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An anthropological perspective on the role of Chinese trade ceramics in the prehistory of a Philippine.. Langrick, Helena 1985

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AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL  PERSPECTIVE  ON THE ROLE OF CHINESE TRADE CERAMICS IN THE PREHISTORY OF  —  A PHILIPPINE CULTURE by HELENA LANGRICK  B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  Of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1 982  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  (Department Of A n t h r o p o l o g y And S o c i o l o g y )  We a c c e p t t h i s to  THE  thesis  as c o n f o r m i n g  the r e q u i r e d standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September  ©  Helena  1985  L a h g r i c k , 1985  In  presenting  degree  this  at the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  British Columbia, I agree  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  of  department publication  this or  thesis for by  his  or  the  representatives.  It  Department of Anthropology and S o c i o l o g y The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6(3/81)  an advanced  Library shall make it  is  granted  by the  understood  that  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without  permission.  Date  that the  for  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be her  requirements  October 1 0 ,  1985  head of copying  my or  my written  11  Abstract This data  study  from  a  representing 14th  p r e s e n t s an a n a l y s i s stratified  A.D.  ethno-historical evaluated social then  of  incorporate  both  archaeological  Pila  cultural  wealth,  for  system  or  system  of  is  which  measurement.  Hypotheses t e s t descent,  culture later  social  content  change  period.  differences throughout  12th  and from  hypotheses  are  which  to test f o r  of analyses a r e  derived  symbolic  from  includes  structure  in  treated  roles,  not  areas  sub-system  for social  as  the the  designed  to  approaches  to  of f o c u s  and  the  site  and  to  exact  include the ritual  differentiation  sub-  i n terms o f  of  function;  i n terms of c o r p o r a t e  control;  and r i t u a l  and f o r  patterns;  the e v a l u a t i o n  complexity of  i n amount o f goods; p a t t e r n s o f s p a t i a l the  non-  intangible  amenable  terms o f i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l involve  open,  and  and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n  of a r t i f a c t s  Analyses  an  tangible  are  Major  h i e r a r c h y and c e n t r a l i z a t i o n symbolic  Philippines  the  framework  and  ceramic  model c o n s t r u c t e d  patterns  incorporating  sub-system, the s o c i a l  system.  in  The r e s u l t s  methodological  some a s p e c t s  definition  the  analyses designed  research  processual  in  periods  to generate  period.  The  a  site  trade  analysis.  homeostatic elements,  i n each  model.  construction  for  i s used  i n terms of symbolic  ethnographic  Chinese  ethnographic  by means o f q u a n t i t a t i v e  assessed  trade  An  data  complexity  The  burial  two main p r o t o - h i s t o r i c  centuries  of  within  individual  in the  quantitative distribution burials;  and  c o m p a r i s o n s of  burial  treatment  between  individuals  and  between  sub-groups. Major status  a r e a s of  can  be  between m a t e r i a l effects  complexity mortuary  of  of  a  prolonged  patterns  support  the  group.  represent in  general.  society  a recursive  culture, the by  glazes,  Pila.  These  death.  every to-one  them  ritual,  a n c e s t o r and and  relationship  resonance,  caused  a s p e c t s of  an  and  nature  become  to  reinforce  Associated  relationship  C h i n e s e c e r a m i c s as  with  the  important  this  within  the  of  are the  spirits, ritual  analyses  model of  Pila  as  component  in  role.  and  I  conclude  between  light-reflecting  and  in  aspects  circle  involving  objects.  with a l l  patterns  petitionary  family  that  characterized  a belief  all  material  particular,  identified  include  internal  the  ideological  which c o n t r o l  kind, conducted mainly  that  and  socio-  In  closely  patterns  with  the  Chinese ceramics,  to  spirits  ideology;  r e f l e c t i o n of  exist  impermeability  ideological  relationship  ideological  ideology.  which  Pila,  ethnographic  to  to  of  in  results  i s seen  of  the  and  important  and  characteristics  durability,  the  question  extent  t r a d e on  accurate The  the  conclude  with a prominent  s o c i a l organization  physical  I  an  which Chinese c e r a m i c s p l a y e d that  the  long-distance  a p p l i c a b i l i t y of  egalitarian  and  social organization  cultural  patterns  include  made from m o r t u a r y p a t t e r n s ;  culture,  cultural  an  concern  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n in prehistory,  inferences  the  theoretical  of  powerful of  life  rituals in a the  of one-  use  of  iv  The  mortuary  characterized  by  data a slight  occurred  between  increase  in s o c i a l  long-standing impact  as  also  the  indicates  general  earlier  complexity  and  diffusion  increase later  with  China,  of c e r t a i n  culture  in s o c i a l  cultural  a p p e a r s t o be  trading contacts  w e l l as  that  change,  complexity,  periods.  a s s o c i a t e d with i n t e r m s of  cultural  This the  economic  elements.  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS  • Page  ABSTRACT  i i V  TABLE OF CONTENTS L I S T OF TABLES  viii  L I S T OF TABLES - APPENDIX A  ix  L I S T OF FIGURES  X  L I S T OF FIGURES - APPENDIX B  x i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER  xiii  1 INTRODUCTION  1  1.1.  The R e s e a r c h P r o b l e m  1  1.2.  The S i t e  8  CHAPTER 2 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND  CHAPTER  16  2.1.  Introduction  16  2.2.  Mortuary A n a l y s i s  17  2.2.1.  The P r o c e s s u a l A p p r o a c h  17  2.2.2.  The S y m b o l i c A p p r o a c h  25  2.3.  Systems  2.4.  Social  Theory  32  Organization  36  2.4.1.  Bilateral  2.4.2.  Archaeological  2.4.3.  T r a d e a n d Exchange  3 THE ETHNOGRAPHIC  Kinship  36  Background  43 44  MODEL  47  3.1.  Introduction  47  3.2.  T r a d e Sub-System  48  3.3.  Social  Sub-System  51  3.4.  R i t u a l Sub-System  54  3.5.  S t r u c t u r a l Model  of P i l a  C u l t u r a l System  ..  58  vi  CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS: TESTING THE MODEL 4.1.  Introduction  62  t o Methods  4.1.1.  Nature  4.1.2.  Implications  4.1.3.  Structure  62  of the Data of T h e o r e t i c a l Approach  of the A n a l y s i s  CHAPTER 5 ANALYSIS: PERIOD I I - TRADE SUB-SYSTEM 5.1.  Introduction  5.2.  Hypotheses:  62 ..  67 70 72 72  Processual  72  5.2.1.  Hypothesis  1  72  5.2.2.  Hypothesis  2  73  5.2.3.  Hypothesis  3  73  5.2.4.  Hypothesis  4  74  5.3.  Analyses  75  5.4.  Summary a n d D i s c u s s i o n  91  CHAPTER 6 ANALYSIS: PERIOD I I - SOCIAL SUB-SYSTEM 6.1.  Introduction  6.2.  Hypotheses:  95 95  Processual  95  6.2.5.  Hypothesis  5  95  6.2.6.  Hypothesis  6  96  6.2.7.  Hypothesis 7  96  6.3.  Analyses  6.4.  Summary a n d D i s c u s s i o n  97 114  vii  CHAPTER 7 ANALYSIS: PERIOD  I I - RITUAL SUB-SYSTEM  117  7.1.  Introduction  117  7.2.  Hypotheses: Symbolic  117  7.2.8. 7.3.  Hypothesis  8  117  Hypotheses: Processual  7.3.9.  Hypothesis  9  120 120  7.4.  Analyses  122  7.5.  Summary and D i s c u s s i o n  138  CHAPTER 8 ANALYSIS: PERIOD  III  143  8.1.  Introduction  143  8.2.  Hypotheses: Processual  145  8.2.10.  Hypothesis  10  145  8.3.  Analyses  146  8.4.  Summary and D i s c u s s i o n  159  CHAPTER 9 DISCUSSION  166  CHAPTER  177  10 CONCLUSIONS 10.1.  Conclusions  Related  to P i l a  178  10.2.  Conclusions  Related  to Methodology  186  10.3.  Conclusions  Related  to Theory  187  BIBLIOGRAPHY  190  APPENDIX  A TABLES  203  APPENDIX  B FIGURES  242  APPENDIX  C NOTES TO THE TEXT  253  vi i i  L I S T OF  TABLES  Table  4.1. 5.1.  7.1. 7.2. 7.3. 8.1.  Page  T a b l e o f i n h u m a t i o n and c r e m a t i o n A g r a a n d Mendoza, P e r i o d s I t o IV  burials  in 64  Frequency of b u r i a l s with each t r a i t i n Agra and Mendoza (sum, %, mean, m e d i a n , qU, qL, standard deviation) Wealthy burials categories Wealthy function  with  sums, % and means:  glaze 131  burials with categories  Wealthy burials associations  77  with  Table o f mean depths burials in Period III  sums,  %  and  means: 132  %  of  different  ware 137  (in  centimetres)  of 157  ix  L I S T OF TABLES  - APPENDIX A  Table  A-1  Page  Table  of trade  ceramic  categories  at P i l a  (by  ware and f u n c t i o n  204  A-2  Table  A-3a  L i s t of b u r i a l s and associated grave A g r a (L) List of burials and a s s o c i a t e d g r a v e A g r a (R)  goods:  L i s t of b u r i a l s and Mendoza (L)  goods:  A-3b A-4a A-4b  of n o n - t r a d e c e r a m i c  List of burials Mendoza (R)  categories  associated and  grave •.  associated  at P i l a .  .. 207  208 goods: 213 219  g r a v e goods 221  A-5  Number and % of b u r i a l s w i t h each number of p o t s ( a l l p o t s , t r a d e c e r a m i c s , e a r t h e n w a r e s ) ... 224  A-6  Wealthy and poor groups: Agra ( t r a d e c e r a m i c s ) - means, s t a n d a r d c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n  A-7  List  of c e r a m i c  A-8  List  of f u n c t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s :  (2)  dishes;  glaze  categories  and Mendoza deviation, 226 (and c o d e s )  .... 227  (1) c o n t a i n e r s ;  (3) o t h e r  228  A-9  W e a l t h y b u r i a l s and g l a z e  c a t e g o r i e s : Agra  A-10  Wealthy  b u r i a l s and g l a z e  c a t e g o r i e s : Mendoza  ... 231  A-11  Wealthy  b u r i a l s and f u n c t i o n c a t e g o r i e s : A g r a  ... 232  A-12  Wealthy  burials  and  function  229  categories:  Mendoza  234  A-13  Period  I I I cremation  burials:  Agra  235  A-14  Period  III cremation  burials:  Mendoza  239  A-15  Inhumation  A-16  Depth of b u r i a l s :  burials,  Period  Period  I I I : Agra  III  240 241  X  L I S T OF  FIGURES  Figure  Page  1.1.  Map  of P h i l i p p i n e s  1.2.  Map  of P i l a ,  1.3.  Map  of P i l a  1.4.  D i a g r a m of P i l a  3.1.  Structural  4.1.  Numbers of artifacts population at P i l a : Period  5.1. 5.2. 5.3.  5.4.  5.5.  5.6.  6.1  6.2.  6.3. 6.4.  with  ceramic  sites  2  Laguna  10  excavation  sites  11  stratigraphy  12  M o d e l of t h e P i l a  cultural  in II  system.  total  ...  59  burial 65  Percent of b u r i a l s i n A g r a and Mendoza e a c h c a t e g o r y of a r t i f a c t : P e r i o d I I  with  Mean numbers o f a r t i f a c t s p e r b u r i a l and Mendoza: P e r i o d I I  Agra  in  78 79  Percent of b u r i a l s w i t h e a c h number o f P e r i o d II  in total Pila population trade ceramics present:  Percent of b u r i a l s Agra and Mendoza, p o t t e r y : Period II  in total Pila containing  83 population, earthenware :  83  Percent of b u r i a l s in S i t e 1 (Agra): Period I I , c o n t a i n i n g (1) any pottery (ceramics or e a r t h e n w a r e ) a n d (2) t r a d e c e r a m i c s o n l y  84  P e r c e n t of b u r i a l s i n S i t e 2 ( M e n d o z a ) : P e r i o d II, containing (1) any p o t t e r y ( c e r a m i c s o r e a r t h e n w a r e ) and (2) t r a d e c e r a m i c s o n l y  85  W e a l t h y and p o o r g r o u p s i n A g r a and Period I I , with mean numbers of earthenwares and i r o n per b u r i a l  98  Mendoza: ceramics,  B o x p l o t s of t r a d e c e r a m i c d a t a from Agra and Mendoza: Period I I . Comparing (1) t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n s and (2) w e a l t h y s u b - g r o u p s Map II  of e x c a v a t i o n  area,  Map of e x c a v a t i o n P e r i o d II  Site  1(Agra):  99  Period 105  area,  Site  2  (Mendoza): 107  xi  6.5. 6.6. 8.1.  Ceramic d i s c s (actual size)  from P i l a :  Net sinkers (actual size)  from  Periods  II  and  III 110  Map of cremation Period III  Pila:  Periods  II  and  III 112  burials,  Site  1  (Agra): 149  xi i  L I S T OF FIGURES - APPENDIX B  Figure  Page  B-1  Photo: earthenware p o t t e r y  B-2  Photo II  B-3  of  burial  from P i l a  assemblage  #98,  243  Pila:  Period 244  P h o t o of b u r i a l  assemblage  #28,  Pila:  Period  II  245  B-4  P h o t o of d o u b l e b u r i a l ,  B-5  P h o t o of b u r i a l  #28  in situ,  B-6  P h o t o of b u r i a l  #1,  Pila:  B-7  P h o t o of b u r i a l  #54,  B-8  P h o t o of M i n g  B-9  Diagram  B-10  P h o t o of c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l  B—11  g r a v e goods, P i l a : P e r i o d I I I Photo of cremation j a r b u r i a l s P i l a : Period III  B-12 B-13 B-14  Period  Sta.Ana  246  Pila:  Period  Pila:  of pre-Ming b u r i a l ,  of  cremation b u r i a l  Diagram of c r e m a t i o n Philippines  247  Period  IV.  248  Calatagan  #74,  with  jars,  246 247  II  Pila:  P h o t o of c r e m a t o r i u m s t r u c t u r e , III, Photo III  I I . ...  II  Period  burial,  Period  248  associated ..  249  (smashed), 249  Pila:  Period 250  Pila:  Period 251  burial  stoneware  jars, 252  xi i i  Acknowledgement  I would l i k e the  members  R.G.  to express  of my  M a t s o n , and  constructive particular, unfailing I  Elvi  advice  Whittaker,  during  Pearson,  the as.  g u i d a n c e d u r i n g my  thank  facilities  and  the  their  Philippine assistance figures  generously  home i n t h e i r ceramics. and  for this  for  my  support  allowed  extensive  patience  of  d u r i n g my  this  graduate  In  provided  and  program. Mrs.  Julia  research  collection  regarding  and  for providing  graduate  thank  Dr.  studies.  considerable and  to  thesis.  advisor,  Tecson  t o do  library  suggestions  of  B r i t i s h Columbia  In a d d i t i o n , I  thesis.  their  graduate  Miguel me  gratitude Pearson,  preparation  U n i v e r s i t y of  financial  and  Richard  for  three years  I a l s o w i s h t o thank Dr. T e c s o n , who  appreciation  t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e , Dr.  Dr.  Dr.  my  of  at  antique  Moira  Irvine,  the  preparation  for of  1  1.  INTRODUCTION  1.1  The R e s e a r c h  Chinese Philippine We  ceramics  societies  know t h i s  "trade were  traded  The  Philippine  context  of  graves  hundreds  found,  in large  of  not o n l y  numbers  throughout  as  of  almost  ceramics. condition not  invariably In  by t h e f a c t  goods  of  sites burial  o f many o f t h e s e b u r i a l  simply  favoured  ideological These  facts  played  by t h e s e a r t i f a c t s  interesting  suggest  information.  scientific  context  stratified  burial  wares  The  data  in  from  found  the  (Beyer  and that  pristine they  were  u s e , b u t had some k i n d o f  Philippine  f o r the a n a l y s i s site  indicates  an i n v e s t i g a t i o n in  the  numbers o f t r a d e  size  f o r the i n h a b i t a n t s  that  in  which c o n t a i n e d  have been  miniature  items of household  significance  these  illustrating  sites  containing significant the  that  t h e l e n g t h and b r e a d t h of the  Hundreds  addition,  i n the  the e x t r a o r d i n a r y  burial  archaeological  trade ceramics.  wares, these  wares  F i g . 1 . 1 . , shows a map o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s dispersal  Chinese  during  these by  but a l s o  of  and p o r c e l a i n  archipelago  c e n t u r i e s p r e - d a t i n g the Spanish conquest 1947),  i n t h e l i f e of  thousands  stoneware  importance  i s indicated items  of  Philippine  special  Filipinos  wide  Chinese  part  d u r i n g t h e 1 1 t h - t o t h e 1 6 t h - c e n t u r i e s A.D.  the  included  of  islands. the  the  an i m p o r t a n t  distinctive  into  centuries.  wares were  played  i s so b e c a u s e  ceramics",  numbers  Problem  of  that  period.  of the c u l t u r a l society  from  Pila  of Chinese  s o u t h e r n Luzon  would  role yield  has p r o v i d e d a  ceramics  from  a  i n the P h i l i p p i n e s ,  tAtUYAJt  Distribution of Tang, Sung, Ming, Annamese and Sawankhalok wares with principal sites mentioned in the text.  Laguna  ISLAND1  LEGEND: •  TANG OR TANG TYPE  •  SUNG OR/AND YUAN  •  MING  V  ANNAMESE  O  SAWANKHALOK  de Bay  tULU  FIGURE l . l i  ARCHIPtLAeO  Map o f the P h i l i p p i n e s w i t h ceramic ( a f t e r L o c s i n and L o c s i n 1 9 6 ? » 2 )  sites  3  representing centuries  two  A.D.  approach are and  the  derived  used  to test are  excavation cemetery  site  containing  •burial goods. attention  analyses  whole  was  concerned  (Addis  1968;  of  mainly  1978;  Cox  1978;  L o c s i n and  1944;  1979;  Van  t h i s was a  due  Frasche 1967;  market  scientific  there e x i s t s  an  not  evaluated  physical  characteristics  be  one  Cheng  of  1978;  Medley  Southeast and  method  or  i n any alone.  of  evaluated  the  other The  few  i n terms  these  wares 1978;  1984;  Howitz  1976,  Asian  Martin  1981;  Ceramics  1978). who  collections  unearthed As  cultural  trade  a  ceramics  i n t e r m s of  of  In have  documentation.  than  a  Chin  m a t e r i a l from P i l a ,  of  this, as  antiquities,  way  for  Asia  of p r i v a t e c o l l e c t o r s , Chinese  to  enormous body of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  w h i c h can  hand, p r o v i d e s  Prior  art history  as  careful  the o p p o r t u n i t y  1977;  for  burial  with  Macintosh  zeal  in a  trade ceramics  data.  Yeo  15th-  stratified,  1982,  1976;  to  resulted  1980,  Pijl-Ketel  t o the  10th  Guy  der  result,  which can  1976;  patterns  in Southeast  1977;  1977;  b e n e f i t of  data  Brown  Indonesia  without  other  the  in  ready  be  1981;  Locsin  Society  ceramic  with  symbolic  recorded  to trade ceramics  Adhyatman  Chung  trade  processual period,  i n 1968,  undisturbed,  and  the  14th  i n each  the  t o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l method, p r o v i d e d  relating  provided  Laguna,  and  same a r e a .  l a r g e numbers of p r e - M i n g  information  Society  terms of  from the  excavated  12th  b a s e d on  Rosa T e n a z a s of  of an  This site,  quantitative  Ceramic  data  the  complexity  in  at P i l a ,  p u b l i s h e d account  ground,  part,  assessed  by Dr.  in  analyses  for social  from e t h n o - h i s t o r i c a l  century  periods  Quantitative  results  The  rare,  proto-historic  on  the the  ceramic  context  and  4  history,  as  artifacts  well  as  and t h e i r  The  focus  relatively  the  of  this  abundant the  16th  removed  from  the  burials  Careri  1963; C h i r i n o ,  value  of such  information centuries  groups of  (Chen  1966;  The of  the  The  g o a l of t h i s  ethnographic data  from  secondary  goal  approaches features together  model  these  supported  from  1979;  is  to  presented,  w i t h a number o f r e l a t e d  are  Filipino  in various parts contemporary  even  which today,  of the data  i n the  1978a,b; E d e r  1984;  1973). the a p p l i c a b i l i t y  with  respect  sites at P i l a ,  processual  and  a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  approaches  the  1959),  ceramics  i s to test  combine  Wu  groups  1974; S p o e h r  The  by  of s o c i a l  1970; C h i n  1966;  t h e 1 2 t h and 13th  addition,  to trade  1964;  1974,1981).  encounters  In  study  the  (Alip  contemporaneous  two c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s  t o mortuary of  been  t o the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  1970; S c o t t  by  1979; F e l i x  Garcia  of  of t r a d i n g  (Fox 1982; J o c a n o  primary  mortuary  1966;  significance  Pila.  1977; S c o t t  sources  accounts  guided  in Garcia  m a t e r i a l r e g a r d i n g a number  1976; M a r c h e  the  the p e r i o d of S p a n i s h  in  has  islands.  gave an e x t r a d i m e n s i o n  Lopez  Felix  descriptions  Philippine  analogy  literary  eye-witness  context  of  p e r i o d o n l y a few c e n t u r i e s  1964; San A n t o n i o  ascribe particular  local  a  been  from  represented  ethnographic  ethnographic  has  Morga, T a n g c o  Chinese  and  the  century,  from  containing  research  ethnographic. data  in  in Alip  characteristics  p a t t e r n i n g i n the ground.  contact  Pigafetta  physical  described  theoretical  in  to  the  Laguna. symbolic  The p r i m a r y Chapter  2,  issues categorized  5  under  "systems t h e o r y "  (section  2.4).  historical  data,  sub-systems: structural symbolic  followed  in  of  trade,  the  the  8,  data  social the  and  Pila  II  extent  outlines  and the  this  of  results  the  methodology,,  on  terms  i t also  ethno-  of  three  incorporates a  society. The  III  analyses related and  to t e s t 5,6  i s evaluated  9  presents Chapter  results  larger  7.  evidence  from P i l a .  the  the  and  for  Chapter  to the  4  procedures  are  in Chapters  the  Chapter  basic  mortuary data  c u l t u r e change.  conclusions  based  in  Pila  i s done  of t h e  organization"  system, which d e f i n e s  in  from P e r i o d  nature  3,  structure.  first:  general  analyses,  model,  cultural  principles  data  "social  ritual;  a n a l y s i s of P i l a  the  a d i s c u s s i o n of 10  ethnographic  methodological  from P e r i o d  In C h a p t e r  and  i s o u t l i n e d in Chapter  organizing the  data  The  model of  outlines  ( s e c t i o n 2.3)  of  the  theoretical  issues.  Two  major a s p e c t s being  the c u l t u r a l  are  seen  role  of m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e w i t h  ideology.  as  of  The  of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t .  evidence  proposed  recursive  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  social  a c t i o n and  concept  this  study. Pila  exchange  Pader,  data  by  i d e o l o g y as  to s o c i a l  "there  ideology,  means of H y p o t h e s e s 8 and The  second aspect  i s the q u e s t i o n  patterns  in  of  i s an  action  (Pader 9,  Pila  i s the  organization the  notion  material  i t influences  1982:34). in  I  explore  Chapter  7  of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t the  significance  the development  and  inextricable and  merely a residue,  well"  for  First  appears to support  that  m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e i s not  this  the  by  respect  from P i l a  recently  culture;  patterns defined  of  of c u l t u r a l  trade  of in and  complexity.  6  The  steady  and l o n g - l a s t i n g t r a d e  far-reaching these  effects  effects  instance,  but  s y s t e m by c o n t a c t  and III. and  a  Aspects  in  items  institutions  The  data  of the t r a d e  from  trade  some  or  hierarchical  i n a ranked  Pila  with  the  and t h e b u r i a l  complexity  patterns are explored  to social  class  represents  China,  in social  For  p r o d u c e d no  s o c i e t y i n the Period  increase  related  prestige  eventually culminate  times.  chief  focus  the methodology. evaluated analysis  in  II phase in Period  Chapter  5  organization are evaluated i n  Being  already  I test  differentiation specialization  ideological indicated  in  to  mortuary some  in  general  earlier  f o r the terms  the  data  between P e r i o d s in  (reviewed  deriving  a  are  of mortuary  archaeology.  mortuary  Using  s t u d i e s , reviewed i n  or  wealth,  the m a t e r i a l should  approach  Pila  study i s  absence  status,  of  social  descent,  and  o f t h e t r a d e and e x c h a n g e  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between g r o u p s o f g r a v e  change  that  in this  principles  presence  of  component p e r c e i v e d  necessitated  site,  of f u n c t i o n ; the nature  specific  culture  a  established in processual  developed  2.2.1,  patterns;  of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t  according  procedures  symbolic  had  6.  The  and  did  general  questions  section  trade  i n d i c a t e s an e g a l i t a r i a n slight  Chapter  of  p h a s e s of l o n g - d i s t a n c e  evidence  China  on t h e P h i l i p p i n e c u l t u r e and economy - b u t  redistributive  bureaucracies,  earlier  with  were n o t a l w a y s what one m i g h t have e x p e c t e d .  centuries  centralized  relations  I I and I I I .  the  burial  in section  2.2.2)  methodology  which  The p r o m i n e n t  data,  be e v a l u a t e d  goods;  however,  i n terms o f t h e as  well.  This  combined b o t h t h e  7  processual The  methodological  section  4.1  4.1.3. is  structure  main t h r u s t  to derive  symbolic  As  already  data,  structure stated  ethnographic,  The  ethnographic  basic  data.  aspect  cultural  patterns  trade  of  major c u l t u r a l  patterns  until  the contemporary  period  Islands  variation basic  social  1979).  1982;  of  e s p e c i a l l y with aspects  (de  beginning  Jocano  using  in  of  In  variety  model a g a i n s t  data  of  sources,  drawn  from  instance  from  and  ritual.  Chapter  3.  the  period  t o the p e r i o d of some  on  areas,  in  unchanged  Palawan  sources t e s t i f y within  and  Chirino,  to  ritual  de Morga,  i t i s valid site.  the  the P h i l i p p i n e  to the s o c i a l ,  single  of  While i n t e r - r e g i o n a l  patterns  I believe a  three  sources;  and  in Garcia  T h u s , w h i l e a s p e c t s o f t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c model a r e a  is  data  t o have r e m a i n e d  1970).  respect  Loarca,  correlates  was a r e m a r k a b l e c o n t i n u i t y o f  for  cultural  society,  to reconstruct  i s described  appear -  and  research  organization,  many S p a n i s h c o n t a c t  homogeneity  linguistic  from  (Fox  existed,  archipelago,  this  i n t h e 1 0 t h and 11th c e n t u r i e s ,  fact,  Pila  and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  Spanish c o l o n i z a t i o n i n the 16th c e n t u r y .  Panay  for  for material  focus  literary  from t h e  4.1.2  4,  of t h e a n a l y s i s  in pre-history,  there  i n Chapter  s e c t i o n of the a n a l y s i s .  model c o n s t r u c t e d that  analysis.  sections  I attempt  society  and exchange,  indicates  Chinese  i n each  historical,  of trade  Evidence  outlined  and  and t o l o o k  above, t h e  a s p e c t s of P i l a  patterns  is  of the symbolic  g u i d e d by t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c specific  used  a unified ideological structure  on e t h n o g r a p h i c  this  approaches to a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  ( i n t r o d u c t i o n t o methods)  The  based of  and s y m b o l i c  drawn  to t e s t the  Pila,  in  the  8  province on  of  Laguna, l o c a t e d about  the southern  F i g . 1.1) in  is  shore  o f Laguna de Bay  a central  site,  the mainstream of c u l t u r e  Therefore  in this  ethnographic Chapters  II,  study  history  I attempt  model by a n a l y s i s  are  proposed  III.  (hypotheses  a  10).  followed  by  symbolic  significance of the t e s t  presents  the  stemming  from  methods u s e d larger  (Locsin  to test  deals  and one  the  from  Pila  dealing  in  theoretical  study,  and  i s s u e s which  Pila. Ten  to Period  relating  to  the s o c i a l  sub-system  the r i t u a l  sub-system  Period III  as  a  i n each s u b - s e c t i o n a r e a  discussion Chapter  as a whole. part  conclusions  of  the  9 presents a  with  Chapter  10  conclusion  t h e d a t a a n a l y s e s , c o n c l u s i o n s stemming  in this  the  sub-system  8 deals with  results.  of  trade  7 deals with  analyses  1968:6).  from  relating  the  6 deals with  results  conclusions,  (see  of the a n a l y s i s .  nine  with  incorporating  of  and L o c s i n  the a n t i q u i t y  the r e s u l t s  The  summary,  of Manila  Luzon  of the e x c a v a t i o n data  8 a n d 9 ) , and C h a p t e r  (hypothesis  central  of the data,  5 t o 7 ) , Chapter  (hypotheses  discussion  5  1 t o 4 ) , Chapter  (hypotheses  whole  Chapter  in  and e v a l u a t e d ,  which r e p r e s e n t s the bulk  Period  south-east  and c a n be c o n s i d e r e d t o have been  4,5,6,7 a n d 8 p r e s e n t  hypotheses  75 km.  related  formed t h e background  from t h e to  the  for this  study.  1.2  The S i t e The  Agra  excavations  at P i l a  i n c l u d e two c l o s e l y - r e l a t e d  and Mendoza, w h i c h a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e b a r r i o ,  of Pinagbayanan,  i n the township of P i l a ,  sites,  or v i l l a g e ,  i n the p r o v i n c e of  9  Laguna  (see F i g . 1 . 2 ) .  barrios  in this  discovered other  (e.g.  sites,  collectors, together yet  area  and  the  are  excavated  Locsin  r a n g e of  apparently town,  (see  less  sites and  sites  i n the  Fig.1.3). the  wares.  called  The 30  original  km.  to the  Pagalangan  (now  the  populated. by  the  This  vagaries  typical  of  The  shore  the  of  excavations  Fig.1.4).  The  I r o n Age  the  town t o and  date,  A.D."  surface  containing of  older  i n the  ground  spanning stratum,  most p r o b a b l y (Tenazas  of  this  and as  was  the  present  Victoria).  flooded  i t s present  the  been  an  Pila  of  as  by  the  site  lake  from  (ibid:6).  town a r e a  was  re-  dictated  w a t e r t a b l e , i s b e l i e v e d t o have been  a t A g r a and  earliest  2,  i n h a b i t a n t s moved back away  area  four  cultural  Period  I,  i n the  a  times.  clearly-  levels  (see  is characterized  i s a s c r i b e d by  towards the  1968:15).  level,  in pre-Spanish  Mendoza r e v e a l e d  f i n e - g r a i n e d sandy c l a y , and  millennium on  the  conditions  burial  "an  No.  o s c i l l a t i n g movement o f p o p u l a t i o n s ,  stratified  compact,  receded  Mendoza,  barrio sites  town of  l a k e and  and  (1968:12)  southwest  the  lake  dealers  w h i c h have  townsite  made u n i n h a b i t a b l e .  the  by  A l l the  A g r a and  Laguna  and  Later,  been  Lumbang).  Tenazas  o l d town a p p e a r s t o have been c o n s t a n t l y  t r a n s f e r r e d the  have  area  The  The  half-dozen  (Mendoza L o t  c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s " and  l o c a t e d about  in a place  site  (1968:7) d e s c r i b e  a l l "more or  identical  only  some  in sales.  much s m a l l e r the  of  "dismantled"  wares d i s p e r s e d  a third,  scientifically  being  burial  however, were q u i c k l y  with  and  i n which r i c h  i s one  Duhat, G a t i d , V i c t o r i a  unpublished),  Locsin  Pinagbayanan  end  of  Tenazas the  and  to  first  T h r e e b u r i a l s were Mendoza a r e a ,  by  found  grave  10  FIGURE  1 . 2 :  Map  of P i l a ,  Laguna,  with excavation s i t e s  showing B a r r i o  Pinagbayanan  ( A g r a a n d Mendoza)  T e n a z a s 1968: f o l l o w i n g  p.12)  (After  11  rood  FIGURE  1.3:  Map o f  Pila  following  excavation sites p.12)  (after  is  not  to  scale  Tenazas  1968«  PERIOD  PERIOD 3 1  PERIOD :  PERIOD I  SECTION DRAWING OF SOUARE 6-11 SITE I PINAQ8AYANAN /AGRA C R E M A T I O N W CONTAINER C R E M A T I O N IN A PIT PORTHOLE I N T R U S I V E MIN8 B U R I A L I N T E R P O L A T E D INTO T H E S E C T I O N  r  MMjyATWH  xxxx •UO<  20 cm  FIGURE  Diagram o f P i l a  stratigraphy (after  «i  T e n a z a s 1968: F i g . 3 )  LOAM  imam  1 3  goods f o u n d  consisted  stylistically burials  from  the  o f t h e upper  The  of e a r t h e n w a r e local  earthenware  c e n t u r y A.D.  i s dated E a r l y  the b a s i s of a s s o c i a t e d  coins.  ( i b i d : 1 5 ) (the Northern  A.D.).  A total  of  174  two  with associations  each.  The  latest  cultural  was  date  1063,  from  and  one  solely  as a cemetery  area during t h i s  This  P e r i o d III stratum  and  cultural  of ceramic  cremation  burial  55  site  layer  appears  burials  (the Southern  burials  burials.  A  1968:15) was appears  dates  were f o u n d w i t h i n  cremation  and  single  i n j a r s and  c o i n s found  1100.  No  than  by  soft  sherds,  t o h a v e been u s e d  in  other the used  black  1280-  1368  cremation  dates  on  a  1127-1279  A total 49  being  inhumation  1375±25 B.P. burial.  from  from  A.D.).  6 being  as a h a b i t a t i o n  pits.  14th c e n t u r y ,  the P e r i o d III l a y e r , and  loam,  cultural  a radiocarbon date  r a d i o c a r b o n date of  o b t a i n e d f o r one  this  period.  remains,  pits,  960-1126  coins  t o have been  Sung D y n a s t y  from  and  within  f e a t u r e s s u c h as p o s t m o l d s and  material  t h e Yuan D y n a s t y  found  other  is characterized  animal  from  nine Chinese  P e r i o d i s d a t e d L a t e Sung/Yuan, o r about  the b a s i s  A.D.;  the  in this  and  material,  and  was  12th  ceramics  dates  i n the other b u r i a l ,  associations,  in organic material,  Sung, a b o u t  of the a s s o c i a t e d  burial  rich  i n the  medium-grained,  Chinese  burials  of seven  m a t e r i a l s were f o u n d  The  by  Sung d y n a s t y  inhumation  layer,  burial  differed  layers.  sandy c l a y , on  which  p o t t e r y found  P e r i o d II s t r a t u m , c h a r a c t e r i z e d  reddish-brown,  one  vessels,  The  area during  (Tenazas site this  of  14  period,  as  The loam,  well  as  a burial  Period  IV  s t r a t u m , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  i s f o u n d as  Period  II  an  intrusive horizon,  l a y e r , and  reddish-brown inhumation  ground.  marked by  surface  of  b u r i a l s which  the  with  dates  from  similar,  Calatagan, that  the  level  represent  cultural  This  loam  10  soil  and  deposition  the  Period  i n t o the The  the  lack  identified of sex be and  on  the  tested,  the  II  the  area  quantity  (and  (the  of  Ming  comparison  Fox  Tenazas  by  in  postulates  layer  of  analyses  Period  containing due  III  (see the  to  clayey  no  the  t o have r e s u l t e d i n  IV b u r i a l s below t h e  preservation  basis  the  soil  (as n o t e d a b o v e ) v a r i a t i o n s i n  appear  Period  III  the layer  Fig.1.4). Pila  s i t e s are  i n the  ground.  associated  individuals interred. the  basis  t h i c k , and  As  done, a r e  the  result  to estimate  a result,  the  the  the  lack  age  or  hypotheses  related solely  wherever p o s s i b l e , the  of  B u r i a l s were  g r a v e g o o d s , but  r e m a i n s made i t i m p o s s i b l e  and  nine  ascribed  Robert  1959).  the  The  16th-century the  the  fine-grained grayish-brown,  l i m i t a t i o n s of  organic  skeletal of  Period  chief of  IV a r e  Tenazas suggests that  f l o o d i n g of  and  to  level.  layer containing  centimetres  intermittent  of  (Fox  i s a compact,  materials.  intrusion  Period  on  black  b u r i a l s must have o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e  black  about  erosion  soil  1368-1644 A . D . ) , on  Ming p e r i o d  only  II  d a t e d , b u r i a l s e x c a v a t e d by  above the  soil,  15th-  Batangas p r o v i n c e  burials.  intruding into  l a r g e , dark p a t c h  Period  Tenazas t o E a r l y Ming, about dynasty  a  fine-grained  to the  to  form  spatial distribution)  the  grave  goods f o u n d  i n the  burials.  16  2.  THEORETICAL BACKGROUND  2.1  Introduction  The on  t o p i c of  this  anthropological  study  r e l a t e s t o a number of m a j o r  concern:  complexity;  the  relationship  between m a t e r i a l  ideology. mortuary the  methodology  because trade  archaeology,  studies  mortuary  of  For  data.  d y n a m i c s of  t o the  The  data,  and  and  (Chin  I978a,b; E d e r  art  1970;  important ceramic kiln  social  1974;  been the  field.  the  groups  and  the  patterns, the  the  Sulod  the  Spoehr  1973). on  of  sources. of  trade  Asia  today  c e n t r a l Panay evaluation local  1970;  of  Lopez  work has  stylistic  and  and  the  1976;  source  of  in  the  contributed  development study  and  context.  Another  technical  identification  of  of a v a r i e t y  Chinese ceramics  g r o w i n g body of  of  of  analysis  presence  i n the  Jocano  development  of and  basis  in Southeast  1982;  r e l a t e d t o the  and  relevance  availability  and  literature  This  manufacture,  typologies.  on  for  these a r t i f a c t s Fox  inter-  is particularly interesting  the  accounts,  1984;  Scott  has  the  (or near-contemporaneous) w r i t t e n  information  sites,  of c u l t u r a l  context  b e c a u s e of  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  history  i s the  Sarawak) make p o s s i b l e a d e e p e r  role  information  Pila  cultural  organisation  inferences  Tagbanuwa of P a l a w a n , t h e  Dayaks o f  Marche  culture, social  at  of  e x c h a n g e ; and  a major c o n c e r n  site  c e r a m i c s among a number of  the  and  reconstruction  In a d d i t i o n , e t h n o g r a p h i c  the  trade  a scientific  contemporaneous  (e.g.  development  used to a r r i v e at  i t presents  ceramic  the  issues  of  of  ancient  chronological  17  2.2  Mortuary  2.2.1  The P r o c e s s u a l Mortuary  1971;  Braun  1969;  analysis Approach.  studies  b a s e d on t h e p r o c e s s u a l  1977; Brown  Kirch  1980;  1971; D e c k e r  Larson  1971;  1971; P e e b l e s and Kus 1977;  1975,  1973)  have  established  1969; G o l d s t e i n O'Shea  Peebles  a  1981;  Saxe  1970,  solid  interpretation  of b u r i a l remains.  development  of  methodological  and i n t e r p r e t a t i v e s t r u c t u r e  and the  the determination theoretical  scientific  l e d to  regarding  discrimination evaluation  the  researchers,  but  their  formulation  in  an  study.  have  value  something  society  to  categorized  say a b o u t their  include  the a  analysis,  of  effective status  on  levels,  by  undiminished important  and  inferences  questioned  remains  test  social status;  Some o f t h e  later  as  field  the of  r e m a i n s a r e t h e r e m a i n s o f non-  random, i n t e n t i o n a l b e h a v i o u r , a n d a s s u c h , have  f o r the  regularities  of  been  increasingly Burial  Tainter  emphasis on t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f  identification  studies  King  terminology,  law-like  of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  earlier  archaeological  the  1971;  for burial  between a c h i e v e d and a s c r i b e d  made i n t h e  groundbreakers  An e a r l y  1981;  P e a r s o n 1981;  gains  descriptive  of a number o f  (Binford  framework  The c h i e f  useful  level.  method  implications  the  a  approach  they w i l l  t h e way p e o p l e  world.  in that  generally particular  18  A basic  framework was  ethnographic  studies  (1973,  1975), w h i c h  that  mortuary  organization given  revealed  remains  society.  Firstly, in  variables  affiliation, complexity  certain  cause were  complexity  of  identified  on  the  agriculture,  settled agriculture,  ascribed  second  social  distinctions:  major d i m e n s i o n s qualities, cultural  may  characteristics argued the  that  focus  activity  of  be  status  of  goods);  social  inferred  sub-group l e v e l s of  the  forms  and  more in  18-20).  rituals  (Binford  achieved from  based  complex of  In a t h i r d  the  ( i n terms of b u r i a l  i n the b u r i a l  the  greater  versus  mortuary  on  personal  capacity for  societies,  status  more a b s t r a c t  social  hypothesis,  Binford  be d e t e r m i n e d  amount  of  form, b u r i a l  the  variety  of  o f an i n d i v i d u a l , t h e g r e a t e r  from  communal treatment,  o r i e n t a t i o n o f b u r i a l s , and t h e form and thus  shifting  etc.  differential  terms  and  of  of m i n i m a l c o m p l e x i t y t h e  d i f f e r e n c e s are sex,  major  ceremonialism;  of  i n d i c a t e d that  a  structure  status,  pastoralism,  be  in  f o r three  mortuary  l e v e l s in a society could  mortuary  represented  of  basis  societies  among  defined  (ibid:  and  involved  age,  while  location burial  could  among  as  tasks;  positions  hypothesis  for status  such  social  s u c h as h u n t i n g - a n d - g a t h e r i n g ,  status  that  of  differentiation support  of  indicating  and l o c a t i o n o f d e a t h ;  postulated,  A  (1970) and T a i n t e r  age, sex, s o c i a l  death  cross-cultural  complexity  status  subsistence  1971:18).  the  the complexity  included  the  regularities  established  that  the  by  ( 1 9 7 1 ) , Saxe  reflect  Binford  reflected  important  of B i n f o r d  and t h e p r e s e n c e o f  hypotheses. was  established  quantity features  the s o c i a l  19  status  of t h e d e c e a s e d  indicated be  that  indicative  composite In upon  of s o c i a l  another  identities that of  this the  determined  conducted  r e g a r d i n g the  mortuary  a  result  that  deceased,  grave  but  ritual  (Tainter  was  on  individuals  of  study, K i r c h  revealed  socio(that  political i s , persons  of  examined  some  grounds  in  were  Braun that  same  rank  mortuary reflect  new  i n energy status  with  necessarily  power), Indian  cemeteries  by  his  had  he  the s t a t u s  of  in  the rank  Tainter's whether  occurred  among  work  In  another  on  Tongan  data,  showed  differences in social  large, had  1980:304in  tests  patterns:  1981:411).  t h o s e who  (Kirch  suggested  test  than d i f f e r e n c e s who  the  of s o c i a l  ethno-historical  rank  duties of  d i d not  expenditure reflected rather  and  criticized  also  variation:  of h i g h s o c i a l  political  suggested  expenditure  Tainter  (Braun  social  of e t h n o g r a p h i c  energy  expenditure  linked  Plains  set  not always  corporate  g r a v e monuments, were n o t amount  features  another  goods do  a  of the  the p e r s o n a l s t a t u s  Later,  the  differences  that  life.  than Other  energy  patterns,  Saxe c o n c l u d e d  in  a more a c c u r a t e r e f l e c t i o n  the  in  the  d e c i d e which  on  could -  of t h e r i g h t s  variations  that  differences  that  maintained  deceased  the b a s i s  of  1975:125).  conclusions,  mortuary  on  1970:4-9).  as  the  the  work  remains  s h o u l d be commemorated, and  rather  Tainter,  concluded  of  relatives  Binford's  i n mortuary  s e t of e t h n o g r a p h i c s t u d i e s ,  of the deceased  (Saxe  essence,  persona"  identities  survivors  deceased  "social  the s u r v i v i n g  was  In  the p a t t e r n s o b s e r v e d  of the  death,  (ibid:22).  in rank  elaborate  the  greatest  5).  O'Shea  conjunction  with  20  ethnc—historical was  clearly  burials, from  indicated  social  the  evidence  pre-historic Mortuary which always  grave  that within  relative  that  either  (Chapman  the  mortuary  (Larson of  often  Randsborg, t o t h e form  deceased  in l i f e  c e r e m o n i a l may  of  rank'  1971);  that  k i n s h i p groups  time  of l i v i n g  or  that  of mortuary (Pader  clusters  show  that  always, 1981); than that  1969);  relatives  s t a t u s may  treatment  that more  be or  seen both  o f d e a t h may than  certain  the  be  status  p a t t e r n s of  repeated within represented  of  that  rather  expenditure,  not  sets  1982a);  (Ucko  the cause  1982);  crowns,  1983;  that  energy  be c o n s i s t e n t l y  (Bayard  (Hodder  status  1981);  spatial  -  Randsborg  status  (Orme 1982);  as  Studies  1971,  in  evidence  framework  t o p of t h e g r a v e  be c o n s i s t e n t l y  such  f o r w a r d new  indicate  the  the  supposed.  sometimes, but n o t  (Binford  p l a c e d on  wealth  ( e . g . , h i g h s t a t u s may 'badges  g r a v e may  reflect  amounts o f  more r e l e v a n t of  may  increased,  o f some o f t h e c o n f l i c t i n g  in l i f e  of  determined  first  theoretical  of  of the deceased  and  bringing  then d i s a p p e a r w i t h  ritual  at  size  be  n o t be  has  was  i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  status  expenditure  of g r e a t e r v a r i a b i l i t y  found  of g r a v e s w i l l  mortuary  than  the  i n view  goods may  i t , and  location  in  task  or  grave  studies  constantly into  could  ranking  1981:49).  mortuary  are  t o be  goods  reflect  (O'Shea  while s o c i a l  energy  affiliation  patterns  absorbed  easy  conclusions  t h e w e a l t h and  of  cultural  be  an  concluded that  p o i n t e d t o the p r e s e n c e  studies  must  by  remains  number  has  and  sub-group  the mortuary As  than  data,  by  one  site  specific  c e r e m o n i a l weapons, e t c . ) often  Goldstein  indicate 1981;  the  presence  Larson  1971;  21  Macdonald elite  1978);  status  distorted from  (Gryaznov  picture  a range of  differences social  that  spatial 1969);  of  in  burial  distinctions,  that  social  surrounding  may  change  that  reflect  a  former  rather  than  structure  (Pader  1982);  or  pattern  status differentiation  return  to  mortuary  studies,  question  of  estimating reasons  the  size  egalitarian  methodology specific  and  all  homogeneity repeated, do  they  occurring  from  between  synchronous  (Pearson  pattern  of  than  more  processual  mortuary  a  with tool  societies.  individual  burials  The  previously  the  interest. problem  i n f e r e n c e s made However,  of from the  s t u d i e s have p r o v i d e d  How  Is  for  a  much burial  site?  the  and  observed  in a s i t e ,  between  a  present  variation  What a s p e c t s v a r y ,  other?  the  t h e manner  context.  within a particular  each  to  and  in  gone  of e x t e n d i n g  patterned?  actual  approach  as  of e a r l y  have  data.  social  an  involvement  themselves  general  may  1982a).  inequalities,  concerns  1981;  ritual  b a s i s f o r a s s e s s i n g the v a r i a b i l i t y  i s present  vary  such  that  mortuary  inequalities  r e v e a l e d i n mortuary  of  constant,  either  a  burials  1982a);  rather  general  complexity  present  have become m a j o r q u e s t i o n s of  studies into a  aspects  current  (Hodder  a  the v a l i d i t y  sound m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  the  indicate  include  time  ideal  manifest  these  regularities  a  social  to  of  an  is  and  society,  Hand i n hand w i t h  in  form  f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of begin  indicate  specifically  there  measuring  i n which they  basic  the  may  (Hodder  through  1983);  To  the  sometime  cemeteries  communities  Underhill  of  will  s t r u c t u r e i f they  goods  or  clusters  or  What i s how  much  variation clusters  22  of b u r i a l s i n a s i t e , between  chronological  questions of  the  between  can  provide  levels  associated  may  be  grave  goods,  We  can  goods p r e s e n t ,  as  w e l l as  for  in the  c l a s s e s of  look  the  of  associations  the  throughout  the  indication  of  level;  could  they  site).  the  be  reflect  goods  subsistence  patterns  division  provide  a p i c t u r e of  burial  burial  treatment  form,  primary, or  such  secondary, coffin,  inferences  occupation. depth to  such  aspects:  and  spatial  quantity  spatial  cemetery. types  of  an  animal  nature  be  assessed  can  grave of  also  and  of  look  goods  (the  discontinuous  individual the  be or  an  group  presence  remains c o u l d  labour;  the  grave  features could  on  of  of  distribution We  continuous  and  main  ritual  relative  of  reflect  artifacts  importance  of  ideology.  Burial  to  and  three  c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s or  utilitarian  can  and  of  inequalities  kingroups;  the  nature  V a r i a t i o n s i n such  wealth  or  organisation  treatment,  pattern  may  answers to  social  i n terms of  goods w i t h i n  same a r e a ,  burials.  c o - v a r i a t i o n s between d i f f e r e n t  pattern  The  to the  burial at  i n the  a site?  clues  measured  organization.  various  in  valuable  s o c i e t y represented  Variability  several sites  of  as  the  type  inhumation,  etc.);  such  patterns  as,  for  or c o m p l e x i t y  regarding  degrees  through  of  burial  cremation, i n types  example,  V a r i a t i o n s in grave  burial  inferences  can  size,  of  variations practices  (e.g.,  f l e x e d , extended, of b u r i a l permanent  o r i e n t a t i o n of  mortuary ceremonial  of c o r p o r a t e  energy  could or  in  jar lead  seasonal  the could  body, lead  expenditure  23  involved,  and  differences. spatial  thus  Variability  spatial  patterning leading  groups. the  or  and  other,  linear  be  of s i z e  be  sizes);  a  range  could  lead to inferences  hierarchical  of  or  the  includes  Some  of  the  processual  "universal mortuary  the  remains  to  produced  those remains  variability  of  orientation  social  roles  in spatial or  instance,  the b e h a v i o u r a l  approach,  i n the o b j e c t s  the  and  that  area  a c l u s t e r of and  sex  associated  with  of  of  found,  may  of  w h i c h we  Goodyear of  of  formulating  to the v a r i a b i l i t y  the p a t t e r n i n g  patterns  (Raab  elements  group.  