UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Community development : education and training for change and localization Odoch, Paschal W. 1999

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-ubc_1999-464024.pdf [ 10.77MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0058304.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0058304-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0058304-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0058304-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0058304-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0058304-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0058304-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0058304-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0058304.ris

Full Text

COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT: EDUCATION AND TRAINING FOR CHANGE AND LOCALIZATION by PASCHAL WATHUM ODOCH M.Ed., The University of British Columbia, 1996 P.B.D., Simon Fraser University, 1994 B.A. (Hons.), Makerere University, 1990  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Educational Studies) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July 1999 © Paschal Wathum Odoch, 1999  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  Department  of  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, Canada  i  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract Acronyms used in the thesis List of Figures List of Tables Acknowledgements Dedication  CHAPTER I:  CHAPTER H:  •  INTRODUCTION  v vi vii viii ix xi  1  1.1 Problem statement 1.2 Purpose 1.3 Method 1.4 Research questions .-. 1.5 The ACORD-NEBBI community development programme 1.6 Significance of the study 1.7 Organization of thesis  4 6 6 7 8 9 11  COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT INIATTVES: A CRITICAL REVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL LITERATURE  14  2.1 Community. 2.2 Development 2.3 Community development 2.4 The origin of community development 2.5 Manifestations of community development 2.6 Development theories underpinning community development practice 2.7 Alternative solutions to the limitations of development theories 2.8 Normative characteristics of community development ,  14 17 20 24 26 42 64 66  CHAPTER I H : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 The case study design 3.2 The site and context of study 3.3 Justification for choosing the ACORD-NEBBI programme 3.4 Sources of data 3.5 Data analysis 3.6 Verification of data 3.7 On reporting study results 3.8 Ethical considerations 3.9 Limitations to the study  70 71 71 72 73 77 79 81 81 82  C H A P T E R TV: C O M M U N I T Y D E V E L O P M E N T E F F O R T S : E D U C A T I O N A N D T R A I N I N G IN U G A N D A A N D A C O R D ' s D E V E L O P M E N T G O A L S  4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7  CHAPTER V:  The period during colonial administration The period toward political independence Developments during the independence years A C O R D involvement i n sub-Sahara A f r i c a The A C O R D - A F R I C A programme The A C O R D - U G A N D A programme The A C O R D - N E B B I programme  84  84 85 90 94 96 100 103  A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS O F EDUCATION AND TRAINING ACTIVITIES A T T H E ACORD-NEBBI P R O G R A M M E  5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8  External training Internal training Training to self-selecting groups O n identifying training needs Forms o f training conducted Training program planning and implementation cycles Limitations to objectives-based instructional planning A C O R D - N E B B I training programs and the principles o f adult learning...  110  Ill 113 113 114 118 127 136 138  C H A P T E R VI: T H E N O R M A T I V E CHARACTERISTICS O F COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT: A N ANALYSIS  146  6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8  147 148 151 153 154 156 158  Self-reliance H u m a n capacity building Community empowerment Endogenous development Community participation L o c a l community control and management Diversity L i m i t e d scope o f the known normative characteristics o f community development  160  C H A P T E R V n : ANALYSIS O F ACORD-NEBBI'S A P P R O A C H TO COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT  166  7.1 Supporting factors in the A C O R D - N E B B I programme 7.2 Hindering factors i n the A C O R D - N E B B I programme  170 177  C H A P T E R VHI: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  8.1 Methods and content o f education and training curricula at A C O R D - N E B B I 8.2 Normative characteristics o f community development  180  181 184  8.3 Supporting and hindering factors in the ACORD-NEBBI programme 8.4 Weaknesses of the ACORD-NEBBI programme.... 8.5 Recommendations 8.6 Concluding comments REFERENCES  185 186 188 192 195  APPENDICES  208 APPENDIX A: DEFINITIONS T H A T H A V E G U I D E D T H E RESEARCH  208  A P P E N D I X B: A G R I C U L T U R A L T R A I N I N G N E E D S A S S E S S M E N T F O R M  209  A P P E N D I X C: L E A D E R S H I P T R A I N I N G N E E D S A S S E S S M E N T F O R M  210  A P P E N D I X D: K N O W L E D G E A N D S K I L L S T R A I N I N G NEEDS ASSESSMENT FORM  210  A P P E N D I X E: B O O K K E E P I N G T R A I N I N G FOR C B O M E M B E R S  211  A P P E N D I X F: T R A I N I N G O U T L I N E O N F E A S I B I L I T Y S T U D I E S  211  A P P E N D I X G: C O M M U N I T Y W O R K E R I N I T I A L T R A I N I N G COURSE O V E R V I E W  212  A P P E N D I X H : T E A C H I N G S K I L L S T R A I N I N G FOR T R A I N E R O F COMMUNITY WORKER (TCW)  212  A P P E N D I X I : C H E C K L I S T FOR C O M M U N I T Y A I D S H O M E - V I S I T I N G PROGRAM  213  A P P E N D I X J: S E M I N A R P R O G R A M M E FOR A G R O - F O R E S T R Y A N D SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE  214  ABSTRACT This thesis explores the ways i n w h i c h education and training programs can contribute to the achievement o f equitable, self-reliant, and sustainable community development. A case study was conducted on an indigenous affiliate o f the A g e n c y for Cooperation i n Research and Development ( A C O R D ) i n N e b b i district, Uganda. A C O R D is a broad-based international consortium o f European and Canadian non-governmental organizations. A C O R D ' s main focus i n sub-Saharan Africa is to help establish or strengthen local, non-governmental structures w i t h a view to promoting equitable, self-reliant, sustainable development. The A C O R D - N E B B I community development programme was chosen for the study for four reasons: First, it appeared to be consistent with the community development principles advanced i n the literature. Second, it emphasizes long-term localization o f the programme through a significant skills training and education component. Third, the A C O R D - N E B B I programme is a mature (i.e. over 15 years old) community development effort with a variety o f programs under one umbrella. A n d fourth, the programme was accessible geographically and culturally to the researcher. The research methods included observation, document analysis, and forty-six semi-structured interviews. The interviewees represented community development workers, former participants o f A C O R D - N E B B I training programs, primary beneficiaries o f A C O R D - N E B B I development programme, and the programme personnel. Six factors were found to support the ability o f A C O R D - N E B B I education and training programs to contribute to the achievement o f equitable, self-reliant, and sustainable development initiatives: first, application o f a phased approach to change and localization; second, tailored training activities at the request and pace o f the beneficiaries; third, support to and promotion o f self-selecting group formation based on common interests that, i n turn, allowed the functioning o f groups with less social friction; fourth, the application o f a development approach compatible w i t h the socio-cultural traditions; fifth, the development o f a multi-faceted programme that penetrated a l l vulnerable segments o f the society; and sixth, the application o f change agents who supported emerging community groups. T w o factors were identified as hindering the ability o f A C O R D - N E B B I education and training programs to contribute to the achievement o f equitable, self-reliant, and sustainable development initiatives: a) the poor state o f development instruments (i.e. accessible roads, clean water, and w e l l equipped medical centres), and b) missed target groups ~ the poorest o f the poor — w h o could not form groups through w h i c h training is delivered. The latter factor exists because the programme focuses on groups, and hence individuals who could not form or j o i n the selfselecting groups were left out o f the development process. Thus, the lower middle class strata o f the village communities have benefited the most because they already had the basic resources — work capacity, knowledge, capital — with w h i c h to gain access, influence and the m u c h needed savings mobilization prior to group formation. The majority o f the rural poor do not possess these important resources.  ACRONYMS USED IN THE TEXT ACORD  = Agency for Cooperation in Research and Development  AIDS  = Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome  ARNOVA  = Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Association  CAP  = Community Action Programme  CIDA  = Canadian International Development Agency  CO  = Credit Officer  CBO  = Community Based Organization  EDF  = European Development Fund  ERO  = External Relations Officer  GAD  = Gender and Development  HIV  = Human Immuno-deficiency Virus  IDRC  = International Development Research Centre  LAC  = Loan Allocation Committee  LC  = Local Committee  PAP  = Poverty Alleviation Programme  PC  = Programme Coordinator  PPC  = Parish Planning Committee  PRA  = Participatory Rural Appraisal  QUAMM  = Italian International Development Agency  RDW  = Rural Development Worker  RRA  = Rapid Rural Appraisal  SACRENET  = Savings and Credit Network  SAP  = Structural Adjustment Programme  SNV  = Netherlands Development Organization  STD  = Sexually Transmitted Diseases  TCW  = Trainer of Community Worker  UNDP  = United Nations Development Programme  USAID  = United States Agency in International Development  UWFCT  = Uganda Women' Finance and Credit Trust  VCA  = Voluntary Change Agents  ZPO  = Zonal Programme Officer  LIST O F FIGURES  FIGURE 1: A C O R D IN A F R I C A  FIGURE 2: T H E A C O R D - U G A N D A P R O G R A M M E  FIGURE 3: T H E A C O R D - N E B B I P R O G R A M M E  FIGURE 4: A S U M M A R Y OF K E Y FINDINGS  viii LIST OF TABLES T A B L E 1: A S U M M A R Y O F T H E I N T E R V I E W S U B - G R O U P S A N D F O R M A T S  T A B L E 2: S U M M A R Y O F T H E T R A I N I N G C E N T R E ' S P R O G R A M S ,  T A B L E 3: S U M M A R Y O F F I E L D T R A I N I N G P R O G R A M S ,  1990-93  1996-97  75  115  ] 16  T A B L E 4: A S U M M A R Y O F A C O R D - N E B B I T R A I N I N G M E T H O D S  126  T A B L E 5: A S U M M A R Y O F A C O R D - N E B B I  135  FOUR L E V E L TRAINING PROCESS  T A B L E 6: A T Y P I C A L G R O U P A C T I V I T I E S C A L E N D A R  136  T A B L E 7: T H E A C O R D - N E B B I ' S  170  APPROACH T OC O M M U N I T Y D E V E L O P M E N T  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS It is extremely hard to successfully conduct an international study o f this scope without the support o f several personalities. In this regard, m y express appreciation goes to the Research Committee Members who rigorously guided me throughout the study. Foremost, to m y Research Supervisor, D r . Thomas J . Sork whose critical guidance to what ambitiously commenced as a Uganda country study. This level o f support resulted into a more feasible, manageable research project that has finally seen the light o f day. D r . Sork's advice was readily available, from inception o f the research topic, during the research proposal phase, after its approval, to the data analysis and preparation for the final doctoral examination. The study duly acknowledges the over ten years experience and expertise o f Professor Peter Boothroyd on community development planning, especially his contemporary international perspective and work i n developing countries. Equally significant to this study are D r . Judith Ottoson's insights on multiple influences on post-program application and especially her experience on the United States National Training Research programme. It is undoubtedly the multiple perspectives the Research Committee Members brought to the study that gave the investigation the quality and adequate preparation it required. M y appreciation goes to the International Development Research Centre ( I D R C ) , Doctoral Research A w a r d , for having funded the study. Indeed, I D R C is a development research institution w i t h a very active presence i n East Africa. The framework developed through this study on community development effort, w i l l not only help me create dialogue on m y experiences to other interested theorists, policy makers, and practitioners, but also provide advice about research and issues associated with equitable, self-reliant, and sustainable development initiatives i n sub-Sahara Africa. Special appreciation is extended to the Faculty o f Education Graduate Student Research Grant. The grant helped i n meeting expenses for supplies and materials i n the post-fieldwork period. I must acknowledge the invaluable support o f D r . Henry M o s l e y and his associates, from the Johns Hopkins School o f Hygine and Public Health, department o f International Health and Population Dynamics, during m y participation at the 1996 Rockefeller Foundation A f r i c a Dissertation Workshop program. Further appreciation is extended to the A C O R D London office, A C O R D Uganda country office, and A C O R D - N E B B I programme, including the beneficiaries. N o t only d i d they display a genuine interest and commitment towards the research, but they also contributed a great deal to the success o f the research by their willingness to provide additional information that I continually required. Great thanks are extended to M r . Anthony Okech, Director, Institute o f A d u l t and Continuing Education, Makerere University Kampala. M r . O k e c h ensured I had access to information relevant to this study. Further, I extend sincere appreciation to m y colleagues at the Student Society, University o f British Columbia, for their moral support during the early stages o f the doctoral program, as w e l l as to m y two field support team ~ E m i l i o Odongo and Robert O k e l l o - for facilitating the necessary arrangements and relaying messages to appropriate persons when preparing for the field work.  I acknowledge the critical viewpoints o f my fellow graduate students during the period o f study: Helen Papuni, M a r i l y n Hoar, Reginald Nnazor, Pam Rogers, and Dennis Teo. Further appreciation goes to the Department o f Educational Studies whose general administrative support ensured my program o f study was an enjoyable and enriching one. Equally significant, my wife Juliet Odoch for having put up with the unique demands o f graduate study: the extended hours in the library, on the computer, writing the dissertation, and preparing for the oral examination. Finally to my parents Peter Wathum and Rejina A n y a y o for believing in me and for patiently waiting for me to reach this level o f education.  Paschal Odoch, University o f British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada  DEDICATION T h i s D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n is dedicated to m y father Peter W a t h u m , a former H e a d m a s t e r o f N y a r a v u r P r i m a r y S c h o o l , for h i s great b e l i e f i n the v a l u e o f e d u c a t i n g the people, w h i c h he p r a c t i c a l l y demonstrated through m e .  1  CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION C o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t has g a i n e d almost u n i v e r s a l r e c o g n i t i o n i n the last five decades as a substantial force i n i n d u c i n g p l a n n e d change. A n d i n the last twenty years, dramatic shifts have o c c u r r e d i n m o v i n g d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c y to less government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and m o r e emphasis o n c o m m u n i t y i n v o l v e m e n t for self-reliant d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e s . A s part o f the shifts, c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h an emphasis o n intended beneficiaries has gained greater p r o m i n e n c e i n d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c y ( D e C o n i n c k , 1992). T h i s trend carries potential l o n g - t e r m benefits to both the l o c a l c o m m u n i t y and the w h o l e nation. It is.also d o c u m e n t e d that the m o r e engaged people are i n their o w n c o m m u n i t i e s ~ be it e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l , or p o l i t i c a l -- the greater the prosperity o f the nation. Indeed, m u c h has been w r i t t e n about the p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between a d e v e l o p e d l o c a l l e v e l c o m m u n i t y h a v i n g a strong e c o n o m y , p h y s i c a l and m o r a l w e l l b e i n g , to that o f the n a t i o n ( B u r k e y , 1993; C h e k k i , 1979; D e C o n i n c k , 1992; L a c k e y and P r a t u c k c h a i , 1991; M c G u i r e , R u b i n , A g r a n o f f and R i c h a r d s , 1994; N e w l a n d s , 1981; O k u k u , 1995; O l a m a , 1996; Sautoy, 1960; W i l d e n , 1970). T h e emphasis o n c o m m u n i t y i n v o l v e m e n t and d e v e l o p m e n t carries s o c i a l and practical i m p l i c a t i o n s . It focuses o n e q u i p p i n g p e o p l e at the l o c a l l e v e l w i t h appropriate k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s to p e r f o r m tasks. T h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f these s k i l l s c a n o c c u r t h r o u g h formal and i n f o r m a l c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g programs. G i v e n the diverse nature o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e s , a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h o w c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t k n o w l e d g e a n d s k i l l s are a p p l i e d i n p r a c t i c e i s c r u c i a l . In an effort to meet d i v e r s e d e v e l o p m e n t challenges, c o m m u n i t y educators a n d organizers need  2  to d e v e l o p relevant p r o g r a m s that incorporate k n o w l e d g e about .the context, content, process, and practice issues. In the international literature, c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t has been regarded as both a n agent for p l a n n e d s o c i a l change a n d a n e d u c a t i o n a l process, d e s i g n e d to enable disadvantaged c o m m u n i t i e s faced w i t h challenges to h e l p themselves ( B i d d l e and B i d d l e , 1968; C a m p f e n s , 1997). Indeed, C a m p f e n s (1997, p.22) argues that " c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n recent years has related to the g r o w i n g d e m a n d for a f o r m o f p l a n n e d change that e m p o w e r s m a r g i n a l groups to participate i n c o m m u n i t y and institutional d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g processes." F o r most p o s t - c o l o n i a l countries, h o w e v e r , A d j i b o l o s o o ( 1 9 9 3 , p.139) observes that d u r i n g the p e r i o d i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g independence, "a great deal o f resources . . . was p o u r e d into national p r o g r a m m e s . . . to [facilitate the a c h i e v e m e n t of] selfsufficiency, increase the net w e a l t h o f their c i t i z e n s , and to i m p r o v e s o c i a l welfare [development]." A n d c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t has been one o f the avenues b y w h i c h several p r o g r a m m e s have been i m p l e m e n t e d to a c h i e v e these o u t c o m e s . D e s p i t e the fuzziness o f d e f i n i n g it ( B i d d l e and B i d d l e , 1968), c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t continues to be used as a v e h i c l e to p e r f o r m several significant functions i n c l u d i n g l o c a l e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t , a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n , health p r o m o t i o n , s o c i a l a n d welfare services, a n d adult e d u c a t i o n ( B i d d l e and B i d d l e , 1968; C a m p f e n s , 1997; G r e e n and R a e b u r n , 1988; L o t z , 1 9 7 1 ; U n i t e d N a t i o n s , 1971). C o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t has been " d i s c o v e r e d " b y practitioners i n several other fields, w h o s i m p l y use it to a c h i e v e their s o c i a l or e c o n o m i c objectives. C o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t is also regarded as  a broad " u m b r e l l a " for a variety o f "programs, projects, a c t i v i t i e s , and m o v e m e n t s w i t h o u t a h o m e " ( B e r a n , 1967, p.5). H u m a n capacity b u i l d i n g is regarded as a fundamental element i n c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , c o n s i d e r i n g that it a i m s to strengthen the a b i l i t y o f beneficiaries to m a k e reasoned c h o i c e s amidst a v a i l a b l e opportunities. T h e r e are m a n y benefits for c o m m u n i t i e s that pursue h u m a n capacity b u i l d i n g measures. L u t h e r and W a l l (1989) list five advantages that i n c l u d e : a) strategic t h i n k i n g b y c o m m u n i t y leaders, b) d e v e l o p m e n t o f an entrepreneurial spirit, c) increased orientation and p o s i t i v e attitude towards s o c i o e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e s , d) systematic, p l a n n e d approach to c o m m u n i t y i m p r o v e m e n t , and e) thoughtful approaches to the future. A n d i n c r e a s i n g c o m m u n i t y capacity is greatly facilitated t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g w h i c h help p e o p l e learn f r o m each other h o w to p l a n and progress. A c c o r d i n g to D e C o n i n c k ( 1 9 9 2 , p.5), successful c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t projects require a " h i g h l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n [and] the u t i l i z a t i o n o f l o c a l resources and s k i l l s . " F r o m this perspective, it is important to first focus o n k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s d e v e l o p m e n t as elements w i t h i n h u m a n capacity b u i l d i n g , before c o m m e n c i n g c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e s geared to o v e r c o m e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m s . In this study, e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g as vectors for m o v i n g t o w a r d h u m a n capacity b u i l d i n g i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g four areas: a) i n v e s t i n g i n h u m a n resources, b) d e v e l o p i n g s k i l l s w h i c h lead to c o m m u n i t y o w n e r s h i p o f the i n i t i a t i v e s undertaken t h r o u g h self-help and m u t u a l a i d , c) t r a i n i n g c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t facilitators as l o c a l and strategic agents to cultivate n e w ideas, and d) e m p o w e r i n g c o m m u n i t i e s t h r o u g h i n f o r m a t i o n , t r a i n i n g , o r g a n i z a t i o n , and to c o n t i n u o u s l y upgrade their a b i l i t y to k n o w , analyze and understand  4 their situations a n d p r o b l e m s ( C a m p f e n s , 1997; F r i e d m a n n , 1992; K r o p o t k i n , 1989; M c G u i r e , R u b i n , A g r a n o f f and R i c h a r d s , 1994; N e w l a n d s , 1981). C o l l e c t i v e l y , these undertakings focus o n the a b i l i t y o f l o c a l p e o p l e to s o l v e their o w n p r o b l e m s w i t h the u l t i m a t e g o a l o f self-reliance. Therefore, education and t r a i n i n g efforts seek to s t i m u l a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l expertise a n d forge n e w s k i l l s w i t h i n l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s related to leadership, c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n , group processes, and the a r t i c u l a t i o n a n d a c h i e v e m e n t o f a shared v i s i o n . T h a t is, s u c h e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g initiatives i n c l u d e efforts that increase the a b i l i t y o f p e o p l e and institutions to a c h i e v e what they c o l l e c t i v e l y and m u t u a l l y agree to pursue ( N e w l a n d s , 1981).  1.1 Problem statement T h i s thesis is g r o u n d e d i n the r e c o g n i t i o n that as the n u m b e r o f l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s that pursue c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e s c o n t i n u e s to g r o w , it appears that not e n o u g h is k n o w n about the factors w h i c h support or h i n d e r the a b i l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s i n c o n t r i b u t i n g to the achievement o f equitable, selfreliant, and sustainable c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . A study b y M c G u i r e , R u b i n , A g r a n o f f , and R i c h a r d s (1994), for e x a m p l e , p r o v i d e s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h o w c o m m u n i t i e s that h a v e engaged i n strategic p l a n n i n g processes enjoy h i g h e r l e v e l s o f d e v e l o p m e n t opportunities. T h e i r study e x p l o r e s three m a j o r factors: c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , c o m m u n i t y structure, and d e v e l o p m e n t instruments. W h i l e a l l these factors are related to effective translation o f c o m m u n i t y aspirations into reality, the study is l a r g e l y a n c h o r e d i n a p l a n n i n g perspective, and does not d i r e c t l y reflect the n o r m a t i v e characteristics o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . F r o m this standpoint,  5 w h a t needs to b e e x p l o r e d is h o w the n o r m a t i v e characteristics o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t are reflected i n the k n o w l e d g e a n d s k i l l s that are a p p l i e d a n d d i s s e m i n a t e d b y c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k e r s i n p a r t i c u l a r contexts. A n international study b y L a c k e y and P r a t u c k c h a i (1991) presents t w e n t y - t w o c a p a b i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d b y c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k e r s . T h e study a s k e d m e m b e r s o f the C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t S o c i e t y - a n international s o c i e t y o f b o t h practitioners a n d theorists ~ to identify the most important k n o w l e d g e a n d s k i l l s r e q u i r e d for c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k . W h i l e the study identifies the k e y k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s needed i n practice, it does not e x p l o r e the l i n k s b e t w e e n education and t r a i n i n g and the n o r m a t i v e characteristics o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . B l a k e l y ( 1 9 8 9 , p . 3 0 9 ) p o i n t s out that c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k e r s are n o w " e n c o u n t e r i n g circumstances i n w h i c h p r e v i o u s p a r a d i g m s o r h i s t o r i c a l r e v i e w s o f the p r o f e s s i o n w i l l not enhance the field's s k i l l or language." B e s i d e s , m e r e a p p l i c a t i o n o f the k n o w n c o n c e p t u a l a n d a n a l y t i c a l tools is p o t e n t i a l l y not sufficient c o n s i d e r i n g that, " [ c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t ] p r o g r a m m e s are c u r r e n t l y b e i n g c o n d u c t e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y b y e x t e n s i o n agents l a c k i n g i n the k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s r e q u i r e d o f competent c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t educators" ( F r a n c o i s et a l , 1982, p . l ) . T h i s c l a i m w o u l d be interpreted as r e s u l t i n g from the i n c r e a s i n g g r o w t h o f m a n y fields that use c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t as a means to a c h i e v e ends that are p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t to the fields,  for instance, c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d h e a l t h care, micro-enterprises, a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l  protection programmes. S a u t o y ( 1 9 6 0 ) , one o f the pioneers i n c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , asserts that effective c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e s p r o m o t e self-reliance, e m p o w e r m e n t ,  6  h u m a n c a p a c i t y b u i l d i n g , endogenous d e v e l o p m e n t , c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n , l o c a l c o n t r o l a n d management, and d i v e r s i t y i n p r o g r a m s or a c t i v i t i e s . I h a v e henceforth termed t h e m the seven n o r m a t i v e characteristics o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . A l t h o u g h the s e v e n n o r m a t i v e characteristics are c o m p a r a t i v e l y easy to understand, it is their a p p l i c a t i o n to p a r t i c u l a r contexts that poses the greatest challenge. T h i s assertion is s t i l l v a l i d , despite the existence i n the international d e v e l o p m e n t literature o f several theoretical formulations intended to p r o m o t e effective i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f l o n g - t e r m c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e s ( B l a k e l y , 1974; C a m p f e n s , 1997; C a r y et a l , 1989; C h e k k i , 1979; F r a n c o i s , et a l , 1982; H a r r i s , 1982; L a c k e y and P r a t u c k c h a i , 1991). D e s p i t e the e x i s t i n g literature o n c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , little i s k n o w n about case s p e c i f i c education a n d t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s as c o m p o n e n t s o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t e s p e c i a l l y o n factors that support or h i n d e r their effective c o n t r i b u t i o n to the a c h i e v e m e n t o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t goals: equity, self-reliance, a n d sustainable d e v e l o p m e n t .  1.2 Purpose T h e purpose o f the thesis is to e x p l o r e the r o l e o f education a n d t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s i n p r o m o t i n g c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . I n particular, it seeks to identify h o w s u c h p r o g r a m s c a n contribute to the achievement o f equitable, self-reliant, a n d sustainable c o m m u n i t y development.  1.3 Method T h e purpose o f the thesis was addressed t h r o u g h a qualitative case study d e s i g n . T h e case c h o s e n w a s a n i n d i g e n o u s affiliate o f the A g e n c y f o r C o o p e r a t i o n i n R e s e a r c h a n d D e v e l o p m e n t ( A C O R D ) i n N e b b i district, U g a n d a . T h e o r g a n i z a t i o n is f o r m a l l y  7  called A C O R D - N E B B I community development programme. The A C O R D - N E B B I d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e has facilitated group f o r m a t i o n i n w h i c h the major a c t i v i t i e s have centred o n s i x d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t i e s , n a m e l y , agro-forestry, appropriate technology, fishery, m i c r o - c r e d i t , c o m m u n i t y health, and c o m m u n i t y infrastructure development. T h e case study a p p r o a c h was d e e m e d appropriate because there is a need to c o n t e x t u a l i z e theoretical f o r m u l a t i o n s i n order to identify and e x p l a i n the factors that support or h i n d e r the a b i l i t y o f education and t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s to a c h i e v e c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t goals. C o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e s are "so m a r k e d l y v a r i e d from country to country that a special effort has to be made p e r i o d i c a l l y to describe, assess, and learn lessons f r o m these p r o g r a m m e s " ( C h e k k i , 1979, p . l ) . T h e three sources o f data used i n the study were taped semi-structured i n t e r v i e w s , observation, and d o c u m e n t analysis. F o r t y - s i x v o l u n t e e r participants d r a w n from c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k e r s , former participants o f A C O R D - N E B B I e d u c a t i o n and training p r o g r a m s , p r o g r a m m e personnel, and p r i m a r y beneficiary groups affiliated w i t h the p r o g r a m m e , were i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i v i d u a l l y o r i n a group. T h e first f i e l d w o r k w a s c o n d u c t e d i n M a y - J u n e , 1998, and a second v i s i t was made i n N o v e m b e r , 1998.  1.4 Research questions T o a c h i e v e the purpose o f the thesis, the case study was g u i d e d b y the f o l l o w i n g two questions: a) T o what extent and i n what w a y s are the seven n o r m a t i v e characteristics (see p.5-6) o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , as a d v a n c e d i n the literature, reflected i n the A C O R D - N E B B I education a n d t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s ? T h i s question is important because little is k n o w n about  8  h o w these seven n o r m a t i v e characteristics are reflected i n case-specific e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g programs that are d e l i v e r e d to c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d organizations, b) W h a t factors support or h i n d e r the a b i l i t y o f A C O R D - N E B B I e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g programs to contribute to the a c h i e v e m e n t o f equitable, self-reliant, and sustainable c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e s ? T h i s question is important because e d u c a t i o n and training as vectors i n sharing k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s operate i n d y n a m i c e n v i r o n m e n t s w h e r e several factors influence their effectiveness i n p r o m o t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t objectives.  1.5 The ACORD-NEBBI community development programme A g e n c y for C o o p e r a t i o n i n R e s e a r c h a n d D e v e l o p m e n t ( A C O R D ) is a b r o a d based, international c o n s o r t i u m o f E u r o p e a n and C a n a d i a n n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l organizations w i t h headquarters i n B r i t a i n . T h e c o n s o r t i u m w o r k s under the trusteeship o f its m e m b e r agencies, i n partnership w i t h field teams a n d l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s i n A f r i c a . A C O R D ' s m a i n role i n A f r i c a is to h e l p establish o r strengthen l o c a l , n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l structures w i t h a v i e w to p r o m o t i n g self-reliant, participatory d e v e l o p m e n t . A C O R D has an affiliate i n N e b b i district ( A C O R D - N E B B I ) , i n northwestern U g a n d a through w h i c h it achieves its mandate ( A C O R D A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1996; 1997). A C O R D - N E B B I , an indigenous o r g a n i z a t i o n , facilitates c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h the i n v o l v e m e n t o f local people: Fundamental to ACORD-NEBBI's philosophy is . . . responding to development needs . . . to promote the self-reliance of communities concerned . . . The implication of this philosophy is that ACORD-NEBBI is not the principal protagonist of the development process in any given context, but plays an essentially ancillary role, providing encouragement, technical advice and, where necessary, material support, but not the will to develop . . . [this] presupposes that a local protagonist of the development process exists. (Roberts, 1985, p.5) T h e A C O R D - N E B B I c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e w a s c h o s e n as the case for four reasons: F i r s t , it appeared to be consistent w i t h the n o r m a t i v e characteristics o f  9  c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t as a d v a n c e d i n international literature. S e c o n d , it e m p h a s i z e s l o n g - t e r m l o c a l i z a t i o n o f the p r o g r a m m e t h r o u g h a significant s k i l l s t r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n c o m p o n e n t . T h i r d , A C O R D - N E B B I is a mature (i.e. o v e r 15 years o l d ) c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t effort w i t h a v a r i e t y o f p r o g r a m s under one u m b r e l l a . A n d fourth, the p r o g r a m m e w a s accessible g e o g r a p h i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y to the researcher.  1.6 Significance of the study T h i s research is significant i n four w a y s . F i r s t , the thesis e x p l a i n s i n one case h o w k n o w l e d g e a n d s k i l l s p r o m o t e d i n c o n t e m p o r a r y international d e v e l o p m e n t literature are a p p l i e d i n practice to a c h i e v e equitable, self-reliant, and sustainable c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s understanding is significant as l o c a l groups m a y learn, share a n d disseminate s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n amongst themselves and for c r o s s - r e g i o n a l - c u l t u r a l l e a r n i n g w i t h other c o m m u n i t i e s i n s i m i l a r situations a n d contexts. S e c o n d , the thesis analyzes practice-related issues i n c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k i n a s p e c i f i c case. T h i s analysis not o n l y p r o v i d e s n e w insights, but also suggests h o w c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t education and t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m planners m a y m o r e effectively contribute to efforts directed at p l a n n e d change and l o c a l i z a t i o n . T h i r d , t a k i n g the case o f U g a n d a w h e r e this study w a s c a r r i e d out, the g o v e r n m e n t , i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the U n i t e d N a t i o n s D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m m e ( U N D P ) , has l a u n c h e d a U S D S 2 m i l l i o n  Vision 2025 project w i t h a s p e c i a l focus o n l o n g - t e r m  self-sufficiency, a central p r i n c i p l e o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r a c t i c e ( T h e M o n i t o r , A u g u s t 15, 1997). F o r this type o f i n i t i a t i v e to have a l o n g - t e r m , p o s i t i v e i m p a c t o n c o m m u n i t i e s , there h a v e to be n e w insights and approaches that address e d u c a t i o n a n d  10 training needs o f the c o n t i n u a l l y g r o w i n g n u m b e r o f l o c a l n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l organizations. F o u r t h , f i n d i n g s f r o m the research m a y i n f o r m practitioners and theorists engaged i n or associated w i t h c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t e d u c a t i o n and s k i l l s t r a i n i n g . P r i m a r y beneficiaries o f the study are organizations and institutions affiliated w i t h the A g e n c y for C o o p e r a t i o n i n R e s e a r c h a n d D e v e l o p m e n t ( A C O R D ) , the International D e v e l o p m e n t R e s e a r c h Centre ( I D R C ) , and the A s s o c i a t i o n for R e s e a r c h o n N o n p r o f i t O r g a n i z a t i o n s and V o l u n t a r y A c t i o n ( A R N O V A ) . Indeed, A C O R D , I D R C , and A R N O V A a l l encourage and support l o c a l and a p p l i e d research t h r o u g h a variety o f p r o g r a m m e s i n c l u d i n g d i s s e m i n a t i o n and integration o f results f r o m field studies into their p r o g r a m m e s and initiatives. A C O R D , w h i c h is the focus o f this study, n o w raises i n excess o f U S D S 20 m i l l i o n a n n u a l l y for the benefit o f 4 0 d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e s i n 17 countries o f A f r i c a ( A C O R D A n n u a l Report, 1996). W i t h its far-sighted mandate —  empowerment through knowledge — I D R C that  funded this research c a n share the f i n d i n g s f r o m this study w i t h a l l its n e t w o r k s o f research and d e v e l o p m e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s around the w o r l d . Indeed, I D R C ' s g o a l is to "initiate, encourage, support a n d c o n d u c t research into the p r o b l e m s o f the d e v e l o p i n g regions o f the w o r l d " ( I D R C A c t , 1970). A R V O V A , w h i c h supported the i n i t i a l sharing o f the study's results through its  emerging scholar award p r o g r a m , is an international c o m m u n i t y o f p e o p l e dedicated to fostering the creation, a p p l i c a t i o n and d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f research about v o l u n t a r y actions, non-profit o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and p h i l a n t h r o p y . T h e a s s o c i a t i o n supports d e v e l o p m e n t o f the next generation o f scholars, fosters d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f research into practice, and enhances  11  practitioner's u t i l i z a t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e . A d d i t i o n a l potential beneficiaries o f the study are other international d e v e l o p m e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s , theorists, practitioners, and p o l i c y makers p u r s u i n g e d u c a t i o n and s k i l l s t r a i n i n g for change a n d l o c a l i z a t i o n o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e s , s i m i l a r to the A C O R D - N E B B I context. 1.7 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f thesis C h a p t e r t w o is a c r i t i c a l r e v i e w o f literature relevant to the purpose o f this study. The chapter e x p l a i n s the terms " c o m m u n i t y , " "development" and " c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t " . M a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t are r e v i e w e d i n this chapter. O v e r t i m e , the t e r m "development" has generated b o t h understanding and debate on theoretical approaches to i n i t i a t i n g p l a n n e d change i n less sophisticated societies. These c o m p e t i n g theories o f d e v e l o p m e n t , i n c l u d i n g their inherent l i m i t a t i o n s , are presented i n this chapter. T h e chapter c o n c l u d e s b y h i g h l i g h t i n g the seven n o r m a t i v e characteristics o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t as a d v a n c e d i n the international literature. C h a p t e r three e x p l a i n s i n detail the case study m e t h o d a p p l i e d i n this research and the rationale for c h o o s i n g it. I c o m m e n c e the chapter by i n t r o d u c i n g and p r o v i d i n g a rationale for the research d e s i g n . T h e chapter also describes the site and context o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g j u s t i f i c a t i o n for s e l e c t i n g the A C O R D - N E B B I c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e . In a d d i t i o n , 1 discuss the three sources o f data used i n the study, f o l l o w e d by an e x p l a n a t i o n o f the data analysis procedures. F u r t h e r m o r e , the chapter discusses ethical considerations addressed i n the research and the p r o t o c o l used to protect the rights o f research participants. T h e chapter c o n c l u d e s w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the study.  In chapter four I present a h i s t o r i c a l s u m m a r y o f adult education and c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n U g a n d a since the attainment o f p o l i t i c a l independence. T h i s is important because the present struggle i n U g a n d a to preserve a n d i m p r o v e the q u a l i t y o f life stems f r o m the opportunities ushered i n at independence to the present day. A l t h o u g h this study concerns i t s e l f w i t h the p e r i o d between 1983-1996, a b r i e f l o o k at the h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f U g a n d a , as presented i n this chapter, is necessary to h e l p deepen a n understanding o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between context, history, g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y and rhetoric w i t h regard to c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t efforts. A l s o presented i n chapter four is the case o f A C O R D ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n sub-Sahara A f r i c a . A t the t i m e o f the study, A C O R D had o v e r 4 0 o p e r a t i o n a l p r o g r a m m e s i n 17 countries o f sub-Sahara A f r i c a . F u r t h e r m o r e , I h i g h l i g h t A C O R D ' s shifts i n d e v e l o p m e n t emphasis d u r i n g the 1970s, the 1980s, and i n the 1990s. T h e chapter c o n c l u d e s by c o n t e x t u a l i z i n g the case study. A d e s c r i p t i v e analysis o f A C O R D - N E B B I e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , and other a c t i v i t i e s i n N e b b i district, northwestern U g a n d a is presented i n chapter five. B y e x a m i n i n g what the methods and content o f s p e c i f i c A C O R D - N E B B I c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t c u r r i c u l a reveal about the p r i n c i p l e s o n w h i c h the p r o g r a m s are based, the d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s sets the stage for r e s p o n d i n g to the first research question pursued i n chapter s i x . In chapter s i x , I a n a l y z e the A C O R D - N E B B I education and t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m against the seven n o r m a t i v e characteristics o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t : self-reliance, h u m a n c a p a c i t y b u i l d i n g , c o m m u n i t y e m p o w e r m e n t , endogenous d e v e l o p m e n t , c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n , l o c a l c o n t r o l and management, and d i v e r s i t y . T h e analysis i n  this chapter p r o v i d e s a response to the first research q u e s t i o n : to.what extent and i n what w a y s are the seven n o r m a t i v e characteristics o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , as advanced i n the literature, reflected i n A C O R D - N E B B I education and t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s ? A s part o f its c o n c l u s i o n , the chapter argues for the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f b o t h k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s sharing, and gender s e n s i t i v i t y as "new" n o r m a t i v e characteristics o f c o m m u n i t y development. T h i s is because A C O R D - N E B B I not o n l y p l a c e d increased emphasis o n investment i n k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s sharing, but also made gender s e n s i t i v i t y very central throughout its d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e . In chapter seven, I present a c r i t i c a l analysis o f A C O R D - N E B B I ' s c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e . T h i s chapter responds to the s e c o n d research q u e s t i o n : what factors support or hinder the a b i l i t y o f A C O R D - N E B B I e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g programs to contribute to the achievement o f equitable, self-reliant, and sustainable c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e s ? C h a p t e r eight c o n c l u d e s the study b y s u m m a r i z i n g the b a c k g r o u n d and purpose o f the study, the research questions, the m e t h o d a p p l i e d , and k e y findings. T h e chapter c o n c l u d e s w i t h suggestions for future research, practice, and p o l i c y m a k i n g i n community development.  14  CHAPTER II: COMMUNITY D E V E L O P M E N T INITIATIVES: A CRITICAL REVIEW O F INTERNATIONAL LITERATURE F o r m a n y decades, p o s t - c o l o n i a l leaders i n d e v e l o p i n g countries have tried v a r i o u s d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s based o n o r t h o d o x d e v e l o p m e n t thought a n d theory. M o r e o v e r , the d e v e l o p i n g w o r l d has a c h i e v e d l i m i t e d sustained human-centred d e v e l o p m e n t . T h u s , m a n y o f the d e v e l o p m e n t plans have either f a i l e d or been abandoned. In this chapter, a c r i t i c a l international literature r e v i e w related to the n o t i o n s o f " c o m m u n i t y " , " d e v e l o p m e n t " and " c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , " are presented. It is also i n this chapter that I r e v i e w the o r i g i n o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t internationally. T h i s is f o l l o w e d by a r e v i e w o f the v a r i o u s manifestations o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t evident f r o m the w o r k roles reflected i n contemporary literature. C o m p e t i n g theories o f d e v e l o p m e n t are r e v i e w e d as a prelude to the debate o n r e t h i n k i n g d e v e l o p m e n t , a p h e n o m e n o n that g a i n e d p r o m i n e n c e i n the 1970s. I c o n c l u d e the chapter by h i g h l i g h t i n g the seven n o r m a t i v e characteristics o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t as a d v a n c e d i n the international literature.  2.1 Community T h e t e r m " c o m m u n i t y " i s often a p p l i e d b y different facets o f society to depict u n i q u e constituents; for instance, it m a y be used to refer to the p o l i t i c a l c o m m u n i t y ; e c o n o m i c c o m m u n i t y ; e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o m m u n i t y ; r e l i g i o u s c o m m u n i t y ; or a c a d e m i c c o m m u n i t y . It i s a t e r m that addresses s p e c i f i c s o c i o - e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s , a n d c u l t u r a l constituencies. B e c a u s e the disparities between s u c h c o m m u n i t i e s are often greater than the elements that b i n d t h e m together as c o m m u n i t i e s , it is i n c r e a s i n g l y a p p e a l i n g to a s s i g n a sectarian l a b e l to the t e r m c o m m u n i t y .  15  C o m m u n i t y as used i n this study, c a n be a n d often i s defined i n geographic terms w i t h reference to a n area o r l o c a l i t y o f s p e c i f i c d i m e n s i o n s (Roberts, 1979). T h i s is also true o f the large f o r m s o f c o m m u n i t i e s that cut across g e o g r a p h i c boundaries (e.g., the E u r o p e a n C o m m u n i t y o r the E a s t A f r i c a n C o m m u n i t y ) . H o w e v e r , these geographic boundaries often are unrealistic as they are d r a w n for p o l i t i c a l reasons w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g the f l e x i b i l i t y o r p e r m e a b i l i t y o f the p e o p l e . O f t e n , c o m m u n i t y i s i d e n t i f i e d as an entity w i t h shared interests, opportunities, and characteristics i n w h i c h f u n c t i o n a l definitions, s u c h as geography are not relevant, yet c o m m u n i t y d e l i n e a t i o n based o n p o l i t i c a l boundaries, s u c h as n a t i o n a l , r e g i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l , district, c o u n t y , p a r i s h , and v i l l a g e r e a d i l y address the issue o f l o c a l i t y . F o r this reason, the c l o s e r the t e r m gets to the l o c a l l e v e l , the stronger the sense o f c o m m u n i t y becomes. F o r e x a m p l e , the p e o p l e i n a s m a l l v i l l a g e often k n o w each other b y names, whereas it i s not so for people, i n say a w h o l e country. A m o r e integral c o n c e p t i o n o f c o m m u n i t y i s offered b y P a r s o n s ( 1 9 6 0 ) , W a r r e n (1972), and Sanders (1966) a m o n g others, w h o v i e w the t e r m as a s o c i a l system c o m p o s e d o f p e o p l e l i v i n g i n s o m e spatial r e l a t i o n s h i p to one another, w h o share c o m m o n facilities and services and together frame a c o m m o n c o m m u n i c a t i o n n e t w o r k . Therefore, a c l a s s i c a l , l a r g e l y pastoral c o n c e p t i o n o f c o m m u n i t y enunciated b y T o e n n i e s (1963) w h o l i n k s the t e r m Gemeinschaft w i t h the s m a l l v i l l a g e o f a t r a d i t i o n a l society depicts the s i m p l i c i t y o f c o m m u n a l societies o f p r e - m o d e r n m a s s s o c i e t y and therefore l a c k s the c o n c e p t u a l r i g o u r and c o n t e x t u a l adequacy r e q u i r e d i n this thesis. D e v e l o p m e n t a l theorists l i k e H a l l (1984), h o w e v e r , regard c o m m u n i t y as a g r o u p o f peoples h a v i n g m o r e input i n the process o f d e f i n i n g the c o m m u n i t y . H a l l asserts that  16  the task o f getting inputs f r o m everyone i s a c h i e v e d w i t h greater success at the l o c a l l e v e l . M o r e o v e r , h u m a n i s t s regard c o m m u n i t y as h a v i n g a sense o f c o m m o n identity, a sense o f c o n c e r n not o n l y w i t h i m m e d i a t e relationships, but w i t h the w e l f a r e o f the w o r l d as w h o l e ( G i r o u x , 1983). T o humanists, geographic boundaries a n d the l o c a l i t y factor are irrelevant. A s groups f o r m , acquire n e w m e m b e r s , lose m e m b e r s , a n d d i s b a n d based o n shared values and e v o l v i n g goals, a c o m m u n i t y changes its characteristics (Roberts, 1979), and s u c h factors as interests, traditions, culture, p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and shared beliefs, m a y dictate i n c l u s i o n to a c o m m u n i t y entity. S u c h a v i e w i n v o l v e s four factors: people, place, s o c i a l interaction, a n d attachment or s o c i a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ( C h r i s t e n s e n and Jerry, 1989). It is therefore d i f f i c u l t to p e r c e i v e c o m m u n i t y w i t h o u t p e o p l e for as such, it becomes an e c o l o g i c a l term. T h e n o t i o n o f p l a c e as part o f c o m m u n i t y is m u c h the same as clans or t r i b a l c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h a culture, s o c i a l identity, a n d d e t e r m i n a t i o n to function as a c o l l e c t i v e . T h e suggestion o f s o c i a l interaction presupposes i n v o l v e m e n t and proposes that a c o m m u n i t y or g r o u p define their o w n needs, goals, and m e m b e r s h i p (Roberts, 1979). Interaction is what C h r i s t e n s o n and Jerry (1989) regard as interdependencies, n o r m s , and c u s t o m s u p o n w h i c h groups o f p e o p l e c o m e to d e p e n d o n to meet d e s i r e d ends. A t t a c h m e n t o r s o c i a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n here refers to w h a t i n d i v i d u a l s m a y understand to be the l o c a l i t y i n w h i c h they l i v e , yet, it i s also the sense that they m i g h t have f r o m l i v i n g i n that l o c a l i t y , thereby g i v i n g it a f e e l i n g o f n e i g h b o u r h o o d n e s s . C o m m u n i t y then i n c l u d e s a p l a c e w h e r e p e o p l e are i n v o l v e d i n m a k i n g c o l l e c t i v e d e c i s i o n s , and actions are i m p l e m e n t e d to a c h i e v e g r o u p goals. A t t i t u d e s , interdependency, c o o p e r a t i o n ,  17 c o l l a b o r a t i o n , a n d u n i f i c a t i o n are important v i e w s w i t h i n this sense o f c o m m u n i t y ( B l a k e l y , 1989). B o o t h r o y d and D a v i s (1991) define c o m m u n i t y as a g r o u p o f p e o p l e w h o k n o w each other p e r s o n a l l y , and w h o p l a n together o v e r t i m e for their l o n g - t e r m c o m m o n betterment. I n v o l v e m e n t is a k e y ingredient i n the d e f i n i t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , the d e f i n i t i o n e x c l u d e s large interest groups, s u c h as l a b o u r u n i o n s , m e t r o p o l i t a n c o m m u n i t i e s o f over 5,000 p e o p l e , task forces, a n d c r i s i s - o r i e n t e d groups. I n c o n c l u s i o n , the t e r m c o m m u n i t y refers to a set o f elements: people, p l a c e or territory ( i n c l u d i n g l o c a l n e t w o r k s ) , s o c i a l interaction, a n d c o m m o n attachment or identity. 