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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Constantine’s twin basilica at Trier Rowe, Ria Theresia 1974

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CONSTANTINE1S TWIN BASILICA AT TRIER BY RIA THERESIA ROWE B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Fine A r t s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1974 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f FINE ARTS T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8 , C a n a d a D a t e A p r i l 10, 1974 - i i -ABSTRACT Founded d u r i n g t h e r e i g n o f A u g u s t u s , most p r o b a b l y d u r i n g t h e Emperor's p r e s e n c e i n G a u l i n 16-13 B.C., T r i e r became a colonia d u r i n g the r e i g n o f C l a u d i u s a r o u n d 50 A.D. The Colonia Augusta Trevexorum became t h e s e a t o f t h e Roman a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h e f i r s t c e n t u r y A.D. and p r o s p e r i t y and w e a l t h made h e r one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t c i t i e s i n t h e n o r t h e r n Roman E m p i r e , and one o f t h e c a p i t a l s of t h e w e s t e r n Empire i n t h e l a t e t h i r d c e n t u r y . C o n s t a n t i u s C h l o r u s became C a e s a r o f t h e n o r t h e r n Empire i n 293 and w i t h him began a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e House o f C o n s t a n t i n e and t h e C i t y o f T r i e r , w h i c h was to l a s t w e l l o v e r f i f t y y e a r s . C o n s t a n t i n e t h e G r e a t l i v e d h e r e f o r t e n y e a r s u n t i l 315 and h i s sons r e s i d e d i n t h e c i t y a f t e r him u n t i l 348. An immense b u i l d i n g program marked t h e l a t e g r e a t f l o w e r i n g o f t h e Roman c i t y , and i n 326 A.D. t h e huge t w i n b a s i l i c a was b u i l t on t h e r u i n s o f an i m p e r i a l p a l a c e . Legend has l i n k e d H e l e n a , mother o f C o n s t a n t i n e t h e G r e a t , w i t h t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f T r i e r ' s c a t h e d r a l and a l s o w i t h t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e H o l y Robe from J e r u s a l e m to t h e c a t h e d r a l a t T r i e r . E x c a v a t i o n s i n t h e a r e a o f T r i e r ' s c a t h e d r a l , u n d e r t a k e n by Dr. Th. K. Kempf s i n c e 1943 have r e v e a l e d r e m a i n s o f a t w i n b a s i l i c a b u i l t on t h e s i t e o f a C o n s t a n t i n i a n p a l a c e between 326 and 348. I t was a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e - i i i -square sanctuary of the North. B a s i l i c a was expanded and r e b u i l t by G r a t i a n i n 370-380 A.D. on foundations of a C o n s t a n t i n i a n square sanctuary. In the past a r c h a e o l o g i s t s had assumed that t h i s p a r t , d a t i n g from the r e i g n of G r a t i a n was a s i n g l e u n i t and only more r e c e n t l y d i d s c h o l a r s s p e c u l a t e that t h i s square s t r u c t u r e was p o s s i b l y a part of a l a r g e r b a s i l i c a . However, i t was not u n t i l the year 1943 that the foundations of a b a s i l i c a l h a l l were di s c o v e r e d below the c a t h e d r a l square, c o n f i r m i n g the assumptions made by a r c h a e o l o g i s t s i n the 1920's. With the e x t e n s i v e d e s t r u c t i o n s u f f e r e d by the Dom and L i e b f r a u e n church ( c a t h e d r a l and Church of Our Lady) during the l a s t year of World War II f u r t h e r o p p o r t u n i t y was given to the a r c h a e o l o g i s t s to excavate. In 1948 and subsequent years Roman foundations of C o n s t a n t i n i a n age were di s c o v e r e d a l s o below the neighbouring L i e b f r a u e n church, which confirmed the presence of a twin b a s i l i c a , a f a c t which had been assumed s i n c e 1943. T r i e r ' s twin b a s i l i c a was l a r g e ; each church h o l d i n g about 6000 people. The whole complex covered an area of a double insula i n the s t r e e t system along the n o r t h - e a s t e r n part of the Roman c i t y w i t h i n a huge palace d i s t r i c t . The twin b a s i l i c a comprised two l o n g i t u d i n a l h a l l s of equal l e n g t h and almost equal "Vidth; each had an atrium and a tra n s e p t - t y p e narthex to the west and.a r e c t i l i n e a r t e r m i n a t i o n to the east. The two b a s i l i c a s were j o i n e d by a t h r e e - a i s l e d - i v -h a l l i n the east and a square b a p t i s t e r y i n the west. The north b a s i l i c a was s l i g h t l y l a r g e r and had a monumental, triumphal arch-type entrance toward the s t r e e t . Bases of an a l t a r were d i s c o v e r e d i n the south b a s i l i c a but not i n the north. A polygonal s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n the square sanctuary was added to the north b a s i l i c a soon a f t e r the b a s i l i c a was b u i l t which has been i n t e r p r e t e d as a memoria. The complex was b u i l t between 326 and 348 and the south b a s i l i c a was f i n i s h e d f i r s t . Whereas the b a s i l i c a l h a l l s remained almost u n a l t e r e d throughout the C o n s t a n t i n i a n era, the s a n c t u a r i e s i n both churches underwent thr e e , even four b u i l d i n g phases. Germanic i n v a s i o n s l e f t t h e i r mark on the C i t y of T r i e r and also the twin b a s i l i c a l complex, and under the l a t e great f l o w e r i n g during the r e i g n of V a l e n t i n i a n and G r a t i a n the square sanctuary of the north b a s i l i c a was expanded and r e b u i l t . The r i s i n g w a l l s of t h i s b u i l d i n g are s t i l l v i s i b l e , i n p a r t s up to about 100 f e e t high, and are the o l d e s t p a r t of the present Dom. The Twin B a s i l i c a at T r i e r i s unique among C o n s t a n t i n i a n church foundations both i n dimension and importance. Each s i n g l e b a s i l i c a of the complex can be l i k e n e d to St. John Lateran i n Rome i n t h e i r f i r s t b u i l d i n g phases and accommo-dating only s l i g h t l y l e s s people than the Lateran church. With the e r e c t i o n of the Polygon i n the n o r t h b a s i l i c a comparisons can be made between i t and the m a r t y r i u m - b a s i l i c a s i n Jerusalem and Bethlehem. A c o n v i n c i n g argument concerning - v -a c h r i s t o l o g i c a l r e l i c at T r i e r put forward by Dr. Th. K. Kempf i n h i s a r t i c l e on The Robe at T r i e r ' s C a t h e d r a l , d e s c r i b e s the n o r t h b a s i l i c a as such a m a r t y r i u m - b a s i l i c a , the south b a s i l i c a r e t a i n i n g i t s form and f u n c t i o n as b e f o r e . I t has now been f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d that both b a s i l i c a s were r e s t o r e d during the Merovingian and C a r o l i n g i a n epochs and e x i s t e d as a complex u n t i l the Norman i n v a s i o n s and the sacking of the c i t y i n 882 A.D. Thus the author of the Vita S. Helenae, Almann von H a u t v i l l e r s , a c t u a l l y saw the C o n s t a n t i n i a n twin b a s i l i c a , a f a c t which makes the legend of the donation by Helena of her palace to the c i t y of T r i e r more c r e d i b l e . The d i s c o v e r y of the c e i l i n g f r e s c o e s from a palace below the C o n s t a n t i n i a n north b a s i l i c a and d a t i n g from before 326 A.D. gives f u r t h e r credence to the Helena t r a d i t i o n . The f r e s c o e s were di s c o v e r e d i n an e x c e l l e n t s t a t e of p r e s e r v a t i o n and three of the panels were i n t e r -p reted as being p o r t r a i t s of members of C o n s t a n t i n e i s immediate f a m i l y . Comparisons have been made with the donor mosaics i n the south h a l l of the twin complex at A q u i l e i a which are most probably contemporary with the T r i e r f r e s c o e s . Other twin b a s i l i c a s of the f o u r t h century, as catalogued i n the Appendix, appear to have been confined- to the A d r i a t i c and northern I t a l y with one i n North A f r i c a and p o s s i b l y two i n the Holy Land. But i t i s evident that the - v i -Twin B a s i l i c a at T r i e r stands out as a unique monument among C o n s t a n t i n i a n ctmrch foundations p r e s e n t i n g a d i f f e r e n t dimension. - v i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS I A b s t r a c t i i II Table of Contents v i i I I I L i s t of Tables i x IV L i s t of F i g u r e s and Maps x i V Acknowledgment x i i VI F r o n t i s p i e c e E t c h i n g by Ria Rowe, 1973 x i i i VII Text Chapter I T r e v e r i s 1 Footnotes 13 Chapter I I The Late Roman C i t y 16 The House of Constantine 19 C h r i s t i a n i t y i n Fourth Century T r i e r 22 Footnotes 26 Chapter I I I The L o c a t i o n of the Twin B a s i l i c a i n the C i t y Plan 30 The "Roman Core" 32 The Discovery of the C e i l i n g Frescoes 36 The Discovery of the Twin B a s i l i c a 39 The B u i l d i n g s of Constantine 42 The Twin B a s i l i c a from the f i f t h to the n i n t h C e n t u r i e s 50 Footnotes 53 - v i i i Chapter IV T r i e r ' s Twin B a s i l i c a as Fourth Century A r c h i t e c t u r e 56 Footnotes 73 Chapter V 77 Footnotes 87 VIII I l l u s t r a t i o n s . < ' ' 89 IX B i b l i o g r a p h y 1 2 1 X Appendix 130 - i x -LIST OF TABLES P l a t e I a) I n s c r i p t i o n f o r L. Caesar, T r i e r b) Limestone R e l i e f : B a t t l e between Romans and Ba r b a r i a n s , T r i e r P l a t e I I Leda Mosaic, from T r i e r P l a t e I I I D e t a i l - Leda Mosaic, T r i e r P l a t e IV D e t a i l - Monnus Mosaic, T r i e r P l a t e V a) Roman Bridge, T r i e r b) Amphitheatre, T r i e r P l a t e VI Plan of Roman Forum, T r i e r P l a t e VII Porta N i g r a , T r i e r P l a t e VIII a) Kaiserthermen (Imperial Baths) T r i e r b) B a s i l i k a (Aula R e g i a ) , T r i e r P l a t e IX Twin B a s i l i c a T r i e r , R e c o n s t r u c t i o n attempt by Th.K. Kempf P l a t e X Noah Sarcophagus, T r i e r P l a t e XI Mosaic from P e r i s t y l e - H o u s e below Imperial Baths P l a t e XII D e t a i l s from Mosaic P l a t e XIII View of T r i e r from the East P l a t e XIV Cathedral showing "Roman Core" P l a t e XV View of Sanctuary P l a t e XVI a) Remains of Roman b a s i l i c a a c c ording to Wilmowsky, 1874 b) West Fvrbnt r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of "Roman Core by Wilmowsky and Krencker P l a t e XVII R e c o n s t r u c t i o n attempts of "Roman Core" a) by Wilmowsky b) by Krencker P l a t e X V I I I C e i l i n g Frescoes of palace room below polygon of north b a s i l i c a - x -P l a t e XIX D e t a i l o f C e i l i n g F r e s c o e s P o r t r a i t B u s t F a u s t a (?) 37 P l a t e XX F i r s t b u i l d i n g p h a s e , Twin B a s i l i c a 42 P l a t e XXI E x p a n s i o n under G r a t i a n 43 P l a t e X X I I S o u t h B a s i l i c a : S a n c t u a r y , b u i l d i n g p h a s e s 44 P l a t e X X I I I N o r t h B a s i l i c a : S a n c t u a r y , b u i l d i n g p h a s e s 46 P l a t e XXIV M e r o v i n g i a n and C a r o l i n g i a n b u i l d i n g p h a s e s o f Twin B a s i l i c a 51 P l a t e XXV O t t o n i a n b u i l d i n g p h a s e , Twin B a s i l i c a 51 P l a t e XXVI The Ma r k e t C r o s s , T r i e r 52 P l a t e XXVII T r i e r : View o f Dom - L i e b f r a u e n 52 P l a t e X X V I I I a) T r i e r : Twin B a s i l i c a 326 A.D. 58 b) Rome: L a t e r a n B a s i l i c a 313 A.D. 58 P l a t e XXIX P l a n s o f m a r t y r i u m - b a s i l i c a s S t . P e t e r ' s 64 Rome, N a t i v i t y , S e p u l c h r e P l a t e XXX P l a n s o f m a r t y r i u m b a s i l i c a s compared w i t h N o r t h B a s i l i c a a t T r i e r 64 P l a t e XXXI C o m p a r i s o n p l a n s o f T r i e r w i t h t h e c h u r c h e s i n t h e H o l y Land 65 P l a t e XXXII C o m p a r i s o n o f P o l y g o n w i t h S e p u l c h r e 66 - x i -L.IST OF FIGURES AND MAPS 1 Map of the Roman Empire 2 2 T r i e r : Roman S t r e e t Plan m i d - f i r s t century A.D. 4 3 C i v i l i a n T r e v e r i o u t s i d e Treveran T e r r i t o r y 7 4 T r i e r : D i s t r i b u t i o n Map of Mosaics i n the t h i r d century A.D. 8 5 V i l l a s and Sanctuaries i n the T r e v e r i t e r r i t o r y 11 6 Town Plan of Roman T r i e r i n the l a t e t h i r d century and f o u r t h century 17 7 Area near T r i e r showing E a r l y C h r i s t i a n Churches of the C i t y and the immediate neighbourhood 25 8 Town Plan of T r i e r i n the f o u r t h century showing l o c a t i o n of the Twin B a s i l i c a i n the C i t y Plan 31 9 Plan of "Roman Core" with l o c a t i o n of Polygon and C e i l i n g Frescoes 38 - x i i -ACKNOWLEDGMENT I would l i k e to express my g r a t i t u d e to Dr. Mary Morehart who gave so f r e e l y and generously o f her time and whose many h e l p f u l suggestions have been of immeasur-able value i n the completion of t h i s work. I would a l s o l i k e to acknowledge my indebtedness to Dr. James R u s s e l l of the Department of C l a s s i c a l Studies f o r h i s pa t i e n c e and a s s i s t a n c e with the Roman content of t h i s work; and l a s t l y to the I n t e r - L i b r a r y Loan S e r v i c e without whose help I would have been unable to complete the r e s e a r c h . - x i i i -The Twin B a s i l i c a at T r i e r - 326 A.D. I I I j mm E t c h i n g by Ria Rowe, 1973 CHAPTER I TreverLs Long has Gaul, mighty i n arms, yearned to be p r a i s e d , and that r o y a l c i t y of the T r e v e r i , which, though f u l l near the Rhine, reposes unalarmed as i f i n the bosom of deep profound peace, because she feeds, because she c l o t h e s and arms the f o r c e s of the Empire. Widely the w a l l s s t r e t c h forward over a spreading h i l l ; b esides her bounteous Moselle g l i d e s past with p e a c e f u l stream; c a r r y i n g the f a r -brought merchandise of a l l races of the e a r t h . (Ausonius. Liber XI. Ordo Urbium Nobilium.) There are but few areas i n Western Europe which can account f o r r i c h e r h i s t o r i c a l background than the Rhineland with i t s three ancient c i t i e s , T r i e r , Cologne and Mainz, a l l Roman foundations from the f i r s t century A.D.^ Of these three, T r i e r was and remained up to the t w e l f t h century the gateway to Germania, and during the l a t e t h i r d and through the f o u r t h c e n t u r i e s was one of the c a p i t a l s of the Roman world . S i t u a t e d on the r i v e r Mosel - or Moselle - near the border of modern France, T r i e r occupied a most advantageous p o s i t i o n ( f i g . l ) . The r i v e r , being n a v i g a b l e , formed an important means of t r a n s p o r t and communication and the numerous trade routes and cross roads - the two main Roman roads from Lyon to Cologne and from Rheims to Mainz i n t e r -sected at the c i t y - made the l o c a t i o n an obvious choice by the Roman p r o c u r a t o r s f o r an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and r e s i d e n t i a l c e n t r e . T r i e r was of equal d i s t a n c e (four days' journey) - 1 -fiACheste^.. ygash Bordeaux R\M A N Y BOHEMIA M A R C6M A N N I A 4»" ... Black Sea ^BOSPORUS Nicaea M A 3 -9 o SPAIN t .Milan ,<\» / Marseilles Marbor>e S ! V v» ^ R a v e n n a f - y -D A C I CORSICA* V . - ^ « > * J T H R A C E 4 4 ^ Adrianople. 1 Ufc Misenufrt^ '{Tyrrhenian ^ • 7 .... >> tap* C a r l h a g e ^ t - C ' ;Thi MACEDONIA, irmium (Mitrovitza) iX_^Jjjrnu Severin ^ TT^R.DANUBV PONTUS rapezus (Trebizond) Byzantiu STASIA ssalonica^ A R M E N I A MYSIA MINOR KPPODOCI .Pergamum s G ^ A n t i o c h0 . * ^ • IYDIA *byPisidia r > ^ SICILY =L I  ICARIA Laodii A^.Tarsus < MaltPv^ c M a t a^ :^^r''''""aPRusO^ x * p a l m y r a * r S * » - * M P Sidonf .Damascus Tyre* 6 0 The Roman Empire FAN "" SEA , f ^ .Jerusalem v -c ^ F i g . l F r o m M.P. C h a r l e s w o r t h , The Roman E m p i r e , pp. 22-23 - 3 -from Cologne to the north and Mainz to the south, but u n l i k e the l a t t e r two c i t i e s , remained s a f e l y s h e l t e r e d behind the f r o n t i e r from many of the Germanic i n c u r s i o n s during i t s four hundred years e x i s t e n c e as a Roman c i t y . T r i e r enters i n t o w r i t t e n h i s t o r y with Caesar, who had a l r e a d y mentioned the t r i b e of the Treveri - but not 2 a t r i b a l c e n t r e - i n h i s Commentaries. The Treveri were a Celto-Germanic t r i b e known f o r t h e i r s k i l l as horsebreeders and horsemen, who as e a r l y as 57 B.C. had sent a body of c a v a l r y to serve among Caesar's army during one of the l a t t e r ' s 3 campaigns across the Rhine. The s i t e of T r i e r may have been chosen by Agrippa, who was the appointed l e g a t e to the three Gauls i n 390-38 B.C. and again i n 20-19 B.C. to deal with c e n t u r i a t i o n and settlement of t r i b e s ; and of o r g a n i z i n g the t r i b e s i n t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s , each centred on a 4 town. T r i e r , then, was a new t r i b a l centre founded a c c o r d i n g to the p o l i c i e s of Augustus a f t e r whom i t was c a l l e d Augusta Treverorum. I t i s l i k e l y that Augustus h i m s e l f , d u r i n g h i s presence i n Gaul i n 16-13 B.C. would "give an impetus to the implementing of h i s p o l i c i e s " , and c e r t a i n l y the c i t y was beginning to grow by the l a t t e r part of h i s r e i g n . ^ During the r e i g n of Claudius (41-54 A.D.) the c i t y was e l e v a t e d to the rank of colonia and was now known as Colonia Augusta Treverorum. I t a c q u i r e d the c h a r a c t e r of an I t a l i a n c i t y with a r e c t a n g u l a r s t r e e t plan ( f i g . 2) and remained an open c i t y u n t i l the l a t e second:century. T r i e r became the Fig.2 T r i e r : Roman S t r e e t P l a n m i d - f i r s t century A.D. A and B - Triumphal arches 1-11 - Old e s t s t r e e t s e c t i o n s + - e a r l y b u r i a l s © - e a r l y Roman f i n d s ... - l o c a t i o n of l a t e r town w a l l ( l a t e 2nd c) (from S c h i n d l e r , 1972, p.263) - 5 -place of residence f o r the i m p e r i a l p r o c u r a t o r s of the province of Gallia Belgica ( l a t e r of Belgica and the two Germanias)^ , but the colonials s t r e n g t h l a y i n trade and commerce.'' As a v i t a l supply c e n t r e the c i t y served the Rhine army along the Limes and the c i v i l i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n the e n t i r e area.^ T r i e r became even more important i n the l a t e t h i r d century A.D. under the Emperor D i o c l e t i a n . During the emperor's r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Empire the c i t y became one of the four c a p i t a l s , and a p e r i o d of r e b u i l d i n g designed to give the c i t y an appearance a p p r o p r i a t e to i t s new s t a t u s as c a p i t a l of Belgica Prima helped to earn f o r the c i t y 9 the t i t l e of "Rome of the North." Despite gaps i n our knowledge i t i s p o s s i b l e from the many r u i n s s t i l l extant and the numerous a r t i f a c t s i n T r i e r ' s museums, to b u i l d up a general p i c t u r e of the appearance of t h i s prosperous and wealthy c i t y d u r i n g the f i r s t three c e n t u r i e s of i t s e x i s t e n c e . In recent years archaeology has provided ample evidence of the ur£>s opulentissima as the c i t y was a l r e a d y c a l l e d i n the f i r s t century A.D. The cosmopolitan c h a r a c t e r of T r i e r i s manifested i n the v a r i e t y of background of i t s c i t i z e n s . The people of the colonia i n c l u d e d not only the t r i b a l Treveri and the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f of the p r o c u r a t o r s , but a l s o craftsmen and merchants from the whole Roman Empire. T r i e r ' s c i v i l i a n s - 6 -t r a v e l l e d widely and have been documented ^ .throughout the Roman Empire ( f i g . 3 ) . ^ The l i f e s t y l e of the c i t i z e n s i s expressed i n a high standard of q u a l i t y and t a s t e i n 12 a r c h i t e c t u r e , s c u l p t u r e ( p i . I ) , p a i n t i n g , and i n p a r t i c u l a r i n the numerous mosaics that adorned p r i v a t e homes as w e l l 1 3 as p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s ( p l a t e s I I , I I I , I V ) . The T r i e r e r Landesmuseum d i s p l a y s innumerable examples of these a r t i f a c t s , and a d i s t r i b u t i o n map of mosaics ( f i g . 4 ) w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the p o i n t . Whereas the museums e x h i b i t an abundance of a r t i f a c t s i t i s i n the Roman b u i l d i n g s , s t i l l v i s i b l e though mostly i n r u i n s , that the splendour of the c i t y i s most apparent. B u i l d i n g s no longer extant are known through e x t e n s i v e and i n t e n s i v e archaeology, and r e s e a r c h i s s t i l l c o n t i n u i n g to uncover more every year to give an even gr e a t e r i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s Secunda Roma. Probably the e a r l i e s t monuments s t i l l v i s i b l e are the Amphitheatre and the Roman Bri d g e , both b u i l t i n the second 14 century A.D. (pl,.V. These s t r u c t u r e s had wooden predecessors and the present Roman Bridge r e s t s on p i l e s d a t i n g from the second century. The s o - c a l l e d Barbarathermen (Barbara Baths) of mid-second century date are among the l a r g e s t sets of baths known i n the Empire and almost as s p l e n d i d as the I m p e r i a l Baths, a l s o at T r i e r , b u i l t i n the f o u r t h century. C / o soo 1000 noo j/ peace : i i i 1 1 1 - rwns F i g . 3 . E. Wightman, p.49. - 8 -F i g . 4 . D i s t r i b u t i o n map of mosaics found at T r i e r i n t h i r d century A.D. R. S c h i n d l e r , p.265. - 9 -Of the Barbarathermen very l i t t l e remains above ground, but even the r u i n s give an i n d i c a t i o n of the monumentality of t h i s p u b l i c b u i l d i n g . I t can be assumed that there were numerous other bath establishments i n a c i t y the s i z e of T r i e r - estimated to have had a p o p u l a t i o n ranging between 60 000 and 80 000 i n the f o u r t h century A.D. - but i t i s not easy to a s c e r t a i n whether they were p u b l i c baths or p r i v a t e bathrooms.^ Aqueducts s u p p l i e d the c i t y ' s water; the best known came from the Ruwer V a l l e y , a few miles n o r t h of the c i t y , and was e i g h t miles l o n g . The water ran i n an e n t i r e l y enclosed channel and manholes were provided at i n t e r v a l s , some were found s t i l l covered with t h e i r f l a g s t o n e s . ^ The Foxum, c e n t r e of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , j u s t i c e and b u s i n e s s , stood at the i n t e r s e c t i o n of the caxdo maximus and decumanus maximus as i n most towns based on Mediterranean models. The ground p l a n of the Forum has i n recent years 18 been f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d ( p i . VI) . It was very l a r g e indeed -300 m long and 140 m wide - and occupied a s i z e a b l e area i n the c i t y c e n t r e . The impressiveness of the s t r u c t u r e was f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d by the f a c t that i t s ground l e v e l was 19 a r t i f i c i a l l y r a i s e d above the surrounding area. One of i t s unique f e a t u r e s was the Cxyptopoxticus around three s i d e s of the Foxum, a f e a t u r e a l s o known from Bavai and A r i e s and q u i t e widespread i n Gaul. - 10 -Most probably the c i t y was an open c i t y u n t i l mid-second century when i t was decided to b u i l d a c i t y w a l l . In Wightman's o p i n i o n the w a l l could not have been b u i l t e a r l i e r than the second h a l f of the second century, because i t cuts through a cemetery on the n o r t h s i d e which was s t i l l used f o r 20 b u r i a l s i n the second century. The w a l l was over 6 km long, e n c l o s i n g more than 700 acres and was about 3 m t h i c k and 6 m 2 1 high. Very l i t t l e remains today above ground but i t s l o c a t i o n and appearance are known from excavations, such as the many towers along i t s perimeter and the four main gates. The most famous of i t s gates, and the only one s t i l l extant, i s what has become the landmark of the C i t y of T r i e r , the Porta Nigra ( p i . V I I ) . I t s date has been d i s p u t e d f o r many years but through excavations undertaken i n 1966-1968 i t has become even c l e a r e r that t h i s tower belongs to the l a s t 22 t h i r d of the second century. T r i e r l i e s i n a f e r t i l e area; the v a l l e y of the M o s e l l e had even i n Roman times a f l o u r i s h i n g wine i n d u s t r y which cat e r e d to the needs of even the most s o p h i s t i c a t e d t a s t e s , and the r i c h farming lands around the v a l l e y and along the h i l l s i d e s encouraged i n t e n s i v e c u l t i v a t i o n by Romans and T r e v e r i a l i k e . Numerous v i l l a s sprang up throughout the c o u n t r y s i d e and e s p e c i a l l y along the r i v e r s ; many of them s t i l l d e l i g h t today's v i s i t o r . A map of the v i l l a s and s a n c t u a r i e s might b e t t e r e x p l a i n the s i t u a t i o n at that time in the r e g i o n ( f i g . 5 ) . The c i t y and the c o u n t r y s i d e together V i l l a s and S a n c t u a r i e s i n the T r i e r Area (E. Wightman p.158-9 F£g.5.Villas A Shrines C i t y of T r i e r - 12 -provided the c i t i z e n s , both Roman and T r e v e r i , with a l l the 23 amenities one a s s o c i a t e s with a prosperous Roman c i t y . This buoyant development and p r o s p e r i t y were a b r u p t l y terminated during the Germanic i n v a s i o n s from the middle of the t h i r d century onward, of which the most d e v a s t a t i n g was the i n v a s i o n of n o r t h - e a s t e r n Gaul by the Alemanni i n 24 ca. 275 A.D. Probable evidence f o r d e s t r u c t i o n are l a y e r s of ash i n t h i r d century s t r a t a , i n p a r t i c u l a r i n the area of the present T r i e r C a t h e d r a l , where recent excavations con-firmed that l a t e t h i r d century and e a r l y f o u r t h century s t r u c t u r e s were b u i l t on the charred rubble of e a r l i e r 25 houses. T h i s was a heavy blow f o r the prosperous c i t y 2 6 and many of her l e a d i n g c i t i z e n s l e f t f o r southern Gaul. Ewig f e e l s that the i n d i r e c t consequences of these years of t e r r o r and unrest were even more d e v a s t a t i n g than the in v a s i o n s of the f i f t h century. Despite what must have been almost complete d e s t r u c t i o n , T r i e r was to r i s e again to a great l a t e f l o w e r i n g under the emperors of the l a t e t h i r d and the f o u r t h c e n t u r i e s . I t i s from the time of the D i o c l e t i a n "Reform" i n the l a t e t h i r d century that the Colonia Augusta Treverorum i s c a l l e d T r e v e r i s , and that a p e r i o d of over hundred years begins as an i m p e r i a l r e s i d e n c e and one of the four c a p i t a l s of the l a t e Roman Empire. - 13 -NOTES - CHAPTER I Eugen Ewig, Trier im Merowingerreich ( T r i e r : P a u l i n u s -V e r l a g , 1953), p.11. 2 Caesar, Bellum Gallicum, 1,1; 2,4; 6,2,3. 