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Europeans and the Kikuyu to 1910: a study of resistance, collaboration and conquest Toulson, Thomas 1976

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EUROPEANS AND THE KIKUYU TO 1910: A STUDY OF RESISTANCE, COLLABORATION AND CONQUEST  by THOMAS TOULSON B.A; (Hons".), " U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,.-1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f H i s t o r y  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA F e b r u a r y , 1976 c) Thomas T o u l s o n  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  an advanced degree at the I  Library shall  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  in p a r t i a l  fulfilment of  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  make i t  freely available  that permission  for  the requirements  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  for  that  study. thesis  purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department  or  i by h i s of  this  written  representatives. thesis  for  It  is understood that  financial  gain shall  permission.  Department.of The  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  Columbia  not  copying or  publication  be allowed without my  ABSTRACT  The  t h e s i s deals w i t h the Kikuyu t r i b e s o f East A f r i c a ,  t h e i r e a r l y h i s t o r y , ethnography and r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h Europeans to 1 9 1 0 .  Kikuyu s o c i e t y i s described  i t s migration  as i n f l u x r e s u l t i n g from  t o a new h a b i t a t from Shungwaya.  o f t h e h a b i t a t were s t r e s s e d by t h e p r o x i m i t y and  P e r i p h e r a l areas o f t h e M a s a i , Arab  S w a h i l i t r a d e r s , European e x p l o r e r s , armed t r a d e r s ,  officials  o f t h e I m p e r i a l B r i t i s h E a s t A f r i c a Company and l a t t e r l y c i v i l and m i l i t a r y , o f t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e Masai p r o x i m i t y p o s t u r e and c o n d i t i o n e d intrusion of others.  officers,  Administration.  forced the Kikuyu i n t o a  defensive  t h e i r attitudes with respect  tothe  E v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d s u g g e s t s t h a t K i k u y u were  i n i t i a l l y hospitable to coastal traders.  By t h e l 8 T 0 ' s , however,  K i k u y u were r e l u c t a n t t o a l l o w f r e e passage o f Arab and S w a h i l i caravans.  H o s t i l i t y had been engendered by Arab and S w a h i l i  propensities  f o r r a i d i n g K i k u y u mashamba f o r f o o d and d e p a r t i n g  the a r e a w i t h o u t making r e s t i t u t i o n . European a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e K i k u y u were i n f l u e n c e d b y rumours o f K i k u y u f e r o c i t y d e l i b e r a t e l y s p r e a d by c o a s t a l and Wakamba traders. way"  E a r l y e x p l o r e r s were p r e p a r e d t o " f i g h t e v e r y i n c h o f t h e  across the Kikuyu h a b i t a t .  European a p p r e h e n s i o n c o u p l e d w i t h  Kikuyu suspicion featured prominently i n the e a r l y contact  ii -  period.  - iii -  These a t t i t u d e s and t h e o c c a s i o n a l v i o l e n t c l a s h e s were c o n d i t i o n i n g f a c t o r s i n t h e subsequent, more e x t e n s i v e , r e l a t i o n s h i p s between K i k u y u and Europeans. K i k u y u ethnography i s examined and r e v e a l s t r i b a l  society  as b e i n g acephalous and e g a l i t a r i a n . Power r e s i d e d i n t h e hands o f e l d e r s who assumed a u t h o r i t y a f t e r s u c c e s s f u l l y n e g o t i a t i n g a s c a l e of ascendancy i n c o r p o r a t e d  i n t h e - i r i t e s du passage.  P r o v i s i o n was  made w i t h i n t h e system f o r young men t o r i s e t o p o s i t i o n s o f eminence and t o be h u r r i e d a l o n g t h e r o a d t o s e n i o r i t y . t h e y were i n no sense c h i e f s .  Known as a t h a m a k i ,  Because m i l i t a r y a f f a i r s p l a y e d a  large part i n Kikuyu l i f e — t h e threat o f the Masai, the behaviour of Arab and S w a h i l i t r a d e r s , t h e i n t r u s i o n s o f European t r a v e l l e r s , armed t r a d e r s , IBEA Co. men and t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e  Administration—  athamaki o f m i l i t a r y a b i l i t y s w i f t l y r o s e t o prominence. Lugard's attempts t o e s t a b l i s h t h e I m p e r i a l B r i t i s h E a s t A f r i c a Company a r e d e a l t w i t h a t some l e n g t h .  Company f a i l u r e t o  e s t a b l i s h i t s e l f s u c c e s s f u l l y i n K i k u y u l a n d i s iseen as b e i n g due t o manifold  f a c t o r s ; under f i n a n c i n g , poor communications, l a c k o f  c o n t r o l o v e r A f r i c a n l e v i e s , poor l e a d e r s h i p and r e c o g n i t i o n by t h e K i k u y u o f t h e Company's i n t e n t i o n t o s e t t l e t h e a r e a p e r m a n e n t l y . H o s t i l i t y a g a i n s t t h e Company was g r e a t l y e x a c e r b a t e d by t h e use o f Masai and K i k u y u armed l e v i e s f o r r a i d i n g , and t h e death o f W a i y a k i , a K i k u y u athamaki o f l o c a l eminence.  1 8 9 5 saw t h e end o f Company  hegemony and i t s replacement by i m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t y .  - iv  The e f f e c t s on t h e K i k u y u t r i b e s by armed t r a d e r s a r e analyzed.  John Boyes, d e s c r i b e d by h i m s e l f as "King o f t h e WaKikuyu",  Gibbons and o t h e r s , a r e seen as d a c o i t s who a f f e c t e d t o some c o n s i d e r a b l e degree t h e a t t i t u d e s and d i s p o s i t i o n o f K i k u y u w i t h whom t h e y came i n t o c o n t a c t .  As w i t h t h e Company, d i v i d e and r u l e t a c t i c s  were p r a c t i s e d and armed t r a d e r s a l l i e d themselves w i t h athamaki c o l l a b o r a t o r s a g a i n s t o t h e r K i k u y u opposed t o t h e European p r e s e n c e . d i s t u r b e d t h e K i k u y u between 1 8 9 5  Though t h e armed t r a d e r s p r o f o u n d l y  and 1 9 0 0 , t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was p o w e r l e s s t o p r e v e n t their  activities. Conquest o f t h e K i k u y u t r i b e s was two-phased.  phase  (1895-1902)  period•obvious  The f i r s t  i s r e f e r r e d t o as a " h o l d i n g " e x e r c i s e .  During t h e  p r e p a r a t i o n s were made t o t i g h t e n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  net on K i k u y u l a n d . Masai were b e g i n n i n g  The armed t r a d e r s were a r r e s t e d and d e p o r t e d . t o be c o n t a i n e d  i n areas away from  Kikuyuland.  Roads began t o r a d i a t e n o r t h i n t o t h e K i k u y u i n t e r i o r from t h e new administrative centre of N a i r o b i .  Ukamba P r o v i n c e was s p l i t and  Kikuyuland  The c r i t i c a l p r o b l e m o f t h e  became K e n i a P r o v i n c e .  Mombasa-Lake V i c t o r i a r a i l w a y t r a v e r s i n g t h e K i k u y u h a b i t a t was solved.  The P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n p o s s e s s e d an e l i t e c a d r e  o f K i k u y u c o l l a b o r a t o r s on whom t h e y r e l i e d t o r e n d e r a i d i n t h e subjugation o f other Kikuyu.  A re-organization of military  forces  was t a k i n g p l a c e and by 1 9 0 2 t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was i n a s t r o n g p o s i t i o n t o make a c o n c e r t e d  e f f o r t t o d i s l o d g e and d e f e a t  the remaining pockets of Kikuyu o p p o s i t i o n . The second phase o f t h e K i k u y u conquest " m i l i t a r y " exercise: i t l a s t e d roughly eight years  i s seen as a (1902-1910).  S u b j u g a t i o n o f t h e K i k u y u , founded on a p o l i c y o f mounting s t r o n g p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n s , was b a r b a r i c and excesses were common. " O v e r k i l l " was s u b s t i t u t e d f o r t h e t r a d i t i o n a l m i l i t a r y t a c t i c o f skirmishing. the exception.  "On t h e s p o t " d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g was more t h e r u l e t h a n Contrary t o t h e expressed i n t e n t i o n of s e n i o r  o f f i c i a l s , p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n s , l e d by j u n i o r m i l i t a r y  officers  and s u p p o r t e d by c o n s e n t i n g j u n i o r c i v i l o f f i c e r s , i n f l i c t e d  large  numbers o f c a s u a l t i e s , ' b u r n t h u t s , d e s t r o y e d c r o p s , and c r i p p l e d the K i k u y u economy by c o n f i s c a t i n g thousands  o f c a t t l e and g o a t s .  Both j u n i o r o f f i c e r s and Commissioner E l i o t h i m s e l f f a l s i f i e d c a s u a l t y f i g u r e s ; thus g i v i n g London a wrong i m p r e s s i o n o f e v e n t s . By 1 9 1 0 , a f t e r s u s t a i n e d m i l i t a r y a c t i o n , K i k u y u r e s i s t a n c e was eliminated. The t h e s i s concludes t h a t K i k u y u athamaki r o s e t o prominence i n t h e m i l i t a r y atmosphere o f t h e c o l o n i a l e n t e r p r i s e . As c o l l a b o r a t o r s athamaki became t h e prime agents o f change i n t h e t r a n s i t o r y p r o c e s s from t r i b a l i s m t o c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  They  h e r a l d e d a p o w e r f u l and s u s t a i n e d d i s r u p t i o n o f t r i b a l s o c i e t y and speeded t h e p r o c e s s e s o f change.  The i m p e r i a l o r d e r , ever w a t c h f u l  f o r means t o a c h i e v e i t s o b j e c t i v e s a t minimum expense, used for  i t s unique p u r p o s e s .  athamaki  C o n v e r s e l y , athamaki used t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e  - vi  -  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o r e a l i z e t h e i r own a m b i t i o n s .  A l l i a n c e s between  athamaki and Europeans were r e c i p r o c a l i n b o t h c o n s t r u c t i o n and purpose.  There e x i s t e d a d u a l r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t one element c o u l d  not p r o c e e d w i t h o u t t h e c o n c u r r e n c e o r a i d o f t h e o t h e r .  Some  i n i t i a t i v e s t h u s remained i n K i k u y u hands w i t h i n t h e c o l o n i a l o r d e r . C o l l a b o r a t i n g athamaki became j u n i o r p a r t n e r s enterprise—and  prospered  i n the c o l o n i a l  accordingly.  European p e n e t r a t i o n r a d i c a l l y - a f f e c t e d K i k u y u s o c i e t y . S t r e s s e d by t h e i n t r u s i o n s o f A r a b s , S w a h i l i and M a s a i and t h e e f f e c t s o f m i g r a t i o n , K i k u y u s o c i e t y was f u r t h e r i n f l u e n c e d by t h e European p r e s e n c e .  The European impact opened up s e r i o u s r i f t s i n  Kikuyu s o c i e t y , disturbed t r a d i t i o n a l rankings  o f dominance and  h i e r a r c h y , and sharpened a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g c r a c k s i n t h e t r i b a l s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l firmament.  K i k u y u r e s i s t a n c e was weakened by t h e  use o f athamaki and f i n a l l y smashed by s u p e r i o r m i l i t a r y f o r c e s . The t h e s i s concludes w i t h t h e s u g g e s t i o n hypothesis  t h a t P r o f e s s o r T.O. Ranger's  on connexions between p r i m a r y r e s i s t a n c e movements and  modern mass n a t i o n a l i s m , may, i n t h e K i k u y u c a s e , have some b a s i s i n truth.  PREFACE  Between 1880 and 1914- A f r i c a n h i s t o r y a b r u p t l y changed c o u r s e as Europeans a r r i v e d on t h e A f r i c a n c o n t i n e n t i n t e n t upon a permanent presence.  Described  i n m a n i f o l d ways, " r e s i l i e n t " ,  "flexible",  " o p p o r t u n i s t i c " and even, "a s u c c e s s i o n o f u n c o - o r d i n a t e d  "incoherent",  responses  t o d i f f e r e n t types o f s t i m u l u s " , t h e B r i t i s h brand o f Empire grew from the f a c t t h a t h e r t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e r e s t s were a c q u i r e d as much by a c c i d e n t as d e s i g n , l a y s c a t t e r e d over t h e map, c o n t a i n e d  a broad  spectrum o f human e t h n i c i t y and had been b r o u g h t i n t o t h e i m p e r i a l f o l d by methods r a n g i n g from l e a s i n g t o conquest. heed t o these p r o c e s s e s ,  H i s t o r i a n s have p a i d much  w r i t i n g o f t h e i n v a s i o n and " p a c i f i c a t i o n " o f  A f r i c a as p a r t o f European p o l i t i c a l o r d i p l o m a t i c h i s t o r y . Only r e c e n t l y has A f r i c a n h i s t o r i o g r a p h y changed i t s t r a d i t i o n a l approach by d e v e l o p i n g  uniquely A f r i c a n perspectives.  Case s t u d i e s ,  confined o f t e n t o backwaters o f i m p e r i a l i s m , are beginning new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e European i n t r u s i o n .  to reveal  " P a c i f i c a t i o n " of the  natives, long the parlance of t r a d i t i o n a l historiography, i s beginning t o be seen r a t h e r as "conquest."  E a r l y wars o f r e s i s t a n c e were c a l l e d  n o t h i n g more t h a n " r e b e l l i o n s " and were seen by Europeans t o be o n l y o f minor consequence. t h e y were t r a u m a t i c  To A f r i c a n s " r e b e l l i o n s " were o f major consequence:  events w h i c h c o n d i t i o n e d A f r o - E u r o p e a n r e l a t i o n s h i p s  b o t h a t t h e time and l a t e r .  - vii -  - viii -  C o n f i r m e d i n modern case s t u d i e s , European i n f l u e n c e on the by twenty y e a r s .  also,  is  ground lagged behind i t s  What was s a i d t o b e  "possessed"  the  fact  presence  on the  t e r r i t o r y by  c o l o n i a l p o w e r was h e l d o n l y b y a h a n d f u l o f men c o n f i n e d b y , to,  the p r e s s u r e s o f o f t e n h o s t i l e A f r i c a n s .  consistency for i t s occupying the of  own s a k e ,  ground on w h i c h t h e y  c o l o n i a l r u l e not yet  I n d i r e c t R u l e were n o t task  to  come u n t i l  "chieftainship." succeeded  "chieftainship" an a r t i f i c i a l  the  which tended  i n the  administrators, scoured  established  to exacerbate also,  colonising process.  of regime  create  Where chiefs;  hostility.  show o n l y E u r o p e a n  The c a s e s t u d y a p p r o a c h  invaders.  frequently  This thesis,  took  shows c l e a r l y t h a t  for  a i d e d and a b e t t e d European e n d e a v o u r s .  offered as a  own a d v a n t a g e ,  themselves  " c h i e f s " o f the " t h i n on the  to the  invaders  as  colonial administration.  ground" a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  some A f r i c a n s ,  intermediaries  and  Under t h e  is the  a study of  Kikuyu-European contact, their  the  order.  native  tends to  more c l e a r l y t h a t A f r i c a n s  i n dealing w i t h the  "idea"  monumental  colonial  d i d n o t e x i s t Europeans were f o r c e d t o  beginning to v e r i f y initiative  colonial  of hierarchy,  on t o t h e  Traditional historiography, initiatives  Charged w i t h the  1923.  over t r i b a l A f r i c a ,  itself  in  merely  u p o n whom t h e y c o u l d d r a p e a m a n t l e  i n grafting  subject  Lugard's principles of  Where " c h i e f t a i n s h i p " e x i s t e d ,  process  and  were g u i d e d o n l y b y an  conditioned by western notions  bush l o o k i n g f o r A f r i c a n s  often  stood,  administrators,  map  the  S e e k i n g no v i r t u e  committed to paper:  of imposing t h e i r w i l l  therefore,  early colonial  that  doubtless They  subsequently  circumstances,  poor communications and a  - ix -  penurious  T r e a s u r y , the i n v a d e r s g r a t e f u l l y a c c e p t e d o v e r t u r e s o f  collaborators.  But K i k u y u c o l l a b o r a t o r s were n o t m e r e l y pawns i n t h e  c o l o n i a l process:  t h e y were e s s e n t i a l l y r e a l i s t s who  r e s i s t a n c e and t h e advantages o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n .  saw the f o l l y o f  A l l i a n c e s between  K i k u y u and Europeans were thus n e c e s s a r i l y two-way i n c o n s t r u c t i o n and purpose.  W i t h i n any compact t h e r e e x i s t e d a d u a l r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t one  element c o u l d not proceed w i t h o u t t h e o t h e r . b a l a n c e o f power, whose t i l t was was  determined  A mutually acceptable by b a r g a i n and  concession,  t h e r e f o r e m a n i f e s t as t h e l y n c h p i n o f t h e e a r l y c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h i s t h e s i s , a case s t u d y o f Kikuyu-European c o n t a c t d u r i n g  the e a r l y y e a r s o f c o l o n i a l e n t e r p r i s e , seeks t o examine and  analyse  the i s s u e s o u t l i n e d above. Chapter 1 o f t h e t h e s i s , The K i k u y u :  An E t h n o . h i s t o r i c a l  Background, i s devoted t o a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e K i k u y u t r i b e s o f E a s t A f r i c a , the geography o f t h e i r h a b i t a t , t h e i r e a r l y h i s t o r y and i n f l u e n c e upon them o f the N i l o - H a m i t i c Masai p e o p l e s .  One i n f l u e n c e  a t t r i b u t e d t o K i k u y u and M a s a i p r o x i m i t y i s t h a t o f a c e p h a l y : were no c h i e f s .  the  there  A r e a l i n s t a b i l i t y p r e c l u d e d the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a  p o l i t y s i m i l a r t o the s t a t i c B a n t u o f Uganda.  T h i s d i d not mean  t h a t K i k u y u p o l i t y was not adequate t o meet the needs o f K i k u y u s o c i e t y o r was n o t m a l l e a b l e enough t o a d j u s t t o c o n d i t i o n s imposed by environment.  the  The s o c i a l o r d e r , f o r example, was permeable enough  t o a l l o w c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r t r i b a l groups.  Masai took  Kikuyu  w i v e s and l a n d t r a n s a c t i o n s took p l a c e between K i k u y u and Wanderobo. T r a d i t i o n s o f t h e Masai were thus t r a n s f e r r e d t o the K i k u y u ,  including  c i r c u m c i s i o n methods and a c e p h a l y .  But w h i l e acephaly p r e v a i l e d  and t h u s no c h i e f s e x i s t e d , t h e r e were, as P r o f e s s o r D.A. Low has a s s e r t e d , " i f n o t c h i e f s t h e n o t h e r p r o m i n e n t i n d i v i d u a l s o f some c o n s i d e r a b l e consequence" about whom t h e s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s o f the t r i b e s r e v o l v e d .  These o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e t o some e x t e n t  corroborated  i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f e a r l y European t r a v e l l e r s who met and d e a l t w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s they i n c o r r e c t l y deemed t o be c h i e f s . Two s u b - c h a p t e r s ,  e n t i t l e d , Age O r g a n i z a t i o n and R i t e s De  Passage and T e r r i t o r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n , S e t s and L e a d e r s h i p , r e s p e c t i v e l y , analyse i n d e t a i l the Kikuyu s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l order.  They r e v e a l t h a t  d e s p i t e a c e p h a l y K i k u y u p o l i t y was s o p h i s t i c a t e d and e g a l i t a r i a n . The  evidence s t r o n g l y supports  a contention t h a t while acephaly p r e v a i l e d ,  " i n d i v i d u a l i s m " was p r o v i d e d f o r w i t h i n t h e s o c i a l o r d e r .  Kikuyu of  a b i l i t y (muthumaki ( s i n g . ) and (athamaki ) (pl.) were s a i d by t h e t r i b e t o " a p p o i n t themselves f o r l e a d e r s h i p . "  Kikuyu possessed o f e x c e p t i o n a l  q u a l i t i e s o f p e r s o n a l i t y , a b i l i t y — " c h a r i s m a " — w e r e r e c o g n i z e d and moved more r a p i d l y t h r o u g h t h e r i t e s de passage t o s e n i o r i t y ahead o f t h e i r l e s s e r endowed c o n t e m p o r a r i e s .  Some athamaki showed a b i l i t y i n  t r i b a l l a w w h i l e o t h e r s were r e g a r d e d  as l e a d e r s i n r e l i g i o n and  politics.  L o c a l a f f a i r s o f t h e K i k u y u t r i b e s thus o f t e n r e v o l v e d around  athamaki a l t h o u g h r e a l power was i n v e s t e d i n grades o f e l d e r s .  The  t h r e a t imposed by o u t s i d e r s , M a s a i , Arab and S w a h i l i t r a d e r s , armed European t r a d e r s and e x p l o r e r s , t h e I m p e r i a l B r i t i s h E a s t A f r i c a Company and P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , enhanced c o n s i d e r a b l y t h e r i s e t o prominence o f athamaki s k i l l e d i n t h e m i l i t a r y a r t s .  These men, seen  xi -  as  ' c h i e f s ' b y Europeans i g n o r a n t  o f K i k u y u p o l i t y , were t o p l a y a  l a r g e p a r t i n subsequent a t t e m p t s t o e s t a b l i s h o r superimpose o v e r t h e K i k u y u an a l i e n c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  Robert 0. C o l l i n s , Problems  i n A f r i c a n H i s t o r y , i n a p r e l u d e t o a c h a p t e r e n t i t l e d "The H i s t o r i a n and S t a t e l e s s S o c i e t i e s , " p o i n t s o u t t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n establishing c o l o n i a l administrations  over s o - c a l l e d . s t a t e l e s s s o c i e t i e s .  Not u n n a t u r a l l y , European o f f i c i a l s endeavoured t o b r i n g these s t a t e l e s s s o c i e t i e s i n t o the o r b i t o f the c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , b u t time and a g a i n t h e y were f r u s t r a t e d because t h e y c o u l d f i n d no i n s t i t u t i o n s o f a u t h o r i t y and no t r a d i t i o n a l l e a d e r s who would a c t as r e s p o n s i b l e o f f i c e h o l d e r s i n a s t a t e b u r e a u c r a c y . When t h e y f a i l e d t o f i n d a " n a t i v e a u t h o r i t y " , t h e Europeans f r e q u e n t l y t r i e d t o impose one on t h e s o c i e t y . 1 Imposing a s i n g l e " n a t i v e a u t h o r i t y " , a c h i e f , o v e r t r i b e s whose d e c i s i o n making was t r a d i t i o n a l l y c o l l e c t i v e , was f o r t h e c o l o n i a l a u t h o r i t i e s o f t e n d i s a s t r o u s and t y r a n n i c a l .  "Not u n n a t u r a l l y " , C o l l i n s remarks,  "the a s s o c i a t i o n between p e o p l e s o f s t a t e l e s s s o c i e t i e s and t h e European a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was, i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s ,  c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y r a i d s and  u p r i s i n g s suppressed i n t u r n by p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n s .  By any s t a n d a r d p  such a r e l a t i o n s h i p c o u l d h a r d l y be c a l l e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . " Chapter 2, E a r l y C o n t a c t s , d e a l s w i t h K i k u y u r e s p o n s e s t o t h e i n t r u s i o n o f s o - c a l l e d wageni, o r f o r e i g n e r s .  Evidence suggests that  K i k u y u were f a m i l i a r w i t h t r a d i n g p r o c e s s e s t h r o u g h t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s , the Wakamba.  Between 1830 and t h e 1860's, Wakamba middlemen h e l d a  i R o b e r t 0. C o l l i n s , e d . , Problems i n A f r i c a n H i s t o r y (New J e r s e y , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1968), p. 169. 2  C o l l i n s , Problems, p. 170.  - iii  -  t r a d i n g monopoly between the coast and Mount Kenya.  A f t e r i860, however,  Wakamba t r a d i n g suffered a decline at the hands of Arabs and S w a h i l i traders who s u c c e s s f u l l y by-passed the Wakamba entrepot around Mach'akos. By 1870 large Arab and S w a h i l i l e d caravans were penetrating or s k i r t i n g the Kikuyu h a b i t a t .  Ngongo Bagas, located a t the southern t i p of  Kikuyuland, was used e x t e n s i v e l y as a staging area f o r caravans proceeding up the R i f t V a l l e y to Lake V i c t o r i a .  From Ngongo Bagas p a r t i e s of  caravan p o r t e r s and armed l e v i e s r a i d e d Kikuyu smallholdings and foraged f o r food.  Their behaviour and the f a c t they made l i t t l e or no  r e t r i b u t i o n f o r p r o v i s i o n s taken caused l o c a l Kikuyu t o become extremely h o s t i l e to a l l i n t r u d e r s . Joseph Thomson, an e a r l y European explorer, recorded i n c i d e n t s of Kikuyu h o s t i l i t y when attempting a traverse of the Kikuyu h a b i t a t i n 1883.  Others, notably von Hohnel and Count T e l e k i , were a l s o attacked  by Kikuyu.  There i s evidence t h a t Europeans were deterred from penetrating  the area by f a l s e rumours about Kikuyu fierceness spread by Arabs, Swahilis and Wakamba who d i d not want to lose to Europeans a trading monopoly i n Kikuyu i v o r y . to  In consequence e a r l y Europeans were prepared  " f i g h t every inch of the way" through and around the Kikuyu h a b i t a t .  Kikuyu were seen by e a r l y European intruders as being "less f r i e n d l y " than others t r i b e s , "turbulent and treacherous", " s e c r e t i v e , more conservative and d i f f i c u l t to understand."  There i s l i t t l e doubt that  such expressed a t t i t u d e s by e a r l y Europeans h e a v i l y conditioned a t t i t u d e s of Europeans who a r r i v e d l a t e r .  European apprehension coupled w i t h  Kikuyu suspicion of t h e i r motives featured prominently during the e a r l y  - ziii -  contact period.  These a t t i t u d e s and o c c a s i o n a l v i o l e n t c l a s h e s became  i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n subsequent, more e x t e n s i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between K i k u y u and  Europeans. The f i r s t s u s t a i n e d i n t e r a c t i o n between Europeans and K i k u y u  took p l a c e a f t e r 1889  and was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e I m p e r i a l  B r i t i s h E a s t A f r i c a Company t o e f f e c t a permanent p r e s e n c e i n K i k u y u l a n d . The e f f e c t s o f t h i s presence a r e d e a l t w i t h i n Chapter 3, B r i t i s h E a s t A f r i c a Company.  The I m p e r i a l  The e f f o r t t o e s t a b l i s h t h e IBEA Co. i n  E a s t A f r i c a was d e r i v e d from t h e d i p l o m a t i c i m p e r a t i v e t o occupy N i l e headwaters  the  and t h u s deny o t h e r European powers, n o t a b l y t h e Germans  and F r e n c h , from e s t a b l i s h i n g themselves s t r a t e g i c a l l y i n the a r e a . A t the van o f the scramble f o r B r i t i s h hegemony i n Uganda was a company column l e d by F r e d e r i c k Lugard.  L e a v i n g Mombasa i n  1889,  Lugard t a r r i e d a t Ngongo Bagas f o r time enough t o b u i l d a s t a t i o n a t D a g o r e t t i , an a r e a l o c a t e d on t h e s o u t h e r n t i p o f K i k u y u l a n d . here t h a t Lugard attempted t o e x t e n d Company i n f l u e n c e by h i m s e l f w i t h K i k u y u a t h a m a k i — m e n he termed ceremonies.  I t was  involving  ' c h i e f s ' — i n blood-brotherhood  He was u n d e n i a b l y i m p r e s s e d by the K i k u y u he met.  account i s r e p l e t e w i t h complimentary d e s c r i p t i o n s o f K i k u y u .  His It is  c o n s i d e r e d p r o b a b l e t h a t h i s s u c c e s s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g good r a p p o r t was due t o t h e power o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t K i k u y u athamaki c o n s i d e r e d h i s presence as b e i n g temporary.  Three y e a r s l a t e r ,  on h i s r e t u r n from Uganda, Lugard changed h i s o p i n i o n s on t h e K i k u y u . He saw them now  (1893) as " t r e a c h e r o u s " , and " e m b i t t e r e d . "  K i k u y u response t o the p r e s e n c e o f the IBEA Co. had changed d r a s t i c a l l y i n j u s t three years.  Reasons f o r K i k u y u h o s t i l i t y a r e s u g g e s t e d  - xiv  t o b e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Company i n t e n t i o n s permanently.  to remain i n Kikuyuland  Moreover, the p r e v i o u s p a t t e r n s o f wageni b e h a v i o u r  b e i n g r e p e a t e d a s s m a l l h o l d i n g s w e r e r a i d e d w i t h Company Furthermore, no  condonation.  Company o f f i c e r s w e r e p r a c t i s i n g a p o l i c y o f d i v i d e a n d r u l e —  doubt f o r c e d upon them b y c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f a u s t e r i t y and p o o r  tions.  Europeans were " u s i n g " athamaki,  Europeans.  Company.  communica-  were " u s i n g " even i f  was e x a c e r b a t e d t o a l a r g e d e g r e e b y t h e i n v o l v e m e n t  of the  W i l l i n g l y drawn i n t o t h e c o n f l i c t and seen as ' c h i e f s ' b y  Company o f f i c e r s ,  athamaki  of t h e i r fellow Kikuyu. intrusion  as indeed, athamaki  K i k u y u were f i g h t i n g K i k u y u , a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h ,  traditional,  were  gained p e r s o n a l advantages  Other  Kikuyu athamaki  a t t h e expense  who r e s e n t e d t h e Company  paid the penalty of non-collaboration.  Waiyaki, a  prominent  muthumaki o f Lugard's  a c q u a i n t a n c e , o n e who h a d u n d e r g o n e w i t h  the blood-brotherhood  c e r e m o n y , was d e p o r t e d o n l y t o d i e i n t h e p r o c e s s .  His death r a l l i e d  the r e s i s t o r s  i n K i k u y u l a n d became u n t e n a b l e . by S i r G e r a l d P o r t a l , i n East A f r i c a .  investigation  F r o m t h e n o n E a s t A f r i c a became t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f The t r o u b l e s o f t h e K i k u y u h a b i t a t ,  h o w e v e r , f o r b y now a t h a m a k i help from the white i n t r u d e r s .  turbulent  I n 1895, a f t e r a f o r m a l  presence  t h e Company was r e l i e v e d o f i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  t h e B r i t i s h Government.  European t r a d e r s ,  t o a p o i n t w h e r e t h e Company  Lugard  remained,  had l e a r n e d t o f i g h t t h e i r l o c a l wars w i t h Furthermore,  o t h e r f o r c e s , n o t a b l y armed  i n v e s t e d K i k u y u l a n d a n d made w o r s e a n a l r e a d y e x c e e d i n g l y  situation. Chapter  5 o f t h e t h e s i s , Armed T r a d e r s , d e a l s w i t h t h e e f f e c t s  on t h e K i k u y u o f E u r o p e a n s who a c t e d n o t a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f e s t a b l i s h e d  commercial v e n t u r e s b u t as p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s m o t i v a t e d by an urge f o r adventure and an eye f o r t h e main chance.  The t r a d e r s moved a c r o s s  K i k u y u l a n d s e e k i n g out f r i e n d l y and p o w e r f u l athamaki w i t h whom t h e y c o u l d do b u s i n e s s .  K a r u r i , one o f Low's "prominent  i n d i v i d u a l s " , engaged  h i m s e l f i n the game f o r h i s own s e t o f unique m o t i v e s . "something  o f a personage"  He became  i n the P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  Wagombi  and K a r k e r r i e , o t h e r eminent athamaki, a i d e d and a b e t t e d Boyes i n p a r t i c u l a r , w h i l e Gutu e n g i n e e r e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Gibbons, as a r e s u l t o f w h i c h t h e t r a d e r was  deported and h i s K i k u y u c o h o r t became Paramount  C h i e f o f t h e Embu. I m p o r t a n t l y , armed t r a d e r s and t h e i r K i k u y u c o l l a b o r a t o r s , a c t i n g i n c o n c e r t and f o r t h e i r own purposes, were r e s p o n s i b l e t o g e t h e r f o r fomenting f u r t h e r K i k u y u h o s t i l i t y .  Athamaki r e c o g n i z e d t h e v a l u e  o f t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h armed t r a d e r s and s h o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d as merely r e a c t o r s t o the European p r e s e n c e . o f i n t e r a c t i o n were a c t i v e :  T h e i r p a r t s i n the process  t h e y , l i k e the armed t r a d e r s ,  and shaped events f o r t h e i r own p u r p o s e s .  initiated  They c r e a t e d t h e i r own d e s t i n y  as much as t h e y i n f l u e n c e d t h a t o f t h e t r i b e . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the embryo P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p o o r l y f i n a n c e d , t h i n on the ground and w i t h o u t v i s i b l e s t r e n g t h a t i t s back, d i d l i t t l e t o p r e v e n t the j o i n t a c t i v i t i e s o f armed t r a d e r s and  athamaki.  Boyes was  f r e e l y a b l e t o peddle h i s i n f l u e n c e from one muthumaki t o  another.  By 1900 he was a b l e t o r e f e r t o h i m s e l f , n o t w i t h o u t some  t r u t h , as K i n g o f t h e Wakikuyu. Chapter 5, The Conquest, f a l l s i n t o two p a r t s ; namely, F i r s t  - xvi  Phase (1895-1902): A M i l i t a r y Exercise.  A " H o l d i n g " E x e r c i s e and Second Phase (1902-1910): The  f i r s t s u b - c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h the coming o f  government ( 1 8 9 5 ) t o E a s t A f r i c a .  The  embryo P r o t e c t o r a t e  i n h e r i t e d a t e r r i t o r y w h i c h had been p r o f o u n d l y of wageni.  d i s t u r b e d by a  succession  Moreover, governance of the t e r r i t o r y had been couched  by London i n the b r o a d e s t terms. was  Administration  P r a c t i c a l administration, therefore,  d e v o l v e d onto D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r s who  with so-called policy.  were o f t e n unaware o r unconcerned  Some o f f i c e r s were e x p e r i e n c e d ; o t h e r s  not.  Those h i r e d from the Company g e n e r a l l y adapted themselves w e l l w h i l e o t h e r s , l a c k i n g b o t h e x p e r i e n c e and m o t i v a t i o n , ness.  degenerated t o  ineffective-  Thus the q u a l i t y of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n depended much upon the q u a l i t y  o f i t s members.  Good o r bad,  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the K i k u y u was  e a r l y y e a r s c a r r i e d out "on the  i n the  spot."  An example o f "on the s p o t " a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s F r a n c i s H a l l , former Company employee h i r e d by the P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  in  1895.  life  H a l l was  n a t u r a l l y s u i t e d t o meet the r i g o r o u s demands o f  on the A f r i c a n f r o n t i e r .  He was  notably very s u c c e s s f u l i n gaining  i n f l u e n c e o v e r K i k u y u a t h a m a k i.  In p a r t i c u l a r h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h  K i n a n j u i , a muthumaki of some l o c a l eminence, a i d e d the o f the P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the F o r t H a l l a r e a .  a  establishment Known t o  H a l l as h i s F i d u s A c h a t e s , K i n a n j u i c o l l a b o r a t e d w i t h t h e B r i t i s h  and  l a t e r , l i k e K a r u r i , became an i m p o r t a n t s e r v a n t o f the c o l o n i a l regime. H a l l ' s use o f . a t h a m a k i , w h i l e s u c c e s s f u l to a degree i n the a r e a under h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n , s e r v e d f u r t h e r t o d i v i d e the K i k u y u and t h u s make more h o s t i l e t h o s e t r i b a l elements who  chose r e s i s t a n c e t o c o l l a b o r a t i o n .  This  - xvii -  made f i n a l p a c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e K i k u y u i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t h e a i d o f s t r o n g m i l i t a r y forces. The p e r i o d 1895-1902 saw t h e B r i t i s h d e v e l o p s t r o n g m i l i t a r y f o r c e s i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r conquest o f t h e n a t i v e t r i b e s .  Moreover, t h e  p e r i o d saw a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , p o l i t i c a l and economic changes w h i c h made i t e a s i e r f o r the a u t h o r i t i e s t o deal w i t h d i s s i d e n t t r i b e s — e s p e c i a l l y the Kikuyu. Province.  Kikuyuland,  f o r m e r l y p a r t o f Ukamba P r o v i n c e , became K e n i a  The r a i l w a y , now completed p a s t t h e K i k u y u h a b i t a t , c o u l d be  used a s a means o f b r i n g i n g t r o o p s from t h e c o a s t . and r a d i a t e d from N a i r o b i i n t o K i k u y u l a n d .  Roads were c o n s t r u c t e d  The M a s a i , always  considered  a t h r e a t t o t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t h e K i k u y u , were removed from t h e proximity of Kikuyuland. a r r e s t e d and deported. p o s i t i o n to penetrate  By 1902 t h e armed European t r a d e r s had been Now the P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was i n a  the K i k u y u i n t e r i o r w i t h t h e express  subduing t h e r e m a i n i n g p o c k e t s o f t r i b a l  intention of  hostility.  The p e r i o d 1902-1910 saw the K i n g ' s A f r i c a n R i f l e s , by p o l i c e and numerous A f r i c a n l e v i e s , invade  supported  t h e K i k u y u i n t e r i o r i n what  modern p a r l a n c e might r e f e r t o as " s e a r c h and d e s t r o y " m i s s i o n s . t a c t i c s changed from t r a d i t i o n a l s k i r m i s h i n g t o " o v e r k i l l " .  Military  With the  o b j e c t o f overcoming a l l r e s i s t a n c e , s t r o n g p a t r o l s r a i d e d K i k u y u  itura,  d e s t r o y e d h u t s and k i l l e d w i t h o u t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . A c t s o f b a r b a r i s m were much i n e v i d e n c e and b o t h s i d e s gave no q u a r t e r .  C a t t l e were  c o n f i s c a t e d and s o l d on t h e open market t o h e l p f i n a n c e t h e e x p e d i t i o n s . C o n t r a r y t o e d i c t s i s s u e d by h i g h e r a u t h o r i t i e s ,  military  o f f i c e r s took t h e i n i t i a t i v e i n f i e l d o p e r a t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e i n t e r i o r  - xviii  Kikuyu.  -  D i s p u t e s broke o u t between j u n i o r m i l i t a r y and c i v i l  on t h e conduct o f o p e r a t i o n s .  R e p o r t s t o s u p e r i o r s were o f t e n "toned  down" w h i l e on one o c c a s i o n even t h e Commissioner figures.  The Commissioner  officers  falsified  casualty  o f t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e t u r n e d a b l i n d eye toward  the a c t i v i t i e s o f p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n s .  Thus l a c k i n g d i r e c t i o n from  h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y , m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s took t h e conduct o f o p e r a t i o n s i n t o t h e i r own hands b y making "on t h e s p o t " d e c i s i o n s .  By 1910 t h e K i k u y u  t r i b e s had c a p i t u l a t e d v o l u n t a r i l y o r had been "put down" i n b l o o d . The pax B r i t a n n i c a was a f a c t i n K i k u y u l a n d . The f i n a l c h a p t e r , t h e C o n c l u s i o n , sums up t h e e v i d e n c e as presented.  By t h e m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y K i k u y u s o c i e t y had completed  i t s m i g r a t i o n from i t s c o a s t a l d i s p e r s a l p o i n t , Shungwaya, t o i t s new habitat.  K i k u y u t r i b e s were f r a c t i o u s , u n s t a b l e and a c e p h a l o u s .  The  s o c i a l system was, however, f a i r l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d and e g a l i t a r i a n . P r o x i m i t y t o t h e Masai f o r c e d t h e K i k u y u i n t o a d e f e n s i v e p o s t u r e and thus c o n d i t i o n e d t r i b a l a t t i t u d e s , e s p e c i a l l y those l i v i n g on t h e s o u t h e r n periphery o f the h a b i t a t , against the i n t r u s i o n o f others. A c e p h a l y was t r a d i t i o n a l l y a Masai custom adopted b y t h e Kikuyu:  i t d i d n o t p r e c l u d e t h e development o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m i n a  s o c i e t y dominated b y e l d e r s who made c o l l e c t i v e d e c i s i o n s . K i k u y u p o s s e s s e d o f u n u s u a l t a l e n t s were encouraged b e i n g h u r r i e d t h r o u g h t h e r i t e s de passage as athamaki, t h e y were i n no sense c h i e f s .  Young  and rewarded by  to early seniority. Since m i l i t a r y  Known  affairs  played a large p a r t i n Kikuyu l i f e — t h e t h r e a t of the Masai, the provocat i v e b e h a v i o u r o f wageni, t h e i n t r u s i o n s o f European t r a v e l l e r s , Company  - xix -  men, armed t r a d e r s and t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n — i t was n a t u r a l t h a t athamaki predominant i n m i l i t a r y a f f a i r s r o s e t o prominence. I n a t t e m p t i n g t o e s t a b l i s h themselves t h e European i n t r u d e r s , whether Company men, armed t r a d e r s o r P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n were f a c e d w i t h t h e i m p e r a t i v e existed—only  athamaki.  of c h i e f s i s unknown:  o f " f i n d i n g " the c h i e f .  officers,  But no c h i e f s  Whether Europeans were aware o f t h e n o n - e x i s t e n c e c e r t a i n l y they r e f e r r e d o f t e n t o c h i e f s i n the  early literature. The conquest o f t h e K i k u y u was made e a s i e r by European o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l s u p e r i o r i t y : a i d e d and a b e t t e d t h e p r o c e s s . intermediaries. conquest:  b u t athamaki c o l l a b o r a t o r s  They o f f e r e d t h e m s e l v e s t o Europeans as  They were r e a l i s t s f a c e d w i t h t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f  they could e i t h e r r e s i s t , c o l l a b o r a t e or simply  Those who chose t o r e s i s t were swept a s i d e . chose t o a c q u i e s c e .  acquiesce.  Others, probably the majority,  Many d e c i d e d t o c o l l a b o r a t e .  The d e c i s i o n t o  c o l l a b o r a t e was d o u b t l e s s m o t i v a t e d b y t h e p r o s p e c t o f p e r s o n a l  gain.  There i s e v i d e n c e t h a t l e a d i n g c o l l a b o r a t o r s became a p p o i n t e d c h i e f s under t h e a u s p i c e s o f a b e n e v o l e n t and g r a t e f u l c o l o n i a l regime. Importantly,  athamaki were n o t m e r e l y pawns i n t h e c o l o n i a l p r o c e s s :  t h e y might b e t t e r be seen as r e a l i s t s who p o s s e s s e d acumen t o f o r e s e e the f o l l y o f r e s i s t a n c e and t h e advantage o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n .  Certainly  t h e y were n o t s i m p l y o b j e c t s o r v i c t i m s o f change s e t i n m o t i o n by aliens.  Their actions i n a i d i n g the establishment of the B r i t i s h  ensured t h a t once t h e pax B r i t a n n i c a was a f a c t , they, as i n the p r o c e s s , c o u l d c o n t i n u e t o p l a y t h a t r o l e .  intermediaries  I n t h i s way some  initiatives  always remained i n K i k u y u hands w i t h i n the c o l o n i a l o r d e r :  athamaki became, i n e f f e c t , p a r t n e r s  i n the c o l o n i a l e n t e r p r i s e .  the a c t i v i t i e s of c o l l a b o r a t o r s , b o t h d u r i n g and a f t e r the o f c o l o n i a l government, h e a v i l y c o n d i t i o n e d and economic change i n K i k u y u s o c i e t y .  Certainly  establishment  the course of p o l i t i c a l ,  Moreover, t h e i r a t t i t u d e s  social  and  r e a c t i o n s speeded t h e pace and p r o c e s s e s o f change and t h u s h e r a l d e d p o w e r f u l and The variety. centre.  a  sustained d i s r u p t i o n of Kikuyu s o c i e t y . e a r l y European a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  of the "on the  L i t t l e or no c o n t r o l o v e r f i e l d o f f i c e r s was  spot"  e x e r c i s e d by  the  There i s much e v i d e n c e t o suggest t h a t f i e l d o f f i c e r s were  l e f t much t o t h e i r own  d e v i c e s and t h a t i n consequence d e c i s i o n s t a k e n  were e s s e n t i a l l y of a p r a g m a t i c n a t u r e .  S o - c a l l e d " p o l i c y " amounted t o  n o t h i n g more t h a n a s e t o f g u i d e l i n e s couched i n b r o a d d i p l o m a t i c , r a t h e r t h a n d e t a i l e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , terms.  Moreover, the e a r l y  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s l a c k e d the " t e e t h " to enforce  themselves:  which undesirables the i n a b i l i t y  l i k e Boyes and Gibbons roamed the a r e a i s e v i d e n c e of  o f the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o p r e v e n t them. .Thus the q u a l i t y  of the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was ground.  the ease w i t h  a f u n c t i o n o f the q u a l i t y of i t s men  on  the  Some o f f i c e r s r o s e t o the o c c a s i o n a d m i r a b l y by a c q u i t t i n g  themselves t o the d a i l y r i g o u r s o f l i f e i n the h o s t i l e environment o f Kikuyuland:  others By 1902  degenerated i n t o i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s .  the P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  i t s house i n o r d e r and was i n t e r i o r i n force. new  beginning  to  put  s u b s e q u e n t l y thus a b l e t o v e n t u r e i n t o the  P o c k e t s o f K i k u y u r e s i s t a n c e were e l i m i n a t e d  administrative stations constructed  and  i n a r e a s f o r m e r l y a v o i d e d by  the  - xxi -  Administration.  The p r e v i o u s  p o l i c y or t r a d i t i o n of p a c i f i c a t i o n  became, d u r i n g the p e r i o d , a programme o f conquest. R a d i c a l changes took p l a c e i n K i k u y u s o c i e t y as a r e s u l t o f the c o l o n i a l i m p o s i t i o n .  The  European impact opened up s e r i o u s  rifts,  steepened e x i s t i n g c l e a v a g e s and d i s t u r b e d t h e s o c i a l o r d e r by d i s r u p t i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l power s t r u c t u r e . t h e r e may  P r o f e s s o r Ranger's-^ s u g g e s t i o n  be a connexion, p s y c h o l o g i c a l or o t h e r w i s e ,  K i k u y u r e s i s t a n c e and t h a t w h i c h c o n t i n u e d . t o 1963,  may  w e l l have some b a s i s i n f a c t .  that  between p r i m a r y  p l a g u e the B r i t i s h  until  C e r t a i n l y t h e r e i s work t o  be  done i n the a r e a o f e a r l y A f r i c a n r e s i s t a n c e t o the European i n v a s i o n and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p , i f any,  to l a t e r r e a c t i o n s .  The w r i t e r i s i n d e b t e d L i b r a r y w h i c h was  t o the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  e x t r e m e l y h e l p f u l i n o b t a i n i n g s o u r c e s and a l l o w i n g  t o h o l d books f o r p r o t r a c t e d p e r i o d s o f time.  him  I t i s not easy t o w r i t e  a t h e s i s some f i v e hundred m i l e s away f r o m the U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y ! w r i t e r would a l s o l i k e t o e x p r e s s g r a t i t u d e t o h i s w i f e , R o s i n a ,  The  for  her t o l e r a t i o n i n " l i v i n g " w i t h t h i s t h e s i s — s o m e t i m e s morning, noon and n i g h t .  A l s o g r a t e f u l thanks must be extended t o P r o f e s s o r s  V. K u b i c e k and F r i t z Lehmann o f U.B.C. H i s t o r y Department. way,  by t o l e r a t i o n , humour, and  coming a marked p r o p e n s i t y t o my K i k u y u f r i e n d s :  suggestion,  for laziness.  Robert  Each i n h i s  a i d e d the w r i t e r i n o v e r -  F i n a l l y , I dedicate  this thesis  t o D a n i e l Maina w i t h whom I s a t many hours d i s c u s s i n g  ^See T.O. Ranger, "Connexions Between 'Primary R e s i s t a n c e ' Movements and Modern Mass N a t i o n a l i s m i n E a s t and C e n t r a l A f r i c a " , J o u r n a l o f A f r i c a n ' H i s t o r y 9, 3, 1968 and J.M. L o n s d a l e , "Some O r i g i n s o f N a t i o n a l ism i n E a s t A f r i c a " i n J o u r n a l o f A f r i c a n H i s t o r y , 9, 1, 1968.  - xxii -  the K i k u y u socio-economic system and t h e ravages o f John Boyes.  To  Miano Wambugu who, o v e r my y e a r s i n K i k u y u l a n d , showed me e v e r y b i t o f that b e a u t i f u l yet troubled country.  And, o f c o u r s e , t o my good f r i e n d  Mahommed Maalum, a most u n u s u a l man i n a most u n u s u a l p e r i o d o f my l i f e .  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER 1  THE KIKUYU:  AN ETHNOHISTORICAL BACKGROUND  1  Age Organization and Rites De Passage  13  Junior Warrior Grade (mumo) Senior Warrior Grade (anake) Learning Elder Grade (karabai) Junior Elder (Athamaki mbule omwe) Senior Elder (Athamaki mbule egeri) P r i e s t (Ukuru)'  21 24 25 26 27 28  T e r r i t o r i a l Organization, Sets and Leadership  29  CHAPTER 2  EARLY CONTACTS  47  CHAPTER 3  THE IMPERIAL BRITISH EAST AFRICA COMPANY  62  CHAPTER 4  ARMED TRADERS  88  CHAPTER 5  THE CONQUEST  115  F i r s t Phase (1895-1902): Second Phase (1902-1910):  A "Holding" Exercise  115  A M i l i t a r y Exercise  136  CONCLUSION  162  APPENDICES  173  BIBLIOGRAPHY  184  - xxiii -  CHAPTER 1 THE  KIKUYU:  The K i k u y u  1  AN ETHNOHISTORICAL BACKGROUND  p e o p l e l i v e i n the p r e s e n t C e n t r a l P r o v i n c e  They a r e c l o s e l y a f f i l i a t e d w i t h two  o f Kenya.  s m a l l e r t r i b a l groups r e l a t e d i n l a n g -  uage, c u l t u r e , and p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r , known as Embu and Meru. t r i b e s i n h a b i t o r surround  2  The  three  f i v e major a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e s ; Kiambu i n  the south, F o r t H a l l i n the c e n t r e and N y e r i i n the n o r t h .  Embu and Meru  r e s p e c t i v e l y r e s i d e w i t h i n p r o x i m i t y o f the towns o f Embu and Meru. Each a r e a has i t s own ample, a r e known as K a r u r a ;  t r i b a l name.  The Kiambu p e o p l e ,  the F o r t H a l l p e o p l e , Metume;  f o r ex-  w h i l e those  of  N y e r i a r e known as G a k i .  S u b - t r i b a l names f o r the Embu p e o p l e s a r e Embu,  Mbere, N d i a and K i c h u g u .  Meru s u b - t r i b a l names a r e Igembe, T i g a n i a , 3  I m e n t i , M i u t i n i , I g o j i , Mwimbi, Muthamba, Chuka and  Tharaka.  The g e o g r a p h i c h a b i t a t o f the K i k u y u , the C e n t r a l P r o v i n c e , s t r e t c h e s from the s i t e o f the p r e s e n t c i t y o f N a i r o b i a t 5,500 f e e t , west a l o n g t h e Kiambu s o u t h e r n and M a s a i n o r t h e r n p e r i m e t e r , t o the V a l l e y ^ escarpment.  The Aberdare M o u n t a i n s , 12,000 f e e t a t the  Rift  southern  e x t e n t , r u n n o r t h t o c u t - o f f the w e s t e r n p e r i m e t e r o f the C e n t r a l P r o v i n c e from the R i f t P r o v i n c e , and thus c o n s t i t u t e a n a t u r a l w e s t e r n boundary. To the n o r t h o f the boundary t h e r e e x i s t s the h i g h and u n d u l a t i n g White Highlands  and beyond, t o the e a s t , the d r y savannah and a c a c i a  r e a c h i n g Mount Kenya.  country  The Mount Kenya m a s s i f , w i t h i t s snow-covered  - 1 -  2  peaks, Lenana and B a t i a n , province.  w  forms the n a t u r a l e a s t e r n boundary o f t h e  S o u t h o f the mountain the boundary p r o c e e d s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n  o f N a i r o b i a c r o s s the Embu p l a i n and the c u l t i v a t e d T h i k a a r e a . The topography o f the C e n t r a l P r o v i n c e i s g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the p r o x i m i t y o f b o t h the A b e r d a r e s and the Mount Kenya m a s s i f .  Notably  the K i k u y u homeland i s homogeneous and e c o l o g i c a l l y d i s t i n c t from o t h e r areas w i t h i n i t s p r o x i m i t y .  Moreover, n a t u r a l o b s t a c l e s make a c c e s s  e x i t i n t o the p r o v i n c e d i f f i c u l t f o r the c r o s s - c o u n t r y t r a v e l l e r .  and  Fast  r i v e r s , f l o w i n g from e a s t t o west and west t o e a s t o f f Mount Kenya and the A b e r d a r e s r e s p e c t i v e l y , s p a t e h i g h i n the r a i n y seasons and have c a r v ed deep v a l l e y s i n t o the rugged t e r r a i n .  The h i g h and o f t e n  r i d g e s , t h i c k l y f o r e s t e d w i t h mature deciduous  spine-backed  t r e e s and bamboo, r i s e i n  rows a c r o s s t h e t e r r a i n and p r o v i d e f o r m i d a b l e o b s t a c l e s a l o n g the n o r t h -  7 south t r a v e r s e .  The major r i v e r , the Tana,  d r a i n s t h e a r e a , c r o s s e s the  d r y savannah i m m e d i a t e l y e a s t o f Mount Kenya and f l o w s i n t o the I n d i a n 8 Ocean n o r t h o f the c o a s t a l c i t y o f Mombasa. t h e r i c h t o p s o ^ l o f the K i k u y u  I t c a r r i e s w i t h i t much o f  core-areas.  9 The K i k u y u t r i b e s a r e Bantu s p e a k i n g . b r o a d l y i n t o three geographic tral.  The Bantu  o f Kenya f a l l  d i v i s i o n s , the l a c u s t r i n e , c o a s t a l and  The K i k u y u t r i b e s a r e o f t h e c e n t r a l group o f p e o p l e s .  from a much l a r g e r body r e f e r r e d t o by Seligman  as the " E a s t e r n  cen-  They emanate Bantu."  I n t h i s group a r e a l s o i n c l u d e d t h e WaChagga and s i m i l a r t r i b e s o f n o r t h e r n Tanzania t o g e t h e r w i t h the WaTeita o f s o u t h - e a s t Kenya and the  Wa-  Pokomo o f the Tana R i v e r a r e a o f Kenya. C u r r e n t r e s e a r c h suggests t h a t the B a n t u i n v a d e d Kenya i n two  3  waves.  The f i r s t group l e f t t h e i n t e r l a c u s t r i n e  Lake V i c t o r i a and s e t t l e d  a r e a n o r t h and west o f  immediately east o f the l a k e .  