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Prehistoric Anasazi diet : a synthesis of archaeological evidence Brand, Michael James 1994

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PREHISTORIC ANASAZI DIET: A SYNTHESIS OF A R C H A E O L O G I C A L EVIDENCE  by MICHAEL JAMES BRAND B . A . (Hon.), Simon Fraser University, 1991  A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Department of Anthropology and Sociology) W e accept this thesis as conforming to the reauired standard-  T H E UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A November 1994 © Michael James Brand, 1994  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  representatives.  an advanced  Library shall make  it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be her  for  It  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department  of ///? fyrorfofo^Y -and  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2788)  hloy.  w  ;  mn  Sac/'o/o<  ABSTRACT  Prehistoric Anasazi diet from the Basketmaker II to Pueblo III periods is examined through a synthesis of four lines of archaeological data taken from the literature: faunal analysis, flotation and pollen analysis, coprolite analysis and stable carbon isotope analysis. This study examines the importance of c o m in Anasazi diet, the intensification of agricultural production and changes in diet which may be linked to the thirteenth century regional abandonments. The core resources, or dietary staples, in the Anasazi diet are identified for each period of the Anasazi tradition. The results indicate considerable similarity in the diets of the people from the four Anasazi branches discussed and throughout the time periods considered. The analysis demonstrates that corn was the primary resource in the Anasazi diet beginning in the Basketmaker II period. Squash and a number of wild plants also made substantial contributions to the diet. Evidence was found for stable agricultural production, with no indication of intensification aimed at the three commonly discussed cultigens: corn, squash and beans. The appearance of cotton in the later pueblo periods, however, may represent an attempt to increase food production through the adoption of a new cultigen. This study has found that the utilization of food resources remained stable throughout the Anasazi occupation of the Colorado Plateau, including the period immediately prior to the regional abandonments.  T A B L E OF CONTENTS  Abstract Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures Acknowledgment Introduction Environmental Background and the Anasazi Tradition Subsistence Systems and Diet Ethnographic Pueblo Subsistence and Diet Archaeological Remains of Anasazi Diet  Introduction Fauna! Analysis Rotation and Pollen Analysis Coprolite Analysis Stable Carbon Isotope Analysis Summary and Conclusions References Cited Appendix 1  Ethnographic resource use  Appendix 2  Faunal data  Appendix 3  Stable carbon isotope data  iii  LIST OF TABLES  Table 1 Table 2 Table 3  Occurrence of charred plant remains from flotation analyses of Chaco branch sites  44  Occurrence of charred plant remains from flotation analyses of Kayenta branch sites  47  Occurrence of charred plant remains from flotation analyses of San Juan - M e s a Verde branch sites  49  Table 4  Macrofossil ubiquity values for Anasazi coprolites  54  Table 5  Pollen type ubiquity values for Anasazi coprolites  56  iv  LIST OF FIGURES  Figure 1  Location of the Anasazi branches discussed in the text.  5  Figure 2  Relative taxonomic abundances (of taxa represented by at least 4 % in any period) for the Basketmaker II period  22  Relative taxonomic abundances (of taxa represented by at least 4 % in any period) for the Basketmaker III period  24  Relative taxonomic abundances (of taxa represented by at least 4 % in any period) for the Basketmaker III - Pueblo I period  25  Relative taxonomic abundances (of taxa represented by at least 4 % in any period) for the Pueblo I period  27  Relative taxonomic abundances (of taxa represented by at least 4 % in any period) for the Pueblo I - Pueblo II period  28  Relative taxonomic abundances (of taxa represented by at least 4% in any period) for the Pueblo II period  29  Relative taxonomic abundances (of taxa represented by at least 4% in any period) for the Pueblo II - Pueblo III period  31  Relative taxonomic abundances (of taxa represented by at least 4 % in any period) for the Pueblo III period  32  Relative taxonomic abundances (of taxa represented by at least 4% in any period) for the Kayenta branch  34  Relative taxonomic abundances (of taxa represented by at least 4 % in any period) for the Chaco branch  35  Relative taxonomic abundances (of taxa represented by at least 4 % in any period) for the San Juan - Mesa Verde branch  36  Figure 13  Stable carbon isotope values for prehistoric food resources  63  Figure 14  Stable carbon isotope values for Anasazi individuals (Decker and Tieszen 1989, Matson and Chisholm 1991, Chisholm and Matson in press)  65  Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10  Figure 11 Figure 12  v  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  Only after one has written a thesis do they fully realize the importance of friends and colleagues around them. In the course of writing this thesis many people have generously offered assistance and advice. First, I must thank my advisor Professor R . G . Matson for many things, among them an opportunity to participate in fieldwork in the American Southwest, funding he was able to provide, assistance in working out this topic and his guidance during the writing. I thank Professor Michael Blake consistently providing good comments on m y thesis drafts, both as an archaeologist and a reader, helping to make the thesis a more integrated document. I appreciate Professor E l v i Whittaker's thorough reading of my thesis and helpful comments she provided. I thank Dr. Brian Chisholm for his encouragement, good humour given the numerous times he was trapped while walking past my door, and the advice he provided regarding the stable isotope section of the thesis. Dr. Chisholm also read and commented on an early draft of the thesis. I would also like to thank my fellow graduate students, particularly A l l i s o n Y o u n g and Warren H i l l , for their discussions and advice. Joyce Johnson has been a good friend from the moment I landed at U B C . Professor Jon Driver and Natalie Munro from Simon Fraser University and Victoria Atkins of the Anasazi Heritage Center were very helpful in suggesting references and helping me obtain various reports. Professor Jane Kelley of the University of Calgary kindly sent me a paper through a fellow graduate student when other methods had failed to produce it. The staff of the Interlibrary Loan Department at U B C ' s M a i n Library are also to be commended for their assistance and excellent average in finding publications I requested by the dozen. I thank O l g a at Arts Computing for helping me out in a printing pinch. I am indebted to the numerous archaeologists listed in the reference section for their hard work in producing the data upon which my thesis is based. I especially want to thank Dori Bixler for her friendship. She has been a constant pillar of support, discussing numerous aspects of my work with me and reading numerous section drafts, as well as an entire early draft. Most of all I would like to thank my family. From the moment I first said I wanted to be an archaeologist, my parents J i m and Kathy Brand and my brother A l a n have supported me completely. Without them I could have never come this far.  vi  INTRODUCTION For a period of at least 2400 years the Anasazi inhabited the northern American Southwest, mastering agriculture in this arid environment, founding large aggregated communities and developing extensive trading networks. Archaeologists have been tracing Anasazi culture history for the last one hundred years, and many of the questions and debates stemming from their research are linked to subsistence. The focus of this thesis is Anasazi diet between the Basketmaker II (beginning at approximately 500 B.C.) and Pueblo III (ending at approximately A . D . 1300) periods. Archaeological projects undertaken during previous decades have produced voluminous quantities of subsistence related data. This thesis synthesizes data from faunal, paleobotanical, coprolite and stable carbon isotope analyses, into a reconstruction of Anasazi diet throughout the duration of the tradition. This reconstruction is used to address three specific research questions: (1) when did cultigens, particularly corn, become the primary constituent of the Anasazi diet?, (2) is there evidence for the intensification of agricultural production during the Anasazi tradition?, and (3) are there changes in the Anasazi diet which may be linked to the regional abandonments of the 13th century A . D . ? The time at which maize became the primary resource in the Anasazi diet and the use of intensification practices to increase agricultural yields are important elements in many studies of Anasazi population dynamics and settlement patterns. It is hoped that the results of this thesis will contribute to a better understanding of these phenomena. This reconstruction w i l l also provide a better understanding of the variation which existed in diet throughout the tradition and between the different Anasazi branches. The period in which cultigens became the dominant constituent of the Anasazi diet remains a topic of debate. Matson and Chisholm (1991) argue that the Basketmaker II Anasazi on Cedar Mesa were dependent on corn agriculture. Their analysis indicated little change in the importance of corn in the Anasazi diet on Cedar Mesa between the Basketmaker and Pueblo periods. Furthermore, they argue that a comparison of the Cedar M e s a Basketmaker II with other contemporaneous occupations, such as the White Dog Cave and Los Pinos Basketmaker II, indicates that they too relied heavily on maize (Matson and Chisholm 1991:456). Reinhard  1  (1988:157) also argues, in a synthesis of coprolite data, that little difference existed in the relative contribution of corn to the Anasazi diet between the Basketmaker and Pueblo periods. The opposite side of the debate maintains that maize did not become a major part of the Anasazi diet until later i n the tradition. Glassow (1972:296) believes that while farming was present during the Basketmaker II period, it did not achieve any importance until the Basketmaker III period. F. Plog (1979:111-112) has stated that both direct and indirect subsistence data indicate that cultigens were not an important constituent of the western Anasazi diet until after A . D . 800 (Pueblo I); two hundred years later the cultivation of domesticated plant foods was of paramount importance in many localities throughout the Anasazi area (F. Plog 1983:304). Similarly, S. Plog (1986:312) has stated that only after A . D . 850 (Pueblo I) were the Black M e s a Anasazi dependent on cultigens. These dates place the dominance of corn squarely in the Pueblo period. Powell (1983:16) has argued that simplistic interpretations which ignore the complexity of prehistoric subsistence systems have fostered the belief that the Anasazi were dependent on agricultural production. Powell's (1983:130) analysis of subsistence data from Black Mesa has lead her to conclude that the area's occupants were never fully dependent on cultivated foods. Sullivan (1987, 1992) has also argued that corn may not have played the all important role in Anasazi diet as traditional views of southwestern subsistence claim. Models which posit a transition from a modified hunting and gathering mode of subsistence to a subsistence system based on agricultural production often propose increasing agricultural intensification through time. Agents thought to have initiated agricultural intensification include: social organization, population growth and environmental change (Dean etal. 1985:549). F. Plog (1979:112) cites indirect evidence from water and soil conservation facilities as an indication that the Anasazi were intensifying their agricultural production by A . D . 1000. The existence of large aggregated settlements at approximately this time has been interpreted as evidence that a new form of socioeconomic organization had occurred, which included agricultural intensification (Upham 1982:111). The opposite development has also been suggested, that is, through time many Anasazi groups diversified their subsistence base as opposed to intensifying one part of it. The continued  2  presence of w i l d food resources in archaeological sites throughout the Anasazi tradition is often cited as evidence of subsistence diversification (Woosley 1980:321). The Pueblo III regional abandonments have been and continue to be an important area of research i n Southwestern archaeology. The explanation of these events is undoubtedly complex, relating to subsistence, as well as a number of other factors. The subsistence data presented here w i l l be examined for changes in diet which may be linked with the area's depopulation. In any discussion of subsistence and diet it is important to have an understanding of the environment in which people had to make a living. Therefore, the second section of this thesis provides a brief introduction to the Anasazi area and its climate. This section also discusses the chronological periods and the different branches of the Anasazi referred to in this thesis. The third section takes a step away from the American Southwest and discusses human subsistence systems in general. This section briefly outlines the different cultural components which are affected by the subsistence system and in turn affect the subsistence system itself. Diet, reconstructed here for the Anasazi, is the end product of the subsistence system. The information presented in this section is important for understanding how the reconstruction of prehistoric diet can assist in addressing questions related to other components of culture. The fourth section of this thesis provides a brief discussion of historic and modern Pueblo subsistence. Although the Pueblo way of life underwent a number of changes during the historic period, these data provide information on components of the subsistence system which archaeology cannot address. Such information may also be useful in understanding the presence of some food resources in the prehistoric diet. The fifth section contains the subsistence data analyses. This section is organized into four parts, one for each type of evidence: faunal analysis, flotation and pollen analysis, coprolite analysis and stable carbon isotope analysis. Within these parts the data are brought together for each branch of the Anasazi, as well as synthesized as a whole. The summary discusses the major patterns observed in the Anasazi diet and discusses the research questions. Finally, recommendations are made regarding lacunae in the data and further avenues of research are discussed.  3  ENVIRONMENTAL BACKGROUND AND T H E ANASAZI TRADITION Commonly referred to as the Northern Southwest, the Anasazi area (Figure 1) is primarily located in the Colorado Plateau physiographic province. The Anasazi occupation also extended, to a lesser degree, west into the Basin and Range province and east into the Southern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains provinces (Cordell 1984). The area is characterized by considerable geographic and climatic variability. The Colorado Plateau is an extensive highland area of uplifted sedimentary formations with a limited number of igneous protrusions (Lipe 1983:442). Considerable topographic variability exists within the plateau. The majority of it lies between 1500 m and 2100 m, while in the highest areas elevations extend above 3657 m (Cordell 1984:23). The Colorado River and its numerous tributaries constitute the primary drainage system for the Plateau. These rivers and numerous other drainages have become deeply entrenched, cutting vertical walled canyons into the sandstones comprising the Plateau. Only a limited number of these drainages flow all year round. Other drainages periodically carry rainfall or snow melt from higher areas (Lipe 1983:422). Although permanent drainages are absent in some areas, many of the local sandstones are excellent aquifers. Numerous springs and seeps exist in canyons at the interface between the porous sandstones and impervious layers of rock (Lipe 1983:422). The extensive topographic variation of the Plateau has a notable influence on floral and faunal communities (Plog 1979:110). The dominant plant communities include the Great Basin Conifer Woodland, characterized by juniper - pinyon forest primarily between 1500 and 2300 m and Plains and Great Basin Grasslands generally located above 1200 m elevation (Brown 1982a,b). Higher elevations are characterized by ponderosa pine and mixed coniferous forest. Drainages i n all elevation zones are lined with riparian plant communities, including water - loving plants such as willow and cottonwood. T o the west and south of the Colorado Plateau, roughly parallel ranges of mountains separated by broad basins characterize the Basin and Range province (Hunt 1974, Cordell 1984). The province is quite arid as the large mountains to the west tend to trap most of the water  4  Figure 1. Location of the A n a s a z i branches discussed i n the text.  5  carried from the Pacific by storms. On the eastern side of the Colorado Plateau are the Southern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains provinces. The Southern Rocky Mountains has considerably more moisture and with elevations ranging up to 4267 m the region is characterized by somewhat cooler temperatures (Cordell 1984, Lipe 1983). People concentrated in the lower regions of this province where the environment was similar to that of the Plateau. The Great Plains province is characterized by low topographic relief. Elevations generally range below 2133m (Cordell 1984:24). The climate of the American southwest is generally arid. Moisture in the Anasazi area is derived from two precipitation patterns (Lipe 1983, Cordell 1984). In the west, during the months of July and August, moisture comes from the Gulf of M e x i c o as heavy rains. There is a second peak in precipitation, brought by storms from the Pacific Ocean, between December and March. The eastern area, New M e x i c o and Colorado, has a single peak in precipitation, originating from the G u l f of Mexico, during the June, July and August monsoon. The amount of precipitation received is highly localized and variable from one year to the next. The regional diversity which existed among the Anasazi people and the area they inhabited, both in terms of material culture and local environment, has long been recognized by archaeologists. Cordell and Plog (1979) have argued against studies which ignore the diversity in Anasazi economic, cultural and organizational patterns, by making broad generalizations which are held to apply to the entire Anasazi area. In their contributions to the Handbook American  of North  Indians: The Southwest (Oritz 1979), Plog (1979) and Cordell (1979) have divided the  area into the Western and the Eastern Anasazi respectively. Similarly, distinctions between the material culture in different regions of the Anasazi area have resulted in the definition of a number of branches of Anasazi people. In this thesis I intend to develop a synthesis of Anasazi diet by bringing together a number of lines of evidence from across the Anasazi area. To ignore the regional diversity which has been recognized throughout the area, however, would be to commit a serious mistake. I will therefore incorporate this diversity into my synthesis of Anasazi diet. A number of different branches of the Anasazi have been identified throughout the Northern Southwest.  6  M a n y of these branches had shifting boundaries and a limited temporal existence. This thesis w i l l consider the regional diversity recognized in the Anasazi tradition i n terms of the four major branches agreed upon in most of the literature: Kayenta, San Juan - Mesa Verde, Chaco, and the R i o Grande. The Kayenta branch area used in this thesis consists of northeast A r i z o n a from the Little Colorado River to the Utah border and parts of southern Utah below the San Juan River. Gumerman and Dean (1989) note that a number of smaller cultural units, such as the Tusayan, have been defined within this area, however, enough similarity exists that they can be incorporated within the Kayenta branch. Centered around the Mesa Verde itself, the Mesa Verde branch of the Anasazi includes most of southwest Colorado and part of southeastern Utah. Rohn (1989) refers to this region as the Northern San Juan and states that Mesa Verde is only one subdivision within the region. In the following sections I refer to this branch as the San Juan - Mesa Verde. The Chaco branch is a unique occurrence in the Anasazi tradition. The name Chaco itself is taken from Chaco Canyon; however, the branch as concerned in this thesis covers a much greater area. Chaco Canyon was at the center of what has been referred to as the Chacoan Phenomenon and the Chacoan System (Judge 1989). The Chacoan Phenomenon was an extensive system of sites, sharing a similar architectural style and material culture, all connected with Chaco Canyon by a system of roads. Vivian (1990) traces Chacoan beginnings to the Archaic and Basketmaker periods. Development of the Chacoan system began in the early decades of the tenth century, and over the next two and a half centuries the great houses, Chacoan outliers and road system were constructed. The Cibola area to the south of Chaco Canyon, was under the influence of the Chacoan system (LeBlanc 1989:347). B y the middle of the twelfth century the Chacoan system had come to an end (Vivian 1990). However, there is evidence of a Mesa Verdian reoccupation of many Chacoan sites during the end of the twelfth and beginning of the thirteenth century (Vivian 1990).  7  The R i o Grande branch of the Anasazi inhabited the area around the R i o Grande Valley and surrounding areas to the east of the Chaco branch. Compared with the other branches of Anasazi the R i o Grande area is much better supplied with running water (Cordell 1989:297).  SUBSISTENCE SYSTEMS AND DIET The constraints placed on the human body by its biological requirements for essential nutrients makes the subsistence system a critical component of human life. Steward (1955:37) regarded subsistence as the central element of the culture core. Dennell (1979:122) has defined subsistence as the procurement of resources needed to assure the survival of a community. A m o n g most cultures subsistence - related activities consume the better part of each day (Roosevelt 1987, de Garine and Harrison 1988b). It is the complex interaction of environment, technology, sociopolitical organization and ideology which defines the subsistence system of all cultures. The environment places constraints on the types and frequency of food resources available to people and thus has a strong hand in determining the nature of the subsistence system. The seasonal availability of certain resources further complicates the food quest and may lead to periods of shortage (de Garine and Harrison 1988b:469). The technology used has the potential to dramatically increase the obtainable yield (de Garine and Harrison 1988a, W i n g and Brown 1979).  The adoption of agriculture, for example,  w i l l allow people to produce quantities of food resources previously not available. N e w agricultural technologies, such as irrigation, allow a community to further increase the yield. The success of new technologies is of course still limited by the environment to some degree. If agriculture is to be successfully practiced, adequate soils, temperature regimes, and precipitation must first be present in the environment. Storage is perhaps one of the most important types of technology included in many subsistence systems. It is the primary means by which cultures are able to cope with seasonal fluctuations in resource availability. It is important to note that technology may lead to changes in the environment (Steward 1977:50). There are a number of different technologies which may have this effect. Some practices result i n an increase i n  8  potential resources, such as the increase in edible weeds which thrive i n disturbed areas (Bye and Shuster 1984, Ford 1984), and rodents attracted by the production of cultigens (Seme 1984). A culture's socio-political organization influences subsistence systems through interactions with environment, technology and ideology. Socio - political organization refers to the size of groups in which people live, the organization of people within those groups and the relations these groups have with neighboring peoples. Both environment and technology place constraints on socio - political organization. T o a degree technology influences the social organization; Steward (1955:171) has suggested that changes in technology resulting in increased food supply was one of the first steps in the change from lineage based societies to that of clans. There is a limit to the number of people who can make a living within any one location with a given technology. This limit has been termed the carrying capacity (Zubrow 1971).  