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Resistance and accommodation in a racial polity : responses of Indian South Africans Adam-Moodley, Kogila 1976

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RESISTANCE;AND ACCOMMODATION  IN A RACIAL  POLITY:  RESPONSES OF INDIAN SOUTH AFRICANS  by  KOGILA[ADAM-MOODLEY B.A. University M.A.  Michigan  o f Natal ,1961  State University,1965  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES, DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY, THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  We a c c e p t to  the  t h i s t h e s i s as required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October  c  1976  K o g i l a Adam-Moodley,  conforming  1976  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at  further  agree  fulfilment  of  the  requirements  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it I  in p a r t i a l  freely  available  for  t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  of  this  representatives. thesis for  It  financial  this  thesis  The  g a i n s h a l l not  of  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  j -  3-77  or  i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  written permission.  Department  that  reference and study.  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department by h i s  for  be allowed without my  loH^>  0  Re; in  Circulation a Racial  Kogila  At  Polity%  partial may  Responses  9  license  shall  operate  of at least  by the undersigned:  supervisor  Head o f Department o f S o c i o l o g y and Anthropology  of Graduate  Author  Date:  Accommodation  Africans  23-2-77  Studies  of the period  shall  b}r  f o r which the  be d e l a y e d f r o m  one-year  be d e l a y e d f o r a n a d d i t i o n a l  determined  Dean  o f I n d i a n South  t h e commencement  f o r a period  Thesis  Resistance and  h  Adam-Moodley.  our request  1976  of dissertations  *  period  and that with  good  October  l8„  such operation cause,  as  Keseare* supervisor: Professor Micfcae! M. « . . . - iii ABSTRACT  T h i s t h e s i s attempts  t o a n a l y s e the ways i n which, a m i n o r i t y responds  to varying s i t u a t i o n s of oppression in a r a c i a l l y s t r u c t u r e d environment. In o r d e r t o e x p l i c a t e what c o n s t i t u t e s o p p r e s s i o n , an h i s t o r i c a l s u r v e y o f major l e g i s l a t i o n a f f e c t i n g This reveals d i f f e r e n t o f f challenges to i t s to n e u t r a l i s a t i o n changes,and the  Indians  i n South A f r i c a i s  t e c h n i q u e s used by the dominant group t o ward power by c o u n t e r e l i t e s ,  from d i r e c t s u p p r e s s i o n  and c o - o p t a t i o n . The r e a c t i o n s o f Indians  impact o f t h e s e responses on t h e i r  to  these  r e l a t i o n s h i p with  t h e dominant group as w e l l as w i t h o t h e r s u b o r d i n a t e groups a t political, of this  e c o n o m i c , e d u c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l l e v e l  i s examined,  (a)  the  guides the focus  i n v e s t i g a t i o n . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e p o l i t i c a l  o f Indians  behaviour  i n a l l i a n c e and c o n f l i c t s w i t h o t h e r  s u b o r d i n a t e g r o u p s , p a r t i c u l a r l y A f r i c a n s , (b)  i n d e v e l o p i n g complementary  i n t e r e s t s w i t h some members o f t h e s u p e r o r d i n a t e g r o u p , ( c )  in. i n t r a -  ' communal c l a s s o r s t a t u s - g r o u p based d i v i s i o n s and f a c t i o n s , and in p o l i t i c a l  i n t r o v e r s i o n and i n a c t i v i t y  and c u l t u r a l  immersion.  i n c l u d e d the r e c o r d i n g o f 86 i n f o r m a l  (d)  through c u l t u r a l e x c l u s i v i s m  Research p r o c e d u r e s used d u r i n g t h r e e p e r i o d s o f f i e l d work i n  various o f f i c i a l  outlined.  interviews,  Natal  the c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s o f  and p r i v a t e documents on I n d i a n a f f a i r s ^ n d  the  c o l l e c t i o n o f e s s a y s w r i t t e n by 65 I n d i a n u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s as s o - c a l l e d "future  a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s " . The major l i t e r a t u r e on r a c e r e l a t i o n s  minority behaviour i n other s o c i e t a l contexts i s c r i t i c a l l y regarding the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of i t s African  case.  and  reviewed  c o n c e p t s and models t o the South  - iv -  The p o l i t i c a l dialectic  behaviour o f  Indians would seem t o i n d i c a t e how t h e  o f r e s i s t a n c e and a c q u i e s c e n c e o p e r a t e s  circumstances.  Indeed,  themselves c o n s t i t u t e predictions.  neither  in p a r t i c u l a r  historical  c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s nor e t h n i c i t y  s a t i s f a c t o r y concepts f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s  and  Which bond i s s u c c e s s f u l l y a c t i v a t e d would seem t o depend  on the s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l  c o n t e x t and p e r c e p t i o n s o f  interest.  These proved t o have undergone c o n s i d e r a b l e c h a n g e s , a c c o r d i n g t o emerging s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n experience of r a c i a l  discrimination.  Predominant  Indian  political  i n an A f r i c a n - d o m i n a t e d  would above a l l  unpredictable p o l i c i e s at  depend on the as y e t  s t a g e , t h e degree o f a n i m o s i t y e x p e r i e n c e d , and the k i n d o f awarded t o the v u l n e r a b l e a n d , t h e r e f o r e , between.  the  o f the g r o u p , d e s p i t e t h e common  r e a c t i o n s under f u t u r e m a j o r i t y r u l e  "strangers" in  in  ambivalent,  government that  security  suspicious -  CONTENTS  LIST OF TABLES ABSTRACT PREFACE j-  . PROFILE OF A COMMUNITY:  INDIAN SOUTH AFRICANS  II  FOCUS OF INVESTIGATION IN COMPARISON WITH PREVIOUS STUDIES OF OVERSEAS INDIANS  IH  REVIEW OF GENERAL THEORIES OF RACE RELATIONS 1. T h e o r i e s o f P r e j u d i c e and D i s c r i m i n a t i o n - 21 2. A s s i m i l a t i o n T h e o r i e s - 23 3. Stratification T h e o r i e s - 27 4. T h e o r i e s o f P l u r a l S o c i e t i e s 33 5. M i n o r i t y Group T h e o r i e s - 41 6. M a r x i s t E x p l a n a t i o n s - 51 7. T h e o r i e s o f the S p l i t Labor Market - 56  IV  RESEARCH PROCEDURES 1. Informal I n t e r v i e w s - 63 2. Documentary E v i dence - 65 3. P a r t i c i p a t o r y O b s e r v a t i o n - 65 4. Future A u t o b i o g r a p h i e s o f Students - 66  V  THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF INDIAN DEVELOPMENT T I L L 1971 1. R e a c t i o n s to Indian Immigration - 71 i n O c c u p a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e - 78  VI  2.  Changes  EARLY POLITICAL RESPONSES 1. The P o l i t i c s o f P l e a d i n g - 94 Instead o f P e r s u a s i o n - 104  2.  VII  THE IMPACT OF NATIONALIST LEGISLATION  VIII  POST-1961  Confrontation  GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS  1. The Department o f Indian A f f a i r s - 123 2. The South A f r i c a n Indian C o u n c i l - 129 3. L o c a l A f f a i r s Committees - 146 4. Autonomous Indian Townboards 153  IX  ETHNIC HIGHER EDUCATION 1. The Indian U n i v e r s i t y P e r c e p t i o n s - 176  *  158 -  158  2.  Student  REVIVAL OF POLITICAL ORGANISATIONS  192  1. The New Natal Indian Congress - 192 2. B l a c k C o n s c i o u s n e s s - 196 3. F r i n g e Groups - 198 4. V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s - 202 5. C o v e r t C o l l e c t i v e O r g a n i s a t i o n s - 211 XI  INDIAN-AFRICAN RELATIONS  214  1. C u l t u r a l D i s c o n t i n u i t i e s - 214 2. Encounters o f C o n f l i c t : the Durban R i o t s - 217 3. I n t e r e s t based A l l i a n c e s - 222 4. P r o s p e c t s f o r I n t e r s u b o r d i n a t e A l l i a n c e s - 224 XII  CONCLUSIONS  232  BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.  References  2.  South A f r i c a n  244 Periodicals  Used  263L  APPENDIX Maps: Southern A f r i c a  -  Sample Sheets o f Student  Durban Essays  - Group Areas  265 268  .-<' v i i  LIST OF TABLES  Table  1  Page  Political  Persecution According  t o Race Table  2  10  O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Department o f Indian A f f a i r s  Table  3  126  Durban C i t y C o u n c i l (Estimates) f o r  Expenditure  1975-76 A c c o r d i n g  t o R a c i a l Group i n Rand  151  - viii Preface  T h i s t h e s i s a n a l y s e s the p o l i t i c a l South A f r i c a from the time o f t h e i r as i n d e n t u r e d Today, t h i s  arrival  Indian t r a d i t i o n s  interrelationship  to the  segregated s o c i e t y . U n l i k e cultural  w i t h the wider  but  previous  here  o f South A f r i c a n  importance.  i n the t o p i c stems from being born i n South A f r i c a , the end o f  e d u c a t i o n as an Indian woman i n the p e c u l i a r environment English Natal.  T h i s comprised attendance  and prim E n g l i s h l a d i e s . L a t e r , few p r i v e l e g e d  "non-white"  them Leo Kuper and P i e r r e two y e a r s o f graduate to compare the  I was among the  last  returning  "tribal  of which  home from  opportunity  academia" f o r two y e a r s  as a f a c u l t y member o f the newly founded a l l - I n d i a n  university,  A f r i k a n e r c o l l e a g u e s . S i n c e my marriage  o u t s i d e the p r e s c r i b e d r a c i a l  i n South A f r i c a as a f a m i l y  by imprisonment,  generation  s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , among  s t u d i e s i n M i c h i g a n , I had the  i n s i d e operation of  i n 1967 to a f o r e i g n e r  of c o l o n i a l  s t u d e n t s at an"open" u n i v e r s i t y ,  van den Berghe. A f t e r  s t a f f e d m o s t l y by p a t e r n a l i s t i c  undergraduate  o f s c h o o l s run by I r i s h nuns  i n c l u d e d exposure t o some renowned l i b e r a l  living  present..  p e r s i s t e n c e and  structure  and having e x p e r i e n c e d my s o c i a l i z a t i o n t i l l  the  1860.  and p e r c e p t i o n s , these are viewed  s o c i e t y which i s c o n s i d e r e d o f primary  My i n t e r e s t  in  i n d i g e n o u s groups i s l e g a l l y e x c l u d e d from any  s t u d i e s o f the group which f o c u s e d on  in t h e i r  i n Natal  in  community o f 709,000 has p r o g r e s s e d e c o n o m i c a l l y ,  power i n a r a c i a l l y  changes i n  Indians  l a b o u r e r s on the sugar p l a n t a t i o n s ,  i n common w i t h the political  responses o f  became a l e g a l  group b o u n d a r i e s ,  offence,  punishable  though s h o r t v i s i t s to the c o u n t r y as t o u r i s t s  are  normally  tolerated.  L i v i n g and t r a v e l l i n g have s e t t l e d ,  i n o t h e r p a r t s o f the w o r l d where  i n c r e a s e d my i n t e r e s t  i n the u n i f o r m i t i e s  i n the r e s p o n s e s o f o v e r s e a s Indians adoption.  it  i s the d e s i r e f o r p o l i t i c a l  change i n the  It  i s with g r e a t  country  i s hoped t h a t  s t u d y can c o n t r i b u t e t o t h i s g o a l , not by o f f e r i n g  p r e r e q u i s i t e to  their  in fascinating cross-national  o f my b i r t h which i s o f deep concern to me. It  but by r e a l i s t i c  and d i f f e r e n c e s  to the d i v e r s e c o u n t r i e s o f  Beyond t h i s academic m o t i v a t i o n  comparisons,  Indians  this  simplistic solutions  a n a l y s i s o f a complex s i t u a t i o n which would seem a the implementation  gratitude  that  o f new p o l i c i e s .  I should l i k e  t o acknowledge  the  a s s i s t a n c e and encouragement o f my committee members, P r o f e s s o r s M i c h a e l Ames, T i s s a F e r n a n d o , Robert J a c k s o n , Helga Jacobsen and Elvi  Whittaker.  The help extended by P r o f e s s o r Michael Ames goes  beyond h i s s u p e r v i s i o n as Chairman o f my committee, and o n l y those who p e r s o n a l l y know h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l human concern can understand my g r e a t  s t a n d a r d s , e n d l e s s p a t i e n c e and indebtedness to him. S e v e r a l  d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h P r o f e s s o r Fernando proved most u s e f u l  in  clarifying  q u e s t i o n s on c o m p a r a t i v e e t h n i c c o n f l i c t , and comments on t h e s i s drafts  by P r o f e s s o r s J a c k s o n , Jacobsen and W h i t t a k e r  helped sharpen  the f o c u s o f my study c o n s i d e r a b l y .  W i t h i n South A f r i c a , many i n d i v i d u a l s . , t o o numerous to mention by name, gave g e n e r o u s l y o f t h e i r }  about t h e i r  time and h o s p i t a l i t y to t a l k t o me  v i e w s . S p e c i a l mention must be made o f a l o n g - t i m e  and c o l l e a g u e , Fatima Meer, who made a v a i l a b l e of  Indian h i s t o r y and e x p e r i e n c e as a p o l i t i c a l  to me her v a s t activist.  friend knowledge  Although  she would d i s a g r e e w i t h s e v e r a l  o f my c o n c l u s i o n s , t h e r e  doubt many more a s p e c t s which she would e n d o r s e . however, she has been s i l e n c e d f o r f i v e y e a r s s e r v e d on her i n August 1976.  Similar  y e a r s were s u f f e r e d by an o l d f a m i l y the past p r e s i d e n t of the Natal  Unfortunately,  by a banning o r d e r  restrictions friend,  Dr.  Natal,  Nesa P i l l a y shared t h e i r  o f the  for  G.M.  fifteen Naicker,  Indian C o n g r e s s , who r e c a l l e d  numerous encounters w i t h the A p a r t h e i d system. Dr. and Mr.  are no  Department  his  Gavin Maasdorp  of Economics, U n i v e r s i t y  of  v a l u a b l e economic data on the community w i t h  me and k i n d l y p r o v i d e d p l e a s a n t working s p a c e . P r o f e s s o r Lawrence Schlemmer o f the  I n s t i t u t e f o r S o c i a l Research at  of Natal  made a v a i l a b l e  However,  f o r the  remaining,  the  results of current  the  University  attitude surveys.  o p i n i o n s e x p r e s s e d and numerous d e f i c i e n c i e s  I a l o n e take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . •  In the domestic s p h e r e , two c h i l d r e n born d u r i n g the c o u r s e o f t h i s work had t o be taken  c a r e o f beyond the bedtime  Whenever p o s s i b l e , my l i b e r a t e d and,above a l l ,  husband, H e r i b e r t  story  Adam, took  a c t e d as sounding board and h a r d e s t c r i t i c  F i n a l l y , my parents  through t h e i r  sacrifices  b a s i s f o r my e d u c a t i o n , d e s p i t e the  o f the  l a i d the  South A f r i c a n  environment.  ritual. over  of my i d e a s .  i n s p i r i n g examples and s e l f l e s s obstacles  For H e r i b e r t  a- -/ -3I  PROFILE OF A COMMUNITY: INDIAN SOUTH AFRICANS  Indians  o f t h e d i a s p o r a , though m o t i v a t e d  by s i m i l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s , were s c a t t e r e d varying patterns into  o f adjustment  Africa  Indian s e t t l e m e n t  have a t t r a c t e d  varying reactions. mostly t r a d i n g initially  different  circumstances.  To a g r e a t e r  as engendered  inde-  Indian settlements  race-stratified  they have e v o l v e d s e v e r a l  responses.  unique p o l i t i c a l  consisted  portion of  s e l v e s i n an i n c r e a s i n g l y w h i t e - d o m i n a t e d ,  in  found them-  s o c i e t y to  which  w i t h A f r i c a n s and C o l o u r e d s c o n s t i t u t e  the d i s e n f r a n c h i s e d s u b o r d i n a t e s e c t o r o f t h a t s o c i e t y . referred  the  A f r i c a , and South  South A f r i c a n c o u n t e r p a r t  e x t e n t than o t h e r  i n South A f r i c a , t o g e t h e r  insights  In A f r i c a a l o n e ,  A f r i c a , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f R h o d e s i a , South A f r i c a n I n d i a n s  Indians  Their  A f r i c a n I n d i a n communities comprised  o f an i n d e n t u r e d community w i t h a v e r y small  pendent t r a d e r s .  milieus.  types o f immigrants as w e l l  their  homeland  provide t e l l i n g  in East A f r i c a , Central  E a s t and C e n t r a l  groups, while  ancestral  in very d i f f e r e n t  to new environments  s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r under d i f f e r e n t  major areas o f  to l e a v e t h e i r  Together they  t o as N o n - W h i t e s , a l t h o u g h o f l a t e t h e term B l a c k i s p r e f e r r e d  p o l i t i c i s e d members o f t h e s e g r o u p s . ^  In  1975  Indians  numbered  are by  approximately  1. Group r e f e r e n c e s have s t r o n g p o l i t i c a l c o n n o t a t i o n s i n South A f r i c a and need to be e x p l a i n e d . In t h i s s t u d y , the name g e n e r a l l y p r e f e r r e d by the p o l i t i c a l l y aware members o f the group i s used r a t h e r than t h e o f f i c i a l d e s i g n a t i o n , o f t e n p e r c e i v e d as d e r o g a t o r y o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o f f i c i a l p o l i c y . However, t h i s i s not done d o g m a t i c a l l y and the o f f i c i a l l a b e l s a r e not changed when d e s c r i b i n g p o l i c y . A f r i c a n s , o f f i c i a l l y c a l l e d Bantu ( e a r l i e r : K a f f i r s , N a t i v e s ) a r e here r e f e r r e d to as B l a c k s , t o g e t h e r w i t h Indians and C o l o u r e d s , except when i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d i s t i n g u i s h any one o f t h e s e groups from one a n o t h e r . In such i n s t a n c e s t h e terms A f r i c a n , C o l o u r e d and Indian a r e u s e d . " C o l o u r e d " r e f e r s t o an i n d i g e n e o u s group o f "mixed" r a c i a l d e s c e n t . S i m i l a r l y , t h e term European i s the o f f i c i a l term used to r e f e r to W h i t e s , even though they may be A m e r i c a n , A u s t r a l i a n o r o f a n o t h e r n a t i o n a l i t y , "Non-European" i s used synonymously w i t h " N o n - W h i t e s " . A l l t h r e e n o n white groups a r e here r e f e r r e d to as the s u b o r d i n a t e group o r the d o m i n a t e d , and r a c i a l terms a r e used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y w i t h e t h n i c denominations a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c o n t e x t . The c a t e g o r y " A s i a n s " o r " A s i a t i c s " i s used o f f i c i a l l y t o i n c l u d e t h e small C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 1.3 p e r c e n t o f the A s i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n 1970 was o f C h i n e s e o r i g i n (SABRA, 1975). The few hundred Japanese i n S . A . a r e "honorary W h i t e s " , except f o r purposes o f i n t e r m a r r i a g e . By u s i n g n a t i o n a l o r l i n g u i s t i c terms f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n groups i t s h o u l d not be i m p l i e d t h a t they a l l a r e not " A f r i c a n s " i n the p o l i t i c a l sense by b i r t h r i g h t o r l o n g residency.  -4709,000 and c o n s t i t u t e  r o u g h l y 3 p e r c e n t o f the p o p u l a t i o n , as compared  w i t h 9 p e r c e n t C o l o u r e d s , 17 p e r c e n t W h i t e s , and 71 p e r c e n t A f r i c a n s (Horrell,  1976:38).  Seventy-two  percent of a l l  Indians l i v e  i n the  predominantly  p r o v i n c e o f N a t a l , most o f them i n the Durban a r e a , tered  "English"  the r e s t are  scat-  i n the A f r i k a a n s - s p e a k i n g T r a n s v a a l p r o v i n c e , v e r y few l i v e  Cape, none i n the Orange Free S t a t e . Coloureds and W h i t e s ,  in  Like  the  the  Indians have become an i n c r e a s i n g l y u r b a n i s e d g r o u p .  Eighty-one percent of a l l  Indians l i v e  i n urban a r e a s , compared w i t h 89  p e r c e n t W h i t e s , 86 p e r c e n t C o l o u r e d s and 19 p e r c e n t A f r i c a n s (South A f r i c a , Population Census,  1970).  U n l i k e the c u l t u r a l l y  more homogeneous C o l o u r e d s who do not d i f f e r  r u l i n g A f r i k a n e r Whites c u l t u r a l l y ,  from  I n d i a n s a r e a h i g h l y d i v e r s i f i e d group  i n terms o f r e l i g i o n and m o t h e r - t o n g u e .  Sixty-eight  p e r c e n t a r e H i n d u s , 20  p e r c e n t Moslems and the remainder comprise C h r i s t i a n s o f v a r i o u s  denominations  Z o r o a s t r i a n s , B u d d h i s t s and A g n o s t i c s (SABRA, 1 9 7 5 : 2 1 ) . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 90 cent of a l l  Hindus are T a m i l , H i n d i and Telugu s p e a k i n g . P r a c t i c a l l y  U r d u - s p e a k i n g Indians and 75 p e r c e n t o f those speaking G u j e r a t i (ibid.).  and A f r i k a a n s  Economic d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n active" 0.3  electricity, 4.2  percent  3.7  i n m i n i n g , 35.3 5.3  percent  in t r a n s p o r t ,  languages)  i s e q u a l l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the  Indian p o p u l a t i o n .  percent  (or both o f f i c i a l  p e r c e n t are engaged i n  i n c o n s t r u c t i o n , 28.4 1.6  percent  percent  all  speak  i n the T r a n s v a a l .  "economically  agriculture,  p e r c e n t i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g , 0.1  percent  in  i n commerce,  i n f i n a n c i n g and 12.9  per-  a r e Moslems  With the e x c e p t i o n o f the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n however, a l l  English in N a t a l ,  the  percent  -5i n s e r v i c e s (South A f r i c a , Lndian A f f a i r s ,  While a l l  three  1973:13-14).  s u b o r d i n a t e groups a r e a l i k e  in their  s t a t u s , customary d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n common f a c i l i t i e s Whites and shared e x c l u s i o n from a l l subordinates experience r e s t r i c t i v e  white r i g h t s  by I n d i a n s ,  extents.  the h i g h e r end o f the s u b o r d i n a t e s c a l e , This is  i n freedom o f movement w i t h i n the c o u n t r y , s e t t l e m e n t salary scales.  Non-  and p r i v i l e g e s ,  Customarily,  w i t h A f r i c a n s a t the l o w e s t extreme.  as d i f f e r e n t i a l  for all  the  l e g i s l a t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t o r y  t r e a t m e n t , n e v e r t h e l e s s , to d i f f e r i n g Coloureds are at  disenfranchised  the  followed reflected  areas as w e l l  In r e c e n t y e a r s , however,  Indian  and C o l o u r e d s a l a r y s c a l e s i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r have been merged. Some r e s t r i c t i o n s which a p p l y to  Indians  a r e not a p p l i c a b l e to C o l o u r e d s  and are s u r p a s s e d o n l y by t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t A f r i c a n s , whose regimentation  The l e g a l hierarchy,  in a l l  spheres i s f a r  greater.  and customary p o s i t i o n o f C o l o u r e d s and Indians however,  i s not s i m i l a r l y  economic placement.  A s i a n s have the  reflected  estimated  racial  respective  l a r g e r middle c l a s s s i n c e  p e r c e n t earn o v e r R2.000 as compared w i t h 1.2 Africa,  in t h e i r  i n the  percent Coloureds  2.6 (South  1 9 7 0 ) , and a much s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n o f A f r i c a n s would be to f a l l  into  this  category.^  of  incomes among Indians  i s very low.  1.  A f r i c a n f i g u r e s were u n f o r t u n a t e l y  On the o t h e r  h a n d , the  The 1970 Census e s t i m a t e s  unavailable.  majority that  -676 p e r c e n t o f a l l  working  per month ( F i n a n c i a l  Indians  Mail,  earned incomes o f l e s s than  10 J a n u a r y , 1 9 7 5 ) ,  i n the case o f C o l o u r e d s and 26 p e r c e n t a c o n s i d e r a b l e percentage o f estimated  p e r c e n t o f the  Indians  as compared with 53.7  (South A f r i c a ,  Thirty  compared w i t h 89  i n the w h i t e g r o u p .  live  percent T h i s means  below the p o v e r t y datum  to be R110 per month f o r an Indian f a m i l y  more, 70.7 1970,  Indians  R100  (ibid.).  line,  Further-  were r e p o r t e d w i t h o u t any income i n  p e r c e n t Whites and 64.6  percent Coloureds  1970).  p e r c e n t o f the  I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n was " e c o n o m i c a l l y a c t i v e "  at  the end o f 1974 as compared w i t h 41 p e r c e n t o f the w h i t e p o p u l a t i o n , 35.5  p e r c e n t o f the C o l o u r e d s and 36.5  (Horrell,  1976:165).  employers towards  The t r a d i t i o n a l to the p r i v a t e  T h i s has been a t t r i b u t e d  Indians,  choosing employment  as w e l l  definition  population  t o the p r e j u d i c e s  as the s e l e c t i v i t y  i n some areas o n l y  (McCrystal  of  Indians  of in  and Maasdorp, 1 9 6 7 : 3 ) .  o f the r o l e o f women as b e i n g e s s e n t i a l l y c o n f i n e d  domestic s p h e r e , would seem to account f o r the  of women i n employment  low numbers  i n the p u b l i c s p h e r e .  D e s p i t e these d i s a b i l i t i e s , c l o s e s t to  p e r c e n t o f the A f r i c a n  Indians  of a l l  three  b l a c k groups have come  white incomes and have r i s e n s t e a d i l y , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g  1970-1975 p e r i o d .  In  1975,  Indians  earned a p p r o x i m a t e l y  average white household income, as compared w i t h a t h i r d  half  of  the  the  by Coloureds  and o n e - e i g h t h earned by the average A f r i c a n household ( F i n a n c i a l  Mail,  -713 February 1976)J  Such economic m o b i l i t y  has been accompanied by  dramatic changes i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f I n d i a n S j f r o m dentured community s u p p l y i n g p r e d o m i n a n t l y a g r i c u l t u r a l  an i n -  labour, to a  more d i v e r s e range o f o c c u p a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g commerce and m a n u f a c t u r i n g .  The m o b i l i t y o f Indians which supercedes t h e o t h e r s u b o r d i n a t e groups i s not u n r e l a t e d to the high degree o f group i n t e g r a t i o n evidenced i n c o m p a r a t i v e l y high e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t , and  low crime r a t e s ,  divorce rates,  The c l o s e k n i t s t r u c t u r e o f f a m i l y  which i s health  as w e l l as i l l e g i t i m a t e  standards,  birth  rates.  and community i n an e s s e n t i a l l y  h o s t i l e environment would seem t o be o f utmost importance i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e responses o f Indians  The h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y their  overall  i n t h e South A f r i c a n c o n t e x t .  i s p l a c e d on formal  low income d i s t r i b u t i o n ,  Western e d u c a t i o n .  Indians,  Despite  o f a l l non-white g r o u p s ,  have the h i g h e s t number o f s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d a t u n i v e r s i t i e s , though c o n s t i t u t i n g o n l y o n e - t h i r d o f t h e c o l o u r e d p o p u l a t i o n and o n e - t w e n t y f o u r t h o f the A f r i c a n s .  Indian u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s who a r e e n r o l l e d a t  South A f r i c a n u n i v e r s i t i e s number 4,863, i n c o n t r a s t with 3,142 C o l o u r e d s < 7,845 A f r i c a n s ( H o r r e l l ,  1975:369).  at t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Natal 41 C o l o u r e d s , 308 Indians doctors  (Horrell,  Similarly,  the F a c u l t y o f M e d i c i n e  r e p o r t e d t h a t between 1957 and 1974 i n c l u s i v e , and 207 A f r i c a n s had graduated as medical  1976:272).  1. A c c o r d i n g t o these f i g u r e s by Market Research A f r i c a as r e p o r t e d i n the F i n a n c i a l Mail ( i b i d . ) , t h e average w h i t e household i n 1975 r e c e i v e d an income 1.9 (2.6) times as l a r g e as t h e average A s i a n , 2.9 (4.2) as l a r g e as t h a t o f t h e C o l o u r e d and 8.5 (11.1) times as l a r g e as the average A f r i c a n h o u s e h o l d . The f i g u r e s i n b r a c k e t s a r e those f o r 1970.  -8D e s p i t e the changing urban m i l i e u , c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l u e would s t i l l to be a t t a c h e d  to t r a d i t i o n a l  amy among Indians and even fewer  is noticeable.  Indian-African  i s h a b l e by law,  institutions.  but i t  i s noteworthy  s o - c a l l e d " I m m o r a l i t y A c t " , Indians v i c t e d under the Coloureds,  The high degree o f endog-  There a r e few  marriages.  Indian-Coloured  t h a t o f the o f f e n d e r s under are l e a s t  represented.  and 201 A f r i c a n s ( H o r r e l l ,  not s u r p r i s i n g i n l i g h t  o f the p r e v a l e n t  pre-industrial  S i m i l a r l y cases o f d i v o r c e o c c u r w i t h l e a s t  cent f o r  Indians,  1.2  (SABRA, 1975:21 ) .  groups.  In  percent f o r  65.)  C o l o u r e d s , and 3.1  intermediate  of  Indians  that  undesirable. Indians  percent f o r  of  illegitimate  per-  Whites  the r e l a t i v e l y which i s t h r e e  slightly  to nurture  low i n f a n t times  (ibid:  b e t t e r economic  o f the y o u n g , would seem  mortality  (Kark and C h e s l e r ,  lower than among C o l o u r e d s , and  1. E q u i v a l e n t s t a t i s t i c s f o r A f r i c a n s a r e not a v a i l a b l e , a p p l i c a t i o n o f customary l a w s . 2. A f r i c a n and white f i g u r e s were not  births:  43 p e r c e n t among C o l o u r e d s who  p o s i t i o n i n South A f r i c a n s o c i e t y  c o n d i t i o n s and importance a t t a c h e d  1956)  value  is  1  The impact o f the extended f a m i l y ,  responsible for  This  1970 the d i v o r c e r a t e s were 0.8  7 p e r c e n t among A s i a n s and a remarkable in a s i m i l a r  90  f r e q u e n c y among  The same syndrome would seem to a p p l y to r a t e s  are  the  Of t h o s e c o n -  1973:63).  m a r r i a g e o u t s i d e the r e l i g i o u s and l i n g u i s t i c group i s  as compared w i t h o t h e r  marriages  W h i t e - I n d i a n unions a r e pun-  I m m o r a l i t y A c t i n 197'1, 262 were W J i i t e s ,  12 I n d i a n s  seem  available.  because o f  the  i -9even more so i n the case o f A f r i c a n s ^  The l i k e l i h o o d o f much l e s s f r e q u e n t  Indians  (Horrell,  1976:39).  coming i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h the  than t h a t o f the o t h e r  groups.  Convicted prisoners  per 100,000 o f each p o p u l a t i o n group i n 1974 were: Coloureds 6 5 3 . 9 , A f r i c a n s 3 1 8 . 7 , and A s i a n s 63.8 Similarly, killed  Whites  (Horrell,  79.7, 1976:51).  t h e r e was no I n d i a n among t h e 329 p e r s o n s s h o t a t  o r wounded by the p o l i c e i n 1974  However,  law i s a l s o  i n terms o f p o l i t i c a l  (ibid:56).  persecution,Indians  have a r e v e r s e  r e c o r d compared w i t h the c o l o u r e d group and rank r e l a t i v e l y than the much more v u l n e r a b l e A f r i c a n s . s i n c e 1951,8 p e r c e n t are population.  Indians,  who c o n s t i t u t e  Laws (General  Law Amendment [ s a b o t a g e ]  A c t ; Unlawful  Organisation A c t ; Terrorism Act)  by 4 p e r c e n t  (Table  which m o t i v a t e d  higher  Among the persons "banned" 3 p e r c e n t o f the  Among the persons i m p r i s o n e d under the v a r i o u s  One o f the c e n t r a l  and  total  Security  A c t ; S u p p r e s s i o n o f Communism Indians  are  represented  1).  questions of t h i s  a comparatively  investigation will  high number o f  1. S i n c e b i r t h s and deaths a r e i n a d e q u a t e l y no comparative f i g u r e s a r e a v a i l a b l e .  Indians  be the reasons t o become  r e g i s t e r e d among A f r i c a n s ,  2. A person s e r v e d w i t h a " b a n n i n g " o r d e r i s u s u a l l y c o n f i n e d t o h i s home at n i g h t and over weekends. He may not a t t e n d any " g a t h e r i n g s o f more than two p e r s o n s " as w e l l as c e r t a i n s p e c i f i e d i n s t i t u t i o n s ( u n i v e r s i t i e s , f a c t o r i e s ) ; h i s movements are c o n f i n e d to the m a g i s t e r i a l d i s t r i c t o f h i s r e s i d e n c e , he must r e p o r t to the p o l i c e r e g u l a r l y , u s u a l l y w e e k l y , may not p u b l i s h and may not be quoted by o t h e r s . A banning o r d e r i s n o r m a l l y i s s u e d f o r f i v e y e a r s and f r e q u e n t l y renewed. "Banning" amounts to s o c i a l excommunication w i t h o u t c o s t t o the s t a t e , but f r e q u e n t l y imposes s e v e r e mental s t r a i n on the i s o l a t e d v i c t i m .  -10-  Table 1  Political  P e r s e c u t i o n A c c o r d i n g t o Race Race Group as percentage o f population  Race Group.as % o f a l l persons imprisoned  Race Group as % o f a l l persons banned '  16.7%  (4.160)  3%  (  9)  11%  (139)  Coloureds  9.3  (2.306)  2  (  6)  7  ( 84)  Asians  2.8  (  .709)  4  (13)  8  (104)  (17.745)  91  (292)  74  (913)  (24.920)  100%  (320)  100%  Whites  Africans  71.2 100%  (1)  Percentages c a l c u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g to f i g u r e s  (2)  Percentages c a l c u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o f i g u r e s i n H o r r e l l ( 1 9 7 4 : 6 7 ) . Not a l l these banning o r d e r s were i n f o r c e i n 1974 s i n c e some were withdrawn o r e x p i r e d and s e v e r a l banned persons d i e d . A c c o r d i n g t o the most r e c e n t f i g u r e s the l i s t o f banned persons g a z e t t e d i n J u l y 1975 c o n t a i n e d the names o f 147 persons ( H o r r e l l , 1 9 7 5 ; 4 5 ) .  politically  active  in Horrell  (1240)  and s u f f e r f o r t h e i r c o n v i c t i o n s .  (1975:58).  -11-  U  Focus o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n on Overseas I n d i a n s  i n Comparison with. Other  The widespread d i s p e r s a l o f  Indians e m i g r a t i n g  Studies  from I n d i a s i n c e the m i d -  19th c e n t u r y , m a i n l y t o former c o l o n i a l t e r r i t o r i e s , of extensive Delf,  1963;  research.  (Arasaratnam  D e p r e s , 1967;  D o t s o n , 1967;  Jayawardene, 1963;  Klass,  M a y e r , 1961 , 1963;  Mahajani,  1960;  P a c h a i , 1971;  Three d i f f e r e n t , minorities  1970;  1961;  has been a s u b j e c t  B e n e d i c t , 1961;  G h a i , 1970;  K o n d a p i , 1951;  Calpin,  Glasgow,  K u p e r , 1960;  1970; Mangat,  1960; M o r r i s , . 1968; M e e r , 1969;  P a l m e r , 1959;  1949;  1969;  Niehoff,  van den B e r g h e , 1964.)  though o v e r l a p p i n g emphases i n the s t u d y o f  may be d i s c e r n e d i n the  literature:  historical,  Indian  cultural  and p o l i t i c a l .  1.  Historical  a c c o u n t s , c o n c e r n e d w i t h the e a r l y e n t r e ' o f  groups i n the c o u n t r i e s o f t h e i r changes between the c o l o n i e s  the  a d o p t i o n , r e c o r d the d e t a i l s  respective of  and the m o t h e r l a n d .  exFre-  quent f o c u s i s on c o n d i t i o n s o f employment, g r i e v a n c e s , and forms o f protest  as  essential  parts  s t u d i e s a r e : Arasaratnam, 1970; Woods, 1954;  2.  Cultural  minorities  settlements.  C a l p i n , 1959;  K o n d a p i ^ l 9 5 i ; Mayer, 1963;  and the p l u r a l  Examples o f such  Pachai, 1971;  Palmer, 1959;  B e n e d i c t , 1961; and Mangat,  s t u d i e s emphasize the c u l t u r a l  significance. cultural  of a l l  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  n a t u r e o f the s o c i e t y as having  1969.  the  central  The p r e o c c u p a t i o n i n such s t u d i e s i s w i t h changes i n  forms such as c a s t e o r g a n i s a t i o n , k i n s h i p s t r u c t u r e ,  behaviour,  ritual,  family  formation. point.  In  o r g a n i s a t i o n , changes i n r e l i g i o n  The e x t e n t o f c u l t u r a l this  persistence i s a frequent  c a t e g o r y are s t u d i e s by Kl a s s , 1961;  S c h w a r t z , ^ ? ; Mayer, 1961;  3.  N i e h o f f , I960;and  S t u d i e s concerned e s s e n t i a l l y w i t h the  minorities.  identification inter-group  the a s s o c i a t i o n a l  Kuperjgeo.  political  are endowed w i t h i n i t i a t i v e assimilation  establishment  of  political  way than the f o r m e r .  t h a t the onus f o r  The Indian:  power.  Whether  Mahajani's  i n Burma and Malaya  (I960) f a l l s  are  the  into  of  the  this  i n a more  He r e c o g n i s e s i n h i s c o n c l u s i o n , however,  the f u t u r e o f  racial  the  examination  I n d i a n s i n Kenya, a l t h o u g h  Indians i n t h a t s o c i e t y i s  i n the p r o c e s s o f d e c o l o n i z a t i o n ,  perspective of  and  to  these g o a l s  from Indian b e h a v i o u r t o how the A f r i c a n m a j o r i t y a c t s . minorities  histor-  minorities  host s o c i e t y ' s response to  own i n i t i a t i v e and movement. Indian m i n o r i t y  studies,  on the  i n the h o s t s o c i e t y o r s e c e s s i o n from i t independent  D e l f , 1963",  in choosing a course that leads e i t h e r  c a t e g o r y as does G h a i ' s study o f limited  various  Some o f t h e s e  i n the r o l e o f p r o t a g o n i s t  a c h i e v e d o r not, i s dependent on the  r o l e o f the  o f the  approach a r e :  Meer, 1970', M a l i k , 1 9 7 1 ; Glasgow,1970.  scene i n much the way W i r t h (1945) d o e s .  minority's  b e h a v i o u r o f such  l i f e o f the groups c o n c e r n e d ,  Studies using t h i s  such as D o t s o n , c a s t m i n o r i t i e s  full  focal  o f p r e s s u r e groups and c e n t r e s o f economic power o r  relationships.  Dotson,1967;  sect  B e n e d i c t , 1961;  T h i s i s approached through an e x a m i n a t i o n  power c o n s t e l l a t i o n s ,  ical  and r e l i g i o u s  bargaining.  Concern w i t h  has l e d t o the  Ethnic minorities  are  shifting  similar  t r e a t e d as  -13states  i n the sense suggested by G e e r t z  (1963).  The t e c h n i q u e s used  by such " s t a t e s " , which maximise s y m b o l i c and s u b s t a n t i v e rewards  to  be h a d , range from p e r s u a s i o n , b o y c o t t , b a r g a i n i n g , t h r e a t and even force  (Rothchild,  1973).  Such a view i s u s e f u l  understanding Indian p o l i t i c a l o f the m i n o r i t y  i n a l i m i t e d way  b e h a v i o u r , a l t h o u g h the presumed "power"  i s not a p p l i c a b l e i n the South A f r i c a n  Throughout the l i t e r a t u r e t h e r e on the p a r t o f the m i n o r i t y .  Indians  i s assumed.  and Jews i n the sense  to by H a n n a h ' A r e n d t ; namely, the p o s i t i o n o f pre-war when Jews had " l o s t t h e i r  of s i t u a t i o n s  wealth"  S i m i l a r to t h i s  prototypical  are the terms  "pariah c a p i t a l i s t s "  (Weber,  reference  1950;  Hamilton,  range  to the Jewish e x p e r i e n c e .  1970)  Indians  and " t r a d i n g  As van den Berghe (1975) p o i n t s o u t ,  are f r e q u e n t l y  vis-a-vis their  Such a p e r s p e c t i v e o v e r l o o k s the i n t e r n a l  w i t h i n these g r o u p s .  and the  rest  gardeners t o p r o f e s s i o n a l s .  such m i n o r i t i e s  analogous to each o t h e r ,  minorities",  In South A f r i c a ,  are t r a d e r s ,  a d i v e r s e range o f o c c u p a t i o n s , from market  garded as s t r u c t u r a l l y  (Bonacich, 1973),  r o l e o f such g r o u p s .  i n s t a n c e , l e s s than a s i x t h o f the  societies.  i n f l u e n c e and were  the c u r r e n t  "middleman m i n o r i t i e s "  which overemphasize the m e r c a n t i l e  fill  Yet,  referred  i n which Jewish communities a r e p l a c e d adds a n o t h e r dimen-  s i o n to the o t h e r w i s e  for  (1951:4).  A fre-  German a n t i - s e m i t i s m ,  p u b l i c f u n c t i o n s , and t h e i r  l e f t w i t h n o t h i n g but t h e i r  situation.  i s a tendency t o presuppose homogeneity  A unity of i n t e r e s t  quent analogy i s drawn between  for  re-  host  differentiations  As M o r r i s  shows i n the case o f Ugandan I n d i a n s ,  i s an exaggerated one (.1968).  the term "community"  Indeed a sense o f  "community" has  emerged i n many o v e r s e a s Indian communities out o f the  uniformly  a p p l i e d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t the g r o u p , t h e r e b y e l i c i t i n g action.  As such i t  community ( i b i d . ) . definition,as important  i s e s s e n t i a l l y as M o r r i s  refers  While the term "community" i s a u s e f u l  are the o t h e r  variations  to guard a g a i n s t the a l l  a homogeneity which does not  mentioned e a r l i e r ,  too f r e q u e n t  i n Natal  I n d i a n South A f r i c a n s  (1970).  working it  seems  exist.  two s t u d i e s deal  as a group from a s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t ' s p e r s p e c t i v e .  H i l d a K u p e r ' s Indians  a "moral"  tendency to impose  On the s p e c i f i c theme o f South A f r i c a n I n d i a n s , Indians  to i t ,  unified  These are  (1961) and Fatima M e e r ' s P o r t r a i t K u p e r , - f r o m an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l  of  view,  f o c u s e s on the s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n and c u l t u r e o f t h a t community. like  o t h e r s t u d i e s which attempt to impose the  the new s e t t i n g , socially the  Indian continent"  pattern  which had been b u i l t  (1961:20)  and y e t  through the ages on  c o u l d not be r e c r e a t e d  t o any  e x t e n t i n the new Western s o c i e t y , nor imposed on the e x i s t i n g structure  by i n d e n t u r e d  labourers.  On the o t h e r  to c a s t e by the G u j e r a t i - s p e a k i n g  trading  study i s a p e r c e p t i v e  o f the  exploration  i n an u r b a n i z e d s e t t i n g .  Some a t t e n t i o n  and the a s s o c i a t i o n a l l i f e o f  Indians.  Un-  I n d i a n c a s t e model on  K u p e r ' s study r e c o g n i z e s t h a t "a v a r i e g a t e d  interlocking  with  hand, r i g i d  great social  adherence  community i s d e s c r i b e d . interplay  The  o f such c o n t r a s t s ,  i s g i v e n t o the new  elites,  i -15Fatima M e e r ' s p o r t r a i t s c r i p t i v e rather  of  I n d i a n community l i f e  than a n a l y t i c a l .  is essentially  Her own statement  de-  o f purpose i n  s e n t i n g such a work sums up her p r i m a r y concern as a p o l i t i c a l  one.  w r i t e about I n d i a n S o u t h A f r i c a n s i n the hope t h a t through the they w i l l  r e a c h out and make c o n t a c t w i t h f e l l o w  hope t o o , t h a t South A f r i c a n s w i l l their  fellows"  information,  (1969:preface).  pre-  writing  South A f r i c a n s ; i n  r e c o g n i z e themselves i n the  "I  the  lives  of  While such a c c o u n t s p r o v i d e much v a l u a b l e  the f o c u s o f the p r e s e n t study d i f f e r s  from them i n  several  respects.  The c e n t r a l  f o c u s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s i s on the ways i n which a  responds to v a r y i n g s i t u a t i o n s  of oppression in a r a c i a l l y  environment.  What c o n s t i t u t e s o p p r e s s i o n w i l l  an h i s t o r i c a l  s u r v e y o f the major  structured  be e x p l i c a t e d  legislation affecting  minority  through  Indians.  reveals different  t e c h n i q u e s used by the dominant group t o ward  challenges to i t s  power by c o u n t e r - e l i t e s ,  neutralisation  and c o - o p t a t i o n .  off  from d i r e c t s u p p r e s s i o n t o  How Indians  in turn  r e a c t e d to  these  changes and how these responses a f f e c t e d  the r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h  dominant group as w e l l  subordinate sections at  as w i t h the o t h e r  p o l i t i c a l , economic, educational  and s o c i a l  level  investigation.  More s p e c i f i c a l l y the p o l i t i c a l  will  be examined  in a l l i a n c e with other  u l a r l y A f r i c a n s , (b)  the the  g u i d e s the f o c u s o f  this  (a)  This  behaviour of  subordinate groups,  Indians  partic-  i n d e v e l o p i n g complementary i n t e r e s t s , w i t h some  members o f the s u p e r o r d i n a t e g r o u p ,  (c)  i n intra-communal  s t a t u s - g r o u p based d i v i s i o n s and f a c t i o n s , and Cd)  class  in p o l i t i c a l  or intro-  -16v e r s i o n and I n a c t i v i t y through c u l t u r a l  e x c l u s i v i s m and  cultural  immersion.  However, c o n t r a r y to the predominant f o c u s on changes i n ethnicity  and i d e n t i t y ,  per s e , t h i s  to which c l a s s and s t a t u s or c o i n c i d e with i t .  differences  interplay  and " i d e n t i t y - m a i n t e n a n c e "  (Barth*  between p o l i t i c a l 1969:117).  the p r o s p e c t s o f  the  ethnic  of c u l t u r a l  has been transformed seems c r u c i a l  group p o l i t i c s but above a l l It  have r e p l a c e d  The p o l i t i c i z a t i o n  be s t u d i e d by t r a c i n g the  the l a t t e r  study i n v e s t i g a t e s  culture, extent identity  differences  discrimination  The degree to which for  understanding  Indian-African  i s hoped t h a t such an a n a l y s i s a l s o sheds l i g h t  on an o l d  universality difference not thereby  L.  o f the c l a s s s t r u g g l e "  theoreti-  K u p e r , who " q u e s t i o n ( s )  for  the  (1975:203) has p o i n t e d to a c r u c i a l  between race and c l a s s c o n f l i c t s : "The upwardly m o b i l e l o s t to t h e i r  in class mobility"  original  (Kuper,  s c i e n t i s t Thomas K a r i s "  societies.  intra-  alliances.  c a l debate on t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the c o n c e p t s o f c l a s s o r r a c e an a n a l y s i s o f p l u r a l  will  g r o u p , i n c o n t r a s t to the  1975:234).  tendency  Other o b s e r v e r s , such as the  even more r e l u c t a n t  a somewhat b e t t e r - p a i d than i t  i s now to r i s k what i t  b e h a v i o u r o f the  other-  B l a c k l a b o u r f o r c e may be has."  bourgeoisement" p o s s i b l e under c o n d i t i o n s o f r i g i d r a c i a l  The p o l i t i c a l  political  (1975:232) have conceded the o p p o s i t e p o s s i b i l i t y :  the regime may succeed i n d e - r a d i c a l i z i n g A f r i c a n s who might  wise be l e a d e r s  are  Is  separation?  I n d i a n m i n o r i t y would seem t o  how the d i a l e c t i c o f r e s i s t a n c e and a c q u i e s c e n s e o p e r a t e s  "em-  in  indicate particular  I  i  1  -17historical Karis,  it  of a far  circumstances.  The c o n t r a d i c t o r y  answers by Kuper and  i s h y p o t h e s i z e d h e r e , would seem both, o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s more complex r e a l i t y i n which n e i t h e r  consciousness in t h e i r behaviour.  traditional  race nor  meanings can f u l l y  class  explain  group  i i -18IH.REVIEW OF GENERAL THEORIES OF RACE RELATIONS B e f o r e f o c u s i n g on the s p e c i f i c case o f t h i s seem u s e f u l relations  to survey major  study i n the  t h e o r i e s and by doing so  This,  hopefully, will  l e a d to a more  fruitful  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f group b e h a v i o u r under c o n d i t i o n s o f r a c i a l Without  being a b l e to d e v e l o p here a l l  adequate a p p r o a c h , i t might s u f f i c e to s t a t e have t o be (a)  (b)  comparative  discrimina-  a s p e c t s o f the most  that,  ideally,  i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y i n the sense o f u t i l i z i n g  and c o n c e p t s emerging from d i f f e r e n t labelj  context  d e f i c i e n c i e s f o r an a n a l y s i s o f the s p e c i f i c South  African situation.  tion.  l i t e r a t u r e on race  Such an attempt c o u l d e x p l o r e c r i t i c a l l y some  c o n c e p t s employed i n race r e l a t i o n s  demonstrate t h e i r  would  t r e n d s and approaches- i n the general  and p l u r a l i s m , i n o r d e r to p l a c e t h i s  o f the d i s c i p l i n e . central  investigation,it  it  would  explanations  d i s c i p l i n e s , regardless of  by v i e w i n g South A f r i c a n Indians  in  their  relation  to o t h e r m i n o r i t i e s  in s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s .  would t r y  a s e n s i b l e b a l a n c e between the unique and the g e n -  eral,  to s t r i k e  A comparative p e r s p e c t i v e  the p a r t s and the w h o l e , b y being aware o f general s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l  tendencies within a global context. t i v e would have to i n c o r p o r a t e  (c)  contemporary b e h a v i o u r and l i k e l y proach would have to be (d)  For t h i s  r e a s o n , such a p e r s p e c -  an h i s t o r i c a l future  dimension when a s s e s s i n g  developments.  The i d e a l  e m p i r i c a l , not i n the narrow sense o f  f i n i n g a n a l y s i s to the s t a t i s t i c a l l y  verifiable  apcon-  but i n the sense o f  -19permanently  being grounded i n and c o r r e c t e d by a l l  aspects of given r e a l i t y , value-neutrality  i n c o n t r a s t to s e l e c t i v e  o f the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t ,  p o s s i b l e nor d e s i r a b l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y tion, it  commonly  would seem e s s e n t i a l  it  identifiable  interpretation.  may be a r g u e d , i s  in situations of r a c i a l  that there  While  neither  discrimina-  i s awareness o f t h e s e assumptions^  i n c o n t r a s t to c l a i m i n g f a l s e o b j e c t i v i t y  i n the name o f  scientific  inquiry.  With these c r i t e r i a  in mind, a c r i t i c a l  review o f the l i t e r a t u r e  reveals  an a s t o n i s h i n g range o f c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f s i m i l a r phenomena.  E a r l y approaches to the study o f i n t e r g r o u p relations  were c h a r a c t e r i s e d by:  the e i g h t e e n t h related  century  (1)  races based on t h e i r  scientific  rationale  ideology of  Hitler,  (2)  the S o c i a l  De  justified  i n an attempt t o  reconcile  The e v o l u t i o n  together  were among the p r o t a g o n i s t s o f t h i s  i n harmony.  