Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The growth centre strategy in the context of a planning process framework for Africa : the Zambian case Paulson, Phillip Martin 1975

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata


831-UBC_1975_A8 P39_8.pdf [ 9.78MB ]
JSON: 831-1.0058355.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0058355-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0058355-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0058355-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0058355-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0058355-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0058355-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

IN  THE GROWTH CENTRE STRATEGY THE CONTEXT OF A PLANNING PROCESS F R A M E W O R K FOR AFRICA: THE Z A M BIAN C A S E  by  B.A.  PHILLIP MARTIN 'PAULSON U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , L o s Angeles, 1970  A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE D E G R E E OF MASTER OF ARTS  in the School of Community and Regional Planning  We accept this thesis as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE  UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH Aujrust . 1975  COLUMBIA  n presenting this  thesis  iin p a r t i a l  fulfilment of  the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  make it  freely available  f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  for  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  study. thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department by h i s of  this  written  representatives. thesis  for  It  is understood that  f i n a n c i a l gain shall  permission.  Department The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Columbia  that  or  copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n  not be a l l o w e d without my  ii  ABSTRACT The  development of A f r i c a n s o c i e t i e s w i l l be influenced by the  p l i c a t i o n of national development plans.  M o s t A f r i c a n governments  f u l l y adopted the concept of c e n t r a l planning as the i m p r o v e m e n t of their s o c i e t i e s . plans have proved u n s u c c e s s f u l .  the p r o b l e m s and issue's associated and  to  indicate  opment. al  The p r i n c i p a l  planning The  upon  a  some of the  and  development  literature  theoretical  and  in A f r i c a  technique.  information  is aggregated  A f r i c a n countries, a  m o r e s p e c i f i c study  are  tested  key i s s u e s The trate  on  in o r d e r involved  of  the  strategy.  developmental  environment  national planning of A f r i c a n related  appear  societies;  a  problems;  within each  African  and  is based  primarily is  on  data l i m i t a t i o n s also  this  Zambia  subject.  M u c h of about  employed to  issues.  Several  systematic  study  on  are  the  in A f r i c a ,  to  present  hypotheses  evaluation  be: high  country.  organized  the  the  of  the  key  some  concencentre  d e s c r i p t i o n of aspects  predominantly  nature  and  their  i n t e r r e g i o n a l imbalances  Another f a c t o r which e m e r g e s countries  as  well  the  which affect  rural  rates of u r b a n i z a t i o n of  to  growth  general  the predominance  amount of d i v e r s i t y between  improved.  generalizations  p r o c e s s , and  Based  the  to  nation-  study.  A f r i c a n planning  developmental  of  general  complex i s s u e s of the the  analysis;  Africa  whereby  m a i n emphasis  to provide  to provide i n this  study  applied  with the example  be  in  in A f r i c a n d e v e l -  means  might  The  descriptive material  involved the  in this  r e i n f o r c e the qualitative approach the  on  national  attempt to examine  national planning  centres  employed  review  is an  considerations  theme  methodology  with  have  a means of guiding the  However, many of these  T h i s study  ap-  as  within  is  each  the  country. From many  a  review  problems  and  National plans factors by  international  have  no  ardized  growth  applicability mental egy  application  case and  study  to  planning  utilization appears some that  of the  of the the  growth  achieving  the  the  these  to test  both  model.  to d e s c r i b e  developmental  goals  From  framework  an  that were  developThis  as  strat-  w e l l as i s used  from as  a  national plan  the  this  could  Zambian be  lead  the  of this  specific  strategy could  might  stand-  plans.  effectiveness of a  process  countries  which  Zambia  strategy.  affected  forces, a  countries.  centre  evident.  political  African  process  a s s o c i a t e d with  centre  and also  viability  of this  are  t h e o r e t i c a l point of view  proposed  problems  which  is analyzed  it i s also used  growth  are  i s suggested  and  context  the  process;  they  implementable  several African  analyze  that the  and  theory  the  social  accommodate  framework  from  by  to  framework  centre  strategy i n the  but  national planning,  planning  economic,  f o r c e s over  practical  of this  i s examined  its  and  process  effective  country,  In o r d e r  realistic,  The  each  groups  planning  to m o r e  influenced by to  control.  a n a l y s i s of A f r i c a n  constraints to  are  indigenous  and  potential  example, it have  solved  planning,  effective  and  means  stated by  the  of  Zambian  Government. The is  a  in  Africa.  necessary,  at the state and  main  c o n c l u s i o n which but  of being. application  of  is a  must  a l l factors  be  the  drawn  antecedent  long-term  society and  Planning of  be  often insufficient  Development  improvement  may  process movement  comprehensive  which  affect  i s that for  planning  development  which  should  towards  aim  a desired  in its a n a l y s i s  development  in A f r i c a ,  iv  and  this  seemingly  Additionally, tation, ation  both of  with  scapes.  The  concepts, and  the  ment.  by  African  areas the  by  the  spatial  growth  appears  Although  and  centre  to be  there  development, strategy  development  in  an  may  Africa.  ordered,  countries  external f o r c e s  and  urban  an  are  still  centres,  no  guaranteed  improved  improve  the  i . e.  of  the  promote methods  planning  to e x p l o i -  the  domin-  national  for  land-  c e n t r a l place type  of  African of  planning develop-  achieving  methodology  opportunity  process.  is i n c r e a s i n g  upon  both with to  subject  there  based  necessary  planning  within,  functional o r d e r i n g  compatible  are  evolving  from  strategy,  d e v e l o p m e n t a l goals  desirable concrete  because  rural  concern  requires  and  successful  a  TABLE  OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT LIST O F T A B L E S LIST O F M A P S AND FIGURES LIST O F A P P E N D I X Chapter I  T H E C H A L L E N G E O F D E V E L O P M E N T IN TROPICAL AFRICA INTRODUCTION G E N E R A L I Z E D DESCRIPTION O F T R O P I C A L AFRICA Political Factors African Dualism Economic Factors Social Factors CITIES AND REGIONS IN T R O P I C A L A F R I C A Urbanization Regional Imbalances Rural-Urban Migration HYPOTHESES FORMULATION  II  D E V E L O P M E N T A L PLANNING IN A F R I C A A G E N E R A L DESCRIPTION INTRODUCTION T H E R O L E O F PLANNING IN A F R I C A EFFECTIVENESS  O F A F R I C A N PLANNING  PAST DIFFICULTIES IN T H E PLANNING PROCESS Interpretation of Plans Formulation of Plans Composition of Plans Execution of Plans CONSTRAINTS ON T H E A F R I C A N PLANNING PROCESS Administrative Constraints Social Constraints Political Constraints Economic Constraints CONCLUSIONS C O N C E P T U A L F R A M E W O R K F O R T H E PLANNING PROCESS INTRODUCTION BASIC CONSIDERATIONS O F THE PLANNING PROCESS Comprehensiveness Regionalization Data Limitations F R A M E W O R K O F T H E PLANNING PROCESS DESCRIPTION O F T H E C O M P O N E N T S Current Status Political and Administrative Structure  .vii Page Planning Organization  81  National Goals and Objectives  82  Strategies  83  Policies  84  Plans  85  A P P L I C A T I O N O F T H E PROCESS IV  87  T H E GROWTH C E N T R E S T R A T E G Y IN A F R I C A INTRODUCTION  88  GROWTH C E N T R E THEORY  89  'GROWTH C E N T R E S ' A N D C E N T R A L P L A C E S IN A F R I C A  92  GROWTH C E N T R E S IN T A N Z A N I A  96  Dar es Salaam Master Plan  97  Dar es Salaam Regional Plan  98  Physical Development Plan for the Handeni District  99  Growth Centres and Growth Potential  100  G R O W T H C E N T R E S IN GHANA Reorganizing the Countryside  V  103 106  GROWTH C E N T R E S IN K E N Y A  107  A N A L Y S E S O F A F R I C A N GROWTH C E N T R E S  112  CONCLUSION  114  ZAMBIA: D E V E L O P M E N T P L A N S A N D GROW T H CENTRES INTRODUCTION  116  Page Chapter PHYSICAL,  P O L I T I C A L AND D E M O G R A P H I C  F E A T U R E S O F ZAMBIA  116  General Description  116  Population Distribution  121  ECONOMY O F ZAMBIA  12 5  General Description  125  Constraints on the Economy  128  FIRST N A T I O N A L D E V E L O P M E N T P L A N 1966 - 1970  129  Basic Goals and Objectives  130  Planning Process  132  "  Results of the Plan  134  Analysis of the F i r s t National Development Plan  137  KASAMA:  E X A M P L E OF A R U R A L GROWTH  CENTRE  '  Feasibility of the Growth Centre Strategy  141  Kasama  143  Kasama as a Growth Centre  147  CONCLUSION VI  140  149  CONCLUSIONS A N D IMPLICATIONS INTRODUCTION CONCLUSIONS BASED ON T H E A N A L Y S E S O F HYPOTHESES REFERENCES . APPENDIX  150 150 159 170  ix  LIST  OF TABLES  Page  Table I  Percentage Distribution of GDP in Tropical A f r i c a  10  GNP P e r Capita in Tropical A f r i c a  13  III  Population and Growth Rates in Tropical A f r i c a (1971)  17  IVa  Population Densities for World Areas  19  IVb  Population Densities in Tropical A f r i c a  19  Population and Urbanization in Tropical A f r i c a (1970)  23  II  V VI VII  Zambia:  Population of Main Towns  Zambia: Gross Domestic Product by Sector at Current Prices, 1964 and 1969  VIII  124  Zambia: Population of the Northern Province and Districts  127 144  X  LIST OF M A P S A N D FIGURES  Map  Page  1  Delimitation of Tropical A f r i c a  2 '  Tropical Africa:  Cities of More Than 100, 000  Population 3  Zambia in A f r i c a  4  Zambia:  Administrative Divisions  5  Zambia:  Urban Areas  5  26 117 120 123  Figure 1  Proposed National Planning Process Framework  72  APPENDIX  Appendix I  A n Example of a Proposed Functional Hierarchy of Settlements  Page 170  1 C H A P T E R T H E  C H A L L E N G E "The  lies  O F  D E V E L O P M E N T  challenge  in its implications  ment  and interregional  I  to  development  for  migration,  IN  T R O P I C A L  planning  in Tropical  urbanization,  balance. "  A F R I C A  (El-Shakhs,  rural  1974  :  Africa  develop-  4)  I N T R O D U C T I O N The current of  ideas  direction  achieving  exciting  development  facing  have than  leaders  of  quick for  success  gular  path  to  imbalances be  of  to  for to  the This  shift  of  a  While  Africa.  complex  some  rural  of  But  based  These  are  process, to  the  an  to the of the long-term  optimism  and  for  motivation  is no  simple,  nor is there  a  sin-  comprehensive  on an understanding  from  of  interregional  critical  factors  which  the formulation  implementation  has occurred  task  inexperienced,  There  A f r i c a ,  is  and  their  eagerness  development,  strategies  in emphasis  but  the the  It  experiences  remains.  devised  to  approach  more  their  Tropical  the planning  selection  rational  a l l countries.  c a n be  migration,  into  be  societies  and urbanization.  incorporated  goals  of their  strategies  processes  to  subsided,;  applicable  in Tropical  The  describe  dedicated  the well-intentioned,  development  strategy  development the  m a y have  those  countries,  development by  statement  of  and a  colonial Africa.  the betterment  direct  many  challenge,  envisaged  post  of  and growth  the A f r i c a n  proved  process  i n the above  a n d attitude  and difficult  problems 1960's  embodied  over  time  of  as  must of  plans.  both  the  role  of  planning  questioned the  and  goals  growth ventory  growth  situation evaluation  of  is  the  longer  The  economic  is now  growth  income  and  the  of  longer and  is  public  prime  problems  developmental  no  Planning  sectoral  inadequacies  Development than  economy.  no  bodies.  and  development  capita  per  national  planning  of  increased  uncoordinated  Industrial and  objectives  Development  the  of  the  reformulated.  of  of  and  been  is  confined  the no  target  longer  of  an  government  this  have  in-  proposals.  the  f r o m  efforts  to  aggregate  investment  resulting  past  have  complex  forced  a  re-  planning.  recognized  and  to  encompass  industrialization  much  more  -  "we need some reformulation of the goals of development. It w i l l n o t d o to think in terms of full employment, levels of output, optimum rates of growth, etc." (Rodwin, 1961 : 140) Development  is  being  m e m b e r s  of  with  all  still  generating  society.  Previously these  ic  institutional  previous  such  ization, and of of  economic attention and  an  to  it w a s  definition  and  of  justice  the  the  of  economic  development  -  as  as  process  of  well-  concerned the  would  these for  been  geograph-  growth.  The  expanded  integration,  become  it i s  is  within  economic  has  orientation; the  that  has  national  well  it  growth  prerequisites  as  material  changes  believed  Urbanization  recent  expression  are  the  additionally, social  it i s  objectives  growth. this  and  now  changes  increasing  society;  assumed  but  intangible  equity  the  with  cultural  changes,  narrow  include  of  spatial,  produce and  concerned  to  modern-  independence  a  prime  viewed  as  development  focus  both  a  part  (El-Shakhs,  1974). By planning  redefining has  also  development changed.  and  Planning  its  processes,  has  evolved  the into  role a  of  m u c h  broader and comprehensive to provide the selected  guidelines for  national goals  chosen goals  role,  and the  urbanization process,  and there  coordinating efforts  and priorities.  75)  with their  In the  opportunity  to  achieve  context of these  concern with spatial integration and the the planning function is to develop plans  and policies linking the objectives change  is more  occurrence  of social,  in geographic  political and cultural space.  As Mlia (1974:  says: "Over the past two decades there has been a growing awareness of the shortcomings of traditional economic planning, which emphasized sectoral analysis and overall national economic objectives and paid little or no attention to the spatial incidence of development. It is now argued that a developing nation's desire for rapid economic growth, modernization and national integration is likely to be frustrated unless development planning explicitly addresses itself to the problems of spatial and social integration. "  ' |  Development planning in Tropical A f r i c a is  complex  subject.  objectives  It is necessary  a broad and  to understand the  of development and the  current  attitudes  current toward plan-  ning; these in turn help to explain the increased awareness urbanization process  and its  regional imbalances,  and rural-urban migration.  and the  relation to  spatial impact of alternative  ered when policies and plans are istics  rural under-development, These factors  strategies must be consid-  formulated.  These  of Tropical A f r i c a can no longer be treated as  factors  in the planning process.  Instead,  these  GENERALIZED In order  these phenomena as  assets to  DESCRIPTION O F T R O P I C A L to  study the  prospects  characterexogenous  circumstances  should be the subject of deliberate and comprehensive which harness  of the  policies  development. AFRICA  and potential strategies for  development in Tropical A f r i c a , understanding of some While the  it is necessary  of the unique characteristics  description is general,  below exist in varying degrees Specific examples izations.  This  in the countries  many characteristics  a study area,  independent countries and  some  of the  Although there  importance to  F o r practical Sahara  south of the Sahara which are  study.  purposes,  Africa,  countries  and/or  the  countries  newcomers  governed by white minorities.  the terms A f r i c a ,  decades.  classification (see  Factors.  The African  to political independence.  of them have  below the  Black A f r i c a ,  Sub-  area defined as  and will be understood to be a generalization for  within this  Political  governed by  this delimitation criteria will be used  This would exclude  colonies  those  Although a large  and African will be synonymous with the  Tropical  aspects  Tropical A f r i c a will be defined as  variety of definitions exist,  Sahara which are  are  Tropical A f r i c a .  predominantly populated by Black Africans.  throughout this  general-  common to all areas within the developing  of particular  As  discussed  of Tropical Africe  the focus of this discussion will be on those  which are  area  overview will establish the environment in  which developmental planning must operate.  world,  a basic  of this  most of the factors  can be used to illustrate  basic  to have  achieved their  Map 1).  countries  are  relative  After long struggles,  independence within the past  The colonial experience,  as recent as  an imprint on the countries  which exerts  perienced African leaders  were  thrust  iting all of the problems but not the  a major  it was,  most two  has left  influence.  into self-government, resources  of their  Inex inhe  prede-  5  MAP 1 DELIMITATION O F T R O P I C A L A F R I C A  MAURITANIA  Nouofcchoit  Aa  THE M . SENEGAL F  UPPER X*' .-'.VOLTA.  6AMBIAte=> J  PORTUGUESE^" GUINEA< GUINEA  L  I  rrOAHOMEY  C o t , K X. I(V 0 R Y' — v T0G0( 'N,GERIA „,.,„..  hmm. K  >V^ COASTGHANA A U«„ I  SIERRA LEONE"  UBERIA^*ai">  M d i i Abobo  \ \ „ CENTRAL\. -'"TCA-MEROON, AFRICAN^REPUBUC^  ^  f T H , 0 P I A  \  SOMALIA i  9 vgui I WOMUNI—*r~^'  F  UGANDAN, /  SJOTOMI  ««~?'* KENYA j  AFRICA POUTICAL DIVISIONS  • Capital 0 0  M U f . 5 SOO JOO  1000  MtOMETOS  Tropical  Africa  Source:  Markowitz,  L.  Politics and. Society in A f r i c a ,  1970  6 cessors. ical  Combined  with  intense tribal and ethnic  situation in post-colonial A f r i c a has been far f r o m  terns  a r e not w e l l - d e f i n e d a n d l a r g e  r e q u i r e d to s i m p l y m a i n t a i n  and legitimacy,  goal of p o l i t i c a l  leadership"  This result  and error  acquiring  types  groups  (1971)  it i s a d e s i r e d g o a l f o r m a n y  aspect  words,  economic  reasons,  understanding  situation plays important  of the c r i t i c a l  in terms  but a l s o i n the c u r r e n t volatile political  often  in  influences the by  by the  economic  must  governments. government  is  at any one t i m e .  only Although  objective.  be viewed as only one structures  past  of  A f r i c a .  political  planning is essential.  toward  efficient  development  role that the  if u n d e r s t a n d i n g  attitudes  down  developed  economically  within the political  in developmental  not only  be  it i s not a p a r a m o u n t  development  of the goals f r a m e w o r k A n  The  out,  than  of the goals being p u r s u e d by a government  In o t h e r  must  and programmes  points  is a  and permeates  decisions made  on politically practical rather Leys  (1974),  The factionalism and continuous  and developmental  be m a d e  major  :115)'.  within a country  may  problems  be a  and a necessary ingredient  i s , the c h o i c e s of o b j e c t i v e s  A n a s  are  are still  as d e s c r i b e d by Mabogunje  That  one  1971  competence.  among  of i n v e s t m e n t s  grounds.  There  The leadership skills  methods,  governmental  struggle for power  power.  The political  and energy  preparation by colonial powers  to l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p l e v e l s . trial  of t i m e  the polit-  stable.  "the s o l u t i o n of w h i c h m u s t  (Leys,  leadership crisis,  of inadequate  amounts  government  of n a t i o n a l u n i t y  by  diversities,  This  is  performances  development  and planning.  situation i n the past h a s l e d m a n y  authors  sys  7  to  s t r e s s the d i f f i c u l t i e s  growth  and  involved  development  exemplifies  this  in the  in attempting African  to  setting.  generate  economic  R o s s e r (1972  :  59)  attitude:  "...the turbulent climate since independence in most A f r i c a n countries has s c a r c e l y been favorable even had the p r a c t i c a l experience of government existed -- f o r the f o r mulation and implementation of o r d e r l y and systematic strategies of national development. " On the other hand,  the  experiences  more  favourable  outlook  for  the  some  instability  and  accepted  as  a  planning  process.  political  given  national  unity  J a c k s o n (1970  future.  utilized  to  and  include  among  their  the  this  development  is  a still  situation must  by  concepts  provide  there  advantage  be guided  the  past  Although  in-fighting,  P l a n n e r s should  of p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m s and  and  of the  of the  their  be  future  knowledge  of p o l i t i c a l objectives.  support That  i s , as  : 200) states:  "...the goals of p o l i t i c a l support and economic growth need not be contradictory. . . planners should not view p o l i t i c s o r p o l i t i c a l a i m s s i m p l y as constraints on economic r a t i o n ality; rather, p o l i t i c s might be m o r e p r o d u c t i v e l y r e g a r d e d as a l e v e r by means of which plans and d e c i s i o n s justified on e c o n o m i c grounds can be effected. " There  is little doubt that, good  framework  and  of development  operation and  ized  by  the  features noticeably ent  also  existence  within  their  applied  in s o c i a l  exerts  planning  .African Dualism.  to  or  in  Most of  a  in most  nations,  African  dualism  make  the  political  on  of the  there  salient  can  dichotomy  Although  extreme a  influence  countries  pronounced  While  this  major  indigenous  the  nature  Africa.  structure  fields.  dencies  a  the  African  societies. the  bad,  be  between  this concept economy,  are  some  divergences feature  in an  character-  is it is  dualistic inherent  many most appartenin  appreciation  8  of the  problems  of the m a j o r  of developmental  c a t e g o r i e s of d u a l i s m  to other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The  planning.  most  of B l a c k  familiar  omic  dualism.  This  them  Rodwin (1961),  application  has  been  Rosser  traditional, higher  and  levels  markets  includes  a  and  with  occupying  most  ity  population, has  of the  ditional  technology,  fringe of a money dualism  are  Other dichotomies: traditional oriented ties; These  can  attitudes;  a l l be  dualism  pervades  educated  locally  versus  in any  country  markets  and  and  used  country  be  versus  found  social, political  including  is g e n e r a l l y  the  major-  productivity, t r a -  implications  the  of this  in the following modern  non-educated; versus  weak kinship  versus  time.  and  versus  nationally  a p o l i t i c a l ; etc.  of the l e v e l s  particular  w i l l influence the type  economy  is often only on  orientation;  indicators  at a  p a r t of the  context.  status; p o l i t i c a l  as  wage employment,  lower  and  oriented; strong  tribal  the  urban  the  The subsistence sector,  African  versus  and  population and  territory  can  (1967),  i s between  enclaves  This  national  f a r - r e a c h i n g in the  existent  the  markets.  effects  rural  Baldwin  technology,  characteristically  of d u a l i s m  is econ-  'modern' s e c t o r includes  The  versus  class  national  economy.  introduction  phenomenon  export  centres.  localized  indices  an  in s e v e r a l s o u r c e s , among  The  modern  total  large urban of the  of this  products  monetized  associated  description  The basic dichotomy  producers.  m i n o r i t y of the  as  (1972), Seidman (1970),  of productivity,  broader  serve  discussed  primary  subsistence  brief  Africa.  Hodder (1968) and Streeten (1971). the manufacturing  will  A  of  dualism  The extent  economic  of development  to  which  c h a r a c t e r of  process  that  9  can be utilized by the planners and politicians. understand the wide range exist  and  within the  same  Economic  Factors.  economy. subsistence primary  resource  primary export require  of social and economic  introduces  some  agriculture,  extraction  'modern'  characteristics  populat ion is  associated  with the  rural area.  The  of a few main products that cocoa, sisal, diamonds,  In many cases,  these  commodities  proportion of national output and account for  well over fifty per cent of the foreign exchange There  that  cottage industries and  no processing - - i . e .  the major  of the  The majority of the  coffee, rubber, copper, etc. contribute  concerns  The basic description of the  commodities consist  little or  important to  country.  'traditional' sectors  of the African  It is  (Bhagwati, 1966).  is only a limited manufacturing sector that accounts  for a low percentage  of the gross  domestic  product (see Table I).  The proportion of national output that is obtained from manufacturing  is usually based on first  processing  industries; the extent of capital goods industries  is very low in A f r i c a . for  stage mineral and agricultural  export,  ution goods,  consist  Many of the manufactured goods,  of basic  consumer  goods  if not  and import substit-  often of inferior quality to previous products.  a low level of manufacturing output, a high proportion of goods,  most  most African  With  countries import  notably capital and luxury goods.  Because of the low level of diversity within the manufacturing sector  and the  resources, in world  the  reliance African  markets.  upon a few major nations are  export-earning  crops/  heavily affected by fluctuations  10  TABLE PERCENTAGE  I  DISTRIBUTION O F G D P  IN T R O P I C A L  ID u  AFRICA  O  ^  o u CO  «4-l  CO  CO  g ^  £ 12 dE2J C6 °  K  Country  Year <; ^  Botswana 1971 Cameroon 1967 Central African 1079 Republic Dahomey . 1967 Ethiopia 1971 Gabon 1972 Ghana 1970 Ivory Coast 1969 Kenya 1972 Lesotho 1967 Liberia 1970 Malawi 1971 Niger 1969 Nigeria 1969 Sudan 1970 Swaziland 1970 Tanzania 1972 Togo 1969 Uganda 1971 Upper Volta 1968 Zaire 1970 Zambia .1970  fH  H ""D  fH  O  *  CO  £  f!  O  h H U 'il 7 4 -- 9 --  <u ^  OS 19 11  50  20  20  8  10 9  31  18  13  4  20  3  19  7 11 . 42 16  6 10 8 13 14 11 1 5 11 6 7  4 4 11 4  19 8 16 11  6 4 4 3  5 2 4 4 3 4 4 2 5 3 1 2 1 7  9 5 17 8 15 12 18 7 12 19 11 16 20 11  20 15 13 15 13 26 22 16 13 20 13 23 22 19 10 17 23 6 19  29  36 51 13 47 30 31 62 19 46 51 45 35 30 36 43 48 44 8 7  13 3 33 .12 7 15 12 24 11 19 10 10 50 49  10  11 9 11 8 10 19 11  -- 28  --  7 1 6 4 3 4 8 7 8 7 3 5 15 4  Includes agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing Includes mining, manufacturing, electricity, gas and water Includes finance, insurance, real estate; community, social and personal services; public administration and defense Source:  United Nations Statistical Yearbook 1973  ^  +J  il The wage e c o n o m y i s g e n e r a l l y s m a l l and p r i m a r i l y c o n c e n t r a t e d i n a few m a j o r u r b a n a r e a s . industrial activity.  T h e s e a r e the, c e n t r e s of  H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e weak o r i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r -  s e c t o r a l and i n t e r r e g i o n a l l i n k a g e s w i t h i n the i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r , so t h e r e a r e m i n i m a l c o m p l e m e n t a r y f l o w s between stages of p r o d u c t i o n . But the b u i l d i n g up of i n f r a s t r u c t u r e a n d the a v a i l a b l i t y ; of l a r g e supplies of l a b o u r i n the u r b a n a r e a s continues the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s i n a few s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h m u c h of the l a b o u r f o r c e i s u n s k i l l e d , the m a j o r i t y of the w a g e - e a r n e r s and s a l a r i e d e m p l o y e e s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the u r b a n i n d u s t r i a l complexes.  L a s t l y , the l i m i t e d i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s that do e x i s t  i n A f r i c a have often tended to u s e c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e technology and p r o d u c t i o n methods,  t h e r e b y f u r t h e r l i m i t i n g the a c c e s s to w a g e - e a r n i n g  jobs. T r o p i c a l A f r i c a , as w e l l as m o s t other p a r t s of the  'developing'  w o r l d , i s often thought to s u f f e r f r o m i n f e r i o r n a t u r a l c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r e c o n o m i c growth.  The s o i l , the vegetation, the c l i m a t e and the  n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s a r e often d e s c r i b e d as l i m i t a t i o n s to e c o n o m i c development.  The e f f e c t s of these p h y s i c a l a t r i b u t e s a r e often c l a i m e d  to e x e r t a heavy t o l l on the p r o d u c t i v i t y and the c a p a c i t y of the r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n these c l i m e s .  Hodder  ( 1 9 6 9 )  human  disputes these n o t i o n s .  A l t h o u g h the T r o p i c s do e x e r t some i m p o s i t i o n s on p o t e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , H o d d e r c l a i m s that i t i s a l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n and knowledge about d e a l i n g w i t h these c o n d i t i o n s that effect development. and p o t e n t i a l s f o r g r o w t h a r e good,  The a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s  but inadequate studies  about  12  s°lutionsto the  some  of  m a i n constraints  these  problems  nology,  and  a  can  the  problems  to  development  be  o v e r c o m e with  better  understanding  Other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s role  in the  development  interrelated  to  and the  of  the  potential  in  added  Tropical  existing  economy  also  of A f r i c a .  mentioned above.  shortage  of trained  leaders  at a l l l e v e l s  shortage  of  skilled  shortage has prevented the growth prises,  it must  be  Africa (Marris, relative ly  liferation most  1967).  narrowness  diffused  understood In  conjunction  the  market  throughout  the  national  small-scale  s i g n i f i c a n t l y in t e r m s  s c a r c i t y of funds opmental  available  projects.  The  The  serves  to  African  to  the  general  ment  individual wealth  three  this factor  enter-  is  the  it is not sufficient-  to  support  a large  F i n a l l y , and  to  for  economic  perhaps  in  devel-  in A f r i c a does  national  both public  pro-  there i s a  invest  situation  the  few  countries  per  the economic position of  GNP  of  capital,  is a  and  govern-  private,  status  of  the  countries.  Although  one  of funds  the  s o c i a l f a c t o r s within  governments economic  are  Although this  small-scale  economy space  tech-  significant  government  the  with  the r e l a t i v e l y poor  Table II i l l u s t r a t e s  of  the  of  of these  of development planning,  lack of investible  maintain  of  a  Accompanying  businesses.  nottypically provide a large s u r p l u s ments.  play  businessmen.  in light  Many  s o c i a l institutions.  Several  of indigenous  of  of l o c a l and  of  are  specialized  of the  factors  and  Africa.  increased,  the  entrepreneurs  cost f a c t o r s  capita  tangible had  a  is not and  completely  well-being  indices GNP  a  per  African  of  the  available f o r capita  adequate  higher  countries. measure-  population, it is  comparison.  Only  than. $300 (U.S.)  13  TABLE GNP  PER  CAPITA  II  IN T R O P I C A L  AFRICA  (1971) G r o w t h Rates CountryGabon Zambia Ivory Coast Congo Ghana Senegal Liberia S i e r r e Leone Cameroon Swaziland Mauritania Botswana Kenya Central A f r i c a n Republic Togo Gambia Nigeria Uganda Sudan Tanzania Niger Dahomey Lesotho Guinea Malawi Zaire Chad Ethiopia Mali Somalia Upper Volta Burundi Rwanda  Amount (U.S.$) 700 380 330 270 250 250 210 200 200 190 170 160 160 150 150 140 140 130 120 110 100 100 100 90 90 90 80 80 70 70 70 60 60  1960-71 5.2 3.2 4.6 0.9 0.0 -0.4 2.5 3.9 4.0 4.7 5.7 3.2 3.5 0.4  (%)  1965-71  3.6 2.1 2.1  7.7 L.0 4.4 1.4 -2.1 -1.2 3. 8 4.7 3.7 0.9 2.1 4.9 4.3 1.6 2.5 2.1 2.7 . 1.6  3.1 -2.5 0.8 0.0 0.1 2.5 2.9 0.6 2.7 1.4 -0.9 0.9 1.1 -0. 8  -0.9 3.3 1.8 -4.4 0.5 0.3 2.3 3.6 2. 2 1.2 1.0 0.8 1.7 0.5 2.2  .4.6  Source: W o r l d Bank A t l a s f o r P e r Capita P r o d u c t i o n , Population and G r o w t h Rates, 1973  14  in 1971.  Relative  countries  some  low  or  imperfect  lowest  of the  regressive  as these be  drawn: one,  level  of development; and  omic  development  discussion.  Factors.  in and  and  each  entire  African  cohesion.  leisure. of  exposure  over  of the  are  as  two  as  high  GNP.  growth  countries  time  period.  significant  remains  As  conclu-  at a  low  disparities  in econ-  factors characteristic  indirectly  in the  previous  c l o s e l y with p o l i t i c a l  the  The  dualistic  distinction  it affects many of values,  include  the  daily  attitudes  and  nature of  between  tradi-  situations. and  institutions  success,  different attitudes kinship,  attributed in part  and amount  the  capita  l i m i t i n g the extent of national integration  marriage, be  several  social  linked  per  A f r i c a n countries.  mentioned  be viewed  spectrum  can  rates  among the  are  T h i s would  This  are  there are wide  been  country  health, r e l i g i o n ,  there  there  of  relatively  two,  modernism  is an  the  d i r e c t l y affect them.  s o c i e t i e s can  tionalism There  and  to  as a whole  Many  have  in t e r m s  Africa  Social factors  economic f a c t o r s African  are,  and growth  Tropical Africa  point  growth  to  Social  to  indices  the m a j o r i t y of A f r i c a n  one-third  countries,  sions  of  countries,  it is encouraging  for  facing  other  f e l l in the  Although rates  to  of  contact  with  to the  toward  education,  the  various  more  and levels  modern  ele-  ments in the society. Complementing are  the  Africa, ent  large and  ethnic  ethnic  more groups  self-identity,  and  the  forces  of communication  and  tribal  diversities.  importantly maintain exert  within  varying  varying  each  degrees  kinship  Within  and  contact  Tropical  country, many of  differ-  homogeneity and  pressures.  Some groups  15  are  more  and  reluctant  is the  cosmopolitan to  problem  affects  change  age-old  differences  spoken  to understand within each  the  African  consequences  of  are  more  discrimination  range  society. among  of  of a  social  and  alternative  also  are  country, and  Developmental  people  this  which  A s there  in v a r i o u s p a r t s  selecting  conservative  A s s o c i a t e d with  influences.  wide  must c o n s i d e r these d i f f e r e n c e s resulting  and  to m o d e r n i z i n g  s e v e r a l languages  it is not hard  some  traditions.  of r a c i a l predjudice  accessibility  usually  and adaptive,  cultural  planning  regions  policies  and  and  the strat-  egies. A fy  the  tion,  closer level  examination  of  social  the i l l i t e r a c y  tween school  75  and  85  at a  tripled  50  of the  7 per cent get  very  to  of national  parts of the world, been the  slow  beginning  points must to  as a  out, be  a  meet the  in A f r i c a . Africa  1950  group  of the  Government  advances of the  enough  concerted  effort needs  are  of  educabe-  primary  and  are  still  spending rate  to  period.  simply change  r e q u i r e d by  schools,  and only 1 p e r cent e n r o l l  And,  educate attitudes the  on education (as  comparable  l a c k of f a c i l i t i e s  to  approximately  in p r i m a r y  in w i d e s p r e a d  independence  it i s not  specific  1963  clari-  generally  E v e n though  Though  schools  income) has been at a  result  In t e r m s  ranges  and  bottom-heavy.  secondary  but  features may  than 'developed' c o u n t r i e s , the educa-  r e l e v a n t age  in u n i v e r s i t y (Jolly, 1971). share  between  rate higher  remains  just  development  of these  p e r cent (Hunter, 1967).  tion s y s t e m p e r cent  some  rate in T r o p i c a l  enrollments  increasing  of  education  to  other  have  and  personnel  as  Jolly(1971)  the people; and  train  developmental  a  at  there them process.  16  Unemployment most  African  areas,  and  societies.  where  rates  employment  statistics.  Shakhs,  more the  rates  The  the  nually only  in Nigeria,  while  in the  force  areas,  however,  affect  range  from  in the  force, from  about  15  the  to  25  has  schools.  per  600, 000  grown  This  persons  overall  has  leave  is  10 - 20,000  (Jolly,  1971  for every  labour  force,  150,000 p r i m a r y  sitions  in secondary  (Rosser,  1972  One Tropical  Africa  advances  The  population can  leavers  and  social  only  are  compete 40, 000  grows  by 250,000  available; and f o r 15,000  jobs  f a c t o r s affecting  growth  and  distribution  in A f r i c a  potential f o r  increase  with  countries  prime  population  is a  presumably  school  schools  is the  The  there  23,000 jobs  an-  each  in  po-  year  : 62).  of the  population.  only  not  school  jobs  the  grown  r a p i d l y with  problem  i n Tanzania,  the  cent  c r e a t i o n of wage-earning : 219);  a  cities  'modern' sector  which  the  provide  In the  of  rural  annual  Kenya,  rapid  features  the  entering  and  unemployment  of unemployment.  labour  i n c r e a s i n g annual output  typical  agriculture, distorts  urban  extent  are  u n i v e r s a l work  Employment  than  insignificant;  a  generally  1974).  slowly  and  in subsistence  picture of the  unemployment (El  'Disguised'  seasonality  employment  striking  underemployment  an  development of the  is growing  even  higher  human  at a  rate.  high  This  the  effective  death  in health  and  nutrition  p r o g r a m m e s (Hodder,  be  population seen  growth  in Table  High  population  growth  rate  of growth  and  a  rates  begin  f o r the  rate,  rate  as  and  rates  in  to  will  decrease 1968).  individual  III.  is not large  a  detriment  absolute  per  growth  can  se; but impose  a  16  Unemployment most  and  A f r i c a n societies.  areas,  where  rates  employment  statistics.  striking  Shakhs,  the  rates  The extent  the  insignificant; nually only  in Nigeria,  while  the  10 - 20, 000  entering  the  and  Africa  The  population  countries  rapid  can  per  grown  leavers  and  only  compete 40, 000  the  has  grown  r a p i d l y with  leave  i n Tanzania,  a  cent  problem  persons  are  overall  cities  sector  This  23,000 jobs  school  prime  social  i s not  school grows every  anby  250,000  a v a i l a b l e ; and f o r 15,000  jobs  f a c t o r s affecting  growth  and  distribution  in A f r i c a  potential f o r  increase  advances  600, 000  only  population  is a  with  25  has  schools.  : 219);  schools  is the  The  presumably  from  to  'modern'  which  the  the  each  in  po-  year  : 62).  of the  there  force,  15  for  in secondary  population.  from  1971  force,  affect  In the  of  rural  provide  (Jolly,  sitions  Tropical  however,  jobs  150,000 p r i m a r y  One  areas,  c r e a t i o n of wage-earning  labour  1972  force  agriculture, distorts  in the  about  features  in the  annual  Kenya,  (Rosser,  unemployment  range  labour  i n c r e a s i n g annual output  typical  of unemployment.  Employment  than  are  u n i v e r s a l work  urban  generally  1974).  