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Self-help housing |b an examination of the effectiveness of this policy in selected developing countries Rizvi, Amjad Ali Bahadur 1966

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SELF-HELP HOUSING: AN EXAMINATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THIS POLICY IN SELECTED DEVELOPING COUNTRIES by AMJAD ALI BAHADUR RIZVI M.A., ( K a r a c h i ) , D.Ek., (Athens) A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the D i v i s i o n of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the req u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1966 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x -t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s m a y b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n -c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f Community and Regional Planning T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e May 16. 1966  i i ABSTRACT In order to e l i m i n a t e the housing backlog i n the developing c o u n t r i e s of A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n America, an annual output of 2k m i l l i o n d w e l l i n g u n i t s or ten u n i t s per thousand p o p u l a t i o n , are re q u i r e d to be b u i l t i n the f i f t e e n year p e r i o d 1960-1975. This i s a g i g a n t i c task f o r the develop-i n g economies; even the r e l a t i v e l y developed economies do not b u i l d at an average r a t e higher than f i v e d w e l l i n g u n i t s per thousand p o p u l a t i o n f o r want of adequate resources. What i s more alarming i s the f a c t t h a t even i f the developing n a t i o n s succeed i n performing the monumental task of doubling t h e i r n a t i o n a l income i n a generation or so, t h e i r absolute per c a p i t a income would s t i l l be one-eighth of that of the developed world. At the present r a t e of develop-ment, the gap between the need and the resources f o r housing would not be s i g n i f i c a n t l y narrowed. I n sh o r t , even the d i s t a n t f u t u r e appears dismal. What then i s the r i g h t path f o r the developing n a t i o n s to tread? This study attempts to provide an answer: adoption of the s e l f - h e l p housing method. Three main steps c h a r a c t e r i z e the methodological approaches used to j u s t i f y the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the s e l f - h e l p housing method. F i r s t l y , the need f o r a l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e approach i n housing i s e s t a b l i s h e d by making deductions as to the inadequacy of the current c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e approach. Secondly, s e l f - h e l p housing programs at n a t i o n a l l e v e l s are i i i e v a l u a t e d i n terms o f t h e i r s u c c e s s e s and f a i l u r e s and f i n a l l y , e i g h t s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s a r e examined i n d e t a i l i n \ te rms o f t he c o s t s i n c u r r e d and b e n e f i t s g a i n e d . The o v e r a l l s u c c e s s o f t he programs and b e n e f i t s r e c e i v e d f rom the p r o j e c t s t hu s become t he measures o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e s e l f -h e l p h o u s i n g method. The s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g method has r e c e n t l y g a i n e d r e c o g n i t i o n among t he d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s . N o t w i t h -s t a n d i n g t h e method h a v i n g n o t been e n t e r t a i n e d i n t h e n a t i o n a l h o u s i n g p rog rams , i t has been e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e d as a t o o l o f i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e community deve lopment p rog rams . Mos t o f t h e gove rnment - gu i ded p i e c e m e a l s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g programs have n o t o n l y been f a i r l y b e n e f i c i a l bu t have a l s o been p r a c t i c a b l e . The e i g h t p r o j e c t s a n a l y s e d , one each f o r I n d i a , P a k i s t a n , t he U n i t e d A r a b R e p u b l i c , J a m a i c a , C o l o m b i a , C o s t a R i c a , C h i l e , and G u a t e m a l a , have s c o r e d marked s u c c e s s . More t h a n t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t he l a b o u r i n p u t c o n t a i n e d i n t h e g u i d e d s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t s have been drawn f rom the f a m i l i e s a t no mone ta r y commitment. The moneta ry v a l u e o f l a b o u r and m a t e r i a l c o n t r i b u t e d by f a m i l i e s i n v o l v e d i n the s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s a ve r age s o n e - q u a r t e r o f t he p r o j e c t c o s t . T h i s v a l u e r e p r e s e n t s a d i r e c t b e n e f i t , o r what has been c a l l e d i n an E g y p t i a n c o n t e x t , t he " e k i s t i c e f f i c i e n c y " o f a s e l f -h e l p h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . When a c c o u n t i s t a k e n o f t h e i n d i r e c t s o c i a l and economic b e n e f i t s r e s u l t i n g f rom e n v i r o n m e n t a l improvement , t h e b e n e f i t f r om the use o f t he s e l f - h e l p i v housing method i s equivalent to about h a l f of the p r o j e c t c o s t . The s e l f - h e l p housing management i n p u t , valued at 10 per cent of the p r o j e c t c o s t , i s c r u c i a l to the success of the p r o j e c t . The object of the guided s e l f - h e l p method through e f i i c i e n t management i s to maximize spontaneous s e l f -help i n the long run by guided a c t i o n i n the short run. When t h i s o b j e c t i v e i s pursued to the p o i n t where spontaneous s e l f -help a c t i v i t y i s set i n and guided a c t i o n or s e l f - h e l p manage-ment withdrawn, the b e n e f i t s to the p r o j e c t approach the value of three-quarters of the p r o j e c t c o s t . The s e l f - h e l p housing approach i s not a magic s o l u t i o n to the low-income housing problem. Given the r e q u i s i t e management techniques, i t can form an e f f e c t i v e method of meeting the d e f i c i e n c y of housing u n i t s i n the developing c o u n t r i e s . Hence, i n order to bridge the gap between the d e f i c i e n c y of housing and the inadequacy of resources among the nat i o n s of A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n America, a concerted n a t i o n a l s e l f - h e l p housing program i s considered to be e s s e n t i a l . I m p l i c i t i n t h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s a f u r t h e r note of optimism. I f a c t i v a t e d , the s e l f - h e l p housing process can a l l e v i a t e the shortage of s k i l l e d l a b o u r , provide employment, m o b i l i s e b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y , and generate cooperative s p i r i t . As such the s e l f - h e l p housing can be an e f f e c t i v e t o o l f o r the achievement of socio-economic o b j e c t i v e s . v i TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS v i LIST OF TABLES x LIST OF FIGURES X± LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS xiTT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xTv CHAPTER I INTRODUCTORY SETTING 1-13 Why Se l f - H e l p Housing Study? .. 1 Dimensions of the Present Study . h Focus of S e l f - H e l p Housing .. .. 5 Methodological Support of t h i s Study 7 D e f i n i t i o n s of Terms 11 Assumptions 12 Chapter Summary 12 I I THE CONCEPT AND OBJECTIVE OF SELF-HELP HOUSING 1*4-27 E v o l u t i o n of Se l f - H e l p Housing .. I 1 * Goals and Objectives of Se l f - H e l p Housing 19 Approaches to S e l f - H e l p Housing . 20 B e n e f i t s of S e l f - H e l p Housing .. 22 O r g a n i z a t i o n of S e l f - H e l p Housing .. .. 2h Chapter Summary 26 v i i CHAPTER PAGE I I I THE DEFICIENCY OF HOUSING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND THE INADEQUACY OF HOUSING RESOURCES 29-67 Measures of Development: Developing Countries 29 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Developing Economies 3*+ D e f i c i e n c y of Housing i n Developing Countries 39 Q u a n t i t a t i v e D e f i c i e n c y .. .. ^1 A s i a n Countries ^3 A f r i c a n Countries ^5 L a t i n American Countries .. k-6 Q u a l i t a t i v e D e f i c i e n c y .. .. U-9 Inadequacy of Resources f o r Housing i n Developing Countries . 59 Chapter Summary 65 IV EVALUATION OF SELF-HELP HOUSING PROGRAMS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES .. 68-125 Recognition of S e l f - H e l p Housing Method at I n t e r n a t i o n a l L e v e l v i s - a - v i s Developing Countries .. 68 E v a l u a t i o n of S e l f - H e l p Housing Programs at N a t i o n a l L e v e l s .. .. 79 Programs i n Asian Countries .. 81 I n d i a 81 P a k i s t a n 85 Indonesia 89 M a l a y s i a 91 Thailand 92 v i i i CHAPTER PAGE Greece 93 Hong Kong 93 P h i l i p p i n e s 9k Conclusion . • .. 9k Programs i n A f r i c a n C o u n t ries . 95 Kenya 97 Ghana 98 The United Arab Republic .. 102 B e l g i a n Congo 103 Morocco 103 Guinea 10k Somalia 10k Conclusion 105 Programs i n L a t i n American Countries 105 Jamaica and Puerto Rico . .. 108 Colombia I l l B r a z i l 113 Venezuela 113 C h i l e Ilk Peru Ilk Conclusion .. 115 O v e r a l l Conclusions.. . . . . 118 Chapter Summary 12*+ I X CHAPTER PAGE V EVALUATION OF SELF-HELP HOUSING PROJECTS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES .. 126-16? S e l e c t i o n of S e l f - H e l p Housing P r o j e c t s 126 E v a l u a t i o n of S e l f - H e l p Housing P r o j e c t s 128 Faridabad P r o j e c t , D e l h i , I n d i a . 128 Korangi P r o j e c t , K a r a c h i , P a k i s t a n 133 Gourna P r o j e c t , United Arab Republic 137 Bonnett S t . Mary P r o j e c t , Jamaica l*+0 Aguablanca P r o j e c t , C a l i , 1 Colombia l*+5 t San Sebastian P r o j e c t , San Jose, Costa R i c a 15° C l a r a E s t r e l l a P r o j e c t , Santiago, C h i l e 155 C o l o n i a Centro-America — Las V i c t o r i a s P r o j e c t , Ciudad de Guatemala, Guatemala 158 Conclusion I63 Chapter Summary 165' VI SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 168-180 BIBLIOGRAPHY 181-190 2 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1. Estimated Housing Shortage i n Developing Countries (1960-1975) 7^ 2. Housing and L i v i n g C onditions i n Sel e c t e d Countries 53 3. Bonnett St. Mary S e l f - H e l p Housing P r o j e c t , Jamaica: B e n e f i c i a r i e s C o n t r i b u t i o n to a T y p i c a l Two Room House 1^3 h. Aguablanca S e l f - H e l p Housing P r o j e c t . C a l i , Colombia: Cost and B e n e f i t Aspect 1^ 7 5. San Sebastian SeT.f-Help Housing P r o j e c t , San Jose, Costa R i c a : Cost and B e n e f i t Aspect 152 6. C l a r a E s t r e l l a S e l f - H e l p Housing P r o j e c t , Santiago, C h i l e : Cost and B e n e f i t Aspect 156 7. C o l o n i a Centro-America, Las V i c t o r i a s S e l f - H e l p Housing P r o j e c t : Cost and B e n e f i t Aspect 159 xt LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. Developing Countries of A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n America 33 • 2. Q u a n t i t a t i v e D e f i c i e n c y of Housing i n Developing C o u n t r i e s , 1960-1975 hQ 3. Q u a l i t a t i v e D e f i c i e n c y of Housing i n Developing Countries 5^ h. O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Chart f o r a Large Scale S e l f - H e l p Housing Program.. .. 78 5. Sample S e l f - H e l p Housing P r o j e c t s .. 127 6. Faridabad P r o j e c t , D e l h i , I n d i a . . .. 131 7. Korangi P r o j e c t , K a r a c h i , P a k i s t a n «. 136 8. Aguablanca P r o j e c t , C a l i , Colombia .. l^t-8 t 9. San Sebastian P r o j e c t , San Jose, Costa R i c a 153 10. C l a r a E s t r e l l a P r o j e c t , Santiago, C h i l e 157 11. Las V i c t o r i a s P r o j e c t , Ciudad de Guatemala, Guatemala 161 12. C o l o n i a Centro-America P r o j e c t , Ciudad de Guatemala, Guatemala 161 13. S e l f - H e l p Housing P r o j e c t s : Extent of Voluntary Labour P a r t i c i p a t i o n . .. I6h xTT LIST OF FIGURES (con't) FIGURE PAGE lh. S e l f - H e l p Housing P r o j e c t s : D i r e c t B e n e f i t s or Saving 16^ 15. O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Chart f o r a Large Scale Housing P r o j e c t I67 LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS PHOTOGRAPH PAGE 1. T r a d i t i o n a l Round Houses B u i l t by-Spontaneous S e l f - H e l p Housing Method i n Rura l Areas 28 2. T y p i c a l Houses B u i l t by Spontaneous S e l f - H e l p Housing Method i n Urban Areas 28 3. Rapporting and Convassing f o r S e l f -Help Housing A c t i v i t y 28 h. U n f i n i s h e d "Core Houses" F i n i s h e d by Guided S e l f - H e l p Housing Method i n Ghana 101 5. A Row of E a r t h - B u i l t Houses by Guided S e l f - H e l p Housing Method i n Gourna Community, U n i t e d Arab Republic 101 6. P h y s i c a l M a n i f e s t a t i o n of S e l f - H e l p Housing Method i n Ghana 101 xtrv , ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author i s h i g h l y indebted to Dr. H. Peter Oberlander, Head of the D i v i s i o n of Community and Regional P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, f o r pr o v i d i n g the i n i t i a l i n c e n t i v e to undertake t h i s study, and f o r h i s i n s p i r a t i o n . For the able guidance and continuous encouragement provided during the progress of t h i s study, the author records h i s profound sense of g r a t i t u d e to Dr. Kevin J . Cross, A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r of the same Department. The author i s a p p r e c i a t i v e of the b e n e f i t of d i s c u s s i o n on some methodol-o g i c a l problems of t h i s study extended by Dr. P h i l i p F r i e d l y , A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r of the same Department. The a s s i s t a n c e provided by Mrs. E.D. Dodson, Head L i b r a r i a n of the Government P u b l i c a t i o n s D i v i s i o n , and Miss Melva J . Dwyer, Head L i b r a r i a n of the Fine A r t s D i v i s i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s t a f f i s g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. Thanks are a l s o due to Miss Pat Strandberg of the Department of Pharmacy of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r p o i n t i n g out ty p o g r a p h i c a l e r r o r s and l i n g u i s t i c anomalies i n the concluding chapter. L a s t l y , the f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e provided by the West P a k i s t a n U n i v e r s i t y of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, i n the form of an "Overseas S c h o l a r s h i p " i s s i n c e r e l y acknowledged. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTORY SETTING I WHY SELF-HELP HOUSING STUDY? The c o u n t r i e s of A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n America c o n t a i n t h r e e - f o u r t h s of the world's p o p u l a t i o n . H a l f of t h i s p o p u l a t i o n i s homeless and l i v e s i n extremely over-crowded housing c o n d i t i o n s . An example of the p i c t u r e of a slum i n P a k i s t a n i l l u s t r a t e s the extreme l i v i n g c o n d i t -1 ions of most of the people i n developing c o u n t r i e s : They l i v e packed l i k e sardines i n c o l o n i e s which are dis e a s e - r i d d e n . . . a case of gross c u l t u r a l r e g r e s s i o n , of dehumanization, of 2 degradation which staggers human imagination. I t i s estimated t h a t i n order to a l l e v i a t e poor housing c o n d i t i o n s and to e l i m i n a t e the present housing shortage, at l e a s t twenty-four m i l l i o n a d d i t i o n a l d w e l l i n g u n i t s are re q u i r e d i n these c o u n t r i e s . This means the c o n s t r u c t i o n of ten d w e l l i n g u n i t s per thousand p o p u l a t i o n Unless otherwise s t a t e d , the term "developing countries'means the c o u n t r i e s of A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n America, as defined on page 11 and as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figur e 1 of t h i s study. ^Tjt. C o l . N a z i r Ahmad, Survey of S h e l t e r l e s s  Persons i n Karachi ( K a r a c h i : Manager of P u b l i c a t i o n , 1959) p. 2. "^United Nations, Housing and Urban Development, Report of a Seminar, February 7-12, 1962 (New York:1962), ab s t r a c t e d i n : E k i s t i e s . 1^, No. 81 ( J u l y , 1962), p.56. 2 How d i f f i c u l t a task t h i s i s , can he w e l l appreciated from the f a c t t h a t r i c h c o u n t r i e s today are b u i l d i n g at the r a t e of s i x to seven d w e l l i n g u n i t s per thousand if p o p u l a t i o n . There i s a b i g d i s p a r i t y between housing r e q u i r e -ment and resource c a p a c i t y of developing c o u n t r i e s . The c a p i t a l investment r e q u i r e d to b u i l d ten d w e l l i n g u n i t s per thousand p o p u l a t i o n would be equal to at l e a s t 100 times the gross n a t i o n a l product per c a p i t a per thousand p o p u l a t i o n . This i s e q u i v a l e n t to 10 per -cent of the gross n a t i o n a l product which i s about the t o t a l ives.tment 5 i n a l l s e c t o r s of economy of the developing c o u n t r i e s . About 90 per cent of the people do not possess the neces-sary means to b u i l d a modest house c o s t i n g 800 - 1,000 U.S. d o l l a r s . To s u s t a i n an adequate house b u i l d i n g , the e n t i r e resources of the developing c o u n t r i e s are c a l l e d f o r . The e x i s t i n g economic resources as such, are too meagre to solve the immense problem. Even i f i n some cases the growth of the economy i s s i g n i f i c a n t , i t does not l e a d to any hope of meeting the housing shortage i n the conceivable f u t u r e . W i l l these c o u n t r i e s ever be able to meet the challenge? An a f f i r m a t i v e answer to the above question i s I b i d . I b i d . , p. 57. 