s e  s c o r e , o r 1705 Greater  vegetation  are generally  h a s a much h i g h e r r a t i n g  t h e TF  valuable of  if  lower  understory.  village units,  the presence of  However, even  1939 w i t h  sparse f o r e s t  diversity  the  the  v i l l a g e ' s c o l l e c t i n g area  a v a i l a b i l i t y of  a l l cover-types  Villages in  c o u l d be c o v e r e d i n t h i s  valley  the upper v a l l e y  scores for  lower  the r e l a t i v e l y  into a greater overall  abundance o f  greater  the d i s t a n c e t h a t  than  conflict  i n which a person c o u l d walk  a c c e s s i b i l i t y to bottomland  cover-types  value  but  [DFw]  translate  is  time  an a p p a r e n t  apart  or her v i l l a g e before c r o s s i n g another here,  for  i s the actual  of  l i m i t e d space.  t o be s p r e a d much f u r t h e r  greater  is  is less  p l a n t c o l l e c t i n g a r e a s as a r e s u l t of  upper v a l l e y  his  v i l l a g e s there  i n Table  X.  the  (see  cover-types  t h e SGN It  be  cover-type  i s assumed  l e a s t i n the area surrounding  that the  -149-  site.  The a b s e n c e o f S e c o n d G r o w t h O l d (SGOw a n d SGOd) z o n e s  certain  village units  It  i s l i k e l y t o be t h e r e s u l t o f i n c o m p l e t e  i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note  t h a t t h e SGN h a b i t a t s  a n d t h e SGOw z o n e i n t h e l o w e r v a l l e y overall  value  man-land  ratings.  throughout  are the cover-types  Because these zones  data.  a r e humanly  with  initial  village location.  these cover-types  the v a l l e y , the highest  created,through  i n t e r a c t i o n , t h e y s h o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d a s f a c t o r s  determining within  around  in  H o w e v e r , we do know t h a t t h e p l a n t s  p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t  part  i n t h e economy.  The  N u x a l k e n c o u r a g e d e a r l i e r s t a g e s o f s u c c e s s i o n i n t h e f o r e s t s by b u r n i n g order  to increase plant y i e l d s ,  i n a r e a s more d i s t a n t  to the  village.  Easy a c c e s s t o t h e s e h i g h y i e l d s u c c e s s i o n c o v e r - t y p e s  i n the  immediate  vicinity  important  r o l e i n the l o c a l  T a b l e XI  of an e s t a b l i s h e d v i l l a g e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y p l a y e d an  and f i g u r e  r e l a t i o n s h i p between to  plant  Although  plant  are only (with  economy.  12 i l l u s t r a t e some o t h e r  resources appears there  presumably  the exception  between  scores a t both  of J  and K ) , t h e r e  village  u n i t s a t t h e mouth o f t h e v a l l e y  ends o f t h e v a l l e y .  and k i n d o f p l a n t r e s o u r c e s .  i n the  Although  yearly  we c a n n o t  draw high  The  of p l a n t  graphs i n f i g u r e  index  values and  availability  of plant  i n areas with  that the (village  the highest  resources. 12 s u g g e s t much v a r i a t i o n  number  definitive  i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note  are located i n the lower v a l l e y  abundance  difference  i n t h i s way, the  t w o v i l l a g e u n i t s c o m p o s e d o f more t h a n o n e l a r g e v i l l a g e  u n i t s G and E)  adjacent  h a d a c c e s s t o much g r e a t e r  c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between settlements,  i s a large  Compared  Access  valley.  d i f f e r e n c e s i n v a l u e s between  units  only  village units.  to decrease s t e a d i l y eastward  incremental  of i n d i v i d u a l  points concerning the  r e s o u r c e s and i n d i v i d u a l  village  suitability  in  i n seasonal  r e s o u r c e s i n each v i l l a g e u n i t catchment.  All  -ISOvillage  u n i t c a t c h m e n t a r e a s r e a c h t h e i r peak  low in w i n t e r and s p r i n g . t h e mouth o f values  for  the  river  the winter  source of  plant  certainly  foods  i n summer a n d  The c a t c h m e n t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  (B,  C,  E a n d G)  h a v e by f a r  and s p r i n g months.  s p r i n g a r e much h i g h e r  harvest  the  Even t h e  i n these catchment a r e a s . during t h i s time,  their  t h e v i l l a g e unite a t greatest  seasonal  index  lows  during  Access to a r e l i a b l e  when o t h e r  s t o r e s were l o w ,  was  advantageous.  Summary The  previous  greater access to  a n a l y s i s suggests t h a t the lower p l a n t resources than  e v i d e n c e d by t h e h i g h e r which i n d i c a t e s both Furthermore,  index  higher  those  scores for  productivity  those zones which o f f e r  the  valley  i n the sites  i n the lower  times i n the s u b s i s t e n c e round are l o c a t e d only  valley.  In c o m p a r i s o n ,  these  the  supply  of  the  lower v a l l e y  v i l l a g e s , those  r i v e r were b e s t s i t u a t e d t o  harvest  v i l l a g e s were most r e s t r i c t e d i n a r e a ,  the north Tidal  valley,  i n the  times i n the  lower upper  valley  rare.  Finally, mouth o f  is  potentially  critical  are quite  This  diversity.  plant resources at  these  had  upper v a l l e y .  and g r e a t e r  plants available at  villages  and/or  Flat  (TF)  of  floral  south,  as w e l l  as the  plant  access  resources.  to h a r v e s t i n g  highly valued,  zone t o the e a s t o f f e r e d resources.  villages located at  and e a s i l y  a wide v a r i e t y  and y e a r  the  Although areas reached round  to  -151The  Relationship  Between  Animal  R e s o u r c e s and  Settlement  Methods The m e t h o d s plant the  used here are  resources.  All  l a n d mammals u t i l i z e d by t h e  B e l l a Coola v a l l e y ,  Detailed  information  and G u i g u e t  1S56),  i n which they distribution and t h e  s i m i l a r to those used i n the a n a l y s i s  e n a b l e d me t o  each animal  identify  a r e m o s t l i k e l y t o be f o u n d of c o v e r - t y p e s  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  determine which animal  Nuxalk and a v a i l a b l e  are i n c l u d e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n (see Table  on t h e h a b i t s o f  presented  (taken  (Table XII). previous  the  From  from  Cowan  cover-types  the  analysis  animals w i t h i n each c o v e r - t y p e  (Figure  i t was p o s s i b l e  r e s o u r c e s were most a v a i l a b l e t o  the  in  XII).  largely  each s p e c i e s w i t h  i n the  of  8), to  Nuxalk  settlements. Unfortunately, species  i n the v a l l e y  quantitative  another.  similar  d e t a i l s on t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  has n o t been g a t h e r e d .  d a t a on a n i m a l  impossible to  possible  quantitative  determine  distribution within  the r e l a t i v e  to  that  of  the animal  of  a resource.  different  used f o r  the  i s an i m p o r t a n t In  the non-food  Without  detailed quantitative  the a n a l y s i s to  factor  by-products  however,  For  i n determining greater  resources to  instance,  food value  a v a i l a b i l i t y of  and t h i s i s p r e s e n t e d  usable  the r e l a t i v e  one  been  i n Table  weight  importance  (more m e a t  a l s o be p r o p o r t i o n a l l y  Seasonal  is  i t w o u l d have  d a t a we a r e u n a b l e t o c a r r y  i t s completion.  c a n be e v a l u a t e d ,  will  animal  it  of  e a c h r e s o u r c e i n a manner  resources.  addition to o f f e r i n g  catch),  of  the l a c k  valley,  been a v a i l a b l e  attributes  plant  the  importance of  Had more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n to evaluate  Because of  each  greater.  this portion animal IV  per  of  resources  (p.97).  -152The here.  catchment  a r e a s drawn  Although actual  as s u g g e s t e d  help  visualize  units. were  This  i s not  used t o  by  hunting  the catchment  suggest  animal  that only  resources,  considered i n the p l a n t  and  of are  lists  Both  and k i n d o f  animal  of  scanty  the  animal  it  i s imposible to  the  upper  resources  factor  the  If  catchment the  closest  same t e n  areas  village proximity  i s l i k e l y t h a t they village  were  units  here.  it  i s not  (ie.  analysis.  indicates  valley  if  t h a t the  access to  weight,  have been The  available  distribution  that generally to  harvest  roughly  relatively of  animal  village  the  the  there  animal  same  number  animal  resources,  non-food y i e l d ,  the  a valley.  distribution  of  in attributes  are a l s o not  That  settlement,  S i n c e each v i l l a g e  differences  etc.)  distribution,  i n t r i n s i c to  Without d i f f e r e n t i a l  a  distribution  r e s o u r c e s was  r e s o u r c e s may h a v e b e e n  this.  even  actual  location within  p o s s i b l e to determine of  offer  representative  i n determining animal  t h a t would  B e l l a Coola v a l l e y  we assume  determine  had a c c e s s t o a r a n g e  this  the  be  T h a t no d i s t i n c t i o n c a n be made may be  o r may h a v e h a d l i t t l e e f f e c t .  each animal  the  select village units.  and l o w e r  is in fact  presence of  resources,  The  each catchment  resources.  data.  of  significant  it  resources  from  areas w i t h i n  resources.  is,  the animal  resources within  no p r e f e r r e d  factor  areas of  a n a l y s i s are used a g a i n  a 1 to 3 hour d i s t a n c e  animal  may n o t  used  Discussion  Table XIII within  grounds  boundaries,  but  owned and u s e d by t h e c l o s e s t m i n m i n t s .  Results  a n a l y s i s are a l s o  w h i c h a r e a s were most a c c e s s i b l e t o  to  harvest  previous  minmints-owned  distributed one t o  i n the  relevant  unit of to  -153TABLE  XII  COVER-TYPES IN WHICH ANIMAL RESOURCES WERE FOUND* Animal Resource Ruffed grouse Mountain goat Coast deer Mule deer Black bear G r i z z l y bear Lynx Rabbit Porcupine Beaver Marmot Wolverine Marten Mink Racoon Red F o x Coyote Otter (river) Skunk Weasel Fisher Muskrat  C o v e r - t y p e * * Most L i k e l y Found W i t h i n WHw, SGOw, DFw, SGOd WHD, DFd WHD, SGOW, WHW, TF D F d , S G O d , DFw ( b e g i n n i n g a t S t e w i e ) WHw, SGOw, DFw, SGOd WHw, WHd, DFw, DFd DFw, D F d , SGOd WHw, SGOw, DFw, SGOd DFw, DFd WHw, SGOw, DFw DFd WHd, DFw, DFd WHd, WHw, D F d , DFw C o t , SGOw, WHw, DFw, SGOd WHw, SGOw, DFw, SGOw WHw, DFw, DFd DFd C o t , SGOw, WHW SGNw, SGOw, C o t C o t , SGow SGOw, S G O d , DFw C o t , SGOw  * S c i e n t i f i c names l i s t e d i n A p p e n d i x I I * * S e e f i g u r e 11 f o r k e y t o c o v e r - t y p e s .  TABLE X I I I ANIMAL RESOURCES AVAILABLE TO SELECTED VILLAGE UNITS  mmmk  '/?//?///  V i l l a g e Unit, B. C E G J K M P R s  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *  * * * *  ** * * * * ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * #  #  * * *  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *  * * * * * *  #  #  #  #  #  #  * * * * ** * * * * * ** * * ** * * * * * * * * * * * ** * * * * * * * * * * * ** ** * * * * * * * * * *  * * * *  /Www  * ** * * * * * * * * * * * * # #  •  -155The  Relationship There are  have  Between M i n e r a l  few m i n e r a l  R e s o u r c e s and  r e s o u r c e s commonly  n o t been r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o  Sandstone, abundant  black pigments,  in a l l parts  of  clay,  all  Settlements u s e d by t h e  Nuxalk t h a t  the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y  the v a l l e y  bottom.  O n l y two m i n e r a l s a v a i l a b l e  B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y were most l i k e l y r e s t r i c t e d i n a c c e s s .  the  r e d pigment and " g r e e n s t o n e " highly  p r i z e d among t h e  people.  and r i v e r c o b b l e s , were a c c e s s i b l e and  the  also  would  discussed e a r l i e r  N u x a l k , was n o t  found  These  in  were,  ( o b s i d i a n , w h i c h was i n the B e l l a Coola  valley). If  it  i s assumed t h a t  p r i v i l e g e of  the nearest minmints,  was r e s t r i c t e d . access to  red pigment.  The  archaeological  village  The  If  t h e s e r e s o u r c e s was  then a c c e s s i b i l i t y to  and v i l l a g e u n i t s  presence of  greenstone  s i t e s i n the v a l l e y ,  in trade,  units,  of  t h i s were t h e c a s e , t h e n  "greenstone",  red pigment  the ownership  suggests that  tool  Between  Trade and  trade,  involved  location  of  as an i n d i c a t o r o f territory, The  access to  and t h r o u g h  items  trade  neighbouring  the  importance of  the  these  advantage.  likelihood that  involvement  (see Chapter  goods,  village  S i n c e no e m p i r i c a l  on d a t a c o n c e r n i n g t h e  v i l l a g e s and t r a d e  sole  several  t h e s e r e s o u r c e s by  the  in trade.  e x i s t s e x p l i c i t l y r e l a t i n g the  the a n a l y s i s must r e l y  and L had  Settlements  The d i s c u s s i o n p r e s e n t e d h e r e e x a m i n e s u n i t s were d i f f e r e n t i a l l y  at  a s t h e known  access to  resources  had a c c e s s t o  fragments  would have been a s i g n i f i c a n t economic  Relationship  information  village units J  E and P o n l y ,  as w e l l  these  the  of  each v i l l a g e  relationship  II).  This  both w i t h i n the  data  minmints  groups.  v i l l a g e u n i t s w h i c h had a c c e s s t o  the v a r i o u s  trade  goods  in  between is  used  -156-  TABLE X I V VILLAGE UNIT ACCESS TO TRADE GOODS ORIGINATING FROM THE BELLA COOLA VALLEY  -157originating within  the  Table  II  list is  III, of  Chapter  trade  B e l l a Coola v a l l e y for  are presented  the complete l i s t  goods o r i g i n a t i n g  from the  of  trade  i n Table  goods).  B e l l a Coola valley  XIV  Because  units  given  d i d have  apparent  if  the  available data,  it  appears  s l i g h t l y greater access to  we remember  that  the lower  river  than  its  the most h i g h l y  Interior  a r e some o f  peoples,  having  economic advantage. the  the  access to better  Furthermore,  access  Relationships with were i m p o r t a n t trade.  elements  Physical proximity  p e o p l e and I n t e r i o r villages  greater  and  e s p e c i a l l y to  the  items,  greater  access to  Nuxalk.  with,  groups.  turn  given  Interior  that  to acquire ooligan.  acquired i t it  to  through the  Coola v a l l e y  the  as p h y s i c a l  Interior  upper  valley  in valley  Nuxalk  Certainly,  peoples often  Nuxalk,  Interior  intermarried  suggests that  a  Interior  peoples t r a v e l l e d upper v a l l e y  the lower v a l l e y  to  to  the  Nuxalk  v i l l a g e s , and  in  people.  their geographical had l i t t l e  location,  w o u l d have been i m p o r t a n t  More l i k e l y , t h e  exchange w i t h  peoples.  a village unit  the upper  by  advantage,  and I n t e r i o r  goods and r e s o u r c e s .  the upper v a l l e y  i s n o t documented  As a r e s u l t o f Bella  as w e l l  economic  e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d b e t w e e n C o a s t and  It  traded  the  great  the o o l i g a n resource only  r o l e of  T h a t t h e C h i l c o t i n and C a r r i e r  lower valley first  Interior  o b s i d i a n from  and r e s i d e d among,  reciprocal  have  quality  f i s h w o u l d be a  and c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  people would  access to  the  more  S i n c e salmon  quality  groups,  in determining  becomes  upper R i v e r .  the B e l l a B e l l a ,  neighbouring  village  better  traded  to  patterns.  