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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Planning for balanced social, economic and physical development : Ghana Volta basin. Kudiabor, Clemence Degboe Kwashivi 1963

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PLANNING FOR BALANCED SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT: GHANA VOLTA BASIN  by CLEMENCE DEGBOE KWASHIVI KUDIABOR B.A. (Hons.) U n i v e r s i t y o f London,  1961  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING  Me a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1963  the  In presenting  this thesis in partial fulfilment  of  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an  a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t the U n i v e r s i t y  of  B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  the  L i b r a r y s h a l l , make i t f r e e l y  study.  I.further  m i s s i o n f o r extensive, copying of t h i s t h e s i s p u r p o s e s may  be  g r a n t e d by  h i s representatives,.  the Head o f my  w i t h o u t my  written  Department of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada. Date  copying, or  s h a l l not  be  permission.  CommtA/ndy  &iMJb i2jL9f^h^L P<fcnfi>irtisu^ Columbia,.  per-  for.scholarly  Department or  I t i s understood that  c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s for f i n a n c i a l gain  agree that  by publi-  allowed  ABSTRACT  R e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , as an approach t o  development  p l a n n i n g , i n the newly independent n a t i o n s of the w o r l d , i s main s u b j e c t o f t h i s  study.  the  The purpose of the s t u d y i s t o dem-  o n s t r a t e the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t o achieve a b a l a n c e d s o c i a l , economic and p h y s i c a l development t h e regional.  Since t h e  l o c a l community, i t  s c a l e o f p l a n n i n g must be  r e g i o n i s the l i n k between the n a t i o n a l and p r o v i d e s a s u i t a b l e frame o f reference  the balanced i n t e g r a t i o n o f both n a t i o n a l and l o c a l  for  proj§§ts.  The V o l t a B a s i n i n the R e p u b l i c o f Ghana i n West A f r i c a , i s t a k e n as an i l l u s t r a t i v e case s t u d y .  The case study focuses  a t t e n t i o n on the methods used i n d e s i g n i n g the V o l t a B a s i n Regional Plan.  The P l a n i s meant t o demonstrate how r e g i o n a l  p l a n n i n g can help towards balanced development by g i v i n g due c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t o a l l the f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the development  The  process.  approach t a k e n i n t h e study was, f i r s t , t o  discuss  the problem i n a g e n e r a l way by a n a l y z i n g the main fest ures of development p l a n n i n g as c u r r e n t l y p r a c t i s e d i n a number o f the newly independent n a t i o n s . The 1) of  c o n c l u s i o n s drawn from t h i s d i s c u s s i o n are t h a t :  the major problem o f most o f the new n a t i o n s i s a single-resource  rulers;  that  economy i n h e r i t e d from t h e i r former c o l o n i a l  2)  the approach t o development p l a n n i n g as currently-  p r a c t i s e d i n these c o u n t r i e s takes the form o f N a t i o n a l Development P l a n and tends t o  concentrate s o l e l y oh the economic a s p e c t s  o f development a n d , t o some e x t e n t , the s o c i a l a s p e c t s ,  and i g -  nores the p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f development; 3)  while development p l a n n i n g i s i n c r e a s i n g l y becoming  the f u n c t i o n o f C e n t r a l Governments, the tendency i s t o be concerned w i t h p l a n n i n g at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l w i t h no r e g a r d f o r development at the r e g i o n a l and. l o c a l 4)  levels;  i n those c o u n t r i e s where some e f f o r t  i s made i n terms  o f r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g f o r development, the approach t h a t i s adopted i s  i n the form o f e i t h e r m u l t i - p u r p o s e r i v e r b a s i n d e v e l o p -  ment o r the s t r i c t l y economic r e g i o n a l development. As a r e s u l t of t h e s e shortcomings o f c u r r e n t development p l a n n i n g i n the newly independent n a t i o n s ,  i t is further  concluded t h a t the f a i l u r e t o give due c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o a l l t h e f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the development p r o c e s s , balanced development i n t h e s e c o u n t r i e s .  gives r i s e to im-  The imbalaneed d e v e l -  opment t a k e s the form o f e x c e s s i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n i n a few urban centers which are u s u a l l y p i l e d up w i t h poor u n t r a i n e d l a b o u r from the r u r a l a r e a s .  The urban c e n t e r s are  n o t o r i o u s f o r a l l forms o f s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n : c r i m e , o v e r crowding, unemployment, and other s o c i a l p r o b l e m s .  The unbalanced  development a l s o takes t h e form of unplanned d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n d u s t r y and r u r a l routes,  services,  and poor l o c a t i o n o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  r e s u l t i n g i n expensive r e m e d i a l measures.  The d e f e c t s o f c u r r e n t development p l a n n i n g i n the new n a t i o n s seem t o be a r e s u l t o f the conception o f the n a t u r e o f development, namely t h a t development i s e s s e n t i a l l y an economic problem and once the economic f a c t o r i s  c o n s i d e r e d , the  f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d w i l l take care o f t h e m s e l v e s .  other  I t seems a l s o  t h a t the economic conception of the nature o f development i s a r e s u l t o f t h e i n f l u e n c e and advice o f t h e s p e c i a l t i s t s i n the problems o f development o f these  interested  countries.  A new c o n c e p t i o n o f development t h a t t a k e s i n t o account the s o c i a l , economic,  cultural,  ponents of the e n t i r e  society,  p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l coml e a d s t o the view t h a t p l a n n i n g  f o r development must be r e g i o n a l .  T h i s i s because r e g i o n a l p l a n -  n i n g c o n s i d e r s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a l l the f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the development p r o c e s s . The study d i s c u s s e s development p l a n n i n g i n Ghana i n order t o o u t l i n e themain problems o f development i n Ghana and t o provide the background f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the regiora 1 p l a n n i n g needs of the  country.  newly independent n a t i o n s ,  it  As i n the case of the is  con eluded from the  t h a t Ghana i n h e r i t e d a s i n g l e - r e s o u r c e  economy; i t s  other  discussion approach t o  development p l a n n i n g i s r e s t r i c t e d t o p l a n n i n g at t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l w i t h no 'regard f o r the i m p l i c a t i o n s of development at the r e g i o n a l and l o c a l l e v e l s ;  and t h a t p l a n n i n g f o r development  regarded s o l e l y as an economic problem. facts,  it  As a r e s u l t o f these  i s f u r t h e r concluded t h a t Ghana f a i l s t o achieve a  balanced development—throughout the c o u n t r y .  is  T h i s l e a d s t o an a n a l y s i s o f the V o l t a B a s i n R e g i o n a l P l a n t o demonstrate achievement  how r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g can h e l p towards the  o f balanced development  by g i v i n g due c o n s i d e r a t i o n  a l l f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the development p r o c e s s . simultaneous factors,  it  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the s o c i a l , i s possible  to  Based on the  economic and p h y s i c a l  t o make p r o p o s a l s t h a t r e f l e c t  the needs  o f Ghana i n terms o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n and i n d u s t r y ; the l o c a t i o n of the main t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s ; the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f ru* a l s e r v i c e s and the l o c a t i o n o f l a r g e n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l u s e s . The f o l l o w i n g p r o p o s a l s are made t o i n t r o d u c e p l a n n i n g process o f s u r v e y , a n a l y s i s , revaluation,  i n t o the r e g i o n s  p l a n , implementation and  of Ghana:  1)  expanded N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission;  2)  expanded R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g A g e n c i e s , and  3)  the  r e g i o n a l p l a n s f o r the e i g h t A d m i n i s t r a t i v e - r e g i o n s o f Ghana.  ACKNOWLEDGME NTS'  It  i s w i t h great p l e a s u r e  t h a t I acknowledge the  I owe t o the many people who helped me throughout t h i s  debt  study.  I must p a r t i c u l a r l y thank Mr. G . Nez, C h i e f o f the U n i t e d Nations R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g M i s s i o n i n Ghana, who suggested the t o p i c the f i r s t  place.  My g r a t i t u d e  goes to M r . P . N . K . T u r k s o n ,  in Chief  Town P l a n n i n g O f f i c e r , D i v i s i o n o f Town and Country P l a n n i n g , M i n i s t r y o f C o n s t r u c t i o n and Communications, Ghana, and M r . K. Snaggs o f the the r e l e v a n t  same D i v i s i o n , who f e d the w r i t e r c o n s t a n t l y literature  from Ghana.  I am extremely  M r . G . D . Howard, C h i e f o f the S o c i a l Survey and Section, Ram,  U n i t e d N a t i o n s Bureau of S o c i a l A f f a i r s ,  a l s o o f the  same S e c t i o n ,  for freely giving  grateful  to  Development and D r . V . J . invaluable  advice and m a t e r i a l and making themselves a v a i l a b l e throughout the  with  to the  writer  study.  I want t o thank D r . H . P . O b e r l a n d e r , Head of  the  Department o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , withoutw hose advice,  encouragement  impossible. for K.J.  and guidance,  S p e c i a l acknowledgment  h i s h e l p throughout the Cross f o r his valuable  w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s .  study.  t h i s study would have been is  p a i d t o D r . J . N . Jackson  I am v e r y g r a t e f u l t o D r .  c r i t i c i s m s and advice d u r i n g the  I must p a r t i c u l a r l y thank M r . J . W .  W i l s o n , E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board, f o r r e a d i n g through the ii  first  d r a f t o f t h i s t h e s i s and  making v a l u a b l e  suggestions.  Acknowledgement i s Library, o f the  made t o Miss M  ?  Dwyer, F i n e A r t s  and to Miss Susan Anderson, S o c i a l Science  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  iii  Library,  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page  ACKNOWIEDGEMSNTS  i i  LIST OF TABLES  Y  vii  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Chapter I. II.  A PRELIMINARY STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM THE MAIN FEATURES OF CURRENT PRACTICE IN DEVELOPr MENT PLANNING IN UNDERDEVELOPED AREAS  .III. IV. V.  1  1  3  BACKGROUND TO DEVELOPMENT PLANNING IN GHANA  45  PLANNING FOR BALANCED SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE GHANA VOLTA BASIN SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ? . .  109  BIBLIOGRAPHY  1  6  3  169  iv  LIST OF TABLES :  Table 1. 2..  Page T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n o f Ghana by C i t y , Town and R u r a l (1931-1960)  5  0  5  0  T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n of Ghana'By Approximate Annual Growth Rate  (1931-1960)  3.  P o p u l a t i o n by S e l e c t e d Urban Centers - I960  §i  4.  P o p u l a t i o n by S i g n i f i c a n t  Age-Groups - I 9 6 0  53  5. 6.  Urban-Rural P o p u l a t i o n by S i g n i f i c a n t . A g e - G r c u ps - i 9 6 0 . P o p u l a t i o n by A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Regions - i 9 6 0  54  7.  P o p u l a t i o n by R e g i o n , Area and D e n s i t y - I 9 6 0  55  8.  Population Projections,  9.  P o p u l a t i o n by Labour Force - I960  5  1931-1980  5  5  7  58  10.  Main I n d u s t r i e s o f Employed Persons by Sex - I960  11.  Main I n d u s t r i e s o f Employed Persons by Employment S t a t u s - I960  59  63  12.  Labour Force i n Manufacturing I n d u s t r i e s by Regions I960 ......  64  13.  Projections  65  14.  Cocoa - World S t a t i s t i c s  67  15.  N a t i o n a l Income and Cocoa E x p o r t s  68  16.  Purchasing Power and Cocoa Incomes  17.  C e n t r a l Government Revenues  lg.  T o t a l Domestic  19.  World P r i c e P e r Ton Against World P r o d u c t i o n  72  20.  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Cocoa E x p o r t Proceeds  ^  21.  Cocoa M a r k e t i n g - B o a r d O p e r a t i o n s ,  f o r High-Level Occupations,  I960 -1965 . . . .  68 ;  and Cocoa E x p o r t s  v  69 70  1947-1955  7  4  5  LIST OF TABLES (continued) Table  Page  22.  F i r s t and C o n s o l i d a t i o n Development Plans  95  23.  Planned and A c t u a l E x p e n d i t u r e s on Development  9  7  24.  Second Development P l a n  9  8  25.  Detailed L i s t of Projects  9  9  26.  P o p u l a t i o n Assignments f o r P l a n n i n g Areas  ,  (1960-1970)  27. 2S.  142  P o p u l a t i o n Assignments by P l a n n i n g Areas, Development Areas and by Gross D e n s i t i e s  143  P o p u l a t i o n by Settlement Types  146  vi  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS  Figure  Following Page  1.  T e r r i t o r i e s o f West A f r i c a  2.  Ghana showing A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Regions  90  3.  Ghana showing the extent o f the V o l t a R i v e r P r o j e c t .  109  4.  Ghana showing the Main Features o f the V o l t a River Project •  I±Q  5.  V o l t a B a s i n P l a n - 1970  showing P l a i n i n g Areas .....  1  6.  V o l t a Basin P l a n - 1970  showing N a t u r a l Features  138  7.  V o l t a Basin P l a n - 1970 Product Zones  showing Land-use and  8.  V o l t a B a s i n P l a n - 1970 Potent i a l s  showing I n d u s t r i a l  V o l t a B a s i n P l a n - 1970  showing T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  9.  10. 11. 12.  4  ...  5  3  6  159 3.39 4  Q  1 4  2  1  Volta  B a s i n P l a n - 1970 showing P o p u l a t i o n Assignment  Proposed O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the N a t i o n a l Planning Commission •  1  5  0  Proposed F u n c t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s h i p between Expanded N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commissionand o t h e r A d m i n i s t r a t i v e and Development Agencies  l  g  l  vii  CHAPTER I  A PRELIMINARY  The  STATEMENT OF THE. PROBLEM  Concept o f Underdevelopment  In most s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h the problem of ment p l a n n i n g , a d e f i n i t i o n i s g i v e n t o the term  develop-  'development'.  U s u a l l y the word development i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h stages o f economic growth and as an economic concept, t o the n o t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n .  In t h i s  it  i s often  sense  related  'development?  i s used t o d i s t i n g u i s h between c o u n t r i e s which are " h i g h l y i n d u s trialized. ber  and. those which are not o r l a c k any s i g n i f i c a n t num-  1  o f modern i n d u s t r i e s .  Following t h i s  c o u n t r i e s i n the modern w o r l d are e i t h e r  l i n e of  reasoning,  'developed*  or 'under-  developed' . It  is  important t o p o i n t out t h a t the dichotomy drawn  between 'developed'and .'underdeveloped' degrees o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , a r i s e s  countries,  based on  out of the d i f f i c u l t y o f  f i n d i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e term f o r d e s c r i b i n g c o u n t r i e s which are rich,  i n m a t e r i a l t e r m s , and.those which are p o o r .  b e t t e r t o adopt the d e f i n i t i o n ^ u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t  It  seems  o f f e r e d by  a group o f U n i t e d N a t i o n s ' e x p e r t s which makes the term synonymous, w i t h poor:  1  2  We have had some d i f f i c u l t y i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the term • underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s . We use i t t o mean c o u n t r i e s i n which p e r c a p i t a r e a l income i s low when compared w i t h t h e p e r c a p i t a real" income o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f America,"Canada, A u s t r a l i a , and Western Europe. I n t h i s sense, an adequate synonym would be p o o r countries'. f  1  T h i s d e f i n i t i o n makes a l l c o u n t r i e s w i t h per c a p i t a income l e s s t h a n f>500 per y e a r , underdeveloped. a r i s e out o f u s i n g t h i s  c r i t e r i o n t o define  Many problems  underdeveloped  c o u n t r i e s s i n c e n a t i o n a l averages can be m i s l e a d i n g .  Higgins  p r o v i d e s examples, o f  case.  some c o u n t r i e s where t h i s  i s the  In* c o u n t r i e s w i t h q u i t e high; average "incomes" l a r g e r e g i o n s have v e r y low per" c a p i t a income. S t r i k i n g " e x a m p l e s o f t h i s are I t a l y wi t h i t s ^developed' n o r t h and i t s ^underdeveloped' south; Venezuela and I r a n , w i t h r i c h petroleum i n d u s t r y superimposed on an"otherwise l i t t l e developed economy; Malaya w i t h i t s t r a d e - r i c h " Singapore and i t s r e l a t i v e l y p o o r Malayan p e a s a n t s . Yet even i n such c o u n t r i e s as Canada and'"the. U n i t e d S t a t e s , one can f i n d r e g i o n s i n vii i c h per c a p i t a income i s low enough t o warrant the use of the term u n d e r d e v e l o p e d • . 2 1  Higgins  1  o b s e r v a t i o n on the use o f per c a p i t a income as. index  f o r determining whether a country i s developed, or underdeveloped h o l d s t r u e f o r most or poor.  This i s  c o u n t r i e s throughout the w o r l d , whether  even more so f o r the poor n a t i o n s  those which have but r e c e n t l y gained independence  rich  especially  from a c o l o n i a l  power. A more p o p u l a r use o f the term  1  development * s i n c e  the end o f the Second World War arose w i t h programmes f o r t e c h n i c a l and c a p i t a l a s s i s t a n c e . regards development  By t h i s usage, any country which  as a ' p r o b l e m  1  and i s  interested, i n develop-  3  ment  t o such an e x t e n t as t o a p p l y f o r f o r e i g n assistance.,  regarded as » u n d e r d e v e l o p e d » . . country i n development i s  The i n t e r e s t  shown.once i t  is  o f the underdeveloped  i s a b l e t o announce her  g o a l s and p o l i c i e s f o r economic development.  The se. u s u a l l y take  the form o f • N a t i o n a l Plans* f o r development.  And a c c o r d i n g t o  Hoffman, there are, approximately hundred, c o u n t r i e s  and.terri-  t o r i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the. U n i t e d Nations which by a n y - s t a n d a r d are  underdeveloped.3  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of. Underdeveloped C o u n t r i e s S e v e r a l w r i t e r s ^ have o u t l i n e d , some. o f the c h a r a c t e r istics  o f underdevloped c o u n t r i e s .  Most of these  characteristics  t e n d simply t o d i s t i n g u i s h underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s i n terms o f t h e f e a t u r e s o f t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s as opposed t o those o f developed and i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s . lines  R i c h a r d P. Behrendt o u t -  some of. these- c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as f o l l o w s :  Social struc-  t u r e s o f t r a d i t i o n a l . s o c i e t i e s are based upon t r a d i t i o n a l and r e l i g i o u s values.,  i n the form o f caste, and c l a s s h i e r a r c h i e s  and t r i b a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n which the i n d i v i d u a l i s p l a c e d by b i r t h and. which determine h i s r i g h t and. d u t i e s , way of- l i f e and livelihood,  income and e d u c a t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  The process  i n technology and economic p u r s u i t s are m a i n l y s t a t i c , and gene r a l l y confined t o the use o f t o o l s and instruments and l i m i t e d by magical o r t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t s .  The governments o f these  s o c i e t i e s are u s u a l l y a u t h o r i t a r i a n , t a k i n g the form, o f an a b s o l u t e monarchy o r f e u d a r o l i g a r c h y .  There i s  extremelyinequality  t  4 i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e a l t h between a s m a l l r u l i n g c l a s s and the v a s t peasant ficance.  class.  There i s no middle c l a s s o f any s i g n i -  F i n a l l y ] / great s i g n i f i c a n c e , i s g i v e n , t o the  integrating  r o l e o f primary groups such as the e x t e n d e d - f a m i l y , . the t r i b e and the v i l l a g e . 5 As a r e s u l t o f these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p r o d u c t i v i t y i s low because d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r i s l i t t l e  developed and the ob-  j e c t i v e s o f economic, a c t i v i t y are concerned w i t h the, maintenance o f s t a t u s r e l a t i o n s , , and custom u s u a l l y .determines, performance at an economic a c t i v i t y . ^ The b a s i c flaw i n such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s based, on the f e a t u r e s of, t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , i s . t h a t they p o i n t l e s s l y s t r e s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which have changed s i n c e the contact o f the underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s w i t h the Western world.  The new p a t t e r n s . t h a t have emerged i n the ^ S S i a l s t r u c -  t u r e s o f these s o c i e t i e s , have not r e c e i v e d h a l f the t h a t they deserve from the s p e c i a l i s t s  attention  concerned w i t h the  prob-  lems of underdevelopment. I t i s o n l y i n r e l a t i v e l y recent years t h a t some o f these new p a t t e r n s have come..to be b a r e l y mentioned as  definite  f e a t u r e s o f the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s o f underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s and t h e r e f o r e deserve t o be s t u d i e d . 7  I n almost a l l s o - c a l l e d t . r ? d  t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s s p e c i a l t y p e s o f enterpreneurs have emerged from c e r t a i n , m a r g i n a l groups: the new e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l c l a s s has. l o n g been a c t i v e i n the economic a c t i v i t y of c e r t a i n  5  o c c u p a t i o n s and commercial ventures i n these s o c i e t i e s .  For  example, the P a r s i s o f I n d i a ; the Bast A s i a t i c a n d . o t h e r immig r a n t s i n L a t i n America; the adaptable employees  of. f o r e i g n  f i r m s i n Ghana, N i g e r i a and o t h e r A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s ; .the MarketWomen o f A c c r a .  These are new a s p e c t s o f the  t u r e s o f these s o c i e t i e s .  economic-struc-  The f a c t t h a t . c u l t u r a l and e n v i r o n -  mental f a c t o r s c o u l d i n h i b i t economic progress was never thought of. The s p e c i a l i s t s  i n t e r e s t e d i n the problems o f u n d e r -  development have s c a r c e l y considered i n r e l a t i o n t o  economic  development such i s s u e s as the p r o p e n s i t y t o save; t h e propens i t y t o innovate; the p r o p e n s i t y to be t a x e d ; the r o l e i n economic, growth o f c u l t u r a l l y m a r g i n a l groups o f the new e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l c l a s s . j u s t r e f e r r e d t o ; the s i g n i f i c a n c e  of  t u r a l p r a c t i c e s and food h a b i t s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o  agriculeconomic  development• The i n i t i a l d i s t i n c t i o n between t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s and i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t i e s , and the d i s r e g a r d f o r the. new s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s o f the underdeveloped s o c i e t i e s l e d t o  cer-  t a i n fundamental confusions over what the main i s s u e s were i n r e l a t i o n t o the problems: o f economic development. 1  F o r example,  i s the development problem s t r i c t l y a t e c h n o l o g i c a l problem o r a managerial o r e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l problem.8\ The Development. Process Development p l a n n i n g i n v o l v e s assumptions not o n l y r e l a t i v e t o the f u t u r e economic s t r u c t u r e o f . a country but  also  to i t s  stated  s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s .  P a u l Hoffman r e c e n t l y  t h a t "economic development i n v o l v e s p s y c h o l o g i c a l ,  cultural,  s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l as w e l l as economic f a c t o r s " . 9  According  t o P r o f e s s o r Rostozi Economic growth i s dependent upon the performance o f s o c i e t y as a whole. I t i s not an i s o l a t e d q u e s t i o n o f maximization o f p r o f i t or. p r i c e s ; many o t h e r motives are i n v o l v e d i n a s i m u l t a n eous, c a u s a t i o n . We have:, t h e r e f o r e , . t o keep t r a c t of the e n t i r e process o f i n t e r a c t i o n between man and h i s environment,. and, take.: i n t o account d i f f e r e n c e s i n such phenomena as p h y s i c a l environment and c u l t u r e . There i s no s i n g l e p a t h t h a t economic development could c o n c e i v a b l y take.10 Economic development t h u s becomes a process i n v o l v i n g a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f s o c i a l behaviour from a p a r t i c u l a r f o r m o f b r i e n t a t i o n towards a n o t h e r f o r m . 1 1  social  T h i s process o f t r a n s f o r -  mation is., i n e s s e n c e , a development process because i t  involves  a s e r i e s o f connected a c t i o n s or changes, producing by s t a g e s , growth toward some d e s i r e d advanced s t a t e o r g o a l . .  Implicit in  t h i s concept o f growth, o r c h a n g e . i s the r e l a t e d concept o f continuity.  The components o f the development p r o c e s s are de-  termined b o t h by the g o a l and by the means t a k e n t o  achieve  that goal. The development process may be planned o r unplanned. I n the present s t u d y , i t  i s proposed t o make a case f o r p l a n -  n i n g the development p r o c e s s i n the newly independent o f the w o r l d .  nations  T h i s is. based on the assumption t h a t  To assure c o n s i s t e n c y and t o a v o i d l a r g e - s c a l e waste and d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , care s h o u l d be taken t h a t the component p a r t s o f the programme form a coherent and c o o r d i n a t e d whole. I t i s the purpose o f g e n e r a l programming t o see t o t h i s coherence and . c o o r d i n a t i o n . 1 2  On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s assumption, i t  is  a c t i v i t y i s more r e s p o n s i b l e , r a t i o n a l , cal  concluded t h a t planned effective.and..economi-  and may produce more q u i c k l y and s u c c e s s f u l l y ^ t h e . necessary  growth o r change .towards g o a l s . Most f r e q u e n t l y i n s t u d i e s d e a l i n g .with..development programming.,..a d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between two techniques, used in  e s t a b l i s h i n g a .development p l a n : . a .programming approach and  a project approach.^  The .programming,approach s t a r t s  o v e r a l l t a r g e t s o f n a t i o n a l income, and estimab.es  from  subsequently  the concomitant l e v e l s o f consumption, c a p i t a l , f o r m a t i o n , i m ports,  exports and o t h e r r e l e v a n t aggregates The  of. the economy.  p r o j e c t approach, s t a r t s from i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t s  porposed which c o u l d be worked i n t o a comprehensive p l a n . Cost-benefit  c a l c u l a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the d i r e c t , a n d . i n d i r e c t  impact o f such p r o j e c t s on. the economy, and e x t r a p o l a t i o n o f , for  example, p o p u l a t i o n increase, are. then, added t o g e t h e r  to  g i v e an. o v e r a l l p i c t u r e o f the changes t o be expected i n the economy. The  view t a k e n so f a r o f thedevelopment  process  i n v o l v i n g change i n the s o c i a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f s o c i e t y quences, a r i s i n g out..of these r e l a t e d The  cultural-  implies.conse-  aspects of "the  society.  consequences may take the form o f c h a n g e s i n p a t t e r n s o f l i  l a n d - u s e , o f p o p u l a t i o n , o f economic a c t i v i t y and o f way of life  i n general.  While i t i s g r a n t e d t h a t some, o f these  8 consequences might l e a d t o a. b e t t e r l i f e which the development process, i s  o p e r a t i n g , , i t . might a l s o l e a d  t o a t o t a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the r u p t i o n of community and f a m i l y  f o r the s o c i e t y i n  s o c i e t y i n terms of. a d i s -  life.  The Hypothesis o f the Present Study The purpose o f t h i s  study i s t o show t h a t through  the r e g i o n a l , p l a n n i n g approach t o development o f the adverse offset.  planning,.some  consequences o f the development  The fundamental hypothesis  b a l a n c e d development,  the  process.might  i s t h a t t o achieve  a  s c a l e o f p l a n n i n g must be r e g i o n a l .  T h i s emerges from t h e f a c t t t h a t n a t i o n a l , developments f a i l e d t o take, account o f r e g i o n a l , developments cause resource, development. has.always development, of. a . s i n g l e  be  have  and a l s o be-  been conceived o f  as  r e s o u r c e t o the t o t a l d i s r e g a r d "for  f o r the other s o c i a l , economic and p h y s i c a l needs o f the a r e a . In t h i s  s t u d y , the term r e g i o n i s used t o  s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the the ity.  refer  p l a n n i n g a r e a w i t h i n a n a t i o n - s t a b e.  It  is  s p a t i a l u n i t t h a t , l i n k s the n a t i o n a l , and the l o c a l communAlthough t h e r e g i o n i s u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d a n a t u r a l l y  d e f i n e d space and environment.,: an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t j a r e - source a r e a , i t  i s t h e purpose, s c a l e and process  ment envisaged t h a t Keeble s t r e s s e s t h a t  of  develop-  should determine the p l a n n i n g r e g i o n .  *  9 What i s needed f o r P l a n n i n g purposes i s an area which i s l a r g e enough t o enable s u b s t a n t i a l , changes i n l a n d use t o take: place w h o l l y , w i t h i n i t s boun-" d a r i e s , y e t which i s s m a l l enough f o r i t s -planning problems t o be comprehended..as a whole. 14 In t h i s development  1  is  s t u d y , the phrase *planning f o r balanced  s t r i c t l y , d e f i n e d as g i v i n g due . . c o n s i d e r a t i o n  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t o a l l the f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e  development  p r o c e s s , even though they may not o r cannot a l l , be. a c t e d on simultaneously.15 The hypothesis w i l l be examined by a review ofthe p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a t u r e on t h e main f e a t u r e s p l a n n i n g i n the newly independent n a t i o n s .  o f development Chapter I I  is  deveted t o t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l review o f the p e r t i n e n t , l i t e r a t u r e . The chapter i s  concerned w i t h making a . c a s e i n favour of the  r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g approach t o development p l a n n i n g .  This  is  done by analyzing, the N a t i o n a l Development P l a n s o f the new n a t i o n s and by demonstrating t h a t the new.nations  have f a i l e d  t o achieve a b a l a n c e d development- p l a n n i n g because p l a n n i n g has concentrated at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l and has not g i v e n due c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o p l a n n i n g at the r e g i o n a l and l o c a l An o u t l i n e o f the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g approach t o  levels.  development  p l a n n i n g i s p r e s e n t e d towardsthe end o f Chapter I I . Chapter I I I i s devoted t o a background t o p l a n n i n g i n Ghana.  The chapter i s  development  s t r i c t l y concerned w i t h  making a f u r t h e r case i n f a v o u r o f the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g approach t o development p l a n n i n g .  The impact o f one-resource  (cocoa)  10 development i s presented  on G h a n a » s economy i s d i s c u s s e d ; and an a n a l y s i s on the development p l a n s o f Ghana.  shown t h a t t o d a t e ,  It  is  then  development p l a n n i n g i n Ghana has f a i l e d  t o achieve a balanced s o c i a l , economic and. p h y s i c a l , d e v e l o p ment, because , r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , as an approach to  development  p l a n n i n g w a s not a d o p t e d . ;  The V o l t a B a s i n R e g i o n a l P l a n i s a n a l y z e d . i n Chapter IV t o  show how r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , a s . a n approach t o  planning,  development  can h e l p achieve a balanced s o c i a l , economic and  p h y s i c a l development i n Ghana. V o l t a B a s i n Plan i s  The g e n e r a l background t o the  reviewed; the methods used i n . designing, the  p l a n are a n a l y z e d ; and. some recommendations'are madeefor d e v e l o p ment p l a n n i n g i n Ghana. survey, a n a l y s i s ,  Although t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s  involves  p l a n , implementation and r e v a l u a t i o n , i t  is  o n l y the f i r s t t h r e e stages o f the process which/lfnalyzed f o r the V o l t a B a s i n . The f i n a l  chapter i s devoted t o a summary o f the main  c o n c l u s i o n s a r r i v e d at from the above, d i s c u s s i o n s .  Proposals  are made f o r b a l a n c e d development p l a n n i n g i n the newly i n d e p e n dent n a t i o n s .  These p r o p o s a l s are. e s s e n t i a l l y , concerned w i t h  the r e g i o n a l planning"approach as a method o f planning.  development  11 REFERENCES  of  "'"United N a t i o n s , M e a s u r e s f o r E c o n o m i c U n d e r d e v e l o p e d C o u n t r i e s . (New Y o r k : 1951) p  Problems p 6.  Development 2.  ^B. H i g g i n s , E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t , Principles, and Policies,(New"York: 1 7 W. N o r t o n & U o T " T n c . ,  1959),  P a u l Hoffmann, " D e v e l o p m e n t • P r i o r i t i e s " , InterD e v e l o p m e n t R e v i e w . I V , N o . 1, ( M a r c h , 1 9 6 2 ) , p 6. 3  national  ^ B a r b a r a Ward, The R i c h N a t i o n s a n d t h e P o o r N a t i o n s , (New Y o r k : W. W. N o r t o n & C o . I n c . , 1962~77 P P 1 2 0 - 1 4 3 ; U n i t e d N a t i o n s , (1951) op. c i t . pp 13-16; . P..Kindleberger, "Review o f I . R„ B„ D. R e p o r t s , " R e v i e w o f E c o n o m i c s a n d S t a t i s t i c s , $&? N o . 4, ( N o v e m b e r , 1 9 5 2 ) , p 391-392. T . F . B e h r e n d t , " T h e E m e r g e n c e o f New E l i t e s a n d New P o l i t i c a l I n t e g r a t i o n Forms a n d t h e i r I n f l u e n c e on Economic Development," Transactions of the 5th World Congress of S o c i o l o g y ( L o u v a i n : International Sociological Association, 1 9 6 2 ) , I I , p p 5-6. 5  B . F. H o s e l i t z , S o c i o l o g i c a l A s p e c t s o f E c o n o m i c G r o w t h ' (G-lencoe, I l l i n o i s : The F r e e P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) , p 59. 6  B. F . H o s e l i t z , ( 1 9 6 2 ) , o p . c i t . p p 66-68; J . P. B h a t t a c h a r j e e , " P r o b l e m s o f R u r a l A d j u s t m e n t t o P l a n n e d D e v e l o p m e n t i n I n d i a " , ( 1 9 6 2 ) m i m e o g r a p h e d : R. B r a i b a n t i & <J. J . S p e n g l e r , T r a d i t i o n , V a l u e s , a n d S o c i o - E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t ( D u r h a m , N. C„ : Duke U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 ) : T r a n s a c t i o n s o f the 5th World Congress of S o c i o l o g y . (1962) op. c i t .  Societies  T a l c o t t P a r s o n s , S t r u c t u r e a n d P r o c e s s i n M o d e r n il (Glencoe, I l l i n o i s : The F r e e P r e s s ^ 1 9 6 0 ) , p 126. 9  Paul  Hoffmann,  op. c i t .  -^W. W. R o s t o v ; , " D e v e l o p m e n t T h e o r y " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t R e v i e w , I I , No. 1, ( M a y , 1 9 6 0 ) , p .38. 1 : L  B.  F.  Hoselitz,  (1959)  op.  c i t . p  59.  12 J . T i n b e r g e n , The D e s i g n o f D e v e l o p m e n t (Baltimore: J o h n H o p k i n s P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p 9. 13 U n i t e d N a t i o n s Economic Commission f o r A f r i c a , E c o n o m i c B u l l e t i n f o r A f r i c a ( A d d i s A b a b a , E t h i o p i a ) , I , No. 1, The  L, Keelole, P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c e of Town and C o u n t r y Planning; (London: The E s t a t e s G a z e t t e , L t d . , 1961)  pp  35-36.  l ^ u n i t e d . N a t i o n s , R e p o r t on the Y/orld S o c i a l u a t i o n (New York: 1 9 6 1 ) , p 38.  "  .  Sit-  CHAPTER I I  THE  MAIN FEATURES OF CURRENT PRACTICE IN DEVELOPMENT PLANNING IN UNDERDEVELOPED AREAS  C o l o n i a l Background and Approach t o P l a n n i n g The problem o f economic and s o c i a l development has always been the concern of most c o u n t r i e s .  In recent years,  the preoccupation w i t h r a i s i n g the l e v e l s of l i v i n g o f people a l l over the world has r e c e i v e d i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n than i t has ever b e f o r e . sudden need f e l t  One  of the reasons f o r t h i s a t t i t u d e i s the  since the l a s t w o r l d war t o c l o s e the  gap  t h a t has e x i s t e d between the r i c h and the poor n a t i o n s of the world or the advanced  and newly independent n a t i o n s .  I n the newly independent, n a t i o n s , however, the f a c t o r t h a t was  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d e s i r e t o r a i s e the l e v e l s of  l i v i n g of people i n those c o u n t r i e s through economic development was  the attainment of p o l i t i c a l independence.  end o f the second w o r l d war, gained e i t h e r complete  Since the  s e v e r a l dependent c o u n t r i e s have  p o l i t i c a l independence  o r at l e a s t  A  g r e a t e r measure of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n the a f f a i r s of t h e i r own  countries.  Now  these n a t i o n s are i n a p o s i t i o n tomake  d e c i s i o n s on the major i s s u e s a f f e c t i n g the s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l aspects o f t h e i r c o u n t r i e s and peoples.  13  C e r t a i n s i m i l a r problems were i n h e r i t e d by these new n a t i o n s as a r e s u l t o f the common c o l o n i a l background. The approach t o development p l a n n i n g was l i k e w i s e  influenced  by t h e common background and s i m i l a r i t y o f problems.  During  c o l o n i a l p e r i o d , t h e economic o f s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s o f these dependent t e r r i t o r i e s were designed t o r e l y h e a v i l y on those of t h e i m p e r i a l power.  The economic a c t i v i t i e s o f these coun-  t r i e s were geared t o meet t h e needs o f the r u l i n g country.  For  example, r a i l w a y s and o t h e r forms o f communication were construct e d o n l y i n so f a r as thesewere regarded as opening up t h e country f o r the r a p i d e x p o r t a t i o n o f c e r t a i n raw m a t e r i a l s needed f o r p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e i m p e r i a l country.  Except f o r a  few c o u n t r i e s , p r i v a t e investment, other than i n t r a d e and other commercial a c t i v i t i e s , was d e l i b e r a t e l y The r e s u l t  discouraged.1  o f such an economic p o l i c y was t h e development o f a  f r a g i l e economy based on one resource which was almost i n v a r i a b l y , at the mercy o f w o r l d market  prices.  