3 regarded as being too o p t i m i s t i c an assumption i n planning q u a r t e r s . The hope of those d e a l i n g w i t h housing problems i n developing n a t i o n s i s based on the supposedly b r i g h t prospects of non-monetized human c a p i t a l which i s abundant i n these n a t i o n s but has h i t h e r t o remained u n d e r - u t i l i z e d . The development and u t i l i z a t i o n of human c a p i t a l through s e l f - h e l p housing methods i s gai n i n g importance as one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t media of meeting the acute shortage of housing i n poor communities. The few s e l f -help housing experiments already c a r r i e d out i n some commun-i t i e s tend to strengthen a b e l i e f i n i t s e f f i c a c y f o r the improvement of housing c o n d i t i o n s . Housing i s an important aspect of community planning. Since housing i s a p a r t of the community plann-in g process and community planning i s hard to r e a l i s e i n the case of communities w i t h very l i m i t e d resources and other p r e s s i n g p r i o r i t i e s , there i s a need to i n t e g r a t e community development techniques of s e l f - h e l p w i t h the community and r e g i o n a l planning process, as concluded by 6 Bofah. There i s , t h e r e f o r e , a need to probe i n t o the s u i t a b i l i t y aspect of s e l f - h e l p housing i n developing c o u n t r i e s , which i s attempted i n t h i s study. Robert Kwaku Buor Bofah, " I n t e g r a t i o n of Comm-u n i t y Development," (Unpublished Master's t h e s i s i n Community and Regional P l a n n i n g , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963), p. 139. If I I DIMENSIONS OF THE PRESENT STUDY There are many f a c e t s to the concept of s e l f -help housing, inasmuch as there i s a v a r i e t y of ways i n which f a m i l i e s b u i l d houses. The approach ranges from complete s e l f - r e l i a n c e to p a r t i a l s e l f - r e l i a n c e on the resources of the f a m i l y . I n the f i r s t case, f a m i l i e s b u i l d houses e n t i r e l y w i t h t h e i r own labour and from m a t e r i a l s that are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . This i s the i n -formal or spontaneous approach. (Photographs Nos. 1-2) In the second case, s e l f - h e l p i s supplemented by manual help from other f a m i l i e s and/or p u b l i c support i n the form of t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e and m a t e r i a l s u b s i d i e s . T h i s i s the formal approach. (Photographs Nos. 3-6) There are many aspects of the formal type of s e l f - h e l p housing program. For example, the o r g a n i z a t i -onal aspect e n t a i l s involvement of f a m i l i e s i n the pro-cesses of work; the ed u c a t i o n a l aspect covers o r i e n t a t i o n and t r a i n i n g of s e l f - h e l p f a m i l i e s ; the t e c h n i c a l aspect deals w i t h the economic designs and methods of b u i l d i n g houses, and so on. Combinations of these methods are being used to a l i m i t e d extent i n var i o u s p a r t s of the world. I t i s recognized i n the developing c o u n t r i e s of A s i a , A f r i c a , and L a t i n America, as w i l l be seen i n Chapters IV and V, that the s e l f - h e l p method i s most s u i t a b l e because i t 5 reduces the monetized c a p i t a l i n p u t s which are scarce i n these c o u n t r i e s . The c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a v a r i e t y of formal or guided s e l f - h e l p housing experiments being made i n a number of c o u n t r i e s having a v a r i e t y of c u l t u r a l , economic, and p h y s i c a l s i t u a t i o n s forms the broad subject area of t h i s study. The i n f o r m a l , spontaneous or t r a d i t i o n a l s e l f -h elp housing method remains outside the scope of t h i s study, unless otherwise, at places i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s necessary. I l l FOCUS OF SELF-HELP HOUSING The concept of i n f o r m a l or spontaneous s e l f -help housing i s widely p r e v a l e n t i n developing s o c i e t i e s . However, houses b u i l t by t r a d i t i o n a l methods are proved to be incompatible w i t h the most minimum contemporary standards of hygiene and s a n i t a t i o n . That i s why, as the experience i n some c o u n t r i e s shows, "the lowering of standards and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s beyond a reasonable l i m i t i s 7 not a wise p o l i c y f o r p u b l i c housing." The s h i f t of the r u r a l populace to the r a p i d l y growing urban areas i n developing c o u n t r i e s r e s u l t s i n a t r a n s p l a n t a t i o n of the i n f o r m a l and spontaneous method to the c i t i e s . Since the c o n s t r u c t i o n standards of the r e s u l t i n g houses are o f t e n f a r below the minimum standard United N ations, Study on B u i l d i n g Costs i n A s i a  and the Far East, (Bangkok: U n i t e d Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , l^iTTpTT. 6 of urban houses, the spontaneously t r a n s p l a n t e d houses are graded i n t o slum houses and c l u s t e r s . "Juggies" i n I n d i a and P a k i s t a n , " b o d o n v i l l e s " i n A l g e r i a , " b a r r i a d a s " i n Peru, "callampas" i n C h i l e , "ranchos" i n Venezuela, " v i l l a s m i s e r i a s " i n Argentina and " f a v e l a s " i n B r a z i l are cases i n p o i n t . This u n i v e r s a l o b s e r v a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , necess-i t a t e s a d e l i b e r a t e refinement of the f i r s t , i . e . , the spontaneous approach, and the use of the second approach, v i z . , the formal approach of s e l f - h e l p housing i n the circumstances p r e v a i l i n g i n developing c o u n t r i e s . The formal approach has been adopted to a l i m i t e d extent i n many developing c o u n t r i e s , so that some in f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t f o r the purpose of e v a l u a t i n g the u t i l i t y and performance of the method i s a v a i l a b l e . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , suggested that based on the availablev^data, an e v a l u a t i o n of s e l f - h e l p housing programs at both the n a t i o n a l and l o c a l l e v e l s and an a p p r a i s a l of some of the p r o j e c t s (as d i s t i n c t from programs) i n developing c o u n t r i e s should l e a d to a s u b s t a n t i a t i o n of the hypothesis t h a t : SELF-HELP HOUSING CAN FORM AN EFFECTIVE METHOD OF MEETING THE DEFICIENCY OF HOUSING UNITS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. The purpose of t h i s study i s to t e s t t he above hypothesis and to provide evidence which may e s t a b l i s h or 7 c o n t r a d i c t i t . The s u b s t a n t i a t i o n of t h i s hypothesis would strengthen and c l a r i f y the somewhat b l u r r e d b e l i e f i n the e f f i c a c y of the s e l f - h e l p housing method as a s o l u t i o n to the housing problem i n the developing c o u n t r i e s . Once the relevance of the method i s e s t a b l i s h e d and experience i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n gained, refinement and improve-ment of the method could be made by those handling s e l f -h elp housing p r o j e c t s . IV METHODOLOGICAL SUPPORT OF THIS STUDY More cumbersome than the study of s e l f - h e l p housing i s the development of r e l e v a n t techniques to measure the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s e l f - h e l p housing programs and p r o j e c t s . There are many reasons why t h i s i s so. Some c o u n t r i e s are only at the stage of awareness of t h e i r housing problems and a l t e r n a t i v e approaches to the s o l u t i o n . I n those c o u n t r i e s where there i s a p r a c t i c a l demonstration of awareness, p r o j e c t s are p a r t of the community development programs; i n a few c o u n t r i e s there are independent p r o j e c t s u n r e l a t e d to h e a l t h and s o c i a l welfare programs. The s e l f - h e l p housing concept has not yet become an accepted component of the n a t i o n a l housing programs except i n a few cases. A few p r o j e c t s that are underway are too i s o l a t e d and small to permit e f f e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n f o r the purpose of assessing general a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the s e l f - h e l p housing method. 8 The e v a l u a t i o n problem i s compounded a l s o because i n most p r o j e c t s p u b l i c i n p u t i s so much and the f a m i l y ' s non-monetized investment so small t h a t the r e a l s t a t u s of the s e l f - h e l p housing programs i s d i s t o r t e d . On the other hand, they cannot be excluded from examination. I n s h o r t , l i m i t a t i o n of s e l f - h e l p experience and pa u c i t y of data are c e n t r a l o b s t a c l e s to u t i l i z a t i o n of an e v a l u a t i v e method. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to weigh methods i n r e l a t i v e terms and decide which a l t e r n a t i v e i s most e f f e c t i v e when s u f f -i c i e n t data about a l t e r n a t i v e s are not a v a i l a b l e . In s p i t e of these l i m i t a t i o n s , i t i s not imposs-i b l e to make a meaningful e v a l u a t i o n and to attempt to su b s t a n t i a t e the hypothesis. By in f e r e n c e i t i s p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y the need f o r a l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e method, such as the s e l f - h e l p method by making deductions as to the i n -adequacy of c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e methods p r e s e n t l y i n use i n the developing c o u n t r i e s . The e x i s t i n g data warrants the study of the magnitude of housing d e f i c i e n c i e s both i n q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e terms, and the inadequacy of p r i v a t e and p u b l i c resources to cope w i t h the housing s i t u a t i o n i n the foreseeable f u t u r e . When attempting t o make a comparative e v a l u a t i o n of s e l f - h e l p housing programs at n a t i o n a l l e v e l s , one not-only has to take account of d i f f e r e n c e s i n p h y s i c a l , c u l t u r a l and economic s e t t i n g s , but a l s o the great number of v a r i a b l e s that are i n v o l v e d . Many of the v a r i a b l e s 9 are not conducive to standard methods of measurement and comparison. One i s unable to h o l d a l l v a r i a b l e s i n mind and evaluate them. Under t h i s s i t u a t i o n , u n t i l meaningful data are a v a i l a b l e , the use of a d e s c r i p t i v e method o b j e c t -i v e l y f o l l o w e d w i t h respect to r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s i s a b e t t e r a l t e r n a t i v e than any other method which cannot be amenable to s o p h i s t i c a t e d refinement under the above l i m i t a t i o n s . E v a l u a t i o n of " p r o j e c t s " as compared w i t h "programs", and measurement of t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s p o s s i b l e w i t h the help of c o s t - b e n e f i t techniques which -have made considerable headway i n recent times. N a t h a n i e l L i c h f i e l d * s "Welfare Test" of a c o s t - b e n e f i t type i s 8 considered r e l e v a n t to planning p r o j e c t s . He has a p p l i e d 9 these techniques i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s . John K r u t i l l a a l s o holds " t h a t c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s of the costs and b e n e f i t s of each component p r o j e c t i s the best way to evaluate the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a program." 1 0 In doing so, there i s the problem of the measurement of c e r t a i n n o n - q u a n t i f i a b l e v a r i a b l e s . T h i s d i f f i c u l t y can be solved by g i v i n g scores °Nathaniel L i c h f i e l d , " C o s t ^ B e n e f i t A n a l y s i s i n C i t y P l a n n i n g , " J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners. XXVI, No.1*- (November, 19555, pp. 273-279. 9 C o l i n Buchanan, T r a f f i c i n Towns, Report of the S t e e r i n g Group and Working Group Appointed by the M i n i s t e r of Transport (London: Her Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y 0ff ice,1963),p .223. 1 0 J o h n V. K r u t i l l a , " C r i t e r i a f o r E v a l u a t i n g Regional Planning Programmes," i n Regional Development and Pla n n i n g , e d i t e d by John Friedmann and W i l l i a m Alonso (Cambridge Massachusetts^ M.I.T. Pr e s s , 196^), p. ^91. 10 to v a r i a b l e s based upon i n t u i t i v e judgement and t a k i n g account of them i n the c o s t - b e n e f i t r a t i o s . An approx-imate l y comparable method of what i s termed as the " e k i s t i c e f f i c i e n c y " has been used and recommended by Hassan Fathy from h i s experience of a r u r a l s e l f - h e l p housing p r o j e c t 11 i n Egypt. I t would appear to be r e l e v a n t f i r s t l y to f o l l o w a d e s c r i p t i v e approach i n so f a r as e v a l u a t i o n of the s e l f -help housing method a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l and n a t i o n a l l e v e l s i s concerned. In doing so, i t i s p o s s i b l e to explore proceed-ings of the United Nations Expert Committees on Housing, B u i l d i n g and Planning and some a v a i l a b l e n a t i o n a l r e p o r t s to u t i l i z e evidence i n support of the hypothesis. The data on c o u n t r i e s adopting such programs can a l s o be used to the same end. Secondly, a m i c r o - a n a l y t i c a l examination of s e l e c t e d p r o j e c t s from s e l e c t e d c o u n t r i e s of A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n America i s used. This i s fo l l o w e d by e v a l u a t i n g the b e n e f i t s measured i n terms of the saving r e s u l t i n g from the use of s e l f - h e l p v o l u n t a r y labour and m a t e r i a l s c o n t r i b u t e d by s e l f - h e l p f a m i l i e s . The saving thus represents a c e r t a i n p r o p o r t i o n of the p r o j e c t ' s c o s t , and thus as a b e n e f i t , i s a measure of e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the s e l f - h e l p housing method. I t i s suggested that these methods are l i k e l y to e f f e c t i v e l y v a l i d a t e the hypothesis. X 1Hasan Fathy, "Rural S e l f - H e l p Housing," E k i s t i c s , 13, No. 80 (June, 1962), pp. 398-HOl. 11 V DEFINITION OF TERMS Four terms contained i n the statement of the hypothesis deserve p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n as to t h e i r conno-t a t i o n i n t h i s study. These are: " S e l f - H e l p Housing", " E f f e c t i v e Method," " D e f i c i e n c y of Housing U n i t s , " and "Developing C o u n t r i e s , " S e l f - h e l p housing i s a system of house b u i l d i n g whereby a number of f a m i l i e s organise themselves, or are organized by an e x t e r n a l agency f o r b u i l d i n g houses f o r complete ownership by the f a m i l i e s . The f a m i l i e s c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r own s e r v i c e s so tha t they b e n e f i t from an amount of work equal to that which they themselves c o n t r i b u t e . E f f e c t i v e Method means a method which i s suggestive of d e c i s i v e e f f e c t or i n d i c a t i v e of p o s i t i v e consequence as measured by a l t e r n a t i v e means of doing the job and meeting the d e s i r e d o b j e c t i v e . D e f i c i e n c y of Housing U n i t s means q u a n t i t a t i v e shortage and q u a l i t a t i v e inadequacy of houses w i t h reference to the demand among poor f a m i l i e s i n developing n a t i o n s . Developing Countries r e f e r to the c o u n t r i e s of A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n America, whose per c a p i t a r e a l income i s low when compared wi t h the per c a p i t a r e a l incomes of the United States of America, Canada, A u s t r a l i a and Western Europe. (See S e c t i o n I of Chapter I I I and Figu r e I ) 1 2 U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Measures of Economic Development  of Under-Developed C o u n t r i e s . (New York: United'Nations, 1951), P. 3. 12 VI ASSUMPTIONS This study proceeds on the f o l l o w i n g assumptions: The people i n developing c o u n t r i e s have t a l e n t s and resources which, according to the United Nations o b s e r v a t i o n , "are not being used or allowed to c o n t r i b u t e 13 to any other n a t i o n a l development"; the b u i l d i n g of a minimum house i s beyond the income c a p a c i t y of a l a r g e number of f a m i l i e s i n develop-i n g c o u n t r i e s ; the economic resources of developing c o u n t r i e s are too l i m i t e d to be spent on mass house b u i l d i n g programs which could s a t i s f y the minimum housing demands of t h e i r populace; the s e l f - h e l p housing method i s a f e a s i b l e method from the s o c i a l and t e c h n i c a l p o i n t s of view; and the economy of developing c o u n t r i e s i s not going to change so d r a s t i c a l l y i n the foreseeable f u t u r e as to warrant a massive b u i l d i n g program to e l i m i n a t e the present housing backlog and th a t expected i n the near f u t u r e . V I I CHAPTER SUMMARY The need f o r t h i s study stems from the grim o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t gap between the housing requirement and resource c a p a c i t y of the developing 1 - % n i t e d Nations, Manual of S e l f - H e l p Housing, (New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1964), p. 9. 13 n a t i o n s of A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n America. The f a c t t h a t 10 per cent of the gross n a t i o n a l product, being presently-spent i n a l l sectors of economy i n these c o u n t r i e s , i s needed f o r housing alone compounds the problematic s i t u a t i o n . I t i s contended by o p t i m i s t s t h a t the main t o o l f o r breaking the v i s c i o u s c i r c l e of the housing dilemma i n developing n a t i o n s i s the adoption of s e l f - h e l p housing programs. The concept of s e l f - h e l p housing i s m u l t i - f a c e t e d . The f o r m a l l y engendered s e l f - h e l p housing which i s the subject of t h i s study i s being demonstrated i n many commun-i t i e s . The output has not yet been comprehensively evaluated so t h a t the o p t i m i s t i c n o t i o n i n regard to i t s " e f f e c t -iveness f o r meeting the housing d e f i c i e n c y i n developing c o u n t r i e s " has not yet been s u b s t a n t i a t e d . The o b j e c t i v e of accomplishing t h i s i s the focus of t h i s study. The study i s based on the assumptions t h a t i n natio n s under d i s c u s s i o n , resources are l i m i t e d and housing needs are acute, and that human t a l e n t s are abundant but are not being used. Taking account of the l i m i t a t i o n s of data and the involvement of many v a r i a b l e s , a d e s c r i p t i v e e v a l u a t i o n method i s chosen as being most u s e f u l i n the case of s e l f - h e l p housing programs. An a n a l y t i c a l approach ^ of the c o s t - b e n e f i t type i s used i n the case of a sample of s e l e c t e d p r o j e c t s i n a number of s e l e c t e d developing c o u n t r i e s . CHAPTER I I THE CONCEPT AND OBJECTIVE OF SELF-HELP HOUSING I EVOLUTION OF SELF-HELP HOUSING The t r a d i t i o n a l form of spontaneous s e l f - h e l p house b u i l d i n g i s an ancient a c t i v i t y going as f a r back as man's f i r s t h a b i t a t i o n of the e a r t h . T h is a c t i v i t y i s s t i l l widespread i n many areas of the world. The nomad's t e n t i n A r a b i a , the eskimo's i g l o o i n the A r c t i c and the bushman's hut i n A f r i c a bear witness to t h i s statement. These types of s h e l t e r s represent-foe use of r e a l s e l f - h e l p where f a m i l i e s c o n t r i b u t e to accomplish 1 everything without e x t e r n a l a s s i s t a n c e . As t r a d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s became scarce and un-s a t i s f a c t o r y i n terms of d u r a b i l i t y and maintenance, dependence on e x t e r n a l b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s and s e r v i c e s I n the Nubian Oasis of Egypt as elsewhere, f o r example, the e n t i r e house-building a c t i v i t y i s performed by f a m i l i e s using t h e i r own labour and indigenous m a t e r i a l s . The " e k i s t i c e f f i c i e n c y " measured i n terms of pr o p o r t i o n s of unmonetized l o c a l i n p u t s i n t h i s case, as i n comparable cases elsewhere, approaches 100. Hassan Fathy, "Rural S e l f - H e l p Housing," I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour Review, LXXXV, (January-June, 1962), p. 13. 15 seemed i n e v i t a b l e . The supply of b u i l d i n g materJals appeared to be so scarce and beyond the economic means of f a m i l i e s , t h a t housing d e f i c i e n c i e s and l i v i n g problems grew i n alarming p r o p o r t i o n . Government e f f o r t s proved inadequate p a r t i c u l a r l y i n developing c o u n t r i e s , so tha t the s o c i a l problems continued to aggravate the s i t u a t i o n . These and the consequent problems a s s o c i a t e d therewith a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n of s o c i a l reformers and s o c i a l workers. The process of awareness of problems of hous-i n g gave r i s e to a movement which became widespread: the community development movement. S e l f - h e l p housing i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p a r t of the community development movement which s t a r t e d a f t e r the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n and has, of l a t e , gained widespread p o p u l a r i t y p a r t i c u l a r l y i n developing n a t i o n s . The movement i s "designed to promote b e t t e r l i v i n g f o r the whole community wi t h the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n and on the 2 i n i t i a t i v e of the community." Community development B r i t i s h C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , Ashridge Conference on  S o c i a l Development (London: Her Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 195^),"Misc., 523, "quoted i n E k i s t i c s , No. 102 (May, 1964), p. 3^1. 