lower v a l l e y This  it  s a l m o n was o f  l o w e r v i l l a g e s , w o u l d have a l s o been an i m p o r t a n t  a s t h i s r e s o u r c e was s o u g h t by b o t h  the  of  the  these goods.  ( a n d p e r h a p s more a b u n d a n t ) by-products  that  that  the  i s so s m a l l ,  d i f f i c u l t t o draw d e f i n i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g exchange  however,  (see  l o c a t i o n , the  regular contact with  Nuxalk of  neighbouring  the  lower  groups,  -158other  than  through  trade  and o c c a s i o n a l f e a s t s .  t h e v a l l e y w e r e more l i k e l y t o K i m s q u i t or South groups. in the  B e n t i n c k Arm t h a n w i t h  Village units  trade with coastal  with the  coastal  of  people from o t h e r  a t t h e mouth o f  the  r i v e r were  groups coming to  the  valley,  the ooligan r e s o u r c e ,  language  probably  most  active  s i m p l y because they This,  suggests that  were  in addition  Nuxalk t r a d e  p e o p l e s was l a r g e l y c e n t e r e d i n v i l l a g e s o f  in  to  with  the lower reaches  of  valley. In  sum, a l t h o u g h  permitted  a l l Nuxalk  them t o be i n v o l v e d  village units  in trade,  had a c c e s s  the lower v a l l e y  to  resources  A c c e s s t o o o l i g a n e n a b l e d them t o e x c h a n g e  upper v a l l e y  goods o r i g i n a t i n g  groups  people coming t o upper v a l l e y  the  for  valley.  Relations  p e o p l e were c r i t i c a l  lower v a l l e y  to  i n the  that  v i l l a g e s appear  h a v e h a d an a d v a n t a g e .  the  of  Nuxalk people l i v i n g  f i r s t v i l l a g e s t h a t w o u l d have been a p p r o a c h e d .  their control  the  intermarry  Villagers in t h i s part  Interior,  with  and w i t h  between  the  Interior  the l a t t e r  for  o b t a i n i n g goods  coastal  p e o p l e and  v i l l a g e s c o u l d n o t o b t a i n d i r e c t l y v i a t h e i r own  to  the  which  trade  routes.  The  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Similar  village  to  the d i s c u s s i o n of  u n i t s and p r o t e c t i o n  literature  do s u g g e s t t h a t  N u x a l k was n o t e n o u g h o f the  Protection  Interior  f r o m R a i d s and  trade,  no e m p i r i c a l d a t a e x i s t  from r a i d s .  threat  of  r a i d s among t h e  rare ocurrence;  p e o p l e w e r e known t o a l l y t h e m s e l v e s w i t h Attacks valley  Information  a major concern to deter  p e o p l e s was a v e r y  the  The  i n the  ethnographic  settlement.  Nuxalk but  v i l l a g e of  concerning  B e l l a Coola  in fact,  f r o m t h e w e s t w e r e c e r t a i n l y more common, v i l l a g e s were t h u s t h r e a t e n e d .  Settlements  the  in their only  the  Atglaxt,  valley  Attack  from  Interior wars. outermost located  at  -159-  t h e mouth  of  around  for  the  it  north  Necleetsconnay  River  i s reported  protection against raids.  o f Ajjqlax-fc,  The  was b u i l t on p i l e s .  p r o t e c t i v e measure a g a i n s t r a i d s as w e l l villages  are l o c a t e d w i t h i n  located at built  t h e mouth o f  p o i n t w e r e e v e r b o t h e r e d by Although there  inhabitants.  The  The  Although  the  a stockade,  environmental the e f f e c t s  conditions,  is  than  no s u g g e s t i o n t h a t  Presumably,  fear of  a problem f o r  not  floods  appears The  a n d Tsafc a t  There i s east of  the  no  this  upper v a l l e y of  the  faced  overall  people  the  River,  Problems of  houses, seem  may to  valley.  difference  lower v a l l e y , to  different  living  however,  Flooding, In  the  fact,  river several  there  not  months however, people  banks  for  villages  from the  and N u s q a l s t  f l o o d i n g were  and  there.  during the c o l d e s t  flooding,  of  faced a colder  Such s t r u c t u r e s a r e r e p o r t e d of  village  B e l l a Coola  a l l v i l l a g e s i n the v a l l e y .  To c o p e w i t h  raiding,  does n o t  would have been m i n i m a l .  t h e mouth  NuA&'tt" i n t h e u p p e r v a l l e y .  partly  Settlements  t o be l i t t l e  s u f f i c i e n t warmth  1920-24).  . b a i l t • . ,. h o u s e s o n p i l e s . o f (jumquts  and  t o h a v e l i v e d on i s l a n d s o r n e a r t o  (Smith  was a l s o  elevated  Warfare  t h i s presented a deterrent  at which time outside a c t i v i t y  are reported  from Elements  inhabitants  the houses o f f e r e d  was a p p a r e n t l y  and p e r h a p s  t h e upper and l o w e r v a l l e y  there  the  Qumquts,  too.  on v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n i n t h e  on t h e s e t t l e m e n t s .  more s e v e r e w i n t e r  to  these  precautions against  from i n v a d e r s .  Shelter  Nuxalk of  here,  i t was a c o n s t a n t menance t o  presence of  Between  unit C),  function  v i l l a g e s took  had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t  Relationship  Both of  v i l l a g e of  (in  directly  raiding.  have been s u f f i c i e n t p r o t e c t i o n have  The  stockade  a l s o been a  Nuxalk v i l l a g e s l o c a t e d f u r t h e r  the westernmost  i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t  tsafc,  T h i s may h a v e  v i l l a g e u n i t A.  the  had a l a r g e  v i l l a g e of  the B e l l a Coola R i v e r  suggest that  have  as f l o o d i n g .  on p i l e s w h i c h may h a v e h a d a d u a l  evidence to  to  villages  and restricted  to  -160these v i l l a g e s , however, the  v i l l a g e of  not  f a r e as Thus,  a s e v i d e n c e d by a s t o r y w h i c h r e l a t e s a  did  well.  appear  t h e r e do n o t  a deterrent  structures  when  NuAti-x" s u r v i v e d a f l o o d i n w h i c h n e i g h b o u r i n g v i l l a g e s  t o be s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n e x p o s u r e  the elements to the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y offer  time  to  settlement,  villages.  the presence of  seem t o h a v e o f f e r e d a d e q u a t e  to  Where t h e e l e m e n t s c o u l d piles  and  sturdy  protection.  Summary In that  t h e p r e v i o u s a n a l y s e s I have a t t e m p t e d  the presence of  determine  a range of  the s u i t a b i l i t y of  t o examine  r e s o u r c e s and o t h e r c u l t u r a l  an a r e a f o r  settlement.  late  evaluated with  E i g h t groups of  i n the ethnographies to determine t h e i r  determinants,  as i m p o r t a n t  r e l a t i o n s h i p to  the parameters o u t l i n e d i n Chapter  determinants, considered.  The  f a c t o r s of  Nuxalk l i f e ,  Nuxalk s e t t l e m e n t .  both c u l t u r a l  and  d e t e r m i n a n t s were a s s e s s e d q u a n t i t a t i v e l y  d e p e n d i n g on t h e n a t u r e  i n f l u e n c e on l o c a t i o n o f  Minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r  of  the data s e t ,  access  to animal  units  suggest that  homogeneously  settlement  locations, that  were keeping  were or the  i s , those that  it  relatively  i s not p o s s i b l e  to  are  Nonetheless  salmon, for a l l  Since these determinants occur the v a l l e y  the  Nuxalk v i l l a g e s .  r e s o u r c e s , and main r i v e r  throughout  the  environmental  t h e s e a r e among t h e minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s o f  settlement l o c a t i o n .  In  to determine  b o t h n e c e s s a r y and s u f f i c i e n t , a r e d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e . equal  in  the  each of which were  as they w o u l d have been i n p r e - c o n t a c t t i m e s ,  qualitatively, degree of  I,  will  s e t t l e m e n t and  o f more p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n s i n t h e B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y  pre-contact era.  identified  factors  S p e c i f i c goals of  a n a l y s i s w e r e t o d e f i n e b o t h t h e minimum r e q u i r e m e n t f o r determinants  the p o s s i b i l i t y  village  a suitable  -161investigate  their  Accessibility a minimum both the  to  i n f l u e n c e on any  particular settlement  salmon i n s i d e t r i b u t a r i e s ,  requirement.  This  i s s u g g e s t e d by t h e  e l e m e n t s and p r o t e c t i o n  certain  for  settlement  village units  to  t h e minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s by t h e v i l l a g e u n i t s . r e s o u r c e s and t r a d e difficult  s h i e l d themselves  are a c c e s s i b i l i t y to aquatic  Scanty  data  c o n c e r n i n g the  the  heavily  ranking of determinant resources,  by  included  in  mineral  o f more p r e f e r r e d  determinants  all  populated  order of  the settlement  system  i s presented protection  homogeneous  table  since their the  ranking of  determinants  (in  determinants.  r e l a t i o n s h i p to  The  each  A c c e s s t o main r i v e r  i n f l u e n c e on s e t t l e m e n t  to  salmon,  is  animal not  relatively  valley. village units,  lower v a l l e y  determinants.  a t t h e mouth o f  these resources.  their  to  locations  s h o u l d be t h o s e h a v i n g a c c e s s  a c c o r d i n g to  i s presented i n Table XVI.  suggests t h a t the  number a n d k i n d o f  settlement  number a n d r a n g e o f  i n T a b l e XV.  locations  from r a i d s , and s h e l t e r from t h e e l e m e n t s a r e  throughout  overall  settlement  a l l v i l l a g e units according  Preferred  lower v a l l e y )  v i l l a g e units according to  i n c l u d e d i n the  salmon  Also  taken  presence of  the  a n d b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d by t h e g r e a t e s t  to  minimum  resources  importance to  determinants.  villages  from  and p l a n t  i t e m s make t h e i r  the a c c e s s i b i l i t y to  units  i n t h i s way.  units  Shelter  l o c a t i o n a s i n d i c a t e d by t h e e f f o r t  the rank  all  streams.  f r o m r a i d s a r e a l s o among t h e  c a n be made by e x a m i n i n g  The  village  be  to a s s e s s .  Assessments of  (i.e.  does n o t appear t o  presence of  away f r o m s i d e s t r e a m s a n d a t v e r y u n p r o d u c t i v e  requirements  to  however,  site.  the r i v e r  Access to  Of  The  their  ranking of  v i l l a g e s have a c c e s s t o the lower v a l l e y  (A-E)  a greater  relationship  the  villages,  were b e s t s i t u a t e d t o number a n d b e t t e r  t h e main r i v e r s and t r i b u t a r i e s ) ,  ooligan,  village greatest the gain access  quality  s e a mammals,  of and  TABLE XV RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VILLAGE UNITS AND DETERMINANTS*  age A B C  b E F G H I J K L Ni N 0 P Q R S T  Unit  Salmon 3 3 0 1 3 0 3 2 0 3 2 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0  Aquatic Resources 3 2 3 3 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1  Plant Resources (3) 3 3 (3) (3) (3) 3 (3) (3) 2 1 (2) 2 2 (2) 2 (2) 1 1 (1)  Mineral Resources  -+  + -  +  + -  Trade Items 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3  Total 12 11 9 10 11 + 6 10 9 7 8+ 6 5+ 4 4 3 4+ 3 3 3  * A c c e s s t o a n i m a l r e s o u r c e s , p r o t e c t i o n f r o m r a i d s , and s h e l t e r from e l e m e n t s a r e n o t i n c l u d e d h e r e s i n c e t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e v a l l e y does n o t d i f f e r e n t i a l l y i n f l u e n c e s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f e a c h o f s a l m o n , a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e s , p l a n t r e s o u r c e s and t r a d e i t e m s w i t h e a c h v i l l a g e u n i t i s c a l c u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o o v e r a l l abundance o f e a c h d e t e r m i n a n t w i t h i n each v i l l a g e unit. A s c a l e o f 0 , 1 , 2 , 3 was u s e d t o i n d i c a t e a b s e n t , l o w , medium and h i g h a b u n d a n c e . P r e s e n c e o r a b s e n c e o f m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s i s i n d i c a t e d by a (+) o r ( - ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Values w i t h t h e p a r e n t h e s e s c o r r e s p o n d t o v i l l a g e u n i t s f o r w h i c h an a n a l y s i s was n o t c o n d u c t e d ; t h e i r v a l u e s are e x t r a p o l a t e d from adjacent v i l l a g e u n i t s .  -163TABLE X V I OVERALL RANK ORDER OF V I L L A G E UNITS ACCORDING TO T H E I R RELATIONSHIP TO DETERMINANTS V i l l a g e Unit 1. A 2.  B  3.  E  4.  D  4.  G  6.  C  6.  H  8. J 9.  I  10.  F  10.  K  12.  L  13. M 13.  N  13.  P  16.  0  16. Q 16.  R  16.  S  16.  T  -164-  water this  fowl,  as w e l l  area apart  importantly,  as p r o d u c t s o f  the T i d a l  i n i t s r i c h n e s s of  Flat  resources.  a c c e s s t o o o l i g a n s and T i d a l  (TF)  plant zone,  Moreover,  and p e r h a p s  more  F l a t p l a n t r e s o u r c e s meant  that  t h e fooo. h a r v e s t i n g s e a s o n was s u b s t a n t i a l l y l o n g e r f o r t h e l o c a t e d i n t h i s area than elsewhere i n the v a l l e y . w o u l d have p e r m i t t e d l a r g e r numbers o f  people to  This  villages  increased security  inhabit this area.  have a l s o p e r m i t t e d a r e l a t i v e l y more f l e x i b l e s e a s o n a l r o u n d . s i n c e p e o p l e w o u l d have been l e s s t i e d t o availability as t r a d e .  they c o u l d t r a v e l  farther  sets  resources temporally  It  That  is,  limited in  a f i e l d to conduct other t a s k s ,  such  Such r e s o u r c e a v a i l a b i l i t y w o u l d have a l s o p e r m i t t e d p e o p l e  r e m a i n more s e d e n t a r y ,  as l e s s t r a v e l  was r e q u i r e d t o h a r v e s t  may  to  seasonal  resources. Furthermore,  access to the t i d a l  ano r i c e r o o t ) may have been i m p o r t a n t  flat  root crops  nutritionally.  m i g h t have been a s o u r c e o f much n e e d e d c a r b o h y d r a t e s hunter-gatherers to harvest It  (see p.  11  of Chapter  f o o a s w o u l d have been  I),  l e a s t amount o f  among  p u r s u i t t i m e and t h e r e f o r e  these  the l e a s t r i s k .  are highly mobile;  i s much g r e a t e r t h a n f o r t h e  involve  ano p r e d i c t a b l e r e s o u r c e s , r e g a r d l e s s o f  the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y  Animal  f i s h or  these r e s o u r c e s from the Preference of  Interior  animal  t h e i r r e l a t i v e abundance  i t may have been p r e f e r a b l e p e o p l e whenever  t h e l o w e r v a l l e y as an a r e a o f  stable  (unless  In the c a s e to trade  for  possible. settlement  of  plant  t h e more  r i s k was e f f e c t i v e l y m i n i m i z e d ) .  Nuxalk,  the  the  the p r o b a b i l i t y  r e s o u r c e s w o u l d p l a y a s e c o n d a r y r o l e i n t h e economy a f t e r  that  easy  the resources i d e n t i f i e d i n  Perhaps given the r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r r i s k i n v o l v e d ,  t h e y were so a b u n d a n t  crops  advantageous.  resources i n the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y  resources.  Since root  i n f l u e n c i n g settlement are those that  c o m i n g home e m p t y - h a n d e d  silverweed  y e a r round a c c e s s to these  i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t most of  a n a l y s i s as p o t e n t i a l l y  (clover,  is clearly  of  -165illustrated  i n the v a l l e y ' s  known v i l l a g e s i t e s the  lower  river's  reaches of  mouth.  not only  This  recorded settlement  i n the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y , the v a l l e y .  but at  detailed  marriage with  information  present  the  are  in  located at  the  resources  specifically.  