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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The growth of political awareness in Nigeria Webster, James Bertin 1958

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i  THE GROWTH OF POLITICAL AWARENESS IK NIGERIA by JAMES BERTIN WEBSTER B. A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I95&  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE PvEQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  Master of A r t s i n the Department of History We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the required standard  THE UNIVERSITy OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , I958  ii Abstract . Prior, t o I9*+5, n e i t h e r the m a j o r i t y of B r i t i s h nor A f r i c a n s were convinced that Western parliamentary forms of government could be t r a n s ferred successfully to Nigeria.  Generally i t was considered that the  N i g e r i a n s o c i e t y would evolve from t r a d i t i o n a l forms of o r g a n i z a t i o n t o something t y p i c a l l y A f r i c a n which would prepare A f r i c a n s f o r t h e i r eventu a l f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the world s o c i e t y .  A f t e r 19^5  under the stim-  u l a t i o n of nationalism t h i s concept of evolvement was completely abandoned i n favour of complete adoption of Western i n s t i t u t i o n s .  I t i s t o be  ex-  pected that a f t e r independence the conservative forces of A f r i c a n t r a d i t i o n a l i s m w i l l r e v i v e and that a p a i n f u l process of m o d i f i c a t i o n of Western i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l begin.  I t would seem however, that modifications are not  l i k e l y to be too fundamental i f one can judge by the success with which Nigerians have handled these i n s t i t u t i o n s and by the m a t e r i a l advantages which p o l i t i c a l leaders have been able t o b r i n g to the people through them. The t h e s i s i s d i v i d e d i n t o three chapters.  Chapter one i s a condensa-  t i o n of much research.  I t i s intended to provide the background t o the  main body of the work.  I t describes the t r i b a l , r e l i g i o u s and economic  d i f f e r e n c e s i n N i g e r i a which have been forces i n N i g e r i a n p o l i t i c s since 1920.  I t discusses the A f r i c a n r e a c t i o n to the B r i t i s h penetration of the  i n t e r i o r a f t e r I885. I t b r i e f l y o u t l i n e s the B r i t i s h sponsored economic development which r e s u l t e d i n greater u r b a n i z a t i o n and the growth of an educated middle c l a s s which was the author and supporter of the movement t o t u r n from t r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n forms to Western i n s t i t u t i o n s .  With l i t -  t l e d e t a i l the chapter points out the mixing of various t r i b e s i n t h i s c l a s s and the complications which r e s u l t e d . an example.  I t shows how  new  The Ibo t r i b e has been used as  t h i s educated c l a s s maintained i t s contact  and  iii influence w i t h the people of the v i l l a g e s "by means of t r i b a l a s s o c i a t i o n s which u l t i m a t e l y became the most s i g n i f i c a n t c a r r i e r s and p o p u l a r i z e r s of Western p o l i t i c a l thought.  The chapter ends showing the various ideas  which t h i s c l a s s were absorbing and the e f f e c t which the doctrine of t r u s t e e s h i p , the Commonwealth, the B r i t i s h Labour Government, the United Nat i o n s and Indian independence had on them. Chapter two traces the demand f o r parliamentary i n s t i t u t i o n s and attempts t o show how the B r i t i s h c o n s t r u c t i v e l y began to abdicate t h e i r power.  Some of -the e a r l y expressions of t h i s demand are i n d i c a t e d f o r the  period from 1885 to 1920. was organized.  I n the year 1920,  the f i r s t p o l i t i c a l movement  I t was a West A f r i c a n Movement embracing a l l four B r i t i s h  West A f r i c a n c o l o n i e s ; N i g e r i a , Ghana, S i e r r a Leone and the Gambia. 1922  By  t h i s movement had c o l l a p s e d but successors t o i t grew i n each colony.  In N i g e r i a , from 1922 to 1938 p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y was confined to Lagos. From 1938 to 19^5  Lagos p o l i t i c i a n s were spreading t h e i r organizations and  ideas throughout the h i n t e r l a n d . At the c l o s e of the Second World War  an  almost country wide a g i t a t i o n began t o unite the people to press the B r i t i s h t o set up government i n s t i t u t i o n s modelled a f t e r those of the United Kingdom. By 1951  t h i s had been done and the e l e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e had been  widely a p p l i e d . Thus the f i r s t stage of the struggle was over.  By  1951  Nigerians were convinced t h a t the B r i t i s h were determined t o leave the country as soon as a workable c o n s t i t u t i o n was i n f o r c e . Chapter two ends at t h i s p o i n t where A f r i c a n energies are turned from  from concentrating  on persuading the B r i t i s h to leave and chapter three begins where these energies are being devoted to working out the problems of adjustment i n the government machinery to s u i t the N i g e r i a n s i t u a t i o n .  iv Chapter three deals with the d i v i s i v e forces w i t h i n the country which began to show once the u n i f i e d opposition to the B r i t i s h was necessary.  no longer  The N a t i o n a l Congress of N i g e r i a and the Cameroons which had  l e d the n a t i o n a l f r o n t against the B r i t i s h began to decline and break up. Regional p a r t i e s based l a r g e l y on l o c a l l o y a l t i e s began to emerge. e l e c t i o n s of 1951 a c t u a l l y gone.  i n d i c a t e d how  f a r t h i s trend towards r e g i o n a l i s a t i o n had  Federalism appeared t o hold the answer to Nigerian  but while i t may  The  unity,  have been the only expedient open to the N i g e r i a n s , many  saw i n r e g i o n a l i s a t i o n the sure break up of the country.  The c o n f l i c t be-  tween the r e g i o n a l i s t s and c l o s e r u n i o n i s t s came t o a climax i n the Kano Disturbances of 1953•  Following t h i s , i n 195^  i n which the f e d e r a l p r i n c i p l e was 195^ was  a c o n s t i t u t i o n was  drawn up  f u l l y acknowledged by a l l p a r t i e s .  the broad o u t l i n e s of the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p a t t e r n had emerged. to be a f e d e r a l s t a t e .  been s e t t l e d . N i g e r i a was Hausas.  By  Nigeria  However, the f i n a l form had not by any means  The c o n s t i t u t i o n of I95U was based on the assumption that  a land of three dominant t r i b e s ; the Ibos, the Yorubas, and  Even before 195^+  a n  d  the  i n c r e a s i n g l y a f t e r , the minor ethnic groups  began to press f o r separate states to f r e e them from the p a r t l y imaginary f e a r of major t r i b e domination. N i g e r i a i s quite c e r t a i n to emerge as a major A f r i c a n power because of i t s population, area and n a t u r a l resources.  I t i s l i k e l y to be an i n -  f l u e n t i a l power because of i t s semi-Moslem and semi-Christian  character.  I t straddles that l i n e i n A f r i c a which divides the Moslem North from the C h r i s t i a n - i n f l u e n c e d South.  Such a p o s i t i o n and character w i l l give i t  i n f l u e n c e , north as w e l l as south of the Sahara.  Nigeria's c o n s t i t u t i o n -  a l development i s unique i n that i t i s the f i r s t f e d e r a l state to emerge  V  in Africa.  Because N i g e r i a i s p o s s i b l y the most polygot t r i b a l  nation  i n A f r i c a i t s s o l u t i o n t o the t r i b a l problem w i l l make a profound impression upon other A f r i c a n leaders. A c t u a l l y , l i t t l e has been w r i t t e n on the t o p i c of A f r i c a ' s e v o l u t i o n towards modern n a t i o n - s t a t e s . neglected area of study.  This t h e s i s attempts t o contribute t o that  I t i s also an attempt t o see t h i s process of  e v o l u t i o n from an unbiased N i g e r i a n point of view. This point of view w i l l be i n d i c a t e d by the large amount of source m a t e r i a l which i s s t r i c t l y N i g e r i a n i n i t s o r i g i n . as f a r as p o s s i b l e been r e l i e d upon.  A f r i c a n sources have  Much of the source m a t e r i a l has as  f a r as can be ascertained, never before been used.  I n presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study.  I further  agree that permission f o r extensive copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department or by h i s representative.  I t i s understood  that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission.  James B. Webster.  Department of  History  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date  April,  1958.  vi Table of Contents Chapter I II  Page Background  .  . . . .  .  .  .  .  .  The Demand f o r Parliamentary Democracy w i t h Constructive A b d i c a t i o n o f Power The U n i f i c a t i o n o f B r i t i s h A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 1862-1920  I  . 20 . * 20  E a r l y Expressions of the Demand f o r Parliamentary I n s t i t u t i o n s 1885-1920 . The Congress Movement 1920-1922  .  .  .  35  The Lagos Sphere 1922-1938  hi  The Enlarged Sphere 1939-19^5  III  . 5 7  The N a t i o n a l Front: Triumph of the E l e c t i v e P r i n c i p l e 19^5-1951 • Old Patterns Re-emerge: Federalism. . . . . . D i v i s i v e Forces W i t h i n N i g e r i a . . . . . . Growth of Regional P a r t i e s  .  .  .  .  .  .  Rise of the A c t i o n Group . Rise of the Northern Peoples  . 1  .  .  Congress  .  .  107  .  .  .  .  135 ihO  Awakening of the Minor Ethnic Groups .  71 91 91  . 126  .  . .  .  .  .  The London R e g i o n s l i s a t i o n Conference  Bibliography  .  II9  Decline of the N.C.N.C  The E l e c t i o n of 1951  23  .  .  .  .  .  . .  .  .155  . .  lh$  .  l6h  vii  Maps and I l l u s t r a t i o n s T r i b a l D i v i s i o n s of N i g e r i a .  R e l i g i o u s D i v i s i o n s of N i g e r i a . Government Revenue per Square M i l e i n N i g e r i a Railways o f N i g e r i a  .  .  .  .  Comrade i n War, Vassal i n Peace. Place Names of N i g e r i a  .  Democracy versus Communism.  . .  . .  .  .  .  f o l l o w i n g page  2  f o l l o w i n g page  3  f o l l o w i n g page  h  f o l l o w i n g page  8  f o l l o w i n g page  l6  f o l l o w i n g page  21  f o l l o w i n g page  58 77  N a t i o n a l Council and N i g e r i a n Unity .  .  f o l l o w i n g page  T r i b a l i s m and Imperialism  .  f o l l o w i n g page 109  .  f o l l o w i n g page 163  Renascent A f r i c a .  . .  .  .  .  .  viii  Ac knowledgement The w r i t e r wishes to express h i s sincere appreciation- t o Professor A.C. Cooke of the Department of H i s t o r y f o r invaluable guidance which has g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e d the w r i t i n g of this, t h e s i s . To the s t a f f of the A f r i c a n a Department, l i b r a r y of the U n i v e r s i t y College., Ibadan, I wish t o express my thanks f o r t h e i r kind assistance at a l l times. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, A p r i l , 1958.  James B. Webster.  I Chapter  I  Background The.great expansion of European empires had ceased by I9I9«  Almost  a l l .the inhabited areas of the world were e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y under the c o n t r o l of one or other of the Western nations.  This movement  of expansion was hardly over before i t came to be challenged both by l i b e r a l s i n the dominant Western countries and by the i n t e l l e c t u a l e l i t e i n the subject nations of A s i a and A f r i c a . I n the B r i t i s h Empire the expansion of B r i t i s h c o n t r o l which began a f t e r l880, i n t o new areas i n A s i a and A f r i c a ran counter t o the trend of more and more autonomy which was such a f i x e d feature of the h i s t o r y of the older c o l o n i e s ; Canada, A u s t r a l i a , Hew Zealand and South A f r i c a .  By  1920  these white colonies were preparing f o r complete e q u a l i t y i n status w i t h the Mother country.  I n d i a and the colonies of darker skinned people became  more and more r e s t i v e and desirous of emulating these older white dominions. I n A f r i c a the B r i t i s h colonies of the West Coast took the lead i n the movement t o emulate the older dominions.  B r i t i s h West A f r i c a was f r e e of a  m i n o r i t y European population; land and n a t u r a l resources were s t i l l l a r g e l y i n A f r i c a n hands and West Coast A f r i c a n s cherished t r a d i t i o n s of e f f i c i e n t p o l i t i c a l organization from the p r e - B r i t i s h e r a .  By 1920  there were p o l i t i c a l  movements i n a l l B r i t i s h West A f r i c a n colonies aiming towards emancipation from the empire and an honoured place i n the emerging Commonwealth. N i g e r i a i s the l a r g e s t B r i t i s h West A f r i c a n colony, being four times the s i z e of the United Kingdom and the most populous b l a c k n a t i o n i n the world, having a population of t h i r t y - t w o m i l l i o n .  N i g e r i a i s located on the west  coast of A f r i c a and faces south on the G u l f of Guinea.  I t i s divided into  2 three regions which hold an equivalent status t o the provinces o f Canada. Each r e g i o n i s d i v i d e d i n t o provinces which are a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s only. The Northern r e g i o n contains over h a l f o f the population and area o f Nigeria.  The Hausa-Fulani t r i b e s form f i f t y per cent o f the population o f  the r e g i o n . They predominate i n f i v e of the twelve provinces o f the region. I n four provinces other t r i b e s predominate; I l o r i n (Yoruba 69$), Benue ( T i v 52$), Bornu (Kanuri hlj>) and Niger (Nupe 30$).  I n the three provinces o f  Adaraawa, Plateau and Kabba, no s i n g l e group forms as much as twenty per cent of the population.  Of the s i x t e e n and a h a l f m i l l i o n people o f the Northern  r e g i o n , eleven and a h a l f m i l l i o n are Moslems, four and a h a l f m i l l i o n are animists and a h a l f m i l l i o n are C h r i s t i a n s .  The Hausa-Fulani are Moslems and  therefore the f i v e provinces l i s t e d above are Moslem plus Kanuri-Bornu and Yoruba-Ilorin.  2  l y animist.  The f i v e provinces i n which other t r i b e s predominate are mostThus i n t r i b a l groupings and i n r e l i g i o n the Northern r e g i o n i s  d i v i d e d between the Moslem Hausa-Fulani f a r north and the animist mixed t r i b e s of the Middle B e l t .  Economic f a c t o r s have r e i n f o r c e d t h i s d i v i s i o n .  For num-  erous reasons h i s t o r i c a l and geographical the Kano core i n the f a r north has become the r i c h e s t area owing t o the development of export crops, u r b a n i z a t i o n and i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r e .  Accumulated wealth has been able t o supply such  amenities as r a i l w a y s , roads and e l e c t r i c i t y t o t h i s area i n sharp c o n t r a s t t o the poorer Middle B e l t provinces.  The d i v i s i o n l i n e s between the 'have' and  •have not' provinces are much the same as the r e l i g i o u s and r a c i a l d i v i s i o n lines.  1 The f i v e provinces w i t h t h e i r Hausa-Fulani population percentages a r e , Kano 90$, Sokoto 8C#, Katsina 77$, Bauchi 59$ d Z a r i a 55$. a n  2 N i g e r i a , Department o f S t a t i s t i c s , Population Census o f the Northern Region o f N i g e r i a , Lagos, Government P r i n t e r , 1952.  TRIBAL.  DIVISIONS  OF  NIGERIA  c+  p P H O  so (ft CD  KEY MAJOR TRIBES PREDOMINATE MINOR  TRIBE5  PREDOMINATE  NO T R I B E PREDOMINATES  3 Southern. N i g e r i a i s d i v i d e d i n t o two regions by the Niger R i v e r .  The  Western Region has a population of six. and a quarter m i l l i o n of which seventy per cent belong t o the Yoruba t r i b e .  '3  s i x provinces.  " ""  '  The Yorubas are concentrated i n  "" "  • ."  I n the two remaining provinces a number of smaller t r i b e s  are l o c a t e d . I n Benin, the Edo-speaking people account f o r forty-seven per cent of the people and i n Delta the Urhobos c o n s t i t u t e forty-two per cent.  The Yoruba people are almost evenly divided between the Moslem and  C h r i s t i a n f a i t h s while the m a j o r i t y of people of Benin and Delta are animists.  The Western Region l i k e the North i s divided between a major t r i b e  i n h a b i t i n g the l a r g e s t area w i t h the l a r g e s t population and a mixture o f  -  smaller t r i b e s i n another smaller area. Again l i k e the North there i s a prosperous economic core.  This core i s s i t u a t e d around the cocoa crop area  of Ibadan and thus roughly speaking, the minor t r i b e s i n h a b i t  'have-not'  k  provinces. provinces.  These provinces of Benin and Delta are termed the Mid-West Their problems are somewhat s i m i l a r to those of the Middle B e l t  provinces of the North. East of the Niger R i v e r l i e s the Eastern Region containing a population of seven m i l l i o n people and divided i n t o f i v e provinces. The Ibo t r i b e cons t i t u t e s sixty-one per cent of the people of the r e g i o n . The Ibos are concentrated i n Onitsha and Owerri provinces (98$). They a l s o make up s i x t y seven per cent of the population of Ogoja and forty-one per cent of Rivers province.  The f o r t y per cent of non-Ibos are concentrated i n the Calabar,  3 The s i x provinces w i t h t h e i r Yoruba population percentages are Ibadan 98$, Oyo 96$, Ijebu 96ft, Abeokuta 91$, Ondo 89$ and Colony 73$. h In I2,l)l|-0,000 area was t printed i n  1955-56 the revenue of the 'have-not' Mid-West provinces was-f;, and expenditure by the r e g i o n a l government on behalf of t h i s iU,299,000. (Reported i n the Western House of Assembly and The D a i l y Times, 21 Dec. 1957, p.8.)  REU6I0.US  DIVISIONS  OF  NIOERIA  Ogoja and Rivers provinces, an area commonly termed the COR area. The Eastern Region i s evenly d i v i d e d between the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h and animism. These r e l i g i o u s v a r i a t i o n s cut across t r i b a l groups and do not add t o group s o l i d a r i t y as i n the other regions.  However, l i k e both other regions  the prosperous economic core l i e s i n the Onitsha-Port Harcourt Ibo area and again the minor t r i b e s i n h a b i t the 'have-not' COR area. A l l three regions o f N i g e r i a e x h i b i t a s i m i l a r d u a l i t y , a major dominant t r i b e o f t e n r e i n f o r c e d by r e l i g i o n and economic advantages, and a group of minor t r i b e s who s u f f e r from an i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n and f e a r domination  5  .  by the l a r g e r group. Contact between the c o a s t a l t r i b e s and Europeans had gone back t o the Portuguese era but t h i s contact had been l i m i t e d t o trade.  I n l86l i n  order t o stop the slave trade along the N i g e r i a n coast the B r i t i s h had seized the v i l l a g e o f Lagos.  During the height o f M i d - V i c t o r i a n l i t t l e  Englandism  numerous suggestions had been made t h a t the B r i t i s h should withdraw from t h e i r Lagos base. During the eighteen e i g h t i e s , owing t o the i n d u s t r i a l challenge o f Europe and the f e a r o f markets and sources o f raw m a t e r i a l s being a l i e n a t e d f o r the e x c l u s i v e use o f other European powers, plus home expansion o f popu l a t i o n and accumulation o f surplus wealth, B r i t a i n began t o take a new i n t e r e s t i n the expansion o f her c o l o n i a l areas.  S i r A l f r e d Moloney, governor  o f Lagos I 8 8 6 - I 8 9 I expressed the new mood o f commercial England i n regard t o c o l o n i a l expansion. 5 The e l e c t i o n f i g u r e s o f 1956 bear out t h i s f a c t . I n the Western Region 8C$ o f the non-Yoruba seats are held by the Opposition p a r t y . I n the Eastern Region 96$ o f the government seats represent Ibo areas. I n the Northern Region the Opposition p a r t i e s draw t h e i r strength.almost e x c l u s i v e l y from the non-Hausa areas.  GOVERNMENT  REVENUE  PER SQUARE  MILE  INN I G E R I A  d-  p,  H> O H H  I  K E Y O V E R  ^ 9 0  B E T I A / E E N % ) & % )  UNDER ^30  6XALE" I N M I L E ' S A F T E R K.M.BUCHANANi A N D J.C. PUGH", LAND/IND  PEOPLE OF N I G E R I A UNIVERSITY ?  OF L O M D O N PRESS  5 The"Commercial world a r e - i n s a t i a b l e ; they; say, 'We want t e r r i t o r i a l expansion,open roads and" i n t e r i o r markets f o r our wares, ... They seem no" longer s a t i s f i e d w i t h the sandbeach p o l i c y o f past years.° The a t t i t u d e i n Lagos t o the B r i t i s h p o l i c y o f c l i n g i n g t o the sandbeaches along the west coast o f A f r i c a and r e f u s i n g t o penetrate the h i n t e r l a n d was a mixed r e a c t i o n .  The educated A f r i c a n s o f Lagos were  dependent on trade and as anxious that trade develop as were the B r i t i s h merchants.  L i k e the B r i t i s h they feared that Lagos and the other B r i t i s h  c o a s t a l towns would be economically c r i p p l e d by l a c k of a h i n t e r l a n d . We are f u l l y aware t h a t England does not wish t o increase her r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n A f r i c a , but without such a course being adopted, her l i t t o r a l possessions would be l i t e r a l l y worthless, and her subjects along the whole coast l i n e r e main i n perpetual suffrage through d e f e c t i v e c o l o n i z a t i o n . 7 During the p e r i o d from 1880 t o I89O the i n t e r i o r t r i b e s i n the Lagos h i n t e r l a n d were engaged i n a ruinous war among themselves and w i t h the F u l a n i Emir o f I l o r i n .  This stopped the Lagos t r a d e . The flow o f goods  from the i n t e r i o r ceased and Lagos experienced a severe depression. The c r y o f hard times coupled w i t h commercial depression has of l a t e been p e r p e t u a l l y dinning i n our ears ... Commerce upon which she (Lagos) lays her b a s i s , i s f a s t d e c l i n i n g and her progress tethered by the d e s t r u c t i v e i n f l u e n c e s o f t h i s damnable and wretched warfare.8 Lagosians therefore pressed the B r i t i s h t o mediate i n the i n t e r i o r t r i b a l warfare.  They pointed out t o the B r i t i s h t h a t they were not c a r r y i n g  6  Lagos Times, 8 August, I89I, Vol.IV, N0.IO8, p.3.  7  Lagos Observer, 19 Feb., I887, V o l . V I , No.2, p . 2 .  8  Lagos Observer, 15 & 2 2 , May, 1886, Vol.V, No.8, p . 2 .  6 out the o b l i g a t i o n s of the t r e a t y by which Lagos had been ceded t o the B r i t i s h crown.  By the t r e a t y the B r i t i s h promised t o put an end t o the 9  d e s t r u c t i v e i n t e r i o r wars.  The Lagosians appeared t o favour a system  whereby the i n t e r i o r t r i b e s would govern themselves i n domestic issues but where the B r i t i s h would manage t h e i r e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s . Another grievance of the Lagosians was the trade and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e charter granted t o the Royal Niger Company i n 1886.  They attacked the 10  "absolute a d m i n i s t r a t i v e powers" granted by the c h a r t e r .  They a l s o  attacked the trade monopoly of the Company, and claimed t h a t Lagos traders were s u f f e r i n g as a r e s u l t of t h e i r e x c l u s i o n from the Niger b a s i n ,  ton  George Taubman Goldie the head of the Royal Niger Company, stated t h a t the Niger b a s i n would prove "of immense importance t o the working classes of Great B r i t a i n , " the Lagos press r e t o r t e d t h a t " i f the r i g h t s of West A f r i c II an are worth anything, nothing can equal t h e i r claims on the Niger."  This  a t t i t u d e soon l e d the Lagosians t o organize a meeting of traders which presented a memorial to the governor of Lagos which pointed out that Lagos was the n a t u r a l entrepot of the o i l r i v e r s and t h a t the colony's extension along the coast was " d a i l y becoming more d e s i r a b l e . " They ended by asking the government "to take immediate steps w i t h a view t o the annexation of the 12  whole of the o i l r i v e r s . " Meanwhile the Congress of B e r l i n had gone about i t s pleasurable task of d i v i d i n g up A f r i c a among the European powers. 9  The Lagos Times commented t h a t ,  Lagos Observer, 12 May, 1888, V o l . V I I , No.7,  p.2.  10  Lagos Observer, 9 & 16 Feb., I889, V o l . V I I I , N o . l , p.2.  11  Loc. c i t .  12  Lagos Observer, 26 May, 1888, V o l . V I I I , No.8,  p.3.  7 "a f o r c i b l e possession o f our land has taken the-place of a f o r c i b l e possession o f our persons."  13  The Lagosians began t o f e e l that t h e i r  race might share the f a t e of the a b o r i g i n a l s o f America and A u s t r a l i a . The B e r l i n Conference has concluded i t s pleasant labours of sharing the s p o i l s ... the world has perhaps never seen u n t i l now such high-handed robbery on so large a s c a l e . A f r i c a i s helpless t o prevent i t , therefore i t i s i n the i n t e r e s t of t h a t incomprehensible (but very convenient) thing " c i v i l i z a t i o n " that the blackman i g a mistake on the p a r t of the creator and must be b l o t t e d out.-*However much Lagosians might resent what had happened a t B e r l i n they had t o face the unhappy f a c t t h a t A f r i c a was being carved up and divided among the European empires.  The French were t r a d i n g i n the neighbouring  town of Porto Novo and i n 1888 they concluded a trade t r e a t y w i t h the Egbas of Abeokuta.  The object o f the t r e a t y was t o d i v e r t from Lagos the large 15  trade from the i n t e r i o r .  This French a c t i v i t y was not welcomed i n Lagos.  The A f r i c a n s , when forced t o decide between the French or B r i t i s h empire, were not slow t o make t h e i r choice. To the p r a i s e o f the Frenchmen, be i t s a i d , that t o t r e a t w i t h him on B r i t i s h s o i l , a Negro can h a r d l y f i n d a b e t t e r and more courteous superior amongst the other nations on the continent of Europe. But once master o f the s i t u a t i o n , the lamb i s suddenly transformed, and the i n c a r c e r a t i o n o f the Negro becomes the standing order. We love and respect the Frenchman, although we e a r n e s t l y pray f o r the day t o s p e e d i l y a r r i v e , when both he and the Negro w i l l s e t t l e i n A f r i c a under the benign influence o f B r i t i s h r u l e . " 1  101,  13 "The Scramble f o r A f r i c a , " Lagos Times, 20 June, I 8 9 I , Vol.U, No. p.2..  Ik Lagos Observer, 19 Feb.  I885,  Vol.IV, No.2, p.U.  15 Reprint from the "Liverpool C o u r i e r " 26 J u l y , 1888, Lagos Observer, 25 August & I Sept. 1888, V o l . V I I , No.Ik, p . 2 . 16 Reprint from the " S i e r r a Leone Times" Lagos Weekly Record, 10 June, 1893, V o l . I l l , Ho.IH, p . 2 . .  8  Thus the A f r i c a n s i n Lagos although p r e f e r r i n g l e s s f o r c e f u l methods, f i n a l l y came t o advise and push the B r i t i s h towards expansion i n t o the interior.  This a t t i t u d e arose from t h e i r e x c l u s i o n from the Niger b a s i n  by the Royal Niger Company, the stopping o f the Lagos trade by the i n t e r i o r wars and French a c t i v i t y i n Dahomey. When the B r i t i s h d i d b e g i n t o move i n t o the h i n t e r l a n d they moved slowly and c a u t i o u s l y .  Pacification  of the whole of N i g e r i a was not complete u n t i l 1906 and amalgamation o f the country d i d not take place u n t i l I 9 1 U . Joseph Chamberlain became c o l o n i a l secretary i n I895. He l i k e d t o t h i n k o f the colonies as the undeveloped estates of B r i t a i n .  To stimulate  development i n these undeveloped estates he allowed colonies t o make loans which the B r i t i s h government would back.  I n N i g e r i a these loans were used  mainly f o r r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n and harbour improvement. r a i l w a y was begun i n 1896 a t Ebute Metta near Lagos. Ibadan; i n 1909 Jebba; and i n I 9 I I Kano. 1907 and again i n 1909.  The N i g e r i a n  I n 1900 i t reached  The Lagos bar was deepened i n  The e f f e c t o f t h i s l i n k i n g of the i n t e r i o r w i t h the  coast r e s u l t e d i n greater exports and imports. I n I89U exports t o t a l l e d £ 800,000, i n 1920 £ 17,000,000. 1920  £ 21,000,000.  I n 1906 imports equalled  £ 3,000,000 and i n  Cocoa, introduced around 1900 grew s t e a d i l y i n volume  from three thousand tone i n 1910 t o seventeen thousand tons i n 1920.  Ground-  nut c u l t u r e was introduced i n the North about the same time and by 1920 had reached an export t o t a l of 1+5,000 tons. S i r Walter Egerton, governor o f N i g e r i a from I90U t o 1912 announced when he a r r i v e d i n N i g e r i a that h i s p o l i c y would be t o make roads and more 17 roads. A r a i l r o a d feeder system o f roads was begun i n 1905 and the palm  17  Lagos Standard, 8 Nov., 1905, V o l . X I I I , No.8, p.U.  T H E  M A I N  R A I L W A Y  S Y S T E M  OF  NIGERIA  9  o i l and k e r n e l areas were tapped.  Palm o i l increased from j u s t over a  thousand tons i n 1900 to 85,000 tons i n 1920.  Palm kernels increased from  86,000 tons i n 1900 to 207,000 tons i n 1920. I n 1909 c o a l was discovered a t Udi near Enugu i n the Eastern Region. I n 1912  the new harbour s i t e of P o r t Harcourt was chosen. A r a i l l i n e .  reached Enugu from P o r t Harcourt i n I 9 l 6 . ducing 700,000 tons of c o a l . g i o n near J o s .  By 19^0 the Udi mines were pro-  I n 1903 t i n mining began i n the plateau r e -  I n 1920 the r a i l w a y reached the mines and i n 1926 the east-  ern and western r a i l w a y systems were connected. From t h i s development i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and the subsequent development of export crops and mineral production, s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and a money economy resulted.  Large urban centres began t o emerge as transport depots, admin-  i s t r a t i v e centres and i n the v i c i n i t y of mines and embryonic manufacturing. Greater o p p o r t u n i t i e s , greater personal freedom and more amenities drew the r u r a l population i n t o the c i t i e s . o f people.  The new c i t i e s bred a completely new  class  This c l a s s could a f f o r d t o send i t s c h i l d r e n t o school; i t was  under the i n f l u e n c e of modern forms of propaganda, the cinema, and r a d i o . I t kept informed of government p o l i c y and work.  I t owned and read the news-  papers and i t came i n touch with world thought.  The people of the new  cities  were introduced t o the "boom and bust" of world economics; they began t o know what unemployment and wage e x p l o i t a t i o n meant.  They came i n t o c l o s e r contact  w i t h the Europeans and they became c r i t i c a l of European behavior; they resented t h e i r higher l i v i n g standards; they resented t h e i r c o n t r o l of the economics and the government of the country; and they resented urban "aphartheid," the "sabons," ghettos and r e s e r v a t i o n s . They saw i n them a c o r r e l a t i o n between  10  race and economic s t a t u s . wealth.  Black was associated with poverty, white with  This c l a s s not only became c r i t i c a l of Europeans but a l s o of the  t r a d i t i o n a l native a u t h o r i t i e s and they began an a g i t a t i o n f o r European type municipal c o u n c i l s .  By 1920 t h i s c l a s s was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n Lagos  and i t was here that municipal e l e c t i o n s began, and p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s formed which looked beyond the l o c a l government to the n a t i o n a l government.  Other  c i t i e s a r r i v e d at t h i s point around the e a r l y nineteen f o r t i e s under the i n c r e a s i n g urbanization caused by the  war.  An important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s new  urban population was that i t  was not drawn e n t i r e l y or even s u b s t a n t i a l l y from the t r i b e i n the immediate environs of the c i t y .  I n these new c i t i e s a l l t r i b e s mixed and learned t o  get along or, as sometimes happened, learned to hate each other.  Every large  c i t y i n N i g e r i a had i t s stranger quarters where people from various t r i b e s b u i l t homes and governed themselves.  I n c e r t a i n c i t i e s t h i s stranger  quarter  has grown l a r g e r than the o r i g i n a l town and i t s economic a c t i v i t i e s have overshadowed the o r i g i n a l town. The existence of these autonomous units has n a t u r a l l y caused resentment among the Emirs, not only because, with few e x c e p t i o n s , " f o r e i g n e r s , " a r e by t h i s means excluded from the c o n t r o l , but because the more l i b e r a l and e f f i c i e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of these excised urban areas has a t t r a c t e d much of the trade away from the towns near to which they are located.-*-" Modern c i t i e s require a l i t e r a t e working force to c a r r y on modern business and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . the towns.  Thus the l i t e r a t e were the ones who  flocked to  The most s t r i k i n g example of t h i s f a c t was the mining town of  I8 Joan Wheare, The N i g e r i a n L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , London, Faber and Faber, 1950, p.10.  II Jos which was e i g h t y - f i v e per cent l i t e r a t e .  Jos i s i n Northern N i g e r i a  which has an average l i t e r a c y rate of two per cent i n E n g l i s h , and f i v e per cent i n A r a b i c .  Owing t o the f a c t t h a t the l i t e r a c y rate i s highest  atnong the Ibos, Yorubas and I b i b i o s , these t r i b e s have predominated i n the new towns regardless of where these towns have been located.  The  Ibos have fared p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l because added t o t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n l i t e r a c y they are p a r t i c u l a r l y ambitious; have f i r m l y grasped the aims and goals of Western c i v i l i z a t i o n and are not r e l u c t a n t t o leave t h e i r t r i b a l area.  I n 1921  there were only 2,666 Ibos i n the Northern Region.  I n 1952 t h i s f i g u r e had r i s e n to 186,000 or n i n e t y per cent of the t o t a l stranger element i n the Northern Region.  Lagos, a Yoruba town showed a  s i m i l a r trend; i n I 9 H the Ibos formed two per cent of the t o t a l stranger element, and i n 1950 they formed f o r t y - e i g h t per cent. An e v i l a r i s i n g from t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s that the indigenous people have come t o see these strangers as obstacles to t h e i r progress.  Because the  Ibo have spread the f a r t h e s t they have received the greatest c r i t i c i s m . the Yorubas and I b i b i o s have a l s o had t h e i r share of c r i t i c i s m .  But  These strang-  ers hold the best jobs and draw the best s a l a r i e s i n government and business. ... the the the all  Undoubtedly i t i s the Southerner who has the power i n North. They have c o n t r o l of the r a i l w a y s t a t i o n s ; of post o f f i c e s ; of government h o s p i t a l s ; of the canteens; m a j o r i t y employed i n the P u b l i c Works Department are Southerners,T9  The urban population has been the spearhead and propaganda v e h i c l e of  19  " E d i t o r i a l " , Gaskiya Ta F i Kwabo, 18 Feb., 1950,  p.2.  12  the n a t i o n a l movement. As a c l a s s they were w e l l prepared f o r such a task. They were l i t e r a t e ; they followed the newspapers; they were mostly d i r e c t l y concerned with p u b l i c a f f a i r s and government p o l i c y . could be organized i n t o a s s o c i a t i o n s .  They had funds and.  They had freed themselves from t r i b -  a l a u t h o r i t y and most o f a l l they had i n f l u e n c e i n t h e i r home v i l l a g e s . The most important aspect o f these people was that regardless o f how long they had been urbanized - two or three generations - they s t i l l  remained  0  i n f l u e n t i a l members o f t h e i r native v i l l a g e . In order t o preserve t h e i r t r i b a l i d e n t i t y , t o compensate f o r the weakening o f the t r a d i t i o n a l system o f s o c i a l s e c u r i t y which was l a c k i n g i n the m u l t i - t r i b a l towns and t o recover t h a t sense o f common purpose  lost  i n the new urban l i f e , the various t r i b e s grouped themselves i n new a s s o c i a t i o n s commonly r e f e r r e d t o as t r i b a l unions.  These unions began as mutual  20  a i d and p r o t e c t i o n s o c i e t i e s ,  21  f o o t b a l l c l u b s , s o c i a l or womens* c l u b s .  They prevented d e t r i b a l i z a t i o n because they were based on t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l groupings; they provided the l i n k between these "sons-abroad" and the "sonsat-home" i n the v i l l a g e ; they eased the t r a n s i t i o n from v i l l a g e l i f e t o urban l i f e and cushioned the impact o f Western ideas and c u l t u r e .  Frequently they  were l e d by the young educated men who gained experience i n modern forms of 22  administration.  They strengthened the hands o f these young men against  20 I n 1950 the Ibos a g i t a t e d through t h e i r t r i b a l union against i n d i g n i t i e s suffered by Ibos i n Calabar province and against excessive d i s c r i m i n a t o r y t a x a t i o n of Ibos i n Bornu province. See "Annual Report of the Ibo State Union," Eastern N i g e r i a n Guardian, 25 Mar., V o l . X I , No.2221, p . 2 . 21 The Egba Womens* Union l e d by Mrs. Fummilayo Ransome-Kuti i n Abeokuta had a p a i d membership i n 19^8 o f 80,000. The Union was i n strumental i n the expulsion o f the Alake ( t r a d i t i o n a l r u l e r ) i n 19U8. 22 I n the f i r s t elected assemblies i n N i g e r i a i n 1951 the m a j o r i t y of the elected members i n both the Eastern and Western Houses had previ o u s l y been executive o f f i c e r s o f a t r i b a l union.  13 the older, t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y . The t r i b a l unions d i d good work i n education by f i n a n c i n g colleges and p r o v i d i n g scholarships f o r overseas study.  23  They were a c t i v e i n en-  2k  couraging s o c i a l reform  i n t h e i r home v i l l a g e s ; they s e t t l e d disputes  between members out of the courts and they kept a l i v e i n t e r e s t i n the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e o f t h e i r tribe-dances, h i s t o r y , language and moral beliefs.  Occasionally these urban unions promoted the organization o f a  parent union i n the home v i l l a g e and then acted as pressure groups f o r l o c a l improvement schemes and were e s p e c i a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n the democrati z a t i o n o f the native a u t h o r i t y c o u n c i l s . Sometimes leaders o f the union were sought out by the i l l i t e r a t e t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s f o r advice as t o the s o l u t i o n of problems p e c u l i a r t o modern day s o c i e t y which they f e l t i l l - e q u i p p e d t o handle. The Unions abroad were held i n high esteem by the Unions a t home. The Unions abroad were educated and provided the funds f o r improvement i n the villages.  N a t i o n a l i s t ideas flowed from the c i t i e s t o the v i l l a g e s i n t h i s  network o f i n t e r l o c k i n g unions which was the only means o f communication e n t i r e l y under A f r i c a n c o n t r o l .  While a t f i r s t the B r i t i s h could say that  nationalism only ran w i l d i n the l a r g e r c i t i e s and could dismiss n a t i o n a l a g i t a t o r s as a d i s g r u n t l e d m i n o r i t y they soon came t o hear f a m i l i a r n a t i o n a l i s t arguments i n the most remote v i l l a g e s - v i l l a g e s which had never seen  23 Both the I b i b i o State College and the Ibo N a t i o n a l College were set up by t r i b a l unions. 2k The A f i k p o Town Welfare A s s o c i a t i o n was instrumental i n the a b o l i t i o n , of female nudity i n A f i k p o d i v i s i o n .  Ik  a motor road, newspaper or r a d i o .  I n the nineteen f o r t i e s most t r i b a l  unions formed a n a t i o n a l executive and attempted t o c o n t r o l and d i r e c t p o l i c y from the top.  This development was never too s u c c e s s f u l f o r the  l o c a l s remained the spokesmen o f the "grass r o o t s " and the most important f a c t o r s i n the union s t r u c t u r e .  These unions were the obvious n u c l e i of  a n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t was because o f t h i s that the n a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of N i g e r i a and the Cameroons could claim s i x t y branch a f f i l i a t e s a f t e r only a few months existence. The B r i t i s h p o l i c y o f p r o v i d i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s created an export crop and a money economy. This i n t u r n l e d t o the r i s e of modern c i t i e s and a l i t e r a t e s a l a r i e d middle c l a s s who adopted western ideas o f n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g and western forms of government and explained and populari z e d these ideas w i t h the common people, the farmers and t r a d e r s .  A t the  same time the middle c l a s s preserved much o f the A f r i c a n way of l i f e and prevented the complete l o s s o f s o c i a l and moral standards so common i n detribalized societies.  I t must not, however, be f o r g o t t e n that t h i s same  middle c l a s s prevented the melting o f the various t r i b a l n a t i o n a l i t i e s i n t o a N i g e r i a n n a t i o n a l i t y and i n f a c t increased the b a r r i e r s between t r i b e s . When the B r i t i s h f i n a l l y conceded power the middle c l a s s found i t s e l f l a c k i n g a N i g e r i a n outlook and i n order t o g a i n power fanned the flames o f i n t e r t r i b a l j e a l o u s y and d i s l i k e among the common people. I t i s important t o take a look a t some o f the ideas that t h i s middle c l a s s were absorbing i n the years a f t e r 1920.  The concept o f t r u s t e e s h i p  emerged from the war w i t h i t s l o g i c a l sequence o f s e l f determination. Withi n the empire i t s e l f the white dominions were p r e s s i n g forward t h e i r claims  15  t o s e l f determination which r e s u l t e d i n the Statute o f Westminster.- There were s t i r r i n g s i n India which r e s u l t e d i n the extension o f representative government and l i m i t e d f i s c a l autonomy.  Young Nigerians could not long he  expected t o absorb from t h e i r school books the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l struggle o f the United Kingdom and the evolutionary process o f the Commonwealth without drawing l o g i c a l conclusions. They ( A f r i c a n s ) understand what prompted the d r a f t i n g o f the Magna Carta, the P e t i t i o n o f Right, the B i l l o f R i g h t s , and the other great documents o f B r i t i s h c o n s t i t u t i o n a l h i s t o r y . 5 Nigerians were soon asking i f the darker races were "to assume t h a t dominion status i s reserved e x c l u s i v e l y f o r the f a i r e r races o f the B r i t i s h 26  Commonwealth."  The B r i t i s h a t t i t u d e appeared t o assume t h a t i t was so  reserved. Parliamentary government, evolved by Englishmen f o r t h e i r own use and t o s u i t t h e i r own p e c u l i a r temperament, i s not necessari l y the best form o f government f o r A f r i c a n s . ? 2  Some w r i t e r s f e l t t h a t i n the years between the wars B r i t a i n l o s t much of her e a r l i e r i d e a l i s m and t h a t the B r i t i s h "began t o doubt the e f f i c a c y 28  o f freedom as a means o f binding men and communities together."  Fortunate-  l y f o r the B r i t i s h they d i d not o f f i c i a l l y say so, f o r world events were r a p i d l y favouring the r i s i n g nationalism o f the b l a c k and brown races. 25  Nnamdi A z i k i w e , Renascent A f r i c a , Lagos, by the author, 1937, p.79.  26  The West A f r i c a n P i l o t , 6 A p r i l , 19^0, V o l . I l l , No.728, p.U.  27 S i r A l a n Burns (Governor o f the Gold Coast I9lH-I9lr7) H i s t o r y o f N i g e r i a , London, A l l e n and Unwin, 19^2, p . 3 0 8 . 28 P a u l Knaplund, B r i t a i n , Commonwealth and Empire I90I-I955, London, Hamish Hamilton, I956, p.63.  16  The Second World War found B r i t a i n again emphasizing the r i g h t of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n f o r small peoples and a t l e a s t the Labour p a r t y applied 29  I n I^hO Clem-  t h i s e q u a l l y t o the Nigerians as t o the Poles and Czechs.  ent A t t l e e stated that i f B r i t o n s wanted a world free from i m p e r i a l i s t 30  domination they must free themselves from the t a i n t of i t .  Colonial  31  peoples were not only i n s p i r e d by the C o l o n i a l p o l i c y  of the Labour p a r t y 32  but  they had an i n s t i n c t i v e sympathy f o r t h e i r domestic platforms.  The  Labour government began i t s term of o f f i c e i n 19^5 w i t h the almost unanimous good-will of N i g e r i a n s .  The Labour v i c t o r y spurred N i g e r i a n n a t i o n a l -  i s t s t o greater e f f o r t s t o win the support of the N i g e r i a n people and the British  government.  The wartime Japanese v i c t o r i e s were not h a i l e d i n N i g e r i a but these v i c t o r i e s d i d prove that the coloured peoples of the world could prove themselves i n the modern world.  Nigerians were s o r r y that Japan used her  new strength i n the cause which she espoused.  The war had another e f f e c t .  Thousands of N i g e r i a n s o l d i e r s went Overseas, p a r t i c u l a r l y t o A s i a and from there a f t e r contact w i t h A s i a n n a t i o n a l i s t s they returned w i t h hopes f o r a new world i n which they would have some concrete p a r t . 29 Clement A t t l e e i n an address t o the professors and students o f London School of Economics, The West A f r i c a n P i l o t , 5 A p r i l , 19^0, V o l . I l l , No.727,.P.I30 Clement A t t l e e i n a broadcast t o the B r i t i s h people, The West A f r i c a n P i l o t , 13 March, I 9 U 0 , V o l . I l l , N 0 . 7 I O , p . I . 31 I n 19^0 the Labour P a r t y advocated the i n t e r n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the B r i t i s h colonies as a step t o s a t i s f y the 'have-not' nations and so remove one o f the causes of war. This p o l i c y d i d not recommend i t s e l f to N i g e r i a n s . 32 "We who know penury should appreciate Labour's programme," Nnamdi A z i k i w e , The West A f r i c a n P i l o t , 2 June, 19^5, V o l . V I I I , No.2298, p . 2 .  COMRADE  m VWrJ? VASSAL JN VEAtE  IT N i g e r i a had always been one of the most " l o y a l " colonies of the empire and i n the war i t proved t h i s l o y a l t y once again but when the war was over, Nigerians l i k e people everywhere were e n t h u s i a s t i c t o b u i l d a new world.  With the Labour p a r t y v i c t o r y i n B r i t a i n the outlook f o r the  f u t u r e looked b r i g h t indeed. A f t e r the war events moved r a p i d l y to prove B r i t i s h w i l l i n g n e s s to apply the p r i n c i p l e of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . I n d i a , P a k i s t a n and became independent i n s i d e the Commonweqlth. Burma and Erte  Ceylon  severed t h e i r  connections w i t h the Commonwealth.- Indian independence was a p a r t i c u l a r l y 33  important event.  India's struggle was f e l t t o be the general struggle  of a l l c o l o n i a l peoples. India i s the hero of the subject c o u n t r i e s . Her struggles f o r self-government are keenly and sympathetically watched by the c o l o n i a l peoples. 35 Indian independence proved that the B r i t i s h were i n earnest and r e affirmed N i g e r i a n f a i t h i n B r i t i s h promises.  I t showed how, by means of  v o t i n g symbols, mass education, cinema vans and new broadcasting  techniques,  a non-reading p u b l i c could handle the f r a n c h i s e . I t showed Nigerians the techniques that could be used t o c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y rush the pace of s e l f government such as congress movements, student a c t i v i t i e s , n a t i o n a l f r o n t s , s t r i k e s , boycotts and means short of v i o l e n c e t o which the B r i t i s h would react.  I t a l s o warned the Nigerians against p a k i s t a n i s t i c tendencies i n  33 I n d i a became the model f o r the coloured empire j u s t as p r e v i o u s l y Canada had been the model and pioneer of the white empire. 3k Nnamdi Azikiwe, The West A f r i c a n P i l o t , 13 Jan., 19^5, No.2183, p.2. 35 191*7,  Vol.VIII,  Obafemi Awolowo, Path t o N i g e r i a n Freedom, London, Faber and Faber, P.25.  18  multiple societies. Indian independence a l s o i n s p i r e d the B r i t i s h and made them more w i l l i n g t o attempt n a t i o n b u i l d i n g elsewhere.  I t proved to the B r i t i s h  t h a t nations could be b u i l t without the u s u a l l y accepted conditions such as common c u l t u r e , language and t r a d i t i o n s , by s k i l f u l manipulation of the f e d e r a l p r i n c i p l e .  I t a l s o proved t o the B r i t i s h t h a t  self-government  was b e t t e r than good government and even t h a t self-government  could be  good government. The United Nations sought t o promote the progressive development towards self-government  i n the c o l o n i e s . Both great world powers, the  United States and Russia although they disagreed on most other matters could agree on a general a t t a c k upon the c o l o n i a l system.  Both nations  have sought by supporting c o l o n i a l demands and posing as the champion of the c o l o n i a l peoples, t o be the leaders of the states emerging from the B r i t i s h , French and Dutch empires.  