3 E d i t h Wightman, Roman Trier and the Treveri (London: Rupert H a r t - D a v i s , 1970), p.25. 4 Ibid., p.36 . ~* Ibi^. r P•3 7. ^Ibid. , p.43. Ewig, Merowingerreich, p.12. Ibid. , p . 15 . Wightman, Roman Trier, p.59. ^Ibid., p.4 0. Mela 3.20. Aquitanorum clarissimi sunt Ausci, Celtarum Haedui, Belgarum Treveri, urbesque opulentissimae in Treveris Augusta, in Haeduis Augustodunum, in Auscis Eliumberrum. J"J'Wightman, Soman Trier, p. 49. 12 Ibid., p.37 and p.74. During excavations i n the e p i s c o p a l palace at T r i e r i n the l a t e 1940's an i n s c r i p t i o n from a memorial f o r Lucius Caesar was fojund. L u c i u s Caesar was a grandson of Augustus and the memorial i t s e l f dated from between 3 B.C. and 2 A.D. A s e r i e s of limestone r e l i e f s d e p i c t i n g a b a t t l e between Romans and Barbarians was found not f a r from the Roman b r i d g e , and i t i s assumed that they belonged to an archway spanning the main road. The s c u l p t u r e has been given a F l a v i a n date (69 - 96 A.D.). - 14 -13 Wilhelm Reusch, "Wandmalereien und Mosaikboden eines P e r l s t y l - H a u s e s im B e r e i c h der T r i e r e r Kaiserthermen," Trierer Zeitschrift, 29 (1966) , pp. 187-235. 14 The Amphitheatre has been dated about 100 A.D. on inadequate evidence. The second Roman Bri d g e , which was b u i l t about 25 m up r i v e r p a r a l l e l to the f i r s t wooden s t r u c t u r e , has been dated by S c h i n d l e r (Augusta Treverorum, Bonner Jahrbilcher, 172 (1972), p.263) 140 A.D. ''""'wightman, Roman Trier, p.84. The Barbarathermen measured 240 x 172 m. There was an open palaestra at one.end surrounded by porticoes. The Baths were r i c h l y decorated and par t of the area served as an a r t g a l l e r y . Remains of s t a t u a r y were found, also mosaic f l o o r s , marble w a l l revetments and w a l l d e c o r a t i o n s . U n t i l the 17th century the caldarium of the Baths s u r v i v e d as a d w e l l i n g house of a noble l o c a l f a m i l y , and there e x i s t s a d e s c r i p t i o n of i t i n a manuscript of A. Wiltheim, a 17th century l o c a l h i s t o r i a n , with a drawing of the b u i l d i n g attached to i t before i t was p u l l e d down. 16 P o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s are based on F. Lot (La Gaule, P a r i s , 1947) and F. Vercauteren {Etude sur les Civitates de la Belgique Seconde, B r u s s e l s , 1934) - see a l s o Footnote 11 i n Chapter I I . "^Wightman, Roman Trier, p.85. 18 E r i c h Gose, "Das Forum i n T r i e r , " Germania, 39 (1961), pp. 199-204. 19 Wightman, Roman Trier, p.77. 20 Eberhard Zahn, "Die Porta N i g r a i n T r i e r , " Antike Welt, II (1971), pp.23-25. 21 Wightman, Soman Trier, p.93. 22 Zahn, Antike Welt, p.25. As evidence f o r a l a t e second century d a t i n g Zahn c i t e s datable sherds found i n the Roman s t r a t a below the Romanesque apse. Zahn a l s o compares the gate at T r i e r with the Porta Praetoria at Regensburg and i t s i n s c r i p t i o n of A.D. 179 (CIL I I I , 11965) i n d i c a t i n g that the w a l l and gates were b u i l t i n that p e r i o d . Zahn f e e l s that the building^iethods are a l i k e . - 15 -23 Wightman, Roman Trier, p.74. 24 Ewlg, Merowlngerrelch, p.19. 25 Theodor K. Kempf, "Die a l t c h r i s t l i c h e B i s c h o f s k i r c h e T r i e r s , Trlerer Theologische Zeltschrlft, 56 (1947), p.119 and p.187. 2 6 Ewig, Merowingerreich, p.19. - 16 -CHAPTER IT (Treveris) appears to be solemnizing a new foundation day, so completely i s she, by thy beauty, renovated throughout her whole extent. I see the mighty c i r c u s which I b e l i e v e to be equal to that of Rome; I see the b a s i l i c a and the forum, t r u l y i m p e r i a l works; and I see the seat of j u s t i c e - a l l so towering on high that they seem to promise to be worthy neighbours of the s t a r s i n heaven, to which t h e y ^ e v i d e n t l y a s p i r e to r i s e . (Panegyrici, 6.22). The Late Roman C i t y When D i o c l e t i a n r e o r g a n i z e d the Roman provinces i n 284 A.D. , he made T r i e r the c a p i t a l of Belgica Prima 2 and Northern Gaul. Maximian, who was given the rank of Caesar i n 285 and of Augustus i n 286, made T r i e r h i s res i d e n c e when not i n Mi l a n or A q u i l e i a . When i n 293 Constantius Chlorus came to T r i e r as the newly e l e v a t e d Caesar of the West, T r i e r became a c a p i t a l of the Roman 3 Empire and to s i g n i f y t h i s event a mint was opened. As the m i l i t a r y and p o l i t i c a l centre of the West European sphere, T r i e r ' s power reached as f a r north as 4 B r i t a i n and south to i n c l u d e Spain. R e b u i l d i n g of the destroyed c i t y had s t a r t e d soon a f t e r A.D. 275, but with Constantius Chlorus a new b u i l d i n g phase of unprecedented dimension began i n keeping with the splendour of the i m p e r i a l court and l a s t e d w e l l over a hundred years (f i g . 6) . - 17 -Fi g . 6 . . Plan of T r i e r i n Late Roman times, from 275 A.D. E. Wightman, p.121. A 10/11 - Barbarathermen C7 House of V i c t o r i n u s D/F 8/9 - Forum G/H2 Twin B a s i l i c a H/J 4/5 - " B a s i l i k a " H/J 8/9 Imp e r i a l Baths V - Por t a N i g r a X - C i r c u s ( ? ) Y - Amphitheatre Z - Roman temple J 11/12 - Temple D i -s t r i c t - 18 -To make room f o r a l a r g e palace complex^ an area i n the n o r t h - e a s t e r n part of the c i t y was c l e a r e d and l e v e l l e d , and among the b u i l d i n g s of that p e r i o d , s t i l l extant, are the Kaiserthermen or Imperial Baths, and the s o - c a l l e d B a s i l i k a , Aula Regia ( p i . V I I I ) . The baths were at the e a s t e r n end of the complex and one of the l a r g e s t bath establishments known o u t s i d e Rome i t s e l f . ^ From the r u i n s of the Caldarium, s t i l l v i s i b l e to almost i t s f u l l o r i g i n a l h e i g h t , i t i s p o s s i b l e to gain some idea of i t s monumentality Although never completely f i n i s h e d i t was a b u i l d i n g worthy of the emperor and the c a p i t a l of the northern Roman Empire.^ The ' B a s i l i k a ' i s another magnificent example of that monumentality. I t has been completely r e s t o r e d i n recent years and now serves as a church f o r the Lutheran community. B e l i e v e d to have been the seat of j u s t i c e i t i s of massive b r i c k c o n s t r u c t i o n and measures 67 x 27,5 m and i s 30 m h i g h . 8 Both monuments were ere c t e d under Constantine and i t would seem that the emperor h i m s e l f and the s t a t e were the 9 b u i l d e r s , as evidenced by the p a n e g y r i s t ' s eulogy e x t o l l i n g the remarkable achievements of the emperor during the c i t y ' s b i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s i n 310 A.D.*^ Traces of paved s t r e e t s and colonnades give evidence of the c i t y ' s rank, reputed to have then had i n the neighbourhood of 60 000 to 80 000 people - 19 -The House of Constantine With Constantius Chlorus (293-306) begins a long p e r i o d of c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i m p e r i a l house - i n p a r t i c u l a r 12 the House of Constantine, and the C i t y of T r i e r , and with i t new progress and a great f l o w e r i n g of C h r i s t i a n i t y was 13 experienced. While Constantius Chlorus was not a c t u a l l y a C h r i s t i a n he showed great t o l e r a n c e and sympathy towards C h r i s t i a n i d e o l o g y . I t i s s a i d that he not only s h e l t e r e d C h r i s t i a n s during D i o c l e t i a n ' s p e r s e c u t i o n but a l s o had 14 C h r i s t i a n p r i e s t s at h i s c o u r t . Constantine, on the other hand, was o s t e n s i b l y a C h r i s t i a n i n h i s l a t e r l i f e . C o nstantius Chlorus made T r i e r h i s permanent r e s i d e n c e i n 293 and died i n 306 at York during a campaign to B r i t a i n . Upon h i s death Constantine I, h i s son by h i s concubine F l a v i a J u l i a Helena, was proclaimed emperor of the West. S h o r t l y a f t e r h i s e l e c t i o n Constantine married Maxima Fausta, daughter of Maximian, at T r i e r . Maximian had been i n re s i d e n c e at T r i e r before Constantius but p r e f e r r e d A q u i l e i a which had a l s o been a f a v o u r i t e with Constantine. But from 307 to 315 T r i e r became Constantine's p r e f e r r e d r e s i d e n c e ; and of h i s sons Crispus r e s i d e d i n the c i t y from 317 to 324, Constantine I I from 324 to 340 and Constans from 340 to 350.'''"' Helena, the mother of Constantine, was proclaimed NobilLsslma Femina i n 306 and Constantine gave her a palace and her own c o u r t . I t i s b e l i e v e d that she became a C h r i s t i a n - 20 -16 at that time. In 317 the great teacher L a c t a n t i u s , the " C h r i s t i a n C i c e r o " was c a l l e d to T r i e r to t u t o r Constantine's e l d e s t son C r i s p u s . In the same year C r i s p u s and h i s s t e p -brother Constantine I I were proclaimed Caesars i n the West. A t r a g i c event i n the i m p e r i a l f a m i l y i n v o l v i n g C r i s p u s and h i s stepmother .Fausta brought death to both i n 326 . I t i s b e l i e v e d that the i m p e r i a l palace was destroyed i n that year an event which was to be so d e c i s i v e f o r the f u t u r e Twin B a s i l i c a . ^ ^  I t can be assumed that T r i e r enjoyed the favours of the Imperial House and that the s t a t e was the p r i n c i p a l b u i l d e r . But her wealthy c i t i z e n s , the "Trevererbarone" as they are l o c a l l y termed, undoubtedly played an important r o l e i n the 18 b u i l d i n g program. Some of the monumental funerary monuments found at T r i e r and nearby Neumagen, a small and r i c h town on the Moselle^which were erected by wealthy wine merchants, speak t h e i r own mute language. This era of the l a t e Roman i m p e r i a l c i t y e c l i p s e d a l l 19 previous epochs i n the h i s t o r y of the town. The monuments and a r t i f a c t s give ample evidence of a high degree of r e f i n e -ment and t a s t e , and s i n c e Constantine the c i t y on the Moselle was not only a c a p i t a l of the West and i m p e r i a l r e s i d e n c e but 20 a l s o the C h r i s t i a n m e t r o p o l i s n o r t h of the A l p s . It i s i n t h i s s e t t i n g that the great Twin B a s i l i c a was b u i l t during the r e i g n of Constantine and h i s sons. The - 21 -d i s c o v e r y o f t h i s monument was u n d o u b t e d l y one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s i n the f i e l d o f C h r i s t i a n a r c h a e o l o g y i n 21 r e c e n t y e a r s , ( p i . I X ) . - 22 -C h r i s t i a n i t y i n Fourth Century T r i e r C h r i s t i a n i t y , i t would appear, was e s t a b l i s h e d i n the C i t y of T r i e r by the middle of the second century, and most l i k e l y the e a r l y C h r i s t i a n communities i n the Moselle-Rhine area were administered from Lyon, then the m e t r o p o l i s of 2 2 Gaul. Irenaeus of Lyon mentions "churches" i n the Rhine area i n 180 A.D., and i t i s l i k e l y that he r e f e r r e d to 23 T r i e r as w e l l as to Cologne and Mainz. The f i r s t evidence s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t i n g to T r i e r belongs to the t h i r d century. A grave monument, d a t i n g from 258 A.D. of a T r i e r c i t i z e n was found at Bordeaux, bearing C h r i s t i a n symbols; and around the same time the f i r s t bishop of T r i e r , E u c h a r i u s , i s 24 documented. His immediate successors were V a l e r i u s and Maternus, the l a t t e r a l s o l i n k e d with Cologne. Dr. Th. K. Kempf suggests that Maternus may have l e f t T r i e r to e s t a b l i s h a see at Cologne, but he and a l s o h i s predecessors Eucharius and V a l e r i u s are b u r i e d i n the southern cemetery at T r i e r , 25 now St. M a t t h i a s . Maternus was followed by A g r i c i u s , who i s documented as a p a r t i c i p a n t at the Synod of A r i e s i n 2 6 A.D. 314. I t i s A g r i c i u s who i s a s s o c i a t e d with the b u i l d i n g of the Twin B a s i l i c a and whose name i s l i n k e d to the Empress Helena from whom, according to legend, he r e c e i v e d 27 her r o y a l palace to e s t a b l i s h a church. The successors of A g r i c i u s , Maximus and P a u l i n u s , were both very strong defenders of orthodoxy a g a i n s t A r i a n i s m which - 23 -was g a i n i n g p o p u l a r i t y i n the E m p i r e , and when A t h a n a s i u s was an e x i l e a t T r i e r f r o m 335 to 337 he was b e f r i e n d e d by t h e 2 8 b i s h o p o f t h e c i t y . The p r e s e n c e o f some form o f m o n a s t i c i s m i s documented by S t . A u g u s t i n e , r e c o u n t i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f h i s f r i e n d P o n t i c i a n u s , who when v i s i t i n g T r i e r w i t h some o f h i s f r i e n d s f o u n d some s e r v a n t s o f God "poor i n s p i r i t , o f whom i s t h e kingdom o f h e a v e n " and "where t h e y had f o u n d a l i t t l e book i n 29 w h i c h was w r i t t e n t h e l i f e o f A n t h o n y . " Whether t h e d w e l l i n g where t h e f r i e n d s f o u n d t h e monks was a m o n a s t e r y i s n o t known. I t c o u l d have been S t . Maximin Abbey, w h i c h i s o u t s i d e the w a l l s , b u t s i n c e no c e r t a i n d a t e can be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e f o u n d i n g o f t h e abbey t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n must be t r e a t e d w i t h c a u t i o n . A u s o n i u s , a C h r i s t i a n who was b o r n a t Bo r d e a u x i n 310 and became l e c t u r e r o f r h e t o r i c at t h e u n i v e r s i t y t h e r e , was c a l l e d to T r i e r i n 365 by t h e Emperor V a l e n t i n i a n I t o t e a c h h i s son G r a t i a n . A u s o n i u s i s b e s t known f o r h i s poem Mosella i n w h i c h he p r a i s e s t h e c i t y , t h e r i v e r and t h e s p e n d i d p e o p l e o f t h e M o s e l l e v a l l e y . He a l s o d e s c r i b e s i n g r e a t d e t a i l and w i t h r e l i s h t h e many v i l l a s and p a l a c e s w h i c h a d o r n e d t h e 31 banks o f t h e r i v e r and the h i l l s s u r r o u n d i n g i t . S t . M a r t i n o f T o u r s was a f r e q u e n t v i s i t o r to T r i e r , even 3 2 an h o n o u r e d g u e s t a t t h e c o u r t o f V a l e n t i n i a n . Some o f t h e e a r l y churches a r e known from e x c a v a t i o n s , - 24 -33 others from c h r o n i c l e s . With the exception of the Twin B a s i l i c a they are a l l o u t s i d e the c i t y w a l l s w i t h i n the b u r i a l grounds, and i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e that T r i e r ' s f i r s t c a t h e d r a l may have been i n the south cemetery St. M a t t h i a s , where remains of Roman foundations and numerous E a r l y C h r i s t i a n 34 sarcophagi were found. In the cemetery under the Chapel of St. Q u i r i n u s the s o - c a l l e d Cella Eucharii has r e c e n t l y been excavated, d a t i n g from the t h i r d century and b e l i e v e d to have been the b u r i a l p l a c e of St. E u c h a r i u s , the f i r s t Bishop of T r i e r . This cella could w e l l have been the f i r s t c a t h e d r a l 35 and was d e d i c a t e d to St. John the E v a n g e l i s t . A map showing the l o c a t i o n of the E a r l y C h r i s t i a n churches and a l s o the pagan c u l t s i t e s and v i l l a s around the c i t y might demonstrate the slow growth of C h r i s t i a n i t y out-s i d e the c i t y ( f i g . 7 ) , although i t i s best to be c a u t i o u s s i n c e very l i t t l e has been excavated t h e r e . However, s i n c e C h r i s t i a n i t y i s b e l i e v e d to have been spread by merchants of Greek or S y r i a n o r i g i n who came to the C i t y of T r i e r from Gaul, i t can be assumed that paganism was s t i l l very 3 6 a c t i v e i n the c o u n t r y s i d e . In the c i t y the growth of C h r i s t i a n i t y l e f t i t s mark not only on the b u i l d i n g s but a l s o 37 on small a r t i f a c t s and e s p e c i a l l y on sarcophagi. One of the best known and s p l e n d i d l y decorated i s the s o - c a l l e d Noah Sarcophagus (pl.X) found i n the v i c i n i t y of St. M a t t h i a s . From a l l t h i s i t i s evident that C h r i s t i a n i t y was w e l l estab-l i s h e d i n the c i t y when Constantine decided to b u i l d h i s Twin B a s i l i c a . - 2 5 -F i g . 7 2 and 10 - Twin B a s i l i c a (the south church was l a t e r a l s o known as St. L a u r e n t i u s ) E. Wightman, p.233. - 26 -NOTES - CHAPTER ^11 ^"John H. Wyttenbach, The Stranger's Guide to the Roman AntLqultx.es of the City of Treves, ed. by Dawson Turner (London: John W. Parker, 1839), p. 22. Although the i d e n t i t y of the p a n e g y r i s t i s unknown, Wyttenbach, a 19th century h i s t o r i a n , a s s o c i a t e d Eumenius with t h i s eulogy, which the l a t t e r r e c i t e d i n 310 during the c i t y ' s " b i r t h d a y " c e l e b r a t i o n s i n the presence of the Emperor Constantine. When Wyttenbach wrote h i s Stranger's Guide i n 1839, n e i t h e r the c i r c u s nor the forum had been d i s c o v e r e d ; but excavations during the past t h i r t y years have brought to l i g h t the forum and the p o s s i b l e s i t e of the c i r c u s . (Wightman, Roman Trier, pp. 102-3). The d i s c o v e r y of the w e l l preserved Polydus mosaic i n the p e r i s t y l e house near the Imperial Baths perhaps provides f u r t h e r proof of the e x i s t e n c e of a c i r c u s i n the second century ( p l a t e s X I , X I I ) . (Wilhelm Reusch, "Wandmalereien und Mosaikboden eines P e r i -styl-Hauses im B e r e i c h der Kaiserthermen," Trierer Zeitschrift, 29 (1966), p.220). Another source i s S t . Augustine who, although he never a c t u a l l y v i s i t e d T r i e r , r e c a l l s the s t o r y of h i s f r i e n d P o n t i c i a n u s and three of h i s companions who " j u s t when I do not know, but i t was at T r i e r , one a f t e r n o o n , when the emperor was a t t e n d i n g the games at the c i r c u s . . . " ( S a i n t Augustine, The Confessions, t r a n s , by John K. Ryan (New York: Image Books, 1960), p.192). Wyttenbach suggests that the " b a s i l i c a " r e f e r r e d to by the p a n e g y r i s t may have been the r o y a l b u i l d i n g which preceded the present Dom. He d i d not, of course, r e a l i z e i n 1839 that the present Dom stands on foundations of an e a r l i e r church complex, the C o n s t a n t i n i a n Twin B a s i l i c a , which indeed was b u i l t on the r u i n s of a r o y a l p a l a c e . The seat of j u s t i c e could have been the aula palatium or aula regia now known as the B a s i l i k a and used s i n c e 1856 as a church. I t i s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d that t h i s m a g n i f i c e n t and towering b u i l d i n g was a r o y a l audience h a l l and most probably formed part of the i m p e r i a l palace complex. (Wilhelm Reusch, Die rOmische Basilika als Palastaula Kaiser Konstantins des Grossen, ( T r i e r : V o l k s -f r e u n d - D r u c k e r e i , 1956, p.2). L i t t l e d i d Wyttenbach know that h i s f a i t h i n the p a n e g y r i s t would be confirmed by archaeology a mere hundred years l a t e r . He f e e l s t h a t , a l l o w i n g f o r " r h e t o r i c a l f l o u r i s h e s " and "exaggerated imagery of the language and thoughts" one cannot doubt that the f a c t s r e p o r t e d were founded on t r u t h . (Wyttenbach, Stranger's Guide, p.23, f o o t n o t e ) . 2 Wightman, Roman Trier, p.58. Ibid. - 2 7 -4 Hans E i d e n , "Ausgrabungen im s p S t a n t i k e n T r i e r , " Neue Ausgrabungen i n Deu.tschland ( B e r l i n : V e r l a g Gebr. Mann, 1958), p.344. 5 Ibid. ^Wightman, Roman Trier, p.98. ^ W i l h e l m R e u s c h , Treveris. A Guide through Roman Trier ( T r i e r : P a u l i n u s - V e r l a g , 1971), p.34. ^Ibid., p.28. 9 E i d e n , Ausgrabungen, p.344. ^~®Ibid. , p.366 , f o o t n o t e 12. Video circum maximum, aemulum, credo, Romano, video basilicas et forum, opera regia, sedemque iustitiae in tantam altitudinem suscitari, ut se sideribus et caelo digna et vicina promittant. Quae certe omnia sunt praesentiae tuae munera... ^ E u g e n Ewig., Merowingerreich, p.79, f o o t n o t e 93. The p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e o f 60 000 was b a s e d by Ewig on c a l c u l a t i o n s made by F. L o t and F. V e r c a u t e r e n . F. L o t (La Gaule, P a r i s , 1947) s t a t e s t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200-250 p e o p l e can be assumed p e r h e c t a r e ( 2 , 5 a c r e s ) and F. V e r c a u t e r e n (Etude sur les Civitates de la Belgique Seconde, B r u x e l l e s , 1934) f e e l s t h a t o n l y 110-200 p e o p l e p e r h e c t a r e s h o u l d be a l l o w e d . T r i e r i n t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y had grown to e n v e l o p an a r e a a p p r o x i m a t e l y 300 h e c t a r e s ( 7 5 0 a c r e s ) and c o u l d w e l l have accommodated 60 000 p e o p l e . E i d e n (Ausgrabungen, p.366 , f o o t n o t e 8) s u g g e s t s a f i g u r e o f 70 000 - 80 000, and comments t h a t t h e p r e s e n t - d a y C i t y o f T r i e r w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e o f 85 000 i n 1958 had n o t r e a l l y s u r p a s s e d t h e s i z e i n l a t e Roman t i m e s . 12 T h e o d o r K. Kempf, Legende Uberlieferung Forschung ( T r i e r : B i s c h H f l i c h e s Museum, 1959), p.7. 13 Ewig, Merowingerreich, p.79. 14 Kempf, Legende, p.8. - 28 -1 5 Ibid. 16Ibxd. ^^ Ibid. , p . 9 . 18 Eiden, Ausgrabungen, p. 341. 19 ibid., p.365. 20 Ibid. 21 J . Hubert, "Les c a t h e d r a l e s doubles de l a Gaule," Genava, IX (1963), p.109. 22 Ewig, Merowingerreich, p.29. 23 Wightman, Roman Trier, p.227. 24 Ewig, Merowingerreich, p.29. 25 Kempf, Legende, p.8. 2 6 Ewig, Merowingerreich, pp. 30-31; 2 7 Kempf, Legende, p.16. 2 8 Wightman, Roman Trier, p . 227. 29 St. Augustine, Confessions, p.192. 30 Wightman, Roman Trier, p.228. 31 Ausonius, Liber X, Mosella , ed. by C. Hosius (Marburg: 1894) 3 2 Wightman, Roman Trier, p.228. 33Ibid., p.229. - 29 -34 Heinz Ctfppers, "Das GrHberfeld i n St. Matthias i n T r i e r , " Friihchristliche Zeugnisse i.m Einzugsgebiet von Rhein und Mo&el ( T r i e r : P a u l i n u s - V e r l a g , 1965), p.173. 35 Wightman, Roman Trier, p.230. 36 Ewig, Merowingerreich, p.28. 37 Wightman, Roman Trier, p.234. - 30 -CHAPTER I I I The L o c a t i o n of the Twin B a s i l i c a i n the C i t y Plan The Plan shows the Twin B a s i l i c a i n the double insulae at the north-east corner of the c i t y g r i d , about 300 metres from the Roman c i t y w a l l ( f i g . 8 ) . Excavations undertaken by Kempf i n 1958 r e v e a l e d that t h i s p a r t of the c i t y had been s e t t l e d c o n t i n u o u s l y from the second h a l f of the f i r s t century A.D. and became q u i t e densely populated i n the t h i r d century.''' Under Constantius Chlorus and h i s son Constantine I a number of b u i l d i n g s , which had s u f f e r e d s e v e r e l y during the Germanic i n v a s i o n s of 274-275, were dismantled and l e v e l l e d to make room f o r a comprehensive b u i l d i n g program i n that part of the c i t y which was l a t e r to accommodate the Twin B a s i l i c a . At that time part of the cardo between the two Insulae of the present Dom-Liebfrauen complex was 2 c l o s e d . As the p l a n c l e a r l y demonstrates, the s i t e of the Twin B a s i l i c a i s l o c a t e d on the same north—south axxs as the aula regia (the present ' B a s i l i k a ' ) , the Imperial Baths (Kaiserthermen) and the A l t b a c h Sanctuary (Tempelbezirk). Scholars now agree that the whole area must have been at l e a s t planned as a coherent palace complex across the eastern h a l f of the c i t y ( p i . X I I I ) . 3 - 31. -P l a n o f l a t e Roman ( 4 t h c e n t u r y ) T r i e r w i t h l o c a t i o n o f Twin B a s i l i c a , b u i l t u nder C o n s t a n t i n e 326 A.D. A M P H I T H E A T E R V • • • • • • • [ ••••••• . .n,[ ] • • • • • • ^ ••[ jnnnnnnionn Dnnnnn TRIER : GRUNDRISS DER SPATANTIKEN STADT ALTCHRISTLICHE BISCHOFSKIRCHE HEUTE DOM UND LIEBFRAUEN F i g . 8 K. Kempf. " T r i e r e r Domgrabungen 1943-1954." Neue A u s -g r a b u n g e n i n D e u t s c h l a n d , 1958, p.371. - 32 -The "Roman Core" T r a d i t i o n of a Roman o r i g i n of the Dom at T r i e r has never 4 been l o s t . The o l d e s t source i s the Vita S. Helenae w r i t t e n i n the n i n t h century by a monk, Altmann of H a u t v i l l e r s , i n which he a s s o c i a t e s the Empress Helena with the o r i g i n of the c a t h e d r a l . A c c o r d i n g to the vita, Helena gave her palace to Bishop A g r i c i u s of T r i e r to convert i n t o a church.