valley.  the  lower  valley  One w o u l d e x p e c t  inhabitants  lower v a l l e y  i s not a v a i l a b l e to  p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t the  than a s i n g l e d e t e r m i n a n t , settlement greater  for  people.  that  securing Unfortunately  pursue t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y i n  presence of  will  i n the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y ,  number and k i n d o f  both  i s supported.  aquatic  made t h a t a r e a a p r e f e r r e d  higher productivity),  a range of  determinants,  i n f l u e n c e the s u i t a b i l i t y of  the  The  rather  an a r e a  location.  a more a b u n d a n t  b u t a more s e c u r e b a s e o v e r  for  a v a i l a b i l i t y of  and l a n d r e s o u r c e s i n t h e  settlement  r e s o u r c e d i s t r i b u t i o n n o t o n l y meant of  of  54  context.  The  valley  total  greater a v a i l a b i l i t y of  valley  the  the  them a r e l o c a t e d  30 s i t e s  t h e mouth  socio-economy  t h e r e was a p r e f e r e n c e among o t h e r through  43 o f  Of  v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n s were r e s t r i c t e d t o  no d o u b t i n f l u e n c e d t h e  relations  the 4 3 ,  corresponds to the  i n the lower v a l l e y ,  That preferred  Of  pattern.  This  lower  variability  resource base an e x t e n d e d  a  in  (because  time  period. Diversity chances of single  in  Furthermore a wider v a r i e t y  resources w i l l  the y e a r .  from the  r e s o u r c e base u l t i m a t e l y  a d i s a s t e r o c u r r i n g as a r e s u l t of  resource.  different of  i n the a v a i l a b l e  Areas  tidal  the e a r l y  flats  like  spring, will  when s t o r e s a r e r u n n i n g  on a  of  that  r e s o u r c e s means  harvesting  the mouth o f  valley,  throughout  the  late  fall  for  fresh  a greater  which o f f e r s  and e a r l y w i n t e r ,  be c o n s i d e r a b l y more a t t r a c t i v e  l o w and l i t t l e  the  over-concentrating  be a v a i l a b l e f o r the  reduces  food  for  is available  root and  portion crops ooligan  settlement elsewhere.  -166Perhaps  t h e l a r g e s t gap i n t h e a n a l y s e s p r e s e n t e d h e r e l i e s  assumptions about village that  u s e d by t h a t  village.  each v i l l a g e were p r o b a b l y but  the l a c k of  the a n a l y s e s .  t o e x a m i n e why  concerning  Areas  I have had t o  of  assume  d a t a does not p e r m i t  the Nuxalk d e c i d e d to the  settlement  patterns  resource  i n c l u s i o n of  these  pattern  other  that  Nuxalk were l e s s m o b i l e than  from t h a t  t h i s are unclear. these other  o b s e r v e d among t h e  Nuxalk.  their coastal  reason f o r  the d i s c r e p a n c y , o r are t h e r e o t h e r  groups a r e examined  groups? Are environmental  settlement  factors at  of  Coast We know  neighbours,  What a r e t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s  system of  did.  A cursory examination Northwest  some o f  only  raised  groups along the  settlement  f o l l o w i n g comparative chapter the  areas  l o c a t e t h e i r v i l l a g e s where they  areas.  and  area  are presented here are intended  in other  a different  Coastal  for  Nuxalk a n a l y s i s , s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s a r e  indicate  i m p l i c a t i o n s of  immediate catchment  a l s o used e x t e n s i v e l y  s e t t l e m e n t and s e a s o n a l rounds o f  the  outside the  The a n a l y s e s a s t h e y  As a r e s u l t o f  the  Because e x a c t l o c a t i o n s  owned r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n a r e a s a r e n o t k n o w n ,  extraction, in  the  t h o s e r e s o u r c e s l o c a t e d c l o s e s t t o a v i l l a g e s e t t l e m e n t w e r e owned  commonly of  r e s o u r c e o w n e r s h i p and u s e .  in  of  the  differences play?  In  but  the  the  systems of  other  Northwest  i n o r d e r t o a d d r e s s some o f  these  questions.  -167-  Chapter V SETTLEMENT REVIEW OF OTHER NORTHWEST COAST GROUPS  Introduction In t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s I have shown t h a t i n t h e N u x a l k c a s e t h e presence of several location.  resources determined the s u i t a b i l i t y of a v i l l a g e  A r e v i e w o f r e l e v a n t e t h n o g r a p h i c and e c o l o g i c a l d a t a was  p r e s e n t e d i n o r d e r t o examine t h e Nuxalk s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m .  Tests of the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s o f t h e N u x a l k s e t t l e m e n t  pattern  were a c c o m p l i s h e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t o f t h o s e v a r i a b l e s on settlement. It  i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d among N o r t h w e s t C o a s t e c o l o g i c a l  a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s t h a t t h e r e i s much s p a t i a l and t e m p o r a l r e s o u r c e abundance a n a d i s t r i b u t i o n t h r o u g h o u t  variablity in  t h e c o a s t , and f u r t h e r m o r e  t h a t t h i s v a r i a t i o n l i k e w i s e a f f e c t e d the v a r i o u s Northwest  Coast  cultures differentially  I f we a c c e p t  (Suttles  1962, 1968; Riches 1979).  t h a t t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e s o u r c e s a f f e c t e d s e t t l e m e n t l o c a t i o n s among N o r t h w e s t p e o p l e s , t h e n t h i s v a r i a t i o n i n r e s o u r c e s i s e x p e c t e d t o be m a n i f e s t e d i n d i f f e r e n t s e t t l e m e n t systems along t h e C o a s t . In o r d e r t o examine t h i s n o t i o n , Coast groups,  the T l i n g i t ,  (Nootka) and C o a s t S a l i s h ,  settlement data of f i v e  Coast Tsimshian, Southern  Northwest  K w a k u i t l , West  are presented i n t h i s chapter.  As t i m e  n o t p e r m i t a s d e t a i l e d an a n a l y s i s a s p r e s e n t e d f o r t h e N u x a l k ,  Coast would  only a  summary r e v i e w o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t s y s t e m s o f t h e s e g r o u p s i s p r e s e n t e d here.  The c o m p a r i s o n i s n o t meant t o be e x h a u s t i v e ,  i l l u s t r a t i v e of p a t t e r n s .  but only  Because t h e r e v i e w i s n e c e s s a r i l y a b b r e v i a t e d ,  -168-  other non-energy investigated. along the  (i.e.  cultural)  The r e v i e w o f  f a c t o r s are not  settlement  thoroughly  patterns  proceeds north to  south  Coast.  Settlement  Summaries  Tlingit The T l i n g i t  Indians  southeastern Alaska. area.  In g e n e r a l  o r i g i n a l l y i n h a b i t e d t h e c o a s t and i s l a n d s  Their  v i l l a g e s i t e s were s i t u a t e d t h r o u g h o u t  "proximity  o f good f i s h i n g g r o u n d s and s a f e  1956:86).  "Flat,  sandy b e a c h o f  sites  the T l i n g i t  d e p e n d i n g on t h e l o c a t i o n o f islands.  mainland r i v e r s ,  For  had two p a t t e r n s  settlement — that  such as the S t i k i n e ,  residence,  i s , on m a i n l a n d r i v e r s  These l a r g e r i v e r s o f f e r e d  were p r e s e n t i n t h e s e w a t e r s a t d i f f e r e n t  February.  All  five  village  residence  species of  supply  salmon  the y e a r .  and t h e l a s t o f  or  large  a constant  times throughout  s p e c i e s began r u n n i n g sometime i n J u l y ,  spawners remained u n t i l  of  Taku and C h i l K a t ,  f i s h almost y e a r round to the r e s i d e n t s .  first  were  t h o s e g r o u p s s e t t l i n g on t h e b a n k s o f t h e  was more o r l e s s p e r m a n e n t . of  a river"  tide,  (ibid.:86).  According to Oberg,  offshore  locations  a bay s h e l t e r e d f r o m t h e  on q u i e t i n l e t s , o r a t t h e mouth o r l o w e r c o u r s e o f preferred  this  landing  p l a c e s f o r canoes" are c i t e d as important c r i t e r i a f o r v i l l a g e (Krause  of  The  the  S t e e l h e a d and d o l l y v a r d e n t r o u t  began  r u n n i n g a b o u t t h e t i m e o f t h e e n d o f t h e s a l m o n s e a s o n and r e m a i n e d  until  April  o r May,  Thus,  l a r g e v i l l a g e s s i t u a t e d on t h e r i v e r b a n k s c o u l d p r o c u r e  s p e c i e s of  a t which time the o o l i g a n entered the r i v e r s '  f i s h from a s i n g l e l o c a t i o n f o r a major p o r t i o n of  Only i n s p r i n g , d u r i n g the o o l i g a n r u n , would u p r i v e r migrate  mouths.  to the r i v e r s '  mouths  (Oberg  1973:56-57).  various the  g r o u p s have  year. to  -169-  On t h e i s l a n d s , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f transient  r e s o u r c e s r e q u i r e d a more  s e a s o n a l r o u n d among t h e T l i n g i t .  Here,  " t h e v i l l a g e s were p r i m a r i l y t h e w i n t e r r e s i d e n c e , where t h e p e o p l e depended upon deep s e a f i s h i n g . In J u l y , e a c h l o c a l c l a n d i v i s i o n w o u l d move t o i t s s a l m o n s t r e a m and n o t r e t u r n u n t i l November. In r e g i o n s where s a l m o n were s c a r c e , t h e I n d i a n s became e x p e r t s e a l h u n t e r s , and we f i n d a t h r e e f o l d d i v i s i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t . In M a r c h when t h e w e a t h e r began t o c l e a r , t h e v a r i o u s c l a n u n i t s w o u l d go t o t h e r o c k s and i s l e t s f a r o u t t o t h e s e a and s p e n d t h e e n t i r e s p r i n g t h e r e , l i v i n g on s e a l m e a t , deep s e a f i s h , s h e l l f i s h and s e a b i r d s ' e g g s . In J u l y t h e y w o u l d move t o t h e i r s a l m o n s t r e a m s , and i n November t h e c l a n d i v i s i o n s w o u l d be u n i t e d f o r f o u r months i n t h e i r w i n t e r v i l l a g e s . These v i l l a g e s were u s u a l l y s i t u a t e d i n q u i e t s h e l t e r e d s p o t s . . . . " ( O b e r g 1973:56-57). Although  Oberg p a i n t s a p i c t u r e o f  mainland T l i n g i t  as c o m p a r e d t o t h e i s l a n d g r o u p s ,  d a t a do n o t s u p p o r t t h i s . Tlingit varous  r e l a t i v e s e d e n t a r i n e s s among  Krause s t a t e s t h a t even though  v i l l a g e r s had a c c e s s t o an abundance o f places throughout  a l l the  the  fish,  the  ethnographic the  they  mainland  fished  in  year.  "They have t o f o l l o w t h e w a n d e r i n g s c h o o l s o f f i s h , so t h e y f i r s t make a summer camp a t t h e mouth o f t h e r i v e r , l a t e r on a s h a l l o w bay and w i t h hook and l i n e e v e n f o l l o w t h e f i s h o u t i n t o t h e open s e a . T h i s o f t e n makes t h e c a n o e s a s e c o n d home, f o r weeks and e v e n m o n t h s , and i n i t t h e y c a r r y a l l t h e i r h o u s e h o l d p o s s e s s i o n s , as w e l l as t h e g e a r f o r f i s h i n g and h u n t i n g " ( K r a u s e 1 9 5 6 : 1 2 0 ) . In a d d i t i o n t o f i s h ,  o t h e r r e s o u r c e s , s u c h as y o u n g  and s e a b i r d e g g s r e q u i r e d t h a t d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e i r homes  shoots of  the mainland v i l l a g e r s travelled a  (Oberg 1 9 7 3 : 6 9 , 7 0 ) .  These  a c t i v i t i e s seem t o  have been p e r f o r m e d by s m a l l t a s k g r o u p s f r o m e a c h v i l l a g e . m o s t r e s o u r c e c o l l e c t i n g was p r o b a b l y s i m u l t a n e o u s l y be s e n t o u t  resources throughout  seems t o have r e s u l t e d i n d i f f e r e n t the T l i n g i t .  several  fact,  resources.  Tlingit  territory  notions of resource ownership  A l o n g t h e m a i n l a n d r i v e r s where t h e s u p p l y o f  r e s o u r c e s was so g r e a t ,  In  p e r f o r m e d by s u c h g r o u p s , who c o u l d  from a v i l l a g e t o e x p l o i t  The v a r i a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  plants  fish  f i s h i n g r i g h t s do n o t seem t o have b e e n a  among  -170-  concern.  On t h e s m a l l i s l a n d s , h o w e v e r ,  s t r e a m s had t o be a p p o r t i o n e d . the h i l l s  Hunting  surrounaing the watersheds,  l a r g e ana s m a l l .  Berry,  as r e s o u r c e s were much s c a r c e r , grounds,  u s u a l l y c o n s i s t i n g of  were d i v i d e d among a l l  r o o t and c l o v e r p a t c h e s as w e l l a s r o c k s  s e a l i n g were owned by s i n g l e h o u s e s w i t h i n e a c h v i l l a g e Different importance  v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n s throughout  i n the T l i n g i t  i n resource abundance,  V i l l a g e s l o c a t e d a t t h e mouths o f  It  In a d d i t i o n t o a c c e s s t o y e a r  as a c o n t i n u u m o f  plants,  (ibid.:56). greatest  round s u p p l i e s of  as they c o n t r o l l e d t r a d e  food,  routes  Tlingit  village life fell  sedentariness.  l o c a t e d a t t h e mouths o f  into  i n t o w h a t c a n be  On one e x t r e m e w e r e t h o s e rivers.  however,  viewed  mainland  These p e o p l e c o u l d t a k e  s h e l l f i s h and l a n d mammals f r o m t h e permanent  The u p r i v e r g r o u p s ,  outer coastal resources.  w o u l d have had t o s e n d t a s k g r o u p s ,  The  or  pattern  of  the T l i n g i t  farther  reach of  energy  round supply of  t h e i r permanent v i l l a g e s .  meet a b u l k o f t h e i r e n e r g y expenditure  the  needs,  the  settlement.  food s t u f f s w i t h i n  One s e t t l e m e n t throughout  afield.  suggest that  t h e m a i n l a n d r i v e r s were t h e p r e f e r r e d l o c a t i o n o f  v i l l a g e r s had b a s i c a l l y a y e a r  in  i s l a n d d w e l l e r s were e v e n more m o b i l e as  t h e i r r e s o u r c e b a s e was l e s s c o n c e n t r a t e d and o f t e n I n sum, t h e s e t t l e m e n t  fish,  village locations.  the case of the o o l i g a n f i s h e r i e s , the e n t i r e v i l l a g e , to h a r v e s t  of  these  (ibid.:ll).  w o u l d seem t h a t  villages  in f i s h resources  variability  significantly  t h o s e l a r g e r i v e r s were o f  p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n s were f a v o r e d the I n t e r i o r  variable  Due t o t h e  v i l l a g e p o p u l a t i o n numbers were  for  (Oberg 1 9 7 3 : 5 9 ) .  the a r e a were o f  socio-economic system.  g r e a t e r a t the l a r g e r streams r i c h  importance.  villages—  These easy  l o c a t i o n was a b l e  the y e a r ,  as c o m p a r e d t o o t h e r l o c a l i t i e s .  mouths  to  w i t h a minimum  Furthermore,  access  -171-  to I n t e r i o r  t r a d e r o u t e s f r o m t h e s e l o c a t i o n s meant t h a t  had a n even g r e a t e r e c o n o m i c a d v a n t a g e  over t h e i r  these v i l l a g e s  neighbours.  Coast Tsimshian The C o a s t T s i m s h i a n t r a d i t i o n a l l y o c c u p i e d ^ t h e i s l a n d s and m a i n l a n d c o a s t a r o u n d H e c a t e S t r a i t on t h e N o r t h e r n C o a s t ; c e n t e r e d on t h e Skeena R i v e r , territory.  extending  their village locations  i n t o the I n t e r i o r ,  to Gitskan  I n h i s t o r i c t i m e s t h e r e a r e r e p o r t e d t o have been a s many a s  25 T s i m s h i a n s e t t l e m e n t s  ( G a r f i e l d and W i n g e r t 1 9 5 1 : 1 0 ) ;  fewer i n p r e - c o n t a c t t i m e s , perhaps as few as t w e l v e  t h e r e were many  (Allaire  1984:88).  R e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e Coast Tsimshian s e t t l e m e n t system i s c o m p l i c a t e d due t o d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l pattern.  