difficulty  in  or  degree  between c u l t u r e s and c h r o n o l o g i c a l difficulty  within  the c l u s t e r s , the  or  b e h a v i o u r due  the problem of r e l a t i n g  straightforward  groups  i n d i v i d u a l s o f v a r i e d age  include  laws" of mortuary  i s a continuing  theory,  sub-  main m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s  approach  patterns  p r e s e n c e of  presence  i n d i c a t e the p r e s e n c e of a d e s c e n t  the the  patterns  for  and  circular clusters,  in addition, within  regarding  grave  from o r s i m i l a r t o  (e.g.  Differences  to  throughout  in  be d i f f e r e n t  organization;  wealthy graves which  the  of w e a l t h  respect  associated  constant  o r shape  status  significant,  be c l u s t e r e d  variation.  social  relative  which  regarding  s i m i l a r i n terms  have  There  varied  t h e s e c l u s t e r s may  grave  of  be  c l u s t e r s , c l u s t e r s with s p e c i f i c  b u r i a l s may  the  in  t h e g r a v e may  inferences  i n terms  specific  could  manner  I n d i v i d u a l b u r i a l s may  site,  each  may  indication  a l s o be m e a s u r e d w i t h  The  within  to  an may  organization.  goods a r e d i s p e r s e d  site,  to  not  periods.  middle-range archaeological  postulate 1984).  measuring  of  t o have  The  most  the q u a n t i t a t i v e  reveal  significant  24  p a t t e r n s  of  m a t e r i a l  meaning  c u l t u r e  v a r y  i n  the  the  m a t e r i a l  r e s i d u e ,  sense  of  a  more  d i f f i c u l t y  s e t  may  any  be  may  o b j e c t s .  s p e c i f i c  of  The  of  may  a c t i v e  p a s s i v e  a  or  a l s o  r e f l e c t i o n ,  b e h a v i o u r ,  r e c u r s i v e ,  r o l e  s o c i e t y ,  p r i n c i p a l l y  p a t t e r n s or  those  e s s e n t i a l l y  be  from  s i t e  by  c a s e s ,  many  or  f u n c t i o n  r i t u a l  the  s t a t u s  s t a t u s  of  the  may  or  they  w i t h  a  may  r e s p e c t  of  to  c o n v e n i e n t of  s t a g e s ,  such  the  once i n  have  However,  o v e r l y - s i m p l i s t i c .  t h i s  or  found  t h i s  a  the than  may  d e f i n e d approach  who  been  other  than  may the  i n  the  G e n e r a l l y , c a t e g o r i z e  i t the  c u l t u r a l - e v o l u t i o n a r y  F r i e d has  though  m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  a s s e s s e d .  of  some  p a t t e r n s  observed  to  be  In  In  rather  Another  s t u d i e s  terms  might  even  b u r i a l  a  i n d i v i d u a l s  homogenous.  c o m p l e x i t y  by  of  time.  whether  c o - r e s i d e n c e .  f a m i l y  h i m s e l f .  i n  d e t e r m i n i n g  i n  be  sub-group  through  r e p r e s e n t e d  observed  has  change  the  may  to  r e g i o n ,  e s s e n t i a l l y  the  There  v a r i e t y  by  be  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  been  of  d e c e a s e d ' s  c a t e g o r i z e  c o m p l e x i t y as  r a t h e r  person  i n v o l v e s  due  c u l t u r e  problem  d i f f e r e n c e s  remains,  l e v e l s  to  w i t h i n  appear  deceased  how  v a r i a t i o n s  community  s t a t u s e s  s t a t u s  i s  one  problems  v a r i a b i l i t y .  due  the  t i e s  d i f f e r e n t  r e f l e c t  (1975).  i s  a f f i n a l  the  been  v a r i a t i o n s  s e t t l e m e n t s  c a s e s ,  mortuary  i n t r a - s i t e  r e p r e s e n t s  mortuary  d i f f i c u l t y  m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  t h e r e  d i f f e r e n t  l i n k e d  of  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  a d d i t i o n ,  b u r i a l  has  i n  a c t i v e ,  of  i n  d i f f e r e n c e s ,  the  i t  w i t h  b e h a v i o u r .  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  from  that  a r t i f a c t s  Another  In  g e n e r a l ,  s o c i o - c u l t u r a l  i n c o r p o r a t e to  i n  a s s o c i a t e d  been  (1967) found  and by  S e r v i c e  some  to  be  25  2.2.2  The S y m b o l i c In  recent  Approach.  years,  a  new  "symbolic"  archaeological  i n q u i r y h a s been e m e r g i n g  1982;  1984; Rowlands  Trigger  a certain  extent,  symbolists  stepping-stone  the  appears to  processual  to venture  (Hodder  out  be  studies  into  to  1982 a,b; Pader  1984; Kus 1984; P e a r s o n  the s i t u a t i o n  using  approach  a  1982).  case  already  territory  of  done  not  To the as a  adequately  covered  so f a r , and l o o k i n g back t o a c c u s e  the p r o c e s s u a l i s t s of  having  taken  1984:290).  territory aspects  Hill  road  to  initiate  1972; L o n g a c r e aspects  deficiencies concerted  behaviour,  to objective enquiry.  of s o c i o c u l t u r a l  tangible  (Trigger  o f symbol and r i t u a l ,  o f human c u l t u r a l  first  aspects  wrong  i s i n the realm  accessible the  the  life  (e.g.  the  ideological  a realm  not e a s i l y  a r c h a e o l o g i s t s were  research  into  ideological  Deetz and D e t h l e f s e n  These e a r l y i n q u i r i e s  cultural  behaviour  new  into  revealed  1972;  the l e s s -  some  general  i n knowledge and m e t h o d o l o g y a n d were f o l l o w e d by a  attempt  by p r o c e s s u a l  was  measurable,  with  a s much s c i e n t i f i c  archaeologists "materialist" limitations  Processual  systematic  1972). of  and thus  The  and  are  to  determine c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  r i g o u r as p o s s i b l e . expressing  a p p r o a c h , and w i t h  accepted  archaeologists to  Now,  dissatisfaction the self-imposed  by t h e p r o c e s s u a l  group.  measure  what  regularities the  symbolic  with  the  methodological  26  Mortuary information been  s t u d i e s have p r o l i f e r a t e d  regarding  added  to  by  s t u d i e s aimed a t the  b a s i s of  clear  is  indications human l i f e ancient of  past  was are  as  first  that  the  noted  previous  processual  approach  variability  i n the  c u l t u r e and  another.  between  the  cause.  The  change  may  two  to  with  In e s s e n c e ,  there  schools.  symbolists be  found  sociocultural  g r o u p and  can  attempted  not  be  archaeologists in  many p a r t s  say  the  that  that  many  the  has  there  i n more examples the  that  already  based is  effect  end  on  one  processual  complexity  of  of  i s the  ideological  the  between  the  explanation  been  considerable  several areas there  of  the  conflict  concept of  of  culture  context  of  each  therefore universal generalizations  (Trigger that  system,  are  the  far-from-simple As  growing  unique  present  studies  say  on  and  variability  and  and  Firstly,  i n the  maintain of  cause  deal  and  ground, which are  1980).  archaeologists  simple  Instead,  revealed  have a l s o shown t h a t  symbolic  matter.  has  s e c t i o n , mortuary  of  has  so  case.  qualitatively  Gould  patterns  increasingly  were n o t  processes  (e.g.  patterns  i s unable  become  the  i n the  of  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s made  subtlety, complexity  unpredictable patterns  subject  deemed t o be  body  ethno-archaeological  has  Ethno-archaeology  behavioural  approach  of  growing  burial  and  systems  i t e x i s t s t o d a y , was  of  The  cultural  the  ancient  What  culture patterning  i n the  of  validity  data.  at  societies.  material  result  the  excavation  as  details  ethno-historical  testing  that  clear-cut  the  and  the but  1984:290).  The  c a u s e o f change may that  the  chief  processual originate determining  27  factors  are  likely  cultural  r e g u l a r i t i e s may be o b s e r v e d  Secondly, orientation, into  that  be m a t e r i a l / e c o l o g i c a l a n d t h a t  the symbolists claiming  functional  modeling  to  are c a l l i n g  that  and  which  for  a  "explain"  i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  principles  I982b:l62).  the p r o c e s s u a l i s t s  sub-systems,  archaeologists  (Binford  more  the p a r t s  holistic  segment a s y s t e m it  the p a r t s .  by  means  Hodder  need t o pay more a t t e n t i o n  link  cross-  of  suggests  t o the symbolic  together:  These p r i n c i p l e s p e r m e a t e t h e f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and t h e y form t h e w h o l e . The whole does n o t come from t h e p a r t s b u t from t h e u n d e r l y i n g structure. I t i s not adequate t o separate e v e r y t h i n g i d e a t i o n a l i n t o a separate subsystem. Rather, idea and b e l i e f a r e p r e s e n t , and a r e r e p r o d u c e d i n a l l a c t i o n , however e c o n o m i c o r mundane (Hodder 1982b:151).  A third  area  material  culture.  are  merely  not  "concrete ideas we  "things"  instrumental life"  the  (Pader  within  i t s symbolic  but  the  role  that  material  should of  for instance,  played  be  human  suggests  by  objects  viewed  as  thoughts and that  the  way  be a f f e c t e d by o u r w o r l d v i e w , and m i g h t  view - t h a t  in  tools  claim  embodiments  Pader,  objects  "creation,  1982:3-5).  i n w h i c h an o b j e c t  distribution about  and  might  concerns  symbolists  functional  expressions  even a f f e c t t h a t  manner  dispute  The  " (ibid:151).  use  social  of  value  recreation  From t h i s  i s used,  o r between within  of material  that  may  be  and m a i n t e n a n c e o f  point  f o r instance,  sites,  c u l t u r e may  of  view,  the  in i t s spatial  indicate  something  s o c i e t y , a n d i n some  cases,  28  something itself. its  the  If this  use  and  about  might  present  i s the  be  provide  "structuring  an  clues  to A  She  instance, activity  A  processual is  rigid  d i v i s i o n s of  tools  and  boundaries  groups  of  i s the on  understanding  the  unique context  historical and  why  specific  essential 1984:289). undue  symbolic  knowledge,  He  in  accuses  e m p h a s i s on  and  spatial  artifacts.  For  tools  marked  areas  will  and  status  while cultures  between  the  the  between  call  for  of  their  a  which  have  very  symbolic  structure. s e n s e of  current  processual  culture,  social  argues  i n the  structure  archaeologists and  and  of  on  including  understanding  they d i d  universal generalizations  analysis.  emphasis  Trigger an  and  understanding new  a given  s o c i e t i e s d e v e l o p e d as  for explaining  behaviour  clearly labour,  (Kent  ideological  monofunctional  difference  symbolists  the  associated  an  artifact  areas  methodology of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  The  h i s t o r y and  in  (ibid:205).  dispute  the  change  r e f l e c t e d i n the  activity  explanation.  local  social  activity  of  value,  investigated  culture,  have  society  patterns  underlying  t o be  favour  the  Kent, a n a l y z i n g  an  and  which  area  centred  seen  likely  status  fourth  be  will  multi-purpose  indistinct  It  and  was  linked  areas  cultures  distinctions use  could  the  d e g r e e of  Susan  that  which  activity  areas  and  in  of  i n i t s symbolic  space-use w i t h i n  principle",  of  by  suggested  material,  patterning  kind  study  i n t e r m s of  "organizing cultural  the  changes  s i m i l a r concept  ethno-archaeological  1984:199).  then changes  i n d i c a t i o n of  (ibid:30).  variability  case,  principles"  that of  past,  how is  (Trigger placing  argues that  the  29  deductive-explanatory archaeologists (ibid:29l). situation,  are Thus  methods  pursued  not  the  only  there  has  arisen  summarized  by  Rowlands  valid a  by  processual  areas  of  research  somewhat  polarized  as:  " e i t h e r a r c h a e o l o g y must be e x p l a n a t o r y , e m p i r i c a l a n d c a p a b l e of o b t a i n i n g o b j e c t i v e t r u t h or i t i s i n t u i t i v e and p a r t i c u l a r i s t i c and a m a t t e r of p e r s o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " (Rowlands 1984:112).  Binford  reviles  objectivity",  the  maintaining  symbolists  for  their  "denial  of  that  "once s u c h a p o s i t i o n i s a d o p t e d , no m e t h o d o l o g y of i n f e r e n c e a p p e a r s p o s s i b l e w h i c h d o e s not a d o p t t h e method of ' e m p a t h e t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g ' . If this i s r e j e c t e d a l l s c i e n c e a l s o must be r e j e c t e d " ( B i n f o r d 1982b:162).  Rowlands, however, a r g u e s t h a t a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l be  sought,  opposed in  internal  (Rowlands  offer  symbolic  i n the  (Hodder  Tilley  as  and  subjectivity  e x c l u s i v e c h o i c e s but  relationship  in  a  should  brought  single  field  must not  be  together of  inquiry  1984:113).  techniques. done  objectivity  to each other  some  The  that  compromise  1982)  distribution  way  a p p r o a c h as  stands  of methodology, o t h e r  Some  symbolic  1982a; Pader generally and  it  analyses  1982; on  arrangement  M.  the of  today  than  has  little  ethno-archaeological  of m o r t u a r y d a t a Pearson  b a s i s of  skeletal  to  1982; spatial  have  been  Shanks  and  orientation,  or a r t i f a c t u a l  remains.  30  Hodder's ethno- a r c h a e o l o g i c a l cannot  assume t h a t  social  organization.  related role or  symbolic  played even  by  I982a:2l0). social  He  He  a  also  be  that  the  states, will  suggests that  always the  be  first  step  remains  would  ideology  society with  respect  to  and  the  new,  the  d e g r e e of  cultural  other  by of  practices  spheres of  activity.  should  problem with  be  this  which such c u l t u r a l archaeological  archaeological ideology  and  Pader's  studies,  study  bodily  In  i s that  that  rules  to  for a  used  relation  suggest  calls  the  on  in of  status  patterns  1982b:152-153).  identified  he  calls  cultural  the  ritual  e v i d e n c e of  Hodder d o e s not be  order  burial  in  of  mortuary  identify  He  the  analyzed  (Hodder  clarify  (Hodder  symbolic  in  society.  i n terms of  Instead, to  death,  same way,  authority  The  a method  the  basis  f o r more  ethno-  relationship  between  rituals.  analyzing  the  variability  In p a r t i c u l a r , she  adornment,  be  the  assessed  data.  mortuary  stating should  distort,  a  to  between t h e  living  a t t i t u d e s can  c e m e t e r i e s measures the artifacts.  the  approach,  d o m i n a t i o n , power and  main  of  burial  differentiation of  patterns  contextual,  generating  identification  be  the  aspects  towards  mortuary  determine  some  of  specific  r e f l e c t e d i n the  of  the  the  behaviour  that  interpretation of  one  and  reinforce,  cultural  however,  that  ideology  determine  c u l t u r e - e i t h e r to of  suggests  a direct reflection  society will  aspects  organization  ritual.  maintains  c o d e s of  basic  He  i n Sudan  mortuary data w i l l  material  mask  work  in relation  graves i n the  looks t o age,  at  in  two  spatial  variations  sex,  Anglo  Saxon  patterning in dress  skeletal position  of and and  31  spatial  location  indicated the  by  goods  Victorian ideal  the  placement  of  than  specific  in  the  content  relevance,  and  most  (Binford importance  local  may  differences, misrepresent  their  of  on  do  own  of  represent  and  that  the  the  status  of  social  standing  prehistoric  an  is  (M.  not  more on of  makes any  the  the  symbolists  appear  t o be  data  or  (Trigger  between  showing  accurately  observes  the  f o r symbolic  internal  methods o f  addition,  sites, symbolic  claim  explanation" scientific  i s another i n the  particularly of  the  "The  unnecessary.  inference  studies  this.  forms of as  the  prediction  by  of  insurmountable d i f f i c u l t y  mortuary  that  r u l e out  form  logic  inference  agree  disturbed  dismissed  the  systems  also  other  that  variable  seems t o  same way,  notes  cross-cultural  legitimate  avoided,  and  problems  highly  distinction  accuracy  Most  data  Trigger  beliefs  rely  only  easily  In  past  the  In  methodological  explanation,  i s the  problem, p r e s e n t i n g  major  the  science  for h i s t o r i c a l  archaeology.  out  social  1984:289). too  the  approach.  context  but  prediction  are  the  1982b:161).  complexity  most  burials  is  than  mortuary p a t t e r n s  have s i m i l a r economic  points  than  difficult,  (Trigger  that  " m o d e l s " of  of  of  providing  presentation  need  shows t h a t  knowledge and  among c u l t u r e s  rigour  s t u d y of  increase  i s one  of  Binford  that  status  goods i n b u r i a l s , r a t h e r  status  symbolic  1984:291).  very  to  that  1982:112).  inherent  of  the  concludes  i n d i v i d u a l s may  i n order  Verifiability  that  She  Pearson's  actual  deceased  those buried,  even  of  modern E n g l a n d  rather  Pearson  graves.  themselves. and  relatives  of  in  single  The major  case New  of  World  mortuary  32  sites  are  generally  t h e r e f o r e do  not  synchronic  (Hodder  reveal evidence  of  1982a; Pader  any  patterns  1982)  of  and  culture  change. 2.3  Systems At  this  because  Theory  point,  i t i s relevant  i t is pertinent  S t r u c t u r a l M o d e l of Fig.3.1).  processual Regarding order  must  as and  a  first  Pila  step  symbolic  systemic  s e t up  (Allen  constructed  indicating  the  visual  concept.  and-effect  (Steward  cultural  chains.  d e v e l o p e d as  yet  In o r d e r  structural  an  my 3.5,  t o combine  was  the  of  flow.  The  been a b l e to  to  the  elements,  approach  two  of  1979:6), r e o r g a n i s e d  flow-  l i n k e d by  lines  are  to the  concept  the  of  appropriate  approaches construct  incorporate  model  Steward's c u l t u r e core to omit  who  a visual  The  the  a  specifying linear  result.  we  culture  s u g g e s t a more  to attempt  i s the  system,  symbolists,  system which would  Fig.3.1  (a model)  ' s t r u c t u r e ' of  model of  i n t e g r a t e the  elements without  extension  s e t up  i s o f t e n p i c t u r e d as  associated  i t seemed i m p o r t a n t  "holistic"  necessary  lines  demanding a more h o l i s t i c  conceptually of a  direction  as  to  open s y s t e m ,  " i f we  t o be  A systemic  processual  have not  theory  (section  e v o l u t i o n o f a complex  1982:370).  s u b - s y s t e m s and  culture,  an  efforts  consider  d i a g r a m of  insistently  i n my  models, A l l e n s t a t e s  what we  along  respect  C u l t u r a l System as  systems  approaches to a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s .  to understand the  first  system"  the  argument w i t h  T h i s model, c o n c e p t u a l i z e d  constructed  in  t o my  to mention  the causewas  concept  hierarchical  aspect,  33  w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e e n c o m p a s s i n g an  integral  part  theoretical theories  framework  o f open,  Renfrew for  of the c u l t u r a l  1980;  the p h y s i c a l  system as a whole.  The  i n c l u d e s c o n c e p t s f r o m some c u r r e n t  non-linear  S e g r a v e s 1982)  systems  (Allen  1982;  Friedman  which assume a more h o l i s t i c  1982; nature  systems.  Friedman,  for instance,  stability,  continuity  undermined  by r e c e n t  indicate  that  asserts  and moving  not t h e r e s u l t  relates  this  equilibrium  i n the n a t u r a l  far  thermodynamics,  This  type of systemic  deterministic predictable, (Allen  without  which d e a l  (Friedman  i s less  the product  Friedman of  non-  "dissipative  by a f l o w o f e n e r g y a t a  equilibrium model  process.  with  stability  (such as feedback  i n the f i e l d  bounded  than the homeostatic type. being  which  state  1982:176,177). and  less  It i s also  less  of b o t h d e t e r m i n i s m and  chance  1982:354).  The cultural  mechanisms  advances  systems m a i n t a i n e d  from thermodynamic  sciences,  In t h e s e t e r m s ,  of a l l s t r u c t u r e d  to t h e o r e t i c a l  structures",  are being  g r o w t h and c h a n g e p r o c e e d s by  of s t a b i l i z i n g  d e v i c e s ) but an a s p e c t  such c o n c e p t s as  equilibrium  developments  biological  that  t h r e s h o l d s and d i s c o n t i n u o u s c h a n g e . is  environment as  significance evolution  of these  i s that  ideas  f o r t h e o r i e s of c u l t u r e  and  c u l t u r e s c a n be v i e w e d a s s y s t e m s ,  t h e need t o c h a r a c t e r i z e  organism-like e n t i t i e s  that  external/environmental  pressures  them i n t e r m s o f  respond f u n c t i o n a l l y in predictable  bounded, to  ways, by means  34  of  built-in  homeostatic  homeostatic either  the  systemic  models  mechanisms.  that  there  that  system b e h a v i o u r  cannot  1984:73).  with  account  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of s o c i a l  (Kristiansen  i s an  difficulty  i s t h a t g e n e r a l l y they  g e n e s i s or the  terms  The  systems i n  Another d i f f i c u l t y  u n d e r l y i n g assumption  with  is intelligible  and  such  p r e d i c t a b l e (Renfrew  When f a c e d w i t h e x a m p l e s of u n p r e d i c t a b l e  behaviour,  or  maladaptive,  Allen on  of c u l t u r e  develops  bifurcation  to e a r l i e r  to f i n d  an  a concept  of open, n o n - l i n e a r s y s t e m s  t h e o r y w h i c h p r o v i d e s an change,  model w h i c h assumes v a r i a b l e p r o c e s s e s  variable appears  to  shift  rates  (Allen  to o f f e r  symbolic  specific  all  the  from  1982:354).  of c u l t u r a l  identification  inter-relationships  holistic  nature  undefined  f o r the  interesting in that  f o r use  negating  element  from  "This  with  to  i n the  demand  system,  for intangible  process  minimizes  deterministic  nor  i t assumes a  of  the  or  model.  which i n v o l v e s the  need  elements.  (model) c o n t a i n s both  a  model  i t does not  the v a l i d i t y  p h a s e t o p h a s e , and  i n d i c a t e major c a u s a l  respect  Instead,  T h i s would t i e i n w i t h a v i e w of c u l t u r e a variability  change,  systemic  with  system, which a l l o w s  elements without  of  systems because  involved.  alternative  to n o n - d e t e r m i n i s t i c at  T h i s type  of e v e r y  based  i t suggests  of c u l t u r e  deterministic  a good p o t e n t i a l  analyses  the  a d e q u a t e e x p l a n a t i o n of  change i n v o l v e d .  t h e o r i e s of c u l t u r e  the a b i l i t y  cultural  developments which a r e h i g h l y  i t is difficult  the process  is  systems models  1980:11).  with c u l t u r a l  for  mechanisms  to  35  ... and s t o c h a s t i c , random e f f e c t s ( t h e f l u c t u a t i o n s ) , and i t i s t h e s e l a t t e r t h a t a r e of p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e when t h e s y s t e m i s n e a r p o i n t s a t w h i c h an o r g a n i z a t i o n may c h a n g e . These p o i n t s a r e c a l l e d ' b i f u r c a t i o n p o i n t s ' ... between two b i f u r a c t i o n p o i n t s the system f o l l o w s d e t e r m i n i s t i c laws ... b u t n e a r t h e p o i n t o f b i f u r c a t i o n i t i s t h e f l u c t u a t i o n s t h a t p l a y an e s s e n t i a l r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e branch t h a t the system chooses... Complex s y s t e m s c a n , o f c o u r s e , have a whole s e r i e s o f bifuraction points... Such a p o i n t o f view i n t r o d u c e s the concept of ' h i s t o r y ' i n t o the e x p l a n a t i o n of the s t a t e of the systems... any p a r t i c u l a r s t a t e of o r g a n i z a t i o n r e s u l t s from a dynamic d i a l o g u e between t h e p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c laws o f t h e moment, and a p a r t i c u l a r s u c c e s s i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l a c c i d e n t s . . . whose a c t i o n h a s marked t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e s y s t e m " ( A l l e n 1982: 3 5 4 ) .  Segraves and  terms  suggests that  transformative,  may  be  to  She  functions,  is  measurement  (Segraves  In  a  the  differentiation  shift  subsystems,  macroscopic  in or  system  1982:291).  "layer-cake"  criticized  the  a  case  Philippines,  of  many  the stage  t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y  difficult  the  a  structure  direction  of  differentiation  of  amenable  and  societies  of c u l t u r a l  to  valuable  evolution  of e v o l u t i o n a r y  Asian  to apply.  be  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of  property  as i n f l e x i b l e  Southeast concept  in  T h i s approach appears  concept  by r e s e a r c h e r s  can  As t h e s y s t e m e v o l v e s i n  a corresponding  that  into  terms  i t s u g g e s t s a way o f m o d e l i n g c u l t u r a l  utilizing often  with  suggests  division  that  a progressive  occur,  increasing  in  these  evolutionary process.  and c o m p l e x i t y ,  function.  s t r u c t u r e s " s e l f - o r g a n i z i n g systems"  self-organization in  size  seen  such  without  "stages",  simplistic. including the  e v o l u t i o n has  proved  36  2.4  Social Cultural  which  Organization development  i n Southeast A s i a  i s l a r g e l y undefined.  been done  With respect  organization  to social  i n which these v a r i a b l e s i n t e r - r e l a t e  and e x c h a n g e , t h e f o c u s  defining  the i n t e r n a l  t h e f o c u s has  differentiation,  e n v i r o n m e n t a l and e c o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s trade  and t r a d e and  organization,  been on k i n s h i p s t r u c t u r e and s o c i a l manner  a topic  Some work, however, h a s a l r e a d y  i n the areas of s o c i a l  exchange.  is still  and on t h e  with the  of t h e r e g i o n .  Regarding  h a s been on t h e p r o b l e m s o f  and e x t e r n a l  dynamics w i t h i n  the l o c a l  contexts.  2.4.1  Bilateral George  cognatic,  Murdock or  predominant including  kinship  patterns.  (1960)  bilateral, form  of  forms social  the P h i l i p p i n e s .  "non-lineal"  (akin  produced  by  of  structure  t o male o r f e m a l e p a r e n t s )  this  "Eskimo"  the  features  of t h i s  the  important  most  in  independent  nuclear  (3)  Monogamy  (5) R e s i d e n c e  of  social,  every  in  cognatic  (Murdock and  (2)  (1) A s m a l l  The  r e s i d e s with  h i s or her parents  i s ambilocal,  domestic  domestic  ( w h i c h may i n c l u d e  observed;  mean  (4) E x t e n d e d  He names  the  economic and l a n d h o l d i n g  sense;  Asia,  to  1960:2).  defines  family  is  Southeast  the  both s i d e s " - i . e . , without  system,  type of s t r u c t u r e :  corporate  where a c h i l d  type  work on  organization,  defines  "on  reference  definitive  social  Murdock  birth  the  common unit i s  group: unit  t h e "stem" after  fully  i s the family,  marriage);  f a m i l i e s do n o t o c c u r ;  o r sometimes n e o l o c a l ;  (6)  Descent  37  is  measured  in  occasionally, "kindred"  (7)  embraces  o f whether  The d o m e s t i c  (Murdock  oriented  unit  of  close  near  small  family  relatives  lineal  the c o n n e c t i n g  and  links  u n i t , and  or  kindred;  collateral  a r e male  kinsmen  or  i s a l w a y s exogamous, t h e k i n d r e d  specifies  bilaterally,  the  core  frequently kindred  t h e dominant  female; r a r e l y so  1960:2).  Murdock  than  of  the aggregation  -  regardless  terms  that  the  and t h a t  individual  are  t h e members o f a  and  his siblings,  a r e n o t , r e l a t e d t o one  necessarily overlap  "kindred"  another.  one a n o t h e r  always  kindred,  egoother  need n o t be, and In  any  society,  endlessly.  "They a r e n o t d i s c r e t e u n i t s ; a s o c i e t y c a n n e v e r be d i v i d e d i n t o s e p a r a t e k i n d r e d s a s i t c a n be segmented i n t o d i s c r e t e l i n e a g e s , c l a n s or communities... a k i n d r e d t h e r e f o r e i s n o t , a n d c a n n o t be, a d e s c e n t group... Because of i t s l a c k of d i s c r e t e n e s s a k i n d r e d c a n n o t be a c o r p o r a t e g r o u p " ( i b i d : 4 ) .  In M u r d o c k ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , "occasional primarily  groups"  ceremonies  of  social  that  such  as  groups,  in  naming,  defining  the  function  life  cycle  initiations,  the  structural  Murdock t a k e s c a r e  organization  bilateral  entirely  as  i s , they  as of  a  group  the  core  w e d d i n g s and f u n e r a l  (ibid:5).  well  bilateral  that  at c r i s e s periods  individual,  As  -  k i n d r e d s c a n be seen t o f u n c t i o n a s  from o t h e r ,  characteristics  to discriminate  s i m i l a r types.  type  He p o i n t s o u t  s o c i e t i e s a r e sometimes c o n f u s e d w i t h  d i f f e r e n t form o f o r g a n i z a t i o n .  this  of  ramages, an  Ramages he d e f i n e s  as  38  strictly  ambi-local,  permits a choice or  ramages  equally  (Murdock  fundamentally  in  be  any  The  the  consanguineal  Although  must  This  are  segmentation  defined  the a  of  Murdock d e f i n e s  he  a  rule  unilocal  names t h e  functional  of  residence  alternatives  type,  equivalents  of  and  equally  which  (matrilocal  "Polynesian"  in composition  and  notes  lineages  susceptible  to  1960:11).  small  nuclear  bilateral  family  kingroup,  i n s u c h a way  discussion  concept  having  between two  virilocal).  that  and  as  Murdock  corporateness also group  social  requires  unit  stresses  t o e x c l u d e any  r e l a t e d to cognatic  a corporate  domestic  is  that i t  lineal principle  structure  careful  (ibid:3).  definition.  as  "one whose members s h a r e an e s t a t e , e s p e c i a l l y one c o n s i s t i n g of l a n d , d w e l l i n g s , or o t h e r m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s w h i c h i t s members have t h e r i g h t t o use o r e x p l o i t a c c o r d i n g to c u l t u r a l l y a c c e p t e d r u l e s of tenure... ( i t i s n e c e s s a r y ) to r e s t r i c t the concept t o g r o u p s whose r i g h t s a r e r e g u l a r l y r a t h e r t h a n s p o r a d i c a l l y e x e r c i s e d , e s p e c i a l l y r i g h t to the l a n d (and i t s i m p r o v e m e n t s ) i n w h i c h t h e members l i v e and from w h i c h t h e y e x t r a c t t h e i r e c o n o m i c l i v e l i h o o d " (ibid:4).  The unit who  has adopt  concept been a  of  the  explored in  corporate a p a p e r by  d e f i n i t i o n given  by  g r o u p as Hayden  an  and  archaeological Cannon  Goodenough:  " c o r p o r a t e g r o u p s a r e g r o u p s t h a t f u n c t i o n as i n d i v i d u a l s i n r e l a t i o n t o p r o p e r t y (and i n a d d i t i o n ) have a s i n g l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y . " (Hayden and Cannon 1982:134)  (1981)  39  They  note  corporate  groups  families  to  extremes  should  power.  In  the  household  anthropological  a wide r a n g e  communities, be  of  and  excluded  corporate  units already  and  in  include  entire  archaeological these  that  sizes, urge  from  groups  definitions  that  the  level  show  they  (ibid:136).  state  that  nuclear  both  these  definition They  constitute analytical units  addition,  from  their  of  suggest great  own  of that  utility  analyses  at  that  "when s i n g l e a r t i f a c t c l a s s e s a r e u s e d t h e r e a r e s i m p l y t o o many s o u r c e s of v a r i a b i l i t y a f f e c t i n g a r t i f a c t and f e a t u r e p a t t e r n i n g t o be a b l e t o make u s e f u l p r e d i c t i v e or i n t e r p r e t i v e s t a t e m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g most s o c i o e c o n o m i c or d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e h o u s e h o l d , e x c e p t i n t h e more extreme c a s e s . . . However, when h o u s e h o l d s a r e g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r t o form h y p o t h e t i c a l c o r p o r a t e g r o u p s w i t h d i s t i n c t s o c i a l or e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and when a v e r a g e s were t a k e n f o r h o u s e h o l d s i n t h e s e g r o u p s v e r y s t r o n g p a t t e r n s emerged" (ibid:138-139).  Although  Murdock's  work  specifications  of  comprehensive,  his conclusions  are  too  that  a  that  this  range  s w e e p i n g and  review  of  highest societies,  of  social  cultural  with  be  complexity  respect  taken at  organization  principally  t o E u r o p e a n and  is  face  value. the  He  occurs throughout  Asiatic  1960:7).  be  conditions  world  He  characterized  asserts reveals the  full  gatherers,  through  societies  of  lists  i n S o u t h e a s t A s i a , E u r o p e and  s t a t e s can  structural impressively  to c a u s a l  s o c i e t i e s around  (Murdock  exact  organization  t y p e s - f r o m h u n t e r s and  tillers,  w h i c h he  social  cannot  bilateral  form of  intermediate  regions,  bilateral  i n d e f i n i n g the  as  dozens the  the of  arctic  bilateral,  and  40  w h i c h he  o f f e r s as  evidence  that  "modes of s u b s i s t e n c e , t e c h n o l o g i c a l a t t a i n m e n t s , e l a b o r a t i o n of s t a t u s d i s t i n c t i o n s , and l e v e l s of p o l i t i c a l integration exert l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g influence" (ibid:7).  A close with  the  groups  inspection  exception  cited  are  Bushmen; and Chukchee  in  and  he  Asia,  the The  the  Asia  question He  descent state  of  (see and  formation.  lasting  this  considered  area a  characteristic  the  social  (Winzler  one  e.g.  the  Rung  Islanders,  the  complexity"  are  s u r p r i s i n g that  of  in a  later  organization  conclusion  corporate, with  i s noted and  or  for  at  the  in  regarding  development  argues  social  interior least  another  of  of  long-  that  the  organization  states)  could  be  closely-linked,  1976:627-629).  g r o u p by  unilineal  i t s lack  Winzler  forms of  c o a s t a l and  determining,  of  "highest  associated  bilateral  in  cultural  societies,  h u n t e r s and  Ryukyu  at  presence  societies,  (both  that  factors.  Southeast A s i a  "Exploitation  gathering  comes t o a c o n t r a s t i n g  w i d e s p r e a d o c c u r r e n c e of in  looks  closely  state-level  the  s o c i e t i e s of  possible causal  is  s o c i e t i e s , the  Khoisan  Thus i t i s not  concludes that groups  the  Ainu,  below)  suggests  primitive agriculturalists,  finds only  modern E u r o p e a n o n e s .  Southeast  however,  hunting-and-  fairly  Koryak.  study, Winzler  list,  of modern E u r o p e a n  or  a l l of A f r i c a ,  this  chiefly  horticulturalists in  of  requires  41  ' v e r t i c a l l i n k a g e s ' which serve t o t i e , through r i t u a l and r e l i g i o u s o b l i g a t i o n and p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c n e c e s s i t y or b e n e f i t , i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s t o s p e c i f i c l o c a l i t i e s and p o l i t i c a l / a d m i n i s t r a t i v e divisions" (ibid:629).  Winzler  looks  widespread Asia. the  for  occurrence  region  there  historical bilateral  socio-economic  systems  considered  a  independent  result  Instead,  social  ecological  factors.  cultural  the  kinds  centred  such  broader  the  Southeast data  from  features  groupings,  He  state  formations  and  their  emergence  but  as  and a b s e n c e  religious  1976:629).  support  organization He s t a t e s  ethnographic  notes  or that  cannot  be  rather,  are  may that  research,  concluding  correlate on  the  there  involves  for  that  p o s i t i v e l y with basis  of  cross-  i s some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t  a balanced  sexual  division  of  w i t h men and women d o i n g much t h e same work, t h e s o c i a l  organization Winzler  in  of ethnographic  strata to  f i n d s some  when t h e e c o l o g i c a l base labour,  explain  development.  Winzler  bilateral  of  systems  descent  (Winzler  predate  of s t a t e  social  might  for linking  of corporate  traditions  which  on t h e b a s i s  i s some e v i d e n c e  lack  well-defined  factors  of b i l a t e r a l  He c o n c l u d e s t h a t  bilaterality, of  causal  tends  points  t o be  out that  of subsistence patrilineal  large-scale  animal  agriculture). agriculture  of  the  bilateral  Southeast Asian bases  most  organizations pastoralism,  Instead,  or wet-rice  there  (ibid:630).  s o c i e t i e s tend  readily (such  or  type  linked  a s big-game  dry-grain  to lack  to  male-  hunting,  draft-animal  i s a r e l i a n c e on s l a s h - a n d - b u r n  agriculture, fishing  and g a t h e r i n g .  In  42  all  these  equally  activities,  i n v o l v e d , both  1976:631).  Winzler  subsistence  represent  development  of  provide  play  a  organization general on  in  maintains  and  t o be more o r l e s s  processing  an  old  forms,  argument but  in  i n the Southeast  the  development  of  Wolf  Speaking  i n h i s review from a  and modes o f to  i t appears to context.  He  also  appears  to  Asian  social  i s restated in of c u l t u r a l  Marxist  the  Asian  Southeast  The same argument  (Winzler  relation  asserts that  t o say that c u l t u r e h i s t o r y  by E r i c  a global scale.  women t e n d  acknowledges t h a t environment  (ibid:631).  terms  and  production  explanation  i t only part  in  social  the best  qualifies  men  more  processes  perspective,  Wolf  that  " p r o d u c t i o n (embraces) a t o n c e t h e c h a n g i n g r e l a t i o n s of humankind t o n a t u r e , t h e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i n t o w h i c h humans e n t e r i n t h e c o u r s e o f t r a n s f o r m i n g n a t u r e and t h e c o n s e q u e n t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f human s y m b o l i c c a p a b i l i t y " (Wolf 1982:21).  Further Winzler's  in  his  argument,  Wolf  again  provides  support  conclusions:  "The k i n - o r d e r e d mode i n h i b i t s t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of p o l i t i c a l power, r e s t i n g e s s e n t i a l l y upon t h e management o f c o n s e n s u s among c l u s t e r s of p a r t i c i p a n t s . . . a t t h e same t i m e , t h e e x t e n s i o n and r e t r a c t i o n o f k i n t i e s c r e a t e open a n d s h i f t i n g b o u n d a r i e s of such s o c i e t i e s " ( i b i d : 9 9 ) .  for  43  For  the  Winzler,  purposes  of  W o l f , Hayden and  framework  for  ethnographic pattern  of  my  domestic division  of  labour. in  stated,  structure  however,  from P i l a ,  the  that  understanding  of  the  cultural  as  my  discussed:  a  the  involving  small  egalitarian  sexual  to  the  It  p a r t i c u l a r case,  a  arguments claims  of  of  must  the  also  s u c h as  be  the  data the  i t may  not  be  to  the  clearer  key  processes  the  pre-eminence  processes.  provides  Pila,  that  i d e o l o g i c a l structure, while variable,  involved  (see  Chapters  3  below).  2.4.2  Archaeological T h e r e have been  sites  in  the  analysis  Macdonald used Bang  and  site  also  burial spatial  w h i c h can  which are  (1978) on by  Bayard  data  a n a l y s i s of  represents  defined  of in  a  the  the  support  studies  pertinent  from t h e  (1983) of  established  distribution be  archaeological  Asia  spatial  site,  background. two  Southeast  work of M a c d o n a l d and  i n the  an  noted  regarding  Murdock,  of marked s o c i o - c u l t u r a l  opposition  in c u l t u r a l  determining  8,  clear  from  features  and  be  of  a useful theoretical  structure  kindred;  must  work  data  the  kinship  It  archaeologists  ideological  the  all  associated  p r e s e n t e d above s t a n d symbolic  the  a g r i c u l t u r e ; a lack  a bilateral  u n i t s and  of  includes  shifting  study,  Cannon, p r o v i d e s  analysis  model  stratification;  -  this  t o my  Bang s i t e data  f o r the  mortuary topic:  in  from Non  excavation  habitation  of  data  Thailand, Nok  Tha.  from  hypothesis that  area,  and  that  graves  indicates a residential  terms  of  intra-village  the  the the the  pattern  subdivisions  44  (Macdonald of  the  the  1978:36).  a s s o c i a t e d ceramics  apparent  presence  characterized 1981:14). of p o t s  vessels  He  the  reflects Nok  Tha  social  had  been  made  specifically  "the  complementary two  is  with  Richard  with  17th.  and  centuries.  social near  in f o r t i f i e d  the  finer  p o r c e l a i n , s t o n e w a r e and  T r a d e and  Pearson's social  these groups of  shore  "castles"  on  research  with  Settlement  China  l u x u r y goods  while  ridges, (Pearson  the this  during  patterns  fields, high  in  in  appeared, with  and  patterns  complexity  trade  stratification  lived  became peasants  the  elite  and  used  1978).  exchange.  respect  t o the q u e s t i o n  of  Philippine  context,  Hutterer  1974,  Macdonald  (1984),  has  approached  his  earlier  In  (1973,  trade  the  and  1977)  exchange and  problem  work, H u t t e r e r  lowland  societies  played  in  the  Hutterer  and  from argued  t r a d i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s between o v e r s e a s  Philippine  for  individuals  implications for  d e v e l o p m e n t of  class  the  of  affiliative  containing  types  (ibid:16).  t o the  long-distance  (38)  distribution  distinct  each  the  as  (Bayard  burials  organization  perspectives.  them  of  that  in settlements  With  in  burial  five"  the  2.4.3  c l a s s e s of  define  least  area  living  to  "at  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l study  diversified  burials  typology  that  indicates that  13th.  Tha  included  -  Ryukyu I s l a n d s , w h i c h  the  Nok  distinct  types  phase s o c i e t y ,  increased  functional pottery  Non  two  t h e p r e s e n c e of  wealth"  Another  of  vessel  i n the and  used a  i n the  concluded  use,  differing  of  by  present  funerary  i n Non  Bayard  a major  various that  the  powers  and  role  the  in  45  evolution Later, the  of  the  Hutterer  exchange  internal  local  cultural  groups  (Hutterer  d e v e l o p e d h i s argument  i n t e r a c t i o n s must be  organization  of  f u r t h e r , to  related  Philippine  1973,  to  1974).  suggest  aspects  that  of  the  societies.  "On the b a s i s of p r i n c i p l e s of e v o l u t i o n a r y t h e o r y i t can be p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t h e c o n t e n t , o r g a n i z a t i o n , and g e o g r a p h i c a l r e a c h of a s o c i e t y ' s exchange i n t e r a c t i o n s are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the degree of s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h i n t h a t s o c i e t y " ( H u t t e r e r , ed. 1977:182).  Hutterer  questioned  evolution  of  be  asked  to  import  social  regarding  the  assumption  complexity, the  that  suggesting  r e a s o n s why  m a s s i v e q u a n t i t i e s of  trade  to  that questions  Philippine  foreign  is causal  societies  the  should wanted  goods.  " C h a n g i n g t h e q u e s t i o n from an e x t e r n a l t o an i n t e r n a l one has s e v e r a l i n t e r e s t i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s . . . among t h e s e i s the a - p r i o r i s u s p i c i o n t h a t c o n d i t i o n s of i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l complexity w i t h i n the P h i l i p p i n e s r e s u l t e d i n an i n c r e a s e d demand f o r f o r e i g n g o o d s " ( H u t t e r e r and M a c d o n a l d 1984:257).  Others"  have  inequalities symbolize the  likewise  argued  is associated  social  c o n t r o l of  power  scarce  that  with  (Matson  the  control  development  of  of  goods  1983:142; Wolf  goods i s more t h e  result  scarce  status  1982:83); but than  the  to that  cause  of  more a t t e n t i o n  to  inequalities.  Hutterer's the one,  internal but  it  change  of  emphasis t o  s i t u a t i o n of p r e - t r a d e could  be  focus  societies  taken a l i t t l e  further  is  a  i n the  promising light  of  46  symbolic increased other  social  d i m e n s i o n s of  examined suggest, work  of  look  for  the  archaeological  more the  dimensions  cultural  ( 1 984),  of and  pattern.  for  life  shed  a  In  example,  these  it. would be  light  must  including,  following instructive  which m i g h t in on  for  societies, a l l  groups  addition,  systems  clearer  looking  elements -  principles"  cultural  as  Philippine in  dimension. for  well  significant  "organizing the  As  within  cultural  closely  underlying  relationship,  complexity  ideological  Kent  theory.  some  be I the to  link a l l  meaningful  a l l a s p e c t s of  the  47  3.  THE  ETHNOGRAPHIC MODEL  3.1  I n t r o d u c t i o n : The The  portion  century  A.D.  Ethnographic  of t h e c u l t u r a l in  which  I  system  am  the  Ritual  available a  System.  i n the  local  Because  general  Pila can  picture,  Laguna  in be  the  System  r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i s not system  will  model c o n s t r u c t e d f o r t h i s  however,  12th  described in  System, t h e S o c i a l  c o n t e x t , t h e economic  f o c u s of t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c  very  at  interested,  terms of t h r e e s u b - s y s t e m s : t h e T r a d e and  M o d e l of P i l a ,  is  offered  for  not  be  study.  A  background  purposes.  Pila  society  i n the  12th c e n t u r y A.D.  swidden  agriculturalists  economic  base,  products  and  root  crops  millet,  extremely (betel  augmented by trade.  such  and  with  The  as  s u b s i s t e n c e base bananas  some v e g e t a b l e s and  nut,  buri  intoxicants  for  and  a  animals  variety  rice,  Indigo  cultivated  extensively for local  Eder  resins,  honey, wax  fishing, (both  iron  (for  1984:839).  weaving, and  fairly  many  Fermented sugar  dyes),  cane,  cotton, use  and  f i n e woods.  pottery  g l a s s ) (Beyer  palms  wines  other  and  coconut  and  for trade  Local  (earthenware),  water-  hemp  (Fox  were  1979:58, gums  and  included  s m e l t i n g and found  palms.  and  technology  Gold,  types,  as were t h e  and  ramie  rice,  bamboos were  included aromatic  1979:49).  forest  different  Cultivated  of  secure  included upland  of u s e s ,  Forest products  and  and  society  i n c l u d e d t h e p i g , c h i c k e n , dog  buffalo.  59;  of  fruits.  coconut).  were made from  Domesticated  a diversified  a  hunting, gathering, f i s h i n g ,  yams,  important  was  in  forging placer  48  deposits  within  technology going  region,  was a l r e a d y w e l l - a d v a n c e d ,  "plank-built"  3.2  Trade This  was worked a n d t r a d e d ( i b i d : 3 0 ) .  canoes  with o u t r i g g e r s  large,  (Scott  ocean-  1981).  Sub-System  sub-system  ethnographic  involving  Boat  model.  i s one o f t h e c o r e components o f t h e Pila,  a lake-side  society  on t h e s o u t h e r n  s h o r e o f t h e w e l l - p o p u l a t e d Laguna de Bay, was i n t h e m a i n s t r e a m of F i l i p i n o  life  and was a minor  long-distance  trade.  26,000 p e o p l e  i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f L a g u n a by t h e t i m e  Juan  de S a l c e d o  and L o c s i n barter,  settlements,  i s linked  Trade  t h e Laguna  I n d o n e s i a , and C h i n a  Laguna de Bay i s a c l o s e d , t o t h e s e a by t h e P a s i g  were a b l e t o n a v i g a t e t h e P a s i g with the c o a s t a l  the Chinese  Trade The  Chinese  ships  the l a r g e r of  was c o n d u c t e d ships,  Beyer  Even  River,  traders with  chiefly  by  in Alip  a major a r t e r y f o r  the l a r g e Chinese and t r a d e was  junks  conducted  s e t t l e m e n t s from on b o a r d I978a:13).  to person  merchants, independent  carried  basis. both  stores of  1966:229).  s h i p would a n c h o r  and t h e l o c a l  (Locsin  fresh-water lake, but  1976; R o x a s - L i m  settlements, the t r a d i n g buildings,  i n 1571  and u p - r i v e r  on a p e r s o n  owned by i n d e p e n d e n t  the Spaniard  (Pigafetta,  1964:6; C h i n  by b a r t e r ,  (Van d e r P i j l - K e t e l  the l a r g e s t  towns  River,  and u p - r i v e r  (ibid:5;  bulk c a r g o and i n d i v i d u a l t r a d e goods  lake  and e x c h a n g e , c o n d u c t e d  t h e movement o f p e o p l e and g o o d s .  directly  l o c a l and  was a l r e a d y a p o p u l a t i o n o f some  Laguna de Bay w i t h o t h e r c o a s t a l  Borneo,  1964:5-249). it  "pacified"  1968:6).  