The c o l o n i a l p o l i c y o f d i s c o u r a g i n g f o r e i g n p r i v a t e investment i n the dependent t e r r i t o r i e s had t h e e f f e c t o f t r u s t i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r economic and s o c i a l development i n t h e dependent t e r r i t o r i e s , on t h e c e n t r a l c o l o n i a l governments.  At t h e time o f independence, the l e a d e r s o f t h e newly  dependent n a t i o n s i n h e r i t e d , i n a d d i t i o n t o a f r a g i l e  colonial  economy, s t r o n g c e n t r a l governments r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the economic and s o c i a l development o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e  countries.  15  Social  i n s t i t u t i o n s were l i k e w i s e d e s i g n e d  Western standards; lar to  form of the the  The  q u e s t i o n o f whether or not  political  needs o f t h e  and  reason own  classics  i n the  indigenous  people.  Very  s c h o l a r s who  o f Hume and  little  yet  suitable  never r e s o l v e d . the  c o u l d not  understand  their  g i v e n t o the  study  t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes  of  economy.^  In terms o f the tion,  the  physical distribution  p a t t e r n o f d e v e l o p m e n t was  w i t h v a s t but areas, the  little  developed  by  low  urban  production per  rural  centers are  areas. social  and  low  juvenile  economy,  m a l n u t r i t i o n , unemployment  and  rural  character-  productivity  delinquency,  centers  are g e n e r a l l y  notorious f o r diverse forms of  problems: overcrowding,  popula-  urban  In these life  agricultural  capita  of the  t h a t o f a few  p a t t e r n s o f e c o n o m i c and  t r a d i t i o n a l with a subsistence ised  particu-  c o u l d quote C i c e r o ,  e n c o u r a g e m e n t was  s c i e n c e , upon w h i c h depends t h e  any  The  p o p u l a t i o n was  satisfy  h e a v i l y weighted i n favour of  producing  style  the  o r e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m was  e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m was  arts  of  the  to  per  acre.  social  prostitution,  o t h e r forms o f s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i -  sation. The w i t h the  present  relative  characteristics outline  of  study i s not  merits such  o f such a policy  t h e main f e a t u r e s o f t h e  over t o the  new  l e a d e r s o f the  a  f o r the  moment  colonial  are  policy.  referred  colonial  concerned  to  The  simply  to  h e r i t a g e handed  newly independent  nations.  The  16 t a s k t h a t the governments .of the t y p i c a l new f a c e d w i t h upon g a i n i n g independence was  n a t i o n s were  t o r e - o r i e n t the  economy, to r e v i s e the e d u c a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , t o e r a d i c a t e d i s ease, and  i n s h o r t , to develop the resources  of t h e i r c o u n t r i e s ,  both p h y s i c a l and human.  to  The  N a t i o n a l Development Plans Approach t o Development  The  eagerness of the Governments o f the new  nations  develop i n o r d e r t o c a t c h up w i t h the more advanced n a t i o n s  of the world  found e x p r e s s i o n  cies outlined i n various shed by these n a t i o n s . r a t h e r passionate t i o n , and  i n d e f i n i t e o b j e c t i v e s and  ' N a t i o n a l Development Plans'*  poli-  establi-  Fundamental t o a l l tihese p l a n s , i s the  d e s i r e t o i n c r e a s e the production,- d i s t r i b u -  consumption o f goods and  services.  What i s outstand-  ing  about a l l these  p l a n s f o r development i s the  for  'economic' development d e f i n e d l i t e r a l l y as the  1  strong bias  of per c a p i t a n a t i o n a l income a r i s i n g from i n c r e a s e d  increase production.  The  o t h e r f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the development p r o c e s s ,  the  social, psychological, cultural, p o l i t i c a l ,  f a c t o r s , were o n l y c o n s i d e r e d  and  such as  plxysical  i n so f a r as they had a d i r e c t  bearing on the economic o b j e c t i v e s of the p l a n . The  assumption u n d e r l y i n g t h i s economic approach t o  development p l a n n i n g was  t h a t economic growth by i t s e l f  b r i n g b e n e f i t s to the people among whom i t had occured  could and t h a t  once the b a s i c economic goals were s e t , the other f a c t o r s i n -  v o l v e d i n t h e development  process should take care o f themselves.  Two main reasons were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s approach t o development: the f i r s t was the experience t h a t was being gained by t h e poor n a t i o n s from the a c t i v i t i e s o f the western c o u n t r i e s , especially,  the post-war p a t t e r n o f development i n some o f the  western European c o u n t r i e s ; and the second was t h e t h e o r i e s o f economists who concerned themselves w i t h the problems o f economic development o f the new n a t i o n s and who were a d v i s o r s t o the Governments  o f these n a t i o n s .  From the experience of the western c o u n t r i e s , the new n a t i o n s considered development s o l e l y change and economic o u t p u t .  i n terms o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l  T h i s concept o f development was  f u r t h e r confirmed by the dramatic achievements made by some o f the  western European c o u n t r i e s i n t h e i r post-war M a r s h a l l P l a n  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n programmes.  Those western c o u n t r i e s which were  eager t o h e l p , l i k e w i s e thought o f s o l v i n g the problems o f development i n the new n a t i o n s by assuming t h a t a l l they had t o 'do was "to.plow i n f i n a n c i a l support and a l i t t l e  technical  a s s i s t a n c e here and t h e r e t o get t h e gross n a t i o n a l product heading upward."3  The i s s u e which was never c l e a r e d , except  r e c e n t l y , e i t h e r i n t h e minds of the experts who were advice t o the governments . which were o f f e r i n g  o f the new n a t i o n s , o r the c o u n t r i e s  o r ready t o g i v e the r e q u i r e d  assistance, or yet s t i l l  offering  i n the m i n d s  financial  o f the l e a d e r s o f the  new n a t i o n s , was t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between economic r e c o v e r y and the  g e n e r a l development„.of r e l a t i v e l y l e s s - d e v e l o p e d  countries.  For the  war was  the Western European c o u n t r i e s , the ..problem a f t e r  simply t o b u i l d up an economy whose f o u n d a t i o n s had  a l r e a d y been made i n pre-war ,years. and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e .  A l l they needed -was  capital  The .problem o f changing modes of  s o c i a l behaviour towards economic development never a r o s e . the  In  new n a t i o n s the q u e s t i o n was not simply f i n a n c i a l and t e c h -  n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e but a l s o change o f p a t t e r n s o f behaviour which w i l l s t i m u l a t e economic growth at a f a s t e r  rate.  The second f o r c e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s b a s i c  •economic'  b i a s towards development, namely, the t h e o r i e s o f the'expert economists, appears t o be a d i r e c t Plan experience.  consequence o f the M a r s h a l l  Any new nation, t h a t desires, economic develop-  ment, must be helped t o develop along the l i n e s o f modern i n s t i t u t i o n s i n terms o f technology, p r o d u c t i o n and economic•organisation..  H o s e l i t z summarized the p o s i t i o n o f these men  as  follows: In summary these men envisaged t h a t economic development i s only p o s s i b l e i f the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s of underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s are reformed so as t o resemble those o f western c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s . . . the development o f underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s depends not merely upon t h e i r adopting the economic and t e c h n o l o g i c a l procedures of the more advanced c o u n t r i e s but also* t h e i r coming t o resemble them i n s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s and sometimes even i n form of p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n . ^ I t was p e r f e c t l y n a t u r a l f o r these s c h o l a r s to take the  p o s i t i o n t h e y took; i t was even more so when t h a t  position  was b u t t r e s s e d by c l a s s i c a l economic theory and e s p e c i a l l y by the  b r i l l i a n t d i s t i n c t i o n drawn by Max Weber between T r a d i t i o n -  a l i s m and R a t i o n a l i s m . 5 s o c i e t i e s were a p p a r e n t l y  Since most o f the underdeveloped considered t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , i t  was l o g i c a l t o conclude t h a t i f those  s o c i e t i e s were t o a t t a i n  any measure o f economic growth, t r a d i t i o n a l i s m should give way to r a t i o n a l i s m . Some o f Weber's works have been a t t a c k e d i n recent ;  years, e s p e c i a l l y h i s concept o f ' P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c and S p i r i t of C a p i t a l i s m . '  More p e r t i n e n t t o t h e present  d i s c u s s i o n are  the a t t a c k s made on h i s concepts o f r a t i o n a l i t y and t r a d i t i o n a l i s m w i t h regard t o problems o f economic growth.  A short time  ago, i n 1961 t o be p r e c i s e , B. F. H o s e l i t z i n an essay: ' T r a d i t i o n and Economic Growth', and M. J . , H e r s k o v i t s , i n : 'Economic Change and C u l t u r a l Dynamics', i n d i c a t e d , c o n t r a r y t o the o p i n i o n o f Mr. Weber, t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l i s m and r a t i o n a l i s m are not always a n t a g o n i s t i c .  0  In s p i t e o f the economic b i a s o f most N a t i o n a l opment P l a n s , i t i s worth n o t i n g t h a t most  Devel-  c o u n t r i e s which have  development p l a n s , i n c o r p o r a t e s p e c i f i c s o c i a l t a r g e t s i n t h e i r p l a n s , t o g e t h e r w i t h economic g o a l s .  T h i s i s t r u e , f o r example,  of t h e programme o f 'economic and s o c i a l development' o f the Phillipines.  I n t h a t country an attempt was made t o r e l a t e the  development programme t o t h e e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l forms and cultural  values.  20 The development p r o c e s s w i l l be e f f e c t e d w i t h i n the framework o f e x i s t i n g c u l t u r e p a t t e r n s . Des i r a b l e changes i n p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l be sought through e d u c a t i o n , demonstrat i o n and l e g i s l a t i o n when such ( i n s t i t u t i o n s ) are i n i m i c a l t o t h e requirements of a r a p i d economic development. Under the programme, however, care •" w i l l " b e taken t h a t p u b l i c p o l i c y and a c t i o n do not upset d r a s t i c a l l y the e x i s t i n g non-economic value p a t t e r n s l e s t t h e s o c i a l gains i n economic terms w i l l be negated by the c o s t s i n non-economic terms.7 What i s l a c k i n g i n those development  plans i n which  s o c i a l t a r g e t s have been o u t l i n e d , i s the means o f a c h i e v i n g t h i s purpose i n terms of s p e c i f i c recommendations  i n the plans.  I t i s t r u e o f course that i n some c o u n t r i e s , such mechanisms are o u t s i d e the economic development programmes and r e l i a n c e i s p l a c e d on the spread o f employment and the higher wages . made p o s s i b l e by"the economic growth and demanded by the workers,'"the a l l o c a t i o n of l a r g e r resources t o s o c i a l programmes Under' the normal budget made p o s s i b l e by l a r g e r government revenues, etc.8 I t i s important t o observe at t h i s p o i n t that numerous government  statements r e c e i v e d by the United N a t i o n s , r e f l e c t  an  awareness of a danger o f imbalance i n the form of e x c e s s i v e s o c i a l expenditures consuming r e s o u r c e s t h a t c o u l d be used t o promote b a s i c i n d u s t r i a l growth, and some Governments connection a s s e r t the need f o r g i v i n g sector.  i n this  ' p r i o r i t y ' t o the economic  The Government of the F e d e r a t i o n of Malaya r e a l i s e s t h a t when f i n a n c i a l and m a t e r i a l re sour ces are l i m i t e d as they are i n the F e d e r a t i o n of Malaya, the e f f o r t t o plan' f o r a higher standard o f l i v i n g than might otherwise be a t t a i n e d , demands r e s t r a i n t i n c u r r e n t s o c i a l expenditures-and. even some temporary s a c r i f i c e s of p r o g r e s s i n well-being.9  I n almost i d e n t i c a l terms, the Government of P a k i s t a n  states  that r e s o u r c e s t h a t can be devoted t o t h i s ( i . e . the s o c i a l ) purpose are l i m i t e d by the n e c e s s i t y t o - p r o v i d e 'a s o l i d b a s i s of a g r i c u l t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l progress upon which f u r t h e r s o c i a l gains w i l l d e p e n d . ;  10  In Burma d u r i n g the f i r s t two Plan period  (1956/7 - 1957/3) a c t u a l expenditures i n the  s e r v i c e s were c o n s i d e r a b l y apparently  y e a r s of the Four Year social  l e s s than the planned investment,  i n d i c a t i n g a tendency i n government development  f i n a n c i n g t o c u r t a i l s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i n times of f i n a n c i a l stringency.H • An aspect  o f the n a t i o n a l 'plans'  of most o f the  new  nations which deserves emphasis and which appears t o be at  the  core of the problems encountered i n the  implementation o f the  p l a n s , hinges on the r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t e x i s t s between the n a t i o n a l plans and t h e i r m a n i f e s t a t i o n N a t i o n a l development p l a n n i n g  at the l o c a l  level.  i n almost a l l the poor nations  of  the world shows a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l a c k o f ' s p a t i a l i n t e g r a t i o n ' . The  'missing  l i n k ' between planning  at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l  development at the l o c a l l e v e l has never been f u l l y by the Governments of most developing  countries.  and  appreciated  Ken  p o i n t s out t h a t o f t e n n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s are a p p l i e d t o  Snaggs the  whole country i g n o r i n g the f a c t t h a t r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t i e s e x i s t and  d i f f e r i n g r e g i o n a l requirements may  v a r i e t y o f programmes. should  He  create a need f o r a  f u r t h e r argues t h a t n a t i o n a l p o l i c y  always be t e s t e d against  s p e c i f i c r e g i o n a l requirements.12  The d i s r e g a r d f o r t h e development  plans at the  s p a t i a l implications of  regional level  implies i n effect  dualism i n patterns  o f economic growth i n the v a r i o u s  of the  small i n d u s t r i a l i z e d pockets  country: the :  non-industrialized parts. l a c k of balance  national a  sections  and t h e  This is usually reflected  vast  i n the  i n t h e n a t i o n a l economy and i s m a n i f e s t e d  n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s concerned w i t h such matters  as  credit,  in tariffs,  anti-recessionary  o r a n t i - i n f l a t i o n a r y p r o b l e m s , minimum p r i c e s  and w a g e s , t a x e s ,  etc.  dual nature  of the  As h a s b e e n p o i n t e d o u t e a r l i e r ,  economy a r i s e s  because c o l o n i a l  have s t r e s s e d  development  ment and a l s o  because n a t i o n a l governments  have r e g a r d e d  development  tional  sectors  that w i l l nations,  of the  i n terms of a s i n g l e  through the  economy.  oped s e c t i o n s  r a i s i n g the to that  Thus t h e  tions,  the  i n the  develop-  new n a t i o n s  A balanced regional  levels  of l i v i n g  growth  of the  less  sense,  new  devel-  may o n l y  come  s u p e r i m p o s e d on  integration.13  problem of  closing the  poor n a t i o n s i s not o n l y  international field;  gap b e t w e e n t h e  gap b e t w e e n t h e  levels  limited  w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l na-  advanced and t h e backward  sections  w i t h i n a c o u n t r y may be c l o s e d t h r o u g h r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . this  func-  economy o f t h e  o f t h e more a d v a n c e d p a r t s ,  o f l i v i n g o f t h e r - r i c h and t h e to policies  resource  of the  a b o u t when a s y s t e m o f r e g i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n i s a system of f u n c t i o n a l  governments  i n t e g r a t i o n of the  e l i m i n a t e the d u a l nature of the i.e.  the  In  r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s b a s i c a l l y concerned w i t h e l i m i n a t i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f d u a l economy, f u s i n g t h e two u n e q u a l s e c t i o n s i n s u c h a way t h a t a n e x c h a n g e economy w i l l e x t e n d i t s t y p i c a l system of i n t e r a c t i o n across the e n t i r e geographic area i n question.1^ Before  turning to  approach t o development  a discussion of the r e g i o n a l  planning i n the  m e n t i o n may he made o f t h e  role of  poor n a t i o n s .  economists  J u s t as t h e  new n a t i o n s ,  'physical'  s t r i c t l y w i t h d r a w i n g up e c o n o m i c p l a n s f o r no c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r t h e  a preoccupation with 'physical plans'  effects  cesses of  the  forces  change o f t h i s  plans  the  consistent  goals f o r transportation,  schools  and t h e  preparation of land-use  provide  accessibility  so f a r ,  activities,  no r o l e  great regard of  nature  environment, the  community's  i n government  preparation of  pro-  purpose.15  planning long-range  w i t h t h e u r b a n and  regional  and o t h e r p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s ,  maps and m a s t e r p l a n s ,  and t h e  future.  economic p l a n n e r s  both to  s p a t i a l requirements  i n shaping national p o l i c i e s  i n p o i n t i n g out t o t h e  the  and t h e means b y w h i c h  arid t o meet o t h e r present  its  on s o c i e t y ,  serve the  of these planners  no  concern  w h i c h shape t h i s  environment  agencies u s u a l l y i s two-fold: l o c a l development  with  of too  p h y s i c a l environment,  t h e s e p r o c e s s e s may be g u i d e d t o  different  The c h i e f  produced by t h i s environment  The r o l e  development  with absolutely  and p r o g r a m m e s .  t h e s e p l a n n e r s has been the  the  concerned  j u s t i f i a b l y be a c c u s e d  5  and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  i n the  optimum l o c a t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t ,  p h y s i c a l p l a n n e r s may a l s o  for national policies  a brief  planners  have been  planning  1 6  They have  played,  and programmes  or the  of  or  decision-makers  p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s and t h e i r p h y s i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . I t i s common knowledge t h a t r e g i o n a l p h y s i c a l development plans f o r m u l a t e d r e f l e c t probable  i n terms o f land-use  investment  output,  a f f e c t as w e l l as  employment, and income.  I f t h e r e f o r e the p h y s i c a l planner n e g l e c t s or misunderstands the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f h i s p r o p o s a l s f o r n a t i o n a l development, urban and r e g i o n a l problems may might be avoided in  serious  r e s u l t , problems which perhaps  o r l e s s e n e d were they c o n s i d e r e d o r . d e a l t w i t h  advance. In summary, f o u r main f e a t u r e s o f development  i n the new n a t i o n s may development p l a n n i n g ;  be o u t l i n e d : f i r s t ,  one-resource  planning colonial  second, n a t i o n a l development plans  with  s t r o n g economic b i a s ; t h i r d , p l a n n i n g at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l w i t h no regard f o r development at the l o c a l or r e g i o n a l level*, and f o u r t h , the e x i s t e n c e o f two groups o f d i f f e r e n t l y t r a i n e d planners o p e r a t i n g at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f government and t a c k l i n g w i t h d i f f e r e n t t o o l s and concepts many aspects interdependent.  problems which are i n  One might say, i n passing, t h a t  t h e s e . f e a t u r e s o f development p l a n n i n g are not o n l y t y p i c a l of the new n a t i o n s under d i s c u s s i o n but a l s o o f the more advanced n a t i o n s from which, o f course, these development p l a n n i n g were i n h e r i t e d by the new  nations.  traits  25 Current  Regional P l a n n i n g  Although  Approach  the p r i n c i p l e o f comprehensive p l a n n i n g and  development has begun t o make some headway i n some c o u n t r i e s , i t i s o n l y i n the l a s t decade o r so t h a t some r e l a t i v e l y few count r i e s have r e c o g n i z e d r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g as an e q u a l l y aspect  o f p l a n n i n g and -development.  important  In some o f the new n a t i o n s ,  comprehensive p l a n n i n g and development has taken the form of v i l l a g e p l a n n i n g through community development v a r i o u s l a n d settlement  programmes,  and c o l o n i z a t i o n schemes i n which the  i n t e g r a t i v e approach i s r e f l e c t e d i n c o o r d i n a t i o n at a l l l e v e l s , both at the c e n t e r and i n the f i e l d , and i n the combination o f s o c i a l p r o j e c t s such as h e a l t h and education, with  economic  p r o j e c t s i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Exc e l l e n t examples o f these i n t e g r a t i v e programmes are the Community Development  Programmes o f I n d i a and Ghana and s e v e r a l  other new n a t i o n s ; t h e C o l o n i z a t i o n schemes i n the G a l Oya V a l l e y e a s t e r n .Ceylon and the a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e t t l e m e n t p r o j e c t s of the G i z e r a P l a n i n the Sudan. But t h e dramatic  f r o n t i e r f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g was  p r o v i d e d by. .the g r e a t multi-purpose schemes.  I n these  schemes,  r i v e r b a s i n development  attempts were made, at l e a s t i n  t h e i r philosophy, t o i n t e g r a t e t h e s o c i a l , and economic of development.  aspects  T y p i c a l examples are the T h a i V a l l e y and t h e  Indus Barrages i n West P a k i s t a n and the F l o o d C o n t r o l Scheme o f E a s t P a k i s t a n ; the Damodar V a l l e y , Bhakra-Nangal and Hirakud, the Mahanadi R i v e r , t h e Tunga-Bhadra P r o j e c t s o f I n d i a ; the G a l  26  O y a and the Walawe-Ganga P r o j e c t s o f Ceylon; the Agno, M a r i k i n a , Pampanga and Angus R i v e r developments i n the P h i l i p p i n e s ; the Papaloapan R i v e r scheme i n e a s t e r n Mexico; and the San  Francisco  Valley project i n B r a z i l . Although each o f these p r o j e c t s a f f e c t s the  develop-  ment of a r e g i o n , not a l l of them are planned as r e g i o n a l development p r o j e c t s . planning  Otto H. Koenisberger w r i t i n g on r e g i o n a l  i n Asia states that Many(of the r i v e r b a s i n schemes) are l i m i t e d t o i r r i g a t i o n , f l o o d c o n t r o l and power production. Other c o n s e q u e n t i a l developments are l e f t t o chance, i n f a c t , the p l a n n i n g which has preceded the m a j o r i t y of the p r o j e c t s has been f o r p u b l i c works and e n g i n e e r i n g and not r e g i o n a l planning...but t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i t i e s as means of s o c i a l and economic reform remain u n e x p l o i t e d . T7 :  In an e v a l u a t i o n o f the development o f most o f these p r o j e c t s , i t i s t r u e to say t h a t i n many cases these schemes have emerged simply  as l a r g e - s c a l e e n g i n e e r i n g  projects.  The  s o c i a l , housing and town p l a n n i n g a nd even a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s have been c o n s i d e r e d  only l a t e r ;  e f f e c t i v e scheme t o be The  sometimes, too l a t e f o r an  developed.  c l a s s i c a l model f o r a l l these p r o j e c t s , was  Tennessee V a l l e y A u t h o r i t y ; but the i n the  sense of the  r e g i o n ' was Mumford.  concept of r e g i o n a l  comprehensive development o f a  the planning  'resource  developed t h e o r e t i c a l l y by P a t r i c k Geddes and  With the  establishment  o f the TVA'j the i d e a was  Lewis first  27 brought t o r e a l i t y .  Since  most o f t h e new n a t i o n s  d r a w i n g r a t h e r e x t e n s i v e l y on TVA's to  examine  it  ever  aspects  d i d possess  Assistant and  certain  General  results  o f TVA's  example, i t may be  of i t s regional planning  anything  Manager  have  of that  nature.  been necessary  function,i f  D r . E . E . Ackerman,  o f t h e TVA, i n o u t l i n i n g t h e methods  planning,  states that:  TVA has n e v e r e m p h a s i z e d i t s r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g function. Most o f i t s s t a f f might d e n y t h a t i t i s a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g agency at a l l . Yet i t s p l a n n i n g h a s h a d p r o f o u n d e f f e c t upon t h e r e g i o n where i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s l i e . I t has a l s o h a d s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a s a whole.I 8  Apart  from the p o s i t i o n taken  gard  t o i t s planning  sion  i n t h e TVA A c t f o r a n y s u c h f u n c t i o n s .  has o n l y t h r e e other  river  secondly,  real  functions, there  b y TVA i t s e l f  powers: f i r s t l y ,  c o n t r o l works  to authorise  non-Federal  works  conduct  or refuse  and t h i r d l y ,  surveys Valley  plans  I t i s interesting to  i s a u t h o r i z e d t o make  of the Valley c i t i z e n s .  i s , t h e r e f o r e , by s p e c i f i c  dent n o t by g e n e r a l  f o r the  f o r t h e economic development o f t h e  and t h e g e n e r a l w e l f a r e  planning  the-power o f eminent  of 1 9 3 3 , i t i s the President  S t a t e s , a n d n o t TVA t h a t  and g e n e r a l  lines;  f o r construction of  t o obtain properties necessary  of the corporation's business.  the United  dams and  power t r a n s m i s s i o n  permission  n o t e t h a t - a c c o r d i n g t o t h e TVA-Act of  no p r o v i -  S p e c i f i c a l l y , TVA  t o construct  and e l e c t r i c  on t h e r i v e r ;  domain, i . e . t h e r i g h t  i s furthermore  with r e -  TVA  d e l e g a t i o n from t h e P r e s i -  a u t h o r i z a t i o n i n TVA  kct.W  28 Although  President Roosevelt  in  1 9 3 3 described the  of  Government but  p r i s e * , t h e  c o r p o r a t i o n as  possessed  of the  in establishing  "Clothed with the  flexibility  a c t u a l powers i n v e s t e d i n TVA powers m i s s i n g  banking,  policy determination,  and  tax  transportation rate determination, ment, p u b l i c works o t h e r t h a n emigration most  and  important  immigration, single  been i t s s t r i k i n g of  what  i t has  very  early  planned, and  planning. the  of these  a policy  agencies TVA  and  would  w o u l d TVA  attempt  t h i s way:  "Not  has  one  plans"."'- -  welfare,  agricultural  foreign trade.  policy, "The  w r i t e s Ackerman, and  persuasion  "has  i n most  1  limited  powers, t h e TVA  and  adop-  not  establishment  r e g i o n would not  Lilienthal  g o a l , but  T h u s i t may with o f any  in  which  depend  on  economic development  summarized t h e  a direction.  conscious  in  of agencies  f o u r score m u n i c i p a l i t i e s The  a  s i m p l y meant t h a t a l l r e g i o n a l  i t s p h y s i c a l and  progress  Board  even i n d i v i d u a l s , would p a r t i c i p a t e  i n the  b e e n more c o n c e r n e d  than w i t h the  and  education  promote t h e  that.  f o r a l l , but t h e .23"  cessive  control,  of working with a planning,  plan f o r themselves.  TVA's m a s t e r m i n d i n g  and  social  include  transportation invest-  o f TVA",  By t h i s t h e y  seven s t a t e s and  could  attribute  dependence on  region.22-'  local  tariffs  Act  limited.  d o n e . "- -  In spite ted  river  power  rather  i n t h e TVA  and  TVA  of private enter-  were  Among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h e fiscal  the  Not  s e l e c t i o n by t h e  reasonably  strengthening  be  one  method i n plan,  people  concluded  planning  specific, general  nor  of  once suc-  that  TVA  institutions  p l a n f o r the V a l l e y .  29 With t h i s background to of. TVA,  i t i s not  s u r p r i s i n g to  the  regional  learn that  w h i c h seems t o  have i m p r e s s e d most o f t h e  d r a w i n g on t h e  TVA  part  of  bodies  make r e g i o n a l  the  regional  regional  practice  i n the  the  TVA  that  were  i t s semi-autono-  i t i s pointless  local  scheme.  norm and  tointrude  governmental The  not  i t is  machinery  r e a l problem i s to  applicable  examination of the be  d e v e l o p m e n t i w h i c h has new  for special  regions  of the  achieve a  country.  For  objectives  directed to  This  The  'balanced r e g i o n a l  need f o r a b a l a n c e d  scope  yet  another accepted,^  t a k e s the  form  a l l o c a t i o n f o r development  country.  example, the  and  r e c e n t l y become  nations.  policies for financial  approach i s to  stresses the  a t t e n t i o n may  i n some o f t h e  various  the  an  planning,  of n a t i o n a l  out  of  only.  form of r e g i o n a l the  function  i n t o governmental machinery unless  planning  P r i o r to of  But  a c e n t r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and  which recognises  cases  principle.  aspect  countries  m o d e l , e s p e c i a l l y I n d i a , was  mous a d m i n i s t r a t i v e administrative  the  planning  reason behind development'  this through-  Indian  Second F i v e  Year  regional  development  as  Plan  follows:  I n any c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n o f d e v e l o p m e n t , i t i s a x i o m a t i c t h a t the s p e c i a l needs o f the l e s s d e v e l o p e d a r e a s s h o u l d r e c e i v e due attention. The p a t t e r n o f i n v e s t m e n t must be devised as t o l e a d t o b a l a n c e d r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . ^ 2  The  measures t o  regional trial  adopted to  development  production,  promote g r e a t e r the  be  country.  include  achieve t h i s s o - c a l l e d  balanced  policies for decentralized  a wide d i f f u s i o n o f development n u c l e i  mobility  of  labour  industo  between d i f f e r e n t p a r t s  of  What  i s not c l e a r  t o be a t t a c h e d t o t h e t e r m , balance  about t h i s  •regional balance .  Should  1  be i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean, f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t  resources  s h o u l d be d i s t r i b u t e d  r e l a t i o n to the existing  levels  Or s h o u l d  disparities  development  o f economic w e l f a r e , t h a t i s t o  r e g i o n a l balance  and l e s s t o t h e h i g h  of different  considered  i n balance  income  be: i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t  i n p h y s i c a l a n d human and i n s t i t u t i o n a l  potentials  regional  g e o g r a p h i c a l l y i n an i n v e r s e  g i v e more t o t h e low income a r e a s areas?  a p p r o a c h i s t h e meaning  r e g i o n s be r e c o g n i z e d  resources  and a r e g i o n be  when i t i s p r o g r e s s i n g a c c o r d i n g t o some  measure o f i t s own p o t e n t i a l ? ^ ? '  While these to  say that the Indian  teen  p l a n n i n g work, f o r d e v e l o p m e n t  implementation developed the  of the plan.  at the d i s t r i c t  State Plan which  prepared•from practice, lage  p o l i c y f o r planning  i t i s true  assigns t o the four-  s t a t e s o f I n d i a a major part o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  technical  of  q u e s t i o n s remain unresolved,  Theoretically,  and v i l l a g e  plans  cognizance  the p o i n t o f view o f t h e country  although  improving,  of plans  as a whole.  at the d i s t r i c t  have n o t y e t become v e r y wide  state planning,  a r e t o be  l e v e l w h i c h merge i n t o  i n t u r n , has t o take  however, p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s  level  f i n a n c i n g and f o r  spread,  In  and v i l -  and t h e q u a l i t y  i s v e r y poor.  I t i s not  s u r p r i s i n g t h a t no p h y s i c a l a n a l y s i s o f p r o j e c t s i n t h e v a r i o u s s t a t e s has b e e n i n c l u d e d i n t h e p l a n . it  m i g h t have t a k e n  account  I f this  had b e e n done,  o f t h e p h y s i c a l p a t t e r n o f both  p r i v a t e and p u b l i c p r o j e c t s i n each o f t h e r e g i o n s d e f i n e d f o r regional  development.  31 The  Indian  example o f r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t  h o l d s t r u e f o r most o f t h e kind  new  of r e g i o n a l development  teristic  of the  n a t i o n s who  planning.  have a t t e m p t e d  The  v a r i o u s F i v e Year Plans  planning  pattern i s  for either  any-  charac-  Ghana  or  2fi Pakistan, N i g e r i a or Ceylon  and  I n summary, i t may planning o f two  so f a r a d o p t e d  kinds:  terms of the  the  Burma. -  be  concluded  i n most o f t h e  'resource  multi-purpose  r e g i o n a l economic p l a n n i n g  may  now  two be  a p p r o a c h as d e f i n e d and  approaches but  turned  The  present  that  offers  The  examples a r e  cited  the  various aspects  and  alternative  combination Attention  alternative  regional  methods o f  o u t l i n e d and  Puerto  the  i s concerned  s o m e t h i n g more.  approach are  from I s r a e l  of the  been  adopted  only a  a i m s , o b j e c t i v e s and  regional planning  fic  study  i s not  to a d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s  planning approach. alternative  p o o r n a t i o n s has  r i v e r b a s i n d e v e l o p m e n t , and  a kind of regional planning  of these  regional  r e g i o n ' development approach i n  i n N a t i o n a l Development P l a n s . with  that the  Rico to  this speci-  illustrate  approach t o r e g i o n a l  pianning.  The  A l t e r n a t i v e Regional  Regional mizing  the  total  organization  Planning  resources  of t h e i r  i s essentially of a given  of the  people  of the  levels  Approach concerned w i t h  r e g i o n and  development w i t h  economic c o s t s towards r a i s i n g welfare  Planning  with  a minimum o f of l i v i n g  r e g i o n and  i n the  and  maxi-  the  social the  country  and  general as  a  whole. tion  Planning  sort, therefore,  of p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l ,  realization  o f the  environment.  "the  proper  e c o n o m i c and  b e t w e e n human and  c r e a t i o n of a balance  facilitate  the  basic  aims a t the  other  coordina-  factors for  r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n man  I n o t h e r w o r d s , i t i s an  relationship  to  of t h i s  and  the  his  attempt t o r e g u l a t e  the  environmental f a c t o r s or i t i s  i n respect  processes of  of environment, i n  order  human l i f e " .  27 Like parts: gic  the  a l l planning,  p i c t u r i n g of the  o u t l i n e f o r the  Regional Planning, especially  settlement  implies that  on  can  among t h e  to  due  be  and  "lies  actual f a c t o r s of second, balance  i n the  abird's  natural  will  innovation  view of  basis".  be  of  approach, problems,  2 8  view of  given  problems  simultaneously  not  development.  or  cannot  The  question  social, at the The  e c o n o m i c and l e v e l s of first  studies  population  and  in of  this bal-  balance  physical  governmental  level of  to  a l l be  i s therefore  l e v e l s of a n a l y s i s : f i r s t ,  comprehensive the  eye  a b i r d ' s eye  expenditure.  region:  The  i n i t s general  Regional planning  e x a m i n e d a t two  two  t r a c i n g of a s t r a t e -  goal.  e v e n t h o u g h t h e y may  f o r balanced  making o f  the  consists of  r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n phenomena  their  consideration  and-public  involves  o f the  r e v e a l the  simultaneously.  development; action  and  Glikson,  method o f t a k i n g  sense, planning  tors  states  factors involved  acted  ance  achievement  structure  The  all  goals  i n i t s method o f t a k i n g  by w h i c h i t t r i e s of  r e g i o n a l planning  of  analysis  a l l related fac-  settlement  pattern,  industrial  p o t e n t i a l s and a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o s p e c t s ,  characteristics,  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n net-work, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  ture,  and p r o b l e m s  tion,  health, etc.  The  connected with u r b a n i z a t i o n ,  main t a s k  at this  main problems a s s o c i a t e d the  and  of their  should  present  i s not o n l y  In short,  o f development  i n the region.  to  i s done b y means o f p r o j e c t i o n s  over a p e r i o d  On t h e b a s i s able force  o u t What t h e f u t u r e  pattern  of the various  o f t h e s e p r o j e c t i o n s , t h e p l a n n e r may be  date;  o f t h o s e .-in t h e r e t i r i n g specific  future  projections  may t h e n be r e l a t e d t o i n d u s t r i a l  period.  prospects  both f o r t h e f u t u r e .  Since  resources  e n t a i l s several other  services  associated  population;  the  age i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e t o t a l  at that  e t c . and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  of the labour  school-going  population;  infrastructure  i s likely  o f time.  at a p a r t i c u l a r future  hospitals,  On t h e b a s i s o f of the regional  t o d e t e r m i n e , f o r example, t h e c h a r a c t e r  proportion  t o be  have p r o d u c e d t h e  be t o f i n d  factors  itself  the question  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h e second t a s k  This  to define the  factors involved i n  planner w i l l be.  educa-  but a l s o t o d i s t i n g u i s h the  be what a r e t h e f o r c e s t h a t  pattern  existing  as a whole.  struc-  housing,  e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the region  i n the nation  raised  level  with the various  development o f t h e r e g i o n s ,  pattern  employment  These  population  and a g r i c u l t u r a l  t h e development  s u c h as s c h o o l s ,  and a l l t h e o t h e r  w i t h economic development,  r e g i o n a l planner's duty t o r e l a t e these  o f any  other  houses,  elements o f i t i s the  services  and  facilities  to his p r o j e c t i o n s .  rationally  allocate  this  respect, Ernest  the  right  I t i s the  planner's  uses o f l a n d i n the  job a l s o t o  region; i n  Weismannargues:  S u i t a b l e p l a n n i n g on a r e g i o n a l s c a l e may help t o g u i d e u r b a n i z a t i o n and i n t e r n a l m i g r a t i o n so t h a t t h e y w i l l f a c i l i t a t e r a t h e r t h a n impede development... Such p l a n n i n g c o u l d c r e a t e a l t e r n a t i v e c e n t e r s o f a t t r a c t i o n f o r t h e movement o f rural" people t o the c i t i e s , the brunt of which movement i s how b e i n g b o r n e a l m o s t e n t i r e l y by large metropolitan centers. Such a l t e r n a t i v e c e n t e r s c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h j u d i c i o u s l o c a t i o n o f new i n d u s t r i e s and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t r a n s p o r t " i n a" m o r e ' r a t i o n a l and p e r h a p s a l s o i n a more d e c e n t r a l i z e d p a t t e r n . 2 9  In I s r a e l was  followed  i n the  and  Puerto  Rico, the  systematically i n planning  respective countries.  plan of I s r a e l ,  according  The  a p p r o a c h o u t l i n e d above f o r - r e g i o n a l development  o b j e c t i v e s of the  to A r i e h Sharon,  national  included:  s i t i n g o f a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t s and a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s ; d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a r a t i o n a l and h e a l t h d i s t r i b u t i o n of urban centers; e f f e c t i v e distribution of i n d u s t r y i n the v a r i o u s regions o f the country; i n d i c a t i o n o f the road network and " c e n t e r s of" c o m m u n i c a t i o n , and p r o v i s i o n o f a c h a i n o f f o r e s t s and n a t i o n a l p a r k s . 