16 connotes "a process by which the e f f o r t s of the people are u n i t e d w i t h those of government a u t h o r i t i e s to improve the economic, s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n of communities." The above d e f i n i t i o n s b r i n g out two b a s i c elements: (a) w i l l i n g n e s s of the people to p a r t i c i p a t e i n e f f o r t s to improve t h e i r l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s and (b) p r o v i s i o n of devices to i n i t i a t e and s t i m u l a t e s e l f - h e l p a c t i v i t y . The main b a s i s of the community development concept i s that when an input or a set of s t i m u l i i s administered to a group, the group responds w i t h a com-b i n a t i o n of s o c i a l a c t i o n s which determines i t s output. Community development provides necessary s t i m u l i and i n c i t e s a chain r e a c t i o n i n the form of concerted group concern^ and a c t i o n f o r the f u l f i l m e n t of e s s e n t i a l community o b j e c t i v e s . I t a l s o provides the e a s i e s t ways to accomplish them. The e x t e r n a l agency i n i t i a t i n g community d e v e l -opment attempts to change the p s y c h o - s o c i a l f i e l d of the respondent community so t h a t they r e a l i s e t h e i r poten-J A l f r e d E. Alcock, e t . a l . , " S e l f - H e l p Housing Methods and P r a c t i c e s i n South-East A s i a , " Report of the M i s s i o n to Survey and Evaluate S e l f - H e l p Housing Methods and P r a c t i c e s i n South-East A s i a , abstracted i n E k i s t i c s . 16, No. 93 (August, 1963),p. 85» 17 t i a l l t i e s and embark upon doing t h i n g s f o r themselves. The knowledge of t h e i r d u t i e s and c o n v i c t i o n on means to accomplish community o b j e c t i v e s are e s s e n t i a l according to what H o l i s t s b e l i e v e : "when people know p r e c i s e l y what they want and the most e f f i c i e n t way to get i t , i t i s i r r a t i o n a l f o r them not t o choose the most e f f i c i e n t means." The concept of s e l f - h e l p , which i s a community development device i s , thus, engendered i n t o the community as one of the most e f f i c i e n t means of ach i e v i n g community ends when the m a t e r i a l resources to achieve them are d e f i c i e n t or absent. S e l f - h e l p , as a community development device, has gained wide p r o p u l a r i t y i n the developing n a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y through the e f f o r t s of the United Nations and i t s s p e c i a l i z e d agencies. In some c o u n t r i e s n o t a b l y Indonesia, the P h i l i p p i n e s , I n d i a , P a k i s t a n , Ceylon, the United Arab Republic, Ghana, Colombia, Guatemala and C h i l e , the s e l f -help concept i s w e l l on the move. During the l a s t ten years, most of the United Nations and a i d - g i v i n g c o u n t r i e s , n o t a b l y the United S t a t e s , have geared t h e i r economic a i d towards community development p r o j e c t s i n the developing c o u n t r i e s . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies have a l s o recommended that n a t i o n a l governments support such p r o j e c t s , as a United Nations -Robert A. Dahl and Charles E. Lindblom, P o l i t i c s , Economics and Welfare (New York: Harper and Bros., 19^3)> P. H I . 18 document r e p o r t s : "To be f u l l y e f f e c t i v e community's s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t s r e q u i r e both i n t e n s i v e and extensive 5 a s s i s t a n c e from the Government". The concern of the United Nations goes back to the year 19V7 when i t was recommended th a t a s e r i e s of s t u d i e s be conducted on the subject of s e l f - h e l p housing which became one of the t a r g e t s of the United Nations 6 Development Decade. Since 1952 the United Nations has taken e f f e c t i v e and concrete steps i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . These steps created i n t e r e s t among the i n t e r n a t i o n a l f i n a n c i n g agencies. There i s i n c r e a s i n g expectation among these agencies that the a i d and l o a n r e c i p i e n t n a t i o n s should use them i n the community development endeavours 7 and thereby demonstrate e f f o r t s to help themselves. I n c r e a s i n g attempts are being made among the developing nations to m o b i l i z e s e l f - h e l p resources so as to meet necessary c o n d i t i o n s f o r r e c e i v i n g e x t e r n a l a i d . This complies w i t h the United Nations concept of human involvement as a p r e - c o n d i t i o n f o r achieving the aims of the Development Decade. Notwithstanding the i n s i g n i f i c a n t U n i t e d Nations, Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , ConceptsZand P r i n c i p l e s of Community Development and Re- commendations on Further P r a c t i c a l Measures to.be Taken  by I n t e r n a t i o n a l Organizations (New York: 12th March, 1957)? p. 13. 6 United Nations, United Nations Development Decade -Proposal f o r A c t i o n (New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1962) pp. 59-6*f. 7 'This, however, excludes emergency economic a i d or m i l i t a r y a i d . 19 impact of s e l f - h e l p housing i n numerical terms, a p r a c t i c a l method has n e a r l y been found and a goal e s t a b l i s h e d i n the area of housing and community develop-ment. I I GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF SELF-HELP HOUSING Goals and o b j e c t i v e s of s e l f - h e l p housing vary according to d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . Yet they can be sta t e d i n general terms. The Inter-American Housing and Planning Center Bogota has s t a t e d the " e s s e n t i a l g oals" of s e l f - h e l p housing to be as f o l l o w s : a. to provide d w e l l i n g s at the cost of p a r t i c i p a n t f a m i l i e s a s s u r ing j o i n t maintenance and conservation of common property by f a m i l i e s themselves; b. to o f f e r the p a r t i c i p a n t s an opportunity to c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r own e f f o r t s to the b u i l d i n g , improvement, o and conservation of t h e i r houses. Here, the cost of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c l u d e , above a l l , t h e i r own resources i n the shape of time, l a b o u r , m a t e r i a l s , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Thus, the s e l f - h e l p housing e f f o r t , as s t a t e d , i s d i r e c t e d p r i n c i p a l l y to the u t i l i z a t i o n of the p a r t i c i p a n t s 1 own resources f o r home ownership. °Pan American Union, Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s , S e l f - H e l p Housing Guide (Bogota: Inter-American Housing and P l a n n i n g Center, 1962), p. 49. 20. The same source a l s o s p e l l s out the "most important o b j e c t i v e s " of s e l f - h e l p housing as f o l l o w s : a. to make p o s s i b l e i n t e g r a l house planning, both as a s e r v i c e and i n the general i n t e r e s t of the community; b. to reduce the need f o r t o t a l f i n a n c i n g by the s t a t e i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of houses; c. to put the l a t e n t c a p a c i t y of the people to work; to promote i n i t i a t i v e towards c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n ; to encourage savings; to create a s p i r i t of e n t e r p r i s e and strengthen the p a r t i c i p a n t s 1 confidence i n themselves; and d. to work f o r c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s and mutual under-9 standing among f a m i l i e s who w i l l l i v e i n the same d i s t r i c t . Thus, the o b j e c t i v e of s e l f - h e l p housing i s to look a f t e r the welfare i n t e r e s t of the community; to r e l i e v e the s t a t e ' s burden; to engender community f e e l i i g ; to encourage i n d i v i d u a l saving and investment, and by so doing, to i g n i t e human energy inherent i n the community f o r c o l l e c t i v e h o u s e - b u i l d i n g . I l l APPROACHES TO SELF-HELP HOUSING I t has been s t a t e d i n the preceding pages tha t there are b a s i c a l l y two ways i n which s e l f - h e l p housing a c t i v i t y i s performed. F i r s t i s the spontaneous method, I b i d . 21 i n which n© outside help i s i n v o l v e d ; and second, there i s the formal method, i n which some outside a s s i s t a n c e i s u t i l i z e d . Thus, there are two extremes of s e l f - h e l p housing, pure s e l f - h e l p or cooperative s e l f - h e l p , or what the United Nations termed the "maximum c o n t r i b u t i o n " 10 and "minimum c o n t r i b u t i o n " approach. I t i s the extent to which outside help i s i n j e c t e d t h a t decides the l o c a t i o n of the r e l e v a n t p r o j e c t i n the above continuum. Four d i v i s i o n s can be recognized i n t h i s continuum: pure s e l f - h e l p , mutual aided s e l f - h e l p , engendered s e l f - h e l p and cooperative s e l f - h e l p . I n the pure s e l f - h e l p category, land i s taken to be u b i q u i t o u s . Management, labour s e r v i c e s and m a t e r i a l s , e t c . are a l l provided by owner-families and outside help i s n i l . I n the mutual aided s e l f - h e l p d i v i s i o n , the e s s e n t i a l requirement i s t h a t m a t e r i a l s and labour, e t c . , are provided by neighbours i n exchange f o r the owner's a s s i s t a n c e which i s provided f o r h i s neighbour. In the engendered s e l f - h e l p type, government or p u b l i c agencies organize s e l f - h e l p housing, at times, a l s o by p r o v i d i n g m a t e r i a l h e l p , the object being to demonstrate the method and to encourage people to help themselves. United Nations, Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s , Manual on S e l f - H e l p Housing. (New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1964), pp. 7-9. 22 I n the cooperative s e l f - h e l p program, l a n d , l a b o u r , m a t e r i a l and t r a n s p o r t , e t c . are arranged by cooperative s o c i e t i e s whose members are p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the housing schemes. Here the member's non-monetized c o n t r i b u t i o n i s minimum. I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , s u i t a b l e only f o r those f a m i l i e s who are able to pay l o a n instalments e q u i v a l e n t to the economic rent of the house. IV BENEFITS OF SELF-HELP HOUSING S e l f - h e l p housing experience has not yet been extensive so that i t i s not p o s s i b l e to determine concrete impacts on the welfare of people. I n the absence of enough experience, b e n e f i t s b e l i e v e d to be g e n e r a l l y inherent are s t a t e d as f o l l o w s : I n one of the c o u n t r i e s i n t e r e s t e d i n s e l f - h e l p , " l o c a l l e a d e r s were advised on how to base a l l programs on the needs of the people and how to conduct these programs through s e l f - h e l p so as to b r i n g about the s o c i a l and 11 economic u p l i f t of the community..." S o c i a l and economic u p l i f t of the community, thus c o n s t i t u t e s the b e n e f i t of a s e l f - h e l p housing program. By u t i l i z i n g work p o t e n t i a l of f a m i l i e s (measured i n terms of man-hours available), where labour supply i s Robert D. Campbell, P a k i s t a n - An Emerging  Democracy ( P r i n c e t o n : D. Von Nostrand Co., Inc., 1963), p. 56. 23 excessive as i n most developing c o u n t r i e s , the method reduces — i f not completely wipes out — the labour c o s t , s o c i a l s e c u r i t y payments and c o n t r a c t o r ' s p r o f i t s . I t a l s o s t i m u l a t e s savings and c a p i t a l i z a t i o n , b e n e f i t t -i n g not only f a m i l i e s but a l s o s t a t e . By i n v e s t i n g i n a s e l f - h e l p housing p r o j e c t , the Government can s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n c r e a s e the number of d w e l l i n g u n i t s i n a shorter p e r i o d than i s p o s s i b l e otherwise, t h a t i s , by b u i l d i n g houses e n t i r e l y through p u b l i c resources. The e s s e n t i a l aspect of s e l f - h e l p housing i s t h a t the houses belong to the i n h a b i t a n t s . Since t h e i r own labour and i n i t i a t i v e are c o n t r i b u t e d to i t , they develop p r i d e of achievement. The c o l l e c t i v e b u i l d i n g process gives group work experience which can be u t i l i z e d i n other n a t i o n b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t i e s at community l e v e l s . S e l f - h e l p housing a l s o creates a l a r g e s k i l l e d labour f o r c e , which i s scarce i n developing n a t i o n s . When on the job, the p a r t i c i p a n t s put i n b e t t e r q u a l i t y work than does wage la b o u r , because they work f o r t h e i r own d i r e c t b e n e f i t . This creates new o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s , i ncreases labour supply, and decreases labour c o s t . I f e f f e c t i v e l y c a r r i e d out, s e l f - h e l p housing appears to be the o n l y method which can ensure minimum s h e l t e r f o r the mass of the world's p o p u l a t i o n . I t i s s l i g h t l y c o s t l y to s t a r t the program, but the cost of 24 i n i t i a t i n g a s e l f - h e l p housing program can be regarded as i n s i g n i f i c a n t compared w i t h the cos t of developing a p u b l i c housing program of the type which i s cu r r e n t i n most c o u n t r i e s . A l s o , "even i f the program were l i m i t e d to one or a few areas, the i d e a has a tremendous i g n i t i o n 12 p o t e n t i a l which might spark unsuspected energies." V ORGANIZATION OF SELF-HELP HOUSING E f f e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n of s e l f - h e l p housing p r o j e c t s or programs i s bas i c to the achievement of housing goals i n developing c o u n t r i e s . While a country-wide program i s centered on housing goals, the community-wide p r o j e c t s f u l f i l the immediate l o c a l o b j e c t i v e s . Both r e q u i r e the use of h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l techniques. While the country-wide programs have not yet been adopted, community-wide p r o j e c t s have been adopted i n many areas. The l a t t e r experience has demonstrated the need f o r a whole s e r i e s of planning and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e processes. A thorough research method preceeds the s e l e c t i o n In view of appropriateness, these words have been taken out of context from: L l o y d Rodwin, "Choosing Regions f o r Development," Regional Development and Pl a n n i n g , e d i t e d by John Friedmann and W i l l i a m Alonso (Cambridge: M.I.T. P r e s s , 1964), p. 58. 25 of a community i n which s e l f - h e l p housing program i s organized. The p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and economic c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s of the community are i n v e s t i g a t e d . The resources of the community i n terms of income and occupational , s t r u c t u r e , a v a i l a b l e f r e e time, a v a i l a b l e indigenous b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , e t c . , are assessed. The whole psycho-s o c i a l f i e l d of the human community i s i n v e s t i g a t e d so that necessary s o c i a l work techniques s u i t a b l e to the community are developed. The next stage i s to p l a n the whole p r o j e c t . Three aspects of planning become important. The f i r s t aspect i s the planning of s o c i a l work, the o b j e c t being the engendering of the s e l f - h e l p s p i r i t and s e l l i n g the i d e a to the community. The second aspect of planning i s t e c h n i c a l preparedness, the o b j e c t being to develop a p l a n f o r the community to prepare the most economical designs of housing u n i t s and to d i s c o v e r indigenous b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s . The t h i r d aspect i s the development of a management system which organizes s e l f - h e l p labour and coordinates t h e i r work i n the f i e l d and ensures t h a t the work i s accomplished according to p l a n . The manage-ment a l s o looks a f t e r the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or o p e r a t i o n a l aspects of the p r o j e c t . (Figure 15) 26 VI CHAPTER SUMMARY The concept of spontaneous s e l f - h e l p house b u i l d i n g as a t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i n v o l v i n g maximum f a m i l y c o n t r i b u t i o n and no e x t e r n a l h e l p , i s widespread i n many pa r t s of the world. D e p l e t i o n and s c a r c i t y of t r a d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s p l u s the i n c r e a s i n g n e c e s s i t y of achi e v i n g minimum housing standards has l e d to problems of housing inadequacy and as s o c i a t e d s o c i a l problems. The awareness of s o c i a l problems has given r i s e to the community development movement whose b a s i c slogan i s s e l f - h e l p , whether i n the form of housing or any other community improvement endeavour. From the stimulus provided by the United Nations and some of the r e l a t i v e l y developed c o u n t r i e s , the concept of s e l f - h e l p housing has gained great p o p u l a r i t y i n developing nations which are faced w i t h the problems of acute shortages of housing and s c a r c i t y of resources. The goal of s e l f - h e l p housing, i e . , the p r o v i s i o n of housing through the p a r t i c i p a n t s 1 e f f o r t s and the o b j e c t i v e i . e . the encouragement of community a c t i o n and i g n i t i o n of s e l f - h e l p energy f o r house b u i l d i n g , are geared to the s i t u a t i o n s of developing n a t i o n s . Approaches of s e l f - h e l p housing range from pure s e l f - h e l p to cooperative s e l f - h e l p , the intermediate cases being mutual aided s e l f - h e l p and engendered s e l f -h e l p . The object of engendered s e l f - h e l p which i s being 27 s t u d i e d here i s to maximise pure s e l f - h e l p i n the long run by p r o v i d i n g guided a c t i o n i n the short run. Whatever the form, the s e l f - h e l p housing approach i s of great b e n e f i t to the developing n a t i o n s , i n t h a t i t provides the only hope f o r s o c i e t i e s confronted w i t h the dilemma of housing s c a r c i t y and economic d i s a b i l i t y . Photograph No. 1 Traditional round houses Photograph No. 2 Typical houses built by spontaneous self-help housing method in built by spontaneous self-help housing rural areas. method in urban areas. Photograph No. 3 Rapporting and convassing for self-help housing activity. Source: U n i t e d Nations, S e l f - H e l p Housing Guide (New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1964). CHAPTER I I I THE DEFICIENCY OF HOUSING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND THE INADEQUACY OF HOUSING RESOURCES I MEASURES OF DEVELOPMENT: DEVELOPING COUNTRIES H i s t o r i c a l study of economic development shows tha t i n many c o u n t r i e s periods of dreary s t a g n a t i o n a l t e r n a t e d w i t h spurts of economic progress up to the end of the eighteenth century. Since then, there has been a continuous r i s e of economic p r o s p e r i t y i n the co u n t r i e s of Europe, North America and A u s t r a l i a . These phenomena, c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the onset of the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n are unique — unique i n the sense t h a t as against stagnation being a general r u l e , economic develop-ment showed up as an e x c e p t i o n a l phenomenon, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the c o u n t r i e s s i t u a t e d i n the northern hemisphere. Since the end of the Second World Mar, the na t i o n s of A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n America which c o n s t i t u t e 70 per cent of the world's p o p u l a t i o n , have become i n c r e a s i n g l y "development-minded." As a consequence, great e f f o r t s are being made to e f f e c t such changes i n the s o c i o -economic v a r i a b l e s as may be conducive to the generation of p o s i t i v e f o r c e s w i t h i n the development process. "Development process" and "economic development" have become watchwords i n economic l i t e r a t u r e . " S o c i a l 29 30 change," " c u l t u r a l change" and " i n s t i t u t i o n a l change" as i n g r e d i e n t s of development have e l i c i t e d great concern of the United Nations and developed nations i n t e r e s t e d i n the economic development of the world's poorer c o u n t r i e s . I n terms of economic development, many a d j e c t i v e s have been used to designate the c o u n t r i e s of North America, Europe, and A u s t r a l i a : f o r example, "developed", "advanced", " r i c h " and "modern". S i m i l a r l y , "undW-eloped", "under-developed", "poor" and "backward" are assigned to the co u n t r i e s of A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n America. There has, however, been d i f f i c u l t y i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these terms. According to the widely used d e f i n i t i o n given by the United Nations, the term "underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s " i s used to mean " c o u n t r i e s i n which per c a p i t a r e a l income i s low when compared w i t h the per c a p i t a r e a l income of the United S t a t e s of America, Canada, A u s t r a l i a and Western Europe. I n t h i s sense, an adequate synonym would be poor c o u n t r i e s . " 1 Even i f s u i t a b l e f o r academic purposes, the term "underdeveloped" i s , understandably, not e n t i r e l y suggestive of those n a t i o n s which are i n d u s t r i a l l y under-developed but c u l t u r a l l y may not be so. " P r e - i n d u s t r i a l i z e d " United Nations, Measures f o r the Economic  Development of Underdeveloped Countries (New York: U n i t e d N a t i o n s " P u b l i c a t i o n s , i95D» p. 3» 31 2 and "developing" are the a l t e r n a t e s suggested. The f i r s t prejudges the p o l i c y conclusions that i n d u s t r i a l -i z a t i o n i s tantamount to economic development; the second i m p l i e s that a l l c o u n t r i e s are i n the process of development. The United Nations d e f i n i t i o n subsumes — or does not take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n — the p o t e n t i a l l i m i t to the development of human and m a t e r i a l resources possessed by the s o - c a l l e d underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s . Whatever the present l e v e l of technology, economists agree t h a t a l l the s o - c a l l e d underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those which have f r e e d themselves from the bondage of c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the past few decades are i n a p o s i t i o n to inc r e a s e the e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n of t h e i r resources and thereby i n d u s t r i a l i z e themselves sooner or l a t e r . For t h i s reason, economists "recognize the l i m i t a t i o n s of such a l i n e a r conception of h i s t o r y and no longer attempt to c l a s s i f y c o u n t r i e s according to the stages of development."