linked  There  t r a d e c e n t r e f o r both  In  in front  t r a d e r s w o u l d come on  49  board  i n c r o w d s and mix  After  bartering,  with  them  honest.  the l o c a l  in baskets.  traders  who  Trading  allowed  ship's  would c a r r y  r e l a t i o n s were  traders  were  (Beyer  wares t o o t h e r  to return  for eight  this  part  of the bargain  person-to-person  friendly  there  unknown t o t h e  islands  were  (Fox 1979:58).  similarity  languages,  learned,  possible  a l lcould  transactions 1966:263;  without  Chirino  The  for barter  1979:245;  Tangco  The r a n g e o f goods t r a d e d  ceremonial  burners,  gongs, bronze b e l l s ,  Chinese coins traded  gold  products honey,  metal,  (such  small raw  luxury  goods.  cotton,  cotton  sponges, r h i n o c e r o s  exotic  regular  trade  local was  products  trading (Chen, L i u - T i  The C h i n e s e  ingots,  mirrors,  a s r a t t a n , mats,  i f one  t i m e , made i t  middlemen  wide.  iron  silk  ships  and  fish-hooks,  beads, l e a d In r e t u r n ,  luxury incense-  sinkers, the  Filipinos  c l o t h , hemp, f o r e s t  f i n e woods, a r o m a t i c  bees-wax), t o r t o i s e s h e l l ,  shells, other  and  B e c a u s e of  1979:76-77).  was  umbrellas,  they  t o keep  so much a l i k e t h a t  brought q u a n t i t i e s of p r i z e d Chinese c e r a m i c s , fabrics,  but  were  general  themselves to conduct  t h e use o f l o c a l  Those  no o n - s h o r e  be spoken i n a s h o r t  f o r the Chinese  ship's  them.  1966:266).  m a r k e t p l a c e s or warehouses of the F i l i p i n o  and  o r n i n e months,  (Chen, L i u - T i  barter,  1964:8).  t h e goods away  a l w a y s t r u s t e d w i t h t h e goods and n e v e r f a i l e d  their  was  crew  t o t a k e t h e goods away w i t h  carried their  sometimes n o t a b l e  with  traders  Even when t h e l o c a l  crew, t h e y were  were  freely  resins,  p e a r l s , p e a r l - s h e l l , sea  horn, deer  hides,  and a v a r i e t y of  (Chen, L i u - T i 1966:263-270).  Once  e s t a b l i s h e d C h i n e s e m e r c h a n t s became f a m i l i a r  50  with  t h e t y p e of goods most  t h e c a r g o was range  favoured l o c a l l y ,  t y p e , however, was  C h i n e s e c e r a m i c s formed (Roxas-Lim  the l a r g e s t  1966:229).  t h r e e main g r o u p s : generally  The  (1) L a r g e , g l a z e d  voyage,  but were h i g h l y  account  (Brown  1977;  prized  Ceramic  by  stoneware by  Society  ceramic  wares, r a n g i n g from c o n t a i n e r s  These  f u n e r a r y goods. in a loss  earthenware period  This  pottery  rapidly  thriving  etc.);  their  after  (3) M i n i a t u r e bottles,  (dense and d u r a b l e ) C h i n e s e Prehistoric  Filipino  Kalanay  tradition,  pottery  o f e l e g a n t and 1947).  By  the  varied  (Roxas-Lim  1966:240-241).  and  and  their  shapes  and  local  the pots  importance fired  porcelains. earlier  sophisticated  had d e c l i n e d The  ceramics  of the h i g h - t e m p e r a t u r e  earthenware  s k i l l e d craftsmanship  12th c e n t u r y t h e y had  t h e C h i n e s e c e r a m i c s , and  ceremonies  earthenware  s u c h as t h o s e o f t h e  made b e a u t i f u l  of  Although during  in jar burials,  stoneware  groups,  vases,  locally-produced  1966:240).  the a r r i v a l  own  (containers,  (jarlets,  trade contacts l o c a l  ritually,  the  1977:26,27)  trade i n Chinese  f o r the  (Roxas-Lim  were sometimes u s e d  (Beyer  on  were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r i t u a l  of s t a t u s  preceding Chinese  declined  t h e s e were  t e a p o t s , c o v e r e d boxes) to a l a r g e assortment  d i s h e s and b o w l s .  resulted  teapots, jars  of  the C h i n e s e d u r i n g  in Indonesia  bowls,  and  goods  jars;  the F i l i p i n o s  dishes,  tumblers,  variable.  c a t e g o r y of  wares o f a t y p e f o r h o u s e h o l d use platters,  quite  The  c e r a m i c s were c o m p r i s e d  used as s t o r a g e c o n t a i n e r s  Medium-size  the b u l k of  i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e n a t u r e of t h e demand.  o f goods of e a c h b a s i c  traded  and  been  in quality  s u p p l a n t e d by and  wares assumed a  variety utilitarian  51  role.  Metal-working  Filipino iron  of  groups had mastered  early  access  i n the f i r s t  t o imported  iron  the metal-working  3.3  Social The  a  followed a s i m i l a r  small  unit.  life  interests.  formal  political  ritual and  community  at P i l a  was s m a l l , c o n s i s t i n g o f  and o r i e n t e d a l o n g into  i t (Spoehr  social,  and s o c i a l  the l a k e and t h e  1973:33-34).  political  activities  T h e r e was l i t t l e structure.  by b l o o d  ties,  The  and e c o n o m i c  were  common  Most  organized  i n t h e way o f a i n the settlements  and r i t u a l  i n t e r e s t s and e x p e r i e n c e s ,  was t h e n u c l e a r  corporate action;  individuals  i n terms of these  o b l i g a t i o n s (Fox 1979:57). unit  or nothing  marriage  community was d e f i n e d  ritual  refinement  on t h e b a s i s o f k i n s h i p a n d common e c o n o m i c a n d  ritual  residence,  i n a l a c k of  skills.  individuals,  Community  were l i n k e d  ( F o x 1979: 4 9 ) , t h e e a s y  wares r e s u l t e d  was an i n d e p e n d e n t  principally  social  millennium  streams which d r a i n e d  community  t h e a r t of s m e l t i n g and f o r g i n g  Sub-System  residential  few h u n d r e d  trend - although  k i n s h i p , and t h e factors  and  f a m i l y , the primary  harvest  economic u n i t of  a t p e r i o d s of r i t u a l  importance  (such as marriages,  elementary  f a m i l y would expand t o i n c l u d e t h e b i l a t e r a l  festivals,  f u n e r a l s ) the kindred  (the c o n s a n g u i n e a l  relatives  (Murdock  T h e r e were no c l a n s , l i n e a g e s , o r o t h e r  1960:5).  unilateral linked  descent  of both  shared  community-level  The b a s i c s o c i a l ,  occasionally, chiefly  -  groupings.  by r e s i d e n c e and s h a r e d  t h e f a t h e r and m o t h e r )  The s i b l i n g  g r o u p , w h i c h was  activities,  was o f marked  52  importance.  The  responsibility  family  for  and  obligations.  the  bilateral  blood  pacts,  and  kindred  i t s members, Blood pacts  k i n group.  assumed  i n the  Local  traders,  economic in  The  family  b o t h m a l e s and  b o t h economic a c t i v i t i e s  were of plant,  no  sexual  equal  gathering  f e a s t s and  resources, cloths,  represented luxury  bells  h o u s e h o l d was  labour  and  worked t o g e t h e r  the  take p a r t work was  work was  g o n g s , and  gold  jewellery  leadership  figure  additional  power  Conflicts  arose  (Fox i f he  1979:56). was  and  important An  supported  aid  of  with  men  a strong  and  silk other and  the  rather  individual could by  fields  Leadership  h e a d s of h o u s e h o l d s , and  several  fields,  and  in return,  Chinese pottery,  were v e s t e d  included  females  to c l e a r  r i g h t s to  authority  community  1979:56).  finished (ibid:56).  ( P i g a f e t t a 1964:57,66-68,88,92-93). i n the  basic  equally  done w i t h t h e  territorial  goods s u c h as  and  the  in hunting  were p r o v i d e d ,  by  was  (Fox  m a l e s and  artifacts  typical  (Fox  also  of  who  d r i n k i n g when t h e  brass  groups,  residence  ceremonies  Often  relatives,  and  ritual  females p a r t i c i p a t e d  b u i l d h o u s e s , and  W e a l t h was  expanding  by  districts  ritual  Families  activities.  n e i g h b o u r s and  and  and  division  status.  harvest,  protected  were monogamous and  neolocal.  u n i t , and  T h e r e was  ritually  1981:31).  Marriage patterns or  reciprocal rights  them w i t h d i f f e r e n t k i n  moved s a f e l y between d i s t a n t v i l l a g e s  ambilocal  form of  were a means of  which a f f i l i a t e d  1979:57,58; S c o t t  collective  than  one  gain  kinship  group.  between k i n - g r o u p s of d i f f e r e n t c o m m u n i t i e s  53  rather  t h a n between v i l l a g e s  related  to t e r r i t o r i a l  Blood-feuds  as a whole, and  rights  and  were common between  communities,  and  headhunting  obligations  families  was  were  of  practiced  (Fox  i n the b e l i e f  stored  order  involving  households  and  Chinese occasions.  by  important  situations,  as  "substitute  number of h e a d s  i n an  large  Small ceramic  stored  be  spirit  jarlets  Law  and  t h e heads o f  i n most  ceramic  h e a d s " - an  that  (ibid:56).  individuals,  jars  and  social ranked  c o u l d be  jars  in  c o u l d on  obligation  enemy v i l l a g e  to  take  wiped  (Cole  c o u l d a l s o a c t as c o n t a i n e r s  power o f a s l a i n  hung up on d i s p l a y  power.  part  payment of an e q u a l number of c e r a m i c  the  could  i n t h e community  c e r a m i c s p l a y e d an  function  1912:15). for  persons  usually  w i t h t h e heads o f enemy  a specific out  older  In c o n f l i c t  importance occasion  by c o n s e n s u s ,  1979:56).  different  t h e h e a d s of enemies were c o n t a i n e r s of were u p h e l d  usually  enemy, and  such a  w i t h t h e t r o p h y heads  jarlet  (Chin  1978b:3).  Chinese  ceramics a l s o  a s p e c t s of s o c i a l  life  as c o n t a i n e r s and  offering  petitionary funerary  t h e y were b r o u g h t  prominently  - as b r i d e - p r i c e  ceremonies;  rituals.  figured  out a t  and  c o n t a i n e r s for food.  day  utilitarian  and  other  a s h e i r l o o m s ; and  feast  feasts  ceremonies; and  in healing  and  as o b j e c t s o f w e a l t h  and  and  ceremonies  as  serving  They were a l s o w i d e l y u s e d  functions,  f o o d s , as w e l l  i n marriage  dishes in r i t u a l  In a d d i t i o n ,  in a l l other  such as the  dishes  for day-to-  s t o r a g e of water,  as c o n t a i n e r s i n which the  status,  all-  rice,  54  important 3.4  r i c e - w i n e was  Ritual The  life  unit  k i n group.  on t h e v i l l a g e  practices, central  was b a s e d  other  than  which The r i t u a l and  extended  on o c c a s i o n s  was no t r a d i t i o n  a n d no f a c i l i t i e s  the family  organizing principle  family,  There  level,  on k i n s h i p ,  ancestor s p i r i t s .  was t h e e l e m e n t a r y  the b i l a t e r a l  worship  at P i l a  t o a network of c l o s e  ceremonial to  Sub-System  ritual  extended  fermented.  home  o f communal  f o r communal  (Fox 1979:58).  of r i t u a l  life  The  was a n c e s t o r  worship,  and t h i s  permeated a l l a s p e c t s of the i d e o l o g y ;  Ancestor  spirits,  who had been c l o s e  influence  e v e r y a s p e c t of l i f e  the p r i n c i p a l addition, spirits,  and d e a t h ,  of i l l n e s s  and d i s e a s e  who p l a y e d a s u p p o r t i n g r o l e . world  identical  o f wine a n d o t h e r  (Fox 1982); i n and n a t u r e  The a n c e s t o r s l i v e d  to the l i v i n g  intoxicants.  had t h e power t o  a n d were c o n s i d e r e d  t h e r e were numbers o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l  mirror-image absence  causes  relatives,  one, except  The a n c e s t o r  dwelt  i n one o f a number o f a f t e r w o r l d s , d e p e n d i n g  cause  of death  a territorial affiliations the proper conducted  and t h e s o c i a l interest  i n the after-world.  conduct  of r i t u a l s  by t h e f a m i l y  unit;  home g r o u n d Great  upon t h e They had  and r e t a i n e d  family  e m p h a s i s was p l a c e d upon  and " s e a n c e s " , ritual  f o r the  spirits  status of the deceased.  in their  ina  w h i c h were  specialists  (who c o u l d be  male o r f e m a l e ,  a l t h o u g h t h e m a j o r i t y were women) were c a l l e d i n  on p a r t i c u l a r l y  important  interpreters  o c c a s i o n s t o a c t a s mediums a n d  o f dreams a n d omens  (Fox 1979:60;  1982:207).  I n an  55  environment  where so much of  upon t h e  vagaries  fish  game, t r o p i c a l  and  p o w e r s was As  of  and  with  ideological  at  high  aspect  which  and  their  the  The  use  (such  as  sacred food  kinds  and  - first, aromatic  power  not  as  two  Filipino  identification bodies,  fired  (Rozas-Lim  "seal i n " a departed  seemingly  the  1966;  earliest  Guy  and  ritual  power  covers.  Used  as  or  object  against Such from  t o have  from p o s s i b l e escape  1944:40).  as  reflective  were a l s o c o n s i d e r e d spirit  herbs,  second,  to poisons.  a person  and  substances  p r o t e c t i v e power  spirits  1984).  historical  f u n c t i o n i n g of of  caused  r e s i n s for incense,  protected  (Janse  and  ( P i g a f e t t a 1964:66,76); dishes  surfaces,  power of  impermeable, d u r a b l e ,  only  glazed  characteristics  containers  oils,  f o r c e s , but  body or c o n t a i n e r  in  ceramic  infections,  from the  i n f l u e n c e s , from e v i l  of o u t s i d e  power t o  their  and  were b e l i e v e d t o have g r e a t of  total  a s s o c i a t e d with  offerings),  covering-objects attack  durable  to the proper  undefilable, offering  surfaces  important  almost  Both these  - supernatural  covering-objects,  its  liquids  time.  occasions  ritual  pure,  all  to  become i n t e g r a l  ceremonial  supernatural  C h i n e s e c e r a m i c s had  vitreous, light-reflecting,  through  kind  to  w h i c h gave them a r i n g i n g sound when  of C h i n e s e c e r a m i c s had  records  and  utility,  i m p o r t e d c e r a m i c s t o be  strongest  access  of  life.  system: t h e i r  w h i c h were impermeable imperishable  etc)  resulted in their  temperatures,  struck;  of  depended  (climate, a v a i l a b i l i t y  w h i c h made them e x t r e m e l y  society, the  diseases,  b e a u t y and  characteristics  e s s e n t i a l resources  n a t u r a l causes  a critical  w e l l as  the  the the  from  56  The  r i n g i n g sound e m i t t e d  when l i g h t l y magical  struck  "voice", able  powerful  ancestor  acquired  a  storing  and  available dish  or  was  serving  i n the "rung"  ceremonial, attend.  to a t t r a c t The  rice-wine,  context  the  ancestor  spirit  I t was  believed  that  a medium, and  it  during  to  look  the  drink  ritual.  favourably  on  the  wine  a t t e n t i o n of  containers only  appropriate  the  fermenting,  that  would h e a r and spirit  could  "through"  the  T h i s would p l e a s e the  also  e a r t h l y substance  of  the  if a ritual  be  a t t r a c t e d to  take  spirit to  not ceramic  possession  medium who  p e t i t i o n s presented  a  the a l l -  for  believed  jars  seen as  jars  I t was  the  bowls and was  l a r g e r stoneware  the  after-world.  dishes,  a fingernail,  the  s i g n i f i c a n c e as  i n the  of  ceramic  tapped with  spirits.  special  by  it  and  drank cause i t  (Fox  1982:190).  The  burial  s y s t e m , as  t o power.  protect  the  journey  to the  departing  was  I t was soul  time,  the  core  transformation  of  of the  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  from e v i l  after-world.  a considerable  tissues  represented  i t marked the  helplessness  for  ritual  This  the  ideological  individual the  need  influences during  transitional  sometimes u n t i l  the  from to  its  phase c o u l d  decay of  last  bodily  complete.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e l i v i n g t o t h e d e a d i s not one of f e a r , but of f a m i l i a r i t y , i n t i m a c y a n d / o r r e s p e c t . The most p r o m i n e n t r e s p e c t p a t t e r n i s between p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n and t h i s embraces t h e d e a d , a s w e l l a s t h e l i v i n g " (Fox 1982:200).  Chinese  ceramics  functioned  in  all  phases  of  the  mortuary  57  ceremonial. Specific available from  information  from  two  ethnology,  ceremonial burial  head  derived  and  and  used for  (Pigafetta or  two  1964:76).  ceramics,  Earthenware  placed and  p o t t e r y was  as  a  and  cloths,  or  shroud (Fox  food o f f e r i n g s the  protective  area around  durability,  distance  w h i c h was  condition, 1959:363). included  not  1944:40;  (Roxas-Lim  containers  spirit  at least  (Guy  from  the  h a v i n g been u s e d  in daily  the  individual  groupings  items v a r i e d  to  acting  was  to  buried life  style  body  item, u s u a l l y s u c h as The  and  silks ritual  establish  in  (Guy  o f c o n t a i n e r s and as  or  This  a  protection pristine  1984:122;  Where l a r g e numbers o f c e r a m i c s were i n t e r r e d , multiple  was,  1968:16).  1966:236).  were  it  body,  t h e body: r e p r e s e n t i n g p u r i t y , ceramics  one  1984:122).  wrapped a r o u n d  themselves  Fox  departing  1959:357; T e n a z a s  ceramics  these  body  resins)  s t o r a g e c o n t a i n e r f o r more p e r i s h a b l e i t e m s  of  the  dozens  to  aromatic  included  i n c l u d e d as a u t i l i t a r i a n  function  and  the  other  the  As  12th  sometimes b u r i e d i n t h e g r a v e ;  placed a l i t t l e  vessels  for  mortuary  i n the  (Janse  herbs,  every grave  sometimes  was  o u t s i d e t h e mat  the ceramic  local  and  the  p a r t s of  feet  (oils,  is  information.  b o t t l e s and  necessary Almost  pottery  however, u s u a l l y  and  substances  offerings  of  i n the P h i l i p p i n e s  and  ritual  aspects are d e r i v e d  aspects  to cover c e r t a i n  jarlets  burial  archaeological  n e c k , hands, p e l v i s  for ritual  food  material  ceramics  Small  the  the symbolic  from  were used  1959:355,357). were  the  goods, C h i n e s e  14th c e n t u r i e s the  sources:  while  are  regarding  Fox  these  dishes, although type  of  glaze  58  (Tenazas  1968:Appendix I I I ) .  Iron buried  blades,  usually  knives  or  c l o s e t o t h e body, t h o u g h much l e s s  ceramic  wares.  In some S o u t h e a s t A s i a n  spirit  cults,  t h e use o f m e t a l  t o keep e v i l  spirits  the  iron  dead  individual.  blades  included  in  unnecessary  burials,  i n cemeteries  a  of land,  Janse  1945;  of s u p e r n a t u r a l  set apart  t o have t h e power  defensive  they  Pila  f o r the  were  were  power.  in  power  kind  Tenazas  1968).  find  from t h e v i l l a g e  rarely  viewed  The  I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t  dead  as were  the s p i r i t of  i t s way home by f o l l o w i n g t h e  river  to  place.  S t r u c t u r a l Model o f t h e P i l a This cultural  system  C u l t u r a l System  ( s e e F i g . 3 . 1 ) i s an open s y s t e m  f o u r major d i m e n s i o n s : p h y s i c a l - e n v i r o n m e n t a l ; (technological); social;  dimensions are i n t e r -  penetrating.  of the dimensions a t once.  the  v a r i a b l e of "mortuary  and i d e o l o g i c a l .  the  physical/environmental the b u r i a l  area  dimension,  there  there  dimension,  and f u n e r a r y will  These  They a r e c r o s s - c u t  For instance, with  ritual",  will  with  material-  which a r e s e t s of i n t e r a c t i o n s o c c u r r i n g  all  culture  which p r a c t i c e  (Fox 1959;  burial  of  the  a t t h e mouths o f r i v e r s and e s t u a r i e s  the  variables,  than  u s u a l l y on  deceased could  cultural  also  similarly  o f any  because  were  area,  the  3.5  objects  perhaps  i n the realm  societies  1978:5);  have r e p r e s e n t e d  Utilitarian  frequently  i s considered  a t bay ( L e g e z a  may  buried rise  spear-points,  by t h e  throughout respect to  be i n t e r a c t i o n s i n  i n v o l v i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n  preparations;  i n the m a t e r i a l -  be i n t e r a c t i o n s i n v o l v i n g t h e  59  FIGURE 3 . I t  Structural System.  Model of the P i l a  Cultural  60  preparation  o f t h e body, t h e g r a v e goods,  paraphernalia; will and ties  i n the s o c i a l - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  be i n t e r a c t i o n s  involving  of k i n s h i p  and s o c i a l  there w i l l  ceremonial,  participating  i n the b u r i a l  functions  exchange  and i n t e r a c t i o n physical  most bounded. extend  beyond  ideological the  relationship;  a s an e n e r g y within  dimension  focus,  i s the l e a s t  In t h i s  are  f o u n d t o be i n agreement  the  cultural  the  system,  relationships  the 2.3,  reorganized  part  above.  background  energy  and t h e one  system,  beliefs  aspects  f e a t u r e s of  c a n be o b s e r v e d i n t h e  of Steward's  the h i e r a r c h i c a l  the p h y s i c a l  has a l r e a d y  beyond  from one  the i d e o l o g i c a l  w i t h t h e o t h e r major  may  The  bounded and may e x t e n d  o f t h e system as a whole.  theoretical  single  itself.  of a l l the sub-systems.  t o omit  members  and s o c i a l dimensions  and s i m i l a r i t i e s  same t i m e e n c o m p a s s i n g  integral  tangible,  of r e l i g i o u s  model was d e v e l o p e d a s an e x t e n s i o n concept,  encompassing  t h e bounds o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t  dimension  the funerary  a l l t h e dimensions a t once.  The m a t e r i a l - c u l t u r e  to another).  functional  i n the i d e o l o g i c a l  I n t h i s way, a  i s t h e most  o t h e r s (as i n the d i f f u s i o n  country  t o t h e d e c e a s e d by  involving  ritual.  there  of the deceased,  s p e c i a l i s t s and t h e k i n g r o u p  variable  The  linked  be i n t e r a c t i o n s  the r i t u a l  dimension,  the survivors  t h o s e members o f t h e community  dimension,  and t h e r i t u a l  The  culture  core  aspect, while at  environment A fuller been  structural  given  a s an  e x p l a n a t i o n of in section  61  In that  the  Pila  powerful  spirits) world;  they are the  lies  direct,  the  through  one-to-one  the  of  lack-of-boundedness, Due  to  c e r a m i c s became f u l l y Philippine of  cultural  to  in e s t a b l i s h i n g  of  constraints.  forces  most e f f e c t i v e  socio-cultural  societies life.  ideological  function  responsive  power, e s p e c i a l l y This  the  supernatural  regulate  therefore matters  system,  personal  or  ritual for  a direct  l i n k with  and  lack  played  living  individual the  o n e ' s own  characterizes  a l l aspects  social,  characteristics, ideology  important  role  of  behalf.  external,  with the  in a l l  sources  symbolic  of  an  the  reflects a  physical  integrated  on  is  petition;  strategy  action  the  principle  ancestor  a l l a s p e c t s of  relationship  their  and  (mainly c l o s e  of  ritual  pattern  organizing  attitude  Chinese  and  ritual  in  in a l l aspects  62  4.  ANALYSIS: TESTING THE  4.1  Introduction  with  methods o f a n a l y s i s  two  principal  pronged  theoretical areas  the s t r u c t u r e  4.1.1  The The  grounds  with The  other  and  of t h e  burials.  further  the v a s t  site  consist  form  earthenwares  of  the  four  of  lack  the  of  Appendix  associated  the grave  A c c o r d i n g l y , the a n a l y s e s used,  goods A,  grave  ceramics  manufacture iron  (See F i g .  found full  i s the i n the  (78.97%)  constitute  The  i n the data  goods).  objects  4.1)  are  possible,  for  goods e x c a v a t e d  Chinese  (10.33%),  (0.88%).  organic material  (and w h e r e v e r  grave  burial  cultural  o r no human s k e l e t a l  A-4,  apparently local  goods  is  quantity  and  imported  minority:  spanning  t o t h e g r a v e goods a t P i l a  m a j o r i t y of  of  contemporaneous  the q u a n t i t a t i v e  and  dimension  of  implications  to a d e s c r i p t i o n  been p r e s e r v e d .  and  II b u r i a l s  artifacts  utilitarian  has  and  (See T a b l e s A-3  that  o f two  stratigraphy,  distribution)  of P e r i o d  the  two-  Data.  matter  t o the  of the  the  itself.  Little  solely  outline  then proceed  i n the s i t e .  tested,  chosen  i n mind: t h e n a t u r e of  I will  constraint  t o be  spatial  A  first,  s t u d y have been  implications  chief  organic  hypotheses  chart  approach.  identical  preservation  the  the p r a c t i c a l  of t h e a n a l y s i s  Nature  in this  excavation data c o n s i s t s  levels.  related  used  areas of concern  d a t a , and  t h e s e two  or  to Methods  The  excavation  of  MODEL  fact total while  a decided  (5.04%),  only other  and grave  63  goods  at  Pila,  mirrors  and  (gold,  coins,  a  other  few  b r o n z e and  lead objects  small  i t e m s ) and  some e l i t e  are  likely  glass)  most  (bangles,  rings,  " b a d g e s " of  status  also  imported  goods  (3.65%). Another division (Agra)  of  significant the  and  outlined  site  Site  i n the  evidence  factor regarding  i n t o two  2  closely  (Mendoza)  indicates  that  Site  contemporaneous  archaeological  situated  the  along  approximately  100  contemporaneity pottery these  consists  styles,  two  analyses between  and  separate aimed  are  a s c r i b e d by  Chinese  has dated  trade II  174 as  burials,  evidence  represented  i n h u m a t i o n and  Period  exploring  1.2  and  Site  of  (See  Fig.  the  nature  burial  The  stimulated of  are bed,  Evidence  stratigraphy,  areas  As  sites creek  1.3).  1  represent  old  samples.  Site  artifactual  two  an  the  1.3).  2  The  bank  soil  excavation  areas,  is  form,  existence a  for  number  of of  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  them.  levels  I was  of  and  periods.  apart  data  s t r a t i g r a p h i c and  some r a d i o c a r b o n  at  Statigraphic  of  metres  Figs.  1  south-west  site  related  (See  I n t r o d u c t i o n , both  the  Tenazas  i s dated  Late 50  as 129  shows t h a t  (See  cultural  4.1  for tabulation  b u r i a l s in Period  and  Site).  (1968:15) and  has  to  three  E a r l y Sung, a b o u t in Site  1 and  four  Table  Sung/Yuan, a b o u t  in Site  1.4)  at P i l a .  cremation  contact  burials,  (Fig.  1 and 14th  5 in Site  45  the  burials, 12th  2.  A.D.,  Period  IV  prior  a l l in Site  century  in Site  century 2.  period  Period  A.D.,  Period and  to 2. and  III i s has  is ascribed  55 by  TABLE 4 . 1 :  I n h u m a t i o n and c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l s by p e r i o d and s i t e .  PERIOD  NUMBER OF B U R I A L S  SITE 1  Inhumation  I II III IV  (AGRA)  Cremation  SITE 2  Totals  Inhumation  129  (LATE SUNG/YUAN)  5  (EARLY MING)  3  TOTALS =  137  129 45  Totals  3  45  45  174  5  55  6  9  50  182  Totals  3  5  3  45  Cremation  3  (IRON AGE) (EARLY SUNG)  Site 1 and 2  (MENDOZA)  6  54  5  59  241  100  I  I  I  I  >  I  600  I  I  I  I  trade ceramics _ o  o  ?9.00  62?  %  earthenwares  82  10.52%  o  iron 5.0 4 %  bronze 0.76  ~  %  lead 0.38  %  total no. ar ti f ac Is = 79 4  utilitarian 0.88  wealth 3.60  %  items  29  %  I  I  I  I  I  0  of  number  F I G U R E k.li  Numbers o f a r t i f a c t s at  I  I  I  100  Pila:  Period  II.  I  I  600  artifact s  in total  burial  population  66  Tenazas  to  burials,  3 in Site  on  Early  Ming,  burials, and  Period  Period  alone.  is  represented  associated  goods.  during  areas  during  burial III  data  Period  Analyses tests  a  the  grounds.  used aimed  relationships  burials  few  burials),  as  A l l these  the q u a n t i t a t i v e incorporate at  Period  secondary  with  no o t h e r  areas  that only,  as h a b i t a t i o n  Evidently considerable  culture  I I and I I I , and t h e c h a n g e s i n  found  the  Period  burials  in Site  in  any  and while both  1 (50 o u t o f  i n f l u e n c e d the d e c i s i o n analysis  II  In a d d i t i o n ,  of  mainly  statistical,  uncovering  with  report indicates  by l a r g e numbers  factors  with  were u s e d  II  of concern. burials  cemetery  sites  Periods  goods, w h i l e  t h e same k i n d s o f a n a l y s e s .  were  area  jar  i t impossible to treat  Period III burials  of  dated  by v e r y few  to  inhumation  were u s e d  III  sites,  bulk  by  for  sites  II i s represented  55 b u r i a l s ) .  a further  of a s s o c i a t e d grave  Period  the  up  p l a c e between P e r i o d s  with  were  ceramics.  the a n a l y s i s  Further, the excavation  p a t t e r n s made  levels  Chinese  primary  largely  as w e l l as b u r i a l  change t o o k  by  (except  P e r i o d II both  whereas  These  dated  brings  quantities  and,  2.  to r e s t r i c t  This  cremations  1 6 t h A.D., and has 9  and P e r i o d IV a r e r e p r e s e n t e d  II i s represented  considerable III  I  i t was d e c i d e d  III  to  stratigraphy, radiocarbon dates, associated  c o i n s , and s t y l i s t i c a l l y  Since  15th  1 and 6 i n S i t e  the b a s i s of s o i l  Chinese  about  to focus  on t h e P e r i o d I I d a t a . spatial inter-  among t h e P e r i o d I I b u r i a l s .  and and  stylistic intra-site  67  Period  I I I , with  f a r fewer d a t a , d i d n o t l e n d  same k i n d s o f t r e a t m e n t , chiefly  to  establish  itself  a n d t h e f o c u s of t h e a n a l y s i s the  nature  of  the c u l t u r e  t o the  here  change t h a t  occurred at P i l a  between t h e 1 2 t h and t h e 14th  centuries  Period  i s examined  form  I I I data  patterning,  4.1.2  chiefly  Practical used. Since  each  study  category.  Both  hypotheses,  formulated  to  and  some h y p o t h e s e s  on  a  The s y m b o l i c  ideological  factors,  symbolic  domain, not  purposes  of  of  by  lend  b u t some r e l e v a n t s t a t i s t i c a l  interpretation  the  was  overall  f o r r e l e v a n c e of f i t t o the o v e r a l l  3.1,  definition,  Structural the general  Model  generated  descriptive  and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l as  i t as  does  that  a  cultural  a  Cultural  i f the t o be  paradigm 3.  System).  organizing principle  For  deeper  d a t a were c o n s i s t e n t l y  of  to  on t h e p r o c e s s u a l  i n t r o d u c e d i n Chapter  ideological  with  readily  c o u l d be a t t e m p t e d  examined  Fig.  other  a n a l y s e s were done.  decided  data  of the "hard"  based  implications  "general organizing p r i n c i p l e "  or  of the data,  simple  itself  symbolic  or  to identify  aspects  dealing  approach,  i t  the  are subjected to quantitative  as d i d hypotheses  study,  both  one  Due t o t h e l i m i t a t i o n s  did  treatment  this  to  range of e t h n o g r a p h i c  information.  approaches  i t was d e c i d e d  belonging  a l l hypotheses  and s p a t i a l  incorporate  c o u l d be e v a l u a t e d o n l y  based  quantitative  as  the p r o c e s s u a l and  wherever p o s s i b l e .  analysis  of the t h e o r e t i c a l  attempts  A.D.  format.  a p p r o a c h and t h e s y m b o l i c ,  hypothesis  analysis  in a discussion  implications  this  processual  i n terms of b u r i a l  is  (See By  must be  68  f o u n d t o be life.  relevant  All  evidence  ethnographic in  data  g e n e r a l terms  inapplicable Thus tried of  throughout a l l dimensions  must be  or e l s e  and  in  derived  a new  the  the a n t i q u i t y  tests  of  organization, action),  of  to b u i l d  1982a, Pader proposed  1982,  and  in  the  principle"  Then (Kent,  the b a s i s  ancient  question.  area  I 1984)  and  by  the  done upon  group  relationship  looked  for  ideological  patterns  approach,  I  field  theoretical  (1982),  derived  Model  the  and  (Hodder advances (1982),  and  Trigger  system  of  change.  Pila  "ideological  have  society  organizing  - the "coherent s o c i o c u l t u r a l  paradign"  e v i d e n c e , ethnography,  history  sources contemporaneous w i t h the p e r i o d  defined  major  areas  of  the  ritual.  in this  Segraves  Structural  terms  focus being  s u c h r e s e a r c h e r s as A l l e n  (1982),  my  in  hierarchical  the I  symbolic  and  of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  literary I  the  1984),  be  I have  (or • c o r p o r a t e  of s y s t e m m a i n t e n a n c e  I constructed  (Fig.3.1).  and  of  the  and  In a d d i t i o n ,  correlates  summarized  (1981), Friedman  Firstly,  on  analysis,  function,  upon work a l r e a d y Kent  to  approach,  i n t h e m o d e l , as e x p r e s s e d i n t h e b u r i a l  attempted  (1984)  the p r o c e s s u a l  of mortuary  on  paradigm  deemed  of t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c model  of  In t h e a n a l y s e s b a s e d  Braun  be  and  attempted.  on  of g r a v e goods. material  must  centralization  specialization  presence  paradigm  analyses  ideological  differentiation  political  between g r o u p s  defined  social  socio-cultural  formal  to f i t the  construct  some g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s  on  seen  a n a l y s e s based  to t e s t  from  of  concern,  based  on  in the  69  Ethnographic  M o d e l , and  ideological  "attitudes"  data.  The  Thus  of  the  Trade  from  this  ceramics.  What  Sub-System,  of  to warrant  - were t h e y  of any  predominantly  utilitarian  goods  used  objects denoting wealth ritual  objects?  imported  and  Was  local  by  goods?  How  goods have been o b t a i n e d by Within towards  the  Social  individual  authority,  as  reflected  o b j e c t s were u s e d bounded kind?  and Was  wealth  constrained  status?  organization,  such  evidence  corporate  t h e dead sex,  of  identifiable  division  of  where  living  I  they  goods  Were  in l i f e ?  would  they  Were  the  looked  and  respect  for  towards  manner  they  groups  group a c t i o n  imported  or  the grave  power  Were t h e dead to s o c i a l  and  socially  roles in  of  any  terms  of  of h i e r a r c h i c a l lineages?  i n the b u r i a l  social  attitudes  i n which the m a t e r i a l  stratification  there evidence  Did  important  as g r a v e  kind?  the  relatives?  ritual.  i n t e r m s of  labour)?  towards  the  of s o c i a l  as descent  for attitudes  r e l a t i o n s h i p e v i d e n t between  with  Was  but  or  the  i n the b u r i a l  to  symbolic  members, in  there evidence  and  Were  Sub-System,  group  burial  particular  and  the  was  distributed.  attitudes  their  status?  t h e r e any  and  I looked  the dead person  and  i n the m a t e r i a l  o b j e c t s were deemed  enough t o t h e dead p e r s o n  relevant  approach  goods were u s e d  kind  the  goods t h e m s e l v e s ,  towards m a t e r i a l o b j e c t s - i n p a r t i c u l a r , trade  for  reflected  the b u r i a l  i n which these  within  be  stemming  o n l y the nature  t h e manner  area, looked  w h i c h might  methodology  examine not also  i n each  roles  social  Was forms?  (such  as  goods seem t o f a l l  there Were age, into  70  a  few,  rigidly-defined  variability  or  loss  or was t h e r e a wide range o f  i n t h e q u a n t i t y and t y p e o f goods?  Within towards  groupings,  the  death.  Ritual  Sub-System,  D i d death  of s t a t u s ,  appear  or perhaps  Were t h e dead e q u i p p e d  transition  i s , were t h e y  equipped  utensils  which  they  in life?  some  the grave appear  way  what  their  did  obvious  How  Period  with  the  principle  of P i l a  heavily  armed  Were t h e y  protected  wealth  objects  value?  or  Were  did  I n what  in  they  condition  t h e body,  and  the k i n d of v a l u e  culture  in Period II.  paradigm,  change  evident  o f t h e same  The b u r i a l  attitudes  pattern  a c o r r e s p o n d i n g change the  ideological  in  had  i n the  organizing  society?  S t r u c t u r e of the A n a l y s i s . The  III,  and  Were t h e y  f o r evidence  changed - d i d t h e changes i n d i c a t e sociocultural  tools  person?  I looked  general  earthly  - or a g a i n s t impurity?  symbolic  respect to  III burials,  departure,  useful  a r r a n g e m e n t have t o s a y about  I had a l r e a d y f o u n d  4.1.3  with  were t h e y d i s p o s e d a b o u t  r e p r e s e n t e d t o t h e dead Finally,  that  a g a i n s t danger  t o have some s p e c i f i c objects?  attitudes  t o some h i g h e r s t a t u s ?  "underworld"?  goods t h e m s e l v e s  were t h e s e  they  had u s e d  in a hostile  specific  for  f o r a c o n t i n u a t i o n of a t y p i c a l l y  - that  conflict  looked  t o represent simple  existence  for  I  a n a l y s e s a r e c a t e g o r i z e d under  as o u t l i n e d  analyzed  in  under  section  Period  4.1.1, a b o v e .  II  and  Period  P e r i o d II data are  t e r m s o f t h e t h r e e main s u b - s y s t e m s d e f i n e d i n t h e  71  E t h n o g r a p h i c M o d e l : T r a d e , S o c i a l and R i t u a l . to P i l a ,  Laguna  is  tested  h y p o t h e s e s and a n a l y s e s . summary test  and  analyses,  a  section  information  discussion  applicability  sub-system  incorporating  pertinent  and  each  Each a n a l y s i s  discussion,  r e s u l t s , other  data  for  The  by  means  i s followed  of by a  a b r i e f summary o f t h e not  included  of t h e symbolic  in  the  implications  s u g g e s t e d by t h e r e s u l t s . Period Trade, data,  I I I i s discussed  Social  and  the a n a l y s i s  Ritual  i n t e r m s o f t h e same  sub-systems  - b u t due t o t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e  i s more g e n e r a l  i n form.  72  5.  ANALYSIS: PERIOD II - TRADE SUB-SYSTEM  5.1  Introduct ion  This input  of  sub-system  relates  trade ceramics  encompasses t h e s e goods b r o u g h t goods on  into  nature  the c u l t u r a l  main a s p e c t s :  the  i n from o u t s i d e ; t h e  locally  contacts with  t o the  extent  placed  the  locally  economic e f f e c t and  of  s y s t e m as a w h o l e .  value  produced a r t i f a c t s ;  outside  and  the  of  nature  on  the  of  It the  trade  the  trade  sources.  5.2  Hypotheses:  5.2.1  H y p o t h e s i s 1: W e a l t h was e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h d i f f e r e n c e s i n q u a n t i t i e s of t r a d e c e r a m i c s i n t h e P i l a b u r i a l s i t e . The  most  Processual  significant  pervading  importance  Philippine  society.  status  aspect  in Philippine hypothesis  value  of  the  status  i n the  trade  community  ( B i n f o r d 1971:18) t h e n  Assuming then  assemblages and  the  of  trade  in  was  of  my  a  range  first,  and  most  of  the  the q u e s t i o n  that  the  burials  be any  i n the  should  status within  will  mortuary  differentiation  trade ceramics  burials  trade ceramics  Assuming  i n g r e a t e r numbers t h a n  distribution  the a l l -  i n terms of w e a l t h  social  ceramics  is  ceramics  differential  f u r t h e r t h a t the  the  there  to test  the  goods r e f l e c t i n g  shows  i s formulated  reflects  of  Chinese  Therefore  burials.  pattern  model  communities.  Chinese Pila  the  a s c r i b e d to the Ethnography  important,  of  the  were w e a l t h  found other  i n " w e a l t h y " and  among  and  ritual living  show a  range  community. indicators, the  category  of  burial goods,  "poor" groups  will  73  depend on t h e amount o f t r a d e c e r a m i c s p r e s e n t any  other  variable.  indicators, rank,  then  will  Further,  the b u r i a l s  if  trade  with e l i t e  rather  ceramics  items,  or  than  on  are wealth  "badges"  of  be f o u n d among t h o s e b u r i a l s c o n t a i n i n g t h e h i g h e s t  numbers o f t r a d e c e r a m i c s . 5.2.2  H y p o t h e s i s 2: L o c a l e a r t h e n w a r e p o t t e r y was a l o w - s t a t u s item i n P i l a b u r i a l s .  5.2.3  Hypothesis burials. As c o r o l l a r y  test  the  3; I r o n b l a d e s were a l o w - s t a t u s  t o the f i r s t  relative  artifacts  found  artifact  found  value  in Pila in  hypothesis, i t  of  the  burials.  large  r e p r e s e n t i n g 10.32% o f t h e t o t a l  iron  blades  (and  grave  goods  that  Hypothesis  are  the c h i e f  it  must be d e m o n s t r a t e d  independent  burials.  visible  P i l a are  goods,  and  r e p r e s e n t i n g 5.04% o f t h e t o t a l  1.  that  but t h a t is  not  iron  of wealth  and  trade  in Pila  e a r t h e n w a r e and i r o n  groupings  I n o t h e r words, and  1 i s correct,  indicators  of the wealth  earthenwares  burials  of  (see F i g . 4 . 1 ) .  Assuming  burials,  in  grave  to  groups of  categories  amounts  earthenwares,  Hypothesis  necessary  other s u b s t a n t i a l  The o n l y o t h e r  comparatively  fragments),  is  item i n P i l a  as e s t a b l i s h e d  the d i s t r i b u t i o n positively  burials,  of  these  correlated  with  then  a r t i f a c t s are i n support of  i t must be d e m o n s t r a t e d  a r e not o n l y low-frequency  ceramics  that  items  goods the  the  in Pila  among  the  wealthiest  74  5.2.4  H y p o t h e s i s 4: T r a d e c e r a m i c s w i l l show g r e a t d i v e r s i t y of The  Pila  final  hypothesis  r e l a t e s t o the  Assuming  the  conducted  without  ceramics  in  reflecting person  dealing with  question  of  ethnographic strong  the  Pila  a pattern  contact  i n P i l a b u r i a l assemblages t y p e s and w a r e s .  the  trade  model  is  burial  of  individual than  that  century  A.D.  the  century,  the  exchange o f h u n d r e d s of  the  P h i l i p p i n e s alone. major  of  the  extent,  archipelago. assumption  and  The  that  (before  sheer  bulk  through  centralized  Chinese  literary  sources,  reveal  1 and  of c a l l  that  ceramic  of  the  of  trade  was  small  C.  the  the  local  quite  wide,  person-toor  bulk  between trade  10th  involved  pieces  which  some  Chinese  illustration  wares t h r o u g h o u t  agencies. Chronicles between by  in  P h i l i p p i n e Islands  i s enough t o c r e a t e  traders  in Garcia  trade  lots",  goods were  conducted  was  of,  and  from  these  trade  control  be  individual  1968), g i v e s  such as  (Chao J u - k u a ,  3, A p p e n d i x  the  Chao J u - k u a , w r i t t e n  C h i n e s e m e r c h a n t s and ports  period  q u a n t i t i e s of  traded  A.D.,  the  sites  of  trade  range  should  at  patterns.  and  "factory  a map  penetration,  such v a s t  customs o f f i c i a l ,  in  archaeological  c e r a m i c s were r e c o v e r e d  the  thousands of  Fig.1.1,  exchange  correct,  uniform  recalled 16th  sub-system  "sorting"  I t must be  the  and  assemblages  orders.  showing  trade  centralization,  rather  and  the  ordered  an and  However, e a r l y of  the  1209  b a r t e r by at  the  the  1979:194,196).  Imperial and  1214  individual Philippine See  Notes  75  Thus t h e d i v e r s i t y encompass  not  demonstrate suggest of  only  of  trade ceramics  many  categories  great v a r i a b i l i t y  t h a t such  trade  of  burials  wares,  support  in Pila  should  but  w i t h i n each c a t e g o r y  a pattern w i l l  person-to-person  in P i l a  also  of w a r e s .  the e t h n o g r a p h i c  I  model  at t h i s p e r i o d .  5.3  Analyses  5.3.1  A n a l y s e s r e l a t e d t o H y p o t h e s i s 1: W e a l t h was expressed t h r o u g h d i f f e r e n c e s i n q u a n t i t i e s of t r a d e c e r a m i c s i n the P i l a b u r i a l s i t e . Fig.4.1  found  is  a  b a r - c h a r t of  i n each category  of  Pila  grave  trade  fragments  (assumed t o be  fragments  objects,  lead  utilitarian  of  See  all  Appendix  categories  occurrence. 794. are  Of iron,  spindle wealth  objects,  The these  6 are  items.  by  the  next  and  5.04%  far  627  A-1  the  largest (iron).  of  are  clearly  largest  categories  goods, and  wealth  (elite)  for a  together  and  detailed  with  goods f o u n d  7  82  listing  f r e q u e n c i e s of at P i l a  are  net  sinkers  29 a r e g o l d , c o i n s , and  of g r a v e  groups r e p r e s e n t i n g only  was  are earthenwares,  demonstrates that trade  category  and  bronze  A-2  lead,  blades  small  trade ceramics, 3  These  artifacts  blades),  number of b u r i a l  (utilitarian), Fig.4.1  and  items,  are  bronze,  whorls  are  total  numbers of  earthenware p o t t e r y , i r o n  Tables and  total goods.  include:  items.  ceramics,  the  and other  ceramics  goods a t P i l a  10.32%  40  (79%),  (earthenwares)  76  Appendix with  Table  A-5 shows t h e number and p e r c e n t  trade ceramics  ranging  from  majority  of subsequent  broken order  0  and  down  by  to explore  sites  and  to  to  earthenware  23  items  per b u r i a l .  t a b l e s and  site:  Site  in  This  figures,  and d i f f e r e n c e s  areas  frequencies  t a b l e , and t h e  presents  1 ( A g r a ) and S i t e  similarities determine  pottery,  of b u r i a l s  the  data  2 (Mendoza), i n  between  of v a r i a b i l i t y  the  among  two  t h e goods  found.  Table group  5.1  shows t h e f r e q u e n c y  present,  percentages, quartiles goods. trade and  means,  This  and  82.2%  Mendoza,  medians,  upper  occur  i n the l a r g e s t  respectively. per  burial  In  other  are  presented  the  (qU),  for  category  each  i n both  lower of  A g r a and Mendoza,  the  mean  86.8%  number  i n the trade ceramics  in visual  the importance artifact  demonstrates per  tabulates  of  category  A g r a and Mendoza: 3.33 a n d 4.40 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  c h a r t s c o m p a r i n g A g r a and confirm  artifact  percentage of b u r i a l s ,  P e r c e n t a g e s o f b u r i a l s and mean burial  each  quartiles  addition,  i s highest  with  and  deviations  t a b l e demonstrates that  ceramics  both  Agra  ( q L ) , and s t a n d a r d  artifacts in  in  of b u r i a l s  burial,  frequencies,  categories  that trade  with  form  Mendoza  of t r a d e in  burials.  These  represent  the exception  charts with a l l  Fig.5.2  t o t h e mean number only  per  5.1 and 5.2, b a r  i n comparison  but a r e a l s o t h e s o l e s o u r c e  A g r a and Mendoza - w i t h  artifacts  frequencies.  Pila  not  of  in Figs.  ceramics  respect  ceramics  number  also  of a r t i f a c t s the  highest  o f d i f f e r e n c e between  of the  numerically  small  77 TABLE 5 . 1 :  Frequency  of b u r i a l s w i t h each t r a i t  (Sun. X , Mean, q . u . , q . l . . Standard  Burials AGRA,  Cases  Trade Ceramics  Earthenwares  Iron  I n Agra and Mendoza. Deviation)  Bronze  Lead  Utilitarian  Wealth  129  Burials with this artifact type  112 86.8  47  26  4  2  3  5  36.4  20.2  3.10  1.60  2.30  3.90  Mean  3.33  0.47  0.23  0.04  0.02  0.04  0.23  Median  2  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  q.u. (upper quartile)  5  q.l. (lower quartile)  1  Standard Deviation  3.10  0.74  0.51  0.23  0.20  0.26  1.71  5  1  2  MENDOZA  45  Burials with this artifact type  37  14  1  82.20  31.10  11.10  2.20  4.40  Mean  4.40  0.47  0.22  0.02  0.04  Median  3  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.00  0.87  0.67  0.15  0.21  q.u. (upper quarti le) q.l. (lower quartile)  1  Standard Deviation  5.44  78  36. 4  e a r t h e n w a r e s  a  A g r a  Mendoza  u  w  t i I i l o r i a n  e  a  I  t  h  I  I  0  I  50  100  p  FIGURE  5.1:  Percent  e r c e n t  of b u r i a l s  each category  o f  i n Agra  of a r t i f a c t  b u r i a l  s  and Mendoza  with  present: Period I I .  79  i t r a d e  c e r o m i e s  e a r t h e n w o r e s  r  o  i  //////, V  i  3.30 4. 40  0.47 0.4 7  | i  i  n  0.23 0.22  0.04 b  r  o  n  z  e 0.02 Ag r o  I  u  e  o  t i I i t  w e  a  0.0 4  a r i a n  I  Mendoza  0.1  d  t  0.04  h  i  o mean  FIGURE 5 . 2 :  i  i  number  I  per  burial  Mean numbers o f a r t i f a c t s per b u r i a l i n Agra and Mendoza: P e r i o d  II.  80  "wealth" elite  c a t e g o r y of a r t i f a c t s .  badges o f w e a l t h  and  rare,  and  bronze  exotic  significant  are  seen  only five  (#50,  #83,  burials  #98)  is just  abundant  with e l i t e  are  found  in  in association.  of t r a d e c e r a m i c s  "wealth"  coins.  It  was  the n o v e l t y of the g l a s s b r a c e l e t evidence trade  for this  i n Southeast  can  be  between t h e b u r i a l s  with  Four the  very  reports  bangles  (Harrison  1968:135,  136).  The  together  with  suggests  that  the these  aspect imported  A non-parametric Whitney-U  (Conover  "elite"  rather  1971:224)  15,  of  9  burial,  and Agra  with a high  than g o l d  Some  literature that the  on  an  statistical done  to  shown t o  to  prehistoric  island  of the  or  supporting  Chinese  long-distance  badges c o u l d be  rank  " w e a l t h " c a t e g o r y due  to  was  burials  considered  and  Arab  communities  glass  bangles,  trade,  strongly  goods were h i g h s t a t u s  two-sample  b u r i a l s with the e l i t e  16,  in  (2 t r a d e c e r a m i c s ) , and  fragility  of  with  of the b u r i a l s  in  burials  topmost  one  Asia,  There  of t h e s e e l i t e  fifth  i n the  glass  174  The  found  supplied  This the  association.  