Soja  suggests  t h a t t h i s wave p r o b a b l y e n t e r e d Kenya about "the l a s t h a l f o f t h e f i r s t m i l l e n i u m A.D.""'" and c o n t i n u e d t o spread eastwards s e t t l i n g i n a r e a s 1  where t h e r e was abundant w a t e r s u p p l y .  They d i s p l a c e d o r absorbed t h e 12  e x i s t i n g pre-Caucasoid The  and Bushmanoid p o p u l a t i o n s .  second wave, i n c l u d i n g t h o s e o f t h e K i k u y u t r i b e s ,  spread  out from t h e t e m p o r a r i l y s e t t l e d a r e a o f Mount K i l i m a n j a r o , V o i and -13 T e i t a , and proceeded n o r t h a l o n g t h e c o a s t .  T h i s i s e s t a b l i s h e d by  o r a l t r a d i t i o n among t h e K i k u y u t r i b e s , t h e WaKamba and t h e WaTeita. Moreover, t h e same o r a l t r a d i t i o n , a l s o , has i t t h a t t h i s B a n t u group f i n a l l y assembled and d i s p e r s e d t o t h e i r p r e s e n t c o r e - a r e a s from a p l a c e somewhere between t h e Juba and Tana r i v e r s . The e x a c t p l a c e o f f i n a l d i s p e r s a l ,  known i n o r a l t r a d i t i o n as  Shungwaya, i s l o c a t e d b y V.L.  G r o t t a n e l l i " ' " ^ and o t h e r s as b e i n g some 260 15 m i l e s n o r t h o f t h e p r e s e n t s i t e o f Mombasa. The K i k u y u t r i b e s a r e s a i d t o have moved west toward t h e i r  final  s e t t l e m e n t a r e a about A.D. 1200-1300 b u t t h e r e i s s u b s t a n t i a l d i s p u t e over t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h i s d a t e .  G e n e r a l l y t h e date i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  t h e s o u t h e r n t h r u s t o f t h e nomadic G a l l a i n t h e a r e a .  E x p e r t s on t h e 17 G a l l a i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s t h r u s t t o o k p l a c e as l a t e as 1600. The l i n k s w h i c h h e l p i d e n t i f y groups d i s p e r s e d from Shungwaya a r e t h o s e o f language, 18 age-set and c l a s s systems.  I n t h i s regard there are d i s t i n c t  similar-  i t i e s between t h e c o a s t a l and s o u t h e r n Bantu and t h e B a n t u groups who 19 p e n e t r a t e d i n l a n d a l o n g t h e Tana R i v e r toward t h e Mount Kenya a r e a .  N o r t h - E a s t e r n A f r i c a , . 1 2 t h U t 6 - L 7 t h c e n t u r i e s showing s o u t h e r n l i m i t s o f G a l l a T h r u s t ( 1 6 t h c e n t u r y ) , the K i k u y u and N i l o t i c s e t t l e d a r e a s and the K i k u y u e m i g r a t i o n r o u t e from Shungwaya. From J.D. Fage, An A t l a s o f A f r i c a n H i s t o r y , Edward A r n o l d , 1958, p. 21.  - 4 -  5  Lambert has i t t h a t the e a r l y K i k u y u m i g r a n t s l e f t Shungwaya and j o u r n e y e d i n l a n d a l o n g the n a t u r a l w a t e r - c o u r s e o f the Tana R i v e r u n t i l t h e y reached t h e i r f i r s t s e t t l e m e n t p o i n t somewhere i n the v i c i n i t y o f south-feast Mount Kenya.  From t h i s p o i n t t h e y g r a d u a l l y s p r e a d  southwards towards t h e p r e s e n t s i t e o f Kiambu and N a i r o b i .  A s t u d y and  a n a l y s i s o f the age-set genealogy has a l l o w e d him t o t r a c e the d a t e s o f 20 a r r i v a l at v a r i o u s p l a c e s along the r o u t e . Chuka ( s o u t h - e a s t Mount Kenya) Embu ( s o u t h - e a s t Mount Kenya) Fort H a l l Kiambu  These a r e : 1300 1425 1545 1800  Lambert's f i n d i n g s a r e s u p p o r t e d by L.S.B. Leakey, a n o t e d a u t h o r i t y on e a r l y K i k u y u h i s t o r y , b u t i n somewhat vague terms.  He r e f e r s , f o r example,  t o t h e K i k u y u as b e g i n n i n g t o occupy t h e F o r t H a l l d i s t r i c t " s e v e r a l hund r e d y e a r s ago."  S a y i n g n o t h i n g o f Shungwaya he suggests t h a t i n c r e a s e d  numbers i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y f o r c e d t h e K i k u y u t o seek f r e s h l i v i n g room t o the west. The movement southwards a c r o s s the Chania R i v e r i n t o what i s now known as the Kiambu d i s t r i c t o f Kilcjiyuland s t a r t e d about t h a t t i m e , as d i d a movement northwards i n t o an area c a l l e d N y e r i , l y i n g a t the f o o t of Mount Kenya.21 There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t as t h e y moved t h e K i k u y u t r i b e s were i n f l u e n c e d by c u l t u r e - c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r t r i b e s .  O l i v e r remarks,  f o r example, t h a t  t h e Meru p r e s e r v e the memory o f c a t t l e k e e p i n g p e o p l e o f H a m i t i c o r i g i n c a l l e d Mwoko.  U s i n g Lambert as h i s s o u r c e (Systems, pp. 12-13.) he  says  t h a t " c l a s h e s between t h e Meru and Mwoko c o n t i n u e d u n t i l t h e time o f a  6  Meru a g e - c l a s s . w h i c h had been i n the w a r r i o r stage i n about 1760." Moreover, O l i v e r o b s e r v e s , "The  K i k u y u show i n t h e i r i n i t i a t i o n customs  and a g e - c l a s s e s as w e l l as i n t h e i r appearance and adornment the c l e a r e s t s i g n s o f i n f l u e n c e from.the N i l o - H a m i t i c and H a m i t i c s o u r c e s , but none 23 a t a l l o f the c h i e f l y i n s t i t u t i o n s o f the i n t e r l a c u s t r i n e s . " ( B a n t u ) . T h i s p o i n t i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n v i e w o f the acephalous the Nilo-Hamites.  H u n t i n g f o r d s u g g e s t s , on the b a s i s t h a t  t r a d i t i o n s of acephalous  Bantu a r e and have been t r a d i t i o n a l l y l o c a t e d w i t h i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y o f the acephalous  N i l o - H a m i t e s , t h a t t h e former may w e l l have t a k e n the  t r a d i t i o n from the N i l o - H a m i t e s .  The t r i b e s h a v i n g no c h i e f s , he  observes,  a r e g e n e r a l l y l o c a t e d n o r t h o f the p r e s e n t Tanzanian-Kenya b o r d e r and er t o N i l o - H a m i t e s t h a n t h o s e w i t h c h i e f s .  near-  To s u b s t a n t i a t e the h y p o t h e s i s  he c i t e s t h e f a c t t h a t out o f 101 t r i b e s i n the t h r e e E a s t A f r i c a n t e r r i t o r i e s ; Uganda, Kenya and T a n z a n i a , 45 had no c h i e f s , 47 had d i s t r i c t  chiefs  and 9 had c e n t r a l c h i e f s .  earl-  "Acephaly", he t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e s , " I s an  i e r form t h a n r u l e by c h i e f s .  . . and t h a t . . . "  one can c o n c e i v e o f t h e  a d o p t i o n o f r u l e by a c h i e f t h r o u g h c u l t u r e c o n t a c t o r conquest, b u t the 25 reverse process i s not l i k e l y . " I t i s a t t h i s p o i n t we must pause t o c o n s i d e r t h e g e n e r a l e f f e c t o f o t h e r e t h n i c m i g r a t i o n s upon the K i k u y u .  What i s e s p e c i a l l y  significant  i s t h e e f f e c t upon the K i k u y u t r i b e s o f the p a s t o r a l N i l o - H a m i t e s and t h e H a m i t i c G a l l a and S o m a l i p e o p l e s .  (Masai)  B o t h groups formed e t h n i c b a r r -  i e r s t o the west and e a s t o f the K i k u y u c o r e - a r e a .  Because t h e M a s a i  were w a r - o r i e n t e d , t h e K i k u y u p e o p l e s were f o r c e d t o c o n s o l i d a t e themselves b e h i n d the n a t u r a l p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e p e r i p h e r a l f o r e s t b e l t .  Thus the  7  T r i b a l s e t t l e m e n t i n E a s t A f r i c a about 1800. Note G a l l a and M a s a i h a b i t a t s and "moat" a r e a s o u t h o f Kiambu. From B.A. Ogot and J.A.. K i e r a n ( e d s . ) , Zamani: A Survey o f E a s t A f r i c a n H i s t o r y , N a i r o b i : EAPH, 1968, p. 210.  8  f o r e s t b e l t became a n a t u r a l f r o n t i e r t o the e a s t , west and K i k u y u homeland.  Where the f o r e s t was  south of  t h i n the K i k u y u b u i l t  the  fortified  v i l l a g e s t o form a k i n d o f 'Maginot L i n e ' w h i c h made M a s a i r a i d i n g exp e d i t i o n s more d i f f i c u l t t o a c c o m p l i s h s u c c e s s f u l l y .  I n t h i s way.the 26  s e c u r i t y o f those l i v i n g b e h i n d the s t r i p was  enhanced.  Hence we  may  i n f e r t h a t the K i k u y u t r i b e s , once s e t t l e d i n the a r e a between the f o r e s t covered h i g h A b e r d a r e s and Mount Kenya, were s a f e from t h e i r enemies.as 27 l o n g as t h e y remained w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of t h e i r i s l a n d . t o the l a n d o u t s i d e the f o r e s t b e l t as a " f o r e s t moat" and  Soja r e f e r s says t h a t i t  d i d n o t become i n t e g r a t e d w i t h i n the e s t a b l i s h e d l i f e p a t t e r n s , e i t h e r 28 g r a z i n g or a g r i c u l t u r e , of any t r i b a l group. land behind which t h e . f o r e s t b e l t provided c u l t u r a l l y disposed and  Kikuyu.  I t was  i n e f f e c t a no-man's  a n a t u r a l sanctum f o r the  Thus wherever t h e r e was  agri-  f o r e s t , " h i g h ground 29  f e r t i l e ground o t h e r p e o p l e s h e l d them ( t h e M a s a i ) a t bay."  Provid-  i n g the K i k u y u d i d not v e n t u r e f o r t h from t h e i r i s l a n d f a s t n e s s , t h e y were s a f e from the marauding p a s t o r a l i s t s who and  t o the south.  roamed t o the n o r t h , t o the west  The b l e a k l y f o r e s t e d s l o p e s o f Mount Kenya p r o t e c t e d  t h e i r i s l a n d from any e a s t e r l y i n t r u s i o n . We was Few,  have seen ( O l i v e r , , p . 9) t h a t the f a b r i c o f t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y  not so w e l l c o n s t r u c t e d  as t h a t of the i n t e r l a c u s t r i n e Bantu o f Uganda.  i f any, A f r i c a n s o c i e t i e s i n e a r l y Kenya a c h i e v e d a l e v e l o f s o c i o -  p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h a t w h i c h p r e v a i l e d t o the west n e a r the head o f the Lake.  The  acephalous p e o p l e s c o n s i s t e d t y p i c a l l y o f  a s s o c i a t i o n s , k i n s h i p groups and p o p u l a r segments u n i t e d i n r e s p o n s e , i t may  be presumed, t o the environment and  the t h r e a t of the M a s a i and  other  9  m i l i t a r i l y oriented peoples.  Dependence upon a g r i c u l t u r e and.animals r e -  q u i r e d an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e more complex, s o p h i s t i c a t e d and t h a n t h a t o f the p r i m i t i v e h u n t i n g - g a t h e r i n g of e x t e r n a l c u l t u r e - c o n t a c t  and  stimulus  groups.  But due  larger  t o the  lack.  from more "advanced" s o c i e t i e s ,  the t r a d i t i o n a l systems o f s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n l a c k e d  the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Uganda B a n t u i n whose t e r r i t o r i e s kingdoms, minor s t a t e s , c h i e f s and headmen f l o u r i s h e d . ...  t o form i n c l u s t e r s , w i t h one  I t was  here t h a t "kingdoms' tended  o r more l a r g e kingdoms a t the  of the c l u s t e r , and.a h o s t o f s m a l l e r ones s c a t t e r e d around the I t was  h e r e t h a t had  developed a b u r e a u c r a c y  o r t e l e p h o n e s , i n w h i c h power was  t o p o s t , promoted, demoted, and  and who  peripheries."  " w i t h o u t p a p e r , i n k , desks,  w i e l d e d by o f f i c i a l s who  o f f i c e s d u r i n g the k i n g ' s p l e a s u r e ,  centre  held t h e i r  c o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d from p o s t  even d e s t i t u t e d , by a nod  of the  divine  30 head o r a s y l l a b l e from the d i v i n e mouth."  From the t o p o f the  i c a l s t r u c t u r e t h e r e descended a h o s t o f c i v i l s e r v a n t s  of decreasing  a n c e — r a n g i n g from the k i n g h i m s e l f , h i s immediate r e l a t i v e s and o f f i c e r - b e a r . e r s , t o p r o v i n c i a l , d i s t r i c t and  local chiefs.  the o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the K i k u y u l i f e - s t y l e  hierarchimport-  higher  I n c o n t r a s t , ''  seems t o have b e e n a  t r a n s i t i o n from h u n t i n g t o an a g r a r i a n e c o n o m y — f o r c e d upon the t r i b e because of the n a t u r e of i t s new  environment and  the p r o x i m i t y o f the M a s a i  beyond the "moat". Perhaps i t was  a l a c k o f a r e a l s t a b i l i t y w h i c h p r e c l u d e d the dev-  elopment of a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . was  in flux.  i n e n c e and  Groups formed, b r o k e - o f f  Kikuyu society  and r e - f o r m e d , r o s e t o l o c a l prom-  d e c l i n e d i n a s o r t of s o c i a l undulation  i n f l u e n c e d by p r e v a i l i n g  10  s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s .  Perhaps t h i s syndrome was  a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the c o n s t a n t s e a r c h f o r new a r e a s c o n t a i n i n g the p r e requisites f o r existence.  Water, g r a s s f o r g r a z i n g a n i m a l s , f o r e s t  r i d g e s f o r p r o t e c t i o n , c o n s t i t u t e d the c a r d i n a l t r i b a l d e s i r e s .  and  The  im-  p e r a t i v e t o meet t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s c r e a t e d a f l u i d p o p u l a t i o n o n l y l o o s e l y or l o c a l l y o r g a n i z e d .  Indeed, i t i s suggested t h a t the c o n s t a n t s e a r c h  f o r new l a n d d i d n o t m a n i f e s t the emergence o f new p o l i t i c a l forms  and  s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , b u t r a t h e r caused a r e v i s i o n t o e a r l i e r forms o f s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l organization.  Moreover,  even K i k u y u " l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s  were m a i n l y the r e s u l t of a f a m i l y ' s need f o r some a p p a r a t u s t o r e g u l a t e c l a i m s upon l a n d o r the problems a r i s i n g from t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f d i f f e r -  31 ent f a m i l i e s i n an a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y . "  Perhaps i t was t h e s o c i o -  p o l i t i c a l and g e o g r a p h i c a l environment w h i c h determined the n a t u r e o f Kikuyu p o l i t i c a l organization.  Each r i d g e , i s o l a t e d from o t h e r s by  f o r e s t and o f t e n i m p a s s a b l e r i v e r s , became a n a t u r a l p o i n t o f defense for  those l i v i n g on the back o f i t s s p i n e ; each had i t s e l d e r s and i t s  32 c o u n c i l s o f defense.  33 S p o r a d i c r a i d i n g by the M a s a i  o f t e n a g g r a v a t e d the s i t u a t i o n and  e f f o r t s t o r e s i s t by the r i d g e - b a s e d defence c o u n c i l s gave way.to f u r t h e r t r i b a l f r i c t i o n and c o n f l i c t .  F i g h t i n g u s u a l l y t o o k p l a c e between K i k u y u  and M a s a i b u t t h i s i s n o t t o i m p l y t h a t f i g h t i n g was always c o n f i n e d t o t h e s e t r i b a l groups.  Sometimes, f o r example, M a s a i f o u g h t M a s a i and  p e r i o d s , no doubt, gave r e s p i t e t o the beleagued K i k u y u . Kikuyu fought Kikuyu.  such  On o c c a s i o n  There i s e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t , a l s o , t h a t p e r i o d i c a l l y  34K i k u y u segments a l l i e d themselves w i t h M a s a i a g a i n s t o t h e r K i k u y u .  11  The  suggestion  that a r e a l i n s t a b i l i t y precluded  the p o s s i b i l i t y o f  a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s w e l l b a s e d ; e s p e c i a l l y i f comparison i s made between t h a t of the K i k u y u and the B a n t u of the west.  north-  But t h i s does n o t mean t h a t t h e K i k u y u t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l  system ( t o be d e s c r i b e d  i n more d e t a i l i n t h i s t h e s i s ) was  meet the needs of K i k u y u s o c i e t y o r was the new  notSia'l^eable enough t o a d j u s t  to  c o n d i t i o n s imposed upon i t by a change i n e n v i r o n m e n t — p o l i t i c a l  or g e o g r a p h i c a l . constant  not adequate t o  To be s u r e t h e r e was  movement and  a l a c k of s t a b i l i t y caused by  counter-movement of p e o p l e a c r o s s the  the  landscape;  but a l s o , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h i s human f l u x , t h e r e d e v e l o p e d a semblance o f s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y founded on the d i c t a t e s of n e c e s s i t y .  T h i s embryo  s t a b i l i t y must have been p o r t a b l e and w e l l - r o o t e d i n K i k u y u t r a d i t i o n t o have been s e r i o u s l y shaken o r even dismembered p e r m a n e n t l y by the stant pressures  o f war  and movement.  As t i m e passed t h i s growing  became permeable enough t o a l l o w a b s o r p t i o n of o u t s i d e groups and o f p e o p l e r e l a t e d or sometimes not e t h n i c a l l y r e l a t e d .  not con-  stability clusters  There i s e v i d e n c e ,  f o r example, t h a t numbers of M a s a i t o o k K i k u y u w i v e s w i t h o u t i n c u r r i n g  35 cultural friction.  There i s e v i d e n c e t h a t Wanderobo, p r e v i o u s l y occupy-  i n g the a r e a s e t t l e d by the Kiambu K i k u y u , were b o t h a b s o r b e d . i n t o the  36 tribe  and  allowed  t o p a r l e y w i t h K i k u y u on l e g i t i m a t e b u s i n e s s o v e r the  37 possession  of land.  Thus i t i s p o s s i b l e t o say t h a t s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s were developed or evolved  f o r purposes o f c o n s t r u c t i v e p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n .  c l a s s - l i n e s , d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c l i n k a g e s and prevent co-operation  Where p o s s i b l e ,  s m a l l - s c a l e communities d i d not  where and when such was  deemed t o be of advantage.  e v i d e n c e suggests t h a t the s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n was  not always met  by -  The  12  military conflict.  O f t e n i t was met by a system o f adjustment  o f s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic c o - o p e r a t i o n .  i n the s p i r i t  The passage o f t i m e saw  t h i s system e v o l v e t o a p o i n t where p h y s i c a l and e t h n i c b o u n d a r i e s , a l t h o u g h :  38 f u s e d , became more c o n s t a n t a n d . i d e n t i f i a b l e . The s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l environment  now began, f o r example,  t o p r o v i d e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l y acephalous K i k u y u w i t h ' c h i e f s ' . I t i s customary t o a f f i r m t h a t t h e K i k u y u had no c h i e f s , and t h i s , by and l a r g e , i s t r u e . The i n h a b i t a n t s o f each r i d g e i n t o which t h e c o u n t r y was d i v i d e d r a r e l y owed a l l e g i a n c e t o anyone beyond, and were f r e q u e n t l y a t war w i t h t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s . But on o c c a s i o n s s o c i o l o g i c a l norms can be m i s l e a d i n g . F o r t h e K i k u y u were t h r o w i n g up, i f n o t c h i e f s , trren "prominent „ i n d i v i d u a l s " o f some c o n s i d e r a b l e consequence.  Low o b s e r v e s :  Q  E a r l y European accounts g i v e evidence o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f l o c a l K i k u y u l e a d e r s and by t h e 1880's these personages ature.  became d i s t i n c t i n t h e l i t e r -  S i r R i c h a r d B u r t o n , f o r example, speaks o f two K i k u y u l e a d e r s  named Mundu W a z e l i and K i p p i n g o . ^  F a t h e r Cagnolo r e f e r s t o K a r u r i o f  Metume ( F o r t H a l l ) and Wangombi o f G a k i ( N y e r i ) . ^  1  John Boyes, t h e s e l f -  s t y l e d " K i n g o f t h e K i k u y u " , a European a d v e n t u r e r who l i v e d among t h e K i k u y u d u r i n g t h e e a r l y European p e n e t r a t i o n , mentions t h e e x p l o i t s o f 4-2 K a r k e r r i and K a r o l i .  Governor Hardinge's r e p o r t , A f r i c a No. 6 (1903),  p. 7, quotes " s e v e r a l C h i e f s o f c o n s i d e r a b l e importance, such as K i n a n j u i ( s i c ) and K a r u r i , each o f ...whom can p u t s e v e r a l hundred w a r r i o r s i n t o t h e f i e l d " " t o g e t h e r w i t h , "a m u l t i t u d e o f s m a l l e r C h i e f s . "  A l l o f t h e s e prom-  i n e n t K i k u y u possessed c h a r i s m a t i c q u a l i t i e s and a b i l i t y r e c o g n i z e d and allowed f o r by the t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the t r i b e . T h e i r r i s e t o power, a l b e i t l o c a l , was n o t o u t s i d e o f t h e acephalous  order,  13  but w i t h i n i t .  Many were l e a d e r s o f men  marked p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l c a p a c i t i e s .  i n war and p r o b a b l y d i s p l a y e d i n t h i s area.  Because the e n v i r o n -  ment c a l l e d f o r m i l i t a r y s k i l l s , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h M a s a i and l a t t e r l y  Euro-  pean i n t e r f e r e n c e i n K i k u y u a f f a i r s , t h e y tended t o r i s e t o p o s i t i o n s o f prominence w i t h i n the t r i b a l s t r u c t u r e .  N o t a b l y , t h i s was because the  t r i b a l s t r u c t u r e p r o v i d e d f o r such e x i g e n c i e s ; p r o v i d e d f o r men t o assume p o s i t i o n s o f s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p .  These men  of a b i l i t y  were t o  form the n u c l e u s o f a p p o i n t e d K i k u y u C h i e f s under the a e g i s o f the  forth-  coming embryonic B r i t i s h C o l o n i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  Age  O r g a n i z a t i o n and R i t e s De Passage  The K i k u y u t r i b e  i s d i v i d e d i n t o two h a l v e s .  E v e r y K i k u y u male  c h i l d ^ i s i n d u c t e d i n t o one o r the o t h e r h a l v e s a t b i r t h . the t r i b e i s known as Maina and the o t h e r h a l f , Mwangi. assumes the t r i b a l h a l f o f h i s g r a n d f a t h e r . Grandfather Father Son  One  h a l f of  A male c h i l d  For example:  Mwangi Maina Mwangi or  Grandfather Father Son One  Maina Mwangi Maina  t r i b a l h a l f , e i t h e r Mwangi o r Maina, " r u l e s " the t r i b e f o r a p e r i o d  o f time b e f o r e f o r m a l l y handing  over a u t h o r i t y t o the o t h e r h a l f .  The  p e r i o d t h a t one h a l f i s i n power seems t o v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y and t h e r e are s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n on i t s l e n g t h .  One  source says 30 y e a r s ;  14  another 20-30 years,  while Hobley  says 15 years.  Kenyatta says " . .  one generation (held) o f f i c e of government f o r a period of t h i r t y to f o r t y 47 years . . . "  P r i n s states that 30-40 years i s the best time lapse as  i t i s in:"best harmony w i t h the idea of the duration of a p h y s i c a l genera48 t i o n fundamental to the p r i n c i p l e of a l t e r n a t i o n of both halves."  Here  i t i s important to note that Kikuyu "time" was not measured i n s o l a r or lunar years but by "generations" or "age-sets" (see Cagnolo below).  Thus,  d i f f e r e n c e s i n years suggested by the foregoing sources are of l i t t l e use i n determining the period between Kikuyu "governmental" changeovers.  The  f a c t of the matter i s that the change-over ceremony, i t w i k a , took place p e r i o d i c a l l y and no consensus opinion e x i s t s on the time span of the r u l i n g half. A point consistent with the system of r u l i n g halves, i s that a male c h i l d could only be i n f o r m a l l y known as Mwangi or Maina.  ;  Formal r e c o g n i t i o n  of h i s t r i b a l h a l f was only accorded when he assumed the status of j u n i o r elder of the r u l i n g h a l f or conversely j u n i o r elder of the non-ruling h a l f . Nevertheless, according to the p r i n c i p l e of the a l t e r n a t i o n of p a t r i l i n e a l generations, i t was known at b i r t h i n t o which t r i b a l h a l f the c h i l d would move.  A f t e r c i r c u m c i s i o n the young male passed through two grades of non-  elder, mumo and anake, before being accepted i n t o the elder category.  If  born a Mwangi, and.this was not the r u l i n g h a l f , he was accorded the name Mwangi Irungu. half.  Irungu i d e n t i f i e d him as not being destined f o r the r u l i n g  Presumably, i f during the period of h i s s o c i a l ascendancy the i t w i k a  took place and power changed hands, he r e l i n q u i s h e d the,Irungu i d e n t i f i e r and became merely Mwangi.  At t h i s time the young w a r r i o r c l a s s of Maina, pre-  v i o u s l y destined f o r power, became.Maina Irungu.  15  Kenyatta states that the l a s t i t w i k a was celebrated about 1890-98. Lucy Mair gives the dates as being 1890-1903 and says - the ceremony "took about a dozen years to complete."  The handing-over of power "was organized  separately, and at d i f f e r e n t times, i n d i f f e r e n t parts of the country (and) the areas which co-operated f o r t h i s purpose were much wider than those 50 which d i d so f o r any other."  There are two points of s i g n i f i c a n c e here.  F i r s t l y , since the l a s t ceremony took place between 1890 and roughly the turn of the century, then i t i s apparent that the handing-over of power to the Mwangi f r a t e r n i t y was coincident with e a r l y attempts by the B r i t i s h to e s t a b l i s h an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  This may or may not have a f f e c t e d B r i t i s h  e f f o r t s , but i t i s of some s i g n i f i c a n c e to r e l a t e the f a c t that the next i t w i k a (1925-28) t o herald ascendancy of the Maina group was declared i l l e g a l and proscribed by the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  There i s a good p o s s i b i l i t y  that since Independence the Kenya a u t h o r i t i e s have, f o r symbolic or p o l i t i c a l 51 purposes, r e - i n s t i t u t e d the i t w i k a .  The second point concerns Professor  Mair's a s s e r t i o n that the i t w i k a tended'to involve more d i s t a n t segments of the t r i b e than any other kind of ceremony.  This i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n view  of the f a c t that the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l and geographic environment was a t the root of Kikuyu s o c i a l system and t h a t , i n consequence, t r i b a l a f f a i r s tended to .emanate and be dealt with on a l o c a l l e v e l .  The e f f e c t of the  i t w i k a , we see, was one of c o n s o l i d a t i n g the t r i b e by g i v i n g i t s members, f a r and wide, some c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y .  B r i t i s h p r o s c r i p t i o n of the event  (1925-28) may, therefore, have been predicated on the assumption that t h i s same c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y could l i k e l y be converted i n t o a p o l i t i c a l i d e n t i t y ; e s p e c i a l l y i n view of the f a c t that the time i n question was one of Kikuyu  16  political  instability. P r i n s s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e i t w i k a was t h a t  i t brought t o g e t h e r a l l segments o f t h e K i k u y u i n t o a c o r p o r a t e u n i t and s e r v e d g e n e r a l l y a s an i n t e g r a t i v e i n f l u e n c e .  Importantly i t served t o  t r a n s f e r power from one group t o another by s o c i a l agreement r a t h e r t h a n power s t r u g g l e and showed a l s o t h e i n v i o l a b i l i t y o f a t r i b a l  constitu52  t i o n w h i c h c o u l d be and was r e g u l a r l y c a r r i e d o u t w i t h o u t t e n s i o n .  This 53  view, b r o a d l y s p e a k i n g , i s i n c o n c e r t w i t h t h a t e x p r e s s e d b y M a i r .  Al-  though c a u t i o u s about s e e i n g t h e i t w i k a as a t o t a l i n t e g r a t i v e i n f l u e n c e , P r o f e s s o r M a i r sees t h e i t w i k a as b e i n g , among o t h e r t h i n g s , a means t o i s s u e p r o c l a m a t i o n s on m a t t e r s o f r u l e s o r o r d e r s o r t o r e a s s e r t g e n e r a l l y recognized rules of t r i b a l  conduct.  Sometimes pr^clama|ionseh^ have " a t handing-over ceremonies . . . t h e K i k u y u sometimes summoned meetings f o r t h e purpose . . . we have no c l e a r p i c t u r e a o f t h e way i n w h i c h a d e c i s i o n was t a k e n t o make such announcements; n o r do we know whose b u s i n e s s i t was t o p r o c l a i m them . . . examples g i v e n b y some K i k u y u e l d e r s were t h e p r o h i b i t i o n o f w i t c h c r a f t ; t h e announcement t h a t h a b i t u a l t h i e v e s s h o u l d be e x e c u t e d ; o r d e r s t o p r o t e c t s u p p l i e s o f f o o d i n t i m e s o f famine . . . o r d e r s r e g u l a t i n g t h e use o f l a n d , f o r example t h a t c e r t a i n t r a c t s o f f o r e s t s h o u l d be l e f t s t a n d i n g ^ a s a defence a g a i n s t enemies, o r t h a t a s a l t - l i c k s h o u l d be open f o r g e n e r a l u s e . I t i s d o u b t f u l whether t h i s a c t i v i t y would e n t i t l e one t o say t h a t t h e government o f t h e K i k u y u i n c l u d e d organs o f l e g i s l a t i o n . I f l e g i s l a t i o n means making r u l e s o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n w h i c h change o r extend t h e e x i s t i n g body o f r u l e s , none o f these examples r e a l l y f i t s t h e d e f i n i t i o n . Some a r e r e a s s e r t i o n s o f r e c o g n i z e d r u l e s , o t h e r s a r e 1_  ?  17  o r d e r s d e a l i n g w i t h s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . They do demonstrate, however, t h a t c o l l e c t i v e d e c i s i o n s c o u l d be t a k e n i n such emergencies as famine. We do n o t know how wide an a r e a was c o v e r e d by any o f t h e s e o r d e r s , though i t i s f a i r l y s a f e t o say t h a t i t i s n o t l i k e l y t o have been t h e whole K i k u y u c o u n t r y . . . we do n o t r e a l l y know how such a s s e m b l i e s were composed, o r whether t h e y c o n s i s t e d o f p e o p l e who combined f o r o t h e r p u r poses o f government.54 The s o c i o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e i t w i k a become e v i d e n t on closer analysis.  A l t h o u g h t h e deposed h a l f , f o r example, was t e c h n i c a l l y  p o w e r l e s s , i t c o n t i n u e d t o a i d and a d v i s e on j u d i c i a l and o t h e r m a t t e r s . The new r u l i n g segmentowas judged competent t o implement i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as d u r i n g i t s p e r i o d o f power i t s members a c t e d as c o n s u l t a n t s t o each e l d e r grade i n t h e s o c i a l p a t t e r n .  When power changed hands, over  t h e p e r i o d o f t h e i t w i k a , each e l d e r moved from h i s p o s i t i o n o f non-power to a c o r r e s p o n d i n g p o s i t i o n o f power. higher elder status.  Many K i k u y u , however, never r o s e t o  T h i s was because i f t h e i t w i k a t o o k p l a c e , s a y , a t 25  y e a r s o f age and a t a time when a t r i b e s m a n was t o o young t o h o l d e l d e r s t a tus,  30 t o 40 y e a r s l a t e r might see him dead.  This i s e s p e c i a l l y  signifi-  cant i n v i e w o f t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t l o n g e v i t y , p r i o r t o c o l o n i a l r u l e , was perhaps o n l y 45-55 y e a r s .  A f u r t h e r i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t i f a man a c t u a l l y  l i v e d l o n g enough o u t o f o f f i c e t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e i t w i k a , he would automat i c a l l y be a c c e p t e d i n t o t h e h i g h e s t r u l i n g e l d e r grades w i t h o u t a c t u a l l y h a v i n g had t h e r u l i n g e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e l o w e r e l d e r g r a d e s .  Thus, u n l e s s  he had t a k e n h i s n o n - r u l i n g d u t i e s s e r i o u s l y enough t o l e a r n b y s i m u l a t i o n or  osmosis a l l c e r e m o n i a l p r o c e d u r e , c u l t u r a l law, and o t h e r d u t i e s o f  18  e l d e r o f f i c e , h i s judgement may  w e l l be deemed f a u l t y .  S e t s o r age groups p l a y a . ' s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n K i k u y u tical life.  socio-poli-  M a l e s (and f e m a l e s ) were i n d u c t e d f o r m a l l y i n t o the t r i b e  and thus onto the l o w e s t rung o f t h e l a d d e r o f rank. g e n e r a l l y conducted  Ceremonies were  on a y e a r l y b a s i s a l t h o u g h a c c o r d i n g t o p r e v a i l i n g  c o n d i t i o n s , l i k e war o r c a t a s t r o p h e , t h e y were missed from time t o t i m e . Formal i n d o c t r i n a t i o n o f a g e - s e t s i n t o the p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f the t r i b e was  c a r r i e d out by means o f c i r c u m c i s i o n . C i r c u m c i s i o n was more t h a n mere c e r e m o n i a l a c t i v i t y ; i t was  a s y m b o l i c a c t w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d v a l u e s embodied i n the a g e - c l a s s w i t h a l l i t s e d u c a t i o n , s o c i a l , m o r a l and r e l i g i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s . Leakey p o i n t s o u t , i t was  also system As  the b e g i n n i n g o f a s e r i e s o f r i t e s de passage 55  t h r o u g h w h i c h each K i k u y u would p a s s .  K e n y a t t a i s more e x p l i c i t when  he r e g a r d s i t as "the c o n d i t i o s i n e qua non o f the whole t e a c h i n g o f 56 t r i b a l law, r e l i g i o n , and m o r a l i t y . " Its  r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e seems t o be t h a t the a c t marked the  new  s t a t u s a r r i v e d a t by t h e i n d o c t r i n a t e s ; i t meant t h a t those c i r c u m c i s e d becameepledged f o r f u t u r e i n s t i t u t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . of  I t marked the b e g i n n i n g  s e n i o r i t y p r o g r e s s i o n ; i t was  the f o u n d a t i o n o f an a s s u r e d e l i t i s m 57 p r o v i d e d f o r by t r a d i t i o n and s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e . The ceremony ( i r u a ) i s complex and beyond the scope o f t h i s the-.: 58 :  sis.  What i s i m p o r t a n t , however, i s the f a c t even the ceremony has  about i t a c e r t a i n d u a l i t y .  Cagnolo observes t h a t t h e young male K i k u y u  may be c i r c u m c i s e d by the s o - c a l l e d K i k u y u o r M a s a i f a s h i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y . W h i l e he n o t e s t h a t b o t h methods a r e i n f a c t v e r y s i m i l a r i n t e c h n i q u e ;  19  i . e . i n c i s i o n r a t h e r t h a n c i r c u m c i s i o n , t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f whether one or the. o t h e r method was used l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e method d e t e r m i n e s a l l subsequent i n i t i a t i o n r i t e s . is  T h i s i s n o t t o suggest t h a t one method  'superior', o r produces .'.superior' i n d i v i d u a l s i n terms o f s o c i a l o r  p o l i t i c a l status.  What can be i n f e r r e d from t h i s f i n d i n g i s t h a t t h e  K i k u y u t r i b e s were n o t h i s t o r i c a l l y i s o l a t e d t o t h e degree t h a t c u l t u r e contact d i d not take place w i t h other t r i b e s .  The f a c t t h a t a t e c h n i q u e  known as the 'Masai' method was used i n K i k u y u c i r c u m c i s i o n r i t e s  strongly 59  s u g g e s t s t h a t K i k u y u t r i b a l l o r e was n o t s i n g u l a r l y o f K i k u y u o r i g i n . The t r i b a l s t r u c t u r e , i t c o u l d be deemed, was o b v i o u s l y v i a b l e enough t o absorb those p a r t s o f a n o t h e r c u l t u r e w h i c h were w o r k a b l e and n o t a l i e n to e s t a b l i s h e d Kikuyu s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l p r a c t i c e . ^ The f o r e g o i n g Somali.  c o u l d n o t be s a i d o f the M a s a i o r t h e H a m i t i c  T h e i r c u l t u r e s appear n o t t o have been i n f l u e n c e d o r a l t e r e d  much b y t h e p r o x i m i t y o f t h e K i k u y u ; r a t h e r t h e r e v e r s e .case.  Obviously  seems t o be t h e  where t h e "moat" was t h i n n e s t , c u l t u r e - c o n t a c t and i t s  a f f e c t s upon t h e K i k u y u were- s t r o n g e s t . As has been p o i n t e d o u t , each a g e - s e t comes f o r w a r d f o r c i r c u m c i s i o n on a y e a r l y b a s i s .  F o r purposes o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and perhaps a  c o n v e n i e n t method o f l o c a t i n g ' h i s t o r i c a l t i m e ' ,  successive  sets of i n i -  t i a t e s a r e g i v e n a name c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t s a s s o c i a t e d the y e a r o f c i r c u m c i s i o n .  This i s important resource  p o l o g i s t s , e t h n o g r a p h e r s , h i s t o r i a n s : and  with  m a t e r i a l f o r anthro-  o t h e r s concerned w i t h  investi-  g a t i n g K i k u y u t r a d i t i o n o r h i s t o r y . By^aapr.ocess^fir.inqulr y_.among- e l d e r s and a knowledge o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  i t i s often possible to reconstruct  the p a s t on the b a s i s o f the names and n a m e - a s s o c i a t i o n s o f c i r c u m c i s e d  20  groups. Cagnolo has been successful i n t r a c i n g the names of years from 184-0 to 1932 by t h i s method.  Of i n t e r e s t i n the Cagnolo l i s t i s the year  1903 and the name-association given to the age-set of that year.  Venereal  disease has a European heritage and i s not thought to have been present i n A f r i c a before the advent of the European on that continent. The use of Venereal disease as an age-set i d e n t i f i e r suggests that 1903 was s i g n i f i cant t o the Kikuyu i n that they f i r s t contracted i t from European c a r r i e r s . The year 1926 i s also of some i n t e r e s t and i n d i c a t i v e of the march of European technology i n Kikuyuland.  Other years s i g n i f y manifestations  of the European a d m i n i s t r a t i v e presence.  I n 1919, f o r example, we have  the R e g i s t r a t i o n C e r t i f i c a t e ; i n 1923 the Flag; while i n 1930 the namea s s o c i a t i o n , Modern P r a c t i c e s i n d i c a t e s increasing Kikuyu knowledge and awareness of the concept of "modern" and, perhaps, i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s as introduced by the c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  Yet other years record famine,  disease, plague and the presence of animal plagues.  The discovery of gold  i n Kakamega i s recorded as being i n 1913 Kenyatta a s s e r t s that "men circumcised a t the same time stand i n the very c l o s e s t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o each other.  When a man of the same  age-group i n j u r e s another i t i s a serious magico-religious offence.  They  are l i k e blood brothers; they must not do any wrong to each other. . the age-group i s thus a powerful instrument f o r securing conformity w i t h t r i b a l usage . . i t binds men from a l l parts of the country (even) though they be circumcised hundreds of miles apart. men of equal standing together.  The age-groups do more than bind  They f u r t h e r emphasize the s o c i a l grades  21  o f j u n i o r and s e n i o r , i n f e r i o r and  superior.  62  Thus we  b i n d i n g i n f l u e n c e o f the i t w i k a and we have K e n y a t t a ' s groups and c i r c u m c i s i o n r i t e s were p o w e r f u l  instruments  see the p a r t i a l l y -  assertion that  age-  for further t r i b a l  conformity. A f t e r the c i r c u m c i s i o n r i t e s i n i t i a t e s f o r t h a t y e a r p r o c e e d t o g e t h e r i n t o the f i r s t o f s i x s e q u e n t i a l grades o f p r o g r e s s i v e  seniority.  T h i s p r o g r e s s i o n i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the K i k u y u t r a d i t i o n s u g g e s t i n g  that  v a r i o u s p u b l i c f u n c t i o n s a r e b e s t performed by p e r s o n s a t d i f f e r e n t  stages  of l i f e .  The advance o f the t r i b e s m a n  from w a r r i o r t o e l d e r i s t h u s marked  by s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l events i n h i s l i f e .  The  f i r s t s t e p , the  ceremony ( i r u a ) i s f o l l o w e d u s u a l l y by m a r r i a g e ,  the b i r t h and  o f c h i l d r e n and the menopause o f the t r i b e s m a n ' s  wife.  s h o u l d be n o t e d , i s not a u t o m a t i c . a c c e p t e d by h i s p r o s p e c t i v e  The  initiation maturation  Progression, i t  a s p i r a n t t o a h i g h e r stage must be  peers.^  R e s p e c t i v e grades a r e as f o l l o w s and w i l l be d i s c u s s e d , f o r p u r poses o f c l a r i t y , i n s e q u e n t i a l o r d e r : Junior Warriors Senior Warriors Learning Elders Junior Elders Senior Elders  (Morika (Morika (Morika (Morika (Morika  ya ya ya ya ya  mumo) anake) karabai) kiama ya mbule omwe) kiama ya mbule e g e r i )  J u n i o r W a r r i o r Grade (mumo) T h i s i s the f i r s t grade i n t o w h i c h c i r c u m c i s e d males e n t e r . w a r r i o r r e c r u i t s t h e y had l i t t l e o r no say i n p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s , social affairs.  As or  Most o f the t i m e i n t h i s g r a d e , s i x t o seven y e a r s , seems  Xtttt KlK.U i U S P C I O - P O L I T I C A L WHERE  MAINA  I S THE R U L I N G  No D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g Responsibilities MUMP (Junior Warrior) F i r s t Grade. Entry on Circumc i s i o n A b o u t 14 Years o f Age.  ORDER HALF  POWER GROUPS Decision-Making  ANAKE j KARABAF (Senior Warrior) (Learning Elder) Second Grade. M a r r i a g e Manda20-28 Y e a r s o f t o r y f o r Upward Age. Mobility. 28-45 Years o f Age.  Responsibilities  M B U L E OMWE (Junior Elder) Child Entering MUMO a n d W i f e i n Menopause f o r Upward, M o b i l i t y . 45-60 Y e a r s o f Age.  MBULE E G E R I (Senior Elder) A b o u t 60 Y e a r s of Age. Peer Group Accep- ' tance and Possessing Chattels. u—  M A I  N A  (Ruling  MWANGI I R U N G U No D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g Responsibilities  u o  >»  > i  o m <u csj  Half)  M W A N G I (Non-Ruling  M  UKURU (Priest By Electic  M  Half)  SHADOW GROUPS O b s e r v a t i o n o f Power  S  H  Groups  (fl U U rC CU Cfl CJ > flj  23  t o have been spent s i n g i n g songs, l e a r n i n g and p e r f o r m i n g dances, m i l i t a r y s k i l l s , and t r a v e l l i n g over the c o u n t r y . o f boys, was now T h i s was  Sheep t e n d i n g , c o n s i d e r e d the work  g i v e n over t o the more s e r i o u s j o b o f t e n d i n g cow  herds.  i m p o r t a n t work and an a p p r o p r i a t e t a s k f o r a young w a r r i o r ; espec-  i a l l y i n v i e w o f the f a c t t h a t t h e N i l o - H a m i t i c M a s a i were o f the  cattle-  complex p e o p l e s and l i a b l e t o r a i d f o r the purpose o f p r o c u r i n g cows. Thus t h e i r p r o t e c t i o n and r e t r i e v a l was  t h e work o f w a r r i o r s .  The c o r p o r a t e n a t u r e o f the j u n i o r w a r r i o r grade i s e v i d e n c e d their l i v i n g habits.  F r e q u e n t l y t h e y were housed i n b a r r a c k s t o g e t h e r w i t h  those o f the S e n i o r W a r r i o r Grade (ana'ke'-). bothc.grades  in  D u r i n g war,  c o u l d be mustered t o form r e g i m e n t s  or t h r e a t of attack,  on a t e r r i t o r i a l b a s i s .  Thus the whole t r i b e c o u l d be o r g a n i z e d t o a c t a g a i n s t t h e i n v a d e r as a t e r r i t o r i a l whole. who  was  Each age-set  ( s e v e n i n number) had i t s own  spokesman  a l l o w e d t o l i s t e n t o t h e d e l i b e r a t i o n s o f the h i g h e r c o u n c i l s .  T h i s i n d i v i d u a l , known as athamaki wa r i i k a ( l e a d e r o f the a g e - s e t ) , e v i d e n t l y chosen f o r h i s l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s .  K e n y a t t a says t h a t  l e a d e r s were a c t u a l l y chosen d u r i n g jthe c i r c u m c i s i o n c e r e m o n i a l ties.^  Lambert observes  age-set  activi-  t h a t a boy's n a t u r a l i n c l i n a t i o n toward  s h i p would m a n i f e s t i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d .  was  leader-  O f t e n a t t h i s age he would  arrange  t h e a f f a i r s and p l a y o f o t h e r s ; he would dominate h i s p e e r group u n t i l time as he was  c h a l l e n g e d by a n o t h e r .  such  He would a f f e c t "a s u p e r i o r k n o w l -  edge o f the grown up l i f e and be' something o f a hero t o h i s s o c i a l  :  equals  65  i n the homestead."  I n t h e n o r t h e r n a r e a s o f K i k u y u l a n d and around the  p r e s e n t s i t e of N y e r i ( G a k i ) t h e r e was youthful leadership.  a c t u a l l y a formal r e c o g n i t i o n of  The b e s t boys i n t h i s a r e a were r e f e r r e d t o as njama  and f e t e d c e r e m o n i a l l y .  .  24  I f d i s p u t e s arose w i t h i n t h e w a r r i o r grades the young l e a d e r would a c t as a d j u d i c a t o r . O f t e n he was a war l e a d e r . t o i n f e r t h a t h i s p r e s t i g e was i z e and c o n t r o l men  Thus i t seems r e a s o n a b l e  founded on h i s a b i l i t y t o f i g h t , t o o r g a n -  i n war and peace, t o m a n i p u l a t e events f o r c o r p o r a t e  s a t i s f a c t i o n — t h u s enhancing h i s r e p u t a t i o n f u r t h e r among h i s e l d e r s — a n d t o show " d i f f e r e n t " o r s u p e r i o r q u a l i t i e s o f "body and b r a i n .  S e n i o r W a r r i o r Grade (anake ) T h i s was  the second grade i n t o w h i c h young w a r r i o r s passed  after  h a v i n g s e r v e d a s i x t o seven y e a r a p p r e n t i c e s h i p i n the J u n i o r W a r r i o r Grade.  P r i n s s t a t e s t h a t t h i s grade and i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s s t a n d - out  more c l e a r l y t h a n the j u n i o r grade.  R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s amounted t o t h e  maintenance o f c i v i l o r d e r and the p o l i c i n g o f f e s t i v a l s and  markets.  N o t a b l y , s e n i o r o l d e r c o u n c i l s used members o f t h i s grade t o s u p p l y i n f o r m a t i o n a g a i n s t o f f e n d e r s and make a r r e s t s .  P o l i t i c a l l y their duties invol-  ved the g i v i n g o f a d v i c e i n war and a c t i n g as i n t e r m e d i a r i e s between Juni o r W a r r i o r s and the E l d e r s ' c o u n c i l s .  Thus i t can be seen t h a t as  ma-  t u r e w a r r i o r s t h e i r p r i m a r y c o n c e r n was w a r f a r e but a t the same time t h e y were b e i n g a c q u a i n t e d w i t h p o l i t i c a l and j u d i c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a minor n a t u r e . ^  No doubt because o f t h e i r age (20-28) t h e i r d u t i e s were be-  g i n n i n g t o take on a more mature a s p e c t ;  e s p e c i a l l y those m a r r i e d  men  n e a r i n g the end o f t h e i r time i n the S e n i o r W a r r i o r Grade and s h o r t l y t o p r o c e e d t o the E l d e r g r a d e s . ^ M i l i t a r y r e g i m e n t s were o r g a n i z e d on a d i s t r i c t ( r u g o n g o ) ^  basis.  L a r g e r m i l i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a n d d i s t r i c t s i z e a r e n o t r e c o r d e d i n the  25  l i t e r a t u r e nor can e v i d e n c e be found i n the o r a l t r a d i t i o n . The  army was  Junior Warrior  b r o k e n down i n t o r e g i m e n t s , s i x i n number f o r the  Grade (one  f o r each y e a r of the a n n u a l s e t ) and  s i x f o r the  70 Senior Warrior ment was ant.  Grade (one  f o r each y e a r o f the a n n u a l s e t ) .  l e d by a c a p t a i n ; each was  S i x c a p t a i n s were a l l o w e d  Each r e g i -  d i v i d e d i n t o ' f i l e s ' l e d by a l i e u t e n -  i n t o the c o u n c i l o f war  c o n s i s t i n g of a l l  s e n i o r w a r r i o r s (njama ya i t a ) . These l e a d e r s were chosen by t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r groups a t g e n e r a l o r p u b l i c assembly. They were men who had p r o v e d by t h e i r own a c t i o n s , t h e i r c a p a b i l i t y of l e a d e r s h i p ; had shown b r a v e r y i n wars; i m p a r t i a l i t y i n j u s t i c e , s e l f - s a c r i f i c e ; and above a l l , d i s c i p l i n e i n the group. A man w i t h t h e s e q u a l i t i e s was a b l e t o a t t a i n a h i g h p o s i t i o n and esteem i n the community, e s p e c i a l l y when he r e t i r e d from the a c t i v i t i e s o f a w a r r i o r . 7 1 The  t a s k o f f o r m u l a t i n g p l a n s , m o b i l i z i n g w a r r i o r s , and  the army i n t o combat was Warrior  Grade.  leading  not the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f members of the  Senior  These d u t i e s f e l l t o s e l e c t e d members of the n e x t  higher  grade ( J u n i o r E l d e r Grade) who i n m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s h i p or who  had  i n the p a s t d i s t i n g u i s h e d themselves  p o s s e s s e d m a g i c a l powers (mundu mugu wa i t a  72 —war  magician).  Learning  E l d e r Grade ( k a r a b a i ). E n t r y i n t o t h i s group was  based upon f u l f i l l m e n t of s o c i a l o b l i g a 73  tions. Learning  K e n y a t t a c i t e s m a r r i a g e as b e i n g a p r e - c o n d i t i o n . E l d e r s were a l s o r e q u i r e d t o pay  grade, a f e e o f one g o a t .  Prospective  t o e s t a b l i s h e d e l d e r s i n the  Membership would a l s o depend on the date- o f  26  b i r t h of a f i r s t or further c h i l d .  I n t h e l a t t e r r e s p e c t t h e t i m e o f entry-  was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e n t r y o f a man's s o n o r sons i n t o the J u n i o r W a r r i o r Grade. O r g a n i z e d on a d i s t r i c t (rugongo) b a s i s , t h e r e was w i t h i n the grade a c o u n c i l o f e l d e r s known as Kiama g i a Kamatimji.. H o b l e y g i v e s t h e l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h i s term a s , "those who s i t away."  This i n f e r s that  they  were n o t y e t c o n s i d e r e d q u a l i f i e d t o a c t as members o f the h i g h e r c o u n c i l s . P r i n s d e s c r i b e s t h e i r f u n c t i o n as b e i n g p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h l e a r n i n g j u d i c i a l p r o c e d u r e b y o b s e r v i n g c o u r t methods, a c t i n g as i n t e r m e d i a r i e s or s e r v a n t s o f the h i g h e r c o u r t s and g e n e r a l l y c a r r y i n g o u t minor f u n c 75 tions.  A s m a l l number o f them, v a r i o u s l y c i t e d as e i g h t o r n i n e , were  a l l o w e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the t r i b a l h a l f ceremony ( i t w i k a ) . t h e y a c t e d as s k i n n e r s . o r p r o c u r e r s o f s a c r i f i c i a l a n i m a l s  Ceremonially,  on o f f i c i a l  76 occasions.  J u n i o r E l d e r (Athamaki mbule omwe) Athamaki mbu'le omwe o r l i t e r a l l y , goat"  " l e g i s l a t i v e e l d e r s o f the f i r s t  s a t as j u n i o r o f f i c i a l s on the C o u n c i l o f Peace (kiama g i a m a t a a t h i ) .  Though t h e y shared t h i s p r i v i l e g e w i t h e l d e r s o f t h e n e x t s e n i o r grade (mbule e g e r i ) o r ('.'second g o a t " ) t h e y were not. y e t a d m i t t e d h i g h e s t t r i b a l c o u n c i l s as a d v i s o r s .  i n t o the  A l s o , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d , o n l y  those  o f t h e r u l i n g h a l f o f the t r i b e , Maina o r Mwangi, were a l l o w e d t o t a k e 77 t h e i r p l a c e s on the C o u n c i l o f Peace. E n t r y i n t o J u n i o r E l d e r s t a t u s depended upon the t i m e the c h i l d o f a p r o s p e c t i v e e l d e r was c i r c u m c i s e d o r e n t e r e d the grade o f J u n i o r  ,  27  W a r r i o r (mumo).  Those e n t e r i n g the grade were a p p r o x i m a t e l y  o f age p r o v i d i n g t h e i r e a r l i e r p r o g r e s s i o n had been normal and (non-payment o f dues).  Kenyatta  4-5  years  unhindered  c i t e s the grade as b e i n g d i v i d e d i n t o 79  two h a l v e s , each w i t h e s t a b l i s h e d f u n c t i o n s . two  H o b l e y says t h a t i n f a c t  s e p a r a t e grades e x i s t e d each w i t h i t s owndduties and  80 responsibilities.  S e n i o r E l d e r (Athamaki mbule e g e r i ) Athamaki mbule e g e r i o r l i t e r a l l y , second goat" must be r e g a r d e d  " l e g i s l a t i v e e l d e r s o f the  as a r u l i n g d i v i s i o n h a v i n g  t r a t i v e and l e g i s l a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  senior  adminis-  E n t r y i n t o the grade depended)  as i n p r e v i o u s c a s e s , on age and s o c i a l accomplishments.  The r u l i n g  half,  Maina o r Mwangi, s a t on the C o u n c i l o f Peace as a d v i s o r s . It i s interesting ments as q u a l i f i c a t i o n s necessary (Priest).  t o n o t e , w i t h r e g a r d t o age and s o c i a l  f o r p r o g r e s s i o n , t h a t such were no l o n g e r  I f the case w a r r a n t e d ; f o r example the d e a t h o f Ukuru members, acclamation.  