^ Webster's D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n e s "developing" as "to cause to become more completely unfolded... so as to Benjamin H i g g i n s , Economic Development: P r i n c i p l e s , Problems and P o l i c i e s (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1959), P. 7." ^Gerald M. Meier and Robert E. Baldwin, Economic  Development Theory H i s t o r y P o l i c y (New York: Joh Wiley & Sons, Inc., & London: Chapman and H a l l , 1957),p.l45. 32 r e v e a l p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , " and "gradual advance or growth through p r o g r e s s i v e changes". Thus, the term "developing", as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r "underdeveloped" conveys the n o t i o n t h a t the c o u n t r i e s are i n v o l v e d i n the process of develop-ment, which i s the f a c t u a l p o s i t i o n . The gap between per c a p i t a incomes of say, r i c h and poor nations i s going to be reduced not so much by d e c e l e r a t i o n of the former as by the a c c e l e r a t i o n of the l a t t e r ; i m p l i c i t i s the f a c t t h a t tie l a t t e r would attempt to reach the datum l e v e l of the former. The term "developing c o u n t r i e s " has, t h e r e f o r e , gained currency. There are r a r e — i f any — cases of nations i n which the Governments are not demonstrably i n t e r e s t e d i n and i n c r e a s i n g l y conscious of development. In the l i g h t of above d i s c u s s i o n , the c o u n t r i e s of A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n America which have lower per c a p i t a income (average 150 d o l l a r s annually) compared w i t h the c o u n t r i e s of North America, Europe and A u s t r a l i a (1500 d o l l a r s a n n u a l l y ) , by v i r t u e of t h e i r engagement i n the process of development are termed as "developing cou n t r i e s " , " d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s " or "developing economies". (Figure I) ^ P h i l i p Babcock Gove ( e d - i n - c h i e f ) , Webster 1s  T h i r d New I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y ( S p r i n g f i e l d , Mass: G & C Merriam Company, 1961), p.619. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES OF ASIA AFRICA AND LATIN AMERICA APBJL I9&6 EFFECTIVENESS OF SELF-HELP HOUSING : EXPERIENCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIETS UNIVERSITY OF BClTtSH COLUMBIA, VANCOUVER AmjoidL AU & &jvt FIGURE NO. 1 I I CHARACTERISTICS OF DEVELOPING ECONOMIES In order to appreciate the relevance of inputs f o r the s o l u t i o n of community problems, such as t h a t of housing, an understanding of the general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of developing c o u n t r i e s i s important. Only the e l i m i n a t -i o n of economic poverty i s not a s u f f i c i e n t argument to j u s t i f y the d i f f u s i o n of a method f o r the s o l u t i o n of the housing problem. The whole range of c u l t u r a l problems should be evaluated to see i f the method i s the most e f f e c t i v e p o s s i b l e . A l l a v a i l a b l e s t a t i s t i c a l and d e s c r i p t i v e i n -formation r e v e a l s t h a t poverty i s a general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of developing c o u n t r i e s . Higgins d i s c o v e r s t h a t "there i s indeed a c o r r e l a t i o n between n a t i o n a l poverty and other f e a t u r e s of country's economic and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . " Hence, there i s the need to make an a p p r a i s a l of poverty and " a l l other f e a t u r e s " of socio-economic o r g a n i z a t i o n . For the present purposes, a summary of the main fe a t u r e s of developing c o u n t r i e s should s u f f i c e . I n t h i s r espect, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to improve L e i b e n s t e i n ' s ,11st which combines most of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s most o f t e n mentioned. H i g g i n s , o p . c i t . p.11. 35 6 A. Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a. A very h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n i n a g r i c u l t u r e , u s u a l l y some 70 to 90 per cent. b. "Absolute overpopulation" i n a g r i c u l t u r e , t h a t i s i t would be p o s s i b l e to reduce the number of workers i n a g r i c u l t u r e and s t i l l a t t a i n the same t o t a l output. c. Evidence of considerable " d i s g u i s e d un-employment" and a l a c k of employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s outside a g r i c u l t u r e . d. Very l i t t l e c a p i t a l per head. e. Low income per head and, as a consequence, existence near the "subsistence" l e v e l . f . P r a c t i c a l l y zero savings f o r the l a r g e mass of the people. g. Whatever savings do e x i s t are u s u a l l y achieved by a l a n d h o l d i n g c l a s s whose values are not conducive to investment i n i n d u s t r y and commerce. h. The primary i n d u s t r i e s , t h a t i s a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y and mining, are u s u a l l y the r e s i d e n t i a l employment c a t e g o r i e s . i . The output i n a g r i c u l t u r e i s made up mostly of c e r e a l s and primary raw m a t e r i a l s . j . Major p r o p o r t i o n of expenditure i n food and n e c e s s i t i e s . k. Export of f o o d s t u f f s and raw m a t e r i a l s . 1. Low volume of trade per c a p i t a . m. Poor c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s and poor marketing f a c i l i t i e s . n. Poor housing. L e i b e n s t e i n has summarized economic c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s under two headings, namely "general" and "basic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a g r i c u l t u r e . " The l a t t e r c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s have not been discussed here, since they are not d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t to the present purpose. 36 B. Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . a. High f e r t i l i t y r a t e s , u s u a l l y above ho per thousand. b. High m o r t a l i t y r a t e s and low expectation of l i f e a t b i r t h . c. Inadequate n u t r i t i o n , and d i e t a r y d e f i c i e n c e s . d. Rudimentary hygiene, p u b l i c h e a l t h and s a n i t a t i o n . e. R u r a l overcrowding. C. C u l t u r a l and P o l i t i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a. Rudimentary education and u s u a l l y a hig h degree of i l l i t e r a c y among the people. b. Extensive prevalence of c h i l d labour. c. General weakness or absence of middle c l a s s d. I n f e r i o r i t y of women's st a t u s and p o s i t i o n . e. T r a d i t i o n a l l y determined behaviour f o r the bulk of the populace. D. Tec h n o l o g i c a l and Miscellaneous C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a. Low y i e l d per acre. b. No t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s or inadequate f a c i l i t i e s f o r the t r a i n i n g of t e c h n i c i a n s , engineers, e t c . c. Inadequate and crude communication and t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n the r u r a l areas. 7 d. Crude technology.' Harvey L e i b e n s t e i n , Economic Backwardness and  Economic Growth (New York: London: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., I960), pp. M-0-4-1. 37 The above l i s t of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s b r i e f and suggestive. I t subsumes the va s t d i f f e r e n c e i n t a s t e s , c l i m a t e and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s among and w i t h i n 8 the developing c o u n t r i e s . I t i s i n d i c a t i v e of most predominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s t u d i e d and observed by 9 w r i t e r s on the subject. I t should appear that economic problems, and t h e r e f o r e , economic planning approaches are s i m i l a r i n most of the developing c o u n t r i e s . For example, Haque says: ... i f one p i c k s up the plans of I n d i a , P a k i s t a n , Ghana, Egypt, Nepal or Ceylon, at random, what i s s u r p r i s i n g i s not t h e i r apparent d i f f e r e n c e s but t h e i r b a s i c s i m i l a r i t y . . . " T his b a s i c s i m i l a r i t y i n planning techniques i s due to the b a s i c s i m i l a r i t y of t h e i r problems of p l a n n i n g . 1 0 I t i s necessary to i s o l a t e some of the above fe a t u r e s from L e i b e n s t e i n * s l i s t so as to j u s t i f y the k i n d of d i s c u s s i o n to be taken up i n the f o l l o w i n g chapters. These are: the super-abundance of low income o E f f o r t s to develop s a t i s f a c t o r y c r i t e r i a of measurement of l e v e l s of l i v i n g are a f o o t . See, e.£.: United Nations, I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s , and Measure- ment of Standards and L e v e l s of L i v i n g (New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , I960), pp.32. 9E.£., among others , the f o l l o w i n g : P.N. Rosen-stein-Rodan, A l f r e d Sauvy, N. Prokopovicz, A.L. Minks, H. Belshaw, Benjamin H i g g i n s , Gerald M. Meier, Robert T. Baldwin and Harvey L e i b e n s t e i n . 1 0Mahbuhul Haque, Strategy of Planning (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , P a k i s t a n Branch, 1963) p . l . 38 p o p u l a t i o n ; existence of " d i s g u i s e d unemployment" and l a c k of employment outside a g r i c u l t u r e ; low income and low c a p i t a l per head; no savings and investment c a p a c i t y ; major expenditure on e s s e n t i a l s , t h a t i s , food and s h e l t e r ; poor c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s ; uneconomic use of l i m i t e d c a p i t a l ; r e s i d e n t i a l over-crowding; poor h e a l t h and education f a c i l i t i e s ; t r a d i t i o n a l l y determined behaviour; crude technology and l a c k of guidance to improve c o n d i t i o n s . Some of the above f e a t u r e s are the r e s u l t s of low per c a p i t a incomes; others are as s o c i a t e d w i t h such c o n d i t i o n s as produce low per c a p i t a incomes. Develop-ment e f f o r t s are d i r e c t e d to the b u i l d i n g up of i n f r a -s t r u c t u r e s which are re q u i r e d to produce favourable c o n d i t i o n s to growth by removing ob s t a c l e s to growth. The major concern of developing economies i s to inc r e a s e output and achieve higher incomes. The magnitude of " t r i g g e r approaches" l i k e "remove the ob s t a c l e s to development", "release the i n h i b i t o r s " , " s t i m u l a t e i n n o v a t i o n " and " a c c e l e r a t e s o c i a l change" through community development, have to be viewed i n terms of the r e a l i t i e s of developing economies. For a country w i t h a saving r a t i o of four per cent of the n a t i o n a l income and a po p u l a t i o n growth of two per cent per annum, a saving r a t e of e i g h t per cent a year would be re q u i r e d to keep a per c a p i t a income 39 constant. To achieve a two per cent r i s e of per c a p i t a income a saving r a t e of at l e a s t 16 per cent would be 11 r e q u i r e d . As against t h i s simple a r i t h m e t i c , there i s the simple f a c t t h a t the a c t u a l saving r a t e s achieved by-developing c o u n t r i e s i n recent times averages f i v e per cent. This i s equivalent to f a r l e s s than what i s a c t u a l l y r e q u i r e d f o r housing programs alone. I l l DEFICIENCY OF HOUSING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES There i s h a r d l y a country i n the world, without a housing problem. The problem has r e s u l t e d from a combination of common f a c t o r s operating d i f f e r e n t l y i n d i f f e r e n t circumstances: u r b a n i z a t i o n , p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e , war dev a s t a t i o n and economic depression have g e n e r a l l y been regarded as being r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of housing c o n d i t i o n s i n q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e terms. In both terms d i f f e r e n c e s i n "developed" and "developing" c o u n t r i e s are extremely wide. According to an estimate, made as f a r back as 1952 by the United Nations, out of the 180 m i l l i o n f a m i l y d w e l l i n g u n i t s r e q u i r e d i n the world, 150 m i l l i o n c o n s t i t u t e d the r e -12 quirements of developing c o u n t r i e s alone. 1 1 M e i e r and Baldwin, o p ? c i t . , p. 339. 1 2 U n i t e d Nations, Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , P r e l i m i n a r y Report on the World S o c i a l S i t u a t i o n w i t h  S p e c i a l Reference to Standards of L i v i n g (New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1952), p.107. ho The above estimate i s somewhat crude. The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n might i n d i c a t e t h a t the p a u c i t y of data on the housing d e f i c i e n c y has been one of the f a c t o r s which has i n h i b i t e d p o l i c y makers i n r e a l i s i n g the extent of the problem. The problem, as a consequence has been perpetuated f o r want of p o l i c y support. Even now, almost no s a t i s f a c t o r y q u a n t i t a t i v e data are a v a i l a b l e which can permit the e s t i m a t i o n of housing needs. This i s more so f o r developing n a t i o n s which c o n t a i n t h r e e - f o u r t h s of the world's p o p u l a t i o n . There are reasons why t h i s i s so: Most of these n a t i o n s have emerged from c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n during the l a s t two decades. There i s d i v e r s i t y of environmental and i n s t i t u t i o n a l f e a t u r e s , so t h a t q u a n t i t a t i v e measures devised f o r developed c o u n t r i e s have been i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r comparable r e s u l t s . There i s a shortage of t e c h n i c a l personnel who are capable of undertaking housing surveys. U n t i l r e c e n t l y , housing has been e n t i r e l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l s ; only l a t e l y have governments s t a r t e d to take i n t e r e s t i n the matter, so t h a t , as reported i n 1961, f i v e of the As i a n c o u n t r i e s , namely Burma, Ceylon, I n d i a , M a l a y s i a and Singapore had m i n i s t r i e s of housing, and seven, namely, the Peoples Republic of China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the P h i l i p p i n e s , the Republic of Vietnam and P a k i s t a n had housing departments 41 13 attached to a m i n i s t r y . QUANTITATIVE DEFICIENCY As one of the consumer goods, meeting b a s i c p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l needs of human beings, housing i s second to food i n importance. I t i s f o r t h i s reason t h a t housing surveys and e v a l u a t i o n s form important c o n s t i t u e n t s of the United Nations Development Decade -a program, of n e c e s s i t y , geared to the s i t u a t i o n s of 14 developing n a t i o n s . Stimulated by the a c t i o n of the United Nations, many c o u n t r i e s have undertaken housing surveys. From the s p o r a d i c a l l y a v a i l a b l e data, i t has been p o s s i b l e f o r experts to make an approximate estimate of housing needs. The e s t i m a t i o n of housing need i s a f u n c t i o n of the demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s o c i a l behaviour of the p o p u l a t i o n . In t h i s r espect, i t i s appropriate to know t h a t , as against the world's annual growth r a t e of 1.8 per cent i n the decade 1950-1960, the growth r a t e s of A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n America were 1.9> 2.5 and 2.8 15 per cent per annum (average of I96O-I963) r e s p e c t i v e l y . ^United Nations, Economic Commission f o r A s i a and Far East, I n d u s t r i a l Development S e r i e s ; Housing and  B u i l d i n g M a t e r i a l s (New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1961), p . l . 14 United Nations, Bureau of S o c i a l A f f a i r s , The United Nations Development Decade - Proposal f o r A c t i o n (New York: United Nations Publications,1962), pp.59-64. •'•^United Nations, Department of Economic and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , Demographic Yearbook, 1964 (New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1965)} p.111. h2 There are no immediate prospects f o r the decrease of these r a t e s to any s i g n i f i c a n t degree. Demographic e x p l o s i o n and u r b a n i z a t i o n combined, have l e d to a d e f i c i e n c y of housing. Based on the assumption that f u t u r e household s i z e would remain the same as t h a t of the present, a United Nations seminar h e l d at Copenhagen has estimated housing requirements i n developing c o u n t r i e s to be as f o l l o w s : Before the onset of the year 1966, t h a t i s , up to 1965, the developing c o u n t r i e s r e q u i r e d a t o t a l annual output of 2h m i l l i o n d w e l l i n g u n i t s ; the need f o r 1975 16 would be 27 m i l l i o n u n i t s annually. This estimate i s based on the f u r t h e r assumption t h a t the e x i s t i n g shortage would be el i m i n a t e d i n t h i r t y years and t h a t the e x i s t i n g stocks i n urban and r u r a l areas would be replaced i n t h i r t y and twenty years r e s p e c t i v e l y . The t o t a l r e -quirements f o r the p e r i o d 1960-1975 are estimated to be i n the neighbourhood of 390 a i l l i o n d w e l l i n g u n i t s . 