slowly  a  in subsistence  p i c t u r e of the  unemployment  more  'Disguised'  seasonality and  employment  (El  underemployment  an  development i n of the  is growing  even  higher  at  a  rate.  high  This  the  effective  death  in health  and  nutrition  p r o g r a m m e s (Hodder,  be  population seen  growth  in Table  High  population  growth  rate  of growth  and  a  rates  begin  f o r the  rate,  rate  as  and  rates  human  to  will  decrease 1963).  individual  III.  is not largu  a  detriment  absolute  per  growth  can  se; but impose  a  17  T A B L E P O P U L A T I O N IN  A N D  T R O P I C A L  G R O W T H  A F R I C A  (000)  R A T E S  (1971)  Population  „ , . Population Rates  Growth  1960-71  1965-71  494  Gabon Zambia Ivory  III  Coast  1.0  4, 250  2.5  1.1 2.5  5,227  3.1  3.3  Congo  1,123  2.1  2.1  Ghana  8, 856  2.6  2.6  Senegal  4 , 019  Liberia Sierra  Leone  Cameroon  2.4  2.4  1, 5 7 0  3.1  3.1  2,668  2. 2  2.2  5,786  2.1  2.1  433  2.9  2.9  1,190  1.9  2.1  Swaziland Mauritania  1.8  1.9  11, 6 7 0  3.1  3.3  1, 5 8 6  2.5  2.3  2, 0 0 9  3.0  3.4  618  Botswana Kenya Central  African  Republic  Togo Gambia  370  2.0  1.9  Nigeria  56,510  2.5  2.5  Uganda  10,148  2.7  2.9  Sudan  16,135  2.8  2.8  13,249  3.0  2.8  Niger  4,132  2.9  2. 8  Dahomey  2, 783  2.8  2.7  Tanzania  2.0  2.0  Guinea  4, 080  941  2.6  2.5  Malawi  4, 550  2.6  2.5  2.8  2. 8  1.8  1.8  25,250  2.1  2.4  5,123  2.1  2.4  2,895  2.4  2.4  5,497  2.1  2.1  Lesotho  19,326  Zaire Chad  3,  Ethiopia M a l i Somalia Upper  Volta  716  Burundi  3,615  2.0  2.0  Rwanda  3, 786  3.5  3.3  Source: Population  World  and Growth  Bank  Atlas  R a t e s ,  1973  for  P e r  Capita  Production,  18  severe hardships on countries with developing economies and minimal capital resources.  The ability to economically sustain increasing  population pressures is related to the growth of the economy;  i.e.  "the chief problem of development is how to increase production at a rate substantially higher than the rate of population growth" (Hodder, 1968; 88). Comparing the growth rates of Table II and Table III for equivalent time periods shows that over two-thirds of the African countries had GNP growth rates below or slightly higher than the population growth rates.  Economic gains can easily be rendered negligible by an equivalent  or higher population growth. The implications of population trends are not limited to growth alone.  The age distribution also affects development possibilites;  African societies generally have a large number of children in proportion to the rest of the population. The economic costs of providing for these dependent persons can be quite significant in terms of national budget.  Also, the spatial distribution of the population can impose  hardships to development.  A common misconception is that high rates  of population growth, especially in 'developing' countries, hand with high densities.  go hand in  Generally, A f r i c a is not a'high density area;  in fact, it is one of the most sparsely populated areas of the world (see Tables IVa and IVb).  However, densities vary greatly among  different regions of each country.  As Hodder (1968) suggests, dev-  elopment aspirations may face problems of overpopulation in some areas and under population in others. Tropical A f r i c a faces numerous political,  economic  and  TABLE  IVa  P O P U L A T I O N DENSITIES FOR  WORLD  AREAS  (Mid-1972 Estimates) Density / K M Africa Asia Europe Latin A m e r i c a North A m e r i c a Oceania U.S.S.R. World Average  2  12 78 95 15 11 2 11 28  T A B L E IVb P O P U L A T I O N DENSITIES IN T R O P I C A L  AFRICA  (Mid-1972 Estimates)  Botswana Burundi Chad Congo Dahomey Ethiopia Gambia Ghana Guinea Ivory Coast Kenya Lesotho Malawi Mali  Source:  Density/KM 1 122 3 3 21 25 34 38 17 14 21 32 39 4  2  Mauritania Niger Nigeria Rwanda Senegal Sierra Leone Somalia Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Uganda Upper Volta Zaire Zambia  Density/KM 1 3 63 148 21 37 5 7 25 15 37 44 20 10 6  United Nations Statistical Yearbook,  1973  20  social  characteristics  brief introduction to  which can not be easily modified. some  stereotype of African ing effective  societies  that must  points out the  need for  basic  be considered when  policies and strategies for development.  ity and inter-relatedness the  of these factors  This  of these existing  The  conditions  seek-  complex-  demonstrates  a multi-disciplinary and comprehensive  approach  to  developmental planning. CITIES AND REGIONS IN T R O P I C A L  AFRICA  The threads of continuity linking these basic African  societies  parities  among  connected  are  high rates of urban growth and large  sub-national regions.  to the  The larger  share of investments,  developmental activities ber  of urban regions  are  and their  necessary to understand Urbanization.  1969  1972),  cities  during the as  the  reflect  centres  it is  situation of exten-  inherited from the  colonial powers  Africa.  settlements were  society.  With the both  ex-  Breese,  relatively uncom-  The functions, design and size of the  a continuation of their  colonial experience. r  In order  trends.  of contemporary  mon in pre-colonial A f r i c a .  services;  in a basically non-urban  large  and  in a small num-  Yoruban settlement in Nigeria (see  and Rosser,  current  existing  of urban centres  ception of the  and  hinterlands.  Tropical A f r i c a faces the  the geography  cities  usually end up with  infrastructure  immediate  dis-  usually  of planning and development,  the  sive urbanization tendencies  dominates  cities  are  of the  usually concentrated  to utilize the new directions  The pattern  These features  notions of excessive 'primacy'  'polarized' development. the major  factors within  role  established  It  is these  cities  that still  of administration,  finance,  communication,  serve  industry the  and  export/import  majority  rural  of the  areas.  villages urban  it are  developmental  dichotomy  of paramount  in the  of  "urban" places  complicate maximize i.e.  an  the  urban  Africans  live  than  plicity  and  fifty  years,  using a  good  1. 6 of  a  the  cent.  various  data.  To  the  small of  complex  which  in the  strengthen challenge  and  of  of 'urban' typical  in the  definioften  20,000  such  a  If the  w i l l be or  Despite  this  any  of  the  then  the  settlement  limitation,  definition  per-  classification majority  be  used;  more  20,000 persons, may  to  the  sim-  n e c e s s i t a t e s its  context. face  Africa  overview  with  than  U.N.  substan-  Different  definition  of  settlement  of the  generated  A f r i c a n countries  U.N.  analysis.  village.  has  f a c i l i t a t e c l a r i t y and  settlement  smaller  accessibility  of  r a p i d urban  remains  growth  predominately  d e l i m i t a t i o n of  lived  in urban  representing  The population  estimate  an  f o r 1970  242.3  past  provides  approximately  of a  proportion was  Africa,  In 1920, out  the  R o s s e r ( 1972),  Tropical  areas  urban  during  rural.  of A f r i c a n urbanization.  persons  million,  of  centres  problems.  subjectivity  slightly different  million 100  The  and  standard  is a  in v i l l a g e s  in the A f r i c a n Even  however  mode r r i z i n g influence.  forces  by  to m i s l e a d i n g  notion  larger  the  centre  rise  perceived  use  used  consistency,  give  their  importance  trends  comparative  sons (Rosser, 1972). may  few  urbanization process  indications of m a j o r  tions  the  the  time,  is composed  from  and  same  scattered throughout  countryside  isolated  the  planning.  Interest tial  remains  alienated f r o m  often  rural-urban  maintain  of the  hamlets,  society and  This  population  Most  and  a c t i v i t i e s . At  total  population  of only 1. 6 per million.  Of  22  this total,  only  26.2  proportion  that  is just  'developing' nations the  world  figure  expected million Even  in r u r a l  the  high  major 33).  world  A t the same  (Senegal)  in urban  growth,  only  clearly  qualifies  areas.  ranging  from  only  In I960, over  20,000,  country  in five  Africa  with  per cent  had  other  (Breese, 1966:  in T r o p i c a l  Africa  of its total population in urban  s e v e r a l countries f r o m  a l l p a r t s of the w o r l d  proportion for Tropical  the extent  40  with  33  is centred  populations Although the urban  V). The  p e r cent  the least  i n cities  most  Brazzaville.  urbanized  of 20,000  the percentage  urbanized  of its population urban,  in its capital,  were  Africa  of u r b a n i z a t i o n i n different  g r e a t l y (see Table  andMauritania  ow,  p e r cent.  as the least  Tropical  16 to 46  one  20 p e r cent  the urban  11 p e r cent,  their  The  had  p e r cent  1966 : 34).  While  which  20  one  Africa  p r o p o r t i o n s of the total population w e l l o v e r  Congo  a  and 419  p r o p o r t i o n of only  urban  the  2000.  areas  while  varied  estimate  by the year  areas  (Breese,  p r o p o r t i o n and  by the U.N.  million  (9) i n p l a c e s  time,  had o v e r  the  at the turn of the century.  evidence  areas  year,  a 15 p e r cent  rates of u r b a n  areas  percentage  urban  30 p e r cent.  of a l l the w o r l d  lowest  had  a r e a s -- an urban  existing  areas -- an  F o r the same  is 105. 6 m i l l i o n  r e s i d e i n urban  urbanized  11 per cent.  population of 524  distribution  The  in urban  p r o j e c t i o n s compiled  at continued  will  lived  as a whole  was  Population total A f r i c a n  million  or  of urban  growth f o r m o s t  with  in 1970  countries country almost  Uganda, only  was  was a l l of  Burundi  2 p e r cent of  more. population i s g e n e r a l l y  countries  is concentrated  in the  23  TABLE  V  P O P U L A T I O N AND URBANIZATION IN T R O P I C A L  AFRICA  (1970)  Country  Total Population (millions)  Urban Population (millions)  % Urban  TOTAL  242.3  26.2  11  WEST A F R I C A  111.9  15.8  14  35.5  3.9  11  EAST AFRICA  94.9  6.5  7  WEST A F R I C A  111. 9  15. 8  14  Nigeria Ghana Upper Volta Mali Ivory Coast Guinea Senegal Niger Dahomey Sierra Leone Togo Liberia Mauritania Portuguese Guinea Gambia  66.1 9.0 5.3 5.1 4.3 3.9 3.9 3. 8 2.7 2.6 1.8 1.2 1.2 0.6 0.4  10.1 1.6 0.2 0.4 0.8 0.4 1.1 0. 2 0.3 0.4 0.2 0. 2 0.02 0.02 0.03  15 18 4 8 19 10 26 5 11 13 11 17 2 3 7  CENTRAL AFRICA  .  cont '<!....  TABLE V  (cont'd.)  P O P U L A T I O N A N D URBANIZATION IN T R O P I C A L  AFRICA  (1970)  Country CENTRAL AFRICA  Total Population (millions)  Total Population (millions)  % Urban  35.5  3.9  11  Zaire Cameroon Chad Central African Republic Congo Equatorial Guinea Angola Gabon  17.4 5.7 3.7 ^  2. 2 0.4 0.3  13 7 8  0.2  13  0.9 0.3 5.5 0.5  0.3 0.03 0.4 0.06  33 10 7 12  EAST AFRICA  94.9  6.5  7  Ethiopia Tanzania Kenya Uganda Madagascar Malawi Zambia Rwanda Burundi Somalia Rhodesia Mozambique  25 13.2 10.8 8.5 6.9 4.4 4.3 3.5 3.6 2.7 4.5 7.5  1.2 0.7 0.8 0.2 0.7 0.2 1.0  5 5 7 2 10 5 23  0.08 0.3 1.1 0.2  2 11 24 3  Source: Demography and Social Statistics Section, Economic Commission for A f r i c a (data from E C A worksheets).  25  few existing  centres.  the primate  cities  migrants.  Having only a small number of urban  of each  country are  The growth rate of these  population growth rates of their major  mately  remains  6 per  low,  cent per  urban growth anywhere These large  centres  respective  exceeds the o v e r a l l countries.*  respective  countries. and export  annum. in the  countries.  Their  This  is by far  are  all the system.  situated  There are  Map 2).  colonial days,  to the  extraction  are  located on or corridors.  sixteen were adjacent  few large  settlements  As  the  Rosser  with populations greater coastal  to the  near  ports  and almost  port-linked railway away from the  coast  The capital city is often one of these primate  dating back to  its  role  as  of urban centres,  cities,  administrative and military centre of  pre-independence A f r i c a (Hamdan, 1964).  prominent  rate of  and the distribution of imported goods.  of the fifty-seven cities  rest were  the highest  of the metropolitan  geared  coast and along the main transportation  1960's,  of urban  the main functional areas in  molded to fit the needs  The majority of the main centres  than 100,000 in the  is a  is approxi-  As they developed during  of raw materials  This  world.  economic function was  (1972) points out,  percentage  but the urban growth rate  urban centres  their functions were  (see  prime targets for  part of the urbanization problem: the  populations  their  the  centres,  The uneven distribution  both spatially and functionally, heightens  role they play in contemporary  the  Africa.  *Note: F o r example, Dar es Salaam in Tanzania was growing at 10 per cent per annum between 1963 and 1970 and Lusaka, Zambia grew 11.6 per cent annually between 1963 and 1969.  26  MAP  2  TROPICAL AFRICA Cities of More than 100, 000 Population (1968)  I  OMilw  Source:  «  r-— 2000  1000  Rosser,  Colin.  3000  • •••  U)00  Urbanization in Tro-pical A f r i c a ,  i  1972  27  Urban structure of  areas  and  fluence tals  activities  industrial  over  water 60  but  city  in Ghana  population,  had  46.1  ment  (Kudiabor,  1971).  The m a j o r  cities  societies. duced The  Just  i n the  systems  f o r the  culture  cities.  The  channelled  On  the  are  to the  urgent  rates,  most  provision  of  a  host  still  and  areas  users  beds,  9. 9 p e r cent  agents  Accra,  disseminated to national  total  African  first  intro-  modernizing  urban  well  employ-  factors.  informational  areas.  leadership skills,  v i a the  and  i n the  s e r v i c e s are  of the  of the  manufacturing  in the  of the  In 1968,  educational and  centred  vital  of total  of other  legal,  scale i n -  r e g i o n a l capi-  hospital  change  and  of  from  Technoland  the  primate  development  communication  are  links  origin-  centres.  hand,  major  they  are  changes  problems  however,  as  utilities  developed  rural  urban  other  of the  act  agglomer-  per cent  supply.  total  e n t r e p e n e u r i a l and  social  in the  also  nation are  innovations,  only  cent of the  public so  with  15  infra-  concentration  nine  of only  electrical  technological,  national  ating  as  cities,  financial,  ogical  per  the  of total  and  favourable  per cent  p e r cent total  the l a r g e s t  total  the  economies  example,  f o r 49.7  of the  as  as w e l l as  combined  51.3  investments  promote  centres,  For  accounted  per cent  factors  in urban  a  supply,  of public  These  location.  with  population,  public  foci  e x t e r n a l economies,  of Ghana,  total  the  developments.  industrial  ation  are  however, of  African suffer  s e r v i c e s has  the  Tropical cities the been  cities Africa.  are  pains  are  small  of other  unable  the  foci  Despite high by  world  large  to meet  of  many  growth  standards;  cities.  The  i n c r e a s i n g demands;  28  existing  services  utilities. cessible shanty rates  The s c a r c i t y urban  marked  (Rosser,  1972).  comparable  elsewhere  teriorating necessary  is limited,  funds  Regional  terlands. looked The  The r e m a i n d e r  This and  have  geographic The »f A f r i c a n  been  among  a r e found  various  serves  to strengthen  regional dualism.  The  have  been done  Rural  find  to the r e s t  budgeting.  stages negligible, little to areas  that  themselves in  of the r e g i o n s .  the r u r a l - u r b a n divergence  s m a l l urban  disparities  the e a r l y  regions. cities  hin-  i n the c o l o n i a l  development  instigated  of m a j o r  regions of the rest  and capital  throughout  i n relation  between  development i s u s u a l l y  projects  imbalance  positions  the inequities  growth.  is often over-  outside of the influence  situation  l a c k the  territory  that  disadvantaged  i s r a p i d l y de-  of the national  but  lie  environment  immediate  Not only has r u r a l  the d i s p a r i t i e s  and the develop-  and their  of independence.  narrow  as m a j o r  centres  but the t r e n d has continued  the p r o g r a m s  In g e n e r a l ,  without  c o u n t r i e s and c i t i e s  of investment  spatial  Unemploy-  expand  with the r a p i d urban  urban  crime  to operate.  noted above,  of ac-  and the t r a n s i t  of population growth  As  i n the m a j o r  and i n c r e a s i n g  growth.  public  of u n s a n i t a r y  as the c i t i e s  the urban  lack  and the shortage  and expensive  pace  Imbalances.  i n the scheme  past,  areas  a r e congested  1961). A f r i c a n  to keep  roots of this  densities  and growing  the brunt  (Rodwin,  concentrated  housing  The streets  rates of i n d u s t r i a l  experience  ment  by high  a r e often out-dated  rates a r e high  cities  of decent  and many  land has l e d to a p r o l i f e r a t i o n  towns,  systems ment  are deteriorating  regions  and the broader  of the countryside. demonstrate  relative  poverty  many  of the features  of the r u r a l  areas  and  the advantages ( r e a l and perceived) of the urban centres accentuate the p o l a r i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y . While 'traditionalism' and c o n s e r v a t i s m  mark  the r u r a l regions, change and innovation are n e c e s s a r y features of urbani z e d populations.  The m a j o r urban a r e a s could be effective v e h i c l e s f o r  the efficient diffusion of m o d e r n i z a t i o n and distribution of developmental benefits.  Unfortunately, the spatial concentration  of development has  been maintained and r e g i o n a l imbalances continue to exist. The noticeable absence of an integrated urban h i e r a r c h y , with linkages and functional inte action between cities and hinterlands, is a feature c o m m o n to most A f r i c a n countries (E,l-Shakhs, The disadvantaged in A f r i c a .  1974).  position of the r u r a l a r e a s is a m a r k e d feature  N o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l wage-earning jobs a r e s c a r c e and the  emplyment p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r educated persons are greatly l i m i t e d .  The  opportunities f o r s u c c e s s in subsistence f a r m i n g a r e d e c r e a s i n g r a p i d l y as the population grows and the quality and amount of a r a b l e land declines (because of both c l i m a t i c and m a n a g e r i a l f a c t o r s ) .  Out-dated land-holding  s y s t e m s and low l e v e l s of t e c h n o l o g i c a l innovations also contribute 'to the weakened a g r i c u l t u r a l s y s t e m .  Combined with l o w - l e v e l s of prod-  uctivity and only m i n i m a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e developments, the r u r a l a r e a s offer few incentives f o r m a j o r investment p r o g r a m m e s .  But the  import-  ance of the r u r a l s e c t o r i n t e r m s of population and the economy can not be ignored. A few examples w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the significance of the r u r a l sector in the A f r i c a n context.  The r u r a l a r e a accounted f o r 94  percent of the total population (1970) of Upper V o l t a .  In 19&8,  r u r a l s e c t o r accounted for 83.5 percent of the gross domestic  the  30  product per  (Gregory,  capita  figures total  and  were  wage  earnings  do  90  p e r cent  employment  ( Gerhart,  Cities  not have  example, ulation, and  accounted  domestic  veloped  32  p e r cent  had  of total  areas  largest  for  the country  average annually.  salaried  income Most  as  export  services.  total  of the  For  N i g e r i a n pop-  manufacturing  telephone  plants,  lines  1974).  In  the  four  and  Kudiabor's least  total population.  of the  p e r cent  service  amenities.  total  i n Ghana,  levels  situation  public  of total  and  4. 4  out  cities,  jobs. a  i n the  of those of the  B a k w e s e g h a (1974) also  case  Ouagadougou  The average  whole  between  service,  hospital  per cent  de-  These  water  was  notes  living  of Upper and  beds,  of the  accounted income  earned  was  f o r 63 (money (CFA)  223,217 f r a n c s  accrued  and  urban  standards. Volta.  In  Bobo-Dioulasso,  14,095 f r a n c s  employed  wages  rural  of unbalanced  only 2 per cent of the total population, total  of  of public  modern  (El-Shakhs,  28  in income  (1974) points this  the  of the  employment.  difference  the two  p e r cent  economy,  national  p e r cent  electricity  contributes to the  Gregory 1970,  f o r 28  hospitals,  of the  manufacturing  GNP  of the  of the  of the  38. 5 per cent  24  The  of the  consumption  accounted  total  and  p e r cent  p e r cent  regions only  11. 7 p e r cent  the  comparable  p e r cent  mainstays  r e g i o n a l inequalities  regions  p e r cent  the  infrastructure  f o r 50  of  twice  the 30  f o r 60  equitable d i s t r i b u t i o n  only 2  electricity  (1971) study  account  are  with  over  Volta,  population and  they  areas  the  Lagos,  with  1972).  rural  both  a country  (1971) Upper  of the  and  r e c e i v e an  had  In Kenya,  population of  While the they  19*74).  to  city  r e g i o n a l inequalities  per and per  with  cent  of  kind) year; the  (CFA) workers.  of income  in his  31  study  on Uganda.  terms  The  rural  areas  of cumulative percentage  areas.  Bakwesegha  had a lower  of income  (1974 : 57) d e s c r i b e s  annual income in  levels this  than the urban  situation:  " F o r e m o s t among Uganda's p r o b l e m s a r e the p r e v a i l i n g r e g i o n a l inequalities which are even s h a r p e r today than they were ever in the past. These are evident in the d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n levels of development between v a r i o u s d i s t r i c t s ; the relative stagnation of the r u r a l areas; and the relative concentration of urbanization in the South as c o m p a r e d with the p r e d o m i n a t e l y r u r a l North. " The is  extent of r e g i o n a l  one of A f r i c a ' s  consequence development. Africa  ment.  affects  advancement  a result  rates the  to  growth  Scarce  as p r o b l e m s  extreme  visibility  poor reduce  seen  living  scientists  context  as the l o g i c a l pattern of  both  unrest  The continued concentration  about the  that  is a destabilizing  this  political  and economic  f o r developsit-  integration  Africa. Heavy  rural  to u r b a n  of r e g i o n a l by this  urban  centres.  of people  The p r o b l e m  to and i s caused  rise  of urban  necessitate  migration  development.  influx  r e s o u r c e s must  and populations and u r g e n c y  differs  mod-  imbalances  contributes  government  and u r b a n  of these  a r e caused  conditions  potential  traditionalism  unequal pattern  a r e a s to the large  inequities.  and  Migration.  as u r b a n i z a t i o n  areas  agreed  of T r o p i c a l  of this  of u r b a n  rural  plex  social  the s o c i a l ,  Rural-Urban is  among  rural  o r negative r a m i f i c a t i o n s  that  It can be  the A f r i c a n  e x p e r i e n c e and the r e s i d u a l  between  But it is g e n e r a l l y  uation  within  It e p i t o m i z e s the aspects of d u a l i s m t y p i c a l to  The opinion  positive  problems.  of the c o l o n i a l  and the c l a s h  ernism.  and  major  disparities  be  from i s com-  by  regional  spent i n urban  proportionately. unemployment,  The congestion  continuous monetary  and p o l i t i c i z a t i o n of the urban of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  High  inputs masses.  and i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s  32  in the urban areas  also forces  spending on urban services and  economic  The urban and  main factors  reinforce  rural  the  migration process by-  investments.  influencing migration are  increasingly difficult  amenities,  opportunities  city,  rural areas.  and income-earning  number of persons  lure of the  from the  with its  fascination with the ation about the towards  services,  culture  employment 'push' a each  year.  The  and wage-earning  jobs  to many rural persons.  The  modern city and the  often unreliable inform-  availability of industrial employment exerts  a 'pull'  the urban areas.  While both notions  contribute  to migration,  the lack of rural development which leads the cities.  It has  part <?f the  labour force  133)  rural areas  The lack of  rural sector  seems to be an attractive alternative  all  rural 'push' and  competition for the few worthwhile  jobs help to drive people from the  rural  These political  'pull'. The disadvantages and the hardships of the  the  large  governmental  and infrastructure.  considerations  favouring urban over  disproportionate  been described as  regions (Kamarck,  disparities  between  given the 1965).  it is primarily  to movements  toward  a rational reaction on the  employment  It is also  structure of the  a response  rural and urban areas.  to the  over-  As Gregory (1974 :  notes: "Migration discrepancies  is a response of rural people to the enormous in incomes, opportunities and public services."  Unlike the historical experience  of many 'developed'  African migration is not a consequence that released  much of the  countries,  of agricultural development  rural population from food production.  33  The  concomitant  cities  has  326)  not  demand  been  f o r labour  the  case  as  industry developed  in T r o p i c a l  Africa.  in the  Sovani (1964 :  concludes "that the economic 'pull' of the city, i . e . the demand f o r labour in developing e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s , is not the primarycause of 'overurbanization', but r a t h e r the 'push' f r o m the f r o m the r u r a l a r e a s . " The  to  a  collective  valuable capable the  individual  rationality  wastage  resource  of human  in T r o p i c a l  of p r o v i d i n g the  urban  of the  rural  urban  young  males,  often among  underemployed with  the  tunities  the  necessary of the  large' supply in  as  supply  persons  skills  down  the  the  rural  of educated,  educated find  better  areas  levels  find  semi-skilled  dedicated  agricultural  cope  the  problems  of development;  attractiveness  drain  potential  The  these  notion of  of the  human  'parasitic'  resources  urban  growth  are  rural  areas.  unemployed  oppor-  sector utilizes limited  the areas  the  extent.  of a l l urban  away  from  (Hoselitz,  This  workers.  lacking  a people.  r e q u i r e d to  education and  or  them  employment  are  a  migrants  energetic young  workers  urban  swap  provided  themselves  and  and  exaggerated  not  only to a  wage  by  and  to  i n their  themselves has  Innovative with  continue  industrial  but  most  r e p l a c e the 'inflated  they  system  urban  labour,  to keep  soon  to obtain the  The  lead  are • often i n -  m a j o r i t y of these  more  education  cities.  Subsequently, good  these  of cheap  t u r n helps  the  cities  the  underemployment  but  The  perhaps  can  opportunities anticipated  poverty  misery'.  city,  and  migrants,  f o r an  in the  The  Unemployment,  'rural  Arriving  Africa.  conditions of urban  expectations  resources,  benefits  new-comers.  debilitating  of r u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a n t s  system, the  rural  poverty  the  rural  1955)  can  areas. be  34  applied  to most  of T r o p i c a l  Africa.  As  summarized  by  El-Shakhs  (1974 : 6): "The chain r e a c t i o n of education, m i g r a t i o n and concentration of unemployed youths in cities i n c r e a s e s the threat of p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l unrest, which r e s u l t s in m o r e government attention and expenditures in the c i t i e s , which in turn i n c r e a s e s the c i t i e s ' attraction f o r m o r e m i g r a n t s . This vicious cycle continues to undermine r u r a l areas, which are unwittingly permitted to stagnate." Urbanization, the  rural-urban process,  countries the  have  factors  investment  impose  failed  is a  policies  aimed  magnified  their  complex  to recognize  potential  and  trends;  Many  these  problems  the ability  of development.  and African  among a l l  programmes  continuation of this  limit  level  stagnation  phenomenon.  these  at reducing A  in r u r a l  the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s  shape  them.  further hardships  achieve  i t s foundations  of society which  inadvertently  to  with  have  and  often  situation  will  of A f r i c a n societies  35  HYPOTHESES The  preceding  environment future is  FORMULATION  and some  directions  an attempt  Africa  might  survey  the planning hypotheses  study.  These  main The  ways  study.  based  The  be improved.  of A f r i c a n  a r e listed  issues  shape the of the study-  planning  is primarily  and includes  which  analysis of  will  strategy.  be tested  A f r i c a i n a systematic necessarily  case  of T r o p i c a l A f r i c a ,  case  study  are mainly  but there  directed  a r e also  i n the  of analyzing the  be  manner.  subject to  on the qualitative, and not quantitative,  The hypotheses  in  an i m -  developmental  as one means  facing  planning  the developmental  This  specific  below  serve  of national  planning  and a  which  remainder  in which  r e s u l t s of this investigation w i l l  limitations the  some  hypotheses  developmental  Africa.  issues  the adequacy  process  Several  the developmental  of the e m e r g i n g  to consider  process  pressionistic  describes  of T r o p i c a l  and to examine  planning  both  section  toward  some  nature of  the  applied  general to the  of Z a m b i a .  Hypothesis 1. It i s postulated can not be produced that  that a standardized development plan i s applicable to a l l A f r i c a n countries.  Hypothesis 2. It i s postulated that national plans which concentrate solely on the achievement of specific targets a r e not a p p l i cable in A f r i c a . Hypothesis 3. It i s postulated that development plans can not be effective given the existing data d e f i c i e n c i e s in A f r i c a n countries. Hypothesis 4. It i s postulated that the lack of planning p r o c e s s and implementation details can cause A f r i c a n national plans to be ineffective. Hypothesis 5. It i s postulated that pre-independence plans maxim i z e d returns to the c o l o n i a l powers instead of promoting internaldevelopments of the A f r i c a n countries. Hypothesis  6.  It i s postulated  that  African  national  plans  can be  36  rendered impotent by persons formal planning process.  or  groups  external  to the  Hypothesis 7. It is postulated that the scarcity of developmental capital can prevent successful implementation of African national plans. Hypothesis 8. It is postulated that a growth centre strategy can not be applied in the limited industrial economies of A f r i c a . Hypothesis 9. It is postulated that a rural development strategy can redress the regional imbalances within Zambia. Hypothesis 10. It is postulated that a well -defined urbanization policy can improve the effectiveness of national developmental planning in Zambia.  37  C H A P T E R II DEVELOPMENTAL A  PLANNING  GENERAL  IN  AFRICA  DESCRIPTION  "Yet, despite their flaws and shortcomings, one of the most d e c i s i v e t r a i t s of this A f r i c a n decade has been the g e n e r a l adoption of planning, on a continent-wide b a s i s , a p r o c e s s that i s historically irreversible" ( C l a i r m o n t e and Ben-Amor, 1972 : 120) INTRODUCTION African conspicuous as  societies  consumers  In this  in the 1960's have  of national planning,  often viewing  section, the national planning  A f r i c a . w i l l be examined planning provides a ies  particular  for  visable  social  development  OF  Before planning  "plans"  were  planning British  they  the pains  to A f r i c a  Africa,  super-  process;  these  how-  factors  into  and futility  in A f r i c a .  and scope  it w i l l  of planning  during  administered.  Board  of  developmental  be u s e f u l to examine the c o l o n i a l  by the m e t r o p o l i t a n  Marketing  can only  AFRICA  country  The beginnings  can be t r a c e d to the 1920's with Empire  political,  of inadequacy  planning  at the impact  prepared  territories  IN  on the chances  complex  to take  and devel-  of complexit-  of the planning have  of h i s t o r i c a l  i n independent nature  there  to suffer  PLANNING  looking  historical  indigenous  bearing  The  planning  A f r i c a n national  of the m y r i a d  direct  been  proliferation in  appraised.  i n the future.  agencies  descriptive  ROLE  that have  factors  o r continue  generally  overview  i n an examination  the planning  account  THE  to A f r i c a  be found  ever,  and c r i t i c a l l y  sweeping  and e c o n o m i c  ficially  the  independence  equivalent to, not p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r , national growth  opment.  the  since  period.  These  authorities f o r of A f r i c a n  the establishment  and the P l a n  briefly  of the  Sauffault of the  38  French by  (Clairmonte  the colonial  economic  Development  ments funds  (Uppal  four-year plan  Welfare  up  sand  1972).  plans following  million  various  cent going  cause  to A f r i c a and  of public  (Clairmonte  plans,  of c o l o n i a l  at the f u l l  narrow  more  precise  prepared  f o r the  with  770  thou-  channelled  through  an estimated  Ben-Amor,  1972).  schemes  were the  were  i n a dependent  and many  realization  the plans  were  only with those which  best  95 These  generally  three First,  many  projects  fragmented  of the  were financed  t h e r e f o r e the plans economic  be-  did not  potentials.  and  uncoordinated,  of the l o c a l  economy  and  complemented the home  economy  and sustained  developmental  strategies.  of investment  in scope  position,  investment  of indigenous  and  sectors  to note  planning f o r A f r i c a .  by the metropolitan- country;  inventories  and  were  it is important  directly  overall  funds  distribution  of the economy  projects  s e r i e s of  of planning i n A f r i c a .  the t e r r i t o r i e s  dealing  a  an estimated  possessions,  capital  characteristics  Secondly,  prepared  was  francs  govern-  of these  empire 1956  million in  territorial  and the entire and  econ-  Colonial  f o r the d i s p e r s i o n France  and  own  committed £l20  required  sectors  aim  to their  a much  1947  attempts  industrial  II and  In analyzing these critical  of their  War  to o v e r s e a s  investment  precursors  World  Between  French  agencies  general  this  and S a l k e v e r ,  were  i n the second  A c t of 1945, period;  These  colonies  Kingdom,  plans  1946-1956.  some  their  ten-year  covering France  period  per  United  ten-year  to draw  1972).  to r e m e d y  by u t i l i z i n g  The  and  subsequent  Ben-Amor,  powers  problems  o m i c advantage.  the  and  projects.  These  plans  Thirdly,  did not e s t a b l i s h  were  these  clear-cut  often  investment  mere  plans were policies  very  for direct-  39  ing development of the  colony.  They did not provide for directing,  encouraging  or  synchronizing private  investment;  provide for  a well-planned programme  sectors of the  services  Generally,  and public infrastructure  Basically, increasing of the  economy.  investment  only projects  were listed in the  colonies  of the people  themselves;  and the  thousands  by civil  persons  or  planning,  For  usually carried Since  of miles  requires  country.  These plans were  away from A f r i c a or  levels  if done  expertise in  of colonial administrators  even on the  states,  "they  in the  and development.  1960's,  yet  as  one virtue: they were  because  most  countries  step towards  self-  been done for three main  state of development two,  because  in which most  development  but social and political advancement  planning is viewed as  of satisficing political goals  African  a major  has  find themselves;  not only economic  advancement  This  because of the  countries  three,  discour-  out".  independence  one,  local  limited scale attached to  did have  accepted "national" planning as  African  well;  home  for  manipulations optim-  many reasons these were defective,  Kamarck ( 1971 : 264)  reasons:  social  plans.  servants often without any particular  even various  these plans.  reliance  in the  The lack of information and communication among  aged integrated  have  advance  these plans were broad outlines  izing maximum advantages to the  the field.  to  economic well-being  funds distribution and guidelines for economic  locally,  projects;  these plans were not developmental plans for  the welfare  often prepared  did not  of public expenditure  and they did not provide for much productive all  they  as  well as  of national well-being.  most  directing That  is,  rational the  most  as  means rational  40  " A f r i c a n plans r e f l e c t the excitement of newly a c q u i r e d p o l i t i c a l independence and the enthusiasm felt i n the face of a gigantic task." (Molnos, 1970: 10). In many cases, but  also weapons  and  unemployment  change  listed  part  of their  The  mere  cepted  against  is  significance  of this  societies.  majority many  of some  of A f r i c a n  aspects  warrants  some  countries  and the f a i l u r e  with  these  plans  of national plans  and Salkever,  1972).  been  so r e a d i l y ac-  reflects  the relative  gover.nments. in B l a c k  As  Africa  of national plans  but i n the rationale and i n i t i a l  control  behind  steps  over  taken  the fate  criticism  about  a s s o c i a t e d with  aided  remain  impoverished  to alleviate  plans  them. But  decade.  of plans  by the  these  that have  extremely  them.  of their  states i n the past  these  in the  The in  conditions  examining  the p r o b l e m s  and these  c o n s t r a i n t s to e f f e c t i v e plan-  hopefully a better understanding  viability  have  s u c c e s s f u l plans  By  i n p r e p a r a t i o n as  f o r national development.  record  African  consideration.  connection ning,  implementation  also been  development  as 1962, 22  countries  In r e t r o s p e c t , the s t r i k i n g  have  as e a r l y  proliferation  their  disease  dedication to  by the new  independence  to demonstrate  the d i s m a l  there  plan  involved,  represent  governments  is  process  necessities,  reflect  o r plans  and plans  kind" of short t e r m  plans  Even  30 independent  not i n the numbers  These  that  strategy f o r development to this  political  of the society- poverty,  strategy (Uppal  that planning  attached  The  ills  either, c u r r e n t plans  as a v i t a l  some  are not only  advancement.  of 1972, approximately had  chronic  national growth  fact  importance  plans  - and instruments  and s o c i e t a l  countries  these  in A f r i c a  will  emerge  to d i r e c t  o c c u r r i n g in  to increase the  development.  41  EFFECTIVENESS  OF A F R I C A N  It is apparent adopted in African since the the  early  that the  PLANNING  concept  countries.  of planning has  The proliferation of "national" plans  1960's seems to  speak well to this point.  significant impact of this phenomenon is not the  of planning as important  has the  development plan successfully country?  that it has not.  Many authors  have found little evidence accepted,  ignored and redone.  rather the sought,  rule,  much less  between the plan and its Gardiner, Africa,  Executive  and goals  In other  made,  exceptional are  words,  well-  this question  plans are  It is not the  achieved.  case,  Secretary of the  the  Economic  but  seldom actively relationship -  implementation is very tenuous.  drives the point home by  more  certainly be  to answer  contrary:  that plan targets  the  increased  conclusion must  attempting  to the  acceptance  ratification of a national  contributed to the  The general  However,  mere  a vital cog in the developmental machine;  question remains:  being of the  been readily-  Robert  Commission of  stating,  "There had been much more success in drawing up plans than implementing them. Plans represent high hopes and sour performances." (Kamarck, 1971 : 266). The next logical question appears totally unrealistic  and impossible to implement,  mentation mechanisms majority  there  in adopting plans to guide and direct little or  appears  to  are  D e  a  a  the  imple-  That the serious  seems to be little  sense  the development of a country  no hope of being utilized.  