traders  etc.).  in trade ceramics.  to the  lead  of  i f i t s h o u l d be  ascribed  and  indication  object i s a blue glass b r a c e l e t  badge.  jewelry  beads,  rings,  one  in association  I t i s somewhat d e b a t a b l e  elite  gold  badges among t h e  i s r a t h e r m a r g i n a l : i t i s not  number its  mirrors,  a c c o r d i n g t o amount of goods i n A g r a ,  8 trade ceramics #9,  objects,  which p e r t a i n s  the b u r i a l s  category represents  s u c h as c o i n s ,  They a r e a l l i n A g r a . #1,  wealth  s u c h as g l a s s  i n Fig.5.2,  burials  II.  status,  (bracelets,  association  badges and  Period  items  l u x u r y goods  relationship,  elite  and  The  items.  test,  the  determine come  Manni f the  from  the  81  same  population  ceramics. trade are  The  highly  with e l i t e  result  burials  medians group  step  f o r Agra,  thus determined Returning Pila,  and  to  point  t o be  much  lower  occur  in  whose  burial,  from  it  is  i s ignored,  the  a cut-off in  lists  t h e upper of  f o r the  5+  trade  burial.  will  that  to s i t e .  a l l wealth  will  number  of  means, wealthy per  f o r Mendoza. at  Pila  of g r a v e other  is  goods  artifact not  the t r a d e c e r a m i c s , but  also  proportions  the  between  items, are  variability be  Pila.  ceramics  5 t r a d e ceramics per  than  at  as t h e  burials  t r a d e c e r a m i c s and  showing  t h e v a l u e s of  quartile  very  burials  point  the  "wealthy"  was  the  t r a d e c e r a m i c s per b u r i a l  frequency site  This  Thus  "poor"  5.1  point  identical  there  indicators and  Table  i n frequency  virtually  then  and  demonstrates  only  17.  burials  come i n t h e  t o t h e q u e s t i o n of t h e v a r i a b i l i t y  o t h e r than  indicate,  #9  these b u r i a l s  determine  taking  6+  categories,  If  I f Agra  elite  as a measure o f w e a l t h  "wealthy"  Fig.5.2  Mendoza.  is  trade  i n terms of  number o f t r a d e c e r a m i c s ,  used  a cut-off  common c u t - o f f  at  was  quartiles:  establishes  burial  be  trade ceramics.  and  rank  i n terms of t r a d e c e r a m i c s .  d e s i g n e d as  associated  level.  i t e m s have a l a r g e  next  i f a l l five  average  .01  a h i g h number o f  badges were r a n k e d  showing t h a t  t r a d e c e r a m i c s can The  with  shows t h a t  the  at the  i s 4,  range  with wealth  burials  i n the t e s t ,  rank  t o p of the  The  The  significant  average  the  burials  ceramics.  included  that  as  in  in  both  Pila,  as  artifacts  that  v a r y t h e most  I argue  that  Agra  and  the  results  are  wealth  from  burial  the a n a l y s e s  to  above  82  support  Hypothesis  certain  status  explored The the If  ceramics  further,  will  numbers t h a n  rather  than  containing  elite  the b a s i s  map  the  from  the t o t a l  burials  and  as w e a l t h  of b u r i a l s  174  i n the  The  this  specific  area  with  with earthenwares  p l u s earthenwares)  Fig.5.3 percentage Pila.  were  "poor" present burials  its  throughout  constructed Fig.5.3,  the  only;  of  area,  to  burials Fig.5.4, i n Agra,  " a l l pottery"  of t r a d e c e r a m i c s "all  own,  pottery"  only;  and  of  only.  of b u r i a l s  distribution  on  Pila  in Agra:  i n Mendoza: o f  establishes  Figs.  and  and  Pila.  ceramics  and  the  ( a s shown),  associations  trade  then  ceramics  at  of  assemblages i n  variable,  histograms  be  burials.  s m a l l number o f  o n l y : i n the t o t a l  Fig.5.6, d i s t r i b u t i o n s  trade ceramics  i n the  "wealthy"  P e r i o d II b u r i a l s  o f T a b l e A-5,  1 i s that  indicators,  t h e amount o f t r a d e  makes  will  to  chapter.  shape o f t h e P e r i o d I I d i s t r i b u t i o n s :  ceramics  which  o t h e r c a t e g o r y of goods  badges  Pila  they p o i n t  for Hypothesis  i n Mendoza; F i g . 5 . 5 , d i s t r i b u t i o n s  (trade  sites  trade ceramics  other v a r i a b l e .  of t h e  that  f o u n d among t h e b u r i a l  f o r measuring  spectrum On  be  two  following  tested  function  d e p e n d on  on any  insufficient broad  t o be  any  addition,  between t h e i n the  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  sub-groups w i l l  in  p a t t e r n of the  the t r a d e c e r a m i c s  greater  and  section  dimension  distribution  trade  and  differences  in later next  1,  5.5  a  skewed  w i t h each and  p a t t e r n i s found  5.6  distribution  number of c e r a m i c s show  that  i n the Agra  and  the  for  present, same  Mendoza  the in  general burials,  mean * 20  no.  elite  p o t s = 4JD7  burial  -  10 •  b  r~n, i rT~r^i  Uo  1  2  number  of  ceramic  pots  per  1  24'  burial  FIGURE 5»3» Percent of b u r i a l s i n t o t a l P i l a p o p u l a t i o n w i t h each number o f trade ceramics p r e s e n t : P e r i o d I I , ( A s t e r i s k shows b u r i a l s c o n t a i n i n g e l i t e i t e m s ) .  mean no.  Agro  Mendozo  Agra 0.47  mean no.  Q Mendoza  mean no.  0.47  0.47  o — number  FIGURE 5.**-*  of  earthenware  pots  per  burial  P e r c e n t of b u r i a l s i n t o t a l P i l a p o p u l a t i o n , Agra and Mendoza, c o n t a i n i n g earthenware pottery: Period I I .  8^  30  mean  -,  no.  pots/burial  = 3.80  fO OO 00 CO CD CO  r f l total  no. p o t s / b u r i a l  (ceramic  d o b16 1  and  earthenware)  mean  30 - i  f. »•  FIGURE  5.5:  of  Percent  trode  =  3.33  6 6  ceramics/burial  of b u r i a l s  containing  no. p o t s / b u r i a l  CO CO  <vj - » 12'  number  1  (1)  i n Site  any p o t t e r y  e a r t h e n w a r e s ) and ( 2 ) t r a d e  1 (Agra), Period I I , (ceramics ceramics  or only.  85  mean no.  30-i  n, total  no.  pots/burial  pols/burial  m,.H R ==  ?>  '20  (ceramics  and  mean  30-,  no.  = 4.87  i—r - R  21 '  earthenware)  pots/burial  :  4.40  o b  to  v> CM  0  '4  number  FIGURE 5 . 6 >  8  of  Percent  -i—r 4=r  trade  12'  ceramics  ~  IN)  IM  ~ i — r  16  /  •VI  4=^ 24  burial  o f b u r i a l s i n S i t e 2 (Mendoza), P e r i o d I I ,  containing  ( 1 ) any p o t t e r y  earthenwares) and ( 2 ) trade  (ceramics ceramics  or only.  86  and  that  noticeably ceramics  the  whether only.  of  earthenwares  at  each  trade  site,  Mendoza  the  distributions  category  is  T h i s would a p p e a r  to indicate  i n the p o t t e r y d i s t r i b u t i o n s  Fig.5.4,  alone  confirms  distributions  which  - i n the t o t a l the  per  burial  is  shows Pila  not  alter  or  trade  the presence  i s a constant distribution  the  of  are s i m i l a r ,  identical  that  ratio  of  the  distribution  area,  indication  of earthenwares  does  " a l l pottery"  and u n r e l a t e d t o the v a r i a b l e  -  pots  of  the  ceramics.  earthenwares  of  shape  in  Agra  of  and  independence. and t h e  i n each  All  mean  case:  0.47  in  number pots per  burial. It  will  difference  be r e c a l l e d between  that  Agra  Fig.5.1  p i n - p o i n t e d the source  and Mendoza  burial  c a t e g o r i e s o f " t r a d e c e r a m i c s " and " w e a l t h " . seen  when c o m p a r i n g  of d i f f e r e n c e lies  i n the t r a d e ceramic  evenly  distributed  among  burials  i n Agra  i n Mendoza;  percentage number  of  of p o t s  addition,  burials per b u r i a l  there  is  p o t s and b u r i a l s  with  5.1  and Mendoza d i s t r i b u t i o n s category. a  is  large  - the source pottery  The t r a d e c e r a m i c s  a r e more  greater  percentage  i n Mendoza, a s l i g h t l y trade  greater:  a g r e a t e r range  is  of  slightly  contain  t o the  The same t h i n g  F i g s . 5 . 5 a n d 5.6 and T a b l e  between A g r a  than  associations  of  ceramics, 4.40  versus  smaller  b u t t h e mean 3.33.  between b u r i a l s w i t h  numbers o f p o t s  of  i n Mendoza.  In fewer  87  5.3.2  A n a l y s e s r e l a t e d t o H y p o t h e s i s 2: L o c a l earthenware p o t t e r y was a l o w - s t a t u s i t e m i n P i l a b u r i a l s . As  5.5  a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d under H y p o t h e s i s  and  5.6  burial  demonstrate  assemblages  variable,  the  shape  Mendoza  remaining  included  in  the  distributions similar  the  correlated  of  the  distributions  cases  or  category,  and  When  greater  these analyses  supported,  and  neither  wealthy/poor  not.  earthenwares  (0.47).  groupings  the  of  low  of the P i l a  established  on  ceramic and  earthenwares  are  shows  that  the  and  very  population.  i s constant  the  frequency  in a l l  the  greater  trade  ceramic  Hypothesis  negatively  i n the  Agra  with in  that  a r e low  nor  both  frequency  burial  variability  Figs.5.3,  trade  burial  contrasted  earthenwares  in  Fig.5.4  are  indicate  positively  with the  whether  mean number of p o t s p e r  percentages  but  not  unchanged  above,  of earthenwares  is  numbers  of  the presence  in a l l three groupings  Further, three  that  1,  2  is  i n these  correlated  not  burials, with  the b a s i s of t r a d e  the  ceramic  frequenc i e s . A  minor  burials  in P i l a  Seventeen (i.e. that eight  of  68%).  to  burials  T h i s may one  ceramic  wares,  trade ceramic have  trade ceramic  suggests  that  object  earthenware  in pot  that  category in  cases  of  of t h e  goods o f any  earthenwares  the earthenwares  different but  p a t t e r n i s the case  be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e 41  o f t h e s e a l s o have an  an e n t i r e l y  this  w h i c h have no these  have j u s t  situation to  exception  kind.  in association burials  in P i l a  association: (i.e.  were seen grave  where not  25  only  19.5%).  This  as b e l o n g i n g  goods  than  even one  of  the the  88  ceramic  wares was a v a i l a b l e ,  earthenware pot as a The  earthenwares  a  wealthy/poor  charts f o r the P i l a  simple  are  to  provide  an  substitute.  complete data  interpretation;  an e f f o r t was made  visual  widely  continuum  inspection  dispersed  i n both  small,  localized  clusters  burials  w i t h no t r a d e c e r a m i c s  Agra  of  burials  confirm  reveals  throughout  of any  kind  that  the  a n d Mendoza, e x c e p t  earthenwares  this  entire for  the  i n the handful of (Tables  A-3,  A-4,  Appendix A ) .  5.3.3  Analyses r e l a t e d to Hypothesis s t a t u s item i n P i l a b u r i a l s . Analyses  5.1 are  used  and Figs.5.1  and 5.2.  Hypothesis  are  irregularly  frequencies. iron  Table  i n Agra  trade ceramic almost  item  5.1  shows  and Mendoza  with  82.2% r e s p e c t i v e l y ) ,  and  11.1% (Mendoza) of t h e b u r i a l s .  number  iron  for  Agra  of  5.1  but t h a t  the  trade  i n Agra  and 5.2  These  i n 20.2%  respectively).  not  other  from  found  in  (86.8% (Agra)  are presented The mean  i s low, and n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l  i n Agra  but d i f f e r e n t  are  for greater c l a r i t y .  (1.23 and 0.22  burials  p a t t e r n from t h e  figures  hand, t h e mean numbers o f t r a d e c e r a m i c s only higher  ceramic  and Mendoza  o b j e c t s a r e found  objects per b u r i a l  and Mendoza  burials,  trade ceramics  and  in Figs.  objects  t h a t t h e p r o p o r t i o n of  p r o p o r t i o n s of b u r i a l s  graphically  i n Table  iron  shows a d i f f e r e n t  While  iron  show t h a t  i n the P i l a  associated  frequencies.  equal  3 a r e summarized  The a n a l y s e s  not o n l y a low-frequency  they  with  to test  3: I r o n b l a d e s were a low  each  On t h e o t h e r  and Mendoza a r e (3.33  and  4.40  89  respectively). iron  objects  ceramics, must  These in  and  analyses indicate  Pila  that  is  irregularly  item  in  Pila  burials,  groupings established  a  but  on  of t r a d e c e r a m i c  frequencies.  occurrences are s c a t t e r e d  and  presence  respect and  of  #18)  items  elite  this  result,  throughout  the  association  the  in Pila  of  iron  seen  with  burials  (#7  results  - o n l y two  showing  wealthy/poor  between p r e s e n c e  supports  burials  of  also contain  iron.  A n a l y s e s r e l a t e d t o H y p o t h e s i s 4: T r a d e c e r a m i c s i n P i l a b u r i a l a s s e m b l a g e s w i l l show g r e a t d i v e r s i t y of t y p e s and w a r e s . The  first  to e s t a b l i s h  burial A-2,  elite  of the f i v e  confirm  of a s s o c i a t i o n  t o the t r a d e ceramic  5.3.4  is  pattern  iron  wealthy/poor  that  The  Rather,  the  independent  A)  trade  high-status  and A-4  continuum.  nor  with  a  T a b l e s A-3 iron  (Appendix  supported.  low-status  the b a s i s  the o c c u r r e n c e of  associated  H y p o t h e s i s 3 i s not  be c o n s i d e r e d a s n e i t h e r  that  requirement that  assemblages Appendix  functional total  of  t h e range  A,  list  items  implication example groups,  in  way  A and  full  and  range  B.  found  of  sub-group.  figures,  I  of c o m p a r i s o n . Suppose A t o  10 c l a s s e s  this  i n the  gives Before  will  present  100  following  4  Pila and  classes,  occurrence.  A  representing  56  an  of  average  considering a  Suppose I have two have  in  T a b l e s A-1  of a r t i f a c t  frequencies  sub-groups;  each  of t h e s e  by  throughout  the  t r a d e c e r a m i c s were f o u n d a t P i l a ,  separate glaze/function 11.19  of t r a d e o b j e c t s  of H y p o t h e s i s  shows c o n s i d e r a b l e d i v e r s i t y .  type sub-groups, 627  i n the c o n s i d e r a t i o n  objects,  o r d e r : 91%  the  hypothetical hypothetical distributed i n one  class,  90  1%  i n e a c h of  of  objects  have  100  order: than  the  i s found  objects  10% 10%  other  of of  G r o u p B must  the the  objects total  then  Returning  be  far  white-wares l a r g e r than  itself  great  of  rather  sub-groups  listed lumping  recorded  by  details  of  it  the  of  the  range  a  i n any  to  following  c l a s s e s ; or,  no  one  greater  the  six  gray-glazed  total  more  class.  amount  98,  56  variability.  On  burials  of  from t h e in  A-1,  A p p e n d i x A,  original 1968  list  (see  sub-groups  are  sub-groups  in  basis,  judged  the  fact  burial  footnote  20, 162,  represent  of  glaze  celadons  this  is  i n v i e w of  major  lead-glazed  of  in P i l a  in Table  the  to  be  that  the  a certain  assemblages  to t h i s  Table  for  procedures).  alone  i n the  cannot  trading  ( s e e A p p e n d i x C,  prove  the  t r u t h of  r e l a t i o n s at P i l a ,  evidence  Ethnographic  contemporaneous e y e - w i t n e s s Annals  99,  small, especially  lumping  the  in  frequencies:  overall  i s adequate c o r r o b o r a t i n g  aspect  have  total  Suppose G r o u p B  falls  figures,  impressive  Tenazas  contact  Pila  ceramics  While d i v e r s i t y person  to  10  the  Though some g l a z e / f u n c t i o n  others,  than  the  objects  substantial  114.  amount of  i n e a c h of  ochre-glazed  trade  class.  distributed  r a n g e of  the  i n d i c a t e s an  diversity  of  A.  to  143,  Thus 91%  artifact  considered  c a t e g o r i e s a l l have  and  i n one  i n 10 c l a s s e s ,  evenness than Group  brown-glazed  9 classes.  Model  accounts  Notes to  in this  the  in Text,  is the  person-to-  I suggest  case,  since  substantiated ancient  Nos.1-3).  that this by  Chinese  91  5.4  Summary and D i s c u s s i o n The  wealth,  test as  prestige  results  indicated  the observed throughout  The the  by  a considerable difference  the p r e s e n c e  goods, d i d e x i s t  the d i s t r i b u t i o n s  of  show t h a t  in P i l a  society.  of goods i n A g r a  p a t t e r n of b u r i a l  o f c e r a m i c s and  and Mendoza  a s s e m b l a g e s was  status  living  of the b u r i a l s ,  society,  these b u r i a l s .  wealth  objects.  coins,  gold  The Elite  jewellery,  objects, are burials  was  and  therefore,  associated  burial,  right  Agra  ceramics  a r e not  items  Four  rare,  exotic  but  appear  #9,  out  of t h e s e  i s associated  burials.  They a r e c h i e f l y  o b j e c t s , and  include  bowls,  rather  w i t h two  appears  may  status,  five  that  assume,  of  obvious  such  s u c h as  i m p o r t a n t , and a utilitarian  miniature rather  of the  the  fifth  a l s o appear  function  than  i n the  open forms  (dishes, of 6 "sets".  s e t s o f c o n t a i n e r s and  forms,  w i t h c o n t a i n e r s b e i n g t h e more i m p o r t a n t , and  glazed  wares b e i n g t h e most p o p u l a r .  The  ceramics  to  full-sized  s u g g e s t i v e of r i t u a l  t o have i n v o l v e d  174  are  bottoms o f c o v e r e d b o x e s ) i n any  in distributions  as  glass  burials  range;  wealth  trade ceramics.  s m a l l c o n t a i n e r s and  t o p s and  glaze categories,  than  one  in only f i v e  a t t h e t o p of t h e w e a l t h y  a symbolic  ritual  in  general  i n themselves  and  represent  The  indicates  indicators  and  Thus t h e t r a d e c e r a m i c s were  plates,  similarity  w i t h the p o s s e s s i o n of  badges o f w e a l t h  found at P i l a ,  in Period II.  clustered  other  Pila.  t r a d e c e r a m i c s , which a r e the predominant in  The  in  open  celadon-  are  92  frequently with and  distributed  open  forms  patterning  region,  and f e e t .  In a d d i t i o n ,  7,  artifacts  full-sized, Appendix  Ritual  associated  and o f a p l a i n ,  a utilitarian  commonly b u r i e d t h e body  pottery  this  the ceramics  shrouds.  The  i s explored in detail  and i r o n  nature  function  earthenwares  i n the b u r i a l s ,  that  1968:16).  they appear  to  t o have  been  and s l i g h t l y  f r e q u e n c y of goods,  from  a conclusion  This difference  was c o n s i d e r e d l e s s  pottery i s  (see Fig.B-1,  mostly cooking p o t s , appear  o u t s i d e the m a t t i n g shroud,  (Tenazas  b l a d e s , a r e not  The e a r t h e n w a r e  o f some t y p i c a l  function  as w e l l a s t h e much lower utilitarian  that  over  f o r the ceramic  i n mat o r c l o t h  utilitarian  i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e f a c t  The  symbolism  with wealth.  B, f o r p h o t o g r a p h s  represent  torso,  t o the imported c e r a m i c s , l o c a l l y - m a d e  The e a r t h e n w a r e s ,  function  I t i s argued  -  Sub-System.  such as earthenware  specifically  pattern  and upper  there i s evidence that  t o t h e body  under  In c o n t r a s t  which  t h e head  a s p e c t of these grave assemblages  Chapter  Pila).  in a specific  s u c h a s d i s h e s and bowls p l a c e d u p s i d e - d o w n  were wrapped c l o s e symbolic  around  indicates a protective  wares u s e d .  from  t h e body  small vessels clustered  the head, p e l v i c  in  over  i n treatment,  suggests  important  distant  that  than  symbolic  at P i l a .  iron  shrouds.  b l a d e s were b u r i e d  In f a c t ,  b l a d e s and r u s t (ibid:16).  next  t o t h e body w i t h i n  i t i s t h e mat i m p r e s s i o n s l e f t  cakes  The i r o n  that  indicates  t h e mat  i n the iron  s u c h a mode o f b u r i a l  i s a low-frequency  i t e m i n t h e b u r i a l s , and  93  is  not  basis  correlated  o f t r a d e c e r a m i c s and  the concept considered by  of p h y s i c a l less  the ceramic  specific  the b u r i a l  relative  trade  of  at P i l a  ceramic  objects.  observed  i n the  dimension; with  the  action  constraint. apparent spirits  to  in this  be  and  under  entities,  as by  a r e : the  society.  health,  placating  some  a w a r r i o r , or  person-to-person i n the  contemporaneous  -  eye-  inter-relationships  c o n f i r m t h e g e n e r a l agreement the  The  ideological  essential  importance  and  importance  h i s immediate  of s o c i a l  indicates  the  relationship  of  individual  family;  boundedness, or  formal  t h e t r a d e c e r a m i c s and  their  t h e power o f s u p e r n a t u r a l  Associated with t h i s  i s the  life  abundance or s c a r c i t y  of  food,  of a n c e s t o r s p i r i t s pleasing  of  as  of the s u p e r o r d i n a t e  of a p e r s o n a l , o n e - t o - o n e the primary  paradigm  elements  of  and  represented  reflect  Thus where a l l m a t t e r s  the c o n t r o l  was  of d i v e r s i t y  functional  e m p h a s i s p l a c e d on function  that  se a s , f o r  p a t t e r n of  p a t t e r n s , and  a l l i s a lack  action.  may  per  the e v i d e n c e  the  the person  The  iron  the  annals.  realm,  importance  symbolic  ritual  illness  The  t r a d e sub-system  by  world  protection  status  as w e l l  in Chinese  paradigm  characterizing  of  by  s o u r c e s o f power; and  ritual  than  i n the S t r u c t u r a l Model.  ideological  ritual of  on  T h i s suggests  i n the next  presence  rather  established  of a k i n g r o u p h e a d , a h u n t e r ,  between t h e s e c u l t u r a l outlined  The  assemblages,  symbolic  badges.  the  such a p e r s o n .  witness accounts  the  elite  than  i s supported  burial  In  role  groupings  protection  important  achieved  instance, the  w i t h the w e a l t h  these  and  spirits  and  death,  i s perceived  other will  importance  be  animistic seen  as  94  matters  of c r i t i c a l  power, p h y s i c a l the  lack  importance.  elements  In t h e  of p r o t e c t i o n  o f e m p h a s i s on p h y s i c a l  protection  Adherence  requirements  protection  The  of t h e d e p a r t i n g  i n the range  that  the r i t u a l  the  personal  the  items used.  individual  action  authority.  This  person-to-person relationships  of goods and  requirements  and  family This  picture trade,  seen  be m i n i m i z e d i n the  - hence  form  is sufficient  for  i n the b u r i a l  t h e amount of goods,  allowed  level,  of  full  i s also which  assemblages, indicates  for i n d i v i d u a l choice  with respect  than the  to t h i s  supernatural  form o f c o f f i n s .  s u p p o r t s the concept  rather  basic  i n the  of  soul.  individual variability  both  will  protection  weapons, o r on m a t e r i a l to the r i t u a l  face  impact  to the  on  s p e c i f i c s of  of f r e e d o m  of  of some c e n t r a l i z e d  i n keeping with the p a t t e r n  again r e f l e c t s  society.  the  one-to-one  of  95  6.  ANALYSIS: PERIOD II - SOCAL SUB-SYSTEM  6.1  Introduction  This in  sub-system  the s o c i a l  relates  organization  t o the  of P i l a  function society,  wealth  i n d i c a t o r s may  be  social  patterns.  main a s p e c t s r e l e v a n t  the hypotheses and  The  tested  3 established  of w e a l t h and  the p r e s e n c e  in d i f f e r e n t  of P i l a  groups  stratification  and  burials  i n terms o f w e a l t h ,  For  to test descent  for and  H y p o t h e s i s 5: S t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n b a s e d on w e a l t h .  to test  while  differs  1  was  from H y p o t h e s i s of s o c i a l designed  function  in these b u r i a l s ,  to search f o r evidence  these  trade ceramics  ceramics  social social  of b u r i a l s  i n Agra  and  in Pila  roles.  burials  was  in  Pila,  to test  trade  I  the q u e s t i o n of argue  that,  ceramics as  indicators  of s t a t u s  status differentiation  a wide r a n g e  Sub-  differentiation  of  be  indicators  intent  established  If  2,  the  themselves.  wealth  1,  1 in that  v a l u e of the t r a d e c e r a m i c s the  from  Processual  f o r the presence  Hypothesis  on  f r e q u e n c y of t r a d e  6.2.5  is  follow  the S o c i a l  Hypotheses:  5  these  status-related  here  6.2  Hypothesis  as  f u n c t i o n e d as  burials.  System, I have u s e d  ceramics  Sub-System: H y p o t h e s e s  trade ceramics  in Pila  insofar  with other  f o r the Trade  that  status  associated  of t r a d e  of w e a l t h  the  having  indicators can  be  of  used  differences.  was  in Pila  based  on w e a l t h ,  there should  with d i f f e r e n t i a l  Mendoza,  and  the  trade  amounts o f ceramics  96  should  be  different poor  to  sub-groups  groups,  Mendoza). in  seen  and  be t h e c h i e f of b u r i a l s  between  In comparison,  t h e same s u b - g r o u p s  distribution clustering  of  source of v a r i a b i l i t y  (i.e.,  the  between t h e  wealthy  wealthy  groups might  was  and  poor  graves  based  on  show d i f f e r e n c e s  6.2.6  H y p o t h e s i s 6:Status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n b a s e d on d e s c e n t .  descent,  then  may be f o u n d and  poor  6.2.7  orientation,  differentiation  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  Pila  of b u r i a l s  in spatially-defined  categories  in  i n one o r t h e o t h e r  if  some  status  from  the  poor  or depth.  in Pila  burials  burials  was b a s e d on  in  clusters  spatial  Agra  was  and  Mendoza  cross-cutting  wealthy  site.  H y p o t h e s i s 7: S t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n P i l a was b a s e d on s o c i a l r o l e s ( s e x , . a g e , o r d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r ) . If  then  form,  goods  i n the wealthy  treatment  i n terms  status  of grave  burials  and  reveal  And f u r t h e r ,  wealth,  in burial  The  could  and  Agra  of other grave  groups,  If  in  s h o u l d be e q u a l o r c o n s t a n t .  i n one o r b o t h o f t h e s i t e s .  differentiation  wealthy  groups  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  between  status  differentiation  the groups  of wealthy and poor  would be c h a r a c t e r i z e d male-female,  in Pila  was b a s e d  burials  male e c o n o m i c  roles  i n A g r a and Mendoza  by t h e p r e s e n c e o f r o l e  youth-age,  on s o c i a l  markers,  such  as  f u n c t i o n - f e m a l e economic  97  function,  etc.  Hypothesis  7  is  p r e s e n c e and e x t e n t o f any v i s i b l e  aimed  social  at  identifying  roles  in Pila  the  burials.  6.3  Analyses  6.3.5  A n a l y s e s r e l a t e d t o H y p o t h e s i s 5: S t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n P i l a b u r i a l s was b a s e d on w e a l t h .  The of  h i s t o g r a m s i n F i g s . 5 . 5 and 5.6, show t h a t  burials  exist and  with d i f f e r e n t i a l  amounts  i n b o t h A g r a a n d Mendoza. poor  groups  in  Agra  already  and  the wealthy groups frequencies further, and  of  Mendoza and  i n Fig.5.2  a l o n e , as t h e poor  iron,  range  ceramics  does  compares  wealthy  respect  to the  with  shows  (section  groups  a l l three v a r i a b l e s .  i t c a n be seen t h a t  Mendoza,  have  Refining  between t h e w e a l t h y  that  the  5.3.1.) l i e s i n very  similar  the d i f f e r e n c e s groups  t h e t r a d e c e r a m i c s show t h e g r e a t e s t  the wealthy b u r i a l s burial,  noted  trade  F i g . 6 . 1 , which  frequency of c e r a m i c s , earthenwares differences  of  a wide  in  Agra  variability:  i n Mendoza have a mean o f 10.06 c e r a m i c s p e r  while the wealthy b u r i a l s  i n A g r a have 7.35 c e r a m i c s p e r  burial.  Another Fig.6.2. type,  way o f e x p l o r i n g  This  this  variability  i s a schematic p l o t  of  the  b a s e d on t h e E x p l o r a t o r y D a t a A n a l y s i s  by E r i c k s o n  and Nosanchuk  shows  summary  level  (central  values  (1977:60).  in  directly  t e n d e n c y ) and s p r e a d  The  is illustrated in  "box  and  whisker"  techniques adapted  box-and-whisker  visual  plot  form, c o m p a r i n g t h e  (dispersion)  of four  batches  I I r o d e  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  7. J S  c e r a m i c s  ( w e o 1 t h y )  t r a d e  c e r a m i c s  AI . S 7  ( p o o r )  e a r t h e n w a r e  s  A  ( w e a l t h y )  0.76  Agra 0.36  e a r t h e n w a r e s  r  o  n  Mendoza  0.47  ( p o o r )  V  0.4 3 0.47  ( w e o I t h y )  o . 13  i r o n  o.io  ( p o o r ) I  I  0  10 m  FIGURE 6 . 1 :  e  a  n  u  m  b  e  r  Wealthy and poor groups i n Agra and Mendoza P e r i o d I I , w i t h mean numbers o f ceramics, earthenwares and i r o n p e r b u r i a l .  99  20  -  15  10 -  . m md md 5  -  J3  - m  £  m  md  - mean  md - median  md  0 -  total Agra burials  FIGURE 6.2:  Boxplots  total Mendoza buriols  wealthy Agra buriols  weol t h y Mendoza bur ia Is  o f trade ceramic data from Agra and  Mendoza: P e r i o d I I . Comparing ( 1 ) t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n s and ( 2 ) wealthy  sub-groups.  100  of  data:  total  population  in  burial Mendoza,  w e a l t h y g r o u p of The  t h e median  data.  burials  The (Md)  median  display  wealthy  of  the  i n each case.  tendency  at  the  t o t a l A g r a and  pattern  to  the  spread,  showing  means  and  medians  are  the  indicating  greater wealth  X  (the whiskers)  and  how  at  this  represent  Nosanchuk use  initial  a way  Thus  representing Mendoza  one  of  the  has  a  extreme v a l u e s significant Mendoza  i s more w e a l t h  at  total burial wider  when  i s 45,  see  the  it  while  and  number  i n Mendoza, and  represent  instant  dotted  visual  there  in  ending burials  order  are.  to  Erickson  Tukey  a half  (the  1977)  -  midspreads.  are  that  is a  Mendoza,  lines  John  of  upward  those  data,  of  batch  in  i n Agra  marked  i n the and  as  batches Mendoza,  level  of v a l u e s , and  more  This  becomes  more  t h a t the  i n Agra  each  general  whisker  glance,  range.  of  a n a l y s i s ) (Tukey  one  higher  is recalled  the  and  position  each  a  work of  populations  spread, upper  a  an  actually  which l i e o u t s i d e the  i n the  The  isolating the  of e x p l o r a t o r y data  can  boxes  of  The  extreme they  b a s e d on  50%  higher  site.  " s t e p " , which r e p r e s e n t s  extreme v a l u e s  dots.  how  a rule  developer  namely, t h e The  many and  burial  i n Agra,  Mendoza b u r i a l s ,  w h i c h l i e w e l l o u t s i d e t h e main body of evaluate  the  v e r t i c a l axis presents  tendency;  in  (M)  upward or downward  Looking  similar  the  total  the middle  l i n e s marked on  t h e mean  along  Agra,  g r o u p of b u r i a l s  the midspread,  horizontal  and  in  i n Mendoza.  boxes r e p r e s e n t  population.  the  population  even  number of b u r i a l s  i s 129.  g r e a t e r extremes of  Clearly wealth.  in  there  101  The  next  two  comparison  between  Mendoza.  On  wealthy this  basis  seen  to  be  whisker  i n the  values  and  more  a  Mendoza, t h e r e near  indicating Mendoza  that  tabulates of  wealthy  within  the group.  In  upward t e n d e n c y  ( t h e median  is  and  have  the spread i s f a r g r e a t e r ,  high  values.  Thus  A g r a , n o t Mendoza. size,  T a b l e A-6,  frequencies  The  in  the b a r - c h a r t  are  very s i m i l a r  wealthy while  group the  the  wealthy  in  the  7.35  groups,  wealthy  groups,  Appendix  A, c o m p a r e s t h e amount of larger  between  i n A g r a and  variance  the t o t a l  wealthy  A,  10.06  i n the wealthy picture  28.7%  in  As was  already  and  that  g r o u p mean and  groups  betwen there  of  seen  burial in  the  Table  A-6,  these  two  is a  larger  t h e sub-sample  are d i f f e r e n t  a  Mendoza  different  i n Mendoza.  and  in  group  variance means  which  coefficient  t h e mean numbers of p o t s p e r  poor  are  particularly  represents  o f t h e Mendoza p o p u l a t i o n . in Fig.6.1  and  same  i n Agra  there  Appendix  mean, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n  trade ceramic  and  the  badges o f w e a l t h  a l l the b u r i a l s  richer  in  with e l i t e  33.3%  the  lower  is  population,  i.e.,  indicating  a  situation  the  difference  s p r e a d and  This  for  A  i s smaller  and  more of them.  way.  sub-groups.  difference,  are  different  represents  of  batch,  p o o r A g r a and Mendoza g r o u p s , d e t a i l s  Agra  and  rich  sample  variation  Agra  batches analyzed, the  degree  Agra  in  the  because in  two  There  o f t h e box)  group,  in Fig.6.2 present a  burials  distribution  more b u r i a l s  wealthy  found  the c a s e .  i s a much g r e a t e r  proportionately  are  of t h e f i r s t  even  t h e base  interesting,  of  s h o u l d show a g r e a t e r  shorter  right  plots  the w e a l t h y group  the  groups  is  box-and-whisker  i n n a t u r e from  mean the  1 02  total poor  g r o u p s , and  this  difference  i s greater  g r o u p s , on t h e o t h e r hand, a r e c l o s e l y Fig.6.1  shows  that  some  category.  frequencies,  w h i l e the wealthy groups  number  Mendoza  of  earthenwares  (0.47).  substantially  A g a i n , the poor  However, smaller  than  f r e q u e n c i e s of o c c u r r e n c e of t h e i r o n all  of  i n Agra  (0.76)  higher than i n  frequencies  are  ceramics.  The  i s very s i m i l a r  in  trade  objects  similar  slightly  above a n a l y s e s a l l s u p p o r t H y p o t h e s i s 5,  status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  were  there  any  orientation,  size,  The  of s p a t i a l  question  Hypothesis organic  6.  determine  differences  exist  distribution  at  the  orientation ( i n the  assemblages),  no  site  grave form,  will  makes  w i t h any of  standard  Regarding  to  (Tenazas  the  have been  form  poor  states  it  Was And  (grave  burials?  explored  under  that  poor  impossible  to  dispersal orientation  of  individual  a p p e a r s t o have  1968:16).  general extended  practice  during  inhumation b u r i a l s ,  a s s o r t m e n t s o f t r a d e c e r a m i c s and  objects,  placed  to  be  Pila?  was  a c c u r a c y , but where some  different  close  burial  form, Tenazas  manner  in P i l a  appears  in  there  burials.  in  between t h e w e a l t h y and  preferred  period  expressed s p a t i a l l y  Regarding b u r i a l  grave  indications burial  depth)  preservation  that  b a s e d on w e a l t h i n t h e P i l a  wealth d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  further,  been  a  i n the  sub-groups.  The  this  reveal  overall  those  The  also exists  g r o u p s have v e r y  per b u r i a l • the  Mendoza.  similar.  variability  earthenwares  mean  in  occasionally  t h e body and wrapped  this with other  i n woven mats;  103  b u r i a l s were d i r e c t l y There  seem  to  the wealthy evidence  to  the area  reported  inhumation saucers and from  was  the handle. body  Quite was  mat-imprints and  bury top"  (Legeza  any  variation  during  (Fox  i n Cebu C i t y ,  a hole  1978:11).  Ana, M a n i l a  small netting  t o be o f  Southern  1972,n.d.:9).  1967, i n c l u d e d some daggers: was f o u n d  excavations  instances by H.  in  of  which In t h e  cloth-and  O t l e y Beyer  of b u r i a l  the  adhering to  of t h e 16th. c e n t u r y  interpretations  "early  "when  ( H u t t e r e r 1973:19).  other  :  recovered  i t was p a r t o f t h e s h r o u d  evidence  Avelino  form:  (1949) Boxer "they  two fathoms d e e p . . . t w o mats a r e p l a c e d on None o f t h e p u b l i s h e d a c c o u n t s  in burial  this period.  and  o f mats,  Legaspi,  piece of c l o t h  H u t t e r e r quotes  general  up t o t h e  implements  the remains o f i r o n  these  was  celadons,  and " i m p r e s s i o n s  and  a tiny  Fox  wares,  between  archaeological  Sta.  century)  The l i t e r a r y  in  brown  from  the burials  probably,  supports  them  forms  graves.  form  practice  They e s t i m a t e d  r e p o r t e d from  others.  Codex a l s o  burial  wrapped when b u r i e d "  same p u b l i c a t i o n ,  ample  burial  i n rust-cake of i r o n  with  lifted,  in burial  In 1972, R o b e r t  jarlets,  excavations  age" b u r i a l s  dagger  the  found  is  shallow  p e r i o d , a n d i n some a r e a s ,  containing  (@ 1 3 t h .  Hutterer's iron  similar  the graves".  Sung d a t e  this  conquest.  earred  also  There  that  in this  burials  and  cloth  graves.  indicate  of t h e S p a n i s h  Legaspi  in fairly  have been no d i f f e r e n c e s  and p o o r  throughout time  i n the ground,  form  a s s o c i a t e d with degrees  indicate of wealth  1 04  While estimate burials  lack  excavation  The  and  or  layer  ranged  from  has  burials.  and p o o r  groups  reveals the  of  total  burial  6.3.6  cm  94.2 cm  (wealthy)  individual  of  greater  the  groupings,  therefore  The  6.3 a n d 6.4)  This  variability individual  squares burials  each.  signs  divided  For  inspection  of  burials of F i g s .  into  the s p a t i a l  i n each quadrant  wealthy  inferred  depth  cm than  depth  present  among  variability  seems  significant.  differentiation  descent  spatial  excavation diagrams  were  74.03  from  spatial  t h e maps o f t h e e x c a v a t i o n a r e a s f o r P i l a  were s e a r c h e d f o r any burials.  mean  individual  i n s u b - g r o u p means l e s s  have  layer.  (wealthy)  and  A n a l y s e s r e l a t e d t o H y p o t h e s i s 6: S t a t u s i n P i l a b u r i a l s was b a s e d on d e s c e n t . Archaeologists  this  and t h e  i n T a b l e s A-3 a n d A-4, A p p e n d i x A,  population.  t o make t h e d i f f e r e n c e  to  The  i s 85.29 cm; t h e  do h a v e a s l i g h t l y  a l l burials  the considerable  excavation.  i s : Agra,  However, an i n s p e c t i o n  measurements  impossible  deep w i t h i n  for Pila  86.8 cm ( p o o r ) ; Mendoza, 76.3  poor  during  1.35 cm t o 50 cm.  burials  i t  I I was 85 c e n t i m e t r e s t h i c k ,  depth of b u r i a l  Wealthy  made  of grave, the depths of the P i l a  reported  f o r Period  f o r wealthy  (poor).  of  size  accurately  mean o v e r a l l  depth  preservation  orientation were  burials  of  in  were each  patterns  among  f o r A g r a a n d Mendoza quadrants  of  distribution  identified quadrant  test,  and t h e were  6.3 a n d 6.4, shows t h a t  60  the  (Figs.  excavation the wealthy  total  numbers  tallied.  Visual  in general,  wealthy  105 I  I  •  • ISO  ,  20  I  I 0  8  » 0"  •  l N  i  wealthy  buriols  trade  5?  19  83 •  .98 •  #  138  ,81  ,38  ,66 IS  \  3  3 9  • 30  O  II9_  53  °  34  J42 O  148 12  0  m  4 6 4  ,165  8  \ •>79  7\  J70 30 0 9  0  28 Cb25 24  .0  4  1  \ o  43 O ,33 O 47« 49°0 1351  0  0 I  \\  ,61  031  21. #  trade  I  IS?  34  (4 o r l e s s  \  90 O  O  burials  ceramics)  \  88.  82 .  poor  more  8V  _99  59.  o  \ \  -58  (5 o r  ceramics)  ,6  •  41  77 0 78  126  86  o  #  •  0  •76  4 4  40 124, 149  O  320  _8 O  ,25°  63 •  '"  '8  •  0O  68  133  169  °»  .64  .23  100  70^  22  J60 O  139  141 • •l40 O  go  103  o  .134 123  .102  104  o _8S  .182  .73° #  .75  122 18  2 4 0  4  -  O "  «9  109  o  O I8l OO  1  179*  #  13 O 143  O O  0  12  9  O 10  FIGURE 6 . 3 ; Map o f e x c a v a t i o n area, S i t e  1 (Agra): Period I I  ( a f t e r Tenazas 1 9 6 8 : Appendix IV)  106  and  poor  b u r i a l s were  clear  pattern  exist,  with the exception  wealthy  graves  cluster Pila  of  the  wealthy gold  of  distribution  burials  of  site and  the s i t e  does  not  the s i t e ,  which  a l o n g t h e SW  The e n t i r e  a  However,  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  Numerically,  t h e NW  lack no  of  The  general likely  reveals  NW-SE due  to  an o l d c r e e k the  Agra  Therefore  6.  a more ambiguous  northern half  of  the  burial  incorporating  both  wealthy  the l o c a t i o n  detailed  rise  of  the  creek  bed  for  this  explanation  indication  on a l o c a l i z e d  seen  information whether  of ground  the  in  the  Mendoza  to account f o r  on t h e map.  66.7% of t h e w e a l t h y  quadrant.  very  This  #98.  bank o f t h e c r e e k .  burials  t h e NE q u a d r a n t , and 26.7% of t h e w e a l t h y in  and  i s most  topographical  gives  are located  a  f o r Mendoza  Unlike Agra,  report  #83  of  two g r a v e s i n  does not support H y p o t h e s i s  suggest  distribution.  burials  have  be t a k e n a s one c l u s t e r ,  burials.  excavation  found:  cluster  quadrant.  the only  no  appears to  ( s e e F i g . 6 . 3 ) and t h e b u l k o f  (see F i g . 6 . 4 ) .  poor  localized  included  Agra,  site  of t h e NW  Agra  e x c a v a t i o n diagram  could  the  In  the a r e a : e x c a v a t i o n s r e v e a l e d  t h e e v i d e n c e from A g r a  picture  small,  were  burials  are situated  The  a  burials  throughout  traversing  throughout  of  objects  the  topography  bed  clustering  i n both s i t e s .  i n the n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n  6  i n which  remainder  of  intermingled  i n Mendoza a r e i n  burials  are  adjacent  10? • 20  wealthy burials (5 or more trade ceramics)  o  poor burials (4 or less trode ceramics)  19  old  creek  uN  i  •  (opprox)  •8 .  I?  13  0  4  m  12  ,33  2'.  ,54 30 32  #  'O  „44  20  #  .I?  O  • 19  0  o  4  3 Q  O*  7  oo2 5  2 «•o Q  2  •  0  o'23  .28 l 5  42  O  5  .18  0'2 I'  "8  -29  SI O 38  0°  .36  I  S  FIGURE  I  J  *  Map of e x c a v a t i o n a r e a , S i t e  K  L  E  2 (Mendoza) j P e r i o d  ( a f t e r Tenazas 1968: Appendix VI)  II  108  The  spatial  distribution  of  the  Pila  burials  supports the evidence of the a n a l y s e s r e l a t e d  to  there  based  the  i s some k i n d o f s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n Pila  burials,  and  this  Hypothesis  differentiation  indicates  difference  between  the  Agra  and  sites.  Agra,  wealthy  and  poor  burials  generally the  dispersed  small group  Mendoza,  the  clustering whole  of wealthy higher  in  Pila.  this  society  the  differences  however,  site  a s one, a n d t h e many  two  comparative  lack  enough  indicate  The w e a l t h y  kin-group c l u s t e r . while  there  the  during  this  of  of b r i a l s  burials  spatial  a  spatial i n Agra  stratified  i n Mendoza It  are  should  may be  qualitative outweigh  In her e x c a v a t i o n r e p o r t , T e n a z a s t r e a t s t h e  stratigraphy,  g r a v e goods  found,  overall soil  indicate  areas are comparatively  6.3.7  cemetery  In  that  between A g r a a n d Mendoza, t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s  differences.  of  of e l i t e  indicate  group  that  the  context,  may  to  very  with the e x c e p t i o n of  much l a r g e r  as a whole.  simply a wealthier  emphasized,  burials,  the  evidence i s not  in Pila  represent  to  burial  seem  w e a l t h , and t h e r o u g h  some k i n d  Due  Mendoza  some  i n the southern p o r t i o n .  of  and p o o r  among  the s i t e ,  burials  levels  represents  differentiation (129),  throughout  of wealthy  site  period  the  5:  on w e a l t h i n  qualitative In  therefore  similarities,  texture, that  burial  such  as  the  form, and t h e type  the d i f f e r e n c e s  between  the  insignificant.  A n a l y s e s r e l a t e d t o H y p o t h e s i s 7: S t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n P i l a was b a s e d on s o c i a l r o l e s ( s e x , age o r d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r ) .  109  Hypothesis i n s p e c t i o n A.  It  of  the  should  ranked  on  the  ("ceramics"  be  b a s i s  as  c o n t a i n s  goods  c h i l d  of  or  designated  group,  was  as  b u r i a l  i s  concluded  In  i d e n t i f i e d those  w i t h  l e a s t  5  of  simple  and  A-4,  i n  these  c e r a m i c s  (see  v i s u a l Appendix  t a b l e s per  are  b u r i a l  male  s p i n d l e  not  of  (at  (with b a s i s  are  in  there  i n  be  was  of  grave or  pottery are  Tables the  one  these  A-  wealthy a s s o c i a t e d  r e s u l t s ,  evidence  makes goods  that  i t age  a  t e n t a t i v e and  sex.  implements  i n s t a n c e s ) .  to  of  a  P i l a .  iron  b e l i e v e d  Otherwise  of  u t i l i t a r i a n  22  and  o b j e c t s  16).  j u s t  Tenazas  B u r i a l  p l a y t h i n g s  1968:  be  c o n t a i n s  " C l u s t e r s  s u f f i c i e n t  l e a s t  #104  m i n i a t u r e  a s s o c i a t e d  b u r i a l s  A g r a ) . c o n t a i n e r s  b u r i a l  belongs  group  r e p o r t ,  types  whorls  (ceramic  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  w i t h  i n s t a n c e s ) .  i s  i n  might  a s s o c i a t e d  a s s o c i a t i o n s  #27  the  which the  (both  (Tenazas  On  there  of  c h i l d r e n ' s  poor  excavation  b u r i a l s  #104  with  that  j a r l e t ) .  s t a t u s  b a s i s  contained  graves"  the  P i l a  F i g . 6 . 5 ) .  as  show  in  goods);  j a r l e t s  in  between  as  the  m i n i a t u r e s  d i s c s "  that  with  the  a s s o c i a t i o n " G e n e r a l l y ,  small  A,  celadon  a s s o c i a t e d  and  c h i l d r e n ' s  #104  Sex:  b u r i a l s  b u r i a l s  #27  i n t e r p r e t e d  w h i l e  be  A-3  trade  on  two  Appendix  a  two  e x c l u s i v e l y  A-3b,  c e r a m i c ,  of  b u r i a l s  "pottery  d i s k s . . . . being  and  means  Table  the  non-ceramic  almost  one  must  only  very  other  which  just  that  number  are  only  no  c o l l e c t i o n  3a  of  by  t a b l e s :  noted  g o o d s : b u r i a l  d i s h e s ,  evaluated  frequency  There  c a t e g o r i z e d grave  i s  column).  Age:  #27  7  female not  much  are  S i m i l a r l y , b u r i a l s evidence  (at by  110  FIGURE  6.5:  Ceramic size)  discs  (after  from  Pilat  Tenazas  Periods  1968:  II  Fig.^B)  and  III  (actual  111  way  of  ornaments to d i s t i n g u i s h the  sex  1968:16).  However, a c l o s e  A p p e n d i x A,  reveals  a more ambiguous  appear  be  two  :#13  to  i n A g r a and  blade, #2  only  an  #2  but  no  that  iron.  whorls  and  picture.  the  basis  of  female  and  A-4b, there  spindle  whorls  II w i t h  with  an  iron  a Te-hua ware c o v e r e d  box  part;  this  burials  (Tenazas  Firstly,  is associated  evidence  w h o r l s were l o w - s t a t u s  denote  burial"  w i t h a b r o w n - g l a z e d b o t t l e , an  On  spindle  kendi  the  of T a b l e s A-3b  b u r i a l s in Period  i n Mendoza; #13  earthenware  is associated  inspection  of  i t can  items,  and  earthenware  but  iron  be  not  blades  pot,  concluded  that  spindle  denote  male  burials.  Another v i e w e d as seem  a  category  of  a sex-marker, safe  bet  utilitarian  i s the  to  net  a male a c t i v i t y  of  net  sinkers  objects  (see  Fig.6.6).  There are  Period  II  b u r i a l s , both  i n the  associated  or  goods.  other  presence  of  male m a r k e r s , indicates status.  at  with  Again,  male  i n SE  the  They a r e  sinker.  designate  traditionally  Pila  are  that  i f so, sex  was  this not  in  two  d o e s not  to  net -  support The  single burial  fishing  sinkers  phallic in  b o w l , but  the #87.  no  iron  that  the  the  idea  net  sinkers the  is  several  represent  from  be  sinkers  i n Agra, b u r i a l  ceramic  specifically  might  addition,  net  same g r a v e  i r o n d e n o t e s male b u r i a l s . and  These  carved  only  which  burials  Asia;  1 gray-glazed this  object  poor  may  be  group  r e l a t e d to wealth  and  112  '•7 '•£v.^V^'"-*«cv-,«,. -  ti  s  i  -rig?* *.'•.-.>  'V. -  FIGURE 6.6:  Net  sinkers  from P i l a :  (actual size)  P e r i o d s I I and I I I  ( a f t e r Tenazas 1968: F i g . 6 ) .  113  Among t h e e a r t h e n w a r e s a t P i l a , stoves,  and  these  goods t o t e s t represent  female  (#28,  #49,  #60  and  no  blades also  iron.  or i r o n  fragments  is  i t  no e v i d e n c e  burials. to  burials  blades  found  female  or  is  concluded  that  pots  that iron  blades  associations  excavations  the pubic  of area  the  would  of Labor:  indicators  the s p i n d l e whorls  i n poor g r a v e s , from  indicating  t o judge  the a s s o c i a t e d b u r i a l  objects  were b u r i e d w i t h m a l e s o r f e m a l e s . artifacts l a c k of  in Pila,  of  on  the  were a l l I t was n o t  The g e n e r a l  sexual  but  utilitarian  goods whether  however, s u g g e s t s  emphasis  Fox came  whorl),  low s t a t u s .  possible  male  established  and n e t s i n k e r s ,  general  there  (e.g., a p l a t e  spindle  Division  at P i l a ,  status  denote  be  furniture  with a  only  no  this  i n h i s 15th c e n t u r y  been u n s u c c e s s f u l " (Fox 1959:353).  The  to  are  (which  In a d d i t i o n ,  has a l s o  a corresponding  two  of  i n 1959, R o b e r t  grave  found  basis was  c a n be assumed  the  sex-specific  while  or kendis  the  on t h e b a s i s o f sex a t P i l a .  from  found  stoves  the m a j o r i t y  there  " i t was hoped t h a t sex d i f f e r e n c e s  function  to  t h e r e f o r e might  fragments,  On  site:  this  other  considered  containing  i n the b u r i a l s ,  markers).  In h i s Calatagan  over  earthenware  and #17 and #19 i n Mendoza),  t h e same c o n c l u s i o n r e g a r d i n g sex m a r k e r s  inverted  be and  with earthenware cooking  might be v i e w e d a s  differentiation  6  On t h e o t h e r hand, o f t h e 40 i n s t a n c e s o f i r o n  associated  evidence,  six  #175 i n A g r a iron  might  functions,  Of t h e  four a r e a s s o c i a t e d with have  stoves  utilitarian  burials.  