The d i s p a r i t i e s seem t o a r i s e f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e was much  movement and r e l o c a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l C o a s t T s i m s h i a n v i l l a g e s i n t h e e a r l y h i s t o r i c p e r i o d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e m i s s i o n i n f l u e n c e and t h e Hudson's Bay Company. Drucker villages  The c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d (1965:115)  states that  below.  s e v e r a l groups e s t a b l i s h e d w i n t e r  " o n i s l a n d s f l a n k i n g M a e t l a k a t l a P a s s . . . s i nee t h e w i n t e r s a r e  much m i l d e r t h a n on t h e [ S k e e n a j  river."  Garfield  (1950:33-34),  however,  r e c o r d s t h a t b e f o r e European c o n t a c t t h e C o a s t T s i m s h i a n d i d w i n t e r t h e l o w e r S k e e n a and u s e d t h e M e t l a k a t l a a r e a o n l y t h e i r way t o t h e Nass o o l i g a n r u n i n t h e s p r i n g . MetlakaHa  Settlement  around  In f a c t ,  Allaire  s u g g e s t s t h a t o t h e r C o a s t T s i m s h i a n g r o u p s had t h e i r  traditional especially  f o r t e m p o r a r y camps on  i s probably a p o s t - c o n t a c t development as a r e s u l t o f the  i m p o r t a n c e t h a t v i l l a g e had d u r i n g h i s t o r i c t i m e s . (1984:88)  along  w i n t e r v i l l a g e s a l l along the Skeena, but concentrated i n the upper m i d d l e Skeena R i v e r a r e a .  u s u a l l y l o c a t e d a t t h e mouth o f a  tributary.  T h e s e v i l l a g e s were  -172-  S e v e r a l . c r i t e r i a have of  a s p e c i f i c settlement  been s u g g e s t e d w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d t h e s u i t a b i l i t y site.  "A h o u s e o r v i l l a g e s i t e was c h o s e n w h e r e a c r a f t c o u l d be r e a d i l y landed and beached. A l e v e l , w e l l d r a i n e d l o c a t i o n was a l s o n e c e s s a r y s i n c e houses had o n l y e a r t h o r sand f l o o r s . . . . A n o t h e r f a c t o r i n s e l e c t i o n o f a s i t e was t h e e a s e w i t h w h i c h i t c o u l d be p r o t e c t e d from r a i d e r s . The T s i m s h i a n p r e f e r r e d a p o i n t o f l a n d t h a t commanded a v i e w o f w a t e r a p p r o a c h e s , o r was b a c k e d by woods a n d swamp t h a t w o u l d r e t a r d o r d i s c o u r a g e e n e m i e s . " ( G a r f i e l d a n d W i n g e r t 1951:10). The their The  seasonal  Tlingit  round o f each Coast T s i m s h i a n v i l l a g e ,  neighbours t o t h e n o r t h ,  K i t s e l a s and Kitsumkalem,  reported  t o have  that  left  their  at their valley  t o t h e Nass t o h a r v e s t o o l i g a n .  to hunt supply  t o have  from the canyon, o f salmon t h e r e .  they  (Allaire,  villages.  only  During  the winter  Inglis  (assuming A l l a i r e ' s s e t t l e m e n t  these  i n trade  between  and MacDonald  the lower round.  where they  (1977:380-81) location  to trade,  the coastal  1979:70,71). the seasonal  Skeena v i l l a g e s appear Like  t h e upper  tribes.  year's  t o t h e Mass R i v e r  this pattern  That other  meant  With the round o f the This groups  t o h a v e h a d a much spring time f o r  f o r the ooligan  again reassembled into v i l l a g e u n i t s .  suggests that  able  and upper  upriver  river people,  Nolan  of residence, a t t h i s  r e l a t e s t o the importance of the lower  with other  were  distribution is correct).  g r o u p s meant mass m i g r a t i o n s  fisheries,  they  caught t h e i r  a l s o a p p l i e d t o some o f t h e o t h e r  more m o b i l e s e a s o n a l  The K i t s e l a s  i n the spring to  K i t s u m k a l e m may h a v e b e e n much t h e same a s t h e K i t s e l a s .  In c o m p a r i s o n ,  v i l l a g e s are  The l o c a t i o n o f t h e K i t s e l a s v i l l a g e s a l s o  exception of the p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e  d e s c r i p t i o n may have  of  sedentariness.  Tsimshian  a n d d u r i n g t h e summer t h e y  c o u l d a c t as middlemen  Skeena people  i n degree of  t h e two e a s t e r n - m o s t  s p e n t most o f t h e y e a r  people are reported travel  varied  l i k e that  Nass a s a t r a d e  t r i b e s are present  particular location,  a t t h e Nass a t t h i s  -173t i m e meant t h a t  social  i n t e r a c t i o n s became more i m p o r t a n t  ooligan harvest  itself.  A l s o at t h i s time s m a l l e r task hunt f u r  s e a l s and c o l l e c t  and p o s s i b l y f i s h  for  groups were s e n t t o  seaweed ( I n g l i s  1977:2,  some e a r l y s a l m o n ( G a r f i e l d  t i m e , when t h e s a l m o n b e g a n t o r u n i n May o r d u n e , groups r e t u r n e d to the Skeena t o h a r v e s t fall,  at which time they  returned to  than  fish  the  for  from Nolan 1950:13).  halibut,  1977:188), After  individual  family  salmon and b e r r i e s u n t i l  their winter villages  this  the  (Drucker  1965:118-119). The  s e a s o n a l round of  the Coast Tsimshian l i v i n g  on t h e  o u t e r c h a n n e l s ( e s p e c i a l l y D o u g l a s Channel) t o t h e s o u t h o f e v e n more t r a n s i e n t s t i l l . rights  they  harvests. the f a l l village  took  o t h e r p l a n t s and w a t e r f o w l  were a l s o g a t h e r e d  s e a s o n , b e f o r e the T s i m s h i a n r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r permanent  settlement pattern  follows.  t h e S k e e n a was  had t o d i s p e r s e d u r i n g t h i s s e a s o n f o r b o t h s a l m o n a n d Seaweeds,  Before  of  from Nolan  w i t h minimum m o v e m e n t .  Settlement  It  the  relative  r e s o u r c e s were a v a i l a b l e t o the v i l l a g e r s  i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note,  h i g h e s t rank  of  ( A l l a i r e 1984:91).  r i v e r ' s mouth  as  the Skeena, e s p e c i a l l y i n  in t h i s location permitted  Tsimshian v i l l a g e of the  winter  t i m e when M e t l a k a t l a a r e a  T s i m s h i a n seemed t o c l u s t e r a l o n g t h e b a n k s o f  as a range of  during  1977:190-191).  on i n c r e a s e d i m p o r t a n c e , t h e p e r m a n e n t w i n t e r v i l l a g e s o f  sedentariness,  berry  t h e C o a s t T s i m s h i a n , c a n be s u m m a r i z e d  the c o n t a c t p e r i o d , and t h e  the upper m i d d l e a r e a .  and  S i n c e t h e s e g r o u p s had no s a l m o n f i s h i n g  l o c a t i o n s (Simonsen 1 9 7 3 : 1 9 - 2 1 ,  The  islands  however,  that  i s l o c a t e d on a n i s l a n d o f f  one  coast  That v i l l a g e s i n t h i s a r e a were  r e l a t i v e l y more m o b i l e t h a n o t h e r g r o u p s s u g g e s t s t h a t n o t have been a p r e f e r r e d h a b i t a t i o n i f  the  the  the d e c i s i o n  to  t h i s area would s e t t l e w e r e made  -174-  on r e s o u r c e d i s t r i b u t i o n and abundance (cultural)  factors at play  the  than  Southern The  The o v e r w a t e r  importance  route  to  the  e a s i e r from t h i s v i l l a g e  the  mouth  location  Kwakiutl Kwakiutl  Georgia,  groups  social  other  areas.  were composed o f  mainland c o a s t from Smith of  season.  Nass w o u l d have been r e l a t i v e l y  from o t h e r  T h e r e seem t o be  h e r e a s s u g g e s t e d by t h e  l o w e r Nass t a k e s d u r i n g o o l i g a n of  alone.  Inlet  and t h e n o r t h e r n  have been i d e n t i f i e d  Mitchell  1975:329).  d e p e n d i n g on t h e i r movement  of  south to  tip (Boas  seasonal  local  groups  the northern  of Vancouver  shores of  Island.  1897:328-332, round of  occupying  At  199:37-41;  the the  l e a s t 25 Donald  e a c h g r o u p was q u i t e  local and  l o c a t i o n , and w h i c h r e s o u r c e s were b e i n g s o u g h t .  r e s o u r c e s were  for  Gulf  variable,  e a c h g r o u p was r e s t r i c t e d t o w e l l - d e f i n e d t e r r i t o r i e s  which various Reasons  The  several  collected (cf.  Boas  The within  1966:24-27).  s p e c i f i c v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n are g i v e n as  follows:  " M o s t o f t h e K w a k i u t l v i l l a g e s s t a n d on t h e g r a s s y t e r r a c e j u s t a b o v e t h e b e a c h g r a v e l o f some s h e l t e r e d c o v e , w i t h t h e t a n g l e d f o r e s t d i r e c t l y behind. O v e r l o o k i n g the w a t e r , the i n h a b i t a n t s were d i f f i c u l t l y s u p r i s e d by t h e enemy; b u t i f p e r c h a n c e a s u d d e n a t t a c k were made, they c o u l d f l e e t h r o u g h t h e r e a r o f t h e houses i n t o t h e t h i c k e t a n d l i e h i d d e n w h i l e t h e r a i d e r s p i l l a g e d and b u r n e d . Nearly e v e r y v i l l a g e h a d a f o r t i f i e d r e f u g e a t t o p o f an i n a c c e s s i b l e , r o c k y h i l l . . . . " (Curtis 1915:9). Generally winter.  time,  Vancouver  group  Although  l i v e d i n permanent  These were l o c a t e d a t t h e mouths  mainland, local  the Kwakiutl  assembled f o r  various  During  r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l  r e s o u r c e c o l l e c t i o n c e r t a i n l y s l o w e d down t o  c e r t a i n l y took  the  i n l e t s a n d r i v e r s on  I s l a n d and s m a l l e r i s l a n d s .  some a c t i v i t i e s , s u c h a s s h e l l  hunting  of  v i l l a g e s during  t h i s time  the each  activities. a minimum a t  this  f i s h c o l l e c t i n g a n d l a n d mammal  p l a c e , depending  on t h e l o c a t i o n o f  the  group.  -175When d i s t a n t  from the w i n t e r  v i l l a g e were p r o b a b l y Spring Kwakiutl  harvest  are reported  (Curtis  1915:19).  localities. Inlet,  d i d not break For  no m a j o r  1979:100).  The  harvest  this  time  l e a s t eleven of  the  Sound,  the major  ooligan harvesting  areas.  smaller family  groups  located at  food s t u f f s ,  these  the  head o f  Knight  (Mitchell  s u c h as s e a mammals, required For  the mainland  coast  important;  from the w i n t e r  village  groups  harvest location  and f a l l ,  at  1973:247). however,  local  groups appear to  group  territories  were the main salmon h a r v e s t i n g  Island  (Mitchell  have had a c c e s s t o  (see Donald  t a k e n a t t h e mouths  of  g r o u p s w h i c h had t h e i r w i n t e r  probably  at  ooligan  smaller i s l a n d s , or  r e q u i r e movement  to  groups  h a l i b u t was p a r t i c u l a r l y  the e a s t e r n shores of Vancouver  able to  important  the v i l l a g e  Some e n t i r e v i l l a g e s t r a v e l l e d d u r i n g t h e s e s e a s o n s t o  usually  these  Some s p r i n g r u n s a l m o n may h a v e a l s o b e e n t a k e n  (Weinberg  Summer  the  p r o d u c t s and seaweeds w o u l d have  Island,  d i d not  1915:25).  into  from each v i l l a g e a c c o m p l i s h these t a s k s .  Queen C h a r l o t t e  (Curtis  other  vegetable  l o c a t e d on V a n c o u v e r  by t h e s e g r o u p s  of  each  t r a v e l l e d up t o 35 m i l e s  r e l o c a t i o n was n e c e s s a r y t o h a r v e s t  s m a l l e r groups  facing  have  a t l e a s t one v i l l a g e u n i t ,  h a l i b u t and e a r l y that  into  to  from  harvesting.  the o i l - p r o d u c i n g f i s h  At  r e l o c a t e d as v i l l a g e u n i t s t o one o f That i s , they  groups  a n d many p e o p l e r e l o c a t e d t o h a r v e s t  Some g r o u p s  herring  smaller task  sent out to conduct the  time marked t h e coming of  territory,  resources.  resources,  remain sedentary  at  and M i t c h e l l streams  t h i s time.  s a l m o n on  salmon streams w i t h i n 1975:329)  groups  locations.  All their  and salmon  were  Obviously,  those  stream mouths,  Family  s e t up camps a t t h e s e h a r v e s t i n g  harvest  1979:101-102).  (ibid.:327).  v i l l a g e s at  months.  w o u l d have  been  from o t h e r  villages  Again,  harvest  the  -176of  other  r e s o u r c e s d u r i n g summer a n d f a l l ,  and r o o t s  and o t h e r  f i s h w o u l d h a v e r e q u i r e d s e t t i n g up s m a l l  e x t r a c t i o n camps a t v a r i o u s In  s p i t e of  s u c h a s l a n d mammals,  the  l a r g e gaps i n t h e  settlement  data  presented  s t a t e m e n t s c a n be made c o n c e r n i n g t h e K w a k i u t l  system.  Kwakiutl  is  the  evident  Kwakiutl  the  territory  i n the d i f f e r e n t  different  (eg.  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  Vayda 1961;  patterns  of  Weinberg  settlement.  i n e a c h s e a s o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a d i f f e r e n t ranging  from s e v e r a l  village  i n the w i n t e r ,  (in a l l  seasons).  i s l a n d to Resource perhaps  camps ( i n to  spring,  several  Furthermore,  the heads o f  several  different  Each v i l l a g e  intervene  t h e r i v e r s a n d s t r e a m s seem t o be t h e seasons except w i n t e r ,  location  from  ocean  locations.  differences;  here,  the Tsimshian.  group  to a s i n g l e  village  these  this  pattern,  habitats,  i n l e t s were chosen f o r w i n t e r  There  and  villages located in a single  have i n the Nass o o l i g a n f i s h e r i e s of  in a l l  1973),  summer and f a l l )  s o c i o - c u l t u r a l factors begin to  settlement  settlement  resources  settlement  d i s t r i b u t i o n a l o n e does not a c c o u n t f o r  mouths of  here,  s y s t e m i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by much v a r i a b i l i t y .  have been d i s c u s s i o n s about within  resource  localities.  some g e n e r a l The  berries  as t h e y appear  Regardless,  the  prefered location  for  when more s h e l t e r e d a r e a s  to  are  sought.  West  Coast The West C o a s t  Vancouver tips,  Island with  which belonged  respectively. groups  Indians  traditionally  the exception to  the Southern  of  occupied the western p o r t i o n  both  the  Kwakiutl  northern  and C o a s t  The W e s t C o a s t p e o p l e a r e g e n e r a l l y  according to geographical  area — Northern,  and  of  southern  Salish  divided into Central  and  three Southern.  -177The  Southern  tribes  presented below, from the  ( h i i t i n a t a n d Makah)  as t h e i r  remainder  of  settlement  are excluded from the d i s c u s s i o n  s y s t e m seems t o  t h e West C o a s t g r o u p s ,  and the  differ  substantially  data are  not  complete. The  West C o a s t  usually  p e o p l e s p e n t t h e w i n t e r months  l o c a t e d i n the  protected  villages  on t h e o p e n c o a s t .  reasons,  with  i n l e t s , however  Settlement  s h e l t e r being of  upmost  i n permanent a few g r o u p s  villages had  l o c a t i o n s were c h o s e n f o r  several  importance.  "Most w i n t e r v i l l a g e s were l o c a t e d i n t h e upper r e a c h e s of t h e i n l e t s , i n c o v e s t h a t q u a r t e r e d away f r o m t h e p r e v a i l i n g w i n d s . A l e v e l a r e a a b o v e t h e r e a c h o f w i n t e r s t o r m t i d e s a n d an o p e n s t r e t c h o f s a n d o r g r a v e l b e a c h w e r e a l s o deemed n e c e s s i t i e s . A s h o r t s t e e p ' b a n k ' b e t w e e n t h e h o u s e l e v e l a n d t h e b e a c h p r o p e r seems t o h a v e b e e n p r e f e r r e d t o a l o n g g e n t l e s l o p e ; c a r r y i n g o r d r a g g i n g c a n o e s up a n d down a s h o r t s t e e p p i t c h was p r o b a b l y r e c k o n e d e a s i e r t h a n m a k i n g a l o n g h a u l . . . T h e r e w e r e a f e w g r o u p s who d i d n o t own an ' i n s i d e p l a c e , 1 b u t w i n t e r e d on t h e s t o r m - l a s h e d o u t e r b e a c h e s . Traditions r e l a t e t h e i r h a r d s h i p s , when t h e y c o u l d n o t l a u n c h t h e i r c a n o e s f o r weeks a t a t i m e " ( D r u c k e r 1 9 5 1 : 6 7 ) . Typically,  winter  sedentariness.  