of the problem is very  question  or  of plans fail to be implemented indicates  if these plans have  these plans  inadequate for handling plans?  deficiency in the planning process;  nature  to be: are  complex  and the  answer  combination of inadequacies  But the to the in both  the  42  plans  themselves  seems  contact  the  they  any  value  too  plans  highly  achievement  it  narrow,  both f a c t o r s  is the  record.  appears  the  have too  or  too  plans,  caused  hand,  plans  or  It  ambitious  to  other  biased  vague,  that  of the  contribute  most  plan.  more  to  of these  the  such  failures  inherited  that  in  disjointed to  Seers  as  points  nature  factor can  have  planning  the  account  plans  possibilities As  plans  into  poor  that  significant  capacities  implementation  nature  On  Development  administrative  actual  contributed  i n t e r r e l a t e d , it seems  themselves  taking  may  capacities.  t h e o r e t i c a l and  have  plans.  process  prac-  have  in application.  Although are  of  structures  were  highly  reality,  implementation  tice  implementation  cases,  with  administrative  and  the  that, in many  lacking in  and  performance of  in this  either be or  paid  not,  the poor formulated  and  little  in  attention to the  objective  constraints  out  : 19):  (1972  general  on  the  .*' •  •" it is indeed quite a puzzle how some 'plans' ever came to be "produced, so lacking in p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e a l i t y ar,e they, c o n s i d e r i n g the high c a l i b e r of the people working on them. " In  attempting  essential and  granted  most this  to  part  to present keep  a high  point  status,  in achieving  paradox  cerned  this  with  is a nor  administrative  a  realities.  in mind. yet  stated  tendency  viable  d e s c r i p t i o n of planning  to  it has  been  has  been  unsuccessful  for  The  primary  produce  that  are  of  is a  plans  economic,  the  cause  neither  political  it is  accepted  p o l i c y goals.  in t e r m s This  Planning  in A f r i c a ,  of  con-  or  tendency  "to set goals according to development needs instead of r e s o u r c e s and means to achieve them. Since needs are vitually l i m i t l e s s at a l l l e v e l s in the e a r l y stages of development, plan targets are bound to exceed the capacity of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system." (Molnos, 1970 : 22)  43  PAST  DIFFICULTIES There  planning  have  been  in A f r i c a  and  of plans,  execution  planning,  equated  One  ends,  administrative  problem  areas:  composition  in the intrpretation  plans  formula  component  a r e made.  plans  Plans  of plans,  have  when  but it i s p r i m a r i l y ends.  that a plan  made  f o r the wrong  with  because  they  and not seen of  reasonable  development,  a theoretical  i s bound of  blueprint of means  a hindrance  guarantees  were  as an  it can be a statement  It has been  by itself  of the purpose  failed  the attainment equated  in r e a l i -  and m e a n i n g l e s s  f o r development,  aiding  Planning,  achieving these  to assume  success.  of f r u s t r a t i o n  to end up as inadequate  to a m a g i c  goals.  source  be disappointing and unachievable;  desired for  and l i m i t e d  r e s p e c t to four  Too often A f r i c a n  organizational  to  has been  are l i k e l y  national  with  plans  f o r m u l a t i o n of plans,  i . e . WHY  documents.  associated with national  contributed to i t s l i m i t e d  of P l a n s .  zing rplanning goals  reasons  PROCESS  of plans.  Interpretation  of  problems  of vaporous  can be viewed  interpretation  PLANNING  many  that have  The b a s i c p r o b l e m s capacities  IN T H E  to goal  development.  fulfillment  As  Molnos  states, "The m a j o r r e a s o n f o r the gap between planning and implementation is an overevaluation of the planning p r o c e s s itself, p a r t i c u l a r l y development plans, and e s p e c i a l l y comprehensive ones." (Molnos, 1970 : 10) Specifically, for a ing  many  African  political political  sented  planning  governments;  necessity. support  a concrete  has been  an important  indeed,  It has often been and seeking  platform  political  tool  it i s often c o n s i d e r e d used  as a means  national unity.  f o r governments  A  plan  to stand  to be  of securhas r e p r e -  on and  44  solicit  national  support. may  For  not  behind  unstable  stages  may not  popular  statehood  a political  plan  that  be  a  necessarily  political  situation, f o r  to  to  see  and  "may real  that  goals  the  implementing  too  passive  (to  combat  lacking ment  of  with  the  rationale  change  rather  force  are  are  be  complexities  of  the  of  a  of  the  the  The  strategy".  to  often  are  1972  Africa  when  applied  plan.  has  and  to  strong  fail  planning in  the  policies are  as  too as  : 23).  planning.  the  applied often  Seers  (Seers,  inconsistent given  Africa,  led  d i r e c t i v e they  simplistic  is a  ideolo-  feasible project  they  carry  serious  overambitious  a  of  in a  in independent  as  the  kind  This  substitute,  actions: when  too  in  in independent  practicable  ills)  costs,  highly  difficult  a  an  and  instrucope  The  determinant  often  weapon  vague  adequately  developmental p r o c e s s . plan  objectives  this  strategy.  both  effective;  often  creating  enactment  a  applied  economic  aspirations  publicize political  are  not  plan  countries  often  often  Plans  When  to  to  a  than disjointed p r o j e c t  s u c c e s s f u l l y guide and  use  strategy  strategies  goals  are  successful  means  and  considering  the  plans  to  ambitious  African  developmental  together.  they  behind  to  incorporating  them.  social  enough  of  stated  for  to  a  " n a t i o n a l " plans  necessity  attainable  i n many  financial  attached  undertaking.  development  in planning  these  an  actually be  comprehensiveness  the  sense  plan  shift  However,  such  tool producing  a viable  that  been  of  as  conditions  without  rational political  to w a r n  The  appeal  as  well  indicate highly  contributed  is used  very  a  may  as  realities  economic  situation found  of  as  gies  plan  feasibilities  political  planning  but  A  and  political  objective  tremendous  efficiencies,  A  reasons  with  plan.  that have  out.  international l e g i t i m a c y  these  coincide  the  early  and  in  the  45  Financial the  role  n e c e s s i t y has also  of planning  which  Faced  with  relied  heavily on f o r e i g n aid.  requisite  or  then,  a i d without no thought  for  the plan  national plan, for  p a r t i e s involved  the  plans.  "lofty and  intellectual  been  in A f r i c a  has been  problem  area  is formed  i . e . WHO of  the tools and biases  indigenous  from  the  of the government  methodologies.  the plans,  with  and Olakanpo, modelling)  Given  the m a j o r i t y  filled  with  formulated econo-  developed with  high-  a loose of these  Western policies  the p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s of 1964).  Not only  inapplicable given  and developmental  by  makes  generally  incompatatible  a  plans.  were  to the naivete  a  ineffectual  expatriate planners  (Carlson  sophistication  have  were  tools (e.g. e c o n o m e t r i c  of economic  f o r formulating  of the shortage  c o n s t r u c t i o n s " were  development  plans  planning  these  little  f o r them  plans  to design  indicators basically  African these  i n which  asked  A f r i c a n development  t e c h n i c a l and a n a l y t i c a l  framework  many  appeal  l e d to the production  the donors  behind  because  them  and appealing  and with  of r a i s o n d'etre  wonder  a pre-  It i s a u s e f u l f r a m e w o r k  in constructing the plan;  These  bringing with  powered  type  to achieving  most  experts.  countries  this  In general,  personnel,  mists  instances  p r i m a r i l y as an  and has in fact  because  have  of a " n a t i o n a l " plan.  realities.  of P l a n s . Another  the  hired  has been used  The WHY  Formulation  by  only  it i s s m a l l  of p r o b l e m s  skilled  i n many  i s the adoption  by donors,  Given  development.  source  A f r i c a n governments  However,  to implementation  of one o r two plans 1972).  many  c l e a r - c u t strategies and p r o j e c t s ,  a loan p o l i c y  (Seers,  r e s u l t e d in i m p r a c t i c a l plans.  of capital,  to obtaining funds  Sometimes, for  a scarcity  have  influenced interpretations of  were the l e v e l  objectives, but heavy  46  data  requirements  planning.  were  necessary  Furthermore,  to* o p e r a t i o n a l i z e this  these "planners"  removed  from  economy  and p o l i t i c a l  temperaments  is  wonder plans  drawn  small  nominally  adopted  The much  in  advocating input  lack  into  tunities even  strategies;  mutual  those  the c i t i z e n r y  Leys the  (1971) r e f e r accepting  most  were  that  Private  were  plan,  only  with  the plan  about  often vague  Two  was  goals  f o r this  designers.  of job oppor-  Additionally,  A f r i c a n countries,  plan  there  objectives, goals and  to voice  collective  as a "double  of the current  and concentrating  the lack  insufficient  and non-committal.  phenomenon  involved  reasons  (in t e r m s  allowed  empowered  subject  the politicians had  and the second  activities  been  expediency  of a p o l i t i c i a n  goals  M a r r i s and  limitation" politicians  on the economic  as the choices  formulation. plans  were  influenced by s e v e r a l  i n v e s t o r s and businesses  in m a x i m i z i n g  sources.  their  often had substantial influence on the d i r e c t i o n could  area. It  i s a lack of expertise and  agreement  to this  experts  has also  process.  of many  were  of the  of the capital  the p o l i t i c a l  systems  of development  Externally,  This  who  relevant definition,  within  ments  dialogue  aspects  of these  out: the f i r s t  daily  the one-party  not always  from  of the politician;  f o r serious  with  outside  process  the actual planning  pressing  totally  implemented.  in this  life  generally  important  and the development  The p r e c a r i o u s  security) plus  of  planning  on the part  time.  was  Aside  of contribution stand  skills of  criticism.  role  with  by many  and s e l d o m  politicians  to  little  and inexperienced  were  type of  be in t e r m s  of the plan,  but just  own investof development.  as often was  independ-  47  ent  of,  if not  extent, the  national economy  their that  on  the  own would  direction  be  simply  with  little the  proceeded or  no  of the  ernments  as  to  large  civil  elected  officials  donors,  and  consequences  African  there  biased  major  by  they  share  had  a  of  major within  certain policies if this  thought  reprisals  larger  operating  toward  investors;  direction  of g o v e r n m e n t a l  large  thereby  development  a  best  for  failed, anyway  countermand-  above,  aid donors  also  influenced  the  f o r e i g n gov-  stakes  certain  planning  i n the  the  by  often used  formulation  public or  local  adoption  local  impact  expatriate  seems  the  l u r e of  of plans  aid or  on  and  even  the  plan  economists,  political  d e s i r a b l e to  administrators,  entrepeneurs  little  of  a  them.  members  large  of  number  formulation.  of  When  foreign investors  and  little  doubt  that  interests,  perceptions  of p a r t i c u l a r  plans  are  of dubious  merit  to  many  countries.  Composition content  of  of the  Plans.  A  plan  based  the"planner s"; Le. the \ W H A T contained legacy  and  To  and/or  had  aid  controlled a  sector  were  to these  goals.  International organizations  the  is done  often  policy  plan.  guarantee  service,  planning  Plans  s t r a t e g i e s , and  In general,  the  stated  economic  mentioned  plan.  had and  support  by  the  given  in the  fear  intent of the  policies  of  beneficial  Finally, shape  i n any  growth plans.  they  the  to,  multinational corporations  impact  ing  in contrast  a  and  espoused  statement removing  goals  (e.g.  further problem  of the  of g e n e r a l  on  the  plan. aims  reason  area  f o r the  Basically, (e. g.  continued  is f r a m e d  the  plan plan  overcoming  the  development),  a  obstacles  to  reduction  in unemployment,  increase  and often  in  colonial set  of  school  48  enrollment, indicator  development  targets  in  p e r capita  to  GDP,  objectives  also  Unfortunately, "national" specific  to  coordinate  these  projects,  plans  fore  filled  This  type  hopes  with  (Seers,  meaningless policy this  arouse  seem  tools,  been,  given  means and General  to f u l f i l l  the ambi-  frequently resulted  lists  stems  reading  been  Well-meaning  programs or  from  a s p i r a t i o n s a r e difficult  the inability  realistic  aspects  African  little  and f i l l e d  country.  and  a great  with  there-  better than  fantasies"  statement  Indeed,  to the development  process.  to f u l f i l l ,  may  administrative bureaucrats,  of  and i m p o s s i b l e  development.  and this  great  d e a l of oper-  o r not, the overt  to A f r i c a n  of a  appealing objectives.  intangible indices of achievement  can be h a r m f u l  goals.  to be o v e r l y ambitious  "do not have  have  in f r a g -  planning  of p o l i c i e s ,  and u n i v e r s a l l y  but they  s u s p i c i o n among  these  policies.  to the individual  i s pleasant  targets contribute little  rhetoric  lofty  : 19).  these  a l l the relevant,  adaptable  relevance . . . some 1972  have  of these  years.  out the n e c e s s a r y  in implementation  comprehensive  of document  may  increase  sector contribution  to seven  of the g e n e r a l  are b a s i c a l l y  plans  and p r o m i s e s ,  ational  to spell  investments  that i s p a r t i c u l a r l y of these  goals  application  the difficulty  Most  rate,  p e r i o d f o r the achievement  allotments  integrate and i n c o r p o r a t e  plan  economic  conveniently unspecified, and the attempts  ministerial  o r incomplete  Whether  at a c e r t a i n  to implement  or sectoral  of the plan were  mented  to  often failed  and some  in the i n d u s t r i a l  as these  p r o j e c t s designed plans  growth  etc.),  indicated, u s u a l l y three  admirable  plans  budgetary tions  increase  A b a s i c time  was  areas,  (e.g. sustained  income,  etc.).  of r u r a l  Such  alienate and  stimulate  49  political  f a c t i o n a l i s m , and  populace  which,  seems very  that many  unrealistic  these in  when  African While  plans  were  policies  and  goals  country,  to  include  buted  to  implementation  projects  and  well  a  the  as end  it  a  means  of the  precluded  of the  attention was  to the  and  t h e r e f o r e different  the  population growth  important  proper Finally,  to  the  of executive were  i s , planning changed  machinery  these  plans  the  and  plans  progress  should  guide  and  optimism,  development  have  these  process.  these  either  plan.  plans contri-  Specific  g e n e r a l l y absent,  as  of the  at  plan,  both  plan,  even  a  the to  more  the  "plan planning  to the  plans  office"  failed  necessary to  any  as  itself,  (Seers,  1972 :  evolving  to p r e p a r e  for African  emphasize  c a r r y out existing  control,  successfully  continual p r o c e s s ,  planning  to  and  Little  suffered h o p e l e s s l y  of a planning be  This making  to development.  plan  of  accomplished  of population planning  g e n e r a l l y neglected  oblivious  achievement  r e - e v a l u a t i o n of the  circumstances;  f o r flexible  d e s i r a b l e but  at r e g u l a r i n t e r i m p e r i o d s .  also failed  capacity n e c e s s a r y plans  were  of the  job  unrest. It  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e details,  counteracted  the  adapting  generalities of the  in the  circumstances.  topics that could  aspects  perhaps  That  of  aspect  The  33).  best  a dynamic  projects. most  in the  programs  planned  that  been  a n a l y s i s and  paid  socially  coordination of the  plan p e r i o d  blueprint, not  of  have  aspects  or  political  not  with  to evaluate  constant  static  even  s e v e r a l key  timing  promote  composed  in specific  failed  expectations  objectives, and  important  also lacking  increased  can  could  over-burdened  often lacked  Though  unmet,  plans  comprehensive  any  create  the  and the  countries.  development  plans.  Not only  implementation  capabil-  50  ities,  but they  growth  were  of these  improved  the  are l a r g e l y  hind  them,  manner  to allow  implementation  Once a plan  occurs  of the plan.  Typically,  the  same  persons  carry  included insight to  the implementation and appreciation  adjust  The  the plans  compexity  government the  civil  service  problems ing  which  occur  tion  goals  and  often  optimal  plan  ensure  i n the plan,  priority patronage  also  fetters  gain  plan  levels  as w e l l ,  planners  they  lacked the  ability  over  senior  effective  and  considerations. cooperation  developmental  does  and  among  civil  the p o l i t i c i a n s that  depart-  goals.  Corrup-  servants  and  as p e r s o n n e l by  rather  Generally, among  infight-  conflicting  the r e s u l t  are guided  within  coordination  Not only  planning  ambitions  to implement.  hierarchy  national planning  among  necessary  the numerous  varied  with  a r e not  structures  can be found  decisions  of enforcing  integrated  over  i . e.  when  among  cooperation  or political  development  an  links  implementation.  but this  and investment  means  who  the d i f f e r i n g  serious  ministers  receive  personal  inadequate to  hinder  ministers  pointments gations,  creates  cabinet  and m o r e  cabinet  to  by a govern-  and m i n i s t r i e s and the power  interests,  various  mental  according  negative  of the plan;  Even  of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  at the b u r e a u c r a t i c  departmental and  out the plan.  of the communication  agencies  i s adopted  the p e r s o n s  process  or  of the plan.  i n the enactment  HOW  of  and p e r s o n s be-  in a positive  implementation  the  who  stated  as a means of  The contents  by the purposes  can be  of P l a n s . often  the plans  i n the future.  determined  successful  a problem  of the need to incorporate the  capacities into  but nonetheless  Execution ment,  unaware  managerial  ensuring plan  also  social than  obliefficiency  there are  parastatal  program.  ap-  agencies  51  Additionally, tied  to  ment  the  the  economic  i n economic  amount  countries.  goods  cluded  in a  declines funds nations from  and  the  may  these  is f r o m  aid.  Again,  over  estimates  a  private  sector - d o m e s t i c  to the  dropped.  the  plans.  case  that  size  of  are  difficult  to  imposed  bureaucracies  of the  As  both  b a r r i e r s to and  Dean  hobble  (1971) and  successful  Dean  of  National  to  inexperience,  the an  Nigerian inadequate  lack  of  significantly of  Molnos are  may  run  It i s  : 5).  counter  generally  connection Even  with the  high  the  limited  l i m i t a t i o n s on  the  plans. suffer  (1970) point not  economic, that  Development  administrative  the  preparation  implementation  (1971) showed  imagination,  do-  effective t r a n s i t i o n f r o m  planning  administrative.  public  deviations  the  and  serious  for  of  sectoral allocation  little  development  responsible can  the  1964  market  anticipated  be  plan.  show  in-  of the • actions  predict  has  implementation  as  in the  decisions  world  source  hindered  well  embodied  d e f i c i e n c i e s which  due  as  projects  on  to  uncertainty  internal markets  mentation was  the  primary  is r i s k y and  plans  Olakanpo,  action.  tical  many  large  African  few  if the  based  years  and  The  major  of  a  Invest-  a  in most  prime  plans  (Carlson  successful  to  make  amount  requires  upon  other  closely  government.  setbacks  The  is often  expenditures  or f o r e i g n - have  "investment  priorities"  capital  caused  objectives  plan  several  The  rely  serious  to  the  commodity  generally and  plans  projects  scarce  Likewise,  investments  desired  social  period  have  or  of private  implement  commodities.  loans  adequate  a  suffer  altered  of  as  revenues,  plan  to  available to  countries  for  for  well  capital,  These  export  means  as  of public  ability  capacity turnover  the  out,  Plan,  the  but  poor  plan  poli-  imple-  1962-1968,  which  included  rates,  inability  to  52  p e r f o r m a s s i g n e d tasks, patronage, and l a c k of t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e . L e y s and M a r r i s (1971), as w e l l as S e e r s (1972) found the suspicious and c o n s e r v a t i v e nature of the b u r e a u c r a c y  to be a hindrance to  p r o m o t i n g and a c t i v e l y w o r k i n g towards plan goals.  The bureaucractic  position and s t r u c t u r e of the planning o r g a n i z a t i o n v a r i e s f r o m country to country,  but the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and authority of the planning agency  had significance i n the s a t i s f a c t o r y execution of the plan.  The h i s t o r leal  development of these a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s t e m s c h a r g e d with executing plans a l m o s t works i n opposition to r a t i o n a l a l l o c a t i o n of s c a r c e resources, agencies;  national plan p r i o r i t i e s and cooperation with other the apparent c o n c e r n of many m i n i s t r i e s and agencies i s  s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n and growth. T h e r e have been many p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d with planning i n Independent A f r i c a , amny of which have contributed to a poor p e r f o r m a n c e r e c o r d in s u c c e s s f u l l y c a r r y i n g out national plans.  In hindsight, the m a j o r  contributing f a c t o r s to this situation were the plans t h e m s e l v e s their rationale, f o r m u l a t o r s , content and f e a s i b i l i t y .  T h e exact  weight attached to each of these segments of a poor plan v a r i e s f r o m country to country, but there i s evidence that each aspect contributed to: the i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the m a j o r i t y of national plans i n A f r i c a .  The other  p r i m e f a c t o r was the inability to c a r r y out these plans given the existing c : executive c a p a c i t i e s and s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s .  CONSTRATINTS ON T H E A F R I C A N P L A N N I N G P R O C E S S Since independence during the 1960's, the A f r i c a n experience i n planning  indicated a burgeoning of national plans and a r a t h e r  53  unimpressive Although  record  some  of achievement  plans  have  responsible  f o r some  been  made  to look  with  many  development  to  realize  been  in t e r m s  achievements,  at the weaknesses  the d e f i c i e n c i e s  in A f r i c a .  and t r y to m i n i m i z e  areas  above,  effective This  planners which and  planning type  must  these  recognize  of ' r e a l i s t i c '  factors  these  in that they  plans;  as valuable  problem  resources  plans.  equivalent  to constraints on c u r r e n t were  constraints  The p r o b l e m s  caused  typical  agents  of planning  in A f r i c a  velopment, this  process  will  fruitless ment with. is  remain  To  ignore  intention  realities  as constraints  influence the goals, planners  past  plans  may  scope  consider  and i n c o r p o r a t e i n a r e in many  and future plans,  cases  o r these  of d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s and implement which  for.  impose  Otherwise,  not only  them  i s an invitation  and p o s s i b l y futile  i s a sensible solution:  stategy:  to u t i l i z e  the planning plans and  but they  to f a i l u r e : to respect them  f o r de-  constraints upon  to plan f e a s i b i l i t y  be recognized,  and plan-  plans  as it has in the past - fancy  The limitations  targets must  first,  in A f r i c a .  be accounted  labors.  a costly  them  must  s e v e r a l constraints  reasons:  to harness  with  to formulate  the indigenous  process  the p r o b l e m  by lack of c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the p a r t i c u l a r  If it i s the s i n c e r e ning  From  factors  second,  'realistic'  problems  than to  in A f r i c a .  be c o n s i d e r e d  design  them  it is p o s s i b l e to identify  of a n a l y s i s i s u s e f u l f o r two  should  associated  It is m o r e constructive  the few s u c c e s s f u l examples .  on  and  an attempt has  and p r o b l e m s  dwell on p r a i s i n g mentioned  plans.  s u c c e s s f u l l y implemented  developmental  plans  of these  and  develop-  must  be dealt  to change and  them  minimize  is a constructive and  54  progressive and  step.  manifested Four  many  have  look  types  examined  of these  above  will  ability  existing  to adequately  administrative of plans,  countries.  There  experienced duction  occurring  in plan  bringing  sensitivity  with  many  There  of which  i n the past.  a more  focussed  were  standing  shortages  relevant these  planning  of A f r i c a n  tools  lack  planners, them  planning  of both  problems.  applicable  societies.  own  data  be faced  hierarchy  the i n t r o social  common  even  with  countries  of development formulators  and incomplete  and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  if l o c a l  the out-  to these  to the p o l i c y  inadequate  personnel  and a g e n e r a l i n -  to the p a r t i c u l a r stages  is often  bureaucratic  skilled  Furthermore,  too would  The a c c e s s i b i l i t y  In the of these,  and other  biases  upon  given the  has necessitated  economists  reliable  many  of domestic  this  their  plans  countries.  l i m i t a t i o n s face  available, they  in  the  location of the  agents.  Assuming many  several  with  decision-makers  functional  realities  are constraints  and implement  formulation;  to l o c a l  planners  These  prepare  is a general  of expatriate  scientists  and  p r o c e s s can  and economic.  headings,  mentioned  Constraints.  preparation  in  broad  they  as p r o b l e m s .  political  as p r o b l e m s  be b r i e f l y  in A f r i c a  to the planning  social, these  in a l l covintries  at a few p a r t i c u l a r examples. Administrative  and  clearly  of constraints  under  occur  but perhaps  more  administrative,  constraints  been  Several  themselves  main  identified:  are  the  to planning  at a l l l e v e l s of government,  have  be  Constraints  constraints  an adequate inhibiting  plan  has been  successful  put f o r w a r d ,  enactment  there a r e  of the p o l i c i e s and  goals of the plan. The i s s u e of c e n t r a l i z e d v e r s u s d e c e n t r a l i z e d plan implementation  presents l i m i t a t i o n on both sides; the c e n t r a l admin-  i s t r a t i o n is often too r e m o v e d f r o m the countryside to make  allowances  for r e g i o n a l or l o c a l differences; the d e c e n t r a l i z e d a p p r o a c h suffers f r o m an  .  inadequate a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f r a m e w o r k as w e l l as s e r i o u s c o o r d i n a t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n deficiencies„ The  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l positioning of the admin-  i s t r a t o r s i s often s c a t t e r e d throughout s e v e r a l agencies, decision-makers  isolated f r o m  and planners, and e n c u m b e r e d with red-tape and dif-  fused r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , thus l i m i t i n g coordination and coherence of implementath e f f o r t s . Often, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of plans is thwarted by inadequate  powers  of e n f o r c e m a i t and sanctions f o r inducing compliance with developmental goals. F i n a l l y , as Dean (1971) emphasized, the demands p l a c e d upon , plan-executors frequently f a l l outside the a r e a of their competence and experience,  l i m i t i n g t h e i r actions while they l e a r n to handle these  new  tasks p r o p e r l y . A d m i n i s t r a t o r s a r e repeatedly a s k e d to implement plans s t r e s s i n g only p o l i c i e s and investment budgets; they a r e therefore, l i m i t e d by the vagueness and 'unstructuredness  1  of the task.  Inexperienced and c o n s e r v a t i v e bureaucrats can, and do, p r i o r i t i e s or i n c o r r e c t l y i n t e r p r e t p o l i c i e s into a c t i o n s .  misconstrue The  cap-  acityaand d e s i r a b i l i t y of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s to t r a n s l a t e broad p o l i c y statements into actions is questionable; the adaptability of admini s t r a t o r s to tasks other than w e l l - d e f i n e d p r o j e c t s is l i m i t e d .  It  is a constraint on the planning p r o c e s s to plan a c c o r d i n g to a d m i n i s t r a t i v e capacities, but it must be r e c o g n i z e d and may  be  b e n e f i c i a l l y a c c o m m o d a t e d through well-jthought-out project planning. If the advancement of the quality and d i v e r s i t y of the executive  56  capabilities  is not recognized  limitations  vital to the  sophisticated  Constraints.  ning objectives  mass  These  lengthy and deeply-rooted.  African model has ites and the  citizens  of planners  flee the  the  modate these diverse  cities  in the  to implementation. farmers  attempting  to promote  of values.  reside in  are  differ-  constrictions The  school system  cities to  limits the  stimulate  the  can promote  whereby adapt-  rural devel-  spatial dispersion of the populace  interests,  creates  who still  serious  present  communication links  employees  conflict  is in the  of these groups  and projects  of regionalism which tempers  subsistence  90%)  countryside to the  bined with inadequate  tween  limita-  allocating funds and projects.  created by the  Further,  obstacles  illit-  list is  only a few of these  (about  and needs  ability of certain programs opment.  medical care - the  compatible; this poses  dislocational effect educated  social constraints - i . e.  produced a distinct division between the urban-  ent and not always  the  plan-  operational viability of the plans.  However,  The desires  choices  goals  which affect  The rapid growth of central  rest of the  country.  achieve-  country.  A main area of constraint  rural/urban dichotomy.  the  development  constraints  unemployment,  tions will be discussed.  constrain the  African  are  be included as  poverty,  plan target,  and comprehensive  and influence the  Many factors might  on the  severely  sustained growth of the  Social  the  an essential  imposed by them will  ment of more  eracy,  as  com-  a  overall national plans to  system accom-  or fails to do so and incurs many The wide gap in terms of need be-  and urban wage-earners  considerable  or  salaried  problems for decision-makers in  development as  well as  to  cope with this  57  Another "tribalism" concern  key focus  characteristic of most  is the  national,  of contraints  limitations  surrounds  African  the  ethnicity  countries.  The  practiced  imposed on planning by a lack of  This often manifests by politicians  itself  and civil  in the type of patronage  servants which overrules  tions of effectiveness  and national priorities.  various  for  ethnic  groups  "Tribalism"  special considerations  often contributes  thus freeing the it is just  as  an obstacle  social  to development"  system far (Molnos,  social organization  of African entrepeneurs  handicap to more Two major  costs;  1970  : 12).  Prime  objectives  are  contributes  unless  to the  serious  these plans  consider  (2.6  cent annually) even compared  sent severe  the  Population increase  cent per  major  constraining  plans  rates to other  e.g.  the  of social  less  in A f r i c a  This  will be  are  developing  potential  services.  of education  of these goals  annum in Latin America).  limitations to planning,  are  significance  accomplishment  restricted.  per  a  short-  seldom incorp-  and improvement  severely  2.7  serious  growth.  included in many development  and population planning, the  per  is  population and educational planning.  optimization of human resources However,  however,  This form  effects upon development planning, but which are into the plan,  services,  from being an asset  social factors which have  orated  nec-  groups.  which is often considered  rapid economic  of  and projects  and welfare  economy from many welfare  likely that "the  of "traditional"  valuable  ques-  The demands  essitates much political maneuvering to placate these  (e.g.  basic  cultural and social unity maintained by tribal and ethnic  identities.  age  or  high,  countries,  can  pre-  private  58  savings,  aggravation  tortion of the to  increase  age  GNP at  capita  and regional disparities,  structure distribution  rate is not a very per  of class  a rate lower than the population sensible  attack on the problem of  the  advancement  but because it is often neither national plan,  it can become  Education already  consumes  of education  requires  as  more  education  a large  imposes  well by such conditions as  curricula draining  A plan  increase increasing  ( in terms of the  a desirable  an impediment to  goal,  into the  development.  share of the  small budgets  and increased  sophisticated  system  is  planned nor integrated  available to African governments,  current  1970).  income.  Likewise,  sector  (Molnos,  and dis-  efficiency of this  planning techniques.  The  limits on the planning process  high drop-out  "real"  needs  rates,  of the  meaningless  society),  school fees and high unemployment among the  incomemore  educated. Political planning as  rational goals expedient.  planning thus  are  are  constraints  (1968  : 1888)  implies political choices".  itical considerations  governments, impose  Policy makers  serious  states,  Given the  it is  constraints  forced to  government  objectives  in light of these political .. realities. differently by politicians  " . . . all  youth of  most  small wonder that pol-  within the  weighted very  efficient and  the most politically  on the planning  face political insecurity  and are  which define  most  not necessarily  As Myrdal  independent African  process.  These  a political process whereby the  economically rational or  Constraints.  choose  sensitive  and factionalism plan goals  Priorities to tribal,  and are regional  59  and  party  inputs  interests,  into the  pressing  targets  demands  again  limit  ically  make.  opment,  the  these  upon  The  a vital  concerns  associated their  amount  is often  as  their  plans.  level  of  dedication  successful  compromised  plan  by  can  to  The  expertise  policy makers  sincere  for  c e r t a i n l y affect their  development  and  they  of  ingredient  with  time  contributions  implementation, and  and  realist-  national  devel-  formulation  personal  and  aspirations  influential lobbyists. Many  African  appropriate plies  an  Advocation  clude  owned  built  upon  citizens  these  unrest  and  schemes  may  also  forced  social  available to  ment  may  fetter  the  these  alternatives.  commitment  actual  constraints ideals  such  have  increased  development  most The  the  to  be  promises  efficient  as  question  may  support  which  the and  of  more political  such  grand  emphasize  the  integrated  short  of  contribute to  plans  pre-  gradually  social  temperament  of timing  process.  immediate  great  given  to  equality,  etc.,  espousing  policies  and  income  im-  economic  planning  expectations of  priorities  of  implemented  public  well  political  as  more  The  choose  the  goods,  policy-makers  to  them;  on  social  that  as  generally  of  goals  programs  this  an  spheres  run  unfillable  The  and  as  in many  s e r i o u s l y hinder  instability.  and/or  sources  by  generative  are  socialist"  successes.  reforms  fundamental  state  degree  impose  long  "socialism"  development  development  enabling  encouraged  economic  adopted  industries, universal  strategies f o r benefits,  The  itself  "African  term  omic  1972).  can  of  achieve  r o l e f o r the  (Singh,  policies  publicly  to  expanded  activities these  means  societies have  scarce of  econre-  the  combination and  governof  programmes  60  is very political, between  short  text of the  and decision makers  versus  long-term  assumed benefits  That is,  there is  imposed  short-term  a choice  the  strategies  are  tion of socialist goals planning policies or seek  position of the holding  are  government  support (monetary  countries  and the  : 677)  firms ment  the  (governments) controlled,  increase  economic  through state-run  clear-cut  at these levels. or  administrative)  by these  The naivete coercive  condition "crude  of  the political  concerns  of new African  abilities of foreign political exSchatz  private neo-colonialism"  "unprincipled exploitation by some foreign  enterprises  that established  The socialist  over-priced scarce  in an effort desire  capital goods,  resources  of the  credit  governto  to develop  often runs afoul of external  which include feasibility falsification, usurious  toll on the  adop-  governments  to development planning.  development".  take their  at  The threat of with-  directly productive enterprises  interests,  African  to enhance  of African governments  managerial  choices  can create a situation where  labels this  and is defined as  gratification or  Even the general  often restricted  pediency is an actual detriment (1969  of action.  local/regional and international context,  overbearing  and investors  con-  and conditioning role  as well.  influences the planning priorities. governments  in the  course  implementation strategies.  and planning objectives  choose  not confined to the national  does not guarantee  legitimacy in the  to  long-run development.  Politics play an active  international and local levels  must  and goals  between immediate  deprivation for the  alone;  constrained  implied by each  But political constraints government  are  rates,  etc. -  forces vested  all of which  government.  61  Economic the  efficient  poses  political  economic  ones,  economic  countries of  utilization  a r t i c u l a t e d by  serious  of  share  of  are  definite mental  group As  to  the  in a  the  manner  constraints  often  to  for  pur-  authors,  outweigh  diminishes  that  seem  large  supply  with  a  serious  the  the  the  impact  While a l l  impede have  fulfillment  more  than  private of  Another  of  these  are  scarce  basic  market  based  utilized, African  available to  their  export  on  loans  of  regardless  savings or  are  and  is the to  be  stated the  a  developThe  and  same donations,  prescribing national  not  endowed  condition,  restricts  and  which  It is  the  are  this  foreign)  development  constraint  of  governments  implement  (domestic  by  the  along  possib-  policy  object-  profit  motiv-  discourage  effect-  funding.  economic directed.  of  revenue  goods  demand.  aid  source of  available f o r  problem,  of p r i v a t e  funds  source  environment.  capital,  of payments  aspect  basic  revenues  investment  investors  planning  the  additional constraints  Most  amount  this  l i m i t a t i o n s is the  two  world  public  impose  balance  small  the  or  planning  they  expenditures  above,  one  of  to  priorities.  