are  inspected f o r a s s o c i a t i o n s with  the notion that  female  denote  were  there  these  l a c k of  t h a t t h e r e was division  of  11 4  labor,  a  result  w h i c h s u p p o r t s t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c model  in  this  respect. 6.4  Summary and D i s c u s s i o n The  based kind  analyses indicate  on  wealth  the  However, t h e r e  differentiation division  of  One  spatial  based  period  social  i s the p o s s i b l e  c e n t r e s by  Spanish c o l o n i s t s  on  the presence,  such as  shapes  i n Chinese  two  in Agra.  Both  with  other trade ceramics s t o v e and  i s also associated  fragments, Chinese glass  burial  areas  status (age,  sex  or  a bronze  coins,  bottles,  an  burials.  iron  with  16th c e n t u r y .  are  blade.  t h r e e rounded  likely  #175  two  #98  group major is  ceramic  exotic  forms,  four  i n the  of  usually  and  and  are o b j e c t s  water-droppers  in  in burial  both  i s also  (see Fig.B-2,  fragments  pebbles, a covered  #98,  associated  dishes),  bowl, a l e a d  jewellery,  as  This claim  assemblages,  ( c o n t a i n e r s and  m i r r o r , a bronze  stone.  observed  s i x other trade ceramics,  p i e c e s of g o l d  a p i e c e o f worked  #175  suggested  of a r e s i d e n t i a l  or animal  There  in burial  are wealthy  been  droppers,  fruit  calligraphy.  burials,  earthenware  of  roles  presence  in the b u r i a l  interesting  five  social  show some  o f t h e two  evidence  i n the  These water  the P i l a  i n one  s u c h as was  "water d r o p p e r s " .  used  differentiation  distributions  f e a t u r e w h i c h has  merchants at P i l a ,  based  on  status  labour).  other  this  in Pila  i s no  of C h i n e s e  B)  t h e r e was  of w e a l t h i e r c o r p o r a t e group  (Mendoza).  for  in P i l a .  that  an Appendix  iron  bracelet, of t h r e e  box,  beads,  9 tiny and  1 15  #175 wealthy of  appears  Pila  t o be c o m p l e t e l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  burials,  c e r a m i c c o n t a i n e r s and  located  belongs  t o an  There  However, b u r i a l atypical Pila  i n terms  containers,  These that  one  who  local  If this  adhered  (with  respect  containers).  (described  head.  grave  f o r m and  f a m i l y wished  accepted  local  ethnographic resident support  times  this  pattern  trading  for  6.3.6). indicate  rather  and  Pila.  resident,  rituals  w i t h the l o c a l the presence  On  than a  of  indicate  ritual  Chinese  the  merchant ritual dead  in accordance  i t was  with  common p r a c t i c e  of C h i n e s e merchants t o centres,  the data does  to  standards  ceramic  only that  or her  i t is  sufficiently  t h e o t h e r hand, t h e  Thus, w h i l e  for colonies  in Philippine  b u r i a l s may  of a C h i n e s e  t o b u r y him  customs.  only  in a small  above i n s e c t i o n  would a s o p h i s t i c a t e d  f o r m e t c . , may  person's  burial  wares i n c l u d e s  C h i n e s e merchant  beliefs  i n accordance  why  burial  i t c o n t a i n s no  i t is located  wealthy  i s the b u r i a l  Also,  this  H5  However, t h e e v i d e n c e i s  buried with three pebbles?  elements,  of ceramic  of a w e a l t h y  to grave  i n square  i t i s the w e a l t h i e s t  Thirdly,  to the l o c a l  being buried  It i s  c a s e , w i t h some  Secondly,  the average  household  merit  be  badges.  burials  i t i s the grave  ambiguous.  Firstly,  b u t no d i s h e s .  from  ground,  interesting  the assemblage  of w e a l t h y  iron.  reason to consider that  i s an  of e l i t e  and  deviations  wealthy  #98  and  assortment  foreigner.  characteristics.  earthenwares,  cluster  of  earthenware  of the b u r i a l  i s no  outsider  i t includes a typical  dishes,  a t t h e n o r t h e r n end  (see F i g . 6 . 4 ) .  in  in that  of a l l the  be  not  in  1 16  In  the s y m b o l i c  patterns the  i s i n keeping with the  Structural  rigid  way.  role.  r e a l m , what can  Model.  The  Death  t h e dead  individual  involved  the  was  be  inferred  ideological were n o t not  paradigm  socially  individual  in a  powerful  necessary to ensure  spirit  realm.  There  expressed predominantly included rigidly  as b u r i a l defined  choice  variations  of grave  decisions  rather  the c o r r e c t  transition  than  ritual  t o the in P i l a ,  t h e numbers of t r a d e c e r a m i c s  continuum  and  poor,  of w e a l t h .  but  i n the b u r i a l  goods was  social  However, t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t  into a broadly-distributed  individual  i n any  one-to-one  in clearly-marked wealth c a t e g o r i e s ,  homogeneous f o r w e a l t h y  burial  bounded  were w e a l t h d i f f e r e n c e s  through  goods.  h i s safe  the  defined in  subordinated to a  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s p e r s o n a l a n c e s t o r s and p r o c e d u r e was  from  some i n f l e x i b l e  Grave  fall  form  was  t h e numerous s m a l l  associations  the r e s u l t  but  of  show t h a t  individual  the  family  s e t of c o r p o r a t e  "rules".  1 17  7.  ANALYSIS: PERIOD II - RITUAL SUB-SYSTEM  7.1  Introduction  This in  the  sub-system  ritual  orgainzation  between b e l i e f s contexts. trade as  The  and  social  material  their  their  powers  Pila  f u n c t i o n of  objects  relevant  in  specific  trade  s o c i e t y , and used  ritual  the  (symbolic)  concept  objects  role in r i t u a l  i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p with  ceramics  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  in  here are:  "inherently" ritual  wealth o b j e c t s ; of  the  of  main a s p e c t s  c e r a m i c s as  evaluation  r e l a t e s to the  of  as  a c t i o n ; and  supernatural  well an  and  Pila.  7.2  Hypotheses:  7.2.8  H y p o t h e s i s 8: The n a t u r e of t h e t r a d e c e r a m i c s ( d u r a b l e and r e s o n a n t , impermeable and l i g h t - r e f l e c t i n g ) made them an i m p o r t a n t means of e x p r e s s i n g b u r i a l r i t u a l s i n Pila. This  trade a  Symbolic  hypothesis  ceramics,  unique  by  value  in P i l a  i t was  inherently  suitable,  This  historical  formulated  v i r t u e of  decorative;  action.  was  these  concept  their  kind  activity,  and  of  trade  test  material  the  material  attributes  p e r h a p s even n e c e s s a r y , occurs  repeatedly  ceramic  the  that  functional  that f o r use  made in  pre-eminent  i n mortuary  role and  rituals.  and them  ritual  i n many e t h n o g r a p h i c  ware i n a l l r i t u a l  most p a r t i c u l a r l y ,  notion  a t t r i b u t e s , acquired  s o c i e t y , f a r beyond t h e  accounts which recount  to every  to  and  accorded ceremonial  118  In  order t o p r o v i d e background  for this  hypothesis, I  will  0 present  a selection  reasons  for  specifying  hypothesis. from this  Pila will  of e t h n o g r a p h i c the  In the a n a l y s i s burials  be  insofar  supported  contemporaneous  ancestor  worship.  summarized  The  Text", Appendix Legeza  evidence  accounts  Philippines  quoted  in  the  which accounts  full  in  from  accounts of  still will  Guy  practice be  "Notes  briefly to  that  proposed  a similar  from  contemporary  " i n view o f t h e f o r m a t i v e c u l t u r a l r o l e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n n a t i v e r i t u a l and b u r i a l , t r a d e c e r a m i c s must be r e g a r d e d t h e most i m p o r t a n t f o r e i g n p r o d u c t t o have reached these i s l a n d s i n a p p r e c i a b l e q u a n t i t i e s between t h e 10th c e n t u r y A.D. and modern t i m e s . The a r i v a l o f t h e f i r s t t r a d e c e r a m i c s from C h i n a i n t h e l a t e T'ang p e r i o d , e x p o r t e d p r o b a b l y f o r t h e s a k e o f t h e i r c o n t e n t s . . . m a r k e d t h e b e g i n n i n g of a new e r a . . . c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e e x t e n s i v e r i t u a l and b u r i a l use of t r a d e c e r a m i c s " ( L e g e z a 1978:1).  John  data  other,  C.  suggests  my  named i n t h e  evaluate  ethnographic  ethnographic and  illustrate  information i s available;  ethnographic  i n the  i n the t e x t ,  I will  relevant  sites,  to  attributes  by a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  Philippine  groups  ceramic section,  as  S p a n i s h c o n t a c t t i m e s , and non-Christian  evidence  view:  " t h e r e i s . . . c o m p e l l i n g e v i d e n c e t o look beyond a u t i l i t y or f u n c t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the p e r v a s i v e p r e s e n c e w h i c h t r a d e c e r a m i c s assumed w i t h i n many Southeast Asian s o c i e t i e s . These o b j e c t s c l e a r l y assumed a c u l t u r a l r o l e w h i c h t r a n s c e n d s c o n c e r n s o f utility. As h i g h l y p r i z e d and v a l u e d p o s s e s s i o n s t r a d e c e r a m i c s became an i m p o r t a n t measure o f w e a l t h  the  119  and s t a t u s . They a l s o e n t e r e d t h e p r a c t i c e , t o u c h i n g on many a s p e c t s (Guy 1982:119).  Durability: kept  their  place  of  origin  was  The  valued  1984:120)  (See  the  accessories plates was with for  already  for their Note  3,  were u s e d as  i n a s t a t e of strings these  of  The  the  sound  genealogy Appendix  of  t i m e of  magical  power  retained  attributes,  1966:231-232:  made  ceramics  performances. instruments,  continuously  o r wooden d r u m s t i c k s .  acquired  great  Bowls  and  shells  beat  while  and Guy  a  (Guy  frenetic  rhythm  A l l pottery  j a r , and  1982:120)  deep medium  importance  the  vital  and  tests against listening  researching  (Note  used  (Roxas-Lim  t o examine t e x t u r e ,  tapping  and  the  Sarawak have e l a b o r a t e  surface  jar i t s e l f  Spanish  b e l i e v e d t o summon s p i r i t s  she  the  their  the  Borneo a l s o  trance  Dayaks of  that  4,5  and  the 6,  C).  had  the  the  presence or  ritual  percussion  Impermeable g l a z e :  food  of  Filipinos  C).  spirit  p r o d u c e d by  the  the  given  ancient  periods  a n t i q u i t y (Roxas-Lim  with  imitations:scratching to  Dayaks  ring  rituals  1966:232).  and  Appendix  t o magic and  long  f o r g o t t e n by  resonant  object  show t h a t  such  w h i c h were o f t e n  R e s o n a n c e : The charge  for  Kelabits  heirlooms,  greatly  accounts  Chinese pottery  conquest. prized  Recorded  realm of r i t u a l of s o c i a l l i f e "  property  of  was  of d e s t r o y i n g  of p o i s o n  the  It  ware  by  (Janse  believed that  poison  some k i n d  i n the of  Chinese p o r c e l a i n  food,  or  indicating  discolouration  1944:37; R o x a s - L i m  1966:229).  of  the  During  120  rituals,  performers  function their  (size  and  porosity  hardness  of  Appendix  C).  power  body  of  (Legeza  nature  (Roxas-Lim  glaze:  the  glazes... reinforces cultures"  ceramic  i m p e r v i o u s n e s s , and  Light-reflecting spirit  the  shape), the  or  the  chose  and  magic  colour  1966:234)  "The  according of  the r e l a t i v e  equally  light-reflecting the  wares  role  glazes,  softness  (Note  7  and  strong b e l i e f  quality of  to  or 8,  i n the  of  ceramic  ceramics  in  their  1978:5).  7.3  Hypotheses:  7.3.9  H y p o t h e s i s 9: The b u r i a l p a t t e r n s of w e a l t h y P i l a g r a v e s i n d i c a t e t h e g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h g o v e r n e d t h e use of t r a d e c e r a m i c s i n t h e r i t u a l a c t i v i t y o f P i l a s o c i e t y  Ethnography  Processual  shows t h a t  of  a l l ritual  and  recorded accounts  mortuary the  life  rituals  a s has  physical  were  representative The  relationship  characteristics part  marriage  ceremonies,  of  rituals,  petitionary  with  rituals  life  ancestral  r e v o l v e d around and  nature  head-hunting of a l l k i n d s .  magic  ceremonies,  a  spirits,  above,  the  them t o be  an  functions:  rituals,  that  than anomalous i n  of t r a d e c e r a m i c s c a u s e d  mortuary  period,  indicate  t o H y p o t h e s i s 8,  a l l types of r i t u a l  ingredient  during this  rather  ideological  been shown as b a c k g r o u n d  integral  harvest  i n the P h i l i p p i n e s  from S p a n i s h c o n t a c t t i m e s  of t h e p e o p l e .  personalized and,  ceremonies  c e r a m i c s were a c o n s t a n t  fertility and  blood  and  healing, pacts,  and  121  Many  of  contemporary  these groups  ritual  practices  in certain  t h e Tagbanuwa o f Palawan, and groups basic  practice social  individual interacting fear,  ancestor  and  the  but  of  1982:187,200). encompasses environment  The common  For  the  with in  living,  of  the  always  by  types.  and  organized  system  for  and  social  and  also  primary  and  concern  appears  have  many  and  rituals  reveal were  unified  or h i s n u c l e a r  the  use  of  family;  trade  specific  items  of  burial  as  the  similar  basic  involved  individual  ritual  ceremonies  and (a  considerable  from  in  personal  general constants  chosen  C).  a  ceramics;  types) as w e l l as  The  by  socio-  aspects  around  s u p e r n a t u r a l powers, and  total  Appendix  aspect  number  centered  the  with  g i v e n above.  a  order  characterized  of P i l a  same  of (Fox  moral  11,  accounts  not  respect  the d e i t i e s  to  the the  (Note  included certain  i n the  by  These  provide  intimacy  is  as  rituals  the dead: a r e l a t i o n s h i p  life  the  such  i n t e r m s of  1970:181).  ceramic/glaze/function variation  an  with  Panay.  (Jocano  accounts  the person  paraphernalia  Sulod  have  with  The  dead,  ethnographic  Pila  included  the  kinship  life  characteristics: relationship  with  of  Philippines,  organized  t h e Tagbanuwa, one  activities  ethnographic  action  spirits  (ibid:252).  ritual  patterns  family  exist  of c e n t r a l  family.  familiarity,  superordination religious  worship,  the n u c l e a r  the  the  the S u l o d  unit,  with  p a r t s of  still  the  ritual  variety  of  individual  these g l a z e / f u n c t i o n  122  The occur  trade ceramics  in  "ritual  groups  sets".  complete?)  general a  The  general be  of  even  "sets"  two  in  two  and  ritual  "sets"  types  have  the  multiples  functional  specific  suggests  a  ways:  status,  and  in  pattern and  the  the  these  nature  of  of  the will  relationship  a s e a r c h f o r the i n the  presence  burials.  7.4  Analyses  7.4.8  A n a l y s e s r e l a t e d t o H y p o t h e s i s 8: The n a t u r e of t h e t r a d e c e r a m i c s ( d u r a b l e and r e s o n a n t , impermeable and l i g h t - r e f l e c t i n g ) made them an i m p o r t a n t means of expressing burial r i t u a l s in P i l a . Due  to  evaluation burial  the  will  data  excavations ethnographic  ideological  involve from  of  component  evidence Pila,  drawn  accounts  from  from  supporting  near-contemporaneous  of t h i s  hypothesis, i t s  many  areas:  evidence  Philippine  c o n t a c t t i m e s and  6  second,  hypothesis  of  among t h e ware a s s o c i a t i o n s  the of  principles  This  examination  sets  (most  wares w i t h i n  the b a s i c  society.  Pila  largest  groups;  individual  at  s u g g e s t i v e of  of  show, f i r s t :  main  p a t t e r n s of P i l a  evaluated  of b u r i a l s  It i s hypothesized that  assemblages  ritual  ritual  and  groups.  between w e a l t h of  These  diversity  wealthy  glaze/function  possibly  g l a z e groups  glaze/function  groups  wealthiest burials  burials.  constant  the  of s p e c i f i c  sets,  wealthiest  i n the wealthy  from sites  the  the other  ,  and  contemporary  period. In evidence  o r d e r not given  t o range will  wares w h i c h a p p e a r  too  focus  linked  far on  off  the  burial  data,  f o u r main a s p e c t s o f t h e  t o the m a t e r i a l  attributes  the  burial  named  in  1 23  the h y p o t h e s i s reflecting ceramics; their  (durability,  glaze): their  pristine  protective  the b u r i a l  wares  significance. evidence Pila  ethnographic  is  ceramic  glazed,  from  of  stonewares  other  excavation  contact times;  at  fourth,  or white-wares  glaze  categories  types  (such as j a r l e t s ,  variation  Pila.  inherent  in  t u r n , and :  first,  data;  third,  ethnographic  are  bowls,  dishes,  jars,  brown-glazed,  ochre-  and a n o t h e r  sub-categories bottles,  major c a t e g o r y of  vases,  Spotted  Ch'ing-  ceramics). of  These  ware/function  tumblers,  teapots,  I t should  be n o t e d ,  also,  s u b - c a t e g o r i e s a r e themselves  the f i n a l  product of  a p r e l i m i n a r y lumping  etc.).  the trade glaze  (Te-hua, C h ' i n g - p a i ,  56  that  five  B l u e - a n d - W h i t e , and m i s c e l l a n e o u s include  among  There  (lead-glazed,  and c e l a d o n s )  Early  A,  discussed  and  i n the f o l l o w i n g order  individual  found  gray-glazed,  many o f t h e s e  status  a s p e c t s of  T a b l e s A-1 and A-2, A p p e n d i x A, d e m o n s t r a t e  pai,  boxes,  that a l l these  and  t h e modern e r a .  categories  porcelains,  be  of b u r i a l  miniaturization;  special  will  second,  considerable  categories  their  presented  accounts  Diversity: there  I suggest  aspect  data;  from  condition; their  reflect  as a v a i l a b l e  i m p e r m e a b i l i t y and l i g h t -  aspects are - the d i v e r s i t y  function.  Each  burial  accounts  these  resonance,  process  that  ( s e e f o o t n o t e , T a b l e A-1, A p p e n d i x  for details).  I maintain mortuary ceramic  t h a t t h e wide  rituals was  in  Pila  by i t s n a t u r e  variety indicates considered  of  wares  that every at  least  used  i n the  type  of t r a d e  potentially  1 24  sacred. Pristine  condition:  The  the c o n d i t i o n  of t h e p i l a  burial  of  assemblages  show t h e c e r a m i c s  the b u r i a l  pristine #28,  condition  Mendoza).  evidence  from  southern  Luzon.  woman  and  pieces Appendix J o h n Guy  a variety  B).  Ana,  dated  Speaking  the  t o be  Appendix  i s supported  B, by  and  Manila,  around  the  glazed  a  in  seemingly  p h o t o of  burial  archaeological  double  sites  burial  in  of  a  14th c e n t u r y , c o n t a i n e d  79  stoneware  of t h i s and  specify  photographs  of n e a r - c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s b u r i a l  In S t a .  porcelain  wares, a l t h o u g h  Fig.B-3,  This indication  child,  of  (see  e x c a v a t i o n r e p o r t does not  (see  other b u r i a l s  Fig.  B-4,  i n the r e g i o n ,  states:  " I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e b u l k of t h e t r a d e c e r a m i c s e x c a v a t e d i n t h e r e g i o n show l i t t l e o r no e v i d e n c e of usage b e f o r e b u r i a l . W h i l s t many have been damaged d u r i n g b u r i a l or e x c a v a t i o n , o r , a s a p p e a r s t o sometimes be t h e c a s e , been r i t u a l i s t i c a l l y b r o k e n , few e x h i b i t t h e s i g n s of e v e r y d a y u s e . This feature s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t s t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t of t h e demand f o r t r a d e c e r a m i c s w i t h i n S o u t h e a s t A s i a was t o s a t i s f y m o r t u a r y r e q u i r e m e n t s " (Guy 1984:122).  Robert century  Fox,  burial  i n h i s r e p o r t of  the e x c a v a t i o n s  grounds at C a l a t a g a n ,  southern  at  Luzon,  the states:  "In C a l a t a g a n , d u r i n g t h e p r e - S p a n i s h p e r i o d , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e t r a d e p o t t e r i e s were u s e d l a r g e l y , i f not w h o l l y , f o r r i t u a l a n d / o r f e s t i v a l p u r p o s e s , one of t h e i r p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n s b e i n g f o r g r a v e f u r n i t u r e . The s u r f a c e s of t h e v e s s e l s show no e v i d e n c e of d a i l y , h o u s e h o l d u s e , and p i e c e s w i t h o v e r - t h e - g l a z e enamel p a i n t i n g a r e unmarked, a l t h o u g h t h e enamel i s e a s i l y removed. B r e a k a g e was p r o b a b l y uncommon, a s compared  15th  125  with earthenwares"  (Fox 1959:363).  Miniatur i z a t i o n :  Table  f r e q u e n c i e s of counting 627  aspect  various  Appendix  ceramic  A,  lists  sub-categories  at  the s m a l l and medium-sized c o n t a i n e r s a l o n e ,  trade  pieces.  the  A-1,  ceramics  John  i n the P i l a  Guy h a s  of the b u r i a l  made  burials  some  the Pila:  359 o f t h e  are s m a l l or m i n i a t u r e  pertinent  comments  on  this  ceramics:  "A c u r i o u s a s p e c t o f t h e e a r l y C h i n e s e c e r a m i c t r a d e , p a r t i c u l a r l y among t h o s e f o u n d i n t h e P h i l i p p i n e s , was t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f m i n i a t u r e v e s s e l s and s c u l p t u r a l figurines. b o t h t h e s e forms a r e s c a r c e i n C h i n a and a p p e a r t o h a v e been p r o d u c e d l a r g e l y f o r an e x p o r t market. An a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n may be t h a t t h e y were o b j e c t s o f s u c h e v e r y d a y u s e t h a t t h e y have l o n g p e r i s h e d w i t h i n C h i n a , whereas t h o s e e x p o r t e d t o t h e P h i l i p p i n e s have s u r v i v e d a s g r a v e goods....A t r a d i t i o n o f m i n i a t u r i z a t i o n seen amongst C h i n e s e t r a d e c e r a m i c s was c o n t i n u e d by t h e T h a i and Vietnamese p o t t e r s . Many o f t h e w a t e r d r o p p e r s , spouted ewers and c o v e r e d boxes e x c a v a t e d i n t h e P h i l i p p i n e s and elsewhere a r e c o n s c i o u s l y m i n i a t u r i z e d r e p l i c a s o f l a r g e r , more f u n c t i o n a l v e s s e l s . I t i s as i f t h e y were b e i n g m a n u f a c t u r e d e x p r e s s l y a s s y m b o l i c s u b s t i t u t e s , a n o t i o n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the p r a c t i c e of g r a v e g o o d s a s p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e a f t e r l i f e " (Guy 1984: 1 22-1 23) .  The 1940  earlier  i n Batangas,  century  burial  miniaturization. majority  excavations conducted Luzon,  grounds, As i n P i l a ,  of the b u r i a l  of Chinese  of l a t e  ceramics,  14th  by O l o v century  revealed the  goods f o u n d :  such as bowls,  trade  the  R. and same  ceramics  T.  Janse i n  early  pattern formed  "The d e p o s i t s c o n s i s t dishes, j a r l e t s ,  15th  a few  of the  mainly jars"  126  (Janse  1944:40).  Pigafetta,  who  sailed  with Magellan  i n h i s voyage  t h e w o r l d a n d w i t n e s s e d w i t h him t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e s e described one  many i n s t a n c e s o f t h e r i t u a l  account  Cebu, he  of a f u n e r a l  use  of  ceremony o f a c h i e f  around  islands,  porcelains.  In  they w i t n e s s e d a t  wrote:  " T h e r e a r e many p o r c e l a i n j a r s c o n t a i n i n g f i r e a b o u t t h e room and m y r r h , s t o r a x and b e z o i n , w h i c h make a s t r o n g odor t h r o u g h t h e h o u s e , a r e p u t on t h e f i r e . They keep t h e body i n t h e house f o r f i v e o r s i x d a y s during those ceremonies". (Pigafetta: in Alip 1964:76).  The  practice  of p u r i f y i n g  paraphernalia and  as  gums, u s u a l l y  room, h a s l a s t e d  Protective ceramic  well,  t h e body o f t h e d e a d , and  function:  One  manifested over B,  glazes.  in  the  burials  arranged  in  jarlets  protective  around  oils the  (Fox 1982).  aspect  of  objects,  the which  impermeable, d u r a b l e and l i g h t rituals, wares  this  function i s  in specifc  ways  F i g s . B - 5 , B-6 and B-7, A p p e n d i x assemblages  in situ,  with  f a s h i o n : p l a t e s and bowls  t h e head,  and b o t t l e s  important  of ceramic  and b u r i a l typical  as  burial  t h e body o f t h e d e c e a s e d .  upside-down, over o r near small  their  i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n  show P i l a  goods  very  function  seems t o have d e r i v e d from reflecting  saucers  t h e p r e s e n t day i n some a r e a s  w a r e s was t h e i r  ritual  by t h e u s e o f i n c e n s e and a r o m a t i c  p l a c e d i n s m a l l j a r s and until  the  around  pelvic  region,  grave  arranged  and  feet;  t h e head, hands and f e e t ; and  127  larger  earthenware  pots  and  stoves  somewhat removed  from the c l u s t e r s  placed alongside  the  body.  states  that  Tenazas regular to  pattern  t h e body"  wealthier the  burials  poor  order  (Tenazas  burials  due  to lack  orientation, together  it  is  well  Ming  B), which  B,  same  in this  present);  a  the  due  a  With  point the  of  dead,  With  enclosed  in good  Pila  the  ceramic  inspection,  involved  of t h e p a t t e r n  areas,  small  of  and d i s h e s  jarlets  organic  (early of  placing  from S t a .  of  Ana,  (somewhat ceramics  t h e same  burial  inverted  massed a r o u n d t h e  and e a r t h e n w a r e s a t some d i s t a n c e  15th  Similarly Fig.  o f g r a v e goods  however, r e v e a l s  - bowls  (see F i g . B - 8 ,  state  t o t h e enormous number  pelvic  neck  the  particular  of wrapping  the  of  above.  provide  t o t h e body.  arrangement  the  body,  to  time p e r i o d  in relation  f o r b o t h woman and c h i l d and  described  any  in relation  illustrations  15th c e n t u r y d o u b l e b u r i a l  burial  t o be  t o p e r c e i v e any  burial  illustration  general  close  appear  i n mats o r s h r o u d s .  relatively  form  and  remains  t o the l a t e r  g r a v e goods  the  confused  difficult  period  i s in a  due  Appendix  shows  the p a t t e r n  and  tumbled.  c e n t u r y ) p r o v i d e s a good  B-4,  a l l  body  iron blades  of grave f u r n i t u r e  as t o t h e p r a c t i c e  and  intrusive  different  not  of the wrapping m a t e r i a l ,  shifted  preservation  does  but  w i t h c e r a m i c grave goods,  p i e c e s have  Appendix  indicate  of s k e l e t a l  as  disintegration  An  do  1968:19)  the  of c e r a m i c wares;  "there  f o r the placement  alongside  alongside.  over head  1 28  Olov  Janse  excavated  C a l a t a g a n , as d i d R o b e r t burial  p a t t e r n as  similarly Fox  later.  well-reserved Fox  burials  d e s c r i b e s the  in  Calatagan  follows:  "The d i s t r i b u t i o n of l o c a l and t r a d e p o t t e r i e s i n t h e g r a v e s f o l l o w e d b r o a d p a t t e r n s . Thus C h i n e s e p l a t e s were f r e q u e n t l y i n v e r t e d o v e r t h e p u b i c a r e a ; s a u c e r s p l a c e d b e n e a t h t h e h a n d s ; and s m a l l Sawankhalok j a r l e t s a r r a n g e d b e h i n d the head. In g e n e r a l , v e s s e l s were f o u n d a r o u n d and b e h i n d t h e head, near t h e w a i s t , and a t t h e f e e t , but t h e r e were e x c e p t i o n s . G e n e r a l l y , t o o , s m a l l e r p o t t e r i e s were more f r e q u e n t l y p l a c e d c l o s e r t o the remains than the earthenwares. I t would a p p e a r t h a t t h e t r a d e p o t t e r i e s were wrapped w i t h t h e r e m a i n s whereas t h e l o c a l e a r t h e n w a r e s were m e r e l y p l a c e d i n t h e g r a v e s " (Fox 1959:355,357).  Janse  d e s c r i b e s h i s e x c a v a t i o n s a t C a l a t a g a n as  follows:  "The d e p o s i t s c o n s i s t m a i n l y o f C h i n e s e c e r a m i c s , s u c h a s bowls, d i s h e s , j a r l e t s , a few j a r s . . . i t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t t h e c e r a m i c s a r e p l a c e d o v e r and a r o u n d t h e body, p r i n c i p a l l y b e h i n d t h e head, a t t h e f e e t and o v e r t h e abdomen and t h e p u b i c r e g i o n . As a r u l e t h e d i s h e s and bowls d i s c o v e r e d a t t h e l a t t e r p a r t were p l a c e u p s i d e down..." ( J a n s e 1944-45:40) (see F i g . B - 9 , Appendix B ) .  7.4.9  A n a l y s e s r e l a t e d t o H y p o t h e s i s 9: The b u r i a l p a t t e r n s o f wealthy P i l a graves i n d i c a t e the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h g o v e r n e d t h e use o f t r a d e c e r a m i c s i n t h e r i t u a l a c t i v i t y of P i l a s o c i e t y . Analyses  already  related  established  differences  in  trade  to  Hypothesis  that  wealth  ceramics  at  1 was Pila.  (section  5.3.1) have  expressed In  through  addition,  four  129  burials wealth  i n the (gold  burials  trade  to  gold  ceramics  even  wealth  the  Appeasing  the  this  powers was  patterns  is  of  the  show t h e  the  the  the  real that  to Hypothesis Therefore,  8,  the  associations  next of  question  trade  wares  and  of  special  a  persons. - and  complete  be  the  seen  the  wealth  ritual.  9,  that  most  the  fully  people.  of  proving  ritual  and  indicate  ritual  through  rituals  life  wealthiest  is,  show of  Thus g r e a t e r  can  8  importance  i f i t included  mortuary  overall  and  simple  to Hypothesis  way  most c o m p l e t e e x a m p l e s of  The  a  four  assemblages  importance  most  support Pila  10  wealthiest  ceramics.  G r a v e goods a s s o c i a t i o n s among t h e burials:  15,  while  eye-witness accounts, ancient  case.  g r o u p of  top  critical  supreme  for  of  no  representative  in r e l a t i o n  very  16,  of  of  The  these wealthy  of  b u r i a l s of w e a l t h y  evidence  was  of  trade  gives  archaeological  above  few  badges  items).  p e r h a p s more i n d i c a t i v e  point  there  ethnographic  of  individuals,  opportunity  i n the  While  nature  with  p r o c e d u r e was  number of  ritual  represented  a l l i n the  p e r f o r m a n c e c a r r i e d more power  greater  A c c e p t a n c e of  elite  rare, exotic  are  s t a t u s among a  possible  essential  ritual  spirit  ritual  and  contained  associated  The  i t e m s ) was  social  meant  are  wealthiest  achieved  greatest  and  each.  correct  (elite  correct  also  and/or c o i n s  burials,  shows t h a t  group  jewellery, coins  with  wealthiest  wealth  of  clearly  other  the  presented that  b u r i a l s at  Pila  this will  patterns.  wealthy groups  what  were  Pila,  modern,  the  can  be  seen  of in  g r a v e goods among  the the  130  wealthy  burials  ritual  activity?  wealthy  burials  the ceramic glazed,  to  Tables  i n Agra  wares a r e  A-7,  and  Appendix  A-12,  Mendoza w i t h three  figurines)  code  symbols).  in  the wealthy  A,  Table  graves  fall  category  The  order  to determine  Tables  7.1  and  7.2  A-11  and  A-12,  ceramics,  only from  Functional in  the  A-8,  into  wealthy  maximum of  A p p e n d i x A,  but  Tables  A-11  i n Agra  and  wares  are  dishes  (or open  incense  burners  for f u l l  list  the  no  be  rigid of  wealthy and  ceramics  functional  The  seen  to  the  types,  chief associations listed  of  p a t t e r n of c o - o c c u r r e n c e s .  In  specific  The  a  inter-  relationships,  the data  data  burials  have  above.  number  in Tables  in a l l  with  5  these  A-9,  tables  or  more  trade  the  52  burials  container  (up t o a  Mendoza.  forms:  c o n t a i n e r s and  groups,  a l l have a t  18); and  three  were c o n s t r u c t e d from A p p e n d i x A.  and  s i x g l a z e t y p e s , and  g l a z e / f u n c t i o n types  the e x t e n t  the Agra  s e t s of  minor; of  ware a s s o c i a t i o n s can  represent  water-droppers,  brownwares  burials  containers,  the  white  the ceramic  ("other") i s minor.  remaining  inter-relationships,  A-10,  and  Pila  goods;  lead-glazed,  These t a b l e s r e v e a l t h a t the a s s o c i a t e d  the  the  show  listing).  goods: here  (including  is relatively  a r e between  A p p e n d i x A,  same w e a l t h y  categories:  (see  of  celadons,  for detailed  show t h e  lead-glazed third  A-10,  gray-glazed,  a s s o c i a t e d grave  and  and  principles  Mendoza w i t h a s s o c i a t e d g r a v e  A p p e n d i x A,  "other"  general  in glaze categories:  functional  f o r m s ) and  the A-9  and  ochre-glazed,  (see T a b l e  in  indicate  a l l but  3 of t h e  d i s h e s : Of  least 52  one  burials  have  at  least  TABLE 7 . 1 :  Wealthy  groups  means o f t r a d e  of b u r i a l s  with  ceramic glaze  sums,  p e r c e n t a g e s and  categories  and o t h e r  goods.  M E N D 0 Z A  A G R A Categories of Grave Goods  No. o f Burials  % of Group  No. o f Artifacts  Mean N o . of Artifacts  No. o f Burials  % of Group  No. o f Artifacts  Mean N o . of Artifacts  LEAD-GLAZED  7  18.1  9  0.2  4  26.7  4  0.3  BROWN-GLAZED  28  75.7  49  1.3  12  80.0  47  3.1  OCHRE-GLAZED  25  67.6  39  1.1  11  73.3  28  1.9  GRAY-GLAZED  26  70.3  52  1.4  9  60.0  16  1.1  CELADON  30  81.1  79  2.1  12  80.0  31  2.1  WHITE-WARES  21  56.8  44  1.2  10  66.6  25  1.7  EARTHENWARES  20  54.1  28  0.8  3  20.0  7  0.5  IRON  13  35.1  16  0.4  4  26.7  7  0.5  BRONZE  3  8.1  4  0.1  1  6.7  1  0.1  LEAD  2  5.4  3  0.1  -  -  -  -  UTILITARIAN  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  WEALTH  4  10.8  28  0.1  _  _  _  132  TABLE 7.2: Wealthy groups o f b u r i a l s with sums, percentages and means of form and f u n c t i o n categories A G R A (N = 37)  Categories  No. o f Burials  % of Group  No. of Artifacts  M E N D 0 Z A (N =15) Mean No. of Artifacts  No. of Burials  % of Group  No. of Artifacts  Mean No, of Artifad  TRADE CERAMIC CONTAINERS: 7  18.92  7  0.19  4  26.66  4  0.27  BROWN  27  72.97  46  1.24  12  80.00  46  3.07  OCHRE  21  56.76  34  0.92  9  60.00  20  1.33  9  24.32  13  0.35  4  26.66  8  0.53  22  59.46  47  1.27  9  60.00  17  1.13  4  10.81  7  0.19  5  33.33  8  0.53  3  8.11  3  0.08  1  6.66  1  0.07  LEAD  GRAY CELADON WHITE  TRADE CERAMIC OPEN FORMS: BROWN OCHRE  5  13.51  5  0.14  5 ,  33.33  8  0.53  GRAY  21  56.76  37  1.00  7  46.66  8  0.53  CELADON  23  62.16  30  0.81  10  66.66  14  0.93  WHITE  18  48.65  30  0.81  10  66.66  16  1.07  LEAD  1  2.70  2  0.05  -  GRAY  1  2.70  2  0.05  CELADON  2  5.41  2  0.05  -  WHITE  1  2.70  2  0.05  -  -  -  -  EARTHENWARE  20  54.05  28  0.76  3  20.00  7  0.47  IRON  13  35.14  16  0.43  4  26.66  7  0.47  6.66  1  0.07  -  -  -  TRADE CERAMIC OTHER FORMS:  ER GOODS:  BRONZE  3  8.11  4  •0.11  1  LEAD  2  5.41  3  0.08  UTILITARIAN  -  -  -  -  -  WEALTH  4  10.81  28  0.76  -  -  -  -  1 33  one  dish  (up t o a maximum of 7 ) .  have m u l t i p l e or  four  s e t s of both c o n t a i n e r s  of the g l a z e  containers  or d i s h e s  categories). and  groupings  Overall,  there  in  types,  there  Appendix  each b u r i a l .  A)  for itemised  some d i f f e r e n c e s proportion  of  Glaze glaze in  have  either  possible  glaze  between  category,  range  there  type  i n both  sites,  glaze  category  and  dishes  celadons  they 80%  Agra  and  to  a r e more  there  (see T a b l e  forms).  Brown  the  in  the  dishes  i n Mendoza; and  in  in Agra.  favoured  i n 81.1% of t h e w e a l t h y  burials  burials  i n Mendoza, w i t h  other  by c o n t a i n e r s  glaze  burials  burial  in  the  only  containers are  not both. favoured  burials  i n Mendoza.  a mean  categories  or d i s h e s ,  wares a r e t h e n e x t most  a l l containers.  and  C e l a d o n s a r e t h e most  The  t i m e s a s many brown wares p e r  relative  i n the ochre-glazed  i n 75.6% o f t h e w e a l t h y  wealthy  A-1,  There a r e a l s o  f r e q u e n t l y as b o t h  represented  wares a r e a l m o s t  forms  a r e more d i s h e s  found  than  of g l a z e / f u n c t i o n  Mendoza  dishes:  dishes,  containers  t o appear e q u a l l y  a r e found of  more  C e l a d o n wares a r e  Brown w a r e s : type:  are  than  per b u r i a l .  (open  predominantly  six  and f r e q u e n c i e s .  A g r a , and 80% o f t h e w e a l t h y o f 2.1  of  each category  c a t e g o r i e s : Celadons:  number  and  (none o f t h e b u r i a l s  a r e more c o n t a i n e r s  lists  containers  gray-glazed  three  of i n d i v i d u a l  white-ware c a t e g o r i e s , there the  two,  Within  is a diversity  and d i s h e s  generally  in  i n the f u l l  g e n e r a l l y , but not always,  dishes  The w e a l t h y b u r i a l s  in  glaze Agra,  There a r e three  Mendoza.  The  brown  1 34  Ochre Mendoza these  wares:  (73.3%) wares  Mendoza  (1.9)  Ochre  than  wares o c c u r  i n Agra  i n more w e a l t h y b u r i a l s  ( 6 7 . 6 % ) , and  per  burial  in  the  than  i n Agra  (1.1).  wealthy  with  wares:  Gray  the o c h r e wares:  (70.3%)  than  burial  in  i n Mendoza the  wealthy  respectively). containers  There  wares:  White  burials  in  wealthy  least  are  inverse  relationship  similar  (1.4  in  burials), groups  Agra  twice  as  many  found  more  dishes  are (66.6%  of  often  burials)  than  t h e mean number of i t e m s p e r 1.7  and  1.2  respectively.  and  T h e r e a r e more e a r t h e n w a r e s (54%  of  with  Statistics  f o r earthenwares  differences  the  occur  figures  in  a  Multiple  0.47  i n the t o t a l constant  a l l earthenwares  pots or k e n d i ) .  than  in  in  as  the  wealthy  Mendoza  (20% of  i n the  wealthy  population  are containers  This whole.  show  i n both s i t e s .  i n t h e upper  in  wares.  respectively).  ratio  the  i n Agra  burial  f o r A g r a and Mendoza a s a  n o t e d above o c c u r o n l y  Almost  1.1  There are at  in  items per b u r i a l  (0.76% and  contrasts  earthenwares  burials)  t h e mean number o f  i s h i g h e r i n Agra  i n Agra  and  t w i c e a s many c o n t a i n e r s a s d i s h e s among t h e w h i t e  burials  as  wares. wares  groups are  Earthenwares:  site.  twice  t h e mean numbers o f i t e m s per  about  Mendoza  (56.8% of b u r i a l s ) , and the  are  of  i s higher in  i n more w e a l t h y b u r i a l s  but  group  among t h e g r a y  White wealthy  (60%),  groups  number  wares.  wares show a s l i g h t they occur  mean  There are a t l e a s t  many c o n t a i n e r s a s d i s h e s among t h e o c h r e Gray  the  in  quartile  (generally  f r e q u e n c i e s of e a r t h e n w a r e s  of  that The each  cooking  occur  only  1 35  in  the w e a l t h i e s t  the t o t a l  burial  burials  4b,  of  have  proportion 5  out  that has  of  unimportant,  available  - i n which  filled  Iron: burials  (0.43  Iron  0.47  iron  the wealthy  one  group.  c o n t a i n e r and  wealthy  and  groups  exception  and  #87  no  that  of the  scale  small  group  kind,  a high  i n Agra  and  earthenwares  were  ceramics  were  trade  have s u b s t i t u t e d  f o r the  found  in  i n Mendoza  burial  slightly  (26.7%),  i n the wealthy In A g r a ,  throughout  Every occurrence  more  but  groups  the wealthy  and  i n both  Agra  found Agra.  #109  of  iron  are  and and  i n Agra,  Utilitarian in only three  lead  are  Mendoza,  with four items  mean  similar  iron  groups,  in  sometimes m u l t i p l e s  wealthy  the  o c c u r r e n c e s of  w i t h c e l a d o n wares - u s u a l l y  a dish,  role  wares.  are  Bronze  Utilitarian:  Agra  when  t h e y may  lead:  (burial  whorls) are  suggest  17  throughout  i s f o u n d o n l y among t h e v e r y w e a l t h i e s t  i s associated  Bronze  This  (35.1%) t h a n  scattered  c e r a m i c s o f any  c o n t a i n e r s (12 out o f  the ceramic objects  taper o f f  t h e p o o r e s t end  trade  respectively).  evenly  Mendoza,  burials  case  and  However, among t h e  except  of o b j e c t s p e r  and  fairly  by  i n Agra  numbers  no  i n Mendoza).  ritually  usually  4.2.2).  earthenware  7  site,  p o p u l a t i o n towards  ( s e e T a b l e s 3b and burials  i n each  but i n  burials in  the  wealthy  with at of  are  least  each.  found o n l y i n the with  one  marginal  trade ceramics).  (net  s i n k e r s and  (poor) b u r i a l s :  #2  spindle  Mendoza,  #13  1 36  Wealth: wealthiest glass  Elite  badges  burials  bracelet  of  wealth  i n Agra, except  w h i c h was  are  f o r one  f o u n d w i t h two  found  only  i n the  marginal case, a blue  trade ceramics  in  Agra  (#9). Multiple  associations:  Table  7.3  associations  o f wares i n t h e w e a l t h y  from  categories,  6 glaze  paired  associations):  celadon. each  Only  one  through and  burial  has  two  objects  5,4,3  #50  Agra  and  and  the  2  (four  between  #1  but  sets iron  of and  groups c o n t a i n s  Mendoza.-  (a q u a r t z o b j e c t ) but no  in association  multiple  in descending order  i n e a c h of t h e w e a l t h y  item i n a s s o c i a t i o n iron  groups,  co-occurrences  c a t e g o r y of g l a z e d w a r e s ,  a wealth  lists  no o t h e r  #50  has  iron;  #1  non-ceramic  goods. Five  burials  each  of  white  wares.  burials iron  five  are  Ten  as  of  burials  are  5 are  #3  at  least  each  ( a l s o has  of  these  one and five  4 earthenwares, 1  (1 e a r t h e n w a r e ) ; Mendoza  (1 b r o n z e groups  item).  contain  at least  one  brown, o c h r e , g r a y and c e l a d o n .  i n A g r a and  i n the wealthy  i n Mendoza.  with  #141  i n the wealthy  of three glaze c a t e g o r i e s :  in Agra,  - #60  objects),  glaze categories:  of these b u r i a l s Eighteen  each  2 iron  contain  brown, o c h r e , g r a y , c e l a d o n  (1 e a r t h e n w a r e ) ,  burials  four  groups  items a s s o c i a t e d  f o l l o w s : Agra  #65  ( a l s o has Fifteen  each  glaze categories: Other  object),  - #21  i n the wealthy  5 are groups  i n Mendoza. contain  at least  one  brown, o c h r e and c e l a d o n : 13 a r e  137 TABLE 7 . 3 :  Multiple  associations  from  No. a n d P e r c e n t o f B u r i a l s w i t h A s s o c i a t i o n s , and I r o n .  AGRA A s s o c i a t e d Wares  No. of  wealthy  groups.  Different  Ware  CN = 3 7 )  MENDOZA (N =  15)  of B u r i a l s  %  Burials  %  Associated wares: 6 glaze groups ( L e a d , Brown, Ochre, Gray, Celadon, White)  1  2.7  1  6.6  5 g l a z e groups (Brown, O c h r e , Gray, Celadon, White)  3  8.1  2  13.3  No.  4 g l a z e groups (Brown, Gray, Celadon)  Ochre,  10  27.0  5  33.3  3 g l a z e groups Celadon)  Ochre,  13  35.1  5  33.3  Brown and C e l a d o n  23  62.2  9  60.0  G r a y and C e l a d o n  20  54.0  8  53.3  Ochre  20  54.0  8  53.3  13  35.1  8  53.3  17  45.9  5  33.3  (Brown,  and C e l a d o n  C e l a d o n and White * C e l a d o n and I r o n *  N.B.  Wares  Every occurrence of Iron i n t h e wealthy b u r i a l s i s a s s o c i a t e d with celadon wares).  138  There celadon  a r e four  sets  of  w a r e s : 32 b u r i a l s  paired  association.  (23 i n A g r a ,  Brown  9 i n Mendoza); Gray  with with  c e l a d o n w a r e s : 28 b u r i a l s  (20 i n A g r a ,  8 i n Mendoza); Ochre  celadon  (20 i n A g r a ,  8  w a r e s : 28 b u r i a l s  with white  w a r e s : 21 b u r i a l s  wares w i t h  iron:  It it  is difficult  is  other  possible  a comparison  contemporaneous s i t e s  insight.  With  respect  percentages of b u r i a l s general in  trends.  glaze  Agra,  burials is  found  have  celadons, (54.0%  by  Summary The  results  (hypothesis inherently rituals patterns  60% o f b u r i a l s  tabulations  in  some  meaningful  from  P i l a , the  i n T a b l e 7.3 do i n d i c a t e that  c e l a d o n s were  this  i s the  i n Mendoza.  i n Mendoza).  included  largest  of  group i n  Brown wares  This  some  and  (62.2% o f  association  have  almost  identical  frequencies  53.3% i n M e n d o z a ) .  and D i s c u s s i o n of the a n a l y s e s support the symbolic h y p o t h e s i s  8 ) , that  t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t r a d e c e r a m i c s made  an i m p o r t a n t means o f e x p r e s s i n g r i t u a l s .  in Pila  from  g r a y wares w i t h c e l a d o n s , and o c h r e wares w i t h  both these p a i r s  i n Agra,  7.5  i n a l l t h i s , but  the h i g h e s t f r e q u e n c i e s of a s s o c i a t i o n  i n Agra,  followed  pattern  i n 81.1% o f t h e w e a l t h y  group  Celadon  5 i n Mendoza.  associations  groupings because  categories,  Celadon'  8 i n Mendoza);  result  those  calculated  and 80% o f t h e w e a l t h y  celadons  might  to  Mendoza);  with similar  I t s h o u l d be n o t e d  a l l the a s s o c i a t e d  the  (17 i n A g r a ,  t o see a c l e a r - c u t  that  in  (13 i n A g r a ,  22 b u r i a l s  with  c a n be c o n s i d e r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  i n the society  them  The b u r i a l  of the r i t u a l  a s a whole, on t h e b a s i s o f a range o f  139  ethnographic  evidence  W e a l t h was seen this  related  t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  b a s i s , the b u r i a l  Mendoza were examined  the  trade  ceramic  as  o b s e r v a n c e , and on  for patterns  wares and o t h e r  some g e n e r a l  of c o - o c c u r r e n c e  goods  principles  groups  i n Agra among  (with the aim of  of r i t u a l  activity  in Pila  a whole).  With  respect  some i n t e r The to  ritual  assemblages of the wealthy  and  determining  t o the P h i l i p p i n e s i n g e n e r a l .  nature  to the processual  r e l a t i o n s h i p s were o b s e r v e d of the b u r i a l  o f c o n t a i n e r s and open  more i m p o r t a n t ; preferences  there  container  possible,  while  gray  glaze/function  within the  (usually a jarlet),  and a d i s h .  The most  and w h i t e wares a r e m a i n l y  favoured  i s celadons,  wares, as t h e s e  dishes  none o f t h e d i s t i n c t i v e wares were d e v e l o p e d  one t r a d e  and,  glaze which a r e glaze  containers,  ( o r open  Chinese blue  during  if  of t h e o t h e r  brown and o c h r e wares a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y  There are almost  encompassed  of p a r t i c u l a r  e q u a l l y o f t e n a s c o n t a i n e r s and d i s h e s ;  categories,  respect  c o n t a i n e r s being the  was c o n f i r m e d  g r o u p f o r w e a l t h y and p o o r b u r i a l s a l i k e found  ritual  w h i c h g e n e r a l l y have a t l e a s t  per b u r i a l  have a j a r l e t  that with  goods.  p a t t e r n o f ware a s s o c i a t i o n s s e e n  groups of b u r i a l s  group of b u r i a l s ,  ceramic  forms, w i t h  was some i n d i c a t i o n  The g e n e r a l  among t h e w e a l t h y poor  trade ceramics,  i n A g r a and Mendoza o f s p e c i f i c  combinations.  (hypothesis 9),  among t h e b u r i a l  a s s o c i a t i o n s suggests  the symbolically-important  "sets"  hypothesis,  the l a t e r  forms). and w h i t e periods.  1 40  Brown wares were t h e n e x t most c e l a d o n s , and the s t a t i s t i c s in  this  three  than  i n Agra  (this  results  difference Mendoza  burials  already  p r e s e n c e of rough  noted  of w e a l t h spatial  of  c o r p o r a t e group c o n t a i n i n g  of the s i t e ,  i n the wealthy  occurring  o f some  groups  specifically burials).  qualitative  between t h e A g r a and 6.3.6.  individuals  indicate  difference  o f w e a l t h y and p o o r  appeared  reasons f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s  small chronological  about  i n the a n a l y s e s i n s e c t i o n  clustering  one l a r g e  i n t h e two s i t e s may  variation  i n Mendoza, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e  in  wares  section  after  t h e r e were  o r so o f t h e w e a l t h i e s t  i n status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  higher levels  Possible  variation  support the i n d i c a t i o n  group  an i n t e r e s t i n g  t i m e s a s many brown wares p e r b u r i a l  among t h e t o p h a l f - d o z e n  The  revealed  g r o u p o f wares between t h e two s i t e s :  i n Mendoza  These  favoured glaze  to indicate  some  of d i f f e r i n g  kind  wealth.  i n t h e f r e q u e n c y o f brown family preferences,  which  burials  or a  c o u l d have a f f e c t e d t h e  supply.  Earthenwares  occur f a i r l y  wealthy  and p o o r  burials,  vessels  per b u r i a l .  There  generally  with usually  poorest b u r i a l s ,  i.e.,  containers again).  greater  ritual  earthenwares ritually  one, sometimes two,  i n Agra  than  w i t h no c e r a m i c s a t a l l ,  ocurrence of earthenwares,  throughout  i s a h i g h e r frequency of earthenware  among t h e w e a l t h y g r o u p o f b u r i a l s very  scattered  (usually This  i n the poorest b u r i a l s  The  show a c o n s i s t e n t  a cooking pot or a kendi -  supports the inference  v a l u e of c o n t a i n e r s ,  more p o w e r f u l g l a z e d  i n Mendoza.  