explained r a c i a l instability  Giddings  view.  1  concept o f  races o f d i f f e r e n t  ( G i d d i n g s , 1908).  temperament  culminate  The  inability  n o t i o n s about  Cooley argued t h a t  and c a p a c i t y , d i s t i n c t  and  inherent  "consciousness of  e x c l u s i v e n e s s and a c c e p t e d c u r r e n t  o f mixed r a c e s .  of  G o b i n e a u , a French a r i s t o c r a t ,  d i f f e r e n c e s among people were c o n s i d e r e d d e c i s i v e i n t h e i r live  essentially  t o r a c i s m and  egalitarianism.  of  Darwinist  v a r y i n g g e n e t i c c a p a c i t i e s , were s a i d t o  i n white European c i v i l i z a t i o n . later  explanations  i n which s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r was viewed as  the harsh f a c t s o f s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n them w i t h the p r e v a l e n t  e s p e c i a l l y race  the environmental  to c l i m a t i c and g e o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s ;  p e r s p e c t i v e which l e n t  relations,  to  kind" the "two  to the eye and  -20living  s i d e by s i d e i n the same community, tended s t r o n g l y to become  castes,  no matter how equal  (Cooley,  1923:218).  the s o c i a l systems may o t h e r w i s e  Stability  was to be m a i n t a i n e d o n l y by keeping  different  groups s e p a r a t e from each o t h e r .  these  .  .  p e r s p e c t i v e s , there  scientists,  among them W.I.  B e n e d i c t , A l p o r t , Myrdal and c u l t u r a l  determinants  Early theories fundamental tive,  of  features  (3)  As a r e f u t a t i o n  and F r a n k l i n F r a z i e r , o f human b e h a v i o u r .  relations  Mead, Ruth  f o c u s i n g on the  social  1  proverbially  illustrate  o f the consensus model o f s o c i e t y .  In  the  this  norms and v a l u e s are the b a s i c b i n d i n g f o r c e s of s o c i a l  from t h i s  of  were a number o f s t u d i e s by s o c i a l  Thomas, R . E . P a r k , Margaret  intergroup  be"  perspec-  life;  commitment emerges; s o c i e t i e s a r e n e c e s s a r i l y c o h e s i v e and  recognize legitimate  authority;  s o c i a l l i f e depends on s o l i d a r i t y ;  it  i s based on r e c i p r o c i t y and c o o p e r a t i o n ; s o c i a l systems r e s t on c o n s e n s u s , are  integrated  and tend to p e r s i s t  A p a r t from these w r i t i n g s at a l l  i n which e t h n i c  (Cohen, 1966:166-167).  relations  o r i n which e t h n i c antagonism i s seen as a temporary  o f the s o c i a l order, due to i n s u f f i c i e n t newcomers, t h e r e  now e x i s t s  integration  settings.  These e x p l a n a t i o n s  For a more d e t a i l e d  not  inevitably  overlap,  and adjustment  in different but i t  (1967)-  of focus  social  may be contended  d i s c u s s i o n o f these developments, r e f e r  den Berghe (1974) and M. Banton  topical  disruption  i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s a much c l e a r e r  on the o r i g i n s and developments o f e t h n i c c o n f l i c t  1.  are e i t h e r  P.L.  van  I i -21t h a t s i x f o c i can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d . CD  t i o n s may be c h a r a c t e r i s e d a s : ination,  C2)  theories  of plural  explanations,  and (7)  competition in a s p l i t  1.  theories  assimilation theories, s o c i e t i e s , (5)  Baste t e n e t s o f the s i x  C3)  o f p r e j u d i c e and d i s c r i m -  stratification  minority  explana-  theories,  group t h e o r i e s ,  theories of r e a l i s t i c  (6)  (4)  Marxist  group c o n f l i c t and r e s o u r c e  l a b o u r market.  T h e o r i e s o f P r e j u d i c e and  Discrimination  T h i s phase was c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a tendency to p s y c h o l o g i z e group i n t o p e r s o n a l i t y p r o c e s s e s (Young, 1932; Van der Zanden, 1966 among o t h e r s ) .  Simpson and Y i n g e r ,  A tendency to s t a r t a t  the  individual  level  and p r o j e c t  s i n g l e persons i n t o l a r g e s c a l e s o c i a l e f f e c t s j u d i c e appears to be a prime mover i n r a c i a l has been d e m o n s t r a t e d , prejudice "it  if  1965;  The f o c u s was on p r e j u d i c e ,  monopolised a t t e n t i o n to the n e g l e c t o f s o c i a l and s t r u c t u r a l  -  conditions. of  so t h a t  problems.  r e s e a r c h has c o n f i r m e d a n y t h i n g ,  i s a product of s i t u a t i o n s  which  attitudes  is evident,  and e t h n i c  relations  it  is  As that  h i s t o r i c , economic and p o l i t i c a l ,  i s not a demon which emerges i n people s i m p l y because they a r e  praved"  (Schermerhorn, 1 9 7 0 : 6 ) .  prejudice,  but to show t h a t i t  and e t h n i c r e l a t i o n s . or intervening  variable  T h i s i s not to deny the i s not c e n t r a l  At b e s t ,  it  has s t r o n g e r u n d e r t o n e s "  of  of race  can perhaps be u s e f u l as a dependent  same a p p l i e s to the f o c u s on d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , of  de-  importance  to the e x p l a n a t i o n  (Raab and L i p s e t , 1959; A l p o r t ,  from the s u b j e c t i v e f a c t o r  pre-  'prejudice'  1954).  "which a l t h o u g h an advance  to a more o b j e c t i v e  (Simpson and Y i n g e r ,  The  1965:13-34).  level,  As a  factor  -22in i t s e l f ,  discrimination  i s not very r e v e a l i n g ,  the u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e s which generate  While s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s  too bypasses  it.  a l o n e can h a r d l y e x p l a i n the  o f e t h n i c antagonism i n s i t u a t i o n s determined by conditions,  since i t  historical-structural  these p e r s p e c t i v e s do g i v e i n s i g h t s i n t o  the s p e c i f i c c o n -  t e n t o f h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e s and the v a r y i n g degree o f i n t e n s i t y which they are h e l d .  Social psychological theories,  the F r e u d i a n t r a d i t i o n , t i b l e to hate and o t h e r s  shed l i g h t  people are  ingroup-outgroup r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  as n a r c i s s i s m at  the group l e v e l ,  " C i v i l i z a t i o n and i t s  Dollard  suscep-  K  -.dZ-sT^Z?  to  ethnocentrism In  his  later  social function  of  the d i s p l a c e m e n t o f a g g r e s s i o n from  (1939) assumed an i n n a t e  a g g r e s s i o n due to the f r u s t r a t i o n s all  utilized  Freud regarded  D i s c o n t e n t s " Freud saw the  group n a r c i s s i s m a s f a c i l i t a t i n g group to o u t g r o u p .  ~2C  in  such m o b i l i z a t i o n .  Sumner's concept o f e t h n o c e n t r i s m has been f r u i t f u l l y analyze  with  particularly  as to why c e r t a i n  i n the same group r e s i s t  rise  potential  of  of constraining s o c i a l i z a t i o n  in  human b e i n g s , the d i s p l a c e m e n t o f such a g g r e s s i v e n e s s away from  source onto some o t h e r o b j e c t was seen as d e c i s i v e ( D o l l a r d , The concept o f p r o j e c t i o n ,  1939).  namely the a t t r i b u t i o n t o o t h e r s o f u n -  a c c e p t a b l e impulses w i t h i n o n e ' s s e l f ,  lends i t s e l f  explanations  when the outgroup i s no r e a l  threat. al.,  of a v e r s i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y  The r e s e a r c h on the  1950)  "Authoritarian  to c o n v i n c i n g  Personality"  r e v e a l e d the background o f the s t e r e o t y p e s  " s t r a n g e r s " are p o r t r a y e d .  By f o c u s i n g on d i f f e r e n t  in-  (Adorno,  i n which  the  child-rearing  et  the  i  -23p r a c t i c e s and the s e v e r i t y  o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n , A d o r n o ' s work engendered  a r i c h l i t e r a t u r e of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i g i n a l l y motivated  by the v i r u l e n t  gruesome s t a t e - d o c t r i n e countries, little  it  studies of ethnic  in a n t i - f a s c i s t  Western  t h a t the syndrome o f s c a p e g o a t i n g had  to do w i t h Jewish b e h a v i o u r o r Jewish h i s t o r y .  A d o r n o ' s work i s t h a t the v i c t i m s o f c o l l e c t i v e changeable and can be r e d e f i n e d  While  a n t i - S e m i t i s m which had become a  but was a l s o p r e v a l e n t  soon became e v i d e n t  antagonism.  What emerges  a g g r e s s i o n are  from  inter-  a c c o r d i n g to s o c i a l needs and the  historical  constellation. It  is this  studies.  s o c i o - h i s t o r i c a l context As P e t t i g r e w  i s conformity  which seems n e g l e c t e d i n the  (1958) has shown f o r  pressure rather  on the  basic aggressiveness of a l l  as y e t .  By assuming a p o t e n t i a l  be r e d i r e c t e d tists  2.  into  the South A f r i c a n c a s e ,  than mare a u t h o r i t a r i a n  a c c o u n t s f o r the adherence to r a c i a l  doctrines.  humans i s f a r  Furthermore,  have h e l d a v e r y prominent  scien-  to t h i s was the  "race r e l a t i o n s  p o s i t i o n i n American use o f the  cyclical  the r e l a t i o n s  o f r a c e s t h e r e i s a c y c l e o f events which tends  the  to  sublimination.  R.E. Park's  competition,  only  Theories  Very c l o s e l y r e l a t e d  itself"  debate  from being c o n c l u s i v e  perspective.  to repeat  it  which  the  harmless c h a n n e l s , such as s p o r t , many s o c i a l  Assimilation theories sociology.  upbringing  a g g r e s s i v e n e s s as i n e v i t a b l e ,  deny even the p o s s i b i l i t y o f s u c c e s s f u l  Assimilation  prejudice  ( P a r k , 1950:150).  It  accommodation and eventual  c y c l e " , contended t h a t  takes  the form o f  assimilation"  tempo may be s l a c k e n e d by the a t t i t u d e o f m i n o r i t y  "In  everywhere  "contact,  (ibid.).  Though  groups them-  -24as w e l l as by c u s t o m s , r e g u l a t i o n s ,  selveSj immigration  restrictions  and r a c i a l  barriers,,  s i d e r e d unchangeable and i r r e v e r s i b l e vein,  d i r e c t i o n was c o n -  ( P a r k , 1950:150).  o t h e r attempts to c o n s t r u c t c y c l e s f o l l o w e d .  based on h i s o b s e r v a t i o n o f O r i e n t a l  economic welcome,  l a t i v e antagonism (5)  (3)  industrial  fair  In a  process:  (1)  in  (6)  California,  curiosity,  and s o c i a l a n t a g o n i s m ,  play tendencies,  similar  E . S . Bogardus,  and Mexican immigrants  proposed seven stages i n t h e a c c u l t u r a t i o n (2)  its  (4)  q u i e s c e n s e and  (7)  second g e n e r a t i o n  difficulties  seemed i n e v i t a b l e  i n W.O. Brown's c y c l i c a l view o f race r e l a t i o n s ,  formulated conflict,  a p a t t e r n i n terms o f (3)  mobilization  In  ( B o g a r d u s , 1930:613)..  legis-  (1)  initial  temporary accommodation, (4) and (6)  elaborating  solution  contact,  (2)  struggle for  (Brown, 1 9 3 4 : 3 4 - 3 7 ;  the power s t r u c t u r e people m i g r a t i n g  o f migrant  its  inevitable  status,  examines  The f o c u s i s on  and i n d i g e n o u s g r o u p s , namely,  "when a  t o a land i s s u p e r i o r i n t e c h n o l o g y and more  tightly  a r e u s u a l l y imposed on the  political  and economic  indigenous p o p u l a t i o n . "  more, he argues t h a t a l t h o u g h c o n f l i c t may be p r e s e n t i n the the  i n d i g e n o u s people p a r t i c i p a t e  o f the dominant g r o u p , as f o r Africa,  (5)  Kurokaiva, 1*170:6).  path.  o r g a n i s e d than the i n d i g e n o u s g r o u p , the m i g r a n t ' s  stages, gradually  which  emergence o f  the c y c l i c a l a p p r o a c h , L i e b e r s o n (1961:902-3)  f a c t o r s which c o u l d i n f l u e n c e  institutions  The same outcome  initial  institutions  example i n the c a s e o f Europeans i n South  and C h i n e s e i n South E a s t A s i a .  u a t i o n s where the m i g r a n t ' s  i n the  Further-  political  The c o n v e r s e i s c i t e d f o r  and economic i n s t i t u t i o n s  are  sitin-  -25ferior t i o n of  to those o f the  indigenous p e o p l e .  indigenous people i n dominant  If  by the gradual  institutions,  participa-  Lieberson  to convey the t r i u m p h o f a form o f consensus over c o n f l i c t , be a f a c i l e out,  it  explanation.  The f a c t  intended  this  o f the matter i s , as Gluckman p o i n t s  i s money t h a t keeps A f r i c a n s i n South A f r i c a working  1955); and as van den Berghe s t a t e s more v i v i d l y , (at  a starvation  the  'white  level)  " (van den B e r g h e , 1965:82).  pressive l e g i s l a t i o n  "The u t t e r dependence  o f the A f r i c a n masses on  i n South A f r i c a would bear testimony  s e e t h i n g c o n f l i c t which e x i s t s .  To the l i s t  of influencing factors (1)  Schermerhorn adds the  to  re-  the  following  the congruence of p r i o r value systems o f groups which  come i n t o c o n t a c t with each o t h e r ; group v i s a v i s the m i g r a n t s ' relationship  inhibiting  The i n g e n i o u s amount o f  potentially  variables:  (Gluckman/.,  economy i n South A f r i c a has been one o f the main  1  factors  o r near s t a r v a t i o n  would  (2)  and (3)  t h e r e l a t i v e power o f t h e the  (Schermerhorn, 1964:238-246).  legitimacy of this  power  These ideas are more  s p e c i f i c a l l y examined by Warner and S r o l e i n t h e i r and Southern B l a c k s , as w e l l  host  r e s e a r c h on Northern  as Spanish and the O r i e n t a l  Americans  in  Yankee C i t y . The s u b o r d i n a t e groups were ranked w i t h i n the hierarchy,  the development o f a r a c i a l  time n e c e s s a r y f o r  They postulate that, "The greater the  between the host and immigrant  experience,  or ethnic sub-system,  an attempt to p r e d i c t the approximate  assimilation. differences  social  i n terms o f the degree o f s u b o r d i n a t i o n each would  the l i k e l i h o o d f o r and f i n a l l y  larger  racial  and  g r o u p s , the g r e a t e r  cultural will  be  -26the  s u b o r d i n a t i o n , the g r e a t e r  the  l o n g e r the  the  period necessary f o r  Kurokawa.,WO).  Overemphasis o f  s t r e n g t h o f the e t h n i c the a s s i m i l a t i o n "  racial  and e t h n i c  seems, so c l o s e l y l i n k e d to the a s s i m i l a t i o n quently  questioned.  situation,  [Warner & S r o l e , l H S " : 2 ? < ? ;  differences  theories  system,  has been  which fre-  Lemberg sees such " d i f f e r e n c e s " as mere " s i g n a l s "  to which c o n f l i c t i n g groups o r i e n t o f the c o n f l i c t  social  lies  elsewhere,  themselves.  S i n c e the a c t u a l  cause  usually in a p a r t i c u l a r socio-economic  such " d i f f e r e n c e s " a r e seen as i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e  (Lemberg,  1974:43).  P r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h " a s s i m i l a t i o n " as the come o f  intergroup  impact o f the especially Wirth  contact  liberal,  i n the  i s perhaps one of the  consensus o r i e n t a t i o n  North American c o n t e x t .  (1945) who d e s i g n a t e d d i f f e r e n t  cussed l a t e r ,  Myrdal  structural  American s o c i e t y . modernization, elimination  in  or otherwise  The " l o g i c a l  urbanization  Hughes i n r e f e r r i n g  t o the  other  f a t e o f the  (Hughes,  as Negroes not as i f 1963:883).  to be d i s -  than a c o n s e n s u a l saw no  the a s s i m i l a t i o n o f b l a c k s  imperatives"  1944).  the  theory,  "American Dilemma" s i m i l a r l y to  out-  indices of  in s o c i o l o g i c a l  of  Even as l a t e as 1963, B l a c k s i n the  they were n o t ;  into  industrialization,  were c o n s i d e r e d t o l e a d  Americans want to d i s a p p e a r as a d e f i n e d group neither  best  types o f m i n o r i t i e s  and l i t e r a c y  of racism (Myrdal,  and d e s i r a b l e  With the e x c e p t i o n o f L o u i s  few p e r c e i v e d o f an end r e s u l t  assimilationism. impediments  inevitable  U.S.  namely  to  Everett  said,  "Negro  They want to be seen  but as i f  it  d i d not m a t t e r "  -27T h e o r i e s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n assume t h a t m i g r a t i o n  and m o b i l i t y  and white immigrants are the same ( G r o v e , 1 9 7 4 : 4 ) . assumed t h a t the p o l i t i c a l for structural cultural  1  fact  with.  is  opportunities  Since  a s s i m i l a t i o n is hardly p o s s i b l e without s t r u c t u r a l  assimilation,  Furthermore,  the  t h a t as e a r l y American s t u d i e s show, even European immigrants who  "appear" to have a s s i m i l a t e d e x t e r n a l l y to t o t a l a s s i m i l a t i o n when t h e i r mines the c o n c e p t even f u r t h e r  3.  equal  to b l a c k and white e t h n i c s .  the concept has q u e s t i o n a b l e v a l u e to s t a r t  black  Similarly it  and economic systems o f f e r  assimilation  for  Stratification  reveal  patterns  of resistance  group s t r u c t u r e s are examined, u n d e r (Whyte, 1943; Useem, 1945:  Gans,  Theories  Another t r e n d p r e v a l e n t  i n the l i t e r a t u r e on i n t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s  the use o f s t r a t i f i c a t i o n  as a p e r s p e c t i v e f o r v i e w i n g such  T h i s l a r g e l y e n t a i l e d group c a t e g o r i z a t i o n on the b a s i s o f and o b j e c t i v e  1962).  criteria.  Warner's d e p i c t i o n o f the  is  relations. subjective  impenetrable  barrier  between White and B l a c k r e s i d e n t s o f Yankee C i t y as c l a s s and c a s t e the c l a s s i c example  (Warner, 1963).  More r e c e n t l y Mazrui  (1970:23)  t a l k s o f changes i n the s t a t u s o f the B l a c k on the n a t i o n a l terms o f a promotion from "the  is  level  s t a t u s o f a lower c a s t e t o a lower  in class".  1. The term s t r u c t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e degree t o which major s o c i e t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s are open to s u b o r d i n a t e g r o u p s , whereas c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n r e f e r s to the a c c u l t u r a t i o n p r o c e s s , t h a t i s l e a r n i n g the norms o f the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e (Gordon, 1964). As H i l d a Kuper puts i t , " c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n i s l a r g e l y a r e c i p r o c a l o f p o l i t i c a l dominance, and those who a r e supposed to a s s i m i l a t e the c u l t u r e o f o t h e r s a r e i n f a c t expected to s u b o r d i n a t e the c u l t u r e t h a t was t h e i r . o w n . " (Kuper, 1971).  -28In e l a b o r a t i n g , immediate  he acknowledges -  that,  comforts i s n e g l i g i b l e .  change i n p o t e n t i a l  But t h e r e  class  ness o f t h i s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n  status  and t h a t  from c a s t e s t a t u s . "  (Cox, 1959).  inaccurate for  l a t t e r as always  to accept t h e i r the  The  that  subordinate  the p o s i t i o n o f B l a c k s i n the  U.S.  "classes"  f r o z e n uncontested s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y and the  involved in active  (Schermerhorn, 1970).  pre-  (ibid).  Schermerhorn a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e d " c a s t e s " and  i n terms o f the f o r m e r ' s  is  has been c o n t e s t e d by Cox who argues  the term " c a s t e " i m p l i e s a measure o f a c q u i e s c e n c e i n the p o s i t i o n which i s  in  i s p r o b a b l y a major  s o c i a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y ;  c i s e l y what d i f f e r e n t i a t e s  "The change  struggle for  upward  mobility  However, the e x t e n t to which c a s t e s are  said  p o s i t i o n of subordination v i s - a - v i s higher castes  Indian c a s t e system may w e l l be q u e s t i o n e d i n l i g h t  r e b e l l i o n and demands f o r  of  h i g h e r s t a t u s e s by whole c a s t e s  in  caste (Berreman,  1972:393-7).  Along much the same l i n e s as Warner, tendency f o r e t h n i c i t y  to  Parsons (1954:424) p o i n t s t o  " p r e s e r v e independent pyramids i n the more  general  system" w i t h t h e i r  own d i s t i n c t i v e  setting  off  relationship  an i n t e r a c t i v e  which a p r o c e s s o f mutual  Shibutani  adaptation  s e t o f norms and v a l u e s ,  between both groups d u r i n g  takes  place.  and Kwan i n E t h n i c S t r a t i f i c a t i o n ,  hensive t h e o r y o f i n t e r - e t h n i c  attempt t o develop a compre-  c o n t a c t s and p r e s e n t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s  o r d e r "to e x p l a i n d i v e r s e and a p p a r e n t l y festations  the  o f the same r e c u r r e n t  unrelated  processes"  e p i s o d e s as m a n i -  (1965:V).  Their  work  in  apt-  -29r e p r e s e n t s an i n t e r e s t i n g relations  i n emphasis i n the l i t e r a t u r e on e t h n i c  from, d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and p r e j u d i c e  interactionist R.E.  shift  Park's  Their explanatory  "race r e l a t i o n s  comparison. approach.  terms.  As s u c h ,  it  to a n a l y s i s i n p r o c e s s u a l ,  framework  cycle",to afford  theoretical  and  shares many of the shortcomings o f  Ethnic s t r a t i f i c a t i o n  of these d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g ,  Park's  i s devoted to an  s u s t a i n i n g , d i s j u n c t i v e and  "Differentiating"  historical  i s a n a l y s e d i n terms o f f o u r b a s i c  p r o c e s s e s , and the volume, f o r the most p a r t ,  processes.  draws h e a v i l y on  elaboration  integrative  p r o c e s s e s a r e concerned w i t h  differentia-  t i o n o f s o c i a l systems a l o n g e t h n i c and economic l i n e s and the o f group c o n s c i o u s n e s s and l e g i t i m a t e c e s s e s r e l a t e to the v a l u e  authority.  integrative  "Sustaining" pro-  dimensions o f the s o c i a l  accommodative p r o c e s s e s , s a n c t i o n s and r e g u l a t o r y d i s t i n c t i o n between however,  hardly c l e a r .  when e t h n i c conflict,  or s o c i a l  their  interest  change.  One i s  riots,  viewing:  nationalism,  impression that  "Much o f the  The extended p e r i o d s d u r i n g which people i n together  current tension  different  r e s p e c t tends to be  s p e c t a c u l a r c h a r a c t e r , bombings, a s s a s s i n a -  g u e r i l l a warfare,  share o f a t t e n t i o n ,  i n peace and mutual  the  r e l a t i o n s , and  they s a y , " a r i s e s from concern over  overlooked...Because of t h e i r  portionate  l e f t w i t h the  to wish away t h i s a s p e c t o f i n t e r g r o u p  live  The  " D i s j u n c t i v e " p r o c e s s e s are those which develop  in race r e l a t i o n s , "  ethnic categories  order,  and " s u s t a i n i n g " p r o c e s s e s i s ,  r e a d e r s h i p a more p e a c e f u l  and c o n f l i c t .  tions,  institutions.  groups are opposed to one another on the b a s i s o f  a u t h o r s would l i k e offer  "differentiating"  development  l y n c h i n g s and pogroms a t t r a c t a d i s p r o and even h i s t o r i a n s tend to f o c u s upon  -30these outbreaks but a small 1965:34).  o f v i o l e n c e which are e p i s o d i c and ephemeral  p a r t o f what happens i n the c o n t a c t o f p e o p l e s "  for  s p e c t a c u l a r a s p e c t s and may be v i t a l as w e l l  as the  This i s c l e a r l y  the  t r a n s c e n d i n g the i n d i c e s of  b i a s o f the a u t h o r s who d e f i n e as t h e i r p r o c e s s e s the d e s i r e to  "the  individual  patterns  t h a t develop when d i f f e r e n t (ibid.).  of  ethnic  The more fundamental  o t h e r and the  concern, thus:  establish  and c o l l e c t i v e  groups are opposed to one  inevitable  The a u t h o r s  values"  another"  and n a t u r a l  outcome o f  They f a i l  the  integra-  assimilation  f o c u s on v a l u e d i f f e r e n c e s  (ibid.).  each  Finally,  o f the t h r e e f o r e g o i n g , i s the  " c o n f l i c t a r i s e s when people i n d i f f e r e n t  pursue i n c o m p a t i b l e  behaviour  o p p o s i t i o n are neglected.  f o u r t h . p r o c e s s which i s a r e s u l t  and a c c u l t u r a t i o n .  major  i s s u e o f why they are opposed to  sources o f t h e i r  t i v e process, with i t s  people  such c o n f l i c t .  concern i n s t u d y i n g d i s j u n c t i v e characteristic  out-  superficial  how s t r o n g l y  underlying conditions generating  constitute  (Shibutani,  What i s not c o n s i d e r e d i s the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e s e  b u r s t s may be o f g r e a t importance  feel,  and  as a  central  categories  t o see v a l u e s as sympto-  matic of s p e c i f i c s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s with t h e i r  rootedness i n  reality.  as a t r a n s i t i o n a l  phenomenon: "When the  of s t r a t i f i c a t i o n  systems i s low"  gree of  They view c o n f l i c t institutionalization  T h i s stems from a p e r s p e c t i v e  stressing assimilation  " A s s i m i l a t i o n i s a phenomenon found i n a l l  C h i n e s e , Mexicans"  (ibid.).  for  de-  (ibid.).  inevitable:  cases o f i n t e r - e t h n i c  i n which one group does not e x t e r m i n a t e the o t h e r , P o l e s , Jews, I t a l i a n s ,  as  social  example,  contacts Irish,  The e x c l u s i o n  (either  -31c o n s c i o u s l y o r otherwise) .from t h i s raises  list  of Native  Indians  unanswered q u e s t i o n s , and undermines the v a l i d i t y  categorical  and B l a c k s , of  such  statements.  The concept o f  "Ethnic S t r a t i f i c a t i o n " ,  w h i l e encompassing a wide  o f u s e f u l and i n f o r m a t i v e  data,  comings.  t h i n k i n g of P a r k ' s "race r e l a t i o n s c y c l e "  its  (1)  The w i s h f u l  n e v e r t h e l e s s , have a number o f  range  f a i t h i n the a s s i m i l a b i l i t y o f e t h n i c g r o u p s , s t a b i l i t y  gration,  i s s t r o n g l y perpetuated  quence toward the f i n a l e emphasis on o r d e r ,  i n t h i s work.  are r e v e a l i n g :  "In  reveal  a bias.  order"  (Shibutani,  A f r i c a neither the work,  Statements  stable societies minority  reasonably s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r 1965:342).  with  intese(2)  1  The  c o n s e n s u s , p e a c e f u l c o - e x i s t e n c e and  compromise, as a g a i n s t c o n f l i c t and a c t i v e a r t i c u l a t i o n the d e s i r a b l e s t a t e ,  and  The i n e v i t a b l e  of a s s i m i l a t i o n is o v e r - s i m p l i f i e d .  integration,  short-  lot,  such as the  people a r e  following  either  o r do not dare c h a l l e n g e  In the c a s e o f  reaction is evident.  o f d i s s e n t as  (3)  Indians  the  i n s t a b l e South  In keeping w i t h the r e s t  of  the c o n c l u s i o n s f o c u s s t r o n g l y on epiphenomena, such as  "superstitious b e l i e f s " ,  " s o c i a l d i s t a n c e " and " c u l t u r a l  as being r e s p o n s i b l e f o r poor i n t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s . group problems w i l l  differences"  For example:  Inter-  be overcome as "more a c c u r a t e knowledge" overcomes  "superstitious beliefs",  ( 5 8 8 ) a n d "whenever s o c i a l d i s t a n c e i s r e d u c e d , s  1. Many o f the c r i t i c i s m s which O . C . Cox l e v e l l e d at a p p l i c a b l e to t h i s work (Cox, 1 9 5 9 : 4 6 2 - 7 4 ) .  Park a r e  al  -32individua!s recognise t h e i r ethnic  groups a r e c u l t u r a l  resemblances. and c o n v e n t i o n a l  to c o v e r the s i m i l a r i t i e s " w i t h the fundamental  (589).  " b e l i e f s " and " s o c i a l d i s t a n c e " .  relations  grips  r e a l i t y which generates  these  i n a vacuum.  i s t h a t taken by Stavenhagen  i n Mexico and Guatemala,  to come to  Knowledge which i s t o change p e o p l e s  A more f r u i t f u l topic  approach on a c l o s e l y  Ethnic s t r a t i f i c a t i o n  e v o l u t i o n and i n t e r e t h n i c  viewed as being backed by a s o c i a l c l a s s  structure.  interethnic  stratification  as i n t e r d e p e n d e n t  colonial  fication  Without  the f i n a l  and Kwan, f o r  are  probed  a n a l y s i s , Stavenhagen  relationships, class  relationships,  intergroup  relations,  them  c a s t e , e t h n i c and r a c i a l  has tended to be r a t h e r  unyielding.  in particular  the  divisions,  strati-  A t best  tend to be d e s c r i p t i v e , w i t h no a n a l y s i s o f the r a t i o n a l e uniformities  simplify-  variables.  between c l a s s ,  theory  In  are  and the a c c u l t u r a t i o n p r o c e s s , and t r e a t s  As a p e r s p e c t i v e f o r v i e w i n g differences  contact.  i s seen  relations  ing a h i g h l y complex p r o b l e m , u n d e r l y i n g l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s  social  relations  i n which he adds more to the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  as a r e s u l t o f h i s t o r i c a l  i s o l a t e s four elements:  related  (1965) i n a n a l y s i n g e t h n i c  between economy and s o c i e t y .  in s i t u a t i o n s of  between  norms which s e r v e as masks  The a n a l y s i s f a i l s  s o c i a l and m a t e r i a l  a t t i t u d e s does not a r i s e  The b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s  in subjective  studies  for  p e r c e p t i o n which a r e s a i d to e x i s t .  i n s t a n c e , s p e c i f y the d i f f e r e n t  forms o f e t h n i c  such Shibutani identity,  -33yet  fail  to a n a l y s e the s o c i o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f such d i f f e r e n c e s .  John Rex ( 1 9 7 0 ) ,  in r e j e c t i n g  to race r e l a t i o n s , I n s t e a d he r e f e r s groups.  the y a l u e o f the  p o i n t s to the absence o f to the e x i s t e n c e o f  4.  (Rex,  1970:18).  perceptions of d i f f e r e n t i a l  Pluralist  s o c i e t i e s where  Furthermore, status  s o c i e t y , with i t s  as the major  f o c u s on c u l t u r a l  social  c h a n g e , has c o n s e q u e n t l y g a i n e d some i m p e t u s .  posed by J . S . F u r n i v a l l  f o r c e determining  ( 1 9 3 9 ) , on the  of plural  e t h n i c c a t e g o r i e s which l i v e ethnicity  (1)  institu-  s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n and Initially  pro-  Smith  (1969) P. van den Berghe  d e s c r i b e s the  characteristic  a society comprising disparate  s i d e by s i d e , though i n d i v i d u a l s o f  meet o n l y i n the market p l a c e ,  occupies a p a r t i c u l a r lations  Furnivall  s o c i e t y as f o l l o w s :  and  b a s i s o f h i s r e s e a r c h i n South  has s i n c e been developed by M.6.  and Leo Kuper ( 1 9 6 9 ) , among o t h e r s .  fering  in  has been n e g l e c t e d .  variation  features  constituent  the r o l e o f power  tional  it  the  Theory  The t h e o r y o f the p l u r a l  East A s i a ,  ethnic  Such c o n s e n s u a l l y agreed  appear to have s i g n i f i c a n c e s o l e l y w i t h i n the  segments o f s o c i e t y  standards.  standards of various  in colonial  absence o f shared v a l u e s i s most n o t i c e a b l e .  defining  approach  "universal" societal  internal  This is e s p e c i a l l y prevalent  value patterns  stratification  (2)  each e t h n i c  difcategory  p l a c e i n the economic s t r u c t u r e and economic r e -  predominate over a l l  other aspects of l i f e ;  and (3)  the component  s e c t i o n s o f the p o p u l a t i o n s do not have a common " s o c i a l w i l l " commonly agreed s e t o f v a l u e s f o r c h e c k i n g and g u i d i n g s o c i a l The s o c i e t y i s t h e r e f o r e  held together  o n l y by e x t e r n a l  or action.  c o e r c i v e power,  (1967  -34usually,  though not n e c e s s a r i l y , t h a t o f a f o r e i g n government  1939:199-204). integration  To F u r n i v a l l , p l u r a l i s t i c  of native  c u l t u r e s under the  he saw as being v i r t u a l l y  capitalist  physical structure  of existence - -  self-sufficient  toward c e n t r a l i z a t i o n 1971:389).  --  for  agricultural  the  ment.  the p o l i t i c a l  While the  a p p l i c a t i o n o f the  was s p e c i f i c a l l y i n r e l a t i o n  societies.  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  to c o l o n i a l  applicability  to a l l  communities.  This  strain (Cox,  society is  the  to c o l o n i a l i s t s and  being the c o l o n i a l  idea o f the p l u r a l  societies, it culturally  was  govern-  society  gradually  heterogeneous  The l a t e r view c o n c e i v e d o f almost any c u l t u r a l  i n s o c i a l groups as a b a s i s o f  the  villages  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of plural  f o r c e i n the s i t u a t i o n  initial  extended to g i v e i t  the  the system o f  d i s t i n c t p a t t e r n o f economic b e h a v i o u r i n h e r e n t natives,  One permanent  i n c o l o n i a l i s m i s the b a s i s o f p l u r a l i s m  Thus the c r i t i c a l  dis-  impact o f c a p i t a l i s m , which  l i f e was the s u b s t i t u t i o n o f  c i t y as the c e n t r e o f p r o d u c t i v e l i f e serving largely  s o c i e t y d e r i v e d from the  synonymous w i t h c o l o n i a l i s m .  form o f the d i s r u p t i o n o f n a t i v e  (Furnivall,  difference  pluralism.  These subsequent attempts by modern s o c i o l o g i s t s to develop t h i s p e r s p e c tive,  have l a r g e l y  of F u r n i v a l l . o f the p l u r a l  been based on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  and  misinterpretations  M.G. S m i t h , one o f the l e a d i n g p r o t a g o n i s t s o f the s o c i e t y , begins by s a y i n g t h a t F u r n i v a l l  that...economic  "saw c l e a r l y  p l u r a l i s m was s i m p l y an a s p e c t o f the s o c i a l  o f these c o l o n i e s " ( S m i t h ,  1965:75).  idea  As mentioned e a r l i e r ,  pluralism Furnivall  s a i d p r e c i s e l y the o p p o s i t e : he saw s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n as a d i r e c t c o n -  -35sequence o f the economics o f c o l o n i a l i s m .  Hence Smith takes the a r g u -  ment back one s t e p , and attempts to c o n c e p t u a l i s e " c u l t u r a l as d i s t i n c t from " s o c i a l p l u r a l i s m " . difference (Smith,  T h i s i s done by examining  A c c o r d i n g to t h i s v i e w ,  unit rather  own t e r r i t o r i a l  a political  s o c i e t y i s d e f i n e d as a  than a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l one.  a r e a and governmental  society distinguishes i t s e l f  institutions.  from n o n - p l u r a l  unit of a s p e c i f i c type,  As such i t  has  s o c i e t i e s in that i t  To c l a r i f y  t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n , Smith f o c u s e s on d i f f e r e n t types o f  i n which v a r i o u s s e c t o r s p a r t i c i p a t e . i n t h a t they r e p r e s e n t  insti-  I n s t i t u t i o n s are considered  "the c o r e o f c u l t u r e " ,  concrete i s o l a t e s of organised behaviour. s e t forms o f a c t i v i t y ,  is  namely, one t h a t c o n t a i n s  d i s t i n c t groups o r s e c t i o n s .  important  its  The p l u r a l  culturally  tutions  the  between s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e , which he c o n c l u d e s a r e coterminous  1960:768).  political  pluralism",  and c o n s t i t u t e  Each i n s t i t u t i o n  involves  g r o u p i n g , r u l e s , i d e a s and v a l u e s .  The t o t a l  system o f i n s t i t u t i o n s thus embraces t h r e e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t  systems o f  action,  of  i d e a , v a l u e and o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s "  types o f i n s t i t u t i o n s and " e x c l u s i v e " .  have been d e l i n e a t e d ,  "Compulsory" i n s t i t u t i o n s  members o f a s o c i e t y must p a r t i c i p a t e , religion,  "compulsory",  Three main "alternative"  a r e t h o s e i n which  all  such as k i n s h i p , e d u c a t i o n ,  p r o p e r t y economy and r e c r e a t i o n .  a r e those i n which the i n d i v i d u a l  (ibid:767).  "Alternative"  institutions  has some c h o i c e to p a r t i c i p a t e ,  for  example, a s s o c i a t i o n a l o r community membership.  F i n a l l y , "exclusive"  institutions  by b e l o n g i n g t o a  a r e t h o s e i n which one p a r t i c i p a t e s  -36socially group  recognised category,  such as an o c c u p a t i o n a l o r p r o f e s s i o n a l  (ibid.).  On the b a s i s o f t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s are d i s t i n g u i s h e d : (1) institutions  a single p o l i t i c a l participate  (preliterate societies).  those i n which c u l t u r a l l y  unit,  societies  (2)  Hetero-  d i f f e r e n t groups w i t h i n  share t h e same "compulsory" i n s t i t u t i o n s  i n d i f f e r e n t systems o f  institutions,  types o f  Homogeneous s o c i e t i e s , i n which "compulsory"  are shared by a l l  geneous s o c i e t i e s - -  three d i f f e r e n t  but  " a l t e r n a t e " and " e x c l u s i v e "  (modern s o c i e t i e s such as the U . S . A . ) , and (3)  Plural  s o c i e t i e s , as those i n which groups l i v i n g w i t h i n a s i n g l e  political  unit participate  institutions.  i n very d i f f e r e n t  systems o f  "compulsory"  These groups a r e regarded as being " c u l t u r a l l y " f e r r e d t o as " c u l t u r a l minimally  i n the o v e r a l l  wise h i g h l y e x c l u s i v e . nounced i n c o l o n i a l "cultural  sections".  They a r e s a i d t o p a r t i c i p a t e  economic and p o l i t i c a l  s e c t o r and a r e  These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are p a r t i c u l a r l y  s o c i e t i e s and newly independent s t a t e s .  may be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d .  o f the same c u l t u r a l  otherpro-  Hence  than c u l t u r e .  t h a t s o c i a l p l u r a l i s m would be most l i k e l y  invariably  pluralism in a plural  society.  It  tradition  absence o f c u l t u r a l  would seem, t h e n ,  i n an heterogeneous Although c u l t u r a l  accompanied by s o c i a l p l u r a l i s m , the  i n the n e a r l y t o t a l  ethnic  " S o c i a l p l u r a l i s m " i s used when such d i f f e r e n -  t i a t i o n o b t a i n s on a b a s i s o t h e r  and c u l t u r a l  re-  only  p l u r a l i s m " i s used to d e s c r i b e s i t u a t i o n s where s e v e r a l  groups o r d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e v a r i e t i e s  is  d i f f e r e n t and a r e  pluralism.  society pluralism  l a t t e r can be found  -37All  t h r e e types o f s o c i e t i e s d i s p l a y some form o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n .  Plural  s o c i e t i e s c o n s i s t o f d i s t i n c t g r o u p s , w h i c h may o r may not be c u l t u r a l . Homogeneous s o c i e t i e s may be d i v i d e d i n t o c o r p o r a t e groups such as unilineal  d e s c e n t g r o u p s , and heterogeneous s o c i e t i e s i n t o  s p e c i a l i z e d groups.  However, homogeneous and heterogeneous s o c i e t i e s  d i f f e r , from the p l u r a l a unitary  t y p e , i n s o f a r as the homogeneous s o c i e t y r e p r e s e n t s  institutional  t a r y and i n t e r r e l a t e d tinguishes  functionally  s t r u c t u r e , and heterogeneous s o c i e t y a complemen-  structure.  The p l u r a l  s o c i e t y by c o n t r a s t  i t s e l f from the f o r e g o i n g types by a s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e  i s compartmentalised i n t o s i m i l a r y e t d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e s e t s o f  T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n throws l i t t l e homogeneous, p l u r a l  light  on the r e a l  and heterogeneous s o c i e t i e s .  "homogeneous" s o c i e t y i s h i g h l y d u b i o u s .  If  distinction  diswhich  institutions.  between  The d e l i n e a t i o n  of  looked at c l o s e l y , a s o -  c a l l e d homogeneous s o c i e t y can a l s o be seen to d i s p l a y c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t i n c t i o n s among i t s members, on the b a s i s o f s o c i a l c l a s s o r d i f f e r e n c e s , as w i l l  be i l l u s t r a t e d  Smith attempts to c l a r i f y  i s e l u c i d a t e d by t h e s e . when i s an i n s t i t u t i o n institutions  f o r the case o f South A f r i c a n  his societal  f e r e n t types of i n s t i t u t i o n a l  types on the b a s i s o f the  participation,  but on the w h o l e ,  Indians. dif-  little  The problem would then s h i f t t o the q u e s t i o n — compulsory?  To any p a r t i c u l a r  can be s a i d to be b a s i c o r c o m p u l s o r y .  the d i s t i n c t i o n f o r a n a l y t i c a l d i f f e r e n t types o f  status  culture all Even i f  one makes  p u r p o s e s , t h i s does not e x p l a i n  "compulsory" i n s t i t u t i o n s  homogeneous, heterogeneous and p l u r a l  which must o b t a i n  societies.  its  the for  Hence the main s h o r t -  coming o f t h i s political is  institutional  -38-  approach f o r t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f  behaviour i s that i t  based on e x t e r n a l  Indian  tends to be merely c l a s s i f i c a t o r y , and  appearance i n s t e a d o f examining the  interactive  -  r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t o b t a i n between c a t e g o r i e s .  F u r t h e r m o r e , Smith p o i n t s out t h a t the p l u r a l itself  by the s p e c i f i c arrangement o f i t s  the c u l t u r a l  impose the s t r u c t u r a l  units  cultural  heterogeneity.  u n i t s , a l t h o u g h autonomous, are bound t o g e t h e r  into a single p o l i t y .  sections,  society distinguishes  Such c u l t u r a l  d i v e r s i t y o r p l u r a l i s m i s s a i d to  minority.  The i n t e g r a t i o n  i s s a i d to t a k e p l a c e , not on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s ,  c o e r c i o n o r by f o r c e o f economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  In the  the p o l i t i c a l u n i t y o f the w h o l e , the former p o l i t i c a l the s u b o r d i n a t e groups a r e Given t h i s social  inevitably  of these various but e i t h e r  by  interests  of  institutions  r e p r e s s e d by the dominant  r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the c u l t u r a l  w h i l e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s between groups  a c c o r d i n g to the p l u r a l sections could s p e l l  model.  minority. the  deteriorate  Conflict is  inevitable  The very independence o f the  cultural  the d i s s o l u t i o n o f the e n t i r e s o c i e t y and the  power between c u l t u r a l  of  groups become h i g h l y e x c l u s i v e  i n t o an impersonal secondary type o f c o n t a c t .  struggle  s e c t i o n s assumes new dimensions and v a r i e s  w i t h changes i n the s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i r  In  cultural  s i t u a t i o n , where t h e r e i s h a r d l y any v a l u e c o n s e n s u s ,  and i n t r o v e r t e d ,  for  politically  n e c e s s i t y f o r domination by one o f the  usually a cultural  All  summary, the f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s  are p r e s e n t i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s : (1)  relationships.  c h a r a c t e r i z e the p l u r a l cultural  heterogeneity,  model and (2)  absence  -39of value consensus, sectional  (3)  autonomy o f the c u l t u r a l  d o m i n a t i o n , u s u a l l y by a m i n o r i t y ,  (5)  sections,  (4)  conflict,  (6)  economic interdependence and c o e r c i o n as bases o f s o c i a l and (7)  integration,  primary t i e s w i t h i n the groups and secondary t i e s  between  groups.  S e v e r a l o f these t h e o r e t i c a l (1)  It  i s doubtful  whether c u l t u r a l  impose the s t r u c t u r a l It  could j u s t  as r e a d i l y  particularly  impose the n e c e s s i t y f o r equal sections.  institutions  representation  The degree o f autonomy o f  these  i n common  and a r e s u b j e c t to t h e i r  I n c l u s i o n o f B l a c k s i n the l a b o u r market w i t h i t s autonomy o f the p r e - i n d u s t r i a l  However, t h e r e a r e a l s o c o u n t e r - t r e n d s .  of h i s theory of c u l t u r a l the primacy o f c u l t u r a l stratification, formity.  (2)  minority.  dictates,  i n i n d u s t r i a l i z e d , i n t e r d e p e n d e n t s o c i e t i e s , such as South  makes the c u l t u r a l nomena.  inevitably  s e c t i o n s can be q u e s t i o n e d , s i n c e they p a r t i c i p a t e  economic and p o l i t i c a l  Africa.  d i v e r s i t y or p l u r a l i s m  n e c e s s i t y f o r domination by a c u l t u r a l  o f the v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l cultural  assumptions may be q u e s t i o n e d :  1  In an e a r l y  formulation  p l u r a l i s m , M.G. Smith (1965:63,89) s t r e s s e d  differences for  the development o f  racial cultural  uni-  Kuper (1975:27) has noted and t h e South A f r i c a n  case c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e s , the r a c i a l more s a l i e n t , t h e  s e c t o r a waning phe-  which was assumed to d i m i n i s h w i t h g r e a t e r  However, as L.  own demands,  h i e r a r c h y may  more a c c u l t u r a t i o n takes p l a c e .  i n d e e d , become  Cultural  differences  are s t r e s s e d by t h e r u l i n g group because members o f t h e s u b j e c t r a c e have i n c r e a s i n g l y a c q u i r e d the dominant c u l t u r e and based on t h e s e v a l u e s , c l a i m to i t s  privileges.  (3)  lay  The overemphasis on c o e r c i o n and f o r c e o f  -40economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s as the o n l y i n t e g r a t i v e  forces  underestimate  the r o l e o f voluntpity a s s o c i a t i o n s i n l i n k i n g people from cultural  sectors.  Leo Kuper ( 1 9 6 9 : 1 6 9 - 9 3 ) , f o r  avenues f o r p e a c e f u l change i n white s e t t l e r  different  i n s t a n c e , in exploring  societies refers  to  the  r o l e o f " i n d i v i d u a t i n g p r o c e s s e s " which a r i s e from the c r e a t i o n o f new i n t e r r a c i a l  s t r u c t u r e s i n the economic, p o l i t i c a l , e d u c a t i o n a l ,  r e l i g i o u s and r e c r e a t i o n a l  spheres i n South A f r i c a .  (4)  the l i t e r a t u r e on p l u r a l i s m , t h e r e i s an u n d e r l y i n g t r e n d "cultural  diversity"  i s the main s o u r c e of s o c i e t a l  Throughout that  instability,  that  the c o l o n i a l powers had s e r v e d the purpose o f h o l d i n g t o g e t h e r s o c i e t i e s wracked by very r e a l  c l e a v a g e s , and t h a t o n l y an e x t e r n a l  c a p a b l e o f c o n t a i n i n g them.  T h i s argument f a i l s  power was  to note the r o l e  of  n e o - c o l o n i a l i s m ^ i n a l s o p e r p e t u a t i n g v a r i o u s c l e a v a g e s f o r i t s own interests. their  To a l a r g e e x t e n t , c o l o n i a l powers were a b l e to  influence in t h e i r  bilities  (Geertz,  extend  former c o l o n i e s by p l a y i n g on e t h n i c  suscepti-  1969).  F u r t h e r m o r e , e t h n i c c o n f l i c t s are h a r d l y viewed as being r e l a t e d questions.of material and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . of.production,  equality,  equal o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a l l ,  to  justice  In s h o r t , the economic s e c t o r , the changing mode  i s l a r g e l y excluded from the a n a l y s i s , or at  best added  as another v a r i a b l e and not as a c o n s t i t u e n t o f e t h n i c c l e a v a g e s . C u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , and more e s p e c i a l l y the  importance a t t a c h e d  such d i f f e r e n c e s , are seldom c o n c e i v e d o f as a r a t i o n a l i z i n g  to  ideology  f o r c o l o n i a l i s m , but as c o n s t i t u t i n g a f o r c e i n i t s own r i g h t .  -41To c o n c l u d e t h i s  d i s c u s s i o n o f the p l u r a l i s t m o d e l : i t  shares the  limit-  a t i o n s o f the normative f u n c t i o n a l i s t approach i n the study o f s o c i a l phenomena.  It  tends to be s t a t i c  categorization  rather  o f how o r why p l u r a l why i t  changes i n t o  i n s t e a d o f dynamic, a d e s c r i p t i v e  than an a n a l y s i s o f p r o c e s s .  There i s no d i s c u s s i o n  s o c i e t y comes i n t o e x i s t e n c e , how i t  is  heterogeneous s o c i e t y o r by what s t e p s .  maintained, What  is  needed i s a more dynamic, l e s s a b s t r a c t and more c o n c r e t e c o n c e p t i o n of s o c i e t y .  5.  M i n o r i t y Group T h e o r i e s  Another p e r s p e c t i v e i s the s e t o f t h e o r i e s f o c u s i n g on d i f f e r i n g of m i n o r i t i e s .  A p a r t from being wider  i n scope than o t h e r r a c e  studies,  they  priority  t o the n o t i o n o f c o n q u e s t , c o e r c i o n and p o l i t i c a l  (Rex,  i n c l u d e r a c i a l , c o l o n i a l and p l u r a l  1970:24).  an i n f i n i t e  Sociological literature  variety  mention o n l y a few. if  the h i s t o r i c a l  F u r t h e r m o r e , the p a t t e r n s  basic c r i t e r i a  m i n o r i t y and a m a j o r i t y  domination  ment; they are o b j e c t i v e l y  Underlying a l l  this  variety,  which make a d i s t i n c t i o n between a view.  on the b a s i s o f some p h y s i c a l o r  culturally  e x c l u d e d from f u l l  s o c i e t y and are accorded d i f f e r e n t i a l  to  are e q u a l l y wide r a n g i n g  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; they are t r e a t e d as c o l l e c t i v e l y i n f e r i o r  d e f i n e d as s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t  of  groups, distinguishable  u s e f u l from a s o c i o l o g i c a l p o i n t o f  M i n o r i t i e s are u s u a l l y i d e n t i f i a b l e cultural  s i t u a t i o n s and g i v e  r a c e , sex and economic u n d e r p r i v i l e g e ,  contexts are c o n s i d e r e d .  