The  adoption of agriculture or of technology which intensifies agricultural production are mechanisms for increasing the carrying capacity of the environment. In larger populations members of a group may be obligated to spend a set amount of time contributing to the subsistence of others as well as than their own. Among the H o p i , for example, a chiefs fields were cultivated by voluntary work parties (Forde 1931:376). Interaction between populations can have both positive and negative effects on their subsistence systems.  Favorable trading relationships can provide populations with both a means  of acquiring food during periods of resource stress and obtaining foods not locally available, thereby increasing the diversity in the diet. Just as favorable trading relationships are often built into a subsistence system, the same system may be required to include mechanisms to buffer against negative relations with neighboring groups. The loss of extracted subsistence resources to raiding parties from other populations is an example of a negative relationship. Another aspect of socio-political organization, which leads us to the discussion of the effects of cultural beliefs on subsistence systems, is the practice of food sharing. The distribution of food within a population, may provide food to people in the group who are unable to obtain their own or who are involved in other activities which preclude their involvement in the food quest. The nature of food distribution within a population may, however, deprive  9  certain groups of the population of specific resource types. Rarely are food resources distributed equally to all members of a population (Roosevelt 1987:574). Inequality may be variously oriented along the lines of gender, age or status. The embedded patterns of food distribution within a culture serve to proclaim and maintain the prevailing status and power structure (Ross 1987:19). Cultural beliefs have substantial influence on subsistence systems. The nature of the environment may define what resources are potentially available as food, but the resources which are actually used is largely decided by what the culture considers edible. Although food resources are not chosen solely on their nutritional qualities, food is recognized as critical to maintaining life. Cultural beliefs and ceremonies associated with the procurement of sustenance are often closely followed so the food supply is not endangered (Wing and B r o w n 1979:16). Such traditions may concern the procurement of resources from the environment, their treatment during preparation and their consumption. The preceding paragraphs have outlined the effects of four factors on the nature of human subsistence systems: environment, technology, sociopolitical organization and ideology. Dennell (1979:122) has defined diet as simply what is eaten. From this point of view diet can be considered the product of the subsistence system. A n y given diet can be viewed as consisting of a core set of food resources which provide the bulk of the diet and meet the majority of the nutritional requirements, and a variety of other food items which are consumed only occasionally and in small quantities. Gasser (1982:8) has defined dietary staples as resources which were widely exploited and used consistently through time. Staple food items must be relatively easy to obtain on a regular basis and in substantial quantities. Secondary resources are likely to be those with restricted availability, both spatially and seasonally, limited i n their quantity and with poor storage possibilities. Attempts to reconstruct prehistoric subsistence systems and diet by archaeologists have met with varying levels of success. There are numerous lines of archeological evidence which provide data on Anasazi subsistence. Dean et al. (1985), among others, have reconstructed the prehistoric environment. The remains of prehistoric technology are perhaps the most visible  10  indication of subsistence systems open to the archaeologist. Less information is available on the remaining factors influencing the Anasazi subsistence system. It has proven difficult to gather information on Anasazi socio-political organization and there is presently no way to archaeologically reconstruct the effects of Anasazi cultural beliefs on their subsistence system. One can, however, make analogies with historic Pueblo cultures.  ETHNOGRAPHIC PUEBLO SUBSISTENCE AND DIET Ethnographic literature from historic and modern Pueblo peoples provides a range of information useful i n the reconstruction and understanding of prehistoric subsistence systems. The ethnographic information collected by early ethnologists contains many references to wild resources, once part of the subsistence system, but have since fallen from the menu. These same volumes also contain a variety of other information regarding subsistence systems which may provide the archaeologist with possible explanations for observations made in the archaeological record which defy explanation in that context alone. This is not to say that we may simply take data from the present Pueblos and use it uncritically to explain what we observe in the archaeological record; only that it may offer ideas and hypotheses regarding that which did not preserve. The Puebloan peoples first came into contact with members of the European cultures in the middle of the sixteenth century A . D . During their occupation of the American Southwest the Spanish, the first Europeans to come into contact with the Puebloan peoples, introduced a variety of new food resources which initiated substantial changes to the traditional Pueblo subsistence system and diet. A number of domesticated plants were introduced, including wheat, oats, peaches, apples, chile, peas and several new varieties of beans (Robbins etal 1916:76). The Spanish also brought domesticated sheep into the Southwest. The initial use of these resources eventually led to the disuse of many wild plant and animal species. W i t h the incorporation of the Southwest into the United States more changes in the Pueblo subsistence system and diet began to take place. Unlike the Spanish, the Americans did not introduce new food resources the Pueblo people could produce themselves. Instead the Americans brought to the Pueblos pre-  11  processed foods, such as sugar. Unable to produce these goods for themselves the Pueblo peoples were drawn into a cash economy, which induced further changes in their subsistence system. Considering the lengthy period of contact between Puebloan and European peoples, and the substantial changes associated with that contact, one may question the use of Pueblo ethnographic material in the study of prehistoric diet. Writing in 1939, Whiting (1966:11) has noted that although the Hopi were receptive to the introduction of new cultigens, the general substance of their agriculture remained relatively constant. Data from the ethnographic record are present for six aspects which may be important to our understanding of prehistoric Anasazi subsistence systems: (1) w i l d resource utilization and food preparation, (2) agricultural technology and schedule, (3) storage, (4) food redistribution and trade, (5) utilization of resources for purposes other than food and, (6) the inclusion of food items in ritual. The relationship of these aspects to the preceding discussion of human subsistence systems and to Anasazi diet will be discussed in detail below. A s noted in the introduction, archaeologists have a number of methods which w i l l indicate the resources, or at least many of the resources, which comprised the diet of prehistoric people. These methods generally do not indicate the ways in which the different resources were used. That is, we may know from the archaeological record that corn and beans were eaten, but we do not know how these foods were prepared and in which form they were eaten. This type of information is available to archaeologists in the ethnographic literature, and w i l l receive limited discussion here. The traditional subsistence system of the Pueblo Indians as it is represented in the ethnographic literature includes a wide array of plant and animal species, many of which were utilized by the Puebloans for purposes other than eating. Whiting (1966), lists one hundred and twenty-eight plants used by the Hopi, excluding introduced species; fifty-one of these plants were consumed as part of the diet. Robbins et al. (1916) list a total of seventy plants (excluding introduced species) used by the Tewa for a range of purposes; thirty-four of these plants were recorded as food items. Gnabasik (1981) has undertaken the task of sifting through much of the  12  Pueblo ethnographic literature for references to the use of animal species. Specific references were found for twenty-eight mammals, thirty-five birds and four reptiles and amphibians. Mention was also made of the use of certain insects or their products, and in the R i o Grande region, fish were noted. Gnabasik (1981) indicates twenty mammals, seven species of birds and two reptiles which were used as a source of food by the Pueblo peoples. Appendix 1 presents each of the species indicated in these sources and the various uses to which each was put. Substantial data are also available on the methods of preparation and consumption of many of these resources. Cushing (1920) notes six ways corn is prepared and eaten by the Zuni: fresh, corn-flour, parched, baked, roasted on hot coals and boiled. A number of these forms are then used as ingredients in other products or meals. One of the primary constituents of the Pueblo diet is a form of wafer-bread; among the Hopi it is called piki (Whiting 1966:15), the Zuni equivalent is he-we (Cushing 1920:564), and to the Tewa it is Mowa (Robbins etal. 1916:88). The purpose here is not to demonstrate the importance of corn in the diet of the historic Pueblo peoples, but to examine the effects of the different methods of preparation with respect to visibility in the archaeological record. If much of the corn consumed on a daily basis was used as flour in different types of bread we would perhaps expect complete digestion and thus little evidence of that corn in coprolites. Reinhard (1988), however, states that even when corn has been ground identifiable portions are still present. C o m kernels eaten whole, either fresh, baked, parched or boiled, may be less susceptible to complete digestion, and thus there is likely to be more evidence of them in coprolites. The Zuni ground numerous other plant foods into meal to be used in bread-making, these include: cactus fruits, juniper berries, pinyon nuts, acorns and sunflower seeds (Cushing 1920). Other plant species used as food by the Puebloans were picked and eaten as greens (Whiting 1966). A m o n g the Hopi, many of these greens were collected from specific plants in the spring when the new growth was present. Other plant species were used as herbs or seasonings. These include, purslane, beebalm, tansy mustard, wild onion, tomatillo and mint (Whiting 1966:19). These species may appear in limited amounts in the archaeological record. Beverages were made from different parts of a number of plants. The H o p i used both the berries  13  of sumac (or squawbush) and mistletoe for this purpose (Whiting 1966:20) and the Zuni often made warm drinks with corn-meal. Bradfield (1971:21) concluded that the Hopi required approximately two and a half acres of farm land per person to provide the required amounts of food. The primary constraints he found placed on the Hopi farmer were those of having to locate fields i n adequately watered areas with decent soils and enough time between the spring and fall killing frosts for the crop to mature. In the western Pueblo area (including Zuni, Hopi, and Acoma) farmers had to rely on rainfall, run-off, and springs for their water and thus had to locate their fields to obtain the maximum benefit from these sources (Jorgensen 1983:687). Farmers from the eastern pueblos were able to locate their fields and gardens near the banks of the R i o Grande or one of its tributaries. Working with the Hopi, Hack (1942:8) found that a growing season of approximately 130 days, in an area with around twelve inches of rain annually, is required for successful dry farming of corn. The Hopi (using dry - or floodwater farming at higher elevations) do not plant their main corn crop until the last weeks of M a y , along with the years bean and squash crops, to avoid the last frosts (Forde 1931:385). Spring is one of the driest periods of the year, requiring that the corn be planted deep enough to utilize winter moisture retained well below the ground surface, until the summer rains begin (Bradfield 1971:4). Early corn crops are planted by the Hopi during the month of A p r i l , this corn is planted for the nimankatcina ceremony, and is harvested green at the end of July. The main Hopi harvests begin in the early days of September. Beans and squash are harvested first and then the main corn crop is brought in through the rest of September and early October (Forde 1931:393). The Tewa along the R i o Grande (at a lower elevation and with the use of irrigation) plant their corn crops in A p r i l and begin the harvest near the end of September and continue on through the first weeks of October (Robbins et al. 1916:82-83). N o major changes in the climate and environment of the American Southwest have occurred within the last two thousand years (Lipe 1983:421), thus it is probable the prehistoric Puebloans had to work within similar environmental constraints and likely had a  14  similar schedule as the historic Puebloans. Between planting and harvesting, the fields would have to be weeded and the young plants protected. Storage was an important part of the Pueblo subsistence system. Food was stored both for winter use and as insurance against crop failure. Bradfield (1971:21), Forde (1931:393) and Hough (1897:35) all state that the Hopi stored large quantities of c o m to support them in the following year should the crops of the present year fail. Hough has stated that a two year supply of c o m was put away; Bradfield notes only a single year supply of c o m in storage. Forde appears to suggest that as the Hopi people became more involved in the American cash economy, corn stored for the event of a crop failure became more of an ideal than a reality. Corn was stored either on or off the cob (Whiting 1966:15), generally in small rooms specifically for that purpose. A variety of other food resources were stored to add variety to the diet during the winter months. Cushing (1920) refers to jerked meat and the preparation of w i l d onions and cactus fruits for storage. Undoubtedly the list of foods which were put aside for winter from year to year was quite substantial. Interaction with kinfolk, neighbors from the same pueblo, nearby villages, and people from distant areas helped avoid periods of food shortage and in obtaining non-local resources (Ford 1983:722). During the historic period the Hopi maintained trading relationships with the Z u n i , Havasupai and the Navajo (Kennard 1979:559). Similarly, the Plains tribes east of the Colorado Plateau would often undertake trading expeditions to the pueblos (Ford 1983:713). Both w i l d and cultivated foods were important items in these trading relationships. Social networks of exchange and food redistribution were important aspects of the relationships within each pueblo. Ford (1983:716) notes that borrowing and sharing food was a constant part of pueblo life. Some of the most important exchanges of food within a pueblo occurred in conjunction with ceremonies. K i n f o l k would cooperate when arranging feasts and individuals who provided ceremonial services received food as payment, primarily corn-meal (Ford 1983; Kennard 1979). The Puebloan peoples depended on the resources in their environment for more than food alone. M a n y species which were eaten served two or more purposes, such as medicine,  15  construction material, raw material for tool manufacture or were ritually important. In her study of ethnographic pueblo faunal utilization, Gnabasik (1981) found reference to seven avian species which were eaten, and twenty-five species of birds which were important for ceremonial purposes. These birds were captured or killed for their feathers, which are required for many of the Pueblo ceremonies. Similarly, Whiting (1966) found that the number of plant species which were used as medicine by the Hopi equaled the number of different plants used as food. Use of both plant and animal species for purposes other than food are identified in Appendix 1 (Tables A and B). In summary this section has discussed six aspects of Puebloan subsistence with regards to data from the ethnographic literature: (1) wild resource utilization and food preparation, (2) agricultural technology and schedule, (3) storage, (4) food redistribution and trade, (5) utilization of resources for purposes other than food and, (6) the inclusion of food items in ritual. It is apparent that cultivated crops, particularly corn, were very important to the historic Puebloan people. Whiting (1966:5) has remarked that the Hopi have oriented all their ceremonies around the well - being of the pueblo, which would necessitate a successful harvest. He refers to corn as the "giver of life" (Whiting 1966:8), and notes that Hopi philosophy and religion were centered around it. Cushing (1920:18) has made this same statement for the importance of corn in the life of Zuni Pueblo. Many of the plants and animals within the Puebloan's environment, particularly those used for food play key roles in Pueblo ceremonial life. A s noted above food was often used as payment for ceremonial services, however, the involvement of food in pueblo ceremony goes beyond this. Y u c c a suds are important for ritual cleansing, and a variety of plant species are involved in ceremonial smoking (Whiting 1966:41). Certain species are used as symbols for other things, for example, water may variously be symbolized by the likes of rushes, cattails or willows (Whiting 1966:43).  16  ARCHAEOLOGICAL REMAINS OF ANASAZI DIET INTRODUCTION In this section data from four independent lines of archaeological evidence, faunal, paleobotanical, coprolite and staple carbon isotope analyses, are examined to address the three research questions outlined above. A space-time framework which divides the Anasazi people into four branches and the Anasazi tradition into a series of occupation periods, is used to allow comparisons of diet between the different areas and through time. Spatially the Anasazi are considered in terms of the four branches discussed above: Chaco, Kayenta, San Juan - Mesa Verde and R i o Grande. The environments in each of these areas differed and may have affected the diet of the inhabitants. Chronologically the analysis follows the periods outlined by the Pecos Classification (Kidder 1927), which divides the Anasazi tradition into three Basketmaker and five Pueblo periods. Here we are only concerned with the Anasazi occupation between the Basketmaker II and Pueblo III periods (Basketmaker II 500 B . C . - A . D . 500; Basketmaker III A . D . 500-A.D.750; Pueblo I A . D . 7 5 0 - A . D . 900; Pueblo II A . D . 900- A . D . 1150; Pueblo III A . D . 1150-A.D.1300). Only sites reported with relatively precise chronological information were included in the analysis. Occupation episodes identified only as 'Pueblo' or 'Basketmaker' were avoided, as were reports which presented faunal remains as a single assemblage from sites with more than two occupations, or occupations which were not continuous. The original intention was to use only the five standard periods of the Pecos classification, however, due to problems with the availability of numerous reports and other requirements of the data discussed below, it was necessary to include some combined periods such as Pueblo II—III. to expand the number of sites in the analysis. Although these combined periods are referred to as periods in the text, they are not true periods in and of themselves in the sense of the Pecos Classification periods. The sites from which data are taken vary from one type of evidence to the next as does the number of sites used in each analysis. Criteria for the inclusion of sites into this study exist on two levels, the study as a whole and each individual analysis. The sites used in this thesis are not the total of Anasazi sites investigated by archaeologists, but are those which were obtainable  17  within the time-frame allowed for this study. Following this each site had to be placed in one of the time periods just discussed. The analysis of each line of archaeological evidence has different limitations and data requirements. These specific criteria are discussed in the relevant sections below. In the following subsections the analysis of each line of evidence examines the diet of each branch and time period as well as between branches and through time. Each subsection is divided into a brief note on methods, a discussion of the results of the analysis, a summary and short discussion on the implications of the findings to the research questions.  FAUNAL ANALYSIS Assessing the relative importance of the animal taxa present in a faunal assemblage to the prehistoric inhabitants diet is a common practice in archaeology. Occasionally results from neighbouring sites are compared. Less common are studies which take a regional focus, such as Leonard's (1986, 1989) research on Black Mesa faunal assemblages and Neusius' (1986) analysis of faunal exploitation in the Dolores area of southwestern Colorado. The present analysis examines faunal assemblages from sites across the Anasazi area. Each of the four Anasazi branches discussed above are represented in the eighty-four assemblages included in this study (Appendix 2, Table A ) . This section is aimed at identifying animals, or groups of animals which were staple resources in the Anasazi diet. Methods The majority of the data used in this analysis are derived from individual sites. The exception is the material recovered from the Dolores Archaeological program excavations which Neusius (1986) has heretofore synthesized. These data are used here in their synthesized form, allowing the inclusion of the substantial body of data from the Dolores area. However, as discussed below, use of the data in this form also creates an inconsistency. The measure of taxonomic abundance used in the following analysis is the number of identified specimens (NISP). The number of identified specimens has been chosen over the minimum number of individuals (MNI) due to a number of inherent problems, discussed by  18  Grayson (1984), with the latter measurement. Only faunal assemblages which were reported as full data sets, including mammals, birds and herpetofauna, were included in the analysis. Taxa such as 'Mammalia' or 'Aves', did not offer useful information to this analysis and have been excluded. Some general taxa, such as small, medium and large mammal and large bird, have been retained. These groups can be compared to more specific taxa based on general size, for instance low relative frequencies of taxa such as deer, antelope and Artiodactyla may be balanced by high relative proportions of large mammal elements. M e d i u m mammal is the most problematic of these taxa, as analysts will have different animal size cut-offs for the taxon, resulting in the possibility of some overlap. Faunal assemblages recovered from sites where screening was not part of the excavation procedures have been excluded from the analysis. The lack of screening produces an obvious bias against the recovery of small animal remains. However, the mesh size of screens used in excavations varies as will their potential to recover small remains. Leonard (1989:18), citing evidence from Eckles (1978), notes the bias against small mammals, relative to large mammals with the use of 1/4 inch screens. Experiments by Thomas (1969:394) indicate that as much as 9 0 % of small rodent bones may not be recovered using 1/4 inch screens. Very low N I S P values for faunal assemblages can have an immense effect on relative taxonomic abundance (Grayson 1984). T o account for this effect, assemblages which have an N I S P of less than fifty have been excluded from this analysis. Admittedly this value was arrived at somewhat arbitrarily, however, attempts to use Grayson's (1984:122) methods for determining an appropriate cut-off did not produce useful results. The cut-off used for this analysis is viewed as a compromise between removing very small assemblages and maintaining as many sites as possible in the analysis. The mean relative frequencies used later i n the analysis would be profoundly influenced by assemblages with only one or two identifiable specimens (where relative frequency could equal 100%). A master taxonomic list was initially compiled from the data given i n each of the reports used. M a n y of the taxa reported occurred in very small numbers, yet the possibility remains that these taxa may not have been important on a species basis, but were part of a larger group which  19  was important. A n attempt was made to retain these specimens in the analysis by grouping taxa based on biological relationships (i.e., low frequency species were grouped into a similar taxon of the appropriate genus). This reduced the original faunal list to seventy-nine taxa, many of which were still represented by very low frequencies. Almost 6 0 % of the taxa were represented by relative frequencies of 1% or less, and their occurrence throughout the assemblages examined was by no means