2.2  Development  D e v e l o p m e n t refers to the a c q u i s i t i o n o f traits, characteristics, and technologies o f progressive societies, m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y , sophisticated societies. Inherent i n this attribute is the process o f a society g r a d u a l l y m o v i n g f r o m v e r y s i m p l e , to a m o r e sophisticated w a y o f life. B o o t h r o y d and D a v i s ( 1 9 9 1 , p.2) d e f i n i t i o n o f the t e r m d e v e l o p m e n t embraces "any p l a n n e d quantitative or qualitative c h a n g e i n a system." W h i l e their d e f i n i t i o n r e c o g n i z e s m o r e b r o a d l y the " p l a n n e d adaptation to e n v i r o n m e n t a l pressures, or the i n t e n t i o n a l creation o f n e w system patterns," it c l e a r l y rules out d e v e l o p m e n t initiatives w h i c h are i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , u n p l a n n e d and a "one m a n - s h o w . " E c o n o m i s t s define the term d e v e l o p m e n t to m e a n the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f scarce resources to p r o v i d e p e o p l e w i t h m o r e goods and services ( T o d a r o , 1 9 8 1 ; R o s t o w , 1985). F r o m this perspective, d e v e l o p m e n t is not a n e n d , but a m e a n s to a c h i e v e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l goals. F o r instance, s o c i a l l y b y a w a y o f life e n r i c h e d b y both " t r a d i t i o n a l " a n d " m o d e r n " c o n s u m p t i o n patterns; e c o n o m i c a l l y , t h r o u g h a m o r e equitable and a less  18  s k e w e d i n c o m e d i s t r i b u t i o n pattern w i t h fewer v u l n e r a b l e p o p u l a t i o n ; a n d , p o l i t i c a l l y , by governance t h r o u g h d e m o c r a t i c a l l y established structures. It is therefore important to ensure that any study o f the r o l e and purpose o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d first address the concept o f d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h i n a h i s t o r i c a l f r a m e w o r k . T h i s i s r e q u i r e d because the emergence o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t and p l a n n e d s o c i a l change, as they have e x i s t e d i n most societies throughout history, generate conceptions o f d e v e l o p m e n t that c a n be best located i n precise h i s t o r i c a l circumstances. Indeed, the concept o f d e v e l o p m e n t c a m e rather late i n r e l a t i o n to the emergence o f c a p i t a l i s m ( H i m m e l s t r a n d , 1994). T h i s is because, before the a r r i v a l o f c a p i t a l i s m , there existed m a i n l y a g r i c u l t u r a l societies w h o s e p r o d u c t i v e forces — l i m i t e d b y feudal property relations — changed very g r a d u a l l y o v e r the years and their e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s were r e l a t i v e l y stagnant. It w a s c a p i t a l i s m that for the first t i m e i n d e v e l o p m e n t history a l l o w e d p r o d u c t i v e forces to m a k e a spectacular advance, thus m a k i n g it p o s s i b l e for the i d e a o f m a t e r i a l progress and d e v e l o p m e n t to emerge ( H i m m e l s t r a n d , 1994). T h e agent o f this process and o f the n e w concept o f d e v e l o p m e n t , is the b o u r g e o i s i e in-asm u c h as it "cannot exist w i t h o u t constantly r e v o l u t i o n i z i n g the instruments o f p r o d u c t i o n , and thereby the relations o f p r o d u c t i o n , and w i t h t h e m the w h o l e relations o f society" ( M a r x a n d E n g e l s , 1969, p . 3 8 ) . C a p i t a l i s m e m e r g e d f r o m the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s o f feudal society, i n p a r t i c u l a r f r o m the class struggles, w h i c h l e d to the b r e a k d o w n o f s e r f d o m a n d the u n d e r m i n i n g o f peasant o w n e r s h i p o f l a n d ( M a m d a n i , 1983, 1985, 1994). T h e s e challenges c u l m i n a t e d into p o l i t i c a l struggles b y the b o u r g e o i s i e that sought to d i s m a n t l e m e d i e v a l institutions w h i c h presented s u c h obstacles to the increase i n p r o d u c t i v i t y i n c l u d i n g restrictions o n  19  free trade and o n the personal freedom o f w o r k e r s , the restrictive practices o f g u i l d s , and the p r o h i b i t i o n o f c h a r g i n g interest o n loans. T h e first f o r m u l a t i o n s o f the n e w c o n c e p t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t (or progress, as it w a s m o r e u s u a l l y c a l l e d then) c a n be f o u n d i n the w o r k o f c l a s s i c a l p o l i t i c a l e c o n o m i s t s , notably, S m i t h ( 1 7 7 6 ) a n d R i c a r d o ( 1 8 9 1 ) , that represented the interests o f the r i s i n g b o u r g e o i s i e . It was i n the struggle o f the B r i t i s h bourgeoisie against the remnants o f f e u d a l i s m that the t e r m d e v e l o p m e n t c o u l d be traced. T h e r e is a c o n n e c t i o n between the c o n c e p t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t and the d e v e l o p m e n t o f s p e c i f i c s o c i a l c o n f l i c t s . T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the concept o f d e v e l o p m e n t and h i s t o r i c a l l y determined s o c i a l processes, c a n be a p p l i e d to the subsequent d e v e l o p m e n t o f p o l i t i c a l e c o n o m y and indeed, to the general e v o l u t i o n o f theories o f d e v e l o p m e n t . M a r x is the first to p r o p o u n d a c o n n e c t i o n , i n the case o f p o l i t i c a l e c o n o m y , w h e n he argues that, The development of political economy and of the opposition to which it gives rise, keeps pace with the real development of the social contradictions and class conflicts inherent in capitalist production . . . for as long as working-class struggles were undeveloped or latent, political economy could remain a genuine scientific enterprise (Marx, 1969, p.501). It c a n be d e d u c e d that M a r x s a w his o w n theoretical c o n t r i b u t i o n as d e t e r m i n e d by the d e v e l o p m e n t o f class c o n f l i c t s . T o understand a n d situate the t e r m d e v e l o p m e n t as v i e w e d i n this study o n c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , I argue that this c r u c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p must be extended to briefly c o v e r m o r e generally, the successive d e v e l o p m e n t theories throughout the h i s t o r y o f the capitalist m o d e o f p r o d u c t i o n . H o w e v e r , as c a p i t a l i s m b e c o m e s i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r n a t i o n a l i z e d a n d a t h o r o u g h l y integrated g l o b a l m a r k e t i s created, d e v e l o p m e n t theories w i l l respond not j u s t to the class struggles and s o c i a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s o f isolated capitalist countries, but also to the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and c o n f l i c t s e m e r g i n g w i t h i n the w o r l d capitalist system. In the case o f m o s t d e v e l o p i n g countries, the  20  contradictions and struggles c o n c e r n c o n f l i c t s rooted i n the d e - c o l o n i z a t i o n process. In other situations, it i n c l u d e s re-orientation and addressing the challenges p o s e d by increasing separation between peripheral and core e c o n o m i e s ( A m i n , 1973; W a l l e r s t e i n , 1976).  2.3 Community Development M a n y authors have w r i t t e n about the essence a n d f o r m o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t ( A m e y a w , 1992a, 1 9 9 2 b ; B o o t h r o y d a n d D a v i s , 1 9 9 1 ; B u r k e y , 1993; C a m p f e n s , 1997; C h r i s t e n s o n a n d Jerry, 1989; D a s g u p t a a n d F a l l i s , 1 9 9 0 ; D r a p e r , 1 9 7 1 ; and L o t z , 1971). M u c h o f their w o r k has focused o n c l a r i f y i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t and other s o c i a l change processes, s u c h as c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In practice, i f a change process i n v o l v e s p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n or s o c i a l c o n s u l t a t i o n , it gets l a b e l e d c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . H o w e v e r , c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t c a n be m o r e b o u n d e d than that. D a s g u p t a and F a l l i s (1990) describe c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t as a g r o u p i n g o f p e o p l e w o r k i n g t h r o u g h a process o f c o m m u n a l s o c i a l change. T h e y v i e w e m p o w e r m e n t o f c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n , r e f l e c t i o n , and a c t i o n as essential ingredients i n this process. In a d d i t i o n , c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t has been d e s c r i b e d i n four m a i n w a y s : a) as a process t h r o u g h w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s and groups advance, b) as a process that e m p h a s i z e s p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n v o l v e m e n t , c) as a p r o g r a m m e o r g a n i z e d , c o o r d i n a t e d , and a d m i n i s t e r e d b y field w o r k e r s , and d) as a m o v e m e n t that has p h i l o s o p h i c a l and theoretical foundations rooted i n p o p u l a r p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( A m e y a w , 1997; B u r k e y , 1993; C h e k k i , 1979; Sautoy, 1960).  21 C o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t also refers to p l a n n e d initiatives that h e l p p e o p l e g a i n c o n t r o l o v e r their aspirations to b r i n g about s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c , a n d p o l i t i c a l change a n d r e d i s t r i b u t i o n ( C h r i s t e n s o n and Jerry, 1989; F r i e d m a n n , 1992; R o s s a n d U s h e r , 1986). T h o u g h there have been difficulties i n e s t a b l i s h i n g one u n i f y i n g f r a m e w o r k o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , its fundamental d e f i n i n g elements have been suggested b y a v a r i e t y o f authors. C o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , it c a n be asserted, is a process: a) b y w h i c h c i t i z e n s d e v e l o p the c a p a c i t y a n d p o t e n t i a l to contribute to a n d m a k e d e c i s i o n s that affect their l i v e s , b ) w h e r e a facilitator assists i n d e v e l o p i n g s k i l l s , k n o w l e d g e , a n d a b i l i t i e s o f the p e o p l e to further c o m m u n i t y aspirations, c) w h i c h i n v o l v e s i n s t i t u t i o n a l assistance a n d support o f specialist services necessary to the enhancement o f the process, d ) i n w h i c h c i t i z e n s are a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d , e) w h e r e i n d i v i d u a l a n d c o m m u n i t y c o m p e t e n c e is b u i l t , f) w h e r e the c o m m u n i t y exert c o n t r o l o v e r p r o g r a m s a n d projects, a n d g) w h e r e i n d i v i d u a l s are c o n s c i o u s l y engaged i n p l a n n e d s o c i a l change ( A l l e n , 1 9 9 1 ; A m e y a w , 1992a; B o o t h r o y d a n d D a v i s , 1991; B r e g h a , 1971; L o t z , 1 9 7 1 ; S e l m a n a n d D a m p i e r , 1991). F r o m the f o r e g o i n g c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , the purpose o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as a w a y o f p r o m o t i n g p l a n n e d s o c i a l change. I n short, it is a w a y to describe the process o f c o o p e r a t i o n , c o o r d i n a t i o n , and interaction, w h i c h are so essential for the i m p r o v e m e n t o f l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s for m o s t v u l n e r a b l e c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s . P r o g r a m m e s o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t have been u s e d i n m a n y countries, a n d for v a r y i n g purposes, the m o s t c o m m o n b e i n g i n p o v e r t y a l l e v i a t i o n efforts ( C a m p f e n s , 1997). D u r i n g the 1950s a n d 1960s, c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w a s p r o m o t e d b y g o v e r n m e n t s a n d s p e c i a l i z e d agencies o f the U n i t e d N a t i o n s  22  through its affiliated institutions, as part o f the f o l l o w i n g : the independence and dec o l o n i z a t i o n m o v e m e n t s i n A f r i c a a n d A s i a ; attempts to m o d e r n i z e the largely less sophisticated a g r i c u l t u r a l societies i n d e v e l o p i n g countries, a n d to l a u n c h c a m p a i g n s o n p o v e r t y i n the m o r e d e v e l o p e d nations i n the late 1960s ( A m e y a w , 1 9 9 7 ; C a m p f e n s , 1997). In the literature, c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t has been regarded both as an agent for p l a n n e d social change a n d an educational process d e s i g n e d to enable disadvantaged c o m m u n i t i e s faced w i t h s o c i o - e c o n o m i c challenges to h e l p themselves ( B i d d l e and B i d d l e , 1968; C a m p f e n s , 1997). C a m p f e n s (1997, p.22) argues that " c o m m u n i t y development i n recent years has related to the g r o w i n g d e m a n d for a f o r m o f planned change that e m p o w e r s m a r g i n a l groups to participate i n c o m m u n i t y a n d institutional d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g processes." B a s e d o n a process w h e r e b y m e m b e r s o f a c o m m u n i t y w o r k together to i m p r o v e their s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c circumstances, c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t requires personnel w h o facilitate the transformation o f c o m m u n i t y aspirations into achievable goals. W i t h the h e l p o f a c o o r d i n a t o r , c o m m u n i t y groups c a n e x a m i n e their struggles, identify goals, a n d then d e v e l o p strategies to meet these goals. In this process, l e a r n i n g (not l u c k ) , is a b r i d g e - p o i n t for the a c q u i s i t i o n o f s k i l l s necessary to a c h i e v e ultimate goals. T h e l e a r n i n g process occurs amongst c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s and can i n c l u d e l e a r n i n g about g r o u p process, i d e n t i f y i n g c o m m u n i t y resources, assessing a v a i l a b l e options for change, and a c h i e v i n g consensus o n the desired goal ( O d o c h , 1997, 1996, 1990, 1989).  D e s p i t e the fuzziness o f d e f i n i n g it ( B i d d l e and B i d d l e , 1968), c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t continues to be u t i l i z e d as a v e h i c l e to address a variety o f goals: l o c a l  23  e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t , a g r i c u l t u r a l extension, health p r o m o t i o n , s o c i a l and w e l f a r e services, adult e d u c a t i o n ( B i d d l e and B i d d l e , 1968; B u r k e y , 1993; C a m p f e n s , 1997; C h e k k i , 1979; L o t z , 1971, U n i t e d N a t i o n s , 1971). F o r instance, T h e W o r l d H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n endorses a c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t approach to health p r o m o t i o n i n its d e c l a r a t i o n o n p r i m a r y health care ( G r e e n a n d R a e b u r n , 1988). T h i s d e c l a r a t i o n emphasizes c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n and self-reliance, w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s , a n d c o m m u n i t i e s a s s u m i n g m o r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for their o w n health ( W o r l d H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n , 1978). I n this case W H O and health practitioners p r o m o t e c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t to h e l p l o c a l p e o p l e a c h i e v e their o w n objectives. C o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t is also regarded as v e r y b r o a d , b r o a d as a n u m b r e l l a for a v a r i e t y o f "programs, projects, activities a n d m o v e m e n t s w i t h o u t a h o m e " ( B e r a n , 1967, p . 5). D e s p i t e the d i v e r g e n c e a n d d i v e r s i t y i n practice, one fundamental q u a l i t y unifies a l l c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t processes: the m o b i l i z a t i o n a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e s i n v o l v e c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s themselves. B a s e d o n the international literature, the practice o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t c a n be s u m m a r i z e d as c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s a n d facilitators t a k i n g charge o f their o w n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g process, p l a n n i n g , i m p l e m e n t i n g and r e a p i n g the benefits therein. T h e p r a c t i c e i n v o l v e s the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l process o f "self-help, l o c a l leadership a n d i n i t i a t i v e , n e t w o r k i n g , a n d l o c a l c a p a c i t y b u i l d i n g " ( D y k e m a n , 1988, p . 10). It is from this p e r s p e c t i v e that the n o t i o n o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t gains its c o m p l e x i t y , w h i l e s t i l l b e a r i n g the traits o f " c o m m u n i t y " and "development." T h e next s e c t i o n focuses o n the o r i g i n o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , c o n s i d e r i n g that it has g a i n e d a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l  24  r e c o g n i t i o n i n the last f i v e decades as a substantial force i n i n d u c i n g p l a n n e d change i n communities.  2.4 T h e o r i g i n o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t It is not clear as to whether c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t began i n A f r i c a , A s i a , or L a t i n A m e r i c a . R e g a r d l e s s o f its vagueness i n o r i g i n , it has b e c o m e w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d as a w a y o f a c h i e v i n g p l a n n e d s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c change ( C a m p f e n s , 1997). F o r m a n y years, c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t has been v i e w e d as s o l e l y directed to rural c o m m u n i t i e s , but g r a d u a l l y , there has been acceptance o f the ideas that the n o r m a t i v e characteristics and techniques o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t c o u l d also be a p p l i e d to u r b a n areas ( H o d g e and Quader, 1983). T h e r e are s o m e difficulties i n d o i n g this, one o f w h i c h is l o c a t i n g the " c o m m u n i t y " i n w h i c h to anchor the urban c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e . The a i m o f a c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e is not just to d e v e l o p an initiative, but also to d e v e l o p the p e o p l e w h o e v e n t u a l l y manage it. T h e earliest e x a m p l e s o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t as a w a y o f a c h i e v i n g p l a n n e d s o c i a l change are to be f o u n d i n the 1920s i n I n d i a ( N y e r e r e , 1973). In these i n i t i a l years, the techniques a p p l i e d i n pursuit o f the l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e s i n c l u d e d r o l e - p l a y s , story t e l l i n g , as w e l l as t r a i n i n g selected l o c a l v i l l a g e r s to w o r k i n disadvantaged c o m m u n i t i e s . T h e areas m o s t affected were the state o f health, literacy, h o u s i n g and other s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s i n the v i l l a g e s o f Punjab. T h e m o b i l i z a t i o n o f the p e o p l e to address these d e p l o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s — k n o w n as v i l l a g e uplift - w a s later a d v a n c e d b y G a n d h i w h o v i e w e d it as a m e a n s to a c h i e v i n g the l i b e r a t i o n o f v i l l a g e r s f r o m destitution, s o m e t h i n g that c o u l d not be a "gift" f r o m the r u l i n g p o w e r . M u c h o f the same p h i l o s o p h y w o u l d be o b s e r v e d a f e w decades later i n the l i b e r a t i o n t h e o l o g y a n d o p t i o n s for the p o o r that e m e r g e d i n L a t i n A m e r i c a ( G u t i e r r e z ,  25  1973; T a m e z , 1982). T h e p h i l o s o p h y o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t fits w e l l w i t h these ideas as it embraces the n o t i o n that, "the p o o r m u s t b e treated as subjects o f their o w n transformation a n d participate a c t i v e l y i n the f o r m u l a t i o n a n d e x e c u t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e s " ( C a m p f e n s , 1997, p . 3 8 ) . W i t h regard to A f r i c a , m u c h o f present d a y c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t arose out o f experiences g a i n e d i n the B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l territories i n A f r i c a w h e r e the i d e o l o g y e v o l v e d f r o m the earlier concept o f mass education. A 1944 B r i t i s h g o v e r n m e n t report, " M a s s E d u c a t i o n i n A f r i c a n S o c i e t y " resulted i n c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t b e c o m i n g part o f B r i t i s h g o v e r n m e n t f o r e i g n p o l i c y . W h e n the B r i t i s h L a b o u r g o v e r n m e n t c a m e to p o w e r i n 1945, it c o m m i t t e d i t s e l f to granting independence to the c o l o n i e s . T h i s w a s not a n e w attitude for the L a b o u r P a r t y . It h a d a d v o c a t e d s u c h a m o v e as e a r l y as 1923 ( C l a r k e , 1967; U g a n d a C o m m i s s i o n for U N E S C O , 1984). In 1948, the C a m b r i d g e C o n f e r e n c e o n A f r i c a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n stressed the i m p o r t a n c e o f e d u c a t i n g p e o p l e to b e c o m e agents for s o c i a l change i n order to i m p r o v e their o w n l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , m a n y p r o b l e m s faced the B r i t i s h C o l o n i a l O f f i c e w h e n it d e c i d e d , after W o r l d W a r II, to prepare the c o l o n i e s for self-government. It w a s w i t h i n t h i s context that the t e r m " c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t " w a s i n v e n t e d . T h i s t e r m first appeared i n print i n the b o o k " C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t " a h a n d b o o k p r e p a r e d b y a study conference o n c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n E n g l a n d i n 1957 (Ibid.). " M a s s e d u c a t i o n " as a t e r m f e l l into disrepute because o f the p o l i t i c a l overtone o f the w o r d "mass" a n d the difficulties o f translating it into several A f r i c a n languages. A s a result it w a s r e p l a c e d b y the t e r m " c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . " A l s o , i n 1960, the U n i t e d N a t i o n s E d u c a t i o n a l S c i e n t i f i c a n d C u l t u r a l O r g a n i z a t i o n ( U N E S C O ) , f o l l o w i n g the  26  earlier B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l office d i f f i c u l t situation stated a b o v e , abandoned the t e r m "fundamental e d u c a t i o n " and adopted i n its p l a c e the t e r m " c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . " Later, the U n i t e d N a t i o n s agencies f o l l o w e d suit.  2.5 M a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t T h e r e i s a tendency for m a n y c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k e r s to regard c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t as a w a y o f creating c o m m u n i t y awareness o f the need for p l a n n e d change and to m o t i v a t e people to take a c t i o n to i m p r o v e their s o c i o - e c o n o m i c situation. T h e 1971 U n i t e d N a t i o n s R e p o r t , " P o p u l a r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n D e v e l o p m e n t : E m e r g i n g T r e n d s i n C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t " identifies a b r o a d range o f activities that fall under the u m b r e l l a term o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . T w o elements stand out i n the d e f i n i t i o n o f the term: first, efforts b y the p e o p l e themselves to i m p r o v e their c o n d i t i o n s , a n d s e c o n d , assistance from g o v e r n m e n t to m a k e it p o s s i b l e for c o m m u n i t i e s to a c h i e v e set goals. Two  further d i m e n s i o n s c a n be d e d u c e d f r o m the U n i t e d N a t i o n s ' v i e w o f  c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t to c o v e r b o t h educational and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l processes. It is generally r e c o g n i z e d that a c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e w i l l have: a purpose o f a c h i e v i n g goals set b y those w h o m the p r o g r a m m e is intended to serve; f i n a n c i a l and other assistance f r o m outside the c o m m u n i t y ; u t i l i z a t i o n o f as m a n y l o c a l c o m m u n i t y resources as p o s s i b l e ( A m e y a w , 1 9 9 7 ; B u r k e y , 1993). A d d i t i o n a l l y , the success o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t not o n l y requires c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n , but also the p o l i t i c a l c o m m i t m e n t to the process b y g o v e r n m e n t ( F r i e d m a n n , 1992). T h i s s e c t i o n identifies the v a r i o u s forms o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t as f o u n d i n international literature.  27  Community development as process A s a process, c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n v o l v e s a series o f changes, w i t h people w o r k i n g together for m u t u a l benefit. T h i s i n c l u d e s a p r o g r e s s i o n o f w e l l - d e f i n e d steps f r o m the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p r o b l e m s , r a n k i n g o f priorities, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f resources a v a i l a b l e a n d services required, p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g a n d i n v o l v e m e n t i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p r o g r a m m e s . T y p e s o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t as a m e t h o d i n c l u d e g r o u p d e v e l o p m e n t , leadership d e v e l o p m e n t , o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d m a n a g e m e n t d e v e l o p m e n t , and i m p r o v i n g inter-group relations ( B i d d l e and B i d d l e , 1968; B u r k e y , 1 9 9 3 ; C a r y , 1989; C h e k k i , 1979; C h r i s t e n s e n and Jerry, 1 9 8 9 ; C o m p t o n , 1970; L o t z , 1 9 7 1 ; O d o c h , 1997). In l a b e l i n g c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t as a process, there i s a n emphasis o n the h u m a n i s t i c aspect o f development. T h i s i n c l u d e s b o t h the s o c i a l a n d the p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes, w h i c h affect the g r o w t h o f p e o p l e as i n d i v i d u a l s a n d as a g r o u p . T h i s process is e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n creating change. T h e process is not a l w a y s a s m o o t h one, as i n m o s t c o m m u n i t i e s it is c o m m o n to find those w h o want change as w e l l as those w h o resist it ( B u r k e y , 1993). T h e c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t process is also a p o l i t i c a l one, as it affects some r e a l l o c a t i o n o f p o w e r and resources i n c o m m u n i t i e s . T h i s often results i n c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k e r s and c o m m u n i t y initiatives c o m i n g into c o n f l i c t w i t h p o l i t i c i a n s or bureaucrats (Christensen and Jerry, 1989). T o be effective, there must be a p o l i t i c a l c o m m i t m e n t to the c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t process. G o v e r n m e n t must see the v a l u e o f the a p p r o a c h and p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s s h o u l d v a l u e the need to be part o f the cooperative process. T h i s c o u l d take a p o l i t i c a l c o m m i t m e n t to establish a departmental o r g a n i z a t i o n to carry out the c o o r d i n a t i o n and cooperative aspects o f the process.  28 C o m m u n i t y development as method A s a m e t h o d , c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t is a w a y o f w o r k i n g , a m o d e o f o p e r a t i o n , t h r o u g h w h i c h l o c a l organizations c a n a c h i e v e their set goals. It also i n c l u d e the efforts d i r e c t e d at the performance o f i n d i v i d u a l s , groups a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the context o f their c o m m u n i t y . T h e m e t h o d o f operation i n c l u d e s c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l s a n d b e t w e e n organizations. It also requires the c o o r d i n a t i o n o f the efforts o f a l l those i n d i v i d u a l s a n d organizations i n v o l v e d i n the objectives. A b o v e a l l , it i n c l u d e s c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e v e l o p m e n t activities that affect t h e m . C o m m o n m e t h o d s i n c l u d e c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z i n g , group w o r k , adult e d u c a t i o n a n d d e m o n s t r a t i o n ( B i d d l e a n d B i d d l e , 1968; C a r y , 1989; C o m p t o n , 1970; K n o w l e s , 1982; L o t z , 1971).  C o m m u n i t y development as social movement O t h e r practitioners regard c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t as a s o c i a l m o v e m e n t . A s a m o v e m e n t , c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t is expressed i n the f o r m o f self-help groups, cooperatives, c o m m u n i t y associations, a n d c o m m u n i t y e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . I n this case, the a i m is to w o r k c l o s e l y w i t h m a r g i n a l i z e d groups, d r a w i n g o n i d l e resources a n d "free" labour, and to c o m b i n e the resources w i t h capital investments i n order to address s o c i o - e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m s faced. T h e strategies a p p l i e d here i n c l u d e the establishment o f c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d organizations, leadership t r a i n i n g , f u n d - r a i s i n g a n d s o c i a l a c t i o n i n i t i a t i v e s . T h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s are s o l i d l y based o n the " b o t t o m u p " p r i n c i p l e a n d w h e r e c o m m u n i t y coordinators c a t a l y z e active p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s i n g o a l attainment ( B o o t h r o y d , 1991; C h r i s t e n s e n a n d Jerry, 1989; O d o c h , 1996; R o s s a n d U s h e r , 1986; W a r n e r , 1989).  29  Community development as programme A s a p r o g r a m m e , c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t e m b o d i e s p o l i c y , c l e a r l y stated objectives, p l a n n i n g , i n c l u d i n g a l l the necessary a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e d for c a r r y i n g out the plans, and w o r k i n g towards the achievement o f set objectives. T h e p r o g r a m m e is u s u a l l y focused u p o n the d e v e l o p m e n t o f one o r m o r e c o m m u n i t i e s , and the s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l aspects o f d e v e l o p m e n t are i n c l u d e d . T h e b a s i c elements o f s u c h a p r o g r a m m e are o f t w o k i n d s : those internal to the c o m m u n i t y , and that external to the c o m m u n i t y . T h e internal elements i n c l u d e the n o t i o n o f self-help, active p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a g r o u p process, a n d actual i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p l a n s b y m e m b e r s o f the c o m m u n i t y . It also i n c l u d e s the m a x i m u m use o f resources w i t h i n the c o m m u n i t y and attention to the structural, f u n c t i o n a l , and c u l t u r a l aspects o f the c o m m u n i t y ( A m e y a w , 1992a, 1992b). T h e external elements relate to c o o p e r a t i o n between a l l p u b l i c , private and international agencies p r o v i d i n g d e v e l o p m e n t services to the c o m m u n i t y , and the c o o r d i n a t i o n o f the l o c a l d e v e l o p m e n t efforts w i t h those o f an area, r e g i o n a l o r n a t i o n a l p r o g r a m m e as m a y be desirable or necessary (Ibid.). T h e s e internal a n d external elements m a y be i n t e r - l i n k e d t h r o u g h the l i a i s o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n o f both internal ( c o m m u n i t y ) and external (other levels) efforts to a c h i e v e c o m m o n d e c l a r e d goals. T h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s (1971) suggests a three-type c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e : integrative, adaptive, and project. A c c o r d i n g to this c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e s m a y be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to their geographic scope (integrative), sectoral e m p h a s i s o n d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e s (adaptive), and nature o f c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n (project). T h i s t y p o l o g y , h o w e v e r , p r o v i d e s o n l y for b r o a d categories a n d there m a y be v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n e a c h type. T h e r e m a y also be an  30  o v e r l a p between one type and another. T h e integrative type p r o g r a m m e is useful i n situations w h e r e regular t e c h n i c a l services are non-existent, whereas the adaptive type m a y be m o r e suitable i n areas w h e r e t e c h n i c a l services m a y be a v a i l a b l e . T h e project type p r o g r a m m e , o n the other h a n d , lends i t s e l f to use i n v i l l a g e s , e s p e c i a l l y w h e r e a m u l t i functional a p p r o a c h seems to be most appropriate.  Community development as social development T o the U n i t e d N a t i o n s (1971), the t e r m " s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t " is s y n o n y m o u s w i t h c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . O n the other hand", s o m e g o v e r n m e n t s , as a n alternative to " s o c i a l w e l f a r e " use s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . F o r m y s e l f , I see the t e r m " s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t " as representing a process, w h i c h a i m s at a c h i e v i n g the o p t i m u m l e v e l o f f u n c t i o n i n g and q u a l i t y o f life for i n d i v i d u a l s and c o m m u n i t i e s . In this w a y , the terms s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t and c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t c a n be regarded as b e i n g c l o s e l y interrelated?  Community development as social planning A t the v i l l a g e l e v e l , e s p e c i a l l y i n sub-Sahara A f r i c a , there has been a c o n t i n u e d need for a w a y to i m p r o v e the q u a l i t y o f life ( A C O R D , 1 9 9 1 ; A m e y a w , 1992a). T h i s is e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o n s i d e r i n g the majority w h o s t i l l l i v e b e l o w the poverty l i n e i n the i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m p l e x s o c i o - e c o n o m i c setting. A n alternative a p p r o a c h to the search for s o l u t i o n s to c o m p l e x p r o b l e m s and s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t efforts c a n be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h the a p p l i c a t i o n o f s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . S o c i a l p l a n n i n g a n d c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t d o not m e a n the s a m e t h i n g , a l t h o u g h they are c l o s e l y related. T h e y are h o w e v e r s i m i l a r based o n their a p p r o a c h that concerns the w e l l b e i n g o f c o m m u n i t i e s ; i n v o l v e s i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the l i v e s o f c o m m u n i t i e s ; a n d , both require the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f m e m b e r s o f the c o m m u n i t y i f their objectives are to be  31 a c h i e v e d ( A n d e r s o n a n d B o o t h r o y d , 1 9 8 9 ; B o o t h r o y d , 1991). Therefore, i n practice, c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t m a y use s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , a n d s o c i a l p l a n n i n g m a y use community development.  Community development as local level participation G i v e n the inherent l i m i t a t i o n s o f c o m p e t i n g theories o f d e v e l o p m e n t to address the situation a n d the p o s i t i o n o f the v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t i e s m o r e d i r e c t l y , it i s j u s t i f i a b l e that the search for d e v e l o p m e n t alternatives b e c a m e m o r e p r o m i n e n t i n recent years. O v e r the last decade, a n u m b e r o f c o m m u n i t y - g r o u p s a n d a c a d e m i c s have d e v e l o p e d m o d e l s for l o c a l l e v e l participatory d e v e l o p m e n t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , f i e l d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n a n d research as strategies w h i c h focus a n d engage r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s , rather than m a c r o - s c a l e institutions, have emerged ( B r o w n , 1985). U s i n g "participatory" as a concept, B r o w n ( 1 9 8 5 , p.70) e m p h a s i z e s "a people-centred l e a r n i n g process that c a n transform l o c a l patterns o f awareness, e q u a l i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o w e r a n d resources, and increase p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t y . " T h e a p p r o a c h places the "burden" o f a n a l y s i s , p l a n n i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n w i t h l o c a l institutions rather than external o r n a t i o n a l agents ( B u r k e y , 1993). It identifies c o m m u n i t y l e v e l leadership a n d rural o r g a n i z a t i o n s as the most effective units to undertake r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f c o m m u n i t i e s , and for the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f self-reliant, sustainable d e v e l o p m e n t efforts ( A m e y a w , 1992a; B r o w n , 1985; B u r k e y , 1993; H a l l , 1984; C h a m b e r s , 1992, 1994a, 1994b; O d o c h , 1996). It is this emphasis that m a k e s the P a r t i c i p a t o r y R u r a l A p p r a i s a l ( P R A ) quite different f r o m the traditional, s y n o p t i c p r o b l e m s o l v i n g techniques a n d the associated culture o f "development experts" ( H a l l , 1984). Freire's (1987) c r i t i c a l c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n a n d e m p o w e r m e n t speaks d i r e c t l y to this a p p r o a c h , as it p l a c e s the intended beneficiaries o f  development i n i t i a t i v e at the forefront o f the process and f r o m w h o s e perspective the fundamental p r o b l e m is presented and understood. Participatory R u r a l A p p r a i s a l is a m e t h o d that has e v o l v e d for l o c a l a n d participatory p l a n n i n g a n d e m p l o y e d b y a n u m b e r o f agencies a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n d e v e l o p i n g countries o f A f r i c a and elsewhere ( A C O R D , 1 9 9 1 ; C h a m b e r s , 1992, 1994a, 1994b; H a l l , 1984). P o p u l a r l y k n o w n as P R A , the a p p r o a c h is b u i l t o n the p r e m i s e that i n d i v i d u a l rural c o m m u n i t i e s reside i n u n i q u e settings and have a c c u m u l a t e d s k i l l s and k n o w l e d g e for sustaining themselves f r o m generation to generation ( B r o w n , 1985; A C O R D , 1991). In short, it c o n c e r n s i t s e l f w i t h "an integrated a c t i v i t y that c o m b i n e s s o c i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , educational w o r k and a c t i o n . . . and the beneficiaries are the p e o p l e c o n c e r n e d " ( H a l l , 1984, p.7). P R A approach recognizes that, a l t h o u g h c o m m u n i t y residents have a g o o d w o r k i n g k n o w l e d g e o f e c o l o g i c a l and d e v e l o p m e n t needs, they d o not necessarily have the m e a n s to systematize this i n f o r m a t i o n o r m o b i l i z e t h e m s e l v e s to take appropriate action. It draws m u l t i - s e c t o r a l teams, w h o m together w i t h c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s , assess c o m m u n i t y needs and p r i o r i t i e s and then create v i a b l e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n strategies to achieve the i d e n t i f i e d needs. T h e strategies b e c o m e the basis for a c t i o n i n the v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t i e s and enable l o c a l institutions, government units and n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l organizations to cooperate ( A m e y a w , 1992b; C h a m b e r s , 1992, 1994a, 1994b; H a l l , 1984). P R A d r a w s u p o n k n o w l e d g e a n d s k i l l s already i n the c o m m u n i t y ; it creates a setting i n w h i c h l o c a l residents exchange i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h one another and the l o c a l t e c h n i c a l officers; it p r o v i d e s a structure for the e x p r e s s i o n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f l o c a l aspirations and goals; and it facilitates a ranked l i s t i n g o f v i l l a g e project activities that  33  f u n d i n g agencies m a y c o n s i d e r to support ( C h a m b e r s , 1 9 9 2 , 1 9 9 4 a ) . I n s u m , it sets i n p l a c e a d e v e l o p m e n t strategy w h i c h c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s and institutions c a n i m p l e m e n t , sustain a n d p r o u d l y c a l l their o w n . T h e P R A functions effectively b y e n g a g i n g the rural c o m m u n i t y d i r e c t l y ( A m e y a w , 1992a, 1992b; C h a m b e r s , 1992). F i r s t , it serves to m o b i l i z e c o m m u n i t y institutions a r o u n d issues o f sustainable c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t b y r a i s i n g awareness o f w h a t c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d and h o w to achieve their stated objectives. S e c o n d , it systematizes r u r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y h e l p i n g l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s to define their o w n p r o b l e m s a n d identify p o t e n t i a l solutions to t h e m . T h i r d , it enables c o m m u n i t i e s to r a n k o p t i o n s , based o n l o c a l p r i o r i t i e s , f e a s i b i l i t y , e c o l o g i c a l s u s t a i n a b i l i t y , a n d cost effectiveness ( C h a m b e r s , 1 9 9 2 , 1 9 9 4 a ) . F o u r t h , it sets out p r i o r i t i e s i n a c o m m u n i t y based p l a n for resource management. F i f t h , it is cost effective because it uses t e c h n i c a l officers w h o are already assigned to the field. B r o w n ( 1 9 8 5 , p.74) points out that "participatory research offers a strategy for l o c a l education, research, a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n that is consistent w i t h the assumptions o f people-centred d e v e l o p m e n t . " T h i s , h o w e v e r , explicates the fact that a l t h o u g h p a r t i c i p a t o r y r u r a l appraisal cannot be equated to c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t (because the former focuses o n the m a r g i n a l a n d p o w e r l e s s segment o f the c o m m u n i t y , w h i l e the latter directs i t s e l f at the entire c o m m u n i t y ) it is c l e a r that c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t c a n a c h i e v e its g o a l s u s i n g techniques f r o m P R A .  Community development as empowerment C o m m u n i t y e m p o w e r m e n t is not an o u t c o m e o f a s i n g l e event; it is a c o n t i n u o u s process that enables p e o p l e to understand, upgrade their c a p a c i t y to better c o n t r o l a n d g a i n p o w e r o v e r their o w n l i v e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , it embraces the process o f " g a i n i n g  34  influence over conditions that matter to people who share neighbourhoods, workplaces, experiences, or concerns" (Fawcett et al, 1995, p.679). It provides people with choices and the ability to choose, as well as to gain more control over resources they need in order to improve their conditions (Friedmann, 1992). Fawcett et al (1995, p.679) outline four community empowerment strategies that include: "enhancing experience and competence; enhancing group structure and capacity; removing social and environmental barriers; and enhancing environmental support and resources." From this perspective, it is important for a community development process to integrate the notion o f empowerment. Based on the foregoing conceptualization, it could be argued that inherent within community development is the notion o f empowerment. Empowerment refers to the. process o f transferring authority, influence, and resources to marginalized people, thereby making more conscious o f their own power (Friedmann, 1992; Searle, 1990). Empowerment with respect to community development involves identifying the source o f decision-making authority, knowledge and an understanding and willingness to institute change. In the traditional view, there is a finite amount o f power. A n d to realize and act on one's power means the other has to give up theirs. In community development, realizing empowerment involves realization o f power by those less powerful and not necessarily relinquishing powers by those already in power. Viewed from this perspective, information is seen as a source o f power. It becomes relatively easy to use and misuse information within the community development process. Empowerment influences and people are empowered when they feel they are competent and have influence over prevailing events. Searle (1990) suggests that central to empowerment are the components o f information and trust. Implying that information is closely linked to  35  power or influence and notes that the quality, quantity and typology of information directly determine the ability of an individual or group to influence others. Thus, continuous and direct communication between community development facilitators and community members is critical in the empowerment process. Ward (1986) argues that in community development, facilitation of those with less power and/or resources guarantees the effectiveness of sustainable community development initiatives. Thus, it is possible to empower individuals for community development considering that the ultimate benefit of the development initiative and process rests with the community itself. Empowerment occurs when individuals in a community realize that their position is part of a bigger, structural setting. From this perspective, factors that inhibit or enhance the sharing of information such as time, energy, money, and politics should be identified. Furthermore, connections between the community "development facilitator, and that of local members be established, in order to ensure that information is shared in a form usable by both the groups and the facilitator. Community development as advocacy  The advocacy approach in community development has three different aspects to it and can be separated according to whether it is advocacy on behalf of individuals, or a collective, or a social issue (Stockdale, 1976). Issue advocacy differs from the other two to the degree that the power structure is usually the target for action and there may be no clear ties with the community. There is a tendency for people involved in individual advocacy to move toward issue oriented or social advocacy (Ibid.). Some groups, in fact, attempt to operate on all three levels. Moreover, individual advocacy shares many attributes with social planning due to its elitist nature, yet as advocacy moves in the  36 d i r e c t i o n o f the s o c i a l a d v o c a c y m o d e l , it b e c o m e s m o r e c l o s e l y associated w i t h the s o c i a l a c t i o n o r o r g a n i z i n g m o d e l ( F r i e d m a n n , 1992). T h i s is p a r t i c u l a r l y so w h e n attempts are m a d e to p l a c e p o w e r i n the hands o f the p e o p l e . A l l a d v o c a c y m o d e l s , h o w e v e r , m a i n t a i n the d i s t i n c t i v e feature o f d e a l i n g w i t h a h i g h l y bureaucratized, i n h u m a n a n d unjust society. A d v o c a c y c a n be characterized as the c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h that sets i n m o t i o n the d y n a m i c process o f d e v e l o p i n g consensus and a mandate for a c t i o n . It b r i n g s together l i k e - m i n d e d allies w i t h a c o m m o n g o a l . A d v o c a c y i n c o m m u n i t y development include: persuading public opinion o n a pressing social problem; v o i c i n g p e o p l e ' s d e m a n d for access to service u t i l i z a t i o n s u c h as c o m m u n i t y health; l o b b y i n g for increases i n h o u s e h o l d disposable i n c o m e s , i n c l u d i n g actions that create n e w e m p l o y m e n t opportunities; d e m o c r a t i z i n g access to credit a n d i n c o m e generation activities for the disadvantaged; p r o m o t i n g a m o r e l o c a l c o n t r o l o f resources; s t r i v i n g for m o r e e q u i t y a n d e c o n o m i c j u s t i c e ; decreasing skewedness i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n c o m e a n d w e a l t h ; i n f l u e n c i n g c o m m u n i t y development-related actions b y e n s u r i n g active p e o p l e s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h r o u g h i n f o r m e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ; and i m p r o v i n g the access o f beneficiaries and facilitators to r e l i a b l e c o m m u n i t y development-related i n f o r m a t i o n ( A m e y a w , 1992b; S t o c k d a l e , 1976).  Community development as social mobilization S o c i a l m o b i l i z a t i o n c a n be characterized as the c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h that gets p e o p l e a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n d e v e l o p m e n t process and addresses the m o r e b a s i c causes o f underdevelopment. Therefore the basic a i m is to m o b i l i z e resources, p l a c e  37  concrete demands, n e t w o r k , b u i l d c o a l i t i o n s and c o n s o l i d a t e sustainable d e v e l o p m e n t a n d actions ( A m e y a w , 1992b). T y p i c a l l y , social mobilization i n community development includes: articulating p e o p l e ' s felt needs into concrete demands a n d c l a i m s so they c a n u l t i m a t e l y better fight for their rights; m o b i l i z i n g p e o p l e ' s o w n a n d other i d e n t i f i e d needed resources i n c l u d i n g those not p r e v i o u s l y used; n e t w o r k i n g w i t h others, s t r i v i n g for a c h i e v i n g a c r i t i c a l m a s s o f c o n c e r n e d p e o p l e ( l o c a l l y and e x t e r n a l l y ) , for c o a l i t i o n b u i l d i n g ; o p e r a t i n g i n c o m p l e t e p r o g r a m c y c l e s , thus c o l l e c t i v e l y i d e n t i f y i n g p r o b l e m s , searching for s o l u t i o n s a n d i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e m and later o n assess their i m p a c t s ; g i v i n g p e o p l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to m a k e d e c i s i o n s , thus i n c r e a s i n g their self-esteem and c o n f i d e n c e ( I b i d . , 1992; Shuftan, 1996).  Community development as facilitation W i t h i n c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , a f a c i l i t a t o r ' s r o l e is to enhance l e a r n i n g ( S e l m a n and D a m p i e r , 1991). S o m e t i m e s , a facilitator guides and manages a g r o u p t h r o u g h the process o f p r o b l e m s o l v i n g . B y w o r k i n g w i t h groups, a facilitator h e l p s b r o a d e n their perspectives and opportunities. I n other w o r d s , c o m m u n i t i e s k n o w w h a t they need; they m i g h t j u s t not k n o w h o w to get those needs met. It is i n this context that a facilitator serves as a b r i d g e p o i n t and guides t h e m t o w a r d appropriate sources, a n d assisting w i t h the a s s i m i l a t i o n and understanding o f the c o n d i t i o n s . F a c i l i t a t i n g is so d i v e r s e ; there is n o one s i n g l e a p p r o a c h to the process ( W a r n e r , 1989). F a c i l i t a t i o n i n c l u d e s a c t i n g as a resource for g r o u p p r o b l e m s o l v i n g strategies and for c o o r d i n a t i n g p e r s o n n e l (Ibid.). T h u s , a c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t facilitator s h o u l d be able to d o m a n y t h i n g s : c o n d u c t needs assessment, encourage c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n , educate others,  38  present alternatives, a n a l y z e i n f o r m a t i o n , d e v e l o p l o c a l leadership, a n d assist i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f strategies ( W a r n e r , 1989). D r a w i n g o n the theoretical f o r m u l a t i o n o f the c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k e r as a guide and enabler, C a m p f e n s ( 1 9 9 7 , p.35) outlines the basic c o m p o n e n t s o f this role to i n c l u d e : " a w a k e n i n g and f o c u s i n g discontent a m o n g p e o p l e at the c o m m u n i t y l e v e l about s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s ; e n c o u r a g i n g associations a n d organizations to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for a c t i o n ; n o u r i s h i n g g o o d interpersonal relations; and e m p h a s i z i n g c o m m o n objectives." It i s therefore c r u c i a l that facilitators need to possess a m u l t i t u d e o f s k i l l s i n the areas o f h u m a n relations, g r o u p d y n a m i c s , s o c i a l a c t i o n processes, and leadership d e v e l o p m e n t . E f f e c t i v e c o m m u n i t y f a c i l i t a t i o n is the q u a l i t y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between the practitioner and c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s ( W a r n e r , 1989). C o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t facilitators u s u a l l y w o r k i n a w i d e range o f settings and often b r i n g to the c o m m u n i t y , k n o w l e d g e that m a y be f o u n d or f a m i l i a r to c o m m u n i t y or a style that is u n f a m i l i a r . It is i n this context that a c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t facilitator introduces relevant s k i l l s a n d practices w h i l e r e m a i n i n g sensitive to the needs and w i s h e s o f c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s . T h u s , the f a c i l i t a t o r ' s r o l e is to ensure that c o m m u n i t y ' s interests are fostered i n the  final  analysis ( W a r n e r , 1989). ' T h e debate o v e r w h o s e interests are best served continues to r e m a i n at the core o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p h i l o s o p h y . A l t h o u g h this m a y be reduced to w o r k i n g for or w i t h a group, the ultimate a i m o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t process is to create a favourable e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h c o m m u n i t i e s are h e l p e d to h e l p themselves. B l o d i n ( 1 9 7 1 ) o u t l i n e s the r o l e o f facilitators a n d describes their g o a l as the a c h i e v e m e n t o f self-  39  d e t e r m i n a t i o n amongst a g r o u p o f p e o p l e so that the g r o u p i s able to m a k e d e c i s i o n s a n d c h o i c e s freely a n d to c o p e w i t h the r e s u l t i n g consequences. H e also describes h o w . f r o m a functionalist perspective, a facilitator w o r k s w i t h groups to r e a c h coherent d e c i s i o n s a u t o n o m o u s l y . H o w e v e r , i n d e s c r i b i n g a facilitator f r o m a h u m a n i s t i c perspective, B l o d i n (1971) suggests that the coordinator s h o u l d seek to b u i l d c o h e s i o n and c o m m o n perceptions w i t h i n the c o m m u n i t y and help d e v e l o p c o m m o n a c t i o n plans. C o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t as c a p a c i t y b u i l d i n g C a p a c i t y b u i l d i n g can be characterized as the approach to c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t that raises p e o p l e ' s k n o w l e d g e , awareness and s k i l l s to use their o w n capacity and that f r o m a v a i l a b l e support systems, to r e s o l v e the m o r e u n d e r l y i n g causes o f m a l - d e v e l o p m e n t (Shuftan, 1996). C a p a c i t y b u i l d i n g helps c o m m u n i t y to better understand the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g process; to c o m m u n i c a t e m o r e effectively at different l e v e l s and to take d e c i s i o n s , eventually i n s t i l l i n g i n t h e m a sense o f c o n f i d e n c e to manage their o w n destinies. In operational terms, capacity b u i l d i n g i n c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n c l u d e s the a b i l i t y to: anticipate and influence change; m a k e i n f o r m e d , intelligent d e c i s i o n s about p o l i c y ; d e v e l o p p r o g r a m s to i m p l e m e n t p o l i c y ; attract and absorb resources; manage resources and evaluate current activities to g u i d e future a c t i o n (Ibid. 1996). T h u s , i f capacity i n c l u d e s the a b i l i t y to anticipate a n d i n f l u e n c e change, there needs to be an o n g o i n g assessment o f what the o r g a n i z a t i o n is d o i n g . T h i s s h o u l d i n c l u d e : m o n i t o r i n g w h a t it is currently d o i n g ; e v a l u a t i n g h o w w e l l it appears to be d o i n g it; and assessing whether the current l e v e l o f effort is appropriate o v e r t i m e (Ibid.). T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n c a n be u s e d to i m p r o v e future o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p e r f o r m a n c e (Stake, 1978).  