36  They have found ample applause f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s  37  w i t h i n the United Nations.  This world pressure has s t i r r e d Nigerians to  accelerate the tempo of the B r i t i s h withdrawal and has s t i r r e d the B r i t i s h t o keep s t e a d f a s t l y t o t h e i r p o l i c y of withdrawal. This i n t r o d u c t o r y chapter has attempted to show the general background of how the B r i t i s h came t o be i n N i g e r i a ; what kind of country N i g e r i a was; how the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the country t o the world economy l a i d the b a s i s of 36 S i r A l a n Burns, (United Kingdom permanent representative on the Trustee C o u n c i l of. the United N a t i o n s ) , I n Defence of Colonies, London, A l l e n and Unwin, 1957, p.l6. 37 I n the United Nations (1956-57) the t o t a l membership was eighty member c o u n t r i e s . Of these, at l e a s t f i f t y - s e v e n could be considered as generally * a n t i - c o l o n i a l . Burns, Colonies, p.8. 1  19 an expanding middle c l a s s which nurtured the ideas o f nationalism and self-determination.  I t shows how the middle c l a s s organized the common  people t o work f o r self-government.  I t a l s o attempts b r i e f l y t o show the  ideas current i n the world which t h i s middle c l a s s were absorbing.  The  f o l l o w i n g two chapters w i l l attempt t o trace i n greater d e t a i l the i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l developments i n N i g e r i a between 1920  and I95U.  20  Chapter I I The Demand f o r Parliamentary Democracy w i t h Constructive A b d i c a t i o n of Power The U n i f i c a t i o n of B r i t i s h A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 1862-1920. I n 1862,  i n order t o f u r t h e r t h e i r e f f o r t s to stop slave r a i d i n g along  the West Coast of A f r i c a , the B r i t i s h captured Lagos.  I n the f o l l o w i n g year  i t was brought under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the B r i t i s h C o l o n i a l o f f i c e admini s t e r e d by a Governor and a nominated C o u n c i l .  The Governor acted as Consul  f o r the Bight of Benin area u n t i l 1867 when a separate Consul was  appointed  r e s i d i n g a t Fernando Po who became responsible f o r the coast between Lagos and the Cameroons.  I n 1866 Lagos was included i n the West A f r i c a n s e t t l e -  ments under a Governor-in-Chief  r e s i d i n g at S i e r r a Leone.  l y under an Administrator and an Advisory C o u n c i l .  I n 187k  Lagos was i t was  direct-  united  with the Gold Coast under a Governor with a Lieutenant Governor at Lagos. I n 1886 Lagos became a separate colony and has remained so ever s i n c e . Meanwhile to the east i n the Bights of Benin and B i a f a r a the B r i t i s h had been busy making t r e a t i e s w i t h the c o a s t a l and r i v e r a i n c h i e f s as part of the general European scramble f o r A f r i c a going on i n t h i s p e r i o d .  In  I885 the O i l Rivers Protectorate - a protectorate on paper only - was  set  up under the B r i t i s h f o r e i g n o f f i c e .  I n 1891  t h i s Paper Protectorate became  more s u b s t a n t i a l with the appointment of a Commissioner, Consul-General at Calabar and deputy Commissioners and vice-consuls a t Benin, Bonny, Brass, Forcados, W a r r i , and Sapele.  In 1885  the Royal Niger Company was given a  charter to trade and administer the middle and upper Niger regions.  In  1893  the O i l Rivers Protectorate was expanded and renamed the Niger Coast Prot e c t o r a t e and i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n taken more s e r i o u s l y . I n 1900 the charter of the Royal Niger Company was revoked, the company g i v i n g up i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n duties and continuing s o l e l y as a commercial  21  firm.  The C o l o n i a l O f f i c e then declared a protectorate over Northern N i g e r i a  although i t was not completely p a c i f i e d u n t i l 1906. During the eighteen n i n e t i e s B r i t i s h p r o t e c t i o n had been extended i n l a n d from Lagos over the Yoruba t r i b e s .  I n 1900 the Niger Coast Protectorate and  Yorubaland, but not Lagos colony, were united under the name of the P r o t e c t orate of Southern N i g e r i a ; a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was handed over t o the C o l o n i a l o f f i c e from the Foreign o f f i c e .  Thus by 1900 both protectorates and the  colony which make up N i g e r i a today were under the C o l o n i a l o f f i c e . I n 1906, Lagos was united w i t h the Protectorate of Southern N i g e r i a under a Governor, S i r Walter Egerton.  A L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l nominated and I  advisory, could debate issues regarding Southern N i g e r i a .  This C o u n c i l con-  s i s t e d of s i x o f f i c i a l and four u n o f f i c i a l (two Nigerian) members. F o r adm i n i s t r a t i v e purposes the country was d i v i d e d i n t o three provinces under p r o v i n c i a l commissioners; Western province w i t h c a p i t a l a t Lagos, C e n t r a l province w i t h c a p i t a l a t Warri and the Eastern province w i t h c a p i t a l a t C a l abar . I n 1912 Lord Lugard was appointed Governor of both the Northern and Southern protectorates t o e f f e c t t h e i r amalgamation which was accomplished i n 191^.  A l i e u t e n a n t governor was placed over the North and South provinces. I n t h i s period N i g e r i a was passing through a process of u n i f i c a t i o n but  i t i s w e l l t o remember what kind of u n i f i c a t i o n t h i s was. I t was imposed by the B r i t i s h .  I t d i d not a r i s e from a desire o f the people.  While t a k i n g  I Raymond L e s l i e B u e l l , The Native Problem i n A f r i c a , New York, Macmillan Co., 1928, V o l . 1 1 , p . 7 3 ^  M A P  OF  PLACE  MAMETS  IN  NIGERIA  22 shape the form o f a f e d e r a l system became apparent.  Departments o f govern-  ment which administered the e n t i r e area frequently pursued d i f f e r i n g p o l i c i e s f o r North and South.  Some areas and peoples had f a r greater l o c a l autonomy  than others and t h i s autonomy i n d i f f e r e n t areas took d i f f e r e n t forms.  Many  Nigerians today look back upon pre-I9!+5 N i g e r i a as a u n i t a r y state but t h i s i s f a r from t r u e .  Any country as diverse as N i g e r i a , could not but expect  t h a t powers from the c e n t r a l government would be transmitted t o l o c a l bodies. With the awakening of the p o l i t i c a l consciousness o f the people f e d e r a t i v e tendencies were bound t o be accelerated. Under Lugard's amalgamation i n I91U two nominated advisory councils were e s t a b l i s h e d ; the N i g e r i a n c o u n c i l c o n s i s t i n g o f t h i r t y B r i t i s h and s i x N i g e r i a n members, the L e g i s l a t i v e c o u n c i l composed of nine B r i t i s h and two N i g e r i a n o f f i c i a l members. Of the t o t a l t h i r t y - s i x members i n the N i g e r i a n c o u n c i l , twenty-four 2 were o f f i c i a l s , the Governor's executive c o u n c i l , a l l f i r s t c l a s s r e s i d e n t s , p o l i t i c a l s e c r e t a r i e s and the s e c r e t a r i e s of the North and South provinces. The s i x u n o f f i c i a l members were representatives o f commercial i n t e r e s t s . The Nigerians were made up of the most important c h i e f s from the North and South and representatives of the educated element of Lagos and Calabar. The Lagos L e g i s l a t i v e Council was a retrograde step because i t s sphere of a c t i v i t y was confined r i g i d l y t o Lagos whereas the o l d L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l had t o be consulted on matters a f f e c t i n g a l l Southern N i g e r i a . The N i g e r i a n 2 Each region was d i v i d e d i n t o provinces. F i r s t c l a s s residents were the heads o f the administrations of the provinces and were responsible t o the lieutenant governor o f the region. A province consisted of a number of l o c a l t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s . The l a r g e r l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s such as the Kano emirate (population - three m i l l i o n ) were advised by second c l a s s residents and smaller l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s by d i v i s i o n a l o f f i c e r s , both of which were d i r e c t l y responsible t o the f i r s t c l a s s r e s i d e n t s .  23 C o u n c i l was designed t o express p u b l i c opinion and provide p o l i c y makers an  3 opportunity t o give a summary o f matters o f i n t e r e s t and e x p l a i n p o l i c y , but i t bad no powers over l e g i s l a t i o n or finance.  Neither government o f f i c i a l s  nor c o u n c i l members took these bodies s e r i o u s l y . The Governor d i d not even grace the Lagos C o u n c i l with h i s presence and the Chiefs seldom attended sions o f the N i g e r i a n C o u n c i l .  ses-  The N i g e r i a n Council's main purpose was t o  debate but i t was r e l u c t a n t t o do even that and one B r i t i s h member f i n a l l y asked that i t should e i t h e r be made a serious f a c t o r i n government or be If abolished. E a r l y Expressions o f the Demand f o r Parliamentary I n s t i t u t i o n s  I885-I920.  I n these years the colony and Lagos were being r u l e d d i r e c t l y and the educated Nigerians f e l t that some a t t e n t i o n or a p p r e c i a t i o n should be shown t o t r a d i t i o n a l customs which the B r i t i s h tended t o brand as savage.  A t the  same time Nigerians looked forward t o the gradual i n t r o d u c t i o n of the p a r l iamentary system as had been the p r a c t i c e elsewhere i n the Empire - nominated members on the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l followed by a p a r t i a l l y elected and p a r t i a l l y nominated Assembly; a gradual increase o f the elected members and decrease of the nominated w i t h greater and greater powers i n due time being extended t o t h i s body. Frequently the B r i t i s h pleaded the l a c k of q u a l i f i e d men t o hold such p o s i t i o n s but the N i g e r i a n press r e p l i e d ,  3 p.IlU.  6  S i r A l a n Burns, H i s t o r y of N i g e r i a , London, A l l e n and Unwin, 1955,  h N i g e r i a , "Address o f the Governor," L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l Debates, Feb., 1925, p . I I .  2k P r i o r t o the amalgamation with the Gold Coast (187U) the L e g i s l a t i v e Council o f t h i s colony comprised Europeans and native u n o f f i c i a l members. I f there could be found men i n those days s u f f i c i e n t l y q u a l i f i e d to occupy seats i n the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l . . . how much more a t the present time.5 When Lagos was set up as a separate colony i n 1886, educated Nigerians f u l l y expected t h a t they would be represented. Among the f i r s t f r u i t s o f the separation w i l l doubtless be the l a y i n g o f the foundation of our A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Independence i n the formation of a L e g i s l a t i v e Council...so composed o f Europeans and natives that the i n t e r e s t s of a l l classes s h a l l be f a i r l y represented... I t i s t o be hoped that the appointments necessitated thereby w i l l not be confined t o a c o t e r i a of European o f f i c i a l s only,but an opportunity w i l l be afforded natives o f t a l e n t t o stand side by side w i t h .their more favoured brethren." Later the same source asked, "How long w i l l we tamely submit t o t a x a t i o n  7 without representation?" Although the e l e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e had not yet been s e r i o u s l y mentioned, by I898 newspapers were t a l k i n g o f the "peoples' choice." We cannot be i n sympathy w i t h an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system which e n t i r e l y excludes and discountenances the choice o f the people i n the matter o f s e l e c t i o n o f t h e i r representatives i n the Legislature.8 A f t e r 1900 the press was s t i l l f i g h t i n g the charge o f i n a b i l i t y of Nigerians but were now asking f o r a l i m i t e d e l e c t i v e element.  5  Lagos Observer, 7 August, 1886, Vol.V, N 0 . 1 3 , p . 2 .  6  Lagos Observer, 20 March, 1886, Vol.V, No.U, p . 2 .  7  Lagos Observer, 17 and 2k J u l y , 1886, Vol.V, No.12, p . 2 .  8  Lagos Observer, 31 October, 1898, V o l . 1 , No.8, p . 2 .  25  A community that has produced native bishops, clergymen, lawyers, doctors, merchant princes and men d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n almost every walk i n l i f e , cannot be considered too young t o be entrusted w i t h the r i g h t s and duties o f c i t i z e n s h i p . A p a r t l y representative system, such as obtains i n some o f the B r i t i s h West I n d i e s , where the members o f the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l are p a r t l y e l e c t e d by the people, and p a r t l y appointed by the Governor would, while c o n s t i t u t i n g a step i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n , not be beyond the c a p a c i t y or deserts of the people.9 The Union of the Protectorate o f Southern N i g e r i a t o Lagos i n 1906 modified t h i s a t t i t u d e but d i d not change i t .  Obviously i t would slow  down the pace o f the advance envisioned by the educated elements, because o f the now large population included i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , who were l a r g e l y untouched by western ideas and would have t o be more slowly introduced t o parliamentary democracy.  The Bush n a t i v e , "although he i s b l a c k , he i s  human, and w i l l be as f u l l y sensible i n time as any B r i t o n ever was t o the .110  i n v i o l a b l e r i g h t o f c o n t r o l l i n g h i s own a f f a i r s . By the e a r l y nineteen twenties Nigerians were being a s s i s t e d i n t h e i r demands f o r e l e c t e d representation by the demands of other parts of the C o l o n i a l Empire and by the i n c r e a s i n g l y noticeable d i f f e r e n c e between t h e i r II own p o s i t i o n and t h a t o f the self-governing white Dominions.  A f t e r review-  i n g C o n s t i t u t i o n a l unrest i n Jamaica, Ceylon, West A f r i c a and East A f r i c a the Lagos Weekly Record summed up by saying, "an almost u n i v e r s a l c r y has gone up i n almost a l l subject dependencies f o r an increased share of p o l n 12 i t i c a l responsibility. 9 "The Crown Colony System," Lagos-Standard, 20 September, 1905, V o l . X I I , N o . l , p.5. 10  Lagos Weekly Record, 30 January, I90k,  Vol.XV, N 0 . I 5 , p.5.  11 "The N a t i o n a l Congress of B r i t i s h West A f r i c a " Lagos Weekly Record, 10 J u l y , 1920, Vol.XXX, N0.6I, p.5. 12 Lagos Weekly Record, 2k A p r i l , 1920, Vol.XIX, N0.5O, p.5, quoting The A f r i c a n World, London.  26  With the s p i r i t of nationalism and the desire f o r a l a r g e r share of p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y rampant throughout the length and breadth of the whole world, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o understand...how the moderate a s p i r a t i o n s of i n t e l l i g e n t and progressive A f r i c a n natives f o r some form of representative government can be conveniently discouraged. 13 The N i g e r i a n press f e l t that since the government contained no element possessing l o c a l t i e s and l o c a l i n t e r e s t s , i t was i t s s p e c i a l province t o  Ik "exercise watch and ward f o r the people"  and w h i l e the press found i t neces-  sary t o c r i t i c i z e the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the government of the colony i n no 15  case could i t be shown that i t had ever "wavered i n i t s l o y a l t y to the Crown" In 1903 S i r W i l l i a m MacGregor, Governor of Lagos introduced an  ordinance  which required newspaper owners t o post a bond of f i v e hundred pounds w i t h the government i n order to guard against newspapers being unable t o meet the f i n a n c i a l demands of l i b e l cases.  I n the C o u n c i l the Governor defended the  b i l l on the ground t h a t press c r i t i c i s m s , " d i d a great d e a l of harm t o young o f f i c e r s , and proved a t times embarrassing  t o the government.  The  press  f e l t t h a t such c r i t i c i s m was i t s r i g h t . In these days when young and inexperienced European o f f i c e r s are being placed over large d i s t r i c t s i n the P r o t e c t o r a t e of the Colonies on the West Coast of A f r i c a and armed w i t h powers such as are c a l c u l a t e d to t u r n a man's head, how necessary that there should be a p u b l i c press t o expose any out-ofthe-way actions of which the young and inexperienced aspirants may be g u i l t y . The very thought that there i s a v i g i l a n t press to c r i t i c i z e t h e i r a c t i o n s , cannot but act as a check on them.T7 13 Lagos Weekly Record, 2k A p r i l , 1920, Vol.XIX, No.50, p.5, quoting The A f r i c a n World, London. Ik Lagos Standard, 12 August, The A f r i c a n Review, London.  1903,  Vol.IX,  N0.U8,  p.3,  15  Lagos Standard, 2k June, I903, V o l . I X , No.Ul, p.3.  16  Lagos Standard, 5 August, 1903, Vol.IX,. No.kf,  17  Lagos Standard, 15 J u l y , 1903, Vol.IX, No.1)4, p.If.  p.3.  quoting  27 Two Lagos newspapers c i r c u l a t e d a p e t i t i o n which was sent to the Coloni a l s e c r e t a r y asking him t o withhold h i s assent from the ordinance.  The  B r i t i s h press took a stand against the ordinance and comments from E n g l i s h newspapers were l i b e r a l l y quoted by the Lagos press i n defence o f t h e i r stand. The Colony, I may mention, boasts o f two weekly papers, very capably edited by n a t i v e s , and i t i s the suppression of these j o u r n a l s , the Lagos Standard and the Lagos Weekly Record, which i s aimed a t i n the b i l l , as they have an uncomfortable way o f speaking p l a i n l y about any abuses i n the government o f the Colony.  1  The European Chamber of Commerce i n Lagos, i n the absence of representa t i v e s o f some o f the l a r g e s t commercial firms passed a r e s o l u t i o n , "that t h i s meeting s t r o n g l y deprecates the tone adopted w i t h i n the l a s t few months, by the native press of Lagos, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h regard t o matters concerning •,19  the government o f the Colony and European government o f f i c i a l s . The newspaper ordinance however, received the C o l o n i a l secretary's assent but only a f t e r the amount of the bond t o be posted was reduced t o two hundred, f i f t y pounds.  The e f f e c t o f the ordinance was t o make the Lagos  press f e e l t h a t i t was not quite as free as i t might be and that the government was seeking to curb i t s a c t i v i t y .  However, i t could be consoled t h a t  i t s e d i t o r i a l s were not being ignored by the government. The amalgamation o f Northern and Southern N i g e r i a i n I9I t- served t o i  make the attainment of parliamentary government even more d i f f i c u l t and slowed the gradual process t o a s t a n d s t i l l . The B r i t i s h , who u n t i l I9lh appeared t o favour t h i s gradual approach, although probably favouring a slower pace than the educated N i g e r i a n , began t o change t h e i r a t t i t u d e .  Much of t h i s change of a t t i t u d e was due t o the  18 Lagos Standard, 12 August, 1903, Vol.IX, No.48, p.3, quoting Reynolds Newspaper, England. 19  Lagos Standard, 28 June, 1905, V o l . X I , No.39, P«3«  28 s u c c e s s f u l working o f Lord Lugard's i n d i r e c t r u l e p r i n c i p l e s i n Northern Nigeria.  When Lugard was sent t o e f f e c t the amalgamation i t was t o be ex-  pected that the Northern N i g e r i a n p o l i c y of r u l i n g through native i n s t i t u t i o n s would be c a r r i e d out i n the South.  The educated Nigerians a l s o favour-  ed t h i s system but expected that gradually the a u t o c r a t i c features o f the t r a d i t i o n a l system would be c u r t a i l e d .  The B r i t i s h l i m i t e d t h i s c u r t a i l i n g  to a b o l i t i o n of s l a v e r y and human s a c r i f i c e .  This was not a t a l l s u f f i c i e n t  i n the eyes of the educated who f e l t that B r i t i s h j u s t i c e and parliamentary procedure were two of the great advantages o f c i t i z e n s h i p i n the B r i t i s h Empire.  A f t e r amalgamation Northern N i g e r i a remained as before and Southern  N i g e r i a was made t o bend i n the d i r e c t i o n o f autocracy, the outcry from the educated knew no bounds and d i d not diminish with time. S i r F r e d e r i c k Lugard i n mapping out h i s Northern N i g e r i a n p o l i c y never made any allowance f o r the element o f progress. Infected with the dangerous microbe o f race prejudice which subsequently developed i n t o an incurable mania f o r 'white p r e s t i g e ' and t a k i n g advantage of the gross mental darkness that everywhere pervaded the land, S i r Frederick thought i t best t o perpetuate t h i s state of b l i s s f u l ignorance by preserving the people i n watertight compartments o f i d o l i z e d ignorance and s t u d i o u s l y excluding a l l l i b e r a l i z i n g influences whether o f e x t e r n a l or i n t e r n a l o r i g i n ; and, t o crown i t a l l he purposely introduced the r u l e o f force as a c o n d i t i o n precedent f o r maintaining the white man's p r e s t i g e a t a l l c o s t s . He never f o r a moment contemplated the p o s s i b l e f u s i o n o f Northern and Southern N i g e r i a and the subsequent c l a s h of i d e a l s that i t would e n t a i l - the clash of the l i b e r a l p o l i c y of the Southern provinces with the m i l i t a r y r u l e o f the Northern provinces.20 The d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e between the educated and the B r i t i s h , t o indigenous i n s t i t u t i o n s seemed t o be that w h i l e the educated f e l t that i n digenous i n s t i t u t i o n s would grow, with B r i t i s h pressure, i n t o elected l o c a l governments and parliamentary representation on the Westminster model the  20  Lagos Weekly Record, I October, 1921,  Vol.XXXI, No.109, p.2.  29  B r i t i s h f i r m l y f e l t that the Westminster model was not s u i t a b l e f o r A f r i c a . The N i g e r i a n p o s i t i o n was  stated i n the press.  I f the advocates of i n d i r e c t r u l e wish to be taken s e r i o u s l y they must include i n t h e i r programme the i n t r o d u c t i o n of l i b e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . . . and the modelling of native courts t o conform t o B r i t i s h standards of j u s t i c e . 2 1 The B r i t i s h appeared t o be more anxious about present than ultimate r e s u l t s and t h i s d r i f t i n g l e d t o the growth of an a u t o c r a t i c system f o r that was  the general trend of the t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s when the safeguards  which the B r i t i s h had branded as incompatible w i t h human j u s t i c e , were r e moved.  No new  safeguards, such as the e l e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e were put i n t h e i r  place.  I n t h i s regard, S i r Donald Cameron s a i d t h a t , "he detected a tendency  t o d r i f t i n t o t h i n k i n g that a feudal autocracy was  the b e - a l l and e n d - a l l of  22  indirect administration." This n a t i o n cannot remain s t a t i o n a r y under i t s ancient laws and customs though not repugnant to c i v i l i s a t i o n . T h i s , as i s w e l l known, i s contrary t o the law of progress. Not t o advance i s t o retrograde - a relapse i n t o the darkness of barbarianism.23 The dangers of stagnation were i n d i r e c t l y a l l u d e d t o l a t e r by the Governor, S i r Donald Cameron, when he r e f e r r e d t o the Southern provinces  native  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s , "which are r e a c t i o n a r y and repressive i n t h e i r tendency, i n some instances depending f o r t h e i r a u t h o r i t y on f e t i s h and s u p e r s t i t i o n f o r 2k  most p a r t , "  21  and  again,  Lagos Weekly Record, IT J u l y , 1920,  Vol.XXX, No.62,  p.3.  22 Study Group of Members of the Royal I n s t i t u t e of I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , The C o l o n i a l Problem, London, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1937, p . 2 5 9 . 23  Times of N i g e r i a , Lagos, 20-27 A p r i l , I9T-5, No.67-68, p.l+.  2k  N i g e r i a n D a i l y Times, Lagos, 17 March, 1933,  V o l . V I I , No.2228,  p.8.  30  I f there i s an attempt t o keep the people back and the n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s consequently not so framed and c o n s t i t u t e d as t o progress on modern l i n e s alongside the c e n t r a l government of which i t i s but a p a r t . . . then n a t u r a l l y , the natives w i l l . . . e v e n t u a l l y refuse t o 'stay put' and the e d i f i c e w i l l crumble t o the ground.^5 Much of the d i f f i c u l t y can be a t t r i b u t e d t o the sacredness which surrounded the theory o f i n d i r e c t r u l e . onous.  C r i t i c i s m was considered almost t r e a s -  Empiricism, u s u a l l y considered the strong f o r t e of B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l  r u l e was abandoned.  Probably due t o the p a u c i t y of B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l theories  and the stature o f i t s promulgator, Lugard's theory was j e a l o u s l y guarded. I n d i r e c t r u l e . . . has f o r many years had such a halo cast over i t that i t had come t o be regarded as a heresy i n o f f i c i a l c i r c l e s i n N i g e r i a t o o f f e r even the s l i g h t e s t c r i t i c i s m o f the i n s t i t u t i o n . 2 ° A t no time before and no time afterwards, u n t i l 19^9, d i d the Lagos press e x h i b i t such b i t t e r n e s s of f e e l i n g s as during Lugard's a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A l though Lugard quite s u c c e s s f u l l y confined the " s e d i t i o u s i n f l u e n c e " of the 27  " a l i e n educated"  t o Lagos, y e t there the newspapers c a r r i e d on a rigorous  campaign against the "nefarious Lugardian regime," going so f a r as t o say that Lugard's measures were so e n t i r e l y u n - B r i t i s h l i k e , that one could hardl y conceive where t o draw the l i n e of d i s t i n c t i o n "between the system o f r u l e 28  o f our Governor-General and the system o f German c o l o n i a l r u l e i n A f r i c a , " The L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l came i n f o r a good share o f c r i t i c i s m as a r e 29  trograde step, one which c a r r i e d the country backward more than f i f t y years. I t was 25 c r Ni it gi ce ir zi ea d, because "Address the by SGovernor i r Donaldtook Cameron," no p a r t Supplement i n i t s d e ltiob eErxattriaoonrsd,i ni - t a r y Gazette, 6 March, 1 9 3 3 , p.I5« 26  N i g e r i a n D a i l y Times, Lagos, 8 March, 1933, V o l . V I I , No.22'20, p.6.  27  Lugard's own words.  28  Times of N i g e r i a , Lagos, 25 August-September 1 5 , I 9 l U , No. 3^-37, p.!+.  29  Times o f N i g e r i a , Lagos, 2 - l 6 February, I9I5> No.57-58, p.U.  31  could not exercise any powers of r e j e c t i o n , a l t e r a t i o n or amendment i n respect t o l e g i s l a t i o n .  I t was deprived of the most important of i t s func-  t i o n s - the c o n t r o l of t a x a t i o n . The r i g h t of c r i t i c i s m , of s c r u t i n y and of 30  f r e e d i s c u s s i o n of the annual estimates was taken away from i t . Much l a t e r c r i t i c s have pointed out the longer term e f f e c t of the narrow r e s t r i c t i o n of t h i s c o u n c i l both i n respect of membership and  jurisdiction.  Had the e a r l i e r o f f i c i a l l i b e r a l i s m been c o n s i s t e n t l y pursued over the i n t e r war years there would have been i n existence i n each colony (of B r i t i s h West A f r i c a ) a formidable team of A f r i c a n executives able and experienced enough 31  t o s u s t a i n the grandiose e d i f i c e of the recent m i n i s t e r i a l government. The educated i n Lagos f e l t that the r e s t r i c t e d composition of the counc i l was intended to i s o l a t e the Lagosians. The p o i n t of t h i s arrangement i s to r e s t r a i n and confine our energies, and to n e u t r a l i z e the c i v i l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e of Lagos which under the present a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , has been misrepresented as an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n "storm centre. "32  The educated i n Lagos were confined not only i n the sphere of p o l i t i c s but were asked t o s i g n a d e c l a r a t i o n , before being granted any leasehold or occupancy r i g h t s , making themselves amenable to the native courts and  thereby 33  p r a c t i c a l l y d i v e s t i n g themselves of t h e i r r i g h t s as B r i t i s h subjects. Wot only were the educated confined t o Lagos p h y s i c a l l y but a l s o s p i r i t u a l l y , i n the sense that the B r i t i s h usurped the p o s i t i o n of the educated as the spokesman of the aims and a s p i r a t i o n s of the p r o t e c t o r a t e people.  The  B r i t i s h claimed that the educated were d e t r i b a l i z e d and had l o s t a l l touch 30  Times of N i g e r i a , Lagos, 2 - l 6 February, 1915,  No.57-58,  p.U.  31 Dr. T.O.Elias, " P o l i t i c a l Advance and the Rule of Law i n B r i t i s h West A f r i c a , " Occasional,Paper on N i g e r i a n A f f a i r s , No.2, the N i g e r i a n S o c i e t y 1955, P . I I . • 32  Times of N i g e r i a , Lagos, 2 - l 6 February, 1915,  33  Lagos Weekly Record, T.8-25 August, 1923,  No.57-58,  p.U.  Vol.XXXIII, No.19,  p.9.  32  w i t h the masses o f the people.  The same accusation, with j u s t i f i c a t i o n ,  has been l a i d at the door o f the B r i t i s h themselves.  They have been segre-  gated on t h e i r reservations not knowing how the people l i v e .  While the com-  p l a i n t against the educated element of Lagos can r i g h t l y be c a l l e d d e t r i b a l i z a t i o n , the complaint against the B r i t i s h of t r i b a l i s m i s j u s t as v a l i d . Although both have grounds f o r the accusations, the B r i t i s h knowledge might be described as s u p e r f i c i a l but more general, while the educated Nigerian's knowledge i s more concentrated but less d i f f u s e . The measure which caused the greatest and most p e r s i s t e n t outcry was the P r o v i n c i a l Courts Ordinance of 1914 (abolished  193*0  which provided that  the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r s (those B r i t i s h o f f i c i a l s charged with administration) should become magistrates and that the Governor should review a l l appeal cases.  The ordinance a l s o forbade counsel t o appear before the magistrates.  Lord Lugard j u s t i f i e d the ordinance on the basis that i t was the only system which N i g e r i a n revenues could a f f o r d .  He a l s o reported t o the B r i t i s h  governments that a l l residents reported that the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r courts were popular. However, Nigerians were quick to point out that i t was B r i t i s h j u s t i c e 35  which had made B r i t i s h r u l e popular i n N i g e r i a .  S i r K i t o y i Ajasa s a i d that  "he had the privelege of being a member of the Aba Commission and the c r y of the people everywhere that commission sat was,  'give us back the courts o f the  36  o l d days.'"  S i r Ernest I k o l i s a i d of Calabar that,"as f a r as the p r o v i n c i a l  courts are concerned, they are, a f t e r almost seven years experiment, j u s t as 34 Great B r i t a i n , Parliament, Cmd.468, S i r F r e d e r i c k Lugard, Report o f the Amalgamation of Northern and Southern N i g e r i a and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 19121919, (hereafter r e f e r r e d to as Amalgamation), Appendix 4 , p.8o. 35  N i g e r i a , L e g i s l a t i v e Council Debates, 4 A p r i l , 1927, p.19.  36 N i g e r i a D a i l y Times, Lagos, 13 March, 1933, quoting the L e g i s l a t i v e Council Debates, I933«  V o l . V I I , No.2224, p.5,  33  unpopular today among the people as when they were f i r s t inaugurated."  37  While W.Ormsby-Gore, i n h i s report f o l l o w i n g h i s mission i n N i g e r i a i n 1926,  38  favoured the P r o v i n c i a l Courts system,  Judge Stoker ( i n the Gold  Coast) r e f e r r e d t o them as, "a set back to a c o n d i t i o n of things resembling 39  the barbarous ages." Although considerable c r i t i c i s m was d i r e c t e d a t the union of the execu t i v e and j u d i c i a l functions or the dual c a p a c i t y of p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e r s , and  ko the inexperience of these o f f i c e r s ,  the greatest of a l l complaints was  level-  l e d a t the p r o h i b i t i o n o f counsel. The B r i t i s h argument against N i g e r i a n lawyers was that they fomented l i t i g a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y , i n land cases, or any cases where a large fee could be exacted, and many examples of t h i s type of e x t o r t i o n have been c i t e d as  in evidence i n support of t h e i r p r o h i b i t i o n ; que dispute i n Lagos.  one such case being the Jamat Mos-  Lugard h i m s e l f complained that the m a j o r i t y of the  b a r r i s t e r s were n a t i v e foreigners (Africans from other B r i t i s h West A f r i c a n c o l o n i e s ) who were i n N i g e r i a to make a huge amount o f money to take back t o ^3  E . S .iInk oother l i , "Three Provinces," A f r imore c a n cont h e i r 37homes c o l o n iMonths es. B airnr ithe s t e rSouthern s were accused of being Messenger, Lagos, I June, 1922, V o l . 1 1 , No.65, p.k. 38 Great B r i t a i n , Parliament, Cmd.27Mr, Ormsby-Gore, Report on V i s i t t o West A f r i c a , I926, p . I l 8 . 39  Lagos D a i l y News, 3 November, 1928,  V o l . I l l , N0.23U, p.I.  kO "The J u d i c i a l System i n West A f r i c a . We Ask f o r Reform," Lagos D a i l y News, 22 January, 1931, V o l . V I , N 0 . I 8 , pp.1-2. Ui Burns, N i g e r i a , p.269, a l s o N i g e r i a , A c t i n g Lieutenant Governor of the Southern Provinces, L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l Debates, 2 November, 1933, PP» 107-108.  k2 Raymond L e s l i e B u e l l , The Native Problem i n A f r i c a , New Macmillan, 1928, V o l . 1 , p.666. 4-3  Cmd. 467, Lugard, Amalgamation, p.80.  York,  3h  kk cerned w i t h land cases than w i t h murder cases which would pay f a r l e s s . However, the ordinance was not amended t o allow counsel t o appear i n c a p i t a l punishment cases, and the number of executions s t e a d i l y rose i n Southern N i g e r i a ; f i f t y s i x i n I9II before the ordinance, one hundred twenty s i x i n I 9 l 6 and one hundred seventy three i n 1917,  U5  a f t e r the ordinance was passed.  The p r o h i b i t i o n of counsel from appearing on behalf of accused i s i n e x p l i c a b l e when we take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the f a c t that innocent n a t i v e s , ignorant of the law may thus be convicted simply because they are denied the r i g h t of defence.^6 The B r i t i s h defended t h e i r p o s i t i o n by p o i n t i n g out t h a t i n the j u d i c i a l agreement between the Egba and the Oyo kingdom and the B r i t i s h government i n I9C4, both the n a t i v e kings declared, "that i t i s t h e i r strong d e s i r e that b a r r i s t e r s and s o l i c i t o r s should not be allowed to p r a c t i c e " i n courts authori z e d i n the agreements.  A l s o the Yoruba kings again during World War I dei+8  nounced i n no uncertain terms the idea of lawyers p r a c t i c i n g i n the c o u r t s . I t may be quite true t h a t t h i s ordinance struck a t the vested i n t e r e s t of a large number of p o l i t i c a l l y voluable people.  But i t must be remembered  that because educated Nigerians (holding overseas u n i v e r s i t y degrees) were e i t h e r unable to f i n d employment i n the C i v i l S e r v i c e , o r , i f they d i d , were placed on a low s a l a r y s c a l e and deprived of hope of advancement, those d i d go overseas chose the only p r o f e s s i o n open to them - law.  Thus many of  the educated leaders were b a r r i s t e r s and the P r o v i n c i a l Courts Ordinance kk B u e l l , op. c i t . p.  65I.  1+5 S i r N e v i l l M. Geary, " J u s t i c e i n N i g e r i a , " Lagos Weekly Times, 3 A p r i l , 1920, Vol.XXX, No. kl, p.6. k6 Times of N i g e r i a , Lagos, 29 December, I91U, 1+7 B u e l l , The Native Problem i n A f r i c a , p . 6 5 1 . U8 Loc. c i t .  No.52,  p.3.  who  35  which deprived l i t i g a n t s of counsel struck at the very base of t h e i r l i v e l i hood and a t the sole remaining decently remunerative occupation open to prof e s s i o n a l l y - t r a i n e d people. This complete b a r r i n g of counsel made i t appear that i t was a crime t o become a b a r r i s t e r i n N i g e r i a ,  and that the B r i t i s h government feared to  place lawyers i n courts presided over by an inexperienced d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r . Why does the P r o v i n c i a l Court, which boasts i t s e l f a l s o as a B r i t i s h Court of J u s t i c e . . . l i v e i n such e t e r n a l dread of the barrister?50 To the charge that the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r s were inexperienced Lord Lugard 51  s a i d that the best t r a i n i n g was on the bench.  However, the N i g e r i a n press  never gave up the f i g h t against the P r o v i n c i a l Courts Ordinance u n t i l i t was abolished i n 193^ and never before had i t been so b i t t e r i n i t s denunciations of any a c t of the government. The Congress Movement 1920-1922 U n t i l the end of the F i r s t World War there had been no movements which could r i g h t l y be c a l l e d p o l i t i c a l .  I n some c r i s e s a group of men would band  together to persuade the government t o a c t i n a c e r t a i n manner but as soon as the c r i s e s passed the "party" formed, would d i s i n t e g r a t e .  However, a f t e r  the s e s s i o n of h o s t i l i t i e s 1918 a group of men d i d band together and draw up a p o l i t i c a l p l a t f o r m , and although t h i s movement died i n a few years i t s p o l i t i c a l programme became the platform of genuine p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s which arose i n a l l the B r i t i s h West A f r i c a n c o l o n i e s .  Because sea t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  k-9 N i g e r i a , L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l Debates, 29 November, 1938, 50  Lagos Weekly Record, 20 January, 1923,  51  Cmd.  467, Lugard, Amalgamation, p . 8 0 .  p.79.  Vol.XXXIII, No.2, p . I I .  36  was so much more developed and r a p i d than land t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and because the educated A f r i c a n s were concentrated i n the c o a s t a l c i t i e s i t i s not surp r i s i n g that the f i r s t such o r g a n i z a t i o n found i t s members i n Lagos, A c c r a , Freetown and Bathurst r a t h e r than i n the c o a s t a l and i n l a n d c i t i e s of anyone colony. The immediate issue which brought these men together was the f a t e of the former German colonies i n A f r i c a .  I n t h e i r f i r s t conference they con-  demned the p a r t i t i o n i n g of Togoland and the handing over t o the French government of the Cameroons without c o n s u l t i n g the people, and they desired an assurance from the B r i t i s h government, "that under no circumstance w i l l i t be a consenting p a r t y t o the i n t e g r i t y of any of the four B r i t i s h West A f r i c 52  an colonies being disturbed."  Correspondence on t h i s t o p i c passed between  Mr. Casely Hayford o f the Gold Coast and Dr. A. Savage of Lagos. I n 1919 a Lagos committee of the B r i t i s h West A f r i c a n Conference was organized w i t h Dr. J . Handle, Dr. A. Savage, P a t r i a r c h Campbell and Korimu Kotun as the executive.  Branches were formed i n Ebute Metta, Ibadan, Calabar,  Buguma and Lokoja. These branches were never very a c t i v e . Representatives from N i g e r i a , Gold Coast, S i e r r a Leone and Gambia met a t Accra i n 1920 and drew up an extensive programme.  The aim of the Confer-  ence was t o a i d development of p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s so that B r i t i s h West A f r i c a could take her place beside the s i s t e r nations i n the Empire, while 53  maintaining i n v i o l a t e t h e i r connection w i t h the B r i t i s h Crown. 52 "Resolutions of the Conference of A f r i c a n s of B r i t i s h West A f r i c a , " Lagos Weekly Record, 17 J u l y , 1920, Vol.XXX, No.62, p.7. 53 "National Congress of B r i t i s h West A f r i c a , " A f r i c a n Messenger, Lagos, 29.October, 1925, Vol.IV, No.2*f0, p.U.  37 I n regard to the L e g i s l a t i v e "branch of the various governments they asked that the Executive C o u n c i l remain as at present but the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l be one h a l f nominated by the Crown and the other h a l f by the people, "through l o c a l groups as may be found convenient" by an e l e c t o r a t e of pro-  54 p e r t y and educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s .  The House of Assembly should contain  the members of the L e g i s l a t i v e Council plus other e l e c t e d representatives and should have c o n t r o l over the l e v y i n g of t a x a t i o n . I n regard to education they asked that i t be given "as f a r as p r a c t i c a l a more n a t i o n a l tone," and that a u n i v e r s i t y be e s t a b l i s h e d , "to preserve i n  55 the students a sense of A f r i c a n n a t i o n a l i t y . " I n regard to c i t i z e n s h i p they stated that the inhabitants of B r i t i s h West A f r i c a are not f o r e i g n one to another - t h i s was  i n reference to the  native foreigners - and that d i s c r i m i n a t o r y ordinances against these people be removed. A l s o that the C o l o n i a l o f f i c e should be approached w i t h a view to considering whether the Syrians were not undesirable and a menace to the good government of the land and consequently should not be r e p a t r i a t e d from  56 the West A f r i c a n c o l o n i e s . The Conference asked that municipal c o u n c i l s be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r major c i t i e s , four f i f t h s e l e c t e d and one f i f t h nominated and that c i v i l s e r v i c e  57  appointments be by merit not colour. The Conference sent a delegation t o London i n 1920 54 Weekly Record, op. c i t . , p.6.  55  Loc. c i t .  56  Loc. c i t .  57  Loc. c i t .  to present t h e i r  38  requests to the C o l o n i a l o f f i c e . While there they discussed West A f r i c a n a f f a i r s w i t h the B r i t i s h League of Nations Union. Although the requests of the Conference appear mild today they c e r t a i n l y d i d not appear so i n 1920.  The Governor S i r Hugh C l i f f o r d attacked the  composition of the Conference. The people of the B r i t i s h West A f r i c a n colonies and protectorates have no more pretensions t o a common n a t i o n a l i t y than have, f o r example, the peoples of Europe. 58  The Conference d e f i n i t e l y neglected the i n d i r e c t r u l e system and  decid-  e d l y came out i n favour of parliamentary democracy, although the native m i n i s t r a t i o n system was  not openly challenged.  ad-  S i r Hugh r e i t e r a t e d the B r i t -  i s h p o l i c y stand i n t h i s regard and r e f e r r e d to these delegates as gentlemen, "whose eyes are f i x e d , not upon A f r i c a n native h i s t o r y or t r a d i t i o n or p o l i c y nor upon t h e i r own t r i b a l o b l i g a t i o n s and the duties t o t h e i r n a t u r a l r u l e r s ... but upon p o l i t i c a l theories evolved by Europeans t o f i t a wholly d i f f e r 59  ent set of circumstances." To back t h i s statement Governor C l i f f o r d quoted a l e t t e r t o himself from a N i g e r i a n c h i e f . The c h i e f s as a whole (my f r i e n d i s w r i t i n g of the c h i e f s of a group of t r i b e s which occupy a p a r t i c u l a r area and speak s i m i l a r d i a l e c t s ) are watching to see to what extent our government intends to recognize t h i s monstrous i n s t i t u t i o n . " " Regarding the reception which the delegation received i n London he s a i d ; " C e r t a i n w e l l meaning and p h i l a n t h r o p i c a l l y disposed, though obviously i l l informed persons i n Great B r i t a i n " have shown a d i s p o s i t i o n to t r e a t  "the  58 N i g e r i a , "Address by the Governor S i r Hugh C l i f f o r d , " N i g e r i a n C o u n c i l Debates, 29 December, 1920, p.l8. 59  I b i d . , p.  20.  60  I b i d . , p.  20.  39  s o - c a l l e d 'movement' as though i t were i n a measure representative of Niger61  i a n i n t e r e s t s and a s p i r a t i o n s . "  He then went on t o say that the N a t i o n a l  Conference of B r i t i s h West A f r i c a had been " f o r m a l l y repudiated by the wiser 62  and more c u l t i v a t e d representatives of A f r i c a n opinion i n Lagos." Lagos press asked, "who  The  are the s o - c a l l e d wiser and more c u l t i v a t e d represent-  63  atives?"  S i r Hugh ended by s t a t i n g B r i t i s h p o l i c y emphatically,  N a t i o n a l government by N a t u r a l Rulers through indigenous i n s t i t u t i o n s and i n accordance w i t h l o c a l laws and customs.°^ Because of disputes between Dr. Randle and Dr. Savage the Congress was l e f t t o Gold Coastians and i t never d i d l a s t long as a serious f a c t o r i n Lagos p o l i t i c s . Whether Governor C l i f f o r d approved of the conference or not, the Cons t i t u t i o n which he i n s t i t u t e d f o r N i g e r i a i n 1922 t o the requests f o r parliamentary government.  gave at l e a s t some quarter  I n the C l i f f o r d C o n s t i t u t i o n  the L e g i s l a t i v e Council consisted of f o r t y - s i x members, four e l e c t e d , three from Lagos and one from Calabar; f i v e nominated A f r i c a n s , which by 1938  had  been increased t o t e n , to represent various areas and commercial members representing the Chamber of Commerce, Chamber of Mines, banking and shipping i n t e r e s t s ( a l l white) and t h i r t y - t w o o f f i c i a l white members. While a l l l e g i s l a t i o n had t o be passed by t h i s body the overwhelming government o f f i c i a l vote ensured that the C o u n c i l was powerless f o r the government could, i f i t so d e s i r e d , compel the o f f i c i a l members to vote f o r i t s l e g i s l a t i o n .  61 N i g e r i a , "Address by the Governor S i r Hugh C l i f f o r d , " N i g e r i a n C o u n c i l Debates, 29 December, 1920, p.19. 62  Loc. c i t .  63  B u e l l , Native Problem I , p.832.  6k  N i g e r i a , N i g e r i a n C o u n c i l Debates, 29 December, 1920,  p.23.  ko Although the new c o n s t i t u t i o n f e l l f a r short of the Conference requests nevertheless i t was the f i r s t to acknowledge the e l e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e i n B r i t ish tropical Africa.  65  C r i t i c i s m s of the new c o n s t i t u t i o n were many. While doling out the franchise g i n g e r l y , the government was extending the native a d m i n i s t r a t i o n system r a p i d l y i n the Eastern Provinces where the government could f i n d few indigenous i n s t i t u t i o n s which would s u i t modern conditions.  Here i n the  East was an opportunity to experiment with a l i m i t e d f r a n c h i s e .  Instead,  s o - c a l l e d indigenous i n s t i t u t i o n s which were not indigenous, were introduced which r e s u l t e d i n the Aha R i o t s i n 1929.  I n d i r e c t r u l e had t r u l y "become a 66  f e t i s h , even though Governor C l i f f o r d warned against making i t one. The representation was c r i t i c i z e d .  The Northern Region was not rep-  resented except by c h i e f s , and the Council was h e a v i l y weighted i n favour of 67  the Western Region against the Eastern.  The e l e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e was not ex-  tended to other cosmopolitan c i t i e s such as Ibadan, Onitsha, Port Harcourt, Jos,  Kano and Abeokuta.  Thus p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s d i d not develop outside La-  gos and Calabar. There were other anomalies such as the nomination of S.B. Rhodes, a Yoruba f o r the Rivers d i v i s i o n , a non-Yoruba d i v i s i o n .  The most  s t u l l i f y i n g f a c t o r of a l l was the overwhelming government bloc vote and i t s constant use, which w i l l be discussed i n d e t a i l f u r t h e r on. There were however, advantages to the new c o n s t i t u t i o n . no matter how l i m i t e d , had been introduced.  The f r a n c h i s e ,  Some experience was gained by a  65 French A f r i c a n s (Senegalese) received the franchise i n the seventeen n i n e t i e s as a r e s u l t of the French Revolution. I n I9lk, 8200 Senegalese possessed the r i g h t to vote. 66 N i g e r i a , "The Address o f the Governor, S i r Hugh C l i f f o r d , " L e g i s l a t i v e Council,Debates, 6 February, 1925, pp. 33-34. 67  N i g e r i a , L e g i s l a t i v e Council Debates, 7 March, 1939, p.l49.  1  Ifl  few A f r i c a n s and p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s were formed.  There were some signs o f  l i b e r a l i z i n g tendencies i n the Governor's appointments.  The Onitsha native  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n nominated the Ibo member and the I b i b i o League, the I b i b i o member a f t e r 1938. The Governor chose the Egba member a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the Alake of Abeokuta and the Oyo member a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the 68  A l a f i n of Oyo.  Governor B o u r d i l l o n claimed i n 19^3, that only once had he 69  refused the nomination of a native a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  But a t best, with the  exception o f the I b i b i o League, these nominations i f not B r i t i s h were cont r o l l e d by the c h i e f s . The Executive Council remained B r i t i s h .  