consistent. Although each of these taxa contributed to the diet of a site's occupants, the goal here is to identify the animals used consistently by the Anasazi across time and space. Therefore, the analysis was confined to those taxa which have the potential to have been dietary staples. Taxa represented by at least 4 % in either of these two calculations discussed below, were thus selected for further analysis (these taxa are shown in Figure 2). Leonard (1989:41) has suggested that prior to an analysis of changes in relative taxonomic abundance through time it is necessary to examine the variation which exists between sites within a single period. What appears to be changes in abundance from one period to the next may be the result of the varying assemblage sizes. The linear regression approach outlined by Leonard (1989) was used to examine the periods within each branch represented by an adequate number of sites for sample size effects. This test is limited to two taxa, cottontail rabbits and jackrabbits, as they appear to be the two most abundant taxa in the majority of assemblages. Leonard's (1989:45) regression approach is based on the assumption that the N I S P of cottontail, for example, will increase as the total assemblage N I S P (or sample size) increases when sampling from a mixed population consisting of groups with varying frequencies. This assumption is based on the collectors curve which postulates an increase i n the number of taxa recovered with an increase in sample size. The results of this test indicate that (in some periods) the variation in the relative abundances of cottontail and jackrabbit may result from sample size effect. However, in other periods the regression analysis shows an insignificant relationship between taxon N I S P and sample size. Results were also obtained indicating sample size was responsible for variation in one of the two taxa, but not the other. In sum the results were somewhat ambiguous, but do  20  indicate the potential for sample size effects between the assemblages used here. Plog and Hegmon (1993), however, have cautioned against simply accepting significant correlations as evidence that sample size effects are responsible for the observed variation between individual sites. Initially two methods were used to obtain a single value for the relative abundance of taxa in each period from each branch: (1) sum the N I S P for each taxa from all sites in a period and divide by the sum of assemblage NISPs, and (2) the mean relative frequency for each taxon by period. Summing taxon N I S P from each site and dividing by the sum of assemblage NISPs essentially produces a single assemblage, with greater influence given to the larger original assemblages. Mean relative frequencies, calculated by summing the relative frequency of each taxon from a number of sites and dividing by the total number of sites, were chosen for this comparison over relative frequencies based on summed taxa NISPs. M e a n frequencies treat each assemblage separately and do not deny variation between assemblages. This method treats assemblages of varying sizes on a fairly equal basis, although it does increase the influence of smaller sites. Very small assemblages have the most potential to affect these values. The removal of these assemblages from the analysis (see above) decreases the effect of small assemblages on the mean relative frequencies used here. A s noted above, data from the Dolores Archaeological Program are inconsistent with this procedure as the data'from numerous sites were already combined. The Dolores sites from each time period are thus essentially treated as one site. Discussion Basketmaker II A n i m a l exploitation during the Basketmaker II period is only represented by sites from the Kayenta branch (Figure 2). The summed relative frequencies indicate the dominance of cottontails (Sylvilagus  sp.), followed by jackrabbit (Lepus sp.). The relative frequency of small  mammals is also moderately high. The majority of other taxa present have low relative frequencies.  21  Basketmaker II Kayenta Branch (11 sites) 0 10 20 30 40 50% II I I I '  Cottontail » m ^ M « g ^ ^ Jackrabbit mmmm Rodentia Squirrel Cynomys sp. Neotoma sp.  Mice, Rats & Voles 1 Canis sp.  Wolf Dog Artiodactyla Antelope Deer Large mammal 1 Medium mammal 1 Small mammal H Turkey Vulture Turkey Large Bird Reptile Figure 2. Relative taxonomic abundances (of taxa represented by at least 4 % in any period) for the Basketmaker II period.  22  Basketmaker III Basketmaker III sites from the Chaco and San Juan - Mesa Verde branches are present in this analysis. The mean relative taxonomic frequencies of these two branches are shown in Figure 3. The most striking difference between the two branches is the high relative frequencies of canids (Canis sp., wolf [Canis lupus] and dog [Canis farniliaris])  in the San Juan-Mesa Verde  branch and their near absence from the Chaco branch. The high relative frequencies of dog, wolf and Canis sp. result from two sites, 5LP110 and 5LP111, excavated by the Durango South Project (Anderson 1980), at which excavations recovered dog burials and the remains of a limited number of wolves. In this case it is obvious that a small number of individuals contributed considerably to the assemblage. The presence of such large quantities of these taxa w i l l effect the abundance values for the other taxa present, relative to other sites, when the relative frequencies are calculated. Cottontails at sites 5LP110 and 5LP111 have relative frequencies of 9 % and 4.7% respectively, however, the relative frequency of cottontails in the one other assemblage for this period, Dolores Period 1, is almost double (17%) that of 5LP110. Removing the large numbers of Canis sp., wolf and dog bones from these sites results in a relative frequency of 2 8 % for cottontails and 7 % for jackrabbits. These values are very similar to the relative frequencies of these taxa in the Chaco branch. If all large animal taxa (Artiodactyla, antelope  [Antilocarpa  americana], deer [Odocoileus sp.] and large mammal) are grouped for comparison the resulting values from each branch are also very close to one another, differing by only a few percent. Removal of the canid elements from the San Juan - Mesa Verde sites, however, substantially increases the relative frequency of mice, rats and voles, in comparison to the low abundance of these animals in the Chaco branch. Basketmaker III - Pueblo I The Basketmaker III - Pueblo I period is represented in the Chaco and San Juan - M e s a Verde branches (Figure 4). Cottontail specimens have similar relative frequencies i n both  23  Basketmaker III Chaco Branch San Juan-Mesa Verde (2 sites) Branch (3 sites) 0 10 20 30 40 50% 0 10 20 30 40 50%  Cottontail Jackrabbit Rodentia Squirrel  I  I  I  Cynomys sp. Neotoma sp.  Mice, Rats & Voles Canis sp.  Wolf Dog Artiodactyla Antelope Deer| Large mammal Medium mammal Small mammal Turkey Vulture Turkey Large Bird Reptile Figure 3 . Relataive taxonomic abundances (of taxa represented by at least 4% in any period) for the Basketmaker III period.  24  Basketmaker III - Pueblo I Chaco Branch (2 sites) 0  San Juan- Mesa Verde Branch (1 site)  10 20 30 40 50% 0 10 20 30 40 5 0 %  _LJ  Cottontail Jackrabbit Rodentia Squirrel]  I  I  Cynomys sp. Neotoma sp.  Mice, Rats & Voles Canis sp.  Wolfj Dog Artiodactyla Antelope Deer Large mammal Medium mammal! Small mammal Turkey Vulture Turkey Large Bird Reptile Figure 4. Relative taxonomic abundances (of taxa represented by at least 4 % in any period) for the Basketmaker III Pueblo I period.  25  I  branches. However, both jackrabbits and turkey have greater relative frequencies i n the Chaco branch. The abundances of large animals in the San Juan - Mesa Verde branch is almost twice that of the Chaco branch. The general small mammal taxon is also very high in the San Juan Mesa Verde branch, and although the relative frequencies of mice etc. and prairie dog (Cynomys sp.) are slightly higher in the Chaco branch they do not equal the former. The meaning of these differences must be considered tentatively as only a single San Juan - Mesa Verde branch site is present. Pueblo I The relative taxonomic frequencies for the Chaco, Kayenta and San Juan - Mesa Verde Branches during the Pueblo I period are portrayed in Figure 5. Immediately observable is the dominance of cottontail and jackrabbit. The lowest frequency of cottontail is in the Chaco branch, which in turn shows slightly higher representation of jackrabbits and other small rodents. The relative frequencies of the large animal taxa appear slightly higher for the San Juan - Mesa Verde branch. Pueblo I - Pueblo II Sites dating to the combined Pueblo I - Pueblo II period are present from the Chaco and Kayenta branches (Figure 6). The Chaco branch is represented by a single site. W i t h the exception of the small mammal taxon in the Chaco branch, cottontail and jackrabbit specimens are the most abundant. However, it is quite likely that cottontail elements are included in the small mammal taxon. The relative frequency of cottontail for the Kayenta branch is greater than 4 0 % . The relative abundances of Artiodactyla and large mammal are very similar in the two branches. The Chaco site shows slightly higher relative frequencies of the rodent taxa, such as prairie dog and mice, etc. Pueblo II The Pueblo II period is well represented by sites in the Chaco, Kayenta and San Juan Mesa Verde branches (Figure 7). Cottontail specimens have the highest relative frequencies in all branches. Jackrabbit has a high relative frequency in the Chaco branch, however, it is significantly lower in the two other branches, both of which show higher relative  26  LZ  CQ C —i CD  CO  cn TJ  30  CD $D D" r*.  T 3 fl) CD X 3. o o 3 Q. O  CD  "S <D  «T>  CO =T  C  tt>  7 3  >  c3  3 CD 3 3 3 2 2 3ro 3 0) 7C 3 3 CD CD W 0) 3 CD  c <P_  3 co_  o CD  CD Q.  > r-r  CD  O  o Q. O) o  r-r  5 13 »<  CO  ~>  CD < r-r CD CO o  o  o CQ  a. Co o  CO  TJ  o o_ to CD CO W TJ  ! O  CO TJ  CO -Q C =5"  CD. a)  0) cr  o  .  o ro o  • 3 o  cr c  CO  zr n> o CO  —  3 CO  ro o  CO  cn O IWJ  U.'.'J •  TJ  C  O  0) CD  # — *  CD Q.  cr •<  2. CD Q> CO  CO .-»  TJ CD  5' o_  zr CD  3  CO fl) 3  o o o  C CO  . CO 00  CD CO ro  O 0)  CD  CD  o-p.. CO CO o cn O ran ch  CD  CO  CO  yent  —^  CD "O  o ro o  (4 si  —J. 0)  —\  ch  o o  o> Z3  O  ites  a>  o CD CO  O o O r+ Q . —\ r+ O CD 3 c r '3  TO o  5? CD  .Cn .CO O  3 I  < CD —5 Q_ CD  CD cr o  Pueblo l-Pueblo II Chaco Branch (1 site) 0 10 20 3 0 4 0 50'  Cottontail Jackrabbit Rodentia Squirrel  I  1 I  1 1  Kayenta Branch (4 sites) 0 10 20 30 40 5 0 %  I  I  I  1 I  Cynomys sp. Neotoma sp.  Mice, Rats & Voles Canis sp.  Wolf Dog Artiodactyla|i Antelope Deer Large mammal Medium mammal Small mammal Turkey Vulture Turkey | Large Bird Reptile Figure 6. Relative taxonomic abundances (of taxa represented by at least 4 % in any period) for the Pueblo l-ll period.  28  62  Tl CO  O  CD  ^ 9, oT CD  CO ^3 CQ  ^ 3  CD  —|  _>  03  03  0)  W  ^ CD  03  0)  Q)  >  o <' — CD  T3 CD Z3.  o  5T  CD  CL *<  w o  > o'  CD  ^ CD  03  3  __ oT O  2. < 3 ^ o c? CQ  Co 00  "O  o_ 03  Co CD CO (/) W "D "D  iiL CD  O)  r-r  =;  o  X O  2  Q.  O  •  I o  . ro O . OJ  05  O  CD =3 O  cr  o  O. 03  " o  o  CO  -a c  .on O NO  CD  CD  7s 03  0} X 03  O CD Co3  CD T3 CD CO CD  o '  CD Q.  cr •<  n  o  . cn O NO  CD —!  03 CD 03 CO  CO r-r CO ^> ^ w  . CO  0)  . ro o  3  . to O 3 03  ^< XJ CD ~*  o' Q.  CD  o  . Cn O NO ON  CO 03  00  rT CD  CD CO 03 <—1 Q_ CD  cr  frequencies of the small mammal taxon. The relative frequencies of Artiodactyla, Antelope, Deer, and Large mammal if taken together are fairly similar for the Chaco and San Juan - Mesa Verde branches. The relative abundance of these taxa in the Kayenta branch is slightly lower. The Chaco branch shows a high relative frequency of prairie dog, not observed i n either of the other branches. Pueblo II - Pueblo III Pueblo II - Pueblo III is the only period in this analysis which contains sites from all four branches. Unfortunately the R i o Grande branch, making its first and only appearance, is represented by a single site. The first obvious difference between the branches, portrayed i n Figure 8, is the extremely high relative frequency of turkey in the R i o Grande area. A s no other comparable sites are included here there is no measure of just how representative these relative frequencies are for the R i o Grande area at this time. The relative frequencies of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) remains are low in the other three branches. Cottontail and jackrabbit have the highest relative frequencies in the Chaco and San Juan - M e s a Verde branches. In the Kayenta Branch these taxa are rivaled by a fairly high relative frequency of woodrat (Neotoma sp.). The Chaco and San Juan - Mesa Verde branches share similar relative frequencies of large animal taxa, which are less abundant in the Kayenta branch. Pueblo III Pueblo III period sites included in this analysis are from the Chaco and San Juan - Mesa Verde branches (Figure 9). The comparison made here is at a disadvantage, as only a single site is present from the Chaco branch and Pueblo III Chaco is often considered to be a M e s a Verde reoccupation, thus this may be considered to represent a geographical distinction rather than a cultural one. This site is represented by very few taxa. It is interesting that cottontails are not present at all. Jackrabbits, prairie dog and mice, etc. are the most abundant taxa. These taxa, on the other hand, are relatively poorly represented in the San Juan - M e s a Verde branch. Cottontail and turkey have the highest relative frequencies for this branch. Turkey would be the more abundant of the two if, following Driver et al. (n.d.:4), the turkey and large bird taxa are combined. It is very likely that many of the specimens identified as large bird are the least  30  o"  CQ C  — I . _ CD  ? 3  CD 00  CO  3  . <  CD 03 ex =r.  T  TJ  o cB  !E 5T = x  ~  7C Q3 § 3 3  TO  0)  03  CQ  3 3  0> I  3  co > 3  ^5  o &>' *co " R 2 < 3  3  __. <  CO CQ  tr," O  Z^T  32  ro oo o -Q Q-  03 CO ?j CD  p  S o a- => cr £  3  o o 3 CD  Q. O 03 cr  c  3 Q. 03 3 o CD  TJ 03 X 03 CD TJ CD CO CD 3  r—*•  CD Q> cr << 0) CD 03 00  I — # CP-  S' o  CD TJ CD  a zr  CD  c CD cr o  T~ TJ C CD  cr  Pueblo III Chaco Branch (1 site)  San Juan-Mesa Verde Branch (17 sites)  0 10 20 30 40 50% 0 10 20 30 40 50%  Cottontail Jackrabbit Rodentia Squirrel  I  I  I  I  I  i  i  i  Cynomys sp. Neotoma sp.  Mice, Rats & Voles Cam's sp.  mum  Wolf Dog Artiodactyla Antelope Deer Large mammal Medium mammal Small mammal Turkey Vulture Turkey Large Bird Reptile Figure 9. Relative taxonomic abundances (of taxa represented by at least 4% in any period) for the Pueblo III period.  32  diagnostic turkey elements. Large animal taxa have low relative frequencies i n both branches, but are more abundant in the San Juan - Mesa Verde branch. Comparison  of faunal use between branches  Overall this comparison demonstrates that the relative frequencies of faunal remains from the different branches are quite similar over most time periods. The majority of the variation which exists between branches is found among the three general mammal taxa, differences in the relative frequencies of other taxa are generally insignificant. It is possible that some of this variation is the result of differences in the animal populations within a site's local environment. There are, however, a few notable differences between branches i n some periods. The San Juan - M e s a Verde branch had unusually high relative frequencies of canids in the Basketmaker III period, resulting from the excavation of complete or nearly complete individuals. The relative frequency of woodrats is much higher during the Pueblo II - Pueblo III Kayenta than in other branches. The relative frequencies of jackrabbit appears to be consistently higher in the Chaco branch than in any of the other branches across all time periods, likely due to the environmental characteristics or the area. The majority of the other large differences occur in cases where one or more branches are represented by a single site. In these situations there is no way of knowing how that site represents other sites in the same area for a similar time period. During the Basketmaker III - Pueblo I period the Chaco branch shows a relatively high frequency of turkey, a similar situation exists in the R i o Grande branch during the Pueblo II Pueblo III period. The comparison of the Pueblo III period also suffers from a single site representing one of the two branches. Comparison  of faunal use through time  Before discussing which taxa can be considered dietary staples, variation in the relative frequencies of taxa through time must be addressed. In Figures 10 to 12 the relative frequency graphs for each period are placed in chronological order for each branch. Comparison of these figures shows that there is very little change in the relative frequencies of taxa through time in any of the three branches present. The majority of other obvious differences in Figures 10 to 12 occur in cases where a period is represented by one site, a situation considered insufficient for  33  H c/> Q . c  (O C  73  ££. u r* <" CD  a> *< 73 (Q (D fD  > 5' 3 3 E °u &> c 3 3 2i 3 3 < D -2 c< 0y 5 ^ u -i 3 3  5fD Q_ •< tD  "E " fD  c  II  rt  ru  ( / >  o • '  g-S"  NJ  w m  *j _  2 £  o ~  cu  r* &> X  o 3  o 3 o' n> cr c  D 0_ ) O CD  n>  "O -i  n>  01  = rJ t n> Q_  cr •<  ft) VC "O <T> —t  o' Q.  n> 3  CD  03  CD  2  —\  ure  inch •  —*  rt <•  re  ro  Ii=i  0) n>  o  ro  o.  ro ro ro  , < 3 c  > 5' 2 °-  3  — ^ ^  S.<5 3 s.  fiL  ^  8 o  ro m IQ ->,  o  2  rt  O  P  - r . aT 33 O O C/> O £ - r t  c  in inI  ro o> § § . 5 ff  <L DJ  rt D> X  rt  =:  DO  0)  O  o 3  U> INJ ; v fl> rt  3  O  3 o" OJ  cr c 3 Q. 0)  O  r> ro tn o  —1» 0> X B> rt  -1  CD "D  —i (h  lJ> ft  3  rt  ro  Q.  cr vc n> rt  ST Q>  (/) rt  o  3"  ZT  <U  r> o  »< TJ  ro 3. o  O  Q.  '—' O rt  ro O  3"  a > o o  tar  9S  ro TO  tp_  <• fD  —\ q> x  o 3  o 3 o > cr c 3 q. q>  3  0 CD  01 0) x  a> <D T3 (D 3 r+ CD Q_  cr  CD  tt>  CD  zr CD  co 3  CD </> < CD -l Q. CD  CO -t  reliable conclusions. Although relative frequencies for the majority of taxa i n all branches are not identical, the variation that exists is best described as fluctuating rather than any recognizable pattern of change. Some of this fluctuation may be the effect of using percentages, creating a closed array in which change i n one taxon results in an opposite change i n other taxa (Grayson 1984:19). There are a few observable differences in relative taxonomic frequencies worthy of note. Although the relative abundances of the large game animals remains fairly low in most periods there does appear to collectively be lower relative abundances of these taxa in the later Pueblo periods (Pueblo II - Pueblo III and Pueblo III) in the Chaco, Kayenta and San Juan - M e s a Verde branches. The increase in the relative frequency of woodrats in the Kayenta late Pueblo periods is of interest. However, with only one site present more data are required to establish whether this increase is a site specific occurrence, or part of a larger trend within the branch. A sharp increase i n the relative abundance of woodrats was not observed in any other branch. There does appear to be an increase in the relative abundance of prairie dog between the Basketmaker and Pueblo periods in the Chaco branch (Figure 11), but once again this trend is not present in other branches. A number of possible significant changes are observable in the San Juan - Mesa Verde branch (Figure 12). Jackrabbits and deer are represented by relatively low frequencies in most periods, however, there appears to be a slight peak in their abundances during Pueblo I relative to all other periods. It is important to note that this peak is not much greater than the relative frequencies in other periods. The previously discussed dog burials from sites 5 L P 1 1 0 and 5 L P 1 1 1 , make the canids stand out during the Basketmaker III period. The relative frequencies of these taxa remain low in subsequent periods. Finally, the only taxa which has any indication of increasing relative abundances over time is the turkey. The relative frequency of turkey specimens is low between the Basketmaker III and Pueblo I periods, a slight increase is notable in the Pueblo II period and by the Pueblo III period it is the second most abundant taxa. Turkey may even be the most abundant taxon if combined with large bird as discussed above.  37  Summary In summary, with a few exceptions there does not appear to be any significant difference in the relative taxonomic abundances between branches or throughout the Anasazi tradition. These findings are in accord with those of Leonard (1989:94), who found little change in the fauna represented in Black Mesa assemblages through time. The definition of a dietary staple required both consistent use through time and across a wide area. The twenty taxa which have been the subject of this analysis are the animals (and animal groups) with the greatest potential to be dietary staples. Not all of these taxa, however, meet the criteria just stated. Three taxa, wolf, turkey vulture {Cathartes aura) and reptile occur only rarely and when present it is usually in small numbers. Thus, these taxa do not qualify as staples. The remaining seventeen taxa qualify as dietary staples by Gasser's (1982) definition; they are present throughout the majority of the Anasazi tradition and in most sites from each branch. O f these taxa cottontail has the highest relative abundance by far. Following cottontail are the jackrabbits. It is also possible to note the increased importance of the turkey in the San Juan - M e s a Verde Pueblo III period. The most interesting of the observed differences is the increase in the relative abundance of turkey in the later Pueblo Periods in the San Juan - Mesa Verde branch. This increase takes the turkey from a consistent but low presence to one of primary importance by relative abundance. The actual use of turkeys as a source of meat has been questioned. A kins (1985:381) for example, states that an adult turkey would consume the equivalent to its potential protein value in corn in only twenty days. Aasen (1984:39,44) found corn remains and pollen in turkey coprolites from Turkey Pen Cave. A d d the increased cost of caring for the birds, providing adequate water and protection for example, makes turkey meat a relatively expensive dietary item. The presence of these birds may have been more closely linked to feather production. Gnabasik (1981) records a number of uses for turkey feathers in the ethnographic literature. A k i n s (1985:369) suggests that in Chaco Canyon turkeys were not commonly used as a food resource until the later pueblo periods. The increase in the abundance of turkey remains  38  in San Juan - Mesa Verde sites may represent the increasing importance of the turkey i n the diet, similar to A k i n s suggestion for the Chaco branch. Ranking the rest of the taxa is difficult considering the presence of the general taxa, small, medium and large mammal, and large bird. These general taxa likely contain specimens of a number of different taxa. For example, cottontail, jackrabbit, squirrel, prairie dog, and woodrats may be represented in the Rodentia taxon and they may all be included in the small mammal taxon. Similarly, deer and antelope likely make up many of the Artiodactyla specimens, and all three likely contributed to the large mammal taxon. These two general taxa lie on the extremes and although we cannot know the exact representation of each potentially contributing taxa, we can limit it to smaller groups such as rodents or Artiodactyla. This is not possible for the medium mammal taxon. It may include the larger rodents, some carnivores or smaller Artiodactyls, depending on where the analyst draws the size boundaries. The high relative frequencies of cottontail and jackrabbit elements indicate that these species may have been the most important animal resources in the Anasazi diet. Rabbits and other small rodents were likely readily available in the area immediately surrounding most sites. A k i n s (1985:335) notes that small animals generally occur in fairly high densities and reproduce relatively quickly. These characteristics are ideal for a stable supply of meat obtained with comparatively little labour and time input. Large mammals, on the other hand, are not as abundant and do not reproduce at the high rate of small mammals. These species were likely harder to obtain and have required more time and energy to capture. The relative abundances of large mammals in Anasazi sites are generally quite low, suggesting they were of lesser importance in the diet. However, as studies using meat weights are quick to point out, it takes a large number of rabbits to equal the meat available from a deer or an antelope. One must also consider the "schlepp effect" on large mammal procurement. Unlike small animals, large mammals captured at greater distances were likely not returned to a site complete. Instead only those parts which were economically important were transported (Wing and B r o w n 1979:150). Such actions would reduce the number of large mammal remains deposited in a site, hence these  39  animals would be underrepresented in recovered faunal assemblages. Testing for this bias is beyond the scope of this study, but the potential effects of such behaviour must be kept in