40  I m p l i c i t l y , capacity b u i l d i n g i n c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t embraces: e n a b l i n g i n d i v i d u a l s or c o m m u n i t i e s [through i n f o r m a t i o n , t r a i n i n g a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n ] to c o n t i n u o u s l y upgrade their k n o w l e d g e o f l o c a l situations a n d p r o b l e m s ; generating a shared f r a m e w o r k o f the causes to p r o b l e m s faced; e x p o s i n g p e o p l e to relevant i n f o r m a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y about the real u n d e r l y i n g a n d basic causes to their p r o b l e m s , i n order to change their perceptions; e m p h a s i z i n g the p r o v i s i o n o f s k i l l s that l e a d to c o m m u n i t y o w n e r s h i p o f the interventions taken; g i v i n g h i g h p r i o r i t y to literacy, e s p e c i a l l y for the disadvantaged; b o o s t i n g peoples' (the v u l n e r a b l e ) n e g o t i a t i n g s k i l l s , as w e l l as their c o n f i d e n c e ; e m p h a s i z i n g the t r a i n i n g o f l o c a l leadership, teaching t h e m to carry out s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l m o b i l i z a t i o n that p o i n t to the current structure o f c o n t r o l o f resources, as w e l l as to carry out d e c i s i o n audits o f w h o m a k e s w h a t d e c i s i o n s about what; and t r a i n i n g c o m m u n i t y animators/ v a l i d a t o r s as l o c a l strategic a l l i e s to introduce n e w ideas ( A m e y a w , 1997; F r e i r e , 1972, 1987; Shuftan, 1996). In s u m , then, a c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t f r a m e w o r k w o u l d be m o r e i n s t r u m e n t a l i f it incorporates capacity b u i l d i n g as an element. A l t h o u g h the a b i l i t y to attract resources c o u l d be equated w i t h o r g a n i z a t i o n a l capacity, for e x a m p l e , it is important f r o m a f u n d i n g perspective to k n o w i f the recipients c a n absorb a n d m a n a g e funds e f f e c t i v e l y and a p p l y what they learn f r o m their experiences. C o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t as a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  In c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g are regarded as essential a n d , f r o m a h u m a n i s t i c perspective, p e o p l e are v i e w e d as h a v i n g the capacity to and the need for l e a r n i n g . A d u l t s are v i e w e d to learn as i n d i v i d u a l s , as groups, a n d as a c o m m u n i t y . L i t t l e ( 1 9 8 0 ) suggests that adults learn throughout their l i v e s a n d s u c h l e a r n i n g i n v o l v e s  41  b e h a v i o u r a l changes, g a i n i n g n e w insights, expectations and o u t l o o k s , a n d c h a n g i n g thenp e r s o n a l capacities. A d u l t education has l o n g been c o n c e r n e d w i t h the issue o f k n o w l e d g e access and its u t i l i z a t i o n . P r a g m a t i c theorist K n o w l e s (1982) has suggested that r e c o g n i t i o n o f the learner's experience is a cornerstone o f adult e d u c a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , F r e i r e (1972) h i g h l i g h t s the i m p o r t a n c e o f the k n o w l e d g e adults b r i n g w i t h t h e m into a l e a r n i n g encounter. It is f r o m this perspective mat c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e s c a n i m m e n s e l y benefit f r o m the p r a c t i c a l a n d l i v e d experiences o f p e o p l e it engages i n generating p o s i t i v e attitudes, s o c i a l and l e a r n i n g s k i l l s . A d u l t e d u c a t i o n theories are m o r e v a l u a b l e i n the process o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t because they e m p h a s i z e f a c i l i t a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g i n w h i c h b o t h thought and a c t i o n are important c o m p o n e n t s (Freire, 1972). A l t h o u g h l e a r n i n g c a n happen a n y w h e r e and at a n y t i m e , it c o u l d be a s s u m e d that it is m o r e l i k e l y to o c c u r w h e n f a c i l i t a t i o n processes are systematic. It c a n further be argued that a p r a c t i t i o n e r s e e k i n g solutions to c o m m u n i t y p r o b l e m s , before they are c l e a r l y understood, is counter-productive to the c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t process. T h i s i s not, h o w e v e r , intended to suggest that a c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t facilitator approaches c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n , d e v o i d o f p e r s o n a l values and beliefs. Rather, it is to r e c o g n i z e that m e m b e r s o f a c o m m u n i t y m a y have v e r y different values a n d beliefs about their needs a n d goals to that o f the facilitator ( W a r n e r , 1989). L e a r n i n g a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i t h i n the c o m m u n i t y m u s t be a c q u i r e d before a c t i o n o c c u r s (Roberts, 1979). A n d this i m p l i e s that a facilitator introduces the s k i l l s c r u c i a l to set goals. I n c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , g r o u p f o r m a t i o n is a strategy that enhances o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s a b i l i t y to d e a l w i t h c h a l l e n g e s o f a c h i e v i n g their c o m m o n aspirations. T h e type o f h e l p m a y v a r y , but  42  the a s s u m p t i o n is that regardless o f the type o f h e l p desired, a facilitator w i l l assist i n the process o f i n d i v i d u a l s ' and groups' l e a r n i n g so they m i g h t m o b i l i z e a c t i o n p l a n s m o r e effectively (Searle, 1990; W a r n e r , 1989). T h e next s e c t i o n e x a m i n e s the p o l i t i c a l theories that have i n f l u e n c e d the c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t approaches o v e r the years.  2.6 Development theories underpinning community development practice H a v i n g r e v i e w e d c o m m u n i t y and d e v e l o p m e n t as terms w i t h w h i c h c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i s c l o s e l y associated w i t h a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t theories u n d e r p i n n i n g c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t practice is i m p e r a t i v e for t w o reasons: first, to a n a l y z e their inherent l i m i t a t i o n s , a n d second, to create an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o n the debate that e m e r g e d d u r i n g the 1970s o n r e t h i n k i n g the t e r m d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s study a c k n o w l e d g e s that, for the m o s t part, d e v e l o p m e n t theories a d v a n c e d t o w a r d sub-Sahara A f r i c a have p r o v e d contentious, and r e m a i n e d s i n g u l a r l y inappropriate to the A f r i c a n c i r c u m s t a n c e l a r g e l y because they were based o n the m o d e r n i s t , b i n a r y , a n d paternalistic thought structures o f W e s t e r n culture ( A l a t a s , 1993; C h a m b u a , 1994; H i m m e l s t r a n d , 1994; M o n g u l a , 1994; Parpart, 1993). I n a d d i t i o n , the theories address the issues o f d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h greater generality that render t h e m i n c a p a b l e o f g u i d i n g p o l i c y m a k e r s o n specifics for c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t efforts ( K e n n e d y , 1988). C o n s i d e r i n g that each o f the c o m p e t i n g theories o f d e v e l o p m e n t possess inherent l i m i t a t i o n s w h e n directed at s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t , scholars from d e v e l o p i n g countries assert that, "time has c o m e . . . to c a r e f u l l y study the d e v e l o p m e n t processes . . . after d e - c o l o n i z a t i o n a n d c o m e out w i t h o r i g i n a l theories to account for that d e v e l o p m e n t  43  and h o w A f r i c a [ d e v e l o p i n g countries] c a n o v e r c o m e the u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t " ( C h a m b u a . 1994, p.44). T o substantiate the f o r e g o i n g argument, I r e v i e w i n this section the theories a d v a n c e d t o w a r d d e v e l o p m e n t efforts: l i b e r t a r i a n i s m , p l u r a l i s m , m o d e r n i z a t i o n , s t r u c t u r a l i s m , dependency, a n d u n e q u a l e x c h a n g e . A l s o r e v i e w e d are b a s i c needs approach, institutional b u i l d i n g , and reinstatement o f l i b e r t a r i a n i s m and the consequent p h e n o m e n o n d u r i n g the 1970s — the n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l a p p r o a c h ~ w h i c h arose f r o m the v i e w that that the state s h o u l d o n l y create the c o n d u c i v e c o n d i t i o n s for the l o c a l p e o p l e to pursue their o w n path to desired d e v e l o p m e n t goals.  Libertarianism L i b e r t a r i a n i s m , the p o l i t i c a l theory that u n d e r p i n n e d m o s t n e w d e v e l o p i n g countries path to d e v e l o p m e n t , arose i n E n g l a n d out o f the n e w m i d d l e classes' struggle against the a r i s t o c r a c y ' s e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l formations. T h e r e , the n e w entrepreneurial c l a s s strove to t h r o w o f f the aristocratic i n f l u e n c e , w h i c h i n government, granted r a d i c a l d i s c r e t i o n to officials, i n favor o f aristocratic interests ( C h a m b l i s s and S e i d m a n , 1 9 8 1 ; H a y et a l , 1975). L i b e r t a r i a n i s m rested o n an e x p l a n a t i o n for the arbitrariness, secrecy, c o r r u p t i o n , a n d g o v e r n m e n t - b y - c r o n y that supported m e r c a n t i l i s m and m a d e entrepreneurial a c t i v i t y i n the m a r k e t e c o n o m y a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e . T o tame aristocratic p o w e r , l i b e r t a r i a n i s m formulated both the n o r m a t i v e basis for a p o l i t i c a l system, a n d institutions a i m e d at e s t a b l i s h i n g it ( C h a m b l i s s and S e i d m a n , 1981). R e s o n a t i n g w i t h c l a s s i c a l e c o n o m i c s , it assumed that the w o r l d consists o f "free" i n d i v i d u a l s e n d o w e d w i t h natural (i.e., prep o l i t i c a l ) rights. T h e role o f the state w a s seen to be one o f p r o v i d i n g a neutral f r a m e w o r k  44  through w h i c h rights bearing, free i n d i v i d u a l s interact (Ibid. 1981). U n d e r the libertarian scheme, therefore, the role o f the state c o u l d be s u m m a r i z e d i n three major functions: "the protection o f private property rights; the p r o t e c t i o n o f a market t h r o u g h w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s c a n arrange and re-arrange those rights; and, to respect i n d i v i d u a l preferences w h i c h manifest themselves through an exchange process" ( M a c p h e r s o n , 1977, p.26-27). T h e libertarian a s s u m p t i o n that states that an i n d i v i d u a l is free and equal before the market is p r o b l e m a t i c i n d e v e l o p i n g countries' context. T h i s is due to the fact that l a c k or m i s - m a n a g e m e n t o f resources and opportunities s y s t e m a t i c a l l y c o n s t r a i n m a n y people i n d e v e l o p i n g countries f r o m a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l life o f the country ( M a m d a n i , 1983, 1994). Further, the fact that the state m a y f o r m a l l y w i t h d r a w f r o m s o m e spheres o f life, and that the t h i r d sector or non-governmental, organizations ( N G O ) take o v e r s o m e o f its functions does not necessarily m e a n that the state has totally w i t h d r a w n f r o m the field (Ibid. 1983, 1994). In m a n y w a y s , the state continues to set the parameters, often i m p l i c i t l y , w i t h i n w h i c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s continue to function. T h e libertarian c o n c e p t i o n o f state a n d the market b r i n g s unacceptable costs to d e v e l o p i n g countries. It m a y s i m p l y consecrate the unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n o f resources both between the elite and the masses, and between v a r i o u s countries and trans-national entities. It is this p h e n o m e n o n that has tended to r e m a i n h i s t o r i c a l l y i n s e n s i t i v e and i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y i m p e r i a l i s t to those v u l n e r a b l e to s u c c e s s f u l l y c o m p e t e i n the market. T h u s , to most d e v e l o p i n g countries, the libertarian agenda is p r o b l e m a t i c , not because there are unacceptable l e v e l s o f state i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the area o f private property, but rather to its inner premises that contradicts a country's situation, most often p o s s e s s i n g a fractured  45  m i d d l e class, w i t h i n a pre-industrial society, and h e a v i l y surrounded b y the lust for m o d e r n i z a t i o n ( M a m d a n i , 1994). Three other categories o f d e v e l o p m e n t theory arose to e x p l a i n the failure o f the nation state: m o d e r n i z a t i o n , w i t h p l u r a l i s m as a p r i n c i p a l c o m p o n e n t ; v a r i o u s versions o f M a r x i s m ; a n d w h a t other scholars prefer to c a l l " p o l i t i c a l c h o i c e " theory and the "nongovernance" s c h o o l . S o m e authors suggest that these theories burst o n the scene, briefly b l a z e d furiously, and then d e c l i n e d ( C h a z a n , et a l , 1988). In the next section, I present a d i s c u s s i o n o f these different perspectives.  Modernization theory R o s t o w ' s (1985) theory about the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the stages o f e c o n o m i c . g r o w t h a n d the s i t u a t i o n o f the n e w l y d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s e x a c t l y fits the p r e m i s e s o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n theory. H e t y p i c a l l y argues that it i s useful, as w e l l as r o u g h l y accurate, to regard the process o f d e v e l o p m e n t o b s e r v e d i n less sophisticated societies o f south east A s i a , sub-Sahara A f r i c a , and L a t i n A m e r i c a , as analogous to the stages o f p r e c o n d i t i o n s and t a k e - o f f that m o r e sophisticated societies went through i n the late eighteenth, nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It is not that R o s t o w ( 1 9 8 5 ) does not r e c o g n i z e the existence o f h i s t o r i c a l differences b e t w e e n the s i t u a t i o n i n these t w o types o f societies. H i s p o i n t is that a l t h o u g h s o m e differences m a y h i n d e r the process o f take-off, the most c r u c i a l o f t h e m tend to facilitate it. T h e biggest d i f f i c u l t y is p r o v o k e d b y the greatest advantage: access to m o d e r n t e c h n o l o g y , i n c l u d i n g m e d i c i n e , l o w e r s m o r t a l i t y rates and increases p o p u l a t i o n thus creating p r o b l e m s o f c h r o n i c u n e m p l o y m e n t and p o v e r t y w h i c h require b i g g e r i n v e s t m e n t a n d g r o w t h rates j u s t to prevent t h e m f r o m getting w o r s e . A n o t h e r d i f f i c u l t y i s  46  the C o l d W a r i n so far as d e v e l o p i n g countries were s u c k e d into this c o n f l i c t and were o b l i g e d to distract t i m e and resources f r o m d e v e l o p m e n t tasks. S t i l l , R o s t o w ( 1 9 8 5 ) argues that there are t w o major advantages w h i c h nations that  took off first d i d not h a v e :  o n the one h a n d the existence o f an already d e v e l o p e d m o d e r n t e c h n o l o g y w h i c h is a v a i l a b l e to u n d e r d e v e l o p e d countries; a n d , o n the other h a n d , international a i d and t e c h n i c a l assistance p r o v i d e d b y d e v e l o p e d countries. M o d e r n i z a t i o n theory became e s p e c i a l l y p o p u l a r a m o n g the first generation o f A f r i c a n s educated overseas ( M o n g u l a , 1994). In its n o r m a t i v e f o r m , the theory i m p l i e s that to b e c o m e m o d e r n , a state s h o u l d adopt an a d m i t t e d l y m o d e r n state. In its p o s i t i v e aspect, m o d e r n i z a t i o n theory h o l d s that p l u r a l i s m e x p l a i n s the p o l i t i c a l c h o i c e s o f the state (Ibid. 1994). N o t o n l y does m o d e r n i z a t i o n theory " o v e r l o o k the role o f grassroots p a r t i c i p a t i o n , but it also fails m i s e r a b l y " because it does not r e c o g n i z e that "development cannot be forced o n p e o p l e " (Ibid. 1994, p . 8 9 ) . M o d e r n i z a t i o n theory argues that a d e v e l o p i n g country s h o u l d c o p y the characteristics o f a western, i n d u s t r i a l i z e d , capitalist n a t i o n . These a c a d e m i c s apparently assume that " c o p y i n g o n paper" the institutions o f the m e t r o p o l i s produces m o d e r n i z a t i o n . W h e n it does not, they m a i n l y b l a m e the d e v e l o p i n g societies i n q u e s t i o n , c l a i m i n g that they l a c k the necessary m o d e r n subjective v a l u e s a n d attitudes (Ikiara, 1994; W e i n e r , 1966). T h u s , despite several decades that m o d e r n i z a t i o n theory h a d been i n place, it faced challenges, e s p e c i a l l y w h e n one observes h o w s o m e societies have r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y u n d e r d e v e l o p e d . S o m e theorists h o w e v e r p l a c e this l i m i t a t i o n to the predatory state o n the o f f i c i a l s ' p s y c h e ( H i m m e l s t r a n d , 1994). B u t , w h a t e v e r its p o w e r s , a  47 g o v e r n m e n t has o n l y r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l potential for t r a n s f o r m i n g the v a l u e sets o f its p e o p l e , the greater p o s s i b i l i t y for d e v e l o p m e n t i n d e e d rests w i t h the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f c o m m u n i t i e s themselves. Pluralist theory P l u r a l i s t theory seeks to demonstrate that p e o p l e get the g o v e r n m e n t they want. It e x p l a i n s that societies g e n e r a l l y f a i l to f u l f i l l l i b e r t a r i a n i s m ' s d e m o c r a t i c p r o m i s e s because, not p u b l i c interest, but the p a r o c h i a l c l a i m s o f interest groups, m o v e g o v e r n m e n t s ( C a r n o y , 1984). T h e elite o f s o c i e t y ' s m a n y interest g r o u p s m o v e governments, m i l i t a r y , labour, and business. T h u s , the state is an e m p t y v e s s e l : F o r p l u r a l i s t s , the state i s neutral, a n e m p t y slate, a n d s t i l l a servant o f the c i t i z e n r y ~ the electorate ~ i n p r a c t i c e h o w e v e r , the c o m m o n g o o d is defined as a set o f e m p i r i c a l d e c i s i o n s that do not n e c e s s a r i l y reflect the w i l l o f the m a j o r i t y ( I b i d . 1984). T h e neutral state corresponds to the m i n i m a l value-consensus o n w h i c h p l u r a l i s m is p r e m i s e d . D e s p i t e the c o n f l i c t s i n society, a l l r i g h t - t h i n k i n g p e o p l e agree at least that s o c i e t y must c o n t i n u e to function effectively. T h e c o n t i n u a t i o n requires a neutral state to c o n t a i n c o n f l i c t a n d to determine w h i c h c o n f l i c t i n g v i e w s emerge as p u b l i c c h o i c e s . Just as state interference i n b a r g a i n i n g i n the e c o n o m y m a k e s e f f i c i e n c y i m p o s s i b l e , so does b a r g a i n i n g b e t w e e n elite that results i n o u t c o m e s that do not g e n u i n e l y reflect the p o w e r balances b e t w e e n the v a r i o u s interest groups the elite represent ( M a m d a n i , 1994). I n p l u r a l i s t theory, the state n o l o n g e r functions as representative o f a m y t h i c a l v a l u e consensus o n substantive issues. Instead, it represents the consensus against s o c i a l s u i c i d e ( C a r n o y , 1984).  48  P l u r a l i s t s c l a i m their theory at once celebrates d i v e r s i t y t h r o u g h neutral state structures. T h e r e s u l t i n g d y n a m i c represents a p o l i t i c a l analogue o f e c o n o m i c "effective d e m a n d . " T h e fact that s o m e p e o p l e have m o r e p o l i t i c a l p o w e r than others raises no greater m o r a l issues than the fact that i n the market, some p e o p l e have m o r e m o n e y (and hence m o r e effective d e m a n d ) than others. C o n s e q u e n t l y , i f s o m e groups r e m a i n so p o o r and less o r g a n i z e d that their leaders cannot m a k e t h e m s e l v e s heard at the b a r g a i n i n g table, they receive o n l y their deserts ( B a c h r a c h and B a r a t z , 1963). E a r l y scholars i n v o k e d the p l u r a l i s t p a r a d i g m to e x p l a i n T h i r d W o r l d d e v e l o p m e n t failures ( K a u t s k y , 1962). S u p e r f i c i a l l y , p l u r a l i s m seemed adequate to e x p l a i n A f r i c a ' s predicament. T r a n s n a t i o n a l corporations, p o l i t i c a l elite and o r g a n i z e d . ethnic groups had the most c o h e s i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n and b a r g a i n i n g p o w e r and d e v e l o p i n g countries' p o l i c i e s tended to favour t h e m . A t the end o f the day, h o w e v e r , p l u r a l i s m failed to p r o v i d e a sufficient e x p l a n a t i o n since it v i e w e d the state as a mere f r a m e w o r k for interest group b a r g a i n i n g . S o c i a l forces operated t h r o u g h , not o n , the State ( B a c h r a c h , and B a r a t z , 1963). W i t h regard to d e v e l o p i n g countries o f sub-Sahara A f r i c a , three fallacies underlay the f o r e g o i n g c o n c e p t i o n . First, it i m p l i e s that the state c a n change neither i t s e l f nor society, except i n response to e x i s t i n g s o c i a l p o w e r vectors (Ibid. 1963). T h u s , w h o e v e r c o n t r o l s c i v i l society also c o n t r o l s the state. E i t h e r t h r o u g h e c o n o m i c p o w e r , or t h r o u g h b a r g a i n i n g , those w i t h the m o s t p o w e r i n e v i t a b l y c o m e out o n top. Y e t A f r i c a n " l i b e r a t i o n m o v e m e n t s " c o n t i n u e to seek state p o w e r i n order to change e x i s t i n g resource a l l o c a t i o n s . T h e p l u r a l i s t e x p l a n a t i o n i m p l i e s their efforts to c o n s c i o u s l y p l a n s o c i a l change c o u l d be p r o b l e m a t i c because o f the restriction o n c h o i c e (Ibid. 1963; M a m d a n i , 1983, 1994).  S e c o n d , i n A f r i c a as elsewhere, p l u r a l i s t s ' c o n c e r n lay i n the p o l i t i c a l process b y w h i c h l a w s emerge rather than the content o f the l a w s . A state structure and process defined by i n e v i t a b l y non-neutral l a w s cannot emerge neutral ( K a u t s k y , 1962). Therefore, to ignore the biases inherent i n the state m a c h i n e r y , or to try to neutralize t h e m , m e r e l y opens the d o o r for p o w e r and p r i v i l e g e . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , p o s t - c o l o n i a l A f r i c a n d e v e l o p m e n t demands a state that i m p l e m e n t s change i n favour o f the p o o r and d i s i n h e r i t e d , not a theoretically neutral state. F i n a l l y , p l u r a l i s m argues that o n l y o r g a n i z e d groups, l e d b y i d e n t i f i a b l e elite c a n bargain. It does not e x p l a i n w h y the demands o f the p o o r , n o matter h o w n u m e r o u s , fail e v e n to reach the l e v e l o f d e c i s i o n . F o r the state to operate i n a w a y that truly reflects the p u b l i c interest, a l l interest groups i n c i v i l society must have adequate o r g a n i z a t i o n or at least v o c a l and p o w e r f u l elite to represent t h e m . In A f r i c a , this does not exist ( H i m m e l s t r a n d , 1994). In c o n c l u s i o n , explanations a d v a n c e d b y p l u r a l i s m for the failure o f A f r i c a n d e v e l o p m e n t possess l i m i t a t i o n s w i t h regard to assisting n e w g o v e r n m e n t s to formulate useful p o l i c i e s . First, the a s s u m p t i o n o f a neutral state fails to address A f r i c a ' s need for a state that represents the interests o f the p o o r and d i s i n h e r i t e d . S e c o n d , p l u r a l i s t s v i e w the state as m e r e l y r e s p o n s i v e to the w i n d s b l o w i n g i n c i v i l society. It takes e x i s t i n g a l l o c a t i o n s o f p o w e r as g i v e n , thus d i r e c t i n g attention a w a y f r o m the needed change. F i n a l l y , b y f a i l i n g to address the e x c l u s i o n o f the p o o r f r o m the g o v e r n m e n t a l b a r g a i n i n g process, p l u r a l i s m ' s e x p l a n a t i o n c a n not generate measures to ensure their i n c l u s i o n . O t h e r theories, h o w e v e r , arose to e x p l a i n libertarian and p l u r a l i s t l i m i t a t i o n s w i t h regard to A f r i c a : dependency, unequal exchange, structural and basic h u m a n needs theories. In  50  contrast, these theories advocate for a state that is capable o f t a k i n g p o l i c y p o s i t i o n s i n favour o f the poor. In the next section, I e x a m i n e alternative d e v e l o p m e n t theories that resonated w i t h these d e v e l o p m e n t theories. Dependency theory  D e p e n d e n c y theorists d r a w i n part o n the c l a s s i c a l theory o f i m p e r i a l i s m , but challenge some o f its assumptions by f o c u s i n g m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y o n the p r o b l e m s , w h i c h the w o r l d capitalist system causes i n the periphery. L i k e M a r x i s t o r t h o d o x y , dependence theory is s k e p t i c a l about the l i b e r a t i n g role o f n a t i o n a l b o u r g e o i s i e and propose that the processes o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n the T h i r d W o r l d are the v e h i c l e o f i m p e r i a l i s t i c penetration and o f a n e w k i n d o f dependence o n transnational c o m p a n i e s . T h e r e are several v e r s i o n s o f dependency theory. T h e best k n o w n is the one espoused b y F r a n k (1969). It has h a d a great intellectual i m p a c t , partly because it was the first to appear, a n d m o r e fundamentally, because it r a d i c a l l y questions what has hitherto been a r e c e i v e d truth o f both M a r x i s t and bourgeois theories, n a m e l y , that c a p i t a l i s m is essentially a m o d e o f p r o d u c t i o n able to p r o m o t e d e v e l o p m e n t e v e r y w h e r e . F r a n k (1969) rejects this i d e a a n d m a i n t a i n s that c a p i t a l i s m i s to b l a m e for the c o n t i n u o u s u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f d e v e l o p i n g countries. H e c o n c e i v e s o f c a p i t a l i s m as a w o r l d system, w i t h i n w h i c h the m e t r o p o l i t a n centres manage to expropriate the e c o n o m i c surpluses from satellite countries t h r o u g h the m e c h a n i s m s o f the international market, thus p r o d u c i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y the d e v e l o p m e n t o f the former a n d the u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f the latter. B y i m p l i c a t i o n , d e v e l o p m e n t c a n o n l y o c c u r w h e n an u n d e r d e v e l o p e d country breaks out o f the system.  51  D e s p i t e its appeal a n d w i d e s p r e a d impact, Frank's theory has been severely c r i t i c i z e d . First, because it defines c a p i t a l i s m i n terms o f orientation to the market and not as a m o d e o f p r o d u c t i o n . S e c o n d , because it o v e r - e m p h a s i z e s the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f certain countries as a w h o l e a n d pays less attention to the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the w o r k i n g classes i n these countries. T h i r d , because it confuses dependency w i t h u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t , whereas it can be s h o w n that s o m e countries for instance, C a n a d a , i s dependent o n staples exports w h i l e at the same t i m e "reasonably a w e a l t h y d e v e l o p e d country" ( H o w l e t t and R a m e s h , 1992). A less, w e l l - k n o w n , but m o r e sophisticated theory o f dependency is that o f C a r d o s o and Faletto (1972). F o r t h e m dependency must not be used as a blanket concept to e x p l a i n a l l the e v i l s o f underdevelopment everywhere. F o r a start, they propose that e v e n w i t h i n u n d e r d e v e l o p e d countries, the situation o f g l o b a l dependency is not the same for every country and that a l t h o u g h the c o n d i t i o n s o f the international market and the strategies o f international c a p i t a l m a y be c o m m o n , they are negotiated i n different w a y s by different countries d e p e n d i n g o n their internal class struggles. T h i s means that there is a specific m o d e o f articulation between internal class structures a n d the m o d e o f i n c o r p o r a t i o n into the w o r l d market. T h u s , they c o n c l u d e that i n certain countries, a path o f dependent capitalist d e v e l o p m e n t is p o s s i b l e , whereas i n others, stagnation m a y result i n the advantage o f this approach based o n the internal arrangements o f class, e c o n o m i c relations a n d the p o l i t i c a l w i l l .  Critiques to dependency theory Perhaps the strongest critique o f dependency theory has been a d v a n c e d by a group o f authors i n f l u e n c e d b y M a r x i s m . A l t h o u g h they differ i n m a n y respects, they tend to  52  share y o u n g M a r x ' s o p t i m i s t i c b e l i e f i n the inherently d y n a m i c and d e v e l o p m e n t a l capabilities o f c a p i t a l i s m a n d are therefore v e r y s u s p i c i o u s o f the concepts o f u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t and dependency, w h i c h they s o m e t i m e s put together i n the same package as u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t and dependency theory ( U D T ) , ( B a n a j i , 1983; K i t c h i n g , 1982; M a n d l e , 1980; W a r r e n , 1980). C r i t i c s o f dependency theory postulate that the theory is c o n c e p t u a l l y loose and theoretically w e a k . That, "not o n l y i s it not M a r x i s t " ( B e r n s t e i n , 1974, p . 9 3 ) , but also "it is not rooted i n any r i g o r o u s b o d y o f deductive-type theory" ( B o o t h , 1985, p.55). T h i s is s h o w n by its adherence to outdated e c o n o m i c ideas l i k e the consistent deterioration o f the terms o f trade or the c o n c e p t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t as self-sustained g r o w t h (Ibid, 1985). T h e theory o f u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t is contradictory and therefore p r o b l e m a t i c . O n the one h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t is defined as a process o f auto-centric a c c u m u l a t i o n w h i c h leads to self-sustained g r o w t h , but o n the other hand this is contradicted by the p r o p o s i t i o n that the u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f the periphery is a c o n d i t i o n o f the d e v e l o p m e n t o f the centre. A s B e r n s t e i n (1974, p.52) postulates, Underdevelopment theory cannot have it both ways. If the field of analysis is world economy; if the centre needs the periphery for modes of exploitation that off-set the tendency of the rate of profit to fall; if the circuit of capital in general is realized on the international plane; then there is no capitalist formation whose development can be regionally autonomous, self-generating or self-perpetuating.  It is thus seen that the theory o f u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t p r o v i d e s an i d e o l o g i c a l and deterministic c o n c e p t i o n o f underdevelopment, w h i c h replicates the errors o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n theory already presented. B o t h ( m o d e r n i z a t i o n a n d dependency) theories propose an i d e a l m o d e l o f d e v e l o p m e n t and assess the situation o f the periphery i n relation to it. Just as m o d e r n i z a t i o n theory assures the d e v e l o p m e n t o f the periphery' by a  53 h i s t o r i c a l repetition o f the process undergone b y the " m o d e l " d e v e l o p e d countries, underdevelopment theory assures the i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f peripheral d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h i n the capitalist w o r l d system ( B e r n s t e i n , 1974). T h i s v i e w is r e i n f o r c e d b y W a r r e n (1980) w h o postulates that, it is not r e a l l y an accident that these s i m p l i s t i c structuralism p a i r i n g s : d e v e l o p e d - u n d e r d e v e l o p e d , centre-periphery, dominant-dependent, resemble those o f bourgeois d e v e l o p m e n t theory (traditional-modern, r i c h - p o o r , a d v a n c e d - b a c k w a r d , etc.); they are b a s i c a l l y a p o l e m i c a l i n v e r s i o n o f t h e m . F o r that matter, B e r n s t e i n (1974) argues that dependency theory m a y be c r i t i c a l o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n theory but it has too remained w i t h i n the same p r o b l e m a t i c category. A n o t h e r w a v e o f critique l e v e l e d against dependency theory is that it is static, e c o n o m i s t i c and m e c h a n i s t i c . It is static i n the sense that it takes dependency, h o w e v e r defined, as given, o n l y its f o r m c h a n g i n g ; it conjures a w a y the p o s s i b i l i t y that dependency m a y be a d e c l i n i n g p h e n o m e n o n ( W a r r e n , 1980). It is e c o n o m i s t i c i n the sense that social classes, the state, p o l i t i c s , i d e o l o g y figure i n it very n o t i c e a b l y as d e r i v a t i v e s o f e c o n o m i c forces (Ibid. 1983), and i n fact detailed analyses o f the nature and focus o f e x i s t i n g class struggles are f e w and far between, w h i l e analyses o f the relationships between national and international capital are i n abundant s u p p l y . It is m e c h a n i s t i c i n the sense that processes tend to be presented as r e s u l t i n g f r o m l o g i c o f m e c h a n i s m , a system o f v i c i o u s c i r c l e s r e i n f o r c i n g each other (Ibid. 1980). T h u s u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t appears i n e v i t a b l e to a capitalist s o l u t i o n o f m o n o l i t h i c structure. T h i s e m p i r i c a l l y and h i s t o r i c a l l y incorrect contention enables dependency theorists, for e x a m p l e , to m i n i m i z e the w i d e n i n g range o f options o p e n to u n d e r d e v e l o p e d countries.  54  D e p e n d e n c y theorists seem to b e l i e v e that centrally p l a n n e d e c o n o m i e s are m o r e desirable because c a p i t a l i s m c a n n o l o n g e r p r o d u c e d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e p r o b l e m w i t h this p r e m i s e i s that dependency theorists treat central p l a n n i n g as a n a t i o n a l necessity because it p r o m i s e s to p r o d u c e the goods that c a p i t a l i s m fails to d e l i v e r , but dependency theory does not discuss whether central p l a n n i n g is p o s s i b l e n o r does it d i s c l o s e the potential class forces o n w h i c h a r e v o l u t i o n a r y struggle c a n be based ( I b i d . 1980). T h u s central p l a n n i n g ceases to be a m o v e m e n t for the l i b e r a t i o n o f the w o r k i n g class and becomes a m o v e m e n t for the m o d e r n i z a t i o n o f u n d e r d e v e l o p e d societies (Ibid. 1980). A d d i t i o n a l l y , capitalist theory and its p e r c e p t i o n i n the p r o m o t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t i n d e v e l o p i n g countries has been g o v e r n e d by a strong a n t i c o m m u n i s t stance as is e v i d e n c e d b y R o s t o w (1985). In a context where some western scholars accepted the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f e n s u r i n g d e v e l o p i n g countries r e m a i n e d n o n - c o m m u n i s t , a n d i n d o i n g so, they a p p l i e d their s k i l l s to t h e o r i z i n g the causes o f and constraints to e c o n o m i c g r o w t h w i t h a v i e w to i d e n t i f y i n g the role o f a i d therein. F r o m this perspective, R o s t o w set h i m s e l f a m o r e a m b i t i o u s task: to p r o v i d e an alternative to M a r x theory o f d e v e l o p m e n t ( R o s t o w , 1985). T h e theory of unequal exchange In the 1970s, n e w theories arose to c h a l l e n g e the m u l t i p l e perspectives p r o p o u n d e d by dependency and m o d e r n i z a t i o n theories. T h e m o s t representative b e i n g the theories o f unequal exchange by E m m a n u e l (1972) and A m i n (1973), and w o r l d systems theory ( W a l l e r s t e i n , 1976). T h e y both c o m m e n c e f r o m certain strands o f F r a n k (1969) analyses. F o r W a l l e r s t e i n (1976), a l l states w i t h i n the capitalist system cannot  55  d e v e l o p s i m u l t a n e o u s l y b y d e f i n i t i o n , because the system functions by virtue o f h a v i n g unequal core and peripheral regions. In a d d i t i o n , an interesting feature o f the theory is the n o t i o n that the role o f b e i n g a peripheral or s e m i - p e r i p h e r a l n a t i o n is not d e f i n i t i v e . C o r e countries and peripheral countries can b e c o m e s e m i - p e r i p h e r a l and v i c e versa. W h a t remains is the unequal nature o f the w o r l d system. B o t h E m m a n u e l (1972) and A m i n (1973) formulate i n m o r e r i g o r o u s M a r x i s t terms the theory o f unequal exchange. F o r t h e m the p r o b l e m is to s h o w w h y and h o w i n the exchange o f c o m m o d i t i e s between central and peripheral e c o n o m i e s , the former appropriate part o f the v a l u e that is p r o d u c e d i n the latter. B e c a u s e o f these circumstances, the d e v e l o p e d countries sell c o m m o d i t i e s to the periphery at prices that e x c e e d their v a l u e , and buy [from the periphery] at p r i c e s b e l o w their v a l u e . S o every transaction means a transfer o f v a l u e from the u n d e r d e v e l o p e d country to the d e v e l o p e d one, w h i c h means that the rate o f a c c u m u l a t i o n o f capital is reduced i n the former and enhanced i n the latter. T h u s unequal exchange results i n unequal d e v e l o p m e n t . A major theoretical c o n c l u s i o n o f E m m a n u e l ' s (1972) and A m i n ' s (1973) approaches is that internal class antagonism has b e c o m e m a r g i n a l i n the i n d u s t r i a l centres a n d has been replaced i n i m p o r t a n c e b y the c o n f l i c t between r i c h and p o o r nations. In the d e v e l o p e d w o r l d , unequal exchange theorists argue that the w o r k i n g class has been d e f i n i t i v e l y integrated into the system and shares i n the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the T h i r d W o r l d . D e s p i t e this c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , c l a s s i c a l theory o f i m p e r i a l i s m detects a p r o b l e m w i t h this postulation. R e y (1978), for instance, reacts against the theory o f unequal exchange because, l i k e  56  F r a n k ' s theory, it bases its analysis o n the international market and pays no attention to the internal m o d e s o f p r o d u c t i o n o f the periphery. Structural theory In structural theory, the object o f d e v e l o p m e n t is the structural transformation o f u n d e r d e v e l o p e d e c o n o m i e s i n s u c h a w a y as to p e r m i t a process o f self-sustained e c o n o m i c g r o w t h o n the path o f the i n d u s t r i a l l y a d v a n c e d countries. W h i l e p l u r a l i s t s . most M a r x i s t s , and dependency theorists p e r c e i v e the state as "captured" b y p o w e r f u l groups i n c i v i l society, others perceive T h i r d W o r l d countries and their o f f i c i a l s as rapacious gangs d e v o u r i n g c i v i l society ( L e s l i e , 1987; R e d d y , 1985). These scholars tend to perceive the state as captured b y the officials w h o n o m i n a l l y serve as its agents and servants w i t h n o g o o d intentions for the b u l k o f the p o o r , and hence the need to search for an alternative d e v e l o p m e n t approach ( H i m m e l s t r a n d , 1994; M o n g u l a , 1994). T h i s is more clearly o b s e r v e d w h e n , The managerial class monopolize^] resources for its own private use and purposefully prevents] major portions of the population from gaining access to public resources . . . [Thus, it is clear that] no effective solution can flow down to the community level, before the overthrow of the development intermediaries, especially when they control the state structures, and are not prepared to relinquish their dubious role easily (Chazan, in Chazan, Revenhill, and Rothchild, 1988, p.325). E v e n i f they r e l i n q u i s h e d their m i d d l e m a n s h i p role, these theorists seem to offer no s o l u t i o n s to prevent a reoccurrence o f the p h e n o m e n o n . L i k e the other theories e x a m i n e d , M a r x ' s theory o f the state focuses on the question: W h y d o state institutions represent the interests and values o f this group and not the others? L i k e other theorists, M a r x i s t s , too, disagree a m o n g themselves. F o r instance, M a m d a n i (1983) uses class as a p r i m a r y category for a n a l y s i s , to e x p l a i n that, i n the d e v e l o p e d capitalist w o r l d , the state and its system o f l a w s facilitate the systematic  57 e x p l o i t a t i o n o f w o r k e r s b y capitalists. W h a t e v e r its s e e m i n g l y d e m o c r a t i c facade, i n the final analysis, the state stands w i t h the capitalists against the w o r k e r s . In support o f this e x p l a n a t i o n , this v e r s i o n o f M a r x i s m adopts a s i m p l i s t i c metaphor. T h e base -- the m o d e o f p r o d u c t i o n — determines the superstructure, ideas and culture, i n c l u d i n g the legal order ( M a r x and E n g e l s , 1969, p . 5 0 3 - 4 ) . S i n c e the capitalist class dominates the m o d e o f p r o d u c t i o n i n the capitalist system, their ideas and v a l u e s d o m i n a t e the c u l t u r a l a n d i n s t i t u t i o n a l structures. T h e state becomes the e x e c u t i v e c o m m i t t e e o f the r u l i n g class ( M i l l i b a n d , 1969). In a c o l o n i a l context, the state serves to strengthen c o l o n i a l capitalist m o d e s o f p r o d u c t i o n , and therefore the p o w e r and p r i v i l e g e o f the c o l o n i a l capitalists. F a r f r o m protecting i n d i v i d u a l a u t o n o m y , the liberal state protects the p o w e r o f the e c o n o m i c r u l i n g classes, and ensures the powerlessness ~ M a r x i s t s term it a l i e n a t i o n — o f the masses. T h o u g h not a l l M a r x i s t s agree, those a d o p t i n g the metaphor seem to i m p l y , l i k e the p l u r a l i s t s . that state officials behave entirely i n response to external demands, that is, that they have no independent m o t i v a t i o n s . R e l a t i n g to the n o t i o n s o f d o m i n a t i o n and dependency, R o d n e y (1972) d r a w s o n M a r x i s t theory to e x p l a i n h o w w o r l d capitalist structure r e m a i n s so p o w e r f u l that, w h a t e v e r it subjectively desires, p o l i t i c a l elite i n d e v e l o p i n g countries cannot change institutions or resist; instead they b e c o m e mere h e n c h m e n for f o r e i g n interests, enacting l o c a l l a w s and creating p o l i t i c a l institutions that foster u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t . R o d n e y (1972) i m p l i c a t e s external p o w e r s as the p r i m a r y source o f d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s ' poverty and powerlessness.  58  A m i n (1990) and w o r l d systems theorists ( W a l l e r s t e i n , 1976) e m p h a s i z e that international capitalist penetration has u n d e r m i n e d p r e - e x i s t i n g s o c i a l systems, so m u c h so that the d e v e l o p i n g countries' external dependency has been aggravated. T h u s , the crisis o f the p o s t - c o l o n i a l state has to do w i t h the betrayal o f the r e v o l u t i o n by the neoc o l o n i a l r u l i n g class, o n the one h a n d , a n d the failure o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y m o v e m e n t s to transform both the e c o n o m y and state i n a r a d i c a l w a y because o f their o w n s h o r t c o m i n g s and the counter-revolutionary challenge by i m p e r i a l i s m , o n the other. In the late 1950s a n d early 1960s, the n o t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t w i t n e s s e d the coexistence o f the structural theory and the m o r e o p t i m i s t i c theory o f e x p a n d i n g capitalist theory as the d o m i n a n t perspectives that w o u l d guarantee results to the poor. H o w e v e r , by m i d 1960s there were g r o w i n g i n d i c a t i o n s o f dissatisfactions w i t h both perspectives, and b y the late 1960s they were b e i n g w i d e l y c h a l l e n g e d . S o m e c r i t i c s argued that after a decade and m o r e o f emphasis o n c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n and i m p o r t substitutions, a p e r i o d i n w h i c h m a n y countries had seen h i g h g r o w t h o f G r o s s N a t i o n a l P r o d u c t ( G D P ) , the lot o f the masses i n the T h i r d W o r l d had not i m p r o v e d and i n some cases w o r s e n e d . T h i s argument c a m e i m m e d i a t e l y after the successful c o m p l e t i o n i n the late 1940s and early 1950s o f the M a r s h a l l P l a n for e c o n o m i c reconstruction i n E u r o p e , w h i c h generated confidence i n the r o l e o f e c o n o m i c a i d to other situations. These opportunities to a i d were to the n e w l y independent A s i a n and A r a b countries; the d e - c o l o n i z a t i o n process i n m u c h o f A f r i c a ; and the opportunities brought b y the c o l d w a r between the W e s t e r n and Eastern b l o c s . A l l o f these events created the o p p o r t u n i t y to a g r o w i n g p o l i t i c a l focus o n the p r o v i s i o n o f e c o n o m i c a i d to u n d e r d e v e l o p e d countries ( C a m p f e n s , 1997).  59  T h e d i c h o t o m o u s structural r e l a t i o n s h i p inherent i n the te.rm d e v e l o p m e n t c l e a r l y reveals an i d e o l o g i c a l a c c o m m o d a t i o n : "north ~ south", " d e v e l o p e d — u n d e r d e v e l o p e d " , and " t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y r i c h — t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y deficient". T h e d i c h o t o m y r a t i o n a l i z e s a need to bridge the gap therein. A n d the efforts to bridge the gap is m o r e p r o m i n e n t l y pursued by three sister institutions: the International B a n k for R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and D e v e l o p m e n t ( I B R D ) and International D e v e l o p m e n t A s s o c i a t i o n ( I D A ) , and the International M o n e t a r y F u n d ( I M F ) , c o l l e c t i v e l y c a l l e d the W o r l d B a n k . A l l three institutions are the result o f the 1944 B r e t t o n W o o d s process, w h i c h l a i d the cornerstone for the g l o b a l e c o n o m i c system as it stands today. ( R e d d y , 1985; G w i n , 1994). T h e B a n k mandates the s t i m u l a t i o n and p r o m o t i o n o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c progress i n d e v e l o p i n g nations through increased p r o d u c t i v i t y o f h u m a n and m a t e r i a l resources to a p o i n t w h e r e their d e v e l o p m e n t becomes self-sustaining (Lateef, 1995). W h i l e the B a n k has not endorsed any one theory o f d e v e l o p m e n t , its p u b l i c a t i o n s and m e t h o d s o f operation reveal three definite perspectives e m b r a c e d b y structural theory: the project a p p r o a c h , the gap theory approach, and i n c o m e d i s t r i b u t i o n / social welfare theory ( L e s l i e , 1987; Lateef, 1995). T h e first approach — the project approach ~ traces its o r i g i n s to the orthodox e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t theory p r e v a i l i n g i n the 1950s. It e m p h a s i z e s the c o r r e l a t i o n between u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t and the l a c k o f infrastructure, p r o d u c t i v e facilities, and t e c h n i c a l expertise i n d e v e l o p i n g countries ( L e s l i e , 1987). T h e purpose o f m u l t i l a t e r a l a i d , therefore, i s to finance s o u n d e c o n o m i c projects to correct these structural i m b a l a n c e s . T h i s i m p l i e s foreign private investment s h o u l d be attracted to lay the foundations for e c o n o m i c g r o w t h .  60  A s e c o n d a p p r o a c h i s based o n gap theory ( I b i d . 1987). In this case, focus is p l a c e d o n the d i s c r e p a n c y between the amount o f e c o n o m i c resources required by d e v e l o p i n g countries and those l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e . D e v e l o p i n g countries, the approach argues, are p l a g u e d by three types o f resource gaps: a l a c k o f s k i l l s , an inadequate l e v e l o f savings that l i m i t s the d o m e s t i c investment needed for significant g r o w t h , and a foreign exchange gap (the difference between foreign exchange earnings and the foreign exchange requirements) for c o n t i n u e d g r o w t h ( W i l l i a m s o n , 1982). Progress t o w a r d selfsustaining d e v e l o p m e n t is therefore constrained by one o f these resource gaps at v a r i o u s stages o f the g r o w t h process. E x t e r n a l sources o f finance encourage g r o w t h by c o m p e n s a t i n g for these shortfalls, thereby f a c i l i t a t i n g m o r e efficient use o f other resources such as labour ( L e s l i e , 1987). D u e to l i m i t e d structural f l e x i b i l i t y at the international l e v e l , this approach stresses l e n d i n g as the preferred f o r m o f assistance, particularly i n the latter stages o f g r o w t h , where there are savings or trade or balance o f payments gaps. T h i r d l y , i n c o m e d i s t r i b u t i o n and s o c i a l welfare theory have i n f l u e n c e d the approach. Initially, the theory focused o n n e o - c l a s s i c a l n o t i o n o f t r i c k l e - d o w n and w h o s e theoretical roots lie i n the w r i t i n g s o f S m i t h (1776). T o S m i t h , the market is d e e m e d the most effective a l l o c a t o r o f resources, prices, and wages. H e n c e government intervention to i m p r o v e s o c i a l welfare i n d e v e l o p i n g countries w o u l d distort i n c o m e d i s t r i b u t i o n patterns b y s h i f t i n g i n c o m e f r o m the r i c h w h o saved, to the p o o r w h o d i d not. T h e net effect w o u l d be a r e d u c t i o n i n savings and capital f o r m a t i o n w i t h a subsequent frustration o f e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . E c o n o m i s t s such as S i m o n K u z n e t s ( L e s l i e , 1987; W i l l i a m s o n , 1982) b e l i e v e d i n c o m e inequalities as decreasing w i t h progressive  61  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . W i t h f e w exceptions, i n c o m e has not a u t o m a t i c a l l y t r i c k l e d d o w n to the disreputable p o o r , and d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s ' e c o n o m i c g r o w t h is characterized by a g r o w i n g e c o n o m i c d u a l i s m , that has reinforced i n c o m e inequalities ( L e s l i e , 1987). T h u s , b y the early 1970s (especially after M c N a m a r a ' s 1973 statement o n B a s i c H u m a n N e e d s ) , economists and the B a n k came to take a broader v i e w o f d e v e l o p m e n t , e m p h a s i z i n g not o n l y e c o n o m i c g r o w t h , but also welfare and d i s t r i b u t i v e j u s t i c e (Ibid. 1995). In the 1970s, the search for a balanced " d e v e l o p m e n t e q u a t i o n " p r o m p t e d the B a n k ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the basic needs approach, b o r n out o f a r e a l i z a t i o n that steady reductions i n i n e q u a l i t y d i d not necessarily i m p r o v e welfare. T h u s the basic needs approach to a i d not o n l y e n c o m p a s s e d the question o f p r o d u c t i v e e m p l o y m e n t but also the p r o v i s i o n o f p u b l i c services s u c h as education, health, and n u t r i t i o n to the e c o n o m i c a l l y disadvantaged groups i n any country, whether i n a rural or urban setting (Lateef, 1995). F o r sub-Sahara A f r i c a , h o w e v e r , d u r i n g 1980s the n e o - c l a s s i c a l r e v i v a l gathered renewed v i g o u r . 