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Influence of National Socialist ideology on the South African Nationalist party 1939-1945 Lawrence, John 1989

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INFLUENCE OF NATIONAL SOCIALIST IDEOLOGY ON THE SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONALIST PARTY 1939 - 1945 By JOHN LAWRENCE B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( P o l i t i c a l Science Department) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1989 © John Lawrence, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s seeks to d e f i n e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between N a z i i d e o l o g y a n d t h e i d e o l o g y o f A f r i k a n e r N a t i o n a l i s m as r e p r e s e n t e d by the N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y o f South A f r i c a d u r i n g the war y e a r s between 1939 t o 1945 . I t a d d r e s s e s the two s e p a r a t e p r o b l e m s , what f a s c i s t i d e o l o g y i s , f o r i t i s necessary to d e f i n e f a s c i s m b e f o r e one can u n d ers t an d N a z i i s m , a s p e c i e s o f f a s c i s m , and w h e t h e r t h e i d e o l o g y o f t h e N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y of South A f r i c a was f a s c i s t or N a z i d u r i n g W o r l d War I I , a p e r i o d o f t i m e when i n t e r n a t i o n a l e v e n t s e x e r c i s e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e on d o m e s t i c p o l i t i c s i n South A f r i c a . T h e s e two p r o b l e m s have been a p p r o a c h e d by e x a m i n i n g a u t h o r i t i e s on the s u b j e c t d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s , and by l o o k i n g a t s t a t e m e n t s o f l e a d i n g N a t i o n a l i s t p o l i t i c i a n s ' documents and N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y p l a t f o r m s , as w e l l as the o v e r t p o l i t i c a l behav iour of the I t a l i a n f a s c i s t s , the German N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t s , the N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y , as w e l l as o ther r e l a t e d f a s c i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The framework i n t o which t h i s d a t a has been i n s e r t e d i n c l u d e s a h i s t o r i c a l o v e r v i e w o f A f r i k a n e r h i s t o r y i n S o u t h A f r i c a , a n d h i s t o r y o f t h e N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y , an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e S o u t h a f r i c a n p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n d u r i n g the p e r i o d under q u e s t i o n , f o l l o w e d f i r s t by an 8 p o i n t d e f i n i t i o n o f f a s c i s m a n d a 2 p o i n t d e f i n i t i o n of N a z i i s m , and then by a comparison of N a t i o n a l i s t i d e o l o g y w i t h f a s c i s m and N a z i i s m on each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . The i i i d e f i n i t i o n o f f a s c i s m o f f e r e d i n t h i s t h e s i s i s premised on the f a c t t h a t a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y ' s i d e o l o g y comes out i n i t s o v e r t b e h a v i o u r , and i s not m e r e l y a r e c a p i t u l a t i o n o f i t s s t a t e d p a r t y p l a t f o r m . The c o n c l u s i o n s a r r i v e d a t show t h a t the N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y was i n f l u e n c e d by f a s c i s t and N a z i i d e o l o g y on some p o i n t s , n o t a b l y i n i t s a t t i t u d e s towards Communists , Jews and d e m o c r a c y . D i s s i m i l a r i t i e s a r i s e when one compares t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s to the Naz i s i n the s o c i a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e movements , and when one d i s c o v e r s the c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n t h e n a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y ' s r e l i g i o - t r a d i t i o n a l i s t c o n s e r v a t i s m and t h e N a z i ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y n i h i l i s m . The N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y can be shown to be a p a r t y tha t was open t o N a z i i n f l u e n c e but not c o m p l e t e l y swamped by i t d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d i n q u e s t i o n . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . V CHAPTER I Statement o f Purpose and I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . 1 Statement o f purpose . . . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 2 CHAPTER II H i s t o r i c a l Background . . . . 7 A f r i k a n e r H i s t o r y u n t i l 1939 7 H i s t o r y o f the N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y . 2 1 South A f r i c a d u r i n g the Second World War 28 E x t r a - N a t i o n a l i s t o p p o s i t i o n to the war 31 The N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y d u r i n g the war 36 CHAPTER I I I Ideology and F a s c i s m 43 Ideo logy 43 D e f i n i t i o n o f F a s c i s m & N a z i i s m 46 CHAPTER IV Compar ing N a t i o n a l i s t i d e o l o g y and p o l i c y w i t h f a s c i s m and N a z i i s m 66 CHAPTER V C o n c l u s i o n 108 ENDNOTES 117 BIBLIOGRAPHY 127 V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s i s due to the h e l p and u s e f u l c r i t i c i s m of a number of p e o p l e . P r o f e s s o r P h i l i p Resnick gave me q u i t e a number of u s e f u l i d e a s on how I c o u l d s h a r p e n a n d f o c u s my p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y s e c t i o n . P r o f e s s o r Robert Kubicek a s s i s t e d me i n my h i s t o r i c a l s e c t i o n by o f f e r i n g some sugges t ions based on h i s e x t e n s i v e knowledge o f South A f r i c a n h i s t o r y . T h e i r p a t i e n c e and h e l p has been g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . A b o v e a l l , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k P r o f e s s o r R o b e r t J a c k s o n f o r h i s c o n s i d e r a b l e p a t i e n c e and t i m e , as w e l l as h i s very u s e f u l c r i t i c i s m s and i n p a r t i c u l a r f o r h i s s u p p o r t d u r i n g t h i s g r u e l l i n g t a s k . I g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e P r o f e s s o r P a u l T e n n a n t ' s h e l p i n a s s e m b l i n g my commit tee as w e l l as h i s a s s i s t a n c e w i t h the b u r e a u c r a t i c d e t a i l s o f my r e - e n t r y i n t o the Graduate program. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to thank my p a r e n t s , w i thout whose su p p or t p a t i e n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g my comple t ion o f t h i s t h e s i s would have been i m p o s s i b l e . 1 CHAPTER 1 Two p a r t i c u l a r problems f o r the p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t are the d i f f i c u l t y i n g a i n i n g a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of f a s c i s m , and whether or not the N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y / r e g i m e i n South A f r i c a m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d f a s c i s t , or N a z i . T h i s t h e s i s i s an attempt to d e a l with both of these q u e s t i o n s ; and i n f a c t , the l a t t e r r e q u i r e s that the former be r e s o l v e d . H e r i b e r t Adams, i n h i s book M o d e r n i z i n g R a c i a l D o m i n a t i o n , q u e s t i o n s the e n t i r e v a l i d i t y o f any attempt to f i t A f r i k a n e r N a t i o n a l i s m i n t o a model of f a s c i s m . 1 A c c o r d i n g to Adams, the s p e c i f i c c i r c u m s t a n c e o f a p a r t h e i d t h e f l e x i b l e a nd p r a g m a t i c domination over a r a c i a l l y separated m a j o r i t y are not i n c l u d e d i n most d e f i n i t i o n s o f f a s c i s m . 2 Yet there are s i m i l a r i t i e s and i n f l u e n c e s w h i c h can be i s o l a t e d and s h o u l d n ot be i g n o r e d . One s h o u l d be a b l e to d e v i s e a model of f a s c i s m which can a t l e a s t be t e s t e d a g a i n s t the system of r a c i a l s e p a r a t i o n t h a t has been d e v e l o p e d i n South A f r i c a . I t o c c u r r e d to me that one way to approach t h i s problem would be t o l o o k a t the N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y a t a c r u c i a l s t a g e i n i t s h i s t o r y , when the i n f l u e n c e of a form of f a s c i s m , N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m , would be most obvio u s . Any s i g n of s p e c i f i c a l l y N a z i p o l i c i e s or views, such as a n t i - S e m i t i s m , emerging i n N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y p o l i c y or propaganda i n t h e 1930's i s e v i d e n c e w o r t h e x a m i n i n g as t o t h e i n f l u e n c e upon o r s i m i l a r i t y of f a s c i s m or Naziism to A f r i k a n e r N a t i o n a l i s m i n the l a t e 1930's and e a r l y 1940's. 2 Now, to d e f i n e f a s c i s m and Naziism, one has to set some s o r t of p l a u s i b l e g u i d e l i n e s t h a t w i l l i n c l u d e some movements and exclude o t h e r s ; f o r a d e f i n i t i o n that i s i n d i s c r i m i n a t e i s not worth very much, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the case of a term l i k e f a s c i s m , which i s o f t e n thrown about l i b e r a l l y . I t seemed that the s i m p l e s t t h i n g to do was to see what c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were common to the most obvious, indeed p r o t o t y p i c a l , v e r s i o n s of f a s c i s m — I t a l i a n Fascism and German Naziism — and use t h e s e q u a l i t i e s as my d e f i n i t i o n . From t h e r e , one can determine the d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s of German Naziism, which i s a f t e r a l l the p o i n t of comparison used here: the y a r d s t i c k , so to speak, a g a i n s t which A f r i k a n e r N a t i o n a l i s m , i n the form of the N a t i o n a l i s t Party, i s being examined. However, s i n c e t h e r e a r e forms of f a s c i s m o t h e r than " c l a s s i c " f a s c i s m , t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f f e r e d h e r e w i l l d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the c l a s s i c v a r i e t y and those movements or regimes which o f f e r v a r y i n g d i f f u s e examples of f a s c i s m . They show f a s c i s m c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n m o d i f i e d or more d i l u t e f o r m s . The N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y w i l l t h e n be t e s t e d by my d e f i n i t i o n of f a s c i s m , i n order to see to what extent i t f a l l s under the d e f i n i t i o n . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between a p a r t y ' s i d e o l o g y and i t s s o c i a l b a s e w i l l f o r m a p a r t o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n . The i n f l u e n c e o f N a z i i d e o l o g y on the South A f r i c a n N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y during World War II was not minimal, but d i d 3 n o t d e t e r m i n e t h e p a r t y ' s o p p o s i t i o n t o S o u t h A f r i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the war . I t seems t h a t the p r i m a r y f a c t o r c o n d i t i o n i n g t h e Herenigde Nasionale Parij's ( H N P 1 s ) o p p o s i t i o n to the war was the t r a d i t i o n a l a n t i p a t h y t h a t a l a r g e percentage o f A f r i k a n e r s (White South A f r i c a n s o f D u t c h , German and French descent ) f e l t f or G r e a t B r i t a i n . The B r i t i s h had conquered the o r i g i n a l Dutch Cape c o l o n y i n 1795. Many A f r i k a n e r s r e j e c t e d B r i t i s h r u l e i n 1838 by f l e e i n g i n t o t h e i n t e r i o r , t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r c u l t u r a l i n d e p e n d e n c e and p o s i t i o n as s l a v e o w n e r s . The B r i t i s h had c o n q u e r e d the two B o e r r e p u b l i c s i n the Boer war o f 1899-1902. M i l n e r ' s p o l i c y of A n g l i c i z a t i o n b e f o r e Union i n 1910 f u r t h e r c o n t r i b u t e d t o a s t r o n g c u r r e n t o f r e s e n t m e n t and h o s t i l i t y t o B r i t a i n d u r i n g t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y among t h e A f r i k a n e r s . The s u p e r i o r economic and p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h w i t h i n t h e U n i o n i n t h e p o s t - 1 9 1 0 p e r i o d c o n t i n u a l l y s toked the f i r e s of A f r i k a n e r resentment . Y e t t h e e m e r g e n c e o f t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s as an a n t i -i m p e r i a l i s t , r e p u b l i c a n - n a t i o n a l i s t movement was g r a d u a l . The p e r s o n a l i t i e s and o u t l o o k of the N a t i o n a l i s t l e a d e r s i n the e a r l y y e a r s o f u n i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t many d i f f e r e n t views of n a t i o n a l i s m e x i s t e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . A f r i k a n e r N a t i o n a l i s m was i n a p r o c e s s o f r e d e f i n i t i o n a n d c h a n g e , and no one i d e o l o g i c a l framework ever encompassed i t . N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m was n o t t h e o n l y i d e o l o g i c a l c u r r e n t w i t h i n A f r i k a n e r N a t i o n a l i s m d u r i n g the war y e a r s ; and w h i l e events may have 4 p r o p e l l e d i t i n t o a more c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n w i t h i n a common N a t i o n a l i s t w o r l d v i e w , i t n e v e r d i d t o t a l l y d o m i n a t e t h e o u t l o o k o f most o f the N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y l e a d e r s h i p d u r i n g that p e r i o d . N a t i o n a l i s t o p p o s i t i o n to the war was l a r g e l y p r a g m a t i c . I t r e f l e c t e d t h e f e e l i n g s o f most A f r i k a n e r s a n d mos t N a t i o n a l i s t p o l i t i c i a n s . N a t i o n a l i s t i d e o l o g y , b e f o r e 1935, was r a t h e r i l l - d e f i n e d beyond c e r t a i n f u n d a m e n t a l s . These fundamenta l s — s e v e r i n g the I m p e r i a l c o n n e c t i o n ; p r o t e c t i n g a n d a d v a n c i n g t h e A f r i k a a n s l a n g u a g e a n d o t h e r f o l k t r a d i t i o n s ; and the c o n t i n u e d s u b j u g a t i o n and s e g r e g a t i o n o f t h e n o n - W h i t e r a c e s o f t h e U n i o n - - were b a s i c t o t h e N a t i o n a l i s t o u t l o o k , and shared by v i r t u a l l y a l l A f r i k a n e r s . O p p o s i t i o n t o B r i t a i n opened the door to N a z i i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n the N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y and t h r o u g h o u t A f r i k a n e r d o m , a f t e r the N a z i advent to power i n 1933. In many c a s e s , N a z i i d e o l o g y , i t s e l f r a t h e r hazy and d i f f u s e i n n a t u r e , was p o o r l y understood by the N a t i o n a l i s t s and by A f r i k a n e r d o m i n g e n e r a l . N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m was viewed w i t h sympathy by many A f r i k a n e r s because o f i t s o v e r a l l r a c i s t t o n e , but the degree to which most a n t i - w a r A f r i k a n e r s a d o p t e d i t v a r i e d , and f u l l - b l o w n N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m , as advocated i n Germany, was espoused by very few A f r i k a n e r s . I t would p r o b a b l y be as h a r d to i s o l a t e any a n t i - w a r s e n t i m e n t i n South A f r i c a between 1939 - 1945 that was c o m p l e t e l y u n t a i n t e d by N a z i i d e o l o g y , as i t would be t o d i s c o v e r many pure N a z i s i n the German m o l d , c o m p l e t e l y 5 u n i n f l u e n c e d by w h o l l y i n d i g e n o u s f o r m s o f A f r i k a n e r N a t i o n a l i s t i d e o l o g y . T h e N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y w a v e r e d b e t w e e n t h e two a f o r e m e n t i o n e d extremes. A study of Nazi i d e o l o g y and i t s i n f l u e n c e on the HNP i s o f n e c e s s i t y a h i s t o r i c a l s t u d y , p i e c i n g t o g e t h e r speeches of p o l i t i c i a n s , p o l i c y r e s o l u t i o n s at p a r t y conventions, and l o o k i n g f o r t r a c e s of Nazi thought w i t h i n t h e s e d e c l a r a t i o n s . A f r i k a n e r h i s t o r y , and i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e h i s t o r y o f the N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y , must be examined i n order to show the s e t t i n g which allowed a c e r t a i n degree of Nazi sentiment to r i s e , but yet contained the growth of that sentiment. T h i s t h e s i s w i l l g i v e a te n - p o i n t d e f i n i t i o n of Naziism. I t w i l l be based on and i n c l u d e an e i g h t - p o i n t d e f i n i t i o n of e x c l u s i v e f a s c i s m , which w i l l be c o n t r a s t e d with i n c l u s i v e f ascism. I f too i n c l u s i v e , any regime or movement of vaguely r i g h t - w i n g a u t h o r i t a r i a n t e n d e n c i e s c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as f a s c i s t , s e m i - f a s c i s t , Nazi or semi-Nazi. I f too e x c l u s i v e , t h e n no f a s c i s t o r N a z i t y p e c o u l d be d i s c u s s e d ; no c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s common to f a s c i s m or Nazism c o u l d be found. T h i s t h e s i s w i l l o f f e r a d e f i n i t i o n of f a s c i s m (as the base of N a z i i s m , which i s a d i s t i n c t s p e c i e s o f f a s c i s m ) , then of Naziism, f o r f a s c i s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are a necessary c o n d i t i o n of Naziism, but not a s u f f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n . I t a l i a n f a s c i s m and German N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m w i l l serve as the c l a s s i c models of 20th century c l a s s i c f a s c i s m . The N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y w i l l 6 then be measured by how c l o s e l y i t s r h e t o r i c and p o s i t i o n s on the i s s u e s , and i t s i d e o l o g y during the war years, matched the most d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s of the most notable c l a s s i c f a s c i s t movements, p a r t i c u l a r l y the N a z i s . I d e o l o g y w i l l not be c o n s i d e r e d as j u s t the s t a t e d p a r t y p l a t f o r m of a p o l i t i c a l movement, but the a c t u a l p r a c t i c a l implementation of those b e l i e f s . In other words, the ideology of a movement w i l l be d i s t i l l e d from the movement's p r a c t i c e s , i n power and out, and the p a t t e r n s that emerge from those p r a c t i c e s w i l l be s a i d to r e f l e c t the a c t u a l i d e o l o g y of the movement or the regime. F i n a l l y , the N a t i o n a l i s t Party's r e l a t i o n s h i p to Nazi i d e o l o g y w i l l be analyzed. A f t e r t h i s , the c o n c l u s i o n f o l l o w s . F i r s t , I s h a l l g i v e a very b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of A f r i k a n e r h i s t o r y , from Jan van R i e b e e c k ' s l a n d i n g u n t i l the end of World War I I . Then, I s h a l l d e s c r i b e the development of the HNP d u r i n g t h a t same p e r i o d . T h i s w i l l be f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n of the f a l l of the Hertzog government i n 1939 and t h e s u b s e q u e n t N a t i o n a l i s t o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e Smuts government's war p o l i c y . The o p p o s i t i o n of the HNP to the war w i l l then be c o n t r a s t e d with the a t t i t u d e s of other anti-war A f r i k a n e r p o l i t i c a l movements towards the war. T h i s w i l l be f o l l o w e d by a d e s c r i p t i o n of f a s c i s t and Nazi i d e o l o g y , and then by an a n a l y s i s of the N a t i o n a l i s t Party d u r i n g World War II based on the f o r e g o i n g d e f i n i t i o n . 7 CHAPTER I I P o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y i n South A f r i c a d i d not b e g i n i n 1652, w i th the l a n d i n g o f Jan van Riebeeck at the Cape o f Good Hope. What i s now Cape P r o v i n c e , and most o f p r e s e n t - d a y N a m i b i a , h a d b e e n s e t t l e d by t h e San a n d K h o i - K h o i p e o p l e s f o r t h o u s a n d s o f y e a r s , w h i l e the e a s t e r n p a r t o f t h e modern R e p u b l i c o f South A f r i c a had been i n h a b i t e d by B a n t u - s p e a k i n g t r i b e s f o r a t l e a s t h a l f a m i l l e n n i u m . The descendants o f the Khoi san p e o p l e s , by v i r t u e of t h e i r f o r e b e a r s ' s e x u a l l i a i s o n s w i t h some of the o r i g i n a l Dutch s e t t l e r s , are the 3 - m i l l i o n -s t r o n g m i x e d - r a c e C o l o u r e d c o m m u n i t y o f t h e C a p e . The descendants o f the Bantu speakers t r i b e s are the 2 4 - m i l l i o n -s t r o n g B lack community i n South A f r i c a today . T h i s p a p e r , however i s an a n a l y t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f c r u c i a l p o l i t i c a l o p t i o n s f a c e d by A f r i k a n e r d o m a t an i m p o r t a n t j u n c t u r e i n i t s h i s t o r y . At no time d i d a common c u l t u r e u n i t e t h e p e o p l e s o f S o u t h A f r i c a . Even w i t h i n a M a r x i s t framework, i t i s proper to s tudy v a r i o u s components o f the o v e r a l l p a t t e r n of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s ; and i f one adopts an e c l e c t i c a p p r o a c h , t h e n South A f r i c a n h i s t o r y e a s i l y l e n d s i t s e l f to the s t u d y of i t s component p a r t s . The k n i t t i n g -t o g e t h e r o f a common c u l t u r e w i t h i n a u n i t e d s o c i e t y may r e a l l y o n l y be happening today . A f r i k a n e r h i s t o r y , t h e n , does b e g i n i n 1652. R i e b e e c k landed to found a r e s u p p l y s t a t i o n for the Dutch E a s t I n d i a n Company , a n d t h e i r s h i p s bound f o r J a v a and T i m o r . I t 8 c o n d u c t e d i t s own m i l i t a r y a f f a i r s , i n c l u d i n g the r i g h t to d e c l a r e war and make p e a c e . 3 "For a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s , the VOC was as an imperium w i t h i n a s t a t e . I t m a i n t a i n e d i t s own C h r i s t i a n s t a n d a r d s . I t s C a l v i n i s m was tha t o f the Synod of D o r t ( 1 6 1 8 ) , w h i c h had been as much a scene o f p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t as t h e o l o g i c a l a r g u m e n t . " 4 C a l v i n i s m , a s t r i n g e n t v a r i e t y o f the Reformed t r a d i t i o n , s t r e s s e d the s o v e r e i g n t y of God; the inadequacy o f unaided man to ach i eve s a l v a t i o n ; and a r e j e c t i o n o f works , i n c l u d i n g the s a c e r d o t a l f u n c t i o n of the c h u r c h . The C a l v i n i s m o f t h e o r i g i n a l D u t c h and German s e t t l e r s , as w e l l as o f the F r e n c h Huguenots ( re fugees from r e l i g i o u s p e r s e c u t i o n i n C a t h o l i c France) who a r r i v e d i n 1688, combined w i t h a sense o f t o t a l a l i e n a t i o n from o t h e r a s p e c t s o f D u t c h c u l t u r e , and a contempt f o r the C a p o i d p e o p l e s , f ormed t h e b a s i s o f A f r i k a n e r c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t . The o r i g i n a l s e t t l e r s , f r e e B u r g h e r s a f t e r 1 6 5 7 , when t h e y a c q u i r e d the r i g h t to own l a n d , q u i c k l y l o s t themselves i n the v a l l e y s o f the Cape , a l s o l o s i n g t h e i r a l l e g i a n c e to the VOC and to commerc ia l Dutch c u l t u r e i n the p r o c e s s . The emergence of the Trekboer i n the e a r l y 18th c e n t u r y r e a l l y a c c e n t u a t e s the A f r i k a n e r i z a t i o n o f the o r i g i n a l D u t c h -German s e t t l e r s . The Trekboers, t h e n o m a d i c B o e r s who g r a d u a l l y moved f u r t h e r from the Cape d u r i n g the 18th c e n t u r y , s h o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the Voortrekkers, the Boers who f l e d B r i t i s h r u l e i n the Cape and moved i n t o the i n t e r i o r i n 1838. The Trekboers were i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s or s m a l l groups 9 of Dutch s e t t l e r s who moved, f o l l o w i n g r o u t e s to where t h e r e was water . A process o f A f r i c a n i z a t i o n ensued , marked by the d e v e l o p m e n t o f A f r i k a a n s f r o m D u t c h . 5 T h e E u r o p e a n p o p u l a t i o n , a lmost a l l o f whom were descendants of the f i r s t waves o f D u t c h , German and Huguenot s e t t l e r s , who a r r i v e d i n S o u t h A f r i c a b e f o r e 1 6 8 8 , grew v e r y s l o w l y f r o m s e v e r a l hundred s e t t l e r s i n 1652 t o 26,000 by the b e g i n n i n g o f the 19th c e n t u r y — s u b j u g a t i n g the s u r v i v i n g San and K h o i - k h o i , or d r i v i n g them deeper i n t o the i n t e r i o r . The f r o n t i e r A f r i k a n e r thus emerged as a s l a v e - o w n i n g , " A f r i c a n i z e d " nomad, c u t o f f f rom most o f the t r a d i t i o n a l props o f E u r o p e a n c i v i l i z a t i o n . Imbued w i t h a f e e l i n g t h a t h i s nomadic l i f e s t y l e was d i v i n e l y o r d a i n e d — i n the O l d T e s t a m e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the P e n t a t e u c h , p a t r i a r c h s h e l d s l a v e s , wandered f r e e l y , and m e r c i l e s s l y combatted the heathen i n h a b i t a n t s o f the P r o m i s e d Land — the A f r i k a n e r r e t a i n e d l i t t l e o f European c i v i l i z a t i o n save s t e r n C a l v i n i s t t h e o l o g y and a s i m p l i f i e d f o r m o f t h e D u t c h l a n g u a g e , A f r i k a a n s . ^ C o m m e r c i a l p r a g m a t i c u r b a n Dutch c u l t u r e was l o s t f o r the Trekboer; and e v e n , to ah e x t e n t , f o r the w i n e - p r o d u c e r s o f the Cape v a l l e y s , who were now i n d e p e n d e n t f a r m e r s , n o t Company employees . The A f r i k a n e r encountered two new enemies , the Bantu and the B r i t i s h , i n the 18th c e n t u r y , both o f whom were to f u r t h e r d e f i n e through t h e i r an tagon i sm, the n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y of the A f r i k a n e r . By t h i s t i m e , the San and the K h o i - K h o i had been 10 a b s o r b e d i n t o t h e C o l o u r e d p o p u l a t i o n , f o r m e d by e a r l y l i a i s o n s between the A f r i k a n e r s and C a p o i d p e o p l e s , or had been e x t e r m i n a t e d or reduced to s l a v e r y , or had r e t r e a t e d f a r i n t o the K a l a h a r i d e s e r t , which extended i n t o n o r t h e r n Cape P r o v i n c e and N a m i b i a . The trekboers, t h r o u g h t h e i r nomadic wanderings as Trekboers, had by the middle o f the 18th c e n t u r y ranged as f a r east as the F i s h r i v e r and as f a r n o r t h as the Orange, where they ran i n t o the remnants o f the San. The B a n t u - s p e a k e r s were not as e a s i l y subdued as t h e C a p o i d s . Peoples o f n e g r o i d p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r have o c c u p i e d much o f S o u t h A f r i c a s o u t h o f the L impopo s i n c e the e a r l y f i r s t m i l l e n n i a A . D . ^ C a t t l e keep ing was a mains tay o f the n e g r o i d i n h a b i t a n t s o f S o u t h A f r i c a ( u n l i k e t h e h u n t e r g a t h e r e r s i n d i g e n o u s c a p o i d s l i k e the San) s i n c e the l a t e r Iron Age.** A r c h a e o l o g i c a l ev idence i n d i c a t e s t h a t the p r e s e n t day B a n t u - s p e a k e r s s h a r e a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree o f c u l t u r a l c o n t i n u i t y w i t h the o r i g i n a l n e g r o i d i n h a b i t a n t s o f S o u t h A f r i c a , ^ a l t h o u g h some groups p r o b a b l y e n t e r e d South A f r i c a a t a r e l a t i v e l y l a t e d a t e . A t the t ime o f the f i r s t c l a s h e s between the A f r i k a n e r s and the Ban t u - sp eak ers i n 1779 a t the F i s h r i v e r i n the e a s t e r n cape , the B a n t u - s p e a k e r s p o p u l a t e d the T r a n s v a a l , the OFS N a t a l , the T r a n s k e i and the e a s t e r n cape i n the i n t e r i o r . I t i s important to note here t h a t wh i t e r u l e h a s , s i n c e 1652, been based on the p o l i t i c a l s u b j u g a t i o n of the non-white peoples o f South A f r i c a , and tha t the South 11 A f r i c a n economy has a l w a y s been b a s e d , f r o m 1652 t o t h e p r e s e n t , on the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f cheap b l a c k l a b o u r . The movement from the B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t the Cape i n 1838 was, i n the view of many A f r i k a n e r s , caused by l i b e r a l B r i t i s h m i s s i o n a r i e s who p r e s s u r e d the c o l o n i a l government to adopt a more l i b e r a l p o l i c y towards the b l a c k s . 1 ^ The Great Trek a l s o brought the A f r i k a n e r s i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h the B l a c k s t a t e s of e a s t e r n South A f r i c a . In wars a g a i n s t the Ndebele and the powerfu l Z u l u s t a t e s (the l a t t e r l e d by the g r e a t Z u l u c h i e f t a i n s Chaka and D i n g a n e ) , the Voortrekkers e v e n t u a l l y p r e v a i l e d and e s t a b l i s h e d two r e p u b l i c s : the Orange F r e e Sate between the Orange and V a a l r i v e r s , and the S o u t h A f r i c a n R e p u b l i c o f the T r a n s v a a l , n o r t h o f the V a a l . A t h i r d s t a t e , N a t a l i a , put i t s e l f under B r i t i s h p r o t e c t i o n i n the 1840 ' s , and became a B r i t i s h c o l o n y . The Z u l u s , though not c o m p l e t e l y subdued (they were c o m p l e t e l y subdued by the B r i t i s h , i n 1879) were decimated by Boer f i repower a t the B a t t l e o f B l o o d R i v e r i n 1838. In t h i s h i s t o r i c b a t t l e , some 3,000 Zulus a r e s a i d t o h a v e b e e n k i l l e d . 1 1 The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e B o e r r e p u b l i c s f o l l o w e d . B l o o d R i v e r was l a t e r t o become an important element of A f r i k a n e r c i v i l r e l i g i o n . T h e r e s t o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y s a w , w i t h s o m e i n t e r r u p t i o n s , the c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f the two Boer r e p u b l i c s , and o f B r i t i s h r u l e i n the Cape and N a t a l . The B a n t u were e i t h e r d i s p l a c e d onto n a t i v e r e s e r v e s as European hegemony was s e c u r e d , or they were r e t a i n e d as t e n a n t s on A f r i k a n e r farms , 12 w h i l e o t h e r s formed a m i g r a t o r y l a b o u r p o o l f o r the w h i t e s . They were not e x t e r m i n a t e d or comple te ly c u l t u r a l l y swamped as were the C a p o i d p e o p l e s , or the a b o r i g i n e s of N o r t h Amer ica and A u s t r a l i a . To t h e B o e r s i n t h e 1 9 t h and e a r l y 2 0 t h c e n t u r i e s , they were a s o u r c e o f cheap a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o u r . The B r i t i s h , h o w e v e r , were the i m m e d i a t e t h r e a t t o B o e r independence i n the 19th and e a r l y 20th c e n t u r i e s . The l a t t e r h a l f o f the 19th c e n t u r y , i n f a c t r i g h t up u n t i l the un ion i n 1910, saw the A f r i k a n e r s s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t B r i t i s h i m p e r i a l i s m to m a i n t a i n t h e i r hard-won independence . A t the behest of the c o l o n i a l o f f i c e i n London, "A new B r i t i s h governor agreed to the Sand R i v e r C o n v e n t i o n of 1852, which r e c o g n i z e d the i n d e p e n d e n c e o f the B o e r s beyond the V a a l R i v e r , and to the B l o e m f o n t e i n C o n v e n t i o n of 1854, by which B r i t i s h s o v e r e i g n t y beyond the Orange R i v e r was a b a n d o n e d . 1 2 The Boer r e p u b l i c s were l e f t to deve lop a l o n g t h e i r own l i n e s f o r the r e s t of the 19th c e n t u r y , i n t e r r u p t e d by a t h r e e - y e a r B r i t i s h o c c u p a t i o n between 1877 and 1880, and a n n e x a t i o n of G r i q u a l a n d West where the Kimber ley diamond f i e l d d e v e l o p e d . H e r e , C a l v i n i s t d o g m a a n d B i b l i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f l o u r i s h e d . 1 3 At the t ime of the Sand R i v e r and B l o e m f o n t e i n C o n v e n t i o n s , some 15,000 A f r i k a n e r s r e s i d e d i n the Orange F r e e S t a t e (OFS) and a n o t h e r 22 ,000 i n t h e T r a n s v a a l . 1 4 The i n d e p e n d e n t b o e r r e p u b l i c s had a somewhat more i l l i b e r a l t r a d i t i o n t h a t t h e C a p e C o l o n y , w h e r e t h e m a j o r i t y o f A f r i k a n e r s who remained b e h i n d i n the Cape C o l o n y g r a d u a l l y 13 accepted the B r i t i s h system of law, o r d e r and e q u a l i t y b e f o r e the l a w . 1 5 T h e r e was a n o n - r a c i a l f r a n c h i s e i n the C a p e , which r e c e i v e d s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t i n 1872, but s e x u a l , age and p r o p e r t y q u a l i f i c a t i o n s e f f e c t i v e l y d i s e n f r a n c h i s e d most B l a c k s , as w e l l as many W h i t e s — m a i n l y women and p o o r e r males . T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h the p r a c t i c e o f the South A f r i c a n R e p u b l i c , whose 1858 C o n s t i t u t i o n f o r b a d e e q u a l i t y between w h i t e s a n d n o n - w h i t e s , i n c h u r c h a n d i n s t a t e . l f * Cape p r a c t i c e a l s o c o n t r a s t e d w i t h N a t a l , where d e t r i b a l i z e d A f r i c a n s who were o u t s i d e of t r i b a l law had t h e o r e t i c a l , but not p r a c t i c a l e q u a l i t y . 