Wot u n t i l I91+2 was an A f r i c a n  allowed i n t o the "charmed c i r c l e " of the Governor's Executive  Council.  The Lagos Sphere 1922-1938 The C l i f f o r d C o n s t i t u t i o n provided f o r three elected members t o represent Lagos i n the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l .  P o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s began t o form  representing d i f f e r e n t . o p i n i o n s and t o put f o r t h candidates t o contest these seats.  Although a number of p a r t i e s , the Reform Club, the Peoples' Union,  Young Wigerians and the Committee of Democracy were formed, i t was the Nigeri a n National Democratic Party (W.W.D.P.) that dominated Lagos p o l i t i c s from 1923  t o 1938. The executive o f the W.N.D.P. consisted o f J.Egerton-Shyngle, 70  H.Macaulay, Bagan Benjamin, the white cap c h i e f s ,  68  the Moslem leaders and  B u e l l , Native Problem I , p. 7^1•  69 Joan Wheare, The N i g e r i a n L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , London, published under the auspices o f the N u f f i e l d College by Faber and Faber, 1950, p.72. 70 The white cap c h i e f s t o t a l t h i r t y - t w o . There were twelve f i r s t c l a s s c h i e f s who came t o Lagos from Benin with the o r i g i n a l House of Docemo (the founder of Lagos), eleven second c l a s s c h i e f s who represented the o r i g i n a l landowners o f Lagos, f i v e t h i r d c l a s s c h i e f s (the I f a p r i e s t s ) who were the r e l i g i o u s heads and four, f i f t h c l a s s c h i e f s , the kingmakers.  k2 the native d i s t r i c t heads.  The p a r t y was a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the N a t i o n a l Con-  ference o f B r i t i s h West A f r i c a and, although t h i s a f f i l i a t i o n was more i l l u s o r y than r e a l , the p a r t y manifesto followed c l o s e l y t h a t o f the N a t i o n a l Congress w i t h the a d d i t i o n o f p u r e l y l o c a l aspects. The manifesto promised that the N.N.D.P. would he " c o n s t i t u t i o n a l t o the l e t t e r " and t h a t i t appreciated and endorsed whole heartedly the goal of the B r i t i s h Empire as a "Commonwealth o f f r e e nations l i n k e d by the com71  mon sentiment o f l o y a l t y t o the King-Emperor."  W h i l s t paying a glowing  t r i b u t e t o the success o f B r i t i s h Imperialism i n A f r i c a , i t had not the s l i g h t e s t patience w i t h " ' p r e s t i g e p o l i t i e s ' . . . o r the foolhardy p o l i c y o f 72  ' t r u s t i n g t o the man on the spot'" manifesto stated t h a t ,  I n regard t o the C i v i l S e r v i c e the  There i s no such t h i n g as race s u p e r i o r i t y . . . e q u a l i t y of opportunity i s the a c i d t e s t o f f i t n e s s f o r s o c i a l expansion. Higher plums o f the S e r v i c e should, on the p r i n c i p l e o f e q u a l i t y o f opportunity be made a v a i l a b l e 73 t o a l l without any d i s t i n c t i o n o f race, creed or c o l o u r . The p a r t y promised t o begin a crusade f o r the "downfall and o b l i t e r a t i o n o f the p r o v i n c i a l courts system," appointment o f experienced and w e l l q u a l i f i e d n a t i v e b a r r i s t e r s t o j u n i o r posts on the bench and f o r the s e t t i n g up o f a court o f appeal i n c i v i l and c r i m i n a l cases f o r the whole o f B r i t i s h West A f r i c a . I t promised t o campaign f o r a " f u l l - b l o w n m u n i c i p a l i t y " where municipal revenue and expenditure were under the d e f i n i t e and e n t i r e c o n t r o l of the ratepayers.  71 "Egbe Ibu Agbajo t o N i g e r i a " (the N a t i o n a l Democratic P a r t y ) , Lagos Weekly Record, 2 June, 1923, Vol.XXXIII, No.10, p.9. 72  Loc. c i t .  73  Loc. c i t .  h3  The f i r s t candidates  f o r the N.N.D.P. were J.Egerton-Shyngle, C C .  Adenyi-Jones and E r i c O.Moore, two b a r r i s t e r s and one medical p r a c t i t i o n e r , a l l native foreigners. No other p o l i t i c a l p a r t y stated i t s views as capably, possessed the support o f so many o f the educated Lagosians, nor had as powerful a press support.  The most c o n s i s t e n t opposition came from a body o f opinion l e d by  S i r K i t o y i Ajasa and h i s newspaper the N i g e r i a n Pioneer. S i r K i t o y i Ajasa was f i r s t nominated t o the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l i n 1908 then was nominated t o the N i g e r i a n C o u n c i l i n I 9 l 4 and sat as a member o f the new L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l i n 1923 u n t i l 1933 as representative f o r the colony.  He was awarded the O.B.E. i n 1924.  He was described by an independ-  ent source as " s t r o n g l y conservative and very adverse t o change." K i t o y i disapproved  o f the f r a n c h i s e .  Sir  The N.N.D.P. accused him o f having a  vested i n t e r e s t i n the o l d system. We quite understood the anxiety o f the e d i t o r o f the Pioneer (Ajasa) who having got i n t o the h a b i t o f regarding seats i n the L e g i s l a t i v e or N i g e r i a n C o u n c i l as s p e c i a l l y and perenn i a l l y reserved f o r himself, h i s f r i e n d s , s a t e l l i t e s and adherents, now f i n d s h i s l i t t l e nest i n danger.75 S i r K i t o y i , i n reference t o the franchise r e p l i e d that "we are not r i p e for  it.  We are going too f a s t . . . a t the f i r s t e l e c t i o n t o t h i s C o u n c i l . . . 76  not a s i n g l e n a t i v e o f the country put up f o r e l e c t i o n . " At the A n g l i c a n synod attended by delegates from Lagos, Abeokuta, Ibadan and Ijebu-ode, Mr. Ajasa seconded a motion put by the bishop o f Lagos "condemnatory t o the granting o f the p a r t i a l f r a n c h i s e . " ed by groans.  I t f a i l e d i n the vote.  7*  A f r i c a n Messenger, Lagos, 12 June, I 9 2 U , Vol.IV, No.171, p.7.  75  A f r i c a n Messenger, Lagos, 2 March, 1922, V o l . 1 , No.52, p.4.  1  1927,  The motion was greet-  76 N i g e r i a , S i r K i t o y i A j a s a , L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l Debates, 23 August, P-54.  kk  Next t o the issue o f the f r a n c h i s e the most h o t l y debated question was that o f l o y a l t y .  The N i g e r i a n Pioneer accused the N.N.D.P. o f s e d i t i o n .  Under the guise o f p o l i t i c s they pursue a campaign of s c a r c e l y v e i l e d s e d i t i o n f o r which performance an ignorant populace acclaims them as f i g h t e r s o f the people's cause and as n a t i o n a l heroes.77 The N.N.D.P. r e p l i e d , There has sprung up o f l a t e i n t h i s country a most r e a c t i o n a r y o l i g a r c h y w i t h the N i g e r i a n Pioneer as i t s guardian angel, who see nothing but harm, d i s l o y a l t y and law breaking i n any e f f o r t a t advancement by the people.7° Parliamentary democracy versus development o f indigenous  institutions  was a l s o fought out among the groups. B r i t i s h West A f r i c a i n her h i s t o r y has never been a n t i i m p e r i a l i s t . . . but i n t h i s o r t h a t colony there are those whose words b e l i e t h e i r a c t i o n s , who i n s p i r e d or r a t h e r deceived by new fangled ideas and t h e o r i e s from across the seas, f a l l headlong i n t o a v e r i t a b l e new heaven and new earth c l e v e r l y conjured up.79 The N.N.D.P. accused Mr. Ajasa o f being the white man's f r i e n d and one 80  whose p o l i c y was always t o support the government i n everything.  They a l s o  claimed that he had a formidable hold upon European o p i n i o n and t h a t he was regarded by bureaucracy as "the one s t r a i g h t negro i n N i g e r i a - always on 81  the side o f the government." The N.N.D.P. won h a n d i l y a l l three seats i n the 1923 e l e c t i o n , won a b y - e l e c t i o n and three seats i n the municipal e l e c t i o n o f 1926 and a l l three 77  A f r i c a n Messenger, Lagos, 30 A p r i l , 1925, Vol.IV, No.214, p.6.  78  A f r i c a n Messenger, Lagos, 12 May,  79  N i g e r i a n Pioneer, Lagos, 5 June, 1925, p.8.  80  N i g e r i a n D a i l y Times, Lagos, 10 March, 1 9 3 3 , V o l . V I I , No.2222, p . I .  81  A f r i c a n Messenger, Lagos, 2k November, 1 9 2 1 , V o l . 1 , No.38, p.5.  1921, V o l . 1 , No.10, p . 3 .  ^5 seats i n the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l e l e c t i o n s o f 1928 and I933«  I n 1938 i t  was completely thrown from power as a r e s u l t o f having l o s t i t s own dynamism and because i t was f o r the f i r s t time f a c i n g a coherent and u n i f i e d opposition. The reason behind the long domination o f Lagos p o l i t i c s by the N.N.D.P. i s probably not so much because o f i t s popular programme, because t h i s i t f a i l e d t o implement, and i n the I928 e l e c t i o n s t h i s programme was almost l a i d aside, but rather because o f the l a c k o f organized o p p o s i t i o n , and most o f a l l because o f the outstanding career o f i t s leader a f t e r 1926, Herbert Macaulay. Herbert Macaulay was already w e l l known by the time o f the f i r s t e l e c t ion because o f h i s involvement i n the Eleko question and the Apapa Land case. The Eleko question a c t u a l l y began i n l86l when the B r i t i s h captured Lagos and i t was not s e t t l e d u n t i l the P r i v y C o u n c i l d e c i s i o n o f I 9 3 I ' I t i s one o f the anomalies o f N i g e r i a n h i s t o r y that the B r i t i s h who r e l i e d upon n a t i v e instruments t o maintain t h e i r r u l e i n the protectorate o f N i g e r i a and were so f i e r c e l y attacked because o f t h i s . b y the educated o f Lagos, should so stubbornly refuse t o have anything t o do w i t h native a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Lagos and that the educated should here reverse themselves and a l l y w i t h the c h i e f s t o embarrass the government.  I n the protectorate the B r i t i s h nurtured  the most h i g h l y developed native governments i n A f r i c a , while i n Lagos they ignored them. The t r e a t y w i t h Lagos i n l86l stated that Docemo, the king o f Lagos, be permitted the use o f the t i t l e king i n i t s usual A f r i c a n s i g n i f i c a n c e and would be allowed t o decide disputes between natives o f Lagos, w i t h t h e i r  k6  82  consent, subject t o appeal t o B r i t i s h laws.  I n I90k a Native C e n t r a l Coun-  c i l , composed of the White Cap Chiefs and the Eleko (king) met t o discuss n a t i v e a f f a i r s w i t h the government. A f t e r 1912 I n 1915  regularly.  t h i s c o u n c i l met o n l y i r -  the government imposed s e m i - p o l i t i c a l o b l i g a t i o n s on the  Eleko by r e q u i r i n g him t o give h i s support t o the government i n the waterrate agitation.  The Eleko a l s o had the power to appoint c h i e f s and headmen  on government approval. I n 1919  the Eleko appointed c e r t a i n moslem headmen without n o t i f y i n g  the Acting-Governor.  Upon the advice of t h i r t e e n prominent A f r i c a n s , the  Governor suspended the Eleko f o r h i s a c t i o n .  A general meeting o f Lagosians  protested t h i s a c t i o n and informed the Governor t h a t he had been improperly advised by the t h i r t e e n A f r i c a n s .  The Governor r e - i n s t a t e d the Eleko on  c o n d i t i o n that the moslem appointments be c a n c e l l e d .  The government then  issued a statement t h a t the t r e a t y of l 8 6 l granted Docemo the t i t l e of k i n g and c e r t a i n j u d i c i a l powers, but only personal t o Docemo and not t o h i s sue83  cessors.  This meant t h a t the present Eleko had no power, no d u t i e s , no  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and v e r y l i t t l e p r e s t i g e . I n 1920 Herbert Macaulay and the White Cap C h i e f , Oluwa, went t o B r i t a i n to appeal to the P r i v y C o u n c i l against the remuneration o f f e r e d by the Lagos government f o r land i n Apapa.  Herbert Macaulay, unknown t o the Niger-  i a n government had i n h i s possession the Eleko's s t a f f o f o f f i c e , which under A f r i c a n law made him the o f f i c i a l spokesman f o r the Eleko. 82  Burns, N i g e r i a , p . 3 0 5 .  83  N i g e r i a , Gazette E x t r a o r d i n a r y , 8 December, 1920,  p.22.  47  While i n B r i t a i n Macaulay spoke i n favour of a more k i n g l y p o s i t i o n f o r the Eleko and r e f e r r e d to .Eshugbayi (the Eleko) as "King of Lagos, acc-  84  laimed as such by the seventeen m i l l i o n people of N i g e r i a .  The Governor  e i t h e r purposely or mistakenly i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s i n the N i g e r i a n C o u n c i l as "the Eleko was acclaimed by a l l N i g e r i a and by s i x t e e n m i l l i o n A f r i c a n s as 8  5  t h e i r king."  The Governor p e r s i s t e d i n t h i s m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a f t e r i t had  been pointed out to him.  He asked the Eleko t o repudiate Macaulay p u b l i c l y  and telegraph f o r the r e t u r n of h i s s t a f f of o f f i c e . t o do.  This Eshugbayi refused  This episode suddenly made Macaulay famous and he became even more  so when the P r i v y C o u n c i l r u l e d i n h i s favour i n the Apapa Land case. Upon the Eleko's r e f u s a l t o repudiate Herbert Macaulay as h i s spokesman  i n London, the government ceased to recognize Eshugbayi and deported  him  86  t o the i n t e r i o r .  The press pointed out that t h i s ceasing to recognize the  Eleko was shallow, as the government had c o n s i s t e n t l y ignored him anyway. A f t e r a mass meeting a p e t i t i o n was c i r c u l a t e d signed by seventeen thousand Nigerians requesting that Eshugbayi be r e - i n s t a t e d .  The Governor  87  r e f e r r e d t o i t as "an u t t e r l y worthless document," and refused t o consider re-instatement. I t was i n t h i s atmosphere that the f i r s t e l e c t i o n s were held i n Lagos w i t h the N.N.D.P. (Herbert Macaulay an executive member) supporting the de84 p.663.  D a i l y M a i l , London, 8 J u l y , 1920,  quoted i n B u e l l , Native Problem I  85 N i g e r i a , Address by the Governor, S i r Hugh C l i f f o r d , N i g e r i a n Counc i l Debates, 29 December, 1920, p.48. 86  N i g e r i a , Gazette, 8 December, 1920,  p.21.  87 N i g e r i a , L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l Debates, 1923, Native Problem I , p.664.  p.32,  quoted i n B u e l l ,  k8  ported Eleko.  The l a r g e s t percentage of the Lagos e l e c t o r a t e ever to ex-  e r c i s e the franchise turned out t o sweep the N.N.D.P. i n t o o f f i c e . The government decided that the p o s i t i o n of Eleko i n Lagos could not be ignored by l e a v i n g i t vacant.  The a u t h o r i t i e s persuaded the Docemo  f a m i l y t o concur i n the deposition of Eshugbayi and e l e c t a new man p o s i t i o n of Eleko.  T h i s , the Docemo f a m i l y d i d .  to the  The a c t i o n received prompt  government sanction and the new encumbent was given an annual pension of three hundred pounds. Part of the House of Docemo refused to recognize the new Eleko. m a j o r i t y of Lagos appeared to support t h i s stand.  Only one White Cap  The Chief  of the t o t a l f o r t y - n i n e attended the ceremonial leave-taking of S i r Hugh C l i f f o r d i n 1925 and the new Eleko was hissed and booed when he went t o meet the succeeding Governor, S i r Graeme Thomson. The N.N.D.P. now asked the Supreme Court to set aside the order but t h i s they refused to do.  The Lagos Weekly Record accused the  judges of being dominated by the executive. j a i l e d f o r two months.  deportation  For t h i s , e d i t o r Jackson was  The N.N.D.P. then c a r r i e d the case to the P r i v y Coun-  c i l which decided i n favour of the Eleko, and c l e a r l y supported the charge 88  t h a t the Supreme Court judges had been dominated by the Executive C o u n c i l . S i r Donald Cameron, the new Governor, allowed the Eleko t o r e t u r n to Lagos with a pension of two hundred and f o r t y pounds, but c l e a r l y stated that the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n would be d i r e c t .  While preparations were going f o r -  ward to receive the Eleko from Oyo The Lagos D a i l y News published a report t h a t plans were afoot to assassinate Eshugbayi.  Macaulay was  j a i l e d and  C a u l e r i c k f i n e d (co-editors of The News) f o r p u b l i s h i n g news l i a b l e to i n c i t e 88 N i g e r i a , Law J o u r n a l ,  1928.  49 89  riots.  This l i t t l e episode was known as the Gunpowder P l o t .  The long drawn out dispute from 1919  to 1931  over The Eleko Question,  Apapa Lands Case, Gunpowder P l o t and Moslem troubles kept Herbert Macaulay's name c o n s t a n t l y before the p u b l i c as the man of the masses, f i g h t i n g agains t the government.  His success i n the Eleko question and the Apapa Lands 90  case r a i s e d h i s p r e s t i g e  and i n the moslem troubles he gained the support  of the m a j o r i t y p a r t y w h i l e the government was l e f t supporting the m i n o r i t y 91  and even h i s term i n j a i l contributed a b i t of martyrdom to h i s p o s i t i o n . He became the Wizard of K i r s t e n H a l l , the Doyen of N i g e r i a n p o l i t i c s , and l a t e r the Father of N i g e r i a n Nationalism i n the minds of the people.  He  became a great force i n the country and could claim a respectable f o l l o w i n g among the educated elements of Lagos and the masses of the people i n South92  era Nigeria.  Today h i s p o r t r a i t i s the symbol of nationalism i n many Niger-  93  i a n homes.  As the guiding l i g h t of the N i g e r i a n N a t i o n a l Democratic P a r t y  (N.N.D.P.) the p a r t y shared the fame and success of Herbert Macaulay. Herbert Macaulay's p a t e r n a l grandfather had been born i n Oyo, and l a t e r freed i n S i e r r a Leone.  His maternal grandfather was Samuel Crow-  t h e r , a l s o enslaved and freed i n S i e r r a Leone, who Black Bishop of West A f r i c a .  enslaved  l a t e r became the f i r s t  His f a t h e r , Reverend T.B. Macaulay, had been  the founder and p r i n c i p a l of the Lagos Church Missionary S o c i e t y (C.M.S.) 89  Lagos D a i l y News, 8 August, 1928,  V o l . I l l , No.164,  p.3.  90 Ten thousand turned out at Lagos docks to see Macaulay and the White Cap Chief Oluwa on t h e i r r e t u r n from B r i t a i n a f t e r the Apapa Lands case. 91 Akand Tugbiyele, The Emergence of Nationalism and Federalism, Techno L i t e r a r y Works, Lagos, 1954,' p.15» 92 A f r i c a n Messenger, Lagos, 22 September, 1921, 93  Lagos D a i l y News, 5 March, 1929,  V o l . 1 , No.29,  Vol.TV, No.54, p . I .  p.4.  50  Grammar School i n Lagos. Herbert Macaulay was born i n Lagos i n 1864, educated a t the P a r i s h School o f S t . Paul's B r e a d f r u i t , the C.M.S. F a j i day school and grammar school. Division.  I n l 8 8 l he obtained a "European post" i n the C i v i l S e r v i c e Lands From 1890 t o I893 he spent i n Great B r i t a i n i n the Plymouth  Engineering Department on N i g e r i a n government s c h o l a r s h i p . He was a man of wide i n t e r e s t s .  He was an a s s o c i a t e member o f the  I n s t i t u t e o f C i v i l Engineers, a f e l l o w o f the Royal Geographical S o c i e t y , a member o f the London A r c h i t e c t u r a l A s s o c i a t i o n , a member o f the S o c i e t y of A r t s , and a f e l l o w o f the Royal C o l o n i a l I n s t i t u t e .  From I893-I898 he  worked as a surveyor o f crown lands f o r Lagos colony and i n 1898 he went i n t o p r i v a t e business. Macaulay was a c o n t r o v e r s i a l f i g u r e , and h i s enemies hated him as much as h i s f r i e n d s loved him.  He was accused by government agents o f being a  94  t r o u b l e maker,  and by N i g e r i a n conservatives o f "swindling poor market 95  women o f t h e i r pennies" t o finance h i s p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . Messenger an independent organ refused correspondence  The A f r i c a n  from Macaulay on the  grounds that he was using the paper f o r personal grudges.  I n the p o l i t i c a l  arena h i s past was raked up, on more than one occasion; he had been f i n e d f o r p e r j u r y and imprisoned f o r unlawful conversion and a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f 96  money. Macaulay however, was a man o f broad v i s i o n , the Last o f the B l a c k  9k Thomas, Isaac B., L i f e H i s t o r y o f Herbert Macaulay C.E. Lagos, Akede Eko, T h i r d e d i t i o n , 1947, ? p.93. 95  Lagos D a i l y News, 13 September, 1 9 2 8 , V o l . I l l , N0.I95, R.I.  96 N i g e r i a , Gazette, I I June, 1913, p . 7 I 0 - I I a l s o Gazette, 17 September, 1 9 1 3 , PP. 1422-23.  51 V i c t o r i a n s , a man who struggled f o r the u p l i f t i n g and r e c o g n i t i o n o f h i s race, devoted to the i m p e r i a l f e d e r a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s of the nineteenth cent u r y but caught i n a century where Commonwealth nationalism seemed the o n l y way t o achieve what he p a s s i o n a t e l y desired f o r h i s people. He i s one of the few Nigerians t o r i s e above h i s t r i b e and achieve the true N i g e r i a n feeling.  Macaulay was content to remain the mind behind the p a r t y , "the  97 whispering member." He was content to s i t behind doors and d i r e c t p o l i c y . A f t e r 1931  he dropped from view, and Dr. A z i k i w e , who may be c a l l e d  h i s d i s c i p l e , s a i d he was shocked a t the people's neglect of Macaulay on  98 his eightieth birthday.  Dr. Azikiwe revived Macaulay*s r e p u t a t i o n i n the  nineteen f o r t i e s by persuading him t o j o i n i n the N a t i o n a l Movement. Macaulay proved h i s o l d magic.  Throngs o f Nigerians of a l l t r i b e s , p a i d Mac-  aulay high t r i b u t e : "E k i Macaulay 0, Oyinbo - Alawo, dudu," (We salute Macaulay, the Black whiteman).  Before h i s death, Macaulay p u b l i c l y drop-  ped h i s mantle on Azikiwe's shoulders.  He r e f e r r e d t o Azikiwe as "my son  99 Z i k " and t o l d him t o keep "the f l a g ( o f Nationalism) f l y i n g . " The apparent l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n the franchise i n Lagos was used as an argument against i t s extention.  Of the three thousand e l i g i b l e voters i n  I923, t h i r t e e n hundred cast b a l l o t s f o r the winning candidates. dropped to f i v e hundred i n 1938.  This had  Government o f f i c i a l s were prone t o say  t h a t the franchise was "of f o r e i g n manufacture and i n t e r e s t i n i t soon waned." 97  The Governor complained that the franchise was not used advantagFrank Gray, My Two A f r i c a n Journeys, London, Methuen, 1928, p.l6.  98 Nnamdi Azikiwe, " P o l i t i c a l Reminiscences (3)" appearing i n Southern N i g e r i a Defender, Ibadan, l6 J u l y , 1948, Vol.V, No.12,129, p.2. 99  Thomas, Macaulay,  p.63.  52  100  eously  101  and t h a t a f a l s e leadership had developed over the Eleko question.  This reference t o a f a l s e leadership was i n regard t o Macaulay's l e a d e r s h i p i n the Eleko question.  C e r t a i n l y the f a c t that Macaulay r e t i r e d from a c t -  i v e p o l i t i c s a f t e r 1931 helped t o e x p l a i n why the f i r e and v i t a l i t y had been removed from Lagos p o l i t i c s .  No one e l s e , appeared able t o catch the  people's imagination and i n s p i r e them as Macaulay had been able t o do. However, supporters p o i n t out that the personal r e g i s t r a t i o n system might have had something t o do w i t h i t .  I n French Senegal i n 1920, three  years before the three thousand Lagosians were enfranchised, s i x t e e n thousand b l a c k Frenchmen had the vote and nine thousand used i t .  I n the Sen-  e g a l , r e g i s t r a t i o n was automatic. A f t e r the f i r s t e l e c t i o n i n Lagos and Calabar the Govermor, S i r Hugh C l i f f o r d , claimed t h a t the more extreme and l e s s trustworthy had been e l e c t 102  ed t o o f f i c e  and that p e r s o n a l l y he was "not enamoured o f the people's  103  choice."  Nevertheless the e l e c t e d members were extremely sedulous i n t h e i r  10k l e g i s l a t i v e d u t i e s , but these duties and t h e i r r e s u l t s were not o f a spect a c u l a r nature and u n l i k e l y t o a t t r a c t people t o the p o l l s .  The e l e c t e d  members were unable t o implement even one o b j e c t i v e o f the programmes they drew up before the e l e c t i o n s .  This tended t o make the people f e e l t h a t  nothing could be gained by the f r a n c h i s e and t h a t t h e i r e l e c t e d represent100 N i g e r i a , "Address o f the Governor," L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l Debates, 16 March, 1942, p.58. 101  B u e l l , Native Problem I , p . 7 4 l .  102  I b i d . , p.742.  103 Herbert Macaulay, "Swing of the N i g e r i a n Pendulum," i n Lagos Weekl y Record, 2 May, I 9 2 5 , Vol.XXXV, No.10, p . 1 3 . 104  B u e l l , Native Problem I , p.742.  53  105  a t i v e s were merely "figure-heads, v a i n g l o r i o u s show-men or stooges."  The  government took a p a t r o n i z i n g a t t i t u d e towards the e l e c t e d members.  On  one occasion when they were asking innumerable questions on the budget, the f i n a n c i a l secretary r e t o r t e d that he and h i s colleagues had been i n the 106  business f o r a long time and that "you r e a l l y must t r u s t us." The overwhelming o f f i c i a l vote was the elected members' worst enemy. The government a t t i t u d e on compelling an o f f i c i a l vote was that when the 107  government had decided on a p o l i c y i t should present a.united f r o n t ;  the  108  f u n c t i o n of a government was  to govern,  o f f i c i a l s must support i t .  Between the years I926-I93I, under the Govern-  109  and i f i t was a government b i l l  o r s h i p of S i r Graeme Thomson, four f r e e votes were allowed out of twenty five divisions.  S i r Hugh C l i f f o r d and S i r Donald Cameron s a i d that under  the pressure of a s o l i d u n o f f i c i a l opposition a b i l l would be withdrawn and reconsidered.  Only twice however, between 1924  and 1943,  was the gov-  ernment induced to change i t s p o l i c y by a s o l i d u n o f f i c i a l vote, the Income Tax Ordinance of 1932  and 1942.  Other reasons might be suggested f o r t h i s  withdrawal i n view of the f a c t that the government had more than once faced r i o t s over d i r e c t t a x a t i o n measures. An a n a l y s i s of the v o t i n g of the period 1924-1943 reveals that the government was keeping a heavy hand on i t s o f f i c i a l members. the r e s o l u t i o n s came t o a formal d i v i s i o n .  1942,  One t h i r d of  There were f i f t y - f i v e  divisions,  105  E l i a s , Occasional Paper Mo.I,  N i g e r i a S o c i e t y , Oct., 1954,  106  N i g e r i a , Chief Secretary, Council Debates, 19 Feb., 1926,  107  N i g e r i a , S e s s i o n a l Paper, N o . l 4 , 1933,  108  N i g e r i a , Chief Secretary, C o u n c i l Debates, 5 February, 1927,  p.9. p.II9.  P-35* p.I08.  109 N i g e r i a , S i r A l a n Burns, A c t i n g Governor, C o u n c i l Debates, 24 March p.174.  5h  i n f o r t y of which the m a j o r i t y of the u n o f f i c i a l N i g e r i a n vote was by government bloc v o t i n g . were unanimous.  I n fourteen of these, u n o f f i c i a l N i g e r i a n votes  I n ten of these fourteen, the commercial u n o f f i c i a l s ( W h i t e )  were unanimous w i t h the N i g e r i a n s . were withdrawn.  defeated  Only two of these, as mentioned above,  Twenty-one of the f i f t y - f i v e r e s o l u t i o n s were moved by  u n o f f i c i a l N i g e r i a n members, twenty of which met defeat by government vote, i n eighteen of which the government voted  solidly.  I n view of the above -record i t i s l i t t l e wonder that the e l e c t e d members were unable toitnuster support from the e l e c t o r a t e and that often they no  f e l t , "drowned i n o f f i c i a l noes." We have heard from the d a i l y press that the eyes of N i g e r i a are on the U n o f f i c i a l Members but we have j u s t had an instance of how p e r f e c t l y hopeless U n o f f i c i a l Members a r e , when i t i s a question of our coming up against the o f f i c i a l v o t e . m One w r i t e r has summed up t h i s L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l most adequately, About t h i s Council there was a c e r t a i n unchanging s t a b i l i t y , which some might c a l l s t o l i d i t y , and a moderation s t r a n g e l y out of tune w i t h the impression of N i g e r i a n p o l i t i c s , which, 112 a t l e a s t i n recent years, has been reaching the outside world. The N i g e r i a n press began t o a t t a c k more f r e q u e n t l y the moderation of the e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  P o l i t i c a l l y conscious people began t o look  around f o r other means t o achieve t h e i r ends.  The Lagos D a i l y News ran f o r  s e v e r a l weeks, a one-third page n o t i c e headed i n large dark p r i n t , "We want a Commission of I n q u i r y . "  L i s t e d beneath were nine points recommended f o r  the Commission t o i n v e s t i g a t e . Of these, the P r o v i n c i a l Courts Ordinance, N i g e r i a n C r i m i n a l Code and union of the j u d i c i a r y and executive, held prora-  110  Lagos D a i l y News, l 6 October, 1928,  111  N i g e r i a , C o u n c i l Debates, 2 February, 1931,  112  Wheare, N i g e r i a n L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , p . 1 6 7 .  V o l . I l l , No.219, p . I . p.89.  55  inent places.  A l s o included were such issues as the Gunpowder P l o t and the 113  expulsion of Herbert Macaulay from Oyo designed t o c l e a r Macaulay*s name. The Governor's r e p l y t o t h i s demand was  discouraging.  I , as i t s president, s h a l l strenuously r e s i s t any attempt that may be made to encroach upon i t s ( L e g i s l a t i v e Council) functions i n the manner which the appointment of such a commission would involve. Reasons other than the government bloc vote held back the L e g i s l a t i v e Council.  The question, whether progress was to be on B r i t i s h parliamentary  or N i g e r i a n i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i n e s was not yet solved.  The m a j o r i t y of ques-  t i o n s i n the C o u n c i l were concerned w i t h the Native a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and dis'cussion on these questions showed the dilemma both B r i t i s h and Nigerians faced.  Some Nigerians favoured the system, and some f e l t that i t had been  invented f o r backward people but was not intended t o perpetuate t h e i r back115  wardness.  Even Henry Carr. long considered the white man's f r i e n d was 116  out-  spoken on a r t i f i c i a l l y b o l s t e r i n g up the p o s i t i o n of the c h i e f s .  113 Herbert Macaulay, while surveying land i n the Ibadan d i s t r i c t , had been expelled from Oyo province because as the government s a i d , he was a t tempting to s t i r up t r o u b l e . The N.N.D.P. wanted the government t o prove or withdraw t h i s charge. 114 N i g e r i a , "Address by the Governor S i r Hugh C l i f f o r d , " Council Debates, I I February, 1924, p.4. 0  115 Henry Carr was one of the f i n e s t examples of the V i c t o r i a n A f r i c a n who f e l t that the hope of A f r i c a l a y i n t o t a l acceptance of w e s t e r n i z a t i o n . Mr. Carr's p o l i c y became more d i f f i c u l t t o implement as whitemen i n the twentieth century began to relegate blacks t o an i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n . He died during the nineteen f o r t i e s when the blacks were beginning to r e c i p r o c a t e by an a t t i t u d e of h o s t i l i t y towards the whites. His---position at h i s death had become almost i n t o l e r a b l e . He died rejected(almost as a q u i s l i n g ) by h i s own people. During h i s l i f e t i m e he rose higher i n the N i g e r i a n C i v i l Service than had any-'Nigerian p r i o r , to 194-5. He served as a s s i s t a n t and d i r e c t o r of education i n the e a r l y years of t h i s century. Between 1918 and 1924 he f i l l e d the high European post of f i r s t c l a s s r e s i d e n t of Lagos Colony and between 1934 and I94l he sat as nominated member i n the Governor's counc i l representing the r u r a l areas of Lagos Colony. His papers provide a f r u i t f u l source of information on the B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . P o s s i b l y f u t ure generations of Nigerians may give him c r e d i t f o r the able manner i n which he attempted t o i n f l u e n c e B r i t i s h p o l i c y towards the betterment of h i s own people. 116 N i g e r i a , C o u n c i l Debates, 8 March, 1939, p.I73«  56  Then there were the d i f f e r e n c e s of background o f the various N i g e r i a n u n o f f i c i a l members. The nominated members came from a p o l i t i c a l climate d i f f e r e n t than Lagos and the nominated members representing the Native A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Councils came from the upper not the lower c l a s s and r e f l e c t 117  ed t h e i r views.  What leadership there was came from the European u n o f f i c i a l  members. The European u n o f f i c i a l members representing the commercial i n t e r e s t s d i d not take a vigorous p a r t , not being anxious t o mix i n p o l i t i c s . d i d not appear t o push b i g business i n t e r e s t s . of these vested i n t e r e s t s prevented  They  But s u s p i c i o n by Nigerians  united a c t i o n . Nigerians i n the C o u n c i l  accused the government o f being so i n t e r e s t e d i n b i g combines that they had 118  f o r g o t t e n the N i g e r i a n t r a d e r s .  Henry Carr claimed t h a t the b i g companies 119  would soon be g u i l t y of the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f n a t i v e labour. N i g e r i a n minds remembered t h a t the merchants had been the empire b u i l d e r s , and formidable 120  f a c t o r s i n government p o l i c y . This was not so i n Senegal where the French white commercial members and b l a c k u n o f f i c i a l s u s u a l l y united against the government which was supported by the c h i e f s .  The a g i t a t i o n i n the years 1922-25 sponsored by white  and black u n o f f i c i a l s forced the government t o decrease the strength of the c h i e f s and increase t h a t of the u n o f f i c i a l s . I n N i g e r i a there was c e r t a i n a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the commercial members as 121  not representing i n t e r e s t s but as a d v i s o r s , 117  and when the Nigerians were  N i g e r i a , J i b r i l M a r t i n , C o u n c i l Debates, 22 March, 1945, p.527.  118 N i g e r i a , H.S.A.Thomas, C o u n c i l Debates, 6 March, p.129, a l s o see the E l e c t i o n Manifesto of.T.A.Doherty, Lagos D a i l y News, 20 September, 1928, V o l . I l l , No.201, p . 3 . 119  N i g e r i a , C o u n c i l Debates, 7 March, 1940, p . 1 9 1 .  120  N i g e r i a n D a i l y Telegraph, Lagos, 6 June, I93I> Vol.IV, No.153, p.4.  121  N i g e r i a , E . I k o l i , C o u n c i l Debates, 22 March, 1945, P«505»  57  drawing up t h e i r own c o n s t i t u t i o n i n 1950  i t was pointed out that as the  122  commercial firms were the l a r g e s t taxpayers, they should be  represented.  O c c a s i o n a l l y commercial members came out strong f o r N i g e r i a n i n t e r e s t s such as a t the time of the Imperial preferences set up by the Ottawa Conference. We are going to ask the native of N i g e r i a t o continue h i s standard of l i v i n g on the scale which we have encouraged and buy goods from Lancashire, without i n s i s t i n g that Lancashire s h a l l take N i g e r i a n products at a p r i c e which w i l l enable the N i g e r i a n to pay f o r such g o o d s . 3 I2  The purpose of the C o u n c i l was not t o set p o l i c y but t o a i r grievances, and to c r i t i c i z e .  This the Nigerians d i d extremely w e l l , but t h i s alone  was not s u f f i c i e n t to keep a l i v e a dynamic p o l i t i c a l p a r t y .  Once the c r i s -  es of the Eleko question and a l l i t s attendant issues calmed, the N.N.D.P. tended t o stagnate i n the hands of a small o l i g a r c h y . The Enlarged Sphere 1938-1945 The place of student and student organizations i n i l l i t e r a t e areas i s very prominent, and the u n i v e r s i t y students overseas have an i n f l u e n c e out of a l l p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e i r numbers.  The p o s i t i o n of the overseas  student  was r e l a t e d to the n a t i o n i n much the same f a s h i o n as the sons abroad were r e l a t e d t o the bush v i l l a g e .  Both provided that outside contact and stim-  ulus f o r change, both held the respect of the people at home. The West A f r i c a n Students Union (W.A.S.U.) formed i n London i n 1925 was modelled along the same l i n e s as the Indian Student Union.  This organ-  i z a t i o n kept i n close touch w i t h problems of West A f r i c a , watched c o l o n i a l p o l i c y c a r e f u l l y , approached B r i t i s h leaders i n regard t o p o l i c y , provided  122 N i g e r i a , Proceedings of the General Conference on Review of the C o n s t i t u t i o n , January I95°> London, Government P r i n t e r , 1950, p.130 and P.195123  N i g e r i a , C o u n c i l Debates, 12 June, 1934,  p.66.  58  t r a i n i n g and experience f o r young A f r i c a n s , many of whom l a t e r entered p o l i t i c s i n West A f r i c a , and probably most important e# a i i , provided a place where A f r i c a n p o l i t i c i a n s could speak i n London and place t h e i r problems and p o l i c i e s before the people of England. Frequently W.A.S.U. had i t s own p o l i c i e s and pressed them i n London. They urged B r i t i s h p o l i t i c i a n s t o extend the A t l a n t i c Charter t o West A f r i c a and i n 1942 issued a statement c a l l i n g f o r immediate i n t e r n a l self-government and complete self-government i n f i v e years f o r the West A f r i c a n c o l 124  onies. During and immediately a f t e r the war most West A f r i c a n students i n the 125  United Kingdom and United States were engaged i n n a t i o n a l i s t a c t i v i t y ,  and  there i s no doubt about t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s to nationalism i n t h e i r respecti v e c o u n t r i e s . When A f r i c a n leaders, many of whom had been members of  W.A.  S.U. a t some time, were emerging on the spot i n West A f r i c a , the overseas students c r i t i c i s e d them f o r t h e i r p o l i c y .  L o c a l leaders could brand them  as i d e a l i s t s f a r from the l o c a l circumstances.  T h i s , coupled w i t h the f a c t  that more and more p o l i c y was being decided i n Lagos, Accra and Freetown r a t h e r than London, a l s o helped to l e s s e n W.A.S.U. i n f l u e n c e a f t e r  1954.  Hov/ever, as leaders of p u b l i c opinion the overseas students are s t i l l powerf u l and most N i g e r i a n and Ghanaian leaders t r y to win t h e i r support f o r their policies. 124  Tugbiyele, Emergence, p.21.  125 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note i n t h i s regard that the Graduates General Conference i n the Sudan a c t u a l l y turned i t s e l f i n t o a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . For t h i s reason, u n t i l I95& the Belgians made a p o l i c y not t o send Congolese overseas f o r education. Not one Congolese had entered a B e l g i a n u n i v e r s i t y u n t i l I95&. ^  pmocRACf  v e r s u s *  COMMUNIS^, vltst  Mr*** ?,U n 5~u!y> ml }  59  Returning t o the N i g e r i a n scene, we have seen that the N.N.D.P. a f t e r 1933 seemed t o lose i t s dynamism. F i r s t , i t had become i n s u l a r g i v i n g the 126  impression that i t e x i s t e d f o r e l e c t i o n purposes only.  Between e l e c t i o n s 127  i t became more an e x c l u s i v e club f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l people. had never branched out from Lagos.  Second, i t  "Lagos was N i g e r i a f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l  128  purposes."  I t was however, d i f f i c u l t t o extend i n t o the i n t e r i o r as the  N.N.D.P. i n Lagos was f i r m l y a l l i e d with the c h i e f s , and t h i s was impossible i n the i n t e r i o r where the B r i t i s h had the f i r m support o f the c h i e f s because they guaranteed t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . I t was a l s o h i g h l y u n l i k e l y that as an a n t i - c h i e f p a r t y they would have received much support, f o r although the B r i t i s h are now blamed f o r b o l s t e r i n g up the c h i e f s ' p o s i t i o n , there i s no N i g e r i a n p o l i t i c i a n today who w i l l come openly i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h the c h i e f s . 129  T h i r d , the leaders of the party had l o s t t h e i r reforming z e a l respectable conservatives.  and had become  Men who were rebels i n the nineteen twenties had 130  become government f r i e n d s i n the nineteen t h i r t i e s . 131  Later w r i t e r s have accused the N.N.D.P. o f t r i b a l i s m ,  o f being a Yoruba  p a r t y , but t h i s i s hardly f a i r , as Lagos i n the nineteen twenties was d i s t i n c t l y a Yoruba town, and a l l p a r t i e s were dominated i n leadership and mem126 Nnamdi Azikiwe, "Contemporary N i g e r i a n P o l i t i c s ( 2 ) , " The West A f r i c a n P i l o t , Lagos, 2 December, 1 9 ^ 7 , No'.3021, p . 3 . . . 127 Thomas Hodgkin, Nationalism i n C o l o n i a l A f r i c a , London, F r e d e r i c k M u l l e r , 1 9 5 6 , p.IJK). 128  Azikiwe, op.cit., p.3.  129 During the E t h i o p i a n c r i s e s Macaulay, Adeniyi-Jones the leader o f the N.N.D.P. were prominent by t h e i r absence.  and Doherty,  130 I n 1920 the Governor refused t o attend any f u n c t i o n a t which a member o f the Macaulay f a m i l y would be present. I n 1935 the Governor was himself e n t e r t a i n i n g Herbert Macaulay. 131  Tugbiyele, Emergence, p . 2 1 .  6o bership by Yorubas.  The great i n f l u x of Ibos and other t r i b e s t o Lagos had  s c a r c e l y begun. In the e a r l y nineteen t h i r t i e s other o r g a n i z a t i o n s , p o l i t i c a l and  non-  p o l i t i c a l were e s t a b l i s h e d . The N i g e r i a n Youth League was founded i n 1932 by Professor Eyo I t a who had j u s t returned from the United S t a t e s .  The  Youth League e s t a b l i s h e d the Calabar N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e , l a t e r the West A f r i c a n Peoples' I n s t i t u t e , t o prepare A f r i c a n youths t o be employable and self-supporting.  The Youth League was charged w i t h E f i k parochialism and  found l i t t l e support among the Yorubas of Lagos. In 1934 a group of N i g e r i a n c i v i l servants met t o draw up a memorandum to present to the government expressing disapproval of the Yaba Higher C o l lege Scheme.  The i n t e n t i o n of the College proposals was that the government  would set up a c o l l e g e of post-high school c a l i b r e but not of u n i v e r s i t y standards which would issue diplomas tenable only i n N i g e r i a . The group of c i v i l servants f e l t that t h i s was s e t t i n g up standards f o r A f r i c a n s d i f f e r e n t from those f o r Europeans, and that i f higher t r a i n i n g was to be o f f e r e d i t should be on the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . 132  The N.N.D.P. with the exception of E r i c Moore  favoured the Yaba Scheme,  and so the new group came i n t o o p p o s i t i o n t o the N.N.D.P. and soon converted i t s e l f i n t o a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , the Lagos Youth Movement, and published i t s platform - the Youth Charter.  The N.N.D.P. although i t placed obstacles i n  the way of the Youth Movement d i d not take i t s e r i o u s l y as a p o l i t i c a l opponent.  The smugness of the N.N.D.P. and i t s p r a c t i c a l c e r t a i n t y of the  132 E r i c O.Moore was a S i e r r a Leonian b a r r i s t e r . He sat as a nominated member of the Governor's c o u n c i l I 9 1 7 - I 9 2 3 , and between I923-I938 he was e l e c t e d to the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l . He was one of the o l d guard of the N.N.D.P.but not one of i t s foundation members. A f t e r the N.Y.M. threw the N.N.D.P. from power Mr. Moore became a nominated member of the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , I9i+2-I9lA.  6i  e l e c t e d seats i n the c o u n c i l and m u n i c i p a l i t y was evident i n i t s comment on the formation o f the Lagos Youth Movement.  "The N.N.D.P. was watching w i t h 133  humorous smile, the y o u t h f u l p o l i t i c a l impetuousity" o f the new o r g a n i z a t i o n .  134  The p o l i t i c a l aims of the Youth Movement were embodied i n t h e i r Charter. Complete autonomy w i t h i n the B r i t i s h Empire and economic opportunity f o r Nigerians equal t o those enjoyed by f o r e i g n e r s .  These aims d i f f e r e d l i t t l e  from those expressed e a r l i e r by the N.N.D.P. w i t h one notable exception. Some of the problems o f u n i t y were becoming more apparent i n 1932 than they had been i n 1922, and the Charter stressed the Movement's aim t o create a sense of common n a t i o n a l i t y , the development o f a united n a t i o n out o f the conglome r a t i o n o f people who i n h a b i t N i g e r i a and a pledge t o combat a l l tendencies t h a t would jeopardise t h i s u n i f y i n g process. Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe has c a l l e d the formation o f the movement a " r e v o l t o f 135  the y o u t h f u l i n mind against conservatism."  The p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n the new  movement from t h e i r f a m i l y backgrounds and previous a f f i l i a t i o n s appeared t o represent an even more conservative element than the N.N.D.P.: J.C. Vaughan, f i r s t president; S. Akinsanya, f i r s t secretary; Dr. K. Abayomi, f i r s t v i c e president; J i b r i l Martins, vice-president o f the Ahraadiyya S o c i e t y ; S.B. Rhodes, nominated member f o r Rivers D i v i s i o n 1939-4-3; Ernest I k o l i and Dr. Maja, both l a t e r presidents; C A l a k i j a , H.S.A. Thomas and D. Mohamed A l i . These men appeared t o be i n r e v o l t more against the stagnation o f the N.N.D.P. 133  Lagos D a i l y News, 1 May,  1934, Vol.IX, N 0 . I O 6 , p.T.  134 Nnamdi Azikiwe, "Contemporary N i g e r i a n P o l i t i c s ( 4 ) , " (hereafter r e f e r r e d t o as C,N,P.) West A f r i c a n P i l o t , Lagos, 4 December, 1947, V o l . X I , No.3023, p.2. 135 Nnamdi A z i k i w e , " P o l i t i c a l Reminiscences (.10)" (hereafter r e f e r r e d t o as P.R.), Southern N i g e r i a n Defender, Ibadan, 26 J u l y , 1948, Vol.V, No. I2I37, P^2.  62  than against i t s conservation. Only one year a f t e r i t s formation the Lagos Youth Movement took a new and s i g n i f i c a n t step.  To protect the n a t i o n a l railways from i n c r e a s i n g l o r -  r y transport competition the government decided t o r a i s e transport l i c e n s e s f o r a l l trucks using roads competitive t o the r a i l w a y s .  The Youth Movement  c a l l e d a meeting o f transport owners t o discuss the intended b i l l . Representa t i v e s of Nigerians and Syrians attended from I l e s h a , Ijebu-ode, Abeokuta as w e l l as Lagos.  The meeting passed a unanimous r e s o l u t i o n t o be sent t o the  government against the intended r e s t r i c t i o n o f the motor transport i n d u s t r y . This a c t i o n o f the Lagos Youth Movement was important f o r three  reasons;  F i r s t , i t got away from the charge that a l l p a r t i e s had t o face, that i t s p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s were motivated by the personal ambitions o f i t s members - not a s i n g l e member o f the Movement was a l o r r y owner.  Second, i t proved  how a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y could b e n e f i t the people i n a p r a c t i c a l manner. T h i r d , i t was the beginning o f the g e t t i n g away from the p a r i s h pump o f Lagos p o l i 136  t i c s and the tapping o f the i n t e r i o r c i t i e s .  I n the f o l l o w i n g year the Move-  ment s i g n i f i e d i t s new i n t e n t i o n s by changing i t s name t o N i g e r i a n Youth 137  Movement (N.Y.M.) and by s e t t i n g up branches throughout N i g e r i a .  I t s strength  was g r e a t l y augmented by the a f f i l i a t i o n of the Yoruba P a t r i o t i c Union.  Ern-  e s t I k o l i , who became president o f the p a r t y i n 1942 helped t o maintain the party's N i g e r i a n outlook and r e f u t e the "Lagos only" charge, by h i s wide t r a v e l s and contacts. 136 137 North.  By 1938, when the N.Y.M. made i t s f i r s t b i d f o r the  N i g e r i a n D a i l y Telegraph, Lagos, 19 August, 1935, No.248, p.4. The Northern Region was represented by Southerners l i v i n g i n the  63  seats i n the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , i t had t e n thousand members. The N.Y.M. had moved i n t o the p o l i t i c a l arena c a u t i o u s l y , not even c a l l i n g i t s e l f a p a r t y , but i t became more p o l i t i c a l and so dynamic that 138  many consider 1934 the year o f the b i r t h o f nationalism i n N i g e r i a .  Soon  the N.Y.M. began t o discuss government scholarships and A f r i c a n i z a t i o n o f the C i v i l S e r v i c e . The demand f o r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l change was becoming i n s i s t e n t , but even w i t h N.Y.M. branch n u c l e i i n the l a r g e r c i t i e s , the government could  still  139  denounce t h i s demand as the machinations o f a v o c a l m i n o r i t y . I n 1937 Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe returned t o N i g e r i a from Accra where he had been e d i t o r o f a n a t i o n a l i s t morning paper.  This was an important  event,  f o r he was the man who was u l t i m a t e l y so t o organize t h i s v o c a l m i n o r i t y that i t captured the imagination o f the people.  