mind. The relative contributions of rabbits and large mammals to the Anasazi diet are often considered in terms of the total amount of meat represented by the remains of these animals recovered i n archaeological assemblages. Another means of viewing the importance of these animals i n the diet is to consider the potential frequency of their occurrence in meals. The large quantities of rabbit and small animal remains in the assemblages from Anasazi sites, coupled with the higher densities of these animals around sites suggests that these animals could have been obtained on a regular basis. Large mammals on the other hand, with fairly low relative abundances in sites and lower population densities were probably not captured as regularly. Gnabasik (1981:44) notes references in the ethnographic literature which suggest that the majority of meat brought into a pueblo was consumed fresh. A k i n s (1985:356) notes that most of the meat from large animals was probably consumed fresh and any remaining prepared for storage. Depending on the number of inhabitants of a particular site most of an animal may have been consumed in a relatively short period of time and the remaining stored for winter use. No test has been conducted to explore the validity of this idea. It is simply suggested that small animals such as rabbits may have been more important elements of the Anasazi diet by contributing small amounts of meat on a regular basis, as opposed to a large amount of meat on an occasional basis. W i n g and Brown (1979:149) suggest a similar situation in which small animals eaten in large quantities constitute a significant part of the diet. The occurrence of small mammals such as mice, rats, voles, prairie dogs and woodrats in prehistoric faunal assemblages is a point of concern for studies of ancient diet These species continue to inhabit the Anasazi area today and there is a good chance that their intrusive remains have contributed to faunal assemblages after human occupation. In some cases intrusive individuals can be identified by complete, or nearly complete skeletons (Shaffer 1992:686). Indications that these species were also used in the past is provided by modified and burned specimens. The following discussion of coprolite analysis also indicates that many of these  40  animals were eaten by the Anasazi. The remains of cottontails, mice, squirrel, prairie dog, small bird and turkey have been recovered for Anasazi coprolites. Finally, a note on the dog remains, which may also be present in the Canis sp. taxon. It is questionable whether these animals were actually used as a food resource. It is quite possible that they were occasionally eaten, however, the presence of burials containing complete individuals would suggest that they played a greater role in Anasazi society than simply a convenient source of food. Thus, cottontail, jackrabbit and turkey (for the Pueblo III period in southwestern Colorado) can be assigned primary positions in the list of staple animal resources. The remaining staple resources, squirrels, prairie dog, woodrats, mice, rats and voles, dogs, deer and antelope varied in their relative abundances but were utilized consistently throughout the Anasazi area. Implications for Research Questions If the increase in rabbits and other small rodents in association with agricultural fields postulated by Seme (1984) and others is accurate, the dominance of rabbit remains in most periods could suggest that substantial agricultural practices were present from the Basketmaker II period on. This analysis has indicated that there was little change i n the primary animal resources used across the Colorado Plateau and through time, suggesting that Anasazi diet remained relatively stable. The exception being the increase in the abundance of turkey remains in the later Pueblo periods of the San Juan - Mesa Verde branch. Rabbit, particularly cottontail, appears to have remained relatively constant, however, the abundance of large mammal remains does appear to be lower during the Pueblo II - Pueblo III and Pueblo III periods. Whether the increase in the abundance of turkey simply represents increased turkey use or an attempt to cover for decreasing availability of large game is unknown.  41  FLOTATION AND POLLEN ANALYSIS Methods This section discusses Anasazi plant utilization based on flotation and pollen analysis. These data are affected by a host of factors which can result in contamination of the record and biases in the representation of individual taxa (Gasser 1982:16-21). Plant remains may be transported into an archaeological site by various natural agents, including soil movement, wind, and rodent activity; this may occur at any time between the initial occupation of the site in the past and its excavation by archaeologists. One method commonly used to reduce the possible effects of contamination is the exclusion of all but charred plant remains from analysis (Minnis 1981, Gasser 1982, Matthews 1985). One drawback associated with this approach is the exclusion of resources not subjected to preparation methods which could result in charring. This procedure is followed for the most part in the present analysis, exceptions to this will be noted when appropriate. Charred plant material is generally assumed to have resulted from human actions. Charring could also result, however, from forest fires (Kirkpatrick and Ford 1977:262), or the post-occupation burning of structures. The relative abundance of individual plant taxa in archaeological sites are the result of a combination of factors, some cultural and others natural. Unfortunately, it can be very difficult to separate the two. Plant characteristics determine to a large degree their relative representation in archaeological contexts. The physical characteristics of plant products, such as seeds with hard outer coats or shells, increase the chances of survival in the archaeological record (Gasser 1982:19). Similarly, there is a greater probability of high representation within sites of plants which produce large quantities of seeds (Minnis 1981:145) and easily dispersed pollen. Prehistoric food preparation practices also affect the survivability of various plant types (Gasser 1982). Preparatory techniques such as boiling and grinding often destroy protective seed coats reducing their defenses against the ravages of time. The end result is the possible over or under representation of the various plant types identified. Therefore, measures of abundance using seed counts, for example, or the weight of plant remains recovered, may be misleading.  42  Ubiquity is another way of obtaining information on the relative importance of plant types in the archaeological record (Gasser 1982:22). Ubiquity measures can be calculated using individual samples from a site or the presence of plant remains in a group of sites. The flotation data in this analysis are examined with ubiquity measures based on the frequency of occurrence in the sites of any given period. Flotation data are presented in the literature in a variety of ways. Ubiquity values using the site as the basal unit accommodate the greatest number of sites. The San Juan - Mesa Verde branch is an exception to this procedure, where the majority of data are from a synthetic report (Matthews 1986) providing summed counts of plant parts from all sites in each chronological period. It is not possible to derive ubiquity values from these data. Ubiquity is also used to examine evidence of plant exploitation from pollen data. It appears to be more common in reports of pollen analysis to present the results of individual samples. Therefore, the ubiquity values from pollen reports are calculated from individual samples as opposed to sites. Discussion Comparison  of Floral Use Through Time in the Chaco Branch  Table 1 presents the occurrence of plant taxa in forty Chaco branch sites. The Basketmaker III - Pueblo I and Pueblo I periods are represented by only three sites each and only a single Pueblo III period site is present. It is important to keep these poorly represented areas in mind in the following discussion, as it is not known how well these sites represent other sites of the same period. Corn, beans and squash are all present within the Chaco branch flotation data. Corn is one of the most ubiquitous plants recovered in all time periods. If we ignore the single Pueblo III site for the time being, corn appears to become less common through time. Corn remains, found in all sites dating to the two earlier periods, are found in approximately 8 0 % of the Pueblo I - Pueblo II and Pueblo II period sites, and drops again to a ubiquity value of 7 1 % for the Pueblo II - Pueblo III period. Gasser (1982:24) found evidence for a decrease in the use of corn based on abundance measurements from sites excavated by the Coronado Project. His ubiquity values for the same sites, however, did not support this trend. The decrease in the ubiquity of corn remains apparent in Table 1 is not great, and corn remained one of the most commonly occurring plant types in Chaco branch sites. The pollen evidence does not support a  43  X X o o o o o o o o  cn  -4  o  o o o o o o o o o o  Q  3  O S •<  a  of  £  XX X X XX X X COo CJ uto u COo O co o u CO X X X X o»  z Z  |i  cn  t 3 T» 3 -1  i  1  1  0 0  o  3  X X X  X  X  a  <=»  o  IA  XX X  X  X  * o  ©o  O o -J o o O -j o o o o X X XX X X XXXX XX ro ro cn o o ro o o o o o cn cn cn cn XXXXX XXX XX X XX X X XX X X  cn u  u  00 DT 8 9 c CDCD C 3 3 1 1 i cr fir 1 1 3 c § 8.  o  X  s  X  C7>  3 8- ! % f 3 c s ft i 1 5. fit 8 5 1 8 1 I s c I' I i %1 X  o o  COcn u o C CO O© o © CO -4 CO XXX XX X X cn o C CO OCO o  o o o o o o  o  u  o  o o  o o o o  XXX X  X  NA14.667 (1) NAM.646 (1) NA14,681 (1)  CO oo o XX X X o C CO O o  siu  1  sc  i  TJ TJ  3 aSt  (Banana Yucca  i  T J TJ  I  1  cr>  c  IComposliae  X U UOo  <•  (Ground Cherry I  CT>cn  •  TO T J  1  CO  IT  {Panic Grass  Li  a 3 XX XX  iV s 3- ft 3-  IPrieklyPaar 1  I  X  1Tansy Mustard  in in 8- V a i? 8 a a.CD s. c S I 1 i J 1 TJ  -< c 4 4  o  CO •o C CO OCOo uu cn  o o o o o  O o  o o  X X  i  o o  o o  o o  o o  CD z T  X (N-3) NA14.674(1>  o o o o o  X CO O C  NA14,682 (1)  -o c  NAI4.64S (1)  S-  o o X(N-3)  XX XXX NA14.6S4 0) x NA14.662 (1) XX X X XX XX X XX X 29SJ629 (2) X x X X XX X X 29SJ627 (2.3) -J ro fO ro ro cn IS) c n c n o cn cn *. W o ©o © o o o o o © © © o cn Ol o cn in o o cn o X ( N - 4 ) o o o o o cn cn Cn X X XXX X XXXX X x X X NA14.650(1) NA14.649 (1) X XXX XX NA14,633 (1) X X NA14.727 (1) XX X NA14.683 (1) XX X X LA19414 (4) X X X X LAI 9463 (4) X X X X LAI 9464 (4) X X X X X X X X X LA19S46 <4) XX X X X X X LAI 9546 (4) X X X XX X Salmon Ruin (5) X XXX X XX XX X C D rO Co cn ro u o ro c n M c n OB o o o ^ « fO o o o o tO to Co o> o o cn o o o to COtO to to COto ,o o « X ( N - 1 1 ) cn cn 09 o «D to o 1 to (O o fs) ro -«j -4 NA14,651 (1) XX X XXX X X X XX XXX NA14.648 (1) XXX X X XXX X X XX X XXX PM203 (6) X X X X X PM205 (6) X XX X x X X PM240(6) X X X X NA14.664 (1) X X X X X XX PM1S1 (6) X X X X X X X X X PM1S7(6) PM160(6) X X X PH196(6) X X X X PM222(6) X PM224(6) X X X X X X —X X Guadalup* Ruin (7) XX x X X X X XX XX X Xx X PuabloAlU (2) XXXX XX XXXX X X X X X X LAI 9439 (4) X X X X X LA19S16 (4) X X X X X X XX X "8 X X X X X X X X LAI 9553 (4) X XX X co -4 ro n Orto o o> on o M cn © o o M o A cn cn OB 10 ro O cn cn o © cn o £ ro ro o —c © z o cn o ro o o IS) o o cn co ro o o X ( N - 1 7 ) to C -vi cn to o» CO NA146S9(1) X X X X X X X X X XXX X XX XX X XXX X X K) O oo o cn o o cn X XXX XX X XX  a  o o  o o  X(N-l)  TJ C &  C 8°  C 8TJ  ~  TJ  cr  C | TJ  =  TJ  decrease in the use of corn through time. Although some fluctuation is observable, the ubiquity values for corn pollen remain high for all periods in the Coronado Project area (Gish 1982) and the Pueblo I and Pueblo II - Pueblo III periods in Chaco Canyon (Cully 1985). Bean and squash remains were found in relatively few time periods, and their ubiquity remained relatively low. Gasser (1982:20) notes that beans tend to degrade quickly relative to other plants. Preparing beans for consumption by boiling further reduces their chances of preservation in the archaeological record. There is little evidence for the use of beans i n the pollen data. Squash remains were recovered in only Pueblo II (18%) and Pueblo II - Pueblo III (6%) period sites. This evidence does not indicate extensive or sustained use of this cultigen. The ubiquity of squash pollen in the Coronado Project sites (Gish 1982), however, presents a picture quite different from the flotation analysis. Squash pollen was identified in 7 5 % of the Basketmaker III - Pueblo I sites, decreasing to a low of 2 0 % during Pueblo I - II times and increasing again through the Pueblo II and Pueblo II - III periods (57% and 8 0 % respectively). Squash pollen was also found in the single Pueblo III period site present. During the Pueblo II III period at Chaco Canyon squash pollen is moderately common, during the earlier periods, however, its ubiquity is quite low (Cully 1985). Goosefoot(Chenopodium sp.) is the most ubiquitous plant type found in Chaco branch sites. Charred remains of this plant were recovered from every site included in this analysis. Goosefoot is a common pioneer plant (Ford etal. 1983:464) attracted to areas of disturbed soils such as Anasazi corn fields. Its seeds are small, easily transported and produced in very large quantities. In comparison to plants with larger seeds, one can see how goosefoot seeds with their small size could easily become lost and with their abundance have better chances for survival in the archaeological record. Four other plant taxa, groundcherry (Physalis  sp.), dropseed  (Sporobolus sp.), Globemallow (Sphaeralcea sp.) and stickleaf (Mentzelia sp.) showed little change in ubiquity from one period to the next. Gish's (1982) pollen data suggest an increase in the ubiquity of Globemallow pollen during the Pueblo II and Pueblo II - Pueblo III periods. The ubiquity values for purslane (Portulaca sp.) suggest a weak increasing trend through time in the Chaco branch. During the Basketmaker III - Pueblo I period purslane is found in 3 3 % of the  45  sites present, it occurs in 7 5 % and 6 4 % of the Pueblo I - Pueblo II and Pueblo II period sites respectively. It is also common in sites of the PueblO II - Pueblo III period, although the ubiquity value of 5 3 % , is slightly lower than the preceding periods. The ubiquity values given in Table 1 suggest a decrease in the use of amaranths, wingedpigweed (Cycloloma  sp.), rice grass (Oryzopsis sp.), beeweed (Cleome), peppergrass (Lepidium  sp.), banana yucca (Yucca baccata), wild buckwheat (Eroginum sp.), sunflower (Helianthus  sp.)  and Leguminoseae (pea family) through time. Caution must be used in this interpretation, however, in view of the low number of sites from the earlier periods. A variety of resources such as pinyon (Pinus edulis), juniper (Juniperus  sp.), tansy mustard (Descurania  sp.) and  saltbush (Atriplex sp.) vary considerably from one period to the next. The pollen data from sites excavated by the Coronado Project show an interesting increase in the ubiquity of most non-cultigens during the Pueblo II period. For some taxa the rise in ubiquity is small. Goosefoot is an exception to this apparent trend. The ubiquity of goosefoot, 7 5 % for Basketmaker III - Pueblo I sites and 6 0 % for both Pueblo I and Pueblo I - II sites, drops to 4 3 % during the Pueblo II period. The ubiquity value for this plant returns to 6 0 % in the succeeding Pueblo II - III period. Comparison  of Floral  Use Through Time in the Kayenta Branch  The occurrence of plant taxa recovered from forty-nine Kayenta branch sites, all located on Black Mesa, is presented in Table 2. Accompanying pollen data are not presented here. The ubiquity of corn is high in all time periods for the Kayenta branch. The slight decrease through time in the ubiquity of corn remains observed for the Chaco branch is not reproduced in the Kayenta flotation data. Although beans and squash do not appear in Table 2, they were recovered from some Black Mesa sites. Beans were found at sites D:7:262 (French etal. 1982:300), D: 11:2068 (Ford etal. 1983:463) and D: 11:2030 (Ford et al. 1985:481). Squash remains were recovered from site D:7:2085 (Wagner etal. 1984:613). The majority of these sites had multiple occupations which did not fit the periods used in this analysis and are therefore absent from Table 2.  46  n m  CO  7?  A  3" 0>  C3  n 7*  r»  CO  CL.  e A  o n  CD  n  33  CO rt A  0  A  CO  A  A  Site 0:7:3141 (1) X X X X X X X X X D:t 1:2045 <1> X X X X X ro DEI 1:2063 <1> X X X X X X o 0:11:2126 (1) X X X 0:11:3133 (1) m X X X X X X X X D:7:254 (2) X X X X X X X <o 0:7:3107 (2) 00 X X X X 0:11:244 (2) X X D:11:3172 (2) X X o 0:11:2067(2) X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X D: 11:449 (3> X X D:11:1167(3> to a > X X X X X X X X X X X 0:11:1410 (3) Ul X X X X X X X £ 0:7:239 (4) X •n 0:7:151 (4) X X n 0:7:3013 (4) X X X 0:7:3017(4) X X X at 0:7:3045 (4) CO X X X X X X X X X X X Del 1:1161 (5) 00 ro O cn cn cn n coro C>) ro 1 —J-Ct. cn CO cnCt) ro cn 00 00 cn cn cn cn cn COcn % (N-19) ro O) •h. X ro X D:7:3021 (4) X X o 0:7:3034 (4) 3 X X X D:7:3194 (2) X D:11:3061 (2) ro -«J ro (N-4) to O O O O o o cn o o cn O o o o o O cn cn o o o O O o X X X X X X X D:11:2023(1) X X X X X D:11:2025(1) X X X X D:11:2027(1) X X X X X X X X D:11:3038 (1) X X X X X X 0:11:2062(1) X X 0:11:2064 (2) X X X X X D:11:689 (3) X X X X X X D:7:263 (4) X X X X X 0:7:3038 (4) Ct) Cn ro cn ro rro ro o> o Zl ro o o 00CO oo o o O O O Cnoi %(N-9) o O O O o zl CO X X X 0:11:1158 (5) X X D:7:2013 (4) X X X X X X X X X X X X 0:7:234 (2) X D:7:2090 (1) X X X X 0:11:3017 (1) X roo O O roo o o o roo roo o o o o o o roo oo> 00o o o O O oro oro X(N-5) X X 0:7:18 (5) X X X X X X 0:11:275(5) X X X X X 0:11:879 (5) X X X X X X X X X X 0:7:109(4) X 0:7:2020 (4) X X D:7:3055 (4) X X X X 0:11:2001 (4) X X 0:7:2001 (4) X X X X X X 0:11:3119 <1> o> X(N-9) o > r o Ct) —J 00 Zl Zl Zl Zl co o r o o o o o o o o O o 09 to — w- X X X -X XJ X X X 0:11:316(2) X X X X X X 0:11:2042(2) X X X 0:11:2051 (1) Q>  X  CD  A  IA  X  X X  X  Period  t  n  a  I  n  lAmaranth lAstralaqus 1 (Barrel Cactus J |Beeweed ICompositae 1 ICorn |Goosefoot [Grama Grass L'unlper IPeppergress 1 (Pincushion CactvJ Ipinyon IPrlcklyPear |Purslane iRice Grass ISaltbush ISunf lower ITansy Mustard  (1) Wagner et at.  Tc  X  X  3, (3) F> A CL  % A  3 A  —  A  —  S)C A  ~  CO  —J CO  Pue cr o "  CO  X  X  o  o  o  o  o  u> Ct) Ci) Ct) Ct) o  o> -4 o  cn Co o -4 —J o  o  a> o b> u> -4 o CO o o  CO o CO  X(N-3)  cr o cTJ cr o = A  Puel  X  A  cr  O  —  The ubiquity of goosefoot remains is high in all periods represented by Kayenta branch sites. Five other plant taxa, amaranths, pinyon, juniper, purslane and rice grass, are commonly recovered in Kayenta periods with moderate to high ubiquity values. Taxa which appear in a significant number of periods, with low to moderate ubiquity values include: Graminae (grass family), Kochia, saltbush and prickly pear (Opuntia). Remains of plants identified only to the cactus family, Cactaceae, occur with low frequency in the Basketmaker II and Pueblo II period and have moderate ubiquity values in the Pueblo II - Pueblo III period. Prickly pear remains during these periods actually decrease from the moderate ubiquity values of the early Pueblo periods. Finally, there are four taxa which appear only in the Basketmaker II period sites: beeweed, stickleaf, tansy mustard and wild buckwheat. The ubiquity values of these plants are quite low. Stickleaf is the highest of the four with a ubiquity of 1 1 % . The ubiquity values for the remaining three are all 5%. A m o n g the Chaco branch sites the highest ubiquity value for beeweed is in the earliest period (Basketmaker III - Pueblo I). Although the ubiquity values decrease, beeweed is found in later sites from this branch. The highest ubiquity value for the remains of w i l d buckwheat are also in the Chaco Basketmaker III - Pueblo I period, however, the values continue to range from high to moderate in subsequent periods. Stickleaf and tansy mustard are not present in Chaco branch sites until the Pueblo I - Pueblo II period, after which they occur with moderate to high ubiquity values. Comparison  of Floral Use Through Time in the San Juan - Mesa Verde branch  A s noted above the San Juan - Mesa Verde branch flotation data used for this analysis are presented as total presence by period as opposed to ubiquity values for each period (Table 3). The pollen data are primarily from the Hovenweep National Monument reported by W e i r (1976). Scott (1976) and Short (1980) provide pollen data from Hoy House and two Basketmaker III sites excavated by the Durango South Project respectively. Corn and goosefoot are present in all periods of this branch as they are in both the Chaco and Kayenta branches. The ubiquity of corn pollen is 5 0 % or greater for all periods, from Basketmaker II to Pueblo III (Weir 1976). Beans were identified in all six of the Dolores periods, but not in the Pueblo III period represented by  48  Table 3 . Occurrence of charred plant remains from flotation analysis from San Juan Mesa Verde branch sites. Pill p Il-P III PI p l-p II Pll Period BM III BM lll-P I Area/Site Dolores ( 1 ) Dolores (1) Dolores (1) Dolores ( 1 ) Dolores (1) Dolores (1) Guadalupe Ruin (2) Salmon Ruin (3) X X X Amaranthus X X X X X X X X X Bannana Yucca X X Barley X X X X X Bean X Beardtongue Beeweed Bird beak Bottle Gourd Bulrush Che no-am Compositae Corn Cruciferae Cyperaceae Dropseed Globemallow Goosefoot Gramineae Groundcherry Hedge Cactus Jimsonweed Juniper Knotweed Leguminosae Malvaceae Mulberry Nightshade Oak Panic Grass Pinyon Polygonaceae Prickly Pear Purslane Rice Grass  X  X X X  X X X X  X X X X X  X X X X X  X X X X X  X X X X  X X X X  X X X X  X X X X  X  X X X  X X  X X  X X  X  X X X  X X X  X X X X  X X X X  X X X X  X X X  X X X X X  X X  X  X  X X  X X X  X X  X  X X  X  X  X X X  X  X X  X X  X X  X  X X X X X  X X X X X  X X X X  X  X  X  X X  X  X X X  X  X  X X  X X  X  X X  X  Reed Rosaceae Rush Sage Sedge Service berry Solanaceae Squash  X X  X  X X X X  X X X  X X X  X X X  X X X X X X  X  X  X X X X X X X X  X X  Stickleaf Sumac Summer Squash Sunflower Tabacco Tansy Mustard Wild onion  X  Yucca  X  X X X  X X X  (1) Matthews 1986, (2) Pippin 1987, (3) Doebley 1981  49  X  X  X X  X  X  X  X  X X  X  X  X X X  X  X  X  X  X  X  the M e s a Verde occupations at Guadalupe Ruin (Pippin 1987) and Salmon Ruin (Doebley 1981). Bean pollen was not identified in the Hovenweep sites used in this analysis. Squash remains were found i n sites dating to the Basketmaker III through Pueblo I - Pueblo II periods i n the Dolores area. They were not identified in Pueblo II and Pueblo II - Pueblo III period sites at Dolores, but are present in Pueblo III period samples from Guadalupe R u i n (Pippin 1987). Squash pollen was only identified in sites from the Pueblo II - Pueblo III period. The ubiquity value for this pollen type was only 5%. Numerous other plant taxa were present in all time periods from the San Juan - Mesa Verde branch. These include: cheno - ams, yucca, pinyon, juniper, groundcherry, purslane, sunflower, Graminae and Cyperaceae (sedge family). The ubiquity values for pollen types support the common presence of cheno - ams, pinyon, juniper, Graminae and Cyperaceae (Weir 1976, Scott 1976, Short 1980). Stickleaf and tansy mustard are also present in all periods, in contrast to the Chaco branch where they do not occur until the Pueblo I - Pueblo II period, and the Kayenta branch in which they were not identified in sites after the Basketmaker II period. Beeweed occurred in only three time periods. A s Table 3 indicates, other commonly recovered plant types from San Juan - Mesa Verde branch sites include: amaranth, Leguminosae (pea family), Rosaceae (rose family), sumac (Rhus trilobata), compositae, globemallow, knotweed (Polygonum sp.) and Malvaceae (mallow family). Rice grass, present in all Kayenta branch periods and all but Pueblo I in the Chaco branch, was absent from the San Juan - Mesa Verde branch Pueblo I - Pueblo II and Pueblo II periods. The remains of prickly pear cactus were not identified in the Basketmaker III or Pueblo II - III periods in the San Juan - Mesa Verde branch. Prickly pear was also absent from the Pueblo II - III period in the Kayenta branch. A m o n g the Chaco branch periods the lowest ubiquity for prickly pear was during the Pueblo II - Pueblo III period (6%).  The plant was not  present i n the single Pueblo III site included i n this analysis. The ubiquity values for prickly pear pollen indicate a decrease through time (based on data from: Weir 1976, Scott 1976, Short 1980).  