see t h a t the system a l l o w e d s o c i a l p r o g r e s s i o n t o the h i g h e s t grade  on the b a s i s o f m e r i t and p e r s o n a l s u i t a b i l i t y . men  entirely  f o r p r o m o t i o n from mbule e g e r i t o the most s e n i o r g r a d e , Ukuru  mbule e g e r i c o u l d be e l e c t e d t o the h i g h e s t o f f i c e by p o p u l a r Thus we  accomplish-  ($0-55 y e a r s o f age) who  I n t h i s way  had showed g r e a t c a p a b i l i t y ,  f a i r l y young  knowledge  and  j u d i c i a l e x p e r t i s e d u r i n g t h e i r p r o g r e s s i o n t h r o u g h the l o w e r g r a d e s , c o u l d r i s e t o the t o p l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n s .  28  Priest  (Ukuru) T h i s grade r e p r e s e n t e d t h e peak o f K i k u y u s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l p r o g r e s -  sion.  E n t r y i n t o t h e grade was based upon t h e i n d i v i d u a l h a v i n g a c h i e v e d 81  certain social qualifications.  A l l h i s c h i l d r e n , f o r example, had t o  have been c i r c u m c i s e d and h i s w i f e was t o be p a s t c h i l d - b e a r i n g age. M i d d l e t o n says e l d e r s o f t h i s grade i d e n t i f i e d themselves by c a r r y i n g a bunch o f l e a v e s (maturanguru) and by means o f a s p e c i a l e a r - r i n g .  They  were a l l o w e d t o make s a c r i f i c i a l o f f e r i n g s t o t h e K i k u y u God ( N g a i ) on b e h a l f o f t h e i r community, d e c i d e t h e d a t e s o f c i r c u m c i s i o n s , t h e t i m e o f t h e i t w i k a ceremony (change o f power) and t o conduct thahu ( r i t u a l u n c l e a n l i n e s s ) removal p r o c e e d i n g s . A r b i t r a t i o n o f l e g a l d i s p u t e s was a l s o w i t h i n 82 their jurisdiction. One o f t h e i r most i m p o r t a n t d u t i e s was t o summon t h e 83 kiama ( c o u n c i l ) " f o r t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f q u e s t i o n s o f n a t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e . " The l a s t statement i s most i n t e r e s t i n g i n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l m a t t e r s a r e o f t e n thought t o have been conducted o n l y on a l o c a l o r t e r r i t o r i a l basis. C o n t r a r y t o t h e f o r e g o i n g statement t h a t Ukuru f u l f i l l e d  certain  s o c i a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s b e f o r e e n t r y i n t o the grade, some e v i d e n c e s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t s t h i s n o t t o be e n t i r e l y t h e c a s e . example,  The l i t e r a t u r e c o n t a i n s , f o r  s t a t e m e n t s t h a t r e l a t i v e l y young men became Ukuru.  The e x p l a n a -  t i o n , according to Mair, . . i s t h a t here t h e h e r e d i t y p r i n c i p l e p l a y s a p a r t — n o t i n t h e sense t h a t t h e s t a t u s o f r i t u a l e l d e r i s r e s e r v e d f o r a p a r t i c u l a r l i n e a g e , b u t i n t h e sense t h a t e v e r y l i n e a g e has t o have a r i t u a l e l d e r . T h i s would be easy t o u n d e r s t a n d i n a s o c i e t y where t h e s p i r i t s o f t h e a n c e s t o r s b u l k so l a r g e i n r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f , s i n c e such s p i r i t s a r e always b e l i e v e d _ t o be concerned o n l y w i t h t h e i r own descendants and a p p r o a c h a b l e o n l y b y them.  29  Moreover, she asserts that i n some lineages probably more than one o l d man a t t a i n e d t h i s status although i t i s e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e that the senior tribesman of any lineage who  i s a l s o i t s secular head, has to be an Ukuru  "even i f through some a c c i d e n t a l circumstance he i s a r e l a t i v e l y young  T e r r i t o r i a l Organization, Sets and Leadership The Kikuyu grades were organized on two l e v e l s ; v i l l a g e and trict.  Here the word " v i l l a g e " i s used f o r want of a b e t t e r  dis-  expression.  The v i l l a g e as Europeans.understand i t was not t r a d i t i o n a l to the Kikuyu tribes.  The European concept was introduced l a t e r and was a forced  mea-  85 sure adopted by the B r i t i s h to counteract Mau Mau. advent of Mau Mau  i n 1952,  atop the numerous ridges.  In f a c t , u n t i l the  the Kikuyu had l i v e d i n small f a m i l i a l c l u s t e r s Perhaps the Kikuyu word i t u r a more a p t l y express-  es the concept rather than " v i l l a g e . "  Notably i t should be seen as a word  bearing p o l i t i c a l rather than t e r r i t o r i a l  connotations.  Each i t u r a possessed a c o u n c i l of elders comprising t i v e s from the r u l i n g h a l f of the elder grades.  representa-  P r i n s s p o t l i g h t s t h i s as  86  being the key t e r r i t o r i a l governing u n i t .  Certainly i t s deliberations  embraced the key a r e a l u n i t of the t r i b e ; the i t u r a or r i d g e . In terms of importance i t was placed above the homestead or family governing body and below the d i s t r i c t (rugongo) c o u n c i l .  I t had j u r i s d i c t i o n over a l l i t u r a -  area s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s and l e g a l cases.  A u t h o r i t y w i t h i n the coun-  c i l rested w i t h those members drawn from mbule e g e r i and Ukuru. c o u n c i l was known as the ' c o u n c i l of nine. '•  The  itura  30  The d i s t r i c t (rugongo) was the largest t e r r i t o r i a l u n i t .  There  i s only s l i g h t evidence to suggest that matters of great importance were decided at a higher l e v e l than the d i s t r i c t .  The council comprising nine  elders from each ridge (kiama kinene) was sometimes known as the 'big council'.  Meeting only occasionally and f o r s p e c i f i c purposes, they  are probably best described as guardians of t r i b a l l o r e , custom and c u l ture.  The exalted and venerable Ukuru of the council were empowered to  decide the date of the itwika f o r handing over power to the relevant  tri-  b a l half (Mwangi or Maina) . . . They also decided the name designation 87  and circumcision dates of the forthcoming annual age-sets.  When nec-  essary they formulated case law, changed customary law and adjudicated cases of crime or breaches of t r i b a l custom.  Theirs was the f i n a l court  of appeal to the l i t i g a n t who had progressively taken h i s case through the 88  lower elders' councils.  Importantly, they were more often than not d i s -  regarded, as p o t e n t i a l chiefs or sources of l i a s i o n , by the B r i t i s h Colonial Administration. Names of Kikuyu grades were both status and function oriented. Youth, learning elder, elder and p r i e s t , as terms used to describe function, a l l give i n d i c a t i o n of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y within the t r i b a l sociop o l i t i c a l organization.  Youths within the junior warrior grade were nec-  e s s a r i l y associated with f i g h t i n g , the physical defence of the t r i b e , i t s c a t t l e and i t s chattels.  Middle groups, senior warriors and learning  elders aged between, say 25 and 50, assumed t y p i c a l l y "middle" roles of a q u a s i - p o l i t i c a l nature.  P r i e s t s , who were "great", exalted and "old",  were close to the centre of j u d i c i a l , magical and r e l i g i o u s power.  Their  status was based upon peer acceptance, age, and membership of the r u l i n g  31  h a l f o f the t r i b e (Mwangi o r M a i n a ) . The a n n u a l s e t e x i s t e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f grades, tended t o c u t a c r o s s t r i b a l d i v i s i o n s and was c o r p o r a t e l y independent.  Demonstrating t r i b a l  sol-  i d a r i t y by group a c t i o n , i t s members r e f e r r e d t o each o t h e r as " b r o t h e r " or  "my  t r i b a l equal."  The b a s i s o f t h e i r k i n s h i p was found i n the f a c t  t h a t t h e y had e n t e r e d K i k u y u s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l l i f e t o g e t h e r as p e e r s . use o f such terms as " b r o t h e r " o r "my  The  t r i b a l e q u a l " would suggest the con-  cept o f e q u a l i t y among those o f the a n n u a l s e t .  And y e t a c l o s e r examina-  t i o n o f t h e K i k u y u s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e r e v e a l s more t h a n a t i o n t h a t p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y d i d not p r e v a i l . '  sugges-  Despite the presumption  t h a t K i k u y u s o c i e t y was c o r p o r a t e , t h e r e i s s t r o n g e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t a c o n t e n t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l i s m e x i s t e d and, moreover, was a c t u a l l y p r o v i d e d for.  We have, f o r example, Low's a s s e r t i o n t h a t the K i k u y u "were t h r o w i n g  up, i f n o t c h i e f s , t h e n some 'prominent i n d i v i d u a l s ' o f some c o n s i d e r a b l e consequence." to  C e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s (muthamaki) were s a i d by the K i k u y u  " a p p o i n t " themselves f o r l e a d e r s h i p " i n c h i l d h o o d " and t o p r o c e e d more  r a p i d l y t h a n t h e i r p e e r s t o a s e n i o r grade. European s o c i e t i e s , was  L e a d e r s h i p , i n d e e d as i n  seen i n the c o n t e x t o f p e r s o n a l i t y , a b i l i t y  generally charismatic qualities.  He  so  and  p o s s e s s e d and r e c o g n i z e d c o u l d  e x p e c t t o p r o c e e d more r a p i d l y t h r o u g h the v a r i o u s grades t o l e a d e r s h i p and s e n i o r i t y .  Thus scope was a f f o r d e d t h e e s p e c i a l l y endowed and i n t h i s  90 way the system a v o i d e d " d i e - h a r d r u l e by t h e - d e c r e p i t o r s e n i l e . " That l e a d e r s h i p and i t s • q u a l i t i e s were i m p o r t a n t i s seen i n the K i k u y u p r o v e r b , I r e gothua ndongorya i t i k i n y a g e r a n y e k i , "The a lame l e a d e r do n o t a r r i v e i n the g r a s s . "  goats h a v i n g  T r a n s l a t e d , t h i s proverb  would  32  suggest t h a t " l e a d e r s h i p i s e v e r y t h i n g . "  Lambert quotes a K i k u y u p r o -  92 verb  t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t a l e a d e r i s " r u l e d b y h i s head and n o t b y h i s 93  h e a r t " and t h a t "he l o o k s b e f o r e he l e a p s and never l o s e s h i s temper." On t h e m a t t e r o f l e a d e r s h i p a government r e p o r t s t a t e s : . . . t h e - t o - u s somewhat i n d e f i n i t e q u a l i t y o f "Ugambi" ( l e a d e r s h i p ) i s a complex o f i n t e l l i gence, p e r s o n a l i t y , good r e p u t a t i o n , s o c i a l and economic s u c c e s s , and a sound h e r e d i t y . Real w e a l t h counts b u t i s n o t e s s e n t i a l . "Ugambi" i s more t h a n a mere appointment. I t i m p l i e s something o f t h e "common decency" o f t h e E n g l i s h "gentleman", something o f t h e "ungwana" o f t h e S w a h i l i . . . a mugambi i s primus i n t e r p a r e s because o f h i s e x c e p t i o n a l courage and u p r i g h t c h a r a c t e r , m a n i f e s t e d i n y o u t h and m a i n t a i n e d i n manhood. . . 9 4 R e c o g n i t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s was g i v e n on a local basis.  The term muthumaki wa r i k a ( v a r i o u s l y r i i k a ) was used t o  r e f e r t o a young man who b y a c c l a m a t i o n r e s p e c t i v e age-set.  v.was; c o n s i d e r e d  f i t to lead h i s  Young l e a d e r s o f h i g h c a l i b r e were a l l o w e d t o l i s t e n  t o I e a d e K S d e l i b e r a t e c o u r t c a s e s and on o c c a s i o n were even c o n s u l t e d . w a r r a n t e d b y p r o v e n competence, s e l e c t e d men were g i v e n t h e t i t l e  If  athamaki  wa c h i r a ( l e a d e r s i n l a w ) and " h u r r i e d a l o n g t h e road t o s e n i o r i t y ahead o f their fellows."  As t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r e p u t a t i o n s grew so d i d t h e i r  responsibilities.  tribal  They would become, f o r example, spokesmen o f f a m i l y  group, v i l l a g e ( i t u r a ) and d i s t r i c t . Uthamaki ( t h e s t a t e o f l e a d e r s h i p ) f e l l i n t o grades each o f q u a l i t y r a t h e r t h a n a c t u a l rank. ess o u t s t a n d i n g  F o r example, t h e athamaki d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y p o s s -  knowledge o f t r i b a l l a w o r s o c i a l r i t u a l .  s h i p were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n d i v i d u a l p r o f i c i e n c i e s . u l a r ) were c o n s i d e r e d  Grades o f l e a d e r -  Some muthumaki ( s i n g -  e x p e r t s i n t r i b a l l a w w h i l e o t h e r s were r e g a r d e d as  33  war l e a d e r s o r e x c e p t i o n a l w a r r i o r s .  Hence t h e s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e  made p r o v i s i o n f o r " l e a d e r s " i n war, i n law, i n r e l i g i o n , i n p o l i t i c s , e t c . The l a t t e r p r o f i c i e n c y , p o l i t i c s , was i m p o r t a n t came known over w i d e r g e o g r a p h i c a l t i e s and r e p u t a t i o n s were l o c a l .  i n t h a t i t s exponents be-  a r e a s t h a n o t h e r s whose r e s p o n s i b i l i Lambert c i t e s t h e p h r a s e muthumaki wa  b u r u r i ( l e a d e r o f t h e c o u n t r y ) as b e i n g used t o d e s c r i b e such men.  More-  over, i f the p e r s o n a l i t y and l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s o f such men were except i o n a l , t h e y c o u l d and o f t e n d i d become l o c a l a u t o c r a t s about whom t h e a f f a i r s o f the t r i b e revolved. throwing  Low's a s s e r t i o n t h a t t h e " K i k u y u were  up, i f n o t c h i e f s , 'prominent i n d i v i d u a l s ' o f some c o n s i d e r a b l e  -•consequence" o b v i o u s l y r e f e r s , t h e r e f o r e , t o ath'amaki W a z e l i and K i p p i n g o  of Burton's experience,  Moreover, a l s o ,  K a r u r e o f F o r t H a l l and  Wangombi o f Gaki ( N y e r i ) known t o Cagnolo, K a r k e r r i and K a r o l i o f John Boyes' a c q u a i n t a n c e and t h e p o w e r f u l  and i n f l u e n t i a l K i n a n j u i known t o  . b o t h Governor H a r d i n g e and D i s t r i c t Commissioner A i n s w o r t h , athamaki and men who had d i s p l a y e d a t a l e n t f o r l e a d e r s h i p .  were a l l I t would n o t  take l o n g f o r t h e B r i t i s h t o r e a l i z e t h e importance o f i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e s e men i n t o an A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t e n t upon e s t a b l i s h i n g dominion o v e r t h e K i k u y u b u t p l a g u e d by p e r s o n n e l  s h o r t a g e s and s h o e - s t r i n g b u d g e t s .  34  FOOTNOTES  The Kikuyu people are variously referred to as Kikuyu, Akikuyu, Agikuyu, Gikuyu, Gekuyu or Gekoyo. The correct designations, according to John Middleton, "The Kikuyu and Kamba of Kenya" i n Ethnographic Survey of A f r i c a , ed. D. Forde, (London: International A f r i c a n Institute, 1953), p. H f , are Mukikuyu ( p l . Akikuyu) f o r the people, Ukikuyu f o r the country and Kikikuyu f o r the language. He notes Gekuyu and Gekoyo as being phonetic renditions and probably more accurate i n verbal desc r i p t i o n of the people than the commonly used Kikuyu. Throughout t h i s thesis the term "Kikuyu" w i l l be used to r e f e r to the inhabitants of the core areas, Kiambu, Fort H a l l and Nyeri, while the term "Kikuyu t r i b e s " w i l l be used to encompass those of the three core-areas together with the c l o s e l y a f f i l i a t e d Embu and Meru t r i b e s .  2 An area previously designated Ukamba, Kenia Province (1901) (variously Kenya Province), Kikuyu Province (Proclamation 54, 1924) and subsequently to the present, Central Province (Proclamation 109, 1933). See S.H. Ominde, Land and Population Movements i n Kenya, (London: Heinemann, 1968), pp. 9-10-12, and f i g s . 1.5?,1.6, 1.7. 3 See John Goldthorpe and F.B. Wilson, T r i b a l Maps of East A f r i c a and Zanzibar, (Kampala: East A f r i c a n Institute of S o c i a l Research, I960), map 5, "Tribes of Kenya, Sub-tribes of Kikuyu, Embu and Meru." See also Middleton, pp. 11-2 and H.E. Lambert, Kikuyu S o c i a l and P o l i t i c a l Institutions, (London: International A f r i c a n Institute and OUP, 1956), pp. 1-2.  ^See Walter Fitzgerald, A f r i c a : A S o c i a l , Economic and P o l i t i c a l Geography of i t s Major Regions, (London: Methuen, 1934), pp. 253-45  The major area of.European settlement. Early European t r a v e l l e r s were greatly impressed by the large stretches of apparently unused and p o t e n t i a l l y f e r t i l e land. S i r Charles E l i o t , Commissioner, East A f r i c a n Protectorate, 1901-1904, and Lord Delemere, gave this area i t s clearest description as a region suitable f o r European settlement. Both triggered, the impetus f o r settlement. See Elspeth Huxley, White Man's Country, vols. I and 2, (London: Macmillan, 1935), f o r perhaps the best description of white settlement i n Kenya.  35  So-called a f t e r two eminent Masai encountered and c u l t i v a t e d as collaborators by early B r i t i s h administrators.  Known l o c a l l y as the Sagana River, becoming the Tana east of Mount Kenya. The Kiswahili phrase, "Damu w a A f r i k a " (Blood of A f r i c a ) i s descriptive of the-Tana o u t f a l l into the Indian Ocean north of Malindi and refers to the t y p i c a l l y red s o i l of Kikuyuland discolouring the sea at that point.  Mombasa i s the second major c i t y of Kenya and i s the "greatest port of the A f r i c a n l i t t o r a l . " I t i s linked by r a i l and road to Nairobi and Lake V i c t o r i a . See Fitzgerald, pp. 229-230.  Bantu, a l i n g u i s t i c term, has been given an ethnic connotation and i n t h i s context i s used to describe many peoples of southern and eastern A f r i c a who may have had a common o r i g i n i n what i s now central Nigeria. See Roland Oliver, Journal of A f r i c a n History, v o l . 7, (1966), pp. 361-76.  See C.G. Seligman, Races of A f r i c a , (London: OUP, 1937). For a discussion of the WaChagga, WaTeita and WaPokomo Bantu t r i b e s , see A.H.J. Prdns, "The Coastal Tribes of North-Eastern Bantu" i n Ethnographic Survey of A f r i c a , Part 11, ed. D. Forde, (London: International A f r i c a n Institute, 1952).  Edward W. Soja, The Geography of Modernization i n Kenya: A S p a t i a l Analysis of Social, Economic and P o l i t i c a l Change, (Syracuse: University Press, 1968), p. 8. G.W.B. Huntingford suggests that the e a r l i e s t Bantu movements to the east took place i n the early centuries of the C h r i s t i a n era.  ^See Sonia Cole, The Pre-History of East Africa,(London: Harmonsworth, 1964-), passim f o r a description of the e a r l i e r ethnography, of East A f r i c a . See also "Notes on the Origin and History of the Dorobo and Kikuyu- Tribes" i n Man, (1908), p. 76 and L.S.B. Leakey, The Stone-Age Cultures of Kenya Colony, (London: Methuen, 1931); The Stone-Age Races of Kenya, (London: Methuen, 1934-).  36  13 Huntingford, passim pp. 58-93'V.L. G r o t a n e l l i , "A Lost A f r i c a n Metropolis" i n A f r i k a n i s t i s c h e Studien, ( B e r l i n : n.p., 1955), p. 236. See also G.S.P. Freeman-Granville, "The Coast 14-98-1840" i n Oliver and Mathew eds., History of East A f r i c a , pp. 129-168. See also A.H.J. Prins, where Shungwaya i s "probably r i g h t l y i d e n t i f i e d with the vast deserted s i t e of B i r Gao or Port Durnford." Prins observes, also, that the Kitab-al Zanuj "andtitheir o r a l t r a d i t i o n s claim Shungwaya as being the dispersal point f o r the Kikuyu, Meru etc..."  15 Which would locate Shungwaya roughly between the Juba and Tana r i v e r s . 16  Huntingford, pp. 58-9317 Gervase Mathew suggests that Galla pressure from the north forced the Shungwaya Bantu to move westward about 1600. 18 Some current research i s at variance with the established view that Shungwaya was t h e . f i n a l dispersal point of the Kikuyu t r i b e s . See, for example, J. Forbes Munro, "Migrations of the Bantu-speaking Peoples of the Eastern Kenya Highlands: a Reappraisal""'in Journal of A f r i c a n History, v o l . 8, (1967), pp. 25-8. See also, Satish C. Saterwal, "Hist o r i c a l Notes on the Embu of Central Kenya" i n Journal of African History, v o l . 8, (1967), pp. 29-38. Here Saterwal states that the main source of the Shungwaya hypothesis, H.E. Lambert, Systems of Land Tenure i n the Kikuyu Land Unit, (Capetown: School of A f r i c a n Studies, No. 22, 1950) i s i n fact more cautious on the matter of Shungwaya than those who have copied from i t . Saberwal states further that Kikuyu o r i g i n at Shungwaya has no basis i n f a c t and unless authentic archaeological evidence i s forthcoming, i t cannot be said d e c i s i v e l y that Kikuyu t r i b e s migrated west to t h e i r present core-areas from Shungwaya. Moreover, t h i s view i s supported by the finding that some coastal peoples who remember Shungwaya, do not mention Kikuyu t r i b e s as being there. Nor, i t i s f u r ther emphasized, do the t r a d i t i o n s of the Kikuyu t r i b e s themselves point to Shungwaya as being a place of congregation and ultimate d i s p e r s a l — except, perhaps, with the exception of the Meru. See also, B.G. Mcintosh, "The Eastern Bantu Peoples" i n Zamani: A Survey of East A f r i c a n History, eds. B.A. Ogot and J.A. Kieran, (Nairobi: EAPH, 1968), pp. 200-205.  37  19  C u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c s i m i l a r i t i e s , i t should be noted, e x i s t between the Bantu WaGiriama, who remained i n the c o a s t a l area, and the Kikuyu migrants who proceeded west along the Tana watercourse. 20 Lambert, i - i i i , 21 L.S.B. Leakey, Mau Mau and the Kikuyu, (London: Methuen, 1952), p. 2. For a more contemporary viewpoint see B.G. Mcintosh, pp. 209-10. " I t would be too simple . . . to assume that the migrations from Shungwaya took place i n close succession, or that the migrants moved s w i f t l y through empty lands. The departures from Shungwaya of the proto Pokomo, Kamba and Kikuyu may be s a i d to belong to the t h i r t e e n t h and fourteenth and those of the Nyika, Meru and T a i t a to the f i f t e e n t h and s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . In the course of the migrations several temporary resettlements were made at Kirao and at other places, and many peoples took c i r c u i t o u s routes and retraced t h e i r steps before s e t t l i n g permanently. And f i n a l l y , although the Eastern Bantu were m u l t i p l y i n g i n numbers more r a p i d l y than any other peoples, the process of absorption of p r e - e x i s t i n g peoples and of expansion i n t o t h e i r modern habitants was f a r from complete at the s t a r t of the nineteenth century." For an account of Meru migrations see J e f f r e y A. Fadiman, " E a r l y H i s t o r y of the Meru of Mt. Kenya," i n Journal of A f r i c a n H i s t o r y , v o l . 14-, (1973), pp. 9-27. i:  22 Roland O l i v e r , " D i s c e r n i b l e Developments i n the I n t e r i o r " i n H i s t o r y of East A f r i c a , p. 202. Q-3  Photographs i n F r . Cagnolo, The Akikuyu, (Consolata M i s s i o n , 1933) i n d i c a t e remarkable s i m i l a r i t i e s i n dress, posture and h a i r s t y l e between Masai ( N i l o - H a m i t i c s ) and Kikuyu (Bantu). 24  See note above regarding use of term Bantu and other s i m i l a r l i n g u i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n s of East A f r i c a n t r i b e s . For e l u c i d a t i o n of the " C u s h i t i c " theory see J.E.G. Sutton, "The Settlement of East A f r i c a " i n eds. B.A. Ogot and J.A. Kieran, Zamani, pp. 96-99. 25 Huntingford, p. 91. 26  Leakey, Mau Mau, pp. 7-  38  27  For a comprehensive d i s c u s s i o n on Masai-Kikuyu r e l a t i o n s see W i l l i a m L. Lawren, "Masai and Kikuyu: An H i s t o r i c a l A n a l y s i s of Culture Transmission" i n Journal of A f r i c a n H i s t o r y , v o l . 9, (1969), pp. 571-583. "The h i s t o r y of Masai-Kikuyu r e l a t i o n s f e l l i n t o two d i s t i n c t periods; one r e l a t i v e l y short, the other much longer. The f i r s t period commenced w i t h the i n i t i a l contact of the Masai and Kikuyu, which has been placed at about 1750. During t h i s time, a t l e a s t some segments of both t r i b e s were l i v i n g on the p l a i n s i n the v i c i n i t y of Mount Kenya, and i n t h i s environment ibhe Masai undoubtedly raided the Kikuyu quite frequently. Although some contact of a l e s s b e l l i c o s e nature apparently took place, the period was e s s e n t i a l l y one i n which c o n f l i c t between the two t r i b e s was the order of the day... . .The second period began i n the l a t e eighteenth century w i t h the movement of the Kikuyu i n t o the f o r e s t s south of the Chania River. Having l e f t a broad b e l t of f o r e s t around t h e i r new t e r r i t o r y which the Masai found very d i f f i c u l t to penetrate, the Kikuyu throughout the nineteenth century were l e f t r e l a t i v e l y free from Masai attack. Occasional r a i d s took place, but r e l a t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y peaceful."  2 8  S o j a , p. 11.  D.A. Low, "The Northern I n t e r i o r 18-40-188-4, i n H i s t o r y of East A f r i c a , pp. 301-2. 30 Roland O l i v e r and John D. Page, A Short H i s t o r y of A f r i c a , Penguin A f r i c a n L i b r a r y , 1962), pp. 4-4-52.  (London: 31  Kenneth Ingham, A H i s t o r y of East A f r i c a , (London: n.d., ), pp. 54-5.  Longmans,  32 See Great B r i t a i n , Foreign O f f i c e , Report by S i r A. Hardinge on the Condition and Progress of the East A f r i c a Protectorate from I t s Establishment to the 20th July, 1897, ( A f r i c a No. 7, 1897), Cmd. 8683, p. 24. "In places v i l l a g e s are found of 200 or 300 houses, and e l s e where there are c l u s t e r s of hamlets extending p r e t t y continuously f o r from h a l f a mile to a mile, and containing perhaps a 1000 inhabitants. The general r u l e throughout the province i s , however, except among the Masai. . . that f a m i l i e s of from 30 to 100 s e t t l e i n separate v i l l a g e s , each having i t s own granaries and stockade f o r c a t t l e . . . huts are thatched bee-hive structures u n i v e r s a l throughout Central A f r i c a . " ;  39  I b i d , pp. 22-3. The Masai of Kenia or Kikuyu D i s t r i c t , cons i s t e d of one t r i b e , the Naivasha (or Kinanggp Masai), whose " c h i e f " was Lenana, and the broken remnants of seven other t r i b e s , the. Dogelani, Buruko, L i g o r a d i , Matapatu, Kurukoni, Gikinuka and Kapte Masai. "Once t h e i r own f l o c k s and herds were decimated by the great c a t t l e plague, the Masai, a p u r e l y p a s t o r a l people, were compelled by famine to depend not p a r t i a l l y as before, but e x c l u s i v e l y on r a i d s , and about h a l f , or perhaps more, of the w a r r i o r s of a given t r i b e would be absent f o r a long period on a foray, leaving the k r a a l , which w i t h them, owing to the d i s l i k e of the whole race f o r any manual labour, i s never stockaded or provided w i t h defensive works of any kind, protected by only a few hundred men. . . . The Wakikuyu would be on the watch f o r these r a i d i n g expeditions, and as soon as one was w e l l on the way would swoop down on the undefended k r a a l i n overwhelming numbers, and the r a i d e r s would r e turn w i t h t h e i r s p o i l s only to f i n d t h e i r houses i n ashes, and the women and c h i l d r e n whom they had l e f t behind there c a r r i e d o f f to be sold as slaves." According to Hardinge, "The t o t a l number of Masai i n the Kenia D i s t r i c t , i n c l u d i n g the Wanderobbo ( s i c ) (a h e l o t Bantu race s e r v i l e to both the Masai and Kikuyu) . . . (was) . . . estimated by Mr. Ainsworth . . . to be . . . 23,000. This t o t a l excluded some 4-0000 o l d men, women and c h i l d r e n andn832 Elmoran, or w a r r i o r s , under the close s u p e r v i s i o n of a B r i t i s h o f f i c e r based at Ngongo Bagas." By contrast Ainsworth estimated the. number of Kikuyu i n the d i s t r i c t as being i n the region of 300Q000 . . . "although other experts estimate t h i s f i g u r e as being too high."  See G.H. Mungeam, "Masai and Kikuyu Responses to the E s t a b l i s h ment of B r i t i s h A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the East A f r i c a n Protectorate," Journal of A f r i c a n H i s t o r y, v o l . 2, (1970), pp. 127-43 and D.A. Low,."The Northern," p. 312. See a l s o Great B r i t a i n , Foreign O f f i c e , Report by His Majesty's Commissioner on the East A f r i c a n Protectorate, ( A f r i c a No. 6, 1903), Cmd. 1626, p. 7. '.'... the Kikuyu are by no means averse to f i g h t i n g or r a i d i n g other t r i b e s when occasion o f f e r s , t h e i r h a b i t u a l occupation i s q u a r r e l l i n g w i t h one another." W i l l i a m L. Lawren, "Masai and Kikuyu," p. 575 points out that on occasion " . . . the Kikuyu, Masai, and Dorobo did u n i t e a f t e r a fashion" i n attempts to ward o f f Somali and G a l l a i n cursions i n t o Kikuyuland.  Great B r i t a i n , Cmd. 1626, p. 7. "They seem (the Kikuyu) i n many ways intermediate between that t r i b e (the Wakamba) and the Masai, and may, perhaps, be hybrids. I t i s c e r t a i n that the famine of 1882 gave r i s e to some curious r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the two t r i b e s . In some cases the Masai s e t t l e d i n the r i c h e r Kikuyu d i s t r i c t s near Mount Kenya, and took Kikuyu wives, and i n others they entered the service of Kikuyu Chiefs ( s i c ) and formed a sort of mercenary force. I t i s conceivable that s i m i l a r events i n the remoter past may have a f f e c t e d the p h y s i c a l >  40  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the whole race." See also, Sutton, i n Zamani, pp. 9 3 - 4 . "The Bantu who l i v e i n the Highlands east of the R i f t Valley (Kikuyu, Kamba, Chagga, etc.) . . . have absorbed many non-Bantu elements. These include, besides, hunter-gatherers and Southern Cushites, pastora l i s t s of diverse origins . . . ." Lawren, p. 577 points out, also, that "there was a continual tendency of the two t r i b e s (Masai and Kikuyu) to intermarry . . . there are t r a d i t i o n s which indicate that remnants of the Laikipiak and other Masai-speaking peoples s e t t l e d and intermarried with the Kikuyu. The endogamous r e s t r i c t i o n s of the Kikuyu t r a d i t i o n a l l y regarded both intermarriage and blood-brotherhood as useful implements toward the cementing of f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s . "  Although "absorbed" into the Kikuyu t r i b e , the Wanderobo were not accorded the same p r i v i l e g e s by the Masai. See Great B r i t a i n , Cmd. 8683, p. 23 i n which Hardinge points out that the Wanderobo was ". . . A helot tribe or rather caste, formed out of various conquered and enslaved neighbouring tribes of Bantu race, constitutes the s e r v i l e class among the Masai, and performs the necessary domestic and manual labour . . . This race . . . i s known as the Eldorobo ( s i c ) . . . they are forbidden to marry Masai women, and t h e i r kraals are separate from those of t h e i r Masai masters. This i s the only approach i n the province to any regular system of domestic slavery."  Leakey, Mau Mau, pp. 3-4-5. See also Leakey, The Stone Age, p. 98 and C. Dundas, "Notes on the Origin and History of the Dorobo and Kikuyu Tribes" i n Man (1908), p. 76.  ''"Care must be taken i n attempting delineation of ethnographic boundaries: e s p e c i a l l y those of the geographer who tends to draw hard and fast l i n e s . Any map purporting to show early t r i b a l areas i s "suspect" and should be interpreted i n terms of approximation rather than actual f a c t . Accurate maps require information more than i s presently available. What can be said p o s i t i v e l y , with respect to the location of Kikuyu t r i b e s , i s that they occupied roughly the area under discussion. A d i f f i c u l t problem also i s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of d e f i n i t e s o c i a l boundaries. The c u l t u r a l landscape can be characterized by i t s complexity and s o c i o - t e r r i t o r i a l f l u i d i t y . Clusters of people existed i n e t h n i c a l l y circumscribed c e l l s . They were often homogeneous i n the core areas but mixed on the peripheries due to Masai and Kikuyu intermarriage.  Low, "The Northern," p. 311. See also Leakey, Mau Mau, and Lambert, Kikuyu, pp. 105-6. My underline.  pp.  2-8  41  Quoted by Low i n "The Northern" and extracted from M. G u i l l a i n , Documents sur L ' h i s t o i r e , La Geographie et Le Commerce de L'Afrique Orientale, 3 vols., n.p. 1856, i i i , p. 295.  ^"Cagnolo, The Akikuyu, passim. / 2  p. 97.  John Boyes, King of the WaKikuyu, (London:  Methuen, 1911),  43 The word " t r i b e " i s often used as a r e l a t i v e term by people who consider themselves c i v i l i z e d , as a way. of describing societies they do not regard as c i v i l i z e d . Thus the word has derogatory connotations. Its use i n t h i s thesis should not be construed as being concerned with l e v e l s of c i v i l i z a t i o n but rather with p o l i t i c a l d i v i s i o n s of large popul a t i o n s c a l l i n g themselves by similar names and speaking similar languages. W r i t e r s of papers on A f r i c a n subjects frequently f i n d i t d i f f i cult to decide whether they should write i n the present or past tense. Some of the sources i n t h i s thesis are almost one hundred years o l d and what they say may no longer be true; e s p e c i a l l y i n view of the fact that t r a d i t i o n s , customs, indeed the whole c u l t u r a l l i f e of Africans, has changed d r a s t i c a l l y , or at least been: modified by the influence of a l i e n culture-contact and conquest. In t h i s thesis both tenses have been used. The past tense s i g n i f i e s that the i n s t i t u t i o n referred to i s now extinct or has changed to such a degree that i t i s now v i r t u a l l y unrecognizable. The present tense refers to a custom or i n s t i t u t i o n which i s known to have existed and which, although possibly altered by the passage of time, nevertheless s t i l l exists as part of t r i b a l l i f e .  45 See Lambert, The Systems, p. 38 and The Use of Indigenous Aut h o r i t i e s i n T r i b a l Administration: Studies of. the, Meru of Kenya, (Capetown: School of A f r i c a n Studies, No. 16, 1947), passim and Kikuyu Soc i a l , passim. See also Cagnolo, The Akikuyu, p. 202. ^ C.W. Hobley, Bantu B e l i e f s and Magic, (London: 6  Witherby, 1922),  p. 93.  47 Jomo Kenyatta, Facing Mount Kenya: The T r i b a l L i f e of the Gikuyu, (London, Seeker and Warburg, 1944), p. 189. See also "Kikuyu Religion, Ancestor Worship and S a c r i f i c i a l Practices" i n A f r i c a , v o l . 10, (1937), pp. 302-328.  42  A.H.J. Prins, East A f r i c a n Age-Class Systems: An Inquiry into the S o c i a l Order of Galla", K i p s i g i s and Kikuyu, (Gronigen and Djakarta, J.B. Wolters, 1953), p. 43.  ^Kenyatta, Facing, p. 196.  50  L u c y Mair, Primitive Government, (London, Penguin, 1962), p. 100.  No doubt i n the s p i r i t of 'harambee' 5 52  Prins, East African, pp. 117-8.  ^^Mair, Primitive, pp. 103-4.  5 4  55  Ibid.  Leakey, Mau Mau, pp. 22-27.  56 Kenyatta, Facing, pp. 133-5. 57 Ibid., "The irua (ceremony) marks the commencement of p a r t i c i pation i n various governing groups i n the t r i b a l administration, because the r e a l age groups begin from the day of the physical operation." 58 For a detailed discussion of the ceremony see R. Mugo Gatheru, "The Day the Knife B i t Me" i n Jane Dubaghian ed., Mirror of Man, (Toronto: L i t t l e , Brown and Co., 1975), pp. 110-3. 59  Hobley, Bantu, p. 77.  k°See Kenyatta, Facing, p. 210 ". . .my grandmother (Kenyatta s) on my father's side, was a Masai woman c a l l e d Mosana . . . my aunt . . . was married to a Masai chief c a l l e d Senden, and was treated as the head wife. Exchange v i s i t s were made on both sides, and I had the opportunity of v i s i t i n g her and stayed there f o r some months as a member of the family." 1  43  Cagnolo,. The Akikuyu, pp. 199-202. See also age-set names i n Hobley, Bantu, pp. 88 and 92. Middleton, "The Kikuyu," p. 34, states that "the names f o r any one year may vary over d i f f e r e n t parts of the country . . . how f a r d i f f e r e n t l y named r i k a (age-sets) are regarded as being related cannot be seen from the material. These names are c l e a r l y linked, however, through the D i s t r i c t s of Kiambu, F o r t . H a l l (and) Nyeri." 62 Kenyatta, Facing, p. 115.  See Mair, Primitive, pp. 98-9. "Payment was t r a d i t i o n a l l y made i n goats to provide feasts f o r theseesuperiors. The f i r s t payment i s made as part of a man's wedding ceremonies: t h i s i s regarded from one point of view as payment f o r the r i g h t to marry, while from another i t i s the fee f o r entry into the lowest grade of elders... . . Men go on paying further goats u n t i l the r e q u i s i t e number have been paid f o r f u l l membership of the body of elders. To enter t h i s body a man should have a c h i l d old enough to be i n i t i a t e d ; but he cannot enter u n t i l he has made the r e q u i s i t e payments, and i f he has not made the payments he cannot have his c h i l d i n i t i a t e d either. This i s the kind of circumstance which may lead to the postponement of i n i t i a t i o n , and so place a man i n an age-set most of whom are younger than he i s . "  Kenyatta, Facing, p. 140. "Generation sets about to be c i r cumcised were given tasks which were l i a b l e to demonstrate to elders and the people generally the worth of the i n i t i a t e s . Feats of manhood involving hunting, skirmishing i n mock war and dancing f o r long periods of time, afforded the p o t e n t i a l leader to show h i s worth and s k i l l . " See also Lambert, Kikuyu, pp. 103-4.= 65 Lambert, Kikuyu, pp. 100-1.  ^ P r i n s , East African, p. 105.  ^For comments on Senior Warrior organization and duties, see Kenyatta, Facing, pp. 141-2, 198-200, 205-7, 299-305; Hobley, Bantu, p. 47; Prins, East African, p. 51 and Middleton, The Kikuyu, pp. 34-5.  ^Marriage was a mandatory requirement f o r entry into the elder grades.  44  69I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e concept o f d i s t r i c t (rugongo) was a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e K i k u y u t r a d i t i o n b e f o r e t h e advent o f c o l o n i a l i s m . Thus B r i t i s h use o f t h e concept f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes was n o t f o r e i g n t o t h e K i k u y u and f i t t e d i n w e l l w i t h t h e existing infra-structure. 70 The age o f S e n i o r W a r r i o r s ranged from 20-28. That o n l y s i x s e t s e x i s t e d i s c o n j e c t u r a l . The e v i d e n c e on t h i s p o i n t i s o f t e n vague and thus n o t w o r t h c o n s i d e r i n g . S u f f i c e i t t o s a y t h a t t h e r e may have been more t h a n s i x a g e - s e t s i n t h i s grade. 71  K e n y a t t a , F a c i n g , p. 200.  72 T h i s i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t Mau Mau (1952) r e g i m e n t s employed a g a i n s t t h e B r i t i s h , w a r m a g i c i a n s , s e e r s o r s o o t h sayers. 73  K e n y a t t a , F a c i n g , p. 200.  74 Hobley, Bantu, p. 211 and M a i r , P r i m i t i v e , p. 99. 75  P r i n s , E a s t A f r i c a n , p. 108.  76  K e n y a t t a , F a c i n g , pp. 108, 201, 221 and Hobley, Bantu, p. 9477  I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t a l l s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s a t the e l d e r l e v e l were conducted o n l y b y t h e r u l i n g h a l f o f t h e t r i b e ; i . e . e i t h e r Maina o r Mwangi. Leakey, Mau Mau, p. 37, however, says t h e r e was p r o v i s i o n made t o c a l l on n o n - r u l i n g e l d e r s s h o u l d t h e r u l i n g h a l f need a d v i c e on m a t t e r s f o r e i g n t o them. 78 The K i k u y u word "mumo," o r j u n i o r w a r r i o r , i s pronounced simil a r l y t o t h e words Mau Mau. C o r f i e l d , Report on t h e O r i g i n o f Mau Mau, (London, I 9 6 0 ) , Cmd. 1030, H.M.S.O., s u g g e s t s t h e c o n n e c t i o n . K i k u y u approached b y t h e w r i t e r i n 1953-4 d e n i e d t h e s u g g e s t i o n .  $  45  79 K e n y a t t a , F a c i n g , p. 107. Or)  Hobley, Bantu, p. 209. 81 I b i d . , p. 213, c i t e s o t h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r acceptance i n t o the grade. "Some . . . n e v e r become members o f t h e Ukuru grade; t h e consent o f t h e o t h e r members o f the grade i s n e c e s s a r y and t h e y do n o t approve o f a c a n d i d a t e who i s n o t well-endowed w i t h wor.latby goods, o r a g a i n , p r o s p e c t i v e c a n d i d a t e s may be c o n s i d e r e d u n l u c k y . " Pp. 212-9 g i v e an e x c e l l e n t d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i n i t i a t i o n ceremonies f o r p r o s p e c t i v e Ukuru. ^ ^ M i d d l e t o n , K i k u y u , p. 36. go  8 4  See a l s o , K e n y a t t a , F a c i n g , pp. 204-5.  Hobley, Bantu, p. 212.  M a i r , P r i m i t i v e , p. 100.  85 See u n p u b l i s h e d Mss. T. T o u l s o n , The E f f e c t s o f C o u n t e r - I n s u r gency Measures on C o l o n i a l P e o p l e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970. ^ P r i n s , E a s t A f r i c a n , p. 110. '  87 I f t h e ' b i g c o u n c i l ' was i n d e e d f o r m u l a t e d on a d i s t r i c t l e v e l and those who c o n s t i t u t e d i t s membership d i d i n f a c t d e c i d e age-set names and i t w i k a d a t e s , t h e n i t f o l l o w s t h a t i t w i k a dates and age-set names must have v a r i e d from d i s t r i c t t o d i s t r i c t . However, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t o n l y minor v a r i a t i o n s o c c u r i n i t w i k a dates and age-set names throughout t h e K i k u y u c o r e a r e a s , i . e . Kiambu, F o r t H a l l and N y e r i . T h i s f a c t would t h e r e f o r e suggest t h a t some form o f c o o r d i n a t i o n e x i s t e d between t r i b a l c o u n c i l s l o c a t e d i n t h e K i k u y u c o r e - a r e a s . 88 H.R. Tate, " F u r t h e r Notes on t h e S o u t h e r n Gikuyu o f B r i t i s h E a s t A f r i c a " intj.o.urnar o.f_ the_Afr.i.can_S.o.c.ie.ty, v o l . 10, ( 1 9 1 0 ) , pp. 285-97. =  89  L o w , "The N o r t h e r n , " p. 311.  90 Lambert, K i k u y u , pp. 100-1. 91 Cagnolo, The A k i k u y u , p. 214,,ll?2£hproverb  9 2  M u c h o f t h e K i k u y u language i s p r o v e r b i a l  93 Lambert, K i k u y u , pp. 100-1. 9 4  Ibid.  Chapter  2  EARLY.CONTACTS  I n i t i a l K i k u y u response  t o the wageni,  1  A r a b , S w a h i l i o r Wakamba,  was c o n d i t i o n e d , b y t h e i r b e h a v i o u r i n K i k u y u l a n d . to  There i s some evidence  suggest t h a t K i k u y u were a t f i r s t h o s p i t a b l e t o c o a s t a l t r a d e r s because  t h e y were f a m i l i a r w i t h t r a d i n g p r o c e s s e s t h r o u g h c o n t a c t f o r sometime w i t h 2 Wakamba middlemen.  By t h e 1870's, however, t h e K i k u y u were a p p a r e n t l y r e -  l u c t a n t t o a l l o w wageni passage t h r o u g h K i k u y u l a n d t o t h e Lake.  T h i s ap-  p e a r s due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t r a d e r s r e g u l a r l y f o r a g e d K i k u y u s m a l l h o l d i n g s i n s e a r c h o f f o o d and d e p a r t e d t h e a r e a w i t h o u t making r e s t i t u t i o n .  In-  c r e a s e d f r i c t i o n between K i k u y u and wageni i s borne out by t h e e v i d e n t f e a r e x h i b i t e d by caravan p o r t e r s as they neared o r s k i r t e d K i k u y u l a n d . The f i r s t European t o see K i k u y u l a n d was John Ludwig K r a p f , a CMS m i s s i o n a r y l o c a t e d a t R a b a i , n e a r Mombasa.  I n 1848 he t r a v e l l e d n o r t h t o  the Wakamba c o u n t r y ( K i t u i ) and saw t h e t w i n peaks o f Mount Kenya.  I n i860  3 a book  o f h i s t r a v e l s d e s c r i b e d t h e mountain. The snow-capped mountain b e a r s v a r i o u s names among the n a t i v e t r i b e s . The Wacamba ( s i c ) c a l l i t Kima j a K e g n i a , M o u n t a i n o f Whiteness. Snow-white L i b a n o n ; o t h e r t r i b e s K i r a n i a , o r Ndur Kengnia; t h e W a k u a f i , O r l d i n i o e i b o r , White M o u n t a i n ; i t was o n l y seen by myself A  S i n c e none o f t h e terms w i t h w h i c h K r a p f d e s c r i b e s t h e mountain a r e o f K i k u y u o r i g i n , i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t he a c t u a l l y p e n e t r a t e d H i s statement,  Kikuyuland.  however, t h a t t h e mountain "had o n l y been seen by m y s e l f "  - 47 -  48  and h i s wanderings i n the area, inspired others to mount exploratory expeditions.  I t was not u n t i l 1883-4, f u l l y 50 years l a t e r , however, that  Joseph Thomson successfully traversed the area i n an attempt to discover 5 a route to V i c t o r i a Nyanza. Thomson's journey took him through Masai country and by August 1883 he found himself on the southern periphery of Kikuyuland at Ngongo Bagas ( l a t e r Ngong).  Having without trouble negotiated h i s way through  Masailand, he now faced with trepidation the task of penetrating the Kikuyu "moat".  "We had not gone f a r before we found that the Wakikuyu  were l i t e r a l l y swarming the forest, on the look-out f o r an opportunity to dye t h e i r spears i n blood or to capture g o o d s . T h o m s o n proceeded north, undeterred, but f e a r f u l of an armed clash with the Kikuyu.  "Our sensa-  tions were rather queer traversing these forest depths, kept as we were continually on the a l e r t , and i n momentary expectation of encountering  7 poisoned arrows launched from among the trees." In search of water Thomson was forced to penetrate the Kikuyu f o r est "where a pond was known to exist i n disagreeable proximity to the WaKikuyu."  It was here that . . . "a v o l l e y of guns upset any f e e l i n g of  security (then) a commotion was heard among the c a t t l e , and warning voices that the Wa-Kikuyu were stampeding them . . . We f i r e d aimlessly into the forest, i n the hope of frightening the disturbers of our peace . . . seve r a l arrows were shot from the bush."  Subsequently i t was found that  the "cause of the o r i g i n a l v o l l e y had been an attempt to massacre one small party (of wageni) by creeping up on them."  The raiders, Thomson  relates, were discovered a f t e r they had attempted to k i l l a porter.  The  49  clash continued:  "A prompt v o l l e y . . . scattered the murderers,  several  having thus .been wounded, and one l e f t dead . . . two of the coast porters were either speared or captured."  Further i n d i c a t i o n of the terror experi-  enced by Thomson and h i s men i s h i s observation that "not a soul slept the l i v e l o n g night" and that a "continuous fusilade was kept up as our sole 8 protection.  Numerous arrows were launched into the camp  ..."  In February 1887, Count Teleki von Szek and Lieut; von Hohnel, proceeded inland intent upon exploring the area north of Mount Kenya. Spending A p r i l and July i n Taveta, at the foot of Mount Kilimanjaro, the expedition marched north on roughly the same heading taken by Thomson four years e a r l i e r .  By August they had reached Ngongo Bagas and from  there they proceeded through Kikuyuland.  Possibly influenced by Thomson's  account, published i n 1885, both explorers did not r e l i s h the idea of pass9  ing through, the area i n "which dwelt the dreaded people of Kikuyu." Ngongo Bagas, however, was safe and was to Hohnel an "oasis i n the wilderness to caravans."  Notably i t was i n the v i c i n i t y of Ngongo Bagas that  "foraging", the source of f r i c t i o n between Kikuyu and the wageni had t r a d i t i o n a l l y taken place.  Moreover, the location of Ngongo Bagas was  since i t was situated atop h i l l s i n open country.  "safe"  Kikuyu warriors dared  not venture beyond the forest edge and into open country occupied by Masai.  There i s some evidence to suggest, however, that trading a c t u a l l y  took place at Ngongo Bagas between Kikuyu and the caravans.  This was  pos-  s i b l e because the Kikuyu used intermediaries to make contact with the wageni across the "moat".  At Miansini, a place situated close to Ngongo  Bagas, the Kikuyu sent the helot Wanderobo to act as "go-betweens" i n the  50  trading  process. To f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e rumours o f K i k u y u h o s t i l i t y , von Hohnel  s e r v e d t h a t b e f o r e the a r r i v a l of T e l e k i ' s e x p e d i t i o n l i t t l e was the l a n d or p e o p l e of the K i k u y u . . . " w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t  ob-  known of  countless  t a l e s were a f l o a t o f the f i e r c e n e s s and h o s t i l i t y o f the natives.""'""'" T h i s comment seems t o have been based upon the case o f a p r e v i o u s  caravan  w h i c h had attempted " t o e n t e r K i k u y u from the e a s t , and had been d e s t r o y - . 12 ed.','.  whether the case c i t e d was  based on rumour i s not known.  What i s  known, however, i s t h a t Ngongo Bagas had been used as a c a r a v a n s t a g i n g p l a c e f o r many y e a r s . 1500 men  Thomson r e c o r d e d  the f a c t t h a t caravans o f 1200  had o f t e n been seen a t Ngongo Bagas and a l l of them had 13 .  t o o b t a i n f u r t h e r p r o v i s i o n i n g from the K i k u y u .  to  expected  Jumbe Kimemeta, T e l e k i ' s  g u i d e and h i m s e l f a f r e q u e n t v i s i t o r t o the a r e a i n s e a r c h o f i v o r y , had been seen by Thomson a t M i a n z i n i i n p o s s e s s i o n o f i v o r y t a k e n "from r e g i o n s 14 n e v e r b e f o r e r e a c h e d by c o a s t a l c a r a v a n . " S i g n i f i c a n t l y i t was Kimemeta who  t r i e d t o dissua'de Thomson from t a k i n g the Wakamba r o u t e back t o  the  15 coast.  Kimemeta was  a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n i t i a t i n g rumours o f impending  K i k u y u a t t a c k s on T e l e k i ' s e x p e d i t i o n .  I t was  he, a l s o , who  advised T e l e k i  and von Hohnel t h a t i t would not be p o s s i b l e f o r them t o p a s s t h r o u g h K i k u yuland. Perhaps i t i s s p e c u l a t i v e t o suggest t h a t Kimemeta (and o t h e r  coast-  a l t r a d e r s ) d i d n o t w i s h t o compete w i t h whitemen i n the l u c r a t i v e i v o r y b e a r i n g a r e a s o f the A b e r d a r e s and Mount Kenya.  I t i s possible that ru-  mours of K i k u y u h o s t i l i t y c o u l d have been s p r e a d by h u n t e r s i n t e n t upon p r e c l u d i n g Europeans a c t i v i t y i n the i v o r y b u s i n e s s .  51  Arab trading routes from the East A f r i c a n coast into the i n t e r i o r . From John S. Galbraith, Mackinnon. and East A f r i c a 1878-1895, Cambridge: UP, 1972, p . ^ T  52  Rumours of Kikuyu h o s t i l i t y were spread also by Wakamba traders who wished to maintain a p o s i t i o n as middlemen i n the trading process 17 between inland areas and the coast.  The case of Wakamba rumours about  Kikuyu h o s t i l i t y i s of p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e , e s p e c i a l l y with respect to the e f f e c t such tales had on Europeans who, i t seems, prepared them18 selves to " f i g h t every inch of the way" through Kikuyuland. Wakamba trade with the coast had been taking place since 1836 and well before Europeans made t h e i r presence a fact i n the i n t e r i o r .  Krapf  19 and others  have stated that trade r e l a t i o n s between Wakamba and the  coast commenced during and a f t e r a great famine.  I t i s known, also, p r i o r  to 1836 a great deal of l o c a l trading went on and consisted mainly of the exchange of foodstuffs, poison f o r arrows, and possibly i r o n implements. According and Embu.  to Wakamba o r a l t r a d i t i o n , t h i s trade took place with the Kikuyu The post-1836 coastal trade developed, however, i n a much more  sophisticated fashion and placed the Wakamba s o l i d l y i n the p o s i t i o n of being trading middlemen between the coast and the Kikuyu.  By 184-8-9 Krapf  reported that the Wakamba coastal trading t r a f f i c was substantial: "The Swahili purvey to the Wakamba cotton f a b r i c s (Americano), blue c a l i c o , glass beads, copper, s a l t luaha, blue v i t r i o l ( z i n c ) etc. and receive i n 20 exchange c h i e f l y c a t t l e and ivory."  By the 1840's large caravans were  reported to be seen between Wakamba country and the coast.  Krapf estimated  that Wakamba coastal s a f a r i s consisted often of as many as 300-400 persons 21 carrying large amounts of ivory.  By the l a t t e r h a l f of the century, how-,  ever;,'/ the Wakamba l o s t t h e i r trading monopoly to Arab and Swahili traders and reverted to t h e i r r o l e of "middlemen" i n the trading process. Moreover,  53  A r a b s and S w a h i l i began t o p e n e t r a t e beyond Wakamba c o u n t r y i n an e f f o r t 22 •  to reach the i v o r y - b e a r i n g areas o f Kikuyuland.  I n f a c t Wakamba c o u n t r y  had now ceased t o be t h e E a s t A f r i c a n e n t r e p o t .  T r a d e r s b e n t on  commerical  a c t i v i t y i n K i k u y u l a n d and beyond, f o r c e d by t h e i r new a c t i v i t y a d e c l i n e i n Wakamba economic ascendency.  Hence t h e s t r o n g s u g g e s t i o n t h a t rumours  o f K i k u y u h o s t i l i t y were d e s i g n e d d e l i b e r a t e l y t o d e t e r t r a v e l l e r s  from  23  proceeding north i n t o Kikuyuland. I n i t i a l European e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t h e K i k u y u , however, seemed t o v a r y from extreme h o s t i l i t y t o f r i e n d l i n e s s .  