however, are s e v e r a l  relations  i s laden with d i s c u s s i o n s  of subordinate or minority  on the b a s i s o f e t h n i c i t y ,  situations  to j u s t i f y  unequal  participation  in  or  treatthe  a c c e s s to the rewards o f s o c i a l  -42structure.  Members of the m i n o r i t y  collective  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n with, n e g a t i v e  self-perception. w h i l e to cally  small  the  He d i s t i n g u i s h e s m i n o r i t y  latter.  the  majority delineation It  the  dimension o f  (Gelfand,  groups were g e n e r a l l y  groups was frowned  of  in  for minoritybeen  group  value.  p l a c e i n o r d e r to a c c e l e r a t e  how the it.  alien minorities  was to emphasise the  integrative  l e a d to the f o r m a t i o n  nature  of  of a n a t i o n a l  industrialization  little  Essentially, phenomenon  process of  accultura-  The u n d e r l y i n g  assumption  would be i n e v i t a b l y  The tendency on the p a r t o f many c l a s s i c a l s o c i a l  of  numeri-  considered  upon as a temporary  l a y perhaps i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g  was t h a t i n the c o u r s e o f t i m e ,  peratives"  worth-  too o f t e n  and having l i t t l e more than e x o t i c  the study o f m i n o r i t y  thereby  own  distinction,  is crucial  factor  of  importance.  more than ephemeral  tegrated.  "power"  1 9 7 3 : 1 0 ) , and has a l l  E a r l y American s t u d i e s o f m i n o r i t y  t i o n was t a k i n g  Hence the  i s t h i s which makes the numerical  s i z e o f secondary  whose o n l y v a l u e  their  f o r m e r , a n d mass s u b j e c t s o r mass e t h n i c s  Above a l l ,  1  for  groups which are  from those t h a t are more numerous.  group f o r  neglected.  implications  Schermerhorn (1970) i n t r o d u c e s group s i z e as  isolate.  minority  regard themselves as o b j e c t s  industrialization, society.  in-  theorists which would  The " l o g i c a l  were c o n s i d e r e d to a u t o m a t i c a l l y  im-  dissolve  1. As P . L . van den Berghe p o i n t s out f o r r e l a t e d American l i t e r a t u r e , o f a l l a r t i c l e s on i n t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s i n the American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review over t h r e e d e c a d e s , between 1939-69, l e s s than 5% a d d r e s s e d themselves to t h i s a s p e c t ( P . L . van den B e r g h e , 1 9 7 4 : 8 ) .  -43eletnents o f t r a d i t i o n a l  c u l t u r e and l i f e  versal i s t i c  of the host i n d u s t r i a l  rationality  style in ?  f a v o u r o f the  society.  p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the c y c l i c a l approaches d i s c u s s e d  A more d i f f e r e n t i a t e d of Louis Wirth.  He f o r m u l a t e d  in categorizing different  h a r d l y any textbook  been s e v e r a l  fails  criticisms.  (1)  full  While W i r t h ' s  responses has been w i d e l y  to r e f e r  to h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n  --  scene.  If  response to the m i n o r i t y ' s  that leads e i t h e r  power.  to be more f r u i t f u l  integration  in ethnic  attention  groups w h i l e  host  and movement.  (Schermerhorn, 1 9 7 0 : 7 8 ) .  would reduce i n t e r g r o u p p r e j u d i c e  minority  the  they  (2) are  f o r a n a l y s i s o f problems o f c o n f l i c t and  relations  (4)  to  and  to one a n o t h e r ,  s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the advance o f s c i e n c e and the t r e n d  Woodhouse, 1 9 6 9 : 2 ) .  the  The achievement o r n o n -  own i n i t i a t i v e  the f o u r stages are s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d  likely  have  They themselves a r e e n -  achievement o f t h e s e g o a l s i s viewed as being dependent on the society's  con-  acclaimed  in  host s o c i e t y o r s e c e s s i o n from i t ,  e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f independent p o l i t i c a l  and  there  Wirth tends to c a s t m i n o r i t i e s  in choosing a course  a s s i m i l a t i o n i n the  res-  secessionist, assimilationist  r o l e o f p r o t a g o n i s t on the h i s t o r i c a l dowed w i t h i n i t i a t i v e  earlier.  a t y p o l o g y o f the f o u r m i n o r i t y  m i l i t a n t and saw these as being s u c c e s s i v e s t a g e s .  --  Hence the  p e r s p e c t i v e from the c y c l i c a l approach was t h a t  ponses to s u b o r d i n a t i o n : p l u r a l i s t ,  tribution  uni-  He l i m i t s  (3)  toward  has not m a t e r i a l i s e d  secularism  ( T o b i a s and  h i s o b e r v a t i o n s to the  reactions  n e g l e c t i n g those of the s u p e r o r d i n a t e s .  s h o u l d be p a i d to the l a t t e r ,  since i t  Wirth's  of  Equal  i s the i n t e r a c t i o n  be-  -44tween s u b o r d i n a t e s and s u p e r o r d i n a t e groups which s h o u l d be the f o c u s of a thorough study. portant  In  this  r e s p e c t , the f o l l o w i n g a r e seen as i m -  q u e s t i o n s : w h a t do dominant groups p r e f e r  s u b o r d i n a t e s to  attain?  Does the view o f the dominant group c o i n c i d e w i t h o r c o n t r a d i c t  the  aims o f the s u b o r d i n a t e group i n the same s o c i e t y (Schermerhorn, 78-79)?  ( 5 ) Wirth f a i l e d  and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . tion  to make c l e a r the d i s t i n c t i o n between  differences rather  items and a p p r o p r i a t i n g l i f e  than on s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e .  the b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s  o f the  osmosis from the t o t a l  a s s o c i a t i o n s or i n s t i t u t i o n s  individual  individual society.  viewed  portrays  and the s o c i a l w h o l e ,  No i n t e r m e d i a r i e s  r e c e i v e adequate a t t e n t i o n  such as  in this  pers-  "cultural"  imply  s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s and can h a r d l y be c o n c e i v e d w i t h o u t  changes o f groups and i n s t i t u t i o n s  h o r n , 1970 ^  with  caught up by a p r o c e s s o f  The o t h e r two c a t e g o r i e s , " s e c e s s i o n " and " m i l i t a n c y " ,  'very d e f i n i t e explicit  Goals and aims are  and the whole a n a l y s i s i n these terms  a d i f f u s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  pective.  styles.  " a s s i m i l a t i o n " and " p l u r a l i s m " f o c u s on c u l t u r a l  as norms to be f u l f i l l e d  social  culture  He seemed p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h problems o f a c c u l t u r a -  such as borrowing c u l t u r a l  His c a t e g o r i e s o f  1970:  81).  Difficulties  therefore  c a t e g o r i e s to c o n d i t i o n s where  i n those s t r u c t u r e s . ( S c h e r m e r a r i s e when a p p l y i n g these  "structural" features  are more  relevant.  Attempts to u n d e r s t a n d the f o r c e s and c o n d i t i o n s a f f e c t i n g e t h n i c 1. For f u r t h e r statement o f i n a d e q u a c i e s o f the t y p l o g i c a l i n g e n e r a l , see van den Berghe 1967:25.  re-  approach .  -45l a t i o n s and boundary maintenance o f each group have been made by Kurt Lewin ( L e w i n , formulation operating  1948).  His concern with s o c i a l boundaries l e d to  o f a t y p o l o g y o f the c e n t r i f u g a l  and c e n t r i p e t a l  the  forces  i n s o c i e t y ; namely, the f o r c e s h o l d i n g a member w i t h i n  group through r e t e n t i o n the study o f c e n t r i p e t a l  of his i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . and c e n t r i f u g a l  Irwin R i n d e r  f o r c e s by t a k i n g  his  extended  into  account  the degree o f a c c e p t a n c e o r n o n - a c c e p t a n c e o f the s u b o r d i n a t e group by the s u p e r o r d i n a t e g r o u p . correlating  the  He r e j e c t s  theories  i n c i d e n c e o f a h i g h o r impermeable boundary w i t h  s t r o n g group i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , 1965:5).  as s i m p l i s t i c , p r e v i o u s  retained  I n s t e a d he sees c e n t r i f u g a l  o f the a c c e p t a n c e o f the m i n o r i t y c o n v e r s e l y , where the  level  by the s u b o r d i n a t e group f o r c e s as being  (Rinder,  representative  group by the dominant group a n d ,  o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n by the  superordinate  group i s h i g h , members a r e not a b l e t o break through the boundary. The theme o f c e n t r i p e t a l  and c e n t r i f u g a l  f o r c e s i n group r e l a t i o n s h i p s  have  a l s o appeared i n the work o f S c h e r m e r h o r n , B a r t h , P e t e r R o s e , and M i l t o n Yinger.  They t e n d ,  however,  to e v o l v e from the more g e n e r a l  approach to the more q u a l i f i e d  typological  c e r n about s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s a f f e c t i n g  Although the study of m i n o r i t y  cyclical  approach, with greater  intergroup  relations.  groups h a s , o v e r the p a s t few d e c a d e s ,  received considerable a t t e n t i o n ,  there is r e l a t i v e l y  o f the s u b j e c t t h a t can be c a l l e d t h e o r e t i c a l  little  knowledge  i n the f u l l e s t  B l a l o c k and Schermerhorn s p e c i f i c a l l y a d d r e s s e d themselves to question.  con-  sense. this  -46In Toward a Theory of M i n o r i t y to  integrate empirical  c e p t s and t h e o r i e s psychology. minority  drawn from general  (1967) attempts  relations  with con-  areas o f s o c i o l o g y and s o c i a l  p r o p o s i t i o n s are p r e s e n t e d to account  as a s p e c i a l c l a s s o f s o c i a l phenomena.  o f these p r o p o s i t i o n s are d i v e r s e , theories  Blalock  s t u d i e s o f race and e t h n i c  Ninety-seven  relations  Group R e l a t i o n s ,  but f o r  c o n s t r u c t e d to account f o r  as F r u s t r a t i o n - A g g r e s s i o n t h e o r y , conditions that f a c i l i t a t e  Nieboer's  slavery,  the  "status  on s p e c i a l  c l a s s e s o f e v e n t s , such theory  coalition  and Gamson, A t k i n s o n ' s approach t o m o t i v a t i o n power and the concept o f  The s o u r c e s  the most p a r t r e s t  limited  for  about s o c i o - e c o n o m i c theories  theory,  o f Caplow  the n o t i o n  of  c o n s c i o u s n e s s " which i s developed as  a s u b - p a r t o f the broader n o t i o n o f  "status  concern".  From t h e s e ,  B l a l o c k deduces s i n g l e p r o p o s i t i o n s grouped around what he c o n s i d e r s areas o f major ination,  s i g n i f i c a n c e such as S o c i o - E c o n o m i c F a c t o r s and D i s c r i m -  C o m p e t i t i o n and D i s c r i m i n a t i o n ,  and M i n o r i t y a plurality  Percentage and D i s c r i m i n a t i o n . of s p e c i a l  s p e c i f i c themes. are  largely  Power and D i s c r i m i n a t i o n ,  theories  Deductions are made from  and the d e d u c t i o n s are o r g a n i z e d  around  D i s c r e p a n c i e s which might develop from such an approach  r e s o l v e d by a s e t o f common assumptions about c a u s a l  which would seem to stem from a u n i t y he does not f u l l y for explanation  articulate.  of outlook  However,  based on c o n f l i c t  theory  i n general  B l a l o c k ' s obvious  relations  theory  which  preference  g i v e s a coherence and  internal  c o n s i s t e n c y to h i s whole s e t o f p r o p o s i t i o n s t h a t are noteworthy  --  they are s y s t e m a t i c ,  power  p r e c i s e and most c o m p e l l i n g a r t i c u l a t o r s  and c o n f l i c t a n a l y s i s , as a p p l i e d to m i n o r i t y  relations.  of  T h i s use o f  .  i  1  -47empirical  s t u d i e s would appear to be g u i d e s to suggest the theory  i n most i n s t a n c e s e v i d e n c e i s too meagre to o f f e r f o r the  substantial  support  theory.  While not a l l  major a s p e c t s o f r a c e and e t h n i c a p p r o a c h , h i s restatement  relations  by t h i s  propositional  theory,  h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f power and e l a b o r a t i o n  of  are  covered  coalition-formation of s o c i a l  p s y c h o l o g i c a l mechanisms, make f o r wide a p p l i c a b i l i t y which beyond the area o f race and e t h n i c power v a r i a b l e s theoretical ledges  as  relations.  extends  To imply t h a t  four  c o u l d p r o v i d e the b a s i c o r g a n i s a t i o n around which a  framework  might  be d e v e l o p e d i s , as B l a l o c k h i m s e l f  ( 1 9 6 7 : 1 9 1 ) , somewhat premature.  c i s e enumeration and c o r r e l a t i o n  While the s y s t e m a t i c and p r e -  o f items  is useful, i t  usage i n comprehending the t o t a l i t y o f m i n o r i t y the same way as a sound comprehension o f  acknow-  has  behaviour.  individual  limited In much  behaviour or  small group b e h a v i o u r does not n e c e s s a r i l y guarantee a g r a s p o f societal little  b e h a v i o u r , B l a l o c k ' s somewhat r e d u c t i o n i s t approach has  broader v a l u e ,  a p a r t from i t s  obvious i n t r i n s i c v a l u e .  i s l a c k i n g i s an h i s t o r i c a l , i n t e r p r e t i v e Only then c o u l d i t  be more u s e f u l  Schermerhorn (1965) i n h i s a r t i e l ®  What  and more dynamic a p p r o a c h .  f o r c o m p a r a t i v e work.  ."Toward a General  Theory o f  II  Minority  G r o u p s , l i k e w i s e attempts  o f the m i n o r i t y analysis  (238).  situation"  to s k e t c h the u n d e r l y i n g  i n o r d e r to permit  features  comparative c r o s s  He a n a l y s e s o b s e r v a t i o n s o f c e r t a i n  cultural  "sub-forms of a  -48wicjfir c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . . . t e r m e d c u l t u r a l set o f f  s u b o r d i n a t e s " ( i b i d ) , which a r e  from the r e s t o f the p o p u l a t i o n by two d i m e n s i o n s : c u l t u r a l  d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s and s u b j e c t i o n . and power as being important  He sees t h e s e dimensions o f  to s e p a r a t e f o r a n a l y s e s :  c o n t a c t phase s h o u l d be examined, to see whether  (1)  diversity the  pre-  the v a l u e s o f  both  groups are congruent o r i n c o n g r u e n t , s i n c e he sees t h i s as  directly  r e l a t e d t o the amount o f p o t e n t i a l  submission.  (2)  c o n f l i c t , c o n s t r a i n t or  The c o n t a c t phase as independent v a r i a b l e  --  l a t i o n s h i p between both groups i n the r e s u l t i n g vening v a r i a b l e  --  intergroup arena,  patterns  of  Inter-  — mode o f  In a d d i t i o n to  deductive  i n d u c t i v e elements must be o b t a i n e d  by i n s p e c t i o n f o r which he suggests t h r e e f o c i : t i o n o r c o n t r o l , (b)  (a)  t y p e s o f domina-  forms o f c u m u l a t i v e d i r e c t i o n a b i 1 i t y ,  and  (c)  stratification.  In summary, Schermerhorn o v e r s t r e s s e s the importance o f c u l t u r a l and d i f f e r e n c e s between s u b o r d i n a t e and s u p e r o r d i n a t e g r o u p s . central  postulate of  relations  intergroup r e l a t i o n s  is:  between two groups w i t h d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l  or l i f e  tend to be g r e a t e r  values  His  "To the e x t e n t t h a t  and o f unequal power i n any s o c i e t y d i s p l a y c o n f l i c t , t h i s will  re-  legitimacy/  Dependent v a r i a b l e  a c t i o n adopted and s e t o f responses to power. o f the  interaction.  p e r c e p t i o n s o f groups i n terms o f  i l l e g i t i m a c y g i v e r i s e to i d e o l o g i e s .  features  i n terms o f power  the  histories  conflict  to the e x t e n t t h a t the v a l u e s o f the two groups  are i n c o n g r u e n t ; c o n v e r s e l y , the r e l a t i o n s w i l l  be more harmonious t o  the e x t e n t t h a t the v a l u e s o f the two groups are congruent " ( i b i d : 2 4 5 ) .  -49f o c u s on v a l u e s as v i t a l f o r cleavage  differences  between  i s to b y - p a s s more fundamental  economic p o s i t i o n o f the g r o u p s , and t h e i r point  to c u l t u r a l  differences  and use t h i s  to n e g l e c t the shape.  o n l y with d i f f e r e n c e s relations,  (2)  tools  for  scientific  "to f a c i l i t a t e more p r o d u c t i v e  ordinate  article,  and s u p e r o r d i n a t e  seems s i m p l i s t i c :  exploration,  results  in future  ex-  (1)  research." conthe  legitimation, definitions.  the r o l e o f v a l u e congruence between groups would appear c e n t r a l .  sub-  His assumption  "When the ethos o f the s u b o r d i n a t e s has v a l u e s  of o b j e c t i v e s )  will  c o n t r a s t i n g or c o n t r a d i c t o r y ,  superordinates  be f a c i l i t a t e d ; integration  will  de-  as he  theories,  common o r d i s c r e p a n t goal  common to those i n the ethos o f the ordination  i n v a l u e to  i s adequate w i t h o u t some c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f  c o n g r u e n c e , and (3)  As i n h i s e a r l i e r  group  (1970) attempts to  I n t e g r a t i o n i s then a n a l y s e d i n terms o f  cultural  specific  Ethnic Relations: A  He begins with a d i s c u s s i o n o f consensus and c o n f l i c t  other.  tends  departure.  velop a s e r i e s of conceptual  cluding that neither  value  would seem to have a  f o r Theory and R e s e a r c h , Schermerhorn  describes i t ,  To  f o r cleavages in s o c i e t y  h i s subsequent more d e t a i l e d .work Comparative  Framework  interests.  the  which attempts to understand m i n o r i t y  s u b o r d i n a t e and s u p e r o r d i n a t e point of  varying  basis  such as  i n which i d e o l o g i e s have taken t h e i r  by c o n c e r n i n g i t s e l f  questionable  In  structure  differences  h i s t o r i e s as u n d e r l y i n g s o - c a l l e d  as e x p l a n a t i o n  Hence any theory  relations, plain  and l i f e  groups and as the  integration  when the v a l u e s be o b s t r u c t e d . "  (coare (72)  -50The v a l u e s Schermerhorn speaks o f a r e f r e q u e n t l y , pointed out,  "ruling  as Dahrendorf  v a l u e s " and s o - c a l l e d v a l u e d i f f e r e n c e s  always  be seen to e x i s t ,  even though t h e r e may be l i t t l e  social  reality,  i n the  sequential  if  it  patterns  is  of ethnic  interests  relations,  emergence o f  and (5)  colonization.  categorical are  indigenous i s o l a t e s ,  i n nature  relating  (3)  emergence o f  annexation,  Concluding inductive  (4)  always a product o f c o e r c i v e d o m i n a t i o n .  is certainly  not always t r u e :  f o r example, r e s u l t e d  On the w h o l e ,  the  brutal  Five  Pariahs, migration,  generalizations vertical  The r e v e r s e  conquests o f S p a n i s h A m e r i c a ,  in either mild or non-existent  and the type o f a n n e x a t i o n c o l o u r l i n e or r a c i s t  the  in  and tend to be  f o r the most p a r t p o o r l y s u b s t a n t i a t e d , f o r example,  racism...is  basis  to r a c i s m and  These are not very e l u c i d a t i v e however.  can  o f the r u l i n g g r o u p .  p l u r a l i s m a r e d i s c u s s e d by Schermerhorn: (1) (2)  has  p r a c t i c e d by R u s s i a  forms o f r a c i s m ,  ' d i d not r e s u l t  in a  ideology (ibid:156). 1  i n d e c i s i v e n e s s o f the a u t h o r ,  h i s tendency to  vacillate  from a m a c r o - s o c i o l o g i c a l approach to a m i c r o - s o c i o l o g i c a l approach i n order to a r r i v e  a t m i d d l e range t h e o r i e s ,  it  might be.  at  the same time o v e r s t r e s s i n g the  than  His d a b b l i n g with c o n c e p t s o f power and c o n f l i c t ,  f o r a general  lack of c l a r i t y .  If  to the q u e s t i o n he posed i n i t i a l l y comparative  is less elucidating  research in ethnic  while  importance o f v a l u e congruence makes he had m e t h o d i c a l l y a d d r e s s e d h i m s e l f as the c e n t r a l  relations  q u e s t i o n t o which  s h o u l d seek a n s w e r s ,  "What a r e the c o n d i t i o n s t h a t f o s t e r o r p r e v e n t  the  viz:  integration  of  -51e t h n i c groups i n t o  their  e n v i r o n i n g s o c i e t i e s ? " t h i s work would have  been more u s e f u l .  The t h e o r i e s o f m i n o r i t y ities:  (1)  groups o u t l i n e d share the f o l l o w i n g  they emphasize the  importance o f c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  similar-  comparative  a n a l y s i s , which r e p r e s e n t s a c o n s i d e r a b l e improvement on e a r l i e r  trends  i n s o c i o l o g y and a n t h r o p o l o g y , where the tendency has been to f o c u s on homogeneous g r o u p s . have i n t e g r a t e d  (2)  With t h e e x c e p t i o n o f B l a l o c k , a l l  a strong h i s t o r i c a l  perspective.  (3)  s t u d i e s r e j e c t i n one form o r o t h e r the t r a d i t i o n a l  studies  Almost a l l  the  consensus o r  e q u i l i b r i u m model f o r a n a l y s i s .  5.  Marxist  A general  Explanations c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f M a r x i s t w r i t i n g on r a c e and e t h n i c i t y  the l a c k o f r e c o g n i t i o n o f the problem. class polarization  would " s o l v e " the  Marx had assumed t h a t  national  official  persistence of r a c i a l  social relations  racialist  practice.  race r e l a t i o n s  are  The few M a r x i s t s who  d o c t r i n e based t h e i r  explanations of  the  and e t h n i c antagonism on t h r e e a s s u m p t i o n s .  The s p e c i f i c s t r u c t u r a l and i t s  increasing  q u e s t i o n s by c r o s s - c u t t i n g  the f a l s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f e t h n i c c h a u v i n i s m . d e v i a t e d from t h i s  is  In  context,  in p a r t i c u l a r  the c a p i t a l i s t  of production, i s d e c i s i v e for l e s s advanced c a p i t a l i s t  p r o c e s s i s based on common i n t e r e s t s the o p p r e s s i v e b o u r g e o i s i e .  The e s s e n t i a l  the presence o f  (2)  p o s i t i o n i n the  and u n i t y  system  c o u n t r i e s problems  s a i d to be i n s i g n i f i c a n t o r a b s e n t .  c l a s s which emerges from o c c u p y i n g a s i m i l a r  (1)  among workers  of  Social production against  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s between  both  -52c l a s s e s p r o v i d e the dynamic which g i v e s r i s e to h i g h e r class consciousness.  (3)  Race and e t h n i c i t y  i n the c o u r s e o f the c l a s s  struggle  r e l e v a n c e as epiphenomena.  are  protagonists  who argued e x a c t l y  this  i n the  of t h i s  position for  i s an o v e r -  interests.  perspective  ir-  One o f  i s O . C . Cox (1959)  the s i t u a t i o n  of the  black  on r a c e i s r e f l e c t i v e  minorities.  accommodation o f e t h n i c  Such f a c t o r s  had been h i t h e r t o  European b i a s o f Marxian  theory.  His  system o f p r o d u c t i o n was based  o f a more undogmatic M a r x i s t  p o i n t s to the d i f f e r i n g  view however.  as opposed to  underestimated,  Furthermore,  racial  common c l a s s p o s i t i o n s tend to be i n a d e q u a t e l y  simple economic e x p l a n a t i o n s . between  b l a c k and white workers  such a model a p a r t from the explanation?  How, f o r  considering  and  ethnic  made, e s p e c i a l l y as c o l o n i a l  between  despite  elucidated  by  i n s t a n c e , c o u l d the absence o f  i n South A f r i c a be e x p l a i n e d  somewhat inane  The d i s t i n c t i o n  He  racial  antagonisms which stand i n the way o f working c l a s s s o l i d a r i t y  unity  worker  w r i t e s a l o n g much the same l i n e s .  study o f the American South i n which the  their  ?  U.S.  Eugene Genovese (1968, 1974)  the  relative  What would emerge i n s t e a d  the most prominent  of  s a i d to w i t h e r away  because o f t h e i r  r i d i n g c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s based on a u n i t y o f  levels  "false  consciousness"  race and e t h n i c i t y  c o n t e x t s were examined.  had to be  Hence, Genovese  argues s t r o n g l y a g a i n s t  the tendency to view B l a c k s s i m p l y "as an  exploited  one o f a number of e t h n i c  class o r . . . a s  c a p i t a l i s m has o p p r e s s e d i n v a r i o u s ways"  by  groups...which  (1968:220).  I n s t e a d he  -53s t r e s s e s t h a t the b l a c k q u e s t i o n must be seen as one o f c l a s s nationalism,  if  one i s not to  the b l a c k e x p e r i e n c e  In  o r d e r to f i l l  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s "  the e x i s t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l  s e n t s the model o f as an inadequate  " b l u r the unique and c e n t r a l  "internal  (1)  model  vacuum, Blauner  colonialism".  tical  He r e j e c t s  this  from the c l a s s i c a l  h i s t o r i c a l l y and s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l l y i n f o u r r e s p e c t s .  inhabited  i s not e n t i r e l y  to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  by c u l t u r a l l y  and r a c i a l l y  different  the case i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  The usual p a t t e r n was f o r the c o l o n y to e x i s t  of  l a b o u r and o t h e r  r e s o u r c e s o f the c o l o n i z e d .  to be e x p l o i t e d ,  this  large  Whites  numbers o f  poli-  people,  Geographical sense.  s u b o r d i n a t e to and  be dependent upon the mother c o u n t r y which e x p l o i t s  classical  pre-  "class analysis"  s e p a r a t i o n o f the c o l o n y i s absent i n the extreme e x t e r n a l (2)  (1969)  and economic domination o v e r a g e o g r a p h i c a l l y e x t e r n a l  unit,  of  p e r s p e c t i v e f o r e x p l a i n i n g r a c e and r a c i s m i n A m e r i c a ,  Whereas c l a s s i c a l c o l o n i a l i s m r e f e r r e d  political  quality  (ibid.).  and acknowledges t h a t h i s suggested model d i f f e r s colonial  and  l a n d , raw  materials,  Although Blacks continue  d i d not i n v o l v e the permanent  settlement  i n any land u n e q u i v o c a b l y b l a c k .  of  (3)  In  c o l o n i a l m o d e l , r e c o g n i t i o n i s g i v e n to d i f f e r e n c e s  in  power, autonomy and p o l i t i c a l  s t a t u s , and o f f i c i a l  i n s t i t u t i o n s are s e t up to m a i n t a i n  this  subordination.  not so i n the U . S . and never has been the  1. T h i s would seem however to history.  a g e n c i e s and  caseJ  (4)  This is Whereas  the  political clearly  the  i g n o r e the presence o f s l a v e r y i n U . S .  -54ideal-type  p a t t e r n o f c o l o n i a l r e a c t i o n s i n v o l v e d the c o n t r o l and e x -  p l o i t a t i o n o f a m a j o r i t y by a m i n o r i t y o f o u t s i d e r s , the b l a c k o p p r e s s e d , on the c o n t r a r y , were themselves o r i g i n a l l y o u t s i d e r s and a numerical minority  (1969:139).  However, w h i l e acknowledging the d i f f e r e n c e s between the c l a s s i c a l colonial  model and the  "internal  c o l o n i a l i s m " o f B l a c k s i n the  Blauner c o n s i d e r s the e x i s t i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s ful  comprehension o f the s i t u a t i o n .  z a t i o n complex are seen as r e l e v a n t Forced i n v o l u n t a r y e n t r y , occurrence of s l a v e r y .  more important  U.S.,  f o r meaning-  Four b a s i c components o f the to the p o s i t i o n o f B l a c k s :  (1)  which i n the case o f B l a c k s began w i t h  (2)  The impact o f c o l o n i a l  coloni-  the  p o l i c y which c o n s t r a i n s ,  c o n f i r m s and d e s t r o y s i n d i g e n o u s c u l t u r e and s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n o f c o l o n i z e d , which supercedes " n a t u r a l " tion.  (3)  the  p r o c e s s e s o f c o n t a c t and a c c u l t u r a -  The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the c o l o n i z e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  of  the dominant g r o u p , which the c o l o n i z e d e x p e r i e n c e as m a n i p u l a t i o n and management,  1  and (4)  r a c i s m , which has g e n e r a l l y accompanied c o l o n i a l i s m  as a p r i n c i p l e o f s o c i a l domination and bases i t s alleged b i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (140).  exploitation  While B l a u n e r concedes t h a t  o t h e r e t h n i c groups have a l s o l i v e d i n g h e t t o e s , he p o i n t s t o special  on  three  f e a t u r e s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g b l a c k g h e t t o e s as an e x p r e s s i o n o f  1. T h i s would appear to c o n t r a d i c t B l a u n e r s e a r l i e r p o i n t about the absence o f o f f i c i a l a g e n c i e s and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s to m a i n t a i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n , a l t h o u g h he might argue t h a t t h e s e a r e i n f o r m a l not official. 1  -55colonized status. from v o l u n t a r y  (1)  G e n e r a l l y speaking e t h n i c g h e t t o e s a r o s e more  c h o i c e i n the sense o f m i g r a t i n g  d e c i s i o n to l i v e  among f e l l o w  to be one and two g e n e r a t i o n turation  ethnics.  (2)  to A m e r i c a , and the  Immigrant g h e t t o e s  phenomena, l e a d i n g i n e v i t a b l y  and a s s i m i l a t i o n , and (3)  distinct  poverty,  i n s o f a r as t h e i r  from the o u t s i d e  (397).  often  to  accul-  European e t h n i c groups generally  period of r e l a t i v e  tend  experience a  l e s s than a g e n e r a t i o n .  Blacks are  s e g r e g a t e d communities have remained An h i s t o r i c a l  brief  controlled  comparison o f the forms which  c o l o n i a l i s m has taken and a d e s c r i p t i o n of the p o s i t i o n o f B l a c k s i n the U . S . economy make " i n t e r n a l  c o l o n i a l i s m " an apt model to d e s c r i b e  r a c e and e t h n i c r e l a t i o n s more f u l l y . ghetto  The economic r e l a t i o n s  to white A m e r i c a , c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l  c o u n t r i e s and the  industrially  t h a t the d i s t o r t i o n  those between t h i r d  advanced c o u n t r i e s .  o f the l o c a l  the  world  has been suggested  economy caused by o u t s i d e o w n e r s h i p ,  can be compared to the c r e a t i o n o f underdevelopment through p r o c e s s e s d e s c r i b e d by Gunder Frank  If,  It  of  however, one were to draw l o g i c a l  in external  colonies,  (1967).  c o n c l u s i o n s from t h i s  perspective,  freedom f o r b l a c k s would be concomitant with independence o f the s e c t o r through b l a c k autonomy from white s o c i e t y . model o f  "internal  Independence  colonialism" displays its  i n the c o l o n i a l  It  i s here t h a t  greatest  shortcoming.  s e n s e , o r i n the case o f the U . S . ,  autonomy from the white community, would be m e a n i n g f u l , o n l y i t w i t h i n a c o n t e x t where i t  black  can e n f o r c e demands f o r the t r a n s f e r  the  black if of  is  -56significant  resources.  Alternatively  A p a r t h e i d programme o f g e o g r a p h i c a l a situation little  of greater  else.  It  poverty,  is this  particular  the c o n c e p t o f  meaningful  s i n c e at  other m i n o r i t i e s  this  reality  6*lacks, as i m p l i e d  partition  l a b o u r power and  which makes " c l a s s a n a l y s i s " , working c l a s s " ,  p o i n t the d i f f e r e n c e s  be dependent on the a b i l i t y  the  i n S . A . , would be i n  l e f t with t h e i r  "marginal  become m i n i m a l .  in  so much more  between  B l a c k s and  Effectiveness in t h i s  to c r e a t e  in  area would  a l l i a n c e s w i t h o t h e r groups  to p r e s s u r e f o r common g o a l s .  6.  Theories of a S p l i t  In  response to the  Labour  Market  need f o r a developed t h e o r y o f e t h n i c  B o n a c i c h (1972) p r e s e n t s a very c a r e f u l l y and most f r u i t f u l  antagonism,  reasoned, widely  theory of e t h n i c antagonism.  applicable  In c o n t r a s t t o  views on e t h n i c antagonism which sought e x p l a n a t i o n  earlier  in diverse  factors  such as r e l i g i o n o f dominant g r o u p s , norms, v a l u e s and d i f f e r e n c e s s k i n c o l o u r , B o n a c i c h sees economic p r o c e s s e s as most Central  to her t h e o r e t i c a l  scheme i s the  h i g h e r p a i d l a b o u r and cheaper l a b o u r  (553).  dynamics o f such c o n s t e l l a t i o n s are c a r e f u l l y antagonism i s s a i d to f i r s t immigrant  workers a r e  Factors a f f e c t i n g scrutinised.  i n a l a b o u r market  the p r i c e o f  remunerated immigrant  for  labour  market  key c l a s s e s : b u s i n e s s ,  i n t r o d u c e d at a lower wage l e v e l .  o f workers are d i f f e r e n t i a l l y which determine  germinate  fundamental.  idea o f the s p l i t  which sees c o n f l i c t d e v e l o p i n g between t h r e e  in  the  labour are:  Ethnic  i n which Two groups  same work. (1)  the  level  Factors of  -57l i v i n g o r economic r e s o u r c e s , (2) base t h e i r of  expectations  indentured  --  information  the b e s t example o f t h i s  being the case  host c o u n t r y ,  namely the g r o u p ' s o r g a n i s a t i o n a l  motives f o r working permanently  on l i k e l y  or temporarily  l a b o u r d i s p u t e s , and f i n a l l y  (5)  E t h n i c antagonism i s p r e s e n t e d as t a k i n g e x c l u s i o n movements such as the former toward A s i a n i m m i g r a n t s , Apartheid.  caste-like  illustrated  home c o u n t r i e s , and t h e i r  differences  in  In  this  two a n t i t h e t i c a l  forms:  p o l i c y adopted by A u s t r a l i a  undercutting  potential  types o f work"  i n which  of  cheaper  (ibid:555).  i n s t a n c e , d e s p i t e the  reference  availability  o f cheaper A f r i c a n l a b o u r , mine owners had to succumb to the s t r e n g t h o f the white workers  in defending t h e i r  Whereas e x c l u s i o n movements s e r v e the and d e p r i v e s the e n t r e p r e n e u r s  Hopefully,  this  interests  position  collective  (ibid:556).  of higher paid  labour  o f cheaper l a b o u r , c a s t e arrangements  are based on e x c l u s i v e n e s s r a t h e r h i g h e r p a i d l a b o u r from being  influence  skill.  i n the South A f r i c a n case w i t h s p e c i a l  to the mining i n d u s t r y .  extent  s y s t e m s , such as South A f r i c a n  l a b o u r by e x c l u d i n g them from c e r t a i n is  the  political  "Caste i s e s s e n t i a l l y an a r i s t o c r a c y o f l a b o u r  h i g h e r p a i d l a b o u r d e a l s w i t h the  This  (3*)  in  s k i l l s and the  to which they can b r i n g p r e s s u r e to bear from t h e i r (4)  immigrants  l a b o u r e r s who a c c e p t c o n d i t i o n s o f employment  home country b e f o r e they have seen the resources,  on which  than e x c l u s i o n .  Both  protect  undercut.  study can demonstrate  how f a r  the o u t l i n e d  major  -58concepts i n the the study o f  l i t e r a t u r e on i n t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s  Indians i n South A f r i c a .  enfranchised m i n o r i t i e s , lessness.  As the s m a l l e s t o f t h r e e  they occupy a very s p e c i a l p o s i t i o n o f  They have n e i t h e r  the numerical  nor the c l a i m o f the C o l o u r e d s to p a r t i a l  There i s much c o l o u r f u l m a t e r i a l judices against  Indians.  restricting their  political  dispower-  a n c e s t r y by the r u l i n g g r o u p .  to document formal  At the o f f i c i a l  to  s t r e n g t h o f the A f r i c a n s  level,the  and i n f o r m a l amount o f  power, movement and g e n e r a l  documents the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t Non-Whites.  are a p p l i c a b l e  pre-  legislation  freedom amply  Indians as p a r t o f  the  However, t h e o r i e s o f p r e j u d i c e and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n c a n -  not be c o n s i d e r e d very e l u c i d a t i n g on the w h o l e , s i n c e they do not venture  beyond mere d e s c r i p t i o n to a n a l y s i s .  the dominant p o l i t i c a l tion-oriented  S i n c e the chances o f i n t e g r a t i o n  assimilation  The l e g a l  v a l u e i n such a c o n t e x t .  a r e n o n - e x i s t e n t and above a l l  system, there i s 1ittle'accompanying  cultural  either.  system which ranks i n d i v i d u a l s and groups on the b a s i s o f  pigmentation d i m i n i s h e s the v a l u e o f a general Even i f  to  i d e o l o g y o f " s e p a r a t e development", a s s i m i l a -  t h e o r i e s are a l s o o f l i t t l e  s a n c t i o n e d by a l e g a l  In r u n n i n g c o u n t e r  stratification  the c a s t e - c l a s s syndrome were a p p l i e d i t  unproductive of i n s i g h t into  would a t  the dynamics o f the t o t a l  i s the case o f s t r a t i f i c a t i o n - b a s e d  theory.  b e s t be  society.  Such  s t u d i e s conducted on i n d i v i d u a l  g r o u p s , which tend to be merely d e s c r i p t i v e .  -59Pluralist  theory which e x p l a i n s the p l u r a l  terms o f the presence o f c u l t u r a l questionable for  the a n a l y s i s of both Indians  plural  society theory,  i n South A f r i c a , a s w e l l  As p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r  the presence o f c u l t u r a l  this case,the Whites),  increased f r i c t i o n s . provide a r a t i o n a l e  nor do c u l t u r a l  What the p l u r a l i s t for maintaining  g r o u p , s i n c e non-white c u l t u r a l  development" by the r u l i n g g r o u p . tends to r e i f y  cultural  As s t r e s s e d e a r l i e r ,  the p r i v i l e g e s o f the  "under-  immutable.  behaviour of  Indians  i n South A f r i c a , the f o c u s has to take i n t o account two l e v e l s relations:  firstly,  to  such a p e r s p e c t i v e  they are  i n a n a l y s i n g the p o l i t i c a l  is  dominant  are equated w i t h  Furthermore,  d i f f e r e n c e s as i f  sectors  c l e a v a g e s , p e r se,amount to  concept does however,  attributes  in  diversity  does not a u t o m a t i c a l l y demand domination by one o f the c u l t u r a l (in  in  d i f f e r e n c e s of g r o u p s ^ i s h i g h l y  as f o r South A f r i c a n s o c i e t y as a whole. criticizing  s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t i e s  i n t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s , namely Indian  of  relations  w i t h the o t h e r s u b o r d i n a t e groups ( A f r i c a n s and C o l o u r e d s ) a n d with f  the p o l i t i c a l l y dominant group ( W h i t e s ) ; ferences, as i t s  secondly, intragroup  s i n c e they determine the g r o u p ' s p o l i t i c a l  role  in influencing p o l i t i c a l  change at  future  the s o c i e t a l  dif-  as w e l l level.  N e i t h e r t h e p r o t e a n c o n c e p t o f s o c i a l c l a s s , which m o s t l y r e f e r s  to  an aggregate o f people s h a r i n g s i m i l a r s t a t u s based on income, o c c u p a t i o n and w e a l t h ,  nor the M a r x i s t d e f i n i t i o n which sees c l a s s as  d e f i n e d through c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n the p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s , are d e s c r i p t i v e o f South A f r i c a n I n d i a n s .  adequately  They c o n s t i t u t e a c l a s s  only  -60i n terms o f the  status  bestowed on them by an i n i q u i t o u s  C o n t r a r y to the assumption u n d e r l y i n g almost a l l groups, minorities  are  theories  their  based on the o b j e c t i v e  presumed u n i t y o f  traders  the  internal  Indian community, which  varied opportunities  o r as i n d e n t u r e d  have r e l e v a n c e f o r  c o n d i t i o n s of t h e i r  i n t e r e s t s stemming from t h i s .  economic p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the emanate from t h e i r  of  minority  seldom m o n o l i t h i c o r homogeneous i n c o m p o s i t i o n .  Nor do they n e c e s s a r i l y behave i n u n i s o n out of a moral liberation  regime.  their  commitment  powerlessness and Differences  in  historically  and m o t i v a t i o n  as  immigrant  l a b o u r e r s , have c r e a t e d c o n s t e l l a t i o n s which political  behaviour.  Hence a s c r u t i n y  of  c o m p o s i t i o n o f the community^and an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  heterogeneity is  important  group b e h a v i o r .  Only through a g r a s p o f such u n d e r l y i n g p r o c e s s e s  ?  can any r e a l  f o r comprehending the dynamics o f  assessment o f p r e s e n t p o l i t i c a l  and f u t u r e t r e n d s  to  posited.  its  such  b e h a v i o u r be understood  -61IV.  RESEARCH PROCEDURES  Looking at  South A f r i c a from the o u t s i d e , one i s  l e f t w i t h the  t h a t r e s e a r c h must be i m p o s s i b l e i n t h a t s o c i e t y . nature  and c e n s o r s h i p i s a n t i c i p a t e d ,  ship of informants  certain  very  authoritarian  r a i s e s doubts about the p o s s i b i l i t y o f f r e e i n q u i r y .  intimidation  mation.  Its  and t h e i r  reluctance  as w e l l  to impart  as the  impression  Official  self-censor-  controversial  infor-  Yet r e s e a r c h i s done i n South A f r i c a , and i s p o s s i b l e to a extent.  The c h a l l e n g e  i s how to d e v i s e ways o f c o p i n g with  the  considerable obstacles.  Social  s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h i n South A f r i c a i s not l e g a l l y  dependent on a p e r m i t ,  prohibited  as i n many A f r i c a n s t a t e s .  Restrictions  i n terms o f t a b o o s , n o n - c o o p e r a t i o n by government  bureaucracies  politically racial  intra-group  form o f  r e s e a r c h as i n t h i s  interrogation  identity"and  as f a r  research i s concerned.  record, abroad.  i n any p o l i t i c a l  (Welsh,  at  In  sanctions  the same time keeping a low No major  organization  authoritarian  profile  problems were  had not been  directly  i n the p a s t and had a c l e a n  i n c l u d i n g a much-valued South A f r i c a n p a s s p o r t f o r Unlike other  1975).  c a s e , governmental  encountered on both c o u n t s , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e I active  in  by the S e c u r i t y P o l i c e can be avoided by  e s t a b l i s h i n g a"cleatr as the a c t u a l  operate  a c c e s s by a member o f one  g r o u p , to o t h e r g r o u p s , r e g a r d l e s s o f r a c e  the case o f i n the  s e n s i t i v e areas a n d , above a l l ,  or  police  travel  societies,no ideological  commitment  on the p a r t o f s u b o r d i n a t e s , o n l y a c q u i e s c e n c e , i s demanded i n South-  1. " C l e a r i d e n t i t y " connotes t h a t i n the p e r c e p t i o n o f a u t h o r i t i e s , expected r a c e - s p e c i f i c r o l e s have not been o v e r s t e p p e d through a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h members o f o t h e r r a c i a l g r o u p s , o r a c t i v i t y c o n s i d e r e d t o be s u b v e r s i v e or inflammatory has not been engaged i n .  -62Africa.  P o l i c e c o e r c i o n i s not a r b i t r a r i l y  o f the o u t - g r o u p ,  but a g a i n s t  directed against a l l  "subversive a c t i v i s t s " .  a c t i o n i s t o an e x t e n t c a l c u l a b l e and p r e d i c t a b l e . (1971b:46-7)  has s t r e s s e d the d i f f e r e n c e :  t o be c o n s i d e r e d a p o t e n t i a l authentic  "Since a l l  By s t r i c t l y  the A f r i c a n s have  a b i d i n g by t h e s e r e s t r i c t i o n s , however,  the  The g r e a t e r  difficulties  spread a n x i e t y  i n the  identity  community who taught from a well-known  for  family  to a r r a n g e .  was h e l p f u l .  i n D u r b a n , c o n t a c t s were not  foreign  and comes  a c a d e m i c , c l e a r l y d e f i n e d me as is possible.  as a p o l i c e i n f o r m a n t  Indian U n i v e r s i t y  a f t e r a two-year  d i d not " i d e n t i f y  Indian U n i v e r s i t y ,  from Durban i n 1968 and w i d e l y -  such a r e f e r e n c e  s u s p i c i o n about my i d e n t i t y the  Indian  still  living  wide-  this  the  p u b l i c i s e d marriage w i t h a  had my s e r v i c e s at  As a member o f the  In  two y e a r s a t  My d e p a r t u r e  an " o u t s i d e - i n s i d e r " , i f  con-  s e l f - c e n s o r s h i p as a consequence o f  and powerlessness on the p a r t o f most B l a c k s .  r e s p e c t my c l e a r  Indian A f f a i r s ,  all."  w i t h r e s e a r c h i n South A f r i c a l i e  p r e s s u r e and r e s u l t a n t  the  i n c o n t r a s t to the Jews o f German-  o c c u p i e d E u r o p e , f o r whom no laws e x i s t e d a t  I  As H e r i b e r t Adam  d a n g e r , the p o l i c e can o n l y cope w i t h  A f r i c a n can s t a y out o f t r o u b l e  difficult  state  o p p o n e n t s , d e f i n e d as o f f e n d e r s o f v a r i o u s laws and p e t t y  regulations.  formity  As s u c h ,  members  There was no  s i n c e I m y s e l f had  terminated  by the M i n i s t e r  of  p r o b a t i o n p e r i o d , on the grounds t h a t  w i t h my community".  P u b l i c i t y about my i n t e r r o g a -  t i o n by the S e c u r i t y P o l i c e i n 1965 when I r e t u r n e d from t h e would seem to have a l s o rendered me above s u s p i c i o n .  U.S.,  Above a l l  the  -63political  involvement of my f a m i l y  i n the e a r l y Congress d a y s ,  in  p a s s i v e r e s i s t a n c e campaigns and i n a s s i s t i n g A f r i c a n c h a r i t a b l e also lent  definition  to the way people p e r c e i v e d me.  s o c i e t i e s , among Indians  the  individual  Unlike  Western  p e r c e p t i o n by o t h e r s i s  i n the c o n t e x t o f a f a m i l y  b a c k g r o u n d , hence the r e l e v a n c e o f  these d e t a i l s .  the r e s p e c t f o r the  Above a l l ,  few f e m a l e s , i s so high t h a t s u p p o r t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n  a  s e r v i c e to the community  a s t a t u s symbol.  outlining  relatively  i n such academic  Many c o n s i d e r e d  to w r i t e a b o u t " o u r p r o b l e m s " .  f a c t o r s were very h e l p f u l , t h e r e were s t i l l  always  " e d u c a t e d " , namely those  with u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e s , more e s p e c i a l l y i n the case o f the  endeavours as " r e s e a r c h " i s i t s e l f  trusts  While  severe d i f f i c u l t i e s  it  these  which  had to be overcome.  Three p e r i o d s o f r e s e a r c h were conducted i n the Durban a r e a , April  1972 to September 1972,  June 1974 to August 1974.  February 1973 to September 1973,  During t h i s  o f g a t h e r i n g data were u s e d : evidence,  1.  (3)  Informal  participant  during  (1)  and  time f o u r main s o u r c e s and methods  informal  interviews,  o b s e r v a t i o n s , and (4)  student  (2)  documentary  essays.  Interviews  The e s t a b l i s h e d i d e n t i t y i s such t h a t a formal  notwithstanding,  the  structured interview  attitude  o f most  with preformulated q u e s t i o n s ,  a tape r e c o r d e r , o r even notes w r i t t e n d u r i n g a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i l l b a r r i e r s o f c a u t i o n and a n x i e t y . discarded in favour of informal  Therefore,  interviews,  Indians  trigger  t h e s e approaches were soon  i n which o n l y mention o f my  -64work  i n Canada on the s i t u a t i o n  o f South A f r i c a n Indians  was made.  S u b s e q u e n t l y , c o n v e r s a t i o n s were r e c o r d e d as c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y as p o s s i b l e . During the t a l k s , appointments, situation  ranging from c a s u a l d i s c u s s i o n at weddings to  key t o p i c s o f the  permitted.  i n v e s t i g a t i o n were i n t r o d u c e d as  Q u e s t i o n s such as "where d i d you l i v e  u s u a l l y l e d t o Group Areas d i s c u s s i o n s , and changes i n  style,  as w e l l  i n the new s u b u r b .  Similarly  the  before  this?"  as l i f e  formal  life-  i n the case o f  o l d e r respondents "where were you d u r i n g the  1949 r i o t s " was a u s e f u l  way to t a l k about  Many o t h e r  Indian-African  relations.  similar  leads  were more s p o n t a n e o u s l y f o r t h c o m i n g i n a s i t u a t i o n where most r e s p o n dents appeared to enjoy the o p p o r t u n i t y overcoming i n i t i a l  to t a l k about themselves  after  inhibitions.  In t h i s way 86 i n f o r m a l  interviews  were r e c o r d e d .  Persons s e l e c t e d  for  d i s c u s s i o n were a c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f the community, but above a l l ,  so-  called "opinion-leaders".  the  Indian p r e s s . as w e l l  These were people r e g u l a r l y  They were d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e by the p u b l i c r o l e s they  as the way o t h e r s p e r c e i v e d them.  l e a d i n g members o f v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t political often  groups.  A p p r o x i m a t e l y twelve persons i  In  this  various  study the  Included  groups, trade  in this  to speak f r e e l y formally  played  group were  unions and o r g a n i s e d  These were a l s o the persons w i t h the  discernable, inhibitions  me at a l l u n d e r  quoted i n  least,  though  about s e n s i t i v e s u b j e c t s .  a p p r o a c h e d , r e f u s e d to t a l k  to  pretences.  informal  interviews  which do not l e n d themselves  to  -65quantification of  "official  and events  2.  or c o m p a r i s o n , form a c e n t r a l  pronouncements" and the  s o u r c e f o r many  assessment o f s p e c i f i c  judgements organisations  discussed.  Documentary  Evidence  A more comprehensive and s y s t e m a t i c s o u r c e o f d a t a were o f f i c i a l private  documents on Indian a f f a i r s .  Department  of  Indian A f f a i r s  Back i s s u e s o f the from 1960 papers. all  they  and i n the Natal A r c h i v e s were  two I n d i a n w e e k l i e s ,  A s e a r c h o f the U n i v e r s i t y micro-level  Association,  The minutes  reviewed.  