a  to which  often  in which  with  planning  several  process.  fluctuating e c o n o m i c  funds  ive  planning  developmental  estimate  these  of  of  whims  and  ations  nor  which affect  resources  by  constraints  countries  is the  is applicable  The  indicated  denies  mentioned  reasoning  ives.  constraints  obstacles.  purposes  of  upon the  African  b a r r i e r to  ilities  neither  economic  governments  development  As  this  funds.  subject  plan.  are  developmental  but  primary  these  scarce  administrative  goals,  investment  These  and  conditions  such  A  of  the  experience  national  for  Constraints.  targets Given  available the  62  generally  low l e v e l s  economy,  how  ment a  resources  good  has  does  a government  i n the most  question  been  of development  which  of most  allocate  connected with,  African  countries  take-off  into  economical manner?  has no u n i v e r s a l l y  that  adopted this  self-sustained  theory.  economic  growth  f o r industrial  .but r e s o u r c e s both.  Even  funds the  gard be  or agricultural  receive  to planning  considered  these  into  Perhaps development  of these  other  characteristic  ly  to weigh if none  without  providing them.  goods.  impose  and c o n s t r i c t  goods,  manufactured  The underdeveloped limitations  with r e and must  of the plans. economic . constraints to  African  developmental projects  preparations first  of i n d u s t r i e s  pressing  of many  of them solid  The lack  attention,  efforts f o r  i s the inadequacy of the economic  institutions  choosing  o r a combination  developmental techniques  one of the most  have not  i s pursued, the available  capital  countries  with  equitable  substitution  the f o r m u l a t i o n  planning  preclude  of types  import  invested  are faced growth,  to o c c u r . . "  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  stategy  and development  markets  superimpose  often  the l i m i t i n g  f o r producing  goods  difficult  monetary  if the i n d u s t r i a l  options  internal  Governments  and objectives  necessitate  export  returns.  many  "the expected  has failed  adequate  must  answer. It  development i s  However,  rendered  that  i s indeed  o r equivalent to, i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n ;  1970 : 11), and the funds and energies  thereof,  develop-  This  agreed-upon  (Molnos,  strategies  of the  the m i n i m a l  a p r i m a r y assumption i n the past  closely  sectors  can be structural  societies.  frameworks  of extensive  It i s extreme-  and p o l i c i e s  successfully  physical  and s o c i a l  i n plan  achieved on which to infrastructures  63  such as  communication  marketing  outlets,  structures  such as  the  networks,  and financial institutions schools,  hospitals,  as  public utilities,  well as  and houses  social infra-  greatly inhibit  range of possibilities to be pursued by development  The the  and transportation  economic economic  labor  costs of providing these commodities costs of illiteracy,  and rampant  unemployment,  straints involved in choosing  costs,  well  disease,  There  any type  as  well to  resources  realize  and opportunity  that there  constraints which underly any policy considerations  have  an even more  role  in the  con-  strategy,  omic  significant  success-  economic  of development  availability of scarce  but it is important  are  as  unskilled  urban migration bear heavily upon the  ful implementation of national plans.  both in terms of  as  plans.  are  econ-  that may  success or failure of  development planning. CONCLUSIONS Development planning in A f r i c a is a unique phenomenon. No other developing parts of the world have  experienced  the phen-  omenal enfranchisement  of national plans that A f r i c a has  witnessed,  particularly  since  granted  remarkable  to most of these countries surprisingly though, vented  successful  Since the  has  retains its  majority  the past problems  and reviewing  of national planning,  the planner  may be  position in the  changes must  of these plans. some of the  pre-  of these plans.  prominent  strategies of African countries, effectiveness  Not  unique to A f r i c a have  implementation of the  made to improve the  only been  within the past fifteen years.  many problems  national plan still  developmental  independence  be  In analyzing  lingering constraints  able to formulate  devel-  64  opmental  strategies  political,  social and economic  Perhaps  the  mentable best more lems of the  and policies which are  constraints  are  plan that really effective  and maximize existing  too  solves  plans the  realities  attuned  of the African  great to ever  create  to  the  situation. an imple-  developmental problems,  but at  can be designed to minimize the prob-  chances for  constraints.  more  success within the bounds  65  CHAPTER CONCEPTUAL  FRAMEWORK  III  F O R T H E PLANNING  PROCESS  INTRODUCTION Despite the  imposing problems typical of Tropical A f r i c a ,  there is optimism and determination on the part to develop as far faire  and as fast as possible.  by the African governments  cient or  effective  governments  have  means  recognized the need,  inite  In order  to do this,  the  status quo.  advancement  governments  laissez  to be an effiAfrican  and the mandate  role in the  country  A policy of  not appear  of improving the  people to play an increasing society.  does  of each  of the  of the  must have  a def-  approach to the problems of development which is best  suited to meet the needs  of each  country.  The method of ap-  proaching development is usually in the form of a national development plan. But a plan is not easily prepared, from the  nor can it be purchased  shelf of used plans of 'developed' countries.  unique combination of goals,  strategies  and actions  apply to only one  country  African  is not a standardized plan that is  each  countries  and every  which each  country;  at one time.  suitable to its particular cess that incorporates  are  can be operated;  factors of each  country  required by the African  many possible ways the one  a framework through  It is an actual planning pro-  relevant  into a development plan that is There  applicable to  at the development plan that is  situation.  all the  which can  What is needed by  what is needed is  country can arrive  It is a  suggested  countries.  in which a planning process here  is just one  alternative.  66  It  appears,  which  can lead  opment. a  however,  to an o r d e r l y  The a r t i c u l a t i o n  crucial  step  countries.  ment  of these  Once  goals  described  moving  from  BASIC  underlying can  cess.  process,  development  African  planning  of past  development  of developmental has  often been  There ness  The  planning  methodology f o r  to goal  achievement.  PROCESS  and the o p e r a t i o n a l  some  The f r a m e w o r k  facilitate  to keep  linkages  to introduce  itself  situation, but  be i n c o r p o r a t e d  into  the pro-  the operation  a proper  of the p r i m a r y  fragmented Often  of the  perspective  on  plans The  weaknesses i n  and uncoordinated  based  f o r being  need  i n the p r e p a r a t i o n  i s neither  One  programmes.  Comprehensiveness It  always  previous  is a recognized  task.  itself.  plans.  criticized  achieve-  to f i t the individual  not only  has been  allocations,  the actual  PLANNING  of the p r o c e s s .  but also help problem  and objectives i s to develop  harder  it i s n e c e s s a r y  should  of devel-  seeking  preparation  the elements  Comprehensiveness.  sectoral  THE  and adapted  concerns  of goals  at a complete  to p l a n  OF  The c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  planning the  selection  characteristics  basic  an even  elements  to the p r o b l e m s  however,  i s aimed  framework,  be modified  these  becomes  presenting  of the planning  approach  formulated,  CONSIDERATIONS Before  of the important  A f r i c a n governments  below  goal  most  and selection  f o r many  their  process  to include  solely  on investment and  lacked  careful  impact  scope  of both  goals  too n a r r o w  of development  and  plans  and thorough-  plans.  not be confused  d e s i r a b l e nor p r a c t i c a l  analysis  and p a r o c h i a l .  for comprehensiveness  should  nature  to p r e p a r e  with  inflexibility.  "master"  plans  67  that are  too  rigid  in their  specific targets.  application of activities  sequential actions  entails the  a complete  social,  cope with  includes the many interrelationships and political  factors  the potential mechanisms  complete  perspective  of  factors operating in among  affecting the developmental  A thorough understanding of these factors  : 86)  set  an  in the planning process  of all relevant  instigate  (1957  and adopted to  Comprehensiveness accounting  This  economic  process.  it should be a malleable  that can be altered  situations.  society.  achieve  A development plan should not be viewed as  exact blueprint of the future;  changing  to  is  for development.  required to  A broad and  is vital to the planning process.  As Myrdal  states,  "Real progress in national planning, gradually lifting it to the plane of advanced applied social s.cience, will come when and as our knowledge is enriched about these functional relationships in the social system". The magnitude programmes  and directions  and activities  national plan. of., all its  should also  new project  is as  important  (Friedmann and Alonso, and projects  ing  circumstances  case-specif ic  role  all aspects of the  for the  locational  decision of where  : 1).  This  applies to all  developmental  of each  impact  to locate a in it" programmes  process.  strategy applicable to all  the planning process  specific needs  and considered  the decision to invest  there is no correct  A f r i c a n . countries, the  account "the  as  1964  outlined in the  Because  evaluate  because  of planned  The spatial incidence and effect  be considered for  The plans must  programmes  ramifications  should be anticipated  throughout the planning process. of all activities  of the  must  country,  comprehensively based on the prevail-  and the  stage of development.  for the  planning process,  There must be a  comprehensive  in its  68  analysis  of the  unique factors that make  up the  ation.  Goals and plans must be aimed at the  society  and not geared  to  should not be the  attainment  national situ-  improvement of the  a comparison with other  with insignificant indices of development. operation  total  countries  A successful planning  of specific, targets  rate of growth of G N P , industrial employment levels, rollment),  but an advancement  of society  Both temporal  and spatial  uation criteria  for goal achievements.  plan  should be constantly  of the  specific  aspects  in desired  (e.g.  school endirections.  should be included in the A comprehensive  evolving and adapting,  aimed at moving the  eval-  national  encompassing .all  information about the particular  tablishingprogrammes  or  country,  society  and  toward  es-  an  improved condition. Regionalization. the prime  concern  wide divergencies for  of the among  regional analysis  problems  are  The overall needs  of the  country  national planning process. sub-national regions  must be  But the  emphasizes  in the planning process.  the  National development  aggregates of the problems facing all of the  dual regions.  As Hodder (1968  : 231)  points  need  indivi-  out,  " . . . a l m o s t all applied problems of economic development are regional or local problems; and the specific areal setting in which they occur is likely to reveal a unique combination of natural and human conditions." These  different  conditions occurring within each  lead to different needs gional level.  and potentials  The regional imbalances  African developmental  achievement  for development play a major  country  at the role  re-  in the  process.  The decentralization in the  African  of the planning process  of national goals.  Given the  can be helpful  numerous  respon-  69  sibilities offices, means  and the l i m i t e d  a d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of some to g r e a t e r  process.  efficiency  Those  involved  have  an understanding  this  c a n best  with  each  The  disaggregation  is  be  c a p a c i t i e s of the f e d e r a l  of their  i n the p r e p a r a t i o n  of the p r o b l e m s  rather  can be a  from  of the broader  of r e g i o n a l plans  and c o n c e r n s  by p e r s o n n e l  than  component  functions  and effectiveness i n the planning  accomplished  region,  an important  (1971  administrative  of the region;  dealing  the c e n t r a l national plan  should  specifically  government into  of the national planning  offices.  r e g i o n a l plans process.  Boisier  : 1) notes:  ". . . there seems to have been a tendency in recent y e a r s to conceive of development and r e g i o n a l planning as an i n d i v i s ible and v i t a l part of the m o r e g e n e r a l p r o c e s s e s of development and national planning. T h i s involves a systematic approach in which each of the planning regions i s envisaged as a component of a national s y s t e m of regions. " The  implementation  coordinated important goals  and effective to maintain  at a l l stages  national plan becomes easier the  it should  emphasizes  inventory  the  higher  In  consistency  smaller simple  task.  from be  process.  The  While  smaller  the total  more It i s  breaking the  from  In this  addition to the e f f i c i e n c i e s  of each one  the planning  scale, the  and management planning  the national scale down  over  process  to lower  levels,  the r e g i o n a l scale up to  sense,  implementation  of the national plan,  By  the enactment  competence  conducted  national l e v e l . better  to a  of the national objectives and  components,  be to maintain  should  can lead  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the national plan.  of the plans.  to promote  r e g i o n a l plans  of the planning  planning  the  tation  into  a more  execution  help  of  r e g i o n a l planning  can  of the national plan. in p r e p a r a t i o n  r e g i o n a l considerations  and  implemen-  can also  70  promote of  greater  national integration.  r e g i o n a l plans  with  can demonstrate  the p r o b l e m s  of importance  identity  and working  people  may  development country,  and  the country Data  ation  it m a y  costs  data.  This  omic is  Africa to  general  when  regional  in the growth of each  scarcity  of s t a t i s t i c a l  the d i s p e r s e d  the ethnic  populations,  trained personnel of accurate  detrimental  i s not r e a d i l y  of the planning  be considered.  when  available. process,  Alonso  region  in data  when  too much  models  can r e s u l t  when  into them; inaccurate  in m i s d i r e c t e d  necessary,  by whatever  to ignore  demographic A  sound  trying  and econ-  body  of data  l i m i t a t i o n in the n e c e s s i t y  to apply p r e d i c t i v e  f o r data  d e f i c i e n c i e s than  the m a g n i f i c a t i o n i s applied  of e r r o r  to p r e d i c t i v e  to substitute proxy  It i s better  means  continuous  efforts.  it i s p o s s i b l e  f o r quantitative data.  communi-  and the c o l -  and  and this  data  inform-  and language  (1968) emphasizes  It i s better to adjust  computations  than  Identification of  The l i m i t e d  through  "locals")  a  separate  the a s s o c i a t i o n between  the compilation  models.  situation  role  a  to a l l A f r i c a n countries.  f o r limitations  When  can create  territory,  a significant  inhibit  to t r y and read  tors  A  is particularly  must  planning  strengthen  This  problems.  the l o c a l  of adequately  part  account  with  of the government  by a c q u i r i n g  its own  the lack  information  a vital  region  beyond  Limitations.  differences,  the c o n c e r n  as a whole.  networks,  lection  to solve  expand  i s common  cation  f o r each  i s associated  the  recognition of the role  of r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t i e s .  feeling  the  The  to get a " f e e l "  are available (e.g. s u r v e y s  a particular  indicafor or  set of c i r c u m s t a n c e s  the asking because  71  of  a  lack of hard  jective  than  factors  as  facts.  Although  In  recognized  that there  are  associated  with  the  information  collection planning  and  gathered  The  series  the  be  porated  into  (see  Figure  a  goals,  select  may  tempt  to  be  the  strategies, slightly  interpret  time  integral  of the  pro-  f o r evaluating  on  the  the  data  body of i n -  comparative  planning  framework  This  time-  process.  of development  suit  parts  of a  demonstrates  It i s a  that  policies,  to  based  during  PROCESS  process.  create  criteria  the  projects.  progress  ensure  dynamic  the  during  and  manner,  to  procedure  modified  the  the  In this  conceptual  planning  and  be  are  to  careful  programmes  which  relevant aspects  single  components  should  also e s t a b l i s h  1).  be  objective of  collected  PLANNING  can  f o r the  data  in a  be  qualifications  the  to monitor  over  is a  of the  flexible  themselves  obtained  plan period.  also  which  a l l information  activities  below  of the  this  should  THE  process  many  used  many  it must  overtones  address  consider  of  is c r u c i a l  OF  Presented  which  be  expanded  which  FRAMEWORK  planning  can  of planned  can  data  also  as  sub-  accumulation.  should  establishing  more  i n f o r m a t i o n a l constraints into  of developmental  plans  during  formation  plans  Additionally,  course  information  success  The  be  however,  political  incorporate  may  attention on  situation,  information  documentation  the  grammes.  of  to  by  a  numerous  should  process.  after  This  the  problem They  such  type  process.  inputs.  and  this  is important  planning  data  method  d e s i r a b l e , it at least 'focuses possible.  It  this  can and  specific and  dynamic  one can  way be  general  be  used  in incor-  illustration to  formulate  prepare  plans.  cases,  it is an  linkages  critical  to  Although ateffect-  FIGURE  1  Planning Organization  Political Structure  National Goals and Objectives  National Policies  J Strategies  Means  Implementation 7T  Constraints  Regional Policies  Current Status  Regional Imbalances  National Plans  Regional Plans  —y\s  InfraUrbanstructure | ization 7F  ZE  Delivery Mechanisms  ZF  Human Resources 7K  ZL  31  Agriculture Resources  Industry  De ve lopment . Potential  /T  7  Plan Evaluation  73  ive  developmental Briefly,  collected  planning  the p r o c e s s  from  the eight  inventory.  This  government  offices  official sis  planning  operates  sectors  information  countries.  as follows.  comprising  is filtered  the c u r r e n t  through  (the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s )  Data is  the appropriate  and then  o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r evaluation.  status  through the  Through  careful  and d i s c u s s i o n of a l l relevant i s s u e s , national goals  jectives egies on  for all African  are formulated.  are selected i n context  their  formed  achievement. which  national  plan  From  i s then  Each  r e g i o n a l plan  al-level p o l i c i e s  are  authorities evaluated  commencing  orderly work,  OF  framework  flow  sidered  and to define  when  overall  conform  which  These  are then  plans  set forth  implemented  specific  by the  the r e s u l t s  national environment  respon-  of the plans  is r e - i n v e n t o r i e d ,  COMPONENTS lists  some  the m a i n  process.  To  briefly  and data  the many Though  components  add depth on each  of the concepts.  regionalization  of the p r o c e s s .  plan.  the national and region-  Finally,  to elaborate  reviewing  regional  development  to both  A  again.  of the planning  prehensiveness,  the c o m p l e m e n t a r y  this  presented  it i s n e c e s s a r y  factors  step  THE  and c o n s t r a i n t s  a basis for regional policies.  and the altered  DESCRIPTION The  national p o l i c i e s are  and departments.  the p r o c e s s  strat-  the strategies,  f o r development.  and p r o g r a m m e s  developmental means  from  should  goals,  and ob-  of the existing  constructed;  are disaggregated  actions  these  i n turn provide  plans  sible  Given  analy-  to this  frame-  of the key  The i s s u e s of com-  limitations  elements  and the  should  associated with  not exhaustive,  it i s hoped  be  con-  each that the  74  main  considerations listed  issues  and i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y  description  of the components  Current current  Status.  data.  to apply  will  suggest  this  follow the o r d e r  area  in question.  cases,  questions  infrastructure  available in other  raised  data cases,  dealing with  of the  This  includes  and n a t u r a l  i s sufficient  The  of the p r o c e s s .  condition of the spatial demographic,  the complex  framework.  i s an inventory  the inventory;  answer  will  step  In some  into  stage  The f i r s t  socio-economic,  ly  f o r each  resource  to i n s e r t  judgements  comparisons  direct-  are r e q u i r e d to o r subjective  issues. 1.  Regional  dualism  integration level  areas.  of these  the the the the the  -  the money  regions  existing  related should 2. centres  versus  over  the concept  of people  of  as w e l l as  the extent  r e g i o n a l concerns  should  non-money  should  of national  and interests.  include:  others  definition  in terms  of m u l t i p l i c i t y  - both  existing  to r e g i o n a l imbalances  of dominance  development,  of regions Any  markets.  be the degree  inf r a s t r u c t u r a l  be d e s c r i b e d .  be  groups  differences reflect  imbalances  included  industrialization,  should  These  with  r u r a l v e r s u s urban d i s t r i b u t i o n m o d e r n v e r s u s t r a d i t i o n a l orientation p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates types and d i s t r i b u t i o n of employment t r i b a l v e r s u s state affiliation  Also  The  deals  as w e l l as the divergent  -  certain  - This  and the d i f f e r e n c e s between  sub-national  The  Imbalances  o r inadequate  by  of functions,  and income  formal  problems  enjoyed  levels.  and i n f o r m a l -  that  are d i r e c t l y  regional delimitations  noted.  Urbanization  - The concentration of p e r s o n s  and the spatial  incidence  of these  centres  i n urban is an  important  75  factor  in the developmental  consistent The  definition  important  of urban  features  process.  places  should  to be c o n s i d e r e d  dwellers,, the percentage tion  planning  of urban  should  -  the the the the the the the  -  the existing  out of the total of urban  popula-  centres.  i n t e r m s of:  h i s t o r i c a l pattern of urban development functional r o l e s of urban centres growth rates of urban centres centres of atypical growth - deliberate o r spontaneous average size of non-urban centres r u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n rates degree of p r i m a c y among urban centres governmental  It i s p o s s i b l e to derive the  statistical  the  perceptions  many  and utilized.  a r e the number of urban  dwellers  also be viewed  workable and  be adopted  and ; the functional and spatial h i e r a r c h y  Urbanization  A  causes  data.  explanations  some  But i n some  of those  some  on urban  urban  cases,  growth  forces  be  and i s s u e s  answers  the p r o b l e m  analysis will  of the p a r t i c u l a r  growth.  of the trends  dealing with  of m i g r a t i o n ,  of the population;  policy  are only itself.  and spatial required  operating  from  found i n  There are  concentration  to make  some  i n each A f r i c a n  country. 3. type  Infrastructure - This  information  of p h y s i c a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e  quality, portant  costs  when  of the basic  compared  distribution  infrastructure  with  with  amount and  available throughout  c o n s i d e r a t i o n in the planning  significant  -. -  and spatial  deals  of these process.  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  information  the country.  The  s e r v i c e s i s an i m This  is especially  of population.  includes:  communication networks (radios, telephones, hospital and m e d i c a l centres schools and training centres water supplies sewage systems energy supplies ( e l e c t r i c i t y , gas, oil) housing supplies  newspapers)  Some  76  -  shipping and marketing facilities transportation networks. Even if accurate  these factors, weaknesses priorities  it  infrastructure.  to provide for investment  structure, the  there are  agencies,  at  be collected  -  for  should establish  and to plan a staged  In addition to the physical infra-  services  of local,  An awareness of the all levels  ation of all governmental  -  shortages  such factors  foreign and  These domestic  regional and national administraagencies  responsible for providing  is vital to ensure  service  and admin-  and programmes.  and public institutions,  and a variety  social programmes  analysis  institutions which finance  distribution of social  tive bodies.  all of  schedule.  numerous  include both private  This  critical  Delivery Mechanisms -  4.  not available for  should be possible to detect the strengths and  in the  infrastructure  ister  and detailed data are  activities.  a proper  coordin-  Information should  as:  the controlling interests in the media and the ownership and operation of all communication networks the agencies financing and responsible for health care and the amount of trained medical personnel the institutions responsible for financing, personnel and curricula associated with the education system the management and provision of sewer and water systems the management and source of energy supplies the coordination of housing construction and allotments the housing finance institutions the agencies responsible for marketing operations (governments, cooperatives, regional boards, etc.) the agencies responsibile for provision and control of the transportation and trade networks the agencies responsible for manpower training, social welfare, family planning, etc. This  list  governmental ing of the  is not exhaustive;  activity  the  responsible  should be inventoried.  delivery systems  can increase  the  parties  A greater  for all  understand-  efficiency and  77  effectiveness these  agencies  of them  may  structuring planning  are under  Human  a critical  human  the c o n t r o l of the government  be p r o v i d i n g  at a l l l e v e l s  Not a l l of  duplicate  plays  services.  a significant  The  role  and many  administrative  i n the o v e r a l l  process.  5. is  of the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and the s e r v i c e s .  Resources  f a c t o r to A f r i c a n  resources  development population  - The  a r e often  in Africa.  growth  rate  state  societies.  considered  Besides figures,  of the human As  noted  population above, the  to be the p r i m e  asset f o r  national and r e g i o n a l population demographic  information  and  should  include: -  age and sex d i s t r i b u t i o n statistics r e g i o n a l and l o c a l population density l e v e l s education and s k i l l l e v e l s health and nutrition standards ethnic and language groupings r e l i g i o u s affiliations and attitudes degrees of contact among v a r i o u s peoples and regions work f o r c e composition and labour p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates unemployment levels and spatial d i s t r i b u t i o n i m m i g r a t i o n rates and composition standard of living d i f f e r e n c e s and d i s t r i b u t i o n of wealth  -  major In  tion  social  trends  characteristics and  age/sex  accurately capital 6. wage  levels, which  some  may  analysis  have  of the society.  distribution  infrastructure  and  and o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  addition to a d e s c r i p t i o n of the c u r r e n t  and welfare  existing  institutions  demands.  the n e c e s s a r y  a  Planners timing  significant  This  forecasts  should  would  of human  impact  both  project  about .  on the future  as estimates  then  organiza-  be included  include  as w e l l could  social  population of s o c i a l  more  development  programmes  investments.  Agriculture  and P r i m a r y  and non-wage f a r m i n g ,  Resources  mining,  - This  quarrying  includes  and f o r e s t r y .  both This  78  sector  of the economy  earnings  and employment  information, -  data  percentage  any other  be gathered  sector.  about  of GNP,  In addition  such  exportto  -  the c u r r e n t p r i c e s i s also  of goods  important  sector and the reasons  any existing  sector  Industry - T h i s  in African  planners  other  contributions other -  policies  them. which  This  trends f o r  should  explicitly  sector of the economy,  societies,  to be a p r i m e  Industrialization Among  behind  the existing  of m a r k e t s .  be  compared  deal with  this  of the economy.  . 7. small  government  and the stability  to determine  this  f a c t o r s as:  -  this  the  should  than  a higher  the extent of subsistence f a r m i n g the extent of cash c r o p f a r m i n g the b a s i c a g r i c u l t u r a l crops and annual outputs the p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s to a g r i c u l t u r e (e.g. climate) the land tenure s y s t e m the b a s i c p r i m a r y r e s o u r c e products and annual outputs the degree of mechanization i n a g r i c u l t u r e and r e s o u r c e production the techniques and productivity l e v e l s the ratio of exports to l o c a l consumption  It  to  provides  is considered  factor  important  with  the inventory  to GNP,  by many  in the developmental  i s often equated  things,  although  should  export-earnings  characteristics  growth  and  typically  developmental process. modernization.  include the i n d u s t r i a l  and employment.  Some of  to be c o n s i d e r e d a r e :  the type of manufacturing ( capital o r ' non-capital) the production techniques (capital v e r s u s labour intensive) the export/import trade balance the productivity and technology levels the number and size of f i r m s the location of i n d u s t r i e s (production plants and offices) the ownership c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of f i r m s (public o r private, f o r e i g n o r domestic) the rate of exports to l o c a l consumption the c u r r e n t p r i c e s and the stability of m a r k e t s the rate of import substitution activity. The  growth  and development  of i n d u s t r y has much  in common  79  with urbanization, skilled labour.  These factors  looking at trends ment directed  infrastructure  build-ups  availability of  should all be considered when  in industrialization.  at the  and the  The policies of the  industrial sector  govern-  should also be critically  evaluated. Development Potential -  8. scribes  the  known or  estimated  This part resources  mental in the developmental process. iliar with these potential resources The examination of these  of the  inventory de-  that could be instru-  It is necessary and where  should refer  to be fam-  they are  located.  to:  new or underdeveloped natural resources not yet exploited energy resources not .yet developed (e.g. hydroelectric power) industrial capacity that is currently underutilized technological innovations and scientific production methods sub-optimal agricultural land uses currently inaccessible markets underutilized human resources.  -  In many instances, velopmental process ment  is the  and administrative  tential wealth. investment  This  capital -  however,  structural  institutions,  This  is result  trade relations loans.  not in the  countries,  of increased  amounts  and an increasing  been completed,  for  evaluation.  manage-  with the use  of  Normally capital is  but there  seems to be governments. improved  amount of foreign investments  capital accumulation and the  this  de-  real lack of po-  of international aid,  and  extent of in-  in detail.  and Administrative Structure.  has  in the  in the  amount of money available to African  capital should be examined  Political  deficiencies  both public and private.  Policies toward  vestment  real bottleneck  deficiency is often associated  a limited commodity in African an increasing  the  information is  The type of government  Once the  inventory  chanelled to the and the  role  government  of the  various  80  actors  in the p o l i t i c a l  planning  process.  governments  African  organization,  is  as  and  pressures  difficult  strategies and in their  political  priorities.  to mention form  African  some  on  are  meaningful way.  several  Listed  among  these  is no  government;  informal  which  exert  Although it  political  can be  would  and  There  the governments.  elements which  African  policies.  form  of the f a c t o r s  to account f o r p e r s o n a l i t i e s and there  i n the  of most  are unique  i n their  of some  influence  instability  of goals,  governments  as w e l l  significant  inexperience  it i s possible  operations, a  has  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of a " t y p i c a l "  however, political  The  affects the choices  Most  adequate  structure  described  in  be:  -  the c o l o n i a l heritage (e.g. B r i t i s h , F r e n c h ) and the length of independence - the means of a c q u i r i n g power (e.g. coup, elections, etc.) - the number and strength of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s - the role and strength of the m i l i t a r y - the extent of ethnic p o l i t i c a l power and influence - the spatial location of p o l i t i c a l power ( i . e . r u r a l or urban) - the degree of l e g i t i m a c y and stability of the government - the functional organization of the government ( i . e . type of l e g i s l a t u r e , m i n i s t e r i a l structure, departments) - the m a j o r national i n t e r e s t groups (e.g. t r i b a l , labour, religious, business, etc.) - the m a j o r international p r e s s u r e groups (e.g. international organizations, trade a s s o c i a t e s , f o r e i g n aid donors, mult-national corporations, etc.) - the amount of functional d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n to l o c a l and regiona l governments - the r e s p o n s i v e n e s s and communication to the c i t i z e n s -  the b u r e a u c r a t i c The  about  analysis  the future,  of power  institutions  of these  as  well  and  issues  administrative  will  provide  as the planning  sensitivity  to p o l i t i c a l  sion-makers  within  realities  the planning  potentially  disruptive  government  actions;  consequences problems  may  which  Maintenance  influences The  become  have  information  governments  significantly process.  much  decisions.  is a p r i m a r y c o n c e r n of A f r i c a n  capacities.  problems the m a i n  less political  and the the d e c i which  have  target of urgency  81  may  be  relegated to lower  this  situation  ernments  the  suggest  that are  The in  will  political  various  phases  pousing  capitalistic  statements inclinations amine  the  of the  developmental  process  governmental  activities  Planning planning self.  planning  process  only  technical  assume  only  the  planning  The  range  ity  lies  should  -  this  and  an  at a  ideological  and  be  with  the  major  gov-  role  governments  governments goals  es-  Broad  r e v e a l the  general  it i s n e c e s s a r y expects  at  and  development.  can  influence and  determined  of  take  stages, the  to  to play  ex-  in the  planned  other  by  role the  an  role  planners  hand,  carried  out  is large.  by  the  Although  national l e a d e r s ,  to make  inputs  Among  things which  i n the  may  be  act  governments  that  much  of  p r o f e s s i o n a l body. ultimate trained  at a l l l e v e l s  should  official  government i t -  active  the  of the  s u p e r v i s o r y function leave  encouraged the  a  g r e a t l y influence the  leaders  On  of combinations  plays  different  government  The  number  to be  of the  development.  of the  However,  will  advisers.  process  concerns  of  programs.  government  principally  process.  as  have  socialistic  that the  Organization.  the  will  role  commitments  o r g a n i z a t i o n is l a r g e l y  Where  as  philosophy;  this  understanding  of the  upon  and  role  name  The  governments.  precise  main  process.  advocating  of p o l i c i e s  of the  An  of development  development  those  priority.  in the  philosophy  depends  than  some  expressed  national planning  priorities  planning  responsibil-  planners  of the  analyzed  planning  are:  the o f f i c i a l planning f r a m e w o r k on the national, r e g i o n a l local levels the a d m i n i s t r a t o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r planning (e.g. cabinet m i n i s t e r , department head, committee, etc.) the number and type of p r o f e s s i o n a l s acting in planning capacity  and  82  -  others who contribute to the planning p r o c e s s (e.g. s c h o l a r s , business l e a d e r s , expatriate consultants, international agencies, etc. ) the source of planning funds (e.g d i r e c t to planning agency sector budgeting, p r o j e c t allocations, departmental budgets, etc.) the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e capacities of the planning organizationn in light of its r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s the a v a i l a b i l i t y of data and i n f o r m a t i o n r e s o u r c e s the types of plans u t i l i z e d ( i . e . s e c t o r a l , p r o j e c t , etc.) the established time h o r i z o n s and the amount of f l e x i b i l i t y and adaptivity allowed i n the plans the means f o r i m p r o v i n g the planning p r o c e s s built into  -  -  the  development  Planning persons, option.  and  the  sibilities contract  or  political  role  of the  contribute  to the  National and  Goals  improve  world  economic, urgent  in a  social  demands  Some  and their where  of  has  The  a wide  A  vested  formal  range  one  Trained  in  and  o r g a n i z a t i o n of  of planning, respon-  hamper  the  planners  greatly  personnel  flexibility  can,  and  and  should,  process. Objectives. present they  political  wish  circumstances.  are  trying  of time;  to  be  choices  are  The  translated  leaders  This  catch up  they  development.  government  p o s s i b l e goal  A l l societies  strengthen p o l i t i c a l stability m a x i m i z e economic growth  and  pro-  is particuto the  committed  priorities into  assisted  might  to  by  rest to  and  national goals advisory  include the following  efforts: -  possible  interests  l a c k of t r a i n e d  seriously  society should the  and  i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n may  short p e r i o d and  objectives by  planners.  body.  methods  o r g a n i z a t i o n i s only  duties.  may  planning  larlyvtrue i n A f r i c a of the  the  these  planning  different  process.  include  capacities;  restraints  many  to d i s c o v e r who  may  expand  by  planning  planning  office  and  and  and  done  official  to the  planning  gress  be  It i s important  contributes the  can  plans.  