K i k u y u a t t i t u d e s and r e -  sponses t o t h e European i n v a s i o n seemed t o v a r y from r i d g e t o r i d g e ; one p a r t o f the c o u n t r y t o t h e o t h e r .  from  I n the southern periphery o f Kikuyu-  l a n d von Hohnel and T e l e k i met w i t h i m p l a c a b l e r e s i s t a n c e w h i l e f u r t h e r t o the n o r t h t h e y were amazed a t a s s i s t a n c e o f f e r e d them by f r i e n d l y and c o operative Kikuyu.  B o t h men were a b l e " t o s e c u r e f a i t h f u l g u i d e s " who  would warn them o f impending o p p o s i t i o n on t h e p a r t o f K i k u y u p l a n n i n g t o r e s i s t f u r t h e r p e n e t r a t i o n o f t h e i r homeland. t h a t one o f t h e most remarkable  Indeed, Hohnel observed  a s p e c t s o f the j o u r n e y t h r o u g h K i k u y u l a n d  was t h e "honesty and f a i t h f u l n e s s " d i s p l a y e d t o b o t h h i m s e l f and h i s comp a n i o n by t h e i r K i k u y u g u i d e s .  H.J. M a c k i n d e r ,  i n 1900, s u b s t a n t i a t e d  Hohnel's remarks by p r a i s i n g t h e l o y a l t y o f h i s K i k u y u g u i d e s d u r i n g an 25  a s c e n t o f Mount Kenya.  Von Hohnel speaks o f T e l e k i , a l s o , as b e i n g r e -  garded by some K i k u y u as b e i n g a "white samaki ( s i c ) , o r c h i e f . " o c c a s i o n some o f T e l e k i ' s men were i n v o l v e d i n a b l o o d - b r o t h e r h o o d  On t h i s cere-  mony w i t h t h e K i k u y u , were r e c e i v e d i n a f r i e n d l y f a s h i o n and " r e t u r n e d t o 26  camp w i t h heavy sacks o f sweet p o t a t o e s . "  54  Conversely,  however, d e s p i t e the f r i e n d l y b e h a v i o u r  o f some K i k u y u  o t h e r s adopted an o p e n l y h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e toward the s t r a n g e r s .  We  have,  f o r example, Thomson's account o f harassment and von Hohnel and T e l e k i r e f e r t o the need t o f i g h t t h e i r way  through s e v e r a l areas of  Kikuyuland.  There e x i s t s , t h e r e f o r e , something o f a c o n t r a d i c t i o n about K i k u y u tudes t o w a r d s wageni:  atti-  the e v i d e n c e r e v e a l s b o t h h o s t i l e and f r i e n d l y r e -  lationships . M a n i f o l d r e a s o n s account f o r K i k u y u a t t i t u d e s toward wageni. doubtedly  the major r e a s o n f o r h o s t i l i t y i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  Un-  propensity  f o r caravans to r a i d Kikuyu s m a l l h o l d i n g s f o r f o o d ; e s p e c i a l l y ; i n . t h e s t a g i n g a r e a o f Ngongo Bagas.  There had been a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i t i o n o f  r a i d i n g a c r o s s the "moat" and as caravans became l a r g e r t o the n e c e s s i t y o f f e e d i n g more p o r t e r s i n c r e a s e d .  F u r t h e r m o r e , i t was  not the. h a b i t o f  c a r a v a n owners t o o f f e r r e s t i t u t i o n f o r p r o v i s i o n s t a k e n . Bagas was  an " o a s i s i n the w i l d e r n e s s " .  I t was  A l s o , Ngongo  here t h a t caravans were  f o r c e d t o p r o v i s i o n a f t e r t h e i r l o n g march a c r o s s the d r y scrub t o the south-east;  here the t r a v e l l e r s saw the v e r d a n t  i n g w i t h f r e s h produce.  slopes of Kikuyuland  abound-  Indeed, perhaps the " g r e a t e s t problem f a c i n g the 27  K i k u y u was  t h e i r very prosperity."  I t was  a t Ngongo Bagas, a l s o , t h a t  K i k u y u , used t o t r a d i n g as the e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s ,  sent t h e i r i n t e r m e d i a r i e s ,  the h e l o t Wanderobo, t o t r a d e produce f o r beads, b l a n k e t s , " a m e r i k a n i " perhaps, l a t e r , f i r e a r m s .  The  l o g i c of sending  c o u r s e , i n the f a c t t h a t i n t h i s event t h e r e was  intermediaries l i e s ,  and  of  t h e n no need f o r K i k u y u  l e a v e t h e i r i s l a n d f a s t n e s s and c o n v e r s e l y t h e r e was  t h u s no r e a s o n f o r  wageni t o c r o s s the "moat" and t r e s p a s s K i k u y u s m a l l h o l d i n g s f o r f o o d .  to  55  T y p i c a l Layout o f K i k u y u Mashamba, e a r l y 1900's, n e a r F o r t H a l l . From R i c h a r d M e i n h e r t z h a g e n , Kenya D i a r y , 1902-1906, London: W i t h e r b y , 1957, p. 104-. Perhaps the " g r e a t e s t problem f a c i n g the K i k u y u was t h e i r v e r y p r o s p e r i t y . "  56  T r a d e r s , t h e i r A f r i c a n l e v i e s and u n s u s p e c t i n g e x p l o r e r s , who  did cross  t h e "moat" were t h e r e f o r e a t once " s u s p e c t " and thus " f a i r game" f o r the waiting warriors. K i k u y u a t t i t u d e s were c o n d i t i o n e d t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , a l s o , by t h e b e h a v i o u r o f Europeans.  White t r a v e l l e r s tended t o b e l i e v e t h a t f i r i n g  "a few s h o t s " f o r the purpose o f "overawing the p e o p l e " o r , as Thomson p u t i t , " f i r i n g a i m l e s s l y i n t o t h e f o r e s t " were the o n l y means o f d e a l i n g with t h e i r unwilling hosts.  Von Hohnel, i n d e e d , a f t e r h i s t a l k o f K i k u y u  "honesty and f a i r n e s s " went on t o a s s e r t t h a t " t o employ f o r c e Gwas) the 28 o n l y means o f c r e a t i n g the n e c e s s a r y i m p r e s s i o n . "  The  " n e c e s s a r y im-  p r e s s i o n " meant, o f c o u r s e , t o i m p l a n t i n t o the K i k u y u a f e a r o f the 29 whiteman. There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t Europeans were c o n d i t i o n e d t o f i g h t t h e K i k u y u even b e f o r e t h e y a r r i v e d i n K i k u y u l a n d ; Kimemeta and the Wakamba rumour-mongers had seen t o t h a t .  Where, s i g n i f i c a n t l y , K i k u y u had been  'touched' by the wageni t h e y were h o s t i l e : i n a r e a s beyond the f r i n g e o f K i k u y u l a n d , w i t h i n the i n t e r i o r and removed from the scene o f a b r a s i v e c o n t a c t , r e l a t i o n s h i p s between wageni and the t r i b e s m e n were tenuous b u t o f t e n f r i e n d l y as the e x p e r i e n c e s - o f . T e l e k i , von Hohnel, Thomson and Mackinder his  clearly indicate.  Lugard was l a t e r t o a f f i r m t h e s e f i n d i n g s on  v i s i t t o K i k u y u l a n d i n 1890.  But European a p p r e h e n s i o n c o u p l e d w i t h  K i k u y u s u s p i c i o n ( p a r t i c u l a r l y among t h o s e who  knew o f o r had  first-hand  e x p e r i e n c e o f scavenging c a r a v a n s ) f e a t u r e d p r o m i n e n t l y i n the i n i t i a l tact period.  con-  These a t t i t u d e s and the o c c a s i o n a l v i o l e n t c l a s h e s o f t h i s  p e r i o d were i m p o r t a n t c o n d i t i o n i n g f a c t o r s i n subsequent, more e x t e n s i v e  57  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , between the K i k u y u and European armed t r a d e r s , European and A f r i c a n employees o f t h e B r i t i s h E a s t A f r i c a Company and the P r o t e c t o r ate  Administration.  58  FOOTNOTES  ~4(iswahili (foreigners) 2 For perhaps the most comprehensive account of Wakamba trading a c t i v i t i e s see John Lamphear, "The Kamba and the Northern Mrima Coast" i n Richard Gray and David Birmingham, eds., Pre-Colonial Trade: Essays on Trade i n Central and Eastern A f r i c a before 1900, (London: OUP, 1970), pp. 75-101. A useful review of Wakamba trading patterns i s i n I s a r i a N. Kimambo, "The Economic History of the Wakamba,"1850-1950," Hadith 2, Bethwell A. Ogot, ed. (Nairobi: EAPH, 1970, pp. 70-103. Some reference to Wakamba trade i s also to be found i n Satish C. Saterwal, " H i s t o r i c a l Notes," pp. 34-5, " . . . the Kamba established the ivory trade l i n k s between the coast and the f o o t h i l l s of Mt. Kenya during the 1830's. They exploited t h i s trade through the 1840' s and 185.0'.s, but during the 1860's the traders from Zanzibar successfully established routes to the Mt. Kenya region, by-passing Kamba country, and captured the trade i n that area from the Kamba." 3 John L. Krapf, Travels, Researches and Missionary Labours, (London: Trubner, i860). See also excerpts i n Charles Richards, ed. Some H i s t o r i c Journeys i n East A f r i c a , (London: OUP, 1961), passim. ^Ibid., pp. 10-11. 5 See H.R. Tate, "Two A f r i c a n Explorers, 11-Joseph Thomson " i n Journal of the Royal A f r i c a n Society, v o l . 37, (Oct. 1938), pp. 449-70, also, Joseph Thomson, "East A f r i c a as i t Was and Is" i n The Contemporary Review, (1889), pp. 41-51 and S i r Harry Johnston, "The East A f r i c a n Problem" i n Nineteenth Century, (1908), p. 56B. ^Joseph Thomson, Through Masailand, (London: Sampson Low, 1885) and i n Charles Richards, ed., Some H i s t o r i c , p. 91. 7  Ibid.,  59  8  T_bid., pp. 91-2-3.  Lieut,von Hohnel, The Discovery of Lakes Rudolph and Stefanie, Longmans Green, 1894) and extracted from i b i d p. 101.  (London:  Ibid.  I UIbid. . .  1 2  I b i d . , p. 102.  •^Thomson, Through, pp. 307, 572.  U  I b i d . , p. 571.  1 5  I b i d . , pp. 572-3.  "^Von Hohnel, The Discovery, p. 296. 17 Kimambo, "The Economic," p. 81. 18 Von Hohnel, The Discovery, p. 287. This i s a s p e c i f i c reference to Fischer, a European explorer who, notably, never a c t u a l l y crossed Kikuyuland but who appears to have been influenced by his.own porters into making t h i s statement. 19  Krapf, Travels, pp. 230-1. See also Kimambo, "The Economic" for a reference to a recent work by K. Jackson, (1967-8) on t h i s subject, p. 99. ?0  Ibid., pp. 256-7 and K.G. Lindblom, The Akamba i n East A f r i c a , (Upsala, n.p., 1920).  60  21  Krapf,  Travels, pp. 248, 287.  22 This i s substantiated by Thomson's observation that he witnessed caravans of 1200 to 1500 persons as far north of Wakamba country as Ngongo Bagas. Obviously the Wakamba habitat had by the 1870's ceased to be the i n t e r i o r entrepot and that now the trade fulcrum had s h i f t e d to Ngongo Bagas.. For an informative account of the ivory trade see R.W. Beachey, "The East A f r i c a n Ivory Trade i n the Nineteenth Century" i n Journal of A f r i c a n History, v o l . 8, (1967), pp. 269-90. The ivory trade had already been well exploited by Arabs and Swahilis; routes into the i n t e r i o r were well established by the 1870's-(see Gerald W. Hartig, "The V i c t o r i a Nyanza as a Trade Route i n the Nineteenth Century" i n Journal of A f r i c a n History, v o l . 11, (1970), pp. 535-552) but by the 1880's Europeans were greatly involved to the detriment Arabs, Swahilis and the i n t e r i o r t r i b e s . " F i l i b u s t e r i n g expeditions into northern Kenya and Lake Rudolf region, commencing with that of Teleki inel888loeQntinugd8througho.U(tdthera>8§06st tTelekiGspeakseqfA; L the "ever-increasing store of ivory," He acquired a great quantity .After Teleki came.Chanler, Newman, Donaldson-Smith and Frazer Delemere and Atkinson -. . y, p. 84. X  ;  23 In the mind of the European, doubtless conditioned by rumours and his own experience, Kikuyu s t e a d i l y acquired a reputation f o r truculence and untrustworthiness. E l i o t referredc to them as being "less f r i e n d l y " than other t r i b e s . C.W. Hobley described the Kikuyu as "turbulent and treacherous . . . secretive, more conservative and more d i f f i c u l t to understand than other t r i b e s . " Major J.R.L. Macdonald said that the Kikuyu "were about as treacherous as could be" while Colonel Richard Meinhertzhagen, Kenya Diary, 1902-1906, (London: Witherby, 1957), pp. 79-80, made the p r e d i c t i o n that " i n the end they w i l l cause a l o t of trouble."  S/bn  2<  Hohnel, The Discovery, p. 338.  25 H.J. Mackinder, "A Journey to the Summit of Mount Kenya" i n The. Geographical Journal, v o l . 15, (1900), p. 457. 26 Richards, ed., Some H i s t o r i c , p. 103. 27 E.A. Alpers, "The Nineteenth Century: Prelude to Colonialism" i n Zamani, pp. 247-8. See also Captain C E . Stigand, The Land of Z i n j , (London: Cass, 1966, ed. ), p. 238. "The Kikuyu are r e a l l y immensely r i c h , as they have everything the heart could desire i n abundance. I have never seen raw natives anywhere who have such copious and various supplies of food.  61  28  Von Hohnel, The Discovery, pp. 336-7.  29 See Richard Crawshay, "Kikuyu: Notes on the Country, People, Fauna and.Flora" i n the Geographical Journal, v o l . 20, tl9©2)., p. 39. Travellers i n Kikuyuland said Crawshay, "owe any rough treatment they have to complain of either to t h e i r ignorance of 'savoir f a i r e ' . . . or more frequently to the secret misconduct of t h e i r followers."  Chapter 3 THE IMPERIAL BRITISH EAST AFRICA COMPANY  At this point we must consider•the effects on the Kikuyu of European penetration of the "moat" by o f f i c i a l s and A f r i c a n employees of the Imperial B r i t i s h East A f r i c a Company (IBEA Co.). In 1886 a boundary was  drawn to separate German East A f r i c a from  the B r i t i s h East A f r i c a n spheres new boundary was  One consequence of the d e f i n i t i o n of the  the channelling of B r i t i s h penetration toward Lake V i c -  t o r i a from Mombasa.  The B r i t i s h recognized that e f f e c t i v e  communications  with the hinterland were imperative for prospective government, economic progress and p o l i t i c a l expediency.  1  For these reasons r a i l r o a d construc2  t i o n from Mombasa to the Lake began i n 1895. Although Germans and B r i t i s h had agreed on the location of the border between t h e i r respective claims, the hinterland around and beyond Lake V i c t o r i a remained i n dispute.  In 1887, with the endorsement of the 3  B r i t i s h Foreign Office <the B r i t i s h East A f r i c a Company was  founded.  A  year l a t e r the organization possessed a Royal Charter, subscribed c a p i t a l of 24-0,000 pounds and had changed i t s name to the Imperial B r i t i s h East A f r i c a Company (IBEA Co.).  Like i t s forerunners i n India and Canada, the  Company's mandate included the administration and development of the t e r r i tory under i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n .  4  The area included the B r i t i s h sphere of  influence, negotiated with the Germans i n 1886 and extending north of - 62 -  ^.-'•L.v '.v.V i ' A^So'-C^. At. Jul/ IG90. :  GEftMAN  S P H E R E  %&!W / A''-'  .  r  t  OF  C'o-c. :  —  INFLUENCE  JLIII W J . v * ^ PO RT  UCUESE  E A S 7'  A F R I C A  6.  J  Agreement: of iG2s/:8B6.  V-LfJ,Lt/±//.\  —— •  8  L!  Agreement) of 1890/1091.  Approximate .irc.icliimcd by Germany .u Willi Protectorate Oc:o!>cr i3Ca. German claim renounced, Jidy iciQO. Approximate area claimed by Germany under protectorate of February iSS^.r  ^B p•' J'v.' f't ii ill  Sultan of Zan-ibar'j coa;ia! dominions a; acknowledged by Ar.r-lo-Gcrrnan-Frenci Delimitation Commission, 1C8G. • • Zanzibar northern Ports leased to I.B.E.A. Co. 1383. Northern co.v.t!inc r.f Zaosi'bar Icaieo io / . 5 - - - Co. 1887. . Southern c o a s t l i n e ofXantibac leaded to German E . A . Co. April i860. Sold to Germany JDcccir.ber ; 090. r  A  1  The.partition of East A f r i c a , 1884-91 from John S. Galbraith, Mackinnon and East A f r i c a , 1878-1895, Cambridge: UP, 1972, p. 104.  64  the Anglo-German boundary,  t o g e t h e r w i t h the S u l t a n o f Z a n z i b a r ' s domain  --•a s t r i p o f t e r r i t o r y e x t e n d i n g a l o n g the c o a s t some 200 m i l e s by m i l e s wide.  10  An a n n u a l t i t h e o f 10,000 pounds, e x t e n d i n g f o r a p e r i o d o f  50 y e a r s , was p a i d t o S u l t a n Barghash i n r e n t , w h i l e a l l customs l e v i e d were c o l l e c t e d by the Company.  F l y i n g i t s own f l a g , m i n t i n g i t s own  money, p r i n t i n g i t s own postage stamps, the Company became a c o r p o r a t e dominion:  i t r e c r u i t e d an army and b u i l t up the town o f Mombasa t o 5  s e r v e as i t s E a s t A f r i c a n H e a d q u a r t e r s .  From Mombasa the e d i c t s of the  " A d m i n i s t r a t o r " ^ were passed down t o j u n i o r o f f i c e r s r e s i d e n t " u p - c o u n t r y " on the r o u t e t o the Lake.  Caravans were r e g u l a r l y despatched i n t o the  i n t e r i o r as the f u t u r e o f t r a d e was thought t o be around the head o f the Lake and i n p a r t i c u l a r , Buganda. Buganda was a m a t t e r o f the utmostt importance t o b o t h Germans and British.  The Agreement o f 1886 had n o t been c l e a r l y d e f i n e d .  According  t o the document the b o r d e r between A n g l o - G e r m a n . r e s p e c t i v e spheres o f i n f l u e n c e stoppedc.at the e a s t e r n shore o f the Lake; f u r t h e r m o r e the n o r t h e r n boundary o f the B r i t i s h sphere stopped t o the e a s t o f the N i l e and thus d i d not encompass the Kingdom o f Buganda. the B r i t i s h c l a i m paramountcy ment?  How,  the Germans, asked, c o u l d  o v e r an a r e a n o t i n c l u d e d i n the 1886  Agree-  What was i m p o r t a n t , t h e r e f o r e , i n t h e eyes o f b o t h p a r t i e s — m o r e so  the B r i t i s h because o f p o l i t i c a l a m b i t i o n s i n E g y p t — w a s the a c t u a l occupat i o n o f Buganda and the N i l e s o u r c e .  F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s t h e r e commenced  a 'scramble' whose a n t a g o n i s t s , K a r l P e t e r s o f the C o l o n i z a t i o n S o c i e t y , 7 a c t i n g f o r the German Government, and F r e d e r i c k D e a l t y Lugard o f the B r i t i s h E a s t A f r i c a C o r p o r a t i o n , a c t i n g f o r the B r i t i s h Government, became the w i l l i n g instruments of i m p e r i a l p o l i c y .  Hence the u r g e n t d i s p a t c h o f  65  Lugard, o s t e n s i b l y a Company employee, to reach Buganda, annex i t i n the name of the B r i t i s h Government and make peace w i t h i t s r u l e r (Kabaka) Mwanga.^ Lugard's expedition to Buganda l e f t Mombasa i n August 1889.  It  included a m i l i t a r y force of Sudanese a s k a r i armed w i t h Snider r i f l e s and a Maxim gun.^  By October 1889 the s a f a r i had s u c c e s s f u l l y flanked the dry  scrub of the Taru, followed the course of the Sabaki.River and had reached Kikuyuland.  For a month or more Lugard l i n g e r e d i n the area; f i r s t at  Ngongo Bagas and l a t t e r l y at a s i t e to be known as Dagoretti.  At both l o -  cations he proceeded to b u i l d and occupy Company s t a t i o n s , or " f o r t s " , as he preferred to c a l l them. I t was i n the area of Dagoretti that Lugard attempted to extend Company influence over the Kikuyu by i n v o l v i n g himself w i t h Kikuyu notables i n "blood-brotherhood" ceremonies.  Confirmation of the r i t e s took  the form of lengthy speeches pledging e t e r n a l and f r i e n d l y a l l i a n c e s between p a r t i e s .  Thus i t i s evident that Lugard saw the v a l i d i t y of the  ceremonial approach to f r i e n d s h i p , over that of the formal t r e a t y .  He  saw, f o r example, the i m p r a c t i c a l i t y of the " t r e a t y " when used i n the same form customary i n Europe " I f e l t that I could not honourably pledge the Company's p r o t e c t i o n to d i s t a n t t r i b e s , whom they had no means whatever of p r o t e c t i n g . . . while the cession of a l l r i g h t s of r u l e . . was, i n my opinion, asking f o r more than was f a i r . " " ^  Clearly more e q u i t a b l e — a n d  perhaps as v a l i d — w a s the r i t u a l of bloodfebcoibherhood.  At l e a s t the cere-  mony provided an "understanding" of more s i g n i f i c a n c e t© the Kikuyu than a piece of paper w r i t t e n i n a f o r e i g n language and incorporating the  LUGA^D'S JOURNEY T U G A N D A iLLUSTRATt, !!S O U T W A R D  ROU":  AUGUST-SEPTEMBER i AND  RETURN  AUGUST  -x />; CENTRAL SECTION O;LUGAilD'S JOU&N5Y TO UGANDA ILLUSTRATING HIS OUTWARD ROUTT:, OCTOBER - DF.CGMBEK 1890 AND R.ETUr\M ROUTE, JUNE -AUGUST 1092.  Lugard's routes to and from Uganda,. 1890 and 1892 from Margery Perham, Lugard, The Years of. Adventure, 1858-1898, London: C o l l i n s , 1956, p. 40 and p. 310  Lugard':. r o u t e o h his preliminary •journe.-/ from Mombns:; t o t-'lachakos, January-April  IC90 fo! lowed the  Sabaki PJver and the norch - ens t o r n route- alon'.' the A t h i River ro K i b w c z i ,  ,.  on bath the outv/ard and return j o u r n e y s . j  '/:.  1392.  ROUT •  67  semantics o f European diplomacy. S h o r t l y a f t e r taking p a r t i n a blood-brotherhood a l l i a n c e w i t h the K i k u y u ( O c t o b e r 1890), Lugard d e s c r i b e d h i s f e e l i n g s on t h e m a t t e r . Apropos came t o some o f few men natural  o f t h e t r e a t y b u s i n e s s . . . M i r o o and o t h e r s say t h a t some h o s t i l e K i k u y u had b o l t e d w i t h t h e i r c a t t l e , and t h e y came t o a s k me f o r a t o go and f i g h t . T h i s t o them seemed most as I am t o them a b l o o d b r o t h e r . H  T y p i c a l l y o f Lugard he f e l t he evaded t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e r e q u e s t f o r a i d by K i k u y u . t o f i g h t o t h e r K i k u y u , " r a t h e r c l e v e r l y " .  "I said that . . .  we would f i g h t i f t h e M a s a i came r a i d i n g c l o s e t o o u r f o r t b u t I c o u l d n o t f i g h t a g a i n s t t h e K i k u y u because I had come here t o make peace and f r i e n d s h i p w i t h a l l K i k u y u , and i f I f o u g h t a g a i n s t some t h a t would p r e v e n t my purpose, and perhaps on my r e t u r n I pass t h r o ' t h e i r c o u n t r y and t h e n t h e y 1  12  would c o n s i d e r me an enemy."  Lugard pursued h i s l o g i c b y e x p l a i n i n g  t h a t K i k u y u s e e k i n g h i s a i d i n an a l l i a n c e might c o n t r a v e n e a p r e v i o u s t r e a t y o r b l o o d - b r o t h e r h o o d ceremony he o r any o f h i s a s s o c i a t e s m i g h t have w i t h o t h e r c l a n s . . . . J a c k s o n (who o f course was my ' b r o t h e r ' )x M d made b l o o d b r o t h e r s w i t h c h i e f s i n t h e i n t e r i o r , hence t h e y were my b r o t h e r s , and perhaps t h e s e were t h e v e r y ones . . . a g a i n s t whom t h e y wished me t o f i g h t . I d i d not know, and i t was m a n i f e s t l y i m p o s s i b l e t o f i g h t a g a i n s t possible blood b r o t h e r s . ^ Lugard's major p o i n t , however, was h i s e x p l a n a t i o n t o t h e K i k u y u t h a t t h e i r i n t e r n a l d i s p u t e s r e s u l t e d o n l y i n minor consequences.  Far  more s e r i o u s consequences would m a n i f e s t , he suggested, s h o u l d t h e B r i t i s h become i n v o l v e d i n i n t e r - t r i b a l d i s p u t e s . "When t h e K i k u y u f i g h t , " he t o l d h i s ! " b l o o d - b r o t h e r s " , "a man g e t s h i s s k u l l c r a c k e d a t w o r s t .  If  68  the B r i t i s h f i g h t and b r i n g guns, many, many men d i e . k i l l Kikuyu.'' ^ 1  I don't w i s h t o  Thus he " r a t h e r c l e v e r l y " , t o u s e h i s own e x p r e s s i o n ,  conveyed t o t h e K i k u y u t h a t n o t i o n t h a t t h e B r i t i s h were n o t t o be t r i f l e d with. C o n t r a r y , however, t o h i s e x p r e s s e d a v e r s i o n t o t h e f o r m a l t r e a t y , Lugard d i d i n f a c t use t h i s means t o ensure K i k u y u a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e Company.  He d i d n o t adhere t o t h e s t a n d a r d procedure  of using "printed treaty  25 forms",  b u t r a t h e r made o u t h i s own formsof dbcumentmenMorebver he  was c a r e f u l t o conclude t r e a t i e s w i t h K i k u y u he deemed t o be " c h i e f s " . Thus i t must have been e v i d e n t t o him t h a t t h e r e were i n e x i s t e n c e K i k u y u who c o u l d be r e f e r r e d t o as " c h i e f s " s i m p l y because t h e y appeared t o possess some s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e o v e r l o c a l t r i b a l  affairs.  Lugard l e f t D a g o r e t t i on November 2, 1890, bound f o r t h e head o f t h e Lake and t h e kingdom o f Buganda. i o n of the Kikuyu.  He had g a i n e d a f a v o u r a b l e  Tribesmen he encountered  impress-  were " r e a l l y charming  savages"  w i t h "most i n t e l l i g e n t f a c e s , h i g h f o r e h e a d s , w e l l - s h a p e d heads, and i n t e l l i g e n t eyes and e x p r e s s i o n . were e s p e c i a l l y so."  The c h i e f and h i s b r o t h e r s and r e l a t i v e s  E i y e k i ( s i c ) i n t r o d u c e d Lugard t o h i s b r o t h e r s ,  M i r o o , Kahusu and M u r i a k a r a r a who were seen t o be " t h r e e c a p i t a l The K i k u y u  fellows."  ' c h i e f s ' seemed a l s o t o have g r e a t i n f l u e n c e . . . . I n t h e evening on a word o f command, h a l f a dozen w a r r i o r s r u s h e d f o r w a r d w i t h l o n g s t i c k s t o c l e a r the camp o f K i k u y u . . . t h e y went a t i t w i t h a w i l l , and some g o t m e r c i l e s s l y l a s h e d o u t o f camp. A few b i g w a r r i o r s were t r e a t e d l e s s r o u g h l y , b u t t h e s t i c k s f l e w around them, and t h e ground was b e a t e n , and amid much clamour ( t h e y were) f o r c e d t o c l e a r o u t . - ^ '  1  69  An i n d i c a t i o n o f the genuine r e s p e c t and h o s p i t a l i t y shown Lugard by the K i k u y u was  the custom o f s p i t t i n g on the hands b e f o r e s h a k i n g hands.  " I t . w a s r o b v i o u s l y 'quite bone f i d e " , Lugard a s s e r t e d . ed t o see D u a l l a (Lugard's g u i d e ing  "Some seemed o v e r j o y -  a g a i n and s p a t p r o f u s e l y b e f o r e  shak-  hands, b u t i t seemed a mark o f r e s p e c t and f r i e n d s h i p t o do so, and 20  the more c o r d i a l ( K i k u y u ) d i d i t more t h a n once Lugard was  ..."  e s p e c i a l l y s t r u c k by the e x t e n t o f K i k u y u c u l t i v a t i o n  and remarked t h a t t h i s f a c t seemed " t o mark the K i k u y u as an i n d u s t r i o u s race.  T h e i r p a t h s , " he observed, "were biroad and good" and were o b v i o u s l y  designed to serve defensive purposes." ted  K i k u y u s m a l l h o l d i n g s were i r r i g a 21  " v e r y s u c c e s s f u l l y , " w i t h l i t t l e water c o u r s e s around t h e i r p l o t s . K i k u y u w i t h whom Lugard impressed the i d e a o f f r i e n d s h i p w i t h Wakamba  "agreed r e a d i l y and l i k e d the i d e a o f g o i n g t o Machakos and b r i n g i n g l o a d s up from t h e r e . "  "The p e o p l e , " Lugard s t a t e d , "seem o f an e x c e l l e n t d i s p o -  s i t i o n , and s t a n d c h a f f w i t h o u t q u a r r e l l i n g .  I have seen a man  a h a n d f u l o f p o t a t o e s , and t a k e i t a l l as a j o k e . 22 c o m p l a i n t o f any s o r t . " gent,aand  robbed  of  I have h a r d l y had a  . They were " r e a l l y v e r y n i c e f e l l o w s , so  such good-mannered, c i v i l f e l l o w s f o r savages  intelli-  . . . Their faces  betoken g r e a t i n t e l l i g e n c e , and so do t h e i r h i g h f o r e h e a d s and good shaped 23 heads."  He was,  he s a i d , "more f a v o u r a b l y i m p r e s s e d by them t h a n by  o t h e r t r i b e ( h e ) had y e t met  i n Africa."  any  Moreover, he remarked, ". .  .1  had no h e s i t a t i o n i n t r u s t i n g m y s e l f a l o n e among them, even a t c o n s i d e r a b l e 25 d i s t a n c e s from camp . . .  I found them honest and  straightforward."  By 1893, however, d e s p i t e h i s e x p e r i e n c e s and the s e n t i m e n t s he had e x p r e s s e d about the K i k u y u t h r e e y e a r s e a r l i e r , Lugard's a t t i t u d e  had  70  changed c o n s i d e r a b l y .  " I v e r y g r e a t l y d e p l o r e the mismanagement ( o f the  K i k u y u ) w h i c h had p r a c t i c a l l y c l o s e d a c o u n t r y w h i c h bade f a i r t o be most p r o m i s i n g f o r commercial  development between the c o a s t and the  and has c o n v e r t e d the f a i r promise and b l o o d s h e d , enemy, who  the  o f f r i e n d s h i p and peace i n t o  so t h a t the p e o p l e have become a t r e a c h e r o u s and  now massacre any detached men  t h e y can c a t c h  Lake,  hostility embittered  ..."  There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t subsequent t o Lugarddls f i r s t v i s i t t o the a r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p s between wageni and K i k u y u had d e t e r i o r a t e d .  By the  mid-1890's K i k u y u l o o k e d upon most newcomers w i t h the g r e a t e s t f e a r and suspicion.  Open h o s t i l i t y was rampant and k i l l i n g n o t i n f r e q u e n t .  These  a t t i t u d e s were t o s e t the tone o f e n s u i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between K i k u y u  and  the Company, the t r a d e r s , tbiee embryo C o l o n i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and, n o t the l e a s t , among K i k u y u themselves. relationships?  Why  What f a c t o r s caused a d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n  had the K i k u y u become, i n a c o m p a r a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d  o f t i m e , "a t r e a c h e r o u s and e m b i t t e r e d enemy"? Three r e a s o n s t e n d t o h i g h l i g h t the o b v i o u s demise o f Kikuyu-Company relations.  The f i r s t concerns the f o r c e d e v a c u a t i o n o f D a g o r e t t i by  L u g a r d s s u b o r d i n a t e , George W i l s o n . 1  Here i t s h o u l d be r e c a l l e d t h a t  Dag-,  o r e t t i had been c o n s t r u c t e d as a means t o p r o v i s i o n Company caravans bound f o r the Lake.  True Lugard had seen K i k u y u l a n d as b e i n g a p l a c e n o t u n l i k e  the E n g l i s h c o u n t r y s i d e and thus s u i t a b l e , " i n the f a r f u t u r e " f o r w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t : b u t a t t h a t t i m e - h i s i n t e n t i o n was n o t t o " s e t t l e " a t D a g o r e t t i . H i s c o n c e r n was m e r e l y t o e s t a b l i s h f o r the Company j u s t one o f a s t r i n g o f p r o v i s i o n i n g bases between the c o a s t and the  Lake.  71  The K i k u y u , however, saw D a g o r e t t i as a permanent s e t t l e m e n t . F o r them t o be h a r r a s s e d by p a s s i n g caravans was one t h i n g ; f o r them t o have t h e wageni permanently  i n t h e i r m i d s t was a n o t h e r .  They had endured t h e  a t t e n t i o n s o f t h e c o a s t a l marauders and from t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h Thomson, T e l e k i , von Hohnel and some armed t r a d e r s , t h e y were w e l l aware o f t h e " f i r e - p o w e r " o f Europeans.  True t h e y had been k i n d t o L u g a r d — a  — b u t as an " i n d i v i d u a l " .  European  Now t h e K i k u y u were c o n f r o n t e d n o t w i t h Europeans  as " i n d i v i d u a l s " b u t r a t h e r w i t h t h e p o t e n t i a l o f Europeans en masse. Lugard, t h r o u g h p r o b a b l y . t h e power o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y , had i n d e e d e s t a b l i s h ed a r a p p o r t w i t h t h e athamaki, e s p e c i a l l y W a i y a k i , b u t h i s d e p a r t u r e a vacuum h a r d t o f i l l .  left  George W i l s o n , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r D a g o r e t t i , was f r e -  q u e n t l y s i c k and thus i n d i s p o s e d t o engage h i m s e l f i n t h e  time-consuming  27 a c t i v i t i e s o f A f r i c a n diplomacy. and i n e x p e r i e n c e d .  P u r k i s s , a n o t h e r Company man, was young  N e l s o n ' s b r i e f t e n u r e a t D a g o r e t t i was i l l - f a t e d b y a 28  m u t i n y o f Company a s k a r i .  Thus i n a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e ,  Lugard's good example and f o u n d a t i o n s f o r t h e f u t u r e were wrecked. Company was f o r c e d t o d e s e r t D a g o r e t t i and r e t i r e t o t h e comparative  The safety  o f Machakos. The second r e a s o n e x p l a i n i n g a change i n K i k u y u a t t i t u d e c a n be a s c r i b e d t o the b e h a v i o u r o f i l l - d i s c i p l i n e d Company l e v i e s .  Kikuyu sus-  p i c i o n s and h o s t i l i t y g e n e r a l l y seemed t o have been e x a c e r b a t e d b y Company attempts t o a r r e s t tribesmen f o r a l l e g e d s t e a l i n g .  As a r e s u l t  o f t e n brokecouit,, houses were burned and l i v e s t o c k c o n f i s c a t e d .  fighting Typical of  t h e s e i n c i d e n t s was t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f Company employees from drawing  water  and the a c t i v i t i e s o f a s k a r i , who, on a j o u r n e y t o Machakos l o o t e d and  72  k i l l e d goats.^  y  The e a r l y l i t e r a t u r e abounds w i t h such i n c i d e n t s and t h e  r e t a l i a t o r y t a c t i c s of both sides.  Even Jackson's c a r a v a n was accused o f 30  s t e a l i n g crops and v i o l a t i n g women.  Of major s i g n i f i c a n c e , however, i s  the way the K i k u y u became v i o l e n t l y i n v o l v e d n o t o n l y w i t h t h e Company b u t w i t h each o t h e r .  Company o f f i c i a l s and r e t a i n e r s g o t themselves em-  b r o i l e d i n t r i b a l squabbles b y s i d i n g w i t h one a g a i n s t the o t h e r . on r e c o r d , f o r example, an i n s t a n c e o f a K i k u y u p e r s u a d i n g  There i s  a l a r g e number  o f Company men t o accompany him on an e x p e d i t i o n t o r e c o v e r a l l e g e d s t o l e n cattle.  Proceeding  on the p r e t e x t o f s e e k i n g f o o d , t h e e x p e d i t i o n was 31  " s u c c e s s f u l " and r e t u r n e d t o i t s Company base w i t h t h e l o o t e d s t o c k . B o t h Company a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , P u r k i s s and N e l s o n , were f a c e d w i t h a s e r i o u s breakdown o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery i n s o u t h e r n K i k u y u l a n d :  and most o f  t h e i r , t r o u b l e s can be t r a c e d t o l a c k o f c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r A f r i c a n l e v i e s . I n 1892, moreover, t h e s i t u a t i o n was worsened c o n s i d e r a b l y by t h e decree t h a t a l l Company s t a t i o n s s h o u l d be s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g .  Now i t appears t h a t  o f f i c i a l c a r t e - b l a n c h e had been g i v e n t o r a i d f o r f o o d o r s t o c k — a t h a t was n a t u r a l l y t o e x a c e r b a t e . t h e to an e s c a l a t i o n o f t h e t u r m o i l . i c a t i o n that the Kikuyu The  situation  problem and one w h i c h i n e v i t a b l y l e a d  Hence Lugard was a b l e t o s a y w i t h  "became e s t r a n g e d  justif-  (and) h o p e l e s s l y d i s a f f e c t e d . "  e v a c u a t i o n o f D a g o r e t t i was o n l y a temporary r e s p i t e .  Soon t h e  Company was back t o t h e s t a t i o n i n s t r e n g t h ; i n t e n t t h i s t i m e i n e s t a b l i s h ing  a more.permanent p r e s e n c e .  I n t h e t e r r i t o r y o f Lugard's o l d f r i e n d ,  W a i y a k i , work commenced on a new s t a t i o n t o be named Fort;:-Smith a f t e r the leader of the e x p e d i t i o n .  But around t h e a r e a o f t h e new f a c i l i t y r e l a t i o n s  between t h e Company, i t s s u p p o r t e r s and t h e K i k u y u , d i d n o t improve.  The  73  death of Maktubu and the arrest and subsequent death of Waiyaki served f u r ther to engender increased hatred and h o s t i l i t y . The t h i r d reason explaining a change i n Kikuyu attitude i s associated with the deaths of Maktubu and Waiyaki.  Maktubu, a Nyasa, was a  Company levy who had served under Thomson and von Hohnel.  Described by  Thomson as a man endowed with "an utter absence of tact i n dealing with 32 men under him" he had almost shot Martin  and had quarrelled perpetually  33 with Dualla.  The Company often despatched him to forage f o r food and to  act generally as an intermediary i n dealing with Kikuyu around Fort Smith. In mid-1892 Maktubu was induced to accompany a Kikuyu collaborator, Kamau Wamagata, on a journey to a v i l l a g e to c o l l e c t a marriage dowry.  Both men  took with them several Kikuyu and f i f t e e n Company askari. On a r r i v a l at the v i l l a g e i n question they demanded the repayment of the dowry and a f i g h t broke out.  The invaders, outnumbered and without a i d from Fort Smith,  were almost a l l k i l l e d .  A survivor subsequently reported that Maktubu and  his followers had been k i l l e d while innocently searching f o r food.  In  August 1892 the Company sent a.strong expedition to punish the Kikuyu re-  34 sponsible f o r Maktubu's death. Meanwhile, the muthumaki Waiyaki, blood-brother of Lugard, fearing he might be punished f o r events surrounding the Maktubu incident, went to see Purkiss of the Company.  Soon an argument ensued during which the Kikuyu  drew h i s sword (simi) and attempted to k i l l the European.  A s c u f f l e took  place and Waiyaki.appears to have been struck on the head with h i s own weapon.  Overpowered and beaten Waiyaki was handcuffed and l e f t outside  overnight.  On August 19, 1892 he was escorted by Company askari on a jour-  ney to e x i l e on the coast.  But Waiyaki never reached Mombasa: he died and  74  was b u r i e d a t K i b w e z i . The a f f a i r o f W a i y a k i  i s o f importance i n v i e w o f h i s p e r s o n a l  change o f a t t i t u d e toward the whiteman. i n t e r p o l a t e from the evidence  Whereas i t i s o n l y p o s s i b l e t o  c o l l e c t i v e Kikuyu a t t i t u d e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e , .  i n the case o f W a i y a k i , t o t r a c e w i t h c e r t a i n t y h i s p e r s o n a l change o f attitude.  J u s t a few y e a r s b e f o r e h i s death, f o r example, he had been  instrumental i n a i d i n g T e l e k i ' s safe.traverse of Kikuyuland.  Lugard  found common cause w i t h him i n the ceremony o f b l o o d - b r o t h e r h o o d — a w h i c h i s w e l l r e c o r d e d i n Lugard's w r i t i n g s .  fact  Even o t h e r European employ-  ees o f the Company, n o t a b l y P u r k i s s and Smith, had e a r l i e r developed r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Waiyaki of mutual t r u s t .  W a i y a k i had,  a  f o r example,  d i s p l a y e d remarkable t a c t i n r e t u r n i n g t o the Company i t s s t o l e n p r o p e r t y on more t h a n one o c c a s i o n . v i s i t to Waiyaki's  But i n the s h o r t time between Lugard's  first  a r e a , and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t and o p e r a t i o n o f the Company  s t a t i o n ( F o r t h S m i t h ) W a i y a k i i s p e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e toward the s t r a n g e r s  un-  deniably;^ changed: the p r e s e n c e a n d . a c t i v i t i e s o f the w h i t e m e n — a n d t h e i r collaborators—haddundoubtedly The  demise o f W a i y a k i  c o n t r i b u t e d p r o f o u n d l y t o t h a t change. i n c i t e d Kikuyu to f u r t h e r h o s t i l e a c t s .  In  consequence r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the Company and p e o p l e l i v i n g i n i t s proximity continued to d e t e r i o r a t e .  P u r k i s s appears d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d as  b e i n g v i r t u a l l y a c a p t i v e w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s o f Fort.u Smith; w h i l e o u t s i d e waged an e s c a l a t i o n o f f r i c t i o n and h o s t i l i t y f o r the n e x t f o u r y e a r s . By 1893 P o r t a l commented t h a t the K i k u y u were "a  t h B i P o u g h l y  bad l o t " w i t h  "a bad name, w h i c h s t i c k s t o them l i k e a b u r r , and the s t r a n g e r . . . t r e a t s them a c c o r d i n g l y . "  A n o t h e r statement,  t y p i c a l i n i t s extreme, was  t h a t the  75  K i k u y u s h o u l d be "shot on s i g h t " " ^ — a s e n t i m e n t n o t c a l c u l a t e d t o c r e a t e a f a v o u r a b l e atmosphere and c e r t a i n l y a r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e  from Lugard's  i m p r e s s i o n o f K i k u y u as b e i n g " r e a l l y n i c e f e l l o w s " . There i s no doubt t h a t had t h e K i k u y u been c a p a b l e o f a c t i n g c o l l e c t i v e l y a g a i n s t t h e Company, o f mounting c o n c e r t e d a t t a c k s upon Company s t a t i o n s o r employees, t h e Europeans would have f o r c e d t o w i t h d r a w  Kikuyuland.  But a c t i n g t o g e t h e r , f o r common cause, was o b v i o u s l y n o t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e Kikuyu.  Cracks - i n t h e firmament o f t r i b a l s o c i e t y were w e l l r e c o g n i z e d ;  the Company's s a l v a t i o n l a y i n i t s a b i l i t y t o ' p e r c e i v e w h i c h ones i t would e x p l o i t t o i t s a d v a n t a g e — w h e r e and how f a r t o d r i v e home a w e d g e — a n d thus s u s t a i n i t s e l f i n Kikuyuland.  I n consequence the" Company i n c r e a s i n g l y  sought o u t K i k u y u c o l l a b o r a t o r s , i n v o l v e d i t s e l f i n p e t t y and p e r s o n a l t r i b a l a f f a i r s , and g e n e r a l l y s i d e d w i t h one group ( o r i n d i v i d u a l ) a g a i n s t another.  The M a k t u b u t a f f a i r , f o r example, i s e v i d e n c e enough o f Company  w i l l i n g n e s s t o become i n v o l v e d i n t r i b a l d i s p u t e s — a l b e i t , i n t h i s u n o f f i c i a l involvement. ing.  Kikuyu  Official  case,  s a n c t i o n , however, was n o t l o n g i n com-  " f r i e n d l i e s " began t o a c t i v e l y seek t h e a i d o f t h e Company  against other Kikuyu. i t needed a l l i e s .  Moreover, t h e Company responded r e c i p r o c a l l y when  P u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n s were now o f t e n comprised o f Com-  pany employees and K i k u y u w a r r i o r s .  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , athamaki were now a b l e  to s e t t l e o l d s c o r e s , reap t h e rewards o f v i c t o r y i n l i v e s t o c k and g e n e r a l l y extend t h e i r i n f l u e n c e over l a r g e r areas o f the c o u n t r y — a l l a t the expense o f t h e i r enemies, r e a l o r imagined, and w i t h t h e a i d o f t h e Com37 pany.  76  A factor which tended to complicate an already complex s i t u a t i o n was the settlement of Masai around the Company stations i n southern Kikuyuland.  No doubt Company o f f i c i a l s saw the advantage of placing several hun-  dred Masai warriors between themselves and the Kikuyu.  Providing the Com-  pany could successfully maintain good r e l a t i o n s with the Masai—and t r a d i t i o n a l l y they had been good—the yoiaaggnoran used as a Company defense force.  could be conveniently  By 1894 several hundred Masai were quar-  tered around Fort Smith, an area into which they had never previously ventured i n force and which f o r many years had been s o l i d l y Kikuyu.  Soon  the i n i t i a l group of Masai were joined by others and by 3i.uly, 1894 there were substantial numbers of Masai warriors l i v i n g i n Kikuyuland enjoying 39 the protection of the Company.  Because of t h e i r warlike t r a d i t i o n the  Masai made excellent Sighting material to supplement Company expeditions against dissident Kikuyu.  Furthermore, the Company did not need to incur  the expense of feeding and housing them as i t d i d i n the case of i t s own askari.  Kikuyuland was r i c h i n foodstuffs and provided an adequate source  of sustenance to support the Masai.  Thus f o r these reasons, foraging of  Kikuyu smallholdings became a common occurrence. In January 1893 ForthSmith was attacked andfPurkissdwas->forced to seek the a i d of Ainsworth at Machakos. 1893 the f o r t was beseiged completely.  For s i x days i n January  On his a r r i v a l i n Kikuyuland, Portal  found Purkiss " p r a c t i c a l l y a prisoner with a l l h i s people." ^ 4  Portal observ-  ed to Rodd that "the European i n charge does not dare venture two hundred yards from his stockade without an armed escort." "'" 4  77  Meanwhile punitive expeditions continued.  Francis H a l l under-  took major raids, from his base at Fort Smith, on Kikuyu i t u r a i n the area.  Large numbers of c a t t l e , sheep and goats were confiscated as H a l l  t e s t i f i e s i n his d i a r i e s .  "The next day I counted the s p o i l s , 922 sheep 4-2  and goats and s i x c a t t l e . "  On another occasion, aided t h i s time by  15 Nubians, 87 Masai and 50 " l o y a l " Kikuyu l e d by the muthumaki, Kinanjui, H a l l attacked a Kikuyu i t u r a and captured 550 goats and seven head of cattle.  Not s a t i s f i e d at the r e s u l t s H a l l decided to loose o f f my pack of war-dogs again and, as I had got information as to the whereabouts of t h e i r stock, I hoped to get a good haul and s e t t l e the matter. The same 'bobbery pack' went again, though there were over 100 Masai this time The expedition was a grand success, f o r they captured 800 goats and 16 head of c a t t l e and burnt a l o t of villages.4-3 To make matters worse, i n terms of Kikuyu/Company relationships,  a l l t h i s was going on when famine was beginning to make i t s e l f f e l t i n the  country.  Between 1894 and 1899 the Kikuyu were h i t by a series of  natural disasters which sapped their resistance to the invaders.  In 1894  and again i n 1895 swarms of locusts descended on Kikuyuland, to be followed i n rapid succession by drought, plague and severe food shortage. movements of Kikuyu took place i n a search f o r f o o d . ^ further to the general turmoil.  Mass  These factors added  Now chaos reigned i n Kikuyuland and i t s  most eminent white witness, S i r Gerald Portal, emissary extraordinary of Her Majesty's Government, spared not the Company.and i t s o f f i c e r s i n his description of i t .  78  P o r t a l ' s j o u r n e y from the c o a s t t o Uganda and r e t u r n was i c a n t landmark i n the demise o f the Company. Z a n z i b a r , P o r t a l was by L o r d Cromer.  a signif-  U n t i l r e c e n t l y Consul-General,  esteemed by S a l i s b u r y and recommended f o r h i g h o f f i c e  S e l e c t e d t o r e p o r t on the o p e r a t i o n s o f the Company, he  a d v i s e d the F o r e i g n O f f i c e t h a t Mackinnon's b r a i n c h i l d , The i s h E a s t A f r i c a Company, was  Imperial B r i t -  "on i t s deathbed from a c o m b i n a t i o n o f penur-  i o u s n e s s , f a l s e economy and r e c k l e s s e x t r a v a g e n c e . "  The B r i t i s h Government,  he a s s e r t e d , s h o u l d a l l o w the Company t o e x p i r e r a t h e r t h e n p r o l o n g i t s • 45 a c t i v i t i e s by m i s p l a c e d e f f o r t s a t a s s i s t a n c e . o f P o r t a l ' s j o u r n e y and h i s p r i v a t e correspondence The  Both the o f f i c i a l  account  condemned the Company.  s o - c a l l e d Mackinnon Road, he s a i d , was no more t h a n overgrown p a t h  Company a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a l o n g i t s whole l e n g t h was  and  v i r t u a l l y non-existent.  Company maps, p u r p o r t i n g t o show a s e r i e s o f s t a t i o n s o f p o s t s from the c o a s t t o Uganda, d i d not convey the t r u e s t a t e o f a f f a i r s .  Some s t a t i o n s  had been abandoned w h i l e o t h e r s were i n a d e q u a t e l y s t a f f e d and Worse s t i l l ,  the s u r r o u n d i n g t r i b e s had been a l i e n a t e d by Company employees  o c c u p y i n g the s t a t i o n s .  Company f a c i l i t i e s i n K i k u y u l a n d , he n o t e d , were  a c t u a l l y b e s i e g e d f o r l o n g p e r i o d s o f t i m e . . No doubt t h i s was 1892  defended.  due t o the  Company d e c l a r a t i o n t h a t i t s i n t e r i o r s t a t i o n s s h o u l d be s e l f - s u p p o r t -  i n g — a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h meant t h a t Company employees were f o r c e d t o r a i d K i k u y u shambas f o r f o o d . ^ P o r t a l ' s r e p o r t was  s u b s e q u e n t l y p r e s e n t e d t o the B r i t i s h Government  and i t s major recommendations suggested a P r o t e c t o r a t e over E a s t A f r i c a .  t h a t Great B r i t a i n s h o u l d d e c l a r e  Furthermore the r o u t e t o Uganda s h o u l d  n o t be the "overgrown" Mackinnon Road, a u s e l e s s means.of moving t r o o p s  79  t o Uganda i n defence o f t h e s t r a t e g i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t N i l e s o u r c e , b u t rather the r a i l w a y .  Thus t h e d e a t h - k n e l l o f t h e Company was sounded:  h a v i n g u t t e r e d i t w i t h such damning eloquence,  P o r t a l d i e d w i t h i n a month.  B r o a d l y s p e a k i n g t h e I m p e r i a l B r i t i s h E a s t A f r i c a Company was s u c c e s s f u l i n extending B r i t i s h i n f l u e n c e i n East A f r i c a . s h o e - s t r i n g approach  Despite a  t h e Company's o u t s t a n d i n g achievement, whether-  by d e s i g n o r f o r t u i t o u s a c c i d e n t , l a y i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a B r i t i s h 4-7 presence and a d e n i a l o f German a m b i t i o n s .  The Company's f a i l u r e ,  however, l a y i n an i n a b i l i t y t o r e s o l v e problems o f i t s presence the K i k u y u .  Lugard had shrewdly n e g o t i a t e d h i s passage t h r o u g h  among Kikuyu-  l a n d , was u n u s u a l l y impressed b y K i k u y u and had developed a f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h eminent mathamaki, n o t a b l y W a i y a k i .  Using t a c t ,  diplo-  macy and a s u g g e s t i o n o f f o r c e , Lugard had d e p a r t e d t h e a r e a o p t i m i s t i c about t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f Company s e t t l e m e n t . proved  But subsequent e v e n t s  otherwise. George W i l s o n , l e f t i n charge o f Company a f f a i r s , was o f t e n s i c k  and thus i n d i s p o s e d t o g i v e time and t r o u b l e t o t h e i n t r i c a c i e s o f A f r i can diplomacy.  Others l i k e P u r k i s s and N e l s o n p r o v e d i n e x p e r i e n c e d and  t h u s i l l - e q u i p p e d t o b u i l d c o n s t r u c t i v e l y on Lugard's f o u n d a t i o n .  Both  o f f i c e r s were unable t o c o n t a i n t h e Company's A f r i c a n l e v i e s , some o f whom were K i k u y u , from r a i d i n g , t h i e v i n g , and g e n e r a l l y h a r a s s i n g t h e n a t i v e population.  Indeed, b y 1892, H a l l  actuaihlyaehcouragedr'theaplund'er  o f n a t i v e s m a l l h o l d i n g s b y Company employees. I n t h e f u r o r e and h o s t i l i t y engendered b y t h e Company p r e s e n c e , W a i y a k i , t h e muthumaki o f whom Lugard had thought so h i g h l y , was a r r e s t e d  80  and d e p o r t e d , t o d i e s u b s e q u e n t l y i n the hands o f the B r i t i s h . h o s t i l i t y e s c a l a t e d t o a f e v e r p i t c h , perhaps i n g seen as a p a t r i o t : a muthumaki who  Kikuyu  engendered by W a i y a k i  be-  had made a genuine r e m o n s t r a t i o n  a g a i n s t the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the Company, w h i l e o t h e r eminent K i k u y u were collaborating  f o r t h e i r own s e l f i s h r e a s o n s .  By 1895 P o r t a l found K i k u y u l a n d i n a t u r m o i l and p r a c t i c a l l y untenable.  H i s recommendations t h a t the B r i t i s h Government t a k e o v e r the  c o u n t r y were a c c e p t e d and soon the Company a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n K i k u y u l a n d was brought t o an end. athamaki had l e a r n t  The t r o u b l e s , however, remained,  f o r by now  Kikuyu  t o use t h e B r i t i s h t o f i g h t t h e i r l o c a l wars and o t h e r  f o r c e s were a t work, n o t a b l y armed t r a d e r s , whose presence e x a c e r b a t e d already exceedingly turbulent s i t u a t i o n .  an  81  FOOTNOTES  See R. Robinson?and John G a l l a g h e r , A f r i c a and the V i c t o r i a n s : The O f f i c i a l M i n d o f I m p e r i a l i s m , (London: M a c m i l l a n , 1961), p a s s i m pp. 198-202. " I n the autumn o f 1892 E g y p t i a n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were uppermost i n the minds o f the B r i t i s h o f f i c i a l s as t h e y g r a p p l e d w i t h the q u e s t i o n o f Uganda." See a l s o p. 314- and pp. 4-62-472 f o r a d d i t i o n a l d e t a i l s . A l s o , J.P. F a r l e r , "England and Germany i n E a s t Africa',' i n F o r t n i g h t l y Review, ( F e b r u a r y 1889), pp. 157-65. The 2nd L o r d Grimt h o r p e , "England and Germany i n A f r i c a " i n F o r t n i g h t l y Review ( J u l y 1890), pp. 1 4 4 - 6 4 . Great B r i t a i n , F o r e i g n O f f i c e , "Arrangement Between Great B r i t a i n and Germany r e g a r d i n g Boundaries i n E a s t A f r i c a , J u l y 25, 1893,'"'in T r e a t y S e r i e s , No. 1 4 , 1893 and S i r F.W. Dewinton, "England and Germany i n E a s t A f r i c a " i n 1 9 t h Century, (May 1890), pp. 721-6.  Perhaps t h e b e s t work on the r a i l w a y , c e r t a i n l y the most comp r e h e n s i v e , i s M.F. H i l l , Permanent Way, ( N a i r o b i , EAPH, 2 v o l s . 1950). The b e s t t o p i c a l account i s u n d o u b t e d l y C h a r l e s M i l l e r , The L u n a t i c E x p r e s s : An E n t e r t a i n m e n t i n I m p e r i a l i s m , (New York: M a c m i l l a n , 1971).  