time f o r  Land game,  t h e West C o a s t p e o p l e was one o f  water  fowl,  c l a m s and d r i f t w h a l e s a r e r e p o r t e d particular winter  patterns  village.  of  For  d e p e n d e d more h e a v i l y groups  however,  instance,  h u c k l e b e r r i e s , ocean  have been t a k e n a t  depended  on t h e  i n l a n d groups a t  on l a n d game t h a n o t h e r s  l o c a t i o n of  the heads of (Drucker  b r e a k i n g up o f resources. in the e a r l y (Drucker  the e t h n o g r a p h i e s ,  the coming of  v i l l a g e u n i t s a n d movement  Herring, part  of  1951:40-42).  s p r i n g salmon and seaweed were this  season a t  Some g r o u p s w e r e a b l e t o  location during t h i s  Small  tasks.  locales  the lower reaches of  the  1951:36).  ready  The  inlets  s p r i n g meant  to various  fish,  t h i s time.  from t h e main v i l l a g e w o u l d have a c c o m p l i s h e d t h e s e  According to  village  use,  to  winter  relative  for the  the  to  harvesting inlets  remain i n t h e i r  s e a s o n w h i l e o t h e r s who h a d t o o  harvest  far  winter to  -178travel  s e t up t e m p o r a r y  waterfowl various moving  (Drucker  c o u l d a l s o be t a k e n s e a mammals  again to  1983:47). time  camps  Following  from these l o c a l e s .  the outer  1983:47).  beaches (Drucker various  this,  Harvesting  i n c l u d i n g w h a l e s and s e a b i r d e g g s ,  Young s h o o t s o f  (Arima  1965:150).  1951:43,  halibut  however,  required  1965:150-51;  Arima  p l a n t s were a l s o c o l l e c t e d a t  S h e l l f i s h gathering  on t h e  inlets also  or  this  continued  (ibid.:48). By  summer t i m e r e s o u r c e c o l l e c t i o n was f o c u s e d on t h e o u t e r  coasts.  " S h e l t e r was l e s s i m p o r t a n t t h a n w a t e r s u p p l y f o r t h e s e s i t e s , f o r o w i n g t o t h e s t e e p n e s s o f t h e l a n d and s h a l l o w n e s s o f t h e s o i l many s p r i n g s a n d s m a l l e r s t r e a m s d r y up i n t h e s u m m e r t i m e . A s u i t a b l e beach was, of c o u r s e , as e s s e n t i a l as a t the w i n t e r q u a r t e r s . . . F i s h i n g s t a t i o n s , of c o u r s e , were l o c a t e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e to the f i s h i n g grounds. The summer v i l l a g e s t h e m s e l v e s f a l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y , f o r t h e y were s i t u a t e d so a s t o be c o n v e n i e n t f o r sea-mammal h u n t i n g a n d o f f s h o r e f i s h i n g . " (Drucker 1951:67). Whaling,  berry  fishing,  for  were  and r o o t  a l l pursued at t h i s time  Coast  groups  the  (Drucker  the ethnographies,  during the  camps a t v a r i o u s two o f  deep s e a f i s h i n g and s o c k e y e  t h o s e g r o u p s who h a d a c c e s s t o  According to  off  harvests,  localities.  groups,  however,  the o u t e r c o a s t as v i l l a g e u n i t s .  retained  its intregal  loose p o l i t i c a l  settlement  pattern  summer s e a s o n was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  West C o a s t  social  organization  Here,  structure, commonly  streams,  1951:57-58).  the  resource harvesting  Northern  sockeye-producing  salmon  they  f o r most several  In p r e - c o n t a c t  West small  times,  e a c h r e s e t t l e d on i s l a n d s  although  each  village  were j o i n e d t o g e t h e r  c a l l e d a "confederacy"  in a  (Drucker  1965:145). The It  reason f o r  these large congregations  has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t  it  i s in part  of  v i l l a g e s i s not  r e l a t e d t o a need f o r  clear. sufficient  -179-  people  t o be a t h a n d t o  (Mitchell smaller,  1979:106).  This  fall,  One  inner coast.  dog s a l m o n . After t h i s , other  whales before  i s not e n t i r e l y  spoiling  adequate,  as  also sufficed in  such feast  ashore.  t h e West C o a s t  moved t o t h e  time.  drift  T h a t i s , s u c h d i s t i n c t g r o u p s c o u l d be i n v i t e d t o  when a w h a l e d r i f t e d  harvest  explanation  of  l e s s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d g r o u p s c o u l d have  circumstances.  In  receive portions  people again broke  up i n t o  Camps w e r e s e t up a t  Waterfowl the groups  small  groups  fishing stations  to  and r o o t s were a l s o s o u g h t d u r i n g reassembled i n t h e i r winter  s i t e type which does not  round a r e t h o s e w h i c h were used f o r  fall  defense  into  the  this  villages.  regular  i n times of  and  seasonal  danger.  " S m a l l i s l a n d s g u a r d e d by p r e c i p i t o u s s i d e s w e r e t h u s u t i l i z e d . Poor w a t e r s u p p l y , and i n c o n v e n i e n c e f o r f o o d and f u e l g a t h e r i n g p r e v e n t e d permanent h a b i t a n c y of t h e s e p l a c e s . Temporary s t o c k a d e s were b u i l t w h e r e t h e r e was no r e f u g e i s l a n d a v a i l a b l e " ( D r u c k e r 1 9 5 1 : 6 7 ) . It  s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t  the pattern  e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y may n o t be e n t i r e l y situation  i n t h e West C o a s t a r e a .  of  representative  Results  c o n d u c t e d a t Y u q u o t S o u n d do c o n f i r m t h e ethnographies Haggarty,  (Dewhirst  however,  1978,  80-85% of  the  ethnographies  may a p p l y  only  Provincial  situation Museum,  archaeological (dating  work  as quoted  (Jim  settlement to  personal  1980:262-263).  pattern  than  that  Haggartys a n d  site  Harbor.  the  and n o t  Sites at  the  Columbia  i s supported  r e p r e s e n t much more  Jim  distribution,  archaeologist British This  work  1983:34).  system d e s c r i b e d i n  i n Hesquiat ago)  pre-contact  described in  i n Cavanaugh  communication).  conducted  the  archaeological  a mid-historic pattern  Haggarty,  t o a r l e a s t 1200 y e a r s  residence patterns  of  described  of  a f t e r much r e s e a r c h on West C o a s t  suggests that  pre-contact  settlement  by  Hesquiat  permanent  described ethnographically  (Calvert  Inglis'  on t h e  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work  West  -180C o a s t a l s o s u g g e s t s l o n g term o c c u p a t i o n i n e x p o s e d and areas of  t h e c o a s t where p e o p l e c o u l d have had a c c e s s t o a range  resources. offer  The  inner,  a specific  emerges inside  protected areas,  resource for  i s one o f  i s d i f f i c u l t to  people,  since there  1983:34).  the  settlement  only  records one).  only  a greater  summer a n d f a l l  inhabitants.  collection  (see  t h e West  Coast  Cavanaugh were  inlets,  and  last waters,  resources throughout  salmon r u n s would have  situated  the  been  r e q u i r i n g a major r e l o c a t i o n  seems p l a u s i b l e t h a t  the m a j o r i t y  of  of  resource  done a t a d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e o u t e r c o a s t was c o n d u c t e d by  small  Salish  The  Coast S a l i s h t r a d i t i o n a l l y occupied both the e a s t s i d e  Vancouver  I s l a n d as f a r  island territory  t u r n composed o f  and a s f a r  these l o c a l  proximity  several  of  n o r t h a s S a l m o n Bay a n d t h e m a i n l a n d c o a s t  Coast S a l i s h are d i v i d e d i n t o  of  the  groups sent from each v i l l a g e .  Coast  the  It  that  1983:16).  S i t u a t e d n e a r t h e open  range of  only  pattern  Few w e r e r e c o r d e d i n t h i s  i n a c c e s s a b l e from the o u t e r c o a s t w i t h o u t  task  often  "The  system of  i s much v a r i a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t  r i v e r mouths.  of  scheduling to e x p l o i t  (Haggarty and I n g l i s  summarize  had a c c e s s t o  In f a c t ,  village  time.  l o c a t i o n s — on i n l e t s , o n t h e mouth o f  (Drucker  villagers year.  of  up i n l e t s a t  locality  a s h o r t p e r i o d of  hand,  Winter v i l l a g e s (according to the ethnographies)  in a variety further  on t h e o t h e r  e m p h a s i s on t h e o u t s i d e w i t h  on a s e a s o n a l b a s i s "  It  semi-exposed  local  i n l a n d as Y a l e  on t h e F r a s e r  s i x language groups, groups  (Suttles  each of  1978;  River.  which are  Barnett  1955).  groups r e s i d e d i n separate w i n t e r v i l l a g e s i n c l o s e  t o o t h e r members o f  t h e same l a n g u a g e g r o u p .  facing  Individual  The in Each  -181subsistence-settlement  data f o r each of  The  each group does appear t o  seasonal round f o r  variable. the  Furthermore,  lower reaches of  called  of  seasonal  the Fraser  the Halkomelem)  Coast S a l i s h groups.  the  River  differed  these groups  round of  is quite  have been  the l o c a l  groups  and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s  this difference,  be d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y  from the  occupying  (collectively  as well  c o m p a r a b l y d e t a i l e d d a t a on s e a s o n a l a c t i v i t i e s o f  Halkomelem w i l l  quite  s u b s t a n t i a l l y from t h a t of  Because of  scanty.  the  other  as the  absence  the Halkomelem,  remaining Coast  the  Salish  groups. Each l o c a l s t r e t c h of location  Halkomelem g r o u p ,  the Fraser  five  or a major t r i b u t a r y  s p e c i e s of  lower reaches of  composed o f  salmon,  the r i v e r )  sturgeon,  several  (Duff 1952:19). trout  c o u l d be c a u g h t .  r e s o u r c e s c o u l d be h a r v e s t e d a l o n g t h e  mountains  (ibid.  and o o l i g a n s  Presumably,  much o f  A l m o s t no i n f o r m a t i o n  a t the main v i l l a g e , w i t h  the  (in  r i v e r or i n the  c o n c e r n i n g s e a s o n a l movement a n d e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f Halkomelem.  From t h i s  is  temporary  task  adjacent  available c a m p s by  s u b s i s t e n c e p u r s u i t s were  occasional small  the  I n a d d i t i o n l a n d mammals  and p l a n t  62,67,70,72,73).  v i l l a g e s , claimed a  the  conducted  groups being sent out  to  procure various resources. The w i n t e r v i l l a g e s o f predominantly further  the  o t h e r C o a s t S a l i s h groups were  on s h e l t e r e d b a y s o r i n l e t s ; h o w e v e r a f e w w e r e  i n l a n d near r i v e r mouths  chosen to  protect  Furthermore,  located  and f u r t h e r  from s t o r m s and s t r a n g e r s  upriver. (Barnett  Such s i t e s  be r e g a r d e d a s t h e  foci  for  such p u r s u i t s "  were  1955:18).  " i n t e r e s t c e n t e r e d upon b e a c h s i t e s c o n v e n i e n t l y  r e s p e c t t o g a t h e r i n g and h u n t i n g g r o u n d s . . . . W i n t e r  situated  located  with  v i l l a g e s are always  (ibid.:19)-  As w i t h  N o r t h w e s t C o a s t p e o p l e , e c o n o m i c p u r s u i t s w e r e k e p t t o a minimum  other during  to  -182-  the w i n t e r months. pursuits  I t was n o t u n t i l  resumed a major  the winter  settlement  f o r most v i l l a g e groups s p r i n g  for various  resource harvesting  Some g r o u p s t r a v e l l e d t o t h e i s l a n d s t o h a r v e s t herring,  Some a l s o t r a v e l l e d  heads o f i n l e t s groups other  eight  s e a mammals o r  camas a n d p r o b a b l y  i n l a n d t o h u n t l a n d mammals a t l a k e s a t t h e  (ibid.:20,22,29).  Seven v i l l a g e u n i t s o f t h e Squamish  v i l l a g e s could harvest Mitchell  remained sedentary village,  1979:101).  accessible 1979:101).  supply  v i l l a g e s moving  another  group  s e a s o n , and p e r h a p s ,  presumably  of seasonal  Several  i t from t h e i r w i n t e r  Still  during t h i s  f o r the e n t i r e year  foods.  because of a  while the  village  i s reported  location t o have  at least part of  that  relatively  (Barnett 1955:33;  Mitchell  o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s w e r e a c c o m p l i s h e d by e n t i r e  to harvesting  a r e a s , w h i l e o t h e r s may h a v e b e e n  s m a l l e r groups a t s m a l l e r s e t t l e m e n t  o r i e n t a t i o n of the southern  g r o u p s a t t h i s t i m e was t o w a r d  f i s h e r i e s w h i c h were so abundant One chum s a l m o n f i s h i n g s t a t i o n Qualicum R i v e r  site.  conducted  sites.  Summer a c t i v i t i e s a l s o i n v o l v e d movement by m o s t g r o u p s .  the L i t t l e  meant  areas.  t r a v e l l e d to the o o l i g a n f i s h e r i e s a t t h e r i v e r ' s mouth,  (ibid.:31;  by  halibut,  while others c o l l e c t e d clams, sea b i r d eggs,  seaweed.  such  focus.  According to the ethnographies, leaving  the coming s p r i n g time t h a t  t h e salmon  n e a r t h e s o u t h e r n arm o f t h e has been r e c o g n i z e d  Much o f t h e  Fraser.  archaeologically at  S i t e l o c a t i o n was c h o s e n b e c a u s e i t w a s :  " [ a ] t o p o g r a p h i c a l l y s u i t e d l o c a t i o n , r e l a t i v e l y p r o t e c t e d from t h e e l e m e n t s , e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e by w a t e r c r a f t , a n d a t t h e j u n c t u r e o f s e v e r a l r e s o u r c e z o n e s r e g u l a r l y e x p l o i t e d by t h e i n h a b i t a n t s . . . . t h e s h o r e l i n e w i t h e x p l o i t a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e r i v e r , t h e i n t e r t i d a l z o n e , nearby s u b t i d a l w a t e r s , and i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t t e r r e s t r i a l areas (Bernick 1983:201). Other groups h a r v e s t e d conducted.  Again,  berries,  several  sturgeon  and c l a m s .  H u n t i n g was a l s o  g r o u p s moved a s v i l l a g e u n i t s  and s t i l l  others  -183-  either time  remained a t t h e i r w i n t e r  (Barnett For  v i l l a g e s i t e s or returned to  this  1955:19,22,23,27,29,31,34).  those groups not a l r e a d y  m e a n t a n o t h e r move t o h a r v e s t r e t u r n i n g to  them a t  their winter  s e a s o n was c o m p l e t e d .  located at a fishing s t a t i o n ,  salmon.  For  fall  some g r o u p s t h i s  meant  v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n s ; others returned  after  time  the  Both v i l l a g e and s m a l l e r u n i t s c o n g r e g a t e d a t  this  time. P u b l i s h e d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t h e a r e a add a d d i t i o n a l information concerning the p r e h i s t o r i c settlement Salish.  A s i t e survey  on e a s t e r n V a n c o u v e r  pattern  of  the  I s l a n d y i e l d e d the  remains  " a l i m i t e d number o f c e n t r a l v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n s p r o v i d i n g b a s e s d i v e r s i f i e d e x p l o i t a t i o n of locations.  This pattern  and a m i n o r i t y Vancouver that  of  resources accessible  resulted in a majority  l a r g e ones"  i s l a n d fewer  small  (Cassidy  1983:38).  numerous In  or that  a greater  number o f  Indeed,  thus f a r ,  it  seems t h a t  Vancouver  I s l a n d the permanent  much o f  the  even g i v e n the p a u c i t y  settlement  Some g e n e r a l  small  sites,  the northern  for  investigation  half  of  either other  repeatedly  undertaken  and s o u t h e r n p o r t i o n s  of  v i l l a g e and s a t e l l i t e camps c h a r a c t e r i z e d  pattern.  