national integration  83  -  -  m a x i m i z e national welfare and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of development benefits i n the most equitable m a n n e r d e c r e a s e s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l r e g i o n a l i m b a l a n c e s i n c r e a s e the functional and spatial integration of the country d e c r e a s e r u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n and the r a p i d urban growth rate speed the pace of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n expand the amount and d i s t r i b u t i o n of a l l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e d e c e n t r a l i z e the functions of the government i m p r o v e the administrative capacity of the government  -  increase  -  Many  of these  the  advocacy  not  very  potential goals imply  A s each  will  be n e c e s s a r y  over  of these  to enable  of''others. :• Some a r e the e a r l y  course  goals  stages of to e s t a b l i s h  of development.  and objectives  a comprehensive  approach  development.  the  alternative methods  and  constraints terms  f o r development  of achieving  of the existing  of how  stated  societal  the p r o b l e m s  may  about  the types  of actions  accomplish  the established  objectives.  velopmental  strategy  coordination  among  adequately The velopmental  covered,  them  so that  without  goals,  planning  that  could  When  there  the range  these  In an o p t i m a l  and the t r a i n e d  planners  demonstrate  the means deal  are general  be p u r s u e d to  more  must  v/ith  Strategies  be  than  one de-  conscientious  of objectives i s  duplication o r o m i s s i o n  process.  strategies which  given  structure.  s e l e c t i o n of strategies i s a c r u c i a l  decision-makers choose  i s approved,  can be equated  be resolved;  statements  and  are interrelated;  i t i s difficult  to a d e s i r e d  of most  Strategies. Strategies  in  i s unique,  lead  time  and objectives  at least during  country  a combination  capital.  the acceptance  however,  few key f a c t o r s which  Generally,  to  of investment  of one may  compatible,  development. the  the amount  of any f a c t o r .  stage  i n the de-  situation, the  can weigh the most  the alternatives  efficient and  84  effective  means  theoretical the  to  the  strategies f o r  existing models  should  be  selected  determined  by  the  means  constraints  and  satisfactorily  proposed  chosen  direction range  strategies  on  Basically,  a  provide  set  a  directives  country.  arising  which and  policies and  policy  decision-makers  so  of  should  the  society  the  anticipated  system should  and  be  the  action.  to  to  general  develop.  policy.  strategies to Adherence  a  The  proposed  in the  r e s u l t in consistency point  be  describing  indicate the  stated  elaborate  a l l activities  the  strategies  effects of the  for  also  developmental  goals  is supposed  guidelines  are  situation must  statements  also  should  and  country;  of the  the  of  strategies.  broad  reflect  options  the  present  formulation  should  that  within  choice  They  the  Strategy  the  are  should  national  of g e n e r a l  from  into the  national p o l i c y  of the  any  African  government.  the  of  needs  reflect  p r e v a i l i n g conditions  of objectives  applicability  many-  adequately  policies  towards  are  most  management  the  the  there  Strategies  National  These by  be  incorporated  Policies.  process.  each  Although  c a r e f u l l y considered.  that  of  ends.  development,  must  circumstances  the  desired  to  among  preferred  the the  future  state. Regional policies should the  be  goals  specific sive  consistent and  Not  specific the  of  mineral regional  a  from  them.  a l l of be  the  policies  of  factors  basin  deal  activities included to or  However,  must  national p o l i c i e s should  applicable  certain river resource).  the  They  consequences  national p o l i c y w i l l  development  in  with  planned  region.  evolve  conform  each the  the  explicitly  that  region  with  affect a  i n the  comprehen(e.g.  exploitation of  everything to  and  that is  guidelines  the a  included established  85  for  the nation  the  region  policy  as a whole  must  coincide  (e.g. with  a rural  development  the b r o a d e r  rural  can be applied  in several  can be i n t e r n a l to the government  offices;  they  affairs  would  serve  of the c i v i l  separated  into two p a r t s :  to the government  the  public  at l a r g e .  the A r u s h a  among  them:  to solicit  sive  planning  text  of p o l i c i e s  strategies,  process.  successful  plans  list  existing cisely  plan  major  achievement  types  remains  that  i s presented to  a fully  public  President  support  etc.)  reasons,  and the  and allegiance  indicated  developed  sets  of deliberate  structure.  of government  (e. g. objectives.  They  of actions  that  and objectives. interference  should  activities  i n the con-  by the selected  of national goals  course  common  to the  r e s u l t of the comprehen-  the guidelines  be detailed  issue -  Nyerere.  for several  toward  inter-  will  point take  pursue The  i n the  out preplace  during  period.  National broad  should  socio-economic  that  of the government  a r e the written Using  a prescribed  what  farmers,  and the a c t i v i t i e s  the plans  also be  and to d i r e c t a l l d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s  businessmen, The plans  public  a l l of the  might  part  of Tanzania's  the actions  developmental p r o g r a m ;  Plans.  general  of p o l i c y can be u s e f u l  to explain them;  consumers,  They  detailed part  and a m o r e  Declaration  proclamations  behind  a more  by which  O r p o l i c y can be made  Public  logic  a r e dictated.  The  and the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  as the guidelines  service  nal  the  development  different ways.  policies  the  within  of the country). Policies  e.g.  policy  plans  categories, government  should  investment projects,  include: allocations of funds proposals,  special  and institutional  under  programmes,  and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  86  changes.  These  should be described  plementation  sequence  entire  this  plan;  these  Regional plans  that are the  the  precise  (i. e.  specific This  occurs;  the  costs of all projects  Actions  the  net  aimed at national  the  are  should be de-  detailed accounting regional plans,  of the the  made  planning process  It is  at  entire planning  sites,  designs and  The activities  the tangible  to  change  and regional development  planning process  and implemented, can be  set  products  listed and described in  Once these planned measures  effects of the  the plans  this  within  but not the  planning committees.  then implemented in order  from these plans.  deter-  must be specified.  planning process.  these plans are  only general  regional plan must  The national and regional plans are of the  into  distribution of all activities  and/or  within the  The types  national plan  national plan makes  location of investments;  most  spatial  region will be incorporated  by region),  local planners  both  regional policies.  is true to the urban centre level,  level that the  process  the  areas and the  intra-urban  cided by the this  Whereas  allocations  region.  regional distribution of  etc. , listed in the  in the  the  from the national plan and  guidelines of the  to be activated  mine the  horizon for  with them.  disaggregated  programmes,  regional plan.  spatial  include the  associated  are  to the  of investments,  a limited time  A l l aspects of the plan should have  attributes  should adhere  well as  should also  activities.  and temporal  as  in terms of a specific im-  are  the  society.  stem  directly  exercised,  can be evaluated. the  in motion  After  dynamic operation of again.  87  APPLICATION The  O F T H E PROCESS  operation of this  though not difficult, nication system work.  at  requires  a large  all stages,  The subtleties  differences  comprehensive  planning process,  data  supply,  a good commu-  and a coordinated effort  at work in each  so that this framework  It would be difficult to instigate  is  country exert  process  for  without actively being involved in the  process  itself.  check to  its  within the framework,  applicability to the process.  adaptions.  This  significant  a given country However,  strategy -  in light of possible goals, is the proposed method for  strategy and the framework in terms of its  by  it is possible to  One such example  concentrate on a specific development  then be evaluated  it  specific to each application.  this  singling out an element  to make  would be  this could  policies and plan evaluating both the relevancy to  African  planning. After associated process  reviewing the  cussed to test the Additionally,  goals.  difficulties that have been  with the African planning systems  framework,  evaluated  general  the  example  of a growth centre potential for  different parts of the world, tial in the African  case.  with growth centres  are  the proposed process  process  will  dis-  applicability of this proposed planning process.  Although the growth centre  the  a new  a specific developmental strategy will be  in terms of its  cussion,  and presenting  it  strategy has  been applied in significant poten-  The possibilities that can be numerous  growth centre  associated  and will be explored within Following the theoretical  strategy and its  to a case  also be  realizing developmental  seems to hold  framework.  be related  strategy will  study.  role  dis-  in the planning  88  CHAPTER THE  GROWTH C E N T R E  IV  STRATEGY  IN A F R I C A  "The concept of 'concentrated decentralization' apparently implies a situation whereby development efforts are focussed on 'growth centres' both within the relatively progressive areas and within the peripheries." (Bakwesegha, 1974 : 64) INTRODUCTION In an effort to make effective  process,  African  strategies which will The  are  successfully  suggests a strong  realize  the  "policy most  to be the  creation  This 'growth  likely to  of several  centre  developmental  within most  'concentrated  The ability to  growth has been a major  more  seeking policies and  case for  proposed by Rodwin (1961).  fluence and  nations  unequal distribution of development  countries as  national and regional planning a  concern  achieve  objectives.  African decentralization'  anticipate  of African  current  countries,  goals  regional centres"  and in-  would  (Rodwin,  seem  1961 : 137).  strategy' holds significant potential for  African  countries. The  growth centre theory  body of literature theorists  countries this and  growing  the  concept  growth centre policy has  been a relatively  experiences  with it have  awareness  among African  growth centre development.  subject  years.  (1972  large  different  been applied in  several  The application of  recent phenomenon in A f r i c a  been limited. leaders  : 71)  But there  and planners  strategy can play a vital role As Rosser  of a  Many authors  from several  with varying degrees of success.  strategy has the  been the  within the past twenty  have, approached  directions;  has  suggests:  is a  that a  in the process of  and  89  " . . . t h e r e has been a marked and fundamental shift in thinking, coinciding with deep ideological motivation, toward rural development, regional planning, balanced development, land policy, growth centres, and so f o r t h . . . " GROWTH  CENTRE  THEORY  The growth centre theory  has attracted  a great deal of  interest  in both developed and developing countries.  articles  and ideas  concept  attest to its intriguing character.  which have  attempted  to shed more  introduced by Perroux  abstract economic of economic  space,  Perroux  nal economies  (poles  of growth in an abstract  de croissance)  described the unbalanced  nature  in poles of growth. Perroux  as propulsive industries,  and innovations  con-  Dealing primarily with  growth as it is manifested  dealt with such notions  with later  in 1955.  light on this  The growth centre  cept has its foundation in the 'growth pole' theory  The numerous  as factors  dominance,  exter-  influencing the transmission  space economy.  Boudeville is credited  adding the geographical dimension to this idea of polar-  ized growth (Hermansen,  1971).  It is this  application of the growth  pole applied to a geographical location which has been expanded upon in the growth centre unbalanced (polarized)  concept.  The more  general  notion of  development has also been dealt with  extensively by such authors  as Hirschman (1958),  Myrdal (1957) and  Friedmann (1972). Although there it usually refers  is not a set definition of a growth  to an urban area which is a focal point for  developmental planning.  It is typically a planned geographical  point or activity node that exerts rounding are  centre,  a dominant role  area through its propulsive economic  diffused outward from the centre.  on its sur-  activities,  which  Nichols (1969 : 8) qual-  90  itatively describes  a growth centre  omic activity which can achieve  as  an "urban centre of econ-  self-sustaining growth to the  point that growth is diffused outward and eventually beyond into the  less-developed region."  however,  because  ivity economic  This  is not a well-accepted  it minimizes the  importance  function of growth centres;  that is,  profit of the propulsive industry is exported centre  so growth is transmitted  omy.  It is primarily the  down to the manner  rest of the  In an excellent (1969) analyzes  that while the normative  which generate  review of the  (1969  writes:  : 21)  encompass  and diffuse this located. Darwent In  literature, Darwent concludes  value of the  concept  is limited,  Additionally,  growth centre notion deals with urban areas it also  In this  and applicability of this idea.  aspect is of great value.  space,  also  critique of growth centre theory,  explanatory  geographic  national econ-  than simply a growing  region in which it is  the usefulness  comprehensive  growth  benefits of growth which filter  industry; it must  and services  rest of the  from the  act-  of the  region from the' growth centre.  a large-scale  activities  growth to the  this  indirect  basic  most  rest of the  a growth centre is usually more  urban area or specific  to the  of the  definition,  has potential as  its  because  the  and development in  a planning tool.  Darwent  "This concept purports to deal with distribution of growth and allocation of investment in real s p a c e . . . it provides what promises to be a dynamic theory of growth and development and it provides a basis for giving to development theory a spatial dimension. Growth centre ideas are addressed squarely to planning problems. " Consistent with the theory of 'concentrated many authors  feel that growth centres  are  decentralization ,  an alternative  1  to high  91  primacy  settlement  activity  systems.  Although a spatial concentration  and growth may be a necessity  development,  this  Governments  are  during the  early  can lead to a politically unacceptable faced with two alternatives:  of  stages of dualism.  pursuing the  most  efficient method of development and growth through continued investment  in developed cities  and regions;  or  distribution of growth by investing in the more are  toward the  seeking an even  lagging areas.  spatial equity alternative  that growth  It is  centres  applied. . . "given that some nations feel that they must develop their poorer regions, a policy of 'growth centres' has been suggested as a means of bringing about development" (Nichols, 1969 : 4). Although the growth centre notion has  growth,  it is being expanded to encompass  development. African  It is not enough to focus  countries  human resources centre'  is  economic  capable  are  also  concerned  diverse  (I960 : 3)  on economic  area around it.  needs  this  of the African  meaning of growth when  with development of their societies.  of initiating and transmittimg  development to the  roots in economic  a broader  and modernization* of their  growth centre is very flexible; to the  its  countries.  social as  The role  should have  A 'growth well as  of the  particular  appeal  As Darwent  notes,  " . . . t h e interest in the normative has broadened the basis of growth centre notions to include variables other than economic - such as political, social, cultural and political. " *Modernization, as defined by Ilchman and Bhargava (1966 : 397) is "a process of improving the capability of a nation's institutions and value system to meet increasing and differing demands. "  92  There growth for  is a  centres.  a broad  adaptive  deal  It is an  range  practical  intuitive  adjustable  because  may  much  to l e a r n  about  ways  i n which  it can  limited.  a  growth  centre  : 9)  an  context.  characteristics,  been  i n the  it is  African  defined  of  usage  sense,  has  success (1972  notion  potential  In this  clearly  functioning of  Rodwin  with  goals.  theory  promote  to the  quite u s e f u l in the  of the  the  goals.  be  appeal  concept  of its lack of  application  developmental  of  of developmental  strategy which  Unfortunately, the  great  There and  achievement  is  the of  remarks:  "As we have, as yet, l e a r n e d little m o r e than the r u d i ments of how to convert an urban centre into a growth centre and how to radiate effects of such growth centres over the surrounding hinterlands. " Despite etical  the  background  development  lack of i n the  strategy.  such growth  applicable to promote  many  other  form  from  of the  GROWTH  at  the  societies  standard propulsive  activity  centres  these  benefits to the regions  centres  to fit the  needs  goals.  PLACES  IN  AFRICA  function of  certain  industries  are  they  benefits i s d i r e c t l y  decay  over  the  in a well-polished  molded  specific  unlike  theory  developmental effects  in A f r i c a ,  come  space.  The  assumed  a whole  are  located.  r e g i o n a l space,  basic  to  as  related  viable  make it  centre  economy  in which  theory  theor-  it a  of growth  in geographic  multiplier to the  their  i s enough  to make  i n the  ideas  be  CENTRAL  economic  with  fits  It can  application  associated  gaps  t h e o r i e s which  and  AND  the  there  theory  indigenous  areas.  CENTRES'  The with  developmental  African  centre  Perhaps  more  developed  knowledge,  The  the  direct  indirect  bene-  diffusion  to functional  but  located  activities  distribute and  deals  theory  of  distance does  not  93  explain how this diffusionary process  occurs.  It is in this con-  text that growth centre theory comes  in contact with central  place  theory. Central place theory was  developed by Christaller and  Losch to explain the distribution of goods and services facilities  supplying them in space.  of economic behavior.  It is based on an observation  rationality associated  with demand and consumer  Losch based his theory on the production of secondary  goods at the market-oriented stages while marily with service places  in space.  archies  and  The theory  attempts to create normative hier-  based on the variety of goods and  offered over  a given economic landscape.  lowest order  centre  (providing the least  central place;  Losch starts with the goods)  centre  amount and highest order of services) local markets.  services  and works up to  Christaller formulated his net-  work by starting with the largest  to the most  pri-  activities to explain the ordering of market  of settlements  the highest order  Christaller dealt  (providing the  greatest  and works his way down  In their own separate ways,  they  both established a central place hierarchy which provided the necessary  level of goods and services  given a defined economic  landscape. Unlike growth centre theory, an agricultural economic base.  central place  goods and services  countryside.  assume  The main concern of central place  theory is the non-basic function of centres non-basic  concepts  and the distribution of  in an orderly pattern throughout the  While growth centre theory is primarily  with the the development generated  by basic  central place theory does not address  economic  itself to the  concerned activities,  economic  94  growth  of either  relationship regional  the  between  hierarchy  opmental 1973).  place  planning  distributing all  to  developmental  thus  bottlenecks  Christaller s 1  regions  densely Both  populated  of these  thereby  indicating  two t h e o r i e s and change  may  centres  over  The  place  in which  devel-  (Webster,  can help  to explain  regional  a s s o c i a t e d with  space. central  and r e g i o n a l  of settlements  can be  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of regions and The functional role of  can determine  the l e v e l  be avoided.  is most  of a r e a s  may  Berry  be  detrimental  (1967)  suggests  applicable to s p a r s e l y  procedure  which  and types  to f u l f i l l r e g i o n a l planning  and duplications which  regions  a central  urbanization  ordering  be p r o v i d e d  Lbsch's  types  growth  investments.  approach  while  from  to formulate  in a region should  when  of centres  systematic  r e g i o n a l development  lated  i s most  a r e undergoing  can be found  a potential usefulness  popu-  relevant to economic  change.  i n the A f r i c a n  of c e n t r a l  place  context, concepts  A f r i c a n r e g i o n a l planning. The  is  system  of o r g a n i z i n g  s e r v i c e s that  that  to  way  A  central places  goals;  down  of these  can be used  hinterlands.  to explain the way  of development  policies.  efficient  theories o c c u r s  filter  hierarchical  theory  o r the surrounding  is utilized  The combination  transmission  an  these  benefits w i l l  The  of  the centres  relationship  undergoing  ization  creates  cultural  ities  more  and p r i m a r y  demanding (e.g.  rapid  a greater  t e c h n i c a l aid, and s e r v i c e s ,  between  change  the urban  and the r u r a l  i n the A f r i c a n situation.  pressure  on the r u r a l  resource  products;  share  the r u r a l  of developmental  educational etc.).  areas  and health  Rapid  urban-  to supply  agri-  areas are  and s o c i a l  facilities,  T h e identification  sectors  investments  urban  of the C e n t r a l  amenPlace  95 hierarchy can help create an effective relationship between r u r a l and urban areas which will lead to desirable changes.  As Berry (1976:133)  states: "Regions with insufficiently developed networks may find establishment of new centres a priority activity. Availability of a proper hierarchy enables rational planning of facilities to proceed, without waste, at the correct scales. Establishment of a new centre or upgrading an old one can provide a powerful stimulus to development of the surrounding area, setting the pace for its progress. " Several African plans have incorporated a 'growth centre policy 1  to reorganize the spatial and functional structure of the countryside, In most cases, however, the:concept that is being implemented is a modified application of central place theory.  Rather than dealing  with the establishment of propulsive basic activities in rural areas, the plans are more concerned with an optimal pattern of central places that will ensure the most rational distribution of goods and services.  These  central places are also conceived as focal points in the diffusion of expectations and innovations which are vital to the modernization and development. of the country.  Besides promoting efficiencies in developmental investments,  an organized distribution system (via central places) is capable of: creating a new sense of social and political unity in the various regions;; preventing a continued drift of ambitious and energetic persons to the urban areas; and maximizing theiuse of regional resources (Grove and Huszar, 1964).  If central place hierarchies, or 'growth centres', can  promote these types of changes, national development.  they will contribute greatly to African  The following examples will demonstrate the ways  in which 'growth centres' have been applied in the developmental process in Tanzania, Ghana and Nigeria. (Note:  In the remainder of the text,  term 'growth centre' will be used in the African context - i . e . as part  the  of c e n t r a l places and not propulsive activity nodes - except when s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r r i n g to the c o m m o n a p p l i c a t i o n of growth centre strategy.) GROWTH  CENTRES  Tanzania,  IN  TANZANIA  i n an attempt to implement the s o c i a l i s t society that i s  d e s i r e d by the government, has paid m u c h attention to the spatial pattern of development.  It has been at the f o r e f r o n t of c o m p r e h e n s i v e developmental  planning by c o n s i d e r i n g the distribution of population and the functional h i e r a r c h y of settlements i n t h e i r national plans. A s Mabogunje (1972:24) remarks, "the Tanzania Development P l a n 1969-1974 makes a significant step f o r w a r d i n planning a c t i v i t i e s i n A f r i c a . F o r the f i r s t t i m e e v e r , urban and r e g i o n a l planning p r o p o s a l s a r e integrated with t h e m o r e conventional s e c t o r a l planning. . . " R E g i o n a l planning occupies a m a j o r role i n the national developmental planning p r o c e s s i n Tanzania,  and p a r t i c i p a t i o n t i n the p r o c e s s i s encourage  even at the village l e v e l . Inherent i n this type of ideology and planning p r o c e s s a r e the f a c t o r s of space and distance; the government has become i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n c e r n e d with the location of economic a c t i v i t i e s i n its developmental p o l i c i e s . A s viewed by the planners, a settlement s y s t e m "Should create o p t i m a l conditions f o r production and w i l l s e r v e its purpose as long as it is capable of f o s t e r i n g technical, s o c i a l and economic p r o g r e s s . " (Pioro, 1971:44). The existingi.settlement system, i n h e r i t e d f r o m c o l o n i a l days, is not generating i n c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y o r standards of living; therefore, it i s a s s u m e d to be an obsolete s y s t e m .  T r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the settlement  s y s t e m is now a m a j o r p o l i c y i s s u e . In o r d e r that the national effort would be purposefully and efficiently directed, there is a recognized need f o r integrated national and r e g i o n a l planning. The o v e r a l l development needs must be based on a lasting  97 and well coordinated improvement of the settlement pattern )ver  the  'crisis'  long term, planning.  and not merely  This  led to the  introduction of technical, ently  rearrange  countryside  the  the  result  "transformation  social and technical  productivity and functional levels  (Pioro,  1971  : 46).  As an example  the  government  occupying  the  semi-arid areas which constitute  this was  velopment for the  formation  surrounding a r e a s . "  of the  established  government  a set  these ideas  socialism,  were prepared  needs  the plans.  appears  Dar  many of the  persons  two-thirds "creation  (Pioro,  of the  of villages  also  de-  1971 : 47).  Other  involved in this  trans-  rural development,  in Tanzania.  reflect  This  area;  the  the  different centre  size  self-reliance.  incorporating designed to  and functional hier-  interpretations  and con-  strategy utilized by those  providing good experience  to be a close  and  Each plan was  Each of these plans dealt  to demonstrate  es  developmental  three physical plans  application of the growth  necessary for  capital  are  of the particular  of settlements  were made  type of  of guidelines which were to be followed in the  type of planning area, There  of this  significant changes in the  During the period 1967 - 1969  preparing  of the  after the Arusha Declaration of 1967.  pursuit of African  scious  perman-  process.  policy occurred  archy  to  growth centres of social and commercial  One of the most  fit the  resettle  to be accomplished by the  which would become  programmes  sought to  or  approach - the  systems"  approach,  country;  of temporary  with a distinct for the  planners.  coordination of these plans as  the well-ordered  spatial  organization  development. Salaam  and the  Master  Plan.  As the  largest  efforts  city,  industrial and cultural centre of Tanzania,  the  98  Dar  es  Salaam  centre  of the  will  country.  ten  per  cent  the  development  creates  the  employed rate a  of the  rural  rural  areas  potential  urban  migrants.  the  Dar  f o r the Dar  centre radius,  population most  around  pattern,  of  also  as  sought  capital.  The  to  therefore,  annually.  This  part  of the  attractive  of p o l i c y  was  set  a  requires  government;  c r e a t i o n of new as  or  gainfully  Plan,  growth  centres  alternatives to incorporated  the  Plan.  With  Dar  es  approximately 4, 700  square  population  Development  hamlets;  patterns the  designed  f o r the a  and plan  To to  fifty miles  the  the  c o n t r o l the  p r i m a r i l y to of  and  a  as  described  by  in  as  settlement "too  population  into  in-  t h r e e - l e v e l urban  service  the  rural  a g r i c u l t u r e , but  Pioro  the  a  population  counter-attraction for m i g r a t i o n  settlements,  has  dispersed  existing  realign  as  kilometres  is c o n s i d e r e d  proposed  development  Salaam  is widely  six functional units,  was  offer  city  it also  more  and  in s m a l l  Salaam.,  required  be  Plan  influence  live  settlement  areas  growth,  immigration  Salaam,  Regional  The  preferential  This  can  the  serve  function e f f e c t i v e l y " .  es  population  rampant  es  Master  type  300,000.  to  hierarchy.  This  about  c o n s i s t i n g of  :>f Dar  as  Dar  which  on  growth  District,  complicated  crease  to  covers  people  Just  for the  Salaam  sphere  region  of the  policy  of  the  benefit either the  six per' cent  Salaam_ Regional  a  the  es  to  for  The  country  Handeni  es  and  at  provide  of the  Plan  city.  growth  parts  both  areas.  position as  rate  large  problems  of this  would  current  ~>f p e r s o n s  other  into  the  urbanization  a policy  its dominant  is too  urban  outside  well-defined  But  annum,  of population  such in  per  staggering  drains  maintain  to  (1971),  is the  are:  99  (a)  Local service centres - These fifteen settlements are distributed to provide all rural villages (within 10 miles) easy access to: education, health, commerce, security, post and communications, petrol and repair stations, and small-scale production of building materials;  (b)  Intermediate service centres These five centres provide all the services under (a) as well as: repair and manufacturing of tools and equipment, wood processing, local food manufacturing and agricultural processing;  (c)  Major regional centre - Ruvu, which at present is a small village, will grow to 50, 000 and provide services equivalent to Dar es Salaam. It should also be considered as an equal location to Dar for all new industries. Along with the services provided in (a) and (b), there will be such services as: a pulp m i l l , building material production, agricultural products processing, leather goods, etc.  The major  role played by Ruvu in this  scheme  new centre of attraction  to  Salaam.  is deemed essential  the  This  region,  hierarchy  is to  serve  as  stop the population flow into Dar  transforming the  countryside  ized centres of influence to increase  the  a  es  in the development of  into a system  of polar-  effectiveness  of both the  area and the human activities. Physical Development Plan for the district  of the  soil and the  scarcity  sparsely populated with only six per  concentrated  settlements.  local resources, sufficient.  This  Tanga region is faced with perennial agricultural  hardships due to poor is  Handeni District.  of water.  cent of the  The area  population in  By focussing on greater utilization of  it is hoped that the  The plan proposes  area can become  to create  a balanced  more  self-  settlement  pattern,  an optimal land and resource  utilization programme, and an  adequate  provision of infrastructure  service  to  The plan proposed the following five-grade (a)  the  entire  settlement  district.  hierarchy:  Minor Village - With a population between 200 - 500 persons, this area would include a nursery school, mobile dispensary, cooperative centre, community centre,  100  market  and  (b)  M i n o r r u r a l centre - With a population between 500-1,000, this would have the same s e r v i c e s as in (a) plus lower p r i m a r y school, r e l i g i o u s buildings, and dispensary;  (c)  M a j o r r u r a l centre - A population of 1,000 - 2,000 w i l l be s e r v e d as in (b) plus upper p r i m a r y school, a g r i c u l t u r a l tools warehouse, public buildings (post office, adm i n i s t r a t i o n ) , poultry f a r m and cottage industries;  (d)  M i n o r d i s t r i c t town - With a population of 2,000 - 5,000, it w i l l provide a l l of the lower l e v e l s e r v i c e s plus a., hospital, post office, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n office, t r a c t o r station, p e t r o l station, and dairy;  (e)  M a j o r d i s t r i c t town - T h i s d i s t r i c t headquarters (Handeni), with 5,000 people or m o r e , w i l l provide such additional s e r v i c e s as a secondary school, l i b r a r y , museum, sports stadium, bus depot, water p u r i f i c a t i o n plant, and sewage d i s p o s a l system.  The  i n c r e a s i n g number  settlements  makes  application  of the  central  places  service  centres  multiplier area  this  dependent centre  and  theory  is based  lower  on  equidistantly  categories.  may  to  higher  system. the  This  theory  located  It is also, hoped  industries  c r e a t i n g favourable  from  interrelated  settlements  of v a r i o u s  type  Centres of  to  different  eventually  of  around  that  the  induce  e x t e r n a l economies  can  three  posed  a  Growth  Potential.  and  vital  c a t e g o r i z e the  to  be  graded  on can  Pioro  categories  model  certain be  select  within  and  basic  sorted  covering  growth  into  a l l of  f o r each  different  of these  needs.  areas  and  areas  exercise  Tanzania.  He  areas  according  factors  different this  other  approach,  national space  (1971) p e r f o r m e d  of patterns  To  consistent developmental  potentials f o r development  structures.  lished  and  rational  national t e r r i t o r y  ment  of f a c i l i t i e s  ( P i o r o , 1971).  is c o n s i d e r e d  the  a  s e r v i c e s and  it  district  this  level  i.e. rural  effects,  Growth for  and  growth  -  complementary  the  shops;  of and  then that  Each then settleestabpro-  conforms  101  to  the government's  of  the countryside. 1.  Areas  the  best  the  most  is  a s p i r a t i o n s and ideals  of Highest  agricultural developed  high,  Industrial  the s o i l  labour  and c l i m a t e  force  are good,  a l l the f a c t o r s  of p o l a r i z e d  ment  patterns  do not demand  immediate  have  are g e n e r a l l y  etc.  are well-  Because  development,  change.  structurally  The  these the settle-  current  efficient  as it  is:  (a)  M i n o r r u r a l centres - The centre and its sphere of i n fluence, extending f r o m three to five k i l o m e t r e s , includes about 1,200 to 1,500 persons and p r o v i d e s s e r v i c e s to a l l of the s c a t t e r e d f a r m e r s . The s e r v i c e s include: n u r s e r y and p r i m a r y school, cooperative centre, shops, market, d i s p e n s a r y , r e l i g i o u s building, community centre and a public building;  (b)  M a j o r r u r a l centre - The. sphere of influence w i l l include up to ten m i n o r centres, f o r m i n g an a g r o - i n d u s t r i a l complex. The growth centre w i l l have about 2,000 - 3,000 people. T h i s centre w i l l p r o v i d e m o r e and i m p r o v e d s e r v i c e s as i n (a), plus a storehouse f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l implements, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , police and post office buildings, a t r a c t o r station, a p e t r o l station, cottage i n d u s t r i e s , a d a i r y and poultry f a r m s ;  (c)  D i s t r i c t town - T h i s w i l l have the whole d i s t r i c t as its sphere of influence, p r o v i d i n g a l l the s e r v i c e s as in (b). It w i l l also offer additional i n d u s t r i a l production, admini s t r a t i o n and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n networks. It i s designed to integrate the d i s t r i c t with the rest of the region, p e r f o r m i n g c o m p l e m e n t a r y relations with r e g i o n a l i n d u s t r i e s and s e r v i c e s .  2.  Areas  may  of High  be divided into  these  areas  These and  is c o n s i d e r e d  areas  and these  and m a r k e t s  possess  hierarchy  These  The population density  areas  three-tier  -  potential,  of the country.  the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e ,  developed,  Potential  and i n d u s t r i a l areas  f o r the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  would  employ  will  Agricultural  two types  be d i r e c t e d  range  from  depending  toward  3,000  Potential  - Although  on population  densities,  large-scale farming  - 5,000 h e c t a r e s  up to 1,000 persons,  these  with  a total  settlements.  of cultivated . land  population  approach-  102  ing  3,000 p e r s o n s .  quired cial,  will  for a g r i c u l t u r a l medical  and  District  town  cover  provide  such  settlement opment,  productivity 3.  these  productive, spatial  the  are  future. being  In  encouraged  Tanzania,  and  role to  and  of the  create  increased  evident  proposed  Low  into  Even are  of the  areas  an  that b a s i c  existing rural  areas  and  devel-  of  higher system.  only  marginally  intervention o r  though not  will  Potential  the  likely  settlement to be  government  economic  concentration and  the  spatial h i e r a r c h y  economic  areas.  centres  economic  effective  Agricultural  direct  priorities  so  to  and  do  altered not  possibility  larger  groupings  s e r v i c e s can  be  make  in the of  people  provided  as  as p o s s i b l e .  reorganization The  the  no  of these  Instead,  commer-  services  These  Since  transformed  s t r u c t u r e d , they The  of  industries,  s p a r s e l y populated  be  services re-  educational,  level  storehouses.  be  and  in these  badly  higher  impediments  can  are  will  short-run.  efficiently  is  areas  transformation  near  be  of M e d i u m  the  medium-scale  food  may  including  basic  eighty k i l o m e t r e s .  implementing  there  are  to  as  districts  alteration  systems  the  of forty  have  services..  provide  g r a i n and  by  Areas  Because  will  patterns  will  production,  activities  these  of these  technical  areas  organizations,  in  Each  the  there  has  been  transformation  a  noticeable  of the  integrated national and optimal  settlement  productivity.  in T a n z a n i a  f o r both  The  concern  national spatial  concern  with  to which  spatial it can  the  system.  r e g i o n a l planning  structure f o r r u r a l  purposes  with  process development  planning  is  be d i r e c t e d :  " d i s p e r s e the non-gene rative concomitants of economic growth in as equitable and efficient manner as p o s s i b l e and to m o b i l i z e the productive capacities of a l l regions by linking  103  them s t r u c t u r a l l y and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y to the m a i n the national economy." (Logan, 1972: 230) The  application of the growth  both  of these  meet and  the l o c a l  needs  centre  strategy  seems  it has been  modified  and adapted to  and specific  situations  to f u l f i l l  i n which  it has been  i s applied.  GROWTH  CENTRES  Ghana development Plan try  IN  has been plans.  GHANA a leader  Beginning  i n the f o r m u l a t i o n  with  the G u g g i s b e r g  1920 - 1930, Ghana has used and promote  However, taken  the growth  nowhere  into  major by  purposes;  s t r e a m of  account,  cities  city,  and development plans  were  and development  and regions  the c e n t r a l i z e d  largest  in these  successive  was  machinery  Development  national plans to of the society.  