1 7 (Table I Fi g u r e 2) •'•^United Nations, Report on the L a t i n American  Seminar on Housing S t a t i s t i c s and Programs, Copenhagen, Denmark"," 2-25 September 1962 (New" York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1963), p.13. 17 United N a t i o n s , World Housing Conditions and  Estimated Housing Repuirements (New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1965), p.3» ^3 The task of so b i g a magnitude i s d i f f i c u l t — i f not impossible — of accomplishment under the t i g h t economic circumstances i n which the developing n a t i o n s are placed. A s i a n c o u n t r i e s . In A s i a n c o u n t r i e s , underdevelopment and a f a s t p o p u l a t i o n growth have been the two major f a c t o r s g i v i n g r i s e to the shortage of housing. V/ith the exception of Japan, n e a r l y a l l A s i a n n a t i o n s have r a t e s of p o p u l a t i o n growth t h a t h a r d l y equal the r a t e s of growth of gross n a t i o n a l product. There are nat i o n s i n A s i a whose po p u l a t i o n grows at a r a t e as high as 2.5 to 3»5 per cent annually; urban p o p u l a t i o n grows s t i l l f a s t e r , t h a t i s at the r a t e of f i v e to seven per cent annually. The f o r e c a s t f o r the next ten years 1966-1975 i s s t i l l h igher than the above f i g u r e s . Based on a study of demographic phenomena alone, i t i s estimated t h a t i n the f i f t e e n year p e r i o d 1960-1975? the r e q u i r e d housing stock i n A s i a would be of the order of 103 m i l l i o n u n i t s ; the shortage i n I960 was as h i g h as 305 m i l l i o n u n i t s of which 54 m i l l i o n were urban u n i t s . According to the l a t e s t f i n d i n g s , the t o t a l housing d e f i c i t i n the year 1960-1975 has been estimated 18 at 290.8 m i l l i o n d w e l l i n g u n i t s d i s t r i b u t e d as f o l l o w s : United N a t i o n s , World... Requirements (1965) o p . c i t . , p A . Mr M i l l i o n d w e l l i n g u n i t s Due to p o p u l a t i o n increase 103.1 Due to obsolescence .. .. 110.5 Due to e x i s t i n g backlog .. .. 77«2 In order to l i q u i d a t e the housing d e f i c i t and to rep l a c e housing u n i t s f a l l i n g out of use w i t h i n a twenty to t h i r t y year p e r i o d , 17 to 21 m i l l i o n u n i t s w i l l have 19 to be b u i l t annually. This i s equi v a l e n t to ten dw e l l i n g u n i t s per thousand i n h a b i t a n t s which, as has been seen, i s too b i g a job to accomplish under the present economic circumstances. The above d e s c r i p t i o n gives an approximate p i c t u r e of the housing shortage i n A s i a g e n e r a l l y . I t conceals the very acute shortage i n some c o u n t r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n b i g urban areas. I n Burma, the urban p o p u l a t i o n increased by 61 per cent from 1931 to 1953 which has perpetuated the urban housing d e f i c i t . Ceylon i s estimated to have a housing backlog of 952,000 u n i t s f o r the p e r i o d from 1958 to 1968. In M a l a y s i a , housing accommodation i s short by 100,000 u n i t s . I n Hong Kong, 80 per cent of households had sub-standard housing accommodation i n 1957. I n b i g Indian c i t i e s s i x m i l l i o n d w e l l i n g u n i t s are re q u i r e d . Indonesia has a shortage of four m i l l i o n u n i t s . United N ations, Report... 1962 (1963) O P.cit.,p. 1 5 . h5 In P a k i s t a n , Karachi c i t y alone had a shortage of w e l l over 200,000 u n i t s i n about I960, the c i t y p o p u l a t i o n 20 being two m i l l i o n . A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s . I t i s estimated that the present p o p u l a t i o n i s expected to grow at a r a t e higher than 2.2 per cent per annum i n the p e r i o d 1960-1975. I t i s a l s o expected t h a t the urban p o p u l a t i o n w i l l i ncrease twice as f a s t as the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n the same p e r i o d . The housing shortage i n almost a l l c o u n t r i e s of A f r i c a i s acute. The po p u l a t i o n growth alone would n e c e s s i t a t e the b u i l d i n g of more than 18 m i l l i o n d w e l l i n g 21 u n i t s during the p e r i o d 1960-1975. A f u r t h e r r e f i n e d estimate on the b a s i s of p o p u l a t i o n growth (22.5 m i l l i o n u n i t s ) , p l u s the a d d i t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n r e q u i r e d to a l l e v i a t e the housing d e f i c i t and cu r r e n t replacement needs means a t o t a l requirement of 53 m i l l i o n d w e l l i n g 22 u n i t s . (Table I Figu r e 2) U n i t e d Nations, I n d u s t r i a l . . . . m a t e r i a l s (1961), passim. ?1 United Nations, Report of the Seminar on the  Housing S t a t i s t i c s and Programs f o r A s i a and the Far East, Copenhagen, Denmark, 25 August - l4~September, 1963 (New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1965), p. 15. 22 United Nations, World...Requirements (1965), l o c . c i t . k6 L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s . These c o u n t r i e s are e q u a l l y notable f o r high p o p u l a t i o n growth and r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n which accentuate the housing shortage. The United Nations made an estimate of housing shortage from the "inadequately a v a i l a b l e " data i n 1962. I t was estimated that 25 per cent of con-v e n t i o n a l d w e l l i n g s i n L a t i n America had d e n s i t i e s of three or more persons per room. In Argentina, f o r example, 25 per cent of the po p u l a t i o n i s inadequately housed. The housing shortage i n the Continent f o r the pe r i o d 1960-1975 would be of the order of 1*8.2 m i l l i o n ; i n order to take care of po p u l a t i o n growth alone an estimated 23.5 m i l l i o n d w e l l i n g u n i t s would be r e q u i r e d 23 f o r the p e r i o d 1960-1975. The demand due to obsolescence of e x i s t i n g stock i n the same p e r i o d would be i n the order of I M - . M- m i l l i o n d w e l l i n g u n i t s . The housing shortage i n developing c o u n t r i e s , as described above, i s summarized i n Table I and Figure 2. I b i d . I b i d . h? Table I 1 ESTIMATED HOUSING SHORTAGE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (1960-1975) ( i n m i l l i o n s ) Developing Countries Reasons T o t a l Population Increase Obsolescent Stock E x i s t i n g Shortage A s i a 103.1 110.5 77.2 290.8 A f r i c a 22.5 17.9 12.5 52.9 L a t i n 23.5 Ih.h 10.3 1*8.2 America A l l developing lh-2.8 100.0 391.9 c o u n t r i e s Source: United Nations, World Housing Conditions  and Estimated Housing Requirements (New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1965)j Out of the t o t a l housing d e f i c i t of 392 m i l l i o n f o r developing c o u n t r i e s f o r 1960-1975, Asia n c o u n t r i e s have the hig h e s t d e f i c i t , t h a t i s , t h r e e - f o u r t h s of a l l d e f i c i t . An annual housing program which produces ten to twelve d w e l l i n g u n i t s per thousand p o p u l a t i o n i s , t h e r e f o r e , c a l l e d f o r i n the developing c o u n t r i e s . (Figure 2) 0 C?, MILLION ONI LEGEND \Y\] DOE T O POPULATION r.\ \ i INCREASE JjJJ-OBSOLESCENT. STOelC EXISTING SHORTAGE E F F E C T I V E N E S S O F S E L F - H E L P H O U S I N G : E X P E R I E N C E IN D E V E L O P I N G C O U N T R I E S UNIVERSITY OF feRITISH COl_U«\&IA, VANCOUVER-. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ FIGURE NO. ^ ^9 QUALITATIVE DEFICIENCY From the q u a n t i t a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n made i n the prededing pages, i t becomes obvious t h a t the developing n a t i o n s of the world are confronted w i t h a grave housing shortage. The shortage i s due a l s o to the poverty of l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s consequent on the low l e v e l s of income, so t h a t housing i s inadequate from the barest minimum standard of h e a l t h and hygiene known today. There i s a d i s t i n c t c o r r e l a t i o n between the q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e d e f i c i e n c y of housing. I n the judgement of Crane and Paxton, the housing c o n d i t i o n i n one of the developing c o n t i n e n t s ( A f r i c a ) i s so poor th a t d i f f e r e n c e s between q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of housing cease to e x i s t a l t o g e t h e r : Between the Union and the Sahara l i e some 8 to 10 m i l l i o n square m i l e s . . . i n which i t i s estimated that some 125 m i l l i o n people l i v e . I n some of the area, l a n d i s measured only by counting the t r e e s on i t ; i n the main the people have never been counted, much l e s s the huts of grass and mud and w a t t l e s t h a t serve them as houses. The number of people who, f o r the common good of the World, need to be rehoused i s j u s t about equal to the t o t a l number of people.25 I f Crane and Paxton's comments do not over-estimate the United Nations estimates of housing shortage, they do p i n p o i n t the poverty of l i v i n g and the q u a l i t a t i v e 25 Jacob L. Crane and Edward T. Paxton, "The World-Wide Housing Problem," The Town Planning Review. X X I I , No! (April, 1 9 5 D , p.29. 50 d e f i c i e n c y of housing i n the type of s o c i e t y that make up the developing n a t i o n s . In A s i a n and L a t i n American s e t t i n g s , the p i c t u r e i s not d i s s i m i l a r to that which has been examined above. In the former, according to an estimate made f i f t e e n years ago, more than 1^ -0 m i l l i o n f a m i l i e s l i v e d i n overcrowded, u n s a n i t a r y , and substandard 26 qu a r t e r s . In the l a t t e r , the Pan American Union estimates (19^9) s a i d some 25 m i l l i o n substandard d w e l l -27 ings r e q u i r e d replacement. For example, i n the Caribbean Region alone, the c o n d i t i o n has been described as f o l l o w s : In e i g h t out of ten cases w a l l s are of wood and the roo f s of thatch or galvanized i r o n . O n e - f i f t h of d w e l l i n g s l a c k t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s , o n e - t h i r d are t e r m i t e - r i d d e n , two-thirds need major r e p a i r s , o n e - t h i r d l a c k a bedroom, one-tent h have no k i t c h e n s and nine out of ten l a c k bathing f a c i l i t i e s . " I t i s appropriate to support the above p i c t u r e about the q u a l i t y of housing from the somewhat substantive United Nations, Economic Commission f o r A s i a and Far East, Low-Cost Housing i n South and South East  A s i a (New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 195D,p.ll. ^ U n i t e d Nations, "Housing i n the T r o p i c s , " Housing and Town and Country Planning B u l l e t i n No.6 (New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1952), p.2. 2 8 I b i d . 51 29 s t a t i s t i c s compiled by the United Nations i n 1965. In what f o l l o w s , an e v a l u a t i o n i s made of the housing and l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n a few developing c o u n t r i e s randomly s e l e c t e d from A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n America and a comparison i s attempted w i t h c o u n t r i e s s e l e c t e d from North America, Europe and A u s t r a l i a . The i n d i c e s of c o n d i t i o n of housing i n t h i s respect are: household s i z e , d e n s i t y of occupancy (room) and a v a i l a b i l i t y of water bath and t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s . Examination of Table 2 and Fi g u r e 3 b r i n g s out the f a c t that an average household i n developing c o u n t r i e s i s s l i g h t l y l e s s than twice as crowded (5.5) as i n developed c o u n t r i e s (3«3)« This p i c t u r e appears c l e a r l y focussed, i f viewed i n the l i g h t of room d e n s i t y (persons per room). An average room, i t appears, i s more than three times as crowded i n developing c o u n t r i e s as i n developed c o u n t r i e s : an average of .9 persons l i v e i n a room i n West Germany, poorest i n the f i r s t group compared w i t h 3*1 i n P a k i s t a n , poorest i n the second group. More than 90 per cent of d w e l l i n g s c o n t a i n l e s s than 1.5 persons per room i n developed c o u n t r i e s compared to l e s s than a quarter of dwe l l i n g s of the same occupancy i n developing c o u n t r i e s , the percentage being as low as United Nations, Department of Economic and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , S t a t i s t i c a l Yearbook 1964. Seventh Issue (New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n S e r v i c e , 1965),Pp.652-671 52 10.9 f o r P a k i s t a n and as high as 97.2 f o r Great B r i t a i n . T h i s says nothing of the q u a l i t y and s i z e of rooms and amenities t h e r e i n . In terms of e s s e n t i a l f a c i l i t i e s i n a d w e l l i n g , the s i t u a t i o n i s e q u a l l y poor. P r o v i s i o n of piped water i n s i d e a house i s an exception i n almost a l l developing c o u n t r i e s r a t h e r than a r u l e as i n the c o u n t r i e s of North America, Europe, and i n A u s t r a l i a . A l l a v a i l a b l e data i n d i c a t e the extreme inadequacy of housing and e s s e n t i a l f a c i l i t i e s i n developing c o u n t r i e s . (Figure 3) I t i s s u i t a b l e to describe some extreme s i t u a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the b i g urban centers of developing n a t i o n s , the o b j e c t being to p o i n t out the extreme d e v i a t i o n from the average c o n d i t i o n s presented i n the prededing para-graphs. Although the extreme poverty of housing and l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n i s prevalent both i n urban and r u r a l areas, i t i s i n the urban areas that the d e f i c i e n c y i s a c u t e l y f e l t . I n r u r a l areas, acquired wants are few, and absence of e s s e n t i a l urban type f a c i l i t i e s l i k e piped water, p u b l i c t o i l e t s , e l e c t r i c i t y and sewerage f a c i l i t i e s ' do not create h e a l t h hazards as i n urban areas. A l s o , acuteness of housing poverty becomes more prominent i n urban areas because of the c o n t r a s t between poor and r i c h housing. HOUSING AND LIVING CONDITIONS IN SELECTED COUNTRIES Average s i z e of p r i v a t e house- Average density Percent of Dwellings (persons per room) F a c i l i t i e s i n Dwellings (percent) COUNTRY holds (persons per household (person per room) less than 1.5 1.5 or more 2.0 or more 3.0 or more Piped water Bath T o i l e t ( f l u s h ) Group I United States (1961) 3.3 0.7 96.0 4.0 1.4 0.3 92.9 88.1 89.7 Canada (1961) 3.9 0.7 94.1 5.1 2.1 0.5 - 80.3 85.2 Great B r i t a i n (1960) 3.0 0.7 97.2 2.8 - - 98.7 - 93.4 West Germany (1960) 2.9 0.9 91.5 8.5 2.5 0.2 96.7 51.9 75.3 A u s t r a l i a (1961) - 0.7 95.3 4.7 1.7 0.4 - - -Group I I Korea (1960) 5.6 2.5 11.9 88.1 78.1 46.6 12.1 1.8 0.2 P a k i s t a n (1960) 5.4 3.1 10.9 89.1 83.7 60.5 - - -U.A.R.(1960) (Urban) Morocco (1960) 4.8 4.8 1.6 2.2 42.3 27.5 57.7 72.5 42.0 58.8 ' 15.5 32.4 52.7 22.0 -Mexico (1960) 6.8 2.9 18.1 81.9 76.2 57.0 23.5 20.9 -a. Group I inc l u d e s developed countries and Group I I includes developing c o u n t r i e s . b. For the places where dashes are marked, no data are a v a i l a b l e . c. For accuracy and method of c o l l e c t i o n of data, see notes and footnotes on pages 670-671 of the f o l l o w i n g source. Source; United N a t i o n s , Department of Economic and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , S t a t i s t i c a l Yearbook 1964, Seventh Issue (New York: United Nations P u b l i s h i n g S e r v i c e , 1965) pp. 672-671. QUALITATIVE DEFICIENCY OF HOUSING IN 'DEVELOPING* AND.'DEVELOPED*COUNTRIES D E N S I T Y O F O C C U P A T I O N H O U S E H O L D S I Z E ( p e i - i o n s p e ^ t i o u s e J i o l c t y R O O M D E N S I T y (persons p e f r o o i n ) 5-5 2-5 3-3 0-7 R O O M D E N S I T Y (peyccolo^e of l«S **»°-0 1-5 persons Uvcog Ui room) 22-14 94-8 F A C I L I T I E S I N D W E . L U N 6 S P I P E D WATER Cp«feerjkge of duettos) 2 9 4 95-8 & A T H CP*<"cer>r»ge of eJu>eUt*uJ£) 14-7 7 3 - 4 F L U S H T O I L E T ( pfci-eenkgjB. of eUelUWjs) L E G E N D D E V E L O P I N G " C O U N T C I E S RXUISICLT), U.A.B, Morocco a.nd Mexico ) 0 - 2 8 5 ? " D E V E L O P E D " COUNTRIES C A-vercuJe. of iW-ed. &nJojr> West 6ertv<evny EFFECTIVENESS OF SELF-UELP MOUSING: EXPERIENCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES M«£W Thefts DCvoSO»r> o f Corrvnondy aoct RecjConed. /fca.n0U7<J UNIVEBSITV OF 6RITISH COLUMBIA, VANCOUV« FIG. 3 S O U R C E O F D A T A ; U N I T E D N A T I O N S , S T A T I S T I C A L Y E A B & O Q I A . 1964 SEVENTH ISSUE, CNEW YOPK.1 UNITED NATIOMS PUBUCATtON-S, 1965), PP- 6S1-&7I . 55 Charles Abrams p o i n t s out t h a t i n f i v e b i g Indian c i t i e s 60 to 90 per cent of the working c l a s s f a m i l i e s and 50 per cent of the middle c l a s s f a m i l i e s have been l i v i n g i n s i n g l e rooms and a i r l e s s f l i m s y mud huts. These rooms serve as " l i v i n g room, bedroom, s i c k room, k i t c h e n and d i n i n g room e t c . , and to add to t h i s the number of persons l i v i n g i n a s i n g l e room ranges from four to ten. The sal l o w complexion, the emaciated body, the pale faces of 30 the inmates immediately t e l l t h e i r t a l e . " A socio-economic survey of C a l c u t t a (195^-58) found th a t three-quarters of households have been l i v i n g i n over-crowded c o n d i t i o n s , i . e . , under hO sq. f e e t of space.3"'" A socio-economic survey of Bombay (195*+-"56) revealed t h a t three-quarters of t o t a l f a m i l i e s have been l i v i n g i n an over-crowded s t a t e , i e . , w i t h more than three persons to a room. 3 2 A survey of Kar a c h i i n P a k i s t a n (1959) reported 527,525 persons or one-fourth of the c i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n 0^ Unless otherwise s t a t e d the f a c t u a l data contained i n t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g four paragraphs are from v a r i o u s sources i n Charles Abrams, "Urban Land Problems and P o l i c i e s , " Housing and Town and Country Planning. B u l l e t i n 7 (New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1953)> PP» 3-58. 3 1 S . N. Sen, The C i t y of C a l c u t t a - A Socio-Economic Survey 195 )+~55 to 1957^8 ( C a l c u t t a : Bookland P r i v a t e L t d . , I960) p. 2&T. 32 D. T. Lakdawala, et.al.,Mork Wages and W e l l Being i n an Indian Metropolis-Economic Survey of Bombay, S e r i e s i n Economics NoT 11 (Bombay: U n i v e r s i t y of Bombay, 1963)?p.807. 56 l i v i n g "packed l i k e sardines i n c o l o n i e s which are d i s e a s e - r i d d e n . " 3 3 Three-fourths of households i n Karachi M e t r o p o l i t a n Area, as discovered i n 1959 survey lacked 3^ water, bath and e l e c t r i c i t y . In I s r a e l , t e n t camps and temporary d w e l l i n g s house tens of thousands of f a m i l i e s ; i n the new d w e l l i n g s f i v e to s i x persons to a room i s not uncommon. I n Turkey, i t i s not unusual to f i n d 16 to 18 persons to be l i v i n g i n one house. In M a n i l a , P h i l i p p i n e s , k-0 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n i s estimated to have been l i v i n g i n make-shift shanties known as 1 barongbaronbs 1. In Singapore, 13l+-,000 people l i v e i n s q u a l i d and u n s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s . I n Hong Kong (1957), 80 per cent of households were l i v i n g i n shared accommodation; 160,000 households were l i v i n g i n c u b i c l e s , bedspaces, c o c k l o f t s and verandahs. In the A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s , Dar-es-Salaam, Tanganyika, has an average occupancy f o r A f r i c a n s of e i g h t persons to a room 16 to 20 f e e t i n s i z e , the occupation d e n s i t y being 12 to a room i n some cases. I n A l g i e r s , shanty towns or ' b i d o n v i l l e s 1 l i e f i v e m i l e s from the center of the c i t y i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s ; each hut ten f e e t 3 3 L t . C o l . N a z i r Ahmad, Survey of S h e l t e r l e s s  Persons i n Karachi (K a r a c h i : Manager of P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1959), p.2. -> Amjad, A.B. R i z v i , "Housing and L i v i n g C o nditions of the Peoples of K a r a c h i " (paper read at the Seventeenth A l l P a k i s t a n Science Conference, K a r a c h i , February 12-17, 1965), p.5. 