1981 w i t n e s s e d a p u b l i c a t i o n b y the W o r l d B a n k — Accelerated Development in sub-Saharan Africa — a w i d e l y c i r c u l a t e d and i n f l u e n t i a l report that e m p h a s i z e d the i m p o r t a n c e o f correct p r i c i n g p o l i c i e s and reduced government intervention i n e c o n o m i c activities as t w o o f the m a i n keys to a r e v i v a l i n A f r i c a n g r o w t h rates. T h e n e o - c l a s s i c a l r e v i v a l was reinforced i n the early 1980s b y the increase i n a p p l i c a t i o n s f r o m d e v e l o p i n g countries to the I M F for assistance w i t h s t a b i l i z a t i o n and structural adjustment p r o g r a m m e s . T h e terms o n w h i c h the fund p r o v i d e s assistance, w h i c h e m p h a s i z e s not o n l y c o n t r o l o f the m o n e y s u p p l y but also a r e m o v a l o f p r i c e  62  distortions and the freeing o f markets f r o m the p u b l i c sector i n t e r v e n t i o n i s m . are underpinned by n e o - c l a s s i c a l p a r a d i g m . D u r i n g the 1990s the W o r l d B a n k e m b a r k e d o n its basic d o g m a o f u n e q u i v o c a l support o f "free enterprise" w i t h that o f "redistribution w i t h g r o w t h " (Ibid. 1995). A l t h o u g h this trend i s s o m e w h a t directed at the b u l k o f the p o o r , the m a j o r i t y o f W o r l d B a n k p o l i c i e s have p r o d u c e d l i m i t e d progress i n terms o f p o v e r t y a l l e v i a t i o n efforts. These i n c l u d e insistence o n c o m p l e t e reliance o n market forces and private sector a c t i o n ; u p h o l d i n g foreign private investment; support for free trade p o l i c i e s ; a v e r s i o n to any i m p o r t restrictions or p r i c e controls; a v e r s i o n o f g o v e r n m e n t subsidies; support for the p r i n c i p l e o f full cost recovery for a l l projects w h i c h it finances ( L e s l i e , 1987; Lateef, 1995; R e d d y , 1 9 8 5 ; a n d W i l l i a m s o n , 1982). It i s i n these c o n s e r v a t i v e and unshakable laissez faire tenets that S m i t h ' s and R i c a r d o ' s postulations are c l e a r l y revealed. T o c o n c l u d e , i n post c o l o n i a l countries, d e v e l o p m e n t has been attributed to the a c q u i s i t i o n o f traits, characteristics, and t e c h n o l o g i e s o f the d e v e l o p e d nations. T h i s materialistic and paternalistic v i e w carries w i t h i n it the n o t i o n o f experts and the l e g i t i m i z a t i o n o f a higher and l o w e r s o c i a l order. A s s u c h , d e v e l o p m e n t seeks to " c i v i l i z e " outsiders and change u n d e r - d e v e l o p e d countries i n order to fit a predetermined p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l order. D e v e l o p m e n t is thus ordered b y agents o f m o r e " d e v e l o p e d " c o m m u n i t i e s to those "underdeveloped" c o m m u n i t i e s . M o r e o v e r , progress and d e v e l o p m e n t are equated w i t h e c o n o m i c g r o w t h and change (Preston, 1982). T h i s F u n c t i o n a l i s t perspective has been w i d e l y c r i t i c i z e d , resisted and hence p r o m p t e d the c o n t i n u e d search for d e v e l o p m e n t alternatives.  63  Basic human needs theory and rethinking of the term development I n p r i n c i p l e , basic needs theory v i e w s the p o o r as d i s - e m p o w e r e d . T h e t h e o r y ' s core rests o n the n o t i o n that, "any d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d be first a n d foremost centred o n h u m a n k i n d , not infrastructure" ( M o n g u l a , 1994, p . 9 1 ) . S o m e o f the a i d d o n o r s f i n d this perspective a p p e a l i n g , e s p e c i a l l y because it is s p e c i f i c a l l y directed at those w h o n e e d the d e v e l o p m e n t assistance the most. T h i s theory takes centre stage i n p o l i c y w h e n there is notable e m p h a s i s o n i n c o m e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h g r o w t h ( C h e n e r y , et a l , 1974). T o f a v o u r the e x t r e m e l y p o o r , h o w e v e r , requires a state that w o u l d devote resources to a i d t h e i r efforts w i t h i n a basic market framework. T y p i c a l l y , the state w o u l d intervene i n e c o n o m i c processes t h r o u g h investment i n health, education and t r a i n i n g , the s u p p l y o f c l e a n water a n d affordable h o u s i n g ( M o n g u l a , 1994). I n the r e a l w o r l d , h o w e v e r , b a s i c needs theorists see states that do not service the p o o r , and bureaucrats w h o are m o r e interested i n featherbedding their o w n interests than those o f the p e o p l e a n d hence perpetuating the l i m i t e d opportunities ( I b i d . 1994; M a m d a n i , 1985). T h e c a l l for r e t h i n k i n g d e v e l o p m e n t resulted f r o m a g r o w i n g c o n c e r n that e m e r g e d d u r i n g the late 1960s, w i t h respect to the apparent absence o f a t r i c k l e - d o w n effect f r o m e c o n o m i c g r o w t h (Seers, 1981). It is difficult to a v o i d the c o n c l u s i o n that this n e w d e f i n i t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t w a s s t i m u l a t e d i n part b y the ferment o f debate i n international d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s debate w a s l a r g e l y s t i m u l a t e d b y the n e o - M a r x i s t s c h o o l a n d other s y m p a t h e t i c radicals, c h i e f l y a m o n g the y o u n g e r , rising generation o f students o f d e v e l o p m e n t and underdevelopment, w h o were o u t s p o k e n i n their c o n d e m n a t i o n o f w h a t they v i e w e d as i n e q u i t y o f c o n t e m p o r a r y patterns o f change i n d e v e l o p i n g countries.  64  A m i d s t this debate, M c N a m a r a ( 1 9 7 3 , p . 1 0 - 1 1 ) expresses a v i e w w h i c h supports the g r o w i n g c o n c e r n about the o u t c o m e o f p o l i c i e s that f o c u s e d c h i e f l y o n increases i n G r o s s N a t i o n a l P r o d u c t ( G N P ) w h i l e i g n o r i n g other indicators o f d e v e l o p m e n t : Despite a decade of unprecedented increase in GNP of the developing countries, the poorest segments of their population have received relatively little benefits. Nearly 800 million individuals — 40% of the a total of two billion — survive on incomes estimated (in US purchasing power) at 30 cents per day in conditions of malnutrition, illiteracy ad squalor. They are suffering poverty in the absolute sense... Among 40 developing countries for which data are available, the upper 20% of the population receives 55% of national income in the typical country, while the lowest 20% of the population receives 5%...policies aimed primarily at accelerating economic growth, in most developing countries, have benefited mainly the upper 40% of the population and the allocation of public services and investment funds has tended to strengthen rather than to offset this trend.  M c N a m a r a ' s (1973) p o s i t i o n reflects u n c o n d i t i o n a l support for the basic h u m a n needs a p p r o a c h w h o s e p r i m a r y focus is investment i n health, e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g , f o o d , water s u p p l y , sanitation and h o u s i n g . C r i t i c i s m s o f the b a s i c needs theory c a m e from the capitalist theorists, a r g u i n g that the m o s t d y n a m i c sector o f the e c o n o m y is the m o d e r n sector, a n d w i t h i n it, are the r i c h , a n d p r e s u m a b l y r i c h capitalists i n p a r t i c u l a r w h o are a s s u m e d to h a v e the highest p r o p e n s i t y to save and invest. T h u s , a n y r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n c o m e from the r i c h to the p o o r , it argued, is b o u n d to s l o w d o w n e c o n o m i c g r o w t h .  2.7 Alternative solutions to the limitations of development theories A s d e v e l o p m e n t efforts were p u r s u e d b y the d e v e l o p i n g w o r l d , the a b o v e p o l i t i c a l theories o f d e v e l o p m e n t generated l i m i t a t i o n s that resulted into four sets o f alternative s o l u t i o n s to the d e v e l o p m e n t effort: reaffirmation o f l i b e r t a r i a n i s m , increased e m p h a s i s o n b a s i c h u m a n needs, creating m o r e effective n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a n d institutional capacity building.  65  Libertarianism reinstated S o m e , i n c l u d i n g experts i n international d e v e l o p m e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s e.g.. U n i t e d States A g e n c y for International D e v e l o p m e n t ( U S A I D ) , the W o r l d B a n k and International M o n e t a r y F u n d ( I M F ) , r e i n t r o d u c e d l i b e r t a r i a n i s m a l l o v e r again. A n A f r i c a n a c a d e m i c A n y a n g N y o n g ' o (1987, p. 14) observes, d e v e l o p m e n t theorists v i e w e d the d e v e l o p m e n t c r i s i s "as that o f a state that has bitten o f f m o r e than it c o u l d c h e w . " B a s e d o n this analogy, he argues that the r e i n t r o d u c t i o n is based o n the p r e m i s e that, "instead o f engaging i n e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y t h r o u g h parastatals, libertarians b e l i e v e that the state s h o u l d w i t h d r a w and confine i t s e l f to those activities it is most t r a d i t i o n a l l y q u a l i f i e d to undertake i n a free-market e c o n o m y , those o f p r o v i d i n g a n d r u n n i n g the p h y s i c a l and social infrastructure, m a i n t a i n i n g l a w and order and guaranteeing a s o u n d p o l i c y f r a m e w o r k for capital a c c u m u l a t i o n " (Ibid. p. 14-16). In other w o r d s , their p r o p o s e d s o l u t i o n to the l i m i t a t i o n o f T h i r d W o r l d c o u n t r i e s ' governments to m o v e towards d e v e l o p m e n t seems to require t h e m to abandon the effort. Basic human needs V i e w i n g s m a l l entrepreneurs i n agriculture and the i n f o r m a l sector as central, potential d e v e l o p m e n t agents i n d e v e l o p i n g countries, basic needs theorists c a l l for d e m o c r a t i c participatory state structures that w o u l d devote resources to their a i d w i t h i n a basic market f r a m e w o r k ( M o n g u l a , 1994). The non-governmental approach A d v o c a t e s o f this a p p r o a c h v i e w the state as captured b y the o f f i c i a l s w h o n o m i n a l l y serve as its agents and c i v i l servants. T h i s perspective argues for abandonment o f the state, as it is incapable o f fundamental r e f o r m . It begins to focus, instead, on the  66  non-state sector, s t u d y i n g h o w p e o p l e c o p e i n the face o f a predatory state ( H y d e n , 1980, 1983;  K i n y a n j u i , 1 9 8 5 ; K o r t e n , 1 9 8 4 , 1 9 8 7 , 1989). T h e a p p r o a c h directs its attention to  the r o l e o f the t h i r d sector i n society t h r o u g h n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Institutional building Proponents o f institutional b u i l d i n g argue that the above p o l i t i c a l theories u n d e r p i n n i n g d e v e l o p m e n t operate at a v e r y h i g h l e v e l o f abstraction. In effect, they o n l y identify the d i f f i c u l t y p o l i c y - m a k e r s face i n their search for s o l u t i o n s to sustainable d e v e l o p m e n t . P l u r a l i s m , for e x a m p l e , o n l y raises the issue o f w h y i n d e v e l o p i n g countries, some groups, and not others have access to the b a r g a i n i n g table. M a r x i s m o n l y raises the question, h o w a n d w h y the r u l i n g class, and not other groups, continues to control government. The above questions have been responded to t h r o u g h i n s t i t u t i o n a l capacity b u i l d i n g . T h e a p p r o a c h h o l d s that s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r results from c h o i c e s people m a k e w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l structures o f society. F r o m this perspective, to e x p l a i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s ' struggle to d e v e l o p , it is i m p e r a t i v e that the i n s t i t u t i o n a l structures and patterns o f social b e h a v i o u r s o f p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s that constitute the institutions are i m m e d i a t e l y d e v e l o p e d or strengthened, hence capacity b u i l d i n g a n d i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t ( G i n t h e r , 1995). T h e next section h i g h l i g h t s the seven n o r m a t i v e characteristics o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t as c o n t a i n e d i n the r e v i e w e d international literature. 2.8 N o r m a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t D e s p i t e their d i v e r s i t y i n forms a n d practice, c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e s share u n i v e r s a l n o r m a t i v e characteristics. D r a w i n g from A m e y a w , 1992b; B o o t h r o y d a n d Davis, 1991; British C o l u m b i a W o r k i n g G r o u p on C o m m u n i t y E c o n o m i c Development,  67  1992; B u r k e y , 1 9 9 3 ; C a m p f e n s , 1997; C h e k k i , 1 9 7 9 ; N o z i c k , 1 9 9 1 ; Sautoy, 1960, the f o l l o w i n g n o r m a t i v e characteristics reflect a b o n d amongst a variety o f c o m m u n i t y development initiatives: Self-reliance  C o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t initiatives r e l y o n the capacity and efforts o f relevant l o c a l p e o p l e f r o m w i t h i n the c o m m u n i t y to identify needs, define p r o b l e m s , p l a n and execute appropriate courses o f a c t i o n , w i t h the ultimate a i m o f e s t a b l i s h i n g l o c a l leadership and a reduced dependency o n the outside e.g. institutional support. H u m a n capacity b u i l d i n g  C o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t initiatives focus o n d e v e l o p i n g h u m a n capacity t h r o u g h b o t h m a t e r i a l (basic h u m a n needs o f shelter, f o o d , and c l o t h i n g ) and n o n - m a t e r i a l ( s o c i o cultural values) as o p p o s e d to the sole purpose o f a c c u m u l a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l w e a l t h . E m p h a s i s o n h u m a n d e v e l o p m e n t ensures that cooperative, r e s p o n s i b l e , and active c o m m u n i t y o f i n v o l v e d m e n and w o m e n are nurtured and m o b i l i z e d for the purposes o f m u t u a l a i d , self-help, p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , s o c i a l integration, a n d / or social a c t i o n . C o m m u n i t y empowerment  C o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t promotes e m p o w e r m e n t o f the p e o p l e i n d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e . T h e essence and f o r m o f e m p o w e r m e n t is t h r o u g h self-management and l o c a l c o n t r o l , u s i n g d e m o c r a t i c processes that m a x i m i z e c o m m u n i t y and grassroots participation. E n d o g e n o u s development  C o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t generates its m o m e n t u m f r o m w i t h i n a n d is largely supported b y the u n i q u e h i s t o r y a n d culture o f a c o m m u n i t y . It is the h i s t o r i c a l and l i v e d  68  experiences o f the p e o p l e that p r o p e l c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e a n d a c c o r d it a truly c o m m u n i t y - o w n e d image.  Community participation A t a l l l e v e l s o f society, p a r t i c i p a t i o n is enhanced and the i d e a l o f participator)' d e m o c r a c y fostered, thereby c o u n t e r i n g the apathy, frustration, and resentment that often arise f r o m feelings o f powerlessness and o p p r e s s i o n i n the face o f authoritarian p o w e r structures. In their w o r k o n the ' M e a n i n g o f C o m m u n i t y E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t ' B o o t h r o y d and D a v i s ( 1 9 9 1 , p.2) note that it is not sufficient i n c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i f people "merely pay fees, donate m o n e y , s i g n petitions or attend c o m m o n events." W o r k i n g together t h r o u g h interaction, rather than i n d i v i d u a l l y , is instrumental to c u l t i v a t i n g the spirit o f " c o m m u n i t y " i n c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e s .  Local community control and management C o m m u n i t y resources and where necessary, resources f r o m outside the c o m m u n i t y ( i n the f o r m o f partnerships w i t h governments, institutions and professional groups) s h o u l d be m o b i l i z e d and d e p l o y e d i n an appropriate m a n n e r i n order to ensure balanced and e c o l o g i c a l l y sustainable forms o f d e v e l o p m e n t .  Diversity C o m m u n i t y integration s h o u l d p r o m o t e social relations a m o n g diverse groups i n the c o m m u n i t y as d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y s o c i a l class o r s i g n i f i c a n t differences that are potential for tensions or o p e n c o n f l i c t , for instance e c o n o m i c status, e t h n i c i t y , culture, r a c i a l identity, r e l i g i o n , gender, age, or d i s a b i l i t y .  69  Summary T h i s chapter has r e v i e w e d international literature o n c o m m u n i t y , d e v e l o p m e n t , and c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e o r i g i n o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t internationally and its v a r i o u s manifestations have p r o v i d e d the context for understanding the theoretical debates o n the n o t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e chapter has also r e v i e w e d the p o l i t i c a l theories u n d e r p i n n i n g c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t practice, i n c l u d i n g their inherent l i m i t a t i o n s i n practice as w e l l as explanations for the emergence o f n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l organizations d u r i n g the 1970s. T h e chapter has c o n c l u d e d b y h i g h l i g h t i n g the seven n o r m a t i v e characteristics o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t as c o n t a i n e d i n the r e v i e w e d international literature. T h e next chapter addresses the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h that g u i d e d this study.  70  CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY In this chapter, I e x p l a i n i n detail the c h o s e n m e t h o d — the s i n g l e explanatory case study -- a n d the rationale for c h o o s i n g it. I c o m m e n c e the chapter b y i n t r o d u c i n g a n d p r o v i d i n g a rationale for the research d e s i g n , w h i c h is e m b e d d e d i n the qualitative p a r a d i g m ( E i s n e r , 1 9 9 1 ; F r a n k e l a n d W a l l e n , 1990; L i n c o l n a n d G u b a , 1985; M a r s h a l l and R o s s m a n , 1989; a n d M e r r i a m , 1988). T h e chapter then describes the site a n d the context o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n and a statement j u s t i f y i n g s e l e c t i o n o f the A C O R D - N E B B I c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e . I also discuss the three sources o f data used i n the study: i n t e r v i e w s , o b s e r v a t i o n and d o c u m e n t a t i o n , f o l l o w e d b y data analysis procedures. I c o n c l u d e the chapter b y presenting ethical considerations i n the research, and l i m i t a t i o n s to the study. E d u c a t i o n a l researchers have o n l y recently adopted the q u a l i t a t i v e research m e t h o d w i t h its roots i n Cultural a n t h r o p o l o g y and A m e r i c a n s o c i o l o g y ( B o r g & G a l l , 1989). T h e purpose o f qualitative research is to understand a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l situation, event, role, g r o u p , or interaction ( L o c k e , S p i r d u s o , a n d S i l v e r m a n , 1987). It is l a r g e l y an investigative process w h e r e the researcher g r a d u a l l y m a k e s sense o f a s o c i a l p h e n o m e n o n b y contrasting, c o m p a r i n g , r e p l i c a t i n g , c a t a l o g u i n g a n d c l a s s i f y i n g the object o f study ( M i l e s and H u b e r m a n , 1984). M a r s h a l l a n d R o s s m a n (1989) suggest that the process entails i m m e r s i o n i n the everyday life o f the setting c h o s e n for the study; the researchers enter the i n f o r m a n t s ' w o r l d and t h r o u g h o n g o i n g interaction, seek the i n f o r m a n t s ' perspectives and m e a n i n g s ,  3.1 T h e case s t u d y d e s i g n T h i s study a p p l i e d a s i n g l e explanatory case study m e t h o d to the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h e a p p r o a c h is suitable because it a l l o w s a researcher to e x p l o r e a single entity ( i n this case, the t r a i n i n g c o m p o n e n t o f A C O R D - N E B B I c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e ) b o u n d e d b y t i m e a n d a c t i v i t y a n d c o l l e c t s detailed i n f o r m a t i o n b y u s i n g a variety o f data c o l l e c t i o n procedures d u r i n g a s p e c i f i e d p e r i o d o f t i m e ( M e r r i a m , 1988; Y i n , 1989). In a d d i t i o n Y i n (1989) p r o v i d e s a t e c h n i c a l d e f i n i t i o n o f case study m e t h o d as an e m p i r i c a l i n q u i r y that captures three major factors that fit the study objective o n the A C O R D N E B B I p r o g r a m m e : a) investigates a contemporary p h e n o m e n o n w i t h i n its real-life context, b) w h e n the boundaries between p h e n o m e n o n and context are not c l e a r l y evident, and c) i n w h i c h m u l t i p l e sources o f e v i d e n c e are used. T h e c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t process is, b y nature, a h i g h l y interactive, social activity, w h i c h appropriately lends i t s e l f to the case study m e t h o d for this research. S h u m a c h e r a n d M c M i l l a n ( 1 9 9 3 , p.375) state that, "the case study, because o f its f l e x i b i l i t y and adaptability to a range o f contexts, processes, people, and f o c i , p r o v i d e s s o m e o f the m o s t useful methods a v a i l a b l e i n educational research." T h i s p o s t u l a t i o n is acceptable c o n s i d e r i n g that d o i n g a case study i n the absence o f h i g h l e v e l s o f c o n t r o l p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y to add to a w i d e r b o d y o f k n o w l e d g e . T h u s , to the reader, the i m p o r t a n c e o f the study f i n d i n g s rests, i n part, o n the a b i l i t y to c o m p a r e other situations to the case study presented.  3.2 T h e site a n d c o n t e x t o f s t u d y T h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n w a s c a r r i e d out o n e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g c o m p o n e n t o f the A C O R D - N E B B I c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e i n J o n a m a n d P a d y e r e counties i n  72 N e b b i district. T h e c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e is l o c a t e d i n a r u r a l r e g i o n o f northwestern U g a n d a . T h e A C O R D - N E B B I c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e o b j e c t i v e has been to facilitate the emergence o f c o m m u n i t y l o c a l structures and selfselected groups, to achieve a u t o n o m y , as w e l l as b u i l d l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l capacities a r o u n d l o c a l activities ( f i s h i n g , crafts, cash and f o o d crops, and m i c r o enterprises) o n w h i c h l i v e s a n d l i v e l i h o o d s depend. F u r t h e r m o r e , the A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e emphasizes fostering l o c a l i z a t i o n o f the p r o g r a m m e to an i n d i g e n o u s , c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d o r g a n i z a t i o n that w o u l d pursue c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e s , o n c e external support is w i t h d r a w n . T h e v a r i o u s m a n a g e r i a l a n d t e c h n i c a l strategies d e v e l o p e d and i m p l e m e n t e d b y A C O R D - N E B B I i n c l u d e i n f o r m a l t r a i n i n g , f o r m a l t r a i n i n g , o n the j o b t r a i n i n g and c o m m u n i t y e d u c a t i o n .  3.3 Justification for choosing the ACORD-NEBBI programme" T h e A C O R D - N E B B I c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e w a s c h o s e n for the study for f o u r reasons: F i r s t , it appeared to embrace the n o r m a t i v e characteristics o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t as c o n t a i n e d i n international literature. S e c o n d , it e m p h a s i z e s l o n g - t e r m l o c a l i z a t i o n o f the p r o g r a m m e through a significant s k i l l s t r a i n i n g a n d e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m . T h i r d , A C O R D - N E B B I is a mature (over 15 years o l d ) c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t effort w i t h a v a r i e t y o f p r o g r a m s under one u m b r e l l a . A n d fourth, the p r o g r a m m e w a s accessible g e o g r a p h i c a l l y a n d c u l t u r a l l y to the researcher. G i v e n the above i n f o r m a t i o n o n the A C O R D - N E B B I c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e , Y i n ( 1 9 8 9 , p . 14) points out that the " d i s t i n c t i v e need for case studies arises  73  out o f a desire to understand c o m p l e x s o c i a l p h e n o m e n a . . . the case study a l l o w s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n to retain the h o l i s t i c a n d m e a n i n g f u l characteristics o f real life events." In this context, u n l i k e m a n y n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s that have " m u s h r o o m e d " a l l o v e r U g a n d a i n the last ten years, the A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e i s u n i q u e w i t h its deliberate three-phase a p p r o a c h to l o c a l i z a t i o n o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e (establishment, d e v e l o p m e n t , and l o c a l i z a t i o n ) , and one i n w h i c h e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g is p r o m i n e n t .  3.4 Sources of data P e o p l e associated w i t h A C O R D - N E B B I a n d d o c u m e n t s related to the p r o g r a m m e were the p r i m a r y sources o f data. In a d d i t i o n , t w o field v i s i t s , i n t e r v i e w s , o b s e r v a t i o n , and d o c u m e n t a t i o n e n r i c h e d the research w i t h v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . F i e l d visits T w o trips to the research site were made d u r i n g the study p e r i o d . In the first trip — M a y / J u n e 1998 — i n d i v i d u a l participants and groups w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d o n items presented o n a semi-structured i n t e r v i e w c h e c k l i s t , a l i g n e d to the study's research questions, a n d based o n three specific areas: a) p a r t i c i p a n t s ' b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n , b) the k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s p r a c t i c e d at the A C O R D - N E B B I e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g programs, and c) the learning a c t i v i t i e s i n e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s . T h e g o a l o f the s e c o n d t r i p ( N o v e m b e r - D e c e m b e r , 1998) w a s to present m y tentative findings a n d c o n c l u s i o n s as w e l l as to test out ideas I generated f r o m the analysis. D u r i n g this trip, I sought "independent" v i e w s o n the A C O R D - N E B B I c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e f r o m "other" d e v e l o p m e n t agencies, a n d p e o p l e w h o w e r e either f a m i l i a r w i t h a c t i v i t i e s o f A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e o r engaged i n p a r a l l e l  74  d e v e l o p m e n t efforts i n the r e g i o n o f study. Independent v i e w s here referred to their understanding o n whether they regarded the a c t i v i t i e s o f A C O R D - N E B B I was effective i n addressing the challenges o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n this p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n o f the district. T h i s category i n c l u d e s the C a n a d i a n C o n s u l a t e office i n K a m p a l a that had donated funds to c o m m u n i t y groups that emerged through the A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e , the private sector d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e i n N e b b i , the C o o p e r a t i v e B a n k A g e n c y engaged i n the V i l l a g e B a n k p r o g r a m m e i n the r e g i o n , W o r l d V i s i o n N e b b i , P o v e r t y A l l e v i a t i o n P r o g r a m m e , N e b b i , businesses c a r r y i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l e q u i p m e n t (tractors, m i l l s ) to the r e g i o n , l o c a l government officials, and heads o f tertiary s c h o o l s i n the r e g i o n o f study. T h e major objective o f this elaborate a p p r o a c h w a s to enable a c o m p r e h e n s i v e v e r i f i c a t i o n a n d c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f any c o n t r a d i c t i o n s that m a y have been featured i n the a n a l y s i s o f data c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g the study p e r i o d . Interviews S t a n d a r d i z e d open-ended i n t e r v i e w s were a p p l i e d to the study participants. S c h u m a c h e r and M c M i l l a n ( 1 9 9 3 , p.426) define it as an i n t e r v i e w format w h e r e "participants are asked the same questions i n the same order, thus r e d u c i n g i n t e r v i e w e r effects and bias." A total o f 4 6 v o l u n t e e r participants were i n t e r v i e w e d and every session was s i m u l t a n e o u s l y recorded o n tape. In a d d i t i o n , notes were taken o n issues that i n v o l v e d further probes o n the i n t e r v i e w e e . Participants were d r a w n f r o m four subgroups. First, the five c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k e r s were selected because they had p l a n n e d , i m p l e m e n t e d a n d m o n i t o r e d the A C O R D - N E B B I e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g programs; met a n d listened to the v i e w s o f c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s ; and served as a l i n k between the v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t i e s and the A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e . A l l five  75  participants were i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i v i d u a l l y . S e c o n d , twenty-one m e m b e r s o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h o h a d attended A C O R D - N E B B I e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s and were n o w w o r k i n g i n a l o c a l c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d ; ten w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i v i d u a l l y and the other e l e v e n w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d i n t w o groups o f five a n d s i x participants each. T h i r d , eighteen m e m b e r s o f c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h o w e r e regarded as p r i m a r y beneficiaries o f the A C O R D - N E B B I d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e were i n t e r v i e w e d ; eight were i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i v i d u a l l y , a n d the other ten were i n t e r v i e w e d i n t w o groups o f five each. F o u r t h , the A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e coordinators were i n t e r v i e w e d because the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n entitles the personnel to coordinate and oversee the d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e activities, i n c l u d i n g the p l a n n i n g , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , and m o n i t o r i n g o f education and t r a i n i n g programs. A s u m m a r y o f the i n t e r v i e w sub-groups and formats is presented i n T a b l e 1.  Table 1: A SUMMARY OF THE INTERVIEW SUB-GROUPS AND FORMATS The Core Interview sub-groups Number Interview format  Community Development Workers Members of Community Development Organizations  21  Programme beneficiaries  Programme coordinators Total interviewed  The Other Contacts approached Canadian Consulate, Kampala Cooperative Bank Agency - The Village Bank programme, Nyaravur division Poverty Alleviation Programme (PAP) Nebbi district Agricultural equipment suppliers in Nebbi district Local government officials Heads of tertiary schools in Padyere and Jonam Counties, Nebbi district World Vision, Nebbi Total of other contacts  5 interviewed individually 10 interviewed individually 5 in first group 6 in second group 8 interviewed individually 5 interviewed in first group 5 interviewed in second group 2 interviewed individually  46 1 informal discussion 1 group discussion group discussion 2 individual discussions 3 individual discussions 2 individual discussions individual discussion 14  76  Observation O b s e r v a t i o n is a data c o l l e c t i o n process i n w h i c h "the researcher d i r e c t l y observes, v i s u a l l y a n d a u d i t o r i a l l y , s o m e p h e n o m e n o n a n d then s y s t e m a t i c a l l y records the r e s u l t i n g observations" ( S h u m a c h e r a n d M c M i l l a n , 1 9 9 3 , p . 4 2 ) . In the study, o b s e r v a t i o n s o f participants focussed o n the experiences a n d a c t i o n s o f their w o r k (i.e., A C O R D N E B B I c o o r d i n a t o r , c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k e r s , the e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g participants, and the p r o g r a m m e beneficiaries). S p e c i f i c a l l y , I t r a v e l l e d w i t h participants to w h e r e they c a r r i e d out their w o r k , a n d i n the case o f the t r a i n i n g officers, I attended their p l a n n i n g meetings. In b o t h cases, I recorded w h a t the subjects d i d w h e n they set out to d o c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t o r e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g w o r k i n c l u d i n g h o w the participants p l a n n e d for the day, w h o m they interacted w i t h , w h a t w a s d i s c u s s e d and h o w the events o f the day related to the n o r m a t i v e characteristics and practice o f c o m m u n i t y development. Documentation D o c u m e n t a t i o n , a t e r m u s e d to refer to "records o f past events that are w r i t t e n o r p r i n t e d [letters, diaries, tax r e c o r d s and receipts, m a p s , j o u r n a l s , newspapers, court records, o f f i c i a l m i n u t e s , regulations, and l a w s ] . . . the researcher interprets these facts to p r o v i d e e x p l a n a t i o n s o f the past a n d clarifies the c o l l e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l m e a n i n g s that m a y be u n d e r l y i n g current practices a n d issues" ( S h u m a c h e r a n d M c M i l l a n , 1993, p.43). I g a i n e d greater u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f education a n d t r a i n i n g practices a n d broader issues at A C O R D - N E B B I t h r o u g h the t w e n t y - f i v e relevant secondary d o c u m e n t s I obtained f r o m A C O R D L o n d o n office. In a d d i t i o n , I accessed p r i m a r y d o c u m e n t s f r o m the A C O R D N E B B I l i b r a r y and office files, as w e l l as notes kept b y the c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t  77  organizations affiliated w i t h A C O R D - N E B B I i n b o t h J o n a m a n d Padyere counties. S u c h organizations i n c l u d e d the credit and savings cooperatives, fisheries, crafts and agricultural o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 3.5 D a t a analysis M e r r i a m (1988) and M a r s h a l l and R o s s m a n (1989) c o n t e n d that data c o l l e c t i o n and data analysis must be a simultaneous process i n qualitative research. S c h u m a c h e r and M c M i l l a n (1993) assert that qualitative data a n a l y s i s p r i m a r i l y entails c l a s s i f y i n g things, persons, events and the properties that characterize t h e m . D u r i n g the analysis, data c o l l e c t e d were o r g a n i z e d a l o n g the activities that emerged i n the field n a m e l y agroforestry, appropriate t e c h n o l o g y , fishery, m i c r o credit, c o m m u n i t y health and c o m m u n i t y infrastructure a n d this a i d e d the analysis o n h o w A C O R D - N E B B I reflected the n o r m a t i v e characteristics o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e taped i n t e r v i e w s w e r e transcribed, and later used at the a n a l y s i s stage o f the research. F i e l d notes a n d d i s c u s s i o n s were r e v i e w e d and later used d u r i n g the analysis. U s i n g data c o l l e c t e d through d o c u m e n t a t i o n , i n t e r v i e w s , and o b s e r v a t i o n , I p r o v i d e i n chapter five a d e s c r i p t i v e analysis to the A C O R D - N E B B I e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s . T h e d e s c r i p t i v e analysis sets the stage a n d context for the first research question pursued i n chapter s i x . B y a n a l y z i n g the methods and content o f s p e c i f i c A C O R D - N E B B I e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t c u r r i c u l a , chapter  five  c o n t e x t u a l i z e s the methods a n d contents o f s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s , thereby creating the opportunity for a n a l y s i s i n chapter s i x . In a n s w e r i n g the first research question, participants' responses were categorized to i n f o r m the d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t i e s that were c a r r i e d out at the A C O R D - N E B B I  78  p r o g r a m m e . T h e relevant data c o l l e c t e d further enhanced the a n a l y s i s o n h o w the education and t r a i n i n g c o m p o n e n t o f the p r o g r a m m e reflects the seven n o r m a t i v e characteristics o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t o f self-reliance, h u m a n capacity b u i l d i n g , c o m m u n i t y e m p o w e r m e n t , endogenous d e v e l o p m e n t , c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n , l o c a l c o m m u n i t y c o n t r o l and management, and d i v e r s i t y . A l t h o u g h this is not a v i e w totally shared b y s o m e qualitative theorists, notably, M i l e s and H u b e r m a n ( 1 9 8 4 , p.57) w h o argue that "themes s h o u l d emerge f r o m the data rather than p r e d e t e r m i n e d m a t e r i a l " , the use o f n o r m a t i v e characteristics i n this study created the "themes" that r e s p o n d e d to the first research question about to what extent and i n what w a y s are the n o r m a t i v e characteristics o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t as a d v a n c e d i n the literature, reflected i n A C O R D - N E B B I e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s ? T h i s first research q u e s t i o n i s a n a l y z e d i n chapter s i x . T h e second research question is a n a l y z e d i n chapter seven. A s u m m a r y o f the three d e v e l o p m e n t phases and s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s i n each phase presented i n T a b l e 7 is based o n i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m b o t h secondary data ( A C O R D L o n d o n ) and p r i m a r y data f r o m A C O R D - N E B B I office files, i n t e r v i e w s , o b s e r v a t i o n , and l i b r a r y d o c u m e n t s . T h e A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e a p p r o a c h that features the establishment, d e v e l o p m e n t a n d l o c a l i z a t i o n phases h i g h l i g h t s the s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s that i n f l u e n c e d the effectiveness o f the e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g i n a c h i e v i n g the o v e r a l l goals o f the d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e . T h u s , data i n this chapter have h e l p e d a n a l y z e the s e c o n d research q u e s t i o n : what factors support or h i n d e r the a b i l i t y o f A C O R D - N E B B I e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s to contribute to the a c h i e v e m e n t o f equitable, self-reliant, a n d sustainable community development initiatives?  79  3.6 Verification of data V e r i f i c a t i o n o f m y c o n c l u s i o n s a n d the analysis o f data gathered d u r i n g f i e l d w o r k were a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h internal a n d external m e c h a n i s m s , a) I n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y T o ensure internal v a l i d i t y w h i c h is defined as "the extent to w h i c h extraneous variables h a v e b e e n c o n t r o l l e d or a c c o u n t e d for" ( S h u m a c h e r a n d M c M i l l a n , 1993, p. 158), the f o l l o w i n g five strategies were a p p l i e d to m i n i m i z e threats f r o m p o s s i b l e sources o f error: First, I u s e d t r i a n g u l a t i o n w h i c h i n v o l v e d " c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n a m o n g data sources, data c o l l e c t i o n strategies, t i m e strategies, and theoretical themes" ( S h u m a c h e r and M c M i l l a n , 1993, p . 4 9 8 ) . T h i s i n c l u d e d c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n o f the i n f o r m a t i o n i n i n t e r v i e w s , observations, p r o g r a m m e documents, m e m b e r c h e c k i n g , a n d independent o p i n i o n s a n d v i e w s f r o m representatives o f other d e v e l o p m e n t agencies engaged i n c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t efforts at the study site. T h e t r i a n g u l a t i o n r e c t i f i e d any c o n t r a d i c t i o n s that surfaced i n the a n a l y s i s o f data c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g the study p e r i o d . S e c o n d , the same study participants w e r e consistently c o n s u l t e d , thereby, c l a r i f y i n g any potential c o n t r a d i c t i o n s that surfaced d u r i n g the analysis. A n o n g o i n g d i a l o g u e w i t h the study participants regarding m y interpretations o f the i n f o r m a n t s ' reality a n d m e a n i n g d u r i n g the t w o v i s i t s ensured the truth-value o f the data, as w e l l as their c o n f i r m a t i o n . T h i r d , i n i t i a l a n d repeated observations o f c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s ' g r o u p a c t i v i t i e s i n the p r o g r a m m e area o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the t w o field visits. F o u r t h , participatory a p p r o a c h i n the research i n w h i c h the informants were i n v o l v e d i n m o s t phases o f the study, i n c l u d i n g data a n a l y s i s o f the research to c h e c k i n g interpretations and c o n c l u s i o n s .  80  F i f t h , I c l a r i f i e d m y role, bias, and p o s i t i o n i n the study as the p r i m a r y researcher. Indeed, m y p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i n c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , self-help experience, e m p l o y m e n t i n the U g a n d a p u b l i c service, management o f a c o m m u n i t y e d u c a t i o n a l institution, c o n s u l t a t i o n a n d i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h international d e v e l o p m e n t agencies ( C I D A , 1993; O d o c h , 1990), a l l c u l m i n a t e d into a bias. M o r e o v e r , I c o m m e n c e d this study w i t h a c o m m i t m e n t t o the p r o p o s i t i o n that t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g , effective c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g processes as w e l l as s k i l l s i n p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s can be enhanced o r learned b y c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s . F u r t h e r m o r e , I entered the study w i t h the b e l i e f that, w i t h l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s a c t i v e l y engaged i n i n i t i a t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t programs, the n o t i o n o f people-centred  d e v e l o p m e n t shifts f r o m a n i d e a l to  a reality as c o m m u n i t i e s pursue initiatives by themselves for themselves. b) E x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y T o address the s t u d y ' s external v a l i d i t y , w h i c h S h u m a c h e r and M c M i l l a n , 1993, p. 158) define as " g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f the results, the extent to w h i c h the results a n d c o n c l u s i o n s c a n b e g e n e r a l i z e d to other people a n d settings," this study m a d e it clear that as a case study, g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s n o t the focus, rather, the u t i l i z a t i o n o f the study f i n d i n g s to s i m i l a r situations o r contexts i s the strength o f the study. T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y so because the case study a i m s to extend understanding rather than generalize results. Indeed, S c h u m a c h e r a n d M c M i l l a n ( 1 9 9 3 , p . 5 7 7 ) p o i n t out that f i n d i n g s f r o m "the case study are not generalizeable, b u t w i t h o u t a case study d e s i g n , other research purposes c o u l d not be a c h i e v e d . " T h e strategy a p p l i e d w a s the p r o v i s i o n o f c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n d detailed descriptions o f p h e n o m e n a so that anyone interested i n translatability c a n have a s o l i d f r a m e w o r k for their related w o r k ( M e r r i a m , 1988).  81 T o enhance the c o m p a r a b i l i t y o f the f i n d i n g s o f the study, the data c o l l e c t i o n and analysis strategies were reported i n detail i n order to p r o v i d e a clear a n d accurate picture o f the m e t h o d s a p p l i e d as w e l l as the potential discrepancies that w e r e a v o i d e d . T h i s u l t i m a t e l y enables future researchers to extend the f i n d i n g s o f this study to other studies, aware o f the s p e c i f i c circumstances o f the case, for instance, the context, the types o f participants studied, and the nature o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  3.7 On reporting study results L o f l a n d (1984) suggests that a l t h o u g h data c o l l e c t i o n and analysis strategies are s i m i l a r across qualitative methods, f i n d i n g s be reported i n diverse w a y s . M i l e s and H u b e r m a n ( 1 9 8 4 ) address the i m p o r t a n c e o f creating a data d i s p l a y a n d suggest that narrative text has been the m o s t frequent f o r m o f d i s p l a y for q u a l i t a t i v e data. U s i n g the case study a p p r o a c h , the results o f this study are presented i n d e s c r i p t i v e , narrative f o r m and not as a s c i e n t i f i c report. T h e thesis is thus a c o n s t r u c t i o n o f participants' experience and the m e a n i n g they attach to their c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k .  3.8 Ethical considerations A u t h o r s w h o d i s c u s s research designs address the i m p o r t a n c e o f ethical considerations ( M a r s h a l l a n d R o s s m a n , 1989; M e r r i a m , 1988; Y i n , 1989). A p p l i e d research has an o b l i g a t i o n to respect the rights, needs, v a l u e s , and desires o f the participants. S e v e n safeguards were a p p l i e d to protect the participants' rights a) the research objectives were articulated i n w r i t i n g so that they were c l e a r l y understood by the participants' i n c l u d i n g h o w data c o l l e c t e d w o u l d be u t i l i z e d b) w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n to p r o c e e d w i t h the study w a s r e c e i v e d f r o m A C O R D - N E B B I authority, and the selected forty-six participants v o l u n t a r i l y s i g n e d consent f o r m s for p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study c) a  82  f o r m a l certificate o f a p p r o v a l was issued b y the B e h a v i o r a l R e s e a r c h E t h i c s B o a r d at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d) the participants were i n f o r m e d o f a l l data c o l l e c t i o n d e v i c e s and a c t i v i t i e s p r i o r to the field w o r k e) v e r b a t i m transcriptions and w r i t t e n interpretations, t h r o u g h a research s u m m a r y , were made a v a i l a b l e to the participants f) the participants' rights, interests and w i s h e s were c o n s i d e r e d w h e n r e p o r t i n g the f i n d i n g s i n the study, a n d g) e n f o r c i n g participants' a n o n y m i t y a n d identity p r o t e c t i o n were the researcher's ( m y ) r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 3.9 L i m i t a t i o n s t o t h e s t u d y  Participants' responses A l t h o u g h the participants i n the study were f a m i l i a r w i t h other researchers i n v e s t i g a t i n g A C O R D - N E B B I , this study i s the first-ever d o c t o r a l research c o n d u c t e d o n the p r o g r a m m e . B e i n g a student f r o m a u n i v e r s i t y outside U g a n d a m a y have i n f l u e n c e d participants o n l y to e m p h a s i z e the p o s i t i v e aspects o f the p r o g r a m m e .  Duration of the study A l o n g i t u d i n a l study m a y have brought a m o r e detailed account and a n a l y s i s o f the e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g c o m p o n e n t o f the A C O R D - N E B B I d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e than w a s p o s s i b l e i n the r e l a t i v e l y short d u r a t i o n o f this study.  Sampling of participants I h a d n o o p p o r t u n i t y to i n t e r v i e w former c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k e r s , w h o w o u l d have p r o v i d e d their reflections and perspectives o n experiences and encounters i n c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t i e s that A C O R D - N E B B I engaged i n .  83 T h e case study method W h i l e the L a c k e y and P r a t u c k c h a i (1991) study p r o v i d e s a n understanding o f the k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s needed i n practice, a n i n v e s t i g a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n o f w h y particular [ k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s ] techniques are ineffective o r e f f e c t i v e . i n s p e c i f i c contexts, as w a s the m o t i v e i n this study, cannot be exhaustive. T h i s i s because a case study can not p r o v i d e sufficient understanding o f a l l situations o n what works and what does not work It can, h o w e v e r , p r o v i d e further understanding about c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n a particular context a n d factors associated w i t h its effectiveness that c a n be useful i n s i m i l a r settings. Summary T h i s chapter has presented a n e x p l a n a t i o n o f the research m e t h o d that has g u i d e d the study, i n c l u d i n g the reasons for c h o o s i n g the case study m e t h o d . I have-also d i s c u s s e d the qualitative p a r a d i g m that i n f o r m e d the research d e s i g n . T h e chapter has also c o n t e x t u a l i z e d the research site a n d p r o v i d e d a j u s t i f i c a t i o n for the selection o f the e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g c o m p o n e n t o f the A C O R D - N E B B I c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e . I also d i s c u s s e d the research p r o t o c o l that w a s o b s e r v e d . T h e sources o f data u s e d i n the study, data a n a l y s i s procedures, a n d strategies for e n s u r i n g both internal a n d external v a l i d i t y have also been d i s c u s s e d . T h e next chapter p r o v i d e s a b r i e f p r o f i l e o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g i n U g a n d a , i n c l u d i n g A C O R D ' s history, a n d later, the i n v o l v e m e n t i n N e b b i , northwestern U g a n d a .  84  CHAPTER IV: COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS: EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN UGANDA AND ACORD's DEVELOPMENT GOALS In this chapter I present the e v o l u t i o n o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g i n U g a n d a dating f r o m the c o l o n i a l era. A l t h o u g h the study concerns i t s e l f w i t h the p e r i o d between 1 9 8 3 - 1 9 9 6 , a broader l o o k at the h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f U g a n d a is p r o v i d e d to h e l p deepen an understanding o f the context i n w h i c h the study w a s c o n d u c t e d . It is also i n this chapter that I present a b r i e f h i s t o r y o f A C O R D , its focus and i n v o l v e m e n t i n A f r i c a , and the context o f the A C O R D - N E B B I c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t programme.  4.1 The period during colonial administration In U g a n d a , the e v o l u t i o n o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t o v e r the years has been s y n o n y m o u s w i t h that o f adult education. T h i s is so because, at the b e g i n n i n g o f the f o r m a t i o n o f m o d e r n U g a n d a , there w a s p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n that to have a m o r e p r o g r e s s i v e country, there needed to be a f u n c t i o n a l l y literate adult p o p u l a t i o n ( A f r i c a n E d u c a t i o n i n U g a n d a , 1953; U g a n d a Protectorate A n n u a l R e p o r t o f the E d u c a t i o n Department, 1951). C o n s e q u e n t l y , the preparation o f adults, t h r o u g h m a s s e d u c a t i o n i n i t i a l l y , and later adult e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g , for b o t h their s o c i a l and c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , w i t h the ultimate g o a l o f the n a t i o n ' s betterment, b e c a m e a deliberate g o v e r n m e n t p l a n ( A f r i c a n E d u c a t i o n i n U g a n d a , 1 9 5 3 ; E d u c a t i o n i n U g a n d a , 1963). A d u l t e d u c a t i o n h a d a n indirect c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the c o l o n i a l e c o n o m y d u r i n g this p e r i o d . W i t h regard to the c o l o n i a l e c o n o m y , b y 1904, e x p e r i m e n t s h a d been c a r r i e d out o n cotton as a p o s s i b l e c r o p to g r o w i n U g a n d a . A s e c o n d c r o p — coffee — w a s i n t r o d u c e d o n a p l a n t a t i o n basis. T h e i m m e d i a t e interest o f the c o l o n i a l state w a s to establish an  85 e c o n o m y that w o u l d generate revenue to m a i n t a i n i t s e l f ( U g a n d a C o m m i s s i o n , U N E S C O , 1984). T o d o t h i s it h a d to encourage p r o d u c t i o n o f c a s h c r o p s , w h i c h c o u l d be s o l d o n the o p e n market. In this w a y the c o l o n i a l state c o u l d c o l l e c t taxes to m a i n t a i n itself. A l t h o u g h the p r e - c o l o n i a l e c o n o m y o f the tribes that c a m e u n d e r the U g a n d a n protectorate w a s self-sufficient (i.e., consistent w i t h their l e v e l o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d development), the emergence o f the c a s h e c o n o m y , t h r o u g h cash c r o p p r o d u c t i o n , was not o f direct necessity to the i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e ( K e r i c h o , 1998, U g a n d a Protectorate A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1951). A l l the same, at this t i m e there w a s a p e r c e i v e d institutional need to train p e o p l e [adults] o n cash c r o p f a r m i n g . D u r i n g this p e r i o d , adult education w a s defined i n relation to h o w it h e l p e d train the peasants to g r o w major cash crops ~ cotton and coffee ~ w h i c h were currency at the t i m e . T h u s , d u r i n g c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( 1 8 9 4 - 1 9 3 9 ) very little w a s done to d e v e l o p a broader adult e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e . Indeed, the first relevant effort w a s the c o n d i t i o n i n g o f the U g a n d a n natives to serve, accept a n d sustain the c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . S e c o n d l y , w h e n the government i n t r o d u c e d cash crops, adults were taught h o w to g r o w t h e m . T h e beneficiaries o f adult e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s d u r i n g this p e r i o d were c l e a r l y the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e chiefs and peasants. M o r e o v e r , d u r i n g this p e r i o d no g o v e r n m e n t i n s t i t u t i o n w a s established to s p e c i f i c a l l y initiate a n d a c c o r d i n g l y d e v e l o p adult e d u c a t i o n - c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e s ( U g a n d a Protectorate A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1 9 5 1 ; U g a n d a C o m m i s s i o n , U N E S C O , 1984).  