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the c h a r t e r e d company was a time-honoured implement w h i c h had l a i d the f o u n d a t i o n s o f much o f the- B r i t i s h Empire. More s i g n i f i c a n t , perhaps, i s the f a c t t h a t l a y i n g t h e s e f o u n d a t i o n s had been c a r r i e d out w i t h o u t s t r a i n i n g the T r e a s u r y p u r s e o r a p p e a l i n g t o the t a x - p a y e r . For y e a r s businessmen had been p o o l i n g t h e i r a s s e t s , sometimes w i t h R o y a l s a n c t i o n , and i n s t i t u t i n g companies l i k e the Hudson's Bay Company, t h e B r i t i s h E a s t I n d i a Company, and o t h e r s . O f t e n laws were made by companies, t a x e s . c o l l e c t e d , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and m i l i t a r y -•' f o r c e s i n s t i t u t e d n o t t o m e n t i o n the development o f a g r e a t d e a l o f l u c r a t i v e commerce. D u r i n g the l a t t e r p a r t o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y Great B r i t a i n gave her a s s e n t t o the c r e a t i o n o f f o u r c h a r t e r e d companies and endowed them w i t h e x t e n s i v e p o l i t i c a l and commercial p r i v i l e g e s . Three o f t h e s e companies were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the A f r i c a n sphere o f e n t e r p r i s e and p r o v i d e d much o f the impetus f o r i m p e r i a l e x p a n s i o n i n West, S o u t h and E a s t Africa. S i n c e a l l t h r e e companies were i n a u g u r a t e d i n the space o f n i n e y e a r s i t may be presumed t h a t B r i t i s h o f f i c i a l d o m , w h i c h had a c q u i r e d the h a b i t o f l o o k i n g askance a t p r i v a t e o v e r s e a companies, began t o v i e w such u n d e r t a k i n g s w i t h a new a i r o f r e s p e c t a b i l i t y . The changing p o l i t i c a l ^ c l i m a t e o f the second p e r i o d o f i m p e r i a l e x p a n s i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y the  .82  ' A f r i c a n Scramble' o f t h e 1880's, saw once more government c o n d o n a t i o n o f p r i v a t e a m b i t i o n s i n t h e h i t h e r t o undeveloped p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d . See i n r e s p e c t o f t h e development o f t h e I m p e r i a l B r i t i s h E a s t A f r i c a Company, John S. G a l b r a i t h , Mackinnon and E a s t A f r i c a 1878-189$: A S t u d y i n t h e New I m p e r i a l i s m , (Cambridge: UP, 1972). Other works on t h e Company i n c l u d e : M a r i e de K i e w i e t , " H i s t o r y o f t h e I m p e r i a l B r i t i s h E a s t A f r i c a Company, 1876-1895," PHD T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f London, 1955; P.L. McDermott, B r i t i s h E a s t A f r i c a o r IBEA: A H i s t o r y o f t h e F o r m a t i o n and Work o f t h e I m p e r i a l B r i t i s h E a s t A f r i c a Company, (London, Chapman H a l l , 1893); E.R. Vere-Hodge, I m p e r i a l B r i t i s h E a s t " A f r i c a Company, (London: M a c m i l l a n , I960); Roland O l i v e r , "Some F a c t o r s m t h e B r i t i s h O c c u p a t i o n o f E a s t A f r i c a , 1884-1894" i n The Uganda J o u r n a l , v o l . 15, (1951), pp. 49-64-; see a l s o S i r H a r r y Johnston's comments on t h e cause f o r e x i s t e n c e o f t h e Company i n "The E a s t A f r i c a n Problem" i n N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y , ( J u l y 1908), pp. 567-87. " . . . The parsimony o f t h e T r e a s u r y . . . was t h e d i r e c t cause o f t h e c a l l i n g i n t o e x i s t e n c e o f t h e s e c h a r t e r e d companies."  S e e R o b i n s o n and G a l l a g h e r , A f r i c a , pp. 199-200. ". . . b y 1887 S a l i s b u r y no l o n g e r o b j e c t e d t o t h e n o t i o n o f p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e o c c u p y i n g t h e c o a s t s and e v e n t u a l l y t h e whole sphere a l l o t t e d under t h e Anglo-German Agreement. The sooner t h i s t e r r i t o r y was o c c u p i e d , t h e b e t t e r . . . B u t i f t h i s was t o be done, i t would have t o be w i t h o u t p u b l i c expense. Mackinnon had founded h i s B r i t i s h E a s t A f r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n and t h e F o r e i g n O f f i c e began t o encourage h i m t o e s t a b l i s h i t on t h e m a i n l a n d . H  F o r t h e development o f Mombasa as E a s t A f r i c a n e n t r e p o t and Company h e a d q u a r t e r s see H. de B l i j , Mombasa, ( M i c h i g a n : . N o r t h w e s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968).  "George Mackenzie a r r i v e d i n Z a n z i b a r as managing d i r e c t o r i n October 1888. I t was M a c k e n z i e ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o o r g a n i z e t h e headq u a r t e r s a t Mombasa, t o c o n c i l i a t e t h e l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n , and t o f o r m u l a t e a p l a n o f a c t i o n f o r commercial development." See G a l b r a i t h , Mackinnon, p. 150.  The Times, London, 27 March 1890. "We a r e w i t n e s s i n g t h e p r o c e s s known i n p r i v a t e l i f e as ' t r y i n g i t on' . . . . The K a r l P e t e r s e x p e d i t i o n i s c l e a r l y and avowedly i n t e n d e d t o c u t us o f f from t h e ' i n t e r i o r , b y e s t a b l i s h i n g German i n f l u e n c e a t t h e back o f o u r t e r r i t o r y . "  83  °See Margery Perham ed., The Diaries of Lord Lugard, (London: Faber and Faber, 1959); Lugard, The Years of Adventure, 1858-1898, (London: C o l l i n s , 1956) and Lugard, The Years of Authority, (London: C o l l i n s , I960). See also Lugard's own works, Capt. F.D. Lugard, The Rise of Our East A f r i c a n Empire, (London: Blackwood, 1893), 2 vols.; The Dual Mandate i n A f r i c a , (London: Blackwood, 1923) and "The Rise of Our East A f r i c a n Empire" i n Blackwood's, (Dec. 1893), pp. 865-91.  9 Perham, Lugard, v o l . 1, pp. 206, 460 " . . . the only person who has up to the present time benefited by our enterprise i n the heart of A f r i c a has been Mr. Hiriam Maxim." (A remark attributed to S i r Charles Dilke. ) "^Perham, The Diaries, p. 318.  ^Ibid. 12 Ibid., p. 344. 13 Ibid. Reference to ( S i r ) Frederick Jackson, Company o f f i c e r subsequently absorbed by the Protectorate Administration (1895) and placed i n charge of the Mau D i s t r i c t . From 1911-18 Jackson was Governor of Uganda Protectorate. "^Perham, The Diaries, p. 345.  15 Ibid., p. 318. "I also made a treaty, but as I do not believe i n the printed treaty forms of the Company by which a man gives h i s land and a l l his rights of rule to the Company i n exchange for t h e i r 'Govt, and protection,' I made out my own treaty form. This Company's treaty i s an utter fraud. No man i f he understood would sign i t , and to say that a savage chief has been t o l d that he cedes a l l rights to the Company i n exchange f o r nothing i s an obvious untruth."  "^Variously referred to i n the early l i t e r a t u r e as Waiyaki, Wayaki or Wyaki.  84  17  Perham, The Diaries, p. 315.  18 Ibid., p. 31419 Dualla was a most unusual Somali guide and caravan headman. He had been with Stanley i n the Congo and had accompanied, also, the Von Hohnel/Teleki expedition. He spoke English, Arabic, Swahili andSomali. He had t r a v e l l e d i n Europe and America and had l i v e d f o r some time i n England. His home was i n Aden. He was, says, Lugard, "the most energetic, valuable native I have ever met, thoroughly trustworthy and very conscientious and w i l l i n g . His f a u l t l a y i n h i s rough and a r b i t r a r y methods with the men . . . He was feared and d i s l i k e d by the men. . . Porters were treated as mere beasts of burden. Flogging—sometimes with great c r u e l t y — c h a i n i n g of men together i n gangs . . . beating men who lagged behind i n the rear of the caravan . . . abandoning others on the march who were unable to come on . . . " Lugard would not allow him to f l o g porters and had "quite a personal a f f e c t i o n f o r him . . . " See Lugard, The Rise, pp. 302-320 Perham, The Diaries, p. 315.  2 1  I b i d . , p.  316.  Ibid., p. 338.  2 3  Ibid.  24 Perham, Lugard, v o l . 1, p.  202.  25 ^Ibid. 26 Lugard, The Rise, pp. 336-7. Not only Lugard was disturbed by the turn of events. Thomson, "East A f r i c a " commented that "The country had been thrown back into a worse condition of anarchy and savagery than i t was twenty years ago. European t r a v e l l e r s , however well-armed and protected, cannot now go where formerly a s o l i t a r y i n d i v i d u a l armed only with an umbrella could formerly pass with safety."  85  27  Perham, Lugard, v o l . 1, p. 203. See also Lugard,. The Rise, pp. 335-6. Wilson was dismissed by the Company for h i s action i n withdrawing Dagoretti. According to Lugard "the f a u l t did not l i e with Wilson." E.R. Vere-Hodge, Imperial B r i t i s h , pp. 24-6 says that Wilson's career was not ruined by the unfortunate circumstances of Dagoretti f o r " l a t e r he rose to high rank i n the service of the government of Uganda." 28 Vere-Hodge, Imperial B r i t i s h , pp. 76-7. "Captain Nelson, late of the Emin Pasha R e l i e f Expedition, was sent to Kikuyu during 1892, but his b r i e f influence does not seem to have been benign. He engaged i n punitive expeditions of a questionable nature not only against the Kikuyu but against more p a c i f i c t r i b e s l i k e the Taita. Soon a f t e r his a r r i v a l at Kikuyu there was a mutiny against the garrison, while Nelson himself died a short while a f t e r t h i s episode. 29 H.B. Thomas, "George Wilson and Dagoretti Fort" i n Uganda Journal, v o l . 23, (1959), pp. 173-7. 30  ^Perham, ed., The Diaries, pp. 299-300.  -^Thomas, "George Wilson," pp. 173-77. 32  J  Thomson, Through, p.  20.  33 Ibid., pp. 284-6 and von Hohnel, The Discovery, v o l . 1, See also p. 103 for description of Martin's a c t i v i t i e s . There are various accounts of the expedition and Maktubu's death. See Perham, ed., The Diaries, pp. 377-80; Perham, Lugard, v o l . 2, p. 537 and Major J.R.L. Macdonald, Soldiering and Surveying i n B r i t i s h East A f r i c a 1891-1894, (London: Arnold,) 1897). 34  pp. 201-2.  35 Macdonald, Soldiering, pp. 115-9. B r i t i s h , p. 78.  Also, Vere-Hodge, Imperial  - ^ S i r Gerald Portal, The Mission to Uganda i n 1893, Arnold, 1894), pp. 89-93-  (London:  86  37  B . E . F . H a l l , "How Peace Came t o K i k u y u : Extracts of Letters from F r a n c i s George H a l l " i n J o u r n a l o f t h e R o y a l A f r i c a n S o c i e t y , v o l . 3 7 ,  (Oct. 1938), pp. 432-48.  "^Masai w a r r i o r c l a s s e s .  Hall,  3 9  "How Peace Came," p. 439.  \Wller, The L u n a t i c , pp. 3 1 0 - 5 . See a l s o Vere-Hodge, I m p e r i a l B r i t i s h , pp. 76-7. "As f o r K i k u y u , P o r t a l d e s c r i b e d i t t o t h e F o r e i g n O f f i c e as b e i n g ' p r a c t i c a l l y i n a s t a t e o f s i e g e and i n c o n s t a n t danger from t h e h o s t i l i t y o f t h e n a t i v e s . ' The Company's i n f l u e n c e , he d e c l a r e d , was o n l y b e i n g m a i n t a i n e d b y 'sending a l m o s t d a i l y l o o t i n g and r a i d i n g p a r t i e s t o b u r n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g v i l l a g e s and s i e z e t h e c r o p s and c a t t l e . " Moreover., P u r k i s s , Vere-Hodge o b s e r v e s , was n e v e r i n t e n d e d t o be more t h a n an a s s i s t a n t a t t h e f o r t b u t t h r o u g h a s t r o k e o f f a t e became t h e Company's A c t i n g S u p e r i n t e n d e n t a t t h e " c h i e f t r o u b l e s p o t . "  ^ P o r t a l t o Rodd, from N z o i , 22 i . 93, F.O. 2.60 quoted i n O l i v e r , " B r i t i s h O c c u p a t i o n , " p. 56.  ^ H a l l , "How Peace Came," p. 43V. 2  ^ I b i d . , p. 441. 3  ^D.R.F. T a y l o r , "Changing Food H a b i t s i n K i k u y u l a n d " J o u r n a l o f A f r i c a n S t u d i e s , v o l . 4, (1970), p. 340.  i n Canadian  45  G a l b r a i t h , Mackinnon, p. 214.  ^ I b i d . , pp. 2 2 8 - 9 , from sundry correspondence quoted and P o r t a l , The M i s s i o n , p a s s i m . See a l s o M i l l e r , The L u n a t i c , pp. 310-15 and V e r e Hodge, I m p e r i a l B r i t i s h , pp. 76-82.  87  O l i v e r , "Some F a c t o r s , " pp. 4-9-64. See a l s o J o h n s t o n , "The E a s t A f r i c a n , " p. 5 6 9 . " . • . (The Company) . . . secured f o r u s , h i t by b i t , t h e whole v a s t a r e a between t h e I n d i a n Ocean, t h e Congo S t a t e , the E g y p t i a n Sudan, and t h e c o n f i n e s o f S o m a l i l a n d . They o u t b i d and o u t w i t t e d e q u a l l y p a t r i o t i c Germans, as s e n s i b l e ( s i c ) as we were o f the supreme a d v a n t a g e s — s t r a t e g i c and e c o n o m i c — o f E q u a t o r i a l A f r i c a . "  CHAPTER A ARMED TRADERS  D u r i n g t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and b e f o r e s e r i o u s e f f o r t s were made t o p a c i f y t h e K i k u y u , w e l l - a r m e d  European t r a d e r s who  were n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f e s t a b l i s h e d commercial u n d e r t a k i n g s p r o f o u n d l y d i s t u r b e d K i k u y u l i f e and s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n . The most i m p o r t a n t armed t r a d e r was John Boyes.  Acting f o r himself, motivat-  ed by p r o f i t and an urge f o r a d v e n t u r e , Boyes p e n e t r a t e d t h e h e a r t l a n d o f Kikuyuland i n search of trade. Boyes was i n h i s m i d - t w e n t i e s when he l a n d e d i n E a s t A f r i c a .  He  had s e r v e d as a t r o o p e r i n t h e Matabele War u n t i l he heard o f p r o f i t s t o be made t r a d i n g i v o r y i n E a s t A f r i c a .  I n 1898 he a r r i v e d i n Mombasa t o  be g r e e t e d o n l y by t h e s c a n t e s t c o u r t e s y . or  hungers,"  determined  "Whitemen, whether t r a v e l l e r s  he remarked, "were by no means welcome."  I n consequence he  t o pursue h i s a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e t h e knowledge o r t h e j u r i s d i c -  t i o n o f the authorities."'" B o y e s ' f i r s t commercial not deterred.  venture i n East A f r i c a f a i l e d :  b u t he was  On h i s way back t o t h e c o a s t a f t e r an a b o r t i v e m i s s i o n t o  f e e d B r i t i s h t r o o p s i n Uganda, he saw i n t h e g r e e n and f e r t i l e  Kikuyu  2 mashamba  .an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r o v i s i o n b o t h Government s t a t i o n s and r a i l -  way o f f i c i a l s w i t h garden produce.  Even a t t h i s p o i n t d e s t i t u t e and b a r e l y  a b l e t o s u s t a i n h i m s e l f he had l o s t no d e s i r e f o r f u r t h e r a d v e n t u r e . - 88 -  Here  89  was t h e p e r f e c t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r him t o p e n e t r a t e h i t h e r t o  unexplored  c o u n t r y , r e p a i r p r e v i o u s m i s f o r t u n e s and i n d u l g e h i s p r o p e n s i t y f o r i n t r i g u e and power among t h e t r i b e s m e n . Boyes' a m b i t i o n s , however, were almost t h w a r t e d once more by officialdom.  The D i s t r i c t Commissioner, N a i v a s h a ,  concerned  about Boyes'  w e l f a r e ( o r perhaps h i s s a n i t y ) , decreed t h a t t h e t r a d e r •should n o t ent e r t h e K i k u y u i n t e r i o r from h i s d i s t r i c t .  O f f i c i a l r e m o n s t r a t i o n s , how-  e v e r , were t o no a v a i l as Boyes c o n t r i v e d t o e n t e r K i k u y u l a n d b y a d e v i ous r o u t e .  Accompanied by n a t i v e r e t a i n e r s he t r a v e r s e d t h e h i g h bamboo  s l o p e s o f the w e s t e r n A b e r d a r e s ,  c r o s s e d t h e twelve-thousand  f o o t moorlands  and dropped down the e a s t e r n s i d e i n t o K i k u y u l a n d . K i k u y u w a r r i o r s g a t h e r e d t o meet him. "They were c e r t a i n l y a w i l d - l o o k i n g l o t , " he observed,  "with t h e i r  b o d i e s smeared a l l over w i t h grease and r e d c l a y , o r i n some c a s e s , a k i n d o f whitewash, i n w h i c h p a t t e r n s were drawn a c c o r d i n g t o u t h e f a n c y o f each i n d i v i d u a l , w h i l e f a s t e n e d t o t h e l e g was a r a t t l e , w i t h an i r o n b a l l i n s i d e , w h i c h as t h e y moved about, made a n o i s e v e r y much l i k e a r a i l w a y t r a i n . " "Many o f them," he went on, "wore w o n d e r f u l h e a d r e s s e s , made o f t h e s k i n o f t h e c o l u b u s monkey, and a l l were armed w i t h spears and s h i e l d s . " As many as f i v e hundred w a r r i o r s were drawn up r e a d y t o defend t h e i r Boyes asked t o see the " c h i e f " and t h e K i k u y u muthumaki, K a r u r i , forward.  itura.  stepped  90  I t was a s t r a n g e m e e t i n g , and one w h i c h was t o have g r e a t consequences f o r b o t h o f us. As time went on K a r u r i was t o become my f r i e n d and r i g h t - h a n d s u p p o r t e r , w h i l e , I , i n t u r n , was t o have an i n f l u e n c e over him and h i s p e o p l e w h i c h was t o r a i s e him t o a p o s i t i o n o f a g r e a t c h i e f y and m y s e l f t o supreme power i n the c o u n t r y — a v i r t u a l K i n g o f the Kikuyu.3  Thus the t r a d e r , Boyes, and h i s K i k u y u f r i e n d K a r u r i , a i d e d each other i n t h e i r respective ambitions. put i t ,  Boyes was  t o become, as he so a p t l y  " K i n g o f the K i k u y u " w h i l e K a r u r i g a i n e d even g r e a t e r power as a  muthumaki.  Moreover, i n d i r e c t l y Boyes was  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e l e v a t i o n  o f h i s f r i e n d t o the s t a t u s o f "an i m p o r t a n t personage" i n the P r o t e c t o r 5 ate A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  1912.  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Boyes' acceptance  by t h i s segment o f the  Kikuyu  t r i b e was based upon h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o t a k e p a r t i n i n t e r n e c i n e w a r f a r e . "They came," he s a i d , " t o i m p l o r e my h e l p f o r themselves." ed w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c bravado. b r o u g h t the t r o u b l e on themselves do was  "My  duty was  respond-  c l e a r . . . these p e o p l e  by b e f r i e n d i n g me,  t o g i v e them such h e l p as I c o u l d . "  Boyes  The  had  and the l e a s t I c o u l d  i n t r e p i d Boyes t h e n j o i n e d  i n the c o n f l i c t and a i d e d K a r u r i t o d e f e a t h i s enemies.  The i n c i d e n t was  o f the g r e a t e s t v a l u e t o Boyes as now  e s t a b l i s h e d as what  h i s r e p u t a t i o n was  he termed "a u s e f u l member o f the community.!" by u r g i n g Boyes t o remain i n K i k u y u  K a r u r i showed h i s g r a t i t u d e  country.  . . . K a r u r i came t o ask.me i f I would c o u n t r y , ... . 1 s a i d i f he would s e l l s t u f f s I would come back t o him. . . . f l o u r was f o r f r i e n d s o f mine who were c a r a v a n road.6  stop i n h i s me f l o u r and f o o d I t o l d him the coming a l o n g the  91  Boyes departed Karuri's country and made for the nearest point to the caravan route where railway surveyors were at work. a storage hut from which he sold his f l o u r and produce; period of time he r e a l i s e d a great p r o f i t .  Here he b u i l t  Within a short  Excited with the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  of making higher gains, he purchased quantities of beads, "amerikani"  and  other goods from passing Arab traders and sent word to Karuri to provide porters to carry his purchases back to Kikuyuland.  He had begun to trade  on a r e c i p r o c a l basis with Karuri, a fact which doubtless greatly to the muthumaki becoming a man  contributed  of wealth, power and enhanced pres-  tige both within and outside Kikuyu society. Meanwhile Boyes, now named Karianjahi, (eater of dolichos lablab or beans), continued to operate between the storage hut and Kikuyuland. Not content to s e l l his produce to railway workers he a c t u a l l y began to supply Protectorate o f f i c i a l s i n Naivasha, "where the need f o r food  was  so desperate that they (government o f f i c e r s ) turned a b l i n d eye to the v i o l a t i o n s of the law and drew up a contract f o r a regular provisioning service." By the end of May  1899  the railway had reached mile 327 from  Mdmba;sato the L a k e — a place appropriately named by the Masai as Nakusontelon or "the beginning  of a l l beauty."  The p l a i n at t h i s point was b i -  sected by a stream, the Uaso Nairobi (cold water) and i t was which was  given to the railhead and administrative centre.  i a t e l y south of "the beginning  t h i s name Situated immed-  of a l l beauty"—the Kikuyu t e r r i t o r y — N a i r o b i  appeared almost overnight as a c o l l e c t i o n of wooden and corrugated iron g shacks i n which worked railway and Protectorate o f f i c i a l s . Ainsworth,  92  Sub-Commissioner a t Machakos, moved h i s h e a d q u a r t e r s  t o N a i r o b i and e s -  t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f as the s e n i o r government o f f i c e r i n t h e a r e a .  Perhaps  t h i s move was t h e f i r s t o f f i c i a l s t e p i n t h e development and subsequent emergence o f t h e c i t y as b e i n g t h e p r i n c i p a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and commercial centre o f East A f r i c a . to  closer contact.  C e r t a i n l y i t b r o u g h t b o t h Europeans and K i k u y u i n -  The r e d o u b t a b l e Boyes echoed h i s s e n t i m e n t s on t h e  c h o i c e o f l o c a t i o n as b e i n g "beyond h i s i m a g i n a t i o n ! " A f u r t h e r f a c t o r w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e socio-economic  develop-  ment o f the a r e a was t h e i n a u g u r a t i o n i n 1900 o f a d a i l y r a i l w a y s e r v i c e between Mombasa and N a i r o b i .  The K i k u y u a r e a s were no l o n g e r i s o l a t e d  and were now i n c r e a s i n g l y exposed t o i n f l u e n c e s b r o u g h t b y Europeans from the c o a s t .  Moreover, t h e l o n g arm o f government, s t i l l c e n t r e d i n Mombasa,  c o u l d r e a c h o u t w i t h comparative impregnable  ease.and come t o r e s t i n some h i t h e r t o  redoubt o f t r i b a l i s m .  A l s o , i n support o f government, t r o o p s  c o u l d be d i s p a t c h e d w i t h speed a n d . e f f i c i e n c y p r e v i o u s l y n o t p o s s i b l e . D u r i n g t h e e n s u i n g few y e a r s t h e i m p e r i a l p r e s e n c e ,  i n i t i a l l y exerted only  a l o n g t h e t r a v e r s e o f the Mackinnon Road and now a l o n g t h e l i n e o f t h e r a i l w a y , would c o n s o l i d a t e i t s e l f i n N a i r o b i and.then i r r e p r e s s i b l y b u r s t out over t h e "moat" and pour f o r t h i t s a g e n t s i n t o K i k u y u l a n d . Meanwhile, however, t h e c r u c i a l f o o d s h o r t a g e observed by Boyes c o n t i n u e d t o c o n c e r n t h e embryo A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  I n consequence, w i t h an  eye f o r t h e main chance, Boyes c o n t i n u e d t o p l a y t h e r o l e o f middleman between t h e K i k u y u and European. his try.  He was thus a b l e t o e n l a r g e t h e a r e a o f  a c t i v i t i e s b y making l o n g e r t r e k s n o r t h i n t o t h e Chinga and G a k i counHere he e s t a b l i s h e d networks o f K i k u y u s u p p l i e r s and c e n t r a l i s e d  93  trading stations.  S i g n i f i c a n t l y he was  a b l e t o c a r r y on t r a d i n g a c t i v i -  t i e s s u c c e s s f u l l y i n K i k u y u a r e a s where the Company, a t r a d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n o p e r a t e d by businessmen o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n , had been unable t o make more t h a n a modicum o f p r o g r e s s . Having  developed,  a f t e r o n l y a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e , an e x t e n s i v e  t r a d i n g p r a c t i c e , Boyes became i n c r e a s i n g l y a m b i t i o u s .  True he was  able to  t r a v e r s e much o f the c o u n t r y f r e e l y b u t h i s wanderings were c o n f i n e d t o a r e a s where K a r u r i p o s s e s s e d i n e s s and h i s own Kikuyuland.  influence.  Now,  i n an e f f o r t t o enhance b u s -  i n f l u e n c e , he began t o seek f r e e a c c e s s t o a l l p a r t s o f  Shrewdly he deduced t h a t "the c o n s t a n t s t a t e o f c i v i l  he had observed was  probably a d i r e c t r e s u l t of h i s presence.  u n f r i e n d l y K i k u y u ) s t r o n g l y r e s e n t e d my  war,"  "They ( t h e  i n t r u s i o n i n t o the c o u n t r y , "  remarked, "and any o f the n a t i v e s known t o be f r i e n d l y towards me,  he  o r wear-  i n g any o f the c l o t h I had g i v e n them, were i m m e d i a t e l y marked down f o r attack."  Thus he r e s o l v e d t o s e t t l e m m a t t e r s by a t t a c k i n g the d i s s i d e n t  c l a n s u s i n g an army o f t r a i n e d K i k u y u w a r r i o r s .  T h i s p r i v a t e army o f  K a r u r i • s b e s t young w a r r i o r s were t a u g h t parade-ground d r i l l , s e n t r y duty, e l e m e n t a r y B r i t i s h Army r i f l e s .  scouting,  t a c t i c s , t a r g e t p r a c t i c e and the use o f the l a t e s t  Dressed r e s p l e n d e n t l y i n p r e s s e d K h a k i , Boyes' a s k a r i s  were soon put t o work subduing  those who  chose t o oppose him.  . . . we were soon among them and engaged i n a warm . hand-to-hand f i g h t , w h i c h l a s t e d u n t i l wehhad b e a t e n o f f the i n v a d e r s and f o l l o w e d them r i g h t b a c k . i n t o t h e i r own c o u n t r y . . . h a v i n g a d m i n i s t e r e d s e v e r e punishment, we camped f o r the n i g h t i n t h e enemy's district.9  9A  Boyes g i v e s the i m p r e s s i o n , however, t h a t h i s m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t i o n s were n o t always d e s t r u c t i v e .  Indeed, i t seems t h a t he was  not averse t o making,  where such a course o f a c t i o n s u i t e d h i s p u r p o s e , an o c c a s i o n a l peace-making h i d .  dramatic  The p r o s p e c t o f h a v i n g t o d e a l w i t h the Mount Kenya  ( G a k i ) athamaki, e s p e c i a l l y Wagombi ( s i c ) and K a r k e r r i e (sic}) gave the t r a d e r cause f o r t r e p i d a t i o n . Wagombi had and was  s a i d . t o be v e r y t r e a c h e r o u s .  "a most murderous r e p u t a t i o n "  P r e v i o u s Arab and S w a h i l i e x p e d i -  t i o n s were r e p o r t e d t o have been c o m p l e t e l y wiped out when a t t e m p t i n g t r a v e r s e the r e g i o n .  Moreover, the Gaki K i k u y u p o s s e s s e d f i r e a r m s  the K i n g o f Tato ( s i c ) .  K a r k e r r i e , t h e i r muthumaki, was  been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s i m i l a r murders.  But Boyes was  to  and  r e p u t e d t o have  not d e t e r r e d :  he  "  approached the Sub-Commissioner, Mombasa, w i t h a r e q u e s t f o r more i - i f l e s . Once more the o f f i c i a l was  uncooperative  and r e p e a t e d h i s e a r l i e r s t a t e -  ment t h a t "whitemen were not wanted i n the c o u n t r y . " Boyes w i t h o b v i o u s contempt, "was  the c l a s s o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r approved by  Downing S t r e e t f o r the opening o f a new as f a r as Boyes was  "Such," remarked  concerned, was  country.''  one who  wreak havoc around the c o u n t r y s i d e .  A "good" a d m i n i s t r a t o r ,  would a l l o w him t o c o n t i n u e  to  Boyes f a i l e d t o a p p r e c i a t e t h a t a  "good" a d m i n i s t r a t o r , from the Government v i e w p o i n t , would have been one who  p r o s c r i b e d h i s a c t i v i t i e s and who  repeated.  Thus Boyes was  f o r the wrong  t o o k a c t i o n t o ensure t h e y were not  r i g h t about the "poor c l a s s o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r "  reasons.  U n d e t e r r e d by the i n c r e a s i n g l y i n f l e x i b l e a t t i t u d e o f the a u t h o r i t i e s , Boyes d e p a r t e d  on h i s s a f a r i t o the Mount Kenya a r e a .  him 100 o f h i s t r a i n e d men,  He t o o k w i t h  30 o f whom were armed w i t h r i f l e s .  In consider-  a t i o n o f the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the p r e s e n c e o f the U n i o n Jack might i n f l u e n c e  95  the athamaki t o be f r i e n d l y , B o y e s p u r c h a s e d head o f t h i s and subsequent  expeditions.  a f l a g t o be c a r r i e d a t t h e  T h i s h a b i t was t o draw t h e i r e  o f Government o f f i c i a l s and thus h e l p t o h a s t e n t h e end o f t h e t r a d e r ' s a c t i v i t i e s i n Kikuyuland. P r o c e e d i n g n o r t h t o meet t h e p o w e r f u l athamaki o f G a k i , t h e s a f a r i encountered h o s t i l i t y i n t h e Chinga c o u n t r y .  Huts were abandoned and  t r i b e s m e n c l u s t e r e d on s u r r o u n d i n g ^ h i l l t o p s i s s u i n g t h r e a t s .  I t was a g a i n  c l e a r t o Boyes t h a t t h e K i k u y u " d i d n o t want a whiteman i n t h e i r c o u n t r y . " Boyes, i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , had now h e a r d t h i s sentiment e x p r e s s e d b o t h by European a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t h e K i k u y u .  Moreover,  even h i s a l l y K a r u r i ,  w h i l e a c c e p t i n g Boyes, had s a i d t h a t "he d i d n o t want any more w h i t e p e o p l e i n t h e c o u n t r y (and) t h e y ( t h e K i k u y u ) d i d n o t mean t o have any s t r a n g e r s . " C o n t a c t was made w i t h two e l d e r s who r e l a y e d a message.to t h e l o c a l athamaki t h a t Boyes wished an a u d i e n c e . arrived.  Soon B a r t i e r ( s i c ) and Henga ( s i c )  They were .observed t o be "both young men and v e r y i n t e l l i g e n t f o r 12  savages."  P r e s e n t s were exchanged and i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n as t o t h e d i s -  p o s i t i o n o f the p e o p l e i n t h e n e x t d i s t r i c t ( T a t o ) .  The muthumaki o f Tato>  K a r k e r r i e , was s a i d t o be t r e a c h e r o u s — a statement w h i c h s u p p o r t e d what Boyes had been t o l d e a r l i e r b y K a r u r i . the d i s t r i c t , "a t a l l f i n e l o o k i n g man"  Ominously, 13  the c h i e f rainmaker o f  made c o m p l i c a t e d t h e e v i d e n t  e n t e n t e b y d e c l a r i n g t h a t no good would come o f a f r i e n d s h i p w i t h t h e w h i t e man.  Once more Boyes had been reminded o f h i s unwanted p r e s e n c e .  Once  more,Bcharaciberistical"ly.v'lB6yes remained u n d e t e r r e d . S t r i k i n g n o r t h towards G a k i , t h e s a f a r i p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h i c k l y popu l a t e d a r e a s where sheep and c a t t l e g r a z e d and K i k u y u tended t h e i r shambas.  96  Boyes l i k e n e d the scene t o a p e a c e f u l E n g l i s h l a n d s c a p e .  Soon t h e ex-  p e d i t i o n was g r e e t e d by a p a r t y o f K i k u y u s e n t by a " b i g c h i e f " and " p o w e r f u l w i t c h d o c t o r , " named Muga wa d i g a (Muga son o f D i g a ) .  Muga was  d e s c r i b e d a s n "an o l d man, v e r y a c t i v e f o r h i s y e a r s , and f a r more i n t e l l i gent t h a n the m a j o r i t y 6*f n a t i v e s . " h e l p f u l and i n f o r m a t i v e . p o s i t i o n wassprobably  H i s manner, Boyes n o t e d , was  friendly,  Boyes f a i l e d t o n o t e , however, t h a t Muga's d i s -  b a s e d upon a f e a r t h a t t h e w h i t e s t r a n g e r would  t a r r y a w h i l e i n the area!  Muga was keen t o see Boyes l e a v e as soon as  p o s s i b l e and even o f f e r e d t o g u i d e him t o Wagombi's camp I  A n o t h e r muthumaki,  K a t u n i ( t h e L i o n ) , t h e " t a l l e s t " K i k u y u Boyes had ever seen, d e c i d e d a l s o t o accompany t h e s a f a r i out o f t h e a r e a . A r r i v i n g a t K a r k e r r i e ' s i t u r a t h e e x p e d i t i o n was met by t h e muthumaki himself.  Boyes was s u r p r i s e d a t t h e apparent  friendly greeting, especially  i n v i e w o f what he had been t o l d about K a r k e r r i e .  The mood changed, how-  e v e r , d u r i n g the t r a d i n g p r o c e s s — a p p a r e n t l y o v e r Boyes' p o s s e s s i o n o f a c l o c k — a n d soon he was f o r c e d t o e x t r i c a t e h i m s e l f by h o l d i n g K a r k e r r i e a t the p o i n t o f a p i s t o l .  Subsequently,  however, the i s s u e was r e s o l v e d and  Boyes was a b l e t o c o n v i n c e t h e " c h i e f " t o t a k e p a r t i n a P i g a s a n g i ceremony. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h e P i g a s a n g i ceremony, as f a r as Boyes was concerned, r e s e n t e d a s t e p i n the r i j b e t d i r e c t i o n ! from t h a t o f " b l o o d - b r o t h e r h o o d "  rep-  The ceremony d i f f e r e d , f o r example,  t a k e n by Lugard.  The  blood-brotherhood  ceremony e s t a b l i s h e d a f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t t h e i n d i v i d u a l whereas P i g a s a n g i cemented f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the whole c l a n and o t h e r c l a n s r e p r e s e n t e d a t t h e ceremony.  Boyes' a m b i t i o n s , were t o p a c i f y t h e  c o u n t r y b y whatever means, f o r c e o r d i p l o m a c y , j i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h a :  97  t r a d e monopoly i n a p e a c e f u l s e t t i n g .  Now  he was  i n a p o s i t i o n t o use  K i k u y u custom w h i c h would p r e c l u d e the use o f f o r c e .  H i s p l a n was  t i c i p a t e i n P i g a s a n g i w i t h the t h r e e most p o w e r f u l athamaki p a r t o f K i k u y u l a n d , namely; h i s f r i e n d K a r u r i , h i s new K a r k e r r i e and muthumaki o f t h e G a k i p e o p l e , Wagombi.  found  a  to par-  i n the n o r t h e r n acquaintance  T h i s was an a m b i t i o u s  v e n t u r e w h i c h demanded the s k i l l s o f a seasoned d i p l o m a t and g r e a t  courage;  q u a l i t i e s w h i c h Boyes, even though i n e x p e r i e n c e d and i l l - e d u c a t e d , seemed to p o s s e s s .  But f i r s t he had t o persuade Wagombi. I had heard a l o t o f t a l k . a b o u t Wagombi, and was v e r y a n x i o u s t o v i s i t him and, i f p o s s i b l e , m a k e . f r i e n d s w i t h him, as my aim was t o g e t a l l the c o u n t r y under c o n t r o l and put a s t o p t o the f i g h t i n g and b l o o d s h e d so t h a t i t would be s a f e f o r caravans t o p a s s t h r o u g h i t and t r a d e . The n a t i v e s were b e g i n n i n g t o see t h a t I had t h e i r i n t e r e s t s a t h e a r t . . 14  H e a r i n g o f Boyes'approach, Wagombi came out t o meet him. ed.  Boyes was  impress-  " I found him a f i n e , t a l l f e l l o w , i n h i s b e a r i n g and appearance e v e r y  i n c h a c h i e f , and i n h i s speech a good d e a l more b r i s k t h a n any K i k u y u I 15 had met." —but  O b v i o u s l y , Boyes was  d e s c r i b i n g not a " c h i e f " — n o n e  a p o w e r f u l w a r r i o r muthumaki, a c h a r i s m a t i c i n d i v i d u a l who,  existed by  vir-  t u e o f . h i s m i l i t a r y prowess, had been h u r r i e d a l o n g the r o a d t o l e a d e r s h i p ahead o f h i s f e l l o w K i k u y u .  Perhaps he f i t t e d  more a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n t o the  c a t e g o r y o f l e a d e r c i t e d by Lambert, namely; muthumaki wa b u r u r i o r l e a d e r of  the c o u n t r y .  C e r t a i n l y he was one o f Low's "prominent  individuals,'" a  a man whose p e r s o n a l i t y and l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s were so e x c e p t i o n a l t h a t he had e v o l v e d i n t o a l o c a l a u t o c r a t about whom the a f f a i r s o f the G a k i clans revolved.  K e n y a t t a ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f Wangombe ( s i c ) ^ suggests t h a t  the K i k u y u " c h i e f " ( K e n y a t t a ' s term) a c q u i r e d h i s fame  98  out of many i n c i d e n t s from h i s boyhood to the days of h i s e l d e r s h i p , and because h i s p e r s o n a l i t y stood out i n the various age-groups i n which he. held leadership, he f i n a l l y a t t a i n e d h i s supreme p o s i t i o n as a great and wise r u l e r . For h i s u n s e l f i s h devotion to h i s people, and f o r maintaining good r e l a t i o n s w i t h the neighbouring countries, h i s good name has been passed from generation to generation to l i v e i n the memory of h i s people.IV Boyes camped at Wagombi's and traded i v o r y .  Kenyatta describes  Boyes as being a "pale-faced stranger (Mothongo) (who) v i s i t e d Wangombe" and who was given a f r i e n d l y welcome and was entertained. This Mothongo was i n touch w i t h others of h i s k i n d who had already s e t t l e d i n Chief Waiyaki s t e r r i t o r y , and he sent news to h i s f r i e n d s of the beauty of the count r y and i t s p r o s p e r i t y , and the goodwill of i t s c h i e f . A few moons passed, and the Mothongo w i t h h i s caravans used to go to and f r o buying food and i v o r y . 1  During h i s stay he took part i n the Pigasangi ceremony he so u r g e n t l y des i r e d between himself, Wagombi, K a r k e r r i e and Muga wa Diga.  Against the  objections of h i s hosts Boyes "managed the matter eventually by the a i d of presents."  Moreover, he s u c c e s s f u l l y overcame the problem of the l o -  c a t i o n of the ceremony by t a c t f u l l y arranging to conduct i t at a point roughly e q u i d i s t a n t from the three respective spheres of i n f l u e n c e .  The  p a r t i c i p a n t s then converged on the s i t e and took part i n the ceremony under a Union Jack.  On completion of the r i t e s Boyes, the r e a l i s t ,  suggest-  ed that a l l r e t u r n to t h e i r homes w i t h haste as the temper of the people 19 might change and "there would be t r o u b l e . " Perhaps what e s t a b l i s h e d Boyes' a u t h o r i t y i n Kikuyuland without question was h i s m i l i t a r y defeat of the Chinga clans.  I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d  that he had experienced trouble w i t h the Chinga people on h i s way north to  99  meet Wagombi.  On h i s r e t u r n t o K a r u r i ' s r e g i o n news reached him  t h r e e Goanese t r a d e r s had been murdered i n Chinga c o u n t r y .  On  B a r t i e r ' s camp the'-rumours about the omurder-were i confirmed .^  that  reaching  The"-Chinga  1  p e o p l e had j o i n e d f o r c e s w i t h those from Mahigga ( s i c ) t o wipe out Goanese s a f a r i . - The  c o u n t r y was  the  i n a s t a t e o f ferment and Boyes w i t n e s s -  ed some f i v e - t h o u s a n d armed t r i b e s m e n p r e p a r i n g themselves f o r an a t t a c k on h i s e x p e d i t i o n .  B u r y i n g h i s i v o r y , Boyes took f l i g h t s o u t h toward  the s a f e t y o f K a r u r i ' s sphere o f i n f l u e n c e .  Attack after attack  was  made upon h i s d e p l e t i n g column o f ' f r i e n d l i e s , ' each b e i n g r e p u l s e d w i t h heavy c a s u a l t i e s on b o t h s i d e s .  I n d e s p e r a t i o n Boyes sought the  sanctu-  a r y o f B a r t i e r ' s t e r r i t o r y and soon i t became e v i d e n t t o him t h a t h i s P i g a s a n g i agreement w i t h Wagombi and K a r k e r r i e was  t o pay  B o t h athamaki s e n t l a r g e numbers o f w a r r i o r s t o h i s a i d . t r y was  thrown i n t o a s t a t e o f e x c i t e m e n t :  the war  dividends. "The  f e v e r was  whole coun-  at i t s height:  b u t my b l o o d b r o t h e r s had r a l l i e d n o b l y t o my h e l p , and b i g f o r c e s o f armed w a r r i o r s were coming i n e v e r y hour from the d i f f e r e n t f r i e n d l y c h i e f s t o s u p p o r t me,  u n t i l I had a f o r c e o f s e v e r a l thousands o f f i n e s t ,  fighting  20 men  i n the c o u n t r y camped a t B a r t i e r ' s . "  a w i l d scene where h i s new  A t t h i s p o i n t Boyes d e s c r i b e d  f o l l o w e r s "danced themselves i n t o the w i l d e s t  p a s s i o n , numbers o f them g o i n g i n t o h y s t e r i c a l f i t s , and j a b b i n g t h e i r spears i n t o the t r e e t r u n k s i n i m i t a t i o n o f k i l l i n g t h e i r enemies, w h i l e t h e i r b r e a t h sobbed i n g r e a t gulps.".  Soon the b l o o d t h i r s t y t h r o n g swept  t h r o u g h 'the Chinga c o u n t r y , b u r n i n g i t u r a ; K i k u y u k i l l i n g K i k u y u a t the b e h e s t o f the w h i t e i n t r u d e r .  A t the c o n c l u s i o n o f t h i s f r e n z y the Chinga  c l a n s s c e a s e d t o e x i s t as a d i s s i d e n t f o r c e .  "From t h i s time on,"  Boyes  100  paused t o remark, " I had complete c o n t r o l o f t h e c o u n t r y . " a b l e a c h i e v e m e n t — i f we a r e t o b e l i e v e B o y e s — e s p e c i a l l y  A t r u l y remark-  i n view o f the f a c t  t h a t t h e Company had f a i l e d i n s i m i l a r e n t e r p r i s e s and t h a t t h e f e a t had been a c h i e v e d w h i l e t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n p u r p o r t e d the  to "rule"  country. John Boyes, o f c o u r s e , was n o t t h e o n l y t r a d e r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e  Kikuyu.  According  t o Boyes t h e r e were o t h e r t r a d e r s o p e r a t i n g i n t h e v i c -  i n i t y o f the r a i l w a y .  Indeed, as t h e r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o g r e s s e d and  i n consequence o f t h e d a i l y r a i l w a y s e r v i c e from Mombasa t o N a i r o b i , more t r a d i n g a c t i v i t y was engendered. came o t h e r p r i v a t e e n t r e p r e n e u r s . Naivasha.  Mr. and Mrs.  I n t h e wake o f c o n s t r u c t i o n ,  therefore,  An I n d i a n duka ( s t o r e ) was opened i n  Walsh, l a t e l y s e t t l e d i n t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e ,  opened a s t o r e and t r a d i n g b u s i n e s s i n N a i v a s h a .  also  Mrs. Walsh was r e p u t e d  t o be t h e f i r s t w h i t e woman s e t t l e r i n E a s t A f r i c a .  B o t h she and h e r hus-  band o p e r a t e d a l e g i t i m a t e t r a n s p o r t b u s i n e s s t a k i n g goods from t h e N a i r o b i r a i l r o a d t o Government s t a t i o n s and r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e s up t h e R i f t Valley.  Other t r a d e r s , however, were o p e r a t i n g i n n o t so l e g i t i m a t e . a  fashion.  21 Boyes' f i r s t p a r t n e r , Gibbons,  was i n b u s i n e s s w i t h a Mr. F i n d l a y ;  b o t h b e i n g engaged i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o o f i v o r y and produce f o r government and p r i v a t e buyers.  D u r i n g a s e v e r e a l t e r c a t i o n w i t h t h e K i k u y u , from w h i c h  22 Gibbons was l u c k y t o s u r v i v e , F i n d l a y was speared and s u b s e q u e n t l y d i e d . U n t i l September 1903 Gibbons c o n t i n u e d s o u t h and south-west o f Mount Kenya.  t o t r a d e a l o n e w i t h t h e Embu t o t h e  101  A c c o r d i n g t o o r a l t r a d i t i o n as a n a l y s e d b y S a t e r w a l ,  up t h e  e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h e Embu a r e a (1906) o n l y a few Europeans had v e n t u r e d i n t o t h e r e g i o n and those n a t i v e s who had come i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h them "found t h e e x p e r i e n c e s r e g r e t t a b l e . " One o f t h e s e Europeans was p r o b a b l y Gibbons who had,  "about 1900,  established  h i m s e l f i n Kabare (Gafcjugui d i v i s i o n , some f i f t e e n m i l e s west o f t h e Embu b o r d e r ) i n a l l i a n c e w i t h a man c a l l e d Gutu who was l a t e r (under t h e B r i t i s h A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) made t h e Paramount C h i e f o f Gicugu D i v i s i o n . "  I n 191V  the P r o v i n c i a l Commissioner was t o r e f e r t o Gutu as a man who had had p r e vious unhealthy  exposure t o a "European f r e e b o o t e r named Gibbons."  Gibbons' e x p l o i t s i n and around Embu a r e s t i l l r e c a l l e d l o c a l l y and S a t e r w a l g i v e s e v i d e n c e o f one i n c i d e n t w h i c h l e a v e s l i t t l e doubt as t o t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e armed t r a d e r ' s p r e s e n c e .  An e x p e d i t i o n , l e a d b y Gibbons  was b r o u g h t t o t h e Embu-Gicugu b o r d e r b y t h e Gicugu war c o u n c i l l o r s , who a s s u r e d t h e Embu war c o u n c i l l o r s t h a t the European's i n t e n t i o n s were p e a c e f u l and t h a t he w i s h e d o n l y t o buy i v o r y . The Embu t h e n e s c o r t e d him t h r e e o r f o u r m i l e s deep i n t o t h e i r own t e r r i t o r y , and he camped i n a neighbourhood c a l l e d K a r i a r i . They t o l d him about t h e h u n t e r s who had i v o r y . D u r i n g t h e next two o r t h r e e days he and h i s r e t a i n e r s made t h r e e t r i p s f o r i v o r y . On t h e f i r s t two t r i p s he t o o k t h e h u n t e r ' s i v o r y b u t made no payment. The Embu w a r r i o r s and war c o u n c i l l o r s d i s c u s s e d h i s odd b e h a v i o u r w i d e l y , and decided t o f o r c e the issue during h i s t h i r d t r i p . When he came t o t h e t h i r d h u n t e r ' s neighbourhood, he met t h e war c o u n c i l l o r s i n t e n t on demanding payment from him. He took t h e i v o r y , p r o m i s e d t o make payments i n h i s camp, and marched towards h i s camp. On t h e way, t h e Embu w a r r i o r s ambushed h i s p a r t y , k i l l e d some o f h i s r e t a i n e r s , c a p t u r e d t h e i r guns, and r e c o v e r e d t h e i v o r y . The t r a d e r r a n t o h i s camp and p r o m i s e d t o pay t h e next morning f o r t h e i v o r y he had p u r c h a s e d e a r l i e r . D u r i n g t h e n i g h t he e s c a p e d d w i t h h i s r e t a i n e r s . 24-  102  The c i r c u m s t a n c e s  o f Gibbon's a r r e s t a r e i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h a t t h e y  serve f u r t h e r t o r e v e a l h i s p e r s o n a l c a l i b r e and the n a t u r e among the Embu c l a n s .  of h i s a c t i v i t y  A t F o r t H a l l , M e i n h e r t z h a g e n , an army o f f i c e r second-  ed t o t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r p a c i f i c a t i o n p u r p o s e s , was adv i s e d b y h i s s u p e r i o r o f f i c e r , Hinde, t h a t a low c l a s s man c a l l e d Gibbons w i t h some 30 armed S w a h i l i s had i n s t a l l e d h i m s e l f i n t h e Embu c o u n t r y s o u t h - e a s t o f Mount Kenya and.was c o l l e c t i n g h u t t a x .-' and e x t o r t i n g i v o r y from t h e n a t i v e s . He had h o i s t ed the U n i o n J a c k t o g i v e Government p r o t e c t i o n t o his nefarious actions. Boyes, i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , was i n t h e h a b i t o f doing t h e same t h i n g — f o r presumably the same purpose. A f t e r a day's march from F o r t H a l l , M e i n h e r t z h a g e n and h i s a s k a r i s r e a c h e d Gibbons' armed camp. ing  Using  s u r p r i s e and t a k i n g advantage o f a doz-  s e n t r y , t h e p a r t y were a b l e t o i n f i l t r a t e t h e s u r r o u n d i n g  t e c t i v e t h o r n e n c l o s u r e ) and subdue Gibbons' ' f r i e n d l i e s , '  zariba (pro-  Gibbons h i m s e l f  was a r r e s t e d a t t h e p o i n t o f a r e v o l v e r . He woke w i t h a s t a r t , made an e f f o r t t o produce a r e v o l v e r from under h i s p i l l o w , and swore an o a t h . , . . . I t h e n t o l d him t h a t I a r r e s t e d him on a charge o f i l l e g a l l y c o l l e c t i n g h u t t a x and d e s p o i l i n g t h e n a t i v e s . . . 26 The c a p t i v e d i d n o t a c q u i e s c e Worse s t i l l ,  e a s i l y and used "the most p r o v o k i n g  language."  l o c a l n a t i v e s a r r i v e d on t h e scene and adopted a menacing a t t i -  tude toward the Government f o r c e .  "They were a l l armed," o b s e r v e d M e i n -  h e r t z h a g e n , "and t h e y wanted t o know why we were removing t h e i r  'Govern-  ment o f f i c i a l , ' how t h e y were g o i n g t o be p a i d f o r t h e i v o r y t h e y had g i v e n 27 him,  and a h o s t o f o t h e r awkward q u e s t i o n s . "  M e i n h e r t z h a g e n a d v i s e d them  103  t h a t t h e i r c o m p l a i n t s s h o u l d be r e g i s t e r e d w i t h the s e n i o r  Protectorate  o f f i c e r i n F o r t H a l l , "to which t h e y . s a i d they d i d not recognize H a l l o r the B r i t i s h Government." and  the a r r e s t i n g o f f i c e r was  T h e i r menacing a t t i t u d e  Fort  continued  f o r c e d t o d e t a i n as h o s t a g e s Gibbons'  c o n c u b i n e s , s u p p l i e d t o him by the l o c a l muthumaki.  14  F i n a l l y Gibbons  was  charged w i t h " r a i d i n g the n a t i v e s , w i t h t a k i n g by f o r c e n a t i v e women, with i l l e g a l l y  c o l l e c t i n g Government t a x e s f o r h i s own  benefit,  and  28 w i t h murder i n h a v i n g s h o t aanative  d u r i n g one  of h i s r a i d s . "  He  was  despatched t o N a i r o b i f o r t r i a l — t h e r e s u l t s o f w h i c h are n o t known. A M a l t e s e s a i l o r , M a r t i n , was  a n o t h e r European i n v o l v e d i n E a s t 29  -•African t r a d e . and was  He had  f i r s t t r a v e r s e d the c o u n t r y w i t h Joseph Thomson  s a i d t o be the f i r s t w h i t e man  t i n ( o r M a r t i n i — h i s r e a l name) had  t o v e n t u r e among the M a s a i .  Mar-  f i r s t a r r i v e d i n E a s t A f r i c a o f f an  American s h i p w h i c h had grounded c l o s e t o Z a n z i b a r .  After crossing  M a s a i l a n d and L a i k i p i a w i t h Thomsonn he a l t e r n a t e d between s u p e r v i s i n g c a r a v a n s . f r o m Mombasa t o Uganda and a c t i n g as an o f f i c e r of the  Sultan's  army ( Z a n z i b a r ) — i n w h i c h c a p a c i t y he became an employee o f the Company. When the B r i t i s h Government took o v e r the Company's t e r r i t o r y and  de30  Glared i t a P r o t e c t o r a t e , M a r t i n became an employee o f the Government. S t r a n g e l y enough, w i t h a l l h i s t r a d i n g e n t e r p r i s e , M a r t i n c o u l d read or w r i t e .  He was  not  s u b s e q u e n t l y t a u g h t t o w r i t e h i s name, on  the r a n k o f D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r , by S i r F r e d e r i c k J a c k s o n . been the t a r g e t o f S i r Clement H i l l ' s i s t r a t i o n would c o n t i n u e  M a r t i n may  have  remark t h a t the P r o t e c t o r a t e Admin-  t o be o f low q u a l i t y "so l o n g as C i v i l 31  were e n l i s t e d from the g u t t e r . "  reaching  By 1912  M a r t i n had  Servants  s u r v i v e d the  rigours  o f E a s t A f r i c a n t r a d i n g and  the even more t r y i n g , perhaps, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  '. i _ ;  B :y3n,  Ha  •.  a e ? o r a ' fig  -'  I,-  -.  insg;;?  '  104  life.  He was, according to Boyes, by then the manager of a rubber  forest estate at Mabira. Yet another freebooter was the i l l - f a t e d Trader Dick, k i l l e d byMasai i n November 1895.  According to Ainsworth, administrator of the  area i n which the incident took place, a s a f a r i l e f t Kikuyu f o r Eldama Ravine carrying 800 loads of food and stores.  The caravan comprised some  32 870 Africans of whom 756 were Kikuyu. f a r i was attacked by Masai.  On the return journey the sa-  Andrew Dick, i n the v i c i n i t y with two  French v i s i t o r s , decided to intervene and was speared. incident included 546 Kikuyu porters k i l l e d .  Losses i n t h i s  A subsequent enquiry r e -  vealed that members of the s a f a r i were almost wholly to blame as acts of violence and larceny had been committed against the Masai by members 33 of  the caravan. Analysis of the evidence shows l i t t l e doubt that the Kikuyu were  profoundly disturbed by the abrasive presence of armed traders. not  Acting  as representatives of established commercial ventures, but as p r i -  vate individuals motivated by urge f o r adventure and personal gain, John Boyes, Gibbons and others severely aggravated an already developed Kikuyu aversion to wageni.  Kikuyu attitudes were probably, i t should be noted,  based more on a defensive rather than an aggressive posture:  t h e i r neigh-  bours, the war-like Masai, f o r example, had long been i n the habit of crossing the "moat" to r a i d the southern periphery of Kikuyuland.  Kikuyu  h o s t i l i t y toward intruders, therefore, was already a t r a d i t i o n before the advent of Arab and Swahili traders and early European expeditions.  Not-  ably, the cardinal difference between early intruders, the Company, armed  105  t r a d e r s and the P r o t e c t o r a t e transients while  Administration,  i s t h a t t h e former were  the l a t t e r were i n t e n t upon permanent p r e s e n c e .  Of  the e a r l i e r group, t h e M a s a i , f o r example, were i t i n e r a n t r a i d e r s who r e t u r n e d always t o t h e i r h a b i t a t o u t s i d e  t h e "moat."  Arab and S w a h i l i  t r a d e r s were i n v a r i a b l y " p a s s i n g t h r o u g h " o r s k i r t i n g the edges o f Kikuyuland.  European e x p l o r e r s  l i k e Thomson, von Hohnel, T e l e k i and  o t h e r s , were n e v e r i n t e n t upon e s t a b l i s h i n g themselves i n K i k u y u l a n d 34 ' on more t h a n a temporary b a s i s .  The t u r n i n g p o i n t , t h a t w h i c h t e n d -  ed t o harden K i k u y u a t t i t u d e s i n t o a g g r e s s i v e h o s t i l i t y ,  therefore,  came w i t h t h e approach and s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e second group o f i n t r u d e r s ; the Company and i t s u n c o n t r o l l e d  A f r i c a n s o l d i e r y , European armed  t r a d e r s and f i n a l l y t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e  Administration;  all,  significantly,  i n t e n t upon a permanent p r e s e n c e , a v e r i t a b l e " o c c u p a t i o n " o f K i k u y u land.  