1 ^ The Boer r e p u b l i c s a t f i r s t d e v e l o p e d i n an i n s u l a r manner. The temporary B r i t i s h o c c u p a t i o n o f the South A f r i c a n R e p u b l i c between 1877 - 1880, and the i n f l u x of uitlanders ( o u t l a n d e r s ) i n t o the SAR a f t e r g o l d was d i s c o v e r e d t h e r e i n 1886, put new s t r a i n s upon the Boer r e p u b l i c s , however. The i n v a s i o n o f f i n a n c i e r s l i k e Barney B a r n a t o and C e c i l Rhodes and thousands o f m i n e r s bent on a t t a i n i n g a f o r t u n e through e x p l o i t i n g the r i c h e s a r o u n d J o h a n n e s b u r g s e v e r e l y s t r e s s e d A f r i k a n e r s o c i e t y i n the T r a n s v a a l . An i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n s t a r t e d i n the 1890's i n the SAR, and soon e c l i p s e d the few l a r g e - s c a l e f a r m s owned by t h e more p r o s p e r o u s A f r i k a n e r i ft b u r g h e r s . ° N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e A f r i k a n e r s , l e d by P r e s i d e n t P a u l K r u g e r , r e t a i n e d p o l i t i c a l power by f i l l i n g empty s t a t e c o f f e r s w i t h r e v e n u e s d e r i v e d f r o m t a x i n g the m i n e s . The 14 T r a n s v a a l g o v e r n m e n t a l s o p u r s u e d a s t r a t e g y o f e c o n o m i c n a t i o n a l i s m g r a n t i n g m o n o p o l i e s t o companies s u p p l y i n g the mines and b u i l d i n g i t s own r a i l w a y l i n k to the sea by way of n e i g h b o r i n g Mozambique . F e a r i n g the r i s e o f the T r a n s v a a l s t a t e threa tened i t s i n t e r e s t s i n Southern A f r i c a the B r i t i s h government c h a l l e n g e d i t s i n t e g r i t y . Kruger r e f u s e d to g r a n t uitlanders p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s demanded by S i r A l f r e d M i l n e r , the B r i t i s h H i g h Commissioner and sent h i s w e l l armed commandoes i n t o N a t a l a n t i c i p a t i n g a B r i t i s h u l t i m a t u m . H o s t i l i t i e s commenced i n October 1899. The Boers gave a good account o f themselves a t f i r s t * b l o c k i n g the i n i t i a l B r i t i s h t h r u s t s i n t o t h e i r t e r r i t o r i e s , but by the end o f 1900, the major towns i n the S . A . R . and the O . F . S . were o c c u p i e d by B r i t i s h f o r c e s . Kruger f l e d to E u r o p e . Two y e a r s o f b loody g u e r i l l a w a r f a r e f o l l o w e d , w i th m o b i l e Boer commandos that l i v e d o f f the l a n d s t r i k i n g I m p e r i a l f o r c e s a t w i l l . B r i t i s h s c o r c h e d - e a r t h p o l i c y hur t the a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n of the Boer r e p u b l i c s , w h i l e over twenty thousand A f r i k a n e r women and c h i l d r e n d i e d i n B r i t i s h c o n c e n t r a t i o n c a m p s . 1 9 These c o n d i t i o n s f o r c e d the Boers to s u r r e n d e r to the B r i t i s h i n 1902 on the c o n d i t i o n s t h a t t h e i r l a n g u a g e r i g h t s i n c o u r t and s c h o o l w o u l d be p r o t e c t e d , that p o l i t i c a l autonomy would e v e n t u a l l y come, and t h a t there would be no n a t i v e f r a n c h i s e . 2 0 D o m i n i o n s t a t u s u n d e r a u n i t a r y r a t h e r t h a n f e d e r a l s t r u c t u r e was g r a n t e d the four c o l o n i e s i n 1910. The p e r i o d between 1902 and 1905 saw M i l n e r ' s at tempt to c r u s h the Dutch 15 or A f r i k a a n s l anguage by f o r b i d d i n g i t s use i n the s c h o o l s . T h i s s p u r r e d A f r i k a n e r n a t i o n a l i s m a c r o s s South A f r i c a . In May 1904, the A f r i k a n e r p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n Het Volk was e s t a b l i s h e d i n P r e t o r i a . A s i m i l a r impulse to e s t a b l i s h an o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t would a i r Boer g r i e v a n c e s a g a i n s t the peace s e t t l e m e n t l e d to the founding o f Orangia Unie i n the OFS i n J u l y 1 9 0 5 . 2 1 B o t h p a r t i e s w e r e o u t l e t s o f A f r i k a n e r f r u s t r a t i o n , and both h e l d p o l i t i c a l meetings f o r d i s g r u n t l e d A f r i k a n e r s to a i r t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s . 2 2 These groups u n i t e d , t o g e t h e r w i t h Die Afrikanerbond i n t h e C a p e , a n d t h e Voksvereniging i n N a t a l , to form the South A f r i c a n P a r t y , or S A P , under G e n e r a l L o u i s Botha ( f i r s t Prime M i n i s t e r o f the U n i o n ) i n November 1911. The SAP was the f i r s t v o i c e o f p o l i t i c a l A f r i k a n e r d o m i n the new U n i o n . Union i n 1910 e f f e c t i v e l y meant A f r i k a n e r d o m i n a t i o n o f the e x c l u s i v e l y w h i t e p o l i t i c a l sys tem then e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the Cape, the OFS, the T r a n s v a a l and N a t a l . W i t h i n a u n i t a r y s t a t e the f r a m e r s o f the South A f r i c a n c o n s t i t u t i o n , l e d by Smuts, opted f o r a u n i t a r y p o l i t y based on the B r i t i s h system, p a r l i a m e n t g o v e r n e d t h e U n i o n f r o m Cape T o w n , a l t h o u g h P r e t o r i a was e s t a b l i s h e d as the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c a p i t a l , where the m i n i s t e r s ran the v a r i o u s branches of the e x e c u t i v e arm of the government . F r e e a d u l t male u n i v e r s a l s u f f r a g e c o n f i n e d to members o f the white race over 21 (save i n the C a p e , where t h o s e few C o l o u r e d s and A f r i c a n s a b l e to meet both s t r i n g e n t e d u c a t i o n a l and p r o p e r t y q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were on the v o t e r s ' 16 r o l l s ) meant A f r i k a n e r d o m i n a t i o n o f the p a r l i a m e n t and the p r o v i n c i a l c o u n c i l s , e x c e p t i n N a t a l , f o r t h o s e o f D u t c h descent were over h a l f o f the White e l e c t o r a t e of the Union o f South A f r i c a . The c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l o w e d r u r a l c o n s t i t u e n c i e s which were h e a v i l y A f r i k a n e r , to have more v o t e r s than urban r i d i n g s . T h r o u g h o u t t h e U n i o n , R o m a n o - D u t c h c i v i l law p r e v a i l e d i n s t e a d o f E n g l i s h common law. T h i s was b a l a n c e d by E n g l i s h d o m i n a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y a n d f i n a n c e , a n d by t h e p o w e r f u l , j i n g o i s t i c U n i o n i s t p a r t y , l e d a t U n i o n by L . S . Jameson and a f t e r 1912 by Thomas S m a r t t , which f a v o u r e d the c l o s e s t p o s s i b l e I m p e r i a l b o n d s . Pr ime M i n i s t e r B o t h a ' s A f r i k a n e r - d o m i n a t e d SAP m i n i s t r y soon s p l i t , however, on B a r r y H e r t z o g ' s c h a l l e n g e , f r o m w i t h i n t h e S A P , t o B o t h a ' s e d u c a t i o n a l and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p o l i c i e s . Her tzog b e l i e v e d i n a t w o - s t r e a m l a n g u a g e p o l i c y , w i t h s e p a r a t e s c h o o l s f o r E n g l i s h and A f r i k a n e r s , and s t r i c t l i n g u i s t i c e q u a l i t y uphe ld between the two languages i n the U n i o n , i n s i d e and o u t s i d e g o v e r n m e n t . By t h i s , H e r t z o g h o p e d t o p r e v e n t t h e A n g l i c i z a t i o n o f t h e A f r i k a n e r . 2 3 H e r t z o g ' s s t a t e m e n t a t D e W i l d t o n D e c . 1 2 , 1 9 1 2 , w h e r e he d e n o u n c e d S m a r t t 1 s U n i o n i s t s and a s s e r t e d the pr imacy o f South A f r i c a n i n t e r e s t s over those o f the e m p i r e , h e r a l d e d h i s break w i t h L . B o t h a , and the c r e a t i o n o f the N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y , which was formed i n January 1 9 1 4 . 2 4 The outbreak o f World War I immedia te ly threw the Union i n t o c r i s i s . H e r t z o g ' s N a t i o n a l i s t s i n P a r l i a m e n t opposed the 17 war, but the p r i m a r y t h r e a t to the p r o - B r i t i s h , pro-war p o l i c y o f t h e SAP g o v e r n m e n t came f r o m a r e b e l l i o n o f B o e r War A f r i k a n e r g e n e r a l s , Kemp, B e y e r s , Manie M a r i t z , DeWet and De L a R e y . T h i s r e v o l t a i m e d a t o u s t i n g t h e B r i t i s h a n d e s t a b l i s h i n g an A f r i k a n e r r e p u b l i c , t o t a l l y f r e e of I m p e r i a l c o n t r o l , throughout South A f r i c a . P . M . B o t h a , and h i s c h i e f d e p u t y , Armed F o r c e s C h i e f o f S t a f f and M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e J a n C h r i s t i a a n Smuts , f u t u r e South A f r i c a n Pr ime M i n i s t e r , former C a m b r i d g e s c h o l a r and one o f the l e a d i n g A f r i k a n e r genera l s o f the Boer War, c r u s h e d the r e b e l l i o n by the end o f 1914. De La Rey was a s s a s s i n a t e d , Beyers drowned, and most o f the o ther r e b e l commanders were q u i c k l y rounded up . South A f r i c a n t r o o p s , p r i m a r i l y A f r i k a n e r s , s erved i n the campaigns t o s e i z e the German c o l o n i e s i n A f r i c a , n o t a b l y S o u t h West A f r i c a [ 1 9 1 5 ] ( w h i c h became S o u t h A f r i c a n -c o n t r o l l e d under a League o f N a t i o n s mandate a f t e r the w a r ) , and Tangany ika [1915-1918]. South A f r i c a n t r o o p s a l s o s e r v e d i n F r a n c e , where they d i s t i n g u i s h e d themselves at the b a t t l e of D e l v i l l e Wood [1917]. In the 1915 e l e c t i o n , the N a t i o n a l i s t s i n c r e a s e d t h e i r s e a t t o t a l t o 26 by c a p t u r i n g many r u r a l r i d i n g s ; the SAP, however , c o n t i n u e d to g o v e r n w i t h U n i o n i s t s u p p o r t . 3 The e l e c t i o n o f 1920 gave the N a t i o n a l i s t s 44 s e a t s to the SAP's 4 1 . 2 6 T h i s f r a c t u r e d p a r l i a m e n t l e d to the merger o f the SAP and the U n i o n i s t s under Smuts (Botha d i e d i n 1919 and was succeeded by h i s r e m a r k a b l e l i e u t e n a n t , s u r e l y the g r e a t e s t 18 S o u t h A f r i c a n s ta t e sman of t h i s c e n t u r y ) , who won the next e l e c t i o n o f F e b r u a r y 1921 h a n d i l y , a l t h o u g h the N a t i o n a l i s t s g a i n e d more s e a t s . ^ The ensuing Smuts regime was p e r c e i v e d by t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s t o be the t o o l o f E n g l i s h - d o m i n a t e d f i n a n c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s m i n South A f r i c a , and to be t h e l o y a l h e n c h m e n o f B r i t i s h i m p e r i a l i s m , by b o t h t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l l y - b a s e d A f r i k a n e r N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y and the i n d u s t r i a l , l a r g e l y E n g l i s h Labour p a r t y , though the l a t t e r s tood f i r m l y i n f a v o u r of the B r i t i s h c o n n e c t i o n . The Smuts government's b r u t a l s u p p r e s s i o n o f the m i n e r ' s s t r i k e i n 1922 was one f a c t o r t h a t may have caused i t to l o s e a g r e a t d e a l o f p o p u l a r s u p p o r t . The f a c t t h a t the r e a l l y impor tant swings were towards the N a t i o n a l i s t s i n c o u n t r y d i s t r i c t s i n the 1924 e l e c t i o n and t h a t the Labour p a r t y r e c e i v e d a s m a l l e r share o f the v o t e , even w i t h N a t i o n a l i s t s u p p o r t , t h a n i n the 1921 e l e c t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t A f r i k a n e r s were ready to su p p or t the most v o c i f e r o u s champions of t h e i r e t h n i c i n t e r e s t s , and tha t t h i s was the p r i m a r y f a c t o r i n t h e i r abandoning the SAP i n 1 9 2 4 . 2 8 Most A f r i k a n e r s turned a g a i n s t the SAP, and i n the e l e c t i o n o f 1924 , t h e N a t i o n a l i s t - L a b o u r a l l i a n c e won a m a j o r i t y . 3 The N a t i o n a l i s t - L a b o u r c o a l i t i o n i n c r e a s e d the a l r e a d y s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e o f t h e s t a t e i n t h e economy a n d i n the s o c i e t y as a whole . The South A f r i c a n s t a t e had t r a d i t i o n a l l y had a g r e a t e r r o l e i n managing the economy than most of the o t h e r advanced c a p i t a l i s t s t a t e s due to a number o f f a c t o r s . 19 D. Yudelman a r g u e s t h a t the e a r l y m a t u r a t i o n o f the s t a t e -c a p i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i n S o u t h A f r i c a was d u e t o t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n and homogene i ty o f c a p i t a l r e s u l t i n g l a r g e l y f r o m t h e p e c u l i a r n a t u r e o f t h e m i n i n g i n d u s t r y , t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l power i n the hands o f a m i n o r i t y g r o u p , the A f r i k a n e r s , who where r e l a t i v e l y impermeable to d i r e c t i n f i l t r a t i o n by c a p i t a l , and the r a c i a l d i v i s i o n o f the w o r k i n g c l a s s , i t s e l f composed l a r g e l y o f m i g r a n t s . 3 0 T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s meant t h a t n e i t h e r s t a t e nor c a p i t a l c o u l d dominate the o t h e r , nor tha t the whi te or b l a c k w o r k i n g c l a s s n o r t h e b l a c k p e a s a n t s c o u l d p r e s e n t an e f f e c t i v e c h a l l e n g e to the s t a t e - c a p i t a l a x i s t h a t dominated South A f r i c a . 3 1 The c o a l i t i o n government t h a t came to power i n 1924 b u i l t upon t h e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h s t a t e i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e S o u t h A f r i c a n e c o n o m y . I t made an e f f o r t t o i m p l e m e n t t h e N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y ' s ' c i v i l i z e d ' (white) l abour p o l i c y , but d i d not do too much t o a c t i v e l y a i d o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r o t h e r w i s e . I t c o n t i n u e d and a c c e n t u a t e d the e f f o r t s o f e a r l i e r S o u t h A f r i c a n p a r t y governments which had conducted t h e i r own p o l i c y o f s h e l t e r e d employment f o r w h i t e l a b o u r on s t a t e p r o j e c t s such as i r r i g a t i o n works and r a i l w a y l i n e s , many o f which were des igned s o l e l y to employ white l a b o u r . 3 2 The p e r i o d a f t e r 1924 saw the s u c c e s s f u l c o - o p t a t i o n o f t h e w h i t e . w o r k i n g c l a s s w h i l e l i m i t i n g t h e i r m i l i t a n c y and r e w a r d s . 3 3 R e a l whi te wages a c t u a l l y d e c l i n e d i n the i n t e r w a r V 20 y e a r s a f t e r 1 9 2 4 . 3 4 T h i s combined w i t h the c o n t i n u e d and i n c r e a s e d r e p r e s s i o n of non-whites (the Hertzog U n i t e d P a r t y g o v e r n m e n t e n a c t e d a b i l l i n 1936 , f i r s t p r o p o s e d by the o r i g i n a l N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y , to remove B l a c k v o t e r s from the common r o l l the same year t h a t the government pegged b l a c k l a n d o w n e r s h i p ) , h i g h l i g h t s the c o n t i n u e d , i n f a c t a c c e n t u a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t o f s t a t e c a p i t a l i s m i n South A f r i c a u n d e r the N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y dominated c o a l i t i o n . 3 5 The N a t i o n a l i s t - L a b o u r c o a l i t i o n remained i n o f f i c e u n t i l 1933, when the N a t i o n a l i s t s went i n t o c o a l i t i o n w i t h the SAP, and a y e a r l a t e r f u s e d w i t h them as the SAP had w i t h the U n i o n i s t s i n 1921. The f i r s t H e r t z o g government moved on a number o f f r o n t s . M a r i t z was r e l e a s e d , A f r i k a a n s g a i n e d o f f i c i a l s t a t u s , and the Union f l a g ga ined e q u a l s t a t u s w i t h the U n i o n J a c k . 3 ^ H e r t z o g a l s o a t t e n d e d the I m p e r i a l Prime M i n i s t e r ' s C o n f e r e n c e i n 1926 , w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n g r e a t e r independence for the Dominions and the I r i s h F r e e S t a t e w i t h i n t h e framework o f t h e E m p i r e . A f t e r w a r d s , H e r t z o g f i n a l l y seemed t o g i v e up the i d e a o f s e c e s s i o n from t h e E m p i r e , b e l i e v i n g he had a t t a i n e d , w i t h Mackenzie K i n g and the o ther Dominion heads , e f f e c t i v e , f u l l i n d e p e n d e n c e . 3 ^ The c o a l i t i o n was r e t u r n e d o v e r the SAP a t t h e 1929 g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n . The economic c o l l a p s e o f 1929 , and the B r i t i s h d e c i s i o n to go o f f the g o l d s tandard i n 1931, c o u p l e d w i t h the subsequent N a t i o n a l i s t r e f u s a l to do the same ( u n t i l 1 9 3 3 , when t h e y r e v e r s e d t h e i r p o s i t i o n ) b e c a u s e H e r t z o g 21 b e l i e v e d t h a t f u l l i n d e p e n d e n c e h a d b e e n " e f f e c t i v e l y " a t t a i n e d by h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , l e f t South A f r i c a i n d e s p e r a t e e c o n o m i c s t r a i t s . T h i s l e d t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s t o seek a c o a l i t i o n , and then complete f u s i o n , w i t h the SAP, i n order to d e a l w i t h t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e e c o n o m i c c r i s i s . E x t r e m e R e p u b l i c a n s , l e d by H e r t z o g ' s c h i e f l i e u t e n a n t , D a n i e l M a l a n , found f u s i o n u n p a l a t a b l e , and 19 of them h i v e d o f f to form the " P u r i f i e d N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y " (Gesuirde Nasionale Partij/GNP). C o l o n e l S t a l l a r d and o t h e r j i n g o i s t i c d i e - h a r d s broke w i t h Smuts to form the Dominion P a r t y , which s tood f o r the c l o s e s t l i n k s w i th the E m p i r e . H e r t z o g and Smuts (the l a t t e r s e r v e d as H e r t z o g ' s M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e ) governed South A f r i c a w i t h a huge p a r l i a m e n t a r y m a j o r i t y , r e a f f i r m e d i n the 1938 g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n ( a l t h o u g h the N a t i o n a l i s t s i n c r e a s e d t h e i r s t r e n g t h to 27 members) , u n t i l the U n i t e d P a r t y m a j o r i t y broke a p a r t over the i s s u e o f war i n 1939. The N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y grew w i t h the U n i o n o f S o u t h A f r i c a . From i t s b i r t h i n J a n . 1914, i t proved i t s e l f to be a r e m a r k a b l y a d a p t a b l e , and e v e n o p p o r t u n i s t i c , p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t i s i m p o r t a n t to h i g h l i g h t the "unformed" c h a r a c t e r o f e a r l y N a t i o n a l i s t i d e o l o g y , t r a c i n g the e v o l u t i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y f r o m a l e s s d o g m a t i c f o r m o f n a t i o n a l i s m a t U n i o n i n 1910 to the dogmat ic q u a s i - f a s c i s t b r a n d o f n a t i o n a l i s m t h a t the HNP had a d o p t e d by the l a t e 1930's . 22 The N a t i o n a l i s t s d i d not i n i t i a l l y a d v o c a t e a r e p u b l i c f r e e of the E m p i r e , a t l e a s t not o p e n l y , but they d i d s t a r t as a n a t i o n a l p a r t y o f the A f r i k a n e r s , r e a d y to advance t h e A f r i k a n e r i n a l l a r e a s . The o r i g i n a l Dominion s t a t u s of the U n i o n i n 1 9 1 0 , w i t h the h i g h d e g r e e o f E n g l i s h i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n , and I m p e r i a l c o n t r o l from w i t h o u t , was u n s a t i s f a c t o r y to many B o e r s , among them B a r r y H e r t z o g . H e r t z o g , one of the s e n i o r members of L o u i s B o t h a ' s government, formed a "ginger group" i n the SAP caucus o f 7 members, who thought the Botha m i n i s t r y t o o p r o - i m p e r i a l i s t , and not f o r c e f u l enough i n p u s h i n g A f r i k a n e r r i g h t s f o r w a r d i n b o t h s t a t e and s o c i e t y . In f o r e i g n a f f a i r s , Hertzog f a v o u r e d a b s o l u t e independence f o r S o u t h A f r i c a w i t h i n t h e C o m m o n w e a l t h . 3 8 He wanted S o u t h A f r i c a to be a f u l l y s o v e r e i g n s t a t e w i t h i n the Commonwealth, and he a l s o wished to p r e s e r v e A f r i k a n e r c u l t u r e . H e r t z o g was a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s t , u n l i k e some A f r i k a n e r N a t i o n a l i s t e x t r e m i s t s . 3 9 H e r t z o g ' s d i s c o n t e n t w i t h the SAP grew. Botha r e s i g n e d i n 1912 to form another c a b i n e t w i thout H e r t z o g , and the Union congress of the SAP conf i rmed B o t h a ' s l e a d e r s h i p . 4 0 Many members o f SAP h e l d a s p e c i a l congress i n B l o e m f o n t e i n i n January 1913, where they formed the N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y . H e r t z o g ' s p o s i t i o n , and hence t h a t o f the N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y , was a d i f f i c u l t one d u r i n g the r e b e l l i o n o f 1914 , f o l l o w i n g the out se t of World War I . H e r t z o g , and the l e a d i n g n a t i o n a l i s t s such as S t e y n , sought to d i s t a n c e themselves from the i l l e g a l i t y of the r e b e l l i o n and the pro-war f o r e i g n p o l i c y o f the government, w i t h o u t open ly b a c k i n g the r e b e l s . x The immediate post-war e r a h e l p e d the N a t i o n a l i s t s f u r t h e r d e v e l o p t h e i r p o l i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , w h i l e they took p o l i t i c a l advantage of the new s o c i a l c l i m a t e . The end of the m o n a r c h i c a l e r a i n much o f E u r o p e , W i l s o n i a n i d e a l i s m , t h e s h a t t e r i n g o f o l d i d e a l s i n W o r l d War I and the B o l s h e v i k r e v o l u t i o n c r e a t e d c o n d i t i o n s where s o c i a l i s m and a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s m found f e r t i l e ground i n much of the w o r l d , i n c l u d i n g South A f r i c a . I t was under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t H e r t z o g l e d a n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l d e l e g a t i o n of A f r i k a n e r s to argue f o r s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n f o r S o u t h A f r i c a a t the V e r s a i l l e s peace c o n f e r e n c e i n 1 9 1 9 . 4 2 The N a t i o n a l i s t l e a d e r s even made p r o - B o l s h e v i s t s ta tements i n t h e immedia te p o s t - w a r y e a r s , w i t h t h e i r a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t s t a n c e . 4 3 When the White Rand miners went to s t r i k e a g a i n s t the Chamber o f M i n e s i n 1922, the N a t i o n a l i s t s b a c k e d the s t r i k e i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the L a b o u r P a r t y . The Smuts government b r u t a l l y suppres sed the s t r i k e , k i l l i n g many miners and hanging some s t r i k e l e a d e r s . P u b l i c r e v u l s i o n a g a i n s t the SAP g o v e r n m e n t swept them f r o m power i n the 1924 g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n , i n which the N a t i o n a l i s t s won 63 seats and Labour 18 to the SAP's 53. The c o a l i t i o n government moved to s e g r e g a t e the N a t i v e f r a n c h i s e i n the Cape and peg N a t i v e l a n d ownership throughout the U n i o n . Whether or not the c o a l i t i o n government a c t u a l l y enhanced the i n t e r e s t s o f the w h i t e u n d e r c l a s s i s open to q u e s t i o n . Dan O ' M e a r a a r g u e s t h a t t h e t h r u s t o f t h e 24 l e g i s l a t i v e p r o g r a m o f the c o a l i t i o n government s e r v e d t o enhance NP s t a n d i n g amongst the whi te working c l a s s . 4 4 D a v i d Y u d e l m a n , on the o t h e r h a n d , a r g u e s t h a t t h e c o a l i t i o n c o n t i n u e d a S t a t e agenda tha t had been advanced by the SAP. Yudelman s t a t e s that both the SAP and the c o a l i t i o n g o v e r n m e n t e x t e n d e d t h e e x e c u t i v e ' s c o n t r o l o v e r k e y i n d u s t r i e s i n South A f r i c a wh i l e u n d e r c u t t i n g the power o f the j u d i c i a r y and l e g i s l a t u r e . 4 5 He argues t h a t w h i l e the p a s t g o v e r n m e n t p a i d more a t t e n t i o n t o the c o n c e r n s o f w h i t e l a b o u r , p a r t i c u l a r l y o u t s i d e the m i n i n g i n d u s t r y , i t i n the main c o n t i n u e d t h e SAP p o l i c y o f s t r e n g t h e n i n g the s t a t e ' s c o n t r o l over w h i t e l a b o u r and s o l i d i f y i n g i t s a l l i a n c e w i t h South A f r i c a c a p i t a l . 4 6 The economic c r i s i s o f 1929 threw the NP i n t o d i s a r r a y . T h e f l i g h t o f B l a c k s a n d p o o r W h i t e s i n t o t h e c i t i e s i n c r e a s e d , as many s m a l l h o l d i n g s went b a n k r u p t . B r i t a i n ' s d e c i s i o n to go o f f the g o l d s t a n d a r d i n 1931 caused a c r i s i s w i t h i n the NP government ( r e e l e c t e d i n 1929 w i t h i n c r e a s e d N a t i o n a l i s t b u t d e c r e a s e d L a b o u r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , t h o u g h Her tzog m a i n t a i n e d the c o a l i t i o n ) . I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g to note the i n c r e a s e d NP m a j o r i t y was the r e s u l t o f an e f f e c t i v e "Black P e r i l " campaign, based on an i l l - t i m e d remark by Smuts to the e f f e c t the Union government shou ld work f o r a "Uni ted S ta te s o f A f r i c a " , a remark i n t e r p r e t e d by the NP as p o s s i b l y l e a d i n g to a " K a f f i r " S t a t e . T i e l m a n R o o s , M i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e i n the f i r s t H e r t z o g government , broke w i t h H e r t z o g 25 when the l a t t e r , wi th h i s f i n a n c e m i n i s t e r , Havenga, r e f u s e d to go o f f t h e g o l d s t a n d a r d w i t h B r i t a i n i n 1931. S o u t h A f r i c a was b a d l y h i t by the d e p r e s s i o n . Three p r o d u c t s which p l a y e d an e s s e n t i a l r o l e i n economic l i f e — g o l d , diamonds and wool -— were p a r t i c u l a r l y a f f e c t e d by the f a l l i n p r i c e s that had s t a r t e d i n 1 9 2 9 . 4 ^ T h i s N a t i o n a l i s t i c p o s t u r i n g made no sense t o Roos i n a t i m e o f economic c a t a s t r o p h e . Roos p o i n t e d o u t t h a t the t o o - h i g h l y v a l u e d c u r r e n c y was making S o u t h A f r i c a 1 s b a l a n c e o f t r a d e p o s i t i o n i m p o s s i b l e , a n d threa tened t o campaign i n the next e l e c t i o n on a p l a t f o r m o f s e e k i n g a government o f n a t i o n a l u n i t y , t o r e s t o r e s e n s i b l e economic p o l i c i e s to t a c k l e the d e p r e s s i o n . H e r t z o g met t h i s t h r e a t by e n t e r i n g i n t o a government o f n a t i o n a l u n i t y w i t h Smuts' SAP. In 1933, i n the e l e c t i o n i n M a y , 136 s e a t s o u t o f 150 went t o t h e H e r t z o g - S m u t s c o a l i t i o n . 4 8 South A f r i c a went back on the g o l d s t a n d a r d , and H e r t z o g and Smuts b o t h d e c i d e d to f u s e t h e i r two p a r t i e s . H e r t z o g b e l i e v e d t h a t S o u t h A f r i c a ' s independence had been f u l l y s e c u r e d by the S t a t u t e of Westminster (1931), and t h a t membership i n the Commonwealth was a f o r m a l i t y t h a t no l o n g e r i m p i n g e d on South A f r i c a n i n d e p e n d e n c e . B o t h he and Smuts b e l i e v e d t h a t the time had come to forge a common, whi te South A f r i c a n n a t i o n , though H e r t z o g wanted a "twin stream approach" which s e c u r e d the l i n g u i s t i c , e d u c a t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s of A f r i k a n e r d o m . On 5 December 1934, the f o l l o w e r s o f Smuts and H e r t z o g met i n B l o e m f o n t e i n , and formed the U n i t e d South A f r i c a n N a t i o n a l P a r t y , b e t t e r known as the U n i t e d P a r t y . y F o r t h e N a t i o n a l i s t d i e h a r d s , t h i s was too much, and D r . D a n i e l M a l a n and h i s 18 f o l l o w e r s i n P a r l i a m e n t , i n c l u d i n g J . G . S t r i j d o m and E r i c Louw c o n t i n u e d to s i t as N a t i o n a l i s t s , i n o p p o s i t i o n to the U n i t e d P a r t y government. The N a t i o n a l i s t e x t r e m i s t s , a t t h i s p o i n t , were a i m i n g f o r e t h n i c u n i t y a n d , t h r o u g h t h a t , e t h n i c supremacy, i n an independent A f r i k a a n s - d o m i n a t e d South A f r i c a . I r o n i c a l l y , the b u l k o f t h e N a t i o n a l i s t p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s who r e m a i n e d i n o p p o s i t i o n were f r o m t h e s u p p o s e d l y more l i b e r a l C a p e N a t i o n a l i s t s . Dan O ' M e a r a argues t h a t most o f the r u r a l l y based Cape N a t i o n a l i s t s remained i n o p p o s i t i o n because they supported s t r o n g S t a t e measures to support t h e i r e x p o r t - b a s e d m a r k e t s . 5 0 They wanted S t a t e support f o r the c r e a t i o n o f new e x t r a - i m p e r i a l m a r k e t s , s o m e t h i n g t h a t m i g h t h a v e b e e n t h r e a t e n e d by t h e SAP c o m p o n e n t o f t h e new c o a l i t i o n government, w i th t h e i r economic a n t i - i n t e r v e n t i o n i s m and t h e i r p r o - B r i t i s h o r i e n t a t i o n . 5 1 Now b o t h p r i o r t o a n d a f t e r f u s i o n , t h e NP p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the v i r t u a l t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l autonomy o f each of i t s f o u r b r a n c h e s . The l o y a l t y o f the t r a d i t i o n a l l y more r e a c t i o n a r y OFS and T r a n s v a a l b r a n c h e s c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d , i n the case o f the f o r m e r , by the f a c t that H e r t z o g had been f o r a long t ime the v i r t u a l d i c t a t o r o f the OFS p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . H i s s t a t u r e and power t h e r e were v i r t u a l l y u n q u e s t i o n e d . In the T r a n s v a a l J . G . Strydom 27 was the o n l y NP l e f t i n o p p o s i t i o n . The l o y a l t y o f the T r a n s v a a l N a t i o n a l i s t MP's to the c o a l i t i o n c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d b e c a u s e t h e i r p o p u l a r b a s e , t h e p o o r e r f a r m e r s o f t h e T r a n s v a a l , remained l o y a l to H e r t z o g . They opted f o r a s t a b l e government p u r s u i n g " r a t i o n a l " economic p o l i c i e s . In the 1938 g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n , the N a t i o n a l i s t s g a i n e d 8 sea t s f o r a t o t a l o f 27, but the UP s t i l l won a commanding 111 s e a t s . I t was a t t h i s s tage t h a t the i n f l u e n c e o f f a s c i s t and N a z i i d e o l o g y b e g a n to make i t s e l f f e l t i n S o u t h A f r i c a n p o l i t i c s , b o t h w i t h i n t h e NP a n d w i t h i n t h e U P , among s u p p o r t e r s o f H e r t z o g s u c h as Kemp, P i r o w a n d G r o b l e r ( m i n i s t e r s i n the UP government ) . The growing s t r e n g t h and a g g r e s s i v e n e s s o f N a z i Germany a l r e a d y found an echo i n the NP and amongst some o f H e r t z o g ' s f o l l o w e r s . A n t i - s e m i t i s m began to emerge i n the u t t e r a n c e s o f NP l e a d e r s i n the l a t e 1930's . At a r a l l y to p r o t e s t Jewish i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o South A f r i c a i n J u l y 1938, f u t u r e N a t i o n a l i s t c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r T . E . Donges s t a t e d tha t "The Jew i s an i n s o l u b l e element i n every n a t i o n a l l i f e . " 5 2 D r . H e n d r i k Voerwoerd, the f u t u r e Prime M i n i s t e r of South A f r i c a , a l s o spoke at the r a l l y . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note here t h a t he was not an A f r i k a n e r , f o r he was born i n H o l l a n d . H i s l a t e r r i s e t o p r o m i n e n c e i n d i c a t e s h i s remarkable l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t i e s and h i s c a p a c i t y to i n t e g r a t e h i m s e l f i n t o A f r i k a n e r s o c i e t y , f o r l e a d e r s h i p was u s u a l l y r e s e r v e d f o r men w i t h some Voortrekker a n c e s t r y . 5 3 As e d i t o r o f the NP n e w s p a p e r , Die Transvaler, he " p r o p o s e d a quota 28 system f o r Jews i n a l l o c c u p a t i o n s and pres sed tha t the Jews shou ld be r e f u s e d f u r t h e r t r a d i n g l i c e n s e s u n t i l every s e c t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n had i t s p r o p e r s h a r e . " 5 4 D r . Malan u t t e r e d s i m i l a r comments d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , even open ly a p p e a l i n g f o r support i n the 1938 e l e c t i o n s from the Naz i G r e y s h i r t movement (one o f the number of N a z i o r g a n i z a t i o n s tha t began to s p r o u t up a t t h i s t i m e ) , "and a f t e r w a r d s acknowledged the h e l p t h a t h i s p a r t y had r e c e i v e d from the N a z i G r e y s h i r t movement under W e i c h a r d t " . 5 5 The H e r t z o g government was t o p p l e d i n September 1939 because the Prime M i n i s t e r and h i s s u p p o r t e r s i n c a b i n e t and caucus opposed South A f r i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n World War I I , a v i e w w h i c h a m a j o r i t y o f t h e house d i d n o t s h a r e . The p a r l i a m e n t a r y m a j o r i t y , 80 to 67, i n c l u d i n g the m a j o r i t y o f the UP c a u c u s , s u p p o r t e d J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r Smuts i n l e a d i n g South A f r i c a i n t o the war on the s i d e o f Great B r i t a i n . Smuts saw Germany as a dangerous e x p a n s i o n i s t p o w e r . 5 6 He a l s o saw N a z i i s m as an a s s a u l t u p o n t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s o f W e s t e r n c i v i l i z a t i o n . 5 ^ H e r t z o g r e s i g n e d as P r i m e M i n i s t e r a n d he a n d h i s s u p p o r t e r s i n the UP m i n i s t r y and caucus c r o s s e d the f l o o r and j o i n e d w i t h the N a t i o n a l i s t s i n denouncing both the government and the w a r . 