~* Although the s t o r y of the donation may not have any h i s t o r i c a l credence i t i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , an important proof that the c a t h e d r a l was at that time considered a Roman b u i l d i n g . The s t o r y of the palace g i f t was subsequently t r a n s m i t t e d i n t o l a t e r c h r o n i c l e s . What the monk Altmann saw i n the n i n t h century and what came to be known as the "Roman Core" was that p a r t of the Roman b a s i l i c a which i s s t i l l v i s i b l e today to a height of almost t h i r t y metres, forming p a r t of the present east c h o i r ( p i . XIV) and which gives the present Romanesque Dom an overwhelming sense of space and an un-medieval a i r (pi. X V ) . The "Roman Core" has been the subject of much re s e a r c h and s p e c u l a t i o n during the past two hundred years. Scholars have t r i e d to e s t a b l i s h i t s date as w e l l as to i n t e r p r e t i t s f u n c t i o n , which indeed appears to be the key f a c t o r i n under-standing the whole idea of the Twin B a s i l i c a at T r i e r and i t s uniqueness and importance i n the context of f o u r t h - c e n t u r y - 33 -C h r i s t i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e i n general and C o n s t a n t i n i a n church b u i l d i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r . I t was not u n t i l the n i n e t e e n t h century, however, that s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h began i n t o the h i s t o r y of T r i e r ' s Dom, and i t was the a r c h i t e c t , Ch. W. Schmidt, who i n 1839 f i r s t a s s o c i a t e d the "Roman Core" with a C o n s t a n t i n i a n church foundation. However, a few years l a t e r i n 1852, Wilmowsky undertook excavations i n the same area of the Dom and found a G r a t i a n i c c o i n embedded i n the Roman s t r a t a which appeared to make a C o n s t a n t i n i a n date d o u b t f u l , ^ and seemed to prove that the Helena s t o r y was h i s t o r i c a l l y unacceptable. In 1922 F. Oelmann p u b l i s h e d h i s f i n d i n g s i n a comprehensive g work which at the same time summarized previous r e s e a r c h . He o f f e r e d a new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the "Roman Core" by c o n s i d e r i n g the fo u r main elements of the s t r u c t u r e : s p a t i a l form, facade, font and t r i b u n e i n order to f i n d the b u i l d i n g genus f o r which these elements were t y p i c a l i n Roman days. He saw i n the s t r u c t u r e a r o y a l audience h a l l , modelled on the i m p e r i a l palace at C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , which was l a t e r used as the court of j u s t i c e when, most probably i n 390 A.D., the c i t y ceased to be an i m p e r i a l r e s i d e n c e . It was only when the whole a d m i n i s t r a t i o n moved to A r i e s at the beginning of the f i f t h century, Oelmann thought, that the bishop of T r i e r converted the h a l l i n t o a church. - 34 -Since Oelmann's p u b l i c a t i o n of the book, on the Dom s p e c u l a t i o n s on the f u n c t i o n of the b u i l d i n g have continued. As l a t e as 1922 Kentenich s t i l l favoured a s e c u l a r d e s i g n a t i o n , 9 a p a l a t i a l r e s i d e n c e of a hig h Roman o f f i c i a l . Krencker, however, had a l r e a d y suggested i n 1925 that from the outset a t h r e e - a i s l e d E a r l y C h r i s t i a n b a s i l i c a l h a l l was at l e a s t planned, i f not executed. He argued that "from an a r c h i t e c -t o n i c p e r c e p t i o n of space the un u s u a l l y wide arches of the west f r o n t of the 'Roman Core' f o r c e d him i n t o the assumption that such a b a s i l i c a l h a l l was indeed p l a n n e d . " ^ He drew-a t t e n t i o n to E a r l y C h r i s t i a n churches such as St. Menas i n Egypt and St. John i n Damascus. The polygon i n the centre of the "Roman Core" he i n t e r p r e t e d as an a l t a r base or the remains of a martyrium. Krencker expressed the d e s i r e to excavate below the c a t h e d r a l square where he hoped to f i n d remains of the b a s i l i c a l h a l l , a wish that was not granted to him, but to Dr. Kempf some twenty years l a t e r , a f t e r foundations of b u i l d i n g s of C o n s t a n t i n i a n age were d i s c o v e r e d during excavations f o r a water r e s e r v o i r o u t s i d e the Dom i n the c a t h e d r a l square. P l a t e s XVI and XVII might give some idea of two s c h o l a r s ' attempts to reconstruct the "Roman Core" ( p l a t e s XVI and XVII). Permission was granted to Dr. Kempf and h i s team of a r c h a e o l o g i s t s by the c i t y ' s works department to excavate from A p r i l to September, 1943. The ensuing r e s u l t s surpassed - 35 -a l l e x p e c t a t i o n s ' . ' ^ T r a c e s o f a b a s i l i c a ! h a l l were f o u n d -t h e n o r t h - e a s t c o r n e r and two column b a s e s f r o m t h e c e n t r e a i s l e - as w e l l as r e m a i n s o f an atrfum. A v e r y i m p o r t a n t d i s c o v e r y d u r i n g t h e s e e x c a v a t i o n s , was made w h i c h e n a b l e d Dr. Kempf to d a t e a t l e a s t p a r t o f t h e complex f i r m l y . A c a n a l l e a d i n g f r o m t h e c e n t r e o f t h e atrium t o w a r d s th e s t r e e t and most p r o b a b l y coming from a f o u n t a i n c o n t a i n e d a number o f c o i n s . F o u r t e e n o f t h e s e , d a t i n g f r o m 337 to 348, were embedded i n the s o i l s u r r o u n d i n g t h e t r e n c h and one, d a t i n g f r o m 324, was f o u n d i n t h e c a n a l i t s e l f . Kempf now s u g g e s t s the p e r i o d 324 to 348 as t h e c e r t a i n terminus ante 12 e t post quern non f o r t h e b u i l d i n g complex. Thus A t h a n a s i u s ' s t a t e m e n t t h a t i n 346 he f o u n d the c a t h e d r a l c h u r c h a t T r i e r u n f i n i s h e d , would be c o n f i r m e d . What A t h a n a s i u s a c t u a l l y saw 13 was t h e u n f i n i s h e d f i r s t e x p a n s i o n of t h e n o r t h c h u r c h . The e x c a v a t i o n s o f 1943 c l e a r e d a number o f m i s c o n c e p t i o n s about t h e o r i g i n o f the Dom and L i e b f r a u e n , and i t was e s t a b -l i s h e d t h a t t h e "Roman C o r e " , the s q u a r e s a n c t u a r y , was from t h e o u t s e t a p a r t o f a l a r g e r c h u r c h , d a t i n g from C o n s t a n t i n i a n t i m e s and c o m p l e t e d n o t l a t e r t h a n 348 A.D. - 36 -The D i s c o v e r y of the C e i l i n g Frescoes Although many problems were l e f t unanswered when f u r t h e r excavations'were i n t e r r u p t e d i n September 1943 because of the war, the e s s e n t i a l p a r t of the mystery of the s o - c a l l e d "Roman Core" was s o l v e d with Kempf's d i s c o v e r y of the b a s i l i c a l h a l l and atr£um. War took i t s t o l l and on August 14, 1944, L i e b f r a u e n , the church south of the Dom and connected with i t , was damaged by bombs and badly burnt. On November 2, 1944, s h e l l s h i t the western apse of the Dom and three f u r t h e r r a i d s i n December of that year destroyed much of the Dom - L i e b f r a u e n complex i n c l u d i n g the t r e a s u r y and the c l o i s t e r s . As with many th i n g s these t r a g i c events had a p o s i t i v e r e s u l t i n that permission was given to Kempf and h i s team i n October, 1945, to continue t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . During the excavations i n the c h o i r area of the Dom the polygon i n s i d e the "Roman Core" was brought to l i g h t again; ( i t had o r i g i n a l l y been d i s c o v e r e d by Wilmowsky i n 1874). It was now e s t a b l i s h e d that the polygon was twelve-sided and not t e n - s i d e d as p r e v i o u s l y b e l i e v e d and that i t was round i n s i d e . Close comparison to the A n a s t a s i s i n Jerusalem and the N a t i v i t y i n Bethlehem now l e d Kempf to suspect that the b a s i l i c a l h a l l uncovered i n 1943 might have terminated i n a 14 memoria h o l d i n g an important r e l i c of C h r i s t . F urther excavations i n the c h o i r area created great - 37 -excitement among the a r c h a e o l o g i s t s and a r t h i s t o r i a n s . Below the polygon, remains of a palace c e i l i n g with f r e s c o e s were found which Kempf j u s t l y c a l l e d "the most important d i s c o v e r y at T r i e r to date" ( f i g . 9 ) . 1 5 Some 50 000 p i e c e s of p a i n t e d p l a s t e r fragments were c o l l e c t e d and a f i v e - y e a r p r o j e c t of r e s t o r a t i o n began. Seven of the panels have now been completed ( p l a t e s XVIII and XIX). U n f o r t u n a t e l y the s i z e of the room which the c e l l i n g covered could not be e s t a b l i s h e d because of subsequent b u i l d i n g phases. But on account of the p o s i t i o n i n which the f a l l e n f r e s c o e s were found they were recovered i n an e x c e l l e n t s t a t e of p r e s e r v a t i o n . Scholars g e n e r a l l y agree that the busts i n the panels a l t e r -n a t i n g with dancing p u t t i are p o r t r a i t s of three r o y a l l a d i e s of Constantine's immediate f a m i l y : Helena, wife of Constantine's son C r i s p u s , Helena, mother of Constantine, and Fausta, h i s w i f e . There does not seem to be a consensus among s c h o l a r s as to the i d e n t i t y of the busts i n the i n d i v i d u a l panels, although Kempf and A. A l f r J l d i agree that the lady h o l d i n g the jewels ( p i . XIX) i s Fausta and that the bust i n the centre i s a p o r t r a i t of Helena, mother of C o n s t a n t i n e . ^ Kempf sees i n t h i s d i s c o v e r y f u r t h e r proof that the Helena legend of the palace donation can no longer be dismissed as "mere medieval f a n t a s y . " ^ ^  - 38 -T R I E R , D O M : jOSTABSCHLUSS 0E& ALTCHftisTlicHEN a isCHOFSKkcHE Zjrrr: l 1 I I . 1 — • K O N ST A NTIN i s C H E BAs i i JKA 1 C o n s t a n t i n i a n B a s i l i c a 2 2 5 2 3 GRATIA w i s e HE ft UMBAU... G r a t i a n ' s E x p a n s i o n © • POLYGONALE ANLAQE P o l y g o n (D s Q U A D R A T P O o i u M (D = & & I A G E DBS PRUNKSAAtES m 5 H H H h 25 m P l a t f o r m L o c a t i o n o f P a l a c e H a l l w i t h C e i l i n g F r e s c o e s F i g . 9 From Th. K. Kempf, F r t i h c h r i s t l i c h e Z e u g n i s s e , 1965, p.237 - 3 9 -The D i s c o v e r y o f t h e T w i n B a s i l i c a D u r i n g t h e 1 9 4 5 - 4 6 e x c a v a t i o n s i n t h e Dom t r a c e s o f a s o u t h p o r t a l i n t h e s o u t h - w e s t c o r n e r o f t h e s q u a r e s a n c t u a r y w e r e f o u n d as w e l l as a w a l l a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l t o t h e one d i s c o v e r e d e a r l i e r i n t h e atrium. T h i s l e d t o t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t much more was y e t t o be u n c o v e r e d and t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n -a l l i n k i n g o f t h e Dom w i t h L i e b f r a u e n m i g h t r e s t on s o l i d g r o u n d . Kempf had a l r e a d y s u g g e s t e d t h e p r e s e n c e o f a d o u b l e b a s i l i c a l c o m p l e x a t T r i e r l i k e t h a t known a t A q u i l e i a t h r o u g h e x c a v a t i o n s and a t P r i m u l i a c u m i n A q u i t a i n e t h r o u g h a l e t t e r o f P a u l i n u s d f N o l a t o h i s f r i e n d S u l p i c i u s S e v e r u s . S i n c e a b a p t i s t e r y h a d a l r e a d y b e e n d i s c o v e r e d i n 1 9 0 6 b y K u t z b a c h t o t h e s o u t h o f t h e "Roman C o r e " , t h e s u p p o s i t i o n o f a t w i n b a s i l i c a g a i n e d f u r t h e r c r e d e n c e and was f i n a l l y c o n f i r m e d i n 1 9 4 8 when r e m a i n s o f a s o u t h b a s i l i c a o f C o n s t a n t i n i a n d a t e w e r e e x c a v a t e d . A r e p o r t was p u b l i s h e d on J u n e 1 4 , 1 9 4 6 by a s p e c i a l c o m m i s s i o n o f t h e C a t h e d r a l C h a p t e r o f T r i e r a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h e w o r k t h a t had b e e n done s i n c e 1 9 4 3 and r e c o g n i z i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f d o i n g f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e o r i g i n o f 1 8 T r i e r ' s c a t h e d r a l . I n t h e r e p o r t t h e c o m m i s s i o n p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e n u m e r o u s C h r i s t i a n r e m a i n s a l r e a d y f o u n d i n t h e Dom a r e a made i t i m p e r a t i v e t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h o r o u g h l y t h e w h o l e t e r r a i n . " T h e r e i s e v e r y p o s s i b i l i t y " t h e r e p o r t c o n t i n u e s , " t h a t an E a r l y C h r i s t i a n d o u b l e c h u r c h c o m p l e x - 4 0 -o f the n a t u r e o f t h o s e a t A q u i l e i a , Grado and S a l o n a , w i l l 19 come t o l i g h t . " The c o m m i s s i o n a l s o f e l t t h a t T r i e r was the o n l y p o s s i b l e a r e a i n Germany ( p r e s u m a b l y b e c a u s e i t had been an i m p e r i a l r e s i d e n c e ) where one c o u l d e x p e c t s u c h a complex, and t h a t any r e s e a r c h would be o f g r e a t s i g n i f i -c a n c e . Thus began a p e r i o d of i n t e n s i v e and e x t e n s i v e e x c a v a t i o n s , w h i c h a r e s t i l l c o n t i n u i n g , and w h i c h l e d to t h e c o n f i r m a t i o n o f a C o n s t a n t i n i a n Twin B a s i l i c a i n 1 9 4 8 when f o u n d a t i o n s o f a s e c o n d b a s i l i c a were e x p o s e d below t h e p r e s e n t L i e b f r a u e n c h u r c h . D u r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r t h e whole p l a n o f t h i s s e c o n d b a s i l i c a became c l e a r and a b u i l d i n g d a t e o f 3 2 6 e s t a b l i s h e d . A h e a t i n g s y s t e m was a l s o f o u n d below a r a i s e d trlbuna. Changes i n l i t u r g i c a l r i t e s were a t t r i b u t e d t o t h r e e a l t e r a t i o n s i n t h e a l t a r a r e a , and p i e c e s o f s c r e e n f r o m two s e p a r a t e b u i l d i n g p h a s e s c o n t a i n e d g r a f f i t i , many w i t h a 20 C o n s t a n t i n i a n monogram. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n 1 9 4 9 e s t a b l i s h e d the e x t e n t o f the s o u t h b a s i l i c a t o g e t h e r w i t h atrium, narthex and n o n - a p s i d a l e a s t e r n t e r m i n a t i o n . What was now e s t a b l i s h e d was a t w i n b a s i l i c a l complex o f huge d i m e n s i o n s ( 1 5 0 x 1 1 2 m), a complex u n i q u e i n t h e E a r l y C h r i s t i a n w o r l d . A bema and ambo o f m e d i e v a l d a t e s were a l s o f o u n d , s i m i l a r to the ones p r e v i o u s l y d i s c o v e r e d i n the n o r t h b a s i l i c a , now t h e Dom. The most i m p o r t a n t d i s c o v e r y o f t h e 1 9 6 1 - 6 3 e x c a v a t i o n s i n the Dom i n t e r i o r c l a r i f i e d t h e v a r i o u s b u i l d i n g p hases o f t h e - 41 -"Roman Core" h i t h e r t o thought to belong to the G r a t i a n i c era. It was now v e r i f i e d that the f i r s t square sanctuary was b u i l t over the polygon i n l a t e C o n s t a n t i n i a n times, probably s h o r t l y a f t e r 330 A.D'. , when the south b a s i l i c a had been completed. I t was r e b u i l t soon a f t e r completion of the f i r s t phase some time b e f o r e 348. I t was not p o s s i b l e to r e c o n s t r u c t p r e c i s e l y the appearance of the square sanctuary with the polygon but there are i n d i c a t i o n s that the polygon stood i n the sanctuary suJb divo. The C o n s t a n t i n i a n sanctuary was demolished or destroyed, then r e b u i l t under V a l e n t i n i a n and G r a t i a n . The reasons f o r the d e m o l i t i o n are not known but.the r e s t l e s s years of 353-356 may have been r e s p o n s i b l e . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s also confirmed, that the r e b u i l d i n g of the sanctuary i n the s i x t h and eleventh c e n t u r i e s d i d not pro-duce any marked changes, and the b u i l d i n g described- by Altmann of H a u t v i l l e r s as the Helena palace was indeed G r a t i a n ' s r e b u i l d i n g of the C o n s t a n t i n i a n square sanctuary. This d i s c o v e r y seemed to have f i l l e d a most ag o n i z i n g gap i n the h i s t o r y of the o r i g i n of the Dom. - 4 2 .-The B u i l d i n g s ' of Cons tan t i n e The Complex The complex as shown i n P l a t e . X X (pi.XX) r e v e a l s two l o n g i t u d i n a l b a s i l i c a s , each of 48m l e n g t h , p a r a l l e l to each 20 other, both with a l a r g e atrium and a t r a n s e p t - t y p e narthex. Both b a s i l i c a s terminated i n a n o n - a p s i d a l r e c t i l i n e a r sanctuary. The s a n c t u a r i e s i n both b a s i l i c a s underwent at l e a s t three b u i l d i n g phases during the C o n s t a n t i n i a n era, l e a v -ing the b a s i l i c a l h a l l with transept.and atrium u n a l t e r e d . The south b a s i l i c a housed an a l t a r from the outset and the area around i t could be heated; the north b a s i l i c a contained i n i t s sanctuary a polygon, but not u n t i l the second b u i l d i n g phase. I t i s not c e r t a i n whether i n i t s f i r s t b u i l d i n g phase the north b a s i l i c a may have had an a l t a r . Connecting the two b a s i l i c a s were a square b a p t i s t e r y to the west and a t h r e e - a i s l e d h a l l to the east. Both s t r u c t u r e s are from the second b u i l d i n g phase of the twin b a s i l i c a , and the t h r e e - a i s l e d h a l l was provided with g a l l e r i e s . The purpose of t h i s h a l l has not yet been e s t a b l i s h e d . Both b a s i l i c a s were surrounded by a number of chambers, and the whole complex i n c l u d i n g the p o r t i c o e d entrances measured 150 x 112 m. I t i s b e l i e v e d that the south b a s i l i c a was completed and consecrated by 330, but the north b a s i l i c a took longer to complete. - 43 -During the. r e i g n of G r a t i a n (3 75-383) the sanctuary of the n o r t h b a s i l i c a was r e b u i l t and strengthened and m o n o l i t h i c columns c a r r i e d a baldachino over the polygon. In the south b a s i l i c a the a l t a r a l s o r e c e i v e d a ciborium surrounded by four marble columns, with steps l e a d i n g to the sanctuary from the s i d e s . The eastern t h r e e - a i s l e d connecting h a l l had an o v a l s t r u c t u r e added i n the c e n t r e ; no purpose has been suggested f o r t h i s f e a t u r e ( p i . X X I ) . - 44 -The South B a s i l i c a  Phase I. B u i l d i n g s t a r t e d i n 326 and was most probably completed 21 by 330. The south b a s i l i c a , was r e c t a n g u l a r and entered from the west through a p o r t i c o which l e d i n t o the t h r e e -a i s l e d atrium. T h i s . i n turn l e d i n t o a t r a n s e p t - t y p e narthex. Steps and a screen d i v i d e d the narthex from the b a p t i s t e r y s i t u a t e d on the north-west w a l l . The b a s i l i c a proper, measuring 32 x 48 m. terminated i n a sanctuary s l i g h t l y e l e v a t e d with a r e c t a n g u l a r p r o j e c t i o n towards the east ( p i . XXII). Two small chambers on each s i d e were a c c e s s i b l e only from the sanctuary. An a l t a r screen d i v i d e d the sanctuary from the nave; the a l t a r i t s e l f was i n the centre of the sanctuary. The sanctuary had three b u i l d i n g phases during the f o u r t h century, but the b a s i l i c a l h a l l , the t r a n s e p t - t y p e narthex and the atrium d i d not change s i g n i f i c a n t l y u n t i l the Germanic i n v a s i o n s of the f i f t h century when the whole complex s u f f e r e d 22 extensive damage and was almost completely burnt. Phase I I In about 350 A.D. the sanctuary was reduced i n s i z e . The a l t a r screen was moved back to the a l t a r perhaps to accommodate the ever growing C h r i s t i a n community. Traces of marble columns were d i s c o v e r e d i n the screen; these had marble c a p i t a l s both - 45 -white and green with acanthus p a t t e r n . Access to the two si d e chambers was now p o s s i b l e from,the s i d e a i s l e s . Thus the two f i r s t b u i l d i n g phases belong to the C o n s t a n t i n i a n era, and the numerous g r a f f i t i found i n the a l t a r screens had C h r i s t i a n acclamations such, as Vivas In Deo Chxisto and even C o n s t a n t i n i a n monograms. Nearly a l l c a r r i e d the Christogram. Phase I I I Under G r a t i a n the sanctuary was again r e b u i l t . In order to e r e c t a ciborium around the a l t a r , the screen was now moved back again towards the west some s i x f e e t i n t o the b a s i l i c a proper. A new screen of tubuli was now b u i l t to make the screen l i g h t e r than i t s p r e d e c e s s o r s . - 4 6 -The North B a s i l i c a The b u i l d i n g h i s t o r y of the n o r t h b a s i l i c a i s more complex. I t has always been known that the s o - c a l l e d "Roman Core" was the square sanctuary which terminated the east end of the b a s i l i c a . I t i s t h i s sanctuary that has posed so many problems to the a r c h a e o l o g i s t s and a r t h i s t o r i a n s throughout the past hundred years and was f o r a long time the main focus of e xtensive r e s e a r c h . Not u n t i l , the b a s i l i c a l h a l l and atrium were exposed i n 1943 were some of the c o n t r o v e r s i e s removed. Phase I The n o r t h b a s i l i c a measured 37 x 48 m and was approached i n the same way as the south b a s i l i c a through a p o r t i c o e d entrance i n the west. From here the worshipper was l e d i n t o a narthex and t h r e e - a i s l e d atrium. The entrance, however, 23 took the form of an e l a b o r a t e a r c h . From the atrium the t h r e e - a i s l e d b a s i l i c a was reached which terminated, as d i d the south b a s i l i c a , i n a r e c t i l i n e a r sanctuary. I t , too, 24 was f l a n k e d on each s i d e by two chambers and was e l e v a t e d . The sanctuary had four b u i l d i n g phases dur i n g the C o n s t a n t i n i a n r e i g n but the b a s i l i c a l h a l l r e c e i v e d few changes ( p i . X X I I I ) . Phase II Probably soon a f t e r 330 the eastern terminus was extended (marked blue on the p l a t e ) towards the east but the b a s i l i c a l 25 h a l l r e t a i n e d i t s o l d form. Kempf suggests that the polygon - 47 -may have been b u i l t at t h i s time. Phase I I I In the t h i r d phase the n o r t h and south w a l l s of the sanctuary were strengthened and strong p i l l a r s added to the east w a l l . The sanctuary, now c o n s o l i d a t e d to the square s t r u c t u r e , was to become the unusual and much debated f e a t u r e of the b a s i l i c a . The polygon i n the centre of the square sanctuary was surrounded by s i x 12 metres high g r a n i t e m o n o l i t h i c columns with marble c a p i t a l s (green on the p l a t e ) . The b a s i l i c a l h a l l remained unchanged. Phase IV The square sanctuary was r e b u i l t on the o l d foundations (red on the p l a t e ) adding e x t e r i o r p i e r s with s p r i n g i n g arches. Two towers with i n t e r i o r s t a i r c a s e s and p i e r s were added to the n o r t h and south w a l l s . The b a s i l i c a l h a l l was abandoned at t h i s time and the church may have appeared as suggested by Krencker i n 1923 ( p i . XVII). Par t s of the foundations of phases I I and IV allowed f o r d e n d r o c h r o n o l o g i c a l examinations, and i n i t i a l r e p o r t s have confirmed b u i l d i n g dates i n the f i r s t h a l f of the f o u r t h 26 century. The reasons f o r the d e s t r u c t i o n of the C o n s t a n t i n i a n square sanctuary are not c l e a r , but c a l c i n e p i e c e s of marble of a l a r g e p i l a s t e r c a p i t a l of l a t e C o n s t a n t i n i a n date suggest - 4 8 -a f i r e which might be l i n k e d to the unrest and d i s o r d e r during 2 7 the r e i g n of Magnentius from 353-356. There may a l s o have been a r c h i t e c t u r a l reasons f o r the r e b u i l d i n g , of t h i s part of the b a s i l i c a as the C o n s t a n t i n i a n s t r u c t u r e had a p p a r e n t l y sagged and t i l t e d , under i t s own. weight. V a l e n t i n i a n and h i s son G r a t i a n (367-383) dismantled the ol d s t r u c t u r e and r e b u i l t the square sanctuary. I t i s t h i s p art that i s s t i l l v i s i b l e i n the present Dom up to a height of almost 30 metres. The V a l e n t i n i a n / G r a t i a n date had been confirmed by Wilmowsky (p.33) on account of a c o i n which he had d i s c o v e r e d embedded i n the Roman s t r a t a , d a t i n g 382 A.D. Kempf uncovered.bricks whose marks are at present being c a r e f u l l y s t u d i e d i n an attempt to give f u r t h e r proof to the d a t i n g . The square sanctuary now had four inner columns of g r a n i t e with marble c a p i t a l s taken from the e a r l i e r C o n s t a n t i n i a n b u i l d i n g . (The other two columns had presumably been damaged during the unrest i n mid-fourth century; one of these columns can s t i l l be seen o u t s i d e the present west entrance of the Dom.) The e i g h t i n t e r i o r p i e r s were made.of grey sandstone with s p r i n g i n g arches; the two eastern ones s t i l l e x i s t up to a height of 18 metres; of the others only the foundations are recorded. The two p i e r s of the triumphal arch on the western w a l l s t i l l e x i s t , a l s o the foundations and part of the e l e v a t i o n of the two towers on the n o r t h and south w a l l s . - 4 9 -On the ea s t e r n w a l l the Roman stone-work can s t i l l be seen over a l a t e Romanesque arch of the east; c h o i r and the nort h and south w a l l s expose about 18 metres of Roman w a l l with p i e r s and the s p r i n g i n g of the arches. - 50 -The Twin B a s i l i c a from the F i f t h to the Ninth C e n t u r i e s . During the Germanic i n v a s i o n s of the f i f t h century the whole complex was destroyed but r e b u i l d i n g began towards the end of the century. The south b a s i l i c a , with the exception of the atrium, was f i r s t to be r e b u i l t , and i t was under Bishop N i c e t i u s (525-566) that a bema and ambo were added. In the nort h b a s i l i c a the four g r a n i t e columns of the square sanctuary had toppled and with i t the whole upper s t r u c t u r e . The sanctuary was not r e b u i l t immediately but only the polygon with i t s b a l d a c h i n o . Thus, i n the centre of the burnt-out s h e l l of the church emerged a small round martyrium; only the h i g h w a l l s of the G r a t i a n i c s t r u c t u r e had m i r a c u l o u s l y withstood the onslaught. Bishop N i c e t i u s r e s t o r e d the square sanctuary with the a i d of masons c a l l e d from Lombardy. Instead of the g r a n i t e columns four l i m e -stone p i e r s were er e c t e d using bases and c a p i t a l s of a ruin e d second-century pagan temple. Major p a r t s of the p i e r arches and some of the stone-work of the towers from that p e r i o d are preserved and bear witness to the e x t r a o r d i n a r y a r c h i t e c t u r a l achievements north of the Alps at that time. To overcome the v a r y i n g ground l e v e l s between the square sanctuary and the nave and a i s l e s of the b a s i l i c a proper four steps and new screens were b u i l t . The l a t t e r i n t h e i r simple d e c o r a t i o n r e f l e c t the merging of Roman 2 8 and Germanic s t y l e s . - 51 -With, the b a s i l i c a l h a l l : r e s t o r e d i n the. n o r t h church, two a d d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e s belong to the Merovingian and C a r o l i h g i a n p e r i o d s : the horseshoe-shaped bema and ambo, s i m i l a r to the ones i n the south b a s i l i c a ( p i . XXIV). These f e a t u r e s are w e l l known, from Byzantine churches and demonstrate the c o n t i n u i n g . i n f l u e n c e of the Mediterranean. Both b a s i l i c a s stood e s s e n t i a l l y i n t h i s way u n t i l the Norman sacking i n 882, a f t e r which the south b a s i l i c a was r e b u i l t on a smal l e r . s c a l e under the d e d i c a t i o n aula 29 sanctae Dei Genetricis. The side a i s l e s were no longer r e s t o r e d and walled i n , and the church plan now resembled a cross with a long nave, a tran s e p t and no apse. The north b a s i l i c a r e t a i n e d the atrium but not the e l a b o r a t e p o r t i c o e d entrance (pi;XXV). In f a c t the year 882 can be regarded as the t e r m i n a t i o n of the Twin B a s i l i c a at T r i e r . - 52 -During the Norman sacking of the c i t y i n 882 the churches were again destroyed, and i t took almost a hundred years before even the rubble was c l e a r e d . Under Archbishop Egbert (977-993) the square sanctuary i n the n o r t h b a s i l i c a was r e b u i l t but the remainder of the b a s i l i c a abandoned. Only the south b a s i l i c a was completely r e s t o r e d but here, the s i d e a i s l e s of the b a s i l i c a l h a l l were abandoned, the i n t e r - c o l u m n i a t i o n walled i n and a shortened t r a n s e p t erected i n f r o n t of the east c h o i r . The whole complex was w a l l e d i n during t h i s p e r i o d , g i v i n g immunity to the e p i s c o p a l t e r r i t o r y around the complex 30 of one thousand C a r o l i n g i a n f e e t . The w a l l was r e i n f o r c e d by gates and towers, and i n 958 Archbishop H e i n r i c h erected a cross on a Roman column i n the centre a x i s of the n o r t h b a s i l i c a , which stood some 17 metres over the ruined h a l l . Today, t h i s column with i t s cross stands i n the centre of the main market square as a reminder of the Roman and C h r i s t i a n h e r i t a g e of the c i t y ( p i . XXVI). The present Romanesque Dom had i t s . o r i g i n i n the 11th century when Archbishop Poppo began to.