50  Lepofsky (1986) has examined seven flotation samples from Turkey Pen R u i n , a Basketmaker II site in Grand Gulch, Utah. Although the data include uncharred remains they do show high frequencies (in the analyzed samples) of corn and squash. Goosefoot and rice grass were present i n all samples. Other common non-cultigens include: amaranth, compositae, sunflower, prickly pear, banana yucca (Yucca baccata), and pinyon nuts. Pollen types with relatively high ubiquity values in Weir's (1976) data which are not present in the flotation data discussed above include: greasewood (Sarcobatus), high and low spine composites, Liliaceae (lily family), cottonwood (Populus), cattail (Typha) and w i l d buckwheat. Comparison  of Floral Use Through Time in the Rio Grande  Branch  Only two sites are present in this analysis for the Rio Grande branch of the Anasazi. Kirkpatrick and Ford (1977) report flotation results (not all remains are charred) for the sites M P 4 (Basketmaker II) and N P 1 E (Basketmaker III), in the Cimarron District of New M e x i c o . Corn and bean remains were identified at both sites. Non-cultigen plants recovered from both sites include: goosefoot, juniper, pinyon, chokecherry (Prunus), marsh elder (Iva) and banana yucca. There are no plant taxa present in the Basketmaker II site which are not represented in N P 1 E . Plants identified only in the Basketmaker III site include: amaranth, beeweed, sunflower, knotweed, sumac, dropseed and Grama (Bouteloua). The data presented here are too limited to assign any significance to the differences in plant remains from these two sites. Summary Corn remains were one of the most ubiquitous plant types recovered in each of the Anasazi branches discussed above. The slight decrease in the ubiquity of corn i n the later periods of the Chaco branch suggested by the flotation data is not supported by the pollen data, nor does it appear in the Kayenta branch. The remains of beans and squash were not common occurrences in the flotation samples from Anasazi sites. Pollen evidence from the Chaco branch, on the other hand, does indicate a significant amount of squash pollen i n all time periods. Cotton, a fourth cultigen which is present in coprolite samples, was not identified in any of the flotation data discussed above.  51  Plant taxa which maintained a relatively consistent presence through each time period in all branches (with the exception of the R i o Grande branch, where the data is insufficient) include: amaranth, goosefoot, rice grass, Graminae, juniper, purslane and prickly pear. Pinyon remains were present in all periods from the Kayenta and San Juan - Mesa Verde branches, but in only two periods from the Chaco branch which is lower in elevation with less pinyon - juniper woodland. The flotation data, supported by the pollen data, indicate that these plants occur commonly enough through time and across the Anasazi area to be viewed as primary contributors, or staples in the Anasazi diet. Table 3 shows a number of plants, such as groundcherry, stickleaf and tansy mustard, which were recovered in every time period i n the San Juan - Mesa Verde branch, but occur in relatively few periods in other branches. Dropseed is common only in the Chaco branch and kochia only in the Kayenta branch. With the exception of these two taxa, all other plant types which occur commonly in sites from either of these branches are also common in the other branches. Implications for Research Questions This analysis indicates that corn was one of the most commonly occurring plant types in all the time periods from each branch. This suggests that corn was an important component of the Anasazi diet since the Basketmaker II period. There is no evident increase in the ubiquity of corn which would suggest agricultural intensification. It should be noted, however, that ubiquity based on sites may not be the most appropriate means of addressing this problem through flotation evidence. Ubiquity values calculated from individual samples , or some measure of relative abundance such as seed count or weight, may be a more accurate means of approaching this question. There is no substantial decrease in the ubiquity of plant resources which would indicate a failing subsistence system severe enough to lead to regional abandonment.  COPROLITE ANALYSIS The analysis of prehistoric feces, or coprolites, is one of the most direct means of assessing prehistoric diet available to archaeologists. The remains identified in coprolite samples represent food items which were actually consumed. However, many food items are completely  52  digested, hence coprolites rarely contain all that was eaten (Clary 1983:1). Furthermore, the abundance of resources which are present do not necessarily reflect the amount originally consumed (Fry 1977:9). The goal of the present analysis is to identify the resources the coprolite samples indicate were staples in the Anasazi diet. This analysis is not unique. Coprolite analysis is one of the few areas where archaeologists have attempted a synthesis of Anasazi diet. A t least four studies of this sort have been done to date, Stiger (1977), Gasser (1982), M i n n i s (1989) and Reinhard (1988). There exists a core group of easily accessible coprolite studies which are continuously used for comparison. This analysis does not differ as the data brought together here are similar to the four studies mentioned above. Methods Reinhard (1988:40-41) has suggested that at least fifteen coprolites per site are required to provide an accurate characterization of past diet. Originally, coprolite data from thirty-one sites had been gathered for this analysis. Using fifteen samples as a cut-off reduced the number of usable sites to six, or seven if Stiger's (1977) combined Glen Canyon Pueblo III sites are used. This number is far too small to undertake a comparison of the four Anasazi branches. Thus, the analysis w i l l focus on time periods for the Anasazi area as a whole. Ubiquity, or the number of samples i n which a given taxa occurs, is the most commonly used measure in coprolite analysis. Reports routinely present the data in this form or in a manner which can easily be converted to ubiquity. Thus, the taxa identified in the coprolite samples used in this analysis are considered in terms of their ubiquity. Both macrofossil and pollen analyses are discussed below. Macrofossil data are present for. Turkey Pen Ruin in Grand Gulch, Utah; Step House and H o y House, Mesa Verde, Colorado; Antelope House in Canyon de Chelly, A r i z o n a ; Inscription House, Navajo National Monument, Arizona; and Salmon Ruin, New M e x i c o (Table 4). Coprolites samples from these sites are present for all but the Pueblo I period. In his analysis of Anasazi coprolites, Gasser (1982:43) considered resources which appeared i n at least ten percent of the coprolites analyzed to have been important plants in the Anasazi diet. Reasoning that anything eaten one out of ten times constitutes a common meal item. This is a valid measure, however, it is important to remember that one coprolite does not equal one meal. Coprolites may  53  Table 4 . Macrofossil ubiquity values for Anasazi Coprolites. SITE/PERIOD REFERENCE TAXA Amaranth Bean Beeweed Bugseed Bulrush Buffaloberry Cactus Cactus epidermis Cactus fiber Cactus spine Cheno-am Chokecherry Composite Corn Cotton Cryptantha Cycloloma Dropseed Franseria Goosefoot Grape Grass Groundcheny Hackberry Horsebrush Indian Rice Grass Juniper Knotweed Mormon Tea Nightshade Onion Panic Grass Pataya Cactus Peppergrass Pine Nut fragment Pinyon Poaceae Prickly Pear Purslane Sagebrush  Turkey Pen Ruin BM II Aasen 1984 N-28 %  .3.6  «  5 5 10  .  «  13.3  -  Step House P III Stlgerl977 N.17 % 11.8 11.8  20  5.9 5.9  -  -  5.9  3.6  -  -  -  -  -  100 6.7 -  88.2  100  -  -  68.8 31.8  89.7 22.1  -  -  -  -  25  6.7 6.7  35.3  -  -  -  -  5 20  46.7  5.9 23.5  1.8 26.8  .-  6.3 12.5 18.8  -  65  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  35  -  -  7.1 3.6  40 25  -  S  .  -  40  -  -  -  10.7  18.8  -  .  1.5 35.3  - . -  -  4.4  4.4 1.5 1.5 7.4  -  -  -  3.6  31.3  10.3 4.4  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  6.3  S6.3  -  2.9  1.5 23.5  -  17.7  -  -  -  26.7  64.7 23.5  25 17.9  6.3  10.3 10.3  -  1.8 17.9  -  1.5  66.7  17.6 24.9  19.6  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  6.7  5.9  1.8  18.8  4.4  -  -  -  -  -  66.7  60  -  -  -  -  -  -  25  -  -  -  -  5.9 5.9  -  6.7  10.7  -  -  S  5  Skunkbush Squash Squawbush  -  -  32.1  -  2S  -  -  46.4  11.8 1.5 14.7  50  -  -  «  -  -  7.1  .  «  -  -  10.7 35.7  Antelope House P III Fry and Hall 1986 N-68  -  26.7  89.3  -  Inscription House P III Stiger 1977 N.16  5.4  20  - • -  Hoy House P III Stiger 1977 N.S6 % 8.9 17.9 5.4  -  -  3.6  Tansy Mustard Wild Buchwheat Wild Rye Yucca  N.20  -  Saltbush  Sumac Sunflower  Step House BMW Antelop House Pll Fry & Hall 1986 Stigerl977 N.I 5  6.7  54  -  12.5  -  1.8  -  -  6.3  -  20.6 8.8  1.5  -  contain between one and five days consumption (Clary 1983). A n y food item found i n one out of ten coprolites was consumed at least once within a minimum of probably twenty-four hours. It is not possible to arrive at the number or percentage of meals any one resource was a part of, as there is no way of identifying how many meals are represented in one coprolite. Discussion Basketmaker  II  Turkey Pen R u i n is the only Basketmaker II site which has the required number of samples; Aasen (1984) has analyzed twenty-eight human coprolites. Corn macrofossils are present in almost 9 0 % of the coprolites. Other commonly consumed plant resources include: pinyon, goosefoot, Indian rice grass, Franseria, and squash. Prickly pear cactus and cheno-ams were found in slightly less than ten percent of the coprolites. Bone fragments were found in 14% of the coprolites. Weight analysis of these coprolites by Matson and Chisholm (1991:449) support the dominance of corn, and the importance of pinyon and rice grass. Reinhard (1988) has also examined coprolites from Turkey Pen Ruin (n=25), recovered during the clean up of pothunter's holes at the site (Powers 1984). Given the presence of post Basketmaker II occupations at the site and the recovery of these coprolites from disturbed contexts, the possibility exists that not all samples are from the Basketmaker II occupation. However, Reinhard's (1988:94) data support the high frequency of corn (96%); the common consumption of goosefoot and squash, and records the presence of beans in 4 % of the coprolites. Macrofossil analysis of coprolites (n=3) from the Glen Canyon area (sites 42Sa681 and 42Sa693) also contained squash and prickly pear (Fry 1977:37). The analysis of pollen in prehistoric coprolites (Table 5) is not as straight forward as macrofossils. People may ingest pollen by a number of means, some of which are unintentional. W i n d borne pollen may be inhaled and pollen may be taken into the digestive system through drinking water (Gasser 1982:46), or through adherence to other food products. Pollen may also be consumed intentionally for ceremonial purposes or by eating flowers (Scott 1979). The correlation between the macrofossil and pollen analysis of Turkey Pen R u i n coprolites (Aasen 1984) are minor. Ranking the pollen types by ubiquity places corn in the sixth position, yet is it  55  Table 5 . Pollen type ubiquity values for Anasazi coprolites. SITE/PERIOD Turkey Pen Ruin BMII REFERENCE Aasen 1984 N=28 TAXA Alder Ball Cactus Bean Beeweed Buffaloberry Bulrush Cactaceae Cattail Cheno-am Composite Corn Cottonwood  Pueblo Alto Pll  Antelope House Pll  Antelope House Pill  Clary 1983 N=12  Williams-Dean 1986 N=14  Williams-Dean 1986 N=74  %  %  %  %  -  -  -  -  9  4.1  7  28.6  50  100  81.1  -  -  95 2 3  % 7.1  7.1  6.8  -  -  -  42.9  -  83  64.3  29.7 68.9  17 100  -  -  -  63  35.7 3.6 10.7  100  85.7  -  21.4  68.9 55.4 6.8  95 2  -  2 7  3.6  8  -  25  -  Goosefoot Grasses  89.3 28.6 7.1  67  -  42 67  -  28.6  High Spine Composite Juniper Labiatae Low Spine Composite Mormon Tea Mtn. Mahogany Oak Peppergrass Phlox Picea  -  - ' -  Gooseberry  Greasewood Hackberry  N=59  -  -  Cruciferae Currant Globmallow  Hoy House Pill Scott 1979  -  -  50 14.3  -  -  46 20.3  -  -  67  50  50  25  25  -  12.2  10.7  -  -' -  10 17  59 2  20 56 56 19 2 2  Pinyon Plantin Prickly Pear  60.7  75  -  7.1  Primulaceae  -  -  -  21.4  5.4  27 44  10.7  -  Purslane  -  25  Ragweed  71.4  60.7  -  -  Ranunculaeceae Ricegrass Sagebrush Sedge Squash Storksbill Striped Cushaw Squash Tubuliflorae Umbellifarae Wild Buckwheat Yucca  90 2 14  -  -  7.1  6.8  -  -  54 81  8  -  21.4  25  57.1  28.4  24  -  -  3.6  8  -  -  -  42.9 10.7  56  2 37  46 5  ' -  the most commonly occurring taxa in the macrofossil remains. The pollen analysis shows high percentages of chenopods. These plants produce large amounts of wind transported pollen dramatically increasing the chance of unintentional ingestion. However, Aasen (1984:34) found great quantities of this pollen in a number of individual coprolites, suggesting that the pollen was being ingested through some intentional means as well. Other commonly occurring pollen types include: Ambrosia type (e.g., ragweed), pine, sagebrush and composite. Basketmaker  III  The Basketmaker III period is represented by twenty-two coprolites from Step House (Stiger 1977). Once again the most ubiquitous plant type is corn, present in 6 5 % of the samples. Other commonly utilized plants at this site are similar to those discussed above: squash, prickly pear, pinyon, goosefoot, purslane, groundcherry and beeweed. Mouse bones were identified in one coprolite. Unidentifiable bone fragments were present in 3 0 % of the coprolites. Pueblo II Fifteen Pueblo II period coprolites have been analyzed by Fry and H a l l (1986) from Antelope House, Canyon de Chelly, Arizona. Corn remains were identified in all of the coprolites analyzed. Squash, pinyon and purslane were present in the majority of the coprolites (between 60 and 67%). Other commonly eaten taxa include: groundcherry, prickly pear cactus, beeweed and amaranth. Cotton seeds make their appearance in one of the fifteen coprolites from the Pueblo II occupation of Antelope House. Adams (1991:181) notes that cotton on the Colorado Plateau was obtained form the Hohokam beginning around A . D . 700; production of cotton by Anasazi people began in a limited number of areas during the A . D . 1100s. Bone fragments were found in 6 0 % of the coprolites. The single Pueblo I coprolite from Antelope House shows a high percentage of corn remains, followed by squash. N o cotton seeds were identified i n this sample. Clary (1983,1984) has analyzed twenty-two coprolites from Pueblo A l t o for the Pueblo II period, and a smaller sample of thirteen coprolites from the same period at Pueblo Bonito. Ubiquity values for most plant taxa appear very low from Pueblo Alto. Corn is not listed in the occurrence tables in the 1983 thesis and no tables for macrofossil remains are given in the 1984  57  publication. Clary (1984:269) does note t h a t corn, squash, purslane, pinyon, rice grass and dropseed were among the plant types recovered. Bone fragments were found i n 7 4 % o f the coprolites from Pueblo A l t o (Clary 1983). Four animals were identified, cottontail, prairie dog, mouse and small bird. A similar percentage (62%) of the coprolites from Pueblo Bonito also contained bone fragments. Williams-Dean (1986) presents the most complete study of pollen from Antelope House coprolites. Only fourteen of the Pueblo II coprolites contained sufficient quantities of pollen for analysis. Beeweed is the most commonly occurring pollen type, followed by corn. Other well represented taxa include: cheno-ams, squash, high spine composite, low spine composite, Cottonwood,  purslane and juniper. The most abundant pollen type in the Pueblo A l t o coprolites  (n=14) was corn. Many of the more common plant taxa are similar to those from Antelope House: cheno-ams, beeweed, squash, purslane, high spine composite and low spine composite. A l s o common in the Pueblo A l t o coprolites were pinyon, hackberry, grass and gooseberry pollen. The pollen content of Pueblo Bonito coprolites is quite similar. Pueblo III Coprolites dating to the Pueblo III period have been analyzed from Step House (Stiger 1977), H o y House (Stiger 1977), Inscription House (Stiger 1977) and Antelope House (Fry and Hall 1986). Corn is the most common plant found i n the coprolite samples from each of these four sites. Commonly consumed taxa occurring in three out of four of these sites include: squash, bean, groundcherry, purslane, pinyon and prickly pear/cactus. Amaranth was represented by more than 10% in two sites. Cotton is well represented at both Inscription House and Antelope House, whereas it was not identified in coprolites from Step House and H o y House. Stiger's (1977:36) presentation of the coprolite data from G l e n Canyon also indicates that cotton was fairly common (29%) in the Pueblo III period. O f the four sites, coprolites from Step House and H o y House are very similar. Inscription House stands out with the lowest frequency o f corn (68%), and a high ubiquity of peppergrass, rice grass, dropseed, hackberry, and sunflower.  58  Mean relative frequencies for the macrofossil data from the Pueblo III sites discussed above shows corn (87%) as the most ubiquitous plant resource recovered from the coprolites examined. Prickly pear is the second most commonly occurring plant type, represented in 2 5 % of the coprolites. Other common plant resources, in rank order by frequency, include: groundcherry, cactus, squash, purslane, peppergrass, bean, pinyon, cotton, goosefoot and rice grass. Three taxa which fall below but relatively close to 10% representation are Amaranth, sunflower and beeweed. The average frequency of bone fragments i n the Pueblo III coprolites (Step House, Inscription House and Antelope House) is 2 5 % . The animal taxa identified in the samples are turkey, mice, squirrel and small rodent. Stiger (1977:38) records the occurrence of bone and sinew in 5 0 % of the Pueblo III coprolites from G l e n Canyon. Williams-Dean's (1986) analysis of Antelope House coprolites is the only source of pollen data for the Pueblo III period. Beeweed is the most common pollen type, occurring in 8 1 % of the samples. Other well represented taxa include: corn, cheno-ams, cottontail, composite, cattail, squash, juniper and prickly pear. Purslane and bean pollen occur infrequently in the coprolites examined. Summary The taxa present i n at least 10% of the coprolites of any given period show surprising consistency through time. Corn is the most common food item represented i n coprolite macrofossils in all four periods examined (Basketmaker II, III, Pueblo II, III).  A l s o well  represented i n all time periods are pinyon and squash. Purslane, prickly pear and groundcherry are common plant taxa in all but the Basketmaker II period. The frequency of prickly pear (7.1%) is close to the 10% cut-off, and though not found in many coprolites, purslane and groundcherry are present for this period. The occurrence of goosefoot is high i n the Basketmaker II, Basketmaker III and the Pueblo III periods. The frequency of this taxon is relatively low in Pueblo II coprolites. Three taxa are common in two of the four periods: rice grass (Basketmaker II, Pueblo III), cactus (Pueblo II, Pueblo III) and beeweed (Basketmaker III, Pueblo II). Franseria  is only represented in 10% of the Basketmaker II coprolites and amaranth  59  is common only in the Pueblo II period. Beans, cotton and peppergrass, were only common elements in the diet of Pueblo III Anasazi. The occurrence of bone fragments in the coprolite samples, indicating the consumption of meat, varies throughout the four periods discussed. Bone fragments are present in only 14% of the Basketmaker II coprolites (Aasenl984). The frequency of bone in the Basketmaker III (30%) and Pueblo III (25%) periods are similar. Pueblo II period coprolites show high frequencies of bone fragments. Clary (1983) reports that bone was found in 7 4 % of the Pueblo A l t o coprolites, and in 6 0 % of the Antelope House Pueblo II coprolites contained bone (Fry and H a l l 1986). These figures suggest that during some periods meat was a common meal component. Cushing (1920:564), however, believed the Zuni custom of eating jerked meat frugally was a habit retained from the period prior to the introduction of domesticated animals. He suggests that when only wild meat was available it was eaten not as a regular food item but instead to add flavour to the rest of the meal. The pollen data indicate five taxa which are represented in the coprolites from the Basketmaker II, Pueblo II and Pueblo III periods (no pollen data for Basketmaker III): corn, squash, beeweed, juniper and cottonvvood. The first three of these taxa have high frequencies in macrofossil remains. The pollen data, however, indicates that juniper and cottonwood pollen may have been commonly ingested, although it is not possible to identify how. Williams-Dean (1986:196) includes both of these taxa as economic pollen types. Plant resources which the pollen data identify as commonly occurring only during the Basketmaker II period include: sagebrush, oak, ragweed, Tubuliflorae, Primulaceae (primrose family) and Umbellifarae (carrot family). Taxa which are not common in the Pueblo II - Pueblo III macrofossil remains but are common pollen types include: cheno-am, composite (both high and low spine) and cattail. The results of the coprolite data indicate that corn was the most commonly consumed plant food in the Anasazi diet. Other plant resources which can be considered dietary staples include pinyon, squash, purslane, prickly pear, groundcherry and goosefoot. Beans, cotton and peppergrass become important food resources during the Pueblo III period. The pollen data suggest that juniper, cottonwood, cheno-ams, composite and cattail may have made significant  60  contributions to Anasazi diet. Meat appears to have been an important component of the Anasazi diet, as indicated by the common occurrence of bone fragments in coprolites. Implications for Research Questions The analysis of coprolite data indicates that corn was an important component of the diet throughout the Anasazi tradition, including the Basketmaker II period. The ubiquity values for corn, although showing some fluctuation, remain consistently high. N o indications for the intensification of corn production were found. However, one could interpret the appearance of cotton, with substantial ubiquity values in coprolites from some sites, as an attempt to increase food production, as well as to provide material for cloth.  S T A B L E C A R B O N ISOTOPE A N A L Y S I S The development of stable carbon isotope analysis has added a promising new dimension to the study of prehistoric diet, particularly in the American Southwest Although this type of analysis is not new to the region, relatively little research of this type has been carried out in the Anasazi area. This discussion will be concerned primarily with the results presented in three publications. Decker and Tieszen (1989) examined populations from M e s a Verde and Mancos Canyon. Matson and Chisholm (1991) originally reported a series of carbon isotope values for Cedar Mesa Anasazi. Recently Chisholm and Matson (in press) have added new individuals to this data set as well as nitrogen isotope values. The two study areas covered in these reports are both within the Northern San Juan - Mesa Verde branch. Methods Discussions of this approach appear throughout the literature, thus it w i l l be covered only briefly here. Useful summaries are found in van der Merwe (1982) and Chisholm (1989). During photosynthesis plants take in carbon from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Isotopic fractionation during photosynthesis alters the ratio of  to ^C,  which, with minor exceptions,  exist in a relatively constant ratio within atmospheric carbon dioxide (Chisholm 1989:12). Plants use one of three different photosynthetic pathways, commonly referred to as C 3 , C 4 and C A M (Crassulacean A c i d Metabolism). Isotopic fractionation in the C 3 and C 4  61  pathways result in different  ratios, denoted as S ^ C (%<,). S ^ C values produced by  plants using the C A M pathway vary with the environment they inhabit. In arid environments, such as that inhabited by the Anasazi, C A M plants tend to have to have 6  1 3  C values similar to  C 4 plants (Matson and Chisholm 1991:452). The 5  1 3  C values f o r C 3 plants generally average -26.5%o while C4plants average-12.5  %c (Matson and Chisholm 1991:452). Based on samples of C3 plants from Cedar Mesa, Matson and Chisholm (1991:453) have used a value of -24.0 %o for C3 plants. Using samples from the M e s a Verde area Decker and Tieszen (1989:38) produced a value of -27.0 %o for C 3 plants. Both studies used a value of -10.0 %o for C 4 plants based on samples of prehistoric maize. The difference between the S ^ C values for C 3 and C 4 plants is maintained in consumers, however, further fractionation of the carbon isotopes (the collagen enrichment factor) (Chisholm 1989:13) results i n a difference of 5 %o, or 4.5 %o for lipid free samples (Chisholm and Matson in press:4), between diet values and measured consumer bone collagen values. Based on Matson and Chisholm's (1991) values for C3 and C 4 plants and a 4.5 %o collagen enrichment factor, individuals consuming only C3 plants will have a §X$C (diet) value of -19.5 %o, compared to a value of -5.5 %o for an individual consuming only C 4 plant species. Carbon isotope values for a variety of plant and animal resources that would have been available to the Anasazi are presented in Figure 13. These data indicate that there are three groups of resources which w i l l have affected the 6 ^ C values of Anasazi individuals: C 3 plants, C 4 plants and a group of herbivores which consumed a mixed diet of C3 and C 4 plants. Three animal species do not fit this pattern. The domestic dog has a very light carbon isotope value, which leads Katzenberg and Kelley (1991:212) to suggest that dogs shared a similar diet with their owners. The bison sampled obviously consumed a relatively large quantity of C 4 grasses, as did the jackrabbits, both likely due to habitat preferences (Katzenberg and K e l l e y 1991:212). Although the measured jackrabbit values are lighter than the other herbivores, they are right at the beginning of this second dietary group. Unlike other regions in North America there are a number of C 4 plants in the American Southwest. These include: maize, the amaranths, chenopods and purslane. A s earlier sections of  62  6 C(°/oo) 13  - 3 0 - 2 5 - 2 0 -15 - 1 0 - 5 ,  M  0 Z e a  M  mays  1  Canis familiaris Zea mays ^ • ™ Z e a mays Zea mays • — B i s o n bison Amaranthus hybridus Portulaca retusa Amaranthus araecizansi 1  2  3  1  1  1  1  Lepus sp — O v i s canadensis — — ^ — i Antilocarpa americanai • — — — ^ — Odocoileus sp — — O d o c o i l e u s spl • — — S y l v i l a g u s spl Juniperus spl ^ — — • — — Pinus edulis • — ^ — — Q r v z o p s i s so Juniperus deppean • Juglas major Phaseolus vulgaris! — C h e n o p o d i u m neomexicanum — — • Juniperus scopulrum ^ — i Physalis pubescensi Cleome serrulata ^ S a l v i a reflexai — — ^ — — — Juglans majori Polygonum ramosissimurm — • — — • — — Helianthus annuid — — — • Physalis fendleri 1  2  3  1  2  1  1  1  1  1  -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 1  3  Katzenberg and Kelley 1991; Decker and Tieszen 1989  2  0  Matson and Chisholm 1991;  Figure 13. Stable carbon isotope values for prehistoric food resources (note: Katzenberg and Kelley ran two samples of maize).  