5 8 T h i s l e f t Smuts and h i s c o l l e a g u e s i n s o l e c o n t r o l o f the government e n s u r i n g South A f r i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a n t i - N a z i A l l i e d c o a l i t i o n , f o r the d u r a t i o n o f the 29 w a r . Smuts found the U n i o n t o t a l l y u n p r e p a r e d , even f o r a d e f e n s i v e w a r . 5 9 S m u t s b l a m e d much o f t h i s l a c k o f p r e p a r a t i o n on former Defence M i n i s t e r Oswald P i r o w , one of H e r t z o g ' s most a r d e n t s u p p o r t e r s , who was l a t e r t o l e a d an a n t i - w a r o p p o s i t i o n group c a l l e d the New O r d e r . D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e w a r , S m u t s , i n l i n e w i t h I m p e r i a l and A l l i e d war s t r a t e g y , c o n c e n t r a t e d South A f r i c a ' s war e f f o r t i n A f r i c a . South A f r i c a n t roops took p a r t i n the campaign a g a i n s t I t a l i a n E a s t A f r i c a i n 1940-41, and s e r v e d w i t h B r i t i s h and o t h e r Commonwealth t r o o p s i n the campaigns i n L i b y a and Egypt i n N o r t h A f r i c a from 1941 to 1943. In t h i s l a t t e r t h e a t r e o f war , South A f r i c a p a i d a heavy p r i c e , when on J u n e 21 , 1942, T o b r u k i n L i b y a f e l l , and w i t h i t South A f r i c a l o s t the bes t p a r t o f a f i r s t - r a t e d i v i s i o n o f t h i r t e e n thousand m e n . 6 0 South A f r i c a n t roops a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the I t a l i a n campaign . A l l t o l d , over 3 ,000 South A f r i c a n s l o s t t h e i r l i v e s i n World War I I . In a l l o f these campaigns , Smuts had t o r e l y on v o l u n t e e r s o n l y . They w o u l d be r e q u i r e d to s i g n a s p e c i a l a t t e s t a t i o n t o t h a t p u r p o s e . To d i s t i n g u i s h them from other s o l d i e r s , they had to wear a s p e c i a l red tab on the s h o u l d e r s t r a p . T h i s had i t s a d v a n t a g e s , but a t the same t i m e , i t p l a c e d those men who r e f u s e d to take the oath i n the u n e n v i a b l e p o s i t i o n o f be ing marked out as a g a i n s t the war as s u c h . 1 The c o u n t r y as a whole was s p l i t on the war i s s u e , and hence upon s u p p o r t o f the government . The E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g W h i t e s a l m o s t u n a n i m o u s l y s u p p o r t e d the government and i t s 30 p r o - B r i t i s h , p r o - A l l i e d , p r o - w a r p o l i c y . A f r i k a n e r d o m was s p l i t on the i s s u e , w i t h a m a j o r i t y opposed to the war, but wi th a s u b s t a n t i a l m i n o r i t y b e h i n d Jan Smuts. In J u l y 1943, wi th an A l l i e d v i c t o r y becoming more l i k e l y , the South A f r i c a n government h e l d an e l e c t i o n . The N a t i o n a l i s t s i n c r e a s e d the r a t i o o f v o t e r s v o t i n g f o r them from the 1939 e l e c t i o n . The UP won 85 s e a t s , L a b o u r 9 a n d the D o m i n i o n i t e s 7 . The N a t i o n a l i s t s won 43 s e a t s . The p e r c e n t a g e o f A f r i k a n e r s v o t i n g f o r t h e g o v e r n m e n t , h o w e v e r , d r o p p e d f r o m f o r t y to t h i r t y - t w o . 6 2 N a t i o n a l i s t s u p p o r t amongst A f r i k a n e r s i n c r e a s e d f o r a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s . Many A f r i k a n e r farmers d o u b t l e s s s u f f e r e d from the h i g h e r wages they had to pay t h e i r h e l p , caused by the r u r a l exodus of non-White farm labour to the w a r - g e n e r a t e d p r o s p e r i t y o f t h e c i t i e s . The i n c r e a s e d i n f l u e n c e o f J a n Hofmeyr, the bete-noire o f A f r i k a n e r s e g r e g a t i o n i s m , p r o b a b l y a l s o a c c o u n t e d f o r a h a r d e n i n g o f support f o r the NP i n the m i d - and l a t e r war y e a r s . Hofmeyr was, from h i s f i g h t a g a i n s t h i s own g o v e r n m e n t ' s R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f N a t i v e s A c t i n 1936, which l i m i t e d N a t i v e R e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n P a r l i a m e n t , u n t i l h i s d e a t h i n 1 9 4 8 , t h e l e a d i n g l i b e r a l p o l i t i c i a n i n S o u t h A f r i c a . 6 3 He was a b r i l l i a n t c h i l d p r o d i g y who was devoted to h i s mother , and a devout C h r i s t i a n who, e a r l y o n , r e c o g n i z e d the need for a s l ow , but g r a d u a l a l l e v i a t i o n o f the c o n d i t i o n o f the B l a c k s i n S o u t h A f r i c a . He was Smuts' M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e d u r i n g W o r l d War I I , and as second man i n the s t a t e 31 d u r i n g the war, he had Smuts' f u l l con f idence ( a l t h o u g h he d i d not have the c o n f i d e n c e of many of the c o n s e r v a t i v e members o f h i s own p a r t y , o r S t a l l a r d ' s D o m i n i o n i t e s ) . He r a n t h e economy w h i l e Smuts r a n the w a r , and was w i d e l y t i p p e d as Smuts' s u c c e s s o r . 6 4 T h i s p r o s p e c t was viewed w i t h more than a l i t t l e apprehens ion by the N a t i o n a l i s t s , a l t h o u g h they used i t t o g r e a t e f f e c t i n the 1948 e l e c t i o n . J u s t b e f o r e the 1943 e l e c t i o n s , the A f r i k a n e r NP d a i l y , "Die Burger, s a i d t h a t Hofmeyr was a l i b e r a l i s t w i t h o u t f o l l o w i n g i n h i s p a r t y . " 6 5 T h e s p e c t r e o f some moves t o w a r d r a c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n , p e r s o n i f i e d by H o f m e y r , f r i g h t e n e d e v e n many o f S m u t s ' s u p p o r t e r s . 6 6 I t was, however, the i s s u e o f the war w h i c h p o l a r i z e d t h e c o u n t r y , and h i g h l i g h t e d the p o l i t i c a l and i d e o l o g i c a l o p p o s i t i o n o f the NP and other a n t i - w a r groups to the Smuts government d u r i n g the war y e a r s . The o p p o s i t i o n groups i n South A f r i c a from September 1939 on were one a n t i p o d e o f a S o u t h A f r i c a p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m p o l a r i z e d by the war i s s u e . U n t i l the c l o s i n g y e a r s o f the war , when A l l i e d v i c t o r y seemed a s s u r e d and d o m e s t i c i s s u e s came to the f o r e f r o n t of South A f r i c a n p o l i t i c a l d e b a t e , the war i s s u e was a l m o s t the s o l e f o c u s o f p o l i t i c a l debate i n South A f r i c a . In the September 4 d e b a t e , H e r t z o g had a r g u e d t h a t to enter the war as a b e l l i g e r e n t on Great B r i t a i n ' s s i d e would make a mockery o f South A f r i c a n c l a i m s to independence . In 32 e f f e c t , i t w o u l d be a r e p u d i a t i o n o f h i s work as P r i m e M i n i s t e r , w h i c h was to s e c u r e more power f o r S o u t h A f r i c a u n t i l s h e h a d a t t a i n e d f u l l s o v e r e i g n t y w i t h i n t h e C o m m o n w e a l t h . He a l s o c l a i m e d t h a t G e r m a n y h a d j u s t g r i e v a n c e s a g a i n s t the T r e a t y o f V e r s a i l l e s , and t h a t i t s attempts to c o r r e c t these g r i e v a n c e s such as r e m i l i t a r i z a t i o n of the R h i n e l a n d i n 1936, the a n n e x a t i o n o f A u s t r i a i n 1938, the Sude ten land , the o c c u p a t i o n o f C z e c h o s l o v a k i a i n March o f 1939 and f i n a l l y the m i l i t a r y i n v a s i o n o f P o l a n d , were no warrant to get i n v o l v e d i n a war a g a i n s t Germany tha t was no c o n c e r n of South A f r i c a ' s . These views c o i n c i d e d w i t h those of the N a t i o n a l i s t s , but were not enough to b r i n g about any l a s t i n g u n i t y between the M a l a n i t e s and H e r t z o g i t e s . A f t e r s e v e r a l a b o r t i v e at tempts to reach agreement on a p l a t f o r m o f common p r i n c i p l e s upon which both groups would u n i t e , H e r t z o g and Malan u n i t e d t h e i r two caucuses i n January 1940* under the t i t l e Herenigde Nasionale Volkspartij ( H N P ) . 6 7 The " u n i t y " d i d no t l a s t l o n g . The M a l a n i t e s wanted t o work t o w a r d s a c h i e v i n g a r e p u b l i c w i t h o r w i t h o u t t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e E n g l i s h , w i th no c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l i n k s whatever w i t h the U n i t e d K i n g d o m . H e r t z o g f e l t t h a t A f r i k a n e r - E n g l i s h u n i t y was a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a r e p u b l i c . 6 8 At the Orange F r e e S t a t e c o n g r e s s o f the N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y , which opened on Nov. 5, 1940, these d i v i s i o n s came to a head when t h e F e d e r a l C o u n c i l (Federale Raad) o f t h e HNP p a s s e d a programme p r e j u d i c i a l t o the i n t e r e s t s o f E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g 33 South A f r i c a n s . "In a dramatic speech he [Hertzog] p o i n t e d out the programme of the Feder a l e Raad d i d not guarantee f u l l e q u a l i t y f o r the En g l i s h - s p e a k i n g s e c t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n , a p r i n c i p l e t o which he was pl e d g e d t o a d h e r e . " 6 9 H e r t z o g r e s i g n e d a s l e a d e r o f t h e HNP and w i t h h i s c l o s e s t c o l l a b o r a t o r , Havenga, a l s o gave up h i s s e a t i n P a r l i a m e n t , q u i t t i n g p u b l i c l i f e a l t o g e t h e r . The s p l i n t e r i n g of the o p p o s i t i o n which o c c u r r e d a f t e r t h i s p o i n t h i g h l i g h t s t h e d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s p r e v a l e n t amongst N a t i o n a l i s t Af rikanerdom towards the war, and towards Naziism. Many volksorganisies, such as the Broederbond, the N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y , the Reddingsdaadbond and o t h e r s , were connected and were l e d under the auspices of the Broederbond. Others, w h i l e B r o e d e r b o n d - i n s p i r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s , l a t e r rose to c h a l l e n g e the Broederbond-designated champion i n the p a r t y p o l i t i c a l f i e l d , the N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y . T h i s c h a l l e n g e can be d e s c r i b e d as a c i v i l war w i t h i n t h e n e t o f A f r i k a n e r N a t i o n a l i s m . The A f r i k a n e r Party and the New Order were a l s o i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the Broederbond p o l i c y o f support f o r the N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y , and were a l s o o u t s i d e the net. Some o f thos e who had f o l l o w e d H e r t z o g i n t o o p p o s i t i o n l e f t t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s and under G e n e r a l Conroy, one of H e r t z o g ' s m i n i s t e r s , formed the A f r i k a n e r P a r t y . The A f r i k a n e r P a r t y n e v e r r e a l l y amounted t o v e r y much. Ten o f H e r t z o g ' s f o l l o w e r s i n Parliament j o i n e d i t , but i n the country few HNP sup p o r t e r s j o i n e d t h e m . 7 0 The A f r i k a n e r P a r t y t r i e d to put 34 f o r w a r d a moderate " N a t i o n a l i s t A f r i k a n e r " p o s i t i o n on most i s s u e s . G e n e r a l Conroy s t a t e d i n P a r l i a m e n t tha t he thought i t was a c r i m e a g a i n s t the p e o p l e t o t e l l them t h a t the freedom which we e n j o y , and which was once so h i g h l y p r a i s e d by t h e s e same p e o p l e , means n o t h i n g under the presen t form of government. We are as f r e e as any people i n the w o r l d . We were dragged i n t o t h i s war not b e c a u s e we a r e not f r e e , but because the o n l y c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y which c o u l d speak f o r the people took a f r e e d e c i s i o n . I t was not E n g l a n d that d e c l a r e d t h i s war f o r u s . We d i d i t o u r s e l v e s through our f r e e P a r l i a m e n t . 1 In s a y i n g t h i s , the AP seemed to be d i s t a n c i n g i t s e l f f rom some o f t h e more e x t r e m e a n t i - w a r A f r i k a n e r s , who were d e n o u n c i n g t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y s y s t e m i t s e l f , p r a i s i n g t h e f a s c i s t s t a t e s o f Europe as p o s s i b l e models . On the i s s u e o f war i t s e l f , t h e AP p u t f o r w a r d a g e n u i n e l y n e u t r a l i s t p o s i t i o n . 7 2 T h i s v i e w d i d n o t have much s u p p o r t i n t h e b i t t e r l y d i v i d e d c o u n t r y , t h o u g h . The AP p o l l e d o n l y about 14,000 votes i n the g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n o f 1943, and l o s t a l l i t s s ea t s i n P a r l i a m e n t . Those H e r t z o g i t e s ( i n c l u d i n g 17 w i t h i n the caucus o f the HNP) who d i d not j o i n the A P , d i d not r e d e f e c t back to Smuts ( t h e r e were a f ew) , or d i d not w h o l e h e a r t e d l y a c c e p t M a l a n ' s l e a d e r s h i p i n the HNP, found t h e i r p o l i t i c a l home i n the New O r d e r f a c t i o n o f the HNP under the l e a d e r s h i p o f H e r t z o g ' s d e f e n c e m i n i s t e r , Oswald P i r o w . P i r o w had done l i t t l e to b u i l d up South A f r i c a ' s d e f e n s e s d u r i n g the l a t e 1930 ' s , as 35 t h e w o r l d d r i f t e d t o w a r d s w a r . P e r h a p s t h i s i s no t so s u r p r i s i n g i n t h e l i g h t o f P i r o w ' s p o l i t i c a l o u t l o o k . As m i n i s t e r o f d e f e n c e , Pirow had t r a v e l l e d throughout Europe on government b u s i n e s s d u r i n g the l a t e 1930's , i n c l u d i n g Germany. He was f a v o r a b l y impres sed by what he saw t h e r e , and l a t e r e x p r e s s e d h i s a t t r a c t i o n f o r t h e n a t i o n a l s o c i a l i s m o f S a l a z a r , who was the f a s c i s t d i c t a t o r of P o r t u g a l . 7 3 P i r o w , f o r reasons o f e i t h e r i d e o l o g y or p o l i t i c a l j e a l o u s y , c o u l d not get a l o n g w i t h M a l a n , who had a f i r m g r i p on the e x t r a -p a r l i a m e n t a r y p o l i t i c a l m a c h i n e r y o f the H N P . 7 4 In Augus t 1941, Die Transvaler, the N a t i o n a l i s t d a i l y newspaper i n the T r a n s v a a l , a t t a c k e d P irow f o r h i s N a z i i s m . 7 5 The New Order s e p a r a t e d themselves from the P a r l i a m e n t a r y caucus o f the NP w i t h o u t l e a v i n g the p a r t y . They backed the Ossewa Brandwag (OB) i n the s t r u g g l e w i t h the NP, and put up no c a n d i d a t e s i n t h e J u l y 1943 e l e c t i o n s , w h i c h t h e y s c o r n e d a s d e c a d e n t p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n i s m . T h e r e a f t e r , they r a p i d l y faded as a r i v a l t o M a l a n ' s N a t i o n a l i s t s . The Ossewa Brandwag (Ox Wagon S e n t i n e l ) , formed as an A f r i k a n e r c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n j u s t a f t e r the 1938 c e n t e n a r y c e l e b r a t i o n s o f the G r e a t T r e k and covenant a t B l o o d R i v e r , was open i n i t s N a z i s y m p a t h i e s . 7 6 I t was p r o b a b l y the most p o t e n t r e p u b l i c a n r i v a l t o t h e NP d u r i n g t h e war y e a r s , c l a i m i n g a membership of 200,000 by November 1 9 4 0 . 7 7 I t was a t t a c k e d by t h e g o v e r n m e n t d u r i n g the war as a p r o - N a z i t e r r o r i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n . 7 8 J . J . v a n R e n s b u r g , s e c o n d conimandant-general o f the O B , o p e n l y d i savowed democracy . ' y The OB put up no c a n d i d a t e s i n the 1943 e l e c t i o n s . OB member Reverend J . D . V o r s t e r ( b r o t h e r o f the f u t u r e Pr ime M i n i s t e r Johannes V o r s t e r , then a G e n e r a l i n the OB) c l a i m e d t h a t the OB was a s e l e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n , c a r e f u l l y c h o o s i n g t h e c o u n t r y ' s f u t u r e r u l i n g e l i t e . 8 0 I n a r e p r o d u c t i o n o f the OB 1940 d r a f t o f a c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r a f u t u r e S o u t h A f r i c a , c i t i z e n s h i p was t o be r e s t r i c t e d , A f r i k a a n s was to be the o f f i c i a l language , and the p r e s i d e n t was to have u n l i m i t e d p o w e r s . 8 1 In a speech i n 1942, Johannes V o r s t e r s t a t e d tha t "We s t a n d f o r C h r i s t i a n N a t i o n a l i s m which i s an a l l y o f N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m . . . You can c a l l t h i s a n t i -democrat ic p r i n c i p l e d i c t a t o r s h i p i f you w i s h . In I t a l y i t i s c a l l e d f a s c i s m , i n Germany German N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m , and i n South A f r i c a C h r i s t i a n N a t i o n a l i s m . " 8 2 The N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y between the y e a r s 1939 and 1943, was engaged i n a d u a l campaign of both oppos ing the g o v e r n m e n t ' s war p o l i c y and f i g h t i n g o t h e r R e p u b l i c a n groups f o r p o l i t i c a l supremacy over N a t i o n a l i s t Af r i k a n e r d o m . The N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y , the HNP a f t e r 1940, remained f i r m l y i n the hands o f D r . Malan and h i s f o l l o w e r s because they r e t a i n e d t h e i r g r i p on the p a r t y appara tus and the N a t i o n a l i s t p r e s s , and because they pursued a p o l i c y of u n r e m i t t i n g o p p o s i t i o n t o the war, but f o l l o w i n g Gen. H e r t z o g ' s example i n World War I , from a t o t a l l y c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p o s i t i o n . 37 The M a l a n i t e s had s t r o n g r o o t s i n and c o n n e c t i o n s With most f a c e t s o f N a t i o n a l i s t R e p u b l i c a n - m i n d e d A f r i k a n e r d o m t h r o u g h o u t WORLD WAR I I . These l i n k s s e r v e d them i n good s t e a d to emerge by 1943 as the s o l e or pr imary r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f N a t i o n a l i s t A f r i k a n e r d o m . T h r o u g h g r o u p s s u c h as t h e Afrikaner Broederbond ( A B ) , a g r o u p composed o f e l i t e NP p o l i t i c i a n s , N a t i o n a l i s t a c a d e m i c s , D u t c h Reformed C h u r c h c l e r g y m e n , and o ther A f r i k a n e r N a t i o n a l i s t no tab le s d e d i c a t e d to a c h i e v i n g A f r i k a n e r supremacy i n South A f r i c a , the NP had a p o w e r f u l base i n the Boer community. Other such volk groups w i t h s t r o n g l i n k s t o the NP were t h e t h r e e Dutch Reformed C h u r c h e s , N a t i o n a l i s t Trade Unions such as the Spoorbond ( the R a i l w a y w o r k e r s ) , the Afrikanse-nasionale Studentebond (ANSB), and the Reddingsdaadbond (Rescue A c t i o n S o c i e t y ) , an AB group to promote the deve lopment o f A f r i k a n e r p r i v a t e c a p i t a l and b u s i n e s s . The H e r t z o g i t e s were seen by t h e A B , NP, and most o f t h e i r a f f i l i a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g the l e a d e r s h i p o f the t h r e e D u t c h Re formed C h u r c h e s , s t i l l a dominant f o r c e amongst the volk, as renegades and t r a i t o r s to the cause o f A f r i k a n e r d o m s i n c e f u s i o n i n 1934. H e r t z o g denounced the AB i n 1935 i n a speech to P a r l i a m e n t as a d i v i s i v e f o r c e i n the c o u n t r y . 8 ^ H e r t z o g , h i m s e l f a member o f the AB s i n c e i t s f o u n d i n g i n 1 9 1 8 , c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d t h e A f r i k a n e r s u p r e m a c i s t aims o f the Bond . In o p p o s i n g i t and b r e a k i n g w i t h i t , he c u t h i m s e l f and f o l l o w e r s o f f from o r g a n i z e d 38 A f r i k a n e r d o m , for the Bond's i n f l u e n c e was wide , and v i r t u a l l y a l l o f the M a l a n i t e MP's i n a l l o f the p a r l i a m e n t s e l e c t e d from 1933 were members, as w e l l as most prominent A f r i k a n e r s i n whatever f i e l d . T h i s g r e a t l y hampered the a c t i v i t i e s o f b o t h the moderate A f r i k a n e r s i n the A P , under Havenga and Conroy (Hertzog d i e d , i n r e t i r e m e n t , i n November 1942) and the more N a z i - i n c l i n e d New Order under P i r o w . Both had c u t t h e i r l i n k s w i t h much o f t h e A f r i k a n e r communi ty by t h e e a r l y 1940 ' s . T h e N a t i o n a l i s t p o s i t i o n o n t h e w a r w a s n o n -i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t ; but t h e i r a t t i t u d e towards N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m i t s e l f was a m b i v a l e n t , a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e m u l t i t u d e o f c o n f l i c t i n g p r e s s u r e s they had to f a c e d u r i n g the war. I t i s a f a c t t h a t t h e N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y , and t h i s means t h e M a l a n i t e s , were much more c r i t i c a l o f Western democracy b e f o r e 1943 and that t h e i r l e a d e r s made more f a v o r a b l e comments about N a z i i s m a n d f a s c i s m i n g e n e r a l b e f o r e t h i s d a t e . I n p a r t i c u l a r , the N a t i o n a l i s t s had to worry about the p o p u l a r and w e l l - o r g a n i z e d Ossewa Brandwag e r o d i n g t h e i r s u p p o r t amongst A f r i k a n e r d o m . Malan knew i t and t h e r e f o r e f o r a t ime c u r r i e d favour w i t h the OB. L a t e r , however, Malan p r o v e d h i s s t r e n g t h a n d t e n a c i t y o f p u r p o s e when he s m a s h e d v a n R e ns bur g ' s Ossewa Brandwag movement on the w h e e l . 8 4 A t f i r s t , M a l a n t r i e d to c o o p t the O B , a l l o w i n g i t supremacy on the c u l t u r a l f r o n t w h i l e the NP c a r r i e d t h e p o l i t i c a l f i g h t t h r o u g h . 8 5 C l e a r l y , M a l a n d i d n o t see t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p 39 between the NP and AB as n e c e s s a r i l y a d v e r s a r i a l . When the f i n a l b r e a k came, i n m i d - 1 9 4 1 , i t i s c l e a r t h a t p r a g m a t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a s m u c h a s a n y d i c t a t e d s u b s e q u e n t d e n u n c i a t i o n s o f " N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m " by N a t i o n a l i s t l e a d e r s such as Voerwoerd and S t r i j d o m . The e x t r e m i s t A f r i k a n e r volksorganisies, such as the OB, t h e G r e y s h i r t s and t h e New O r d e r , p u t p r e s s u r e upon t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s t o , i n e f f e c t , l i m i t t h e i r freedom o f a c t i o n . By c a l l i n g f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an a u t h o r i t a r i a n r e p u b l i c f r e e from the E m p i r e , i n many ways modeled a f t e r the v a r i o u s f a s c i s t s t a t e s o f Europe , the e f f e c t o f groups l i k e the OB was to a c c e n t u a t e p o l i t i c a l p o l a r i z a t i o n t h a t had s p l i t S o u t h A f r i c a on the i s s u e o f the war s i n c e September 1939. The N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y was not n e c e s s a r i l y opposed to the a d o p t i o n o f a f a s c i s t or N a z i - s t y l e c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r South A f r i c a . The d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n , approved by a B r o e d e r b o n d -i n s t i g a t e d P r o v i s i o n a l C o m m i t t e e o f N a t i o n a l U n i t y w h i c h i n c l u d e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the RDB, OB and the three Dutch R e f o r m e d C h u r c h e s , was a n n o u n c e d by a d e c l a r a t i o n o f the committee i n mid-1941 , and a c c e p t e d by the N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y a t i t s Union Congress on June 3, 1941. H . Voerwoerd , e d i t o r o f Die Transvaler, c l a i m e d that the event showed the d e s i r e o f Af r ikanerdom to break w i t h " B r i t i s h - J e w i s h d e m o c r a c y . " 8 6 The d e c l a r a t i o n i n d i c a t e d the p r i n c i p l e s upon w h i c h the d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n was based: 40 (1) A C h r i s t i a n - N a t i o n a l r e p u b l i c a n s t a t e , based on t h e w o r d o f ,God, a l o n g t h e c l e a r l i n e s o f o u r p e o p l e ' s h i s t o r y , a d a p t e d t o modern c o n d i t i o n s ... not c a s t i n the mould of a f o r e i g n model; ... (3) an e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m b a s e d on C h r i s t i a n N a t i o n a l i s m , w i t h t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f mother tongue e d u c a t i o n g u a r a n t e e d ; (4) the entrenchment o f the A f r i k a n e r 'as t h e o r i g i n a l s e t t l e r ' ... and h i s p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t d o m i n a t i o n by t h o s e who do not owe f u l l a l l e g i a n c e t o t h i s c o u n t r y ; ( 5 ) t h e s t r o n g e s t e m p h a s i s upon an e f f e c t i v e d i s c i p l i n i n g o f t h e p e o p l e . 8 ' T h e d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n i t s e l f e s p o u s e s a f o r m o f "Fuhrerprinzip".88 M a l a n opposed t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s d o c u m e n t by t h e OB, w h i c h moved t o p u b l i s h t h e d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n a f t e r i t was a d o p t e d by t h e NP, a s c l e a r v i o l a t i o n of the Cradock agreement o f October 1940, d e l i m i t i n g the NP t o the p o l i t i c a l and the OB t o the c u l t u r a l s p h e r e . M a l a n w a n t e d t o e x c l u s i v e l y d o m i n a t e a n t i - w a r A f r i k a n e r d o m i n th e p o l i t i c a l f i e l d . The OB and t h e o t h e r volksorganisies r a p i d l y f a d e d a f t e r t h e N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y ' s s t r o n g showing i n t h e 1943 e l e c t i o n , where i t won 36 p e r c e n t o f t h e v o t e and g a i n e d a t o t a l o f 43 p a r l i a m e n t a r y s e a t s ( l e a v i n g i t the s o l e p o l i t i c a l f o r c e r e p r e s e n t e d i n P a r l i a m e n t opposed t o the Smuts government and th e war). Malan had l e f t h i s p a r l i a m e n t a r y o p t i o n open. W h i l e Malan c e r t a i n l y t o y e d w i t h the i d e a o f coming t o power as a r e s u l t o f a N a z i v i c t o r y o v e r B r i t a i n and her a l l i e s i n World War I I , he d i d not t i e the f a t e o f the NP t o i t . The p o l i t i c a l sympathies o f the OB, W e i c h a r d t ' s N a z i G r e y s h i r t s , t h e New Order and o t h e r groups was a b s o l u t e l y c l e a r ; t h e y d e s i r e d a N a z i v i c t o r y and t h e 41 e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an a u t h o r i t a r i a n , p o s s i b l y N a z i regime i n South A f r i c a . The N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y p l a y e d a c a g i e r game. L i k e Hertzog d u r i n g World War I , they opposed the war but d i d so c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y . They f l i r t e d w i t h f a s c i s m and N a z i i s m , but they d r i f t e d away from these i d e o l o g i e s as the t i d e o f the war t u r n e d i n f a v o u r o f the A l l i e s , and as t h e y f e l t t h e i r preeminent p o s i t i o n as the spokesman f o r p o l i t i c a l R e p u b l i c a n A f r i k a n e r d o m no l o n g e r t h r e a t e n e d by o p e n l y f a s c i s t a u t h o r i t a r i a n groups such as the OB or the New O r d e r . I f the e a r l y p a r t o f the war h i g h l i g h t s the openness o f the NP to N a z i and f a s c i s t i n f l u e n c e , the l a t t e r p a r t of the war shows the i n f l u e n c e of the p r a g m a t i c , p u r e l y n a t i o n a l i s t s t r a i n i n the p a r t y . A f t e r 1943, the s t r a i n s i n s i d e S o u t h A f r i c a brought about by the war began to ease . S t a l i n g r a d , T u n i s i a , the A l l i e d i n v a s i o n o f I t a l y i n J u l y 1943, c o n f i r m e d i n t h e e y e s o f n e a r l y t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e S o u t h A f r i c a n e l e c t o r a t e , the i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f an A l l i e d v i c t o r y , and hence the wisdom o f Smuts' f o r e i g n and war p o l i c y . T h e r e came a s l a c k e n i n g o f e f f o r t a l o n g w i t h t h e r e d u c e d i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n s . 8 9 The f a c a d e o f u n i t y , which h e l d t o g e t h e r the s o c i a l i s t Labour P a r t y , t h e U n i t e d P a r t y o f Smuts , and the r a c i a l l y r e a c t i o n a r y but s o l i d l y j i n g o i s t i c N a t a l - b a s e d Dominion P a r t y o f C o l . S t a l l a r d , b e g a n t o c r a c k . T h e l a t t e r p a r t y r e p r e s e n t e d E n g l i s h W h i t e N a t a l , l o n g l e e r y o f the I n d i a n community t h e r e . 9 ^ The g e n e r a l p r o s p e r i t y o f the war h e l p e d 42 I n d i a n b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s as w e l l as s t i m u l a t i n g the f low o f B l a c k l abour to the p l e n t i f u l jobs i n the c i t i e s . To s a t i s f y t h e demands o f t h e Domin ion P a r t y , the Government i n 1943 r e l u c t a n t l y s p o n s o r e d t h e P e g g i n g A c t , by w h i c h I n d i a n encroachment i n E u r o p e a n r e s i d e n t i a l and b u s i n e s s a r e a s i n Durban was s topped for two y e a r s . 9 1 The Dominion P a r t y was on a c o l l i s i o n c o u r s e w i th the b l a t a n t l i b e r a l i s m of Hofmeyr and t h e i m p l i c i t l i b e r a l i s m o f Smuts , and t h e i r a n x i e t y on the c o l o u r q u e s t i o n was p a r t o f a growing mood of a n x i e t y amongst W h i t e s i n g e n e r a l i n S o u t h A f r i c a over the s t a t u s o f n o n -Whites i n the U n i o n . The N a t i o n a l i s t s were q u i c k to see where t h e i r f u t u r e l a y . In a l l r e s p e c t s , D r . Malan and h i s P a r t y began to ac t as a normal O p p o s i t i o n a c c e p t a b l e to the e l e c t o r a t e as a p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t e government , but never f o r a moment d e p a r t i n g from t h e P a r t y ' s d e c l a r e d R e p u b l i c a n i d e a l and e x p l o i t i n g t h e I n d i a n and Communist i s s u e s , not w i t h o u t v i s i b l e s u c c e s s . 9 2 The approach ing v i c t o r y o f 1945, which seemed to many i n the w o r l d , and to many l i b e r a l s u p p o r t e r s o f Smuts and Hofmeyr i n S o u t h A f r i c a , as the h e r a l d o f a new age - - o f the "Four Freedoms" and a worldwide "New Dea l" — c r e a t e d a c l i m a t e i n S o u t h A f r i c a t h a t f r i g h t e n e d many c o n s e r v a t i v e A f r i k a n e r s . The N a t i o n a l i s t s began to bandy about the i d e a o f apartheid, o r s e p a r a t i o n o f the r a c e s , a c o n c e p t which f e l l upon many w i l l i n g e a r s i n S o u t h A f r i c a , who were more t h a n a l i t t l e s k e p t i c a l of the "Brave New World" i n s t o r e f o r them i n what 43 was a l r e a d y s e e n a s t h e m o r e l i b e r a l d o m e s t i c a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l c l i m a t e that was coming a f t e r the war. At a b y e l e c t i o n i n the T r a n s v a a l r u r a l c o n s t i t u e n c y of Wakkestroom ( i n 1947) , which had been h e l d by a U n i t e d P a r t y m i n i s t e r , the Government c a n d i d a t e was b a d l y b e a t e n . The Government p r e s s b e l i t t l e d the r e s u l t , but i t was an ominous s i g n o f what t h e N a t i o n a l p a r t y was capab le o f , now t h a t i t was r i d o f i t s Ossewa-Brandwag and New Order i n c u b u s . 9 3 44 CHAPTER I I I The concept of i d e o l o g y u s u a l l y i m p l i e s something more r i g i d and d o g m a t i c , l e s s q u e s t i o n i n g , more " c l o s e d " than "open", than c r i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y , and c e r t a i n l y s c i e n c e . An i d e o l o g y q u i t e o f t e n e n t a i l s a s p e c i f i c programme, a commitment t o s t a t e d p r i n c i p l e s or v a l u e s t h a t b o r d e r s on r e l i g i o u s commitment. T h i s p o s i t i o n o f " s c i e n c e a g a i n s t i d e o l o g y " i s common to Western p o s i t i v i s t thought ( s o - c a l l e d " v a l u e - f r e e " Anglo-American a n a l y t i c p h i l o s o p h y ) . J . L a r r a i n q u o t e s Leszek K o l a k o w s k i i n d e f i n i n g the broad p o s i t i v i s t s p e ctrum as "a c o l l e c t i o n of p r o h i b i t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g human kno w l e d g e , i n t e n d e d t o c o n f i n e t h e name 'knowledge' or ' s c i e n c e ' t o t h e r e s u l t s o f t h o s e o p e r a t i o n s t h a t a r e o b s e r v a b l e i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e modern s c i e n c e s o f nature." 9'* L a r r a i n f u r t h e r o u t l i n e s the p o s i t i o n by a r g u i n g t h a t i t c l a i m s t h a t a l l b e y o n d t h e f a c t u a l w o r l d i s i d e o l o g i c a l . S c i e n c e i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by e m p i r i c i s m , and commonly accepted procedures t o ensure accurate g a t h e r i n g of e v i d e n c e . These two c r i t e r i a e n sure v e r i f i a b i l i t y . K a r l P o p p e r , a c r i t i c o f p o s i t i v i s m from w i t h i n t h e a n a l y t i c t r a d i t i o n , s u b s t i t u t e s f a l s i f i a b i l i t y f o r v e r i f i a b i l i t y . A t h e o r y must be f a l s i f i a b l e t o be c o n s i d e r e d s c i e n t i f i c . 