3 0 The  Puerto  regional  Rico  Planning  planning  Board d e s c r i b e d the  c u r r e n t l y b e i n g w o r k e d out  comprehensive i n Puerto  Rico  as  an e f f o r t t o p r e p a r e more o r l e s s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y f o r e a c h o f t h e f i v e r e g i o n s and s u b - r e g i o n s i n t o w h i c h t h e i s l a n d has b e e n d i v i d e d , a l o g i c a l and i n t e r r e l a t e d p a t t e r n f o r development i n t h e t h r e e general f i e l d s : 1 t h e economy - i . e . a g r i c u l t u r e , i n d u s t r y , t r a d e and s e r v i c e s ' ; 2 certain supporting f a c i l i t i e s on t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f w h i c h t h e economy i s a t l e a s t i n p a r t dependent,'such as p o r t f a c i l i t i e s , w a t e r s u p p l i e s , h i g h w a y s , and e l e c t r i c power;  35 and 3 c e r t a i n other f a c i l i t i e s required-by the p o p u l a t i o n s u c h a s hous i n g , s c h o o l s , m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and r e c r e a t i o n areas.31  . The s e c o n d l e v e l  of analysis,  i . e . the l e v e l  e r n m e n t a l a c t i o n and p u b l i c e x p e n d i t u r e , of allocations t o the different in  both  development  current  types  includes the question  of projects, allocations  a n d r e g u l a r b u d g e t s and b o t h  expenditures.  o f gov-  The main t a s k " h e r e  c a p i t a l and  should  be t o , a n a l y s e  e a c h p r o j e c t i n t e r m s o f c o s t s and b e n e f i t s n o t o n l y f o r t h e region  alone  analyses, and  b u t f o r t h e whole  r e g u l a r budget  are  not r e l a t e d  d e v e l o p m e n t :.and  l a c k d e p t h and p e r s p e c t i v e  o f the various regions o f the country. balance  J u s t as t h e  c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d  a b s t r a c t i o n from the a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n  country,  production, education,  from the r e a l i t i e s  o f the a v a i l a b i l i t y  meaningfully  existing within a  so s t u d i e s and p r o j e c t i o n s on p o p u l a t i o n ,  industrial  i f they  t o t h e n a t u r a l and human r e s o u r c e s a n d p o t e n t i -  problem o f budgetary  and  i n both  employment and s o  i s u s u a l l y a matter f o r n a t i o n a l governmental  but a l l o c a t i o n s w i l l  alities  in  income, o u t p u t ,  The q u e s t i o n o f a l l o c a t i o n s  policy;  On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e  i t may be p o s s i b l e t o s e t t a r g e t s i n t e r m s o f l e v e l s  patterns o f investment,  forth.  country.  agricultural  e t c . c a n n o t be d i v o r c e d o f m a t e r i a l s , goods,  s e r v i c e s , man-power and c a p i t a l .  The Puerto 1  Rico  purpose o f comprehensive r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n  i s t o provide  the review,  b e t t e r guidance  e v a l u a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n  a t two g e n e r a l of existing  levels:  specialize  plans f o r p a r t i c u l a r segments of the t o t a l development e f f o r t and the preparation and i n t e g r a t i o n of such new plans as might be needed;  2  specialialized  the making of d e c i s i o n s about  p a r t i c u l a r programmes; p r o j e c t s and proposals designed t o implement the plans.32 I n order towork out a p i c t u r e of the prospective development of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n and economy and the r e g i o n a l components of Puerto Rico, o v e r a l l p r o j e c t i o n s were made.  These  were extended to 1975 and separate estimates made f o r t h e years I960, 1965 and 1970.  The o v e r a l l p r o j e c t i o n s were based on a  n a t i o n a l income approach, namely, analysing past trends and making p r o j e c t i o n s f o r given future periods of the net income produced, of employment, p r o d u c t i v i t y , labour force and tion.  popula-  Assuming a continuance of observed t r e n d s , p r o j e c t i o n s  of r e g i o n a l economic growth and of the s i z e and geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n , were made.33  A similar  approach was adopted i n I s r a e l where the emphasis was on a p o l i c y of d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n based on the study of present popu l a t i o n centers and i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n s .  In 194&,  a total  of 82% of the Jewish population was concentrated i n -three b i g c i t i e s of I s r a e l . 3 4  Since the country was t h a t of mass immi-  1  g r a t i o n , the process of d i s t r i b u t i o n of population d i d not e n t a i l the t r a n s f e r of e x i s t i n g population but of d i r e c t i n g the ever-growing  stream of immigrants to new a g r i c u l t u r a l areas  and new urban centers throughout .the country.  In both lined  c o u n t r i e s o b j e c t i v e s and  i n terms o f the  population,  social  development o f a g r i c u l t u r e ,  three  criteria:  In Puerto  tors  ment.  The  policies  only necessary concept  have t o be  that the  because the  r e g i o n and  The  q u e s t i o n i s not  i n the  of the  levels  people.  In I s r a e l ,  sharper  the  topographic  fac-  basins.  terminate  focus  with  surveys, develop-  as t h e  p l a n •*/•...;:  of implementation.  g o a l s and  Thus i t i s  i n the l i g h t and  o f new  and  developments i n  r e v i s e d from time t o  a development  a  objectives outlined w i l l  and  for all,  aimed a t m a x i m i z i n g t h e  of l i v i n g  'emphasizes  allocations f o r  s e t o f p l a n s now  region or country through  'The  planning r e g i o n remains always  country,  one  a succession of plans  r a i s i n g the  s h o u l d hot  stage  c o n s t a n t l y reviewed  the  or r i v e r  for financial  to the  on  p o l i t i c a l sub-divisions;  p h y s i c a l and  r e g i o n o n l y comes i n t o  i s c a r r i e d forward  flexible  r e g i o n s were based  economic homogeneity.'35  planning process  regions  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems.  such as water-catchment areas  p r o j e c t i o n s and  not  and  d i s t r i c t s w e r e b a s e d on  The  it  Rico these  r e g i o n a l s u b - d i v i s i o n s ! w r o t e t h e Bond,  modality rather than Planning  areas;  plans  In addition, planning  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and;  commercial drainage resulting  factors.  out-  industry,  s e r v i c e s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e t c . and  drawn f o r e a c h o f t h e s e were d e l i n e a t e d .  p o l i c i e s were  time.  but  resources  of  programme a i m e d  at  promoting the  general  rather the  welfare  38 Plans, for  s t u d i e s , p r o j e c t i o n s and  o n l y an  tion  Effective  development  adequate p l a n or a  minstrative and  structure that w i l l  i n t e g r a t i o n of  the  management o f l a r g e and  cope w i t h t h e mentations. the  found  part  o f the  B o a r d has  t h a t has  of the  office  best  Rico.  of the  and  Administrative tary.  Not  technological  the  p h y s i c a l and  cities. co-oridate  grouped the The  are  improvement  to implewith  planning  Planning  in five  line  Economic,  Office  effects  of Puerto  Rico.  activities  of the  Board prepared  also u t i l i z e d  are  of the  added t o the  studying the  The  divisions:  In a d d i t i o n there the  is  Board i s  Chief Executive.  the  SecreBoard of  Board  into  master plans  economic development o f the  The_master plans capital  of  people  1  in their  Special Studies,  responsibility  f o u r major headings t h u s :  and  organizations  Rico  a S o c i a l D i v i s i o n was  Rafael Pico  guide  Puerto  organized and  change on t h e  projects  o f development  L e g a l D i v i s i o n s and  l o n g ago,  charged w i t h the  adminstra-tive  Bureau of Permits.  and  p h y s i c a l programmes.  bound t o a r i s e  Governor, the  Urban Development, F i n a n c e  ad~  co-ordina-  r e q u i r e r e g i o n a l machinery  The  a technical staff  a l s o an  not  been u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n i n v o l v e s  f o r a l l aspects  i n Puerto  Engineering,  e c o n o m i c and  problems t h a t are One  requires  satisfactory  complex d e v e l o p m e n t  therefore w i l l  responsibility  that  ensure  social,  regional planning  programmes and  planning thus  s u c c e s s i o n of p l a n s but  The  to  allocations  d e v e l o p m e n t become a r e a l i t y o n l y u n d e r a good a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  organization.  its  financial  by  island the  and  Board  p r o j e c t s o f a l l government  to  agencies.  I t a c t s i n an i s l a n d - w i d e . c a p a c i t y as,a  2  planning center f o r a l l i t s Board g u i d e s the development regulations, divisions,  city  s e v e n t y - s i x . urban communities.  The  and growth o f u r b a n a r e a s through  based on the master p l a n , c o n t r o l l i n g l a n d . s u b -  z o n i n g , and a n c i e n t and h i s t o r i c zones and by means  o f o f f i c i a l maps o f s t r e e t s androads.  3  The. Board p a r t i c i -  pates i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f the f i s c a l , p o l i c y o f the Commonw e a l t h o f Puerto R i c o by adopting every year a s i x y e a r f i n a n c i a l programme that, i s  submitted f o r the  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the  Governor and L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly o f Puerto R i c o . and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g i s  4  Economic  also, a v i t a l f u n c t i o n o f the Board i n  which o t h e r government agencies p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y  as i n most  o f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . 3 5 The p o i n t here i s not the  c r e a t i o n o f new and s p e c i a l  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery d i v o r c e d from the n a t i o n a l and l o c a l administrative structure, strative  body t h a t  fits  but the  i n t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system both a t .  the n a t i o n a l and l o c a l l e v e l s . . which may combine s o c i a l , c o n s i d e r e d to have the  c r e a t i o n of a r e g i o n a l a d m i n i -  Although.new and s p e c i a l  organs,  economic and p h y s i c a l , f u n c t i o n s ,  are  advantage, of. departing, from, t r a d i t i o n a l  b u r e a u c r a t i c procedures and of s t a r t i n g w i t h more, e f f i c i e n t and f l e x i b l e  methods,  t h e s e advantages  V b e t t e r adapted to o v e r a l l programmes,  may be o f f s e t  i f there i s excessive p r o l i f e r a -  t i o n o f new machinery and d u p l i c a t i o n o f e f f o r t w i t h administrative  services.  existing  40  CONCLUSION  It  has b e e n t h e i n t e n t i o n  of the present  chapter t o  make a c a s e i n f a v o u r o f t h e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h t o development  planning.  The a p p r o a c h t h r o u g h o u t t h e c h a p t e r  been t o r e v i e w t h e p e r t i n e n t current  development  Some c o n c l u s i o n s i n t h e new  p l a n n i n g i n t h e new  can now  on t h e main  has b e e n  problems from t h e i r  shown t h a t ,  o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s was  b e c a u s e o f a common  nations inherited  respective  approach t o development  o f problems..  certain  colonial rulers;  a single-resource  planning  The  development  colonial similar  t h e most  economy.  p l a n n i n g a d o p t e d by t h e new  upon g a i n i n g i n d e p e n d e n c e , has b e e n i d e n t i c a l  these  impor-  The  nations  on a c c o u n t o f the;  planning approach of  c o u n t r i e s has t a k e n t h e f o r m o f N a t i o n a l Development  w h i c h have n o t o n l y o f development, the n a t i o n a l and l o c a l  of  independent n a t i o n s .  be drawn r e g a r d i n g d e v e l o p m e n t  b a c k g r o u n d , most o f t h e new  similarity  features  nations.  It  tant  literature  has  concentrated  but have  level  levels.  b e e n made i n t e r m s  s o l e l y on t h e e c o n o m i c  a l s o been  a n d have  plans  aspects  concerned w i t h p l a n n i n g at  ignored  development  at the  I n t h o s e c o u n t r i e s where some e f f o r t  regional has  o f r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g f o r development, t h e  a p p r o a c h has t a k e n t h e f o r m o f e i t h e r t h e m u l t i - p u r p o s e r i v e r b a s i n development  described  r e g i o n a l development  above  or the s t r i c t l y  i n terms o f the a l l o c a t i o n  economic „  of resources.  41  It cal  and e c o n o m i c p l a n n e r s  nations the  has been p o i n t e d  fact  out a l s o t h a t t h e r o l e s o f p h y s i -  i n the planning  f u n c t i o n o f t h e new  has b e e n u n d u e l y d i v o r c e d f r o m one a n o t h e r that  both  planners  are, i n effect,  concerned w i t h the  s o l u t i o n o f t h e same p r o b l e m s o f d e v e l o p m e n t . f e a t u r e s of. t h e c u r r e n t outline  opment p l a n n i n g case  i n favour  sent  study  I n view o f t h e s e  a p p r o a c h t o d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g , an  o f an a l t e r n a t i v e  r e g i o n a l approach,  i n spite of  approach t o development p l a n n i n g , t h e  has been g i v e n .  i n Ghana i s a n a l y z e d  I n t h e next i n order  o f the regional planning  i s interestedi n .  chapter,, d e v e l -  t o make a n o t h e r •  approach which t h e pre-  42 REFERENCES I F . J . P e d l e r , " F o r e i g n I n v e s t m e n t i n West A f r i c a " , • International Affairs, X X X I , ( O c t o b e r , 1955) p 460. p (New  York:  3  B a r b a r a Ward, The R i c h N a t i o n s a n d The F o o r W. W. N o r t o n . & Co. I n c . , 1962) p 135.  Nations ' "  -T. H. Combs, " I n t e l l e c t u a l F r o n t i e r s o f A s s i s t a n c e " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t R e v i e w , I V , No. 2, ( J u n e , 1962) p p  7 5 4 - 5 5 . .  Growth  ^B. F . H o s e l i t z . ' S o c i o l o g i c a l A s p e c t s o f E c o n o m i c (Glencoe;•Illinois: The F r e e P r e s s , 1962) pp 54-55.  . Z Max Weber, The T h e o r y o f S o c i a l a n d E c o n o m i c O r g a n i z a t i o n , A. M. H e n d e r s o n & T a l c o t t P a r s o n s ( G l e n c o e , I l l i n o i s : ~~ The F r e e P r e s s , 1957); The P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c a n d t h e S p i r i t o f C a p i t a l i s m , (London: A l l e n a n d Unwin" 1930j ^R. B r a i b a n t i & J . J . S p e n g l e r , T r a d i t i o n , V a l u e s , and S o c i o - E c o n o m i c Development (Durham, N. C : Duke U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961) B. F . H o s e l i t z , " T r a d i t i o n a n d E c o n o m i c Growth", pp 6*3-113; M. J . H e r s k o v i t s , "Economic Change a n d C u l t u r a l  Dynamics", pp 114-138.  N a t i o n a l E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s , The F i v e - Y e a r E c o n o m i c a n d S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t Programme f o r F i n a n c i a l Y e a r s 1957-1961 ( M a n i l a : 1957) p 17. ' (New  York:  ^United Nations, Report 1961) p. 8 2 , ^United Nations,  First  on t h e W o r l d S o c i a l  Situation,  (1961) o p . c i t . p S3.  l O G o v e r n m e n t o f P a k i s t a n , " N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , The F i v e - Y e a r P l a n (1955-60) ( K a r a c h i : ; 1955) p 15.  ."^United N a t i o n s , " P l a n n i n g f o r S o c i a l and Economic Development i n Burma", U n i t e d N a t i o n s , (1961) o p . c i t . p 83.  12 K. B. S n a g g s , " P l a n n i n g f o r Development i n T r i n i d a d and T o b a g o " ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s d i s s e r t a t i o n , D e p a r t m e n t o f Community a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y ' o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  1961), pp 34-35. "I -3 J . Friedmann, "Regional P l a n n i n g — A Problem i n S p a t i a l I n t e g r a t i o n " , R e g i o n a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n , Papers and P r o c e e d i n g s , V, (1959) p 179. < T b i d p 167. 1Z  ^ C h a r l e s H a a r , B e n j a m i n H i g g i n s , a n d L l o y d Rodwin, "Economic a n d P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g : C o o r d i n a t i o n i n Developing Areas", J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , XXXIV, No. 23,  (1953), p l b S .  —  —  43 Ibid.  l 6  l ^ o t t o H. K o e n i g s b e r g o r , " R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g i n A s i a " , U n i t e d N a t i o n s , R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , H o u s i n g , B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g . No. 1 2 & 13, P 119.  l8 E . E . Ackorman, "The T. 'V.. A's P l a n n i n g M e t h o d s and R e s u l t s " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e on R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g and D e v o i o p m o n t ( B r u s s e l s : 1 9 5 7 ) P 20. -  ()New  1 9  Ibid.,  2 0  Ibid.,  2 1  Ibid..  p 2 1 .  p  22.  22David L i l i e n t h a l , York, 1 9 5 3 ) , P 1 9 1 .  T..- V. A.  Democracy on t h e  March,  3 i b i d .  2  Year Plan,  overnment of I n d i a P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , Second F i v o (New D e l h i : Government P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 ) p 3 8 9 .  25 ^ S t e f a n H. Robock, " R e g i o n a l and N a t i o n a l E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t i n I n d i a " , R e g i o n a l S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n , P a p e r s and P r o c e e d i n g s , VI, (I960) 2\6_Ghana, S e c o n d D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n 1 9 5 9 - 6 1 | , ( A c c r a : The Government P r i n t e r , 1 9 5 9 ) ; Government o f P a k i s t a n , N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , op. c i t . ; The F e d e r a t i o n o f N i g e r i a , S i x - Y e a r D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n 1962-68 ( L a g o s : Government P r i n t i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1962). : ~~ . ^ A . G l i k s o n , R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t S i j t h o f f ' s U i t g e v e r s m a a t s c h a p p i j N. V., 1 9 5 5 ) P 9 . 2  A.  W.  (Leiden:  2 8 Ibid. %!. Welssmann, "The C o n t r i b u t i o n of P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g to E c o n o m i c and S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t " , P r o c e e d i n g s of the I960 W o r l d P l a n n i n g and H o u s i n g C o n g r e s s , (San J u a n : I960) •30 •Arieh Sharon, "Planning Review, X X I I I , ( A p r i l 1 9 5 2 ) , p 6 6 .  in Israel",  Town P l a n n i n g  3-1-The P u e r t o R i c o P l a n n i n g B o a r d , "Comprehensive Regional Planning i n Puerto Rico", United Nations, Regional P l a n n i n g , H o u s i n g , B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g , No. 1 2 & 1 3 , p l i j - 7 . 3 2  Ibid.  3 3  Ibid.,  p 1J+8  3^-Arieh S h a r o n , -^The 3 6  loc. cit., p  69.  Puerto R i c o Planning Board,  l o c . c i t . , p 163.  Ibid.  37Rafael p i c o , "The R o l e o f P l a n n i n g i n P u e r t o R i c o " The A n n a l s o f t h e A m e r i c a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e , V o l . 285, ( J a n u a r y , 1953), P 70.  CHAPTER I I I  BACKGROUND TO DEVELOPMENT PLANNING IN GHANA  T h i s chapter i s d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s : t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n i s concerned w i t h the impact  o f one-resource  (cocoa)  development under B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l r u l e on t h e economy o f Ghana; i n the second s e c t i o n , t h e development plans o f Ghana d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d s : 1919 t o 1927; 1944 t o 1953 and 1953 t o 1963, are d i s cussed.  The present chapter i s concerned e s s e n t i a l l y w i t h  making a case i n f a v o u r o f the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g approach t o development p l a n n i n g o u t l i n e d towards t h e end o f t h e l a s t  chap-  t e r , by showing t h a t development p l a n n i n g i n Ghana t o date, has f a i l e d t o achieve a balanced s o c i a l , economic and p h y s i c a l development  i n t h e country because r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , as an  approach t o development has not been adopted. Before d e a l i n g w i t h the two s e c t i o n s o f t h e present chapter, a g e n e r a l background on Ghana i s necessary.  The back-  ground i s g i v e n i n terms o f the p h y s i c a l , p o p u l a t i o n , employment and r e g i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the country.  45  TERRITORIES  I  OF  WEST  AND: C E N T R A L  AFRICA  46  General  Physical  Background  Background  Ghana i s s i t u a t e d i n West A f r i c a and the  south  Coast.  by  the  East  of i t l i e s  i s Upper V o l t a . miles.  1  (See  The  G u i n e a and the  total  on t h e west by t h e  Republic area  o f Togo and  southern  coast  of  6-|  extreme e a s t , and  i s thus  not  the  coast the  extends  i n l a n d t o a b o u t 11  The  distance  less, East  country  a distance  across the widest  measuring about and  l o n g i t u d e 3s  334  f a r from the  o f some 420  miles  latitude  degrees North i n  the  covering  o f Ghana  square  Ghana e x t e n d s between  d e g r e e s N o r t h a t Cape T h r e e P o i n t s and  thus  Ivory  north  o f Ghana i s 91,#43  equator.  North,  from south t o  north.  p a r t f r o m e a s t t o west  m i l e s between l o n g i t u d e  d e g r e e s West.  The  Port  o f Ghana, c u t t i n g t h e  o f Tema, where t h e r e  known as t h e M e r i d i a n Ghana has  Meridian  i s rather  1|  degrees  of  Greenwich,  average h e i g h t  composed o f  e x a c t l y at t h e  jutting  out  the new  i n the  sea  there  are  Rock.  very  several h i l l s which r i s e The  i s a rock  coast  From  degrees  which passes through e a s t e r n England, a l s o runs through eastern half  on  1)  Figure  The 4l  Gulf of  i s bounded  few to  of these  complex f o l d s  mountains;  although  a maximum h e i g h t r a n g e s i s 1,500  of  3,000  feet.  of v o l c a n i c r o c k s , mostly  feet.  They  are  basalt  and  have g e n e r a l l y The  heavy  deep and  climate  rainfall  narrow  valleys.  o f Ghana i s t r o p i c a l :  scorching  amost t h e w h o l e y e a r r o u n d .  heat  It i s influenced  by t h e h o t , d r y d u s t - l a d e n n o r t h - e a s t trade-;winds o r t h e matan, b l o w i n g f r o m t h e S a h a r a and t h e monsoon o r s o u t h - w e s t A t l a n t i c towards  The  May  The  tropical  climate  and t h e d r y .  The wet  the  h i g h e r ones f u r t h e r  inland  Ghana has a b o u t river  i s the largest.  some 1,000 which line  m i l e s and  The  figures  The  February  a n n u a l mean  a dozen  tropical  Volta river  t r e e s growing  of which the  has  a total  Ghana.  and  Volta  l e n g t h of  and  are r e a l l y the  separated from the  nature of the  A l l along the  climate  s e a by l o w o f Ghana  of vegetation with the r e s u l t  where t h e r a i n f a l l  coast  d r a i n s a n a r e a o f 150,000 s q u a r e m i l e s  ponded b a c k  a profuse growth  occur near the  rivers  o f Ghana a r e l a g o o n s most o f w h i c h  The  degrees  to the n o r t h .  61,000 s q u a r e m i l e s l i e w i t h i n  rivers  r a i n s a v e r a g i n g 80  o r no r a i n .  Lower t e m p e r a t u r e  two  s e a s o n o c c u r s between  r a n g e s f r o m 79 d e g r e e s F a h r e n h e i t t o 8k  Fahrenheit.  of  o f Ghana makes f o r o n l y  d r y s e a s o n o c c u r s between O c t o b e r and  during which t h e r e i s l i t t l e temperature  cool, moisture-laden  Coast.  and S e p t e m b e r when t h e r e a r e h e a v y  inches.  Har-  t r a d e winds b l o w i n g f r o m a c r o s s t h e  the Guinea  s e a s o n s - t h e wet  and  that  h e i g h t o f 130 t o 200  coast  mouths sandbars. encourages  i n areas  i s heighest there are t h i c k f o r e s t s  up t o t h e a m a z i n g  of  with  feet.  45  This  high forest  covers  a n a r e a o f 25,000 s q u a r e  o c c u p i e s t h e whole o f t h e south-west p r o d u c e a b o u t 300 s p e c i e s o f t i m b e r Odum, Wawa, U t i l e a large scale.  and Sapele  North  p a r t o f Ghana.  are exported.  of the high forest  and  t h e savannah and h i g h f o r e s t  g r a s s l a n d which  asbestos,  mostly  stone  such  The h i l l y  C o c o a i s p r o d u c e d on  lies  the typical miles.  Savan-  Further  g i v e way t o c o a s t a l s c r u b  areas  as g o l d , i r o n  and marble.  of the i n d u s t r i a l type,  stones. and  lime  Mahogany,  s t r e t c h along the coast.  Ghana h a s m i n e r a l s and  The f o r e s t s  some o f w h i c h , l i k e  nah w o o d l a n d s c o v e r i n g r o u g h l y 65,000 s q u a r e south,  m i l e s and  ores,  bitumen  T h e r e a r e a l s o diamonds  as w e l l as s a l t  and b u i l d i n g  contain large deposits of bauxite  manganese. Population According  6 , 7 2 6 , 5 2 0  the  people  2  1943 f i g u r e  been a t t r i b u t e d important  to the  i n Ghana.  p o p u l a t i o n census,  there are  T h i s i s a n i n c r e a s e o f 63% o v e r  o f 4,118,000.  T h i s h i g h r a t e o f growth has  t o under-estimation  i n t h e 1943 c e n s u s .  It i s  t o n o t e however t h a t t h e n a t u r a l r a t e o f i n c r e a s e i n  Ghana has been e s t i m a t e d This  I 9 6 0  t o be somewhere a r o u n d 2.5$ p e r y e a r .  h i g h r a t e o f n a t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n growth i s a  characteristic  West A f r i c a n t r e n d , where c h i l d m o r t a l i t y r a t e s a r e d e c l i n i n g ( f r o m 25 p e r 1000) due t o i m p r o v e m e n t s i n p u b l i c h e a l t h a n d where b i r t h  rates are very  high  (45 p e r 1000).  The p o p u l a t i o n  49 of Ghana s i n c e 1948 census, showed 5,530,000 i n I960.  This i s  based on a r a t e o f n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e o f 2.5$ per y e a r . In a d d i t i o n , Ghana can be termed a 'country of immigration'.  The I960 census enumerated 540,000 persons who  d e c l a r e d t o have been born abroad.  Together w i t h t h e i r  were  chil-  dren, the t o t a l number o f persons o f f o r e i g n o r i g i n enumerated by the census amounted t o 330,000 i . e . 12$ o f the t o t a l populat i o n o f Ghana. 175,000.  In 1948", the number o f f o r e i g n n a t i o n a l s was  The i n c r e a s e by m i g r a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g the ambiguous  n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e o f the migrant p o p u l a t i o n between 1948 and I960 could be estimated a t roughly 450,000.  Together w i t h the  5,530,000 r e s u l t i n g from t h e 2 . 5 $ annual r a t e of n a t u r a l i n crease t h e t o t a l estimated p o p u l a t i o n of Ghana i n I960 should have been about 6,000,000.  I f i t i s assumed t h a t the 1943  census omitted 10$ o f the p o p u l a t i o n due t o  under-enumeration,  the i n c r e a s e o f 63$ between the 4,113,000 i n 1943 and t h e ( 6 , ; 6,726,320 i n I960 would have been determined. About 1| m i l l i o n people i . e . 23$ o f the; t o t a l population, live  i n towns  p o p u l a t i o n o f 5,000).  (a town d e f i n e d as a l o c a l i t y w i t h a I n 1943 o n l y h a l f a m i l l i o n , i . e . 13$  of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , l i v e d i n towns.  Table I shows a  breakdown o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n t o R u r a l , C i t y and Towns.  50 TABLE I  TOTAL POPULATION BY CITY, TOWN AND RURAL (1931 - I960)  1931 No.  Rural population  2,900,000  ^ %  ; ' > .  92  1948 „ No. %  1960 No.  %  0  3,500,000  86  5,150,000  77  2>  300,000  7  600,000  9  C i t y population  60,000  Town p o p u l a t i o n  200,000  6  300,000  7  950,000  14  Combine c i t y - t o w n population  260,000  8  • • 600,000  14  1,500,000  23  National population  ••• 4,118,000  3,160,000  • • 6,726,820  Source: U . N . R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g m i s s i o n t o Ghana N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l Development P l a n - Housing Study. (1962) Table I (adapted) mimeo.  The  approximate annual growth r a t e since the 1931  census i s shown i n Table 2. TABLE 2 TOTAL POPULATION BY APPROXIMATE (1931 - I960) 1931 National population C i t y population Town p o p u l a t i o n Rural" p o p u l a t i o n City-town p o p u l a t i o n  {%) -  ANNUAL GROWTH RATE  1948 {%)• 2 8 3 1 5  1960^%} 4| 65 8 3 l~a 1  Source:, Un N. R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g M i s s i o n t o Ghana, N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l Development Plan - Housing Study (1962) T a b l e I (Adapted) mimeo.  51 A 'City' of  50,000  over  S e k o n d i were  i n Ghana i s d e f i n e d a s h a v i n g  persons.  i n this  ted  only Accra,  5,000 and50,000  persons.  'Rural' i s d e f i n e d as any settlement  5,000  persons o r l e s s .  In  K u m a s i and T a k o r a d i -  A 'Town' i s d e f i n e d a s h a v i n g  94 s u c h towns compared w i t h  t h e r e were a b o u t  of  i960  category.  a p o p u l a t i o n o f between  1948.  In  i960  the rural  a d e c l i n e o f 9% f r o m t h e 1943 r u r a l  shown i n T a b l e  In  I960  38 o f them i n having  a population  population  f o r 77$ o f t h e t o t a l n a t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n .  The t o t a l  a population  This  accoun-  represents  population.  population o f selected urban  centers i s  3• TABLE 3  POPULATION BY SELECTED  Urban  center  Accra Kumasi TakoradiSekdndi Koforidua Tamale" Cape C o a s t Bolgatanga Nkawkaw Tarkwa Sunyani  URBAN CENTERS  1943  I960  ^Increase over l a s t census.  133,520 77,639  337,323 130,642  250.0 133.0  43,743 17,723 16.053 23,206 3,645 5,043 7,707 17,673  75,450 34,356 40,443 41,230 5,515 15,627 13,545 13,640  172.0 93.0 150.0 130.0 151.0 220.0 175.0 55.0  Source: U. N. R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g M i s s i o n t o Ghami, N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n - H o u s i n g S t u d y . (1962) T a b l e 11 I A d a p t e d ; mimeo.  52 I n I 9 6 0 , t h e r e were 3 , 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 m a l e s t o 3 , 3 2 7 , 0 0 0 females. of  102  This gives a s l i g h t  m a l e s t o 100 f e m a l e s .  Ghanaian  origin  foreign origin,  100 f e m a l e s . ratio, groups.  73,000 m a l e s o r a r a t i o  The s e x r a t i o  i . e . immigrants,  that  among t h o s e o f  m a l e s t o 100  p o p u l a t i o n , i t i s 101  from these broad  males t o  males t o  s i m i l a r i t i e s t o the national  F o r example, among t h e u r b a n  age-  p o p u l a t i o n , t h e r e are  t h a n m a l e s between t h e age 0-14 and 6 0 y e a r s and  The s e x , r a t i o  population  females.  i s 102  population, the ratio  among t h e r u r a l Apart  i s 175  among p e o p l e o f  there are vast v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n the d i f f e r e n t  more f e m a l e s over.  of  i s 97 m a l e s t o 100 f e m a l e s ;  Among t h e u r b a n 100 f e m a l e s ;  excess  f o r t h o s e between t h e 5-9  i s 88 m a l e s t o 100 f e m a l e s .  20 t o 59 : y e a r s where t h e n a t i o n a l r a t i o  among t h e u r b a n  E v e n among t h o s e prevails  p o p u l a t i o n , t h e r e a r e s u c h e x t r e m e s a s 137  aged  f o r t h e urban  m a l e s t o 100  females^  f o r t h o s e between t h e a g e s o f 40 and 44 y e a r s . In of  the r u r a l  males over females  except  f o r those  appears  between  the n a t i o n a l r a t i o females  areas, the national r a t i o  of the excess  t o be t h e c a s e f o r a l l a g e - g r o u p s  20-34 y e a r s o f a g e .  F o r these  groups,  d r o p s t o s u c h f i g u r e s a s 76 m a l e s t o 100  f o r t h e 20 t o 24 a g e - g r o u p s ;  80 m a l e s t o 100  females  for  t h e 25 t o 29 a g e - g r o u p s a n d 92 m a l e s t o 100 f e m a l e s f o r  the  30 t o 34.  The p o p u l a t i o n o f Ghana i n I960 was  a v e r y young  one;  every other Ghanaian was l e s s than 20 years o l d , every f o u r t h Ghanaian was o f s c h o o l - g o i n g age and every f i f t h person i n Ghana was an i n f a n t under f i v e years o f age.  A break-down of  the p o p u l a t i o n i n t o s i g n i f i c a n t age-groups i s 'Shown i n Table  A.  TABLE 4  POPULATION BY SIGNIFICANT AGE-GROUPS, I960 (Percentages) Age-group  % of T o t a l p o p u l a t i o n  0 - 4  19.1  .5-14  25.2  15 - 64 (male)  35.9  15 - 59 (female)  32.9  65 over (male)  2.5  60 over (female)  2.4  Source: Ghana Census Bureau, I960 P o p u l a t i o n Census P r e l i m i n a r y Report, (19963) ( e x t r a c t s - adapted) mimeo. Of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of 6,726,320 of Ghana i n I960, 1,293,830 (19.1%) were c h i l d r e n below f i v e y e a r s of age, 1 , 7 2 0 , 3 0 0 (2.5.2$) were c h i l d r e n of s c h o o l - g o i n g age, t h a t i s , between  5 t o 15 y e a r s o f age.  There were males  ( 3 5 . 9 $ ) of the  working-age p o p u l a t i o n and ( 3 2 . 9 $ ) females i n the same group. The percentage o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n the r e t i r i n g age-group i s  r a t h e r s m a l l , only 113,200 and  i5  4 )  males  ( 2 . 5 $ ) aged 65 y e a r s and over  650'females ( 2 . 4 $ ) aged 60 y e a r s and o v e r .  The  small  percentage o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n the o l d aged group has been a t t r i b u t e d t o a h i g h f e r t i l i t y r a t e and r e l a t i v e l y high m o r t a l i t y r a t e i n p r e v i o u s decades. The breakdown o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n t o s i g n i f i c a n t groups f o r the urban and r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n i s shown i n Table  age5.  TABLE 5  URBAN-RURAL POPULATION BY"SIGNIFICANT AGE-GROUPS I960 (Percentages)  $ of T o t a l N a t i o n a l P o p u l a t i o n Urban Rural  Age-group 0-4  4.1  15.0  5-14  5.4  19.8  6.9  28.9  15 - 59 (female)  5.6  27.3  65 over'(male)  0.3  2.2  60 over (female)  0.5  1.8  15 - 64  (male)  Source: Ghana' Census Bureau, I960 P o p u l a t i o n Census, P r e l i m i n a r y Report, (1963) ( e x t r a c t s adapted) mimeo.  55 Regional Dfe t r i b u t i o n o f P o p u l a t i o n  The  d i s t r i b u t i o n of the t o t a l  the main a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  p o p u l a t i o n i n I960 by  r e g i o n o f Ghana i s shown i n Table 6.  TABLE 6  POPULATION BY ADMINISTRATIVE REGIONS - I960  Regions  Population  Volta Western Ashahti Brong-Ahafo Northern Eastern Accra C a p i t a l D i s t r i c t  752,547 1,348,344 1,103,548" 533,724 1,232,164 1,033,343 491,060  Ghana  6,726,320  Source: Ghana Census Brueau, I960 P o p u l a t i o n Preliminary Report, (1963) ( e x t r a c t s - mimeo)  Census,  56  P o p u l a t i o n by area and d e n s i t y forsome of the is  regions  shown i n Table 7.  TABLE 7  POPULATION BY REGION, AREA AND DENSITY - I960 Regions  Population (in  Volta Western " A s h a n t i and Brong-Ahafo Northern E a s t e r n and Accra c a p i t a l District Ghana  Area Density sq. miles)(per s q . mile)  782,547 1,348,844  13,041 13,202  60.0 102.2  1,697,272 1,282,164  24,379 30,436  69.6 42.1  1,579,903  10,735  147.2  6,726,820  91,843  73.2  Source: Ghana Census Bureau, I960 P o p u l a t i o n Census P r e l i m i n a r y Report", (1963), ( e x t r a c t s - mimeo) E . A . Boateng, A Geography o f Ghana, (Cambridge: 1959) adapted.  57 Population  In Table total  Projections  3, p o p u l a t i o n t r e n d s  and p r o j e c t i o n s f o r t h e  p o p u l a t i o n o f Ghana and i n t e r m s o f t h e u r b a n a n d r u r a l  population o f the country  a r e shown:  TABLE 8  POPULATION PROJECTIONS , 1931 - 1980 21  1931 National Population Rural " Population City • •  Population  Town" - - Population" Combined'City and Town• Population  3,160,000  1948 4,111,000  • -200,000  260,000  i960  1970  1980  6,700,000 -. • 5,150,000 "' '  9,500,000 - ••• 6,800,000  12,200,000  950,000  -• 1,650,000  1,700,000  300,000  •* • 950,000  3,000,000  600,000  ...... 1,500,000  2,600,000  4,700,000  2,500,000 3,500,000 . - -••  60,000  .  300,000  600,000  7,500,000  Source: U." N. R e g i o n a l " P l a n n i n g M i s s i o n t o ' G h a n a , N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n - H o u s i n g S t u d y (1962) T a b l e I ( a d a p t e d ) mimeo. a Assumptions: A p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e o f 42$ i n t h e n e x t d e c a d e , due t o new e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s , g r e a t e r c h i l d s u r v i v a l , h i g h f e r t i l i t y r a t e and m i g r a t i o n .  58 Labour Force and Employment Of the t o t a l Ghanaian  p o p u l a t i o n of 6,726,820 i n I960,  persons aged 15 years and above t o t a l l e d  3,730,680 or comprised  55.4$ of the p o p u l a t i o n . The Ghana Economic Survey 1961 d e f i n e s the  e c o n o m i c a l l y a c t i v e p o p u l a t i o n as comprising the working  p o p u l a t i o n or persons i n employment and the unemployed population  d e f i n e d as ' l o o k i n g a c t i v e l y '  f o r work by v i s i t i n g eraploy-  ment agencies, w r i t i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s , e t c .  These  total  2,724,350 or 40.5$ o f t o t a l Ghana p o p u l a t i o n or form 73$ of the p o t e n t i a l work f o r c e o f whom 2,561,040 or 63>'6$ are employed. The r a t i o  of employed t o unemployed i s about 16:1.  Table 9  shows the l a b o u r f o r c e of Ghana.  TABLE 9  POPULATION BY LABOUR FORCE OF PERSONS AGED  15 YEARS AND  Sex  OVER BY SEX - I960  P o t e n t i a l Work Force Number $  Employed Number $  Unemployed '0 Number  Both sexes  3,730,680  100  2,561,040  68.6  163,810  4.4  Male  1,889,440  100  1,573,170  33-3  109,560  5.3  Female  1,341,240  100  937,370  53-7  54,250  2.9  Source: Ghana C e n t r a l Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Economic Survey, 1961 (1962) T a b l e 6 l (adapted)  59  There  i s a s l i g h t l y higher incidence of  among m a l e s t h a n  .5.3$.  being tage  Only  females  - t h e unemployed  unemployment  percentage  f o r males  2 . 9 $ o f females a r e unemployed - t h e p e r c e n -  of the economically active  p o p u l a t i o n among women b e i n g  56.6$. The e c o n o m i c a l l y a c t i v e comprises tion tries  40.5$ of the t o t a l  p o p u l a t i o n o f Ghana.  o f t h e employed p o p u l a t i o n i s shown i n T a b l e  10.  p o p u l a t i o n o f Ghana The  (2,724,350) distribu-  (2,561,040) i n the main i n d u s -  TABLE 10  MAIN INDUSTRIES OF EMPLOYED PERSONS AGED 15 YEARS AND OVER BY SEX - I960 Industry-  Total Number  2,561,040 A l l industries Agri culture, fo re stry, 1,578,880 hunting, f i s h i n g 48,430 Mining and quarrying Manufacturing 235,240 Construction 89,370 E l e c t r i c i t y , water & 14,110 sanitary services,, gas 371,500 Commerce Transport, storage and 68,420 communications 155,090 Services  (1962)  Table 63  fo  Males Number  %  Females Number  %  100.0  1,573,170  100.0  • 987,870  100.0  61.5 1.9 9.2 3.5  1,003,320 45,910 136,360 86,630  63.7 2.9 8.7 5.5  575,560 2,520 98,880 2,740  58.3 0.3 10.0 0.3  0.6 14.5  13,920 95,520  0.9 6.1  190 275,980  0.0 27.9  2.7 6.0  67,500 124,010  4.3 7.9  920 31,080  0.1 3.1  , Central Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Economic Survey 1961 (adapted)  o> : o  61  The  t o t a l number o f employed p e r s o n s - s a l a r i e d  2,561,040  wage e a r n e r s - e t c . i n Ghana i s tion.  Of t h i s number,  1,573,380  production i n agriculture, Mining tion  and  3.5$  23.3$  61.5$  or  forestry,  quarrying absorbs  1.9$-  In  a r  63.5$  popula-  e n g a g e d i n primaryfishing. construc-  t o g e t h e r account f o r  14.5$>«  of workers  p r o d u c t i o n , 12.7$  i n secondary  construction,  23.8$ i n t e r i a r y i n d u s t r i e s .  and  of the  M a n u f a c t u r i n g 9.2$,  commerce a l o n e a c c o u n t s f o r  summary, Ghana has  e  33$  h u n t i n g and  while the t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r i e s  o f which  or  industries  i n primary  of manufacturing In  Ghana's s t a g e o f e c o n o m i c g r o w t h i s q u i t e  32.5$ 6.4$  i n primary p r o d u c t i o n , i n tertiary industries.  36.6$, 10.4$  secondary secondary  4.9$ and  4.6$  and t e r t i a r y  8.2$  i n secondary  Congo  India  Ghana,  this ing  1,675,700  and  food-stuff  constitute  65$  industries  and  primary  70.8$  were s e l f - e m p l o y e d .  p r o d u c t i o n and sector.  the single  follows:  primary,  (2.561,040)  g r o u p were i n a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s ,  ment i n t h e p r i v a t e  and  or  The  tertiary.4-  Of t h e t o t a l employed p o p u l a t i o n in  as  (Leopoldville):  3.6$;  Asia,  satisfactory.  