63  this thesis have demonstrated cacti were important resources in the prehistoric Anasazi diet, and in this environment they are likely to have S ^ C values similar to C 4 plants. The values given in this figure are intended only as a rough guide. A variety of factors such as geographical location, variation i n climate and reservoir effects, can result in different values for a single species within a region (Chisholm and Matson in press:5). Discussion Carbon isotope values considered in this thesis are available for all time periods of the Pecos Classification, plus a group of samples from a combined Pueblo II - Pueblo III period (Figure 14, Appendix 3). Visual examination of Figure 14 demonstrates that, with the exception of a single Pueblo I individual and a single Pueblo II - Pueblo III individual, both from Mesa Verde, there is little variation in the 6 ^ C values for Anasazi individuals from the Basketmaker II period through to the Pueblo III period. This indicates that there was little change in the contribution of C 4 plants and herbivores which consumed C 4 plants, to the human diet in the San Juan-Mesa Verde branch throughout the Anasazi tradition. Estimates of the percentage of C 4 plants in the diet of these individuals w i l l not be calculated here. There are a number of factors which can reduce the reliability of these estimates (B.S. Chisholm, personal communication 1994). A s previously noted, a variety of C 4 plants other than maize were prehistorically available to the Anasazi people. Although Figure 13 presents the S ^ C values for a number of plant resources , the majority of the samples were taken from a location quite distant from the homes of the individuals presented i n Figure 14. Thus, values for a greater quantity and variety of local plant resources are required, particularly C A M plants such as the prickly pear cactus. The presence of herbivore meat, a third dietary group in addition to C3 and C 4 plants, presents a second problem in the calculation of the percentage of C 4 plants in the diet. A s shown in Figure 13, the majority of the herbivore values are located between the C 4 and C3 plants. Faunal analysis indicates which animals were exploited by Anasazi groups and the abundance of these species relative to one another. Unfortunately it cannot indicate the relative contributions of animals versus plants in the diet. Nitrogen isotope values can provide some measure of the  64  Diet Value  -26.5  6 C(7oo) I | I 13  H u m a n Value  -22.0  -24.5  I| I -20.0  -22.5 -20.5 -18.5  I| I  I I I  I |I  -18.0 -16.0 -14.0  -16.5 -14.5  I 1 I  -12.5 -10.5  I| I  -12.0 -10.0  I | I  -8.0  I| I 4  -6.0  2  Basketmaker II  1  1  Basketmaker III  III  I 2  Pueblo I  1  ll II 2  22  Pueblo II  lllli  Pueblo ll/lll  nh III  3 4  Pueblo III  ii  i  111 I I  Figure 14. Stable carbon isotope values for Anasazi Individuals (Decker and Tieszen 1989, Matson and Chisholm 1991, Chisholm and Matson in press)  65  amount of meat consumed by individuals (Katzenberg and Kelley 1991, Chisholm and Matson in press), however, nitrogen values have only been done for one of the three studies discussed. Furthermore, even with this information much more data is required to identify which species consumed C 4 plants. The domestic turkey, for example, which was possibly fed corn, is one source of meat which must be tested (Chisholm and Matson i n press: 12). Aasen's (1984) analysis of two turkey coprolites indicated the presence of corn i n their diets. In the studies discussed two different approaches have been used to estimate the contribution of C 4 plants to the diet. Decker and Tieszen (1989:39-41) used a three component mixture with estimates of the amount of meat in the diet ranging from zero to fifty percent. They have calculated an average contribution of C 4 plants, for the entire sample, of 6 9 % with 2 0 % meat i n the diet, or 8 0 % with no meat consumed. Chisholm and Matson (in press:8-9) combined the herbivores and C 3 plants into a single dietary category based on the similarity of their 6 ^ c values. They estimate an average of 8 2 % and 8 5 % C 4 plants in the diet for the Basketmaker II and Pueblo II - Pueblo III periods on Cedar M e s a respectively. Summary If the outliers (the lowest and highest values) are excluded from Figure 14, all values across all time periods fall within a range of -13.5 %o to -11.0 %o diet value (-9.5 % o to -7 %o measured value). Based on Chisholm and Matson's (in press:8) range for C 3 plants (-24.0 %o to -20.5 % o diet value) Figure 14 indicates that the Anasazi individuals on M e s a Verde and Cedar M e s a relied heavily on C 4 plants in their diets. These results are similar to those presented by Katzenberg and Kelley (1991) for individuals from six sites in the Sierra Blanca region of New M e x i c o between A D 800 and A D 1400. Implications for Research Questions The stable carbon isotope analyses which have been undertaken on Anasazi individuals to date indicates that there is no appreciable difference in the dependence on C 4 plants between the Basketmaker II and Pueblo III periods. Corn appears to be the primary C 4 plant in the diet and one may conclude that the Basketmaker II people, like those Anasazi who would follow, were dependent on corn agriculture.  66  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  T w o common trends in the Anasazi diet are evident from the data presented i n this thesis. With few exceptions rabbits dominate the faunal data from each period in all branches. Based on the relative abundances discussed above, cottontail rabbits were the primary meat resource in the Anasazi diet, followed closely in many periods by jackrabbits. In all time periods the relative frequency of jackrabbits is highest in the Chaco branch. A n exception to the dominance of rabbits is the increasing relative abundance of turkey remains through time in the San Juan M e s a Verde branch. Turkey remains in the Chaco and Kayenta branches generally have low relative abundances. A similar situation existed in the San Juan - Mesa Verde area until the Pueblo II period, when the relative frequency of turkey began to increase. During the Pueblo III period the relative abundance of turkey rivals that of cottontails. The single Pueblo II - Pueblo III period site from the R i o Grande area also shows a high relative frequency of turkey. A s noted above turkey feathers are recorded in the ethnographic literature as important elements i n Puebloan ceremonies. A trend toward increasing relative abundance is also evident for the remains of prairie dog in the Chaco branch. Unfortunately the Pueblo III period is represented by a single site. Although it contributes to the observed increase in prairie dog through time, no cottontail remains were reported for this site. There is no evidence for a corresponding decrease in the importance of cottontail in any other period. The relative abundance of cottontail remains are at their lowest during the Pueblo I and Pueblo I - Pueblo II periods, but still remained higher than prairie dog, and increase considerably in the following periods. The relationship between relative abundances of rabbits and large animals, such as deer and antelope, and their relative contributions to the Anasazi diet present zooarchaeologists with a complex problem. In spite of low relative frequencies, two arguments can be made for the importance of large mammals in the Anasazi diet. Deer, antelope and mountain sheep contribute far more usable meat per animal than any of the small rodents. Second, large animals, generally taken at distant locations are underrepresented as a result of the schlepp effect. O n the other hand, it could be argued that some excavation methods have created a bias equal to the schlepp  67  effect by using screen sizes which, as discussed above, fail to recover a substantial percentage small mammal remains. Patterns of consumption in the past could also greatly effect the contribution of larger animals to the Anasazi diet. If the greater portion of captured large mammals were consumed fresh, they could be viewed as making only occasional contributions to the diet. Although this practice has been noted in the ethnographic literature, there is no way to assess its reliability in terms of Anasazi practices. It is suggested here that the high abundances of cottontail and jackrabbit remains reflect their position as the primary contributors of meat to the Anasazi diet. These animals are abundant, reproduce relatively quickly and were locally available, as opposed to the less abundant and widely spaced large mammals, and as such contributed on a regular basis to the Anasazi diet. The attraction of these rodents to agricultural fields would also increase their availability. The ease of rabbit procurement and their substantial contribution to the diet may be offset if quantities of large mammal meat were prepared for storage, and used on a regular basis. I am not presently aware of any evidence which would indicate this practice. The first research question asked above focused on when cultigens became the primary constituents of the Anasazi diet. The second common trend observed in the Anasazi diet is directly related to this question. The coprolite data indicate that corn was the most commonly consumed food item during all periods of the Anasazi tradition. This supports arguments which contend that the Anasazi were already relying on corn agriculture during the Basketmaker II period. N o strong evidence was found for either a decrease or increase i n the importance of c o m throughout the Anasazi tradition. The stable carbon isotope data indicates a dependence on C 4 plants since the Basketmaker II period, and from the relative abundances in other types of data corn was the primary C 4 plant. The relative importance of the other cultigens, based on these data deserves further consideration. It has been suggested that the commonly discussed triad of corn, beans and squash were the primary dietary components. Although the ubiquity values for the occurrence of squash in Anasazi coprolite samples is generally high enough to be counted as a dietary staple, it occurs no more frequently than a number of w i l d plants. Beans on the other hand, are poorly represented in both coprolite and flotation data, possibly as a result of low  68  survivability. Based on the coprolite data beans may only be considered staple foods in the Pueblo III period. Cotton constitutes a fourth cultigen used by the Anasazi. The data, however, suggest that its use was limited spatially and indicates that its occurrence in any quantity is largely limited to the Pueblo III period. The analysis of coprolite, flotation and pollen data have shown that there are a number of w i l d plant taxa which were staple resources in the Anasazi diet. Although few were consumed as often as corn (based on coprolite data) many were likely as abundant as squash, and on the basis of the data discussed here more common than beans. Plant types which are well represented i n both the coprolite and flotation data include: goosefoot, purslane, pinyon, prickly pear, rice grass, amaranth, beeweed and groundcherry.  Many of these plants are considered to  be weedy pioneers that favored the cleared fields and disturbed soil areas around Anasazi settlements. Although there is evidence that numerous other plants were used as food resources, the above should be considered dietary staples. A number of these resources, like corn, were used during the historic period to make foods such as bread. Purslane was used as a herb or seasoning by the Hopi (Whiting 1966:19). The second research question stated in the introduction concerned the intensification of agricultural production through time. Evidence of intensification may not show up in coprolite data, as intensification of agricultural production is not necessarily connected with increased consumption of these products. Intensification procedures may be used, for example, to produce surplus for trade or to feed an increasing population (Lightfoot and Plog 1984). In the latter situation individual corn consumption may remain constant. However, i f by intensification, one means, increased per capita corn production and consumption, there is no indication of this in the coprolite data. Dietary evidence of increased agricultural production would likely show up best i n the flotation and pollen sample data. A s the amount of corn produced increased, one could expect the amount of corn remains and pollen contained within a site to increase. However, the analyses presented above do not support increased cultigen production. The changes which are observed between the different time periods generally do not show any directional change, but  69  instead slight fluctuations possibly due to the sample of sites used. The exception being the ubiquity of corn in the Chaco branch, which according to the flotation data decreases slightly through time. This decrease in the presence of corn is not supported by the pollen data from this branch. The discussion above has focused on corn as the primary object of agricultural intensification. The appearance of cotton in coprolites from a limited number of areas beginning slowly in the Pueblo II period may represent a second approach to increasing agricultural production. The coprolite data demonstrate that cotton was a dietary staple during the Pueblo III period at Antelope House, Inscription House and in the Glen Canyon area. During this period, the inhabitants of these sites may have attempted to meet increasing food requirements by adopting a new cultigen (i.e., cotton), which would also provide material for cloth. Adams (1991:179) notes that during the A . D . 1300s the Homol'ovi people in the central Little Colorado River Valley were producing large quantities of cotton. A t present data on cotton in the Anasazi area is too limited to expand on this possibility. It appears that the best evidence for the intensification of agriculture, remains the construction of water and soil features around A D 1000 (Plog 1979, Doyel 1981, Cordell 1982). The third research question asks if there were any changes evident i n the diet which could be linked to the regional abandonments of the thirteenth century. N o evidence of failing resources was observed in either the faunal analysis or analyses related to the exploitation of plants resources. The relative abundance of the resources identified here as being of primary importance remained relatively stable. A number of researchers have reported increases in the number of different taxa utilized in the later periods of the Anasazi occupation. Although not examined in this thesis, Leonard (1986, 1989) has demonstrated that observed trends toward a diversification of the subsistence base may be largely the result of sample size effects. The wide area of comparison made in this thesis has necessitated the use of certain kinds of data, thus various information and problems have not been addressed. Finer scale variation may well exist that was not dealt with in this analysis. Numerous aspects of Anasazi diet remain to be examined. A m o n g these are detailed comparisons of the dietary evidence from  70  sites within a branch or region for a single time period. The effect of local environmental differences on diet at sites within one branch offers an opportunity to further explore fine scale variation. Another important avenue of study is the comparison of dietary evidence between contemporary sites of varying size. The study of Anasazi diet stands to profit considerably from the continued use of coprolite and stable isotope analysis. One particular gap in the interpretation of stable isotope values is adequate knowledge of the range of values for local food resources, particularly the parts which were actually consumed. This information would contribute to our understanding of how these resources affect the values observed for prehistoric people. There are two important questions to be addressed regarding animals in Anasazi diet. The importance of meat in the diet is still an outstanding issue. The consumption of large mammal meat does not show up in coprolites, thus their contribution remains unknown. Although small mammal remains do appear in coprolites, we have no indication of how much meat was actually consumed during the period represented by a single coprolite. Nitrogen isotope analysis may offer some important data regarding this issue, however, very little of this analysis has been done. Secondly, the relative contributions of small versus large mammals in the diet remains unsettled. Further research into the relative abundances of these animals in faunal assemblages, their relation to the diet, as well as further consideration of the treatment of these animals by historic Pueblo people is required. In summary, Anasazi diet was very similar in the four branches discussed in this thesis. The data indicate that corn was the major component in the Anasazi diet since the Basketmaker II period, and continued through to the Pueblo III period. Stable carbon isotope results show a similar degree of reliance on C 4 plants across all time periods. The data do not support arguments by Glassow, F. Plog and S. Plog that corn did not become an important component of Anasazi diet until late Basketmaker III or the Pueblo I period. Cottontail remains have the highest relative abundance in the majority of periods in all branches, generally followed by jackrabbits, which appear to be more common in the Chaco branch than in any of the other branches. The faunal analysis presented above indicates that there is a core group of seventeen  71  animals which can be considered dietary staples. Coprolite analysis provides the best estimate of the amount of meat in the diet. The data examined here indicate that meat was a meal component in 14% of the Basketmaker II coprolites, and up to 7 4 % i n coprolites from the later Pueblo periods. Although the stable carbon isotope data appear to suggest low meat consumption, the actual amount of meat in the diet must remain largely unknown at this time, as we do not know how much meat is represented by the small mammal remains found in coprolites, or the amount of large mammal meat consumed. Following corn, there is a mixture of domesticated and wild plant species which were consumed often enough to be considered staple resources. The consistency of the Anasazi diet through time is a tribute to the ability of the Anasazi people to survive in this environment, relying on a single subsistence strategy, with maize agriculture being the basis, followed by a variety of other cultivated and w i l d food resources.  72  REFERENCES CITED Aasen, D . K . 1984  Pollen, macrofossil and charcoal analyses of Basketmaker coprolites from Turkey Pen Ruin, Cedar Mesa, Utah. M . A . thesis, Department of Anthropology, Washington State University.  Adams, E . Charles 1991 The Origin and Development of the Katsina Cult. The University of A r i z o n a Press, Tucson. A k i n s , Nancy J . 1985 Prehistoric faunal utilization in Chaco Canyon: Basketmaker III through Pueblo III. In Environment and Subsistence of Chaco Canyon, ed. by F.J. Mathien, pp. 305-445. Publications i n Archaeology 18-E. Chaco Canyon Studies, National Parks Service, Washington D.C. Anderson, Elaine 1980 Fauna. In The Durango South Project, Archaeological Salvage of Two Late Basketmaker HI Sites in the Durango District, ed. by J . D . Gooding, pp. 123-149. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson. Bearden, S.E. 1984 A Study of Basketmaker II Settlement on Black Mesa, Arizona: Excavations 1973 -1979. Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. Center for Archaeological Investigations, Research Paper No.4. Binford, Martha R. 1983 Faunal analysis. In Economy and Interaction Along the Lower Chaco River, ed. by P. Hogan and J.C. Winter, pp.367-374. 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SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME Abies concolor White Fir Juniperus utahensis Juniper Pinus edulis Pinyon pine West, yellow pine Pinus ponderosa Psudotsuga Douglas fir Ephedra torreyana Mormon tea Narrow leaf cattail Typha angustifolia A run do donax Giant reed Bouteloua eriopoda Black grama Bouteloua gracilis Blue grama Calamovilfa gigantea Sand grass Hilaria jamesii Galleta grass Purple hair grass Muhlenbergia pungens Oryzopsis hymenoides Indian millet Phragmites communis Reed, Carrizo Sporobolus airoides Alkali sacaton Sporobolus flexuosus Dropseed Sporobolus giganteus Giant Dropseed lea Mays Maize, Corn Sedges and RushesJ. balticus, S. lacustris Allium sp. Wild Onion Calochortus aureus Mariposa lily Narrow leaf yucca Yucca angustissima Yucca baccata Banana yucca Agave sp. Mescal Rocky mtn. aspen P. aurea, P. tremuloides Populus sp. Cottonwood Willow Salix sp. Quercus sp. Oak Phoradendron sp. Mistletoe Eriogonum sp. Buckwheat Rumex hymenosepalus Canaigre Fourwing saltbush Atriplex canescens A triplex sp. Saltbush Chenopodium sp. Lambsquarters Cycloloma atriplicifolium Dondia fruticosa Seep weed  FOOD X  X  FOOD x X  TEWA OTHER M,T F.M.T F,M R R  X  T  C X X X X  R R R  X  x  X  R  X  X  R H,M,R,T H,T  X X  H.R.T H.R.T  x  x  R C.R.T C,R T M M D F  x  x  X  X  x  —  84  HOPI OTHER R D.F.M.T M,R,C C,R R M R C.R.T H T R R,T T  M M  M T R,T T M  APPENDIX 1  Table A. Continued.  FOOD SCIENTIFIC NAME Sarcobatus vermiculatus X Acanthochiton wrightii X Amaranthus blitoides Abronia elliptica Allionia coccinea Quamoclidion multiflorum Boerhaavia erecta X Portulaca oleracea Arenaria eastwoodiae Delphinium scaposum Ranunculus cymbalaria Odostemon fremontii Dithyrea wislizeni Sophia pinnata X Stanleya albescens X — X Stanleya pinnata X Rocky mtn. beewei Cleome serrulata — Wislizenia melilotoides X X Wild current Ribes inebrians Mtn. Mahogany Cercocarpus eximius Cowania stansburiana Cliff rose Apache plume Fallugia paradoxa Rosa arizonica X Wild rose X Serviceberry Amelanchier — Parryella filifolia — Petalostemon oligophyllun ) Tepary Phaseolus acutifolius X Lima (sieva) bean Phaseolus lunatus X Scarlet runner beat Phaseolus multiflorus X String bean Phaseolus vulgaris X — Chamaesyce flagelliformis — Croton texensis — Reverchonia arenaria X Rhus trilobata Sumac Gossypium hopi Hopi cotton Sphaeralcea sp. Globmallow COMMON NAME Greasewood — Pigweed Sand verbena Umbrella-wort Four o'clock — Purslane Sandwort Larkspur Buttercup Holly grape Spectacle pod Tansy mustard  85  HOPI OTHER F.R.T  FOOD  TEWA OTHER  X  M M R T  X  M  X  M R T M,T M D  D D T D,T M,R,T T  X  X  D  T T T D,M  T T M  M M H,M H,R M  R H,M M  APPENDIX 1  Table A. Continued.  FOOD SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME Mentzelia multiflora X Blazing star X Hedgehog cactus Echinocereus fendleri X Prickley pear cactu Opuntia hystricina X Opuntia whipplei Cholla cactus Evening primrose Anogra pallida Forestiera neomexicana Ironwood Asclepias galioides Milkweed X Gilia sp. Gilia Cryptanthe crassisepala Borage (family) Cryptanthe jamesii Borage (family) Onosmodium thurberi Borage (family) Chamaesaracha coronoputX Datura meteloides Jimson weed X Lycium pallidum Tomatilla Nicotiana attenuata Wild tobacco X Physalis fendleri Ground Cherry Monarda menthaefolia X Beebalm X Poliomintha incana Salvia carnosa Sage Adenostegia wrightii Castilleja linariaefolia Painted cup Pentstemon ambiguus Common mullein Verbascum thapsus Martynia louisiana Devil's claw Plantago purshii Plantain Cucurbita foetidissima Wild gourd X Squash pumpkin Cucurbita moschata Lagenaria vulgaris Gourd X Sunflower (family) Actinea acaulis Aplopappus nuttallii Artemisia dracunculoides X Wormwood Artemisia fHifolia Sand sagebrush Mountain sagebrus Artemisia frigida Artemisia tridentata Sagebrush Aster cichoriaceus Blue aster Aster leucelene White aster  HOPI OTHER M  TEWA OTHER FOOD X  X  R T M  X  M,T M  M M R  —  M X  R  R X X  M  —  —  —  —  86  M M M D R D M T  M X  T M M  R  M R M M M  M M  APPENDIX 1  Table A. Continued.  