57 square, houses an average of four or more persons and o f t e n a goat as w e l l . I n Johannesburg, South A f r i c a , sprawl squatter c o l o n i e s are a chaos of shacks and hovels pieced together by the homeless and d e s t i t u t e . I n the poorer areas of Accra, Ghana, 2.71 f a m i l i e s l i v e i n an 35 average house l a c k i n g i n e s s e n t i a l f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s means an occupation d e n s i t y of about 13 persons per u n i t . A quarter of the p o p u l a t i o n i n L a t i n American c i t i e s , such as Caracas, Rio-de-Janeiro, Lima, Guayaquil, 36 C a l i , Maracaibo, and Bogota l i v e i n slums c o n t a i n i n g types of shacks not d i f f e r e n t to those which have been p i c t u r e d above f o r Asian c i t i e s . In Panama, i t has been reported that slum c l u s t e r s have houses which are bulging at the seams w i t h as many as 20 i n d i v i d u a l s i n a room ~L$ by 15 f e e t . I n B o l i v i a , a s i n g l e room i n a crude cabin not only serves one or more f a m i l i e s but the domestic animals as w e l l . I n Mexico, whole c o l o n i e s of squatters descend upon the l a n d w i t h such speed t h a t they have earned the name "squatter p a r a c h u t i s t s " . Seventy per cent of the Mexican houses are graded "poor" and 60 per cent of B o l i v i a n d w e l l i n g s are graded "not h a b i t a b l e " . ^^The United Nations T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Housing M i s s i o n to Ghana, Housing i n Ghana (New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 195777 p. *+9« 3 6J. Matos Mar, "The Problems of Slums i n South America," E k i s t i c s . 15 No. 90 (May, 1963), p. 26. 58 To an observer p e r s o n a l l y acquainted w i t h the housing c o n d i t i o n s of such c o u n t r i e s as I n d i a , P a k i s t a n , Lebanon, Turkey and Greece (Greece i s g e o g r a p h i c a l l y i n Europe, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y i n A s i a ) , which do represent c o n d i t i o n s of developing c o u n t r i e s , the s i t u a t i o n appears poorer than the poorest impression a western observer has of a poor house. I f the same grades of houses as 'good 1, ' f a i r ' and 'poor' most f r e q u e n t l y used f o r the assessment of q u a l i t y of houses i n the urban renewal s t u d i e s i n United S t a t e s and Canada, are u t i l i z e d f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of the q u a l i t y of houses i n developing c o u n t r i e s , the houses graded 'poor' i n the former would almost a l l be placed under the 'good' 37 or ' f a i r l y good' category i n the l a t t e r , a f a c t t h a t suggests the extent of poverty of l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s of the mass of the world's p o p u l a t i o n i n A s i a , A f r i c a , and L a t i n America. J / B a s e d on the observations from the author's a s s o c i a t i o n and acquaintance w i t h the (a) Survey of S h e l t e r -l e s s persons i n K a r a c h i 1959, (b) Peoples of K a r a c h i Survey 1959, (c) Survey of Korangi Township 1960-1961, (d) Survey of Bourj Hammoud Slum i n B e i r u t , and h i s study of the Urban Renewal Studies f o r the c i t i e s of Canada. 59 IV INADEQUACY OF RESOURCES FOR HOUSING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES For the e s t i m a t i o n of resources f o r housing, some comments can he made wit h reference to the expenditure p a t t e r n of f a m i l i e s i n developing c o u n t r i e s . I n t h i s context, i t i s w e l l to remind oneself of the well-known Engel's Law which s t a t e s that the lower the income per head the greater' the p r o p o r t i o n spent on s o - c a l l e d primary 38 needs, such as food and s h e l t e r . T h i s should not l e a d to the happy co n c l u s i o n t h a t the developing economies are w e l l placed w i t h respect to s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i n food and housing. The r e a l p o s i t i o n i s t hat absolute income per head (ten d o l l a r s a month) i s so meagre, that i t i s a b s o l u t e l y i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r food and 39 s h e l t e r . Even i f n e a r l y a l l personal income i s spent on food and housing, i t would s t i l l be a small f r a c t i o n of what i s r e q u i r e d (as f u r t h e r e x e m p l i f i e d i n the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs). As such, the problem of hunger and that of l i v i n g continues to haunt the developing economies. L e i b e n s t e i n , o p . c i t . ? p. ^ 2. 39 The recent f i n d i n g (Haque, o p . c i t . , p. 112.) th a t a low income l e s s productive r e g i o n generates higher savings than r e l a t i v e l y high income and more productive regions (East and West P a k i s t a n being cases i n p o i n t ) , does not help because absolute saving i s too samll to be of any value f o r the purposes of investment i n s h e l t e r . 60 In the United Arab Republic, the per c a p i t a annual income i s four Egyptian Pounds. On the ba s i s of a f a m i l y s i z e of s i x , the cost of the r e q u i r e d 2.8 m i l l i o n minimum standard houses would be l'+OO m i l l i o n Egyptian pounds. Assuming that 20 per cent of the f a m i l y income i s a v a i l a b l e f o r a house (although t h i s i s too h i g h an assumption), t h i s would mean an annual c a p i t a l investment of £E1+.8 per f a m i l y . On t h i s account, a house to be paid f o r , i n over 20 years say two per cent i n t e r e s t must not cost more than £E 83. As against t h i s , the minimum estimated cost of a hO modest house would be about £E 500. This i s equivalent to 100 times the annual personal income, 20 times the annual f a m i l y income or about 100 times the 20 per cent of the f a m i l y income a v a i l a b l e f o r a house. The Egyptian p o s i t i o n i s f a i r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of developing economies. The above f a c t s speak i n c l e a r terms how d i f f i c u l t i t i s f o r the developing economies to m o b i l i z e s u f f i c S e ^ t c a p i t a l resources f o r the s o l u t i o n of t h e i r housing problem, '^hat i s more s e r i o u s i s the f a c t that there are no immediate prospects of the improvement of the p r e v a i l i n g c o n d i t i o n s . ^ORaSsan Fathy, "Rural S e l f - H e l p Housing", E k i s t i e s , 13, No. 80 (June, 1962), pp. 398-HOl. 61 Assuming t h a t the most developed among the d e v e l -oping nations manoeuvre t h e i r economies through some magical e f f o r t s or e x t e r n a l a i d (e.g., I s r e a l ) and succeed i n i n c r e a s i n g per c a p i t a income t o , say, f o u r times the * f l present l e v e l , the absolute e q u i v a l e n t a v a i l a b l e f o r housing would s t i l l be i n s u f f i c i e n t . Even the developed economies which have as high as 1 0 to 1 5 times the present l e v e l of incomes of the developing economies have to r e s o r t to l e g i s l a t i v e r e l a x a t i o n s , t ax exemptions and s u b s i d i e s to keep a reasonable balance between the demand f o r and supply of housing. What a developing economy should a f f o r d f o r a housing task of so b i g a magnitude as discussed i n prededing pages can be w e l l v i s u a l i z e d through K r o t k i ' s c onclusions from h i s demographic study of P a k i s t a n : Although i n the eyes of economic t h e o r i s t s , t h i s i s too amusing an assumption. For example, based on the Rostow Model of long-term growth of P a k i s t a n , Haque contemplates the per c a p i t a income can r i s e from the present Rs . 3 0 0 ($60) to Rs.600 ( $ 1 2 0 ) i n 1 9 8 5 , w h i l e Russian model can b r i n g a three times r i s e i n per c a p i t a income, i . e . , Rs900 ( $ 1 8 0 ) by the year 1 9 8 5 . (Haque, o p . c i t . . pp. 1 * 4 - 1 5 ) . This s t i l l i s around one-tenth of the per c a p i t a income of the develped c o u n t r i e s . The grim aspect of the matter i s t h a t the vigour of the f i v e to ten year plans leave the economy to the s i t u a t i o n of f i v e to ten years before the end of the p l a n periods because, as i n many cases, the demographic behaviour remains contrary to th a t p r e d i c t e d by the pl a n s ; a d d i t i o n a l numbers eat up the i n t e r v e n i n g a d d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t s brought out by the plans. 62 ...the r e s u l t s of 1961 p o p u l a t i o n census and con-c e i v a b l y a l s o the r e s u l t s of the e a r l i e r housing census, i f published f u l l y and without lumping, are bound to throw l i g h t on the c r u c i a l question. To double the standard of l i v i n g i n l e s s than a century... w i l l need another h per cent of the n a t i o n a l income or a l t o g e t h e r 16 per cent. There are no underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s which can provide saving of t h e i r own on such a s c a l e to achieve the modest o b j e c t i v e s of doubling the n a t i o n a l income i n l e s s than a century.^2 This i s most probably so because, above a l l , "economic progress" as s a i d Nurske, " i s not an automatic or spontaneous a f f a i r . " J Further prospects i n favour of p r i o r i t y housing i n most c o u n t r i e s do not appear to be more than bleak, because other problems l i k e shortages of food and defence are so pr e s s i n g t h a t housing not only does not — and might not --re c e i v e the p r i o r i t y i t deserves i n budgetary a l l o c a t i o n s and p l a n s , but a l s o that i t s p r i o r i t y s t a t u s i s lowered f o r the good of the n a t i o n s . P a k i s t a n , f o r example, d e s p i t e the great housing d e f i c i e n c y had to decrease the p r o p o r t i o n of a l l o c a t i o n i n housing and settlements sectors from 15 per cent i n the second plan (1960-196h) to 10 per cent i n the t h i r d p l a n (1965-1969). The t h i r d p l a n contemplates development ^Car o l J . K r o t k i , "A F i r s t Glance at Pa k i s t a n ' s Age D i s t r i b u t i o n , " The P a k i s t a n Development Review, 1, No. 1 (Summer, 196lT7"p. 75* Celso Furtado, " C a p i t a l Formation and Economic Development," The Economics of Underdevelopment, e d i t e d by A.N. Agarwala and S.P. SinghTNew York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963), P.313. ^ Haque, o p . c i t . , p. ^0. 63 of 300,000 p l o t s which i s equivalent to the requirement of two c i t i e s , K a r a c hi and Lahore alone that account f o r o n e - t h i r t i e t h of the country's p o p u l a t i o n . The s i t u a t i o n i n regard to resources f o r housing i s not much d i f f e r e n t among other developing n a t i o n s . I n Burma, although there i s a m i n i s t r y of housing, due to l i m i t e d budgetary a l l o c a t i o n and need f o r s u b s i d i e s , housing has not kept pace w i t h requirements. I n M a l a y s i a , combined e f f o r t s of the l o c a l government a u t h o r i t i e s and the p r i v a t e sedtor are s t i l l s hort of the t o t a l requirement. In the urban housing area, I n d i a e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y put "maximum e f f o r t s " i n the year 1951-1961, but the r e s u l t : h a r d l y three m i l l i o n out of a backlog of 8.9 m i l l i o n u n i t s could be b u i l t . Indonesia has a shortage of four m i l l i o n d w e l l i n g u n i t s , but the resources h a r d l y warrant the a t t a i n -^5 ment of one-fourth of the speed r e q u i r e d . Despite the great performance i n the area of low-cost housing (50,000 u n i t s i n the p e r i o d 1959-1963) i n Korangi and North Karachi townships of Karachi,. P a k i s t a n , ^6 resources are absent f o r another IM-5,000 u n i t s r e q u i r e d . 1+5 United N ations, I n d u s t r i a l . . . M a t e r i a l s (1961), passim. I . Husain, M. A f z a l and A.A.B. R i z v i , S o c i a l  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the People of K a r a c h i . Monographs i n the Economics of Development No. (Kar a c h i : P a k i s t a n I n s t i t u t e of Development Economics, October, 1965), p.125 eh Among the Asian c o u n t r i e s , even the most prosperous Japan f a i l e d to catch up w i t h the housing shortage. In A f r i c a , " i t would seem that i n some cases the present e f f o r t s were s u f f i c i e n t to s a t i s f y only about 1+7 o n e - t h i r d of the estimated need. A c l o s e observer of the Ghanaian scene s t a t e s : There i s a l a c k of c a p i t a l f o r working funds f o r the great p o r t i o n of the housing market which l i e s below the upper income 5 per cent of popu-l a t i o n . .. Hanging over the whole housing problem i s the problem of n a t i o n a l investment -- develop-ment planners may not f r e e l y d ip i n t o the country's scarce c a p i t a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l resources to "standardize" housing i n a b i g wayA° In L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s as already discussed, the present resources can h a r d l y ensure one-tenth of the estimated annual requirement of 12 d w e l l i n g u n i t s per thousand i n h a b i t a n t s . To conclude, the estimate, as discussed i n the preceding pages th a t an annual output of 2k m i l l i o n d w e l l i n g ? United Nations, Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , Report of the Meeting of Experts on Housing Problems i n Addis Ababa, E t h i o p i a , 9-17 June 1963 (New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , January 1963)? p. 7. George Nez, N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l Development P l a n  Purpose and Procedure (Accra, Ghana: United Nations Regional Planning M i s s i o n , May 18, 1962), p.7» ^9 United N ations, Report... 1962 (1963), l o c . c i t . 65 u n i t s or ten d w e l l i n g u n i t s per thousand p o p u l a t i o n are r e q u i r e d i n developing c o u n t r i e s , can be compared w i t h the housing output c u r r e n t l y being a t t a i n e d by the developed economies: except f o r S o v i e t Union (12.^-), Federal Republic of Germany ( 1 0 . 1 ) , S w i t z e r l a n d (9 .3 )» a l l other developed economies b u i l d houses at a r a t e which i s l e s s 50 than seven u n i t s per thousand i n h a b i t a n t s . This i s enough to j u s t i f y the c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n i n regard to the complete p a u c i t y of resources f o r housing i n the developing economies. The p a r a d o x i c a l s c a r c i t y of economic resources and the enormity of the task e x p l a i n the reason why one wonders i f s e l f - h e l p housing can be one of the important — i f not the o n l y — r a t i o n a l expedient under the a f o r e -mentioned circumstances i n which the developing economies are placed. V CHAPTER SUMMARY The c o u n t r i e s of A s i a , A f r i c a , and L a t i n America which have low per c a p i t a income compared w i t h the c o u n t r i e s of North America, Europe and A u s t r a l i a by v i r t u e of t h e i r being engaged i n the process of development are i d e n t i f i e d as "developing c o u n t r i e s . " As d i s t i n c t from the "developed c o u n t r i e s " , the "developing c o u n t r i e s " are c h a r a c t e r i z e d 5 ° I b i d * J P« 1 3 . 66 by low income p o p u l a t i o n , d i s g u i s e d unemployment, low saving and investment p o t e n t i a l , poor housing c o n d i t i o n s , crude technology and r e s i s t a n c e to c u l t u r a l change which i n h i b i t t h e i r r a p i d development. There i s an acute d e f i c i e n c y — both q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e — of housing i n developing c o u n t r i e s . A shortage of 392 m i l l i o n houses - 291 m i l l i o n i n A s i a , 53 m i l l i o n i n A f r i c a and h-Q m i l l i o n i n L a t i n America - i s estimated f o r the p e r i o d 1960-1975. An estimated annual output of 2*+ m i l l i o n d w e l l i n g u n i t s - 18 m i l l i o n i n A s i a and about three m i l l i o n each i n A f r i c a and L a t i n America — or an average of ten d w e l l i n g u n i t s per thousand p o p u l a t i o n are r e q u i r e d to be b u i l t during the p e r i o d 1960-1975. This d e f i c i t , estimated on the b a s i s of the minimum needs of s h e l t e r accounts f o r the extreme poverty of housing c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g i n the developing c o u n t r i e s . On the other hand, a house b u i l d i n g task of such a magnitude i s beyond the combined p u b l i c and p r i v a t e resources of the developing economies. I n order to b u i l d a modest house, an average f a m i l y has to devote 100 times the 20 per cent of i t s income (though a very generous assumption) that i s estimated to be equiv a l e n t to what i s re q u i r e d f o r the purpose. Even i f the developing economies succeed i n doubling t h e i r n a t i o n a l income i n a generation or so, (a task of monumental proportions) the absolute per c a p i t a 67 income would s t i l l be almost one-eighth of that of the developed world, so tha t n e i t h e r the maximum p u b l i c nor maximum p r i v a t e e f f o r t s can guarantee the meeting of the housing d e f i c i e n c y i n the conceivable f u t u r e . The estimated annual output of 2k m i l l i o n or ten d w e l l i n g u n i t s per thousand i n h a b i t a n t s , r e q u i r e d i n the developing c o u n t r i e s , can be compared wi t h the per-formance of developed c o u n t r i e s : f o u r to s i x d w e l l i n g u n i t s per thousand i n h a b i t a n t s . Thus, even the developed economies wi t h income ten times higher than that of d e v e l -oping economies do not keep up wit h the housing shortage. As the p o s i t i o n stands, the s o l u t i o n to t h i s dilemma l i e s e i t h e r i n (a) combining e f f o r t s w i t h monetary inputs or, (b) d i v o r c i n g monetary i n p u t s from e f f o r t s . As seen, the f i r s t a l t e r n a t i v e i s d i f f i c u l t — i f not impossible — of achievement; the second i s , under-standably, not only p o s s i b l e but may be f e a s i b l e through the community development expedient the concept of s e l f - h e l p housing. CHAPTER IV EVALUATION OF SELF-HELP HOUSING PROGRAMS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES I RECOGNITION1 OF SELF-HELP HOUSING METHOD AT INTERNATIONAL LEVEL VIS-A-VIS DEVELOPING COUNTRIES "Spontaneous" as against "formal" or "guided" s e l f - h e l p housing has been a world-wide t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t y t h a t continues a l s o i n the present times. Crane and McCabe estimated that i n 1950 at l e a s t two hundred m i l l i o n f a m i l i e s , by t r a d i t i o n , and of n e c e s s i t y or by choice b u i l t t h e i r houses — huts, cabins, shacks, 2 houses — i n various forms. During the past f o r t y years, two world wars, an economic depression and demographic and u r b a n i z a t i o n r e v o l u t i o n s have aggravated the world housing shortage. Many governments have been l o o k i n g f o r p o l i c i e s and measures that would hel p . Among the many measures adopted i n vari o u s c o u n t r i e s a f t e r the Second World War, one was a guided form of t r a d i t i o n a l s e l f - h e l p , t h a t i s the 1 The word " r e c o g n i t i o n " i s used here i n the context o f : "to acknowledge f o r m a l l y , " or "to admit being of a p a r t i c u l a r s t a t u s . " ( P h i l i p Babcock Gove, Webster 1s  T h i r d New I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y ( S p r i n g f i e l d , Mass: G. & C. Merriman Co., 1963).p. 1896. * Jacob L. Crane and Robert E. McCabe, "Programs i n A i d of Family Housebuilding," I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour Review, LXI No. k ( A p r i l 1950), p. 368. 