are d i s t r i b u t e d  and  comparison  w i t h most o f t h e l e s s - d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s i n A f r i c a and  non-European p o p u l a t i o n o f A l g e r i a  and  largest  About  in  66$  n o t a b l y cocoa  r e p r e s e n t s 70$  S e l f - e m p l o y e d and  i960 of farm-  o f t o t a l employemployers  employment"medium i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g  commerce - a c c o u n t i n g f o r 76$  and  34$  respectively  of the  62 a g g r e g a t e number o f w o r k e r s i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g This  has  been a t t r i b u t e d t o the  and  commerce.  preponderance of very  small  enterprises.  There sector  has  i n recent  been a l a r g e  years.  The  11.9$  agriculture,  of t o t a l  54.2$  quarrying,  and  enterprises  is  employment  o f whom 40$  are  f o r e s t r y , h u n t i n g and  sector i s respobsible  for  non-public  t o t a l number o f s a l a r y and  e a r n e r s engaged b y p r i v a t e f i r m s comprising  expansion i n the  99.2$ o f  i n construction  303,370 in  fishing.  The  employees  i n mining  and  $ 3 * 0 $  wage  non-public  i n the  and  transport  industry.  T o t a l employment 7.4$  of the  49$  of these  where t h e account  total  i s the  f o r 6 0 $ of the  shows t h e  public  sector  constitutes  number o f employed p e r s o n s i n Ghana.  employees are  state  i n the  employment  engaged i n t h e  l a r g e s t employer. total  status  employment of the  p r o v i s i o n of These  i n the  population  About services  employees sector.  in  T a b l e 11  i960.  Labour Force by Regions: • industries  In Table  1 2 , t h e L a b o u r f o r c e i n I960 i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g  i s shown f o r t h e Based on t h e  Development P l a n  various  Table  occupational  ( 1 9 5 9 - 6 4 ) . w o u l d be f u l l y  13 shows t h e classes  regions.  a s s u m p t i o n t h a t Ghana's S e c o n d  j e c t i o n s were made i n I 9 6 0 f o r t h e Ghana.  administrative  for  required 1965.  high  implemented,  level  Five-Yea.r some  man-power i n  man-power f o r f o u r  broad  pro-  TABLE 11 MAIN INDUSTRIES OF EMPLOYED PERSONS AGED 15 YEARS AND OVER BY EMPLOYMENT STATUS I960  Industry-  All  industries  Agriculture Forestry H u n t i n g and Fishing M i n i n g and Quarrying Manufacturing Construction Electricity, Gas, Water and S a n i t a r y Services Commerce Transport S t o r a g e and Communication Services  Total  Employers Self-Employed and Care-Takers  Public  Employees Sector Non-Pub-Mc Sector  Family Workers  Apprentice  43,230  2,561,040  1,675,700  139,990  303,370  343,200  1,578,880  1,107,780  31,190  120,760  313,530  48,430  3,480  310  39.100  235,240  117,600  2,970  89,370  19.310  29,570  14,110  330  11,700  1,270  20  740(-  20  210  620  330  .800  4,730  29,140  .335,030  240  4,-670  371,500  312,430  2,520  440,320  15,320  450',  68,420  16,370  19,030  21,510  670  10,340  155,090  32,350  92,700  25,070  2,930  1,490  Source:  Ghana C e n t r a l B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s , Economic Survey, 1 9 6 1 (1962) Table 6 5 Adapted  ON  64  TABLE 12  LABOUR FQRCE\IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES BY REGIONS - I960  Regions  Labour Force  Western  22,540  Central  27,720  Accra C a p i t a l  District  24,490  Eastern  50,140.  Volta  37,710  Ashanti  44,280  Brong-Ahafo  13,220  Northern  6,340  Upper  8,800  T o t a l f o r a l l regions  235,240  Source: U-. N. R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g M i s s i o n t o Ghana, Labour Force i n Manufacturing I n d u s t r i e s - I960 (1962).  TABLE 13 PROJECTIONS FOR HIGH-LEVEL OCCUPATIONS: BY OCCUPATIONAL CLASS - i960 - I965  Occupational  Class  Administrative Managerial  Employed i n March/60  E s t i m a t e d No. R e q u i r e d July July July 1961 1963 1965  & 4,029  4,700  4,900  I965 R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r E x p a n s i o n Additional Additional Positions Personnel '  5,151  1,122  1,643  43^  3,673  3,900  4,500  7,163  3,495  5,063  143  17,952  19,500  22,700  23,037  5,126  13,172  73  S k i l l e d and F o r e men ( c r a f t s m e n , tradesmen, e t c )  23,631  31,900  35,300  36,330  3,149  11,173  39  Total  54,335  59,300  67,900  72,227  17,392  31,051  59  Professional ine l u d i n g Secondary teachers) Sub-Professional ( i n c l u d i n g prima r y and m i d d l e teachers)  Source:  Ghana S u r v e y o f H i g h - L e v e l Manpower and Ghana, (Accra: Government P r i n t i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1961)  i960  ON  66  The Impact of Cocoa I n d u s t r y on Ghana's Ecohomy Ghana i s e s s e n t i a l l y an a g r i c u l t u r a l  country.  The  t o t a l c o n t r i b u t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e t o the £500 m i l l i o n worth o f r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o Ghana from a l l a c t i v i t i e s i n 1961  was  over 50$ which i s f a r g r e a t e r than the c o n t r i b u t i o n of any o t h e r branch of economic a c t i v i t y . ils has been shown e a r l i e r , a g r i c u l t u r e accounts f o r 6 l $ o f a l l employment every three working  i n Ghana; i n other words about two  people i n Ghana make t h e i r l i v i n g out of  f a r m i n g , f o r e s t r y and f i s h i n g .  In 1961  a g r i c u l t u r a l products  s u p p l i e d n e a r l y 77$ of t o t a l e x p o r t s o f Ghana. 19th century most of the commodities s u p p l i e d by for  out o f  Since the  late  agriculture  export were rubber, palm o i l and i n the l a s t f i f t y  years,  cocoa has dominated Ghana's export t r a d e . Cocoa was Ghana i n 1879.  first  By 1905  i n t r o d u c e d as a commercial  crop t o  the c u l t i v a t i o n o f cocoa had  come to  dominate a l l o t h e r a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n the country. Since t h a t time to  cocoa has r a i s e d per c a p i t a income, c a p a c i t y  import, per c a p i t a e x p o r t s and has enabled Ghana t o f i n a n c e  those imports o f c a p i t a l and  consumer goods which have  contri-  buted t o the maintenance of a r a p i d r a t e o f economic growth and a g e n e r a l standard of l i v i n g accepted t o be among the highest in Africa.  The  c o l l a p s e of the cocoa i n d u s t r y i n Ghana i n the  next few decades w i l l o b v i o u s l y mean a r e v e r s a l of the e n t i r e development o f the economy.  T h i s was  the case i n the e a r l y  67 1930's.  I t may  be n e c e s s a r y  t o review  the gross n a t i o n a l i n -  come, p r i v a t e  purchasing  d a t a i n Ghana  i n o r d e r t o u n d e r l i n e t h e impact  i n d u s t r y on Ghana's  Ghana's between 1956  power, government revenue, a n d of the  c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the world  and 1961  i s shown i n T a b l e  1956-57  cocoa  14  1957-58  TONS)  1958-59  1960-61  1959-60 1,035  World Production  891  763  393  Ghana P r o d u c t i o n  264  207  255  1,157 .430  317  P r o d u c t i o n as 29.6  % of World Production Source:  Gill  1961.  The"Impact Table t w e e n 1930  15  and 1953.  30.6  Cocoa S t a t i s t i c s ,  37.2  September  of.Cocoa  shows N a t i o n a l Income  and Cocoa E x p o r t s  be-  I t i s c l e a r t h a t G r o s s N a t i o n a l Income i s  however, t h a t b e t w e e n 1956 d e p e n d e n c e on c o c o a  23.4  26.4  and D u f f u s ,  more d e p e n d e n t on c o c o a t o d a y  1957  production  14.  COCOA - WORLD S T A T I S T I C S - ('000  to  cocoa  economy.  TABLE  Ghana's  export  than  and 1953  i t was  i n 1930.  t h e r e was  It i s true,  a decline i n  e x p o r t s but " t h i s  i s a r e f l e c t i o n of  p r i c e s n o t any m a j o r p h y s i c a l  change i n Ghana".5  1956  68 TABLE 15  NATIONAL INCOME AND  COCOA EXPORTS  National'income Cocoa export Cocoa export as per annum - £m. per annum'- £m. % of" n a t i o n a l income. 3  1  33.3  7.0  13  1950-52  219.0  55.8  25  1935-55  267.7  63.3  26  1956-58  271.7  54.7  20  1930  (average) (average)  Source:" R. H. Green, The- Ghana Cocoa I n d u s t r y , Economic B u l l e t i n , May 1961, V o l . 5, No. 1, T a b l e I (adapted) The 1957  Economic Survey6 o f Ghana and an a r t i c l e by  Douglas Rimmer? both show the importance ments t o purchasing power.  of cocoa d e r i v e d pay-  T h i s i s shown i n Table  16.  TABLE 16 PURCHASING POWER AND  COCOA INCOMES  1 Cocoa farmer 2 Annual gross 3 Annual gen- A Cocoa income broker annual fixed capital e r a l gov't. as % of 1 2 formation. current 3• income. expenditure.  1950-52  average  31.7  25.3  17.0  43  average  31.3  33.7  26.6  32  31.9  43.1  40.0  23  1953-55  1955-53  average  Source:' R. H. Green, The Ghana Cocoa I n d u s t r y . Economic B u l l e t i n , May 1 9 6 I , V o l . 5, No. 1, Table 2. (adapted).  It  would  appear from t h e T a b l e t h a t  declined.substantially  c o c o a ' s s h a r e seems t o have  from the p e r i o d  1950-1952 t o t h e p e r i o d  1956-1953 s i n c e a b s o l u t e payments were c o n s t a n t w h i l e government current  expenditure and f i x e d  This decline  capital formation increased  becomes more a p p a r e n t t h a n r e a l a s a n  e x a m i n a t i o n o f government revenue  TABLE  reveals i n Table  (000,000£)  Year  Total revenue  Cocoa duties  Boards grants  1949-50  17.9  3.1  .4  3.5  20  1950-51  25.6  9.1  .7  9.8  38  1951-52  34.5  14.2  .0  14.2  41  1952-53  42.1  16.4  2.4  18.8  45  1953-54  47.8  18.8  2.1  20.9  44  1954-55  79.2  48.9  3.5  52.4  66  1955-56  64.I  3.2  27.3  43  1956-57  49.4  12.1  2.8  14.9  30  1957-58  60.1  22.1  3.0  25.1  42  1958-59  67.0  25.1  2.3  27.4  41  1959- 60  70.4  27.0  2.7  29.7  42  78.3  23.0  5-5  28.5  36  (budget)  Report  24.1  17.  17  CENTRAL GOVERNMENT REVENUE  1960- 61  sharply.  Total  Source: E c o n o m i c S u r v e y , 1955; o f t h e A u d i t o r G e n e r a l , 1959.  Cocoa  Economic  3 Year average  35  54  ,.  38 •  40  Survey,  1958;  The  sharp i n c r e a s e  current and  and c a p i t a l  i n t h e Ghana G o v e r n m e n t ' s a b i l i t y expenditures i s t i e d  Ghana c o c o a M a r k e t i n g B o a r d  tors.  I t would seen t h a t  Import  d u t i e s , t h e second  l a r g e measure  collected  t o cocoa export  out o f cocoa  are i n  payments  'cocoa d e r i v e d revenues' t o a  1958-59, a n d s u b s e q u e n t  From t h e e x p o r t d a t a a v a i l a b l e , more d o m i n a n t now i n t e r m s  under-  form o f revenue,  on goods p u r c h a s e d  40-50$ range i n the 1957-58,  i n T a b l e 17  c o n t r i b u t i o n t o Ghana's economy.  most i m p o r t a n t  A l l o w i n g f o r t h i s would r a i s e  duties  g r a n t s more t h a n t o o t h e r f a c -  the presentation  e s t i m a t e s t h e cocoa i n d u s t r y ' s  to finance  budgets.^  i t i s clear  cocoa i s  of i t s contribution to t o t a l  e x p o r t t h a n i t was i n 1930.  T a b l e 18 d e m o n s t r a t e s  this  domestic conten-  tion.  TABLE 18 TOTAL DOMESTIC AND COCOA EXPORTS Annual domestic exports.  (000,000£)  Annual cocoa exports.  $  1935-r39 a v e r a g e  12.4 .  6.4  52  1940-44 a v e r a g e  12.4  3.6  29  1945-49 a v e r a g e  33.2  21.8  66  1950-54 a v e r a g e  91.2  63.0  69  1955-59 a v e r a g e  97.2  59.8  62  113.0  69.0  61  1959  Source: • S t a t i s t i c s o f E x t e r n a l Trade Economic Survey 1 9 5 5 , 1959.  1935-1953,  The  1945-1960  dependence on t h e l e a d i n g  e x p o r t seems t o have  1930-45.  been s u b s t a n t i a l l y g r e a t e r t h a n i n  some s t a g n a t i o n o f c o c o a e x p o r t s d u r i n g t h e I I , t h e p r e and  p o s t war  g r e a t e r dependence on average  price  differences  While period  indicate  c o c o a as t h e r e s u l t  a  prices.  of the  i t may  be  concluded that  Ghana's p u r c h a s i n g revenue  profits  In this  respect,  Ghana i s an  and, f o r  to  cocoa  excellent  ' s t a p l e ' t h e s i s of. e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t  by J . Sheehan.10 expansion  War  significantly  m a t t e r , t h e w h o l e 'economy o f Ghana a r e a l l t i e d  example  outlined  j n Ghana e c o n o m i c g r o w t h has d e p e n d e d on  o f one  i n d u s t r y and t h e  i n t o new  producing units.  p r o c e s s t h o r o u g h l y i n two  y e a r s by t h e p o s t - w a r  Polly Hill  article s .  as a g a i n s t t h e  of t r a d e f o r cocoa.  booming, t h e p r o b l e m money r a t h e r t h a n how  discusses this  1 1  i n Ghana i n r e c e n t  p r e - w a r improvement i n  As l o n g as t h e c o c o a t r a d e  o f t h e Ghana government was t o get i t .  rapid'  c o n t i n u e d p l o w i n g back o f i t s  E c o n o m i c g r o w t h has b e e n a s s i s t e d  terms  of World  of i t s g r e a t e r than  power, f o r e i g n exchange e a r n i n g s and government  c r o p s and  was  increase.9  In short  that  there  how  J . H. Mensah has  was t o spend  suggested  A i r t h e e s s e n t i a l e c o n o m i c f u n c t i o n s t h a t might have b e e n s e t i n a r e a l p l a n f o r e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p ment "were b e i n g p e r f o r m e d by t h e c o c o a boom. Employment was i n c r e a s i n g as t h e c o c o a money was "spent, government was c o l l e c t i n g more revenue"t h a n i t had t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n " t o spend, t h e b a l ance o f payments was so f a v o u r a b l e a s r e g u l a r l y t o generate' l a r g e unplanned accumulations o f external reserves.12  the that  Implications  o f t h e Impact o f Cocoa I n d u s t r y on Ghana's Economy  Unfortunately t h i s  favourable state  o f Ghana's  e c o n o m i c g r o w t h r e s u l t i n g f r o m c o c o a t r a d e h a s been changed by a collapse  o f t h e c o c o a boom andjalso b y extreme  i n t h e w o r l d market p r i c e f r o m £566 a t o n c . i . f .  f o r cocoa.  The p r i c e  fluctuations f o r c o c o a swung  i n J u l y 1954 t o £168 a t o n i n F e b r u a r y  1957,  a n d was b a c k a g a i n at•£318 a t o n i n December  World  prices  level  a p p r o x i m a t e l y £25 b e l o w t h e 1947-1959 a v e r a g e  Ghana c o c o a . breached drifted  s t o o d n e a r £225/ton L o n d o n when  January  I960  1961 saw t h e £200/ton l e v e l  1957.13  opened, a price for  seriously  and d u r i n g the  c o u r s e o f t h e month, L o n d o n  a s l o w a s £165.  T a b l e 19 shows w o r l d p r i c e  prices per t o n  a g a i n s t w o r l d p r o d u c t i o n f r o m 1949 t o 1961.  TABLE 1 9  WORLD PRICE PER TON AGAINST WORLD PRODUCTION  1949 Price  (£G)  1950 1951 1952 1953 1954  1955  190  208  285  301  287  467  302  731  752  301  642  787  771  794  Production  (1,000  long tons)  ^  1956  Price P r  1957  1958  (£G) 221 247 352 o d u c t i o n , (1,000 l o n g t o n s ) 836 891 768 Source:  1959 285'  I960  I96I  225  177  898 1,035 1,157  E c o n o m i c S u r v e y , 1961.  73 I t has been pointed out e a r l i e r that the Ghana government's a b i l i t y t o f i n a n c e current and c a p i t a l expenditures i s t i e d t o cocoa export d u t i e s and Ghana cocoa Marketing Board grants.  I t i s easy t o understand, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t whenever the  w o r l d cocoa p r i c e was  lowered, current incomes i n Ghana were  lowered a c c o r d i n g l y and economic growth was As f a r back as 1920,  affected.  d e p r e s s i o n c o n d i t i o n s which  had l a s t e d from the summer of 1920 1923  consequently  u n t i l the e a r l y months of  had compelled government o f f i c i a l s i n the then C o l o n i a l  Dependency of the Gold Coast t o reduce s t a f f and the estimated 1919-  expenditures of the Guggisberg Ten Year Development Plan  19291 . ^-  And even i n those e a r l y y e a r s , government o f f i c i a l s  always r e c o g n i z e d the danger However, i t was  had  of a one-crop economy.15  o n l y i n 1947  and i n 1962  that p o s i t i v e .  steps were taken t o c o n t r o l the e f f e c t s of f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the w o r l d p r i c e f o r cocoa on Ghana's economy, i z a t i o n was  Internally,  stabil-  a t t a i n e d by the c r e a t i o n o f the Cocoa Marketing  Board i n 1947.  The Board i s a s t a t u t o r y body e n t i r e l y respon-  s i b l e f o r the purchase and s a l e of Ghana's cocoa.  The  inter-  seasonal s t a b i l i z a t i o n p o l i c y f o l l o w e d by the Board from t o 1953  was  1947  i n f a c t an 'insurance' p o l i c y of b u i l d i n g up r e -  serves t o s u s t a i n the i n d u s t r y should p r i c e s c o l l a p s e as they d i d i n the  1930's.  Since  1953  s t a b i l i z i n g producer p r i c e s . p o l i c y c l e a r l y enough.  however, the p o l i c y was that of T a b l e s 20  and 21  demonstrate  this  74  TABLE 20  DISTRIBUTION OF COCOA EXPORT PROCEEDS (PERCENTAGES)  Producer  Marketing Board  Export ". duty;  Other  1919  42.0  58.0  1928  83.0  17.0  1930  86.0  14.0  1936  50.0  1939-40  63.2  1942-43  46.6  24.1  8.4  20.9  1945- 46  66.2  13.3  5-1  16.5  1946- 47  47.4  45.7  1.9  5.0  1947- 48  47.1  57.7  1.4  3.8  1946-49  87.9  4.4  6.0  1949- 50  47.1  38.4  6.8  .7.8  1950- 51  48.4  26.9  18.9  5.9  1951- 52  60.9  3-9  28.6  6.5  1952- 53  56.9  8.1  27.9  7".I  1953- 54  37.5  45.6  4.5  1954- 55  33.0  7-8  49.6'  4.6  1955- 56  66.9  (2.8)  27.9  8.0  1956-  78.7  23.6  9.1  41.0  6.9  57  1957- 5^ 1958-  59  .. ' SourceEconomic Bulletin  44.1  50.0 3.5  (.4)  " 12.5  (12.0) 8.0  9.2  24.1  43.1.9.4 - 35.2 7.3 R. H. Green, The Ghana Cocoa Industry; " May 1961, Vol. -5, Wo. 1, Table 5 (adapted)  75 TABLE 2 1  COCOA MARKETING A.  BOARD OPERATIONS 1947/1953  Trading Results G r o s s T r a d i n g P r o f i t s ..... Less T r a d i n g losses P l u s N o n - t r a d i n g Net  102,809,000 (8,225,000)  (15,633,000)  1102 , 220 , 00  T o t a l Surplus Earned B.  69,757,000  1953 R e s e r v e s Of W h i c h :  Stabilization'  ".  .".  44,893,000  G e n e r a l and T r a d i n g C.  16,015,000  Expenditure 1 947 1 - 953  246 , 740 , 00  Cocoa Industry"Development L o c a l Development Secondary-higher Education L o a n Department L o s s e s  7,351,000 3,320,000  14 , 250 , 00  - "Source: R. H. G r e e n , The Ghana Cocoa I n d u s t r y , E c o n o m i c B u l l e t i n , May 1961, V o l . 5, No. 1, Table 6 (adapted).  In  essence  t h e g e n e r a l p o l i c y was d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e l o n g t e r m  h o r i z o n s f o r t h e g r o w e r and t h u s a s s i s t power and d o m e s t i c  price  of  1953 been p e g g e d a t 72/-.  c o c o a has s i n c e  levels.  i n controlling  The p r o d u c e r p r i c e  purchasing  of a load  I n 1959, t h i s  p r i c e was l o w e r e d t o 60/- a l o a d t o p r o v i d e a ' v o l u n t a r y c o n tribution' in  Ghana.  from t h e cocoa farmer towards  economic  development  76 Externally unfavourable  effect  s i n c e 1947.  The  marketing  boards  deterioration countries.  load,  price  l e v e l has  i n the balance  I n h i s budget  l o s i n g between £ 8  causing a  to Parliament  million  a year.  depend on  of cocoa  producers,  As  Marketing  scheme has  be t i e d  a result,  was "the  b e i n g wj r k e d out  automatically to a  a l l k i n d s o f problems; o f s u p p l y and  i m p o s i t i o n o f a quota  amount o f c o c o a Board w i l l  million".16  an i n t e r n a t i o n a l  basic rules  still  scheme f u r t h e r m o r e  turers  the Board  and a rests  price  association  t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Cocoa C o u n c i l .  example, s t o p t h e  the  £3:12s a  a r e b e i n g made t o f i n d  scheme now  a d e c i s i o n by  s C u r t a i l i n g e x p o r t s by  The  The  quota which w i l l not  but w i l l  limit  the farmer  Group o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s F o o d  s o l u t i o n to the problem.  for  1962,  i n October  t o pay t o Government t h e f a r m e r s ' v o l u n t a r y  A g r i c u l t u r a l O r g a n i z a t i o n , attempts  • The  producing  r e p o r t e d t h a t as t h e Ghana C o c o a  o f t h e w o r l d market p r i c e , t o £10  lowest  on l o s s t h u s  under o b l i g a t i o n t o pay  Through a Study  sales  an  organized  c o n t r i b u t i o n f o r d e v e l o p m e n t a m o u n t i n g t o £8  . on  had  centrally  o f payments o f t h e  speech  of Finance  B o a r d was  unable  caused  o r companies t o o p e r a t e  irrespective  B o a r d was  p r o d u c t i o n has  on p r i c e s w h i c h have f a l l e n t o t h e i r  low  t h e Ghana M i n i s t e r Marketing  increased world  i t does  not,  demand,  does not  in itself  grown f o r w h i c h t h e Ghana C o c o a c o n t i n u e t o pay t h e  does not  promised  s t o p c o c o a d e a l e r s and  i n consuming c o u n t r i e s f r o m  protecting their  prices. manufac-  interests  against and  an  o r g a n i z a t i o n of producers.  manufacturers  whose aim  i s to  have f o r m e d an  support  status of the world What had impact run,  o f cocoa  Ghana w i l l  on  the  price  present  unstable  been c l e a r  from  Ghana's economy, i s t h e  Development  part  i s concerned  British i n the  colonial second  planning  from  came i n t o  is essentially  s o c i a l , "economic and  has  local  1919  has  i g n o r e d p l a n n i n g and  levels.  f o r export  the long  export  earnings  o f Ghana  t o 1927  and  power i n 1951,  has  of  also  o f Ghana  p a r t s : The  development p l a n s i n i t i a t e d  physical  p l a n n i n g f o r development and  cocoa  development p l a n s  concerned  i n Ghana t o d a t e  and  that i n the  o n l y c r o p s but  T h i s i s done i n two  w i t h the rule  fact  from  1944  p a r t •, t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s drawn by t h e  Government w h i c h section  Plans  s e c t i o n the  evaluated.  character  the f o r e g o i n g a n a l y s i s  o r d e r t o l e s s e n t h e d e p e n d e n c e on i needed t o p a y f o r i m p o r t s .  a n a l y z e d and  dealers  f o r cocoa.17  have t o d i v e r s i f y n o t  In t h i s  cocoa  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Cocoa F e d e r a t i o n  in  The  Already  with  failed  are first  under to  1953;  African  are d i s c u s s e d .  The  showing t h a t development to achieve  development concentrated development  i n the  a  balanced country  at the n a t i o n a l  because level  a t t h e r e g i o n a l and  78 C o l o n i a l Development Plans o f t h e Gold Coa st During the e n t i r e p e r i o d o f C o l o n i a l r u l e i n Ghana, b e g i n n i n g March 7th.  1844 t o March 7th. 1957, the o n l y develop-  ment plans worthy o f mention are the Guggisberg Ten Year Development P l a n  1 9 1 9 1 -9 2 9  and the A l a n Burns General P l a n f o r  the Development o f the Gold Coast,  19441 - 953.  S i r Gordon Guggisberg was appointed Governor o f the Gold Coast at the end o f the F i r s t World War. i n Accra i n October 1919,  On h i s a r r i v a l  he o u t l i n e d i n a Ten Year Development  P l a n what he hoped t o accomplish d u r i n g t h e 1919-1929 decade. His main o b j e c t x^as 'the g e n e r a l progress o f the people o f the Gold Coast towards a h i g h e r s t a t e o f c i v i l i z a t i o n and the keystone o f t h e p r o g r e s s i s education'.18  Since schools and o t h e r  necessary s o c i a l s e r v i c e s were very c o s t l y and brought  i n no  f i n a n c i a l r e t u r n s , Guggisberg t h o u g h t - i t would be necessary t o i n c r e a s e the revenue o f the country by improved  and extended  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems which would open up new areas t o the world market and reduce f r e i g h t r a t e s on both exported and imported goods. diture of  H i s Ten Year Plan t h e r e f o r e c a l l e d f o r an expen-  £ 2 4 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0  existing surplus o f  which was t o be obtained from l o a n s , an  £ 1 2 ,5 0 0 ,0 0  and i n c r e a s e d revenue r e s u l t i n g  from p r o g r e s s o f the development projects.19  In 1 9 2 0 and 1 9 2 5  r e s p e c t i v e l y , the new Governor made l o a n s i n London f o r  £ 4 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0  at 6% i n t e r e s t and £4,628,000 at kh%-  r e t a i n e d the t a x on cocoa, f i r s t  20  H  e  a  i  s  o  levied i n 1 9 1 6 as a war measure,  i n order t o provide f i n a n c e f o r h i s Ten Year P l a n .  79 Much o f the Ten Year P l a n was d i r e c t e d towards the improvement and e x t e n s i o n o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , education and health services.  19  I n 1919, there were i n the Gold Coast,  government s c h o o l s , 194 u n a s s i s t e d ones; 12 , 00  a s s i s t e d M i s s i o n schools and some m i l e s o f road and some 300  road; and v e r y few h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s .  400  miles of r a i l -  One o f h i s f i r s t  acts  when he a r r i v e d i n the Gold Coast was t o set up a committee t o study the e d u c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n i n the country. speech i n  1919,  he s e t a s i d e  £ 5 4 0 ,0 0  I n h i s budget  f o r educational.-purposes  and o u t l i n e d s i x t e e n p r i n c i p l e s which w o u l d g u i d e h i s educational policy.  Among these  p r i n c i p l e s were the n e c e s s i t y o f  improved t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g , w e l l - s t a f f e d and equipped secondary, s c h o o l s , equal o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r boys and g i r l s ,  more s t r e s s  on trade schools and t r a i n i n g i n a g r i c u l t u r e and h a n d i c r a f t s r a t h e r than e x c l u s i v e a t t e n t i o n t o l i t e r a r y s u b j e c t s , the value of games and Scout methods, and above a l l , the absolute n e c e s s i t y o f c h a r a c t e r training.21  Outstanding  among h i s e d u c a t i o n a l  plans was the s e t t i n g up o f the P r i n c e o f Wi-.les C o l l e g e at Achimota which, when completed i n 1931 was regarded  at the cost o f £617,000,  not only as b r i n g i n g t o r e a l i t y h i s e d u c a t i o n a l  p r i n c i p l e s but a l s o as one o f the best p u b l i c schools i n A f r i c a . Between 1919  and 1927,  major extensions were made i n  t r a n s p o r t and communications; a harbour was b u i l t at Takoradi at the  cost o f  £3,230,912;  miles at the cost o f  the r a i l w a y s were extended f o r 233 more  £ 5 9 ,4 8 0 ,0 0  and about  33 , 38  miles of  a d d i t i o n a l new roads were c o n s t r u c t e d throughout the country.  Telephone  andtelegraph  the f i e l d  o f s a n i t a t i o n and  for  the  was  1927  Researhc  hospital  i n A c c r a was  Guggisberg  Institute  increased.  and  In  2 2  Plan projected  i n Accra;  eighteen  twenty d i s p e n s a r i e s throughout  when t h e h o s p i t a l  £254,000.  were a l s o  h e a l t h , t h e Ten Year  construction of a large  s m a l l e r h o s p i t a l s and In  facilities  completed,  the  country.  i t s total  cost  a l s o b u d g e t e d f o r an e n l a r g e d M e d i c a l  f o r infant welfare.  e s t i m a t e s f o r f u r t h e r w a t e r s u p p l y and  There  were  hydro-electric  also develop-  ments.  When G u g g i s b e r g  left  h i s governorship i n 19 7,  the  2  bulk o f the Ten Year  P l a n was  in total  o f £24,000,000 t o £ 1 6 , 6 4 5 , 8 4 8 w h i c h became  expenditure  n e c e s s a r y as annual  i n 1920-1923-  work, i t was  2 3  be  p r o d u c t i o n o f 106,072 t o n s During the  cocoa  i n d u s t r y from  net-  the  (1916-1928) t o 218,895 t o n s  p e r i o d 1931  t o 1934  the production  was  2  Guggisberg  P l a n , some c o n c l u s i o n s  drawn f r o m t h i s r a t h e t ? e a r l y a t t e m p t  the f i r s t  as  consisting  two  average  tons. 4  In  period  The  With i n c r e a s e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  Looking back at the may  f o r the reduction  1920-1923 d e p r e s s i o n .  p o s s i b l e t o expand t h e  (1926-1930). 236,088  of the  except  r e v e n u e r o s e f r o m £ 1 , 6 3 5 , 6 5 0 between 1913-1919 t o  £3,829,705  average  a result  completed  p l a c e , Guggisberg of s o c i a l  and  regarded  planning.  p a l n n i n g f o r development  e c o n o m i c a s p e c t s ; and t h r o u g h o u t  o f t h e p l a n , he made e v e r y e f f o r t , t o  aspects of development.  at development  He  strengthen.these  can t h e r e f o r e be  regarded  as  the  l a y i n g t h e f o u n d a t i o n s as w e l l as s e t t i n g t h e p a t t e r n f o r f u r t h e r economic growth.  His farsighted educational  p o l i c y c a n n o t be  over-emphasized.  He seemed, however, t o have u n d e r e s t i m a t e d t h e r e p e r cussions  o f an e x t e n d e d r o a d and r a i l w a y  physical features  o f the country.  on t h e  W h i l e t h e new t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  n e t w o r k made p o s s i b l e t h e f u r t h e r therefore  construction  spread  o f cocoa f a r m s , and  made a v a i l a b l e more r e v e n u e f o r d e v e l o p m e n t , i t p r e -  m a t u r e l y e n c o u r a g e d t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f many o f t h e f o r e s t s o f the  rain belt.  t a t i o n it  I t h a s been s u g g e s t e d t h a t  a t t h e t i m e was a b o u t  i s true that  300 s q u a r e m i l e s  session ting  Forestry  was  Although  Bill  i n 1927 t h a t  he i n t r o d u c e d I n t h e 1924  t o d e a l w i t h t h e problem.  the V o l t a t o provide  a  electricity  of for  construcprocessing  discussed.  A second  observation  Guggisberg Ten Year Plan  that  i s that  may be made a b o u t t h e  by i n t r o d u c i n g  ment p l a n , G u g g i s b e r g made d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n o f t h e C e n t r a l Government. was  a year!'  of the L e g i s l a t i v e Council, the p o s s i b i l i t y  a dam a c r o s s  bauxite  of defores-  G u g g i s b e r g made e f f o r t s t h r o u g h t h e c h i e f s t o  c h e c k t h e d e v e l o p m e n t , i t was o n l y a formal  the rate  t o d e l i b e r a t e l y exclude  participating and  trade.  his  immediate  develop-  an e s s e n t i a l  The e f f e c t o f s u c h a s y s t e m  a l l foreign private  i n the function  a formal  o f development  investors  except  from  i n commerce  S u c h a s y s t e m w o u l d have b e e n p e r f e c t l y a l r i g h t i f successors  had f o l l o w e d  up t h e T e n Y e a r P l a n  with  82  another one.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s was not the case u n t i l  when S i r A l a n Burn i n t r o d u c e d h i s General P l a n f o r the  1944 Develop-  ment o f the Gold C o a s t . The the  1944 P l a n which covered p r a c t i c a l l y every phase o f  s o c i a l and economic l i f e  i n the Gold C o a s t , envisaged a  t o t a l expenditure o f £ 5 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 w i t h i n the coming f i v e  years.  The p l a n was t o be f i n a n c e d from the r e s e r v e funds o f the Gold Coast w h i c h i n 1943 amounted t o £ 2 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 ;  from annual revenue  which averaged £ 5 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 t o £ 6 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 by 1946 and from a C o l o n i a l Development Grant o f £ 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 . ment o u t l i n e d f o r the  Much o f the  develop-  f i v e year p l a n 1944-1948, was t o have been  c a r r i e d out immediately, but war-time shortages of both s t a f f and m a t e r i a l s h e l d up many o f the p r o j e c t s and continued to do so even a f t e r the war. The of  1944 p l a n s t a t e s t h a t one o f the most urgent needs  the Gold Coast was r e h o u s i n g e s p e c i a l l y  i n the l a r g e r towns  where e a r l i e r developments  and war-time a c t i v i t i e s  c e n t r a t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n .  I n 1943,  l e d t o a con-  a f o u r year p l a n i n v o l v i n g  an expenditure o f £ 8 0 0 , 0 0 0 was begun f o r the towns o f A c c r a , Kumasi and T a k o r a d i - S e k o n d i .  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s work, a g e n e r a l  Town and Country P l a n n i n g Board w i t h European and A f r i c a n members was i n a u g u r a t e d .  P r o v i s i o n f o r l o c a l boards was a l s o made so  t h a t v i l l a g e development and rehousing schemes could be under the guidance of t r a i n e d  experts.  As a r e s u l t o f p e r s i s t e n t Government about the  complaints t o the  Colonial  dangers o f a one-crop economy,25 the  Gold  Coast Government i n a u g u r a t e d i n 1 9 4 5 an I n d u s t r i a l Development Board, the purpose o f which was t o give f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and t e c h n i c a l a i d to A f r i c a n s i n o r d e r t o promote secondary manufacturing industries.  The g e n e r a l development  plans f o r strengthening e x i s t i n g  cooperative  scheme i n c l u d e d societies.  end a Department o f C o o p e r a t i o n was set up i n 1944.  To t h i s  I t was the  b e l i e f o f the government t h a t through such u n i t e d a c t i o n ,  the  A f r i c a n s c o u l d b r i n g up s t r o n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s which would s t i m u late  l o c a l development and put them i n a p o s i t i o n t o  w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d European f i r m s . increased a c t i v i t i e s 1938,  The 1944 P l a n a l s o c a l l e d f o r  o f the Labour Department, e s t a b l i s h e d  i n o r d e r t o s t i m u l a t e t r a d e unionism and  bargaining.  compete w i t h  collective  Plans were a l s o being made ff or r u r a l and urban  improvements t h r o u g h modernized a g r i c u l t u r a l s t o c k - r a i s i n g methods and b e t t e r marketing  facilities.26  The Gold Coast Government , f u r t h e r m o r e , i n  1943  f i n a n c e d w i t h a grant o f £ 1 2 7 , 0 0 0 from C o l o n i a l Development Fund, the establishment Industries,  Arts,  o f the West A f r i c a n I n s t i t u t e  and S o c i a l S c i e n c e s .  Its  of  purpose was:  . . . t o conduct r e s e a r c h and experiment i n secondary i n d u s t r i e s and the t r a i n i n g o f A A f r i c a n s f o r management o f these i n d u s t r i e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h the connected s o c i o l o g i c a l and e c o n o m i c " i n v e s t i g a t i o n s necessary f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the c o n d i t i o n s i n which l o c a l i n d u s t r i e s can be d e v e l o p e d . 2 7  since  84  The I n s t i t u t e  was centered i n the Gold Coast although i t  was  intended t o serve a l l the B r i t i s h West A f r i c a n c o l o n i e s .  Under  the l e a d e r s h i p o f Herman Meyerowitz, i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were made concerning the r e v i v a l o r modernization o f n a t i v e possible  establishment  o f new i n d u s t r i e s .  among other t h i n g s , t i l e , c o t t o n and t e x t i l e  c r a f t and the  The I n s t i t u t e  fostered,  b r i c k and p o t t e r y m a n u f a c t u r i n g , and  i n d u s t r y i n the Gold C o a s t .  Unfortunately,  w i t h the death of Meyerowitz i n 1945 the I n s t i t u t e  came t o a  s t a n d s t i l l and has not been r e v i v e d s i n c e . The 1944 P l a n made schemes f o r i n c r e a s e d harbour and a i r service f a c i l i t i e s ,  f o r g e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h , f o r the  expan-  s i o n o f water s u p p l i e s and e l e c t r i c p l a n t s and f o r extended c i a l services  especially  i n the f i e l d s  so-  o f education and h e a l t h .  2 8  A 500-bed c e n t r a l h o s p i t a l was p r o j e c t e d f o r Kumasi and a l a r g e new h o s p i t a l i n the T a k o r a d i - S e k o n d i a r e a .  I n a d d i t i o n , the  p l a n c a l l e d f o r f o u r t e e n more d i s t r i c t h o s p i t a l s ;  f o r a mental  h o s p i t a l c o n s t r u c t e d on modern l i n e s t o r e p l a c e : the u n s a t i s f a c t o r y one; f o r the establishment service;  o f a s c h o o l medical  f o r f i n a n c i a l a i d t o proposed m i s s i o n a r y l e p e r  ments and f o r both c u r a t i v e and p r e v e n t i v e campaigns diseases.  existing  settle-  against  The p l a n a l s o made p r o v i s i o n s f o r i n c r e a s e d govern-  ment medical s c h o l a r s h i p s and f o r t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s f o r  nurses. 9 2  F o l l o w i n g a r e p o r t submitted by an e d u c a t i o n a l survey committee  (1937-41), the p l a n proposed, i n a g e n e r a l way,  expand primary and secondary s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s ,  to  t o provide more  85 t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g c o l l e g e s and t o develop a system f o r adult l i t e r a c y .  increased  The government i n a d d i t i o n inaugurated f i n a n c i a l  a s s i s t a n c e t o s a t i s f a c t o r y n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s c h o o l s and a C e n t r a l E d u c a t i o n Committee and D i s t r i c t E d u c a t i o n Committees o f both A f r i c a n and European members whose aim was t o educational expansion.30  encourage  S i n c e h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n was a l r e a d y  being s t u d i e d by the E l l i o t  Commission appointed by t h e  British  Government, the 1944 P l a n made no p r o v i s i o n s as such f o r u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n but i t professional  i n c r e a s e d government s c h o l a r s h i p s  and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g , i n B r i t i s h  W i t h improved f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n s ,  for  universities. e s p e c i a l l y with a  grant o f £3,500,000 from the B r i t i s h C o l o n i a l Fund, A l a n Burns drew up a more ambitious p l a n i n 1946 on a t e n year b a s i s . whole p l a n i n v o l v e d an expenditure o f £10,000,000.  The  In a d d i t i o n  t o the new p l a n , the Governor a l s o i n t r o d u c e d a new C o n s t i t u t i o n f o r the Gold Coast which came i n t o e f f e c t  i n 1946.  He thought  t h a t the new L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l t o be e l e c t e d under the 1946 C o n s t i t u t i o n should not be committed ahead o f time t o a completely prepared development  plan.  However, general p r o p o s a l s f o r f i n a n -  c i n g the p l a n were made as f o l l o w s :  £3,500,000 from C o l o n i a l  Development Fund; £4,000,000 from a Government Loan; and £2,500,000 t o £3,000,000 from the Gold Coast Reserve F u n d s . 3 1 In 1950 the  Burns' Ten Year P l a n was a g a i n r e v i s e d  under a new g o v e r n o r , S i r Charles Arden C l a r k .  During the 1950  s p r i n g s e s s i o n , the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l made p l a n s f o r a budget  86 of  £20,624,078, f o r a f u l l e r d e v e l o p m e n t plan.32  £ 2 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0  was-earmarked f o r the  rehabilitation  w h i c h had  b e e n a t t a c k e d by & s w o l l e n  was  devoted  to  ture  be  tract  for  c o n s t r u c t i o n and  £4,000,000; i n  received  £ 1 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0  to road  was  set  the  field  a s i d e f o r a new  £ 2 3 ,0 0 0 ,0 0  was  shoot  signed  this  o f cocoa  railways.  hospital  amount, farms  £ 8 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0  disease.  of h e a l t h  f o r the  Of  Agricul-  services,  i n Kumasi and  enlargement  of  con-  Takoradi  Harbour.  O t h e r e c o n o m i c p r o j e c t s c o n s i d e r e d by t h e lative  C o u n c i l i n c l u d e d t h e V o l t a Dam  ment P l a n u n d e r - t h e 1949,  scheme, t h e  Gonga Development  Development  of the  C o r p o r a t i o n was  to f o s t e r undertakings year,  an I n d u s t r i a l  stimulate  the  Gold  Company e s t a b l i s h e d i n  Coast.  a l s o s e t up  An  c r e a t i o n o f new  i n 1949  and  Committee was  i n d u s t r i e s and  i n the  Agricultural  of large-scale production.  Development  Legis-  Gonga D e v e l o p -  t o f o s t e r l a r g e - s c a l e mechanized a g r i c u l t u r e  northern t e r r i t o r i e s  1950  empowered In the  same  established to to  develop  existing  ones. Before o f development Sir  m a k i n g some g e n e r a l  p l a n n i n g t h a t went on  A l a n B u r n s and  refer to Coast  another  i n the  late  o b s e r v a t i o n s about t h e governorship  of  S i r Charles Arden C l a r k , i t i s worthwhile  to  constitutional  1940's s i n c e  development p l a n n i n g  i n Ghana.  i n t r o d u c e d t o r e p l a c e the  1946  during the  type  change t h a t o c c u r r e d i t has I n 1951,  a direct a new  constitution.  