4.2 The period toward political independence T h e m u t u a l c o - e x i s t e n c e o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t practice that was supported by adult e d u c a t i o n c a n be traced b a c k to the late 1 9  th  C e n t u r y w h e n U g a n d a n society's  86  contact w i t h the w i d e r w o r l d c o m m e n c e d w i t h the c o m i n g o f A r a b traders, f o l l o w e d thereafter b y E u r o p e a n explorers, m i s s i o n a r i e s , merchants, and c o l o n i a l i s t s . B u t institutional d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a n d [mass] adult e d u c a t i o n c o m m e n c e d f r o m the c o l o n i a l era that began w i t h the establishment o f r e l i g i o u s m i s s i o n centres and the declaration o f U g a n d a as a B r i t i s h protectorate i n 1894. It w a s d u r i n g this p e r i o d that o r g a n i z e d s p e c i a l i z e d agencies capable o f p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m m e s and d e l i v e r i n g t h e m to c o m m u n i t i e s t o o k root ( M u l i r o , 1975; U g a n d a C o m m i s s i o n for U N E S C O , 1984). T h e early part o f the c o l o n i a l p e r i o d w i t n e s s e d the establishment o f n o n g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( N G O s ) that c o n t i n u e to be active i n U g a n d a , e v e n today. N o t a b l y , the c h u r c h p l a y e d a l e a d i n g role i n the e d u c a t i o n a n d s o c i a l sector d e v e l o p m e n t , w e l l before the state m o v e d into these p r i m a r y areas. T h u s , i n a l l r e g i o n s o f t h e country, c h u r c h - l i n k e d N G O s continue to pursue c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t related w o r k i n collaboration w i t h local people. F u n d a m e n t a l l y , the breakthrough i n adult e d u c a t i o n c a m e t h r o u g h the third sector at the t i m e (i.e., v o l u n t a r y organizations). P r i m a r i l y c h u r c h operated, their adult education p r o g r a m s w e r e directed at their i m m e d i a t e target groups. T h u s , the r e l i g i o u s converts benefited f r o m the p r o g r a m s that c o v e r e d literacy, n u m e r a c y , agriculture, b u i l d i n g , carpentry and w o o d w o r k . T o support their teaching w o r k , the churches p r o d u c e d vernacular translations o f selected r e a d i n g materials. F o r instance, the C h u r c h M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y had their first p u b l i c a t i o n , Mengo Notes, i n 1900 a n d the C a t h o l i c M i s s i o n a r y W h i t e Fathers began p u b l i s h i n g Munno i n 1911. A l t h o u g h b o t h these c h u r c h activities i n i t i a l l y c o m m e n c e d i n w h a t i s today U g a n d a ' s c a p i t a l city, K a m p a l a , they e v e n t u a l l y  87  e x p a n d e d throughout the country, a g a i n , the beneficiaries e x c l u s i v e l y b e i n g n e w converts ( U g a n d a C o m m i s s i o n for U N E S C O , 1984). V o l u n t a r y organizations w h i c h c o n d u c t e d adult e d u c a t i o n - c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k d u r i n g this p e r i o d i n c l u d e d : T h e C h r i s t i a n C h u r c h e s , I s l a m i c O r g a n i z a t i o n s , U g a n d a Scouts A s s o c i a t i o n [formed i n 1915], U g a n d a G i r l G u i d e s ' A s s o c i a t i o n [founded i n 1922], St. J o h n ' s A m b u l a n c e B r i g a d e [started i n 1942], U g a n d a R e d C r o s s S o c i e t y [started i n 1 9 4 2 ] , U g a n d a Y o u n g W o m e n ' s A s s o c i a t i o n [founded i n 1952], a n d U g a n d a Y o u n g M e n ' s C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n [founded i n 1957] ( D i r e c t o r y o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A g e n c i e s i n U g a n d a , 1984). In U g a n d a , government i n v o l v e m e n t i n adult education-supported c o m m u n i t y  -  d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e s w a s c l e a r l y p r o m i n e n t i n the post W o r l d W a r II p e r i o d . B e t w e e n 1945 and 1962, m a n y adult e d u c a t i o n institutions and p r o g r a m m e s were initiated and d e v e l o p e d . T h e establishment o f the P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s and S o c i a l W e l f a r e Department i n 1946 m a r k e d the b e g i n n i n g o f adult e d u c a t i o n and c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t as deliberately g o v e r n m e n t r e c o g n i z e d a n d supported functions. Staffed b y resettled e x - W o r l d W a r II s e r v i c e m e n , the department h a d t w o units: a) I n f o r m a t i o n a n d B r o a d c a s t i n g , a n d b) C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t that h a d rural and urban branches. W i t h f u n d i n g f r o m the P r i c e A s s i s t a n c e F u n d , the department supported c o m m u n i t y leaders and l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t w o r k e r s . In a d d i t i o n , the department w a s e q u i p p e d w i t h out-reach facilities s u c h as m o b i l e c i n e m a vans and d e m o n s t r a t i o n teams, w h o toured the w h o l e country and taught the p u b l i c o n s o c i a l welfare issues a n d the n o t i o n o f self-help. It also trained the W o r l d W a r II e x - s o l d i e r s i n k n o w l e d g e a n d s k i l l s s u c h as b r i c k - m a k i n g , m u s i c a l - i n s t r u m e n t p l a y i n g a n d c o m m u n i t y e x t e n s i o n techniques. T h e department also  88  o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t i e s for w o m e n , w h i c h later l e d to the f o u n d i n g i n 1947 o f the U g a n d a C o u n c i l for W o m e n . T h e major g o a l o f the C o u n c i l w a s to co-ordinate o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c o m m u n i t y c l u b s , literacy w o r k , h o m e i m p r o v e m e n t a n d p r o m o t i o n o f the status o f w o m e n i n society ( U g a n d a C o m m i s s i o n for U N E S C O , 1984). In M a y 1954, the government opened its first centre, a m u l t i - p u r p o s e , L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t a n d C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t T r a i n i n g C e n t r e at N s a m i z i near E n t e b b e [note: E n t e b b e w a s the capital c i t y o f U g a n d a u n t i l Independence i n 1962 w h e n the capital c i t y became K a m p a l a ] . T h e purpose o f the centre w a s to train a d m i n i s t r a t i v e personnel i n s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l fields. Its first courses i n c l u d e d c i t i z e n s h i p , current affairs and h o m e e c o n o m i c s . T h e c i t i z e n s h i p course also i n c l u d e d i n d u c t i o n courses for g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s and the instructors c a m e f r o m overseas. T o encourage increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n , l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n chiefs were a l l o w e d to c o m e a l o n g w i t h their w i v e s and c h i l d r e n up to five years o f age. A m o n g other courses, the w o m e n learnt t a i l o r i n g and n e e d l e w o r k , w i t h the expectation that they w o u l d lead w o m e n ' s groups i n their o w n c o m m u n i t i e s u p o n return ( H a n d b o o k for C D W o r k e r s , 1968; T a c c h i & Swart, 1967). O v e r a l l , a l l the courses were short, l a s t i n g one a n d a h a l f to t w o m o n t h s , and were targeted at c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t and welfare officers; a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s ; cooperative officers; l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n chiefs, magistrates, and p o l i c e officers. In a d d i t i o n to lectures, there were film s h o w s and s t u d y - f i e l d tours ( U g a n d a C o m m i s s i o n for U N E S C O , 1984). D u r i n g 1 9 4 5 - 1 9 6 2 , several parastatals and s e m i - a u t o n o m o u s n a t i o n a l institutions also began to r u n adult e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s . I n c l u d e d were the then Department o f E x t r a - M u r a l Studies at M a k e r e r e C o l l e g e ( n o w M a k e r e r e U n i v e r s i t y ) , and the C o -  89 operative U n i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n to e v e n i n g classes, there w e r e series o f p u b l i c lectures a n d short residential courses. O t h e r p r o g r a m m e s w e r e o r g a n i z e d i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h government departments — w h i c h i n c l u d e d the then R a d i o U g a n d a (started i n 1953), C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t , C o m m e r c e , C o - o p e r a t i v e s and the U g a n d a P o l i c e ~ as w e l l as w i t h c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c h as the U g a n d a C l u b . T h e establishment and existence o f t r a i n i n g institutions i n most regions o f U g a n d a facilitated the p r o v i s i o n o f k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s t r a i n i n g to adults, e s p e c i a l l y i n the practice o f better f a r m i n g techniques and the fundamental c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r i n c i p l e o f self-reliance. T h e above h i s t o r i c a l analysis is e v i d e n c e that, even d u r i n g the c o l o n i a l p e r i o d , a significant effort had been m a d e o n the d e v e l o p m e n t o f adult e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g practice a n d this i n t e n s i f i e d as the c o u n t r y m o v e d t o w a r d p o l i t i c a l independence. H o w e v e r , to c o m m i t t e d adult educators a n d a c a d e m i c i a n s , the achievements were not c o m p r e h e n s i v e , not coordinated, and d i d not penetrate the 9 0 % o f U g a n d a ' s adult p o p u l a t i o n w h o are p r e d o m i n a n t l y rural residents. F u r t h e r m o r e , there were great restrictions to access as far as the greater p o p u l a t i o n w a s c o n c e r n e d . Indeed, the beneficiaries were pre-selected (i.e., n e w C h r i s t i a n and M o s l e m converts, m e m b e r s o f designated groups and associations, the l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e chiefs and their w i v e s , and W o r l d W a r II e x - s o l d i e r s ) . M o r e o v e r , e d u c a t i o n a l materials were f o r e i g n a n d needed translation i n t o n a t i v e languages. T h u s , thousands o f p e o p l e w e r e left unreached b y the programs. It is f r o m these perspectives that C l a r k e c o n c l u d e s , "the attitudes o f the c o l o n i a l [administration] g o v e r n m e n t w a s half-hearted t o w a r d s A d u l t E d u c a t i o n " ( C l a r k e , i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n P a m p h l e t N o . l , 1967, p . 12). M o r e o v e r , the c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  90  p r o v e d reluctant to i m p l e m e n t m a n y o f the r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f the conference o n " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n the C o l o n i e s " w h i c h t o o k p l a c e i n 1951 (Ibid.).  4.3 D e v e l o p m e n t s d u r i n g t h e I n d e p e n d e n c e Y e a r s A t the t i m e o f independence, U g a n d a w a s h a i l e d as a s h o w p i e c e o f B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , far ahead o f K e n y a a n d T a n z a n i a , i n as far as e c o n o m i c , e d u c a t i o n a l a n d s o c i a l p o l i c i e s were c o n c e r n e d . T h i s p o s i t i o n i s attributed m a i n l y to the p r i v i l e g e d status a c c o r d e d to U g a n d a as that o f a protectorate rather than a colony. A s a protectorate, settlers were not encouraged to "establish" themselves i n the country, as w a s the case i n neighbouring Kenya. W h e n U g a n d a attained p o l i t i c a l independence o n O c t o b e r 9  t h  1962, the  accelerated g o v e r n m e n t support to a n d i n v o l v e m e n t i n c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k w a s m o r e p r o m i n e n t . T h i s p r o m i n e n c e is attributed to the urgent need to prepare people for self-reliance a n d l o c a l governance ( U g a n d a C o m m i s s i o n for U N E S C O , 1984). In a d d i t i o n , the efforts o f the i n n u m e r a b l e p o l i t i c i a n s , c i v i l servants, churches, a n d traditional l o c a l leaders a l l contributed — t h r o u g h their k n o w l e d g e a n d s k i l l s — to the c o l l a b o r a t i v e roles i n the field o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . The i m m e d i a t e years f o l l o w i n g independence, s u r r o u n d e d b y the p r o m i s e o f better q u a l i t y o f life f o r the p e o p l e , p r o m p t e d the state to allocate its p u b l i c revenue t o w a r d the management o f e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t a n d s o c i a l services d e l i v e r y . N o t o n l y d i d the state assume c o n t r o l o v e r the c h u r c h established s c h o o l s , but also relegated the r o l e o f the c h u r c h to that o f charitable cause, s u c h as r e l i e f services, a n d the p r o v i s i o n o f health services. A l t h o u g h s h o r t - l i v e d ( 1 9 6 2 - 1 9 7 1 ) , this w a s the p e r i o d d u r i n g w h i c h m o s t g o v e r n m e n t p r o g r a m s w e r e d i r e c t e d t o w a r d c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , n o t a b l y adult  91  literacy p r o g r a m s , y o u t h d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m s , self-help c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t programs, and cooperative societies d e v e l o p m e n t ( E d u c a t i o n i n U g a n d a , 1963; W a n d i r a R e p o r t , 1972; U g a n d a C o m m i s s i o n for U N E S C O , 1984). A v a i l a b l e d o c u m e n t a t i o n reveals that 1962-1971 w a s a p e r i o d o f real g r o w t h i n the d e v e l o p m e n t o f adult education and c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n U g a n d a ; the greatest increase i n the n u m b e r o f institutions, p r o g r a m m e s , p e r s o n n e l , and n u m b e r o f learners reached, a l l o c c u r r e d d u r i n g this p e r i o d ( U g a n d a C o m m i s s i o n for U N E S C O , 1984; W a n d i r a R e p o r t , 1972). B y 1972, the D i s t r i c t F a r m Institutes ( D F I ) and R u r a l T r a i n i n g Centres ( R T C ) had spread f r o m five districts to 15 o f the 18 districts. T h e N s a m i z i T r a i n i n g C e n t r e e v o l v e d f r o m b e i n g a m u l t i - p u r p o s e t r a i n i n g centre to s p e c i a l i z i n g i n the d e l i v e r y o f courses i n C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t a n d W e l f a r e . Indeed, i n the early 1960s, the dual objectives o f the Centre reflected the i n t e r t w i n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between adult education and c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t : i) to d e v e l o p the C e n t r e as the m a i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n C e n t r e i n U g a n d a c l o s e l y tied to the R u r a l T r a i n i n g Centres, and i i ) to cater to needs connected w i t h the achievement o f p o l i t i c a l independence i n c l u d i n g t r a i n i n g suitable p e r s o n n e l to take o v e r relevant p o s i t i o n s i n the post-independence p e r i o d ( M u g a l a , 1976; U g a n d a C o m m i s s i o n for U N E S C O , 1984; W a n d i r a R e p o r t , 1972). It w a s also d u r i n g this p e r i o d that m o r e n e w government institutions were established: (i) Community Centres - the government at the time made a commitment in 1964 that each of the then 615 sub-counties be provided with a community centre by 1971. Each centre was meant to serve as a focal point for educational, social and recreational activities of the local residents. Radio and television receivers were to be provided to each centre for the delivery of both educational and entertainment programs. Unfortunately, by the time of the military takeover in 1971, only 300 community centres were completed, ii) Institute of Public Administration - to conduct training and prepare teaching materials in basic administration skills to meet the urgent "Africanization," human resource requirements of the Civil Service, iii) Lav,' Development Centre - for provision of legal education at various levels to both the civil service and the public, iv) Fisheries Training Institute - established at Entebbe, the institute aimed at activities to upgrade in-service, middle-level staff and to train fishers, fish-breeders, fishmongers and boat-  92  builders from all districts of Uganda, v) Reformatory Young Offenders - vocational training in agriculture, carpentry, tailoring and handicraft, vi) Management Training and Advisory Centre for management consultancy and advisory services to industrial, commercial and public [government] concerns, vii) Mwana-Mugimu Nutrition Rehabilitation Unit - established near the largest government run Mulago Hospital, the unit aimed at mothers and their infants in the provision of preventative health measures, and practical demonstration in the treatment and rehabilitation of Kwashiorkor patients, and vii) Public Libraries - 10 existing and 7 planned public libraries and 18 branches all over the country. (Uganda Commission.for U N E S C O , 1984) T h e achievements d u r i n g this p e r i o d were r e i n f o r c e d b y U N E S C O G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e o n the D e v e l o p m e n t o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n 1976, N a i r o b i , K e n y a , at w h i c h it was f o r m a l l y established that the general purpose o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n is to enable p e o p l e regarded as adults b y the society (to w h i c h they b e l o n g ) t o d e v e l o p t h e i r a b i l i t i e s , e n r i c h their k n o w l e d g e , i m p r o v e their t e c h n i c a l or p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s or turn t h e m i n a n e w d i r e c t i o n a n d to b r i n g about changes i n their attitudes o r b e h a v i o u r i n the t w o - f o l d perspectives o f f u l l personal d e v e l o p m e n t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n b a l a n c e d and independent s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c , and c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t ( U N E S C O G e n e r a l C o n f e r e n c e , 1976, Nairobi). C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , the term adult education became b r o a d l y defined to incorporate any o r g a n i z e d , n o n - f o r m a l , o u t - o f - s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n for p e o p l e o f w o r k i n g age, w h o n o longer attend [ed] the f o r m a l s c h o o l system o r w h o have never attended s c h o o l as w e l l as extra-curricular e d u c a t i o n for s c h o o l - g o i n g adult-youth o f w o r k i n g age. A c c o r d i n g to the U g a n d a C o m m i s s i o n for U N E S C O (1984), d u r i n g independence, U g a n d a g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c i e s and p r o n o u n c e m e n t s supported e d u c a t i o n both generally and s p e c i f i c a l l y . A d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s w e r e manifested t h r o u g h the f o l l o w i n g : Basic or fundamental education (i.e., functional reading and writing, numeracy, preparatory courses); Life-long, continuing education (i.e., up grading, updating and adapting knowledge and skills to a changing world); Vocational education (basic art and craft courses as well as up grading and updating of technical skills); Education for social and civic responsibility (social skills, current affairs, awareness and development of positive attitudes and character); Education for leisure and relaxation (games, sports, creative spare time activities); Preparing non-school-  93 going youths for productive living through youth development programs; and Extra-curricular activities for adult youths who are no longer in the formal school system. A s is presented above, it is clear that the d e v e l o p m e n t s d u r i n g 1962-72 m a r k e d the c l i m a x for b o t h c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a n d adult e d u c a t i o n i n U g a n d a . A s both l o n g established and n e w o r g a n i z a t i o n s e x p a n d e d their p r o g r a m m e s , adult educators i n these diverse settings reached out to the m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e . It is also clear that this was the p e r i o d d u r i n g w h i c h n e w approaches — m o b i l e f i l m - s h o w s , i n f o r m a l sessions, debates, concerts, festivals, and e x h i b i t i o n s ~ were a p p l i e d i n the d e l i v e r y o f programs. M a n y p u b l i c a t i o n s were p r o d u c e d b y the agencies to further the course o f adult e d u c a t i o n a n d community development. D u r i n g this p e r i o d , adult education practice w a s a n integral part o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e s . A s a first step, the p r o g r a m m e captured the e n t h u s i a s m o f the v i l l a g e r s and persuaded t h e m to b e c o m e c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t volunteers. T h i s w a s the p e r i o d w h e n every sub-county had a c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t centre at w h i c h adults c o u l d meet for l i t e r a c y p r o g r a m s that c o v e r e d reading, w r i t i n g , a n d m a t h . T h i s w a s also the p l a c e where volunteers were trained for c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k u s i n g a variety o f t e a c h i n g methods. T h e i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f the literacy p r o g r a m m e w a s based o n the functional literacy concept. C o o r d i n a t e d centrally b y the M i n i s t r y o f C u l t u r e , Y o u t h and Sports, it entailed the creation o f literacy teams i n each a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g i o n c o n s i s t i n g o f the officers responsible for e d u c a t i o n , a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n , a n d rural d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h i n each district. E f f o r t s h a v e also been m a d e t o w a r d the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f educational infrastructure i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h b o t h international a n d l o c a l agencies. T h i s is reflected i n the g o v e r n m e n t successive r e c o v e r y p r o g r a m m e s a n d e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y  94  documents. A l t h o u g h a v a i l a b l e d o c u m e n t a t i o n (such as U g a n d a . C o m m i s s i o n for U N E S C O , 1984) does not m a k e s p e c i f i c reference to adult e d u c a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s , stipulations that are l i n k e d to adult education practice i n c l u d e : rehabilitation o f radio broadcasting t h r o u g h the repair a n d maintenance o f k e y transmitters a n d the r e f u r b i s h i n g o f a n u m b e r o f studios; r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t centres a i m e d at r u r a l t r a i n i n g ; r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f the p h y s i c a l l y a n d m e n t a l l y c h a l l e n g e d a n d for the support o f y o u t h and w o m e n ' s m o v e m e n t s ; and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , recovery and d e v e l o p m e n t o f adult education institutions. T h e next section presents a b r i e f h i s t o r y o f A C O R D , its i n i t i a l objectives, and later successive i n v o l v e m e n t i n A f r i c a . T h e A C O R D - U G A N D A p r o g r a m m e is also d i s c u s s e d a l o n g w i t h the A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e , i n c l u d i n g the c o n t e x t i n w h i c h it has operated t h r o u g h the years i n b o t h J o n a m a n d P a d y e r e c o u n t i e s o f N e b b i district. I n f o r m a t i o n o n this section is based o n the 25 research d o c u m e n t s I obtained f r o m the research and p o l i c y p r o g r a m m e ( R A P P ) d i v i s i o n o f A C O R D i n L o n d o n and the p r i m a r y d o c u m e n t s I accessed f r o m A C O R D - N E B B I l i b r a r y and office  files.  4.4 ACORD involvement in sub-Sahara Africa T h e h i s t o r y o f A C O R D dates b a c k to 1972 w h e n a g r o u p o f E u r o p e a n n o n g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( N G O s ) established a c o n s o r t i u m to r e s p o n d to the challenges faced b y the p e o p l e o f southern S u d a n , after o v e r ten years o f c i v i l strife. T w o years later, another N G O g r o u p i n g c a m e together i n the w a k e o f devastation caused by the drought a n d f a m i n e i n the S a h e l r e g i o n , west A f r i c a . L a t e r , the t w o o r g a n i z a t i o n s j o i n e d i n 1976 to f o r m a c o n s o r t i u m , w h i c h is k n o w n today as A g e n c y for C o o p e r a t i o n i n R e s e a r c h a n d D e v e l o p m e n t ( A C O R D ) . A s a g r o u p i n g o f t w e n t y C a n a d i a n and E u r o p e a n  95  n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , A C O R D d e v e l o p e d the c a p a c i t y to m a r s h a l d i v e r s e resources, experiences a n d expertise t o w a r d c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e s i n s u b Sahara A f r i c a ( R e s e a r c h a n d P o l i c y P r o g r a m m e , P a p e r N o . 4 , 1 9 9 2 ) . W h e n its m i s s i o n statement and geographic areas o f the p r o g r a m m e s are e x a m i n e d , it remains clear that A C O R D is m a i n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h c o m m u n i t i e s i n parts o f A f r i c a w h o s e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n structures are either w e a k o r non-existent. A s r e v i e w e d i n chapter t w o , i n recent years, p o l i c y m a k e r s at the l o c a l l e v e l have indeed c a l l e d for the strengthening o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t c a p a c i t y that w o u l d i n turn enhance effectiveness i n c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t initiatives. M o r e o v e r , this c a l l requires an a p p r o a c h that departs f r o m present-day t h i n k i n g w h e n one r e a l i z e s that l o c a l d e v e l o p m e n t cannot be s o l e l y left to market forces c o n s i d e r i n g that the m a r k e t i s i n c a p a b l e o f p r o v i d i n g the requisite guidance. G i v e n its international c o m p o s u r e , A C O R D is i n a p o s i t i o n to benefit f r o m the c o l l e c t i v e experience a n d f u n d r a i s i n g infrastructure o f its twenty m e m b e r s , as w e l l as bilateral and m u l t i l a t e r a l support f r o m the E u r o p e a n U n i o n , the U n i t e d N a t i o n s a n d its s p e c i a l i z e d agencies, a n d international agencies o f the governments o f the N G O s that constituted the consortium.  T h u s , the creation a n d reinforcement o f l o c a l institutions has a l w a y s been at the heart o f A C O R D p r o g r a m m e s i n A f r i c a . Indeed, b y w o r k i n g d i r e c t l y w i t h b e n e f i c i a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the front-lines o f d e v e l o p m e n t challenges, A C O R D has been i n a better p o s i t i o n to facilitate d i a l o g u e o n a l l aspects o f d e v e l o p m e n t issues, as w e l l as  c h a m p i o n i n g the international course o f thinking globally and acting locally. T h e next section contextualises the A C O R D p r o g r a m m e s i n A f r i c a .  96  4.5 The ACORD-AFRICA programme A s the literature reveals, efforts pursued by A C O R D between 1972-85 c a n be d i v i d e d into t w o m a i n phases. T h e first phase, w h i c h c o v e r s m o s t o f the early years (i.e., the 1970s) has been characterized by i n s t i t u t i o n b u i l d i n g at the r e g i o n a l or district l e v e l and i n v o l v e d c l o s e l i n k s to respective A f r i c a n governments. T h e s e c o n d phase ~ doing development by itself — c o m m e n c e d d u r i n g the 1980s and w i t n e s s e d A C O R D ' s direct involvement i n development initiatives i n chosen communities. A n examination o f A C O R D ' s w o r k i n other regions o f 17 countries i n A f r i c a ( R e f e r to F i g . 1, o n the next page) is significant i n s h e d d i n g light o n A C O R D ' s efforts to address l o c a l d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e next section h i g h l i g h t s A C O R D ' s shift i n emphasis and a p p r o a c h o v e r the years.  The early years (1972-1980) Three p r o g r a m m e s that illustrate A C O R D ' s focus d u r i n g the 1970s i n c l u d e the K i u d e v e l o p m e n t centre i n N g a r a district, T a n z a n i a , the A M A D I institute i n southern S u d a n , a n d the C o o p e r a t i v e M o v e m e n t d e v e l o p m e n t i n M a l i . A l l three p r o g r a m m e s w e r e based o n c l o s e c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h l o c a l authorities, a n d were p l a n n e d to either p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s that were needed b y the r u r a l p o o r or, as i n the case o f M a l i , be representative o f the rural p o o r interests. A l l were expected to have an i m p a c t at a m e s o l e v e l (i.e., at the r e g i o n a l or sub-regional l e v e l ) ( A C O R D - R A P P , 1992). T h u s , the purpose was to offer service b e y o n d the t r a d i t i o n a l n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n m i c r o project a p p r o a c h that w a s a c o m m o n p h e n o m e n o n i n the 1970s. T h e rationale for this focus w a s that the g o v e r n m e n t w a s p e r c e i v e d to be m o r e than a " m o n o l i t h i c b l o c k " w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s and departments c o m m i t t e d a n d capable o f c o m p l e m e n t i n g A C O R D ' s w o r k .  97  FIGURE 1: ACORD IN AFRICA (Source: Adapted from A C O R D Annual Report, 1997, p.9)  MAII MALI •MA Pmgranvrw dsns la zone Ou tteut*. regnn de Gao torn ZoncProgrimnw, Gao  A MAURITANIA MAURITANIA  , J RWANDA RWANDA >* "  • t f / i Appu au* Onoupes 'cbrarnunautams. 2one •v* pastorale deKidai Support to Community Groups in Pastoral Zone. K i d * Region •MS) Appu aux communautes ruraies. rtgen de fembouctou  Souhena  I CommuTKOev.  PfogrammeO'apCJi pour ia  '**megration aes 'aoatries <?: oestrtoumes u^-jtara  Reintegration Programme f a Repatriates and Returnees n Umutara I Programme oe -eriaouitabon pour remmes seuies. tOgad Rehabtaoon Pngmmm for SmgteVttmenn Kigali I Programme o> dewtopperneni rurai. Nyak«iama Rural Devrtopment ftuu.am.ie in Nyobnama Commune, Ruhengeri • Programme o> dt wtouutmeni et de rttubriQauon. Bugesera P m g ^ o ^ g ^  SUDAN SOUDAN • * n Programme d'appm aux oewes entrepnsft. Port Soudan Port Sudan Smal Safe £ merpnse Programme Praoramme rntthiseaonel d'arde d'uropnee. iuba Juba Emergency Murti-SeaarAJ • nogrammtpourlaitabrlrsatcn * la pooutanon. Moms de la Mer Rouge Red Sea Hite Population t Programme tfaptxj a m petnes entrepnses. Kaoala •Jaala Smal Stale brterpn*  ERITREA ERYTHREE WU\ Programme de 'fMaorftiaton pour res rapatr<es e i <es anciens comfaattams Rctubriaauon Piogramme for Returnee* and Ex-f^hters aW* Ptojet depargne ei de credit. Sud Southern Zone Credit and Sawngs Scheme • J j Programme d appui aux rrstrtuiKXtt locales Support Programme to Local Institutions Reintegration oes combattanti demoWrses Reintegration of Demobirnsed  , ^A^anvT»f 1M>  dedeve<ooeiiieiit, J/dstnadeSabUale Sahl»ate [>e»wopmeni Programme  faam  Progranwilerehab-iaatjon. dstnet de Heawa. Mogadoao tmgmmm. Mogadishu Programme tfappu. a JI •nst/tutwns de Soma.« Support tc Soma* imtauterts  ANGOLA ANGOLA mUi RehafatoationpaftiapaiNeei dewioppemerit, Luanda PtriXapatory RetMbirtatDn and tevefcaprnent n Luanda  mJi,  Ml|  iVrub-rtataon pan*3patM> et deMtoppement, Lubango PanXtpawryPe.>4eflpmtrit in P»K**an 0mm o* Lubango Appu. aw oammunauies agropastorates. Oambos Supporl 10 Agro-Pasttwafrst Convnurwes in Oambos  TANZANIA TANZANIE  Piugianmie de devtioouwiient rural. MtMauJO . B^amutoDrstiy D^wtapnunt Pnj^nrnme  o> dewKJOoemeni cmwnunautaajp, Umagm K a r a g ^ ionjfixruty  WWAMBQUf MOZAMNOUf NAMIIIE •MM Formarjon des ONG locals en paruopalif traawxg m Partmpatory • tor local NGO,  • W * Apou aux otmrrruraute! de u «9«<i Ou lac. dowel de lago Support lo latewe ConnuBUe, n Lago DWrrcl Piuuiainireoedeonjeiimn penurtxarr a Maputo  i tmtmmmmm Amount* oeHuma C ^ p a c ^ r * * 4 n gtorlocal  an  98  M o r e i m p o r t a n t l y , a l l were seen to be the l o g i c a l partners to w h i c h m u c h o f the p r o g r a m m e activities w o u l d be l o c a l i z e d . T e r m e d institutional building and based o n the pluralist theory r e v i e w e d i n chapter t w o , the a p p r o a c h h o l d s that s o c i a l b e h a v i o r results from c h o i c e s p e o p l e m a k e w i t h i n the institutional structures o f society. F r o m this perspective, to enhance d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s ' a b i l i t y to d e v e l o p , it is i m p e r a t i v e that institutional and l o c a l structures, as w e l l as the attitudes o f p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s that constitute the institutions and l o c a l structures, are i m m e d i a t e l y d e v e l o p e d or strengthened ( G i n t h e r , 1995). In the 1980s it became i n c r e a s i n g l y clear that due to external pressures (from the I M F , the W o r l d B a n k a n d d e v e l o p m e n t theorists i n particular) the capacity o f l o c a l government structures to p l a y the role o r i g i n a l l y envisaged b y A C O R D was p r o g r e s s i v e l y c o m p r o m i s e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , it also became clear that the a c c o u n t a b i l i t y o f these intermediary l o c a l structures ( s u c h as the C o o p e r a t i v e s i n M a l i ) as w e l l as those o f l o c a l government, t o w a r d s the rural poor, was questionable. T h e s e s h o r t c o m i n g s faced b y A C O R D d u r i n g its early years are d i r e c t l y related to the p e r i o d d u r i n g w h i c h l i b e r t a r i a n i s m w a s reintroduced a l l o v e r again i n m o s t countries i n sub-Sahara A f r i c a . D e v e l o p m e n t theorists attributed the d e v e l o p m e n t c r i s i s d u r i n g the p e r i o d as that o f "a state that has bitten o f f m o r e than it c o u l d c h e w " ( A n y a n g N y o n g ' o , 1987, p . 14). B a s e d o n this analogy, the pressure exerted i n favour o f r e - i n t r o d u c t i o n o f l i b e r t a r i a n i s m w a s o n the p r e m i s e that, Instead of engaging in economic activity through parastatals, libertarians believed that the state should withdraw and confine itself to those activities it is most traditionally qualified to do in a free market economy, such as the provision of social infrastructure, maintaining law and order and guaranteeing a sound policy framework for development (Ibid. p. 14-16).  99  T h e m i d d l e years (1980-1986) D u r i n g the p e r i o d between 1980 a n d 1986, a n d as an apparent response to the pressures from d e v e l o p m e n t theorists, A C O R D b e g a n to engage i n w h a t it c o u l d d o best: to do development work by itself ( A C O R D - R A P P , 1992). H e n c e , a r a p i d g r o w t h i n expatriate staff w a s a c c o m p a n i e d b y an increased emphasis o n p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s , for e x a m p l e , i r r i g a t i o n , market gardening, a g r i c u l t u r a l a n d l i v e s t o c k projects and a d i m i n i s h i n g l e v e l o f support to efforts directed at i n s t i t u t i o n b u i l d i n g . A C O R D i n essence m o v e d a w a y f r o m c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h state t e c h n i c a l services, because o f the p r o b l e m s it h a d faced, and replaced this input w i t h its o w n staff. A C O R D ' s p e r c e i v e d l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e i n the state's c a p a c i t y to enhance the a c h i e v e m e n t o f its goals w a s m i r r o r e d b y its l a c k o f confidence a n d awareness o f the s k i l l s , resources and k n o w l e d g e , o f not o n l y l o c a l cadres, but also o f the l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s it h a d a i m e d to support. T h e results o f the a p p r o a c h w e r e that p r o g r a m m e s b e c a m e m u c h m o r e e x p e n s i v e , tensions w i t h g o v e r n m e n t departments increased, p a r t i c u l a r l y a m o n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s that were p r e v i o u s l y supported b y A C O R D , a n d management became m o r e d i f f i c u l t . T h e accelerated do it alone a p p r o a c h tended to increase o v e r h e a d costs as w e l l as stifle i n i t i a t i v e a n d f l e x i b i l i t y . In a d d i t i o n , the need to c o v e r r e l a t i v e l y large budgets pushed A C O R D into f u n d - r a i s i n g f r o m bilateral a n d m u l t i l a t e r a l donors, a n d o n the verge o f b e c o m i n g sub-contractors for t h e m i n certain cases. T h e threat to the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s independence a n d to its mandate, i n terms o f s u p p o r t i n g the emergence o f l o c a l structures i n areas w h e r e they w e r e w e a k , became evident as there b e c a m e increased e m p h a s i s o n e c o n o m i c - o r i e n t e d d e v e l o p m e n t efforts ( A C O R D - R A P P , 1992).  100 Change of emphasis in the later years (1986-1990s) A f t e r successive challenges i n appropriate responses to c o m m u n i t y aspirations, the late 1980s and the 1990s w i t n e s s e d A C O R D ' s fundamental shift i n focus to i n f o r m a l grass-roots organizations. E x a m p l e s i n c l u d e the engagement o f v i l l a g e groups a n d pastoral associations i n N o r t h e r n M a l i , w o r k i n g w i t h v i l l a g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s and w o m e n ' s groups i n B u r k i n a F a s o , the f o r m a t i o n o f m u t u a l savings groups i n U g a n d a , a n d m i c r o business d e v e l o p m e n t i n P o r t S u d a n . T h e shift i n a l l these p r o g r a m m e s e m p h a s i z e d the establishment o f a l l i a n c e s and c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the l o c a l groups f o r m e d . T h u s , the focus d u r i n g this p e r i o d was p l a c e d o n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s d e t e r m i n e d b y the i n d i v i d u a l groups rather than b y A C O R D , as had earlier been the case. B a s e d o n the b e l i e f that c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s " k n e w what they really wanted", A C O R D ' s role d u r i n g this p e r i o d w a s m o r e o f a facilitator, rather than doing development itself. ( A C O R D - R A P P , 1992).  4.6 The A C O R D - U G A N D A programme A C O R D i n v o l v e m e n t i n U g a n d a c a m e f a i r l y late c o m p a r e d to other parts o f A f r i c a where it h a d both the early a n d m i d d l e years' experience. It c o m m e n c e d operation i n G u l u (northern U g a n d a ) a n d N e b b i (northwestern U g a n d a ) i n 1979 a n d 1983 respectively, a n d i n the O r u c h i n g a v a l l e y (southwestern U g a n d a ) , i n 1987. T o date, there are a total o f seven A C O R D p r o g r a m m e s i n U g a n d a (See F i g u r e 2 o n the next page). T h e early years o f A C O R D ' s w o r k i n northern U g a n d a has been characterized b y efforts to rehabilitate p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y fisheries a n d agriculture, a n d o n s o c i a l p r o g r a m s , m a i n l y the p r o v i s i o n o f health services. H o w e v e r , a c t i v i t i e s i n b o t h the N e b b i a n d G u l u p r o g r a m m e s have through the years been punctuated b y w a v e s o f . insecurity.  FIGURE 2: THE ACORD-UGANDA PROGRAMME  Legend: UGA/02 Gulu Rural Development Programme UGA/04 ACORD-NEBBI Rural Development Programme UGA/06 Mbarara Rural Development Programme UGA/10 Programme Assistance to Southern Sudanese UGA/11 Oruchinga Valley Water Development Programme UGA/14 Moyo District Programme Assistance to Southern Sudanese Source: Adapted from A C O R D Annual Report, 1997, p_3l  102  A C O R D ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n U g a n d a has been g u i d e d b y its o r i g i n a l p h i l o s o p h y that is, Development... of the analytical skills and conceptual tools required for development planning and . . . management so that, when the programme [localized] and technical support is withdrawn, essential skills to enable the groups to continue development action will remain. (ACORD Programme Direction, 1985, p.4) E s t a b l i s h e d f r o m 1983 i n the U g a n d a n northwestern r e g i o n o f N e b b i district, A C O R D - N E B B I l o c a l l y recruited 19 R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t W o r k e r s a n d seven t e c h n i c a l specialists w h o w o r k e d w i t h o v e r 2 0 7 p r o d u c e r groups d u r i n g the early years o f the establishment phase. T h e A C O R D p r o g r a m m e i n M b a r a r a district, southwestern U g a n d a , c l o s e l y w o r k e d w i t h 3 5 7 groups w h o s e total assets b y 1991 a m o u n t e d to o v e r U S D S 106,807. A s for the A C O R D - G U L U p r o g r a m m e i n G u l u district, northern U g a n d a , p r o g r a m m e a c t i v i t i e s increased s i g n i f i c a n t l y d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f stability o f the 1980s. T h e relative s t a b i l i t y d u r i n g this p e r i o d enabled field -staff to take u p residence as m u c h as 30 k m f r o m G u l u T o w n radius. H e r e the n u m b e r o f groups rose to o v e r 193 a n d group assets increased b y 2 0 % . It w a s d u r i n g this p e r i o d that p r o d u c e r associations i n G u l u successfully sought funds f r o m an A C O R D m e m b e r to b u i l d their o w n  rice-hulling  plant.  P r o g r a m m e a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g the 1990s w e r e greatly restricted due to the m i l i t a r y insurgency a n d the requirement that v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t i e s be c o n f i n e d to designate protected villages established b y government. W h i l e this m o v e restricted the v i l l a g e r s ' a b i l i t y to undertake v a r i o u s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s , the g o v e r n m e n t b e l i e v e d that c o n f i n i n g the p e o p l e i n protected v i l l a g e s w o u l d deter the rebels. In the late 1980s a n d early 90s, A I D S clearly b e c a m e a rival to c i v i l w a r as a major i m p e d i m e n t to U g a n d a ' s efforts to p r o m o t e self-reliant c o m m u n i t i e s . In regard to the three p r o g r a m m e s (i.e., G u l u , O r u c h i n g a , a n d N e b b i ) , A C O R D supported c o m m u n i t y  103  education and the t r a i n i n g o f c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d counselors for c o m m u n i t y c o p i n g m e c h a n i s m s s u c h as i n s u p p o r t i n g c o m m u n i t y groups d u r i n g loss o f l o v e d ones. A particular c o n c e r n has been to foster the d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n c o m e generating a c t i v i t i e s that are accessible to p e o p l e and f a m i l i e s affected b y A I D S and for w h o m a shortage o f l a b o u r is a major p r o b l e m . A p r o g r a m m e that was established i n s o m e o f the areas worst hit by the A I D S e p i d e m i c enabled fishers to process fish for export m a r k e t s t h r o u g h a K a m p a l a based fish house ( A C O R D A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1992, p.20). 4.7  The A C O R D - N E B B I  Programme  Location N e b b i district is one o f four districts i n W e s t N i l e p r o v i n c e i n northwestern U g a n d a , h a v i n g a total area o f 2 9 1 7 sq. k m and a p o p u l a t i o n o f 3 1 5 , 8 1 5 (1991 C e n s u s ) . L i k e other districts o f U g a n d a , N e b b i is e n d o w e d w i t h varieties o f natural resources n a m e l y , water, air, arable l a n d , flora and flora. T h e A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e is located o n the western flank o f the East A f r i c a n rift v a l l e y . L i k e most parts o f the rift v a l l e y , this area is fairly flat w i t h h i g h r o l l i n g h i l l s r i s i n g i n steps as y o u m o v e a w a y f r o m the lake/ r i v e r s t o w a r d the interior. It is flatter a l o n g the A l b e r t N i l e , r u n n i n g f r o m the north t o w a r d southern S u d a n . T h e r e is another flat piece o f l a n d about 8 k m w i d e i n the interior r u n n i n g f r o m P a r o m b o i n the south, to K u c w i n y i n the north. T h e p r o g r a m m e area c o v e r s the w h o l e o f J o n a m county, and s i x parishes i n Padyere county, and stretches f r o m P a n y i m u r and P a r o m b o i n the south, to K u c w i n y and W a d e l a i i n the n o r t h . T h e total geographic area c o v e r e d b y the p r o g r a m m e is 2 , 6 0 0 sq. k m . It is bordered b y A k w o r o sub-county and D e m o c r a t i c R e p u b l i c o f C o n g o ( f o r m e r l y  104  Z a i r e ) i n the south; M a s i n d i a n d G u l u districts are separated by.the r i v e r N i l e a n d L a k e A l b e r t i n the east; A r u a district i n the n o r t h ; a n d E r u s s i a n d N e b b i sub-counties i n the west. A l l i n a l l it c o v e r s t w o counties, seven sub-counties, t w e n t y - s e v e n parishes a n d a [ P a k w a c h ] t o w n board. T h e inhabitants of the programme area T h e A l u r people, a L u o s p e a k i n g group o f the W e s t e r n N i l o t i c , inhabit N e b b i district as a w h o l e . T h e r e is h o w e v e r a s m a l l trace o f L e n d u a n d O k e b u tribes i n the western part o f O k o r o county. E v e n t h o u g h the people speak the dialect ( A l u r ) , the people i n the p r o g r a m m e area b e l o n g to t w o different societies. T h e J o n a m d o not c o n s i d e r themselves o f the A l u r decent. A n d not a l l the people l i v i n g w i t h i n J o n a m c o u n t y are c o n s i d e r e d J o n a m . T h e people f r o m P a n y i m u r a n d Padyere are the ones w h o are c o m m o n l y referred to as the A l u r . T h e s e d i s t i n c t i o n s are s o m e t i m e s a source o f s o c i a l tension. N o t a l l the p e o p l e i n the p r o g r a m m e area are A l u r o r J o n a m . T h e r e has been a great i n f l u x o f p e o p l e f r o m G u l u district (the A c h o l i ) , M a s i n d i ( B u g u n g u ) , A r u a (the L u g b a r a ) , a n d p e o p l e f r o m tribes b o r d e r i n g the N i l e a n d L a k e A l b e r t . O n the northern fringe o f the p r o g r a m m e area are people o f M a d i o r i g i n w h o settled i n a n d a r o u n d W a d e l a i and K u c w i n y areas. T h e r e has been an i n f l u x o f refugees f r o m the n e i g h b o u r i n g D e m o c r a t i c R e p u b l i c o f C o n g o ( f o r m e r l y Z a i r e ) d u r i n g the p o l i t i c a l strife o f the early sixties, a n d m o r e recently, i n the r e b e l l i o n that l e d to the o v e r t h r o w o f M o b u t u Sese S e k o . T h e majority o f the p e o p l e i n the areas a l o n g the c o m m o n borders (i.e. i n A k w o r o , P a r o m b o , a n d P a n y i m u r d i v i s i o n s ) are o f A l u r o f C o n g o o r i g i n .  105  T h e total p o p u l a t i o n and h o u s e h o l d figure for the entire N e b b i district a c c o r d i n g to the 1991 p o p u l a t i o n and h o u s i n g census is 59,591 h o u s e h o l d s c o n t a i n i n g 315,815 people. O f these 164,277 ( 5 2 % ) are females a n d 151,538 ( 4 8 % ) are m a l e s . T h e p o p u l a t i o n o f the p r o g r a m m e area is 120,262 ( 3 8 % ) out o f w h i c h 5 7 , 7 4 0 are m a l e s and 6 2 , 5 2 2 are females. T h e n u m b e r o f h o u s e h o l d s i n the p r o g r a m m e area is 2 0 , 7 4 8 , that is 35%  o f the district p o p u l a t i o n .  Socio-economic and geo-political setting of the programme area T h e p r o g r a m m e area (see F i g u r e 3 o n the next page) c o v e r s J o n a m and Padyere counties i n N e b b i district i n W e s t N i l e p r o v i n c e . W h i l e A r u a is the p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l , N e b b i is the district headquarters and P a k w a c h , the site o f the p r o g r a m m e office, is the capital o f J o n a m county. P a k w a c h is at the terminus o f the T o r o r o - G u l u r a i l w a y line, but d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f this study, the trains were not operational due to p o l i t i c a l i n s t a b i l i t y i n the north and northeastern U g a n d a . K a m p a l a , U g a n d a ' s c a p i t a l , is 4 0 0 k m and 6 hours d r i v e b y r o a d from P a k w a c h i n a light passenger v e h i c l e . T h e r e is a b i t u m e n r o a d f r o m K a m p a l a to K a r u m a B r i d g e , w h i c h is r a p i d l y deteriorating due to increased c i v i l i a n a n d m i l i t a r y traffic, c o m p o u n d e d by irregular maintenance. T h e southern r e g i o n o f W e s t N i l e is connected to other parts o f U g a n d a by the o n l y bridge located at P a k w a c h , a n a r r o w p o i n t at w h i c h L a k e A l b e r t turns into A l b e r t N i l e . A n unsurfaced r o a d runs f r o m K a r u m a B r i d g e , t h r o u g h P a k w a c h . T r u c k s , s m a l l buses and c o m m e r c i a l v e h i c l e s are the l i n k to p r o d u c e markets i n P a i d h a and A r u a but can meet neither the private nor the c o m m e r c i a l d e m a n d s for transport i n the r e g i o n .  106  FIGURE 3: THE ACORD-NEBBI PROGRAMME  Gulu district  ACORD-NEBBI OFFICE  Masindi district  Republic  of Congo  Source: Panyimur sub-county 1998-2000 development plan, July 1998, NEBBI.  Legend: ACORD-NEBBI covers the dotted region  107  A t the t i m e o f this study, N e b b i district w a s u n d e r g o i n g . p h e n o m e n a l infrastructure development: i n s t a l l a t i o n o f a telephone n e t w o r k was i n progress, a n F M radio station had just been c o m m i s s i o n e d and e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n o f the district w i t h p o w e r generated f r o m N y a g a k water falls i n O k o r o c o u n t y h a d c o m m e n c e d . U n l i k e the southern and western parts o f U g a n d a w h i c h boast o v e r 7 c o m m e r c i a l b a n k s , N e b b i district has o n l y t w o c o m m e r c i a l banks ( C o o p e r a t i v e B a n k and U g a n d a C o m m e r c i a l B a n k ) w i t h several branches i n the counties o f O k o r o , J o n a m and Padyere. M o s t bank branches i n N e b b i district have l i q u i d i t y p r o b l e m s o w i n g to the unstable security situation and l o w l e v e l o f e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y . T h u s , it is n o r m a l practice to m o v e w i t h large s u m s o f cash for fear o f not getting to it r e a d i l y w h e n it is deposited at the l o c a l bank. T h e r e is a district m e d i c a l officer stationed i n N e b b i , a l t h o u g h stations s u c h as P a k w a c h and N y a r a v u r dispensaries have m i d w i v e s as heads o f m e d i c a l units. T h e r e is a cotton g i n n e r y at P a k w a c h — Southwest N i l e C o o p e r a t i v e U n i o n — w h i c h b u y s and gins cotton f r o m the district, after w h i c h the bales are s h i p p e d to K a m p a l a . T h e r e are n o other large scale operations, except for the boat c o n s t r u c t i o n and carpentry w o r k ( A b i r a W o o d W o r k s ) and the P a k w a c h T o o l s P r o d u c t i o n C e n t r e that manufactures furniture, w o o d and metal f a b r i c a t i o n for a g r i c u l t u r a l i m p l e m e n t s , o x - t r a c t i o n and appropriate v i l l a g e t e c h n o l o g y undertakings. B o t h establishments w o r k c l o s e l y w i t h A C O R D - N E B B I and have gained i m m e n s e l y from their a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h p r o g r a m m e t e c h n i c i a n s and trainers. A t the l o c a l l e v e l , a t r a d i t i o n a l c l a n o f smiths produces k n i v e s a n d m e t a l i m p l e m e n t s . C o m m e r c e is c o n t r o l l e d b y s m a l l businesses at the retail l e v e l , a n d o v e r 8 0 % o f their m e r c h a n d i s e lines are non-perishable products. F o o d is either g r o w n i n d i v i d u a l l y for personal c o n s u m p t i o n or p u r c h a s e d at markets i n the r e g i o n . T h e r e is currently hardly any  108  m a r k e t i n g structure at r e g i o n a l and sub-regional l e v e l s . T h e e c o n o m i c b a c k b o n e o f N e b b i district is agriculture, f o l l o w e d b y fishery. A g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c e has t r a d i t i o n a l l y , e v e n today, been for the g r o w e r ' s o w n sustenance and the surplus m a r k e t e d for cash i n c o m e . A g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n is based o n cassava, s o r g h u m , m i l l e t , m a i z e , c o o k i n g bananas, Irish and sweet potatoes. C o w peas, beans, and soy p r o v i d e the p e o p l e w i t h most o f the plant p r o t e i n , w i t h fish as a supplement. O i l seeds ( o i l p a l m and sesame seeds) are p r o d u c e d b o t h for the market and the g r o w e r ' s o w n c o n s u m p t i o n . N o t m a n y varieties o f vegetables are g r o w n (the c o m m o n l y f o u n d ones i n c l u d e cabbage, tomatoes, aubergine) and some leafy plants (e.g., g u i n a n d r o p s i s , w h i c h is t r a d i t i o n a l l y gathered and prepared as "spinach"). B a n a n a s , citrus fruit, mangoes, a v o c a d o s , j a c k f r u i t and c a s h e w nuts are p r o d u c e d for households' o w n c o n s u m p t i o n and a s m a l l p o r t i o n s o l d i n the market for cash i n c o m e .  