the r e g i o n a l  components  concentrated  i n the country.  planning  of national  This  located  was  into  a few  accentuated  i n the Capital and  Accra.  Although  r e g i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e units existed f o r s e v e r a l  years  as part  of the C e n t r a l Government  there  was never  until  1966.  This  established;  they  sectoral  planning  region.  When  planning  function at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l  i s when  Regional  Planning  were  they  Thus  r e g i o n a l planning play  Five-Year  granted  a major  role  Development  Regional  given  programs  1969,  will  machinery,  any r e a l  the Regional  were  administrative  planning  responsibility  that would  have  and D i s t r i c t  the specific  Committees to review  the m a j o r  an impact  Councils  were  on the  were  created i n  function of r e g i o n a l  by the Councils  and Planning  in the f o r m u l a t i o n  planning.  Committees  of the country's  next  Plan. is therefore  a new  technique  in  the  104  overall  planning  been  r e g i o n a l plan  a  opment power  scheme. dam,  and of  of  growth  1956  Plan  and  an  areas  a  Earlier,  resource f o r the  industrial  persons  created  Each  planning  (Kudiabor,  however,  and  river  Volta  f o r the area  Volta  location to  devel-  the  Dam.  of new  have  had  including a  dealt with  the  was  there basin  Basin,  complex,  d i s p l a c e d by  were  centres.  settlements  on  80, 000  planning  in Ghana.  based  The  a port  resettlement Seven  process  service  three  types  1971):  (a)  C e n t r a l Town - T h i s would have a population of 10,000 and serve as the m a i n centre of c o m m e r c e , industry, banking, secondary education, d i s t r i c t government administration, and a g r i c u l t u r a l productivity;  (b)  S e r v i c e Centre V i l l a g e s - The population of these v i l l a g e s would range between 5 and 8,000, and these would be centres of trade, education, p o s t a l s e r v i c e and l o c a l industry and handicrafts;  (c)  Satellite V i l l a g e s - Six of these, with a total population of 4, 000 p e r s o n s would 'surround the s e r v i c e centre v i l l a g e s , within a radius of 10 to 15 m i l e s . They would serve as centres of intensive a g r i c u l t u r e and a g r i c u l t u r a l processing activities.  Although  this  developments strategic gives  the  scheme were  growth  was  enacted,  not  adequately  centres  failed  following reason  to  agricultural  and  inf r a s t r u c t u r a l  implemented,  and  the  c r e a t i o n of  m a t e r i a l i z e . Kudiabor, (1971  f o r the  unsuccessful  : 4),  plan;  "The m a i n reason f o r the f a i l u r e was that the V o l t a B a s i n plan was p r e p a r e d in isolation f r o m the o v e r a l l plan f o r growth centres a c r o s s the country. A p a r t f r o m the p r o b l e m of resettling flood v i c t i m s f r o m the V o l t a Lake, the idea of growth centres and r e g i o n a l development planning was never a stated policy. " Regional social  and  structural  development, settlement  planning  equitable  patterns  as  can  be  used  transformation infrastructure well  as  as  an  instrument  of Ghana,  plan  the  encompassing  p r o v i s i o n and  effecting  for  rural  integrated  implementation  at  the  105  regional  and l o c a l  planning  process  level.  must  But in o r d e r  overcome  among  them  a r e : the lack  policy  and an effective regional  decentralization technical dealing  personnel,  with  inequalities  next  Five-Year  opment.  These  Coordination  (b)  Reduction  (c)  Creation tern.  have  these been  grammes  among  economic concern ductivity 111).  1971):  of national  facilities  districts;  In essence, that  attempt  objectives f o r at r e g i o n a l  development  urban  pat-  strategies  sectoral  pro-  services  and  the regions  developmental  and  centres in  f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l and other  i n these  strategies "capable  should  is with  to c o r r e c t  be a  of r a i s i n g  r u r a l development"  concern  disparities;  development  distributing social among  devel-  objectives;  and r u r a l - u r b a n  development  location patterns  the p r i m e  and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e ,  coordinating  centres  as stimulating  will  regional  and creating  Inherent  industrial  as w e l l  organization  regional  equitably  to act as s e r v i c e  activities. with  more  by the existing  a r e aimed  include:  level;  urbanization.  main  of a s a t i s f a c t o r y national  certain  of guidelines  distribution.  and r e g i o n a l  i n the existing  These  and  services  three  (Kudiabor,  at the r e g i o n a l  regions  problems, Plan  suggested.  regional  of s o c i a l  the l i m i t e d  the lack of  provision  is handicapped  Development  objectives,  infrastructure  machinery,  agriculture  Included  developmental  authority,  of population  these  are  (a)  From  the  planning  the existing patterns  the  planning  the r e g i o n a l  obstacles.  regional  government  in the p r o v i s i o n  overcome  major  of f e d e r a l  location,  regional  To  some  and the inadequate  industrial  Furthermore,  and  of c e n t r a l  to do this,  (Darkoh,  an integrated  the s t r u c t u r a l  pro1972 :  spatial  imbalances  106  of development  which  Reorganizing there be  are  is too  levels  of  structural  context.  f o r the  services  and  inefficient  to provide  environment.  facilities  well  will  as  attract  of  social  and  way  of  Darkoh  (1972  First,  the  any  current  and  health  without  new  equitable  : 121)  economic  growth  civilization  and  a  etc.)  with  centres  is too  costly  and  people requires  basic  an  services  p r o d u c t i v i t y as as  will  rural  of  electricity  Finally,  to the  in the  distribution  agricultural  activities.  distri-  without  development  equipped  increased  change,  urban  water  facilities,  centres  industrial  economic  changes  population  out,  should  population  d e l i b e r a t e l y concentrating  Third,  New  strategy  meaningful  an  (1971) points  centre  of the  Second,  promote  extending  Kudiabor  growth  majority  l a r g e r groupings.  and  As  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e (i. e.  educational  urban  a  make  reorganization.  supplies,  into  why  scattered to  living  exist.  Countryside.  reasons  in this  bution  social  the  several  adopted  currently  an  be  agent  the  areas.  surest  And,  as  notes,  "... a b a s i c p r a c t i c a l argument f o r the planned d i s p e r s i o n of i n d u s t r i e s into r u r a l a r e a s through growth centres is that hidden r e s o u r c e s of c r e a t i v i t y and innovation might thereby be unearthed. " To  put  these  considerations  Kudiabor  suggests  a  Northern  Regions  as  major will  urban  areas  continue  level. might (a)  But  as  the  Regional  an  hierarchy  example.  the  centres  Northern  following Growth  for  Ghana,  using  the  In h i s f o u r - t i e r e d structure, the  of A c c r a - T e m a ,  dominant  within  assume  settlement  into a p r a c t i c a l application,  Sekondi-Takoradi  of development  Regions,  the  other  and  at the  Kumasi national  growth  areas  structure:  Centre  -  The  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n links  and  107  the functional activities of T a m a l e make this the l o g i c a l r e g i o n a l centre. It is the r e f e r e n c e f o r a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l activity (assembly, storage and shipping) and has some manufacturing activity. T h i s is also the centre f o r banking and government administration, as w e l l as such educational f a c i l i t i e s as secondary, t e c h n i c a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l institutes; (b)  D i s t r i c t Growth Point - These would include the ten d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and m a r k e t centres. They also serve as centres f o r education, health f a c i l i t i e s , l o c a l handicrafts and p o s t a l s e r v i c e s ; they are the m a i n f o c i for the exchange of ideas on development. They have d i r e c t communication and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n links with T a m a l e ;  (c)  L o c a l S e r v i c e Centre V i l l a g e s - These are e s s e n t i a l l y a g r i c u l t u r a l groupings that supply only the m i n i m u m of l o c a l needs. By  using  investments proach  this  and  type  of settlement  programmes,  to development  pattern  a more  can be  when  rational  achieved.  As  and  considering systematic  ap-  D a r k o h (1972 : 118) notes:  "Ghana has too often embarked on investment p o l i c i e s that are widening rather than n a r r o w i n g r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s . . . this is because planners have ignored the spatial d i m e n s i o n s of their investment p r o g r a m s . " The  increasing  planning  role  process  of development strategy the  will  and  been  economic  development. and  provide  CENTRES  It has integrated  will  help  within  countryside  GROWTH  of r e g i o n a l planning  But  to promote  the national valuable  in the IN  only  Similar  in trying to both  a more  structure.  assistance  spread  development  equitable The  i n the  distribution  growth  centre  r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of  of development  within  the  regions.  KENYA recently that  and it has  Kenya  p h y s i c a l planning readily  functional national planning  effort  i n the national  accepted and  has  to r e o r g a n i z e  the  Tanzania  Ghana,  and  has  formulated  an  approach to national the concept exerted  settlement Kenya  of  a great  pattern  spatial deal of  in the country.  recognized  the  inade-  108  quate  spatial  There  had  been  economic Obudho  s t r u c t u r e that was  and  a  social  rural  towns  and  were  not  lack of  development  (1972) d e s c r i b e d  the  to  complete  inherited  were  the  spatial  system  as  the  rural  the  colonial  planning  throughout  oriented toward  benefitting  from  the  to  rural  days.  promote areas.  'parasitic',  where  even  international  export  markets  areas  that they  were  supposed  serve. "It was this situation which prompted the adoption of growth centre concept in Kenya. " ( T a y l o r , 1972 : 152) There  tion  was  process  of growth serious  and  of  centres  Additionally, centres  areas  into  it was  until  1964  national and  and  requirements. cultural  and  existing central  It was political places  became  strong  r e q u i r e d was  a  sentiment a better  a reorienta-  functions in the c r e a t i o n of  migration  local  attractive  rates f r o m  efforts  were  r e g i o n a l planning. Plans  were  These  plans  to meet  the  aspects  places) were  Concentration  to promote  that the  that any  in these  were  a  urbaniza-  the  rural  centres.  in Kenya.  function of towns  areas.  was  generative  high  P h y s i c a l Development provinces  was  existing  Mombasa  centres  hoped  the  the  urban  there  What  to p e r f o r m  largest  change the  smaller  two  comprehensive period,  to  slow  not  and  politicians;  would  the  It was  (i.e.  the  to  i n N a i r o b i and  of development.  rural  All  to  need  rural  development  rural  areas.  size  the  decentralization  distribution  seven  definite  link  concern  toward  tion  to  a  the  plans  During  prepared were  that  concerned  combined  inventoried and  the  into  were  1967-1970  six of  the  with  the  provincial physical,  first  'growth  four  toward  the  for  national and  of development  categorized  made  considered.  centres'  levels;  social  10 9  (a)  Urban centres - these arede signated to be the m a i n c o m m e r c i a l centres on the d i s t r i c t l e v e l , s e r v i n g about 120, OOOpersons. They are g e n e r a l l y m e d i u m - s i z e d towns which w i l l have a m i n i m u m of 10,000 people by the year 2 000;  (b)  R u r a l centres - These should serve a r u r a l population of at least 40,000 and should have at least 2,000 5,000 r e s i d e n t s by the year 2000;  (c)  M a r k e t centres - These s m a l l towns should have approximately 1, 000 p e r s o n s i n them by the turn of the century and should serve a r u r a l population of at least 15, 000;  (d)  L o c a l centres - These are the s m a l l e s t of the designated centres and they w i l l only have about 200 r e s i d e n t s . They are expected to serve up to 5, 000 people.  Although  these  accurately  are designated  predict  the future  places.  However,  designed  to encourage  functional in  these  centres  There  addition to M o m b a s a  centres  classification  and  The integrating this  are  possible ments must should  to divert  toward  rural  in the r u r a l continue also be  and  towns  made  and  of these  the plans  according  N a i r o b i , which  are elevated  centres.  Principal  These  as  of the  well.  i n other  above  are m a j o r  the f i r s t The  available  the  growth  effort at  key  strategy of  resources  the c o m p l e m e n t a r y  Although  the growth  centres,  Towns.  1970-1974 was  and  are  to this  eight other  much  as  size  are additionally  development  to expand  exist  p h y s i c a l planning. as  it is difficult to  ultimate  i n these, areas  as  Plan  and  already  of U r b a n  Development  plan was  and  referred  economic  growth  growth  hierarchy.  functional  s e r v i c e centres,  Mombasa  and  as  improveNairobi  points of the nation,  efforts  directions.  " E m p h a s i s i s given to d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the population growth outside of N a i r o b i and Mombasa, the positive promotion of growth centres around the country, and o r d e r l y expansion of n e c e s s a r y s o c i a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e to keep pace with the r i s e in population. " ( L a u r e n t i , 1972 : 10)  110  rural  The  central  and  spatial  activities.  serve  serve  mote  the  foci  rural  call  in achieving  centres.  of trade, areas,  investments  The  four-level  social the  centre  goals  of  programming would  government  growth  alter  the  f o r coordinated  infrastructure  in the  as  more  and  designated  concentrated  would to  to  involved  development  Growth  channelled be  planning  only  of  be  s e r v i c e s were  hierarchy;  s e r v i c e s and  these  communications  pattern of m i g r a t i o n  and  pro-  equitable national development.  " F o r these reasons, the growth centre strategy, a l r e a d y outlined in the K e n y a Development Plan, is important f o r the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s to the r u r a l areas t h e m s e l v e s and to the absorption of potential urban m i g r a n t s . " (Gerhart, 1972 : 15) Additionally, facilities  building  should  Kenya. have  the  enable  teresting applied  in the  'small than  to note  urban  the  national from  800  functions able  to  better  the  growth  that not  plan.  These 5, 000,  necessary  than the  to  centre  other  growth  linkages were  facebetween  rural  and  s e r v i c e s should  be  local  sectors, to  to  the  policies,  developmental  ranging  in population  These  and would  developmental  especially these  it is here stimulate  units  in the  facilities  areas.  Since  it i s i n -  (1974) thinks that  of the  distribute  centres,  introduced  with  effective  many  improved.  urban  Taylor  places',  the  s e r v i c e s and  importance  h i e r a r c h y employed  provide  service  rural-urban  and  more  throughout  in Kenya,  in agreement  'small urban would  concentrate  be  market  process.  concept  process.  p l a c e s ' would growth  centre  and  industry  of great  planning  a l l are  developmental  four-level  to  in the  labour  d i s p e r s i o n of  it i s c o n s i d e r e d  participation  In analyzing  infrastructure,  a wider  Furthermore',  local  of  to  if the are that  be  benefits important  the  inter-  innovations  socio-economic  Ill  growth.  However,  hierarchy not  be  of urban  met  by  He  therefore  into  the  be  the  best  ical  that  should  policy  Although  and  to  equity  provide  that  could  urban  (1972) argues  developed  country.  places  argues  and  fails  the 'small  Laurenti Kenya.  he  of  f o r the there  to  the  direct  Nairobi overall  are  the  demands  that  could  d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n policy early most  and  he  stage of  of  its  development  This  would  development  reasons,  of  resources  Mombasa.  economic  justifiable  considerations,  alternative functional  places'.  is in an  continue  areas  meet  against  Kenya  an  of  the  p r i m a r i l y polit-  states that  "Kenya's s t r e s s on d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n is coming too soon... the build-up of i n f r a s t r u c t u r e in the designated growth centres may prove to be much less productive than expected, and c e r t a i n l y l e s s productive than the allocation of r e s o u r c e s to other development p r o g r a m s " . (1972 : 34) This  a n a l y s i s , however,  "efficiency" for  the  social,  balanced  spite  continued In fact,  these the  1974-1978.  For  and  urban  the  guide-lines  into  the  services  to  and  facilities  concentrating  development  solely  without  considerations  of  the  Government  latest  of  on  the  concern  a  more  Kenya  expanded  in Kenya,  in the  levels  1970-1974  Development  of  rural  Appendix  p r o v i s i o n of  plan.  Plan  development  I  describes  infrastructure facil-  of functional centres.  concept  planning which  in the  considerations  policy  has  national development  strategies outlined i n the and  used  centre  developmental  the  at the  centre  varying  growth  and  on  look  be  of  political  claims,  reiterated  growth  for the  aspect  and  policies  a  to be  approach.  objectives  been  The  cultural  of these  have  ities  1968)  developmental  In  Plan  (Alonso,  appears  appears  process  are  to  be  to  be  fully  in Kenya. included  at  incorporated  The each  specific level  of  112  the  urban  centres the  hierarchy  (i. e.  mote  the  r e g i o n a l and  ANALYSIS  OF  The use  these  national more  country place  has  different these  centres  have  to fit the growth  distribution  process.  case-specific will  growth  fully basis;  of  success  as  well  as  a  strong  of  to to  pro-  depend potential  is seen  needs  on  the  of the  these  and  and  differently  and  durable needs  area,  and  the  central  between  case  as  well  as  developmental  It is used  existing  the  'central place -  growth  in which  But  in each  centre there  d i s p e r s i o n of the  area  a  the. growth  flexible,  of the  application of the in Tanzania.  on  potentials;  as  the  Each  objectives.  that this  of  similar  to provide  based  It appears  type  of  in a  of development  adapted  and  Each  facilities.  levels  functions  for  functional s t r u c t u r e of  strategy,  programming  and  in A f r i c a .  development  and  case  development  achieving  different  developed the  and  centre  situation.  the  suggest  s e r v i c e s and  s t r u c t u r e d and  understanding  is m o s t  country  stimulate  rural  of  means  concept  planning  the  a  particular  The  the  deliberate attempt  concepts  spatial  growth  point to  of handling  centres  a  as  capable  cept  the  to  to promote  been  centre'  determine  CENTRES  centre  ideologies , r e s o u r c e s  countries  a  above  is attempting  adopted  concepts,  GROWTH  growth  reorganizing  equitable  as  growth  functional o r g a n i z a t i o n of  e a r l y to  applied  presented  of m o d i f i e d  territory  in the  role  national development.  examples  direction:  play  picture of the  structure of the  AFRICAN  countries  clear  it is too  it is being spatial  a  places)  Although  strategy,  reorient  the  central  country.  this  provide  it is  conon  a  growth employed,  settlements  113  patterns. as  In this  flexible  growth  transform  has  ing  settlement  the  purpose  All  places  benefit more  If this  as  the  to  proach  is to make  ly,  the  cause  up can  equally  a l l parts  sweeping some  a  classified  spot  and  This  functional  levels  then  of these  in p a r t i c u l a r  the  centre  centres.  attempt  areas  so to and  will  strategy i s are  aim  operate  parts  exist-  rural  centres  Whereas  growth  the  services  of the  national space  g e n e r a l i t y of the  which is  hierarchy  of  rural  application  to  change.  will  levels the  and  categorized for  investments  country.  entire  inefficiencies  system  four-level  appropriate  centres.  the  used  approach:  and  in the  achieved,  of the  being  cultural  different  fullest  development  are  and  to the  functional b a s i s of the  to the be  in the  effective  economic  programmes  these  rigid  more  been  employed  centres  slightly  designated  centres  from  a  r e o r i e n t i n g the  were  facilities.  a  pattern has  of  these  into  are  change  growth  social,  adopted  a l l government  bring  The  countryside  of generating  centres  of o r d e r e d  country.  the  Kenya  that  growth  instruments  of the  capable  way,  applied  of this  more  ap-  efficient-  programme  may  of the national  system. The into  the  growth  planning  developed which  as  a  plague  the  growth  the  national  strategy  means  as  yet  of achieving  strategy;  scheme  process  to  centre  concept  can  ization  of the  country  to  play  an  decrease  fully integrated  and  it is not  also  goals. limit  fully Problems  the  use  are  not  sufficiently  clear  define  the  application  of  of development.  growth  been  developmental  policies  regional level  not  in Ghana,  r e g i o n a l planning  centre and  strategy has  process  the  in the  centre  With  important  time, role  regional disparities  and  on  the  however,  in the  of  the  reorganachieve  114  national  planning  goals.  It i s important African place  growth  theory,  the  various  and  Kenya  spheres  centre  components  communication  its foundations  of the spatial  developed  be made  with  in the application of the  useful to have  to be u t i l i z e d  also  mental  strategy,  it i s v e r y  have  out that  a spatial  of influence, population  functions, should  to point  clearly  in central  defined  structure(s).  Both  o r g a n i z a t i o n with  size  and s e r v i c e  by the growth  to the c r i t i c a l  centres.  role  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n links  that  roles for  specific  and activity Some  reference  a system  can play  Tanzania  of good  in the develop-  process.  CONCLUSION Are planning the  process  centres'  in Africa?  A f r i c a n societies  been  enough  African on  'growth  feedback  growth  are  i n these  risk  and guess  Gersdorff ives  to draw  situations,  of r e g i o n a l planning  governments goals  with  a r e the following,  practical  any definite  to these  a composite  of their  in order  list  These  There  conclusions.  it i s p o s s i b l e  has not  But based  modifications  to make  that  a calcu-  questions. of goals  were  planners;  needs of  application of the  and the different  in A f r i c a .  the advice  the d i v e r s e  of development?  at the answers  (1971) o f f e r s  in the developmental  fulfill  the l i m i t e d  of p u r p o s e s  applied  lated  from  strategy  Can they  i n the course  centres  the m u l t i p l i c i t y  a viable  and object-  set by v a r i o u s  the objectives and  of p r i o r i t y :  1.  Involvement of the m a s s e s and also of l o c a l and r e g i o n a l o f f i c i a l s in the planning and implementation p r o c e s s ;  2.  Better use of human, natural and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s in the v a r i o u s regions, including an i n c r e a s e in the r e g i o n a l  115  level  of living  3.  C r e a t i o n of centres of attraction o r g r o w t h poles f o r keeping people f r o m m i g r a t i n g to the national capitals, for assembling those who are too scattered and f o r t r a n s f e r r i n g growth impulses to the backward r u r a l areas;  4.  P r o v i s i o n of s o c i a l and economic i n f r a s t r u c t u r e which have developmental potential;  5.  D i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l production and a better spatial d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n d u s t r i e s ;  6.  Reduction of r e g i o n a l income d i f f e r e n c e s by d i r e c t i n g investments to l e s s - d e v e l o p e d regions which would otherwise have tended to go to areas with expected higher r e t u r n s . It appears  the  of a l l of these  presented  in the examples  Africa.  This  a choice  centres  would  This  have  to be  would  the implementation  plan. centres  Although  likelihood  of growth  these  process  cases  of these  centre  notions  aspect  and indeed d e s i r a b l e ,  goals.  The fact  would  mean  centre  strategy w i l l  in Africa.  seems  growth  planning process  deve lopment  the success  there  that  that only one  the planning  of the c o m p r e h e n s i v e  of goal-achievement,  of development  both  to weigh  have  utilization in  selected i n the c o m p r e h e n s i v e  greatly simplify  that the growth  Most  be acceptable,  it i s i m p o s s i b l e  in terms  f o r regions  strategy i s applicable i n  goals.  of strategy to pursue  would  process. and  concept  centre  are applicable i n a l l these  strategy  the  that the growth  achievement  been  as  and of productivity;  of these  to be a good  contribute much to  116  CHAPTER V ZAMBIA:  DEVELOPMENT  PLANS A N D GROWTH  CENTRES  " A constant preoccupation of my Government is the disparity in the standard of living between the rural masses and the comparatively limited urban and industrial sector. While this Plan will not redress the inherited imbalances between the rural and the urban sectors, it does aim at provoking growth in b o t h . . . " (President D. K. Kaunda, Introduction to F i r s t National Development Plan, 1966 - 1970) INTRODUCTION "One  Zambia -  Republic of Zambia.  Founded on 24  of Zambia occupies Africa.  an important  the  national motto  October,  role  1964,  standards,  Saharan A f r i c a .  countries  only a land of  Black A f r i c a  of southern A f r i c a  conflict between  to become  effort  this former  Brit-  (see  Map 3).  It is not  but it is the focal point  White-ruled and Black A f r i c a .  "One Nation",  conceived and deliberate  country by  and the mo re-developed,  many internal diversities,  continuous  In order  between  the Republic  on the two worlds of Sub-  Bordering on eight countries,  ish colony stands minority-ruled  Zambia borders  of the  in the hierarchy of Tropical  A highly urbanized and relatively wealthy  African  of the  One Nation" is  Zambia must  towards  engage in a well-  economic,  social and  political development. PHYSICAL,  P O L I T I C A L AND DEMOGRAPHIC  General Description . south-central square  miles.  while the most  Africa,  occupying a territory  from the  is over  mainly of rolling  800  OF Z A M B I A  Zambia is a land-locked country in of approximately  The maximum east-west distance  distance  border  FEATURES  southernmost  miles.  border  is  700  to the  The relief of Zambia  and flat plateaux,  290,000  miles northernconsists  occasionally broken by isola-  117  MAP 3 ZAMBIA  Source:  Davies,  D. H .  IN A F R I C A  Zambia in Maps.  1971  118  ted hills  and rift valleys...  above mean sea drainage  level.  systems,  three lakes  the  and has  entirely within its  The average  It is  altitude  is 3,700 feet  served by two of Africa's major  Congo and the  one large  Zambezi.  body of water,  It borders on Lake Bangweula,  borders.  Although Zambia is a politically non-aligned country, deeply affected by the  internal politics of A f r i c a .  Zambia (formerly Northern Rhodesia) was  itself as  an independent country.  Independence factor  (U.D.I.),  in the  This  affected  ations of its U.D.I,  forced to  the  subversive  Zambia in two ways; into the  east and north. activities  Additionally,  aimed at Rhodesia,  sovereignty and defense and as  the  and orient-  renounce  from the  Portuguese  south and  colonies  colony of  Zambia has been under  from several different nations.  is a prime consideration of the  Davies (1971  : 10)  the  a strong-hold for  and the South African  Namibia (formerly South West Africa), intense political pressures  as  econom-  economy of  consider new directions  attitudes and allegiances  of Angola and Mozambique,  ment,  Rhodesia and its  economy; politically, Zambia had to  and shift its  towards  Rhodesia proclaimed  was the precipitating  involving  Zambia had been highly integrated  Rhodesia and was  from the  Unilateral Declaration of  in November 1965,  continuing controversy  minority government. ically,  This  Shortly after  separated  Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Southern  it is  National Govern-  notes:  "At least in the short run, both economic and social considerations take second place to political i m p e r a t i v e s . . . events since Rhodesia's U . D . I prove the paramountcy of political considerations in decision-making. " Dr.  D. K.  Kaunda has been President  since independence  119 and also leader  of the United National Independence  which has controlled the National Assembly since elections,  Kaunda was re-elected  U.N. I.P.  won 82 out of 105 Assembly seats.  party,  the African  National Congress  ing seats with political strength central  by a large  Party ( U . N . I. P.)  1964.  margin,  and the  The opposition  ( A . N . C ) , won the remain-  centred mainly in the south-  and westernareas of the country.  Unlike other  leaders,  Kaunda has not forcibly imposed a one-party  Zambia,  hoping to achieve  processes.  and ethnic lines,  reveals  African system in  that condition through the democratic  But the relative  retention of the two-party  In the 1968  upsurge of the A . N. C . ,  and the  system based primarily along tribal the difficulty in trying to form a  national unity and identity based on complete  consensus.  The country is divided administratively into eight provinces and forty-five districts, 4).  ten of which are urban districts  (see Map  Nearly all of the administrative positions are now held by  Zambians. Development  The Provincial Development Committees Committees  and the Rural  are concerned primarily with the imple-  mentation of the National Plan and the economic development of their  respective  areas.  These  committees  are meant  to  integrate  political and administrative functions as well as solicit more participation from the local areas Socially,  (Tordoff,  Zambia is a country of complexities  There  are over  seventy tribal groups  There  are also  at least nine major  local dialects, Additionally, and  7,790  1968).  although English  respectively,  indigenous to the country.  language  groups and numerous  remains the official  there are Europeans  and contrasts.  language.  and Asians (approximately  74, 460  according to the 1969 census) as well as  1 2 0  MAP ZAMBIA:  4  ADMINISTRATIVE  DIVISIONS  MB A L A MILES  O  125  r—1-T-1—r  I  L  MPOROKOSO •-\.  1  1  (KAWAMBWA  KILOMETRES 200  O  \  KA S A M A..  :  \ ISOKA /  N O. R T H E.-.R N  \ .. J  ,• •' ••" ' „ - \ LUWINGU M•••A N < S A\ ',. •> /•• . • •  CHIN-SALlJ  s  \SA MFYAV  j.  L \U A Pi U _L_A '  V.  >'1  SOLWEZI  ^-  N p..R.T..H.......  BALOVALE  . . -  VV.-'E ^  <  N  / (RURAL) i c  S T E R N  ,  o  <  KASEMPA  —  N  I SERENJE  B E L T / -  V.  :  .MONGU . L tA LUl\  MANKOYA  v J ' \  N  t  -  : K A BWE ': a '•!"•.  f PI I C A I \ '*. .. - '. (RURAL)  'C  : /• •  MKUSHI  R/A'V  E N T  )  y I j PETAUKE E A S T "N  L.. LUSAKA  -I,/-,.../-  --I/  "'""•-^  NAMWALA  (RURA  .ICHOMA^WEMDES^ 7 ( :  KALOMO  —  R/N  ;^FEIRA]  X'  N  M & f  '• •' ^-*"*> BOUNDARIES . _ Provincial Kurol and Urba.T District  Source:  Davies, D . H .  Zambia in Maps. 1971  i  c•  ••'\  CHIPATA/ E R N  •.  •MAZABUKA.- " "5^'  S O U T H ' E  SESHEKE  /  V  MUMBWA  / ^ •l  SEMANGA  \  '  1  V/\E-S T E:R..N  \  , ~-  ^—  \ t  :' •  >  K A L ADO /  / • LUMDAZI _y  :::'6-:7.':-.  p p E"R  V  MPIKA  VNOOLAa--^  '•  'KAOOMP.'O  \  URBAN DISTRICTS I Chililabomfcwe 2. Chin go I a 3. Mufulira A. Kalulushi 5 Kitws 6 Luar.shya 7 Ndola 8. Kabwe 9 Lusaka 10. Livingsteae  121 other A f r i c a n s f r o m neighbouring countries r e s i d i n g in Z a m b i a . T h e r e i s a wide d i v e r s i t y of education, s k i l l s , income and employment.  F o r example, i n 1970 the average annual income of  employees in a l l industries was n o n - A f r i c a n s (1 K =  $1.40  K923 for A f r i c a n s and K5, 156 f o r  U.S.); p r o f e s s i o n a l , technical,  adminis-  tation and m a n a g e r i a l w o r k e r s accounted f o r only 2. 6 per cent of the total jobs held by A f r i c a n s and 36 percent of the total jobs held by n o n - A f r i c a n s ( M i n i s t r y of F i n a n c e , 1971  : 48-54).  T h i s is the a s s o r t e d m i l i e u that must be m o u l d e d together to f o r m a single nation. Population D i s t r i b u t i o n . The  1969 census was  complete census ever taken i n Z a m b i a . Z a m b i a at that time was 42).  The  the f i r s t  The population l i v i n g in  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4, 056, 995 (Davies,  population density f o r the country was  about 13.9  1971: per-  sons per square mile, m a k i n g it one of the least densely populated a r e a s i n T r o p i c a l A f r i c a (see Table IVb,  Chapter I).  The  population grew by 2.7 percent ^per annum between 1963 and  1969,  a total i n c r e a s e of o v e r 17 per cent i n just six y e a r s . The population i s s p r e a d unevenly throughout the countryside.  E v e n though the o v e r a l l density is v e r y low,  pockets of concentration.  there are  The most notable one is along the " l i n e -  o f ^ - r a i l " - the a r e a b o r d e r i n g the Z a m b i a n R a i l w a y . *  The ten  *Note: T h i s north-south railway runs f r o m L i v i n g s t o n e to the copper mining a r e a known as the Copperbelt. It is the Z a m b i a n extension of the railway link between Rhodesia and Capetwon, South A f r i c a ; it was the p r i m e link with manufacturing activities in Rhodesia as w e l l as the a c c e s s to import/export outlets in South A f r i c a , Angola and Mozambique. T h i s s y s t e m became p o l i t i c a l l y inoperable with U.D.I.  122  largest  cities are  located along  are.inthe Copperbelt of  the  and  total  the  Zambian  mile. the  Zambia with  28  (see  Table  per  centres, total. to  i s one  the  The  same  population along  per  the  are  11.6 of  per 93  per  definition in  less  grew time these  over  in the  capital annum  cent.  Although urban  seven  densely  sprawling  goal  poses  high  as  500  of this  persons  the  the  or  5  90  1972  :19).  1963  vary  per  cent  has  17  per  urban  provinces  startling  on  doubled  year  high  l e d to high  over  entire  a  per  a total i n c r e a s e  in the  per  1963  is a  cent  three  grew  in  per cent  of the  almost  towns  national  this  8  depending  i n - m i g r a t i o n and  areas  of the  i n the  towns  f o r urban  747, 000  1969,  has  mile.  main  than  city,  and  Lusaka  10  cent  and  largest  per  concentra-  more  cent  only  towns  A l l of the and  persons  square  or  more  per  railway,  countries in A f r i c a ,  2 7 per  figures  centre,  of the  linear  per  urbanized  over  between  massive  populated  shanty  The stances  The  per cent  i n c r e a s e of 439,000;  main  and  years.  at rates between period.  10  six years  Well  cent p e r  than  40  c r i t e r i a of 20, 000  l i n e - o f - r a i l (Simmance,  of the  Approximately  population i n c r e a s e d f r o m  period.  the  which  population i n c r e a s e d by  found  Lusaka,  of  population l i v i n g in the  an absolute  cent  rural  time  as  population i s s t i l l  total urban  of 60  annum.  the  seven  within 2 5 m i l e s  outside  most  1969  Using  urban  5).  goes  areas  of the  1,186,000 in 1969,  rise  line  rural  cent of the  the  Map  density is only  VI).  The  this  In the  average  (see  line - o f - r a i l ,  population lives  density along  square tion,  Region  the  the in  size  Copperbelt over  growth  the  area same  rates of  unemployment  and  towns. of achieving a  unified  s e v e r a l problems.  The  society location  under of  these Zambia  circumin  123  MAP 5 ZAMBIA:  URBAN  AREAS THE TOWNS  The Copperbelt CHILILABOMBWE  O I 0  RAILWAYS  MILES 125 '• ' • ' l ' 1 KILOMETRES 200  CHINGOLA' CHAMB KALULUSHI  >  KASAMA  0ISOKA  '*>.  t i S /  !  BALOVALEI  CHIPATAf  iERENOE  I  V. / KABWE  •  KALABO. MONGU  r" s  LUSAKA I  J^AZABUKA /^^Q—^KAFUE' OMONZE \  V  °Tf>* •N v.  0%** Q  LIVi' i N G S T O N E  Source:  / i  Davies,  D. H .  5O00 20.000 60.000 100,000 200,000 .Circles proportional to p o p u l a t i o n • ( C e n t r e s n! A.0C0 a ^ d undo.-.  Zambia in Maps. 1971  \  124 T A B L E VI ZAMBIA:  P O P U L A T I O N O F MAIN TOWNS (»000)  Population 1969  Town  Census (a) 262.2  Lusaka Kitwe  199.8  Ndola  159.9.  Mufulira  107.8  Chingola  103.3  Luanshya  96.3  Kabwe  67.9  Livingstone  43.3  Chililabombwe  44.9  Kalulushi  32.3  Chipata  13.4  Choma  11.9  Mongu  10.1  Kasama  8.9  Mazabuka  6.3  Mans a  9.0  Mbala  5.3  Monze  3.8 TOTAL  Source:  1,186.4  Ministry of Finance Economic Report 1971. Lusaka, 1972  12 5  South-central  Africa  stability  prosperity.  society  and and  the  Government identity. balance and up  widely  to  linear  between  factors  THE  natural  OF  development.  have  achieve  the second  Table  good  water  has  a  While  been  II,  the  urban  migration  planning  plans  political  make-up  limit  the a  areas, to the  of  ability  creates causing  urban  to  the of  provide after  a  major  to  Chapter  economy  a  an  a  im-  socially  areas.  consider  It i s  these  prepared.  and  been  solid  role  GNP  I).  has  i n the  these per  Also large  is far f r o m  capita  amounts  valuable Zambian  with  ample  mineral economy.  successfully  in T r o p i c a l  of f e r t i l e  land,  climate,  Zambia  agricultural  developed,  to  Africa  a favourable  a profitable  fully  with  foundation f o r  resources  endowed  f o r developing  endowed  economic  independence,  exploit  highest  potential  sector.  Zambia  "unlike some other new A f r i c a n states, p o s s e s s e s many the e s s e n t i a l m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s f o r self-advancement" (Davies, 1971 : 120). Copper economy. declaration  The  mining  and  processing  Government  in 1968,  the  common national  areas  process  are  Zambia  and  able  resources  good the  which  played  has  population  for  ZAMBIA  Before  Zambia  (see  and  Description.  resources  resources  rural  destabilizing  ECONOMY  cultural  integrate society with  development  General  diverse  dispersed  involved in the  when  its p r o s p e c t s  concentration of urban  the  economically  affects  The  effectively  The  to those  critically  of  acquired  copper  mining  companies  oration  (I. N. D. E . C. O.).  Zambia, 51 per  through The  i s the  backbone  through  cent  a  of the  its Industrial  wealthy  copper  of the  major  Development of  Zambian  policy  equity of  mines  of  the  the Corp-  126  Copperbelt  Region  government economy to the well  provide  revenue.  provides  G. D. P.  over  90  (Ministry  (see  of  a  net  balance  of payments  considerably demands.  tobacco  and  earlier, few  this  is a  primary  fields  typical  resources For  to have  a  net  cash 10  per  employment labour imately  70  cent  per  Copperbelt  since  foreign  of the  total  main  1964.  exported  in the  of the  item  900, 000.  