i n the  bearing  on  constitution The  first  Gold  was  general  87 e l e c t i o n s were h e l d i n February o f t h a t year and r e s u l t e d i n a v i c t o r y f o r D r . Kwame Nkrumah and h i s Convention P e o p l e ' s In the new government Nkrumah and f i v e of  Party.  o t h e r members  h i s p a r t y were made the M i n i s t e r s o f Health and Labour; o f  E d u c a t i o n and S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; o f Communication and Works; of A g r i c u l t u r e and N a t u r a l Resources; o f Commerce, I n d u s t r y and Mines and o f L o c a l Government. External Affairs,  The p o r t f o l i o s o f  Defence,  t h e C i v i l S e r v i c e , Finance and J u s t i c e were,  however, r e t a i n e d by the B r i t i s h C h i e f S e c r e t a r y , the S e c r e t a r y and the  Financial  Attorney-General.  I t was the new Nkrumah government which led- the Gold Coast t o independence on the 7 t h . o f March, 1957. the  On t h a t day  country was renamed Ghana a f t e r one o f the a n c i e n t Sudanic  Empires which f l o u r i s h e d between the f o u r t h and t e n t h On the f i r s t o f J u l y ,  centuries.  I 9 6 0 , Ghana became a R e p u b l i c w i t h i n t h e  Commonwealth. Between 1951 and 1961, the Nkrumah a d m i n i s t r a t i o n drew up three Development P l a n s :  the F i r s t Development Plan  1953-1957; the C o n s o l i d a t i o n Development P l a n 1957-1959 and the Second Development P l a n 1959-1964.33 plans,  Before d i s c u s s i n g these  c e r t a i n g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s may now be made about  c o l o n i a l development p l a n n i n g as gleaned from the  development  p l a n s i n i t i a t e d under Alan Burns and C h a r l e s Arden C l a r k .  88 Development p l a n n i n g became more and more the o f the  c e n t r a l government,  both under Burns, and C l a r k .  attempts were made d u r i n g the d i v e r s i f y the  economy by the  1943_ West A f r i c a n I n s t i t u t e Science,  function Some  p e r i o d o f the two governors setting  to  up o f such bodies as  of I n d u s t r i e s ,  the  A r t s and S o c i a l ,  the 1945 I n d u s t r i a l Development. B o a r d , the 1 9 4 9 Gonga  Development Company, the A g r i c u l t u r a l Development o f Cooperat i v e s and Labour movements.. of these agencies,  Apart from the l a t e i n t r o d u c t i o n  i n s p i t e o f the p e r s i s t e n t  African l e a d e r s a n d  i n s p i t e o f the  adverse  warnings from effect  D e p r e s s i o n o f the 1930*s on the o n e - c r o p economy,  it  of  the  must be  admitted t h a t t h e s e agencies a c h i e v e d v e r y l i t t l e , toward d i v e r s i f y i n g the  economy.  Furthermore., the mere. f o s t e r i n g o f c o o p e r a t i v e  move-  ments, w i t h the view t o p l a c i n g , them. i n . a p o s i t i o n i n which t h e y can compete w i t h European f i r m s i n t r a d e and commerce, does not. h e l p i n any s u b s t a n t i a l , way toward encouraging -the ment o f new i n d u s t r i e s .  Its  develop-  o n l y achievement, l i e s i n encourag-  i n g the emergence, o f s e v e r a l s m a l l t r a d e r s who have f a i l e d , except i n a v e r y few c a s e s , t o  compete w i t h t h e European f i r m s  in trade. I t would appear however t h a t d u r i n g the p e r i o d of Burns and C l a r k , t h e r e was some attempt made t o encourage development  of c e r t a i n planning i n s t i t u t i o n s  and Country P l a n n i n g Board and i t s  the  such as t h e Town  l o c a l boards t o  deal.with  89 v i l l a g e development  and the  housing problems r e s u l t i n g , from over  c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n at some few urban c e n t e r s .  However,  t h e s e attempts can o n l y be regarded as the mere beginnings p l a n n i n g f o r balanced s o c i a l , economic and p h y s i c a l because most o f these e f f o r t s  were s t i l l e s s e n t i a l l y  n a t i o n a l l e v e l o f p l a n n i n g and v e r y l i t t l e and none at a l l . a t  the r e g i o n a l  of  development at  a t the l o c a l  the level  level.  N a t i o n a l Development Plans, .of Gold Coast/Ghana The new Government t h a t  came i n t o power i n . 1 9 5 1 ,  did  not o n l y i n h e r i t a one-crop economy, which was yet t o be d i v e r s i f i e d i n terms, o f new. manufacturing, i n d u s t r i e s , Government, i t planning.  also inherited the  With t h i s  b u t , as a C e n t r a l  responsibility for  responsibility,  it  development  has. always been the  d e c l a r e d aim. o f D r . Nkrumah. and ..his Government t o t r a n s f o r m the economy created by c o l o n i a l , r u l e i n order t o c r e a t e the means f o r the good: l i f e , and enjoy the f r u i t s o f h i s l a b o u r and r a i s e "the. economic arid s o c i a l standards o f the p e o p l e . T h i s aim w i l l be a c h i e v e d by a s e r i e s o f f i v e - y e a r p l a n s , . . . b y our own hand work, by the use o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , and by encouraging investment i n Ghana t o give us a standard o f l i v i n g which W i l l , a b o l i s h d i s e a s e , p o v e r t y and i l l i t e r a c y , g i v e bur people ample food"and good"housing, arid l e t us advance c o n f i d e n t l y as a n a t i o n . We want t o develop s t r o n g b a s i c s e r v i c e s - communications,^ power and. water -. so t h a t we can: p r o v i d e a r e a l and e f f e c t i v e foundat i o n o f the i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n o f our country and d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n o f our a g r i c u l t u r e on which i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , a l l our p l a n s depend.35 I n a more r e c e n t  statement, D r . Nkrumah s a i d :  We must develop Ghana e c o n o m i c a l l y , s o c i a l l y , culturally, spiritually,"educationally, techn o l o g i c a l l y and o t h e r w i s e , and produce i t as  a f i n i s h e d product o f a f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d both exemplary and i n s p i r i n g . 3 6 In  the - f i n a l a n a l y s i s  h i s aim..is  life,  the  c r e a t i o n o f a w e l f a r e s t a t e based u p o n . A f r i c a n s o c i a l i s t p r i n c i p l e s , adapted t o s u i t ' G h a n a i a n c o n d i t i o n s , i n which a l l c i t i z e n s , r e g a r d l e s s Of c l a s s , t r i b e , c o l o u r or" creed,, s h a l l have equal o p p o r t u n i t y and where t h e r e s h a l l be no e x p l o i t a t i o n o f man by man, t r i b e by t r i b e , — or c l a s s by class".... ."~ Our u l t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e i s the c r e a t i o n o f a s o c i a l i s t : s o c i e t y , - f o r we believe." t h a t o n l y i n . such..a s o c i e t y w i l l our people, have :the o p p o r t u n i t y o f making: maximum c o n t r i b u t i o n " t o t h e " w e l f a r e , happiness and p r o s p e r i t y o f our s o c i e t y as a whole.37 Most o f these, a i m s . a r e q u i t e i n s p i r i n g but s i n c e the planning i n s t i t u t i o n s  handed, over, f r o m c o l o n i a l r u l e were  r e l a t i v e l y , at t h e i r e a r l y stages., o f development., t h a t the f i r s t  few. development  i t was n a t u r a l  p l a n s of. the new Government  should, l a c k , the t r a i t s , o f modern development . p l a n n i n g methods. Throughout the t h r e e  development  p l a n s p r o v i d e d by the  a t y p i c a l c o l o n i a l p a t t e r n o f development discerned.  new regime  p l a n n i n g method can be  Before, o u t l i n i n g t h i s method, a b r i e f summary may be  g i v e n o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e .stT-nr.tnre o f Ghana i n so f a r as h e l p s t o throw l i g h t  on the  c o l o n i a l method., o f  it  development  planning. The  R e p u b l i c o f Ghana has as the H e a d . o f  State,  Osagyefo, the President.,i w h c . h a s . r e s p o h s i b i l i t y f o r the Armed F o r c e s , the P o l i c e S e r v i c e and the. Budget Bureau. Defence  S t a f f and, the  Commissioner o f P o l i c e , are d i r e c t l y  r e s p o n s i b l e t o the. P r e s i d e n t . S e c r e t a r i a t which i s  The...Chief o f  In a d d i t i o n to a P r e s i d e n t i a l  responsible; f o r other Government f u n c t i o n s  ADMINISTRATIVE  Com .li-liD ow n *f"dGh fh 'i.a at ly h tep W v y ro n  ,91 not s p e c i a l l y  allocated  t o M i n i s t e r s , t h e r e are twelve M i n i s t r i e s  and e l e v e n S t a t u t o r y Boards and C o r p o r a t i o n s . The P r e s i d e n t i a l  Secretariat  i s responsible  Parliamentary Business; M i n i s t e r i a l function Public Service,  Civil  Regions o f Ghana (see organization,  Service, figure  Universities  Assistance,  i n . respect of  V o l t a R i v e r A u t h o r i t y , the  2 following  page 9 0 )  the  nine  and.their  arid H i g h e r - E d u c a t i o n , C o u n c i l f o r  Higher E d u c a t i o n and Research, of Sciences, Scholarships,  for  Atomic, E n e r g y , , the  Ghana Academy  Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , T e c h n i c a l  Ghana Supply Commission, Census Bureau, Budget  Bureau, the N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, S t a t e Secretariat  and A f r i c a n A f f a i r s Bureau.  Functions  The twelve Cabinet  M i n i s t r i e s are i n charge o f A g r i c u l t u r e ; C o n s t r u c t i o n and Communications; Defence; Education.; Finance and T r a d e ; F o r e i g n Affairs;  H e a l t h ; Information and B r o a d c a s t i n g ;  Lbour and S o c i a l . A f f a i r s ; and I n d u s t r i e s .  Interior;  The. S t a t u t o r y  Justice; Boards  and C o r p o r a t i o n s a r e : U n i t e d Ghana Farmers' C o u n c i l ; Ghana T i m ber Marketing B o a r d ; Ghana A g r i c u l t u r a l Produce Marketing. Board; N a t i o n a l . C o u n c i l o f Ghana Women,;, N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l of Ghana; Ghana Academy o f S c i e n c e s ; Ghana. Housing C o r p o r a t i o n ; Ghana Airways; L i b r a r y S e r v i c e s and. Ghana F i l m P r o d u c t i o n Corporation. Under each o f the twelve Cabinet M i n i s t r i e s t h e r e are Departments  and D i v i s i o n s .  The M i n i s t r y of C o n s t r u c t i o n and  Communications f o r example, has twelve departments under  its  92  c o n t r o l ; these are: d i v i s i o n of Public Construction, E l e c t r i c i t y D i v i s i o n , Land D i v i s i o n , Town and Country P l a n n i n g . D i v i s i o n , Water S u p p l i e s  D i v i s i o n , Department  of C i v i l A v i a t i o n ,  Railways and Harbour A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , T e l e communications., ment T r a n s p o r t Department,  Meteorological.Department,  Shipping L i n e and N a u t i c a l  Govern-  National  College.  The f u n c t i o n s o f Town and Country P l a n n i n g . . D i v i s i o n o f the M i n i s t r y o f C o n s t r u c t i o n and. Communications are  of.direct  r e l e v a n c e t o the present s t u d y .  outline  these f u n c t i o n s , b r i e f l y *  It  i s . necessary t o  The main f u n c t i o n o f the Town and  Country.Planning D i v i s i o n i s  i n t h e . ^ i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f Govern-  ment . Development Scheme s«.38  T h i s c o n s i s t s e f the drawing up  o f d e t a i l e d p l a n n i n g schemes, f o r c e r t a i n , towns, i n Ghana. I960, the  By  D i v i s i o n had drawn up town-plans f o r A c c r a , Kumasi,  T a k o r a d i - S e k o n d i , Gape C o a s t , S u n y a n i , K o f o r i d u a ,  Bolgatanga,  and Mampong, and o t h e r s are being prepared f o r Tamale, Ho, andthe A b u r i Escarpment..  Sechi,  In. a d d i t i o n seventy plans.have  been drawn up f o r s m a l l e r towns and v i l l a g e s . The D i v i s i o n a l s o processes development through, i t s  planning., committees..  applications  By I960, these committees  e x c e r e i s e d Development C o n t r o l by p r o c e s s i n g over 2,000 d e v e l o p ment a p p l i c a t i o n s .  Model b u i l d i n g r e g u l a t i o n s were p u b l i s h e d by  the D i v i s i o n i n I960 and d i s t r i b u t e d t o a l l M u n i c i p a l , and Urban Councils for t h e i r  adoption.  93 Ghana has nine a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g i o n s as shown i n F i g u r e 2 following.-^-These  are. the Western, C e n t r a l , E a s t e r n ,  and. Northern R e g i o n s , the V o l t a Region, the A s h a n t i R e g i o n ,  the  Brong-Ahafo R e g i o n , , the Upper Region .and .the. A c c r a D i s t r i c t . E a c h Region has a R e g i o n a l Commissioner who i s d i r e c t l y i b l e , to Osagyefo,  the P r e s i d e n t .  d i v i d e d i n t o D i s t r i c t s under the sioner.  respons-  E i g h t o f the Regions are c o n t r o l of a. D i s t r i c t Commis-  The D i s t r i c t s have as. a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s :  the  M u n i c i p a l , Urban, and L o c a l C o u n c i l s which, a r e . r e s p o n s i b l e t h e i r respective  Regional.Commissioners..  to  Furthermore, some o f  the Departments o f the twelve Cabinet M i n i s t r i e s , have-Regional o f f i c e s i n the r e g i o n s .  The D i v i s i o n . o f Town, and Country P l a n -  n i n g o f the M i n i s t r y of. C o n s t r u c t i o n and Communication, f o r instance,  has r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s  head o f f i c e  i n seven o f the r e g i o n s . a n d a  in Accra.  The C o l o n i a l P a t t e r n . o f nav^i r^mor* Planning: I t was p o i n t e d out, e a r l i e r t h a t t h e new Government which came i n t o , power i n . 1951 i n h e r i t e d a t y p i c a l - c o l o n i a l p a t t e r n o f development  planning.  Under t h i s p a t t e r n ,  ment p l a n c o n s i s t s e s s e n t i a l l y , o f two p a r t s . 3 9 certain active p u b l i c works,  departments  o f government  a.develop-  I n the. one p a r t ,  - social  services,  communications andgeneral a d m i n i s t r a t i o n -  designeddetailed  p r o j e c t s t o be implemented w i t h i n known  f i n a n c i a l , l i m i t s . . These Departments, had r e a l , under such a p l a n .  I t was always p o s s i b l e  responsibilities  t o i d e n t i f y which  94  Department was  t o be b u i l d i n g the roads, how  the Department was  supposed t o be b u i l d i n g and  Consequently, i t was the agencies  many miles, o f them at what c o s t .  p o s s i b l e t o measure p l a n f u l f i l m e n t  since  concerned with, p l a n n i n g , .were, a l s o the. only, ones  organized, t o implement, a jplan. The  other, p a r t o f the t y p i c a l c o l o n i a l , p a t t e r n of  development p l a n n i n g .was..one t h a t f e l l w i t h i n t h e . p r o v i n c e  of  the i r r e s p o n s i b l e departments o f government . - a g r i c u l t u r e , i n d u s t r y , mining and t h i s aspect  commerce. . J.. H. Mensah comments thus on  of. the p a t t e r n of  planning:  The e s s e n t i a l r a t i o n a l e o f t h i s aspect o f the p l a n was t h a t the s t a t e should c o n f i n e i t s e l f t o the c l a s s i c a l p o l i c i m a h , f u n c t i o n s as. d e f i n e d by the 18th. c e n t u r y p h i l o s o p h e r s . The duty o f a Department Of I n d u s t r y was t o show the communi c a t i o n s m i n i s t r y how many roads and harbours were r e q u i r e d , t>to advise the f i n a n c e m i n i s t r y t h a t t a x concessions were needed t o a t t r a c t the f o r e i g n , i n v e s t o r and t o h e l p the f o r e i g n i n v e s t o r t o o b t a i n Water, e l e c t r i c i t y and telephone connections r a p i d l y when he d i d e v e n t u a l l y a r r i v e . . I f he d i d not a r r i v e , as mostly he d i d not i n any a p p r e c i a b l e numbers, t a x system ~and, i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f a c i l i t i e s were reviewed and steps were t a k e n t o create a b e t t e r investment c l i m a t e by such means as newspaper a d v e r t i s e ments and i n f o r m a t i o n o f f i c e s abroad.40  Under t h i s p a t t e r n o f development planning,,  the  agencies.concerned, w i t h i n d u s t r y , a g r i c u l t u r e , mining  and  commerce were never i d e n t i f i e d . w i t h any t a s k s under the They were not expected t o provide o r .increase a g r i c u l t u r a l and  plan.  any known number of jobs,  industrial, production to  any  s t a t e d extent or reach, any l e v e l of. exports or determine,  95  a c c o r d i n g t o any r a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g t h e o r y , where an i n d u s t r y should, l o c a t e  and. why.  The r e s u l t was t h a t  a F i r s t Development P l a n , -of  i n Ghana,  after  a C o n s o l i d a t i o n P l a n and two  a Second Development P l a n ,  a first  years  c l a s s network o f roads  had been b u i l t but the i n d u s t r y and a g r i c u l t u r e t o use these roads were nowhere i n s i g h t  except the  d u c t i o n as s h o w n . e a r l i e r i n t h i s It  increased,cocoa  chapter.  i s worthwhile t o examine at t h i s  actual allocations  pro-  stage  the  o f revenue, made towards, the. development  of  the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s , ofthe. economy under .the. . F i r s t , and Consolidation. Plans.  Table. 2 2 shows, the breakdown of, these  TABLE 2 2 FIRST AND CONSOLIDATION, DEVELOPMENT.PLANS Project  %  fiG.000 7,616  A g r i c u l t u r e , and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s I n d u s t r y and t r a d e Electricity  6.5  5,548 4,440  4.5 3 . 8  Communications  35,955  30.2  L o c a l and regional.government Education I n f o r m a t i o n and. b r o a d c a s t i n g Housing H e a l t h , s a n i t a t i o n and water  6,000 17,390  5.1 15.0  s  u  p  p  l  i  P o l i c e and p r i s o n s Miscellaneous Total  e  s  1  5  1,176, 7,862 ,  0  3  1.0 6.7  3  13.0  2,953  2.5  13,549  11.7  117,522  100.0  Source: Ghana Second Development P l a n  1959-64.  items.  As T a b l e 22 shows c l e a r l y , i n the F i r s t and C o n s o l i d a t i o n Development P l a n s , i n v o l v i n g an expenditure o f some £ 1 1 8 m i l l i o n and c o v e r i n g a p e r i o d o f e i g h t  years,the  .emphasis  was p l a c e d on communications, p u b l i c works,,. e d u c a t i o n and general s e r v i c e s .  I t would seem from, T a b l e 23 page-97 . t h a t "^he  two plans a c h i e v e d the o b j e c t i v e  o f l a y i n g t h e f o u n d a t i o n s on  which f u t u r e economic development d e p e n d s . T a b l e 23 demonstrates the t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s on t h e v a r i o u s i t ems. between. 1951 and 1953. The breakdown of, the two p l a n s a l s o - i l l u s t r a t e s typical  c o l o n i a l p a t t e r n o f development  outlined, e a r l i e r ;  the the  system o f a l l o c a t i o n of f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s t o the v a r i o u s p r o j e c t s under thevtwo stimulate  p l a n s c o n s t i t u t e s no s p e c i a l , e f f o r t  economic development, as s u c h , i n Ghana o t h e r than the  p r o v i s i o n of s a c i a l services  and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e  facilities.  The Second Development Plan, w h i c h . f o l l o w e d the two plans was, that  to  i n general terms,  had gone, before  it.  first  i n . n o way different;;:, from those  Under t h e p l a n which began i n J u l y ,  1959, the Government proposed t o  spend a t o t a l o f £350 m i l l i o n .  Of t h i s t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e , £ 1 0 0 m i l l i o n was a l l o c a t e d t o  the  V o l t a R i v e r h y d r o c e l e c t r i c scheme, which was kept o u t s i d e  the  main p l a n .  A breakdown o f the p l a n by the v a r i o u s p r o j e c t s  shown, i n Table 24 page. 98 highest services  .  As b e f o r e ,  is  communication took the  p r o p o r t i o n (21.5$) of. the t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e ,  health  accounted f o r 18$ and e d u c a t i o n was a l l o c a t e d 11$ o f  the t o t a l expenditure, f o r  development.  TABLE  23  PLANNED, AND A C T U A L E X P E N D I T U R E S  F i r s t Development Plan Project Expenditure  Total  1  t o June  30/57.  2  ON D E V E L O P M E N T  Consolidation Plan project Expected . Total 3 Expenditure  J u l y 1/57-30th. J u n e , 1958.4  Expected Total Expenditure  1951-1958. (col. col.  .2 +  4) 5  Communications  33,739,176  32,636,716  14,705,206  6,309.188  38,945,904  Other Revenue Producing  10,464,930  9,495,330  5,223,777  2,113,584  11,608,914  10,210,215  9,583,811  5,601,416  2,906,683  12,490,494  5,137,886  4,706,843  1,421,942  633,408  5,340,251  Administrative and General Services  12,099,589  12,283,034  5,414,991  3,091,211  15,301,245  Grand  94,746,303  93,136,475  44,677,468  20,518,733  113,655,208  S e r v i c e s t o Agriculture, Industry, and Trade Services f o r Law a n d O r d e r  Total  Source:  Ghana E c o n o m i c  Survey  1957  TABLE 2 4  SECOND DEVELOPMENT PLAN  Project  £G000  A g r i c u l t u r e and n a t u r a l , resources I n d u s t r y arid t r a d e Electricity " Communications L o c a l and r e g i o n a l , government Education I n f o r m a t i o n and., b r o a d c a s t i n g Housing H e a l t h , "sanitation.and.water supplies Police and.prisons Miscellaneous Contingencies Total Source:  %  24,668 25,331 8,765 53,010  10.0 10.1 3.5 21.0  18,852 27,852  7.5 11.0  2,677 17,000  1.1 7.0  43,650 7,677 13,687 6,834  18.0 3 . 0 5.5 2.7  243,166  100.0  Ghana Second.Development  P l a n 1959-1964.  Compared w i t h the. F i r s t and C o n s o l i d a t ion.Development P l a n s , the Second Development P l a n was an ambitious, one. Judging, by the r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r i t s  implementation.,  p l a n c o u l d be regarded as o v e r - a m b i t i o u s .  Ghana had by J u l y ,  1959,  only £ 9 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0  the  c o n s i s t i n g . o f £ 5 0 m i l l i o n Reserve f u n d s ,  £ 2 5 m i l l i o n p r o s p e c t i v e loadn. from the. Cocoa M a r k e t i n g Board Reserves and, £ 1 5 m i l l i o n from General Revenue.41 j e c t s o f the p l a n were t h e r e f o r e mentation.  s e l e c t e d f o r immediate i m p l e -  By t h i s method of s e t t i n g . p r i o r i t i e s ,  expenditure was reduced from £ 2 4 3 , 1 6 6 , 0 0 0 t o T a b l e 2 $ page  Certain pro-  the  total  £132,000,000.  shows t h e breakd^own o f expenditure f o r the  t o t a l p l a n and f o r p r o j e c t s , of. immediate .implementation.  99 TABLE 2 5  DETAILED LIST GF PROJECTS  Project  T o t a l plan £G000  F o r immediate implementation £G000  Agriculture I n d u s t r y and t r a d e Electricity Communlcat i o n ' L o c a l and r e g i o n a l government B r o a d c a s t i n g and inf.ormation H e a l t h , s a n i t a t i o n and water supplies" P o l i c e and p r i s o n s Miscellaneous Contingencies Total  24,668 25,331 8,765 53,010  10,425  15i41§ 7,000 28,679 14,150 1,693  18,852 •2,677 17,000 43,650  7,093  19,675 4,786 7,718 6,143:  7,677 13,684 •6,834  131,580  243,166  Source: Qhana Second Development P l a n .  1959-64.  I n a d d i t i o n , t o the £ 4 2 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 d i f f e r e n c e t o t a l expenditure f o r t h e p r o j e c t s  of immediate  and the t o t a l amount o f money a v a i l a b l e implementingthe the f i r s t  p l a n , the  between the  implementation  (£90 million)  for  Government had c a r r i e d forward from  and c o n s o l i d a t i o n p l a n s , o u t s t a n d i n g p r o j e c t s amount-  ing to £ 1 5 m i l l i o n . p l a n was t h e r e f o r e  The t o t a l amount o f money r e q u i r e d f o r the £57,000,000.  100  D r  «  Nkrumah i n p r e s e n t i n g the p l a n t o P a r l i a m e n t  e x p l a i n e d t h e o v e r - a m b i t i o u s n a t u r e o f the plan., as ...follows: . . . t h e Government i s conviced t h a t t h i s i s the time f o r us t o be a m b i t i o u s . Without ambitions nothing, can be done., The P l a n r e f l e c t s the development which we'want t o see t a k e p l a c e i n o u r c o u n t r y . I t i s up t o each and every one o f us t o do. e v e r y t h i n g " i n h i s power t o see t h a t o b j e c t i v e achieved.42 Nkrumah went on to. say t h a t he had every, confidence, t h a t - w i t h t h e assistance  o f c a p i t a l from, o v e r s e a s ,  whole p l a n . .  they, could, implement the  It. has been suggested t h a t P r o f e s s o r . Arthur. L e w i s ,  who was the. economic, a d i v s o r t o the Government a t the e a r l y stages o f the p r e p a r a t i o n . o f the p l a n , had recommended a p l a n c o s t i n g l e s s than, a t h i r d o f the sum. now e s t i m a t e d f o r t h e plan.43  i t is interesting.to  note t h a t the. Second Development  P l a n was abrogated a f t e r two years o f i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . With t h e Government's i n c r e a s i n g , emphasis on i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , the p l a n .aims, a t the. establishment 600 f a c t o r i e s products..  of varying size,  o f not l e s s than  p r o d u c i n g a range of. over 100  The p l a n , f a i l e d , however, t o s p e c i f y the nature o f  the p r o j e c t s , o r a s s e s s t h e i r f e a s i b i l i t y or i m p l i c a t i o n s . f or the economy as a w h o l e .  It,  nevertheless,  out lined...the  measures proposed f o r t h e f u r t h e r i n g o f the envisaged expansions  as f o l l o w s :  measure o f t a r i f f the  industrial  f i r s t l y , i n d u s t r y was o f f e r e d a c e r t a i n  p r o t e c t i o n which would n o t , however,  cost o f l i v i n g . i n any s i g n i f i c a n t way; s e c o n d l y ,  increase  foreign  p r i v a t e investment would, be a t t r a c t e d e i t h e r t h r o u g h f i m a n c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the. Government o r from guarantees  of i n v e s t o r s '  101  r i g h t s ; t h i r d l y , new i n d u s t r i e s would be given a l l p o s s i b l e a s s i s t a n c e , such as t h e p r e p a r a t i o n t i o n s o f new p r o j e c t s . Promotion Commission set  up.  o f studies, and i n v e s t i g a -  I n connection  w i t h t h i s , an I n d u s t r i a l  and an Investment Promotion Board.were  F o u r t h l y , t h e Government p r o p o s e d to, g i v e s p e c i a l a i d  t o A f r i c a n businessmen and t o i n c r e a s e i t s a i d t o t h e I n d u s t r i a l Development the  Corporation  (I.D.C.) a l r e a d y i n existence..  Finally,  Government proposed t o s t i m u l a t e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n by e n -  couraging t h e establishment,  i n some twenty d i f f e r e n t c e n t e r s ,  o f i n d u s t r i e s f o r which t h e advantages o f establishment i n an a r e a o f i n d u s t r i a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n were not o f prime  Importance.44  The. p l a n went on t o o u t l i n e p o s s i b l e i n d u s t r i e s which might be .considered  f o r i n t r o d u c t i o n .into Ghana.  These range  from c l o t h spinning, and weaving, l e a t h e r goods, r a d i o and motor assembly t o p l a s t i c products and bamboooproducts.  Whatwis s i g -  n i f i c a n t about t h e l i s t o f p o s s i b l e i n d u s t r i e s was t h e f a c t t h a t nowhere i n t h e p l a n were any i n d i c a t i o n s g i v e n . o f location.  t h e i r possible  The p l a n had t h i s , t o say on .the matter: No attempt has been made t o draw up, f o r t h e I.D.C o r f o r t h e Commissioner ( I n d u s t r i a l Promotion) , a t i m e - t a b l e g i v i n g t h e date by which each riew f a c t o r y i s t o be completed, o r a map showing where each new f a c t o r y i s t o be l o c a t e d . I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i s not a . m i l i t a r y but a J l o c a l Commercial, e x e r c i s e i n which t h e p r i n c i p a l s must have f l e x i b i l i t y f o r n e g o t i a t i o n arid f o r meeting.hew o b s t a c l e s , as "they a r i s e . The funds which have, been a l l o c a t e d are s u f f i c i e n t to. make a s t a r t on t h e t a r g e t o f 6 0 0 new f a c t o r i e s i n t h e next f i v e y e a r s , a l l o w i n g . f o r p r i v a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  102  It  is  development i f  easy t o understand t h i s approach t o p l a n n i n g f o r it  is  remembered t h a t . t h e P r e s i d e n t  o f Ghana,  D r . Nkrumah, summarized the approach when i n t r o d u c i n g the to  Parliament as  plan  follows:  I n s h o r t , we i n t e n d , as i n the p a s t , t o " f o l l o w a common sense and p r a c t i c a l approach to i n d u s t r i a l development.46 With t h i s approach, i t Second Development Development  is  yet  s t i l l easy to  Plan.1959-1964 d i f f e r s  from the Five. Year  P l a n 1957-1961 o f E t h i o p i a and. t h a t o f M a l i :  D e t e r m i n a t i o n De p r i n c i p e s generaux et t i o n pour. 1 e l a b o r a t i o n !  1959.  see why t h e . Ghana  I n both p l a n s ,  des m o d a l i t e s d a p p l i c a T  d'un p l a n de.developpement.au  Soudan.  a more fundamental view o f development  programming has. been t a k e n by f o r m u l a t i n g , b a s i c  p r i n c i p l e s and  o b j e c t i v e s o f Development, programmes, and making, o v e r a l l p r o j e c t i o n s o f major economic  aggregates.  I n M a l i , ' f o r example, of  an i n c r e a s e i n per c a p i t a  at l e a s t 5$ per annum has been s e l e c t e d as the main  ment t a r g e t . annum, the  Since, the  So t h a t g i v e n t h i s , t a r g e t ,  output r a t i o o f 4:1  (i.e.  p r o d u c t i o n , was t o  4$ o f the g r o s s domestic product  estimated, t h a t up to. 28$ o f the  be  and assuming a c a p i t a l  t o be i n v e s t e d t o y i e l d a 1$ p r o d u c t i o n i n c r e a s e ,  have t o be i n v e s t e d . 4 7  develop-  population., i n . M a l i , i n c r e a s e s by 2% per  corresponding t a r g e t f o r t o t a l  at l e a s t 7$.-  income  it  has  was  g r o s s domestic product w i l l  A s i m i l a r approach was adopted by the  E t h i o p i a n Government i n t h e i r F i v e Year P l a n .  103  The Ghana Second. Development P l a n showed no breakdown of a l l o c a t i o n s  i n terms o f regions, apart from .the r e g i o n a l  a l l o c a t i o n o f f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s i n r e s p e c t t o such and s e r v i c e s  facilities  as r o a d s , e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h , l o c a l and r e g i o n a l  government, p u b l i c works and several-, o t h e r r e g i o n a l , government department b u i l d i n g s . . Although, the p l a n was .meant..for the development objectives  of the e n t i r e economy, o f G h a n a ,  no. p r o j e c t i o n s ,  8  o r t a r g e t s , were shown f o r the p r i v a t e . s e c t o r .  p l a n gave.no  The  i n d i c a t i o n , o f the r e g i o n a l , p l a n n i n g - a p p r o a c h  r e f e r r e d t o i n chapter two o f t h i s s t u d y .  I n short t h e Ghana  Second Year Development. P l a n was e s s e n t i a l l y  a government c a p i t a l  expenditure programme r a t h e r than a development .programme. It  i s encouraging t h a t s i n c e October I96I.,. Ghana had  set up a new p l a n n i n g machinery,, the N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission.  T h i s body i s  charged w i t h the t a s k o f f o r m u l a t i n g a new  Seven Year P l a n t o cover the period. 1 9 6 3 - 1 9 7 0 .  A U n i t e d Nations  R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g M i s s i o n h a s been i n the country s i n c e the o f 1961. t o h e l p the Commission design, the  end  plan.  The Commission i s d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s , - t h e . p o l i c y making p a r t and t h e f u n c t i o n a l committees p a r t . making, p a r t c o n s i s t s o f a body o f t w e n t y - s i x  The. p o l i c y -  officials,  aca-  demics, businessmen,, t r a d e u n i o n l e a d e r s and. o t h e r persons o f s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge..  The F u n c t i o n a l Committees.part comprises  t e c h n i c a l c i v i l s e r v a n t s and side  specialists  and. t e c h n i c i a n s  who Concerned w i t h a c t u a l f o r m u l a t i o n and implementation o f the  \ development  ; plan.  104  CONCLUSIONS As was s t a t e d at the b e g i n n i n g o f the present  chapter,  the main i n t e n t i o n o f the d i s c u s s i o n has been t o make a case i n f a v o u r o f r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g approach t o development p l a n n i n g . T h i s was done by a n a l y z i n g the impact of cocoa i n d u s t r y on the economy o f Ghana and the major development plans o f the c o u n t r y . The f i r s t  c o n c l u s i o n to  be drawn from the  discussion  of these a s p e c t s o f development i n Ghana was that wider c o l o n i a l rule,  development was regarded as a s i n g l e - r e s o u r c e  development.  As was shown from t h e a n a l y s i s of gross n a t i o n a l income, p r i v a t e p u r c h a s i n g power, government revenue, and export data i n terms o f f o r e i g n exchange and e a r n i n g s , the e n t i r e economy o f Ghana was based on the cocoa i n d u s t r y .  The r e s u l t o f such an over-dependence  on s i n g l e - i n d u s t r y was t h a t whenever the w o r l d p r i c e of fell,  cocoa  current incomes i n Ghana were lowered a c c o r d i n g l y and deve-  lopments were brought t o a s t a n d s t i l l . The  second c o n c l u s i o n was t h a t ,  although development  p l a n n i n g became more and more the f u n c t i o n of the c e n t r a l Government and continued t o be concerned w i t h s o c i a l and economic a s p e c t s o f development,  p l a n n i n g remained e s s e n t i a l l y  at the n a t i o n a l  l e v e l and d i s r e g a r d e d c o m p l e t e l y the p$iysical a s p e c t s of d e v e l o p ment at the r e g i o n a l and l o c a l l e v e l s . of  Both from the  analysis  c o l o n i a l development plans and n a t i o n a l development p l a n s ,  the  r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g approach o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r i n present s t u d y was not c o n s i d e r e d as a method o f development p l a n n i n g .  Some attempts  105  were made t o d i v e r s i f y the o n e - c r o p economy by t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of c e r t a i n p l a n n i n g and development f a i l e d tomaterialize  achieve  it  is  were con-  level.  concluded t h a t Ghana has f a i l e d  a balanced s o c i a l ,  because i t  but most o f these  f u l l y because these i n s t i t u t i o n s  s i d e r e d only at the n a t i o n a l Finally,  institutions,  economic and p h y s i c a l  has not adopted the  development  r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g approach o u t -  l i n e d towards the end o f Chapter I I . Ghana V o l t a R e g i o n a l P l a n i s  to  I n the next c h a p t e r ,  the  analyzed t o show the r e g i o n a l P l a n -  n i n g approach as a method of p l a n n i n g f o r balanced deie lopment.  106  REFERENCES  University  "HE. A.. B o a t e n g , A G e o g r a p h y P r e s s ; 1958) P 3 .  o f Ghana  (Cambridge: The  (January,  Ghana, Census B u r e a u , "I960 P o p u l a t i o n 1963, e x t r a c t s ) , mimeographed. 2  Census  Report"  ^Ghana, C e n t r a l B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s , Economic S u r v e y G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1962), p 74-•  1961 ( A c c r a :  ^Ibid. tion  p p 77-78.  ^R. H. G r e e n , " T h e G h a n a C o c o a I n d u s t r y : An Examinao f C u r r e n t P r o b l e m s " , T h e E c o n o m i c B u l l e t i n , V , N o . 1,  (May, 1961), p 16.  (Accra:  The  ^Ghana, M i n i s t r y o fF i n a n c e , E c o n o m i c S u r v e y G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1958), p 3-7•  1957  ^ D o u g l a s Rimmer, " N i n e t e e n F i f t y - E i g h t a n d A f t e r " , E c o n o m i c B u l l e t i n , I I I , N o . 2, ( A u g u s t - S e p t e m b e r , 1959). 8  9  Concept  R.  (196l) op. c i t .  H. G r e e n ,  l b id.  " ^ J . Sheenan, " I n t e r n a t i o n a l S p e c i a l i z a t i o n and The o f B a l a n c e d Growth", Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f Economics,  (May,  1958),  U p o l l y H i l l , "The M i g r a t i o n o f S o u t h e r n G h a n a i a n Cocoa F a r m e r s " , B u l l e t i n o f t h e Ghana G e o g r a p h i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n ( J u l y , I 9 6 0 ) ; "The H i s t o r y o f t h e M i g r a t i o n o f Ghana C o c o a F a r m e r s " , T r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y o f Ghana, V I , N o . 2, ( 1 9 6 2 ) . 1  2  J .  The E c o n o m i c  (Accra:  H. M e n s a h ,  "A P e r s p e c t i v e  B u l l e t i n , . V I , N o . 2,  Plan  f o r Ghana--I",  (1962), p  l^Ghana, M i n i s t r y of Finance, Economic G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g D e p a r t m e n t " ^ 1958 ) , ^ F .  University  M. B o u r r e t ,  Press,  1952),  TheGold  Coast  Survey p 5.  (London:  1957  Oxford  p 29.  ^ I b i d . l 6  13th,  "Good  News F o r C o c o a " , W e s t  1962), p--2M21. 1  7  Africa,  N o . 2367,  (October,  l b id.  "^"Governor's  A d d r e s s t o t he L e g i s l a t i v e  Council,  107  March  1, 1 9 2 3 " ,  Gold  Coast  Gazette  :  1 7 t h , 1923), p 31+9.  (March,  - ^ F r e d e r i c k G o r d o n G u g g i s b e r g , The G o l d C o a s t : A R e v i e w o f t h e E v e n t s o f 1 9 2 0 - 1 9 2 6 a n d t h e P r o s p e c t s o f 19271928, (Accra: G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1927) p 72. 2  0  2 1  2  2  F.  M. B o u r r e t  "The F.  Governor's  M. B o u r r e t  ^Frederick  o p . c i t . p 29.  Address",  (1952)  (1923),  ^G o l d Coast, Gold D e p a r t m e n t , 1937),  op. c i t . pp5£80-6l5,  o p . c i t . p 31.  Gordon Guggisberg,  2  Printing  (1952)  Coast  (1927)  Handbook,  o p . c i t . p 17U--  (Accra:  Government  P 38.  ^ G o l d Coast, L e g i s l a t i v e Council, Debates, (1939), P S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , X I , 1931+; P a p e r s R e l a t i n g t o t h e -Petition o ft h eD e l e g a t i o n from theGold Coast Colony and Ashanti (Accra: G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1931+7, p 1+9. 2  ^ A l a n Burns, "General Plan f o r theDevelopment o f t h e C o a s t " , S e s s i o n a l P a p e r , N o . 1+, (191)4) H e r e a f t e r c i t e d a s 191+1+ D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n ; S e c t i o n 12-18; L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , D e b a t e s , I , (191+1+), P kk2  Gold  1  2  ?Legislative  2  8  2  9lbid.  F.  M. B o u r r e t ,  30 l b i d . Coast  Council,  Debates,  (1952)  I I , (191+3),  P 3.  o p . c i t . p 177-  p 178.  ^ G o l d Coast, " F i n a n c i a l Balance Sheet o fthe Gold f o r Augu'st 191+6", G o l d C o a s t G a z e t t e ( F e b r u a r y 8 t h , 191+7).  3%.  M. B o u r r e t ,  (1952),  o p . c i t . p 213.  33(}oId C o a s t , F i r s t D e v e l o p m e n t T h e C o n s o l i d a t i o n P l a n 1957-1959; S e c o n d (Accra: Government P r i n t i n g Department,  P l a n 1953-1957, G h a n a , D e v e l o p m e n t - P l a n 1959-1961+  1959).  3^-Gold C o a s t Y o u t h C o n f e r e n c e , F i r s t S t e p s t o w a r d s a Fund (Accra: 1938) p 10; L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , Debates (1935),P 135 " ( 1 9 3 6 ) , p 115; (1939), p 155; M. D o w u o n a , "Economic and S o c i a l Development o ft h e G o l d Coast", Achimota D i s c u s s i o n G r o u p , Q u o V a d i m u s o r G o l d C o a s t F u t u r e , n . d . p 26. National  Plan  3^Kwame N k r u m a h , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S e c o n d D e v e l o p m e n t 1959-19614. ( A c c r a : G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1959)  Pi .  108  (Accra:  •3&Kwame Nkrumah, Work and H a p p i n e s s : B r o a d c a s t Government P r i n t i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1962), p 1.  Talk  3%wame Nkrumah, " S o c i a l Aims, Of t h e C o n v e n t i o n P e o p l e s ' Party: T e n t h A n n i v e r s a r y C e l e b r a t i o n s o f t h e P a r t y " The E v e n i n g News, June 16, 1959. p i . G h a n a , A n O f f i c i a l Handbook 1 9 6 1 E d i t i o n , ( A c c r a : G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1962), p 1+2. 3 8  !  H. M e n s a h , ^°J. PP  (1962)  H. Mensah (1962)  op. c i t . p 3. op. c i t . p k.  ^Ghana,  Second Development P l a n 1 9 5 9 - 1 9 6 L i ,  ^-^Ghana,  op. c i t . p i i i .  (Accra;  1959)  2-3  4-3"Money f o r Ghana's P l a n " , West A f r i c a  (March, l k t h ,  1959). ^ G h a n a , Second Development ^Ibid, ^6ibid.  p  P l a n 1Q59-1961;..  pp 16-23.  22. p iv.  ' ^ . U n i t e d N a t i o n s Economic Commission f o r A f r i c a , . E c o n o m i c B u l l e t i n f o r A f r i c a , ( A d d i s A b a b a , E t h i o p i a ) I , No. 1,  CHAPTER IV  PLANNING FOR BALANCED SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, AND PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN GHANA VOLTA BASIN  T h i s chapter i s .concerned .with, the V o l t a Basin. R e g i o n a l Plan.  The P l a n i s  h e l p t t o achieve ment i n Ghana. is and  e v a l u a t e d t o show how. r e g i o n a l , p l a n n i n g can  a balanced s o c i a l ,  economic and p h y s i c a l . d e v e l o p -  The g e n e r a l background.to the V o l t a B a s i n P l a n  examined;, the methods used i n d e s i g n i n g the. p l a n are analyzed f i n a l l y some recommendations f o r development  planning i n  Ghana are made. G e n e r a l Background, t o the V o l t a B a s i n P l a n As f a r back as 1 9 1 3 , the  Gold Coast G e o l o g i c a l Survey  Department d i s c o v e r e d the. e x i s t e n c e o f d e p o s i t s o f good q u a l i t y bauxite first  on Mount Ejuanema near Nkawkaw..  l o c a l discovery  of bauxite,  T h i s represented  and w h i l e d e p o s i t s were not  p a r t i c u l a r y e x t e n s i v e , d e p o s i t s were subsequently Sefwi Bekwai, s t i l l l a r g e r d e p o s i t s  the  located  at  i n the Yenahin l o c a l i t y , Figure 3 following.page)109)  and  q u i t e l a r g e d e p o s i t s at Asafo (see  The  t o t a l q u a n t i t y is. estimated t o be about 2 2 5 m i l l i o n t o n s . The  d i s c o v e r y o f b a u x i t e i n the  a t t e n t i o n to the p o s s i b i l i t y o f g e n e r a t i n g for  Gold Coast d i r e c t e d hydro-electricity  use i n producing:-aluminum from the l o c a l o r e .  109  In 1 9 1 5  VOLTA RIVER PROJECT  M r . A . E . K i t s o n , then D i r e c t o r o f G e o l o g i c a l Survey,  noticed  the apparent s u i t a b i l i t y of^the Ajena l o c a l i t y o f the. Lower V o l t a R i v e r as a s i t e f o r a dam f o r the p r o d u c t i o n of hydroelectricity.  1  A few years l a t e r the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  of t h i s  l o c a l i t y were i n v e s t i g a t e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r view t o the. use h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power f o r r e f i n i n g the Ejuanama and Sefwi  of  bauxite  the r e s u l t s and e s t i m a t e s Were; p u b l i s h e d i n 1925 as Gold Coast G e o l o g i c a l . Survey B u l l e t i n No. 1.  The p o s s i b i l i t y o f  generating  power at B u i on t h e B l a c k V o l t a , was recorded i n the ,1920.. .s b y t  the G e o l o g i c a l . S u r v e y . I n 1924 t h e  Gold Coast! Government drew up and con-  s i d e r e d a scheme f o r the  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a dam.at A j e n a , and f o r  the g e n e r a t i o n o f h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power f o r the manufacture o f aluminum,from.the Ejuanema b a u x i t e , Volta,  the  c a n a l i s i n g o f the  and. the, i r r i g a t i o n o f the A c c r a P l a i n s .  lower  The. p r o p o s a l s  were not proceeded w i t h , , however, . u n t i l t h e y were r e v i v e d i n 1933 by M r . E . D . G . R o s e . o f Johannesburg.. i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were made i n the  Quite e x t e n s i v e  Gold Coast, i n , 1939 by M r . Rose  a n d . a f i r m o f South A f r i c a n C o n s u l t i n g E n g i n e e r s , and a scheme was drawn up on l i n e s s i m i l a r . t o but more a m b i t i o u s . t h a n e a r l i e r Government schemes.  the  I n c l u d e d i n the scheme was the  p r o p o s a l t o b u i l d a harbour at Ada f o r ocean-going  ships,.  I n 1948 the Gold Coast Government announced t h a t C o n s u l t a n t s were t o be engaged t o the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s  of the.entire  c a r r y out a f u l l Volta Valley.  survey o f  About t h e same  Ill  time i n t i m a t i o n was r e c e i v e d from the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e t o e f f e c t t h a t the r e l a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s  the  o f the Gold Coast and  Worth Borneo were b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d as a s i t e f o r  large-scale  aluminium p r o d u c t i o n . On 1 s t .  J a n u a r y , 1949,  C o l o n i e s put forward concrete  the S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r the  p r o p o s a l s f o r c a r r y i n g , out a  survey o f the V o l t a and f o r a s s e s s i n g the make t o the economy o f the Gold C o a s t .  contribution i t  full could  The Gold. Coast Govern-  ment was. i n f u l l , agreement w i t h the p r o p o s a l s and. informed West A f r i c a n Aluminium L i m i t e d t h a t t h e i r plans.would, be cons i d e r e d i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p : t o the. development  o f the  Volta  V a l l e y as a whole. S i r W i l l i a m . H a l c r o w , and P a r t n e r s a c c e p t e d , t h e Coast Government's o f f e r t o undertake the Survey.  Gold  I n June,  1949, M r . P e t e r A . S c o t t ,  M . I . C . E . went t o the Gold Coast f o r  preliminary discussions.  I n October 1949,  tions  between the. S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e ,  following  negotia-  S i r W i l l i a m H a l crow and  P a r t n e r s and West A f r i c a n Aluminium L i m i t e d , the l a t t e r agreed t o make a v a i l a b l e t o the Government *s C o n s u l t a n t s  the.full  results  of  of t h e i r investigations.  Representatives  the  C o n s u l t a n t s a r r i v e d i n the Gold Coast on 5 t h . January,. 1950, and were j o i n e d by c e r t a i n Government T e c h n i c a l O f f i c e r s and together, sibilities  t h e y s t a r t e d work on the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f d e v e l o p i n g the f u l l r e s o u r c e s  o f the  o f the  pos-  Volta.  -  112  On 2 5 t h .  July,  1950,  the C o n s u l t a n t s i s s u e d  P r e l i m i n a r y Report i n which t h e y i n d i c a t e d t h a t ment o f the. V o l t a B a s i n o n , t h e  a  the.develop-  lines indicated in.their.Terms  o f Reference would be e c o n o m i c a l l y i m p r a c t i c a b l e , without, the fulfillment electric  of a hydro-electric project,  a n d . t h a t .the h y d r o -  scheme, contemplated would, i n t u r n be  i m p r a c t i c a b l e . , b u t f o r . the heavy demand.for  economically  electric,power  which would be c r e a t e d by an aluminium f a c t o r y . probable t o the  Consultants that a s u i t a b l e  It  appeared  s i t e for a high  dam c o u l d be found, between,.Mem .Rapids .and S e n c h i , R a p i d s and t h e y recommended c e r t a i n f u r t h e r g e o l o g i c a l  and o t h e r  investi-  gations. Early in 1950., was set  up c o n s i s t i n g  a B r i t i s h - C a n a d i a n Aluminium.Mission  o f a number o f members o f the  Aluminium Company, L i m i t e d , Canada.  British  and o f Aluminium L i m i t e d o f  The. M i s s i o n r s p e n t . some, time i n . Borneo  investigating  a p r o j e c t f o r the manufacture o f aluminium by. h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power, and a f t e r  some time, i n the U n i t e d Kingdom v i s i t e d  Gold Coast i n August, and September t o i n v e s t i g a t e , the  the  technical  and econonomic a s p e c t s o f the p r o j e c t f o r manufacturing a l u m i n ium at A j e n a .  Following t h e i r v i s i t  the M i s s i o n , r e p o r t e d t h a t ,  i n t h e i r o p i n i o n , the V o l t a R i v e r P r o j e c t was a sound  engineer-  i n g and economic p r o p o s i t i o n andthat a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 1 0 , 0 0 0 t o n s o f a l u m i n i u m . i n g o t s per annum c o u l d be produced.2 t h e GovernmentIs C o n s u l t a n t s continued t h e i r  Meanwhile,  investigations  113  and on the. 1 5 t h .  o f August 1951,  t h e i r f i n a l Report  was  issued,  The C o n s u l t a n t s recommended the. c o n s t r u c t i o n . o f a l a r g e dam i n the v i c i n i t y o f Ajena (70 m i l e s n o r t h - e a s t A c c r a ) which would p r o v i d e , a supply o f e l e c t r i c i t y for a substantial  The a l l o c a t i o n  s u r p l u s power was t o be decided by the Gold Coast  Government.  I t was c o n s i d e r e d . t h a t , water from t h e V o l t a would  a l s o be a v a i l a b l e f o r purposes o f i r r i g a t i o n , i n t h e Plains.  adequate  aluminium i n d u s t r y while, l e a v i n g some s u r p l u s  power a v a i l a b l e forjsale. t o o t h e r consumers. of t h i s  of  The whole scheme embraced, i n t h i s  Accra  development.has  become known as the V o l t a . R i v e r P r o j e c t . I t was r e c o g n i z e d however t h a t t h e r e were inherent difficulties  i n the u n d e r t a k i n g of. a scheme o f such magnitude  i n a t r o p i c a l country w i t h an a l r e a d y r a p i d l y d e v e l o p i n g economy., andthat. a good d e a l more i n v e s t i g a t i o n was. needed before i n t e r e s t e d I t was t h e r e f o r e  pairbies could f i n a l l y commit t h e m s e l v e s . d e c i d e d t o e s t a b l i s h a P r e p a r a t o r y Commission,  under a S p e c i a l Commissioner, w i t h the d u t i e s t h e examination o f the f e a s i b i l i t y its  of  continuing  o f the P r o j e c t ,  considering  phasing, i n . r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r Gold Coast development  and a s s i s t i n g  schemes,  i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of the S t a t u t e s and Agreements,  t h a t would govern the P r o j e c t i f i t were tobe u n d e r t a k e n . 3 The S p e c i a l  Commissioner was t o be appointed by the  Gold Coast Government, w i t h the  concurrence ofthe U . K . Govern-  ment and. was t o work i n c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Gold Coast  114 M i n i s t e r s and w i t h d i r e c t a c c e s s t o the Prime M i n i s t e r . o f the Gold C o a s t .  He was t o submit progress  Governments, at r e g u a l r and f r e q u e n t f i n a l r e p o r t and recommendations E a r l y i n 1953,  intervals  and t o submit a  Jackson, C. M. S . ,  experience o f  development  i n o t h e r p a r t s o f the. Commonwealth,was appointed  S p e c i a l . Commissioner and e s t a b l i s h e d a s m a l l s t a f f Coast.  two  with.allreasonable.despatch.  Commander R. G... A .  0. B. E . who had had. c o n s i d e r a b l e projects  r e p o r t s t o the  as  i n ..the  Gold  I t was a g r e e d , t h a t the P r e p a r a t o r y Commission should  work as a n . i m p a r t i a l agency under .the. . S p e c i a l Commissioner r a t h e r than as c e r t a i n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . o f ments or companies. the  individual_..Govern-  The G o l d . C o a s t G o v e r n m e n t . s h o r t l y  e s t a b l i s h m e n t , of. the. Commission decided t o set  after  up. a N a t i o n a l  Committee charged w i t h t h e s p e c i a l duty o f watching over the i n t e r e s t s o f the. Gold Coast i n r e l a t i o n to, the. V o l t a . R i v e r P r o j e c t and comprised members o f the L e g i s l a t i v e o t h e r Gold Coast r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . . throughout . i t s  Assembly and  The P r e p a r a t o r y Commission  s t u d i e s has kept i n c l o s e t o u c h w i t h the  National  Committee through the. Gold Coast Government. The aluminium companies  maintained, a r e s i d e n t  rep-  r e s e n t a t i v e i n A c c r a w i t h whom. t h e . P r e p a r a t o r y Commission a l s o worked, c l o s e l y . and t e c h n i c a l  The companies p r o v i d e d t h e b a s i c , i n f o r m a t i o n  advice  on the mines and smelter f o r which they  would be r e s p o n s i b l e . , a s w e l l as i n d i c a t i n g , t h e i r and o f f e r i n g advice ject.  requirements  i n r e l a t i o n to other elements o f the  Pro-  F u r t h e r examination o f the power scheme and. r a i l w a y s  was e n t r u s t e d t o c o n s u l t i n g e n g i n e e r s ,  S i r W i l l i a m Halcrow and  P a r t n e r s , who had e a r l i e r i n v e s t i g a t e d . t h e  P r o j e c t at the  re-  quest o f the Gold Coast Government. The P r e p a r a t o r y Commissionwas t o i g a t i o n on those matters e s s e n t i a l aluminium.  concentrate.invest-  f o r the p r o d u c t i o n o f  The Gold Coast Government r e t a i n e d  responsibility  f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g , the p o s s i b l e , advantages t h a t , might, accrue from: the scheme i n such matters as i r r i g a t i o n .and. g e n e r a l e l e c t r i c i t y supply which f e l l w i t h i n the Commission's d i r e c t f i e l d o n l y i n so f a r as was e s s e n t i a l  f o r the p r o p e r examina-  t i o n o f the primary feat.ur.espf. the V o l t a ..River Aluminium P r o j e c t • The Commission and. the  Government worked .in c l o s e  c o o p e r a t i o n so t h a t the P r o j e c t was always s t u d i e d . a g a i n s t  the  background o f the w i d e r development o f the country w h i l e at  the  same, time, the Commissionwas able t o . concent rave on the  essential  framework o f the power and aluminium., scheme on which the possible  other  Developments would depend.  The. P r e p a r a t o r y Commission; The r e p o r t o f the P r e p a r a t o r y Commission was p u b l i s h e d i n 1956 i n three volumes.4  The Commission, c o n s i d e r e d the  ject economically.and,technically feasible.  It  Pro-  soon became  apparent t h a t no commitment, would be made u n t i l the Gold Coast became'independent.  In spite of t h i s ,  the Commission set  tentative time-table  involving.commencementof  operations  a in  116 1957.  The V o l t a R i v e r P r o j e c t f a i l e d t o  come i n t o o p e r a t i o n i n  1957 mainly.because o f the f o l l o w i n g reasons: crease  (a)  a large i n -  i n w o r l d p r o d u c t i o n o f aluminium, (b) t h e r i s e  in  interest  r a t e s which made the l o a n f i n a n c i n g o f the scheme f a r l e s s a t t r a c t i v e than.when the i d e a w a s . f i r s t willingness  examined,  (c) the u n -  of the aluminium companies t o j o i n i n the p l a n as  t h e y had a l r e a d y committed large, sums f o r the expansion of s i m i l a r p r o j e c t s elsewhere,  (d) the d i f f i c u l t i e s , o f , f i n a l i z i n g  the d e t a i l e d terms o f a f i n a n c i a l p a r t n e r s h i p , w i t h the. underl y i n g postulate  of. an i n t e g r a t e d p r o j e c t costing.between  £G162  m i l l i o n and £ G 3 0 0 m i l l i o n , whereby, the power, b a u x i t e and smelter development,  the townships at Tema and Kpong, and  c i l l a r y r o a d s , r a i l w y s and. other parrts of. the necessary  an-  develop-  ment were t o be undertaken as a . s i n g l e i n d i v i s i b l e whole.5  The Reassessment .Report: As a r e s u l t a p r o p o s a l was made t o  c a r r y out a  reassessment based on a breakdown o f the p r o j e c t i n t o i t s a r a t e components, partnership.  but s t i l l r e t a i n i n g , the o r i g i n a l i d e a of  I n 1958 Osagyefo, the President., approached P r e s -  i d e n t Eisenhower o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s w i t h r e g a r d t o the ject.  sep-  pro-  The r e s u l t o f these approaches was t h a t the Ghana and  U n i t e d S t a t e s Governemtns engaged H . J . . K a i s e r Company o f f o r n i a t o send e x p e r t s t o Ghana.to r e - a s s e s s the a s p e c t s o f the scheme and b r i n g them u p - t o - d a t e .  Cali-  engineering  117  The Re-assessment Report on the V o l t a R i v e r P r o j e c t by t h e K a i s e r C o r p o r a t i o n was. submitted t o the i n F e b r u a r y 1959.  The Report recommended t h e e v e n t u a l  t i o n o f three dams t o River.  Ghana Government construc-  harness the p o t e n t i a l power o f the V o l t a  A p r i n c i p a l recommendation was t h a t the main dam s i t e  a t Ajena should be r e s i t e d I j Kpong was recommended as the  miles south, o f Ajena at Akosombo. s i t e f o r the  provide, an a d d i t i o n a l 86,000 k i l o w a t t s  second dam. which, would  o f power w h i l e the  third  was t o be s i t e d at B u i across, the B l a c k V o l t a i n the Brong-Ahafo Region.  (See F i g u r e 3 f o l l o w i n g page 1 Q 9 a n d F i g u r e . 4 f o l l o w i n g  page 1 1 6 ) The  Report a l s o recommended t h a t a n . e x t e n s i v e  electri-  c i t y g r i d system should be installed... c o v e r i n g the maijor part o f Southern Ghana,, extending from Tema t o A c c r a , Cape C o a s t , Takoradi, Ta±kwa,  Dunkwa, Kumasi, K o f o r i d u a back t o Akosombo.  T h i s would.provide, o u t l e t s , at s e l e c t e d p o i n t s from which t h e E l e c t r i c i t y Department c o u l d , d i s t r i b u t e e l e c t r i c i t y f o r  domestic  and  i n d u s t r i a l u s e r s i n a wide a r e a , and. could, p r o v i d e power  for  many o f the l a r g e r m i n e s . A n o t h e r major recommendation was  t h a t the aluminium s m e l t e r  should be b u i l t at Tema.  F o l l o w i n g t h i s r e p o r t , c e r t a i n agreements were entered i n t o c a l l e d the P r i n c i p l e s o f Agreement.  A consortium o f  aluminium- companies was formed toward the end. of. 1959.  It  i n c l u d e d the K a i s e r Aluminium.and Chemical C o r p o r a t i o n ,  the  Reynolds M e t a l s , t h e Aluminium Company a f America and O l i n  118 Mathieson.(VALGO)  The VALG0 which was sponsored and i n c o r p o r a -  t e d i n Ghana was t o b u i l d a smelter P r i n c i p l e s o f Agreement the  at Tema.  According to  Ghana.Government on. i t s  part,under-  t o o k t o examine and undertake the i n i t i a l development on the V o l t a by the  the  of. power  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the dam and. power, house at  Akosombo, and the t r a n s m i s s i o n system and t o guarantee t o make a v a i l a b l e a determined power supply t o the without  smelter.  Thus.,!  d e s t r o y i n g , the o r i g i n a l i d e a o f partnership.,: a more  e f f e c t i v e d i v i s i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was a c h i e v e d between, the Ghana Government and the aluminium companies,. i n which the Ghana Government was r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r the power aspect o f  scheme andkhe. aluminium..companies, undertook t o t h e bauxite miningand aluminium The  finance,entirely  smelting.operations.  i n i t i a l development  of  the V o l t a R i v e r , as now  planned. , i s t o c o n s i s t o f : a dam at A k o s o m b o 3 7 0 f e e t above, f o u n d a t i o n l e v e l a l a r g e lake, o f 3 , 2 7 5  the  high  and 2 1 , 0 0 0 f e e t l o n g , which w i l l . c r e a t e square m i l e s  i n a r e a and 2 5 0 m i l e s l o n g ;  a power, house, w i t h an i n i t i a l i n s t a l l e d  c a p a c i t y o f 5 1 2 , 0 0 0 kw.  which would l a t e r be i n c r e a s e d t o 7 6 8 , 0 0 0 k w j a. 4 0 0 . m i l e t r a n s m i s s i o n net-work c o v e r i n g the whole o f the t r i a n g l e f o r m e d by Akosombo, Tema, T a k o r a d i . and Kumasi. Paragraph. 17 o f the e s t i m a t e d the (i)  Ghana Government White P a p e r  cost o f the e n t i r e  p r o j e c t as  6  follows:  General F e a t u r e s , compensation and. r e s e t t l e ment , h e a l t h , measures, and. V o l t a R i v e r Authorit y • • *£G  6,241,000  (ii)  (iii)  Akosombo dams, power p l a n t , township, access roads, i n c l u d i n g allowance f o r e n g i n e e r i n g , s u p e r v i s i o n and contingencies. ...42,772,( Transmission  system Akosombo-Tema-  Smelter-Accra  (iv)  (v)  5,514,000  I n t e r e s t payable on loans d u r i n g construction", and working c a p i t a l f o r i n i t i a l operation. ... 6 , 3 2 5 , 0 0 0 T r a n s m i s s i o n system beyond A c c r a , " including a d d i t i o n a l interest during . . . c o n s t r u c t i o n and working c a p i t a l . ... 9 , 4 9 0 , 0 0 0 Total. The  tem,  ...  .£070,642,000  c o s t o f the, dam, power p l a n t , t r a n s m i s s i o n s y s -  r e s e t t l e m e n t , h e a l t h and.Volta R i v e r A u t h o r i t y expenses  r e p r e s e n t t h e elements d i r e c t l y chargeable  to t h e Project.  In  a d d i t i o n , t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n p r o j e c t s which, though not forming an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the p r o j e c t are i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o i t and are. t h e r e f o r e c o s t s which a r e regarded for are:  purposes o f t h e f i r s t  as a t t r i b u t a b l e t o i t ,  stage o f t h e development .  Harbour requirements  housing, a t Tema. f o r Smelter  These  a t Tema, water supply extensions and and V o l t a R i v e r P r o j e c t employees.  Tteese a n c i l l a r y c o s t s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the p r o j e c t were estimated  i n I960 as f o l l o w s : ? M i l l i o n s £G Harbour Requirements a t Tema Water Supply E x t e n s i o n s  2,990,000 700,000 2,323,000  Housing  Total  £05,013,000  120  The  system of f i n a n c i n g adopted p r o v i d e s f o r an  e q u i t y investment  by Ghana o f up t o £G35 m i l l i o n , the  t o be p r o v i d e d by loans as i n d i c a t e d below. ~ 8  balance  Repayment i n a l l  cases i s t o b e g i n i n the s i x t h y e a r . (a)  £G14.3 m i l l i o n f o r 25 ye ars by t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bank f o r R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and Development at p r e v a i l i n g rate of i n t e r e s t ,  (b)  c u r r e n t l y 5|$.  £ G 7 . 1 4 m i l l i o n f o r 30 years at 3h% from the Development Loan Fund o f the  (c)  the  U.S.A.  £G5 m i l l i o n f o r 25 years at 6% from the E x p o r t Import Bank o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s of America.  (d)  £G5 m i l l i o n f o r 25 years at 6% from the U . K . Government. It  of  i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t the t o t a l r e t u r n s from the  sale  power to the S m e l t e r , the Mines and the Ghana G r i d would  approximate £G 2.5 m i l l i o n i n 1966 r e a c h i n g £G g.5 m i l l i o n i n about 1977 when the £G 15.5 m i l l i o n .  cumulative cash surplus would stand at  about  I n a d d i t i o n t o these r e t u r n s f i s c a l a r r a n g e -  ments should p r o v i d e f u r t h e r revenues i n the form of harbour • 10 dues, rent and o t h e r s e r v i c e s approximating as f o l l o w s : £G Harbour  68,645  Rent  16,650  Water  35,000 Total  170,295  121 A consortium of I t a l i a n Contractors, Girola-Lodigiam  and E. Recchi, has been selected f o r building  of the f i r s t phase of the Volta River Project. for £G  Impressist-  16,076,961.  The contract i s  Work has already begun on the construction  of the main dam, saddle dam, power house and appurtenances.  The  date o f the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the f i r s t power depends on the amount of water entering the lake-inflow cycle.  Under maximum or average  inflow cycles, the f i r s t power should be available i n September or October of 1 9 6 5 , but under minimum inflow cycles, power may not be a v a i l a b l e u n t i l l a t e i n 1 9 6 6 .  122  The The  V o l t a R i v e r Basin Regional Plan -  1970  Work o f the P r e p a r a t o r y Commission Although s e v e r a l surveys have been conducted i n con-  n e c t i o n w i t h the V o l t a R i v e r P r o j e c t s i n c e the thought  o f i n the e a r l y 1920's, t h i s s e c t i o n i s  mainly w i t h the more recent  studies especially  i d e a was  first  concerned those made by  the P r e p a r a t o r y Commission and the V o l t a R i v e r A u t h o r i t y . I t may be r e c a l l e d t h a t was appointed i n 1953  Commander S i r Robert. Jackson  by the Gold Coast Governmentw i t h the  concurrence o f the U . K . Government as S p e c i a l Commissioner o f the P r e p a r a t o r y Commission. were t o  continue t h e examination o f the f e a s i b i l i t y  Project,  its  of; the  phasing i n r e l a t i o n t o other Gold Coast  ment schemes, and to and  The Commissioner's main d u t i e s  develop-  a s s i s t i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f the  Statutes  Agreements t h a t would govern the P r o j e c t i f i t were t o  he  undertaken.H The take  first  t a s k o f the P r e p a r a t o r y Commission was  s t o c k o f the work a l r e a d y done and t o  set  up an e f f e c -  t i v e l i a i s o n machinery w i t h the v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t e d The  parties.  Commission then drew up a g e n e r a l programme..of work c o n - .  centrating f i r s t For  to  on e s t a b l i s h i n g  t h i s purpose, the  elements:  a l l f a c t s about the  p r o j e c t was d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e  (a) the b a u x i t e  project. constituent  mines and the mining v i l l a g e ;  (b) the r a i l w a y s l i n k i n g the bauxite d e p o s i t s w i t h the  smelter,  123 and the smelter w i t h the P o r t ; at Ajena (now at Akosombo);  (c) the Dam and power p r o j e c t  (d) the s m e l t e r , which was  ori-  g i n a l l y t o be s i t e d near Kpong about 18 m i l e s from A j e n a , and the smelter township;, from A c c r a , which the  (e)  the Port o f Tema, about 20 m i l e s  Gold Coast Government had d e c i d e d t o  develop as a second deep-water harbour f o r t h e - g e n e r a l needs of the Gold Coast ( i n a d d i t i o n to the e x i s t i n g p o r t a t T a k o r a d i ) i r r e s p e c t i v e o f the d e c i s i o n on the V o l t a R i v e r P r o j e c t . 1 2 The Commission then set  out t o e s t a b l i s h the  resources  needed i n terms o f manpower and m a t e r i a l s f o r each of t h e s e elements.  From a v e r y e a r l y stage i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ,  it  was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t great, i m p o r t a n c e w o u l d have t o be p a i d t o the human f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g t o the l a b o u r f o r c e ,  such as  re-  cruitment a n d . t r a i n i n g , s o c i o l o g i c a l q u e s t i o n s ,  housing and  t o w n - p l a n n i n g , and the f e e d i n g and g e n e r a l h e a l t h , o f w o r k e r s , and t h a t examination o f these problems would, form a major part o f the Commissions' work.  I n a d d i t i o n t o the study o f  resources  and the methods o f s u p p l y i n g them t h e r e were a number o f c i a l problems.to be i n v e s t i g a t e d ,  spe-  such, as t h e p o l i c y f o r com-  p e n s a t i o n f o r people d i s p l a c e d bythe new l a k e ,  and c o n s i d e r a -  t i o n o f any new r i s k s t o h e a l t h t h a t might a r i s e from the c r e a t i o n o f the l a k e and o f measuresto  counter, any such r i s k s .  F i n a l l y the programme o f work envisaged t h a t when the  facts  had been e s t a b l i s h e d andthe s p e c i a l problems, i n v e s t i g a t e d , s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o proceed w i t h d r a f t i n g o f the  it  Statute  t h a t would e s t a b l i s h the V o l t a R i v e r A u t h o r i t y charged w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f ^ C o o r d i n a t i o n of c o n s t r u c t i o n work on the  scheme,  and o f the v a r i o u s l e g a l documents t h a t would set  r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ject.  out  o f t h e s e v e r a l p a r t i e s to. the  Pro-  A main o b j e c t i v e throughout the programme, of work has  been t o keep a l l i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s c o n s t a n t l y abreast w i t h progress.  Care was t a k e n , t h e r e f o r e ,  new i n f o r m a t i o n that- became a v a i l a b l e , and frequent  to circulate rapidly a l l and. thus t o secure  full  i n t e r c h a n g e s o f views throughout the stud le s.  One o f the f i r s t t a s k s was t o prepare and agree w i t h the Gold Coast and U . K . Governments on a c o n t i n u i n g programme o f survey a n d . d e s i g n work f o r the c o n s u l t i n g e n g i n e e r s .  This  i n c l u d e d d r i l l i n g at the s i t e of the Dam, h y d r o l o g i c a l and meteorological .investigations  i n the V o l t a catchment a r e a and  survey o f the r o u t e s f o r the new r a i l w a y s and the v a s t v o i r t h a t would, be c r e a t e d .  The b a u x i t e d e p o s i t s  reser-  and the  smelter s i t e were a l s o examined i n d e t a i l by the aluminium companies.  Plans f o r the development o f the s m e l t e r ,  townships,  mires,  power s t a t i o n and a n c i l l a r y works.were - c a r r i e d  for-  ward t o a stage at which estimates o f the t o t a l o u t l a y c o u l d be prepared, i n terms o f men,, m a t e r i a l s and f i n a n c e . E a r l y i n the CommissionVs work, arrangements were made by the  Gold Coast Government t o obtain, the advice of D r .  A r t h u r Morgan, the f i r s t Authority,  Claairman,of. the  on the P r o j e c t as a whole.  Tennessee.Valley  D r . Morgan spent  five  weeks i n t h e Gold Coast working c l o s e l y w i t h the P r e p a r a t o r y Commission and c o n s u l t i n g w i t h the engineers  as w e l l as w i t h  the v a r i o u s Departments of~the~GoId Coast Government.  He  125  made s e v e r a l s u g g e s t i o n s which were l a t e r f o l l o w e d i n the g a t i o n s of the Commission.  The work of the Commission was  investicarried  out i n the Gold Coast w i t h the minimum o f s t a f f p o s s i b l e ; the t o t a l number o f a d m i n s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s never exceeded h a l f a dozen. 13 Human F a c t o r s : As has been p o i n t e d out salready, theproblem f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g t o l a b o u r f o r c e was o f the Commission.  o f human  dominant i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  The P r e p a r a t o r y Commission i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h  the Gold Coast Government, s e t up f i v e working Groups t o examine a l l the problems connected w i t h the human f a c t o r s . were concerned w i t h Project;  3  1  Labour;  2  The f i v e groups  S o c i o l o g i c a l Aspects o f the  Housing and Town Planning;  4  Problems connected w i t h  f e e d i n g the l a b o u r f o r c e employed on the p r o j e c t ; and and S a n i t a t i o n problems of t h e new the  5  Health  communities t h a t w o u l d house  workers. The Working Group on Labour was  a s s i s t e d by P r o f e s s o r  Hylan Lewis, a S o c i o l o g i s t from A t l a n t a U n i v e r s i t y , G e o r g i a .  In  o r d e r t h a t the Group might form an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e , requirements, estimated man-power demands were analyzed.  The a n a l y s i s was  number o f men  i n t e n d e d not o n l y t o show the  total  estimated t o be employed year by year but a l s o the  number of i n d i v i d u a l t r a d e s such as d r i v e r s , carpenters and masons. These labour demands were then examined a g a i n s t the r e a l l a b o u r s u p p l y s i t u a t i o n i n the Gold Coast and p o s s i b l e methods o f r e c r u i t ment and t r a i n i n g , were o u t l i n e d . I n the course o f the study, i t was necessary t o have r e g a r d t o other, l a b o u r demands l i k e l y t o a r i s e d u r i n g the course of the P r o j e c t both.from Government development programmes and from  126  private industry.  S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n was a l s o g i v e n t o t h e pro-  blems o f m i g r a t o r y labour w h i c h . i s a f e a t u r e agricultural l i f e  o f i n d u s t r i a l and  i n Ghana; many thousand o f workers each.year  come t o t h e southern part, o f Ghana from the Northern, and, Upper regions  o f t h e country and from surrounding former F r e n c h . coun-  tries. The, Groups s t u d i e s covered t h e r e c r u i t m e n t , and. t r a i n ing  o f foremen; p o s s i b l e advantages o f i n c e n t i v e schemes on  wages and c o n d i t i o n s and  o f s e r v i c e ; t r a d e union p o l i c y ;  employment o f overseas workers.  The g e n e r a l  recruitment  problem o f  human e f f i c i e n c y , b o t h A f r i c a n and overseas s t a f f , r e s u l t i n g from s p e c i a l c l i m a t i c and. p s y c h o l o g i c a l , problems w i t h t h e t r o p i c a l environment, were recognized the  associated  as c r u c i a l t o  success o f t h e P r o j e c t but were l e f t f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . ! 4 The  second.Working Group, a s s i s t e d also, by P r o f e s s o r  Hylan Lewis, was concerned w i t h t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e Project.  The Group, recognized  t h e importance o f the impact o f  a major i n d u s t r y , as envisaged under the V o l t a scheme, on a s o c i e t y where l a r g e - s c a l e manufacture i s u n f a m i l i a r except i n some p a r t s o f t h e country.  The need tojavoid. many o f the dangers  t h a t have o f t e n a r i s e n i n t h e past through t h e employment i n an underdeveloped a r e a o f l a r g e numbers o f workers, without r e c o g n i t i o n by t h e .responsible was't'hus c r e a t e d .  full  a u t h o r i t i e s o f the human problems,  One p o s s i b l e approach which has been w i d e l y  127 •recommended i s t h a t o f encouraging workers t o s e t t l e on the with their families  r a t h e r t h a n f o r the l a b o u r f o r c e t o  l a r g e l y o f s i n g l e . m e n separated from f a m i l y l i f e . mental and. d i f f i c u l t  job  consist  On the f u n d a -  problem of. general, t r a n s i t i o n from a t r a d i -  t i o n a l s o c i e t y w i t h s t r o n g f a m i l y , lineage, and. t r i b a l t i e s  to  t h a t o f an i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , no ready answer was g i v e n because i t was f e l t by the Working Group t h a t the  subject  was  bordered, by many u n c e r t a i n t i e s t h a t r e q u i r e d f u r t h e r s t u d i e s . 1 5 The T h i r d Groip  d e a l i n g w i t h housing and tav n p l a n n i n g ,  had the most e x t e n s i v e programme of a l l .  The v a r i o u s .communities  t h a t would be needed f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the the permenent  p r o j e c t and. a l s o  communities t h a t would be r e q u i r e d , f o r i t s  t i o n s were i n c l u d e d i n t h e , scope o f t h i s Working. Group*  operaThe  Group was a s s i s t e d , by D r . Otto Koenisberger o f the London S c h o o l o f Hygiene and T r o p i c a l M e d i c i n e , and by a m i s s i o n from the aluminium companies w h i c h v i s i t e d the. Gold. Coast, towards the end of. 1954 t o d i s c u s s the problems o f p l a n n i n g and a d m i n i s t e r i n g the s m e l t e r township.  The aluminium,companies.engaged  as town, p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t s ,  the f i r m of Mayer and W h i t t l e s e y ,  t o draw up an o u t l i n e  of a town plan, f o r , d i s c u s s i o n . w i t h  r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the Gold Coast Government.  rep-  The.town planners  s t r o n g l y advocated f o r the f o s t e r i n g o f v a r i e t y employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s o t h e r than the aluminium i n d u s t r y t o o f f s e t dangers of a o n e - i n d u s t r y town. housing at the  the  On t h e q u e s t i o n of temporary  c o n s t r u c t i o n s t a g e , a t t e n t i o n was devoted t o  most economic and e f f e c t i v e means o f s u p p l y i n g t h i s  the  need and o f  128  e n s u r i n g the removal o f such housing a f t e r the  construction  p e r i o d so as t o prevent the growth of u n d e s i r a b l e  settlements.  Design requirements i n r e l a t i o n t o p r e v a i l i n g c l i m a t i c c o n d i tions  and problems o f town a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and l o c a l , government  were a l s o studied, i n d e t a i l .  A major problem has-heen  the  assessment o f the probable impact o f the new communities, the smelter township, Investigations features  on e x i s t i n g towns and v i l l a g e s  were t h e r e f o r e  recommended, i n t o the  notably  i n the a r e a .  physical  and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f surrounding communities;  into  the v a r i o u s p h y s i c a l , developments t h a t , would be d e s i r a b l e i n the surrounding a r e a s ,  and i n t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d . f i n a n c i a l  measures a s s o c i a t e d , w i t h such  developments.16  The problems i n v o l v e d i n f e e d i n g the working f o r c e em_ ployed on the p r o j e c t and the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f l o c a l  foodstuffs  t o meet the demand, were the major concerns of the F i f t h Working Group.  Among the matters  considered were the best methods o f  supplementing the normal, d i e t , of the to increase  Gold Goast worker i n o r d e r  h i s p r o d u c t i v i t y which i s regarded as v e r y low.  was a l s o suggested t h a t one main meal per day o f s p e c i a l composition,  It  dietary  should be m a d e . a v a i l a b l e t o workers at a s u b s i d i z e d  price.17 The f i n a l Working Group was i n t e r e s t e d  i n the  health  and s a n i t a t i o n o f the new communities where the workers would be housed.  The i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  o f D r . Topping and P r o f e s s o r MacDonald  o f the London Scho6l~of—Hygiene  and T r o p i c a l Medicine were  0  129  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the work o f the Group.  These s t u d i e s were  concerned w i t h the m e d i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the  c o l l e c t i n g of  l a r g e numbers o f workers i n the l a b o u r f o r c e and the. r e q u i r e ments f o r h o s p i t a l s  and. d i s p e n s a r y s e r v i c e s .  The s p e c i a l h e a l t h problems i n v o l v e d i n the  creation  o f a vast new l a k e i n a t r o p i c a l , country where t h e r e were many water borne d i s e a s e s , were s t u d i e d by D r . Topping .and. P r o f e s s o r MacDonald.  The main problems i n v e s t i g a t e d were the need t o  t r o l the b l a c k f l y , Simulium, (the  c a r r i e r of  con-  river-blindness)  i n the neighborhood o f c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e s ; t o prevent the  estab-  lishment i n the l a k e o f a. major focus o f b i t h a r z i a l d i s e a s e , and t o guard a g a i n s t the exacerbation, of m a l a r i a around.the lake o r the  extension  of sleeping  s i c k n e s s along i t s  borders.  Dr.  Topping and P r o f e s s o r MacDonald were helped i n the work by the Gold. Coast m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s and e x p e r t s w i t h experience p i c a l , h e a l t h from. West A f r i c a and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . was a l s o made t o a g r i c u l t u r a l and f i s h e r i e s account could be t a k e n o f s u c h . f a c t o r s on f i s h l i f e  in tro-  Reference  e x p e r t s so t h a t  as t h e p o s s i b l e  o f the a p p l i c a t i o n o f i n s e c t i c i d e s  effects  to the lake o r  river.1^ Agriculture: The r e l a t i o n o f the p r o j e c t t o a g r i c u l t u r e . a n d k i n d r e d subjects,  such as f i s h e r i e s  and. f o r e s t r y , was i n v e s t i g a t e d  m a r i l y by the Gold Coast M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e . the i n v e s t i g a t i o n was concerned w i t h the p o s s i b l e  In t h i s effects,  prifield, both  130 l o n g - t e r m and s h o r t - t e r m , of the c r e a t i o n o f the l a k e i n . terms o f l o s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l land; developments i n the of  the  changes i n f i s h i n g p o t e n t i a l , - p o s s i b l e  c u l t i v a t i o n , o f marginal, l a n d s ; and.the  effects  change i n the flow o f the r i v e r below the Dam on the. con-  s i d e r a b l e f i s h i n g and a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s which.now take p l a c e i n the r i p a r i a n and c o a s t a l  region.19  Communications 5 i J I c , ; : ' A l o ^ t In  this  c o n n e c t i o n , the scope o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n c l u d e d  the survey and p l a n n i n g of the. most, s u i t a b l e , means o f communicat i o n between the v a r i o u s sections- o f the p r o j e c t , and.has. been centered p r i m a r i l y on the movement o f bauxite over the 200  miles  between the mines and the s m e l t e r .  on  many occasions had  I t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t  i n the past the o r i g i n a l plans for. communications  proved w i t h i n a p e r i o d o f y e a r s t o be inadequate or wrongly  conceived.  I t was t h e r e f o r e f e l t  v i c e on t h i s  a d v i s a b l e t o take s p e c i a l a d -  subject.  General G . N . R u s s e l l , Chairman o f B r i t i s h Road S e r vices, Coast.  