^rebuild the n o r t h 3 1 b a s i l i c a , then known as the domus Dominae Helenae. In the year 1028 Poppo went to the Holy Land and brought back with him, one presumes, an a r c h i t e c t who was f a m i l i a r with Byzantine b u i l d i n g techniques. The Popponian Dom s t i l l r e t a i n e d the G r a t i a n i c square sanctuary i n c o r p o r a t i n g i t i n the new c a t h e d r a l ( p i . XXVII). - 53 -NOTES - CHAPTER I I I 1 T h . K. Kempf, " T r i e r e r Domgrabungen 1943-1954," Neue Ausgrabungen in Deutschland ( B e r l i n : V e r l a g Gebr. Mann, 1959), p.370. From the second century onward the settlement on the s i t e became denser and t r a c e s of p a l a t i a l homes were found. Most of the mosaics found i n T r i e r come from t h i s a r e a. There were sign s of more b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y i n the t h i r d century, a l s o paved roads f l a n k e d by colonnades. More use was made of the l o c a l sandstone i n these t h i r d century b u i l d i n g s , which was l e s s expensive than the lime stone of e a r l i e r b u i l d i n g p e r i o d s . The d e s t r u c t i o n of the c i t y l e f t a t h i c k l a y e r of ash, but from the s o i l l a y e r on top of the ash i t i s evident that b u i l d i n g took p l a c e soon a f t e r the f i r e s . 2 Ibid. , p.371. 3 Wilhelm Reusch, "Die spHtantike K a i s e r r e s i d e n z T r i e r im L i c h t e neuer Ausgrabungen," ArchSologischer Anzeiger, LXXVII (1962), pp.878-880. ^F. Oelmann, "Zur Deutung des rcfmischen Kernes im T r i e r e r Dom," Bonner Jahrbllcher, CXXVII (1922), p.138. 5Ibid., p.139. Ibid., p.140. ^Nikolaus I r s c h , Der Dom zu Trier, v o l . 13, Die Kunst-denkmSler der Rheinprovinz , (Dtls s e l dor f : V e r l a g L. Schwann, 1931), p.68. g Oelmann, Bonner Jahrbllcher, pp. 130-142 . q Th. K. Kempf, "Die a l t c h r i s t l i c h e B i s c h o f s k i r c h e T r i e r s , " Trierer Theologische Zeitschrift, v o l . 56, No. 2 (February, 1947), p.34. 10Ibid. - 54 -''"'''Th. K. Kempf, "Die a l t chr i s t l i c h e B i s c h o f s k i r c h e T r i e r s , " Trierer Theologische Zeitschrift, v o l . 56 , Nos. 3/4 ( M a r c h / A p r i l , 1 9 4 7 ) , pp. 1 1 8 - 1 1 9 . 12Ibid., pp. 1 1 9 - 1 2 0 . 1 3 J 2 ? i d . 14 Th. K. Kempf, "Die Erforschung e i n e r a l t c h r i s t l i c h e n B i s c h o f s k i r c h e auf deutschem Boden," Forschungen und Fort-schritte, 2 6 , Nos. 19/20 (October, 1950) , p.246. ^"*Th. K. Kempf, Legende, p.1 7 . *^Th. K. Kempf, "Die k o n s t a n t i n i s c h e Deckenmalereien," Friihchristliche Zeugnisse im Einzugsgebiet von Rhein und Mosel, ed. by Wilhelm Reusch ( T r i e r : P a u l i n u s - V e r l a g , 1 9 6 5 ) , pp. 2 2 4 - 2 4 5 . I t has been suggested that Fausta and C r i s p u s were a s s a s s i n a t e d by Constantine because of an incestuous r e l a t i o n -s h i p ; or that p o l i t i c a l expediency and ambitions on the p a r t of Helena, mother of Constantine, were the reasons. *^Th. K. Kempf, "Die E r f o r s c h u n g . . . " Forschungen und Fortschritte, 2 6 , No. 19 /20 (October, 1 9 5 0 ) , p.247. 1 8 Th. K. Kempf, Trierer Theologische Zeitschrift, v o l . 5 6 , No; 6 (June, 1 9 4 7 ) , p.189 , note 9 9 . 19Ibid. 20 Kempf, Forschungen, p.247. 2 1 Th. K. Kempf, "Grundrissentwicklung und Baugeschichte des T r i e r e r Domes," Das Miinster 21 ( 1 9 6 8 ) , pp. 1 -32 . 22 Th. K. Kempf,.Zeugnisse, pp. 2 2 3 - 2 2 5 . 23 Richard Krautheimer, Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture (Harmondsworth, Middx.: Penguin Books L t d . , 1965) , p.27 . - 55 -Th. K. Kempf, "Zur Baugeschichte des T r i e r e r Domes nach Ergebnissen Dendrochronologischer Unter suchungen , 11 Kunst-chronik, 21, No. 6 (June, 1968), p.165. Kempf, Das Mtinster, 21, pp.1-6. Kempf, Kunstchronik, 21, pp. 165-6. Kempf, Das Mtinster, 21, pp.1-2. Eduard Hegel, "Die r h e i n i s c h e K i r c h e i n rrJmischer und f r S n k i s c h e r Z e i t , " Das Erste Jahrtausend. Kunst und Kultur im werdenden Abendland an Rhein und Ruhr, ed. by V i c t o r H. E l b e r n , v o l . 1 (Dtisseldorf: V e r l a g L. Schwann, 1964), pp.107-8. 2 9 A l o i s Thomas, "Der Dom zu T r i e r , " Das Mtinster, II (1958) , pp. 55-6. 30 Kempf, Neue Ausgrabungen, p.379 31 Kempf, Das Mtinster, 21, p.6. - 56 -CHAPTER IV T r i e r ' s Twin B a s i l i c a as Fourth Century A r c h i t e c t u r e But h i s g r e a t e s t g i f t s were to the churches of God. (Eusebius IV, 28) "Ever s i n c e Augustus, p u b l i c monumental a r c h i t e c t u r e has been the major concern of Roman emperors;" these were Richard Krautheimer's opening remarks to the Congress f o r C h r i s t i a n archaeology at T r i e r i n 1965, which had as i t s theme "The C o n s t a n t i n i a n Imperial House and C h r i s t i a n A r t i n the Fourth Century."'' Krautheimer s t a t e s f u r t h e r that Roman p u b l i c b u i l d i n g became a powerful instrument of p o l i -t i c a l propaganda designed to impress the world and to enhance the genius of the emperor. The emperor appeared as the planner and b u i l d e r of these monuments as r e f l e c t e d i n d e d i c a t i o n s and t h i s concept reached i t s peak i n the l a t e Roman Empire. Constantine's immense b u i l d i n g program must be seen i n 2 t h i s context. Whereas i n p r e - C o n s t a n t i n i a n days r e l i g i o u s b u i l d i n g d i d not play a predominant r o l e - as much emphasis was put on p u b l i c s e c u l a r b u i l d i n g complexes, such as the forum b a s i l i c a s , the baths and the places of entertainment -Constantine's major concern, however, was r e l i g i o u s b u i l d i n g , and t h i s became a powerful p o l i t i c a l t o o l f o r him. He c e r t a i n l y appears to be the b u i l d e r of many of the great churches of the f o u r t h century, and Eusebius h i s biographer, speaks of g i f t s to churches, sometimes i n the form of land g r a n t s , of donations of palaces and of p r e c i o u s g i f t s f o r the - 57 -3 enrichment and d e c o r a t i o n of churches. Although Eusebius has o f t e n been accused of being biased he i s an important source f o r that p e r i o d , and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d i s c o v e r y i n recent years has o f t e n proved him to be c o r r e c t . C onstantine, i n h i s r o l e as the P r o t e c t o r of C h r i s t i a n i t y , wanted to r a i s e the church from o b s c u r i t y to the highest p u b l i c sphere of i n f l u e n c e , and thus the house of God, h i t h e r t o inconspicuous, now had to be an ex a l t e d p l a c e and to be conceived of as p u b l i c monumental a r c h i t e c t u r e . We see i n Constantine the p r i n c i p a l b u i l d e r of at l e a s t the l a r g e churches and church complexes, such as St. John Lateran and St. Peter's i n Rome, the Holy Sepulchre and N a t i v i t y i n the Holy Land, and the e a r l y Hagia Sophia and Hagia E i r e n e i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . His involvement with the a c t u a l b u i l d i n g program extended 4 to p r o v i d i n g e x p e r t i s e and labour; he admonished bishops to see that churches were erected or enlarged; and, as i n the case of Jerusalem, the bishop was t o l d to make the b a s i l i c a at Golgotha "the most b e a u t i f u l anywhere and to outshine the f i n e s t s t r u c t u r e s i n any c i t y . " ^ The maintenance of the b u i l d i n g s was guaranteed by i m p e r i a l donations, and the l a v i s h d e c o r a t i o n s came from the i m p e r i a l c o f f e r s . ^ In the case of T r i e r , Kempf f e e l s that the emperor was indeed the b u i l d e r , and to the palace i s added a church.^ - 58 -Despite Eusebius' claims of Constantine's g e n e r o s i t y to the Church and h i s . g i f t s of land f o r the b u i l d i n g of churches, g i t i s unfortunate that so few are known from e x c a v a t i o n s . However, those that are known are monumental s t r u c t u r e s , such as the Lateran B a s i l i c a , St. Peter's and Santa Croce i n Gerusalemme at Rome, Golgotha, Bethlehem and Mamre i n the Holy Land, and the Twin B a s i l i c a at T r i e r . Of h i s churches i n Con s t a n t i n o p l e l i t t l e has remained and they are only known from l i t e r a t u r e . There were other churches b u i l t during the r e i g n of Constantine, but i n Krautheimer's o p i n i o n they were 9 " l o c a l l y f i n a n c e d . " For i n s t a n c e , he does not f e e l that the twin h a l l s at A q u i l e i a were founded by Con s t a n t i n e . In the context of C o n s t a n t i n i a n church a r c h i t e c t u r e the twin b a s i l i c a s at T r i e r i n t h e i r f i r s t b u i l d i n g phase f i t i n t o the category ' b a s i l i c a ' as seen i n St. John Lateran i n Rome ( p i . XXVIII). This does not mean that a l l C o n s t a n t i n i a n b a s i l i c a l churches were e x a c t l y the same. Despite many foundations, the v a r i e t y i n plan and c o n s t r u c t i o n i s s t r i k i n g . There are churches with s i n g l e h a l l s , such as A q u i l e i a , r.o r a i s l e d h a l l s as i n T r i e r . A s h l a r was used at A q u i l e i a and concrete faced with b r i c k at T r i e r . In the Lat e r a n B a s i l i c a the nave terminated i n an apse, at T r i e r i n a r e c t a n g u l a r chancel bay. I t seems f a i r l y obvious that l o c a l custom i s i n v o l v e d here. At T r i e r , most of the l a t e Roman monumental b u i l d i n g s were c o n s t r u c t e d of concrete and the l o c a l l y made - 59 -b r i c k , such as the aula regia and the Kaiserthermen ( p i . V I I I ) . Thus, with the Peace of the Church a f t e r the E d i c t of Milan i n 313, C h r i s t i a n c u l t b u i l d i n g comes i n t o the sphere of p u b l i c monumental a r c h i t e c t u r e , and i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that the l i t u r g y of the Church, which had been formulated i n the t h i r d century - and has not changed s i n c e i n i t s fundamental aspects - had some r i t e s added with the aim of emphasizing the ceremonial of the s e r v i c e . ' " C o n s i d e r i n g the impressive e c c l e s i a s t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s i n the Empire's c a p i t a l s , and the numerous c l e r g y who took part i n the worship, i t i s c l e a r that the f i r s t entrance p r o c e s s i o n of. the c l e r g y from.the secretarium to the a l t a r was an act of great importance and s i g n i f i c a n c e . " ' Egger sees i n the change of the r i t u a l a c o n t i n u a t i o n of Roman custom and i n p a r t i c u l a r of i m p e r i a l ceremonial and emperor c u l t . 1 2 The Roman emperor c u l t manifested i t s e l f mainly i n the d e i f i c a t i o n of the dead emperor, symbolized by the a p o t h e o s i s ; and i n the l a t e Empire t h i s d e i f i c a t i o n . w a s a l r e a d y accorded 1 3 to the l i v i n g emperor. C h r i s t i a n i t y now assumes t h i s c u l t r o l e under the auspices of Constantine. Egger f e e l s that because of t h i s , s i m i l a r i t i e s e x i s t i n the e x p r e s s i o n of the ceremony i n the l i t u r g y . He goes on to speculate that the solemn p r o c e s s i o n s were only p o s s i b l e i n a l o n g i t u d i n a l h a l l which a f f o r d e d a n a t u r a l route from the entrance.to the f o c a l p o i n t , which was e i t h e r the cathedra or l a t e r the a l t a r . And as i s w e l l known from s t i l l e x i s t i n g C o n s t a n t i n i a n churches - 60 -or those known from excavations, a great number of these new churches were b a s i l i c a s of the kind that were known from the Roman s e c u l a r a r c h i t e c t u r e . I t i s known that there were v a r i a t i o n s i n the l i t u r g y of the f o u r t h century, not only i n the eastern or western r i t e s , but a l s o r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the west. The problems of l i t u r g i c a l customs and t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on the House of God.are by no means easy to s o l v e , s i n c e w r i t t e n records are extremely scanty and i n a c c u r a t e , and l o c a l r i t u a l and importance of the c i t y must be considered along with l i t u r g i c a l p r a c t i c e s . I t i s not the purpose of t h i s paper to t r a c e the o r i g i n of the C h r i s t i a n b a s i l i c a . ; most s c h o l a r s now agree that the genus sprang from Roman p u b l i c a r c h i t e c t u r e with the exception of the c e n t r a l - p l a n m a r t y r i a which belong to a d i f f e r e n t 14 category. Krautheimer f e e l s that the C o n s t a n t i n i a n churches "are but v a r i a n t s on the age-old genus of Roman b a s i l i c a which f o r c e n t u r i e s had sprouted i n dozens of v a r i a n t s , both i n f u n c t i o n and d e s i g n . " ^ By the f o u r t h century b a s i l i c a s with s i d e a i s l e s went out of f a s h i o n and, i n s t e a d , d e c i d e d l y l o n g i t u d i n a l b u i l d i n g s with w e l l - l i t i n t e r i o r s and entrances on the short side came to the f o r e . "The e a r l y years of the f o u r t h century witness a break-up and a renewal of the c a t e -16 gory b a s i l i c a , " and C o n s t a n t i n i a n church b u i l d i n g f i n d s i t s place w i t h i n t h i s renewal. In Krautheimer's terms the genus b a s i l i c a r e f e r s to a f u n c t i o n r a t h e r than a s t r u c t u r e , - 61 -an assembly h a l l f o r meetings of any kind . ^  In these terms, a l l f o u r t h century churches were b a s i l i c a s i n that they were assembly h a l l s whose f u n c t i o n i t was to serve C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o u s meetings. However, the preponderant type of those a c t u a l l y known to have been founded by Constantine seems to have been the l o n g i t u d i n a l b a s i l i c a with nave and a i s l e s and the entrance on the s h o r t , west s i d e , o pposite the apse; the l a t t e r was u s u a l l y at the east end. The West, from Rome to T r i e r , seems to have favoured a p l a n with a very long nave and a i s l e s , whereas i n P a l e s t i n e and p o s s i b l y at C o n s t a n t i n o p l e 18 a s h o r t e r nave and aisles', were p r e f e r r e d . There seems to have been no normal type of b a s i l i c a ; the p a r i s h churches and p r o v i n c i a l b a s i l i c a s seem to have been simple h a l l s , as f o r i n s t a n c e i n t h e . " f i r s t b u i l d i n g phase at A q u i l e i a (Appendix) but i t appears that i n the important c i t i e s d u r i n g the r e i g n of Constantine, churches were c o n s t r u c t e d on a more l a v i s h and grander scale*. True, the h a l l s at A q u i l e i a were r i c h l y decorated with mosaics, and d e s p i t e Krautheimer's comments with regard to Constantine's patronage (p.58), the mosaics 19 show d e f i n i t e connections with the Imperial House. KShler's work on the s o - c a l l e d Donor Mosaics at A q u i l e i a ' s double church gives c o n v i n c i n g evidence of Constantine's and h i s 20 f a m i l y ' s involvement with the church at A q u i l e i a . A case could, f o r i n s t a n c e , be made f o r the s i m i l a r i t y between the Donor Mosaics at A q u i l e i a and the C e i l i n g Frescoes below the polygon at T r i e r ' s n o r t h b a s i l i c a . Both c i t i e s were i m p e r i a l - 62 -r e s i d e n c e s i n the l a t e t h i r d and f o u r t h c e n t u r i e s , and .Maximian favoured A q u i l e i a over T r i e r . Maximian's daughter Fausta married Constantine, and i t i s b e l i e v e d that d u r i n g one of the l a t t e r ' s v i s i t s to the i m p e r i a l r e s i d e n c e at A q u i l e i a he.became engaged to Fausta. KShler, i n c o n t r a s t to Krautheimer, f e e l s that the mosaics give proof of Constantine's founding of the churches at A q u i l e i a . It could be argued that the h a l l s were not b u i l t at the same time; i n f a c t the n o r t h church has now been.given a date of 308 by most s c h o l a r s , and that the south church, i n which the Donor Mosaics were found, may have been founded by Constantine soon a f t e r the Peace of the Church i n 313. In t h i s connection i t may be i n t e r e s t i n g to note that soon a f t e r the south church was completed the n o r t h church at A q u i l e i a was expanded and f o l l o w e d a b a s i l i c a l plan of nave and two a i s l e s . This was a f t e r the 21 Lateran B a s i l i c a had been b u i l t . In Krautheimer's view the C h r i s t i a n b a s i l i c a evolved i n 22 A.D. 313 with Constantine's b u i l d i n g of the. L a t e r a n B a s i l i c a . From that date b a s i l i c a s with l o n g i t u d i n a l naves and f l a n k e d by a i s l e s , e i t h e r two or f o u r , became common-place among church b u i l d i n g s , and by 325-330 i t was widely accepted i n 23 the c a p i t a l s and the Holy Land. In Trier., as i n Rome, the b a s i l i c a was b u i l t on the s i t e of an i m p e r i a l p a l a c e , and as such T r i e r ' s Twin B a s i l i c a takes prominence over A q u i l e i a and the other known twin b a s i l i c a s of the f o u r t h century. In s i z e , T r i e r ' s b a s i l i c a compares - 63 -with St. John L a t e r a n , and i t s two h a l l s were designed to 24 seat a congregation not much smal l e r than the L a t e r a n ' s . Not only i n s i z e d i d T r i e r d i f f e r from the "modest bi s h o p s ' church at A q u i l e i a , " but i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n and d e c o r a t i o n were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r i c h e r . T r i e r ' s b a s i l i c a l complex measured 112' x 150 m, both h a l l s were t h r e e - a i s l e d l o n g i t u -d i n a l h a l l s with a high nave.and c l e a r s t o r y windows; each h a l l had a vast atrium i n f r o n t , the north church a l s o a narthex west of the atrium, and both were f l a n k e d by p o r t i -coed c o u r t s . The north b a s i l i c a was entered through a monumental gate, probably i n the shape of a triumphal arch, f a c i n g the s t r e e t . In both h a l l s , a s e c t i o n near the entrance was screened o f f , p o s s i b l y f o r the withdrawal of the c a t e -chumens . 2 ^  T r i e r , then, can be l i n k e d f i r s t l y with the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the Lateran B a s i l i c a through both b a s i l i c a s i n t h e i r f i r s t b u i l d i n g phase, although each i s a v a r i a n t on the L a t e r a n . As Krautheimer puts i t , the a c t u a l plan of the Lateran was 2 6 never copied. Up to 330 Rome was the undisputed c a p i t a l of the Empire and T r i e r the c a p i t a l of the North, i n c l u d i n g Gaul. T r i e r a l s o was a f a v o u r i t e r e s i d e n c e of Constantine and h i s f a m i l y . The Lateran plan was not only a p r e s t i g e o u s f o u n t a i n head but a l s o most s u i t a b l e f o r C h r i s t i a n r i t u a l , e s p e c i a l l y i n an i m p e r i a l c i t y where the emperor c u l t was a dominant f a c t o r . Krautheimer suggests that connotations of the emperor c u l t are most patent i n churches s u b s i d i z e d - 64 -2 7 by the i m p e r i a l house. I t should a l s o be remembered that although C h r i s t i a n i t y had been given freedom from p e r s e c u t i o n and was even encouraged, the great m a j o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n were s t i l l pagan and steeped i n Roman i m p e r i a l c u l t i d e o l o g y . The C h r i s t i a n church, and the foundation of the Emperor had to be a monumental and p r e s t i g e o u s s t r u c t u r e , which could be adapted to the v a r y i n g l i t u r g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s . St. Peter's B a s i l i c a i n Rome may a l s o have served as a model f o r the north b a s i l i c a at T r i e r , i f the l a t t e r i s considered a martyrium. Kempf supports t h i s view s i n c e he sees i n the polygon a memoria h o l d i n g a p r e c i o u s r e l i c . In the same way the Twin B a s i l i c a at T r i e r , and e s p e c i a l l y the North B a s i l i c a i n i t s t h i r d and f o u r t h C o n s t a n t i n i a n b u i l d i n g phases, can be l i k e n e d to the churches at Jerusalem and Bethlehem over the holy s i t e s , (plates "XXIX and XXX). The Church of the Holy Sepulchre was begun i n 327 and the complex c o n s i s t e d of a monumental pxopylaea at the east, a shallow atrium, a f i v e - a i s l e d b a s i l i c a of reversed o r i e n t a -t i o n - the Martyrion - and beyond i t an arcaded c o u r t with the Calvary and the Tomb, cut f r e e i n the centre of a hemicycle 2 8 at the west. The Tomb, Eusebius r e p o r t s , was decorated with columns,and a number of E a r l y C h r i s t i a n i v o r i e s and p a i n t i n g s show, a b u i l d i n g which could w e l l be a true r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n of C o n s t a n t i n e ' s b u i l d i n g of the Tomb. L a t e r on a Rotunda was b u i l t over the tomb, f o r which the d a t i n g has - 65 -posed many problems. Eusebius a s c r i b e s the Rotunda to 29 Constantine and gives i t a date of 335-337; the Bordeaux P i l g r i m mentions only the Martyrium i n 333. The L e c t u r e s of C y r i l of Jerusalem would seem to give c l e a r evidence that 3 0 the Rotunda e x i s t e d i n 348. His Mystagogical L e c t u r e s give proof that the Rotunda was an enclosed space, s i n c e these l e c t u r e s could only be given to the b a p t i z e d and had to be given i n an enclosed area. I t i s suggested that Constantine at l e a s t planned and a u t h o r i z e d the b u i l d i n g of 31 the Rotunda before h i s death i n 337. The Church of the N a t i v i t y had - l i k e Jerusalem and p o s s i b l y T r i e r - a c h r i s t o l o g i c a l martyrium, the N a t i v i t y Grotto at the end of the east apse of the b a s i l i c a . I t was b u i l t around 325-330 and the Bordeaux P i l g r i m saw "a b a s i l i c a 32 b u i l t on orders of C o n s t a n t i n e . " The Grotto i s octagonal and b u i l t over the cave where t r a d i t i o n p l a c e s the b i r t h of C h r i s t . The i n s i d e of the octagon i s c i r c u l a r , j u s t as i s the i n t e r i o r of the polygon at T r i e r . Comparing the two P a l e s t i n i a n b a s i l i c a s and i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e i r c h r i s t o l o g i c a l m a r t y r i a with the plan of the north b a s i l i c a at T r i e r i n i t s second b u i l d i n g phase, the s i m i l a r i -t i e s are indeed s t r i k i n g and, as Kempf puts i t , these are the only churches with which T r i e r can be compared as a 3 3 C h r i s t i a n c u l t s t r u c t u r e ( p i . XXXI) . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by Kempf of the polygon at T r i e r as a c h r i s t o l o g i c a l martyrium i s c o n v i n c i n g l y argued, when he a s s o c i a t e s the c l o t h r e l i c - 66 -of the Holy Robe, the most p r e c i o u s r e l i c of the T r i e r Dom, 34 with the polygon. Kempf's attempted r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the polygon i n i t s f i r s t b u i l d i n g phase w i l l demonstrate a great s i m i l a r i t y with the Holy Sepulchre, and p o s s i b l y with the N a t i v i t y ( p i . XXXII). The c l o t h r e l i c , known as The Holy Robe, i s very s i m i l a r to other c l o t h s , which have been documented i n Roman churches s i n c e e a r l y medieval times. These r e l i c s seem to have been extremely popular i n the f o u r t h century when the c u l t of the r e l i c s spread throughout the C h r i s t i a n church. The a c t u a l robe, now i n the Dom Treasury at T r i e r , i s wrapped i n s i l k and gauze, and i t s m a t e r i a l has been i d e n t i f i e d as c o tton which was an expensive and p r e c i o u s m a t e r i a l d u r i n g the time of C h r i s t . The wrapping m a t e r i a l has been dated to the e i g h t h - n i n t h c e n t u r i e s . Kempf sees i n t h i s proof of the presence of The Robe at that time; that i t was not e x h i b i t e d however, at that time but kept i n a s e c r e t h i d i n g p l a c e . It was common p r a c t i c e i n the e a r l y church not to e x h i b i t r e l i c s uncovered and t h i s custom was not changed u n t i l the t h i r t e e n t h 35 century. One of the reasons f o r t h i s was f e a r of the 3 6 consequences of such a " s a c r i l e g i o u s " a c t . The s t o r y of the Holy Robe can be t r a c e d d i r e c t l y from w r i t t e n records back to the e l e v e n t h century; and i n d i r e c t l y by a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence to the f o u r t h century; and t h i s i s borne out by the subsequent a r c h i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r y of the - 67 -Dom which, from i t s o r i g i n to the present day, i s determined by the po s s e s s i o n of a p r e c i o u s C h r i s t i a n r e l i c . The question here i s not whether i t can be proved that the r e l i c i s indeed the genuine t u n i c of C h r i s t ; i t i s necessary only to show that i t was venerated as such by the C h r i s t i a n s of the f o u r t h century. The Church has never asked the f a i t h f u l to b e l i e v e i n the a u t h e n t i c i t y of any r e l i c . What i s important i s the c r e d i b i l i t y of the t r a d i t i o n , and i n Kempf's view t h i s i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . He f e e l s that an important r e l i c , such as The Robe, would not have been acquired by the T r i e r church as l a t e as the t w e l f t h century. At that time the c i t y was not a very important p l a c e , e i t h e r p o l i t i c a l l y or e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l y . The r e l i c could only have come to the church at T r i e r at a time when the c i t y was at i t s z e n i t h , i n the f o u r t h century, when T r i e r was one of the most important c a p i t a l s i n the Western Roman Empire. Further proof could be found i n the f a c t that Helena, mother of Constantine, had very c l o s e t i e s w ith the c i t y and i t s bishop, A g r i c i u s . The Vita S. Helenae suggests that the mother of Constantine donated her palace 37 to A g r i c i u s to b u i l d a church. Helena v i s i t e d the Holy Land i n about 327 and t r a d i t i o n a s s o c i a t e s t h i s and subsequent v i s i t s with the d i s c o v e r y and t r a n s f e r of c h r i s t o l o g i c a l r e l i c s . Also according to t r a d i t i o n , Helena gave these r e l i c s to churches i n Rome,. Co n s t a n t i n o p l e and T r i e r . How much of t h i s i s legend and what can be proved i s a problem s t i l l and - 68 -3 8 may one day be s o l v e d by f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . Whatever the t r u t h about the Holy Robe, i t i s a f a c t that the square sanctuary i n the n o r t h b a s i l i c a at T r i e r , now the Dom, with i t s polygonal memoria i n i t s c e n t r e , was never dismantled or abandoned. Throughout the t r o u b l e d years between 400 and 1100, when i n v a s i o n s , sackings and f i r e s l e f t the Twin B a s i l i c a i