two Durban  of Durban-Westville  made a v a i l a b l e  had been commissioned to conduct f o r  trade unions.  the  "The Leader" and "The G r a p h i c "  s t u d i e s was c o n d u c t e d .  Economics Department  perused.  p u b l i c a t i o n s by  to the p r e s e n t were r e a d , as w e l l as the  relevant  Natal  Official  and  daily  library  The U n i v e r s i t y  to me s e v e r a l  small  various organisations  o f the South A f r i c a n  for of studies and  Indian Teachers  as w e l l as the South A f r i c a n S o c c e r F e d e r a t i o n , were  The Durban C h i l d W e l f a r e  l o o k through t h e i r  O r g a n i s a t i o n made i t  p o s s i b l e to  case books f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the t y p e  of  community work they were h a n d l i n g , and Natal Tamil V e d i c S o c i e t y ' s records-were  3.  also  Participatory  Participatory at Chatsworth,  viewed.  Observation  observations  i n c l u d e d mass meetings  various ratepayers  and A f r i c a n workers  meetings,  gathered o u t s i d e t h e i r  1973  of protesting  residents  s t r i k e s where I n d i a n  work p l a c e , 1972  and  1973  -66annual  c o n f e r e n c e s o f the South A f r i c a n I n d i a n Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n ,  Durban Indian C h i l d Welfare gatherings  such as the  meetings, student  rallies  1973 South A f r i c a n Tamil  c a b a r e t s , weddings, and p r i v a t e  Indian homes. interviews  4.  Whenever a p p r o p r i a t e ,  as w e l l  the o t h e r  Indian students of themselves, t h e i r  racial  groups, and t h e i r  s t u d e n t s from d i f f e r e n t 1950's,  v i s i o n s of  racial  were asked by t h e i r  the medical instructor  handed out to them t o g e t h e r statement  likely  relationship future  autobiographies".  with  developments  This  technique  (1963a,b) w i t h a sample o f  not been r e p e a t e d  year A r t s students at  and 26 s t u d e n t s at  event.  groups a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Cape Town i n  but has a p p a r e n t l y  c l a s s o f 39 f i r s t  of  Students  was used by p s y c h o l o g i s t Kurt Danziger  late  at a wide range  such o c c a s i o n s were used f o r  were probed through s o - c a l l e d " f u t u r e  the  parties  multi-racial  and notes were made on the i m p r e s s i o n s o f the  Future A u t o b i o g r a p h i e s o f  Perceptions of  cultural  Federation's Eistedfod,  and 1974 Annual General Meeting o f Hindu Maha S a b h a , political  at UDW,  school  since.  the U n i v e r s i t y o f  Durban-Westvilie  of the U n i v e r s i t y o f Natal  to respond on a p r e p a r e d  w i t h an e n v e l o p e ,  (see sample essay sheet i n  A regular  in  1973  page, to the  following  appendix):  " P l e a s e w r i t e a s h o r t essay i n the space below o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y one to two pages on the h i s t o r y o f South A f r i c a p r o j e c t e d i n t o the f u t u r e . Imagine you are a h i s t o r i a n w r i t i n g i n t h e 21st c e n t u r y and g i v i n g a . b r i e f o u t l i n e h i s t o r y o f South A f r i c a from 1973 to 2000. Do not merely w r i t e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f South A f r i c a i n 25 y e a r s time but w r i t e an a c t u a l h i s t o r y o f the i n t e r v e n i n g period. T h i s i s not a t e s t o f i m a g i n a t i o n — j u s t d e s c r i b e what you r e a l l y e x p e c t to happen. A t the e n d , p l e a s e add a s h o r t paragraph c o n c e r n i n g y o u r p e r s o n a l p l a n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r  -67the f u t u r e . (Write anonymously and f r a n k l y . Do not g i v e your name, but p l e a s e complete the s t a t i s t i c s a t the end)."-! The handout was headed " s o c i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t  on comparative  s t u d e n t a s p i r a t i o n s " , but d i d not mention the name o f the T h i s was done so t h a t the i n s t r u c t o r c o u l d c l a i m t h i s own work,  if  as p a r t o f  q u e s t i o n e d by the u n i v e r s i t y a u t h o r i t i e s .  approached i n f o r m a l l y  about s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s ,  u n s p e c i f i e d small  but proved u n c o - o p e r a t i v e .  his  They had been  s e v e r a l months p r e v i o u s l y by m y s e l f about  w i l l i n g n e s s to s u p p o r t and permit an as y e t  campus, p a r t i c u l a r l y  investigator.  All  their  project  r e s e a r c h on  by an o u t s i d e r , i s expected to be approved by the  R e c t o r , who u s u a l l y p r e f e r s to take a p e r s o n a l hand i n such e x e r c i s e s . T h i s would of c o u r s e have rendered any r e s p o n s e s , i f totally  worthless.  white medical school  Such problems d i d not e x i s t , at the U n i v e r s i t y o f Natal  f o r t h c o m i n g at  all,  however, a t the nonwhere the 26 essays  were c o l l e c t e d i n a compulsory s o c i o l o g y c o u r s e .  In the case of UDW, an i n s t r u c t o r a c q u a i n t e d w i t h me^and a l s o known to be on good terms with h i s s t u d e n t s , a g r e e d to a d m i n i s t e r the essay as p a r t o f h i s own r e q u i r e m e n t s . the s t u d e n t s were t o l d t h a t the  However, b e f o r e w r i t i n g  the  autobiography  i n s t r u c t o r r e q u e s t e d the essays as p a r t  1. T h i s f o r m u l a t i o n d i f f e r e d somewhat from D a n z i g e r ' s v e r s i o n which a l s o d i d not c o n t a i n the l a s t sentence and the s t a t i s t i c a l s e c t i o n . No comp a r i s o n between the two surveys i s p o s s i b l e or was aimed a t . The s t a t i s t i c s on s e x , y e a r a t u n i v e r s i t y , area o f s t u d y , language and r e l i g ious i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , which i n i t i a l l y were e n v i s a g e d f o r a b i g g e r s a m p l e , were not u t i l i z e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s because o f the small sample and p o s s i b l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a u t h o r s .  -68of a  vaguely r e f e r r e d  to  c o m p a r a t i v e p r o j e c t i n which Indian s t u d e n t s ?  too would have an o p p o r t u n i t y to s t a t e  frankly  their  real  f e e l i n g s . The  i n s t r u c t o r a l s o mentioned t h a t he p e r s o n a l l y would not see the c o l l e c t e d i n a s e a l e d envelope a f t e r way,  t h e r e were a p p a r e n t l y  half  w i t h the  Encouraged i n  no q u e s t i o n s and the s t u d e n t s ,  enjoyed the o p p o r t u n i t y to express t h e i r wanted to d i s c u s s t h e i r  an hour.  different  essays, this  reportedly,  f e e l i n g s anonymously and even  views among themselves  afterwards,  instructor.  T h i s somewhat surreptitious procedure w i t h o u t l y i n g to a n y o n e , be the o n l y p o s s i b l e way to c o l l e c t some s e l f - w r i t t e n  1  seemed to  and l i t t l e  pre-  s t r u c t u r e d e x p r e s s i o n s o f hopes and a s p i r a t i o n s by the s u b j e c t s under the g i v e n c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  While the p o s s i b i l i t y was c o n s i d e r e d to  approach s t u d e n t s i n d i v i d u a l l y , t h i s i n the l i b r a r y .  A n o t h e r o p t i o n would have been t o have the  essays w r i t t e n by h i g h - s c h o o l p u p i l s . stitutions  soon proved i n f e a s i b l e when  tried  student  However, t e a c h e r s i n these i n -  are f a r more dependent, r e g u l a t e d and f e a r f u l  than  university  1. Many r e s e a r c h e r s i n the South A f r i c a n s i t u a t i o n d e l i b e r a t e l y d e c e i v e the a u t h o r i t i e s i n o r d e r to overcome o b s t a c l e s , van den Berghe (1970: 152) w r i t e s about h i s " e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h tyranny" i n South A f r i c a : "From the o u t s e t , I d e c i d e d t h a t I s h o u l d have no s c r u p l e s i n d e c e i v i n g the government and t h a t the paramount c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n my d e a l i n g s w i t h the s t a t e would be to minimize o b s t a c l e s to my r e s e a r c h w i t h o u t compromising my p r i n c i p l e s . " A d i f f e r e n t view i s e x p r e s s e d by former AAA p r e s i d e n t Ralph Beals (1959:183): "If f o r e i g n r e s e a r c h can be conducted o n l y under c r i p p l i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s o r abandonment o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d a r d s , the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t ' s o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e may be to abandon h i s r e s e a r c h . " Beals f e a r s t h a t attempts by s c h o l a r s to " a t t a c k o r undermine governments of which they d i s a p p r o v e " may "have d i s a s t r o u s e f f e c t s upon a l l f u t u r e r e s e a r c h " (181). But i f such r e s e a r c h i s i r r e l e v a n t by a v o i d i n g c r i t i c a l i s s u e s , why s h o u l d t h e r e be concern about i t s f u t u r e ?  -69i n s t r u c t o r s while than school itself  their  s t u d e n t s are l e s s p o l i t i c i z e d .  and u n i v e r s i t y a t t e n d e r s , o n the o t h e r  to the r e q u e s t f o r a s e l f - w r i t t e n  No o t h e r  audience  hand,would have  statement,  because i t  lent  would  not have been a " c a p t i v e a u d i e n c e " .  The d i s t i n c t advantage o f the essay type i n q u i r y over a s t r u c t u r e d questionnaire l i e s  in i t s  very o p e n n e s s .  The e s s a y does not presuppose  an o p i n i o n o r concern where none might b e , as i n many a t t i t u d e s t u d i e s . What i s not mentioned i s as important while  for perusal.  as the t o p i c s c o n s i d e r e d w o r t h -  L i k e a Rorschach T e s t  o r TAT the open-ended  a u t o b i o g r a p h y amounts to a w r i t t e n a r t i c u l a t i o n and a n x i e t i e s  projected into  the  The 65 essays were the optimal  future  of hopes, f r u s t r a t i o n s  future.  number p o s s i b l e to c o l l e c t under  g i v e n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a n d a l s o deemed s u f f i c i e n t a n a l y s i s apart  for  inquiry.  No q u a n t i t a t i v e  aimed a t ,  and the responses are not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  Indian s t u d e n t s o r any s e c t i o n o f them.  the  the purpose o f  the  from a f r e q u e n c y count was for  the o u t l o o k s o f  What they do d e m o n s t r a t e ,  however, a r e s i x c r u c i a l themes i n the o r d e r o f f r e q u e n c y m e n t i o n e d : (1)  v i s i o n s of r e v o l u t i o n a r y  c h a n g e , (2)  (3)  f e e l i n g s o f powerlessness and low s e l f - c o n c e p t i o n , (4)  t i o n o f dominant i d e o l o g i e s , (5) attitudes  towards A f r i c a n s .  wider awareness, and (6)  The i n t e r e s t  i n the type o f a r g u m e n t a t i o n , not i t s t o p i c s are a r t i c u l a t e d .  v i s i o n s of e v o l u t i o n a r y change, internalizadominant  o f t h i s a n a l y s i s however  f r e q u e n c y , w i t h which the  The essays are c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t  for  lies  six the  -70i l l u s t r a t i o n of typical I n d i a n s , as r e f l e c t e d sections.  syndromes or s t r u c t u r e s o f t h i n k i n g  i n the  among  language and images o f the most educated  -71y THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF INDIAN DEVELOPMENT TILL  1.  R e a c t i o n s to  Indian  Immigration  The Indian presence i n South A f r i c a dates indentured followed empire  1971  back to 1860.  The system o f  l a b o u r by which most Indians were brought to South A f r i c a  c l o s e l y i n the wake o f the  i n 1834.  With the r e f u s a l  on many p l a n t a t i o n s ,  abolition  o f the  an o p p o r t u n i t y  freed  was c r e a t e d  p r e v i o u s l y engaged i n sending l a b o u r e r s to o t h e r  of s l a v e r y  i n the  s l a v e s to c o n t i n u e for private  to C e y l o n ,  to now extend  "coolies"  Mauritius,  then to the C a r r i b e a n and to G u i a n a , where c i t i z e n s  pp.  8-16,  29-40).  plantations  i s l a n d s i n the. I n d i a n Ocean,  more than h a l f  A similar  o f the p o p u l a t i o n  v o i d o f cane c u t t e r s  l e d to a t r i - p a r t i t e agreement  still  a demand f o r  of  foreign  between  the c o l o n i a l  1969).  were s e t t l e d  ( W a l k e r , 1964;  placement o f s e t t l e r s ,  and b o r d e r a r e a s . a g a i n s t  Britain  1820 districts  "Batavian  W i l s o n and Thompson, aimed a t  the  control  the expanding Dutch c o l o n i a l i s t s .  A f r i c a n kingdoms i n the N o r t h .  Z u l u power i n a major  b a t t l e at  which l e d to a s h o r t - l i v e d  Boer r e p u b l i c o f Natal  fighting  o f the Dutch " T r e k k e r s "  and the d e p a r t u r e  apparently  i n the f r o n t i e r  had c a p t u r e d the Cape from the  i n the South and w e l l - o r g a n i z e d Boers had d e f e a t e d  which  i n South A f r i c a d i d not s t a r t b e f o r e  i n 1795 and a g a i n i n 1803  coastal  Zulu-speaking  labour.  Britain  By the s t r a t e g i c  of c r u c i a l  to p r o v i d e a s t e a d y s u p p l y o f  as a s i z e a b l e E n g l i s h s e t t l e m e n t  when 5,000 s e l e c t e d E n g l i s h immigrants  Republic" f i r s t  administration  Indians by some f o r t y y e a r s , t h e r e was  An o r g a n i z e d B r i t i s h s e t t l e m e n t  o f the E a s t e r n Cape.  Indian  sugar  A l t h o u g h t h e r e e x i s t e d an i n d i g e n e o u s  had preceded the a r r i v a l  of  i n South A f r i c a ' s  l a b o u r from I n d i a .  well  especially  1951,  ( P a c h a i , 1971,  in Natal,as  their  (Kondapi,  o f Natal and I n d i a  A f r i c a n population  p 1)  working  recruiters,  supply of  d e s c e n t today c o n s t i t u t e  British  Here  Blood R i v e r i n (ibid). into  the  After  the  1838, Boer-British  interior  areas,  -72Natal  was annexed as a Crown c o l o n y i n 1843.  British settlers the m i l i t a r y  supported by r e g u l a r  the  import o f f o r e i g n  o f Europeans to manual done by non-white  labour arose p a r t l y  people ( P a c h a i , 1971).  and the p r e v a i l i n g  attitudes  view,  toward  "natives"  be worked e n t i r e l y  pp. 3-13).  the employment o f the h i s t o r i c a l  o f A f r i c a n l a b o u r has been a t t r i b u t e d c a p a c i t i e s o f a Z u l u to t h e i r  is reference  1969;  1949;  Walker,  possible  deficient  forms o f s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . "unreliability";  the  There  self-  K u p e r , 1969;  (Burrows,  P a l m e r , 1957;  1943;  Marquard,  between c o l o n i z e r and c o l o n i z e d  i n d i g e n e o u s A f r i c a n p o p u l a t i o n , though m i l i t a r i l y fully  with s u f f i c i e n t m a t e r i a l  Africans against plantation and the h e a d - t a x  posed  inappropriateness  to a range o f reasons from  a relationship  the newcomers were not y e t intact  (Palmer,  Woods, 1954).  These assessments r e f l e c t i n which the  it  economy and the u n w i l l i n g n e s s o f A f r i c a n s t o be  F e r g u s o n - D a v i e , 1952; 1962;  conditions  i n South A f r i c a ,  c o e r c e d i n t o dependence on Europeans by economic p r e s s u r e . Calpin,  attitude  "natives" apparently  l i t e r a t u r e the  to A f r i c a n " l a c k o f i n d u s t r y " ;  s u f f i c i e n c y o f the t r i b a l  from the  by W h i t e s , even when  1957,  In  (ibid).  Given the s e m i - t r o p i c a l  numbers and g e o g r a p h i c a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n made t h i s  severe d i f f i c u l t i e s .  completed  amounted to work to be  their  However,  century  t r o o p s from the metropole  labour which, in t h e i r  was i n c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t an e s t a t e  innate  half  s u b j u g a t i o n o f the A f r i c a n p o p u l a t i o n i n Natal  T h i s need f o r  o f Natal  For the next  c o n q u e r e d , but above a l l  remained  r e s o u r c e s o f land and c a t t l e  work.  Missionary penetration  w i t h which A f r i c a n s were l a t e r  by working  i n the m i n e s , c o u l d not be imposed a t  sufficient  control.  weaker  that  had j u s t  forced into  than  culturally immunized begun  the money economy  t h a t s t a g e due to  in-  The remaining o p t i o n was open c o e r c i o n which however  would have amounted to the r e s u r r e c t i o n o f the j u s t  abolished s l a v e r y system.  -73In  this  situation  the  import of f o r e i g n  l a b o u r seemed an i d e a l  from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f the sugar cane f a r m e r s . Indians  were to p r o v i d e the p l a n t e r s  continuous and r e l i a b l e  and Natal  solution  By c o n t r a s t to the Z u l u s , authorities  supply of d o c i l e labour"  with "a c h e a p ,  (Palmer,  1957,  p.  27).  to supplement the l a b o u r s h o r t a g e s .  For t h e i r  part,  Indians  are s a i d to have emigrated  or r e l i g i o u s p e r s e c u t i o n . as " p o v e r t y ,  a m b i t i o n , domestic t e n s i o n s , r e s t l e s s n e s s o f s p i r i t ,  intended o c c u p a t i o n few had a c t u a l  numerous oil  political  They were m o t i v a t e d m a i n l y by i n c e n t i v e s d e s c r i b e d  to escape an epidemic or o t h e r m i s f o r t u n e " their  not to escape  were p o t t e r s ,  pressers, traders,  and p r i e s t s .  (Kuper,  expertise  1969,  p.  9).  (Meer, 1969,  p.  10)  barbers, jewellers,  urge  Despite  in a g r i c u l t u r e .  c l e r k s , herdsmen, boatmen, p o l i c e m e n , undertakers,  the  More  laundrymen,  confectioners,  warriors  Of the more than 80 p e r c e n t H i n d u s , among  the newcomers r o u g h l y 60 p e r c e n t were Sudra and s c h e d u l e d c a s t e s , about p e r c e n t V a i s h y a and the remaining 10 to 15 p e r c e n t m a i n l y small  percentage o f Brahmins.  (Kuper,  1960,  p.  Kshatriya with a  7)  These Indian l a b o u r e r s were c o n t r a c t e d to s e r v e a f i v e y e a r p e r i o d o f denture a f t e r which they c o u l d r e i n d e n t u r e type o f employment. of returning Natal  After  themselves or take up any  other either  t o I n d i a by p a i d passage o r o f becoming permanent s e t t l e r s  P a c h a i , 1971;  Palmer,  1957;  in  v a l u e as the foregone passage f a r e  (Kuper,  1960;  Several  accounts p o i n t to the way i n which immigrants were deluded by  F e r g u s o n - D a v i e , 1952).  agents about South A f r i c a n working and l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . deprivation  in-  ten y e a r s they were to be g i v e n the o p t i o n  w i t h a g r a n t o f Crown land o f equal  25-30  consisted of lack of basic l i v i n g f a c i l i t i e s ,  recruiting  Their physical overworking,  crowding i n sub-human a c c o m o d a t i o n , l a c k o f adequate medical  over-  t r e a t m e n t , poor  -74or non-existent sanitation f a c i l i t i e s ,  inadequate r a t i o n s o f f o o d , as w e l l  as a g r o s s l y d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e r a t i o  o f men to women: 40 women to 100 men  (Calpin,  P a l m e r , 1957;  All  1949:9;  a l s o Meer,  these f a c t o r s m i l i t a t e d  Kuper, 1960;  Woods, 1954).  a g a i n s t the maintenance o f what Indians c o n s i d e r e d  respectable l i v i n g standards. five  1969;  Palmer r e p o r t s  t h a t on one prominent  estate  s u i c i d e s o c c u r r e d i n one day when I n d i a n employees were c o n f i n e d and  p r e v e n t e d by a p o l i c e f o r c e from c o m p l a i n i n g to a m a g i s t r a t e  (Palmer,  1957*  .44).  Despite these c o n d i t i o n s , r e l a t i v e l y expiry of t h e i r  contracts.  few Indians  r e t u r n e d to I n d i a a t  The c o n d i t i o n s under which most o f them  India, v i o l a t i o n of caste p u r i t y ,  development o f newer t i e s w i t h  immigrants as w e l l as waning t i e s with the homeland,would a l l to t h i s  situation.  approximately ^600  30,000 t h i s would seem remarkably R e c o r d s , Natal 1969, return  p.  12.)  low.  and  ( C a l c u l a t e d from Schedules o f S h i p s  A r c h i v e s , Pietermaritzburg  by R. Watson, as quoted i n Meer,  Furthermore the p r o s p e c t o f a g r a n t o f Crown l a n d i n l i e u  the promise o f l a n d was not implemented  p.  fellow  F o r a p o p u l a t i o n o f some  p a s s a g e , c o u l d have been an added i n c e n t i v e .  repatriation  left  have c o n t r i b u t e d  Between 1883-1890, an average o f 345 l e t t e r s p e r annum were s e n t t o I n d i a .  the  Yet i n many i n s t a n c e s ,  (Burrows, 1943,  f i g u r e s dwindled from 2,975 i n 1927  of  p.  2).  to 48 i n 1940  Nevertheless, (Palmer,  1957,  105)..  A t the end o f t h e i r in agricultural requirements.  p e r i o d s o f i n d e n t u r e the e a r l y s e t t l e r s  engaged m a i n l y  a c t i v i t y , and were soon s u p p l y i n g Durban's f r u i t and v e g e t a b l e Other former i n d e n t u r e d workers moved i n t o the c o a l m i n e s ,  r a i l w a y s , and g e n e r a l  s e r v i c e s (Palmer,  1957,  p.  41-42).  S u b s e q u e n t l y a n o t h e r wave o f i m m i g r a n t s , the s o - c a l l e d f r e e o r p a s s e n g e r Indians,  began t o a r r i v e  i n South A f r i c a , m o s t l y through M a u r i t i u s ,  t o engage  -75in trade. Natal's  L i k e the white s e t t l e r s ,  they found a p r o f i t a b l e  expanding economy, and i n the o p p o r t u n i t i e s  Transvaal,  hence changing the  to p o t e n t i a l  image o f the  for  existence  trade  in  in  the  I n d i a n from dependent  laborer  competitor.  The antagonism t h a t soon began to a r i s e between  the White  Indians  l e d to a s e r i e s o f d i s c r i m i n a t o r y measures.  mentary  f r a n c h i s e was o f f i c i a l l y  o n l y a few hundred were e n t i t l e d  withdrawn to i t .  In  from Indians  Then a p o l l  settlers  1893  the  and  parlia-  in Natal,  though  tax o f t h r e e pounds  per annum was l e v i e d on males above s i x t e e n and females above 12 y e a r s age who r e f u s e d to r e i n d e n t u r e the  themselves or r e t u r n  I n d i a n Immigration A c t p r o h i b i t e d the e n t r y  to  municipal  clauses in t i t l e  f r a n c h i s e was withdrawn  politically  i n Durban.  dominant Whites and Indians  In  a n t i - A s i a t i c c l a u s e s hampered them.  trying  were i n c r e a s i n g l y i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d .  Initially  it  (Webb,  1944,  p.  I n d i a and Natal  When  land o r  the  Indians  businesses,  to a c q u i r e  the  and economic c o l o r bars  to the c o n t r a r y ,  Nationalist  party  between  these  came i n t o  the a n t i - I n d i a n s e n t i m e n t s o f the  trends power.  preceding  as the s o l u t i o n to a problem t h a t  d e f i n e d as one o f an " u n a s s i m i l a b l e m i n o r i t y , "  s i n c e become e v i d e n t  insertion  themselves  D e s p i t e v a r i o u s agreements  e r a , a n d c o n t i n u e d to f a v o r r e p a t r i a t i o n it  2).  When they t r i e d  1948 when the A f r i k a n e r  only r e i t e r a t e d  the  apart  between  to e s t a b l i s h  n e c e s s a r y s k i l l s to advance i n i n d u s t r y , p o l i t i c a l  continued u n t i l  1923  This struggle  to g a i n s e c u r i t y through the purchase o f  the c o l o n i a l governments o f  1913  deeds was l e g a l i z e d ; and i n 1924  generated c o n s i d e r a b l e i l l - f e e l i n g s attempted  In  o f new i m m i g r a n t s ,  from the wives o r c h i l d r e n o f e s t a b l i s h e d s e t t l e r s . of a n t i - A s i a t i c  India.  of  although i t  t h a t the South A f r i c a n I n d i a n s '  had long  response to  repeated  d i s c r i m i n a t o r y a c t s was not to r e p a t r i a t e themselves but t o s t a y and contend w i t h them.  .  -76However, i n d e a l i n g w i t h i t s  "foreign" minorities  the N a t i o n a l i s t  ment had to take i n t o account the changed world s i t u a t i o n , the u n i v e r s a l d i s g u s t with r a c i a l  ideologies after  govern-  particularly  the Nazi d e f e a t  and the  emerging p r o t e s t a g a i n s t c o n t i n u e d c o l o n i a l s u b j u g a t i o n , a c c e n t u a t e d by India's  independence i n 1 9 4 7 .  1  I n d i a was a t the f o r e f r o n t  of the  struggle  f o r d e c o l o n i z a t i o n and p l a y e d a l e a d i n g r o l e a t the U n i t e d N a t i o n s . case o f South A f r i c a n Indians was f r e q u e n t l y 1949;  P a l m e r , 1957).  Africa,  At the same t i m e ,  having e x p e r i e n c e d the f a i l u r e  brought to the f o r e t h e r e  the N a t i o n a l i s t of r e p a t r i a t i o n  predicament o f f i n d i n g a s u i t a b l e j u s t i f i c a t i o n ment o f South A f r i c a n I n d i a n s .  for  (Calpin,  government i n South schemes, was i n  the d i f f e r e n t i a l  the  treat-  F u r t h e r m o r e , the emerging i d e o l o g y o f  a p a r t h e i d needed e l a b o r a t i o n and l e g i t i m a t i o n This l e g i t i m a t i o n ,  The  if  it  were t o be c r e d i b l e .  which s t r e s s e d as the b a s i s f o r a s t a b l e  society,the  p e r s i s t e n c e and maintenance o f the very " u n a s s i m i l a b i l i t y " f o r which  Indians  had been c r i t i c i z e d over the p r e c e d i n g two d e c a d e s , marked a new approach i n the form o f a p o l i c y o f s e p a r a t e development. statement  to the e f f e c t  t h a t Indians  In May 1961  an  official  "must be a c c e p t e d as the c o u n t r y ' s  permanent r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . . . a n d t h a t they be a c c o r d i n g l y e n t i t l e d benefits Africa,  inherent  i n such c i t i z e n s h i p ' ^ h e r a l d e d t h i s new p o l i c y  Indian A f f a i r s ,  to  (South  1971:2).  Consequently the government e s t a b l i s h e d the Department o f  Indian A f f a i r s  cope w i t h the s p e c i a l i z e d t a s k s o f a r a c e b u r e a u c r a c y ; a nominated Council  Hhe  the  t h a t the government regarded as b e i n g " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e "  l e g a l i s t i c approach o f the  Indian government to i t s  s i l e n c e on the m a t t e r .  Indian at  least  former  nationals  were  expelled.  abroad was n o t i c e d a g a i n r e c e n t l y when the Ugandan Indians I n d i a was c o n s p i c u o u s by i t s  or  to  -77"responsible" Committees in local  for  Indians  and t h e r e f o r e  worth c o n s u l t i n g ; and Local  (LAC) to i n t r o d u c e a semblance of  Indian e l e c t o r a l  government, d e f i n e d as e s s e n t i a l l y c o n s u l t a t i v e  these seeming a d v a n c e s , the substantially  p o s i t i o n o f the  i n the t r a d i n g  s p h e r e ; they are  participation  in nature.  Indian community has  unchanged to the p r e s e n t d a y . residentially  Indians  c o n t i n u e to be  segregated a f t e r  are e n t i r e l y  prohibited  from l i v i n g  in their  i n the Orange Free S t a t e ;  Indians  a r e s u b j e c t to i n f e r i o r  groups,  i n r e g a r d to e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h ,  theaters  and o t h e r  segregated f a c i l i t i e s ,  p e r m i t s were i s s u e d to 21,003 Indians  visit  "greater  freedom" t o t r a v e l  s p e c i f i e d provinces f o r  a permit  (Rand Vaity  restricted  having been the  movement* and and above  other  all  subordinate  restaurants,  being p r o v i d e d w i t h  machinery to r e d r e s s g r i e v a n c e s .  16 February 1973). On 20 June 1973 Indians  like  public transport,  p u b l i c and c i v i c a m e n i t i e s , w h i l e  only symbolic p o l i t i c a l  *Travel  interprovincial  Despite  remained  moved from developed urban areas to d e v e l o p i n g p e r i u r b a n areas under Group Areas A c t ; they are r e s t r i c t e d  Affairs  McuJL,  i n 1972  the m i n i s t e r  of  {VaUy  Horn,  Indian a f f a i r s  between p r o v i n c e s ; i . e . ,  gave  they may now  up to t h i r t y days f o r b o n a f i d e reasons w i t h o u t  21 June 1973).  -78-  2.  Changes i n O c c u p a t i o n a l  Indian economic a c t i v i t y related  to  immigrant  its  diversification  were s t i l l  While  natural  labour,  increase.  F i v e phases o f  o f the e x - i n d e n t u r e d activity,  phase the  indentured  1943:6).  indentured  1909  c o n c l u d e d t h a t i n view o f the  1949:20).  labour,  of f i e l d s ,  In  1880  turn of  the  living  the  material  continued  the C l a y t o n Commission i n invaluable  immigration  Indian indentured  occupations:  general  role  of  should continue  labour  farming,  Government r a i l w a y s ,  brickyards, wattle plantations, (Calpin,  estates  The Commission r e c o r d e d the e x i s t e n c e  2,429 White employers o f  c o a l m i n e s , Natal  for a  found a  from the  of  Indians i n a v a r i e t y  the  In examining  a c c r u i n g to European s e t t l e r s  following  free  by new  sugar  labourers  importation  the  (b)  f i s h i n g , and s e r v i c e s e c t o r s o f an e x -  panding economy (Burrows,  (Calpin,  allowed  as s t i m u l a t e d  i n the f i r s t  many p r e v i o u s l y  firmly  changes  indentured  the main s o u r c e o f employment at  in mining, farming,  benefits  (a)  has undergone major  may be d i s t i n g u i s h e d .  occupational  opportunities.  century,  and (c)  repatriation  diversified  i n Natal  three sources:  traders  Dwindling  Structure  sugar  domestic  of  spread over estates,  servants,  l a n d i n g and s h i p p i n g  agents  1949:9).  the e n t r y o f s o - c a l l e d  'passenger Indians'  who came  to South A f r i c a w i t h o u t an employment c o n t r a c t , a n d were a t t r a c t e d  -79-  by a p p a r e n t l y  b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s , marked the second phase  w i t h the b e g i n n i n g o f the 'passengers' jewellers, related  The  e s t a b l i s h e d themselves m a i n l y as m e r c h a n t s ,  owners o f l a u n d r i e s , g r o c e r y s t o r e s and o t h e r  services.  These o c c u p a t i o n s were f o r  i n accordance with t h e i r 1 9 6 0 : 6 - 1 7 ; Burrows, 1943; steady i n f l u x  the T r a n s v a a l  c a s t e backgrounds.  (H.  Kuper,  1975)  Natal's  The"  joining  in  boom caused by the d i s c o v e r y o f g o l d  in  i n the  i n 1870.  the most p a r t  Maasdorp and P i l l a y ,  thus p r o v i d e d f a c i l i t a t e d  the e v o l v i n g t r a d e  fields  Indian presence i n t r a d e .  1860's and the development o f the diamond  (Walker, 196^:327-54)  The new  industrial  demand f o r cheap l a b o u r importuned the government to w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l  immigration  policy for  continue  Indians.  However, o p p o s i t i o n by the white merchants e v e n t u a l l y the p r o h i b i t i o n o f third  Indian i m m i g r a t i o n  i n 1911,  phase o f o c c u p a t i o n a l d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n .  the p o s i t i o n o f the in a feudal trializing  Indian worker  setting^to economy.  under r e s t r i c t i v e dentured g e n e r a l l y  of  of each immigrant  During t h i s  had changed from t h a t o f  With the r e l a t i v e  to the period serf  i n an i n d u s -  s c a r c i t y of  Indian  labour  l a w s , s a l a r i e s o f the f o r m e r l y  rose s i g n i f i c a n t l y .  In  the sugar  r a i s e s o f 50 p e r c e n t are r e c o r d e d (Burrows,  The P r o t e c t o r  and marked  an o r d i n a r y wage l a b o u r e r  immigration  led  in-  industry  1943:6).  Indian Immigrants c i t e d i n c r e a s e s i n s a v i n g s from an average o f ^ 8 . 5  .3  :  n 1907  tojtl9.10  o  -80-  i n 1916. para.  (Report  13)  of Protector of  At the same t i m e ,  Indian Immigrants,  there  1921,  seemed to be an i n c r e a s e  i n o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , and a change to more s k i l l e d  industrial  o c c u p a t i o n s , commerce and s e r v i c e s (Burrows, 1 9 4 3 : 6 ) . for  i n s t a n c e , t h e r e were about 20 N a t a l - b o r n  e a r n i n g c o m p a r a t i v e l y high s a l a r i e s imately  5,000 Indians  i n Durban. para.  13)  Indian  (Cl80-j^240  In  interpreters,  per annum).  a l o n e were employed i n c l e r i c a l  (Report o f P r o t e c t o r o f  T h i s p e r i o d c o i n c i d e d w i t h the growth o f  1921,  educational  o p p o r t u n i t i e s under the Cape Town Agreement, as o u t l i n e d  of  Indian s t u d e n t s to the  "Native  the top s t r a t u m o f  Indians, admission  1 9 S 7 : 9 8 ) , and p r o v i d e d new  upwardly-mobile.  A f o u r t h phase i n the changing o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e the end o f World War II.  In  earlier.  C o l l e g e o f F o r t Hare" was a l l o w e d  under the Cape Town Agreement ( P a l m e r , horizons f o r  for  Approx-  positions  I n d i a n Immigrants,  In the absence o f U n i v e r s i t y f a c i l i t i e s  1921,  l i n e w i t h general  i s marked by  trends,Indian  in-,  volvement i n secondary i n d u s t r y and the t e r t i a r y  s e c t o r o f an  advanced e c o n o m y , i n c r e a s e d w h i l e  agricultural  the t r a d i t i o n a l  o c c u p a t i o n s c o n t i n u e d to d e c l i n e , as r e f l e c t e d  I n c r e a s i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s as w e l l now a v a i l a b l e  to  Indians,  1952;  J . R . Burrows, 1959;  1967;  P a l m e r , 1957;  the p o s t World War II  1.  as a wider range o f employment  has been w e l l  documented  Maasdorp, 1968;  Woods, 1954).  in Table  (H.R.  Burrows,  M c C r y . t a l and Maasdorp,  The r a p i d ec<. .omic growth  in  p e r i o d , w i t h the need fos nore s k i l l e d man;  -81-  Table 1  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n  of  I n d i a n Workers by I n d u s t r y D i v i s i o n -  1936-1970.*  Industry D i v i s i o n  1936  1951  1960  1970  Agriculture  37.8  20.3  12.0  4.8  1.4  .8  .6  .4  19.1  31.4  37.7  41.9  2.0  3.4  2.4  6.8  16.1  18.1  18.1  24.0  3.1  3.6  4.7  5.1  20.4  22.4  24.2  15.3  .3  1.5  79.0  134.0  Mining Manufacturing Construction Commerce Transport Services Other Total  (=100%)  47.0  63.0  *Sources: J.R.  Burrows  South A f r i c a  The P o p u l a t i o n and Labour Resources o f N a t a l , Pietermaritzburg: Natal Town and Regional P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , 1959. Bureau o f Census and S t a t i s t i c s , 1960 Census: Sample T a b u l a t i o n No. 2.  Population  Dept. o f S t a t i s t i c s , 1970 P o p u l a t i o n Census Report 0 2 . 0 1 . 0 6 . (1946 s t a t i s t i c s have been e x c l u d e d due to n o n - c o o p e r a t i o n o f Indians w i t h a u t h o r i t i e s i n y i e l d i n g census data as an a f t e r m a t h o f the h i g h l y unpopular A s i a t i c Land Tenure and I n d i a n R e p r e s e n t a t i o n A c t (No. 26 o f 1946.)  -82-  power, undermined the p r e v i o u s l y e x c l u s i v e h o l d o f Whites on many h i g h e r - s t a t u s  occupations.  The presence of Whites  armed f o r c e s o f South A f r i c a d u r i n g the w a r , a l s o possibilities tween 1944-45, 37 p e r c e n t .  afforded  the Blacks  for expansion, p a r t i c u l a r l y  in manufacturing.  Indian employment i n t h i s  s e c t o r expanded by  Be-  (Ibid.)  These data r e v e a l the  in  "upliftment"  one o f the most powerful  f a c t o r s working  o f s u b o r d i n a t e s i n an i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g  stratified  s o c i e t y with a r e l a t i v e l y  small  mere r a t i o  o f the s u p e r o r d i n a t e s makes t h e i r  for  racially  r u l i n g group.  The  c o n t i n u i n g monopoly  o f h i g h e r economic p o s i t i o n s d i f f i c u l t ,  u n l e s s economic growth  is a r t i f i c a l l y  of r a c i a l  retarded  T h i s o p t i o n , however, purists,  has l i t t l e  above a l l , b y  fulfilment  be permanently  interest  though f r e q u e n t l y  appeal  in a r e a l i t y  the goal o f p r o f i t  economic s t a b i l i t y , minimal  i n the  dominance.  advocated by i d e o l o g i c a l which i s  maximisation.  characterized,  Its  prerequisites,  and i n v e s t o r s c o n f i d e n c e , i s dependent on a of worker's  aspirations.  d i s c a r d e d by an a r t i f i c i a l ,  If  these were to  racially  inspired  economic r e c e s s i o n , the purpose and f o u n d a t i o n of the system i t s e l f assertion compatible  would be undermined.  (Blumer, i n the  racial  C o n t r a r y to H e r b e r t  1965), c a p i t a l ism and r a c i a l i s m are long r u n , t h o u g h t h e r e might w e l l  be  Blumer's  not adaptations  o f a " c o l o u r - b l i n d " mode o f p r o d u c t i o n and consumption to racial  prejudices  i n the s h o r t term.  existing  T h i s i s not to say t h a t  -83-  democracy and e q u a l i t y  will  accompany i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , thesis asserts. T r a p i d o , 1971; Bromberger,  (On t h i s  severe b o t t l e n e c k  t r a i n formerly  and  as the o f t e n  inevitably  critized  drawn out debate  L e g a s s i c k , 1972;  1974.)  technological  automatically  Oppenheimer  see J o h n s t o n e ,  Leftwich,  1974;  O'Dowd,  1974;  But manpower s h o r t a g e s and p a r t i c u l a r l y of s k i l l e d  l a b o u r at  an advanced stage  the  of  development f o r c e the South A f r i c a n system to e x c l u d e d s u b o r d i n a t e s and a l l o w  c o n f l i c t w i t h i n the heterogeneous  ruling  them under much  group i n t o  previously  r e s e r v e d p o s i t i o n s w i t h o u t n e c e s s a r i l y r e p l a c i n g the members o f the s u p e r o r d i n a t e  group.  this  admitted  situation  1970;  is o f f i c i a l l y  It  hidden behind j o b r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .  low-class  is irrelevant  or,  whether  as i n South A f r i c a ,  What would seem d e c i s i v e  would be the newly a c q u i r e d e c o n o m i c - s t r a t e g i c power by s u b o r d i n a t e groups both as p r o d u c e r s and consumers. unskilled migrants,  trained  workers  the  Unlike  can no l o n g e r be e a s i l y  r e p l a c e d or i g n o r e d w i t h o u t high c o s t s and l o s s o f p r o f i t opportunities. strike  This factor  situation,  and i t  is this  system has to somehow a d j u s t Adjustment, i n the  however,  in i t s  own i n t e r e s t  opportunities  for  action  i n the  of  racial survival.  de-racialisation the  encompassing o n l y a few bare  and not n e c e s s a r i l y c l o s i n g the o v e r a l l and p o l i t i c a l  power i n a  t h r e a t to which a  can o n l y mean gradual  sense o f g r e a t e r  though i n i t i a l l y  g i v e s them p o t e n t i a l  ;  incomi  form o f s t r i k e s  as  !bordinates, visible jap.  privileged  Industrial  e n f o r c e d non-  -84-  racial real  l e g i s l a t i o n would seem the o n l y r e a l i s t i c way to a c h i e v e  equality,  the way f o r continuing  and the newly a c q u i r e d economic p o s i t i o n s pave  the s u b o r d i n a t e ' s g r e a t e r  However,  power i n  this  struggle.  The system o f white r a c i a l to r e c r u i t  potential  its  there  dominance  indeed  needed manpower from i t s are l i m i t s  A f r i c a can a t t r a c t , d e s p i t e  attempts  own group members a b r o a d .  to the number o f white immigrants a s s i s t e d passages.  South  Not o n l y i s she  now competing w i t h A u s t r a l i a and Canada i n t h i s  respect^but  missed the p o s t - w a r i m m i g r a t i o n wave from E u r o p e , b y not  allowing  any i m m i g r a t i o n  Afrikaner  Nationalist  until  party's  speaking r i v a l s . recent years originating  the e a r l y  sixties  for  f e a r o f the  being swamped and outnumbered by E n g l i s h -  The a p p r o x i m a t e l y  50,000 annual  immigrants  (60% o f whom came from B r i t a i n ) , e s p e c i a l l y those from C a t h o l i c Southern E u r o p e , a r e s t i l l  s u s p i c i o n and d i s d a i n by many r i g h t - w i n g g a i n o f 30-40,000 immigrants a n n u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g openings f o r q u a l i f i e d  viewed w i t h  A f r i k a n e r s . * Even a net  is insufficient  to  fill  personnel (H. Adam, 1 9 7 1 ) . H a r r y  Oppenheimer, the chairman of A n g l o - A m e r i c a n , e s t i m a t e d t h a t least half skilled,  in  o f the a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80,000 annual  clerical  at  new openings f o r  and p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s w i l l  have to be  *The i r o n y o f the A f r i k a n e r a t t i t u d e s towards B r i t i s h i m m i g r a n t s , was shown i n a r e c e n t e m p i r i c a l s t u d y , w h i c h r e v e a l e d t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f B r i t i s h immigrants soon overconform to what they p e r c e i v e as the dominant v a l u e s o f t h e i r new host s o c i e t y , a n d f r e q u e n t l y b e come more r a c i s t than the S o u t h - A f r i c a n born Whites ( S t o n e , 1973). A s i m i l a r phenomena was r e p o r t e d from I s r a e l w i t h r e g a r d to the a t t i t u d e s o f S e p h a r d i c Jews towards I s r a e l i Arabs (Smooha, 1974).  -85-  filled  by l o c a l l y t r a i n e d  Blacks  (The. Stan., WE, 11 May  1975) .  It  i s from t h i s  white-collar hired for  situation  workers  reports  Indian and c o l o u r e d blue and  benefitted  m o s t , s i n c e they were being  s u p e r v i s o r y and middle-management  p r e f e r e n c e to A f r i c a n s . existent.  that  Reverse r o l e  A c c o r d i n g to the a u t h o r s '  from v a r i o u s i n f o r m a n t s ,  would g i v e o r d e r s to unknown.  Indians  While i n the e a r l y  economic development  Indians  positions  relationships  increasingly  in  seem non-  p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s and  i n s t a n c e s where A f r i c a n s  i n Natal  enterprises,are  virtually  stages o f the South A f r i c a n mainly worked i n i s o l a t i o n  from  the i n d i g e n e o u s A f r i c a n p o p u l a t i o n , the subsequent p r o c e s s o f industrial  integration  and interdependence has t h r u s t  Indians  i n t o a middle-man p o s i t i o n , w h o s e s e r i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r relations,must  not be o v e r l o o k e d .  economic changes a f t e r World War II the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f economic a c t i v i t y a-vis  of  and (b)  In s h o r t ,  broader  resultant  by (a)  However,  it  status-changes  especially  setbacks to which Indians  i n the f i e l d  A c t o f 1954 which w i l l  vis-  discriminatory  s h o u l d be added t h a t w h i l e  much to show f o r e x t e n s i o n o f j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s , a l s o been major  altered  diversification  the o t h e r e t h n i c g r o u p s , d e s p i t e c o n t i n u i n g  legislation.  political-  have s i g n i f i c a n t l y  Indians  race  there  there have  have been s u b j e c t e d ,  o f commerce through the Group Areas be d i s c u s s e d  is  later.  The o u t l i n e d p r o c e s s e s are a c c e l e r a t e d now by what might  be  -86-  adequately fication, its  c l a s s i f i e d as a f i f t h  phase o f b u r e a u c r a t i c  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the government's  "Separate  implementation  Development Programme" s i n c e the e a r l y  The p r o c l a i m e d need f o r  diversi-  self-administration,  of  sixties.  including  self-  p o l i c i n g o f the v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups i n South A f r i c a opened additional  avenues f o r a p r o f e s s i o n a l e l i t e  public sector. Indians In  1961,  A sizeable bureaucratic  by the Department  of  28 out o f a t o t a l  apparatus  Indian A f f a i r s  481  by Indians Indians  authorized  (Horrell,  local  government to  position.  Similarly,  i n 1974,  Horrell,  inspectors  so f a r  1971:12).  840 A s i a n s a r e employed i n p o s t a l  the e x t e n s i o n has  Certificates  i n the p o l i c e f o r c e  station  i n Chatsworth i s a d m i n i s t e r e d e n t i r e l y  (ibid:196).  I n d i a n p r o s e c u t o r s have been  created  diplomas Engineering  i n 1974,  services (Horrell,  Indians  of  There are now  E n g i n e e r s (9 C i v i l  and 796  for  the most  (9 o b t a i n e d N a t i o n a l  t e c h n i c i a n s graduated w i t h N a t i o n a l  Two openings f o r  the  o f 798 were o c c u p i e d  openings.  1976:256), C i v i l  are  p e r c e n t of  I n d i a n townships and suburbs  a range o f p r e v i o u s l y n o n - e x i s t e n t town c l e r k s , h e a l t h  new p o s i t i o n s .  C i t e d as a " b r e a k t h r o u g h "  i s the p o s t o f E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n e r ,  senior administrative  for  Indian A f f a i r s ,  posts out o f a t o t a l  1975:197).  closed  created  offered  o f 102 p o s t s (27.5  t o t a l ) were h e l d by Indians (South A f r i c a ,  By 1974,  in a hitherto  ibid.),  1976:202), One p o l i c e  by I n d i a n s  (ibid).  -87-  c r e a t e d and f i l l e d  by  Indians,  more, as a n o v e l t y 200 Indians Navy and A i r f o r c e t r a i n i n g international  one o f them a woman.  Further-  have been r e c r u i t e d f o r Army,  ( F i a t L u x , August, 1974:16).  At  the  l e v e l , the government's appointment o f an Indian  envoy a t an Overseas embassy (Stcui, WE 21 F e b r u a r y , 1976)  and o f  Indian r e p r e s e n t a t i v e with o b s e r v e r s t a t u s a t the U n i t e d  Nations  despite their "firsts"  political  by many Indians  limitations,  are regarded as  notable  and c r i t i c i z e d as w i n d o w - d r e s s i n g  by the more p o l i t i c i s e d .  R e l a t e d developments are the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of Bank i n 1971,  which o f f e r e d o u t l e t s  a c c o u n t a n t s and c l e r i c a l workers professional an e a r l i e r variety  for  the New R e p u b l i c  bankers,  chartered  (SABRA, 1 9 7 5 : 2 7 ) .  and t e c h n i c a l f i e l d s t h e r e  In  the  has been a s h i f t  from  emphasis on m e d i c i n e , law and t e a c h i n g to a g r e a t e r  of professions.  T h i s was due p a r t l y  i n the p a s t , the s o - c a l l e d ' o p e n ' not open i t s  science faculty  to  University  Indians,  to the f a c t o f Natal  who were  f o r c e d to l e a v e the p r o v i n c e to study a t e i t h e r a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Cape Town o r W i t w a t e r s r a n d .  that  did  therefore  F o r t Hare o r The expense  o f l i v i n g away from h o m e , l i m i t e d the number o f s t u d e n t s who c o u l d study s c i e n c e f u l l - t i m e .  Only i n 1951, was the M e d i c a l  F a c u l t y f o r non-Europeans added to the U n i v e r s i t y o f (Palmer,  1957:168).  Natal  P r i o r to t h a t time most d o c t o r s q u a l i f i e d  -88-  abroad.  Today a range o f degrees have been awarded  architecture, medical chemical  e n g i n e e r i n g and pharmacy, and diplomas  laboratory  t e c h n o l o g y , e l e c t r o n i c data  technology, architectural  t e c h n o l o g y , among o t h e r s M.L.  in  (Horrell,  in  processing,  d r a f t s m a n s h i p and r a d i o 1976:256).  In  1974,  S u l t a n C o l l e g e o f Advanced T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n Durban  had an enrolment o f 1 ,293 f u l l time s t u d e n t s and 6,285 time s t u d e n t s  part-  (ibid.:257).  The o u t l i n e d upward economic m o b i l i t y o f s i z e a b l e p o r t i o n s o f the  I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n was not without c o s t s with which  these achievements were a c c o m p l i s h e d .  Many o f these changes  were f o r c e d upon a powerless community by l e g i s l a t i o n , which arbitrarily  d i s r u p t e d e s t a b l i s h e d b u s i n e s s e s ^ a n d c r e a t e d a new  k i n d o f p o v e r t y through the d i s l o c a t i o n o f extended an i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n  w i t h i n the g r o u p , a n d new  dependencies on d i s c r i m i n a t o r y s t a t e b a l a n c e d assessment o f this other  bureaucracies.  schemes.  established traders, for  The f a t e o f  effects  of the  large-scale  the  i n s t a n c e , needs a d d i t i o n a l  c o n t e x t o f the changing o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . all  Any  I n d i a n p r o g r e s s has t o take i n t o account  s i d e o f the c o i n , as s y m b o l i z e d i n the  resettlement  families,  elsewhere. •  in  The o v e r -  "Group Areas A c t " on I n d i a n l i f e  be a n a l y z e d i n more d e t a i l  attention  styles  will  -89-  D e s p i t e the c o n s i d e r a b l e s t r u c t u r a l the economic a c t i v i t i e s attitudes  and v i s i b l e changes i n  o f the former  "coolies",  o f antagonism t o I n d i a n t r a d e  indicative  of t h i s  s e l v e s the r i g h t  attitude:  1960,  of  is  have a r r o g a t e d  to  them-  Why cannot some to  comments by Whites  sentiments  are  to the a u t h o r .  evident This  view  commercial c o m p e t i t i o n as p a r a s i t i c and non-  successful  l e g i s l a t i o n against  businessman i n the name o f r e s i d e n t i a l  to a v o i d f r i c t i o n .  In  1963,  the M i n i s t e r o f  t h a t o n l y 340 out o f a t o t a l  would be u n a f f e c t e d  the segregation  The Group Areas A c t i n  succeeded i n the d r a s t i c r e d u c t i o n o f  commercial a c t i v i t y . stated  state-  (House o f A s s e m b l y , 11 A p r i l Similar  p r o d u c t i v e ^ a s used to j u s t i f y  gradually  i n 1960  activity  Why s h o u l d w h i t e p e o p l e have  Hansard 13, Col 5285).  Indian  Interior  "Indians  hands and not t h e y ? "  i n many i n f o r m a l  An o f f i c i a l  to be the o n l y businessmen.  