was engaged t o undertake a g e n e r a l survey i n the His i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  Gold  covered not o n l y the movement o f  b a u x i t e but a l s o the means of. t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r aluminium from smelter t o p o r t and. the. movement o f the necessary  imports  t o the s m e l t e r .  the  The e n q u i r i e s were considered, a g a i n s t  background o f the developing, system o f communications i n the G o l d C o a s t , i n c l u d i n g the new P o r t o f Tema, a new b r i d g e at Adoni over the V o l t a near - the-- s i t e , of the Dam, and the new  t r u n k road proposed from Tema i n t o V o l t a Region v i a the new bridge.  2 0  Disturbance o f P o p u l a t i o n : A subject  o f major importance t o the  Gold Coast, which  was g i v e n a most, comprehensive and d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n was the g e n e r a l e f f e c t  o f the. new l a k e and the changes i n the  be-  h a v i o u r o f the water below the Dam on the p o p u l a t i o n i n the t h e i r p r o p e r t y and g e n e r a l way o f l i v i n g . . the  area,  With the a s s i s t a n c e o f  Gold Coast M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and o t h e r departments a  d e t a i l e d assessment-was made o f the number of people i n the a r e a , t h e i r p r o p e r t y and c r o p s , , and i n d i c a t i o n s were obtained of t h e i r wishes and probable plans i n the event o f the p r o j e c t being c a r r i e d forward.  P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o the  o f whether the peoples a f f e c t e d  question  had l a n d i n the neighboring, d i s -  t r i c t s t h a t would be u n a f f e c t e d by the P r o j e c t o r whether  special  arrangements would, be needed t o ensure t h a t l a n d would be a v a i l able t o them f o r r e s e t t l e m e n t .  The scope o f the  investigation  i n c l u d e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the p r i n c i p l e s under which compensat i o n would be payable and an assessment o f the t o t a l under t h i s  heading.  charge  2 1  Other q u e s t i o n s c i a l and economic f a c t o r s ,  c o n s i d e r e d were conderned w i t h f i n a n questions  of implementation o f the  p r o j e c t and p h a s i n g . o f the c o n s t r u c t i o n work i n r e l a t i o n t o g e n e r a l development programme o f the Gold C o a s t .  The p r e p a r a -  t i o n o f Statutesoiand Agreements t h a t would govern, the ment o f the V o l t a R i v e r A u t h o r i t y were a l s o  the  establish-  investigated. 2 2  132 The work achieved by the P r e p a r a t o r y Commission was quite B.  c o n s i d e r a b l e and t h e r e f o r e  cannot be overemphasized.  Leslie  Ginsburg commenting on the r e p o r t s o f the Commission, s t a t e d  thus: . . . t h e r e p o r t s o f the Commission r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s p l a n and the a t t i t u d e o f the Government o f Ghana r e v e a l a t r u e grasp o f the r i v e r b a s i n p r o j e c t as the b a s i s f o r the development of i n d u s t r y and the p l a n n i n g o f new towns, the growth o f i n d u s t r i e s f o r the new communities l i k e l y t o be needed, and at the same time the use o f the c o n t r o l l e d r i v e r . r i v e r waters f o r i n l a n d communications, ,and for agricultural-development. More use o f t h i s approach i s s u r e l y needed everywhere. 3 2  In  spite  o f t h e s e w e l l - d e s e r v e d p r a i s e s f o r the  work  done b y t h e P r e p a r a t o r y Commission, a fundamental q u e s t i o n needs t o be answered.  Throughout the r e p o r t o f the Commission, i t  was  f e l t t h a t the P r e p a r a t o r y Commission was almost e x c l u s i v e l y  con-  cerned w i t h h y d r o - e l e c t r i c i t y and aluminium;, i n o t h e r words  it  was f e l t  by the Commission t h a t the p r o j e c t had-to pay f o r  at l e a s t on one b a s i s ,  the aluminium i n d u s t r i e s .  itself  Although an  o u t l i n e o f a town p l a n was drawn f o r the smelter s i t e . , there was no such o u t l i n e f o r the r e g i o n as a whole.  While the o p p o r t u n i -  t i e s f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n the V o l t a B a s i n were  recognized,  no p r o v i s i o n s were made.for the multipurpose development  o f the  scheme: Apart from the d i r e c t f i n a n c i a l r e t u r n on the investment, many other advantages would accrue to the n a t i o n a l economy... . Opportunities f o r development of commerce a nd i n d u s t r i e s t h r o u g h the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f power, the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f new r a i l w a y s , the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f improved communications and water s u p p l i e s and the f a c i l -  133 i t i e s o f f e r e d by the new t o w n s h i p s . . . . The d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n and opening o f great p h y s i c a l a s s e t s , the t r a i n i n g o f people i n new s k i l l s and t r a d e s , t h e p r o s p e c t s o f major developments i n a g r i c u l t u r e and f i s h e r i e s . . . . 4 In spite  o f t h i s wide p e r s p e c t i v e shown by t h e Commis-  s i o n , no powers were g i v e n the V o l t a R i v e r A u t h o r i t y , the  sole  implementing, agency, t o c a r r y out these o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the f u l l development o f the V o l t a B a s i n . R i v e r Development A c t o f 1961,  I n S e c t i o n 10 o f the V o l t a  i t was. c l e a r t h a t the primary  duty o f the V o l t a R i v e r A u t h o r i t y (V R A) was . . . t o p l a n , execute and manage.the g e n e r a t i o n o f e l e c t r i c a l power, f o r the o p e r a t i o n of an aluminium i n d u s t r y and f o r g e n e r a l i n d u s t r i a l and domestic uses as the a u t h o r i t y may t h i n k f i t , and i n p a r t i c u l a r by the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a dam and t r a n s m i s s i o n s y s t e m . . . . Further duties of t h e V R A are t o p r o v i d e f o r the development o f the l a k e f o r a source o f f i s h i n g , as a route f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and the development o f l a k e s i d e a r e a f o r t h e h e a l t h and w e l l - b e i n g of t h e i n habit ants. 5 2  While s e v e r a l v i s i o n s were opened up by the P r e p a r a t o r y Commission, no o p e r a t i o n a l t o o l s , i n terms o f d e t a i l e d r e g i o n a l plais and adequate l e g i s l a t i v e  i n s t r u m e n t s were p r o v i d e d ;  the p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s were t h e r e f o r e l e f t  unfinished.  The Work o f the V o l t a R i v e r A u t h o r i t y (V. R. A . ) Fortunately,  a broader p e r s p e c t i v e has been t a k e n by  t h e V . R. A . by l a u n c h i n g a r e s e t t l e m e n t s e t t l e m e n t towns,  s u r v e y , plans, f o r r e -  d e s i g n a t i n g s u b s t a n t i a l new a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l  opments and new towns and by d r a f t i n g a f u l l . s c a t r e g i o n a l p l a n  134 f o r the V o l t a B a s i n . At the request  o f the C h i e f E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r o f  the  V o l t a R i v e r A u t h o r i t y , the V o l t a B a s i n R e g i o n a l P l a n 1970 was drawn i n June 1962 by the D i v i s i o n o f Town and Country P l a n n i n g o f the Ghana Government M i n i s t r y o f C o n s t r u c t i o n and. Communic a t i o n s w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e o f a U . N . R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g M i s s i o n to G h a n a .  2 6  Briefly stated,  the p l a n was as f o l l o w s :  the approach adopted i n drawing up  a r e g i o n a l development  i n which new  towns w i l l be i n t r o d u c e d as centers o f new i n d u s t r i e s indigeneous  raw m a t e r i a l s . •  A f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g such n a t i o n a l  elements as p o p u l a t i o n p a t t e r n , f o r 1970, f o r 1970 and the  based on  industrial  potentials  cross-country t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routes f o r  1970,  f o u r main t y p e s o f settlement were suggested f o r each o f the areas designated  as p l a n n i n g a r e a s :  Center V i l l a g e , a S a t e l l i t e  a C e n t r a l Town, a S e r v i c e  V i l l a g e , and a Farm House or Home-  stead. The planners were guided by three main o b j e c t i v e s i n drawing up the V o l t a B a s i n P l a n : from the  (i)  t o r e s e t t l e 70,000 people  area t o be occupied by the V o l t a Lake;  (2)  to plan f o r  a modern p a t t e r n o f a g r i c u l t u r e , i n d u s t r y and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n over the wider a r e a o f the V o l t a B a s i n which w i l l enable entire  area to benefit  the  from the P r o j e c t i n terms o f f r e s h water,  l a k e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , new n a t i o n a l highways, e l e c t r i c  power,  f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y , l i m e and other m i n e r a l i n d u s t r i e s , , change a g r i c u l t u r e and u r b a n i z a t i o n ; (3)  t o set  of  f o r t h the main p r o j e c t  135  o f the V o l t a B a s i n f o r a d o p t i o n i n ment P l a n ,  the new Seven $ e a r Develop-  1963-1970. P r o j e c t s which would r e q u i r e n a t i o n a l budgeting were:  agricultural  centers;  power l i n e s ;  highways;  p o r t s and channels;, h i g h - s c h o o l s  I t was f e l t  by t h e p l a n n e r s t h a t a l l these  hospitals.  equipment and i r r i g a t i o n ;  industries;  should be launched i n the V o l t a B a s i n at an e a r l y date  and projects because  o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r o d u c t i v i t y when supported.by t h e new water and power i n the  Basin. 7 2  The Region o f t h e V o l t a B a s i n has been d e f i n e d "the a r e a o f d i r e c t impact o f the V o l t a R i v e r P r o j e c t " .  as 2 8  .  It-  covers 20,000 square m i l e s and contains, a p o p u l a t i o n o f 7 2 5 , 0 0 0 people,  i.e.  20$ o f the n a t i o n a l l a n d o f Ghana and 11$  of the n a t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n . is  essentially  With the  In terms o f r e s o u r c e s ,  r u r a l depending on subsis.tance  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the  the  region  agriculture.  dam 500 megawatts o f power w i l l  be made a v a i l a b l e ; about 135,000 t o n s o f aluminium w i l l produced; and 120,000,000 acres f e e t  be  o f f r e s h water w i l l  become  available. In a d d i t i o n to these resources, lems o f r e s e t t l i n g  7 0 , 0 0 0 floodzone  t h e r e are a l s o prob-  residents  i n areas already  i n h a b i t e d by some 100,000 people.; o f i r r i g a t i n g some ,200,000 t o 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 acres o f the A c c r a p l a i n s and b r i n g i n g i n t o  fertility  the r a t h e r b a r r e n p a r t s o f the n o r t h e r n s e c t i o n  Volta  Basin.  The p l a n attempts to.j3.olve  o f the  and embrace these, problems  and o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h r o u g h r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g :  136 The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f i n d u s t r i e s i n t o new towns f i t s p e r f e c t l y w i t h i n a r e g i o n a l framework and c o n v e r s e l y can o n l y be brought about by r e g i o n a l planning. T h i s i s because o f the combination o f m a t e r i a l s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , l a b o u r and power which i s necessary i n order t o e s t a b l i s h i n d u s t r i e s at t h e i r right places. I n e f f e c t , t h i s i s the v e r y formula f o r the p o s i t i v e l o c a t i o n o f new towns i n proper geographic r e l a t i o n s h i p t o n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ^ a g r i c u l t u r e and man-power, w i t h e l e c t r i c power conducted t o the s e l e c t new town s i t e s . 9 2  There  are seven planning areas in the V o l t a B a s i n :  N o r t h , West, E a s t , South  and Lower V o l t a and Afram.and K r a c h i .  (see F i g u r e 5, following page0l36These areas were first ted  by the  i n 1956.  P r e p a r a t o r y Commission on the  Volta River Project  They have been supplemented by the a d d i t i o n of an  o u t e r boundary which i n d i c a t e s the r a d i u s o f p r o j e c t distinctive  geographic b a r r i e r s , convenient  impact,  administrative  boundaries and f a i r l y homogeneous s o c i a l and economic istics.  delinea-  The Lower V o l t a area was added t o the  B a s i n so t h a t  r e g i o n a l and l o c a l p l a n s may be developed t o r e f l e c t o f i r r i g a t i o n and i n d u s t r y as d i r e c t r e s u l t s  character-  o f the  the  coming  project.  These areas were proposed as the d e t a i l e d p l a n n i n g areas  of  f a i r l y homogeneous c h a r a c t e r . W i t h i n each p l a n n i n g a r e a , t h e r e are marked, as Development a r e a s , potentials  for  because t h e y o f f e r t h e  f o r population increase.  the bases o f topography,  soil,  and i n d u s t r i a l p o t e n t i a l s ,  best  These were s e l e c t e d on  rainfall,  defined t y p e s o f s e t t l e m e n t .  are p o r t i o n s which  vegetation,  suitability  Thus w i t h good a g r i c u l t u r a l  t h e y are capable of absorbing a  ;  -^p^-^g7in^N"---1970 PLANNING AREAS  137 l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n at h i g h e r d e n s i t i e s o f settlement than at present. The p l a n proposed t h a t t h e r e should be i n each p l a n n i n g area f o u r t y p e s o f s e t t l e m e n t s , namely,  a C e n t r a l Town,  a S e r v i c e Center V i l l a g e , a S a t e l l i t e V i l l a g e and a Farm House. W i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f 10,000, the C e n t r a l Town i s t o p l a y the functions the  of industry, trade,  seven p l a n n i n g a r e a s .  s e r v i c e and Government o f each o f  I t was recommended t h a t the C e n t r a l  town should be l o c a t e d where the best combination of b u l k water s u p p l i e s f o r i n d u s t r y , road t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , accessible minerals, are t o be f o u n d .  c a t t l e r o u t e s and a g r i c u l t u r a l raw m a t e r i a l s  The S e r v i c e  Center V i l l a g e s which w i l l h o l d an  average p o p u l a t i o n o f 3,000 people and not l e s s than 5,000 people,  i s t o be the l o c a l center o f t r a d e ,  indigeneous i n d u s t r y . including smaller the  It  education,  post and  i s t o serve a r a d i u s o f 10 o r 15 m i l e s  s e t t l e m e n t s and perform s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s  surrounding a g r i c u l t u r a l and marine i n d u s t r i e s .  The t h i r d  t y p e o f s e t t l e m e n t , the S a t e l l i t e V i l l a g e i s t o be l o c a t e d an a r e a o f i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l , f a r m i n g , a n d f i s h i n g ties.  It  processing crops,  is  for  in  activi-  a l s o t o be a place where some secondary a g r i c u l t u r a l  industries  livestock,  drawing upon the a r e a ' s supply of  feeds and f i s h may take p l a c e .  S i x o f these  s a t e l l i t e v i l l a g e s w i l l c o n t a i n a p o p u l a t i o n of 4,000. Houses o r homesteads are t o be c l u s t e r e d  food  The Farm  i n small t r a d i t i o n a l  v i l l a g e s around a s s k c & l , a market and l o r r y p a r k .  138  Methods used i n d e s i g n i n g the V o l t a B a s i n R e g i o n a l P l a n In  d r a f t i n g the V o l t a B a s i n P l a n , f i v e main.procedures  were used: f i r s t l y , the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n were i n v e s t i g a t e d ; 1970, was s e l e c t e d t o  of a g r i c u l t u r e , industry secondly,  c o i n c i d e w i t h the  Seven-Year Development P l a n 1 9 6 3 - 1 9 7 0 ,  a target, year,  completion o f Ghana's and the p o p u l a t i o n o f the  V o l t a B a s i n was p r o j e c t e d a c c o r d i n g l y from I960 t o 1970. p r o j e c t i o n s were made f o r each of. the the separate development a r e a s . developed: Type I Settlement  (the  Thirdly,  settlement types were  C e n t r a l Town), Type I I  (the S e r v i c e C e n t e r V i l l a g e ) , Type I I I Settlement  lite  V i l l a g e ) and Type IV Settlement conceived development  Similar  seven p l a n n i n g areas and f o r  ment  the  1970  Settle-  (the  (the Farm House).  Satel-  Fourthly,  i n the B a s i n was programmed i n t o t h r e e  s u c c e s s i v e s t a g e s , n a m e l y , . a 1965 P l a n , P l a n f o r 20 t o 3 0 y e a r development.  a 1970 P l a n ,  Finally,  an U l t i m a t e  a proposed p l a n of  e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r the V o l t a B a s i n was d i r e c t l y t i e d i n t o  Govern-  ment e x p e n d i t u r e s e s t i m a t e s f o r the planned seven-year p e r i o d 1963-1970.  Delineation of D e v e l o p m e n t J ^ t f t " ^ " Natural Features - Figure  1  fi  The p r i n c i p a l  thorough i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s first the  of the Basin.  The  part o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n was. c o n c e r n e d . w i t h a study o f  rainfall  forest  concern was a  zones o f the r e g i o n , o f h i g h l a n d a r e a s ,  reserves.  and o f  By an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e q u a n t i t y and d i s -  t r i b u t i o n o f t h e r a i n f a l l throughout the y e a r i n the  entire  139  B a s i n , i t w a s . p o s s i b l e t o determine the t y p e s o f a g r i c u l t u r e and methods o f farming which might be planned f o r w i t h i n the. d i f f e r ent zones.  I t was a l s o p o s s i b l e f o r the p l a n n e r s , through the  study o f the r a i n f a l l  zones, t o determine the p l a n n i n g and .type  o f water supply systems and the. cost of t h e water s u p p l y . b a s i s of the a n a l y s i s o f r a i n f a l l  zones,  On.the  areas o f h i g h r a i n f a l l  were recommended as s u i t a b l e f o r .intensive, a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p ment; zones o f low and v a r i a b l e r a i n f a l l were r e g a r d e d . a s u n s u i t a b l e f o r g e n e r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l development and would t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e s p e c i a l t r e a t m e n t at h i g h e r development  costs.  The second part o f the study o f the n a t u r a l  features  of the b a s i n was concerned w i t h an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f areas of excessive height, land.  rugged topography, s t e e p slopes o r v e r y f l a t  These areas were recommended as u n s u i t a b l e f o r  intensive  g e n e r a l development, e s p e c i a l l y o f urban s e t t l e m e n t s on account of e x c e s s i v e and. uneconomic c o s t s of l a n d development.  I t was  suggested,, however, t h a t some of the areas might be r e s e r v e d f o r s p e c i a l uses such as s p e c i a l types o f a g r i c u l t u r e , r e c r e a t i o n or as n a t u r a l areas f o r water c o n s e r v a t i o n . From the a n a l y s i s o f the F o r e s t Reserves, i t was r e commended t h a t development:" i n the r e s e r v e s s h o u l d be. p r o h i b i t e d as was the r u l e a l r e a d y and t h e r e was t o be no g e n e r a l d e v e l o p ment o r i n t e n s i v e s e t t l e m e n t  i n the f o r e s t r e s e r v e s  since t h e y  serve as sources, o f raw m a t e r i a l s f o r t i m b e r and wood p r o d u c t s , as s h e l t e r b e l t s a g a i n s t w i n d , as areas of s o i l c o n s e r v a t i o n and water catchment, and as areas f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f b i r d and animal  life.  140 Land Use and Product Zones - F i g u r e 7:  A p i c t u r e o f the  present  a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t i e s of^the l a n d w i t h i n the V o l t a B a s i n was p r o v i d e d by an a n a l y s i s o f the 1 and use i n . t e r m s o f broad p a t t e r n s of  farming and v e g e t a t i v e c o v e r .  Product zones were then.mapped  i n terms o f crops which are grown at present w i t h i n t h e . d i f f e r ent  zones.  Since p r o p o s a l s f o r f u t u r e development o f a g r i c u l t u r e  would be i n f l u e n c e d by e x i s t i n g - l a n d uses and p a t t e r n s o f f a r m i n g , a knowledge of e x i s t i n g  crops and methods o f f a r m i n g was c o n s i d e r -  ed necessary i f the p l a n n e r s were t o p l a n f o r t h e different., t y p e s of  crops t o be i n t r o d u c e d and encouraged i n the r e g i o n .  the i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,  From  areas o f low i n t e n s i t y o f farming, w e r e - r e g a r -  ded as u n l i k e l y t o support a l a r g e a g r i c u l t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n .  These  areas were t h e r f o r e r u l e d out o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r settlement because, t h e y would r e q u i r e s p e c i a l t r e a t m e n t ,  such as i r r i g a t i o n  or e x t e n s i v e f e r t i l i z a t i o n , which might prove expensive and  diffi-  c u l t i n the i n i t i a l "planning p e r i o d . L i t t l e farmed, f o r e s t e d areas f o r s e l e c t i v e t r e e  areas were c o n s i d e r e d p o t e n t i a l  cropping and capable o f s u p p o r t i n g pop-  u l a t i o n d u r i n g the l a t e r stages o f the development o f the In the f i r s t phase o f p l a n n i n g , these areas were, omitted from c o n s i d e r a t i o n as development Industrial Potentials  - F i g u r e 8*:  Basin.  nevertheless,  areas.  I n d u s t r i a l p o t e n t i a l s , were .  ennumerated and l i s t e d f o r each p l a n n i n g area and f o r c e r t a i n specific  locations.  to s a t i s f y  Related f a c i l i t i e s  and s e r v i c e s  necessary  the needs o f an i n d u s t r i a l p o p u l a t i o n and strengthen  the economic base o f the area were a l s o l i s t e d .  I t was considered  141  by the p l a n n e r s t h a t i n d u s t r i a l development was p o s s i b l e where there was a combination o f raw m a t e r i a l s w i t h power and water transportation f a c i l i t i e s .  Hence at l o c a t i o n s where power and  water were a v a i l a b l e and to which good communications made i t p o s s i b l e t o t r a n s p o r t raw m a t e r i a l s , the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d e v e l o p i n g i n d u s t r y were regarded as  good.  By l i s t i n g the i n d u s t r i a l p o t e n t i a l s cations,  i n different  a b a s i s was p r o v i d e d f o r drawing up p r i o r i t i e s f o r  i n d u s t r i a l investment  and s i t i n g o f i n d u s t r i e s , f o r programming  o f p u b l i c works and f o r assignment Transportation - Figure 9 :  of population.  C o r r i d o r s o f movement by d i f f e r e n t  media are shown on the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  Interdependent  lines  between centers w i t h h i g h demand f o r the interchange o f and goods are r e f l e c t e d first  lo-  i n these c o r r i d o r s .  persons  I n terms o f r o a d s ,  phase trunk roads were proposed t o r e - e s t a b l i s h the  con-  t i n u i t y i n the n a t i o n a l road system which would be i n t e r r u p t e d by the  c r e a t i o n o f the V o l t a Lake t o connect major o r i g i n des-  tination points,  and to p r o v i d e f a c i l i t i e s  o f the V o l t a B a s i n by h i g h speed,  direct  for l i n k i n g a l l parts  communications.  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n by means o f r a i l and water was p r i m a r i l y f o r movement o f heavy, b u l k y loads over l o n g The planners f e l t  t h a t the  miles o f water t r a n s p o r -  t a t i o n i n a n o r t h - s o u t h d i r e c t i o n and along the e a s t e r n country.  distances.  c r e a t i o n o f the V o l t a Lake provided an  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r development o f some 300  o f the  designed  section  The waterway and the r a i l w a y system would t h e r e -  142 f o r e p r o v i d e s e r v i c e w i t h i n the V o l t a B a s i n f o r t h a t k i n d o f movement and would l i n k the V o l t a B a s i n w i t h the r e s t of. the country.  T e r m i n a l s and p o r t s were t e n t a t i v e l y l o c a t e d at  able p o i n t s  suit-  and l o c a t i o n s where major s e t t l e m e n t s were l i k e l y  to  develop. P o p u l a t i o n Assignment - F i g u r e ]£):  A first  approximation o f  p o p u l a t i o n assignments had been.made f o r each planning area w i t h i n the V o l t a B a s i n i n o r d e r t o r e l a t e p o p u l a t i o n w i t h h o l d ing  c a p a c i t i e s o f the  areas and t o g a i n some i n d i c a t i o n o f  s i b l e maximum d e n s i t i e s and d e s i r a b l e w i t h i n the R e g i o n . . T h i s i s  distributions  shown on T a b l e  of  fea-  populations  26.  TABLE 26 P6BuT&'SI§N: ASSipMElSSS FOR PLANNING AREAS (I960 P l a n n i n g Area North V o l t a West V o l t a Afram South V o l t a East V o l t a Lower V o l t a Krachi  I960 33,000 £5,000 65,000 58,000 178,000 190,000 150,000  1970)  1970 60 66 000 96 000 86 260 260,000 104,000  Source: D i v i s i o n of Town and Country P l a n n i n g and N . N . R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g M i s s i o n t o Ghana. V o l t a Basin Plan 1970 - P o p u l a t i o n Assignments. 1962. (adapted) Development  Areas o r a r e a s s u i t a b l e  f o r intensive general  develop-  ment and capable o f a b s o r b i n g an i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n , were d e l i n e a t e d through an a n a l y s i s  of the  elements o f t h e N a t u r a l  F e a t u r e Map, and the Land Use and Product Zones Map, t o g e t h e r  PKEPARED bY THE  iLr A,  iff  DIVISION Of TOWN 6- COUNTRY RAWING WTH THE ASSISTANCE OT T « L  UM. REGIONAL PLANNING MISSION JUNE, 1962  WEST VOLT A  (EAST  •  nm  WratSAsa-frrtlL  MGIONAL lOUWDARY PLANNING AtlA BOUND* BY DlVtLOPWIEMT AUA  V  -..  VICINITY *0« TYPI I VICINITY  FOR PORT  SlTTLlMtNT  J?(Q)j?fLMII(fl)N ASSnSKIMEMf  10  143  w i t h an assessment o f a g r i c u l t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l  potentials.  T a b l e 22 shows p o p u l a t i o n assignments by development areas and by g r o s s d e n s i t i e s per square  mile.  TABLE 27' POPULATION ASSIGNMENTS BY PLANNING AREAS, DEVELOPMENT AREAS AND BY GROSS DENSITIES. I960 - 1970 P l a n n i n g Area  North V o l t a West V o l t a Afram South V o l t a East V o l t a Lower V o l t a Krachi  I960 Population  I960 Gross Dens i t y per sq. mile.  38,000 45,000 65,000 58,000 178,000 190,000 150,000  9 9 19 166 105 120 54  1 9 7 0 1 9 7 0 P o p u l a t i o n Gross Dens i t y per sq. mile. 27 34 79 245 174 I63 104  60,000 66,000 96,000 86,000 210,000 260,000 104,000  Source T D i v i s i o n of Tpwn and Country P l a n n i n g and U . N . R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g M i s s i o n to Ghana. V o l t a Basin.. P l a n 1970 - P o p u l a t i o n Assignments 1962. (adapted) The development  a r e a s were c o n s i d e r e d ,  therefore,  as those areas  p o s s e s s i n g good a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l , which would p r o v i d e the f o r s e t t l e m e n t ; as h a v i n g n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , l i m e s t o n e d e p o s i t s ; and as areas t h a t water,  power and. communication.  such as  basis  forests,  could, be s e r v i c e s w i t h  Thus, w i t h good a g r i c u l t u r a l  and i n d u s t r i a l p o t e n t i a l s the Development.Areas were recommended as a r e a s capable o f a b s o r b i n g a l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n at d e n s i t i e s of s e t t l e m e n t i n the  future.30  higher  144  Settlement Types Four types o f settlements were developed as f o l l o w s : (1)  Type I S e t t l e m e n t , the C e n t r a l Town, w i t h f u n c t i o n s t o i n -  clude i n d u s t r y , t r a d e , s e r v i c e and government, were t o be l o c a t e d where a s t r o n g combination o f economic r e s o u r c e s c o u l d be brought t o g e t h e r .  The assumed i n i t i a l s i z e f o r d e s i g n f o r  water, r o a d s , p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s , and i n d u s t r i a l a r e a was t o be 10,000 p o p u l a t i o n .  (2)  Type I I S e t t l e m e n t s , t h e S e r v i c e Center  V i l l a g e s , were made the l o c a l centers o f t r a d e , e d u c a t i o n , p o s t , and indigeneous i n d u s t r y and were t o serve a r a d i u s o f t e n o r f i f t e e n m i l e s i n c l u d i n g numerous s m a l l e r s e t t l e m e n t s .  (3)  Type  I I I S e t t l e m e n t s , t h e S a t e l l i t e V i l l a g e s , were t o be c e n t e r s o f i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l , farming o r f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e cash economy.  I n t h e s e S a t e l l i t e V i l l a g e s some secondary a g r i c u l -  t u r a l p r o c e s s i n g i n d u s t r i e s , drawing upon the a r e a ' s supply o f food c r o p s , l i v e s t o c k feeds and f i s h were t o be developed. (4)  Type IV S e t t l e m e n t s , the Farm Houses and Homesteads, were  developed as c l u s t e r s o f t r a d i t i o n a l s m a l l v i l l a g e s around a s c h o o l , market o r l o r r y park.  I t was recommended i n t h i s  con-  n e c t i o n t h a t some o f these farm houses might take the form o f the Husa p a t t e r n , 3 1 depending on the movement o f communications and farm t e c h n o l o g y .  145 P o p u l a t i o n P r o j e c t i o n and Assignments. The p o p u l a t i o n i n each p l a n n i n g r e g i o n was determined from t h e 1948 and I960 census d a t a , a f t e r s u i t a b l e were made, f o r d i f f e r e n c e s planning areas.  adjustments  i n boundaries o f census d i v i s i o n s and  Crude annual r a t e s p f i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n  were found by a v e r a g i n g - t h e r r a t e o f i n c r e a s e over t h e p e r i o d 1943-1960.  A d j u s t e d r a t e s o f i n c r e a s e over t h e p e r i o d . I960 t o  1970 were c a l c u l a t e d by a p p l y i n g the f o l l o w i n g (1)  factors:  An a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l i t y f a c t o r , based on the  c a p a c i t y o f the a r e a ( s o i l . , water)  natural  and the a b i l i t y of. the  area  t o accomodate improved and i n t e n s i f i e d p a t t e r n s o f a g r i c u l t u r e ; (ii)  and i n d u s t r i a l - p o t e n t i a l i t y f a c t o r , based on t h e  r e s o u r c e s o f the a r e a , i t s for  natural  existing facilities,and its  potential  combining the elements necessary f o r i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t .  The a d j u s t e d r a t e s t h u s found were compounded, and a p p l i e d t o I960 p o p u l a t i o n s t o g i v e 1970 p o p u l a t i o n s f o r p l a n n i n g a r e a s . 3 2 The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n each p l a n n i n g a r e a was made on the p l a n n i n g area w i l l  f o l l o w i n g assumptions:  (l)  that  each  support at l e a s t one C e n t r a l Town (Type I ..  Settlement)  which i s  a town w i t h an i n d u s t r i a l base,  the  level of  s e r v i c e s t o the area and, i n t u r n ,  highest  i n g on t h e area f o r the bulk o f i t s (2)  I I I and IV Settlements  depend-  raw m a t e r i a l s and s u p p l i e s ;  t h a t p o p u l a t i o n o u t s i d e Type I Settlements  t o Type I I ,  providing  were to be  on the b a s i s  standards and s t a n d a r d s f o r n&niraum s e r v i c e s  of  assigned  agricultural  and f a c i l i t i e s . 3 3  A s t a t i s t i c a l u n i t o f 20,000 p o p u l a t i o n i s used t o determine the  146  number o f Type I I and I I I Settlements w i t h i n each p l a n n i n g a r e a . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n f o r the u n i t i s as One - Type I I  8,000  (average)  S i x - Type I I I  4,000  Type IV  8,000  (range: 5 , 0 0 0  20,000  Total:  follows: 10,000)  (3 4 )  A g r i c u l t u r a l d e n s i t y based on the t h e o r e t i c a l  distri-  and IV Settlements i s 3 4 0 p o p u l a t i o n per  b u t i o n f o r Type I I I square m i l e , t h a t i s T a b l e 2 3 shows the  -  20,000 persons i n an area o f 60 square  miles.  assignment o f p o p u l a t i o n by Settlement T y p e s .  TABLE 2g  J  POPULATION BY SETTLEMENT TYPES P o p u l a t i o n i n Type I I , I I I , Planning Population i n IV, Settlements. No. o f Area Type I S e t t l e T y p e ment. Pop. i n D e v e l . P o p . o u t s i d e IT. area at 1 9 7 0 d e v e l . area density. at I960 density. North Volta West Volta  No. of Type III.  15,000  18,500  26,500  2  12  10,000  18,000  17,000  2  12  Afram 1 5 , < South Volta 50,000 East Volta 30,000 Lower Volta 20,000 Krachi 15,000  26,000  55,000  4  24  2  18,000  50,000  11  12 66 66  240,000 89,000  96,000  12 9  72 54  36,000  Source: D i v i s i o n o f Town and Country P l a n n i n g and U . N« R e g i o a l P l a n n i n g M i s s i o n ot Ghana ' V o l t a ^ B a s i n Plan 1 9 7 0 P o p u l a t i o n Assignments (1962) (adapted).  147 Stages o f Development I t was recommended t h a t the t i m e - s c a l e should extend beyond 1965 r e s e t t l e m e n t  f o r planning  s t a g e , beyond t h e  1970  t a r g e t date o f the Seven-Year Development P l a n , and s h o u l d u l t i m a t e l y concern i t s e l f w i t h the u s e f u l l i f e installations  l i k e highways,  of the  largest  i n d u s t r i e s , and new towns.  u l t i m a t e stage was d e s c r i b e d as  The  follows:  Indeed, t h i s u l t i m a t e stage i s the most import a n t one f o r c r e a t i n g a framework W i t h i n which i n t e r m e d i a t e designs f o r r e s e t t l e m e n t , water s u p p l i e s and l o c a l roads can be drawn w i t h assurance. The u l t i m a t e model must be an exp r e s s i o n Of n a t i o n a l p o l i c y and optimum d e v e l o p ment of economic geography i n t h i s a r e a . 3 5 The v a r i o u s stages o f development  are as f o l l o w s :  i s a 1965 P l a n - which i s e s s e n t i a l l y  Firstly,  for resettlement,  the new a g r i c u l t u r a l and v i l l a g e p r o j e c t a r e a s .  In t h i s  there  showing connec-  t i o n a survey of a l l tho se to be r e s e t t l e d has been conducted c o v e r i n g such f a c t o r s as t h e i r t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , t r i b a l b u t i o n , economic a c t i v i t i e s ,  distri-  the p r e c i s e number o f s c h o o l s ,  houses,  rooms, the nature o f f e t i s h e s and whether the f e t i s h e s were moveable o r n o t ; ment. 36  and g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e s  o f the people towards  resettle-  Town and Country plans have a l r e a d y been drawn f o r  Akosombo and the f i r s t  p r i o r i t y resettlement  towns o f Nkwagubew  Kete K r a c h i and Worabong. Secondly t h e r e i s a 1970 P l a n shewing a p p l i c a t i o n s o f the Seven-Year Development p l a n i n the V o l t a Lake B a s i n , locations,  i n c l u d i n g p o r t s , highways, i n d u s t r i a l  e l e c t r i c i t y g r i d and l o a d  centers.  148 F i n a l l y there  is  an  U l t i m a t e P l a n f o r a 2 0 t o 3 0 year development, s t a b i l i z e d l a n d use  showing f u l l and  f o r a g r i c u l t u r e and i n d u s t r y , f u l l  o f highways and p o r t s ,  pattern  and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n , urban and  rural.37  F i n a n c i a l Programme Since t h e r e financial  c o u l d be no development w i t h o u t a long term  programme f o r t h e major i n s t a l l a t i o n s  of  industry,  a g r i c u l t u r e , towns , p o r t s and c o n s e r v a t i o n measures, recommended t h a t  estimated  expenditures  stage p l a n s and i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the  it  should be madefrom the  national capital  investment  programme'.38  The a c t u a l f i g u r e s  not,  shown i n t h e V o l t a B a s i n P l a n ; but from t h e  draft  however, o f the  planned  f o r proposed expenditures were  Ghana Seven-Year Development  V o l t a B a s i n w i l l account period.39  was  Plan,  1963-1970,  first the  f o r 9 . 3 $ o f t o t a l expenditure d u r i n g the  149  Assessment of the P l a n arid Recommendations f o r Development P l a n n i n g i n Ghana In Chapter I I o f the present made t o o u t l i n e  s t u d y , an attempt  some o f the e s s e n t i a l s o f r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g as  a method of p l a n n i n g f o r balanced development. that  was  I t was  stressed  r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i m p l i e s t h a t due c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be  g i v e n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t o a l l f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the  development  process even though they might not o r could not a l l be acted on simultaneously.  T h i s concept o f the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g approach  t o development p l a n n i n g must be borne i n mind i n any assessment o f the V o l t a R i v e r B a s i n P l a n . The p l a n n i n g process i n v o l v e s : implementation and r e v a l u a t i o n .  survey, a n a l y s i s ,  plan,  The V o l t a R i v e r P l a n has achieved  a remarkable success i n the f i r s t t h r e e stages of the planning process as has been shown by a d i s c u s s i o n o f the work o f the Ghana Government t h r o u g h the P r e p a r a t o r y Commission and the V o l t a River Authority.  At the  stages o f s u r v e y , a n a l y s i s and p l a n ,  every e f f o r t was made to g i v e due c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o some of the important s o c i a l , economic, and p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the development p r o c e s s .  Although c e r t a i n phases o f the  implementation have a l r e a d y begun i n terms o f the o f the dam and the r e s e t t l e m e n t  stage o f  construction  o f the p o p u l a t i o n t h a t  V o l t a Lake w i l l f l o o d when the dam i s  completed,  it  the  i s too  early  yet to pass judgment on the achievements made so f a r r e g a r d i n g implementation.  150 What was s i g n i f i c a n t to the  however about the p l a n i n r e l a t i o n  stage o f implementation was the f a c t t h a t  g i v e n to the establishment  due thought  o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body charged w i t h  the s o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f implementing the p l a n . end o f Chapter I I , an e f f e c t i v e  it  was s t a t e d t h a t  Towards the  i t was necessary t o  establish  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body t o implement any r e g i o n a l p l a n  designed f o r a p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n . point was not the  The warning was g i v e n t h a t  c r e a t i o n o f s p e c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e bodies  s p i t e o f the r e l a t i v e advantages  e x i s t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , but would a l s o enable planning to become the norm f o r development  present  I n t h i s r e s pe c t ,  the  in  o f these s p e c i a l b o d i e s , but the  c r e a t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e agencies which not o n l y f i t t e d  country.  was  into  regional  p l a n n i n g throughout  the V o l t a R i v e rA u t h o r i t y , as i t  is  d e s i g n e d , w i l l s u r e l y f a i l towards the development  r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g medium throughout Ghana.  the  the  at  of a  T h i s i s because the  V o l t a R i v e r A c t , 1961, which created t h e V o l t a R i v e r A u t h o r i t y , g i v e s l i m i t e d powers t o the A u t h o r i t y f o r the f u l l the R e g i o n .  As has been p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r , the V . R . A .  two r e a l powers:  a source o f f i s h i n g ,  development inhabitants.  has o n l y  of l a k e s i d e  development  o f the  lake  as a route f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and the area f o r the h e a l t h and w e l l - b e i n g o f  With these l i m i t e d powers, the V . R . A .  regarded as a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g agency. that V . R . A .  of  to p l a n , execute and manage the g e n e r a t i o n of  e l e c t r i c a l power, and t o provide f o r the for  development  It  cannot be  is possible,  might h e l p i n f o s t e r i n g the development,  however,  throughout  the V o l t a B a s i n , o f c e r t a i n r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s f u n c t i o n s as was shown i n the d i s c u s s i o n o f T . V . A .  