n complete r u i n many times, the memoria was always the f i r s t p art to be r e b u i l t . F i n a l l y , when the b a s i l i c a l h a l l was abandoned, the square sanctuary, walled up against the empty s h e l l of the b a s i l i c a l h a l l , s t i l l stood u n t i l the eleventh century, when i t was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the new Romanesque Dom. I t i s presumed that the s h r i n e with The Robe was at that time taken out of the polygon and enshrined i n the new high a l t a r , and the polygon then b u r i e d beneath the f l o o r of the c h o i r of the new Dom. T r i e r then f i t s i n t o the E a r l y C h r i s t i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e of the f o u r t h century i n the context of what Krautheimer c a l l s the "massing i n a complex of s e v e r a l s t r u c t u r e s " which he f e e l s i s " b a s i c to C o n s t a n t i n i a n thermae and p a l a c e s , no 3 9 l e s s than to double c a t h e d r a l s " . . . Apart from the twin b a s i l i c a s known from northern I t a l y Krautheimer was no doubt r e f e r r i n g to the complexes i n the Holy Land and a l s o to St. 40 P e t e r ' s . T r i e r can be seen i n two ways: one would be the twin b a s i l i c a i n the context of massing two s t r u c t u r e s of - 69 -almost i d e n t i c a l p l a n , and of combining the b a s i l i c a with a martyrium, the case i n the North B a s i l i c a at T r i e r . A comparison with the p l a n of the e a r l y Sepulchre at Jerusalem as i t appears to have been i n 335 w i t h the p l a n of the n o r t h b a s i l i c a at T r i e r i n i t s second phase, also around that time, 41 w i l l demonstrate t h i s p o s i t i o n ( p l a t e s XXX and XXXI). Twin b a s i l i c a s of the f o u r t h century are known al s o from I s t r i a , Dalmatia and C a r i n t h i a with the e a r l i e s t , the two h a l l s at A q u i l e i a , d a t i n g from 308 and 314 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The only other twin b a s i l i c a where two h a l l s . a r e s i d e by s i d e and of almost equal s i z e , known to have been b u i l t i n the f o u r t h century, i s T r i e r ' s . More s i g n i f i c a n t l y , the only one f o r which a C o n s t a n t i n i a n foundation i s a s s u r e d . i s the one at T r i e r . The foundation of A q u i l e i a by the Emperor Constan-t i n e i s d o u b t f u l , and i t may only apply i n the case of the south h a l l which has the s o - c a l l e d donor mosaics, and which was most, probably b u i l t i n 313 or 314. Most of the other known f o u r t h century.twin b a s i l i c a s , found i n the northern A d r i a t i c area, are modelled on A q u i l e i a , and the Appendix gives a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of them. The only exception i n t h i s l i s t i s K i r c h b i c h l / L a v a n t , where the h a l l s are b u i l t on the same a x i s behind each o t h e r . I t i s probable, however, that p r a c t i c a l i t y or n e c e s s i t y d i c t a t e d by the topography were considered, s i n c e a p a r a l l e l c o n s t r u c t i o n would have been almost i m p o s s i b l e . As i n A q u i l e i a , only one of the h a l l s had an a l t a r , and t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s most probably - 70 -shared with T r i e r . A b r i e f o b s e r v a t i o n of T r i e r might suggest that i t f i t s i n t o the category of the A d r i a t i c churches, but on c l o s e r s c r u t i n y the d i f f e r e n c e s are very obvious. The f i r s t f e a t u r e i s i t s enormous s i z e , not matched by any of the other churches and comparable only to the Lateran B a s i l i c a . A l s o , i t would appear that the two types of "massing of complexes" are combined at T r i e r i n a coherent and impressive e d i f i c e . Krautheimer 1s d e f i n i t i o n of a twin b a s i l i c a excludes the type of massing of complexes where the components of atrium, b a s i l i c a and martyrium - as i n the n o r t h b a s i l i c a at T r i e r - are placed on the same a x i s ; i n h i s view they are only " p e r i p h e r a l l y connected." T h i s p o i n t could be argued, e s p e c i a l l y i n view, of h i s e a r l i e r statement that the genus 4 3 ' b a s i l i c a ' r e f e r s to a f u n c t i o n r a t h e r than a s t r u c t u r e . It seems reasonable to assume that a d u p l i c a t i o n of e d i f i c e s i n a s i n g l e u n i t alone may c o n s t i t u t e a twin b a s i l i c a . The only other known twin b a s i l i c a of the s i d e - b y - s i d e type i s at Djemila, North A f r i c a . However, the d a t i n g i s not f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d and i t may have been b u i l t i n the e a r l y f i f t h century. Outside the western part of the Empire and North A f r i c a , no twin b a s i l i c a s were found unless the type of s t r u c t u r e i n one a x i s , behind each other, i s taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Then the two complexes i n P a l e s t i n e , the Holy Sepulchre and the - 71 -twin b a s i l i c a s at Ephesos and G eras a' could a l s o be c l a s s i f i e d as such. The l a t t e r two, however, f a l l most probably o u t s i d e the f o u r t h century, and the b a s i l i c a at Ephesos was not b u i l t as one u n i t at the same time. I t seems f a i r l y c l e a r that the twin b a s i l i c a s of the f o u r t h century, with the exception of T r i e r , were c o n f i n e d to I s t r i a , Dalmatia and C a r i n t h i a , and that they a l l came under the i n f l u e n c e of A q u i l e i a . A q u i l e i a was a very important e c c l e s i a s t i c a l centre i n the e a r l y part of the f o u r t h century and her i n f l u e n c e would s t i l l be f e l t i n the more remote areas i n t o the f i f t h c entury. I t seems al s o evident that T r i e r , although g e n e r a l l y i n the same category, i s a unique s t r u c t u r e i n C o n s t a n t i n i a n church b u i l d i n g and most probably served d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s i n comparison to the A d r i a t i c churches. T r i e r enjoyed a prominent p o s i t i o n i n the Empire and her i n f l u e n c e , both p o l i t i c a l l y and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l y encompassed the northern Empire from B r i t a i n to southern Gaul, and the presence of the emperors during the whole of the f o u r t h century demanded a s p l e n d i d e d i f i c e . Since the Twin B a s i l i c a at T r i e r was a C o n s t a n t i n i a n foundation and as such s u b s i d i z e d by the i m p e r i a l house, the connotations of the Imperial c u l t 44 would have been prominently m a n i f e s t . The doubling of churches i n I s t r i a and Dalmatia may have b e e n . l o c a l t r a d i t i o n , s i n c e i n Krautheimer's view double temples had been frequent - 72 -i n that area. In T r i e r , such t r a d i t i o n has not been documented, thus the b u i l d i n g of a twin b a s i l i c a must have had d i f f e r e n t reasons. This does not preclude the p o s s i b i l i t y that the idea of the twin might have o r i g i n a t e d at A q u i l e i a a c i t y w e l l known to Con s t a n t i n e . T r i e r stands out as a unique monument i n a l i n e of E a r l y C h r i s t i a n twin b a s i l i c a s ; T r i e r presents a d i f f e r e n t dimension. - 73 -NOTES - CHAPTER IV Richard Krautheimer, " C o n s t a n t i n e f s Church Foundations," Akten des: VII. Internationalen Kongresses fiir christliche ArchRologie, Trier 5-]] September ]965, v o l . 1 ( B e r l i n : Deutsches A r c h S o i o g i s c h e s I n s t i t u t , 1965), p.237. 2Ibid., p.238. 3 Eusebius, Th'e L~i*£e of Constantine, IV, 28. 4 Krautheimer, Kongress, p.238. 5J£>id. Ibid., p . 241 . ^Theodor K. Kempf, "Die k o n s t a n t i n i s c h e Doppelkirchen-anlage i n T r i e r und i h r e Baugeschichte von 326 b i s 1000." Kunstchronik 4 (May, 1951), pp.107-109. g Krautheimer, Kongress, p.242 . 9 Ibid. '^Josef A. Jungmann, The Mass of the Roman Rite: Its Origin and Development, t r a n s , by F.A. Brunner, 2 v o l s . (New York: Benzinger Brothers Inc., 1951 and 1955), pp. 320-321. Ibi d. The sectarium i s the room near the entrance of the b a s i l i c a o p posite the apse, where the m i n i s t e r s prepared t h e i r robes f o r the d i v i n e s e r v i c e . 1 2 Gerhart Egger, "RBmischer K a i s e r k u l t und k o n s t a n t i -n i s c h e r Kirchenbau," Jahreshefte des dsterreichischen Arch&o-logischen Institutes in Wien, v o l . X L I I I (1956-58) p.125. 13 Ibid., p.12 7. - 74 -^ K r a u t h e i m e r , Kongress, p.245. 15 Richard Krautheimer, "The C o n s t a n t i n i a n B a s i l i c a , " Dumbarton Oaks- Papers, XXI (1966), p. 121. 16 Krautheimer, Kongress,p.246. ^^ Ibid. , p.245 . 1 8 Ibid., p.240. 19 Ibid., p. 2 4 3 . 20 Heinz Ka"hler, Die Stiftermosaiken in der konstantini-schen SUdklrche von Aquileia. (Ktfln: V e r l a g M. Dumont Schau-berg, 1962), p.15. 2 1 Reallexikon zur byzantinischen Kunst, ed. by Klaus Wessel and Marcel R e s t l e . 2 v o l s . ( S t u t t g a r t : Anton Hiersemann, 1963 and 1971), pp. 297-8. 22 Krautheimer, Kongress, p.250. 23 Ibid., p . 2 51. 24 Richard Krautheimer, Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture, (Harmondsworth, Middx.: Penguin Books L t d . , 1965), pp. 26-7. 25Ibid. 2 6 Krautheimer, Kongress, p.252. 2 7 Krautheimer, ECBA, p.25. 2 8 Kenneth John Conant, "The O r i g i n a l B u i l d i n g s at the Holy Sepulchre i n Jerusalem," Speculum XXXI, No. 1 (January, 195 6), p. 3. 29 Ibid., p.44. - 75 -Ibi,d . , p . 45 . L e c t u r e XIV speaks of the s i t e and " t h i s h o l y Church of the R e s u r r e c t i o n of God the Saviour." The L e c t u r e was given at " t h i s v e r y place:, of the R e s u r r e c t i o n . " On the face of i t t h i s text would seem to be c l e a r evidence that the Rotunda exis ted i n 34 8. 31 Ibid., p.4 7. 32 Krautheimer, ECBA, p.38. 33 Theodor K. Kempf, Legende Uberlieferung Forschung, ( T r i e r : BischcVfliches Museum, 1959), p. 12. Ibid., p . 7 . Ibid . , p . 6 . Ibid . , p . 5 . Pope Gregory admonished the Empress C o n s t a n t i a when she requested a r e l i c of St. Paul f o r the new b a s i l i c a she was b u i l d i n g . Gregory r e f e r r e d to Roman law and p r a c t i c e s i n the Empire that the touching of bodies (and r e l i c s ) was s a c r i l e -gious. He r e c a l l e d an i n c i d e n t to her of Pope P e l a g i u s I l ' s time. When the tomb of San Lorenzo was a c c i d e n t a l l y opened during c o n s t r u c t i o n work i n . t h e b a s i l i c a , a l l those who saw the body of San Lorenzo died w i t h i n ten days. In T r i e r i t was s a i d that under Bishop A g r i c i u s - who a c c o r d i n g to t r a -d i t i o n r e c e i v e d the Holy Robe from Helena f o r the church at T r i e r - a monk of the "highest p i e t y and h o l i n e s s " was sent to see the "mystery of the L o r d " and to r e p o r t on what he saw to the bishop. As soon as he looked i n t o the s h r i n e which held the r e l i c , he was b l i n d e d . The Robe had.never been e x h i b i t e d p r i o r to 1512; up to that time the r e l i c had-been s t o r e d i n the High A l t a r of the Romanesque Dom s i n c e 1196. It was housed i n a simple wooden sh r i n e decorated with i v o r y s l a b s , t y p i c a l of s h r i n e s of the fourth or s i x t h c e n t u r i e s but not t y p i c a l of the jewel-encrusted e l a b o r a t e r e l i q u a r i e s of the medieval and Romanesque p e r i o d s . Kempf sees i n t h i s a f u r t h e r proof that The Robe must have been at T r i e r s i n c e the s i x t h century at l e a s t i f not at the time of Helena; the l a t t e r becomes even more c r e d i b l e . - 76 -3 7 Eugen Ewig, " K a i s e r l i c h e und a p o s t o l i s c h e T r a d i t i o n im m i t t e l a l t e r l l c h e n T r i e r , " Trierer: Zeitschrift 24 -26 ( 1 9 5 6 - 5 8 ) , p. 1 5 3 . 38 Kempf, Legende, p.1 8 . 39 Krautheimer, ECBA, p.4 3 . Ibid . , p . 41 . 4 1J£>id. / p. 3 9 . 4 2 •• Richard Krautheimer, "The Twin Cathedral at Pavia, Studies in Earlg Christian, Medieval and Renaissance Art, (New York: New York U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 6 9 ) , p.1 6 5 . 4 3 Krautheimer, Kongress, p.2 4 5 . 44 Krautheimer, ECBA, p.2 5 . Ibid., p.2 4 . - 77 -CHAPTER V The f u n c t i o n s of twin b a s i l i c a s have been the subject of s p e c u l a t i o n and much r e s e a r c h i n recent years, and no c l e a r answer has yet come forward. Most s c h o l a r s seem to agree that the d i v i s i o n - at l e a s t i n the f o u r t h century -i n t o separate p l a c e s of worship f o r the f a i t h f u l and the catechumens i s a l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n -of the phenomenon. This view i s supported by the f a c t that in.almost every case on l y one of the h a l l s had an a l t a r . Lehmann i n t e r p r e t s t h i s h a l l as the church of the f a i t h f u l or the congregation, i n other words the p a r i s h church, and the other that of the catechumens or the bishop's c h u r c h . 1 He s t r e s s e s a l s o the d e d i c a t i o n of the former to the V i r g i n and the l a t t e r to a martyr. J. Hubert, i n c o n t r a s t , f e e l s that the p r e c i s e purpose which the C h r i s t i a n s i n the f o u r t h century had i n mind i n 2 e r e c t i n g the twin c a t h e d r a l s , i s not known. He goes on to say that the r i t e s of i n i t i a t i o n had l o s t much of t h e i r o r i g i n a l r i g i d i t y i n the f o u r t h century and the use of r e l i c s was not yet widespread. Krautheimer contends that the i n i t i a l d e d i c a t i o n of most schurches of the f o u r t h century i s not known and that the t i t l e of Mary did not come i n t o use i n 3 the West u n t i l the middle of the f i f t h century. At about the same time, d e d i c a t i o n s of churches, to martyrs became widespread. Thus the twin d e d i c a t i o n of Mary and a martyr may have played a p a r t . i n the churches from the f i f t h century - 78 -onward. Hubert p o i n t s out that Constantine had given the b e a u t i f u l names of E l r e n e and Sophia. - peace and wisdom -4 to the twin b a s i l i c a at C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , h i s new c a p i t a l . I t i s known that many churches of the E a r l y C h r i s t i a n era had been dedi c a t e d to C h r i s t i n one of His a t t r i b u t e s , and i t may w e l l be that the e a r l y twin c a t h e d r a l s were i n f a c t dedicated to the Saviour. L a t e r , during the f i f t h century, the one which contained the a l t a r was dedi c a t e d to the V i r g i n and the other to a martyr, who was St. Peter i n most e p i s c o p a l churches. The l a t t e r i s not s u r p r i s i n g s i n c e St. Peter has always held a s p e c i a l place i n C h r i s t i a n martyrology. Another meaning i s suggested by Pau l i n u s of Nola, who wrote to h i s f r i e n d S u l p i c i u s Severus i n 403 on the occ a s i o n of c e l e b r a t i n g the e r e c t i o n of a twin c a t h e d r a l at Pr imuliacum. The twin c a t h e d r a l - " l e temple a deux t o i t s " -with the b a p t i s t e r y i n the ce n t r e , i s symbolized by Pau l i n u s with the Old and New Testaments; the Old and the New Covenant are u n i t e d through the grace of C h r i s t i n baptism. The s t r e s s i n g of the Old and New Testaments i s expressed i n many ways i n the e a r l y , church , aand an example i s the d e c o r a t i o n of the churches at Nola by Paulinus i n . t h e e a r l y f i f t h century. He placed episodes of the New Testament i n the o l d church and of the Old Testament i n the new church. In Rome another arrangement became u s u a l ; here o p p o s i t e w a l l s of the nave were assigned to the scenes of the two testaments. The - 79 -T r i n i t y as another' symbolic meaning f o r the. twin c a t h e d r a l and b a p t i s t e r y has been suggested by Hubert i n an e a r l i e r work.^ Ancient t e x t s say l i t t l e about these twin s t r u c t u r e s and the l i t u r g y of the e a r l y church does not a s s i s t much i n e x p l a i n i n g the doubling of e d i f i c e s and why they seem to be favoured i n some regions and i n some epochs. I t i s reasonable to assume that the l i t u r g y d i d play i t s r o l e i n shaping the C h r i s t i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e but, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , the g sources are scanty and not very c l e a r . The f i r s t d e s c r i p t i o n of the Roman m a s s - r i t e comes from J u s t i n , a ph i l o s o p h e r and martyr who wrote i n Rome i n the l a t t e r h a l f of the second century. He d e s c r i b e s the f e a t u r e s most p r e v a l e n t i n Rome but, with the exception of small changes, i t i s reasonable to assume that these r i t e s were common throughout the C h r i s t i a n church and t r a v e l l e d from 9 east to west. In the second century there i s alre a d y a d i v i s i o n between the f a i t h f u l and the catechumens, those who are not yet b a p t i z e d and are under i n s t r u c t i o n ; "no one may partake of i t /"the E u c h a r i s t J unless he i s convinced of the t r u t h of our teaching and i s cleansed i n the bath of baptism."'''^ L a t e r i n the t h i r d century and the f o u r t h century the l i t u r g y changed and from now on there i s a d i v i s i o n between east and west. The L a t i n r i t e appears f i r s t i n North A f r i c a though i t s o r i g i n i s very hazy, but there are s t i l l many c o i n c i d e n c e s with o r i e n t a l u s a g e s . ^ - 80 -In general - and t h i s i s known al s o from.the eastern r i t e s — mass begins w i t h the entrance of the c l e r g y , then p r a y e r s , readings and the homily... A f t e r the homily and the p r a y e r s f o r the catechumens, the l a t t e r are asked to withdraw, and a f t e r f u r t h e r prayers over the p e n i t e n t s -i n the e a r l y church the ' s i n n e r ' was i n penitence f o r three 1 2 years - they are d i s m i s s e d . The mass proper now begins with the c l e r g y c a r r y i n g the o f f e r t o r y g i f t s i n solemn p r o c e s s i o n to the a l t a r . (In the e a r l y church t h i s was a movable t a b l e . ) The p r o c e s s i o n i s symbolic of the entrance 1 3 i n t o Jerusalem of the triumphant C h r i s t . The G a l l i c r i t e , a v a r i a n t of the Roman and used i n Gaul and the Rhenish p r o v i n c e s , leans toward splendour and c e r e -monial and t h i s would c e r t a i n l y e x p l a i n to some extent the impressive b a s i l i c a l complex at T r i e r . Although the o r i g i n s of C h r i s t i a n i t y i n T r i e r are f a r from c l e a r , i t i s thought that i t was i n t r o d u c e d i n the second century through the G a l l i c church at Lyon and spread by G a l l i c and S y r i a n 14 merchants i n whose hands most of the trade l a y . When i n the l a t e t h i r d century T r i e r became the c a p i t a l of the province Belgica Prima and Imperial r e s i d e n c e throughout the f o u r t h century, she a l s o ranked high i n church h i e r a r c h y . 1 " ' Kurzeja assumes.that although l a c k of sources make i t im p o s s i b l e to be c e r t a i n of the l i t u r g y c e l e b r a t e d at T r i e r i n the f o u r t h century, the r i t e s were those of the Church of - 81 -Rome. There was no. G a l l i c l i t u r g i c a l , centre during these e a r l y days., and i t is, of some; s i g n i f i c a n c e that i n the eighth 16 century one reads of Roman-T.re.veri l i t u r g y . There i s a d e s c r i p t i o n by Gregory of Tours of s e r v i c e s i n the c a t h e d r a l at T r i e r during the r e i g n of Bishop N i c e t i u s (525-566). 1 7 Apparently during a Sunday s e r v i c e King Theodobert and some of h i s aides entered the c a t h e d r a l where the bishop was c e l e b r a t i n g mass. The king had been excommunicated at the time and the bishop r e f u s e d to continue u n t i l the king and h i s aides had l e f t the church. I t seems f a i r l y c o n c l u s i v e that the fundamental p h i l o s o -phy i n the e a r l y church was uniform, and that the catechumens and p e n i t e n t s were not permitted t o r a t t e n d the E u c h a r i s t i c r i t e s . Whether the l i t u r g y had a l r e a d y been f o r m a l i z e d i n the f o u r t h century i n t o separate p a r t s of the mass, that of the catechumens and that of the f a i t h f u l , i s not p e r t i n e n t ; only the f a c t that the catechumens and p e n i t e n t s were asked to withdraw a f t e r the homily and p r a y e r s . Separate h a l l s could have been the l o g i c a l r e s u l t of t h i s usage, e s p e c i a l l y where the congregations were l a r g e and where the church enjoyed s p e c i a l s t a t u s . The l a t t e r would be true of T r i e r , which.'in a d d i t i o n was under Imperial patronage. In other areas the atrium or narthex,- or some adjacent room might have f i l l e d that need. In the e a r l y f i f t h century, Chrysostom, Bishop of - 82 -C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , i n d i c a t e s the presence of catechumens i n the congregation, but. does not mention a s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n . " I f you do not yet p r o f e s s that C h r i s t i s God, stand o u t s i d e and do not l i s t e n to the readings nor count y o u r s e l f among 18 the catechumens." . This suggests that the catechumens stand i n s i d e the church but i n some f a r away corner "do not hear the words of the m y s t e r i e s , but stand somewhere f a r o f f . " From Chrysostom i t i s a l s o known that converted h e r e t i c s had to go through the catechumenate before being re-admitted i n t o the church. The number of catechumenss who were thus p r e p a r i n g f o r baptism was s t i l l c o n s i d e r a b l e at the end of the f o u r t h century. I t i s f o r i n s t a n c e known that when Bishop Chrysostom was e x p e l l e d from the see of C o n s t a n t i n o p l e i n 404 there were 3000 awaiting baptism. Very l i t t l e i s known about the e a r l y ceremonial, but here too there are i n d i c a t i o n s that the l i t u r g y was more 1 9 p u b l i c i n the e a r l y days. The ceremonies were s t r u c t u r e d around a s e r i e s of f u l l - s c a l e p r o c e s s i o n a l movements which r e q u i r e d the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of e i t h e r the whole congregation 2 0 (the f i r s t entrance) or the bishop and h i s deacons. These solemn entrances r e q u i r e d f a i r l y l a r g e b u i l d i n g s with a m u l t i p l i c i t y of entrances and constant use of the atrium. The l i t u r g y was l e s s dramatic than the l a t e r medieval form, but more c l a s s i c a l and Roman i n i t s sense of Imperial d i s p l a y . The centre of importance was the apse with the cathedra where - 83 -the bishop p r e s i d e d surrounded by the deacons. Only l a t e r during, the f i f t h century i t i s the a l t a r , h i t h e r t o a movable t a b l e , which becomes the f o c a l p o i n t , but s t i l l always v i s i b l e . " Like the p l a n n i n g of the church b u i l d i n g i t s e l f , the l i t u r g y was conceived as an open a c t i o n . I t i n v o l v e d more a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the f a i t h -f u l and was performed more p u b l i c l y than the medi-ev a l l i t u r g y . " 2 * Mathews f e e l s that the v e n e r a t i o n of r e l i c s was not important i n the e a r l y church; the s i g n i f i c a n t part of worship was the l i t u r g y . Krautheimer puts forward another p o s s i b l e reason f o r the b i - p a r t i t i o n as the d i v i s i o n i n t o basilica hiemalis (winter 22 church) and the basilica aestivalis (summer church). T h i s i s documented from the l a t e n i n t h century and seems to have been p r e v a l e n t i n northern I t a l y . Arrangements l i k e t h i s are found throughout the ages i n monasteries such as Mariawilrth, Montecassino and S. Paolo f u o r i l e Mura, and a passage i n the 23 Talmud d i s t i n g u i s h e s between winter and summer synagogues. No l i t u r g i c a l reason can be found f o r such a d i v i s i o n . One e x p l a n a t i o n i s suggested by Krautheimer which might be con-s i d e r e d , and that i s the f a c t that the s m a l l e r , and u s u a l l y the south church, i s dedicated to Mary,, and that t h i s church may have been designated as the winter church because the main f e a s t to Mary f a l l s . i n the winter ( C h r i s t m a s ) . However, l i t t l e i s known of church d e d i c a t i o n s i n the f o u r t h and f i f t h - 8 4 -2 4 c e n t u r i e s and. t h e . t i t l e to Mary.only appears a f t e r 4 5 0 . Yet at T r i e r the south church, l a t e r documented, as dedic a t e d to Mary, had from the outset a heated chancel area, and as such could e a s i l y have f u n c t i o n e d as a winter church. Krautheimer does not suggest such a d i v i s i o n f o r T r i e r but i t would not be unreasonable to assume that such a f u n c t i o n may have been planned from the beginning. An added argument i n favour of such a.theory i s the absence of an a l t a r i n the north church. The r i t e s of baptism and c o n f i r m a t i o n were held at E a s t e r i n the s p r i n g , so that the north church could have been used f o r t h i s ceremony. The nort h church would have been most s u i t a b l e f o r such a ceremony which no doubt was c e l e b r a t e d with great splendour. Most s c h o l a r s seem to agree that the north b a s i l i c a at T r i e r was i n f a c t the e p i s c o p a l church - and i n the f o u r t h century only the bishop could perform the r i t e s of baptism and c o n f i r m a t i o n . When the polygon and huge square sanctuary converted the north b a s i l i c a i n t o a m a r t y r i u m - b a s i l i c a i t s f u n c t i o n may have changed but t h i s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the case. By that time, however, the c u l t of r e l i c s had become widespread i n the C h r i s t i a n Church and v i s i t i n g holy s i t e s was the goal of many p i l g r i m s . The m a r t y r i u m - b a s i l i c a in.Kempf 1s o p i n i o n must.have he l d a very important and pr e c i o u s r e l i c to merit such an e l a b o r a t e s t r u c t u r e and T r i e r must have become an important p i l g r i m a g e 2 5 centre i n the n o r t h . - 85 -Apart from baptismal, and. c o n f i r m a t i o n r i t e s the n o r t h b a s i l i c a may have been used f o r court ceremonials. I t may even have served as a meeting h a i l f o r i n s t r u c t i n g the catechumens and p e n i t e n t s . The . d i v i s i o n i n t o seasonal h a l l s may not be too s p e c u l a t i v e i n view of the h e a t i n g system i n the south church and the inclement c l i m a t e of the r e g i o n i n winter. The absence of an a l t a r i n the n o r t h b a s i l i c a gives even more credence to t h i s assumption. Whether the n o r t h b a s i l i c a had an a l t a r from the o u t s e t , which was l a t e r r e p l a c e d by the polygon i s now almost impossible to a s c e r t a i n . Grabar comments that tithe twin c a t h e d r a l type can only be explained.through l i t u r g y . In h i s o p i n i o n the south b a s i l i c a at T r i e r was the p a r i s h church - the ecclesia mater - and the north b a s i l i c a the martyrium, the l a t t e r the more e l a b o r a t e 2 6 of the two, a l s o known to be the case at Primuliacum. I t i s known from l i t u r g y that the catechumens and p e n i t e n t s were not allowed to see the E u c h a r i s t but were permitted to 27 l i s t e n to the whole c e l e b r a t i o n of the Mass. Thus, they could have withdrawn i n t o the atrium where they would s t i l l have been able to l i s t e n . In a separate b u i l d i n g t h i s may have been d i f f i c u l t , e s p e c i a l l y i n a complex as l a r g e as the one at T r i e r . And i t i s known from.other churches that the atrium was used f o r that purpose. During the f i f t h century the catechumenate g r a d u a l l y disappears and a l l members of the community.were permitted to attend the f u l l s e r v i c e , yet a great number of twin - 86 -b a s i l i c a s a r e known; to have; been b u i l t a f t e r t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y . I t has now been, e s t a b l i s h e d a t T r i e r t h a t d u r i n g t h e f i f t h and s i x t h c e n t u r i e s a bema and ambo were added i n b o t h b a s i l i c a s , w h i c h may i n d i c a t e t h a t b o t h c h u r c h e s were u s e d f o r t h e E u c h a r i s t , b u t t h a t t h e n o r t h b a s i l i c a was a l s o used f o r t h e more e l a b o r a t e c e r e m o n i e s and t h e c u l t o f r e l i c s . K r a u t h e i m e r sums up t h e d e b a t e i n h i s comments t h a t " r e c e n t d i s c o v e r i e s have b o t h . c l a r i f i e d and c o m p l i c a t e d t h e 2 8 p r o b l e m o f t h e t w i n c a t h e d r a l s . " T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f t h e f u n c t i o n s , w h i c h w i l l most c e r t a i n l y have d i f f e r e d f r o m one r e g i o n t o a n o t h e r and fr o m one epoch to a n o t h e r . Changes i n t h e l i t u r g y a t t h e end o f t h e f o u r t h and t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f i f t h c e n t u r i e s may have b r o u g h t a b o u t changes i n f u n c t i o n . The g r a d u a l a b o l i t i o n o f t h e cat e c h u m e n -a t e was one o f t h e s e c h a n g e s . A t T r i e r t h e p r o m i n e n c e o f t h e c i t y , t he i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l h i e r a r c h y , and the p a t r o n a g e o f C o n s t a n t i n e and t h e I m p e r i a l house d u r i n g the f o u r t h c e n t u r y must have been d e c i s i v e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e t w i n b a s i l i c a . The answer a t T r i e r c o u l d be a t once s i m p l e and complex, and u n l e s s more l i t e r a r y s o u r c e s a r e d i s c o v e r e d t h e p r o b l e m w i l l r e m a i n . - 87 -NOTES - CHAPTER V E. Lehmann, "Die f r i l h c h r i s t l i c h e K i r c h e n f a m i l i e n der B i s c h o f s s i t z e im deutschen Raum und i h r e Wandlung wShrend des F r i l h m i t t e l a l t e r s , " Beitr&ge zur Kunstgeschichte und ArchSologie des Frilhmittelalters. Akten zum VII. Inter-natlonalen Kongresses fur Friihmittelalterforschung, 21-28. September 1958 (Graz-Ktfln, 1962). Quoted by Richard Krautheimer, Studies in Early Christian, Medieval and Renaissance Art, (New York: New York U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1969), p.l78v 2 J . Hubert, "Les c a t h e d r a l e s doubles de l a Gaule," Genava, IX (1963), p.110. 