o f them a l s o do some work? use t h e i r  o f the  white  and commercial  have undergone o n l y slow t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . ment, by the Deputy M i n i s t e r  early  o f 3,191  by the p r o c l a m a t i o n .  1954,  Indian Indian A f f a i r s  traders  in  Durban  The r e m a i n i n g  2,057  cases would be h e l d i n a b e y a n c e , unable to engage i n any development i n the meantime. premises a t  Of these 794 had to q u i t  the time (Hansard 1 9 , C o l s 7000-1 as c i t e d  Horrell,  1963:222).  In  official  r e c o r d as y e t  1973,  however, 4,363 t r a d e r s  to be r e s e t t l e d  further their  in  are on  (SABRA, 1 9 7 5 : 1 6 ) .  To  -90-  counteract this  situation the  government has made  ?  paternalistic  d e c l a r a t i o n s t h a t o t h e r f i e l d s o f employment are being c r e a t e d to a l l e v i a t e  the overemphasis on commerce (W.A. Maree,  The I n d u s t r i a l  Development C o r p o r a t i o n , a s t a t e  c i t e d as having a s s i s t e d t h r e e  Indians  1962:2).  agency, i s  i n the T r a n s v a a l  through  loans o f Rl78,000 to e s t a b l i s h c l o t h i n g , t e x t i l e and v e g e t a b l e oil  factories  (Horrell,  1976:74).  Similarly,  the  IDC i s  re-  p o r t e d to have embarked on a R3 m i l l i o n programme to develop fifteen  industrial  sites for  Indians  Tongaat ( H o r r e l l , 1 9 7 6 : 7 4 - 7 5 ) .  i n Durban, Stanger and  However, as Meer p o i n t s  out,  o n l y a small p r o p o r t i o n o f g r o s s l y undercompensated t r a d e r s can hope to extend themselves i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n 24).  1971:  While f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t i n g an i n c r e a s e i n I n d i a n manu-  facturers total  (Meer,  from 142 i n 1962  investment  to 350 i n 1967,  together  i n i n d u s t r y between 1966^and  with  1963-^totalling  R 2 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 9 a p p e a r "impressive, Meer argues t h a t they a r e i n s i g n i f i c a n t when compared w i t h a l o s s R20,000,000 i n b u s i n e s s t u r n o v e r  i n one area a l o n e , o f  (ibid.).  s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t t h i s  very  s e c u r i t y would appear to have generated d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n o f interests.  1,650  Indian entrepreneurs  concerns  ( South A f r i c a ,  and  41.9  fact  to 310 b u s i n e s s e s and R13,700,000  i n s t o c k s , g o o d w i l l and f a c i l i t i e s  On the o t h e r h a n d , i t  in  now o p e r a t e  intheir  manufacturing  1970)  p e r c e n t o f employed Indian w o r k e r s , t h a t i s  approx-  -91-  imately  5 6 , 2 8 0 , are engaged i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g  P o p u l a t i o n Census 1970). w i t h 19.1  In  This contrasts sharply  p e r c e n t i n 1936,  i n 1960 as shown i n T a b l e  the m a i n , t h e r e  (South A f r i c a ,  31.4  p e r c e n t i n 1951  and 37.7  percent  1.  has been a change from s m a l l - s c a l e  family  based e n t e r p r i s e s , r e m i n i s c e n t o f c o t t a g e i n d u s t r i e s , and to a l a r g e e x t e n t c a s t e based (such as j e w e l l e r s ,  l a u n d r y owners,  brassware makers, p r i n t i n g - f i r m s ) , to l a r g e r m a n u f a c t u r i n g and r e t a i l enterprise.  Such m a n u f a c t u r e r s tend to be more  fre-  q u e n t l y descendants o f i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r e r s , i n c o n t r a s t earlier  to  wealthy merchants who were i n v a r i a b l y o f p a s s e n g e r -  Indian o r i g i n .  The m a j o r i t y  of  Indian manufacturers are now c o n c e n t r a t e d  the c l o t h i n g i n d u s t r y .  Out o f a t o t a l  f a c t u r i n g e m p l o y e r s , 1,050 in furniture, in t e x t i l e s ,  o f 1,650  I n d i a n manu-  a r e i n the c l o t h i n g i n d u s t r y ,  130  90 i n p r i n t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g , and s m a l l e r numbers leather  and f o o t w e a r ,  metal  products,  equipment and p r o f e s s i o n a l and s c i e n t i f i c (South A f r i c a ^ Indian A f f a i r s , 1973: the inadequacy of i n d u s t r i a l p o s s i b l e to q u a n t i f y to t o t a l  in  transport  instruments  31-2).  census f i g u r e s  the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f  Due to however,  Indian-owned  it  is  not  industries  m a n u f a c t u r i n g employment.  While changes i n I n d i a n o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e would appear i n d i c a t e upwardly m o b i l e t r e n d s  (Bromberger,  1974), there  to still  -92-  exists  c o n s i d e r a b l e poverty  and Pi 11 ay r e f e r  to 1963 f i g u r e s  Durban I n d i a n households l i v e It  labour f o r c e .  below the p o v e r t y datum this  In  1970,  (SABRA,  o f women i n  88 p e r c e n t o f a l l  Indian workers, Whites,were  1975:25).  While t h e r e has been a narrowing o f the W h i t e - I n d i a n per income gap  between  1960-1970 (McGrath,  exists discrimination in salary s c a l e s , private  1974), there not o n l y i n  s e c t o r but a l s o i n p u b l i c s e r v i c e .  been c a l c u l a t e d t h a t i n p r o v i n c i a l medical educational  institutions  i n 1972,  In  1973).  T h i s was a t  It  capita  still the  has  s e r v i c e and  Indian s a l a r i e s were o n l y 70-80  c e n t of those o f Whites w i t h i d e n t i c a l (Fourie,  of  undertakings  compared w i t h 72 p e r c e n t C o l o u r e d s and 28 p e r c e n t thus i n v o l v e d  line.  considerable proportion  s a i d to be engaged i n p r i v a t e  to supplement income.  of  has changed somewhat s i n c e  increasing participation  Furthermore,a  Indian workers are  Maasdorp  showing t h a t 64 p e r c e n t  may be e s t i m a t e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t  t h e n , e s p e c i a l l y with the the  i n the community.  training  and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  the s k i l l e d end o f the spectrum-  the case o f s e m i - s k i l l e d and u n s k i l l e d workers  the gap was much  greater.  D e s p i t e the c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r g r o u p changes i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l  inequalities  structure  per-  the  outlined  have l e d to new c l a s s -  -93-  like  i n t r a g r o u p d i v i s i o n s , based on g r e a t e r  equality. of c u l t u r a l  This internal  stratification  o f what the proponents  p l u r a l i s m (Kuper and S m i t h , 1969)  homogeneous communities w i l l elsewhere.  income i n -  often  view as  have to be the f o c u s o f a n a l y s i s  -94-  V I . EARLY POLITICAL RESPONSES 1.  The P o l i t i c s o f  Pleading  Indian p o l i t i c a l  responses to a s i t u a t i o n  generating  c r e a s i n g l y r e p r e s s i v e measures took v a r i o u s f o r m s . with a r e l a t i v e l y confrontational  individualistic,  a p p r o a c h , Indians  f o r a while  linked, until  increasingly greater to t h e o r e t i c a l  levels  gradually  turned  from  actions.  politico-legal  conditions  o b s t a c l e s to b l a c k u n i t y ,  generated  reducing  action, individual  There were i n s t a n c e s o f  strikes  on e s t a t e s "(Huttenback,  traders  r e s o r t e d t o the  illegal  discrimination.  Indian  1971:31).  they  small-scale Individual  law c o u r t s to p r o t e s t c a s e s o f One such l a w s u i t  of a  wealthy  Indian t r a d e r  brought to South A f r i c a Mohandas G a n d h i , a  young I n d i a n ,  English-trained barrister  on a y e a r ' s  T h i s was the b e g i n n i n g o f o r g a n i z e d Indian e x p r e s s i o n i n South A f r i c a , l a t e r the  Gandhi was i n s t r u m e n t a l  I n d i a n Congress ( N I C ) , i n i t i a l l y threatening A petition  contract.  political  t o have i t s  independence movement i n I n d i a i t s e l f .  his a r r i v a l  it  only.  had p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t work c o n d i t i o n s when  became i n t o l e r a b l e .  In  u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d groups were  Before any o r g a n i z e d p o l i t i c a l laborers  Beginning  l e g a l i s t i c , and non-  e x c l u s i v i s m to more u n i v e r s a l , c o l l e c t i v e so d o i n g , the demands o f a l l  in-  impact on  A year  after  i n forming the  Natal  as a r e a c t i o n to a  d i s e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t o f Indians  there  w i t h 10,000 s i g n a t u r e s was s u b m i t t e d ,  bill  (Pachai,  1971:22).  the b a s i s  -95-  for protest  being e s s e n t i a l l y  strongly that e q u a l i t y  legalistic.  was a fundamental  t r e a t y o b l i g a t i o n s were s u f f i c i e n t extend equal  citizenship rights  Gujerati-speaking  Gandhi  believed  human r i g h t , a n d  to b i n d South A f r i c a  to a l l  Indians.  that to  As a.  Indian o f r e s p e c t a b l e c a s t e background w i t h  an o v e r s e a s e d u c a t i o n , Gandhi was h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d among the traders.  The s o b r i e t y o f h i s approach t o a u t h o r i t y  to them and he r a p i d l y at  became a spokesman f o r  t h a t stage e s p e c i a l l y the t r a d e r s '  Huttenback,  1971;  P a c h a i , 1971;  Indian  interests  Palmer,  1957  appealed interests,  (Calpin,  1949;  ) .  South A f r i c a p r o v i d e d the c o n t e x t w i t h i n which G a n d h i ' s i d e a s o f n o n v i o l e n c e were to develop i n t o a p o l i t i c a l The f i r s t  p a s s i v e r e s i s t a n c e campaign i n 1907 was  a g a i n s t the T r a n s v a a l required residents stricted  their  directed  Immigrants R e s t r i c t i o n A c t , which  to submit to e d u c a t i o n a l  movement to the T r a n s v a a l  r e s i s t i n g t h i s measure Transvaal ?  registration  instrument.  certificates  tests  and r e -  from N a t a l .  In  Indians r e f u s e d to take out  and l i c e n s e s f o r  hawking.  The  s u c c e s s o f community l e a d e r s i n o r g a n i s i n g " p r a c t i c a l l y whole  Indian p o p u l a t i o n " was r e p o r t e d by the C o l o n i a l  o f the T r a n s v a a l a p p l i c a b l e to a l l  at  the time ( P a c h a i ,  Indians,  the  1971:38).  initial  the  Secretary  Though  impact o f t h i s  law  was f e l t m o s t l y by t r a d e r s , who s u p p o r t e d G a n d h i ' s campaign solidly  (Huttenback,  1971).  Subsequent compromise s o l u t i o n s  were sought by Gandhi through v o l u n t a r y  registration,  at  the  -96-  s u g g e s t i o n o f General a t the t i m e .  It  was hoped t h a t i n c o - o p e r a t i n g ,  would show good f a i t h be r e p e a l e d .  Smuts, the T r a n s v a a l C o l o n i a l  Secretary  Indians  i n the government and the A c t would  T h i s was however, a f u t i l e  attempt  s i n c e the  pledge was not honored by the T r a n s v a a l government 1957).  T h i s l e d to a d e m o n s t r a t i v e burning  certificates  and 500 t r a d i n g  (Palmer,  by Indians  licenses  o f 1,300  (Pachai,  The second p a s s i v e r e s i s t a n c e campaign, which ended i n was m o t i v a t e d  by broader i s s u e s ,  to the p o s i t i o n o f the poll  Indian.  though s t i l l It  related  1913, exclusively  f o c u s e d on the e x c e s s i v e ?  t h a t made rites  termination  illegal  •  of t h e i r  initial  c o n t r a c t s a n d laws s  those marriages solemnized under t r a d i t i o n a l  S i n c e these concerns c u t a c r o s s the  o f both the i n d e n t u r e d and the t r a d e r s , a temporary developed between them.  mine i n Northern Natal families greater  Natal  awareness both at  The a r r e s t  to  their  home and abroad among Indians sympathizers.  "Great March o f October 1913",Gandhi  deliberately  unity  o f such women c r e a t e d  b l a c k and white l i b e r a l  s t r i k e r s and t h e i r  interests  and went from mine  a s k i n g Indian l a b o r e r s and  to cease work.  as t h e i r  Indian  Women from the T r a n s v a a l , m o s t l y  Tamil-speaking, crossed into  the  1971:42).  tax demanded o f the indentured who d e c i d e d to remain i n South  Africa after  well  registration  families,  as  During  accompanied by  over 2,000  marched  i n t o the T r a n s v a a l to contravene the  Immigrants  -97-  R e g u l a t i o n A c t 22/1913 ( P a c h a i , and i m p r i s o n e d f o r 1971:62).  Other  Coast o f N a t a l ,  Gandhi was  nine months with hard l a b o r  confrontations  o c c u r r e d at  l a b o r e r s went on  North strike.  Edgecombe a c l a s h between  the same t i m e . i n the major  scale strikes  1971:63).  The campaign was s u c c e s s f u l i n s o f a r as i t  Relief  Act.  The p o l l  The former  indentured  towns  i n Natal  and the p a s s i n g o f the  tax was a b o l i s h e d and Indian  a c c o r d i n g to t r a d i t i o n a l  rites  police  These were acccompanied  by s m a l l e r  the Smuts-Gandhi agreement  arrested  (Pachai,  took p l a c e on the  where some 1,200  On the South Coast near Mt. and l a b o r e r s  1971:62).  were f o r m a l l y  (Pachai, led  to.  Indian marriages  recognized.  had p r e v i o u s l y d i s t a n c e d  themselves  from G a n d h i ' s a p p r o a c h , d i s a g r e e i n g w i t h h i s compromising approach to a u t h o r i t y , c a l l e d s t a n d a r d s o f the to appeal  his persistent British  respect for  Empire? and h i s  the s o -  tendency  to a "change o f h e a r t " by i n v o l v i n g them i n  A n g l o - B o e r War  .  the  He was c o n s i d e r e d as a c o l o n i a l w i t h a  1. When the Q u e e n ' s Diamond J u b i l e e a p p r o a c h e d , Gandhi was s t i l l s u f f i c i e n t l y enamored o f the B r i t i s h Empire to w r i t e a warm message o f f e l i c i t a t i o n : " W e are proud to t h i n k t h a t we are y o u r s u b j e c t s , the more so as we know t h a t the peace t h a t we enjoy i n I n d i a , and the c o n f i d e n c e o f s e c u r i t y o f l i f e , and p r o s p e r i t y which enables us to venture a b r o a d , are due to t h a t p o s i t i o n " , ( H u t t e n b a c k , 1 9 7 1 : 8 2 ) . 2. D e s p i t e h i s d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s , G a n d h i . u r g e d Indians to j o i n the army and f i g h t f o r B r i t a i n d u r i n g World War I. He o r g a n i z e d an Indian ambulance c o r p s c o m p r i s i n g 800 f r e e and 300 i n d e n t u r e d members, who p l a c e d t h e i r s e r v i c e s at the d i s p o s a l o f the Natal government ( I b i d . , pp. 82 and 123).  -98-  B r i t i s h e d u c a t i o n t h a t he c o n t i n u e d to take s e r i o u s l y . contrast,  the former  i n d e n t u r e d had been r a d i c a l i z e d by  harsh e x p e r i e n c e o f d i s c r i m i n a t o r y extent of B r i t i s h  In  c o n d i t i o n s and knew  technique of p o l i t i c a l  to  India,  response  having i n i t i a t e d  of the A f r i c a n  However,  he f o r m u l a t e d was to be meaningful organized A f r i c a n r e s i s t a n c e  trade  traders  '(1) it  (Meer,  the p o l i t i c a l  Among  gradually  including  strateg-  i n the e a r l y y e a r s  of  1969).  d e p r e s s i o n , which l e d to  v o i c e d i n the Lange Commission o f  1920^  the p o s i t i o n o f  increased  o f Whites  the c o m p l a i n t s o f Whites a g a i n s t  1971:334),which e n q u i r e d i n t o Union,  succeeded i n  unemployment, a c c e n t u a t e d the h o s t i l i t y  Indians.  His  ( G a n d h i , 1 9 5 8 : 2 4 5 ) , a l t h o u g h he had  worked w i t h white l i b e r a l s .  The p o s t - W o r l d War I  a new  he c a l l e d satyagraha.  widening c i r c l e s o f concern never q u i t e  White  the  exploitation.  1914 Gandhi r e t u r n e d  the p l i g h t  By  toward  Indian (Huttenback,  Indians  in  the  were:  They send t h e i r where they earn  money out o f the c o u n t r y i n s t e a d o f spending it.  1. The A s i a t i c I n q u i r y Commission a p p o i n t e d i n 1920 under the chairmanship o f S i r John L a n g e , recommended a program o f v o l u n t a r y r e p a t r i a t i o n to I n d i a . While i t condemned e x i s t i n g l o c a t i o n s as i n a d e q u a t e , the Commission urged the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f e x c l u s i v e segregated areas o f town f o r both l i v i n g and w o r k i n g . (Huttenback, 1971:334)  -99-  (2)  They are a s o u r c e o f danger to the  public health  owing r  to t h e i r  unclean h a b i t s , and r e q u i r e  c o n s t a n t s u p e r v i s i o n to  make them conform to s a n i t a r y and o t h e r (3)  They d e p r e c i a t e  as w e l l  the value o f p r o p e r t y  T h e i r standard of  (5)  T h e i r standard of trading  different  living  is  inferior  neighborhood,  to t h a t of E u r o p e a n s .  and methods o f b u s i n e s s are  to those o f Europeans i n the f o l l o w i n g  They use i n f e r i o r  pay l e s s r e n t f o r (b)  in their  as the premises which they o c c u p y .  (4)  (a)  by-laws.  respects:  b u i l d i n g s as shop premises and  them.  The owner o f the b u s i n e s s and h i s s h o p - a s s i s t a n t s  a l ? u s u a l l y r e s i d e on the p r e m i s e s . (c)  They d e f r a u d t h e i r  more f r e q u e n t l y  creditors  by f r a u d u l e n t  insolvency  than Europeans.  (d)  They pay lower wages to t h e i r  (e)  They evade the laws r e g u l a t i n g  (f)  They h a b i t u a l l y  a s s i s t a n t s than Europeans. hours o f  g i v e s h o r t weight  trading.  and a d u l t e r a t e  food-  stuffs . (g) (6)  They thus succeed i n u n d e r s e l l i n g European t r a d e r s . They c a r r y on b u s i n e s s which s h o u l d be c a r r i e d on by  Europeans, and c l o s e avenues o f employment which s h o u l d be open to Europeans. (7)  They produce n o t h i n g i n the T r a n s v a a l , and do not consume  the produce of the c o u n t r y , but import India.  their  requirements  from  -loo-  ts)  They form " r i n g s " to keep out European  (9)  Their  competitors.  presence has a bad i n f l u e n c e on the  are j e a l o u s  o f the  rights  and p r i v i l e g e s  n a t i v e s , who  enjoyed by them as  colored, people. (10)  Their  religion,  l a n g u a g e , c o l o u r , mode o f t h o u g h t ,  manners, and customs are e n t i r e l y E u r o p e a n s ; they  different  to those  cannot be a s s i m i l a t e d and t h e i r  ideals,  of  presence i s a  menace to European supremacy. (11)  They are g e n e r a l l y  inciting  immoral  them to t h e f t ,  and debauch the n a t i v e s  and by r e a d i l y  r e c e i v i n g the  by  stolen  property. (12)  They become too f a m i l i a r  with E u r o p e a n s , e s p e c i a l l y  fe-  b u s i n e s s , and thus d e s t r o y n Europeans ( C a l p i n , 1 9 4 9 : 4 2 - 3 ) .  the  males i n the conduct o f t h e i r respect of natives  for  Expressions of white animosity often accusations against world.  If  foreign  intruders  trading  one c a r e f u l l y  minorities  examines  one i s s t r u c k  w i t h r e g a r d to Jews i n p r e - N a z i i n West A f r i c a o r even O r i e n t a l s  a real  competitors,  due to t h e i r  on the o t h e r  hand the  in other  detail the ?  parts  the charges a g a i n s t  by t h e i r  of  the  the  interchangeability  Germany, S y r i a n s and Lebanese i n contemporary North A m e r i c a .  The e x p r e s s i o n s o f antagonism r e v e a l one hand i n d i c a t e s  resemble i n  a p a t t e r n which on the  c o n f l i c t w i t h more different  successful  social organization,  r o l e o f the f o r e i g n e r s  and  as scapegoats  -101-  for  both i n d i v i d u a l  r e p r e s s i o n s and as p s e u d o - e x p l a n a t i o n s  for  broader u n d e r l y i n g s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a n g e s .  m i d d l e - m a n , l o d g e d between a d e p r i v e d n a t i v e indigeneous p r o l e t a r i a t  and a p r i v i l e g e d  The  foreign  p o p u l a t i o n or  superordinate  can be c o n s t r u e d by both a n t a g o n i s t s as the s o u r c e o f evil.  His weak p o s i t i o n , extreme  visibility satisfy  as a " s t r a n g e r " ,  and s t r a t e g i c  for  placement  o f the accused v i c t i m s  that their  lies  i n the  all  discrimination, easily  the demands f o r d e c i s i v e a c t i o n to remedy the  The n a i v e t e belief  vulnerability  group,  ills.  fallacious  b e h a v i o u r can i n f l u e n c e the a c t i o n s o f  their  p r o s e c u t o r s , w h e n they as f o r e i g n middlemen are merely the i n a wider  Indians  conflict.  i n South A f r i c a opposed these a c c u s a t i o n s s t r e n u o u s l y .  They c o n s i d e r e d i t  unfair  to blame them f o r  o f the c o u n t r y to s u p p o r t t h e i r  families  them i n the c o u n t r y .  The T r a n s v a a l  hibited  from i n v e s t i n g f r e e l y  in land.  p l a c e d on the f r e e  expenditure  inferior  mode o f l i v i n g  deliberately referring  neglecting  to t h e i r  European f a r m e r s ,  and t h e a t r e s .  I n d i a n areas but at  Their authorities  the same time  standards.  to p e n e t r a t e  were p r o -  money, they were e x -  r e s u l t e d from the m u n i c i p a l  low s a n i t a r y  were w i l l i n g  Indians  allowed  There were o b s t a c l e s  of t h e i r  c l u d e d from much p u b l i c e n t e r t a i n m e n t  sending money out  who were not  to j o i n  Indians  pawns  Furthermore,  outlying d i s t r i c t s  they a r g u e d , were r e l u c t a n t  to  where  establish  -102-  themselves.  It  as e x p l o i t a t i v e  was d o u b t f u l of t h e i r  whether  Indian shopkeepers were  customers as White t r a d e r s ,  c a t e r e d to the poor W h i t e s , s o l d n e c e s s i t i e s o f l i f e quantities  and o f f e r e d u n p a r a l l e l e d c r e d i t  s i n c e they in  smaller  facilities.  F o l l o w i n g the recommendations o f the Lange Commission i n c r e a s e d r e s t r i c t i o n s a g a i n s t Indians were suggested i n the Areas R e s e r v a t i o n Bill  o f 1925,  whose main o b j e c t was to implement  residential  segregation.  To q u i e t the t i d e o f w h i t e a n t a g o n i s m , I n d i a n s ,  in their  pathetic  p o w e r l e s s n e s s , began to accede to v a r i o u s white maneouvers. i n s t a n c e , while at t h i s  stage no law e x i s t e d to p r e v e n t  For  Indians  from a c q u i r i n g o r o c c u p y i n g p r o p e r t y anywhere i n the p r o v i n c e of N a t a l ,  l e a d e r s o f the NIC, at the i n s t i g a t i o n o f European  authorities, property  began v o l u n t a r i l y t o d i s s u a d e Indians  i n , and thereby  was v i r t u a l l y  "penetrating"  from a c q u i r i n g  White a r e a s J  Compliance  f o r c e d on the grounds t h a t o t h e r w i s e compulsory  s e g r e g a t i o n , which Indian l e a d e r s hoped to f o r e s t a l l , would result  ( C a l p i n , 1949:128-30).  The p s y c h o l o g i c a l impact o f a  s i t u a t i o n f o r c i n g such a c t i o n s must have been profound and w i d e spread i n d e e d , i f  Indians  draw from e x e r c i s i n g t h e i r  felt  t h a t they s h o u l d v o l u n t a r i l y  legal  r i g h t s and v i r t u a l l y  s e l v e s i n c o n s p i c u o u s so as to be l e f t  with-  make them-  in peace.  1. The e x t e n t o f " p e n e t r a t i o n " had i n f a c t been exaggerated out o f a l l p r o p o r t i o n as e v i d e n c e d i n a memorandum o f the Natal Indian Congress to the Durban C i t y C o u n c i l . It was p o i n t e d out t h a t the value o f p r o p e r t y h e l d by Indians i n the o l d Borough was 4 m i l l i o n pounds, as compared w i t h an European h o l d i n g o f 35 m i l l i o n pounds, Indians owned 1 ,783 s i t e s as a g a i n s t 12,782 owned by Europeans. ( P a c h a i , 1971:167)  -103-  Previously, provincial  Indians  had c o n s t i t u t e d  a s s o c i a t i o n s ; the Cape B r i t i s h  Transvaal  Accelerated r e s t r i c t i o n s  u n i f y i n g these bodies i n 1920 CSAIC)  to express i t s voice. India  into  various  Indian C o u n c i l ,  B r i t i s h I n d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n , and the Natal  Congress.  Congress  themselves  (Palmer,  Indian  had the e f f e c t  of  into  the South A f r i c a n  1957:81).  T h i s enabled the  demands i n the  international  The outcome was a meeting  the  temporarily Indian community  forum w i t h one  between r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  of  and South A f r i c a t h a t produced the Cape Town Agreement  o f 1927,  c o n t a i n i n g many promises o f change.  The South  A f r i c a n government agreed not to proceed w i t h the Areas Reservation B i l l ,  and the  with r e p a t r i a t i o n  T h i s era o f  a small  to a s s i s t  o f those who so d e s i r e d .  Indian d i s s e n s i o n was dominated by a  approach, motivated mentality."  I n d i a n government o f f e r e d  particular  by what can be d e s c r i b e d as a  D e s p i t e the f a c t  percentage of the  t h a t the t r a d e r s  "trader  constituted  I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n , they had  r e s o u r c e s to draw a t t e n t i o n  to t h e i r  plight,  the  and i n so doing  a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e d from time to time the problems o f the dentured  laborers.  T h e i r s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and a m b i t i o u s n e s s  made them n o t i c e a b l e , d e s p i t e back, 1971:41). material  for  their  Meer m a i n t a i n s  numerical weakness  t h a t "they  provided  the o r g a n i s a t i o n o f a p o l i t i c a l  leader  " (Meer, 1969:27).  (Hutten-  malleable  movement and  p r e s e n t e d the n e c e s s a r y middle c l a s s background f o r effective  in-  the  T h e i r approach was based  -104-  on a minimal  awareness o f r i g h t s  o f g a i n i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g  and a maximal  the g o o d w i l l  f o c u s on methods  o f those i n  C h a r a c t e r i z e d by n e g o t i a t i o n s ,  deputations,  ferences,  underlying strategy  and d i s c u s s i o n s ,  the  o f g r a d u a l i s m , b a r g a i n i n g , and compromise. to be a b r u p t l y  c o n f r o n t e d by the  leaders with a very d i f f e r e n t to have i m p l i c a t i o n s  for  petitions,  con-  was one  These methods were  next g e n e r a t i o n o f  political  power.  Indian  m a n e u v e r i n g , which was  the community's i n c r e a s e d  self-  confidence.  2.  Confrontation  Instead o f P e r s u a s i o n  The Cape Town Agreement o f Indians.  It  1927  r a i s e d some hopes among  a c c e l e r a t e d the a v a i l a b i l i t y  o p p o r t u n i t i e s , which were f u l l y  The number o f s c h o o l s 1931,  teachers  utilized.  i n c r e a s e d from 52 i n 1928  (Palmer,  1957:108).  began to f i n a n c e t h e i r  cultural,  educational  to 78  s a l a r i e s were r a i s e d , and a t e a c h e r  college established Indians  of  training  A t the same time  own s c h o o l s and to form  and r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s  to f u l f i l l  i n a s o c i e t y where few i f  any such f a c i l i t i e s  for,them.  Indians  The demands o f  in  of t h i s  their  needs  were p r o v i d e d  time d i f f e r e d  s i d e r a b l y from those of the p r e c e d i n g g e n e r a t i o n . keen u s e r s o f any p o s s i b l e e d u c a t i o n a l  welfare,  opportunity,  con-  They were and a l -  most every young person a s p i r e d to complete secondary e d u c a t i o n . Many p a r e n t s  scrounged t o g e t h e r  what money they c o u l d to send  -105-  their  c h i l d r e n to B r i t a i n  they saw i n i t  for professional education, since  the o n l y s e c u r i t y f o r  among those who s t u d i e d abroad  and  the f u t u r e .  It  e x p e r i e n c e d more  was  from  equalitarian  treatment i n a d i f f e r e n t  s o c i e t y ^ t h a t the f u t u r e  l e a d e r s were to emerge.  Even those who had s t u d i e d w i t h i n  c o u n t r y had e x p e r i e n c e d more e g a l i t a r i a n schoolmasters, f i g u r e s than  was an o v e r a l l generation.  politicization  philanthropic  The impact o f these  contracts  o f the younger m i d d l e - c l a s s  S i m u l t a n e o u s l y , m a n y young workers w i t h  needs and e x p e c t a t i o n s  the  contact with English  w h i t e m i s s i o n a r i e s , and o t h e r  had the former g e n e r a t i o n , -  political  found the i d e a s of t r a d e  s o c i a l i s m to have i n c r e a s i n g r e l e v a n c e to t h e i r  different  unionism and situation.  The new l e a d e r s h i p , c o m p r i s i n g young Indian p r o f e s s i o n a l s and the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a ,  pursued a more r a d i c a l  political  than the o l d commerical and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l common cause with workers  of a l l  elite,  deprived groups.  small s t r i k e s , though not always s u c c e s s f u l  course  seeking Numerous  in realizing  a i m s , helped to c o n s o l i d a t e morale among workers  their  against  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on the b a s i s o f c o l o r .  In  was the meaning o f worker  so abundantly c l e a r as  i n South A f r i c a .  exploitation  no o t h e r  The c o n s t a n t c o i n c i d e n c e o f r a c e and d e p r i -  v a t i o n was more v i v i d and v i s i b l e than c l a s s ever be i n a r a c i a l l y felt  context  homogeneous s o c i e t y .  the j u s t n e s s o f t h e i r  cause spoke f o r  struggle could Hence Indian workers itself.  -106-  Furthermore,  the  i n e q u i t y w i t h i n the  became i n c r e a s i n g l y e v i d e n t , policies  of  interests  e x p o s i n g the  Indian o r g a n i z a t i o n s  of t h e i r  Indian community  leadership.  link  and the c l a s s  itself  between  the  background and  The n o n c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l  which had never produced e f f e c t i v e  results,  r e p l a c e d w i t h c a n d i d views f o r d i r e c t  were  approaches,  gradually  r e s i s t a n c e to  authority.  Open, c l e a r demands based on what were c o n s i d e r e d to be fundamental  human r i g h t s , w e r e  and vague p l e a s f o r  The d i a l e c t i c a l  seen as p r e f e r a b l e  e d u c a t i o n was f u r t h e r  i n the p e r s p e c t i v e s o f the young r a d i c a l s .  confident  in their  humiliating  mercy.  impact o f c o l o n i a l  coming " a d j u s t e d "  to  Instead o f  be-  Indian E n g l i s h m e n , they r e t u r n e d more Indian background.  tended to be more n a t i o n a l i s t i c  evident  self-  C o n s e q u e n t l y , they  with regard to t h e i r  Iridianness  the compromising o l d e r commercial e l i t e had been ( C a l p i n ,  Evidence o f t h e s e d i v e r g e n t War II.  viewpoints  emerged d u r i n g World  The South A f r i c a n I n d i a n Congress ( S A I C ) ,  in  customary p u r s u i t o f e x p e d i e n c y , passed a r e s o l u t i o n loyalty  to the B r i t i s h c a u s e .  nationalists  sequently,  By c o n t r a s t ,  its pledging  the young  r e f u s e d to a s s o c i a t e themselves w i t h a war  c o n s i d e r e d to be i n the  interests  they c o n s t i t u t e d  they  of B r i t i s h i m p e r i a l i s m .  Sub-  themselves as an o p p o s i t i o n g r o u p ,  c a l l e d the A n t i - S e g r e g a t i o n C o u n c i l , w i t h i n the NIC. i n c r e a s i n g l y viewed t h e i r  1949).  local  struggle  in  They  international  than  -107-  terms,  identifying  w i t h the  The A n t i - S e g r e g a t i o n C o u n c i l arena worker  a l s o i n t r o d u c e d to the  India. political  s u p p o r t , which p r e v i o u s l y had been i g n o r e d .  More s i g n i f i c a n t l y , political  independence movement i n  f o r the f i r s t  time i n South A f r i c a n  h i s t o r y the a s p i r a t i o n s of A f r i c a n s were  incorporated  i n t o programs, and A f r i c a n s shared the same p l a t f o r m . j o i n t demands were u n i v e r s a l racial  roll,equality  s u f f r a g e on a common non-  of a l l  existing restrictive  c o n t r a s t e d too s t r o n g l y w i t h the  bargaining  and g r a d u a l i s m o f the o l d e r a c t i v i s t s , who s p l i t i n  and formed the Natal They c r i t i c i z e d support, for  Indian O r g a n i z a t i o n  the NIC f o r  For the f i r s t  1947  (NIO).  unnecessarily alienating  white  being C o m m u n i s t - i n s p i r e d , and f o r heading on a  c o l l i s i o n c o u r s e damaging to e x i s t i n g  current  and d i s -  legislation.  This strategy tactics  Their  i n employment and s t a t u s , freedom o f  movement, and removal criminatory  Indian  time the  of d i f f e r i n g  I n d i a n economic p r o s p e c t s .  impact o f a l o n g - e x i s t i n g  interests,never  before  under-  articulated  w i t h i n the seemingly homogeneous community,became e x p r e s s e d i n p u b l i c p o l i c y and s t r a t e g i e s . p r i s e d of a majority  The NIO was com-  of Gujerati-speaking Muslims,  o f passenger s t a t u s w i t h s u b s t a n t i a l  clearly  commercial  originally  interests.  1  A t the 1948 Conference o f the Natal Indian O r g a n i z a t i o n , o f 189 members 148 were G u j e r a t i M u s l i m s . (Meer, 1972:441).  -108-  The NIC appealed f o r  the most p a r t to w o r k e r s , with  l e a d e r s h i p composed o f sympathetic p r o f e s s i o n a l s . of d i f f e r e n t  interest  groups i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  served as a more a c t i v e public  rallying  point,  its Articulation  terms  thereby  also  increasing  participation.  In March 1946  the NIC o r g a n i z e d the t h i r d  passive resistance  campaign, which was d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the Ghetto A c t of Without  a c h i e v i n g many demands, the NIC succeeded i n  thousands o f period.  Indians f o r a p o l i t i c a l  Indian morale was e x c e p t i o n a l l y  being l i n k e d with optimism about  in  India.  It  high a t  India's  The Indian d i a s p o r a had i d e n t i f i e d struggle  and c u l t u r a l  itself  fully  was a l s o a high p e r i o d o f  revival this  time,  with  the  cultural  Independence  languages a p p e a r e d .  The Tamil  was e s p e c i a l l y a c t i v e as packed audiences attended c o n c e r t s o f the Tamil Again.  mobilizing  impending independence.  r e n a i s s a n c e among South A f r i c a n I n d i a n s . in various vernacular  1946.  Scenes o f the e a r l y  songs  community  the  pioneers  working on the sugar cane f i e l d s were r e - e n a c t e d , and the beauty and v i r t u e s predominant  o f the Tamil  language were e x t o l l e d .  i n f l u e n c e was t h a t of the communist-poet  T a m i l n a d , Amarakavi imperialism in  Bharathiar,who  India.  from  strongly confronted  British  Rather than f e e l i n g s o f powerlessness  or d e p r i v a t i o n , a s t r o n g sense o f moral prevailed  A  Many Congress o f f i c i a l s ,  s t r e n g t h and optimism  being Tamil  speaking,  -109-  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h and addressed these g a t h e r i n g s Tamil Agam 1 9 4 6 - 9 ) . rallies  at  The same crowds appeared at  "Red Square" i n Durban.  now a p p r o x i m a t e l y  (Records  of  political  Formal membership was by  35,000 w i t h many more s y m p a t h i z e r s .  (Meer,  1969).  D e s p i t e the  i m p r e s s i v e community m o b i l i z a t i o n  r e s i s t a n c e campaigns, Indians as a m i n o r i t y .  Greater  A f r i c a n National  recognized t h e i r  powerlessness  l i n k a g e s w i t h the r e c e n t l y  formed  Congress (ANC) became the c r u c i a l  change was to be e f f e c t i v e l y  While the f o u r t h  o f the p a s s i v e  issue,if  coerced.  p a s s i v e r e s i s t a n c e campaign (1952)  gained  motive power from the s p e c i f i c d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f the Group Areas A c t o f 1950, its  it  aimed a t  legislation  theme was " D e f i a n c e o f U n j u s t L a w s . " '  multiracial  in character,  w i t h the ANC.  Indeed,  was e v i d e n c e d two y e a r s for  unjust  participating  the r e s u l t  solidarity later  general;  The p r o t e s t was  of a formal  alliance  between A f r i c a n s and  when 8,557 people were  Indians  arrested  i n the campaign; they were m o s t l y A f r i c a n s  (Pachai,  1971:242).  The 1952  campaign aroused much i n t e r n a t i o n a l  a g a i n drew a t t e n t i o n  to the p l i g h t  o f South ,' ; r i c a , though the ;  in  o f the s u b o r d i n a t e peoples  focus s t j l l  L F o r det- J e d d i s c u s s i o n o f the  comment and once  tended to be on the  1952 t ;npaign, see L.  Kuper, (i960 ).  -nop o s i t i o n of  Indians.  These developments l e n t  to the domestic s t r u g g l e .  In  1955  h e l d i n Johannesburg and a t t e n d e d  some s t r e n g t h  the Congress o f the by a m u l t i r a c i a l  o f 2,884 d e l e g a t e s , adopted the Freedom C h a r t e r A number'of a r r e s t s the t r i a l 1960  of a m u l t i r a c i a l  terminating  group f o r  gathering  (Ibid.,  high t r e a s o n i n 1956.  though not the o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  This v i r t u a l l y activity.  marked the  While  the f o r t i e s traditional,  it  temporary  shared t h i s  fifties  end o f u n i f i e d  lines  would seem t o have s t i l l  groups to work t o g e t h e r , was an i n t e g r a t e d  South A f r i c a n s o c i e t y .  its  two  separate  At that  been p o s s i b l e f o r both  especially since their  political  the end o f  made s t r i d e s from  has never been c l e a r .  In  NIC  Black  e x c l u s i v i s t p r e d e c e s s o r s , the need f o r  congresses on r a c i a l  252).  fate.  must be conceded t h a t the NIC a t  and i n the e a r l y  p.  in  the ANC was banned, and s u b s e q u e n t l y the e n t i r e  executive,  it  followed,  People,  stage,  racial  political  aim  -111V11.The Impact o f N a t i o n a l i s t  Legislation  S i n c e the b e g i n n i n g of N a t i o n a l i s t altered'by ment.  several  rule  i n 1948,  Indian l i f e  has been  changes i n the nature o f the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l e n v i r o n -  The Group Areas A c t of 1950 was the most s e v e r e p i e c e o f  to a f f e c t  Indians  property  holdings  as they were the o n l y s u b o r d i n a t e group with at  1  d e f i n e most o f the  the t i m e .  The A c t made i t  substantial  l e g a l l y p o s s i b l e to  l a n d i n South A f r i c a , p a r t i c u l a r l y  i n the urban a r e a s ,  f o r the e x c l u s i v e use and ownership o f one o f the f o u r r a c i a l re-allocating all  legislation  l a n d a c c o r d i n g l y and aiming a t  groups by  the r e s e t t l e m e n t  of  2 people who happened to l i v e  i n an area o t h e r w i s e  "declared".  Three reasons were g i v e n by the government i n i n t r o d u c i n g the Group Areas Bill,  namely: a) T h a t the v a r i o u s r a c i a l  have been and s t i l l cultural  b) That i t  Europeans t h a t Africa  are a t w i d e l y d i f f e r i n g  and p o l i t i c a l  them a l i k e ,  and c o n f l i c t i n g stages o f  development, which make i t i s i n the i n t e r e s t  i m p o s s i b l e to  when d i f f e r e n t  c) That r a c i a l  races l i v e  in  treat  o f both Europeans and non-  "Western C i v i l i z a t i o n " s h o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d  through n o n - i n t e g r a t i o n ,  are i n e v i t a b l e  groups w i t h i n the Union always  i n South  c o n f l i c t and t e n s i o n  c l o s e p r o x i m i t y . T h e Durban  3 riots  o f January 1949  were  used  as obvious r a t i o n a l e  1. Meer e s t i m a t e s t h a t Indians owned over a t h i r d o c c u p i e d which i s the h i g h e s t r a t i o o f a l l r a c i a l (Meer, 1975:131).  for  this  o f a l l p r o p e r t i e s they groups i n South A f r i c a  2. It was e s t i m a t e d t h a t up to 1,763 Indians were d i s p o s s e s s e d o f 6,638 a c r e s o f t h e i r o r i g i n a l l a n d h o l d i n g s o f 10,323 a c r e s o f r a t e a b l e l a n d i n the Durban m u n i c i p a l i t y . F i g u r e s r e p o r t e d by J . N . S i n g h , i n an a f f i d a v i t i n Supreme C o u r t o f South A f r i c a , T r a n s v a a l P r o v i n c i a l D i v i s i o n , i n the matter between P . N . Bhoola and the S t a t e , 1963. 3. The Durban r i o t s African Relations.  are d e s c r i b e d and a n a l y s e d i n the S e c t i o n on Indian  -112l e g i s l a t i o n to be put on s t a t u t e (Bridgemohan,  i n the form o f the  "Group Areas A c t "  1959:16).  Among the s o c i a l and economic consequences c i t e d by the opponents o f scheme, were the drop i n p r o p e r t y v a l u e s o f e x i s t i n g homes t o g e t h e r the a r t i f i c i a l  shortage of l i m i t e d  land a v a i l a b l e  i n new a r e a s .  the  with  For the  s u b o r d i n a t e s these new l o c a t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y more remote from the work p l a c e s and c o n s e q u e n t l y i n c u r r e d e x t r a t h e r e were emotional  transport costs.  and communal bonds which were being  Above a l l ,  threatened.  E s t a b l i s h e d areas w i t h t e m p l e s , mosques, s c h o o l s ^ were to be f o r new g h e t t o s and slums w i t h minimal (Bridgemohan, 1 9 5 9 : 3 1 ) . inter-racial  hostility  i n some cases no c i v i c  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e was no a c t u a l  Considerable f i n a n c i a l developed a r e a s .  evidence of  neighbourhood i n Durban ( R u s s e l l , 1960).  l o s s was i n c u r r e d by I n d i a n p r o p e r t y owners  By the end o f 1974,  these o n l y 29,969 had been r e s e t t l e d .  39,501 I n d i a n f a m i l i e s  A total  value.  As a n i n t e r e s t e d  1. In Cato Manor, , 16 t e m p l e s , church 115 b u s i n e s s e s own  homes.  Of  traders  resettled  To make m a t t e r s worse e x p r o p r i a t i o n took p l a c e  on g o v e r n m e n t - d i c t a t e d t e r m s , r e s u l t i n g i n compensation f a r market  in  through-  o f 5,058 Indian  were d e c l a r e d d i s q u a l i f i e d o c c u p a n t s , o f whom 984 had been 1976:69, 73).  in  i n s t a n c e i n a thorough  out the c o u n t r y had become d i s q u a l i f i e d to remain i n t h e i r  (Horrell,  amenities  i n areas where the v a r i o u s groups had l i v e d  c l o s e p r o x i m i t y w i t h each o t h e r as r e v e a l e d f o r study o f an i n t e r r a c i a l  forfeited  party  the a l l - W h i t e  below  Group Areas Board  p o o r e r suburb o f 3,300 Indian f a m i l i e s t h e r e were and mosques, 11 I n d i a n s c h o o l s , 15 f a c t o r i e s and by Indians ( S i n g h , 1963).  -113had a f r e e sales,  hand to d e c l a r e p r o p e r t y  retain  preemptive  rights  f o r any g r o u p , v a l u a t e  (Bridgemohan, 1 9 5 9 ) .  In  1  have had the r e s o u r c e s and p a t i e n c e impartiality  o f the a r b i t r a t i o n  c o n t e s t e d . O n November 2 0 t h ,  (Meer,  a judge o f  the Natal  valuation  Supreme C o u r t  c o u r t t o r e c u s e them-  and a c t u a l  In  1964,  is  compensation as  illustrated  in  another w i t h a  v a l u a t i o n o f R960 was compensated w i t h R50 ( H o r r e l l ,  Two I n d i a n p r o p e r t i e s  i n Durban, bought by the Board f o r  R l l , 0 0 0 r e s o l d w i t h i n f i f t e e n months f o r (Sprocas, 1972:82).  R20,000 and  R47,000 and R67,000  In R u s t e n b u r g , the Group Areas Board  1969:223).  respectively  retained  R16,000 on the s a l e o f an Indian p r o p e r t y which s o l d to whites R70,000, presumably as a p p r e c i a t i o n . sold for  R453,000.  In  at  Less than two y e a r s l a t e r  Ladysmith a p r o p e r t y  bought a t  by the Board was r e s o l d to a white at R9,500 ( H o r r e l l , Chatsworth which was developed on f r u i t from Indian farmers  the  an I n d i a n owned p r o p e r t y w i t h a m u n i c i p a l  v a l u a t i o n o f R l l , 2 0 0 was compensated w i t h R5,000;  property  the  s e t up by the Board have been  o f the Group Areas B o a r d ' s v a l u a t i o n  f o l l o w i n g examples.  rateable  on  1971:25).  The d i s c r e p a n c y between m u n i c i p a l a result  of  Indians  to c o n t e s t such v a l u a t i o n s ,  court  1966,  such p r o p e r t y  some i n s t a n c e s , where  asked two members o f the t h r e e member a r b i t r a t i o n selves  force  to p u r c h a s e , to c o l l e c t 50 p e r c e n t  the s u r p l u s on b a s i c v a l u e , and s u b s e q u e n t l y r e s e l l the open market  it,  farming  the R6,630  1969:107).  l a n d was  at an average p r i c e o f R250 per a c r e .  expropriated "Economic"  1. V a r i o u s c r i t i c i s m s o f the A c t have been t r e a t e d e l s e w h e r e : 1956; P a t o n , n . d . ; P a t h e r , 1950.  Horrell,  -114houses which c o s t not more than R l , 0 0 0 to b u i l d , and occupy r o u g h l y an e i g h t h o f an a c r e , have seen s o l d to Community Development f o r i s exempt from a l l quality  (Meer,  Indians  R4,000 per u n i t ,  housing r e g u l a t i o n s ,  and s i n c e the  Department  1975).  p r i c e s f o r accommodations  i n newly p r o c l a i m e d Indian a r e a s , which were f a r T h i s caused i n f l a t i o n  too small  for  J u l y 14,  1974).  than t h a t f o r W h i t e s .  The q u a l i t y  The a r t i f i c i a l  development c o n t i n u e s to be a major middle c l a s s .  The a v a i l a b l e  the  o f land p r i c e s ^ by as much as "R2,000  over the p r i c e whites would pay f o r a 900 square metre p l o t " Ttilbunz,  of  homes are o f a very poor  D i s p o s s e s s e d homeowners had to pay i n f l a t e d  demand.  by the Department  {Sunday  o f land i s a l s o g e n e r a l l y land shortage f o r  complaint of a  lower  Indian home  rising-Indian  land f e t c h e s e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y  high p r i c e s  by members o f an i n s e c u r e group s e e k i n g to f i n d s e c u r i t y i n home 3 ownership.  As one p r o p e r t y agent remarked,  "People have become so  d e s p e r a t e t h a t when they even hear about the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a new township being opened up they p r a c t i c a l l y a site."  (Interview  f o r c e money on us to s e c u r e  48)  1. l-our h a l t a c r e l o t s i n one s u b u r b , I s i p i n g o , r e a l i s e d R106,500 i n 1968. Neighbouring white suburbs a d v e r t i s e land o f the same s i z e f o r roughly a t h i r d of that p r i c e . 2. The Department o f Community Development has s o l d r e s i d e n t i a l p l o t s o f 5,000 and 10,000 s q . f t . f o r R5,000 and more. P r i v a t e township d w e l l e r s o f f e r s m a l l e r p l o t s o f land from R3,000-T12,000 i n r e l a t i v e l y undeveloped areas and f o r as much as R25,000 i n ' c h o i c e ' I n d i a n areas 3. cs  In 1965, home ownership among Indians 60 p e r c e n t (Meer, 1975).  was e s t i m a t e d  to be as high  -115On the  basis of t h i s  has been r e c e n t l y  artificially  reevaluated  designated that valuations "what a w i l l i n g  c r e a t e d demand, Indian  a c c o r d i n g to a Natal Ordinance which  had to be based on market v a l u e ,  buyer would pay a w i l l i n g  be v a l u e d was put up f o r  property  sale"  seller  if  the  property  {Sunday TXmei, January 25,  Consequently r a t e r i s e s of 200 to 300 p e r c e n t  have been  namely to  1976).  reported  (ibid).  Tenants who have had to be e v i c t e d and were unable to g a i n in large  new monotonous housing complexes such as C h a t s w o r t h , were  f o r c e d to become d w e l l e r s standards.  The o f f i c i a l l y  i n Natal a t  the  69).  more than h a l f  of t r a n s i t estimated  beginning of  In a d d i t i o n ,  City Treasurer,  there e x i s t s  of sub-economic  shortage o f housing f o r  severe overcrowding.  Indians  (Horrell, For  1  1976:  instance,  the homes i n the S p r i n g f i e l d sub-economic housing  Mr.  O.D. G o r v e n .  403 were o v e r c r o w d e d , . . . t h r e e  to be overcrowded by the  families  79 p e r c e n t  l e s s than R80 a month  Durban  "Of the 695 houses i n the scheme, each l i v e  each i n 250 houses and one f a m i l y  {VaULy Hmi,, 28 May, 1974). earning  camps, o f t e n  1975 was 13,000 d w e l l i n g s  scheme a t A s h e r v i l l e , are r e p o r t e d  families  accommodation  i n 129 homes, two  each i n 316 h o u s e s . "  o f those l e a s i n g homes were  (ibid).  1. "Sub-economic" s t a n d a r d s r e f e r to households e a r n i n g R100 a month i n 1975 ( H o r r e l l , 1 9 7 6 : 7 2 ) .  not more  than  -116Contrary to a Natal stipulating  Supreme C o u r t d e c i s i o n o f J u l y 4 t h ,  t h a t the Board s h o u l d c o n s i d e r the p r o v i s i o n o f  s u i t a b l e and e q u i t a b l e (Horrell,  replacement b e f o r e p r o c l a i m i n g an a r e a  Insufficient  facilities, complaints.  facilities  and shopping  and "not even a p o l i c e s t a t i o n " a r e among the 1  frequent  C h a t s w o r t h ' s 15,000 r e s i d e n t s have been w i t h o u t a  cemetery f o r 14 y e a r s a f t e r r e s e t t l e m e n t .  Only i n May, 1974  the C i t y C o u n c i l approve l a n d f o r use as a cemetery  {Dally  c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t Indians  Horn,  d e p r i v a t i o n and c o m p a r a t i v e  by the Group A r e a s A c t , i t  impact.  From t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f  dis-  was the s o c i a l  consequences o f u p r o o t i n g a s e t t l e d community which had a  lasting  "community development" t h e s e changes  i r o n i c a l l y enough seem t o have been more e f f i c i e n t d e s t r u c t i o n , e r o d i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l  at  community  South A f r i c a n I n d i a n way o f  The members o f the extended f a m i l y g e n e r a l l y had l i v e d e i t h e r  life.  to-  i n a s i n g l e household o r w i t h i n c o n v e n i e n t commuting d i s t a n c e  from one a n o t h e r .  