of the  and s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e were s u b s t i t u t i n g  stoneware  containers.  f o r the  141  Iron sites,  appears  but  some o c c u r r e n c e s o f  throughout  grave  little  was  male/female  roles,  and  Utilitarian  At  exclusively  the  iron  fragments,  r e p r e s e n t an  of  (such  specifically  in Pila  i n the p o o r e s t b u r i a l s , of the  scale,  i n the w e a l t h i e s t b u r i a l s ,  of  as  suggests wealth  of  or  the  burials,  indicating  gold  no  some a c q u i r e d  o r even a r e l a t i v e few  but  occurrences  have d e n o t e d  #18  individual  achieved status iron  i n both  scattered  two  may  goods a r e  o t h e r end  found  instance, burial  independent instead  burials  For  p a t t e r n of  i n the deceased,  exclusively  status.  The  are a l s o  may  with a s p e c i a l  generally  status  deceased. found  but  b l a d e and  This burial  or h u n t e r ) .  iron  social  iron  goods.  wealth  warrior that  one  i n the wealthy  iron  the p o o r e s t b u r i a l s .  (Mendoza) has other  more f r e q u e n t l y  and  and low  are overall  coins are  indicating  elite  found  social  status.  Regarding analyses Pila  the  symbolic  for attitudes  to death,  represented a transition  viewed  w i t h c a r e and  rather  than  rare  to  roles  social  general equipped  i n the b u r i a l s , o f any  situation  kind.  defense)  Worldly were  and  concluded  Social and  mostly  t h e o c c a s i o n , w h i c h was  to ensure  thus  in was  ideological kind  were  ambiguous w i t h r e s p e c t  societies.  The  with  the  dead  were  ( c o n t a i n e r s of  (cooking pots, iron  not c e n t r a l  and  death  serious,  This i s consistent  appurtenances  and  m a r k e r s o f any  o b j e c t s o f power  incidentals,  that  to higher status,  in egalitarian  with symbolic  substances).  I l o o k e d at the data  r e s p e c t as a p r i m a r i l y  social occasion.  extremely  for  domain,  t o t h e main  a safe t r a n s i t i o n  spirit blades intent  to the  of  world  142  of  the  spirits.  ritual  not  encased ritual  Protection  from h o s t i l e f o r c e s  a p r a c t i c a l matter.  in p r o t e c t i v e  The  structures  power, wrapped c l o s e  s h r o u d s , were s u f f i c i e n t  to  dead p e r s o n .  This  stated  i d e o l o g i c a l paradigm  i n the  principles specifics personal  of of  ritual the  choice  individual  was  of  reflects  p u r i t y was  or  on  the  person  both s o c i a l  and  ritual  lack  objects In  or  objects  to  around  the  some  general  safety:  the  u s e d were l e f t  a c c o u n t , and  life.  of  boundedness  this society,  his  a  matting  area  of  - adherence  h i s own  by  the  primarily  physically  in simple  enough t o e n s u r e  availability.  important  ceramics,  a protective  individual ritual  one-to-one a c t i o n basis  body  to create  clearly  dead were not  - the  the  was  immediate  to  the  individual, family  was  the  143  8.  ANALYSES: PERIOD I I I  8.1  Introduction  The  context  of  the  Period  III b u r i a l s indicates that  considerable  c u l t u r e change t o o k  Period  The  III.  site  to a h a b i t a t i o n area or  i n the  vicinity  characteristics characterized while  Period  layer.  the  Period  II l a y e r  the  Period  III  pieces  of  cultural d a t e of  vessels on  the  types C.  and  L.  recovered it  was  not  during  in  after  the  for their  Locsin,  the  soil  brown, sandy c l a y , Fig.1.4),  any  indicating  cultural  inhumation  material  burials),  considerable  (horse,  m o l d s and  from c r e m a t i o n  types.  p i g , cow)  pits.  burial  Identification classification  excavation i n the  1967).  e a r l y phase of  ground,  being  A  district  The the  post  numbers discs,  supplied The  of  by  ceramic  Sung/Yuan  the  from Sta.  molds were  excavations  p o s s i b l e to determine p a t t e r n s  while  ceramic  system d e v i s e d  material  in  radiocarbon  #74.  of  a  and  I I I have b e e n a t t r i b u t e d t o l a t e  patterned  ( L o c s i n and  layer  (see of  change  1 9 6 8 : 1 5 ; l a b number not  c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s Sung/Yuan s i t e Manila  loam  remains  and  a burial  s i n k e r s , s p i n d l e whorls, p o t t e r y  (Tenazas  ceramic  Locsin  II  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  recovered  b a s i s of  The  reddish  the  II  j a r b u r i a l s i n t e r r e d under,  Period  lack  than  s u c h as p o s t  from P e r i o d  was  a  s l a g , animal  1375±25 B.P was  black  (other  l a y e r was  features  excavator)  soft  net  solely  family dwellings.  T h e r e was  sherds, iron  cremation  marked, t h e  I I I was  between P e r i o d  from being  medium-grained,  habitation  of p o t t e r y  with  of,  was  by  changed  place  by  a Ana, not  in P i l a ,  of h o u s e - f o r m s f o r  so  1 44  P e r i o d molds  III.  In  a d d i t i o n ,  r e p r e s e n t e d  However,  the  m a t e r i a l s t h a t  the  s o i l  found  l a y e r ,  or  c o n s i s t e n c y  together  in  on  the  Tenazas  the  c u l t u r a l  and  not  does  group.  She  represent s t a t e s  she  t h a t  many  noted P e r i o d  II  P e r i o d celadon  o v a l o i d  found  g l a z e d l a t e r f i s h  III  -  III  as  whether  of  w i t h  the  post  f e n c e - p o s t s .  the to  c u l t u r a l  support  h a b i t a t i o n  II  appear  the  areas  the  The  d i s h e s in  as  theory in  many  abundance time  but  and  so  (such  the  q u a n t i t y  common  some  i n  c e r a m i c  g r a y - g l a z e d in  four  P e r i o d  II,  a  changes. ceramic  new of  In  e t c . ) ,  e a r s ;  and  these  c u l t u r a l P e r i o d  II  p a r t i c u l a r ,  forms  so  common  p e r s i s t e d  c o u n t e r p a r t s , jar)  III  the  t y p i c a l  d i s h e s ,  covered  of  P e r i o d  w i t h i n  d u r i n g  area  were  l a r g e r  the  the were  such  as  bigger used  in  v e s s e l s .  w i d e l y - d i s t r i b u t e d  c o n t a i n e r s  which  small  w i t h  Tenazas,  f i r s t  the  c e r t a i n  (squat,  j a r s  in  i n  o c c u r r e d  P i l a  m i n i a t u r i z e d  u s u a l l y  found  change  o c c u p i e d  w i t h  the  kuan  in  c e r a m i c s  c e r a m i c s  cremation  to  the  t e a p o t s ,  but  r i b b e d  p e r i o d ;  appear  type  were  a r r i v a l  III,  of  o c h r e - g l a z e d  for  j a r s ) .  doubt  s u f f i c i e n t  c u l t u r e  the  ( j a r l e t s ,  A c c o r d i n g P e r i o d  some  P i l a  which  that  P e r i o d  of  t h a t  group  i n t o  P e r i o d  i s  in  nature  p e r s i s t e d  the  l a y e r  s i t e s  s t a t e s  o r i g i n a l  i n t o  some  III.  Based  in  was  h o u s e - p o s t s  e x c a v a t i o n  P e r i o d  there  P e r i o d  ceramic  in  P e r i o d  as  the  P e r i o d  which and  II -  almost such and  as  were  new  brown  j a r l e t s  saucers III.  III,  l a r g e  celadon  wares  forms  rare  forms  are  stoneware  and  small  disappear the  bowls  i n  brownin  celadon -  continue  the 2to  145  The periods  h y p o t h e s i s of c u l t u r a l i s s u p p o r t e d by  w h i c h seem t o show no diagonal New  lines  (Tenazas  tall,  earthenwares,  i n t e c h n i q u e or d e c o r a t i o n ( r u n n i n g  some h a r d ,  smooth-surfaced  containers are a l s o  ovaloid  two  earthenware  jars  found  with  tool).  - in  shallow footrims  1968:16-17).  Period inhumation  I I I i n v o l v e d major c h a n g e s burials  c e r a m i c s and ( w h i c h may was  by  forms o f e a r t h e n w a r e  particular  between t h e  the p e r s i s t e n c e of l o c a l  change  produced  continuity  with  large  other grave  numbers o f a s s o c i a t e d  goods, t o c e r a m i c  represent secondary  excavated  in Site  i n the b u r i a l  1 (Agra)  j a r - and  cremations).  form  -  from  trade pit-burials  A crematory  i n the P e r i o d I I I l a y e r  complex  (see  Fig.B-12).  8.2  Hypotheses:  8.2.10  H y p o t h e s i s 10: The s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e c r e m a t i o n j a r b u r i a l s i n d i c a t e s t h e p r e s e n c e o f two major a f f i l i a t i v e groups i n the P i l a s o c i e t y i n P e r i o d I I I .  This  h y p o t h e s i s was  distribution  of  burials)  Agra,  stylistic  in  interred  and  on of  sub-groups  o c c u p a t i o n s by  Assuming, under  the P h i l i p p i n e s  f o r m u l a t e d on  cremation  groupings  contemporaneous successive  Processual  further,  burials  the b a s i s of the  (including  the  assumption  burial  jars  that  and  pit  t h e two  major  found  represent  of t h e same p o p u l a t i o n , r a t h e r  separate c u l t u r a l  that  jar  spatial  the  cremation  h o u s e f l o o r s (as was  groups. jar  the custom  even t o modern t i m e s : e . g .  than  burials  were  i n some p a r t s o f  among t h e  Sulod  of  146  central  Panay I s l a n d )  followed  the  same l i n e a r  Period  II b u r i a l s  along  its  (see T a b l e glaze  A-16,  type,  excavation NW  of  and  v e s s e l s and  T a b l e A-13, The  southern  the  and  previously in the  fall  g r a y - g l a z e d and  original  while  bank o f  pattern  o l d creek,  into  two  brown-gray v e s s e l s ,  ochre-glazed  site,  i n the  residential  jar burials  Appendix A f o r d e t a i l e d  p o r t i o n of t h e  8.3  The  celadons,  report).  principally  f o l l o w i n g the  side.  ochre-glazed  occurrences  1970:187), t h e  t o p o g r a p h i c a l l a y o u t seen  - namely,  south-east  groupings: few  (Jocano  with  earthenware  listing data  of  a  jars  burials  tabulation  j a r s are c l u s t e r e d  brown/olive  main  from  the  in  the  v e s s e l s are  e a s t e r n p o r t i o n s of  the  by  found  site.  A n a l y s e s r e l a t e d t o H y p o t h e s i s 10: The s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e c r e m a t i o n j a r b u r i a l s i n d i c a t e s t h e p r e s e n c e o f two major a f f i l i a t i v e g r o u p s i n P e r i o d I I I Of  the  55  i n Mendoza. inhumation pits;  burials  In A g r a , burials  there are  there are  The  34  five  burials  45 a r e c r e m a t i o n  jar burials i n one  inhumation  t o have an  Period  II - a g a i n ,  associated  and  11  i n Agra  i n the  site,  burials  and  5 are  in jars  pit burials.  5 are  and  In Mendoza,  pit burial.  burials  identical  ceramics  there  glaze category  ( s e e T a b l e A-15,  burial  i s no  range  c o n t a i n e r s , with  frequent  50  are  burials:  appear  mainly  of t h e  and  4 burials  Agra  i n P e r i o d I I I , 50  p a t t e r n to t h a t found  skeletal  i n number  some open and  Appendix  from  forms.  i n c l u d e both  preservation. one  to  18 and  Celadons  in  The include  are the  c o n t a i n e r s and  A)  most  dishes,  1 47  as  in Period I I .  One b u r i a l  has fragments  o f an i r o n  b l a d e , and  one  ( t h e w e a l t h i e s t b u r i a l ) a l s o c o n t a i n s an e a r t h e n w a r e  and  cooking p o t . The  in  eleven p i t b u r i a l s  the ground) f o l l o w  traces  of r e d ochre  associated over  grave  goods i n t h e p i t , t h e y  burial  pit,  and a C h ' i n g - p a i  large-sized  "pilgrim's  jar burials  ceramic  are generally placed  Two o f t h e p i t s cover  #62 h a s a s m a l l c e l a d o n  cremation  vessel  i s frequently covered  have a s s o c i a t e d g o o d s :  p l a c e d on t o p o f t h e  jarlet  flask"  usually  a t t h e bottom of t h e  on t o p o f t h e p i t .  i n v o l v e a medium- o r  which c o n t a i n s the cremated with a small ceramic  dish,  bowl.  In one i n s t a n c e t h e r e were f o u r s m a l l c e r a m i c  buried  next  to the cremation  #74, s e e F i g . B - 1 0 ,  burials  fall  glazed,  spherical  intact,  though o c c a s i o n a l l y  if  some d i s t u r b a n c e o f t h e g r o u n d ) ;  from  Appendix  two main g r o u p i n g s : o r wide-mouthed  brown o r o l i v e - g l a z e d  see Fig.B-11,  stoneware j a r s  Appendix  wares  10 b u r i a l s  been  B, p h o t o ) .  goods  The 34 j a r i n ochre-  jars with 4 ears  chipped,  with the appearance of having -  B, p h o t o ) .  remains,  saucer or  j a r , as a s s o c i a t e d grave  (burial  into  in a p i t  p a t t e r n : t h e r e a r e sometimes  #73 h a s a s m a l l C h ' i n g - p a i  The  placed d i r e c t l y  i n t h e b o t t o m o f t h e p i t ; when t h e r e a r e  pit;  and  a certain  the t o p of the p i t .  burial  (cremations  stove  (mostly  c r a c k e d or p a r t l y  broken  and 19 b u r i a l s  (mostly t o t a l l y  ritually  found as  i n large  smashed,  smashed upon  burial  1 48  The  ochre  bowl, u s u a l l y  v e s s e l s are mostly white  fluted  goods was an o c h r e  goods i n c l u d e d 2 o c h r e  celadon dish.  sometimes c o v e r e d  one  instance, a fluted  burials  celadon  and  ochre-glazed  buried intact;  jars,  then,  seems t o i n d i c a t e  associations:  covered  vessel,  and t h e  1 ochre  jarlet,  dish.  One o f t h e o l i v e  and a jars  j a r s has  t h e p a t t e r n of the c r e m a t i o n j a r a rough jars  grouping  covered  into  two t y p e s o f  with white  There  i s an i n t e r e s t i n g  Trade  ware d i s h e s ,  larger  (or c o n t a i n i n g ) a gray-glazed d i s h ,  given at the Manila  and i n  t h e smashed c r e m a t i o n j a r .  and brown o r o l i v e - g l a z e d  smashed b e f o r e b u r i a l . report  The one j a r b u r i a l  by, o r c o n t a i n , a g r a y - g l a z e d d i s h ,  s m a l l Te-hua bowl i n s i d e Stylistically,  bowls,  or shallow  The brown o r o l i v e - g r e e n s t o n e w a r e  are  a  with a dish  ware o r o c h r e - g l a z e d .  w i t h a s s o c i a t e d grave associated  covered  P o t t e r y Seminar  stoneware  and  ritually  comment  i n the  i n 1976:  " I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o say something about t h e o l i v e o r b r o w n i s h o l i v e g l a z e s f o u n d i n many s t o n e w a r e t y p e s , including jars... As t h e r e a r e many brown p o t s w i t h t h i s t y p e o f g l a z e w h i c h have f i r e d o l i v e on one s i d e (or v i c e v e r s a ) i t seems t h a t a t l e a s t i n t h e s e c a s e s t h e r e i s no r e a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h e o l i v e and t h e brown, and t h a t t h e c o l o r was d i c t a t e d by f i r i n g o r c o o l i n g c o n d i t i o n s " ( G r a u - Abaya 1976:32).  Simple cremation two  visual  burials,  inspection  of Fig.8.1,  r e v e a l s a rough  main g r o u p i n g s :  spatial  the ochre-glazed  n o r t h and west p o r t i o n s o f t h e s i t e ; jars  are  found  predominantly  t h e map o f P e r i o d distribution  j a r s a r e found t h e brown a n d  III  of these  only  i nthe  olive-glazed  i n t h e south and e a s t e r n p o r t i o n s  149 cremation pit burial inhumation burial red ochre basin  20  19 162  BROKEN  INTACT  A  A  87  18  i ° burials: ochre glaze brown/olive glaze celadon glaze groy gloze earthenware r  X  .67  16  19 109 33  °  42  D  A  *  ' «  J  '161 127  32 136' 147  12  38  A  36  73 138 136 ^  +  0  D-  101 139  O  »I3I  69* A 130  74 * 94 . X ©  4 _l  m  V  114  62 U 164  O  #  93  163 O  105 -D 6 5  MO  133  O *  / 134  •  D  ° • 4  °o  178  3  -e-146  S"  A  '  FIGURE 8.It  L  Map of cremation b u r i a l s ,  Site  ( a f t e r Tenazas 1968:Appendix V)  1 (Agra)i  E  Period  III  150  of  the  site,  burials  in  scattered with  Mendoza  burial are  show no  two  are  as  of p l a c e d  these  while  burials  in  the  ochre  jar  pit burials few  jar  are  burials  earthenware  pattern.  Mendoza  jar burials. j a r s with  Of  i n Mendoza have any inside  f o l l o w the  the  the  four ears  b i g , brown, s t o n e w a r e  burials  of  The  distribution  burials  spherical  None of t h e covers  site,  specific  four cremation  and  the  the  ( c e l a d o n , g r a y - g l a z e d and  cremation  ochre-glazed  broken),  among  burials:  five  and  of g l a z e s  scattered  mixed c l u s t e r s .  throughout  types  similarly  The  are  several tight,  evenly  other  jars)  t h o u g h a few  jars  i n c l u d e one jar burials,  two  (one  one  jars  smashed,  (both  smashed).  a s s o c i a t e d wares,  or p i t .  same p a t t e r n as  pit  The  main  t h e one  either  features  present  in  Agra.  The  ochre  successive  and  brown  jar burial  groups:  based  the  10  is  stylistic  groupings  represent  contemporaneous  the ceramic  of  on  ceramic  jar  burials  wares used Appendix  are B)  not  Fig.B-13,  dynasty  or p l a c e of m a n u f a c t u r e , and  specific  chronological  these  far less distinctive  porcelain  wares,  which  they  category.  can  assumption burials  from  photo,  are  or  occupations?  Hypothesis  Since  contemporaneous  the  in  two  Period  III  same p o p u l a t i o n .  "imperial are  that the  quality"  unmarked a s  to  (see date,  cannot  be  placed  into  a  Glazed  stonewares  such  as  in  character  than  the  Chinese  be  c a t e g o r i s e d i n terms of  body,  151  s h a p e , g l a z e , c o l o u r and t y p e of  the  kind  found  evaluated mainly treatment, assumption rather  regarding with  stylistic  jar  from  Santa  Ana  in  among and that  different  the  term with  general  t o denote  Yuan d y n a s t y  evidence dealing  Then I w i l l  and a s s o c i a t i o n o f  Pila,  following  that  up  the cremation  literature: suggests  that  similarity  repeated p a t t e r n s of a s s o c i a t i o n s  Philippines Luzon, as  i n a number o f  Gatid)  and  of c e r t a i n  L.  It used  should  shapes  similarity be  by t r a d e  Asian s i t e s ,  be more  Locsin,  forms and  with a preponderance  c e r a m i c s , which cannot  and  a s a number o f s i t e s  (C.  frequently  pre-Ming  (such as C a l a t a g a n  as w e l l  respect t o Southeast sites  f o r the  occupation.  p l a c e of manufacture.  specialists, term  forward  indicates  short-lived  the r e p e t i t i o n  "pre-Ming",  technical  circumstantial  t y p e s of wares s u g g e s t s c h r o n o l o g i c a l  identical  c a n be  the l i t e r a t u r e  in  k i n d s o f wares f o u n d  In a d d i t i o n ,  even  which  from  s o u t h o f L a g u n a de Bay s u c h 1967).  bring  from  the l i t e r a t u r e  south-west  form,  i n the P h i l i p p i n e s .  trade ceramics  i n the southern  burials  necessarily  first  stonewares  the evidence  regarding style  evidence  from  different sites  of  i n the P e r i o d I I I layer  evidence  burial  Much  will  details  d a t i n g c a n be i n f e r r e d  between  texture,  i s thus  p h a s e was a s i n g l e ,  Evidence  of  shape.  ceramics  stratigraphic burial  body  characteristics,  some s p e c i f i c  The  of  I  trade  t h e wares f o u n d with  and  direct.  Chinese  discuss  terms  of contemporaneity  than  Glazed  i n the Period I I I cremation  in  colour  of d e c o r a t i o n .  is a  noted ceramic useful,  o f Sung  and/or  specifically  dated  152  by  direct  means.  characterised  by  white  and  wares  The  the  Ming  overwhelming  the  relative  monochrome wares d e v e l o p e d and  Yuan  (A.D.  In held of  a  i n 1976, the  Ming  1260  paper  -  (A.D.  1368  preponderance decrease  d u r i n g t h e Sung  1368)  range  - 1644)  of  (A.D.  is  blue-and-  o f many t y p e s of 960  -  the 1279)  periods.  p r e s e n t e d at the M a n i l a Trade  Consuelo  wide  dynasty  Grau-Abaya d e t a i l e d  the  o f brown wares u n e a r t h e d  Pottery  Seminar  characteristics  in Philippine  pre-  sites.  "The brown wares have many r e l a t i v e s among t h e o t h e r wares... t h e main p o i n t o f s i m i l a r i t y i s shape, a l t h o u g h t h e p a s t e and g l a z e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e sometimes i n v o l v e d a s w e l l . . . . The g r e a t e s t number of d u p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e brown forms a p p e a r s t o be f o u n d among t h e o l i v e and o c h r e w a r e s " (Grau-Abaya 1976:31,32).  Fig.B-14,  Appendix  three  typical  forms  with  Fig.B-13, should  be  of  noted  of  large  B,  among  associations from  of P e r i o d  the  representation  A comparison  of  of  these  III cremation vessels  obvious  similarities  highly-  glazed,  of  shape.  spouted  ewer  one  f o u n d among t h e  in P i l a .  Leandro noted  group  survey of Chinese c e r a m i c s and  among  the Santa  jar-burial  Ana  Cecilia a  large  Locsin group  of o n l y  found  i n c l u d e an of  in  account  brown  excavations in Manila, a  in It  t h e s e wares i s a c e l a d o n v e s s e l ,  comprehensive  Philippines,  brown w a r e s .  reveals  that  celadon vessels  recovered  shows t h e d i a g r a m m a t i c  collection  Appendix  In t h e i r the  forms the  illustrated two  B,  wares  pre-Ming  1 53  burial  site  (512  brown wares from  111  graves):  "These wares a r e c e r t a i n l y n o t t y p i c a l of brown-glazed wares e n c o u n t e r e d i n P h i l i p p i n e M i n g - p e r i o d b u r i a l sites. The p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of o t h e r ' q u e s t i o n a b l e ' wares s u c h as t h e o c h r e - g l a z e d w a r e s , t o w h i c h t h e y a r e o b v i o u s l y r e l a t e d , and t h e g r a y g l a z e d wares w i t h w h i c h t h e y a r e o f t e n f o u n d , w i l l no d o u b t h e l p p l a c e t h e s e wares i n t h e p r o p e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " ( L o c s i n and L o c s i n 1968:56).  The  ochre  wares, on  same p u b l i c a t i o n  as  t h e o t h e r hand, were d i s c u s s e d  in  the  follows:  "The c l o s e s t r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between o c h r e - g l a z e d and b r o w n - g l a z e d w a r e s . S p h e r i c a l j a r l e t s a r e common t o b o t h , and t h e c o m b i n a t i o n of a b e v e l e d b a s e r i m and f l a t base o c c u r s r e p e a t e d l y i n j a r s and p o u r i n g v e s s e l s of b o t h t y p e s . The r e p e t i t i o n of c e r t a i n forms among d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of wares s u g g e s t s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e same a p p r o x i m a t e d a t e of m a n u f a c t u r e as w e l l as a common a r e a of o r i g i n " ( L o c s i n and L o c s i n 1968:62).  Regarding Period  III  t h e g e n e r a l range  of t r a d e c e r a m i c s  found  i n the  burials:  "Two p i e c e s of p o t t e r y can be a s s i g n e d w i t h good r e a s o n t o t h e Yuan d y n a s t y i n t h e L o c s i n - U n i v e r s i t y of San C a r l o s e x c a v a t i o n s i n t h e P/Agra s i t e : (1) a f o l i a t e d c o v e r w i t h c r e a m - c o l o r e d s l i p , brown p a i n t i n g under a c l e a r gaze ( b u r i a l #128) b e c a u s e of p o s i t i v e a f f i n i t y t o t h e l a r g e B r i t i s h Museum v a s e ( o f more e l a b o r a t e d e c o r a t i o n ) w h i c h B r a n k s t o n has a t t r i b u t e d t o C h i c h o u and d a t e d 14th c e n t u r y , and (2) a l a r g e k u a n - s h a p e d , r i b b e d c e l a d o n j a r ( b u r i a l #154). The C h i c h o u f o l i a t e c o v e r and t h e l a r g e c e l a d o n kuans h a p e d r i b b e d j a r were f o u n d as c r e m a t i o n v e s s e l s w i t h i n t h e c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l complex i n t h e b l a c k l a y e r ( t h e upper c u l t u r a l l e v e l ) . The two p i e c e s o f p o t t e r y  154  a r e t h e r e f o r e a p p r o p r i a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Yuan p e r i o d b u r i a l s i n t h e l e v e l a t t r i b u t e d by Mrs. Tenazas, t o a time range c o r r e s p o n d i n g r o u g h l y to the l a t e Sung/Yuan p e r i o d s " ( L o c s i n and L o c s i n , 1968:8).  See  this  paper a l s o ,  involved  several  associated vessels  but  are  five  out  jar.  #139). with A);  of  link  ochre-glazed of  overlap  group.  layer.  found  with  In  19  brown  the  as c o v e r  of  #114  have  these  i s a big,  bowl  jars  and of  In  1  inside  link  with  white  fluted burial  celadon  cover.  as  two  type  the  do  have no  main  of  wares  ochre-glazed  associated  have a c e r a m i c  are gray-glazed dishes greenish-  olive  (see T a b l e s A-13 the  and  ochre-jar  association,  celadon #152,  which  was  or  a  A-16,  #137,  Appendix #89  and  It i s also  common  bowls,  with  in  #74  was ochre  with a  a  item  1  i s a link  found  inside  (smashed),  ochre-jar burial  this  bowl  (#116,  burials  goods: 2 ochre dish;  dish  jar  or  wares,  good p l a c e d  Te-hua b o w l s a s c o v e r s .  another  olive-brown-jar dish  (ibid:1-5).  brown-glazed,  the  main,  problems  The  the  or a s a g r a v e  four a s s o c i a t e d grave  and  the  in general  P e r i o d I I , s i n c e Te-hua wares a r e  that  of  w i t h w h i t e - w a r e d i s h e s or b o w l s as c o v e r s  either  is a clear  with  jarlet,  the  Three  which  the  brown-glazed mostly  Te-hua  this  #130,  each  the  Burial a  jars,  found  in a s s o c i a t i o n , the  discussion  trade ceramics  occurrences  with  goods;  full  wares among P e r i o d I I I b u r i a l s :  g r o u p s of b u r i a l  grave  a  i n the d a t i n g of  Associated  have  for  the  fluted  1 55  Spatial  association  A p p e n d i x A, clusters spatial  and  of  Fig.8.1  jar  ochre  show  burials  association,  example:  and d e p t h  of b u r i a l :  that  have  ochre  at  very  (34 cm), brown nearby ochre  this #74  similar  #139  is a  #94  depths  tight  depths: ochre  cluster  (47 cm), g r a y  localized  and brown j a r s  #131  (37 cm); o l i v e - g r e e n  central  small  A-16,  in close  of b u r i a l .  For  (29 cm) and brown j a r b u r i a l  (30 cm); i n t h e c e n t r e o f t h e s i t e burials  several  and a t v e r y s i m i l a r  j a r - b u r i a l #31  Table  is  of j a r  (40 cm), brown  #152  another  cluster  (48  cm).  association  (40 cm), o l i v e - b r o w n #114  of j a r s : (38 cm).  b u r i a l between t h e o c h r e and brown g r o u p s : mean d e p t h  ochre  jar burials  jar  group  of  36.5.  cm.  i s 35.6 cm.  at  inhumation  a similar  interesting are  t o note  range that  found a t a deeper  a mean d e p t h burials Pila;  were  o f 58.9. the  burial.  may  have  jar burials  jarburials  burials  Period  of the  have a mean  have a mean d e p t h  i n the  depth  of t h e  III  o f d e p t h s , w i t h a mean o f 39.4. t h e 11 p i t b u r i a l s  overall  l e v e l than  This could  into  are Itis III  the other b u r i a l s ,  with  t o imply t h a t  o f c r e m a t i o n became more  developed  depth  Period  be t a k e n  i n Agra  brown  o f 40.0  layer  f o r e r u n n e r s of the cremation b u r i a l  as the p r a c t i c e  ritual  The c e l a d o n  The e a r t h e n w a r e  The f i v e  also  i s 35.9 cm, w h i l e t h e mean d e p t h  #137 Close  T a b l e A-16, A p p e n d i x A, c o n f i r m s t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s i n of  #156  the p i t phase i n  entrenched,  t h e use o f c e r a m i c  the  vessels for  1 56  Comparison 8.1  shows  generally that of  of A g r a and Mendoza P e r i o d  that  the  shallower  t h e same p a t t e r n  Mendoza  i s 74.8  related  to  marginally Fig.1.2)  i n Agra.  occurs  I  while  suggest  topography.  and  the  of P e r i o d  1968:16).  I I I ) may  See f o l l o w i n g  these  site  recalled  differences  a t Mendoza  s h o r e of Laguna of  the  (postulated  have been g r e a t e r section  be  I I , where t h e mean d e p t h  that  erosion  f l o o d i n g of the area  will  t h e mean d e p t h of b u r i a l s i n  The b u r i a l  surface  It  in Period  c l o s e r t o the southern  subsequent close  than  i s 89 cm.,  cm.  Table  p i t and j a r b u r i a l s i n Mendoza o c c u r a t a  level  b u r i a l s i n Agra  III burials:  are  i s situated  de  land  Bay  (see  during  by  Tenazas  than  i n Agra  at  the the  (Tenazas  f o r more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of  stratigraphy.  Stratigraphy: shows  that  the  archaeological soil  layer  content, (ibid: found level, is  Tenazas Period  level  (with  and t y p e  to  cultural She  has  of ceramic  small  of b u r i a l s r e p r e s e n t e d  of  Period  A g r a and 4 i n Mendoza) the s i t e  presented  at t h i s above,  time.  III  types"  layer  and t h e s h o r t  homogeneous  throughout) vessels  "for this  Sung/Yuan  (ibid:  period  15).  The  t h i c k ) and t h e  i n the j a r b u r i a l  period  organic  the ceramic  (45 cm.  conjunction  single  colour,  present  or upper  suggests a short In  a  g r o u n d s as one g r o u p :  a t t r i b u t i o n of l a t e  the  stratigraphy  and  texture,  characterised  of  in  by a d i s t i n c t  materials  l a y e r on s t y l i s t i c  on t h e b a s i s  the s i t e represents  soil  shallowness number  that  layer  characterized  of  an o r i g i n a l  estimated  III  respect  15,16,17). in this  states  group  period  of  with  ,the  of occupation  (34  occupation evidence postulated  TABLE 8 . 1 :  T a b l e o f mean d e p t h s in Period III. (This s u r f a c e and @ 45 c m . [See A p p e n d i x , T a b l e of b u r i a l s i n P e r i o d  ( i n centimetres) of b u r i a l s l a y e r i s 15 - 20 c m . f r o m thick). 16 f o r f u l l t a b l e o f d e p t h III]. No. Burials  Burials  Mean Depth  AGRA Inhumations  5  39.4  10  35.9  19  35.6  Other g l a z e s  2  36.5  Earthenwares  3  40.0  Ochre j a r Olive/brown  Pit  jar  burials  11  58.9  MENDOZA Ochre j a r Olive/brown Pit  burials  jar  2  14.0  2  25.5  1  34.0  158  by  Tenazas,  site.  i t i s logical  It  relatively layer,  may small  both  patterns  be  pertinent  number o f  Agra  and  and c e r a m i c  situation  at  cremation isolated  to infer  Pila  jar burial  a single  to  note  burials  Mendoza  styles.  Another  is  fact  the  that  found  have  occupation  the  in  in  suggestive  that  phenomenon i n t h i s  period  Period  III  mix o f b u r i a l aspect  the Period  complex a p p e a r s t o have been  the  s p i t e of the  the  same  of  of  the  I I I secondary a  relatively  of P h i l i p p i n e p r e - h i s t o r y .  "The p a r t i c u l a r p r a c t i c e o f s e c o n d a r y c r e m a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n j a r s , has a l i m i t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n . . . ( t h e r e i s ) no example o f a s e c o n d a r y c r e m a t i o n p r a c t i c e among e x i s t i n g p r i m i t i v e g r o u p s i n t h e Philippines... t h e c l o s e s t p a r a l l e l i s drawn among a t r i b e i n Borneo c a l l e d the Sihougho" (Tenazas 1968:18).  Archaeological occurrences Sung/Yuan  supports  of a cremation period  Philippine (Locsin  evidence  sites  and L o c s i n  Regarding  burials  this  jar-burial and  as Calatagan  early (Janse  1967) and Cebu C i t y  statement, as t h e r e phase  intervening  Ming  burials  a r e no between  in  such  1944; Fox 1959), S a n t a Ana (Hutterer  1973).  t h e matter o f c l i m a t i c change, Tenazas  suggests:  " C o n s i d e r i n g the shallow l o c a t i o n of the cremation b u r i a l s , sometimes o n l y a b o u t 15 cm. from t h e s u r f a c e i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t some k i n d o f c l i m a t i c c h a n g e c a u s i n g r a p i d e r o s i o n (perhaps f l o o d i n g ) took p l a c e , rendering the area u n f i t f o r h a b i t a t i o n a f t e r a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e " ( T e n a z a s 1968:16).  Confirmation  of t h i s  suggestion  occurs  i n the  Locsin  paper:  "  159  Climatic water  change  levels  recurring  i n v o l v i n g changing in  Laguna  de  s i t u a t i o n in t h i s  levels  Bay  part  is  of  the  believed  of Luzon"  water  table  and  t o have beeen  (Locsin  and  a  Locsin,  1968:6-7). 8.4  Summary and The  burial  the  a p p e a r a n c e of  form  spatial  (nature  This  division.  On  this  g r o u p s of P e r i o d  Pila  context,  g r o u p s of  The  that  I I , which 10  i n t o two  i n f e r r e d by  however, t h e  two  g r o u p s may  olive-jar  e v i d e n c e of  ritually  powerful.  not  a development  may  p e r h a p s be  the  the  wealthier  image) and  within also  g r a v e goods b e l o n g s t o t h e  the  only  archaeologists,  jars,  the  residential  and,  p o s s i b l y more  stylistic  form,  The  ochre-jar  group  b u r i a l s are  ( i n d i c a t i n g a more  jar burial  ochre group.  In  a new  styles.  site  affiliative  more numerous,  group - these the  kin-  groups.  represent II  family  represent  ritually-smashed  from P e r i o d  such  supported,  s i m i l a r data.  b u r i a l s are  They a l s o  spatially  of  than descent  earlier,  distinct  other  this  showed no  nuclear  basis  brown and  in  in  at  a p p e a r s t o be  the  rather  place  from the  residential  coalesced  both  u s e d ) and  taking  ( 1 9 8 1 ) , on  from the  corporate  was  in Period  the  burials,  a c e r t a i n p o l a r i z a t i o n of  basis, Hypothesis  II had  kindred,  segregated  vessels  a c u l t u r e change  L i n e a g e s have been Pearson  of  in P i l a  patterns  i t i s concluded  s u c h as  condition  suggests that  is clearly burial  groups.  m a j o r g r o u p i n g s of  population  individual  and  two  and  distribution,  residential  time.  Discussion  with  Another  more powerful  associated  point  to  be  160  n o t e d , w h i c h may ochre-jar  or may  b u r i a l s are  not  be  significant,  c l u s t e r e d i n the  complex, w h i c h  i s i n the  Fig.8.1).  The  crematorium  represents  a substantial corporate  have been the Looking of  the  three  analyses,  focus at  the  vicinity  north-west quadrant i s a sturdy  important  e v i d e n c e of  energy  ritual the  possible details  of  respect  generalized  t o the  earthenwares, Period  in trade the  II c l e a r l y  change was cremation  seen jars.  (particularly  i n view of  c e r a m i c s were s t i l l number of  indicates status.  that  ascribed  t o the  of  can  the  site  the  be  the  rather t o the  the  (see  clearly and  must  Period  made  II  regarding  I I I does  not  j a r b u r i a l s are  than  local  imported III.  wares i n  Some c u l t u r e  brown-olive-glazed  still  associated  with  trade  ceramics  sole  jar burial  with  grave  goods,  Equally  closely associated jars  the  with  utilized  e a r t h e n w a r e s had too,  crematory  III.  same i n P e r i o d  ceramic wares).  Stylistically,  similarities  was  earthenware local  focus  Since  vessels  the  I I I b u r i a l s i n terms  in Period  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  Status  w h i c h were a l l t r a d e  small  value  remained the  i n the  the  T r a d e Sub-System, P e r i o d  ceramic  great  of  the  that  activity.  Period  show e v i d e n c e o f much c u l t u r e c h a n g e . overwhelmingly  of  involvement  inferences  c u l t u r e change  fact  s t r u c t u r e which  s u b - s y s t e m s w h i c h were t h e  some v e r y  With  of  i s the  not  clearly,  ritual  the  value.  in value  e a r t h e n w a r e s show c l e a r  earthenware v e s s e l s  The  in these b u r i a l s risen  in Period  II.  trade  or  161  The  large  proportion  with p i t b u r i a l s and  voluminous,  obtaining  the  quantities. preferred  The  trade with China  the l o c a l  vessels  f o r the b u r i a l s  ordering  change may  of the ceramic  be  by  inferred in P i l a  of g r a v e  the b u r i a l s  was  as g o l d , c o i n s ,  closely  This  burial  over  and  control. may  have  group.  In P e r i o d  of d e f i n i t e  Hodder conflict  along kin-group  I I , status  i n wealth, and  poor  social  groupings  badges o f w e a l t h  status  i s b e c o m i n g more  group  tension  increase  (such  i n the  rather  (1982) m a i n t a i n s t h a t  lines.  alike  In P e r i o d I I I  longer included  and  and  p a t t e r n s (as e x p r e s s e d i n  Elite  ritual  i n k e e p i n g w i t h an  differentiation  of  have c h a n g e d  for burials  treatment).  ritual  j e w e l l e r y ) a r e no  denote  I I may  or  as  the p a t t e r n  on d i f f e r e n c e s  t o membership i n a s o c i a l  d i f f e r e n c e s may T h i s would be  of g l a z e / f o r m t y p e s  person  treatment).  achievement.  sufficient  homogeneous f o r w e a l t h y  suggests that  allied  individual  based  the presence  burial  in  the e v i d e n c e .  form and  indicate  f o r m and  burials.  on  Sub-System, c o n s i d e r a b l e c u l t u r e  some c o r p o r a t e c o n t r o l  grave  count  wares p r e f e r r e d  from  p a t t e r n s appeared  terms  population could  administration  some p a r t i c u l a r  the S o c i a l  differentiation burial  steady  for Period  f a v o u r of some more c e n t r a l i z e d  comparison still  suggests that  trade determined  in was  However, the p o l a r i z a t i o n  Regarding  and  that  jar burials  i m p o r t e d wares t h e y wanted  been t a k e n o v e r  (in  suggests that and  person-to-person in  of c e r a m i c  in  between social  than  to  stylistic  groups.  162  In  the R i t u a l  continuity continue not  and change  t o have  there  i s evidence  trade  inherent r i t u a l  as g r a v e  the i n f e r e n c e t h a t  inherently  suitable  The p r o t e c t i v e over  and around  goods  role  dishes  used  Can  the cremation  resonance  ritual; ritual  complex  i n the s o c i e t y  i n the form  corresponding decrease as expressed  activity  of  ceramics  ceramic  symbolic  this  v a l u e of  period,  since  of t h e s e  change  by  or c o n t i n u i t y i n  in Pila? of s o c i a l  or c o n t r o l  over  inference,  In P e r i o d I I , roles,  t o the conduct  In P e r i o d I I I ,  does e x i s t  i n the  social  in individual of d i v e r s i t y  variation  of  burial  groupings;  i n the  and  the b u r i a l  at l a r g e .  of t h e two  i n the lack  considered  g l a z e s of t h e t r a d e  indicate  c o u l d be e x t e n d e d ,  e v i d e n c e of c o r p o r a t e i d e n t i t y patterns,  support  times.  o r no c o r p o r a t e i d e n t i t y  activity  The  throughout  p a t t e r n s showed no e v i d e n c e  this  of  i s continued in  to the importance  the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n s of r i t u a l  little  jars.  and h i g h - f i r e d  in contact  the j a r b u r i a l  the b u r i a l  g i v e s added  by t h e many i n s t a n c e s o f  evidence a t t e s t s  characteristics  inclusion  i n the placement  c o n t i n u e d t o be i m p o r t a n t  ethnographic  The  i n P e r i o d II b u r i a l s  I I I - as e v i d e n c e d  the d u r a b i l i t y ,  #74  include  use.  observed  t h e body  ceramics  other glaze  a l l t r a d e c e r a m i c s were s t i l l  Period  ceramics  but a l s o  in burial  for ritual  to cover  Trade  value - the j a r b u r i a l s  ( c e l a d o n s and g r a y - g l a z e d w a r e s ) .  ceramics  of b o t h  i n the P e r i o d I I I b u r i a l s .  o n l y t h e two main g l a z e g r o u p i n g s ,  categories  to  Sub-System,  there i s a  in ritual  secondary  action,  163  c r e m a t i o n s and  jar  characterized hand, t h e  burials.  Pila  change  society  from  made some a s p e c t s of archaeological  Similar in  i t s other  inhumation diversity  remains, while  f e a t u r e s may aspects.  to cremation  less  visible  t h e y may  have the  burials  in  still  On  other  may  have  the  have e x i s t e d  in  life. In there  the  i s evidence  Period  I I , the  power and close by  lack  new  paradigm  involved  supernatural the  material  and  family rigid  attitudes:  material  correlates  ideological by  evidence  organizing  Some d e t a i l s of  can  only  was  the  determinant  no  principles  i n the  longer  in  the  In  Period  material to  material  death.  In  change in  be  the  and  keeping for  Period  p a r a d i g m must  first, of  action  a  determined  change can  development  to  culture  ideological  s p e c u l a t e a b o u t what c h a n g e d one  attitudes  indicates  that  ritual  isolating  attitudes  observed are  d e f i n i t i o n , the  one  and  included  universe.  ideological  individuals,  which  constraints,  major  In  overwhelming  g r o u p s ; and  ideological  domain,  aspects.  petitionary  i n t e r m s of  to  symbolic  the  forces,  power of  immediate  the  i n number of  b u r i a l data  material  have c h a n g e d .  change  the  the  Therefore  i n terms of  b o u n d e d n e s s , of  attitudes  III,  w i t h the II.  of  of  their  of  social,  correlates  the  and  I looked at  Period  for culture  ancestors;  individuals  physical,  burials,  ideological  personal  objects,  III  importance  conceptual  II,  Period  inferred,  also but  which  aspect  new  pattern.  164  In P e r i o d  I I I , the  ritual  powerful  factor, indicating  of major  importance  the  importance  variation is  now  of  i n the  that  individual  a c t i o n and  a p p e a r s t o have d i m i n i s h e d  more s o c i a l l y  individual  constrained,  a social now to  i s becoming  group.  mirror  the  a social  The  distribution). evidence  the  increased  social  suggests,  then  likely  o b j e c t s and  importance of  the  differentiation  to  of  the  as  w e l l as  burial,  suggests  important, status,  and  rather  The  secondary  and  intimate  and  the  dead.  The  involved  or  ritual  conformity  with  and  also the  Thus t h e  an  the  as  reflect  larger a t t i t u d e to  increased  increased  i s evidence  careful  ritual  to represent  I I I was  treatment  from t h e  i s the  style  to  l a n d of  to r e f l e c t  and  and jar  ideologically  transition  relationship perceived changed  f o r some  i n secondary cremation  in Period  jar b u r i a l s continue  What has  power,  identity,  burial  patterns  reflects  there  t h a n mere d e p a r t u r e  personal  a  structure.  that death  continued  of  of  spatial  group.  identity,  change.  increased ceremonial  and  of  paradigm  sources  identity,  identification  In a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d d e a t h , continuity  freedom  Instead  i n the  still  However,  ideological  used  residence  individuals,  social  individual  a  is also a habitation site,  a descent  corporate  society.  to a corporate  style  site  the  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  g r o u p , most  material  objects  is still  forces are  supernatural  subordinate  burial  dead  more bounded.  ( i n t e r m s of  I f the  the  this  - the  i m p o r t a n c e of a g r o u p of  persona,  the  the  material  of  supernatural  s t r u c t u r e of  one-to-one r e l a t i o n s h i p with the  treatment  the  higher the  living.  great  respect  between t h e of  the  living  burial  165  ritual  - an  i n c r e a s e i n the c e r e m o n i a l  correct  in describing  typical  of  and  of  jar burials  groups which p r a c t i c e  1968:17,18), burial  these  then  the  the c e r e m o n i a l  departed  person  more f a m i l y g r o u p a c t i o n  II.  A l s o changed  involves group,  social  i s the  equipped  these  a r e now  with  with  the  paradigm  boundedness,  style  in this  assortment  of  jar,  in matting area  remains,  and  no  around  around  the  social of  the d e p a r t e d  a r e now soul.  (corporate  but  i n the  i n the g r e a t e r of t h e dead i n presence  loosely  to cast  i n P e r i o d II the inside  a  by a c e r a m i c  Thus s y m b o l i c  to ensure  adequate  a  entire ceramic dish  power  m a t e r i a l encasement, as w e l l  necessary  are  identity).  of c o n s t r a i n t s  sufficient  j a r i s covered  enough; c o m p l e t e  identity,  (the j a r s )  are encased  complete.  dead  i n P e r i o d II the  t h e body was  prepared,  social  The  trade ceramics,  the deceased,  ritually  additionally,  longer  Whereas  time  now  with a l a r g e r  j a r chosen.  and  in Period  ritual  envelopment  small, symbolic  bowl t o make t h e p r o t e c t i o n is  the b u r i a l  power  the g r e a t e r p h y s i c a l  of  bodily  that  more  been n e c e s s a r y  period i s evident  containers.  protective  had  increased presence  protective  wrapped  treatment  i n v o l v e d more e n e r g y ,  social  cremations  i n v o l v e d i n the  o b j e c t s of power  their an  secondary  (Tenazas  of b u r i a l  symbolic  allied  In a d d i t i o n , ideological  the  I f Tenazas i s  "bone w a s h i n g "  than  fact  as  markers - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  i n t e r m s of  still  itself.  or alone as a  protection  166  9.  DISCUSSION  My kind  approach  this  of m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  symbolic  that  produced  might  the  has  has  been aimed a t  s y n t h e s i s between t h e  the  prevent  available  no  local  study  s c h o o l s of m o r t u a r y a n a l y s i s .  literature  of  in  effective  data.  Clearly,  ethnographic  orientation  data,  the  which make  analysis.  The  burial  requisite  information  attention  to excavation  had  it  appropriate  sites  at  required  site  to  be  questions  real  t o ask  a  both  s u b - s y s t e m s w h i c h would be  the  The most  the of this  processual  to  have  the  careful  recording,  was  or  apply  without  and  a  formulation  of  ethnographic  of t h e d a t a .  context  approaches:  data  challenge  analyzed  collection  appeared  and and  to  t o c a r r y out  Pila for  techniques  t h a t p o i n t , the  determine the  nature  excavated  difficult  the  would l i e i n t h e  hand,  been  of  factor  difficult  other  c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of h i s t o r i c a l From  be  the  t h a t the c h i e f  where t h e  i t would On  data  would  "blend"  review  information regarding h i s t o r i c a l  approach.  archaeological  p r o c e s s u a l and  A careful  impression  an  associated  symbolic  strong  f o r g i n g some  data.  first  s t e p was  relevant  to  to a l l  the  data.  I d e f i n e d a number of t e s t a b l e p r o p o s i t i o n s r e g a r d i n g  the  nature  and  based  on  correlates  the  social  processual in  ethnographic, then  amount of  the  complexity  theory,  mortuary  historical  and  and  remains.  looked On  for  the  paradigm, along  data,  behavioural  basis  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l sources  d e f i n e d a s e t of g e n e r a l , s y m b o l i c underlying cultural  i n the m o r t u a r y  of  the  combined, I  organizing principles  or  the  by  lines  suggested  167  Kent's  (1984)  The  next  organizing Hodder's  at  step  principles suggestion  attitudes. chosen  study.  well  would  to the  relate  attitudes  to  trade ceramics  had  trade  the  and  the  the  sub-system). well,  burial  these  from  was  the  energy  numbers o f  status  patterns result  attitudes  I  found  of  in  social  organization Hodder  ( t h e s e would  relate  authority to  to  (these  look  for  t h e p r o m i n e n c e of  the  ( t h e s e would r e l a t e  to  this,  I looked  i f a particular  be  had  reflected  followed?  attitude  i n the  The  for  burial  final  form  between t h e  data  formulated. the  ethnographic  model  to  analyses  f o r P e r i o d II  status did exist  in P i l a ,  and  burial  the q u a l i t y  treatment  expenditure).  gold,  cultural  t h a t the  trade ceramics  ( s u c h as  for  used  sub-systems  of a d i a l o g u e  i n t h e q u a n t i t y and  differences  (including  this  I  three  Following  attitudes:  the a p p l i c a b i l i t y Pila,  look  I decided  assemblages  ideological  situation.  b e c a u s e of  might  ritual  t h a t a r a n g e of  expressed  large  the  relevant cultural  other  t o the  mortuary  s u b - s y s t e m as a w h o l e ) .  questions  data  was  to  a t t i t u d e s t o power and  social  c o r r e l a t e s of  revealed  relate  the  In t h i s ,  p e r t i n e n t t o the  to  and  i n the  In t e s t i n g the  to l i n k  I982a:20l)  would  p r e v a i l e d , i n what way  of  of  and  o b j e c t s as  goods c h o s e n and  No  be  a way  l o o k i n g for a t t i t u d e s to death, ritual)  material  the m a t e r i a l d a t a .  as  the mortuary  the  with  These s h o u l d  as  suggested  to f i n d  (Hodder  for analysis,  Pila  was  and  The  of g r a v e  could  be  coins)  of e l i t e  showed  it  goods. observed  close correlation  the presence  j e w e l l e r y and  that  between badges  that  the  168  ceramics that  were  trade  c e r a m i c s were i m p o r t a n t  significant ritual. that  i n d i c a t o r s of w e a l t h a t P i l a .  