Moreover, a c o m p l i c a t i n g  lay i n a sort of progression  f a c t o r f a c e d b y each wave o f o c c u p a t i o n  of Kikuyu h o s t i l i t y .  Each new a l i e n  i n h e r i t e d K i k u y u h o s t i l i t y engendered by i t s p r e d e c e s s o r s .  force  The Company  a r r i v e d i n K i k u y u l a n d t o be met b y i n i t i a l f r i e n d l i n e s s — a n a t t i t u d e w h i c h q u i c k l y s o u r e d when Company employees r a i d e d s m a l l h o l d i n g s the same way as had Arab and S w a h i l i t r a d e r s .  i n much  The Company p r a c t i s e d  t i c s o f d i v i d e and r u l e and i n t h i s way tended t o c r e a t e f r a c t i o u s K i k u y u community t h a n had h i t h e r t o e x i s t e d . the Company the armed t r a d e r s i n h e r i t e d , t h e r e f o r e ,  tac-  an even more  On t h e demise o f  a chaotic-estate of  a f f a i r s where t h e r e e x i s t e d among t h i s f r a c t i o u s community K i k u y u c o l l a b o r a t o r s w i l l i n g t o c a s t i n t h e i r l o t w i t h Europeans,and o t h e r s t o whom the European " o c c u p a t i o n " was anathema.  K i k u y u 'touched' by t h e Company  106  were, broadly speaking, either f r i e n d l y or h o s t i l e , either w i l l i n g to collaborate or anxious to k i l l . Like the Company—and l a t e r the Protectorate  Administration—the  armed traders seized upon the idea of using Kikuyu collaborators to best advantage.  Desire f o r p r o f i t , personal power and trading monopoly  drove the traders to seek out the most i n f l u e n t i a l Kikuyu i n areas forme r l y influenced by the Company and outside.  Often traders offered  athamaki the services of t h e i r personal a r m i e s — s o - c a l l e d  "friendlies"  or " l e v i e s " — a s trained forces to be disposed against unfriendly Kikuyu. Traders gained favour, also, by dispensing presents, perhaps r i f l e s , beads or the coveted  "amerikani"  cloth.  Boyes, l i k e his predecessor  Lugard, contrived to extend his personal influence over larger areas of the Kikuyu i n t e r i o r by use of the Kikuyu custom of blood-brotherhood (Pigasangi) taken i n concert with groups of the most powerful athamaki collaborators.  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , acting as an i n d i v i d u a l motivated by per-  sonal reasons and not l i k e Lugard who  was  concerned with matters on a  'grand scale,'. Boyes successfully peddled his influence over larger areas of the Kikuyu i n t e r i o r i n a way  that had not been possible during  the short period of Company "occupation" or indeed during the f i r s t  few  years of the Protectorate Administration. John Boyes, therefore, ill-educated, i n a r t i c u l a t e , a trooper i n the Matabele wars, acting f o r his own  s e l f i s h reasons and outside of the sanc-  t i o n of legitimate authority, became the most i n f l u e n t i a l whiteman i n Kikuyuland.  By 1903,  f u l l y eight years a f t e r the B r i t i s h Government had  taken over the administration of the Protectorate, he could boast that he  107 had become a v e r i t a b l e control  o f the  "King o f the Wa-kikuyu" and t h a t he had  "complete  country."  But i n Boyes' b o a s t i n g we see exposed an example o f h i s w e l l - d e v eloped personal v a n i t y .  Sudden peace a f t e r y e a r s o f t r a d i t i o n a l K i k u y u  h o s t i l i t y to intruders i s hardly conceivable. o t h e r s had succeeded i n d o i n g was  What i n f a c t Boyes and  t o e x a c e r b a t e an a l r e a d y e x c e e d i n g l y  t u r b u l e n t s i t u a t i o n l e f t by the Company.  Indeed, i n a moment o f l o g i c  Boyes pronounced t h a t he c r e a t e d i n K i k u y u l a n d a major problem by f a c t o f h i s own p r e s e n c e !  The e v i d e n c e , a l s o , o f Gibbons' a c t i v i t i e s  i n Embu tends t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s f i n d i n g . Kikuyuland,.wherever  Wherever b o t h t r o d i n  t h e y stopped even f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s o f t i m e ,  a c t i v i t i e s were shrouded i n an atmosphere o f i n t r i g u e and The  the  their  hostility.  "peace" o f w h i c h Boyes spoke was p r o b a b l y based upon, as  one  35 o f f i c e r put i t , operation.  "a s u l k y a q u i e s c e n c e "  Furthermore,  and not a genuine s p i r i t o f co-  Boyes' n o t i o n o f "peace" may  t o the p o t e n c y o f the M a r t i n i - H e n r y r i f l e  have been more due  then the powers o f h i s p e r -  36 s o n a l diplomacy.  Certainly both played a part i n h i s a c t i v i t i e s ;  o b v i o u s l y supported the o t h e r .  In these aspects of h i s a c t i v i t i e s  one (and  those o f G i b b o n s ) we must a c c o r d Boyes the a b i l i t y and the i n i t i a t i v e  to  have s u r v i v e d the e x h a u s t i v e r i g o u r s o f l i f e as an a l i e n i n K i k u y u l a n d . But here, i m p o r t a n t l y , we must c o n s i d e r t h a t the armed t r a d e r s were n o t e n t i r e l y i s o l a t e d , were not a l o n e i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o s u s t a i n themselves and t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s .  They were a i d e d and a b e t t e d by athamaki,  "prominent i n d i v i d u a l s , " i n the game f o r t h e i r own  K i k u y u who  were w i l l i n g t o i n d u l g e  s e t o f unique m o t i v e s .  i m p l o r e d Boyes t o h e l p him subdue o t h e r K i k u y u .  Karuri,  Low's  themselves  f o r example,  Wagombi and K a r k e r r i e  108  d i d n o t h e s i t a t e t o send a i d and thus save t h e t r a d e r from d e a t h when he was b e i n g a t t a c k e d by t h e Chinga c l a n s .  Gibbons and Gutu h e l p e d each  o t h e r i n Embu, much t o Gutu's u l t i m a t e advantage.  By 1917, as we have  seen, Gutu was Paramount C h i e f o f t h e Embu w h i l e a c c o r d i n g t o Boyes h i s good f r i e n d K a r u r i was as e a r l y as 1912 a man o f some eminence i n t h e colonial hierarchyl  Thus t h e l e g a c y o f t r i b a l h o s t i l i t y and s o c i a l  tur-  b u l e n c e i n h e r i t e d b y t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , cannot w h o l l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e armed t r a d e r s — a l t h o u g h t h e y were undoubtedly i n t h e p r o c e s s e s o f European and K i k u y u i n t e r a c t i o n .  I t would be more  a c c u r a t e t o s a y t h a t t h e armed t r a d e r s and t h e i r K i k u y u the athamaki,  collaborators,  a c t i n g i n c o n c e r t and f o r t h e i r own unique r e a s o n s , were  r e s p o n s i b l e t o g e t h e r f o r fomenting toward  catalysts  f u r t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l Kikuyu  hostility  ' o u t s i d e r s . ' Undoubtedly aibhamaki r e c o g n i z e d t h e v a l u e o f t h e i r  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e armed t r a d e r s and.indeed were n o t m e r e l y ' r e a c t o r s ' t o t h e European p r e s e n c e .  Their p a r t s i n the process of i n t e r a c t i o n  were a c t i v e ; t h e y , l i k e t h e armed traders', i n i t i a t e d and shaped f o r t h e i r own d i s c r e e t purposes.  events  They i n d e e d c r e a t e d t h e i r own d e s t i n y  as much as t h e y i n f l u e n c e d t h a t o f t h e t r i b e . The armed t r a d e r s , Boyes and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , Gibbons and o t h e r s , g a i n e d by a c t i n g a s middlemen i n t h e t r a d i n g p r o c e s s between K i k u y u l a n d and European a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , between K i k u y u l a n d and t h e a p p r o a c h i n g way.  rail-  N o t a b l y t h e armed t r a d e r s were a c t u a l l y a l l o w e d t o o p e r a t e b y an  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n whose r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , on more t h a n one o c c a s i o n and a c c o r d i n g t o Boyes h i m s e l f , e x p r e s s e d t h e i r d i s p l e a s u r e a t h i s p r e s e n c e .  Doubt-  l e s s t r a d e r s were a l l o w e d t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s because, r e g a r d l e s s  109  o f t h e i r tendency t o arouse' the K i k u y u t o h o s t i l i t y and v i o l e n c e , t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , between 1895 and 1900, was t o o t h i n on t h e ground and l a c k e d t h e n e c e s s a r y f o r c e a t i t s back t o p r e v e n t them. The v e r y p r o d ucts obtained  and b r o u g h t t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e s b y t h e armed t r a d e r s  were, f o r example, n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e d a i l y sustenance o f t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e Administration.  Therefore,  r e m a r k a b l e as i t seems, t h e Government was  f o r c e d t o a l l o w Boyes, i n p a r t i c u l a r , a f r e e " r e i g n " as s e l f - s t y l e d 37 "King o f the Wa-kikuyu." strengthen  By 1902, however, t h e Government was a b l e . t o  i t s p o s i t i o n t o a p o i n t where i t c o u l d e f f e c t i v e l y t u r n i t s  a t t e n t i o n more s e r i o u s l y toward t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e t r a d e r s , muster i t s m i l i t a r y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f o r c e s and p e n e t r a t e Kikuyuland  more d e e p l y i n t o  f o r t h e purpose o f " p a c i f y i n g " t h e K i k u y u and i n s t i t u t i n g an  all-encompassing  pax-Britannica.  110  FOOTNOTES  According to Boyes, John Boyes, p. 70, there were only "about ten white men who were independent traders and hunters i n the whole of . . . the East A f r i c a n and Uganda Protectorates . . . we were t o l d plainl y that we were not wanted . . . we were not even allowed guns and ammun i t i o n with which to protect ourselves." Least of Boyes' worries, however, was the arms p r o s c r i p t i o n : within a short time both he and his l e v i e s were carrying the l a t e s t B r i t i s h Army r i f l e s !  "jMashamba ( p l ) i s Swahili f o r cultivated plots of land and can be loosely interpreted as near to the English concept of garden. For notes on the shamba system see B.F. Oland, "The 'Shamba' System of Plantation Development" i n East A f r i c a Agriculture and Forestry Journal, v o l . 27, (1962), pp. 82-3. 3 Boyes, John Boyes, p.  73.  ^See Stigand, The Land, pp. 244-5 for a l a t e r (1913) description of Karuri who had become a Kikuyu of great influence and prestige. 5 Karuri was l a t e r made a Chief by the Administration. Boyes, p. 73, noted that "This important personage, who today (1912) c o l l e c t s the Hut Tax f o r the B r i t i s h Administration, would hardly be recognized as the savage warrior chief who stepped forward to meet the f i r s t white man he had ever seen i n his own country."  Boyes, John Boyes, p. 77.' Noteworthy i s the fact that Karuri remarked that he "did not want any.more white people i n the country" and that the Kikuyu " . . . did not mean to have any (more) strangers" i n t h e i r midst. Perhaps Karuri considered that i n view of the troubles encountered as a r e s u l t of Boyes' presence, one white man i n that part of Kikuyuland was enough! 7 M i l l e r , The Lunatic, p. 409. See also Boyes' remarks, John Boyes, p. 67, regarding trading with government o f f i c i a l s " . . . Food was wanted, I found, for the Government stations on the caravan road, as well as for the surveying parties on the l i n e of the Uganda Railway, and as i t was worth a rupee a pound, I thought I saw a good chance of  Ill  making some money by trying my luck i n the Kikuyu country."  See Ominde, Land and Population, passim, f o r description of the development of Nairobi. See also H.E. Robertson, "Nairobi, Past and Present," i n Reveille, v o l . 2, (1916), pp. 859-63; Otto Trevelyan, "Memories of Nairobi i n the Old Days. Early S e t t l e r s Recall t h e i r Experiences" i n East A f r i c a and Rhodesia, v o l . 26, (6" A p r i l 1950), pp. 962-3; W. Robert Foran, "Rise of Nairobi: From Camp Site to C i t y , " i n Crown Colonist (1950), pp. 160-5. Q  Boyes, John Boyes, pp. 82-3.  The writer was D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r , Chinga, 1953-56. Boyes was s t i l l . r e f e r r e d to and h i s exploits related often by the old men of the district.  """"'"Boyes, John Boyes, p. 77. Presumably Karuri tolerated Boyes, even though the l a t t e r was a' whiteman, because i n a sense they were 'birds of a feather'. Both were ambitious and were "aware" of the need f o r a mutually s a t i s f a c t o r y arrangement; Boyes to trade f r e e l y and Karuri to extend h i s influence with the a i d of Boyes' private army. But Karuri was shrewd enough to r e a l i s e the o v e r a l l effect of Boyes' adventures: wars which hitherto had been l o c a l were now escalated and the country generally was i n a turmoil.  underline. I t i s notable that so many so-called "chiefs" met by Boyes were observed by him to be "young men". This would suggest that such individuals were muthumaki and not t r i b a l elders.  """^An i n t e r e s t i n g facet of the early European l i t e r a t u r e i s that natives observed as "young", " t a l l " , "good-looking", "fair-skinned", "strong", "thin-lipped", seemed also to be associated with " c h i e f t a i n ship". Descriptions such as "old", "short", "ugly", "black", "weak", "thick-lipped", were terms associated with "savage", "backwardness", "follower" and "ignorance". Obviously Europeans possessed a "physical" image of leadership derivative,,.perhaps, of t h e i r own romantic heritage; misleading i n the extreme, i t might be added.  112  14  Boyes, John Boyes, p. 143- Was Boyes aware that his very presence was probably more than anything else the major cause of "fighting and bloodshed?" I t i s apparent from h i s narrative that he j u s t i f i e d his presence and his a c t i v i t i e s by r a t i o n a l i z i n g that he had native interests at heart!  15 Ibid., p. 144- Note again Boyes' favourable description of someone he considered to be a leader as being " . . . a f i n e , t a l l fellow . . . every inch a chief."  "^Jomo Kenyatta, My People of Kikuyu and the L i f e of Chief Wangombe, (Nairobi: OUP, 1966), p. 28. 17 The memory of Wangombe was preserved through h i s son who became a powerful Government-appointed chief of the Nyeri d i s t r i c t . 18 Kenyatta, My People, p. 57. 19 Boyes, John Boyes, p. 151. 2D Ibid., pp. 180-1. 21 See i b i d p. 42 f o r a description of t h e i r meeting at the coast and t h e i r arrangement to form a trading partnership.  2 2  23  2  I b i d . , p. 99.  Saberwal, ""The Embu," pp. 36-7.  ^Ibid.  25 Meinhertzhagen, Kenya Diary, pp. 119-20.  113  Ibid. 27  Ibid., p.  121.  Ibid., p.  122.  Tate, "Two  A f r i c a n Explorers," p.  29  30 ^ Huxley, White Man's, p.  454.  51.  ^^Meinhertzhagen, Kenya Diary, p.  132.  32 The high number of Kikuyu porters i s evidence of the influence of both traders and Government o f f i c e r s - i n getting Kikuyu to carry loads up and down the R i f t Valley. Perhaps cooperative athamaki were responsible f o r r e c r u i t i n g the Kikuyu. 33 An account of the attack .'is i n Stigand, The Land, pp. 266-7 and F.H. Goldsmith, John Ainsworth, Pioneer Kenya Administrator, 1864-1946, (London: Macmillan, 1959), pp. 26-31. 34 See James Barber, Imperial F r o n t i e r : A Study of Relations between the B r i t i s h and the Pastoral Tribes of North East Uganda, (Nairobi: EAPH, 1968), p. 10. 35 This remark i s generally attributed to G.A.S. Northcote, a P o l i t i c a l O f f i c e r i n the service of the Protectorate Administration. Barber, Imperial, p. 94"Because there was no government control, no government protection, the traders and hunters l i v e d a lawless, often v i o l e n t l i f e . This was the price to pay for unlimited hunting and trading. Traders who l i v e d i n unadministered t e r r i t o r y , who joined i n t r i b a l wars and who had at t h e i r disposal comparatively great wealth could expect nothing else. Sheer self-preservation dictated that most traders went about heavily armed and established t h e i r own means of defence against t r i b e s . In 1903 P.H.G. Powell Cotton  114  wrote t h a t t r a d e r s "would b e i n g p r e s s u r e t o b e a r on any t r i b e w h i c h caused them t r o u b l e , even g o i n g as f a r as t o c a r r y out p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n s t o revenge t h e i r p e r s o n a l g r i e v a n c e s . . . u s u a l l y the t r a d e r s were a b l e t o p r o t e c t themselves because o f t h e i r guns."  Y e t a n o t h e r v e r i t a b l e " K i n g " who g a i n e d g r e a t i n f l u e n c e over t r i b e s t o the west o f K i k u y u l a n d was the famed e l e p h a n t h u n t e r W.D.M. Bell. B e l l , a Scotsman whose h u n t i n g a b i l i t y became l e g e n d a r y i n h i s own t i m e , was known as the "King o f Karamoja." See B a r b e r , i b i d . , pp. 97-8 f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s a c t i v i t i e s .  CHAPTER 5 THE CONQUEST F i r s t Phase (1895-1902):  Sir  A "Holding" Exercise  Gerald P o r t a l ' s indictment of the I m p e r i a l B r i t i s h East  A f r i c a Company c o n t a i n e d b u t one apparent  compliment:  " I t s h o u l d be  remembered, i n j u s t i c e t o them, t h a t i n f a c e o f many i n i t i a l c u l t i e s t h e y succeeded  i n marked c o n t r a s t t o t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g  difficolo-  n i e s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r i n f l u e n c e w i t h o u t b l o o d s h e d and by t h e i r own u n a i d e d  efforts."^"  P o r t a l , o f c o u r s e , was n o t c o r r e c t i n h i s r e f e r e n c e t o t h e Company e s t a b l i s h i n g i t s i n f l u e n c e " w i t h o u t b l o o d s h e d ; " some k i l l i n g .  t h e r e had been  The m a t t e r o f "bloodshed"" however, was t o loom v e r y  l a r g e i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e new masters o f t h e E a s t A f r i c a n P r o t e c torate.  Some t r i b e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e t r u c u l e n t and o f t e n h o s t i l e K i k u y u ,  were t o be p a c i f i e d i n n o t h i n g l e s s t h a n b l o o d . In March 1895, S i r A r t h u r H a r d i n g e ,  C o n s u l - G e n e r a l , Z a n z i b a r , ad-  v i s e d the B r i t i s h F o r e i g n O f f i c e t h a t he was p r e p a r e d on t h e i r b e h a l f t o t a k e o v e r t h e E a s t A f r i c a n p o s s e s s i o n s o f t h e now d e f u n c t Company.  He  would, he s a i d , absorb i n t o t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n as many f o r mer Company employees as p o s s i b l e . r e s p o n s i b i l i t y took p l a c e .  On 1 J u l y 1895, o f f i c i a l t r a n s f e r o f  H a r d i n g e now assumed a l e g a c y founded p r i n c i -  p a l l y upon t h e Company's i n a b i l i t y t o r e s o l v e problems posed b y i t s  - 115 -  116  p r e s e n c e among the t r i b e s — p a r t i c u l a r l y the  Kikuyu.  H a r d i n g e ' s i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the government o f the t e r r i t o r y were vague and couched i n the b r o a d e s t  terms.  He was  o b l i g a t e d , f o r example,  t o c o n c e r n h i m s e l f w i t h the terms o f r e s p e c t i v e t r e a t i e s s i g n e d between Great B r i t a i n and o t h e r powers i n t e r e s t e d i n A f r i c a a l t h o u g h , j u s t how  he was  from c l e a r .  notably,  t o be g u i d e d on the m a t t e r o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  far  Perhaps the most s p e c i f i c s u g g e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g a d m i n i s t r a -  t i o n o f the P r o t e c t o r a t e was  couched i n the F o r e i g n O f f i c e d i r e c t i v e  a l l u d i n g t o the development o f l e g i t i m a t e t r a d e , s a f e c i r c u l a t i o n o f t r a d e r s and t r a v e l l e r s , the need not t o u n d u l y i n t e r f e r e w i t h t r i b a l government, n a t i v e h a b i t s and customs and t o attempt t o c o n f e r on  the  2 n a t i v e s the b e n e f i t s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n .  H e r e i n . l a y the b a s i s f o r an  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w h i c h t y p i c a l l y s o l v e d i t s problems l o c a l l y , "on  the  spot',' and w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o a n y t h i n g more t h a n a b r o a d s e t o f p r i n c i ples:  a p o s i t i o n made even more n e c e s s a r y by the l a c k o f good communi-  c a t i o n s between the c o a s t and the i n t e r i o r .  D i r e c t i v e s from Mombasa t o  K i k u y u l a n d took e l e v e n d a y s — w h i c h meant an e l a p s e d p e r i o d o f some t h r e e weeks between d e s p a t c h o f a d i r e c t i v e and r e c e i p t o f a r e p l y . H a r d i n g e p a t t e r n e d the P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n on the  Indian  precedent. P o l i c e o f f i c e r s and m a g i s t r a t e s were l e n t by the I n d i a n Government, and the m e d i c a l s t a f f came from I n d i a . Some I n d i a n l e g i s l a t i o n . . . was a p p l i e d i n the P r o t e c t o r a t e w i t h o u t m o d i f i c a t i o n . . . the j u d i c i a l powers o f o f f i c i a l s were a l s o m o d e l l e d on I n d i a n p r e c e d e n t s .  117  Moreover, i t was decided* t h a t j u r i s d i c t i o n , d u t i e s , powers o f t h e Commissioner and C o n s u l - G e n e r a l would be equated w i t h the I n d i a n model.  Sub-Commissioners, C o l l e c t o r s and A s s i s t a n t C o l l e c t o r s were t o 3  correspond t o equivalent orders o f rank i n I n d i a .  S i r Clement H i l l ,  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e A f r i c a Department a t t h e F o r e i g n O f f i c e , spent much o f h i s t i m e a t " t h e I n d i a O f f i c e i n s e a r c h offa-Indian p r e c e d e n t s and experience." The  P r o t e c t o r a t e was t h e n d i v i d e d , f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p u r p o s e s ,  into four provinces.  Each p r o v i n c e was a g a i n d i v i d e d i n t o d i s t r i c t s .  P r o v i n c e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d  b y Sub-Commissioners and d i s t r i c t s b y C o l -  l e c t o r s ( l a t e r D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r s ) and A s s i s t a n t C o l l e c t o r s ( l a t e r A s s i s ts  tant D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r s ) .  The P r o t e c t o r a t e h e a d q u a r t e r s , l o c a t e d a t  Mombasa, was s t a f f e d by a supreme c o u n c i l o f L t . L l o y d Mathews, R.N., now F i r s t M i n i s t e r t o t h e S u l t a n , C r a c k n e l l and S t r i c k l a n d as j u d i c i a l and f i n a n c i a l o f f i c e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y , and Hardinge h i m s e l f .  Essential  s e r v i c e s such as f i n a n c e , customs and s h i p p i n g , j u s t i c e , r o a d and i n l a n d t r a n s p o r t , h e a l t h , p o s t s and t e l e g r a p h s , p u b l i c works and.the m i l i t a r y , were a l l based i n M o m b a s a — n o t a b l y some 350 m i l e s from t h e s o u t h e r n periphery  of Kikuyuland.  Of the r e s o l u t i o n t o absorb i n t o t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e  Administration  former Company employees, i t i s apparent t h a t Hardinge was p r e p a r e d t o t a k e anyone who would o f f e r h i s s e r v i c e s .  W i t h few e x c e p t i o n s  sons s u b s e q u e n t l y h i r e d had s e r v e d e i t h e r i n Z a n z i b a r pany's m a i n l a n d c o n t i n g e n t . Africa.  a l l per-  o r w i t h t h e Com-  A few had e x p e r i e n c e i n o t h e r p a r t s o f  F r a n c i s H a l l , f o r example, had l i v e d and worked i n South A f r i c a ,  118  JiLTA  District b-aunicri«» Sullonctrf  of Zar:>':  Boundaries based on mog oHccht?d fo Sir A.Hardinqe's 1 0 9 7 report,  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Boundaries o f E a s t A f r i c a P r o t e c t o r a t e as o f 1897. From Great B r i t a i n , F o r e i g n O f f i c e , R e p o r t b y S i r A. Hardinge o f the C o n d i t i o n and P r o g r e s s o f t h e E a s t A f r i c a P r o t e c t o r a t e from i t s E s t a b l i s h m e n t t o t h e 2 0 t h J u l y 1897, London, 1897, CMD, 8683.  119  Dr. S.L. Hinde, a p h y s i c i a n b y p r o f e s s i o n , had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n m i l i t a r y a d v e n t u r e s i n the Congo w h i l e John A i n s w o r t h , ^ l a t e r t o become well-respected  i n h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e endeavours among the K i k u y u and  Kamba, had s e r v e d a t r a d i n g company i n the Congo.  The r e m a i n i n g Com-  pany men h i r e d t o form the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e core o f t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e Government, had been r e c r u i t e d d i r e c t l y from B r i t a i n , p o s s e s s e d l i t t l e A f r i c a n e x p e r i e n c e and had earned from Lugard the contemptuous d e s c r i p 7 t i o n o f "Mackinnon's raw young  Scots."  C u t - o f f from Mombasa and t h e d a i l y d i r e c t i o n ( s u c h as i t was) o f the p o l i c y - m a k e r s ,  o f f i c e r s were f o r c e d i n t o making ad-hoc d e c i s i o n s t o  meet t h e c r i s e s w i t h w h i c h t h e y were c o n f r o n t e d .  As a one-man o l i g a r -  chy the D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r was c a l l e d upon t o make the most p r o f o u n d dec i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g b o t h h i m s e l f and h i s A f r i c a n c h a r g e s . ney  t o the f a r reaches o f h i s assigned  Obliged t o jour-  t e r r i t o r y , m o s t l y on f o o t , t h e  neophyte D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r endured the h a r d s h i p s  o f topography, o f t h e  elements and n o t t h e l e a s t o f t r i b a l h o s t i l i t y i n the performance o f h i s duties.- "Of t h e v a r i e t y o f v e r y a b l e men under whom o r w i t h whom I s e r v ed i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s , " o b s e r v e d one o f f i c e r , "one d i e d o f d r i n k , two d i e d o f b l a c k - w a t e r f e v e r , a f o u r t h was s u s p e c t e d o f t a k i n g drugs, w h i c h , i n a dangerous s i t u a t i o n , i n d u c e d unwarranted o p t i m i s m ; he was murdered. A fifth  ended i n a home f o r i n e b r i a t e s .  A s i x t h committed s u i c i d e .  A  s e v e n t h , s u f f e r e d the p a i n s o f d e l i r i u m tremens and was b e l i e v e d , subsequently,  t o have drowned h i m s e l f i n the Red Sea."  Perhaps i s o l a t i o n  and ( d i s o r i e n t a t i o n from "normal" l i f e e n j o y e d i n B r i t a i n — t o g e t h e r w i t h the t h r e a t t o l i f e and l i m b i s s u i n g d a i l y from e n c l a v e s o f A f r i c a n \" '  120  p r e d o m i n a n c e — w e r e t h e r e a s o n s why the weaker specimens degenerated t o ineffectiveness.  Undoubtedly o n l y the s t r o n g were " u s e f u l " i n the p u r -  suit of administrative efficacy. The  "strong" prospered.  Men l i k e A i n s w o r t h , Hinde, H a l l and o t h e r s  succeeded q u i c k l y t o the mantle o f h i g h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and formed t h e e l i t e c o r p s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e a d e r s h i p on whom s u c c e s s i v e consistently relied. and  Governors  A l l were men, i t seems, imbued w i t h the s t y l e s  e t h i c s o f l a t e r V i c t o r i a n c o l o n i a l i s m — c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which i n -  f l u e n c e d the development o f t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s evolved, and p r e f e r e n c e iple.  f o r example, o u t o f t h e B r i t i s h p e c u l i a r i t y  f o r i m p r o v i s a t i o n based upon p r e c e d e n t r a t h e r t h a n p r i n c -  Common sense and e x p e r i e n c e r a n k e d above i d e a s .  l y touted  One s e t  A l l of the great-  " q u a l i t i e s " o f the p u b l i c s c h o o l b o y would be emphasized; f o r  example, t h e t r a d i t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d amateur o v e r the p r o f e s s i o n a l and expert.  The e a r l y l i t e r a t u r e on E a s t A f r i c a w r i t t e n b y a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , 9  C.W. Hobley, K.R. Dundas, C. E l i o t few,  and W.S. R o u t l e d g e , t o name j u s t a  abounds w i t h a s o r t o f p o l i s h e d amateurism i n p r a c t i c a l l y e v e r y  f i e l d o f E a s t A f r i c a n endeavour.  E a r l y D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r s , i t seems,  were men who r e c o r d e d o r r e a c t e d t o what t h e y saw i n the absence o f background knowledge o r s c h o l a r s h i p . went d e s c r i p t i o n s o f men, a n i m a l s , things perceived  I n t o t h e i r d i a r i e s and B l u e Books  mountains, p l a n t s and c o u n t l e s s  other  around and about the u r g e n t and o f t e n dangerous d a i l y  b u s i n e s s o f t h e pax B r i t t a n i c a . As o b s e r v e r s and r e c o r d e r s  of facts,  t h e s e men p l a y e d a unique r o l e i n the s h a p i n g o f the c h a r a c t e r o f E a s t African administration.  U n t i l t h e ascendancy o f t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i s t ,  121  s o c i o l o g i s t , economist and A f r i c a n h i s t o r i a n , e x p e r t i s e on t r i b a l c i e t y and  i t s problems o f adjustment t o the a l i e n i n v a d e r s ,  on the i n v a d e r s s o c i e t y , was Officer.  The  tribal  of the seasoned D i s t r i c t  e x o t i c e x p e r i e n c e o f E a s t A f r i c a , found i n the w r i t i n g s of  the p e r i o d , r e p o r t s , pamphlets, i d l e r a m b l i n g s , thus provided  expertise  themselves and t h e i r problems of adjustment t o  a l m o s t the e x c l u s i v e p r o v i n c e  so-  a s o l i d foundation  l e t t e r s and books,  of knowledge on w h i c h l a t e r  has  legatees  have been a b l e t o b u i l d . I n d i v i d u a l i s m i s perhaps the most common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o b s e r v e d among D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r s ; e i t h e r as a q u a l i t y endowed n a t u r a l l y , g a i n e d from p r e v i o u s icy"  e x p e r i e n c e o r f o r c e d upon them by c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f " p o l -  emanating from so f a r away.  N a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h u s tended t o  be shaped by l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e s and was  o f n e c e s s i t y d e s i g n e d t o meet the  d a i l y exigencies of a given s i t u a t i o n or c r i s i s . i s t r a t i o n thus became the vogue: and  i t was  "On  the s p o t " admin-  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n based upon l o c a l  c r i t i c a l needs r a t h e r t h a n t h a t w h i c h was  d e s i g n e d t o meet l o n g -  range c r i t e r i a . , An example o f e f f e c t i v e "on t h e s p o t " a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s the case o f Francis H a l l . " ^ 'Kikuyuland,  Preoccupied w i t h c o n t r o l l i n g h i s d i s t r i c t i n southern  H a l l r e c e i v e d l i t t l e guidance from h i s s u p e r i o r A i n s w o r t h  a t Machakos o r from the c o a s t . s t r i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and constructive progression.  He  c o n s t a n t l y c o m p l a i n e d about the  l a c k o f h e l p , o f poor p o l i c y and  l i t t l e or  no  He r e s o l v e d , t h e r e f o r e , i n q u i t e o b v i o u s  f a s h i o n , t o take m a t t e r s i n t o h i s own his  shoe-  hands by r e s o r t i n g t o any means a t  d i s p o s a l to administer h i s area of Kikuyuland.  Thus he began i n -  c r e a s i n g l y t o r e l y upon the c u l t i v a t i o n o f K i k u y u athamaki as a means  122  to c o n t r o l the p o p u l a t i o n and i n c r e a s e the s e c u r i t y o f h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . . K i n a n j u i , s a i d b y H a l l t o be h i s " F i d u s A c h a t e s , " s u p p o r t e d h i s European a l l y i n many a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p e r s o n a l endeavours.  Using a j u d i c i o u s  c o m b i n a t i o n o f f o r c e and diplomacy, and w i t h the a i d o f K i n a n j u i , t h e i n t r e p i d H a l l managed t o w i n a degree o f c o n f i d e n c e from s u r r o u n d i n g Kikuyu tribesmen. for  A s t u t e enough t o r e a l i s e , a l s o , K i k u y u p r o c l i v i t i e s  i n t e r n e c i n e w a r f a r e , now a g g r a v a t e d by h i s own p r e s e n c e , t h e p r e -  v i o u s i n f l u e n c e o f t h e Company and t h e a m b i t i o n s o f t h e a'thamaki, used e f f e c t i v e l y a " d i v i d e and r u l e " s t r a t e g y t o h i s The a m b i t i o n s o f athamaki a n a l y s i s o f H a l l ' s success.  Hall  advantage.  i s a m a t t e r o f some importance i n an  H a l l u n d o u b t e d l y found h i m s e l f i n v o l v e d i n  a power s t r u g g l e between competing  athamaki.  Resentment o f H a l l may have .  been based on t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t some athamaki f e a r e d h i s p r e s e n c e would tend t o s u p p l a n t t h e i r own i n f l u e n c e among l o c a l K i k u y u . K i n a n j u i t o t h e g r e a t e s t advantage, tween t h e competing  Using  H a l l was a b l e t o d r i v e a wedge b e -  t r i b a l f a c t i o n s b y p l a y i n g one o f f a g a i n s t t h e o t h e r .  A i d e d by armed " f r i e n d l i e s , " K i k u y u and M a s a i , H a l l was thus a b l e t o s e cure h i s presence i n t h e immediate a r e a around F o r t S m i t h and l a t e r Mbirri (Fort Hall).  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , H a l l ' s s u c c e s s i n implementing t h e  pax p a r a l l e l e d K i n a n j u i ' s s u c c e s s i n g a i n i n g f o r h i m s e l f more power. The two men thus a c t e d i n c o n c e r t f o r the same p u r p o s e — t o a c c r u e power. E s s e n t i a l l y t h e o n l y d i f f e r e n c e e b e t w e e n H a l l and K i n a n j u i i n r e s p e c t o f t h e i r p u r s u i t o f power, was t h a t H a l l ' s a m b i t i o n s were l e s s p e r s o n a l t h a n those o f h i s f r i e n d .  Perhaps, a l s o , K i n a n j u i ' s s u c c e s s l a y i n the f a c t  t h a t he had p r e s e n t e d h i m s e l f and h i s s e r v i c e s t o t h e B r i t i s h — a l b e i t t h e  123  Company—at a time when the a l l - p o w e r f u l muthumaki, W a i y a k i , had been deposed.  R e l a t i o n s h i p s between the Company and the K i k u y u d u r i n g t h e  p e r i o d o f W a i y a k i s s demise were a t a p a r t i c u l a r l y low ebb.  Hall  was  no doubt e l a t e d a t the p r o s p e c t o f b e i n g s e r v e d by a n o t h e r muthumaki who,  w h i l e n o t as p o w e r f u l as W a i y a k i , c o u l d become a u s e f u l a l l y  c a t a l y s t i n the a f f a i r s o f n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  and  As f a r as the B r i t i s h  were concerned K i n a n j u i thus p r o v i d e d an answer t o the problem o f " f i n d - . i n g the c h i e f " i n an a r e a where no c h i e f s e x i s t e d because K i k u y u p o l i t y was based upon a system o f e l d e r s .  The f a c t t h a t K i n a n j u i was  seen as  a K i k u y u " c h i e f " by t h e B r i t i s h may have been one more r e a s o n f o r K i k u y u resentment o f a l i e n " i n t r u s i o n .  As f a r as the K i k u y u were concerned  key q u e s t i o n was,  "how  chiefs existed?"  On the o t h e r hand, as Mungeam p o i n t s out  the  c o u l d K i n a n j u i be a ' c h i e f when no K i k u y u  i t seems l i k e l y t h a t , f o r o t h e r K i k u y u , K i n y a n j u i ( s i c ) i n s p i r e d i n s p i r a t i o n as w e l l as r e s p e c t . He was, a f t e r a l l , a 'success s t o r y ' i n t h a t he was a K i k u y u who had succeeded i n p l a y i n g the B r i t i s h a t t h e i r own game, and had a c h i e v e d power and a u t h o r i t y as a r e s u l t . H a l l ' s e f f o r t s i n promoting athamaki, w h i l e i n i t i a l l y c a u s i n g Kikuyu u n r e s t , p a i d handsome d i v i d e n d s l a t e r .  Through the advantage  o f con-  t i n u i t y ( H a l l s e r v e d the Company and the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the same g e o g r a p h i c a r e a s ) many.of H a l l ' s e a r l y K i k u y u c o n t a c t s a c c e p t e d p o s t s w i t h the government and t h u s formed t h e n u c l e u s o f a K i k u y u establishment.'  'official  124  Indeed by 1909, when a n . a n a l y s i s o f l o c a l . ' c h i e f s ' was made i n the Kiambu Record Book, i t i s apparent t h a t many o f the l e a d i n g ' c h i e f s ' began t h e i r y e a r s o f a u t h o r i t y i n the 1890's, s e e i n g s e r v i c e w i t h H a l l and A i n s w o r t h . Not a few began t h e i r l i v e s i n comparative p o v e r t y , and o n l y g r a d u a l l y became w e a l t h y and p o w e r f u l , m a i n l y t h r o u g h the B r i t i s h connexion. Almost a l l seem t o have s e c u r e d t h e i r o f f i c i a l s t a t u s t h r o u g h the p r a c t i c a l t e s t o f t h e i r l o y a l t y t o the government r a t h e r t h a n t h r o u g h any p o s i t i o n i n K i k u y u s o c i e t y . H H a l l d i e d i n 1901 a f t e r c o n t r a c t i n g d y s e n t e r y on a p u n i t i v e expedi t i o n a g a i n s t the K i k u y u .  Dr. R a d f o r d , who  i l l n e s s , p a i d t r i b u t e by s a y i n g , " . . .  tended him d u r i n g h i s f a t a l  h i s name was  memory w i l l l i v e l o n g among the Wakikuyu as a man  a t a l i s m a n and h i s  t o .be f e a r e d , r e s p e c t e d  12 and l o v e d . "  No doubt he was  " f e a r e d " and " r e s p e c t e d " by h i s K i k u y u  e n e m i e s — o f whom he had a l a r g e n u m b e r — a n d " l o v e d " by t h o s e he had moted:  K i k u y u athamaki, who  were few i n number.  m i n i s t r a t o r , commented t h a t H a l l was any l i v i n g man  Hobley, a f e l l o w ad-  "a g a l l a n t s o u l , who  d i d more t h a n  t o e s t a b l i s h the pax B r i t t a n i c a among the K i k u y u , who 13  t h e n a v e r y t u r b u l e n t and t r e a c h e r o u s  pro-  were  tribe."  The case o f H a l l s e r v e s t o i l l u s t r a t e p r o b a b l y as w e l l as any n a t u r e o f "on the s p o t " a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n K i k u y u l a n d .  the  W i t h few p o l i c y  g u i d e l i n e s , e i t h e r from the c o a s t o r h i s immediate s u p e r i o r , A i n s w o r t h , no o f f i c i a l Government m i l i t a r y f o r c e a t h i s back, p o o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s o u r c e s and low f u n d s .  H a l l ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n , t h a t w h i c h g a i n e d him  the  u n u s u a l e u l o g i e s o f h i s - f e l l o w a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , was based upon h i s q u a l i t i e s t a s an i n d i v i d u a l endowed w i t h a s e t o f p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ed t o the ' f r o n t i e r ' e x i s t e n c e o f K i k u y u l a n d .  suit-  Perhaps he e p i t o m i z e d the  125  l i f e o f the e a r l y D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r i n East A f r i c a .  Faced w i t h t h e p r o b l e m  of.;, m e e t i n g t h e needs o f h i s own e x i s t e n c e , o f i n t r o d u c i n g a l i e n a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e - s y s t e m s t o a g e n e r a l l y i n t r a n s i g e n t p o p u l a t i o n , o f expanding h i s i n f l u e n c e without i n c u r r i n g the wrath o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  centre  (Mombasa, N a i r o b i o r London) o r indeeid t h a t o f t h e n a t i v e s , H a l l exemp l i f i e d a t r a d i t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m engendered b y a s e t o f unique  cir-  cumstances:  circumstances which undoubtedly c o n t r i b u t e d t o h i s e a r l y  and u n t i m e l y  death.  -  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , because o f t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f h i s t e n -  ure (1893-1900) as a Company man and t h e n as a P r o t e c t o r a t e  Administra-  t i o n employee, he was a b l e s u c c e s s f u l l y t o d e v e l o p a n a t i v e firmament, a n u c l e u s o f u s e f u l i n t e r m e d i a r i e s , on w h i c h h i s s u c c e s s o r s their influence.  Moreover, H a l l e p i t o m i z e d ,  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e establishment  i n Kikuyuland  could g r a f t  a l s o , the e a r l y period of  (1895-1900); a j t i m e o o f . o n l y  s l i g h t expansion, o f " s e t t l i n g i n " — g a i n i n g a "toe-hold"—among Kikuyu i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t t o government s t a t i o n s ; a t i m e , - s i g n i f i c a n t l y , when a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n came o f t e n i n t h e form o f " r e s p o n s e s " t o K i k u y u provocation  r a t h e r t h a n t h e l a t e r p e r i o d (1900-1910) when Government s e t  i t s f a c e a g a i n s t t h e K i k u y u i n a much more determined and p l a n n e d f a s h i o n . The  establishment  o f A i n s w o r t h ' s new P r o v i n c i a l H e a d q u a r t e r s i n  N a i r o b i - - — a p l a c e s t r a t e g i c a l l y l o c a t e d f o r d e a l i n g w i t h ' the K i k u y u and now r e a c h e d b y t h e r a i l w a y — h e r a l d e d  the beginning  of m i l i t a r y force i n the subjugation  of the Kikuyu.  o f a p o l i c y o f t h e use Moreover, an impor-  t a n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e change t o o k p l a c e i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f 1901 when "the Commissioner d e c i d e d t o d e t a c h t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t o f t h e K i k u y u count r y c o n s i s t i n g o f F o r t H a l l , N y e r i , Meru and Embu from t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  126  o f Ukamba and t h e r e b y i n s t i t u t e a new p r o v i n c e t o be c a l l e d t h e Kenya,  15 l a t e r the Kikuyu province."  I n e f f e c t t h i s meant t h a t K i k u y u l a n d  had become an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t d i v o r c e d from t h e v a s t n e s s o f Ukamba, was now t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d from N a i r o b i — t h e f u t u r e communications c e n t r e o f the P r o t e c t o r a t e — a n d was thus more proximate pacification.  Furthermore,  t o t h e scene o f impending  Dr. S.L. Hinde, a man p o s s e s s e d  of previous  m i l i t a r y e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e Congo, was a p p o i n t e d Sub-Commissioner o f the Province w i t h headquarters F o r t Smith.  i n K i a m b u — a new s t a t i o n w h i c h  superseded  A l s o , a new s t a t i o n was b u i l t on t h e o l d D a g o r e t t i s i t e  t o g e t h e r w i t h a network o f roads e x t e n d i n g throughout l a n d as f a r as F o r t H a l l .  southern  Kikuyu-  F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s . i t i s obvious t h a t t h e  i a d m i n i s t r a t i v e n e t was c l o s i n g on t h e K i k u y u . But f i r s t t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was f a c e d w i t h t h e problem o f the armed t r a d e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y John Boyes, who r e p r e s e n t e d , i n a sense, a c h a l l e n g e t o i m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t y . Moreover, worse s t i l l ,  many  armedr t r a d e r s were r e g a r d e d b y t h e K i k u y u as b e i n g members o f t h e Admin1  istration.  Thus t r i b a l t u r b u l e n c e engendered b y t h e armed t r a d e r s might  have been a t t r i b u t e d , by t h e K i k u y u , t o t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and, moreover, the e f f e c t s o f t h i s t u r b u l e n c e might have been c o n s t r u e d b y t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n as making t h e i r t a s k o f p a c i f i c a t i o n t h a t much more d i f f i c u l t .  Boyes  and o t h e r s had t o be removed from K i k u y u l a n d i f a programme o f p a c i f i c a t i o n was t o be s u c c e s s f u l l y implemented.  Ainsworth's  concern i s r e f l e c t e d  i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f Boyes a c t i v i t i e s and subsequent a r r e s t .  127  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P r o v i n c i a l and D i s t r i c t B o u n d a r i e s , 1912. Note K i k u y u l a n d now i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o Kenya P r o v i n c e . From George H. Mungeam, B r i t i s h R o l e i n Kenya, 1895-1912, London: OUP, 1966.  128  D u r i n g the e a r l i e r p e r i o d o f our o c c u p a t i o n , we sometimes h e a r d o f a r e p u t e d l y p o w e r f u l c h i e f known as K a r u r i who l i v e d somewhere west o f Mount Kenya. L a t e r on t h e r e were . rumours a t i n t e r v a l s o f a w h i t e man l i v i n g w i t h K a r u r i . . . e n q u i r i e s made by Hinde r e v e a l e d t h a t a 'white man p o s s e s s i n g f i r e a r m s was l i v i n g i n c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h K a r u r i . N a t i v e s t o r i e s were t o the e f f e c t t h a t the w h i t e man had a s s i s t e d the c h i e f i n r a i d s on o t h e r n a t i v e s . Hinde t h e r e u p o n proceeded t o K a r u r i ' s where he found a w h i t e man named Boyes whom he o r d e r e d t o accompany him t o F o r t Hall. The outcome o f t h i s was t h a t Boyes, w i t h the c a t t l e he c l a i m e d as h i s p r o p e r t y , was sent t o N a i r o b i on a charge o f d a c o i t y . There were, however, no w i t n e s s e s produced t o enable the charge t o be p r o v e d . K a r u r i , who a l s o appeared i n N a i r o b i i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the case, s t a t e d t h a t Boyes had bought most o f the c a t t l e w h i l e o t h e r had been g i v e n t o Boyes by h i m s e l f . The outcome o f the m a t t e r was t h a t Boyes was d i s c h a r g e d . ^ I m p o r t a n t l y , however, Boyes n e v e r r e t u r n e d t o K i k u y u l a n d thus the P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , now  as a  trader.and  b e t t e r o r g a n i z e d and a b l e t o  17 sustain i t s e l f without h i s help, A matter, was  r i d of h i s p e r t u r b i n g i n f l u e n c e .  a l s o , o f some c o n c e r n t.orthe P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  d e a l t w i t h between 1901  Masai.  was  The M a s a i ,  and 1904  d e s c r i b e d by Low  and concerned the f u t u r e o f  the  as "the h i n g e o f Kenya," d e s p i t e t h e i r  f i e r c e r e p u t a t i o n as w a r r i o r s , had p r o v e d not t o be too i n t o l e r a n t o f a l i e n advances t h r o u g h t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y . war  Weakened by  civil  and the d e v a s t a t i n g e f f e c t s , o f f a m i n e , the t r i b e t o o k t o r a i d i n g the  K i k u y u and o t h e r t r i b e s i n s e a r c h o f s u b s i s t e n c e .  W h i l e the tendency f o r  r a i d i n g a i d e d the B r i t i s h c o n s i d e r a b l y i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o secure  militant  a l l i e s a g a i n s t the K i k u y u , i t began i n c r e a s i n g l y t o d i s t u r b them between 1901  and 1904-  uneasiness,  Moreover, the M a s a i themselves began t o show an i n c r e a s i n g  as d i d the K i k u y u , a t the p r o s p e c t o f t h e i r l a n d s b e i n g  taken 18 by an i n f l u x o f European s e t t l e r s . G r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r l a i b o n Lenana, a c o l l a b o r a t o r c u l t i v a t e d by A i n s w o r t h and o t h e r s , the M a s a i t h u s ,  129  i n 190-4, c o n c l u d e d an agreement w i t h t h e B r i t i s h w h i c h c a l l e d f o r t h e i r movement en-masse i n t o two g e o g r a p h i c a l l y d e l i n e a t e d r e s e r v e s .  This  agreement p r e c i p i t a t e d subsequent movements o f M a s a i (1908, 1911 and 1912)  and, a l t h o u g h  each o c c a s i o n caused much f r i c t i o n and, i n d e e d ,  even an a p p e a l t o the H i g h C o u r t s , t h e "problem" o f M a s a i t r a d i t i o n ( r a i d i n g ) and t h e p r o x i m i t y o f t h e t r i b e t o o t h e r t r i b e s and European s e t t l e r s , was r e s o l v e d .  Now t h e M a s a i were s a f e l y i s o l a t e d and con19  t r o l l e d , a l b e i t l o o s e l y , by the P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  Now  the B r i t i s h (1902-1910) c o u l d t u r n t h e i r a t t e n t i o n towards Kenya P r o v i n c e and s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e s t i l l l a r g e p o c k e t s o f K i k u y u r e s i s t a n c e — e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s  military  i n h e r i t a n c e from t h e Company. I n summary, t h e p e r i o d 1895 t o 1901 had been p e r h a p s , f o r t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , o n l y something more t h a n a " h o l d i n g cise."  But progress  o f some s i g n i f i c a n c e had been made.  f o r example, had s u c c e s s f u l l y by-passed K i k u y u l a n d  exer-  The r a i l w a y ,  and was on i t s way,  p r a c t i c a l l y unencumbered, t o t h e Lake and t h e a l l - i m p o r t a n t N i l e - s o u r c e . Boyes and the armed t r a d e r s had been removed by s w i f t and d e c i s i v e a d ministrative action.  The d e l i c a t e m a t t e r o f M a s a i and s e t t l e r  r e l a t i o n s h i p s had a l s o been p a r t i a l l y r e s o l v e d .  inter-  Moreover, w i t h M a s a i  moran l o o s e l y c o n t r o l l e d and now c o n f i n e d t o a r e s e r v e h a b i t a t , t h e prospect due  o f i n t e r - t r i b a l w a r f a r e was c o n s i d e r a b l y r e d u c e d .  Significantly,  t o t h e e f f o r t s o f men l i k e H a l l , t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n now  p o s s e s s e d an e l i t e cadre o f i n f l u e n t i a l f r i e n d s w i t h i n t h e s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r of Kikuyuland.  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e K i k u y u h a b i t a t had been  130  d e c l a r e d an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t — a P r o v i n c e — a n d  was t o be a d m i n i s t e r -  ed from a c e n t r e ( N a i r o b i ) p r o x i m a t e t o t h e a r e a .  Men and m a t e r i a l s  n e c e s s a r y f o r a s u s t a i n e d e f f o r t a g a i n s t t h e i n t e r i o r t r i b e s were j u s t hours away w h i l e t h e roads on w h i c h t h e y would presumably march were b e g i n n i n g t o p e n e t r a t e n o r t h from N a i r o b i i n t o t h e K i k u y u h e a r t l a n d . P a c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e K i k u y u was by 1901 about t o commence.  Now l a r g e r  a r e a s o f K i k u y u l a n d were t o be c l a i m e d ; i f n e c e s s a r y b y m i l i t a r y means and thus a t t h e e x p e n d i t u r e o f much K i k u y u b l o o d . The k e y i n g r e d i e n t t o s u c c e s s f u l s u b j u g a t i o n o f t h e K i k u y u was an e f f i c i e n t and w e l l - t r a i n e d m i l i t a r y f o r c e .  But t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e Admin-  i s t r a t i o n had n o t been f o r t u n a t e i n t h e q u a l i t y o f i t s m i l i t a r y l e g a c y from t h e Company.  Indeed, C o l o n e l H. M o y s e - B a r t l e t t has gone as f a r as  t o s a y t h a t " . . . t h e I m p e r i a l B r i t i s h E a s t A f r i c a Company made no comprehensive e f f o r t t t o o r g a n i z e p r o p e r f o r c e s f o r t h e maintenance o f 20 i t s authority."  S i r A r t h u r Hardinge commented t h a t t h e Company was 21  a "European a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . . . w i t h no v i s i b l e f o r c e a t i t s back." I t appears t h a t t h e development o f t h e Company's m i l i t a r y . f o r c e had p r o b a b l y been more p r a g m a t i c  than p l a n n e d .  Troops had been drawn from v a r -  i o u s E a s t A f r i c a n t r i b e s , d i f f e r e d w i d e l y i n q u a l i t y and were seen as a "curious hotch-potch  . . . w i t h no common s t a t u s and.no c e n t r a l c o n -  22 trol." The e a r l i e s t Company f o r c e had been commanded by a n a v a l o f f i c e r , L t . L l o y d Mathews, seconded from t h e c o a s t a l a n t i - s l a v e r y p a 23 trol.  On t h e p r o m o t i o n  o f Mathews t o " G e n e r a l "  m  the f o r c e s o f the  Government o f Z a n z i b a r , the. f o r c e was.commanded by C a p t a i n G.P. Hatch, and, a c c o r d i n g t o S i r G e r a l d P o r t a l , improved c o n s i d e r a b l y i n i t s m i l i t a r y performance.  131  An e a r l y problem had been t h e s e l e c t i o n o f s u i t a b l e A f r i c a n r e cruits.  Some o f f i c e r s p r e f e r r e d Sudanese t o Z a n z i b a r i s w h i l e o t h e r s ,  n o t a b l y Mackinnon, c o n s i d e r e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e c r u i t i n g i n Z u l u l a n d . o r even S i e r r a Leone.  