9 5 L a r r a i n s t a t e s t h a t "post-modern" p h i l o s o p h e r s such as Kuhn and F e y e r a b e n d t h i n k i t not p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h the " s c i e n t i f i c " component of d i s c a r d e d p a s t o b s e r v a t i o n s from e r r o r or myth. 9^ 45 The M a r x i s t s t a k e a d i f f e r e n t t a c k , t h a t h a s a p a r a l l e l p a t h . M a r x s t a r t s o u t w i t h some o f t h e same a s s u m p t i o n s t h a t t h e L o g i c a l P o s i t i v i s t s d i d . I d e o l o g y i s s u p e r s t r u c t u r a l p h e n o m e n o n r e s t i n g on a m a t e r i a l c l a s s b a s e , i n f a c t o f t e n o b s c u r i n g t h a t b a s e a n d i t s a c t u a l r e l a t i o n t o i t . N e o -M a r x i s t s c h o l a r s , s u c h a s L u k a c s , A d o r n o , M a r c u s e a n d H o r k h e i m e r d u p l i c a t e t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e " i r r a t i o n a l a s p e c t " o f i d e o l o g y i n t o t h e d o m a i n o f s c i e n c e i t s e l f . L u k a c s p o i n t s o u t t h e " r e l a t i v e i r r a t i o n a l i t y o f t h e w h o l e p r o c e s s " , s p e a k i n g o f t h e e n t i r e b o u r g e o i s p r o c e s s o f r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n . 9 7 W i t h A d o r n o a n d H o r k h e i m e r , t h e i r r a t i o n a l i t y b e c o m e s o f p a r a m o u n t i m p o r t a n c e a n d i s n o t r e l a t e d t o a n y p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s t h i n k i n g ; s c i e n t i f i c r a t i o n a l i t y a p p e a r s a s a n Q ft a l i e n a t i n g i d e o l o g y d i s c o n n e c t e d f r o m c l a s s a n a l y s i s . ° M a r c u s e i s t h e f i n a l s t a g e i n t h i s d e m o t i o n o f s c i e n c e . F o r h i m t h e v e r y c o n c e p t o f t e c h n i c a l r e a s o n i s p e r h a p s i d e o l o g i c a l . N o t o n l y t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t e c h n o l o g y b u t t e c h n o l o g y i t s e l f i s d o m i n a t i o n o f n a t u r e a n d m e n — m e t h o d i c a l , s c i e n t i f i c , c a l c u l a t e d , c a l c u l a t i n g c o n t r o l . " I d e o l o g y a s a b e l i e f s y s t e m c a n b e u n d e r s t o o d a s i n v o l v i n g some n o t i o n o f praxis. Praxis i s a M a r x i s t n o t i o n t h a t h o l d s t h a t t h e o r y , p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y , i s c o n d i t i o n e d , a s b o t h t h e o r y a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , b y r a d i c a l n e c e s s i t y . 1 0 0 C o n c r e t e m a t e r i a l n e e d s b r i n g a b o u t a t h e o r y , a n d i t s m o d i f i c a t i o n by p r a c t i c e . Praxis a l s o i n v o l v e s t h e i d e a t h a t t h e o r y i n i t s e l f i s i n o p e r a b l e . 1 0 1 Praxis i s t h e u n i t y o f 46 1 n i t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e , or ideology made manifest i n a c t i o n . U £ P o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y i s l a i d b a r e , brought t o f r u i t i o n , i n p o l i t i c a l p r a c t i c e . In t h i s view, f a s c i s t i d e o l o g y , or at l e a s t i t s e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , can be f u l l y e x p l a i n e d by e x a m i n i n g i t s p h i l o s o p h y as r e a l i z e d and d e t e r m i n e d , i n government and s o c i e t y . F a s c i s t i d e o l o g y can be seen as the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of that c l a s s , or c l a s s e s i n s o c i e t y , t h a t would b e n e f i t most from the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a c o n t r o l l e d c a p i t a l i s m under the a e g i s of a r i g h t - w i n g , a u t h o r i t a r i a n regime. The urban p e t i t b o u r g e o i s i e provides the core of the s o c i a l b a s e o f f a s c i s m , and h e n c e i t s i n t e r e s t s a r e r a t i o n a l i z e d i n f a s c i s t and Nazi i d e o l o g y . In the ensuing d i s c u s s i o n of f a s c i s m and f a s c i s t i d e o l o g y , the r o l e of t h i s s o c i a l c l a s s w i l l be demonstrated as a key component i n the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of i n t e r e s t s which take the form of f a s c i s t and Nazi i d e o l o g y . A s a t i s f a c t o r y d e s c r i p t i o n o f f a s c i s m , and f a s c i s t i d e o l o g y , i s a d i f f i c u l t problem f o r the p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t . E ven the Communist s t a t e s o f t h e 20th c e n t u r y have been d e s c r i b e d as p r a c t i c i n g what i s e s s e n t i a l l y "Red F a s c i s m " . Communism, however, emerges i n t h i s c e n t u r y as a d i s t i n c t governmental, s o c i a l and economic system, with s i m i l a r i t i e s to f a s c i s m no doubt, but d e f i n i t e l y a p a r t from i t . One p o s s i b l e d e f i n i t i o n of f a s c i s m i s s i m p l y any form of non-Communist a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m . T h i s seems an a b s u r d l y i n c l u s i v e d e f i n i t i o n 47 of f a s c i s m because, b e i n g the socio-governmental system of most c o u n t r i e s throughout rec o r d e d h i s t o r y , i t t e l l us v e r y l i t t l e about what type of government a s o c i e t y has, other than being non-democratic and non-Communist. Right-wing, i n a f a s c i s t context, means a c e r t a i n form of socio-economic order which goes hand i n g l o v e with p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m . Most c u r r e n t s of f a s c i s m seem to be a b l e to l i v e w i t h , or s e t t l e down w i t h , a wide d i s p a r i t y of w e a l t h between c l a s s e s i n a s o c i e t y based on p r i v a t e ownership of the means of p r o d u c t i o n . The Nazis and the I t a l i a n f a s c i s t s both l e f t p r i v a t e ownership of p r o p e r t y and wealth very much i n t a c t a f t e r t h e y came t o power. Whatever s o c i a l i s t t e n d e n c i e s e x i s t e d w i t h i n f a s c i s t movements (the s o c i a l reformism of Jose A n t o n i o Primo de R i v e r a , pre-1936 l e a d e r of t h e S p a n i s h F a l a n g e , or E r n s t Rohm's and G r e g o r S t r a s s e r ' s N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m ) a r e a l w a y s s u b l i m a t e d i n an a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e p r e d ominance i n s o c i e t y of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . S.J. Woolf claims t h a t f a s c i s m was the European b o u r g e o i s i e ' s r e a c t i o n to the economic c r i s i s a f t e r 1918, t h e i r p o l i t i c a l f e a r of a new, powerful Communist movement that c o u l d feed o f f the economic d i s l o c a t i o n c a u s e d by t h e w a r . 1 0 3 I t i s t h i s v i o l e n t , d e f e n s i v e r e a c t i o n on the p a r t of the b o u r g e o i s i e that Woolf ar g u e s i s the e s s e n c e o f dynamic, what I c a l l " c l a s s i c " , fascism. 48 F a s c i s m c o u l d be narrowed down to any form of r i g h t - w i n g a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m . T h i s a g a i n i s not r e a l l y l e s s i n c l u s i v e a d e f i n i t i o n . I t i s t o o i n c l u s i v e b e c a u s e most r e g i m e s i n h i s t o r y have been " r i g h t - w i n g " a u t h o r i t a r i a n r e g i m e s . So , w h i l e r i g h t - w i n g a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m (or advocacy t h e r e o f ) i s a n e c e s s a r y p r e c o n d i t i o n of f a s c i s m , i t i s not s u f f i c i e n t , and the d e f i n i t i o n must be r e f i n e d . F a s c i s m i s a r e a c t i o n to c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f m o d e r n i t y . I t seems to i n v o l v e a r e a c t i o n by t h r e a t e n e d groups or c l a s s e s to some of the p r e s s u r e s of modern s o c i e t y . These p r e s s u r e s i n c l u d e those c a u s e d by i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and u r b a n i z a t i o n , w i t h t h e i r c o n c o m i t a n t shak ing-up o f t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y and i t s e s t a b l i s h e d b e l i e f s and economic o r g a n i z a t i o n . Of c o u r s e , s o c i a l i s m too i s a r e a c t i o n to m o d e r n i z a t i o n ( i n T h i r d - W o r l d c o u n t r i e s , a t l a s t , a r e a c t i o n to modern ideas and the s t y l e o f l i f e these i d e a s p r o d u c e ) , but w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the L u d d i t e s o r , nowadays, the extreme G r e e n s , i t seems to i n v o l v e the a c c e p t a n c e o f i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , w i t h i t s consequences , s u c h as s e c u l a r i z a t i o n . S o c i a l i s m a l s o a c c e p t s n o t i o n o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c e q u a l i t y , f emin i sm and i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m , a l l i d e a s which have come i n t o t h e i r own s i n c e the E n l i g h t e n m e n t . F a s c i s m i s unique i n tha t i t r e a c t s a g a i n s t and adapts i t s e l f t o modern s o c i e t y , s e t t i n g i t a p a r t from both s o c i a l i s m and f e u d a l i s m . 49 S . J . W o o l f h i g h l i g h t s t h i s p e c u l i a r a s p e c t o f dynamic f a s c i s m , that i t uses the d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e s s c r e a t e d by modern l i b e r a l s o c i e t y to p r o t e c t i t s mass b a s e , and i t s c l a i m to p r i v i l e g e and p r o p e r t y . He b u t t r e s s e s t h i s p o i n t by s t a t i n g t h a t t h e b o u r g e o i s i e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e h i g h l y -i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s t a t e s , had absorbed a s i n k i n g a r i s t o c r a c y or l a n d e d c l a s s , w h i l e a c t i n g a s a m a g n e t t o t h e p e t i t -b o u r g e o i s i e , who a s p i r e d to b o u r g e o i s s t a t u s and v a l u e s . The d e p r e s s i o n f o l l o w i n g Wor ld War I , and the G r e a t D e p r e s s i o n , e n e r g i z e d t h e s e p e t i t b o u r g e o i s e l e m e n t s t o d e f e n d t h e i r p o s i t i o n a g a i n s t f u r t h e r " p r o l e t a r i a n i z a t i o n " ; and the f a s c i s t movement b o r n out o f t h i s a c t e d as a magnet t o a d e c l i n i n g a r i s t o c r a c y , anx ious to defend i t s threa tened s t a t u s . F a s c i s m t h u s emerged as a c o a l i t i o n o f t h r e a t e n e d b o u r g e o i s and a r i s t o c r a t i c i n t e r e s t s , u s i n g t h e t o o l s o f t h e m o d e r n d e m o c r a t i c e l e c t o r a l p r o c e s s t o b u t t r e s s t h e i r p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n s . 1 0 4 F a s c i s t s l i k e to c l a i m t h a t t h e i r movements r e p r e s e n t "the n a t i o n " or the g r o u p , but i n t h i s case t h e i r i d e o l o g y d i f f e r s to an e x t e n t from t h e i r p r a c t i c e . T h i s t h e s i s has support from a number o f s o u r c e s . P a l m i r o T o g l i a t t i , a l e a d e r o f the I t a l i a n Communist P a r t y , wrote i n 1928 t h a t f a s c i s m draws i t s i n i t i a l s u p p o r t from the p e t i t b o u r g e o i s i e i n the town and i n the r u r a l a r e a s . 1 0 5 Seymour L i p s e t a l s o suppor ted t h i s v i e w , a l t h o u g h he b r o a d e n e d the c l a i m t o s t a t e t h a t 50 f a s c i s m was a movement o f a l l o f t h e p r o p e r t i e d m i d d l e c l a s s . 1 0 6 T h i s l a s t c o n t e n t i o n , a l t h o u g h v a l i d , must be q u a l i f i e d . B i g b u s i n e s s o r t h e a r i s t o c r a c y h a r d l y s h y away f r o m s u p p o r t i n g f a s c i s m . H j a l m a r Schacht and F r i t z T h y s s e n owe t h e i r fame to the f a c t t h a t they a c t e d as the l i n k s between German b i g bus ines s and the Nazionale Socialitsische Deutsche Arbeites Partei, when i t was c l e a r t h a t p a r t y was t h e s t r o n g e s t a n t i - M a r x i s t p o p u l a r f o r c e i n t h e c o u n t r y . The German n o b i l i t y , landed a r i s t o c r a c y and army, came o n s i d e when i t was c l e a r tha t H i t l e r had no s o c i a l i s t i n t e n t i o n s . P a r t y membership i n the NSDAP d u r i n g the 1920's and the e a r l y 1930's was n a t i o n a l i n the sense t h a t i t was drawn from v i r t u a l l y a l l s e c t i o n s o f the p o p u l a t i o n , ye t i t s l e a d e r s h i p cadre was o v e r w h e l m i n g l y l o w e r - and m i d d l e - c l a s s , r e f l e c t i n g i t s core suppor t b a s e . 1 0 7 T h i s tendency o f f a s c i s m to s p r e a d , i n terms o f both p a r t y membership and g e n e r a l popu lar s u p p o r t , f rom t h e l o w e r m i d d l e or m i d d l e c l a s s , t o a r i s t o c r a t s o r p e a s a n t s , was a l s o n o t i c e a b l e i n E a s t e r n Europe d u r i n g t h e i n t e r - w a r p e r i o d . 1 0 8 S t u d e n t s , m a i n l y o f m i d d l e - c l a s s o r i g i n , c i v i l s e r v a n t s , s m a l l b u s i n e s s owners, p r i e s t s , s e m i n a r i a n s , w h i t e - c o l l a r employees , a lmost always seem to be the c o r e o f s u p p o r t f o r movements s u c h as t h e C r o a t i a n U s t a s i , t h e H u n g a r i a n A r r o w C r o s s , t h e S l o v a k H l i n k a G u a r d , a n d t h e Rumanian I r o n G u a r d . 1 0 9 The f u s i o n w i t h the upper c l a s s and the p e a s a n t s came l a t e r , a l t h o u g h i n the case o f the H l i n k a 51 G u a r d o r t h e I r o n G u a r d , some p e a s a n t s u p p o r t was more f o r t h c o m i n g a t an e a r l i e r s t a g e . 1 1 0 F a s c i s m i n E a s t e r n E u r o p e , t h o u g h , began as an u r b a n phenomenon, r o o t e d i n the urban middle c l a s s i n the c i t i e s and towns, as i n the r e s t o f E u r o p e . 1 1 1 The pure n a t u r e o f c l a s s i c f a s c i s m i s m a n i f e s t h e r e , even i n movements which s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as more i n c l u s i v e , or i n f u s e d wi th more t r a d i t i o n a l i s t e l ements . The I t a l i a n c o u r t , army and a r i s t o c r a c y backed M u s s o l i n i f or 21 years b e f o r e o u s t i n g h i m . South A f r i c a n b i g b u s i n e s s h a s , on the o t h e r h a n d , m a i n t a i n e d a muted though l e g a l and l o y a l o p p o s i t i o n to the NP reg ime . T h e i r f a v o u r e d p a r t y was, f i r s t , the U n i t e d P a r t y o f Smuts and h i s s u c c e s s o r s , and then to an e x t e n t , the P r o g r e s s i v e F e d e r a l P a r t y . On the o t h e r hand, Spa in under Franco and P i n o c h e t ' s C h i l e a f f o r d examples where the upper c l a s s e s — i n S p a i n the f e u d a l e l i t e and the Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , and i n C h i l e b i g b u s i n e s s — were, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the m i l i t a r y , the i n s t i g a t o r s o f f a s c i s t u p r i s i n g s a g a i n s t l e f t - w i n g governments . C l a s s i c f a s c i s m does have i t s base amongst the u r b a n lower m i d d l e c l a s s e s , but o f t e n comes t o power and m a i n t a i n s i t by forming c l o s e t i e s wi th c e r t a i n c l a s s e s o f p e a s a n t s , and the t r a d i t i o n a l e l i t e s . In t h e c a s e o f Germany and I t a l y , the u p p e r c l a s s e s and t r a d i t i o n a l i s t i d e o l o g y seemed to have had l e s s i n f l u e n c e on the regime; i n the case o f the E a s t e r n European movements and of S p a n i s h F a l a n g i s m a f t e r 1936, t r a d i t i o n a l i s t i d e o l o g y and t h e o l d r u l i n g e l i t e had r a t h e r more i n f l u e n c e . In b o t h 52 c a s e s , t h e c o n t r o l l e d c a p i t a l i s m a d v o c a t e d by f a s c i s t movements f i t the i n t e r e s t s o f the s o c i a l groups or c l a s s e s t h a t s u p p o r t e d t h e m . I n d e e d , c l a s s i n t e r e s t d e t e r m i n e d i d e o l o g y . F a s c i s m , i n a d d i t i o n to be ing r i g h t - w i n g , a u t h o r i t a r i a n , and b a s e d on a d e f e n s i v e r e a c t i o n by t h e m i d d l e and upper c l a s s e s to the t h r e a t o f s o c i a l i s t or communist movements, i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r a c i s m , e t h n i c c h a u v i n i s m , and h y p e r -n a t i o n a l i s m . N a t i o n a l i s m can be d e f i n e d as l ove o f or b e l i e f i n one ' s n a t i o n , or n a t i o n a l group . E t h n i c chauv in i sm i s l o v e and b e l i e f i n o n e ' s e t h n o - l i n g u i s t i c g r o u p . O n e ' s e t h n i c g r o u p c a n have a n a t i o n - s t a t e o f i t s own, be an a c c e p t e d component of a m u l t i n a t i o n a l n a t i o n - s t a t e , or be r e p r e s s e d by the n a t i o n - s t a t e or s t a t e s i n which they r e s i d e . One can a l s o be n a t i o n a l i s t a b o u t a p o l y g l o t , m u l t i - e t h n i c s t a t e l i k e Canada or the U . S . H y p e r n a t i o n a l i s m i s the exaggerated l o v e o f c o u n t r y , o f t e n t a k i n g the form o f c h a u v i n i s m , r a c i s m , xenophobia or p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l i s o l a t i o n i s m . A l l o f the F a s c i s t p a r t i e s and reg imes o f Europe between 1918 and 1945 were , t o one e x t e n t or a n o t h e r , h y p e r - n a t i o n a l i s t i c to the p o i n t o f c h a u v i n i s m . N a z i i s m , I t a l i a n F a s c i s m , and t h e f a s c i s t movements of e a s t e r n Europe , the I r o n Guard o f Rumania ( l a t e r u s e d by M a r s h a l A t o n e s c u ) , S z a l a s i ' s Arrow C r o s s o f Hungary, the m i l i t a n t l y a n t i - S e r b C r o a t i a n U s t a s i l e d by Ante P a v e l i c , a l l e m p h a s i z e d extreme n a t i o n a l i s m . -"-^  P a v e l i c ' s 53 U s t a s i w a n t e d an i n d e p e n d e n t C r o a t i a n s t a t e , and when he a c h i e v e d i t w i t h H i t l e r ' s h e l p i n 1 9 4 1 , he p r o c e e d e d t o m a s s a c r e many O r t h o d o x S e r b s w i t h i n h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n , so C r o a t i a would be e x c l u s i v e l y C a t h o l i c C r o a t . 1 1 3 (The Germans massacred C r o a t i a ' s Jews w i t h U s t a s i compl iance and a p p r o v a l . ) A n t o n e s c u , who f i r s t c r u s h e d , then used Rumania's f a s c i s t I r o n G u a r d , was m i l i t a n t l y a n t i - s e m i t i c , i n p r a c t i c e i f n o t i n t h e o r y , f o r he m a s s a c r e d many o f R u m a n i a ' s J e w s , a n d he e a g e r l y j o i n e d H i t l e r ' s a n t i - B o l s h e v i s t crusade a g a i n s t S o v i e t R u s s i a i n 1941, w i th the promise o f o b t a i n i n g t e r r i t o r y i n the U k r a i n e . 1 1 4 W h i l e most o f the European f a s c i s t s were a n t i - s e m i t i c , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the o r i g i n a l p r o t o t y p e f o r f a s c i s m and the f a s c i s t s t a t e , I t a l y , was not o r i g i n a l l y a n t i - s e m i t i c and had no r e a l t r a c e o f a n t i - s e m i t i s m i n i t s i d e o l o g y u n t i l i t came under N a z i German i n f l u e n c e i n the l a t e 1 9 3 0 ' s . 1 1 5 O v e r t r a c i s m and a n t i - s e m i t i s m a r e not a b s o l u t e , e s s e n t i a l c o m p o n e n t s o f f a s c i s m ; b u t t h e s e a t t i t u d e s r a r e l y f e e l c o m p l e t e l y out of p l a c e w i t h i t . I n a d d i t i o n , one o t h e r f e a t u r e , common t o b o t h N a z i Germany and F a s c i s t I t a l y , but not n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w e d by any but the most extreme i n o t h e r f a s c i s t movements, i s a s h a r p b r e a k w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l e t h i c a l and s p i r i t u a l norms o f W e s t e r n , l i b e r a l , J u d e o - C h r i s t i a n s o c i e t y . E r n s t N o l t e , i n h i s T h r e e Faces o f F a s c i s m , s t a t e s t h a t "Fasc i sm i s a t the same t ime r e s i s t a n c e to p r a c t i c a l t ranscendence and s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e o r e t i c a l t r a n s c e n d e n c e . " i i D T r a n s c e n d e n c e , f o r N o l t e , seems to c o n s i s t o f a d h e r i n g t o Enl ightenment i d e a l s o f s o c i a l e q u a l i t y , p o l i t i c a l f r eedom, and r u l e o f law. N o l t e s e e s p r a c t i c a l a n d t h e o r e t i c a l t r a n s c e n d e n c e a s t h e f u n d a m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f modern l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y . The g r a d u a l e x t e n s i o n o f the e l e c t o r a l f r a n c h i s e i n the western European s t a t e s i n the 19th and 20th c e n t u r i e s to i n c l u d e p r e v i o u s l y e xc l ude d g r o u p s , such as the lower s o c i o -economic c l a s s e s and women, would be one example o f p r a c t i c a l t r a n s c e n d e n c e . Some o t h e r e x a m p l e s w o u l d be t h e g r o w t h s o c i a l i s m , w i t h i t s s t r e s s on e c o n o m i c e q u a l i t y , and t h e e m a n c i p a t i o n o f the T h i r d World from European c o l o n i a l i s m i n the l a s t f o r t y y e a r s . Yet " fasc i sm pursues i t s r e s i s t a n c e to t r a n s c e n d e n c e from w i t h i n tha t t ranscendence and a t t imes i n 1 1 7 the c l e a r c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f a s t r u g g l e f o r wor ld hegemony. " J - J - ' Dynamic f a s c i s m i s a p r o d u c t of modern i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y . I t i s , i n i t s c l a s s i c f o r m , a mass p o p u l a r movement. The German N a z i s used d e m o c r a t i c freedoms to m o b i l i z e m i l l i o n s o f Germans t o s u p p o r t t h e i r p o l i t i c a l p r o g r a m i n the l a t e 1920's and e a r l y 1930's . Yet N a z i i s m was a p o p u l a r movement which l e d a s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t p a r t i e s t h a t s t o o d f o r economic e q u a l i t y . Though N a z i i s m was a modern p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y , i t opposed , on a t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l , the i d e a o f common human r i g h t s , by i t s uncompromising r a c i s m . 55 The c u l t o f t h e l e a d e r was a n i n t e g r a l f e a t u r e o f b o t h I t a l i a n f a s c i s m a n d German N a z i i s m . To b e g i n w i t h , I t a l i a n f a s c i s m h a d "no s t r o n g o r g a n i z a t i o n , no n o t i c e a b l e l e a d e r s h i p , no i m p r e s s i v e s t y l e . 1 1 8 The o r i g i n a l fasci o r p a r t y s e c t i o n s w ere a t f i r s t o r g a n i z e d f r o m " b e l o w " , a c c o r d i n g t o d e m o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s t h e members e l e c t e d t h e i r c o m m a n d e r s . 1 1 9 B y O c t o b e r 1 9 2 2 t h e Regolamento di disciplina per la Milizia f a s c i s t s ... l a i d much g r e a t e r s t r e s s on r a n k a n d e l i m i n a t e d e l e c t i v e s t a t u s e n t i r e l y . 1 2 0 By t h e t i m e t h e l e a d e r s h i p c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e f a s c i s t p a r t y was l a i d down on s t a t u t e b y O c t o b e r 1 2 , 192 6 , M u s s o l i n i h a d e l i m i n a t e d o r b r o u g h t u n d e r s t r i c t c o n t r o l a l l h i s c o m p e t i t o r s w i t h i n t h e p a r t y , ( D ' A n n u n z i o , G r a n d i , T u r a t i , De Bono) a n d was u n c h a l l e n g e d l e a d e r . A s t r i c t c h a i n o f command was i n o p e r a t i o n i n t h e p a r t y , w h i c h t o t a l l y c o n t r o l l e d t h e s t a t e . The Duce a p p o i n t e d t h e p a r t y s e c r e t a r y , who summoned t h e p r o v i n c i a l s e c r e t a r i e s , who i n t u r n a p p o i n t e d t h e s e c r e t a r i e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l f a s c i . 1 2 1 The l e a d e r s h i p p r i n c i p l e was t h o r o u g h l y e n t r e n c h e d i n b o t h p a r t y a n d s t a t e . N a z i G e r m a n y e x a l t e d t h e l e a d e r s h i p p r i n c i p l e ( f u h r e r p r i n z i p ) . F r o m a v e r y e a r l y s t a g e A d o l f H i t l e r was g i v e n a d i c t a t o r i a l p o s i t i o n f r o m w h i c h t o g u i d e t h e N a z i P a r t y . 1 2 2 He f a c e d a l e a d e r s h i p c h a l l e n g e i n 1 9 2 1 , f r o m t h e o l d g u a r d o f t h e N a z i P a r t y , i n 1 9 2 6 f r o m t h e S t r a s s e r b r o t h e r s who w e r e c o n c e r n e d H i t l e r was l e a d i n g t h e m i n t o c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h c o n s e r v a t i v e c i r c l e s a n d was d i l u t i n g t h e 56 p a r t y ' s s o c i a l i s m , and i n 1934 when Rohm and the SA v o i c e d r e s e r v a t i o n s o f H i t l e r ' s a l l i a n c e w i t h the c o n s e r v a t i v e f o r c e s i n German s o c i e t y . H i t l e r was not o n l y e f f e c t i v e d i c t a t o r o f the p a r t y , and a f t e r 1933 ( p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r the Rohm a f f a i r o f 1934) d i c t a t o r o f Germany, he was a l s o the f o c a l p o i n t o f the c u l t o f l e a d e r s h i p i n the NSDAP and i n Germany a f t e r the N a z i s s e i z e d power. H i t l e r ' s b i r t h d a y ( A p r i l 20th) was a day o f c e l e b r a t i o n by N a z i p a r t y m e m b e r s . 1 2 ^ H i s t e e t o t a l v e g e t a r i a n n o n s m o k i n g a s e x u a l p u b l i c p e r s o n a g a v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f a man immune to the o r d i n a r y t e m p t a t i o n s o f l i f e , t o t a l l y d e d i c a t e d to h i s c o u n t r y . 1 2 ^ H y s t e r i c a l w o r s h i p o f H i t l e r was common, and was c a r e f u l l y f o s t e r e d by t h e p a r t y . 1 2 5 The l e a d e r s h i p p r i n c i p l e permeated a l l s e c t i o n s o f s o c i e t y i n the T h i r d R e i c h , and h i e r a r c h y , b l i n d obed ience to l e a d e r s h i p (a v i r t u e , i n H i t l e r ' s e y e s , that the SS p o s s e s s e d but the SA d i d not) were core va lues o f N a z i i d e o l o g y . The c u l t o f the l e a d e r i n I t a l y and Germany went a l o n g w i t h a m i l i t a r i s t i c s t a n c e . M i l i t a r i s m was g l o r i f i e d as the h i g h e s t i d e a l to which a s o c i e t y c o u l d a s p i r e . In I t a l y , the f a s c i s t p a r t y i t s e l f was d i v i d e d a t i t s most b a s i c l e v e l , b e f o r e i t s r i s e to power, i n t o f a s c i , themselves d i v i d e d i n t o s q u a d r i , m i l i t a r y u n i t s d e s i g n e d to e s t a b l i s h f a s c i s m as a m i l i t a r y f o r c e to be reckoned w i t h i n the s t r u g g l e f o r power w i t h the M a r x i s t s . Even when the s q u a d r i were d i s s o l v e d a f t e r the f a s c i s t s came to power, M u s s o l i n i r e f e r r e d to the f a s c i s t 57 m i l i t i a , the s o l e b e a r e r o f arms of a l l p a r t y format ions a t t h a t p o i n t , as "the a r i s t o c r a c y o f f a s c i s m . " 1 2 6 War was g l o r i f i e d i n M u s s o l i n i ' s s tatements and o f f i c i a l propaganda. "Even as a s o c i a l i s t M u s s o l i n i ' s use of language was r e p l e t e w i t h m i l i t a r y a l l u s i o n s . He s t a t e d 'War a l o n e . . . b r i n g s up to i t s h i g h e s t t e n s i o n a l l human energy and p u t s the stamp o f n o b i l i t y upon t h o s e p e o p l e s who have the c o u r a g e t o meet i t . ' " 1 2 7 The a v a n g u a r d i t i , the f a s c i s t y o u t h o r g a n i z a t i o n were o r g a n i z e d upon m i l i t a r y l i n e s w i t h the o b j e c t of g i v i n g y o u n g b o y s p r e m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g . 1 2 8 W a r f a r e and h e r o i c m i l i t a r y v a l u e s were s t r e s s e d i n o f f i c i a l propaganda , i n the e d u c a t i o n a l system the m i l i t a r y g l o r y and v i r t u e s o f a n c i e n t Rome were c o n s t a n t l y s t r e s s e d . F a s c i s t f o r m a t i o n s and youth o r g a n i z a t i o n s were o r g a n i z e d on m i l i t a r y l i n e s . T h i s a spec t o f f a s c i s t i d e o l o g y meshed w e l l w i t h I t a l y ' s e x p a n s i o n i s t f o r e i g n p o l i c y i n the 1 9 3 0 ' s , the conques t s o f E t h i o p i a and A l b a n i a b e i n g the apogee o f the t h r u s t o f I t a l i a n f a s c i s t m i l i t a r i s m . N a z i G e r m a n y a l s o e m p h a s i z e d , i n b o t h t h e o r y a n d p r a c t i c e , a m i l i t a r i s t i c v o c a t i o n f o r s o c i e t y . O n l y a v i g o r o u s race was f i t to s u r v i v e i n the s t r u g g l e f o r e x i s t e n c e tha t c h a r a c t e r i z e d the N a z i view of r e l a t i o n s between s t a t e s . H i t l e r s t a t e s i n Mein Kampf t h a t i t "was an a b s u r d i t y t o b e l i e v e t h a t w i t h the end o f the s c h o o l p e r i o d the s t a t e ' s r i g h t to s u p e r v i s e i t s young c i t i z e n s suddenly ceases . . . the f o l k i s h s t a t e w i l l have t o l o o k on p o s t s c h o o l p h y s i c a l 58 t r a i n i n g as a s t a t e f u n c t i o n . . . t h i s e d u c a t i o n i n i t s broad o u t l i n e s c a n s e r v e as a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r f u t u r e m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . " 1 2 9 The i n c u l c a t i o n o f m i l i t a r i s m and a t t i t u d e s of r u t h l e s s n e s s t o w a r d s o t h e r s t a t e s and p e o p l e s was a c o r e c o m p o n e n t o f N a z i i d e o l o g y a n d p r o p a g a n d a . N a z i p a r t y f o r m a t i o n s s u c h as t h e S A , SS and H i t l e r Y o u t h were a l l o r g a n i z e d a long m i l i t a r i s t i c l i n e s . N a z i m i l i t a r i s m was a key element i n i t s r a c i a l i d e o l o g y . H i t l e r s t a t e d i n Mein Kampf that o n l y by superabundance o f n a t i o n a l w i l l - p o w e r , t h i r s t f o r f r e e d o m and t h e h i g h e s t p a s s i o n w o u l d Germany g a i n t h e s t r e n g t h to smash t h e p o s t W o r l d War One w o r l d o r d e r . In N a z i i s m , as w e l l as i n I t a l i a n f a s c i s m , r e v o l u t i o n a r y dynamism bred m i l i t a r i s m . The c r e a t i o n o f a mass movement, c u l m i n a t i n g i n an a l l p o w e r f u l p a r t y i n a o n e - p a r t y s t a t e , w i t h the means and the w i l l t o u s e t h e m e d i a a n d t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m t o p r o p a g a n d i z e the p u b l i c was a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of both I t a l i a n f a s c i s m and German N a z i i s m . The t r a n s i t i o n f rom m a r g i n a l p o l i t i c o - m i l i t a r y f o r c e , through mass p a r t y o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n t h e d e s p i s e d p a r l i a m e n t a r y s y s t e m , t o t o t a l i t a r i a n a l l p e r v a s i v e p r e s e n c e and g u i d e to I t a l i a n s o c i e t y was f a i r l y r a p i d i n I t a l y . In f a c t the second s t a t e was almost e c l i p s e d . The f a s c i s t movement was s t i l l a q u a s i m i l i t a r y f o r m a t i o n when i t formed i t s a l l i a n c e w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l power c e n t e r s i n I t a l y , t h e C o u r t , t h e A r m y , t h e l a n d o w n e r s a n d t h e 59 b o u r g e o i s i e . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f the f a s c i s t p a r t y i t s e l f main ly took p l a c e when i t was a l r e a d y i n a p o s i t i o n to be the g u i d i n g f o r c e i n s o c i e t y . T h i s l a c k o f p a r t y s t r u c t u r e c o n t r i b u t e d to the f a c t t h a t I t a l i a n f a s c i s m never f a i l e d to c o m p l e t e l y d o m i n a t e I t a l i a n s o c i e t y , as o t h e r t o t a l i t a r i a n movements o f t h i s c e n t u r y have done ( t h e S o v i e t - C h i n e s e C o m m u n i s t s , a n d t o a s l i g h t l y l e s s e r e x t e n t , t h e German N a z i s ) . M u s s o l i n i ' s f a i l u r e t o l i q u i d a t e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l I t a l i a n power s t r u c t u r e , brought about by h i s e a r l y a l l i a n c e w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l I t a l i a n c o n s e r v a t i s m w h i c h made I t a l i a n f a s c i s m , and h i s f a i l u r e to i n t e g r a t e the masses i n t o the f a s c i s t s t a t e l e d t o , i n C a s s e l ' s o p i n i o n , the demise of the F a s c i s t r e v o l u t i o n . 1 3 0 N o n e t h e l e s s , the p a r t y c o n t r o l l e d e d u c a t i o n , the p r e s s , the c inema, and was the d i r e c t o r of the p o l i c e and the army as w e l l as the e c o n o m y . 1 3 1 By the l a t e 1920's , i t had become a mass p a r t y wi th membership i n both the "1 T O p a r t y and i t s a f f i l i a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s reach over m i l l i o n s . J * Whatever the depth o f i t s s u p p o r t , i t s c o n t r o l and presence was more than o b v i o u s . The N a z i s had more t ime to deve lop an i n t r i c a t e and l a r g e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n o t h e r words to deve lop as a mass p a r t y be fore they came to power i n 1933. L i k e the I t a l i a n f a s c i s t s , the N a z i s passed through t h e i r bapt i sm of f i r e w i t h i t s s t r e e t w a r f a r e w i t h German S o c i a l i s t s and communists i n the 1920's and 1 9 3 0 ' s , and the c o n c o m i t a n t deve lopment o f the q u a s i -m i l i t a r y arm of the NSDAP, the SA. U n l i k e the F a s c i s t s , the 60 N a z i s had t ime t o d e v e l o p t h e i r P o l i t i c a l O r g a n i z a t i o n (or P O ) . In the rough and tumble of d e m o c r a t i c e l e c t o r a l w a r f a r e , they had a l r e a d y e l e c t e d about a s i x t h of the d e p u t i e s to the R e i c h s t a g i n the 1930 e l e c t i o n s . The N a z i s a l r e a d y had a p o w e r f u l p a r t y s t r u c t u r e , as w e l l as a mass base from which to c o n q u e r , t h e n d o m i n a t e and permeate s t a t e and s o c i e t y once t h e y a c h i e v e d power . As i n I t a l y , the p a r t y , as w e l l as an a r r a y of p a r t y a f f i l i a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the SA, SS , N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t Womens L e a g u e (NS-Frauenschaften, N S F ) , t h e W i n t e r h e l p (Winterulfswerk, WHW), and the N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t W e l f a r e O r g a n i z a t i o n (NS-Volkswohlfart, NSU) as w e l l as the N a z i c o n t r o l l e d t r a d e unions (under Robert Ley) were a b l e to c o n t r o l the s t a t e and d o m i n a t e s o c i e t y , a f t e r t h e p a r t y a t t a i n e d p o w e r . 