3 Krautheimer, Studies, p.171. 4 Hubert, Genava, p;110. 5Ibid. C a e c i l i a Davis-Weyer, Early Medieval Art 300-1150, ed. H.W. Janson, (New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc., 1971), p.25. 7 J . Hubert, "Les c a t h e d r a l e s doubles et l ' h i s t o i r e de l a l i t u r g i e , " Atti.. 1 Congresso internazionale di Studi Langobardi ( S p o l e t o , 1951), p.170. 8 Thomas F. Mathews, The Early Churches of Constantinople ( U n i v e r s i t y Park: The Pennsylvania State U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ) , p.125. 9 Josef A. Jungmann, The Mzss of the Roman Rite: Its Origins and Development, t r a n s , by F.A. Brunner, 2 v o l s . (New York: Benzinger Brothers, Inc., 1951 and 1955), pp.22-3. 1 0 J 2 > i d . ^^Ibid., pp.46-7. 12 Mathews, Early Churches, p.126 Jungmann, The Mass, p.47. - 88 -14 A d a l b e r t K u r z e j a , Der Slteste Liber Ordinarius der Trierer Domkirche , ( M t i n s t e r , Westf a l e n : A s c h e n d o r f f s c h e V e r l a g s b u c h h a n d l u n g , 1970), p.6. ^^Ibid., p.7, f o o t n o t e 26. The C o u n c i l o f N i c a e a i n 325 s t a t e s i n Canons 4 and 6 t h a t a p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l s h o u l d a t t h e same time be an e c c l e s i a s t i c a l m e t r o p o l i s . The Synod o f A n t i o c h i n 341 r e i t e r a t e s t h e s e Canons. 16 Ibid. , p.7. ^Ibid., f o o t n o t e 28. 18 C h r y s o s t o m u s , I o a n n e s , I n Acta Apostolorum, Homilia I, 8. (The H o m i l i e s o f S. John C h r y s o s t o m , on t h e A c t s o f the A p o s t l e s , O x f o r d : J o hn Henry P a r k e r , 1851, p . 1 9 ) . 19 Mathews, Early Churches, p. 178. 20 Ibid . 1 1 Ibid. 22 K r a u t h e i m e r , Studies, p.164. 23 Ibid., p.170. 24 Ibid. , p . 1 7 1 . 25 Theodor K. Kempf, " D i e v o r l S u f i g e n E r g e b n i s s e d e r A u s g r a b u n g e n aus dem GelHnde des T r i e r e r Domes," Germania XXIX ( 1 9 5 1 ) , p.51. 2 6 A n d r e G r a b a r , "La b a s i l i q u e c h r e t i e n n e e t l e s themes de 1 ' a r c h i t e c t u r e s a c r a l e dans 1 ' a n t i q u i t e , " Kunstchronik 4, No.5 (May, 1951), pp.98-103. 27 J o h a n n P. K i r s c h , Die Kirche in der antiken griechisch-rOmischen Kulturwelt, ( F r e i b u r g i . B . : H e r d e r & Co., G.m.b.H., 1930), pp.333-334. 2 8 K r a u t h e i m e r , Studies, p.177. - 89a -PLATES - 89 -Limestone r e l i e f : B a t t l e between Romans and naked Barbarians R. S c h i n d l e r , 1970, p l a t e 175. - 9 0 -- 91 - P l a t e I I I Leda Mosaic - D e t a i l R. S c h i n d l e r , 1970, PI.212. - 92 - P l a t e IV Ennius - D e t a i l of Monnus Mosaic R. S c h i n d l e r , 1970, p l a t e 160. b) T r i e r - Amphitheatre 76 - 95 - P l a t e V I I - 96 -P l a t e V I I I b) T r i e r - B a s i l i k a T r i e r C o n s t a n t i n i a n Twin B a s i l i c a , a f t e r Expansion under G r a t i a n 380 A.D. R e c o n s t r u c t i o n attempt ( a c c o r d i n g to s t a t e of r e s e a r c h i n 1958) From Th.K. Kempf, Legende U b e r l i e f e r u n g Forschung, 1959, p.15. - 1 0 0 - P l a t e X I I F l o o r m o s a i c f r o m P e r i s t y l e - H o u s e below I m p e r i a l B a t h s - D e t a i l -W i l h e l m R e u s c h , 1966. P l a t e XIII S o - c a l l e d " B a s i l i k a " C athedral and Church of Our Lady I (Dom-Liebfrauen) View from the east over the C i t y to the E i f e l Mountains i n the west. ^rSch ? d p ? i 4 8 ' T r l e r ± n C e n t U ^ > s h o w i n S "Roman C o r e " i n c o r p o r a t e d C a t h e d r a l T r i e r - E a s t C h o i r / S a n e t u a r y e v i d e n c e o f u n - m e d i e v a l a p p e a r a n c e d u e t o i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f " R o m a n C o r e " - 1 0 4 - P l a t e XVI ) The West F r o n t o f the "Roman C o r e " R i g h t : R e c o n s t r u c t i o n a f t e r Wilmowsky , 1874 L e f t : R e c o n s t r u c t i o n a f t e r K r e n c k e r , 1923 - 105 -"Roman C o r e " C a t h e d r a l a t T r i e r P l a t e XVII b) A c c o r d i n g t o K r e n c k e r , 1923 - 106 - P l a t e X V I I I T r i e r - Twin B a s i l i c a C e i l i n g f r e s c o e s o f p a l a c e a u d i e n c e room, b e l o w n o r t h b a s i l i c a - 318 - 324 A.D. T r i e r T w i n B a s i l i c a P o r t r a i t B u s t o f l a d y , b e l i e v e d t o b e E m p r e s s F a u s t a ( w i f e o f C o n s t a n t i n e ) - 108 -F i r s t B u i l d i n g Phase 326-330 - Twin B a s i l i c a . T r i e r P l a t e XX Th.K. Kempf. " T r i e r e r Domgrabungen 1943-1954". Neue Aus-grabungen i n Deutschland, 1958 , p.373 . - 1 0 9 - P l a t e X X I G r a t i a n E x p a n s i o n a f t e r 3 8 0 - T w i n B a s i l i c a T r i e r ITranfce Narth pLum Three-a i s l e d H a l l L i t a Scrqen - B a s i l i c a ~Bap t i g t e r y 1 * a rrs'.e p.t a r t ilex O ' • O Q O • • • o o a • o : A t r puum D u R C H G R A B U N G C E S l C H E R T E M A U E R B E F U N D E H E U T l G E B E B A U U N G * D O M , U E B F R A U E N K i R C H E U N D K R E U 2 G A N G . Di5cncr;icr>«s K o s c -jir, T r n r , nr. Januc.' *91-fl 1 Th. K. Kempf. " T r i e r e r Domgrabungen 1943-1954." Neue Aus-grabungen i n Deutschland, 1958, p. 377. - H O - P l a t e X X I I T r i e r S o u t h B a s i l i c a - T h r e e b u i l d i n g P h a s e s f r o m 326 - 380 A.D. Phase IV i s M e r o w i n g i a n and C a r o l i n g i a n E x p a n s i o n o f S a n c t u a r y , p l u s bema i n n a v e , and S t . Andrew C h a p e l to t h e S o u t h . T e s t i n i , P. " E d i f i c i d i C u l t o D e l l e R e g i o n i C r i s t i a n e . " A r c h a e o l o g i a C r i s t i n a . Rome: D e c l e e & Co., 1958, p.694. - I l l - P l a t e X X I I I T h e S q u a r e S a n c t u a r y : I t s f o u r B u i l d i n g P h a s e s 3 2 6 - 3 4 8 . N o r t h B a s i l i c a o f T w i n B a s i l i c a C o m p l e x T r i e r P h a s e I P h a s e s I I & I I I P h a s e I V T h . K . K e m p f . " G r u n d r i s s e n t w i c k l u n g u n d B a u g e s c h i c h t e d e s T r i e r e r D o m e s . " D a s M u n s t e r 2 1 , N o . 1 ( J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y , 1 9 6 8 ) , 1 - 3 2 . - 112 -Merowingian and C a r o l i n g i a n b u i l d i n g phases P l a t e XXIV Twin B a s i l i c a T r i e r Square Sane tuar|y B ema btuary B.schb'licries Museum ln«f, in-. Jonucr . D U R C H G R A B U N G G E S t C H E R l E M A U E R B E F U N D E . H E U T l G E B E B A U U N G ; 0 0 M , L I E B F R A U E N K 1 R C H E UND K R E U Z G A N G r "1 Th.K. fempf. " T r i e r e r Domgrabungen 1943-1954." Neue Aus-grabungen i n Deutschland, 1958, p.378. i - 113 - P l a t e O t t o n i a n B u i l d i n g p h a s e a n d D e v e l o p m e n t o f C a t h e d r a l I m m u n i t y T w i n B a s i l i c a T r i e r T h . K . K e m p f . " T r i e r e r D o m g r a b u n g e n 1 9 4 3 - 1 9 5 4 . " N e u e A u s -g r a b u n g e n i n D e u t s c h l a n d , 1 9 5 8 , p . 3 7 9 . - 114 -P l a t e X X V I T h e M a r k e t C r o s s T r i e r / G e r m a n y - 958 A.D. - 115 -P l a t e X X V I I - 1 1 6 - P l a t e XXVIII R o m e : L a t e r a n B a s i l i c a , a f t e r 3 1 3 A . D . ( F r o m G . E g g e r t , J0AI 1 9 5 6 - 5 8 , p . 1 2 0 ) - 117 -- O l d S t . P e t e r ' s R o m e - C h u r c h o f t h e N a t i v i t y , B e t h l e h e m z - H o l y S e p u l c h r e , J e r u s a l e m ( F r o m J . C o n a n t , S p e c u l u m , 1 9 5 6 , p . 3 9 ) d a : • O m m BETHLEHEM JERUSALEM JERUSALEM TRIER TRIER BASILIKA MIT MEMORIA UBCR DF.R OEOURTSGROTTE HiMMELFAHRT SKIRCHE GRADESKIRCHE REKONSTRUIERTER GRUNORISS NOROKIRCHE (HEUTE DOM) BASILIKA MIT POLYGONALER MEMORIA UNO HVPOTH-TISCHEM OSTABSCHLUSS KONSTANTINISCHE DOPPELKIROiCNAIil A.'.r (HEUTE OOM UND LIEeFRA'JEN)-BAyljiV. I . I . M , NACH EINBAU DER QUADRATiSCm Ii i i i , , t UBER OER POLYGOflALEtl MEl-.'.i- /• UM 330 UM 330 3J7-335 UM 340 UM 380 From Kempf, Legende U b e r l i e f e r u n g Forschung, 1959, plans are to s c a l e . T r i e r : , ca.340 shows h y p o t h e t i c a l a p s i d a l t e r m i n a t i o n . This has now been re c o g n i z e d as being i n c o r r e c t . E a s t e r n t e r m i n a t i o n was r e c t i l i n e a r . - 1 2 0 -T r i e r : T w i n B a s i l i c a R e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f P o l y g o n a f t e r 3 3 0 A . D . ( F r o m T h . K . K e m p f , 1 9 5 9 , p . 1 5 ) J e r u s a l e m : H o l y S e p u l c h r e c - 3 3 5 A . D . d - 3 4 8 A . D . ( F r o m J . C o n a n t , S p e c u l u m 1 9 5 6 - 5 8 p . 1 7 ) - 121-SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY A l f t f l d i , A. "Zur E r k l ^ r u n g der k o n s t a n t i n i s c h e n Deckengema'lde i n T r i e r . " Historia, IV (1955), 131-162. Augustine, S a i n t . The Confessions. T r a n s l a t e d by John K . Ryan. 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Nesactium Pol a ' • " - ' S a l o n a •Jlf'axusi'najc'' •Cons t anti no-pi e /(sjalona) :. r . i . v H i . IVI 4Varcn/.o% Ravenna * •Pisa Pola) SwJcn'wj • Cor Cru J 1 'Sofia.. ~\s£,"ar.' Slaro Sagari.'anc. PlovJiy AJrianopL- v^fe.-, Skopje bvJh- , ...StanimaLa "~ Ohrj'd KAGEDONYX ^ T H R A C E % * us-S1 Orleansrille Kato Panaghia .Sai-Anchialos (ha • l/niir Ionian Diemila (Cuia A L G E R I Bone* Constantine ; (One) f vjdmila. m 3 0 0 u t —;-4 Miles —,\ i Syracuse.-' P E L O P O N N E S O S V i , m<)<? cC- . rr^-lMoncmvasia Pcrgt -Jos ^ V ^ " ? ' ^ ^ ' ^ i m o M A J a l i a ) : , h M c r i a m h k * ' / ( / ^ A m i o c h * SQSJL ' • • " W , , , R ' s a f o b f S e r g i o p o l i s , ? „ D c r c A 3 z i J f ^ X ^""'^ ^ W ^ W V.U"*™... . • X . > T R I P O L I T A N I N: ' E 'A A ' C Y R E N A 1C A Location of • 4.th dent ury twi n ' basil icas T U R K E Y E C . Y P T . P A L E S T 1 N TrebizonS (jrabzori) . A R M E N ) A A"! •Eghvard Vaglurshapal», •Dun . . . (Iznik) Hictapohs {Vamukkale) Agiha C A P P A D O C I A ' •Cclvcre - / Edcssa .Viranschir • .>• i-Vi C1L1CIA /ifita, / l 1 c j 0 f i \ {Sal a mis S Y R I A • Da/iia^ru5 GALILEE a-Cjn (ScvthopolisW ;:•*;*>«<> _ r ',. 11. \ •CcrasaClcrash)' • Hidor Abu A'l^ . \jHcrmopo!is(Ashmiincin) Dcir-cs-Suriani Cairo + 1* DcirAbu Hcnnes Sohagm Dendcrah Ll Khargah . (£/ Baqawat) , . Erment * # (Armani/-• Aswan - 133 -AQUILEIA N o r t h e r n I t a l y , n o r t h - e a s t o f V e n i c e n e a r t h e A d r i a t i c c o a s t . In Roman t i m e s t h e s h o r e was j u s t o u t s i d e t h e c i t y . D i o c e s e : A q u i l e i a - a r c h d i o c e s e . E a r l y C h r i s t i a n Twin B a s i l i c a , / t w o r e c t a n g u l a r h a l l s w i t h no a p s e s , e a c h h a v i n g thr/ee p a i r s o f s u p p o r t s d i v i d i n g t h e h a l l s i n t o t h r e e p a r t s . The n o r t h and s o u t h h a l l s a r e p a r a l l e l to e a c h o t h e r and c o n n e c t e d by a t h i r d h a l l and a d j o i n i n g chambers, one s e r v i n g as a b a p t i s t e r y . D e d i c a t i o n : n o t known. The s i t e was f i r s t e x t e n s i v e l y e x c a v a t e d by Count K. von L a n c k o r o n s k i i n t h e l a t e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y (1898) . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h was u n d e r t a k e n i n 1909 by t h e A u s t r i a n C e n t r a l Commission f o r A n c i e n t Monuments, and by t h e I t a l i a n s s i n c e 1915. Count L a n c k o r o n s k i ' s c o m p r e h e n s i v e book Der Dom von A q u i l e i a . S e i n Bau und s e i n e G e s c h i c h t e , Wien: 1906 was n o t a c c e s s i b l e to me but f r o m c o n t e m p o r a r y s o u r c e s i t was q u i t e a p p a r e n t t h a t t h i s work i s s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d t h e m a j o r key to t h e p r o b l e m s a t A q u i l e i a . The d a t i n g a l s o p r e s e n t s s e v e r a l p r o b l e m s , b u t i t i s now g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t t h e N o r t h H a l l was t h e one w h i c h was f i r s t b u i l t , and most s c h o l a r s w i l l p u t i t a r o u n d 307 by t h e B i s h o p T h e o d o r u s , who a l s o was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b u i l d i n g t h e S o u t h H a l l soon a f t e r t h e M i l a n E d i c t i n 313. N o r t h . C h u r c h R e c t a n g u l a r h a l l m e a s u r i n g 37,40 x 17,25 m w i t h t h r e e p a i r s o f s u p p o r t s / c o l u m n s d i v i d i n g t h e h a l l i n t o t h r e e a i s l e s . The s u p p o r t b a s e s a r e s t i l l v i s i b l e i n the m o s a i c f l o o r and a r e tod" s m a l l to have c a r r i e d c o l u m n s . Ka*hler s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y must have been s l i m p i l l a r s . The m o s a i c f l o o r i s i n v e r y good c o n d i t i o n w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f t h a t p a r t w h i c h was t a k e n up by t h e b a s e o f t h e 9 t h c e n t u r y c a m p a n i l e . I t was b u i l t by B i s h o p T h e o d o r u s and most p r o b a b l y used f o r t h e catechumen o n l y a f t e r t h e s o u t h h a l l and t h e c o n n e c t i n g v e s t i b u l e were b u i l t . Some s c h o l a r s s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s h a l l was o r i g i n a l l y an o r a t o r i u m and n o t a p r o p e r c h u r c h . Towards the s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e 4 t h c e n t u r y t h i s h a l l was expanded to 73,40 x 30,95 m to accommodate the g r o w i n g C h r i s t i a n community. T h i s i s commonly c a l l e d A q u i l e i a I I , and some s c h o l a r s s u g g e s t t h a t o n l y with t h i s e x p a n s i o n can one speak of a t w i n b a s i l i c a a t A q u i l e i a . ( J . F i n k ) . - 134 -K H h l e r f e e l s t h a t t h e n o r t h h a l l i s t h e o l d e s t autonomous c h u r c h s t r u c t u r e . A l l o l d e r c h u r c h e s were h o u s e s c o n v e r t e d f o r C h r i s t i a n r i t e s , and he r e f e r s i n p a r t i c u l a r t o t h e house c h u r c h a t Dura E u r o p o s J and i f t h e r e have been p u r p o s e - b u i l t c h u r c h e s , s u c h as a r e assumed i n N o r t h A f r i c a , t h e y a r e no l o n g e r known. So u t h C h u r c h R e c t a n g u l a r h a l l m e a s u r i n g 37,40 x 21 m, a g a i n w i t h t h r e e p a i r s o f s u p p o r t s d i v i d i n g t h e h a l l i n t o t h r e e a i s l e s . The s o u t h h a l l i s a l m o s t 4 m w i d e r t h a n t h e n o r t h h a l l and l i e s 28 m f r o m t h e s m a l l e r and o l d e r c h u r c h . I t i s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d t h a t t h i s h a l l was b u i l t a r o u n d 313. The m o s a i c f l o o r i n t h i s c h u r c h i s e x t r e m e l y w e l l p r e s e r v e d and o f h i g h q u a l i t y , and s t i l l p r e s e r v e d i n t h e p r e s e n t c a t h e d r a l a t A q u i l e i a . C o n n e c t i n g the .two h a l l c h u r c h e s i s a n o t h e r h a l l i n the west o f 13 m w i d t h , a l s o d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s p a c e s by f o u r c o l u m n s . T h i s room may a l s o have s e r v e d f o r r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s ; t h e r e a r e t r a c e s of a c h a n c e l s c r e e n and b a s e s w h i c h may have b e l o n g e d to a mensa. T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e h a l l may have been u s e d f o r t h e agape, t h e meal f o r t h e whole c o n g r e g a t i o n . In t h e c e n t r e o f t h e complex was a l o n g c o r r i d o r a b o u t 4,50 m wide w h i c h had a d o o r a t e a c h end ( t h e n o r t h door was d e s t r o y e d when t h e c a m p a n i l e was b u i l t ) . K ^ h l e r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e e a s t e r n s i d e chambers were most p r o b a b l y u s e d by t h e b i s h o p as l i v i n g q u a r t e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f i c e s . A l l t h e s e rooms had m o s a i c f l o o r s . The n o r t h -e a s t e r n o p e n i n g was t h e a c t u a l e n t r a n c e to the complex. Of t h e c e i l i n g s o n l y f r a g m e n t s r e m a i n . I t a p p e a r s to have been a s t u c c o e d c o f f e r e d c e i l i n g , o c t a g o n a l and s q u a r e c o f f e r s a l t e r n a t i n g i n d a r k and l i g h t r e d , b l u e and y e l l o w . (The same p a t t e r n o r s i m i l a r was f o u n d a l s o i n the T r i e r t w i n b a s i l i c a ) . The complex a t A q u i l e i a c o u l d p r o b a b l y be t h e c o n n e c t i n g l i n k between t h e house c h u r c h complex a t Dur a E u r o p o s and the t w i n b a s i l i c a complex a t T r i e r . A q u i l e i a does n o t a p p e a r to have t h e b a s i l i c a l c h a r a c t e r t h a t T r i e r shows and was b u i l t b e f o r e t h e f i r s t C o n s t a n t i n i a n c h u r c h i n Rome, t h e L a t e r a n . K H h l e r comments t h a t i f t h e i d e a o f th e b a s i l i c a l c h u r c h as se e n i n t h e L a t e r a n had a l r e a d y been c o n c e p t u a l i z e d , t h e f o u n d a t i o n a t A q u i l e i a w o u l d have been b u i l t i n t h e same b a s i l i c a l f o r m . K H h l e r goes on to say t h a t a f t e r t h e L a t e r a n a l l C o n s t a n t i n i a n f o u n d a t i o n s were b a s i l i c a l c h u r c h e s , such as S t . P e t e r s and S t . P a u l ' s i n Rome, H o l y S e p u l c h r e and N a t i v i t y . - 135 -B i b l i o g r a p h y B r u s i n , Giovanni. "Die Ausgrabungen von A q u i l e i a und Grado." Kunstchronik 4, Heft 5 (May, 1951) 104-105. Corb e t t , G.U.S. "A Note on the Arrangement of the E a r l y C h r i s t i a n B u i l d i n g s at A q u i l e i a . " R i v i s t a d i a r c h e o l o g i a c r i s t i n a 32 (1956), 99-106. Fink. J . "Der Ursprung der S l t e s t e n K i r c h e n am Domplatz von A q u i l e i a . " Mtlnsterrische Forschungen, vol.7 (1954). Mtinchen/Ko'ln: Bilhlau-Verlag , 1954. G n i r s , Anton. "Zur Frage der c h r i s t l i c h e n K u l t a n l a g e n aus der e r s t e n H S l f t e des v i e r t e n Jahrhunderts im Os t e r -r e i c h i s c h e n KUstenland." J a h r e s h e f t des O s t e r r e i c h i s c h e n  Archa'ologischen I n s t i t u t e s i n Wien XX, B e i b l a t t (1919) , 166-206. Ka"hler, Heinz. Die Spa*tantiken. Bauten unter dem Dom von  A q u i l e i a und i h r e S t e l l u n g i n n e r h a l b der Geschichte  des f r u h c h r i s t l i c h e n Kirchenbaues. Saarbrllcken: U n i v e r s l t H t des Saarlandes, 1957. Die S t i f t e r m o s a i k e n i n der k o n s t a n t i n i s c h e n SUdkirche von A q u i l e i a . KcVln: V e r l a g M. Dumont Schauberg, 1962 . Die fartlhe K i r c h e . K u l t und Kultraum. B e r l i n : Gebr. Mann V e r l a g , 1972. Kl a u s e r , Theodor. Review of K^ h l e r ' s S t i f t e r m o s a i k e n i n Jahrbuch f l l r A n t i k e und Christentum. v o l 7 (1964) , 158-161. Krautheimer, R i c h a r d . E a r l y C h r i s t i a n and Byzantine A r c h i t e c t u r e . Harmondsworth, Middx.: Penguin Books • L t d . , 1965. R e a l l e x i k o n zur B y z a n t i n i s c h e n Kunst. E d i t e d by Klaus Wessel and Marcel R e s t l e . 4 v o l s (2 p u b l i s h e d ) . S t u t t g a r t : Anton Hiersemann, 1963 and 1971. - 1 3 6 -R e a l l e x i k o n z u r B y z a n t i n i s c h e n K u n s t . Abb. 1. Aquileia, Tliooclorituiixcho u. vortlu A Oratoriumskircho mit don Mamitkon dm I'rcsbyteriums B Unterirdisch,er, Gang, dureh don man die Oratoriuiu.sUi relic bet rat C O.steingang zur Oratoriuirwkircho und Kinn Katcehiimonon mit Mosaikfold D Hiunnen t'iir die FuDwasehung F BnptisUM'iumsfundameiit (! AbfluOrohr mit KingiiUoffnung H Korridor (momtixiert) stur Aula Theodoriana odoriamHclio Tiautcn (lirgtinzungen punktiert) 1 Aula Theodoriana mit Mosaikbodon L Hiiiime im Norden der Aula Theodoriann mil. Mosaiken M Kaum mit unbekannter Bestinnnung N (iepftasrerter Hof O V e r i t i b i i l oder Atrium 1' Verliingerung der Oratoriumskircho Q Kingang zur Kirehe l)i Kingang zum Kateehumenon - 1 3 7 -A q u i l e i a . P o s t - T h e o d o s i a n B a s i l i c a ( R e a l l e x i k o n z u r B y z a n t i n i s c h e n K u n s t , p . 2 9 8 ) - 138 -GRATZERKOGEL C a r i n t h i a - now A u s t r i a . S i t u a t e d n o r t h o f K l a g e n f u r t , t h e Roman Virun u m . D i o c e s e : Virunum ( K l a g e n f u r t ) Twin b a s i l i c a s , f o r t i f i e d D e d i c a t i o n : Unknown The e p i s c o p a l see at V irunum i s documented i n 591 s h o r t l y b e f o r e the d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e a n c i e n t Roman c i t y . No t r a c e of a c a t h e d r a l has so f a r been f o u n d w i t h i n the c i t y w a l l s . Twin c h u r c h e s were, however, d i s c o v e r e d and e x c a v a t e d by Dr. E. N o v o t n y i n 1904 a t G r a t z e r k o g e l , a h i l l s i t u a t e d about 3 km n o r t h o f V i r u n u m . These were most p r o b a b l y b u i l t t o w a r d s the end o f t h e 4 t h c e n t u r y , a t t h e same time as t h e w a l l w h i c h s u r r o u n d s t h e h i l l . The c h u r c h e s were us e d as r e f u g e i n t i m e s o f t r o u b l e , and no doubt o t h e r s t r u c t u r e s s t i l l l i e b u r i e d . C h r i s t i a n i t y i s w e l l documented i n t h e a r e a i n t h e 4 t h c e n t u r y f r o m numerous s a r c o p h o g i , and t h e p r e s e n c e o f t w i n c h u r c h e s s u g g e s t an e p i s c o p a l see a t V i r u n u m i n the 4 t h c e n t u r y . S o u t h C h u r c h R e c t a n g u l a r b u t i r r e g u l a r h a l l , m e a s u r i n g 22,55 x 11 m w i t h 0,70 m t h i c k w a l l s . On t h e e a s t end i s a f r e e s t a n d i n g p r e s b y t e r b e n c h , i t s w a l l about 1,35 m t h i c k . On t h e n o r t h s i d e some r e m a i n s of a w a l l have been f o u n d w h i c h m i g h t have b e l o n g e d to a s i d e chamber, p o s s i b l y a s a c r i s t y . N o r t h C h u r c h A p s i d a l h a l l o f w h i c h o n l y t h e c h o i r has been e x c a v a t e d . Some r e m a i n s o f v a u l t i n g were f o u n d . The apse has a 7,50 m d i a m e t e r and i t s w a l l i s 0,75m t h i c k . P a r a l l e l to t h e apse r e m a i n s of a n o t h e r w a l l have been f o u n d , p r o b a b l y b e l o n g i n g t o a p r e s b y t e r b e n c h . D u r i n g the l a t e 5 t h c e n t u r y the whole c h u r c h complex was s u r r o u n d e d by a 2,50 m t h i c k w a l l . F o r t h i s p u r p o s e a number o f s p o i l s were u s e d , one of w h i c h c o n t a i n e d w r i t i n g w h i c h c o u l d p o i n t to t h e e x i s t e n c e o f an even e a r l i e r c u l t s t r u c t u r e , b u t n o t b e l i e v e d to be C h r i s t i a n . - 139 -B i b l i o g r a p h y : E g g e r , R . " F r i l h c h r i s t l i c h e K i r c h e n b a u t e n i m s t t d l i c h e n N o r i k u m . " J a h r e s h e f t e d e s O s t e r r e i c h i s c h e n A r c h M o -l o g i s c h e n I n s t i t u t e s i n W i e n . S o n d e r h e f t I X ( 1 9 1 6 ) , 1 0 5 - 1 0 9 . M t l n c h e n . Z e n t r a l i n s t i t u t f t t r K u n s t g e s c h i c h t e . V o r r o m a n i s c h e  K i r c h e n b a u t e n . K a t a l o g d e r D e n k m M l e r b i s z u m A u s g a n g  d e r O t t o n e n . E d i t e d b y F r i e d r i c h O s w a l d , L e o S c h a e f e r a n d H a n s R u d o l f S e n n h a u s e r . M u n i c h : P r e s t i l V e r l a g , 1 9 6 6 - 7 1 . R . E g g e r , p . 