Frequent v i s i t s to r e l a t i v e s  were p a r t o f  daily  As the most s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t o f the s u b o r d i n a t e g r o u p s ,  1. The few e s s e n t i a l  facilities  which a r e b e g i n n i n g t o appear  f i f t e e n y e a r s r e s i d e n c e i n some o f t h e s e t o w n s h i p s , such as R.K.  did  July,1974).  However, more than the m a t e r i a l  life.  their  numbers o f s c h o o l s , no h o s p i t a l s , no  p u b l i c t e l e p h o n e s , inadequate r e c r e a t i o n a l  gether  alternate,  1 9 6 0 : 1 4 5 ) , most newly d e c l a r e d a r e a s a r e noted f o r  poor a m e n i t i e s .  5  1960,  Khan h o s p i t a l  The R . K .  Khan t r u s t p a r t l y  the  and w i t h heavy  f i n a n c e d and r a i s e d from  the community R400,000 f o r b u i l d i n g t h e R.K. i n Chatsworth.  after  i n Chatsworth and t h e S h i f a h o s p i t a l i n A s h e r v i l l e  have been b u i l t a t the community's own i n i t i a t i v e , subsidisation.  Indians  Khan h o s p i t a l f o r  Indians  -117have i n the p a s t f i n a n c e d , e i t h e r t o t a l l y of t h e i r  o r p a r t l y , over 80 p e r c e n t  own s c h o o l s and o r g a n i z e d a p r o l i f e r a t i o n  u s u a l l y i n the c i t y ' s c e n t r a l  a r e a , t o cope w i t h t h e i r  an e s s e n t i a l l y urban p e o p l e , t h e i r and p l a c e s o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t .  of a s s o c i a t i o n s ,  homes were w i t h i n  needs.  Being  reach o f  These l i v i n g arrangements  shops  had made  material  d e p r i v a t i o n somewhat b e a r a b l e :  t r a n s p o r t c o s t s were  latively  low; the n u c l e a r f a m i l y c o u l d r e l y on the extended  refamily  f o r c h i l d c a r e ; and the p a u c i t y o f p u b l i c c o n v e n i e n c e s i n the for  Indians was a l l e v i a t e d  by c e n t r a l  settlement  patterns.  city  Further-  more, t e l e p h o n e s were u s u a l l y a v a i l a b l e and a c a r was not a n e c e s s i t y . In  t h i s way p o o r e r groups were compensated by g e o g r a p h i c a l  and b e t t e r  p u b l i c amenities f o r  sections in suburbia. the f i r s t  time  the p r i v a t e  wealthier  With the passage o f the Group A r e a s A c t , f o r  i n the h i s t o r y o f the I n d i a n community extended  had t o s p l i t and r e s e t t l e  c o u l d no l o n g e r h i d e i n d i v i d u a l i n the same f a m i l y .  families  a c c o r d i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l f i n a n c i a l means.  T h e r e b y , c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s became g r e a t l y  a c c e n t u a t e d ; k i n s h i p bonds  p o v e r t y as w e l l  as accumulated w e a l t h  T h i s haphazard r e s e t t l e m e n t  scale social disorganization, hitherto Though s t i l l  advantages o f  proximity  resulted in  large-  unknown i n the I n d i a n community.  c o n s i d e r a b l y lower than o t h e r r a c i a l  g r o u p s , the common  i n d i c a t o r s f o r degrees o f s o c i a l anomie, such as r a t e s o f d i v o r c e , illegitimate community r  l  b i r t h s , and crime showed a marked i n c r e a s e w i t h i n  itself.  1  ^-^7^I^f  1967,  Meer 1971,  the  Schlemmer  c o - u n i t y d i s o r g a n i s a t i o n see Ramasar  1967.  -118Although t h e r e  are no crime s t a t i s t i c s  s u b u r b s , and o f f i c i a l  group s t a t i s t i c s  i n c r e a s e i n c r i m e , s o c i a l workers with s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n . gang a s s a u l t s , t h e f t ,  f o r Chatsworth or the  tell  do not r e f l e c t  significant  o f an o v e r l o a d o f cases  R e s i d e n t s complain o f  sexual a t t a c k s ,  a  newer  living  in fear  and p h y s i c a l i n j u r y .  attacks  " F i s h e r m a n ' s Gang" which e n t e r s a n y home, s l a s h e s people w i t h  knives, also:  of  For  i n s t a n c e , r e s i d e n t s i n the Montford area r e l a t e i n c i d e n t s o f by the  dealing  smashes windows, and takes  Leader, 27 December, 1974).  anything  it  pleases.  (Interviews,  Men, women and c h i l d r e n were s a i d  to have been i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y a t t a c k e d ,  a s s a u l t e d , and t h e i r  stoned i n the Road 702 area o f C h a t s w o r t h .  cars  The p o l i c e seemed unable  to do a n y t h i n g , and r e s i d e n t s say t h a t whenever they c a l l e d they were t o l d the o n l y p a t r o l  van i n use was out on duty and t h e r e f o r e  were unable to do a n y t h i n g 11 O c t o b e r ,  v i o l e n c e may w e l l  1967), they t u r n  be i n d i c a t i v e o f the anger o f a  their  fate.  frustration  As Ramasar p o i n t s out  into  to take r e t a l i a t o r y  Indian way o f l i f e pattern  action.  seems to r e f l e c t ,  In t h i s  afraid,  (Ramasar,  defenceless  r e s p e c t , the new  though w i t h a time l a g ,  o f the urban A f r i c a n and c o l o u r e d township d w e l l e r ,  the f e a r o f p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e by t h e i r  of  a g g r e s s i o n toward members o f  own g r o u p , s i n c e they are most v u l n e r a b l e ,  and u n l i k e l y  Leader  o p p o r t u n i t y l e s s y o u t h who have never seen the f a c e s  the group r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r  their  (Interviews, also:  1974).  Such i n t r a - g r o u p frustrated,  immediately.  they  the f o r whom  own group members ranks  highest  -119among everyday concerns system b e n e f i t s in addition now o f t e n  (Edelstein  from t h i s  demonstrate  1972, Mayer 1974).  a b s o r p t i o n by d a i l y  the need f o r " t o u g h e r  survival  fears  structure  themselves.  stands s h a r p l y i n c o n t r a s t to the s i t u a t i o n  areas o f Indian s e t t l e m e n t ,  with t h e i r  In the South A f r i c a n c o n t e x t ,  integrating  in older  heterogeneous c o m p o s i t i o n  o f r e s i d e n t s from v a r i o u s economic and r a c i a l t e m p l e s , mosques, and o t h e r  which  law and o r d e r p o l i c i e s ,  demanded by the v i c t i m s o f the t o t a l  This picture  The o v e r a l l  groups, with  communal  their  facilities.  1  A f r i c a n s , C o l o r e d s , and Indians  economic  groups s h o u l d be l i v i n g w i t h i n convenience d i s t a n c e from t h e c i t y ' s center,  i n s t e a d o f the c o n t r a r y arrangement  segre9.Qti.0Ki. U n l i k e minorities  the American t r e n d o f g h e t t o i z a t i o n  i n the inner c i t y  opposite pattern  e n v i s i o n e d by r e s i d e n t i a l  (Blauner,  o f poor  1 9 7 2 ) , i n South A f r i c a the  has been designed f o r s t r a t e g i c  reasons as f a r as  the A f r i c a n s were concerned and m a i n l y f o r q u i c k enrichment o f white commercial  interests  were c o n c e r n e d . discriminatory  as f a r as the C o l o u r e d and I n d i a n c h o i c e  Instead of "block b u s t i n g " i n a l e g a l l y s o c i e t y , South A f r i c a ' s a b s o l u t e c o n t r o l  disenfranchised,  a l l o w e d her to r u l e Though  to e n t e r  C o l o u r e d o r Indian areas  properties  nonover the  the u n d e s i r a b l e  majority.  Whites a r e not f o r b i d d e n (but  need a permit  to v i s i t  1. The e x t e n t o f the impact o f t h i s s i n g l e p i e c e o f l e g i s l a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n a p u b l i c wedding i n v i t a t i o n , a form v e r y seldom used by I n d i a n s : " M r s . and M r s . . . o f . . . wish to extend a c o r d i a l i n v i t a t i o n to f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s w i t h whom they have l o s t c o n t a c t due to d i s placement under the Group Areas A c t , on the o c c a s i o n o f the m a r r i a g e o f . . . " {JhfL LdadeA, 20 J u l y 1973). Indians t r a d i t i o n a l l y d e l i v e r wedding i n v i t a t i o n s p e r s o n a l l y from home to home, not r e l y i n g on an impersonal p o s t a l s e r v i c e , to ensure a good t u r n - o u t a t t h e wedding.  -120A f r i c a n townships)  few have reason to seek normal c o n t a c t w i t h what  government propaganda now e u p h e m i s t i c a l l y c a l l s "your fellow  neighbor".  The impact o f r e s i d e n t i a l  a c h i e v e d by d i f f e r e n t  means and p a t t e r n s  South A f r i c a , i s q u i t e tween the r a c i a l  similar  s e g r e g a t i o n , though  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and  i n h e i g h t e n i n g s o c i a l d i s t a n c e be-  groups and f u r t h e r i n g  p r i v i l e g e d in t h e i r  non-white  s t r u g g l e f o r equal  the anomie o f the  under-  opportunities.  The Group Areas A c t a l s o s t i m u l a t e d a high p e r i o d o f b l a c k organization.  For a w h i l e  were merged t o g e t h e r . c a l l e d f o r a "Hartal  the p o l i t i c a l  On May 1 s t ,  1950,  the NataT  b l a c k people  Indian Congress  Day" as a day o f p r o t e s t and mourning.  30,000 A f r i c a n s , C o l o u r e d s and Indians their  concerns o f a l l  political  gathered t o g e t h e r  Over  to express  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the government's proposed m e a s u r e s ,  6 May ,1950).  In J u l y , 1951  both the A f r i c a n N a t i o n a l  Congress (ANC)  and the South A f r i c a n Indian Congress (SAIC) agreed to r e s o r t mass a c t i o n i f the Pass Laws  1  the government would not r e p e a l  (Leader,  to  the Group Areas A c t ,  a f f e c t i n g A f r i c a n s , Stock L i m i t a t i o n  Regulations  2  and  3 Separate R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f V o t e r s ' A c t ,  S u p p r e s s i o n o f Communism  1. T h i s A c t r e q u i r e s A f r i c a n s to c a r r y at a l l times a pass o r r e f e r e n c e book. F a i l u r e to produce t h i s document r e s u l t s i n a f i n e not exceeding X 5 0 and imprisonment o f up to 6 months. (United Nations Commission on the R a c i a l S i t u a t i o n i n the Union o f South A f r i c a , 1 9 5 3 : 6 6 - 8 ) . This measure to c o n t r o l the i n f l u x o f A f r i c a n s i n t o c i t i e s i s now handled more l i b e r a l l y . 2. Stock L i m i t a t i o n R e g u l a t i o n s r e s t r i c t the number o f c a t t l e may be kept to prevent o v e r g r a z i n g ( . i b i d , p. 8 8 ) .  which  3. T h i s A c t was d e s i g n e d to remove C o l o u r e d v o t e r s from the normal e l e c t o r a l r o l l s i n the Cape P r o v i n c e and p l a c e them on a s e p a r a t e r o l l , and to a l l o w them to vote f o r f o u r s p e c i a l white r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s (Walker, 1964:817-8, 835).  -121Act  4  and the Bantu A u t h o r i t i e s  Twenty-first  Act.  o r g a n i s e d by Indians  records 1954:9). Durban, to p r o t e s t  The June  at  deputations international  major  the next  centres  jointly  two y e a r s ,  i n these s t r i k e s .  8,557  (SAIC  the  imminent Group Areas p r o c l a m a t i o n s ethnic  [Tkz  LzadeA,  even  greater  C o l o u r e d and a few  (The L e a d e r , 3 J u l y ,  by Indian p o l i t i c a l  groups.  "Freedom Day" r a l l y  crowds o f over 40,000 A f r i c a n s , I n d i a n s , sympathizers gathered.  Secretary:7).  1958 mass meeting at C u r r i e s F o u n t a i n ,  25,000 o f a l l  later,  Within  participating  a g a i n s t the then  an e s t i m a t e d A year  for  Report o f the  began i n a l l  and A f r i c a n s .  i n d i v i d u a l s were a r r e s t e d  1958).  [South A f r i c a n Indian C o n g r e s s ,  Conference R e c o r d s , 1954,  In A p r i l , 1952 mass demonstrations  attracted  5  1959).  l e a d e r s and t h e i r  White  D e s p i t e numerous  sympathizers  r e p e r c u s s i o n s such as the c a n c e l l a t i o n o f the Round  T a b l e Conference to have taken p l a c e between the Union government, I n d i a and P a k i s t a n i n May, 1950 numerous s e s s i o n s a t political  (Thz  the U n i t e d Nations  power remained unperturbed  ideological  LzadeA,  6 May 1 9 5 0 ) , and  s i n c e 1946,  i n the  the  declarations  all-white  implementation  of  its  blueprints.  The t r e a s o n t r i a l  o f 1958 when a m u l t i r a c i a l  group o f 92 persons were  a r r e s t e d and charged w i t h high t r e a s o n marked the peak of  non-racial  4. The S u p p r e s s i o n of Communism A c t o f 1950 was intended "to d e c l a r e the Communist P a r t y o f South A f r i c a n to be an unlawful o r g a n i s a t i o n , to make p r o v i s i o n f o r d e c l a r i n g o t h e r o r g a n i s a t i o n s promoting communistic a c t i v i t y to be u n l a w f u l " . ( U n i t e d Nations Commission, 1 9 5 3 : 7 0 ) . The A c t had w i d e - r a n g i n g e f f e c t s i n i t s a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g d e f i n i t i o n o f "communistic" a c t i v i t y as being a n y t h i n g a d v o c a t i n g s o c i a l change. 5. The Bantu A u t h o r i t i e s A c t c r e a t e d t r i b a l under government c o n t r o l . [United Nations  councils for Africans Commission, 1953:130).  of  -122-  u n i t y and n o n - v i o l e n t underground, organization  By 1961  the ANC was d r i v e n  and a l t h o u g h the NIC was not banned as an i t s e n t i r e e x e c u t i v e was.  at H a c k u n i t y , development  resistance.  T h i s t h w a r t e d most  efforts  s i n c e the subsequent i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s e p a r a t e  i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d the c o n c e r n s o f each group  and p a r t i c u l a r i z e d t h e i r p r o b l e m s , t h e r e b y m i l i t a t i n g a g a i n s t p e r c e p t i o n of a common b l a c k u n i t e d f r o n t at the g r a s s - r o o t s  the level.  -123VIII. 1.  POST-19fi]'GOVERNMENT  The Department o f  As l a t e as 1961, their  arrival  INSTITUTIONS  Indian A f f a i r s  a year a f t e r  Indians  had c e l e b r a t e d the c e n t e n a r y o f  i n South A f r i c a , the n e w l y - a p p o i n t e d M i n i s t e r o f  A f f a i r s made some r e v e a l i n g statements  about Indians  party r a l l y .  t h a t the N a t i o n a l i s t  original  In summary, he s a i d : . (1)  repatriation  i d e a was i m p r a c t i c a l  but to a c c e p t t h a t the lation.  (2)  It  Indians  as a group  Indians  Nationalist Party's  and they had no o t h e r c h o i c e  had become a permanent p a r t o f the  had to be acknowledged t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p and Whites as a group  He would r a t h e r  have chosen a p o r t f o l i o  between  and A f r i c a n s . t h a t had to do  w i t h h i s own p e o p l e , but unpopular t a s k s have t o be undertaken i n i n t e r e s t s o f the white man i n South A f r i c a .  (4)  The reason f o r  c r e a t i o n o f the Department was the n e c e s s i t y to be t i c about the it  Indian q u e s t i o n .  (5)  If  the  the  sober and r e a l i s -  Indians were g i v e n equal  rights  would e v e n t u a l l y mean t h a t the Whiteswould be overwhelmed, not by  the I n d i a n s ,  but by the B l a c k s .  The o n l y s o l u t i o n was t h e  "parallel-  stream p o l i c y o f s e p a r a t e d e v e l o p m e n t " , which was the c o r r e c t for future  racial  l e a d to s t r i f e .  friendship. (6)  The c r y f o r equal  Indians w i t h t h e i r  Nothing c o u l d be done w i t h o u t  t h e r e would be " g r e a t o p p o s i t i o n " .  pattern  r i g h t s couTd o n l y  own m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s i n  own areas would f i n d these "to have g r e a t e r (7)  popu-  was i n no way g o o d , and  the same a p p l i e d to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Indians (3)  at a  Indian  l a s t i n g value than the  their vote.  I n d i a n c o - o p e r a t i o n and he expected (8)  He appealed to  "those not  -124already  b l i n d e d by a g i t a t o r s "  channel  for better  to use t h i s  relationships.  opportunity  (The L e a d e r ,  With these n o t i o n s of l a s t i n g p a t e r n a l i s t i c limited  political  participation,  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1961  Indian community c o u l d express i t s originally Affairs  performed by the D i r e c t o r a t e  It  of  1  The m i n i s t e r  at  of  and q u a l i f i e d ,  Indian A f f a i r s through which  took over the  o f the  Interior's  the head o f the Department  of  which the government e s t a b l i s h e d i n M a r c h ,  Asiatic  Council,  party  among  impotence o f one o f them, namely the  Indian Congress though the banning o f i t s the government a r t i c u l a t e d  functions  1968.  E x p l o i t i n g the e x i s t e n c e o f more than one p o l i t i c a l and N . I . C . ) and the  its  the  Indian  A f f a i r s works i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the South A f r i c a n Indian  (N.I.O.  was  Immigration and A s i a t i c  and s u b s e q u e n t l y by the Department  Division.  tutelage  channel  needs.  a  11 A u q u s t , 1961).  the Department  to serve as a c e n t r a l  to c r e a t e  leadership  intended c e n t r a l i z i n g  (Meer,  Indians, Natal  1971:16),  f u n c t i o n as  follows:  "We do not know whom we c o u l d approach to speak on b e h a l f o f the  Indians.  The I n d i a n O r g a n i z a t i o n has on o c c a s i o n c l a i m e d t h a t i t p i e c e o f the  Indians  r e s p e c t to the ranks of the  and the Congress a l l e g e s t h a t i t  Indian Congress the M i n i s t e r  Indian Community t h e r e  was  i s the mouth-  is..."  p o i n t e d out  With  "that in  growing r e s i s t a n c e to  the the  1. T h i s i n c l u d e s c o n t r o l o f w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s , g r a n t i n g and payment o f p e n s i o n s , i s s u i n g o f i d e n t i t y c a r d s , t r a v e l documents, e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , and o t h e r r e l a t e d m a t t e r s . It s p e c i f i c a l l y e x c l u d e s , however, i s s u e s o f l a n d h o l d i n g and j o b r e s e r v a t i o n , though i t s e r v e s as a l i n k w i t h those departments. (South A f r i c a » I n d i a n A f f a i r s , 1971:13)  -125reign of t e r r o r Africa,  o f the Congress o r g a n i z a t i o n  Indian A f f a i r s ,  "  (South  1962:7).  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f such r a c i s t p e r c e p t i o n i s the n o t i o n t h a t because o f the p h y s i c a l l i k e n e s s o f as a g r o u p .  Indeed,  Indians,  the r e l a t i v e  they ought to have u n i f i e d  c o m p l e x i t y o f d e a l i n g with v a r i o u s  o p i n i o n s c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a p p o i n t e d , h a n d - p i c k e d c o u n c i l can be r e l i a b l y particular of  line.  ease with which an  expected to adhere to a  The a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g bureaucracy of the  Indian A f f a i r s  opinions  is depicted in table  Department  2.  The primary f u n c t i o n s of the Development Branch are d e f i n e d as promoting political,  economic and s o c i a l development o f the  through mutual private  Indian Community,  c o n t a c t w i t h the community and o t h e r Government and  bodies  (South A f r i c a , Indian A f f a i r s ,  E d u c a t i o n Branch i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  1971:8).  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  The and c o n t r o l  primary and secondary e d u c a t i o n which were p r i o r to 1966 under provincial  administration,  over from the c e n t r a l  the  as w e l l as h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n which was  taken  government.  There was widespread c r i t i c i s m o f the newly e s t a b l i s h e d Department Indian A f f a i r s .  Dr. G.M. N a i c k e r , p r e s i d e n t o f the South A f r i c a n  Indian Congress,  in categorically rejecting  linguistic  and r a c i a l  the move, s a i d t h a t  of  ethnic,  d i v i s i o n s were p a r t o f the South A f r i c a n m i l i e u * '  and "under m u l t i - r a c i a l i s m . . . t h e r e in character,  of  dealing with a l l  would be one department,  internal  non-racial  problems and a v o i d i n g  financial  -126-  Table  2  Organization of Department o f Indian A f f a i r s  Minister South A f r i c a n Counci1  Indian  University M.L.  o f Durban,  Westville  Sultan Technical  College  Secretary Parliamentary Development Branch (Deputy S e c r e t a r y ) — L i a i s o n in connection with political, economic and social development  and Personal  Staff  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Branch E d u c a t i o n Branch (Deputy S e c r e t a r y ) ( D i r e c t o r of Indian E d u c a t i o n ) •-Finance •-Work  -Primary, secondary, s p e c i a l , vocational s c h o o l s and s c h o o l s o f industries  Study  -Staff Administration  - - S o c i a l Services |--Training including regist r a t i o n of b i r t h s , •-Departmental m a r r i a g e s and Administration deaths, passports, citizenship, n a t u r a l i s a t i o n , etc.  |--Teacher  Training  •Education  [  Planning  -Professional  Services  -Administrative at  s c h o o l s and  Services institutions  —Welfare Services professional services, i n s t i t u t i o n s , pensions, poor r e l i e f , e t c . --Regional O f f i c e s : Durban, (with branches at Pietermaritzburg and Chatsworth) Johannesburg, (with p a r t t i m e branches at L e n a s i a , B e n o n i , and Cape Town) S o u r c e : (South A f r i c a , Indian A f f a i r s , 1971:7)  -127wastage  " (The Natal  D a i l y News ,3 August, 1961).  Mr. A . M . M o o l l a ,  p r e s i d e n t o f the South A f r i c a n Indian O r g a n i s a t i o n , commented: "It most u n f o r t u n a t e  t h a t i n these times of g r e a t  Government must c o n t i n u e to t h i n k  and a c t  is  changes i n A f r i c a our  i n terms o f s e c t i o n a l  interests  ...it  seems a pure waste o f time and energy to c o n t i n u e p l a n n i n g on these  lines  " (ibid.).  Similarly,  sation maintained, there  Mr.  "We a r e a l l  s h o u l d not be d i f f e r e n t  There s h o u l d be one M i n i s t e r p r e s i d e n t o f the Natal "parallel  A f r i c a as a whole"  South A f r i c a n s , and as South A f r i c a n s channels f o r  for  "It  f o r the poorer s e c t i o n w i l l its  Indian O r g a n i -  us a l l  the d i f f e r e n t  " (ibid.),  Mr.  racial  P.R.  can o n l y l e a d to r a c i a l  strife  groups.  Pather,  Indian O r g a n i s a t i o n , e x p r e s s e d d i s b e l i e f  stream" p o l i c y .  be l o o k i n g a f t e r  A . S . Kajee o f the Natal  in  the  and c h a o s ,  always be submerged as each s e c t i o n w i l l  own r a c i a l  interest  and not the  interest  o f South  (The L e a d e r , 11 August, 1961.).  W i t h i n a decade o f the Department's  e x i s t e n c e , however,  Indian o p i n i o n  appears to have changed c o n s i d e r a b l y , i f one takes i n t o account e a r l i e r p u b l i s h e d statements o f p u b l i c r e a c t i o n . Of those i n t e r v i e w e d , 62 p e r c e n t spoke f a v o r a b l y about the department, 20 p e r c e n t had no s t r o n g f e e l i n g s about i t ^ a n d  18 p e r c e n t s t i l l  rejected  it  on p r i n c i p l e .  f a v o u r p o i n t e d to the achievements s i n c e the Department's such as the u n i v e r s i t y  facilities,  employment, and group s t a t u s . loaf ciate  i s b e t t e r than none. our c u l t u r e  schools, greater  One i n t e r v i e w e e  The N a t i o n a l i s t s  Those i n establishment,  diversification  mentioned  that half  understand u s , they  of a  appre-  and c i v i l i z a t i o n , we have o n l y to look around to see  what they have done i n the time f o r our p e o p l e " ( I n t e r v i e w 3 3 ) .  Another  -128-  TQSpohieni COWp'ZV&A with how l i t t l e to  the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g p r o v i n c i a l  Indian w e l l - b e i n g  talked felt  of the  how much the N a t i o n a l i s t s  b e f o r e them.  Yet another  The d i c t a t e s  positions will.  o f the group and d e f i n i t e  was a p r e v a l e n t  o f an i n d u s t r i a l  and the i m p e r a t i v e  interviewee  of  s o c i e t y with i t s  have a c h i e v e d , and  expanding  opportunities White-dominated  of the Government's good-  have to look around you to see how much o f our people  o n l y our chaps w i l l  Indeed,  The  channels o f communication  incorporating Blacks into p r e v i o u s l y  i s p e r c e i v e d by many as i n d i c a t i v e  "You j u s t  These f e l l o w s  work with them,"  the s u c c e s s o f the Department  a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g r o l e , not u n l i k e  (Nationalists)  mean w e l l ,  remarked one i n t e r v i e w e e  seems t o l i e  essentially in  t h a t o f the Hindu t r i n i t y .  new l e s s e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s  in i t s  responsible for  i n the f i r s t  r o l e may not a t r o p h y .  Indian on the Department  indi.spensibi.li.ty.  politically  restrictive  In  place;and after that i s In a c t u a l  for all  the  created was  Indian i n the hope t h a t t e r m s , the dependence  bureaucratic  Department  its  the f a s h i o n o f  s e r v i c e s ensures  the absence o f v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s  milieu  it  own image to r e p l a c e a vacuum i t  i s the pious p r e s e r v e r o f a l l  own b e n e f i c e n t o f the  creating  (9).  Shiva-like  d e s t r o y e d the e s t a b l i s h e d community s t r u c t u r e s ; B r a h m a - l i k e  Vishnu i t  (51)  theme i n the r e s p o n s e s .  are now t a k i n g over White j o b s .  its  contributed  there was more to g a i n by c o l l a b o r a t i o n than o p p o s i t i o n .  with authorities  it  authorities  newly a c q u i r e d d i g n i t y which Indians  newly a c q u i r e d s t a t u s  if  had a c c o m p l i s h e d  with i t s  in a  r e s o u r c e s to  its  -129provi.de p r e v i o u s l y n o n - e x i s t e n t Above a l l ,  facilities  as Fati.ina Meer p o i n t s out  has a g r e a t  (1971:19),  "the  advantage.  platteland  the A f r i k a n e r b u r e a u c r a t makes him more a p p r o a c h a b l e , and the  informality Indian,  w i t h h i s peasant r o o t s , f i n d s h i m s e l f c l o s e r to him than he d i d to  the  E n g l i s h b u r e a u c r a t who preceded him."  The m i n o r i t y who r e j e c t e d  such i n s t i t u t i o n a l  s e g r e g a t i o n d i d so a l o n g  much the same l i n e s as the e a r l y o p p o s i t i o n to the Department's ation.  The very p r i n c i p l e u n d e r l y i n g s e p a r a t e f a c i l i t i e s  a c c e p t a b l e and d i s c r i m i n a t o r y . lessness  in l i g h t  of the  ments to r e a l i s e t h e i r  2i  initi-  was u n -  They a l s o e x p r e s s e d a sense o f  immense r e s o u r c e s o f such government  powerdepart-  will.  The South A f r i c a n Indian C o u n c i l  These r e a c t i o n s to the white Department o f meaningful vehicle.  when compared w i t h a t t i t u d e s  Indian A f f a i r s  towards the  became more  Indian l i a i s o n  A key c o l l a b o r a t i n g body i s the South A f r i c a n I n d i a n C o u n c i l ,  a k i n d o f s y m b o l i c c a b i n e t w i t h o u t the e x e c u t i v e powers o f a government.  U n l i k e the C o l o u r e d R e p r e s e n t a t i v e C o u n c i l , which i s p a r t l y and p a r t l y  elected  nominated, o r the v a r i o u s Bantustan a u t h o r i t i e s , which have  some e x e c u t i v e powers as w e l l ,  the South A f r i c a n Indian C o u n c i l was to  be f u l l y  a p p o i n t e d and t o have no a u t h o r i t y  dently.  Twenty-fiye  t o make d e c i s i o n s i n d e p e n -  members were nominated by the m i n i s t e r  p e r i o d of t h r e e y e a r s on a p r o v i n c i a l from among the members.  basis.  for a  A chairman was e l e c t e d  The e x e c u t i v e committee comprised f i v e members  of  -130o f the c o u n c i l , f o u r o f whom were e l e c t e d by c o u n c i l members and a fifth,  the c h a i r m a n , was a p p o i n t e d by the m i n i s t e r  Indian A f f a i r s ,  (South A f r i c a ,  1971:18).  The c o u n c i l ' s s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n had been o u t l i n e d at i n Cape Town i n March 1964. to a s s i s t the r e l e v a n t when i t  It  its  first  meeting  was to s e r v e as a c o n s u l t a t i v e body  government b o d i e s , i n p r e p a r a t i o n  f o r the day  would be an e l e c t e d body to cope w i t h such Indian a f f a i r s  as  might then be d e l e g a t e d to i t .  The promise o f g r a d u a t i o n t o  s t a t u s , at f i r s t  e l e c t e d body and o n l y s u b s e q u e n t l y to  be f u l l y  as a p a r t i a l l y  elected  e l e c t e d , c o u l d however o n l y be f u l f i l l e d  when I n d i a n  resettle-  ment had reached a more advanced s t a g e , making i t  p o s s i b l e to  establish  electoral  d i s t r i c t s and a v o t e r s '  roll.  Accordingly, local  and c o n s u l t a t i v e committees have been e s t a b l i s h e d on a  affairs  partially  e l e c t e d b a s i s and are the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the v a r i o u s p r o v i n c e s .  In  1974 the c o u n c i l was r e c o n s t i t u t e d to c o n s i s t o f t h i r t y members,  half  o f whom would be nominated and h a l f  the e l e c t i o n day were e l e c t e d members o f local  affairs  roll  The f i r s t  Indian l o c a l  authorities,  c o m m i t t e e s , o r management o r c o n s u l t a t i v e committees.  The government c o n s i d e r e d i t voters'  e l e c t e d by persons who on  (Horrell,  not y e t  f e a s i b l e to c o m p i l e a general  1976:22).  e l e c t i o n was h e l d i n November 1974 and the remainder o f  c o u n c i l was nominated s h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s .  the  An e l e c t e d member Mr. J . N .  Reddy was a p p o i n t e d Chairman o f the C o u n c i l ' s  Executive, while  the  -131o t h e r members were a p p o i n t e d , as was the Chairman o f the C o u n c i l (Horrell,  1976:22).  L e g i s l a t i v e and e x e c u t i v e  powers were to be  d e l e g a t e d to the C o u n c i l w i t h r e s p e c t to m a t t e r s  d e a l t w i t h by the  M i n i s t e r o f Indian A f f a i r s , such as E d u c a t i o n and Community W e l f a r e (ibid.).  The p r e s e n t C o u n c i l comprises a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a l l  l i n g u i s t i c and r e l i g i o u s groups i n the Community. most p a r t a r t i c u l a t e --  i n d i v i d u a l s with l i t t l e  o n l y two have u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n - -  formal  the  They are f o r  the  higher education  and w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s  re-  present business i n t e r e s t s .  The powerless nature of the c o n t a c t which the C o u n c i l has w i t h white a u t h o r i t i e s  may b e s t be i l l u s t r a t e d  of the C o u n c i l ' s  preoccupations.  d u r i n g J u l y 1971  - June 1972,  most i m p o r t a n t ;  Of the  by the o f f i c i a l 168  "matters  the  description  dealt  with"  the f o l l o w i n g areas were c o n s i d e r e d  and the l i m i t e d  power o f  "recommendation" i s  graphically  p o r t r a y e d i n the empty, f o r m a l i z e d t e r m i n o l o g y which m a i n l y conveys ritualistic  a c t i v i s m without  s p e c i f i c content:  The Future o f the C o u n c i 1 . . . " i s c o n s t a n t l y under d i s c u s s i o n . . . " Local Government A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . . . " t h e committee on d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s had f r u i t f u l discussions..." Group A r e a s . . . " t h e C o u n c i l r e g u l a r l y made r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . . . " H o u s i n g . . . " t h e C o u n c i l i s i n c o n s t a n t c o n t a c t w i t h the a u t h o r i t i e s . . . " A m e n i t i e s i n Indian R e s i d e n t i a l A r e a s . . . " a p a r t from making c e r t a i n p r o p o s a l s . . . t h e C o u n c i l has had d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h o f f i c i a l s . . . t h e matter i s s t i l l being p u r s u e d . . . " Zoning o f B e a c h e s . . . " t h e C o u n c i l i s p r e s s i n g f o r b e a c h e s . . . " " R e s t r i c t i o n s on the I n t e r p r o v i . n c i a l Movement o f I n d i a n s . . . " t h e C o u n c i l has 'renewed i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s ' . . . " Wage g a p . . . " t h e matter was a g a i n d i s c u s s e d . . . " Resettlement of Indian t r a d e r s . . . " i s c o n s t a n t l y r e c e i v i n g a t t e n t i o n and has been d i s c u s s e d . . . "  -132I n d u s t r i a l s i t e s . . . " t h e C o u n c i l has recommended..." E d u c a t i o n . . . " t h e C o u n c i l had v a r i o u s d i s c u s s i o n s . . . " Indian a g r i c u l t u r e . . . " f r u i t f u l c o n t a c t has been e s t a b l i s h e d . . . " Seaside Resort f o r Underprivileged C h i l d r e n . . . " t h e Council ' i s negotiating'"... (South A f r i c a , I n d i a n A f f a i r s , 1973: 4-5).  Such powerlessness i s u n d e r l i n e d when C o u n c i l members r e a d i l y a c q u i e s c e in o f f i c i a l political  d e c i s i o n s to e x c l u d e them from f u l l  life.  A t a meeting between  participation  the Prime M i n i s t e r  e c u t i v e Committee o f the SAIC on 24 J a n u a r y 1975, the C o u n c i l ' s r e q u e s t f o r d i r e c t ment.  representation  Instead he proposed an i n t e r - C a b i n e t  in  and the E x -  Mr. V o r s t e r  rejected  i n the c e n t r a l  C o u n c i l on which  C o l o u r e d and White C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s would meet t o g e t h e r .  ParliaIndian,  In  place  o f the S A I C ' s r e q u e s t f o r 45 members on an e l e c t e d b a s i s , the  Prime  M i n i s t e r maintained  t h a t the f u t u r e  Indian Council should contain  minority  o f nominated members to be f u l l y  minority  groups and o t h e r  interests  i n the  representative  "a  a l s o of  I n d i a n community"  ( F i a t Lux,  March 1 9 7 5 : 6 ) .  The d i f f e r e n c e Council  i n approach between  to t h e i r  the  Indian C o u n c i l and the C o l o u r e d  r e s p e c t i v e communities i s n o t i c e a b l e .  C o u n c i l ' s meeting with the M i n i s t e r o f the C o l o u r e d d e l e g a t i o n  of C o l o u r e d A f f a i r s , a  i n r e p l y i n g to the government's  a C a b i n e t c o u n c i l , s a i d t h a t the CRC c o u l d not at itself port  w i t h the proposed C a b i n e t c o u n c i l .  back to the  on the f u t u r e  c o l o u r e d community, as i t  o f 2.5  In  million  It  this  the C o l o u r e d representative proposal  stage a s s o c i a t e  would f i r s t  have to  would not be r i g h t  people w i t h o u t a mandate  of  to  redecide  (The S t a r , WE,  -133January 17, Mr.  1976).  By c o n t r a s t ,  the e l e c t e d SA1C e x e c u t i v e  J . N . Reddy w i t h no qualms about the  community,  with the  lack of c o n s u l t a t i o n with  announced: "The SAIC has a l r e a d y  along with the  inter-Cabinet  Prime M i n i s t e r "  council  Chairman,  taken i t s  the  d e c i s i o n to go  proposals following  its  discussions  (ibid.)."'  In opposing the  inter-Cabinet  outspoken c l e a r  stand.  p r o p o s a l s the  c o l o u r e d C o u n c i l took  Sonny L e o n , a member of  an  the CRC who had been  p r e v i o u s l y d i s m i s s e d by the government  i n h i s c a p a c i t y as Leader of  Council's executive  "If  together all.  with the o t h e r  This separate  another  committee, racial  argued,  to meet,  let  us meet  groups to work out a common d e s t i n y  package deal  s u b t l e method o f g e t t i n g  t h a t can be a c c e p t e d i s the  we are  total  cannot be a c c e p t e d because i t us a l l  tied  political  u p . . . . T h e only integration  the  for  is  consideration  of a l l  people  i n a common s o c i e t y r e g a r d l e s s o f  r a c e , c o l o u r or c r e e d "  Chairman of the c o l o u r e d C o u n c i l ,  Rev. A l a n H e n r i c k s e responded a l o n g  similar  The  lines.  On the o t h e r  h a n d , the  working out a f o r m u l a "greater  (ibid.).  Indian C o u n c i l c o o p e r a t e s w i t h the government for  transferring  p o w e r s " , and d e s c r i b e d the  in  what the government c o n s i d e r s  talks  as " f r a n k ,  honest and  fruitful"  1. A comparison of the responses of the SAIC w i t h t h a t of the CRC to e s s e n t i a l l y the same goyernment o v e r t u r e s o f extended c o n s u l t a t i v e powers r a i s e s t h e o r e t i c a l q u e s t i o n s f o r the b e h a v i o u r o f m i n o r i t i e s , and y i e l d s i n s i g h t i n t o the dominant g r o u p ' s t a c t i c o f ' d i v i d e e t impera'.. These w i l l be examined i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n the s e c t i o n on Indian-Coloured r e l a t i o n s .  -134( F i a t L u x , March 1 9 7 4 : 6 ) . full  citizenship rights  Council  e x p r e s s i o n at  so d o i n g , Indians  Coloured p o l i t i c a l threaten  in parliament,  to a c c e p t such l i m i t e d  the expense of a b l a c k  who have i n the  rights  to o v e r t a k e  such c o n s t i t u t i o n a l powerful  and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  indicates a willingness  political  In  Hence, whereas c o l o u r e d l e a d e r s p r e s s  the  and s t i l l latter.  Indeed t h e r e  advancement on the p a r t of  weapon i n the  hands of the government  Indian  rights  of  alliance.  past followed have fewer  the  for  i n the wake of  powers than the C o l o u r e d s , is.the Indians  possibility  that  c o u l d prove a  i n b r e a k i n g the  impasse  between the government and the c o l o u r e d C o u n c i l .  Indian C o u n c i l l e a d e r s government",  however vehemently  deny being " l a c k i e s of  a charge l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t the community by Maurice Lewis  the chairman o f a branch o f the C o l o u r e d Labour p a r t y . 24 J a n u a r y , 1976).  Mr.  Lewis argued t h a t "Indians  (ibid.).  around Mr.  M o o l a , nominated member and chairman o f the SAIC i n denying these  charges d i f f e r e n t i a t e d other  ( S t a r , WE,  should r a l l y  the oppressed and not become t o o l s of the government" A.M.  the  the p o l i c y o f the  Indian C o u n c i l from those o f  groups as being based on removing d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  and not by c o n f r o n t a t i o n .  Negotiation  somewhere, but c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i l l  "by  and c o n s u l t a t i o n w i l l  breed enmity and d i s c o r d "  negotiation get us (ibid.).  Members o f the SAIC are not always expected to approve government Indeed they are f r e q u e n t l y visible  in several widely  critical  o f the government.  policy.  T h i s has been  p u b l i c i z e d i n s t a n c e s such as the  following  -135three i s s u e s ,  (.1) when t h e M i n i s t e r o f T r a n s p o r t  acceded t o the  r e q u e s t o f t h e South A f r i c a n R a i l w a y s to ban p r i v a t e bus o p e r a t o r s from Chatsworth t o c e n t r a l D u r b a n ,  i n t h e hope t h a t  Government-owned  t r a i n s would be b e t t e r p a t r o n i s e d ( G r a p h i c , 13 O c t o b e r ,  1972);  (2) i n  the case o f the impact o f the Group Areas A c t on t h e Cato Manor a r e a from w h i c h some 4 0 , 0 0 0 I n d i a n s had been d i s p l a c e d .  I t has a few  r e v e r e d r e l i g i o u s landmarks o f the I n d i a n community and has as y e t remained unoccupied by any o t h e r g r o u p , and (3) i n the case o f the l o n g - t h r e a t e n e d sword o f Damocles t o e l i m i n a t e I n d i a n t r a d i n g the c e n t r a l Durban Grey S t r e e t Complex.  On a l l t h e s e i s s u e s members  o f the SAIC j o i n e d vehemently w i t h t h e i r I n d i a n p o l i t i c a l i n d e c r y i n g the u n f a i r n e s s o f t h e proposed moves. then Chairman o f t h e SAIC e x e c u t i v e ,  from  opponents  Mr. A . M .  Rajab,  s t r o n g l y argued t h a t t h e g o v e r n -  ment had put t h e people o f Chatsworth where they w e r e , and t h e bus operators helped i n the r e s e t t l e m e n t .  I t would t h e r e f o r e be u n f a i r  to d e p r i v e the bus o p e r a t o r s o f t h e i r l i v i n g as w e l l as t h e Chatsworth r e s i d e n t s o f t h e i r v i t a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k a g e s ( G r a p h i c , 13 1972).  S i m i l a r l y Mr. J . N .  Reddy urged I n d i a n s to keep a l i v e  October, their  w o r s h i p a t t h e o l d s h r i n e s o f Cato Manor t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r t r a d i t i o n s and r i g h t s .  The i n e q u i t y o f t a k i n g o v e r t h e Grey S t r e e t a r e a was  a l s o w e l l a r t i c u l a t e d by Mr. Reddy and M r . Rajab on b e h a l f o f t h e I n d i a n t r a d i n g community ( P o s t , 25 F e b r u a r y ,  1973).  Such c r i t i c i s m a p a r t from d i s p l a y i n g the outspokenness o f the SAIC members, o r the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  f o r " f r e e e x p r e s s i o n " o f f e r e d by such  -136government i n s t i t u t i o n s  would seem to  legitimate  both.  c r i t i c i s m of the government on " s a f e " i s s u e s where agreement of t h e i r  is  likely,  own g r o u p .  terpreted  Through  governmental  the SAIC members g a i n c r e d i b i l i t y  i n the eyes  T h e i r a c c e p t a n c e by the g r o u p , i n t u r n , i s  by the government as a s i g n o f the C o u n c i l members'  "effectiveness"  in their  own community and enhances t h e i r  v a l u e as i n s t r u m e n t s of f u t u r e  policy propagation.  potential  On the  hand the C o u n c i l uses community o p p o s i t i o n as a weapon to  other elicit  minor c o n c e s s i o n s from the government, such as the d e c l a r a t i o n Grey S t r e e t its  status  in-  as an I n d i a n b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t , i n the eyes o f the  i n o r d e r to  of  legitimate  community.  When a member of the C o u n c i l exposed the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of Apartheid, policies  however, and p o i n t e d to the r e l u c t a n c e o f a u t h o r i t i e s to t h e i r  logical  implement  c o n c l u s i o n s , o t h e r C o u n c i l members have  been known to s e l f - p o l i c e t h e m s e l v e s . hiring practices, for  to  R e f e r r i n g to the  university's  i n s t a n c e , D r . M.B. N a i d o o , an e x e c u t i v e member i n charge of  E d u c a t i o n and C u l t u r e , p r o p o s e d a motion t h a t the c o u n c i l s h o u l d " d e p l o r e the f a c t  that this  o f Indian academics" ( D a i l y  university  i s not f u l f i l l i n g  News, 16 F e b r u a r y , 1973).  e x p l a i n e d how an i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y  reknowned and h i g h l y  In  the  aspirations  elaborating,  qualified  Indian academic from the U n i v e r s i t y o f C e y l o n had a p p l i e d f o r a p o s t at  the  Indian U n i y e r s i t y , but the a p p l i c a t i o n was i g n o r e d and the  vacancy f i l l e d  by a White.  A f t e r an appeal  from the Chairman o f  E x e c u t i v e , Mr.  R a j a b , the motion was withdrawn.  The t h r e s h o l d o f  the  he  -137minimal  articulation  had been o v e r s t e p p e d .  " e l d e r s " was t h e r e f o r e the  subject  to save the  The r o l e of one o f  face of a u t h o r i t y  i n t r o d u c e d to v i s i t i n g  foreign dignitaries  the government to behave a p p r o p r i a t e l y .  In  and t h r e e  twelve authors  f o r e i g n academics (South A f r i c a ,  having r e s p e c t a b l e  demonstrates a m i a b l e ,  Indians  available  Indian  to d i s p l a y to f o r e i g n e r s , need o f  d e m o c r a t i c race r e l a t i o n s .  the  "having met a  the same time  F u r t h e r m o r e , on the  o c c a s i o n s when white South A f r i c a n s a r e b a r r e d from e n t e r i n g  c o u n c i l members outdo themselves i n a t t e m p t i n g  to ensure j u s t i c e  India, to  i n d i v i d u a l s concerned by making approaches to the Government o f  I n d i a on t h e i r  b e h a l f . One such case was t h a t o f P r o f e s s o r Ahrens o f  the U n i v e r s i t y o f Cape Town who was p r e v e n t e d from a t t e n d i n g conference in Mr.  and  1973:6).  c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f the South A f r i c a n p o p u l a t i o n " and at  the  They are  During 1971-72 they a r e on  government adheres to the v i s i t o r ' s c r e d i b i l i t y  few  roles.  and can be depended on by  r e c o r d as having met e l e v e n f o r e i g n p o l i t i c i a n s ,  Affairs,  by not p u r s u i n g  further.  Members o f the SAIC a l s o engage i n pseudo d i p l o m a t i c  journalists  the  I n d i a on the grounds o f being a white South A f r i c a n .  M.B. N a i d o o , an e x e c u t i v e  government to be f a i r enmities"  in barring  M e r c u r y , 20  a science  C o u n c i l member, appealed to the  and " t r a n s c e n d e m o t i o n a l i s m aroused by such an eminent  February,  1973).  s c h o l a r from e n t r y  (The  Indian political Natal  S i m i l a r appeals have been made with  -138-  r e s p e c t to Africa. it  international  s p o r t when I n d i a r e f u s e d to p l a y a g a i n s t  Such i n s t a n c e s g i v e c o u n c i l members a sense o f power i n  i s one o f the r a r e o c c a s i o n s when they can show t h e i r  to W h i t e s , and t h e i r their  dominators.  It  of t h e i r  also creates  masters.  It  o p p r e s s i o n and i n t e r n a l i s e d  The responses o f more c r i t i c a l interviewed,  the  Indians  is  their  than towards  tutelage  the  Indian A f f a i r s  suffering",  Department.  o p p o s i t i o n to the  "useful",  "exploiters",  Among those Council.  "self-centred", "lackies of  "hitting  Twenty p e r c e n t s a i d i t  "lacking  d i d not make much d i f f e r e n c e  They e x p r e s s e d a sense o f  Others d i f f e r e n t i a t e d at  the  " u n e d u c a t e d " , and "having l o s t touch w i t h  t h e r e was a c o u n c i l o r n o t .  and p o w e r l e s s n e s s .  of  may be d e l v e d .  "a d e s p i c a b l e b u n c h " , "worse than W h i t e s " ,  "incompetent",  the  i n such i n s t a n c e s t h a t the depth  70 p e r c e n t e x p r e s s e d t o t a l  own p e o p l e " .  whether  them  to the SAIC are v a r i e d and on the whole much  "making money out o f o t h e r s  virility",  own " g e n e r o s i t y "  i m p r e s s i o n o f themselves as  They were d e s c r i b e d as " s t o o g e s " , "a u s e l e s s b o d y " ,  government",  that  c o l o u r p l a c e s them i n a s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n v i s - a - v i s  " r e a s o n a b l e " men i n the eyes o f the Whites and g a i n s f o r approval  South  futility  between some members being  the Whites" and having "some i m p a c t " ,  10 p e r c e n t d i d not know what the C o u n c i l w a s .  while  1  1. These f i n d i n g s c o r r e s p o n d q u i t e c l o s e l y w i t h a more r e c e n t random survey conducted by the Sunday Times i n February 1976. Two-thirds of those i n t e r v i e w e d f e l t the SAIC d i d not r e p r e s e n t them. The remainder c o n s i d e r e d the SAIC to be m e a n i n g f u l . (Sunday T i m e s , 15 F e b r u a r y , 1976).  -139-  The f o l l o w i n g  comments are  indicative  o f the  range o f r e s p o n s e s :  "The SAIC i s o n l y t h e r e f o r the good o f the r i c h , and i t i s t h e r e f o r e w o r t h w h i l e f o r those people who own shops i n Grey S t r e e t . " ( I n t e r v i e w , 22). "The SAIC has a c h i e v e d a l o t f o r the p e o p l e , but we must not be g r a n t e d s p e c i a l c o n c e s s i o n s i f A f r i c a n s are excluded." ( I n t e r v i e w , 26). "The SAIC does not r e p r e s e n t should a c c e p t c o n c e s s i o n s . "  u s , and I d o n ' t t h i n k we (Interview 31).  " . . . b y i t s very c o m p o s i t i o n the SAIC i s not South A f r i c a n in character. Its r e j e c t i o n by Indians and i t s i n e x p e r i e n c e denies i t s s t a t u s . It i s p u r e l y an a d v i s o r y body w i t h c o n s p i c u o u s l y l i m i t e d powers, and t h e r e f o r e i n c a p a b l e o f p l a y i n g any s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n s a t i s f y i n g the hopes and a s p i r a t i o n s o f the I n d i a n p e o p l e . " ( I n t e r v i e w 32). "The SAIC can be of b e n e f i t to our people o n l y i f i t c h a l l e n g e s the c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n and f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f our land and i t s p e o p l e , and works towards a t t a i n m e n t o f a n o n - r a c i a l South A f r i c a w i t h e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a l l . " (Interview 37). "The SAIC c r e a t e s an erroneous i m p r e s s i o n i n the minds o f the people t h a t they have a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e body when, i n f a c t , they have none. T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s s u p p o r t e d by the f a c t t h a t they have not i n i t i a t e d a n y t h i n g f o r the community and t h e i r venture i n t o the i n t e r - C a b i n e t Committee has t a r n i s h e d t h e i r image." ( I n t e r v i e w 25). " P o p u l a r e l e c t i o n s w i l l r i d the c o u n c i l o f immature p o l i t i c i a n s and r e p l a c e them with t r u e l e a d e r s who w i l l s t r i v e f o r g o o d w i l l and harmony f o r a l l . Housing i s an i m p o r t a n t i s s u e and the c o u n c i l has f a i l e d to get more h o u s i n g . " (Interview 49). "If the SAIC t h i n k s they have the s u p p o r t o f most Indians then t h a t s u p p o r t must be from the r i c h merchant c l a s s whose v e s t e d i n t e r e s t the c o u n c i l seems to be guarding so w e l l . As f o r the o r d i n a r y man, they are a n o n - e x i s t e n t body f u l l o f i n d i v i d u a l s , b l u n d e r i n g as they go a l o n g . " (Interview 51). "As l o n g as the Indian C o u n c i l are the media between the people and the government, they w i l l always s e r v e i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c ity. T h e r e f o r e , they cannot a c h i e v e a n y t h i n g f o r the p e o p l e . The I n d i a n i n d i v i d u a l has not got the v o t e . The C o u n c i l s h o u l d  -140be e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of one-man, o n e - v o t e and have d i r e c t representation in Parliament. T h i s however cannot be done o v e r n i g h t , but the p r e s e n t C o u n c i l can e v o l v e i t s e l f to be e l e c t e d to P a r l i a m e n t . " ( I n t e r v i e w 61). Typical  examples f o r more f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e s  are:  "The SAIC a r e the spokesmen f o r the Indian p e o p l e , and as such they must be r e c o g n i z e d as the l e a d e r s . They cannot a c h i e v e much because they serve i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y , but can b e come more e f f e c t i v e and w i l l prove t h e i r worth i f g i v e n a chance and i f they can get more powers to enable them to b r i n g about e f f e c t i v e c h a n g e s . " (Interview 82). "I t h i n k the SAIC do r e p r e s e n t the m a j o r i t y views o f the people. They c a n ' t show much by way o f achievement, but seem to be t r y i n g h a r d . I d o n ' t envy t h e i r p o s i t i o n . " (Interview 2).  