COMMON NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME — Chrysopsis villosa Rabbitbrush Chrysothamnus sp. Cirsium pulchellum Thistle Gaillardia pinnatifida Blanket flower Gutierrezia sp. Snakeweed Helianthus annuus Sunflower Hopi sunflower Helianthus sp. — Hymenopappus lugens —• Lygodesmia grandiflora — Ptiloria exigua — Ptiloria pauciflora Senecio longilobus Groundsel — Solidago missouriensis Solidago petradoria Golden rod — Tetradymia canescens — Thelesperma gracile — Townsendia arizonica Verbesina encelioides Crown beard — Wyethia scabra Asplenium trichomanes Spleenwort Lichen Ustilago zeae Corn smut Alnus tenuifolia Alder Celtis reticulata Hackberry Padus melanocarpa Chokecherry — Robinia neomexicana Schmaltzia bakeri Skunkbush Serocotheca dumosa Mtn. Tewa fruit Cocklebur Xanthium commune Artemisia forwoodii Green sage Halerpestes cymbaloria Crowfoot Pentalsoteum candidus Praire clover Rocky mtn. beeplan Peritama serrulatum Stanlyella wrightii Mustard species Opuntia arborescens Cane cactus  87  FOOD  X X  X  HOPI OTHER M D.F.T M M M,R R D,H M,R M M M M  FOOD  TEWA OTHER D,M,T  M T  X  M M X  X  X  M M M R M R  M M D X X  T T  X X  M M T X X X X  D D  APPENDIX 1  Table A. Continued.  COMMON NAME Ball cactus Panic grass Sage grass Mesquite grass Earth star Cloakferh Wild potato  SCIENTIFIC NAME FOOD Mamillaria sp. Panicum barbipulvinatum Schizachyrium scoparium Bouteloua curtipendula Geaster sp. Notholanea fendleri Saegobe sp. X  88  HOPI OTHER  TEWA FOOD OTHER X  T T T M M X  APPENDIX 1  Table B. Ethnographic use of animal taxa (Gnabasik 1981); A=hunting assistant, D=dress, F=famine food, H=hide, M=medicine and R=ritual. OTHER FOOD SCIENTIFIC NAME COMMON NAME R Ursus sp. Bear X Castor canadensis Beaver H,R X Bison bison Bison R Lynx rufus Bobcat R Canis latrans Coyote H,R X Odocoileus sp. Deer A X Canis familiaris Dog H,R X Cervus canadensis Elk X Eutamias quadrivittatus Four-lined Colo. Chipmunk R U. cinereoargenteus, V. velox Fox X C. lateralis, S. lateralis Ground Squirrel X Lepus sp. Jackrabbit R X Oreamnos americanus Mountain goat H Felis concolor Mountain lion H,R X Ovis canadensis Mountain sheep H X Lutra canadensis Otter X Cynomys sp. Prarie dog H,R X Antilocapra americana Pronghorn R X Sylvilagus sp. Cottontail rabbit H Mephitis sp. Spilogale sp. Skunk X Sciurus alberti Albert's Squirrel M X Musrela sp. Weasel H Wildcat (Mtn. lion ?) H Canis lupus Wolf X Neotoma sp. Woodrat/packrat R Bluebird R Cyanocitta cristata Bluejay M Colinus virginianus Bobwhite R Corvus brachyrhynchos Crow R Falco sparverius phalaena Desert sparrow hawk R X Duck X Dendragapus obscurus Dusky grouse R H. leucocephalus, A. chrysaetos Eagle R Goose R Hawk R Hummingbird  89  APPENDIX 1  Table B. Continued. COMMON NAME  SCIENTIFIC NAME  FOOD  OTHER R  Jay Macaw  Ara sp.  R  Magpie  Pica pica  R  Mockingbird  Mimus polyglottos  R  Mourning dove  Zenaidura macroura  x  Parrot  R R  Owl  R  Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha x  Quail  R  Red tailed hawk  Buteo jamaicensis  Red-winged blackbird  Agelaius phoeniceus  Roadrunner  Geococcyx californianus  R  Rockwren  Salpinctes obsoletus  R  Sparrowhawk  Falco sparverius  R  Steller's jay  Cyanocitta stelleri diaademata  Turkey  Meleagris gallopavo  Turkey vulture  Cathartes aura  X  R X  R R  Warbler  R  Woodpecker  R  Wren  R  Yellow Warbler  Dendroica petechia  Yellow-headed blackbird  Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus  Lizard Rattlesnake  R X X  R  Crotalus sp.  Snake  X  F R  Turtle American eel  F  D  Anguilla rostrata  Fish  X  M  Ant Bee  X  Bumblebee  X  Burrowing hornet  X  M  Cornworm  90  APPENDIX 2  Table A . Sites included in the faunal analysis with publication references. CHACO BRANCH Basketmaker III Shabik'eshchee Village  Akins 1985  29SJ423  Akins 1985  Basketmaker IH-Pueblo I N A 14,674  Czaplewski 1982  29SJ628  Akins 1985  Pueblo I N A 14,654  Czaplewski 1982  29SJ724  Akins 1985  Pueblo I-Pueblo II Akins 1985  29SJ629 Pueblo II PM205  Binford et al. 1982  PM218  Binford et al. 1982  PM240  Binford et al. 1982  29SJ1360  Akins 1985  N A 14,662  Czaplewski 1982  Pueblo II-Pueblo III PM240  Binford et al. 1982  LA19553  Binford 1983  Pueblo Alto  Akins 1985  Una Vida  Akins 1985  29SJ627  Akins 1985  29SJ633  Akins 1985  N A 14,650  Czaplewski 1982  Pueblo III Czaplewski 1982  N A 14,667 KAYENTA BRANCH Basketmaker II D:7:152  Bearden 1984  D:7:236  Bearden 1984  D:ll:1161  Bearden 1984  D:7:3107  Smiley, Nichols and Andrews 1983  D: 11:244  Smiley, Nichols and Andrews 1983  D:ll:3131  Nichols and Smiley 1984  D: 11:3133  Nichols and Smiley 1984  D: 11:449  Christenson and Parry 1985  D:7:239  Leonard 1986,1989  D : l 1:1410  Leonard 1986,1989  D:7:3013  Leonard 1986,1989  Pueblo I D: 11:2023  Nichols and Smiley 1984  D: 11:2025  Nichols and Smiley 1984  91  APPENDIX 2  Table A . Continued D: 11:2064  Smiley, Nichols and Andrews 1983  D : 11:2062  Nichols and Smiley 1984  Pueblo I-Pueblo II D:7:234  Smiley, Nichols and Andrews 1983  D: 11:2030  Christenson and Parry 1985  D: 11:320  Seme 1980a  D:7:216  Leonard 1986,1989  Pueblo II D:7:18  Seme 1980b  D:7:23  Seme 1980b  D:7:704  Seme 1980b  D: 11:73  Seme 1980b  D:7:725  Seme 1980b  D: 11:275  Seme 1980b  D:7:109  Seme and Harris 1982  D: 11:2001  Seme and Harris 1982  D: 11:2108  Nichols and Smiley 1984  D:7:220  Seme 1980a  D: 11:215  Seme 1980a  D: 11:425  Seme 1980a  D: 11:2042  Smiley, Nichols and Andrews 1983  D: 11:426  Seme 1980a  D:ll:316  Smiley, Nichols and Andrews 1983  D:7:2085  Christenson and Parry 1985  D: 11:2051  Nichols and Smiley 1984  D:7:719  Leonard 1986, 1989  D: 11:352  Leonard 1986, 1989  SAN JUAN - MESA VERDE BRANCH Basketmaker III 5LP110  Anderson 1980  5LP111  Anderson 1980  Dolores Period 1  Neusius 1986  Basketmaker III- Pueblo I 42 Sa6757  Emslie 1985  Pueblo I Dolores Period 2  Neusius 1986  Dolores Period 3  Neusius 1986  Dolores Period 4  Neusius 1986  Pueblo II 5MT1786  Kent 1991  Dolores Period 5  Neusius 1986  Dolores Period 6  Neusius 1986  UGG4x-3  Brand n.d.  92  APPENDIX 2  Table A . Continued Pueblo U-Pueblo  III  Dolores Period 7  Neusius 1986  B i g Westwater R u i n  Mignonette 1981, Emslie 1981  42Sa6396  Emslie 1985  Pueblo III 5MT262  Driver et al. n.d.  5MT1825  Driver et al. n.d.  5MT3918  Driver et al. n.d.  5MT3030  Driver et al. n.d.  5MT3936  Driver et al. n.d.  5MT3951  Driver et al. n.d.  5MT3967  Driver et al. n.d.  5MT5152  Driver et al. n.d.  5MT10246  Driver et al. n.d.  5MT10459  Driver et al. n.d.  5MT10508  Driver et al. n.d.  5MT11338  Driver et al. n.d.  5MT765  Brand 1991  5MT3876  Rood 1991  5MT3901  Walker 1989  5MTUR2156  Harrill 1976  5MTUR2150  Harrill 1976  RIO G R A N D E B R A N C H Pueblo U-Pueblo  III Y o u n g 1980  San Antonio (early)  93  APPENDIX 2 Table B. Chaco branch Basketmaker III faunal data. l 1 TAXA Shrews Bats Lagamorpha  SITE S H A B I K ' E S H C H E E 29SJ423 NISP % NISP %  Cottontail Jackrabbit Rodentia Squirrels Chipmunks Marmot Cynomys sp. Geomyidae sp. Beaver Neotoma sp. Mice, Rats and Vole Muskrat Porcupine Carnivora Canidae Canis sp. Coyote Wolf Dog Fox Bear Raccoon Marten Mustelidae sp. Badger Skunk Felidae Mountain Lion Bobcat Artiodactyla Elk Deer Antelope Mountain Sheep Bison Large Mammal Medium Mammal Small Mammal Water fowl Canada Goose Ducks Blue-winged teal Merganser Falconiformes Turkey Vulture Eagle Hawk Falco sp. Grouse Turkey Quail Sandhill Crane  103 36  30.6% 10.7%  4 16  1.2% 4.7%  7 2  2.1% 0.6%  4  589 30.3% 97 5.0% 6 0.3%  6  692 133 6  30.4% 0.60893355 5.8% 0.15677343 0.0030896 0.3%  30.4% 7.8%  10 16  0.4% 0.01495903 0.7% 0.04747774  0.7% 2.4%  0.2%  12  0.4% 0.6%  14 14  0.6% 0.02437604 0.6% 0.01211391  1.2% 0.6%  1.2%  9 10  0.5% 0.5%  13 10  0.6% 0.01650383 0.4% 0.00514933  0.8% 0.3%  2  0.6%  2 2  1  0.3%  1  0.1% 0.1% 0.1%  4 2 2  0.2% 0.00696458 0.1% 0.00102987 0.1% 0.00348229  0.3% 0.1% 0.2%  4 58  1.2% 17.2% 1.5% 8.6% 1.2%  0.2% 1.5% 0.1% 0.2% 0.6% 0.2%  7 88 2 8  0.01341424 0.18755482 0.00102987  5 29 4  3 30 2 3 II 4  40 8  0.01638159 1.8% 0.09171768 0.4% 0.01392917  0.7% 9.4% 0.1% 0.8%  20 39  5.9% 11.6%  211 10.9% 931 47.9%  231 970  10.1% 0.16799806 42.6% 0.59S12968  8.4% 29.8%  1  7  03%  NISP S U M NISP FREQ. F R E Q . S U M FS/#SITES  0.3% 3.9% 0.1% 0.4%  4.6% 0.7%  1  0.1%  1  0.0% 0.00051493  0.0%  2  0.1%  0.1%  0.1%  2 1  0.1% 0.00102987  1  0.0% 0.00051493  0.0%  1  0.0% 0.00296736 0.0% 0.00051493  0.1% 0.0%  0.3% 1  0.1%  1  .  Mourning Dove Owls American Coot Caprimulgidae Apodiformes Flicker Passeriformes Homed Lark Meadowlark  1  0.3%  1  0.0% 0.00296736  0.1%  1  0.3%  1  0.0% 0.00296736  0.1%  1  0.0% 0.00051493  0.0%  Dark-eyed Junco Towhee Swallows Corvidae Wrens Turdidae Shrikes Blackbirds FringiUidae Macaw Large Bird Small/Medium Bird Amphibian/Reptile Amphibian Reptile Fish Speotyto cunicularia Succinedae Total  1  337  1942  0.1%  2279  94  APPENDIX 2 Table C . Chaco branch Basletmaker III - Pueblo I faunal data. 1 i  N A 14.674 SITE 29SJ628 NISP S U M NISPFREQ. FREQ. S U M FS/#SITES NISP % NISP % TAXA Shrews Bats Lagamorpha 2186 26.9% Cottontail 144 12.5% 35.8% 0.53761769 2042 41.3% 23.8% 149 12.9% 1866 30.6% 0.47622374 Jackrabbit 1717 34.7% 15 0.2% Rodentia 15 0.3% 0.2% 0.00303337 0.0016747 0.1% 5 0.1% Squirrels 4 0.1% 1 0.1% Chipmunks Marmot 4.4% 236 3.9% 0.08820313 Cynomys sp. 175 3.5% 61 53% 0.7% 0.01706302 0.9% 0.7% 1.0% 45 Geomyidae sp. 33 12 Beaver 0.0127594 0.6% 27 0.4% Neotoma sp. 16 0.3% 11 1.0% 140 12.1% 160 2.6% 0.12525661 63% Mice. Rats and Vole 20 0.4% Muskrat Porcupine Caraivora Canidae 1.7% 0.04936291 2.5% 43 3.7% 103 Cams sp. 60 1.2% 0.4% 0.7% 35 0.6% 0.00707786 Coyote 35 Wolf 2.7% 75 1.2% 0.05498142 Dog 15 0.3% 60 5.2% 5 0.1% 0.00101112 0.1% Fox 5 0.1% 0.0% 0.00106803 0.1% 1 0.1% 2 Bear I 0.0% Raccoon Marten 0.0% 0.0008658 0.0% Mustelidae sp. 1 0.1% 1 0.4% 0.5% 0.00713476 Badger 31 0.6% 1 0.1% 32 Skunk Felidae Mountain Lion 7 7 0.1% 0.00141557 0.1% Bobcat 0.1% 424 7.0% 0.21248627 10.6% Artiodactyla 4.7% 191 16.5% 233 1 0.0% 0.00020222 0.0% 0.0% Elk 1 17 0 3 % 0.00410139 0.2% Deer 16 0.3% 1 0.1% 0.7% 1.1% 0.01447174 63 2 0.2% 65 Antelope 1.3% 30 0.5% 0.00606673 0.3% Mountain Sheep 30 0.6% 0.1% 0.004329 0.2% 5 0.4% 5 Bison 74 0.7% 74 1.2% 0.01496461 Large Mammal 1.5% 3.7% 2.3% 4.6% 226 0.04570273 Medium Mammal 226 Small Mammal Waterfowl Canada Goose Ducks Blue-winged teal Merganser Falconiformes Turkey Vulture Eagle Hawk  97  2.0%  Falco sp. Grouse Turkey  24  0.5%  2  0.0%  Quail Sandhill Crane Mourning Dove Owls American Coot  1.6%  0.01961577  1.0%  352  5.8%  97  328 28.4% 1 0.1%  0.28883607  14.4%  1  0.0%  0.0008658  0.0%  2  0.0%  0.00040445  0.0%  1  0.1%  1  0.0%  0.0008658  0.0%  2  0.2%  5  0.1%  0.00233828  0.1%  6100  100.0%  Caprimulgidae Apodiformes Flicker Passeri formes Homed Lark Meadowlark Dark-eyed J unco Towhee Swallows Corvidae Wrens  3  0.1%  Turdidae Shrikes Blackbirds Fringillidae Macaw Large Bird Small/Medium Bird Amphibian/Repti le Amphibian Reptile Fish Speotyto cunicularia Succinedae Total  4945  1155  95  APPENDIX 2 Table D. Chaco branch Pueblo I faunal data. i 1 TAXA Shrews Bats Lagamorpha  N A 14.654  SITE 29SJ724 NISP %  Cottontail Jackrabbit Rodentia Squirrels Chipmunks Marmot Cynomys sp. Geomyidae sp. Beaver Keotoma sp. Mice, Rats and V o Muskrat Porcupine Camivora Canidae Canis sp. Coyote Wolf Dog Fox Bear Raccoon Marten Mustelidae sp. Badger Skunk Felidae Mountain Lion Bobcat Artiodacryla Elk Deer Antelope Mountain Sheep Bison Medium Mammal Small Mammal Waterfowl Canada Goose Ducks Blue-winged teal Merganser Falconiformes Turkey Vulture Eagle  1  NISP S U M N I S P F R E Q FREQ. S U M FS/#SITES  0.2%  133 28.8% 178 38.5% 1.1% 5  0.002164S  0.1%  2  16.9% 0.28787879 33.8% 0.65688632 13.6% 032563733 0 3 % 0.00617284  14.4% 32.8% 16.3% 03%  1  88 27.2% 102 31.5% 2 0.6%  133 266 107  0.1%  18 4  3.9% 0.9%  38 11.7% 1 0.3%  56 5  7.1% 0.15624499 0.6% 0.01174443  7.8% 0.6%  3 9  0.6% 1.9%  21  6.5%  3 30  0.4% 0.00649351 3.8% 0.08429533  0.3% 4.2%  1 4  0.2% 0.9%  1  0.3%  2 4  0.3% 0.00525092 0.5% 0.00865801  0.3% 0.4%  1  0.2%  1  0.3%  2  0.3% 0.00525092  0.3%  1  0.2% 34  10.5%  1 34  0.1% 0.0021645 4.3% 0.10493827  0.1% 5.2%  2 2  0.6% 0.6%  2 4  0.3% 0.00617284 0.5% 0.01050184  03% 0.5%  64  8.1% 0.13852814  6.9%  0.3%  1  0.1% 0.00308642  0.2%  0.3%  0.1% 0.0021645 3.3% 0.05627706 0.4% 0.00649351 0.1% 0.00308642  0.1% 2.8% 03%  1  1 26 3 1  30  9.3%  31  3.9% 0.09475709  4.7%  2  0.4%  64  13.9% 1  1 26 3  0.2% 5.6% 0.6%  Hawk Falco sp. Grouse Turkey Quail  %  NISP  1  0.2%  Sandhill Crane Mourning Dove Owls American Coot Caprimulgidae Apodifonnes Flicker Passeriformes Homed Lark Meadowlark Dark-eyed J unco Towhee Swallows Corvidae Wrens Turdidae Shrikes  1 . 0.2%  1  0.1%  786  100.0%  Blackbirds Fringillidae Macaw Large Bird Small/Medium Bird Amphibian/Reptile Amphibian Reptile Fish Speotyto cunicularla Succinedae Total  462  324  96  0.0021645  0.2%  APPENDIX 2 Table E  Chaco branch Pueblo I - Pueblo II faunal data  1  TAXA Shrews Bats Lagamorpha Cottontail Jackrabbit  SITE 29SJ629 NISP %  Rodentia Squirrels Chipmunks Marmot Cynomyssp. Geomyidae sp. Beaver Neotoma sp. Mice, Rats and Vole Muskrat Porcupine Camivora Camdae Canis sp. Coyote Wolf Dog Fox Bear  381 395 96 16  15.2% 15.8% 3.8% 0.6%  225 55  9.0% 2.2%  16 134  0.6% 5.4%  4  0.2%  32 28 2 67  1.3% 1.1% 0.1% 2.7%  1  0.0%  1 1 94 1 22 8 7  0.0% 0.0% 3.8% 0.0% 0.9% 0.3% 0.3%  Raccoon Marten Mustelidae sp. Badger Skunk Felidae Mountain Lion Bobcat Attiodactyla Elk Deer Antelope Mountain Sheep Bison Large Mammal Medium Mammal Small Mammal Water fowl Canada Goose Ducks Blue-winged teat Merganser Falconif ormes Turkey Vulture Eagle Hawk Falco sp. Grouse Turkey Quail Sandhill Crane  223 8.9% 55 2.2% 542 21.7%  11 14  0.4%  54  2.2%  1  0.0%  1  0.0%  12  0.5%  0.6%  Mourning Dove Owls American Coot Caprimulgidae Apodiformes Flicker Passeriformes Homed Lark Meadowlark Dark-eyed Junco Towhoe Swallows Corvidae Wrens Turdidae Shrikes Blackbirds Fringillidae Macaw Large Bird Small/Medium Bird Amphibian/Reptile Amphibian Reptile Fish Spebtyto cunicularia Succinedae Total  2499  97  APPENDIX 2 Table F. Chaco branch Pueblo II faunal data. TAXA Shrews Bats  SITE PM205 NISP  Lagamorpha Cottontail Jackrabbit Rodentia Squirrels Chipmunks Mannot Cynomys sp. Geomyidae sp. Beaver Neotoma sp. Mice. Rats and Vol« Muskrat Porcupine Camivora Canidae Canis sp. Coyote Wolf Dog Fox Bear Raccoon Marten Mustelidae sp. Badger Skunk Felidae Mountain Lion Bobcat Artiodactyla Elk Deer Antelope  313 34.1% 498 54.2%  9  PM240 NISP  PM218 NISP %  %  1.0%  38 2  4.1% 0.2%  6  0.7%  391 55.2% 198 28.0%  30 39.5% 18 23.7%  1  0.1%  11  14.5%  34  4.8% 0.4%  6  7.9%  3 8 4  1.1% 0.6%  1  1  39  1.3%  NISP S U M NISP F R E Q F R E Q . S U M FS/#SITES  N A 14,662 NISP %  39 5.8% 145 21.7%  25 1  3.7%  4  0.6%  5  44  6.9%  61.1%  0.1%  13  18.1%  4.2%  Mountain Sheep Bison Large Mammal  26.9% 26.9%  12  0.5% 0.146149271  2.9%  118 4  5.0% 0.785299482 0.2% 0.005734294  15.7%  46 24  1.9% 0.052648728 0.20752747 1.0%  1.1% 4.2%  6  0.3% 0.006528836  0.1%  32.6% 36.4%  0.1%  0.1%  12 13  1.8% 1.9%  13 14  0.5% 0.031121967 0.6% 0.020873507  0.6% 0.4%  6  0.8%  60  9.0%  66  2.8% 0.098294936  2.0%  1  0.1%  2 8 1  0.1% 0.002176279 0.3% 0.098719228 0.0% 0.001412429  0.0% 2.0%  It 173  0.5% 0.026957898 7.3% 0.283034808  0.5% 5.7%  1.3%  0.2%  0.1%  1.3459675S8 1.344906797  773 864  1  1  2  29SJ1360 NISP %  %  1  0.1%  9  1.3%  1 1  1.3% 1.3%  171 25.6%  7  1  9.7%  1.4%  0.0%  10  1.4%  2  2.6%  14 52 6  2.1% 7.8% 0.9%  65 52 6  2.7% 0.103835599 2.2% 0.077844311 0.3% 0.008982036  2.1% 1.6% 0.2%  2  0.3%  2  2.6%  56 41  8.4% 6.1%  60 41  2.5% 0.112972984 1.7% 0.061377246  2.3% 1.2%  3  0.4% 0.1%  6 1  0.3% 0.020149481 0.0% 0.001497006  0.4%  1 18  2.7%  67  2.8% 0.129610631  2.6%  1 1  0.0% 0.001412429 0.0% 0.001412429  0.0% 0.0%  Medium Mammal Small Mammal Waterfowl Canada Goose Ducks Blue-winged teal Merganser Falconiformes Turkey Vulture Eagle Hawk Falco sp. Grouse Turkey Quail Sandhill Crane Mourning Dove Owls American Coot  1  10  0.1%  1.1%  1  0.1%  36  5.1%  1 1  0.1% 0.1%  1  1  1.3%  1.3%  2  2.8%  0.0%  Caphmulgidae Apodiformes Flicker Passeriformes Homed Lark Mcadowlark Dark-eyed Junco Towhee Swallows Corvidae  1  0.1%  1  0.0% 0.001497006  0.0%  5  0.7%  5  0.2%  0.00748503  0.2%  2  0.1% 0.014570324  0.4%  Wrens Turdidae Shrikes Blackbirds Fringillidae Macaw Large Bird Small/Medium Bird Amphibian/Reptile  1  0.1%  1  1.3%  Amphibian Reptile Fish Speotyto cunicularia Succinedae Total  919  708  76  668  98  72  2371  APPENDIX 2 Table G .  Chaco branch Pueb lo II - Pueb lo 111 fauns il data. 1 1 1 PM240 NISP %  Shrews Bats Lagamorpha Cottontail Jackrabbit '< Rodentia Squirrels Chipmunks Marmot Cynomys sp. Oeomyidae sp.  L A 19553 NISP %  Pueblo Alto NISP % 4  43 49.4% 35 40.2% 4  4.6%  1  1.1%  21 15.2% 47 34.1% 9 6.5% 5 3.6%  3  2.2%  Beaver Neotoma sp. Mice. Rats and Voles Muskrat Porcupine Camivora Canidae Canis sp. Coyote Wolf Dog Fox Bear  Mountain Lion Bobcat Aitiodactyla Elk Deer Antelope Mountain Sheep Bison Large Mammal Medium Mammal Small Mammal Water fowl Canada Goose Ducks Blue-winged teal Merganser Falconiformes Turkey Vulture Eagle Hawk  1  1.1%  Falco sp. Grouse Turkey Quail Sandhill Crane Mourning Dove Owls  2  2.3%  1  0.7%  American Coot Caprimulgidae Apodiformes Flicker Passerifonnes Homed Lark Meadowlark Dark-eyed Junco Towhee Swallows Corvidae  1  1.1%  2 1  8.1% 1.0%  355 24  0.3% 16.9%  30 72  9.0% 0.4%  74  0.3%  9  912  3.1%  556  1  0.0%  1  0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%  8  0.0%  13 2328 1  0.0% 8.0% 0.0% 2.0% 0.6% 0.5%  9 161  0.3% 4.9%  22  0.7%  34  1.0%  2636 9.0% 7165 24.5%  287 600  18.2%  3  0.0%  1  0.0%  82 266 14  0.3% 0.9%  987 7  3.4%  6 13  0.2% 0.4%  8.7%  2  0.1%  33 53 3 89 3  1101 29.0%  0.0% 0.0% 0.0%  3  0.0%  1  0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1%  1 2 1 31  0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1%  3  0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%  17  0.5%  6 2  0.2% 0.1%  2 3  3920 191  8.9% 0.4%  0.664735 0.025114  9.5% 0.4%  160 9  4.2% 0.2%  519 36.3% 7 0.5%  0.5% 1.1%  36 108  0.9% 2.8%  120 26  8.4%  269  1.8%  1674  0.6% 3.8%  0.10341 0.25787  1.5% .3.7%  1  0.1%  1 1  0.0% 0.0%  3.42E-05 0.000699  0.0% 0.0%  5 4  0.3% 0.3%  27  1.9%  85 86 5 127 4 1  0.2% 0.2% 0.0% 0.3% 0.0% 0.0%  0.012864 0.015684 0.000544 0.033358 0.00051 3.42E-05  0.2% 0.2% 0.0% 0.5% 0.0% 0.0%  14  0.0%  0.001975  0.0%  36 2510 6 820 237  0.1% 5.7% 0.0%  0.1% 2.0% 0.0% 1.0% 0.3% 0.4%  4  0.1%  12  0.2%  2 2  0.1% 0.1%  19  1.3%  1 4  0.0% 0.1% 0.0%  1  0.1%  0.1% 3.5% 1.0% 1.2%  1561 24.7% 1078 17.1%  0.1% 0.1%  1  34 0.9% 11 0.3% 1139 30.0% 1 0.0%  1 5  0.0% 0.1%  3.0%  0.0%  0.0%  0.0%  766 20.2% 12  0.3%  2  0.1%  1  0.0%  2  0.1%  1  0.0%  138  29224  99  1.9% 0.5% 0.6%  4520 8872 1168 1  10.2% 20.0% 2.6% 0.0%  0.448 0.731276 0.51004 0.000263  6.4% 10.4%  3  0.0%  0.000103  0.0%  1  0.0%  3.42E-05  0.0%  0.2% 0.6%  0.004626 0.011686  0.1% 0.2%  0.0%  0.000479  0.0%  2008 23 1 4 7  4.5% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%  0.33242 0.006196 3.42E-05 0.000137 0.000946  4.7%  0.0% 0.0% 0.0%  3.42E-05 0.001501 0.002367  0.1%  0.003009  0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.2%  3.42E-05 0.000595 3.42E-05  0.0% 0.0%  0.000103 0.000103 0.000846 0.001149  0.0%  0.2% 0.3% 0.0% 0.0%  2  0.1%  1 5  2  0.1%  22 23 1 4  42  2.9%  1 75 3 3 9  0.030853  0.1% 0.1%  10  0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.1%  0.014493 0.018741  0.7%  2 2 1 31 60 2  0.0%  0.001399  33  0.5%  5  0.1%  6312  3798  1430  0.1%  7.3% 0.0%  91 279 14 3.1% 0.3%  0.0% 0.1%  3297  253  0.005602 0.142306 0.000826 0.073491 0.017765 0.027103  45 4  2 87  26.5% 19.1% 1.1% 0.8%  5.6% 0.4%  1.4% 0.7%  22  1.338992 0.078829 0.053419  0.1% 0.2%  0.1%  1  1.856712  1 3  1  1  20.3% 16.8% 0.7% 0.1%  1  0.1%  2  0.0% 2.2%  7421 324 47  2  190  0.000137 0.152174  18.2% 23.7%  0.0%  6 8  0.0% 0.0%  260 339  3  5 224 65 73  21 8982  9.2% 0.9% 0.0%  0.5% 0.8% 0.0% 1.4% 0.0%  351 36  0.0%  1 4  1 31  Amphibian Reptile Fish Speotyto cunicularia Succinedae Total  266 33  3 7 7  Blackbirds Fringillidae Macaw Large Bird Small/Medium Bird Amphibian/Reptile  2616 118  3 16 17  Wrens Turdidae Shrikes  992 15.7% 1345 21.3% 49 0.8% 2 0.0%  19.1% 16.5% 1.9% 0.4%  145 1.4% 2 18 13.0% 29 21.0%  4 629 543 62 13  572 167  NISPSUh NISP FREC FREQ. S U FSAfSITES  N A 14,650 % NISP  29SJ63 3 NISP %  0.0%  5910 20.2% 4799 16.4% 171 0.6% 24 0.1%  37 16 2 11 1  Raccoon Marten Mustetidae sp. Badger Skunk Felidae  29SJ627 NISP %  Una Vida NISP %  44286  3.42E-05 0.001061 0.013217  0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%  0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.4%  0.0% 0.0% 0.0%  0.2% 0.0%  APPENDIX 2 Table H. Chaco branch Pueblo III faunal data.  !  TAXA Shrews Bats Lagamorpha Cottontail Jackrabbit  SITE N A 14,667 NISP %  Rodentia Squirrels  35 37.2% 5 5.3%  Chipmunks Marmot Cynomys sp. Geomyidae sp. Beaver Neotoma sp. Mice. Rats and V o l e Muskrat Porcupine Camivora Canidae Canis sp. Coyote Wolf Dog Fox Bear  27 28.7% 3  3.2%  20 21.3%  1  1.1%  1  1.1%  1  1.1%  1  1.1%  Raccoon Marten Mustelidae sp. Badger Skunk Felidae Mountain Lion Bobcat Artiodactyla Elk Deer Antelope Mountain Sheep Bison Large Mammal Medium Mammal Small Mammal Water fowl Canada Goose Ducks Blue-winged teal Merganser Falconiformes Turkey Vulture Eagle Hawk Falco sp. Grouse Turkey Quail Sandhill Crane Mourning Dove Owls American Coot Caprimulgidae Apodiformes Flicker Passeriformes Homed Lark Meadowlark Dark-eyed Junco Towhee Swallows Corvidae Wrens Turdidae Shrikes Blackbirds FringHlidae Macaw Large Bird Small/Medium Bird Amphibian/Reptile Amphibian Reptile Fish Speotyto cunicularia Succinedae Total  94  100  APPENDIX 2  c h 3 aas k e tym a k er rrIIa u fn a l d a t a . T a b i t a cb r I.i n K E f T F T 5 1 — •K.t?tmt Shrewj  MILNISP  %  nist> %  NS IP *  NISP  TAXA  3 9 a% Coaonail 31.6% 15*1 6 2 . 0 * ~tt a JacknH* 4,8 1*7% 11.9% Robert ia 2 01 .% 5I 6i% 16% Squirrtb 11 0 4 % Ctapmunlg Marmot Cynonrw ip 11 0 4 % 2 ro* G«o«ny»dar gp 90 3.5* 3 16% Beaver 5 u% Ncotcxnaip, ljS% M i c c R j B i a d V d e • a «e.9% 10 52% Mutfcrat Porcupine Caraivan Caoo ip. i co* 16J% Coyote Wdf PoT 15 0 . 6 % Marten MtKtclidae cp. Badger gkul* Fetid* Mouoam Lion Artiorlactyla Er>«i k ' r  37 43.4* 27 31.8* I 12*  GTFS  I  WS iP *  25 3 7 J * 18  • « 4J6*  4«.o*  i li*  2li* 10 7^* 1  i  O S *  5 T H J 3 T — 5 T L 7 33 B T T J t9 mr * wisp * MS IP *  743 5 . 4 * 2 6 * 4 1 . 6 * 20 90 5^ ** 2 0 7 4 2 . 2 * 1 05% 1 16 i * 2 li)* 8 3s* 1 Oi*  NS IP *  12*  13 128 111 12 2  11.4* 9.9* 1.1* 02*  46 24 5 14* 19 2 64 .* 4 9 3  43*  2.1* 17 .*  44.1*  D:lt:l 1 6  NS iP *  10.1* 919 71.4* 241 18.7* 1 0.1* 2 Oi*  36i* 1 6.1*  D:7J6 3  NS IP *  3 05% 580 61.0* 141 1 4 . 8 * 10.1* 5 05%  36 6 4 J * 4 7.1*  0£%  1 IS*  13  IA%  23-6*  2 62*  2li*  1 6.1*  J 65*  0 . 1 * 0.0263987 0 0 * 00015528  0.0* 00* 02* 00*  17  0 2 * 0.0115157  0.1*  4  0.1* 00035437  0.0*  10 42  0.1* 0 . 0 1 4 3 0 1 1  13 223 266" 586  06* 02* 0.1* 02* 3.1* 2.9* 82*  0.1135805 0.0094597 00329914 00203255 0.4351365 030668 13137369  0.1* 10* 0.1* 03* 02* 4.0* 46% 11.9*  1 6.1*  7  0.1*  0003111  00*  1 6.1*  6  0.1* 00235426  02*  1 6.1*  5 2 1  0.1* 00019455 0 0 * 00024299 0X>* 00007764  0.0* 00* 00*  1 6.1* 3 6.3*  7 43% 0.4* 2 0.1%  8 1 1 2  0J%  0.5% Mouaajrj Sheep 16% 4 SI Large Mammal 24% 5 :1% Medium Mammal 2982 0.9% 1 3% SI 0 Small Mammal 34* 244* Waterfowl Canada Gocce Ducks Blue-winced leal Merjtarcer Fakooiformes Turkey Vulture Eagle Hawk 6 02% FG aT lOcUoKi p 4 Turkey 2.1% Quail Moorainj Dove Owb American Cod Carjriroutciaae Pucker 5 02% PanerifoniMa 1 oa% Homed Lark Meadowlark Dark-eyed Junco Towhee SwaUowi Corvidae 3 5 u% Wren Turdidae 8 0.1% Blackbiitti Fttrmludae raS • IS LneBird 06% SrrilVM^umBird 2 0.1% A m p h i b i a r t / R e pi i f c Amphibian 4 Rtptik 6.2% 12 i2% Feb SprOylo cunicularia Succincdae 193 Tottl 2570 1  2li*  4.1%  1ii%  2(i* 1 332 5 . 2 * 1  105* 9 43*  2 6.4*  6" 6i*  O S *  t (i* 7.1* t o 14.9* 12 14.1* 16 14.9* 6  OS*  6 4.6*  4 19 .* 2 6 9&% 2 5 5 . 1 * £4 36.£*  43 « A *  67 6"0* 24 2 3 * Id) 14.3*  I 62*  102* 1 0 1*  1 6i*  70 3 * 6 Oi* 10.1* 1 6.1* 3 02* 3*51 6 2l si ** 7K9 Bi.7i* * 4 1 32* 1 6 1 10.6*  3 I 1 7  1  67  til  209  101  4*)  Ills  I S *  12 7  38 2  0 3 * 00200742 OO* 00007782  02* 00*  2 02*  18 5  0 3 * 00077785 0.1* 00314054  0.1* 03*  20  0 3 * 00673104  06*  4 6.4* 85  5.4* IS* IS* 12-5*  1 6.1*  1 6.1*  2 3.6*  71 132 9B 534  03* 40.4* 17.1* 02* 05* 00% OS* 1£* 10* 4S*  0 J 0 * 0.0017889 0 . 0 * OJ0008945  1 6.6%  9  OJ03U/>4  1.8861814 00225292 00537828 O0UU//64 0.08393 7 7 0.1744138 0.114529 0532873  2 1 6 2  1 6.1*  2 02*  16J*  OS* 1 02% 7.7* 03* 00* ID* IK* 1.4* 73*  520 .* 4 . 4 4 9 1 8 4 6  1  6  2 62*  56 3723 1266 17 25  1288  9S1  56"  7158  APPENDIX 2 Table J. Kayenta branch Pueblo I faunal data.  