role  This  the  in a l l aspects was  confirmed  symbolic  condition  of  the  majority  in  the  homogeneity  that  achieved  status. with  related meant  status  the  analyses,  of  the  l a c k of real  retain  a significant  study.  testing  The  magnified burial  was  organic  by  ground  problem the  of  almost  assemblages.  indicators  of  the  The  based  on  number  of  data.  data  at P i l a  were  the  site.  This  the  presence or  would  drawn  r o l e s l e d t o the  conclusion  this was  goods i n  have  whorls,  that  do  provide  from  clear-cut  or  sex.  preservation  (spindle of  the  Pila  items which might  lack  wide  t h i s p e r i o d which  organic  functions  The  confirmed  preservation  l a c k of  must  the  b a s i s of age of  they  l e d to  small  made of  conclusions  Even t h o s e  inconclusive. sex  the  pristine  the  c o m p l e t e a b s e n c e of u t i l i t a r i a n  sinkers) proved  and  on  be  them  with  was  the  excavation  organic  the.  sex-specific  age  by  p r e s e r v a t i o n at  f o r the  of  regarding  Pila  model t o the  Philippine sites  level  and  sites,  These r e s u l t s  assessment c o u l d  of  at  supported  of  size  gave  purposes.  both  and  which i n d i c a t e d  together  throughout  status differentiation  excavations  goods,  differentiation  limitations  no  miniature  a  ceremonial  ceramics  for funerary  ethnographic  the  - social,  showed  played  wares i n d i c a t e d t h a t  grave  form  This  Future  a valuable  the  of  to the that  The  badges p r e s e n t .  main  a b s e n c e of  the  by  elite  applicability  The  of  burial  inference  burials  life  specifically  number  of  of  that  of  significance.  have been a c q u i r e d range  possessions  physical characteristics  inherent  Ethnography  been net  evidence there  was  169  no  rigid  system  which s u p p o r t e d this  of  sexual d i v i s i o n  the a p p l i c a b i l i t y  area  status  of  These  were  of  iron  variability  blades  found  (and  in  specifically  correlated  with  wealthiest  the  important, together  because with  conclusion achieved great  iron  i s that  - a  of t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c  of  ritual  result  model  was  correlated  protection  Ethnography frequently perishable  the  goods  substances  buried  outside  at  in  that  and  class  buried  not  artifact,  or  The  family  iron  to  individual  some k i n d  the  high  with  (for  my  special  or  a  even a  frequency  frequency as  body,  instance,  low  viewed  was  shroud,  protector,  relatively  was  were  a matting  were s i m i l a r l y  assemblages  they  of  of  ceramics  less  powerful  containers as  the matting t h e body.  of  not  specifically  trade  ceramics.  were u t i l i t a r i a n o b j e c t s , and  fabrics,  aromatic  burials,  of  the  burials.  and  next  inside  was  Pila.  wealthy  (such  away from of  the  protection  as p a c k i n g  ritual  range  with  earthenwares  shows used  The  Pila  assemblages.  t o power of or  the  burials,  b l a d e s d e n o t e an  a person).  physical  with  of  always  hunter,  to i n t e r p r e t  in  other  ceramic  iron  Locally-made  slightly  w i t h any  compared  that  minority  c e r a m i c -wares,  or  such  difficult  fragments)  a  status related  blades  suggests  it  the  warrior,  relative  full  labour at P i l a  respect. One  than  of  oils  shrouds  for foods, and  luxurious  herbs).  i n the P i l a  wealthy  more  smaller containers,  Earthenwares occur  from  or  were  to poor,  They  graves,  and  throughout in a  were set the  seemingly  170  unpatterned however,  fashion.  with  no  The  trade  handful  of  very  ceramics  at  a l l , generally  e a r t h e n w a r e c o n t a i n e r as a g r a v e that  they  were  ceramics. of  substituting  The  overall  ethnographic diminished trading  pottery  quality  and  ritually  following  the  more  that  local  China.  the  regular  Whereas i n  Philippines  once ceramic  design  (e.g.  the  t r a d e with China  p o t t e r y showed a  noticeable  the  trading  p a t t e r n s at P i l a ,  the  model p r o v i d e s ample e v i d e n c e  of p e r s o n - t o - p e r s o n  indication  of  of  the  presence  redistribution-  of  individual  i n the ceramic  items  person-to-person  factory  lots.  reveals  a  goods.  number  drop  was in  of  more  The  The  and  are celadons,  or  supports  minor  burials  of  among the  most  notion  burials  co-occurrences  have some  found  equally  of  combination being  have m u l t i p l e " s e t s "  favoured g l a z e type  which are  the  "bulk o r d e r s " or  forms), with c o n t a i n e r s  wealthiest burials  dishes.  control,  diversity  evidence  of  the  ( o r open  c o n t a i n e r s and  no  of wares i n t h e P e r i o d II  Most of  dishes  alike  no  patterns  of c o n t a i n e r s and  great  ethnographic  trade, with  centralized  assemblages  trade, with  types.  important.  any  The  This diversity  glaze/function  poor  of  earthenware p o t t e r y of advanced in  the  earthenwares  establishment and  of  variety.  Regarding  of  an  powerful  applicability  Philippines  produced  local  had  r e s p e c t to the p a t t e r n  the  shows  tradition), the  the  supports  between t h e  shape was  under way,  for  which  centuries local  elegant  Kalanay well  in status  relations  previous and  model,  burials,  good - l e a d i n g t o t h e i n f e r e n c e  i n d i c a t i o n s with  earthenware occurrences  poorest  for  of  wealthy  often  as  171  containers  and  containers,  while  i s an as  these  white  burials the  jarlets  occur  in  overlap.  different and  the  two  along  affiliative  found  reflect  groups  2.4.1).  A  Nok  Tha  affilitative more  (see  Mendoza  period  of  specific  of  the  and  may  be  Non  Nok  conclusive  a small  years  types.  may  i n any  ritual  (see  indicate segregation not  organization case).  This  "occasional" or  Murdock,  "crisis" section  Bayard's r e s u l t s  showed t h e evidence,  in  types  considerable may  kindred,  drawn w i t h  Tha  is  social  Asia  in  ceremonials  attempts  of a s s o c i a t i o n a r e  (a form of  only  period  blue-and-  early  types  this  d i f f e r e n c e s i n ceramic be  20  there  bilateral  could  few  a  glaze/function  patterns  Southeast  of  The  some d e g r e e o f  s e c t i o n 2.4.2) w h i c h  f o r the  ceramic  the  century,  wares,  techniques.  of  represent  funerary  groups;  10 o r  and  There  ceramic  being  ware/function  active  comparison  clear-cut  explanation  area  of  although  lineages  become  s u c h as  styles  but  presence  which  situations,  Non  lines,  in t h i s  the  new  sites  enough t o d e n o t e  rarely  impression  in  12th  type.  the  Mendoza,  burial  this  combinations  This variation  that  strong  the  to" t h e  of  predominantly  mainly d i s h e s .  blue-and-white  ascribed  found give  Agra  o c h r e wares a r e  w h i t e wares a r e  development  d e v e l o p c o n t r o l of  may  and  are  full  Slightly  and  gray  brown and  a l m o s t c o m p l e t e a b s e n c e of  predating  to  dishes;  p r e s e n c e of  however, was respect.  types  at two far  Another  between  Agra  c h r o n o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e - even a have  affected  availability  of  172  On  the  inter-site  level,  A g r a and  Mendoza  II.  b u r i a l s i n Mendoza a r e  The  have  higher  i n the  there  levels  of  which are  somewhat l e s s  present,  include  badges of  status  distribution to  show no  almost in  one  be  the  wealthiest  burials  along  In  of  the  this  nature  indicated  the  mortuary  of  ceramic  jars  however, s u p p o r t s successive Period to  social groups Pila  the  treatment,  organization. indicates  i n the  the the  basic  which c o n t a i n of  elite  spatial  i n Mendoza,  however,  burials  The  spatial  general  are  also  distribution  segregation  of  with  Period  extent  of  the  The  main p r o b l e m was  treatment. of  the  two  cremation  claim  of  On  this  not  only  but The  ceramics  Agra b u r i a l s appear  (poorer  i n the  occupations.  s o c i e t y ; and  change  and  III b u r i a l s r e f l e c t  burial  some  contemporaneity utilized  but  however,  trade  patterns  The  kind;  site  dealing  the  question  any  burials)  the  lines.  made t o a s s e s s by  The  section).  i n d i c a t i o n of  analyses  of  Period  b u r i a l s show a g e n e r a l c l u s t e r i n g  the  affiliative  terms  curious.  c l u s t e r i n g of  throughout  another  in  (45  in  b u r i a l s in Agra,  etc.).  also rather  large section  scattered may  of  the  group  burials in Pila  (gold, coins,  spatial  represented  a smaller  wealth;  the  some d i f f e r e n c e between  wealth  wealthy  all  are  all  r a n g e of  was  I I I , an  culture  principal  burials.  contemporaneity basis,  attempt  The  development  of  i t i s concluded  change  burial  in  ideological organizing  than that  respect  social  patterns  of  respect  clearly-defined  corporate  the  evidence,  rather  a l s o c u l t u r e change w i t h two  change  types  c u l t u r e change w i t h  p r e s e n c e of  was  to  sub-  groups  in  reflects  a  principles.  1 73  Regarding explanation ritual Pila  t h e change  suggested  p a t t e r n s from cremations  1968:18).  She  especially  in  of  Southeast  cremations to  a  crematory  the  jars, Asia,  out  while  i s d i f f u s i o n of  suggests that cremations  commonly p r a c t i c e d  this  not  is  the  as a f i r s t  case  stage;  with  was e x c a v a t e d  tradition  in  i n the B).  general  and  Borneo  China  containers,  t o the P h i l i p p i n e s  and  Indo-China,  and t h e u s e o f  parts  of  the  1944:35-36).  practiced Buddhist  (Roxas-Lim  in  China  times.  Buddhist  priests  level  originated  ritual  that  that in  of  ceramic  upside-down  of the deceased jar  burial  was  ( b e f o r e 200 A.D.) a n d  the cremation  urns decorated  with  placed  the s p i r i t  states  at  route v i a  patterns  burial  dishes  A  J a n s e has p o i n t e d  was a g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e ,  g l a z e d brown p o t t e r y  (ibid:238).  as  i n pre-Buddhist  She n o t e s t h a t  III  have  1966:237).  body t o c o n t a i n  both  i n some a r e a s ) .  Roxas-Lim a l s o argues  i n the  the  and b u r n e d i n  t h r o u g h an i n d i r e c t  ceramic  Roxas-Lim a l s o  secondary  allowing  Period  must  such  parts  cremations i s  after  known a s "bone w a s h i n g "  burials,  i n many  i n secondary  the  (Tenazas  secondary  are quite  and r e a c h e d t h e P h i l i p p i n e s  South  large,  that  F i g . B-12, A p p e n d i x  similarities  (Janse  I I I a r e secondary  out  burial  structure  jar burial  over  Tenazas  The method u s e d  (a p r a c t i c e  Indochina  of  points  t h e most p r e v a l e n t  researchers,  southern China.  in jars.  (see  China,  other  patterns,  t o decompose, t h e bones a r e t h e n c o l l e c t e d  ritual  Pila  by  in Period  have a p r i m a r y  remains  in burial  and  preservation  usually  with  utilizing  dragon  motifs  1 74  Chin  reports  practiced  by  collected jar.  that  the Melanaus  and  buried  Occasionally,  jarlets, (Chin  bowls  both  ancient  existence  of  note  traditional and  a  religion  funeral  section  2.4.2, was  possessed prior  elements  a r e an also  as that  trade,  represents  With indicated patterning  of  as grave  goods  in  testify regions  It  and the  (Laufer  is  interesting  a  bone-washing  following  i n O k i n a w a , where in ancestor  the  spirits  includes wine-drinking, foodfemale  religious  specialists  a l r e a d y been n o t e d above i n  Philippines Okinawa  involving which  the  to  to trade contacts with China at  both  a  plates,  the P h i l i p p i n e s ,  1967).  old tradition  and  stoneware)  similarities  sources  burials  would  selective  i n keeping with l o c a l  importation  many  eventually  ceramic  the b u r i a l  involves a belief  the  ideology  to Chinese  jar  exposed  shows an  tradition  Spanish  Okinawa, as has  period  Ethnography  and  feasts,  1966:66-68).  similar  in fact,  c e r e m o n i a l which  (Lebra  a  Chinese  n o r t h e r n B o r n e o and  secondary  mortuary  offerings,  of  1964:94;Reynolds  i n s e a water  traditionally  (brown  l o n g - t e r m c o n t a c t s between the two  that  ceremony  are,  Chinese  was  a large Martabani  beads a c c o m p a n i e d  of  1979:145; P i g a f e t t a to  inside  There  patterns  jar burial  i n Sarawak, w i t h t h e b o n e s  an a s s o r t m e n t  and  I978b:5).  cultural  secondary  (R.  Pearson  and  the  about  1969).  Philippines  ancestor worship  and  animism  suggest  jar  burial  that  acceptance  beliefs,  but  the  of  foreign  not  a  ritual  whole-sale  foreign ideology.  respect i n the  to the c u l t u r e Pila  suggests  burials the  change  in  increased  in s o c i a l  Period  III,  importance  organization the  of  material the  social  175  dimension. changes  The  homogeneous t r e a t m e n t  t o . the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  kind  of s o c i a l  the  glaze  colour  accompanied  by any  status,  identity of  the  visible  status  and  p r o c e s s which of  the  into  two  The  main  change  groups: are  container,  one  of g r a v e goods  relationship  individual still  (only  an  The  complete  to the d e t a i l s  ( a  wellbeing  encasement  the b u r i a l  A-16,  in a  ceramic  jars,  Appendix  discriminates intact,  of  the  the b u r i a l s  in association). the  persona,  increase  of the c r e m a t i o n  fall  but and  and  A).  In  between t h e  two  brown/olive  t h e o t h e r hand, t h e d i v e r s i t y  one  cover)  has  cremation b u r i a l s  in Period  I n s t e a d of a  jars  i n grave I I I has one-  t h e s e a r e now the  individual  of the b u r i a l  goods has  (the allied  The  dead  burial with  variability gone.  a  to-  s u p e r n a t u r a l s o u r c e s o f power,  w i t h s y m b o l i c o b j e c t s o f power  ceramic  power, a s o c i a l respect  is  the  however,  i s subordinate to a corporate i d e n t i t y .  equipped the  ritual,  and  in  c o v e r e d by a n o t h e r  (Table  treatment  with  i s not  of w e a l t h  change  There  in  groupings: the o c h r e - g l a z e d group  group  On  of some  T h i s change  expenditure).  usually  II  differences  the presence  requires  j a r s are buried  smashed.  of  The  secondary  Period  the b a s i s  been much  c o n t a i n e r s themselves,  mortuary  vanishes  cluster  now  stylistic  the ochre  ritually  goods  and  the  to  more e n e r g y  the brown/olive g l a z e d addition,  not  by  in  in differences  more c o r p o r a t e .  person  ceramic  or bowl.  increase  indicated  entails  deceased  protective dish  the  on  jars).  p a t t e r n s at P i l a .  t h e c e r e m o n i a l , as  structure  burial  t h e r e has  become l e s s p e r s o n a l and in  of b u r i a l s  (expre s s e d i n terms  suggesting that  egalitarian  of b u r i a l s  the are  jar, social with  1 76  While personal  the power  importance  of  decreasing of  Period of  create  a  identity,  bones,  symbolic  mat  shroud  around  protection.  by  protection  identity,  a r e now  of  required.  paradigm  power  and  action  has d e c l i n e d .  This  of o n e - t o - o n e  power has t a k e n p l a c e , importance,  that  itself is  loosely  sufficient  in  Period  to III  i s required;  p u t i n s i d e a j a r and container  for  i s n o t enough t o e n s u r e  remains,  the  II the presence  remains,  be  i n the in  ceramics,  deceased,  ceramic  the  action  t h e body, was  must  Thus s y m b o l i c power  physical  ideological  another  increase  in Period trade  the  prepared,  decrease  an  encasement of t h e b o d i l y  ritually  a  ritual  Whereas  small,  covered  and  the  of  material  show  individual  a p r o t e c t i v e area around  usually  of  burials  i n s y m b o l i c power.  in  complete the  the  social  an a s s o r t m e n t  wrapped  III  as  well  i n d i c a t e s that  as  a  full  safety; social  a change i n the  r e l a t i o n s h i p with the sources  social  action  has  increased  w h i l e t h e power of i n d i v i d u a l a n d  in  ritual  177  10.  CONCLUSIONS The  principal  applicability  The  data  The  symbolic  Chapter  2,  under  the  analysis  in  and  Chapter  ritual;  Pila or  related  The  with respect at  Pila, and  were d e s c r i b e d i n theoretical 2.3)  organizing  "Social  model  systems:  structural  defines  issues  and  ethnographic  which  symbolic  the  interpretation.  (section  incorporates a  system,  general  and  i n t e r m s of t h r e e s u b -  i t also  cultural  paradigm,  3,  test  sites  approaches  Theory"  2.4).  to  been t o combine p r o c e s s u a l  these  "Systems  (section  been  contemporaneous  g o a l has  of  has  model p r e s e n t e d ,  t o g e t h e r w i t h a number of  Organization"  social  two  to mortuary  features  categorized  outlined  from  secondary  approaches  primary  study  of t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c  to the mortuary Laguna.  g o a l of t h i s  the  was trade,  model  of  ideological  principle  of  the  of  Pila  test  the  society.  The mortuary data  basic data  from  procedures  (Chapters  Period  4,5,6,7 and  II f i r s t ,  evidence  of t h e e x t e n t and  stemming  from  the  data,  archaeology.  The  presence  a b s e n c e of  descent,  social  nature  of  relationships  and  nature  the ethnographic  excavation  or  followed  the  in  8) have  then  been  of c u l t u r e  model were  f o c u s of t h e a p p r o a c h  trade  analysis  change.  tested  was  specialization and  exchange  between g r o u p s of g r a v e  by  developed to  status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and  to  to look at P e r i o d III f o r  using procedures  roles,  the  of  Hypotheses analyzing  in processual look  based  for on  g o o d s ; and  wealth,  function;  patterns; culture  the  the  specific change  178  between  Periods  evaluated  study  utilitarian  Philippines. accounts,  10.1  I have not  since  my  are  study  restricted  to mortuary  Sub-System and  diversity  to  pattern  A.D.  of c e r a m i c  of p e r s o n - t o - p e r s o n  The  by  evidence  by  increasing  complexity  social  of t h i s  the prominent which wares. caused  Chinese  visible  ceramics  in  the  those  cultural  the  f o c u s of  patterns  Data  most  Analyses  evidence,  i n conjunction with  confirmed  the  pattern with respect to Trade  i s dated  was  (section  2.4),  that  component  century to  characteristics  them t o become c l o s e l y  that  cultural  with  the  system.  i t was  of t h e C h i n e s e  identified  the  t h e demand f o r  cultural  indicate of t h i s  well-  s t i m u l a t e d by  w i t h i n the P i l a  s t u d y , however,  12th  support  t r a d e r s was  the  already  to the  gives q u a l i f i e d  the C h i n e s e  ideological  physical  social in  the  partly  system  s t i m u l a t e d t h e e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r C h i n e s e The  the  ethnographic  deals with b u r i a l s ,  trade.  presented  t h e goods b r o u g h t  results  in  the c o n s i d e r a b l e  wares p r e s e n t ,  P e r i o d I I , which  s u g g e s t i o n made by H u t t e r e r  The  presented  material culture:  of t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c  established  the  t o the P i l a  contemporaneous e t h n o - h i s t o r i c a l antiquity  t h e a n a l y s e s were  data.  Conclusions related  The  of  structure  emphasized of  These a s p e c t s  but  Trade  The- r e s u l t s  symbolic  functions  r e s e a r c h was  relevant  III.  model.  In t h i s  the  and  i n t e r m s of t h e  ethnographic  and  II  trade  ceramics  symbolic  1 79  attributes. cermonies,  The the  v i e w of  the  locally  i n the  naturally  for  the  more  fact  that  this  developments  regarding and by  the  the  data  relations local  in Pila  here,  of  burials, It  economic  complexity,  ideology  the  and  specific  powerful be  way  function  context.  i s , in fact,  refute as  this  finite  notion.  In  objects, with  the  cultural  the  i n the  the  recursive  i n f l u e n c e , which factor.  t o be  two  ceramics  respect  same way  change  sub-groups  and  treatment.  of  this  in society  functioned  Pila,  i s not  i n the  in a  to  say  would  in another  P h i l i p p i n e s , the  to  main  same o b j e c t s  c l e a r evidence  specific  trade  of c e r a m i c s  patterns  c u l t u r e of very  supported  the  with  ideology  I I I a l s o shows a  role  In  Pader,  differences in style  i n the  assumed t h a t  these  responsible  well, that  appearance of  Because the  "automatically" There  that  is a  of  appear  Period  to evaluate  perspective.  i t may  There  impact, p a r t i c u l a r l y  with  from a n o t h e r and  respect  Hutterer's  of m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e upon  in general,  d i s t i n g u i s h e d by  to the  trade.  I t i s c l e a r as  is interesting  relation  in t h i s  demand.  t h e o r i e s of Hodder and  t e c h n o l o g i c a l develpment.  social  and  to p i n - p i n t a s i n g l e determining  from P i l a . an  supply  would have been a  a two-way p a t t e r n  patterns  and  manufactured  s o c i e t y were p a r t l y  r e c u r s i v e impact  had  in  that  of  similar  result  supported  symbolic  socio-cultural the  The  in r i t u a l s  would have become ( i n  nothing  in long-distance  it difficult respect  was  circle  is therefore  r e l a t i o n s h i p present makes  there  Philippines).  increase  were u s e d  i n d i s p e n s i b l e they  intensifying  suggestion internal  more f r e q u e n t l y t h e y  cultural literature  ceramics are  p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s and  seen  to  180  functional in  p r o p e r t i e s which g i v e the  the c o n t e x t  China, these  on  the  Franklin  relation China  object.  aspect  of t h e  essence,  comm.  artifact  artifact  and  collective  which  specialization  of  The  ceramics  ideological impact  t o be  enjoyed  i n the Chinese  connotations  and  conclude  t h a t H o d d e r ' s and  material  o b j e c t may  Social  valued,  context.  Sub-System:  by  the data  a  significant which  and  in  In C h i n a , i t ideological  the  (Franklin context  product  but  subordination  without  I983;pers.  represent  the  same o b j e c t s s u c h In t h i s  meanings from  power  respect, I  in different  Pila.  a  of many  Pader's a s s e r t i o n s , t h a t the  have d i f f e r e n t  i s supported  end  which g i v e the  i n the P h i l i p p i n e  r a t h e r than  of t h e  and  process  the  that in  include h i e r a r c h i c a l  function,  to the c o l l e c t i v e  of  and i t s  suggests  itself.  i s the core  of  work  i t i s a process  society  technological process,  specialists,  contexts,  of  The  in that culture,  i t s a s s o c i a t e d elements  individual 1984).  because  technology  fabric  i s the  In  manufacture  different.  represents a process  in China,  identity  and  technology  which  value  practices.  techniques,  process  important  the c o r p o r a t e  the  cultural  of b r o n z e  manufacturing  u n d e r l i e s the  organization,  and  i s completely  field  I t i s the  other  structure:  and  i n the  the ceramic  underlies  beliefs  situation  to ceramic  finite  of  local  o t h e r hand, t h e p l a c e of o r i g i n  goods, the  Ursula  is  of  o b j e c t , as a w h o l e ,  same  181  With respect applicability  of  to Period the  It  was  concluded  on  w e a l t h , w h i c h was  g r a v e goods in  ethnographic  that  expressed  (principally  treatment  egalitarian, division  of  affiliation  was  occasionally, distribution showed any majority  the  same a r e a .  With  of c l u s t e r i n g  i n the  form of  Period  II t h e  burial  social  evidence  of  The  l a c k of  whether  the  sub-groups,  differentiation the  style  of  in differences  h o m o g e n e i t y of  involved  of  one  (Mendoza),  sexual  females  possessed  tasks.  family  - only  that  Sub-group  and, Spatial  of  the  in that  i n one  there  social  two  sites  the  l a r g e area  cremation  within  groups.  i s evidence  for culture  complexity.  Whereas i n  III there major  jar  of  have been some  i n d i c a t e the  in Period i n t o two  may  kindred  does n o t  the  one-to-one  (non-lineal).  I I I , there  increased ritual  not  M a l e s and  wealthier  to Period  q u a l i t y of  b u r i a l s were a l s o l o c a t e d  concluded  r e l a t e d to the  respect  by  poorer  based  the  b u r i a l s were l o c a t e d the  was  e m p h a s i s on  nuclear  were m i n i m a l  and  tested.  basically  patterns  kindred  the  s o c i e t y was  t o the  I t was  distinct  The  confined  change  indicated  social  no  but  same k i n d s  Some o f  segregation  placed  individuals.  patterns  site.  form. Pila  in P i l a  quantity  ceramics),  burial  a network o f  the  the  i n the  wealthy  supported  in a l l aspects  engaged  evidence  of  trade  and  The  between  s t a t u s and  model  by  i n d i c a t e d that  bilateral  relationships equal  or  labour.  analyses  status differentiation  energy expenditure  burial  I I , the  presence  is clear  sub-groups,  (intact  or  as  smashed).  associated  g r a v e goods makes i t i m p o s s i b l e  individual  variability  present  of  in Period  to  II,  judge as  182  expressed visible two  in Period  major  Pila.  social  Tenazas  burials China; may  i n the b u r i a l  assemblages,  III.  The  groups,  i s m i s s i n g or merely  polarization  however,  is clearly  diffusion  of c u l t u r a l  similar  emphasis  on d e s c e n t g r o u p s  phenomenon was  Ryukyu a r c h a e o l o g y . i n the  a new  elements  the c o r r e s p o n d i n g d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  r e f l e c t a n o t h e r a s p e c t of c u l t u r a l  China  of t h e community element  regular  two  diffusion  in  and  social  South  social  groups  from C h i n a - an  i n t h e f o r m of l i n e a g e s .  o b s e r v e d by R.  After  into  from  Pearson  trade contacts started  s t r a t i f i c a t i o n appeared  A  i n h i s s t u d y of  14th c e n t u r y , t h e s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s  diversified,  into  s u g g e s t s t h e change t o s e c o n d a r y c r e m a t i o n j a r  indicates  increased  not  with  became  (R.  Pearson  1969:136).  Another cultural styles  elements  of  burials. along  likely  explanation  from C h i n a ,  jar burial While  sexual l i n e s ,  a p o w e r f u l element  period,  t h i s may  the from  same p a t t e r n inhumations  cremation society  layer  e v i d e n c e of  an  impact  in P i l a  t h e change  jar burials.  revert  in Period  two  by  fact  phase  and  this  in burial The  female  part  that  staying  the  in Pila  IV, o r e a r l y Ming may  of  style  to inhumation b u r i a l s  some of t h e s e c h a n g e s  not h a v e t h e d e e p - r o o t e d  between m a l e s  on P i l a c u l t u r e ;  were o n l y a t e m p o r a r y  patterns  the  of  differentiation  of C h i n e s e c u l t u r e  stimulated  to cremation  jar burials  suggests that did  which  (the b u r i a l  succeeding  have had  involves diffusion  r e p r e s e n t male and  differentiation  f e m a l e s was and  I I I may  I I shows no  social  also  i s the p o s s i b i l i t y that  in Period  Period  which  i n the  period)  have been b o r r o w e d  power o f l o c a l c u s t o m .  and In  183  his  study  a change regular change  of Okinawan from  folk  egalitarian  c o n t a c t took  Ritual  (Lebra  The P i l a burial  affairs evidence  model  supernatural  from  cast  lack  ritual  the great  social  treatment  vested  spirit  world  f a m i l y members. interest was  one,  goods (and markers).  of  symbolic  by use i n t h e most  about  of t h e l i f e  status.  to  Clearly Once  have t h e  and w e l l - b e i n g of  f a m i l y w o u l d have a  sure the t r a n s i t i o n  smooth a n d s u c c e s s f u l ,  designed  t h e body.  to a higher  The e n t i r e  i n making  visible  goods o r s o c i a l  becomes an a n c e s t o r , h e / s h e w i l l  to influence a l l aspects  The  of t h e  of t h e g r a v e  purity  person  level.  pattern.  - represents a procedure  a r e a of r i t u a l  conduct  - t h e w r a p p i n g of t h e  sanctified  the deceased  strong  this  together with a c o l l e c t i o n  i s making a t r a n s i t i o n  surviving  family  importance  of u t i l i t a r i a n  cermonies  p a t t e r n of  e l e m e n t i s t h e most  the deceased  the  or n u c l e a r  significance  wares o f t h e t y p e  a protective  ability  This  and t h e p e r s o n a l  P e r i o d II supports  i n the symbolic  i n a shroud,  important  after  and a marked  ideological  ritual,  on t h e i n d i v i d u a l  The homogeneous m o r t u a r y  ceramic  d e f i n e d an  powers: the r i t u a l  the c o r r e s p o n d i n g  deceased  and C h i n a .  element i n a l l a s p e c t s of  petitionaray  assemblages r e f l e c t  reflected  o c c u r r e d i n Okinawa  Sub-System:  worship,  ritual  reports that  1966:105,107).  The e t h n o g r a p h i c ancestor  roles  of s t a t u s f o r females  i n the h i e r a r c h i c a l  organization  of  social  W i l l i a m Lebra  p l a c e between Okinawa  included a loss  increase  religion,  thus c a r e f u l  to the attention  184  to  ritual  requirements  w o u l d be  regarded  as  critically  important. Regarding  the a s p e c t  the mortuary p r o c e s s , variability of  the  of  burial  followed, specific afford  but  ritual,  on  the  treatment. i t i s up  with  essence,  ritual  and  rigid,  agricultural pattern  spirits focus  of  In change. roles.  The  be  society,  in other  burials  found  role  must  doubt  on  be  Within in a  one-to-one In  to  respect to  the  attributed  l a c k of  great  energy  egalitarian ritual  and  to personal  ancestor  ritual extent  a not  societies.  i n c r e a s e d e m p h a s i s on  are cremations  non-  the  p a t t e r n shows e v i d e n c e  and  beliefs  social  power, t o an  elements of b u r i a l ritual  an  this  in other, e g a l i t a r i a n ,  and  can  this  s t r u c t u r e of  Similarities  with  which  what t h e y  however, makes t h e m o r t u a r y  r e v e a l an  essential  of b u r i a l s  affairs.  in particular  powerful  homogeneous i n t e r m s o f majority  no  availability.  relationships  P e r i o d I I I , the The  homogeneity  members t o d e c i d e  c o n s t r a i n t s i n the  ritual  societies,  in this  found  individual  the  process  members a r e p a r t i c i p a t i n g  p a t t e r n may  The  ritual  entombed, b a s e d  formal  of p a r t i c u l a r l y  always  proper  in  i n the  p a t t e r n s r e v e a l a l a c k of b o u n d e d n e s s ,  of o n e - t o - o n e  boundedness.  lies  the a l l - p o w e r f u l s u p e r n a t u r a l f o r c e s .  i n the conduct  ideological  The  p e r s o n a l c h o i c e and  relationship  a b s e n c e of  the proof  responsibility  when c o n t r a s t e d w i t h  t o the  be  surviving  the  individual/family  I suggest  the d e t a i l s ,  wares w i l l  and  of  energy and  treatment  of  culture  social  are  expenditure  a l l jar burials  still -  the appear  to  185  be  accorded  indicate t o any  very  that  great  complexity, major  the level  replaced section  by on  reflects of  burial  status be  the  social  per  demarcation  the  burial  Period  of  The  complete  as  seen  the  i s increased  and  future or  no  burial involve that  jar  the  there  burial  done of  be  consistent will  be  in  data  of  protective  I I , i s now  augmented  by  s t y l e and  treatment  of  emphasis  burial  an  in  little that  or  there  p h a s e between t h e  the  Thus i s  increase  from P i l a .  trade no  of  in in  the the  power.  b u r i a l s at  of  on  protection  jar.  sites the  will  site  c e r a m i c s as  utilitarian will  be  the  I predict  homogeneous t h r o u g h o u t  use  the  itself  shows a d e c r e a s e  Sung/Yuan b u r i a l  will  associations;  burial  the  patterning  treatment  noted  symbolic  power, and  material  been  t o make a number of p r e d i c t i o n s on  e x c a v a t i o n s of spatial  the  i d e o l o g i c a l paradigm  social  and  physical protection  encasement w i t h i n  importance  analyses  by  in s t y l e  The  i s a new  remains: the  social two  ritual  may  changed  the  aspect.  in Period  there  yet  b o u n d e d n e s s has  i d e n t i t y (the  symbolic  the  of  The  of  is possible  p r e s e n c e of  differences  lack  not  This  Increased  sub-system, above.  purely  of  has  already  i m p o r t a n c e of  of  i n the by  In a d d i t i o n ,  wares  Pila  differentiation. seen  a social  jars).  I I I , the  It  of  remains.  c o n s t r a i n t s , as  se,  protection  ceramic  f o r m of  bodily  a more p h y s i c a l l y c o n s t r a i n e d ritual  physical  jars.  some s o c i a l  the  the  of  however, can  of  of  e g a l i t a r i a n aspect  sub-groups, c h a r a c t e r i z e d  treatment  role  s i m i l a r treatment  that  reveal  level; the  little  that  site  grave  basis  and  goods;  goods among  the  no  intervening  cremation  Sung/Yuan and  Ming p e r i o d  l e v e l s of  186  stratified  burial  measurable  i n t e r m s of m o r t u a r y  organization 10.2  in later  and t h a t  social  differentiation  treatment  Ming p e r i o d  and  reflect  results social  elements Pila,  from  Pila  indicate  i n mortuary  t h e q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y  important grave  indication  goods, such  majority  burials  I maintain  that  and i n t h e l i v i n g  status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n the nature  important  aspect  of  the cemetery areas  of  social  complexity  i s present  in style  community.  i n the vast  and q u a n t i t y from  of s t a t u s i n the  sexes.  Spatial  burials.  in a  i n that  spatial  p a t t e r n i n g at the s i t e  level  spatial  p a t t e r n i n g on s t y l i s t i c  society,  treatment, i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i s an  The o v e r a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n  l e d t o some c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t in Pila  grave  Where t h e r e i s l i t t l e  goods, and t h e b u r i a l  of the P i l a  Spatial  When one c l a s s of  i t i n d i c a t e s a range  l i k e w i s e homogeneous f o r b o t h  do  goods a r e a l s o an  between m a l e s and f e m a l e s  of the grave  remains  d a t a , but i n the case of  and s t a t u s .  but v a r i e s  Issues  complexity.  of grave  of wealth  be  spatial  mortuary  as the t r a d e c e r a m i c s ,  of b u r i a l s ,  grave,  that  o r g a n i z a t i o n and s o c i a l  a r e important  will  sites.  Conclusions Related to Methodological The  to  sites;  there  the nature  is little  o r no  i n P e r i o d I I , b u t some  grounds  i s present  i n Period  III .  Energy  expenditure  d i f f e r e n c e s may from  society  energy  in a burial  be a v a r i a b l e  to society.  expenditure  from  with  respect to status  subject to individual  In P i l a , burial  site  differences  t h e r e a r e no d i f f e r e n c e s i n  to burial,  either  i n P e r i o d II or  187  Period  III.  There  expenditure  from P e r i o d  to a general not  increase  y e t any g r e a t  Period phase  i s , however, an o v e r a l l  Period  burials  The P e r i o d  represent  a rather  stratification. transitional  in Period  of mortuary  I I I cremation  treatment  jar burial  phase,  cultural  p h a s e w h i c h f o r some r e a s o n d i d n o t l a s t .  that  that  there  with  the m a t e r i a l  there and by  the evidence  i s a high  patterning  of t h i s  This  conclusion  archaeologists,  of past  cultural  On t h e o t h e r  made p o s s i b l e  by t h e a n a l y t i c a l  Conclusions Regarding  evidence  general  effects  increase  between t h e i d e o l o g y supports  made  to approach  holistic  argument  i s only  up by f o l l o w i n g  approach.  Issues  and s o c i a l  complexity,  long-distance  and was one o f t h e e l e m e n t s in sociocultural  the claims  i t i s possible  to Theoretical  suggests that  i n keeping  system, and t h a t  framework b u i l t  the issue of trade  from P i l a  important  Related  principles  hand, t h e e n t i r e  procedures of the processual  10.3  supports the notion  s y s t e m s f r o m a more  perspective.  the  that  which  a temporary  cultural  degree of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  the symbolic study  from P i l a  i s a u n i f y i n g s e t of o r g a n i z i n g  the mortuary data.  the  may r e p r e s e n t  as those i n  a total  suggest  The  IV a r e i n h u m a t i o n  includes  I  I I I , but  of P h i l i p p i n e c u l t u r e .  followed  o f 55 b u r i a l s ,  seems t o p o i n t  in Period  social  o f t h e same p a t t e r n II.  This  complexity  development which  III.  in internal  may t h u s  i n the general  burials  in social  increase  III in Pila  Ming p e r i o d  II t o Period  d i f f e r e n c e i n energy  complexity  trade  the  had some  responsible  for a  between t h e e a r l i e r  188  and  the  later  difficult  to  periods. identify  The due  that  the  use  processes of  connected with  present.  l o s s of  e a r t h e n w a r e p o t t e r y ; and  The  between  q u a l i t y of be  true  of m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e , s u c h as m e t a l - w o r k i n g . imported ceramics distributed  There relations  represented  throughout  i s no with  redistributive ideological  the  patterns  as of  to maintain  that  such Pila  Ethnography  shows t h a t  element: s h i f t i n g economy had  or  and  relations  at  created the  1984,  local  w o u l d have c r e a t e d  social  The  of a n c e s t o r  Pila  a mixed  patterns  an  acted  as  a  trade.  mobile with  Eder's  of  a receptive climate  w o r s h i p and  the  hunting/gathering  (cf.  mechanisms t o h a n d l e  to  any  important  familiarity  type  to  evidence  i n h a b i t a n t s to a  This  exchange  alien  long-distance  f o r e i g n m e r c h a n t s , as  appropriate rituals  The  and  power, or  seem t o be  f o r a good e t h n o g r a p h i c  pattern  with  elements  differentially  of  b a s e was  regional level  ecological adaptation).  contacts  the  economic  similar  trade  other  trade  sociocultural  a long-standing  local  B a t a k of P a l a w a n :  regular  society.  a g r i c u l t u r e and  accustomed the  existence  the  features  increase  the  was  locally-made  of  w e a l t h w h i c h was  suggests that c e r t a i n i n t e r n a l stimulant  events  O w n e r s h i p of  l e d to a c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  focus,  show  population.  indication  China  various  patterns  i n a l l ceremonial  same may  are  reinforcement the  cultural  s t a t u s and  the  aspects  of m u t u a l  in operation  Chinese ceramics the  determining  to a process  w h i c h a p p e a r s t o have been sociocultural  specific  exchange  study  case  of  study  the of  subsistence f o r the  initial  w e l l as e s t a b l i s h i n g  inter-group  contact.  animism p r e v a l e n t  in  a  189  Philippine  i d e o l o g y became c l o s e l y  functional  p r o p e r t i e s of the ceramic  an  increasing  demand  I conclude new  theoretical  culture  process.  that  f o r these  this  equilibrium, organization, elements  from  bifurcation  general  instability,  from  stage  and c h a n c e  a variety  of c u l t u r a l  self-  model w h i c h  combines  (as i n the models  of causes,  in unpredictable directions).  patterns d i f f i c u l t  levels  p a t t e r n s of  t h e o r y : by w h i c h a s m a l l change o r a  a model g i v e s us a t h e o r e t i c a l cultural  as open  i n c o n d i t i o n s o f non-  we a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h a u s e f u l history  of the  f o r the study of  systems a r e viewed  themselves  of d e t e r m i n i s m ,  change  the p o t e n t i a l  t o systems t h e o r y ,  and w h i c h show d i f f e r e n t i a l  derived  system  w a r e s , and t h i s s t i m u l a t e d  supports  When c u l t u r a l  systems which m a i n t a i n  with the p e r c e i v e d  artifacts.  study  approaches  linked  framework  to relate  evolution.  can l e a d  I suggest  to a that  f o r dealing with  t o t h e more  convenient  such  190  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Addis, J.M. 1968 The d a t i n g of C h i n e s e p o r c e l a i n f o u n d i n t h e Philippines: A historical retrospect. 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Review of A n t h r o p o l o g y V o l . 1 3 : 2 7 5 - 3 0 0 . T u k e y , John W. 1977 E x p l o r a t o r y Data  Analysis.  New  York:  Annual  Addison-Wesley.  Ucko, P e t e r J . 1969 E t h n o g r a p h y and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of f u n e r a r y remains. World A r c h a e o l o g y 2(2):262-280. Underhill 1983  K i n g s c o t t , Anne A M o r t u a r y A n a l y s i s o f t h e Dawenkou C e m e n t e r y S i t e , Shadong, C h i n a . U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. Thesis, University of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and Soc i o l o g y .  202  Van  d e r P i j l - K e t e l (ed.) 1976 The C e r a m i c L o a d Amsterdam.  of the Witte-Leeuw.  Rijksmuseum,  W i n z l e r , R o b e r t L. 1976 E c o l o g y , C u l t u r e , S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n and S t a t e Formation in Southeast A s i a . Current Anthropology 17(4):623-640 Wolf,  Eric 1982  Wood, John 1973  Wu  R. E u r o p e and University  the People Without H i s t o r y . of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s .  Berkeley:  J . and R.G. M a t s o n Two m o d e l s of s o c i o c u l t u r a l s y s t e m s and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l study of change. I n , The E x p l o r a t i o n of C u l t u r e Change, e d i t e d by C. R e n f r e w , pp.673-684. L o n d o n : D u c k w o r t h .  Ching-Hong 1959 A s t u d y of r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e P h i l i p p i n e s i n C h i n e s e s o u r c e s from t h e e a r l i e s t t i m e s t o t h e M i n g D y n a s t y . P h i l i p p i n e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and H u m a n i t i e s Review XXIV ( J a n u a r y - J u n e ) , No. 1-2: 75-76.  Yeo,  S.T. 1978  and J e a n M a r t i n C h i n e s e B l u e and W h i t e C e r a m i c s . Orientalis.  Singapore:  Arts  Zamora, M a r i o D. (ed) 1967 S t u d i e s In P h i l i p p i n e A n t h r o p o l o g y ( I n h o n o u r of H. O t l e y B e y e r ) . Quezon C i t y : A l e m a r P h o e n i x P u b l i s h e r s .  APPENDIX A  Tables  20k  TABLE A-l> ' T a b l e o f T r a d e C e r a m i c C a t e g o r i e s a t P i l a ( w i t h code symbol =56.  Total  in brackets).  Total  by T y p e a n d F u n c t i o n  number o f  ware/types  number o f i t e m s = 6 2 7 . No. o f Items  TRADE CERAMIC GLAZE TYPES L e a d - g l a z e d (L) B r o w n - g l a z e d (B) O c h r e - g l a z e d (0) G r a y - g l a z e d (G) C e l a d o n (C) W h i t e - w a r e s (W): T e - h u a (T) C h ' i n g - p a i (CH) S p o t t e d C h ' i n g - p a i (SCH) E a r l y b l u e - a n d - w h i t e (BLWHITE) M i s c e l l a n e o u s c e r a m i c s (MISCCER) Total TRADE CERAMIC FUNCTIONAL  20 143 99 98 162 71 12 10 3 9 =  627  CATEGORIES  Lead-glazed: J a r l e t (LJARLET) T e a p o t (LTEAPOT) W a t e r d r o p p e r (LWATERDR)  13 5 2 Total  =  Brown-glazed: J a r l e t (BJARLET) J a r (BJAR) B o t t l e (BBOTTLE) T u m b l e r (BTUMBLER) T e a p o t (BTEAPOT) V a s e (BVASE) C o v e r e d - b o x p a r t (BBOX) Bowl (TemmokuMBBOWL)  20  48 6 60 18 4 2 3 2 Total  =  143  205 TABLE  A - l , i Continued.  No.  of  Items Ochre-glazed: J a r l e t (OJARLET) J a r (OJAR) T u m b l e r (OTUMBLER) Bowl (OBOWL) S a u c e r (OSAUCER) B o t t l e (OBOTTLE) T e a p o t (OTEAPOT) K e n d i (OKENDI)  37 7 32 13 7 1 1 1 Total  = ..  Gray-glazed: Bowl (GBOWL) D i s h (GDISH) S a u c e r (GSAUCER) Jarlet (GJARLET) T e a p o t (GTEAPOT) W a t e r - d r o p p e r (GWATERDR) Kuan (GKUAN) F l o w e r - p o t (GFLOWERP) C o v e r e d - b o x p a r t (GBOX)  34 14 17 19 3 2 2 2 5 Total  =  Celadon: J a r l e t (CJARLET) D i s h (CDISH) S a u c e r (CSAUCER) Bowl (CBOWL) Kuan (CKUAN) I n c e n c e - b u r n e r (CINCENSE) C o v e r e d - b o x p a r t (CBOX) Cup (CCUP) T e a p o t (CTEAPOT)  98  81 33 13 16 7 2 4 3 3 Total  White-wares: Te-hua Bowl (TBOWL) D i s h (TDISH) S a u c e r (TSAUCER) V a s e (TVASE) Covered-box part  99  =  162  35 12 5 4 15  (TBOX) Total  =  71  2 0 6 T A B L E A-11  Continued.  No. o f Items  White-wares - cont'd. Ch'ing-pai Teapot (CHTEAPT) Cup (CHCUP) .. Bowl (CHBOWL) C o v e r e d - b o x p a r t (CHBOX)  4 3 3 2 Total =  Spotted Ch'ing-pai F i g u r i n e (SCHFIG) J a r l e t (SCHJARLT) Balimbirig ( f r u i t - s h a p e d j a r l e t ) (SCHBALIM) Kuan (SCHKUAN) D o u b l e - g o u r d (SCHGOURD) . Total = Early Blue-and-white B a l i m b i n g (BLWHITE)  2 2 1 3 2 10 3  Total = M i s c e l l a n e o u s c e r a m i c s (MISCER) Bowl (MISCER) Saucer (MISCER) C o v e r e d - b o x p a r t (MISCER) Total = FOOTNOTE TO T A B L E  12  3 3 5 1 9  1:  Lumping p r o c e d u r e s (from o r i g i n a l d a t a t a b l e s i n Tenazas r e p o r t ) : C o n t r a c t e d "medium" and " l a r g e " t y p e s . C o n t r a c t e d " p l a t e s " and " d i s h e s " ( e . g . 2 - f i s h d i s h , 1 - f i s h dish, etc.) under "dishes". Contracted various types of l a r g e r j a r s (e.g. t a l l , widemouth j a r , s p h e r i c a l j a r , e t c . ) u n d e r " j a r s " . C o n t r a c t e d " s m a l l " and "medium- t y p e s o f v a s e s and b o t t l e s under "vase" or " b o t t l e " . C o n t r a c t e d c o v e r s and b o t t o m s o f " c o v e r e d - b o x p a r t s " u n d e r " c o v e r box p a r t " . Earthenwares: i n c l u d e d 1 f l o w e r p o t under "pots".  TABLE A - 2 1  Table  of Non-ceramic A r t i f a c t  (with  c o d e symbol  Categories  at  Pila  i n brackets).  No. o f Items EARTHENWARES P o t (EPOT) K e n d i (EKENDI) Bowl (EBOWL) S t o v e (ESTOVE) C o v e r (ECOVER) P o t S t a n d (EPOTSTAN)  .  Total  46 26 2 6 1 1 =  82  IRON B l a d e (IBLADE) Fragments (IFRAG)  25 15 Total  =  40  BRONZE OBJECTS R i n g (BRONZE) F r a g m e n t (BRONZE) Bowl (BRONZE) M i r r o r (BRONZE) D i s c (BRONZE)  6  . , Total  ~  T  =  6  LEAD B r a c e l e t (LBRACELT) O b j e c t (LOBJECT)  1 2 Total  =  3  MISCELLANEOUS POTTERY OBJECT (MISCPOT)  3  Total  =  .3  U T I L I T A R I A N OBJECT S p i n d l e Whorl ( S P I N D L E ) Net S i n k e r (NSINKER)  2 2 Total  =  4  MISCELLANEOUS WEALTH OBJECTS (WEALTH)  .29  Coins, g o l d , beads, g l a s s b r a c e l e t , g l a s s b o t t l e s , worded s t o n e o b j e c t s , pebbles, quartz object.  . Total  =  29  TABLE A-3a INHUMATION BURIALS AND ASSOCIATED GRAVE GOODS PERIOD I I : S I T E 1 (AGRA) C a t e g o r i e s : L e a d , Brown, O c h r e , G r e y , a n d C e l a d o n Wares  Site  Burial  Ceramics  Depth  L J A R L E T  L T E A P 0 T  L W A T E R D R  B d A R L E T  B J A R  B B 0 T T L E  B T U M B L E R  B' T E A P 0 T  B V A S E  B B 0 X  B B 0 W L  0 d A R L E T  0 d A R  0 T U M B L E R  0 B 0 W L  0 S A U C E R  0 B 0 T T L E  0 T E A P 0 T  0 K E N D I  G B 0 W L  G D I S H  G G d A A U R C L E E R T  s  G T E A P 0 T  G W A T E R D R  G K U A N  G F L 0 W E R P  G B 0 X  2 1 1  C d A R L E T  C C C C B K D I A 0 U U W A H C L N E R  2 4 2 . 2  . . 2 2 1  s  s  50 83 78 60 1  16 15 1 1 10 9  85 115 103 103 109  19 26 65 95 96  9 9 9 9 8  11 1 93 95 95 83  98 171 2 54 58  8 8 7 7 7  103 95 101 134 88  2 . 2 1 3 1  70 100 102 134 140  7 7 7 7 7  11 1 59 65 78 81  1 1 2 .  175 179 75 76 88  7 7 6 6 6  109 82 101 100 56  97 120 126 21 24  6 6 6 5 5  1 10 96 87 97 85  1 1  1  1 1  C I N C E N C E  C B 0 X  C C U P  C T E A P 0 T  1 3  1 1 1  1 1 1  2 1  . 1 1 1  1 1  1 1 . 1  2 1 1 1 3  1 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 . . 1  2 .  1 1 1 1 1 .  1 . ro O 00  TABLE A-3a INHUMATION BURIALS AND ASSOCIATED GRAVE GOODS PERIOD I I : S I T E 1 (AGRA) C a t e g o r i e s : L e a d , Brown, O c h r e , G r e y , a n d C e l a d o n Wares  Site  Burial  Ceramics  Depth  27 40 47 57 108  96 100 125 95 50  133 141 25 28 30  101 89 55 104 96  34 39 45 59 109  98 95 78 61 95  11 1 125 158 173 180  53 109 80 107 102  8 38 43 44 64  75 122 106 20  77 79 82 90 106  75 1 10 100 55 100  L J A R L E T  L T E A P 0 T  L W A T E R D R  B J A R L E T  B J A R  B B 0 T T L E  B T U M B L E R  B T E A P 0 T  B V A S E  B B 0 X  B B 0 W L  0 J A R L E T  0 J A R  0 T U M B L E R  0 B 0 W L  0 s A U C E R  D B 0 T T L E  0 T E A P 0 T  0 K E N D I  G B 0 W L  G D I S H  G S A U C E R  G J A R L E T  G T E A P 0 T  G W A T E R D R  G K U A N  G F L 0 W E R P  G B 0 X  C J A R L E T  C D I s H  C S A U C E R  C B 0 W L  C K U A N  C I N C E N C E  C B 0 X  C C U P  c T E A P 0 T  1 . 