Summary In this chapter I have s u m m a r i z e d h i s t o r i c a l a n d p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s w h i c h confronted the emergence o f n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s engaged i n adult e d u c a t i o n supported c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , w h i l e at the same t i m e e x p l i c a t i n g h o w s u c c e s s i v e governments shifted their p r i o r i t i e s that ranged f r o m f o c u s i n g o n c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t - a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m m e s , to p o l i c i e s geared to sustaining e c o n o m i c prosperity o f the country and l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s . A l s o r e v e a l e d i n this chapter is h o w successive U g a n d a n g o v e r n m e n t s r e c o g n i z e d the role w h i c h adult e d u c a t i o n p l a y s i n c o m p r e h e n s i v e h u m a n d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s r e c o g n i t i o n has been expressed i n the p r o n o u n c e m e n t s and speeches o f v a r i o u s g o v e r n m e n t m i n i s t r i e s a n d o f f i c i a l s . V a r i o u s g o v e r n m e n t d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s also c o n t a i n  109  statements o n the r o l e o f adult e d u c a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e s . H o w e v e r , as c a n be o b s e r v e d i n this h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t , there is no specific, c o m p r e h e n s i v e l e g i s l a t i o n i n U g a n d a that r e c o g n i z e s adult e d u c a t i o n as a c r u c i a l and s p e c i f i c c o m p o n e n t o f the c o u n t r y ' s e d u c a t i o n system and as a permanent element i n the c o u n t r y ' s s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c y . T h e chapter has revealed that the g o v e r n m e n t has yet to articulate plans, p r o g r a m m e s and structures w h i c h meet the needs and aspirations o f a l l categories o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t practice ~ the t h i r d sector — and e s p e c i a l l y ones that reflect m o d e r n concepts and practices. F u r t h e r m o r e , I have presented i n this chapter, A C O R D ' s history, d e v e l o p m e n t objectives, a n d later successive i n v o l v e m e n t i n sub-Sahara A f r i c a . I have also h i g h l i g h t e d A C O R D ' s shifts i n d e v e l o p m e n t objectives i n the 1970s, d u r i n g the 1980s, and i n the 1990s. T h e shift i n e m p h a s i s f r o m cooperative p r o g r a m m e s , to institutional b u i l d i n g , and later, to c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t and d e v e l o p m e n t o f l o c a l structures, indeed c o i n c i d e d w i t h debates o n p o l i t i c a l theories o f d e v e l o p m e n t , their l i m i t a t i o n s , a n d alternative o p t i o n s a d v a n c e d to l o c a l d e v e l o p m e n t r e v i e w e d i n chapter t w o . T h e chapter has c o n c l u d e d b y c o n t e x t u a l i z i n g the case study. T h e next chapter presents a d e s c r i p t i v e analysis o f A C O R D - N E B B I education and t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s i n N e b b i district, northwestern U g a n d a .  110  CHAPTER V: A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING ACTIVITIES A T THE ACORD-NEBBI PROGRAMME I n this chapter I present a d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s o f the e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g c o m p o n e n t o f A C O R D - N E B B I d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e , i n c l u d i n g its l i n k a g e s w i t h c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d organizations ( C B O s ) i n N e b b i district. D a t a u s e d to prepare this chapter w e r e obtained f r o m A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e reports (quarterly, h a l f - y e a r l y , and a n n u a l reports, 1990-1997); A C O R D a n n u a l reports ( 1 9 9 2 ; 1996; 1997); gender a n d d e v e l o p m e n t documents i n the field (Hadjipateras, 1994; 1995; 1996); notes from the c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k e r s w h o are also referred to as t r a i n i n g officers; l o c a l l y d e v e l o p e d t r a i n i n g m a n u a l s ( M a f i i m b o , 1998); agro-forestry technicians; a n d i n t e r v i e w s w i t h s t u d y participants. B y e x a m i n i n g what the methods and content o f s p e c i f i c A C O R D N E B B I c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t c u r r i c u l a r e v e a l about the p r i n c i p l e s o n w h i c h the p r o g r a m s are based, the descriptive analysis hereby sets the stage for r e s p o n d i n g to the first research question p u r s u e d i n chapter s i x that f o l l o w s . I n i t i a l l y , m o s t o f the k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s t r a i n i n g was d e l i v e r e d b y A C O R D N E B B I i n the respective parishes, at the request o f the C B O s . I n the b e g i n n i n g , the scope o f the t r a i n i n g centre w a s v e r y l i m i t e d . T h e t r a i n i n g centre that b e g a n as a n a c c o m m o d a t i o n f a c i l i t y for field staff d u r i n g their regular m o n t h l y t r a i n i n g w o r k s h o p s a n d seminars later underwent a r e v i e w . O v e r t i m e , the activities o f the C B O s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s affiliated w i t h A C O R D - N E B B I increased i n c o m p l e x i t y , and the t y p e o f support r e q u i r e d b e c a m e m o r e intricate, r a n g i n g from exposure to w i d e r investment p o s s i b i l i t i e s to b r o a d e n i n g o f k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s to p e r f o r m c o l l e c t i v e tasks e f f e c t i v e l y .  I l l  P r i o r to the t r a i n i n g centre c o n s t r u c t i o n , A C O R D - N E B B I c o n d u c t e d p r o g r a m m e area-wide c o n s u l t a t i o n i n the parishes. T h e general consensus f o u n d w a s that the t i m e participants t o o k i n preparing to attend t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s w a s e x c e s s i v e a n d the t i m e taken for sharing some o f the p r a c t i c a l experiences at t r a i n i n g were not adequate for c o m p r e h e n s i v e , c o m p l e t e t r a i n i n g . T h i s w a s attributed to the fact that participants w o u l d travel l o n g distances to the t r a i n i n g locations, o n l y to arrive late and leave early to attend to other d o m e s t i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . T h i s suggested the need for a residential place for participants to stay d u r i n g t r a i n i n g , instead o f m e r e l y catering to A C O R D - N E B B I staff, as w a s i n i t i a l l y the case. Later, the centre p r o v i d e d office a n d a c c o m m o d a t i o n for A C O R D - N E B B I w o r k e r s , served as a site for w o r k s h o p s and seminars, and w a s a resource centre for s m a l l - s c a l e enterprises i n the area. M o s t o f the centre's e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g activities were p l a n n e d i n close c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the groups that kept e m e r g i n g . T h e e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g beneficiaries w e r e h e l p e d to identify their s p e c i f i c needs a n d p r i o r i t i z e t h e m . A t the same t i m e A C O R D - N E B B I p u b l i s h e d and c i r c u l a t e d its p l a n s for the centre i n b o t h native ( A l u r ) and E n g l i s h languages. A f t e r a series o f consultations, b o t h A C O R D N E B B I and c o m m u n i t i e s ' v i e w s were incorporated into the centre's e d u c a t i o n and training programs.  5.1 External training T w o A C O R D - N E B B I personnel attended a course o n d e v e l o p m e n t  management  for d e v e l o p m e n t officers i n g o v e r n m e n t and N G O s h e l d i n L u s a k a , Z a m b i a . T h e course t o o k p l a c e f r o m 2 9 t h A p r i l to 2 4 t h M a y 1 9 9 1 . T h e course c o v e r e d the strategies to enhance s k i l l s o f d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k e r s i n i d e n t i f y i n g c r i t i c a l gender and d e v e l o p m e n t  112 issues that constrain d e v e l o p m e n t processes at the c o m m u n i t y l e v e l ; i m p a r t i n g important p l a n n i n g and management s k i l l s required to p r o m o t e gender s e n s i t i v i t y for effective, efficient a n d sustainable i n i t i a t i v e s ; and strategies that create opportunities for d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k e r s to share their experiences o n factors that c o n s t r a i n d e v e l o p m e n t initiatives. It c a n be d e d u c e d that the f o u n d a t i o n o f the c o m p u l s o r y gender sensitive p r o g r a m m e i n A C O R D - N E B B I o r i g i n a t e d f r o m this course, and w h e n the c o m m u n i t y c o n s u l t a t i o n w a s c o n d u c t e d i n 1987, it s i m p l y r e i n f o r c e d the need to e m p h a s i z e gender as a c r u c i a l factor i n c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t c u r r i c u l a and practice. M o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y , the course contributed t o w a r d the d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c t i o n p l a n s for gender sensitive analysis o f men's and w o m e n ' s w o r k roles at the c o m m u n i t y l e v e l , as w e l l as i n b r i n g i n g to light the special p l i g h t o f w o m e n i n traditional d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m i n g . It is also evident that the p a r t i c i p a t i o n at the course created the r e q u i r e d i m p e t u s and c o m m i t m e n t to w o m e n ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e s , d e v e l o p m e n t processes and the result has been evident t h r o u g h groups f o r m e d a n d m a n a g e d b y w o m e n . A s e c o n d significant external t r a i n i n g o c c u r r e d i n the area o f appropriate v i l l a g e t e c h n o l o g y . T h e appropriate t e c h n o l o g i s t o f A C O R D - N E B B I underwent a study exchange v i s i t t h r o u g h the N a t i o n a l S e r v i c e Secretariat i n G h a n a , for a p e r i o d o f t w o m o n t h s i n 1991. T h e course c o v e r e d k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s i n bee k e e p i n g , textile d y e i n g , f o o d p r o c e s s i n g , soap and b r i c k m a k i n g . M o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y , this external t r a i n i n g l a i d the cornerstone for t r a i n i n g c u r r i c u l a i n i n c o m e generating a c t i v i t i e s that were later pursued by the C B O s .  113  5.2 Internal training T h e R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t W o r k e r s r e c e i v e d t w o sets o f residential t r a i n i n g , d u r i n g 1 9 8 9 - 1 9 9 1 , at the centre i n self-identified areas that i n c l u d e d the concept o f change agent, roles, a n d their characteristics; p r o g r a m m e m e t h o d o l o g y ; p o v e r t y a n d its causes; c o m m u n i t y m o b i l i z a t i o n ; a n d r o l e o f the facilitator ( A C O R D - N E B B I 1 9 8 9 , 1 9 9 1 ) . T h e R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t W o r k e r s have b a c k g r o u n d s i n teaching, agriculture a n d forestry, a c c o u n t i n g , a n d s o c i a l w o r k professions. T h e m o s t important aspect o f the internal t r a i n i n g w a s the n e e d to create a sense o f w h a t S t a n B u r k e y (1993) w h o w o r k e d at the A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e s u m m a r i z e s as the g o a l o f a change agent, o n e that has i m p l i c a t i o n s to the d e s i g n a n d d e l i v e r y o f s k i l l s t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s : Go to the people; Live with them; Work with them; Start with what they have; Build on what they know; And in the end; When the work is done; The people will rejoice; We have done it ourselves!  5.3 Training to self-selecting groups S i m i l a r activities o n t r a i n i n g have b e e n extended to m e m b e r s o f the C B O s i n order to i m p r o v e their o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a n d m a n a g e r i a l s k i l l s . T h e self-identified needs that d e v e l o p e d into m o d u l a r courses are group d y n a m i c s a n d leadership; c o m m u n i t y m o b i l i z a t i o n a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; c o m m e r c e ; b o o k k e e p i n g ; strategic p l a n n i n g ; a n d financial  management. A n d w h e n I asked the beneficiaries o f t r a i n i n g o n m a n u r e m a k i n g  about w h a t they do w i t h the t r a i n i n g , a response w a s . . . We return home and begin to practice the knowledge or skills gained . . . Those who do not attend the training or are non-members of our group still get the knowledge from us . . . To some, we share the knowledge, and to others, they see physically what activities we are doing in our own homes. . . But we keep encouraging them to start making their own too. And the resources for making manure are available in every village in this county (Extract from programme beneficiaries group interview).  114  O v e r the years A C O R D - N E B B I e x p a n d e d its t r a i n i n g p r p g r a m to c o v e r the change agent role, b o o k - k e e p i n g , appropriate t e c h n o l o g y , artisan fishery, agro-forestry, gender sensitive p l a n n i n g , strategic p l a n n i n g , b l a c k s m i t h i n g , e v a l u a t i o n , s i m p l e data c o l l e c t i o n for m o n i t o r i n g and auto-evaluation, f i n a n c i a l management, fund r a i s i n g , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and leadership s k i l l s . T h e A C O R D - N E B B I t r a i n i n g officers a c k n o w l e d g e that b u i l d i n g management c a p a b i l i t y is an important t o o l for the success o f a group i n i t i a t i v e . It is as important as capital. M a n a g e m e n t t r a i n i n g has c o v e r e d s u c h t o p i c s as: basic b o o k - k e e p i n g for s m a l l business ventures, c o n d u c t i n g f e a s i b i l i t y studies, m a r k e t i n g o f f i n i s h e d products, c o n t r o l l i n g q u a l i t y o f what is p r o d u c e d , k e e p i n g adequate records o f i n f o r m a t i o n , and p l a n n i n g o f activities. O f equal s i g n i f i c a n c e is the t r a i n i n g to i m p r o v e the l e v e l o f t e c h n o l o g y i n use. T e c h n o l o g i e s that save t i m e , labour, and cost; are adaptable to l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s ; use l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e inputs, and are user e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y f r i e n d l y , are p r o m o t e d b y the p r o g r a m m e . In l o o k i n g at the consultative d i s c u s s i o n s that A C O R D - N E B B I c o n d u c t e d i n 1987 w i t h c o m m u n i t y and group representatives about the objectives o f the t r a i n i n g centre, most v i e w s were i n favour o f d e v e l o p i n g the centre to meet i n d i v i d u a l groups' requirements t h r o u g h three strategies. F i r s t , b y p r o v i d i n g p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s t r a i n i n g . T h e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m w a s later c o n d u c t e d both w i t h i n the p r o g r a m m e a n d outside the p r o g r a m m e area. F i e l d v i s i t s b y A C O R D - N E B B I staff and beneficiaries to other parts o f the country a n d outside the country o c c u r r e d . S e c o n d , b y e n c o u r a g i n g the u t i l i z a t i o n o f a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n and resources as m u c h as p o s s i b l e , and to d i v e r s i f y the p r o d u c t i o n base o f the groups. T h i s entailed e n c o u r a g i n g and p r o m o t i n g different i n c o m e generating  115  a c t i v i t i e s i n v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t i e s . T h i r d , b y p r o m o t i n g l i n k a g e s a m o n g the p e o p l e through the creation o f i n f o r m a t i o n and n e t w o r k i n g systems, i n c l u d i n g f a c i l i t a t i n g seminars and w o r k s h o p s ; f a c i l i t a t i n g exchange v i s i t s a m o n g groups a n d i n d i v i d u a l s ; demonstrating n e w ideas and i n n o v a t i o n s ; and e n c o u r a g i n g l i n k a g e s w i t h institutions l i k e the U g a n d a S m a l l S c a l e Industrialists A s s o c i a t i o n . T o date, the t r a i n i n g centre conducts a variety o f a c t i v i t i e s , both proactive and at the request o f the c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d organizations. F r o m the s u m m a r y o f the rural t r a i n i n g centre programs that o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the p e r i o d between 1 9 9 0 - 1 9 9 3 , as presented i n T a b l e 2, it c a n be observed that the objectives and nature o f participants influence the content at every step o f the t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m d e s i g n and l o c a t i o n o f the t r a i n i n g d e l i v e r y T A B L E 2 : A S U M M A R Y O F T H E T R A I N I N G C E N T R E ' S P R O G R A M S . 1990-93 P U R P O S E  P A R T I C I P A N T S  C O N T E N T  - To provide all ACORD-NEBBI staff with basic knowledge of credit management. - To gain knowledge and skills in; leadership; community mobilization; resource mobilization; financial management. - To enable the participants to improve their work with the community - To acquire additional knowledge and skills in management; environment; resource mobilization; leadership skills.  All ACORD-NEBBI staff Parish Planning Committees  - To prepare the trainees for TASO training of trainers  AIDS volunteers  To enable trainees to train others in helping community to respond to AIDS epidemic  AIDS volunteers trainees  To enable staff acquire additional knowledge in working with partners Credit review  ACORD-NEBBI staff  - Credit management - Feasibility analysis - Leadership skills - Resources mobilization - Financial management - Feasibility analysis - Book-keeping - Management - Environment - Resource mobilization - Leadership - Understanding the Community - Personality awareness - Peoples' roles in the community - What is AIDS? - Evaluation - Basic facts on AIDS/ HIV - Prevalence and extent - Community Action Plan - Feasibility analysis Reporting - Gender Facilitation skills Review of credit policies and roles  Sharing ACORD-NEBBl's experiences in credit schemes  Loan Allocation Committees Landing officials  Loan allocation committees Program managers and technical staff  - Targeting of credit - Credit policy/ management - Leadership/ group dynamics - Feasibility studies  Source: Rural Development Promotion Programme, UGA/04 Quarterly Report, 1993. p. 12-13. O f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e is the emphasis A C O R D - N E B B I place o n e n s u r i n g that i n d i v i d u a l t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s meet particular needs o f the targeted beneficiary groups. F o r  116  instance, the p r o g r a m m e e m p h a s i z e s the t r a i n i n g o f volunteers to d e l i v e r c o m m u n i t y health e d u c a t i o n programs, the sharing o f experiences b e t w e e n groups c a r r y i n g s i m i l a r activities, a n d o n w o r k s h o p s geared to gender s e n s i t i v i t y as w e l l as f a c i l i t a t i o n a n d leadership s k i l l s . T h u s , it c a n be c o n c l u d e d that A C O R D - N E B B I ensures the f o u n d a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g concerns for c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t are addressed as they are v a l u a b l e to c o m m u n i t y groups i n b o t h their self-selection group process f o r m a t i o n a n d c o l l e c t i v e activities that the groups identify. T a b l e 3 s h o w s a s a m p l e o f t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s that w e r e c o n d u c t e d between 19961997. T h e c o m m u n i t y - o r i e n t e d nature o f the participants' types a n d the frequency at w h i c h the beneficiaries attended the specific p r o g r a m s further illustrates the increased emphasis p l a c e d o n gender as a c r i t i c a l factor i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n at the t r a i n i n g programs. T h e total figure o f 4 4 3 3 females c o m p a r e d w i t h 6 4 8 2 m e n reveals a trend i n the e l e v a t i o n o f the status o f w o m e n i n t r a d i t i o n a l l y m a l e d o m i n a t e d N e b b i [ A l u r ] society. T A B L E 3 : S U M M A R Y O F F I E L D T R A I N I N G P R O G R A M S , 1996-97 PARTICIPANTS Community representatives  # of Times 10  Community representatives (Farmers) Local Allocation Committees (LACs) and Group representatives Community representatives Parish and Zonal Planning Committees  7 27  Community and group representatives  55  AIDS Volunteers and community representatives  78  Groups/ Association's representatives TOTAL  75  47 299  TRAINING CONTENT Nutrition; Food production; Types of foods; Food preservation, Serving; Family planning; Gender awareness. General crop management Credit policy; Review of the scheme. Review of the LACs, Definition of community; Identification of problems; Alternative solutions; Priority setting; Planning; Implementation; Community mobilization/ resources; Monitoring; Evaluation; Roles of committees. Bee-keeping/ apiary management. Ceramics; Storage; Blacksmithing - heat treatment; VIP latrines; Energy serving devices. Facts about AIDS; Modes of Transmission; Behavioural change; Counseling skills; Protection/ prevention; Training techniques. Planning; Business management  Source: compiled from the field training documents, ACORD Library, 1998.  M 81  92 232  F 165  .  43 163  294  831  390  175  5039  2,757  354 6482  210 4344  117  5.4 O n identifying training needs B a s e d o n d o c u m e n t data and i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d b y A C O R D - N E B B I t r a i n i n g officers i n t e r v i e w e d , there is e v i d e n c e that, i n m o s t cases, t r a i n i n g takes place after they have c o n d u c t e d needs assessments w i t h the p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p o r c o m m u n i t y c o n c e r n e d . T h e f o l l o w i n g excerpts f r o m i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s p o i n t to the v a r i o u s w a y s that t r a i n i n g needs are identified: We visit groups, attend their meetings, carry out group analysis, conduct needs assessments, and at end o f the day come up with different training needs from each o f them . . . As a programme, we carry out a problem analysis in the community. A n d on the findings o f that analysis, where there is a need for training, we then organize w i t h the community the areas o f training. A n d then we draw up a plan to train with specific objectives, the activities, inputs, outputs, and possible assumptions about that particular training program (Extract from community development workers individual interview).  T h e cassava c r o p , a root tuber, is a staple food i n the r e g i o n . U s i n g the cassava c r o p as an i l l u s t r a t i o n , the agro-forestry technicians attest to this fact: When the community realize a decline in yield on a crop they have grown for many years, and their yields have reduced considerably, there grows a need to introduce a new crop variety . . . A n d through interaction with Namulonge Agricultural Research Station in Kampala, we later conducted an introduction o f a new crop variety — Tropical Mornihort Series — and to this new crop variety, one area o f training has been to train the farmers in the skills o f multiplying the stocks . . . Because we w o u l d bring in limited stock, we provided the beneficiaries with skills and techniques for multiplying the stocks so that in subsequent years, they would keep on multiplying the stock while we would keep on monitoring (Extract from community development workers individual interviews).  T h e r e are other w a y s o f identifying i n d i v i d u a l groups' t r a i n i n g needs. A p p e n d i x e s B , C , and D illustrate the a p p r o a c h a p p l i e d to determine the needs o f i n d i v i d u a l groups. A p p e n d i x A illustrates a needs assessment o n the cassava c r o p . B y participants c h e c k i n g o n the score sheet h o w m u c h they k n o w o f the m a i n activities f r o m 1-10  subject areas, the  agro-forestry t e c h n i c i a n s are i n a m u c h m o r e i n f o r m e d p o s i t i o n to d e v e l o p a t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m that meets the specific l e v e l o f the learners i n a p a r t i c u l a r c o m m u n i t y . T h u s , the p o p u l a r p r o g r a m o n r a p i d cassava stock m u l t i p l i c a t i o n was based o n a t r a i n i n g needs  118  assessment, d e r i v e d t h r o u g h farmers' self-assessment o f k n o w l e d g e about cassava g r o w i n g and harvest. A p p e n d i x C concerns the leadership assessment f o r m used b y t r a i n i n g officers to establish the l e v e l o f leadership s k i l l s t r a i n i n g required b y the beneficiaries. B y the applicants i n d i c a t i n g their l e v e l o f i n v o l v e m e n t i n their self-selected groups, the t r a i n i n g participants h e l p t r a i n i n g officers identify the elements r e q u i r e d i n the leadership s k i l l s t r a i n i n g c u r r i c u l u m . T h i s is further important to p o i n t i n g at what w o u l d be the performance expectations o n their respective c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d organizations' w o r k , u p o n c o m p l e t i o n o f the leadership t r a i n i n g . T o a i d the p l a n n i n g process, the t i m e o f participants' a v a i l a b i l i t y helps to establish i f the p r o g r a m s h o u l d r u n c o n t i n u o u s l y w i t h o u t breaks or as one that is spread o v e r several w e e k s . T h e p o i n t here is to enhance participants' f l e x i b i l i t y so that the t r a i n i n g does not interfere w i t h i n d i v i d u a l group w o r k . A p p e n d i x D illustrates the t r a i n i n g needs assessment f o r m for d e v e l o p i n g relevant training materials for the v a r i o u s courses at A C O R D - N E B B I . T h e y i n c l u d e appropriate v i l l a g e t e c h n o l o g y t r a i n i n g , l i v e s t o c k management, group credit management, m o n i t o r i n g and e v a l u a t i o n , gender sensitive p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g , and b o o k k e e p i n g .  5 . 5 Forms of training conducted Gender sensitive training A C O R D - N E B B I b e l i e v e s that interpersonal relations, staffing structures, and p o l i c i e s are important ingredients to change and l o c a l i z a t i o n . Therefore, the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a successful gender strategy i n v o l v e s understanding a n d d e a l i n g w i t h internal constraints a n d w o r k e r s ' sensitivities about gender issues at both o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and p r o g r a m m i n g l e v e l s .  119 A C O R D - N E B B I d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e is a i m e d at a c h i e v i n g a better a n d sustainable standard o f l i v i n g for the p e o p l e c o v e r e d b y the p r o g r a m m e . A n d the m e a n s to a c h i e v e this objective have been t h r o u g h the p r o v i s i o n o f k n o w l e d g e a n d s k i l l s to the groups w i t h the g o a l o f i n c r e a s i n g opportunities for c o m m u n i t y residents. T h e t r a i n i n g participants have c o n s i s t e d o f w o m e n ' s groups, m e n ' s groups, a n d m i x e d groups. T h e t r a i n i n g has b e e n a p p l i e d to the v a r i o u s areas o f a c t i v i t y , at the request a n d pace o f the groups, n a m e l y , agriculture, fisheries, appropriate t e c h n o l o g y , b e e - k e e p i n g , pottery, batik, agro-forestry, credit scheme, water^ n u t r i t i o n , c o m m u n i t y health, t r a i n i n g , n e t w o r k i n g , net-braiding. O n e o f the t r a i n i n g officers h a d this to say:  We work according to group requests and plans . . . Recently we traveled and delivered bookkeeping, and later, leadership skills. Next week we will facilitate gender analysis workshops . . . And we continue to be asked by the groups, when are you coming to us? So we are moving at groups' pace (Extract from community development workers individual interviews). G e n d e r s e n s i t i v i t y i n p r o g r a m activities has been an i n d i r e c t a p p r o a c h to s e n s i t i z i n g c o m m u n i t i e s i n the p r o g r a m m e area. T h e data c o l l e c t e d suggest that the approaches i n c l u d e a) the p r o v i s i o n o f appropriate i n f o r m a t i o n , k n o w l e d g e a n d s k i l l s w h i c h u s e d to be directed e x c l u s i v e l y at m e n to w o m e n ' s groups, b) less stringent access to f i n a n c i a l credit, thereby i n c r e a s i n g w o m e n ' s c a p i t a l f o r large e c o n o m i c a l l y p r o d u c t i v e ventures, c) encouragement o f w o m e n to undertake activities w h i c h u s e d to be m a i n l y for m e n (i.e. w o o d - l o t management, b e e - k e e p i n g , s m a l l business ventures), d) c o n f i d e n c e b u i l d i n g , e n c o u r a g i n g w o m e n to acquire leadership c o n f i d e n c e a n d a b i l i t i e s t h r o u g h t r a i n i n g i n leadership s k i l l s a n d e n c o u r a g i n g their p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n m a k i n g w i t h i n l o c a l c o m m u n i t y structures, e) h a v i n g m i x e d seminars o n o w n e r s h i p a n d c o n t r o l o f resources, a n d f) gender s e n s i t i z a t i o n seminars at the field l e v e l .  120  T r a i n i n g of trainers T h e t r a i n i n g o f trainers p r o g r a m is p r i m a r i l y a i m e d at p r o v i d i n g c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k e r s and m e m b e r s o f groups and associations affiliated w i t h A C O R D N E B B I , the k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s for effective c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t practice. T h i s is p a r t i c u l a r l y essential i n the case o f c o n t i n u e d group f o r m a t i o n processes based o n the multiplier concept and one that d r a w s o n the experiences o f other groups. N o t o n l y has it been cost effective [as trainers are locals] but also that the trainers are k n o w n to the s o c i o p o l i t i c a l a n d l o c a l d e v e l o p m e n t challenges i n the p r o g r a m m e area. In an i n t e r v i e w w i t h the agro-forestry t e c h n i c i a n s , it appears the t r a i n i n g o f trainers' a p p r o a c h i s effective, as i n their v i e w . . . This is appropriate for community members, whom we want to become trainers in their respective local communities. For example, we found a group that we trained in agriculture on rapid cassava stem multiplication. That is an income generating activity, and at the same time, a form of human capacity building. So, we use those members to train others on how to multiply cassava stock. So, as these beneficiaries, whom we train locally, learn all relevant knowledge and skills associated with their respective group activities; we at the A C O R D - N E B B I programme begin to feel that our capacity building initiative is working (extract from the community development workers individual interview).  B e n e f i c i a r i e s o f t r a i n i n g o f trainers have i n c l u d e d c o m m u n i t y health educators, c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k e r s , and v i l l a g e change agents w h o are engaged i n the p r o v i s i o n o f t r a i n i n g at the grass-roots l e v e l . On-the-job training T h i s p r o g r a m focuses o n i n d i v i d u a l i z e d t r a i n i n g , i n w h i c h trainees w o r k a l o n g w i t h an e x p e r i e n c e d p e r s o n a n d learn procedures w h i l e w a t c h i n g , t a l k i n g w i t h , and h e l p i n g the e x p e r i e n c e d person. T o A C O R D - N E B B I beneficiaries, on-the-job t r a i n i n g has been effective because it addresses the trainee's s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l needs and situations. S i n c e it is c o n d u c t e d i n the actual w o r k p l a c e , on-the-job t r a i n i n g p r o v i d e s  121  m a x i m u m r e a l i s m . M o r e o v e r , the learner receives i m m e d i a t e feedback to redress what has just been t a c k l e d . A n d b e i n g adult learners, w h e n they are p o s i t i v e l y r e i n f o r c e d , they g a i n i n c e n t i v e to c o n t i n u e p e r f o r m i n g m o r e effectively. B e n e f i c i a r i e s o f on-the-job t r a i n i n g have been participants at o x e n p l o u g h t r a i n i n g , and the t o o l s p r o d u c t i o n centre.  Organizational strengthening and institutional development of CBOs F r o m the A C O R D - N E B B I t r a i n i n g officers' m a n u a l s , the t e r m o r g a n i z a t i o n a l strengthening and institutional d e v e l o p m e n t for C B O s embraces the f o l l o w i n g : t r a i n i n g i n b o o k - k e e p i n g and credit management; gender s e n s i t i v i t y to p r o m o t e gender balance d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e s ; participatory m o n i t o r i n g v i s i t s to C B O s to observe and find out progress o n C B O s performance; and j o i n t meetings o f A C O R D - N E B B I and C B O s to discuss cost-sharing and l o c a l N G O f o r m a t i o n .  Training in field research methodologies T h e t r a i n i n g i n field m e t h o d o l o g i e s p r o g r a m began because m a n y groups and associations l a c k e d the c o n f i d e n c e to carry out their o w n research w i t h o u t some t r a i n i n g i n this area. T r a i n i n g i n this category has i n c l u d e d w o r k s h o p s o n participatory rural appraisal techniques, supported b y fieldwork a c t i v i t i e s . A p p e n d i c e s E , F , G , and H illustrate the types o f t r a i n i n g that are c o n d u c t e d after t r a i n i n g needs are i d e n t i f i e d i n the groups. A p p e n d i x E ~ B o o k k e e p i n g t r a i n i n g — is a c o m m o n t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t y because a l l c o m m u n i t y based o r g a n i z a t i o n s are engaged i n i n c o m e generating a c t i v i t i e s and therefore h a n d l i n g large v o l u m e s o f cash is a c o m m o n practice. D u r i n g m y group i n t e r v i e w s , one p r o m i n e n t fact that featured w a s that m o s t o f the adults were elected as treasurers o f their groups p r i m a r i l y due to their trustworthiness, and not based o n any a c c o u n t i n g b a c k g r o u n d . T h i s l a c k o f basic b o o k k e e p i n g c a n be  122  observed i n the w a y c r i t i c a l d i s t o r t i o n o f revenues and expenses,, or interest o n loans lent to m e m b e r s , are entered i n the b o o k s o f accounts. A l t h o u g h it is the group treasurer w h o needs the t r a i n i n g the most, other e x e c u t i v e m e m b e r s also must understand the f i n a n c i a l s u m m a r i e s that are d i s c u s s e d at v a r i o u s meetings. T r a i n i n g i n c o n d u c t i n g f e a s i b i l i t y studies has also been accessed b y a majority o f the groups because every group needs to identify and assess the s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c v i a b i l i t y o f their i n c o m e generating activities. A C O R D - N E B B I b e l i e v e s that e q u i p p i n g e x e c u t i v e m e m b e r s o f the groups w i t h basic k n o w l e d g e for assessing v i a b i l i t y o f i n c o m e generating undertakings is a n important c o m p o n e n t o f the capacity b u i l d i n g strategy. A p p e n d i c e s G , H , and I are t r a i n i n g elements for the T r a i n e r o f C o m m u n i t y W o r k e r p r o g r a m . T h e three A p p e n d i c e s illustrate the contents, b e h a v i o u r and attitudes, as w e l l as teaching s k i l l s that the trainer s h o u l d learn for t r a i n i n g further volunteers. T h e three c h e c k l i s t s are u t i l i z e d i n the trainer o f c o m m u n i t y w o r k e r s ' p r o g r a m for c o m m u n i t y health e d u c a t i o n outreach. T h i s also demonstrates that A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e is not o n l y p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n o f i n c o m e generating activities but also c o m m u n i t y health education. T h e efforts to raise c o m m u n i t y awareness b y A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e o n certain p r e s s i n g l o c a l issues that are b e y o n d the c o n t r o l o f c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d organizations are better addressed b y the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a l l stakeholders at a gathering s u c h as seminars. A p p e n d i x J illustrates the approach, w h i c h has been pursued to effectively deal w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n , e d u c a t i o n a n d awareness r a i s i n g i n the p r o g r a m m e area.  123  A p p e n d i x J s h o w s h o w s o m e l e a r n i n g activities c a n be shared b y a w i d e spectrum o f people. In this case u s i n g the seminar as a m e t h o d , the k e y p e o p l e i n the p r o g r a m m e area met for one day to engage participants i n c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g a n d c o n s c i o u s n e s s r a i s i n g about the need for e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n and r e q u i r e d a c t i o n necessary to ensure the preservation and resource c o n s e r v a t i o n at the c o m m u n i t y l e v e l . Identifying c o m m u n i t y l o c a l b y l a w s o n e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n (especially b u s h b u r n i n g ) and d r a w i n g up a c t i o n plans for the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the l o c a l b y l a w s o n b u s h b u r n i n g i n the c o m m u n i t y were the p r i o r i t i e s i n this particular seminar. T h u s f r o m the group a c t i v i t i e s , i n t e r v i e w s , and d o c u m e n t a t i o n r e v i e w e d , A C O R D - N E B B I p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s essential to the p r e d o m i n a n t forms o f e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y has been at the fore front o f the p r o g r a m m e . T h i s is evident i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l strengthening and institutional d e v e l o p m e n t o f groups that emerged. O f specific i m p o r t a n c e has been the d e l i v e r y o f t r a i n i n g and b o o k k e e p i n g , gender sensitive p l a n n i n g and e v a l u a t i o n a n d m o n i t o r i n g t r a i n i n g as a f o u n d a t i o n to strengthening groups. A summary of the forms of education and training programs A C O R D - N E B B I e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s consists o f three major forms: i n f o r m a t i o n a l , i n s t r u c t i o n a l , and participatory. Informational t r a i n i n g refers to the transfer o f i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m a source, such as a n i n d i v i d u a l or a resource l i k e a film, to the trainee. T h e y i n c l u d e b r i e f lectures for c o n v e y i n g n e w i n f o r m a t i o n to groups as i n participatory rural appraisal techniques; r e a d i n g materials prepared for the participants for use d u r i n g a n d after t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s ; and field visits d u r i n g w h i c h participants are e x p o s e d to different w a y s o f d o i n g things b y  124  m o r e experienced, effective groups. T h e f o l l o w i n g responses from t r a i n i n g officers is illustrative: There are different situations to which we use different learning methods. For example. Lectures when we are tackling a topic not every person is familiar with . . . Group discussions to involve learners into providing their views, especially in sharing experiences on a subject . . . Brain storming to tackle often sensitive issues, for example, impotence . . . Through exchange and field visits, groups are exposed to different ways of doing things and the achievements of more experienced and confident individuals or groups (extract from community development workers individual interviews). Instructional t r a i n i n g concerns the a p p l i c a t i o n o f s k i l l s , and i n A C O R D - N E B B I case, it takes the f o r m o f on-the-job t r a i n i n g . A p p l i c a t i o n s i n this category i n c l u d e demonstrations a n d practices where groups w h o have c o m p r e h e n s i v e k n o w l e d g e o n the subject demonstrate their s k i l l s to others that observe what is b e i n g done. T h e procedure is reinforced by e x p e r i e n c e d groups w h o then c o a c h the trainees i n correct procedures throughout the practice, u n t i l it is perfected and the learner has mastered the procedure. In a group i n t e r v i e w w i t h p r o g r a m m e beneficiaries, t y p i c a l activities cited were: Popular oxen training, and training in appropriate technology hand-tools production at the tools production centre (extract from program beneficiaries group interviews). P a r t i c i p a t o r y t r a i n i n g , w h i c h is at the heart o f experience-based l e a r n i n g , draws o n the p r o b l e m s o l v i n g resources o f a n u m b e r o f people. A t the A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e , participatory t r a i n i n g i n c l u d e s group d i s c u s s i o n techniques — at w h i c h several m e m b e r s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s affiliated to the A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e c o m e together to share i n f o r m a t i o n and o p i n i o n s , analyze p r o b l e m s and f i n d appropriate solutions to c o m m o n p r o b l e m s — and role p l a y s , assist learners i n integrating content, by acting out the situation under d i s c u s s i o n . Further e x p l a n a t i o n s b y the t r a i n i n g officers validate the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f participatory t r a i n i n g , i n this case, r o l e - p l a y : Role play is especially effective in leadership skills training because the participants become aware of the issue considering most of the beneficiaries never attended formal education . . . Yet it is these types of individuals who have great opportunities for leadership positions in both  125  group and public situations . . . With Role play, participants get more involved as they easily follow the topic (Extract from community development workers individual interview). R o l e p l a y s is a preferred m e t h o d w i t h groups because the study participants revealed that it helps learners m a k e use o f real-life experiences, p r o v i d e s i m m e d i a t e feedback, a l l o w s t h e m and the others to rehearse and share their feelings o n the n e w l y gained s k i l l s i n a safe and c o n t r o l l e d e n v i r o n m e n t . A l s o , games a n d s i m u l a t i o n s are the other preferred techniques because they are "next best" to real-life experiences for the learners. B y a l l o w i n g the learners to generate s o l u t i o n s to a scenario, v a l u a b l e lessons about issues get the full and u n d i v i d e d attention o f the learner. A u d i o - v i s u a l aids c o m b i n e d w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n is also p o p u l a r l y a p p l i e d because, to the trainers, the m o r e their senses that are i n v o l v e d i n the l e a r n i n g experience, the m o r e q u i c k l y s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n gets integrated by the learner. B a s e d o n the presentation above and successive i n t e r v i e w s c o n d u c t e d w i t h the t r a i n i n g officers, T a b l e 4 presents a s u m m a r y o f the t r a i n i n g methods used i n c l u d i n g w h y training officers use the m e t h o d and associated potential weaknesses. A r e v i e w o f the v a r i o u s k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s t r a i n i n g m a n u a l s at the A C O R D N E B B I p r o g r a m m e indicate that the t r a i n i n g officers have adopted m a n y o f the elements o f p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g consistent w i t h western literature ( B e a l et a l , 1966; B o o n e , 1985; B o y l e , 1981; F r e i r e , 1972; H o u l e , 1980, 1996; K n o w l e s , 1982; N a d l e r , 1982; S o r k & C a f f a r e l l a , 1989). F o r e x a m p l e , there are steps for d e s i g n i n g t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s , l e a r n i n g objectives have to be c l e a r l y stated, t r a i n i n g objectives s h o u l d address certain k e y pointers, and b e h a v i o u r a l o u t c o m e s need to c o n s i d e r certain s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s . T h e t r a i n i n g officers h a d this to say:  126  Training has got its steps . . . First, we identify the true picture of a situation through a needs assessment to confirm what knowledge and skills gaps require addressing . . . It is from this identification that we proceed with the approach on how to do the training (Extract from community development workers individual interviews). Indeed, i n the a b o v e p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g literature, the steps u s e d i n d e s i g n i n g t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s i n c l u d e : d e c i d i n g o n the p u r p o s e o f p r o g r a m , setting objectives,  TABLE 4: A SUMMARY OF ACORD-NEBBI TRAINING METHODS Method  Overview of procedures  Lecture  One person does most of the talking, may use handouts, visual aids, questions/ answers to supplement lecture  Demonstration  Effective for basic skills training. Trainer shows trainees how to perform a task or conduct a procedure; can include opportunity for trainee to perform the task (s) being demonstrated Effective for experienced trainees; offers possibility to use several group methods (lectures, discussions, workshops) which require group participation.  Seminar  Why Training Officers use the method less time required for the trainer preparation than other methods; provides more information quickly when retention of details is not important Emphasizes trainee involvement; several senses can be involved.  Group members are involved in the training; can use many group methods (role-playing, case study) as part of the seminar activity.  Workshops  Effective problem solving approaches; group approach to.considering a specific problem or issue and to reaching a solution to a problem.  Much trainee participation; obtains trainee consensus; allow the use of several methods (lecture, seminars) to keep sessions interesting.  Role Plays  Effective for interpersonal communications and relations. Trainees pretend to be selected people in specific situations and have an opportunity to experiment with different approaches to dealing with the situation. Effective for skill development. Trainees imitate actions required on the task.  Trainees can leam of certain possible behaviours/procedures/ reactions during the learning process; skills in dealing with people can be practiced; alternative approaches can be analyzed and considered. Training becomes "real," trainees are actively involved in the learning process; training has direct applicability to tasks that would be performed in the post-training period. Can present a real-life situation, which enables trainees to consider what they would do; can be used to teach a wide variety of skills in which application of information is important.  Simulations  Field work/projects  Effective for teaching situational analysis. The work is a description of a real pr imagined situation, which contains information that trainees can use to analyze what has occurred and why.  Potential Weaknesses Does not actively involve trainees in training process; trainees forget much information when it is only presented orally. Requires more preparation time, planning, and attention to detail.  Planning is time consuming; trainer(s) must have skill in conducting a seminar; much time is required for training experience. Group may be hard to control; group opinions generated at the conference may differ from the other stakeholders of the issue being confronted. Much time is spent getting points across; trainers must be skillful and creative in helping the participants learn or draw lessons from the situation. Simulations are timeconsuming; require a skillful and creative trainer.  Field work is difficult to write and time consuming to discuss; the trainer must be creative and skillful in leading discussions, making points, and keeping trainees on the track. Source: ACORD-NEBBI Community Development Workers, individual interviews and notes (1998).  c o l l e c t i n g the content o f the p r o g r a m , g r o u p i n g the content, w h i c h relate to e a c h other into m o d e l , p l a c i n g the m o d e l s into l o g i c a l sequence, d e c i d i n g o n appropriate l e a r n i n g m e t h o d s , a n d d e c i d i n g o n h o w the p r o g r a m w i l l be  implemented.  127  F r o m b o t h the i n t e r v i e w s and d o c u m e n t a t i o n , A C O R D - N E B B I t r a i n i n g officers c o n s i d e r set l e a r n i n g objectives useful because they b e l i e v e trainees learn better w h e n they k n o w i n advance what it is that they are expected to learn; f a c i l i t a t i o n o f feedback is enhanced since trainees find it easier to assess their o w n progress; they p r o v i d e trainees w i t h greater c o n t r o l o v e r their o w n progress; trainers "teach" better w h e n they are "forced" to t h i n k out i n advance what it is they are t r y i n g to a c h i e v e ; they create a better "fit" and "match" between course content a n d course m e t h o d s ; and they p r o m o t e better u t i l i z a t i o n o f teaching t i m e , as the trainer k n o w s e x a c t l y what he or she is t r y i n g to d o / achieve d u r i n g the process. In w r i t i n g the t r a i n i n g objectives, A C O R D - N E B B I t r a i n i n g m a n u a l e m p h a s i z e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f expected b e h a v i o u r b y name and s p e c i f y i n g the k i n d o f b e h a v i o u r accepted as e v i d e n c e that the learner has met the objectives. A l s o spelt out is the need to define desired b e h a v i o u r further, b y d e s c r i b i n g the important c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h the b e h a v i o u r is to o c c u r . A l s o , established i n the p l a n are descriptions o f s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a for acceptable performance (i.e., h o w w e l l the participant s h o u l d p e r f o r m i n order to be c o n s i d e r e d effective). A n d f i n a l l y , i n the t r a i n i n g m a n u a l , the process o f w r i t i n g b e h a v i o u r a l l e a r n i n g objectives i n v o l v e s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the b e h a v i o u r desired, a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the situation i n w h i c h the b e h a v i o u r is to be o b s e r v e d , a n d the content to w h i c h the b e h a v i o u r is to be e x h i b i t e d (The A C O R D - N E B B I T r a i n i n g M a n u a l , 1992).  5.6 Training program planning and implementation cycles B a s e d o n the d o c u m e n t a t i o n , A C O R D - N E B B I e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m applies a f o u r - l e v e l t r a i n i n g a p p r o a c h : preparing for the training; conducting the training; coaching trial performances; and following through. T h i s a p p r o a c h is  128  consistent w i t h e x i s t i n g w o r k s f o u n d i n the international literature o n m u l t i - p u r p o s e and generic educational p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g m o d e l s . In this s e c t i o n I discuss the f o u r - l e v e l t r a i n i n g approach. O n p r e p a r i n g f o r the t r a i n i n g A l t h o u g h the c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k e r s a n d change agents k n o w that they have done the same t r a i n i n g o v e r and over, A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e insists that instructors d e v e l o p w r i t t e n formats to guide t r a i n i n g d e l i v e r y . T h i s insistence c o u l d be attributed to c r e a t i n g a consistent, structured a n d f o c u s e d t r a i n i n g process. F r o m the A C O R D - N E B B I instructors' perspectives, the requirement c o v e r s the f o l l o w i n g s i x major areas. T h e first part concerns writing the training objective (s). T r a i n i n g objectives help describe w h a t learners s h o u l d k n o w or be able to d o u p o n c o m p l e t i o n o f the p r o g r a m . A t the end o f the t r a i n i n g session, the learners s h o u l d be able to demonstrate each task, w h i c h s h o u l d be l i s t e d i n the expectations o f the p a r t i c u l a r subject b e i n g taught. In this regard, an e x a m p l e o f one t r a i n i n g objective for a p r o g r a m w h o s e participants were m e m b e r s o f n e w l y established credit groups reads:  At the end of the training, participants will be able to state the importance of feasibility studies, mention all the components of feasibility studies, and define and discuss each component of feasibility studies. T h e second part focuses o n developing program plans. A w r i t t e n step-by-step session p l a n o u t l i n i n g tasks w h i c h participants w i l l learn, h e l p s g u i d e the t r a i n i n g f r o m extreme d e v i a t i o n s f r o m the o r i g i n a l objectives. T h e p r o g r a m p l a n d r a w s h e a v i l y f r o m the performance standards e x p e c t e d o f the tasks that are undertaken i n the field, as w e l l as the a b i l i t y o f the learners to d r a w o n their personal experiences.  129  T h e t h i r d part i n v o l v e s deciding on the relevant training, methods. A t this stage, particular attention is p l a c e d o n methods, w h i c h are appropriate i n m e e t i n g and e n h a n c i n g a t r a i n i n g objective. W h e r e p o s s i b l e , opportunities that a l l o w a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f the tasks and p r o v i d e step-by-step v i s u a l aids are c o n s i d e r e d at this stage. T h i s is i n part based o n the fact that the m o r e y o u i n v o l v e a learner's five senses — h e a r i n g , sight, t o u c h , taste, and s m e l l — the m o r e effective the understanding a n d l o n g - l a s t i n g m e m o r y o f the k n o w l e d g e , s k i l l s a n d experiences that w o u l d have been g a i n e d . T h e fourth part c o v e r s establishing a timetable for the training. D e t e r m i n i n g h o w l o n g each t r a i n i n g session w i l l take is c r u c i a l because a l l associations a n d groups affiliated to A C O R D - N E B B I are engaged i n different s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s that have v a r i e d peak periods. F o r e x a m p l e , the peak season for f i s h i n g a c t i v i t y is A u g u s t , a n d the busiest season for groups engaged i n p r o d u c e m a r k e t i n g is d u r i n g the harvests o f cash crops (cotton) a n d f o o d crops ( m i l l e t , s o r g h u m , a n d corn) between N o v e m b e r to January. Therefore, s c h e d u l i n g t r a i n i n g sessions for a t i m e that does not interfere w i t h personal engagements o f b o t h the instructor and the t r a i n i n g beneficiaries is important. F o r this reason, t r a i n i n g sessions are u s u a l l y s c h e d u l e d to c o i n c i d e w i t h p e r i o d s o f l o w a c t i v i t y amongst associations a n d groups. T h e fifth issue concerns selection of the training site. A v e r y effective w a y is to conduct the t r a i n i n g at the w o r k station (s) i n order that every learner gains p r a c t i c a l experience a n d understands the procedure b e i n g learnt. Fortunately, A C O R D - N E B B I has m a n a g e d to d e v e l o p a t r a i n i n g centre at w h i c h a l l its t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s are c o n d u c t e d . T h e o n l y t r a i n i n g events that are c o n d u c t e d outside the centre i n c l u d e the o x e n transporter t r a i n i n g a n d on-the-job t r a i n i n g at the hand-tools p r o d u c t i o n centre.  