statements concerning the Coast S a l i s h p r e h i s t o r i c  the Halkomelem, both f o r  central  s i t e s was r e u s e d  of  i n both the northern  s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s c a n be m a d e .  coast,  small  of  for  s i t e s w e r e f o u n d w h i c h may i n d i c a t e  (ibid.:38).  more  of  a c e n t r a l v i l l a g e l o c a t i o n s e r v e d a s a b a s e more o f t e n  activities,  of  from those  Coast  appear  to  Permanent  settlements other  have b e e n l o c a t e d p r e d o m i n a t e l y  p r o t e c t i o n from the e l e m e n t s ,  importantly,  to'harvest  from a s i n g l e l o c a l i t y .  This  but a l s o ,  t h e maximum number o f a l s o seems t o a p p l y  than on t h e  those outer  and  probably  seasonal  resources  t o a l l e a s t two o f  the  -184-  settlements  located further  inland,  at  the  m i l e s up t h e T o b a R i v e r .  In b o t h  "out  ( " w i n t e r salmon"  of  season"  ooligan  for  resources  another),  the  for  t h a t of  Halkomelem,  had a c c e s s t o an a l m o s t y e a r  from  a single winter  were  s e t up o r e n t i r e  available  t o t h e maximum  Summary a n d As  location.  village  do seem t o be c h o s e n , number  of  previous  survey  settlement  patterns  both w i t h i n  Because of  the  round.  also varied In all  great  and easy  these  Accordingly,  of  the  seasons.  round  Fraser  supply  one  River  of  resources  satellite  camps  harvest  other  resources  not  however,  i s not  known.  to minimize  The  travel  resources throughout  there  in terrain  the  settlement  (energy  seasons.  each l o c a l  i s much v a r i a t i o n  groups  along  the  in  coast.  and r e s o u r c e d i s t r i b u t i o n , group  followed  s i t e l o c a t i o n and degree o f  had t h e  differences,  canoes,  from i n v a d e r s were o f  harvest  greatest  a  as  unique  sedentariness  number  Almost  storms  A  of  In a d d i t i o n  resources throughout village  safe  and  have been l o c a t e d i n o r d e r  permanent  efficient.  emerge. location.  s h e l t e r from w i n t e r  prime c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  by l o c a t i n g t h e  r e s o u r c e c o l l e c t i o n was m o s t  patterns  specific village  v i l l a g e s seem t o  to the  That i s ,  some g e n e r a l  same c r i t e r i a f o r  qualifications,  maximize  spring  small  and between  factors,  landing place for  protection  The  to  considerably.  spite  groups  and  Whether  location,  illustrated,  diversity  as s o c i o - c u l t u r a l  seasonal  ten  Conclusions  the  well  and  season from t h a t  inland l o c a l i t i e s .  v i l l a g e s moved t o  from the w i n t e r  localities output)  village  one g r o u p ,  harvest  l o c a t i o n beyond too  Howe Sound  i n s t a n c e s t h e s e v i l l a g e s had a c c e s s  which extended other  head of  to to  the  i n such a l o c a t i o n ,  -185-  Other c u l t u r a l raiders,  factors,  beyond energy  also played a part  e f f i c i e n c y or protection  in determining  settlement  patterns.  l o c a t i o n which i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y to p r i z e d commodities, Nass o o l i g a n , o r t r a d e  i t e m s a l s o seem t o be p r e f e r r e d a r e a s  from  Village  such as  the  of  settlement. Patterns settlement not  system.  Fear of  significant factors  valley River  i t s e l f offered were  problem. valley  the  such t h a t  groups,  preferred  ( w h i c h may o r may n o t  l o c a t i o n s , other to s e t t l e  Ecologically, rivers,  primary  never  v i l l a g e s were  that  the  large  salmon h a r v e s t i n g  the  a  number  the of  from a s i n g l e l o c a t i o n . in other  seem t o  other  River  than  have  influenced  on t h e  mainland  all for  five  Halkomelem appear  Nuxalk.  other  It  t h e West C o a s t a n d K w a k i u t l ) ,  were a l s o a b l e t o  lifestyle  The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f  i n some i n s t a n c e s .  months.  the  adopt  river in  note,  such r i v e r s  several  The  relatively  a more  be  these  This,  i s i n t e r e s t i n g to  have a c c e s s t o  to  salmon.  those groups w i t h  resources, permitted  these groups.  g r o u p s who d i d n o t  Each o f  s p e c i e s of  season spanned s e v e r a l  the a v a i l a b i l i t y of  that  the F r a s e r  s p e c i e s meant t h a t  sedentariness for  however,  factors  r i v e r s with  access,  greater  t o o much o f  situated  B e l l a Coola v a l l e y  all  to  five  of  presence of  addition  the banks of  the g r e a t e s t  t h e a r e a s i n h a b i t e d by t h e T l i n g i t  had a c c e s s t o  the  the  in a specific location.  the Coast Tsimshian,and  s i m i l a r to  were  village location within  i n c l u d e salmon)  (cultural)  Nuxalk  Nuxalk because  Likewise,  c a n o e a c c e s s was p r o b a b l y  the  from the elements  the B e l l a Coola v a l l e y  sufficient protection.  few c a s e s where  decision  groups  and p r o t e c t i o n  c l e a r l y was i n t h o s e a r e a s w h i c h o f f e r e d  "optimal"  most  review correspond c l o s e l y to  attack  for  S i m i l a r to other  resources In  emerging from t h i s  (ie.  sedentary  types  of  -186resources throughout Clearly, Our  s e a s o n s made t h i s p o s s i b l e .  t h e r e a r e many g a p s i n t h e  knowledge  benefit  the  of  settlement  f r o m an i n t e g r a t e d  settlement  s y s t e m s on t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t w o u l d approach to  Factors  socio-economic w o r l d of  the group  investigations.  a s s o c i a t i o n between archaeological in  studying settlement.  s y s t e m s h o u l d be v i e w e d i n t h e c o n t e x t  o f w h i c h i t was a p a r t .  all  settlement data presented  Tests  from s e v e r a l  N o r t h w e s t C o a s t be  greatly  The  larger  culture  the  i n q u e s t i o n s h o u l d be e n c o m p a s s e d  s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d w h i c h e x a m i n e ethnographic  s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n a l l  t h i s way c a n a f u l l e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  on t h e  the  aspects of  such f a c t o r s and s e t t l e m e n t ;  information  of  here.  developed.  into  the and  such a n a l y s e s .  prehistoric settlement  Only  systems  -187Chapter  VI  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  This  t h e s i s examines  t h e major components  of the settlement  the l a t e p r e - c o n t a c t Nuxalk.  The m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  of  from o t h e r  t h i s s t u d y was s y n t h e s i z e d  and t h e o r e t i c a l  settlement  from  (1)  suggests t h a t major  patterns. criterion  Although  d r a w b a c k s o f many s e t t l e m e n t  a s i n g l e f a c t o r can determine  optimization  i n human b e h a v i o r  specifically, decisions.  of energy  from both the n a t u r a l  important  pattern choices  force behind  settlement  and c u l t u r a l  i n t e r a c t w i t h one a n o t h e r  t o p r o d u c e an  s e t of settlement d e c i s i o n s .  Assessing which determinants are r e l e v a n t  to a given  settlement  system i s a c r u c i a l  and d i f f i c u l t f i r s t s t e p i n t h e s e s t u d i e s .  m o d e l s o f non-human  foraging behavior,  and t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c  c a n be u s e d t o c o m p i l e a s e t o f p o t e n t i a l l y a r e a l w a y s unknown  factors.  Determinants  there  S u c h unknowns may a f f e c t  settlement  patterns  which p o t e n t i a l l y  and i n t e r v i e w s w i t h  eight determinants:the resources,  animal  literature  variables,  another  variable.  influenced the B e l l a Coola  s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n were d e r i v e d from t h e Nuxalk  literature  While  important  o r may o n l y h a v e s e c o n d a r y i n f l u e n c e t h r o u g h  Nuxalk  stem  p o s t u l a t e , and  d o e s a p p e a r t o be a n  i t i s not the sole motivating  o f a group w i l l  studies  settlement  i n g e n e r a l , and s e t t l e m e n t  Other determinants,  environments unique  A review of the  an § p r i o r i a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e e n e r g y m a x i m i z a t i o n  (2) t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t  approach  studies i n the  c u r r e n t a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . literature  system of  Nuxalk e l d e r s .  ethnographic  The a n a l y s i s f o c u s e d o n  presence of salmon, other  resources, mineral  valley  aquatic resources,  resources, trade,  plant  s h e l t e r from t h e  -188elements  and p r o t e c t i o n  respect to Coola  from r a i d s .  i t s potential  valley  Nuxalk.  Each  importance to  the  i n f l u e n c e by e a c h o f  of  v i l l a g e s according to  of  the  v i l l a g e s were ranked  these determinants.  their  was e x a m i n e d  the socio-economy  B e l l a Coola v a l l e y  to  determinant  r e l a t i o n s h i p to  From t h i s , all  with  Bella  according  a rank  determinants,  order  was  derived. This  study  throughout  suggests that  i n the B e l l a Coola  appear  have had o n l y  the  B e l l a Coola v a l l e y  and a q u a t i c Without  valley.  secondary Nuxalk  resources i n the adequate  however,  that  selection.  energy  these The  study  to  other  value  The  factors did play for  of  non-resource)  factors  decisions.  these resources i t  concerning the r o l e of B e l l a Coola valley  an i m p o r t a n t  the harvest where  of  the  r i v e r ' s mouth,  and t h e l o w e r v a l l e y  these  role in  data  For  plant  is energy  in  suggest,  site  s p e c i e s was  greatest  number and  generally,  h a v e a c c e s s t o a n d be i n f l u e n c e d b y , Settling  i n the  lower v a l l e y  f a t - r i c h o o l i g a n and c a r b o h y d r a t e - r i c h  spring,  (i.e.  settlement  minimized diversity  r e s o u r c e s were a c c e s s i b l e .  determinants. both  Cultural  statements  by s e t t l i n g a t t h e r i v e r ' s m o u t h , of  in determining  resources  diet.  Nuxalk d i e t .  Energy o u t p u t  food  n e e d s w e r e l a r g e l y met by t h e  d a t a on e n e r g y  s e l e c t i o n i n the  a range of  i n f l u e n c e on s e t t l e m e n t  food  i m p o s s i b l e t o make d e f i n i t i v e food  presence of  t h e s e a s o n s was m o s t i m p o r t a n t  locations to  the  when o t h e r  foodstuffs  s t o r e s were  throughout  low.  the  meant  w e r e f o u n d by  greatest  number  increased access  of to  root crops i n the w i n t e r  Additionally,  a c c e s s to a range  t h e y e a r w o u l d h a v e met o t h e r  this  nutritional  and of  -189-  requirements. lower v a l l e y  In t u r n ,  greater  peoples influenced other  socio-economy,  a l l i a n c e s with others  valley.  In  of  the f u t u r e ,  these  during the  of  settlement  the Nuxalk.  from the elements  settlement  decisions to  In  those  importance,  This  other  and a c c e s s t o  are s i t u a t e d  throughout  the y e a r  w e r e made t o m i n i m i z e travel  to  several  thesis contributes  s i m i l a r to  such as f e a r  here  causality  trade  routes,  interact  groups  that of  attack,  affect  in different i n the  groups  settlement  of  greater  resources can  from a s i n g l e l o c a t i o n .  Again,  o u t p u t by d e c r e a s i n g b o t h  r e s o u r c e s and t h e  to  the  study  settlement  literature  s a l m o n , a n d how i t s a b u n d a n c e  distribution the  applied  degree of  such t h a t a range  energy  the  the  need c o n t i n u a l l y  to  settlements.  Northwest Coast  to  those  Northwest Coast  or l e s s e r degrees  those v a r i a b l e s  areas of  system.  of  Northwest Coast  s y s t e m s b o t h t h e o r e t i c a l l y and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y .  usually  than  of  i n s t a n c e s where e n e r g y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e o f  settlements  be h a r v e s t e d  relocate  systems of  greater  g i v e n t h e p a r t i c u l a r way  amount o f  "preferred"  the c o r r e l a t i o n and/or settlement  the  Nuxalk  and t h e c r e a t i o n  Non-energy f a c t o r s ,  protection  attempts  the  same t i m e p e r i o d i l l u s t r a t e a p a t t e r n  described for  system.  living in less  f a c t o r s on t h e  Comparisons of  t h e s e r e s o u r c e s by  more s o p h i s t i c a t e d t e s t s  help our understanding each of  to  aspects of  such as p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t r a d e  marriage  may  accessibility  of  sites.  sole important  are examined settlement  to  In t h i s s t u d y factor.  determine  their  system as a whole.  i s to  Methods  tendency  f o c u s on a s i n g l e  in  the  factor,  and d i s t r i b u t i o n a f f e c t s  the  no a p r i o r i a s s u m p t i o n s a r e made  Instead, affect  The  settlement  several  potential  on i n d i v i d u a l developed  as  determinants  settlements  in this thesis  and for  the  -1904  examining these determinants field  and l a b o r a t o r y  Much f u t u r e  t e c h n i q u e s were a l s o  work i s needed i n t h e  Northwest Coast.  Ideally,  settlement  system w i l l  meaningful  i n the context  research taste of  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  remains of  study  the  of  settlement  society in question.  etc.  which w i l l  settlement  attributes  s e t of  system.  More  a i d i n our  factor  of  the the  are  ethnographic such as  understanding  r e s o u r c e s e l e c t i o n and s e t t l e m e n t influencing  patterns. settlement  B o t h n e c e s s a r y and s u f f i c i e n t f a c t o r s n e e d  A r c h a e o l o g i s t s should view settlement  a complex  s y s t e m s on  information concerning attributes  the most i m p o r t a n t  m u s t be a v o i d e d .  be e x a m i n e d .  larger  of  New  introduced.  i n c o r p o r a t e s c a l e s o f measurement w h i c h  food taboos,  R e s e a r c h e r ' s b i a s as t o  from e x i s t i n g t e c h n i q u e s .  methods d e v e l o p e d t o a n a l y z e  i s needed t o c o l l e c t  preference,  patterns  are expanded  patterns  as  to  the  d e c i s i o n s a l l of which i n t e r a c t to c r e a t e a  -191-  REFERENCES CITED Adams, Karen 1977  A l l a i r e , L. 1984  , R. 1979  K.V. 1967  S i t e Catchment A n a l y s i s o f W i l d P l a n t Resources i n the H e a v i l y O v e r g r a z e d R i o P u e r c o V a l l e y o f New M e x i c o . 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Draft keport.  -205-  APPENDIX I P l a n t R e s o u r c e s U t i l i z e d by t h e N u x a l k Family  (or  class)  Alga  Scientific  Eqregia F»cus  Name  Common N a m e  menziesii  sp.^  luetkeana  •a Porphyra spp. Rhizoclgmium sp.  h a b i t a t most found i n  Kelp  food  Sea  Wrack  t o make s t e a m i n p i t s f o r or m e d i c i n a l sweat baths  Bull  Kelp  Red L a v e r Green Rock  and  use  Boa  3 Nereocystis  l  Algae  outer  coast  Bella  Coola  o c c a s i o n a l l y used as a c o n t a i n e r to store ooligan.igreaac  outer  coast  coast  cooking-  food  outer  medicinal  shallow,  ceremonial dances; medicinal; a s h e l f fungus grows on hemlock used f o r p a i n t , t h a t from willow for starting fires  mature  spores  clearing  likely  waters  slow  water  others 3 Fungi  Fomes and  officinalis  Bovista and L i c h e n s and Bryophytes ( l i c h e n s , mosses liverworts)  Bracket Fungus  others^'  nila  and  Lycoperdon  Alecton'a and  Jisnfia  -  or  Shelf  Puffball  sores  and  wounds  snrmentosa spp.