Indian they  "The C o u n c i l needs the s u p p o r t of the Indian p e o p l e , and not a l l t h e i r e f f o r t s are i n v a i n . It i s the system t h a t i s to blame. They may have a bad image i n the eyes o f some, but there are many who a p p r e c i a t e t h e i r work. They are our l e a d e r s and we s h o u l d stand by them. Indians always look down upon a n y t h i n g I n d i a n - o r i e n t e d , and look down upon these people s e r v i n g on these bodies as ' s t o o g e s ' and ' s e l l o u t s ' . T h i s a t t i t u d e i s most u n f a i r . I t s about time we took p r i d e i n the people who serve us a n d , i n s p i t e of d i f f e r e n c e s , l e t us work t o g e t h e r toward a b e t t e r community. Must t h e r e always be b i c k e r i n g i n a n y t h i n g we do?" (Interview 4). G r e a t e s t a n i m o s i t y to the C o u n c i l would seem to come from Indian w o r k e r s . A t a memorial  s e r v i c e f o r two SAIC members, Mr. A . M . Rajab a  wealthy  businessman and L o u i s Nelson a t r a d e Union l e a d e r were p r e s e n t and a crowd i n c l u d i n g 400 hotel  employees stormed the stage and took  the p u b l i c address system.  They s h o u t e d , "Rajab was not concerned w i t h  workers" and "Nelson was never a t r u e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e (Graphic,  19 O c t o b e r , 1973).  SAIC member attempted belonged to the  When another  to r e s t o r e o r d e r ,  same c l a s s ,  over  o f the  Cape Town t r a d e  hotel  workers"  u n i o n i s t and  the crowd shouted t h a t he too  l i v e d i n white h o t e l s when he t r a v e l l e d  to  -141-  Durban and would c e r t a i n l y s e l l  them out i n s o f a r as t h e i r wages were  concerned  (ibid.).  S i m i l a r l y , the N a t a l  L i q u o r and C a t e r i n g Trade  Employees'  Union ended i n u p r o a r a f t e r angry members c l a s h e d w i t h SAIC  member Mr. Munsook, who was s e c r e t a r y of the U n i o n .  The employees  wanted a p r e s e n t union r a t e o f R47.50 a month i n c r e a s e d by 150 w h i c h they c o n s i d e r e d would b r i n g t h e i r wage " c l o s e t o t h e datum l i n e of R120 a month".  percent,  poverty  When the s e c r e t a r y e x p r e s s e d d o u b t s ,  became the immediate t a r g e t o f the c r o w d ' s wrath  (The G r a p h i c , 7  he  December,  1973).  A l t h o u g h SAIC members a r e not h e l d i n h i g h esteem i n the they a r e f e a r e d .  community,  There i s an uneasy q u i e t a t s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s where  members o f the C o u n c i l a r e p r e s e n t .  Political  t o p i c s are a v o i d e d and  one i s l e f t w i t h the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e r e i s a f i f t h column p r e s e n t . However t h e r e i s a n o t i c e a b l e d i f f e r e n c e between the r e l a t i v e  freedom  w i t h which independent p r o f e s s i o n a l s , e s p e c i a l l y m e d i c a l d o c t o r s and l a w y e r s do i n f a c t a t t a c k such c o u n c i l members f o r c o l l a b o r a t i n g , and the w i t h d r a w a l  t e n d e n c i e s o f t e a c h e r s , u n i v e r s i t y l e c t u r e r s and o t h e r  dependent employees of the Department of  Indian A f f a i r s .  In the  latter  case t h e r e i s a l m o s t a p a t h e t i c d e f e r e n c e f o r f e a r o f r e t r i b u t i o n . Indeed i t i s not uncommon f o r h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d i n d i v i d u a l s s e e k i n g f a c u l t y p o s i t i o n s a t the I n d i a n u n i v e r s i t y to "work t h r o u g h " C o u n c i l members and ask them " t o put i n a good word" w i t h the a u t h o r i t i e s , even though the C o u n c i l member may have no h i g h s c h o o l o r background h i m s e l f , and can o b v i o u s l y o n l y recommend a l o n g lines.  university political  -142I t i s such power t h a t members o f the SAIC would l i k e t o c a p i t a l i s e u p o n , i n o r d e r to f o r c e the r e s p e c t o f t h e i r own group members.  Hence,  they have been demanding "a m e a n i n g f u l say" i n the p l a n n i n g o f e d u c a t i o n f o r Indian c h i l d r e n ,  as M r . J . N .  Reddy, Chairman o f trie SAIC e x e c u t i v e  and f o r m e r l y salesman a t a w h o l e s a l e w a r e h o u s e , put i t (The Natal M e r c u r y , 25 July,  1973).  When Mr. Reddy t o g e t h e r w i t h M r . R a j b a n s i who j o i n t l y  h o l d the p o r t f o l i o f o r e d u c a t i o n on the c o u n c i l , were u n s u c c e s s f u l i n o b t a i n i n g " e x e c u t i v e powers" from the M i n i s t e r o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s ,  Indian  t e a c h e r s a r e r e c o r d e d to have " h e a v e d . a s i g h o f r e l i e f " f o r h a v i n g been saved from the " t e r r o r o f t h e p o s s i b l e a n t i c s o f an SAIC b o s s " 23 J a n u a r y , 1 9 7 6 ) .  Informants  (Graphic,  i n t h e South  A f r i c a n I n d i a n Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n (SAITA) comment i n p r i v a t e , but have n o t dared t o p u b l i c i s e t h e i r v i e w s : "Any s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the SAIC s h o u l d have any say i n t h e appointment o r d i s m i s s a l o f t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s o r s c h o o l i n s p e c t o r s i s a b s o l u t e l y dangerous. That w i l l open t h e way f o r d i s a s t r o u s i n t e r f e r e n c e on s e c t i o n a l , l i n g u i s t i c and r e l i g i o u s l i n e s and even t o n e p o t i s m and undue f a v o r itism." ( P r i v a t e correspondence, 2 9 , February 4 , 1976). " I t i s no s e c r e t t h a t s e v e r a l t h r e a t s were made a g a i n s t c e r t a i n s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s by c e r t a i n I n d i a n p o l i t i c i a n s who a l s o h e l d out promises o f p r o m o t i o n to o t h e r s . The day t h a t p o l i t i c i a n s a r e g i v e n a say i n appointments w i l l r u i n Indian e d u c a t i o n . " (Private correspondence, 30, February 8 , 1976). An e d i t o r i a l comment i n one o f t h e I n d i a n w e e k l i e s p o i n t s t o t h e f e a r o f publicising private matters: confidential  " A l r e a d y t h e r e have been ' l e a k s '  SAIC e x e c u t i v e d i s c u s s i o n s .  from  J u s t imagine what t a l k  go on a t d i n n e r p a r t i e s and a t weddings i f I n d i a n p o l i t i c i a n s  will  have  -143access to the p e r s o n a l f i l e s  of t e a c h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s !  never l e a v e the hands o f the f u l l time o f f i c i a l s " January,  These must  (The G r a p h i c , 23  1976).  Such responses l e a d to i n t e r e s t i n g minority-majority  relations.  It  s p e c u l a t i o n about the dynamics o f  might have been expected t h a t g i v e n  the d i s c r i m i n a t o r y t r e a t m e n t o f the  I n d i a n m i n o r i t y by the  whenever a chance a r o s e f o r  to wrest power o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  Indians  Whites,  from the dominant g r o u p , they would s i e z e such o p p o r t u n i t i e s to manage t h e i r  own a f f a i r s  thus f a r ,  would seem to be much o p p o s i t i o n to the  there  Education p o r t f o l i o account f o r laristic  this  more e q u i t a b l y .  by the C o u n c i l .  surprising outlook:  criteria  From the o u t l i n e d responses  Several (a)  in order  imminent t a k e - o v e r  reasons may be assumed to  There i s f e a r  that  particu-  such as r e l i g i o n , l i n g u i s t i c g r o u p , and p o l i t i c a l  p e r s p e c t i v e s may assume importance i n p r o f e s s i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , as opposed to u n i v e r s a l i s t i c c r i t e r i a and q u a l i f i c a t i o n ,  (b)  i n t i m a t e to m a i n t a i n anxiety  about the  such as p r o f e s s i o n a l competence  The community i s p e r c e i v e d as being too  individual  p r i v a c y and anonymity.  influence of informal  communication, g o s s i p ,  and " i n s i d e " i n f o r m a t i o n which c o u l d e n t e r the p u b l i c s p h e r e .  The v i r t u e  of  There  is feuds  into decision-making in  " d i s t a n c e " and the " i m p e r s o n a l "  a s p e c t s o f Weberian type b u r e a u c r a c y - m o d e l s would seem to be l a c k i n g where  " i n - g r o u p " members make d e c i s i o n s about each o t h e r .  are known to each o t h e r as " t o t a l failings,  u n l i k e the p a r t i a l  persons" with a l l  their  Individuals virtues  and  glimpse o f the b u r e a u c r a t e s p e c i a l l y one  of  the  -144b e l o n g i n g t o the r u l i n g g r o u p . 1 the g r o u p ' s o w n - i n f e r i o r i t y  (c)  Deeply  i n t e r n a l i s e d notions  of  and the supposed " s u p e r i o r judgement"  of  spokesmen o f the dominant group c o u l d a l s o e x p l a i n such a r t i c u l a t i o n . (d)  The most o b v i o u s r e a s o n s , n a m e l y the p r o f e s s i o n a l l y  inadequate  2  training  o f both members a p p o i n t e d to the shadow e d u c a t i o n  portfolio  and the p r i n c i p l e of e n t r e n c h i n g s e g r e g a t i o n seems not to have been important  in available  criticism.  C o u n c i l members have argued i n d e f e n s e o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n s , t h a t they do not e n t i r e l y a c c e p t t h e i r a d m i t t e d l y  although  l i m i t e d r o l e s , they  par-  t i c i p a t e i n such a body i n the i n t e r e s t o f the community f o r want of better alternatives.  One c o u n c i l member e x p r e s s e d h i s view t h u s :  given  the f a i l u r e o f e a r l i e r m i l i t a n t measures t h e r e i s one way o f e s t a b l i s h i n g d i a l o g u e through the use o f a s t r a t e g y , more e f f e c t i v e way o f p e r s u a s i o n .  which can be c o n s i d e r e d a f a r  Face to f a c e c o n t a c t o r even  polite  c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h a u t h o r i t i e s i s f e l t more l i k e l y to remove m i s t r u s t and s u s p i c i o n among W h i t e s . can be c o n s i d e r e d r e a l i s t i c  Above a l l , i t i s s a i d , o n l y such an approach i n view o f the f a c t t h a t the White man i s  i n power, and I n d i a n s a r e a v o t e l e s s p e o p l e (The G r a p h i c , L e t t e r to e d i t o r by M.B.  Naidoo).  1. A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n e x i s t e d up to m i d d l e and upper income groups, would c o n s i d e r e d v i s i t s to a White d o c t o r , many i n s t a n c e s , more p r e s t i g i o u s and competence. This s t i l l a p p l i e d to a 2. N e i t h e r  16 J u l y , 1971,  the f i f t i e s when I n d i a n s , e s p e c i a l l y seldom go t o an I n d i a n d o c t o r . They d e s p i t e s e g r e g a t e d w a i t i n g rooms i n were c o n v i n c e d o f t h e i r g r e a t e r v e r y s m a l l s e c t o r o f the e l i t e t o d a y .  have a u n i v e r s i t y degree o r p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n .  -145-  The l a t e chairman o f the e x e c u t i v e hand,  c o u n c i l , A . M . R a j a b , a r g u e d , on the  t h a t though he b e l i e v e d i n a d e m o c r a t i c a l l y e l e c t e d c o u n c i l  such a c o u n c i l was not n e c e s s a r i l y b e t t e r than or as e f f e c t i v e "carefully  s e l e c t e d hand-picked one".  a more e f f e c t i v e ,  Furthermore,  s t r e s s e d the need f o r p a t i e n c e , u s u a l l y slow o f  improvement"  but the white e l e c t o r a t e  While f o r  i n defense of the government,  and i t  sity administration,  that r e s i s t s change." Council,  the government's  1  its  Along these Indian  the  is  strike  situations.  i n p r o v i d i n g Indians with a u n i v e r s i t y  the  against their  i n the summer o f 1973  Indian C o u n c i l v i r t u a l l y  lines,  equivalent  policy in c r i s i s  Council in t h e i r  a year e a l i e r  he  was "not the government per s e ,  i n s t a n c e C o l o r e d s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d the s u p p o r t o f  Coloured Representative  situation  body than any  s i n c e "the area o f r a c e r e l a t i o n s  the C o l o u r e d R e p r e s e n t a t i v e  condoned and j u s t i f i e d  as a  He c o n s i d e r e d h i s c o u n c i l to be  r e s p o n s i b l e , f o r c e f u l , and o b j e c t i v e  previous o r g a n i z a t i o n .  unlike  univer-  in a s i m i l a r  acknowledged White g e n e r o s i t y ( J o o s u b , 1973:433).  T h i s syndrome of b e h a v i o r , which d i s t i n g u i s h e s the s t y l e and c a l i b r e the  I n d i a n C o u n c i l from t h a t o f B u t h e l e z i , o r the C o l o r e d  C o u n c i l , may perhaps o n l y be e x p l a i n e d nity's  i n terms o f the  p o s i t i o n as the most powerless o f a l l  A f r i c a n groups, with neither tage o f A f r i c a n s t r e n g t h ,  1.  other  the numerical  P u b l i c address i n L e n a s i a , 25 March 1972  Representative  Indian commu-  the s u b o r d i n a t e South  b a s i s and h i s t o r i c a l  nor the c l a i m to p a r t i a l  by A . M .  Afrikaner  Rajab.  of  heri-  ancestry  -146o f the C o l o r e d s .  The Indian C o u n c i l i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y  s e l f o r openly to c h a l l e n g e the the C o l o r e d R e p r e s e n t a t i v e  basic tenets  to a b o l i s h  it-  o f government p o l i c y , as  C o u n c i l d i d so s p e c t a c u l a r l y i n 1974  and  1976.  3.  Local A f f a i r s  Committees  Supplementing the SAIC are L o c a l A f f a i r s satisfy  Indian a s p i r a t i o n s foi* l o c a l  d e s c r i b e d as "the f i r s t  government.  areas  are f u l l y  e l e c t e d committees,  nominated  (South A f r i c a , Indian A f f a i r s ,  six  Of t h e s e ,  elected^and f i v e  1973:  officially  and have been  in Natal.  f o u r are p a r t l y  9-10).  ten are  In  t h r e e s o - c a l l e d Management Committees have been s e t up.  (One w i t h e l e c t e d members, and the o t h e r t h e r e are  ( L A C ) , designed to  They have been  stage o f l o c a l government",  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 19 Indian r e s i d e n t i a l  the T r a n s v a a l  Committees  two nominated.)  27 nominated C o n s u l t a t i v e Committees.  nominated Management Committees are  The LAC's owe t h e i r  origin  In  In  addition,  the Cape P r o v i n c e  in operation  (Horrell,  to the P r o v i n c i a l Ordinance o f  1976:79).  1963 and  u l t i m a t e l y to the Group Areas A c t (South A f r i c a , Indian A f f a i r s ,  1973:8).  The Ordinance g i v e no powers o f any kind to these Committees which  are  expected to  (ibid.),  "promote the  interests  and to b r i n g any m a t t e r r e l a t i n g White l o c a l  and w e l f a r e of the  inhabitants"  to Indians to the n o t i c e o f the  "Supreme"  authority.  O p p o s i t i o n to L A C ' s has been w i d e l y e x p r e s s e d .  Mr.  D.K.  S i n g h , Chairman  of the F e d e r a t i o n o f C i v i c A s s o c i a t i o n s , d e s c r i b e d them as  "toothless  -147and p o w e r l e s s and p o s s e s s i n g the c h a r a c t e r Leader,  23 M a r c h , 1 9 7 3 ) .  The R e s e r v o i r H i l l s  of s e p a r a t i o n "  (The  The Chairman o f a p r e s t i g e suburb a s s o c i a t i o n ,  R a t e p a y e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , d e s c r i b e d L A C ' s as  "Committees whose main a c t i v i t i e s were to get p o t h o l e s r e p a i r e d and gutters f i t t e d .  We have b i g g e r t h i n g s to worry a b o u t , "  he s a i d ,  adding  t h a t what I n d i a n s s h o u l d do was make a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t to b r i n g p r e s s u r e on the Durban C i t y C o u n c i l to do away w i t h p e t t y A p a r t h e i d (The M e r c u r y , 20 J u l y ,  1974).  The R e s e r v o i r H i l l s  Natal  Ratepayers' A s s o c i a t i o n  passed a r e s o l u t i o n the L A C ' s were " n o t i n the b e s t i n t e r e s t s ' o f Indian p e o p l e ' "  (ibid.).  the  The P r e s i d e n t o f the Southern Durban C i v i c  F e d e r a t i o n who had s e r v e d on t h e l o c a l R a t e p a y e r s '  association for  over 35 y e a r s , d e s c r i b e d L A C ' s as " h a v i n g no e x e c u t i v e power,  being  u n a b l e t o have c o e r c i v e f o r c e and p r o v i d i n g a mere d e b a t i n g chamber" (Interview,  a l s o The R a t e p a y e r ,  5 June 1971).  Even those who agreed to use the L A C ' s as a p l a t f o r m on the grounds e x p e d i e n c y , such as S .  Pi H a y  Pooval ingham, V i c e Chairman o f  of  the  Southern Durban I n d i a n LAC, appear to have changed t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e s . In March 1973, institutions  Poovalingham defended L A C ' s as p o t e n t i a l l y e x p e d i e n t (The L e a d e r ,  30 M a r c h , 1 9 7 3 ) .  W i t h i n s i x months o f s e r v i n g  on such a Committee he c a l l e d f o r " t h e s c r a p p i n g o f L A C ' s s e r v e d no u s e f u l purpose  a t no time were our recommendations t o  c o u n c i l a c c e p t e d and a c t e d upon r e s o l u t i o n s " ( D a i l y News,  because they the  A l l we do here i s debate and pass  5 November,  1973).  -148From the i n c e p t i o n , p u b l i c apathy to t h e s e  i n s t i t u t i o n s was n o t i c e a b l e .  In the 1973 e l e c t i o n s i n Merebank, a l a r g e l y w o r k i n g c l a s s s u b u r b , 8 , 0 6 2 out o f 2 3 , 0 6 8 v o t e r s who had r e g i s t e r e d , went t o the p o l l s 1 19 O c t o b e r ,  A s s o c i a t i o n o f A s h e r v i l l e , a community w i t h a  heavy c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l as w e l l as w o r k i n g - c l a s s c o t t e d the Northern  people,boy-  Durban I n d i a n LAC e l e c t i o n s , condemning such com-  m i t t e e s as " m e a n i n g l e s s b o d i e s " having "no r e a l power". to them because they were f o r I n d i a n s o n l y .  Others o b j e c t e d  "We want d i r e c t r e p r e s e n t a -  and want t o v o t e as r e s i d e n t s , not as I n d i a n s "  26 J a n u a r y ,  (Graphic,  1973).  S i m i l a r l y the R a t e p a y e r s '  tion  only  (The G r a p h i c ,  1973).  Between 1973 and the p r e s e n t time t h e r e have been r e g u l a r  confrontations  1. I t s h o u l d be mentioned t h a t t h i s was a l s o an a r e a i n which t h e r e was a c o n c e r t e d d r i v e by a l o c a l o r g a n i z e d group t o d i s c o u r a g e v o t e r s . P l a c a r d s b e a r i n g s l o g a n s denounced t h e LAC system as a f r a u d and c a l l e d f o r d i r e c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s f o r a l l on t h e e x c l u s i v e l y w h i t e C i t y C o u n c i l . L e a f l e t s d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h o u t Merebank, p l e a d e d w i t h v o t e r s t o c o n s i d e r b e f o r e v o t i n g , t h e r o l e o f t h e LAC; what i t had a c h i e v e d f o r I n d i a n s t o d a t e , and the chances o f i t e v e r s u c c e e d i n g i n f i g h t i n g on b e h a l f o f t h e people f o r improvements: "The L o c a l A f f a i r s C o m m i t t e e s , t h e South A f r i c a n I n d i a n C o u n c i l and B a n t u s t a n governments and the C o l o u r e d Rep r e s e n t a t i v e Council are a l l p a r t of the government's master A p a r t h e i d p l a n . They have been c r e a t e d not t o p r o t e c t y o u r i n t e r e s t s but to s o f t e n and d i v e r t y o u r opposition." " I t i s c l e a r as c r y s t a l t h a t the LAC i s not f i g h t i n g f o r us t h e s e b o d i e s a r e a t the mercy o f t h e government, and they r e l y on handouts from t h e Durban C o r p o r a t i o n and t h e government. I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e s e b o d i e s a r e b e i n g used as t o o l s . " (The G r a p h i c ,  19  October,  1973)  -149between LAC members, both e l e c t e d and n o m i n a t e d , and the Durban C i t y Council.  V a r i o u s w a l k - o u t s were s t a g e d i n d i s g u s t , by both the  Durban I n d i a n LAC as w e l l  as the Southern Durban I n d i a n LAC,  Northern  over  the  r e f u s a l o f the C i t y C o u n c i l to i n c r e a s e the amount to be s p e n t on I n d i a n a r e a s i n the C o u n c i l ' s 1974  draft estimates.  The w h i t e Mayor  t y p i c a l l y r e t a l i a t e d by r e f e r r i n g to the LAC members as " s t i l l (The G r a p h i c , 14 September  immature"  1973).  Indeed t h e r e i s b l a t a n t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a t the m u n i c i p a l l e v e l by l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , e l e c t e d by and r e s p o n s i b l e to a w h i t e c o n s t i t u e n c y , i n s p i t e of theequal i f not h i g h e r t a x a t i o n of n o n - W h i t e s .  In Durban i n  the C i t y C o u n c i l had a l l o c a t e d R73-mi11ion f o r the development municipal f a c i l i t i e s .  1976 of  Of t h i s amount o n l y R 8 - m i l l i o n was s e t a s i d e  f o r the C o l o u r e d and I n d i a n a r e a s , i n s p i t e o f the f a c t t h a t they number Whites two t o one ( a c c o r d i n g to S e n a t o r E r i c W i n c h e s t e r ,  out-  PRP,  The S t a r , WE, 3 March 1 9 7 6 : 6 ) .  In a t y p i c a l i n c i d e n t more than 500 angry r e s i d e n t s from P o r t  Shepstare  and Marburg p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t the " a p p a l l i n g n e g l e c t " o f I n d i a n h o u s i n g by White l o c a l  a u t h o r i t i e s i n the a r e a .  The f r u s t r a t i o n o f r e s i d e n t s  e x p r e s s e d i t s e l f , as i s f r e q u e n t i n South A f r i c a , not on the r e a l t a r g e t s but on group members. became t h e o b j e c t s o f w r a t h .  Hence LAC members and I n d i a n l a n d l o r d s One r e s i d e n t d e p l o r e d "The inhuman and  a v a r i c i o u s b e h a v i o r of some l a n d l o r d s i n the area who e x p l o i t e d t e n a n t s , many o f whom earned l e s s than R l 0 0 a month"  (Sunday T i m e s , 7 J u l y  1974).  A n o t h e r r e s i d e n t s a i d " e x p l o i t a t i o n by l a n d l o r d s had reached ' s h a m e l e s s  -150depths'.  I t was not uncommon to f i n d a man e a r n i n g R60 a month,  R30 to R40 f o r r e n t f o r one room and a k i t c h e n " ( i b i d . ) . d o c t o r and r e s i d e n t i n the a r e a s a i d  paying  A prominent  "Vie have had enough o f  people  who p u r p o r t t o be w o r k i n g i n our i n t e r e s t s and y e t a r e e x p l o i t i n g us as l a n d l o r d s "  (ibid.).  In defence o f the L A C ' s Mr. J . N .  man o f the SAIC e x e c u t i v e ,  Reddy,  Chair-  s a i d i t was no use blaming the L A C ' s  cause they were o n l y a d v i s o r y b o d i e s w i t h no e x e c u t i v e power" In response to c r i t i c i s m o f the White l o c a l  authorities'  c o n c e r n themselves w i t h the accommodation needs of  Indian  "be(ibid.).  failure  to  residents,  the Mayor d e n i e d t h a t t h i s was s o , and s w i t c h e d the f o c u s o f the crowd onto the f a c t t h a t he was aware of the e x p l o i t a t i v e b e h a v i o u r  of  I n d i a n l a n d l o r d s , and commended a l l e f f o r t s  The  to c o n t r o l them.  e x i s t e n c e o f an i n i q u i t o u s s i t u a t i o n which a l l o w e d room f o r was e n t i r e l y b y p a s s e d , as was the p r i v e l e g e d p o s i t i o n o f the r e s i d e n t s i n the  Table  exploitation white  town.  3 shows e x t r a c t s from the Durban C i t y C o u n c i l ' s e x t i m a t e s  1975-76 i n e x p e n d i t u r e  a c c o r d i n g , to r a c i a l  group.  As a r e s u l t of the a l l - w h i t e C i t y C o u n c i l ' s f a i l u r e to heed 75 o f LAC recommendations,  for  percent  the Southern Durban LAC d e c l a r e d a b o y c o t t  on  any f u r t h e r meetings w i t h the w h i t e body u n t i l a meeting was h e l d w i t h the Mayor  (The  Natal  Mercury,  Durban C i t y C o u n c i l attempted bureaucratization.  It  28 J a n u a r y ,  1976).  Quite t y p i c a l l y  to d e f l a t e the impasse through  suggested t h a t the Southern Durban LAC  t h r o u g h a s u p e r - l i a i s o n committee c o m p r i s i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  the  further work from a l l  -151-  Table 3  Durban C i t y C o u n c i l E x p e n d i t u r e (Estimates) f o r 1975-76 A c c o r d i n g t o R a c i a l Group i n Rand  White Areas  North Indian  South Indian  Coloured Areas  Grants  368,850  19,000  19,000  8,000  Music  541,170  -  Pools  373,630  56,560  62,100  43,100  386,980  352,150  48,350  Sports  2,837,420  Roads  3,418,590  Source:  The G r a p h i c ,  14 F e b r u a r y ,  -  1976.  Note: The I n d i a n and s m a l l c o l o u r e d p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g under t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e Durban C i t y C o u n c i l number a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 p e r c e n t more than the Whites and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e d e s i g n a t e d a r e a s c o m p r i s e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 35 p e r c e n t o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . (See map.) I n d i a n s and C o l o u r e d s a r e n o t a l l o w e d t o use t h e c e n t r a l w h i t e r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s ( P o o l s , S p o r t ) e x c e p t parks and t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t now C i t y H a l l . They do have t h e i r own beach on the o u t s k i r t s o f t h e White d i s t r i c t , and o f c o u r s e make use o f o t h e r m u n i c i p a l l y m a i n t a i n e d s e r v i c e s i n t h e White area s u c h as r o a d s .  -152the I n d i a n LAC's i n c l u d i n g the C o l o u r e d LAC and the C i t y C o u n c i l  (The  Sunday T i m e s , 8 F e b r u a r y , :976). Contrary to e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t , i n view  of  a d i s c r i m i n a t o r y budget a g a i n s t the g r o u p , a l l I n d i a n L A C ' s would together  gather,  i n o p p o s i t i o n to the C i t y C o u n c i l , the N o r t h e r n Durban LAC  and  t h e C o l o u r e d LAC have a c q u i e s c e d i n the s u g g e s t i o n o f t h e s u p e r - l i a i s o n committee ( i b i d . ) .  T h i s i s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f the r o l e o f d i f f e r e n t i a l  p r i v i l e g e s and f a c i l i t i e s central  i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g the i n t e r e s t s o f a w e a l t h i e r  suburb from a p o o r e r o u t l y i n g i l l - d e v e l o p e d o n e , d e s p i t e the  identical  political  i n e q u a l i t i e s directed against both.  The  Northern  Durban LAC has p r o b a b l y much more to g a i n from the C i t y C o u n c i l  through  collaboration.  In an a p p a r e n t l y p r o g r e s s i v e move, the Durban C i t y C o u n c i l announced t h a t i t i n t e n d e d to o b t a i n p e r m i s s i o n from the P r o v i n c i a l C o u n c i l offer full  local  a u t h o r i t y and autonomy t o I n d i a n s i n  ( H o r r e l l , 1976:79).  to  Chatsworth  Indeed as the n e w e s t , most p o o r l y developed a r e a  i n need o f e s s e n t i a l f a c i l i t i e s ,  t h i s would r e l e a s e the C i t y C o u n c i l  of c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e n d i t u r e , w h i l e i t c o u l d b e n e f i t from the d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e i n c r e a s e s i n t a x e s o f w e a l t h i e r d e v e l o p e d I n d i a n suburbs i n need of l e s s m a i n t e n a n c e . to p r o v i d e Chatsworth  local  Furthermore,  the C i t y C o u n c i l i s u n l i k e l y  government w i t h a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n  of  the accumulated revenue from the c e n t r a l m u n i c i p a l t r e a s u r y to which I n d i a n s c o n t r i b u t e c o n s i d e r a b l e amounts.  A similar offer  tentatively  made to the I n d i a n s of L e n a s i a i n Johannesburg was r e j e c t e d by the ( e l e c t e d ) management c o m m i t t e e , whose spokesman m a i n t a i n e d t h a t  suburban  -1 5 3 autonomy was i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t C o l o u r e d l e a d e r s have c a l l e d , the c i t y c o u n c i l 4.  Autonomous  i n d u s t r i a l autonomy.  I n d i a n and  i n s t e a d , f o r d i r e c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on  (ibid.:80).  I n d i a n Town Boards  In s t a r k c o n t r a s t to the LACs Umzinto w i t h autonomous  t h e t h r e e towns o f V e r u l a m ,  I s i p i n g o and  a l l - I n d i a n Town Boards have g a i n e d v e r y  s u p p o r t from t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o m m u n i t i e s .  The most e s t a b l i s h e d o f  t h e s e i s Verulam on t h e N o r t h Coast o f N a t a l , w h i c h  has a f u l l y  u n i r a c i a l Town Board o f t e n members and has a l l the e f f e c t i v e vested i n white l o c a l collection,  governments.  elected powers  I t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s own r a t e  has i t s l i c e n s i n g b o a r d ,  t r a f f i c and o t h e r r e l a t e d a r e a s .  positive  Indian medical o f f i c e r s of  Health,  There i s a h i g h l y e f f i c i e n t Town  C l e r k a c c o u n t a b l e t o the most c i v i c c o n s c i o u s v o t e r s i n t h e p r o v i n c e . 1 Whereas p r i o r to 1924 I n d i a n women had been e x c l u d e d from e x e r c i s i n g the v o t e ,  Verulam c r e a t e d a p r e c e d e n t by i n c l u d i n g women  a l s o Views and News, November,  Though a p r e d o m i n a n t l y . I n d i a n by a w h i t e l o c a l  authority.  (Interviews,  1972).  t o w n , Verulam has been dominated f o r a c e n t u r y When t h e f i r s t I n d i a n town board came i n t o  e x i s t e n c e i n 1967, t h e w h i t e l o c a l a u t h o r i t y  had l e f t an o v e r d r a f t  of  2 RIO,000 and an annual  income o f R 2 3 , 0 0 0 .  Throughout t h e p e r i o d o f  1. 76 p e r c e n t i n one ward went t o t h e p o l l s r e c e n t l y , compared to Durban's w h i t e p o l l o f between 26 t o 46 p e r c e n t (Views and News, November, 1 9 7 2 ) . 2. S i x months b e f o r e the I n d i a n l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s assumed c o n t r o l , s a l a r i e s o f i t s a l r e a d y w e l l - p a i d w h i t e employees had been r a i s e d by 100 p e r c e n t ( I n t e r v i e w s , a l s o Views and News, November, 1 9 7 2 ) .  -154White domination not a s i n g l e m u n i c i p a l l y owned house had been for either  Indians  in p r o f i t s  from the A f r i c a n beer h a l l  or A f r i c a n s , although. R l l 0 , 0 0 0 had been accumulated (Interviews).  In a s h o r t p e r i o d , the Verulam Town Board e l i m i n a t e d draft,  erected  and a c h i e v e d a p r e s e n t annual  the i n i t i a l  income o f R150,000.  over-  Facilities  p r e v i o u s l y n e g l e c t e d by a white c o u n c i l have been g i v e n p r i o r i t y . these are r o a d s , w a t e r - b o r n e Indians  sewage d i s p o s a l , a housing scheme f o r  and the a l l o c a t i o n of R25,000 f o r  in  Dalmenie.  It  i s economic v i a b i l i t y  The l a t t e r imperial  i n s t a n c e has a p t l y  a l t h o u g h they enjoy n e i t h e r  been l i k e n e d to  In  the c a s e o f  (Views  and News,  Isipingo,  Indian A f f a i r s ,  LAC members are  where  i n much  under B r i t i s h  power nor the p r e s t i g e o f  rule, such  1972:31).  i n the n e i g h b o r i n g w h i t e  and a p p o i n t e d to p o s t s o f Town C l e r k and  became autonomous on August 1,  1972:9).  I n d i a n Chairman o f the  limited  the c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n ,  in India  Indians were t r a i n e d  Town C o u n c i l o f Amanzimtoti Town T r e a s u r e r when i t  the  autono-  Council.  power i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n w h i t e hands.  figures  of A f r i c a n s  impotence o f the L A C ' s which  dependent on the a l l - w h i t e C i t y  the same p o s i t i o n as Nawabs and Maharajas  feudal  the r e s e t t l e m e n t  t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s the achievements o f  mous Town B o a r d s , such as Verulam, from the are e n t i r e l y  Among  1972  Newly emancipated o f f i c i a l s  I s i p i n g o Town Board f r e q u e n t l y  (South A f r i c a ,  such as  the  s e r v e as a p o l o g i s t s  f o r the p r e v i o u s white p a r e n t body by acknowledging the problems which  -155Whites must have had i n d e a l i n g w i t h Indian demands i n the p a s t , now t h a t they are  in a similar  C o n t r a r y to the  position.  1  i m p r e s s i o n c r e a t e d by o f f i c i a l  channels i n l o c a l government f o r sphere p r i o r to t h i s  Indians,  time i s o f t e n  Town Board has had t h r e e  Indian members on i t  Another North Coast Natal -.town' Indian involvement  y e a r s a f t e r Natal  s i n c e 1944 but was  by w h i t e s .  T h i s was one o f The move t o  gatherings.  in local  had d e p r i v e d Indians roll  local  1944  In  of m u n i c i p a l  f r a n c h i s e , E.M.  percent p o l l ,  the f o r m e r l y  twenty  b e f o r e 1924,was e l e c t e d t o He was the  his death.  authority.  After  the  first  that  A nominated  Indian LAC was r e p l a c e d i n O c t o b e r 1972 by an e l e c t e d o n e . campaign which was e f f e c t i v e l y  interesting  government.  to h o l d such a p o s t u n t i l  Stanger once a g a i n became a White  this  The nominated Tongaat  by a predominantly white e l e c t o r a t e .  Indian i n Natal  in  c a l l e d Stanger, has a l s o had an  M o o l a , who had been on the v o t e r s ' municipality  new-found  participation  l o c a l governments i n South A f r i c a .  e s t a b l i s h LAC's was to end such mixed  h i s t o r y of  their  overlooked.  dominated both n u m e r i c a l l y and o t h e r w i s e the few " i n t e g r a t e d "  accounts o f  all-  The  o r g a n i s e d h e a v i l y d e f e a t e d , w i t h a 70  nominated LAC c h a i r m a n .  The d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t  1. T h i s occurs r e g u l a r l y a t Ratepayers meetings when such newly a p p o i n t e d Chairmen of Indian Town Boards are i n v i t e d as guest speakers and choose t o educate the I n d i a n p u b l i c on the i n t r i c a c i e s o f l o c a l government. One such i n s t a n c e was at the P a r l o c k Ratepayers Meeting i n August 1973, when Mr. K e e r a t h , o f the I s i p i n g o Town Board o u t l i n e d to P a r l o c k r a t e p a y e r s i n the most p a t e r n a l i s t i c manner, t h a t the f u n c t i o n o f l o c a l autonomy to Indians was to prove to the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s t h a t we Indians were " c a p a b l e " and " r e s p o n s i b l e " . He c a l l e d f o r a "mature" approach and f o r "constructive" instead of " d e s t r u c t i v e " c r i t i c i s m .  -156o f t h e s e e l e c t e d bodies and t h e i r new members are j u s t (Views  as powerless as the p r e v i o u s nominated  and News, November, 1972).  apathy o f v o t e r s  In  (Leader, 11  T h i s was a l s o r e f l e c t e d  (45.4  not been the c r u c i a l representatives  by nominated o r e l e c t e d  the half the  in  political  representatives,has  i s s u e i n the eyes o f the community. Whether community have r e a l  power to a f f e c t  changes i n the d a i l y  they s e r v e merely as s y m b o l i c o u t l e t s  a s p i r a t i o n s , would seem to d i s t i n g u i s h t h e i r  the t o t a l  in  O c t o b e r , 1974).  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , whether  In  their  officials  p e r c e n t o f 3,000) went to  summary,it can be c o n c l u d e d t h a t I n d i a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n  o r whether  that  i n the 1974 Stanger e l e c t i o n s , where l e s s than  the number o f r e g i s t e r e d v o t e r s polls  representatives,however,is  life  f o r g r i e v a n c e s and  r e c o g n i t i o n from t ' . ^ i r  rejection.  South A f r i c a n c o n t e x t f o u r d i s t i n c t p o s i t i o n s have emerged  among Indians government.  towards the post-1961 government p o l i c y o f l i m i t e d A t the one extreme  is that of total  self-  a c c e p t a n c e , as  e p i t o m i z e d by the South A f r i c a n I n d i a n C o u n c i l , which not o n l y a c c e p t s but c o l l a b o r a t e s w i t h the government, b e l i e v i n g i n the s i n c e r i t y its  intentions  development.  and the v a l u e s o f i t s Many r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  programs o f s e p a r a t e and equal  o f t h i s a t t i t u d e f e a r an A f r i c a n  t a k e o v e r , which they c o n s i d e r as t o t a l l y They p r e f e r  of  detrimental  to  Indian  interests.  to view themselves as a l l i e s o f the Whites i n a common  s t r u g g l e to keep " u n p r e d i c t a b l e " A f r i c a n demands under c o n t r o l . Second, there  are those who a c c e p t government p o l i c y and government-  -157a p p o i n t e d bodies on the discriminately. its  b a s i s o f expediency and use these  They argue  t h a t such p o l i c y c o n t a i n s the  own d e s t r u c t i o n and s h o u l d be e x p l o i t e d  t h e r e i s a s i z a b l e group who have l i t t l e ment o r i t s  Indian c o l l a b o r a t o r s .  l e s s and d o n ' t want to the  for  l i f e and are  intimidated  ment's  p o l i c e machinery.  t h e r e are  the South A f r i c a n  to the government,not principle ethnically institutions  its  aspects of  those who f e e l  i s the p o s i t i o n o f the Organization  splitting  a potentially  govern-  exploitative  from the  community attribute  They r e j e c t on in  government-created  united Black f r o n t .  Indian members o f the South A f r i c a n  s e c t i o n o f former  the r o l e o f r e l u c t a n t  political  This  Students  (SASO) and the Black Peoples Convention (BPC) as w e l l  of a s u b s t a n t i a l  a c t i v i s t s , now f o r c e d  as into  spectators.  In b r i e f , w h i l e government-appointed Indian C o u n c i l and L o c a l A f f a i r s are n e i t h e r  activity  to  considerable  Any changes t h a t do o c c u r they  stooges i n the C o u n c i l .  power-  organiza-  by the  I n d i a n C o u n c i l as an  exclusive p o l i t i c a l  aimed a t  govern-  They p o i n t  to the e x t e n t o f apathy  Finally,  representative.  the  Third,  They see themselves as being  body, a c c o m p l i s h i n g n o t h i n g and having no a u t h o r i t y to a c t as i t s  seeds o f  potential.  f a i t h in e i t h e r  i n f i l t r a t i o n o f the S e c u r i t y P o l i c e i n a l l  antagonism toward  this  "become i n v o l v e d i n p o l i t i c s " .  tional  channels  bodies such as the South A f r i c a n  Committees  are t o l e r a t e d  r e s p e c t e d nor s u p p o r t e d by most I n d i a n s .  more hated than the government  and f r e q u e n t l y  by some, they  In f a c t  they  are scapegoats f o r  are it.  -158-  IX 1.  ETHNIC HIGHER EDUCATION The Indian U n i v e r s i t y  A vital  p o i n t o f c o n t a c t between members o f the s u p e r o r d i n a t e group  and the  Indian community i s the U n i v e r s i t y o f D u r b a n - W e s t v i 1 l e .  the newest, most modern u n i v e r s i t y  i n Durban, b u i l t  at an e s t i m a t e d  c o s t o f R l 7 - m i 1 1 i on ( F i a t L u x , V o l . 7 , N o . 5 : 3 0 ) , o v e r l o o k i n g the from one o f the most e x c l u s i v e Indian s u b u r b s , A p a r t h e i d i n terms o f f a c i l i t i e s  it  relations  value.  The Indian u n i v e r s i t y has now been i n e x i s t e n c e f o r  years.  It  fifteen  time to review the o r i g i n a l  of the community about s e g r e g a t e d u n i v e r s i t i e s , and examine the to which these have been r e i n f o r c e d o r  The N a t i o n a l i s t  A c t 45 o f 1959.  1  ,it  intention  Town and Witwatersrand  had admitted  even though the U n i v e r s i t y o f Natal  through  D e s p i t e much o p p o s i t i o n from  was passed i n 1959 as the E x t e n s i o n o f  P r i o r to t h a t t i m e ,  extent  of applying  s e p a r a t i o n to t e r t i a r y e d u c a t i o n i n 1957  the Separate U n i v e r s i t y E d u c a t i o n B i l l . various s e c t o r s  fears  eliminated.  Party government made c l e a r i t s  the p r i n c i p l e o f r a c i a l  city  i s the showpiece o f  and conspicuous p u b l i c  would seem an a p p r o p r i a t e  As  University  the U n i v e r s i t i e s o f N a t a l , Cape  students of a l l  racial  groups,  had always operated a s e p a r a t e "Non-  ft 1. For a d e t a i l e d account o f the c r i t i c i s m o f t h i s Freedom Committees, 1974. 2. An account o f the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s to be found i n H o r r e l l , 1 9 5 6 - 5 7 : 1 9 6 f f .  Bill  Bill,  s e e : Academic  and r e a c t i o n s t o i t  is  -159European S e c t i o n " .  Antagonism to i n t e g r a t e d  1  had been a r t i c u l a t e d  as e a r l y  university  education  as 1948 when the newly e l e c t e d  P a r t y Prime M i n i s t e r made the f o l l o w i n g  National  statement:  "An i n t o l e r a b l e s t a t e o f a f f a i r s has a r i s e n here i n the p a s t few y e a r s i n our u n i v e r s i t y i n s t i t u t i o n s , a s t a t e o f a f f a i r s which g i v e s r i s e to f r i c t i o n to an u n p l e a s a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between European and n o n - E u r o p e a n . . . . w e do not want t o w i t h h o l d h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n from the n o n - E u r o pean and we w i l l take every p o s s i b l e s t e p to g i v e both the n a t i v e s and the c o l o u r e d peoples u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g as soon as we c a n , but i n t h e i r own s p h e r e , i n o t h e r words i n s e p a r a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s . " (House o f Assembly D e b a t e s , Hansard 6 4 , 1948, c o l 219.) Along s i m i l a r  l i n e s , the next N a t i o n a l i s t  s t r e s s e d the importance of r e c o g n i s i n g the in heightening  frustrations  creasing expectations. d e v i s e an e d u c a t i o n a l  It  Prime M i n i s t e r  Verwoerd  impact o f h i g h e r  education  o f the s u b o r d i n a t e groups through was t h e r e f o r e  e s s e n t i a l , he c o n t e n d e d , to  program which would f o c u s on adjustment  narrow the gap between e x p e c t a t i o n s  and  in-  and  reality.  With these a i m s , the p r o v i s i o n o f U n i v e r s i t y f a c i l i t i e s s t u d e n t s proceeded w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e momentum.  for all  S i n c e the  so-called  "open" u n i v e r s i t i e s  had p r e v i o u s l y r e s t r i c t e d  and s p o r t i n g events  to white s t u d e n t s , the government saw i t s e l f  i c a l l y as the p r o v i d e r o f f a c i l i t i e s  for  certain  formerly  social  deprived  Black  activities iron-'  students,  1. A t the time o f the p a s s i n g o f the E x t e n s i o n o f U n i v e r s i t y E d u c a t i o n A c t i n 1959, t h e r e were 633 C o l o u r e d , Indian and A f r i c a n s t u d e n t s a t the s o - c a l l e d "open" E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e U n i v e r s i t y o f Cape Town, and 297 at the U n i v e r s i t y of W i t w a t e r s r a n d . The r e s p e c t i v e white enrolment f i g u r e s f o r both i n s t i t u t i o n s were 4,471 and 4 , 8 1 3 . (Academic Freedom Committee*, 1974:13) 2.  F o r more e x t e n s i v e  treatment o f t h i s  s u b j e c t see K. Adam,  1971.  -160who i t  argued had been denied a. f u l l  p o l i c y o f academic i n t e g r a t i o n Committees,  In  1961,  jection  actual fears  barracks.  segregation, about:(1)  the  the  tempor-  There was much i n i t i a l  education.  i s o l a t i o n of various ethnic  Despite  o f Natal  obthe  the  expressed  groups from one  groups.  they a r g u e d , the U n i v e r s i t y  in  More than  Indian community's o p i n i o n l e a d e r s  which would l e a d to i g n o r a n c e o f o t h e r  for  (Academic Freedom  I n d i a n community to such s e g r e g a t e d f a c i l i t i e s  s a c r o s a n c t sphere o f u n i v e r s i t y  facilities,  their  Col l e g e f o r Indians was e s t a b l i s h e d i n  i n former m i l i t a r y  by the  hitherto  and s o c i a l s e p a r a t i o n  basis of  1974:15).  the U n i v e r s i t y  ary quarters  e d u c a t i o n on the  its  another  segregated  had p r o v i d e d a  milieu  b l a c k a l l i a n c e s , where the f u t u r e A f r i c a n , I n d i a n and C o l o u r e d  leaders, greater  together  with a m i n o r i t y  of sympathetic  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f one a n o t h e r .  educational  standards and t h e i r  promise o f f i n e  and government  control  if  the  "Indianization",  laboratory  equipment  p r i n c i p l e of  "racial  religions  and O r i e n t a l  and c o u r s e s i n  Studies.  nurture  The p o s s i b l e l o w e r i n g  was to be e n t r e n c h e d .  r a i s e d to  could  non-recognition elsewhere.  b u i l d i n g s , gleaming  were c o n s i d e r e d i n a d e q u a t e ,  (2)  Whites  (3)  of  Even the  and  libraries  membership"  O b j e c t i o n s were  Indian l a n g u a g e s ,  Eastern  These emphases, they f e l t , would  not  only exclude  Indians from the mainstream o f South A f r i c a n and Western  competition,  but would h e i g h t e n  religious  and l i n g u i s t i c  lines.  intra-communal  differences  along  -161When probed d e e p e r , p a r t o f the r e j e c t i o n i n the  l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e which Indians  group as " u n i v e r s i t y English prejudices not endemic to know o f i t .  towards  well  retained  as the i n t e r n a l i s e d  as c o l o n i z e d Indians  The new u n i v e r s i t i e s ,  the autonomy t h a t the open u n i v e r s i t i e s Affairs  had o f members o f t h e i r  " A f r i k a n e r s " as i l l - e d u c a t e d  "university culture" (4)  1  l e c t u r e r s " , as w e l l  of separate u n i v e r s i t i e s  it  In a d d i t i o n ,  take a p p r o p r i a t e  and r u r a l  All  of  appointments, promotions,  i n cases where the a l l - W h i t e  p u r e l y a d v i s o r y Indian c o u n t e r p a r t ) actions against a s t a f f  empowered to do s o .  salary  Minister's  Council  (to-  had f a i l e d  to  member, the M i n i s t e r was  P r e s i d e n t , two members o f the  Indians,  a p p o i n t e d by the S t a t e  Committees,1974:20-1).  general  Such a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  President  eight  Senate  e l e c t e d by the S e n a t e , and an A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l c o n s i s t i n g o f not  many Indians  enjoy  Indian ,  The C o u n c i l was to c o n s i s t o f not l e s s than  persons a p p o i n t e d by the S t a t e  than e i g h t  folk  had come to  The M i n i s t e r  s c a l e s and c o n d i t i o n s of s e r v i c e would be s u b j e c t to the  gether w i t h i t s  Natal  e x t e n s i v e powers, and a p p o i n t e d both the R e c t o r as  as the V i c e C h a n c e l l o r .  approval.  own  was a r g u e d , would not  did.  lay  less  (Academic Freedom  s e g r e g a t i o n and c o n t r o l ,  f e l t , was a s e r i o u s danger to c r i t i c a l  thought and i n  to academic freedom.  Widespread o p p o s i t i o n to the U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e f o r  Indians  was  re-  1. These f e e l i n g s were e x a c e r b a t e d by numerous a r t i c u l a t i o n s o f a n t i Indianism by A f r i k a a n s - s p e a k i n g p o l i t i c i a n s , i n c l u d i n g the f i r s t M i n i s t e r of I n d i a n A f f a i r s .  -162flected  i n the terms  college", In  1961  used  at t h a t time  to i t :  "tribal  "bush c o l l e g e " , " c o n c e n t r a t i o n camp", " n o - c h o i c e u n i v e r s i t y " .  the s t u d e n t enrolment was o n l y 114,  members o n l y s i x were Indians by the community.  