Dr. Azikiwe's major con-  t r i b u t i o n was that he made nationalism a v i t a l force among the m a j o r i t y o f the people rather than the f e e l i n g o f a small educated group. Dr. Azikiwe was born o f Onitsha-Ibo parents, i n 1904 a t Zungeru N i g e r i a . His e a r l y education was received i n the Hope Wadell T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e , C a l abar, and the Wesleyan Boys' High School, Lagos.  I n 1925 he went t o the  United States f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g and took h i s f i r s t degree from L i n c o l n U n i v e r s i t y i n p o l i t i c a l science i n I93I'  He received h i s Master of A r t s  from L i n c o l n i n 1932 and Master o f Science (government and anthropology) from U n i v e r s i t y o f Pennsylvannia  i n 1933•  I n 1934 he returned to West A f r i c a  and became the e d i t o r o f the A f r i c a n Morning Post, a n a t i o n a l i s t paper i n Accra.  I n 1937 he returned t o N i g e r i a and set up the West A f r i c a n P i l o t  which he edited u n t i l 1947. 138  Tugbiyele, Emergence, p.21.  139  Biobaku, Dr. S a b u r i , Occasional Paper N o . l , N i g e r i a S o c i e t y , Oct.,  1954, p.33.  64 The f i r s t p o l i t i c a l act of the P i l o t was a s e r i e s o f attacks on Herbert Macaulay and the N.N.D.P. Through the P i l o t ' s support i n 1938 the N.Y.M. defeated the Democratic p a r t y which had h i t h e r t o dominated Lagos p o l i t i c s 140 f o r f i f t e e n years. Although the P i l o t supported the N.Y.M. i n the e l e c t i o n , Azikiwe publ i s h e d campaign speeches of both p a r t i e s and as a r e s u l t the v i c e - p r e s i d e n t of the N.N.D.P. withdrew h i s bond from the P i l o t and the N.Y.M. decided that i t should have i t s own o f f i c i a l organ and converted the S e r v i c e , a q u a r t e r l y i n t o the D a i l y Service a f t e r the e l e c t i o n i n 1938•  This a c t i o n embittered  Azikiwe and was the beginning o f a press dispute between the P i l o t and Serv i c e and was one o f the reasons why Azikiwe deserted the N.Y.M. s h o r t l y a f t e r the 1938 e l e c t i o n .  This placed him i n a n e u t r a l p o s i t i o n during most o f the  war years. The war years and the increased tempo of wartime economic development increased a l l those conditions which favoured greater p o l i t i c a l among the people. widespread  consciousness  Development o f transport and communication permitted more  d i f f u s i o n o f propaganda, c l o s e r communication between branches of  p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s and opportunities f o r p o l i t i c a l leaders to meet the people more f r e q u e n t l y . Outside f a c t o r s such as the a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t propaganda o f the A l l i e s d i r e c t e d a t the subject peoples o f the German, I t a l i a n and Japanese Empires, the weakening o f i m p e r i a l a u t h o r i t y i n A s i a and t h a t by a coloured race, and the i n d o c t r i n a t i o n c o n s c i o u s l y or unconsciously of N i g e r i a n servicemen, a l l tended towards the new type o f t h i n k i n g and favoured the n a t i o n a l i s t cause.  1953,  140 F. Chidozie Ogbalu, Dr. Z i k of A f r i c a , P a c i f i c P r i n t i n g , Lagos, P-76.  65  However, t h i s i s not t o say that Nigerians d i d not r e a c t as the r e s t of the Empire i n the dark days of 1940 when the Empire and Commonwealth stood alone against Naziism.  P r o t e s t s ^ o f l o y a l t y poured from a l l N i g e r i a n sources  i n c l u d i n g the n a t i o n a l i s t press. Let us put our shoulder to the wheel.  I4l  Our Empire i s i n need. 142  Nigerians c h e e r f u l l y shouldered the white man's burden,  c l a i m i n g that  143  d i f f e r e n c e s must be f o r g o t t e n so that N i g e r i a could f e e l at one with B r i t a i n . The press expressed d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the l i m i t e d use of N i g e r i a n manpower and c a l l i n g f o r recruitment of Nigerians asked the world t o "watch us do our  144 s t u f f and put fear i n t o the Huns." S i r Bernard B o u r d i l l o n , Governor 1935-1943, appointed Azikiwe t o an a d v i s o r y committee on students proceeding t o the United Kingdom f o r higher studies and l a t e r he served on a Wartime P u b l i c i t y Committee which recommended the s e t t i n g up of a P u b l i c Relations Department.  The government could  never have employed a b e t t e r man t o head such a department had they vaguely r e a l i z e d Dr. Azikiwe's p o t e n t i a l i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . The A t l a n t i c Charter i n I 9 4 l r a i s e d the hopes of the n a t i o n a l i s t s . West A f r i c a n Students Union asked i f i t a p p l i e d to West A f r i c a . said,"No."  A t t l e e said,"Yes."  The  Churchill  I t was l i t t l e wonder t h a t Nigerians m o r a l l y  supported the Labour p a r t y , and, while they warmly appreciated C h u r c h i l l ' s p a r t i n the war, could agree w i t h Dr. Azikiwe that "when i t comes t o handling 141 The West A f r i c a n P i l o t (hereafter r e f e r r e d t o as The 10 A p r i l , 1940, V o l . I l l , No. 731, p.4.  Pilot),  142 Nnamdi Azikiwe, " i n s i d e S t u f f - H i t l e r ' s War Aims f o r the Return of the Colonies," The P i l o t , 3 A p r i l , 1940, V o l . I l l , No.725, P . 4 . 143  The P i l o t , 3 January, 1940,  144  The P i l o t , 7 March, 1940,  V o l . I l l , No. 651,  Vol.Ill, N0.705,  p.4.  p.4.  66  other races and nations he ( C h u r c h i l l ) i s w o e f u l l y behind the  times."  Demands f o r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l advance were p a r r i e d by the B r i t i s h by r a l l y ing  the t r a d i t i o n a l r u l e r s i n r e g i o n a l conferences and by the admittance of  A f r i c a n s t o the Executive C o u n c i l .  I t was  undesirable both f o r Nigerians  and  B r i t i s h that c o n s t i t u t i o n a l changes be made during the war, and d i s c u s s i o n of them i n the N i g e r i a n press appeared academic and w i t h the i m p l i c i t understanding that l i t t l e could be done u n t i l a f t e r the  war.  I t was w i t h t h i s kind of f e e l i n g that Dr. Azikiwe published h i s P o l i t i c ly a l Blueprint for Nigeria  i n March 1943,  which c a l l e d f o r a ten year p e r i o d  during which there should be a conscious process of N i g e r i a n i z a t i o n i n a l l aspects of p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l i f e , followed by a f i v e year p e r i o d for  non-Nigerians to be gradually t r a n s f e r r e d t o an advisory c a p a c i t y , ending  w i t h a three year 'handing over' p e r i o d , the handing over t o be done volunIk-T t a r i l y not r e l u c t a n t l y . I t was  d i s t i n c t l y f e l t that an o r g a n i z a t i o n containing most of the  p o l i t i c a l l y important p e r s o n a l i t i e s , should be formed, c u t t i n g across or even o b l i t e r a t i n g the p a r t y l i n e s , t o present a united request f o r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l change.  The N i g e r i a n Students Union founded i n 1939  i n Abeokuta included i n  i t s members, I.O.Ransome-Kuti, Macaulay, Maja, I k o l i and Azikiwe.  In  1942  Dr. Azikiwe organized the N i g e r i a n Reconstruction Group t o do research i n t o N i g e r i a ' s problems. 145 p.124. 146  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that of t h i s organization's  Oden Meeker, Report on A f r i c a , London, Chatto and Windus,  1955,  A s e r i e s of eighteen a r t i c l e s i n the West A f r i c a n P i l o t which began  on 25 March, and ended on 15 A p r i l , 1943• 147 I f N i g e r i a receives Commonwealth status i n i 9 6 0 Azikiwe*s B l u e p r i n t w i l l have been completed almost to the year.  Political  67 s i x t e e n foundation members, s i x were Ibos; the f i r s t Ibos other than Azikiwe to f i g u r e i n p o l i t i c a l organizations.  Another such organization was the  N i g e r i a n Youth C i r c l e l e d by H.O. Davies. At the Ajukoro Youth R a l l y i n November I9^3> members from a l l the above organizations plus the N.Y.M. took a prominent p a r t , and, f o l l o w i n g speeches by A.O.  Thomas, Rotimi W i l l i a m s , Davies and Azikiwe, the r a l l y resolved t o  form a n a t i o n a l f r o n t with the N.Y.M. as the p o l i t i c a l spearhead.  This a t -  tempt f a i l e d due t o jealousy between the leadership o f the N.Y.M. and N.N.D. P.; the N.Y.M. claiming that the i n v i t a t i o n to t h e i r president Dr. Maja was purposely withdrawn.  I t appears quite c e r t a i n that the f r o n t collapsed over  the struggle f o r leadership.  As the object o f a l l p a r t i e s was b a s i c a l l y the  same p a r t y p o l i t i c s i n t h i s case and o f t e n l a t e r degenerated i n t o personal  lU8 r i v a l r i e s and p e t t y b i c k e r i n g s . Dr. Azikiwe's p o s i t i o n during these years was t h a t o f a n e u t r a l t r y i n g to jockey the two p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i n t o a united f r o n t .  I t i s not e x a c t l y  c l e a r j u s t what were h i s immediate reasons f o r h i s r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h Herbert Macaulay.  He claimed that i t was over the issue o f t r i b a l i s m i n the N.Y.M.  which arose over the appointment o f S.Akinsanya as the Odema o f Ishara. However, h i s feud w i t h H.O.Davies who was l a t e r to become the leader o f the N.Y.M. may have had something t o do with i t . The r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of Azikiwe w i t h Macaulay l e d t o the formation o f the N a t i o n a l Council o f N i g e r i a and the Cameroons (N.C.N.C.) i n Lagos' h i s t o r i c a l Glover Memorial H a l l on August 26, igkk. I t s three main o f f i c e r s were Macaulay as president, Azikiwe as general secretary, and Dr. Abubakar OlorunNimbe as t r e a s u r e r . Ih8  The r e c o n c i l i a t i o n and the choosing o f Macaulay as pres-  Biobaku, Occasional Paper, p.38.  68  ident f o r the new o r g a n i z a t i o n was a master stroke.  Macaulay was the most  popular N i g e r i a n l i v i n g , and although he had almost dropped from the p o l i t i c a l scene h i s o l d fame as the symbol o f opposition t o the government could be revived and i n t e n s i f i e d .  With Azikiwe's growing p o p u l a r i t y and h i s strong  f o l l o w i n g among the Ibos, who had followed him i n t o the N.Y.M. and then out of i t again, he was a force t o be reckoned w i t h .  This Yoruba-Ibo (Macaulay-  Azikiwe) combination would c e r t a i n l y have a wide appeal. What was even more important, i t would s i l e n c e any t a l k o f t r i b a l i s m , an ever-ready c r i t i c i s m q u i c k l y t o be l e v e l l e d a t any p o l i t i c a l party.  Furthermore Macaulay was o l d  and the leadership and h i s great p r e s t i g e would soon pass on t o the advantage of Dr. Azikiwe or Dr. Olorun-Nimbe. The N.C.N.C. a t i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l meeting set i t s aim as "the maintenance by N i g e r i a , s t r i c t l y and i n v i o l a t e , " of the connection w i t h the B r i t i s h Empire, while the c i t i z e n s o f N i g e r i a enjoy unreservedly every r i g h t o f free 150  c i t i z e n s h i p o f the Empire  and adopted as i t s programme Dr. Azikiwe's P o l i t i c -  a l Blueprint. Almost from the moment o f i t s i n c e p t i o n , the N.C.N.C. took the leadership away from the N.Y.M. who had held i t from 193k t o 1944. The N.C.N.C. was not a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y as such an o r g a n i z a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y thought o f , but a congress which d i d not o u t l i n e p o l i c i e s o f government but set a goal and program i n order t o gain a wide acceptance and prove t o the B r i t i s h that i t had the power and mandate t o speak f o r the people. As a congress i t was not open t o i n d i v i d u a l membership but t o organizations. Ik-9 N.C.N.C. members s t i l l p o i n t t o the leadership o f Herbert Macaulay as proof that the p a r t y i s not t r i b a l i s t i c . 150 Nnamdi Azikiwe, "Contemporary N i g e r i a n P o l i t i c s ( 6 ) , " The P i l o t , 6 December, 1947, V o l . X I , No.3025, p.2.  69 I n one year from i t s i n c e p t i o n the N.C.N.C. could claim eighty-seven a f f i l i a t e d organizations i n c l u d i n g the N.N.D.P. and the young wing o f that p a r t y , the Union o f Young Democrats o f N i g e r i a .  A t the height o f i t s power  i n 19^7 i t had one hundred n i n e t y eight a f f i l i a t e d organizations; t h i r t y 151  seven Ibo, and f o r t y - t h r e e Yoruba.  I t had no Hausa membership, the North  being s t i l l represented by Southerners l i v i n g i n the Northern Region. The congress type of movement was widespread i n West A f r i c a i n the nineteen f o r t i e s .  Following the formation o f the N.C.N.C. i n N i g e r i a i n  I 9 M f , the Rassemblement Democratique A f r i c a i n was founded i n French West A f r i c a i n I9I+6 and the United Gold Coast Convention i n Ghana i n I9U7.  The  Graduates' General Conference had been formed i n the Sudan as e a r l y as 19I+2. The aim o f the Congress Movement o r g a n i z a t i o n was t o gain wide support t o counteract charges that the n a t i o n a l i s t element was a v o c a l m i n o r i t y . I t a l s o aimed t o organize p u b l i c o p i n i o n by means o f press campaigning, e x t r a parliamentary techniques, such as p e t i t i o n s and delegations t o the Imperial c a p i t a l , demonstrations, boycotts, s t r i k e s , and appeals t o the United Nat i o n s Assembly.  I t aimed t o co-ordinate p r o t e s t a c t i v i t i e s and give them  d i r e c t i o n and a p o l i t i c a l colour and t o e x p l o i t a l l s i t u a t i o n s and make them 152  appear as a demand f o r self-government.  Thus i n both N i g e r i a and Ghana,  s t r i k e s which began as demands f o r wages were supported by the congresses and i n so doing l e n t p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s t o the s t r i k e s . The congresses have been described as "a l o o s e l y k n i t , even amorphous amalgam of l o c a l and f u n c t i o n a l organizations, grouped around a nucleur 151  The P i l o t , 17 December, 19^7, V o l . X I , No.3031*, p . I .  152  Hodgkin, Nationalism, p.Il+6.  70 153  executive or working committee." of o r g a n i z a t i o n . in-reality.  Many problems arose out of t h i s type  The Congress tended to have support more on paper than  I t could speak f o r the whole n a t i o n only i n times of c r i s e s .  During periods of quiescience the sheer breadth of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s , as regards both the geographical areas which i t attempted t o cover and the various sections of o p i n i o n which i t attempted t o i n c l u d e , was o f t e n a source of embarrassment.  Yet t h i s was a l s o the Congresses' greatest 154  strength, p a r t i c u l a r l y among urban populations and the evolue  c l a s s whose  155  i n t e r e s t s too were wide and n a t i o n a l . When the metropolitan n a t i o n began t o devolve power to n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c i a n s , these Congresses had to form d e f i n i t e p o l i c i e s , r a t h e r than t h e i r previous programmes which consisted of a demand f o r self-government. They found that any p o l i c y was apt t o run counter t o some s e c t i o n of t h e i r Con-  r gress.  Because the Congress was simply a body of independent a f f i l i a t e d  organizations with no sense of d i s c i p l i n e , each one f e l t i t had a r i g h t as w e l l as a duty to express i t s opinion on each and every i s s u e . There was a tendency f o r the leadership of the Congress t o become a junta.  As there was no d e f i n i t e scheme whereby p o l i c y was brought up from  below, p o l i c y was formed at the top w i t h l i t t l e reference t o the member organizations who c r i t i c i z e d the p o l i c y a f t e r i t was enunciated. This  des-  troyed the u n i t y of the Congress. 153  Hodgkin, Nationalism, p . l 4 4 .  154 I n N i g e r i a , the Ibos s t i l l almost e n t i r e l y supporters of the N.C. N.C. have more to lose i n terms o f t h e i r emigrant communities i n the North, West, Cameroons and Lagos by the r i s e of s e c t i o n a l p a r t i e s w i t h t h e i r demands f o r r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n , than any other t r i b e . 155 New Era Bureau, The London " R e g i o n a l i z a t i o n " Conference, Before and A f t e r , Lagos, Techno L i t e r a r y Works, 1953, P«I2. .  71  Congresses suffered from l a c k of funds having to depend upon a few wealthy backers.  There i s evidence t o show that there was a close con-  n e c t i o n between the N.C.N.C. and the transport owners of Eastern N i g e r i a and the S y r i a n s . I n the Congress o r g a n i z a t i o n the leader became of paramount importance, a u n i f y i n g symbol, the p e r s o n a l i t y which held together the diverse elements.  Because of t h i s influence he dominated p a r t y p o l i c y . A  suc-  I56  c e s s f u l leader had t o be a dual p e r s o n a l i t y , cosmopolitan, who  h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d and  could combine the A f r i c a n and European s u c c e s s f u l l y .  These leaders had the advantage of being a t home i n both worlds the world of the ancestors, the dance and the market, and the world of parliamentary debate and the struggle f o r state power.^"57 The Congresses of West A f r i c a d i f f e r e d mainly i n "National m i l i t a n c y w i t h p a r t i c u l a r reference t o t h e i r p o s i t i o n taken on various 158  questions  r e l a t i n g to the European connection.". The N a t i o n a l Front : Triumph of the E l e c t i v e P r i n c i p l e I9U5-I951 The general s t r i k e of 19^5  began because of wartime p r i c e i n f l a t i o n  and wage d e f l a t i o n , the same conditions as p r e v a i l e d over most of the world, was probably i n s p i r e d by n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g but was c e r t a i n l y not i t s main inspiration.  The N a t i o n a l Congress of N i g e r i a and the Cameroons alone of  the p o l i t i c a l and s e m i - p o l i t i c a l organizations of N i g e r i a supported the strikers. 156 Examples of such leaders i n West A f r i c a include such men as Kwame Nkrumah i n Ghana, Nnamdi Azikiwe of N i g e r i a , Leopold Sedar-Senghor of Sene g a l , F e l i x Houphonet-Boigny of the Ivory Coast, Bartelemy Boganda of Ubangui-Shari and Isma i l A l - A z h a r i of the Sudan. Obafemi Awolowo i s both c h i e f and premier. A l h a j i Ahmadu i s both Sardauna and premier. 157  Hodgkin, Nationalism,  p.l4.  158 James S. Coleman, "The Emergence of A f r i c a n P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s , " i n C. Grove Haines, ed., A f r i c a To-day, Baltimore, John Hopkins Press, 1955, p.250.  72  As a result,(N.C.N.C.) p r e s t i g e gained considerably while t h a t o f the 159  o l d e r p a r t i e s , which refused t o support the s t r i k e , f e l l p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y . An unfortunate r e s u l t was that i t s p l i t the trade union movement - r i v a l 160  organizations and leaders c r e a t i n g r i f t s and s p l i t s .  I6l  The Z i k i s t press the s t r i k e r s .  had taken a large part i n maintaining the morale o f  On J u l y 8 , 1945, the government banned the West A f r i c a n P i l o t  and D a i l y Comet on the grounds o f " i n c i t i n g the people against the govern~I62 ment." This was e x a c t l y the type o f p u b l i c i t y the N.C.N.C. needed t o s w e l l 163  i t s number o f members.  Even the D a i l y S e r v i c e , b i t t e r enemy o f the N.C.N.C.  and Z i k i s t press found i t necessary t o appeal t o the Governor. We humbly appeal t o His E x c e l l e n c y the Governor t o reconsider the matter... Their f a t e i s our f a t e ; and i n t h i s matter they have our whole hearted support and sympathy.T-64 The ban was l i f t e d August l 6 , 1 9 4 5 . Only a matter o f hours a f t e r the l i f t i n g o f the ban, the Z i k i s t press announced an a s s a s s i n a t i o n attempt on Dr. Azikiwe's l i f e .  I t i s not known yet whether the report was true or f a l s e ,  but a t the time most people b e l i e v e d i t , and "Nigerians were t h r i l l e d t o 159  E l i a s , Occasional Paper, p.99.  160 N i g e r i a , C o l o n i a l Report 1946, London, His Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , p.7. 161 Dr. Azikiwe c o n t r o l s a chain o f s i x newspapers commonly c a l l e d the Z i k i s t press. The chain began w i t h the West A f r i c a n P i l o t which Azikiwe opened i n Lagos i n 1937 • He p e r s o n a l l y edited i t u n t i l 194-7. The P i l o t has a large c i r c u l a t i o n and could be c a l l e d a n a t i o n a l paper. The other papers of the chain are more r e g i o n a l papers. The Eastern N i g e r i a n Guardian was begun i n Port Harcourt i n I9U0 and the Southern N i g e r i a Defender i n Ibadan i n 1 9 4 3 . I n 1956 three others were added: The D a i l y Comet,Kaduna; The Eastern Sentinel,Enugu; and the N i g e r i a n Spokesman,Onitsha, Dates taken from the N i g e r i a Year Book I957» 162  Under r e g u l a t i o n No.19, 1 9 4 5 , Emergency Powers Defence A c t , 1939/40.  163  The P i l o t , 20 August, 1 9 4 5 , V o l . V I I I , No.2331, p . I .  164  D a i l y S e r v i c e , 10 J u l y , 1 9 4 5 , Vol.V, No.35, p.2.  73  165  l e a r n that the news of i t went round the world." t y of Z i k i s now  on World's Conscience,"  Headlines such as "Safe-  "People of A f r i c a n descent a l l  over B r i t a i n are R a l l y i n g to the Cause" and "Africans i n the U.S.  Should Be  166  Kept Constantly i n Touch with What i s Happening i n N i g e r i a "  were b r i n g i n g  the N.C.N.C. and i t s leader, Dr. Azikiwe, to the a t t e n t i o n of the world. This was  extremely h e l p f u l as a means of embarrassing the United Kingdom  and p r o v i d i n g p u b l i c i t y f o r the N a t i o n a l i s t Movement. Many ardent Z i k i s t s s t i l l b e l i e v e the s t o r y and the i m p l i c a t i o n , a l though not openly s t a t e d , that the a s s a s s i n a t i o n was attempted at the i n s t i g a t i o n of the B r i t i s h . Not a l l i n N i g e r i a however, b e l i e v e d the s t o r y . Z i k i n s u l t e d the i n t e l l i g e n c e of the people. We demand an apology. True martyrdom i s not faked. No man becomes a martyr by inventing f o r himself s u f f e r i n g and p r i v a t i o n s which e x i s t nowhere outside h i s own imagination.-^°7 Dr. Azikiwe was at Lagos at the time of the a s s a s s i n a t i o n r e p o r t .  He  immediately sent a telegram to the Secretary of State f o r the Colonies, asking for protection.  He then f l e d to Onitsha where the B r i t i s h r e s i d e n t  o f f e r e d him the p r o t e c t i o n of h i s home. The Governor asked that the evidence be put i n h i s hands.  This was not done and the matter dropped, probably i n -  d i c a t i n g that the report was a fake or t h a t i t was  a planned a s s a s s i n a t i o n  168  by one of Dr. Azikiwe's  own  tribe.  I t would appear that a N a t i o n a l Movement needs a martyr. long terms i n j a i l .  Gandhi spent  Dr. Nkrumah and some of h i s cabinet colleagues were  j a i l e d and l a t e r made great c a p i t a l of t h e i r " p r i s o n graduate" s t a t u s , weari n g caps enscribed P.G.  to p o l i t i c a l campaign meetings.  165  Tugbiyele, Emergence,  166  P i l o t , 20 Aug.,  19U5,  N i g e r i a missed a l l  p.27. V o l . V I I I , No.2331, p . I .  167 " N i g e r i a Demands an Apology," D a i l y S e r v i c e , 27 December, I 9 V 7 , V o l . X I , No.3032, p . 2 . 168  An attempt was made on the l i f e of Azikiwe by an Ibo i n 1957*  Ik t h i s and the propaganda value which went w i t h i t , and so attempts to create martyrs, when the B r i t i s h f a i l e d t o provide them ready made, have been comI69  mon. Occasional statements r e f l e c t i n g t h i s martyr complex have come from prominent people i n the N.C.N.C. And i f i t should be our l o t t o pay the supreme s a c r i f i c e i n the struggle f o r freedom, l e t us not be discouraged. We s h a l l not be the f i r s t , and we s h a l l not be the l a s t , to pay such a p r i c e f o r freedom. ' 1  0  I t should i n s p i r e us immensely that we belong to the same order as O l i v e r Cromwell, Abraham L i n c o l n , Thomas J e f f e r s o n , Lenin, Gandhi, Nehru and others of the s h i n i n g band who have gone f o r t h on the c r e a t i v e f r o n t i e r of human e v o l u t i o n . . . But they are a l l dangerous people, very dangerous people, capable of dangerous l i v i n g , w i t b p o w e r potent enough t o l i f t the world from i t s B.C. t o i t s A.D. ^ 1  1  At a r e c e p t i o n given f o r Dr. Azikiwe and the e d i t o r s of h i s various newspapers, which was sponsored by the Z i k i s t movement and presided over by Herbert Macaulay the t i t l e s of the various addresses and the tone of the speeches i n d i c a t e t h i s martyr complex.  " E x i l e Can Have No S t i n g , "  "The  F i r i n g Squad Cannot Crush Man's I d e a l s , " "Concentration Camps Cannot Cramp Man's Conscience," "The G u i l l o t i n e Cannot Destroy Man's Ideas," "Stone Walls Do Not a P r i s o n Make," "The Warm Embrace of the C r i m i n a l Code," "Martyrdom 172  de Lux."  I t i s h a r d l y necessary to add that no one during the p e r i o d was  e x i l e d or j a i l e d , that there were no f i r i n g squads, concentration camps, g u i l l o t i n e s or martyrdoms.  This martyr-complex however, d i d a l i e n a t e a s e c t i o n  169 This a t t i t u d e appears more pronounced i n Dr. Azikiwe and the N.C.N. C. than i n other p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s ; i t i s almost non-existant i n the Northern Region. 170 No.3032,  Nnamdi Azikiwe, "C.N.P.(l2) p.2.  M  The P i l o t , 15 December, I 9 V 7 , V o l . X I ,  171 Eyo I t a , "Basic Changes i n N i g e r i a ( 2 ) " The P i l o t , 7 September, 19^9, V o l . X I I , No.3552, p . 2 . 172  Thomas, Macaulay, p.63.  75  of the educated and most of the conservatives. the masses who  On the other hand i t r a l l i e d  l i k e d colour i n t h e i r p o l i t i c s .  The most important aim of the N.C.N.C. after" i t s formation was to win a mandate from the people and r e c o g n i t i o n from the B r i t i s h government, as the spokesman of the N i g e r i a n people.  The number of a f f i l i a t e d organizations  was one proof which the B r i t i s h government, badly mistaken, swept aside.  The  support of the general s t r i k e had won more sympathy but now the N.C.N.C. was t o go a f t e r a d e f i n i t e mandate from the people. The B r i t i s h government i n 194-5 had j u s t introduced a new c o n s t i t u t i o n (The Richards' C o n s t i t u t i o n ) which, while i t gave representative government, d i d not enlarge the franchise or give responsible government.  The N.C.N.C.  found that t h i s C o n s t i t u t i o n f e l l f a r short of t h e i r expectancy.  So i t was  t h i s c o n s t i t u t i o n and four ordinances before the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l at t h i s time, that became the target of attack.  The four ordinances; P u b l i c Lands  Amendment Ordinance, Appointment and Deposition of Chiefs Amendment Ordinance, Crown Lands Amendment Ordinance, Minerals Ordinance, were a l l w e l l chosen so as, by a subtle p l a y on words, to rouse the greatest number of persons agains t them. By a c a r e f u l p l a y on the word 'Crown they made i t appear that lands 1  were t o be owned by the B r i t i s h rather than the N i g e r i a n government. strengthening of the government's power t o depose c h i e f s could touch a  Any re-  sponsive chord i n most of N i g e r i a . I t i s worthy of note at t h i s p o i n t t h a t , as i n Ghana where Dr. Nkrumah based h i s attack against the B r i t i s h p o l i c y on the c u t t i n g out of cocoa trees due to swollen shoot, then came to power and c a r r i e d out even more v i g o r o u s l y the c u t t i n g out p o l i c y , so i n N i g e r i a , while gaining support by  defending  the c h i e f s , the p a r t i e s which formed governments a f t e r e l e c t i o n s were i n t r o duced, s t e a d i l y w h i t t l e d away at the power of the c h i e f s .  76  I n March 1946 the N.C.N.C. drew up a l e t t e r which was sent t o the N a t u r a l Rulers ( c h i e f s and emirs) and various o r g a n i s a t i o n s . One hundred f i f t y three communities widely scattered over the North, West, East, o f N i g e r i a , the Cameroons and Colony, signed t h i s l e t t e r which expressed d i s approval o f the Richards C o n s t i t u t i o n and the "four obnoxious Ordinances." I t f u r t h e r stated the r i g h t o f the N.C.N.C. t o discuss w i t h the B r i t i s h  "all  such other matters as s h a l l be relevant t o the welfare and progress o f Nigeria." C e r t a i n l y beyond doubt the N.C.N.C. had won a mandate - the best possi b l e , short o f e l e c t i o n s which they could not h o l d .  Few Nigerians question-  ed t h a t the mandate was v a l i d but some d i d question the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which the N.C.N.C. placed on the " a l l such other matters" clause.  The N.C.N.C.  claimed t h a t they had won a mandate from the people t o press f o r self-government. A delegation i n c l u d i n g Macaulay, Azikiwe and Olorun-Nirabe toured the country s o l i c i t i n g moral and f i n a n c i a l a i d t o send a delegation t o the United Kingdom t o press t h e i r claims on the C o l o n i a l o f f i c e . over t h i r t e e n hundred pounds.  They r a i s e d  The tour was i n t e r r u p t e d a t Kano by the  ness o f Macaulay, now over seventy years o f age.  ill-  Macaulay was taken back t o  Lagos where he died. 173  His f u n e r a l was probably the biggest event i n Lagos h i s t o r y .  The event  was turned i n t o a subtle d i g n i f i e d p o l i t i c a l occasion.climaxed by Dr. A z i k i 174  we's  graveside o r a t i o n .  173  Thomas, Macaulay, p.63.  174  I b i d . , p.69.  77  Azikiwe, having so associated himself i n the minds o f the masses w i t h Macaulay, was without doubt the obvious choice f o r the new leader o f the N.C.N.C. This i s not t o say that h i s own p o p u l a r i t y was not considerable, but w i t h the added p r e s t i g e of Macaulay there could be l i t t l e dispute over h i s leadership. However, there were those e s p e c i a l l y among the Yoruba i n t e l l i g e n t s i a who f e l t uncomfortable w i t h the new leadership because Azikiwe came from a t r i b e long considered backward.  They appeared unable or a t l e a s t u n w i l l i n g  t o be l e d by t h i s "upstart Ibo."  There were minor leadership troubles be-  tween the remaining b i g three o f the N.C.N.C. - p r e s i d e n t , t r e a s u r e r and general s e c r e t a r y ; Azikiwe, Olorun-Nimbe and Prince Adedoyin.  Olorun-Nimbe  leader o f the o l d guard o f the N.N.D.P. disputed the leadership o f the N.C. N.C. w i t h Azikiwe and a l s o that o f the Democratic p a r t y w i t h Adedoyin who had l e d the young wing o f that p a r t y . I n 19^7 the A.N.A. machine (Azikiwe, Nimbe and Adedoyin) contested the Legislative Council elections.  Azikiwe l e d the p o l l i n g w i t h 3,573 votes.  A f t e r nine years out o f o f f i c e , the N.N.D.P. came back under the dynamism o f the N.C.N.C. The three members refused t o take t h e i r seats i n the new C o u n c i l , and by so doing aimed t o avoid the p i t f a l l o f the c o r r o s i v e i n f l u e n c e o f o f f i c e . Instead they began t o organize a delegation t o go t o London t o meet the C o l o n i a l Secretary. The delegation was representative o f the three major t r i b e s ; Yorubas, Ibos, and Hausas. tribe.  Other delegates represented the Cameroons and the E f i k  One member was a woman and one a c h i e f .  The delegation asked f o r  the a b o l i t i o n o f the Richards C o n s t i t u t i o n and the four obnoxious Ordinances and immediate steps t o implement  self-government.  78 175  Outwardly the delegation appeared t o achieve nothing.  The C o l o n i a l  Secretary advised the delegates t o go back t o N i g e r i a and co-operate w i t h the government.  This apparent f a i l u r e was a t e s t i n g p o i n t . Rent by j e a l -  ousy among the executive f o r the leadership and r e t u r n i n g t o N i g e r i a a f t e r having spent the people's money w i t h nothing concrete t o o f f e r , the N.C.N.C. faced one of i t s f i r s t c r i s e s .  That i t survived was due almost e n t i r e l y t o  the p e r s o n a l i t y and c o r r e c t timing o f i t s leader, Dr. Azikiwe.  The N.C.N.C.  almost disappeared i n the next few years and only revived a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of the Macpherson C o n s t i t u t i o n i n I95I' In 19^9 a go-slow s t r i k e i n the Enugu c o a l mines r e s u l t e d i n some d i s turbances which the p o l i c e stopped by opening f i r e . a British officer.  The order was given by  The result..was seventeen miners dead a t the Iva mine. 176  Nigerians r e f e r t o t h i s as the Enugu Shooting, Iva Mine Tragedy or Massacre. L i k e the general s t r i k e of 19^5 the s t r i k e began as an a g i t a t i o n f o r higher wages but f e l l a f o u l of p o l i t i c a l a g i t a t o r s both B r i t i s h and N i g e r i a n . The F i t z g e r a l d Commission which i n q u i r e d i n t o the tragedy condemmed both the 177  opening of f i r e and the p o l i t i c a l use made of "the tragedy. Sympathy disturbances broke out a t Aba, Onitsha, P o r t Harcourt and C a l abar.  Again the p o l i c e had t o open f i r e , but w i t h no loss o f l i f e .  few was placed on Calabar. 175  A cur-  The Governor proclaimed a s t a t e o f emergency and  Biobaker, Occasional Paper, p^36.  176 N i g e r i a , "Proceedings o f the General Conference on Review o f the C o n s t i t u t i o n January, I95O" (Hereafter r e f e r r e d t o as Ibadan Conference) London, Government P r i n t e r , 1950, p . ^ 5 . 177 I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o see how i n any parliamentary democracy i n the world i n t h i s day and age, the k i l l i n g of seventeen men s t r i k i n g f o r higher wages would not b r i n g on a p o l i t i c a l c r i s i s and p o s s i b l e upset o f the government .  79  imposed censorship on the Eastern Region newspapers, claiming that they were aggravating the s i t u a t i o n . The N.C.N.C. was almost defunct and as an o r g a n i z a t i o n appeared t o take l i t t l e or no part i n the events which followed.  However, important members  o f that party spearheaded the attempt t o unite the people o f both p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , the N.N.D.P. and N.Y.M., i n a s o l i d n a t i o n a l f r o n t against the government.  The N.Y.M. o f f i c i a l l y remained a l o o f but many of i t s most prom-  inent members, Maja, Davies and Bode Thomas became members of a N a t i o n a l Emergency Committee alonside Mbonu O j i k e , Mazi Ozuomba and Ozuomba Mbadiwe o f the N.C.N.C. The N a t i o n a l Emergency.Committee (N.E.C.) sent two represent a t i v e s , Davies and Mbadiwe t o Enugu t o i n v e s t i g a t e . They sought to b r i n g pressure on the government t o have the o f f i c e r who ordered the shooting brought before a court o f law. The N.E.C. d i s s o l v e d as soon as the c r i s i s had passed and no united f r o n t emerged as many had hoped.  However, i t had proven that the Yorubas and 178  Ibos would co-operate i n the face o f a serious c r i s i s . I t i s n a t u r a l that Nigerians should f e e l that a united f r o n t was v i t a l t o press f o r self-government, but i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o see how t h i s could be achieved i n any s o c i e t y except under extreme oppression and then the f r o n t would l a s t only as long as the oppression.  I t would appear more n a t u r a l and  b e n e f i c i a l i f two groups presented t h e i r ideas regarding a c o n s t i t u t i o n and argued them i n the press i n order that the e l e c t o r a t e might be made aware of the problems and have a chance t o form an opinion.  This was d i f f i c u l t t o do.  F i r s t , because the formation, o r g a n i z a t i o n and d i s c i p l i n e o f a p a r t y i s d i f f i c u l t i f there i s as yet no p o s s i b i l i t y o f i t f i g h t i n g an e l e c t i o n and coming 178  N i g e r i a , Ibadan Conference, p.57.  80  t o power.  Second, because under B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n the a u t h o r i t i e s  take the a t t i t u d e ; "when you decide what you want, we w i l l give i t to you." This a t t i t u d e i n v i t e s attempts at a united f r o n t and what i s probably more obnoxious, i t has a p a t r o n i z i n g aspect which i s quite d i s t a s t e f u l t o any group of people groping towards a n a t i o n a l awareness.  The Richards'Constitu-  t i o n introduced i n 19^-6 was attacked most s t r o n g l y on t h i s aspect. The purpose of the Richards C o n s t i t u t i o n was to promote the u n i t y of N i g e r i a and at the same time t o provide f o r the country's diverse elements and t o provide opportunity f o r greater p a r t i c i p a t i o n by Nigerians i n t h e i r 179  government.  "The U n i t y of N i g e r i a must f i n d i t s basis i n d i v e r s i t y . "  The p r i n c i p a l defect of the C l i f f o r d C o n s t i t u t i o n of 1922  in British  eyes had been the gap which i t l e f t between the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l or Cent r a l Government and the Native A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  The new c o n s t i t u t i o n was  to  bridge t h i s gap by c r e a t i n g e f f e c t i v e l i n k s between the Native A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 180  the Regional Councils and L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l . I t was a compromise of the N.A. system w i t h parliamentary democracy, formed w i t h a d e s i r e t o i n t e g r a t e  I8l the N.A.  i n t o the system of n a t i o n a l government.  Houses of Assembly were created i n each of the three regions. were no e l e c t e d members i n these Assemblies.  The approximately one  There third,  s e l e c t e d by the Native A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , came the c l o s e s t to an e l e c t e d group. A House of Chiefs was created i n the North, c o n s i s t i n g of a l l f i r s t c l a s s c h i e f s and no l e s s than ten second c l a s s c h i e f s .  I n the West, three head  179 N i g e r i a , " P o l i t i c a l and C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Future of N i g e r i a , " Sessiona l Paper No.tr, 5 March, 19U5, p.2. 180  Wheare, N i g e r i a n L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , p.5.  181  Biobaku, Occasional Paper, p.35«  8i c h i e f s were nominated t o the Assembly while i n the East, c h i e f s were ignored. These new i n s t i t u t i o n s , the Assemblies w i t h t h e i r N.A. representation and the c h i e f s , were designed t o be the l i n k s between the two systems o f government. The duty o f the Assembly was "to consider and advise by r e s o l u t i o n , 182  matters placed before i t by the Governor or introduced by members."  Thus  w h i l e the Assemblies, there being three of them, were t o r e f l e c t N i g e r i a n d i v e r s i t y , they had very l i t t l e r e a l power and the u n i t a r y system of government was preserved by the concentration o f power i n the one L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l a t the centre.  A c t u a l l y , what was being created was the nucleus o f  r e g i o n a l governments. The Richards' C o n s t i t u t i o n (1946) made p o s s i b l e l a r g e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n government by N i g e r i a n s .  Nigerians formed the m a j o r i t y o f members i n a l l  the Assemblies: twenty-three Nigerians t o nineteen B r i t i s h i n the North, nineteen t o fourteen i n the West and eighteen t o fourteen i n the East.  The  L e g i s l a t i v e Council was formed w i t h a m a j o r i t y of N i g e r i a n s ; twenty-eight t o seventeen B r i t i s h , the over a l l m a j o r i t y being u n o f f i c i a l . The most widespread c r i t i c i s m of the new c o n s t i t u t i o n was regarding i t s p a t e r n a l aspects. S i r Arthur Richards the Governor was c a l l e d a benevolent 183  despot  and the C o n s t i t u t i o n described as the "doings o f one man r a t i f i e d by 184  a l e g i s l a t u r e unrepresentative o f the people."  I t was decried and d i s c r e d -  i t e d before i t saw l i g h t on t h i s b a s i s . The Opposition was v i o l e n t and consistent. 182 N i g e r i a , N i g e r i a ' s C o n s t i t u t i o n a l S t o r y 1862-1954, Lagos, Federal Information S e r v i c e , 1955, p.10. 183  Biobaku, Occasional Paper, p.35.  I8U D a i l y Times, "A H i s t o r i c Year," N i g e r i a n Year Book 1955, N i g e r i a n P r i n t i n g and P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1955, p . 8 .  82  C r i t i c i s m of the C o n s t i t u t i o n i t s e l f rather than the method of drawing i t up, centred on i t s r e g i o n a l aspects. of regionalism i n West A f r i c a .  There was no precedent f o r any type  A t t h i s point N i g e r i a diverged from the path I85  on which Ghana was s e t t i n g f o r t h and continued t o f o l l o w .  N i g e r i a alone of  the West A f r i c a n colonies had the s i z e and d i v e r s i t y to s e r i o u s l y consider a f e d e r a l system.  The idea was new t o Nigerians and i t was opposed from a l -  most a l l s i d e s . Many people saw i t , as one w r i t e r says, as "Divide et impera, 186  traditional British colonial policy."  For a l l the v o l u b l e c r i t i c i s m l e v e l l e d  at t h i s aspect of the c o n s t i t u t i o n , d e v o l u t i o n of more and more power from the centre has been the main aim of leading N i g e r i a n p o l i t i c i a n s ever s i n c e , a t Ibadan i n 1950,  and i n London i n both 195!+ and  1957.  A t h i r d c r i t i c i s m , weak immediately a f t e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the R i c h ards C o n s t i t u t i o n but growing more and more i n s i s t e n t w i t h each passing year I87  was that m i n o r i t y groups or t r i b e s were not adequately represented, i f at a l l . S i r Arthur when he chose t o ignore a l l but three main t r i b e s l a i d the foundation of e v e r l a s t i n g confusion - Yoruba s o l i d a r i t y became the best slogan of the A c t i o n Group; P r e s e r v a t i o n of Ibos was not d i s t a s t e f u l to the N.C.N.C; One North, One People, the banner of the Northern Peoples Party.^"o In I9lf6 the minor t r i b e s were not p o l i t i c a l l y aware and by the Richards' C o n s t i t u t i o n the country was represented on a t r i - r e g i o n a l b a s i s .  Later  185 I n Ghana, the N a t i o n a l L i b e r a t i o n Movement, the Opposition P a r t y fought f o r a f e d e r a l c o n s t i t u t i o n as a check on the absolute power of the c e n t r a l government. Ghana has now a q u a s i - f e d e r a l system. 186  Tugbiyele, Emergence, p.26.  187  N i g e r i a , Ibadan Conference, p.73.  188 D a i l y Times, Abiodun Aloba (Ebenezer W i l l i a m s ) "1956 - A Date With Destiny," N i g e r i a Year Book, N i g e r i a n P r i n t i n g and P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1957, p. Ik.  8  3  p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s appeared each t o f i n d i t s support i n one of the three main t r i b e s , causing f e a r among the minor t r i b e s .  The minor t r i b e s make-up  f i f t y - f i v e per cent o f the t o t a l population. However, the minor t r i b e s were without powerful spokesmen, the danger of major t r i b e domination had not yet emerged, and t h i s c r i t i c i s m was drowned i n the main a g i t a t i o n which centred around regionalism. The Richards' C o n s t i t u t i o n was c r i t i c i z e d f o r i t s f a i l u r e t o extend the e l e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e , f o r the power which i t l e f t untouched i n B r i t i s h hands, and f o r the f a c t that the L e g i s l a t i v e Council s t i l l stood i n i t s f r u s t r a t e d p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the Governor. his  I t had no r e a l power t o c o n t r o l  policy. There were advantages t o the Richards C o n s t i t u t i o n a l b e i t they were  hard t o f i n d .  I t was an advance towards representative i n s t i t u t i o n s i n that  although members were selected by the N.A. they were by and l a r g e , brought up from below and not nominated from above.  I t d i d b r i n g many more Nigerians  i n t o the government machinery, even the L e g i s l a t i v e Council having a m a j o r i t y of A f r i c a n s f o r the f i r s t time.  The door t o future advance was l e f t open. I89  I t was expected to l a s t nine years.  This, i n d i c a t e d that the B r i t i s h d i d not  consider i t f i n a l . Probably i t s greatest advantage was the e f f e c t i t had on the p o l i t i c i a n s and people. Because the N.A. was the prominent f a c t o r i n the s e l e c t i o n of representatives, i t forced the n a t i o n a l i s t democrat t o defend and propagandi z e h i s doctrines i n the N.A. system i t s e l f .  The Western educated had t o go  to the conservative t r a d i t i o n a l i s t and win h i s support. This forged a l i n k between the N.A. system and parliamentary democracy which S i r Arthur Richards did not e n v i s i o n . I89  I t l a s t e d about h a l f the expected time.  Oh This f o r c i n g of the n a t i o n a l i s t p o l i t i c i a n i n t o the centre of conservat i s m , plus the f a c t that a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l change could he a n t i c i p a t e d i n nine years, plus the "blast of c r i t i c i s m which followed the C o n s t i t u t i o n ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n , brought the issues before the people as they had never been brought before.  The e f f e c t then of the Richards C o n s t i t u t i o n was t o arouse  the p o l i t i c a l consciousness  o f the people as no other s i n g l e f a c t o r had  190  done. Because o p p o s i t i o n t o the Richards C o n s t i t u t i o n had centred around the f a c t t h a t the people had not been consulted, the B r i t i s h d i d not make the same mistake again.  When a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l change was announced i n 19^9, S i r  John Macpherson stated t h a t , "before any change i s made, i t i s o f the utmost 191  importance t o allow adequate time f o r the expression o f p u b l i c opinion. One w r i t e r s a i d that while Governor Richards had not consulted the people, the B r i t i s h government through Governor Macpherson swung t o the other 192  extreme and "gave us ropes t o hang ourselves and we d i d so." was most thoroughly and c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y sounded.  Public opinion  The B r i t i s h had d e f i n i t e l y  seized the lead from the p o l i t i c a l leaders and a t the same time r e l i e v e d the pressure o f c r i t i c i s m on i t s e l f . Few c r i t i c i z e d the B r i t i s h government. "By t h i s A c t o f our government, i t has i n the language of C h u r c h i l l , made t h i s 193  i t s f i n e s t hour."  C r i t i c i s m was now more and more d i r e c t e d a t N i g e r i a n p o l -  i c y makers r a t h e r than a t the B r i t i s h . 190  Timothy Moka Uzo, The P a t h f i n d e r , Port Harcourt, Niger press, 1953,  191  N i g e r i a , C o n s t i t u t i o n a l S t o r y , p.12.  192  Uzo, The P a t h f i n d e r , p.12.  193  N i g e r i a , Ibadan Conference, p . l 8 6 .  p.2.  85  The L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l set up a s e l e c t committee t o consider how p u b l i c mind was to be sounded and decided on a s e r i e s of conferences;  the vill-  age, d i v i s i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l and n a t i o n a l . The r e s u l t s of the p r o v i n c i a l conferences  showed that regardless of the c r i t i c i s m of regionalism the  gen-  194  e r a l trend was f o r greater r e g i o n a l autonomy.  I n the Northern Region a  d e s i r e was expressed i n every province except Bauchi f o r a House of C h i e f s . I n the West the m a j o r i t y requested a House of Chiefs and i n the East i t was voted down. I n l a t e r years i n the North where the power of the c h i e f s became an i s s u e , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that I l o r i n , the province w i t h most Southern connections, f e l t t h a t the House of Chiefs should act i n an advisory capacity; others would give i t the powers of the B r i t i s h House of Lords, w h i l e Sokoto, most n o r t h e r l y province, s a i d i t s w i l l should p r e v a i l i n any dispute w i t h the House of Assembly. Ethnic groupings were favoured by f i v e southern provinces; Calabar, Owerri, R i v e r s , Benin and Onitsha.  S i g n i f i c a n t l y enough the Ibadan Nation-  a l Conference paid no heed t o these ethnic f e e l i n g s . The e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e system of v o t i n g was requested by every province i n the North and by the m a j o r i t y i n the Southern Regions. The N a t i o n a l Conference was held a t Ibadan i n 1950.  I t decided upon  increased autonomy, the r e g i o n a l Houses of Assembly t o have l e g i s l a t i v e power over a wide range of subjects and be able to r a i s e revenues of t h e i r own.  A House of Chiefs was to be created i n the West, and a f e d e r a l House  of Representatives was to be created i n Lagos. A l l adult taxpayers who were B r i t i s h subjects or B r i t i s h protected persons were t o have the f r a n c h i s e , and the system of e l e c t i o n , although  1949,  19!