But t h e c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was p r o h i b i t i v e and  the use o f Z u l u s thought i m p r a c t i c a l . The Company had t h e n sought p e r m i s s i o n t o r e c r u i t P u n j a b i s , b u t the I n d i a n Government opposed t h e p r o p o s i t i o n i n f a v o u r o f t r o o p s drawn from the D e l h i a r e a — a n d Mackinnon 24  r a i s e d such a f o r c e . For the p r o t e c t i o n o f caravans t r a v e r s i n g t h e r o u t e from t h e c o a s t to Uganda, t h e Company had r e l i e d m a i n l y on armed S w a h i l i l e v i e s who, u n t r a i n e d , were p a i d l i t t l e more t h a n the p o r t e r s they guarded. a s k a r i c a r r i e d a muzzle-loader  Each  f i r e a r m ; a weapon o f t e n found u s e l e s s be-  cause cap powder would n o t i g n i t e when dampened by s e a s o n a l D e s e r t i o n s were common and the c o n s e q u e n t t l o s s  rains.  o f f i r e a r m s was g r e a t .  S i n c e t r a d e r s , A r a b , S w a h i l i and European a l i k e , had been d i s t r i b u t i n g 25  firearms to the i n t e r i o r t r i b e s f o r years, and i n t e n s i f y t h i s p a t t e r n .  d e s e r t e r s served t o extend  Noteworthy i s the f a c t t h a t w i d e s p r e a d .  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f arms was a c o n s i d e r a b l e f a c t o r i n subsequent t i e s experienced interior  difficul-  by Government when i t a t t e m p t e d p a c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e  tribes.  Company p o s t s , designed  t o s u s t a i n caravans,  had been l o c a t e d a t  s t r a t e g i c p o i n t s a l o n g the r o u t e i n l a n d from Mombasa t o the Lake. p o s t was manned b y European o f f i c e r s and armed A f r i c a n l e v i e s .  Each  Among  the f a c i l i t i e s was a h u t a t Tsavo, mentioned b y P o r t a l , . a n d t h e s t a t i o n s ( f o r t s ) a t N d i ( s i c ) , Machakos i n the Wakamba c o u n t r y ,  Dagoretti started  by Lugard, K i k u y u ( l a t e r F o r t S m i t h ) and M b i r r i ( l a t e r F o r t H a l l ) b u i l t  132  }  •JK.ir.mjii  i '^I^Z  •  N i l n iJ.-nliMi;rjt-vc i n i l c n r u i l i M i S ' ' * m tKe f o r t . f f t G f r ; p e r i o d 1 E 9 S - * 90*S  *  Miin j.Jmi.iiunlive l u i i c n i t(ub!.ih»d. in i. ,* colt»ni»l f>;".'k« frtriotf I 90S - I 9 J 1  • Kitul  £ e  v  0  20 -10 60 50 100  RuLi'.djry of l i i r - I s t i A f r - t  The Spread of Administrative Stations 1895-1912. From George Munggamifl B r i t i s h Role i n Kenya, 1895-1912, London: OUP, 1966  133  by F r a n c i s H a l l .  D a g o r e t t i and F o r t S m i t h were s i t u a t e d on the s o u t h -  e r n p e r i p h e r y o f K i k u y u l a n d , j u s t n o r t h o f t h e "moat," w h i l e M b i r r i ( F o r t H a l l ) l a y some 50 m i l e s i n t o t h e i n t e r i o r .  Each K i k u y u  was o f s t u r d y c o n s t r u c t i o n and i n c l u d e d a s t o c k a d e , 26  station  deep d i t c h  filled  27  w i t h p a n j i s anand a/boma  surrounded b y b a r b e d w i r e .  F o r t i f i e d con-  s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s k i n d had been n e c e s s a r y owing t o t h e K i k u y u p r a c t i c e o f l a y i n g s i e g e on Company p r o p e r t y f o r l o n g p e r i o d s o f t i m e . The m i l i t a r y f o r c e i n h e r i t e d from t h e Company b y t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e was e s s e n t i a l l y p o o r l y o r g a n i z e d and thus l a c k e d t h e c o h e s i v e n e s s e s s a r y t o be p l a c e d i n t h e f i e l d a g a i n s t d i s s i d e n t t r i b e s m e n . f o r c e was armed; b u t so were t h e t r i b e s m e n .  nec-  True t h e  Fortunately certain  Kikuyu  c l a n s , thanks t o t h e e f f o r t s o f p e o p l e l i k e F r a n c i s H a l l , had been paci f i e d and were now c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h t h e new A d m i n i s t r a t i o n — e s p e c i a l l y i n a r e a s where a m b i t i o u s athamaki were l o c a t e d .  Boyes' o l d f r i e n d ,  Karure wa Gakure, i s an e x c e l l e n t example o f t h e a i d c o l l a b o r a t o r s r e n dered t o o f f i c e r s o f the P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . c o n n e c t i o n w i t h Boyes had s u f f i c i e n t l y impressed  Karure's  former  him w i t h t h e v a l u e o f  c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h whitemen i n a u t h o r i t y — e v e n though Boyes' a u t h o r i t y was somewhat s p e c i o u s .  I n 1900 Karure thus e n t e r e d i n t o "an agreement  w i t h the P r o t e c t o r a t e o f f i c i a l s , w h i c h enabled t h e B r i t i s h t o b r i n g Murang'a under t h e i r c o n t r o l , l a r g e l y w i t h o u t t h e u s e o f p u n i t i v e exped28 itions."  Moreover, i n o r d e r t o c o n s o l i d a t e h i s a l l i a n c e w i t h t h e P r o -  t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Karure r e n d e r e d  a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e CMS and o t h e r  m i s s i o n s a t t e m p t i n g t o e s t a b l i s h themselves i n t h e a r e a . l e d b y c o o p e r a t i v e athamaki, the p a c i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s .  Pacified clans,  would c o n t i n u e t o p l a y a u s e f u l p a r t i n  134  But o t h e r c l a n s , o f t e n those p h y s i c a l l y removed from t h e immediate p e r i p h e r i e s o f P r o t e c t o r a t e s t a t i o n s , were f r e q u e n t l y h o s t i l e , l e s s m a l l e a b l e t h a n those under f r i e n d l y athamaki and m a i n t a i n e d t a n c e t o Government.  an o v e r t  resis-  Thus i f f o r c e and consent were t o be t h e t w i n -  p i l l a r s on'which t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was g o i n g t o base i t s a u t h o r i t y , o p p o s i t i o n , the w i t h h o l d i n g o f consent, the r e f u s a l t o c o l l a b o r a t e , would auger p o o r l y f o r Government p r e s t i g e : d i s o b e d i e n c e  would  soon g e n e r a t e p r o g r e s s i v e l y from one c l a n t o a n o t h e r i n a c o n t i n u i n g e s c a l a t i o n l e a d i n g t o f u l l - s c a l e war. could i l l  afford.  This the P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  P a c i f i c a t i o n p o l i c y , therefore, although  founded on  a m i l i t a r y s o l u t i o n , was t o be performed on a p i e c e m e a l b a s i s .  Each  p o c k e t o f K i k u y u r e s i s t a n c e was t o be e l i m i n a t e d when t h e moment was p r o p i t i o u s , when t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was s u f f i c i e n t l y ed t o mount a p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n and when p r o v o c a t i o n ,  the " i n c i d e n t , "  p r o v i d e d an excuse o r j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r m i l i t a r y a c t i o n . " s k i r m i s h , " something o f a t r a d i t i o n i n p r e v i o u s gagements, was t o be p r e c l u d e d  prepar-  Moreover, t h e  i m p e r i a l m i l i t a r y en-  i n f a v o u r o f complete conquest, a s o r t  o f m i l i t a r y " o v e r k i l l , " where d i s s i d e n t t r i b a l elements were t o be smashed t o a p o i n t o f no r e c o v e r y . A t t h i s p o i n t and w i t h r e s p e c t t o p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n s , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o compare t h e d i c t a t e s o f c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y , b o t h t h e F o r e i g n O f f i c e and t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e Governor, w i t h t h e f a c t s .  Both the Foreign  O f f i c e , i n t h e p e r s o n o f L o r d Lansdowne, and Commissioner S i r C h a r l e s E l i o t (1900-1904) were a g a i n s t a p o l i c y o f mounting p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n s . I n l a y i n g down a s e t o f p r i n c i p l e s Lansdowne m i n u t e d :  135  I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t o f f i c e r s s h o u l d r e a l i s e the b r o a d l i n e s on w h i c h H i s M a j e s t y ' s Government w i s h t o work i n t h e development o f t h e F o r e i g n O f f i c e P r o t e c t o r a t e s . That p o l i c y i s t o spread t h e i r i n f l u e n c e over t h e n a t i v e s , and t o t e a c h them by degrees t h e advantages o f c i v i l i z a t i o n by a t t r a c t i n g them t o European c e n t r e s , b u t o n l y t o push on o u t p o s t s where t h e r e i s a f a i r p r o s p e c t o f commerce, o r where t h e i r e s t a b l i s h m e n t w i l l be w e l l r e c e i v e d b y the n a t i v e s . I t i s n o t t h e w i s h o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s Government t o f o r c e t h e i r way amongst t r i b e s who a r e h o s t i l e , and, though i t i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y u n a v o i d a b l e a t t i m e s t o make a d i s p l a y o f s t r e n g t h , a c t i o n l i k e l y t o provoke such a c o n t i n g e n c y s h o u l d be, i f p o s s i b l e , avoided.29 Lansdowne's statement was thus a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n a s t o how London viewed t h e m a t t e r o f p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n s . was no l e s s adamant on t h e m a t t e r :  Commissioner S i r C h a r l e s E l i o t  "I- am p e n e t r a t e d w i t h t h e c o n v i c t i o n  t h a t i t i s u s e l e s s t o spend l i v e s and money on subduing  the barbarous  i n h a b i t a n t s o f b a r r e n d e s e r t s , and t h a t p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n s a r e a m i s 30 take."  Thus we see t h a t p o l i c y w h i c h emanated from t h e F o r e i g n O f f i c e  i n London o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e i n N a i r o b i , was n o t the same as t h a t w h i c h was p l a n n e d and executed  "on t h e s p o t . "  Punitive expeditions  were a f a c t o f l i f e and d i d take p l a c e d e s p i t e t h e d i c t a t e s o f c e n t r a l authority.  Moreover, t h e l o c a t i o n o f "on t h e s p o t " was n o t N a i r o b i , o n l y  some 50 m i l e s from t h e g e o g r a p h i c  centre of Kikuyuland, but smaller a r -  eas l i k e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s t s , K i k u y u i t u r a , s p i n e b a c k r i d g e s , r i v e r c r o s s i n g s , f o r e s t t r a c k s , and a h o s t o f o t h e r i s o l a t e d e n v i r o n s o f Kikuyuland.  O b v i o u s l y a g r e a t d i s p a r i t y e x i s t e d between t h e p o l i c y - m a k -  e r s , even though, as i n t h e case o f Commissioner E l i o t , some were n e a r t o t h e scene o f t h e a c t i o n , and t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s l o c a l agents.  D i d t h i s d i s p a r i t y o f purpose suggest a l a c k o f c e n t r a l c o n t r o l ?  Was i t due, perhaps,  t o poor communications?  S u f f i c e t o say, f o r t h e  136  purposes o f t h i s t h e s i s , t h a t such a d i s p a r i t y e x i s t e d — o f t h i s t h e r e i s little  doubt.-  31  Second Phase (1902-1910):  A Military  Exercise  By 1900 t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n began t o p r e p a r e for  itself  p o l i c e o r m i l i t a r y a c t i o n i n support o f i t s e f f o r t s t o e f f e c t a  measure o f c o n t r o l o v e r t h e p o p u l a t i o n .  I n 1901 a f o r c e o f P r o t e c t o r a t e  P o l i c e was o r g a n i z e d .  The f o r c e t o t a l l e d as h i g h as 2000 men armed w i t h  Martini-Henry  W h i l e p r e d o m i n a n t l y A f r i c a n , t h e f o r c e a l s o con-  rifles.  t a i n e d an I n d i a n c o n t i n g e n t  and l a t e r a s m a l l number o f Europeans r e 32  c r u i t e d m a i n l y t o d e a l w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g number o f w h i t e Most c o n s t a b l e s were c o n c e n t r a t e d s e t t l e d areas.  settlers.  i n t h e towns, t r a d i n g c e n t r e s and  By 1902 a s e n i o r B r i t i s h o f f i c e r , w i t h p r e v i o u s  i e n c e i n I n d i a , was a p p o i n t e d as I n s p e c t o r G e n e r a l .  exper-  Soon he s e c u r e d  the s e r v i c e s o f f i v e B r i t i s h army d r i l l i n s t r u c t o r s and the r e s u l t , according  t o Robert F o r a n — a n e a r l y r e c r u i t — w a s  i n the d r i l l , bearing,  "a marked improvement  d i s c i p l i n e and g e n e r a l appearance o f t h e A f r i c a n  33  ranks." had  Known as t h e B r i t i s h E a s t A f r i c a P o l i c e , b y 1905 t h e f o r c e  expanded c o n s i d e r a b l y and had e s t a b l i s h e d s t a t i o n s i n N a i r o b i and.  Kisumu.  P a r a m i l i t a r y i n f u n c t i o n t h e BEAP was l e d b y m o s t l y i n e x p e r i -  enced b u t keen B r i t i s h army l i e u t e n a n t s seconded t o d u t y i n E a s t A f r i c a . Knowledge o f p o l i c e d u t i e s came t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s o f t r i a l and e r r o r — ("and  m o s t l y t h e l a t t e r p r e v a i l e d " ) — w h i c h emanated f r o m a r i g o r o u s l y  comprehensive o n - t h e - j o b - t r a i n i n g . .  137  A l t h o u g h the BEAP was c a p a b l e , a n d . o f t e n p a r t i c i p a t e d i n , m i l i t a r y , i n c u r s i o n s , by f a r t h e more p o t e n t f o r c e was t h e E a s t . A f r i c a n R i f l e s ( l a t e r King's A f r i c a n R i f l e s ) .  Formed i n 1895, under C a p t a i n Hatch,  the E a s t A f r i c a n R i f l e s were a r e - o r g a n i z e d l e g a c y o f t h e Company i n h e r i t e d by t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The regiment  consisted of  "two B r i t i s h o f f i c e r s , 300 P u n j a b i s , 100 Sudanese ( r a i s e d l a t e r t o 2 5 0 ) , 300 S w a h i l i s and a ' m i x e d ' f f o r c e d o f 200 men."-  34  I n 1895 t h e P r o t e c t o r -  a t e had been d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e m i l i t a r y d i s t r i c t s , namely, S e y y i d i e h and Tanaland,  t h e P r o v i n c e o f Ukamba ( l a t e r s p l i t t o form Ukamba and  Kenya P r o v i n c e s ) and J u b a l a n d .  By 1900 t h e f o r c e had a c c r u e d much ex-  p e r i e n c e i n f i g h t i n g E a s t A f r i c a n wars.  I t had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e  Sudanese mutiny i n Uganda, t h e M a z r u i r e b e l l i o n and t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f Wakamba s l a v e - t r a d e r s . I n 1901 Hatch i n c r e a s e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the regiment  t o 1500 men and moved i t s h e a d q u a r t e r s  to Nairobi.  The  Ukamba detachment was r a i s e d t o f o u r companies w i t h p o s t s a t Machakos, Taveta and i n s i d e K i k u y u l a n d a t M b i r r i ( F o r t H a l l ) .  M a s a i were r e c r u i t -  ed t o supplement the M b i r r i c o n t i n g e n t . U s e f u l and e x p e r i e n c e d , however, as t h e BEAP was, by 1901 and a t the b e h e s t o f none o t h e r t h a n t h e p a c i f i c E l i o t , t h e f o r c e was r e o r g a n i z ed.  On November 5 t h e F o r e i g n O f f i c e gave i n s t r u c t i o n s t o t h e e f f e c t  t h a t from January 1, 1902 t h e BEAP would become one regiment ( 6 b a t t a l i o n s ) t o be s t y l e d t h e K i n g ' s A f r i c a n R i f l e s .  The t o t a l s t r e n g t h o f t h e  regiment was i n 1902 some 104- o f f i c e r s and 4,579 men.  Noteworthy a t  t h i s t i m e , a l s o , was t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f c i v i l and m i l i t a r y w i t h t h e s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e m i l i t a r y b e i n g emphasized.  authority—  138  As commanders-in-chief, H.M. Commissioners were responsible for defining the object and scope of the m i l i t a r y operations, but not for undertaking their immediate d i r e c t i o n . M i l i t a r y authority was never to be exercised i n opposition to, or i n competition with, that of the c i v i l power. . . 35 This edict i s interesting i n view of what had been pointed out with respect to differences between central p o l i c y and l o c a l p r a c t i c e . Obviously now any m i l i t a r y action would have to have the p r i o r assent of the c i v i l administration.  Did t h i s i n e f f e c t mean that the highest  c i v i l authority, the Commissioner ( l a t e r Governor), was informed of every m i l i t a r y action?  Or was i t more l i k e l y that this i n s t r u c t i o n was  interpreted by the m i l i t a r y to mean punitive expeditions were agreed upon, "on the spot," l o c a l l y , between subordinate" o f f i c e r s of the King's A f r i c a n R i f l e s and subordinate o f f i c e r s of the Protectorate Administration?  In view of E l i o t ' s aversion to punitive expeditions, and those of  the Foreign Secretary, i t i s l i k e l y that at least, as f a r as punitive expeditions were concerned, decisions on how, when and where, to undertake them were l e f t to subordinate f i e l d o f f i c e r s .  Furthermore, i t i s  probable, that those i n high c i v i l authority, Foreign Secretary, Commissioner, Governor, etc., possessed punitive action.  only a cursory knowledge of plans f o r  Indeed, perhaps i n many instances, high o f f i c i a l s were  informed-of events a f t e r they had taken place. With the formation of a well-equipped,  trained and experienced body  of troops, the King's A f r i c a n R i f l e s , the Protectorate Administration was now i n a p o s i t i o n to react m i l i t a r i l y to t r i b a l h o s t i l i t y or provocation. The m i l i t a r y p o s i t i o n thus secured, at least temporarily u n t i l the next KAR reorganization (1905), administrative and m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s i n  139  Kikuyuland turned t h e i r faces t o the task of p a c i f i c a t i o n :  where t h e  KAR was t o a c t i n s u p p o r t i n g t h e g r a d u a l e x t e n s i o n o f n a t i v e c o n t r o l from N a i r o b i t o Mount Kenya.  I n t h e vanguard o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t h r u s t s  i n t o K i k u y u l a n d between 1901 and 1910, t h e t r o o p s d i d n o t s u p p o r t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as much as t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s u p p o r t e d the t r o o p s . S u b j u g a t i o n o f t h e K i k u y u , w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s , cise.  was a m i l i t a r y  exer-  Where p o c k e t s o f r e s i s t a n c e were found p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n s were  mounted w i t h t h e e x p r e s s i n t e n t i o n o f " p u t t i n g down" t h e i n c a l c i t r a n t s : t h e r e was no q u a r t e r .  B a r b a r i c e x c e s s e s were common and d e s p i t e E l i o t ' s  comment t h a t m a r t i a l e x e r c i s e s s h o u l d n o t be " a l l o w e d t o o v e r r i d e t h e 37 g r e a t e r c l a i m s o f j u s t i c e and good p o l i c y , "  the m i l i t a r y ship s a i l e d  t h r o u g h K i k u y u l a n d i n a wave o f b l o o d and " o v e r k i l l . " Boyes r e l a t e d t h a t i n 1901 he and C a p t a i n Wake hammered t h e p e o p l e of K a r i a r a f o r a l l e g e d l y k i l l i n g a S w a h i l i along the r a i l w a y l i n e .  Near  F o r t H a l l t h e G a t u r i K i k u y u p u t up a s m a l l amount o f r e s i s t a n c e and were put down e a s i l y .  The Muruka K i k u y u , however, were n o t so e a s i l y cowed.  39 P r e v i o u s l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e murder o f Haslam, c l a n had a c c r u e d f o r themselves 1901,  a r e p u t a t i o n as t r o u b l e m a k e r s .  according t o Meinhertzhagen,  I n mid-  t h e y had a t t a c k e d M c L e l l a n ' s camp  k i l l i n g t h r e e p o r t e r s and a p o l i c e m a n . carried  a Company o f f i c e r , t h e  A p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n ^ was  o u t under S.L. Hinde and H a r r i s o n which, e v i d e n t l y , was i n s u f f i c -  i e n t i n i t s e x t e n t and purpose: k i l l i n g f i v e Indian traders.  "  by 1902 t h e Muruka had r e t a l i a t e d b y  140  On 4 t h September Captain F.W.O. Maycock l e d a punitive expedition of f i v e B r i t i s h o f f i c e r s . 115 r i f l e s 3 K.A.R., 60 p o l i c e and 300 l e v i e s into the'Maruka country, and by 25th October had covered i t with p a t r o l s . Some resistance was met and the expedition l o s t one man k i l l e d and 13 wounded. About 300 c a t t l e and 2000 sheep and goats were taken.40  It had been a g r i z z l y a f f a i r as i s evidenced i n Meinhertzhagen.' s account.  He had given orders, f o r example, that i n one area, "every  l i v i n g thing except children should be k i l l e d without mercy."  Later he  was to say that "every soul was either shot or bayonetted . . .  we burn-  41 ed a l l the huts and razed banana plantations to the ground,"  Meinhertz-  hagen' s part i n t h i s grim a f f a i r was conditioned by the treatment accorded a s e t t l e r by angry Kikuyu: . . . the natives caught a s e t t l e r yesterday, a white man who was trying to buy sheep . . . they dragged him to a v i l l a g e near the forest, where they pegged him down on the ground and wedged h i s mouth open; then the whole v i l l a g e , man, woman and c h i l d , urinated into his mouth t i l l he was' drowned. . . . As this took place yesterday, before the expedition entered the country, i t cannot even be extenuated under the provocation of an attack by Government . . . the horrible death they have meted out to my countryman f i l l s me with anger . . . i t does not i n c l i n e me to f e e l too merciful . . . I s h a l l teach the offending v i l l a g e such a lesson at dawn tomorrow as w i l l long be remembered among the Wakikuyu.42 Meinhertzhagen's  drastic action on t h i s occasion haunted him f o r many  years and, i n 1956, he noted that even then he was not sure of the correctness of h i s actions.  "My reason," he said, "for k i l l i n g a l l  adults, including women, was that the l a t t e r had been the main i n s t i gators of not only the murder but the method of death, and i t was the  43 women who had befouled the corpse before death."  Naturally, since a  141  c i v i l o f f i c e r was p r e s e n t and i n v i e w o f t h e r e c e n t h i g h e r e d i c t on t h e m a t t e r o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o t o c o l — " t h e o b j e c t and scope o f m i l i t a r y operations"—he  was c o n s u l t e d on t h e a c t i o n .  "McClean, who was w i t h me  as P o l i t i c a l O f f i c e r , was n a t u r a l l y c o n s u l t e d ; though he r e f u s e d t o g i v e h i s consent t o my a c t i o n , he t o l d me he would n o t i n t e r f e r e i f I thought i t was ?jiust punishment, so t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s e n t i r e l y mine."^ So much f o r the c o n t r o l o f m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s by members o f the c i v i l administration!  Here i s a prime example o f "on t h e s p o t " d e c i s i o n -  making by s u b o r d i n a t e s  i n b o t h t h e arms o f government.  Doubtless  this  a c t i o n was made the s u b j e c t o f a r e p o r t t o h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y w e l l a f t e r the event.  C e r t a i n l y p e r m i s s i o n c o u l d n o t have been g a i n e d from h i g h e r  a u t h o r i t y before the a c t i o n took p l a c e .  We s h a l l see the r e s u l t s o f a  l a t e r m i l i t a r y a c t i o n when d e t a i l s o f enormous c a s u a l t i e s were t r a n s m i t t e d t o Commissioner E l i o t . . I n 1902 t h e m i l i t a r y l a u n c h e d an a t t a c k on t h e Gaki a r e a .  The  r e a s o n f o r t h e f o r a y was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e murder o f Goanese t r a d e r s o p e r a t i n g i n t h e Tetu s e c t i o n o f N y e r i .  Led by M e i n h e r t z h a g e n , Barlow,  Hemstead and Hinde, t h e a s s a u l t was a two-pronged a f f a i r emanating r e s p e c t i v e l y from Naivasha and F o r t H a l l .  Meinhertzhagen reached the  t r o u b l e spot on December 2 and was f o r c e d t o f i g h t e v e r y i n c h o f t h e way, c o n f i s c a t i n g c a t t l e and b u r n i n g h u t s .  On t h a t day a l o n e he k i l l e d 20  K i k u y u a t t h e p r i c e o f two o f h i s own t r o o p s k i l l e d and f i v e wounded. By t h e end o f t h e second day o f t h e engagement he had c o n f i s c a t e d o v e r 700 head o f c a t t l e and 1000 sheep and g o a t s .  On t h e n i g h t o f December 4  h i s camp was s a v a g e l y a t t a c k e d by K i k u y u w a r r i o r s and he was a b l e t o  142  s u s t a i n a s i g n a l v i c t o r y by k i l l i n g n e a r l y f o r t y o f them. were, as a l w a y s , v e r y l i g h t .  " I must own,"  H i s own  losses  M e i n h e r t z h a g e n remarked, " I  n e v e r e x p e c t e d the Wakikuyu t o f i g h t l i k e t h i s . "  However, d e s p i t e  the  r e s i s t a n c e of the K i k u y u , h o s t i l i t i e s came t o an end w i t h the c a p t u r e o f 45 the l o c a l muthumaki, Gakere. But Hinde, 'doctor t u r n e d  s o l d i e r and a d m i n i s t r a t o r , p e r s i s t e d i n  h i s e f f o r t s t o subdue the K i k u y u o f t h i s a r e a t o a p o i n t where f u t u r e t r o u b l e s would be e n t i r e l y e l i m i n a t e d . new  Moreover, he w i s h e d t o b u i l d a  P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n p o s t on the commanding s i t e of N y e r i .  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y ( E l i o t ) had h o t been c o n s u l t e d  specif-  i c a l l y on the m a t t e r o f f o u n d i n g the new f a c i l i t y . P r o v i s i o n f o r a new s t a t i o n i n n o r t h K i k u y u c o u n t r y had, however, been made i n the c u r r e n t e s t i m a t e s , and i n the absence of f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e i t seems t h a t Hinde s e i z e d upon the excuse of the murdered I n d i a n s ( s i c ) t o push n o r t h and open up the d i s t r i c t . . . l a t e r . . . E l i o t e x p r e s s e d h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the c h o i c e of the new site.46 H e r e i n we  see y e t a n o t h e r e x c e l l e n t example of "on the s p o t " d e c i s i o n -  making where a c t i o n was  t a k e n l o c a l l y on the i n i t i a t i v e o f  o f f i c e r s o f , i n t h i s case, the P r o t e c t o r a t e The  column now  subordinate  Administration.  moved o f f toward Mahiga on the excuse t h a t  K i k u y u were h a r b o u r i n g  Tetu l i v e s t o c k .  Returning  t o the N y e r i  local vicinity  a f t e r the Mahiga s o r t i e , Hinde's f o r c e t h e n commenced a s e r i e s o f "mopping up"  operations  goats.  The  d e s i g n e d t o c o n f i s c a t e l a r g e numbers o f c a t t l e , sheep  a r e a was  now  i n a t u r m o i l o f k i l l i n g , p i l l a g e and  p u n i t i v e a c t i v i t y ; the K i k u y u were i n c e n s e d whole a f f r a y .  A d e s p e r a t e b i d was  and  generally  t o a p o i n t of e s c a l a t i n g the  made t o d i s l o d g e the a t t a c k e r s  by  143  a s s a u l t i n g t h e i r camp,.  Faced w i t h s u p e r i o r arms and t a c t i c a l  the K i k u y u were r e p u l s e d w i t h a l o s s o f 50 w a r r i o r s .  At t h i s p o i n t  t h e r K i k u y u a t t a c k s foundered and the f i g h t i n g ended. muthumaki who  had  Naivasha. a r e a had  Soon a group o f e l d e r s sued f o r peace and  e x t r a c t e d a promise of s e c u r i t y f o r t r a v e l l e r s and  t i o n o f a new  was  from  the  construc-  r o a d l i n k i n g t h e i r s i d e of the Aberdare Mountains w i t h  By the end of 1902, ceased.  d i s t r i c t was  fur-  Gakere, the  chosen not t o throw i n h i s l o t w i t h the B r i t i s h ,  d e p o r t e d t o Kismayu. them was  strength  By 1904  t h e r e f o r e , open h o s t i l i t i e s i n t h i s  Hinde was  a b l e t o r e p o r t t h a t the  ' f r e e from t r o u b l e , ' w w i t h A f r i c a n s  "Nyeri  coming i n t o the s t a t i o n 47  and a l l o w i n g t r a d e r s t o e n t e r t h e i r c o u n t r y w i t h o u t  molestation."  Meanwhile, however, the M a t h i r a c l a n s were becoming once more hostile.  I n 1899  porters.  t h e y had been i n v o l v e d i n the k i l l i n g o f M a c k i n d e r ' s  I n 1903,  s h o r t l y a f t e r the o c c u p a t i o n  o f the N y e r i a r e a ,  a t t a c k e d a number o f caravans p a s s i n g t h r o u g h the c o u n t r y . o f f i c e r was  A  British  a l s o a s s a u l t e d i n the performance o f h i s d u t i e s .  i m i t y o f the w h i t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n N y e r i was  to  n e c e s s a r y " t o put them i n the Z.8  frame o f mine and t o 'show them the f l a g . ' "  H a l l v i a Embu.  One  up  An a t t a c k was  so-  Meinhertzright  therefore  mounted i n t h r e e columns under the command of C a p t a i n D i c k s o n , hagen and Humphrey r e s p e c t i v e l y .  prox-  S i n c e the  c a l l e d " c h i e f s " were a l s o of d o u b t f u l a l l e g i a n c e , a c c o r d i n g hagen, a p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n was  The  obviously s t i r r i n g  the M a t h i r a K i k u y u t o a f r e s h wave of h o s t i l e a c t i v i t y .  they  Meinhertz-  column marched t o M a t h i r a from F o r t  Hundreds o f l i v e s t o c k were c o n f i s c a t e d , w a r r i o r s were  k i l l e d and h u t s put t o the t o r c h .  A n o t h e r column advanced south  from  144  the new administrative boma at Nyeri and.joined Ndia.  the f i r s t group near  Here they captured nearly 800 head of c a t t l e , 2200 sheep and  goats and k i l l e d 796 Mathira Kikuyu. firewood  In one i t u r a they c o l l e c t e d  and roasted the looted l i v e s t o c k .  Even heavier casualties  were i n f l i c t e d on t h i s r a i d than had been the case i n previous t i v e expeditions.  puni-  The o f f i c i a l report stated that some 400 Kikuyu  had been k i l l e d .  Meinhertzhagen, however, said that 1,500 k i l l e d was  a modest figure.  On Commissioner E l i o t ' s i n s t r u c t i o n s , however, the  larger figure was omitted from Meinhertzhagen's report on the operation. "...  E l i o t feared that Hinde would get into trouble i f such a large  casualty l i s t reached England." .But Even the figure of 400 k i l l e d caused some concern i n London.  But the matter was played down:  "Hill  deprecated the operations, and Lansdowne agreed that i t would be better 49 not to express approval."  Whatever the actual figure, however, the  fact was that the Mathira Kikuyu were f i n i s h e d as a native force to be reckoned with; soon they were c o l l e c t i n g l i v e s t o c k and ivory and sending them to the Protectorate Administration as tokens of peace. The next operation of significance was mounted against the Embu. Sporadic  attacks had been suffered i n t h i s area by collaborators and  mail runners.  Itura known by the dissidents to have paid hut-tax were  singled out as targets.  Units of the King's A f r i c a n R i f l e s were des-  patched to the scene i n May and June 1903. Thereafter unarmed caravans were able to traverse the area unmolested.  Later i n the year the armed  trader Gibbons' was arrested i n the area "by Meinhertzhagen.  There i s  l i t t l e doubt that his presence among the Embu had been a disturbing  145  influence.  (See p. 100-2 t h i s  thesis).  On 20 F e b r u a r y 1904- B r a n c k e r and M e i n h e r t z h a g e n , under the command o f C a p t a i n F.A.  Dickinson, prepared  themselves f o r a p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n  a g a i n s t the I r a i n i K i k u y u . Me^ihherjtzhagen, remarked on the r e a s o n s f o r the e x p e d i t i o n as due t o the f a c t t h a t the. c l a n had been sending  insult-  i n g messages t o Hinde, s t o p p i n g c a r a v a n s from p a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e i r count r y and m u r d e r i n g s e v e r a l p o l i c e m e n . remarked.  "They must l e a r n t h e i r l e s s o n , " he  The p l a n c a l l e d f o r a two-pronged a t t a c k from N y e r i t o the  n o r t h and F o r t H a l l t o the west.  N o t a b l y , the e x p e d i t i o n was  t o be accom-  50 p a n i e d by Humphrey, a c i v i l o f f i c e r . hagen' s s e n t i m e n t s  In t y p i c a l fashion, Meinhertz-  r e g a r d i n g the a t t i t u d e s and a c t i v i t i e s o f c i v i l  c e r s had been e x p r e s s e d  offi-  i n a l e t t e r t o h i s commanding o f f i c e r a s h o r t  t i m e b e f o r e the e x p e d i t i o n he was now p r e p a r i n g : I d i d not i n t e n d t o s t a n d i n t e r f e r e n c e i n m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n s from c i v i l o f f i c i a l s . They c o u l d cont r o l the g e n e r a l p o l i c y b u t must not i n t e r f e r e w i t h operations.51 Moreover, i n r e s p e c t o f " o r d e r s " from h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y , M e i n h e r t z h a g e n p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e y were " s k e t c h y i n the extreme" and t h a t the  leader  o f the a s s a u l t , C a p t a i n D i c k i n s o n , " o b v i o u s l y does not i n t e n d t o be w o r r i e d too much about them . . . n e v e r mind my o r d e r s . . . .  Just carry 52  on and don't w o r r y me The  too much.  I ' l l back you up i n a n y t h i n g you  f a c t t h a t M e i n h e r t z h a g e n had e x p r e s s e d  do."  h i s aversion to i n t e r f e r e n c e  on the p a r t o f c i v i l o f f i c e r s , c o u p l e d w i t h the remarks o f h i s s u p e r i o r , i s one more i n d i c a t i o n o f the l a c k o f d i r e c t i o n from h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y . Sentiments thus expressed  suggest beyond doubt t h a t p u n i t i v e o p e r a t i o n s  146  were decided upon and carried out by o f f i c e r s , usually m i l i t a r y , act u a l l y , "on the spot." On 24 February 1904 spectively.  the expedition l e f t Nyeri and Fort H a l l re-  Meinhertzhagen's column included some 250 Masai l e v i e s  and 60 r i f l e s led by Humphrey, the P o l i t i c a l O f f i c e r , Adams and an Australian s e t t l e r , Elder.  The l a t t e r person had been given a con-  tract by Hinde to dispose of captured stock on a commission basis. By evening of the 27th Mr. Elder was able to count his p r o f i t on the basis of 325 c a t t l e and 550 sheep and goats captured. morning he departed on his way  to Fort H a l l and a public auction where  the c a t t l e , sheep and goats were to be sold. to Gutu's v i l l a g e .  In the early .  The column then proceeded  Gutu, i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , was  the collaborator  with whom the freebooter Gibbons had been associated.  At t h i s point the  column was attacked by 12 armed natives and a f i g h t ensued which was complicated by the charge of a full-grown l i o n . Adams, l i k e an ass, shot at the l i o n and wounded him . . . I took the f i r s t 4 natives and bowled ithem over, k i l l i n g the l a s t as he was just going to spear Adams. My men rushed up, and between us we disposed of the rest, shooting them a l l . . . I swore at Adams for „ shooting l i o n when we were being attacked by niggers. Soon the column was attacked from the branches of nearby trees and Meinhertzhagen  "got two machine guns up and poured a h a i l of b u l l e t s " into  the f o l i a g e .  "...  as the niggers showed themselves we picked them o f f  54 with r i f l e c 3 f i r e .  Five f e l l with sickening thuds."  The day ended with  the i n f l i c t i o n of "considerable casualties on the enemy" but "only 46 c a t t l e and 79 sheep" were confiscated.  147  The excitement of the previous few days had by now raised the blood of  the Masai l e v i e s :  they were k i l l i n g indiscriminately and Meinhertz-  hagen was forced to k i l l three of them i n order to restore order among members of his own force.  The c i v i l o f f i c e r , Humphrey, was reputed to  have.been at f i r s t furious at Meinhertzhagen's behaviour  "but l a t e r  55 thought (he) had acted wisely but perhaps too harshly."  Of t h i s  g r i z z l y a f f a i r Meinhertzhagen remarked that Commissioner E l i o t would doubtless take a serious view of h i s actions and thus he (Meinhertzhagen) would not report i t . On the following day, 3 March 1904, Meinhertzhagen received a l e t t e r from h i s m i l i t a r y superior, Captain Dickinson, ordering him to retreat the area and move i n the d i r e c t i o n of the Tana River.  But  Meinhertzhagen disagreed with Dickinson's orders and persuaded the c i v i l orifice r to move deeper into Kikuyu t e r r i t o r y . sides of Meinhertzhagen.  Thus we see  two  At the beginning of this operation Meinhertz-  hagen had written h i s colonel saying he "did not intend to stand i n t e r ference i n m i l i t a r y operations" and on t h i s occasion we see him encouraging a c i v i l o f f i c e r to " i n t e r f e r e " i n a m i l i t a r y operation.  We  see,  also, that the i n i t i a t i v e i n t h i s case was c l e a r l y taken by Meinhertzhagen: he was now acting contrary to the orders of his immediate superior and had presumably influenced a c i v i l o f f i c e r to support him i n carrying out a course of action suitable f o r his own  purposes.  Meinhertzhagen continued to k i l l Kikuyu. Today we had several small brushes with the enemy, who . . . are now showing more f i g h t . We k i l l e d some 24 of them today . . . f o r about ten minutes we had a good stand up f i g h t . . . we bagged three of them.56  148  Soon, however, casualties were so/great that Meinhertzhagen return to Fort H a l l f o r rest and-replenishment.  decided to  He was proud to record  that h i s column had k i l l e d 796 Kikuyu and had captured 782 c a t t l e and 2150 sheep and goats.  Brancker's column had captured 300 c a t t l e and  6000 sheep and goats, while Dickinson's group confiscated 602 c a t t l e and. 4500ssheep and goats. ing  Notably, Meinhertzhagen  c i v i l o f f i c e r , Humphrey, was  observed that the accompany-  " s t i l l not clear i n h i s mind regarding  the d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y between m i l i t a r y a n d . p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e r s when serving together on a column."  A l e t t e r from Dickinson, however,  was considered to be appropo—"for guidance"—(as) "Humphrey i s a b i t 57 i n c l i n e d to i n t e r f e r e , and t h i s should put things r i g h t . " Meinhertzhagen  Thus when  wished to avoid carrying out Dickinson's orders he turned  to Humphrey f o r help:  conversely, when Meinhertzhagen  was  concerned  about Humphrey i n t e r f e r i n g i n m i l i t a r y matters, he turned to Dickinson for help!  Importantly, the i n i t i a t i v e on both m i l i t a r y and c i v i l matters  was being taken by Meinhertzhagen—a prime example of "on the spot" decision-making . The 7 March saw the end of operations i n I r a i n i as Kikuyu "chiefs" submitted to Government i n Fort H a l l and offered to a i d the Administration i n an attack on the Embu.  Thereafter, on the 8 March 1904-, the Embu ex-  pedition, comprising 66 King's A f r i c a n R i f l e s , 15 Police and 4-00 Masai l e v i e s , together with 150 Kikuyu spearmen from the recently defeated I r a i n i Kikuyu, l e f t to engage the Embu.  After several skirmishes, during  which the column i n f l i c t e d losses on the Embu, the troops returned to Fort H a l l .  Notably Meinhertzhagen  f e l t , i n t h i s occasion, that the  149  e x p e d i t i o n had n o t i n d u l g e d i t s e l f s u f f i c i e n t l y i n " o v e r k i l l , " t h a t t h e Embu "had n o t been s u f f i c i e n t l y hammered" and t h a t he would " l i k e t o go back a t once and have a n o t h e r go a t them ."' ^ N e v e r t h e l e s s , 1  250 Embu had 58  been k i l l e d and some 2000 c a t t l e , sheep and g o a t s c o n f i s c a t e d .  Des-  p i t e , however, t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e Embu e x p e d i t i o n , Sub-Commissioner Hinde ( F o r t H a l l ) appeared s t i l l t o be concerned about c o n t r o l o f t h e area.  One month a f t e r M e i n h e r t z h a g e n ' s a t t a c k on t h e Embu, Hinde min-  u t e d t o E l i o t t h a t t h e "upper I r a i n i and Embu a r e d e f i a n t , and w i l l probably  s h o r t l y recommence t h e i r r a i d s on t h e f r i e n d l y n a t i v e s i n t h e 59  F o r t H a l l D i s t r i c t and Mumoni, i n t h e K i t u i The  District."  e v i d e n c e seems t o suggest t h a t Embu were d i s t u r b e d b y B r i t i s h  use o f K i k u y u i n p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n s a g a i n s t them.  D.A. Low a s s e r t s  t h a t t h e 1904 a t t a c k was a response t o Embu a t t a c k s on " K i k u y u who had submitted  to British j u r i s d i c t i o n . " ^  Here we see an example o f t h e  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a d i v i d e and r u l e p o l i c y .  I n t h e Embu case t h e B r i t i s h  had used a g a i n s t them t h e conquered I r a i n i K i k u y u — t h e i r  neighbours—  and.thus Hinde's c o n c e r n about Embu i n t r a n s i g e n c e was a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f h i s p o l i c y t o smash them w i t h t h e a i d o f conquered l e v i e s .  Hence,  because t h e 1904 e x p e d i t i o n d i d n o t "smash" t h e Embu, was n o t an "overkill"  operation, n a t i v e defiance i n the area continued.  Embu c o n t i n u e d lot  Moreover, t h e  t o mount a t t a c k s on I r a i n i K i k u y u who had c a s t i n t h e i r  w i t h the B r i t i s h .  Moyse-Bartlet.t; s u p p o r t s  t h i s c o n c l u s i o n by s t a t i n g  t h a t "the Embu were s t i l l v e r y r e s t l e s s , and showed u n r e m i t t i n g towards any t r i b e f r i e n d l y t o t h e B r i t i s h . " ^ " accurate  hostility  Perhaps i t would be more  t o s a y t h a t t h e Embu showed h o s t i l i t y t o conquered"Kikuyu c l a n s  150  now  used against them i n punitive expeditions; a response caused by a  p o l i c y of divide and r u l e . In mid-1905 the B r i t i s h were forced to return once more to Embu. Hinde's "concern" about the south-east corner of his domain had to be eliminated. to a head.  It was not, however, u n t i l June 1906, that matters came J  As a r e s u l t of the k i l l i n g of I r a i n i Kikuyu "protected"  by the Protectorate Administration,  the Embu were attacked by a large 62  punitive expedition intent upon a f i n a l solution to the problem. Supported by p o l i c e and units of the King's A f r i c a n R i f l e s ,  Captain  Maycock combed the "broken, wooded ridges and deep marshy v a l l e y s of the lower slopes of Mount Kenya"  looking f o r opportunities to smash  h o s t i l e pockets of Embu.  "A number (of Embu) were k i l l e d and large 64 quantities of stock captured, most of which however was returned." By the 19 July 1906 a l l resistance was at an end and the p o l i c e and 65 .  K.A.R. withdrew at a cost of 2 men  k i l l e d and 14 wounded.  The Embu  D i s t r i c t Record Book records that thereafter, "the t r i b e submitted and the present Embu s t a t i o n was charge i n July 1906."^  started, the C i v i l Administration  taking  At the same time a garrison of K.A.R. was moved  from Nyeri to Embu u n t i l 1908 when i t was moved to Meru.  Notably,  two  years a f t e r the removal of occupation forces, f i g h t i n g again broke out on the Embu border.  In 1910,  therefore,  owing to the truculence of the Tharaka and Mutejwa people, a p a t r o l under Lieutenant L.H. Soames consisting of h a l f 'A' Company, 2 K.A.R., was ordered to carry out punitive measures. A few casualties had to be i n f l i c t e d , and the lesson was s u f f i c i e n t to restore order and ensure the future cooperation of the tribe.°^  151  I t had t a k e n f u l l y s i x y e a r s t o subdue t h e Embu. There were two almost d i s t i n c t p e r i o d s o f p a c i f i c a t i o n ; namely, the p e r i o d s 1895 t o 1902 and 1902 t o 1910. F o r summary purposes i t may be seen t h a t t h e e a r l y p e r i o d , 1895 t o 1902, saw t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e Admini s t r a t i o n i n h e r i t from t h e Company a t e r r i t o r y w h i c h had been p r o f o u n d l y d i s t u r b e d b y wageni and European armed t r a d e r s .  Moreover, government o f  the t e r r i t o r y was i n i t i a l l y based upon a s e t of c r i t e r i a o u t l i n e d i n the b r o a d e s t terms.  P r a c t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , was d e v o l v e d  onto  D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r s f a c e d w i t h t h e day t o day problems o f implementing the pax.  Some o f f i c e r s were e x p e r i e n c e d and o t h e r s n o t .  men g e n e r a l l y adapted themselves m o t i v a t i o n degenerated  Former Company  w e l l w h i l e o t h e r s l a c k i n g e x p e r i e n c e and  to a point of ineffectiveness.  An example o f  e f f e c t i v e "on t h e s p o t " a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was t h e case o f F r a n c i s H a l l . H a l l appears t o have been a p e r s o n n a t u r a l l y endowed w i t h p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u i t a b l e t o meet t h e s t r e n u o u s demands o f f r o n t i e r  life.  D u r i n g h i s s h o r t t e n u r e as a P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f i c i a l i n s o u t h e r n K i k u y u l a n d , H a l l was a b l e t o s u c c e s s f u l l y engender i n f l u e n c e among s e v e r a l n o t a b l e athamaki.  Athamaki, p a r t i c u l a r l y K i n a n j u i ,  o r a t e d w i t h H a l l f o r p u r p o s e s o f p e r s o n a l p r e s t i g e and advantage.  collabSince  t h e r e was no e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i t i o n o f " c h i e f t a i n s h i p " among t h e K i k u y u , however, members o f t h e t r i b e , i t i s surmised, found i t d i f f i c u l t t o understand  t h e B r i t i s h concept o f " c h i e f . "  ed i n e f f e c t a p o l i c y o f d i v i d e and r u l e .  The use o f athamaki i n s t i t u t Some K i k u y u " c o o p e r a t e d , " f o r  p e r s o n a l advantage, w h i l e o t h e r s became i n c r e a s i n g l y h o s t i l e .  Hostile  K i k u y u may have been p e r c e i v e d by o t h e r K i k u y u as b e i n g " p a t r i o t s " w h i l e  152  K i n a n j u i and o t h e r s c o n s i d e r e d  traitors.  Notably,  the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s  i n f l u e n c e was c o n f i n e d t o a r e a s under t h e d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e athamaki and  o f t e n w i t h i n p r o x i m i t y o f f o r m e r Company s t a t i o n s . I n b r o a d terms t h e p e r i o d 1895 t o 1902 may be seen as a t i m e when  the P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n began t o " s e t t l e i n , " g a i n a w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n s under i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . by a s u g g e s t i o n  "toe-hold"  The p e r i o d may be e x e m p l i f i e d  t h a t t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n u n d e r t o o k l i t t l e more t h a n a  "holding e x e r c i s e " i n the i n t e r i o r r e g i o n s — e s p e c i a l l y Kikuyuland. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , however, d i d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d b e g i n t o p r e p a r e f o r t h e e f f e c t i v e p a c i f i c a t i o n phase. P r o v i n c e was r o u g h l y h a i v e d  The itself  F o r example, t h e f o r m e r Ukamba  t o make way f o r K e n i a P r o v i n c e — a n  t r a t i v e c r e a t i o n w h i c h embraced K i k u y u l a n d .  adminis-  Moreover, t h e P r o v i n c i a l  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was r e - l o c a t e d t o N a i r o b i — a g r o w i n g c e n t r e w i t h i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o t h e scene o f impending e f f o r t s t o p a c i f y t h e K i k u y u . the c o m p l e t i o n  With  o f t h e r a i l w a y from Mombasa t o N a i r o b i and beyond, commun-  i c a t i o n s were improved and t h u s made K i k u y u l a n d military materials.  a c c e s s i b l e t o t r o o p s and  Roads were a l s o c o n s t r u c t e d  the s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r o f t h e new p r o v i n c e .  linking Nairobi with  Furthermore, n e g o t i a t i o n s , a l -  though p r o t r a c t e d , were commenced w i t h t h e M a s a i .  The o b j e c t o f t h e s e ne-  g o t i a t i o n s was t o e f f e c t i v e l y remove t h e M a s a i from p r o s p e c t i v e  trouble  s i t e s , a r e a s o f p o s s i b l e c o n f l i c t between M a s a i and K i k u y u , M a s a i and European, settter.S:;* o r M a s a i and t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . a r a t i o n , a l s o , f o r t h e 1902 t o 1910 phase o f s u b j u g a t i o n ,  I n prep-  the P r o t e c t o r a t e  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n removed from t h e K i k u y u i n t e r i o r a number o f armed t r a d e r s , who, f o r some y e a r s had c o n s t i t u t e d a d i s t u r b i n g i n f l u e n c e on t h e K i k u y u .  153  The p e r i o d 1902 t o 1910 may be seen as a time when t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n t i g h t e n e d i t s g r i p on K i k u y u l a n d .  By 1902 t h e Company  m i l i t a r y l e g a c y , p r e v i o u s l y p o o r l y o r g a n i z e d and l e d , was r e - o r g a n i z e d t o form p r o p e r l y c o n s t i t u t e d p a r a - m i l i t a r y and m i l i t a r y u n i t s .  Led by  p r o f e s s i o n a l s o l d i e r s from t h e B r i t i s h o r B r i t i s h - I n d i a n army,  equipped  w i t h t h e l a t e s t r i f l e s , p a t r o l s o f t h e K i n g ' s A f r i c a n R i f l e s , p o l i c e and armed l e v i e s , i n v a d e d the K i k u y u i n t e r i o r on t h e s l i g h t e s t p r o v o c a t i o n . M i l i t a r y t a c t i c s changed from t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s k i r m i s h i n g t o " o v e r k i l l . " With the object of a t o t a l e l i m i n a t i o n of a l l r e s i s t a n c e , strong p a t r o l s r a i d e d K i k u y u i t u r a , p u t h u t s t o the t o r c h and k i l l e d o f t e n w i t h o u t crimination.  A c t s o f b a r b a r i s m on b o t h s i d e s were common.  During  disthese  f o r a y s m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s took t h e i n i t i a t i v e i n t h e f i e l d and a c t i o n s were o f t e n q u i t e c o n t r a r y . t o t h e d i c t a t e s o f h i g h e r c i v i l o r m i l i t a r y authority.  D i s p u t e s broke o u t between s u b o r d i n a t e c i v i l and m i l i t a r y  o f f i c e r s as t o t h e conduct o f o p e r a t i o n s .  Areas o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y were  n o t c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and r e p o r t s t o h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y were p u r p o s e l y down."  "toned  Commissioner E l i o t was e i t h e r aware.of what was t a k i n g p l a c e i n  K i k u y u l a n d o r t u r n e d a b l i n d eye t o t h e p r o c e e d i n g s — l e a v i n g m a t t e r s t o those on t h e s p o t .  S u b j u g a t i o n o f t h e K i k u y u was i d e a l l y a j o i n t v e n t u r e ;  c i v i l and m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s were t o work s i d e b y s i d e .  In effect  civil  o f f i c e r s were o f t e n p r e s e n t on p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n s b u t , i f we a r e t o t a k e Meinhertzhagen's  b e h a v i o u r as t y p i c a l - - a n d . t h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o  doubt i t was n o t — t h e n c l e a r l y i n i t i a t i v e s i n t h e f i e l d were t a k e n by military officers.  In effect,  t h e r e f o r e , the establishment of the Pro-  t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was almost e n t i r e l y a m i l i t a r y a f f a i r .  Moreover,  154  the c o n f i s c a t i o n of c a t t l e i n l a r g e n u m b e r s — t o be s o l d i n the markets of Fort H a l l — g u a r a n t e e d a d v e n t u r e s and  s e r i o u s l y d i s r u p t e d K i k u y u economy t o a p o i n t where  f u r t h e r r e s i s t a n c e was in  Kikuyuland.  the c o n t i n u i n g sustenance of e x p e n s i v e m i l i t a r y  useless.  By 1910  the pax B r i t a n n i c a was  a fact  155  FOOTNOTES  "'"Galbraith, Mackinnon, p. 235 and quoted from Mackenzie to F.O., 11 A p r i l 1894, F.O. 2/73, P.R.O.  correspondence.  p G.H. Mungeam, B r i t i s h Rule i n Kenya, 1895-1912, (London: OUP, 1966), p. 17. Mungeam states also, i n respect of the matter of p o l i c y , that " l o c a l matters could be referred back to London. I f they were urgent they could be decided on the spot, and the decision sent to London f o r approval, which was generally forthcoming. But i n the internat i o n a l ferment of the 1890's the Foreign Secretary was, on the whole, far too occupied with weighty international matters to concern himself with the minutiae of an obscure A f r i c a n Protectorate. Indeed, one of his main anxieties seems to have been that i t should remain obscure . . . He (the Foreign Secretary) entrusted the day to day supervision of the t e r r i t o r y to S i r Clement H i l l (who) had very l i t t l e knowledge of p r a c t i c a l administration.  