and  i n Chapter I I .  151  This i s  a l o n g e r method of i n t r o d u c i n g the r e g i o n a l , p l a n n i n g method  to development p l a n n i n g i n Ghana.  I n a d d i t i o n , V . R . A . might  i t f r u s t r a t i n g to operate f u n c t i o n a l l y already e x i s t i n g regional Region, namely,  and e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h  administrative  find the  agencies i n the V o l t a  the Town and Country P l a n n i n g R e g i o n a l branch and  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  and p o l i t i c a l R e g i o n a l O f f i c e s  o f the V o l t a  Region. I n the  light  o f these shortcomings  A u t h o r i t y as a r e g i o n a l are made t o f a c i l i t a t e planning organization  of the V o l t a R i v e r  p l a n n i n g agency, the f o l l o w i n g  the development of a more e f f i c i e n t  An Expanded S e c r e t a r i a t Commission.  (2)  Expanded Regional Planning O f f i c e s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g i o n s o f Ghana. As was s t a t e d i n the  o f the  National  for eight of  of a p o l i c y - m a k i n g s e c t i o n and the f u n c t i o n a l  d i r e c t e d at the  country,  technical  The present  commission r e l a t i n g to the  The proposed o r g a n i z a t i o n as  proposal  o f the N a t i o n a l Planning Commission  s e c t i o n o f the  o f the  expanded  follows:  (1)  D i r e c t o r of National  (2)  Economist  (3)  Social Scientist  (s) (s)  Planning  the  consists  is  functional  committees.  Commission i s  the  committees s e c t i o n .  committees c o n s i s t s o f  s e r v a n t s and s p e c i a l i s t s and t e c h n i c i a n s .  f o r an expanded s e c r e t a r i a t  the  s o l e body charged w i t h  o f p l a n n i n g f o r development i n the  The s e c t i o n o f the f u n c t i o n a l  Planning  l a s t paragraph of Chapter I I I ,  Ghana N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, the  civil  regional  i n Ghana:  (1)  responsibility  proposals  National  PROPOSED ORGANIZATION OF THE! NATIONAL PLANNING COMMISSION ( S t a f f Section) CABIBET  NATIONAL PLANNING COMMISS• ION ,.  Director  Economist(s) llmi  Social  Scientist(s)  EIGHT \8 REGIONAL  P h y s i c a l Planner(s)  Development: Accountant  OFFICES \  Director  R e g i o n a l Planner Urban Planner  C i v i l Engineer  Architect Site-Planner  Development Accountant  152 (4)  P h y s i c a l Planner  (5)  Development  In Chapter I I I ,  (s)  Accountant  (s)  i t was s t a t e d t h a t the D i v i s i o n of Town  and Country P l a n n i n g of t h e M i n i s t r y o f C o n s t r u c t i o n and Communic a t i o n s has Regional o f f i c e s regions o f Ghana. directed  i n seven o f the nine  administrative  The p r o p o s a l f o r expanded r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s  at the r e g i o n a l  is  o f f i c e s o f the Town and Country P l a n n i n g  Division. The O r g a n i z a t i o n of the proposed Expanded Regional Offices  i s as  follows:  (1)  Director  (2)  Regional P l a n n e r  (3)  Urban Planner  (4)  Civil  (5)  A r c h i t e c t - S i t e Planner  (6)  Development  (s)  (s)  Engineer  Accountant  F i g u r e 11, f o l l o w i n g  page 151 shows the  proposed  organi-  z a t i o n of the N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission and the Regional Offi It consideration  i s recognized organization  recommended t h a t the  t h a t the present p r o p o s a l l e a v e s out at the l o c a l  structure  levels.  It  is  of t r a d i t i o n a l l o c a l  of  therefore  council organi-  z a t i o n s be i n v e s t i g a t e d and r e l a t e d a c c o r d i n g l y t o the regional  ces.  proposed  organizations. F i g u r e 12, f o l l o w i n g  relationship  page 152 shews the  functional  between the Expanded N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission and  the o t h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  and development agencies o f  Ghana.  PROPOSED FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPANDED NATIONAL COMMISSION AND OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE & DEVELOPMENT AGENCIES--.  PLANNING  CABINET  NATIONAL PLANNING  MINISTRIES  REGIONAL PLANNING OFFICES  .REGIONAL ADMINISTRATIV & CONSTRUCTION AGENCIES  -COMMISSION...  ro  . AGENCIES RESPONSIBLE FOR DEVELOPMENT  REGIONAL  AGENCIES  153 The problem of Resettlement was g i v e n c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n at the s u r v e y , a n a l y s i s and p l a n stages o f the p l a n n i n g process.  F o r example, resettlement  w i l l not be allowed to take  i t s n a t u r a l course but has been so designed that by the time the V o l t a Lake i s  c r e a t e d , t h e r e w i l l be r a t i o n a l l y designed new  v i l l a g e s and towns t o accommodate the f l o o d zone p o p u l a t i o n .  In  a d d i t i o n , household gods and f e t i s h e s were g i v e n a prominftnt p l a c e i n the r e s e t t l e m e n t them whenever i t was It  exercise;  great care was t a k e n t o  resettle  possible.  i s necessary t o examine some of the b a s i c  and recommendations made i n the p l a n at t h i s s t a g e .  assumptions  One of the  b a s i c assumptions made by the p l a n n e r s was t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n of the V o l t a B a s i n w i l l i n c r e a s e from 725,000 i n I960 t o 1,028,000 i n 1970.  I n Chapter I I I o f t h e present s t u d y , i t has been shown from  the a n a l y s i s o f p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Ghana t h a t since  1948,  the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f Ghana rose from 4,118,000 t o 6,726,280 i n I960.  T h i s i s a 63% i n c r e a s e i n 12 y e a r s . I t was p o i n t e d out t h a t the r a t e o f n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e o f  the Ghana p o p u l a t i o n was estimated t o be around 2.5$ and that Ghana l i k e most West A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s was e x p e r i e n c i n g a d e c l i n i n g i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y r a t e because o f improved h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , high b i r t h r a t e  (45 per 1000).  and a  I t was s t r e s s e d t h a t the country  was e s s e n t i a l l y a country o f m i g r a t i o n w i t h 12$ o f the t o t a l popul a t i o n i n I960 b e i n g immigrants coming e s p e c i a l l y from the n e i g h b o r i n g West A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s .  .  On the b a s i s of these f a c t s the assumption of a popul a t i o n i n c r e a s e i n the V o l t a B a s i s appears p e r f e c t l y v a l i d .  In  154  a d d i t i o n t o these f a c t o r s increase  i n d i c a t i n g a t r e n d towards  i n the B a s i n , the new economic  created i n the r e g i o n by the  population  c o n d i t i o n s being c u r r e n t l y  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the dam a c r o s s  V o l t a should generate a s u b s t a n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n i n the  the  region.  I t was recommended i n t h e P l a n t h a t new towns should be created i n each o f the seven p l a n n i n g a r e a s .  I t was s t r e s s e d t h a t  f o u r o f the new towns be c r e a t e d immediately.  The recommendation  was not designed  simply to  cope w i t h the a n t i c i p a t e d i n c r e a s e  in  the p o p u l a t i o n i n the V o l t a B a s i s but a l s o t o r e l i e v e the burden o f excess p o p u l a t i o n o f the e x i s t i n g c e n t r e s o f the c o u n t r y . of the present  major urban p o p u l a t i o n  I t was i n d i c a t e d i n Table 3 on page  study t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n of most of the major towns  o f Ghana i n I960 has morethan doubled since the A c c r a , the i n c r e a s e  e x c e s s i v e urban c o n c e n t r a t i o n s  138$,  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these  o f p o p u l a t i o n are the r e l a t e d problems  of h o u s i n g , o v e r - c r o w d i n g , unemployment,  toward the  In  172$.  i s a well-known f a c t t h a t  o t h e r forms of  census.  i n p o p u l a t i o n was 250$, i n Kumasi i t was  and i n T a k o r a d i - S e k o n d i , i t was It  1948  s o c i a l maladjustment.  c r i m e , m a l n u t r i t i o n , and  I n a d d i t i o n , the  movement  c i t i e s o b v i o u s l y robs the r u r a l areas o f v i g o r o u s man-  power and s i m p l y adds to the p i l e - u p o f poor u n t r a i n e d l a b o u r i n the  cities.  I n the  l i g h t o f these f a c t s ,  the recommendation f o r  d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n i s a move i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . With new i n d u s t r i e s based on e l e c t r i c i t y and not on c o a l ,  it  should be easy to take i n d u s t r y to the worker and not the  reverse.  R e l a t e d to the recommendation f o r d e c e n t r a l i s a t i o n of population], i s another p r o p o s a l f o r the establishment  o f new  155  i n d u s t r i e s based on indigenous raw m a t e r i a l s . the p o s s i b l e  The p l a n l i s t e d  i n d u s t r i e s as vegetable and f r u i t p a c k i n g , canning  and f r e e z i n g i n d u s t r i e s ;  meat and f i s h p a c k i n g , l e a t h e r and. t e x t i l e  i n d u s t r y ; l i m e and m i n e r a l - r e f i n i n g i n d u s t r y ; wood p r o d u c t s , and paper i n d u s t r y ; c o t t o n i n d u s t r y , e t c .  With a s u r p l u s o f 150 mega-  watts o f power from the dam, easy communication by r o a d ,  r a i l and  water over the V o l t a L a k e , and cheap under-employed l a b o u r i n the region,  it  should be p o s s i b l e  t o e s t a b l i s h the new i n d u s t r i e s .  was i n d i c a t e d i n Chapter I I I that  It  61.5$ o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f  Ghana i n I960 were employed i n primary p r o d u c t i o n i n terms o f agriculture, industries  fishing,  and f o r e s t r y .  is therefore  The recommendation f o r new  very laudable.  The weakness o f the p l a n w i t h regard t o i t s  recommenda-  t i o n on new i n d u s t r i e s based on indigenous raw m a t e r i a l s ,  l i e s not  so much i n the types o f i n d u s t r i e s recommended, but r a t h e r i n the f a c t t h a t the p l a n t a k e s f o r granted the a v a i l a b i l i t y of "factors o f economic p r o d u c t i o n , namely, c a p a c i t y w i t h i n the  Ghanaian p o p u l a t i o n .  c a p i t a l and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l While the  plan studied  i n d e t a i l the v a r i o u s indigenous raw m a t e r i a l s e x i s t i n g Basin,  it  f a i l e d completely to  materials.  other  i n the  i n v e s t i g a t e indigenous human raw  No mention was made of the p o s s i b l e ways o f encouraging  the e x i s t i n g  social institutions  which was r e s p o n s i b l e  such as the extended f a m i l y system  f o r the expansion of the cocoa i n d u s t r y , o r  the t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n of l a n d ownership and f a r m i n g , as the f o r the  Volta  c r e a t i o n of the new i n d u s t r i e s . Furthermore, no attempt wasmade to  s t r u c t u r e of any o f the  study the  present  e x i s t i n g economic o r g a n i z a t i o n s and  basis  156  institutions associated  i n the r e g i o n e s p e c i a l l y the economic  w i t h farming o p e r a t i o n s ,  organizations  i n o r d e r t o recommend measures  necessary f o r the s t r u c t u r a l change o f these economic It was i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s n e c e s s a r i l y be i n i m i c a l to  institutions.  study t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l i s m need not  economic growth; i t may t h e r e f o r e  be  p o s s i b l e to promote economic growth i n an a p p a r e n t l y t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y by t h i s  j u d i c i o u s d i r e c t i o n of economic growth through  the proper c u l t u r a l  lines.  The r o l e o f e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p i n any form of i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n p o l i c y cannot be overemphasized.  P r o f e s s o r A r t h u r Lewis  i n h i s r e p o r t on I n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n and the Gold Coast s t a t e d t h a t . . . . t h e c r u c i a l t e s t o f an I n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n policyi s not how r a p i d l y i t i n c r e a s e s employment or o u t p u t , but how r a p i d l y i t b u i l d s up A f r i c a n e n t e r p r i s e . ^ The vacuum c r e a t e d i n respect human resotr ces and e s p e c i a l l y  of the p o s s i b i l i t y o f using l o c a l o f indigenous managerial s k i l l ,  c r u c i a l t o r e a l i z a t i o n of most of the major recommendations o f plan.  It  i s known f o r a f a c t t h a t most o f Ghana's present  is the  entre-  preneurs would continue t o flow predominantly i n t o f a r m i n g , r e a l  ~  43  e s t a t e , and t r a d i n g as i n the p a s t . some s t r u c t u r a l changes i n the present employment.  • • • The problem i s t o  effect  p a t t e r n of p r o d u c t i o n and  T h i s can o n l y be done by s t u d y i n g the present  practices  and managerial c a p a c i t y o f these a g r i c u l t u r a l entrepreneurs. P r o f e s s o r A r t h u r Lewis gave f i v e the  headings under which  study o f the p r a c t i c e s and managerial c a p a c i t y o f these  preneurs may be i n v e s t i g a t e d :  (l)  entre-  the management of p h y s i c a l  r e s o u r c e s or the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a smooth flow o f work through the  157  farm o r f a c t o r y , t h e h a n d l i n g o f m a t e r i a l s and the care of machinery or t o o l s ;  (2) the keeping and use o f r e c o r d s o f s t o c k ,  orders,  costs,  d e b i t s and c r e d i t s ;  (3) the management o f men i n the  of the  selection  d i s c i p l i n e , l o c a l i t y , delegation  of s t a f f ,  d u t i e s and a u t h o r i t y ;  (4) management i n terms of  sense of  c u t t i n g out  w a s t e , a d j u s t i n g r e s o u r c e s t o t h e flow o f o u t p u t , the s e t t i n g p r i c e s and payment f o r goods; 43 doing b u s i n e s s .  of  (5) the managerial i n t e g r i t y i n  I t i s not b e i n g suggested here t h a t a profound study be made o f these f a c t o r s before i n t r o d u c i n g the new i n d u s t r i e s . mere reference to them i n the p l a n would have been  satisfactory.  But t o ignore them t u r n s t h e p l a n f o r the V o l t a B a s i n i n t o t y p i c a l western a t t i t u d e  of introducing into A f r i c a  A  the  western  techniques — t e c h n i q u e s o f p r o d u c t i o n , techniques o f government, t e c h n i q u e s of l i v i n g  with l i t t l e  of the A f r i c a n environment.  o r no r e g a r d f o r the  I f r e g i o n a l planningas a method of  development p l a n n i n g i n the new n a t i o n s i s to succeed, p l a n n i n g w i l l have to  realities  regional  a c q u i r e some o f these new dimensions o f  l o o k i n g at the problems p e c u l i a r to the environment of the new nations. Perhaps i t was taken f o r grart ed t h a t the Ghana Government would p r o v i d e the necessary c a p i t a l f o r investment the new i n d u s t r i e s recommended i n the p l a n . matter i s t h a t the  to£52.7 m i l l i o n .  o f the  Government of Ghana has simply not got  money needed f o r the new i n d u s t r i e s . of payment d e f i c i t  The f a c t  o f £13.5 m i l l i o n . The d e f i c i t  in  the  I n I960, Ghana had a balance T h i s rose by 57$ i n 1961  balance o f payments problem has  been the t r e n d i n t h e economy of Ghana s i n c e 1956. The e x t e r n a l  158 r e s e r v e s of Ghana have been s t e a d i l y used t o f i n a n c e the  deficit. 45  T h i s measure has reduced the r e s e r v e s to £L4 m i l l i o n i n 1 9 6 1 . The V o l t a R i v e r A u t h o r i t y , t h e agency r e s p o n s i b l e f o r development i n the Volta B a s i n ,  i s expected t o operate on a budget o f £ 4 0  m i l l i o n throughout the p e r i o d o f c o n s t r u c t i o n of the dam. m i l l i o n has been earmarked f o r resettlement  The £ 4 0  and compensation.  Unless some more money i s made a v a i l a b l e to the A u t h o r i t y , difficult  to  it  is  seehow the new i n d u s t r i e s c o u l d get o f f the ground  through government i n i t i a t i v e . need f o r e f f e c t i n g  structural  I t i s f o r these reasons that the changes i n e x i s t i n g economic i n s t i -  t u t i o n s becomes c r u c i a l . Another weakness o f the p l a n i s silence  over extending t h e  'area of impact  P r o j e c t beyond the boundaries of Ghana. the dam, i s  r e l a t e d to i t s 1  utter  o f the V o l t a R i v e r  Akosombo, the  s i t e of  l e s s than seventy m i l e s from the b o r d e r s of the  R e p u b l i c o f Togo.  Even without s p e c i f y i n g development  i n Togo based on power r e s u l t i n g from the  potentials  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the dam,  a mere mention of t h e f a c t would have been e n c o u r a g i n g .  Any such  mention would have been i n keeping w i t h the a s p i r a t i o n s o f the l e a d e r s o f Ghana f o r A f r i c a n U n i t y . I n s p i t e o f these c r i t i c i s m s , the V o l t a B a s i s p l a n , as a method of development p l a n n i n g , has succeeded i n g i v i n g due c o n s i deration to  some of t h e major f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the  development  p r o c e s s , namely, the s o c i a l , economic and p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s . i s f o r t h i s reason t h a t i t  It  i s recommended t h a t s i m i l a r r e g i o n a l  plans be designed f o r the o t h e r p a r t s o f Ghana based on the e x i s t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g i o n s o f the country and working w i t h i n  159  t h e proposed o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g  Commission.  T h i s w i l l ensure a b a l a n c e d development through Ghana and b r i n g the  dreams o f n a t i o n a l p o l i c y t o r e a l i t y a t the r e g i o n a l and  local  levels.  160 REFERENCES "'"Gold C o a s t , D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e V o l t a G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1952)  (Accra:  2lbid.  River p 1.  Basin  p 2.  3j. L i v e r m a n , "The V o l t a R i v e r P r o j e c t i n t h e G o l d Coast", Report of the Proceedings of the F i r s t International Conference on R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g and Development ( B r u s s e l s : 1955), p 63. ^ U n i t e d Kingdom Government, The V o l t a R i v e r P r o j e c t , I ; Report of t h e P r e p a r a t o r y Commission, I I ; Appendices t o t h e Report of t h e P r e p a r a t o r y Commission, I I I ; E n g i n e e r i n g Report, IV; ( L o n d o n : H. M. S. 0. f o r t h e G o v e r n m e n t s o f t h e U n i t e d Kingdom and t h e Gold Coast, 1956) ^A. B. F u t a , T h e V o l t a R i v e r V , N o . 1, ( M a y , 1961), p i .  Bulletin  P r o j e c t , The Economic  6 Ghana, T h e V o l t a R i v e r P r o . i e c t . S t a t e m e n t b y . t h e Government o f f ~ h a n a CAc e r a : Government P r i n t i n g Department, 1961), p 1 6 Ibid.  7  8lbid. 9  A.  B. F u t a ,  op. c i t . p  10.  10 Ghana,  of  op. c i t . p  10  ^ U . K. G o v e r n m e n t , " W h i t e P a p e r " t h e P r e p a r a t o r y C o m m i s s i o n , I I , p 23. 1  2  J .  G. L i v e r m a n ,  1  3  Ibid.  p  66.  l^-Ibid.  pp  67-68.  ^ I b i d .  pp  68-69.  l  1  l  6  7  8  Ibid. Ibid.' Ibid.  ^ i b i d .  20lbid.  PP 70-72. PP 73-74-.  P 75.  (Cmd.  8702)  i n Report  161 2 1  Ibld.  22ibid. 3 T i i e G i n s b e r g , "Current Trends I n f l u e n c i n g Regional P l a n n i n g " , U n i t e d N a t i o n s , R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , Housing, B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g , No. 12 & 13, p 113. 2  J ? s  24Ghana, V o l t a R i v e r A u t h o r i t y , V o l t a Lake B a s i n - A r e a Development P l a n , ( A c c r a , 1963) mimeographed, p . 6.  2 5 l b i d . pp 6-7 26Qhana, D i v i s i o n of Town and Country P l a n n i n g & U . N . Regional P l a n n i n g M i s s i o n t o Ghana, V o l t a B a s i n P l a n — F i r s t D r a f t , ( A c c r a , June 1962), mimeographed, p 1.  2 7 l b i d . pp 1-2. 28lbid. 29G. Nez, "Memorandum t o Resident U n i t e d Nations R e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n Ghana", ( A c c r a , A p r i l , 1962), p 1. 30Ghana, D i v i s i o n of Town arid Country P l a n n i n g and U . N . R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g M i s s i o n t o Ghana, V o l t a B a s i n P l a n , (1962), PP 5-8. 3lThe "Husa Aystem" i s one o f the most d i s t i n c t farming systems i n Ghana e s p e c i a l l y among the Krobb t r i b e . Under t h i s system, the Krobos buy l a n d i n p a r t n e r s h i p s and t h e n d i v i d e i t according t o each f a m i l y ' s c a p i t a l c o n t r i b u t i o n . The f a m i l i e s then l i v e s e p a r a t e l y on homesteads, r a t h e r than i n v i l l a g e s and continue to farm I n d i v i d u a l l y until"'the land i s exhausted, when they move again i n p a r t n e r s h i p . See: West A f r i c a , No. 2348, (June 2nd, 1962), p 595. 32y ita 0  3 3  Ibid.  Basin Plan,  (1962), p 8.  p 4.  3 4 h i d . p 9. T  3 5 v o l t a Lake B a s i n ' — Area Development P l a n , 3 s e t t l e m e n t on the (June 2nd, 1962), p . 595.  (1963), p 11.  V o l t a " — 2, West A f r i c a ,  No. 2348,  3 V o l t a Lake B a s i n — Area Development P l a n (1963), P 7  3  % b i d . ,...p. 13.  1  2  .  162 G h a n a , N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission, "Tasks o f Seven-Year P l a n " ( A c c r a : 1 9 6 3 ) , mimeographed, p 9. 3 9  the  D a i l y G r a p h i c . Ghana Y e a r h o o k D a i l y G r a p h i c P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) , pp I b b - l W I 4 0  4 1  42  Gold Coast p 12.  1962,  (Accra  Ibid.  W. A. L e w i s , R e p o r t on I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n a n d t h e ( A c c r a : Government P r i n t i i i g D e p a r t m e n t , 1 9 5 3 ) ,  43 Ibid.  44 Survey, p 125.  1961  Ghana, C e n t r a l B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s , E c o n o m i c ( A c c r a : Government P r i n t i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1 9 6 2 ) ,  45 Ibid,  p  126.  CHAPTER V  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  The fundamental purpose o f t h i s study i s t o  demonstrate  the hypothesis t h a t t o achieve a balanced s o c i a l , economic, and p h y s i c a l development i n the n e w l y independent n a t i o n s o f the w o r l d , the s c a l e o f p l a n n i n g must be r e g i o n a l .  T h i s i s based on the  f a c t t h a t p l a n n i n g a t the r e g i o n a l 1B v e l g i v e s due c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t o a l l the f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the development process. The method adopted throughout the study was t o make use o f l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s and r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e by the Ghana Government.  ,and w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l made  The g e n e r a l approach o f the  study c o n s i s t s of a review o f the p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a t u r e on d e v e l o p ment p l a n n i n g i n the newly independent n a t i o n s and on development p l a n n i n g i n Ghana. A r i s i n g out of the d i s c u s s i o n o f the main f e a t u r e s development p l a n n i n g i n t h e newly independent n a t i o n s i t was concluded t h a t because  of  (Chapter I I )  of a common c o l o n i a l background,  most of the new n a t i o n s i n h e r i t e d c e r t a i n s i m i l a r problems from t h e i r respective  colonial rulers.  The most important o f these  problems was a s i n g l e - r e s o u r c e economy.  The approach t o  develop-  ment p l a n n i n g adopted by the new n a t i o n s upon g a i n i n g independence has been i d e n t i c a l on account o f s i m i l a r i t y o f problems. 163  164  The main development  p l a n n i n g approach o f these new  n a t i o n s has taken the form o f N a t i o n a l Development P l a n s which have not o n l y concentrated s o l e l y on the economic a s p e c t s of development,  but have a l s o been concerned w i t h p l a n n i n g at the  n a t i o n a l l e v e l and have i g n o r e d development local levels.  at the r e g i o n a l and  I n those c o u n t r i e s where some e f f o r t  made i n terms o f r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g f o r development,  has been the approach  adopted has taken the form o f e i t h e r the m u l t i - p u r p o s e r i v e r b a s i n development  or the  s t r i c t l y economic r e g i o n a l  i n terms o f the a l l o c a t i o n o f  development  resources.  As a r e s u l t o f these shortcomings of current  development  p l a n n i n g i n the newly independent n a t i o n s o f the w o r l d , i t be f u r t h e r concluded t h a t  the f a i l u r e t o g i v e due  must  consideration  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t o a l l the f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the  development  process,  i n these  has g i v e n r i s e t o imbalanced development  countries.  The imbalanced development  has taken the form o f  e x c e s s i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n i n a few urban c e n t e r s which are u s u a l l y p i l e d up w i t h poor u n t r a i n e d l a b o u r from the r u r a l h i n t e r l a n d o f these c o u n t r i e s .  These urban c e n t e r s are  n o t o r i o u s f o r a l l forms o f s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n : c r i m e , o v e r crowding, unemployment and other forms o f s o c i a l  maladjustment.  The imbalance a l s o t a k e s the form o f unplanned d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n d u s t r y and of r u r a l s e r v i c e s ,  and poor l o c a t i o n o f t r a n s p o r t a -  t i o n r o u t e s r e s u l t i n g i n expensive r e m e d i a l measures.  1 6 !:.  .  165  I t was a l s o  concluded t h a t the d e f e c t s o f c u r r e n t  p l a n n i n g would appear t o be a r e s u l t o f t h e ' c o n c e p t i o n o f the o f the nature o f development, namely, t h a t development was essentially  an economic problem, and once the economic f a c t o r  was c o n s i d e r e d , the s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the development process should take care o f themselves.  I t was con-  cluded t h a t the economic conception of the nature o f d e v e l o p ment r e s u l t e d from the advice of the s p e c i a l i s t s  interested  the problems o f development i n the new independent It  in  nations.  i s proposed t h a t the new n a t i o n s adopt a new con-  c e p t i o n o f the nature o f development c o n s i s t i n g not o n l y o f economic but a l s o of s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s o f the society.  entire  T h i s new c o n c e p t i o n would l e a d o b v i o u s l y t o t h e  t h a t p l a n n i n g f o r development should be at the r e g i o n a l  view  scale.  T h i s i s because r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g c o n s i d e r s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a l l the f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the development  process.  The a n a l y s i s o f development p l a n n i n g i n Ghana (Chapter III)  f u r t h e r confirmed the g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s a r r i v e d at  the d i s c u s s i o n o f the main f e a t u r e s o f c u r r e n t development n i n g i n the newly independent n a t i o n s .  from plan-  The common problems o f  a s i n g l e - r e s o u r c e economy was e s t a b l i s h e d  i n Ghana by the  analysis  o f the gross n a t i o n a l income, p r i v a t e purchasing power, government revenue, and export data i n terms of f o r e i g n exchange and e a r n i n g s . I t was concluded t h a t the economy of Ghana was e n t i r e l y dependent on the cocoa i n d u s t r y .  166 I t was a l s o concluded t h a t a l t h o u g h development planning became more and more the f u n c t i o n o f the C e n t r a l Government o f Ghana, development p l a n n i n g was concerned l a r g e l y w i t h economic and, to some e x t e n t , s o c i a l development at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l and d i s r e g a r d e d the p h y s i c a l aspects o f development at r e g i o n a l and l o c a l l e v e l s .  the  T h i s c o n c l u s i o n was a r r i v e d at  from  the a n a l y s i s o f c o l o n i a l development plans and n a t i o n a l development plans o f Ghana. Based on the o u t l i n e o f the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g approach t o development p l a n n i n g , presented towards the end o f Chapter I I , an a n a l y s i s was made o f the V o l t a B a s i n R e g i o n a l P l a n .  I t was  concluded t h a t t he p l a n has succeeded i n p l a n n i n g f o r balanced social,  economic, and p h y s i c a l development i n the r e g i o n .  This  c o n c l u s i o n was based on the f a c t t h a t due c o n s i d e r a t i o n was g i v e n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t o the main f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the ment p l a n n i n g process at the  develop-  survey s t a g e , at the a n a l y s i s stage  and at the p l a n s t a g e . The needs*'of Ghana were r e f l e c t e d i n t h e  proposals  made f o r the development o f the r e g i o n i n terms o f the. d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n and i n d u s t r y , l o c a t i o n of main t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s , the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r u r a l s e r v i c e s and the l o c a t i o n of l a r g e n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l u s e s .  In t h i s manner due c o n s i d e r a -  t i o n was g i v e n t o the major s o c i a l f a c t o r s , the economic f a c t o r s and the p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the development  process.  167  It the present  is this  one c o n t r i b u t i o n o f r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g t h a t  study i n t e n d s t o recommend-for a d o p t i o n i n the under-  developed c o u n t r i e s o f the w o r l d . p l a n n i n g approach t o development  T h i s i s because the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g may" h e l p guide u r b a n i -  z a t i o n w i t h i n the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s and may thus h e l p t o the gap t h a t h a s - e x i s t e d  close  throughout the ages between the urban  and r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n s i n these c o u n t r i e s .  R e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g may  a l s o h e l p t o provide a b r o a d l y based economy w i t h i n the  develop-  i n g c o u n t r i e s through the  j u d i c i o u s l o c a t i o n o f new c e n t e r s o f  employment throughout the  country.  R e g i o n a l p l a i n i n g may a l s o  enable n a t i o n a l dreams f o r development t o f i n d e x p r e s s i o n at physical l o c a l  the  levels.  The l i m i t a t i o n s Planning i s a process;  it  of the study r e l a t e to i t s  scope.  c o n s i s t s o f survey, a n a l y s i s ,  implementation and r e v a l u a t i o n .  The present  plan,  study has been  concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h the f i r s t three stages o f the p l a n n i n g process,  namely s u r v e y , a n a l y s i s ,  and p l a n .  The stages o f  implementation and r e v a l u a t i o n could not be adequately w i t h because i t was c o n s i d e r e d t o o e a r l y t o judge the of the  reality  p r o p o s a l s made i n the V o l t a B a s i n R e g i o n a l P l a n .  the present  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery set  planning,  as a method o f development  of regional  p l a n n i n g i n Ghana.  The f o l l o w i n g p r o p o s a l s were made t o p l a n n i n g process  However,  up t o implement the p l a n  was considered inadequate f o r the f u l l development  1)  dealt  i n t r o d u c e the  i n the o t h e r r e g i o n s o f Ghana:  an expanded N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission;  168 2)  expanded R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Agencies;  3)  r e g i o n a l plans f o r the e i g h t A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Regions  and  o f Ghana. I t was  recommended f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h a t the  stage o f implementation  i n p a r t i c u l a r be s t u d i e d i n terms of  governmental a c t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o the a l l o c a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery f o r implementation.  The  stage o f  r e v a l u a t i o n i s v e r y c r u c i a l t o the p l a n n i n g process i n t h e developing c o u n t r i e s .  I t must be admitted t h a t t h e r e i s no  one  approach t o development p l a n n i n g and t h a t the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g approach, advocated  throughout  the present  study, may  have t o  be adapted t o s u i t t h e s p e c i a l s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s o f p a r t i c u l a r countries.  T h i s i s o n l y p o s s i b l e i f c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n to  t h e f o R w a r d and backward movement i m p l i e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g o f survey, a n a l y s i s , p l a n , implementation,  process  and r e v a l u a t i o n .  I n s p i t e o f these l i m i t a t i o n s of the study, the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g approach t o development p l a n n i n g a f f o r d s the o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e l a t e the p h y s i c a l world w i t h s o c i e t y i n which man  l i v e s , and w i t h man's p r o d u c t i o n economy.  i s an attempt a t l i n k i n g t o g e t h e r nature, man  R e g i o n a l Planning and  livelihood.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Books Boaterig, E . A.'j A Geography o f Ghana. U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958. B o u r r e t , F . M . , The Gold C o a s t , P r e s s , 1952. ~  Cambridge:  London:  The  Oxford U n i v e r s i t y  B r a i b a n t i , R. & S p e n g l e r , J . J . T r a d i t i o n , V a l u e s , and S o c i o Economic Development, Durham: Duke U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , , G l i k s o r i , A . , R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g and Development, Leiden: A . W. S i j t h o f f ' s U i t g e r e r s m a a t s c h a p p i j i , N . V . , 1955. H i g g i n s , B . y Economic Development, P r i n c i p l e s . Problems and Policies, New York: W. W. Norton & C o . I n c . , 1959. H o s e l i t z , B . F . , S o c i o l o g i c a l Aspects o f Economic Growth, Glencoe, I l l i n o i s : The Free P r e s s , 1962. K e e b l e , L . , P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c e o f Town and Country P l a n n i n g , London: The E s t a t e G a z e t t e , L t d . , 1961. L i l i e n t h a l , David, T . V . A . : New York: 1953.  Democracy on the  March,  Parsons, T a l c o t t , S t r u c t u r e and Process i n Modern S o c i e t i e s , Glencoe, I l l i n o i s ! The Free P r e s s , I960. Tinbergeri, J . , The Design^of Development, John Hopkins P r e s s , 1958. '.  Baltimore:  Ward, B a r b a r a , The R i c h and the Poor N a t i o n s . W. W. Norton & Go. I n c . , 1962.  The  New York:  Weber, Max, The Theory o f S o c i a l and Economic O r g a n i z a t i o n , t r a n s l a t e d by P a r s o n s , T a l c o t t and e d i t e d w i t h Henderson, A. M. The P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c and the S p i r i t o f C a p i t a l i s m , t r a n s l a t e d by Parsons, T a l c o t t , L o n d o n : A l l e n and unwin, 1930.  170 ARTICLES AND PERIODICALS  Combs, P . H . , national  " I n t e l l e c t u a l F r o n t i e r s of A s s i s t a n c e " , InterDevelopment Reviews, I V , No. 2, (June 1962) p.  Futa, A. B . , "The V o l t a R i v e r P r o j e c t " , V , No. 1 , . ( M a y 196l) pp. 1-15. :  7.  T he Eco nomi c B u l l e t i n , ~~ ; "  G r e e n , R . H . , "The Ghana Cocoa I n d u s t r y : An Examination o f Current Problems", The Economic B u l l e t i n , V , No. 1,  (May 1961)  '  p p . 16-3*.  Haar, C . , H i g g i n s , B . & Rodwin, L . , "Economic and P h y s i c a l ' P l a n n i n g : . C o o r d i n a t i o n ^ Developing Areas" , J?Y™f& o f American I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , XXIV, No. 3 , U - W -  pp. 167-173. Kindlebergen, C P . , "Review o f I . R . B . D . R e p o r t s " , Review o f Economics and S t a t i s t i c s . XXXIV, No. 4, (November 1952J pp. 391-398. Mensah, J . H . , Bulletin.  "A P e r s p e c t i v e P l a n f o r Ghana - 1", V I , No. 2, (1962) pp. 3 - 1 1 .  The Economic  Pico, R., "The Role o f P l a n n i n g i n Puerto R i c o " , The A n n a l s . o f the American Academy o f P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e T 285 j (January 1953) pp. 70-73. ~~ ~ ~ ' "~~ Pedler, F . J . , Affairs,  "Foreign Investment i n West A f r i c a " , XXXI, (October 1955) pp. 458-462.  Rostow, W.W., "Development Theory", International / Review, 11, No. 1, (May i960) pp. 3 9 - 4 1 . Sharon, A . "Planning i n I s r a e l " , ( A p r i l 1952) pp. 64-82.  International Development  Town P l a n n i n g Review,  XXIII,  West A f r i c a , ""Good'News f o r Cocoa", No. 2367, (October 13th, 1962) p . 1121. "Resettlement on the V o l t a - 2", No. 2348, (June 2nd, 1962) p . 595. U n i t e d N a t i o n s , R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , Housing, B u i l d i n g a n d P l a n n i n g , G i n s b e r g , L . "Current Trends I n f l u e n c i n g R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g " , No. 12 & 13. pp. 107-122. Puerto Rico Planniihg Board, Planning", pp. 147-169. Koehigsberger, 122.  O.H.,  "Comprehensive  Regional  "Regional P l a n n i n g i n A s i a " ,  pp.  116-  171  REPORTS  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference o n - R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g and Development, E . E . Ackernman, "The T . V ' . A . P l a n n i n g Methods and R e s u l t s " , B r u s s e l s , 1957, p p . 19-55. Liverman, " J . G . , "The V o l t a R i v e r P r o j e c t i n t h e Gold Coast?, pp. 57-101. International Sociological Association, Transa c t i o n s ^ o f the F i f t h Wood Congress o f S o c i o l o g y , L o u v a i n , 11, 1962. R e g i o n a l Science A s s o c i a t i o n , Papers and P r o c e e d i n g s , Friedman, J . , "Regional P l a n n i n g - A Problem i n S p a t i a l I n t e g r a t i o n " , V , 1959, pp. 169-182. Robock, S . H . , "Regional arid N a t i o n a l Economic Development i n I n d i a " , V I , I960, pp. 180-198. S . I . A . P . , . Proceedings o f the I960 World P l a n n i n g arid Housing,.,.. Congress, Weissmann, E . , "The C o n t r i b u t i o n o f P h y s i c a l ? , Planning ' t o Economic and S o c i a l Development", San Juan, I960, p p . 23-35. -  OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS  Ghana, Cehtra1 Bureau o f S t a t I s t i c s , Economic Survey 1961, A c c r a : Government P r i n t i n g Department, 1962. An O f f i c i a l Handbook 1961,  (1962)  Second Development P l a n 1959-64,  (1959)  The V o l t a R i v e r P r o j e c t Statement by Ghana Government (196l) Gold C o a s t , Lewis, W . A . , Gold Coast (1953) Development  Report on I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and the  o f the V o l t a R i v e r B a s i n ,  (1952)  United Nations, Report on the World S o c i a l S i t u a t i o n , E / C No. 5/346/Rev. 1 P l a n n i n g for- S o c i a l and Economic Development i n Puerto R i c o , E / C N . 5 / 3 4 6 / A d d . 2 (March 2nd, 1961)  172  P l a n n i n g f o r Balanced S o c i a l and Economic Development i n C e y l o n , E / C N5/346/Add.3 (March 1 s t , 1962) P l a n n i n g f o r S o c i a l and Economic Development i n Uganda, E / C N . 5 / 3 4 6 / A d d . 9 ( A p r i l 18th, 1962) P l a n n i n g f o r Balanced S o c i a l and_ Economic Development i n the Uzbeck S o v i e t S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c , E / C N.5/346/Add.3 (November 10th, 1961)  UNPUBLISHED MATHEIAL  Ghana, V o l t a R i v e r A u t h o r i t y , ment P l a n , Accra, 1 9 6 3 . 1  V o l t a Lake B a s i n - Area  Develop-  Ghana, D i v i s i o n of Town & Country P l a n n i n g and U . N . R e g i o n a l Planning M i s s i o n t o Ghana, V o l t a B a s i n P l a n , F i r s t D r a f t , ' A c c r a , June 1 9 6 2 .  

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