+ Great B r i t a i n , C o l o n i a l Report, London, The Government P r i n t e r , P.h.  86  varying from region to region was to "be b a s i c a l l y the e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e . While the new l e g i s l a t u r e s were to be almost e n t i r e l y e l e c t e d , t h e s p e c i a l ;  i n t e r e s t s , banking, shipping, mines, chambers of commerce, were t o have a place. The most c o n t r o v e r s i a l issue to come before the Ibadan Conference was t h a t of r e g i o n a l representation i n the f e d e r a l House of Representatives. East and West favoured equal representation f o r the three regions, f e a r i n g domination by the North.  With more than h a l f the t o t a l population of Niger-  i a the North stood staunchly f o r representation by population, l e s t on major issues the East and West combine to out vote i t .  The Northern delegation,  195  a b l y l e d by Abubakar Tafawa Balewa,  employed the arguments of democracy and  parliamentary government which the Southerners had used so eloquently agains t the B r i t i s h .  The North won i t s point over heated debate and a v e i l e d  t h r e a t of session by the Western Region. The Macpherson C o n s t i t u t i o n came i n t o force i n I95I«  In Nigeria, for  the f i r s t time the e l e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e was widely a p p l i e d , through a s e r i e s of e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e s .  The mass of the people voted i n the constituencies  which consisted of the Native A d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s . The small u n i t ensured t h a t the people were acquainted with the men who  s o l i c i t e d t h e i r votes.  The  e l e c t e d members voted f o r members from among themselves to represent the d i v i s i o n s . The men so elected then voted f o r members to the p r o v i n c i a l 196  college  who i n t u r n voted f o r members to s i t i n the Regional House of Assem-  bly. 195 Balewa became the f i r s t Prime M i n i s t e r of the Federation of N i g e r i a i n August, 1957. 196 The p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e was dispensed w i t h i n the Eastern region.  87  The Regional Assembly then voted to e l e c t from t h e i r own numbers, members t o the Federal House of  Representatives.  The Houses of Assembly were composed almost e n t i r e l y of Nigerians: i n the North, ten B r i t i s h t o n i n e t y - f i v e Nigerians; i n the West, four t o e i g h t y and i n the East, f i v e to eighty.  The Houses of Chiefs i n both North and  West had f i f t y - f o u r seats, four of which were held by the B r i t i s h . the B r i t i s h represented  Most of  special interests.  Although the appointment of these members was by nomination, t h e i r numbers were few; but because of t h e i r s p e c i a l knowledge, t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to l e g i s l a t i o n was of considerable value.197 The r e g i o n a l executives consisted of f i f t e e n m i n i s t e r s ; nine Nigerians and s i x B r i t i s h .  The Nigerians were nominated by the Lieutenant Governor and  approved by the House.  The Houses of Assembly, c u r i o u s l y enough, acted as  e l e c t o r a l colleges to the House of Representatives. have representation i n the f e d e r a l House.  Each constituency was  to  Therefore from Lagos, f o r example,  f i v e members were e l e c t e d t o the Western House of Assembly, two of whom were t o be e l e c t e d by that body to the House of Representatives.  The  Central  House had one hundred t h i r t y s i x e l e c t e d members, t h i r t y - f o u r each from West and East, s i x t y - e i g h t from North and s i x nominated to represent s p e c i a l i n terests . The Council of M i n i s t e r s or C e n t r a l Executive consisted of eighteen; twelve Nigerians and s i x B r i t i s h .  The N i g e r i a n m i n i s t e r s , four t o be chosen  from each region's representation, were t o be approved by the r e g i o n a l houses and were therefore l i k e the r e g i o n a l m i n i s t e r s responsible t o the Houses of Assembly.  197  The Lieutenant Governor submitted a l i s t of recommendations, the  N i g e r i a , C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Story,  p.12.  88 Governor selected h i s candidates, and then the Lieutenant Governor  submitted  these t o j o i n t Houses of Assembly and Chiefs i n the North and West or t o the Assembly i n the East f o r t h e i r approval. The Council o f M i n i s t e r s f e l l i n t o three groups: m i n i s t e r s responsible e x c l u s i v e l y , f o r c e n t r a l matters such as transport; m i n i s t e r s responsible for  r e g i o n a l subjects such as education; and the e x - o f f i c i o B r i t i s h members  responsible f o r defence, law and finance.  The House o f Representatives  could pass l e g i s l a t i o n on r e g i o n a l subjects but i n case o f c o n f l i c t the l a s t enactment p r e v a i l e d . The a t t i t u d e t o the Macpherson C o n s t i t u t i o n was mixed.  The Z i k i s t press  set the slogan f o r the a t t i t u d e adopted by the N.C.N.C. "Beware o f the Greeks  198  when they come with g i f t s . "  Dr. Azikiwe who c a l l e d i t "an i m p o s i t i o n o f the  I m p e r i a l i s t s , " stated that the N.C.N.C. i f they won the e l e c t i o n would "change  199  the C o n s t i t u t i o n and expose the fraud i n the Macpherson C o n s t i t u t i o n . "  The  N.C.N.C. Kano convention charged the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e with bad f a i t h and c a l l e d the Macpherson C o n s t i t u t i o n a "bogus document" but, however, decided t o give  200  it a trial.  Obafemi Awolowo, newly emerged leader o f the r e c e n t l y formed A c t i o n Group Party, took a d i f f e r e n t view.  He claimed that the Macpherson C o n s t i t u -  t i o n gave Nigerians an opportunity t o expand s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , l e a r n parliamen-  201  t a r y government and demonstrate t h e i r a b i l i t y .  198 Eastern N i g e r i a Guardian, Port Harcourt, 6 January, 1950, Vol.IX, No.20,I5lf,~p7IT: 199  Uzo, The Pathfinder, p.13.  200 N a t i o n a l Congress o f N i g e r i a and the Cameroons, London Delegation L e a f l e t No.3 Yaba, Z i k E n t e r p r i s e s , 1953, P ' 2 . 201 Obafemi Awolowo, Charter o f Freedom, Ibadan, P u b l i c Relations O f f i c e , 1952, p.3.  8  9  The N.C.N.C. a t i t s Kano Convention a l t e r e d i t s eighteen year tutelage p l a n and departed from i t s gradualism, a course so w e l l summed up by Dr. Azikiwe i n 1944. The only safe and wise course i n A f r i c a n n a t i v e d i s t r i c t s i s to hand over power g r a d u a l l y and continuously so t h a t n a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y increases at,about equal speed w i t h economic and p o l i t i c a l development.^02 I n 1951 the N.C.N.C. s u b s t i t u t e d f o r t h i s gradualism i t s "Freedom Charter" which c a l l e d f o r immediate  self-government.  The greatest disadvantage o f the Macpherson C o n s t i t u t i o n was i t s complexity.  The e l e c t i o n began a t the end o f J u l y and f i n i s h e d the f i r s t week  i n December.  Even i n the East where there was only one c o l l e g e system the 203  e l e c t i o n took two and one h a l f months.  P o l i t i c a l leaders complained that  the e l e c t o r a l c o l l e g e system defeated the people's choice.  Because the  centre was weak, being responsible t o the Houses o f Assembly and being r u l e d i n d e f i n i t e l y by a c o a l i t i o n , many f e l t t h a t c e n t r i f u g a l forces i n the country endangered n a t i o n a l u n i t y . The Macpherson C o n s t i t u t i o n proved unworkable.  Only a small p r o p o r t i o n  204  of those who framed the C o n s t i t u t i o n were e l e c t e d , and those elected d i d not give i t a f a i r t r i a l , but made use o f i t s defects as a weapon o f propaganda. The C o n s t i t u t i o n d i d not provide f o r p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . A t the time the C o n s t i t u t i o n was drawn up an e s t a b l i s h e d and w e l l - t r i e d p a r t y system, d i d not i n f a c t e x i s t . ^ 0 5  202 Nnamdi A z i k i w e , " A f r i c a n i z a t i o n o f the C i v i l S e r v i c e , " Southern N i g e r i a Defender, Ibadan, May 1944, V o l . 1 , No.232, p.4. 203 The Primaries were staggered, due t o d i f f i c u l t t e r r a i n and poor communications, t o permit c l o s e r s u p e r v i s i o n . 204 Dr. Azikiwe went on a tour of Europe and America while the C o n s t i t u t i o n - b u i l d i n g process was i n progress. 205 James S. Coleman, "The Emergence o f A f r i c a n P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s , " i n C.Grove Haines, ed., A f r i c a To-day, Baltimore, John Hopkins Press, 1955,p.239.  90  This was an understatement. before the e l e c t i o n .  The defunct N.C.N.C. was revived by Azikiwe  The A c t i o n Group (A.G.) Party was founded a few months  before the e l e c t i o n and the Northern Peoples Party, one month a f t e r the e l e c t i o n had been i n progress.  Had these p a r t i e s been i n existence before 19^9  t h e i r i d e a l s and objectives could have been r e f l e c t e d i n the C o n s t i t u t i o n . Great numbers o f men were elected owing no a l l e g i a n c e t o any p o l i t i c a l party.  The f l u i d i t y o f the party system was evident i n two events: f i r s t ,  when the e l e c t i o n r e s u l t s i n the West were announced both the N.C.N.C. and A.G.  claimed the v i c t o r y ; second, when the House opened, s i x supposedly N.C.  N.C. members, crossed the f l o o r t o the A.G. In a d d i t i o n t o the great advance made i n the general a p p l i c a t i o n o f the e l e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e , the m o b i l i z a t i o n o f p u b l i c opinion through the e l e c t o r a l colleges was greater than under the Richards' C o n s t i t u t i o n .  The e l e c t o r a l  c o l l e g e s , "forced party p o l i t i c i a n s o f urban centres t o c a r r y t h e i r appeals t o the N.A. councils o f remote v i l l a g e s . The r e s u l t was an unprecedented 206  p o l i t i c a l awakening, a m o b i l i z a t i o n o f groups p r e v i o u s l y untouched and i n e r t . " The o l d dilemma between parliamentary democracy and t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s was being r a p i d l y overcome by a d e f i n i t e swing t o the former.  Moreover  the "channeling o f the corrosive dynamism o f nationalism through the t r a d i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e " and the l a t e r use by the p a r t i e s o f t h e i r power "to democratize the structure and undermine or reduce what remained o f the power o f the t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s . . . has been a s o c i o l o g i c a l development indispensable  f o r the  devel-  207  opment o f a modern party system."  206 James S. Coleman, "The Emergence of A f r i c a n P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s " i n C.Grove Haines, ed., A f r i c a To-day, Baltimore, John Hopkins Press, 1955, P« 2Ul.  207  I b i d . , pp. 2lfl-2lr2.  91 Chapter I I I Old Patterns Re-Emerge : Federalism D i v i s i v e Forces Within N i g e r i a The most acute problem f a c i n g the N i g e r i a n n a t i o n a l i s t government i s that of the jealousy and s u s p i c i o n between t r i b e s . l i m i t s the functioning o f p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s .  This  suspicion  Parliamentary  democracy  however, r e s t s f i r m l y upon a stable and secure party system. parliamentary  I n any  democracy i t has been found extremely d i f f i c u l t t o pass  laws f o r one s e c t i o n o f the country by a majority of votes wholly founded i n another s e c t i o n .  P a r t i e s should therefore attempt t o base themselves  upon what could almost be c a l l e d u n i v e r s a l p r i n c i p l e s , such as conservatism, l i b e r a l i s m or s o c i a l i s m .  I n N i g e r i a these underlying p r i n c i p l e s or p h i l -  osophies are i n only the most embryonic form o f development. Group i s considered  The A c t i o n  conservative, p o s s i b l y because i t places emphasis upon  the t r a d i t i o n a l i n Yoruba l i f e and p o s s i b l y because i t encourages f r e e enterprise and f o r e i g n c a p i t a l investment.  The N.C.N.C. on the other hand  i s known t o favour the s o c i a l i s t i c approach t o the problems of n a t i o n a l society.  I f t h i s were the e n t i r e s t o r y the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l future might be  b r i g h t indeed.  P a r t i e s i n N i g e r i a however, do not r i s e or f a l l , nor are  they c r i t i c i z e d f o r t h e i r l e g i s l a t i v e approach t o the problems of s o c i e t y . The  question o f p o l i t i c s i s e n t i r e l y enmeshed i n the question o f t r i b e .  The hope of many Nigerians i s that a f e d e r a l structure w i l l disentangle the two questions by p l a c i n g the majority of emotional issues on the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l and allow t r u l y n a t i o n a l l y based p a r t i e s t o emerge a t the centre.  As  t h i s f e d e r a l structure emerged, many people opposed i t because they thought that they could see the o l d p a t t e r n o f A f r i c a re-emerging, each t r i b e i n i t s own area with i t s own a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , pursuing p o l i c i e s h o s t i l e t o i t s neighbours and so destroying the nation s t a t e .  The f o l l o w i n g chapter w i l l  t r a c e the resurgence of t r i b a l i s m i n N i g e r i a and attempt t o show how i t  92  contributed to the growth of the demand f o r a f e d e r a l c o n s t i t u t i o n . I n d i s c u s s i n g the c r e a t i o n of a N i g e r i a n n a t i o n , i f one must t h i n k i n terms of comparison, i t would be more r e a l i s t i c to compare the N i g e r i a n f e d e r a t i o n with the proposed United States of Europe rather than federat i o n s such as the United States and Canada.  Europeans as yet have been  unable to create the kind of union contemplated and a t the present time being created i n N i g e r i a .  The Austro-Hungarian Empire f a i l e d .  Even India  i s a poor comparison, f o r N i g e r i a has many of the problems of d i v e r s i t y which faced that country and more, p e c u l i a r to h e r s e l f . The various t r i b e s of N i g e r i a may be large units numbering eight to t e n m i l l i o n people or small groups claiming under a m i l l i o n members. those with a Canadian background the word t r i b e may be misleading.  To  It  would be e a s i e r and more comprehensible i f the word n a t i o n a l i t y could be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the word ' t r i b e * .  The t r i b e s are as d i f f e r e n t one from  the other as the E n g l i s h are from the Russians.  Their languages are com-  p l e t e l y d i s s i m i l a r , not d i a l e c t s one of the other. pare e a s i l y with Chinese and E n g l i s h .  Yoruba and Hausa com-  P o l i t i c a l t r a d i t i o n s range from  forms as unlike as C z a r i s t Russia to democratic Switzerland.  I n customs  and t r a d i t i o n s , marriage laws and r e l i g i o n , these t r i b e s are more unlike than the various European s t a t e s . A w r i t e r must be f u l l y - aware of the dangerous area he has entered, a white man,  when he launches a d i s c u s s i o n on N i g e r i a n d i v e r s i t y .  as  Quite  r i g h t l y Nigerians become h o s t i l e and suspicious the moment an outsider begins to t a l k about innumerable d i v i s i o n s i n the Erroneous ideas about our t r a d i t i o n and way of l i f e our supreme duty to prove than that which d i s u n i t e s I  country.  differences i n customs, h a b i t s , language, have been widely disseminated, but i t i s that that which unites Nigerians i s stronger them.*  D a i l y Times Lagos, No.14,158, 24 May,  1957,  p.8.  93  Too often w r i t e r s d i s c u s s i n g d i v i s s i v e forces have come t o the conc l u s i o n that N i g e r i a cannot a t t h i s stage achieve n a t i o n a l independence and therefore B r i t i s h tutelage i s necessary f o r a long time.  Divisions  i n the country are made the j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r continued c o l o n i a l s t a t u s . This i s f a r from the i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s which i s devoted t o t r a c i n g the growth o f p o l i t i c a l consciousness and ends where the framework o f the p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f the country has "been l a i d and i s f u n c t i o n i n g , f u n c t i o n i n g as c r e d i t a b l y as most other f e d e r a l s t a t e s . The background o f t h i s chapter i s intended t o i n d i c a t e the d i f f i c u l t i e s through which t h i s movement has passed and how i t has triumphed i n s p i t e o f the d i v e r s i t y i n the country.  I f anything, t h i s background enhances the  s t a t u r e o f N i g e r i a n leaders and p u b l i c rather than detracts from i t . V i s i b l e forces tending f o r u n i t y i n N i g e r i a are few, yet u n i t y i s triumphing.  U n i t y springs p r i n c i p a l l y from a desire f o r cohesion.  d e s i r e has been strong.  This  I t was the main theme o f the Ibadan Conference and 2  both London Conferences, even though the f e d e r a l p r i n c i p l e being evolved was mistaken f o r d i s u n i t y . I f we are paying l i p s e r v i c e t o u n i t y when we mean d i s u n i t y , l e t us have a f e d e r a l system of government and say goodbye to N i g e r i a n u n i t y and s o l i d a r i t y . 3 The p a r t i t i o n o f N i g e r i a i s complete and the r e g i o n a l boundary l i n e s have been drawn so t h i c k l y that the i d e a l o f one N i g e r i a which many o f us c h e r i s h has been completely destroyed.^  2  See below p. 86  3 N i g e r i a , Federal Government, Proceedings o f the General Conference on Review o f the C o n s t i t u t i o n Jan. 1 9 5 0 , (hereafter r e f e r r e d t o as Ibadan Conference) Lagos, Government P r i n t e r , 1950, p . l 6 8 . h New Era Bureau, The London R e g i o n a l i s a t i o n Conference, Before and A f t e r , Lagos, Techno L i t e r a r y Works, 1953, p.29.  9h Factors o f d i s u n i t y were headlined i n the press.  But even t h i s press  emphasis o f d i v i s i v e f a c t o r s has helped t o awaken more Nigerians t o the dangers o f d i s u n i t y and i n s p i r e them t o s t r i v e f o r a common basis o f nationality. Although t r i b a l i s m i s one o f the most discussed aspects o f N i g e r i a n n a t i o n a l l i f e few know what i t i s , analyze i t or separate i t s d i f f e r e n t factors.  Generally i t can be described as a d i s t r u s t and d i s l i k e o f one  group o f people t i e d by l i n g u i s t i c or c u l t u r a l t i e s f o r another.  Most  people agree that i t has t o be minimized and played down i n n a t i o n a l politics. Although t r i b a l i s m i s u s u a l l y connected w i t h the f e e l i n g s o f one t r i b e towards another i t i s w e l l t o remember that there are i n t e r n a l d i f f e r e n c e s between s i m i l a r ethnic groups.  Some of these d i f f e r e n c e s are  so sharp that one segment may p r e f e r t o side w i t h an outside t r i b e rather than w i t h the other segments o f t h e i r own l i n g u i s t i c group. The Ijebu-Ode men among the Yorubas and the Aros among the Ibos stand i n the same r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e i r ethnic groups as the Jews do i n Western society.  They are accused o f sharp p r a c t i c e s i n business.  I n Yorubaland  there i s s t i l l the f e e l i n g s engendered by the h i s t o r i c a l r i v a l r y between Ibadan and Ijebu-Ode.  There i s the resentment o f the a t t i t u d e o f superior-  i t y o f the Onitsha Ibo i n Iboland o f the Sokoto Hausa i n Hausaland. I n a l l sections there are f a b l e s and s t o r i e s prevalent about the women o f other areas, t h e i r u n f a i t h f u l n e s s e t c . which help t o prevent intermarriage. I n the Middle B e l t c e r t a i n d i s t i n c t i o n s occur between the l a s t century slave r a i d e r s and slave ridden t r i b e s .  Among the Ibos, the Osu ( s l a v e s ) are not  yet allowed equal s o c i a l d i g n i t y and r a r e l y intermarry with the other Ibos.  95  Some steps have been taken e s p e c i a l l y by youth organizations, t o c o r r e c t 5  this latter situation. S i m i l a r conditions p r e v a i l i n the minor ethnic groups.  These d i f f e r -  ences have not received the a t t e n t i o n i n the press and elsewhere because they do not have as great e f f e c t on n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s as t h e i r i n the major t r i b e s .  counterparts  Yet i n the l o c a l constituencies the p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s  must cater t o these p r e j u d i c e s .  Then too i n the face o f the predonderance  of the major t r i b e s many minor t r i b e s have been submerging t h e i r i n t e r n a l d i f f e r e n c e s as w e l l as t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h other minor t r i b e s i n order to achieve r e c o g n i t i o n f o r the minor t r i b e s .  I f these moves are success-  f u l and more states are created c o n s i s t i n g o f a number of small t r i b e s , i t i s t o be expected t h a t these d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l re-emerge i n the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s o f the new s t a t e s . The Ibos, centred mainly i n the Eastern Region have been termed " i n 6  d i v i d u a l s w i t h a touch of anarchy i n t h e i r hearts."  The i n d i v i d u a l i s m  of the Ibo has been an asset i n h i s adaptation o f the democratic system to his society.  The l a c k o f c h i e f s w i t h the same status as i n the other  regions has made i t e a s i e r f o r the East t o adopt parliamentary  government.  The e l e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e and representation f i t t e d more n a t u r a l l y i n t o the t r a d i t i o n a l Ibo v i l l a g e c o u n c i l system.  On the other hand, Ibo i n d i v i d u a l -  ism has r e s u l t e d i n l a c k o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and d i s c i p l i n e both i n the p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s and i n government. 5  "Ibo State Union t o Note," Eastern N i g e r i a n Guardian, V o l . X I , No.  2 0 , 1 9 1 , 18 Feb. 1950, p.3.  6 p.110.  Meeker, Oden, Report on A f r i c a , London, Chatto and Windus, 1955,  96  The people of the Eastern provinces must l e a r n i f t h e i r p o l i t i c a l progress i s to be assured; each man cannot, as many would d e s i r e , be h i s own r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , nor i f he i s chosen as a representative of many, can he represent h i s own views alone regardless of those he represents.? At the Ibadan Conference i t was noted t h a t there was "quite o f t e n more disagreement between Eastern members than between West and East or West and North.  8  I t i s quite p o s s i b l e that the t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n of t i t l e s which were based on wealth r a t h e r than b i r t h as i n the other regions has helped t o develop i n d i v i d u a l s by f o s t e r i n g ambition and c r e a t i n g healthy r i v a l r y w i t h i n the v i l l a g e s .  This emphasis upon wealth has f i t t e d the Ibo f o r  competition i n modern s o c i e t y and has l e d other t r i b e s to look upon the 9 Ibo as unduly mercenary. "The Ibo so o f t e n described as an i n d i v i d u a l , has nevertheless a high10 l y developed sense of h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to h i s countrymen or townsmen." This has r e s u l t e d i n the formation of various f a m i l y , town, c l a n and unions among the Ibos wherever they l i v e .  tribal  I t would seem that these unions  a r i s e from the Ibos' b a s i c f e e l i n g of i n s e c u r i t y which i n t u r n a r i s e s from II his individualism.  He i s extremely conscious of the l a c k of cohesion  i n h i s own t r i b e when he faces t r i b e s which appear t o speak w i t h one voice through t h e i r c h i e f or p o l i t i c i a n s .  This consciousness i s more pronounced  i n the Ibos abroad and i t i s here i n areas predominantly non-Ibo where he unites to p r o t e c t h i m s e l f .  Other t r i b e s are conscious of the strong t i e  7  N i g e r i a , L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l Debates, 1945,  8  N i g e r i a , Ibadan Conference,  p.538.  p.54.  9 H. Kaney Offonry, "The Strength of the Ibo Clan F e e l i n g , " West A f r i c a , N0.I787, 26 May, 1951, p.489. 10 Lord H a i l e y , Native A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h A f r i c a n T e r r i t o r i e s , P a r t I I I , London, His Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1951, p . I 9 . 11  Offonry, West A f r i c a , N 0 . I 7 8 7 , 26 May,  I95I, p.467.  97  of the Ibos and h i s apparent cohesion i n economic and s o c i a l matters. appears to them as a strong u n a s s i m i l i a b l e core i n t h e i r s o c i e t y .  He  Regard-  l e s s of h i s i n d i v i d u a l i s m the Ibo i s the most community minded,and cooperative c o n s t r u c t i o n of schools, c l e a r i n g of land and b u i l d i n g of roads i s more pronounced among the Ibo than among the other t r i b e s .  Frequently  these a c t i v i t i e s are the cause of secret and sometimes open admiration by members of other t r i b e s .  The combination of economic and s o c i a l cohesion  plus the charge of Ibo mercenary tendencies o f t e n antagonizes both Hausas and Yorubas i n the Northern Region. There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t the Ibo has been the most s u c c e s s f u l of the major t r i b e s i n h i s adaptation to the modern world.  One w r i t e r has  s a i d the Ibos are "the most hard working and v i o l e n t and progressive t r i b e 12  i n Nigeria."  "Progressive" may be given various i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s but i t  i s most o f t e n used i n N i g e r i a i n connection w i t h the Ibo and h i s adaptation to the Western World's type of government and economics.  The Ibos, l i k e  the Ghanaians, have l e s s of a " c u l t u r a l drag" t o contend w i t h , than the other t r i b e s of N i g e r i a .  So f a r they have acted on the precept t h a t the  Western World's system i s superior t o t h e i r own t r a d i t i o n .  They have aband-  oned t h e i r own t r a d i t i o n a l system and thrown themselves i n t o changing t h e i r country i n t o a r e p l i c a of a modern European or American s t a t e .  As yet there  i s l i t t l e d i s c u s s i o n among the Ibo i n t e l l e c t u a l s of the f u s i o n of European and A f r i c a n ways of l i f e or of preserving the best i n "our t r a d i t i o n . " This matter has caused almost a stalemate i n other regions i n c e r t a i n aspects of p o l i t i c a l l i f e and i n others i t i s b u i l d i n g up t o a climax. Some w r i t e r s have deplored t h i s a t t i t u d e of the Ibos and c a l l e d t h e i r present progress a 12  Meeker, A f r i c a ,  p.HO  98  " s u p e r f i c i a l success a t the cost of l o s i n g a l l n a t i v e c u l t u r e , " and accused them o f f o r g e t t i n g t h e i r own c u l t u r e because they f e e l  "European  13  knowledge gets them a l l the jobs."  Regardless of one's f e e l i n g i n t h i s  respect one cannot but be impressed w i t h the progress of large areas of the  Ibo regions of N i g e r i a . Much s t r e s s i s placed upon what i s c a l l e d "contact" meaning contact  w i t h the European.  The c o a s t a l t r i b e s came f i r s t i n contact w i t h the  Europeans during the time of the Portuguese but intimate contact w i t h a European n a t i o n came f i r s t to the Yorubas i n l 8 6 l when the B r i t i s h annexed Lagos. ubas.  From here B r i t i s h education, trade and c u l t u r e spread t o the YorIbo "contact" began around the t u r n of the century. A f t e r World  War I the Ibos slowly became aware of the lead which the Yoruba people had over them i n such f i e l d s as education. Quite c o n s c i o u s l y they began then to "catch up" t o the Yoruba. I n 19^9 Obafemi Owolowo s a i d : The Ibos are p a r t i c u l a r l y keen and ambitious and doing a l l they can to overtake the Y o r u b a s . ^ 15  By 1957 the Ibos had caught up and had p o s s i b l y overtaken the Yorubas. This r a p i d r i s e of the Ibos has l e d to two d i s t i n c t phenomena.  F i r s t , the  f e e l i n g of p r i d e i n t h e i r achievement and the prospect of f u t u r e domination and second, the f e e l i n g of resentment against other t r i b e s who have f a i l e d to recognize t h e i r new s t a t u s .  Stated otherwise, the Ibos have a f e e l i n g  of t h e i r manifest destiny and a t the same time a p e r s e c u t i o n complex. 13 Onye-Ocha, "Down w i t h Everything Ibo,"Nigeria No.23, the N i g e r i a S o c i e t y , Lagos, 19^6, p.98. 19^7,  •Ik Obafemi Awolowo, Path t o N i g e r i a n Freedom, London, Faber & Faber, p.1*9.  15 I n 1956 the Ibos became the dominant t r i b e i n the student body of Ibadan U n i v e r s i t y .  99  The l a r g e r s e c t i o n of the Ibo t r i b a l i s t s are genuine u n t r a v e l l e d stay-at-homes... They are steeped i n Ibo f o l k l o r e . . . They are fed by t h e i r d a i l y press on the romance of Ibo s c h o l a s t i c prowess. I n a decade they have produced i n t e l l e c t u a l giants to match and surpass the degenerate Yorubas, w i t h t h e i r s t a r t of over h a l f a century. They are a chosen people. Destiny has marked them out for leadership.l6 The best statement from the Ibos on t h e i r f e e l i n g of manifest d e s t i n y i s one by the greatest l i v i n g Ibo - Dr. Nnamdi A z i k i w e : A Mighty Nation s h a l l r e s u r r e c t i n the west of the Sudan, w i t h the love of freedom i n i t s sinews; and i t s h a l l come t o pass that the Ibo n a t i o n s h a l l emerge t o s u f f e r wrong no more, and t o r e - w r i t e the h i s t o r y w r i t t e n by E t h i o p i a and Songhay. I t i s the voice of d e s t i n y and we must answer t h i s c a l l f o r f r e e dom i n our l i f e time. The God of A f r i c a has w i l l e d i t . I t i s the handwriting on the w a l l . I t i s our manifest destiny. I n contrast to t h i s f e e l i n g of manifest destiny the Ibo t r i b e  still  may f e e l i n f e r i o r t o the Yoruba, a f e e l i n g encouraged by the Yoruba a t t i t 18  ude of s u p e r i o r i t y .  E s p e c i a l l y when r e g i o n a l i s a t i o n began,  which was,  d i r e c t e d against the Ibo, the t r i b e f e l t persecuted. The Ibo a t t i t u d e of manifest d e s t i n y was not the l e a s t o f the f a c t o r s which made the other t r i b e s f e e l uneasy and look f o r a method whereby i t could be checked.  The  t a l k of Ibo domination i n the press and elsewhere placed the Ibos abroad i n the p o s i t i o n of a persecuted race.  1952,  16 Adegbke Adelabu, A f r i c a i n E b u l l i t i o n , Ibadan, Union P r i n t i n g Press, pp. 7 2 - 3 .  17 Nnamdi Azikiwe, "Self-Determination f o r the Ibo People of N i g e r i a , " West A f r i c a n P i l o t , V o l . X I I , No.3502, 8 J u l y , 194-9, p . 2 . 18 R e g i o n a l i s a t i o n began i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n o f 1951 when power was devolved from the c e n t r a l government t o the newly created r e g i o n a l governments. The Yorubas and Hausas l e d the r e g i o n a l i s a t i o n movement because of the fear of the Ibos who appeared t o be g r a d u a l l y dominating the economic and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery of the country.  IOO We are so o s t r a c i s e d s o c i a l l y , that we have become extraneous i n the p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s of N i g e r i a . . . I t i s needless f o r me to. t e l l you that today, both i n England and West A f r i c a , the expression "Ibo" has become a target of opprobium... As a n a t i o n with a g l o r i o u s t r a d i t i o n and h i s t o r i c past, the Ibo n a t i o n demands from the p r o t e c t i n g power, freedom from persecut i o n , freedom from o s t r a c i s a t i o n , freedom from v i c t i m i s a t i o n , and freedom from discrimination.19 As has been intimated above, p a r t of the f r u s t r a t i o n of the Ibos has 20 been the a t t i t u d e of c u l t u r a l s u p e r i o r i t y of the Yorubas who a t l e a s t i n t h e i r moments o f l e v i t y , l i k e t o ignore recent progress and r e f e r to the 21 Ibos as "bush men,  naked and savage," and even as "cannibals."  The  Yorubas constantly b o l s t e r t h e i r weakening p o s i t i o n by p o i n t i n g to t h e i r superior t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e i r long record of Western education.  Their a t t i t u d e has been summed up best by Adegoke Adelabu, leader  of the opposition of the Western House of Assembly. The A c t i o n Group (representing the Yorubas) sees i n the Ibo t r i b e , a comparative l a t e comer i n the race f o r the acquirements of the outward veneer of c u l t u r e and the e x t e r n a l paraphernalia o f c i v i l i z a t i o n , a dangerous r i v a l and a harmful competitor. Under the shallow pretext of preserving Oduduwan c u l t u r e , safeguarding Yoruba s u p e r i o r i t y (which i s no more than a c c i d e n t a l advantage) and prot e c t i n g the Yoruba way of l i f e , i t (the A c t i o n Group) sets up a standard of r e v o l t . . . i t s r e a l aim the c o n s o l i d a t i o n and preserv a t i o n of Yoruba hegemony, supremacy and paramountcy i n the West. I t sees i n everything the N a t i o n a l phantasmagorial Ibo domination scare. The A c t i o n Group began as an a n t i - I b o o r g a n i z a t i o n and d i d not attempt t o conceal the f a c t .  I t advocated a f e d e r a l system i n order to preserve  the Yoruba c u l t u r a l i n i t i a l advantage.  19 Nnamdi Azikiwe, "Self-Determination f o r the Ibo People of N i g e r i a , " West A f r i c a n P i l o t , V o l . X I I , No.3500, 6 J u l y , I9U9, p . 2 . and V o l . X I I , No. 3502, 0 J u l y , 19^9, P . 2 . 20 Olorun-Nimbe (Yoruba) re-Nnamdi Azikiwe (ibo) "Ten barbarians o f h i s kind are not my equal c u l t u r a l l y speaking." Reported by Azikiwe i n h i s " P o l i t i c a l Reminiscences" Southern N i g e r i a Defender, Vol.V, No.12,130, 17 J u l y , 19^9, P . 2 . . 21 The term "cannibals" was used by a Yoruba p o l i t i c i a n i n reference t o Ibos i n a speech i n I956 i n Lagos. 22 Awolowo, Path t o N i g e r i a n Freedom, p.1+9.  101  I s t i l l f e e l , that the Yoruba people are more advanced p o l i t i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y , than the other e t h n i c a l groups, and t h a t owing t o the anomalous system o f our government, they have been held back to mark time w h i l e the other peoples make haste t o develop and ca tch up.23 In the t r i b a l i s t i c disputes and controversy the Hausas g e n e r a l l y stand apart. The Southerner looks upon the Hausa and the North i n general as backward and p r i m i t i v e .  I n the course o f h i s occupation, i f a South-  erner i s r e q u i r e d t o go North, f r e q u e n t l y he f e e l s as i f he i s becoming a pioneer, and once there tends t o long f o r the b r i g h t l i g h t s of c i v i l ization.  The Hausa on the other hand, i s so c e r t a i n of h i s superior c u l -  ture and h i s own s u p e r i o r i t y as a man and as a s o l d i e r proven by preB r i t i s h p e r i o d h i s t o r y t h a t he r a r e l y f e e l s i t necessary t o a s s e r t h i m s e l f . In h i s walk and bearing he i n d i c a t e s h i s f e e l i n g s of p i t y towards the Southerner.  Adelabu describes the Hausa a t t i t u d e as e x e m p l i f i e d by the  Northern Peoples P a r t y . I t i s irapregnably entrenched behind centuries of Islamic c u l t u r e and Mohammedan conservative way of l i f e . I t t h r i v e s l u x u r i o u s l y i n the North where, u n l i k e the South, r e l i g i o n i s not treated as one o f the a c t i v i t i e s of l i f e but as the l i f e . . . I t seems i n the bumptious South, East or West, a satanic c i v i l i z a t i o n , a mob of i n f i d e l s , a gawdy crowd of Europeanized apes, a people gone f r a n t i c a l l y chaotic and o r g i a s t i c over the scramble f o r imported ideas, r e l i g i o n and wares... H i s m i l i t a r y i n s t i n c t i s aroused. But f o r the a l l - p o w e r f u l White Man he would overrun these degenerate feminine pagans and dip h i s Koran i n the sea.24 The Northern Region has been described as conservative, a term which appears t o mean that they refuse f i r s t t o accept Western imported ideas i f these ideas c l a s h or destroy t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l system. ers  T h i s , the Southern-  see as a p o l i c y t o exclude a l l l i b e r a l influences emanating from South-  23 Obafemi Awolowo, "An Open L e t t e r t o S i r A r t h u r Richards," D a i l y S e r v i c e , V o l . V I , No.274, I May, 1945, p.2. 24  Adelabu, e b b u l l i t i o n , p.73.  102  em  Nigeria.  The Southerners accused the Northerners of encouraging the 25  "closed door p o l i c y of the government as regards the North."  The r e s -  pect and a f f e c t i o n which Northerners show f o r t h e i r c h i e f s i s another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which i s quite incomprehensible t o the Southerner.  The  Southerner shows p a r t i c u l a r s u r p r i s e and u n b e l i e f when these a t t i t u d e s appear strongest i n the western-educated Hausas. We i n the North are r a t h e r cautious of sudden changes. We do not want to be made to f o l l o w the changes which are f o r e i g n to our d e s i r e s , manners and customs when we become a f e d e r a l s t a t e i n the s e l f governing N i g e r i a n Union.^° I n comparing the North w i t h the East the C h i e f Commissioner of the Eastern Provinces, F.B. Carr had t h i s to say: The i n d i v i d u a l i s m and the craving t o paddle t h e i r own canoes, which d i s t i n g u i s h e s the people of the Eastern Provinces, f i n d s no counterpart i n the d i s c i p l i n e d and conservative North where respect and a f f e c t i o n f o r t h e i r c h i e f s i s a v e r y r e a l factor. '' 2  7  Among the minor t r i b e s s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e s p r e v a i l towards the major t r i b e s and towards each other. I n the proposed Calabar-Ogoja-Rivers State (C.O.R.) the E f i k s f e e l superior t o the I b i b i o s and Ogojans because of t h e i r longer "contact", and i n the Delta province the I s t e k i r i s hold a s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e to the Urhobos and both are contemptuous of the Ijaws. On the n a t i o n a l scene the minor t r i b e s may yet prove of great assistance to Nigerian unity.  I f the Yorubas w i l l not f o l l o w an Ibo and v i c e v e r s a ,  both may i n time be persuaded to be l e d by a B e n i s , Urhobo, Ijaw or E f i k .  25 26 p.172.  A r t h u r E. P r e s t , N i g e r i a , Ibadan Conference, p.73. N i g e r i a , Honourable Sulemanu, Emir o f Abuja, Ibadan Conference,  27 N i g e r i a , " P o l i t i c a l and C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Future of N i g e r i a , " S e s s i o n a l Paper, NoA, 5 March, 19^5, p.8.  103  Most Nigerians f e e l that t r i b a l i s m i s a curse of the e a r l y nineteen f i f t i e s but t h i s i s not quite true although i t probably reached i t s highe s t i n t e n s i t y a t that time. of t r i b a l animosity.  I n t e r - t r i b a l wars l e f t a legacy and t r a d i t i o n  The slave trade period of n e a r l y four hundred years  l e f t behind the t r a d i t i o n o f slave and s l a v e r .  The F u l a n i conquest c r e a t -  ed an a r i s t o c r a c y , and peasant c l a s s d i v i d e d l a r g e l y upon race.  The B r i t -  i s h maintained many o f the d i f f e r e n c e s p a r t i c u l a r l y between North and South by t h e i r separate systems o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t e r r u p t e d by the attempt t o b r i n g i n the native a d m i n i s t r a t i o n system i n the South. developing indigenous  Their p o l i c y o f  i n s t i t u t i o n s d i d not foresee an ultimate u n i f i e d  country o f N i g e r i a . During the eighteen e i g h t i e s , when the B r i t i s h were administering Lagos and the Yoruba kingdoms were a t war both among themselves and w i t h the F u l a n i Emir of I l o r i n , representatives of the various t r i b e s i n Lagos were sending arms t o t h e i r respective kingdoms i n the i n t e r i o r .  An i n t e r -  i o r c h i e f s a i d t o a representative seeking peace, " I f you want peace here, 28  you must s t a r t i n Lagos."  29  I n 1924, the slogan was r a i s e d i n Benin, "Benin f o r the Benis" there are other examples of t h i s kind o f t r i b a l i s m .  and  I n 1925, a t the  Durbar held f o r the P r i n c e of Wales i t was the f i r s t time the crowned heads of Yorubaland had seen each other face t o face; and i n the North the S u l t a n of Sokoto saw f o r the f i r s t time h i s o l d r i v a l the Shehu o f Bornu. 28  Lagos Observer, Vol.IV, No.7, 7 May, 1885, p.2.  29  A f r i c a n Messenger, Lagos, V o l . I l l , No.150, 17 Jan., 1924, p.3.  10k One w r i t e r i n commenting-on t r i b a l i s m says.Nigerians ought to be able to understand  the whiteman's colour prejudice f o r i n N i g e r i a the  more advanced t r i b e s make the less progressive, the b u t t of r i d i c u l e .  30  One of the excuses which the B r i t i s h used against N i g e r i a n i s a t i o n , and i t was a v a l i d one, was the reluctance of one t r i b e t o accept an o f f i c e r or c i v i l servant from another t r i b e . The blackman i s h i s own enemy, even i n our midst today i n N i g e r i a , we have no other enemy but ourselves. I t i s the blackman against the blackman a l l the time. And, what 31 f o o l s do we look i n the eyes of the few whitemen among us. I t was to be expected that t r i b a l , r e g i o n a l and s e c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s would be uncovered and sharpened w i t h the devolution of power from the B r i t i s h t o l o c a l statesmen.  32  I n I9I+5 Azikiwe could r e f e r to the  33  d i f f e r e n c e s between North and South,  but by 195^  imaginary  he was r e f e r r i n g to a  permanent breach between North and South. So long as the B r i t i s h umbrella gave both p a r t i e s p r o t e c t i o n , so long they appeared to be able t o l i v e together. Now, on the eve of B r i t i s h departure, c e r t a i n forces are at work to create a permanent breach i n the r e l a t i o n s of North and S o u t h . ^ Obafemi Awolowo i n 19^5  saw more c l e a r l y i n t o the s i t u a t i o n , and i t  was on the b a s i s of t h i s t r i b a l d i f f e r e n c e that he c a l l e d f o r a f e d e r a l system.  He was one of the few t o p r a i s e S i r Arthur Richards on the feder-  a l aspects of the C o n s t i t u t i o n of  19^5.  30  N i g e r i a n D a i l y Telegraph, Lagos, Vol.IV, N0.I36, 7 May,  31  N i g e r i a n Pioneer, Lagos, 23 A p r i l , 1926,  1931,  p.I+.  p.7.  32 James S. Coleman, "The Emergence of A f r i c a n P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s " i n C.Grove Haines, ed., A f r i c a Today, Baltimore, John Hopkins Press, 1955, p.236. 33  P i l o t , V o l . V I I I , No.2184, 15 Jan., 19^5,  p.2.  3h Nnamdi Azikiwe, a speech to an N.C.N.C. R a l l y , Lagos, If D e c , 195^, "Come Let Us B u i l d One Nation," reproduced i n F. Chidozie Ogbalu, Dr. Z i k of A f r i c a , p.25.  105  The Yorubas, Hausas and Ibos have nothing i n common. The onlycommon f a c t o r t o a l l of them i s B r i t i s h o v e r l o r d s h i p . The veneer of Western l e a r n i n g and c i v i l i z a t i o n and the common i n t e r est, i n demanding p o l i t i c a l freedom have tended to make i t appear that there i s some u n i t y among the educated Yorubas and the educated Ibos. However much the average educated Yorubas and Ibos may pretend to the c o n t r a r y t h a t they, are Nigerians f i r s t and Yorubas and. Ibos next, i n t h e i r heart of hearts they remain f i r s t and l a s t Yoruba and Ibo... By now s e t t i n g us on the road t o a f e d e r a l state of N i g e r i a , you have made i t p o s s i b l e f o r each e t h n i c a l group to develop t h e i r native s o u l s , i n f u l l r e a l i z a t i o n that i t i s i n the common i n t e r e s t to do so.35 A t the Ibadan C o n s t i t u t i o n - B u i l d i n g Conference i n 1950  t h i s f e a r of  domination centred around two i s s u e s ; that of representation and that of revenue d i s t r i b u t i o n . the  The Northern Region, w i t h over f i f t y per cent of  population, demanded representation on a p o p u l a t i o n b a s i s . We have begun t o l e a r n the idea of democracy from Europeans. I t s most important p r i n c i p l e we l e a r n i s the importance of m a j o r i t y . . N i g e r i a as a whole i s now running f a s t towards self-government and nobody w i l l expect us to keep quiet and allow other regions to develop a t the expense of the Northern Region.-^ In t h i s proposal the South could see i t s e t e r n a l domination by the  North and gave a v e i l e d threat that i t might consider breaking the federation. In a L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l of one hundred whatever the North desires would become law... The West and East w i l l have to accept every l e g i s l a t i v e proposal from the North... But i f the worst comes to the worst the West w i l l decide t o stand on i t s own feet.37 The Southern Regions proposed equal representation f o r each r e g i o n which would give the South double representation f o r i t s population.  In  t h i s proposal the North could see nothing but i t s enslavement.  35  Awolowo, "An Open L e t t e r , " D a i l y S e r v i c e , V o l . V I , No.274, I May,  36  N i g e r i a , Ibadan Conference, p.T.67.  37  N i g e r i a , Ibadan Conference,  p.24.  38  N i g e r i a , Ibadan Conference,  p.46.  1945, p.2.  io6 I f equal representation i s given to each r e g i o n , i t seems that the South i s to d i c t a t e to the North.38 We s h a l l escape from the domination of the whiteraan only to be enslaved by the blackman.39 When the Southern p a r t i e s l o s t t h e i r b i d f o r equal representation f o r each region i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n of 1951  they began to formulate a  p o l i c y t o d i v i d e the North by supporting the demands of the Middle B e l t f o r a separate s t a t e a t the London R e g i o n a l i z a t i o n Conference i n  1954.  The Southern p a r t i e s * press had b u i l t up a f i c t i t i o n a l strength to the s e p a r a t i s t movements i n the North and blamed the e l e c t i o n system and coercion f o r t h e i r poor showing a t the p o l l s . The Southern p a r t i e s ' fear of the North increased even more as separa t i s t movements grew i n t h e i r own regions i n the South.  Both Southern  governing p a r t i e s have stated they w i l l not see t h e i r own regions broken up unless the Northern Region i s s p l i t . On the issue of tax allotment, the North desired taxes to be disbursed w i t h some a t t e n t i o n to need or roughly even d i s t r i b u t i o n t o each region which on a per c a p i t a b a s i s would give the North h a l f as much as each Southern Region. Remember, you Southerners, you say you want u n i t y with us, and we agree but, i f i t were r e a l l y f r i e n d l y u n i t y you want, you would not object to sharing things e q u a l l y with us.^I  39 Gaskiya Ta F i Kwabo, 8 Feb., 1950, quoted i n Report of the Kano Disturbances, by the Northern N i g e r i a n Government S e c r e t a r i a t , Kaduna, Government P r i n t e r , 1953, p.4l. ho New Era Bureau, The London R e g i o n a l i z a t i o n Conference Before & A f t e r , Lagos, Techno Literary.Works, 1953, P'30« hi  N i g e r i a , A l h a j i Abdulmaliki I g b i r r a , Ibadan Conference,  p.96.  107 However, the West d i d not look favourably upon any scheme which i n 1+2  v i t e d d i l u t i o n of i t s higher per c a p i t a income. East had not been too c l e a r l y defined.  The p o s i t i o n of the  S i x months before the Ibadan Con-  ference Dr. Azikiwe s a i d t h a t , "Any p r a c t i c e which encourages the disbursement of taxes f o r the improvement of other areas, t o the detriment of the ^3  Ibo n a t i o n , must be v i g o r o u s l y opposed."  However, when i t g r a d u a l l y  became known t h a t the Eastern Region would b e n e f i t under a p o l i c y of d i s bursement according t o need the N.C.N.C, the governing p a r t y i n Eastern N i g e r i a , adopted t h i s p o l i c y .  Apparently Dr. Azikiwe was not averse to  spending Yoruba tax money i n the Ibo areas. Growth of Regional P a r t i e s . I n a l l West A f r i c a , both French and B r i t i s h areas, upon the d e v o l u t i o n of power to l o c a l bodies, the broad l o o s e l y k n i t N a t i o n a l i s t C o a l i t i o n s began t o d i s i n t e g r a t e i n t o r e l i g i o u s , t r i b a l and socio-economic  parties.  kk  Fear has played a dominant r o l e i n t h i s development. Togo, the Cameroons and Dahomey  I n Republique  de  the b a s i s of the s p l i t has been the same  as i n N i g e r i a , "namely the sharp c u l t u r a l cleavage between the more cons e r v a t i v e Moslems of the North and the more adaptable and modernist  South-  1+6  erners." 1+2 James S. Coleman, "The Emergence of A f r i c a n P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s " i n C. Grove Haines, ed., A f r i c a Today, Baltimore, John Hopkins Press, 1955, p.237. 1+3 Nnamdi A z i k i w e , "Farewell Message at the F i r s t Assembly df the Ibo State Union," P i l o t , V o l . X I I , No.3502 , 8 J u l y , 191+9, p . 2 . 