I b i d . , pp. 50, 58-9. "The very t i t l e s of East A f r i c a n o f f i cers were modelled on Indian precedents. In May 1898 i t was emphasized that the j u r i s d i c t i o n , powers and duties of the Commissioner and ConsulGeneral i n the East A f r i c a Protectorate should be equated with those of the Governor-General; Governor or Lieutenant-Governor of India; SubCommissioners with Commissioners; Collectors with Collectors or Deputy Commissioners; and Assistant Collectors with Assistant Collectors or Assistant Commissioners." 3  ^Ibid., p. 16.  Ibid., p. 47. See also Great B r i t a i n , Cmd. 8683 (1897) passim for d e t a i l s of the early East A f r i c a n Protectorate administrative structure. Hardinge recommended "that four provinces should be created . . . Coast, Ukamba, Tanaland and Jubaland." Kikuyuland was incorporated into Ukamba Province and was to be administered by Ainsworth from Machakos—some 50 miles south of Kikuyuland.  ^See Goldsmith, John Ainsworth, f o r d e t a i l s of Ainsworth's career.  156  7 Mungeam, B r i t i s h Rule, p. 49.  Quoted i n M i l l e r , The Lunatic, p. 504 from Henry Seaton, Lion i n the Morning, (London: John Murray, 1963). . 9 S i r Charles E l i o t , Governor of the East A f r i c a n Protectorate (1900-1904) was perhaps an exception. He was a distinguished scholar "more l i k e a don or p r i e s t than high o f f i c i a l . " See Meinhertzhagen, Kenya Diary, p. 31. E l i o t ' s f i e l d s of i n t e r e s t were many and varied and included a b r i l l i a n t command of languages and a scholarly knowledge of the common sea-slug.  Hall,•"How Peace Came." See also H a l l Papers, Rhodes House, Oxford, and quoted passim i n Mungeam, B r i t i s h Rule. 10  [ungeam, "Masai and Kikuyu," p. 138.  1 2  Mtungeam, B r i t i s h Rule, p. 3 9 .  13  Hobley, Kenya, pp. 77-8.  14  GoIdsmith, John Ainsworth, pp. 52-55.  15 Ibid.  l 6  Later to be known as the Central Province (1933 ).  I b i d . , pp. 56-7.  17 Interestingly, despite the Administration's former aversion to Boyes, he i s reputed to have taken part i n a Government sponsored punitive expedition during 1902. 18 "chief."  Probably more accurately translated as "soothsayer"  rather than  157  See excellent accounts of the "Masai problem" i n Low, " B r i t i s h Rule," pp. 1-5 and'34-44 and Goldsmith, John Ainsworth, pp. 79-90.  Lt. Col. H. Moyse-Bartlett, The King's A f r i c a n R i f l e s : A Study i n the M i l i t a r y History of East and Central A f r i c a , 1890-1945, (Aldershot: Gale and Polden, 1956), p. 95. 21 S i r Arthur Hardinge, A Diplomatist i n the East, (London: Methuen, 1928), p. 97.  M,byse-Bartlett, The King's, p. 95.  22  For a description of Mathews' a c t i v i t i e s i n Zanzibar see J.E. F l i n t , "Zanzibar 1890-1950" i n Vincent Harlow and E.M. Chilver, eds., History of East A f r i c a .  It i s apparent that throughout the early h i s t o r y of the Protectorate the Indian Government was unwilling to do l i t t l e more than d i s pense advice and second token numbers of Indian troops.  ^R.W. Beachey, "The Arms Trade i n East Africa'/ i n Journal of A f r i c a n History, v o l . 3, (1962), pp. 451-67, gives a well-developed account of the history of arms and the arms trade.in East A f r i c a . Commenting on the matter of arms d i s t r i b u t i o n through deserters, Beachey says that "There are many instances of arms f a l l i n g into the hands of natives as a r e s u l t of carelessness or of largesse on the part of Europeans. Caravans were often attacked or sometimes d i s c a r ded t h e i r supplies, before commencing the long journey to the coast. Many cases of desertion accounted f o r the loss of firearms." In summing up the impact of the arms trade on East A f r i c a , Beachey declares that between 1885 and 1902 "two points stand out. F i r s t , the immense volume of trade . . . during the period there must have entered the German and B r i t i s h sphere some 1,000,000 firearms, well over 4,000,000 l b s . of gunpowder and many m i l l i o n caps and rounds of ammunition. The second point i s , where did a l l these weapons go?  Swahili (sharpened pieces of hardwood or bamboo placed c l o s e l y together and designed to impede the forward progress of an attacker).  158  27  Swahili (a cluster of administrative buildings).  28 University College, Nairobi-Research Project Archives (UON: RPA), B/2/2(2), "Biography of Karuri," by Charles M. Mucaha i n Robert W. Strayer, Edward I. Steinhart and Robert M. Maxon, Protest Movements i n Colonial East A f r i c a : Aspects of Early A f r i c a n Response to European Rule, (Syracuse University, 1973), p. ~.  Lansdowne to E l i o t , 19 July 1901, Mungeam, B r i t i s h Rule, p. 79.  F.O.,  2/443 and quoted i n  E l i o t to Lansdowne, Confidential, 1 October 1901, and quoted i n i b i d .  F.O.  2/450  Al/Iungeam, Bri'i>ishrRule?,^pp3.84x5 jhas;hltt: tn~a\1?_o"EM:ojt:;.appe£.rs to have turned a comparatively b l i n d eye to what was going on i n h i s more d i s tant areas. He l e f t his l o c a l o f f i c e r s to do what they thought best and backed them up to the extent of omitting v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s to minimize the harsh r e a l i t i e s of l i f e on the f r o n t i e r . " Furthermore, the Eastern Province of Uganda was added to the East A f r i c a Protectorate i n March 1902 and "the many challenges of the new t e r r i t o r y increasingl y occupied E l i o t ' s attention."  32 See James B. Wolf, "Asian and A f r i c a n Recruitment i n the Kenya Police, 1920-1950" i n Norman R. Bennett, ed., The International Journal of A f r i c a n H i s t o r i c a l Studies, v o l . 6, (1973), pp. 401-12.  W.R. Foran, The Kenya Police, 1887-1960, (London: Hale, 1962), p. 57. 33  Robert  'S/Toyse-Bartlett, The King's, p. 102. Much of the information on the formation of both the East A f r i c a n R i f l e s and the subsequent King's A f r i c a n R i f l e s has been derived from t h i s excellent and standard work.  Ibid., p.  130.  159  The Meru t e r r i t o r y (north-east of Mount Kenya) was an exception and was occupied without f i g h t i n g because the clans i n t h i s area sought the p r o t e c t i o n of t h e - B r i t i s h against t h e i r t r i b a l enemies. I n other areas administrators resorted to ingenious gambits designed to overcome prospective h o s t i l i t y . Among the Tharaka Kikuyu, f o r example, Ainsworth used organized dancing i n an e f f o r t to a i d . h i s personal program of p a c i f i c a t i o n . Hayes-Sadler preached the p l a y i n g of gramaphone records i n order to convey the messages of h i s administration. See Charles Dundas, A f r i can Crossroads, (London: Macmillan, 1955), p. 27 and Huxley, Whiteman's, v o l . 1, p. 226. 37 M i l l e r , Lunatic, p. 513og  p. 130.  John Boyes, The Company of Adventurers, (London: Methuen, 1928),  39 For an account of Haslam's death see Goldsmith, John Ainsworth, pp. 32-3. 40  M o y s e - B a r t l e t t , The King's, p. 204.  ^^Meinhertzhagen, Kenya Diary, pp. 51-2.  4 2  I b i d . , p. 50.  4 3  I b i d . , p. 52.  4 4  Ibid.  4 5  L b i d . , pp. 64-75.  ^jMungeam, B r i t i s h Rule, pp. 83-4-  4  160  4 7  Ibid.  Meinhertzhagen, Kenya Diary, p. 108.  Mungeam, B r i t i s h Rule, p. 8 4 .  ^Meinhertzhagen, Kenya - Diary, p. 138.  5 1  5 2  r b i d . , p. 136.  I b i d . , p. 1 3 9 .  53 Ibid., p. 140. Adams, a drug addict, died i n 1906.  5 4  I b i d . , p. 1 4 - 1 .  55 Ibid., p. 144• 56 Ibid., pp. 145-6.  Ibid.  5 8  I b i d . , p. 152.  59 Quoted i n Mungeam, B r i t i s h Rule, p. 85. Hinde to E l i o t , 5 A p r i l 1904, enclosure i n E l i o t to Lansdowne, 4 May 1904, F.O., 2/836. 60  6l  Low, " B r i t i s h East," p. 25.  T  Moyse-Bartlett,  The King's, p. 205.  161  62  6 3  Saberwal, " H i s t o r i c a l Notes," p.  M o y s e - B a r t l e t t , The K i n g ' s , p.  206.  ^ S a b e r w a l , " H i s t o r i c a l Notes," p.  6 5  M o y s e - B a r t l e t t , The K i n g ' s , p.  M o y s e - B a r t l e t t , The K i n g ' s , p.  38.  206.  ^ S a b e r w a l , " H i s t o r i c a l Notes," p.  6 7  38.  38.  206.  CONCLUSION  By t h e m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y K i k u y u s o c i e t y had completed i t s m i g r a t i o n from Shungwaya t o i t s p r e s e n t h a b i t a t .  Tribes consti-  t u t i n g the K i k u y u were i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y u n c e n t r a l i s e d ,  egalitarian,  acephalous and u n s t a b l e . I n s t a b i l i t y was a c o n d i t i o n o f s e v e r a l f a c t o r s .  The c o n s t a n t  s e a r c h f o r water, g r a s s , a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , gave f o r t h t o a f l u i d a t i o n where p o c k e t s o f K i k u y u formed, broke dSf  situ-  and re-formed, r o s e t o  l o c a l prominence and d e c l i n e d i n an u n d u l a t i o n determined by p r e v a i l i n g l o c a l conditions.  P r o x i m i t y , a l s o , t o marauding M a s a i , f o r c e d t h e  Kikuyu i n t o a defensive posture which c o n d i t i o n e d t h e i r a t t i t u d e s w i t h respect t o the i n t r u s i o n of others. L i k e t h e M a s a i , t h e K i k u y u were composed o f c o n s t i t u e n t t r i b a l p o l i t i e s , w i t h a u t h o r i t y r e s i d i n g i n t h e hands o f e l d e r s o f one generat i o n and handed down t o s u c c e e d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s o f time.  The i t w i k a , a ceremony d e v i s e d t o enable one group t o t a k e over  power from a n o t h e r , s e r v e d t o t r a n s f e r a u t h o r i t y i n an o r d e r l y way and without f r i c t i o n . a.local level.  E l d e r s c l e a r l y c o n t r o l l e d Kikuyu p o l i t y but only a t  The t r i b e as a whole d i d n o t a c t i n c o n c e r t f o r e i t h e r  s o c i a l or m i l i t a r y  purposes.  Perhaps t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t ceremony a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t r i b a l i n t e g r a t i o n was t h e i r u a .  The i r u a s e r v e d t o i d e n t i f y y e a r l y a g e - s e t s  through c o l l e c t i v e c i r c u m c i s i o n .  Each age-set was g i v e n t h e name o f a  - 162 -  163  s i g n i f i c a n t event t a k i n g p l a c e d u r i n g t h e y e a r o f c o l l e c t i v e  circumcision.  I n d o c t r i n a t e s were s a i d t o he bound t o g e t h e r b y t h e " v e r y c l o s e s t a s s o c i a t i o n t o each o t h e r . "  Kikuy^ 'thenuprogressivelybbecame". J u n i o r WarT  r i o r s , S e n i o r W a r r i o r s , L e a r n i n g E l d e r s , J u n i o r E l d e r s and f i n a l l y S e n i o r Elders.  Those who d i s p l a y e d t h e n e c e s s a r y q u a l i t i e s and l i v e d l o n g enough,  a t t a i n e d the venerable s t a t u s of P r i e s t . A g e - s e t s c o n t a i n e d r u l i n g and n o n - r u l i n g h a l v e s o f t h e t r i b e (Mwangi o r M a i n a ) .  The r u l i n g h a l f c a r r i e d o u t l e g i s l a t i v e and govern-  m e n t a l t a s k s w h i l e t h e n o n - r u l i n g h a l f "observed" t h e machinery o f power a t work.  When power changed hands ( i t w i k a ) former n o n - r u l i n g e l d e r s b e -  came r u l i n g e l d e r s :  former r u l i n g e l d e r s became n o n - r u l i n g e l d e r s .  K i k u y u p o l i t y was e g a l i t a r i a n . chiefs.  Thus  I m p o r t a n t l y , t h e K i k u y u p o s s e s s e d no  C h i e f t a i n s h i p , a newer form o f p o l i t y , c o u l d be r e a s o n a b l y a s s o c -  i a t e d w i t h more " s e t t l e d , " more s t a t i c , Bantu p o p u l a t i o n s l i k e t h e Buganda, w h i l e a c e p h a l y i s more t r a d i t i o n a l l y a form o f s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n p r a c t i s e d by p a s t o r a l i s t s l i k e the Masai.  I t i s more t h a n p r o b a b l e ,  ibherefiore, t h a t K i k u y u a c e p h a l y , as a system o f government, was  "borrowed"  from t h e M a s a i . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , a c e p h a l y d i d n o t p r e c l u d e t h e development o f i n d i vidualism. aged.  Indeed, i n d i v i d u a l i s m i n K i k u y u s o c i e t y was a c t u a l l y  Young men p o s s e s s e d o f u n u s u a l p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  encourleader-  s h i p q u a l i t i e s , a t t r i b u t e s i n m i l i t a r y , l e g a l and p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s , were h u r r i e d along the road to s e n i o r i t y .  Known as athamaki, young men so  p o s s e s s e d were i n no sense c h i e f s . . Because t r i b a l power was i n t h e hands o f e l d e r s , athamaki were- never seen as l e a d e r s o f t h e t r i b a l community  164  b u t r a t h e r as men p o s s e s s e d o f e x c e p t i o n a l t a l e n t .  Since military-  a f f a i r s played a l a r g e p a r t i n Kikuyu l i f e — e s p e c i a l l y i n view o f the marauding M a s a i — t h e prominence o f many athamaki, W a i y a k i , K a r u r e , K i n a n j u i and o t h e r s , may have been d e r i v e d from t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e m i l i tary a b i l i t i e s .  F u r t h e r m o r e , s i n c e i m p e r i a l i s t a t t e m p t s t o impose  s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r K i k u y u were founded upon m i l i t a r y means, i t i s n a t u r a l t h a t athamaki p o s s e s s e d o f m i l i t a r y s k i l l s r o s e t o prominence e i t h e r as c o l l a b o r a t o r s o r r e s i s t o r s .  Punitive patrols, skirmishes, cattle  c o n f i s c a t i o n , i n d e e d t h e whole atmosphere o f t h e c o l o n i a l e n t e r p r i s e , engendered,  t h e r e f o r e , the r i s e o f Kikuyu s k i l l e d i n the m i l i t a r y a r t s .  The conquest o f t h e K i k u y u was made e a s i e r b y t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e a l i e n power.  Conquest would have been  much more d i f f i c u l t , more p r o t r a c t e d , had t h e K i k u y u , however, been w h o l l y opposed t o h e l p i n g t h e p r o c e s s . problem o f t h e a l i e n power. o f K i k u y u athamaki.  " F i n d i n g t h e c h i e f " was t y p i c a l l y t h e  B e i n g "found" was f r e q u e n t l y t h e response  Indeed, some K i k u y u c o u l d n o t w a i t t o be "found"  — t h e y o f f e r e d themselves!  Importantly, the i m p e r i a l p r o b l e m — " f i n d i n g "  the c h i e f — r a r e l y t o o k i n t o account A f r i c a n a s p i r a t i o n s o r i n i t i a t i v e s i n the c o l o n i a l process.  K i k u y u f a c e d w i t h t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f conquest  could e i t h e r r e s i s t , collaborate or simply acquiesce.  Only r e c e n t l y , i t  seems, have s c h o l a r s g i v e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o A f r i c a n r a t i o n a l i t y on t h e matter o f choice.  A f r i c a n s , t h e K i k u y u e s p e c i a l l y , have been v a r i o u s l y  d e s c r i b e d as men d e d i c a t e d t o "doom and d a r k n e s s , " t o " i g n o r a n c e " and "savagery," o v e r whom c l e v e r and s o p h i s t i c a t e d i m p e r i a l i s t s were a b l e , w i t h o u t much t r o u b l e , t o impose t h e t r i c k o f I n d i r e c t R u l e .  African  165  r e s i s t o r s , l i k e W a i y a k i , have been seen, f u r t h e r m o r e , not as p a t r i o t s b u t as i n d i v i d u a l s p u r s u i n g l o s t causes and l o s t p r e s t i g e . athamaki who  accommodated themselves  i n d e e d , " o f f e r e d themselves  t o the i m p e r i a l p r e s e n c e — w h o ,  b e f o r e t h e y were ' f o u n d ' " — m i g h t r e a s o n -  a b l y be d e s c r i b e d as r e a l i s t s , possessed  Kikuyu  " i n d i v i d u a l i s t s " a t t u n e d t o change and.  o f acumen s u f f i c i e n t t o enhance s i g n i f i c a n t l y t h e i r p e r s o n a l  authority. The K i k u y u c o u l d not a v o i d conquest: them was  t o o s t r o n g — e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r 1902.  m i l i t a r y action against But t h e y were not  simply  o b j e c t s o r v i c t i m s o f p r o c e s s e s o f change s e t i n m o t i o n by t h e European invaders.  K i k u y u themselves  a b a l a n c e o f power. f a v o u r , ensured  The  c o n t r i b u t e d t o these changes by  effecting  " b a l a n c e , " even when t i p p e d i n the European  t h a t some i n i t i a t i v e s remained toi K i k u y u hands w i t h i n  the c o l o n i a l order.  T r i b a l t r a d i t i o n s and K i k u y u a s p i r a t i o n s thus p r e -  s e r v e d r e n d e r e d always the p o s s i b i l i t y o f n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h the European power.  K i k u y u c o u l d and o f t e n d i d b a r g a i n agreements, c o u l d moderate the  a g g r e s s i v e t h r u s t o f the P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and d i d a s s e r t themseves as j u n i o r p a r t n e r s i n the c o l o n i a l p r o c e s s .  A l l i a n c e s between  athamaki and Europeans were t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r i l y two-way i n b o t h c o n s t r u c t i o n and purpose.  W i t h i n any compact t h e r e e x i s t e d a d u a l r e a l i z a t i o n  t h a t one element c o u l d not p r o c e e d w i t h o u t the c o n c u r r e n c e other. was  I n t h i s way  determined  o r a i d o f the  a m u t u a l l y a c c e p t a b l e b a l a n c e o f power, whose t i l t  by b a r g a i n and c o n c e s s i o n , was m a n i f e s t as the l y n c h p i n o f  the c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Some K i k u y u p r o f i t e d e x c e e d i n g l y by-making f u l l use o f the o f p o w e r — e s p e c i a l l y i n d i v i d u a l athamaki who  balance  showed a marked a b i l i t y t o  166  t u r n s i t u a t i o n s t o t h e i r own advantage. were employed t o produce advantages  A wide v a r i e t y o f gambits  f o r b o t h i n d i v i d u a l s and  groups.  K i n a n j u i , H a l l ' s former F i d u s A c h a t e s , became something o f a " p e r s o n age" i n the c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  K a r u r e , Wangombe and h i s son,  N d e r i , Gutu and o t h e r s r o s e t o prominence under the a u s p i c e o f a g r a t e f u l pax B r i t a n n i c a .  O f t e n g i v e n the g r a n d i l o q u e n t t i t l e o f Paramount  C h i e f each was n o t h i n g o f the k i n d : dividualists."  t h e y were m e r e l y athamaki o r " i n -  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e c o l l a b o r a t o r s l a t e r developed i n t o a  c l a s s who were power and money o r i e n t e d l i k e t h e i r mentors.  Certainly  the c o l l a b o r a t i v e nexus h e a v i l y c o n d i t i o n e d the c o u r s e o f p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and economic change i n K i k u y u s o c i e t y .  As  collaborators  aibhamaki were the prime agents o f change i n the t r a n s i t o r y p r o c e s s from t r i b a l i s m t o a c o l o n i a l economy:  t h e y a c t e d as e s s e n t i a l i n t e r m e d i a r i e s ,  as t a x c o l l e c t o r s and l a b o u r b o s s e s f o r and on b e h a l f o f the c o l o n i a l power.  I n so d o i n g t h e y speeded the p r o c e s s e s o f change and thus h e r a l d -  ed a p o w e r f u l and s u s t a i n e d d i s r u p t i o n o f t r i b a l Most European a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , men  society.  l i k e A i n s w o r t h , H a l l and o t h e r s ,  appeared aware o f the l i m i t s o f t h e i r power and thus approached lem o f i m p e r i a l e x p a n s i o n on a p r a g m a t i c b a s i s . money, the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was by l i t t l e ,  t h e r e f o r e , i t was  the p r o b -  P l a g u e d by s h o r t a g e s o f  t h i n on the g r o u n d — a n d knew i t .  Little  f o r c e d t o e x e r t i n f l u e n c e by use o f c o l l a b -  o r a t o r s , t a c t i c s o f iLdivide and r u l e " a n d . s m a l l m i l i t a r y a d v e n t u r e s . Where K i k u y u s t r e n g t h was e v i d e n t i n i t i a l p e n e t r a t i o n was  avoided.  P o c k e t s o f K i k u y u r e s i s t a n c e developed i n a r e a s remote from r e g i o n s under the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f government o f f i c e r s o r f r i e n d l y athamaki.  167  These p o c k e t s were l e f t  o n t h e i r own u n t i l  s u c h t i m e as t h e  Protec-  t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a c q u i r e d t h e means t o e l i m i n a t e t h e m b y  force.  T h e n w e l l - a r m e d f o r c e s w e r e d e s p a t c h e d a n d K i k u y u who f u r t h e r  resis-  t e d were hunted,  scattered  and f i n a l l y  crushed.  t r a t i o n o f t h e K i k u y u i n t e r i o r was d u e ,  Initial  therefore,  British  to a series  pene-  of  com-  p l e x p e r m u t a t i o n s between a d m i n i s t r a t o r s l i k e A i n s w o r t h and H a l l , sets of Kikuyu a l l i e s .  S u b s e q u e n t p e n e t r a t i o n was a much more  determined and o r g a n i z e d a f f a i r i n v o l v i n g Moreover, whereas  i t m i g h t be s a i d t h a t  were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h " p a c i f i c a t i o n , "  initial  subsequent  and a r o u n d K i k u y u p o c k e t s o f r e s i s t a n c e , military  conquest  central authority.  policy-makers, exception.  Both E l i o t  at  Eliot,  European presence  was c l e a r l y a s s o c i a t e d  in  with  and Landsdowne were opposed t o p u n i t i v e  indeed,  the  eye.  l o c a t e d o n l y a few m i l e s from the extent  communications w i t h o f f i c e r s on the  not contain l o c a l  officers.  A c c o r d i n g l y he e i t h e r Thus i t  i t was  of l o c a l  c e r s o r were never  virtually  i s evident that administrative  events were e i t h e r  submitted.  problem  could not or would  c i s i o n s o r p l a n s f o r p u n i t i v e a c t i o n were f o r m u l a t e d o n the reports  of  turned  g i v e n the  ground,  the  scene  of violence or  P e r h a p s he r e a l i z e d t h a t ,  control events.  as  K i k u y u was more t h e r u l e t h a n  e i t h e r unaware o f the  a blind  impossible to  over,  penetration  Yet d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f t h e i r tenure  violence against  appeared  towards i t daily  forces.  o f t h e K i k u y u was n o t a p o l i c y c o n d o n e d b y  actions against Africans.  of  efforts  pre-  conquest. Military  action,  strong m i l i t a r y  and  spot.  " t o n e d down" b y j u n i o r  When made a w a r e o f h i g h K i k u y u  deMore-  offi-  casualty  168  figures,  indeed,  even Commissioner E l i o t  t a m p e r i n g i n s u c h a way a s of  events.  little cers  to  T h e r e i s no d o u b t  h i m s e l f was n o t  convey to London an i n c o r r e c t t h a t d u r i n g the  subject  had been e s t a b l i s h e d by e d i c t , , i n a c t u a l  was t a k i n g  of admin-  fact  the  order  had s t a t e d ,  "was n e v e r  be e x e r c i s e d i n o p p o s i t i o n t o ,  or i n competition with,  that  the  is patently  least  power."  Meinhertzhagen's civil  And y e t , account,  that  the  appears,  gave  the  obvious, at  to of from  so-called "superiority" of i n the  Humphrey, f o r e x a m p l e ,  punitive expeditions, it  it  power o v e r m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s  than a farce.  over  place.  "Military authority,"  civil  tenure  and m i l i t a r y  c o n t r o l — w a s t h a t w h i l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e predominance  military affairs reverse  impression  field.  A m a t t e r a l s o o f some s i g n i f i c a n c e — o n t h e istrative  to  period of E l i o t ' s  c o n t r o l was e x e r c i s e d o v e r b o t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  i n the  averse  field  a civil  the  was n o t h i n g more  o f f i c e r attached  to  was s e e n t o b e s o m e t h i n g o f a " n u i s a n c e " w h o ,  consent,  albeit  " g r u d g i n g , " to wanton p i l l a g e  and  barbarity. Decisions to burn v i l l a g e s , confiscate  cattle  and t o  K i k u y u w i t h o u t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , w e r e made l o c a l l y a n d w i t h o u t  kill  offi-  169  regard t o the d i c t a t e s of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e centre.  "Pacification,"  a moderate approach t o t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f t h e pax i n K i k u y u l a n d ,  was  t h e r e f o r e t u r n e d i n t o "conquest" by "on t h e s p o t " j u n i o r o f f i c e r s , f  The conquest o f K i k u y u l a n d  1895-1901 and 1902-1910.  f a l l s i n t o two d i s t i n c t phases;  The f i r s t phase, 1895-1901, may b e s t be  d e s c r i b e d as a " h o l d i n g e x e r c i s e " d u r i n g w h i c h t h e B r i t i s h themselves f o r f u r t h e r p e n e t r a t i o n s o f K i k u y u l a n d .  "prepared"  The p r o t e c t o r a t e  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s m i l i t a r y i n h e r i t a n c e from t h e Company was n o t h i n g more t h a n a " h o t c h - p o t c h , " a r a b b l e w i t h no c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y o r local control.  Indeed, t h e Company's f a i l u r e i n K i k u y u l a n d  c a n be  p a r t l y a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t i t was u n a b l e t o m a i n t a i n i t s p r e s ence t h r o u g h c o n s t r u c t i v e and s u s t a i n e d use o f f o r c e .  Moreover, Com-  pany l e v i e s , M a s a i " f r i e n d l i e s " and o t h e r s , a c t u a l l y had c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e Company's demise:  t h e i r r a i d s on K i k u y u shambas, l a t t e r l y con-  doned and even encouraged, tended t o e x a c e r b a t e K i k u y u h o s t i l i t y t o a p o i n t where t h e Company's p o s i t i o n became u n t e n a b l e .  Thus when t h e  P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n h e r i t e d t h e Company!s " h o t c h - p o t c h " i t was as p o w e r l e s s as t h e Company had been t o expand i t s range o f o p e r a tions.  Furthermore, Kikuyu h o s t i l i t y continued  a t much t h e same l e v e l  of i n t e n s i t y as d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f Company t e n u r e . D u r i n g the f i r s t phase, a l s o , K i k u y u h o s t i l i t y was fanned b y t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e armed t r a d e r s .  Whereas t h e Company had been o n l y mod-  e r a t e l y s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f athamaki, i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t John Boyes, a c t i n g o n l y f o r h i m s e l f , used them e f f e c t i v e l y o v e r l a r g e areas o f Kikuyuland.  He became, t o use h i s own words, "King o f t h e  170  Wa-kikuyu."  Moreover, Boyes' a c t i v i t i e s among t h e K i k u y u a c t u a l l y  p l a c e w h i l e t h e I m p e r i a l power " r u l e d " K i k u y u l a n d .  took  T h i s was n o t so r e -  markable a f e a t when i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was p o w e r l e s s  t o s t o p him.  Boyes' r i s e t o prominence c a n thus be  seen as d e r i v i n g from t h e o b v i o u s weakness o f t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s tration:  i t simply l a c k e d the " t e e t h " t o enforce i t s w i l l over a l l o f  the K i k u y u and t h e armed t r a d e r s . The l a t t e r p e r i o d o f t h e f i r s t phase (1900) saw t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n b e g i n t o r e o r g a n i z e i t s e l f i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r i t s more permanent e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n t h e i n t e r i o r .  A p o l i c e f o r c e was i n a u g u r -  a t e d and t h e " h o t c h - p o t c h " r e c o n s t i t u t e d i n t o t h e K i n g ' s A f r i c a n R i f l e s . K i k u y u l a n d became K e n i a P r o v i n c e ( s i c ) and i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n moved t o Nairobi.  The r a i l w a y , now completed beyond t h e f r i n g e s o f K i k u y u l a n d ,  improved communications from t h e p o r t o f Mombasa.  Kikuyuland, a l s o , be-  came more e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e v i a roads r a d i a t i n g from N a i r o b i .  Impor-  t a n t l y , the M a s a i t h r e a t was removed from t h e s o u t h e r n p e r i p h e r y o f t h e new P r o v i n c e . the a r e a .  F i n a l l y , t h e armed t r a d e r s were a r r e s t e d and removed from  By 1902 t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was ready t o engage  any r e m a i n i n g h o s t i l e K i k u y u . The  second phase, 1902-1910, may b e s t be d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g a  time o f m i l i t a r y conquest.  W i t h l i t t l e o r no p r o v o c a t i o n , B r i t i s h l e d  A f r i c a n a s k a r i o f b o t h t h e p o l i c e and K i n g ' s A f r i c a n R i f l e s , w i t h hordes o f " f r i e n d l i e s , " i n v a d e d K i k u y u l a n d .  together  Notably m i l i t a r y tac-  t i c s changed from t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s k i r m i s h t o " o v e r k i l l . "  W i t h t h e ob-  j e c t o f the e l i m i n a t i o n o f a l l ' d i s s i d e n t s , p a t r o l s penetrated pockets of  171  r e s i s t a n c e , k i l l e d men, women and c h i l d r e n w i t h o u t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and put n a t i v e h u t s t o t h e t o r c h . sides.  A c t s o f b a r b a r i s m were common on b o t h  C a t t l e and g o a t s , e s s e n t i a l t o t h e K i k u y u economy, were c o n f i s -  c a t e d and s o l d t o h e l p f i n a n c e page when e x p e d i e n t :  expeditions.  Athamaki j o i n e d i n t h e ram-  others brought t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e  t i o n i n t o the i m p e r i a l f o l d .  I n t h i s way r e s i s t a n c e was smashed and  by 1910 t h e pax B r i t a n n i c a was a f a c t i n K i k u y u l a n d . not been p a c i f i e d : t h e y had been conquered. conquered from b o t h o u t s i d e and  The Kikuyu-had  Moreover, t h e y had been  and i n s i d e t h e i r s o c i a l o r d e r ; b y Europeans  athamaki i n a complex and s u s t a i n e d European p e n e t r a t i o n  areas o f j u r i s d i c -  interaction.  r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d Kikuyu society.  Already  i n f l u x , s t r e s s e d b y problems o f r e c e n t s e t t l e m e n t i n a new h a b i t a t , t h e a t t e n t i o n s o f wageni l o o k i n g f o r i v o r y and produce,and marauding M a s a i , K i k u y u s o c i e t y was f u r t h e r d i v i d e d b y European i n t r u s i o n .  Reacting* t o  European i n f l u e n c e , t h e Company, t h e t r a d e r s , o r t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e i s t r a t i o n , competitive  Admin-  elements i n K i k u y u s o c i e t y embraced e i t h e r c o l l a -  b o r a t i o n by a c t i o n , c o l l a b o r a t i o n by acquiesence, o r r e s i s t a n c e .  The  European impact t h u s opened up s e r i o u s r i f t s i n K i k u y u s o c i e t y ; i t s h a r p ^ ened e x i s t i n g c l e a v a g e s and d i s t u r b e d and h i e r a r c h y .  t r a d i t i o n a l r a n k i n g s o f dominance  I t produced, a l s o , an unevenn.ess i n development between  r e g i o n s dominated e i t h e r b y c o l l a b o r a t i n g athamaki o r r e s i s t o r s : one  region,  f o r example, was g a i n i n g t h r o u g h a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Europeans,  a n o t h e r , perhaps o n l y a few m i l e s away, was b e i n g smashed. contributed  while  These f a c t o r s  s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f even deeper s o c i a l and po-  l i t i c a l disunities.  The h i s t o r y o f t h e K i k u y u and t h e i r subsequent r e -  l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e B r i t i s h would prove t o be a s t r o n g r e f l e c t i o n o f  172  the t r a u m a t i c e f f e c t s o f the e a r l y i m p e r i a l p r e s e n c e .  APPENDICES  Appendix A  Kikuyu Age-set Names and Name Associations extracted from Father Cagnolo, The Akikuyu, Consolata Mission, 1933, pp. 199-202.  Appendix B  Notes on the Protectorate Administration, Ukamba Province, 1895-1897. Notes on the Composition and A c t i v i t i e s of M i l i t a r y Forces, Ukamba Province, 1897. Notes on the Police Establishment, Ukamba Province, 1895-1897. Notes on Roads and Communications, East A f r i c a Protectorate, 1895-1897. Notes on Revenue and Expenditure, 1895-1897. Appendix B notes are extracted from Great B r i t a i n , Foreign Office. Report by S i r A. Hardinge on the Condition and Progress of the East A f r i c a Protectorate from i t s Establishment to the 20th July 1897" London 1897. Cmd. 8683. Great B r i t a i n , Foreign Office. Report by His Majesty's Commissioner on the East A f r i c a Protectorate, London, 1903. Cmd. 1626 and Great B r i t a i n , Foreign Office. Report by Hardinge on the B r i t i s h East A f r i c a Protectorate for 1897-98, London, 1899. Cmd. 1925.  Appendix C  Commissioners and Governors of the East A f r i c a Protectorate 18951912... .Extracted .from G.H. Mungeam, B r i t i s h Rule i n Kenya, 1895-1912, London: OUP, 1966.  - 173 -  17-4  Appendix A  K i k u y u Age-set Names and N a m e - A s s o c i a t i o n s  Kyangige Magoko Mambo l e o Mogwongo Kyendano Kyangige Kya ndege Karebe Gachithe Bendera Kya h i t i Gathetha Matoto o r n o t i Kepande Ndarama Kya Lyoa Gechogwa Firimbi Gathuthe Romemo Ohere Njaramba Kanorya Makanga Gethei Njege Ngara Nyoto Machai Gatego Kamande Njangiri Ndimo  Year o f the l o c u s t s Wattle hark Modern P r a c t i c e s Elephant tusk Love Y e a r o f the l o c u s t s Year o f the a e r o p l a n e unknown Cow T a i l used as ornament Flag Year o f t h e Hyaenas Beads o r n e c k l a c e notes Registration certificate Drum Year o f the famine unknown whistle s p e c i e s o f weed Gold Scabies Courageous Kind of disease Cotton clothes Maize m i l l Porcupines Rats Wolves Iron sheets Venereal disease unknown wanderers kind of chalk  1932 1931 1930 1929 1928 1927 1926 1925 1924 1923 1922 1921 1920 1919 1918 1917 1916 1915 1914 1913 1912 1911 1910 1909 1908 1907 1906 1905 1904 1903 1902 1901 1900  175  Appendix B  Notes on t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Ukamba P r o v i n c e , 1895-1897. Table Showing Names, A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P o s i t i o n s and Pay o f European O f f i c e r s i n Ukamba P r o v i n c e (1897).  Sub-Commissioner T e i t a D i s t r i c t (D.O.) " " A s s t . D.O. Athi District (D.O.) " " A s s t . D.O. K e n i a D i s t r i c t (D.O.) " " A s s t . D.O. Kitui District  J . A i n s w o r t h (H.Q. Machakos) J.V. Weaver E. G o l d i e Taubman J . Ainsworth C.R.W. Lane F.G. H a l l E. R u s s e l l Not y e t organized-  T o t a l Cost o f Ukamba P r o v i n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n T o t a l Cost o f K e n i a D i s t r i c t ( K i k u y u T r i b a l A r e a )  500 pounds/year ii it 400 ti I I 250 ti I I Nil ii II 250 ii it 400 ii it 250 ii ti Nil 2050 650  it  ti  II  ii  I t can be seen from t h e f o r e g o i n g t a b l e t h a t Ukamba P r o v i n c e , a v a s t a r e a , was i n 1897 a d m i n i s t e r e d by 6 o f f i c e r s i n c l u d i n g one Sub-Commissioner, John A i n s w o r t h , who doubled as a D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r i n t h e A t h i R i v e r D i s t r i c t . K e n i a D i s t r i c t p o p u l a t i o n i s e s t i m a t e d a t 300,000 K i k u y u and a p p r o x i m a t e l y 23,000 Masai and was a c t u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d by o n l y two o f f i c e r s , F r a n c i s H a l l and E. R u s s e l l . T h i s g i v e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y a r a t i o o f 160,000 n a t i v e s per o f f i c e r ! I t i s thus h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g t h a t l i t t l e c o n t r o l was e x e r c i s e d o v e r r e g i o n s beyond t h e immediate v i c i n i t y o f P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n s t a t i o n s . I n K e n i a P r o v i n c e ( o r K i k u y u l a n d ) the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was indeed " t h i n on t h e ground".  176  Notes on the C o m p o s i t i o n  and A c t i v i t i e s o f M i l i t a r y  Forces,  Ukamba P r o v i n c e , 1897.  (a)  The t o t a l m i l i t a r y f o r c e f o r t h e E a s t A f r i c a n P r o t e c t o r a t e i n 1897 was 1,120 men. Of t h i s number t h e Ukamba c o n t i n g e n t numbered 144 a l t h o u g h t h e r e were some 200 l e v i e s r e c r u i t e d from l o c a l A f r i c a n t r i b e s who were employed " f o r t h e defence o f t h e European s t a t i o n s a g a i n s t p o s s i b l e a t t a c k s by h o s t i l e n a t i v e s . . . " Use seems t o have been made o f c e r t a i n A f r i c a n s t o a c t as l e a d e r s o f t h e armed l e v i e s . Of some s i g n i f i c a n c e , as can be determined f r o m the t a b l e below, i s t h e f a c t t h a t S w a h i l i and Sudanese t r o o p e r s were used e x t e n s i v e l y i n K i k u y u , Wakamba and M a s a i t r i b a l a r e a s . The l e n g t h o f t h e i r s e r v i c e was n o r m a l l y t h r e e y e a r s . Ukamba P r o v i n c e Troop D i s p o s i t i o n (1897)  African African Sgts Lts Capts 1 1 1 Kikuyuland ( S w a h i l i troops) 2 1 Machakos (Sudanese t r o o p s ) .1 Ngongo Bagas (Sudanese t r o o p s ) Totals  (b)  1  2  4  Corp. Bug 2 6 7 3 0 3 16  5  Ptes 59 40 17  Total 70 53 21  116  144  N o t i c e a b l e from t h e f o r e g o i n g t a b l e i s t h e f a c t t h a t the K i k u y u a r e a had c o n s i d e r a b l y more t r o o p s s t a t i o n e d than Wakamba o r M a s a i t e r r i t o r y . Machakos, t h e key a d m i n i s t r a t i v e base o f Ukamba P r o v i n c e , was g a r r i s o n e d by o n l y 53 t r o o p s compared t o 70 f o r K i k u y u l a n d . Perhaps i t can u s e f u l l y be i n f e r r e d from t h i s t h a t b o t h t h e M a s a i and Wakamba t r i b e s were c o n s i d e r e d l e s s o f a t h r e a t t h a n t h e K i k u y u . I n the case o f t h e M a s a i t h e r e were reasons t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r m i l i t a r y power was on t h e wane by t h e end o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . N o t a b l y , permanent b a r r a c k s were b u i l t a t Ngongo Bagas whereas t r o o p s q u a r t e r e d i n K i k u y u l a n d l i v e d i n temporary h u t s . T h i s would i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t i e s had c o n s i d e r e d t h e need f o r a permanent o c c u p a t i o n o f M a s a i t e r r i t o r y w h i l s t t r o o p s i n K i k u y u l a n d were f r e e t o move i n any d i r e c t i o n from t h e i r temporary q u a r t e r s . Not a w e l l d i s c i p l i n e d f o r c e , t h e i r c h i e f o f f e n c e s seem t o have been " i r r e g u l a r i t i e s when on d u t y " — a phrase o f t h e most ominous c o n n o t a t i o n s .  177  Notes on the Police Establishment, Ukamba Province, 1895-1897.  Cost (Rupees)  Ukamba Province  Machakos  1 2 5 15  Inspector Sergeants Corporals Policemen  2,040  Outpost  3 Corporals 15 Policemen  3,736  Kikuyu  1 2 4 35  Ngongo  1 Sergeant 2 Corporals 20 Policemen  Kibwezi  1 Inspector 3 Corporals 25 Policemen  4,500  Ndi  1 Inspector 3 Corporals 25 Policemen  4,500  Inspector Sergeants Corporals Policemen  10,452  included i n Kikuyu above  Total Cost Wages Arms, Ammunition, rations.  29,268 68,108  Total Cost  97,376  Note the higher cost of police services f o r Kikuyu/Masai areas i n comparison to remainder of Ukamba Province. This may be i n d i c a t i v e of the amount •of p o l i c e a c t i v i t y necessary to sustain the administration of the area. Notably, Ukamba Province i n which Kikuyu, Masai and Wakamba tribes were resident, cost more for police services than the combined t o t a l of the remaining three provinces of the East A f r i c a Protectorate, i . e . i n police wages 29,268 rupees against 23,088 rupees.  178  Notes on Roads and Communications, E a s t A f r i c a P r o t e c t o r a t e , 1895-1897.  The o n l y t r u e r o a d r a n from Mazeras, n e a r Mombasa, t o the Kedong R i v e r on the e a s t e r n boundary o f the Uganda P r o t e c t o r a t e . The r o a d c o n s i s t e d of two s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n r a n from Mazeras t o Tsavo, a d i s t a n c e of 185 m i l e s , and was r e f e r r e d t o as t h e Mackinnon Road. Named a f t e r the founder o f the I m p e r i a l E a s t A f r i c a Company i t was s u b s e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o by S i r G e r a l d P o r t a l as n o t h i n g more t h a n an "overgrown t r a c k " . The second s e c t i o n o f the r o a d r a n from K i b w e z i t o Kedong, a d i s t a n c e o f 130 m i l e s , and on t o V i c t o r i a Nyanza on the Lake. A t a c o n v e n i e n t p o i n t a b r a n c h r o a d was c o n s t r u c t e d west t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e o f Machakos and thence t o A t h i , N a i r o b i and K i k u y u . The P r o v i n c e o f Ukamba, seen b y Hardinge as t h e "most u n c i v i l i z e d d i v i s i o n o f t h e t e r r i t o r y " was b e t t e r p r o v i d e d w i t h roads t h a n the o t h e r P r o v i n c e s and the c o n s t r u c t i o n of roads was "welcomed by l o c a l Headmen." A t Machakos the Wakamba even v o l u n t e e r e d t o c o n s t r u c t roads " a t t h e i r own expense." The r e m a i n i n g roads throughout the P r o t e c t o r a t e were mere p a t h s c u t t h r o u g h the bush which, a c c o r d i n g t o H a r d i n g e , were well-known and w e l l used. A l o n g the main r o a d t o Uganda v a r i o u s means o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n were t r i e d . The f i r s t s e c t i o n p r o v e d d i f f i c u l t f o r c a r t s h a u l e d by b u l l o c k s due t o the presence o f T s e t s e F l y . The second s e c t i o n , between K i b w e z i and K i k u y u , was c o n s i d e r e d f r e e o f T s e t s e F l y and thus p a s s a b l e by B u l l o c k c a r t . T r a n s p o r t between K i b w e z i and the c o a s t by r a i l was p o s s i b l e a f t e r 1897. Experiments were conducted w i t h camels b u t p r o v e d u n s u c c e s s f u l due t o the h i g h m o r t a l i t y r a t e o f t h e b e a s t s . Horses were used and to some e x t e n t donkeys a l s o . By f a r the most p o p u l a r method o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was the use o f human p o r t e r s . A f r i c a n p o r t e r s were r e c r u i t e d m o s t l y i n Mombasa, R a b a i and t h e T e i t a c o u n t r y t o t h e s o u t h e a s t o f Mount K i l i m a n j a r o . N o t a b l y some K i k u y u had been persuaded t o c a r r y l o a d s but were found u n s u i t a b l e f o r l o n g d i s t a n c e s . Hardinge r e p o r t e d t h a t i n 1897 about 1,100 known p o r t e r s r e s i d e d i n t h e Mombasa a r e a and 600 o f t h i s number were d i s t r i b u t e d a t key p o i n t s a l o n g the r o a d t o the Lake. In R a b a i , a l s o , about 1000 men were a v a i l a b l e t o supplement the r e g u l a r work f o r c e on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s . Few would t r a v e r s e t h e n o r t h e r n reaches of t h e r o a d t h r o u g h K i k u y u c o u n t r y . The average wages o f p o r t e r s amounted t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 rupees p e r month. (A Rupee was w o r t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 s h i l l i n g and twopence s t e r l i n g . ) Each p o r t e r was p a i d a l s o 4 rupees p e r month f o r posho (maize m e a l ) . Head p o r t e r s were p a i d 20 t o 50 rupees p e r month. P o r t e r s c o u l d c a r r y about 70 pounds on t h e i r heads. 2,500 l o a d s p e r y e a r were r e q u i r e d t o s u s t a i n P r o t e c t o r a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n s t a t i o n s a l o n g the road:" 7000 l o a d s  179  were required yearly to sustain the B r i t i s h i n Uganda. A private firm, Smith, Mackenzie Company was i n i t i a l l y given the contract for cartage to Uganda. In 1897, however, the Administration took on the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y only to give i t up to armed European Traders l i k e John Boyes. The following table i l l u s t r a t e s the cost of porterage and the number of loads to key administrative stations along the road In the year 1897. Loads of Trade Goods, Provisions and Stores. Ndi Station Kibwezi Machakos (Admin. H.Q. ) Kikuyu Total  786 91 763 136 1,776  Expend, (approx) i n Rupees. 5,895 1,820 19,075 3,672 30,462  Note that Machakos,.the administrative centre for Ukamba Province, including the Kikuyu areas, had the highest expenditure, while Kikuyu, a sub-station i n Kikuyuland, received considerably less i n stores, goods and general provisions. This may be i n d i c a t i v e of the fact that Government stations i n Kikuyuland provisioned themselves l o c a l l y — o f t e n at the expense of the Kikuyu.  Mail Mail communications were of the utmost necessity to the Administration resident i n the i n t e r i o r . Oversea mail came by steamer to Mombasa and thence overland to the various administrative stations. For the i n t e r i o r part of the journey mail was carried by runners who covered great distances i n comparatively short periods of time. The f i r s t 110 miles, to Ndi, was covered i n four days. At Ndi the mail was transferred to Wakamba runners sent down from Machakos by Sub-Commissioner Ainsworth. Wakamba runners then t r a v e l l e d the next 245 miles to Kikuyu where they handed t h e i r loads to Masai. Each load for t h i s part of the journey was 30 pounds weight. Masai runners then carried t h e i r loads the next 245 miles to Eldama Ravine. The t o t a l distance of 495 miles was covered i n 20 days or approximately 25 miles per day. Twenty-six loads were dispatched inland per month.  Posts and  Telegraphs  To 1897 there was no completed telegraph l i n e inland. A l i n e was being b u i l t , however, along the l i n e of the railway at that time under construction.  180  The P r o t e c t o r a t e was c o n n e c t e d b y t e l e g r a p h f r o m Mombasa t o Z a n z i b a r and E u r o p e . Thus t h e i n t e r i o r c o u l d b e r e a c h e d f r o m E n g l a n d v i a Mombasa a n d t h e n t h e n o r m a l m a i l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y b y r u n n e r . The c a b l e was c o n s t a n t l y b r e a k i n g down a n d was v e r y i n e f f i c e n t .  181  Notes on Revenue and Expenditure, 1895-1897.  Revenue and expenditure f o r 9 months between the creation of the Protectorate and the beginning of the f i n a n c i a l year were as follows: Actual receipts Actual expenditure  22,865 pounds ... 77,920 pounds  Of the sum expended, 12,750 pounds were paid as rent and interest to the Sultan of Zanzibar; 18,327 pounds was spent f o r m i l i t a r y expeditions f o r "establishing the authority of the Government." Ordinary expenditure ( s i c ) was 4-6,843 pounds and thus a d e f i c i t of 23,978 pounds was manifest. Grants-in-Aid amounted to 50,975 pounds between July 1 1895 and A p r i l 1 1896. 1896 receipts rose s l i g h t l y to 32,670 pounds while expenditure rose to 134,346 pounds. Higher expenses included the cost of quelling the rebellious coastal peoples, payment to the Sultan of Zanzibar and the purchase of the former IBEA Co. Mackinnon Road trading station and sundry mortgages from the defunct Company. Administrative work cost 91,464 pounds and c o l l e c t e d revenue was 32,670 pounds. Thus there was i n 1896 a d e f i c i t of 58,794 pounds; a r i s e of 25% i n administrative costs over the previous year. Commissioner Hardinge pointed out that i t i s only natural that expenditure should be more than revenue i n an underdeveloped country. But he was optimistic i n forecasting the future; i n ten years from 1897 he foresaw the end of Grants-in-Aid. Hardinge pointed out that two provinces, Tanaland and Seyyidich, were i n 1897 self-supporting but cautioned optimism when considering Ukamba and Masailand. He observed money was hardly known by the tribesmen and payments were made i n kind. Here, also, the largest expense to be anticipated was that of the maintenance of m i l i t a r y forces (31,600 pounds); an amount which " r e a l l y equals the whole of the receipts of the Protectorate." S t i l l , he pointed out, given the size of the t e r r i t o r y and the warlike nature of the Kikuyu and Masai, the number of troops (1,120 i n 1897) was not unduly large. As of 1897 there was no form of direct taxation. This was because various Treaties signed with coastal Arabs and heads of coastal t r i b e s , forbade the c o l l e c t i o n of direct taxes. Hardinge saw the  182  p o s s i b i l i t y of a d i r e c t tax l e v y o f the e x p i r a t i o n o f the T r e a t i e s . D i r e c t t a x , he e n v i s a g e d , c o u l d e i t h e r b e e x t r a c t e d d i r e c t l y o r on a house o r h u t . I n the i n t e r i o r , where t h e T r e a t i e s were n o t o p e r a t i v e , "some D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r s ( w e r e ) d e s i r o u s o f i m p o s i n g a hut tax at once." Here Hardinge c o u n s e l l e d r e s t r a i n t b y a r g u i n g t h a t " t h e n a t i v e t a k e s some t i m e t o u n d e r s t a n d why he s h o u l d p a y a t a x f o r the r i g h t t o use a house o r p i e c e o f ground w h i c h i s h i s o w n . " F u r t h e r , he s u g g e s t e d , " t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f a c o n t r i b u t i o n towards the maintenance o f the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n r e t u r n f o r b e n e f i t s a n d p r o t e c t i o n w h i c h he d e r i v e s f r o m i t ( t h e t a x ) i s a s y e t q u i t e f o r e i g n t o h i s m i n d ( t h e n a t i v e ) , a n d , s l o w a s he i s t o a p p r e h e n d new i d e a s , i t i s n o t t o b e e x p e c t e d t h a t i t s h o u l d q u i c k l y become f a m i l i a r to h i m . " The e f f e c t o f p r e c i p i t a t i n g a n e a r l y i m p o s i t i o n o f h u t t a x w o u l d b e , H a r d i n g e p o i n t e d o u t , " t o d r i v e t h e n a t i v e s away f r o m t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d o f s t a t i o n s w h e r e we w i s h t o e n c o u r a g e t h e m t o s e t t l e . . . w h i l e i f i t s c o l l e c t i o n i n remote d i s t r i c t s were l e f t i n t h e h a n d s o f s t i l l i n s u f f i c i e n t l y e d u c a t e d n a t i v e Headmen, g r e a t abuses and i n j u s t i c e s might r e s u l t . " H a r d i n g e saw d i s t r i c t s w h i c h l e n t t h e m s e l v e s t o e a s y t a x c o l l e c t i o n a s b e i n g d e s i r a b l e p l a c e s t o commence c o l l e c t i o n . M o r e o v e r , he reasoned t h a t a p o l i c y o f d i v i d e and r u l e had i t s advantages as f a r a s t a x c o l l e c t i o n was c o n c e r n e d . F o r e x a m p l e , i f one s e g m e n t o f a t r i b e was a b o u t t o a t t a c k a n o t h e r , t h e n t h e t r i b e a b o u t t o be a t t a c k e d w o u l d s u b m i t t o t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t a x i n r e t u r n f o r Government p r o t e c t i o n . H a r d i n g e saw a l s o t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f i m p o s i n g t a x o n s t a t i c t r i b e s l i k e the K i k u y u r a t h e r than p a s t o r a l t r i b e s l i k e the Afesai. Static t r i b e s , a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s l i k e t h e K i k u y u , were t h u s e a s i e r prospects f o r the i m p o s i t i o n o f f o r e i g n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s , f o r e i g n economic and v a l u e systems, than o t h e r t r i b e s . Indigenous tax systems a l s o a i d e d the i m p o s i t i o n o f t a x c o l l e c t i o n by the Administration. Where A f r i c a n s , c h i e f s o r o t h e r w i s e , w e r e i n t h e h a b i t o f e x a c t i n g r e t r i b u t i o n from s u b j e c t s , f o r example, i v o r y , t h e " i d e a " o f p a y m e n t t o a u t h o r i t y f o r s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d , was w e l l i n c u l c a t e d i n t o the A f r i c a n mind.  Appendix C  Commissioners and Governors o f t h e E a s t A f r i c a P r o t e c t o r a t e 1895-1912.  S i r A r t h u r Hardinge  1895-1900  S i r Charles E l i o t  1900-1904  S i r Donald S t e w a r t  1904- 1905  S i r James Hayes S a d l e r  1905- 1909  S i r Percy Girouard  1909-1912  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Books Barber, James.. Imperial F r o n t i e r : A Study of R e l a t i o n s between the B r i t i s h and the P a s t o r a l Tribes of North East Uganda. Nairobi: EAPH, 1968. Bennett, George. Kenya: A P o l i t i c a l H i s t o r y : New York: Oxford, 1963.  The C o l o n i a l Period.  Bennett, Norman, R. Studies i n East A f r i c a n H i s t o r y . v e r s i t y Press, 1963Boyes, John.  King of the WaKikuyu.  Boyes, John.  The Company of Adventurers.  Cagnolo, F r . The Akikuyu.  London:  Boston:  Uni-  Methuen, 1911.  London:  Methuen, 1928.  Consolata M i s s i o n , 1933-  Cairns, H.A.C. Prelude to Imperialism: B r i t i s h Reactions to Central A f r i c a n Society, 1840-1890. London: Routledge and Keegan Paul, 1965. Cole, Sonia. The Pre-History of East. A f r i c a . 1964.  London:  Harmonsworth,  Coupland, Reginald. The E x p l o i t a t i o n of East Africa-1856-1890, the Slave Trade and Scramble. London: Faber and Faber, 1939. Coupland, Reginald, REast A f r i c a and i t s Invaders from the E a r l i e s t Times to the Death of Seyyid Said Ln.l856T Oxford: Clarendon,  - 184 -  185/  Dundas, S i r Charles.  A f r i c a n Crossroads.  London:  E l i o t , Charles, The East A f r i c a Protectorate.  Macmillan, 1955.  London: n.p., 1905.  Evans, I. L e s l i e . 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