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 . . 1  o  TABLE A-3a INHUMATION BURIALS AND ASSOCIATED GRAVE GOODS PERIOD I I : S I T E 1 (AGRA) C a t e g o r i e s : L e a d , Brown, O c h r e , G r e y , a n d C e l a d o n Wares  Site  Burial  Ceramics  Depth  1 13 159 168 4 9  70 83 70 98  12 49 66 80 81  105 1 15 70 95 95  84 107 1 12 1 15 135  84 83 77 80 91  160 167 169 181 182  78 95 120 85 98  6 13 16 17 18  95 1 10 89 68 102  22 29 46 48 51  83 79 83 127 99  L 0 A R L E T  L T E A P 0 T  L W A T E R D R  B J A R L E T  B J A R  B B 0 T T L E  B T U M B L E R  B T E A P 0 T  B V A S E  B B 0 X  B B 0 W L  0 J A R L E T  0 J A R  0 T U M B L E R  0 B 0 W L  0 0 B A 0 U T C T E L R E  s  0 T E A P 0 T  0 K E N D I  G B 0 W L  G G G D S J I A A U R H C L E E R T  s  G T E A P 0 T  G W A T E R D R  G K U A N  G F L 0 W E R P  G B 0 X  C J A R L E T  C C C C B K D I A 0 U U W A H C L N E R  s  s  C I N C E N C E  C B 0 X  C C U P  C T E A P 0 T  O  TABLE A-3a INHUMATION BURIALS AND ASSOCIATED GRAVE GOODS PERIOD I I : S I T E 1 (AGRA) C a t e g o r i e s : L e a d , Brown, O c h r e , G r e y , a n d C e l a d o n Wares  Site  Burial  Ceramics  Depth  52 53 55 61 68  92 69 67 78 63  71 72 85 87 91  66 89 11 1 56 54  92 103 104 1 18 119  85 102 72 105 80  142 143 145 149 151  58 56 85 81 57  155 174 10 20 23  107 101 89 95 91  36 41 86 99 121  114 102 106 87 74  L J A R L E T  L T E A P 0 T  L W A T E R D R  B B B B B B J xj B T T V A A 0 U E A R R T M A T B P E L E L L 0 T E E T R  s  B B 0 X  B B 0 W L  0 J A R L E T  0 J A R  0 T U M B L E R  0 B 0 W L  0 S A U C E R  0 B 0 T T L E  0 T E A P 0 T  0 K E N D I  G B 0 W L  G D I S H  G S A U C E R  G 0 A R L E T  G T E A P 0 T  G W A T E R D R  G K U A N  G F L 0 W E R P  G B 0 X  C C D J A I R L H E T  s  C 'C B A 0 U W C L E R  s  C K U A N  1  . . . .  1  . . . .  1  . . . .  1  . . . .  1 1  . . . . . . . .  C I N C E N C E  C B 0 X  C C U P  C T E A P 0 T  1 1  1  1 . . . .  1  1 1  . . . .  (V)  TABLE A-3a INHUMATION BURIALS AND ASSOCIATED GRAVE GOODS PERIOD I I : S I T E 1 (AGRA) C a t e g o r i e s : L e a d , Brown, O c h r e , G r e y , a n d C e l a d o n Wares  Site  Burial  Ceramics Depth  122 123 124 132 144  87 66 112 105 95  148 157 165 170  68 92 78 100  L U A R  L L TW E A A T  B J A R  B U A R  B B O T  B T U M  B T E A  B V A S  B B O X  B B O W  O J A R  O J A R  O T U M  O B O W  O S A U  O B O T  O T E A  O K E N  G B O W  G D I S  G S A U  G J A R  G T E A  G W A T  G K U A  G G F B L O O X  C J A R  C D I S  C S A U  C B O W  C K U A  C I N C  C B O X  C C U P  C T E A  ro  TABLE  A-3b INHUMATION BURIALS AND ASSOCIATED GRAVE GOODS PERIOD I I : SITE 1 (AGRA) C a t e g o r i e s : Whitewares, M i s c e l l a n e o u s c e r a m i c s , Earthenwares, I r o n , Bronze, Lead, U t i l i t a r i a n , and Wealth  Site  Burial  Ceramics  Depth  T B 0 W L  T D I S H  T S A U C E R  T V A S E  50 83 78 60 1  16 15 1 1 10 9  85 1 15 103 103 109  1.1 .31 . 1 . 1 1  19 26 65 95 96  9 9 9 9 8  1 11 93 95 95 83  1 2  98 171 2 54 58  8 8 7 7 7  103 95 101 134 88  70 100 102 134 140  7 7 7 7 7  11 1 59 65 78 81  175 179 75 76 88  7 7 6 6 6  109 82 101 100 56  97 120 126 21 24  6 6 6 5 5  1 10 96 87 97 85  T B 0 X  C H T E A P T  C H C U P  C H B 0 W L  C H B 0 X  S C H F I G  S C H d A R L T  S C H B A L I M  S C H K U A N  S C H G 0 U R D  B L W H I T E  M I S C c E R  E P 0 T  E K E N D I  . 1 1 .  1 . 2 1  E B 0 W L  E S T 0 V E  E c 0 V E R  E P 0 T S T A N  I B L A D E  I F R A G  B R 0 N Z E  L B R A C E L T  L 0 B d E C T  S P I N D L E  N S I N K E R  M I S C P 0 T  WE AL TH  1 . . . .  1  11  . . . . 1 1 1  2  1 . . .  1 . . . .  2  1 1 . . . 1  1  1 . 1 . . 1 . . 11  ro * See Key ( f o l l o w i n g  Table  3.b)  TABLE A-3b INHUMATION BURIALS AND ASSOCIATED GRAVE GOODS PERIOD I I : S I T E 1 (AGRA) C a t e g o r i e s : Whitewares, M i s c e l l a n e o u s c e r a m i c s , Earthenwares, I r o n , B r o n z e , Lead, U t i l i t a r i a n , and W e a l t h  Site  Burial  Depth  T B 0 W L  27 40 47 57 108  5 5 5 5 5  96 100 125 95 50  1  133 141 25 28 30  5 5 4 4 4  101 89 55 104 96  34 39 45 59 109  4 4 4 4 4  98 95 78 61 95  11 1 125 158 173 180  4 4 4 4 4  53 109 80 107 102  8 38 43 44 64  3 3 3 3 3  75 122 106 20  77 79 82 90 106  3 3 3 3 3  75 110 100 55 100  * See Key ( f o l l o w i n g  Table  T D I S H  T S A U C E R  T V A S E  T B 0 X  C H T E A P T  C H C U P  C H B 0 W L  C H B 0 X  S C H F I G  S C H J A R L T  S C H B A L I M  S C H K U A N  S C H G 0 U R D  1 . . 1 1 1 3  . . . . 1 . . . 1 . . 1 . . . .  1  3 1 . . . .  1  1 .  . 1 . . . 1  1 . . . . 1 . . . .  3.b)  1 1  B L W H I T E  M I S C C E R  E P 0 T  E K E N D I  E B 0 W L  E S T 0 V E  E C 0 V E R  E P 0 T S T A N  I B L A D E  I F R A G  B R 0 N Z E  L B R A C E _i i-  Ceramics  L 0 B J E C T  s p I N D L E  N S I N K E R  M I S C p 0 T  WE AL TH *  TABLE A-3b INHUMATION BURIALS AND ASSOCIATED GRAVE GOODS PERIOD I I : S I T E 1 (AGRA) C a t e g o r i e s : Whitewares, M i s c e l l a n e o u s c e r a m i c s , E a r t h e n w a r e s , I r o n , Bronze, Lead, U t i l i t a r i a n , and W e a l t h  Site  Burial  Ceramics  Depth  113 159 168 4 9  70 83 70 98  12 49 66 80 81  105 1 15 70 95 95  84 107 112 115 135  84 83 77 80 91  160 167 169 181 182  78 95 120 85 98  6 13 16 17 18  95 1 10 89 68 102  22 29 46 48 51  83 79 83 127 99  * See Key ( f o l l o w i n g  T a b l e 3.b)  C C C C S S S B C L H H H H C C T C B B H H H H H W 0 0 G H W X 0 I L U T R E D  E P 0 T  E K E N D I  1 1 1  E B 0 W L  E S T 0 V E  E C 0 V E R  TABLE A-3b INHUMATION BURIALS AND ASSOCIATED GRAVE GOODS PERIOD I I : S I T E 1 (AGRA) C a t e g o r i e s : Whitewares, M i s c e l l a n e o u s c e r a m i c s . Earthenwares, I r o n , B r o n z e , Lead, U t i l i t a r i a n , and W e a l t h  Ceramics  Depth  T B 0 W L  T D I S H  T S A U C E R  T V A S E  T T B 0 X  Cc H T E A P T  CC H C U P  CC H B 0 W L  CC H B 0 X  SS C H F I G  SS C H d A R r-  Burial  -I  Site  SS c H B A L I M  SS c H K U A N  SS C H G 0 U R D  BB L W H I T E  M I S C C E R  1 1 1 1 1  52 53 55 61 68  1 1 1 1 1  92 69 67 78 63  1 1 1 1 1  71 72 85 87 91  1 1 1 1 1  66 89 111 56 54  1 1 1 1 1  92 103 104 118 119  1 1 1 1 1  85 102 72 105 80  1 1 1 1 1  142 143 145 149 151  1 1 1 1 1  58 56 85 81 57  1 1 1 1 1  155 174 10 20 23  1 1 .  107 101 89 95 91  .  1 1 1 1 1  36 41 86 99 121  . . . . .  114 102 106 87 74  .  E P 0 T  EE K E N D I  EE B 0 W L  EE E E E E S C P T 0 0 0 V T V E S E R T A N  I I B L A D E  II F R A G  B R 0 N Z E  L L B R A C E L T  LL 0 B d E C T  s S P I N D L E  NN M M S I I S N c K p E 0 R T  WE AL TH  .  .  1 1 . . . .  1 . .  1 . 2 1  2 . . . .  . 1 . . . .  ro * See Key ( f o l l o w i n g  Table  3.b)  ON  TABLE A-3b INHUMATION BURIALS AND ASSOCIATED GRAVE GOODS PERIOD I I : S I T E 1 (AGRA) C a t e g o r i e s : Whitewares, M i s c e l l a n e o u s c e r a m i c s . Earthenwares, I r o n , B r o n z e , Lead, U t i l i t a r i a n , and W e a l t h  Burial  Ceramics  122 123 124 132 144  87 66 112 105 95  148 157 165 170  68 92 78 100  * See Key ( f o l l o w i n g  T B 0 W L  Depth  Table  T D I S H  T S A U C E R  T V A S E  T B 0 X  C H T E A P T  C H C U P  c H B 0 W L  C H B 0 X  S C H F I G  S C H J A R —i i-  Site  S C H B A L I M  S C H K U A N  S C H G 0 U R D  B L W H I T E  M I S C C E R  E P 0 T  E K E N D I  E B 0 W L  E S T 0 V E  E C 0 V E R  E P 0 T S T A N  I B L A D E  I F R A G  B R 0 N Z E  L B R A C E L T  L 0 'B J E C T  S P I N D L E  N S I N K E R  M I S C P 0 T  WE AL TH  1 1 1 .  3.b)  ->0  218 FOOTNOTE TO Key  TABLE  to Wealth  A-3b  column:  B u r i a l #50:  1 quartz  B u r i a l #83:  2 gold  B u r i a l #1:  7  B u r i a l #98:  coins 9  object  earrings (Chinese)  coins; pieces  of 3 tiny beads; B u r i a l #9»  Key  Key  to Bronze  1  of gold  glass bottles; small piece  1 opaque g l a s s  jewellery; 3 rounded  o f worked  bracelet.  column:  B u r i a l #98:  1 bronze  B u r i a l #88:  1 bronze d i s c ;  mirror  B u r i a l #120:  1 bronze  ring  B u r i a l #109:  1 bronze  ring  to M i s c e l l a n e o u s B u r i a l #10^:  Pottery  2 pottery  1 bronze  (Miscpot) discs  bowl.  column:  fragments pebbles;  stone.  TABLE A-4a INHUMATION BURIALS AND ASSOCIATED GRAVE GOODS PERIOD I I : S I T E 2 (MENDOZA) L e a d , Brown, O c h r e , G r e y , a n d C e l a d o n Wares Categories  Site  Burial  Ceramics  Depth  L d A RL E T  2 2 2 2 2  28 21 20 17 3  23 19 18 15 14  98 75  .  2 2 2 2 2  1 4 15 19 2G  1 1 6 6 6 6  78 80 80 70 76  2 2 2 2 2  32 58 13 16 36  6 6 5 5 5  73 100 61 71 91  2 2 2 2 2  6 22 27 5 12  4 4 4 3 3  73 88 75 60 58  2 2 2 2 2  14 25 41 45 31  3 3 3 3 2  64 115 92 70 53  1  2 2 2 2 2  42 43 44 2 8  2 2 2 1 1  87 89 15 54 83  . . . . .  1  L T E A P 0 T  L  B d A R L E T  W A T E R D R  1 . . .  99 93  B d A R  B B 0 T T L E  B T U M B L E R  5 1 1 4 . 2 . 1 .  6 3 1 3 1  1 . . . . 2 . 2 . . 1 . . . .  B T E A P 0 T  B V A S E  B B 0 X  B B 0 W L  1 . . . .  0 B 0 T T L E  0 T E A P 0 T  0 K E N D I  1 . 1 1 . 1 4 2 1 . 1 . 1 2 . 3  . . . .  . . . .  0 d A R  0 T U M B L E R  0 B 0 W L  0 S A U C E R  G D I S H  G S A U C E R  G d A R L E T  G T E A P 0 T  G W A T E R D R  G K U A N  G F L 0 W E R P  G B 0 X  2 . 1 . 1 . .  1 . .  . 2 1 . 1 .  1 1  C S A U C E R  C B 0 W L  3 2 . 3 1 1 . 3 1 1 .  1  1 2  1  C d A R L E T  C D I S H  C K U A N  C I N C E N C E  C B 0 X  C C u p  c T E A P 0 T  1  1  2  1 .  . 1 ,  G B 0 W L  1  1  2  1 . . 1 . .  0 d A R L E T  . 3  . 1  1  . .  . 1  . 2 . 1  3 1 1 .  1 .  1 . 1  . 1  1 . . . . 1 1 .  . 1 1 . . . . . 1 1 . . . . . 1 . . . .  . .  1 . 1 .  1 . . .  1 . . . . 1 . . . .  1 . 2 1 .  . 1 . . . . .  . . . . .  1 . . . . . . . . . . 1  1 . . .  1  . . 1 1  ro  TABLE A-4a INHUMATION BURIALS AND ASSOCIATED GRAVE GOODS PERIOD I I : S I T E 2 (MENDOZA) C a t e g o r i e s : L e a d , Brown, O c h r e , G r e y , a n d C e l a d o n Wares  Site  Burial  Ceramics  Depth  23 29 33 38 46  96 70 80 87 70  47 56 18 24 30  52 54 96 95 70  48 49 51 54 55  67 81 42 90 95  L J A R L E T  L T E A P 0 T  L W A T E R D R  B J A R L E T  B J A R  B B 0 T T L E  B T U M B L E R  B T E A P 0 T  B V A S E  B B 0 X  B B 0 W L  0 U A R L E T  0 0 A R  0 T U M B L E R  0 B 0 W L  0 S A U C E R  0 B 0 T T L E  0 T E A P 0 T  0 K E N D I  G B 0 W L  G D I S H  G S A U C E R  G J A R L E T  G T E A P 0 T  G W A T E R D R  G K U A N  G F L 0 W E R P  G B 0 X  C J A R L E T  C D I S H  C S A U C E R  C B 0 W L  C K U A N  C I N C E N C E  C B 0 X  C C U P  C T E A P 0 T  1 . . 1 . .  .  . 1  o  TABLE  A-4b INHUMATION BURIALS AND ASSOCIATED GRAVE GOODS PERIOD I I : S I T E 2 (MENDOZA) C a t e g o r i e s : Whitewares, M i s c e l l a n e o u s c e r a m i c s , Earthenwares, I r o n , B r o n z e , Lead, U t i l i t a r i a n , and W e a l t h  Site  Ceramics  Depth  T B 0 W L  28 21 20 17 3  23 19 18 15 14  98 75  1 .  99 93  3  1 4 15 19 26  1 1 6 6 6 6  78 80 80 70 76  1  32 58 13 16 36  6 6 5 5 5  73 100 61 71 91  1  6 22 27 5 12  4 4 4 3 3  73 88 75 60 58  2  14 25 41 45 31  3 3 3 3 2  64 115 92 70 53  42 43 44 2 8  2 2 2 1 1  87 89 15 54 83  Burial  T D I S H  T S A U C E R  T V A S E  T B 0 X  C H T E A P T  C H C U P  C H B 0 W L  C H B 0 X  S C H F I G  S C H J A R L T  S c H B A L I M  S C H K U A N  S C H G 0 U R D  B L W H I T E  M I S C C E R  E P 0 T  E K E N D I  E B 0 W L  . . .  E C 0 V E R  E P 0 T S T A N  I B L A D E  I F R A G  B R 0 N z E  L B R A C E L T  L 0 B J E C T  S P I N D L E  N S I N K E R  M I S C P 0 T  WE AL TH  1 .  1 1 . . .  E S T 0 V E  1 . 1  1 2  . . 1 1 2  1 . . 1 . 1 .  .1 11 1  1 .1  1 2  1 . . . .  1  ro ro * See Key ( f o l l o w i n g  Table  3.b)  TABLE A-4b INHUMATION BURIALS AND ASSOCIATED GRAVE GOODS PERIOD I I : S I T E 2 (MENDOZA) C a t e g o r i e s : Whitewares, M i s c e l l a n e o u s c e r a m i c s , Earthenwares, I r o n , Bronze, Lead, U t i l i t a r i a n , and Wealth  Burial  Ceramics  23 29 33 38 4G  96 70 80 87 70  47 56 18 24 30  52 54 96 95 70  48 49 51 54 55  67 81 42 90 95  * See Key ( f o l l o w i n g  T B 0 W L  Depth  Table  3.b)  T D I S H  T S A U C E R  T V A S E  T B 0 X  C H T E A P T  C H C U P  C H B 0 W L  C H B 0 X  S C H F I G  S C H J A R L T  S C H B A L I M  S C H K U A N  S C H G 0 U R D  B L W H I T E  M I S C C E R  E P 0 T  E K E N D I  E B 0 W L  E S T 0 V E  E C 0 V E R  E P 0 T S T A N  I B L A D E  I F R A G  B R 0 N Z E  L B R A C E -t r-  Site  L 0 B J E C T  S P I N D L E  N S I N K E R  M I S C P 0 T  WE AL TH *  ro ro  FOOTNOTE TO TABLE Key to Bronze column: B u r i a l #3* fragments o f bronze ornament.  Key to M i s c e l l a n e o u s  P o t t e r y (Miscpot)  column:  B u r i a l #4-8: p h a l l i c p o t t e r y o b j e c t .  TABLE  A-5. BURIALS WITH POTTERY  ANY POTS (TRA DE CERAMICS AND/OR EART HENWARE) AGR A No.of P o t s Per Burial 0  TRADE AGR A  MENDO ZA  No. o f Burlals  %  No. o f Bur 1 a 1s  5  3.9  3  %  No. o f Bur 1 a 1s  IN AGRA  AND MENDOZA  EARTH ENWARE  CERAMICS  %  No. o f Bur 1 a 1s  %  No . Of Bur i a 1s  %  No. o f B u r 1 a 1s  %  6. 7  17  13.2  8  17.8  82  63.6  31  68.9  22 . 2  21  24.8  9  20.0  37  28. 7  10  22.2  1  37  28 . 7  2  19  14.7  6  13.3  17  13.2  4  3  13  10. 1  7  15.6  13  10. 1  6  4  15  11.6  2  13  10. 1  3  6 . 7 6. 7  10  MENDO ZA  AGR A  MENDO ZA  4. 4  5  6  4. 7  5  11.1  9  7.0  3  6  9  0.7  5  11.1  6  4. 7  6  7  6  4. 7  8  8  6 . 2  1  2. 2  9  2  1 .6  5  3.9  10  4  3. 1  1  2. 2  1 1  1  0.8  1  2. 2  12  1  0.8  10  7. 8  3  2. 3  1  0.8  1  8.9 13.3  13.3  2. 2  7  5. 4  2  4.4  2  1. 6  1  2. 2  1  2. 2  1  0.8  TABLE  A-5. BURIALS WITH POTTERY  ANY POTS (TRA DE CERAMICS AND/OR EART HENWARE) AGR A No.of P o t s Per B u r i a l  TRADE AGR A  MENDO ZA  No. o f Burlals  %  No. o f B u r i a 1s  %  14  1  0.8  1  2. 2  15  1  0.8  1  2.2  16  1  0.8  No . o f B u r ( a 1s  IN AGRA  AND MENDOZA  EARTH ENWARE  CERAMICS AGR A  MENDO ZA  %  No. o f Bur 1a1s  %  1  2.2  1  2. 2  No. o f Bur 1 a 1 s  MENDO ZA  %  No. o f B u r 1 a 1s  13  1  0.8  1  0.8  17 18 19  1  2. 2  1  2. 2  1  2. 2  1  2. 2  1  2. 2  1  2. 2  i  20 21 22 23 N=  129  45  129  45  129  45  X  226  TABLE A - 6 :  Sample s i z e , mean, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n ( S . D . ) and coefficient of variation  ( C . V . ) of trade  ceramics  f r o m w e a l t h y a n d p o o r g r o u p s i n A g r a a n d Mendoza  S i t e o r group  Sample Size  % Of Total  Total No. o f Pots  Mean No. of P o t s per b u r i a l  S.D.  429  3.3  3.1  9.6  93.2  Variance  C.V.  AGRA Total  group  Wealthy Poor  group  group  129  100  37  28.7  272  7.4  2.5  6.4  34.4  92  71.3  157  1.7  1.3  1.7  76.6  198  4.4  5.4  29.6  123.7  MENDOZA Total  group  Wealthy Poor  group  group  45  100  15  33.3  151  10.1  6,1  101.3  60.9  30  66.7  47  1.6  1.4  1.8  86.6  L i s t o f trade ceramic c a t e g o r i e s by g l a z e type.  L  LEAD  B  BROWN  0  OCHRE  G  GRAY  C  CELADON  W  WHITEWARES: TE-TUA, CH'ING-PAI, SPOTTED CH'ING PAI, • EARLY BLUE and WHITE, MISC. CERAMICS  TABLE A - 8 :  L i s t of trade ceramic categories by function.  1.  CONTAINERS  LI  =  LJARLET  2.  DISHES  L2  =  0  B2  =  BBOX  3. L3  OTHER  =  LWATERDR  LTEAPOT Bl  =  BJARLET BJAR  BBOWL  BBOTTLE BTUMBLER BTEAPOT BVASE 01  =  OJARLET  02  =  OJAR  OBOWL OSAUCER  OTUMBLER OBOTTLE OTEAPOT OKENDI Gl  CI  W1  =  =  =  GJARLET  G2  =  GBOWL  GTEAPOT  GDISH  GKUAN  GSAUCER  GFLOWERP  GBOX  C JARLET  C2  =  CDISH  CKUAN  CSAUCER  CCUP  CBOWL  CTEAPOT  CBOX  WVASE  W2  =  TBOWL  CHTEAPOT  TDISH  CHCUP  TSAUCER  SCHJARLET  TBOX  SCHBALIM  CHBOWL  SCHKUAN  CHBOX  SCHGOURD BLWHITE  G3  =  GWATERDR  C3  =  CINCENSE  W3  =  SCHFIG  TABLE  Bur i a 1  Ceramics  50 83 78 60 1  16 15 1 1 10 9  19 26 65 95 96  9 9 9 9 8  98 171 2 54 ' 58  8 8 7 7 7  A-9. WEALTHY BURIALS AND ASSOCIATED A R T I F A C T S (GLAZE CATEGORIES) PERIOD I I : S I T E 1 (AGRA) C a t e g o r i e s : L e a d , Brown, O c h r e , G r a y , C e l a d o n , W h i t e w a r e s  L  B  0  G  C  W  1  3  2 3 1 1  3 2  4 6 4 4 3  3 4 5 1 1  1 3 1  1  1  2 1 1 2 1 3 2 1  1 4 5  1 2 1  1  4 4 2 2  1  5 1 2 2  1  2  2 5 5  1 1  2 2 1  2  6 3  E A R T H W A R  I R 0 N  B R 0 N Z E  L E A D  2 4 1  1 1  1 1 3 1  1  1 1 3  1 3 1  U T I L  WE AL TH  1 2  7  1  1  18  1  70 100 102 134 140 175 179 75 76 88  1  1  97 120 126 21 24  ro ro  TABLE A-9. WEALTHY BURIALS AND ASSOCIATED ARTIFACTS (GLAZE CATEGORIES) PERIOD I I : SITE 1 (AGRA) C a t e g o r i e s : L e a d , Brown, O c h r e , G r a y , C e l a d o n , W h i t e w a r e s  Site  Burial  27 40 47 57 108  Ceramics  I R 0 N  1 1 1  B R 0 N Z E  L E A D  U T I L  WE AL TH  1 2 1  133 141  o  TABLE A-10. WEALTHY Categories:  Site  Burial  BURIALS AND ASSOCIATED A R T I F A C T S PERIOD I I : S I T E 2 (MENDOZA) L e a d , Brown, O c h r e , G r a y , C e l a d o n ,  (GLAZE CATEGORIES) Whitewares  I R 0 N  Ceramics  28 21 20 17 3  23 19 18 15 14  13 8 6 6 3  1 4 15 19 26  1 1 6 6 6 6  2 2 2 1 1  32 58 13 16 36  6 6 5 5 5  B R 0 N Z E  L E A D  U T I L  WE AL TH  TABLE A-1 1 . WEALTHY BURIALS AND ASSOCIATED ARTIFACTS (BY FORM AND PERIOD 11 : S I T E 1 (AGRA) C a t e g o r i e s : L e a d , Brown, O c h r e , G r a y , C e l a d o n , W h i t e w a r e s ( 1 = C o n t a i n e r s , 2=Openforms, 3 = 0 t h e r )  Site  Burial  Ceramics  B 0 G C W 1 1 1 1 1  B O G C W 2 2 2 2 2  L G C W 3 3 3 3  FUNCTION)  E A R T H W A R  I R 0 N  B R 0 N Z E  50 83 78 60 1  16 15 1 1 10 9  2 2 3 4 . 3 1 6 . 1 . 2 3 1 . 1 I. 12  . 1 . 1 3  . 2 . 4 2 2 2 . 1 1  4 1 1 1  19 26 65 95 96  9 9 9 9 8  2 . . . I I . 4 12 1. 2 1 1 . 1 . 1 1  5 . 3 3 1  :1 1 2 1 . 2 . 1 2  1 1 3 1  1 . . .  98 171 2 54 58  8 8 7 7 7  2 1 2 . 1 .  . 1 . . 2 . 1 . 2 . 1 3  . . 1 1 3  1 1 1 3 1 . 1  70 100 102 134 140  7 7 7 7 7  2 2 2 1  . . . .  175 179 75 76 88  7 7 6 6 6  2 3 2 . 2  . 1 4 2 .  1 1 1 1  1 1 . 1  1 1 2 2  2 1 1 . 2  97 120 126 21 24  6 6 6 5 5  1 1 3 . 2 .  2 1 1 1 1 1  1 .1  1 1  1 1  L E A D  U WE T AL I TH L  18  1 1 1 . . 2 . 1 . 2 2 2 1 . 1 1  1 1 1  1 .  ro  TABLE A - 1 1 . WEALTHY BURIALS AND ASSOCIATED ARTIFACTS (BY FORM AND FUNCTION) PERIOD I I : S I T E 1 (AGRA) C a t e g o r i e s : L e a d , Brown, O c h r e , G r a y , C e l a d o n , W h i t e w a r e s ( 1 = C o n t a i n e r s , 2=Openforms, 3 = 0 t h e r )  Site  Burial  Ceramics  1 1 1 1 1  27 40 47 57 108  5 5 5 5 5  1 1  133 141  5 5  B 0 G C W 1 1 1 1 1  . . 3 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1  . . . . 1  . 2 2 2 .  . . 1 .  B 0 G C W 2 2 2 2 2  L G C W 3 3 3 3  I R 0 N  B R 0 N Z E  U WE T AL I TH L  . . . .1 . . . 1 . . . 2 .  1 . . 1  . . 3 . 1 1 . . 1 1  ro  TABLE A - 1 2 . WEALTHY BURIALS AND ASSOCIATED ARTIFACTS (BY FORM AND PERIOD I I : S I T E 2 (MENDOZA) C a t e g o r i e s : L e a d , Brown, O c h r e , G r a y , C e l a d o n , W h i t e w a r e s ( 1 = C o n t a i n e r s , 2 = Openforms, 3 = 0 t h e r )  Site  Burial  Ceramics  B 0 G C W 1 1 1 1 1  2 2 2 2 2  28 21 20 17 3  23 19 18 15 14  1 13 8 1 6 5 5 3 3 3 1  2 2 2 2 2  1 4 15 19 26  1 1 6 6 6 6  1 1  2 2 2 2 2  32 58 13 16 36  6 6 5 5 5  3 1 3 1 1 4 1  2 1 3 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 3 1 2  L G C W 3 3 3 3  . . . 1  . . . .  1 3 1 2 2 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 2 3  . 1  I R 0 N  B R 0 N Z E  U WE T AL TH  11 .2 4 2  . .  1 1  . .  2  . .  .2  1 1 2 1 1 4  1  B 0 G C W 2 2 2 2 2  FUNCTION)  1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1  . . . . .  . . . . .  ro  T A B L E  A - 1 3 . P e r i o d I I I c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l s i A g r a  ( T e n a z a s 19681 A p p e n d i x I I I )  BURIAL BURIAL NO.  PERIOD  DEPTH  IN  L E V E L  SQUARE  IN  CM.  10?  III  66  DIRECTLY  4  A-5  PITS  BURIAL  IN  ASSOCIATED C R A V E  R  GOODS  III  60  4  C-l  and  15  111  38  3  C-3  X  111  65  4  D-14  X  in  9!  4  E-13  R  K  S  c o r n e r of s o u t h e r n  i n the  lame  #5  square.  Located near northeast  corner.  baulk.  L o c a t e d about h a l i a m e t e r c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l 1161  northweet  from  in a b i g b r o k e n  stoneware  B o t h b u r i a l s w a r e found n e a r n o r t h w e s t  L o c a t e d juet a few c e n t i m e t e r s  X  baullt  i n c l o e e p r o x i m i t y to c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l  Jar.  32  A  F o u n d i n the b a u l k n e a r w e e t e r n  X  42  M  Located near weetern  X  above  11  E  VESSELS  b u r i a l #33  (below)'also in a pit.  be o n e o f t h e e a r l i e s t tered. #156)  from  Thie appeare  cremation buriale  Two other crematione  banlk.  cremation  In v e e s e l e  w e r e found in a h i g h e r l e v e l  to  encoun-  in the  (#31  and  same  • quare.  33  IU  75  4  E-13  X  73  in  56  4  G-ll  X  L o c a t e d n e a r c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l #32 poeaibly  Smalt Ch'ing-pai cover o n t o p of t h e  found  One  56  4  G-ll  Found  X  wee  111  26  3  H-B  X  J a r e In t h e  near eastern  Cremation burial. all  62  Ch'ing-pai pilgrim's and  celadon  jarlet.  flask  The pit  either  b r o k e n big etoneware j a r e o r t a l l o v a l o i d  earthenware  in  and  of t w o c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l e i n pite i n c l o e e  p r o x i m i t y to f i v e o t h e r c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l e  pit.  in  101  (above),  contemporary.  eame  square.  c o r n e r of e o u t h e a e t  #136.  (137.  # 138  in j a r e w e r e l a t e r d l e c o v e r e d  banlk.  a n d # 139  w h e n the  baulk  p a r t l y taken down. white  flash wae  f o u n d on t o p of the  cremation  w h i c h had a d e p t h of about 9 i n c h e s .  b o t t o m o f t h e pit a c e l a d o n j a r l e t w a s In the b o t t o m of t h e p i t t r a c e s mente were  recovered.  Near  the  recovered.  of r e d o c h r e  pig-  TABLE A-13  (continued) BURIAL  BURIAL NO.  PERIOD  DEPTH  IN  L E V E L  SQUARE  193  III  28  DIRECTLY IN  CM. 3  PITS  BURIAL  Big  L-7  brown  ware  154  III  JJ  3  large as  III  30  3  celadon  UI  51  3  Big  D-14  M  A  R  K  S  L o c a t e d just a few c e n t i m e t e r a - f r o m  c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l 11 54 i n a l a r g e c e l a d o n r i b b e d k u a a .  1 gray-glaead  dlah.  Broken.  L o c a t e d a few c e n t i m e t e r a  e a a t of  c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l « 1 5 3 . in a big b r o k e n J a r .  gray d l , h  brown  wire  161  E  cover.  Big  E-I3  R  GOODS  Smashed.  atpne-  r i bbed kuan with  156  ASSOCIATED G R A V E  Jar.  Large  L-7  IN  VESSELS  etone-  jar.  L o c a t e d n e a r c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l #31  an a c h r e - g l a t e d  spherical jar.  Fragments  In  of  c h a r r e d b o n e s w e r e found i n the J a r .  brown  ware  Smaahed.  atone-,  jar  Smaahed.  L o c a t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y one m e t e r  f r o m c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l #42  away  d i r e c t l y in a p i t .  Frag-  of c h a r r e d bonea w e r e r e c o v e r e d f r o m  ment,  the  jar.  162  111  40  3  Big  C-IB  b r o w n atone -  ware  163  111  25  3  Big  1-7  brown  ware  164  III  26  3  Big  1-7  III  29  3  Big  G-9  ISO  UI  37  3  Big  jar. etone-  jar. ollve-glaaad  Jar w i t h  impress,  character alternating  marks with  t h e 4 e a r a.  172  HI  45  3  Big  G-5  brown  ware 176  111  26  3  Big  H-5  etone-  III  29  3  Big  H-5  jar.  brown  ware 17B  III  27  3  Big  H-5  ware 3  III  50  3  A-4  5  III  75  4  A-6  X  X  jar.  L o c a t e d leaa than half a m e t e r  south-  e a a t of c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l 193 i n t a l l b r o w n j a r .  Smaahed.  recovered.  L o c a t e d about a m e t e r  b u r i a l #93  in a tall brown j a r .  Smaahed.  Scattered  found about a m e t e r Whole.  Near  i , t y p i c a l of the  cremation  r e m a i n , of u p p e r p a r t of J a r eaat n e a r a b ig  aouthweet baulk.  contenta d l , c l o , e d  w e e t of  atone.  E x a m i n a t i o n of  j u a t a p i e c e of w o r k e d b o n e .  ,mashed  cremation  Whether thie had a d i r e c t connection  with  cremation burial complex  queetion.  Smaahed.  remaine  Jar  veaoele. a  the  L o c a t e d p a r t l y in the b a u l k n e a r  Smaahed.  L o c a t e d i n c l o a e p r o x i m i t y to  b u r i a l #177  a n d #179  (below).  eaet  atone-  etone-  aligned  corner  of  equare.  Smashed. and  cremation  A l l three a r e  in E a , t - W e , t o r i e n t a t i o n f r o m eaatern  jar.  brown  baulk under  tree.  Smaahed.  the  177  F o u n d i n the n o r t h w e a t  a coconut  P»«-  Jar.  b r o w n atone -  ware  Smaahed.  T r a c e s of c h a r r e d bonea  brown  ware B-6  stone-  jar.  b r o w n stone -  ware 166  jar.  L o c a t e d between c r e m a t i o n  burial,  #176  #178.  Smashed.  L o c a t e d n e a r e a a t e r n c o r n e r of  the  square. F o u n d a few #117  centimeter,  L o c a t e d about one #105  , o u t h of c r e m a t i o n  burial  in b i g b r o k e n b r o w n s t o n e w a r e j a r .  in a  pit.  meter  eaat of c r e m a t i o n  burial  TABLE A - 13  (continued)  BURIAL BURIAL NO.  PERIOD  DEPTH  IN  L E V E L  SQUARE  CM. 128  UJ  DIRECTLY IN  42  3  E-14  BURIAL  PITS  IN  Ochra-glased apharical jar.  ing 38  3  1-9  49  3  C-10  R  Big  1 T8-hu*  Unbroken. peg .  F o u n d In s o u t h w e s t b a u l k n e a r  V e r y n e a r c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l #42  c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l #161  jar  in square  B-14  olive  brown 4-eared  1 gray-glased  saucer  u n g l a z e d r i n g in the  with center.  Smashed. In t h e  ovmloid  earthenware  in  31  3  O-10  Ochre-glased ovaloid  Broken fragments  dish were also recovered  F o u n d In t h e  bowl.  F o u n d lying just o v e r a in an  meter j  L o c a t e d In n o r t h e a s t  N e a r c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l #131  and  #116  tn the  4 ears.  b u r t a l s i n the s o u t h e a s t b a u l k of s q u a r e G - l l .  WMta  s a m e s q u a r e a n d the c l u s t e r of  baulk near  mouthed j a r with T 8 - h u a bowl  j  ochre-glased  alto broken.  Slightly cracked. east peg.  wide-  the I  n o r t h o f c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l #35  1 Tj-hua  of a  inside  s a m e square with c r e m a t i o n  a n d #131.  spherical jar, 110  #94  square.  F r a g m e n t s of u p p e r p e r t of b o d y f o u n d  Slightly cracked. Jar.  in-  Located near cremation burial  tower half o ( > r .  gray-glased  Till  stoneware'  U n b r o k e n T 3 - h u a bowl r e c o v e r e d  • ide the j a r .  b u r i a l s #130 3  west  la a pit,  in big broken  D-14.  In a w i n e p o t i n a d j a c e n t  eare.  jar.  30  A R K S  and  Smashed.  bowl.  etoneware  J»r  in  M  mouth.  etoneware  11?  E  cover-  greeniah-  Jar w i t h 4 III  cover.  foliated  found  the  Big ollve  lit  1 painted T s u - c h o u  Painted T a u -  cover  III  GOODS  4-eared  chou-type  114  ASSOCIATED GRAVE  VESSELS  cremation  at  covsr. 111  136  HI  in  40  34  3  3  G-10  G-ll  Ochre-glased  Smashed.  sphericaljar  peg,  with 4 v a r a .  of c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l s i n s q u a r e G - l l .  F o u n d In t h e n o r t h w e s t  baulk near north  a n d just a few c e n t i m e t e r s n e a r the  Lip r i m pressed  cluster  T a l l ova told  Cracked.  •arthanwara Jar.  i m p r e s s i o n of h e a v y p r e s s u r e f r o m a b o v e the b r e a k a g e .  Found near  o u t w a r d s g i v i n g the causing  southeast c o r n e r of  baulk. 117  m  3  C-ll  Big  brown Jar.  1 gray-glased  dish.  1  Broken.  L e s s than a m e t e r  b u r i a l #136  gray-  cover,  e a s t of  i n the s a m e b a u l k .  glazed d i s h aa  as  cover.  were recovered  also broken,  cremation  Had a gray dish  the f r a g m e n t s  Inside the j a r .  of  which  This burial  forme  a r o u g h t r i a n g l e w i t h c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l s #138  and  #139. in  56  3  G-ll  T a l l ovaloid earthenware jar  Smashed or cracked.  in  37  3  G-ll  Big  brown  ware jar,  L y i n g on its  side,  situated  s l i g h t l y l o w e r t h a n c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l s #137 #139.  139  stone-  1 gray-glased  gray-  diih.  and  The bottom lies near cremation burial  Broken.  F o u n d l y i n g on one  c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l #137.  g l a s e d d i i h ae  side.  Mouth  #152.  facing  Gray-glaaed dish lying  v e r t i c a l l y n e a r the H p m u s t h a v e  served as  cover.  cover. 1S2  in  ' i  | 34  Large  138  ^  48  3  G - l l  Big olive  brown  •toneware  jar;  1 celadon  i n the i n t e r i o r ,  Smashed. #137,  OB l a d o n d i s h , f l u t e d have been a  dish.  may  cover.  #138  Located near cremation burials a n d #139.  Beside  it w a s  #136.  a broken  celadon d i s h which m a y have b e e n a c o v e r  or  grave  #114  and  good  #116.  recalling cremation burials  a  TABLE A - 13  (continued)  BURIAL BURIAL NO.  PERIOD  DEPTH  IN  L E V E L  SQUARE  1  31  35  56  UI  III  in  29  49  35  DIRECTLY IN  CM. 3  3  3  E-13  B-14  F-12  BURIAL  PITS  IN  ASSOCIATED GRAVE  GOODS  R  E  M  A  R  K  S  VESSELS Ochre-glased  B r o k e n n e a r the H p .  spherical jar  northweat  with 4 e a r a .  broken jar.  Ochre-glased  Broken.  spherical jar  #129  Laid tideways.  Found  o f c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l f 156 i n b t g  Situated  south of c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l  in a tall ovaloid earthenware  with 4 e a r a .  tame  Ochre-glaaed  Jar  apherical jar  j u n c t i o n o f the n o r t h e a s t  (?)  J a r In t h e  square.  almost  whole  lying a little  sideways BHT  and northwest  th*  baulks.  with 4 e a r a . 67  UI  37  3  C-I7  Small  ochre-  glased  wide-  On« ochre-glased  bowl.  served  mouthed 2 eared jar.  Thie  74  UI  47  3  H-10  16  1  E-18  was  intact.  down.  bowl  Ochre-glased  2 o c h r c - g l a i e d bowl a.  wide-mouthed  1 ochre-glazed  ovalold-jar  1 celadon diah.  with  4 eara.  Orange  celadon  tub-like  jarlet.  The  o n l y c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l In a v e s s e l w i t h a n  association ' was  found  of c l u s t e r e d  g r a v e good a.  The veeeel  whole.  fluted  i n t e r i o r aa III  the v e a a e l i t s e l f  cover.  diah with  89  as a c o v e r ,  B u r i a l w » a laid upside  had  ochre-glased aa  E x c e p t for tha b r o k e n o c h r e - g l a a e d bowl w h i c h  cover.  Ochre-glased  1 T e - h u a bowl.  apherical jar 4 eara.  with  Broken.  Found in southwest baulk sitting  the c e n t e r  In  of a r e d o c h r e b a a I n .  White  Te-hua diah  as  cover. 93  III  32  3  1-7  Tall  brown ova-  #163  p a i r s of  bones.  pointed III  40  3  I-10  adjacent  at a l m o s t  ears  94  Vessel  loid jar with 2  whole.  T h i s burial was  t i o n b u r i a l #163  bottom.  #164  L o c a t e d c l o s e to c r e m a t i o n  in big broken j a r with traces  to t h e e a s t a n d c r e m a t i o n  a l s o in b r o k e n b i g j a r to the  Gray-glased  S e c t i o n of tip b r o k e n ,  pouring  when uncovered.  veaael  117  III  SO  3  A-4  Big  olive-brown  atoneware with 4  127  III  33  3  D-13  Ochre-glased spherical jar.  Smashed,  jar  of the 1 whit a b o w l .  p r o b a b l y s t r u c k by the in big broken stoneware  spade jar  square. R e m a i n s of c h a r r e d s k e l e t a l  were found scattered  ears.  burial  northwest.  L o c a t e d In c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o  c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l #114 in a d j a c e n t  burial  of c h a r r e d  found flanked by c r e m a -  a r o u n d the b r o k e n  materials fragment!  jar.  Found in northeast  baulk.  Jar wti  found c r a c k e d .  4-eared  A deep  cream-tinted white  bowl  as  cover  ro oo  TABLE A - 1 4 . P e r i o d I I I  BURIAL NO.  DEPTH CM.  IN  c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l s i Mendoza  BURIAL IN  DIRECTLY  BURIAL  IN V E S S E L S  (Tenazas  ASSOCIATED  19681 A p p e n d i x  R  C R A V E  E  M  A  R  VII)  8  K  GOODS  PITS  F o u n d n e a r w e s t e r n c o r n e r of  the  s q u a r e c l o s e to c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l in Ochre-glased jar  with 4  Ochre-glaaed jar  with 4  spherical  ears.  spherical  ears.  #50  big broken stoneware jar.  Smashed.  Found beside  b u r i a l #40  In t h e s a m e  Vessel  broken.  cremation  square.  Found la cloa*  m i t y t o c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l #39 smashed  spherical  praxi  in  jar.  Big brown stoneware jar  Smashed.  (broken)  t o c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l #37  Big brown stoneware jar  Smashed.  (broken)  to c r e m a t i o n b u r i a l  F o u n d In c l o s e  proximity  in a pit.  F o u n d In s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n #50.  TABLE A - 1 5 i  Inhumation b u r i a l s , Period I I I i  LEADBURIAL  SQUARE  PERIOD  DEPTH  IN  L E V E L  CM.  OCHRE-  BROWN-  Agra  (Tenazas  19681 A p p e n d i x  GRAY-  GLAZED  GLAZED  GLAZED  GLAZED  WARES  WARES  WARES  WARES  TE-HUA  CELADONS  CH'  ING  PAI  III)  SPOTTED  EARLY  CH'ING  BLUE-AND-  E A R T H E N -  PAI  WHITE  WARES  MISCE LLANXOUS  F r a g m e n t s of a n i r o n 14  C-3  III  44  3  .  1  semisquat  I d e e p bowl jar-  let with 2 ears  69  G-10  ni'  36  3  K-7  III  30  3  1 jarlet  1 round 110  3 bowls  3 Jarletr  loid jar  1 saucer  1  with  1 deep  1 tall ova-  2  Jarlets  small  bottom  "flower pot"  tomed  torn of  dish  and  2  1 e m a i l boi -  2-fish  cover 3  ing  buit  with rim  p a i r s of adjacent ears. 2 squat  Jar-  lets.  146  C-2  HI  49  3  1 miniature water  1 tiny  Jar-  let  dropper  147  E - l l  UI  42  1 dish  3  1 bowl  -  --  cook  1 U r g e it) ve  shallow bowls  type  bot-  potfoot-  blade.  2^1 TABLE A - 1 6 :  Depth of b u r i a l s  : Period III.  (Depth 1n  centimetres).  T h i s l a y e r 1s 15 - 20 cm. f r o m s u r f a c e @ 45 cm.  Inhumation Burials Burial No.  Depth  Brown o r Olive-brown Burials  Ochre J a r Burials Burial No.  Depth  Burial No.  Other Glazes  jar  Depth AGR  Burial No.  thick.  Pit Burials  Earthenware  )epth  Burial No.  Depth  Burial No.  Depth  A  14  44  128  42  153  28  154  33  129  30  105  66  69  36  130  31  156  30  94  40  136  34  11  60  no  30  131  40  161  51  138  56  15  38  146  45  31  29  162  40  42  65  147  42  35  49  163  25  32  81 .  56  35  164  26  33  75  67  37  166  29  73  56  74  47  150  37  101  89  16  172  45  62  127  33  Total  =  Mean =  197 39.4  Total  =  Mean =  359 35.9  36.5  Total Mean =  =  120 40  56 26  26  3  50  29  5  75  178  27  114  38  116  45  137  34  139  37  152  48  93  32  Total Mean =  =  648 58.9  50 =  Mean =  677 35.6  V EN  D 0 Z A  39  16  50  32  40  12  59  19  Mean =  73  176  Total  =  Mean =  =  177  117  Total  Total  28  Total =  14  Mean =  51 25.5  37  34  APPENDIX B  Figures  243  FIGURE B - l i  Photo o f earthenware p o t t e r y from (Tenazas 1968:  PI.36-39,  p.39)  Pila  FIGURE B-2: Photo o f b u r i a l assemblage # 9 8 , P i l a : P e r i o d I I (Tenazas I 9 6 8 . P I . 8 , p.28)  2^5  FIGURE B-3.  Photo o f b u r i a l (Tenazas 1968:  a s s e m b l a g e #28, P1.9,  p.29)  Pilai  Period II  246  FIGURE B-4:  Photo o f double b u r i a l ,  FIGURE B-5:  Photo o f b u r i a l  #28  S t a . Ana  (Guy 1984.122)  i n s i t u , P i l a . Period I I  (Tenazas 1968: PI.16,  p.32)  FIGURE B-61  P h o t o o f b u r i a l #1 i n s i t u , (Tenazas 1968:  FIGURE B-7:  P1.14,  P1.10,  Period II  p.3D  P h o t o o f b u r i a l #5^ i n s i t u , (Tenazas 1968:  Pila:  p.30)  Pila:  Period II  FIGURE B-81  Photo o f Ming P e r i o d b u r i a l , P i l a : P e r i o d IV (Tenazas I 9 6 8 : P l . l ? , p.32)  FIGURE B-9: Diagram o f Pre-Ming b u r i a l , (Janse 19^4: Appendix)  Calatagan  2k9  FIGURE B - l O i  Photo o f cremation b u r i a l # 7 4 , w i t h grave goods,  Pilai  Period III  associated  (Tenazas 1 9 6 8 :  PI.19, p.33)  FIGURE B - l l i Photo o f cremation j a r b u r i a l s Pila:  Period III  (smashed),  (Tenazas 1 9 6 8 : P I . 2 0 , p . 3 3 )  250  FIGURE B - 1 2 :  Photo of crematorium s t r u c t u r e , (Tenazas 1968: P I . 5 , p . 2 6 )  Pila:  Period  III  251  FIGURE B-13:  Photo o f cremation b u r i a l Period III  jars,  Pila:  (Tenazas 1 9 6 8 : P I . 6 , p . 2 7 )  Type A : O v o i d j a r " without ears  Type B:  Large globular j a r  FIGURE B-14: T h r e e t y p e s o f l a r g e , b r o w n / o l i v e j a r s found i n the P h i l i p p i n e s Abaya 1976:16)  ceramic  (After  Grau-  APPENDIX C  Notes t o the  Text  254  1.  " I n t h e c o u n t r y o f 'Ma-i'  Mindoro)',  the custom of the t r a d e  assemble  i n crowds and c a r r y  baskets;  and, even  slowly be  distinguish  no l o s s .  at f i r s t  2.  islands  for barter,  in Garcia  m e r c h a n t s were o b s e r v e d of Mindoro.  way t o M a n i l a  M i n d o r o where t h e y Salcedo their  carry  and a s a r u l e , they they  later,  these i t takes  return, have  lies  the entrance  by S a l c e d o  when  from  they  obtained. just  to the  t o Laguna de Bay.  i n 1570, t h e C h i n e s e  and h i s S p a n i a r d s ,  by t h i s  "On May 8, 1570, t h e S p a n i a r d s Panay, p a s s e d  who were  by t h e i s l a n d o f  l e a r n e d o f two a n c h o r e d  f r i e n d s h i p but the Chinese who f o u g h t  junks.  They  cloth,  gilded  musk.  found  Chinese  vessels.  were h o s t i l e  many a r t i c l e s :  The d e c k s  so t h a t t h e  back were a b l e t o t a k e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e  porcelain  large porcelain jars  this  there w i l l yet  was d i s p a t c h e d t o r e c o n n o i t e r t h e s h i p s a n d t o r e q u e s t  Spaniards  and  after  1979: 1 9 4 ) . M i n d o r o  Some t h r e e h u n d r e d y e a r s  their  know them, and c a n b u t  o r n i n e months t i l l  o f L u z o n , n o t f a r from  same i s l a n d  them i n  t h e men who remove t h e g o o d s ,  t h e t r a d e r s on s h i p b o a r d w i t h what  south-west  on  t h e goods away w i t h  i f one c a n n o t  them a s much a s e i g h t  (Chao J u - K u a ,  t o be t h e i s l a n d o f  i s f o r t h e savage t r a d e r s t o  The s a v a g e t r a d e r s w i l l  goods on t o o t h e r  repay  (thought  silks,  bowls, g i l d e d  were f u l l  porcelains,  water  of earthen  justs,  jars  gold thread  and c r o c k e r y ,  v a s e s , p l a t e s and b o w l s a n d some f i n e  which they c a l l  sinoritas"  (Roxas-Lim  cotton  1966:229)  porcelain  255  3.  Another  trade  i n San-Su  Islands):  shore,  presence traders yellow for  in  they  their  wax,  longer  colours,  cocoanut-heart  the  The  savage by  b l a c k damask and  1979:196).  These  go  their  the  savage  mats, w h i c h t h e y  of the  wish  (local)  to  after  not  offer  purchase)  t r a d e r s must  understanding...  A ship w i l l  After  remain  that  at  which i t p r o c e e d s  go  anchor  to  s e t t l e m e n t s a l o n g t h e c o a s t of  a common  following  sinkers  Upon t h i s  ( o f goods t h e y may  four days,  connected  leaden  of  in small boats, c a r r y i n g c o t t o n ,  t o come t o an  p l a c e ; f o r the  porcelain,  b e a t i n g drums.  to t r a f f i c . . .  independent)...  Garcia  ship  t h r e e or  San-Su a r e not  a t any  Basuanga  the s h i p b e f o r e v e n t u r i n g to  upon, t h e c h i e f  shore  than  r e g a r d i n g the  Palawan and  traders arrive  board  I f the p r i c e s  in order  on  another  on  native cloth,  be a g r e e d  go  same C h r o n i c l e s ,  s h i p s b e i n g moored m i d s t r e a m , a n n o u n c i n g  race f o r the  person,  they  foreign  live  the  t o be C a l a m i a n ,  t o t h e n a t i v e s by  barter.  cannot  from  (thought  "Whenever  settlements, on  account  jurisdiction  articles  are exchanged  v a r i o u s other s i l k s ,  f o r n e t s , and islands  (i.e.,  are a l l  in barter:  beads of a l l  t i n " (Chao J u - K u a , i n  l i e just  to the  south-west  of  Mindoro.  4.  Durability:  Filipinos length  kept  of time  forgotten  by  T i n g u i a n s and  "Recorded  accounts  imported p o t t e r y , mostly that  its initial  the time  specify  from C h i n a ,  p l a c e of o r i g i n  of t h e S p a n i s h c o n q u e s t . . .  t h e Subanuns  that ancient  (of the P h i l i p p i n e s ) ,  was  f o r such a already  Like the  the  Kelabits  256  and  t h e Dayaks  passed  on  to t h e i r  most p r o m i n e n t visitor  who  John to  not  "The  i t s supposed  specific treated  vital  charge  "The  The  Philippine  most  island  sound p r o d u c e d  by  1978:4) "The  t o c o n j u r e the or  of a v e s s e l  (Guy  have s t i l l  was  use  age  jars, f o r the a  fact  religious was  made by  usually  related  have a c q u i r e d , t h r o u g h jars  some  were  1984:120).  ring  believed  ritual  t o summon  power made  performances.  survived  ceramics Some o f  among i s o l a t e d  ethnic  a r e t h e Tagbanuwas i n t h e  still  believe  that  bowls and  enough t o summon t h e s p i r i t s  the  ringing  dishes i s invoked."  of p o t t e r y as p e r c u s s i o n i n s t r u m e n t s i n  spirits  f o r t h e dead  on w h i c h t h e medium  for  same p o i n t  the t a p p i n g of ceramic  (Legeza  such  In s u c h c a s e s t h e  o f Palawan who  powerful  that  f o r ceremonies  The  i t may  resonant  the  to o t h e r types of p o t t e r y ,  f r e q u e n t l y quoted  and  occupied  economic v a l u e and  the o b j e c t w i t h s p i r i t  magical  ailing  or  a c c e s s o r i e s t o magic and  groups.  jars  a r e shown o f f t o e v e r y  j a r s w h i c h a r e used  g r e a t power.  Resonance:  The  they  given magical a t t r i b u t e s ,  potency  antiquity,  these ancient r i t e s  order  be  with great reverence"  and  their  1966:231-232).  spiritual  j a r s which  I t i s not u n u s u a l  s a u c e r s and  incident,  5. spirits  by,  o n l y t o j a r s but  (Roxas-Lim  Guy:  homes and  t h o s e w h i c h have been u s e d  plates,  rituals:  large  as h e i r l o o m s .  in their  f o r the a i l i n g ,  applies  bowls,  space  exaggerated.  particularly  that  children  happens t o drop  being often  dead and  (of Borneo) p r e f e r r e d  d u r i n g the ceremonies  i n v o l v e d more o f t e n  f o r the  bowls and  (a b a y l a n , o r a shaman) b e a t  deep  a string  plates of  257  shells a  or pieces  o f wooden d r u m s t i c k s .  s t a t e of t r a n c e ,  the  she c o n t i n u o u s l y  beat  of t h e o f f e r i n g  wine, o r a l l o f t h i s . the non-Christian  ceremonial for  this  never  also  drinking  ritual  similar  a frenetic  rhythm on  or m a s t i c a t o r y  preparations or  T h i s was a u n i v e r s a l p r a c t i c e among many m i n o r i t i e s and was a s w i d e s p r e a d a s t h e  from  large jars.  A l l pottery  an e x t r a o r d i n a r y  away u n l e s s  rites.  as mortuary  6.  of food  acquired  s o l d or given  perform  Many o f t h e s e  f u r n i t u r e " (Roxas-Lim  w h i c h was  used  i m p o r t a n c e and was  to another  p e r s o n who  would  wares must have been  used  1966:232).  J o h n Guy r e l a t e s a s t a t e m e n t made by Tom H a r r i s o n : "The  Dayaks o f Sarawak have t h e most e l a b o r a t e imitations. texture, The  s c r a t c h i n g the surface  to the noise  appeal...  of glazed  endeavour  them  include  tests against  produced  t o examine t h e  by t a p p i n g  the j a r .  q u a l i t y o f p o r c e l a i n a p p e a r s t o have been a key  in their  examination also  These  and l i s t e n i n g  resonant  element  to  t h e medium was i n  bowl o r p l a t e w h i c h was meant t o summon t h e s p i r i t t o  partake  of  While  ceramics,  to obtain  in barter  In a d d i t i o n t o c a r e f u l some g r o u p s ,  an a c t u a l g e n e a l o g y  o r debt  settlement.  physical  such as t h e Dayaks, o f any j a r o f f e r e d  The s p i r i t u a l  potency of  a v e s s e l was u s u a l l y r e l a t e d t o i t s s u p p o s e d a n t i q u i t y , o r i t may have a c q u i r e d , (Guy  7.  through  some s p e c i f i c  i n c i d e n t , great  power"  1982:120).  Impermeable g l a z e :  " I t was g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d  C h i n e s e p o r c e l a i n had t h e p r o p e r t y  of ' d e s t r o y i n g  that  poison  i n the  258  food'"  (Janse  1944:37).  "Since p o r c e l a i n  wares a r e more  wooden and  coconut  and  hygienic  than  taste  food, beside being e a s i e r  of  there arose would  indicate  vendors  (even is  tody)  their  to clean  i n the P h i l i p p i n e s . . . the presence  discoloration... and  vessels,  P a s i g , R i z a and  that  the unique  discoloration  quality  to i n d i c a t e  of t h e  food  that  i n f o o d by  Apalit, of  poisoned  such  itself  wares  some k i n d  s t o n e w a r e and  believe  porcelains  some form  o r o f t h e ware"  of  potters  Pampanga, who  f o o d by  the  earthenware,  i n f o r m a t i o n comes from  from  ability  not a f f e c t  than  the b e l i e f  of p o i s o n  the a u t h o r ' s  do  of  (Roxas-Lim  1966:229) .  8.  Regarding  provenience,  not c o n s i d e r important ...  their  involved  imported  participants Chinese,  wine-drinking; and  liquids... the  shapes  glazes, hardness  "They d i d  of t h e s e w a r e s ,  r e p o r t s of t h e r i t u a l s  pottery, state  that  noticeable  the  or  which  ritual  distinctions  t h e y made c o n c e r n e d  f o r the r i t u a l  perfumes;  and  deep p l a t e s  and  distinctions  their or  b o w l s and  between  were made by  of  For  example,  j a r s were u s e d  spouts  t h e n a t u r e and and  (Roxas-Lim  for jarlets  for pouring  the performers  imperviousness,  s o f t n e s s o f t h e body"  actual  f o r food o f f e r i n g ;  teapots with  s i z e s of v e s s e l s , porosity  their  being performed.  stoneware or p o r c e l l a n o u s stoneware  oils  account:  S a w a n k h a l o k , Annamese, Cambodian or n a t i v e p o t t e r y . . .  serviceability  for  Reliable  d i d not make any  Whatever d i s t i n c t i o n s  large  t h e c o u n t r y of o r i g i n  technology...  the  there i s this  color  the  regarding of  the  relative  1966:234).  259  9.  Many o f t h e s e  ritual  life  religion the  social  formalized  by  of t h e dead w h i c h  unit,  the n u c l e a r  rituals,  spirits  of the dead.  Rituals  of the l i v i n g  familiarity,  intimacy  pattern  "The  i s between  10.  "The  environment. malign  They  spirits  a social  a s one c l a s s  social,  t h e y a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h an o r d e r e d  control.  ' n a t u r a l phenomena'.  the l i v i n g ,  environment  (ibid:252).  the  In t r e a t i n g  In s h o r t  encompasses  one  this  own  world  187,200).  the proximate  social and a  life. "natural"  t h e dead,  Sulod of C e n t r a l  Panay,  are  e x p l a n a t i o n of and m o r a l  the d e i t i e s  group which s t i l l  who  and  the environment as  social  L a n d a J o c a n o has s t u d i e d  extant P h i l i p p i n e  and  of s p i r i t - r e l a t i v e s  to s o c i a l  F.  but of  see i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t c o u n t l e s s d e i t i e s  as w e l l  with  The  of f e a r  (Fox 1982:  i n terms of t h e i r  subject  11.  affairs...  of t h e Tagbanuwa w i t h  between  and t h e  The most p r o m i n e n t  the dead, as w e l l as the l i v i n g "  They make no d i s t i n c t i o n  is  interacting  i s not one  embraces  environment a r e o r g a n i z e d  and  p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n ,  relationships  i n t e r m s of  This cult  are family  respect.  i n the  nave of Tagbanuwa  the i n d i v i d u a l  t o t h e dead  and/or  exist  i s organized  system f o r d e a l i n g  relationship  respect  still  family...  which p r o v i d e  f a m i l y w i t h an o r g a n i z e d the  practices  o f t h e Tagbanuwa o f P a l a w a n :  i s the c u l t  basic  ritual  order  and t h e  the customs  total  of a n o t h e r  p r a c t i c e s ancestor worship -  a n o t h e r s o c i e t y w h i c h seems t o have  260  much i n common w i t h  Pila  society  "Sulod  l i f e w a y s have n o t c h a n g e d  Social  life  by p r i m a r y being  basically  times.  i n recent  times.  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s u p e r o r d i n a t i o n o f k i n s h i p and concern  the l a s t  rite  with  socio-religious  of passage  surrounded  by e l a b o r a t e r i t u a l  jar  b e i n g among t h e s e "  burial  of p r o t o - h i s t o r i c  activities.  i s a major event prescriptions (Jocano  Death,  i n Sulod  life,  - bone w a s h i n g and  1970:181).  

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