1 0 8 - 140 -HEMMABERG C a r i n t h i a - now A u s t r i a . S i t u a t e d to t h e s o u t h e a s t o f Roman Juenna w i t h i n a l a t e Roman h i l l f o r t . The name Hemmaberg i s o f f a i r l y r e c e n t o r i g i n . The h i l l i s c a l l e d a f t e r a c h u r c h d e d i c a t e d t o S a i n t Hemma. E x c a v a t i o n s were c o n d u c t e d by Dr. W i n k l e r i n 1908, and a g a i n by Dr. W i n k l e r and Dr. R. E g g e r i n 1914. D i o c e s e : Juenna ( n o t c e r t a i n ) Twin b a s i l i c a s and b a p t i s t e r y - f o r t i f i e d D e d i c a t i o n : Unknown The complex i s on a w a l l e d p l a t e a u w i t h a s h a r p s l o p e t o w a r d s the n o r t h . T h e r e a r e two r e c t a n g u l a r c h u r c h e s , one w i t h an e a s t e r n a p s e , o f a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l s i z e , w i t h an o c t a g o n a l b a p t i s t e r y j o i n e d to t h e s o u t h c h u r c h by a walkway. N o r t h C h u r c h R e c t a n g u l a r h a l l w i t h a p r e s b y t e r b e n c h and a l t a r . T h e r e a r e s m a l l chambers on e a c h s i d e o f t h e h a l l , most p r o b a b l y s a c r i s t i e s . The a p s i d a l p r e s b y t e r b e n c h i s r a i s e d a p p r o x i -m a t e l y 2 f e e t above t h e f l o o r s u r r o u n d i n g i t . The f l o o r was c o v e r e d i n m o s a i c s , w e l l p r e s e r v e d i n p a r t s . In f r o n t of t he b e n c h a r e c t a n g u l a r s l a b was f o u n d w i t h an a l t a r s p a c e i n t h e c e n t r e ; two r e c e s s e s on t h e s i d e s o f about 4% x 2% f e e t . The h a l l i s 21,30 x 8,90 m and the w a l l s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0,60 m t h i c k (2 f e e t ) ; t h e d i s t a n c e from t h e p r e s b y t e r b e nch to the e a s t w a l l 3 f e e t , i t s w a l l about 1 f t . t h i c k . S o u t h C h u r c h P a r a l l e l t o t h e n o r t h c h u r c h , i t i s a l s o r e c t a n g u l a r w i t h an e a s t e r n a p s e . I t l i e s about 1,70 m s o u t h and 1,20m l o w e r t h a n t h e n o r t h c h u r c h . P a r t s o f t h e m o s a i c f l o o r i n t h e apse a r e p r e s e r v e d and one s q u a r e b e a r s a d e d i c a t i o n i n s c r i p t i o n . The s o u t h e r n and w e s t e r n w a l l s were d e s t r o y e d and v e r y l i t t l e o f the i n t e r i o r d e c o r a t i o n and a r r a n g e m e n t s a r e p r e s e r v e d . The n o r t h h a l f o f t h e p r e s b y t e r b e nch i s p r e s e r v e d up to a h e i g h t o f 4 i n c h e s , a l s o t h e b a s e s f o r two columns o f t h e s c r e e n . The w i d t h o f t h e paved f l o o r on t h e n o r t h s i d e i s 1,45m and i t i s presumed t h a t t h e h a l l was about 18 m l o n g . The p r e s b y t b e n c h and s c r e e n a r e s l i g h t l y r a i s e d , t h e h a l l f l o o r may have been wooden o r paved.. The c h u r c h i s 18,50 x 8,20 m, t h e apse has a d i a m e t e r o f 2,75 m and i t s w a l l i s 20 i n c h e s t h i c k . B apt i s t e r y R e g u l a r o c t a g o n , e a c h s i d e 2,35 m l o n g and t h e w a l l s 0,60m t h i c k . O n l y t h e f o u n d a t i o n s and some o f t h e m o s a i c f l o o r a r e p r e s e r v e d . In t h e c e n t r e i s a s q u a r e s l a b w i t h f o u r r e c e s s e s to t a k e t h e 5 i n c h t h i c k and 3 f t h i g h r e v e t m e n t s - 141 -o f t h e h e x a g o n a l f o n t . The c e n t r e o f t h e f o n t has a d r a i n h o l e . On e a c h c o r n e r o f t h e s l a b a r e r e c e s s e s t o t a k e wooden s t a k e s , p r o b a b l y t o s u p p o r t a b a l d a c h i n o f o r t h e f o n t . The f o n t i s o n l y 0,60 m deep s u g g e s t i n g t h a t b a p t i s m was done by p o u r i n g w a t e r o v e r t h e catechumen, n o t by i m m e r s i o n . L i n k i n g t h e b a p t i s t e r y w i t h t h e s o u t h c h u r c h i s a paved walkway. P a r t s o f t h i s were d i s c o v e r e d but no w a l l r e m a i n s . E g g e r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e complex was b u i l t w e l l b e f o r e t h e m i d d l e o f t h e 5 t h c e n t u r y and most p r o b a b l y b e l o n g s t o t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y . The s t r u c t u r e s were d e s t r o y e d i n t h e 6 t h c e n t u r y . In E g g e r ' s v i e w t h e n o r t h c h u r c h was u s e d as t h e p a r i s h c h u r c h and t h e s o u t h c h u r c h as a c o n s i g n a t o r i u m -t h e h a l l where t h e b i s h o p p e r f o r m e d b a p t i s m and c o n f i r m a t i o n . The p r e s e n c e o f t h e s e c o n d c u l t b u i l d i n g s u g g e s t s an e p i s c o p a l s e e , e s p e c i a l l y i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e b a p t i s t e r y . The b a p t i s t e r y a l o n e does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y p o i n t to a b i s h o p ' s s e e ; t h e r e were numerous b a p t i s t e r i e s a t t a c h e d t o c h u r c h e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e e a r l y C h r i s t i a n w o r l d , but t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e was a s e c o n d b u i l d i n g i s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e . The name o f t h e c i t y , w h i c h must have e x i s t e d t h e r e i n t h e 4 t h c e n t u r y , i s n o t known; o n l y l e g e n d s p e a k s o f s u c h a c i t y , However, the d i s c o v e r y o f t h e t w i n c h u r c h e s a t Hemmaberg seems t o p r o v e t h a t s u c h a c i t y once e x i s t e d . B i b l i o g r a p h y : E g g e r , R. " F r t t h c h r i s t l i c h e K i r c h e n b a u t e n im s t f d l i c h e n N o r i k u m . " J a h r e s h e f t e des O s t e r r e i c h i s c h e n A r c h ^ o l o -g i s c h e n I n s t i t u t e s i n Wien. S o n d e r h e f t I X ( 1 9 1 6 ) , 76-92. Mitnchen. Z e n t r a l i n s t i t u t fiir K u n s t g e s c h i c h t e . Vor roman i s che  K i r c h e n b a u t e n . K a t a l o g d e r Denkma'ler b i s zum Ausgang  d e r O t t o n e n . E d i t e d by F r i e d r i c h O s w a l d , Leo S c h a e f e r und Hans R u d o l f S e n n h a u s e r , 3 v o l s . M u n i c h : P r e s t e l -V e r l a g , 1966-71, 111-112. - 1 4 2 -77: D i e altchristlichen Kultbauten am Hemmaberge (GrundriBaufnahme). R. E g g e r , page 77 - 1 4 3 -N o r t h C h u r c h , E g g e r , p a g e 78 - 1 4 4 -S o u t h . C h u r c h . R. E g g e r , page 8 1 B - a p t i s t e r y . R. E g g e r , page 85 - 146 -KIRCHBICHL/LAVANT C a r i n t h i a s i t u a t e d on t h e r i v e r D r a u , t h e p r e s e n t day L i e n z ; t h e Roman Aguntum. D i o c e s e : A r c h d i o c e s e A q u i l e i a , b i s h o p i n Aguntum E a r l y C h r i s t i a n Twin b a s i l i c a s , one b e h i n d t h e o t h e r , f o r t i f i e d D e d i c a t i o n : Unknown The s i t e has been e x c a v a t e d by F. M i l t n e r between 1948 and 1955. The e a r l i e s t r e m a i n s f o u n d p r o b a b l y d a t e from t h e f i r s t d ecade o f t h e 4 t h c e n t u r y and b e l o n g e d t o a s i m p l e c h a p e l complex. Two a p s i d a l s t r u c t u r e s were f o u n d below t h e t w i n b a s i l i c a w h i c h i s d a t e d toward t h e end o f t h e 4 t h c e n t u r y . The t w i n b a s i l i c a c o m p r i s e s two r e c t a n g u l a r h a l l s , n o t p a r a l l e l t o e a c h o t h e r b u t one b e h i n d t h e o t h e r , and forms a l a r g e r e c t a n g u l a r complex m e a s u r i n g 40 x 9,75 m, b o t h c h u r c h e s e a s t - west o r i e n t e d . E a s t c h u r c h R e c t a n g u l a r h a l l 14,75 x 9,75 m w i t h r a i s e d s e m i - c i r c u l a r bema on e a s t e r n e nd. The s e m i c y c l e has a sub s e l l i u m (low bench) and a c a t h e d r a f o r t h e c l e r g y . T h i s i s t h e u s u a l p r e s b y t e r b e n c h , w e l l known f r o m Hemmaberg and G r a t z e r k o g l . B e f o r e t h e bema, w h i c h may have had a s m a l l s c r e e n , was a deep p i t w i t h two chambers. The s q u a r e chamber d i s c l o s e d a m a r b l e s l a b o f 4 i n c h d i a m e t e r and a d r a i n a g e h o l e . M i l t n e r i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s as the b a p t i s m a l f o n t i n v i e w o f t h e d r a i n a g e , b u t a p r o b l e m a r i s e s i n t h a t no s t e p s l e a d i n g i n t o t h e f o n t have y e t been d i s c o v e r e d . M i l t n e r a l s o d e s i g n a t e s t h i s b u i l d i n g as t h e c o n s i g n a t o r i u m . The deep p i t i s i n t h e l o c a t i o n where n o r m a l l y one would f i n d t h e a l t a r , and t h e c a t h e d r a i n f r o n t o f i t s u g g e s t s t h e p r e s e n c e o f a b i s h o p who b a p t i s e s and c o n f i r m s t h e catechumen. (Up to t h e 8 t h c e n t u r y o n l y t h e b i s h o p had t h e r i g h t to b a p t i s e and to c o n f i r m . ) T h i s c h u r c h t h e n was a l s o t h e p l a c e where the catechumen*were i n s t r u c t e d and p r e p a r e d to be r e c e i v e d f o r m a l l y i n t o t h e c h u r c h , and was a l s o u s e d f o r t h e p e n i t e n t s d u r i n g t h a t p a r t o f t h e mass, i n w h i c h t h e y were n o t a l l o w e d to p a r t i c i p a t e - t h e E u c h a r i s t . West C h u r c h A l s o a r e c t a n g u l a r h a l l m e a s u r i n g 25,10 x 9,75 m. I t , t o o , has a r a i s e d bema w i t h a c a t h e d r a . Some m a r b l e b l o c k s f o u n d i n f r o n t s u g g e s t a c h a n c e l s c r e e n and i n f r o n t o f i t i s t h e a l t a r . F r a g m e n t s o f what must have been a l a r g e - 147 -m a r b l e s l a b s u g g e s t t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e mensa ( t a b l e o r a l t a r ) . I n f r o n t o f t h e l a r g e bema i s t h e ambo of 1,6 m d i a m e t e r . A r o c k f a l l sometime i n t h e 5 t h t o 7 t h c e n t u r i e s damaged the b a p t i s m a l f o n t i n t h e E a s t C h u r c h and d u r i n g t h e 7 t h c e n t u r y a new b a p t i s t e r y was b u i l t a t the end o f t h e West C h u r c h (marked C on t h e p l a n ) . From r e m a i n s o u t s i d e t h e t w i n b a s i l i c a l complex, s u g g e s t i n g an e p i s c o p i u m ( b i s h o p ' s p a l a c e ) , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h i s was a c h u r c h complex p e r m a n e n t l y used by t h e b i s h o p , t h e c l e r g y and t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n . I t i s known t h a t i n t h e e a r l y 5 t h c e n t u r y t h e b i s h o p had to l e a v e t h e c i t y to s eek r e f u g e i n the f o r t i f i e d s a n c t u a r y . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e e a r l i e s t r e m a i n s p r o b a b l y b e l o n g to t h e f i r s t decade o f t h e 4 t h c e n t u r y , and i t i s t h o u g h t t h a t t h e c h a p e l complex was b u i l t on t h e r u i n s o f a pagan c u l t t e m p l e . Some of t h e r e m a i n s c a r r i e d i n s c r i p t i o n s w h i c h would p o i n t to a R o m a n o - C e l t i c c u l t a r e a . The t w i n b a s i l i c a was b u i l t t o w a r d s the end o f t h e 4 t h c e n t u r y and the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e 5 t h c e n t u r y , most p r o b a b l y as a r e s u l t o f t h e i n v a s i o n s by A t t i l a . B i b l i o g r a p h y : M i l t n e r , F. " D i e Grabungen a u f dem K i r c h b i c h l von L a v a n t / Ost T i r o l . " J a h r e s h e f t e des O s t e r r e i c h i s c h e n A r c h H o -l o g i s c h e n I n s t i t u t e s i n Wien. v o l s . 38, 40, 41, 43, B e i b l H t t e r . Wien: R u d o l f R o h r e r V e r l a g , 1950, 1953, 1954, 1956-58. Mttnchen. Z e n t r a l i n s t i t u t fUr K u n s t g e s c h i c h t e . V o r r o m a n i s che  K i r c h e n b a u t e n . K a t a l o g d e r DenkmHler b i s zum Ausgang  d e r O t t o n e n . E d i t e d by F r i e d r i c h Oswald, Leo S c h a e f e r und Hans R u d o l f S e n n h a u s e r . v o l s . 1-3. M u n i c h : P r e s t e l - V e r l a g , 1966-71. - 149 -J a l i r l s l i r h r d«I Sittrr. u r c h i i u l o ^ . I n t t i U t K . K.I . X I . I l l l i r j t . l . l t F. M i l t n e r , pages 93/94 - 1 5 0 -GRADO N o r t h e r n I t a l y , s i t u a t e d on n o r t h c o a s t o f t h e A d r i a t i c , j u s t s o u t h o f A q u i l e i a . I t was a v e r y i m p o r t a n t p o r t i n Roman t i m e s and t h e main h a r b o u r f o r A q u i l e i a w h i c h was up-r i v e r . E x c a v a t i o n s were c o n d u c t e d by B r u s i n and Z o v a t t o . D i o c e s e : A q u i l e i a Twin b a s i l i c a s , p a r a l l e l to e a c h o t h e r D e d i c a t i o n : O r i g i n a l d e d i c a t i o n n o t known, b u t l a t e r d e d i c a t e d t o S a n t a M a r i a and S a n t ' E u f e m i a 1 If ;i J . i < i !l — L / Abb. 10: Bnsilica di S. Marin: Grundrifl (uach Brusin-Zovatto) •^'b. 2: Basilica di Sant'Eufemia: GrundriR dor "iilerirdischen Kirche (nach Bmsin-Zovatto) R e a l l e x i k o n f f l r B y z a n t i n i s c h e K u n s t page 913 page 932 - 151 -B a s i l i c a d i Sant' Eufemia The 6th century b a s i l i c a stands on the remains of an e a r l i e r 4th century simple b a s i l i c a with an ea s t e r n apse. It i s probably of the same type as known from Norikum, but very l i t t l e remains other than the foundation w a l l s . This e a r l y C h r i s t i a n b a s i l i c a was r e b u i l t by Bishop E l i a s (571-586). B a s i l i c a d i Santa Maria I t i s s i t u a t e d p a r a l l e l to Sant' Eufemia and was most probably b u i l t by Bishop Chromatius of A q u i l e i a (388-408). I t measures 16,81 x 11,50 m and had two b u i l d i n g phases. At the end of the 4th c e n t u r y / e a r l y 5th century i t was a t h r e e - a i s l e d s t r u c t u r e with an i n s i d e apse t e r m i n a t i n g i n a s t r a i g h t e a s t e r n w a l l . I t was burnfe'j. down i n the e a r l y 6th century and r e b u i l t by Bishop E l i a s . I t i s suggested that the two b a s i l i c a s , together with a b a p t i s t e r y formed a u n i f i e d complex. However, the b a p t i s t e r y was not b u i l t u n t i l the second h a l f of the 5th century. The b a s i l i c a s could have been a twin c a t h e d r a l , but the plans are u n c e r t a i n thus t h e i r f u n c t i o n can only remain a conj ec t u r e . B i b l i o g r a p h y ; R e a l l e x i k o r i zur B y z a n t i n i s c h e n Kunst. E d i t e d by Klaus Wessel and Marcel R e s t l e . 4 v o l s , (only 2 p u b l i s h e d ) . S t u t t g a r t : Anton Hiersemann, 1963 and 1971. B r u s i n , Giovanni. "Die Ausgrabungen von A q u i l e i a und Grado." Kunstchronik 4, Heft 5 (May, 1951), 104-105. - 1 5 2 -B a s i l i c a d i S a n t ' E u f e m i a . G r o u n d P l a n o f 6 t h c e n t u r y b a s i l i c a w i t h r e m a i n s o f t h e e a r l y 4 t h c e n t u r y c h u r c h . R e a l l e x i k o n f ( f r B y z a n t i n i s c h e K u n s t , p a g e s 9 1 5 / 1 6 - 1 5 3 -TRIESTE I s t r i a , North. A d r i a t i c Diocese: A q u i l e i a (not c e r t a i n ) Twin B a s i l i c a , s i m i l a r to A q u i l e i a D e d i c a t i o n : Unknown A. Gnirs assumes that the two h a l l s , s i m i l a r to the ones at A q u i l e i a i n t h e i r f i r s t b u i l d i n g phase, were b u i l t s h o r t l y a f t e r 313 A.D. Foundations of one h a l l , measuring a p p r o x i -mately 16,6 x 13 m were d i s c o v e r e d , a l s o bases of columns. It i s c o n j e c t u r e d that three p a i r s of columns d i v i d e d the two h a l l s i n t o three a i s l e s . On the plan below, drawn up by G n i r s , A denotes the North Church, S. S i l v e s t r o and F the s i t e where the twin b u i l d i n g would have been. E. Dyggve mentions a double church of u n c e r t a i n date, but probably b u i l t i n the l a t e f i f t h c e n t u r y . He mentions an o l d e r North Church d e d i c a t e d to Mary and a South Church which h e l d p r e c i o u s r e l i c s of S. J u s t u s , a martyr of the l a t e t h i r d c entury who had s u f f e r e d death under D i o c l e t i a n . I t i s p o s s i b l e that the church mentioned by G n i r s was r e b u i l t i n the f i f t h c e ntury and then d e d i c a t e d to Mary. 0 5oA\l A. G n i r s , p.184 . - 154 -B l b l l o g r a p h y : Dyggve, E j n a r . H i s t o r y of S a l o n i t a n C h r i s t i a n i t y . O s l o : H. Aschehoug & Co., 1951. G n i r s , Anton. "Zur Frage der c h r i s t l i c h e n K ultanlagen aus der e r s t e n Ha"lfte des v i e r t e n Jahrhunderts im O s t e r -r e i c h i s c h e n KUstenland." J a h r e s h e f t e des O s t e r r e i c h i -schen ArchMologischen I n s t i t u t e s i n Wien, v o l . XX, B e i b l a t t (1919), 166-206. - 1 5 5 -NESACTIUM I s t r i a , on southern t i p of the I s t r i a n P e n i n s u l a , near Parenzo. Diocese: Parenzo (not c e r t a i n ) E a r l y C h r i s t i a n Twin B a s i l i c a D e d i c a t i o n : Unknown The complex was excavated i n 1906/7 by A. P u s c h k i . South Church Rectangular h a l l with nave and two a i s l e s , measuring approximately 28 x 16 m. At the eastern end i s a p r e s b y t e r bench with chancel screen i n f r o n t , s e p a r a t i n g the space f o r the c l e r g y from that f o r the congregation. A door on the n o r t h w a l l leads to three rooms, and from these another door leads i n t o the s m a l l e r North Church. North Church S i t u a t e d p a r a l l e l to the South Church, measuring 21 x 9 m. The e a s t e r n end again has a screen, and the space behind i t accommodated the a l t a r and i s r a i s e d about 5 inches above the l e v e l of the h a l l . The r e c t a n g u l a r h a l l i s not d i v i d e d i n t o a i s l e s . The a l t a r space terminates i n an 18 inch t h i c k s e m i - c i r c u l a r w a l l , the space w i t h i n the hemicycle i s r a i s e d about 16 inches. This was most probably another p r e s b y t e r bench. A door on the north/ west w a l l leads i n t o other rooms, one of which has a square ^ p i s c i n a and served as the b a p t i s t e r y . Concerning the s e m i - c i r c u l a r i n t e r i o r s t r u c t u r e s , L i e s e n b e r g suggests i n 1928 that they are apses, probably f o l l o w i n g Puschki's excavation r e p o r t and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . L i e s e n b e r g f u r t h e r suggests that the l a r g e r , south church was the p a r i s h church, and the s m a l l e r , n o r t h church the c o n s i g -natorium, where the bishop performed the r i t e s of baptism and c o n f i r m a t i o n . Egger does not comment on the f u n c t i o n of the churches but does not agree with Puschki's i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n (and L i e s e n b e r g ' s ) . However, Egger does not o f f e r any a l t e r n a t i v e view other than to s t a t e that the Twin B a s i l i c a at Nesactium belongs to the same group as the 5th century b u i l d i n g s at Parenzo, i n which f r e e s t a n d i n g apses were not p o s s i b l e . The plans of Parenzo are, however, q u i t e d i f f e r e n t and perhaps one should compare Nesactium wi t h the churches i n Noricum, where the f r e e - s t a n d i n g p r e s b y t e r bench was a common f e a t u r e . Comparison with Hemmaberg, b u i l t about the same time, w i l l show a s i m i l a r arrangement, which has been recognized as p r e s b y t e r bench. The Twin B a s i l i c a was most probably b u i l t i n l a t e 4th or e a r l y 5th century. - 156 -B i b l i o g r a p h y : E g g e r , R . " F r d h c h r i s t l i c h e K i r c h e n b a u t e n i m s ( I d l i c h e n N o r i k u m . " J a h r e s h e f t e d e s O s t e r r e i c h i s c h e n A r c h M o l o -g i s c h e n I n s t i t u t e s i n W i e n . S o n d e r h e f t I X . ( W i e n , 1 9 1 6 ) . G n i r s , A n t o n . " Z u r F r a g e d e r c h r i s t l i c h e n K u l t a n l a g e n a u s d e r e r s t e n H M l f t e d e s v i e r t e n J a h r h u n d e r t s i m O s t e r -r e i s c h i s c h e n K i l s t e n l a n d . " J a h r e s h e f t e d e s O s t e r r e i -c h i s c h e n A r c h H o l o g i s c h e n I n s t i t u t e s i n W i e n . B e i b l a t t X X ( 1 9 1 9 ) , 1 6 6 - 2 0 6 . L i e s e n b e r g , K u r t G . D e r E i n f l u s s d e r L i t u r g i e a u f d i e f r t l h c h r i s t l i c h e B a s i l i k a . N e u s t a d t a . d . H . : P l M l z i s c h e V e r l a g s a n s t a l t , 1 9 2 8 . R . E g g e r , p a g e 1 1 7 - 157 -PARENZO I s t r i a , s i t u a t e d on t h e n o r t h - e a s t e r n s h o r e s o f t h e A d r i a t i c . I t was an e p i s c o p a l see and an i m p o r t a n t c i t y i n the f o u r t h c e n t u r y . The e p i s c o p a l p a l a c e was n e a r t h e Twin B a s i l i c a . D i o c e s e : P a r e n z o Twin B a s i l i c a , s i m i l a r to t h e a r r a n g e m e n t a t A q u i l e i a i n i t s f i r s t b u i l d i n g p hase D e d i c a t i o n : Unknown N o r t h H a l l R e c t a n g u l a r h a l l , no a p s e , w i t h rooms on t h e n o r t h s i d e . The h a l l i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e l a r g e and c o l o u r f u l m o s a i c f i e l d s . The f l o o r m o s a i c s show g e o m e t r i c d e s i g n s and a l s o an i n s c r i p t i o n . I t i s the o l d e s t s t r u c t u r e o f t h e two h a l l s and i s d a t e d i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y . S o u t h H a l l R e c t a n g u l a r h a l l , no a p s e , d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e a i s l e s . On i t s n o r t h w a l l t h e r e i s an a t r i u m and more rooms, c o n n e c t i n g t h e two h a l l s . I t i s d a t e d soon a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e N o r t h H a l l . P l a n 1: A Roman r o a d , l a t e r u s e d as p o r t i c o e d e n t r a n c e to t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y c h u r c h B Rooms on n o r t h s i d e o f North. H a l l C S o u t h H a l l E N o r t h H a l l D D ^Atrium and rooms c o n n e c t i n g b o t h H a l l s P l a n 2 shows the l o c a t i o n o f t h e d i s c o v e r e d m o s a i c s . B i s t h e s i t e where the g e o m e t r i c p a t t e r n was f o u n d , and H t h e l a r g e m o s a i c o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 600 s q . f t . w i t h donor i n s c r i p t i o n s by s e v e r a l p e o p l e . G shows t h e r e m a i n s o f a n o t h e r d e s i g n , a v a s e w i t h a donor i n s c r i p t i o n . E marks t h e s i t e o f t h e mensa ( a l t a r ) , i n f r o n t o f two o f t h e gaps i n t h e m o s a i c d e s i g n two f i s h symbols were f o u n d . The whole s t r u c u t r e r e s e m b l e s A q u i l e i a , and h e r e , t o o , t h e S o u t h H a l l was added l a t e r . A g a i n , i t was n o t p l a n n e d as a Twin B a s i l i c a , and t h e s e c o n d h a l l was added p r e s u m a b l y to accommodate the g r o w i n g C h r i s t i a n community. - 158 -B i b 1 i o g r a p h y G n i r s , A n t o n . " Z u r F r a g e d e r c h r i s t l i c h e n K u l t a n l a g e n aus d e r e r s t e n H H l f t e des v i e r t e n J a h r h u n d e r t s im O s t e r -r e i c h i s c h e n Ku's t e n ! and. " J a h r e s h e f t e des O s t e r r e i c h i -s c h e n A r c h H o l o g i s c h e n I n s t i t u t e s i n Wien, v o l . XX, B e i b l a t t ( 1 9 1 9 ) , 166-206. - 1 5 9 -P l a n 1 P a r e n z o , E u p h r a s i a n B a s i l i c a w i t h r e m a i n s o f o l d e s t s t r u c t u r e s . m i d - 4 t h c e n t u r y G n i r s , p . 1 6 7 - 160 -P l a n 2 A... G n i r s , p . 1 7 4 - 161 -78: Mosaikrest (Abb. 76 B). K u l t s a a l der altesten Anlage in Parenzo (Abb. 76 E ) . G n i r s , p a g e 1 7 1 G n i r s , p a g e 1 7 7 - 162 -POL A I s t r i a — s i t u a t e d at t h e s o u t h - e a s t e r n c o r n e r o f t h e p e n n i n s u l a . D i o c e s e : P a r e n z o (?) Twin B a s i l i c a ; t w o . c h u r c h e s p a r a l l e l to e a c h o t h e r , s i m i l a r to P a r e n z o , c o n n e c t i n g t h e two c h u r c h e s was a b a p t i s t e r y D e d i c a t i o n : Not known f o r c a t h e d r a l ; St. Mary at l a t e r d a t e ; p a r a l l e l c h u r c h d e d i c a t e d to S t . Thomas b u t d a t e o f d e d i c a t i o n unknown. N o r t h C h u r c h R e c t a n g u l a r h a l l w i t h nave and two a i s l e s and a p s i d a l s t r u c t u r e , p r o b a b l y a p r e s b y t e r b e n c h , on e a s t e r n end but i n s i d e t h e c h u r c h . The h a l l t e r m i n a t e d i n a s t r a i g h t w a l l . C h u r c h was e n t e r e d from, t h e west t h r o u g h a d o o r , i n f r o n t o f i t an a t r i u m . Remains o f a m a r b l e s c r e e n have been f o u n d . B a p t i s t e r y On same a x i s w i t h t h e n o r t h h a l l . I t i s presumed to have been a s q u a r e s t r u c t u r e w i t h a p o l y g o n a l f o n t . S o u t h C h u r c h V e r y l i t t l e i s known about t h i s c h u r c h w h i c h was a t some time d e d i c t e d to S t . Thomas. The n o r t h c h u r c h measured a p p r o x i m a t e l y 42 x 22 m e t r e s and on t h e p l a n EB d e n o t e s the Roman town w a l l w i t h l a t e r r e i n f o r c e m e n t s , w h i l s t CD marks t h e a p p r o x i m a t e l i n e o f t h e h a r b o u r d u r i n g m e d i e v a l t i m e s . A n t o n G n i r s d a t e s t h e t w i n b a s i l i c a i n t h e e a r l y f o u r t h c e n t u r y . B i b l i o g r a p h y : E g g e r , R. " P r t l h c h r i s t l i c h e K i r c h e n b a u t e n im s O d l i c h e n N o r i k u m . " J a h r e s h e f t e des O s t e r r e i c h i s c h e n A r c h a ' o l o g i -s c h e n I n s t i t u t s i n Wien. S o n d e r h e f t IX, ( 1 9 1 6 ) . G n i r s , A n t o n . P o l a . E i n F f l h r e r d u r c h d i e a n t i k e n Baudenkma'ler  und Sammlungen. Wien: A l f r e d H O l d e r , 1915. "Zur F r a g e d e r c h r i s t l i c h e n K u l t a n l a g e n aus d e r e r s t e n H ^ l f t e des v i e r t e n J a h r h u n d e r t s im O s t e r r e i c h i s c h e n Ku's t e n -l a n d . " J a h r e s h e f t e des O s t e r r e i c h i s c h e n A r c h H o l o g i s c h e n  I n s t i t u t e s i n Wien. V o l . XX, B e i b l a t t ( 1 9 1 9 ) , 166-206. - 1 6 3 -A. G n i r s , 1919 - 164 -SALONA Dalmatia, s i t u a t e d on the eastern shore of the A d r i a t i c , the present—day S p l i t . I t was an Important Roman c i t y , and became e s p e c i a l l y known under D i o c l e t i a n , who b u i l t a grandiose palace at S p l i t i n the l a t e t h i r d century. Diocese: Salona Twin B a s i l i c a , p a r a l l e l to each other, i n s t y l e l i n k e d to others known i n I s t r i a and Dalmatia. Both b a s i l i c a s were t h r e e — a i s l e d D e d i c a t i o n : B a s i l i c a Urbana to C h r i s t , l a t e r to Mary. North Church — B a s i l i c a Urbana -T r a d i t i o n a l l o n g i t u d i n a l b a s i l i c a w i t h wide nave and two a i s l e s , and a f r e e - s t a n d i n g p'.EKs:byt;e;r bench i n the eastern apse, a f e a t u r e known from Norikum. I t had mosaic f l o o r s and dated l a t e f o u r t h century. The i n s c r i p t i o n i n the f l o o r mosaic r e l a t e s to the b u i l d i n g of the church by the Bishop Symferius and h i s nephew E s y c h i u s . South Church Almost i d e n t i c a l to the North Church but without the p r e s b y t e r bench. On i t s n o r t h - e a s t e r n w a l l was a r e c t -angular room, probably a s a c r i s t y . B a p t i s t e r y I t i s detached on a low t e r r a c e to the n o r t h of the North Church. In i t s f i r s t b u i l d i n g phase i t was a r e c t a n g u l a r b u i l d i n g , l a t e r to be r e p l a c e