of a l l employed with  per  cent  engaged  same  were  10 p e r  enables  in the  In 1969, in the  year,  in the  cent  of the  in s m a l l -  o n e - t h i r d of the  persons  another  10  engaged  In the  and  of trade.  agriculture.  only  -  copper  which  population l i v e s  population was  noted  f o r capital  export  than  fuels,  economies  valuable  population are  subsistence  As  the  balance  for less  lead,  machinery  : 71).  in exchange  adequate  export  mineral  African  however,  the  include  1971  the  fluctuate  and  goods,  has  However,  reserves  imports  represented  provinces,  1964.  include zinc,  rural  and  cent  since  Zambia  copper  accounts  This  exports,  beside  cent  f o r c e of approximately 74  provided  of Z a m b i a  prices  than  farming  sector.  also  copper  surplus  m a j o r i t y of the crop  year  of F i n a n c e ,  per  agriculture  copper  the  Zambia,  country  scale  contribution  sales have  manufactured  are  more  The  annual  sector of the  sectoral  pattern f o r most  a  areas,  total  world  the  provided  GNP.  and  the  have  rural  than  on  (Ministry  over  of  earnings  from  and  exports  goods.  Although  export  of the  quarrying  Copper  each  surplus  maize;  chemicals  manufactured  the  of the  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n equipment,  food  a  and  VII).  surplus  depending main  and  percentage  revenues  export  The  half  1971).  the  enjoyed  and  Table  cent  than  mining  largest  of F i n a n c e ,  Because  cobalt,  The  the  per  more  in  less  wage total approx-  Central Southern  127 TABLE ZAMBIA:  GROSS DOMESTIC  A T C U R R E N T PRICES,  VII PRODUCT  BY  SECTOR  1964 A N D 1969  1964  1969  GDP GDP (factor cost) (factor cost) K * million per cent K* million per cent Agriculture, fishing  forestry,  53.3  11.5  73.7  7. 5  Mining and Quarrying  220. 8  47.5  397.6  40. 6  Manufacturing  28. 2  6.1  82. 2  8.4  Construction  20.0  4.3  66.9  6.8  Trade  45. 8  9.9  96.5  9.9  Transport and Communications  20.6  4.4  51.0  5.2  Other Services  76.2  16.4  211.0  21.6  464.9  100.0  978.9  100.0  TOTAL.  *1K (Kwacha) Source:  =  Young, A l i s t a i r .  $1.40 (U.S.) or 50np.  (U.K.)  Industrial Diversification in Zambia. 1973.  128  province. total  The  persons  five  employed  Constraints in  terms  which  on  of other  affect  favourable  rural  the  provinces  in Z a m b i a  the  African  economic  these  Perhaps  the  and  agricultural  the  economy,  production.  Although  As  Elliott  1972  of  Zambia.  must  take  Zambia  of this  (1971  are  : 9)  of  the  : 21). prosperous  s e v e r a l constraints Even  positive  with its steps  develop  its economy  fully.  situation  is that the  rural  lags f a r behind  to make  cent  fairly  development  indicator  fails  per  there  development  and  16  countries,  c o n s t r a i n t s if it is to prime  only  (Simmance,  Economy.  natural resources,  remove  had  Zambia  the  other  to  s e c t o r s of  self-sufficient  in food  states:  "Though it i s easy to exaggerate the suitability of the Z a m b i a n c l i m a t e and conditions f o r intensive a g r i c u l t u r e , the fact that over 20 per cent of Zambia's food i s imported f r o m abroad owed l e s s to the n a t u r a l environment of a g r i c u l t u r e than to ineffective a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c i e s before and after independence. The s t r u c t u r a l inefficiency of this s e c t o r i s reflected in its inability to provide f o r a l a r g e and r a p i d l y growing (home) market, its o v e r - s u p p l y of labour to the urban area, and its inability to generate productive assets to ensure a s a t i s f a c t o r y rate of growth and a flexible pattern of a g r i c u l t u r a l output. " Although areas the  the  is a  only  structural prime  include  concern  constraint to  Briefly, the  reformation  some  to the  economic  other  and  development  Zambian  of the  Government,  rural  it i s not  development.  c o n s t r a i n t s to  following f a c t o r s (Elliott,  development  in  Zambia  1971):  - i n e f f e c t u a l and often counter-productive labour unions; -imbalances in the income d i s t r i b u t i o n between A f r i c a n s and non- A f r i c a n s ; - e x c e s s i v e i n c r e a s e s in the wage rates, leading to higher production costs and the use of l a b o u r - s a v i n g technologies; - i n c r e a s e d demands and expectations by citizens which can not be r e a l i s t i c a l l y met; -inadequate domestic savings and investments coupled with i n c r e a s e d demand f o r the consumption of goods and s e r v i c e s; -incomplete t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication i n f r a s t r u c t u r e ;  129  -undeveloped and spatially imbalanced m a r k e t areas; - e x c e s s i v e l y high rates of inflation in the economy. Many  of these  constraints  are  interrelated;  i . e.  "the economic development is definitely hindered by a m a r k e t constraint a r i s i n g chiefly f r o m a badly developed s y s t e m of transport and communications. . . " ( F o r t m a n n in E l l i o t t , 1971 ; 195) Richard  Jolly  shortages  (in E l l i o t t ,  in s k i l l e d  major  constraint  Young  (1973  following  discusses  educated labour,  : 140)  recognizes  as  the m a i n  this  the c r i t i c a l labeling  to expansion i n Z a m b i a  factors  industrial  and  1971),  after  constraint,  inhibitors  p r o b l e m of  this  as the  independence. but  cites the  to m a n u f a c t u r i n g and  growth:  "...the v e r y slow growth of the supply of a g r i c u l t u r a l raw m a t e r i a l s ; the d i s l o c a t i o n caused by the attempt to switch trading routes through Dar es S a l a a m (following U.D.I. ); the rapid rate of growth i n wages; the change f r o m capital surplus to capital shortage around 1970; and the apparent lack of indigenous e n t e r p r i s e . " Most  African  development tively  high  and  expectations  the  mands out  FIRST  i s no  rural  economic  exception. mixed  with  of the population,  make  economic  development  revenues.  few  resources  It is not  and  countries that  the  regional  development  are p r o v i d e d that  to spread  compara-  increased  are b l e s s e d  surprising  the government  the  the g r o s s  areas,  Additionally"  constraints to  However,  urban  are put upon  the  severe  and  issue.  copper  face  of development  between  substantial  bia's  Zambia  level  inequalities  pressing  countries  a  with by  increasing  this  Published  DEVELOPMENT  in July  1966,  this  PLAN, was  de-  wealth through-  countryside.  NATIONAL  Zam-  1966- 1970  the f i r s t independent  130  attempt the  by  the  process  straints short of  but  not  to  time and  overly the  Plan  and  social  period,  objectives  period,  responsibility  the  Zambia  of  Goals  regulate  and  Recognizing  authors  which  making  to  development,  the  o p t i m i s t i c , this  plan  Basic  of  national development.  economic  goals  during the  of  planning  set  Government  could  plan  and  attempted be  was  coordinate  the  existing con-  the  relatively  to  propose  achieved.  to  guide  a  Ambitious,  a l l activities  its implementation  and  success  a l l citizens.  and  Objectives.  The  basic  consideration  of  was:  "an attempt to m o b i l i z e available r e s o u r c e s and favourable f a c t o r s , in o r d e r to eliminate the obstacles to s o c i a l and economic development in Zambia, and thus e s t a b l i s h the conditions f o r dynamic and sustained growth of the economy. " (1966 : 1). The  favourable  tial  source  tial, The  a  of  basic  obstacles  education  factors  included:  a  stable  revenue  (copper),  a  considerable  transportation included:  system,  inoperable  of t r a i n e d  manpower.  dressing  trade The  determined the  This  the  imbalance imbalance  activities,  along  line-of-rail.  into  a  monetary  foundation  of  and  radical  a willing  industrial  base,  an  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and,  above  extreme  form  of this  o r i e n t a t i o n of the the  aggrevated  In o r d e r  and to  economy,  rural by  the  a l l , the  "dual  sectors. of  investments  the  the  aimed  required  lack  is, re-  concentration  integrate  s t r u c t u r a l changes  Rhodesia,  urban  inf r a s t r u c t u r a l  Plan  in  that  the  poten-  inadequate  inherited  plan; and  substan-  population.  located  social  exchange  and  a  agricultural  services  between was  economic the  limited  strategic common  politically  economy"  a  network,  government,  entire  to  society  at laying  "a  transform  the  1 3 1  rural  areas  into  accomplished rural  productive  by  areas  diverting  and  to  agents" (1966 as  allocate  many  : 2).  resources  investments  This as  was  to  be  p o s s i b l e to  to favor  the  the  le s s-developed  regions. This three  led to  District each  Development an  term  process;  tural  foundation and  industrial  sal  and  ortion  range  trends  aimed  of domestic  to  by  raise  of  skills  in the  ance  between u r b a n  to  a  through  and  levels  rural  and new  to  sectors;  raise  the  areas,  struc-  step  be-  new  accelerat-  credit  satisfy  and  in-  in the and  rever-  the  listed a  econ-  as  greater  production; to  reasonable and  to provide level  propincrease  price  develop  monetary  inherited  general  transport,  a  locating  were  increase the  long-  areas.  of education to  is a  communications  economy  Plan  to maintain  and  programme.  establish  first  domestic  to m i n i m i z e  and  develop  rural  Provincial  political  available the  rural/urban  districts to  by  population within  districts,  diversified  population;  in 1970;  accommodations and  to be  economy  general  to  fare;  the  making  was  100,000 jobs; the  and Plan  objectives of the the  of  the  improving  and  and  at  demand  head  living  K200  by:  developmert of the  to d i v e r s i f y  giving  determined  reduce  p r o j e c t s within these  Plan  eight m a i n  employment ity;  provinces  The  and  of the  growth  education,  social  The follows:  and  to  participation  provinces  aim  agricultural  funds.  of past  the  Plan  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and  rural  f o r this  within the  training  omic  it was  and  vestment  Committees,  of the  of the  investments  direct  identifiable  development  tween  Allocating  bringing in the  province  ing  r e g i o n a l orientation  considerations:  imbalances;  The  a  stabila  output  economic more of  and  social  communications  wide  and  per  imbalbetter welother  132  economic were  infrastructure  specific  GDP,  Productive  investment  Plan  level  Process.  (F.N. D.P. ).  ation  used  stage,  with  ministry  the Office  submitted  requirements authorities  submitted  year the  stage,  in light  resources  budget  was  y e a r l y review  then ' p r e p a r e d  down  and d i s t r i b u t i o n the national  prior  Each  were  and input  policy  with  envisaged strict  of capital  programmes  setting  were  and the estimated A  first  the example f o r  in the P l a n .  investment,  f o r each  programmes  of the P l a n .  attention  and anal-  approval..  policies  years  pro-  to 1970.  compared  the m i n i s t r i e s '  up and approved,  federal  regional programmes.  to g o v e r n m e n t a l  the four  During  the p r o v i n c i a l  d e c i s i o n s into  of g o v e r n m e n t a l  inform-  process.  programmes  f o r needed  stage,  in many  and Planning  Concurrently,  a l l of these  procedure  was  Development  lacking  activities.  of planned  government  during  drawn  Plan  with  outlined  to i n c o r p -  p r o j e c t i o n s f o r National Accounts  the second  be reviewed  were  of the planning  two simultaneous  interpreted  effort  National  of National Development  by the O. N. D. P.  financial  was  c o u n t r i e s , the existing  stage  proposals  and estimated  During to  of exports, etc.  a maximum  resources  African  a schedule  the end of this  yzed  f a c t o r s as:  programmes  the F i r s t  f o r the plan p e r i o d .  O. N. D. P.  posals At  was  data  in the f i r s t  (O. N. D. P. ) coordinated  The  There  Although  as i s t y p i c a l was  this  level  to planned  r e g i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s into  areas,  by 1970 f o r such  of consumption, according  in these objectives  to v a r i o u s s e c t o r s .  Planning orate  Included  targets to be achieved  population,  according  (1966 : 5).  The f i r s t  to the r e g i o n a l correlating  major  sector.  break-  exactly The region-  133  al  investment programmes  of the ing  regions,  on the  of the  increase  regional absorptive  execution of the  control of the to  the  transformation  regional productivity, depend-  capacity  and total resource  balance  the  ministries  reports  and the  to modification each  constant  the the  Ministry of individual  year.  The annual  designed to be flexible and Additionally,  this process  was  efficient utilization of investment funds and a  review of the  execution machinery of the planning  execution process  was  ted to individual programmes role of the  process.  supposed to "conduct an accurate and  continuous evaluation of the effect  The  (C.S.O.),  committee  Provincial Development Committees.  annual budget were  adopted to ensure  This  from O, N . D . P. ,  Central Statistical Office  review and the subject  Plan was to be carried out under the  National Development Committee.  review quarterly  Finance,  This  to provide structural  country. The  was  and to  were  C.S.O.  of the  capital investment  and projects"  (1966  :  17).  was to be expanded to  incorporate  priorities of investment.  One of the  ful implementation of the  Plan should have been an improvement  in the quantity as As  noted in the  of the (1966  C.S.O. :  Plan,  quality of the  country's  there should be "more  into the  country's  economic  of the  success-  economic  data.  direct involvement  planning..."  18).  The projects  well as  indirect effects  alloca-  execution of most  were  to be carried out on the  itate this aspect of the province were  of the ministries' programmes  prepared.  ally drawn up as  Plan,  regional level.  "Regional Programmes"  Although these programmes  a series  of planned investments  and  To facilfor  were  by the  each gener-  134  individual was In  ministries,  to be this  ized  carried  manner,  from  the  much  out  the  by  of the the  provincial  physical  central  implementation  control  and  of these  local  projects  authorities.  of execution was  decentral-  government:  "methods of e m p i r i c a l a s s e s s m e n t of p r o j e c t s are n e c e s s a r y as a c o n t r o l of expenditure reporting - these can only be c a r r i e d out in the f i e l d and coordinated at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . (1966 : 18). The  Provincial  all  programmes  authorities imum  so  established measure against the  sults  at the  that  Committees  provincial  the  overall  as  were  well  as  development  supposed urban  effort  to coordinat  and  was  local  given max-  effectiveness. Results  of  Development  of  of the  in the  independent advances  While  targets  is more  associated  in the  the  the  in the  difficult  with  Africa"  In t e r m s  F. N. D. P. ,  success.  specific Plan  Plan .  the  available  quantifiable  Plan, to  1971  the  assess.  F.N.D.P.  (Davies,  of achievement results  indicate  results  indirect  of the  are  success  or  brief  look  "...the  most  ambitious  reveals  some  a  fair  weighed  A  : 16),  goals  failur  at the  re-  in  positive  society.  1.  G r o s s D o m e s t i c P r o d u c t i n c r e a s e d in r e a l t e r m s by an average of 13 p e r cent p e r annum between 1964 and 1970, s u r p a s s i n g the ambitious target of eleven p e r cent p e r annum. Money output p e r head rose to K280 by 1970, w e l l ahead of the planned schedule (Jolly, 1970);  2.  Many new i n d u s t r i e s were established, p a r t i c u l a r l y in the urban sector, and the 20 per cent p e r annum i n c r e a s e in manufacturing output exceeded the planned rate of growth of 16 per cent per annum;  3.  By mid-1970, wage-earning employment had i n c r e a s e d by o n - t h i r d in five years, adding 55- 65,000 new jobs. The planned target of 100, 000 was not a c c o m p l i s h e d p r i m a r i l y as a result of a slower growth in r e a l output and the v e r y rapid expansion of r e a l and money wages;  135  The  4.  P r i c e s rose by 5 per cent per annum over the p e r i o d of the Plan, which was not e x c e s s i v e l y high when c o m p a r e d to other countries, but higher than expected. This resulted mainly f r o m 'cost-push' factors, the rapid i n c r e a s e in wages and the r i s e in import p r i c e s ;  5.  Education enrollment was i m p r e s s i v e for a l l levels of the planned targets: p r i m a r y school enrollment achieved 100% success, secondary achieved 8 8 % s u c c e s s , and u n i v e r s i t y achieved 74% success;  6.  C i v i l servant housing i n c r e a s e d r a p i d l y over the plan p e r i o d and the low-cost housing units i n c r e a s e d by 23,000 units. However, the housing backlog r e m a i n e d high at about 100, 000 units. Health f a c i l i t i e s i n c r e a s e d by n e a r l y 50 per cent between 1964 and 1970;  7.  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communications expanded rapidly, p a r t i c u l a r l y in view of the difficult situation imposed by U.D.I, and the complete r e o r i e n t a t i o n of trade routes;  8.  The biggest shortcoming of the F.N. D. P. was i n its f a i l u r e to reduce the imbalances between the r u r a l and the urban a r e a s . In spite of l a r g e - s c a l e efforts, the gap actually widened. T h e r e was a 50 per cent r i s e in r e a l i n c o m e s of urban w o r k e r s accompanied by a substantial r i s e in the p r i c e s of urban goods. In contrast, the r e a l income i n the r u r a l a r e a s rose by only 4 per cent; "this made the r u r a l w o r k e r only half as w e l l off in r e l a t i o n to the u r b a n w o r k e r as he was in 1964" (Simmance, 1972 : 6-7).  results  of these  the  F.N.D.P.  and  the  copper  expected,  the  constituting Instead ure  In  agriculture  and  per more  the  line - of - r a i l ,  during  While  larger  copper  share  sector d e c l i n e d between cent  of the  GDP  diversified  and  the  prices  of the  1966  in 1970  of  rose  GDP  and  than  1970,  (Summance, 1972).  self-sufficient,  sector f o r c e d food  course  imports  to  the  fail-  double  1969.  response  great  a  7. 0  agricultural  the  economy  industry contributed a  only  1964  in the  f a r - r e a c h i n g effects..  of b e c o m i n g  of the  between  had  changes  to the  expansion and  comparative  of economic the  rapid  failure  of the  infrastructure increase  p e r i o d of l a r g e - s c a l e m i g r a t i o n  into  and  in urban  the  urban  rural  economy,  investment wages, areas.  this This  along was  136  migration accounted greater  for a growth of urban population at a rate  than 8 per cent per annum between 1964 and 1969.  Government had no official price the high migration rates have erations. and  Additionally,  social  services  wage  rates  alternatives One is  policy or urbanization policy, and  reflected  the lack of these consid-  unemployment and the provision of housing  has not been able to keep pace with popula-  tion growth in the cities. and  The  The comparable  in the rural areas have  employment opportunities  not served  as attractive  to keep people from migrating to the urban areas. of the main considerations  the problem of unemployed youth.  arising from this With approximately  cent of the 1969 population in the age group of 0 limited opportunities  situation  in the rural areas ' will  53 per  19 years,  the  cause an increased  migration to the urban areas by these  young people.  82 per cent of the capital expenditure  during the plan period was  concentrated  i n the l i n e - o f - r a i l provinces,  people per year  are leaving school seeking jobs  cases do not exist The  over  (Simmance,  Even though  50,000 young in which many  1972).  manifestation of this greater gap between the rural and  the urban sectors  is not surprising.  It' is a complex  and deeply  ingrained phenomenon that is difficult to tackle  and very unpre-  dictable.  and a long time  to  resolve,  It will take some  coordinated  efforts  but as Elliott (1971 : 9) puts it:  "it is almost certainly true that no country in A f r i c a faces such a contrast between an urban industrial sector that is growing and developing very rapidly and a semi-stagnant rural economy which seems to defy all attempts at restructuring it in the process of growth. "  137  Analysis respects  the  endeavors. conceived ful  It was notions  (1971  National  process  an  many  Development  the plan  and  Plan.  F.N.D.P. that  But  the  In  many  well-  also  the  role  some  successful  it was  targets.  a c c u r a t e l y reflect  were  embodied  development;  of its planned  not  : 215)  and  ambitious  of planning  targets may  Jolly  First  planning  in achieving  of the as  of the  success-  attainment  of the  Plan  -  mentioned:  "In spite of its apparent success, it must be admitted that m u c h of the coincidence between P l a n and achievement is in spite of the P l a n rather than because of it. " This  conclusion was  approach  of the  authorities, the  annual  Plan;  the  sense,  that the  some  short-comings  relative  down of approved view al  programmes  could  only  necessarily  as  pointed  the  out  approach  to  in the were  based  a  need  Plan  and  on -  of  occurred noted the  vague  on  (1972) despite  the  break-  coordinated the  region-  allocations  programmes  context,  and  earnings.  provincial  in these  coordinated  through  that the  investment  ministries'  planning  copper  points out,  provincial  central  of the  Simmance  not  he  C e r t a i n gaps  for a m o r e  level  Plan  primarily  mandatory  maintained  Gersdorff  Furthermore,  any  hands  was  high  programmes  within the  part of  in the  in the  undefined  rather than  (1971) and  process.  roads").  fulfilled  and  not  programmes.  He  comprehensive  r e g i o n a l planning.  Simmance functioning  successes  contained  "development  of the  Gersdorff  needs.  (e.g.  indicative  unexpectedly  ministries'  of p r o v i n c i a l  be  the both  programmes  the  instead of being  and  agree  regional  upon  actual c o n t r o l  budget  In this  based  also  of the  expresses  planning  these  process.  opinions Although  based  on  the  strong  efforts  actual were  138  made  to impart  a " r e g i o n a l f l a v o u r " to the P l a n  mentation  machinery,  in  theory  only"  in  the p r o v i n c e s  and  on  (1972 : 10). were  the reluctance  areas.  Jolly  the P l a n  Simmance  left  That  that this  i s , most  unoccupied  notes  f r a m e w o r k "existed  of the planning  due to manpower  of c e n t r a l planning  (1971) also after  notes  and i t s imple-  staff  to move  that the O. N. D. P.  shortages  to the r u r a l  had little  rather  than  because  it l a c k e d  concern  on  the r u r a l  the  the of  i n many  with  spatial  nature  and the potentially not adequately  the planning David  Siddle  These  programmes  awareness  and p r o j e c t s  did not r e f l e c t  interrelationships  and p r o g r a m m e disruptive  considered.  leading  to r u r a l  demonstrated  including  and t r a c t o r  by the F. N. D. P.  settlement  mechanization  to be completely  development.  development  that the m a j o r  the P l a n  schemes,  state d a i r i e s  rural  little  allocations.  effects This  of govern-  demonstrates  and r e g i o n a l (spatial) c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  (1970) argues  sidered  for  was  plan  process.  a s s o c i a t e d with  ranches,  it " s t r u c t u r a l  i s , the P l a n  investment  lack of c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s  awareness.  That  been made never 'rolled  not an effective  There  of v a r i o u s  areas.  the planned  p r o j e c t s were  schemes  it was  concerns.  the impact  and urban  ways  considered  r a m i f i c a t i o n s and the r u r a l - u r b a n  associated  ment  of the P l a n  structural  about  spatial  The  the authors  sectoral",  or  effect  1968 and the:  "continuing m i n o r adjustments which should have to the P l a n were r a r e l y undertaken; the P l a n was forward' as intended" (1971 : 215). Although  posts  were  Because  channelled  this  development  lack of spatial  p r o j e c t s , state units,  were  con-  productive p r o j e c t s  of this, into  rural  most  of the funds  80 o r so of these  139  major  schemes.  schemes zone  is very  mal  developmental that  damaging" and  actually  successful  Furthermore, or  alluded to in the  Africa  better  there  Plan.  necessitate  that  with  its  dered the  urban  tide  of r u r a l  consideration urban  areas Even  directly buted  could  play  without  to the success could  have  effectively.  Instead,  rural  have  areas  population; problem exists  is particularly  and high  there  Nowhere  incorporated true  i n the P l a n  designed was  The c u r r e n t  to make  has only  them  whether  more  succeeded  rural-to-urban  project  aimed  to s t e m  there any l e v e l s of  of p o l i c i e s  trends  and i n c r e a s i n g Zambia  types  of the Plan.  the p r o g r a m m e s  an o r -  process.  i n c o r p o r a t i n g these  to choose  migration  f o r developing  any p o l i c y  in the developmental  utilized  for Zambia  rural-to-urban  could  failed  the P l a n  within  be  the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e m  been  to m o r e  of u r b a n i z a t i o n i n  should  any strategy  nor was  actually  analysis  mentioned  to the actual r o l e s that the v a r i o u s  i n the Plan,  growth  areas  migrants.  given  lead  policy  problems  strategy  This  did not posit  hierarchy;  and p o l i t i c a l l y  of spatial  might  no u r b a n i z a t i o n  an urban  the developmental plans.  The P l a n  mini-  i s outweighed by  understanding  The growing  into  rates.  The  schemes.  was  heavily u r b a n i z e d  the l i m i t e d  and the s m a l l  as s o c i a l l y  process  of these  upon  scheme.  projects  planning  development  projects  as w e l l  ratio  i s based  in each  of these  a r e "inefficient,  comprehensive  rural  these  involved  (1970 : 277). A  a more  the s u c c e s s  conclusion  with  diffusion  they  that  This  associated  of p e r s o n s  fact  suggests  minimal.  of influence  numbers  the  Siddle  have  sites  contri-  of urban more  at developing the attractive  to the r u r a l  in exacerbating the  migration.  developmental  efforts  Some  debate  should  be con-  140  centrated more  in the  high  potential  equitably throughout  however,  b e l i e v e s in a  continued  efforts  then,  to  tion  consider  in o r d e r The  example Plan  to  to  complex  i n c o r p o r a t e s many  some  of the  endeavors.  orily  in t e r m s  the  Plan  became  the  later  stages  growth  of a  the  Plan  the  society,  new  may  of the  Plan  and  the  important, and  provides  characteristics in Chapter  the  urbaniza-  plan  almost period,  helped  many  other  was  and  fashion.  lack  r e s o l v e demonstrated  by  African  plan-  other  document  were (1971  Plan  Even  in the  though  restructuring  pursued : 297)  hand,  during  inadvertently aided  for  the  satisfact-  the  constraints.  Elliott the  On  superfluous  Plan  This  demonstrates  executed  to lay a foundation  objectives of the  planning.  It also  and  interesting  a s s o c i a t e d with  target achievements. and  an  III.  Plan  set of developmental  disjointed  It is  of developmental  ways,  biguous of  areas.  a s s o c i a t e d with  static  of the  Kaunda,  Humanism"  r e g i o n a l imbalances  process  certain  have the  rural  dispersed  President  "Zambian  of  presented  a  areas.  Development  In many of  the  p r o v i n c e s or  this objective.  weaknesses  ning  of  factors  National  framework  rural  policy  achieve  First  of the  process  the  develop  the  line-of-rail  in an  cites  am-  the  to promote , r u r a l  actual devel-  raent: "...the flow of r e s o u r c e s to the r u r a l sector actually f e l l in 1969 and it i s a strange c o m m e n t a r y on government p r i o r i t i e s that one of the biggest cut-backs in budgetary allocations that year f e l l on the M i n i s t r y of R u r a l Development. T h i s r a i s e s the question of the o f f i c i a l determination to revolutionize r u r a l l i f e . "  KASAMA: One of  an  EXAMPLE of the  overall  OF  major  A  RURAL  deficiencies  developmental  GROWTH in the  strategy.  CENTRE  F.N.D.P.  Despite  the  was  the  lack  attention given  141  to  rural  were  development,  concentrated  areas.  The  overall ances an  between  development  the  place to  urban  Chapter, concept  achieve  specific  Growth  other  African  goals.  social  The  and  a  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  can  also  serve  the  rural  ization can  of the  also  the  an  imbalwas  rural  of the  Plan  centres into and  disseminate  be  some can  of  utilized  serve  Government social,  investments, facilities,  for  help  line-of-rail  area.  The  information,  to be  and  Zambian  exchange etc.  to  These  decrease  process  necessary  technology,  an  welfare  monetary  in these  economic  coordinated  social  which  facilitated  with  ends.  attraction  be  to  unless a  networks,  changes  seems  and  realized  foci  and  in Z a m b i a  c o n s t r a i n t s to  as  pre-  central  It  strategy appears  of the  institutional  a  country.  these  communication  the  society could  not  in the  r e g i o n a l growth  political,  accomplish  centre  adopted  of the  of the  can  training  markets,  social  upon  result  discussed  also be  the  to  growth  and  As  to promote  areas,  centres  programmes, ^e-ducation  transmitting  The  urban  objective of  countries have  physical infrastructure  migration  planned  based  redress  sectors.  Strategy.  on  resolving  These  as  not to  allocations  i . e . the  implementation  concern  based  rural  Furthermore,  development.  an  development  strategy i s designed  to  the  strategy might  of the  means  was  urban  centres  spatial  Humanism",  effective  provinces,  designed  effort: by  programme  areas.  that this  development  the  of a  the  similar  "Zambian  and  of growth  coordinate  reasonable  rural  and  development  superseded  Feasibility ceding  rural  planning  was  the  of  line-of-rail  strategy that was  uncoordinated  favouring  in the  policy  planning  actual investment  for  centres.  of  modernThey  innovations  142  to  the surrounding  tural  development.  strategy spatial  to implement  Provincial which  of planning  an i m p r o v e d  plans  would  separate  should  identify  the growth  points  other  ministries,  projects  be a feasible  rural  Over  on r u r a l investment  There  though  seems  they  be at least  will  linkages  there  were  comple-  a r e g i o n a l plan, the  of a l l may  developmental be  coordinated.  to enhance the  areas. of r u r a l  growth  during  the p e r i o d  of r u r a l that a  life"  produce  were  i n c r e a s i n g either  (Simmance,  'growth  as the c u r r e n t  funds  of the F.N.D.P., yet  i n significantly  it may  centres  the effectiveness of r u r a l  in capital investment  evidence  Indeed,  centres.  information  had either  be assigned  to improve  o r the amenities  development.  have  Through  rural  K60 m i l l i o n  as effective  this  areas,  f o r the p r o g r a m m e s of  might  and u t i l i z a t i o n  some  and r u r a l  In the F„ N. D. P.  regard  centre  approach  and d i s t r i c t  intraprovincial  and the p r o v i n c e s  development  to be  upon  services,  "has not succeeded  production  based  be an  f o r the r u r a l  regions  interrelationships  of these  identification  development.  may  rural  must  and r e g i o n a l p r o j e c t s of one m i n i s t r y  without  and functional  of each  about  of the region.  even  development The  rural  centre'  in an organized  there  especially  be p r e p a r e d  i n the d i s t r i c t s  role  overall  data,  o r c o n t r a d i c t o r y purposes.  locational  this  of a g r i c u l -  'growth  at the p r o v i n c i a l  knowledge  r e g i o n a l plans,  often implemented  mentary  strategy,  the existing  were  spent  this  The lack of accurate  necessitates  may  enactment, of a  to integrate the countryside  in the role  levels.  The  to further the cause  and functional h i e r a r c h y .  increase  no  areas  The c a r e f u l  can serve  In o r d e r  and  rural  1972 : 11).  centre' strategy  method  of investing i n  tangible r e t u r n s to  143  future  capital  investment  projects.  cludes  in his a n a l y s i s of  As  Zambian  Siddle  rural  (1970  : 277)  con-  development:  " D i f f u s i o n theory and p r a c t i c a l e c o n o m i c s both suggest that r u r a l planning should concentrate on growth f r o m development nodes... planned a c c o r d i n g to a r a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y so that each would provide the range of goods, s e r v i c e s and training appropriate to its o r d e r of importance in the whole s y s t e m of r u r a l centres. " Kasama. Kasama  district  Province  (see  eastern  Kasama  is the  and  administrative  the  Map  Zambia  5).  larger  River  area  of m e d i u m  crop  than  of the  Congo  density while  110  persons  subsistence  and  there  is some  and  fruits  in addition to beef  the  population  Northern of  the  are  The shown  is almost  of  the  largest.  third  declined  dence. over  a l l the  the  The  same  other  time  In both  of these  for  urban  the  provinces  i n each  only  The  the  district province  period  provinces,  concentrations  political  was  by  the  1969,  is  cassava,  vegetables majority  from  of  the  affiliation  and  adjacent  1969  was  years  is  the  it was  districts,  first  the  the  1963  Province  experience  along  urban  U.N.I. P.  to  population  is  main  The  the  of two  during  an  district  Bemba  Cham-  district  The  is a  Northern  exception  The  poultry.  north-  of the  mile.  in both  in 1963;  of  of tobacco,  surprising  province  VIII.  With  Kaunda  unanimously  of the  in Table  populated  Dr.  and  country  itself has  in the  production  the  Northern  system.  square  cattle  It is not  population  below  lation  Bemba;  per  of  of the  system  Kasama  farmers  commercial  Province.  province  plateau  the  in  staple  i n the  drainage  and  greater  centre  is within the  basin  density  It l i e s  headquarters  and  beshi an  district  barely the  of  is leaving the line-of-rail.  popu-  indepen-  a population Luapula  most  decline  Province. rural These  areas two  144  TABLE ZAMBIA: THE  VIII  P O P U L A T I O N OF  N O R T H E R N PROVINCE A N D DISTRICTS ('000)  District  June 1963 Census  August 1969 Census  % Change over 1963 Census  Chinsali  71  57  -19.7  Isuka  82  78  -4.9  Kasama  114  108  -5.3  Luwingu  81  78  -3.7  Mbala  9  94  +3. 3  Mpika  60  58  -3.3  Mporokoso  65  68  +4.6  Total (Province)  564  541  -4.1  Source:  1  Ministry of Finance.  Economic Report 1971,  Lusaka  1972  145  provinces mines  provide the  in the  largest proportion of migrant  an increase  decreasing It must its  some  These  This  district  as  the  Government has  to increase  well as  services  province.  contributed  centre,  the participation of the  8, 900  in light of the  in the  launched a  to  it has  to  exper-  decentralization  rural  would include police,  citizens. courts and  office. Other types  banks,  of development facilities  marketing boards,  a hospital,  schools,  a teacher training college,  regional  'bus  service.  in Kasama include:  primary  and  petrol filling  Physical infrastructure  supply and an electricity  As of 1969,  at  there was  in food processing,  sents an important  in the  beverages  airport  in Zambia,  Bay in the  These  Northern Province,  Five different  F.N.D.P.  several  east,  also  capital  a  specialrepre-  roads  transportation  serviced  regular  and a  service.  Kasama  by the fourth  flights to  the  and Mbala and Kasaba  represent vital transportation  the province  According to the  is  and it has  Mansa in the  munication links for  and tobacco.  node.  Kasama  Copperbelt region, north.  supply  making it the hub of road  Northern Province.  largest  stations,  least two manufacturing firms  transportation  pass through Kasama  secondary  includes both  treated township water  izing  in 1963  is notable  As an administrative  administratives  a post  from 6, 700  attractive features which have  unplanned growth.  ienced growth as  grew  of one-third.  population in its  exert  programme  the  Copperbelt region.  The population of Kasama in 1969,  labour to  and the  and com-  country.  "Regional Programme" investment  for  and productive  the  146  projects were to be centred of activities  in and around Kasama.  This  list  includes:  -an expansion of the Educational Teacher Traing College; -the planting of 430 acres in the local timber plantation; - a scheme to train pit sawyers for the district; - a r o l l e r - m i l l for agricultural processing; - a medium-size power project to increase electricity supplies; -the completion of the government hospital, -the expansion of the educational facilities. Although not was  specifically stated in the  the focus  dairy,  of several  a tractor  The district  also the  Projects between  1964  irrigation projects.  Kasama.  infrastructure utilities as  workshop  sponsored  established in F.N.D.P.  to  increase  electricity  Northern  the  Kasama is the after  important  new Tan Zam Railway.  Salaam  toward Tanzania.  development This  major will  affecting project, create a  Copperbelt region of Zambia to the port  in Tanzania.  T h  is  is the  this  Much of it was to be  years of debate and controversy,  link from the  over  included such  highway systems oriented  single most  and Works.  and communication  although it also and sewerage.  but  not available.  in the  the transportation  of the province,  included  and treatment plant,  cent of total planned capital investment  on improving the  es  an artisans'  sales depot  scheme.  self-help building and  extensive capital investments  water,  Perhaps  Dar  In addition,  area  Community Development  were to be from the Ministry of Transportation  plan period was  rail  mainly for  Kasama  settlement  information about these projects was  Over fifty per  in 1970  and 1969,  and a timber  The most  spent  site of twenty-five  the  including a state  and a farm  Other possibilities mentioned in the  specific  Province  schemes,  subsidiary of I. N. D . E . C . O.) was  an oil refinery more  rural  mechanization unit,  was  by Rucom (a  major  F.N.D.P. ,  begun direct of  vital link needed by  147  Zambia to Africa.  completely  its  economic  links with southern  Financed and built by the Mainland  will benefit the This  economies  of both  railway will pass  should focus link,  sever  great attention  Kasama will have  storage depot,  this  system  countries.  directly through Kasama on the town.  considerable  a maintenance  tribution centre,  Chinese,  Because  potential as  and repair  centre,  this  of this new a collection and  a regional dis-  and an industrial and manufacturing centre.  Zambia and Kasama  Both  can gain:  "from the opening up of the northern districts to modern transport lines. No longer will these areas be peripheral but will be districts through which zones of considerable economic activity are connected." (Griffiths, 1968 : 89) Kasama as  a Growth Centre .  Northern Province was period. of this  In order region,  to  not a coordinated effort  stimulate  measures  into an effective  The development of the during the  F.N.D.P.  the planned growth and development  should be taken to  and efficient  spatial  reorganize  system.  