1 3 3 P a r t y members c o n t r o l l e d and s t a f f e d the b u r e a u c r a c y , s e t government p o l i c y , c o n t r o l l e d e d u c a t i o n and e n r o l l e d m i l l i o n s o f Germans as members i n the P a r t y and P a r t y a f f i l i a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The t i g h t e r c o n t r o l the N a z i s had over Germany r e l a t i v e to the c o n t r o l the F a s c i s t s had i n I t a l y may have stemmed f r o m the h i g h e r deve lopment o f the p a r t y s t r u c t u r e when t h e N a z i s came t o p o w e r , as w e l l as on Germany' s more e f f i c i e n t ( r e l a t i v e to I t a l y ) b u r e a u c r a c y and t e c h n o l o g y . Two e l e m e n t s o f N a z i p r a c t i c e , r e f l e c t e d i n N a z i i d e o l o g y , must be added to the e i g h t a forement ioned elements o f c l a s s i c f a s c i s m . These a r e r a d i c a l t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m and 61 a n t i - s e m i t i s m . A f a s c i s t movement or s t a t e i n the c l a s s i c sense must have the f i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A N a z i movement or regime must have the other two. The t o t a l i t a r i a n n a t u r e o f the N a z i reg ime became more e v i d e n t the l o n g e r i t was i n power, but was foreshadowed by some o f t h e e a r l y s t a t e m e n t s by H i t l e r a n d t h e p a r t y . C e r t a i n l y t h e i d e a o f Filhrerprinzip, o r t h e l e a d e r s h i p p r i n c i p l e , i s s t r e s s e d r e p e a t e d l y i n a l l o f t h e e a r l y documents o f the NSDAP, i n c l u d i n g Mein K a m p f . 1 3 4 Many o f the methods o f government were s i m i l a r to those o f F a s c i s t I t a l y . L a b o u r u n i o n s , t r a d e a n d c o m m e r c i a l a n d i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , f r a t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r s o c i a l purposes or f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n or m u t u a l a i d , w h i c h had e x i s t e d on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s and were s e l f - g o v e r n i n g , were e i t h e r wiped out or were taken over and r e s t a f f e d . 1 3 5 In the p u r e l y economic sphere , both l a b o u r and b u s i n e s s were r e g u l a t e d to the ex ten t t h a t i n Germany and I t a l y , p a r t y o f f i c i a l s c o n t r o l l e d the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y on b e h a l f o f t h e p a r t y . T h e i r d e c i s i o n s g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t e d a b i a s towards management, whose s u p p o r t they needed to b u i l d and m a i n t a i n a c o n t r o l l e d war e c o n o m y . 1 3 6 N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m r e v e a l e d i t s r a d i c a l t o t a l i t a r i a n t e n d e n c i e s , which set i t a p a r t from the a u t h o r i t a r i a n or " m i l d t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m " o r I t a l y , i t i t s u s e o f mass t e r r o r ( i n c l u d i n g g e n o c i d e ) t o a c h i e v e i t s a i m s . A c t s such as the e x t e r m i n a t i o n o f the J e w s , t h e murder o f a l m o s t 4 m i l l i o n 62 S o v i e t p r i s o n e r s o f war d u r i n g World War I I , and the murder by t h e N a z i a u t h o r i t i e s o f m i l l i o n s o f S o v i e t a n d P o l i s h c i v i l i a n s , i n d i c a t e how extreme the N a z i p r o g r a m was; how sharp a break i t was from any form of t r a d i t i o n a l c o n s e r v a t i s m or even any s o r t o f f a s c i s m p r a c t i c e d a t t h a t t i m e . To remold E u r o p e r a c i a l l y a l o n g b i o l o g i c a l l i n e s , H i t l e r , H i m m l e r , H e y d r i c h and t h e i r f o l l o w e r s were w i l l i n g to e x t e r m i n a t e e n t i r e r a c e s o f p e o p l e , even a t the expense o f i m m e d i a t e t a c t i c a l m i l i t a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . T h i s g e n o c i d a l h y p e r - r a c i s m e n t a i l e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e i d e o l o g i c a l d i s c o n t i n u i t y w i t h e i t h e r Weimar or t r a d i t i o n a l m o n a r c h i c a l Germany. The f i n a l b r e a k i n g of the o f f i c e r corps — the backbone o f the Junker c l a s s and the l a s t c o u n t e r w e i g h t to the p a r t y — a f t e r the J u l y 20th p l o t ; a n d t h e N a z i p l a n s to s u b s t i t u t e A r y a n p a g a n i s m o r N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t i d e o l o g y f o r C h r i s t i a n i t y , e n u n c i a t e d by Bormann and Rosenberg, h i g h l i g h t e d the d i r e c t i o n t h a t the N a z i s t a t e had taken by 1944, i n t o r a d i c a l t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m . I d e o l o g i c a l a n t i - s e m i t i s m , brought t o an apogee by the N a z i s i n the 20th c e n t u r y , d i f f e r e d from t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n a n t i - s e m i t i s m . The l a t t e r opposed the Jews as C h r i s t - k i l l e r s , a race c u r s e d by God f o r t h e i r f a i l u r e to accept C h r i s t as the Mess iah promised by the p r o p h e t s . The former emphasized t h e i r r o o t l e s s n e s s and t h e i r supposed m e r c a n t i l e s p i r i t . R i g h t - w i n g a n t i - s e m i t i c g r o u p s and p a r t i e s p r o l i f e r a t e d i n the l a t t e r p a r t o f the 19 th and e a r l y 20 th c e n t u r i e s , i n the A u s t r o -63 H u n g a r i a n Empire ( i n V i e n n a - K a r l L u e g e r ' s C h r i s t i a n S o c i a l P a r t y ) ; i n F r a n c e ( M a u r a s ' s A c t i o n F r a n c a i s e and the a n t i -D r e y f u s a r d s ) , and i n C z a r i s t R u s s i a (the B l a c k H u n d r e d s ) . The N a z i s may have g a i n e d much o f t h e i r i n i t i a l impetus i n 1919 from the a s s o c i a t i o n of Jewry and Bo l shev i sm t h a t arose i n the minds o f many B a v a r i a n r i g h t i s t s a f t e r the overthrow of the r e v o l u t i o n a r y s o c i a l i s t S o v i e t r e g i m e , t h e n l e d by K u r t E i s n e r , who was J e w i s h , a l o n g w i t h s e v e r a l o f h i s w e l l known a s s o c i a t e s . The N a z i s were not j u s t a n t i - s e m i t e s , but t h e i r a n t i -semit i sm and r a c i s m i n g e n e r a l stemmed from a c r u d e , v i r t u a l l y Darwin ian "b io log i sm" t h a t reduced the Jews i n p a r t i c u l a r , and a l s o the S l a v s and G y p s i e s and o t h e r " n o n - A r y a n " r a c e s or groups , t o the s t a t u s o f p l a n e t a r y b a c i l l i , an i n f e c t i o n t h a t they had e v e r y r i g h t t o c l e a n s e from the f a c e o f the e a r t h . In Mein Kampf, H i t l e r s t a t e s tha t the Jews — always p i c t u r e d as b e n t u p o n w o r l d d o m i n a t i o n t h r o u g h b o t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l f i n a n c e c a p i t a l i s m a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l Communism - - i f s u c c e s s f u l , would d e s t r o y h u m a n i t y , because they are such a l i f e - d e s t r o y i n g f o r c e . 1 3 7 T h i s a b s o l u t e dehumaniza t ion paved the way f o r the e x t e r m i n a t i o n camps, and c a r r i e d H i t l e r f a r beyond the theory or p r a c t i c e of any f a s c i s t n a t i o n up u n t i l t h e n . (Antonescu ' s Rumania b u t c h e r e d Jews i n l a r g e numbers i n World War I I ; Rumanian a n t i - s e m i t i s m under A n t o n e s c u ' s regime was a compound o f t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n a n t i - s e m i t i s m , and German p r e s s u r e . Antonescu b a r g a i n e d w i t h the Western A l l i e s 64 t o c u r r y f a v o u r w i t h them, and u s e d J e w i s h l i v e s as the c u r r e n c y . ) F a s c i s m must t h u s be f u r t h e r d e f i n e d as i n c l u s i v e or e x c l u s i v e . What i s meant by e x c l u s i v e f a s c i s m i s the c l a s s i c f a s c i s m o f G e r m a n y a n d I t a l y , w h i c h i n c l u d e s t h e f i v e a forement ioned p o i n t s . I n c l u s i v e f a s c i s m — the f a s c i s m , f o r i n s t a n c e , o f P i n o c h e t ' s C h i l e , where d i c t a t o r i a l power i s not b u i l t on one p a r t y , or the r o l e of the s t a t e i s downplayed by the economic l i b e r t a r i a n s of the P i n o c h e t regime (the q u e s t i o n of s t a t e c a p i t a l i s m and the r e a l i t y o f the market i s one tha t s h o u l d be l e f t a s i d e ) — need not have a l l o f these t r a i t s . " I n c l u s i v e " f a s c i s m c o u l d i n c l u d e a l l o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e x c l u s i v e f a s c i s m , but u s u a l l y mutes one or more. I t i s o f t e n t i e d to more r e l i g i o u s c o n c e p t i o n s o f e x i s t e n c e , and o f t e n a l l o w s the o l d r u l i n g c l a s s to e x e r c i s e more i n f l u e n c e . The f a s c i s t movements o f the E a s t e r n European s t a t e s i n the i n t e r - w a r p e r i o d m a n i f e s t e d t h e s e i n c l u s i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 1 3 8 So d i d the l a t e r F a l a n g i s m of pos t -1936 F r a n c o - r u l e d S p a i n . N a z i i s m went beyond F a s c i s t p r a c t i c e . C l a s s i c f a s c i s m of t h e I t a l i a n m o d e l i n c l u d e d s e v e r a l f e a t u r e s : (1 ) an a u t h o r i t a r i a n , l e a d e r - c e n t r e d o r i e n t a t i o n , (2) a r i g h t - w i n g , a n t i - C o m m u n i s t p o s i t i o n , (3) a base o f s u p p o r t amongst the midd le c l a s s , w i t h the c o o p t i n g of the t r a d i t i o n a l e l i t e , (4) extreme e t h n i c or n a t i o n a l i s t c h a u v i n i s m (sometimes w i t h an 65 i m p e r i a l i s t i c f l a v o u r ) , and (5) an a m b i v a l e n t r e a c t i o n t o m o d e r n i t y . I t a l s o i n c l u d e d 6) the c u l t o f the l e a d e r , 7) m i l i t a r i s t i c s t r u c t u r e and v o c a t i o n f o r s o c i e t y , and 8) the c r e a t i o n o f a mass movement a n d a l l o f i t s a t t e n d a n t p a r a p h e r n a l i a were a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c l a s s i c f a s c i s m . N a z i i s m added r a d i c a l t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m and p s e u d o - s c i e n t i f i c a n t i - s e m i t i s m to the m i x . Any movement or government t h a t l a y s c l a i m to the f i r s t e i g h t b e l i e f s or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o u l d be p r o p e r l y d e s c r i b e d as f a s c i s t ; any p a r t y or regime t h a t adhered to the two a s s o c i a t e d w i t h German N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m , as N a z i . 66 CHAPTER I V There have been a great many movements and governments i n t h i s century that have been c a l l e d f a s c i s t . The German Nazis c e r t a i n l y q u a l i f y as f a s c i s t , by the f i v e - p a r t t e s t adumbrated e a r l i e r , and i n f a c t they go beyond c l a s s i c f a s c i s m of the I t a l i a n mold i n t h e i r extreme t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m and i n t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e a n t i - s e m i t i c r a c i s t i d e o l o g y . The N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y , however, cannot be d e s c r i b e d as f u l l y f a s c i s t or f u l l y N a z i ; and yet can be c a l l e d f a s c i s t , and somewhat open to Nazi i d e o l o g y . T h i s ambiguous r e l a t i o n to f a s c i s m of the HNP masks more than mere opportunism, although t h i s accounts i n p a r t f o r the HNP 1s s h i f t i n g views on N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m . The HNP' s a m b i v a l e n c e a b o u t N a z i i s m may a l s o r e f l e c t t h e l a c k o f understanding of N a z i i s m by l e a d i n g N a t i o n a l i s t p o l i t i c i a n s , and b r i n g s t o l i g h t c e r t a i n c o r e f u n d a m e n t a l b e l i e f s o f A f r i k a n e r C h r i s t i a n N a t i o n a l i s m unique to that i d e o l o g y . The N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y c l e a r l y seemed to envisage d u r i n g the war years a more a u t h o r i t a r i a n regime f o r South A f r i c a . The U n i t y C o m m i t t e e ( h e a d e d by Du P l e s s i s ) drew up a " D e c l a r a t i o n on Behalf of Volksorganisies", which was accepted by the N a t i o n a l i s t Party and passed at i t s Union Congress i n 1941, and had s t r o n g a u t h o r i t a r i a n o v e r t o n e s . 1 3 9 A great d e a l o f N a t i o n a l i s t r h e t o r i c d u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s d e f i n i t e l y i n d i c a t e d the need f o r some s o r t of a u t h o r i t a r i a n regime f o r S outh a f r i c a , once the r e p u b l i c was a c h i e v e d . From B . J . V o r s t e r , who e q u a t e d C h r i s t i a n N a t i o n a l i s m w i t h N a t i o n a l 67 S o c i a l i s m o r f a s c i s m , to D r . M a l a n h i m s e l f , who s t a t e d a t S t e l l e n b o s c h i n M a r c h 1941 t h a t "when t h e r e p u b l i c i s e s t a b l i s h e d , you can o n l y g i v e a say i n a f f a i r s to people who have i d e n t i f i e d themse lves w i t h the volk, and who have had enough t ime to do s o , " 1 4 0 NP and o t h e r A f r i k a n e r r e p u b l i c a n l e a d e r s i d e n t i f i e d themse lves w i t h a u t h o r i t a r i a n p r i n c i p l e s . The same month M a l a n spoke a t S t e l l e n b o s c h , t h e F e d e r a l C o u n c i l o f the NP put out a b r o c h u r e , Die Republikense Orde, which s t a t e d t h a t "the B r i t i s h p a r l i a m e n t a r y system as a p p l i e d i n our c o u n t r y must be swept away, b e c a u s e i t has been a f a i l u r e . . . Is not the time r i p e f o r us to base our n a t i o n a l way o f l i f e upon a n o t h e r f o u n d a t i o n by b r e a k i n g away from d e m o c r a c y . " 1 4 1 C l e a r l y t h e N P , a l o n g w i t h t h e r e s t o f N a t i o n a l i s t A f r i k a n e r d o m , was d r i f t i n g towards f a v o u r i n g an a u t h o r i t a r i a n system i n the e a r l y years o f World War I I , when i t l ooked as though a f a s c i s t w o r l d was about to emerge. I t must be k e p t i n m i n d , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e r e were d i f f e r e n t c u r r e n t s w i t h i n the NP on t h i s i s s u e and o t h e r s , w i t h men l i k e S t r i j d o m , V o e r w o e r d and E r i c Louw a d h e r i n g to more extreme p o s i t i o n s than D r . M a l a n . Malan was more c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h the p a r l i a m e n t a r y p r o c e s s than Voerwoerd and S t r i j d o m , who were more i d e o l o g i c a l l y d r i v e n , as many o f the "young T u r k s " o f A f r i k a n e r N a t i o n a l i s m were i n the 1930*s, and l e s s t r u s t i n g o f democrat i c means of p e r s u a s i o n than N a t i o n a l i s t p o l i t i c i a n s o f the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n , such as H e r t z o g and M a l a n , who were more - I / O guided by exped iency and compromise. ^ 68 T h e r e was f a s c i s t and N a z i i n f l u e n c e on the NP d u r i n g t h i s t ime , which p r e d i s p o s e d many NP l e a d e r s and rank and f i l e p a r t y members t o f a v o u r t h e c r e a t i o n o f an a u t h o r i t a r i a n A f r i k a n e r r e p u b l i c . There was, however, a s t r o n g , l a r g e l y i n d i g e n o u s t r a d i t i o n p r e d i s p o s i n g l o y a l sons o f "the volk" towards a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m as w e l l . The A f r i k a n e r p o p u l a t i o n had been a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y C a l v i n i s t i n t h e i r r e l i g i o u s o r i e n t a t i o n s i n c e the D u t c h s t a r t e d to s e t t l e South A f r i c a . Adherents of the C a l v i n i s m o f the Synod o f D o r t (1618) , the A f r i k a n e r s r e s h a p e d C a l v i n i s t t h e o l o g y , w h i c h e m p h a s i z e s t h e s o v e r e i g n t y o f God i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e , i n t o the a b s o l u t e s o v e r e i g n t y o f God, and h i s a n o i n t e d the e l e c t , i n the n a t i o n ' s l i f e . John C a l v i n , the F r e n c h P r o t e s t a n t r e f o r m e r , viewed s a l v a t i o n , which came on ly through C h r i s t , as the ac t of God a l o n e . Through G o d ' s g r a c e , c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s , t h e e l e c t , w e r e d i v i n e l y p r e o r d a i n e d by God f o r s a l v a t i o n . " G o d ' s e l e c t i o n i s g r a t u i t o u s ; human b e i n g s can do n o t h i n g toward s a l v a t i o n on t h e i r own, a n d e l e c t i o n i s i n no way d e p e n d e n t on o n e ' s a c t i o n s , good works , or the p o s s i b i l i t y that God can foreknow one w i l l be f a i t h f u l and hence e l e c t tha t person a c c o r d i n g l y . On the o ther h a n d , that c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s are not e l e c t e d i s not a n e g a t i o n o f G o d ' s mercy and k i n d n e s s , b u t r e f l e c t s d e s e r v e d punishment f o r t h e i r own w i l l f u l s i n n i n g . " 1 4 3 The t h r e e Dutch Reformed Churches o f South A f r i c a , t o which over n i n e t y p e r c e n t o f t h e A f r i k a n e r p o p u l a t i o n h a v e a l w a y s 69 a d h e r e d , have a lways u p h e l d t h i s s t r i c t p r e d e s t i n a r i a n i s m , which r e j e c t s sacraments and other human a c t i o n s as a means to g r a c e . T h i s " C h r i s t i a n " h a l f o f A f r i k a n e r C h r i s t i a n N a t i o n a l i s m was m o d i f i e d by South A f r i c a n c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The A f r i k a n e r s began t o see themse lves as an e l e c t g r o u p , or r a c e , as t ime went on; and the concept o f God's a b s o l u t e s o v e r e i g n t y i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e , w h i l e i t c o n t i n u e d to e x i s t i n the t h e o l o g y of the t h r e e Dutch Reformed Churches , was t r a n s f e r r e d to the p o l i t i c a l a n d s o c i a l s p h e r e . T h e y b e l i e v e d t h e y w e r e f u l f i l l i n g a C h r i s t i a n i z i n g , c i v i l i z i n g r o l e i n A f r i c a , b r i n g i n g l i g h t i n t o the h e a r t o f the "dark c o n t i n e n t . " A t l e a s t t h i s i s the myth o f contemporary A f r i k a n e r N a t i o n a l i s t i d e o l o g y as i t has deve loped from the 19th c e n t u r y u n t i l now. T h i s v i e w saw t h e s u b j u g a t i o n o f the n o n - w h i t e s o f S o u t h A f r i c a not as the r e s u l t o f a c o n d i t i o n o f whi te l a w l e s s n e s s , present amongst the Trekboers and l a t e r the Voortrekkers, but as a d i v i n e l y o r d a i n e d ' c l e a r i n g ' o f heathens to s e c u r e the ' p r o m i s e d l a n d ' f o r A f r i k a n e r d o m . T h i s r o m a n t i c i z e d view o f the s p r e a d o f Boer d o m i n a t i o n may not r e f l e c t the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n s or s e l f a p p r a i s a l of the Trekboers or Voortrekkers, but may be a product o f A f r i k a n e r N a t i o n a l i s t i d e o l o g y as i t has d e v e l o p e d from the 19th c e n t u r y onwards . H i e r a r c h y , a d i v i n e l y i n s t i t u t e d p r i n c i p l e amongst the r a c e s , whose r i g i d s t r a t i f i c a t i o n was a d i v i n e l y p r e o r d a i n e d c o n d i t i o n , a l s o became a g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e amongst the A f r i k a n e r N a t i o n a l i s t s 70 o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y , as w e l l as t h e 2 0 t h . As the B o e r s e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r r e p u b l i c s a f t e r the Great T r e k , they began t o see t h e i r t r i u m p h as p r o o f o f G o d ' s d i v i n e e l e c t i o n o f t h e i r p e o p l e , not j u s t of themselves as i n d i v i d u a l s , as C a l v i n had i n t e n d e d . 1 4 4 Those on top were on top because o f God' s w i l l ; t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h e i r s o c i a l e l e c t i o n . 1 4 5 The A f r i k a n e r " C h r i s t i a n N a t i o n a l i s t " p h i l o s o p h e r s o f the 2 0 t h c e n t u r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y from the 1930's o n , c a r r i e d the p r i n c i p l e o f d i v i n e l y o r d a i n e d h i e r a r c h y , s o c i e t y r e s t i n g on G o d ' s s o v e r e i g n t y , t o a l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n . U n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f the r i s i n g t i d e o f f a s c i s m i n the 1930's and the e a r l y 1 9 4 0 ' s , A f r i k a n e r N a t i o n a l i s t thought , both w i t h i n and o u t s i d e of the NP, c a l l e d f o r an a u t h o r i t a r i a n s t a t e s t r u c t u r e once the A f r i k a n e r s t a t e was e s t a b l i s h e d . As t h e a b s o l u t e s o v e r e i g n t y o f God i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e , which was e v i d e n t i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s e l e c t i o n , had g i v e n way to the e l e c t i o n o f the community, w i t h God s o v e r e i g n , so the e l e c t community had g i v e n way to the e l e c t l e a d e r s h i p w i t h i n the male community. D r . N . D i e d r i c h s , a p r o f e s s o r o f p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y at Grey U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e of the F r e e S t a t e , p u b l i s h e d a s t u d y o f n a t i o n a l i s m as a w o r l d - v i e w i n 1 9 3 6 . 1 4 6 D i e d r i c h s , as a member o f the B r o e d e r b o n d , e x p r e s s e d the f i n a l e v o l u t i o n o f t h e o r e t i c a l n a t i o n a l i s m , as propounded by the B r o e d e r b o n d . 1 4 7 D i e d r i c h s ' n a t i o n a l i s m saw the i n d i v i d u a l as the s e r v a n t o f the f o l k community; the i n d i v i d u a l man was an a b s t r a c t i o n t h a t d i d not e x i s t , f or man was c a l l e d to be a member o f the 71 n a t i o n . 1 4 0 T h e n e c e s s a r y l i n k b e t w e e n r e l i g i o n a n d o r g a n i c i s t , a u t h o r i t a r i a n n a t i o n a l i s m i s made e x p l i c i t by D i e d r i c h s : T h e h i g h e s t o r d e r , t h a t n a t i o n - t r a n s c e n d i n g t e r r i t o r y w h e r e n a t i o n s m e e t o t h e r i n a complementary way, cannot be seen i n any other than a r e l i g i o u s l i g h t . In r e l i g i o n e v e r y human l i f e , e v e r y n a t i o n , d i s c o v e r s i t s g r o u n d i n g and meaning. W i t h o u t a r e l i g i o u s p o i n t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p and an u l t i m a t e o b j e c t , t h e u n i v e r s e , t h e n a t i o n , i s i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e , s e n s e l e s s and p u r p o s e l e s s . . . The n a t i o n c o n t a i n s the essence of b e i n g human. I t i s the form o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s p i r i t u a l r e a l i z a t i o n and p e r f e c t i o n . 1 4 9 For D i e d r i c h s and h i s Broederbond c o l l e a g u e s , the i n d i v i d u a l was a b s o l u t e l y s u b o r d i n a t e to the n a t i o n , a view which was a t o t a l r e p u d i a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l l i b e r a l i s m . 1 5 0 T h i s o r g a n i c i s t v i e w o f s t a t e a n d s o c i e t y r e f l e c t e d t h e A f r i k a n e r B r o e d e r b o n d ' s deep c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the A f r i k a n e r s had to be l e d and d i r e c t e d l i k e an army, to a c h i e v e A f r i k a n e r dominance i n S o u t h A f r i c a , w h e r e t h e y w o u l d d o m i n a t e a C h r i s t i a n N a t i o n a l R e p u b l i c . The B r o e d e r b o n d would c o n t r o l , t h r o u g h C h r i s t i a n N a t i o n a l i n d o c t r i n a t i o n i n the s c h o o l s , t h r o u g h s u p e r v i s i o n of "Die Volk" i n the v a r i o u s volksorganisies ( the RDB, the c h u r c h e s , e t c . ) , through r i g o r o u s s e g r e g a t i o n o f the r a c e s and c o n t r o l , a n d by t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f i m p e r i a l i s t i n f l u e n c e i n South A f r i c a , a l l a s p e c t s o f South A f r i c a n l i f e . The A f r i k a n e r e l i t e was i t s e l f to be c l o s e l y m o n i t o r e d and g u i d e d . The NP d u r i n g the war was grooming D r . M a l a n f o r n e a r - d i c t a t o r i a l powers i f power f e l l t o t h e m . 1 5 1 T h i s s h i f t 72 t o w a r d s p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m , a g a i n s t B r i t i s h l i b e r a l i s m , away from the p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y of a d u l t , w h i t e , ma le P r o t e s t a n t A f r i k a n e r s , was the key change f r o m 1 9 t h c e n t u r y A f r i k a n e r p o l i t i c a l thought and p r a c t i c e . Whi l e a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m c l e a r l y had i t s r o o t s i n A f r i k a n e r p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s c u l t u r e and t h o u g h t , i t was not a necessary development . The a u t h o r i t a r i a n t e n d e n c i e s o f the NP i n the 1930's and 1940's were a l o g i c a l deve lopment o f the A f r i k a n e r s ' h i s t o r y , but not the o n l y p o s s i b l e one , f o r the o l d r e p u b l i c s had i n c l u d e d many d e m o c r a t i c p r a c t i c e s . The r i s e o f f a s c i s m and N a z i i s m i n E u r o p e , h o w e v e r , c l e a r l y r e i n f o r c e d the NP' s a u t h o r i t a r i a n d r i f t . The HNP d r i f t e d towards a d v o c a t i n g a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m i n t h e e l a t e . 1 9 3 0 ' s , c o m p l e t i n g t h e s h i f t f r o m r e p u b l i c a n d e m o c r a t i c t h o u g h t , a l t h o u g h they c o n t i n u e d to o p e r a t e as a democra t i c p a r t y . The NP would not have been p r e c l u d e d from s e t t i n g up an a u t h o r i t a r i a n s t a t e i n S o u t h A f r i c a m e r e l y b e c a u s e o f t h e i r c o n t i n u o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n S o u t h A f r i c a n p o l i t i c s as a d e m o c r a t i c p a r t y from 1913 on . The German N a z i s s a t i n the R e i c h s t a g as an independent group from 1928 o n , (a l though they s a t w i t h o ther Volkisch d e p u t i e s as p a r t of a f a r - r i g h t g r o u p i n g from 1921 u n t i l 1928), and o p e r a t e d w i t h i n d e m o c r a t i c r u l e s t o the e x t e n t o f c o l l a b o r a t i n g w i t h t h e Communists to b r i n g the Papen government down on a mot ion o f no c o n f i d e n c e i n December 1932. The N a z i s p l a y e d a d o u b l e game of p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n i s m and a n t i - p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n i s m d u r i n g 73 most of the Weimar p e r i o d . The d e m o c r a t i c a l l y e l e c t e d F r e n c h Senate and N a t i o n a l Assembly v o t e d themse lves out o f power, which they p l a c e d i n M a r s h a l P e t a i n ' s hands i n J u l y 1940, by an overwhelming m a j o r i t y . Prominent d e m o c r a t i c c o n s e r v a t i v e F r e n c h p o l i t i c i a n s o f the l a t e r T h i r d R e p u b l i c — L a v a l , F l a n d i n , C h a u t e m p s , B o n n e t t , A n a t o l e de M o n z i e — h e l p e d i n a u g u r a t e the moderate f a s c i s t V i c h y r e g i m e . W h i l e o v e r t a n t i - d e m o c r a t i c t h o u g h t i n F r a n c e c i r c u l a t e d amongst the f a s c i s t gangs , such as La R o c q u e ' s Croix de Feu or D o r i o t ' s PNF, the "democrat ic" r i g h t , more a f r a i d o f Communism at home and a b r o a d and Leon B l u m ' s P o p u l a r F r o n t t h a n f a s c i s m , 1 5 2 r e a d i l y jumped a t the chance t o e s t a b l i s h an a u t h o r i t a r i a n r i g h t i s t regime when c i r c u m s t a n c e s a l l owed f o r i t . 1 5 3 (Some d i d so more e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y than o t h e r s , such as L a v a l . ) The f a s c i s t i d e o l o g y o f M a u r r a s and the a c t i o n F r a n c a i s e had p e n e t r a t e d d e e p l y ( d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y ) the minds of many o f the l e a d i n g o f f i c i a l s , c i v i l i a n and m i l i t a r y , o f F r e n c h R e p u b l i c a n d e m o c r a c y . 1 5 4 Even the French d e m o c r a t i c l e f t was not who l ly immune from the d r i f t towards a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m . 1 5 5 In S o u t h A f r i c a a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m was v e i l e d amongst C h r i s t i a n N a t i o n a l i s m ' s p a r l i a m e n t a r y c h a m p i o n i n t h e democrat ic forum, but j u s t b a r e l y . The N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y , to say the l e a s t , c l e a r l y d i d not r e p u d i a t e the a n t i - d e m o c r a t i c c u r r e n t c i r c u l a t i n g w i t h i n t h e u p p e r e c h e l o n s o f t h e B r o e d e r b o n d , or w i t h i n the e x t r a - p a r l i a m e n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c h as t h e O s s e w a B r a n d w a g . The B r o e d e r b o n d a n d t h e 74 N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y t a l k e d o f an A f r i k a n e r r e p u b l i c i n o r g a n i c , c o r p o r a t i s t t e r m s , not s p e c i f i c a l l y c a l l i n g f o r a o n e - p a r t y s t a t e . As the AB s e c r e t a r y s t a t e d i n an a r t i c l e p r i n t e d i n the B l o e m f o n t e i n E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e newspaper the Friend, on Dec. 14, 1944, "The aim o f the B r o e d e r b o n d , taken l i t e r a l l y from the c o n s t i t u t i o n . . . a h e a l t h y p r o g r e s s i v e u n a n i m i t y among a l l A f r i k a n e r s who s t r i v e f o r t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e A f r i k a n e r n a t i o n . " 1 5 6 Unanimi ty exc luded Smuts, H e r t z o g and a l l A f r i k a n e r s who d i d not submit to the d i c t a t e s of the i n n e r c i r c l e o f the AB. The t r u e A f r i k a n e r was t o have s o l e power i n South A f r i c a i n a C h r i s t i a n N a t i o n a l R e p u b l i c . The methods and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the German N a z i s were s t u d i e d to a t t a i n t h i s , and p r o m i n e n t B r o e d e r s l i k e D i e d r i c h s , Meyer and Van Rensburg had v i s i t e d Germany b e f o r e the war to make a c l o s e study of N a z i t echn iques o f propaganda, m a n i p u l a t i o n o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n , and i n f i l t r a t i o n o f p u b l i c b o d i e s . 1 5 7 Whatever the p r e c i s e form of N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y r u l e e n v i s a g e d by AB and NP l e a d e r s ( the two were more or l e s s the same), an a u t h o r i t a r i a n s t a t e w o u l d have been e s t a b l i s h e d by the NP v e r y w i l l i n g l y where i t would have been i m p o s s i b l e to remove the NP t h r o u g h e l e c t o r a l or o t h e r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l means, i n the event o f a German v i c t o r y i n World War I I , w i t h a consequent new f a s c i s t world order- . The NP d i d not c o n c e a l i t s r i g h t - w i n g p o s i t i o n d u r i n g the war. Now, r i g h t - w i n g i s a term which c o v e r s a l o t o f g r o u n d . 75 D u r i n g t h i s c e n t u r y i t has come to mean Burkean c o n s e r v a t i v e , L i b e r t a r i a n c a p i t a l i s t , f e u d a l , r e l i g i o u s c o n s e r v a t i v e , defender o f any s t a t u s quo p o s i t i o n (even h a r d - l i n e S t a l i n i s t s i n R u s s i a o r C h i n a i n t h e 1 9 8 0 ' s a r e o f t e n d e s c r i b e d as " c o n s e r v a t i v e s " ) . Almost the o n l y common q u a l i t y t h a t a l l o f t h e s e p o s i t i o n s have i s t h e i r ant i -Communism. T h i s i s not enough to c o n s i d e r something or someone r i g h t - w i n g . Western S o c i a l - D e m o c r a t s s u c h as Hugh G a i t s k i l l i n t h e 1950 ' s and 1 9 6 0 ' s w e r e s t r o n g l y a n t i - C o m m u n i s t , as w e r e A m e r i c a n Democrats s u c h as Lyndon B a i n e s J o h n s o n . H e r e , r i g h t - w i n g w i l l mean be ing ant i -Communis t and a n t i - h u m a n i s t . A r i g h t i s t p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n w i l l be d e f i n e d as one that i s opposed to C o m m u n i s m , a n d o p p o s e d t o a g e n e r a l l e v e l i n g o f c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s or r a c i a l b a r r i e r s i n some s i g n i f i c a n t way. A r i g h t - w i n g movement or government c o u l d be a n t i - l a i s s e z - f a i r e , as were f a s c i s t reg imes such as N a z i Germany, F a s c i s t I t a l y and F a l a n g i s t S p a i n , and c o u l d even f a v o u r some measure o f g o v e r n m e n t a c t i o n a n d t o s e c u r e e m p l o y m e n t o r w e l f a r e b e n e f i t s . I f s u c h p o l i c i e s e x i s t and a r e a d v o c a t e d by the group i n q u e s t i o n , however, i n terms of anti-Communism as an i n t e r n a l or f o r e i g n p o l i c y , and i f they a r e l i m i t e d to one r a c i a l or e t h n i c group w h i l e o t h e r s are s u p p r e s s e d , w i t h i n the c o u n t r y , or by i m p e r i a l i s t i c w a r s o f a g g r e s s i o n , and i f c o n s i d e r a b l e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d i f f e r e n c e s based on ownership o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y s t i l l e x i s t w i t h i n the s t a t e o r group i n 76 q u e s t i o n , t h e n one c a n , w i t h o u t r e s e r v a t i o n , d e f i n e s u c h a movement or government as r i g h t - w i n g . By the a forement ioned d e f i n i t i o n the NP adopted a r i g h t -wing s t a n c e d u r i n g W o r l d War I I . I t was m i l i t a n t l y a n t i -Communist b o t h a t home and a b r o a d . The sympathy t h a t NP l e a d e r s l i k e H e r t z o g and Malan had expressed f o r S o v i e t R u s s i a i n the e a r l y 1920's had long s i n c e been superseded by e v e n t s . When the South A f r i c a n Communist P a r t y d e c l a r e d i n favour o f a N a t i v e R e p u b l i c i n 1928, i t put i t s e l f and the i d e o l o g y i t r e p r e s e n t e d o u t o f t h e m a i n s t r e a m o f W h i t e S o u t h A f r i c a n p o l i t i c s . In e f f e c t , i t made i t s e l f anathema to the Whi te working c l a s s o f South A f r i c a . The NP d i d not make much of t h e a n t i - C o m m u n i s t i s s u e u n t i l t h e l a t e 1 9 3 0 ' s , as t h e i d e o l o g i c a l p o l a r i z a t i o n be tween f a s c i s m o r N a z i i s m a n d Communism became more o f an i s s u e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s . D u r i n g the war, the NP d i s p l a y e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a n t i p a t h y t o w a r d s S o v i e t R u s s i a and m i l i t a n t o p p o s i t i o n to what i t c o n s i d e r e d t o be C o m m u n i s t - i n s p i r e d labour a g i t a t i o n amongst t h e n a t i v e s , and e v e n amongs t W h i t e w o r k e r s . A f t e r t h e N a t i o n a l i s t v i c t o r y i n 1948, the new NP M i n i s t e r o f Labour b o a s t e d o f t h e a n t i - C o m m u n i s t impetus o f t h e B r o e d e r b o n d -e s t a b l i s h e d Blanke Werkersbeskermingsbond ( W h i t e W o r k e r s P r o t e c t i o n L e a g u e ) . The BWBB was set up to wean White workers away f r o m c l a s s - o r i e n t e d u n i o n s w h i c h m i g h t s t r e s s c l a s s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , even w i t h n o n - W h i t e w o r k e r s , over n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y . 