1+1+ I n S i e r r a Leone the Peoples P a r t y formed due t o f e a r of the h i s t o r i c a l l y dominant Freetonians or Creoles. I n Haute V o l t a the Union V o l t a i q u e formed because of f e a r of the t r a d i t i o n a l l y dominant Mossi people of East Haute V o l t a . 1+5 Dahomey - The P a r t i R e p u b l i c a i n Dahoraeen represents the people of the South and The Groupement Etnnique du Nord the people of the North. 1+6 James S. Coleman, "The Emergence of A f r i c a n P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s " i n C. Grove Haines, ed., A f r i c a Today, Baltimore, John Hopkins Press, 1955, P«  108  I n N i g e r i a the Northern Peoples* Congress (N.P.C.) has found a common bond i n the Moslem r e l i g i o n , Islamic Hausa c u l t u r e and the f e a r of the more advanced Southerners.  The A c t i o n Group (A.G.) found i t s u n i t y  i n the Ibo domination scare, and the N.C.N.C. has tended more and more t o cater to Ibo self-consciousness r a l l y i n g around the p e r s o n a l i t y o f Azikiwe.  I n N i g e r i a d i s i n t e g r a t i o n and fragmentation has continued w i t h hi  the "progressive awakening of ethnic and r e l i g i o u s communities." The three major p a r t i e s vary i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o the B r i t i s h from extreme p r o - B r i t i s h f e e l i n g i n the N.P.C. to extreme a n t i - B r i t i s h f e e l i n g i n the N.C.N.C. I n the North the B r i t i s h are p r a i s e d f o r saving Islamic Hausa c u l t u r e from d i s i n t e g r a t i o n and are clung t o , as a defence against the encroaching Southerner. We were conquered by the whiteman but he d i d not enslave us, and now those who d i d not conquer us (Southerners) w i l l enslave us. ^8 I n the West the a t t i t u d e i s the same only somewhat more moderate. Chief Awolowo i s sometimes accused by h i s opponents of f l a t t e r i n g the Bri t i s h i n t o granting self-government.  He could make the f o l l o w i n g statement  without r i s k i n g c r i t i c i s m from h i s p a r t y . To many of us, B r i t a i n i s a second home. Coming here (London) therefore i s not l i k e being i n the midst of strangers. Indeed we are here among people w i t h whom we have had long and close c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l and business a s s o c i a t i o n s . . . ( i t w i l l be) the pride and happiness of the people of N i g e r i a to continue this association.^9  hi James S. Coleman, "The Emergence of A f r i c a n P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s , " i n C.Grove Haines, ed., A f r i c a Today, B a l t i m o r e , John Hopkins Press, 1955, P ' 237  hB h9 2h May,  Gaskiya Ta F i Kwabo, 8 Feb., 1950, p.2. Awolowo to the I956 London Conference, D a i l y Times, No.l4,I58, 1957,  p.3-  109  Dr. Azikiwe the spokesman o f the N.C.N.C. came the c l o s e s t t o p r a i s i n g the B r i t i s h when he returned from the London R e g i o n a l i s a t i o n Conference i n I95k and remarked that self-government was being handed t o N i g e r i a on a p l a t t e r o f gold.  However, the N.C.N.C. i s the only p a r t y which have  threatened t o lead N i g e r i a out o f the Commonwealth, and the Party's  gener-  a l a t t i t u d e i s b e t t e r summed up by Dr. Azikiwe's quote from Bernard Shaw: There i s nothing so bad or so good that you w i l l not f i n d Englishmen doing i t ; b u t you w i l l never f i n d an Englishman i n the wrong. He does everything on p r i n c i p l e . He f i g h t s you on p a t r i o t i c p r i n c i p l e s ; he robs you on business p r i n c i p l e s ; he enslaves you on i m p e r i a l p r i n c i p l e s . 5 0 Ever since S i r A r t h u r Richards introduced  the 19^5 C o n s t i t u t i o n which  attempted t o express the d i v e r s i t y o f N i g e r i a i n a U n i t a r y s t a t e , the N.C. N.C. have accused B r i t a i n o f attempting t o p a k i s t a n i s e the country as she 51  i s accused o f doing i n the case o f I n d i a , I s r a e l and I r e l a n d . So l e t N i g e r i a be p a k i s t a n i s e d i f that i s the wish o f the B r i t i s h government and i f Northerners choose t o allow themselves t o be misled by such gas bags as Balewa and Makaman Bida.-* 2  The N.C.N.C. constantly fought the f e d e r a l p r i n c i p l e , c a l l i n g i t p a k i s t a n i s a t i o n and maintained that the B r i t i s h were supporting and even instrumental  i n the c r e a t i o n o f the N.P.C. and A.G. who supported f e d e r a l -  ism and claiming that only Dr. Azikiwe and the N.C.N.C. "stood between 53  B r i t i s h p a k i s t a n i s a t i o n o f N i g e r i a and N i g e r i a n u n i t y . "  50 N i g e r i a , Eastern Region, C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Dispute, Statement made i n the Eastern House o f Assembly by Dr. the Hon. Nnamdi Azikiwe, Premier of the Eastern Region, 19 A p r i l , 1955, Enugu, Gov't P r i n t e r , p.5. 51 Nnamdi Azikiwe, " B r i t i s h P a k i s t a n i s a t i o n o f N i g e r i a n T e r r i t o r y , " P i l o t , V o l . X I I , No.35^0, 2k Aug., I9I+9, p.2. 52 N. Azikiwe, " B r i t i s h P a k i s t a n i s a t i o n o f N i g e r i a , " P i l o t , V o l . X I I , No.350ir, I I J u l y , I9k9, p . 2 . 53  Adelabu, e b u l l i t i o n , p.23.  THM*. yen, GOOD OLD tmn\ Gom ram t> t mi ie> vem, so r can feep PAT OM f « e ^ OVRC/ISSK  no The Worth's a t t i t u d e was not t o deny that they were r e l y i n g on the B r i t i s h f o r advice but t o defend that p o l i c y . This Southern newspaper ( P i l o t ) says that we i n the North have no independent judgment, have no views o f our own but those put i n our mouths by Europeans... Because o f that as we are A f r i c a n s i f we take our advice from a European are we t o be reproached? Should we take i t from an A f r i c a n even though we r. - : see i t s obvious u n r e l i a b i l i t y ? ^ While a t t a c k i n g B r i t i s h p a k i s t a n i s a t i o n o f N i g e r i a the N.C.N.C. along w i t h the f e d e r a l i s t p a r t i e s A.G. and N.P.C. were rushing towards a f e d e r a l ism w i t h more and more powers centred i n the regions.  A former N.C.N.C.  member commented s a r c a s t i c a l l y on the N.C.N.C. a t t i t u d e a t the London R e g i o n a l i s a t i o n Conference. To s i t back and watch those who formerly c r i t i c i s e d him ( L y t t l e t o n ) when he suggested a loose centre now asking him t o give them an even looser centre than he probably had i n mind must have t i c k l e d him immensely... And so Awolowo can keep the West, Sardauna the North, Azikiwe the East, L y t t l e t o n the centre.55 However, Dr. Azikiwe as e a r l y as 1 9 ^ 9 bad d e f i n i t e l y set the p a t t e r n f o r a f e d e r a l state and i t would appear that the N.C.N.C. found i t p o l i t i c a l l y expedient t o t a l k about the u n i t y o f N i g e r i a w h i l e a t the same time a c t u a l l y working f o r a f e d e r a l system. We ( i b o nation) should e x i s t as an i n t e r n a l l y autonomous state w i t h i n the framework o f a federated Commonwealth o f N i g e r i a and the Cameroons.5°  54 " E d i t o r i a l " Gaskiya Ta F i Kwabo, 3 Oct., 1 9 5 1 , P , 2 . quoted i n the Report o f the Kano Disturbances, p.hk. 55 New Era Bureau, The London ' R e g i o n a l i s a t i o n ' Conference Before & A f t e r , Lagos, Techno L i t e r a r y Works, 1953, P«29. 56 N. A z i k i w e , "Self-Determination f o r the Ibo People o f N i g e r i a , " P i l o t , V o l . X I I , No.3501, 7 J u l y , 19^9, p . 2 .  Ill The B r i t i s h countered the charge of p a k i s t a n i s a t i o n w i t h a number o f quite d e f i n i t e statements.  S i r Arthur Richards s a i d , " B r i t a i n i s not  57 going t o repeat i n N i g e r i a the mistakes she has committed i n I n d i a . " The B r i t i s h government i n a statement t o Azikiwe s a i d , "His Majesty's  58 Government's p o l i c y was t o maintain the u n i t y of N i g e r i a . "  Again i n  1947 the A c t i n g Governor, George Beresford Stooke s a i d i n h i s New Years message: We cannot a f f o r d t o d i s s i p a t e our energies i n i n t e r - t r i b a l , inter-communal or i n t e r - r a c i a l quarrels and l e a s t o f a l l can we a f f o r d such a m i s - d i r e c t i o n o f e f f o r t s a t the present time.59 During 1948 i n what i s known as the "Press war" the government threatened that "should the controversy be continued i n a form l i k e l y t o exacerbate i n t e r - t r i b a l f e e l i n g s , government may be compelled t o seek  60 powers t o exercise a measure of c o n t r o l over the press."  And again i n  1953 a f t e r the Kano R i o t s Governor Macpherson s a i d , "the measure o f the blow that has been d e a l t t o the u n i t y of N i g e r i a i s s t i l l t o be assessed. I t could be argued t h a t through the p e r i o d 1948 t o 1954 the u n i t y which N i g e r i a had, was preserved by the B r i t i s h .  1953,  57 Timothy Moka Uzo, The P a t h f i n d e r , P o r t Harcourt, Niger Press, P-3. 58  Loc. c i t .  59 N i g e r i a , F e d e r a l Information S e r v i c e , N i g e r i a ' s C o n s t i t u t i o n a l S t o r y I867-I954, Lagos, the S e r v i c e , 1955, P « l 8 . 60  N i g e r i a n C i t i z e n , V o l . 1 , No.6, 15 Oct., 1948, p.2.  61 Charles U. Uwanaka, New N i g e r i a , Lagos, P a c i f i c P r i n t i n g and P u b l i s h i n g , 1953, P . 2 5 .  112  The gap between the Worth and South widened with each passing year u n t i l i t r e s u l t e d i n the Kano Disturbances i n 1953'  One of the f a c t o r s  c o n t r i b u t i n g to t h i s widening breach was the desire of the South to move too  f a s t i n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l changes. Honestly speaking, gentlemen, the Worth i s a f r a i d o f making t h i s r a p i d , and i f I may c a l l i t , a r t i f i c i a l advance a t t h i s stage... We l i k e t o have power, but only when we have come to the stage where we can hold that power. Another f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g to d i s t r u s t between Worth and South was  the  general Southern attack upon the Worth l e d by the Southern press.  This  a t t a c k was centred on four p o i n t s , f i r s t that the W.P.G., the governing p a r t y i n the Worth, d i d not represent the people. The thing which surprises me most i s that a l l the newspapers which are owned by Southerners say the same t h i n g . They contain nothing but abuse f o r the Worthern representatives. I f they continue to m i s c a l l the Worth because i t does not subscribe to t h e i r views,they are promoting the d i s u n i t y of Wigeria. We the spokesmen of the Worth are f u l l y behind our representatives i n j u s t the same way as the Southerners are behind t h e i r s . 3 Secondly, the Southern press accorded the Worthern Elements Progressive Union (W.E.P.U.) an importance which i t d i d not possess.  Thirdly,the  press supported any i n d i v i d u a l or group of Worthern o r i g i n whose p o l i c y was to undermine the established a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  F o u r t h l y , the South  maintained that the Wortherners echoed the B r i t i s h v o i c e .  An e d i t o r i a l  e n t i t l e d "His Masters Voice" appeared i n the West A f r i c a n P i l o t . The S u l t a n of Sokoto who has apparently been s i l e n t on the issue of self-government, has been c r e d i t e d w i t h a statement on Mau Mau t e r r o r i s m . The S u l t a n has every r i g h t to admonish his c o - r e l i g i o n i s t s but i t i s necessary to ask whether the fears expressed i n the release are a l l h i s or whether they are mixed up^-with the fears of B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s as well 0 4  62  Wigeria, Tafawa Balewa, Ibadan Conference, p.63 and 6 8 .  63  Gaskiya Ta F i Gwabo, I I Feb., 1950,  p.2.  6k "His Masters Voice," West A f r i c a n P i l o t , 15 A p r i l , 1953 i n Worthern Wigeria, Kano Disturbances, p.5.  113  Probably the strongest statement of a Southerner was by Chief Bode Thomas who s a i d , "We refuse t o a s s o c i a t e ourselves w i t h A f r i c a n s who have 65  not the guts to speak t h e i r mind." In 1953 when the Northern representatives to the F e d e r a l parliament refused to approve a r e s o l u t i o n asking f o r self-government i n 1956  they  were mobbed outside the b u i l d i n g s by hooligans heckling them w i t h such slogans as, "His Masters V o i c e , " "Government p a r t y t h i e v e s , " "Kolanut c h i e f s , " "No minds of t h e i r own,"  "Slaves of whitemen," and "Stupid Hausa."  A most unpleasant feature of our l a s t three days i n Lagos was the band of hooligans who were organized by unscrupulous p o l i t i c i a n s to abuse anyone seen to be wearing Northern dress. ° I t would appear t h a t the influence of the Southern press was behind the Lagos mobs and that Dr. Azikiwe and Chief Awolowo had a l s o been deluded by t h e i r own press f o r they immediately set out on a missionary journey to the North t o rouse the people against the N.P.C. They f u l l y expected to be received by cheering multitudes f o r t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e newspapers apparently p r i n t i n g t h e i r s t o r i e s ahead of time were already h e a d l i n i n g t h e i r triumphant r e c e p t i o n . "The North regarded these self-imposed missionary a c t i v i t i e s as being nothing more or l e s s than an attempt to secure, by o r g a n i s i n g confusion i n the North, i t s domination by the South." Resentment rose f a s t i n the North as a r e s u l t of the i n s u l t s to Northern leaders i n Lagos and the non-stop h o s t i l e press campaign.  The pro-  posed tour of the North was too much.  65  Charles U. Uwanaka, New N i g e r i a , Lagos, P a c i f i c P u b l i s h i n g ,  66  The Sardauna of Sokoto, Northern N i g e r i a , Kano Disturbances,  67  Loc. c i t .  1953,  p.25. p.k.  Ilk Having abused us i n the South these very Southerners have decided to come over to the North to abuse us, but we have determined t o r e t a l i a t e the treatment given us i n the South.68 R i o t i n g broke out, d i r e c t e d against the Southerners l i v i n g i n the 69  Sabon G a r i ,  when Chief Awolowo a r r i v e d a t Kano.  three days.  Fourteen Northerners and twenty-one Southerners were k i l l e d  and a t o t a l of 2kl i n j u r e d .  Turbulence reigned f o r  The p o l i c e r e f r a i n e d from using guns.  There  was serious danger of r i o t s i n other Northern centres such as J o s , Kaduna, and other towns w i t h s u b s t a n t i a l Southern populations. In the report published by the Northern government the blame was placed i n the f i r s t instance on the lawless elements of Kano, and i n the second, on the Southern p r e s s . The blame f o r s t a r t i n g the d i s o r d e r s , t h e r e f o r e , c l e a r l y l i e s w i t h the lawless elements of Kano, and no amount of provocation, short term or long term, can i n any sense, j u s t i f y t h e i r behaviour.70 The r i o t s i n Kano increased the tendencies towards p a k i s t a n i s a t i o n and now f o r the f i r s t time the North began t o discuss s e r i o u s l y the sett i n g up of a separate s t a t e . A t the moment, a l l the people I have spoken t o say, " d i v i d e the country," I e x p l a i n the hardships, but they s t i l l say, " d i v i d e the country."71 We, on r e f l e c t i o n , consider that a mistake was made i n 191^ when the North and South were joined together. Now a f t e r t h i r t y - s i x years, i f i t i s decided to d i v i d e N i g e r i a , both the North and South w i l l s u f f e r . 7 2  68  Northern N i g e r i a , Kano Disturbances, P . U 6 .  69 The l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n i s stranger's town. The m a j o r i t y of Southerners l i v i n g i n the North r e s i d e i n these towns where they are allowed municipal i n s t i t u t i o n s and where they l i v e much as they would i n Southern N i g e r i a . 70  Northern N i g e r i a , Kano Disturbances, p.38.  71 A l h a j i Ahmandu, Sardauna of Sokoto, Premier of the Northern Region, reported i n N i g e r i a n C i t i z e n , V o l . 1 , No.77, 17 Feb., 1950, p . I . 72  " E d i t o r i a l , " Gaskiya Ta F i Kwabo, I I Feb.,  1950.  115  The Northerners, always conscious of t h e i r dependence on the South f o r an o u t l e t t o the sea "began t o t a l k r e c K l e s s l y of co-operating w i t h the French f o r a r a i l w a y t o the ocean or any scheme which would loosen the hold the South held over them by i t s possession of a l l the N i g e r i a n ports. We do not want N i g e r i a to be p a r t i t i o n e d , but i f i n a u n i f i e d N i g e r i a we see falsehood, harm, enslavement and oppression, then l e t us i n s i s t upon separation. Look at P a k i s t a n , although experiencing d i f f i c u l t y , she i s r e j o i c i n g i n her freedom.73 The ultimate r e s u l t of the Kano Disturbances was a new p o l i c y s t a t e ment by the N.P.C. drawn up i n May,  1953,  commonly c a l l e d the North's  Eight P o i n t P l a n which demanded f o r the North complete l e g i s l a t i v e and executive autonomy except e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s , defence, customs and which would be placed under a n o n - p o l i t i c a l c e n t r a l agency.  research  There was  be no c e n t r a l l e g i s l a t u r e or executive f o r the whole of N i g e r i a .  to  Railways,  airways, posts and telegraphs, e l e c t r i c i t y and c o a l mining would be placed under p u b l i c corporations.  Customs revenue should be decided according to  the imports region of d e s t i n a t i o n . Upon the p u b l i c a t i o n of the E i g h t P o i n t P l a n , the break between North and South was  complete.  A t t h i s point i t might be w e l l to look a t the N i g e r i a n press. years between 1885  and 19^0 the press took as i t s duty that of "watch dog  on the government and o f f i c i a l s . " well.  I n the  This task i t performed moderately and  I t was s c h o l a r l y and catered t o an e l i t e .  From 19^5  t o 1951  the  l a r g e r s e c t i o n of the N i g e r i a n press l e d by the Z i k i s t group of f i v e , changed i t s s i g h t s and aimed a t the mass c i r c u l a t i o n - the s e m i - l i t e r a t e . By so doing i t s standards went down i n terms of language and  73  Gaskiya Ta F i Kwabo, I I Feb., 1950,  p.2.  unfortunately  116 i n terms of v e r a c i t y .  lh  are s c a r c e l y b e l i e v a b l e .  The i n s u l t s to the E n g l i s h during t h i s p e r i o d The r a c i a l antagonism engendered deteriorated  race r e l a t i o n s as the press e x p l o i t e d every p o i n t of discontent.  Both  75 i n the general s t r i k e of I9*+5 and the Enugu Shooting  i t attempted to  76 rouse the people t o greater r e s i s t a n c e . The press roused the demand f o r self-government, and on t h i s i t has j u s t i f i e d i t s disregard f o r t r u t h .  The B r i t i s h would withdraw many thou-  sands of miles away a f t e r independence and l i t t l e permanent harm would be done. From 1951  on, when the press f e l t f a i r l y c e r t a i n that the B r i t i s h  were going, they turned t h e i r attacks upon t h e i r f e l l o w N i g e r i a n s . I n so doing they were c r e a t i n g deep r i f t s and b i t t e r memories which only years of p a t i e n t labour would undo. Since a s e c t i o n of the N i g e r i a n people have taken upon themselves to advocate f o r immediate self-government, and condemned and p i l l o r i e d every sane leader who thinks otherwise, what monstrosities i n the name of p a t r i o t i s m have been committed, what chaos has ensued, what moral and s p i r i t u a l losses have been sustained, you yourselves are my witness.77 In the l i g h t of t h i s i t appeared almost comic-opera t h a t Dr. Azikiwe and h i s newspapers should press unceasing attacks upon The Times and The Economist.  The most b l a t a n t example was when Dr. Azikiwe (who was then  charging the B r i t i s h w i t h p a k i s t a n i s a t i o n p o l i c i e s i n N i g e r i a and at the  Jh  Northern N i g e r i a , Kano Disturbances, Appendix C, pp. If7-49.  75 I n I9*+9, twenty-nine s t r i k i n g miners were shot a t the Iva mine near Enugu on the orders of a B r i t i s h o f f i c e r . 76 The F i t z g e r a l d Commission accused the press of t u r n i n g the Enugu Shooting, an i n d u s t r i a l dispute, i n t o a p o l i t i c a l d i s p u t e , and I might add, a r a c i a l dispute. 77  Rev. 0. E f i o n g , N i g e r i a , Ibadan Conference, p.8l.  117  same time d e s c r i b i n g the Eastern Region o f N i g e r i a as the Ibo nation) attacked The Times f o r an e d i t o r i a l i n which i t warned o f the dangers o f pakistanisation. One w r i t e r has s a i d , " I t i s l i k e l y . . . that the people w i l l l e a r n that 78  sturdy d i s r e s p e c t f o r journalism that older states know."  I t i s prob-  a b l y t h i s l e a r n i n g which i s t u r n i n g many people t o The D a i l y Times, a p o l i t i c a l l y independent, London c o n t r o l l e d newspaper, so that now i t has a l a r g e r s u b s c r i p t i o n than The D a i l y S e r v i c e and The West A f r i c a n P i l o t combined.  I n the past, too much emphasis i n N i g e r i a has been placed on  press freedom by the newspapers and not enough on press r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Many N i g e r i a n leaders have been s t r o n g l y impressed w i t h the need f o r transcending t r i b a l i s m and r e g i o n a l i s m .  I n 19^7 Mbonu Ojike asked every79  one t o boycott the use o f the word "tribe'.' again eschewed t r i b a l i s m .  Dr. Azikiwe has over and over  As the chosen leader o f the representatives o f a great m a j o r i t y o f fourteen m i l l i o n inhabitants o f the South, I appeal t o the Premier of the Northern Region t o have f a i t h that i t i s not the i n t e n t i o n of Southerners t o dominate the North o r t o desecrate t h e i r r e l i g ious t r a d i t i o n s . 8 0 Both the executive leaders and executive committee o f the N.C.N.C. 81  are quite representative o f Southern N i g e r i a .  The A.G. committee i s  not as representative as the N.C.N.C. but f o r a s o - c a l l e d , a l l Yoruba 78 p.112. 79  Oden Meeker, Report on A f r i c a , London, Chatto & Windus, 1 9 5 5 , Mbonu O j i k e , "Weekend Catechism," P i l o t , Vol.X, No.2920, 2 Aug.,  19^7, p . 2 .  80 N. A z i k i w e , "Come L e t Us B u i l d One Nation," F. Chidozie Ogbalu, Dr. Z i k of A f r i c a , p.91. 81 Executive Leaders(195^),four Yorubas,one Ibo,one I s t e k i r i , o n e Ghanaian,one S i e r r a Leonian. Executive c o m m i t t e e ( l 9 5 6 ) , t h i r t e e n Yorubas, t e n Ibos,two Efiks,two I b i b i o s , f o u r Cameroonians,one Middle Belter,one Fulani.  118  p a r t y , i t has a f a i r number of non-Yoruba members, although they were 82  u n t i l 1957  a l l westerners.  The A.G. began as a Yoruba o r g a n i s a t i o n  but although i t i s not very o l d i t has been making conscious e f f o r t s t o undo the apparent parochialism w i t h which i t was associated at i t s i n i t i a l 83  stage.  Rotimi Williams once declared i n the press, "we are only begin-  ning from the West," A.G.  84  and t h i s statement has l a t e r been proven true as the  has extended i t s e l f i n t o both the Northern and Eastern Regions.  Chief  Awolowo was statesman enough to c a l l upon the Yorubas to emulate the I b o s  1  85  example of s e l f - h e l p and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . In the North there are p o s i t i v e signs t h a t the N.P.C. has moved away from i t s Eight P o i n t Program and has surrendered t o Southern demands f o r self-government  i n i960.  The Northern newspaper Gaskiya Ta F i Kwabo during  the Press war began a self-imposed censorship and refused t o p u b l i s h or 86  w r i t e inflammatory m a t e r i a l which would set one group against the other. A large body of o p i n i o n i n N i g e r i a would agree w i t h A l v i n Ikoku,leader of the o p p o s i t i o n i n the Eastern House of Assembly, i n probably the f i n e s t speech on N i g e r i a n u n i t y . J u s t as I b e l i e v e i t would be a poor N i g e r i a i f we sense of d i s c i p l i n e and s o l i d a r i t y of the North, i a poor N i g e r i a i f we l o s t the grandeur and respect peoples' f e e l i n g of the West and the frankness and  l o s t the t would be f o r other respect  82 Executive L e a d e r s ( l 9 5 6 ) , n i n e Yorubas,one Benis,one Ibo. Execut i v e Committee(1956),eleven Yorubas,one Benis,one I s t e k i r i , o n e Ibo,one Urhobo. 83 New Era Bureau, The London " R e g i o n a l i s a t i o n " Conference, & A f t e r , Lagos, Techno L i t e r a r y Works, 1953, p.I3« 81*  Before  Loc. c i t .  85 Obafemi Awolowo, The P r i c e of Progress, Ibadan, P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s Department, 1953, p.20. 86  Northern N i g e r i a , Kano Disturbances,  p.39.  119 for the r i g h t s o f the i n d i v i d u a l o f the East, so i t would he a poor N i g e r i a i f we l o s t the s p e c i a l i s e d knowledge o f people who are not o f our colour, but who are h a p p i l y o f our school of thought.87 Decline o f the N.C.N.C. The N.C.N.C. a t the height o f i t s power was able t o hold together many diverse elements by v i r t u e o f the one bond o f common aim - opposition t o the B r i t i s h .  When the B r i t i s h began t o r e l i n q u i s h power under the  Macpherson c o n s t i t u t i o n , the N.C.N.C. had d i f f i c u l t y i n s e i z i n g that power and a t the same time keeping i t s e l f free t o c r i t i c i s e the government o f which i t was now a p a r t .  Dr. Azikiwe l e f t the country j u s t before the  Ibadan Conference, one o f the most important conferences i n N i g e r i a n h i s t o r y , and went on a tour o f Europe and America.  The Ibadan Conference  l a r g e l y shaped the Macpherson c o n s t i t u t i o n and c r i t i c i s m  o f the c o n s t i t u -  t i o n must therefore be d i r e c t e d a t Nigerians, o f t e n N.C.N.C. supporters, and not a t the B r i t i s h .  By going t o Europe and so remaining a l o o f from  the proceedings Dr. Azikiwe was able t o c r i t i c i s e the decisions upon h i s return.  The d i f f i c u l t y o f s e i z i n g power and c r i t i c i s i n g a t the same time  was one o f the reasons f o r the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c r i s i s i n Eastern N i g e r i a i n 1953, the break i n the ranks o f the N.C.N.C. and the emergence o f a new party.  The N.C.N.C. p a r t y executive, important elements o f which f a i l e d  t o gain e l e c t i o n , wished t o break the c o n s t i t u t i o n while the  parliamentary  wing, who were enjoying power wished t o make the c o n s t i t u t i o n work. For t h i s reason u n i t y w i t h i n the N.C.N.C. decreased i n proportion t o the withdrawal o f B r i t i s h r u l e . t o d i s t i n g u i s h i t as a p a r t y .  The p a r t y d i d not have a set o f p r i n c i p l e s Each a f f i l i a t e d o r g a n i s a t i o n f e l t free t o  87 A l v i n Ikoku, N i g e r i a , Ibadan Conference, p.56.  120 88  c r i t i c i s e i t s p o l i c y and the strength o f i t s united f r o n t began t o wane. I n the e a r l y p e r i o d , the N.C.N.C. had shown tendencies towards marxism, s o c i a l i s m , racism, messianism, v i o l e n c e and independence outside the Commonwealth.  These were only tendencies, not p o l i c i e s , but the l a c k o f  d i s c i p l i n e made i t p o s s i b l e f o r a l l kinds and conditions o f small men t o make speeches i n d i c a t i n g these tendencies.  Conservative opinion began t o  f e a r the p a r t y , judging i t upon many o f these l e s s e r men. The N i g e r i a n Youth Movement (N.Y.M.) s t i l l continued i n existence, i t s strength almost n i l as the people showed l i t t l e enthusiasm f o r conservative opinion i n the years from 1945 t o 1 9 5 0 . When i t became p l a i n that c o l o n i a l r u l e was dep a r t i n g , the emphasis s h i f t e d from opposition t o c o l o n i a l i s m t o p o l i c i e s o f governing.  Here conservative opinion could b i d f o r r e c o g n i t i o n .  Opposition  t o the N.C.N.C. extremist t a c t i c s and tendencies came from the North and from the Yorubas. The N.C.N.C. f o l l o w i n g i n the North had never been l a r g e , confined mainly t o the Southerners l i v i n g i n the North.  However, a s e c t i o n o f North-  ern opinion had looked favourably upon the p o l i c i e s o f the N.C.N.C. The extremist t a c t i c s set heavy conservative opinion i n a c t i o n i n the North and a l i e n a t e d the m a j o r i t y o f favourable opinion away from the N.C.N.C. Nobody l i k e s changes more than we do... changes are the law o f nature, but we want n a t u r a l changes and not r a d i c a l ones which w i l l r e s u l t i n nothing e l s e but f a i l u r e . 89 Many Yoruba leaders f e l t that the N.C.N.C. was going too f a s t .  A t the  same time they f e l t the B r i t i s h were moving too slowly.  88 Dr. Azikiwe i n announcing a dramatic purge o f the p a r t y used these words,"I am convinced that a d r a s t i c c o n t r o l o f the N.C.N.C, even i n a t o t a l i t a r i a n manner, has become necessary." D a i l y Times, 29 Oct., 1957, p . 8 . 89  Makaman Bida quoted i n Ogbalu, Dr. A z i k o f A f r i c a , p.58.  121  As f a r as I know, no r i g h t t h i n k i n g N i g e r i a n has ever s e r i o u s l y doubted the s i n c e r i t y of B r i t i s h p r o t e s t a t i o n s t h a t the ultimate goal f o r c o l o n i a l dependencies i s self-government. The a l l important question i s : when? The B r i t i s h government moves a l l too s l o w l y i n the d i r e c t i o n of t h i s g o a l , so s l o w l y i n f a c t , t h a t when they say they are i n motion, they make no p e r c e p t i b l e progress. I n the r e s u l t the c o l o n i a l peoples impatient of i n d e f i n i t e subjugation o f t e n r e a c t v i o l e n t l y and demand t o be 'rocketed* t o the goal of immediate self-government, r e c k l e s s o f the f a c t t h a t they may be blown t o b i t s when the rocket crashes a t the other end.90 Others f e l t that the a n t i - B r i t i s h a t t i t u d e o f the N.C.N.C. was causi n g the B r i t i s h t o be stubborn and a t t r i b u t e d the party's f a i l u r e t o t h a t 91  cause.  S t i l l others attacked the N.C.N.C. f o r exceeding the mandate  given t o i t by the people.  The l e t t e r t o the N a t u r a l leaders which asked  them t o endorse the N.C.N.C. as t h e i r spokesman over the four obnoxious ordinances had not s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned self-government  but only mention-  ed "other matters r e l e v a n t t o the welfare and progress o f N i g e r i a . " C r i t i c s accused the p a r t y o f doing what S i r Arthur Richards had done; drawing up a c o n s t i t u t i o n without c o n s u l t i n g the people.  Dr. Azikiwe defended h i s  party's a c t i o n : C e r t a i n l y , the demand f o r self-government and the d r a f t i n g o f a c o n s t i t u t i o n by the N.C.N.C. delegates are other matters.... relevant t o the welfare and progress o f N i g e r i a . 9 2 Because the object o f a l l groups and p a r t i e s was the same, p o l i c i e s o f t e n degenerated i n t o personal r i v a l r i e s and p e t t y b i c k e r i n g s .  The loose  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the N.C.N.C. meant t h a t much d i r t y l i n e n was washed i n p u b l i c w i t h r e s u l t a n t d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t and l o s s o f i d e a l i s m o f many people.  90  Awolowo, "An Open L e t t e r , " D a i l y S e r v i c e , V o l . 1 , No.274, I May,  1945, p . 2 .  91 A z i k i w e , " P o l i t i c a l Reminiscences(7)" Southern N i g e r i a Defender, Vol.V, No.12,134, 22 J u l y , 1947, p . 2 . 92  Loc. c i t .  122  As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned the p o s i t i o n o f the leader i n t h i s loose o r g a n i z a t i o n was important.  The over-exalted and near d e i f i e d p o s i t i o n  of Dr. Azikiwe i n the p a r t y a l i e n a t e d many who f e l t that he was a great man but a t the same time human w i t h human weaknesses.  C r i t i c i s m o f Dr.  Azikiwe almost l e d t o expulsion from the p a r t y . Both i n s i d e and outside the N.C.N.C. anybody who appeared t o be a t h r e a t t o Azikiwe*s sole r e i g n was mowed down l i k e grass.93 The o p p o s i t i o n c r i t i c i s e d the ways i n which the t h i r t e e n thousand pounds c o l l e c t e d by the N.C.N.C. on t h e i r tour of the country, was spent. Voices were r a i s e d asking f o r an accounting.  Dr. Azikiwe s u b t l y blamed  t h i s on Herbert Macaulay who was dead, by saying t h a t " p r o v i d e n t i a l l y the 94  'grand o l d man' died and I d i d not have t o question him."  I n the mad  scramble f o r wealth and power many people saw the l e s s p a t r i o t i c side o f the n a t i o n a l i s t movement and wished f o r a more i d e a l i s t i c approach t o s e l f government . 95  "The N.C.N.C. foundered on the rock of t r i b a l i s m . " statement w i t h a t l e a s t some t r u t h i n i t . l e a d e r s h i p , Yoruba-Ibo, Macaulay-Azikiwe,  This i s a large  A f t e r Macaulay*s death the d u a l disappeared.  No Yoruba leader  grew up under Azikiwe who could hold the Yorubas i n the p a r t y , the most b r i l l i a n t and c o l o u r f u l Yorubas having broken from the p a r t y .  However, there  were s u f f i c i e n t Yorubas i n the p a r t y i n 1957 that the N.C.N.C. had considerable Yoruba f o l l o w i n g . 93  A c t i o n Group, Forward t o Freedom, Ibadan, Bureau o f Information,  1954, p . 2 .  94 A z i k i w e , " P o l i t i c a l Reminiscences(3)," Southern N i g e r i a Defender, Vol.V, No.12,129, 16 J u l y , 1948, p.4. 95 Thomas Hodgkins, Nationalism i n C o l o n i a l A f r i c a , London, Frederi c k M u l l e r , 1956, p.151.  123  Very e a r l y a number o f p r o f e s s i o n a l men o f Yoruba o r i g i n who held important p o s i t i o n s i n the N.C.N.C. had been a t t a c k i n g i t as an Ibo o r g a n i s a t i o n and complaining that Dr. Azikiwe was favouring f e l l o w Ibos 96  w i t h the most important posts i n the party.  Olorun-Nimbe accused Dr. 97  A z i k i w e o f turning the Northern Tour i n t o an Ibo a f f a i r .  As the years  passed the N.C.N.C. became more and more an Ibo p a r t y , l a r g e l y because o f the r i s e o f other p a r t i e s on a t r i b a l basis but a l s o due t o the overemphasis upon the Ibo i n the N.C.N.C. Dr. Azikiwe as leader o f the party must share i n the f a i l u r e s as w e l l as the successes o f the N.C.N.C. There i s no doubt that Dr. Azikiwe was l a r g e l y the f o c a l p o i n t and embodiment of the new N i g e r i a n p r i d e , s e l f 98  confidence and hope which characterized N i g e r i a i n the immediate post war years. He was the f i r s t t o "awaken the p u b l i c i n t o n a t i o n a l awareness and 99  the desperate desire f o r freedom."  He was one of the f i r s t t o arouse  r a c i a l consciousness i n the N i g e r i a n .  I b e l i e v e that l i k e Nkrumah h i s e a r l y  preaching o f r a c i a l i s m and h i s p o l i c y o f c r e a t i n g r a c i a l antagonism "was merely a technique f o r coalescing the nationalism o f h i s people i n readiness 100  f o r the overthrow o f c o l o n i a l i s m . " B a s i c a l l y he was not a n t i - B r i t i s h . So long as Great B r i t a i n sympathises w i t h our p o l i t i c a l a s p i r a t i o n s and encourages our growth towards an independent n a t i o n a l existence as a s t a t e , so long s h a l l we seek t o bind ourselves c l o s e r t o the t i e s o f a l l e g i a n c e t o the Crown.101 96 Desmond Buckle, "Nigeria's Road t o Independence" A f r i c a South, V o l . 1 , N o . l , Oct.-Dec. T.956, p.99. 97 Azikiwe, " P o l i t i c a l R e m i n i s c e n c e s ^ ) " Southern N i g e r i a Defender, Vol.V, No.12,130, 17 J u l y , 1948, p . I . 98  W.T. Fox, Z i k As I See Him,  99  Akande Tugbiyele, The Emergence o f Nationalism and Federalism, p.23.  100 p.296.  Lagos, by the w r i t e r , 1947, p . 9 .  S i r A l a n Burns, H i s t o r y o f N i g e r i a , London, A l l e n & Unwin, 1 9 5 5 ,  101 Azikiwe, "Address on the Occasion o f the R e v i s i o n o f the Macpherson C o n s t i t u t i o n 1 9 5 3 , " quoted i n Ogbalu, Dr. Z i k of A f r i c a , p.47.  121+ However, he has never understood how t o handle the B r i t i s h and f r e quently has clashed w i t h them. He has p r e f e r r e d t o blame h i s own mistakes on the B r i t i s h government and t h i s has not helped t o convince the B r i t i s h o f h i s a b i l i t y t o govern.  There are more statements o f h i s which  are a n t i - B r i t i s h than otherwise, and i n t h i s i t would appear as i f he were c a t e r i n g more t o the Eastern people who tend t o be more c r i t i c a l of the B r i t i s h than the Western or Northern people. 102  Ibo w r i t e r s have i d o l i z e d him. "God made him without blemish." An Ibo-dominated n a t i o n a l church has conferred sainthood on him. Azikiwe's acceptance of these honours has made many non-Ibos f e e l he i s v a i n and carr i e d away w i t h h i s own importance. Azikiwe's martyr complex.  This may be the explanation of Dr.  C e r t a i n l y h i s i n f l u e n c e has t h r i v e d on the sus-  p i c i o n that he i s being persecuted, that the B r i t i s h are out t o r u i n him. Thus i n any d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the B r i t i s h regardless o f the r i g h t s or the wrongs of the case the suggestion has always been t h a t i t i s another move o f the B r i t i s h Government t o d i s c r e d i t him. Even non-Ibos were convinced o f Azikiwe's s i n c e r i t y and h i s personal 103  integrity.  One C i v i l servant w r i t i n g o f him says, "every man i n the  provinces who was questioned confirmed without any h e s i t a t i o n t h a t he and h i s people had complete and almost b l i n d confidence i n Z i k ' s personal hone s t y and i n t e g r i t y . "  Dr. Azikiwe more than any other N i g e r i a n has a t -  tempted t o transcend the boundaries of t r i b a l i s m . 102  Ogbalu, Dr. Z i k of A f r i c a , p.25.  103 This c o n v i c t i o n has been shaken by the Foster-Sutton Commission i n v e s t i g a t i n g the a f f a i r s of the C o n t i n e n t a l Bank. Azikiwe was found g u i l t y o f using government money t o prevent the bankruptcy o f a bank i n which he and h i s f a m i l y held c o n t r o l l i n g shares. IOU  Fox, Z i k As I See Him, p . I I .  125  He regards himself and behaves as a N i g e r i a n knowing nothing of t r i b a l boundary.105 Herbert Macaulay was c e r t a i n he was a N i g e r i a n f i r s t and l a s t and attempted to s t i l l the mounting c r i t i c i s m of Z i k as an Ibo. Some people say he hates Yorubas. I don't b e l i e v e them... He i s a N i g e r i a n , an Ibo, a Yoruba, an Hausa, a Kroo, anything.IC-6 Besides these statements should be placed h i s Ibo S t a t e Union Address 107  o f 19^9 from which excerpts have been quoted.  This address i s probably  the most s t r a i g h t forward and undisguised statement supporting t r i b a l i s m ever recorded i n N i g e r i a w i t h i t s l u s t y references t o the Ibo n a t i o n and i t s manifest destiny t o recreate the empires of the p a s t . Dr. Azikiwe's main p o p u l a r i t y and support come through h i s w r i t i n g s . His book, Renascent A f r i c a , has been termed the B i b l e of A f r i c a n n a t i o n a l i s t movements.  I t was i n the f i e l d of journalism, however, where the r e a l  power of h i s pen became apparent.  His readers and admirers were " t h i r s t i n g  f o r reading matter of almost any k i n d " but e s p e c i a l l y f o r any w r i t i n g which appealed to t h e i r newly awakened p o l i t i c a l consciousness and supported t h e i r 108 "growing self-confidence and r a c i a l p r i d e . "  Copies of The West A f r i c a n  P i l o t between 19^7 and 19^9 were o f t e n s o l d and r e s o l d ; some e d i t o r i a l s being committed t o memory. Zik's journalism caused much i n d i g n a t i o n i n c e r t a i n quarters, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n government c i r c l e s and among the conservative'Nigerians because he was " t r a i n e d i n the American school which i s regarded as shockingly 105 Ogbalu, Dr. Z i k of A f r i c a , p.25. 106 Isaac B. Thomas, L i f e H i s t o r y o f Herbert Macaulay C.E., Ahede Eko, 19^7, p . 6 l . 107  See below p. 9 9 .  108  Fox, Z i k As I See Him, p.3.  Lagos,  126  d i r e c t , o f f e n s i v e and crude" by B r i t i s h and B r i t i s h educated readers.  109  The Rise of the A c t i o n Group Under the chairmanship of S i r Adeyemo A l a k i y a an all-Yoruba n a t i o n a l movement known as the Egbe Omo Oduduwa) was  inaugurated  Oduduwa ( A s s o c i a t i o n of the c h i l d r e n of  i n November, 19^7.  The idea of a Yoruba c u l t u r a l  a s s o c i a t i o n had f i r s t been suggested by Obafemi Awolowo i n London a couple of years e a r l i e r .  The members included S i r Adeyemo and Dr. K. Abayomi, both  known f o r conservative p r o - B r i t i s h views, Dr. Maja, president of the N i g e r i a n Youth Movement and f o r a number of years e l e c t e d member f o r Lagos i n the House of Assembly. The new  Awolowo was then a r e l a t i v e l y unknown p e r s o n a l i t y .  o r g a n i z a t i o n emphasised the d i f f e r e n c e s rather than the sim110  i l a r i t i e s of the various t r i b e s i n N i g e r i a .  I t aimed  to f o s t e r a s p i r i t  of u n i t y among Yorubas by discouraging i n t e r - t r i b a l prejudice and aimed at the c r e a t i o n of a s i n g l e nationalism throughout Yorubaland. I t s second aim was to co-ordinate educational and c u l t u r a l programmes among the Yorubas which i t c a l l e d a heterogenous people. t u r a l s u p e r i o r i t y f o r the Yoruba people.  I t implied a c u l -  I t whipped up Yoruba nationalism  by e x t o l l i n g the ancient g l o r y that once belonged to the Yorubas and s u p e r i o r i t y of Yoruba adaptation t o western l i v i n g and t h i n k i n g .  the  I t s em-  phasis on education may have been an attempt t o maintain the Yoruba lead over the Ibos i n t h i s f i e l d . The t h i r d aim of the Egbe Omo Odudwa was to preserve the monarchial form of government i n Western N i g e r i a by acknowledging the leadership of III the obas and plan f o r t h e i r enlightenment and democratisation.  109  Fox, Z i k As I See Him,  p.3-  110 The aims of the Egbe Omo Oduduwa were stated by Dr. K. Abayomi, P i l o t , V o l . X I , No.3022, 3 Dec. 19^7, p.2. 111  The Yoruba word f o r " c h i e f . "  127  I t r a p i d l y gained ground. monarchial tendencies  I t a t t r a c t e d the obas, because of i t s  e s p e c i a l l y since under the Richards C o n s t i t u t i o n ,  although a House of Chiefs had been created i n the North, there had been no such p r o v i s i o n f o r the Yoruba West.  The Egbe Omo  Oduduwa was  plainly  determined t o work towards such o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n . I should have thought that these Western potentates of ours are sagacious and worthy enough to be entrusted w i t h the functions of a separate House of Chief The new  s o c i e t y by i t s n o n - p o l i t i c a l nature and moderate approach 113  won  over the obas as a l l i e s .  the Eghe Omo  They became very valuable a l l i e s when  Oduduwa turned p o l i t i c a l .  Besides the obas, conservative  Yoruba groups, the educated, business and the p r o f e s s i o n a l classes found the new  s o c i e t y congenial.  U n t i l 1951,  the Egbe Omo  Oduduwa remained a r e p l y t o the Ibo State  Union, c a t e r i n g f o r the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l progress of the Yoruba.  It  was however, u n l i k e the Ibo State Union i n that i t was created as a c e n t r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which intended t o set up l o c a l branches while the Ibo State Union was  created to unite and d i r e c t the many l o c a l Ibo unions which had  formed l o c a l l y f o r a great v a r i e t y of reasons. I n 1951,  the Egbe Omo  Oduduwa formed an A c t i o n Committee, l a t e r c a l l e d  the A c t i o n Group (A.G.) as i t s p o l i t i c a l wing. the chairmanship of Obafemi Awolowo. e s t a b l i s h l o c a l branches.  This committee was  under  The A c t i o n Group immediately began t o  S h o r t l y a f t e r i t s formation the A.G.  realising  the p o l i t i c a l disadvantage of i t s p a r e n t a l o r g a n i s a t i o n attempted unsuccessf u l l y t o d i s s o c i a t e i t s e l f from the Egbe Omo energy was e x i s t by 112  k May,  chanelled i n t o the A.G.  Oduduwa. Nevertheless  Yoruba  The parent o r g a n i s a t i o n had ceased t o  1956.  Awolowo, "An Open 19^5,  p.2.  Letter(lr),"  D a i l y S e r v i c e , V o l . V I , No.276,  .  113 Bamishe 0 . Agunbiade, The Case f o r the A c t i o n Group - P a r t y of the Masses, Ibadan, A f r i c a n Press, I95*-, p.I2. 1  128 The A.G.  appeared as a r e v i t a l i s e d and n a t i o n a l v e r s i o n o f the N.Y.M.  Many N.Y.M. members became A.G.  supporters.  The D a i l y Service press, the  c r e a t i o n o f the N.Y.M., became the o f f i c i a l organ o f the A.G. The N.Y.M. remained a Lagos municipal party now i n a l l i a n c e with the A.G. Although the Egbe Omo Oduduwa had ceased t o e x i s t , the A.G. to represent the sentiments o f i t s parent body.  continued  I t s p o l i c y was a p o l i t i c -  a l expression o f the c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s o f the Egbe Omo Oduduwa, and as such d i r e c t e d and fed on Yoruba nationalism.  I t confined i t s operation  t o the Western Region preaching the " s o l i d a r i t y o f the parts and the u n i t y Illf of a l l . "  Owing t o t h i s p o l i c y i t f i r m l y believed i n a f e d e r a l system  and from i t s i n c e p t i o n quite d e f i n i t e l y and p r e c i s e l y stated i t s p o l i c y on federalism, a suggested ten states organised with a view t o c u l t u r a l and e t h n i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s , r e g i o n a l i s a t i o n o f the j u d i c i a r y and c i v i l s e r v i c e , and r e s i d u a l powers l y i n g i n the regions.  Such a p o l i c y l a i d the foundation  of a p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s party o f the f u t u r e . I n outlook i t r e f l e c t e d those who l a r g e l y supported i t , the conservatives.  I t eschewed r a d i c a l s o c i a l i s m , r a c i a l i s m , and a l l forms o f violence.  I t set out to b u i l d a system modelled on B r i t i s h parliamentary procedure and Canadian and A u s t r a l i a n federalism.  I t s aim was to prove t o the B r i t -  i s h Nigerians' a b i l i t y t o r u l e and r u l e w e l l , and when i t had t o employ pressure i t d i d so by "gentlemanly means."  By so doing i t won the hearty  support and l o y a l t y o f i t s B r i t i s h c i v i l servants who p r i v a t e l y became i t s strongest supporters.  This l e d t o the Opposition's complaint that i t was a  c r e a t i o n o f the B r i t i s h and that i t was p r i v a t e l y encouraged by the B r i t i s h government.  More credence has been given t o t h i s theory by the A c t i o n  Group's success a t conferences where, because of i t s c l e a r - c u t p o l i c y and Ilk " P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s i n N i g e r i a , " N i g e r i a Year Book 1956, Lagos, N i g e r i a n P r i n t i n g and P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1956, p.I05.  129  v e i l thought out arguments, i t has been able more than any other p a r t y t o express i t s w i l l i n evolving the N i g e r i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n .  While the  N.C.N.C. has been busy opposing most measures, and then f i n a l l y backing down and accepting them, the A.G. has been able t o f o l l o w a p o s i t i v e constructive policy. The N.C.N.C. p l a n f o r N i g e r i a had o r i g i n a l l y been a u n i t a r y state and thus the r e g i o n a l p a t t e r n introduced by the Richards C o n s t i t u t i o n was b i t t e r l y attacked. The A.G. arose t o support and even f u r t h e r t h i s system. B i t t e r n e s s between the p a r t i e s mounted r a p i d l y .  When i t was admitted that  a u n i t a r y state was impossible, due t o the a t t i t u d e o f both the North and West, the N.C.N.C. changed t o favour a f e d e r a l system w i t h a strong centre. To accomplish t h i s they recommended a number o f s t a t e s , eight o r nine i n order t h a t no state could p o s s i b l y dominate the c e n t r a l government. For the same reason they opposed the r e g i o n a l i s a t i o n o f the j u d i c i a r y and 115  c i v i l service. The determining f a c t o r s i n c r e a t i n g such states were t o be l i n g u i s t i c , c u l t u r a l , geographic and f i n a n c i a l .  The proposed states i n t h i s semi-federal  p l a n were, Benin-Delta, Calabar, Ibo (Ogoja, a dual t r i b e province, t o dec i d e where i t wished t o be p l a c e d ) , Rivers State (East and West Ijaws),  Il6 Bornu, Cameroons, Hausa S t a t e , and the Middle B e l t (one o r two s t a t e s ) . As e a r l y as the Ibadan Conference 1950 which decided against l i n g u i s t i c d i v i s i o n s , Mbonu O j i k e and Eyo I t a both N.C.N.C. members submitted a m i n o r i t y r e p o r t i n which they supported the "grouping o f N i g e r i a along 1954,  115 N.C.N.C. B a t t l e f o r U n i t y and Freedom, Yaba, Z i k E n t e r p r i s e , pp.Ul-42. 116  Ogbalu, Dr. Z i k of A f r i c a , p.78.  130  ethnic and l i n g u i s t i c u n i t s " which would seem t o remove the "problem of boundaries, m i n o r i t y and p a k i s t a n i s t i c dangers now threatening the u n i t y 117  of Nigeria." The A c t i o n Group began as a p a r t y devoted t o the f e d e r a l p r i n c i p l e . They maintained that federations were held together by a backbone of nat i o n a l f e e l i n g and not n e c e s s a r i l y by a c o n s t i t u t i o n w i t h a strong c e n t r a l government.  