^^"  decorate  masks;  medicinal  medicinal  "Yellow  vulpina^  Moss"  Hylocomium spleridens, RhytideadeJphus loreus and o t h e r s  dye  f o r mountain goat  wool  " Pteriaophytes (ferns and f e r n allies) Equisetaceae (horsetail family)  Equisetum arvense, E . t e l m a t e i a , "and E. hvemale  Polypodiaceae (Fern family)  'Athyrium  padding  Dryopteris  Pteridium  horsetails  filix-fenina  Lady  glycyrrhiza  Polystichum  munitum'  5  filix-mas*  aquilinuirf'^  1  on  the  roots"  Fern  Sword  Fern  Fern  Fern  Bratken  forests  mature  forests  mature  forests  mature  forests  along other  Fern  Chamaecyperis nootkatensi s  Yellow  Juniperus  Creeping  Thuja  coTmriunis '  plicata  streams and moist areas  wet:mature  Licorice  Male  "bean-like , objects were eaten raw; as sandpaper  mature  r h i z o m e s chewed f o r medicine; medicinal  flavor tea  r o o t s chewed when h u n g r y , n o t t a k e n home  or  but  Cedar  Juniper  Western Red Cedar  forests  on r o c k s i n wet forests mature  wet  mature,  forests  rhizomes e a t e n m e d i c i n a l  higher e l e v a t i o n s at b a s e o f snoe banks and r o c k s l i d e s  rhizomes  drier  eaten  forest Gymnosperms (conifers) Cupressaceae (Cypress family)  forests  mature f o r e s t s upper Bella Coola valley (BCV) •  Flagiomium insigne, Rhizomnium glabrescens and o t h e r s 2  Polypodium  in  sp.  Lobafia p u l m o n a r i a , L . oregana and Sticta sp. Letharia  for  forests  inner bark medicinal  roots,  for  leaves  weaving,etc.;  bark  medicinal  b r a n c h e s , b a r k and wood f o r carving, weaving, arrows, houses, canoes, e t c . ; r o o t s and boughs f o r b a s k e t s ; b a r k and boughs medicinal  forests  and  edges  mouth B e l l a C o o l a i n l e t and few h i g h i n mtns; by t r a d e from B e l l a B e l l a , Kwatna and River's Inlet higher elevations in.the u p p e r BCV. a n d I n t e r i o r u s e d t o b e common i n b o t h m t n s . and b o t t o m lands i n mature forests of BCV, but of b e t t e r q u a l i t y (and p r e f e r r e d ) from T a l c h a k o R i v e r and near Kwatna  -206-  Family  (or class)  S c i e n t i f i c Name  Common N a m e  use  h a b i t a t most found i n  likely  Pinaceae (Pine Family) Abies  A.  Taxaceae (Yew F a m i l y )  amabilis  Silver F i r  J  grandis -  higher elevations i n the u p p e r BCV a n d I n t e r i o r :  Grand F i r  2  Picea  sitchensis '^  Sitka  Pinus  contorts '  Lodgepole  2  2  3  cambium  Spruce  Pine  eaten;  medicinal  few the the  i n the upper parts of lower side v a l l e y i n BCV a n d i n u p p e r BCV  r o o t s u s e d f o r b a s k e t s ; wood used f o r tools; cones, cambium, b a r k , sap and buds m e d i c i n a l ; boughs r i t u a l uses  mature forest l o w e r BCV  cambium s e l d o m e a t e n ; r o o t s f o r f o o d If}; r o o t s a n d wood f o r m a t e r i a l and f i r e wood; sap m e d i c i n a l  few i n l o w e r B C V , many K i m s q u i t , F i r v a l e and North Bentinck Arm  cambium e a t e n ; r o o t s f o r f o o d C H a n d m a t e r i a l ; wood f o r t o o l s a n d f i r e wood  at F i r v a l e and eastwards, and i n s i d e v a l l e y s o f t h e B C V ; i n m t n s . 15 m i l e s down N . B e n t i n c k A r m ; large nos. i n Bella Bella  cambium e a t e n ; boughs u s e d t o c o l l e c t h e r r i n g e g g s ; wood for tools; medicinal  mature forests thoughout the BCV, e s p e c i a l l y i n the lower v a l l e y  3 0 m i l e s down t h e c o a s t f r o m t h e BCV a n d n e a r B e l l a B e l l a a n d Namu  i n the  at  Pseudotsuga menziesii  Douglas F i r  Tsuga  heterophylla '^  Western  Taxus  brevifolia '"^  Western Yew  wood  Skunk  f r u i t eaten; leaves for containers and l i n i n g p i t s ; r o o t s m e d i c i n a l  stream banks, entire BCV, e s p e c i a l l y i n the. l o w e r BCV  bulbs  eaten  r a r e ; found at a b o u t 10 m i l e s Bentinck Arm  Green Bay, down N o r t h  roots  and leaves  mature f o r e s t s the BCV  throughout  bulbs  eaten  a  2  Hemlock  for  tools  Angiosperms (Flowering Plants) Monocotyledons Araceae CSkunk Cabbage  Family) Lysichitum  Lilliaceae (Lily Family)  Allium  americanunl  cernuum  Clintonia  Wild  uniflora  Cabbage  Onion  Queenscup  Fritillaria . . camschatensis  .Mission  Bells  Maianthenum  Wild Lily-of-theValley  medicinal  t i d a l f l a t s ; few i n BCV, m o r e common o n c r e e k s u p . Four M i l e M t n .  3  berries  eaten  fresh  Smilacina Star-flowered S t e l l a t a fi, fartmota,'' Solomon's Seal  juice  of berries  Veratrum  outer  root  or  dried  eaten  t  Poaceae (Grass  Family)  Cyperaceae (Sedge F a m i l y )  eschscholtzii  Agropyron  spicatum  False Indian Hellebore  core  medicinal  Bunchgrass  f o r socks; to seperate berry cakes  " K i p - c u t Grass"  lower plant  dry  mature forests l o w e r BCV  of  mature forests t h e BCV  throughout  higher elevation out t h e BCV  upper BCV, middle i n mtns.  2  species  unidentified  leaf section eaten  o f young  unknown  the  through-  elevation  -207-  Family  (or c l a s s )  S c i e n t i f i c Name  Common Name  habitat most l i k e l y found i n  Dicotyledons  (Maple Family)  Apiaceae (Parsley Family)  Acer glabrum'  Douglas Maple  7  bark f o r tumplines and spoons; stems f o r ooligan racks; wood for spoons, mesh block, toy r a t t l e s and snowshoes  many i n upper BCV, and i n lower v a l l e y succession forests  3  Angelica genuflexaf?] 'Kneeling Angelica A. l u c i d a  stem f o r drinking straw and breathing tube i n water; roots p o s s i b l y eaten fjQ  tidal  flats  Cicuta d o u g l a s i i T ? l or Penanthe sarmentosa  Water Hemlock Water-parsley  medicinal  tidal  flats  Conconsellnum• pacificumt?3*or  Hemlock-parsley  root eaten:  tidal  flats  Cow Parsnip  young stem and leaves eaten; roots medicinal  Lovage  leaves medicinal  along creeks and disturbed wet areas i n lower v a l l e y higher elevations i n upper BCV  Osmorhiza c h i l e n s i s  Sweet C i c e l y  roots eaten raTely; roots medicinal  wet mature and succession f o r e s t s i n lower BCV  Apocynum androsaemifolium !^  Spreading  f i b r e or inner bark f o r twine and nets  rocky places and mtns. i n upper BCV  roots f o r tea and medicine  l a t e succession and mature f o r e s t s i n e n t i r e BCV bottomlands  Oplopanax horridum /^ D e v i l s - c l u b  stem and root bark medicinal  mature, wet f o r e s t s lower BCV  Aristolochiaceae (Birthwort)  Asari/m  root medicinal  shaded woods throughout BCV  Asteraceae (Aster Family)  A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m Yarrow  leaves medicinal  t i d a l f l a t s and disturbed s o i l s throughout BCV  Antennaria neglecta"^*  Pussytoes  leaves medicinal  dry open f o r e s t s throughout BCV  Arctium minus '  Common Burdock  roots medicinal ^introduced}  disturbed s o i l s out BCV  Lactuca biennis '  T a l l Lettuce-,!'.  roots medicinal  tidal  Prenathes a l a t a  W. Rattlesnake-root roots medicinal  along streambanks, out BCV (?)  Mtn. Alder Green Alder  cones, buds and bark medicinal  at higher e l e v a t i o n s , along streams-and avalanche runs  bark f o r dye; wood f o r f u e l and carving; bark medicinal  succession f o r e s t s throughBCV  bark f o r baskets, o c c a s s i o n a l l y canoes, and f o r charms  rare: i n lower v a l l e y , more common i n upper v a l l e y  3  Slum suave  fA*'  5  Water Parsnip  Heyvacleum lanatum '2  Ligusticum c a n b y i  Apocynaceae (Dogbane Family)  3.  3  Dogbane  2  Araliaceae ,Aralia nudicaulis ' (Cinseng Family)" z  Sarsaparilla  3  2  Betulaceae (Birch Family)  caudatum  Ginger-root  3  3  3  Alnus incana and A. s i n u a t a 3  Betula p a p y r i f e r a '  Paper Birch  through-  flats through-  -208-  Family  (or  class)  Scientific  Name  Common N a m e  .Caprifoliaceae ^ (Honeysuckle Family)Lonice.ra. involucrata* Black  h a b i t a t most found i n  likely  z  Sambucus racemosa  Viburnum  edule  2. "3 '  Twinberry  Red E l d e r b e r r y  2,3  Highbush  Cranberry  leaves  and bark  medicinal  b e r r i e s eaten; r o o t s and b a r k m e d i c i n a l ; stems f o r p i p e bowls sights for arrows berries  eaten;  bark  medicinal  wet s u c c e s s i o n l o w e r BCV  and  forest  in  wet s u c c e s s i o n forests and wet d i s t u r b e d soil t h r o u g h o u t BCV wet s u c c e s s i o n f o r e s t s and mature set forests througho u t BCV  Celastraceae (Staff-tree  Cornaceae (Dogwood  Family)Pachystima myrslnites  Family)  Cornus  Cornus  stolonifera"''  • 2. 3 canadensis '  F a l s e Box  medicinal  R e d - o s i e r Dogwood  branches  for  snowshoes  and  wet  s u c c e s s i o n and  mature  barbeque r a c k s , bark smoked, inner bark medicinal  forests  Bunchberry  berry  common i n m a t u r e a n d succession forests throughout BCV  Stonecrop  stalks  eaten  t h r o u g h o u t BCV  Crassulaceae (Stonecrop  Family)  Sedum d i v e r g e n s  and  leaves  medicinal  K i m s q u i t and upper BCV rocky slopes  Elaegnaceae (Oleaster  Family)  Sheperdia  canadensis"'" Soapberry 3  berries  Empetrum n i g r u m  Crowberry  leaves  Arctostaphylos uva-ursi  Kinnikinnick  berries  eaten;  leaves  smoked  few i n m t n s . o f l o w e r B C V ; common i n b o t t o m l a n d s o f u p p e r BCV  berries  eaten;  leaves  medicinal  few at h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s i n lower BCV; west side South Bentinck Arm  Empetraceae (Crowberry  eaten  upper often  BCV on m t n . s i d e s , not reaching maturity  ^ Family)  Ericaceae (Heather'Family)  medicinal  rare i n BCV; p o s s i b l y r o c k y b l u f f s i n upper BCV  :  Gaultheria  shallon '  Salal  3  Ledum g r o e n l a n d i c u m ' ' L a b r a d o r Tea  leaves  Menziesia  ferruginea  twigs  Vacclniuui  alaskaense"^ A l a s k a  2  V.  caespitosum  ~*  V.  membranaceum '^  V.  ovalifoiua  V.  parvifolium '  Z |  7  : 2  '^  1  >  »1P  1  a  False Azalea  Blueberry  for used  tea to  and  medicinal  spread  salmon  in  bogs;  rare  i n BCV  mature dry forests and s treambanks, e s p e c i a l l y l o w e r BCV  berries  eaten  mature BCV  Dwarf•Blueberry  berries  eaten  Kimsquit  Mtn;.Bilberry  berries  eaten  higher elevation of lower BCV; upper BCV; K i m s q u i t  Oval-leaved  Blueberry berries  Red H u c k l e b e r r y  berries  eaten  eaten  wet  forests  and  lower  u p p e r BCV  mature wet f o r e s t s lower BCV a n d a l o n g b o g s dry, mature forests, e s p e c i a l l y BCV m t n . s i d e s  -209-  Family  (or  class)  Scientific  Name  Common Name  h a b i t a t most found i n  likely  Fabaceae (Pea  Family)  Lupinus nootkatensis  a l ,  Blue  Lupine  roots  eaten  edge  Wild  Clover  roots  eaten  tidal  of  tidal  flats  0,3  Trifolium  wormskioldi  Grossulariaceae (Gooseberry  flats  ^  Family)Ribes bracteosum '  Stink* Currant  3  R.  divarcatum- '^  Wild  3  Gooseberry  berries  eaten;  berries  medicinal  berries  eaten;  bark R.  lacustre" ^  Swamp G o o s e b e r r y  R.  laxiflorum**' .  3  Wild  3  Blue  Currant  and  branches  inner  outer  stem  bark,  berries  eaten;  root  medicinal  berries-eaten; entire plant medicinal  branches  used;  roots  plant  and  stream edge.-in f o r e s t s lower elevations l a t e wet succession t h r o u g h o u t BCV  forest  mature and l a t e succession forests t h r o u g h o u t BCV mature and forests i n  medicinal  at  late succession l o w e r B C V [_?]  Lamiaceae (Mint  Family)  Mentha a r v e n s i s C a n a d a Prunella  Loranthaceae (Mistletoe Family)  gale-  Family)Nuphar polysepalum  Onagraceae (Evening Primrose Family)  Self  Arceuthoblum americanum -  Myricaceae. (Sweet G a l e F a m i l y ) M y r i c a  Nymphaceae (Water-lily  vulgaris^  Epilobium, .anRustifblium  2  -  3  1  Mint  leaves  Heal  . plant  medicinal  medicinal  Dwarf  Mistletoe  stems  Sweet  Gale  branches  and  rhizomes  medicinal  YellowPond  Lily  Fireweed  young  wet  medicinal  shoots  fruit  places,  moist  BCV(?1  lower  places,  l o w e r BCV  p a r a s i t i c on P i n u s r a r e i n u p p e r BCV  medicinal  swamps  ponds,  eaten  and  bogs  contort  l o w e r BCV  l o w e r BCV  disturbed s o i l throughout BCV b o t t o m l a n d s  Polygonaceae (Knotweed  Family)  Ranunculaceae (Buttercup Family)  Rhamnaceae (Cascara  (Rose  Family)  Family)  Rumex o c c i d e n t a l i s ^  Trautvetteria caroliniensis"  Rhamnus  purshiana  Western  False  Dock  Bugbane  young leaves eaten; leaves medicinal  roots  roots  and  medicinal  disturbed, l o w e r BCV  moist  soil,  m o i s t woods and a l o n g a t r e a m s i n l o w e r BCV  r a r e i n u p p e r B C V ; common along outer coast  Cascara  bark  Amelanchier alnifolia.'  3a$ka^aor\.  b e r r i e s e a t e n ; wood f o r a r r o w s and h a n d l e s ; b r a n c h m e d i c i n a l  disturbed s o i l , u p p e r BCV  Aruncus  Goatsbeard  roots  throughout BCV, along s m a l l streams and m o i s t woods  Black  friuts hooks  sylvester  Crataegus  douglasii '  Hawthorn  medicinal  medicinal  eaten;  thorns  for  fish  rare few  especially  i n BCV b o t t o m l a n d s ; i n mtns  o f BCV  -210-  Family  (or  Rosaceae  class)  (cont'd,)  Scientific  Fragaria  spp.  Name  0,3  Wild  Geum m a c r o p h y l l u m  , Physocarpus  •Potentilla Prunus  Rosa R.  pacifica ^ 3  leaved  avens  Ninebark •  5  1  Pacific Bitter  fusca  h a b i t a t most found i n  fruit  eaten  roots  and  branches  Silverweed • roots Cherry  bark  disturbed BCV  leaves  medicinal  medicinal  eaten bark  medicinal  Vf)  lower  forests  second growth l o w e r BCV  forests  North BCV  flats Bentinck Arm;  upper  Crabapple  f r u i t e a t e n ; wood f o r spoons, etc.  nutkana and gymnocarpa  Wild  Rose  friut  eaten  R. nutkana i n c l e a r i n g s at lower elevations throughout BCV; R. gymnocarpa i n mtns. i n l o w e r BCV, and t h r o u g h out upper BCV  idaeus ^  Wild  Raspberry  friut  eaten  distrubed areas throughout v a l l e y , m o r e common u p p e r BCV  2  leucodermis  Blackcap  R.  parviflorus" '^  Thimbleberry  R.  pubescens^  Dwarf Red B l , berry  R.  spectabilis '^  2  Salmonberry  2  3 Sorbus  sitchensis  Spirea  douglasii  berries  young  young  eaten  stems  berries  carving  soil  second growth l o w e r BCV  tidal  for weavings;  likely  Wild  Rubus  R.  Strawberry  Large  capitatus  emarginata  Pyrus  Common N a m e  disturbed  eaten;  berries  eaten  soil  eaten;  berries  bark, root, branches berries medicinal  eaten  and  forests flats of  upper BCV  disturbed areas bottomlands forests upper Interior  eaten  stems  late succession and a l o n g t i d a l t h e l o w e r BCV  e n t i r e BCV  BCV(?*1;  in  throughout especially  BCV i n w e t , disturbed, soils  succession o u t BCV  forests  bog,  B C V ; damp  through-  Mountain Ash branches  for  drying  salmon  lower  meadows  throughout  BCV  Hardhack  3  Salicaceae (Willow  Family)  Populus -  •Trembling Aspen  Populus  Salix  "Z 3 trlchocarpa ' Black  spp.  Family)  Scrophulariaceae (Figwort Family)  Cottonwood  Willow  Saxifragaceae (Saxifrage  bark  medicinal  upper BCV b o t t o m l a n d s ; Interior  tremuloides^  cambium e a t e n ; wood f o r canoes; roots for f i r e s ; bark of small t r e e s , gum a n d l e a v e s m e d i c i n a l branches several technological u s e s ; b r a n c h e s and l e a v e s m e d i c i n a l  along r i v e r s e n t i r e BCV  roots  moist  ferruginea  Saxifrage  C a s t i l l e j a minuata Indian Paintbrush and C . u n a l a s c h e n s i s  and'leaves  flowers  used  medicinal  in  games  2. 3.  streams  a Urtica  dioica  for  twine  areas  l o w e r BCV  common t h r o u g h o u t B C V bottomlands  3 '  Stinging Nettle  stem  fibres  and  nets  disturbed out  1.  