1 5 8 77 The NP a s s o c i a t e d S o v i e t R u s s i a w i t h c l a s s i d e o l o g y a t home, and opposed b o t h m i l i t a n t l y d u r i n g Wor ld War I I . Of course the South A f r i c a n labour movement was not dominated by Communists . There were Communists or M a r x i s t s i n the l a b o u r movement, such as e x - S o u t h A f r i c a n Communist P a r t y member S o l l y Sachs , who was p r e s i d e n t o f Garment Workers ' U n i o n ( p a r t o f t h e o l d S o u t h A f r i c a n T r a d e a n d L a b o u r C o u n c i l , t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n body o f most S o u t h A f r i c a n u n i o n s ) , o r Ray A l e x a n d e r , S e c r e t a r y o f the Food and Canning Workers ' U n i o n , but the SATLC was not dominated by Communists a t any t i m e . Most o f i t s members were a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the Labour P a r t y , which was a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the Second I n t e r n a t i o n a l , the w o r l d -i c q wide S o c i a l - D e m o c r a t i c movement. J : * T h e C o m m u n i s t P a r t y o f S o u t h A f r i c a o p p o s e d t h e i n f i l t r a t i o n o f f a s c i s m i n South A f r i c a to the b e s t o f i t s a b i l i t y d u r i n g t h e 1 9 3 0 ' s . W h i t e w o r k e r s m u s t e r e d t h e i r f o r c e s to defeat the Broederbond at tempts to c a p t u r e or s p l i t t r a d e u n i o n s . 1 6 0 L a b o u r l e a d e r s such as Johanna C o r n e l i u s , P r e s i d e n t o f t h e T r a n s v a a l G o v e r n m e n t W o r k e r s U n i o n , J . W o l m a r a n s , C h a i r m a n o f the T e x t i l e U n i o n , H . S . C a m p r e c h t s , S e c r e t a r y of the L e a t h e r W o r k e r s ' U n i o n (Gideon) and o t h e r s spoke to r u r a l a u d i e n c e s about the d a n g e r s o f f a s c i s m and w a r . 1 6 1 The League A g a i n s t F a s c i s m and War was formed i n M a r c h 1934 by t r a d e u n i o n i s t s , c o m m u n i s t s , L a b o u r p a r t y members, F r i e n d s o f the S o v i e t Union and r a d i c a l s o c i e t i e s . ° 78 T h e r e i s no d o u b t , however , t h a t the NP was g e n u i n e l y a f r a i d o f any h i n t of M a r x i s t or Communist i n f l u e n c e i n South A f r i c a , f o r an i d e o l o g y o f c l a s s , whether Communist or S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c , u l t i m a t e l y cut a t the h e a r t o f the N a t i o n a l i s t w o r l d - v i e w . T h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the Labour P a r t y d u r i n g the 1920's and e a r l y 1930's was based on a t a c t i c a l a l l i a n c e o f d e f e n d i n g c e r t a i n i n t e r e s t s o f the W h i t e , and f o r the NP p a r t i c u l a r l y , the A f r i k a n e r w o r k e r . As l o n g as the Labour Par ty was i t s e l f r a c i s t and d i d not press for s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f the economy, the NP c o u l d a f f o r d an a l l i a n c e w i t h i t . The NP w a n t e d t o c r e a t e a m o n g s t t h e W h i t e w o r k e r s a " l a b o u r a r i s t o c r a c y " t h a t w o u l d be a c o n t e n t e d component o f t h e n a t i o n a l ( A f r i k a n e r ) l i f e . The v e r y idea of B o l s h e v i s m was a d i r e c t a s s a u l t on the N a t i o n a l i s t w o r l d - v i e w , f o r M a r x i s m aimed at a l l humanity r e c o v e r i n g i t s e s s e n t i a l " s p e c i e s - b e i n g " i n f u l l Communism or s o c i a l i s m , where for the N a t i o n a l i s t , h i s C h r i s t i a n and n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y was h i s e s sence . The German N a z i s a l s o s t r e s s e d the u n i t y o f "die Volk, : the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the worker wi th h i s f a t h e r l a n d and h i s r a c e , o v e r a n d a b o v e any i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r i n t e r r a c i a l c o n n e c t i o n s . I t d i d not matter to the l e a d e r s h i p o f the NSDAP t h a t the German Communists c o u l d have e a s i l y been suppres sed by the Re ichswehr i n 1932, or t h a t S t a l i n d i d not want war w i t h Germany i n 1941; the l e a d i n g N a z i s saw a p o t e n t i a l t h r e a t , and t h e i r f o r e m o s t i d e o l o g i c a l a d v e r s a r y , i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l Communist movement. To the N a t i o n a l i s t s i n 79 South A f r i c a , Communism or r a d i c a l s o c i a l i s m was never an immediate a d v e r s a r y , except i n the s t r u g g l e for c o n t r o l o f the T r a d e U n i o n m o v e m e n t , b u t i t was p a r t o f t h e l o o m i n g c a t a s t r o p h e which l i b e r a l i s m and race mix ture h e r a l d e d . The N a t i o n a l i s t s opposed laissez-faire c a p i t a l i s m . 1 6 3 Some, i n the N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y , a c t u a l l y d i d s i n c e r e l y s t r e s s the " S o c i a l i s t " element of what they unders tood to be N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m . To most N a t i o n a l i s t s , however, what was neces sary was a s ta t e -managed c a p i t a l i s m t h a t a l l owed the A f r i k a n e r s a p i e c e o f the economic p i e , and enough s t a t e c o n t r o l s to have a s o r t o f " w e l f a r e c a p i t a l i s m " f o r W h i t e , and p a r t i c u l a r l y A f r i k a n e r w o r k e r s . 1 6 4 T h i s was a p o s i t i o n t h a t m o s t Broederbond members and NP l e a d e r s (the two were e s s e n t i a l l y the same) s u b s c r i b e d t o , the e x c e p t i o n be ing OB m i l i t a n t s such as Meyer , who d i d emphasize the S o c i a l i s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m . German N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m never a b o l i s h e d c a p i t a l i s m . I t managed i t , even t i g h t l y c o n t r o l l e d i t so as to h a r n e s s German i n d u s t r y to the needs o f a wary economy. Some e a r l y p a r t s o f the N a z i programme were s i m i l a r to NP p o l i c y i n the d e n u n c i a t i o n o f " f inance c a p i t a l i s m and c a l l i n g f o r i t s c o n t r o l or e l i m i n a t i o n by and on b e h a l f of the volk c o m m u n i t y . 1 6 5 I t might be added here t h a t "s tate -managed" c a p i t a l i s m has been p a r t o f the A f r i k a n e r h e r i t a g e s i n c e the 1 8 9 0 ' s . The s t a t e was i n v o l v e d i n the deve lopment o f the g o l d - m i n i n g i n d u s t r y i n t h e SAR s i n c e t h e 1 8 9 0 ' s . t h e T r a n s v a a l g o v e r n m e n t p r o v i d e d t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e 80 o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e c r u i t m e n t of the b l a c k l abour s u p p l y , most o f which was brought to the Rand from hundreds o f m i l e s away, and i t p l a y e d a major r o l e i n b u i l d i n g the r a i l w a y s , w h i c h were l a r g e l y p u b l i c l y f i n a n c e d . 1 6 6 S i n c e the g o l d - m i n i n g i n d u s t r y was the major component o f the i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s t component o f the South A f r i c a n economy i n the l a t e 19th and e a r l y 20th c e n t u r i e s , i t i s c o r r e c t to say that the s t a t e and m i n i n g c a p i t a l were b o t h a c t i v e and dominant p l a y e r s i n the i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r o f t h e e c o n o m y f r o m i t s i n c e p t i o n . The N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y , i n o p p o s i t i o n , a r t i c u l a t e d the demands o f one element o f the p o p u l a t i o n , the A f r i k a n e r wh i t e working c l a s s (a s m a l l p a r t o f i t s e t h n i c base) tha t was most a t the mercy o f m i n i n g c a p i t a l . In power they advanced the i n t e r e s t o f the s t a t e - c a p i t a l a x i s i n S o u t h A f r i c a to use b l a c k l a b o u r and c o n t r o l whi te labour w h i l e g i v i n g the wh i t e workers a few more b e n e f i t s . The N a t i o n a l i s t s were b a s i c a l l y a n a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y t h a t a d v o c a t e d t h e i n t e r e s t s o f A f r i k a n e r d o m . They wanted A f r i k a n e r s to g a i n c o n t r o l over the South A f r i c a n s t a t e , and South A f r i c a n c a p i t a l i s m , and manage b o t h f o r the b e n e f i t o f the A f r i k a n e r s . I t was not on the i s s u e o f s t a t e management o f c a p i t a l i s m p e r se t h a t t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s were much d i f f e r e n t from the S A P - U n i t e d P a r t y , a l though they d i d extend the r o l e o f the S t a t e w h i l e i n power. I t was who w o u l d manage c a p i t a l i s m t h a t s e p a r a t e d t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s from the S A P - U n i t e d P a r t y . 81 S o , the NSDAP and the NP had s i m i l a r g r i e v a n c e s a g a i n s t " i n t e r n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l i s m " ( i n South A f r i c a , a g a i n s t B r i t i s h J e w i s h c o n t r o l o f the economy, and i n Germany, a g a i n s t the o n e r o u s e c o n o m i c s h a c k l e s t h r o w n u p o n G e r m a n y b y t h e V e r s a i l l e s T r e a t y ) t h a t made them condemn c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of c a p i t a l i s m . At the same t ime , n e i t h e r p a r t y ever c a l l e d f o r a f u l l - s c a l e replacement o f the system by a t t a c k i n g the c a p i t a l r e l a t i o n i t s e l f . The s i m i l a r p o p u l i s t c h a r a c t e r o f b o t h p a r t i e s masks a c e r t a i n d i f f e r e n c e i n the n a t u r e o f e a c h . The NP was a narrow, e x c l u s i v i s t n a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y t h a t wanted to dominate a r a c i a l l y - s t r a t i f i e d n a t i o n , a r r o g a t i n g e x c l u s i v e power to i t s e l f . P r i v a t e ownership of the means o f p r o d u c t i o n , mixed l i b e r a l l y w i t h s t a t e c o n t r o l s a n d some d e g r e e o f s t a t e ownersh ip , was to be the norm as l o n g as the A f r i k a n e r had a v i r t u a l monopoly o f the p o l i t i c a l s p h e r e . I t was r i g h t - w i n g i n the sense t h a t i t wanted p o l i t i c a l and economic power i n South A f r i c a f o r the A f r i k a n e r , and t h e p o l i t i c o - e c o n o m i c r i g h t s o f the o ther r a c i a l groups w i t h i n the c o u n t r y were to be s t r i c t l y s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h o s e o f t h e A f r i k a n e r . The Reddingsdaadbond, a B r o e d e r b o n d - c o n t r o l l e d o r g a n i z a t i o n , i s an example of N a t i o n a l i s t support f o r A f r i k a n e r p r i v a t e c a p i t a l , and t h e i r b a s i c acceptance of the c a p i t a l i s t system as l o n g as i t was d o m i n a t e d by A f r i k a n e r d o m . The good DRC p r e a c h e r s , t e a c h e r s , a d v o c a t e s a n d m e d i c a l men who h e a d e d t h e NP propounded a narrow e t h n i c n a t i o n a l i s t i d e o l o g y which would 82 u p l i f t t h e A f r i k a n e r t o what t h e y c o n s i d e r e d h i s n a t u r a l b i r t h r i g h t — dominance i n h i s own l a n d over u i t l a n d e r s and k a f f i r s . They would m a i n t a i n the c a p i t a l i s t system w i t h some important s t a t i s t m o d i f i c a t i o n s . T h i s s t r a t i f i e d s o c i e t y w i t h the A f r i k a n e r on top was the u l t i m a t e g o a l of most NP members and l e a d e r s , and indeed most N a t i o n a l i s t - m i n d e d A f r i k a n e r s i n South A f r i c a . Meyer , Rensburg , P irow and some Ossewa Brandwag e x t r e m i s t s were the e x c e p t i o n . The s o c i a l b a s e o f t h e NP d i f f e r e d from t h a t o f t h e German N a z i s and the I t a l i a n F a s c i s t s ; i t was more w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h i n the A f r i k a n e r community. The N a z i s drew t h e i r main s u p p o r t , when they mushroomed i n t o a mass p a r t y a f t e r the 1930 R e i c h s t a g e l e c t i o n s , from b i g b u s i n e s s , the P r o t e s t a n t urban middle c l a s s e s , and f a r m e r s . 1 6 7 The C a t h o l i c Center P a r t y had a l o c k on much o f the m i d d l e - c l a s s C a t h o l i c v o t e (and some o f the C a t h o l i c w o r k i n g - c l a s s vo te ) i n South Germany ( B a v a r i a ) and the R h i n e l a n d . 1 6 8 The S o c i a l Democrats a n d the Communists s h a r e d the w o r k i n g - c l a s s v o t e , and the German N a t i o n a l P e o p l e ' s P a r t y (DNVP) r e t a i n e d the support o f many of the t r a d i t i o n a l P r u s s i a n landowners . The N a z i s made a s t r o n g a p p e a l t o P r o t e s t a n t m i d d l e - c l a s s v o t e r s , who had p r e v i o u s l y voted f o r the u l t r a - c o n s e r v a t i v e N a t i o n a l i s t s , the c o n s e r v a t i v e German P e o p l e ' s P a r t y (Deutsche Volkische Partei, DVP, Stesseman's o l d p a r t y ) , and the l i b e r a l German Democrat ic P a r t y ( D D P ) . 1 6 9 83 The NP h a d a b r o a d b a s e o f A f r i k a n e r s u p p o r t more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a p u r e l y n a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y than o f a f a s c i s t p a r t y . (In South A f r i c a , however, the NP had m a j o r i t y support amongst the A f r i k a n e r community i n 1943, f i v e y e a r s b e f o r e they came to power and w h i l e they were i n o p p o s i t i o n to war t h a t t h e i r government was waging on the winning s i d e . ) T h i s i s not to say b e i n g n a t i o n a l i s t exc ludes be ing f a s c i s t or the o t h e r way a r o u n d ; but f a s c i s t p a r t i e s or movements, such as t h e S p a n i s h F a l a n g i s t P a r t y when i t became t h e u m b r e l l a o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r a l l the a n t i - r e p u b l i c a n f o r c e s a f t e r the r i s i n g o f J u l y 18 , 1936 , o r t h e NSDAP, o r t h e I t a l i a n F a s c i s t s , a l l based t h e i r c l i m b to power and drew t h e i r a c t i v e s u p p o r t p r i m a r i l y , not e x c l u s i v e l y , f r o m t h e p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s e s ( f i r s t the lower midd le c l a s s , then peasants and the u p p e r c l a s s e s ) , r a t h e r t h a n t h e u r b a n w o r k i n g c l a s s . N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t i e s can have a " l e f t " or " r i g h t " o r i e n t a t i o n , as w e l l as b e i n g e i t h e r d e m o c r a t i c or a u t h o r i t a r i a n . The P a r t i Q u e b e c o i s , from 1967 u n t i l about 1985, had a c l e a r l y " l e f t " or s o c i a l - d e m o c r a t i c o r i e n t a t i o n ; i t s n a t i o n a l i s t p r e d e c e s s o r , the m i l d l y autonomist Union N a t i o n a l e adopted a c o n s e r v a t i v e p r o - b u s i n e s s u n d e r D u p l e s s i s . T h e U n i o n N a t i o n a l e , a f u s i o n o f l e f t - w i n g L i b e r a l s d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the c o n s e r v a t i v e economic p o l i c i e s o f the L i b e r a l Taschereau a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and the Quebec C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y , l e d by the s o c i a l r e f o r m e r and l a t e r f a s c i s t sympathizer C a m i l i e n Houde i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 3 0 ' s , e x h i b i t e d t h e same odd m i x t u r e o f 84 r e f o r m i s t a n d c o n s e r v a t i v e p o l i c i e s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d p u r i f i e d N a t i o n a l i s t s o f the l a t e 30's and e a r l y 4 0 ' s . 1 7 0 I t was a n a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y t h a t r o s e t o power i n t h e 1936 p r o v i n c i a l g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n , a d v o c a t i n g s o c i a l r e f o r m s . 1 7 1 The UN r e c e i v e d i t s s u p p o r t o r i g i n a l l y f rom r u r a l F r e n c h Quebeckers and amongst the F r e n c h work ing c l a s s o f e a s t - e n d M o n t r e a l , but l a t e r , a f t e r i t rose to power under D u p l e s s i s , f e l l i n t o the t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n o f a l l i a n c e w i t h b u s i n e s s and the C a t h o l i c C h u r c h t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d p r e v i o u s L i b e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s i n Quebec. The Union N a t i o n a l e was s i m i l a r to t h e N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y i n i t s e t h n i c - c e n t e r e d , m u l t i - c l a s s ( i n c l u d i n g the working c l a s s ) base of s u p p o r t . The NP d e v e l o p e d the mass s u p p o r t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a p a r t y s e e n t o be f i g h t i n g f o r n a t i o n a l r i g h t s a g a i n s t d i s p o s s e s s i o n by a f o r e i g n power or a l i e n f o r c e . J o h n R e d m o n d ' s I r i s h P a r t y won 81 o f I r e l a n d ' s 103 s e a t s a t Westminster because i t was seen by I r i s h C a t h o l i c s to be the a u t h e n t i c s p o k e s m a n o f I r e l a n d ' s n a t i o n a l r i g h t s a t t h e t i m e . 1 7 2 I t s s u p p o r t cu t a c r o s s c l a s s l i n e s amongst I r i s h C a t h o l i c s . The I n d i a n C o n g r e s s P a r t y has l a r g e l y dominated Indian p o l i t i c s s i n c e 1947 because i t a t t a i n e d a r e p u t a t i o n as the a u t h e n t i c spokesman of the I n d i a n n a t i o n as a r e s u l t o f i t s l e a d i n g r o l e i n s t r u g g l e s i n the 1930's and 1 9 4 0 ' s , l e d by Gandhi and N e h r u , f o r I n d i a n independence . I t s broad support has cut a c r o s s c a s t e , c l a s s and r e l i g i o u s l i n e s f o r over 40 y e a r s . 85 The HNP c a t a p u l t e d themselves i n t o a s i m i l a r r o l e amongst A f r i k a n e r s i n South A f r i c a d u r i n g the war y e a r s . I t was then that they emerged as the m a j o r i t y p a r t y amongst A f r i k a n e r s f o r the f i r s t time s i n c e f u s i o n i n 1934. O'Meara argues t h a t the 1943 e l e c t i o n p o i n t e d to the new emerging c l a s s base o f the N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y . I t i n c r e a s e d i t s r u r a l s u p p o r t , r i s i n g to 11 s e a t s from 1 i n 1938 i n the T r a n s v a a l and go ing up to 14 from 1 i n the Orange Free S t a t e . 1 7 3 The HNP a l s o c a p t u r e d 1 w o r k i n g c l a s s s e a t on t h e W i t s w a t e r s r a n d and r e g i s t e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s i n 5 o t h e r s . 1 7 4 T h i s r e p r e s e n t e d a s m a l l payof f f o r the work of the NRT, and another p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e o f m a j o r a d v a n c e f o r t h e HNP i n t h e n e x t e l e c t i o n s . 1 7 5 O'Meara i s a r g u i n g that the c l a s s base o f the HNP seems to be a c o a l i t i o n of p e t i t - b o u r g e o i s farmers ( the w e a l t h i e r farmers s t i l l s u p p o r t e d Smuts i n 1943, f o r the U n i t e d and D o m i n i o n p a r t i e s s t i l l c o n t r o l l e d 42 o f the 82 r u r a l s e a t s i n t h e c o u n t r y ) 1 7 6 and white A f r i k a n e r workers who a s p i r e to the r o l e of a whi te l abour a r i s t o c r a c y (wi th l i m i t e d success under the p r e v i o u s H e r t z o g government, as Yudelman argues) and saw the N a t i o n a l i s t s as a v e h i c l e to t h a t end . T h i s p r o v i d e d the base f o r the c r o s s - c l a s s a l l i a n c e o f A f r i k a n e r d o m t h a t emerged d u r i n g t h e war , and e v e n t u a l l y l e d the N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y to power . T h i s l i n k t o t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s was r a r e amongs t European f a s c i s t p a r t i e s o f the i n t e r - w a r e r a . The UP won the 1943 e l e c t i o n , and most urban r i d i n g s , on t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e u n a n i m o u s b a c k i n g o f t h e E n g l i s h 86 community, which was about 40 percent o f the e l e c t o r a t e . The NP was a l r e a d y w e l l on i t s way to becoming the e x c l u s i v e v o i c e o f A f r i k a n e r d o m that i t was to be i n i t s e l e c t o r a l heyday o f t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s u n d e r V o e r w o e r d . The N a z i s and t h e I t a l i a n F a s c i s t s , because they weren' t t r i b a l movements, never reached t h e d e g r e e o f e l e c t o r a l s u p p o r t t h a t t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s demonstrated i n the 1943 e l e c t i o n s amongst A f r i k a n e r d o m i n any d e m o c r a t i c e l e c t i o n t h a t they c o n t e s t e d . The HNP by 1943 h a d , i n t h e view o f A f r i k a n e r d o m , become the symbol o f A f r i k a n e r n a t i o n a l r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e o t h e r n a t i o n a l g r o u p s i n t h e c o u n t r y . By a i m i n g t o h i v e o f f the A f r i k a n e r work ing c l a s s from c l a s s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and e s t a b l i s h them and o t h e r whi te w o r k e r s as a " labour a r i s t o c r a c y " (or a t l e a s t to c o n v i n c e them t o see t h e m s e l v e s as a l a b o u r a r i s t o c r a c y ) , t h e HNP succeeded i n e s t a b l i s h i n g i t s e l f as a mass-based n a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y . S ince the A f r i k a n e r s were not a homogeneous economic c l a s s as a whole i n South A f r i c a a t t h i s t ime , the HNP cannot be c l a s s i f i e d a s a c l a s s - b a s e d p a r t y , a s w e r e , t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t , the N a z i s b e f o r e t h e i r r i s e t o power . (The N a z i s can be c o n s i d e r e d an ' a n t i - w o r k i n g c l a s s ' p a r t y . ) The HNP was c e r t a i n l y a h y p e r - n a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y d u r i n g WORLD WAR I I , and i n t h i s re spec t i t was very s i m i l a r to the f a s c i s t movements i n Europe a t the t i m e . The v e r y e s s e n c e , the s o l e purpose o f the HNP, was to boost A f r i k a n e r d o m , even a t t h e e x p e n s e and t h e l i b e r t i e s o f a l l o t h e r p o p u l a t i o n 87 groups i n South A f r i c a . The a im of advanc ing the A f r i k a n e r was the g u i d i n g p h i l o s o p h y of H e r t z o g ' s N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y , the GNP of 1934 to 1939, and the HNP. T h i s e t h n i c a l l y e x c l u s i v e n a t i o n a l i s m must be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the South A f r i c a n i s m of the U n i t e d P a r t y . Now, the HNP was h y p e r - n a t i o n a l i s t d u r i n g Wor ld War I I , i n the sense t h a t i t emphasized, i n documents l i k e the D r a f t C o n s t i t u t i o n which i t endorsed , the supremacy o f the A f r i k a n e r i n South A f r i c a . To a t t a i n t h i s a im, the HNP was w i l l i n g to a b r o g a t e the e x i s t i n g l e g a l r i g h t s tha t the o t h e r p o p u l a t i o n g r o u p s i n S o u t h A f r i c a then e n j o y e d . H y p e r - n a t i o n a l i s m or c h a u v i n i s m can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from s i m p l e n a t i o n a l i s m i n t h a t h y p e r - n a t i o n a l i s m g l o r i f i e s the n a t i o n , or o n e ' s e t h n i c g r o u p , t o s u c h an e x t e n t t h a t i t e x c l u d e s , o r a t l e a s t t r a n s c e n d s , a l l o t h e r v a l u e s or l o y a l t i e s . Even r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f becomes, i n a major way, an element o f f o l k c u l t u r e . The p r e s e r v a t i o n o f o n e ' s own g r o u p w i t h i t s a t t e n d a n t b e l i e f s , customs, f o l k l o r e , and l a n d , becomes so important an i d e a l that one i s p r e p a r e d , i f n e c e s s a r y , to t rample over and c o m p l e t e l y e x c l u d e a l l o t h e r n a t i o n a l g r o u p s t h a t c o u l d p o s s i b l y impinge or get i n the way of one ' s n a t i o n or r a c e . T h i s was c e r t a i n l y a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f German N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m and E u r o p e a n f a s c i s m i n g e n e r a l d u r i n g the 1930's and 1940 ' s . In Germany, the n a t i o n was c o n s t a n t l y g l o r i f i e d i n p r o p a g a n d a , and b u i l d i n g up Germany became the e x c l u s i v e d r i v e b e h i n d f o r e i g n and d o m e s t i c p o l i c y . In N a z i i d e o l o g y 88 t h e n a t i o n was t h e e m b o d i m e n t , t h e i n c a r n a t i o n o f t h e T e u t o n i c , Germanic r a c e . H i t l e r , and the o ther N a z i l e a d e r s , v i e w e d t h e s u r v i v a l and d o m i n a t i o n o f the German r a c e i n Europe as the p r i m a r y g o a l of f o r e i g n and domest ic p o l i c y . 1 7 7 T o s e c u r e t h e G e r m a n p e o p l e ' s s u r v i v a l , P o l a n d h a d t o d i s a p p e a r as a s t a t e , the Jews had t o be e x t e r m i n a t e d , the S o v i e t R u s s i a n s t a t e had t o be d e s t r o y e d and the S l a v s i n g e n e r a l d e c i m a t e d , and the s u r v i v o r s reduced to s u b s e r v i e n t s t a t u s . The c e n t r a l aim of German f o r e i g n p o l i c y was to be , as H i t l e r s a i d i n h i s l a s t w i l l and p o l i t i c a l t e s tament , i n f a c t , i n the l a s t words he ever w r o t e , "to win t e r r i t o r y i n t h e E a s t f o r the German p e o p l e . " 1 7 8 H i t l e r v i e w e d German t e r r i t o r i a l e x p a n s i o n as t h e means o f s e c u r i n g German b i o l o g i c a l e x p a n s i o n , the s t a t e or n a t i o n s e r v i n g as a v e h i c l e f o r the expans ion o f the r a c e . 1 7 9 The NP, t o o , was h y p e r - n a t i o n a l i s t d u r i n g World War I I . The c e l e b r a t i o n o f the c e n t e n a r y o f B l o o d R i v e r i n 1938 i n a u g u r a t e d a new p h a s e o f h e i g h t e n e d A f r i k a n e r e t h n i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s amongst many A f r i k a n e r s . O r g a n i z e d by the Federasie van Afrikaner Kultuurorganisasies ( F . A . K . ) , a B r o e d e r b o n d - s p o n s o r e d g r o u p i n g , the 1938 reenactment o f the 1838 Great Trek caught most A f r i k a n e r s up i n a g r e a t wave of n a t i o n a l i s t e n t h u s i a s m . The c o v e n a n t o f B l o o d R i v e r was r e a f f i r m e d i n the 1938 c e n t e n a r y c e l e b r a t i o n s . "The s a c r e d h i s t o r y was c o n s t i t u t e d and a c t u a l i z e d as a g e n e r a l c o n t e x t of m e a n i n g f o r a l l A f r i k a n e r d o m i n s p o n t a n e o u s l i t u r g i c a l 89 reenactment d u r i n g the 1938 c e l e b r a t i o n s . " 1 8 0 Moodie goes on to say that the A f r i k a n e r s he i n t e r v i e w e d , who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the 1938 T r e k , r e c a l l e d t h e i r emotional involvement i n the c e l e b r a t i o n s as i n t e n s e . 1 8 1 Emotions were heightened to such an extent t h a t the N a t i o n a l i s t d a i l y Die Burger estimated that o n e - t e n t h o f A f r i k a n e r d o m p a r t i c i p a t e d a t t h e c u l m i n a t i n g ceremonies i n P r e t o r i a a t the Voortrekker monument on Dec. 12, 1 9 3 8 . 1 8 2 The n e a r - e s c h a t o l o g i c a l hopes that the c e l e b r a t i o n s aroused a l s o l e f t a sense of disappointment a f t e r the end of 1 O "I the centenary t r e k . O J These were aroused, and at the same time r e f l e c t e d , by s u c h s t a t e m e n t s such as t h a t i n t h e e d i t o r i a l i n the Dec. 15th i s s u e of the A f r i k a n e r weekly Die Oosterlig, which s t a t e d t h a t "Tomorrow, a new day w i l l dawn f o r the A f r i k a n e r people; the daysp r i n g of the f u l f i l l m e n t of i t s i d e a l ; of v i c t o r y i n i t s f r e e d o m - s t r u g g l e . " 1 8 4 T h i s outbreak of A f r i k a n e r h i s t o r i c a l consciousness l e d to the f o r m a t i o n of the OB, as a c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g y e a r . The o u t b r e a k o f war i n September 1939, d e c l a r e d a g a i n s t the wishes o f the m a j o r i t y o f A f r i k a n e r s , deepened A f r i k a n e r a l i e n a t i o n from t h e i r E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g , white f e l l o w c i t i z e n s , thereby f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n i n g the mood of h e i g h t e n e d r a c i a l awareness seen i n the 1938 c e n t e n a r y c e l e b r a t i o n s . The Broederbond academics i n the 1930's, such as Du P l e s s i s and D i e d r i c h s , who d e v e l o p e d N a t i o n a l i s t p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y , s y s t e m a t i z e d c e n t u r i e s o f A f r i k a n e r p r a c t i c e i n t o a coherent p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y . I n s u l a r i t y , 90 l o s s o f c o n t a c t w i t h Europe and f l i g h t from the ons laught o f modern c o s m o p o l i t a n i s m ( i . e . , the G r e a t Trek o f the 1830's) became e l e v a t e d to the o f f i c i a l p h i l o s o p h y of the GNP/HNP i n the 1930 ' s . A f r i k a n e r N a t i o n a l i s m was a n a t u r a l o u t g r o w t h o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e of the A f r i k a n e r s i n South A f r i c a . The extreme n a t i o n a l i s t r e a c t i o n i n Germany i n the p o s t - W o r l d War I e r a was formed by the T r e a t y o f V e r s a i l l e s , and a f t e r the s a c r i f i c e s o f the war, i n the c a s e o f I t a l y , by the modest t e r r i t o r i a l g a i n s t h a t a c c r u e d t o h e r . T h e e c o n o m i c c a t a s t r o p h e o f t h e i n t e r - w a r p e r i o d h e i g h t e n e d f e e l i n g s o f e m b i t t e r e d , wounded n a t i o n a l p r i d e . The N a z i s , and t h e I t a l i a n F a s c i s t s , h o w e v e r , a r o s e i n c o u n t r i e s and u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s where r a c i a l homogeneity a l l o w e d c l a s s c l e a v a g e s to become p o t e n t s o u r c e s o f n a t i o n a l d i s c o r d . The N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y , on the o t h e r hand, was formed i n a p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l c l i m a t e t h a t gave g r e a t e r p l a y to e t h n i c d i v i s i o n s as the main c l e a v a g e p o i n t s i n t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s . The " S o u t h A f r i c a n i s t s " o f the SAP and the U n t i e d P a r t y m a i n t a i n e d power b e t w e e n 1 9 1 0 - 1 9 2 7 a n d 1 9 3 9 - 1 9 4 8 by b r e a k i n g t h e t r i b a l adhes ion o f enough A f r i k a n e r s f o r the NP to ensure t h e i r own e l e c t i o n w i t h the near-unanimous support o f the E n g l i s h . Y e t , as the r a p i d r i s e o f the NP to power a f t e r i t s f o u n d i n g i n 1913 and the dominance o f the HNP s i n c e 1948 b o t h i n d i c a t e , there seemed to be a n a t u r a l tendency o f A f r i k a n e r s to suppor t 91 t h e i r e t h n i c p a r t y , which o n l y extreme c r i s i s such as war or D e p r e s s i o n i n t e r r u p t e d . The a n t i - h u m a n i s t c h a r a c t e r of f a s c i s m and N a z i i s m , which was s h a r e d b y . t h e N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y , i s i t s e l f somewhat more e s o t e r i c t h a n o t h e r e l ements o f c l a s s i c f a s c i s m , and i s the common t h r e a d running through them. A p a r t y i s a n t i - h u m a n i s t i f i t a t t e m p t s to b u t t r e s s s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c p r i v i l e g e , p a r t i c u l a r l y a g r e a t d e g r e e o f p r i v i l e g e , and r e c e i v e s i t s support from groups that seek to p r o t e c t t h e i r p o s i t i o n from a t h r u s t f r o m b e l o w . B o t h t h e l i b e r a l a n d t h e s o c i a l i s t t r a d i t i o n s have emphasized a t l e a s t e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y . A p a r t y movement o r r e g i m e t h a t a t t e m p t s t o f i x c l a s s o r s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e i n such a away that at l e a s t s o c i a l m o b i l i t y i s i m p o s s i b l e seems t o be d e n y i n g e q u a l t r e a t m e n t to a l l s e c t i o n s o f the p o p u l a t i o n , so to speak; d e n y i n g them e n t r y i n t o the promised l a n d . H y p e r - n a t i o n a l i s m and chauv in i sm a r e , by d e f i n i t i o n , a n t i - h u m a n i s t , because they u s u a l l y imply or e n t a i l d e n y i n g e l e m e n t a r y l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c l i b e r t i e s and e q u i t a b l e s o c i a l t r e a t m e n t to a l l e t h n i c or n a t i o n a l groups o t h e r t h a n t h e i r own. Of c o u r s e , by "humanis t" , one means " l e f t " , o r a t l e a s t " c e n t r e l i b e r a l - d e m o c r a t i c " , but t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y (pos t -1945) d e m o c r a t i c c o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t i e s o f the Western democrac i e s , by a l l o w i n g a t l e a s t a f a i r degree o f s o c i a l m o b i l i t y and by a d h e r i n g to d e m o c r a t i c norms, do not appear o v e r l y a n t i - h u m a n i s t . 