offered  (Horrell,  Many Indians  abroad o r i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r yet  to r e f e r  and of the f o r t y  1962)  faculty  who were h e a v i l y o s t r a c i s e d  who c o u l d a f f o r d i t , s e n t t n e i r  c h o i c e o f c o u r s e s to be among those  by the U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e t h e r e f o r e  making t h e i r  children not  children s t i l l  eligibl  fo enrolment a t admitted 1 ,077  the open u n i v e r s i t i e s .  to the  During 1960-1973 4,618  "open" u n i v e r s i t i e s  were  by comparison w i t h 81 A f r i c a n s and  C o l o u r e d s (Academic Freedom Committees, 1974:44).  v a r i o u s attempts  Indians  to e s t a b l i s h a l t e r n a t i v e  private  In  addition,  university  facilities  through the U n i v e r s i t y o f London and World U n i v e r s i t y S e r v i c e were made. Liberal  white f a c u l t y members at  the  "open" u n i v e r s i t i e s who were  opposed t o s e p a r a t e e d u c a t i o n gave t h e i r correspondence s t u d e n t s . each o t h e r future  and the  employment  a c c e p t a n c e o f the In  1971  However,  the  lack of v i a b i l i t y  services in supervising  i s o l a t i o n o f such s t u d e n t s  of  such q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r o b t a i n i n g  i n South A f r i c a , l e d to the r e l u c t a n t segregated f a c i l i t i e s  the U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e which had up to then been a f f i l i a t e d  University of Durban-Westvilie  (UDW)  came i n t o  university  U n i v e r s i t y o f South A f r i c a as the f i n a l  status.  to The  b e i n g , a g a i n not w i t h o u t  from some I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n a l i s t s who saw the  putable  and gradual  t h a t were o f f e r e d .  the U n i v e r s i t y o f South A f r i c a was g r a n t e d f u l l  fear  from  break w i t h the  death knell  for  restandards  -163o f the community's u n i v e r s i t y over f i f t y (Horrell,  departments,and 1976:369).  Its  education.  UDW  by 1974  a s t u d e n t enrolment o f  had f i v e  faculties,  2,342  new campus and h i g h e r per c a p i t a  expenditure  2 on Indian s t u d e n t s  than on white c o u n t e r p a r t s  i n the South A f r i c a n c o n t e x t , the o f f i c i a l educating i t s  but  i s a noteworthy  f o r e i g n guest to note the e f f o r t s s u b o r d i n a t e people "along t h e i r  Indeed, much o f  the e a r l i e r  o p p o s i t i o n to the  community would seem to have d i s a p p e a r e d . non-participation  and withdrawal  not o n l y as an e d u c a t i o n a l  ties  will  original  for  o f the government  in  own l i n e s " . institution  by  the  The scene has changed from  but not the s t u d e n t s .  but as a c u l t u r a l  involvement Most  Indian  Durban-Westville centre for  the  R e c t o r e n s u r e s t h a t "unique o p p o r t u n i -  be p r o v i d e d f o r O r i e n t a l Indian c o n t r i b u t i o n s  stopping point  see the U n i v e r s i t y o f  centre,  community, and the p a t e r n a l i s t i c  incongruity  to one o f a h i g h degree o f  on the p a r t o f the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n e d u c a t o r s and community l e a d e r s  makes f o r  S t u d i e s and r e s e a r c h as w e l l  to C u l t u r e , A r t and P h i l o s o p h y "  as  (Ireland,  1975:15).  1. A r t s , S c i e n c e , Commerce, A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Law F a c u l t i e s . In November 1974, i t was announced t h a t the Government had d e c i d e d i n p r i n c i p l e t o e s t a b l i s h a medical f a c u l t y as w e l l ( H o r r e l l , 1976:262). 2. R644 per I n d i a n s t u d e n t , R577 per W h i t e , R976 per C o l o u r e d and a t one A f r i c a n C o l l e g e , R l , 4 9 0 per A f r i c a n s t u d e n t ( H o r r e l l , 1969:211). The d u p l i c a t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s e x p l a i n s these i n c o n g r u i t i e s . Indeed the 1971-2 f i g u r e s f o r Indians i s even h i g h e r , (Rl ,064) and was caused mainly by the t r a n s f e r o f the U n i v e r s i t y to i t s new campus(South A f r i c a , Indian A f f a i r s , 1973:107).  -164From empty h a l l s and b o y c o t t e d g r a d u a t i o n ceremonies o f the sixties,  UDW i s now f o r the most p a r t w e l l p a t r o n i z e d .  early  Indeed  a f f o r d s one o f the c l o s e s t c o n t a c t p o i n t s between the White group and I n d i a n s , society,  albeit  The c e n t r a l  (1)  one i n which A f r i c a n s do not  importance o f t h i s  C o n t r a r y to the i n i t i a l  it  be s t a f f e d  p r e s e n t day  assurance t h a t t h i s  apprehensions  institution  l a u n c h i n g not Indians  i n t o the academic r e a l m .  Only 30 p e r c e n t o f the f a c u l t y  Indian  t h e m s e l v e s , the e v i d e n c e i s  channel f o r  these appointments c o n s t i t u t e  are h e l d by I n d i a n s ,  for  1  in  l a s t decade.  by Indians  has become an e x p e d i e n t  A f r i k a n e r graduates  institution  exist.  c l o s e s c r u t i n y o f the e a r l i e r  o f the e x p e r i e n c e o f the  eventually  ruling  and i s i n some ways a microcosm o f South A f r i c a n  aspirations j u s t i f i e s light  it  would that but  A s i z e a b l e number o f  promotions f o r former c i v i l  servants.  p o s i t i o n s , m o s t l y a t the j u n i o r  level,  a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e more than enough q u a l i f i e d  2 Indians  who can f i l l  most o f these p o s i t i o n s .  1. A l l l e v e l s o f work on campus i n c l u d i n g j a n i t o r i a l s e r v i c e s are performed by I n d i a n s , c o n t r a r y to the usual South A f r i c a n s t y l e i n which A f r i c a n s r e t a i n the p r e r o g a t i v e o f " d i r t y work". 2. Four such i n s t a n c e s o f h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d Indians who a p p l i e d f o r p o s i t i o n s and were r e j e c t e d are known to the w r i t e r . Two e d u c a t i o n a l i s t s , one o f whom i s now p u b l i c p r o s e c u t o r , and the o t h e r Head o f the Department o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y a t a T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g C o l l e g e . A h i g h l y reputed P r o f e s s o r of G e o - p h y s i c s from the U n i v e r s i t y o f S r i Lanka was not even g i v e n the c o u r t e s y o f a r e p l y , which i s i n c i d e n t a l l y the usual way i n which " u n p l e a s a n t " matters are d e a l t with by the university authorities. The f o u r t h i n s t a n c e was t h a t o f a h i s t o r i a n w i t h s i x books to h i s c r e d i t , two o f them on South A f r i c a n h i s t o r y and a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f t e a c h i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e a t o t h e r A f r i c a n u n i v e r s i t i e s . T h i s a p p l i c a t i o n was turned down on the grounds o f " i n s u f f i c i e n t e n r o l m e n t " , w h i l e a l e s s e r q u a l i f i e d White c o n t i n u e d to h o l d the p o s i t i o n (Correspondence 5 ) .  -165The i d e a of  "Indianization",  once r e p u t a b l e  in ruling eyes, for .dis-  t i n g u i s h i n g those i n f a v o u r o f s e p a r a t e e d u c a t i o n from those who i n s i s t e d on r a c i a l l y virtually  integrated  e d u c a t i o n ! B S beer  synonymous with " a g i t a t i o n " ,  since i t  h e l d by W h i t e s , and i s symptomatic o f the politicized. a well  An i n d i c a t i o n o f the  1  redefinad. threatens  anti-White  antipathies  e n t r e n c h e d I n d i a n p r o f e s s o r and Head o f the Department  take i t s  normal c o u r s e on m e r i t  Ramfol was a p p o i n t e d A c t i n g Deputy R e c t o r  Indians  The q u e s t i o n o f whether  In terms o f  to It  policy since Professor shortly afterwards.  On  body, w i t h f o u r  s e r v i n g on i t  (Mbanjwa,  body,  1975:168).  s t a n d a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n have dropped as  f e a r e d by Indians, i s more d i f f i c u l t  to answer D r e c i s e l y .  actual  c o n t e n t of c o u r s e m a t e r i a l ,  s t a n d a r d s o f examinations  actual  is widely f e l t  all  of  and e l e v e n W h i t e s ; and the S e n a t e , a p r e v i o u s l y a l l - W h i t e  now has 44 Whites and f o u r  by  Indianization  the o t h e r h a n d , t h e C o u n c i l o f UDW i s now an i n t e g r a t e d  (2)  o f the more  ( G r a d u a t i o n Ceremony, May 1974).  was o b v i o u s l y i n accordance w i t h o f f i c i a l  expertise gained, i t  written,and  by I n d i a n f a c u l t y members  d i s c i p l i n e s i n which they a r e r e p r e s e n t e d  is n  the p o s i t i o n s presen  " c o r r e c t l i n e " was a r t i c u l a t e d  Psychology a t UDW, P r o f e s s o r R a m f o l , who c a l l e d f o r  Indians  Indianization  in  t h a t the s t a n d a r d s  1. The w r i t e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f s t a n d a r d s i s based on two y e a r s on the f a c u l t y a t the then U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e , subsequent c a r e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n , i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h White and I n d i a n f a c u l t y , and many s t u d e n t s , as w e l l as a sample o f f u t u r e a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s w r i t t e n by s t u d e n t s .  -166compare very f a v o r a b l y w i t h the s o - c a l l e d "open" u n i v e r s i t i e s . it  is difficult  Yet,  to draw the boundary between c o u r s e c o n t e n t and the  broader a s p e c t s o f u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . the l a c k o f c h o i c e  by c o n t r a s t to White  The s e g r e g a t e d  university,  students,  the i n t e r n a l i s e d s u b o r d i n a t e - s u p e r o r d i n a t e n a t u r e o f s t u d e n t - f a c u l t y c o n t a c t e s p e c i a l l y i n the c a s e o f white f a c u l t y , the f e a r o f t h i n k i n g c r i t i c a l l y and o f acceptable thoughts, a l l i n such s i t u a t i o n s .  faculty.  s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e the a t t i t u d e s  The f e a r o f s e c u r i t y p o l i c e  i s i n h i b i t i n g to s t u d e n t s  articulating  1  as w e l l  "informants"  as to  Indeed the p a s s i v i t y o f s t u d e n t s i n l e c t u r e  e x p l a i n e d away by s e v e r a l White f a c u l t y n a t u r e " o r "the p a s s i v e temperament alleviated  students develop  of  h a l l s i s poorly  as b e i n g based on "the Indians".  by the h u m i l i a t i o n which s t u d e n t s f e e l  Indian  Nor i s such " p a s s i v i t y " when the t y p e  of  dress  they s h o u l d wear i s d i c t a t e d to them, e s p e c i a l l y when rumour  has i t  t h a t some White a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  "Indians  s m e l l , and must t h e r e f o r e  Indian f a c u l t y  have been h u m i l i a t e d  staff  a r e supposed to have s a i d  keep j a c k e t s on a t a l l i n s i m i l a r ways.  t i m e s ! " Even  On one such  o c c a s i o n , the w r i t e r was c a l l e d i n t o an o f f i c e by a w h i t e s e c r e t a r y and t o l d to keep out o f a s p e c i f i c t o i l e t  as i t  was f o r  "Whites  only".  1. When t h i s was d i s c u s s e d i n f o r m a l l y w i t h P r o f e s s o r O l i v i e r , the R e c t o r , he commented c u r s o r i l y t h a t i t was l i k e e d u c a t i o n i n t o t a l i tarian societies. 2. In 1967 men were r e q u i r e d to wear j a c k e t s a t a l l times and women were not a l l o w e d t o wear m i n i - s k i r t s o r f a n c y s t o c k i n g s . While i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e s e s t a n d a r d s p r e v a i l i n some p r i v a t e s c h o o l s i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , t h e i n f o r m a l r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e s e r u l e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h the s o c i e t a l c o n t e x t adds to the h u m i l i a t i o n .  -167-  On the w h o l e ,  t e a c h i n g i s very f o r m a l , and s t u d e n t s complain about  u n i n s p i r i n g l e c t u r e r s who, p r o b a b l y due to d i f f i c u l t i e s as a second l a n g u a g e , d i c t a t e  lecture  notes from the prepared  s i t y of South A f r i c a correspondence l e c t u r e s . are the o n l y p r o t e c t i o n Indian l e c t u r e r s tions,  for  instance,  fear it  is  i n an o t h e r w i s e  Ideologies"  Even  traditional  to be g i v e n i n t h a t c o n t e x t .  explanaFor  in favour of  to be used a r e o f f i c i a l l y  is  prescribed.  e x p l o r a t i o n and s o c i a l  criticism  "doing something f o r the community".  t h e s e are by no means m u t u a l l y important  This  s y l l a b u s w i t h t o p i c s t h a t have t o be c o v e r e d  As p o i n t e d out elsewhere t h e o r e t i c a l  from p e r t i n e n t  uncertain s i t u a t i o n .  i m p o s s i b l e f o r a c o u r s e such as "Women's L i b e r a t i o n "  sources o r textbooks  projects,  structures  o f being l a b e l l e d d i s r u p t i v e o r r e v o l u t i o n a r y .  p r o t e c t e d by a formal  are r e j e c t e d  Univer-  Indeed formal  seldom t r a n s c e n d the w e l l - t r o d d e n  or "Revolutionary  and the  with E n g l i s h  Though  e x c l u s i v e , the f o c u s on m i c r o - l e v e l  and immediate  questions r e l a t i n g  though they may b e , d i v e r t t o fundamental  attention  conditions of  existence  i n t h a t s o c i e t y and hamper a p e r s p e c t i v e which can see a l t e r n a t i v e s  to  the o n e - d i m e n s i o n a l i t y o f community c o n c e r n s .  P a t e r n a l i s m i s another e f f e c t i v e s i t u a t i o n s , and has the e f f e c t ordinate o f the  of s p l i t t i n g  control  alliances  i n the  i n such sub-  g r o u p , s i n c e t h e r e are always s u b o r d i n a t e s who a r e c o n v i n c e d  "well-meant i n t e n t i o n s "  ploiting  means o f m a i n t a i n i n g  traditional  o f the w h i t e p a t e r n a l  parent-child relationships  figures.  i n the  Ex-  Indian community  -168i s one way t h i s are f r e q u e n t l y for  i s done.  S e l e c t e d p a r e n t s from the t r a d i t i o n a l  c a l l e d upon to s e r v e i n a c o n s u l t a t i v e c a p a c i t y a n d ,  the most p a r t ,  never having had the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n  t h e m s e l v e s , they c o n s i d e r the p r e s e n t g e n e r a t i o n f o r t u n a t e  for  facilities  of  they have.  Hence they tend to be l e s s c r i t i c a l  establishment.  The f o l l o w i n g statement  of this  "Many p a r e n t s have e x p r e s s e d t h e i r  point:  look a f t e r  elite  the academic i n t e r e s t s  to g e t i n v o l v e d i n p o l i t i c s "  by the R e c t o r i s  the the  illustrative  p l e a s u r e t h a t we  o f s t u d e n t s and do not a l l o w  them  (The L e a d e r , 13 J u n e , 1969).  /\  The o f f i c i a l  p e r s p e c t i v e on s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n was a r t i c u l a t e d  by  P r o f e s s o r van der W a l t , who was a p p o i n t e d by t h e S t a t e P r e s i d e n t as the f i r s t  Chairman o f the U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e C o u n c i l i n  1961:  "I am c o n v i n c e d t h a t to t r a n s f e r a p o l i t i c a l concept o f "democracy" to a u n i v e r s i t y i s n o n s e n s i c a l and a ' c o n t r a d i c t i o i n t e r m i n i s ' a p a r t from when i t might be a p p l i e d t o s t u d e n t s e l e c t i n g f e l l o w s t u d e n t s f o r s t u d e n t a f f a i r s o n l y : - a n d even then not where a s p i r i t o f antagonism might p r e v a i l by sheer i n t i m i d a t i o n , and where the d e s i r e i s not to p a r t i c i p a t e i n e r e c t i n g a humane i n s t i t u t i o n but a r e v o l u t i o n a r y one. Student C o u n c i l s a r e , under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s , c o m p l e t e l y i n e f f e c t i v e , and c o u n t e r - p r o d u c t i v e . " ( F i a t L u x , May, 1 9 7 2 : 4 ) . That s t u d e n t s r e j e c t virtually  this  type o f c o n t r o l would seem e v i d e n t  non-existent organisational  life.  Even the s o l i t a r y  S o c i e t y d e c i d e d to d i s b a n d "on p r i n c i p l e " i n 1969, denied p e r m i s s i o n to i n v i t e  representatives  g r e s s i v e P a r t y t o address s t u d e n t s .  is appropriate  for  after  it  their Debating  had been  o f the L i b e r a l and P r o -  The reason g i v e n by the A c t i n g  R e c t o r i n s u p p o r t o f the d e c i s i o n was, it  in  'At this  stage we d o n ' t  feel  s t u d e n t s to be s u b j e c t e d to these i n f l u e n c e s '  -169-  'It  i s the p o l i c y of the C o l l e g e not to a l l o w people who take an  part in p o l i t i c s June,  1969).  to address s t u d e n t s on the campus.'  They were t o l d  to e i t h e r  let  active  (The L e a d e r ,  the u n i v e r s i t y  13  authorities  suggest speakers or to s e l e c t some f a c u l t y members to address them i n stead ( i b i d . ) . tion  Similarly,  s t u d e n t s have c o n s t a n t l y r e s i s t e d the  o f Student R e p r e s e n t a t i v e ' C o u n c i l s , s i n c e the U n i v e r s i t y  i n s i s t e d on p a r t i c i p a t i o n faculty  representation.  in drafting  its  Furthermore, l i k e  In  as having  their  students  African fellow  t h a t they would  b o y c o t t o f l e c t u r e s on 7th and 8th May ( P o s t , both c i t e d . i n  which a r b i t r a r i l y  substituted i t s  own v e r s i o n .  w i t h SASO,  c a t i o n s and p r e s s statements  partial  Natal  Student attempts  by the U n i v e r s i t y  1 barred a f f i l i a t i o n  7 May, 1972,  H o r r e l l ,1973:389).  d r a f t an SRC c o n s t i t u t i o n were r e j e c t e d  lay  Adam,1971:202).  1972 the s t u d e n t s a t UDW o r g a n i z e d a b o y c o t t o f f o o d and a  M e r c u r y , 8 May, 1972;  authorities  c o n s t i t u t i o n , a s well  a t the U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e o f F o r t H a r e , they f e l t themselves open to p o l i c e i n t e r f e r e n c e (K.  forma-  to  Council,  The " r e v i s e d " document  2 and NUSAS  (ibid.).  and p r o h i b i t e d  T h i s was f o l l o w e d  student  publi-  by a two day  b o y c o t t o f l e c t u r e s which the R e c t o r i n h i s G r a d u a t i o n Ceremony speech attributed  to "the M a r x i s t  and M a o i s t f o r c e s o f n e g a t i v e  and  disruptive  1. SASO, the South A f r i c a n Students O r g a n i s a t i o n , i s an a l l - B l a c k m i l i t a n t s t u d e n t o r g a n i s a t i o n , e s p o u s i n g B l a c k u n i t y , and the c o n c e p t o f " B l a c k Consciousness". It i s discussed at greater length l a t e r . 2. NUSAS, the N a t i o n a l Union o f South A f r i c a n S t u d e n t s , i s the a n t i A p a r t h e i d o f f i c i a l s t u d e n t o r g a n i s a t i o n at E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e u n i v e r s i t i e s .  -170i d e o l o g y " which were at work  i n i n f l u e n c i n g Indian s t u d e n t s  (Interview  with S e c r e t a r y o f Ad Hoc Committee, a l s o L e a d e r , 12 May, 1972; 14 May, 1972).  In  a subsequent s t u d e n t c h a r t e r ,  the g r i e v a n c e s  were t h a t t h e r e was a v a s t d i s c r e p a n c y i n s t a n d a r d s between universities activity, tions,  and the  informers,  "open" u n i v e r s i t i e s , due to s e c u r i t y the powers o f white s t a f f ,  in H o r r e l l ,  police regula-  on s t u d e n t  (Natal M e r c u r y , 31 May, 1972;  as quoted  1973:390).  These c o m p l a i n t s were r e i t e r a t e d at UDW under c e r t a i n t y h o s t e l was "more l i k e  i n March 1974  o f anonymity  when r e s i d e n t  r u l e s governing t h e i r  i n the  lives  i n the h o s t e l .  residence.  by the academic  the house committee,  sheets i n the b a l l o t  b o x , but n e v e r t h e l e s s  elected  1975,  (ibid.).  In  registrar  o f the house Of the  150  109 p l a c e d blank  s t a n c e to p r e s s  They t h r e a t e n e d  1  sign  the house committee was  s t u d e n t s renewed t h e i r  f o r an a c c e p t a b l e SRC c o n s t i t u t i o n .  students  They were r e q u i r e d to  committee and would not engage i n c o n t e n t i o u s m a t t e r s . to vote f o r  residence"  Several  a document c o n f i r m i n g t h a t they r e c o g n i z e d the a u t h o r i t y  students e l i g i b l e  their  They s a i d t h e r e were u n n e c e s s a r i l y  s a i d t h a t they were p e r s o n a l l y i n t e r r o g a t e d about p r o t e s t meetings  students  p u b l i c i s e d charges t h a t  a c o n c e n t r a t i o n camp than a u n i v e r s i t y  (Sunday T r i b u n e , 31 M a r c h , 1974). stringent  listed  ethnic  "dehumanizing"  the terms o f b u r s a r y c o n t r a c t s and r e s t r i c t i o n s  p u b l i c a t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n "  Post,  a boycott  of  1. The academic r e g i s t r a r i s a l s o known to have i n t e r r o g a t e d I n d i a n f a c u l t y members about " u n d e s i r a b l e " c o n t a c t s they might have.  -171all  facilities  1975).  u n l e s s these demands were met  As i n the p a s t the r e c t o r  to form an SRC. dismissed,  In  (Sunday T r i b u n e , 2 F e b r u a r y ,  renewed h i s o f f e r  response to t h i s  i s r e p o r t e d to have s a i d ,  to meet w i t h s t u d e n t s  a w h i t e law p r o f e s s o r , s u b s e q u e n t l y " S e l f - r e s p e c t i n g students at  Durban-  W e s t v i l l e U n i v e r s i t y would r e g a r d a S t u d e n t ' s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e C o u n c i l whose c o n s t i t u t i o n was drawn up by the u n i v e r s i t y a u t h o r i t i e s representation"  In  (Mbanjwa,  as puppet  1975:181).  such s i t u a t i o n s , u n l i k e the A f r i c a n u n i v e r s i t i e s where A f r i c a n  a l l y with t h e i r  students a g a i n s t white a u t h o r i t i e s  responded by e i t h e r  being non-committal  authorities  through s e l f - p o l i c i n g .  support f o r  the s t u d e n t c a u s e .  hostel  incident  presence at  referred  the meeting  , of the  been outspoken  i n the case o f the March  a s t u d e n t who c r i t i c i s e d  1974  the  Indian warden, P r o f e s s o r Ranchod, was  Such a b e h a v i o u r syndrome i s o n l y p a r t i a l l y Indians  have  s u p p o r t i n g the  A t no time has t h e r e  s u b s e q u e n t l y e x p e l l e d from r e s i d e n c e (Mbanjwa,  white stereotypes of  Indian f a c u l t y  o r by p r i v a t e l y  Indeed,as  to e a r l i e r ,  1  faculty  1975:182).  e x p l a i n e d by the  prevalent  i n South A f r i c a , as being " o p p o r t u n i s t i c "  1. As e v i d e n c e d i n the r e p o r t o f a S e n i o r L e c t u r e r from the U n i v e r s i t y o f the North a t T u r f l o o p (Rand D a i l y M a i l , M a r c h , 1975) and a statement by the p r i n c i p a l o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f the N o r t h , P r o f e s s o r B o s h o f f to the p r e s s , i n which he s a i d , "the a n t i - W h i t e sentiments o f s t u d e n t s were encouraged by some members of the B l a c k academic s t a f f " . ( H o r r e l l , 1975;373) 2. The w r i t e r i s p e r s o n a l l y aware o f a s i t u a t i o n where two I n d i a n f a c u l t y q u e s t i o n e d an i n v i t a t i o n to a prominent and outspoken I n d i a n d o c t o r to address s t u d e n t s , on the grounds t h a t the guest had made d e r o g a t o r y s t a t e ments about the U n i v e r s i t y . F u r t h e r m o r e , s t u d e n t s say t h a t the R e c t o r m a i n t a i n s c o n t r o l over who the " a g i t a t o r s " are through c e r t a i n known I n d i a n f a c u l t y , who they d e s c r i b e as having a " d i r e c t l i n e to the R e c t o r . " I n d e e d , i n an address to the s t u d e n t s a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the academic y e a r , the R e c t o r i s r e p o r t e d i n the I n d i a n p r e s s to have p u b l i c l y o f f e r e d " p r o t e c t i o n " to "any s t u d e n t who f u r n i s h e d i n f o r m a t i o n about those s t u d e n t s who were opposed to e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s a t the U n i v e r s i t y " . ( L e a d e r , 20 F e b r u a r y , 1976).  -172and " l a c k i n g enon,  (a)  backbone".  the s t r u c t u r a l  committal"  Two f a c t o r s  seem c e n t r a l  for  such a phenom-  c o n t e x t which makes "opportunism" and "non-  behaviour worthwhile.  Simply p u t ,  p a s s i v i t y and  non-inter-  f e r e n c e are p o s i t i v e l y r e i n f o r c e d by the e s t a b l i s h m e n t and w e l l by the r u l e r s ,  (b)  The c o h e s i v e n e s s o f the  p r e s s u r e s c r e a t e d on i t s  group members to  rewarded  s u b o r d i n a t e group and  "achieve".  Failure  to  the achieve  and be upwardly m o b i l e are c o n s i d e r e d to be the shortcoming o f the dual , and  not due to the s i t u a t i o n .  welding together  In  1  such i n s t a n c e s , i n s t e a d  group members i n the f a c e o f a common r u l i n g  they are atomised through the demand to be s u c c e s s f u l  at a l l  The p r e s t i g e and r e c o g n i t i o n awarded s u c c e s s i s extremely Indian community, faculty  (c)  The r e l a t i v e l y  v i s - a - v i s o t h e r members o f t h e i r  from t h a t o f s t u d e n t s . graphically live  privileged  isolated institutions  outside their  tween f a c u l t y  traditional  and s t u d e n t  r e i n f o r c e d by the  larger  both f a c u l t y  much lower and not  the  Indian interests  a t the g e o -  and s t u d e n t s  community, and the s t a t u s  is therefore  costs.  group s e p a r a t e s t h e i r  In the c a s e o f A f r i c a n l e c t u r e r s  of  group,  high i n  p o s i t i o n of  indivi-  together  difference  be-  permanently  group.  In o r d e r to answer the q u e s t i o n about whether the e t h n i c u n i v e r s i t i e s a l l  these f a c t o r s  s t a n d a r d s have d e c l i n e d  at  have t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n  1. T h i s i s c o r r o b o r a t e d by the way "banned" p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s c l a i m they are shunned by most I n d i a n s , as w e l l as random comments by many about such l e a d e r s having underestimated the r u t h l e s s n e s s o f the W h i t e s .  -173relation (3)  to each  other.  A t h i r d major  concern o f those opposed t o s e p a r a t e  was the i s o l a t i o n o f the g r o u p , e s p e c i a l l y from o t h e r In  1971,  the w r i t e r suggested t h a t ,  universities subordinates.  " d e s p i t e the d i v e r g e n t  cultural  l i n e s on which s e g r e g a t e d e d u c a t i o n i s being c o n d u c t e d , a newer convergence w i l l  emerge among people who have shared a common  exposure to t h i s c o l o n i a l type e d u c a t i o n a l fundamentally,share  in i t s  p r e d i c t i o n would c e r t a i n l y o f c r u c i a l events a t a l l  rejection"  e x p e r i e n c e , and more  (K. Adam, 1971:212). T h i s  seem t o have m a t e r i a l i z e d  if  the  impact  the A f r i c a n U n i v e r s i t i e s s i n c e the  riots  At the g r a d u a t i o n ceremony o f the U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e o f the  North  i n Soweto, i s c o n s i d e r e d .  in A p r i l  1972,  Mr. O . R . T i r o , an ex-mine worker  o f the T u r f l o o p Student R e p r e s e n t a t i v e  and p a s t  president  C o u n c i l , whom s t u d e n t s e l e c t e d  r e p r e s e n t them, s t r o n g l y c r i t i c i s e d the p r e d o m i n a n t l y w h i t e c o n t r o l o f b l a c k u n i v e r s i t i e s , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t b l a c k people by the a u t h o r i t i e s ,  and the system o f Bantu E d u c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l .  He was  s u b s e q u e n t l y e x p e l l e d by the U n i v e r s i t y ' s d i s c i p l i n a r y committee on May 2 , 1 9 7 2 , and when a s t u d e n t p e t i t i o n r e f u s e d , a mass s i t - i n was suspended, a l l  for  his reinstatement  was  f o l l o w e d . The Student R e p r e s e n t a t i v e C o u n c i l  meetings banned, and the p o l i c e o c c u p i e d the campus  ( H o r r e l l ,1973:387, see a l s o South A f r i c a n O u t l o o k , J u n e / J u l y and B l a c k Community Programmes,1972:174  -  180).  1972,  to  -174These events were f o l l o w e d throughout  the c o u n t r y .  13 May l e d to a c a l l on June 1 ( W o r l d , 388).  On May 9 ,  by d e m o n s t r a t i o n s o f s o l i d a r i t y  A meeting o f f o r t y  by SASO f o r a n a t i o n a l  Black student  by s t u d e n t s l e a d e r s on  b o y c o t t by Black  students  14 May, Sunday E x p r e s s , 14 May c i t e d : H o r r e l l , c o l o u r e d s t u d e n t s at  began a b o y c o t t o f l e c t u r e s  1973:  the U n i v e r s i t y o f the Western Cape  i n s u p p o r t of the s t u d e n t s at T u r f l o o p  T i m e s , 9 May, 1 9 7 2 ) , f o l l o w e d  (Cape  by a two-week b o y c o t t by I n d i a n s t u d e n t s .  F e e l i n g s o f s o l i d a r i t y were e x p r e s s e d by I n d i a n s t u d e n t l e a d e r s who had o n l y s h o r t l y p r i o r to t h i s authorities  over s i m i l a r  to a meeting o f 1,000 Blacks.  been i n c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h t h e i r  issues.  students:  We need s o l i d a r i t y  A speaker proposed the b o y c o t t "We are not v o t i n g as Indians  to e r a d i c a t e  D i s p a t c h , 29 May, c i t e d : H o r r e l l , by I n d i a n s t u d e n t s took p l a c e a t College  1  and the M . L .  this  1973:390).  Sultan Technical College  (Daily lectures  Training  and on o t h e r  African  students.  Whereas some 2,000 r e s i d e n t s o f Soweto,  the A f r i c a n township o f J o h a n n e s -  b u r g , a p p o i n t e d a d e l e g a t i o n to n e g o t i a t e parents  S i m i l a r boycotts of  2  motion  but as  repugnant system"  the S p r i n g f i e l d T e a c h e r s '  campuses i n s u p p o r t o f the T u r f l o o p  s t u d e n t s , and f i f t y  own  in P r e t o r i a  on b e h a l f  o f the  expelled  e x p r e s s e d condemnation o f  1. A l l s t u d e n t s on s t r i k e were suspended and 13 o f them prevented w r i t i n g m i d - y e a r examinations ( L e a d e r , 23 J u n e , 1972).  the  from  2. 300 s t u d e n t s were suspended ( L e a d e r , 9 J u n e , 1 9 7 2 ) . 120 o f them had t h e i r b u r s a r i e s w i t h d r a w , and w r i t t e n a p o l o g i e s were e l i c i t e d from a l l o f them (Natal M e r c u r y , 22 J u n e , 1972).  -175s t u d e n t e x p u l s i o n s , the approach o f the quite  differently  parent  by the s t u d e n t s .  body " s o l d them out"  "Some members o f the parent past,  tried  to i n f a n t a l i z e  ( I n t e r v i e w 29).  26).  Finally,  Student leaders complain t h a t  by making c o u n t e r - d e a l s w i t h the body who had been p o l i t i c a l l y us by f l a u n t i n g  "While they t o l d  they encouraged t h e i r  I n d i a n p a r e n t s a t UDW was seen  their  own c h i l d r e n to r e t u r n  to l e c t u r e s "  if  the s t r i k e  s t u d e n t s were suspended f o r  in  the  a t us"  some o f us to go on w i t h the  the R e c t o r promised the p a r e n t s '  a c t i o n would be taken  Rector.  active  'experience'  the  strike,  (Interview  body t h a t no d i s c i p l i n a r y  e n d e d , but a month l a t e r  the r e s t o f the y e a r ,  four  among them the  dent o f the newly formed c o u n c i l o f P r e s i d e n t s o f B l a c k SRC's  Presi-  (Horrell,  1973:390).  Similarly,  the p r o - F r e l i m o g a t h e r i n g  c e l e b r a t i n g Mozambique's i n d e p e n -  d e n c e , which was h e l d a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f the N o r t h , was d i s p e r s e d by armed p o l i c e w i t h dogs under the R i o t i o u s A s s e m b l i e s A c t . the  information  o b t a i n e d from s t u d e n t s the f o l l o w i n g  A c c o r d i n g to  account emerged:  "As the men went p a s t the p o l i c e , the l a t t e r b a t o n - c h a r g e d them and the s t u d e n t s r e t a l i a t e d by throwing small a v a i l a b l e stones a t the p o l i c e . The women then came back and a n g r i l y shouted a t the p o l i c e t o s t o p m o l e s t i n g the men. The p o l i c e then turned on the women and one was knocked down w i t h a baton blow. The men came to the women's r e s c u e and the p o l i c e s e t the dogs on the men, some o f whom were now i n p h y s i c a l s c u f f l e s w i t h the p o l i c e . " (Mbanjwa, 1 9 7 4 - 5 : 7 8 - 9 ) . In  the a f t e r m a t h o f the F r e l i m o e p i s o d e a t T u r f l o o p a r a c i a l  " l e d to open d e c l a r a t i o n o f s i d e s between with some b l a c k s t a f f  members i n d i c a t i n g  some w h i t e f a c u l t y remote s u p p o r t " .  flare  up  and s t u d e n t s ,  This led  to  -176s t u d e n t s t o n i n g o f c a r s owned by white f a c u l t y  (ibid:!70).  s t a n c e s p o l i t i c i s e s t u d e n t s on a l l the u n i v e r s i t y Africa,  Such i n -  campuses i n South  and Indian s t u d e n t s are no e x c e p t i o n .  2. STUDENT PERCEPTIONS  1  (1973)  An i n d i c a t i o n o f s t u d e n t p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e m s e l v e s , t h e i r with the s u p e r o r d i n a t e group and o t h e r the f u t u r e  relationships  s u b o r d i n a t e s e c t i o n s , as w e l l as  o f South A f r i c a were probed more e x t e n s i v e l y  through  future  a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s o f 65 Indian s t u d e n t s a t both UDW (n=39) and the U n i v e r s i t y o f Natal  (n=26).  UDW m i g h t , in r a c i a l l y  The impact o f e t h n i c a l l y  i t was t h o u g h t , integrated  reveal  classes,  exclusive  education"at  c o n t r a s t s with Indian students  together  educated  w i t h A f r i c a n and C o l o u r e d  2 s t u d e n t s a t the Medical As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , opinions rather the o f f i c i a l l y  i t was thought  than t h e i r  t h a t the range and s t r u c t u r e o f l i g h t on  The s c r u t i n y o f the essays  o o i n i o n s , which s t u d e n t s a r e f r e q u e n t l y  under c o n d i t i o n s o f extreme  the f o l l o w i n g  University.  d i s t r i b u t i o n would shed f u r t h e r  expressed a t t i t u d e s .  probes u n o f f i c i a l press  School o f Natal  conformity pressure.  too a f r a i d In t h i s  s i x c l u s t e r s o f o v e r l a p p i n g themes a r e a u t h e n t i c ,  hot . n e c e s s a r i l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  to ex-  respect though  e x p r e s s i o n s o f a s p i r a t i o n s and a n x i e t i e s .  1. For a d i s c u s s i o n o f the methodology see the c h a p t e r on "Research Procedures." 2. T h i s i s the o n l y p l a c e i n the c o u n t r y , a p a r t from a few small t h e o l o g i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h a s e l e c t e d membership, where s e v e r a l hundred A f r i c a n , I n d i a n and C o l o u r e d s t u d e n t s a r e t r a i n e d and housed t o g e t h e r .  -177-  1.  V i s i o n s o f R e v o l u t i o n a r y Change  More than h a l f s c r i b e d as  o f the s i x t y - f i v e  essays r e f e r  to.what  can be d e -  ' v i s i o n s of r e v o l u t i o n a r y change'.  "If r a c e r e l a t i o n s go on the way they d o , t h e r e a r e to be open c l a s h e s and i n t e r n a l w a r f a r e . " (14)  likely  "There w i l l be v i o l e n t r e a c t i o n s , and the Whites a r e to blame i f they d o n ' t take B l a c k demands i n t o a c c o u n t . " (59) "The masses w i l l r e v o l t to f e e d t h e i r stomachs and w i l l easy prey t o o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e . " (32) State  be  c o u n t e r - a c t i o n i s always taken i n t o a c c o u n t , but r e v o l u t i o n  seen as an h i s t o r i c a l  n e c e s s i t y , which i s the  "only a l t e r n a t i v e  is  left".  "The government w i l l curb any e f f o r t s B l a c k s make t o take over power B u t , the seeds o f r e v o l u t i o n have been p l a n t e d " (19) " A n n i h i l a t i o n o f Whites by B l a c k s i s a very d i s t i n c t possibility. South A f r i c a w i l l crumble a t the o n s l a u g h t o f B l a c k power the e v e n t u a l u n i f i c a t i o n o f a l l Bantustans w i l l overthrow t h i s domineering u n j u s t government." (17) "The s u p p r e s s i o n o f f e l l o w South A f r i c a n s , the sons and daughters o f South A f r i c a w i l l not l a s t l o n g . Although f o r c e and b l o o d s h e d are not the o n l y proper means to a c h i e v e e n d s , i n our ' u n i q u e ' South A f r i c a , i t seems the o n l y p o s s i b l e way." (28) In  reversal  o f the d e r o g a t i v e l y  power a d v o c a t e s r e f e r  p e r c e i v e d term n o n - W h i t e , some b l a c k  to the r u l i n g m i n o r i t y  as n o n - B l a c k :  -178"Within the next f i v e to ten y e a r s t h e r e w i l l be a war a g a i n s t the n o n - B l a c k s . The N a t i o n a l P a r t y w i l l l o s e ground due to o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e and the r i s e o f B l a c k power which has had a small but c o n s c i o u s f o l l o w i n g The Black man remained s i l e n t f o r y e a r s but the time has come and he i s going to prepare f o r r e v o l t s the steam which i s b u i l d i n g up w i t h i n him i s g o i n g t o explode." (12) However, occur. veal  there  i s a c o n s p i c u o u s vagueness as to how the h o l o c a u s t w i l l  The a n a l o g i e s o f a c c u m u l a t i n g steam i n an o v e r b o i l i n g pot  uncertainty  as to how the anger can be t r a n s l a t e d  Rising frustrations  a l o n e are c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t  to  into  c e n t u r y s i n c e the f o u n d i n g o f the A f r i c a n N a t i o n a l (Walshe, their  1974).  fire.  "turn  around" i n much the same way as B l a c k s have a s s e r t e d f o r  the c l o c k  the p a s t  Congress i n  and s t a g n a t i n g economic  m o s t l y to T h i r d P a r t y  interference  half  1912  The few s t u d e n t s who attempt to be more c o n c r e t e  expression refer  re-  in  from o u t s i d e  c o n d i t i o n s i n s i d e South A f r i c a .  "To e s t a b l i s h peace and harmony f o r the f u t u r e , I see v i o l e n t r e v o l u t i o n as a means to a t t a i n p e a c e f u l e n d s . I can f o r e s e e bloodshed i n the f u t u r e . There may be d i s a s t e r which w i l l u l t i m a t e l y f o r c e major powers t o South A f r i c a and p o s s i b l y spark o f f another World War." (48) " B l a c k s w i l l not be as t o l e r a n t as they have been i n the past. I f t h e i r e a r n i n g c a p a c i t y , housing and general t r e a t m e n t does not improve w i t h i n the next ten y e a r s South A f r i c a w i l l be i n a dangerous s i t u a t i o n o f r e volution." (8) "The f i r s t 10 y e a r s saw t e n s i o n e d , s u p p r e s s i v e , pseudodemocracy w i t h freedom f i g h t e r s , l a b e l l e d then as t e r r o r i s t s , b a t t l i n g the odds a g a i n s t the w h i t e r u l e r s l a b e l l e d then as ' p r o t e c t o r s o f the i n d i g e n e o u s p e o p l e ' These freedom f i g h t e r s were g i v e n r e c o g n i t i o n a t the UNO and South A f r i c a was e x p e l l e d , thus becoming an unlawful government s u f f e r i n g complete i s o l a t i o n from the o u t s i d e w o r l d . " (2)  -179In  light  strikes  o f the  1973  labor unrest  i n South A f r i c a i t  is surprising that  are o n l y mentioned by very few as the p r e s e n t l y most  weapon to f o r c e c o n c e s s i o n s .  Strikes  effective  are always a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  riots  and v i o l e n c e , though very few i n s t a n c e s o f c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h the did in fact  o c c u r d u r i n g the y e a r and no i n j u r i e s  the a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h b l o o d s h e d .  Because o f the  and p a s t e x p e r i e n c e , an i n d u s t r i a l i c a l l y viewed as a p o l i t i c a l  were r e p o r t e d  illegality  of  to  justify  strikes  c o n f l i c t i n South A f r i c a i s  confrontation  police  automat-  i n which the r u l e r s w i l l  use  force. " H i s t o r y has shown us t h a t d i s c o n t e n t by workers a g a i n s t poor l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s and s u b s i s t e n c e l e v e l s i s the f i r s t weakness i n the c h a i n . Increased i n c i d e n c e o f s t r i k e s o c c u r e d , and v i o l e n c e e r u p t e d . " (41) " . . . o n e can expect a few o u t b u r s t s on the p a r t o f B l a c k s - - r i o t s , s t r i k e s , e t c . , s i n c e we a r e now l e a r n i n g to demand what i s r i g h t f u l l y o u r s . I f , however, the government does not c o n t i n u e s l a c k e n i n g and a b o l i s h i n g a l l p e t t y a p a r t h e i d , we can expect a major o u t b u r s t w i t h a l o t o f b l o o d s h e d . " (63) Some r a t h e r  wild  dreams can t u r n  predictions into  i n 1973 are v i v i d reminders o f how q u i c k l y  reality.  "By 1991 P o r t u g a l withdrew from Southern A f r i c a . Freedom f i g h t e r s from A f r i c a n B l a c k s t a t e s with C h i n e s e and R u s s i a n a i d , gained the f r i e n d s h i p o f Angola and Mozambique. Fierce f i g h t i n g broke out i n Rhodesia i n which South A f r i c a n and Rhodesian t r o o p s and a i r c r a f t were engaged a g a i n s t the foreigners. T h i s was a c r u c i a l moment. Many attempts were made to r e l a x t h e i r o p p r e s s i v e a t t i t u d e s but the A f r i k a n e r s were p i g h e a d e d . E v e n t u a l l y on 26th J u l y 1993, Black South A f r i c a n s r o s e semi-armed a g a i n s t the W h i t e s . S i n c e the B l a c k s were w e l l s e p a r a t e d from the Whites the l a t t e r were bombed with ease. However, a l a r g e r number o f B l a c k s were a l s o wiped out. With the help o f the f o r e i g n R u s s i a n , C h i n e s e , Indian and A f r i c a n t r o o p s the White regime was o v e r t h r o w n . " (15)  -180y  While t h e r e  are  h a r d l y any d i f f e r e n c e s  s e t s o f s t u d e n t s , a few from the tinguishable of t h e i r  in their  reference  to  university the  Furthermore,  s t u d e n t s o f whites  "open" u n i v e r s i t y  to  and the  awareness  i s the open a l l i a n c e  "what i s r i g h t f u l l y  unlike  dis-  While t h i s was the common  such f e a t u r e  w i t h A f r i c a n s by r e f e r r i n g  both  s t u d e n t s are  "freedom f i g h t e r s "  c o u n t e r r e f e r e n c e as " t e r r o r i s t s " .  similar expressions.  the responses o f  "open" u n i v e r s i t y  term used by UDW s t u d e n t s another Indians  between  of  o u r s " , and  the p e r c e p t i o n s o f the  ethnic  as a homogeneous g r o u p , more s t u d e n t s  seem to r e v e a l  awareness o f s p l i t s w i t h i n  at  the  white group.  2.  V i s i o n s o f Gradual  Some v i e w p o i n t s ,  E v o l u t i o n a r y Change  e n v i s a g i n g gradual  c h a n g e , r e p r e s e n t e d more  p e r s p e c t i v e s o f the groups p o s i t i o n as w e l l as f o r country.  In  general  ment i n s t i t u t i o n s .  optimistic  the f u t u r e  of  a more p o s i t i v e approach was taken toward Roughly a t h i r d  the  govern-  o f the UDW s t u d e n t s h o l d these  views  by comparison w i t h very few s t u d e n t s i n the sample from the medical school.  However,  i n the p r e d i c t i o n s  there  i s a l s o c o n s i d e r a b l e o v e r l a p and i n c o n s i s t e n c y  offered.  "The r a c i a l p o l i c i e s o f the government w i l l change f o r the better. A l r e a d y t h e r e are i n d i c a t i o n s i n t h i s r e s p e c t , such as the s c r a p p i n g o f j o b r e s e r v a t i o n , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the B l a c k man would come to g a i n more r e c o g n i t i o n . Kwazulu i s an important f a c t o r i n r e c o g n i t i o n f o r B l a c k s . " "It i s vested ground change  (16)  e n c o u r a g i n g to note t h a t some power i s now being i n the n o n - W h i t e s . Separate Development i s a t r a i n i n g f o r our f u t u r e . The SAIC and L A C ' s have been a b l e to c e r t a i n long s t a n d i n g i d e a s i n w h i t e m i n d s . " (24)  -181"Local government o f f e r s p r a c t i c e i n s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t . With good incomes and s e t t l e d j o b s workers l i v e i n w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d r e s i d e n t i a l suburbs and urban f r i n g e s . The standards o f l i v i n g as compared w i t h o t h e r s t a t e s o f A f r i c a are s u p e r i o r . " (51) Real o r imagined achievements are a s s e r t e d as p r o o f o f p r o g r e s s and equality.  These s t u d e n t s p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t  expressed i n t h e i r successful to,  to a l a r g e e x t e n t o p i n i o n s  homes, and can be assumed t o come from f a m i l i e s  businessmen and p r o f e s s i o n s , f o r  or a s s o c i a t e d w i t h ,  the a p a r t h e i d  the most p a r t  institutions  of  sympathetic  of l i m i t e d  communal  s e l f - a d m i ni s t r a t i o n . "The g e n e r a l s t a n d a r d o f e d u c a t i o n i s of a h i g h e r l e v e l . The non-White community i s a b l e to p r o v i d e i t s own p r o f e s s i o n a l and s k i l l e d workers and are on a par w i t h t h e i r white c o u n t e r p a r t s . " (24) "The appointment o f L A C ' s and g r a n t i n g o f l o c a l g o v e r n ment to Indians i s a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the g o v e r n ment o f today has come to r e a l i s e t h a t the o n l y way to c o n t r o l i t s m u l t i - n a t i o n a l populace i s to r e c o g n i s e the i d e n t i t y o f the d i f f e r e n t r a c e g r o u p s . There would be m u l t i - m i n o r governments, and one l a r g e o v e r l o r d g o v e r n ment. The government a p a r t from s e r v i n g i t s own r a c e would a c t as an o v e r s e e r , c o n t r o l l i n g a l l f o r e i g n a f f a i r s and p o r t s . T h i s w i l l be a p r e c a u t i o n a r y measure to s a f e guard South A f r i c a as a w h o l e . " (6) On the o t h e r gradual  h a n d , t h e r e were those who w h i l e  r e c o g n i z i n g t h e r e would be  c h a n g e , were p e s s i m i s t i c about how much o r when t h i s would take  place. "There w i l l be a general change i n government p o l i c y , such as the r a t e f o r the j o b on m e r i t , not c o l o u r , but not enough " (15) "Gradual changes are p o s s i b l e - - each group w i l l however be s e p a r a t e but never e q u a l . " (3)  -182"It i s t r u e t h e r e are i n c r e a s e s i n c e n t r e s o f l e a r n i n g , but g r e a t e r f a c i l i t i e s must be p r o v i d e d f o r I n d i a n s . W i l l j o b r e s e r v a t i o n ever be removed?" (23) Most medical  s t u d e n t s were f a r more p e s s i m i s t i c about gradual  ment and c y n i c a l about the p r o c l a i m e d achievement. these answers i n which h i s t o r y  improve-  A pessimism permeates  i s p o r t r a y e d as almost having come to  a standstill. "In t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s time a few changes w i l l o c c u r . There w i l l be complete m u l t i - r a c i a l s p o r t . There c o u l d be an improvement i n the e d u c a t i o n a l system f o r n o n - W h i t e s , but I doubt t h a t t h e r e w i l l be m u l t i racial education." (64) "There may be gradual c h a n g e , but the areas s e t a s i d e f o r d i f f e r e n t r a c e groups w i l l s t i l l not be f u l l y d e v e l o p e d . . . . there w i l l not be a s i n g l e a r e a where mixed groups w i l l be l i v i n g t o g e t h e r . There w i l l be complete s e g r e g a t i o n i n South A f r i c a . I suppose the Orange Free S t a t e w i l l s t i l l not be open to I n d i a n s . The r e f e r e n c e book system f o r A f r i c a n s w i l l s t i l l continue. I doubt very much whether non-Whites w i l l be a l l o w e d , by t h e n , the r i g h t to v o t e . " (17) "For many y e a r s the b l a c k man has been t r y i n g to make the white man t h i n k o f them as human beings l i k e themselves. The success however i s extremely s m a l l . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s the B l a c k man has taken to b l a c k c o n s c i o u s n e s s and B l a c k power and t h i s i s d e f i n i t e l y going to a f f e c t the f u t u r e o f South A f r i c a i f not immediately, slowly. W i t h i n the next 30 y e a r s more people l i k e M r s . Suzman w i l l g e t i n t o the w h i t e p a r l i a m e n t where t h e i r v o i c e s w i l l be h e a r d . I also f o r e s e e more s t u d e n t demonstrations and s t r i k e s a l t h o u g h , w i t h the p r e s e n t system o f government, t h i s does not h o l d much w a t e r . " (53) U n l i k e the UDW r e s p o n s e s , most medical s t u d e n t s r e f l e c t with p o l i t i c a l  a wider concern  i n e q u a l i t i e s e x p e r i e n c e d by A f r i c a n s , and a s t a t e d  ence f o r m u l t i - r a c i a l  education,with  i n b l a c k e d u c a t i o n are not enough.  the  implication that  Furthermore t h e r e  prefer-  improvements  seems to be a  -183wider  familiarity  w i t h broader p o l i t i c a l  U n i v e r s i t y o f Natal  3.  students  than t h e i r  i s s u e s on .the p a r t o f  the  counterparts.  F e e l i n g s of Powerlessness and Low S e l f - C o n c e p t i o n s  C o n t r a r y to e a r l i e r  y e a r s i n the h i s t o r y o f the  as Fatima Meer e x p r e s s e s i t ,  "Indians  I n d i a n community when,  have never at any p o i n t  in  their  South A