69. : manipulative or aided s e l f - h e l p . Among the c o u n t r i e s b e n e f i t t e d were Creece, the United Kingdon, Puerto R i c o , I t a l y , the Netherlands, the Union of South A f r i c a , the So v i e t Union and even the United S t a t e s of America. Since then, the method has gained considerable p o p u l a r i t y as a s o l u t i o n to housing problems i n developing c o u n t r i e s . The recent upsurge of i n t e r e s t i n s e l f - h e l p housing has a r i s e n due to three reasons: as pointed out i n Chapter I I I , the growing development-mindedness of the newly emerged n a t i o n s ; the i n c r e a s i n g involvement of western c o u n t r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y of the United S t a t e s of America i n the socio-economic development and p o l i t i c a l d i r e c t i o n of the developing n a t i o n s and the i n c r e a s i n g r o l e of the United Nations and i t s s p e c i a l i z e d agencies i n the area of community development and s o c i a l w e l f a r e . The i n t e r e s t i n s e l f - h e l p housing methods among newly emerged n a t i o n s has a r i s e n from a d e s i r e to m o b i l i z e indigenous resources to the maximum, and to move away from dependence on f o r e i g n - a i d and loaned c a p i t a l . The method has appealed to developed n a t i o n s v i s - a - v i s developing ones, because the i n i t i a l experience has e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t i t can ensure optimum use of t h e i r c a p i t a l i n p u t . The concern of the United Nations f o r s e l f - h e l p housing goes as f a r back as the l a t e f o r t i e s , when on the recommendation of the Economic and S o c i a l Commission, a s e r i e s of studi e s was undertaken on the subject. I n 70 1950, a m i s s i o n of experts was appointed by the United Nations to i n v e s t i g a t e low-cost housing i n south and south-east A s i a . The m i s s i o n impressed upon the United Nations as f o l l o w s : S e l f - h e l p method i s the o l d e s t and most widely a p p l i e d of a l l methods of producing s h e l t e r . . . aided s e l f - h e l p can do more to reduce money cost and to achieve higher standards than any other combination of finance and technology.3 I n the same p e r i o d an i n t e r n a t i o n a l meeting of t r o p i c a l housing experts was h e l d i n Caracas, Venezuela. Subsequently an i n t e g r a t e d program was formulated w i t h the cooperation of the United Nations and some non-governmental agencies. By 1952, i t was r e a l i z e d t h a t : P r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n to the crushing problem of t r o p i c a l housing must... combine the i n i t i a t i v e and resourcefulness of the people, the rational a p p l i c a t i o n of l o c a l m a t e r i a l s and s k i l l s , the s o c i a l advantage of group work, and the best use of resources and t e c h n i c a l knowledge a v a i l a b l e . The United Nations has devoted i t s a t t e n t i o n to the area of s e l f - h e l p housing i n the form of guidance and United N ations, Low Cost Housing i n South and  South East Asia.Report of a M i s s i o n of Experts (New York: Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s , 195D, p. 28. 1+ United Nations, "Housing i n the T r o p i c s , " Housing and Town and Country Planning B u l l e t i n , ' 6 (New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1952), p.2. 71 t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e to the low-cost housing programs i n the developing c o u n t r i e s . In 1959, the United Nations Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , i n connection w i t h a long range concerted program of i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t i o n i n the f i e l d of housing recommended t h a t : The program should emphasize the r u l e of p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s i n d i r e c t i n g and c o o r d i n a t i n g housing a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l as the c o n t r i b u t i o n which s e l f -help mutual a i d , cooperative and s i m i l a r methods can make to the t o t a l e f f o r t . 5 During the l a s t f i f t e e n years s e l f - h e l p housing, as an expedient, has appeared on the agenda of almost a l l the meetings of the United Nations, held on the subject of housing and planning. For example, i n one of the meetings i n October 1958, i t was r e a l i z e d that a s s i s t a n c e to d e v e l -oping n a t i o n s should aim at m o b i l i z i n g , to the f u l l e s t extent, a l l the a v a i l a b l e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e resources, " i n c l u d i n g resources outside the b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , the e f f o r t s of the people themselves." T h i s aim was f u r t h e r strengthened i n 1961-1962 when the United Nations Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l c a t e g o r i c a l l y s t a t e d t h a t the i n t e r n a t i o n a l programs i n United Nations, Long Range Program of Concerted  I n t e r n a t i o n a l A c t i o n i n the F i e l d of Low-Cost Housing and  Related F a c i l i t i e s , S e c r e t a r y General's Report (New York: Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , 1959), p . l . I b i d . , p.2. 72 housing are meant "for the purpose i n t e r a l i a , of m o b i l i -zing se l f - h e l p , mutual and cooperation methods for housing 7 and f o r urban development programTes." During the year 1961-1962, nineteen projects of the self-help type were approved by the United Nations 8 and i n i t i a t e d , a f a c t that suggests that what was f i r s t a formal i n t e r e s t of the international body was e f f e c t i v e l y instrumentalized. During the same period, among other programs, a comprehensive f a c t - f i n d i n g survey and evaluation of s e l f -help housing methods and practices was undertaken i n selected countries of Asia, and A f r i c a . This was substan-t i a t e d by a workshop on the extension of self-help housing and community f a c i l i t i e s within community development programs i n A f r i c a . A mission of experts belonging to the United Nations was provided to f u l f i l the above object-9 lve, as part of the program. The 'Interest of 'the United Rations i n the subject of self-help housing has not been merely t h e o r e t i c a l . P r a c t i c a l i n t e r e s t i n terms of technical assistance and f i n a n c i a l support has been demonstrated i n many cases. 'United Nations, Progress Made by the United  Nations i n the S o c i a l F i e l d During the Period 1 January  1959 - 31 December I960 and Proposals f o r the Program of  Work 1961-1963 (New York: Economic and So c i a l Council, 1961, p.29. Ibid 73 Through the recommendations of expert committees on Housing, B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g , the r e l e v a n t governments have been advised on the d e s i r a b i l i t y of adopting concerted housing programs and i n c o r p o r a t i o n of s e l f - h e l p e f f o r t s i n such programs. I t has a l s o been s e l l i n g the i d e a through p u b l i c a t i o n s . I n 196^, two s e l f - h e l p housing manuals were published: one was a handbook f o r v i l l a g e w o r k e r s 1 ^ (published i n cooperation w i t h the S t a f f of Oceana 11 P u b l i c a t i o n s ; the other was a h i g h l y i n f o r m a t i v e manual 12 f o r those i n t e r e s t e d i n c a r r y i n g out such programs. The United Nations i n t e r e s t was not confined to A s i a n and A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s . One of i t s recommendations was s p e c i f i c a l l y addressed to the L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s . For example, a United Nations sponsored L a t i n American Seminar, h e l d i n Mar d e l P l a t a , A rgentina i n 1963? says i n vehement terms: In developing c o u n t r i e s p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s should e s t a b l i s h an e f f i c i e n t agency to give s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to s e l f - h e l p and core housing u s i n g . . . l o c a l m a t e r i a l s . 3 1 0 t V i l l a g e ' says the t i t l e may be taken to mean both r u r a l and urban communities. "^United Nations, S e l f - H e l p Housing. A Handbook f o r V i l l a g e Workers (New York:Oceana P u b l i c a t i o n s , Inc., 196*+). 12 United Nations, Manual on S e l f - H e l p Housing (New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , l$6h). 13 United Nations. P r o v i s i o n a l Report of the L a t i n  American Seminar on Housing S t a t i s t i c s and Programs, h e l d at  Mar d e l P l a t a , A r gentina, May 196,3 (United Nations: Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , 1963), p.16. 7h I n s p i t e of what has been s t a t e d , however, except f o r the t e c h n i c a l and some sporadic m a t e r i a l support, the i n t e r -n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l and e f f o r t s , a p p l i e d so f a r , have been i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n p r o p o r t i o n to what are re q u i r e d to b r i n g about an e f f e c t i v e m o b i l i z a t i o n of i n i t i a l s e l f - h e l p endeavours. I n d i v i d u a l c o u n t r i e s of the West have a l s o been in s t r u m e n t a l i n g i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e i n s e l f - h e l p housing e f f o r t s where they formed p a r t of the community development programs. The a s s i s t a n c e has been i n two forms: i n the form of guidance whereby experts are sent to conduct s t u d i e s and help l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s c a r r y out programs, and m a t e r i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n terms of d o l l a r s . As an i l l u s t r a t i o n , out of a t o t a l of 190.6 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s worth of lo a n and grant support given by the United S t a t e s Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development (USAID) i n the budget year from 30th June I960 to the 30th June 1963, f o r the housing s e c t o r , the breakdown of support f o r the vari o u s components has been as f o l l o w s : U.S. d o l l a r s Aided s e l f - h e l p and slum clearance etc 102.6 m i l l i o n Community f a c i l i t i e s commitments .. M+.9 m i l l i o n Seed c a p i t a l to housing finance i n s t i t u t i o n s k$,l m i l l i o n T o t a l D o l l a r A i d Support 19°.6 m i l l i o n United Nations, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Program on Housing  B u i l d i n g and Pl a n n i n g , Report by the Secr e t a r y General (New York: Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , 196 1*), p. 10. 75 Separate f i g u r e s f o r expenditure made by USAID on s e l f - h e l p housing have not been a v a i l a b l e . On the assumption t h a t h a l f of the 102.6 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s a l l o c a t e d to slum clearance and s e l f - h e l p , comes to the l a t t e r s e c t o r , one can reach a c o n c l u s i o n as to the involvement of the United States i n the program. The United S t a t e s d o l l a r a s s i s t a n c e i s i n a d d i t i o n to the i n d i r e c t stimulus provided by the Peace Corps and through aided grants and loans advanced to s o c i a l work and the r e c e n t l y developing community development programs, which a l s o cover s e l f - h e l p housing to some degree. During the same p e r i o d , 89.90 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s worth of c a p i t a l was advanced by the USAID i n the area of community devel-15 opment. A l s o , such U n i t e d Nations agencies as the World Health O r g a n i z a t i o n (WHO), the Food and A g r i c u l t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n (FAO), the United Nations R e l i e f and Re-h a b i l i t a t i o n Agencies (UNRRA) and such other agencies as the Org a n i z a t i o n of American S t a t e s (OAS), the I n t e r -n a t i o n a l Development A s s o c i a t i o n (IDA), and Inter-American Housing and Planning Center (CINVA), have been p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n , and at times, i n i t i a t i n g s e l f - h e l p housing e f f o r t s i n developing c o u n t r i e s , and advancing m a t e r i a l support where needed."^ ^ I b i d . , p. 16. 16 The d o l l a r support of these agencies and the output of these supports are subsumed under broad programs of s o c i a l and economic development of which s e l f - h e l p housing remains a component p a r t . As such separate data are not a v a i l a b l e . 76 The Inter-American Housing and Planning Center (CINVA) at Bogota i s supervised by the United Nations. I t p l a y s an important r o l e i n the propagation of s e l f - h e l p housing programs. I t conducts s t u d i e s and research on the s u b j e c t , gives guidance to i n t e r e s t e d agencies, organizes courses and seminars and " f u r n i s h e s and analyses exchange of experiences i n order to a r r i v e at conclusions f o r the f o r m u l a t i o n of general recommendations f o r s e l f - h e l p housing programs, f o r the promotion of p i l o t p r o j e c t s , or 17 f o r demonstration p r o j e c t s . " In 196*+, the United Nations b u i l t up an o r g a n i -z a t i o n a l program f o r the guidance of c o u n t r i e s embarking upon the l a r g e scale s e l f - h e l p housing program. The program i s summarized i n F i g u r e Number h. The f i g u r e emphasizes the need f o r a separate s p e c i a l i z e d s e l f - h e l p housing agency i n developing c o u n t r i e s w i t h i n the o v e r a l l framework of a n a t i o n a l housing program. The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l framework, i t i s proposed by the authors, should i t s e l f be b u i l t up on the team work concept: 1? Pan American Union, Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s , S e l f - H e l p Housing Guide (Bogota: Inter-American Housing and Planning Center, 1962), p . l . 77 I t i s t h i s team approach t h a t gives the program a uniqueness r e q u i r i n g s p e c i a l techniques, o f t e n r e s u l t i n g i n the development of personnel w i t h such a broad outlook t h a t they are o f t e n induced by other departments to work f o r them at higher wages. Therefore, there should not only be a t r a i n i n g program f o r personnel who w i l l manage and supervise the p r o j e c t s , but a continuous program to provide q u a l i f i e d personnel who can f i l l the s t a f f posts at a l l times.18 In s h o r t , i t i s suggested, as pointed out e l s e -where i n the same context, t h a t i n developing c o u n t r i e s e f f i c i e n t t r a i n i n g and management agencies should be e s t a b l i s h e d to guide s e l f - h e l p programs. The above d i s c u s s i o n suggests that there i s an i n c r e a s i n g awareness i n the United Nations and some of the developed c o u n t r i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n t e r e s t e d i n the development of developing c o u n t r i e s , f o r the i n i t i a t i o n of s e l f - h e l p housing programs. The i n t e r e s t has been manifested i n terms of m a t e r i a l a i d , propagation media, and t e c h n i c a l and advisory guidance. C l e a r l y , i t appears t h a t the demonstration of p r a c t i c a l i n t e r e s t i s based on the c o n v i c t i o n that s e l f - h e l p housing i s an e f f e c t i v e avenue towards which much of the housing e f f o r t should be d i r e c t e d . This augurs w e l l i n view of the f a c t t h a t about f i f t e e n years ago there was h a r d l y any formal mention of the s e l f - h e l p housing concept i n planning and -housing documents. 18 United Nations, Manual. .Housing, (196U-),op.cit. .p. 19 United Nations, Housing and Urban Development, Report of a Seminar 7-12 February 1962 (New York:) 1962, abstracted i n E k i s t i c s , ! ^ , No. 8 l ( J u l y , 1962), p. 61. ORGANIZATIONAL CHART FOR LARGE SCALE MOUSING P B O G R A W M E C * ^ ) LOW-INCOME FAMILIES S E L F - H E L P HOUSING AGENCY LEGAL AND LAND COUNSEL PARTICIPANT FAMILIES PROGRAMME DIRECTOR TEAM SUPERVISOR TEAM PROJECT PLANNER ARCHITECT ENGINEER WATCHMAN FOREMAN BUILDING TRAINEES GROUP WORKER ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT NOTE: ALL POSTS WITHIN THE HEAVY LINE COMPRISE THE BASIC SELF-HELP TEAM. OTHERS ARE ADDED AS NEEDED. POLICY AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AGENCIES LFGAL LAND PLANNING PHYSICAL SOCIAL AND STATISTICS ECONOMIC REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT WORKS ARCHITECT ENGINEER LAND SURVEYOR BUILDER HOUSING ARCHITECT ENGINEER PLANNER - PHYSICAL SOCIOLOGIST ECONOMIST BUILDING SCHOOLS AND TRADE UNIONS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIAL WELFARE SPONSORING AGENCY SELF-HELP HOUSING APRIL 1966 EFFECTIVENESS OF SELF-HELP HOUSING EXPERIENCE IN DEVELOPING COONTJUES Master's *tiie.pif Divistep of- Co-flrrtvmJy as>oL Ha^onaJ, Kowowwr UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, VANCOUVER AmjcudL A E> Bi^ vt F I G . 4 S O U B C E : UN ITEO NATIONS, MANUAL O N SELF-HELP HOUSINO (NEW YOfcK UMITBO N A T I O N S P U B L I C A T I O N S , t,6<0,p.51. 79 I I EVALUATION OF SELF-HELP HOUSING PROGRAMS AT NATIONAL LEVELS Data on housing i n developing c o u n t r i e s i s extremely inadequate, l e t alone i n f o r m a t i o n on s e l f - h e l p housing. U n t i l very r e c e n t l y , housing was an i n d i v i d u a l matter l y i n g "beyond the p u b l i c j u r i s d i c t i o n . Recognition of the housing problem at n a t i o n a l l e v e l s i s a very recent phenomenon. Although s e l f - h e l p housing as an expedient has rec e i v e d considerable a t t e n t i o n i n most of the developing n a t i o n s , i t has not yet been absorbed i n the n a t i o n a l housing programs. Programs are themselves weak due to the l a c k of the p r e - r e q u i s i t e l e g i s l a t i v e background and presence of hig h p r i o r i t y development sectors such as food, i n f r a - s t r u c t u r e s and defence, e t c . On the other hand, spontaneous s e l f - h e l p as 20 pointed out by Crane and McCabe, i s present among the people. Such t r a d i t i o n a l l y p r e v a l e n t but un d i r e c t e d e f f o r t s , very o f t e n , l e a d to poor housing and haphazard slums. The high cost of l a n d and of p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s and m a t e r i a l s i n c o u n t r i e s s u f f e r i n g from a chronic d e f i c -i e n c y of currency worsens the s t a t e of a f f a i r s . P r o v i s i o n of i n f r a - s t r u c t u r a l support can encourage i n d i v i d u a l and group i n i t i a t i v e , but s u b s t a n t i a l p u b l i c c a p i t a l cannot Crane and McCabe, l o c . c i t . 80 be m o b i l i z e d i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , a d i r e c t i o n most probably economical and d e s i r a b l e both to governments and bene-f i c i a r y households. N a t i o n a l housing programs i n developing n a t i o n s f a l l f a r short of what the s c a l e of the problem suggest they should be. The l e g i s l a t i v e framework and housing standards, at times created to l e s s e n the problem of poor housing, add to the perpetuation of the problem, as i n d i c a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g statement: There are a l o t of f a m i l i e s i n developing c o u n t r i e s without means. What i s even more important, most of them would be w i l l i n g to c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r maximum e f f o r t s to o b t a i n a house... F a m i l i e s around the world are ready to t u r n to s e l f - h e l p , i f the need a r i s e s , but o f t e n h e s i t a t e because of confusion about new standards and new b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s introduced by the Governments which are d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l ones.21 I t , t h e r e f o r e , appears t h a t t o o l s designed f o r the s o l u t i o n of housing problems i n h i b i t the refinement and development of s e l f - h o u s i n g methods. This e x p l a i n s the reason why the United Nations and agencies expert i n the f i e l d such as CINVA (Centre Interamericano de V i v i e n d a Y Planeamiento, Bogota) impress upon the governments the need f o r guidance and encouragement of such e f f o r t s through the use of p u b l i c i n i t i a t i v e and resources. Despite some of the p r e v a i l i n g i n h i b i t i v e f a c t o r s , i t may be observed from the sporadic mention of 21 United N ations, Namual... Housing (196^), o p . c i t . , p. 8 . 