92 The N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y d u r i n g the war years seems to f i t t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f " a n t i - h u m a n i s t " . I t was a u t h o r i t a r i a n , r i g h t - w i n g , h y p e r n a t i o n a l i s t , and i t r e c e i v e d the s u p p o r t of a n a t i o n a l group composed i n p a r t o f an i n t e r m e d i a t e p r o p e r t y -owning s o c i a l c l a s s i n the midst o f the South A f r i c a n s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . The whole t h r u s t of the HNP was A f r i k a n e r w e l f a r e , combat t ing A f r i k a n e r p o v e r t y , i n s u r i n g A f r i k a n e r dominance i n South A f r i c a , i n o t h e r words a d v a n c i n g the A f r i k a n e r a l o n e , e v e n i f i t was n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h a r e p r e s s i v e a u t h o r i t a r i a n s t a t e . The HNP a d h e r e d to the N a t i o n a l i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f C a l v i n i s m , i t s e l f a r a t h e r s t r i c t , u n f o r g i v i n g v e r s i o n o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , t h a t saw the A f r i k a a n s peop le as an e l e c t group i n South a f r i c a , and South A f r i c a as a d i v i n e l y promised l a n d . T h i s second "Old Testament" I s r a e l had the r i g h t to d i s p l a c e the heathen ind igenous i n h a b i t a n t s , who were l o s t i n e v i l d a r k n e s s , and needed t h e l i g h t o f C h r i s t i a n i t y p r o v i d e d by a f i r m g u i d i n g h a n d . Not one N a t i o n a l i s t p o l i t i c i a n o f the Second Wor ld War p e r i o d would h a v e d e n i e d t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n as a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n t h e d i v i n e l y o r d a i n e d t r u e d e s t i n y o f the p e o p l e . So, the HNP was an a n t i - h u m a n i s t p a r t y . I t s C h r i s t i a n i t y was a t r i b a l , r e a c t i o n a r y s o r t o f f u n d a m e n t a l i s m t h a t , a t b e s t , viewed the n o n - A F r i k a a n s i n h a b i t a n t s o f South A f r i c a as s e c o n d - c l a s s c i t i z e n s i n t h e i r own c o u n t r y (and i n the case o f the n a t i v e s , as e i t h e r ben ighted t r i b a l savages or a source o f cheap l a b o u r ) . As the i d e o l o g y o f the Herenigde N a t i o n a l i s t 93 P a r t y became more t i n g e d w i t h f a s c i s m d u r i n g the e a r l y war y e a r s , i t more c l e a r l y t h a n e v e r d e m o n s t r a t e d , i n N o l t e ' s w o r d s , t h a t r e s i s t a n c e to p r a c t i c a l t r a n s c e n d e n c e w h i c h i s more or l e s s common t o a l l c o n s e r v a t i v e m o v e m e n t s . 1 8 5 I t was o n l y when t h e o r e t i c a l t r a n s c e n d e n c e , f r o m w h i c h t h a t r e s i s t a n c e o r i g i n a l l y e m a n a t e d , was l i k e w i s e d e n i e d t h a t f a s c i s m made i t s a p p e a r a n c e . 1 8 6 N o l t e f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e s t h a t f a s c i s m has a t i t s command f o r c e s which a r e b o r n o f the e m a n c i p a t i o n p r o c e s s and t h e n t u r n a g a i n s t t h e i r own o r i g i n . I f i t may be c a l l e d the d e s p a i r o f the f e u d a l s e c t i o n o f bourgeo i s s o c i e t y f o r i t s t r a d i t i o n s , and t h e b o u r g e o i s e l e m e n t s b e t r a y e d o f i t s r e v o l u t i o n , now i t i s c l e a r what t h i s t r a d i t i o n and t h i s r e v o l u t i o n a c t u a l l y a r e . F a s c i s m r e p r e s e n t s the second and graves t c r i s i s o f l i b e r a l s o c i e t y , s i n c e i t a c h i e v e s power on i t s own s o i l , and i n i t s r a d i c a l form i s the most comple te and e f f e c t i v e d e n i a l of t h a t s o c i e t y . 1 8 ' The HNP, d u r i n g W o r l d War I I , was c e r t a i n l y c l o s e l y l i n k e d to the " f a s c i s t wave" of the i n t e r - w a r y e a r s , which was a r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t e q u a l i t y (the e g a l i t a r i a n and d e m o c r a t i c p r e m i s e o f l i b e r a l s o c i e t y and s o c i a l i s t t h o u g h t ) , a s o r t o f " N i e t z s c h e a n " a s s e r t i o n of the r i g h t s of the " s u p e r i o r " , and consequent d e n i a l of common humanity . The N a t i o n a l i s t s never r e a l l y had a ' c u l t of the l e a d e r ' comparab le to t h a t o f N a z i Germany or F a s c i s t I t a l y . I t i s t r u e t h a t M a l a n was p r o p o s e d as V o l k s l e i e r i n 1 9 4 1 , a p o s i t i o n , as mentioned e a r l i e r , tha t Die T r a n s v a l e r h e l d to be e q u i v a l e n t to H i t l e r ' s p o s i t i o n i n Germany, but t h i s was most 94 l i k e l y i n the ' s p i r i t o f the t i m e s ' , when d u r i n g the f i r s t years o f World War Two a German v i c t o r y seemed l i k e l y , and i t would be n e c e s s a r y , i n the v i e w o f many N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y members , f o r S o u t h A f r i c a t o accommodate i t s e l f t o a new f a s c i s t wor ld o r d e r . Of course many N a t i o n a l i s t s , i f not ye t most , i n c l u d i n g the top l e a d e r s h i p o f the p a r t y , were q u i t e w i l l i n g to do t h i s , but the c u l t o f the l e a d e r was not an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f A f r i k a n e r n a t i o n a l i s m as r e p r e s e n t e d by the HNP as i t was o f the German N a z i s or the I t a l i a n f a s c i s t s , (or o f Spanish F a l a n g i s m , e i t h e r ) . I t i s i n t e r e s t to c o n t r a s t the HNP's ' v i ew o f the l e a d e r ' w i t h t h a t o f t h e i r more o p e n l y f a s c i s t i c , indeed N a z i , r i v a l s i n the Ossewa Brandwag. L . J . du P l e s s i s s t a t e d i n Die Ossewa Brandwag on May 5, 1943, t h a t the t u r m o i l and s t r e s s o f the r e v o l u t i o n would throw up the Man of D e s t i n y , the a u t h o r i t y t h a t he would w i e l d would be a lmost a b s o l u t e . 1 8 8 T h i s view o f l e a d e r s h i p was an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e Ossewa B r a n d w a g ' s w h o l e h e a r t e d a c c e p t a n c e o f 1 ftQ N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t i d e o l o g y . 0 : 7 The N a t i o n a l i s t s h e r e , as on so many i s s u e s , were more f l e x i b l e and p r a g m a t i c t h a n t h e i r more i d e o l o g i c a l l y p u r e r i v a l s on t h e e x t r e m e s o f A f r i k a n e r n a t i o n a l i s m . No one i n d i v i d u a l e v e r d i d overwhelm, by f o r c e o f c h a r a c t e r , t h i s e s s e n t i a l l y c o r p o r a t e e x p r e s s i o n of ' e t h n i c power m o b i l i z e d ' , to use G i l l i o m e e ' s and Adam's t e r m i n o l o g y . They may have deemed i t e x p e d i e n t , even n e c e s s a r y , i n the l i g h t o f the w o r l d s i t u a t i o n i n 1941, to move the p a r t y i n a f a s c i s t d i r e c t i o n by 95 g i v i n g M a l a n t h e t i t l e o f v o l k s l e i e r . They a l s o may have t h o u g h t t h a t by g i v i n g M a l a n t h a t t i t l e , t h e y w o u l d s u c c e s s f u l l y preempt the t h r e a t f r o m P i r o w and Von Rensburg (Commandant o f t h e Ossewa Brandwag) t o Malan's and hence t h e ' N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y ' s l e a d e r s h i p o f n a t i o n a l i s t A f r i k a n e r d o m . The p a r t y c o n g r e s s o f June 1941 w h i c h gave Malan t h e t i t l e gave Malan e x t r a o r d i n a r y powers w h i c h had n o t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e V o l k s l e i r s k a p and w h i c h he was t o use t o s t r e n g t h e n the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e p a r t y a g a i n s t t h e s o r t o f t h r e a t t h a t a 1 Q 0 Pirow-Van Rensburg a l l i a n c e might be supposed t o i m p l y . ^ u I n a n y c a s e , a l t h o u g h S o u t h A f r i c a , a n d i n p a r t i c u l a r A f r i k a n e r d o m , have had a t r a d i t i o n o f s t r o n g l e a d e r s i n t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , t h e r e i s every r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t the N a t i o n a l i s t s , d u r i n g W o r l d War Two, e l e v a t e d M a l a n t o h i s f o r m a l t i t l e as V o l k s l e i e r f o r p u r e l y o p p o r t u n i s t i c r e a s o n s , i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e c u l t o f t h e l e a d e r t h a t was s u c h an i n t e g r a l component o f many forms o f European f a s c i s m . M i l i t a r i s m was more of a f e a t u r e of the Ossewa Brandwag t h a n t h e N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y d u r i n g t h e war y e a r s i n S o u t h A f r i c a . The OB, t h e d e s i g n a t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of A f r i k a n e r d o m i n t h e c u l t u r a l f i e l d , was o r g a n i z e d on a commando b a s i s , and i t s f i r s t u n i t s were r e c r u i t e d f r o m t h e r a n k s o f t h e South A f r i c a n armed f o r c e s . 1 9 1 T h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d m i l i t a r y d r i l l and m a n e o u v r e s . 1 9 2 The OB s t o r m j a e r s ( s t o r m t r o o p e r s ) t o o k p a r t i n extreme a n t i - g o v e r n m e n t a n t i - w a r a c t i v i t i e s t o 96 t h e p o i n t o f s a b o t a g e o f g o v e r n m e n t a n d m i l i t a r y i n s t a l l a t i o n s . 1 9 3 A g a i n h e r e t h e N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y ' s v i e w p o i n t w a s p r a g m a t i c . R o b e r t s a n d T r o l l i p s t a t e t h a t M a l a n was n o t p e r s u a d e d t h a t b r a a i v l e i s a a n d e and s e m i - m i l i t a r y p a r a d e s ( t o m e n t i o n no w o r s e ) c o u l d t a k e t h e p l a c e o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y management a n d p a r l i a m e n t a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s . 1 9 4 W h a t e v e r t h e s t a t e o f M a l a n ' s m i n d , i t i s a f a c t t h a t t h e N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y o p e r a t e d a t t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y l e v e l . The N a t i o n a l i s t l e a d e r s w e r e p r e p a r e d t o go a l o n g w i t h t h e OB a n d i t s m i l i t a n t a n d m i l i t a r i s t i c o r i e n t a t i o n up t o t h e p o i n t t h a t t h e OB b e g a n t o c h a l l e n g e t h e N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y ' s s t a t u s a s t h e p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a n t i - w a r r e p u b l i c a n m i n d e d A f r i k a n e r d o m , o r a s l o n g a s i t seemed t h a t f a s c i s m w o u l d c a r r y t h e day I n t h e w o r l d s t r u g g l e b e i n g p l a y e d o u t i n t h e b a t t l e f i e l d s o f E u r o p e and A s i a . The HNP was q u i t e e a g e r t o d i s t a n c e i t s e l f f r o m t h e i d e o l o g y o f N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m a n d m i l i t a r i s m when t h e OB a n d t h e New O r d e r c h a l l e n g e d i t s p o l i t i c a l r o l e , a n d when Germany s t a r t e d t o l o s e t h e w a r . 1 9 5 P e r h a p s i t w o u l d be c o r r e c t t o s a y t h a t t h e m o r e o v e r t s t r e a m o f W o r l d War Two v i n t a g e A f r i k a n e r f a s c i s m , r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e Ossewa B r a n d w a g , was o v e r t l y m i l i t a r i s t i c a n d s t r e s s e d m i l i t a r y a c t i v i t i e s a n d p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , ( c o n n e c t e d w i t h m i l i t a r y p r e p a r e d n e s s ) a s d i d t h e German N a z i s a n d I t a l i a n f a s c i s t s . 97 The N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y was a mass movement, and i n t h i s re spec t i t was s i m i l a r to the NSDAP and the f a s c i s t p a r t y i n I t a l y . As an e t h n i c p a r t y i n a p o l i t y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by extreme e t h n i c p o l a r i z a t i o n , the N a t i o n a l i s t s had the mass base to be a p o w e r f u l p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The HNP was the p a r t y p o l i t i c a l a r m o f a n i n t e r l o c k i n g n u m b e r o f v o l s k o r g a n i s i e s d e d i c a t e d t o a s i n g l e i d e o l o g y , A f r i k a n e r N a t i o n a l i s m . 1 9 6 One f e a t u r e o f t h e S o u t h A f r i c a n s i t u a t i o n t h a t was u n i q u e was t h e i n f l u e n c e o f the B r o e d e r b o n d o v e r the HNP. S t u l t z c l a i m s t h a t i t c o n t r o l l e d the HNP and the r e l a t e d v o l k s o r g a n i s i e s . 1 9 7 I t may be more c o r r e c t to say tha t the l e a d e r s h i p o f the HNP, the Dutch Reformed C h u r c h e s , the o t h e r v o l k s o r g a n i s i e s and the Broederbond b r o a d l y o v e r l a p p e d . There was a u n a n i m i t y o f purpose amongst the v a r i o u s components o f A f r i k a n e r n a t i o n a l i s m a f t e r the HNP e s t a b l i s h e d i t s dominance i n the p o l i t i c a l f i e l d by 1943. N o n e t h e l e s s , the presence o f an autonomous s e c r e t s o c i e t y w i e l d i n g grea t i n f l u e n c e , i f not o u t r i g h t c o n t r o l , o v e r t h e d i r e c t i o n and p o l i c i e s o f the N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y was unique to the South A f r i c a n case and had no p a r a l l e l i n the cases of the NSDAP or the I t a l i a n f a s c i s t s . In a w i d e r sense t h o u g h , the HNP's s t r u c t u r e as a mass p a r t y d e d i c a t e d to an a u t h o r i t a r i a n i d e o l o g y was s i m i l a r to that o f the N a z i s and the f a s c i s t s . Many o f the t r a p p i n g s o f a f a s c i s t mass p a r t y were p r e s e n t . The f e v e r p i t c h o f t h a t A f r i k a n e r n a t i o n a l i s t sent iment reached d u r i n g the 7oortre/c/cer 98 c e n t e n n i a l c e l e b r a t i o n s o f 1938, an event o r g a n i z e d by the N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y a n d i t s r e l a t e d v o l k s o r g a n i s i e s i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f the enthus iasm of the Nurenberg r a l l i e s . The m o b i l i z a t i o n o f a c o n s t i t u e n c y , i n t h i s c a s e N a t i o n a l i s t A f r i k a n e r d o m , by a w e l l - o r g a n i z e d p a r t y a p p a r a t u s , matches the c o a l i t i o n on n o n - w o r k i n g c l a s s i n t e r e s t s m o b i l i z e d by t h e German N a z i s and I t a l i a n F a s c i s t s . The NP had more o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f an i n c l u s i v e r a t h e r t h a n a c l a s s i c f a s c i s t p a r t y . I t s r e l i g i o u s o r i e n t a t i o n , the f a c t t h a t i t drew i t s base o f support from a p r i m a r i l y r u r a l A f r i k a n e r p o p u l a t i o n , and i t s m u l t i - c l a s s appeal to A f r i k a n e r s , seem to put i t more i n the c a t e g o r y o f the S p a n i s h F a l a n g i s m o f F r a n c o ' s S p a i n , and some o f t h e f a s c i s t movements o f i n t e r - w a r E a s t e r n E u r o p e , such as the Slovak H l i n k a Guard and the C r o a t i a n U s t a s i . These l a s t two movements a l s o a s s e r t e d the n a t i o n a l r i g h t s o f the S lovaks and C r o a t s w i t h i n t h e m u l t i e t h n i c C z e c h a n d S e r b - d o m i n a t e d C z e c h o s l o v a k and Yugos lav s t a t e s . In t h i s they were s i m i l a r to the N a t i o n a l i s t s i n South A f r i c a , who fought f o r A f r i k a n e r r i g h t s w i t h i n the U n i o n . N a z i t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m was the u l t i m a t e example o f f a s c i s t a n t i - h u m a n i s m , and N a z i r a c i s m the u l t i m a t e consequence o f Nazi t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m . The r a d i c a l extremes o f N a z i i s m went beyond t h e i m a g i n i n g s o f HNP p o l i t i c i a n s s u c h as M a l a n , 99 Srijdom, Voerwoerd and the o t h e r s . None of these l e a d e r s gave any i n d i c a t i o n d u r i n g the war y e a r s or b e f o r e t h a t t h e y c o n t e m p l a t e d measures i n South A f r i c a a g a i n s t the B l a c k s , I n d i a n s , C o l o u r e d s o r Jews r e s e m b l i n g t h e s y s t e m a t i c extermination o f the Jewish people i n Europe, or the wholesale decimation of the S l a v i c r a c e s , of whom the n e a r l y 4 m i l l i o n dead S o v i e t POW's were j u s t a h a r b i n g e r . These c r i m e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the Nazi e x t e r m i n a t i o n of the Jews, had l i t t l e or no c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l P r u s s i a n o r German s t a t e p o l i c y , and were h a r d l y connected with German m i l i t a r y p o l i c y , but were a d i r e c t consequence of Nazi i d e o l o g y . The " r a d i c a l " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f N a z i t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m was a d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e of N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m . The hyper-racism of N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m was the most d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f N a z i " r a d i c a l t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m . " N a z i r a c i s m was the apogee of anti-humanist t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m i n the twentieth century. The Nazis i n a u g u r a t e d a s e r i e s o f p o l i c i e s , a t home and abroad, which broke the bounds of a l l forms of t r a d i t i o n a l European conservatism, and i n f a c t were at complete v a r i a n c e with a l l a s p e c t s o f t r a d i t i o n a l l i b e r a l , c o n s e r v a t i v e o r J u d e o -C h r i s t i a n thought. Even t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n a n t i - s e m i t i s m was n o t r a c i a l l y b a s e d . I t stemmed f r o m r e l i g i o u s i n t o l e r a n c e , and the c o n v e r s i o n of the Jews was a c o n s t a n t g o a l of the medieval Church, which c e r t a i n l y never envisaged the wholesale e x t e r m i n a t i o n of v i r t u a l l y every l a s t Jew s o l e l y on the b a s i s o f h i s or her r a c i a l descent. 100 The HNP, and i n d e e d most E u r o p e a n f a s c i s t movements o f the t w e n t i e s and t h i r t i e s , d i d not have aims which were as d i v o r c e d from t r a d i t i o n a l European m o r a l and p o l i t i c a l norms, and t h a t were as a m b i t i o u s i n t h e i r s c o p e . Now, the N a z i s were n o t t h e o n l y a r c h i t e c t s o f mass s l a u g h t e r among the E u r o p e a n f a s c i s t s , a s t h e C r o a t a n d R u m a n i a n e x a m p l e ] no i l l u s t r a t e . * ° F r a n c o ' s regime i n S p a i n was a l s o b r u t a l l y r e p r e s s i v e ; i t s l a u g h t e r e d hundreds o f thousands o f R e p u b l i c a n sympath izers i n Spa in between 1936 and 1945. The worst o f f e n d e r s amongst the f a s c i s t s t a t e s o f Europe d i d not ac t from the p u r e l y r a c i s t m o t i v a t i o n s o f the N a z i s , and t h e r e i n l i e s the c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n c e between N a z i i s m and a l l o t h e r forms of f a s c i s m . Racism i s p r o b a b l y the u l t i m a t e form o f ant i -humanism, i n that i t d e n i e s common humanity to a p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p , s i m p l y on the b a s i s o f t h e i r g e n e t i c de scen t or t h e i r s k i n c o l o u r . By t h e i r own r o u t e , the N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y o f South A f r i c a a r r i v e d a t a p o s i t i o n as inhumane and as i l l i b e r a l as t h a t o f the N a z i s . In t h i s , t h e y were more s i m i l a r to the N a z i s t h a t v i r t u a l l y any o f the o ther i n t e r - w a r f a s c i s t s . The S p a n i s h s l a u g h t e r s o r i g i n a t e d i n c l a s s and I d e o l o g i c a l h a t r e d s f a n n e d by c i v i l w a r . The C r o a t a n d R u m a n i a n m a s s a c r e s h a d t h e i r r o o t s i n e t h n i c - n a t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s antagoni sms . The n a z i regime pursued i t s p o l i c i e s i n the E a s t , and i n d e e d i n Germany i t s e l f , on b e h a l f o f a s e c u l a r p s e u d o - s c i e n t i f i c r a c i s m . The N a z i s l a u g h t e r s were done c o l d l y , a t the behes t o f the t o p p a r t y l e a d e r s h i p , and 101 were not as p o p u l a r w i t h the Germans as were the massacres of Serbs and Jews p e r p e t r a t e d by the U s t a s i and the I r o n G u a r d . In N a z i i s m , s e c u l a r i z e d r a c i s m sunders i t s e l f f rom i t s h i s t o r i c a l a n t e c e d e n t s . In Hannah A r e n d t ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f r a c i s m , N a z i r a c i s m was a development o f h y p e r - n a t i o n a l i s m , b u t i n s u c h a o n e - s i d e d , r a d i c a l , t o t a l i t a r i a n way t h a t i t s u b s t i t u t e d l o n g - t e r m i n t e r e s t s o f the r a c e , which i n c l u d e d the e x t e r m i n a t i o n or s u b j u g a t i o n o f o t h e r r a c e s or n a t i o n s , f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l aims o f German f o r e i g n p o l i c y , s e c u r i n g G e r m a n y ' s f r o n t i e r s w i t h F r a n c e , o r g a i n i n g c o l o n i e s i n A f r i c a . 1 9 9 The a n t i - s e m i t i s m o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , the fundamental source o f European r a c i s t h o s t i l i t y to the Jews, i s transmuted i n t o a j u s t d e f e n c e a g a i n s t r a c i a l i n f e c t i o n by the A r y a n p e o p l e s , n e e d i n g no f u r t h e r j u s t i f i c a t i o n . The Jews were g u i l t y not because they were not C h r i s t i a n s , but j u s t because they were Jews. Jews i n the eyes o f t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n i t y were i n p r i n c i p l e redeemable ; i n N a z i i s m they were no more r e d e e m a b l e t h a n c a n c e r c e l l s . N a z i r a c i s m a t t e m p t e d to c r e a t e , i n H . A r e n d t ' s t erm, a "Race" o f A r i s t o c r a t s A g a i n s t a "Nat ion o f C i t i z e n s " a l l over E u r o p e . 2 0 0 Through r e f a s h i o n i n g the German p e o p l e , by c u l l i n g out the weak, r e t a r d e d , e l d e r l y and c h r o n i c a l l y i l l , as was done to Germans between 1939 and 1941 u n t i l Church p r e s s u r e and p u b l i c o u t c r y l e d by C a r d i n a l G a l e n s t o p p e d i t , German r a c i s t N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m went f a r beyond the bounds o f t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i o n a l i s m , as w e l l as o f C h r i s t i a n v a l u e s . 2 0 1 N a z i r a c i s m was n a t i o n a l i s m gone w i l d , 102 c a n c e r o u s , e a t i n g up i t s s u r r o u n d i n g e n v i r o n m e n t , even the f o r c e s t h a t n u r t u r e d i t , n u l l i f y i n g a l l o ther v a l u e s . N a z i t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m was not unique i n i t s b r u t a l i t y , but i n u s i n g tha t b r u t a l i t y i n such a s y s t e m a t i c , c o l d and thorough way. Now the N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y c e r t a i n l y c o n t i n u e d to d i s p l a y a c o n s i s t e n t r a c i s m throughout World War I I , towards the non-w h i t e s o f S o u t h A f r i c a . H . A r e n d t saw i n t h e A f r i k a n e r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the b l a c k s o f South A f r i c a the ambigu i ty o f v i e w i n g them as l e s s than human, and y e t as men c r e a t e d i n God's image j u s t as themse lves . "The grea t h o r r o r which had s e i z e d E u r o p e a n men at t h e i r f i r s t c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h n a t i v e l i v e was s t i m u l a t e d by p r e c i s e l y the touch of inhumani ty a t human be ings who a p p a r e n t l y were as much a p a r t o f nature as w i l d a n i m a l s . The Boers l i v e d on t h e i r s l a v e s e x a c t l y the way n a t i v e s had l i v e d on an unprepared and unchanging n a t u r e . " * " * T h i s r a c i s m , which viewed the Bantu and Capoids as something l e s s t h a n h u m a n , was t e m p e r e d a n d e x c u s e d by t h e i r C h r i s t i a n i t y , t h e one t h i n g t h a t a t the e a r l y s t a g e s o f A f r i k a n e r h i s t o r y seemed to s e t the Trekboer a p a r t from the n a t i v e s . The HNP, o f c o u r s e , never env i saged l e a d i n g the b l a c k s to a dominat ing r o l e i n South A f r i c a . In the 1948 p a r l i a m e n t a r y debate , J . G . S t r i j d o m , one of the most open and honest of the N a t i o n a l i s t p o l i t i c i a n s , a t t a c k e d l i b e r a l U n i t e d P a r t y m i n i s t e r Hofmeyr f o r h i s l i b e r a l h u m a n i t a r i a n i n t e n t i o n to e v e n t u a l l y remove the c o l o u r b a r : " S t r i j d o m s n e e r e d a t 103 Hofmeyr . . . C o u l d not Hofmeyr u n d e r s t a n d t h a t the whi te man r u l e d by p o w e r , not by m e r i t ? " 2 0 3 S t r i j d o m ' s h o n e s t y was r a r e ; most A f r i k a n e r n a t i o n a l i s t p o l i t i c i a n s a d v o c a t e d the c o l o u r bar and r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n over the non-whi tes o f South A f r i c a because i t was o r d a i n e d by God, and u l t i m a t e l y i n the bes t i n t e r e s t o f the n a t i v e as w e l l as the w h i t e . T h i s "need to j u s t i f y " c o u l d be accounted f o r by t h e i r r e l i g i o s i t y , and t h e i r need to s a l v e t h e i r " C h r i s t i a n c o n s c i e n c e . " A n d r e Du T o i t b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s C h r i s t i a n , i n f a c t s p e c i f i c a l l y C a l v i n i s t r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f e a r l y A f r i k a n e r r a c i a l d o m i n a t i o n i n S o u t h A f r i c a was more o f a f a c e t and c r e a t i o n o f a 19th c e n t u r y N e o - C a l v i n i s t t h i n k i n g and of 20th c e n t u r y A f r i k a n e r N a t i o n a l i s t i d e o l o g y and not the p r i m a r y r a t i o n a l e or spur to Trekboer a t t i t u d e toward the non-whi tes o f South A f r i c a . 2 0 4 Du T o i t b e l i e v e s the l i t e r a t u r e o f the p e r i o d i s more i n d i c a t i v e o f a f r o n t i e r m e n t a l i t y towards n o n -whi tes s u n d e r e d from the c i v i l i z i n g , humaniz ing i n f l u e n c e o f Church and S t a t e . 2 0 5 Arendt r e c a p i t u l a t e s the myth, which i s more u s e f u l i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g A f r i k a n e r v iews of t h e i r p a s t , than i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the behav iour or r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f t h a t behaviour by t h e i r f o r b e a r s . The r e c o r d o f A f r i k a n e r n a t i o n a l i s m i n power, a f t e r May 1 9 4 8 , c e r t a i n l y shows n o t h i n g t o c o m p a r e w i t h t h e N a z i e x t e r m i n a t i o n of the Jews and S l a v s d u r i n g Wor ld War I I . Nor was t h e i r c o n t r o l over the whi tes of South A f r i c a i n any way comparable t o N a z i t o t a l i t a r i a n c o n t r o l . White South A f r i c a 104 has been a r a c i a l l y e x c l u s i v e democracy f r o m 1948 to t h e p r e s e n t d a y . However, t h e i r t o t a l i t a r i a n c o n t r o l over the b l a c k s o f South A f r i c a , i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f s e g r e g a t i o n i n South A f r i c a s i n c e they have been i n power, i s i n d i c a t i v e of a s t r o n g a u t h o r i t a r i a n , even t o t a l i t a r i a n s t r e a k w i t h i n t h e p a r t y . I t s h o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be a s s u m e d t h a t a h y p o t h e t i c a l C h r i s t i a n N a t i o n a l i s t f a s c i s t r e p u b l i c i n S o u t h A f r i c a , a l t h o u g h C a l v i n i s t dogma w o u l d have been p a r t o f t h e c o r e o f i t s i d e o l o g y , wou ld not have been tempted t o i m i t a t e the N a z i p r a c t i c e s o f g e n o c i d a l " r a c e p u r i f i c a t i o n " . P e r h a p s N a t i o n a l i s t o r A f r i k a n e r r e s t r a i n t i n t e r m s o f n o t e x t e r m i n a t i n g t h e i r n a t i v e s might have stemmed from t h e i r r e l i a n c e on the Bantu as a cheap l a b o u r f o r c e u n d e r p i n n i n g t h e i r economy, as much as f r o m C h r i s t i a n t e m p e r i n g o f raw r a c i a l d o m i n a t i o n . The a n t i - s e m i t i s m of the HNP, i n c o n t r a s t to tha t o f the NSDAP, was not an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h a t p a r t y ' s i d e o l o g y . Most Jews i n South A f r i c a were d e s c e n d a n t s o f poor E a s t e r n European Jews who had i m m i g r a t e d to the T r a n s v a a l a f t e r the g o l d d i s c o v e r i e s o f 1886. The success some of them had may have l a i d an u n d e r c u r r e n t o f a n t i - s e m i t i s m amongst A f r i k a n e r s that r e s u r f a c e d w i t h the r i s e of N a z i i s m i n the 1930's . The o l d N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y o f H e r t z o g had no t r a d i t i o n o f a n t i -s e m i t i c t e n d e n c i e s . 2 0 6 M a l a n , i n 1 9 3 0 , b r o u g h t i n an 105 immigrat ion b i l l to l i m i t e n t r y i n t o South A f r i c a f o r E a s t e r n European i m m i g r a n t s , m a i n l y Jews, and Malan many years l a t e r a d m i t t e d t h a t was the aim o f the b i l l . 2 0 7 The f a c t i s t h a t the N a t i o n a l i s t s were s u s p i c i o u s of a l l who were not Germano-D u t c h - F r e n c h P r o t e s t a n t s , b u t were no t e s p e c i a l l y a n t i -s e m i t i c , and were p r e p a r e d t o t o l e r a t e a m i n i m a l number o f Jews i n South A f r i c a . As l o n g as the l a t t e r kept t h e i r p l a c e , t h e r e was e v e n a s m a l l d e g r e e o f s y m p a t h y f o r them as a p e r s e c u t e d r a c e . Yahweh's covenant w i t h Moses on b e h a l f o f I s r a e l i n E x o d u s was i n f a c t t h e m o d e l o f t h e A f r i k a n e r covenant w i t h God. The I s r a e l i t e s , l i k e the A f r i k a n e r s , were s u p p o s e d l y l e d by God t o s e t t l e and c o n q u e r a n a t i o n o f b a r b a r o u s , e v i l heathens . T h i s o r i g i n a l view changed r a d i c a l l y i n the 1930's w i t h the r i s e o f H i t l e r and N a z i Germany. The N a t i o n a l i s t s began t o t a l k a b o u t " B r i t i s h - J e w i s h " c a p i t a l i s m e x p l o i t i n g t h e A f r i k a n e r , and many n a t i o n a l i s t s were i n v o l v e d i n a g i t a t i o n a g a i n s t J e w i s h i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o South A f r i c a . The extreme wing of the HNP, l e d by Voerwoerd , e d i t o r o f Die Transvaler i n the immediate prewar p e r i o d and d u r i n g the war, and by J . G . S t r i j d o m among o t h e r s , was v i o l e n t l y a n t i - s e m i t i c . I n 1 9 3 6 V o e r w o e r d was o n e o f s e v e r a l p r o m i n e n t N a t i o n a l i s t academics oppos ing f u r t h e r Jewish i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o South A f r i c a . That y e a r , the U n i t e d P a r t y government bowed to N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y p r e s s u r e t o l i m i t J e w i s h i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o South A f r i c a by d r a f t i n g an a l i e n s b i l l . T h i s b i l l was even 106 s t r i c t e r than the 1930 Immigrat ion Law. Refugee o r g a n i z a t i o n s at tempted to b r i n g i n more refugees from Germany aboard a s h i p they c h a r t e r e d , the S . S . Stuttgart. Voerwoerd was one o f the main s p e a k e r s at a m e e t i n g h e l d on November 4th to p r o t e s t t h e i r a r r i v a l , and he c a l l e d upon the government t o h a l t f u r t h e r J e w i s h i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o South A f r i c a b e c a u s e , among o ther t h i n g s , the Jews were an u n a s s i m i l a b l e e l e m e n t . 2 0 8 T h e r e were o t h e r i n s t a n c e s o f N a t i o n a l i s t a n t i - s e m i t i s m a r o u n d t h i s t i m e . Jews were f o r b i d d e n membership i n t h e N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y from 1940 u n t i l the 1960 ' s . The l e a d e r o f t h e o p e n l y N a z i G r e y s h i r t movement, W e i c h a r d t , e v e n t u a l l y became a N a t i o n a l i s t S e n a t o r . C l e a r l y , the GNP/HNP was open to N a z i i n f l u e n c e a t t h i s p o i n t , but as the f o r t u n e s o f war changed , and c e r t a i n l y a f t e r H i t l e r ' s d e f e a t , a n t i - s e m i t i s m was put on the b a c k - b u r n e r and e v e n t u a l l y s h e l v e d . The HNP was never i n h e r e n t l y p h i l o s e m i t i c or a n t i - s e m i t i c ; they have moved f r o m not c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i s s u e , p r i o r t o 1937 , t o c l o s e l y i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h N a z i a n t i - s e m i t i s m , to e s t a b l i s h i n g f a i r l y c l o s e l y r e l a t i o n s w i t h I s r a e l i n the 1970's and 1980 ' s , p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r t h e r i s e t o power o f t h e B e g i n / L i k u d government i n 1977. GNP/HNP a n t i - s e m i t i s m i s another example o f N a t i o n a l i s t p o l i t i c i a n s no t r e a l l y f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g , or c a r i n g t o unders tand Naz i i d e o l o g y . They saw Germany as a power opposed t o t h e i r o l d enemy B r i t a i n , and o p p o s e d to S o v i e t R u s s i a , a d v o c a t e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m and uncompromising a n t i - r a c i s m . 