the  area  As Siddle (1970 : 277)  notes, "The functions of local planning teams would largely be to mould and shape existing patterns and hierarchies, rather than to create new structures." Kasama is  a logical choice  Kasama is the rally located  in the  as  largest largest  rest of the province,  tions,  the most  transportation and  core of this  centre in the district  of the  complete  the  it has  of the the  inf rastructural  and communication links,  province and is province.  most  immediate  vicinity.  It provides the  In terms  the  largest  the greatest number of developmental investment  in its  cent-  administrative func-  system, the  regional hierarchy.  most  greatest  industrial base, and  services  programmes and has  148  the  greatest diffusionary capacity  In terms  of potential activity,  Zam Railway,  the most  activities.  Kasama  As  the existing  and the concentration  make this  rural growth  of any centre  suitable  in the province.  infrastructure,  of population in the area  location for industrial and marketing  seems to be a capable  choice  a means  of testing  this  notion,  Kasama  centre hierarchy  Kenya Development Plan 1974 -  1978 (see Chapter  level in that four-tiered  Centre.  This  of services  with the Principal Towns, rural growth  is supposed to have  already  performs  as well as several considered  productive  The  of centre are many of the serof those  and efficient  associated than  rural growth  centre.  rural development  Kasama  By creating  The creation  of attractive  and services  should help stabilize  out-migration  from the region.  health facilities,  centre  strat-  can be moulded into  a planned system of  of influence and service  in the Northern Province  it  centre for re-  Through a well-conceived growth  rural centres with definite zones  education,  a minimum of  to be a higher order  egy and carefully planned investments,  proved.  The high-  is developing in an unplanned fashion,  into a more  gional development.  a major  IV).  centres.  Although Kasama can be made  established in  a population of 120,000 persons.  Kasama  of the Urban Centre  can be com-  system was the Urban  to be provided by this type  listed in Appendix 1. vices  growth centre  type of centre  10,000 people and service levels  as the primary  centre for the Northern Province.  pared with the proposed growth  est  the" Tan  functions,  can be greatly i m -  centres with urban  amenities  the population a decrease the  Kasama,  agricultural  as the focus information  of industry,  services,  149  marketing  and cultural change,  national orientation.  will have  As a major  can be instrumental in the  a district,  provincial and  rural growth centre,  development of the  Kasama  province  and the  country. CONCLUSION In this  chapter,  planning process example  the  author  has  and a growth centre  strategy.  sive  and coordinated planning process  effective  It  should serve  approach towards  establishment hierarchy  to  appears  to be a viable  efficient development of the This tween the  resources  development.  urbanization.  rural ic  regions,  activities  society.  (i. e.  effective lead to  country as  to make this an  functional place) Zambian case.  programmes a more  aimed at  coordinated and  the  imbalance beand organizing  and diminishing the obstacles  to  Inherent  policies de-  in this  strategy are  efficient allocation of productive  If this type of analysis  applied to  a national hierarchy of service  could play a vital role necessary  The  a whole.  could be established to direct  This  ning process the  necessary  strategy in the  more  The  application of  rural and urban sectors" by mobilizing  available  Zambia.  the  the type of comprehen-  strategy can be used to "redress  signed to deal with the and  illustrate  of a rural growth centre  only can this facilitate  economic  strategy for  summarize  achieving developmental goals.  rural development but it can also  the  to  of Kasama is a limited attempt at the  this  Not  attempted  to attain  Government of Zambia.  the  the  in the  social and  investments  all of the  centres  and econom-  development of the comprehensive  developmental objectives  planof  150 C H A P T E R VI CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS INTRODUCTION Many of the have  discussed  issues  of development  in the preceding  planning in Africa  chapters.  The over-riding con-  clusion that can be drawn is that development complex among  problem based on the high degree of inte r- relationships social,  political and economic  planning and strategies must taking all of these factors the  in A f r i c a is a  hypotheses,  into account.  these considerations  aspects  of the qualitative However,  as  In attempting well as  rather than the quantitative  possible to accept or  analysis of the  examine  limitations of can not be  reject the hypotheses  but also  nature  available  CONCLUSIONS BASED ON T H E ANALYSIS  to  sense  not only because of the  involved in each hypothesis,  based on the  the  The hypotheses  rejected without qualifications,  multi-faceted  Developmental  be applied in a comprehensive  the data inputs must be recognized. accepted or  factors.  of the  because study.  information,  it is  on a conditional basis. OF H Y P O T H E S E S  Hypothesis 1. It is postulated that a standardized development plan cannot be produced that is applicable to all African countries. HYPOTHESIS 1. There  IS  are  ACCEPTED  basic  features  common to most  African  which suggest the possibility of a common approach opmental process. eral  level,  the  countries  specific factors; and possesses  However,  a different  is  to the devel-  while this may be true on the  of Africa  each one  countries  at  social,  are  quite diverse  a different  gen-  in terms of  stage of development  political and economic  environment.  151  There  are  sources,  differences  in terms  education levels,  of average  etc.;  there  are  developmental potential (both economic considerations  that there are  African  also  natural  countries  and social)  and political  enough significant differences  unique development plan.  which can  national planning process.  so that each  as  It  appears,  among the  country must prepare  However,  re-  differences in  which determine the feasible objectives  be accomplished through the then,  income,  its own  noted in Chapter III,  it  may be possible that these plans can be prepared for all African countries  based on a standardized planning process  framework.  Hypothesis 2. It is postulated that national plans which concentrate solely on the achievement of specific targets are not applicable in A f r i c a . HYPOTHESIS 2. Concrete  IS  ACCEPTED  targets for economic  often utilized in national plans to in a few major achievement.  areas  In many cases,  context;  concentrate  however, which are  they can become  of real development.  The scope  unreal or  ends themselves  process  which embodies improvement over  political and economic factors.  tal problems.  sectoral  several targets were  irrelevant at the  in the  expense  development is a long-term time of existing  Development cannot be  of target achievement; programmes  The case  based on  of national development must be  than target planning allows;  uncoordinated  are  developmental efforts  these targets are  broader  in quantifiable terms  social indices  and to provide definitive criteria for plan  political expediency and goals African  and/or  the  social,  measured  accomplishment of  can lead to further developmen-  of Zambia illustrates  this fact:  successfully achieved during  the  although  plan period,  152  the  net  effect of the  F . N. D, P.  urban and rural areas,  was  a greater  exactly the opposite  ning objectives.  This type of fragmentary  to be ineffective  in Africa because of its  for misdirecting developmental efforts Hypothesis  3.  effective  It  is postulated  given the  HYPOTHESIS 3. Large  IS  of data are  lack the  necessary  The time,  plan;  energy  However,  as  of data,  generally  demanded by over-  but also  Given the  available  planning process,  data in the  national plans will become use  process  better use This  of  could be  an on-going  Consideration should be given to all  a continuous  data deficiencies  because  of obtaining data (both  and establishing  system.  been  of the planning process to  a means  and impressionistic)  comprehensive  monitor and  countries  that are  ignored.  information collection  the  African  of Chapterlll, it is possible to make  should provide for  countries.  many African plans have  misused or  local and regional levels  manner,  in African  data in the formulation of national plans.  quantitative  can not be  and costs necessary to  done by a systematic decentralization the  investments.  required to prepare,  not only because of scarcities  of data inputs that are  existing  and  seem to make this type of planning ineffective  in the African context.  framework  seems  inflexibility and potential  informational resources  deficiency  ineffective  espoused plan-  REJECTED  a national development  this  between  planning approach  data deficiencies  evaluate  come  of the  that development plans  existing  amounts  this type of plan.  disparity  and the  plans  data collection operation.  can gradually be overcome more  themselves  'realistic'  and the  and effective  of all information concerning  In this  through  development.  153  Hypothesis 4. It is postulated that the lack of planning process and implementation details can cause African national plans to be ineffective. HYPOTHESIS 4.  IS  ACCEPTED  A well-conceived and organized planning process, the  steps from the formulation to the  is necessary for the Chapter  ing  implementation of the plan,  orderly achievement  II demonstrates that the failures  were caused  by insufficient attention  stated plan objectives.  of national planning goals. of many African plans  to the means  In several  cases,  them at  all.  Many plans have  they lacked a coordinated an ordered  procedure  rational planning system. system  (political,  overlooked because there was with them; constraints period. has  plans were often surfaced  Inattention  actually  implementbecause  of planning responsibilities  the plan an end-product  Constraints  economic,  were in-  also been ineffective  structure  that made  of accomplish-  objectives  cluded in the plan without any consideration for ing  detailing  operating  administrative  in the  and social)  or  of a  African were often  not a defined method of dealing rendered  unexpectedly  ineffectual because these  during the  to these process  course of the plan  and execution  produced many African plans that were  mechanisms  impractical  and un-  feasible . Hypothesis 5. It is postulated that pre-independence plans maximized returns to the colonial powers instead of promoting internal development of the African countries. HYPOTHESIS  5.  Prior the African  IS  ACCEPTED  to Independence, countries  omic benefits  to the  whether  through formal plans or  were moulded to generate the greatest colonial powers.  The export-oriented,  not, econ-  depen-  i54  dent economies  of A f r i c a were  tained by colonial powers. of these  societies,  infrastructure,  was based on the  ured imports  and the  supplied by the  suggests that there was  with the  of investment and  exploitation of raw  metropolitan  materials  countries.  manufact-  Chapter II  little concern with the overall social and  the  It appears  countries.  current  reorganization of the  development.  pockets  ordering  reciprocal distribution of  development of African  Chapter IV demonstrate  and main-  The spatial and structural  with concentrated  and primary products  economic  purposely established  The examples  concern of African  of  countries  countryside to promote well-balanced  that the  'parasitic'  nature  of the inherited  spatial and functional organization established during the colonial times  is not conducive to  current  African planning goals.  Hypothesis 6. It is postulated that African national plans can be rendered impotent by persons or groups external to the formal planning process. HYPOTHESIS 6 . African external control.  IS  ACCEPTED  countries  forces  are  dependent upon and affected by many  and groups over  Faced  which they exert little or no  with problems of scarce  personnel and indigenous entrepeneurs countries  are  iated problems of  technical assistance and  private  plans can be subverted  by unexpected  level -  market  decreased  prices,  The assoc-  neo-colonialism' of  the type of control which external  African planning process.  trained  many African  to meet developmental needs.  'tied' aid and 'crude  Chapter II illustrate  e.g.  and industries,  reliant upon aid donations,  mult-national corporations  have on the  capital resources,  forces  may  Even well-designed national changes  on the  reduced aid,  international technical  155  substitutions for the  case where  raw materials, . etc. external  persons  Conversely,  or  groups have  tent and direction of national plans mote  it has  also  been  influenced the  con-  so that the plans do not pro-  the type of long-term development desired by African  countries.  Hypothesis 7. It is postulated that the scarcity of developmental capital can prevent successful implementation of African national plans. HYPOTHESIS The  7.  IS  relative  complex problem: mental demands Given the alternative  poverty of most they are  of their  investment  These plans are  the plan period;  economies)  and actual  simply predicated by the II and III,  and management  absorption institutions)  the  and public,  but the unpredict-  revenues  (largely  can cause major  investment  capital which can be  However,  plan effectiveness  amount of capital resources; it is also the  of capital  (based  ated by increased in many ways that  copper  despite  the  successful  revenues, large  as  on poorly developed allocations  supply of capital was but the plan was  amounts  of capital  development plans  and the efficient utilization of it.  is  case that inefficient  and impractical investment  an adequate  because  discrepancies  to unsuccessful implementation of national plans.  Zambian example,  It appears  needs.  often prepared based upon pro-  applied to implement these plans.  contribute  amount of develop-  both private  of foreign aid and government  noted in Chapters  a  decisions must be weighed carefully in the  resource-based  utilization  presents  and a shortage of funds to meet their  between anticipated  not  countries  faced with a large  capital availability over  able nature  African  limited capital resources,  national plans. jected  REJECTED  require  also In  gener-  unsuccessful  investment. both capital  Hypothesis 8. It is postulated that a growth centre strategy can not be applied in the limited industrial economies of A f r i c a . HYPOTHESIS 8. IS R E J E C T E D The growth centre strategy is typically associated with the propulsive economic function of basic activities located in space. The majority of African countries, however, lack a strong industrial and manufacturing sector within their economies.  Furthermore,  given the limited capital resources and technical competence,  it  appears that an industrialization strategy, based on the creation of propulsive large scale industries, is not currently a viable alternative fn A f r i c a ,  iln this sense,  it would be hard to create basic  activity growth points in African economic landscapes.  However,  as noted in Chapter IV, African countries are adopting their own form of a 'growth centre'strategy based on central place concepts. Their 'growth centres' are not based solely on industrial activity but rather o  goods and services provision. Because long-term  goals in A f r i c a are based on human resource development, these 'growth centres' serve a distributional function;. ,that spreads the antecedents of human resource development in a hierarchical fashion to all areas of the country-side.  This type of 'growth  centre strategy appears to be particularly applicable in the 1  agricultural economies of A f r i c a and in situations where the authorities are attempting to prevent "hyper" rates of urbanization. Hypothesis 9. It is postulated that a rural development strategy can redress the regional imbalances within Zambia. HYPOTHESIS 9. IS R E J E C T E D Zambia is one of the most urbanized and wealthiest (in  157  terms  of GNP per  capita)  has  an agricultural  (7%  in 1970)  countries  in Tropical A f r i c a .  of total  sectors.  GDP.  This  combination has  based on a rural development  strategy.  Although this  be a rational planning policy,  Chapter  V points out the  of the  strategy that was  that resulted  imbalances  from the  necessitates  development  schemes;  more  pursued and the FNDP.  provision.  Efforts  in major  addressed  environment which contribute opment policy appears egy to promote  more  im-  rural  rural development  to be a necessary,  will  imbalances  affect all facets of the  to these imbalances.  equitable  ineffect-  agricultural development and  aimed at  and plans made to  to  plan embodying  be ineffectual until the underlying causes of regional are  appears  increased  a comprehensive  urbanization,  imbalances  The reduction of regional  than investment  it requires  policies for migration, infrastructure  attempted  in a  the urban and the  redress these  balances  The F N D P  between  resulted  to  iveness  also  sector that provides only a small percentage  significant level of regional imbalances rural  It  national  A rural devel-  but not  spatial development  sufficient  strat-  in Zambia.  Hypothesis 10. It is postulated that a well-defined urbanization policy can improve the effectiveness of national developmental planning in Zambia. HYPOTHESIS 10. Zambia, must  make  rampant  ACCEPTED  perhaps  some  effort  urbanization.  urbanization spatial  IS  of the barriers  so than other  to actively  African  but there  countries,  deal with the phenomenon of  Not only is there a very  in Zambia,  concentration  more  is  of urban areas  also  a condition of extreme  along the  to desired development  high level of  line-of-rail.  in Zambia are  Many  directly  158  related are  to or  not just  caused  by unchecked  stagnating,  ductivity and relative overall  should be made  and to improve the obviously,  are  of Zambia,  to decrease  spatial  agricultural  That is,  contribute  areas  improve  the  deliberate  migration  (agricultural) agricultural  regions; areas,  required.  An  means of achieving these  of centres  countryside  to overall national  urban  would be  a policy aimed at the  of the  to  seems that  rural  development  and functional hierarchy  orderly transformation will  it  rural to  productivity of the  urbanization approach would be one objectives.  In order  to avoid displacing people from the  intensive  The rural  declining both in terms of pro-  population growth.  national development  attempts  labour  they  urban growth.  creation  of a national,  could help promote into a system which  development.  an  159  REFERENCES Alonso, William. "Industrial Location and Regional Policy in Economic Development". Working Paper No. 74. Berkeley: Institute of Urban and Regional Development, 1968a.  30.  . "Predicting Best With Imperfect Data". Reprint No. Berkeley: Institute of Urban and Regional Development, 1968b. "Urban and Regional Imbalances in Economic Development'  Economic Development and Cultural Change, V o l . 17, no. 1 (Oct. 1968), pp. 1-15. . "Problems, Purposes nad Implicit Policies for a National Strategy of Urbanization". Working Paper No. 158. Berkeley: Institute of Urban and Regional Development, 1971, .  "What are New Towns For? " in Netzer, Dick and Chinitz, Benjamin. Inter-University Committee on Urban Economics. Cambridge, M a s s . , 1969. Alonso, William and Medrich, Elliott. "Spontaneous Growth Centres in Twentieth Century American Urbanization". Working Paper No. 113. Berkeley: Institute of Urban and Regional Development 1970. Amin, Samir. "Development and Structural Change: The African Experience, 1950-1970". Journal of International Affairs, V o l . XXIV, no. 2 (1970), pp. 203-223. Bakwesegha, Christopher J. "Patterns and Causes of Polarized Development in Uganda" in El-Shakhs, Salah and Obudho, Robert (ed.). Urbanization, National Development and Regional Planning in A f r i c a . New York: Praeger Publishers, 1974. Baldwin, Robert E . Economic Development and Growth. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1967. Berg, Elliott. "Socialism and Economic Development in Tropical A f r i c a " in Uppal, J . S . and Salkever, L . A f r i c a : Problems in Economic Development. New York: Free Press, 1972.  160 Bernard, Phillippe J . "Growth Centres in French Regional P o l i c y " . United Nations Research Institute for Social Development: Conference on Growth Poles Hypotheses and Policies, September, 1970. Berry, Brian J . L . Geography of Market Centres and Retail Distribution. Englewood Cliffs, N . J . : Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1967. Bhagwati, Jagdish. The Economics of Underdeveloped Countries. New York: M c G r a w - H i l l Book C o . , 1966. Boisier, Sergio. "Regional Disaggregation of National Plans: A Case Study on Chile and Poland". United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, June, 1971. Breese, Gerald. Urbanization in Newly Developing ^.Countries. Englewood Cliffs, N . J . : Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1966. . The City in Newly Developing Countries. Englewood Cliffs, N . J . : Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1969. Caldwell, John C . African Rural-Urban Migration: The Movement To Ghana's Towns. New York: The Free Press, 1970,' Cameron, Gordon C . "Growth Areas, Growth Centres and Regional Conversion". Scottish Journal of Political Economy, V o l . 17 (1970), pp. 19-38. Cariscan, Sune and Olakanpo, O. International Development and Finance in West A f r i c a . Stockholm::?-cScandinaviah"'.Uhiver'sity Press, 1964. Clairmonte, F r e d and Ben-Amor, Abel Malek. "Planning" in Singh, V . B . Studies in African Economic Development. New Delhi: Impex India, 1972. Darkoh, Michael B . K . "Toward a Planned Industrial -Pattern in Ghana" in El-Shakhs and Obudho, op. cit., 1974. Darwent, D . F . "Growth Poles and Growth Centres in Regional Planning: A Review". Environment and Planning, V o l . 1 no. 1 (1969), pp. 5-32. Davies D. Hywell. L t d . , 1971.  Zambia in Maps. London: University of London Press,  161  Davis, Kingsley. "Urbanization of the Hurmn Population", in Scientific American. Cities. New York: Alfred A . Knopf, 1965. Dean, Edwin. "Non-Economic B a r r i e r s to Planning in Nigeria". Economic Development and Cultural Change, V o l . 19 (1971), pp. 560-67. Development Plan 1974-78. Nairobi, Republic of Kenya: Printer, 1974.  Government  Elliott, Charles. Constraints and the Economic Development of Zambia. Nairobi: Oxford University Press, 1971. El-Shakhs, Salah \.nd Obudho, Robert (ed. ). Urbanization, National Development and Regional Planning in A f r i c a . New York: Praeger Publishers, 1974. Essam, Michael Benyah. "The Fiat City and Regional Development with a Case Study of Ghana". P h . D . Dissertation. Ithaca, N . Y . : Cornell University, 1968. , F i r s t National Development Plan 1966-1970. Lusaka, Republic of Zambia: Office of National Development and Planning, July, 1966. Friedmann, John R. "The Concept of a Planning Region". Economics, V o l . XXXII (1956), pp. 1-13.  Land  .  "Regional Economic Policy for Developing A r e a s " . Papers and Proceedings of Regional Science Association, V o l . 11 (1963), pp. 41-61. . "Cities in Social Transformation" in Friedmann, John and Alonso, William (ed. ). Regional Development and Planning: A Reader. Cambridge, M a s s . : M . I . T . Press, 1964. . Regional Development Policy: A Case Study of Venezuela. Cambridge, M a s s . : M . I . T . Press, 1966. . "The Role of Cities in National Development". The American Behavioral Scientist, May-June, 1969. . " A General Theory of Polarized Development" Niles M . (.ed.). Growth Centres in Regional Economic Development. New York: The Free Press, 1972.  in Hansen,  162  Friedmann, John R. Urbanization, Planning and National Development. Beverly Hills, C a l i f . : Sage Publications,  1973.  Genoud, Roger. Nationalism and Economic Development in Ghana. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1969. Gerhart, John, " r u r a l Development and Urban Growth" in Gerhart, John and Laurenti, Luigi. Urbanization in Kenya. New York: F o r d Foundation, 1972. Gersdorff, Ralph von. "Regional Information and Regional Planning in A f r i c a " . United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, October, 1971. . "The Current Regional Planning Exercise in Zambia, Luapula Province, Pilot A r e a " . Lusaka, Republic of Zambia: Office of National Planning and Development, August, 1967. Gregory, JohnW. "Urbanization and Development Planning in Upper Volta: the Education Variable" in El-Shakhs and Obudho. op. c i t . , 1974. Griffiths, I. L . "Zambia Links with East A f r i c a " . East A f r i c a n Geographical Review, 6 (April, 1968), pp. 87-89. Grove, David and Huszar, Laszlo. The Towns of Ghana. A c c r a : Ghana University Press, 1964. Hall, Richard. The High Price of Principles: Kaunda and the White South. London: Hodder and Stoughton L t d . , 1969. Hamdan, G . "Capitals of the New A f r i c a " . 40, no. 3 (1964), pp. 239-252.  Economic Geography,  Hance, William A . African Economic Development. Praeger Publishers, 1967.  New York:  . Population, Migration and Urbanization in A f r i c a . New York: Columbia University Press, 1970. Hansen, Niles M . "Development Pole Theory in a Regional Context" in M c K e e , David, Dean,Robert and Leahy, William. Regional Economics: Theory and Practice. New York: The Free Press, 1970. . (ed. ). Growth Centres in Regional Economic Development New York: The Free Press, 1972.  163  Hauser, P. "Urbanization: An Overview" in Hauser, P. and Schnore (ed. ). The Study -of Urbanization. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1965. Heisler, Helmut. Urbanization and the Government of Migration. . London: C . Hurst and C o . , 1974. Hermansen, Tormod. "Growth Poles and Growth Centres in National and Regional Development: A Synthetical Approach". United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, 1969. . "Development Poles and Related Theories: A Synoptical Approach" in Hansen, Niles M.( ed. ). op. c i t . , 1972. Hirschman, Albert O. The Strategy of Economic Development. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968. . "Interregional and International Transmission of Economic Growth" in Friedmann and Alonso, op. cit., 1964. . Development Projects Observed. The Brookings Institution, 1967.  Washington, D. C. :  Hodder, B . W . Economic Development in the Tropics. Methuen and Co. L t d . , 1968. Hoover, Edgar M . Introduction to Regional Economics. Alfred A . Knopf, 1971.  London: New York:  Hoselitz, Bert. "Generative and Parasitic C i t i e s " . Economic Development and Cultural Change,, V o l . 3 (April, 1955), pp. 278-294. Hunter, Guy. Modernizing Peasant Societies: A Comparative Study in A s i a and A f r i c a . London: Oxford University Press, 1969. Ilchman, Warren and Bhargava, Ravindra. "Balanced Thought and Economic Growth". Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 14 (July, 1966), pp. 385-399. Jackson, R . H . "Planning, Politics and Administration." in Hyden,». Goren, Jackson, R . H . and Okumu, John. Development Administration : The Kenya Experience. Nairobi: Oxford University Press, 1969.  164  James, J . R . "Regions and Regional Planning". Geography, Vol. 54, no. 243 (April, 1969), pp. 129-140. Johnson, E . A . J . The Organization of Space in Developing Countries. Cambridge, M a s s . : Harvard University Press, 1970. Jolly, Richard. "Manpower and Education" in Seers, Dudley and Joy, Leonard (ed. ). Development in a Divided World. Baltimore: Penguin Books, Inc., 1971. . "An Evaluation of Zambia's F i r s t National Development P l a n " in Simonis, Herde and Simonis, Uno Ernst (ed. ). Socioeconomic Development in Dual Economies: The Example of: Zambia. Munich: Weltform Verlag, 1971. Kamar&k, Andrew. Economics and Economic Development" in Lystad, Robert. The African World: A Survey of Social Research. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1965. . The Economics of African Development. Prager Publishers, 1971.  New York:  Kay, George. " A Regional Framework for Rural Development in Zambia". . A f r i c a n Affairs, V o l . 67 January, 1968), pp. 29-43. Komar, I. V. and Popov, K . M . "Problems in the Economic Regionalization of India". Soviet Geography, Review and Translation. (May, 1962), pp. 30-45. Kudiabor, C . D . K . "Growth Poles and Growth Centres in Regional Development Planning in Ghana". United Nations Research Institue for Social Development, 1971. Lampard, E r i c . "The History of Cities in Economically Advanced A r e a s " , in Friedmann, John and Alonso, William, op. c i t . , 1964. Lasuen, J . R . "On Growth Poles". (1969), pp. 137-161.  Urban Studies,  V o l . 6, no. 2  Laurenti, Luigi. "Urbanization Trends and Prospects " in Gerhart, John and Laurenti, Luigi. Urbanization in Kenya. New York: The F o r d Foundation, 1972.  165  Leys, Colin. "The Political Climate for Economic Development". African Affairs, V o l . 65, no. 258 (January, 1966), pp. 55-65. . "Political Perspectives ". in Seers, Dudley and Joy, Leonard, op. c i t . , 1971. Leys, Colin and M a r r i s , Peter. "Planning and Development" in Seers, Dudley and Joy, Leonard, op. c i t . , 1971. Leys, Colin and Robson, Peter. Federation in East A f r i c a : Opportunities and Problems. Nairobi: Oxford University Press, 1965. Logan, M . I . "The Spatial System and Planning Strategies in Developing Countries". Geographical Review, V o l . 62 (1972), pp. 229-244. Mabogunje, Akin L . "Draft Proposal for a Research Project on the Development of Growth Poles in Nigeria". United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, 1970. . "Urbanization Problems in A f r i c a " in El-Shakhs, Salah and Obudho, Robert, op. c i t . , 1974. McKee, David, Dean, Robert and Leahy, William (ed. ). Regional Economics: Theory and Practice. New York: The Free Press, 19-70. 1  McKee, S.IanD. "Planning and Urbanization in Kenya". Journal of the Royal Town Planning Institute, V o l . 59, no. 7 (August, 1973), pp. 321-330. Maimbo, Fabian and F r y , James. " A n Investigation into the Change in the Terms of Trade Between the Rural and the Urban Sections of Zambia". A f r i c a n Social Research, V o l . 12, (December, 1971), pp. 95-110. Markovitz, Irving L . (ed. ). The Free Press, 1970.  African Politics and Society. New York:  M a r r i s , Peter. "The Social B a r r i e r s to African Entrepreneurship". Journal of Development Studies, V o l . 3 (1967). Miner, Horace (ed. ). The City in Modern A f r i c a . New York: Publishers, 1967.  Praeger  166  Ministry of Finance. Economic Report 1971. Lusaka: Printing House, 1972.  Government  Mlia, Justice M . "National Urban Development Policy: The Issues and the Options" in El-Shakhs, Salah and Obudho, Robert. op. c i t . , 1974. Molnos, Angela. Development in A f r i c a - Planning and Implementation". Nairobi: The East African Academy Research Information Centre, 1970. Myrdal, Gunnar. Economic Theory and Underdeveloped Regions. London: Methuen n d Co. L t d . , 1957, a  .  Asian Drama.  New York:  Pantheon,  1968.  Nichols, Vida. "Growth Poles: Potential as a Tool for Regional Economic Development". Discussion Paper No. 3 0. Philadelphia: Regional Science Research Institute, 1969. Obudho, Robert . "Urbanization and Regional Planning in Western .Kenya" in El-Shakhs, Salah and Obudho, Robert, op. c i t . , 1974. O'Connell, James. "The Political Class and Economic Growth". Nigerian Study of Economics and Social Studies, V o l . 8, no. 1 (March, 1966), pp. 129-142. Ominde, S . H . and Ejiogu, C . N . (ed. ). Population Growth and Economic Development in A f r i c a . London: Heineman; L t d . , 1972. Paden, John and Soja, Edward. The African Experience. Northwestern University Press, 1970.  Evanston, 111.:  Pchelintsev, O . S . "Problems of the Development of Large C i t i e s " . Soviet Review, V o l . 7, no. 4 (Winter, 1966-67), pp. 15-24. Perloff, Harvey. "The Key Features of Regional Planning". Journal of the American Institute of Planners, V o l . 34, no. 3 (May, 1968), pp. 153-159. Perroux, Francois. "ANote on the Concept of Growth Poles". Translated by Linda Gates and Anne Marie McDermott: "Note sur la Notion de 'poles de croissance"'. Economique Appliquee, (1955); also in McKee, David et a l . op. c i t . , 1970.  167  Pioro, Zygmunt. "Growth Poles and Growth Centres in Regional Policies in Tanzania" in Growth Poles and Growth Centres i n ' Regional Policies and Planning. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, 1971. Rempel, Henry. "The Extent and Nature of the Population Movement In Kenya's Towns". Working Paper No. 160. Nairobi: Institute for Development Studies, 1974. Rimmer, Douglas. "The Abstraction from Politics: A Critique of Economic Theory and ^esign with Refernce to West A f r i c a " . Journal of Development Studies, V o l . 4 (1968), pp. 190-204. Robock, Stefan. -"Strategies for Regional Economic Development". Papers and Proceedings of Regional Science Association, V o l . 17 (1966), pp. 129-141. Rodwin, Lloyd. "Metropolitan Policies for Developing Areas " . Daedalus, V o l . 90 (Winter, 1961), pp. 132-146. . "Choosing Regions for Development" John~ and Alonso, William, op. cit. , 1964.  in Friedmann,  . "Urban Growth Strategies Reconsidered" op. cit. ,1972.  in Hansen, N . M .  Rosser, Colin. Urbanization in Tropical A f r i c a : A Demographic Introduction. New York: The F o r d Foundation, 1972. Schatz, Sayre. "Crude Private Neo-Colonialism". Journal of Modern African Studies, V o l . 7, no. 4 (1969), pp. 677-688. Seers, Dudley (ed.). The C r i s i s in Planning. Toronto: Irwin and C o . , 1972.  Clark,  Seers, Dudley and Joy, Leonard (ed. ). Development in a Divided World. Baltimore, M d . : Penguin Books, Inc., 1971. Seidmann, Ann. "The Dual Economies of East A f r i c a " . A f r i c a Journal, V o l . 7 (May, 1970), pp. 9-16.  East  Siddle, David J . "Rural Development in Zambia: A Spatial A n a l y s i s " . Journal of Modern African Studies, V o l . 8, no. 2 (1970), pp. 271-284.  168  Sillery, Anthony. A f r i c a : A Social Geography. London: Duckworth and C o . , L t d . , 1972. Simmance, Alan J. Urbanization in Zambia. New York: Foundation, 1972.  The F o r d  Singh, V . B . (ed. ). Studies in African Economic Development. New Delhi: Impex India, 1972. Sommer, John W. "Spatial Analysis of Urbanization and Political Integration in the S dan". in El-Shakhs, Salah and Obudhb, Robert, op. c i t . , 1974. u  Sovani, N . V. "The Analysis of 'Over-Urbanization'". Economic Development and Cultural Change, V o l . 12, no. 2 (January, 1964), pp. 113-122. Stohr, Walter. "Planning for Depressed Areas: A Methodological Approach:". Journal of American Institute of Planners, V o l , 3 0, no. 2 (May, 1964), pp. 123-131. Streeten, Paul. "How Poor are the Poor Countries? " in Seers, Dudley and Joy, Leonard, op. c i t . , 1971. Szerszewski, Robert. "Some Features of the Economic Development in Tropical A f r i c a " . Journal of Development Studies,Vol. 3 (1967), pp. 239-244. Taylor, D . R . F . "The Role of the Smaller Urban Places in Development: The Case of Kenya' in El-Shakhs, Salah and Obudho, Robert, op. c i t . , 1974. Thorburn, Andrew. "The Planner s'Region'". Journal of the Royal Town (Planning Institute, V o l . 48, no. 8 (October, 1962), pp.256-257. Thornley, Andrew. "Rapid Planning for Rapid Growth: N a i r o b i " . Journal of the Royal Town Planning Institute, V o l . 59, no. 7 (August, 1973), pp. 217-330. Tolosa, Hamilton and Reiner, Thomas. . "The Economic Programming of a System of Planned Poles". Economic Geography, V o l . 46, no. 3(Juty, 1970), pp. 449-458.  Tordoff, William. "Provincial and District Government in Zambia". Journal of Administration Overseas, V o l . 7, no. 3 (July, 1968), pp. 425-433. United Nations Research Institute for Development Studies (ed.). Growth Poles and Growth Centres in Regional Policies and Planning. UNR1SD, 1971. United Nations Statistical Yearbook 1973. Economics and Social Affairs, 1973.  New York:  Department of  Uppal, J . S . amd Salkever, L . A f r i c a : Problems in Economic Development. New York: ^he Free Press, 1972. Walter, Robert J . "Planning for Whom" in El-Shakhs, Salah and Obudho, Robert, op. cit., 1974. Webster, Douglas. "The Spatial Diffusion of Opportunity" Unpublished paper. Berkeley: Univeristy of California, March, 1973. Wilber, Charles K . The Soviet Model and TJhderdeveloped Countries. Chapel Hill, N . C. : University of North Carolina Press, 1969. World Per Capita Production, Population and Growth Rates. Washington D. C . : World B nk, 1973. a  Young, A l i s t a i r . Industrial Diversification in Zambia. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1973. Young, C . E . "Rural-Urban Terms of T r a d e " . A f r i c a n Social Research, V o l . 12 (December, 1971), pp. 91-94.  170  APPENDIX  AN  EXAMPLE  O F A PROPOSED  GUIDELINES  FOR T H E LOCATION  APPENDIX I F U N C T I O N A L HIERARCHY  OF INFRASTRUCTURAL  FACILITIES  {See— N O T E S Level of Centres  OF SETTLEMENTS  A T T H E VARIOUS  LEVELS O F  CENTRES  BELOW)  Educational Services  Health Services  Recreational and other Ser vices Social  National Capital  University Teacher Training College (secondary level) Technical College  Hospital (national standard)  Municipalities  Teacher training college (primary level) Technical school (secondary level)  Hospital (provincial standard)  Museum/art centre  Urban Centres  Senior Secondary School (to form VI) Technical School (primary level)  Hospital (District Standard)  Stadium Public Library Recreational Park Cinema Showground  Rural Centres  Secondary School (at least to form IV) Village polytechnic  Health centre (+maternity unit)  Mobile Library Service Sports field Social Hall Mobile cinema  Market Centres  Secondary School  Dispensary Family Planning Service  Local Centres  Full primary school (2-3 streams) Nursery school  Principal Towns  Private sector facilities, e.g. commercial and industrial undertakings, will be located in service centres according to the economic development potential. They will therefore not necessarily adhere to the hierarchical pattern of other infrastructure. 2. To the service.,;:J. gainst each level of centre should be added those services listed against the centres of lower level, eg., in the majority of cases a rural centre will also have all the services existing in market and local centres.  NOTES.—1.  GUIDELINES  FOR T H E L O C A T I O N  OF INFRASTURCTURAL  (See—NOTES  Level cf Centres  Principal Towns  FACILITIES A N D T H E V A R I O U S  Administrative Services Government Ministries High Court National Police Headquarters etc.  Municipalities  Provincial Administration Resident Magistrate's Court Provincial Police Headquarter  Rural Centres  I  Source:  International Airport. International Bus Services.  Fire Station  District Administration District Court Divisional Police Headquarter Divisional Administration . Police Station  Locational and Sub-Locational administration Police Post  Development Plan. 1974. - 1978.  CENTRES  Communication Services  Civic Services  Served by International/National Trunk Road Head Post Office. Telephone facilities (automatic exchange). Regional Litis Service. Airfield. -  Sewage Disposal system Grid Water Supply Electricity  Market Centres  Local Centres  OF  BELOW)  National Capital  Urban Centres  LEVELS  Public Water Supply  .Republic of Kenya  Served by National Trunk/Primary Road Airstrip Served by Primary/Secondary road Departmental Post-OQice Served by Secondary/Minor road Telephone Facilities (Manual exchange) Sub-Post Office Airstrip (only remote areas) Local bus service  


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items