On the other hand too much s t r e s s on the c e n t r a l element had 118  caused federations to f a l l apart. The argument of the A.G. which c a r r i e d the heaviest p o l i t i c a l weight was that under a u n i t a r y system the Yorubas would be held back. were determined was not t o happen.  This they  The Yoruba c u l t u r a l lead was t o be  maintained. While I b e l i e v e , and s t i l l b e l i e v e that the Ibo people can be r e l i e d upon t o run very f a s t , as i n f a c t they are doing already, and catch up w i t h the Yorubas without considerable loss of time and subsequent f r u s t r a t i o n t o the p o l i t i c a l a s p i r a t i o n s of the Yorubas, I was convinced that the Hausas under the e x i s t i n g system might be a perpetu a l drag.119 The Northern Region agreed w i t h these sentiments: The North, gentlemen, would very much l i k e t o march with the r e s t of N i g e r i a , but a t a reasonable speed, not a t an impossible speed f o r the North, and i t i s w i t h t h i s i n mind that the Northern Region has recommended a f e d e r a l system of government i n t h i s country...  117  N i g e r i a , Ibadan Conference, p.244.  118 N i g e r i a , Fed. Gov't, Report on the Commission on Revenue A l l o c a t i o n , I n v e s t i g a t i o n by J.R. H i s k s , Lagos, Gov't P r i n t e r , 1951, p.47. 119 Awolowo, "An Open L e t t e r ( l ) D a i l y S e r v i c e , V o l . V I , No.274, I May, 1945, p . 2 .  131  The North does not wish, and has never had the i n t e n t i o n o f r e t a r d i n g the p o l i t i c a l advance o f any Region.120 I t was because o f the Northern support o f the West f o r a f e d e r a l system that i t was guaranteed t h a t i t would emerge, w i t h o r without the consent o f the N.C.N.C. The A.G. favoured the r e g i o n a l i s a t i o n o f the j u d i c i a r y , c i v i l s e r v i c e and p o l i c e because they feared that the Ibos were g r a d u a l l y coming t o domi n a t e these features o f the government and they saw i n the N.C.N.C. p o l i c y 121  of n o n - r e g i o n a l i s a t i o n an attempt t o perpetuate t h i s Ibo dominance. The c o n f l i c t between the N.C.N.C. and A.G. over a strong versus a loose f e d e r a t i o n focused on the question o f where the r e s i d u a l powers should l i e ; the N.C.N.C. favouring r e s i d u a l powers a t the centre, the A.G. i n the regions. The A.G. marked a new departure i n p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n .  I t main-  t a i n e d an e f f i c i e n t p a r t y machine, l o c a l branches leading up t o the nat i o n a l executive, r u l e s , dues, f u l l time organisers and a technique o f gaining and maintaining popular support.  I t was an example o f a c l o s e l y  k n i t , w e l l d i s c i p l i n e d p a r t y modelled on B r i t i s h p a r t i e s i n contrast t o the loose, amorphous N.C.N.C. The future l i e s w i t h t h i s new model organ122  i s a t i o n r a t h e r than the N.C.N.C. older congress type. centrated i t s a c t i o n i n the west.  The A.G. con-  I t " b i t o f f j u s t enough chunk o f p o l i t -  120  Ogbalu, Dr. Z i k of A f r i c a , pp. 8 8 - 9 .  121  Ibos c o n s t i t u t e over s i x t y per cent o f the N i g e r i a n p o l i c e f o r c e .  122 F. Gros C l a r k , Henry C o l l i n s , Thomas Hodgkins, Amanke Okafor, The New West A f r i c a , London, A l l e n & Unwin, 1953, p.66.  132  i c a l sphere as i t could conveniently chew and d i g e s t , " while the N.C.N.C. 123  was handicapped by i t s i n i t i a l attempt a t country-wide r a m i f i c a t i o n s . The p o s i t i o n o f the leader i n the A.G. showed a marked change from the N.C.N.C. Chief Obafemi Awolowo had been the c h i e f a r c h i t e c t and guiding  l i g h t o f the A.G. His doctrine o f federalism as set down i n h i s book,  Path t o N i g e r i a n Freedom, and h i s Open L e t t e r t o S i r Arthur Richards, l a i d down the p r i n c i p l e s which the A.G. c o n s i s t e n t l y followed.  Awolowo has been  extremely important t o the p a r t y but he does not hold the near-sacred pos i t i o n o f Dr. Azikiwe.  Awolowo i s not considered i r r e p l a c a b l e , and the  p a r t y need not n e c e s s a r i l y break up when h i s services are no longer needed. The N.C.N.C. can h a r d l y expect t o avoid a disastrous leadership struggle f o l l o w i n g the demise of Azikiwe. Obafemi Awolowo was born o f Ijebu-Ode Yoruba parents i n 1909. educated mainly i n A n g l i c a n and Methodist schools.  He was  He was the f i r s t N i g e r i a n  to complete the Bachelor o f Commerce degree e x t e r n a l l y from London University.  He was c a l l e d t o the bar from. Inner Temple, London.  He was the  f i r s t general secretary o f the Egbe Omo Oduduwa i n 19^8. He stood and was e l e c t e d t o represent Ijebu-Remo d i v i s i o n i n the f i r s t general e l e c t i o n i n 1951•  Formerly Awolowo had been a c t i v e i n union work and was a co-founder  o f the Trade Union Congress o f N i g e r i a . He has had a number o f honourary t r a d i t i o n a l N i g e r i a n t i t l e s conferred on him by I j e u n , Ikenne, Ijebu-Remo, Oshogbo, A d o - E k i t i and I l e - I f e .  Chief Awolowo has never been able t o woo  the Ibadan Yorubas because o f h i s Ijebu-Ode background.  The Ibadans are  s t i l l influenced by t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l d i s l i k e and s u s p i c i o n o f the people of Ijebu-Ode.  123  New Era Bureau, London " R e g i o n a l i s a t i o n " Conference, p.12.  133  The most serious charge made against the A.G. i s that i t "began on a wave o f t r i b a l i s t i c sentiment, and although i t l a t e r modified i t s policyi t had the e f f e c t o f i n t e n s i f y i n g t r i b a l i s t i c f e e l i n g s i n other t r i b e s . There i s no question t h a t the A c t i o n Group was the f i r s t t o openly proclaim the doctrine of t r i b a l i s m .  This d o c t r i n e was presented t o the  people i n the form o f arousing f e a r o f Ibo domination.  The N.C.N.C. was  charged as being an Ibo o r g a n i s a t i o n . The creeping Ibo menace i n the p o l i c e , the professions and business was pointed out w i t h t e l l i n g e f f e c t . This a t t a c k upon the Ibos and the N.C.N.C. was v i g o r o u s l y countered by Dr. A z i k i w e . Henceforth, the c r y must be one o f b a t t l e against the Egbe Omo Oduduwa, i t s leaders a t home and abroad, up h i l l and down dale i n the s t r e e t s o f N i g e r i a and i n the residences o f i t s advocates . . . i t i s the enemy o f N i g e r i a ; i t must be crushed t o the earth ...there i s no going back, u n t i l the F a s c i s t o r g a n i s a t i o n o f S i r Adeyemo has been dismembered. Because i t was the same p a r t y which o r i g i n a t e d i n a wave o f t r i b a l i s m and a t the same time advocated a f e d e r a l system, the two ideas became a l most i d e n t i c a l i n the minds o f the people.  Many people f e l t t h a t the  A c t i o n Group was aiming a t the secession o f the Western Region from the Federation. The t h i r d charge against the A c t i o n Group was t h a t i t was p r o - B r i t i s h . Sometimes i t has been h i n t e d t h a t the B r i t i s h even a s s i s t e d i n i t s form125  ation.  These charges were based on a number o f circumstances.  The s p l i t -  t i n g o f the sub-continent o f I n d i a i n t o two nations had c e r t a i n l y a markI2U  Tugbiyele, The Emergence o f Nationalism and Federalism, p.29.  125 " I t i s a t l e a s t widely b e l i e v e d t h a t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the more p o l i t i c a l l y backward regions... p a r t i e s representing the standpoint o f the conservative n o b i l i t y . . . have received o f f i c i a l encouragement." Hodgkins, Nationalism i n C o l o n i a l A f r i c a , p . 1 5 7 .  134  ed e f f e c t on c e r t a i n N i g e r i a n leaders who blamed Great B r i t a i n f o r attempting t o extend i m p e r i a l r u l e by t h i s technique.  When the A c t i o n  Group arose as a t r i b a l i s t i c p a r t y pursuing objects l i k e l y t o lead t o the p a r t i t i o n o f the country, i t s connection w i t h the B r i t i s h was plausible. Added weight was supplied by the f a c t that the A.G. tended t o be more conservative and l e s s r e v o l u t i o n a r y than the N.C.N.C. This was a t t r i b u t e d t o B r i t i s h support.  Furthermore, the top ranking men o f the A.G., Awolowo,  Rotimi W i l l i a m s , Doherty, 0. Balogun and R o s i j i , were educated i n the United Kingdom while those o f the N.C.N.C, Azikiwe, Mbadiwe, Ojike and I t a were educated i n the United S t a t e s .  I t was thought that the A.G.  o r g a n i s a t i o n w i t h i t s s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e was modelled upon t h a t o f B r i t i s h p a r t i e s while the N.C.N.C w i t h i t s f a c t i o n s and looser o r g a n i s a t i o n more n e a r l y resembled that o f American p a r t i e s .  The N.C.N.C had always lean-  ed towards the United States while the A.G. d i d not apparently f i n d i t s support from that quarter, even though as a f e d e r a l i s t p a r t y i t might have done so.  Not only the leadership o f the A.G. was B r i t i s h educated but  many o f the rank and f i l e were w e l l known l o y a l i s t s .  Awolowo's t a c t i n  d e a l i n g w i t h the B r i t i s h a l s o l e n t credence t o the idea that he was i n some sense beholden t o the B r i t i s h . Today we hear l e s s o f attacks on ' B r i t i s h imperialism' than we do o f i n t e l l i g e n t d i s c u s s i o n o f the various aspects o f our economic problems.126 A number o f r a t h e r minor incidences, i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n themselves but r a t h e r imposing taken i n t o t a l , made the Ibos f e e l that the B r i t i s h pre-  126 Obafemi Awolowo, Address t o Lagos Chamber o f Commerce, Ibadan, Gov't P r i n t e r , 1955,  135  i ference f o r the A.G. was showing i t s e l f by B r i t i s h attempts t o d i s c r e d i t Dr. Azikiwe and the N.C.N.C. before the N i g e r i a n p u b l i c and the world. R i s e of the Northern Peoples* Congress The A.G.  found a powerful and important a l l y i n the cause of feder-  a l i s m i n the Northern Peoples Congress (N.P.C.).  L i k e the A.G.,  N.P.C. developed out of a c u l t u r a l o r g a n i s a t i o n .  I n J u l y 1949  the the  Jami'yyar Mutanen Arewa h e l d i t s o r g a n i s a t i o n a l meeting i n Kaduna, c a p i t a l of Northern N i g e r i a .  Delegates represented most of the Northern c i t i e s  and a few of the large southern c i t i e s .  The delegates from the South  represented the Hausa communities i n Lagos, Onitsha and Abeokuta.  Thus  i n the beginnings the N.P.C. had as much n a t i o n wide r e p r e s e n t a t i o n as e i t h e r of the southern p a r t i e s who were represented i n the North by Southerners. Immediately from i t s i n c e p t i o n the Jam'yyar Mutanen Arewa had p o l i t i c a l overtones.  I n i t s statement of aims, besides i t s c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s  i t proposed c e r t a i n "suggestions."  The i n a u g u r a l meeting suggested t h a t  there should be no separate House of Chiefs but t h a t the Chiefs should s i t i n the l e g i s l a t i v e assembly as nominated members. Mallam Ibrahim of 127  Bomu  even s t r o n g l y opposed the idea of Chiefs having seats a t a l l as 128  they were regarded as government o f f i c i a l s .  The l a c k of unanimity on  t h i s question of c h i e f s before the a p p l i c a t i o n of southern pressure on the North, and before the North s o l i d i f i e d against t h i s pressure, i s i n teresting.  This i s not to i n d i c a t e that the North was a n t i - c h i e f s , f o r  127 Later president of Bomu Youth Movement and f i r s t Opposition leader i n the Northern House of Assembly. 128  N i g e r i a n C i t i z e n , V o l . 1 , No.43, I J u l y , 1949, p . I I .  136  the r e s o l u t i o n f o r t h e i r i n c l u s i o n i n the Assembly was  overwhelmingly  129  supported.  I t was f u r t h e r suggested t h a t the common people should  choose representatives f o r v i l l a g e , d i s t r i c t , p r o v i n c i a l and r e g i o n a l councils.  I n 1950,  vice-presidents were elected f o r each region i n the  f e d e r a t i o n and a l o c a l branch was formed i n the United Kingdom. 130  On October I , 1951,  h a l f way through the e l e c t i o n  Mutanen Arewa declared i t s e l f a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y .  the Jami'yyar  The president Dr. R.  B.  Dikko resigned as he was a c i v i l servant and A l h a j i Ahmandu, Sardauna of Sokoto and Abubakar Tafawa Balewa j o i n e d .  I t was announced that the Con-  gress had s i x t y - f i v e branches and over six-thousand members. I n i t s manifesto the N.P.C. stated i t s federalism but d i d not elaborate or overstress i t . The manifesto c a l l e d f o r r e g i o n a l autonomy w i t h i n a united N i g e r i a and ended with what was  l a t e r to almost become i t s slogan, 131  "one North, one people, i r r e s p e c t i v e of r e l i g i o n t r i b e or rank."  7 Jn this  p o l i c y was the germ of a new approach. While the N.C.N.C. had attempted a wide o r g a n i z a t i o n covering a l l regions and the Cameroons, the A.G. concentrated  had  upon one t r i b e , the Yorubas, the N.P.C. strove f o r the u n i t y  of one region, a region extremely diverse i n i t s r e l i g i o n s , races, t r i b e s , customs and standard of l i v i n g . Upon examination of the manifesto one gets the f e e l i n g that the federa l aspect was not paramount. consideration.  Other aims appear to occupy more space and  The manifesto c a l l e d f o r l o c a l government reform w i t h i n a  progressive emirate system and the e l i m i n a t i o n of b r i b e r y and c o r r u p t i o n , 129 Telegrams of best wishes were sent to the inaugural meeting of the Jam'yyar by the S u l t a n of Sokoto, Emir of Kano and members were ent e r t a i n e d by the Emir of Z a r i a . 130 The e l e c t i o n l a s t e d from the end of J u l y to the f i r s t week i n December. 131  N i g e r i a n C i t i z e n , V o l . I l l , N 0 . 1 6 2 , k Oct. 1951,  p.I.  137  " i n every sphere of l i f e . "  I t a l s o c a l l e d f o r a drive f o r education hut  an education " r e t a i n i n g and i n c r e a s i n g the c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e " of the Worth. The emphasis regarding the Emirs had "been on a "progressive Emirate system."  The present system of appointment of Emirs was t o be r e t a i n e d but  w i t h the s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t there be wide r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the e l e c t o r a l committee.  Most sweeping democratic move of a l l was t h a t the "voice of the  people was to be heard i n a l l the c o u n c i l s of the Worth." The Manifesto rang w i t h the same f e e l i n g s and under-currents as s i m i l a r p o l i c y statements i n the South; progress, education w i t h an A f r i c a n f l a v o u r , people's representatives and l o c a l government reform.  Only i n one p a r t i c -  u l a r d i d i t show a conservatism unlike the Southern p a r t i e s .  The Manifesto  asked f o r "eventual self-government f o r Wigeria w i t h i n the B r i t i s h Commonwealth."  On the word "eventual" i t separated from i t s southern contempor-  a r i e s , and i t was on t h i s p o i n t t h a t the southern p a r t i e s pressed the a t t a c k which l e d to the Kano R i o t s of 1953,  and the change of emphasis of the  W.P.  C. from progress and democracy to s o l i d a r i t y under the slogan, "One Worth, One  People." The W.P.C. rose to power, formed i t s p o l i c i e s and has maintained i t s e l f 132  i n power under the guidance of A l h a j i Amadu, Sardauna of Sokoto, kar Tafawa Balewa.  and Abuba-  The Sardauna i s of a r i s t o c r a t i c b i r t h and p r e s t i g e , w h i l e  Tafawa Balewa i s a commoner, c l e a r t h i n k i n g and f o r c e f u l .  The Sardauna and  Balewa c o n s t i t u t e d a leadership team r e f l e c t i n g the present p o s i t i o n of the Worth, the o l d and the new welded together, the one guaranteeing t h a t the Emirs and a r i s t o c r a c y s h a l l f i n d t h e i r place i n the new order and the other guaranteeing that the new educated element and i d e a l i s t i c youth s h a l l have i t s views expressed and acted upon. 132 Sardauna i s the F u l a n i word f o r prime m i n i s t e r or c h i e f advisor t o the S u l t a n .  138  A l h a j i Ahmadu, Sardauna of Sokoto C.B.E. was born i n 1909 i n Sokoto province. ual  He i s the great grandson of Shehu Othman Dan Fodio, the s p i r i t -  leader o f the F u l a n i J i h a d o f 1800, a n a t i o n a l hero t o Northern Moslems  and one of the outstanding men of N i g e r i a n h i s t o r y .  The Sardauna i s the  f i r s t cousin of the present S u l t a n of Sokoto, paramount s p i r i t u a l leader of N i g e r i a n Moslems.  The Sardauna i n h e r i t s the r a c i a l p r e s t i g e o f the So133  koto F u l a n i and the r e l i g i o u s p r e s t i g e o f h i s very august ancestor.  The  Sardauna was educated a t Sokoto p r o v i n c i a l school and Katsina T r a i n i n g C o l lege. School.  From 1931 t o 193^ he taught E n g l i s h and Mathematics a t Sokoto Middle I n 1934 he was appointed D i s t r i c t Chief of Rabah, a p o s i t i o n he  held u n t i l 1938 when he became Sardauna o f Sokoto and a member o f the Native Authority Council. of Assembly.  I n 19^9 he f i r s t sat as a member o f the Northern House  I n the same year he was appointed a member o f the N i g e r i a Coal  Board and Northern Region Development Board.  I n 1952 he was r e - e l e c t e d t o  the House of Representatives i n the C e n t r a l government.  The same year he  became Northern Region M i n i s t e r o f Works and the f o l l o w i n g year took over the p o r t f o l i o f o r L o c a l Government and Community Development. A f t e r the 1954 e l e c t i o n , when premierships were provided f o r by the c o n s t i t u t i o n , the Sardauna became the f i r s t premier o f the North and formed the f i r s t N i g e r i a n cabinet i n Northern N i g e r i a .  He has held t h i s p o s i t i o n ever s i n c e .  He has  given sound, stable l e a d e r s h i p , balancing d e l i c a t e l y the Emirs demand f o r more personal power against the pressure from those who wish a more thorough a p p l i c a t i o n o f the e l e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e .  While h i s peers i n the Southern Re-  gions are o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as c l e v e r p o l i t i c i a n s , the Sardauna i s never  133 The Sokoto F u l a n i i s o f the highest s o c i a l rank i n Northern N i g e r i a . The F u l a n i are the a r i s t o c r a c y o f the North. Sokoto i s the s p i r i t u a l c a p i t a l o f N i g e r i a n Moslems.  139  s o - c a l l e d , some southerners even conceding t h a t he has been one of the few N i g e r i a n statesmen of the past f i f t e e n years. Abubakar Tafawa Balewa O.B.E., C.B.E., was born i n 1912  i n Bauchi prov-  134  ince.  He was educated i n Tafawa Balewa r u r a l school, Banebi P r o v i n c i a l  school, and, l i k e the Sardauna, i n Katsina T r a i n i n g College. He f u r t h e r e d his  t r a i n i n g i n London U n i v e r s i t y I n s t i t u t e of Education.  Balewa rose from  an ordinary teacher to an education o f f i c e r , and was president of the Northern Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n before he l e f t the teaching p r o f e s s i o n .  Again  l i k e the Sardauna, he sat i n the House of Assembly created by the Richards C o n s t i t u t i o n and went to the House of Representatives under the Macpherson Constitution.  He served on a number of committees and boards; the Finance  Committee, both r e g i o n a l and f e d e r a l , the Northern Region Production Board, Board of C o n t r o l , Gaskiya Corporation and the d r a f t i n g committee under the Richards C o n s t i t u t i o n .  He has been prominent i n the conferences; Kaduna,  Ibadan, London and Lagos which evolved the N i g e r i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n .  The  sil-  ver tongue of Balewa became famous as the voice of the North, g e n e r a l l y moderate, o c c a s i o n a l l y f o r c e f u l but always persuasive.  His l a c k of educa-  t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s so g r e a t l y p r i z e d i n Southern N i g e r i a has not prevented him from earning the grudging respect of Southern N i g e r i a n s .  Although  the c h i e f spokesman of the North's p o l i c y , and a h i g h l y unpopular p o l i c y i t has been outside of the North, Balewa has managed t o escape the b i t t e r personal attacks d i r e c t e d towards other men of h i s prominence.  In 1957 he be-  came the f i r s t N i g e r i a n Prime M i n i s t e r by forming a N a t i o n a l cabinet sup135  ported by the three main p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s of N i g e r i a .  I3k Hausa l a s t names are almost i n v a r i a b l y taken from the name of t h e i r native v i l l a g e or town. Aminu Kano, leader of NEPU, a native of Kano c i t y i s another example. 135 Thus was f u l f i l l e d , f i g u r a t i v e l y at l e a s t , Balewa's prophetic statement of 1953 that i f the B r i t i s h l e f t N i g e r i a "the North would continue i t s interrupted march to the sea."  iko .The E l e c t i o n o f 1951 The e l e c t i o n year 1951 was an extremely important year.  I t was the  f i r s t i n which N i g e r i a n s , excepting the few thousand i n Lagos and Calabar, had ever voted.  I n 1951, representatives were t o be chosen by the whole  a d u l t population (with the exception o f women i n the Northern Region). The most s i g n i f i c a n t development a r i s i n g as a r e s u l t o f t h i s enfranchisement was the formation of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . C. were organized i n I95I.  Both the A.G. and N.P.  The N.C.N.C, formerly a Congress o f organ-  i s a t i o n s , took the f i r s t step a t i t s Kano Convention i n converting i t s e l f i n t o a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y by opening i t s membership t o p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s . Beside the b i g three p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s a t the 1951 e l e c t i o n there was one other p a r t y operating i n the North, the Northern Elements Progressive Union (NEPU).  The NEPU was l e d by Aminu Kano, a F u l a n i of a r i s t o c r a t i c  background, and one of the foundation members o f the Jam'yyar Mutanen Arewa.  I t was a l i b e r a l p a r t y w i t h r a t h e r r a d i c a l and messianic  tendencies.  The NEPU won twelve o f the twenty-six places i n the Kano c i t y p r i m a r i e s , e l e c t e d four t o the intermediate Kano C o l l e g e , but f a i l e d t o seat any candidates i n the f i n a l .  The NEPU i n i t i a l success backed as i t was by South-  erners i n Kano and surrounded by r a t h e r i r r e s p o n s i b l e followers who made r a d i c a l statements regarding what NEPU would do t o the Emirs and Islam, f r i g h t e n e d the conservative and a r i s t o c r a t i c elements.  A high powered r a t h e r  d i s g r a c e f u l propaganda campaign was launched against i t which succeeded i n destroying i t s e l e c t i o n chances i n Kano province. ed f o r a root and branch democracy i n the North. sympathy o f observers from the United Kingdom. 1951,  The NEPU platform c a l l I t commonly received the  I t f a i l e d to r e a l i z e i n  that the c a r r y i n g out of such a programme was impossible without  Ikl  bloodshed.  I t has g r e a t l y modified i t s aims s i n c e , but i t s connection 136  w i t h the Southerners  has d i s c r e d i t e d the p a r t y i n Northern eyes, par-  t i c u l a r l y a f t e r the Kano R i o t s .  To i t s c r e d i t , i t has maintained a  h i g h l y unpopular p o l i c y ; the equal treatment o f Southerners l i v i n g i n the North.  I t was however, unable t o form even the o f f i c i a l o p p o s i t i o n  i n the Northern House o f Assembly a f t e r the 1951 e l e c t i o n . By completion o f the e l e c t i o n i n December 1951, the p a r t i e s stood more or less as f o l l o w s : the N.C.N.C. major p a r t y i n the South, p r a c t i c a l l y unopposed i n the E a s t , the A.G. s t r o n g l y opposed i n the West by the N.C.N.C, the N.P.C opposed i n the North by very s m a l l p a r t i e s , the NEPU and Bomu Youth Movement. Along w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n or refinement o f i n s t i t u t i o n s and procedures, such as the e l e c t o r a l system, which made i t t e c h n i c a l l y p o s s i b l e f o r p a r t i e s t o seek power c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y and so promote t h e i r growth, was another f a c t o r important i n p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s ' development; the devolu t i o n by the i m p e r i a l government o f a s u f f i c i e n t l y meaningful and a t t r a c t ive measure o f power t o induce or provoke n a t i o n a l i s t leaders t o convert 137  t h e i r movements i n t o p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . Although p a r t i e s were formed and organized, t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n was as yet weak.  They lacked propaganda avenues t o reach those beyond the i n f l u -  ence o f the press. Many l o c a l i t i e s had no committees t o conduct l o c a l campaigns.  Strong leaders had not yet emerged except i n the N.C.N.C  platforms were not c l e a r l y defined or understood. 136  Often  P a r t y l o y a l t i e s and  The NEPU i s i n formal a l l i a n c e w i t h the N.C.N.C  137 James S. Coleman, "The Emergence of A f r i c a n P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s " i n C G r o v e Haines, ed., A f r i c a To-day, B a l t i m o r e , John Hopkins P r e s s , 1955, PP.234-5.  Ik2  accompanying d i s c i p l i n e were weak. Because o f t h i s , i n a l l three  regions  the m a j o r i t y o f members elected were independents who declared f o r a p a r t y after their election.  The r e s u l t s were an overwhelming m a j o r i t y f o r the a  N.P.C. i n the North and the N.C.N.C. i n the East.  I t was the West which  most c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h i s f l u i d i t y o f the p a r t y system, due t o l a c k o f l o y a l t y and d i s c i p l i n e .  I n the West both the N.C.N.C. and A.G. f o r days  a f t e r the p o l l s closed claimed a m a j o r i t y .  The m a j o r i t y o f elected mem-  bers used Dr. Azikiwe's p r e s t i g e t o good advantage i n t h e i r campaigning which gave the impression they were N.C.N.C. supporters.  Had they main-  tained t h i s a t t i t u d e the N.C.N.C. would c e r t a i n l y have formed the government a t Ibadan. Many o f these e l e c t e d members a f t e r t h e i r e l e c t i o n declared f o r the A.G. and others i n the f i r s t session o f the new parliament  dramatically  crossed the f l o o r from the N.C.N.C. t o the A.G. In 1952,  when the s i t u a t i o n had c l a r i f i e d , the Sardauna o f Sokoto,  Chief Awolowo and Eyo I t a became leaders o f government business, embryonic premiers, i n t h e i r respective regions.  Dr. Azikiwe had stood i n a Lagos  constituency and was elected t o the Western Region Assembly.  Had the N.C.  N.C. won the e l e c t i o n presumably Dr. Azikiwe would have become the leader o f government business i n the Western Region. The Regional Houses formed e l e c t o r a l colleges f o r the f e d e r a l parliament, the House o f Representatives.  Dr. Azikiwe could s t i l l be elected t o  t h a t body and press towards the p o s i t i o n of Prime M i n i s t e r o f the Federation. Dr. Azikiwe f a i l e d to win e l e c t i o n t o the House o f Representatives. F i v e members were elected from Lagos t o the Western House of Assembly, two of whom would be elected by that body t o represent Lagos i n the f e d e r a l  Ih3  government.  Because a l l f i v e seats had been won by the N.C.N.C. i t would  appear almost c e r t a i n that Dr. Azikiwe would go t o the centre. Again, due t o the l a c k o f p a r t y d i s c i p l i n e and t o the f a c t that Dr. Azikiwe*s leaders h i p was not f u l l y accepted, three N.C.N.C. members, Dr. Azikiwe, Dr. Olorun-Nimbe and Prince Adedoyin a l l stood f o r e l e c t i o n t o the centre.  The A.  G. who held a m a j o r i t y o f seats i n the Assembly were determined that Dr. Azikiwe should not get t o the centre and so voted f o r Olorun-Nimbe and Adedoyin, which l e f t Azikiwe as u n o f f i c i a l opposition leader i n the West. Azikiwe*s f a i l u r e t o get t o the centre was only the beginning o f a s e r i e s o f c r i s e s which wrecked the Macpherson C o n s t i t u t i o n and brought i t s downfall w i t h i n two years. Towards the end o f 1952 the A.G. i n the West were having  difficulty  w i t h the Governor, who they accused o f p u t t i n g obstacles i n the path o f the Western government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n by delaying approval o f a L o c a l Government B i l l .  The p a r t y a t i t s Benin Conference i n December decided that  " a l l members o f the p a r t y s h a l l henceforth adopt an a t t i t u d e of non-frate r n i z a t i o n w i t h S i r John Macpherson u n t i l such time as there i s c l e a r e v i d 138  ence t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f the p a r t y o f h i s change o f a t t i t u d e . "  The non-  f r a t e r n i z a t i o n p o l i c y was a gentleman's way o f handling B r i t i s h reluctance t o pass over c o n t r o l , and while i t caused a s h o r t , abrupt c r i s i s i t passed when the Governor gave h i s approval t o the L o c a l Government B i l l and the A.G.  c a l l e d o f f the s o c i a l boycott. A c r i s i s o f much greater magnitude was p r e c i p i t a t e d i n the Eastern  Region.  This episode was known as the " s i t - t i g h t c r i s e s . "  I t r e s u l t e d from  138 "The London Conference, D a i l y Times, N i g e r i a Year Book 1954, Lagos, N i g e r i a n P r i n t i n g and P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1954, p.6"7  a combination o f three o r four f a c t o r s .  F i r s t , the Macpherson C o n s t i t u t i o n  p r e c i p i t a t e d the r i s e o f p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s but i t d i d not provide f o r them. Whether Nigerians and B r i t o n s should have foreseen t h i s development i s a question outside t h i s essay.  The f a c t was that the c o n s t i t u t i o n was out-  moded by the time the Regional Houses of Assembly f i r s t were c a l l e d . As a r e s u l t o f each region g i v i n g a m a j o r i t y t o d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , the C o u n c i l o f M i n i s t e r s (Federal Cabinet) consisted o f an equal number of A.G., N.C.N.C. and N.P.C. m i n i s t e r s .  Customary Cabinet government was impossible.  As the C o n s t i t u t i o n worked out, t h i s Council was responsible not t o the fede r a l House o f Representatives but t o the Regional Assemblies who had elected the members o f the House o f Representatives.  Thus the House o f Represent-  a t i v e s was responsible t o the Regions, and any case o f government change i n the Regions would cause a s e c t i o n o f the f e d e r a l house t o be of i t s region.  unrepresentative  A change o f government i n a r e g i o n a l house would be bound t o  have p a r a l y z i n g repercussions  i n the centre, and no p r o v i s i o n had been made  f o r separate r e g i o n a l e l e c t i o n s . The second f a c t o r i n the c r i s e s was the d e c i s i o n o f the N.C.N.C. a t i t s Jos Convention t o give no f u r t h e r t r i a l t o the Macpherson C o n s t i t u t i o n . The p r e v i o u s l y mentioned f l u i d i t y o f the p a r t y s i t u a t i o n had a most p e c u l i a r r e s u l t on the N.C.N.C. The Eastern Region i n the 1951 e l e c t i o n had returned a large N.C.N.C. m a j o r i t y . opposition.  There was no r e a l opposition, c e r t a i n l y not p a r t y  E l e c t i o n s i n many constituencies had consisted o f a f i g h t between  a number o f N.C.N.C. candidates.  The most d i s q u i e t i n g r e s u l t as f a r as the  N.C.N.C. executive was concerned was that a number o f prominent persons from the executive, the o l d vanguard which had worked f o r years f i g h t i n g i m p e r i a l ism, were r e j e c t e d by the e l e c t o r a t e and found themselves outside the Houses  145 of Assembly.  E n t i r e l y new men, p r a c t i c a l unknowns, were coming to the top  and now holding cabinet p o s i t i o n s i n the East under Eyo I t a , while the o l d vanguard looked on from the c o l d outside. Mbonu O j i k e , n a t i o n a l v i c e president and Kola Balogun, n a t i o n a l s e c r e t a r y of the N.C.N.C. had both s u f f e r e d defeat.  Coupled w i t h t h i s was the ignominious f a i l u r e of Dr. A z i k -  iwe to e i t h e r head the Western government or go t o the centre.  He was  forc-  ed t o assume almost the r o l e of a p r i v a t e member i n the Western House.  The  Jos Convention of the p a r t y , l e d by the o l d vanguard, decided to r e c t i f y t h i s c o n d i t i o n by breaking the C o n s t i t u t i o n i n order t o hold another e l e c t i o n i n the East. Differences of opinion f o s t e r e d l a r g e l y by the p a r t y executive developed between the C e n t r a l M i n i s t e r s and Eastern M i n i s t e r s l e d by Eyo I t a and the o l d vanguard who were able t o swing the m a j o r i t y of the parliamentary members t o t h e i r p o i n t of view.  The Cabinet Ministers., both r e g i o n a l and  c e n t r a l , wished to make the c o n s t i t u t i o n work, t o give i t a f a i r t r i a l , w h i l e the o l d vanguard wished t o destroy i t i n order t o place themselves i n power which they f e l t they could do i f Dr. Azikiwe resigned h i s seat i n the West and l e d the p a r t y i n an Eastern e l e c t i o n .  The three c e n t r a l m i n i s t e r s were  expelled a t the Jos Convention, " f o r l i f e and ignominy" f o r not t o e i n g the party l i n e .  These m i n i s t e r s Messrs Nwapa, A r i k p o and Njoku hoped f o r support  from the f e d e r a l parliamentary wing of the p a r t y and a l s o f e l t they could count on the m a j o r i t y support of the Eastern parliamentary wing who had o r i g i n a l l y e l e c t e d them.  This support they f a i l e d t o get.  The Eastern parliament  went i n t o o p p o s i t i o n and Eyo I t a ' s executive c o u n c i l was unable t o pass any l e g i s l a t i o n i n c l u d i n g the budget. The Eastern Governor then complicated the already i n c r e d i b l y muddled s i t u a t i o n by a d v i s i n g the Eastern m i n i s t e r s t o s i t - t i g h t even a f t e r a non-  146  confidence vote had been c a r r i e d against them, s i x t y t o t h i r t e e n , on the p e r f e c t l y l e g a l but h i g h l y i m p r a c t i c a l grounds that i t was impossible f o r one r e g i o n a l House t o be d i s s o l v e d independently o f the other r e g i o n a l l e g islatures.  An emendment was f i n a l l y adopted which allowed a r e g i o n a l e l e c -  tion. The c r i s e s had two outstanding e f f e c t s besides the amendment o f the constitution.  One was the exodus o f the " b r a i n s " from the N.C.N.C. l e d by  Eyo I t a , the Cabinet M i n i s t e r s and some o f those who had supported them. Eyo I t a then organised the N a t i o n a l Independence P a r t y as a r i v a l p a r t y t o the N.C.N.C. Another e f f e c t was the outburst o f a n t i - B r i t i s h f e e l i n g which swept Iboland as the N.C.N.C. blamed the e n t i r e d i s r u p t i o n o f the government on the Governor i n order t o cover the d i v i s i o n w i t h i n the p a r t y . While the N.C.N.C. was proceeding t o upset the C o n s t i t u t i o n , working from the r e g i o n , the A.G. decided t o accomplish the same purpose but from the centre. We therefore f i x e d 195^ as the year o f N i g e r i a n independence, and we staged the March C o n s t i t u t i o n a l c r i s i s which broke the Macpherson C o n s t i t u t i o n . 1 3 9 The N.P.C. alone o f the three major p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s would never iko j o i n i n breaking the C o n s t i t u t i o n without g i v i n g i t a f a i r t r i a l .  The  1953 March C o n s t i t u t i o n a l C r i s i s , "staged" by the A.G., was both c l e v e r and tragic.  Clever, i n t h a t the r e a l aims o f the p a r t i e s concerned could be  camouflaged, while the B r i t i s h could be made t o appear as i f standing i n the way o f self-government;  t r a g i c i n t h a t i t a l i e n a t e d the North, sent them  i n t o i s o l a t i o n and drove them t o the B r i t i s h f o r advice and p r o t e c t i o n . 139  Agunbiade, The Case f o r the A c t i o n Group, p.12.  140  D a i l y Times, N i g e r i a n Year Book 1954, p.7.  J.l+7  In March 1953,  Anthony Enahoro, a s s i s t a n t secretary of the A.G.  and  member of the House of Representatives gave notice of a motion asking that self-government i n I95& °e set as an o b j e c t i v e f o r the people and government of N i g e r i a .  I n p r i v a t e discussions between the M i n i s t e r s of the Coun-  c i l , the N.P.C. held to the p o l i c y that i t was not yet ready t o set a date f o r independence.  The A.G.  eager t o hold the lead over the N.C.N.C. as  most v e r i l e and a c t i v e n a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y , which Enahoro's motion had them, were determined to press the i s s u e .  the  given  By a m a j o r i t y vote i n the C o u n c i l ,  the o f f i c i a l members v o t i n g w i t h the N.P.C, i t was  decided that the M i n i s -  t e r s would not debate the motion when i t came before the House. On the morning on which Enahoro's motion was A.G.  to be debated, the four  M i n i s t e r s resigned; the Oni of I f e ( M i n i s t e r without p o r t f o l i o ) , Chief  Arthur P r e s t ( M i n i s t e r of Communication), Chief Bode Thomas(Minister of Transport) and S.L. A k i n t o l a ( M i n i s t e r of Labour). s a i d that the Governor was  In t h e i r r e s i g n a t i o n they  t r y i n g to run the Council of M i n i s t e r s by black-  m a i l and depending on the Northern m a j o r i t y i n the House of Representatives Ikl and o f f i c i a l votes i n the Council of M i n i s t e r s to s i l e n c e the n a t i o n a l i s t s . The Governor r e t a l i a t e d i n a r a d i o broadcast when he accused the A.G. breaking cabinet  of  secrecy.  The p r e v i o u s l y signed A l l i a n c e between the A.G.  and the N.P.C. based on  a common desire f o r federalism was now a scrap of paper due to these p a r t i e s ' differences over the time f a c t o r i n r e l a t i o n to self-government. IU2  The A.G.  who were "not appointed as Imperial M i n i s t e r s " had now  seized  the l e a d , and an unsigned a l l i a n c e , sealed by the embrace of Awolowo and Ikl  D a i l y Times, N i g e r i a n Year Book 1954,  lU2  Uwanaka, New  Nigeria,  p.25.  p.8.  IU8 Azikiwe on the steps of the House of Representatives while the crowd cheered, was concluded w i t h t h e i r b i t t e r e s t enemies, the H.C.N.C. Although the a l l i a n c e was short l i v e d , the Horth saw i n that embrace of two Southern p o l i t i c i a n s the future l i n e s of d i v i s i o n i n important N i g e r i a n p o l i c y . North was i s o l a t e d .  The  The spectre of Southern domination, h i t h e r t o a theory  was now a r e a l i t y . Large crowds gathered outside the Lagos House of Representatives, crowds organized by the Southern p a r t i e s t o vent t h e i r i l l w i l l on the Northern representatives and to give p h y s i c a l form t o the f e a r of Southern domination. These scenes i n Lagos were a prelude t o the Kano R i o t s and the almost sec e s s i o n i s t plans of the North o u t l i n e d i n t h e i r E i g h t P o i n t Programme. The Kano R i o t s f o r a l l the harm they caused t o the cause of N i g e r i a n u n i t y had a t l e a s t one c o n s t r u c t i v e r e s u l t .  They had a sobering e f f e c t upon  the Southern p o l i t i c i a n s who slowly came to r e a l i z e that the N.P.C. had a strong f o l l o w i n g i n the North and that compromise w i t h N.P.C. leaders was advisable. The R i o t s  1  most disastrous r e s u l t s t o the Southern p a r t i e s themselves  were, that regardless of how l i t t l e or how much support the N.P.C. had i n the North before Enahoro's motion, i t i s c e r t a i n that the subsequent events s o l i d i f i e d Northern o p i n i o n behind the N.P.C. and s e r i o u s l y weakened the NEPU ( i n a l l i a n c e w i t h the N.C.N.C.) whose aims f o r the North were more i n l i n e w i t h Southern p o l i c y and who stood f o r f a i r treatment of Southerners i n the North.  Whatever l a t e n t admiration p r e v a i l e d among Northerners f o r South-  ern p o l i t i c s and way of l i f e , was s t i l l e d and Southerners i n the North were to f i n d t h e i r p o s i t i o n more and more p r e c a r i o u s . The Northern m i n i s t e r s refused t o accept the four A.G. m i n i s t e r s back i n t o the C o u n c i l .  The Governor suggested that Messrs Awokoyo, Ighodaro and  Ik9  Enahoro replace the resigned m i n i s t e r s .  The j o i n t session o f the Assembly  and Chiefs o f the Western Region refused t o consider these new appointments and voted back t h e i r support o f the four o r i g i n a l men.  The North was f i n -  a l l y persuaded t o drop i t s o b j e c t i o n s , and the A.G. m i n i s t e r s returned t o the C o u n c i l . I n defence of the North's o p p o s i t i o n t o independence i t can be s a i d that the turbulence and s e r i e s o f c r i s e s o f the f i r s t elected parliaments i n N i g e r i a d i d not i n s p i r e confidence i n the a b i l i t y  o f Nigerians t o gov-  ern themselves. The London R e g i o n a l i z a t i o n Conference A f t e r a h u r r i e d t r i p t o the United Kingdom S i r John Macpherson issued an i n v i t a t i o n t o a conference t o be'held i n London, ( i ) t o consider what difficulties  there were i n the present c o n s t i t u t i o n which prevented i t from  working s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , (2) t o consider what changes therefore i n the present c o n s t i t u t i o n should be made, and (3) t o consider what steps should be taken 143 t o ensure that these changes are put i n t o e f f e c t .  Following the acceptance  by N i g e r i a n leaders of t h i s i n v i t a t i o n a conference was convened i n London which came t o be c a l l e d the London R e g i o n a l i s a t i o n Conference. Both the N.C.N.C. and A.G. delegations included two Northern delegates. These delegates plus the delegate allowed from the NEPU, meant that the minute opposition i n the North had more representatives a t the conference than the o f f i c i a l government p a r t y , the N.P.C. The Northern delegates o f the N.C. N.C. and A.G. f u n c t i o n was obviously "to put across t o W h i t e h a l l the other 143  D a i l y Times, N i g e r i a n Year Book 1954, p.5.  150  144  s i d e of the Northern s t o r y . "  They had the e f f e c t of i n t e n s i f y i n g North-  e r n b e l i e f and fears that the Southerners were doing everything i n t h e i r power t o undermine the North, t o spread fear and confusion and so gain domination, not only i n the c e n t r a l government but even i n the region. A l l three major p a r t i e s were now ready f o r more power t o be placed a t the d i s p o s a l of the regions, the N.C.N.C. because of the s i t - t i g h t c r i s i s , the A.G. because of i t s fear of Ibo domination and t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i c y of federalism and the N.P.C. because of the fear of the South and the i n c i d ents from Enahoro's motion t o the Kano disturbances. For these reasons co-operation came much e a s i e r than might have been expected from the tense p o l i t i c a l atmosphere of the preceding months.  The Conference s e t t l e d down  to forming a r e a l f e d e r a l c o n s t i t u t i o n e s p e c i a l l y since the B r i t i s h government almost immediately s e t t l e d what was considered t o be the main content i o n , the issue of self-government: Her Majesty's government was not prepared to f i x a d a t e l i n e f o r self-government f o r N i g e r i a , the more so as the Northern d e l e g a t i o n representing over h a l f of the population was not able t o depart from i t s p o l i c y . But i n 1956, Her Majesty's government would be prepared t o grant to those regions which desired i t , f u l l s e l f government i n respect of a l l matters w i t h i n t h e i r competence. 145  There was no p a r t i c u l a r reason f o r the choice of 1956 as the year i n which the B r i t i s h government should prove w i l l i n g to discuss self-government f o r the whole of N i g e r i a . as a t a c t i c a l move.  The date was thrown i n t o the p a r t y b a t t l e  I t was not known a t the time, nor was i t argued,  whether by t h i s year the r e g i o n a l governments would be working s u c c e s s f u l l y or whether - much more important - a strong f e d e r a l government could emerge w i t h popular backing i n a l l p a r t s of the country. The f i x i n g of a date,  144  New Era Bureau, London R e g i o n a l i s a t i o n Conference,  14-5  D a i l y Times, N i g e r i a n f e a r Book 1954, p . I I .  p.10  151  however, had the advantage of removing the B r i t i s h government from the 146  f i e l d of c o n f l i c t .  This statement of the B r i t i s h , although attacked i n  the South as pandering t o the North, and as a method o f breaking up the country, was a c t u a l l y p l a c i n g the f u l l burden of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on the Northern government as to when N i g e r i a should be a self-governing n a t i o n . The f e d e r a t i o n could not be self-governing i f one r e g i o n s t i l l r e t a i n e d imperial control. North.  Southern pressure was now bound t o increase upon the  The various methods of applying pressure w i l l be discussed l a t e r .  The most important c o n s t i t u t i o n a l change r e s u l t i n g from the London R e g i o n a l i s a t i o n Conference was the separation of the Federal House o f Representatives from the Regional House of Assembly.  Hereafter there was t o  be a unicameral l e g i s l a t u r e a t the centre w i t h a membership of 184; North - 9 2 , East - 42, West - 42, Cameroons - 6 , Lagos f e d e r a l t e r r i t o r y - 2 , e x - o f f i c i o members - 3 (the Chief Secretary, F i n a n c i a l Secretary and A t torney-General) .  E l e c t i o n t o the House o f Representatives was t o be di-.*-  r e c t , although the e l e c t o r a l procedure need not n e c e s s a r i l y be uniform. No member of the Regional House was t o be a member o f the F e d e r a l House. By these conditions the Regional Assemblies were completely separated from the House o f Representatives. Another change was that the number o f M i n i s t e r s a t the centre was t o be reduced from twelve to t e n , s i x o f whom were t o hold p o r t f o l i o s , three each from North, West, and East and one from the Cameroons. These mini s t e r s were t o be appointed by the Governor, now s t y l e d  Governor-General,  and were t o be responsible to the House o f Representatives only. A t r a i l e r conference was held i n Lagos e a r l y i n 1954, but i t broke no new ground, and only put f i n a l touches t o the London d i s c u s s i o n s .  146 Fabian S o c i e t y , Venture, S o c i a l i s t s and the Colonies, S p e c i a l N i g e r i a n Number, London, J o u r n a l o f the Fabian C o l o n i a l Bureau, V o l . V I I I , No.3, J u l y 1956, p . I .  152  C r i t i c i s m of the C o n s t i t u t i o n of I95U we»$ d i r e c t e d mainly a t the r i g i d r e g i o n a l i s a t i o n aspects; so much power centred i n the regions a t the expense o f the N a t i o n a l government, tended t o destroy u n i t y .  Many f e l t that  t h i s r e g i o n a l i s a t i o n attacked the fundamental r i g h t s o f common n a t i o n a l i t y i n such aspects as the r e g i o n a l i s a t i o n o f the j u d i c i a r y and C i v i l S e r v i c e . Regardless o f the c r i t i c i s m there was a noticeable tendency among the major p a r t i e s i n the country t o keep the power they were e x e r c i s i n g i n t h e i r respective regions.  Not one gave any i n d i c a t i o n t h a t i t would accept any  fundamental changes i n 195^.  The three major p a r t i e s could by 1954 be con-  sidered as s a t i s f i e d p a r t i e s . There were i n c r e a s i n g signs that both the N.P.C. and A.G. were moving away from t h e i r e a r l i e r i s o l a t i o n i s t and s e c e s s i o n i s t tendencies.  The N.P.  C. accepted a stronger centre than that proposed by t h e i r E i g h t Point Programme. The r e s u l t s of the f i r s t f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n were g r a t i f y i n g .  The  N.C.N.C. won a majority o f seats i n both East and West, and the N.P.C. won the North.  The N.C.N.C. and N.P.C. formed the government a t the centre  w i t h the A.G. i n o p p o s i t i o n .  The s o l i d f r o n t of the South against the North  had now d i s s o l v e d and the N.P.C. found i t s e l f i n the f a m i l i a r p o s i t i o n of a l l i a n c e with one Southern p a r t y and i n opposition t o the other even though now the f r i e n d s and enemies were reversed. The A.G. too, was having second thoughts on the a d v i s a b i l i t y of a too s t r i c t r e g i o n a l i s a t i o n i n view o f the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n the North had been g i v i n g t o that d o c t r i n e .  The A.G. began more consciously t o undo the ap-  parent parochialism with which i t had been associated a t i t s i n i t i a l stage. Mr. Rotimi W i l l i a m s , an executive member o f the A.G. once declared i n the 147  press, "we are only s t a r t i n g from the West," and by I95& the A.G. had won  147  New Era Bureau, London " R e g i o n a l i s a t i o n " Conference, p.I3.  