I  TAXA Shrews Bats Lagamorpha Cottontail Jackrabbit  1  11 74 36  8.7% 58.3% 28.3%  Rodentia Squirrels Chipmunks Marmot Cynomys sp. Geomyidae sp. Beaver Neotoma sp. Mice, Rats and Voles Muskrat Porcupine Carnivora  1  I  0.8%  304 66.5% 48 10.5% 2  0.4%  29  6.3%  4 8  0.9% 1.8%  224 83.0% 4 1.5% 1  5  NISP S U M N I S P F R E Q FREQ. S U M FS/#SITES  D: 11:2025 NISP %  D: 11:2023 NISP %  D.I 1:2062 NISP %  SITE D:7:2064 NISP %  45 20.1% 2.2% 5  0.08661417  2.2%  8.6%  2.27840753 0.42563363  57.0% 10.6%  11 647  1.0% 60.0%  93  2  0.9%  5  0.5%  0.01700864  0.4%  16 3  7.1% 1.3%  16 32  1.5% 3.0%  0.07142857 0.07685019  1.8% 1.9%  4  1.8%  5 17  0.5% 1.6%  0.01662675 0 05388113  0.4% 1.3%  3  1.3%  3  0.3%  0.01339286  0.3%  5 24  2.2% 10.7%  5 39  0.5% 3.6%  0.02232143 0.14451217  0.6% 3.6%  1 14  0.4%  1 1 15  0.1% 0.1% 1.4%  0.00218818 0.00446429 0.07037402  0.1% 0.1% 1.8%  88 25 63  8.2% 2.3% 5.8%  0.36173216 0.0918401 0.23418987  9.0% 2.3% 5.9%  1  0.1%  0.00218818  0.1%  1  0.1%  0.00446429  0.1%  2 1  0.2% 0.1%  0.00437637 0.00218818  0.1% 0.1%  7  0.6%  0.01531729  0.4%  0.4%  1.9%  Canidae Canis sp. Coyote Wolf Dog Fox Bear Raccoon Marten Mu5telidae sp. Badger Skunk Felidae Mountain Lion Bobcat Artiodactyla Elk Deer Antelope Mountain Sheep Bison Large Mammal Medium Mammal Small Mammal Water fowl Canada Goose Ducks Blue-winged teal Merganser Falconiformes Turkey Vulture  1  0.8%  2 2  1.6% 1.6%  12  2.6%  1  0.2%  15 6 17  3.3% 1.3% 3.7%  1  0.2%  3  5 17 11  1.1%  1.9% 6.3% 4.1%  6.3%  66 29.5% 35  15.6%  Eagle Hawk Falco sp. Grouse Turkey Quail Sandhill Crane Mourning Dove  1  0.4%  Owls American Coot Caprimulgidae Apodiformes Flicker Passeri formes Homed Lark Meadowlark Dark-eyed Junco Towhee Swallows Corvidae Wrens Turdidae Shrikes Blackbirds Fringiliidae Macaw Large Bird Small/Medium Bird Amphibian/Reptile  2 1  0.4%  7  1.5%  0.2%  Amphibian Reptile fish Speoryto cunicularia Succinedae Total  127  457  270  224  102  1078  APPENDIX 2 Table K. Kayenta branch Pueblo I - Pueblo II faunal data.  l  TAXA Shrews Bats Lagamorpha Cottontail Jackrabbit Rodentia  1  D: 11:2030 NISP %  SITE D:7:234 NISP %  Squirrels Chipmunks Marmot Cynomys sp. Oeomyidae sp. Beaver Neotoma sp. Mice, Rats and Vole Muskrat Porcupine Carnivora Canidae Canis sp. Coyote Wolf Dog Fox Bear Raccoon Marten Mustelidae sp. Badger Skunk Felidae Mountain Lion Bobcat Artiodactyla Elk  1  NISP S U M N I S P F R E Q FREQ. S U M FS/#SITES  D:7:216 NISP %  51.6% 1.81653272 8.4% 0.57417651 0.9% 0.01127157 1.2% 0.12170618  0.4% 0.00563579  0.1% 45.4% 14.4% 0.3% 3.0%  17  6.7%  16 1900 309 32 44  0.6% 1.0%  I  0.4%  17 37  0.5% 0.00598802 0.027067 1.0%  0.1% 0.7%  69 27  2.4% 1.0%  13 2  5.1% 0.8%  96 42  2.6% 0.10131569 1.1% 0.04136965  2.5% 1.0%  . 1 22 1  0.0% 0.8% 0.0%  1 23  0.00959423  0.0% 0.2%  1.5%  32  1.1%  1  0.4%  1 41  0.0% 0.6% 0.0% 1.1%  0.00035224  0.2%  0.00035224 0.02996873  0.0% 0.7%  4  0.1%  1  0.4%  5  0.1% 0.00534595  0.1%  1 3  0.0% 0.1%  5 13 3  0.1% 0.00922509 0.4% 0.02249246 0.1% 0.00105671  0.2% 0.6% 0.0%  55 113  0.0208658 1.5% 3.1% 0.20970606  0.5% 5.2%  0.2% 0.00281789 0.5% 0.03255836 1.4% 0.10403488  0.1% 0.8% 2.6%  277 51.1% 107 19.7%  16 0.6% 1490 52.5% 17S 6.2% 32 1.1% 0.7% 21  1  D: 11:320 NISP %  4  0.7%  7  1.3%  17 29  14 13  2.6% 2.4%  1 8  5 12  0.9% 2.2%  1 7  0.2% 1.3%  54 66  1.9% 2.3%  2 4  0.4% 0.7%  8 14 37  0.3% 0.5% 1.3%  40 8 15  7.4%  230  8.1%  1.5% 2.8%  122 315  4.3% 11.1%  1 7  0.0%  2 5  0.1% 0.2%  3  16 32.0% 13 26.0% 2  4.0%  1  2.0%  1  2.0% 6.0%  117 46.1% 14 5.5%  39 15.4%  1 6  0.4% 2.4%  8 18 50  13 24  5.1% 9.4%  280 147 354  7.6% 0.35481518 4.0% 0.18891413 9.6% 0.23311803  4.7% 5.8%  1 7  0.0% 0.00035224 0.2% 0.00246566  0.0% 0.1%  6  0.2% 0.0164525 0.1% 0.00176118  0.4%  5  0.1%  3  0.1% 0.00105671  0.0%  4  0.1%  4  0.1% 0.00140895  0.0%  11 8  0.4%  22 14  0.6% 0.02416981 0.4% 0.013888  0.6% 0.3%  Amphibian  9  0.3%  0.1%  3  0.1%  9 4  0.2% 0.00317013  Reptile Fish Speotyto cunicularia  0.1% 0.00499372  0.1%  Deer Antelope Mountain Sheep Bison Large Mammal Medium Mammal Small Mammal Waterfowl Canada Goose Ducks Blue-winged teal Merganser Falconif ormes Turkey Vulture Eagle Hawk Falcosp. Grouse Turkey Quail Sandhill Crane Mourning Dove Owls American Coot Caprimulgidae Apodiformes Ricker Passeri formes  3  10 20.0% 4 8.0%  0.2%  4  1.6%  8.9%  0.0%  Homed Lark Meadowlark Dark-eyed Junco Towhee Swallows Corvidae Wrens Turdidae Shrikes Blackbirds FringiUidae Macaw Large Bird Small/Medium Bird Amphibian/Reptile  11 6  2.0% 1.1%  0.3%  1  0.4%  Succinedae Total  542  2839  50  254  103  3685  APPENDIX 2 ss ££ s bO  3 2 &  1§  I  3  3 3o  o o o  g» g £  C  ft  5  1I  9  3  6  o  9  s 5  o* o  O  s  a  s  R o  5  a  —  S o  o  t.  ? P  § 8  o  s £a  S  do  i  ?  o  i  |  1  o  o  5  3  o  s  e g  a  £ o  o  •« <  Q  P  z  i  t  «  b  o  6  3  3  6  3  St  2  1  «  5  £ Oo  o  b  3 8o o  a;  S|  £  gg  1 5 o  g£  o  o  s  K 3  S  A  5s  s o  s  a EE  o •o  *i | El 5E  O  1  sftS  -  •* £  a  a  2  *  s  5s *  *  i  Q£  a  g o  s  —  =  5  o 8 •*  o O is  g  s  f. 1  a  *  a  p  9  S £ «l  ££  *  £  o  8  K£  o  R «  Sz  b  fi  s  o  £  £  »  3  2  £  e  J  2  §K  5  J*  a  |  1  S s  1  S  s n  It  O  tRl  g £  E  I s a  a2  i  s  * 2  1  s  ;  fi  (»  iTable L. Kayenta branch Pueblo II faunal data.  * s  o  s  ~  2  £  *  s  «;  a  i £ £  s  n t -  Si  —  i  o  g  s1  £  s  O  o  O  >  6°  gs  g  IN  s5  £  p  g  «  *  C  s  a  s  «o  3,  s  •  s  ?  S a2  ;  2  £ B  » 52  =»  a  o  u  <•  ft S  o  «•  o  o  £. R  *  o»  <  p  •1  s  o  s  &o  i?  -  ** sa  5g *  a aS  if  K  £  o  O  s  -  *  *  k£ «•  o  2  5  5  s  t  fi  °  o  5  • o  a o  s £  £  s  n  s  S a  *  ° si  8  2  S  i  s  ! I  •  •  di  i s J?  13  t i  ii e 1 ! e i a 3E I 3i 1  » 3  !S 3  1  1 11 3i s  s  1  5I 1 1 i E 5  104  I  K i 1 i ! I  i i aI s a  i t  3  3  <  !I i  I  1J s1 i 1 I I 1 &1 ! I i | I ] 1  eI  >  I  8 2  3  *  B  I 1 J! i 1J t I 1 I s  !  1 i 1 II  APPENDIX 2 Table M TAXA Shrews Bats Lagamorpha Cottontail  Kayenta branch Pueblo II - Pueblo III faunal data. 1  SITE C H A C O R.S. NISP %  Jackrabbit Rodentia Squirrels Chipmunks Marmot Cynomys sp. Geomyidae sp. Beaver Neotoma sp. Mice. Rats and Vo Muskrat Porcupine Camivora Canidae Canis sp. Coyote Wolf Dog Fox Bear Raccoon Marten Mustelidae sp. Badger Skunk Felidae Mountain U o n Bobcat Artiodactyla Elk Deer Antelope Mountain Sheep Bison Large Mammal Medium Mammal Small Mammal Waterfowl Canada Goose Ducks Blue-winged teal Merganser Falconifoimes Turkey Vulture  I 0.8% 30 25.0% 15 12.5% 7 5.8% 7 5.8%  1 2  0.8% 1.7%  42 35.0% 1.7% 2  1  0.8%  1  0.8%  1 3  0.8% 2.5%  1  0.8%  I  0.8%  1 1 3  0.8% 0.8% 2.5%  Eagle Hawk Falco sp. Grouse Turkey Quail Sandhill Crane Mourning Dove Owls American Coot Caprimulgidae Apodifonnes Flicker Passeriformes Homed Lark Meadowlark Dark-eyed Junco Towhee Swallows Corvidae Wrens Turdidae Shrikes Blackbirds Fringillidae Macaw Large Bird Small/Medium Bird Amphibian/Repnle Amphibian Reptile Fish Speotyto cuniculariaSuccinedae Total  120  105  APPENDIX 2 Table N. San Juan - Mesa Verde branch Basketmaker HI faunal data. 1 1 1 TAXA Shrews Bats Lagamorpha Cottontail Jackrabbit Rodentia  SITE 5LP110 NISP %  Squirrels Chipmunks Marmot Cynomys sp. Geomyidae sp. Beaver Neotoma sp. Mice. Rats and Vole Muskrat Porcupine Camivora Canidae Canis sp. Coyote Wolf Dog Fox Bear Raccoon Marten Mustelidae sp. Badger Skunk Felidae Mountain Lion Bobcat Artiodactyla Elk Deer Antelope Mountain Sheep Bison Large Mammal Medium Mammal Small Mammal Waterfowl Canada Goose Ducks Blue-winged teal Merganser Falconiformes Turkey Vulture Eagle Hawk Falco sp. Grouse Turkey Quail Sandhill Crane  8 67  D O L O R E S Per NISP S U M NISP FREQ FREQ. S U V FS/#SITES NISP %  SLP111 NISP %  1.1% 9.0%  12  1.6%  1  0.1%  2  0.8% 0.2% 0.3%  2 1 5  0.3% 0.1% 0.7%  8  1.3%  85  11.4%  5 3  7 133 67 11  4.7%  30 5 1  1 14.7% 0.4%  15 230 84 12 29  1.7% 13 95 12.3% 16 2.1% 9 1.2% 2 0.3% 1 0.1%  23 96 21 9 7 89  26  0.8% 0.5%  420 56.2% 110 3  0.9% 17.3% 8.7% 1.4% 3.4%  0.2%  557 87.0% 2 0.3% 2 0.3%  6 8  0.8% 1.0%  6 8  2 5 5 2 20 23 3  0.3% 0.6% 0.6% 0.3% 2.6% 3.0% 0.4%  2 425 6 112 580 25 5  1.0% 13.5% 1 0.1% 151 19.6% 15 1.9% 14 1.8%  8 104  1  0.1%  1  2  0.3%  2  11 4  1.4% 0.5%  11 19  2 1  0.3% 0.1%  2 1  1  0.1%  1  0.1%  8 104 9 15  1.2% 2.0%  18  2.8%  0.01980041 0.30929437 0.11088974  0.7% 103% 3.7%  0.01584821 1.3% 0.03822992  0.5% 1.3%  1.1% 0.03206049 0.12471531 0.02747266  1.1% 4.2% 0.9% 0.4% 03% 4.0%  0.7% 10.7% 3.9% 0.6%  4.5% 1.0% 0.4% 0.3% 4.1%  0.01168831 0.0104099 0.11977469  0.3% 0.00779221 0.4% 0.01038961 0.1% 0.0025974 19.7% 0.5687425 0.3% 0.00805601 5.2% 0.14985309 26.9% O.9O030259 1.2% 0.03299513 0.2%  0.0070211  0.4% 4.8% 0.5% 8.5% 0.7%  0.01038961 0.13506494 0.01334689 0.24430922  0.3% 0.3% 0.1% 19.0% 03% 5.0% 30.0% 1.1% 0.2%  0.01948052  0.3% 4.5% 0.4% 8.1% 0.6%  0.6% 0.01818182  0.6%  0.0%  0.0012987  0.0%  0.1%  0.0025974  0.1%  0.5% 0.01428571 0.9% 0.026618  0.5% 0.9%  0.1% 0.0%  0.0025974 0.0012987  0.1% 0.0%  1  0.0%  0.0012987  0.0%  1  0.0%  0.0012987  0.0%  10 184 15 14  •  9  1.2%  6  0.9%  Mourning Dove Owls American Coot Caprimulgidae Apodifonnes Flicker Passeriformes Homed Lark Meadowlark Dark-eyed Junco Towhee Swallows Corvidae Wrens  .  Turdidae Shrikes Blackbirds Fringillidae Macaw Large Bird Small/Medium Bird Amphibian/Reptile Amphibian Reptile Fish Speotyto cunicularia Succinedae Total  747  640  770  2157  106  APPENDIX 2 Table O. San Juan - Mesa Verde branch Basketmaker III Pueblo I faunal data TAXA Shrews Bats Lagamorpha Cottontail Jackrabbit Rodentia Squirrels Chipmunks  SITE 42SA6757 NISP %  Marmot Cynomys sp. Oeomyidae sp. Beaver Neotoma sp. Mice. Rats and Voles  98 30.7% IS 4.7% 1 03% 1 0.3%  1.6%  5 2  0.6%  1 7  03% 2.2%  3  0.9%  3  0.9%  14  4.4%  1  03%  Muskrat Porcupine Camivora Canidae Canis sp. Coyote Wolf Dog Fox Bear Raccoon Marten Mustelidae sp. Badger Skunk Felidae Mountain Lion Bobcat Artiodactyla Elk Deer Antelope Mountain Sheep Bison Large Mammal Medium Mammal Small Mammal Waterfowl Canada Goose Ducks Blue-winged teal Merganser Falconiformes Turkey Vulture  9 '"2.8% 57  17.9%  102 32.0%  Eagle Hawk Falco sp. Grouse Turkey Quail Sandhill Crane Mourning Dove Owls American Coot Caprimulgidae Apodiformes Flicker Passeriformes Homed Lark Meadowlark Dark-eyed Junco Towhee Swallows Corvidae Wrens Turdidae Shrikes Blackbirds FringiUidae Macaw Large Bird Small/Medium Bird Amphibian/Reptile Amphibian Reptile Fish Speotyto cunicularia Succinedae Total  319  107  APPENDIX 2 Table P. San Juan - Mesa Verde branch Pueblo I faunal data. 1 1 1 TAXA Shrews Bats Lagamorpha Cottontail Jackrabbit  SITE D O L O R E S Per; D O L O R E S Per: D O L O R E S Pep NISP S U M NISP F R E Q FREQ. S U M FS/fSITES NISP % NISP % NISP % 0.1% 0.00292398 0.1% 8 8 0.3%  Rodentia Squirrels Chipmunks Marmot Cynomys sp. Oeomyidae sp. Beaver Neotoma sp. Mice. Rats and Vole: Muskrat Porcupine Carnivora Canidae Canis sp. Coyote Wolf Dog Fox Bear Raccoon Marten Mustelidae sp. Badger Skunk Felidae Mountain U o n Bobcat Artiodactyla Elk Deer Antelope Mountain Sheep Bison Large Mammal Medium Mammal Small Mammal Waterfowl Canada Goose Ducks Blue-winged teal Merganser Falconifonnes Turkey Vulture  25 1039  0.9% 38.0%  398 39 156  14.5% 1.4% 5.7%  605 319 54 89  103 145  3.8% 5.3% 1.1% 0.4%  31 11 32 92  1.2% 3.4%  20 3  0.7% 0.1%  5 11 7  0.2% 0.4% 0.3%  65 12  2.4% 0.4%  2 7  0.1% 0.3%  5 82 3 298 9 7  0.2% 3.0% 0.1% 10.9% 0.3% 0.3%  2  0.1%  2 1  0.1% 0.0%  Eagle Hawk Falco sp. Grouse Turkey Quail Sandhill Crane Mourning Dove Owls American Coot Caprimulgidae Apodifonnes Flicker Passeriformes Homed Lark Meadowlark Dark-eyed Junco Towhee Swallows Corvidae Wrens  12 28 39 16  0.4% 1.0% 1.4%  19  0.1% 0.4%  1  0.0%  2  0.1%  2  0.1%  1  0.0%  0.03539191 0.82044901 13.4% 0.39811067 1.7% 0.04899358 4.5% 0.13036193  1.2%  12.6%  1.9% 20.1% 12.7%  72 1945 ,906  2.1% 3.5%  20 57  1.3% 3.8%  113 302  104  4.1%  46 Ul 16 131 97 I 55 11 4  1.8% 4.4%  38 60  2.5% 4.0%  3.6% 3.7%  0.10420425 0.11134673  33 20 28 54 2 21 15  2.2% 1.3% 1.9% 3.6% 0.1% 1.4% 1.0%  245 251 175 47 191 243 3 96 29  2.6% 0.7% 2.8% 3.6% 0.0% 1.4% 0.4%  0.07730963 0.02373396 0.08223667 0.10812539 0.0017341 0.04311389 0.0154862  0.2% 1.2% 0.1% 0.0% 3.9%  0.00039541  . 184  0.6% 5.2% 3.8% 0.0% 2.2% 0.4% 0.2% 1.0% 0.2%  2  7.3% 0.1% 0.1%  1 2 1 1  0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0%  6 197 4 322 7  0.2% 7.8% 0.2% 12.7%  3  27.3% 13.3% 1.6% 4.3% 3.5% 3.7% 2.6% 0.8% 2.7% 3.6% 0.1% 1.4% 0.5%  2  0.1%  11  0.2%  32  2.1%  1 29  0.1% 1.9%  68 11 1 278 15  1.0% 0.2% 0.0% 4.1%  10  0.7%  12  0.2%  0.00474783 0.03S32481 0.00414013 0.00066934 0.11592432 0.0055722 0.00748427  2 1 1  0.1% 0.1% 0.1%  1 6 9 2  0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0%  0.00286051 0.00362324 0.00106476  0.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0%  6 245 9 222 6 7  0.4% 16.4% 0.6% 14.9% 0.4%  17 524  0.3% 7.8% 0.2% 12.5% 0.3% 0.3%  0.00821603 0.27185645 0.00870224 0.38483556 0.01007343 0.01001178  0.3% 9.1% 0.3% 12.8% 0.3% 0.3%  16 842 22 21  0.2%  0.2% 0.2%  7  0.3% 0.3%  2 1 6  0.1% 0.0% 0.2%  1 1  0.1% 0.1%  3 4 6  0.0% 0.1% 0.1%  0.00146017 0.00179575 0.00237248  0.0% 0.1% 0.1%  1  0.0%  5  0.3%  8 1  2  0.1%  1  3  0.00447313 0.0003655 0.00146017  0.1% 0.0% 0.0%  1 2 43 17 4  0.0%  1  0.1% 0.1%  0.1% 0.0% 0.0%  0.1% 1.7% 0.7%  24 16  1.6% 1.1%  0.0% 0.2% 1.4%  0.00106476 0.00517679 0.04330094  1.1% 0.1% 0.2%  0.03168592 0.00158165 0.00584795 0.00039541 0.00039541  0.0% 0.2% 1.4% 1.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.0% 0.0%  0.5%  0.2%  2 14 95 72 4  1 1  0.0% 0.0%  16 1 1  1 2  0.0% 0.1%  0.6%  3 12  1.1% 28.8%  28 301 189  25 4  0.8% 23.9%  8  0.3%  5  0.2%  2  2  0.1%  0.1%  0.0% 0.0%  4 16  0.1% 0.2%  0.0014919 0.00651548  . 0.2%  0.0%  1  0.0%  0.0003655  0.0%  10  0.1%  0.0038943  0.1%  9  0.1%  0.00404675  0.1%  1  0.0%  0.0003655  0.0%  4  0.1% 0.0%  0.00158165 0.00133869  0.1% 0.0%  Turdidae Shrikes Blackbirds Fringillidae Macaw Large Bird Small/Medium Bird Amphibian/Reptile 4  Amphibian Reptile Fish Speotyto cunicularia Succinedae Total  0.2% 2  2736  2529  1494  0.1%  2  6759  108  APPENDIX 2 Table Q. San Juan - Mesa Verde branch Pueblo II faunal data.  1  TAXA Shrews Bats Lagamorpha Cottontail Jackrabbit  1  Rodentia Squirrels Chipmunks Marmot Cynomys sp. Geomyidae sp. Beaver Neotoma sp. Mice, Rats and Voles Muskrat Porcupine Camivora Canidae Canis sp. Coyote Wolf Dog Fox Bear  14 8.0% 55 31.3% 9 5.1% 1  2 1  0.6%  1.1% 0.6%  2 1.1% 40 22.7%  4  2.3%  Raccoon Marten Mustelidae sp. Badger Skunk Felidae Mountain Lion Bobcat Artiodactyla Elk Deer Antelope Mountain Sheep Bison Large Mamma! Medium Mammal Small Mammal Water fowl Canada Goose Ducks Blue-winged teal  73 1.9% 633 16.2% 836 21.4% 56 1.4% 123 1 5S 120 82 38 34 102  3.1% 0.0% 1.4% 3.1% 2.1% 1.0% 0.9% 2.6%  38 31 24  1.0% 0.8% 0.6%  123  3.1%  1 67  0.0% 1.7%  2 3  0.1% 0.1%  1 3  0.0% 0.1%  1 0.0% 9 0.2% 515 13.2% 24 0.6% 611 15.6% 0.5% 21 18 0.5%  1  2 0.1% 724 28.7% 265 10.5% 39 1.5% 167 6.6%  S 16  Sandhill Crane Mourning Dove Owls American Coot Caprimulgidae  4.5% 9.1%  2 2.2% 33 36.3% 3 33% 5 5.5% ' 1 1.1%  91 1445 1113 100 292 1 79 246 112 64  1.4% 21.6%  0.12096273 1.12389694  16.6%  0.40271641  1.5% 4.4% 0.0% 1.2% 3.7% 1.7%  0.08471293 0.11430574  2.4% 22.5% 8.1% 1.7% 23% 0.0% 0.5% 1.8% 0.8% 0.4% 0.6% 6.1% 0.0% 0.7% 0.4%  61 171 1 102 39  1.0% 0.9% 2.6% 0.0% 1.5% 0.6%  0.00025543 0.02356479 0.0911823 0.03812571 0.02001554 0.02996095 0.30719518 0.00039651 0.03S08294 0.02168285  42 145  0.6% 2.2%  0.01326746 0.06128209  0.3% 1.2%  3 92 30 6  0.0% 1.4% 0.4%  0.00104845 0.02702643 0.01161316  0.0% 0.5% 0.2%  3  1.1% 0.1%  0.1%  0.00195582  0.0%  1 16 3 1  0.0% 0.6% 0.1% 0.0%  1 17 6 1  0.0% 0.3% 0.1% 0.0%  0.00039651 0.0065996 0.00195582 0.0003965!  0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0%  24  1.0% 8.5% 4.0% 13.1% 1.2% 1.6%  1 33 734 125 941 51 60  0.0% 0.5% 10.9% 1.9% 14.0% 0.8% 0.9%  0.00025543 0.01181511 0.26075118 0.04617785 0.28691494 0.01725931 0.04243615  0.0% 0.2% 5.2% 0.9% 5.7% 03% 0.8%  23 1 34 9 5 6  03% 0.0% 0.5% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1%  0.1466034 0.00568182 0.3577048 0.00286318 0.0015593 0.00195582  2.9% 0.1% 7.2% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0%  1  0.0%  0.00025543  0.0%  10 20  0.1%  0.00382402 0.00609614  0.1%  24 124 29 26 25 25 1 64 7 18 18 2 25 28  215 101 330 30 40  1.0% 4.9% 1.1% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 0.0% 2.5% 03% 0.7% 0.7%  4  4.4%  1  1.1%  0.1% 1.0%  20 11.4% 1 0.6% 1.7% 3  Merganser Falconiformes Turkey Vulture Eagle Hawk Falco sp. Grouse Turkey Quail  1  D O L O R E S Per D O L O R E S Pen C M UOG4X-3 NISP S U M NISP F R E Q FREQ. S U M FS/#SITES NISP % NISP % NISP % 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 1 1 0.0%  SITE 5MT1786 NISP %  4  4.4%  2  2.2%  3  3.3%  31 34.1% 4  5 3 3  0.1% 0.1% 0.1%  1  0.0%  1  0.0%  13  0.3%  9 7  44 178 2 1  2 3  0.2% 0.1% 0.1%  0.4%  1.1% 4.5%  2 52 49  0.3% 0.1% 2.1% 1.9%  2 104 243  0.3% 0.0% 1.6% 3.6%  0.1% 0.0% 0.1%  1 1 6  0.0% 0.0% 0.2%  3 2 11  0.0% 0.0% 0.2%  0.00090737 0.00065194  5  0 0036562  0.0% 0.1%  1  0.0%  2  0.1%  3  0.0%  0.00104845  0.0%  9  0.2%  . 7  0.3%  16  0.2%  0.00507443  0.1%  0.00079302 0.07731193 0.15580427  0.1% 0.0% 1.5% 3.1% 0.0%  Apodiformes Bicker Passeriformes Horned Lark Meadowlark Dark-eyed Junco Towhee Swallows Corvidae Wrens Turdidae Shrikes Blackbirds Fringillidae Macaw Large Bird Small/Medium Bird Amphibian/Reptile Amphibian Reptile Fish Speotyto cunicularia Succinedae Total  2 1  176  3915  0.1% 0.0%  2522  1  1.1%  1  0.0%  0.01098901  0.2%  1  1.1%  2 2  0.0% 0.0%  0.00051086 0.01124444  0.0% 0.2%  91  109  6704  APPENDIX 2 Table R. San Juan - Mesa Verde branch Pueblo II - Pueblo III faunal data. i 1 1 TAXA Shrews Bats Lagamorpha Cottontail Jackrabbit Rodentia Squirrels Chipmunks  NISP S U M NISP F R E Q FREQ. S U M FS/#SiTES  SITE D O L O R E S Per" Big Westwater Ruin 42SA6396 NISP % NISP % NISP %  Marmot Cynomyssp. Oeomyidae sp. Beaver Neotoma sp. Mice. Rats and Vole Muskrat Porcupine Carnivora Canidae Canis sp. Coyote Wolf Dog Fox Bear Raccoon Marten Mustelidae sp. Badger Skunk Felidae Mountain Lion Bobcat Artiodactyla Elk Deer Antelope Mountain Sheep Bison Large Mammal Medium Mammal Small Mammal Water fowl Canada Goose Ducks Blue-winged teal Merganser Falconiformes Turkey Vulture Eagle Hawk  42 251 47 56 28  5.2% 31.0% 5.8% 6.9% 3.5%  2 60 20 17 32 49 2 2 3 2 1  0.2% 7.4% 2.5% 2.1% 4.0% 6.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.4% 0.2%  243 41 2  10 13  2.0% 2.5%  7 44  0.5% 3.3%  47  9.2%  8 56  0.6% 4.2%  1 8  0.2%  4  0.1% 0.5%  9  1.1%  11  2.1%  1 3  0.1% 0.4% 1  5 41 6 66 3 7  1 0.1% 260 19.7% 95 7.2% 2 0.2% 36 2.7%  47.5% 8.0% 0.4%  1.6%  1  0.1%  1  0.1%  38  2.9%  5  0.4%  12 1  0.2%  0.6% 5.1% 0.7% 8.2% 0.4% 0.9%  1  0.1%  26  5.1%  43 754 183 60 64  1.6% 28.5% 6.9% 2.3% 2.4%  0.0526718 0.98139201 0.20998104 0.07463923 0.06182151  2 77 77 17 87 105 2 2 3 3 2 13  0.1% 2.9% 2.9% 0.6% 3.3% 4.0% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1%  0.00247219 0.09898789 0.08337025 0.0210136 0.13739874 0.10289665 0.00247219 0.00247219 0.00370828 0.00322805 0.00318922  38 20  1.8% 32.7% 7.0% 2.5% 2.1% 0.1% 3.3% 2.8% 0.7% 4.6% 3.4%  0.02132523  0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.7%  1.4% 0.8%  0.0287226 0.03260922  1.0% 1.1%  1 8 1  0.0% 0.3% 0.0%  0.00123609 0.00748757 0.00195313  0.0% 0.2% 0.1%  0.2% 2.0% 0.3% 3.6% 0.1% 0.6%  0.00618047  0.2%  0.05975015 0.00817242 0.13387517 0.00370828 0.01469952  2.0% 0.3% 4.5% 0.1% 0.5%  2  0.9% 0.1% 0.2%  8  0.6%  5 53 7 94 3 15  0.1% 0.5%  4  0.8%  143  10.8%  147  5.6%  0.11590018  3.9%  21  4.1%  348 26.3%  369  14.0%  0.30405417  10.1%  1  0.2%  2  0.1%  0.00318922  0.1%  8.2%  7  0.9%  7  0.3%  0.00865266  0.3%  15 10  1.9% 1.2%  15 111  0.6% 4.2% 0.0%  0.01854141 0.13898781 0.00075586  0.6% 4.6% 0.0%  Sandhill Crane Mourning Dove Owls American Coot Caprimulgidae Apodiformes Flicker  1  0.1%  0.1%  0.00274781  0.1%  2 3  0.1% 0.1%  0.00390625 0.00585938  0.1% 0.2%  Passeriformes Homed Lark Meadowlark Dark-eyed Junco Towhee Swallows  4  5  0.2%  0.00570023  0.2%  1  0.0%  0.00195313  0.1%  10  0.4%  0.01236094  0.4%  Falco sp. Grouse Turkey Quail  Corvidae Wrens Turdidae Shrikes Blackbirds FringiUidae Macaw  42  1 2 2 3  4.5% 0.1% 0.2%  0.4% 0.6%  0.5%  1 1  10  59  0.1%  0.2%  1.2%  1 3  2  0.2%  2  0.1%  0.00151172  0.1%  190  14.4%  227  8.6%  0.21444456  7.1%  Large Bird Small/Medium Bird Amphibian/Reptile Amphibian Reptile Fish Speotyto cunicularia Succinedae Total  2  809  0.2%  35  512  6.8%  2644  1323  110  APPENDIX 2  1 ft1  b  1  8 o  J  vt  i  !  3  e e  s  z  i  Bt  I  o  ? 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X  ]  i1  1  \ i •Ia ij \ ! 11 1j 1\ i 411!  1  |  <C  111  2  «£ i  X  Bt  =  I I i IS ft1 } J D 1 .5s  £  •n  s  Bt  Si  8  it  It *  «  *  vt  -  Bt Bt  n  ft  ft  fi Bt  I*  jn  >  i  st  s st  M  It  £  I  It  R  RBt•6  It  Bt  It  z  f  Bt  Bt  Bt Bt  R-  J  B st  it  a  8  ft  <  *~  |n  vt  S  vt v)  vt  8 s  n  at  -  £ vt  st  K Bt Bt Bt  «t It Q  It  It  S>  «t £ It n £  st n  n  at  X  "  st  Bt  2  z  |z  ™  2  Bt  It  "*  6*  ft  g m  vt  It  2  X  -  st a  s  st  s s  »t  It  st  It  Bt Bt  Bt  £  1fe  a*  |  Bt  st St o  2  Bt 1  «n o  8*  ft  > i ft z  3  st  o  "  «t Bt  S ""  18  I*  §  n  st  «t Bt  °~?  z  1  o  *  |I  aJ  \1 ! \ j B»  <  fc  o  rt  a*  z  •S  •*  n sa  .O O P-  o  It n  S  vt  n  **  ~3  B*8Bt8  Q o O  'T  ?  Bt  i  •a  1o i  3  Bt st Bt  R§ * ~  ?  * «t  I*  3  3 3  « »t  «>  z  £  1 S* st© Btd  T Q  «  ££  3  *  st  o  \  n  *  ?  z  i  t  T,  5  x vt ft *  ft  i  «t  o  BtBt  «t  g R  1  Bt n  n  s ft  i ft  | 1 s j ||1  s I i1 o  Bt 1  2 it  £8  vt  Bt  *t  £  Sift z  5  1£  »t  O  s R  •**  o  1It *Q st oBta «< Bt £ *)  3  «* <1  i ft  «! o o  g 1JI|  a* o  z  Bt0«  tftBt  >  t & t  I DSi I  i  j  | 11  i i c 4 1 1 1i f2 j 1 <  •k  i  4 it  =  3  i1  1  1  s 4 i  •s  APPENDIX 2 Table T . Rio Grande branch Pueblo II - Pueblo III faunal data.  I  TAXA Shrews Bats Lagamorpha Cottontail Jackrabbit  I  SITE San Antonio Eariy NISP %  62 9  13.4% 1.9%  3  0.6%  18  3.9%  3  0.6%  35  7.6%  3  0.6%  Skunk Felidae Mountain Lion Bobcat  1  0.2%  Artiodactyla Elk Deer Antelope  2 6  0.4% 13%  283  61.3%  37  8.0%  Rodentia Squirrels Chipmunks Marmot Cynomys sp. Oeomyidae sp. Beaver Neotoma sp. Mice, Rats and Vole Muskrat Porcupine Carnivora Canidae Canis sp. Coyote Wolf Dog Fox Bear Raccoon Marten Mustelidae sp. Badger  Mountain Sheep Bison Large Mammal Medium Mammal Small Mammal Water fowl Canada Goose Ducks Blue-winged teal Merganser Falconif ormes Turkey Vulture Eagle Hawk Falco sp. Grouse Turkey Quail Sandhill Crane Mourning Dove Owls American Coot Caprimulgidae Apodiformes Flicker Passeriformes Homed Lark Meadowlark Dark-eyed Junco Towhee Swallows Corvidae Wrens Turdidae Shrikes Blackbirds Fringillidae Macaw Large Bird Small/Medium Bird Amphibian/Reptile Amphibian Reptile Fish Speotyto cunicularia Succinedae Total  462  112  APPENDIX 3  Table A . Stable carbon isotope values for Anasazi individuals. dl3C -7.9 -7.5 -7.5 -7.7  RREFERENCE Matson and Chisholm 1991 Matson and Chisholm 1991  SITE/SAMPLE NO. Bu9-6  LOCATION Cedar Mesa  BC35-2 NRC19.1#18 N R C 1 9 . 1 #17  Cedar Mesa Cedar Mesa Cedar Mesa  PERIOD Basketmaker Basketmaker Basketmaker Basketmaker  Oldman Cave Fea. 3 Oldman Cave Fea. 14  C o m b Wash Comb Wash  Basketmaker II Basketmaker II  -13.1 Chisholm and Matson inpress -14.1 Chisholm and Matson inpress  Nonsite  Mesa Verde  Basketmaker II]  -8.27 Decker and Tieszen 1989  Badger House (1676) #1 Badger House (1676) #2 Badger House (1676) #5  Mesa Verde Mesa Verde Mesa Verde  Badger House (1676) #6 Badger House (1676) #8 Badger House (1676) #9  Mesa Verde Mesa Verde Mesa Verde  Pueblo Pueblo Pueblo Pueblo Pueblo Pueblo  I I I I I I  Two Two Two Two Two Two Two Two Two  Mesa Mesa Mesa Mesa Mesa Mesa Mesa Mesa Mesa  Pueblo Pueblo Pueblo Pueblo Pueblo Pueblo Pueblo Pueblo Pueblo  II II II II II II II II II  Raven Raven Raven Raven Raven Raven Raven Raven Raven  House House House House House House House House House  (1645) #1 (1645) #2 (1645) #3 (1645) #5 (1645) #7 (1645) #8 (1645) #9 (1645) #10 (1645) #12  Verde Verde Verde Verde Verde Verde Verde Verde Verde  820 #12  Mesa Verde  Pueblo II/III  820 #13  Mesa Verde  Pueblo II/III  820 #14 820 #17 820 #20 Badger House (1452) #2 Badger House (1452) #4 Badger House (1452) #7  Mesa Verde Mesa Verde Mesa Verde  Pueblo II/III Pueblo II/III Pueblo II/III Pueblo II/III Pueblo II/III Pueblo II/III  Badger House (1452) #11 Badger House (1452) #12 Badger House (1452) #15  Mesa Mesa Mesa Mesa Mesa Mesa  Badger House (1452) #18  Mesa Verde  Badger House (1452) #25 Badger House (1452) #27  Mesa Verde Mesa Verde  Badger House (1452) #29  Mesa Verde Cedar Mesa Cedar Mesa  G G C 12 H S C3-1 #26 2559 #7 2741 #3 2785 #6 2785#14 Bu3x-10a  Verde Verde Verde Verde Verde Verde  Pueblo II/III Pueblo II/III Pueblo II/III Pueblo n/III Pueblo II/III Pueblo II/III Pueblo II/III Pueblo II/III Pueblo II/III  Mancos Canyo Pueblo Mancos Canyo Pueblo Mancos Canyo Pueblo Mancos Canyo Pueblo Cedar Mesa  113  III III III III  Pueblo III  II II II II  Matson and Chisholm 1991 Matson and Chisholm 1991  -8.91 Decker and Tieszen -8.71 Decker and Tieszen -8.05 Decker and Tieszen -8.73 Decker and Tieszen -8.24 Decker and Tieszen -10.81 Decker and Tieszen  1989 1989 1989 1989 1989 1989  Decker and Tieszen Decker and Tieszen Decker and Tieszen Decker and Tieszen Decker and Tieszen Decker and Tieszen Decker and Tieszen Decker and Tieszen -8.39 Decker and Tieszen  1989 1989 1989 1989 1989 1989 1989 1989 1989  -9.33 -8.75 -8.76 -8.72 -8.68 -8.59 -8.34 -8.27  -8.82 Decker and Tieszen 1989 -8.33 Decker and Tieszen 1989 Decker Decker Decker Decker Decker -8.61 Decker -8.36 Decker -8.26 Decker  -8.28 -8.81 -9.39 -8.28 -6.37  and Tieszen and Tieszen and Tieszen and Tieszen and Tieszen and Tieszen  1989 1989 1989 1989 1989 1989  and Tieszen 1989 and Tieszen 1989  -7.79 Decker and Tieszen 1989 -8.02 Decker and Tieszen 1989 -8.76 Decker and Tieszen 1989 -9.06 Decker and Tieszen 1989 -8.72 Decker and Tieszen 1989 -7.4 Matson and Chisholm 1991 -7.1 Matson and Chisholm 1991 -8.12 Decker and Tieszen 1989 Decker and Tieszen 1989 Decker and Tieszen 1989 Decker and Tieszen 1989 Matson and Chisholm 1991  -8.47 -8.65 -7.86 -7.3  

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