107 Perhaps t h i s was a l l t h a t was necessary f o r them to be pro-German, and p r o - N a z i . The f i n e p o i n t s of Nazi extremism, the i d e o l o g y of a Heydrich, Eichmann or a Kaltenbrunner, which saw t o t a l genocide as a s o l u t i o n to the "Jewish problem", was not i n t h e minds o f t h e HNP l e a d e r s when the y o c c a s i o n a l l y i d e n t i f i e d themselves with N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m . 108 CHAPTER V The HNP was n o t a N a z i p a r t y , b e c a u s e i t was n o t a f u l l -f l e d g e d , e x c l u s i v e f a s c i s t p a r t y . I t was n o t a n e x c l u s i v e f a s c i s t p a r t y — e v e n t h o u g h i t was a u t h o r i t a r i a n , r i g h t - w i n g , h y p e r n a t i o n a l i s t , a n d a n t i - h u m a n i s t — b e c a u s e i t was n o t a c l a s s - b a s e d movement, a s N a z i i s m and I t a l i a n F a s c i s m w e r e ; t h e N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y was a n e t h n i c p a r t y , a d v a n c i n g t h e i n t e r e s t s o f a l l c l a s s e s o f A f r i k a n e r s . The N a t i o n a l i s t s d i d , h o w e v e r , b e t r a y s i g n s o f N a z i i n f l u e n c e i n some a r e a s . C l e a r s i g n s o f N a z i f a s c i s t i n f l u e n c e c a n be f o u n d i n t h e HNP's a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m , i t ' s r i g h t - w i n g a n t i c o m m u n i s m , i t s N a z i - i n d u c e d a n t i - s e m i t i s m , i n i t s c u l t o f t h e l e a d e r t h e m i l i t a r i s m o f t h e O s s e w a B r a n d w a g i s a n e x a m p l e o f N a z i i n f l u e n c e o n A f r i k a n e r f a s c i s m w r i t l a r g e . The e m p h a s i s on h i e r a r c h y a n d l e a d e r s h i p t h a t one f i n d s i n t h e s t a t e m e n t s o f N a t i o n a l i s t l e a d e r s o r i n p r o - N a t i o n a l i s t p u b l i c a t i o n s a n d d o c u m e n t s i n t h e l a t e 1 9 3 0 ' s a n d e a r l y 1 9 4 0 ' s i s n o t c o i n c i d e n t a l . I t a s a c o n s c i o u s a t t e m p t t o p a t t e r n N a t i o n a l i s t i d e o l o g y u p o n N a z i and f a s c i s t a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m . T h e o v e r t a n t i - c o m m u n i s m o f t h e N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y w a s c e r t a i n l y s t i m u l a t e d by t h e g r o w t h o f t h e w o r l d f a s c i s m i n t h e 1 9 3 0 ' s , b u t was i n h e r e n t i n t h e r a c i s t i d e o l o g y o f t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s . N a t i o n a l i s t a n t i - s e m i t i s m d u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d was a l s o d e r i v e d f r o m N a z i i d e o l o g y . The g l o r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e l e a d e r , t h o u g h n e v e r t a k e n t o a n y w h e r e n e a r t h e same e x t e n t a s i n Germany, was a phenomenon 109 t h a t o c c u r r e d i n the N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y d u r i n g World War Two, and was p r o b a b l y i n f l u e n c e d by the examples of Nazi Germany and F a s c i s t I t a l y . I t i s a l s o the case, however, t h a t the a t t r i b u t i o n of the t i t l e of V o l k s l e i e r to Malan was p a r t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the need of Malan and the N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y to m a i n t a i n t h e i r p o l i t i c a l supremacy amongst N a t i o n a l i s t A f r i k a n e r s over the OB and the New Order. Van Rensburg and Pirow were a l s o contenders f o r the t i t l e of V o l k s l e i e r . At any r a t e , the c u l t of the leader never assumed anywhere near the i m p o r t a n c e t o the N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y as i t d i d t o the N a zis, or the I t a l i a n F a s c i s t s . A m i l i t a r i s t i c o r i e n t a t i o n was a f e a t u r e of one f a c e t of A f r i k a n e r fascism, the Ossewa Brandwag. With i t s emphasis on m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , and the openly N a z i i d e o l o g y of i t s l e a d e r J . J . van Rensburg, t h i s d e s i g n a t e d ' c u l t u r a l arm' o f A f r i k a n e r n a t i o n a l i s m was the l o g i c a l v e h i c l e f o r f a s c i s t type m i l i t a r i s m i n South A f r i c a . 2 0 9 The N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y i t s e l f , w i t h i t s more p r a g m a t i c , p a r l i a m e n t a r y o r i e n t a t i o n s h i e d away f r o m a m i l i t a r i s t i d e o l o g i c a l bent. In o t h e r ways, the N a t i o n a l i s t s and t h e i r Broederbond c o n t r o l l e r s were s i m i l a r , but not n e c e s s a r i l y i n f l u e n c e d by, f o r e i g n f a s c i s t s o u r c e s . S i m i l a r i t i e s can be found i n the HNP 1s a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m , i t s emphasis on s t a t e - c o n t r o l l e d c a p i t a l i s m , i t s h y p e r n a t i o n a l i s m , i t s anti-humanist racism and i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n as a mass p a r t y . The Broederbond c o n t r o l of 110 the N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y was s t i m u l a t e d , but not e x c l u s i v e l y m o d e l l e d upon , N a z i a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m . Broederbond i n f l u e n c e over the N a t i o n a l i s t s was q u i t e e x t e n s i v e d u r i n g the 1920 ' s , a l t h o u g h the p a r t y was more d e m o c r a t i c i n form and substance w h i l e H e r t z o g was l e a d e r . The i d e a o f a s e c r e t i v e e l i t e c o n t r o l l i n g a mass movement was c e r t a i n l y a f f e c t e d by the r i s e o f a u t h o r i t a r i a n f a s c i s m i n the 1930 ' s . Another s i m i l a r i t y between the N a t i o n a l i s t s and the N a z i s was t h e i r s h a r e d commitment to c o n t r o l l e d c a p i t a l i s m . Here one can more r e a d i l y speak o f a s i m i l a r i t y r a t h e r than o f i n f l u e n c e , f o r the N a t i o n a l i s t s , ever s i n c e the f i r s t H e r t z o g g o v e r n m e n t , were c o m m i t t e d to a f o r m o f r a c i s t - c o n t r o l l e d c a p i t a l i s m . The r i s e o f f a s c i s m i n the 1 9 3 0 ' s , h o w e v e r , p r o b a b l y s t i m u l a t e d s t a t i s t t h o u g h t amongs t A f r i k a n e r N a t i o n a l i s t p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s and i n t e l l e c t u a l s . I t i s h a r d to say whether the f l o w e r i n g o f N a t i o n a l i s t i d e o l o g y , propounded by D i e d r i c h s and o t h e r s , was i n f l u e n c e d by Naz i i d e o l o g y . The g l o r i f i c a t i o n o f e t h n i c i t y i s c e r t a i n l y a common t r a i t o f N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m and A f r i k a n e r C h r i s t i a n N a t i o n a l i s m , and account s i n p a r t f o r the sympathy w i t h which many A f r i k a n e r N a t i o n a l i s t s viewed N a z i Germany. A n t i - h u m a n i s t r a c i s m was something the German N a z i s and the N a t i o n a l i s t s had i n common. The HNP l e a d e r s h i p i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a p h i l o s o p h y t h a t espoused the s u p e r i o r i t y o f the whi te N o r d i c r a c e . N a z i r a c i s m meshed q u i t e w e l l w i t h the A f r i k a n e r I l l h i s t o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e o f w r e n c h i n g the c o u n t r y from dark heathen savages, and m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r s u p e r i o r i t y over them. A s i m i l a r i t y between the Nazis and the N a t i o n a l i s t s was the f a c t t h a t they were both mass p a r t i e s . The N a t i o n a l i s t Party was a l r e a d y a l a r g e mass based e t h n i c p a r t y before the r i s e o f Nazi Germany, and although i t may have owed some of i t s p r o p a g a n d i s t i c d e v i c e s , such as the Voortrekker centenary c e l e b r a t i o n s , to the Nazis, i t i s more l i k e l y t h a t the growth of the Party machinery and i t s l i m i t e d use of mass s p e c t a c l e s (the Voortrekker c e l e b r a t i o n s a g a i n ) , were the r e s u l t of a p a r a l l e l p rocess of development, and not i m i t a t i o n . There a r e two sharp d i f f e r e n c e s i n o u t l o o k between the N a z i w o r l d v i e w , and t h e o u t l o o k and b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e N a t i o n a l i s t l e a d e r s h i p and i t s supp o r t e r s . The depths of Nazi n i h i l i s m were n e v e r e v i d e n t t o t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y . The t o t a l break with a l l C h r i s t i a n and l i b e r a l democratic standards t h a t i n c l u d e d mass e x t e r m i n a t i o n of e n t i r e peoples was not a p a r t of N a t i o n a l i s t i d e o l o g y . I t i s not a t o t a l l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t t h a t t h e N a t i o n a l i s t l e a d e r s , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e i r f o l l o w e r s , were v i r t u a l l y a l l b e l i e v i n g C h r i s t i a n s , whereas the Nazis were e i t h e r not devout or o u t r i g h t a t h e i s t s and a g n o s t i c s . The N a t i o n a l i s t l e a d e r s were very much the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of an e t h n i c community, i t s folkways, i t s ways of l i f e , and i t s b e l i e f s . In t h i s they were s i m i l a r t o the C r o a t i a n U s t a s i , the Slovak H l i n k a Guard, and other E a s t e r n European " i n c l u s i v e " f a s c i s t movements. 2 1 0 112 The N a z i s were v e r y much u p r o o t e d moderns i n a l l r e s p e c t s . They were i n the main not u n i v e r s i t y - e d u c a t e d (Goebbels b e i n g a n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n ) , n o t w e a l t h y , a n d h a d no s t r o n g i d e o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n b e f o r e t h e y came i n t o t h e N a z i p a r t y . 2 1 1 They make a s h a r p c o n t r a s t w i t h the N a t i o n a l i s t l e a d e r s h i p o f the t h i r t i e s and f o r t i e s . D r . M a l a n was a predikant, a m i n i s t e r o f t h e D u t c h R e f o r m e d C h u r c h . 2 1 2 S t r i j d o m was an a t t o r n e y , V o e r w o e r d was a u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r : " a f t e r o b t a i n i n g h i s B . A . w i t h d i s t i n c t i o n , m a j o r i n g i n s o c i o l o g y , p s y c h o l o g y and l o g i c , H e n d r i k got a u n i v e r s i t y appointment as a demonstrator i n the Department o f P s y c h o l o g y . " 2 1 3 The o t h e r A f r i k a n e r l e a d e r s were a t l e a s t farmers , landowners w i th a profound s take i n South A f r i c a , and a prosperous South A f r i c a n economy. The extreme r e l i g i o - n a t i o n a l p a r o c h i a l i s m t h a t was the e t h o s , the raison d'etre o f the HNP, s i m i l a r to tha t o f the U s t a s i i n C r o a t i a , does not l e a d the o b s e r v e r to conc lude t h a t a n y t h i n g l i k e the pogroms p e r p e t r a t e d by t h e l a t t e r g r o u p would have n e c e s s a r i l y o c c u r r e d under such a reg ime . There i s a c o m p l e t e absence o f v i o l e n t or murderous r h e t o r i c by the N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y and i t s l e a d e r s d u r i n g the war p e r i o d . The N a t i o n a l i s t s would have been c o n s t r a i n e d , i n any c a s e , from e x t e r m i n a t i n g the Bantu as t h e i r a n c e s t o r s e x t e r m i n a t e d the San, because the South A f r i c a n economy had grown dependent on Black l a b o u r . However, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note tha t one o f the u l t i m a t e aims o f Voerwoerd' s a p a r t h e i d (as f o r m u l a t e d and 113 a p p l i e d by him d u r i n g h i s r e i g n as Prime M i n i s t e r from 1958 to 1966) was to f r e e South A f r i c a ' s economy from dependence upon B l a c k l a b o u r . A t any r a t e , the N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y made no a t t e m p t t o i n d i c a t e i t had any t o t a l i t a r i a n g e n o c i d a l a ims towards the non-Whi tes i n the c o u n t r y d u r i n g the war y e a r s . The r a c i s m o f t h e N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y , combined w i t h o t h e r f a c t o r s , pushed them i n the d i r e c t i o n o f the r a d i c a l f a s c i s m of the Germany N a z i s d u r i n g World War I I . There i s , however, no p r o o f o f r a d i c a l f a s c i s t aims comparable to the p r a c t i c e o f the N a z i s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . The o ther t h i n g t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e s the N a t i o n a l i s t s from c l a s s i c f a s c i s t movements i s that w h i l e the N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y f ed o f f the s o c i a l d i s c o n t e n t o f most c l a s s e s o f A f r i k a n e r s i t s ma ins tay seems to have been the n a t i o n a l i s m of a wide body of A f r i k a n e r f a r m e r s , t e a c h e r s , c i v i l s e r v a n t s and o ther p e t i t b o u r g e o i s . These groups s u f f e r e d from the i n e q u i t i e s o f the economic system i n South A f r i c a , but t h e i r d i s c o n t e n t , as was the c a s e w i t h A f r i k a n e r poor w h i t e s , was a c o m b i n a t i o n o f s o c i a l and n a t i o n a l f r u s t r a t i o n s . That the N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y i n c r e a s e d i t s p o p u l a r support i n the 1943 e l e c t i o n w h i l e the booming South A f r i c a n economy b e n e f i t e d a l l s e c t i o n s o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h e power t h a t i t s f u n d a m e n t a l l y n a t i o n a l i s t a p p e a l had t o most A f r i k a n e r s . O p p o s i t i o n to B r i t i s h d o m i n a t i o n o f S o u t h A f r i c a was o f t e n a f u s i o n o f s o c i a l and n a t i o n a l concerns f o r p a r t i c u l a r groups , as was the ase o f A f r i k a n e r farmers i n the Cape, who wanted s t a t e s u p p o r t 114 to c r e a t e new e x t r a - I m p e r i a l e x p o r t m a r k e t s , but A f r i k a n e r resentment a t B r i t i s h i m p e r i a l i s m was the d r i v i n g impetus o f t h e p a r t y . Most A f r i k a n e r s f e d o f f a l o n g t r a d i t i o n o f resentment a g a i n s t B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l i s m and i m p e r i a l i s m , and d i d not l i k e to f e e l l i k e f o r e i g n e r s i n t h e i r own c o u n t r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y when i t c o u l d be r e c l a i m e d t h r o u g h the b a l l o t b o x . 2 1 4 I t was t h i s t r a d i t i o n t h a t H e r t z o g tapped when he a t tempted t o a s s e r t South A f r i c a ' s s o v e r e i g n t y , by not g o i n g to war i n 1 9 3 9 . 2 1 5 The f a i l u r e of H e r t z o g ' s gambit i n f l a m e d the n a t i o n a l i s t p a s s i o n s o f most A f r i k a n e r s , who f e l t t h e y were a c t i n g as a c o l o n y a g a i n , i n f i g h t i n g B r i t a i n ' s war. I t i s h e r e t h a t the t h i r d p o i n t o f t h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f f a s c i s m h e l p s c l a r i f y the q u e s t i o n o f the HNP's f a s c i s m o r N a z i i s m . The " e x c l u s i v e " d e f i n i t i o n o f f a s c i s m g i v e n h e r e d e n i e s the t i t l e o f "pure" or " c l a s s i c f a s c i s t movement" t o the HNP. In an e t h n i c a l l y and r a c i a l l y homogeneous c o u n t r y , such as Germany or I t a l y , one sees the f o r c e s which g i v e r i s e to f a s c i s m come out i n a c l e a r form. F a s c i s m ' s i n i t i a l mass base i s the lower middle c l a s s , and i t expands to i n c l u d e the p e a s a n t s , t h e u p p e r m i d d l e c l a s s , and t h e upper e c h e l o n s . F a s c i s m , a s a r g u e d h e r e , i s a r e a c t i o n by a m u l t i - c l a s s c o a l i t i o n o f the lower m i d d l e , middle and upper c l a s s e s to the demands o f the u r b a n p r o l e t a r i a t . (The N a z i s r e c e i v e d some w o r k i n g - c l a s s s u p p o r t , b u t the o v e r w h e l m i n g b u l k o f t h e working c l a s s s u p p o r t e d the Communists or S o c i a l Democrats . ) Fasc i sm r e j e c t s the c l a i m s o f the workers to economic e q u a l i t y 115 i n t h e f o r m o f S o c i a l i s m i n o r d e r to d e f e n d , m a i n t a i n or r e c l a i m t h e b o u r g e o i s c o a l i t i o n ' s s t a k e i n the s y s t e m as p r o p e r t y h o l d e r s . In I t a l y i n the 1920's and Germany i n the 1930 ' s , we saw t h i s p r o c e s s o c c u r . A r e a c t i o n to some of the d e m a n d s o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s e s t a k e s p l a c e , b a s i c a l l y u n s u l l i e d by r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n o r e t h n i c d i v i s i o n s . N e i t h e r H i t l e r nor M u s s o l i n i can be a c c u s e d o f r e l i g i o u s b i g o t r y . H i t l e r never made h i s peace wi th the c h u r c h e s , and t h e f i r s t F a s c i s t p r o g r a m i n I t a l y i n c l u d e d t h e n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of Church p r o p e r t y . N e i t h e r the I t a l i a n nor the German movement had a ' C h r i s t i a n ' g o a l . 2 1 6 I f the N a t i o n a l i s t P a r t y can be s a i d to have been f a s c i s t d u r i n g World War Two, i t would have to be i n the ' i n c l u s i v e ' sense tha t many of the e a s t e r n European f a s c i s t movements o f the time can be so d e s c r i b e d . Perhaps the N a t i o n a l i s t s can be c o n s i d e r e d to be a f a s c i s t movement p a r t i c u l a r l y a d a p t e d , to c o n d i t i o n s i n South A f r i c a . I t s pragmat ic c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s m d e r i v e d from B r i t i s h p a r l i a m e n t a r y forms and p r a c t i c e b e i n g a more s u c c e s s f u l a d a p t a t i o n to South A f r i c a n c o n d i t i o n s , g i v e n t h e u n f a v o u r a b l e ( f r o m the s t a n d p o i n t o f most n a t i o n a l i s t -minded A f r i k a n e r s d u r i n g World War Two) t u r n o f the war , than the more dogmatic o b v i o u s l y N a z i i n f l u e n c e d f a s c i s m propounded by groups such as the New Order and the Ossewa Brandwag. So, i t i s the t h i r d p o i n t of " c l a s s i c " f a s c i s m — m i d d l e -c l a s s r e a c t i o n to the l e f t , r e s u l t i n g i n an a u t h o r i t a r i a n , l e a d e r - c e n t r e d , o n e - p a r t y regime — t h a t i s the most marked 116 f e a t u r e o f " c l a s s i c " f a s c i s m , what r e a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t f r o m more t r a d i t i o n a l i s t , r i g h t i s t , i n c l u s i v e f a s c i s t movements or g o v e r n m e n t s . The HNP, d u r i n g t h e war y e a r s , showed a u t h o r i t a r i a n l e a n i n g s ; i t was r i g h t - w i n g i n tha t i t u p h e l d the p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y r i g h t s o f A f r i k a n e r farmers and b u s i n e s s m e n , and was m i l i t a n t l y a n t i - c o m m u n i s t , and was h y p e r n a t i o n a l i s t and a n t i - h u m a n i s t i n that i t was r a c i s t . I t f a i l s the t e s t o f q u a l i f y i n g as a c l a s s i c f a s c i s t movement, i n t h a t i t was a n a t i o n a l i s t , a l l - c l a s s p a r t y , r e a c t i n g a g a i n s t f o r e i g n d o m i n a t i o n , on b e h a l f o f a p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c g r o u p w i t h i n a m u l t i n a t i o n a l s t a t e . In t h i s r e s p e c t , i t d i f f e r s from c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the German N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t s and the I t a l i a n F a s c i s t s . The defense o f the p r o p e r t y - h o l d i n g s t a t u s of the A f r i k a n e r , which was an aim o f the N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y t h r o u g h o u t i t s h i s t o r y , was m i n g l e d w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v e o f s e c u r i n g the maximum p o s s i b l e amount of A f r i k a n e r s o v e r e i g n t y i n S o u t h A f r i c a , t o the b e n e f i t o f a l l s o c i a l c l a s s e s o f A f r i k a n e r s . The tendency to secure a complete break w i t h the Commonweal th , w h i c h became o b v i o u s d u r i n g t h e war y e a r s , f u r t h e r d e f i n e s t h e p u r e l y n a t i o n a l i s t o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e N a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y . 117 ENDNOTES 1. H e r b e r t Adams, Modernizing Racial Domination, B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1971, p . 52. 2. Ibid., p . 52. 3. W . A . de K l e r k , The Puritans in Africa: A History of Afrikanerdom (Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x , E n g l a n d : Penguin Books, 1975) , p . 5. 4. Ibid., p . 6. 5. Ibid., p p . 14-15 . 6. T . R . H . D a v e n p o r t , South Africa: A Modern History ( T o r o n t o a n d B u f f a l o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1977), p . 19. 7. S h u l a M a r k s , The Myth of the Empty Land. In History Today Vol. 30, J a n . 1980, p . 9. 8. Ibid., p . 10. 9. Ibid., p . 10. 10. E r i c A n d e r s o n W a l k e r , The Great Trek (London: Adam & C h a r l e s B l a c k , 1934) , p . 29 11. R o b e r t L a c o u e r - G a y e t ( t r a n s , by S t e p h e n H a r d m a n ) , A History of South Africa, (New Y o r k : H a s t i n g s House P u b l i s h e r s , 1970) , p . 97. 12. W i l l i a m H e n r y V a t c h e r , White Laager: The Rise of Afrikaner Nationalism (New Y o r k , W a s h i n g t o n , L o n d o n : F r e d e r i c k A . P r a e g e r , P u b l i s h e r s , 1965) , p . 10. 13. Ibid., p . 10. 14. Ibid., p . 11. 15. Ibid. 16. Ibid. 17. Ibid., p . 14. 18. Monica W i l s o n , Leonard Thompson, eds . The Oxford History of South Africa, Vol. II: South Africa 1870-1966, (Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971) , p p . 106-107. 118 19. L . M . Thompson, The Unification of South Africa ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1960), p . 12. 20. Davenport , South Africa: A Modern History, p . 148. 21. Ibid., p . 156. 22. Ibid., p . 156. 23. W i l s o n & Thompson, The Oxford History of South Africa, p p . 106-107. 24. T . Dunbar M o o d i e , The Rise of Afrikanerdom: Power, Apartheid, and the Afrikaner Civil Religion ( U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , B e r k e l e y , Los A n g e l e s , 1975) , p p . 77-78. 25. Ibid., p p . 85-86. 26. W i l s o n and Thompson, The Oxford History of South Africa, p . 379. 27. Freda T r o u p . South Africa (London: Eyre Methuen, 1972) , p . 232. 28. D a v i d Y u d e l m a n , The Emergence of Modern South Africa: State Capital, and the Incorporation of Organized Labour on the South African Gold Fields 1902-39. ( W e s t p o r t , C o n n e c t i c u t : Greenwood P r e s s , 1983), p . 217. 29. Ibid., p . 242. 30. Yudelman, The Emergence of Modern South Africa, p . 7. 31. Ibid., p . 7. 32. Ibid., p . 237. 33. Ibid., p . 239. 34. Ibid., p . 238. 35. B r i a n B u n t i n g , The Rise of the South African Reich, (Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x : Penguin Books , 1964) , p . 39. 36. Freda T r o u p , South Africa, p . 242. 37. K e n n e t h M a r t i n ' s Ingham, Jan Christiaan Smuts (New Y o r k : S t . P r e s s , 1986), p . 156. 38. V a t c h e r , White Laager, p . 44. 119 39. Ibid. 40. Ibid. 41. L . E . Neame, General Hertzog ( T i p t r e e , Essex: H u r s t and B l a c k e t t L t d . ) , p . 176. 42. Ibid., p . 204. 43. B u n t i n g , The Rise of the South African Reich, pp . 34-35 . 44. D a n O ' M e a r a , Volkskapitalisme, Class, Capital and Ideology in the Development of Afrikaner Nationalism, 1934-1938 (Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1983), p . 32. 45. Yudelman, p . 222. 46. Ibid., pp . 223-224. 47. L a c o u e r - G a y e t , A History of South Africa, p . 271. 48. Ibid., p . 274. 49. B u n t i n g , The Rise of the South African Reich, p . 44. 50. O ' M e a r a , Volkskapitalisme, p . 49. 51. Ibid., p . 50. 52. B u n t i n g , The Rise of the South African Reich, p . 59. 53. A l e x a n d e r H e p p l e , Voerwoerd, (Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x : Penguin Books , 1967) , p . 12. 54. Ibid., p . 59-60. 55. Ibid., p . 63. 56. J . C . Smuts , Jan Christiaan Smuts (New Y o r k : W i l l i a m Morrow & C o . I n c . , 1952) , p . 314. 57. J e a n van d e r P o e l , Selections from the smuts Papers, Vol. VI: December 1934 - August 1945 ( C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973) , p . 495. 58. D . W . K r i i g e r , The Making of a Nation ( J o h a n n e s b u r g : M a c m i l l a n South A f r i c a [ P u b l i s h e r s ] [ P T Y ] L t d . , 1969) , p . 202. 59. K r i i g e r , The Making of a Nation, p . 201. 120 60. Smuts, Jan Christiaan Smuts, p. 339. 61. Kruger, The Making of a Nation, p. 202. 62. Bunting, Rise of the South African Reich, p. 111. 63. A l a n Paton, Hofmeyr (Cape Town: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, T h i b a u l t House, 1964), p. 238. 64. Ibid., p. 385. 65. Ibid., p. 370. 66. Ibid., p. 371. 67. Bunting, The Rise of the South African Reich, p. 76. 68. Ibid. 69. Ibid., p. 78. 70. Davenport, South Africa: A Modern History, p. 235. 71. Bunting, The Rise of the South African Reich, pp. 80-81. 72. Ibid., p. 81. 73. Davenport, South Africa:. A Modern History, p. 236. 74. Bunting, The Rise of the South African Reich, p. 100. 75. Davenport, South Africa: A Modern History, p. 2 37. 76. Robert G. Weisbrod, "The Dilemma of South A f r i c a n Jewry", The Journal of Modern African Studies, V o l . 5, no. 2 (Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, Sept. 1967), p. 240. 77. Vatcher, White Laager, p. 65. 78. Ibid. 79. Ibid., p. 65-66. 80. Ibid., p. 66. 81. Ibid. 82. Bunting, The Rise of the South African Reich, p. 88. 83. Vatcher, White Laager, p. 78. 121 84. Ibid., p . 65. 85. Ibid. 86. A l e x a n d e r H e p p l e , Voerwoerd (Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x , E n g l a n d : Penguin Books, 1967) , p . 94. 87. Ibid., p . 92. 88. B u n t i n g , The Rise of the South African Reich, p . 97. 89. Van der P o e l , Selections from the Smuts Papers, p . 476. 90. K r u g e r , The Making of a Nation, p . 222. 91. Ibid. 92. Ibid., p . 223. 93. Ibid. 94. J . L a r r a i n , The Concept of Ideology, (London: H u t c h i n s o n & C o . , 1979) , p . 189. 95. Ibid., p p . 191-192. 96. Ibid., p p . 193-194. 97. Ibid., p . 203. 98. Ibid. 99. Ibid., p . 204. 100. A d o l f o S a n c h e z V a y a q u e z V a s q u e z ( t r a n s , by M i k e G o n z a l e z ) , The Philosophy of Praxis ( M e r l i n P r e s s C o . , 1977) , p . 100. 101. Ibid. 102. Ibid., p . 165. 103. S . J . Woo l f , e d . , European Fascism (London: Weidenfe ld & N i c h o l s o n , 1968), p . 24. 104. Ibid., p . 26. 105. Wal ter L a c q u e r , e d . , Fascism: A Reader's Guide (London: Wildwood House, 1976) , p . 416. 106. Ibid., p p . 416-417. 122 107. D e t l e f M u h l b e r g e r , The Social Basis of European Fascist Movements (London, New Y o r k , Sydney: Croom Helm, 1987) , p . 123. 108. Ibid., pp . 243-246. 109. Ibid. 110. Ibid. 111. P e t e r Sugar , e d . , Native Fascism in the 1918-1945. Successor States, 112. Sugar, Native Fascism, p . 140. 113. Ibid., p . 140. 114. Ibid., p . 120-121. 115. E r n s t N o l t e ( t r a n s , by L e i l a V e r n o w i t z ) Fascism (Munich: R. P i p e r & C o . V e r l a g , 291. Three Faces of 1965 t r a n s . ) , p . 116. Ibid., p . 566. 117. Ibid., pp . 566-567. 118. N o l t e , Three Faces of Fascism, p . 328. 119. Ibid., p . 330. 120. Ibid., p . 331. 121. Ibid., p . 379. 122. D i e t r i c h Orlow, The History of the Nazi ( U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g h P r e s s , 1969) , Party 1919-1939, p . 310. 123. G r u n b e r g e r , p . 73. 124. Ibid., p . 74. 125. Ibid., p . 75. 126. G a e t a n o S a l v e m i n i , The Fascist Dictatorship in Italy, (New Y o r k : Howard F e r t i g I n c . , 1967) , p . 169. 127. T r a c y K o o n , Believe, Obey, Fight ( U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1985) , p . 22. 128. C h r i s t o p h e r L e e d s , Italy Under Mussolini, ( L o n d o n : Wayland P u b l i s h e r s , 1972) , p . 60. 123 129. A d o l f H i t l e r , Mein Kampf, p . 413. 130. A l a n C a s s e l s , Fascism, (New Y o r k : Thames & C r o w e l l , 1975) , p . 71 . 131. Ibid., p p . 68-69 . 132. N o l t e , Three Faces of Fascism, p . 338. 133. D i e t r i c h O r l o w , The History of the Nazi Party 1919-1933, ( U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g h P r e s s , 1969), p p . 65-66 . 134. A d o l f H i t l e r ( t r a n s , by R a l p h M a n h e i m ) , Mein Kampf (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1971) , p . 446. 135. George H . S a b i n e , A History of Political Theory (New Y o r k : Henry H o l t and Company, 1954), p . 902. 136. Ibid., p . 902. 137. H i t l e r , Mein Kampf, p . 327. 138. Sugar , Native Fascism, p . 150. 139. Moodie , The Rise of Afrikanerdom, pp . 218-219. 140. B u n t i n g , The Rise of the South African Reich, p . 92. 141. H e p p l e , Voerwoerd, p . 92. 142. Ibid., p . 78. 143. J . A l t o n T e m p l i n , Ideology on a Frontier: The Theological Foundations of Afrikaner Nationalism 1652-1910 (Wes tpor t , Conn: Greenwood P r e s s , 1984) , p . 302. 144. Ibid., p . 286. 145. Ibid., p . 287. 146. W.A. de K l e r k , The Puritans in Africa, p . 203. 147. Ibid., P- 206. 148. Ibid., P- 205. 149. Ibid., P- 206. 150. Ibid., P- 203. 151. B u n t i n g , The Rise of the South African Reich, p . 103. 124 152. W i l l i a m C . S h i r e r , The Collapse of the Third Republic (New Y o r k : Simon & S c h u s t e r , 1969), p . 236. 153. Ibid., p p . 932-933. 154. Ibid., p p . 228-229. 155. Ibid., p . 942. 156. J . H . P . S e r f o n t e i n , Brotherhood of Power ( B l o o m i n g t o n , I n d i a n a : Indiana U n i v e r s i t y P r e s , 1978) , p . 205. 157. Ibid., p . 64. 158. H e p p l e , Voerwoerd, p . 66. 159. B u n t i n g , The Rise of the South African Reich, p . 169. 160. H . J . Simons and R . E . Simons, Class and Colour in South Africa 1850-1950, (London: P u b l . I n t e r n a t i o n a l Defence and A i d Fund for Southern A f r i c a , 1983), p . 470. 161. Ibid., p . 470. 162. Ibid., p . 471. 163. O ' M e a r a , Volkskapitalisme, p . 153. 164. Ibid., p . 152. 165. Jeremy Noakes and G e o f f r e y P r i d h a m , e d s . Documents on Naziism, 1919-1945 (London: Jonathan Cape L t d . , 1974) , p p . 38-39 . 166. Yudelman, pp . 19-20. 167. A l a n B u l l o c k , a u t h o r i z e d abr idgement , Hitler: A Study in Tyranny (New Y o r k : Bantam Books , 1958) , p . 65. 168. S h i r e r , The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, p . 138. 169. Ibid., p . 166. 170. H e r b e r t Q u i n n , The Union Nationale ( T o r o n t o , B u f f a l o , London: U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s , 1963) , pp . 44-5 . 171. Ibid., p p . 58-59. 172. A . J . P . T a y l o r , J . M . R o b e r t s , Purnell's History of the Twentieth Century. Vol. 1 ( M i l w a u k e e , T o r o n t o , M e l b o u r n e , London: P u r n e l l Reference Books , 1971), p . 46. 125 173. O ' M e a r a , Volkeskapitalisme, p . 133. 174. Ibid., p . 133. 175. Ibid., p . 133. 176. Ibid., p . 133. 177. M a r t i n Bormann ( t r a n s , by Norman C a m e r o n ) , Hitler's Table-Talk, (Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1988), p . 82. 178. S h i r e r , The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, p . 1131. 179. A l b e r t Speer ( t r a n s , by R i c h a r d and C l a r a W i n s t o n ) , Spandau: The Secret Diaries (New Y o r k : Pocket Books , 1977) , p . 51. 180. Mood ie , The Rise of Afrikanerdom, p . 180. 181. Ibid., p . 180. 182. Ibid., p . 184. 183. Ibid., p . 185. 184. Ibid., p . 182. 185. N o l t e , Three Faces of FAscism, p . 566. 186. Ibid. 187. Ibid., p . 567. 188. M. R o b e r t s , A . G . G . T r o l l i p , The South African Opposition, ( L o n d o n , New Y o r k , Capetown: Longmans, Green and C o . , 1947) , p . 154. 189. Ibid., p . 156. 190. Ibid., pp . 86-87. 191. B u n t i n g , p . 73. 192. Ibid., p . 92. 193. R o b e r t s , The South African Opposition, p . 120. 194. Ibid., p . 79. 195. R o b e r t s , p p . 80-81 . 126 196. S t u l t z , The Nationalists in Opposition, ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1974) , p . 52. 197. Ibid., p . 52. 198. Sugar , Native Fascism, p . 140. 199. Ibid., p . 79. 200. Ibid., p . 161. 201. E r n s t C h r i s t i a n H e l m r e i c h , The German Churches under Hitler ( D e t r o i t : Wayne S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 9 ) , p p . 310-314. 202. A r e n d t , The Origins of Totalitarianism, p . 194. 203. P a t o n , Hofmeyr, p . 471. 204. Andre Du T o i t , "No Chosen P e o p l e , The Myth o f the Organs o f A f r i k a n e r N a t i o n a l i s m , Race and I d e n t i t y , American Historical Review, V o l . 88 (4 ) , O c t o b e r , 1983, p p . 951-952. 205. Ibid., p . 932. 206. B u n t i n g , The Rise of the South African Reich, p . 57. 207. Ibid. 208. H e p p l e , Voerwoerd, p p . 219-220. 209. R o b e r t s , T r o l l i p , South African Opposition 1939-1945, p . 156. 210. Sugar , Native Fascism in the Successor States, p . 150. 211. Joachim Fes t ( t r a n s , by M i c h a e l B u l l o c k ) , The Face of the Third Reich, (New York Ace Books, 1970) , p . 430. 212. De C l e r k , The Puritans in Africa, p . 113. 213. H e p p l e , Voerwoerd, p . 20. 214. Thompson, The Unification of South Africa, p . 480. 215. W i l s o n & Thompson, Oxford History of South Africa, p . 382. 216. 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