153 a few seats i n the Northern House and i n 1957 succeeded i n forming the o f f i c i a l Opposition i n the Eastern House.  This gave the p a r t y a more  n a t i o n a l and less r e g i o n a l outlook. The A.G. could harmonise t h i s new approach w i t h t h e i r o l d , by c l a i m ing that i t was i n l i n e w i t h t h e i r p o l i c y o f advocating "the u n i t y of each  148 t r i b e f i r s t and the u n i t y o f the whole next." mental change i n p o l i c y ,  Mr. Awolowo made the funda-  " i n order t o have a u n i f i e d N i g e r i a , we must have  149 leaders who are acceptable a l l over the country." The year 1953 proved that the most v i t a l issue o f N i g e r i a n p o l i t i c s was the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the North and the South.  Due t o the s t r i c t e r r e -  g i o n a l i s a t i o n and separation of powers i n the 1954 c o n s t i t u t i o n many o f the emotional issues and even the explosive issue o f self-government were r e g i o n a l i s e d a t l e a s t temporarily.  The North r e t r e a t e d from Balewa's s t a t e -  ment that i f the B r i t i s h were removed, "the North would continue i t s i n t e r rupted march t o the sea."  Dr. Azikiwe appeared ready t o p i c k up the c h a l -  lenge . P o s s i b l y the North can f i g h t us and f i n d asylum i n another country, as has been done before. Eight out of ten Nigerian s o l d i e r s are located i n the North. The s o l u t i o n would be t o d i v i d e the army, and put 3,000 s o l d i e r s i n each r e gion. This would preclude the p o s s i b i l i t y o f invasion.150 Otherwise the South i s not safe i f they i n s i s t on freedom. I warn you, the North may be schooled by c e r t a i n forces against freedom, and there may be t r o u b l e , The South w i l l not allow a c o r r i d o r t o the sea i f the North shows no s i g n of agreement. 148 D a i l y S e r v i c e , Vol.X, No.l402, 9 Nov., 1949, p.3. 149 Awolowo, "Address t o Washington Chapter o f A.A.S.U.A." A f r i c a n Newsletter, Washington, B.C., V o l . I l l , No.6, Mar., 1956, p.8. 150  The vast m a j o r i t y of the army are Northerners.  151 A z i k i w e , "Address t o Washington Chapter of A.A.S.U.A." A f r i c a n Newsletter, V o l . I l l , No.2, Nov., 1955, P«6.  154  Saner o p i n i o n however, p r e v a i l e d i n the South i n response t o the North's gestures of c o n c i l i a t i o n .  Chief Awolowo's statement of a t t i t u d e  was the p o l i c y a c t u a l l y f o l l o w e d . Our p o l i c y i s one of diplomacy - to persuade the North to see the beauty of self-government and the advantages t h a t would accrue.152 The p o l i c y of diplomacy and persuasion was e f f e c t i v e , so much so t h a t the North not only came t o accept the p o l i c y of self-government i n i 9 6 0 but a c t u a l l y took the lead i n 1957 c a l l i n g f o r N i g e r i a n u n i t y i n the request f o r s elf-government. The greatest p o i n t of c o n f l i c t between North and South, f o l l o w i n g t h e i r agreement on the date of self-government, was the N o r t h e r n i s a t i o n p o l i c y of the Kaduna government i n regard to the r e g i o n a l C i v i l S e r v i c e .  The Northern  government has stated i t s p o l i c y i n appointing c i v i l servants. I t prefers to h i r e Northerners, Englishmen or Nationals from other Commonwealth count r i e s , B r i t i s h A f r i c a n t e r r i t o r i e s , and Southern Nigerians i n t h a t order of preference.  Southern Nigerians who c o n s t i t u t e the l a r g e s t group of c i v i l  servants, h o l d i n g p o s i t i o n s immediately under the B r i t i s h have found t h e i r p o s i t i o n s insecure, appointments are no longer p o s s i b l e , promotions have been slowed down and i n some cases stopped a l t o g e t h e r . This Northern p o l i c y has been based upon a number of important considerations.  F i r s t , the North maintained t h a t European; c i v i l servants could be  h i r e d on c o n t r a c t and could be dropped when t h e i r p o s i t i o n was necessary f o r a Northern appointee, w h i l e the Southerners i f promoted to these posts considered t h a t as n a t i o n a l s of N i g e r i a an i n j u s t i c e was done i f they were r e placed by Northerners. ers  Second, the North maintained that g e n e r a l l y Southern-  d i d not become c i t i z e n s of the North but remained e n t i r e l y l o y a l to t h e i r  152 Awolowo, "Address to A.A.U.A." A f r i c a n Newsletter, V o l . I l l , March 1956, p.7*  No.6,  155  Southern home. I n any dispute between North and South they favoured the South.  The North has asked over and over again f o r a l o y a l C i v i l Service  and they f e e l that Southern Nigerians are the l e a s t l o y a l group.  Third,  the North has no desire t o replace White Imperialism w i t h B l a c k Imperialism and they f e e l that t h i s i s e x a c t l y what i s happening.  They contend that  n e i t h e r Southern Region would stand f o r a C i v i l Service which was eighty153  f i v e per cent drawn from the peoples o f another region. so strong i n the South i s a dead p o l i c y i n the North.  Nigerianisation, The North i s anxious  t o reduce the percentage of Southerners i n the C i v i l S e r v i c e .  Even outside  the p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , the N o r t h e r n i s a t i o n p o l i c y i s p r a c t i c a l p o l i t i c s , f o r the North has not the h i g h l y t r a i n e d personnel t o replace the Europeans but they are t r a i n i n g large numbers t o take over the next highest p o s i t i o n s on the C i v i l Service rung and these p o s i t i o n s are held by Southerners. Awakening of the Minor Ethnic Groups From 1950 t o 1954 the move f o r the c r e a t i o n o f a f e d e r a l form o f government revolved around the idea o f r e g i o n a l i s a t i o n . movement of the major t r i b e s .  R e g i o n a l i s a t i o n was a  By 1954 r e g i o n a l i s a t i o n was complete.  After  1954 a g i t a t i o n s h i f t e d t o the minor t r i b e s centred around the concept of separatism or separate states along l i n g u i s t i c and ethnic l i n e s .  The f o l -  lowing s e c t i o n w i l l b r i e f l y survey the s e p a r a t i s t movement; i t s e a r l y expressions p r i o r t o 1954, the a t t i t u d e of the leaders o f the major t r i b e s t o i t , and f i n a l l y a b r i e f summary of the headway the various s e p a r a t i s t movements have made i n the regions. I t has been recorded that both Azikiwe and Awolowo i n the l a t e nineteen f o r t i e s had advocated states or regions b u i l t upon l i n g u i s t i c and ethnic  153 The Western Region Government advertises c i v i l servant p o s i t i o n s f o r "people of western o r i g i n . "  156  lines.  The motivation i n each case had been d i f f e r e n t .  The N.C.N.C. saw  t h a t with a l l hope disappearing f o r a u n i t a r y government the best a l t e r n a t i v e would be numerous s t a t e s , no one strong enough t o dominate the c e n t r a l government.  The A.G. advocated states as p a r t o f t h e i r p l a n o f  federalism w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y weaker c e n t r a l government. As e a r l y as the Ibadan Conference o f 1950 a number o f p r o v i n c i a l conferences had suggested states b u i l t on ethnic l i n e s and t h e i r case was pleaded by Mr. E j a i f e , a member o f one o f the minor t r i b e s o f the Western Region, Urhobo. A t r i b e i s a t r i b e , no matter how s m a l l , and should be given a minimum o f concessions i n matters o f scholarships and schools, t o save i t from e x t i n c t i o n and non-representation i n the cent r a l legislature. 154  Mbonu Ojike and Eyo I t a submitted a m i n o r i t y report a t the Ibadan Conference i n which they advocated ethnic groupings. Grouping of N i g e r i a along ethnic and l i n g u i s t i c l i n e s would serve t o remove the problem o f boundaries, m i n o r i t y and paki s t a n i c dangers now threatening the u n i t y o f N i g e r i a . 155 When the N.C.N.C. and A.G. became f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e i r respect i v e regions, t h e i r ardour cooled towards the breaking up o f t h e i r own r e g i o n s , while they supported whole heartedly the break up o f t h e i r opponents' regions.  The A.G. formed an a l l i a n c e w i t h the Kamerun N a t i o n a l  Congress (K.N.C.) who advocated a separate r e g i o n apart from the East.  The  N.C.N.C. on the other hand i d e n t i f i e d i t s e l f w i t h the demand f o r a Mid-West s t a t e i n Benin and Delta provinces o f Western N i g e r i a and has held the maj o r i t y o f seats i n t h i s area as a r e s u l t ( s i x t e e n out o f a t o t a l o f twenty).  154  N i g e r i a , Ibadan Conference, p.62.  155  I b i d . , p.2kk.  157  The A.G.  i n 1957 made a serious b i d f o r power i n the East on the issue of  a separate state f o r the non-Ibo people of the East.  They won t h i r t e e n  seats out of a t o t a l of t h i r t y - f o u r non-Ibo c o n s t i t u e n c i e s .  By an amal-  gamation w i t h the U.K.I.P. a p a r t y a l s o supporting a non-Ibo state the A.G.  increased i t s seats t o eighteen. The reasons, other than p o l i t i c a l , f o r the r i s e of awareness i n the 156  minor ethnic groups, have been suggested elsewhere but two p o l i t i c a l reasons might be n o t i c e d . The A.G. by the very doctrine upon which i t rose t o power i n v i t e d other t r i b e s t o i m i t a t e i t .  By the advocacy of a t r i b a l i s t i c  approach and the p o l i c y of t r i b a l s u p e r i o r i t y i t antagonised minor t r i b e s , caused them to fear the superior Yorubas and showed p o l i t i c i a n s how a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y could q u i c k l y be b u i l t .  I f the A.G.  could r i s e so r a p i d l y by  making use of the weapon of fear of Ibo domination, could not minor t r i b e s i n the East use the same weapon and minor t r i b e s i n the West r a i s e the c r y of Yoruba domination.  This approach, plus the r a t h e r heavy handed and clum-  sy use of power p o s s i b l y a r i s i n g from inexperience i n the e a r l y years of p r a c t i c a l self-government, caused a l i e n a t i o n of many minor ethnic groups i n 157  the South.  The s i t u a t i o n was and has continued to be quite d i f f e r e n t i n the North. Regardless of the s e p a r a t i s t movements there i t i s probably true t o say that no serious s i t u a t i o n even m i l d l y comparable t o the South has a r i s e n i n the North. So f a r the f o l l o w i n g circumstances have combined against t r i b a l leaders r e c e i v i n g widespread support i n the North.  156  I n o p p o s i t i o n t o the c e n t r a l i s t  See chapter I .  157 Fabian S o c i e t y , Venture, S o c i a l i s t s and the Colonies, S p e c i a l N i g e r i a n Number, London, J o u r n a l of the Fabian C o l o n i a l Bureau, V o l . I l l , No.3, J u l y , 1956, p . 2 .  158  tendencies going on i n the South, the Worth was r a p i d l y p r o v i d i n g f o r a semi-federal p r o v i n c i a l system w i t h i n i t s own region.  More power was being  devolved from Kaduna t o the l o c a l native administrations and t o p r o v i n c i a l councils.  More emphasis was being l a i d on l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r matters  such as law, roads, and education. Such men as might have formed the core of t r i b a l r e s i s t a n c e found t h e i r ambitions cared f o r e i t h e r i n l o c a l , prov i n c i a l or even a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l .  The Worth needed every a v a i l a b l e  q u a l i f i e d person t o man even the bare e s s e n t i a l s of the governmental machine which was passing i n t o t h e i r hands not because of t h e i r own demands but because of the attempt of almost a l l p a r t i e s , B r i t i s h , Wortherners and Southerners to keep the North i n step w i t h the South. Second, the A.G. d o c t r i n e , so potent i n the South, might have had a large f o l l o w i n g i n the North had i t not been f o r the emotions aroused by the Kano disturbances.  Those Northerners who might uphold ideas contrary t o the  N.P.C. could almost be shouted down as treasonous f o r t h e i r advocacy of Southern ideas.  C l o s e l y connected w i t h t h i s was the f a c t that the Northern  government stood by i t s p o l i c y of N o r t h e r n i s a t i o n and from i t s i n c e p t i o n had held t o the concept of "One North, One People," i n contrast t o the South where the Ibadan and Enugu governments were a l l too c l o s e l y a l l i e d w i t h Yorubas and Ibos r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Kaduna may have been as c l o s e l y a l l i e d w i t h the  Hausa-Fulani, but t h i s kind of c r i t i c i s m coming from the South f e l l on unresponsive Northern ears.  I n f a c t i t would not be too f a r wrong to say t h a t  the Southern press was the greatest a l l y the N.P.C. possessed, f o r the more i t r a i l e d a t the North the more Northerners h e s i t a t e d t o a l l y themselves w i t h the South i n c r i t i c i s i n g t h e i r government. I n comparing the various areas demanding separate states a t l e a s t on the basis of parliamentary seats i t would appear t h a t the Mid-West state  159  '  i s the most v o c a l and u n i t e d , the Calabar-Ogoja-Rivers area the next, w i t h a hare m a j o r i t y o f seats held i n the hands o f s e p a r a t i s t s , while i n the Middle B e l t a t the moment a minor group has the b a s i s f o r expanded support, and i n Bomu the s e p a r a t i s t s are b a r e l y a r t i c u l a t e . The Southern leaders were both e a r l y advocates o f ethnic groupings and even yet both pay l i p s e r v i c e t o t h i s i d e a l .  Already f e a r f u l of the  l a r g e r North they do not enjoy the prospect o f the East and West being s p l i t while the North remains i n t a c t .  Both Awolowo and Azikiwe have stated  they would only agree t o states being formed i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r e g i o n i f the North agrees t o i t s own p a r t i t i o n .  Like the self-government i s s u e , the  onus f o r t h i s s o l u t i o n has been put upon the North.  I t i s not l i k e l y the  North o f i t s own v o l i t i o n w i l l s e r i o u s l y consider ethnic groupings u n t i l an e f f e c t i v e demand a r i s e s i n the North f o r them.  The North has more a t stake  i n t h i s i s s u e , i n that ethnic groupings i f c a r r i e d out l o g i c a l l y would s p l i t the North i n t o numerous states and have a much more d r a s t i c e f f e c t upon the North than upon the South.  The A c t i o n Group's Yoruba s t a t e , under the p r i n -  c i p l e of ethnic groupings, would almost gain from the Northern region the population and area i t l o s t i n the Mid-West area. The f i r s t concrete advance f o r the forces advocating separate states Under the C o n s t i t u t i o n of 1946 and 1951  occurred i n the Eastern Region.  the Cameroons had been a p a r t o f the Eastern Region w i t h members s i t t i n g i n the House of Assembly a t Enugu.  The Karaerun Peoples* P a r t y (K.P.P.) i n  a l l i a n c e w i t h the N.C.N.C. supported t h i s union.  I n the 1954 Eastern e l e c -  t i o n s the Kamerun N a t i o n a l Congress (K.N.C.), under the leadership o f Dr. E.M. Endeley, won a l l the seats i n the Cameroons on a platform o f a separate r e g i o n f o r the Cameroons.  The K.N.C. then declared i t would boycott  160  the Eastern House of Assembly.  I t was agreed that the Cameroons should  have i t s own House of Assembly and acquire the status of a q u a s i - f e d e r a l territory.  Soon a f t e r , Chief Awolowo v i s i t e d the Cameroons and formed an  a l l i a n c e w i t h the K.N.C. Thus the two main p a r t i e s of the Cameroons were a l l i e d w i t h the b i g main Southern p a r t i e s of N i g e r i a . For a v a r i e t y of reasons the formation of the Cameroons could not be taken as a precedent f o r the c r e a t i o n of other s t a t e s . The Cameroons had never t r a d i t i o n a l l y been a p a r t of the East, and geographically i t was not of the East.  Furthermore,  i t was under United Nations t r u s t e e s h i p .  The b e d e v i l l i n g question of Cameroonian p o l i t i c s was h e r e a f t e r to be i t s f u t u r e p o s i t i o n , whether t o j o i n the N i g e r i a n f e d e r a t i o n , t o attempt an independent s t a t u s , or t o seek reunion w i t h the French Cameroons.  I t was  the Togoland question a l l over again. The second area t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o i t s claims f o r a separate s t a t e was the area known as the Mid-West c o n s i s t i n g of the provinces of Benin and Delta l y i n g west of the Niger and between the Yoruba and Ibo peoples. The proposed region c o n s i s t s of the two main t r i b e s , the Benis and Urhobo and other minor t r i b e s such as the Western Ibo, Ijaw and I s t e k i r i . Although the demand f o r a Mid-West s t a t e has been most i n s i s t e n t and organised, complete u n i t y of purpose has not been achieved.  The I s t e k i r i s •  do not wish t o be incorporated i n the proposed s t a t e s . Suggestions have a r i s e n that the Western Ibo should j o i n the Eastern Region, that the Ijaws o f the West should j o i n those i n the East to form a Rivers S t a t e , and that the ancient Benin kingdom should be r e v i v e d . There i s a l s o some support  158  f o r remaining a p a r t of the Western Region.  I58 Formation of "Anti-Mid-West State Movement," D a i l y Times, No. 14,237, 22 Aug., 1957, P.I.  I6i The t h i r d Southern area t o he involved i n the states issue was the non-Ibo area of the Eastern Region centred i n Calabar, Ogoja and Rivers Provinces and commonly r e f e r r e d t o as the COR State Area.  This issue  i s clouded by the f a c t t h a t the Ibos who form l a r g e m i n o r i t i e s c o n s i s t i n g o f m a j o r i t i e s i n some d i v i s i o n s i n the COR State Area are v i o l e n t l y 159  opposed t o the c r e a t i o n o f a separate s t a t e . A f t e r the 1951 e l e c t i o n s i n the East, the Opposition p a r t y , the United N a t i o n a l p a r t y l e d by Alvan Ikoku, was drawn mainly from the nonIbo areas o f the East.  A f t e r the s i t - t i g h t c r i s i s , Eyo I t a the former  premier, formed the N a t i o n a l Independence P a r t y from those former N.C.N.C. members who had refused t o f o l l o w the N.C.N.C. i n i t s p o l i c y as set down a t the Jos Convention.  This p a r t y had i t s m a j o r i t y support from Ibo areas  although Eyo I t a himself was non-Ibo and Calabar born.  The United N a t i o n a l  P a r t y and the N a t i o n a l Independence P a r t y joined t o form the United Nationa l Independence P a r t y (UNIP).  The UNIP could never wholeheartedly advocate 160  a COR state because o f i t s Ibo f o l l o w i n g . I n the 1957 e l e c t i o n s i n the East the A.G. entered the e l e c t i o n cont e s t f u l l y supporting the demand f o r a COR s t a t e and i n p a r t i a l a l l i a n c e w i t h UNIP.  The p o p u l a r i t y o f the A.G. programme almost o b l i t e r a t e d the  UNIP whose membership decreased from ten t o f i v e . creased i t s membership from one t o twelve.  The A c t i o n Group i n -  Many previous supporters o f  UNIP and even some o f i t s executive went over t o the A.G. - the former chairman o f UNIP, Alvan Ikoku, became the leader o f the A.G. o p p o s i t i o n i n the new House.  I n a few months the UNIP announced a merger with the A.G.  159 The M i n i s t e r o f Education (Eastern Region) Hon. Ibanga Udo Akpab i o , a non-Ibo N.C.N.C. member t o l d the w r i t e r that the N.C.N.C. opposed a COR state because Ibos would be persecuted i n t h a t s t a t e i f i t were set up. 160 I n 1956 the UNIP executive consisted o f three Ibos, one E f i k , and one E k o i s .  162  With t h i s merger the COR state movement achieved a kind o f u n i f i e d v o i c e . In the Middle B e l t the p o l i t i c a l confusion has been almost complete. The U.M.B.C, the p a r t y advocating a Middle B e l t s t a t e has been almost hopelessly d i v i d e d .  A t one time Pastor David Lot and Mr. Dokotri l e d a  wing o f the U.M.B.C. i n t o a l l i a n c e w i t h the N.P.C. and accepted p o s i t i o n s i n the government. tions. the A.G.  They returned t o the o p p o s i t i o n a f t e r the 1956 e l e c -  Moses Rwang, another leader a t one time sought an a l l i a n c e w i t h A t another time one group w i t h i n the p a r t y sought an a l l i a n c e  w i t h NEPU while another group turned i t down. This a l l i a n c e was f i n a l l y concluded but has been marked by i n t e r - p a r t y q u a r r e l l i n g and f i g h t i n g . The U.M.B.C. i n the e l e c t i o n o f 1956 won twelve seats i n the Middle B e l t , the N.P.C. won twenty-one. A t the London Conference i n 1957 a commission was agreed upon t o look i n t o the fears o f the m i n o r i t y groups i n N i g e r i a .  The question of minor-  i t i e s and the concomitant question o f states i s the most vexing question now f a c i n g N i g e r i a .  States based s t r i c t l y upon l i n g u i s t i c and ethnic  groupings i s impossible due t o the many ethnic d i v i s i o n s .  However, i t may  be found necessary to pay more a t t e n t i o n t o ethnic groupings i n the forma t i o n o f future s t a t e s .  The l a t e s t tendency has been the f e e l i n g among  the minor t r i b e s that the recent show o f u n i t y among the leaders o f the b i g three major t r i b e s i s the r e s u l t o f a determination o f these t r i b e s t o seek self-government f i r s t i n order that they can handle the m i n o r i t i e s i n t h e i r own way.  The minor t r i b e s d e f i n i t e l y f e e l that the formation of more  states i s o f greater importance than self-government, and t h e i r major i n t e r e s t i n the l a s t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l conference was not i n the advance made towards self-government but r a t h e r i n the steps taken i n order t o promote t h e i r w e l l being.  163 By 1956 Nigerians were w e l l aware that the struggle f o r p o l i t i c a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n was over.  The B r i t i s h were only w a i t i n g f o r Nigerians  t o determine what f i n a l form the p o l i t i c a l structure of the country would take.  By 1956 the p o l i t i c a l consciousness o f the people had been thor-  oughly aroused by the n a t i o n a l i s t s .  I t was now t h e i r duty t o d i r e c t t h i s  new consciousness t o the many problems, s o c i a l and economic which beset the new nation.  1  to f o l l o w page 163  AGA>rt  H&TeKf SHALL Trf4»ic«rf  ifsftP  SJf  AfRiC*\$  SUES  ^.ES^RKffcTloW  164  Bibliography I  Government Documents Great B r i t a i n , C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , Census of Nigeria,1931,London,Crown Agents,1933C o l o n i a l O f f i c e S t a f f L i s t I901,London, H.M.S.O.,1902. " E f f e c t o f the War 1939-1945 on Nigeri a , " C o l o n i a l Report 1946,London, H.M. s.o.,191+6. C o l o n i a l Reports 1948-1953, London, H.M.S.O. " S i r F r e d e r i c k Lugard's Report on the Amalgamation o f Northern and Southern N i g e r i a and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n I 9 I 2 - I 9 I 9 , " Cmd.468. "Statement of P o l i c y on C o l o n i a l Development and Welfare," February,I9I+0, Cmd.6175. "Higher Education Commission Report," 191+7, Cmd.6655. N i g e r i a n Gazette 1913. "Memorandum on Education P o l i c y i n N i g e r i a , " 1947, S e s s i o n a l Paper No.20. Southern N i g e r i a C i v i l Service L i s t , London, Waterloo and Sons, 1 9 0 9 . Southern N i g e r i a C i v i l L i s t and Handbook, London,Waterloo and Sons, 1910. Nigeria,Eastern Regional Government,"Policy f o r Education," S e s s i o n a l Paper No.6 of 1953,Enugu,Gov't P r i n t e r , 1953. C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Dispute i n Eastern N i g e r i a , Statement made i n the Eastern House of Assembly by Dr. the Hon. Nnamdi A z i k i w e , 19 A p r i l , 1955. N i g e r i a , F e d e r a l Government, Debates of the House of Representatives, 1955-1957. L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l Debates, 1920, 2 4 , 2 5 , 34, 3 5 , 40, 41, 46, 4 7 , 4 9 .  165  Law J o u r n a l 1928. N i g e r i a S t a f f L i s t , Oct., 1930, 1950  ,  P h i l l i p s o n and Adebo,The N i g e r i a n i s a t i o n of the C i v i l S e r v i c e , 1 9 5 4 . Proceedings of the General Conference on Review of the C o n s t i t u t i o n , Jan., 1950. Report of the Commission on Revenue A l l o c a t i o n by J.R. H i c k s , 1951. Review of the C o n s t i t u t i o n , Regional Recommendation 1949. " P o l i t i c a l and C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Future of N i g e r i a , " S e s s i o n a l Paper No.4, 5 Mar., 1945. Department of S t a t i s t i c s , Census of the Northern Provinces, London, Crown Agents, 1933. Population Census of the Three Regions of N i g e r i a and Lagos, Lagos, Gov't P r i n t e r , 1952. F e d e r a l Information S e r v i c e , N i g e r i a ' s C o n s t i t u t i o n a l S t o r y I862-I954, Lagos, 1955. N i g e r i a , Northern Regional Government, Annual Report of the Education Department 1954-55, Kaduna, Gov't P r i n t e r , 1956. Report on the Kano Disturbances, 1953. Kaduna, Gov't P r i n t e r , 1954. N i g e r i a , Western Regional Government, Annual Report of the M i n i s t r y of Education 1954-55, Ibadan,Gov't P r i n t e r , __6_: Information S e r v i c e , Awolowo, Obafemi, Address t o the Lagos Chamber of Commerce 1955. Address on the A p p r o p r i a t i o n B i l l , I 9 5 5 . Ibadan, Gov't P r i n t e r . Address i n the Western House of Assembly, Ibadan, Gov't P r i n t e r , 1955. Forward t o Freedom, Ibadan, Gov't P r i n t e r , 1955.  166  Charter of Freedom, Ibadan, Gov't P r i n t e r , 1952. The P r i c e of Progress, Ibadan, Gov't P r i n t e r , 1953. General Works--Pre-1920. A r n e t t , E . J . , Rise of the Sokoto F u l a n i , photostat, 1920? Blyden,E.W., West A f r i c a Before Europe, Southampton, C M . P h i l l i p s , 1905. Boven,R.H., Benin:The C i t y of Blood,London,Edward Arnold,I897. Bovill,E.W., Caravans of the Old Sahara,London,Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press,  I933Brady,Michael, Our Pioneers,Lagos,Public Relations O f f i c e , 1 9 5 2 . Buell,Raymond L e s l i e , The Native Problem i n Africa,New York,Macmillan, 1928, 2 v o l s . Cowan,A.A., The S t o r y of J a - J a , r e p r i n t e d from West A f r i c a , 1 2 Nov.1927. Crocker,W.R., N i g e r i a : A C r i t i q u e of B r i t i s h C o l o n i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , London, A l l e n & Unwin, 1936. Daniel,F.de F., A H i s t o r y of K a t s i n a , mimeo, a f t e r 1937? Deniga,Adeoye, A f r i c a n Past and Present, Lagos, Tika-Tore, I9I5« Egerton,H.E., A Short H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h C o l o n i a l P o l i c y I606-I909, London, Metheun, 1950. Egharevba,Jacob U., A Short H i s t o r y of Benin, Benin, by the author,1953 Fage,J.D., An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the H i s t o r y of West A f r i c a , Cambridge, U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1955« Folarin,Adebesin, The Demise of the Independence of Egbaland, Lagos, Tika-Tore, 1924. Geary,William N e v i l l e M., N i g e r i a Under B r i t i s h Rule,London,Metheun, 1927.  Graham,Stephen, The Soul of John Brown, New York, Macmillan, 1920. Gray,Frank, My Two A f r i c a n Journeys, London, Metheun, 1928. Hazzledine,G.D., The White Man i n A f r i c a , London, E.Arnold, 1904. Herman,Hodge,the Hon.H.B., Gazetter of I l o r i n Province,London,Allen & Unwin, 1929•  167 Hogben,S.J., The Muharomadan Emirates of N i g e r i a , London, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1930. Johnston,Sir H.H.,  A H i s t o r y of the C o l o n i z a t i o n of A f r i c a by A l i e n Races, Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1930.  Livingstone,W.P., Mary S l e s s o r of Calabar, Toronto, Hodder & Stoughton, 1917.  Mathews,Basil, The Clash of Colour, London, Edinburgh House, 1925. Mockler-Ferryman,A.F.,  B r i t i s h N i g e r i a , London, C a s s e l l s ,  1902.  Mockler-Ferryman,A.F.,  Up the Niger, London, Geo. P h i l i p ,  1892.  Morel,E.D., N i g e r i a , I t s People and I t s Problems, London,John Murray,I9I2. N i g e r i a n Progress Union, N i g e r i a n Students and Henry C a r r , London, the Union, 192!+. Oakley,R.R., Treks and P a l a v e r s , London, Seeley, S e r v i c e ,  1938.  Oldham,J.H., Gilson,B.D., The Remaking of Man i n A f r i c a , London, M i l f o r d , 1927? Perham,M., Lugard, The Years of Adventure I 8 5 8 - I 8 9 8 , London, C o l l i n s , Perham,M., Native A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Nigeria,London & T o r o n t o , U n i v e r s i t y Press Oxford, 1937. Perhara,M.,(ed.) Ten A f r i c a n s , London, Faber and Faber,  1940.  Perham,M., Simmons,J., A f r i c a n Discovery,London,Faber and Faber,1942. Robinson,Charles Henry, Hausaland,London,Low Marston, I898. Smith,-Edwin W.,  Aggrey of A f r i c a , A Study i n Black & White,London, Student C h r i s t i a n Movement, 1929.  Stoddard,Lothrop, R i s i n g Tide of Colour Against White Supremacy,London, Chapman & H a l l , 1920. Talbot,P. Amaury, The Peoples of Southern Nigeria,London,Oxford Univers i t y Press,1926,4 v o l s . W a l l i s , C . B r a i t h w a i t e , The Advance of our West A f r i c a n Empire,London, F i s h e r Unwin, 1903. This l i s t of general works dealing w i t h N i g e r i a p r i o r to 1920 was u s e f u l mainly i n gathering an impression of the white man's a t t i t u d e t o N i g e r i a and the advance of B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t y i n the regions of the  168  Niger. The n a t i o n a l i s t outlook i s almost non-existent i n the E n g l i s h w r i t e r s . One-notable exception i s B u e l l * s The Native Problem i n A f r i c a which deals sympathetically w i t h the n a t i o n a l i s t movement i n the e a r l y nineteen twenties. I t i s as v a l i d today as i t was when i t was w r i t t e n . Another valuable c o n t r i b u t i o n i s Talbot's four volumes on The Peoples of Southern N i g e r i a , which i s one of the e a r l i e s t sources of s t a t i s t i c a l m a t e r i a l . The N i g e r i a n w r i t e r Adebesin F o l a r i n i n the Demise of the Independence of Egbaland i s one of the f i r s t t r u l y n a t i o n a l i s t h i s t o r ians . Ill  General Works--1920-1958 Belshaw,Horace, Facing the Future i n West Africa,London,Cargate  Press,  1951.  Buchanan,K.M., Pugh,J.C, Land and Peace i n Nigeria,London,University of London Press,  1955.  Burns,Sir A l a n , C o l o n i a l C i v i l Servant, London, A l l e n & Unwin, I9U9. Burns,Sir A l a n , Colour P r e j u d i c e , London, A l l e n & Unwin,  1948.  Burns,Sir A l a n , H i s t o r y of N i g e r i a ,  1955.  "  "  "  Burns,Sir A l a n , I n Defence of Colonies, " " " 1957. C l a r k , F . l e Gros., Collins,Henry,Hodgkin,Thomas,Okafore,Amanke, The West Africa,London,Allen & Unwin, 1953•  New  Coleman,J.S., The Bole of T r i b a l A s s o c i a t i o n s i n N i g e r i a , Ibadan, West A f r i c a n I n s t i t u t e of S o c i a l & Economic Welfare, 1952. D a i l y Times, N i g e r i a Year Book, Lagos, N i g e r i a n P r i n t i n g & P u b l i s h i n g , 1952-1957.  Deschamps,Hubert, The French Union, P a r i s , E d i t i o n s Berger-Levrault,I956. Diplomatic Press Survey, Western N i g e r i a , Diplomatic B u l l e t i n , S p e c i a l E d i t i o n , No.32, Dec. 1955* Ekwensi,Cyprian,  People of the C i t y , London,Andrew Bakers, ;  1954.  Hailey,Lord, Native A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h A f r i c a n T e r r i t o r i e s , P a r t I I I , London, H.M.S.0. 1951. Haines,C.Grove,(ed.) A f r i c a Today, Baltimore, John Hopkins Press,  1955.  Hodgkin,Thomas, Nationalism i n C o l o n i a l Africa,London,Frederick M u l l e r , I k o l i , E r n e s t , Our C o u n c i l of M i n i s t e r s , Lagos, P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s O f f i c e , 1952.  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bank,The Economic Development of N i g e r i a , Lagos, Gov't P r i n t e r , 1954. J e f f r i e s , S i r Charles, The C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , London, A l l e n & Unwin,I956. Kanu-Umo, R., Slave Markets i n East N i g e r i a , Umuahia-Ibeku,National Printing,1953' Knaplund,Paul, The B r i t i s h Empire I8I5-I939, London, Hamish & Hami l t o n , 1940. Knaplund,Paul, Britain,Commonwealth & Empire I 9 0 I - I 9 5 5 , London, Hamish Hamilton, 1956. Lansbury,George, Labour's Way with the Commonwealth,London,by the party, 1935. McKay,Vernon, B r i t i s h Rule i n West A f r i c a , New York, Foreign P o l i c y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1948. McKay,Vernon, Nationalism i n B r i t i s h West Africa,New York, Foreign P o l i c y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1954. Meeker,Oden, Report on A f r i c a , London, Chatto & Windus, 1955Niven,Cecil Rex, A Short H i s t o r y of N i g e r i a , London,Longmans,Green, 1952. Niven,Cecil Rex, Nigeria,Outline Sons, 1945.  of a Colony, London, Thos.Nelson &  Niven,Cecil Rex, Our Emirates,Lagos,Public Relations Office,1954. 0nafusi,01usola, Students' Notebook on the B r i t i s h Empire H i s t o r y , Yaba,Ifeolu,I955. Pirn,Sir A l a n , The F i n a n c i a l & Economic H i s t o r y of the A f r i c a n T r o p i c a l Dependencies,Oxford,Clarendon Press,1940. Rose,A.M., The Negros' Morale, Minneapolis,University Press,1949.  of Minnesota  Royal I n s t i t u t e of I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , S t u d y Group of Members, The C o l o n i a l Problem, London,Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press,1937. Sadler,G.W., A Century i n Nigeria,Nashville,Broadman Press,1950. Thomas,Isaac B., L i f e H i s t o r y of Herbert Macaulay C.E.,Lagos,Akede Eko, 1947. Wheare,Joan, The Nigerian L e g i s l a t i v e Council,London,Faber & Faber, 1950.  170  Wieschhoff,H.A., C o l o n i a l P o l i c i e s i n A f r i c a , P h i l a d e l p h i a , U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania Press, 1944. Generally speaking the hooks i n t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n are w r i t t e n by white w r i t e r s . The best books f o r the underlying structure of the n a t i o n a l i s t movement i s Hodgkin's, Nationalism i n C o l o n i a l A f r i c a , and McKay's Nationalism i n B r i t i s h West A f r i c a . One aspect of t h i s structure i s the formation o f p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . This p a r t i c u l a r aspect i s w e l l developed by James S. Coleman, "The Emergence of A f r i c a n P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s " i n A f r i c a Today. The book The New West A f r i c a by Clark,Collins,Hodgkin and Okafore covers the whole f i e l d , p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l , of West A f r i c a n development. The weakest point i n t h i s book i s i t s unorthodox economics. The best work on the workings of the l i m i t e d representative government system under the 1921 c o n s t i t u t i o n i s Joan Wheare's The N i g e r i a n L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l . Isaac Thomas' L i f e H i s t o r y of Herbert Macaulay i s the only a v a i l a b l e book on the n a t i o n a l i s t whose l i f e almost spanned the whole n a t i o n a l i s t p e r i o d . Unfortunately t h i s b i ography f a l l s short of reaching academic standards, figed Macaulay, son of the l a t e n a t i o n a l i s t leader i s a t the present time preparing a book e n t i t l e d Memoirs of Herbert Macaulay which i t i s hoped w i l l throw more l i g h t on the work of t h i s important n a t i o n a l f i g u r e . Nationalist Writings. Achoghuo,Onogbo, Iva V a l l e y Tragedy,Enugu,Eastern Press,  1953.  Adegbola,Adenipekun, N i g e r i a n P o l i t i c a l Evolution,Ibadan,Olatunji Printing,  1950.  Adelabu,Adegoke, A f r i c a i n Ebullition,Ibadan,Union Printing,1952. Adeniyi-Jones,Hon.Dr.C.C., Address a t Glover Memorial Hall,Oct.1,1938, Lagos,Adedimeta Printing,1938. Adeniyi-Jones,Hon.Dr.C.C., P o l i t i c a l and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Problems of N i g e r i a . London, Bonner & Co., Agwuna,Osita, Go With the Masses, Enugu, Eastern Press,  1928. 1953.  Ajuluchuku,M.C.K., Workers vs Whitelegs, P o r t Harcourt,Yankee Press,1951 Akinsuroou,01orundayomi, Z i k i n Nigeria's Ship of Destiny, Lagos, C i t y Publishing,1953. Akinsuroju,01orundayomi, N i g e r i a P o l i t i c a l Theatre 1923-1953, Lagos, C i t y P u b l i s h i n g , 1954. Aluko,S.A., The Problems of Self-Government f o r N i g e r i a , London, A.H.Stockwell, 1952. Awolowo,Obafemi, Path to N i g e r i a n Freedom, London, Faber & Faber,194-7.  171  Azikiwe,Nnamdi, C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Dispute i n Eastern Nigeria,Enugu, Gov't P r i n t e r , 1955 • Azikiwe,Nnamdi, The Development of P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s i n N i g e r i a , London,Office of the Eastern Regional Commissioners, 1957.  Azikiwe,Nnamdi, Renascent Africa,Lagos,by the author,1937» Biobaku,Dr. S a b u r i , P o l i t i c a l E v o l u t i o n , Occasional Paper No.I, Lagos,Nigeria Society,Oct.1954. Citizens'Committee f o r Independence, Forward t o Freedom,Constitutiona l Proposals f o r a United N i g e r i a , Ibadan,Alozie Printing,1957. Cudjoe,Dr.S.D., A i d s t o A f r i c a n Autonomy,London,College  Press,19U9.  Ekpiken,D.E., Kano R i o t s or the Tree of L i b e r t y , Kano, I f e - O l u P r i n t i n g , I95 *. 2  Elias,Dr.T.O., P o l i t i c a l Advance & the Rule o f Law i n B r i t i s h West A f r i c a , Occasional Paper on N i g e r i a n A f f a i r s No.2, Lagos, The N i g e r i a n S o c i e t y , 1955• Fox,W.T., Z i k As I See Him, Lagos, by the author, 194-7. Ike,Okwaelumo,Great  Men o f Ibo Land,Aba,Clergyman  Printing,1952.  I t a , E . , Crusade f o r Freedom,Calabar,West A f r i c a n Peoples I n s t i t u t e (W.A.P.I.) Press,1949. The Assurance of Freedom,Calabar,W.A.P.I., 1949. Reconstruction Towards Wider Integration,Calabar,W.A.P.I.1949. Revolt of the L i b e r a l S p i r i t i n Nigeria,Calabar,W.A.P.I.,1949. S t e r i l e Truths & F e r t i l e L i e s , Two V i t a l Fronts i n N i g e r i a ' s  Calabar,W.A.P.I.,l949. Development,Calabar,W.A.P.I.,  Juwe-^S.M., Margaret Ekpo i n N i g e r i a n Politics,Jos,Rainbow Press,1954. The Western Ibo People & the Coming Days,Port Harcourt, Good' w i l l Press,1953. Why i s the N a t i o n a l Church of N i g e r i a & the Cameroons & the ' God o f A f r i c a ? P.H.Goodwill, I956. Zik and the Freedom o f N i g e r i a , P o r t Harcourt,Goodwill Press, ' 1953.  172  Juwe,S.M., Z i k i n London, P o r t Harcourt, Goodwill Press, Macaulay,Herbert, Henry Carr Must Go, Lagos, Brochure,  1953.  1924.  N i g e r i a n P u b l i c A f f a i r s Expressed i n London by Dr. 'j. Randle, Lagos, Samadu Press, 1926. New Era Bureau, The London " R e g i o n a l i s a t i o n " Conference Before and A f t e r , Lagos, Techno L i t e r a r y , 1953• New Era Bureau, Dr. Z i k Goes E a s t , Lagos, Techno L i t e r a r y ,  1953'  Nmema,Ajunonu, Is the North Breaking Away? Port Harcourt,Eastern C i t y , 1953. Ogbalu,F.Chidozie, Dr. Z i k o f A f r i c a , P o r t Harcourt,Goodwill Press,1948. Ojike,Mbonu, The Road to Freedom, Lagos, A l a f i a P r e s s , 1948? Okafor,Amanke, N i g e r i a : Why We F i g h t f o r Freedom,Lagos,by the author, 1950.  Onyido,Udemezue, The N.C.N.C. Delegation t o London of 1947, Education M i s s i o n Press, 1949Orizu,A.A.Nwafor, Without Bitterness,New York,Creative Age  Aba, Press,1944.  Pan-Africa Bureau of Information, Dr. Z i k Goes East: I s i t "the Bet r a y a l of a P r i n c i p l e or an A c t of Bold Realism? , Lagos, Beacon, 1955? Tugbiyele,Akande,  The Emergence of Nationalism and Federalism, Lagos, Techno L i t e r a r y ,  1954.  Udeagu,Onyenaekeya, Z i k the Man, Enugu, S o l a r Press,  1954.  Uwanaka,Charles U., New N i g e r i a , Lagos, P a c i f i c Publishing,1953• Uwanaka,Charles U., Z i k and Awolowo i n P o l i t i c a l Storm, Lagos, P a c i f i c P u b l i s h i n g , 1953• Uzo,Timothy Moka, The P a t h f i n d e r , Port Harcourt, Niger Press, 1953. The w r i t i n g s of the n a t i o n a l i s t s are quite n a t u r a l l y a product more of emotional than i n t e l l e c t u a l t h i n k i n g . A few authors however, stand out i n t h i s group because of the f a c t that they have been able t o use an emotional appeal t o c l o t h e quite academic work. P o s s i b l y the most important book i s Obafemi Awolowo's Path to N i g e r i a n Freedom where the premier-to-be of the Western Region o u t l i n e s h i s conception of a fede r a l c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r N i g e r i a , based on other federations such as I n d i a A u s t r a l i a , Canada and the United S t a t e s . The best a n a l y s i s of the development of the f e d e r a l system i n N i g e r i a i s given by A.Tugbiyele, i n  173  The Emergence of nationalism and Federalism and T,M.Uzo i n The P a t h f i n d e r . Both of these hooks are unusually o b j e c t i v e i n t h e i r treatment of an extremely emotional subject. Dr. S. Biobaku's P o l i t i c a l E v o l u t i o n i s a very academic treatment of the same subj e c t . The f i n e s t treatment of the phenomena of t r i b a l i s m i s presented i n A.Adelabu's A f r i c a i n E b u l l i t i o n . V  P o l i t i c a l Pamphlets A c t i o n Group, Lagos Belongs t o the West,London,Purne11 & Sons,I953. , The N.C.N.C., Their Black Record,London,Purne11  & Sons.  1953-  , The Case f o r the A.G.,  "  "  "  1953.  Agunbiade-Bamishe,0., The Case f o r the A c t i o n Group - P a r t y of the Masses, Ibadan,African Press,1954. Awolowo,Obafemi, Address t o Lagos Chamber of Commerce,Ibadan, Gov't P r i n t e r , 1955* , Address on the A p p r o p r i a t i o n B i l l , Ibadan, Gov't P r i n t e r , 1955. , Address i n the Western House of Assembly, Ibadan, Gov't P r i n t e r , 1955. , Charter of Freedom, Ibadan, P u b l i c Relations O f f i c e , 1952.  Forward t o Freedom, Ibadan, Gov't P r i n t e r ,  1955.  , The P r i c e of Progress,Ibadan, P u b l i c Relations Office,  1953.  N.C.N.C, B a t t l e f o r U n i t y and Freedom, Yaba,Zik E n t e r p r i s e s , 1954. , C o n s t i t u t i o n of the N.C.N.C.,Lagos,Ife-obu , His tor i c a 1 Background,London,Fridiman,  Printing,1945  1954.  , Lagos i s Free, Yaba,Zik E n t e r p r i s e s , 1 9 5 3 . U.N.I.P., C o n s t i t u t i o n of the U.N.I.P., Aba,Eastern States Express, P o l i t i c a l pamphlets are those p u b l i c a t i o n s authorized f o r p u b l i c a t i o n by the p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s f o r e l e c t i o n purposes. I n some cases they present p a r t y programmes but i n others t h e i r appeal i s s t r i c t l y emot i o n a l . The pamphlets o f t e n i n d i c a t e t a c t i c s r a t h e r than platforms.  17-4  Periodical Articles Anene,J.C.,"The Southern Wigeria Protectorate and the Aros 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 0 2 , " J o u r n a l of the H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y of Wigeria, Vol,I,(Dec.I956)p.20 Awolowo,Obafemi, "Address t o the Washington Chapter of the A l l - A f r i c a n Students Union of the Americas," A f r i c a n Newsletter, Vol.Ill,Wo.6 (March,I956),p.U. Azikiwe,Ben.N.,"How S h a l l We Educate the A f r i c a n , " A f r i c a n A f f a i r s , Vol.XXXIII,No.CXXXI ( A p r i l 193*0, pp.143-150. Azikiwe,Nnamdi,"Speech t o the Washington Chapter of the A l l - A f r i c a n Students Union of the Americas," A f r i c a n Newsletter,Vol.Ill,No.2, (Nov.1955),p.4. Blyden,Edward Wilmot,"islam i n West A f r i c a , " A f r i c a n A f f a i r s , V o l . V , (Oct.1902), pp.11-37Blyden,Edward Wilmot,"The Koran i n A f r i c a , " A f r i c a n A f f a i r s , V o l . X I V , ( J a n . 1 9 0 5 ) , pp.I68-9. Buchanan,Keith, "The Northern Region of Nigeria.The Geographical Background of i t s P o l i t i c a l D u a l i t y , " The Geographical Review, V o l . XLIII,No.4,(Oct.I955),PP«451-473Buckle,Desmond, "Nigeria's Road t o Independence," A f r i c a South,Vol.I, No.l, (Oct.-Dec.1956), pp.35-44. Fabian C o l o n i a l Bureau, " S p e c i a l N i g e r i a n Number," V e n t u r e , S o c i a l i s t s and the C o l o n i e s , V o l . 8 , N o . 3 , (July,I956). I n s t i t u t e of A f r i c a n American R e l a t i o n s , A f r i c a : S p e c i a l Report,Vol.I, No.6,(260ct.I956). Nigeria,the Federal Government,"Cherubim and Seraphim," N i g e r i a Magazine, No.53 (March 1 9 5 7 ) , pp.II9-I24. N i v e n , C e c i l Rex, "Can there be Unity i n Nigeria,"New Commonwealth, (25 July,I955),PP.57-59. Offodile,E.P. Oyeaka, "Growth and Influence of T r i b a l Unions," West A f r i c a n Review, V o l . X V I I I , No.239,1947,pp.937-941. Offonry,H. Kanu,"The Strength of Ibo Clan F e e l i n g , " West A f r i c a , N o s . 1787,1788, (26 May,I95I and 2 June,I95l). Ottenberg S., "Improvement A s s o c i a t i o n s Among the A f i k p o Ibo," A f r i c a Vol.XXXV,Wo.I, (Jan.I955),pp.I-27. Outremer,"Worthern Wigeria - A Muslim S t a t e , " Wew Commonwealth, ( 15 Oct.1956), p.34. Perham,M., "Census.-: of Wigeria 1 9 3 1 , " A f r i c a , (Oct . 1 9 3 3 ) , P P . 6 - I 8 .  175 P i l k i n g t o n , F r e d e r i c k , "Problems of U n i t y i n N i g e r i a , " A f r i c a n A f f a i r s , V o l . 5 5 , No.220, (July,I956), pp.219-223. "Timber E n t e r p r i s e i n Western N i g e r i a , " C o l o n i a l Development,No.23, (Autumn 1 9 5 5 ) , pp.24-29. Tonkin,T.T., "Muhamadamism i n the Western Sudan," A f r i c a n A f f a i r s , V o l . I l l , No.10, (Jan.1903), pp.123-141. Williams,D.M., "West A f r i c a n Marketing Boards," A f r i c a n A f f a i r s , V o l . 5 2 , No.206, (Jan. 1953),PP.45-54. The p e r i o d i c a l m a t e r i a l has not been p a r t i c u l a r l y rewarding. P o s s i b l y the best are the a r t i c l e s on t r i b a l unions by O f f o d i l e , Offonry and Ottenberg. K e i t h Buchanan's c o n t r i b u t i o n on the economic basis of t r i b a l r i v a l r y i s the only one on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p . I n t h i s f i e l d l i e s an i n t e r e s t i n g and rewarding area f o r research. Buchan an merely suggests the l i n e s along which such a study might proceed. His a r t i c l e i s confined t o a d i s c u s s i o n of the Northern Region. Nnamdi Azikiwe's a r t i c l e i n A f r i c a n A f f a i r s i s the e a r l i e s t of h i s published a r t i c l e s (1934) and throws i n t e r e s t i n g l i g h t on h i s e a r l y t h i n k i n g . Research i n connection w i t h N i g e r i a would be much f a c i l i t a t e d i f Azikiwe' and Awolowo's speeches and w r i t i n g s were c o l l e c t e d i n s i n g l e volumes. Newspapers D a i l y S e r v i c e , Lagos, 1945-1949. Eastern N i g e r i a n Guardian, Port Harcourt, 1946-1950. Iwe I r o h i n Eko, Lagos, I889-I89O Lagos D a i l y News, I 9 2 8 - I 9 3 I , 1933-1954. Lagos Observer, I 8 8 3 - I 8 9 0 . Lagos Reporter, 1889. Lagos Standard, 1895-96,  1903-05.  Lagos Times, I89O-9I. Lagos Weekly Record, I 8 9 I - 9 3 , 1904,  1920-25.  Lagos Weekly Times, I 8 9 0 . N i g e r i a n Advocate, Lagos, I 9 2 3 . N i g e r i a n C a t h o l i c Herald, Lagos, I 9 4 6 - I 9 5 I . N i g e r i a n C i t i z e n , Kaduna, I948-I95I.  176 Nigerian D a i l y Telegraph, Lagos, 1931,  1935-36.  N i g e r i a n D a i l y Times, Lagos, 1931-33,  1944.  Nigerian Observer, Port Harcourt, Nigerian Pioneer, Lagos, 1920,  1925,  1934. 1926.  Southern N i g e r i a Defender, Ibadan, 1944, The A f r i c a n Messenger, Lagos, 1922,  1948.  1924-25.  The D a i l y Times, Lagos, 1956-1957. The Truth, Lagos, I954-1957. The Wasp, Lagos,  1900.  The West A f r i c a n P i l o t , Lagos, 1940-1947,  1949.  Times of N i g e r i a , Lagos, I9I4-I5. The c h i e f source of information on Nigerian opinion p r i o r to 1945 was the newspapers. Before 1937 the n a t i o n a l i s t press was l e d by the Lagos Weekly Record(l89I-I928)followed by the Lagos D a i l y News of which Herb e r t Macaulay was co-owner and e d i t o r . I n the nineteen twenties the n a t i o n a l i s t press was ably opposed by the conservative Hon.Sir K i t o y i Ajassa i n h i s paper the Nigerian Pioneer. The A f r i c a n Messenger edited by S i r Ernest I k o l i stood between these two extremes. A f t e r 1937 The West A f r i c a n P i l o t almost monopolized the newspaper f i e l d . I t was v a l uable as the expression of Azikiwe's n a t i o n a l i s t s . Dr. Azikiwe edited The P i l o t between 1937 and 1947. A f t e r 1947 other newspapers successf u l l y challenged The P i l o t ' s monopoly. These newspapers began to cater t o s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s and p a r t i e s . Under the emotionalism of the n a t i o n a l i s t movement the A f r i c a n newspapers l o s t t h e i r independence of thought and most became p a r t i s a n . This opened the way f o r a new development, an independent newspaper financed by E n g l i s h c a p i t a l - the D a i l y M i r r o r group. This newspaper, The D a i l y Times has succeeded i n combining a f e r v i d nationalism with a sharp c r i t i c i s m of a l l the Nigeri a n governing p a r t i e s . I t i s nation wide i n i t s c i r c u l a t i o n . The two most important contributions to the source m a t e r i a l of t h i s t h e s i s was Azikiwe's " P o l i t i c a l B l u e p r i n t of N i g e r i a , " a series of eighteen a r t i c l e s appearing i n The West A f r i c a n P i l o t beginning i n March,1943 and "Post War Nigerian Economics,"an economic b l u e p r i n t , a series of f o r t y - f o u r a r t i c l e s beginning i n A p r i l of 1943 of The P i l o t . These a r t i c l e s o u t l i n e the p o l i c y and b e l i e f s of Azikiwe which the N.C. N.C. was l a t e r to adopt as t h e i r platform. These " B l u e p r i n t s " o u t l i n e Azikiwe's p o l i c y j u s t as Path to Nigerian Freedom o u t l i n e d Awolowo's later policy. VIII  Cartoons by Lash. Maps by H. Ivanisko.  

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