and  ^ Saxifraga  3  Utricaceae (Nettle Family)  Cottonwood f o r e s t s along e n t i r e BCV b o t t o m l a n d s  wet  soils  through-  BCV b o t t o m l a n d s  P l a n t s f o r which o n l y p o s t - c o n t a c t uses a r e r e c o r d e d are not i n c l u d e d O t h e r f o o t n o t e numbers r e f e r t o r e f e r e n c e s b e l o w . Smith 1920-1924. T u r n e r 1973-  here.  Animal Common Name  Appendix II R e s o u r c e s Used by t h e  S c i e n t i f i c name  P a r t s Used  s p r i n g salmon s o c k e y e salmon coho salmon p i n k salmon chum salmon ooligan s t e a l head t r o u t cutthroat trout d o l l y varden t r o u t herring starry flounder  Oncorhynchus t s h a w y t s c h a 0. n e r k a 0. k i s u t s h 0. g o r b u s c h a 0. k e t a Thaleichthys pacificus Salmo g a i r d n e r i S. c l a r k i c l a f E i S a l v e l i n u s malma Cupea p a l l a s T T "  whole  rock cod  Sabastocles caurinus  "  "  l i n g cod halibut perch soles  Ophiodon e l o n g a t u s Hippoglossus stendlepsis  " "  " "  Fish  Nuxalk Where h o s t Commonly Found  Resources  " whole whole "  fish B e l l a Coola River (BCR), s i d e c r e e k s and t r i b u t a r i e s  " fish fish "  Platichthys~ste11atus  oil  l o w e r 4 m i l e s o f t h e BCR BCR and u p p e r t r i b u t a r i e s BCR and s m a l l s i d e streams BCR and s i d e s t r e a m s mouth o f t h e BCR few a t BCR t i d a l f l a t s ; R e s t o r a t i o n Bay h e a d o f S o u t h B e n t i n c k Arm and e a s t w a r d s L a b o u c h e r e Channel Namu, K w a t n a , K i m s q u i t unknown unknown  i £ T  Common Name  Scientific  name  P a r t s Used  Where M o s t Commonly  Found  S e a f o o d ano Sea Mammals l i t t l e - n e c k clams b u t t e r clams mud c l a m s horse clams cockles mussels  Prototheca staminea Saxidomus a i g a n t e u s Mya a r e n a n a S c h i z o t h a e r u s capax Chinocardium nutaTh' Mytil i s californianus  meat  abalone crabs dentaliurn sea u r c h i n  H a l i o t i s kamtchatkane Cancer spp. Dentalia spp. Strongy1ocentrotus drobachiensis Stichopus c a l i f o r n i c u s  shell meat shell meat  s e a cucumber eel octopus giant barnacles h a i r seal sea l i o n sea o t t e r  Octopus d o f l e i n i Lepas a n a t i f e r a Phoca v i t u l i n a Eumetopias j u b a t a Erihydra l u t r i s  •I  " "  R e s t o r a t i o n B a y , n e a r Namu and E l c h o H a r b o r  meat,  shell  meat " " meat,  skins  T a l l i o c a n n e r y , Kwatna and F i s c h e r C h a n n e l and w e s t w a r d s f r o m B e l l a B e l l a outer coast K i t l o p e and Kwatna outer coast N o r t h B e n t i n c k Arm South outer outer Bella mouth  B e n t i n k Arm, B e l l a B e l l a coast coast Bella B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r and c h a n n e l s  H  II  n  n  II  H  II  II  II  n  II  H  II  II  II  n  Water and Land B i r d s mallards c a n a d a geese w h i s t l i n g swans bald eagles herring gulls r u f f e d grouse common l o o n puffin  Anas p l a t y n y w c h o s Branta canadensis 01 o r c o l u m b i a n u s Haliacetus leucocehalus Lanus a r g e n t a t u s Bonasa u m b e l ! u s G a v i a immer Frateralla arctica  meat " " " H  " " "  t i d a l f l a t s and o t h e r w e t a r e a s i n l o w e r B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y , Kwatna and S o u t h B e n t i n c k Arm along the B e l l a Coola R i v e r n  II  II  B e l l a Coola v a l l e y Interior lakes outer coast  II  n  forests  £ 1  Common Name  S c i e n t i f i c name  P a r t s Used  Where Most Commonly Found  Mammals mountain  goat  c o a s t aeer mule deer b l a c k bear g r i z z l y bear lynx rabbit porcupine beaver marmot wolverine marten mi nk racoon red fox coyote otter skunk weasel fischer muskrat  Oreammnos americanus meat, h o r n s , b o n e s , americanus w o o l , stomach, s k i n meat, s k i n s , bones O d o c o i l e u s hemionus sitkensis U . h . hemionus Ursus americanus U. a r c t o s h o r r i b i l i s Lynx c a n a d e n s i s meat, s k i n canadensis Lepus americanus E r e t h i z o n dorsatum nigresceris Castor canadensis Marmota c a l i g a t a Gulo l u s c u s l u s c u s skin Martes amencana c a u r i n a M u s t e l a v i s o n energumenos Procyon 1otor Vulpes f u l v a Canis l a t r a n s i n c o l a t r i s Lutra canadensis p a c i f i c a Mephitis mephitis hudsonica M u t s e l a erminea Martes p e n n a n t t i columbiana Ondatra z i b e t h i c a  high elevations i n B e l l a Coola v a l l e y , North and South B e n t i n c k Arms South B e n t i c k A r m , l o w e r B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y upper B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y open f o r e s t s B e l l a C o o l a v a l l e y forests B e l l a Coola v a l l e y f o r e s t s , e s p e c i a l l y upper B e l l a C o o l a V . B e l l a C o o l a V. b o t t o m l a n d s mountains upper B e l l a C o o l a V . wet a r e a s B e l l a C o o l a V. f o r e s t s B e l l a C o o l a V. mountains B e l l a C o o l a V. f o r e s t s II  Bella Bella Bella Bella Bella Bella Bella Bella along  II  II  II  C o o l a V . s t r e a m s , f o r e s t edges Cooa V. f o r e s t s , near w a t e r C o o l a V. C o o l a V. f o r e s t s C o o l a V. streams and r i v e r sh o r e s C o o l a V. c l e a r i n g s C o o l a V . r i v e r b a n k s , mixed f o r e s t s Coola V. f o r e s t s B e l l a Coola r i v e r  i N3  I  -214Mean W e i g h t s  (MW)  Appendix III p e r Annum f o r Salmon P r o d u c i n g  Streams*  b e l l a C o o l a - A t n a r k o R i v e r * * * - 1) 1 8 4 0 0 0 ; 2) 1 1 2 0 0 0 ; 3) 3 7 5 0 0 0 ; 4) 4 6 0 0 0 0 ; 5) 4 6 0 0 0 0 ; 6) 5 0 0 0 0 0 ; 7) 3 9 0 0 0 0 ; 8 ) 4 1 3 0 0 0 ; 9 ) 2 5 2 0 0 0 ; 10) 5 0 8 0 0 0 ; 11) 6 3 8 0 0 0 ; 12) 5 8 2 0 0 0 ; 13) 6 3 8 0 0 0 ; 14) 1 1 2 6 0 0 0 ; 15) 8 0 0 0 0 0 ; 16) 2 3 5 8 0 0 0 ; 17) 8 9 0 0 0 0 ; 18) 8 8 8 0 0 0 ; 19) 2 4 1 8 0 0 ; 2 0 ) 7 2 0 8 0 0 ; 21) 2 1 4 8 0 0 ; 22) 1 4 0 2 9 8 0 ; 23) 1 3 3 0 0 0 ; 2 4 ) 6 3 8 0 0 0 ; 25) 2 7 2 0 0 0 ; 26) 1 0 1 2 0 0 0 ; 2 7 ) 4 9 6 0 0 0 ; 2 8 ) 9 0 4 0 0 0 ; 2 9 ) 1 2 6 0 0 0 ; 30) 9 9 2 0 0 0 ; 31) 4 4 3 0 0 0 ; 3 2 ) 1 4 3 0 0 0 0 ; 33) 8 5 3 0 0 0 ; 34) 743000 N e c l e e s t s c o n n a y R i v e r - 1) 2 2 3 3 3 . 3 ; 2) 7 5 0 0 ; 3) 1 7 0 0 0 ; 4) 1 1 1 6 6 . 7 ; 5 ) 1 1 8 3 3 . 3 6 ) 2 5 5 0 0 ; 7) 4 1 0 0 0 ; 8 ) 1 5 9 1 6 . 7 ; 9) 3 9 5 0 ; 10) 2 8 8 3 3 . 3 ; 11) 4 7 5 0 0 ; 12) 4 3 5 0 0 ; 13) 2 1 7 5 0 ; 14) 1 6 5 0 0 ; 15) 2 1 0 3 3 ; 16) 7 2 5 0 0 ; 17) 5 0 5 0 ; 18) 7 5 0 0 0 ; 19) 3 6 5 0 ; 20) 19500 21) 2 4 8 0 0 ; 22) 9 0 0 0 0 ; 2 3 ) 1 5 1 2 . 5 ; 2 4 ) 5 4 1 6 6 . 7 ; 25) 5 5 8 3 . 3 ; 26) 1 5 7 5 0 ; 27) 8 4 0 0 0 ; 28) 2 8 0 0 0 ; 29) 5 5 8 3 . 3 ; 30) 2 8 3 3 3 . 3 ; 31) 3 3 3 3 . 3 ; 3 2 ) 1 7 4 3 3 . 3 ; 3 3 ) 1 7 6 6 6 . 7 ; 34) 3 3 3 3 3 . 3 S a l l o o m t R i v e r * * - 1) 1 9 0 0 ; 2) 1 3 3 8 b . 7 ; 3 ) 8 5 0 0 ; 4) 6 3 7 5 ; 5) 9250 6 ) 5 2 8 0 0 ; 7) 8 9 3 7 . 5 ; 8 ) 2 4 5 0 ; 9 ) 1 4 0 3 3 . 3 ; 10) 12550 11) 1 5 0 0 0 ; 1 2 ) 3 4 5 0 0 ; 13) 41500 T h o r s e n C r e e k - 1) 3 5 6 6 . 7 ; 2) 8 8 3 3 . 3 ; 3) 7 2 2 5 0 ; 4 ) 1 1 8 0 0 ; 5 ) 5 6 3 3 . 3 ; 6 ) 5 4 5 0 ; 7) 1 5 6 3 3 . 3 ; 6 ) 1 2 4 0 ; 9) 1 6 6 3 3 . 3 ; 10) 3 7 3 3 . 3 ; 11) 9 6 6 6 . 7 ; 12) 1 5 2 3 3 . 3 ; 13) 1 1 6 6 6 . 7 S n o o t ! i C r e e k - 1) 4 5 0 0 ; 2) 6 0 0 0 ; 3) 1 3 6 6 6 . 7 ; 4) 4 1 3 3 . 3 ; 5 ) 1 3 2 2 5 ; 6) 4650 7) 2 2 5 6 6 . 7 ; 8 ) 5 1 3 . 3 ; 9) 2 5 6 0 0 ; 10) 1 0 4 8 3 . 3 ; 11) 16333.3; 12) 1 5 b 0 0 ; 13) 1 4 4 6 6 . 6 Nusatsum C r e e k * * - 1 ) 1 7 5 0 ; 2 ) 2 8 0 0 ; 3 ) 3 5 0 0 ; 4) 6 9 5 ; 5) 5 7 5 ; 6 ) 7 0 6 6 . 7 ; 7) 2 0 5 0 ; 8 ) 5 3 3 3 . 3 ; 9) 2 3 7 5 ; 10) 1 9 1 6 . 7 ; 11) 7500; 12) 8 6 0 0 ; 13) 8600 F i s h C r e e k - 1) 4 0 6 6 . 7 ; 2) 2 1 0 0 ; 3) 3 8 1 6 . 7 ; 4) 2 9 3 3 . 3 ; 5) 2 0 2 5 ; 6 ) 3 6 0 0 ; 7) 5 9 8 3 . 3 ; 8 ) 3 6 1 6 . 7 ; 9 ) 5 7 6 6 . 7 ; 10) 5 2 6 6 . 7 ; 11) 2 6 3 3 . 3 ; 12) 4 1 0 0 ; 13) 4000 N o o s g u l c h C r e e k * * - 1) 3 6 6 . 7 ; 2) 2 6 4 0 ; 3 ) 2 0 3 3 . 4 ; 4) 1 0 6 2 . 5 : 5 ) 5 6 7 0 ; 6 ) 1 1 0 0 ; 7) 1 3 6 6 . 7 ; 8 ) 3 4 0 ; 9) 5 0 1 2 . 5 ; 10) 7 7 5 ; 11) 1675 12) 6 9 0 0 ; 13) 5750 H a y e n s b o r g S l o u g h - 1) 1 0 0 ; 2) 1 0 0 0 ; 3 ) 4 0 0 0 ; 4) 5 0 0 ; 5 ) 5 0 0 ; 6) 15150 77 9300 N o o k l i k o n i k C r e e k - 1) 6 7 5 ; 2) 2 3 6 6 . 7 ; 3 ) 2 0 4 0 ; 4 ) 5 0 0 ; 5) 1 0 0 0 ; 6 ) 4 0 5 0 77 2 9 5 0 ; 8 ) 1 3 0 6 . 7 ; 9 ) 1 6 5 0 ; 10) 5 5 0 ; 11) 14033.3; 12) 1 4 0 3 3 . 3 ; 13) 5400 N u x a l k C r e e k - 1) 1 8 8 6 . 6 ; 2)3433.3; A i r p o r t Side" C r e e k - 1) 3 7 0 ; 2) 1 6 0 0 ; 3) 2 6 6 6 . 6 ; 4) 2 5 0 0 ; 5) 3925 l a t s q u a n C r e e k - 1 ) 3 2 6 6 . 7 ; 2) 5 5 3 . 3 ; 3 ) 2 7 0 ; 4) 1 4 5 ; 5) 2 5 2 . 5 ; 6) 250 7) 4 4 8 3 . 3 C a c a h o o t i n C r e e k - 1) 3 6 5 ; 2) 6 5 0 ; 3 ) 1 1 2 5 ; 4 ) 1400 S k i m l i k s C r e e k - 1) 3 9 5 ; 2) 270 * A l l s t r e a m s a r e c a l c u l a t e d o n l y w i t h c o h o , p i n k and chum f i g u r e s , u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e noted. O r i g i n a l f i s h c o u n t s f o r t h e b e l l a C o o l a and N e c l e e t s c o n n a y r i v e r s are from 1947-1960; a l l o t h e r s a r e f r o m 1970 t o 1 9 8 2 . * * T h e s e s t r e a m s a l s o have s m a l l numbers o f c h i n o o k s p a w n i n g w i t h i n t h e m . * * * C a l c u l a t e a w i t h a l l f i v e s p e c i e s of salmon.  -215A p p e n a i x IV DOMINANT SPECIES IN  COVER-TYPES  S e c o n d G r o w t h New-dry ( S G N d ) D e s c r i p t i o n : T h i s zone i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h e r b s , s h r u b s a n d v e r y young t r e e s . Found i n r e c e n t l y c l e a r e d / b u r n e d a r e a s a n d s c r e e s l o p e s i n t h e upper v a l l e y . D o m i n a n t U t i l i z e d S p e c i e s : swamp g o o s e b e r r y w i l d g o o s e b e r r y , highbush cranberry, w i l d raspberry, red elderberry, w i l l o w s , spreading dogbane, t h i m b l e b e r r y , nootka r o s e , w i l d r o s e , s a s k a t o o n s , b i t t e r c h e r r y , b l a c k c a p s , w i l d strawberry, bracken f e r n , k i n n i k i n n i k , fireweed Second Growth O l d - d r y (SGOd)D e s c r i p i i o n : T h i s z o n e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by m a t u r e a n d a l m o s t m a t u r e c o n i f e r o u s and deciduous t r e e s , l o c a t e d i n t h e upper v a l l e y . L i t t l e d a t a i s a v a i l a b l e on t h e u n d e r s t o r y o f t h i s h a b i t a t . Dominant U t i l i z e d S p e c i e s : a l d e r , c o t t o n w o o d , d o u g l a s f i r , w i l l o w s , r e d c e d a r , b i r c h , m a p l e , s p r u c e , r e d o s i e r dogwood, thimbleberry, wild raspberry, spirea Cottonwood (Cot) D e s c r i p t i o n : C o t t o n w o o d t r e e s , intirncdiate t o m a t u r e i n a g e , a n d a t h i c k shrub and l a y e r c h a r a c t e r i z e t h i s c o v e r - t y p e . It i s located a l o n g t h e e n t i r e v a l l e y b o t t o m , a l o n g t h e main f i v e r . Dominant U t i l i z e d S p e c i e s : c o t t o n w o o d , w i l l o w s , a l d e r , m a p l e , r e d e l d e r b e r r y , w i l d gooseberry, salmonberry, thimbleberry, stink currant D o u g ! a s - f i r - w e t (DFw) D e s c r i p t i o n : Mature f o r e s t i n t h e v a l l e y bottoms i n t h e upper B e l l a Coola v a l l e y Dominant U t i l i z e d S p e c i e s : d o u g l a s - f i r , b i r c h , m a p l e , c e d a r , a l d e r , h i g h b u s h c r a n b e r r y , s o a p b e r r y , r e d - o s i e r dogwood, w i l d r o s e , swamp g o o s e b e r r y , w i l d g o o s e b e r r y , m o u n t a i n b i l b e r r y , r e d e l d e r b e r r y , k i n n i k i n n i k , b u n c h b e r r y , skunk c a b b a g e , " y e l l o w moss" D o u g l a s - f i r - d r y (DFd) D e s c r i p t i o n : M a t u r e f o r e s t on m o u n t a i n s l o p e s i n t h e u p p e r v a l l e y . It i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an a b s e n c e o f c e d a r a n d v e r y l i t t l e u n d e r s t o r y Dominant U t i l i z e d S p e c i e s : d o u g l a s f i r , l o d g e p o l e p i n e , w i l d r o s e , s p r e a d i n g dogbane, s o a p b e r r y , k i n n i k i n n i k , " y e l l o w moss" S e c o n d G r o w t h New- w e t (SGNw) D e s c r i p t i o n : Recently c l e a r e d areas i n the lower v a l l e y , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i m m a t u r e t r e e s , s h r u b s a n d h e r b s D o m i n a n t U t i l i z e d S p e c i e s : w i l d b l u e c u r r a n t , r e d - o s i e r dogwood, swamp gooseberry, w i l d gooseberry, w i l d r a s p b e r r y , nootka r o s e , s a l m o n b e r r y , t h i m b l e b e r r y , w i l l o w s , b u n c h b e r r y , cow p a r s n i p , bracken f e r n , f i r e w e e d , h o r s e t a i l , w i l d strawberry S e c o n d G r o w t h O l d - w e t (SGOw) D e s c r i p t i o n : C h a r a c t e r i z e d by m a t u r e a n d a l m o s t m a t u r e c o n i f e r o u s and d e c i d u o u s t r e e s , v e r y t h i c k u n d e r b r u s h , and a wide range of species d i v e r s i t y . Usually a s s o c i a t e d with water, i n the lower valley.  -216Dominant U t i l i z e d S p e c i e s : a l d e r , c e d a r , c o t t o n w o o d , c r a b a p p l e , s i t k a s p r u c e , highbush c r a n b e r r y , r e d - o s i e r dogwood, s t i n k c u r r a n t , w i l d b l u e c u r r a n t , r e d e l d e r b e r r y , swamp g o o s e b e r r y , w i l d gooseberry, nootka r o s e , salmonbery, s p i r e a , t h i m b l e b e r r y , w i l l o w s , b u n c h b e r r y , s p i n y wood f e r n , cow p a r s n i p , b r a c k e n f e r n , h o r s e t a i l , l i l y - o f - t h e - v a l l e y , s a r s a p a r i l l a , skunk c a b b a g e , s t a r - f l o w e r e d - s o l o m o n ' s s e a l , sweet c i c e l y , water p a r s n i p W e s t e r n H e m l o c k - w e t (WHw)D e s c r i p t i o n : Mature f o r e s t of the bottomlands i n the lower v a l l e y . C h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o f w e s t e r n h e m l o c k a n d d e v i l ' s - c l u b , and a heavy s h r u b l a y e r Dominant U t i l i z e d S p e c i e s : r e d c e d a r , hemlock, s p r u c e , d o u g l a s f i r , alaska b l u e b e r r y , o v a l - l e a f e d b l u e b e r r y , highbush c r a n b e r r y , w i l d b l u e c u r r a n t , r e d - o s i e r d o g w o o d , r e d e l d e r b e r r y , swamp g o o s e b e r r y , b u n c h b e r r y , l i l y - o f - t h e - v a l l e y , s p i n y wood f e r n W e s t e r n H e m l o c k - d r y (WHd)D e s c n p t i o n : M a t u r e h e m l o c k f o r e s t s o f t h e l o w e r v a l l e y , u s u a l l y on a mountainside. C h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e a b s e n c e o f d e v i l ' s - c l u b , l i t t l e s h r u b l a y e r , a n d a h e a v y moss l a y e r Dominant U t i l i z e d S p e c i e s : d o u g l a s f i r , hemlock, r e d h u c k l e b e r r y , w i l d b l u e c u r r a n t , k i n n i k i n n i k , b u n c h b e r r y , b r a c k e n f e r n , s p i n y wood fern, lily-of-the-valley, sarsaparilla, star-flowered-solomon's seal Tidal  Flats (TF) D e s c r i p t i o n : L o c a t e d a t t h e mouth o f t h e B e l l a C o o l a R i v e r ; c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a homogeneous h e r b l a y e r a n d a f e w s h r u b s a n d shrubby t r e e s Dominant U t i l i z e d S p e c i e s : c r a b a p p l e , nootka r o s e , w i l l o w s , c l o v e r , cow p a r s n i p , h e m l o c k - p a r s l e y , h o r e s t a i l s , l u p i n e , s i l v e r w e e d , r i c e r o o t , water parsnip  

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