130  T h e s i x t h factor relates to assembly of training materials and equipment. Setting up a l l materials and necessary equipment that w o u l d be r e q u i r e d i n the t r a i n i n g , as w e l l as those that m a y be required, i n case p l a n s change, before b e g i n n i n g the session, is c r u c i a l . In c o n c l u s i o n , to the c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k e r s a n d the change agents, it is the preparation stage o f the t r a i n i n g process that requires a c l e a r a n d c o m m i t t e d focus o n w h i c h the rest o f the r e m a i n i n g three levels are b u i l t . T h e next section deals w i t h h o w A C O R D - N E B B I instructors c o n d u c t their t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s . O n c o n d u c t i n g the t r a i n i n g T h i s stage concerns preparing the participants. E x p l a i n i n g the s e s s i o n ' s t r a i n i n g objectives is c r u c i a l because it focuses both the learners and the process that f o l l o w s . T h e e x p l a n a t i o n is significant for the fact that, at t i m e s , adult learners e x a m i n e what is in it for them, before ever m o t i v a t i n g themselves to engage i n the l e a r n i n g process. Therefore, it is important to e x p l a i n w h y the t r a i n i n g is important, h o w it relates to w h a t they are d o i n g i n their l i v e s , and to the a s s o c i a t i o n or g r o u p , and h o w the learners w i l l benefit f r o m it. T h u s , s p e n d i n g as m u c h t i m e o n the " w h y " as o n the " h o w " is important. F u r t h e r m o r e , it is important to a l w a y s indicate to the learners e x a c t l y what to expect o f an instructor. T h i s helps to e x p l a i n the degree to w h i c h the instructor is m o r e o f a facilitator, rather than a director, hence a c h i e v i n g the p o i n t o f learner-driven t r a i n i n g . R e l a t e d to the issue o f c o n d u c t i n g t r a i n i n g is demonstrating the procedures that depend on the task at hand. T h e t r a i n i n g participants i n t e r v i e w e d r e v e a l e d that it i s v e r y useful for the instructors to not o n l y e x p l a i n issues theoretically, but also to demonstrate t h e m i n actual field situations. B e n e f i c i a r i e s o f A C O R D - N E B B I t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s i n d i c a t e d that they understand and r e m e m b e r m o r e i f they c a n v i e w the procedures that  131  are a c c o m p a n i e d b y the sharing o f experiences related to the suhject. T h u s , encouragement o f learners to ask questions, w h e n e v e r they require c l a r i f i c a t i o n , a n d to share s o m e o f their experiences r e l a t i n g to the subject at h a n d , p r o v e s useful to the entire group. A n o t h e r fact that features i n this s e c t i o n is the need to minimize the use ofjargon. F r o m the participants w h o attended A C O R D - N E B B I t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s before, a n d w h o were i n t e r v i e w e d , the use o f w o r d s that learners w h o k n o w what they d o i n the field w i t h o u t k n o w i n g what their t e c h n i c a l names are, tend to u n d e r m i n e their l e a r n i n g c u r i o s i t y . T h e study participants argue that they c a n p i c k u p j a r g o n a n d t e r m i n o l o g y later as they b e c o m e m o r e f a m i l i a r w i t h the n e w k n o w l e d g e a n d s k i l l s . T h u s , i f d u r i n g the training process a n instructor uses w o r d s o r terms that are less f a m i l i a r to learners, it is useful, the study participants argue, to have a list o f s u c h w o r d s a l o n g w i t h their d e f i n i t i o n s i n l a y p e r s o n ' s terms. T o the participants i n this study, this i s the most important part o f the l e a r n i n g process. M o s t past beneficiaries o f A C O R D - N E B B I t r a i n i n g i n d i c a t e d that the use o f j a r g o n a n d u n f a m i l i a r t e r m i n o l o g y i s i n t i m i d a t i n g . T r a i n i n g s h o u l d assume the r o l e o f d e m y s t i f y i n g l e a r n i n g , w h i c h is t r a d i t i o n a l l y associated w i t h the brightest a n d the y o u n g . A c o m m o n e x a m p l e c i t e d i n this respect w a s the most m o t i v a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m o n participatory rural appraisal techniques a n d the a p p l i c a t i o n to l o c a l N e b b i situations. T h e c o m m u n i t y associations a n d groups f o r m e d have as their p r i m a r y g o a l the betterment o f their q u a l i t y o f l i f e t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d c h o i c e s . I n a n effort t o a c h i e v e this g o a l , the t r a i n i n g process s h o u l d enhance, rather than i n h i b i t adult l e a r n i n g process, a n d i f less j a r g o n a n d t e r m i n o l o g y c a n d o it, so m u c h the better.  132  O n e c o m m o n l y o v e r l o o k e d issue i n the t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m m e is the effort for instructors to take adequate time. Participants i n the study r e v e a l e d that it is important to keep i n m i n d that learners m a y be hearing or seeing certain things for the first t i m e . Therefore, g o i n g t h r o u g h the t r a i n i n g s l o w l y and c a r e f u l l y is h e l p f u l . In a d d i t i o n , e x p l a i n i n g and demonstrating each aspect o f every step enhances understanding and m e m o r y . B e i n g patient w h e n learners do not understand each step i m m e d i a t e l y and want repetition is e q u a l l y important i n the l e a r n i n g process. In a n u t s h e l l , gear the t r a i n i n g to the learners' pace. L a s t l y , it is important to repeat the sequence of any procedure that is c o v e r e d d u r i n g the t r a i n i n g session. G o i n g o v e r the entire procedure o r step t w o or m o r e times as m a y be r e q u i r e d enhances a t h o r o u g h understanding o f the process. W h e n demonstrating a procedure the next t i m e around, it is v a l u a b l e to ask learners questions a n d i n v i t e their i n v o l v e m e n t to c h e c k their c o m p r e h e n s i o n . O n coaching trial performance W h e n learners understand the subject w e l l e n o u g h to p e r f o r m the procedure(s) effectively, a s k i n g t h e m to demonstrate and e x p l a i n the subject or procedure is the next appropriate and important step. T h i s practice a l l o w s the instructor to c h e c k the trainees' c o m p r e h e n s i o n . It also helps the learners d e v e l o p the right procedure. T h r o u g h c o a c h i n g , instructors h e l p learners focus o n a procedure and task to a j o b w i t h k n o w l e d g e , s k i l l s and confidence. T h i s is the c o m m o n l y a p p l i e d procedure i n the on-the-job t r a i n i n g at A C O R D - N E B B I o x e n a n d hand-tools p r o d u c t i o n t r a i n i n g . M o r e o v e r , to praise learners i m m e d i a t e l y w h e n they p e r f o r m p r o p e r l y , a n d correct t h e m w h e n they d o not p e r f o r m  133  effectively b y r e v i e w i n g the proper procedures, a l l help reinforce, the effectiveness o f the k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d . O n follow-through A f t e r the i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g p e r i o d is c o m p l e t e d , it is important to f o l l o w through to m a k e sure that e m p l o y e e s p e r f o r m effectively. It is not A C O R D - N E B B I ' s practice to do performance e v a l u a t i o n u n t i l the learners have p r a c t i c e d i n the field for a n extended p e r i o d o f t i m e . T h e y do this through c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k e r s , w h o undertake field v i s i t s to c o m m u n i t i e s , to observe h o w former t r a i n i n g participants p e r f o r m i n c o n d u c t i n g the affairs o f their associations or groups. F r o m the field v i s i t s and activities o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k e r s , it is clear that the t r a i n i n g participants are accountable for translating their a c q u i r e d k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s to the c o m m u n i t y . A C O R D - N E B B I ' s activities, w h i c h relate to f o l l o w - t h r o u g h , consist o f c o a c h i n g , reinforcement and feedback. O n e o f the f o l l o w - t h r o u g h approaches a p p l i e d is the coach a few tasks each day technique. T h i s i s c o m m o n i n the o x e n i z a t i o n a n d hand-tools p r o d u c t i o n t r a i n i n g , and the k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s relating to a s s o c i a t i o n and group process m a n a g e m e n t techniques. T h e approach is based o n the reality o f the v i l l a g e learner's situation. S p e c i f i c a l l y , it is difficult for learners to absorb m o r e than a specific a m o u n t o f n e w i n f o r m a t i o n at each t r a i n i n g session. Therefore, l i m i t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n to what learners c a n reasonably understand a n d r e m e m b e r i n a s i n g l e session i s v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t . It i s important to a l l o w enough t i m e for practice. A s w e l l , c o v e r i n g a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n subsequent sessions u n t i l learners have learned a l l o f the procedures or r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s is c r u c i a l .  134  Another approach, w h i c h is c o m m o n l y applied i n A C O R D - N E B B I followt h r o u g h process, is the continued positive reinforcement technique. T h e p r o v i s i o n o f learners w i t h p o s i t i v e reinforcement, w h e n they p e r f o r m w e l l , d u r i n g a n d after t r a i n i n g for the most part helps t h e m retain what they have learned. It is p a r t i c u l a r l y useful i n the o x e n i z a t i o n a n d hand-tools p r o d u c t i o n t r a i n i n g . W h e n learners d o not meet the set expectations, for v a r i o u s reasons, a favourable c o r r e c t i o n attitude to redress the issue is m o r e effective. It is m o r e important i f the c o r r e c t i o n process i n v o l v e s explanations o f w h y the participant s h o u l d have done it the other w a y . T h i s has a l a s t i n g effect o n the less preferred performances o r procedures, and leads to a retention o f the preferred w a y . T h u s , the feel good p o s i t i v e a p p r o a c h h e l p s i m p r o v e the learners' performances i n c l u d i n g the enhancement o f their retention o f p o s i t i v e attitudes. T h e n e x t c o m m o n l y a p p l i e d m e t h o d i s provision of constant feedback. T h i s i s made p o s s i b l e at b o t h the residential and f i e l d t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s b y the f o l l o w - t h r o u g h approach. First, A C O R D - N E B B I c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k e r s l i v e , a n d are located i n the respective c o m m u n i t i e s i n w h i c h they w o r k . T h e i r ready a v a i l a b i l i t y ensures n o p r o b l e m s take l o n g to identify a n d s o l v e . T h e i r presence i n the c o m m u n i t y m a k e s it p o s s i b l e to m o n i t o r the performance o f beneficiaries o f the v a r i o u s t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s . The close p r o x i m i t y factor encourages learners t o ask questions o r seek c l a r i f i c a t i o n about tasks they are l e a r n i n g to d o i n c l u d i n g a face-to-face d i s c u s s i o n o f w a y s the learners c a n i m p l e m e n t to i m p r o v e their performance. A n o t h e r c o m m o n l y a p p l i e d a p p r o a c h is that o f obtaining participants' feedback. T h i s c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as the process o f e v a l u a t i n g the learners' progress l o n g after attending the t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m . A C O R D - N E B B I p e r i o d i c a l l y seeks  135  o p i n i o n s f r o m former participants o f its t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s i n order to identify a n d establish any element that requires i m p r o v e m e n t . T h i s a p p r o a c h is realistic because most often, the feedback w h i c h participants p r o v i d e i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g the c o m p l e t i o n o f t r a i n i n g bears little s i g n i f i c a n c e to their p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . H o w e v e r , to a l l o w past participants to assess the k n o w l e d g e a n d s k i l l s g a i n e d d u r i n g the training, l o n g after they have g a i n e d opportunities, is a p r a c t i c a l w a y to m e a n i n g f u l l y evaluate the m o v e t o w a r d l o c a l i z a t i o n a n d change. In this respect, the questions c o m m o n l y a s k e d b y t r a i n i n g officers i n c l u d e : Do you believe the training was beneficial to your current work? what part was most helpful?; how could we improve the program?; who were your instructors?; how were they helpful?; how could they have been more helpful?; what is your opinion of the training program?; on a scale of 1 (low) to 10 (high), how would you rate the training program you attended?; do you have any additional comments to make about your training? ( A C O R D - N E B B I Training Manual, 1997. p.23) T a b l e 5 s u m m a r i z e s the k e y pointers c o n s i d e r e d i n the t r a i n i n g d e l i v e r y process: T A B L E 5: A S u m m a r y o f A C O R D - N E B B I F o u r L e v e l T r a i n i n g Process L E V E L  1:  P R E P A R E  WRITE DEVELOP DECIDE ESTABLISH SELECT ASSEMBLE SET-UP L E V E L  2:  C O N D U C T  PREPARE BEGIN DEMONSTRATE AVOID TAKE REPEAT  T R A I N  T H E  T R A I N I N G  the trainee the training session the procedures jargon adequate time the sequence L E V E L  3:  C O A C H  ALLOW COACH  T R I A L  P E R F O R M A N C E S  the trainee to practice the trainee L E V E L  COACH CONTINUE PROVIDE EVALUATE OBTAIN  T O  training objectives lesson plans on training methods a timetable for instruction the training location training materials/equipment the training location or site  4:  F O L L O W  T H R O U G H  a few tasks each day positive reinforcement constant feedback the trainee's progress participant feedback  136  5.7 Limitations to objectives-based instructional planning T h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n has elaborated o n A C O R D - N E B B I ' s f o u r - l e v e l a p p r o a c h a p p l i e d i n p r e p a r i n g to train, c o n d u c t i n g the t r a i n i n g , c o a c h i n g the t r i a l p e r f o r m a n c e , f o l l o w t h r o u g h . T h e s e t r a i n i n g l e v e l s are consistent w i t h o b j e c t i v e s - b a s e d  and  instructional  p l a n n i n g . A l t h o u g h the A C O R D - N E B B I t r a i n i n g R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t W o r k e r s i n t e r v i e w e d d o not q u e s t i o n the l i m i t a t i o n o f objectives-based i n s t r u c t i o n a l p l a n n i n g to c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t , the a c t i v i t i e s o f the g r o u p s as o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e 6 b e l o w p o i n t to the p r a c t i c a l p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h this a p p r o a c h .  TABLE 6: 1998 TYPICAL GROUP ACTIVITIES CALENDAR ACTIVITIES 1.1. Following their rules and regulations set 1.2 Training workshops on Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation. 2.1 Organizing seminars on positive living, care and support to AIDS affected people. 3.1 (a) Training on identification of local tree species. (b) Training on the preparation and application of identified tree species. 4.1. Training workshops on credit management. 4.2 Training workshops on business mgt.  J x  F  M  A  M  X  X  X  X  X  J  A  s  0  N  D  X  X  X  X  X  X  members & ACORD-NEBBI members and ACORD-NEBBI  X  X  members and ACORD-NEBBI  X  X  X  4.3 Contribution of monthly deposits.  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  4.4 Giving loans to members  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  5.1. Training workshop in leadership skills 6.1 Exchange visits with selected CBOs. 6.2 Networking with relevant development actors. 6.3 Training workshop on project planning 7.1 Training workshop on the agronomy of selected crops. 7.2 Training workshop on tree planting  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  8.1 Workshop on gender responsive planning 8.2 Workshop on legal education 9.1 Collection of building materials 9.2 Construction of the storage house  X  X  X  Responsibilities members  members and ACORD-NEBBI members and ACORD-NEBBI members & ACORD-NEBBI members and ACORD-NEBBI members and ACORD-NEBBI members and ACORD-NEBBI members and ACORD-NEBBI members and ACORD-NEBBI members and ACORD-NEBBI members and ACORD-NEBBI members and ACORD-NEBBI members and ACORD-NEBBI members and ACORD-NEBBI members and ACORD-NEBBI  137  T h e issue o f representation o f beneficiary's interests i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l p l a n n i n g practice has r e c e i v e d great attention recently. It i s generally h e l d that w h e r e a n e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m is c a u s a l l y c o n n e c t e d to the interests o f the targeted beneficiaries then w h o designs such p r o g r a m s as w e l l as w h o are i n v o l v e d i n the process r e a l l y matter. T a b l e 6 h i g h l i g h t s the activities that the A C O R D - N E B B I beneficiary g r o u p set to a c c o m p l i s h and where the R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t W o r k e r s assist the g r o u p to d e v e l o p a m u c h clearer calendar o f activities. W h i l e the intention o f the R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t W o r k e r s ( w h o are mandated b y A C O R D - N E B B I ) are to h e l p groups a c h i e v e their goals, it i s c r u c i a l that the beneficiary groups are i n v o l v e d i n both the planning for planning and the actual planning process o f the t r a i n i n g that is required. F r o m i n f o r m a t i o n gathered d u r i n g the f i e l d w o r k it T  is clear that the t r a i n i n g beneficiaries are engaged at the needs assessment l e v e l , a n d thereafter, the R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t W o r k e r s d e s i g n the p r o g r a m s r e q u i r e d , based o n the literature o n l e a r n i n g w i t h o u t d i r e c t l y e n g a g i n g the groups i n the entire process. Indeed, the beneficiaries also agree that they attend the v a r i o u s t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s w h e n they realize they n e e d t h e m a n d that they m a k e sure it d i r e c t l y assists t h e m i n better performance o f their tasks. T h e m o s t p r o m i n e n t b e i n g participatory approaches to c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . H o w e v e r , R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t W o r k e r s s t i l l take a greater p o r t i o n o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l roles i n c l u d i n g d e c i d i n g o n what i s included and excluded i n the actual t r a i n i n g process (See T a b l e 4). W h i l e this poses a c h a l l e n g e to the o u t c o m e o f the l e a r n i n g process, that fact i s that most beneficiary groups are less educated and hence not able to m a k e sense o f any substantive p l a n n i n g that c a n a c h i e v e s u c h p o s i t i v e o u t c o m e s for t h e m s e l v e s . T h u s the R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t W o r k e r s h a v e t o p e r f o r m three  138  duties: serve as p r o g r a m planners, facilitators, a n d assume the p p s i t i o n o f beneficiaries. It is f r o m this perspective that C e r v e r o a n d W i l s o n ( 1 9 9 4 , p . 1 4 4 ) h i g h l i g h t three c o n c e r n s :  Three central issues that are continually decided in planning are who actually represents the learner, when they are to be involved, and in what judgements they are involved . . . [The three issues] are continually played out in relation to each other as a program is constructed. First, the various potential representative sample of actual learners . . . Second, learners could be involved in planning from the earliest stages . . . [including] planning that occurs before the program [in addition to the one] which occurs during the program . . . Finally, learners could also be involved in all the judgements from which a program is constructed . . . Grouped into four areas-purpose, audience, content, and format.  5.8 A C O R D - N E B B I training programs and the principles of adult learning T h i s s e c t i o n analyzes the w a y s adults learn. C o n s i d e r i n g that A C O R D - N E B B I t r a i n i n g participants are adults, i n order to i n f o r m the effectiveness o f educational p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g directed at adults, a c r i t i c a l understanding o f the fundamentals o f adult learning is i m p e r a t i v e . A s r e v i e w e d i n chapter t w o , w i t h its roots i n s o c i a l a c t i o n and resistance to o p p r e s s i v e authority, adult e d u c a t i o n has contributed i m m e n s e l y to d e v e l o p m e n t processes t h r o u g h c o n s c i o u s n e s s - r a i s i n g . T h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f the w o r k by Freire (1972) i n T a n z a n i a , G u i n e a - B i s s a u , a n d B r a z i l attest to this c o n t r i b u t i o n . O v e r t i m e , the traditional v i e w o f e d u c a t i o n for d e v e l o p m e n t a n d domestication has shifted fundamentally t o w a r d a perspective that embraces e d u c a t i o n for s o c i a l change, and one that i n v o l v e s r e f l e c t i o n o f people's o w n experiences w i t h i n the c h a n g i n g p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c , a n d s o c i a l structures ( B o n s o n , 1990). A C O R D ' s a p p r o a c h to c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t for change a n d l o c a l i z a t i o n is e v i d e n c e o f this fundamental shift i n d e v e l o p m e n t t h i n k i n g . A n d f r o m a t r a i n i n g officer w h o w a s a respondent i n this study: When training, we know that we are not training primary pupils that 2+2 = 4 (Extract from the program coordinator individual interview)  139  A d u l t l e a r n i n g c a n be defined b y its u n i q u e characteristics that are inherent i n its approach. T h i s study has p r o v i d e d the o p p o r t u n i t y to i n f o r m theory and practice u s i n g the field data. H a v i n g o b s e r v e d the adult nature o f t r a i n i n g at A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e and based o n the r e v i e w o f literature o n the p r i n c i p l e s o f adult l e a r n i n g , the f o l l o w i n g is a synthesis o f seven c o m m o n l y h e l d a n d articulated a s s u m p t i o n s regarding the practice ( C r o s s , 1982; F r e i r e , 1972; H o u l e , 1996; J a r v i s , 1987; K i d d , 1977; K n o w l e s , 1982; L o v e t t , 1980); L y n c h , 1977; O t t o s o n , 1994; 1995; T h o m p s o n , 1980). F i r s t the desire to learn. A d u l t s l e a r n effectively w h e n they are strongly m o t i v a t e d to do so, w h e n they want to acquire a d d i t i o n a l k n o w l e d g e o r n e w s k i l l s . T h i s means that they must be ready a n d w i l l i n g to learn. T h i s i s a v i e w shared b y a t r a i n i n g officer w h o w a s a respondent i n this study: As time passes-by, there are new techniques that come around, for example what they call Rapid Cassava Stem Multiplication (RCSM). So there was a need that we train, in order to transfer the knowledge and skills to local farmers more effectively (Extract from community development workers individual interviews).  S e c o n d , the i m m e d i a c y o f a p p l y i n g n e w k n o w l e d g e . A d u l t s learn q u i c k l y w h e n they need to learn. In a d d i t i o n , they learn best w h e n they t h i n k they w i l l g a i n i m m e d i a t e benefits a n d m a k e p r o m p t use o f n e w l y a c q u i r e d k n o w l e d g e o r s k i l l s . A d u l t learners prefer direct, b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n w i t h o u t unnecessary b a c k g r o u n d o r unusable i n f o r m a t i o n . T h e y w a n t the instructor to t e l l t h e m p r e c i s e l y w h a t t o d o , h o w a n d w h y it s h o u l d be done, a n d what m a k e s the issue w o r k . I f adults t h i n k that t r a i n i n g is not a p p l i c a b l e or does not meet their needs, they w i l l most p r o b a b l y tune out, i f they do not d r o p out entirely. T o a learner, the a b o v e v i e w can be interpreted as what is in it for me? A C O R D -  140  N E B B I t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m addresses this issue b y offering o n d e m a n d t r a i n i n g at the request and pace o f the learners. T h i r d , l e a r n i n g b y d o i n g . A d u l t s learn best w h e n they a c t i v e l y participate i n learning. A d u l t s retain m o r e k n o w l e d g e and i n f o r m a t i o n w h e n they practice and use n e w s k i l l s i m m e d i a t e l y . T h e y learn best b y p r a c t i c i n g the s k i l l s themselves, rather than w a t c h i n g a demonstration or s i m p l y l i s t e n i n g to a series o f lectures. T h e A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e applies this p r i n c i p l e to o x e n t r a i n i n g , hand-tools p r o d u c t i o n apprenticeship, and i n c e r a m i c s s k i l l s t r a i n i n g . F o u r t h , a realistic focus. A d u l t l e a r n i n g is enhanced w h e n it i s based o n real p r o b l e m s , not i m a g i n e d ones. T h e importance o f r e a l i s m i n adult l e a r n i n g is v e r y significant. M a n y adults resist w o r k i n g o n a p r o b l e m , w h i c h is o b v i o u s l y d e v e l o p e d s o l e l y for t r a i n i n g purposes. I f a p r o b l e m seems unrealistic, adult learners m i g h t assume that the trainer invented it, and that it w o u l d not o c c u r i n the real w o r l d . T h i s is a v i e w shared b y a t r a i n i n g officer w h o was a respondent i n this study: We visit the CBOs . . . attend their group meetings, carry group analysis, even needs assessment, and at the end of the day develop different training needs for each of them (Extract from community development workers individual interviews). Indeed, A C O R D - N E B B I tailored t r a i n i n g approach (i.e., the p r o v i s i o n o f t r a i n i n g at the pace and request o f the c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d organizations) p r o v i d e s the r e a l i s m to both the t r a i n i n g and the beneficiaries. F i f t h , relating l e a r n i n g to l i v e d experience. A d u l t l e a r n i n g must be related to, and integrated w i t h , k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s gained through a l i f e t i m e o f learning. A d u l t s w i l l p r o b a b l y reject i n f o r m a t i o n that does not fit i n w i t h what they already k n o w or think they k n o w . In fact, adults' past experiences m a y prevent t h e m f r o m a b s o r b i n g n e w i n f o r m a t i o n  141  or e v e n from p e r c e i v i n g it accurately. O n e o f the t r a i n i n g officers i n the study had this to say: I have been a teacher for a long time . . . You see, as a person grows up there are certain things one goes through - challenges, achievements, painful experiences, missed or untapped opportunities . . . We the development workers have to make ways to bring these experiences to light. . . And we do so by brainstorming, questioning, discussions with village communities . . . Through these approaches we can find out what skills we need to share with them . . . So they tell you where their strengths, opportunities, challenges are. You don't impose anything on them because that won't work (Extract from community development workers individual interview). T h i s means that trainers must g i v e participants every o p p o r t u n i t y to b e c o m e a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d , to interrupt, ask questions, share their experiences or concerns, or e v e n disagreements. T h i s w a y , the trainer m a y g r o w to understand the trainees' experiences and attitudes. T h i s m a y h e l p the trainer to present n e w i n f o r m a t i o n i n a w a y that a c k n o w l e d g e s the a d u l t s ' experience, thus m a k i n g t h e m m o r e receptive to t r a i n i n g . S i x t h , a n i n f o r m a l e n v i r o n m e n t . A d u l t s learn best i f the t r a i n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t is r e l a x e d and i n f o r m a l . It is best to present the m a t e r i a l i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n a l w a y , w h i l e frequently a s k i n g for reactions from the participants. G r o u p i n g the participants i n clusters o f three to five instead o f the traditional c l a s s r o o m - s e a t i n g pattern adds to i n f o r m a l i t y and encourages interaction. A d u l t s w i l l resist t r a i n i n g , i f the trainer treats t h e m l i k e c h i l d r e n or tries to "manage" the c l a s s r o o m . T h e A C O R D - N E B B I e x p e r i e n c e indicates that b o t h r e s i d e n t i a l (at the t r a i n i n g centre) and field t r a i n i n g (at the parishes, and l o c a t i o n s o f the groups requesting the training) were c o n d u c t e d . M o r e i m p o r t a n t l y , A C O R D - N E B B I t r a i n i n g beneficiaries are key i n the process o f p l a n n i n g a n d d e l i v e r i n g the t r a i n i n g sessions. Indeed, t r a i n i n g organizers c a n have a m o r e effective, pleasant t r a i n i n g e x p e r i e n c e i f they a p p r o a c h  142  t r a i n i n g participants as learners w i t h r i c h a n d v a l u a b l e e x p e r i e n c e o n w h i c h to b u i l d further k n o w l e d g e . Seventh, g u i d a n c e not grades. B e c a u s e they are often out o f s c h o o l for some t i m e , adults m a y be unsure about their l e a r n i n g a b i l i t i e s . I f their efforts are evaluated w i t h tests and grades, adults m a y retreat f r o m the l e a r n i n g experience rather than risk b e i n g h u m i l i a t e d w i t h a p o o r grade. H o w e v e r , adult learners want to k n o w h o w they are progressing and whether they are l e a r n i n g and p e r f o r m i n g c o r r e c t l y . A d u l t s d e m a n d a lot o f themselves; they lose patience and b e c o m e d i s c o u r a g e d w h e n they m a k e m i s t a k e s . Summary T h i s chapter has presented an analysis o f the v a r i o u s t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s m a n a g e d by the A C O R D - N E B B I c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e w h e r e the case study occurred. A l s o presented i s the a p p r o a c h to i d e n t i f y i n g t r a i n i n g needs w h i c h t r a i n i n g officers a c h i e v e b y b o t h attending group meetings a n d a d m i n i s t e r i n g needs assessment forms. T h e chapter also h i g h l i g h t s residential and  field-training  activities, including on-  the-job t r a i n i n g , gender-sensitive-training, as w e l l as o r g a n i z a t i o n a l strengthening and institutional d e v e l o p m e n t training-related programs. C o v e r e d i n depth i n this chapter is the f o u r - l e v e l t r a i n i n g process that is consistent w i t h western literature o n p r e p a r i n g to train, c o n d u c t i n g the t r a i n i n g , c o a c h trial performances, and f o l l o w t h r o u g h . L i m i t a t i o n s to the objectives-based instructional p l a n n i n g is also presented as a c a u t i o n to e n s u r i n g that p r o g r a m planners c o n s i d e r s u c h s h o r t c o m i n g s w h e n p l a n n i n g for the less educated, m a r g i n a l i z e d segments i n a c o m m u n i t y . T h i s chapter has p r o v i d e d a d e s c r i p t i v e analysis to the A C O R D - N E B B I education and t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s . B y e x a m i n i n g what the m e t h o d s and content o f s p e c i f i c A C O R D -  143 N E B B I c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t c u r r i c u l a reveal about the p r i n c i p l e s o n w h i c h the programs are based, the d e s c r i p t i v e analysis sets the stage for r e s p o n d i n g to the first research question p u r s u e d i n chapter s i x that f o l l o w s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the d e s c r i p t i v e analysis o f A C O R D - N E B B I ' s methods and content o f s p e c i f i c c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t c u r r i c u l a reveals the f o l l o w i n g eight c o n c l u s i o n s : First, t r a i n i n g is p a r t i c u l a r l y important to o r g a n i z a t i o n s and p e o p l e w h o are i n situations that are very d y n a m i c , and for p e o p l e w h o have l i m i t e d t i m e to spend i n a learning e n v i r o n m e n t . In the A C O R D - N E B B I case, change agents are at the "front-line" o f facilitating change. T o the participants, the variety o f t r a i n i n g approaches, not o n l y enhances the l e a r n i n g experience, but also, demystifies the c u l t o f an expert, w h i c h is perpetuated t h r o u g h lectures and studies b y a c a d e m i c authorities. T r a i n i n g teaches people to ask important questions, get pertinent i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d m a k e r e s p o n s i b l e , i m m e d i a t e decisions. S e c o n d , education and t r a i n i n g are t w o separate a c t i v i t i e s , w i t h very different methods and results. W h i l e education has as its p r i m a r y g o a l w i s d o m or ultimate k n o w l e d g e , and that w i s d o m or k n o w l e d g e is for its o w n sake and not for what it enables its o w n e r to do, be, or b e c o m e , t r a i n i n g w h i c h is the d o m i n a n t m o d e at A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e , is s p e c i f i c a l l y related to what a person c a n do f r o m a p r a c t i c a l perspective. T h i r d , t r a i n i n g , not e d u c a t i o n , is essential to the k i n d s o f i m m e d i a t e b e h a v i o u r changes necessary to m a k e a group functional w i t h d e t e r m i n e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l w o r k objectives. T h e change agents and c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k e r s , as facilitators o f the p r o g r a m m e for change and l o c a l i z a t i o n , have to facilitate the creation o f g r o u p f o r m a t i o n , introduce techniques and procedures to ensure their effective f u n c t i o n i n g , so as to sustain  144  themselves i n the l o n g r u n . Indeed, the v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t i e s need i m m e d i a t e d e v e l o p m e n t to i m p r o v e their l i v e s , both as a c o l l e c t i v e and i n d i v i d u a l s . F o u r t h , t r a i n i n g is best w h e n it is e x p e r i e n t i a l , participatory, and adapted to trainees' p r e v i o u s experience, l e a r n i n g style, and a favourable language as a m e d i u m o f instruction. A s past participants o f the t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m attested, not o n l y d i d the t r a i n i n g u t i l i z e their o w n c o m m u n i t i e s ' situations as a m e t h o d to introduce the concepts, k n o w l e d g e , a n d a n a l y t i c a l s k i l l s , but also used their c o l l e c t i v e personal experience to reflect o n the root causes o f the p r o b l e m s b e i n g faced, and f r o m w h i c h o p t i o n s for change evolved. F i f t h , t r a i n i n g is m o s t effective and l o n g - l a s t i n g w h e n it is related d i r e c t l y to the tasks to be p e r f o r m e d , a n d t i m e d so that these tasks are the direct result o f the t r a i n i n g a n d c a n be seen as i m m e d i a t e successful performances b y those b e i n g trained. L e a r n i n g is enhanced w h e n the b e h a v i o u r s a n d s k i l l s b e i n g learned are a p p l i e d a n d r e i n f o r c e d . S i x t h , t r a i n i n g is most effective w h e n trainees h e l p to shape the t r a i n i n g agenda and format, negotiate objectives and methods w i t h the trainer, g i v e the trainer p e r m i s s i o n to carry out a l e a r n i n g engagement, constantly c h e c k their l e a r n i n g against the objectives, identify what they have learned as they go, negotiate t r a i n i n g m e t h o d s as the t r a i n i n g proceeds, and evaluate both their o w n participants a n d the trainer's performance. T h e A C O R D - N E B B I experience indicates that the t r a i n i n g was d e l i v e r e d at the request and pace o f the i n d i v i d u a l groups and associations. S e v e n t h , l e a r n i n g is effective w h e n the l e a r n i n g situation best a p p r o x i m a t e s the situation i n w h i c h the l e a r n i n g w i l l be used. Trainees learn to be effective practitioners by successfully g o i n g t h r o u g h those processes, w h i c h are i d e n t i f i e d w i t h effectiveness, and  145  by g o i n g t h r o u g h t h e m i n the course o f real, not s i m u l a t e d l e a r n i n g . Practitioners do not learn to be effective participants b y l i s t e n i n g to lectures o n d e c i s i o n m a k i n g or p o l i c y making. E i g h t h , every t r a i n i n g encounter is a l e a r n i n g experience. T h e nature and the q u a l i t y o f the l e a r n i n g both depend u p o n h o w that experience is integrated w i t h i n what the learner had i d e n t i f i e d as useful. T h e next chapter addresses the first research q u e s t i o n : to what extent and i n what w a y s are the seven n o r m a t i v e characteristics o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , as f o u n d i n the literature, reflected i n A C O R D - N E B B I e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s ? T h i s question concerns h o w the e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g c o m p o n e n t o f the A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e reflects the seven n o r m a t i v e characteristics o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t (i.e., self-reliance, h u m a n capacity b u i l d i n g , c o m m u n i t y e m p o w e r m e n t , endogenous d e v e l o p m e n t , c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n , l o c a l c o n t r o l and management, and d i v e r s i t y ) .  146  CHAPTER VI: THE NORMATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT: AN ANALYSIS In this chapter I p r o v i d e a response to the first research q u e s t i o n b y presenting a n analysis o f to w h a t extent a n d i n what w a y s are the n o r m a t i v e characteristics o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , as a d v a n c e d i n the literature, reflected i n A C O R D - N E B B I education a n d t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s ? T h e seven n o r m a t i v e characteristics are self-reliance, capacity b u i l d i n g , c o m m u n i t y e m p o w e r m e n t , endogenous d e v e l o p m e n t , c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n , l o c a l c o m m u n i t y c o n t r o l a n d management, and d i v e r s i t y . T h i s analysis is significant because, i n i t i a l l y , A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e . . . Aimed at development... of the analytical skills and conceptual tools required for development planning and . . . management so that, when the programme localized and technical support is withdrawn, essential skills to enable the groups to continue development action will remain. ( A C O R D Programme Direction, 1985, p.4) In his b o o k , Developing your community-based organization, M i c o (1980) asserts that there are different w a y s o f a n a l y z i n g a n o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h a t . . . Some look at the way it is organized; some look at its work and its goals; some look at its problems; psychologists tend to look at relationships between people; sociologists at structures and rules that govern group behaviour; political scientists, at issues of power, (p.34) In this p a r t i c u l a r case, the analysis is o n h o w the A C O R D - N E B B I e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s prepare the c o m m u n i t y groups that have emerged to reflect the n o r m a t i v e characteristics o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n their efforts to a c h i e v e equitable, selfreliant, a n d sustainable d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s s e c t i o n presents the analysis i n the f o l l o w i n g format: a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f each o f the seven n o r m a t i v e characteristics o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , as i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h the literature r e v i e w i n chapter t w o , is first presented, f o l l o w e d b y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  147  o f specific w a y s b y w h i c h b o t h the A C O R D - N E B B I e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g programs and the beneficiary groups have reflected each n o r m a t i v e characteristic. 6.1 S e l f - r e l i a n c e C o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t initiatives r e l y o n the c a p a c i t y and efforts o f relevant l o c a l people from w i t h i n the c o m m u n i t y to identify needs, define p r o b l e m s , p l a n a n d execute appropriate course o f a c t i o n , w i t h the ultimate a i m o f e s t a b l i s h i n g l o c a l leadership and a reduced dependency o n the outside e.g. institutional support. T h i s is a v i e w is reflected b y A C O R D . . . We had progressed from a comparatively comfortable routine of promoting group formation and savings mobilization to attempting to respond to a broad range of needs and the more practical demands of promoting income generation in a resource-starved, skills-starved and informationstarved society. (Extract from A C O R D London, annual report, 1990, p.3). T h e A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e c o o r d i n a t o r also e m p h a s i z e s self-reliance: We should always co-operate and make use of each other to build this programme with local communities into a truly local organization . . . Capable of carrying out their own development activities towards their desired destiny. (Extract from program coordinator, speech, December 30*, 1994, p.l) T h e strive for self-reliance is further e m p h a s i z e d b y the gender officer: Our initial methodology has been to make a person self-reliant . . . Organizations run by missionaries in this area, gave a lot of things to the local people here . . . For us in A C O R D N E B B I , we stood firm and said N O . Later on NGOs that operated on the missionary approach realized that there was a need to eliminate the element of dependency. And that is what A C O R D N E B B I has focused on all along (Extract from programme coordinator individual interview). S e l f - r e l i a n c e i s e v i d e n t i n the fishery p r o g r a m , notably, i n the presence o f f i s h i n g C B O s p r o v i d i n g f i s h i n g gear for their m e m b e r s and c o m m u n i t y at affordable p r i c e s ; increase i n the n u m b e r o f i m p r o v e d [ A l t o n a ] s m o k i n g k i l n s that has resulted into i m p r o v e d q u a l i t y a n d life span o f processed fish; and i m p r o v e d d r y i n g racks and hygiene at the l a n d i n g centres as o p p o s e d to the d r y i n g o f fish o n thatched grass.  In the m i c r o - c r e d i t p r o g r a m , the creation o f credit a n d business m i n d e d n e s s i n the C B O s and w i t h i n the c o m m u n i t y , evident t h r o u g h the existence o f strong savings and credit C B O s m a n a g i n g their o w n s a v i n g s m o b i l i z a t i o n a n d credit schemes for their m e m b e r s has r e i n f o r c e d the fundamental p r i n c i p l e o f self-reliance. T h e presence o f C B O s u n d e r t a k i n g agro-forestry a n d sustainable a g r i c u l t u r a l practices is evident t h r o u g h k n o w l e d g e a n d s k i l l s i n i m p r o v e d agriculture and w o o d l o t management practices w i t h i n the C B O s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s . F o r instance, particular C B O s are engaged i n diverse activities that i n c l u d e a n i m a l husbandry, manure and c o m p o s t m a k i n g . There is presence o f propagated i m p r o v e d p l a n t i n g materials (rapid cassava m u l t i p l i c a t i o n ) and other i m p r o v e d seeds b y the farmers for the r a p i d m u l t i p l i c a t i o n and i m p r o v e m e n t o f y i e l d s for f o o d security. M a n i f e s t a t i o n o f a m o v e to self-reliance is observed t h r o u g h the t r a i n i n g officers' remarks: In 1991, A C O R D - N E B B I covered all expenses for the 20 CBOs to participate in skills training. But during localization phase, the groups have agreed to share costs related to organizing and attending any A C O R D - N E B B I training programs (Extract from community development workers individual interviews).  6.2 H u m a n c a p a c i t y b u i l d i n g C o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e s focus o n d e v e l o p i n g h u m a n resources through k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s t r a i n i n g i n c l u d i n g s e n s i t i v i t y to s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l values, as o p p o s e d to the sole purpose o f a c c u m u l a t i o n o f f i n a n c i a l w e a l t h . E m p h a s i s o n h u m a n d e v e l o p m e n t ensures that cooperative, r e s p o n s i b l e , a n d active c o m m u n i t y o f i n v o l v e d m e n a n d w o m e n are nurtured a n d m o b i l i z e d for the purposes o f m u t u a l a i d , self-help, p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , s o c i a l integration, a n d / o r s o c i a l a c t i o n . T h e A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e has e v i d e n c e o f approaches that address the n o t i o n o f capacity b u i l d i n g . In the appropriate v i l l a g e - l e v e l t e c h n o l o g y p r o g r a m , several  149  s p e c i a l i z e d activities were pursued a n d A C O R D - N E B B I p r o v i d e d the relevant k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s t r a i n i n g thereby m e e t i n g the s p e c i f i c needs o f the v a r i o u s groups. F r o m the C B O s records, four m a i n sectors benefited f r o m s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g : first, presence o f trained technicians i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f K e n y a T o p B a r ( K T B ) B e e h i v e s i n the c o m m u n i t y and i m p r o v e d bee-keeping, honey and w a x p r o c e s s i n g practices; second, k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f h i g h q u a l i t y pottery, c e r a m i c and c l a y b r i c k products for outside markets; t h i r d , presence o f a sustainable tools p r o d u c t i o n unit p r o d u c i n g energy s a v i n g d e v i c e s i n c l u d i n g l o c a l fjiko] stoves, grass stoves, and solar c o o k e r s , as w e l l as a g r i c u l t u r a l i m p l e m e n t s (i.e., machetes, axes, k n i v e s , a n d o x - p l o u g h s ) a n d ; fourth, the presence o f f o o d p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n o l o g i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y i n m u s h r o o m and fruit solar d r y i n g practices. A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f 10 A C O R D - N E B B I t r a i n i n g m a n u a l s (i.e., strategic p l a n n i n g , b o o k - k e e p i n g , leadership s k i l l s , gender sensitive p l a n n i n g , resource m o b i l i z a t i o n , m a r k e t i n g , business i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , f i n a n c i a l management, n e t w o r k i n g , and c o m m u n i t y health) reveals an e m p h a s i s o n b u i l d i n g c o m p e t e n c y i n the participants to p e r f o r m relevant tasks i n the l o c a l i z a t i o n p e r i o d and the p e r i o d after. In the area o f c o m m u n i t y health, the trainer o f c o m m u n i t y w o r k e r p r o g r a m promotes the d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f c o m m u n i t y health issues, for instance awareness o n H I V / A I D S a n d other k i l l e r diseases to the c o m m u n i t y , t r a d i t i o n a l healers, and birth attendants. T h i s has resulted i n the use o f n o n - i n f e c t i o u s s u r g i c a l methods o f treatment and safe d e l i v e r y k i t s ; reduced risky c u l t u r a l / traditional practices, i m p r o v e d attitudes and b e h a v i o u r that p r o m o t e understanding o f s e x u a l l y transmitted diseases i n the c o m m u n i t y ,  150  i n c l u d i n g p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n o n the m o r e sensitive issue o f the N e b b i [ A l u r ] t r a d i t i o n o f mandatory w i d o w inheritance. In the m i c r o - c r e d i t p r o g r a m , capacity b u i l d i n g i s a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s i n s m a l l - s c a l e enterprise d e v e l o p m e n t and credit management. A s a result d o c u m e n t a t i o n a v a i l a b l e revealed groups' aggregate credit r e c o v e r y rate o f 8 5 % i n the l o c a l i z a t i o n phase. In a d d i t i o n , there is the practice o f e x t e n d i n g interest free loans by groups to the f a m i l i e s o f m e m b e r s i n the groups w h o have been v i c t i m s f r o m i l l n e s s or other factors. F r o m the d o c u m e n t a t i o n , A l a m g i r (1996) o u t l i n e s the b r o a d objectives o f A C O R D capacity b u i l d i n g w h i c h ranges from b u i l d i n g o f t r a i n i n g capacity, to enhancement o f h u m a n capacity directed at c o m m u n i t y c i v i c leaders, i n c l u d i n g p a r i s h p l a n n i n g c o u n c i l s , change agents, and group m e m b e r s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the 7"key objectives identified as areas that foster capacity b u i l d i n g i n c l u d e t r a i n i n g efforts and strategies directed at the:  a) Creation of a credit mindedness, b) enlargement of technological base, c) promotion of institutional development, d) protection of the environment, e) promotion of community participation, f) encouragement of gender sensitivity in development planning and throughout program activities, and g) the improvement in the quality of life in the community. (Alamgir, 1996, p.7) M o r e o v e r , the v i e w h e l d b y one o f the t r a i n i n g officers, w h o participated i n the study that reflects capacity b u i l d i n g ,  There are a range of group training programs which ACORD-NEBBI considers part of capacity building . . . In capacity building we cover leadership skills, financial management, strategic planning, record keeping, public accountability, resource mobilization, gender analysis . . . What we emphasize when doing these programs, especially the knowledge and skills, for example, in agro-forestry, is that it should remain and be sustainable by the beneficiary of the training (Extract from community development workers individual interview).  151  6.3 C o m m u n i t y e m p o w e r m e n t C o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t promotes e m p o w e r m e n t o f the p e o p l e i n d e v e l o p m e n t initiatives. T h e essence and f o r m o f e m p o w e r m e n t is t h r o u g h self-management and l o c a l c o n t r o l , u s i n g d e m o c r a t i c processes that m a x i m i z e c o m m u n i t y and grassroots participation. A C O R D p r o g r a m m e activities indicate a m o v e t o w a r d e m p o w e r i n g v u l n e r a b l e segments i n c o m m u n i t i e s . Efforts directed at the a c h i e v e m e n t o f e m p o w e r m e n t at a c o m m u n i t y l e v e l i n c l u d e elements and strategies that fit under the p r o v i s i o n o f t r a i n i n g a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l strengthening. T h e 1997 A C O R D A n n u a l R e p o r t lists t h e m as f o l l o w s : Training in technical skills and in assertiveness through organizational strengthening has continued to be at the centre of the A C O R D strategy. In 1996/97, A C O R D trained 25,000 poor people in organizational development, with men and women in equal number, as well as close to 500 leaders of community based organizations (CBO). Over 1,300 people were trained in gender awareness, as well as 97 C B O leaders, of whom 47% were men. Training was also provided to 1,000 vulnerable people in literacy and to 71 literacy trainers. ( A C O R D annual report, 1997, p.5) F r o m the field d o c u m e n t a t i o n a v a i l a b l e , efforts that create e m p o w e r m e n t also create opportunities that encourage p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f m a r g i n a l i z e d segments o f the c o m m u n i t y i n s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c spheres. In this regard, material poverty seems to be a potential barrier to accessing these opportunities. T h e A C O R D P l a n defines poverty as the ultimate result o f p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l injustice ( A C O R D Introduction to Strategic P l a n , 1997-2001). T h e 1997 A C O R D A n n u a l R e p o r t alludes to a strategy for a c h i e v i n g c o m m u n i t y e m p o w e r m e n t to c o v e r . . . Efforts directed at the most obvious victims of all forms of poverty. Starting with one at the very core of individual marginalization and societal breakdown: the lack of social capital. In all arenas, A C O R D endeavours to promote this ability to take an active part in one's community. ( A C O R D annual report, 1997, p.2.) A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f the achievement o f and e m p h a s i s o n e m p o w e r m e n t f r o m 1997 to 1998 is a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f what A C O R D - N E B B I h a d articulated i n 1987, after a  152  thorough c o n s u l t a t i o n process w i t h v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t i e s . T h e c o n s u l t a t i o n i d e n t i f i e d three major e m p o w e r m e n t related themes, n a m e l y , a) r e d u c t i o n o f poverty and v u l n e r a b i l i t y , b) help to m a r g i n a l i z e d segments o f the c o m m u n i t y to w i n their basic rights, and c) assistance to disadvantaged c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s to cope w i t h c o n f l i c t and peace b u i l d i n g ( A C O R D A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1996, p.9). Further, the 1996 A C O R D A n n u a l R e p o r t states that i n order to ascertain the factors w h i c h cause poverty, an understanding o f h o w c o m m u n i t i e s w o r k and h o w they are d i v i d e d into class, gender, r e l i g i o n , and ethnicity at the l e v e l o f h o u s e h o l d , c o m m u n i t y , and l o c a l government j u r i s d i c t i o n is significant. Indeed, the participants i n this study, w h o r e c a l l e d h a v i n g been recruited i n 1987 as f i e l d w o r k e r s , agree to the importance o f this i d e n t i f i c a t i o n because it makes it easier to direct or t a i l o r c o m m u n i t y e m p o w e r m e n t efforts through the categorization. O n e o f the r e m a i n i n g R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t W o r k e r s , n o w c a l l e d T r a i n i n g O f f i c e r s , characterized an approach to e m p o w e r m e n t t h r o u g h poverty r e d u c t i o n as f o l l o w s : All of us who were recruited as Rural Development Workers underwent training in animation skills . . . Later we were posted to various areas — the parishes — to go and research into the causes of poverty. By then A C O R D was not fully established in the programme area (Extract from programme coordinator individual interview). Indeed, for change and l o c a l i z a t i o n i n c o m m u n i t i e s to take root, equitable, selfreliant, and sustainable d e v e l o p m e n t strategies b e c o m e the vectors to the majority o f the p e o p l e that need to j o i n the m a i n s t r e a m w a y s o f sustaining l i v e l i h o o d s . A n d it appears the d e v e l o p m e n t strategy is effective w h e n research into the causes o f p o v e r t y are undertaken, v u l n e r a b l e segments i n a c o m m u n i t y are i d e n t i f i e d and encouraged to f o r m their o w n f o r m a l groups, to enable i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w and resource assistance to strengthen them as an aggregate.  