d by an octagonal one. I t s groups of rooms i l l u s t r a t e s i n a unique way the process of the e a r l y baptismal r i t e . The l a r g e domed h a l l was adorned with stucco r e l i e f s , w a l l p a i n t i n g s and golden mosaics. In f r o n t of the b a p t i s t e r y was an open f o r e c o u r t with marble columns. I t a l s o had s e v e r a l rooms a d j o i n i n g , one f o r the catechumens CB), one f o r the bishop (C) next to the bishop's p a l a c e . The plan shows the process of baptism marked with an arrow. On the s i t e of the South Church a l a t e r c r u c i f o r m church was b u i l t i n the s i x t h century, probably by Bishop Honorius I I . I t was c a l l e d B a s i l i c a E p i s c o p a l i s and i s of i n t e r e s t i n that i t shows a m i n g l i n g of two a r t s t y l e s - the Greek Cross and l o n g i t u d i n a l b a s i l i c a - the L a t i n West and the Greek East - i n one b u i l d i n g complex. - 1 6 5 -Dyggve, E j n a r . H i s t o r y of S a l o n i t a n C h r i s t i a n i t y . Oslo: H. Aschehoug & Co., 1951. Hoddinott, R. F. E a r l y Byzantine Churches i n Macedonia and  Southern S e r b i a . London: MacMillan & Co. L t d . , 1963. Krautheimer, R i c h a r d . E a r l y C h r i s t i a n and Byzantine A r c h i t e c t u r e . HarmondswortH, Middx.: Penguin Books L t d . , 1965. - 1 6 6 -Fig. 90. BASILICA URBANA AND CRUCIFORM 'TW BASILICA, SALONA. R.F. Hoddinott, page 40 - 1 6 7 -P l a n o f o r i g i n a l T w i n B a s i l i c a , L a t e f o u r t h , c e n t u r y E . D y g g v e , 1 1 , 1 4 R e c o n s t r u c t e d p l a n s o f t h e T w i n B a s i l i c a C o m p l e x i n t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y E . D y g g v e , 1 1 , 1 3 P l a n o f t h e B a p t i s t e r y i n i t s s e c o n d p h a s e E . D y g g v e , 1 1 , 2 5 i SALONA-MARUSINAC - 1 6 8 -D i o c e s e : S a l o n a Mausoleum and two b a s i l i c a s , p a r a l l e l to e a c h o t h e r D e d i c a t i o n : Mausoleum and b a s i l i c a to S t . A n a s t a s i u s B i s h o p of A q u i l e i a A n a s t a s i u s Mausoleum L o c a t e d to t h e west o f t h e b a s i l i c a . A s i m p l e s t r u c t u r e w i t h e a s t e r n a p s e , p r e c e d e d by a l a r g e p o r t i c o e d a t r i u m . A c c o r d i n g to W a r d - P e r k i n s , i t was b u i l t i n 306 by a l o c a l m a tron f o r t h e body o f S t . A n a s t a s i u s o f A q u i l e i a who was m a r t y r e d i n 304. I t r e m a i n e d i n use u n t i l 395. A n a s t a s i u s B a s i l i c a T r a d i t i o n a l b a s i l i c a , t h r e e - a i s l e d w i t h e a s t e r n a p s i d a l t e r m i n a t i o n , s i m i l a r i n s t y l e to the B a s i l i c a U r b a n a i n the c i t y o f S a l o n a . The e n t r a n c e on t h e w e s t e r n s m a l l w a l l i s t h r o u g h a n a r t h e x , w h i c h i n t u r n i s j o i n e d to the a t r i u m o f t h e Mausoleum. T h e r e i s a l s o a door on t h e n o r t h l o n g i t u d i n a l w a l l i n t o an open a r e a , t h r o u g h a p r o t h y r o n . On e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e apse a r e two rooms w h i c h i s u s u a l i n some e a r l y C h r i s t i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e . One of t h e s e rooms was u s e d f o r the c l e r g y , t h e d i a c o n i c u m .for r o b i n g and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e mass. The o t h e r room may have been u s e d f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e wine and b r e a d f o r the E u c h a r i s t . B a s i l i c a D i s c o p e r t a A l m o s t p a r a l l e l to t h e A n a s t a s i u s B a s i l i c a i s a s t r u c t u r e o f s i m i l a r d i m e n s i o n s and s h a p e . K r a u t h e i m e r i n 1965 c a l l s the whole complex a d o u b l e c a t h e d r a l a l t h o u g h t h e n o r t h b u i l d i n g i s a r o o f l e s s s t r u c t u r e . However, an open c o u r t y a r d w i t h c o l o n n a d e s o r p o r t i c o e s can be c o n s i d e r e d a Roman b a s i l i c a , e s p e c i a l l y i n a l o c a t i o n s u c h as S a l o n a , where a warm c l i m a t e would make s u c h an open h a l l p l e a s a n t . K r a u t h e i m e r (ECBA, page 20) c l a i m s t h a t "sometimes, though r a r e l y , an open a r e a s u r r o u n d e d by p o r t i c o e s may have s e r v e d as a b a s i l i c a . " But i n 1969 ( E a r l y C h r i s t i a n , M e d i e v a l and R e n a i s s a n c e A r t , p.76) he f e e l s t h a t " r a t h e r t h a n f o r m i n g a t w i n c a t h e d r a l , i t c o n s i s t e d o f a f u n e r a r y b a s i l i c a a c c o m p a n i e d by a memoria c o u r t y a r d e n v e l o p e d by p o r t i c o e s and c h a p e l s . " Dyggve p u t s f o r w a r d t h e t h e s i s t h a t t h i s t y p e o f s t r u c t u r e d e r i v e s f r o m t h e c l a s s i c a l H e r o o n , and may t h u s w e l l be a - 169 -prototype of the C h r i s t i a n b a s i l i c a . He a l s o f e e l s that the B a s i l i c a D i s c o p e r t a at Salona forms a l i n k with the c l a s s i c a l Herron. dyggve argues that one could say the p l a n i s that of a double b a s i l i c a but i n f a c t the s t r u c t u r e s are s e p u l c h r a l . He a l s o maintains that both b u i l d i n g s , though s i m i l a r i n p l a n , are d i f f e r e n t . In the B a s i l i c a D i s c o p e r t a c u l t dances may have been performed before the martyr's grave. M i l e n o v i c claims that the s o - c a l l e d B a s i l i c a D i s c o p e r t a may w e l l have been a t r a d i t i o n a l b a s i l i c a . He t r i e s to prove that the columns could have c a r r i e d a r o o f . The o r i g i n a l claims of a r o o f l e s s s t r u c t u r e apparently arose from a passage i n an ancient p i l g r i m ' s source, but M i l e n o v i c f e e l s that the " r o o f l e s s " r e f e r e n c e could be i n t e r p r e t e d as belonging to the atrium and p o r t i c o e s but not to the b a s i l i c a proper. I t i s c e r t a i n that the B a s i l i c a D i s c o p e r t a f u n c t i o n e d as a martyrium and the Anastasius B a s i l i c a as a church, perhaps a martyrium b a s i l i c a . Although one of the s t r u c t u r e s may have been r o o f l e s s , the complex could s t i l l be c onsidered a twin b a s i l i c a s i n c e i t s f u n c t i o n could have been that of other twin b a s i l i c a s . T r i e r i s an example of t h i s h y p o t h e s i s : At l e a s t i n the t h i r d b u i l d i n g phase the North B a s i l i c a was a martyrium b a s i l i c a , whereas the South B a s i l i c a f u n c t i o n e d as the t r a d i t i o n a l b a s i l i c a l church. - 170 -B.ibl io graphy Dyggve, Ej nar. H i s t o r y of S a l o n i t an C h r i s t i a n i t y • Oslo: H. Aschehoug & Co., 1951. — — " A r c h l o l o g i e und S t a t i k . " Jahre she f t e des Oster-r e i c h i s c h e n AffchHologischen I n s t i t u t e s i n Wien, v o l . X L I I I , B e i b l a t t (1956-58) , 77-86 . Egger, Rudolf. "ArchHoiogle und S t a t i k . " J a h r e s h e f t e des O s t e r r e i c h i s c h e n ArchSologischen I n s t i t u t e s i n Wien, v o l . X L I I I , B e i b l a t t (1956-58), Appendix, 87-90. Krautheimer, Richard. E a r l y C h r i s t i a n and Byzantine A r c h i t e c t u r e . Harmondsworth, Middx.: Penguin Books L t d . , 1965. Studies i n E a r l y C h r i s t i a n , Medieval and Renaissance A r t . New York: New York U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19 69. M i l e n o v i c , Roksanda M a r i a . "Zum Problem der ' b a s i l i c a d i s c o p e r t a ' . " J a h r e s h e f t e des 0 s t e r r e i c h i s c h e n ArchHologischeh I n s t i t u t e s i n Wien, v o l . XLI, B e i b l a t t (1954), 129-158. R e a l l e x i k o n ftir Anfike' und Christentum. E d i t e d by Theodor K l a u s e r . S t u t t g a r t : Hiersemann Verlags-GmbH, 1950. 2 v o l s . Schneider, A.M. " B a s i l i c a D i s c o p e r t a . " A n t i q u i t y v o l . XXIV, No. 95 (September, 1950), 131-139. Ward-Perkins, J.B. "Memoria, Martyr's Tomb and Martyr's Church." Akten des V I I . I n t e r n a t l o n a l e n Kongresses  fttr c h r i s t l i c h e A r c h ^ o l o g i e , T r i e r 5-11 September  1965. B e r l i n : Deutsches ArchHologisches I n s t i t u t , 1965. 2 v o l s . - 1 7 1 -f>7 Ljnar Dyggve S«S } 8 : GrundriO der basilica discoperta und der basilica coperta (nach Korsch. i . Sal. I l l S. i b A b b . i\) JOAI, B e i b l a t t (1956) Abb. 35. Rokonstruktion der sog. Basilica discoperta in Marusinao R e a l l e x l k o n fUr A n t i k e u n d C h r i s t e n turn , B a n d 1. - 1 7 2 -S a l o n a - M a r u s i n a c ( K r a u t h e i m e r , R . I s o m e t r i c r e c o n s t r u c t i o n E C B A , p . 1 3 6 . ) - 173 -MILAN Lombardy, the Roman Mediolanum. From 350 the c i t y had f r e q u e n t l y been an Imperial r e s i d e n c e and became, i n e f f e c t the c a p i t a l of the West. In 373 i t became the see of St. Ambrose and f o r some years was the s p i r i t u a l centre of the West as w e l l . Recent d i s c o v e r i e s have demonstrated that M i l a n was a great a r c h i t e c t u r a l centre and three of the huge churches d a t i n g from that p e r i o d are s t i l l standing to almost t h e i r f u l l h e i g h t . Diocese: Milan Twin b a s i l i c a , known p r i m a r i l y from l i t e r a r y sources. D e d i c a t i o n : C a t h e d r a l d e d i c a t i o n not known at foundation but to S. T e c l a i n the Middle Ages (date unknown) Second b a s i l i c a d e d i c a t e d to S. Maria, a l s o not known when the d e d i c a t i o n took p l a c e . C a t h e d r a l S. T e c l a Was f i r s t excavated i n 1943 and again i n 1961. These excavations brought to l i g h t the o u t l i n e s of a nave, f l a n k e d by two a i s l e s on e i t h e r s i d e . The nave continued as a chancel to the s p r i n g of the apse. Behind the apse rose the octagonal b a p t i s t e r y . An a l t a r e n c l o s u r e , a bema, s l i g h t l y r a i s e d above the l e v e l of the nave, f i l l e d the chancel area and p r o j e c t e d i n t o the nave. This p r o j e c t i o n was most probably the. ambo. Krautheimer dates t h i s b a s i l i c a between 350 and 370, together with the b a p t i s t e r y . S. Maria Maggiore Nothing d e f i n i t e i s known about the e a r l y C h r i s t i a n o r i g i n of S. Maria, but i t stood to the south of the c a t h e d r a l i n 803. Krautheimer s t a t e s that a Milanese m i s s a l of the 5th century p r e s c r i b e s two masses to be s a i d i n a l l churches of the c i t y a f t e r the example of the c a t h e d r a l . Thus, so Krautheimer suggests, there must have been a twin b a s i l i c a there i n the 5th century. The mention i n 803 of the twin b a s i l i c a c ould have r e f e r r e d to a r e b u i l d i n g of S. M aria. A l s o , the d e d i c a t i o n to Saint Mary of the south s t r u c t u r e may p o i n t to the twin c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , as the same occurred i n T r i e r . F i n a l l y , both St. Ambrose (Epist.1,20) and Paulinus ( V i t a S a n c t i Ambrosii, cap.48) r e f e r with S. T e c l a , the b a s i l i c a nova.quae maior, to the b a s i l i c a vetus (or minor) nearby. In Krautheimer's o p i n i o n t h i s l a t t e r s t r u c t u r e antedated S. T e c l a and was i n f a c t S. Maria. A l s o , he connects the b a p t i s t e r y to S. Maria, and since i t s date i s the l a s t quarter of the 4th century, S. Maria must be of the same date. - 174 -B i b l i o g r a p h y ; K r a u t h e i m e r , R i c h a r d . " D i e D o p p e l k i r c h e i n P a v l a . " S t u d i e s o f t h e W a r b u r g I n s t i t u t e I A ( L o n d o n , 1 9 3 6 ) 3 2 3 - 3 3 7 . E a r l y C h r i s t i a n a n d B y z a n t i n e A r c h i t e c t u r e . H a r m o n d s w o r t h , M i d d x . : P e n g u i n B o o k s L t d . , 1 9 6 5 . S t u d i e s i n E a r l y C h r i s t i a n , M e d i e v a l a n d R e n a i s s a n c e A r t . N e w Y o r k : N e w Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 , 1 6 1 - 1 8 0 . Figure 22. Mi lan, S. Tecla, fourth century (third quarter). Plan - 175 -DJEMILA A l g e r i a - s i t u a t e d i n the Kabyle Mountains, the ancient C u i c u l . Diocese: Djemila (?) Twin b a s i l i c a and b a p t i s t e r y D e d i c a t i o n : Unknown North B a s i l i c a Nave and two a i s l e s , ending i n an-apse, which i s long and narrow and extends i n t o the nave, ending i n a chancel screen. S i n g l e columns d i v i d e the a i s l e s , a n d the entrance i s on the western w a l l through a colonnaded narthex. F l o o r mosaics were found in situ showing animals i n l a r g e octagons framed by geometric and f l o r a l d esigns. The b a s i l i c a measured approximately 37 x 15 m. South B a s i l i c a T h i s b a s i l i c a i s l a r g e r than the North church and i t has been suggested that i t may have been b u i l t some time a f t e r the n o r t h church. F e v r i e r , however, f e e l s t h at both h a l l s are contemporary. The b a s i l i c a measured 42 x 30 m and had a nave and four a i s l e s . The columns were p a i r e d i n c o n t r a s t to the s i n g l e supports i n the nor t h church. The f l o o r mosaics have a r i c h design and are very s i m i l a r to the ones found i n the smaller b a s i l i c a . The apse arrangement i s al s o s i m i l a r . The main entrance was through a p o r t i c o e d narthex on the western w a l l ; there was a door l e a d i n g to the nor t h b a s i l i c a and the b a p t i s t e r y . Both churches have spacious c r y p t s , a c c e s s i b l e from the ou t s i d e through a connecting c o r r i d o r extending below the apses of both b a s i l i c a s . B a p t i s t e r y This l i e s to the west of the North B a s i l i c a and i s connected to i t s narthex. The b u i l d i n g i s e x p r e s s i v e and among the best preserved i n North A f r i c a , both i n s i z e and monumentality. I t i s round and domed, the centre columns c a r r y a square canopy r i s i n g above the f o n t . The core i s enveloped by a b a r r e l - v a u l t e d c o r r i d o r , i t s two w a l l s moulded by n i c h e s , p i l a s t e r s and a strong c o r n i c e . The columns surmounting the font r i s e from high p e d e s t a l s , t h e i r s h a f t s f l u t e d and ending - 176 -i n c a p i t a l s . There i s a l s o a r i c h l y decorated mosaic f l o o r . Krautheimer f e e l s that t h i s b u i l d i n g "breathes the s p i r i t of a c l a s s i c a l s u r v i v a l . " Both b a s i l i c a s have been dated i n the l a t e f o u r t h or e a r l y f i f t h c e n t u r i e s under Bishop C r e s c o n i u s . B i b l i o g r a p h y : C h r i s t e r n , J . Akten des V I I . I n t e r n a t i o n a l Kongresses ftir c h r i s t l i c h e Ar cha'olo g i e , T r i e r 5-11 September 1965. v o l . 2. B e r l i n : Deutsches ArchKologisches I n s t i t u t , 1965. P l a t e s CXCV and CXCVI. F e v r i e r , P a u l - A l b e r t . Dj emila. A l g e r : M i n i s t e r e de 1 1 Information et de l a C u l t u r e , 1971. Krautheimer, R i c h a r d . E a r l y C h r i s t i a n and Byzantine  A r c h i t e c t u r e . Harmondsworth, Middx.: Penguin Books Ltd . , 1965. — E a r l y C h r i s t i a n , Medieval and Renaissance A r t . New York: New York U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1969. - 1 7 7 -J . C H R I S T K R N G X C V A b b . 7 D j e m i l a (Algcricn), D o p p e l b a s i l i k c n , G r u n d r i s s . J . U H R I S T E R N - 179 -CONSTANTINOPLE There i s not much known about the plan of the churches which Constantine b u i l t i n h i s new c a p i t a l of C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , the one dedicated to the Peace of God - Hagia E i r e n e - and the other d e d i c a t e d to the Wisdom of God - Hagia Sophia. Krautheimer f e e l s that the two b a s i l i c a s were a twin s t r u c t u r e from the beginning, " s i n c e s t i l l i n the e a r l y f i f t h century H. Sophia and H. Irene 'the Old' were'enclosed i n one p r e c i n c t and bear the name of one church' (Socrates, HE 11.16)". P o s s i b l y the two churches were not b u i l t at the same time, the twin formation r e s u l t i n g from the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a new next to an o l d e r church. Both churches of the C o n s t a n t i n i a n era are mainly known through l i t e r a r y sources, s i n c e there are but few remains. Matthews f e e l s that these churches are " s t i l l f o r the most part beyond archaeology's h o r i z o n s . " He assumes that the foundations l i e more or l e s s i n t a c t under the present churches but that excavations are almost i m p o s s i b l e . Hagia Sophia was most probably timber-roofed, oblong with a kind of ambulatory around the east end. The e x i s t e n c e of g a l l e r i e s i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d through Chrysostom's r e f e r e n c e i n a sermon to the women "up above." The entrance was on the west s i d e , attached was a b a p t i s t e r y and a skenophylakion, a l l mentioned i n l i t e r a t u r e , and the l a t t e r i s known through archaeology. Also mentioned i s an ambo and a cathedra, so presumably the l a t t e r stood on the ambo. Hagia E i r e n e was located, about 110 m from.the north s i d e of Hagia Sophia, i t s apse a l i g n e d with that of the great church, o r i e n t e d along the same a x i s . Matthews mentions that the two churches were regarded as a s i n g l e sanctuary during J u s t i n i a n ' s r e i g n and probably l a t e r as w e l l ; both churches belonged to the p a t r i a r c h a t e and were administered by the same c l e r g y . He f e e l s that Hagia E i r e n e was f i r s t c o n s t r u c t e d and that i t served as the c a t h e d r a l church before Hagia Sophia was b u i l t and a f t e r the l a t t e r was destroyed by f i r e i n 404. From the l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n i t would seem that the twin church at C o n s t a n t i n o p l e was 1 b u i l t i n the t r a d i t i o n of those i n S y r i a and P a l e s t i n e , i . e . along the same a x i s one behind the o t h e r . Hagia Sophia was at l e a s t s t a r t e d under Constantine and completed i n mid 4th century, so that Hagia E i r e n e must also have been b u i l t by C o n s t a n t i n e . - 180 -B i b l i o g r a p h y : Hubert, Jean. "Les c a t h e d r a l e s doubles de l a Gaule." Genava v o l . IX (1963), 105-125. Krautheimer, R i c h a r d . Stud i e s i n E a r l y C h r i s t i a n , Medieval  and Renaissance ARt. New York: New York U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969. Mathews, Thomas F. The E a r l y Churches of C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . U n i v e r s i t y Park: The Pennsylvania State U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971. R e a l l e x i k o n fUr B y z a n t i n i s c h e Kunst. E d i t e d by Klaus Wessel and Marcel R e s t l e . 4 v o l s . (2 p u b l i s h e d ) . S t u t t g a r t : Anton Hiersemann, 1963/,971 . Schneider, A.M. "Die v o r j u s t i n i a n i s c h e S o p h i e n k i r c h e . " B y z a n t i n i s c h e Z e i t s c h r i f t . (1936), 77-85. - 1 8 1 -Figure 2. O ld Hagia Sophi_a._ Plan of skeuophylakion T . F . M a t h e w s , p a g e 1 6 - 1 8 2 -Oi£l Turkish masonry Figure 3. Old Hagia Sophia. South-north section of skcuophylakion T . F . M a t h e w s , p a g e 1 7 - 183 -EPHESUS T u r k e y - s i t u a t e d on the w e s t e r n Aegean c o a s t , once th e c a p i t a l o f t h e Roman p r o v i n c e o f A s i a . The c i t y was l a r g e l y d e s t r o y e d d u r i n g t h e G o t h i c i n v a s i o n s i n t h e 4 t h c e n t u r y b u t r e s t o r a t i o n and r e b u i l d i n g t o o k p l a c e under t h e emperors V a l e n t i n i a n and G r a t i a n . D i o c e s e : E p h e s u s . L a r g e b a s i l i c a l complex c o m p r i s i n g t h e B a s i l i c a o f Our Lady w i t h a b a p t i s t e r y and l a r g e a t r i u m . In t h e p a s t t h e complex had a l w a y s been c o n s i d e r e d a t w i n b a s i l i c a , b u t e x c a v a t i o n s i n t h e 1920's have r e v e a l e d a complex o f b u i l d i n g s , b e l o n g -i n g t o t h e B a s i l i c a o f Our L a d y . The complex was e r e c t e d on a Roman monumental b u i l d i n g w h i c h was d e s t r o y e d d u r i n g the l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e 3 r d c e n t u r y . A l o n g b a s i l i c a l complex was e r e c t e d , u s i n g s p o i l s of o l d e r b u i l d i n g s . B a s i l i c a S. Mary A s t a n d a r d b a s i l i c a w i t h nave and two a i s l e s w i t h a s t r e s s on t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s . The l o n g h a l l ends i n an e a s t e r n a p s e , w i t h two rooms o f f t h i s a p s e , a n a r t h e x i n f r o n t o f t h e w e s t e r n e n t r a n c e , w h i c h i n t u r n l e d i n t o a l a r g e a t r i u m , a l s o e n d i n g i n an a p s e . To t h e n o r t h o f t h e a t r i u m l a y the b a p t i s t e r y w i t h more rooms a t t a c h e d to i t . The masonry was c o n c r e t e , a n c h o r e d by l a r g e v e r t i c a l b l o c k s and f a c e d w i t h a l t e r n a t i n g bands o f b r i c k and s m a l l s t o n e . A l l w a l l s r e s t e d on t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f a s e c o n d - c e n t u r y b u i l d i n g . K r a u t h e i m e r s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s u n c e r t a i n w h e t h e r the c o l o n n a d e s c a r r i e d an e n t a b l a t u r e and a r c a d e b u t o t h e r s o u r c e s f e e l t h a t t h e r e m ight have been g a l l e r i e s . The b a p t i s t e r y was o c t a g o n a l and domed, e n v e l o p e d by a s q u a r e a m b u l a t o r y . The whole complex measures about 150 x 30 m ( e x c l u d i n g t h e b a p t i s t e r y ) and t h e b a s i l i c a a l o n e was a b o u t 85 m l o n g . K r a u t h e i m e r d a t e s t h e b a s i l i c a between 350 and 400. One c o u l d c o n s i d e r i t as a t w i n s t r u c t u r e i n t h e same way as t h e H o l y S e p u l c h r e i n - J e r u s a l e m o r t h e N a t i v i t y i n B e t h l e h e m , and t h e a t r i u m may w e l l have f u n c t i o n e d as a w i t h d r a w a l p l a c e f o r t h e catechumens d u r i n g t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f the E u c h a r i s t . The p r e s e n c e o f an apse i n t h e a t r i u m may have l e d to t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h i s was i n d e e d a t w i n b a s i l i c a . K e i l (1964) c e r t a i n l y a p p e a r s t o t h i n k t h a t t h i s f a l l s i n t o the c a t e g o r y o f t w i n b a s i l i c a . - 184 -B i b l i o g r a p h y : Hubert, J . "Les c a t h e d r a l e s doubles de l a Gaule." Genava, IX (1963), 105-125. K e i l , J o s e f . Ftihrer durch Ephesos. Wien: O e s t e r r e i -c h i s c h e s A r c h S o l o g i s c h e s I n s t i t u t , 1964. Krautheimer, R i c h a r d . E a r l y C h r i s t i a n and Byzantine  A r c h i t e c t u r e . Harmondsworth, Middx.: Penguin Books Ltd . , 1965. R e a l l e x i k o n zur B y z a n t i n i s c h e n Kunst. E d i t e d by Klaus Wessel and Marcel R e s t l e . 4 v o l s . (2 p u b l i s h e d ) . S t u t t g a r t : Anton Hiersemann, 1963/1971, 164-174. - 1 8 5 -A t r i u m B a p t i s t e r y N a r t h e x B a s i l i c a i l Abb. i!: .Mii i icnki i i l iu, Go&umtplun (nucji I'. Knol l ) R e a l l e x i k o n z u r B y z a n t i n i s c h e n K u n s t - 186 -Figure 27. Ephcsus, St Mary, c. 400. Plan (1 : 1250) K r a u t h e i m e r , E C B A A b b . M m i c n k i i ( b e . J I . B u u ' / . u s t m u l : B a s i l i k a . L i i n g s - 11. ( J u c i s c h n i t t (nnt'll F . K n o l l ) E p h e s u s , S t . M a r y ' s R e a l l e x i k o n z u r B y z a n t i n i s c h e n K u n s t - 187 -GERASA Jo r d a n i a , s i t u a t e d about 60 km north of Amman, present day Je r a s h . Diocese: not known Twin c a t h e d r a l and f o u n t a i n c o u r t , s a i d to be modelled on Jerusalem. Both churches and f o u n t a i n court are on the same a x i s one behind the other, grouped on t e r r a c e s . Cathedral d e d i c a t i o n not known, twin church ded i c a t e d to St. Theodore. Cathedral Was b u i l t i n 375 a d j o i n i n g the f o u n t a i n court which was ere c t e d over the miraculous s p r i n g . The s p r i n g i s connected with the M i r a c l e of the water turned i n t o wine at the Wedding of Cana. The c a t h e d r a l has a wide nave and two a i s l e s with 12 columns on each sid e (three of which are s t i l l i n s i t u ) . The nave i s n e a r l y three times the width of the s i d e a i s l e s . The columns and c a p i t a l s are s p o i l s from a l a t e 2nd century b u i l d i n g . The b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l i s lime stone and some of the side rooms had marble w a l l f a c i n g s . The c a t h e d r a l i s south-east/north-west o r i e n t e d with an a p s i d a l t e r m i n a t i o n on the eastern end, two s i d e rooms, and the whole ea s t e r n w a l l s t r a i g h t across the apse and side rooms. In the apse i s a bema r a i s e d by one step, the ambo is[to the side toward the south w a l l . No s t a i r s have been d i s c o v e r e d so i t i s assumed that the church had no g a l l e r i e s . There i s an atrium i n f r o n t of the wast entrance, followed by the Fountain Court. The Fountain Court was most probably b u i l t p r i o r to 375 i f we can b e l i e v e Epiphanios who reported to have seen the annual m i r a c l e of the water of the f o u n t a i n changed i n t o wine i n the year 375. St., Theodore This church was b u i l t by Bishop Aenas i n 4 9 4-496. I t al s o c o n s i s t s of a nave and two a i s l e s t e r m i n a t i n g i n an apse. The i n t e r i o r i s s i m i l a r l y arranged to the c a t h e d r a l , with side rooms o f f the apse and the ambo again placed to the side toward the south w a l l . Many f l o o r mosaics were found i n s i t u . The whole complex measures approximately 300 x 45 m and i s grouped on t e r r a c e s . I t cannot be considered to be a true twin c a t h e d r a l because of a time span of 120 years between the foundation of these churches. Since the complex was not planned from the outset the f u n c t i o n s must have been -188-d i f f e r e n t from a true twin b a s i l i c a . B i b l i o g r a p h y : K r a e l i n g , C a r l H., ed. Gerasa. C i t y of the D e c a p o l i s . New Haven, Conn.: American Schools of O r i e n t a l Research, 1938. Krautheimer, R i c h a r d . E a r l y C h r i s t i a n and Byzantine  A r c h i t e c t u r e . Harmondsworth, Middx.: Penguin Books L t d . , 1965. R e a l l e x i k o n zur Wessel and S t u t t g a r t : B y z a n t i n i s c h e n Kunst. E d i t e d by Klaus Marcel R e s t l e . 4 v o l s . (2 p u b l i s h e d ) . Anton Hiersemann, 1963/1971, 736-766. - 1 8 9 -Alib. 1. CUTIVSA, Stmltpltin (schoMinr. Xiiclizeioluiimc iiach Krai-lini;) - 1 9 0 -R e a l l e x i k o n z u r B y z a n t i n i s c h e n K u n s t - 1 9 2 -G e r a s a - T h e C a t h e d r a l 375 A.D. R e a l l e x i k o n z u r B y z a n t i n i s c h e n K u n s t - 193 -

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