153  6.4 E n d o g e n o u s d e v e l o p m e n t C o r n m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t generates its m o m e n t u m f r o m w i t h i n a n d is l a r g e l y supported b y the u n i q u e history, experience, and culture o f a c o m m u n i t y . It is the h i s t o r i c a l and l i v e d experiences o f the p e o p l e o v e r t i m e that p r o p e l s c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e and gives it a truly c o m m u n i t y - o w n e d i m a g e . In its 1996 A n n u a l R e p o r t , A C O R D emphasizes that: Any rights-based approach can only be legitimate if developed in conjunction with the individuals and groups most directly affected, (p. 11 -12) The  study participants p o i n t e d out that sustainable c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t  efforts are effectively a c h i e v e d i f the issues, challenges, and opportunities c o n f r o n t i n g a c o m m u n i t y are i d e n t i f i e d entirely b y the c o m m u n i t y residents w i t h outside d e v e l o p m e n t agencies l i k e A C O R D a c t i n g i n the capacity o f facilitators. I n other w o r d s , i n the l o n g t e r m , it is the endogenous, not e x o g e n o u s d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e that is effective and sustainable. T h e f o l l o w i n g is a s u m m a r y o f the responses g i v e n b y one o f the agroforestry t e c h n i c i a n s , w h e n I a s k e d h i m about h o w c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d the p r o g r a m m e s are: I have been a teacher for a long time . . . You see, as a person grows up there are certain things one goes through: challenges, achievements, painful experiences, missed or untapped opportunities . . . We the development workers have to make ways to bring these experiences to light . . . And we do so by brainstorming, questioning, discussing with village communities . . . Through these approaches we can find out what skills we need to share with them . . . So they tell you where their strengths, opportunities, and challenges are. You don't impose anything on them because that won't work (Extract from community development worker individual interview). F i n a l l y , it c a n be c o n c l u d e d that A C O R D ' s a c t i v i t i e s , as expressed i n the 1996 A n n u a l R e p o r t , are consistent w i t h the n o t i o n o f endogenous c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . Indeed, as r e v i e w e d i n chapter t w o , there is a need to: Ask questions about who within these groups makes decisions or has access to the decisionmakers and who does not and why . . . There will be historical, cultural, and political reasons for these differences. ( A C O R D annual report, 1996, p. 10-11)  154  T h e b e l i e f i n a n endogenous c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r i n c i p l e is further elaborated i n the 1997 A C O R D A n n u a l R e p o r t that states: Poverty is the lack of access to, or of control over, knowledge and resources. It affects poor women even more than men. A C O R D has therefore based its programmes on an analysis of the constraints poor people face, especially in [their own] areas. ( A C O R D annual report, 1997, p.5)  6.5 Community participation A t a l l l e v e l s o f society p a r t i c i p a t i o n is enhanced, and the i d e a l o f participatory d e m o c r a c y fostered, thereby countering the apathy, frustration, a n d resentment that often arise from feelings o f powerfulness and o p p r e s s i o n i n the face o f o p p r e s s i v e p o w e r structures. In their w o r k o n the Meaning of Community Economic  Development,  B o o t h r o y d and D a v i s ( 1 9 9 1 , p.2) note that it is not sufficient i n c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i f people "merely pay fees, donate m o n e y , s i g n petitions or attend c o m m o n events. C o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n is evident i n the A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e through the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f p r i m a r y s c h o o l s i n Padyere a n d J o n a m counties, a l l c o m p l e t e d t h r o u g h c o m m u n i t y efforts. In this case, the c o m m u n i t i e s c o n c e r n e d contributed b y c o l l e c t i n g stones, sand, and m a k i n g the b r i c k s , w h i l e A C O R D - N E B B I contributed the i r o n sheets, cement, and timber. T h e same l e v e l o f c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been a c h i e v e d i n the three health units rehabilitated i n four parishes, and i n one case, the centre, r e c e i v e d a c o m p l e t e c o n s t r u c t i o n f i n i s h i n g , b e d d i n g , and m e d i c a l supplies. W o r k i n g together t h r o u g h interaction rather than i n d i v i d u a l l y is instrumental to c u l t i v a t i n g the spirit o f community i n c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e s . In regard to c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n , A C O R D ' s record o f a c t i v i t i e s directed at change and l o c a l i z a t i o n indicates the r e c o g n i t i o n that:  155  Poverty is not only the result of material deprivation; it also includes the lack of participation in decision making at household level and beyond [to] the absence of representation. ( A C O R D annual report, 1996, p. 10) A n i l l u s t r a t i o n o f A C O R D - N E B B F s a p p r o a c h to the p r i n c i p l e o f c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n is best i n d i c a t e d i n its gender awareness and s e n s i t i v i t y p r o g r a m that became a major p r e o c c u p a t i o n i n phase t w o , the d e v e l o p m e n t p e r i o d . A C O R D ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n development efforts is reflected i n its g o a l o f eventual " w i t h d r a w a l f r o m p r o g r a m m e s by e n s u r i n g that l o c a l institutions are prepared to continue c h a l l e n g i n g and i m p r o v i n g their society" ( A C O R D A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1996, p.7). F o r that matter, A C O R D - N E B B I organizes seminars and t r a i n i n g w o r k s h o p s for w o m e n c o u n c i l leaders, secretaries for w o m e n ' s affairs, l o c a l c o u n c i l o f f i c i a l s , C o m m u n i t y B a s e d O r g a n i z a t i o n s ( C B O s ) m e m b e r s , parish chiefs, and r e l i g i o u s leaders. Participants-at these seminars and t r a i n i n g w o r k s h o p s c o m e out w i t h strategies to i m p r o v e o n w a y s o f w o r k i n g together. D r a w i n g f r o m the t r a i n i n g officers and p r o g r a m m e beneficiaries, w h o participated i n the study, it is clear that p a r t i c i p a t i o n c a n be a c h i e v e d effectively w h e n access to the p r o g r a m m e is broadened, rather than restricted. In the gender t r a i n i n g officer's o w n w o r d s : At the end of workshops, some men later realized the need to work with their wives and could involve their wives in planning the day-to-day affairs of the family . . . Encouraging women to earn independent incomes rather than rely on the man . . . Broad participation at such sensitization or awareness raising workshops has a positive impact to the learner participants in the post workshop periods . . . Participants have ended up playing active roles in particular parishes, through their CBOs, in areas such as problem identification, mobilizing group resources, as well as organizing gender seminars and workshops for their parishes (Extract from programme coordinator individual interview). In agro-forestry p r o g r a m , c o n s c i o u s n e s s - r a i s i n g is a focus o f the C B O s engaged i n sustainable forestry practices. T h i s has been a c h i e v e d through the C B O s u n d e r t a k i n g c a m p a i g n s i n c o m m u n i t y e n v i r o n m e n t a l protection. T h e o u t c o m e has  156  been m o r e awareness o n w h y there is a need to enforce e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n b y l o c a l c o m m u n i t y leaders a n d groups. F o r instance, the C B O s w h o s e m a i n a c t i v i t i e s are agriculture a n d agro-forestry are a c t i v e l y engaged i n a c o m m u n i t y m o b i l i z a t i o n and awareness c a m p a i g n against b u s h b u r n i n g i n several parishes. Indeed, the fundamental c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r i n c i p l e o f c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n is c r u c i a l i n a c h i e v i n g sustainability and equity c o n s i d e r i n g that the v u l n e r a b l e "must be treated as subjects o f their o w n transformation and participate a c t i v e l y i n the f o r m u l a t i o n and e x e c u t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e s " ( C a m p f e n s , 1997, p.38). A n o t h e r evidence o f c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n is i n the area o f c o m m u n i t y health. T h e w o m e n ' s and y o u t h groups are engaged i n c o m m u n i t y health e d u c a t i o n activities t h r o u g h meetings, seminars, dramas, and y o u t h c a m p s . A l s o the trainer o f c o m m u n i t y w o r k e r ( T C W ) p r o g r a m has l e d to increased n u m b e r o f c o m m u n i t y health educators i n s e n s i t i z i n g , for instance, r e l i g i o u s leaders, traditional healers, and s c h o o l teachers o n the c r u c i a l i m p o r t a n c e o f e n f o r c i n g c o m m u n i t y health.  6.6 Local community control and management C o m m u n i t y resources and where necessary, resources f r o m outside the c o m m u n i t y (i.e., i n the f o r m o f partnerships w i t h governments, institutions and professional groups) s h o u l d be m o b i l i z e d and d e p l o y e d i n an appropriate manner i n order to ensure b a l a n c e d and e c o l o g i c a l l y sustainable f o r m s o f d e v e l o p m e n t . Indeed ACORD:  Has always wanted to be a development agency rather than a funding agency, and has reached out to the margins, where indigenous structures were weak or under threat. (ACORD annual report, 1996, p.2)  157  A l s o , A C O R D - N E B B I has c h a m p i o n e d the c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r i n c i p l e o f l o c a l control and management through l o c a l people i n v o l v e m e n t . T h i s a p p r o a c h is s u m m e d up i n A C O R D ' s u n d e r l y i n g p h i l o s o p h y for its i n v o l v e m e n t i n sub-Sahara A f r i c a , that i s . Responding to development needs . . . to promote the self-reliance of communities concerned . . . The implication of this philosophy is that A C O R D is not the principal protagonist of the development process in any given context, but plays an essentially ancillary role, providing encouragement, technical advice and, where necessary, material support, but not the will to develop . . . [this] presupposes that local protagonist of the development process exists. (Roberts, 1985, p.5)  The above g u i d i n g d e v e l o p m e n t p h i l o s o p h y is further elaborated i n the a p p r o a c h A C O R D e m p l o y e d to a c h i e v e l o c a l c o n t r o l and management. O n e s u c h effort has been: Support to income-generating activities . . . extended to 40,000 poor people, of whom 54% were women in the 17 countries of Africa . . . Ten major development programmes included microfinance schemes as key components, and A C O R D funds allocated to micro-finance initiatives increased substantially, moving closer towards the strategic plan target of 10% of overall expenditure. Credit and savings schemes taking an integrated approach and including input supply, extension, marketing and group formation in their activities benefited . . . ( A C O R D annual report, 1997, p.5-6) T h e A C O R D - N E B B I programme's o r i g i n a l objective d u r i n g the l o c a l i z a t i o n phase is to leave b e h i n d i n d i g e n o u s l o c a l n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( L N G O ) f o r m e d f r o m a m o n g the 2 0 mature C B O s that have emerged. T h u s , the p r o g r a m m e has been assisting the C B O s to get registered w i t h the N G O N a t i o n a l B o a r d o f R e g i s t r y . A C O R D - N E B B I has agreed to pay 7 5 % o f the total registration and the other 2 5 % met b y the C B O s c o n c e r n e d . A t the t i m e o f c o n d u c t i n g the study, three C B O s had already submitted their draft constitutions w i t h their l a w y e r s a n d had made part payment for their registration, w h i l e three others were i n the process o f c o m p l e t i n g w r i t i n g up o f their constitution. A s some C B O s are n o w registered and others are i n the process o f getting registered, the A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e continues to o r g a n i z e c o n s u l t a t i v e meetings  158  w i t h the stakeholders w i t h i n and outside the district. T h e participants have i n c l u d e d the C B O s , traditional chiefs, L o c a l C o m m i t t e e officials, w o m e n ' s c o u n c i l s , r e l i g i o u s leaders, y o u t h c o u n c i l s , district authorities, and N G O s i n the district. These f o r u m s c o v e r issues p e r t a i n i n g to m e m b e r s h i p o f N G O s , registration process, m a n a g e m e n t structure, r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s for the v a r i o u s posts, and p r i o r i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t i e s that need attention i n the district.  6.7 Diversity C o m m u n i t y integration s h o u l d p r o m o t e s o c i a l relations a m o n g diverse groups i n the c o m m u n i t y as d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y s o c i a l class or other differences (e.g. e c o n o m i c status, ethnicity, culture, racial identity, r e l i g i o n , gender, age, or d i s a b i l i t y ) that create the potential for tensions o r o p e n c o n f l i c t . T h e p r o m o t i o n o f the p r i n c i p l e o f d i v e r s i t y i n A C O R D p r o g r a m m e s c a n be traced to the a p p r e c i a t i o n that: In order to understand the factors that determine the non-material elements [ o f poverty] . . . There is a need to understand how the communities w o r k and how they are divided into class, caste, gender, religion, ethnicity, etc. at the level o f household, community, and state. ( A C O R D annual report, 1996, p. 10)  T h e above reference indicates h o w s o c i a l stratification featured as a significant factor after the 1987 A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m e v a l u a t i o n , w h i c h r e c o m m e n d e d a phase approach. In this regard, the p r o m o t i o n o f d i v e r s i t y has m o s t e f f e c t i v e l y been a c h i e v e d by A C O R D ' s support f o r a n d the encouragement o f self-selecting groups. T h e g r o u p process f o r m a t i o n p r o m o t e s effective f u n c t i o n i n g o f groups w i t h less s o c i a l c o n f l i c t . A n d s o c i a l tension or c o n f l i c t c a n be effectively m i n i m i z e d b y e m p h a s i z i n g a g r o u p f o r m a t i o n process carefully established b y p e o p l e i n the same s o c i a l , or e c o n o m i c , r e l i g i o u s , ethnic, category as a starting p o i n t . A n d t h r o u g h the trust, history and c o m f o r t o f b e i n g w i t h one  159  another, the groups c a n then c o l l e c t i v e l y agree o n group s o c i o - e p o n o m i c ventures o f their choice. It is f r o m the encouragement o f d i v e r s i t y that A C O R D - N E B B I has been effective i n p r o m o t i n g a multi-faceted p r o g r a m m e that penetrates different segments o f c o m m u n i t i e s i n the p r o g r a m m e area, i n c l u d i n g the v u l n e r a b l e . G r o u p activities have i n c l u d e d fishery, trade i n agricultural produce, group d i g g i n g , bee-keeping, c l a y and c e r a m i c w o r k , b l a c k s m i t h i n g , s h o p - k e e p i n g , agro-forestry, horticulture, and r e v o l v i n g f i n a n c i a l credit. A C O R D ' s i n i t i a t i v e o n d i v e r s i t y has been i n i d e n t i f y i n g c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s based o n "class, ethnicity, gender, r e l i g i o n , and ethnicity, at the l e v e l o f h o u s e h o l d , c o m m u n i t y . . . " ( A C O R D A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1997, p . 10). T h i s p r o v e d h e l p f u l i n the identification, m a t c h i n g , and l i n k i n g the self-selected groups that emerged to various d e v e l o p m e n t agencies w o r k i n g i n the p r o g r a m m e area. F o r e x a m p l e , t h r o u g h this process the A r u a C a t h o l i c D i o c e s e p r o v i d e d material and f i n a n c i a l support t o w a r d the construction o f a p r o d u c e warehouse for a group w h o s e m e m b e r s are p r i m a r i l y C a t h o l i c s . T h e l i n k a g e resulted i n the c o m p l e t i o n o f a b u i l d i n g that is u t i l i z e d as an office, retail shop, a n d store for a g r i c u l t u r a l produce. Later, the c o n t i n u e d g o o d r e l a t i o n s h i p that existed between the group and the C h u r c h l e d to a n e w l e v e l o f support. T h i s t i m e the assistance w a s extended to group m e m b e r t r a i n i n g at the O c o k o V o c a t i o n a l R e s i d e n t i a l Centre. T h e t r a i n i n g extended to this group w a s i n carpentry a n d b l a c k s m i t h i n g . A n o t h e r support extended w a s t o w a r d the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a carpentry w o r k s h o p and s u p p l y o f carpentry tools. N o w , the w o r k s h o p undertakes a variety o f carpentry and j o i n e r y w o r k .  160 F u r t h e r m o r e , due to their hard w o r k i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l sector, one g r o u p m a n a g e d to sell at a profit the stocks o f a mosaic-resistant cassava variety to the A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e for further d i s t r i b u t i o n to other groups a n d interested farmers, a l l o v e r the p r o g r a m m e area. These a c t i v i t i e s have m a d e this p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p one o f the most p o p u l a r and successful groups i n the r e g i o n .  6.8 Limited scope of the known normative characteristics of community development. A s presented i n the above analysis, it is evident that A C O R D - N E B B I ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n to l o c a l i z a t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e s i n N e b b i district is largely attributed to the i m p o r t a n c e and s i g n i f i c a n c e it attaches to c o n t i n u o u s investment i n learning and c o m m i t m e n t to gender s e n s i t i v i t y i n the p r o g r a m m e . First, a l l p r o g r a m activities benefited f r o m the t a i l o r e d k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s t r a i n i n g . T o A C O R D - N E B B I , investment i n l e a r n i n g i s a n integral c o m p o n e n t o f its p r o g r a m m e because it understands that s u c h a n u n d e r t a k i n g g i v e s return i n terms o f a n augmented h u m a n capacity. A s e c o n d factor that h e l p e d the a c h i e v e m e n t o f the d e v e l o p m e n t goals, a l t h o u g h not a n o r m a t i v e characteristic o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , has been the e m p h a s i s o n gender s e n s i t i v i t y i n a l l p r o g r a m m e a c t i v i t i e s . In this s e c t i o n I elaborate o n the t w o factors and propose their i n c o r p o r a t i o n to the list o f n o r m a t i v e characteristics o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t .  Knowledge and skills sharing amongst the self-selected groups K n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s s h a r i n g has been at the heart o f the A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e . T h e r e is a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between k n o w l e d g e a n d s k i l l s s h a r i n g and the achievement o f equitable, self-reliant, and sustainable c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . A n d , A C O R D - N E B B I e m p h a s i s o n t a i l o r e d t r a i n i n g i n the l o c a l i z a t i o n phase attests to this.  161  A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f the A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e and affiliates i n N e b b i district reveals that the l o c a l structures a n d institutions i n i t i a l l y possessed weaknesses that arose m a i n l y f r o m t w o major factors: first, o v e r - d e p e n d e n c y o n A C O R D - N E B B I because o f their l a c k o f k n o w l e d g e o n harnessing l o c a l resources, a n d s e c o n d , t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to identify investment opportunities i n the r e g i o n . In response, A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e d e v e l o p e d its a p p r o a c h l a r g e l y a n c h o r e d i n investment i n h u m a n c a p a c i t y . I n strengthening the P a r i s h P l a n n i n g C o m m i t t e e s ( P P C s ) and groups, A C O R D - N E B B I p u r s u e d the f o l l o w i n g : a) t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s that c o v e r e d k n o w l e d g e i n project management, resource m o b i l i z a t i o n , a n d project p r o p o s a l w r i t i n g , i n c l u d i n g the encouragement o f P P C s a n d groups to forge their o w n l i n k a g e s w i t h other d e v e l o p m e n t actors i n the r e g i o n , b) e n c o u r a g i n g and s u p p o r t i n g v i a b l e projects, f a c i l i t a t i n g meetings at forums w h e r e P P C s , groups, and l o c a l authorities c o u l d share their experiences o n d e v e l o p m e n t issues, i n c l u d i n g their respective r o l e s i n the process, l o b b y i n g for the c o - o p t i o n o f P P C s a n d groups i n the current g o v e r n m e n t d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n process, for instance, t h r o u g h their c o n t r i b u t i o n to d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e s at the sub-county l e v e l , and c) strengthening l o c a l structures' a c c o u n t a b i l i t y to t h e i r m e m b e r s h i p t h r o u g h the p r o v i s i o n o f t r a i n i n g i n leadership a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l skills, and record keeping.  Gender sensitivity in development efforts A l t h o u g h gender awareness w a s i n i t i a l l y carried out e x t e n s i v e l y i n c o m m u n i t i e s a n d parishes, a n d integrated i n a l l p r o g r a m m e activities, it w a s the 1987 p r o g r a m m e r e v i e w w h i c h r e v e a l e d the n e e d for a better a p p r o a c h and research technique to c a r r y out the w o r k p l a n s o f C B O s . A C O R D - N E B B I later e m p l o y e d P a r t i c i p a t o r y R u r a l A p p r a i s a l  162  ( P R A ) t o o l s i n c o m m u n i t y needs assessment to identify k e y gender issues associated w i t h c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , a focus that b e c a m e m a n d a t o r y i n d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m i n g . A c c e s s to f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n for girls and w o m e n , m a r i t a l issues, c o m m u n i t y health, inheritance rights, o w n e r s h i p / c o n t r o l o f resources, s u c c e s s i o n issues, w o m e n ' s w o r k l o a d , were c i t e d as the k e y issues by m a n y c o m m u n i t i e s d u r i n g the 1987 p r o g r a m m e e v a l u a t i o n . A s the gender officer, p o i n t e d out: After conducting PRA with the people, they start saying, is this really how we are living? . . . Immediately, there is a general feeling that something must be done about this or that . . . It brings all issues associated to their poverty and its depth very quickly and directly to the person . . . It no longer becomes poverty is my fate (Extract from programme coordinator individual interview)  C o m m u n i t y c o n s c i o u s n e s s - r a i s i n g o n gender issues has been c o n d u c t e d t h r o u g h seminars and w o r k s h o p s h e l d , first w i t h w o m e n alone, and later, w o m e n c o m b i n e d w i t h m e n , l o c a l o p i n i o n leaders, and l o c a l c o u n c i l s f r o m a l l parishes c o v e r e d b y the p r o g r a m m e . T h e analysis o f the p r o b l e m s and nature o f gender relationships i n c o m m u n i t i e s later l e d l o c a l authorities to ensure that e x i s t i n g l a w s , w h i c h serve the interests o f w o m e n , are enforced. In the parishes, the needs assessments w h i c h A C O R D - N E B B I c o n d u c t e d revealed a l a c k o f l e g a l awareness a m o n g both w o m e n and m e n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , legal awareness seminars were held, i n each p a r i s h for the w o m e n , m e n , l o c a l c o u n c i l s and l o c a l authority court m e m b e r s . T h e N e b b i district magistrate office c o l l a b o r a t e d w i t h A C O R D - N E B B I i n d e l i v e r i n g legal e d u c a t i o n to c o m m u n i t y groups o n t o p i c s r a n g i n g f r o m legal rights o f w o m e n , d i v o r c e , inheritance o f property, w i d o w s inheritance, and d o m e s t i c v i o l e n c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , A C O R D - N E B B I s p o n s o r e d gender s e n s i t i v i t y s e m i n a r s i n s c h o o l s for the y o u t h o f a l l ages, o n gender and d e v e l o p m e n t , and h o w current gender r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n  163  N e b b i [ A l u r ] society i m p a c t their c o n d i t i o n s a n d p o s i t i o n s as soon-to-be adults. Integration o f gender s e n s i t i v i t y i n a l l group p r o g r a m a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e d m o n i t o r i n g , as i n the w o r d s o f the gender officer: We have to monitor the gender aspect of the community development programme . . . That is the concern of the women, girl child, and men who are disadvantaged . . . It is not only women . . . Some men are more vulnerable than women . . . The growth of small-scale enterprises where women fit best throughout the programme area . . . Women can grind maize, pound cassava, millet, etc. using their own hands, which a man cannot do. So a woman has more access to those incomes than some men . . . So women are feeding men and the children, paying their taxes, so don't you see that with all that traditional power men have in the area, without this income, coming from him would make the man feel very uncomfortable? . . . So this economic power shifting to women hands needs a lot of discussions (Extract from community development worker individual interview) B u t earlier experience w i t h e x c l u s i v e support to w o m e n ' s ' groups a c h i e v e d l i m i t e d success, c o n s i d e r i n g that some w o m e n t o o k the o p p o r t u n i t y to m a r g i n a l i z e their m a l e counterparts. In the w o r d s o f the gender officer, It is better to create gender awareness to both the husbands and wives . . . It is now gender and development. . . When it was women and development, women tended to be exclusive, that was in 1988/89 up to 1990. So women thought they had the power to exclude men from all that they were doing. But we found it would never work (Extract from programme coordinator individual interview). T h e rationale for integrating gender s e n s i t i v i t y i n a l l p r o g r a m m e areas appears to stem f r o m the argument that gender as a factor i m p a c t s a l l facets o f the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c p o l i t i c a l landscape i n the c o m m u n i t i e s c o v e r e d b y A C O R D - N E B B I . T h i s is a v i e w shared b y the study participants, and i n this particular case, the gender officer that: The circumstances which make a woman not have land . . . What are the impacts of a woman not owning land . . . So you have gender and agriculture . . . Then you analyze the work done by women on the field crop that is very common in this area — cotton, millet, maize — . . . And who controls the proceeds of these harvests? (Extract from programme coordinator individual interview) T h e t r a i n i n g c o m p o n e n t o f the d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e ensured that w o m e n are g i v e n the necessary k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s to enable t h e m to i m p r o v e their business  164  activities. E x p o s u r e and f i e l d v i s i t s have been a favourite a p p r o a c h for w o m e n ' s groups to share their experiences across p a r i s h , district, and regions. F a m i l y p l a n n i n g and health e d u c a t i o n that are related to gender issues were c o n d u c t e d i n each p a r i s h , based o n the p a r t i c u l a r p a r i s h situations as reflected i n the needs assessment that the p r o g r a m m e carried out, p r i o r to e n g a g i n g the c o m m u n i t i e s . A g a i n , the needs assessments r e v e a l e d that i n i t i a l l y , little w a s k n o w n b y the h o u s e h o l d s i n the p r o g r a m m e area about the f a m i l y p l a n n i n g concept. A l s o , there has been a l a c k o f understanding and awareness o n the l i n k between f a m i l y s i z e , n u t r i t i o n and health, education costs for the c h i l d r e n , and f a m i l y disposable i n c o m e . In response, A C O R D N E B B I c o n d u c t e d the health e d u c a t i o n and f a m i l y p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m s , i n close c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h a f a m i l y p l a n n i n g officer f r o m N e b b i D i s t r i c t M e d i c a l O f f i c e . D u r i n g each session, a careful analysis o f f a m i l y situation i n r e l a t i o n to causes and manifestations o f poverty, and other associated f a m i l y p r o b l e m s , were carefully discussed together w i t h the h o u s e h o l d s . C o n s i d e r i n g that the majority o f the r u r a l p o o r are w o m e n , it is rational to incorporate gender s e n s i t i v i t y as a n o r m a t i v e characteristic o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , because t h r o u g h it, the g o a l o f a l l e v i a t i n g poverty at the c o m m u n i t y l e v e l is greatly enhanced. Summary T h i s chapter has p r o v i d e d a response to the first research q u e s t i o n : to what extent and i n what w a y s are the seven n o r m a t i v e characteristics o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , as a d v a n c e d i n the literature, reflected i n A C O R D - N E B B I e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s ? T h e A C O R D - N E B B I d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e ' s r e f l e c t i o n o f the seven n o r m a t i v e characteristics o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t (i.e., self-reliance, e m p o w e r m e n t , h u m a n  165  capacity b u i l d i n g , endogenous d e v e l o p m e n t , c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n , l o c a l c o n t r o l and management, a n d d i v e r s i t y ) is attributed to three m a i n a p p l i c a t i o n factors. F i r s t , the g u i d i n g objective o f A C O R D ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n rural c o m m u n i t i e s w h e r e l o c a l structures are either w e a k or non-existent. S e c o n d , a c o m m i t m e n t to carry out research w i t h c o m m u n i t i e s to address both the causes a n d manifestations o f poverty. A n d t h i r d , the a b i l i t y and d e d i c a t i o n o f change agents to e x a m i n e their o w n w o r k m o r e c r i t i c a l l y , w i t h full i n v o l v e m e n t o f the v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t i e s a n d groups that emerged. I have c o n c l u d e d the chapter by e x p l i c a t i n g the advantage that accrued f r o m A C O R D - N E B B I ' s emphasis o n investment i n h u m a n capacity t h r o u g h k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s sharing a n d a m o r e deliberate effort t o w a r d gender s e n s i t i v i t y throughout its p r o g r a m m e s . T h u s , I have suggested that due to their u n i q u e c o n t r i b u t i o n to the effectiveness o f the d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e i n this case, and because they are not d i r e c t l y a c k n o w l e d g e d i n the literature r e v i e w e d as n o r m a t i v e characteristics, both the knowledge and skills sharing and gender sensitivity s h o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d as " n e w " n o r m a t i v e characteristics o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . In the next chapter I p r o v i d e focus o n the s e c o n d research q u e s t i o n : what factors support or h i n d e r the a b i l i t y o f A C O R D - N E B B I e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g programs to contribute to the achievement o f equitable, self-reliant, and sustainable c o m m u n i t y development initiatives?  1 6 6  CHAPTER VII: ANALYSIS OF ACORD-NEBBI's APPROACH TO COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT In this chapter I focus o n the s e c o n d research q u e s t i o n : w h a t factors support or h i n d e r the a b i l i t y o f A C O R D - N E B B I e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s to contribute to the a c h i e v e m e n t o f equitable, self-reliant, a n d sustainable c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n i t i a t i v e s ? T h e a n s w e r to this q u e s t i o n i s d e r i v e d f r o m the a c t i v i t i e s e m b e d d e d i n A C O R D - N E B B I ' s three phases to c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t efforts: the establishment phase ( 1 9 8 7 - 1 9 9 0 ) , the d e v e l o p m e n t phase ( 1 9 9 1 - 1 9 9 3 ) , a n d the l o c a l i z a t i o n phase (1994-1996+). T h i s m e t h o d is effective because the phase a p p r o a c h has been a corner stone o f A C O R D - N E B B I d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e . In 1987 the A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m e e v a l u a t i o n revealed that p r i o r to the establishment phase ( 1 9 8 7 - 1 9 9 0 ) , the p r o g r a m m e h a d m i n i m a l interaction w i t h the fishers. T h r e e major activities d u r i n g this p e r i o d were the fish gear d i s t r i b u t i o n , c o m m u n i t y health e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m , and the boat c o n s t r u c t i o n centre at P a k w a c h t o w n . A s a result, A C O R D - N E B B I tended to interpret the v i e w s o f the p e o p l e rather than m a k e d e c i s i o n s o n the basis o f equal p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the p e o p l e it targeted as beneficiaries. T h e gender officer w h o participated i n the study e x p l a i n e d t h a t . . . The ACORD-NEBBI programme objective initially was that since the majority of the people were fishers, it needed to target assistance to them first . . . That fishers would get support to alleviate their poverty in turn . . . After 2 years it was found out that the fishery programme was not the most effective way to eradicate poverty . . . In 1987 the programme changed its strategy and launched a rural development promotion programme and engaged in research on communities to establish the causes of rural poverty (Extract from programme coordinator individual interview). A n d i n another case, the agro-forestry t e c h n i c i a n i n d i c a t e d that: The 1987 programme evaluation indicated that the village communities were not only fishers, but also agricultural and livestock farmers. So ACORD-NEBBI realized there was a need to get people with professional backgrounds in other disciplines, not only fishery, as was the case (Extract from community development workers individual interview).  167  A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f the e v a l u a t i o n report o n the pre-phase a p p r o a c h p e r i o d suggests a dependency trend. F o r instance, the fishery e q u i p m e n t w a s distributed b y A C O R D - N E B B I i n s u c h a w a y that it reinforced dependency o n i m p o r t e d products and o n A C O R D - N E B B I itself. T h u s , v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t i e s p e r c e i v e d A C O R D - N E B B I as an o r g a n i z a t i o n that h a d taken o v e r the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f g o v e r n m e n t organs that t r a d i t i o n a l l y l o o k e d after the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f essential goods. A n d this w a s the p e r i o d j u s t after Idi A m i n w a s r e m o v e d f r o m p o w e r , and e v e r y t h i n g one c o u l d i m a g i n e w a s i n short supply. T h e A C O R D - N E B B I boat b u i l d i n g project w a s not o n l y isolated f r o m l o c a l b u i l d e r s , but also used materials that were not easily a v a i l a b l e l o c a l l y (i.e., e x p e n s i v e i m p o r t e d m a c h i n e r y and equipment). A s a result the projects were unsustainable and d i f f i c u l t to replicate to c o m m u n i t i e s . T h e c o m m u n i t y health education p r o g r a m m e d i d not create the necessary c o n d i t i o n s for l o c a l c o m m u n i t y interaction and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h e c o m m u n i t y a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l that w a s established w a s a n A C O R D - N E B B I creation, headed b y a n A C O R D - N E B B I e m p l o y e e . It w a s c o m p o s e d o f the r e l a t i v e l y w e a l t h y and influential i n d i v i d u a l s f r o m the fish l a n d i n g organizations, and therefore a c l a s s i c  e x a m p l e building pyramids from the top down and of the rich getting richer. T h e d e v e l o p m e n t m e t h o d d u r i n g the pre-phase a p p r o a c h never focused d i r e c t l y o n self-reliance. Indeed, self-reliance requires b u i l d i n g c l o s e c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h groups o f w o m e n and m e n engaged i n c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n , i n this case, the f i s h i n g c o m m u n i t i e s engaged i n fishery. A l s o , the need for t e c h n i c a l assistance s h o u l d have emerged f r o m direct d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h the f i s h i n g c o m m u n i t i e s and groups.  168  In v i e w o f the s h o r t c o m i n g s encountered p r i o r to the establishment phase, both the establishment and d e v e l o p m e n t phases e m p h a s i z e d i n their p r o g r a m m i n g the focus that, " A C O R D - N E B B I a i m s to p r o m o t e processes that foster self-reliance for the u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d and oppressed p e o p l e " ( A C O R D - N E B B I P r o g r a m m e C o m m i t t e e D o c u m e n t , 1 9 9 1 , p.3). T h e argument i n this case b e i n g that the process o f fostering selfreliance is best anchored i n participatory d e v e l o p m e n t . That, f o r m a t i o n o f groups s h o u l d be based o n a c o m m o n interest and where p o s s i b l e b y p e o p l e o f a s i m i l a r s o c i a l - i n c o m e status. I m p l i c i t l y , self-reliance enables groups and i n d i v i d u a l s to m o b i l i z e resources, p o o l together and invest as m u c h o f their o w n s k i l l s and resources as p o s s i b l e , w i t h the ultimate g o a l o f g a i n i n g access to larger resources. T h e i m p l i c a t i o n suggests that where necessary, groups s h o u l d be l i n k e d to external resources, s k i l l s and i n f o r m a t i o n i n order for t h e m to supplement, not replace what they have. A n d care must be taken not to create dependency relationships. D u r i n g the development phase, l o c a l research became a n i n d i s p e n s a b l e part o f A C O R D - N E B B I p r o g r a m m i n g . B y research, the A C O R D - N E B B I meant participatory a c t i o n research, based o n l i v i n g and w o r k i n g together w i t h l o c a l v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t i e s , and e n g a g i n g t h e m i n a c o n t i n u o u s process o f o b s e r v a t i o n , r e f l e c t i o n , a n a l y s i s and the generation o f feasible s o l u t i o n s to p r o b l e m s . In the d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e , the l i n c h p i n o f the "self-reliant, p a r t i c i p a t o r y " process has been the change agent. T h e change agent is supposed to c o m e from and l i v e w i t h the l o c a l p e o p l e . H i s / her r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are to sensitize the p e o p l e into i d e n t i f y i n g c o m m o n p r o b l e m s , together a n a l y z e the p r o b l e m s identified, a n d to c o l l e c t i v e l y generate effective solutions. T h e change agents were i n i t i a l l y c a l l e d R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t W o r k e r s ( R D W s ) . T h e c r i t e r i a for their recruitment  169  were positive personality type, dedication, and the ability to work with groups of the rural poor as o p p o s e d to total reliance o n t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s or the l e v e l o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . D u r i n g the d e v e l o p m e n t phase, t e c h n i c a l support w a s e x p a n d e d b e y o n d the fishery to i n c l u d e agro-forestry and w o o d l o t management, appropriate v i l l a g e t e c h n o l o g y , savings m o b i l i z a t i o n , and e n v i r o n m e n t a l protection. F u r t h e r m o r e , t e c h n i c a l assistance w a s g u i d e d b y c r i t e r i a that focused o n l o c a l self-reliance, n a m e l y , m a x i m i z i n g the use o f l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e materials, a v o i d i n g i m p o r t s where p o s s i b l e , m i n i m i z i n g costs, demonstrating short-term r e p l i c a t i o n as w e l l as favour to t e c h n o l o g i e s and practices that ensured greater effectiveness w h e n c o m p a r e d to t r a d i t i o n a l practices. In e x a m i n i n g the focus, experiences, and a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g the d e v e l o p m e n t phase, the f o l l o w i n g four inputs gained p r o m i n e n c e : a) assistance to people i n f i s h i n g v i l l a g e s to g a i n awareness o f their o w n potential c a p a b i l i t i e s and c o m m o n interests, b ) - p r o m o t i o n o f self-selecting and directed groups o f m e n and w o m e n , h a v i n g c o m m o n interests, to i m p r o v e their o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , and m a n a g e r i a l s k i l l s , so as to better p l a n and i m p l e m e n t their o w n e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t i e s , c) creation o f opportunities for the groups to establishing l i n k a g e s w i t h e x i s t i n g g o v e r n m e n t a l e x t e n s i o n services, so as to g a i n access to t e c h n i c a l assistance and other forms o f support, and d) encouragement o f a n independent, s e l f - g o v e r n i n g , n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l d e v e l o p m e n t agency to f o r m e d i n N e b b i district, and w h o s e objective w o u l d be the p r o m o t i o n o f c o n t i n u e d , self-reliant participatory d e v e l o p m e n t , and to assist s u c h an agency d e v e l o p the c a p a b i l i t y to attract a n d m a i n t a i n the necessary external f u n d i n g for future a c t i v i t i e s .  170  7.1 Supporting factors in the ACORD-NEBBI programme The goals a n d a c t i v i t i e s o f c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t efforts at the A C O R D N E B B I p r o g r a m m e c a n be c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d i n the three phases. U s i n g g o a l s , inputs, o u t c o m e s , a n d i n f l u e n c i n g factors i n e a c h phase as s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e 7,1 identify a n d  INFLUENCING FACTORS  OUTCOME  INPUTS  GOALS  T A B L E 7: A C O R D - N E B B I ' S A P P R O A C H T O C O M M U N I T Y D E V E L O P M E N T Phase I (1987-1990) Phase 11 (1991-1993) Beginning (1983-86) Phase III (1994-1998) Establishment Development ACORD doing it alone Localization •Improve living conditions. •Improve living •Improve living •Arms-length type contact to •Promote gender sensitivity. CBOs. conditions. conditions. •Focus on human capacity •Initiate local •Pursue skills training. •Tailored support to CBOs. development. •Support group formation. building. •Encourage self-reliant CBOs. •Revitalize fishery sector. •CBOs to network + exchange •Alleviate poverty. ideas. •No training conducted. •Distribute fish gear. •Carry health education •Activities pursued by ACORD itself.  •Confined to municipality. •Training not a focus. •Expensive expatriates. •Few local personnel. •No community ownership. •Less community involvement.  •Emphasized "E" in CED. •Dependency culture created in communities. •Few local personnel. •Non-fishery sectors left out.  •Carry program evaluation. •Recruit CD workers. •Train CD workers. •Research on poverty. •Facilitate group formation. •Conduct needs assessment. •Extend training to groups. •Expanded to new parishes. •Supported group activities. •Strengthened village structures. •CD workers deployed in the field. •Smaller groups consolidated. •Addressed evaluation findings in programme. •Fishery scaled down. •Expatriates scaled down. •More locals recruited. •Supported local structures. •Supported new groups. •Redefined poverty. •Carried needs assessment. •Emphasized "C" and "D".  •Establish a training centre. •Expand training curriculum. •Extend training to both groups and community leaders. •Conduct field and residential training.  •Continue training at CBOs' request. •Develop training manuals. •Test training manuals. •Scale down no. of CD workers. •Knowledge diffusion via visits. •Discuss NGO structures.  •Expanded to new parishes. •Diversified CD activities.  •Cultural troupe, dramas emerged. •Community education pursued. •CBOs at various NGO status. •More active women's groups. •Non-group members left out.  •Political instability deterred programme expansion. •Linked groups to other dev't agencies. •Programme emphasized "C", "E", and "D". •Groups established based on trust and their own set eligibility criteria.  •3-phase approach applied. •Tailored training pursued. •Focus on self-selecting CBOs. •Local proverbs reinforced CD philosophy. •Diversity through multi-faceted programs. •Compulsory gender program. •Training made central focus. •Developed local structure aided localization. •Emphasized all "C", "E", and D" in CED.  e x p l a i n the s i x m a i n factors that h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d to the effective a c h i e v e m e n t o f equitable, self-reliant, a n d sustainable c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t efforts.  171  The 3-Phase Approach T h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e a p p r o a c h dates b a c k to a p l a n that w a s d e v e l o p e d i n 1987. T h e p l a n contained three phases, o f three years each. T h e establishment phase (1987-1990) focused o n the p r o m o t i o n o f self-selected groups and research o n the causes o f poverty i n the r e g i o n . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t phase ( 1 9 9 1 - 1 9 9 3 ) e m p h a s i z e d gender sensitivity, k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s t r a i n i n g , a n d d i v e r s i f i e d c o m m u n i t y e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t activities b y groups. T h e l o c a l i z a t i o n phase ( 1 9 9 4 - 1 9 9 8 ) p u r s u e d gender sensitive p r o g r a m m i n g , t a i l o r e d t r a i n i n g , and a n "arms-length" a p p r o a c h to the groups that emerged. T h e c o m p l e t i o n o f each phase a l l o w e d the p r o g r a m m e personnel to reflect and learn f r o m their earlier experiences, and a c c o r d i n g l y made appropriate changes based o n what they had learned.  Tailored training The support to groups and associations w h i c h emerged has been a c c o m p l i s h e d through: a) p r o v i s i o n o f t r a i n i n g i n relevant k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s , b) p r o m o t i o n o f groups' and associations' a u t o n o m y through t r a i n i n g i n savings m o b i l i z a t i o n , searching for n e w investment opportunities and markets, as w e l l as k n o w l e d g e i n m o n i t o r i n g and e v a l u a t i o n o f their performance, and c) offering w o r k s h o p s o n the functions o f n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l organizations. T h e research reveals that i n strengthening these groups, A C O R D - N E B B I pursued a n " o n - d e m a n d " e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m w h i c h featured e l e v e n m a i n k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s t r a i n i n g themes: p a r t i c i p a t o r y m o n i t o r i n g and e v a l u a t i o n , strategic p l a n n i n g , gender sensitive p l a n n i n g , c o m m u n i t y health, appropriate v i l l a g e t e c h n o l o g y , business management, c r e d i t management, leadership s k i l l s , project p l a n n i n g , c o u n s e l i n g , and participatory r u r a l a p p r a i s a l . T h e m o s t significant factor i n the d e v e l o p m e n t process  172  has been the nature o f t a i l o r e d education and t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s at the request and pace o f the c o r n m u n i t y based o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Promotion of self-seiecting group formation T h e fact that, i n i t i a l l y , the d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e c o v e r e d a l l parishes o f J o n a m c o u n t y i n 1990, a n d later e x p a n d e d to 6 m o r e parishes o f Padyere c o u n t y , c o u l d be attributed to the effectiveness o f the group f o r m a t i o n concept. In areas w h e r e A C O R D N E B B I had w o r k e d for o v e r three years, a r e l i a n c e w a s p l a c e d o n selected, e x p e r i e n c e d m e m b e r s o f the C B O s to assist the f e w r e m a i n i n g R D W s for field v i s i t s a n d a d v i c e to n e w l y e m e r g i n g groups. It was out o f this experience that the p r o g r a m m e e x p a n s i o n into Padyere c o u n t y b e c a m e p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t any increased personnel budget. T h e effectiveness o f the self-selecting group process f o r m a t i o n c a n be s u m m e d u p i n the confidence e c h o e d b y one o f the agro-forestry t e c h n i c i a n s w h o participated i n this study: There are 20 CBOs that are fully operating in the A C O R D - N E B B I Programme . . . Others are in the process to gain registration with the National Board of N G O . . . Others are already linked with other development agencies coming to the area . . . Some groups are working on their own plans and we just visit them to say, hello? (Extract from community development workers individual interview) It c a n therefore be d e d u c e d that the encouragement o f d i v e r s i t y i n group a c t i v i t i e s , savings m o b i l i z a t i o n , and e m p h a s i s o n the n o t i o n o f m u t u a l a i d , have a l l l e d to the creation o f e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e units thus e n a b l i n g equitable, self-reliant, and sustainable d e v e l o p m e n t efforts i n the p r o g r a m m e area. T h u s , the C B O s n e e d not be cooperatives as s u c h , because w i t h their group c a p i t a l and C B O status, they c a n s t i l l undertake s a v i n g s m o b i l i z a t i o n amongst themselves w i t h the g o a l o f p r o v i d i n g r e v o l v i n g credit to group m e m b e r s , as w e l l as for group investments.  173  T h e A C O R D - N E B B I ' s b e l i e f i n f a c i l i t a t i n g the f o r m a t i o n o f self-selected C B O s suggests that there are m a n y advantages o f u n d e r t a k i n g m u t u a l l y b e n e f i c i a l c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n or p r o d u c t i o n . Indeed, the m e m b e r s i n the C B O s w h o select t h e m s e l v e s based o n m u t u a l trust establish a m i n i m u m m o n t h l y c o n t r i b u t i o n for their savings m o b i l i z a t i o n that they u t i l i z e as group capital to conduct profitable e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s o f their c h o i c e . Effectiveness o f this savings m o b i l i z a t i o n a p p r o a c h is shared b y a c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d o r g a n i z a t i o n that engages i n sustainable agriculture t h r o u g h one o f its e x e c u t i v e s : We did much better in the repayment of loans from the loan scheme, because we followed what we agreed upon as a collective and the result has been large payouts to members in form of dividends. Moreover, we operate a much greater amount of group capital than the rest of the other CBOs (Extract from programme beneficiaries group interviews) T h e A C O R D - N E B B I ' s participatory d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h is consistent w i t h the criteria for group f o r m a t i o n because it is the c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s m e m b e r s themselves w h o determine the intensity and type o f g r o u p a c t i v i t i e s . T h e R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t W o r k e r s ( R D W s ) support the groups' o r g a n i z a t i o n , p r o v i d e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e assistance, and create l i n k s between the groups and external e x t e n s i o n t e c h n i c i a n s . A n d a l l these functions are p e r f o r m e d w i t h o u t any interference i n any particular C B O ' s d e c i s i o n m a k i n g process. A s a result, m e m b e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n has r i s e n i n most C B O s due to this arms length a p p r o a c h adopted b y A C O R D - N E B B I . T h u s the l o n g - t e r m objective o f h a v i n g a l o c a l N o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l O r g a n i z a t i o n ( L N G O ) f r o m the mature 2 0 C B O s , is still a possibility. T h e i n d i v i d u a l C B O s a d m i n i s t e r themselves b y m e a n s o f a b o a r d , c o n s i s t i n g o f a chairperson, v i c e - c h a i r p e r s o n , a treasurer and a secretary. D e c i s i o n s i n the g r o u p w i t h respect to a c t i v i t i e s or l o a n disbursements are v o t e d o n . T h e R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t W o r k e r s ( R D W s ) a d v i s e and support the groups o n matters r e l a t i n g to b o o k k e e p i n g , credit  174  management and i n p l a n n i n g i n i t i a t i v e s o f the C B O s . I f there is a need for t e c h n i c a l assistance, the e x t e n s i o n service is contacted. D u r i n g the f i e l d w o r k most C B O s have i n d i c a t e d goals that require major investment c a p i t a l . T h e ideas range f r o m purchase o f v e h i c l e s for c o m m e r c i a l haulage business, to m e d i u m scale c o m m e r c i a l enterprises, i m p r o v e m e n t o f health c l i n i c s , cereal m i l l s , a n d f i s h i n g boat c o n s t r u c t i o n ventures. It is also evident that the groups m a k e a f i n a n c i a l c o m m i t m e n t t o w a r d activities, w h i c h they also pursue p r i v a t e l y . F o r instanc