81 the subject of s e l f - h e l p housing i n the l i t e r a t u r e , that there i s a thorough awareness of the advantages of the method, p a r t i c u l a r l y among the leaders of the developing n a t i o n s . There have been few ma n i f e s t a t i o n s of t h i s awareness, but these have been d e f i n i t e . The method seems to be gaining i n p o p u l a r i t y . PROGRAMS IN THE ASIAN COUNTRIES: I n d i a Among the c o u n t r i e s of A s i a , I n d i a faces the biggest housing problem. The shortage of resources i s s t i l l a seriou s dilemma. The community development e f f o r t s scored great success during the l a s t f i v e - y e a r p l a n p e r i o d s . S e l f - h e l p housing has been p a r t of t h i s movement. The h i g h l i g h t s of the program of the M i n i s t r y of Community Development and Cooperation during the l a s t few years have been the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a Volunteer Force f o r the t o t a l m o b i l i z a t i o n of human and m a t e r i a l resources 22 of r u r a l I n d i a . " Many spontaneous group p r a c t i c e s f o r . s o c i a l work inherent i n t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a are being u t i l i z e d , f o r example, the Panchayat system. The T h i r d F i v e Year P l a n of I n d i a s a i d t h a t : M.V. Ramana Rao Freedom 1962-63 (New D e l h i : 7 J a n t a r Mantar Road, 196h), (ed.), The S i x t e e n t h Year of A l l I n d i a Congress Committee, P. 31. 82 L o c a l plans are v i t a l elements i n the success of Panchayat Raj which places i n the hands of the people of each area the i n i t i a t i v e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own development and the means and resources f o r r a p i d advance. 2 3 The P l a n provided 291*- crores of Rupees (one crore equals ten m i l l i o n u n i t s and one U.S. d o l l a r equals about f i v e Indian Rupees) f o r such p r o j e c t s . '•Cohesion and mutual s e l f - h e l p w i t h i n the community i s one of the important t e s t s by which the success of the Panchayat Raj i s measured". No separate s e l f - h e l p housing program e x i s t s i n I n d i a w i t h i n the n a t i o n a l housing program. Whatever i s being achieved, i s from the community development endeavours and the many v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s operating at the l o c a l community l e v e l . During the l a s t few years demonstration p r o j e c t s i n I n d i a , as i n some other c o u n t r i e s , have e i t h e r been i n i t i a t e d or supported by the N a t i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l Governments. These i s o l a t e d p r o j e c t s have been s u c c e s s f u l l y engineered so that there i s an i n c r e a s i n g b e l i e f i n the e f f i c a c y of the method f o r the s o l u t i o n of the housing problem of 80 m i l l i o n Indian f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n 5\ m i l l i o n sub-standard houses. 3 Government of I n d i a , Planning Commission, T h i r d F i v e Year P l a n (New D e l h i : year not mentioned), p. x i y . I b i d . . p. 339. 83 Besides the dis s e m i n a t i o n of s e l f - h e l p housing e f f o r t s through the Panchayat Raj and the Volunteer Force i n I n d i a , demonstration p r o j e c t s have been c a r r i e d out i n such urban centers as Madras, D e l h i , Lucknow and J a i p u r . The Madras Corporation s t a r t e d aided s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t s . The Corporation has provided cheap b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s and developed l a n d , a l l the r e s t having been 25 T c o n t r i b u t e d by the people. In Lucknow, f a m i l y e f f o r t s f a r exceeded the e f f o r t s of the p u b l i c i n the "core" housing scheme. Such p a r t - a s s i s t a n c e schemes are common i n urban I n d i a ; spontaneous schemes are c a r r i e d out i n r u r a l I n d i a . In the case of the l a t t e r , a Government p u b l i c a t i o n says: "What i s r e q u i r e d now i s to encourage and f o s t e r the h a b i t of the v i l l a g e r s to b u i l d h i s own house wi t h l o c a l b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s . " 2 6 In J a i p u r (Rajasthan), Largarh community has been b u i l t on a s e l f - h e l p b a s i s . One hundred and eighteen houses were b u i l t w i t h the help of guidance and b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s provided by the government. The P r o j e c t proved that "improved p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n can r e s u l t i n mo t i v a t i n g people f o r higher standard of l i v i n g . " 2 ' ' 2H * Government of I n d i a , Housing i n I n d i a ( D e l h i : P u b l i c a t i o n D i v i s i o n , 1956), p. 31. 2 6 I b i d . , p. 2h. 27 T.K.N. Unnithan and K.B. Singh, "Story of Lalgarh-An Experiment i n Self-Help,"Urban and Rur a l Planning  Thought, I I , No. k- (October, I960), p. 201. 8*t-In D e l h i , s i x p i l o t p r o j e c t s were i n i t i a t e d w i t h the help of a Ford Foundation Grant. The r e s u l t i n g experience i s synthesised as f o l l o w s : One of the most important f e e l i n g s we have developed r e l a t e s to the economic a b i l i t y of slum d w e l l e r s to undertake s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t s . . . achievements so f a r are q u i t e encouraging. In three of our p r o j e c t s , r e s u l t s have been beyond our expectations; i n two have met them, and i n one, have f a l l e n short of them.2° The Indian program i s encouraging, but e f f o r t s are d i r e c t e d towards piecemeal improvement of poor housing which, as the L a l g a r h experience shows, i s not productive of good r e s u l t s : "Such piecemeal developments are not only n o n - b e n e f i c i a l but al s o w a s t e f u l from long-term p o i n t of view. The piecemeal s e l f - h e l p housing e f f o r t s i n I n d i a , as demonstrated by L a l g a r h , N i l o k h e r i and Faridabad have proved that the method i s s u i t a b l e to the Indian c o n d i t i o n and that given p u b l i c encouragement, i t can work e f f e c t i v e l y . And of t h i s f a c t there i s s u f f i c i e n t awareness among housing experts and p o l i c y makers. S e l f - h e l p housing programs at n a t i o n a l l e v e l i s s t i l l l a c k i n g , 2 ^ B. C h a t t e r j e e , " I n d i a A p p l i e s R u r a l Technique on S e l f - H e l p to Ra p i d l y Growing C i t y Neighbourhoods, J o u r n a l of Housing, 18 No. 5 (May 1961), p. 196. 29 Unnithan and Singh, op_. c i t . , p. 198. 85 P a k i s t a n : I n P a k i s t a n , as i n I n d i a , spontaneous s e l f -h elp a c t i v i t y has been of t r a d i t i o n a l c haracter. The i n s t i t u t i o n of Panchayat has been p a r t of the v i l l a g e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . During the l a s t ten years, the Government have been t r y i n g to i n f u s e l i f e i n t o the masses and induce them to p a r t i c i p a t e i n organized s e l f -help a c t i v i t y . The V i l l a g e - A i d development program and Urban Community Development program have been run under the same o b j e c t i v e . S e l f - h e l p housing has been an i m p l i c i t p a r t of such programs. On the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , except f o r o c c a s i o n a l mention of the advantages of s e l f - h e l p housing method, there has been no s i g n i f i c a n t f o r m a l l y organized program. This does not, however, mean tha t there has been a t o t a l absence of such e f f o r t s a t l o c a l l e v e l s . The Government of P a k i s t a n have been conscious of the problem and convinced of the need to m o b i l i z e human resources f o r housing. One has only to observe that the f i r s t p o l i c y and p r i o r i t y of housing and s e t t l e -ments program under the F i r s t F i v e Year P l a n (1955-1960) was proposed to be as f o l l o w s : The Government program must be designed to m o b i l i z e to the maximum the labour, funds and p h y s i c a l resources of the people who w i l l own and use the houses and community buildings. 3 0 ° Government of P a k i s t a n , N a t i o n a l Planning Board, The F i r s t F i v e Year P l a n 1955-60 ( K a r a c h i : Manager of P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1957), p. 20. 86 There i s a more e x p l i c i t mention of the need f o r s e l f - h e l p housing i n the Government housing program. For example, along w i t h the proposal to b u i l d 250,000 new dw e l l i n g u n i t s i n urban areas (120,000 f o r refugees) during the F i r s t F i v e Year P l a n p e r i o d , i t was f u r t h e r suggested t h a t : This work w i l l be done i n new ways designed to serve the needs of the people b e t t e r at l e s s c o s t by the maximum use of l o c a l m a t e r i a l s and " s e l f - h e l p " methods of construction.31 The o b j e c t was s u b s t a n t i a l l y accomplished i n hundreds of V i l l a g e A i d p r o j e c t s i n r u r a l areas and some i n urban areas. Among the urban area*, f o r example, i n the 200,000 s i z e Liaquatabad urban community, Greater K a r a c h i , the Government i n i t i a l l y provided developed p l o t s , some bas i c community f a c i l i t i e s and nucleus u n i t s i n 1950-52. Today, i t i s one of the most l i v e l y communit-i e s of low income refugee p o p u l a t i o n i n Karachi i f one were to judge from the biggest ever p o l i t i c a l convulsions t h a t occurred i n the area a f t e r the January 1965 p r e s i d e n t i a l e l e c t i o n s . I n P a k i s t a n , b r i g h t prospects f o r encouragement of the s e l f - h e l p housing method e x i s t under the s o c i o -p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n of Basic Democracy introduced by the Ayub Government i n 1959. The system, above a l l , 3 1 I b i d . , p. 17 87 prepares one community leader from each group of about 1,000-12,000 p o p u l a t i o n who then i n i t i a t e s and helps the p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s i n c a r r y i n g out community development works. The Government s t a t e s the r a t i o n a l e of the program w i t h c l a r i t y : The 80,000 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e l e c t e d to the vari o u s c o u n c i l s and committees of Basic Democracy were advised on how to base a l l programs on the needs of the people and how to conduct these programs through s e l f - h e l p so as to b r i n g about s o c i a l and economic u p l i f t of the community and l o c a l i t y they represent.32 In 1959, the Government of P a k i s t a n d r a s t i c a l l y i n t e n s i f i e d e f f o r t s of previous governments i n the area of refugee housing. I t embarked upon an ambitious program of r e h a b i l i t a t i n g 500,000 people of Karachi who were reported to be l i v i n g i n 250 slum c l u s t e r s i n various p a r t s 33 of the c i t y f o r the l a s t t h i r t e e n years. l o r the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of slum d w e l l e r s , a township was planned. The s e l f - h e l p approach was to b u i l d a "core" house w i t h a boundary w a l l and an u n f i n i s h e d room, l e a v i n g a l l other improvements to be made by the f a m i l i e s themselves. •3 P a k i s t a n Years of Progress 1958-61. p. 32; quoted i n Robert D. Campbell, P a k i s t a n - An Emerging  Democracy ( P r i n c e t o n , New Jersey: D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc.1963), P. 56. 33 L t . C o l . N a z i r Ahmad, Survey of S h e l t e r l e s s Persons i n Karachi ( K a r a c h i : Manager of Publications,1959),P» 88 W i t h i n f o u r years (1960-196>+), 150,000 people were r e s e t t l e d i n 30,000 houses i n the newly created town-ship of Korangi south east of K a r a c h i , and 50,000 were 3>+ r e s e t t i e d i n 10,000 houses i n North Karachi township. A one-room "core" house plus e s s e n t i a l amenities were provided i n i t i a l l y . A p o s t - r e h a b i l i t a t i o n survey of the f i r s t s e t t l e r s of Korangi community r e s u l t e d i n the f i n d i n g that t h r e e - f o u r t h s of the households have b u i l t a d d i t i o n s to the core houses themselves. The f o l l o w i n g statement of a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of Doxiadis A s s o c i a t e s at Athens, who have planned and programed the above described P a k i s t a n i communities, throws l i g h t on the involvement of s e l f - h e l p housing i n the Korangi p r o j e c t : S e l f - h e l p p r o v i s i o n s were made i n housing and se r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s and community development methods f o r resettlement of refugee immigrants emphasised. Low-cost housing techniques were employed f o r lower income groups i n conjunction w i t h s e l f - h e l p p r o v i s i o n f o r b u i l d i n g a d d i t i o n a l rooms w i t h o f f i c i a l guidance and help.35 ° Amjad A.B. R i z v i , S p a t i a l D i s t r i b u t i o n of the  Housing and_Living Conditions of the People of K a r a c h i , (paper read at the 17th A l l P a k i s t a n Science Conference, K a r a c h i , February 12-17, 1955), p. 3. Demetrius I a t r i d i s , "The C o n t r i b u t i o n of S o c i a l Work to E k i s t i c s , " (paper presented to the 11th I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work, Rio de J a n e i r o , B r a z i l , August 1962) i n E k i s t i c s , l h , No. 85 (December, 1962)., p. 276. 89 Indonesia: In the kampongs of Indonesia,most of s e l f -help housing a c t i v i t y i s c a r r i e d out i n the t r a d i t i o n a l f a s h i o n . But these e f f o r t s are very i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n p r o p o r t i o n to the need: 1,000,000 d w e l l i n g u n i t s per annum. In 1951? the Peoples Housing Department was created to ensure that the whole p o p u l a t i o n had an opportunity to o b t a i n d w e l l i n g s of a minimum standard. I t was suggested that "the c o n s t r u c t i o n of houses, w i l l f o r the most p a r t , be t a c k l e d through aided s e l f - h e l p schemes since i t i s indigenous to the Indonesian c u l t u r e , and labour i s a v a i l a b l e . Human resources as compared to the n a t i o n a l income devoted to housing are almost u n l i m i t e d . " J O I n the smaller communities of Indonesia, cheap indigenous b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s are used by the people, and the necessary labour i s g e n e r a l l y provided according to the concept of mutual hel p . L o c a l l y known as 1gotong-rojong, tulung-menulung", the mutual-aided s e l f -help concept i s a l s o being used where plague r e g u l a t i o n s are i n f o r c e . The system has, however, died down i n b i g c i t i e s l i k e ©Jakarta where the h a b i t of c o l l e c t i v e l i f e has l a r g e l y disappeared. Seeing the p o t e n t i a l i t y of the R. Moochtar, "Housing i n Indonesia," E k i s t i e s , lk- No. 8*4- (November, 1962), p. 231. 90 system, a United Nations expert m i s s i o n concluded: Thus, s e l f - h e l p methods f o r b u i l d i n g a house could be c a r r i e d on with the a s s i s t a n c e of the Government... I t i s recommended th a t t h i s system of aided s e l f - h e l p f o r urban, as 07 w e l l as r u r a l areas, be a p p l i e d to Indonesia. The f i n a n c i a l consequences of t a c k l i n g the housing problem i n Indonesia may prove to be a heavy burden on the annual budget. Despite the notable Government's e f f o r t s s i n c e the second world war, the problem i s s t i l l acute. On the other hand, there i s an abundance of cheap b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , l i k e bamboo, timber, matting, f i b r e s of sago palm, and indug, a f i b r e of the aren palm. Besides b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , there i s the t r a d i t i o n a l system of mutual h e l p , t h a t i s , gotong-rojang, tulung menulung. Thus, the two p r e - r e q u i s i t e s of the s e l f - h e l p housing program are present. Only government i n i t i a t i v e and an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery are required to do the n e e d f u l . N a t i o n a l s e l f - h e l p housing program r e q u i r e d i n Indonesia are absent. The s e l f - h e l p i d e a i s gaining i n p o p u l a r i t y among housing departments through United Nations expert missions who are convinced of the s u i t a b i l i t y of the method and have recommended i t s a p p l i c a t i o n . ^ United Nations, Low Cost... A s i a (195D? o p . c i t . . p. 13^« 91 M a l a y s i a ; In M a l a y s i a , there i s a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s i n the s e l f - h e l p housing a c t i v i t y . An aided s e l f - h e l p housing program was launched at Kuala 38 Lampur i n I960 by the Malaysian Housing Trust. The program was thoroughly prepared and s u c c e s s f u l l y advanced. In M a l a y s i a c e n t r a l i z e d programs are absent because there i s no c e n t r a l i s e d department r e s p o n s i b l e f o r housing and planning p o l i c y . The work of independently administered p u b l i c agencies shows th a t "the Government i s u t i l i z i n g " a i d e d - s e l f - h e l p " p r i n c i p l e i n the s o l u t i o n of the housing problem. The Government s e l e c t s s i t e s , s u p p l i e s u t i l i t i e s , p o s t s , r o o f s , and the people do the r e s t themselves w i t h guidance from the Government whenever necessary. The refugees use t h e i r own m a t e r i a l s f o r s i d i n g s , doors and windows, and supply t h e i r own labour 39 to e r e c t the whole s t r u c t u r e . " More e f f e c t i v e i n t e r e s t of the Government i s r e q u i r e d f o r the m o b i l i z a t i o n of s e l f - h e l p housing resources. This i s not p o s s i b l e unless the method i s e n t e r t a i n e d i n the n a t i o n a l housing p o l i c y . I s o l a t e d e f f o r t s , however, s u c c e s s f u l do not s i g n i f i c a n t l y e f f e c t the t o t a l housing r e s u l t s . 3 " A c t i v i t i e s of the Malayan Housing T r u s t , " Lembaba Perumahan, Penyata Tahunam (I960), abstracted i n E k i s t i e s , Ik No. 81 ( J u l y , 1962), p. 36. J United Nations, Low-Cost... A s i a (195D> op. c i t . , p. 10k, 92 T h a i l a n d ; I n T h a i l a n d , a department of housing under the M i n i s t r y of P u b l i c Welfare l o o k s a f t e r the housing i n t e r e s t s . Housing s u f f e r s from the l a c k of immediate l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n s and measures f o r implementation of programs and an absence of focus of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Formalized s e l f - h e l p housing i s inconspicuous; i n spontan-eous forms i t does e x i s t . "When a new house i s b u i l t the f a m i l y has to buy the m a t e r i a l s f o r i t , but the people of the hamlet help each other w i t h t h e i r l abour." In T h a i l a n d , s e l f - h e l p a c t i v i t y i s p r a c t i s e d on a comprehensive b a s i s . Many resettlement schemes have been put through as p i l o t p r o j e c t s . S e l f - h e l p method i s a p p l i e d i n a g r i c u l t u r e , housing and s o c i a l development areas under expert guidance. One of such p i l o t p r o j e c t s , the Bangpakong, recorded marked success. Although the s e l f - h e l p method i s being used e f f e c t i v e l y i n i n d i v i d u a l housing p r o j e c t s i t s formal r e c o g n i t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n on n a t i o n a l l e v e l i s absent i n T h ailand. I b i d . , p. 117 93 Greece: Greece presents one of the f i r s t s u c c e s s f u l Government-sponsored and aided s e l f - h e l p housing programs i n the post-war p e r i o d . I t was one of the f i r s t programs launched as a p a r t of the o v e r a l l n a t i o n a l housing program of the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of 23 per cent of war-damaged housing u n i t s of Greece. The f i r s t stage of t h i s program was the s o - c a l l e d " M a t e r i a l - I n - A i d P l a n " under which, i n over a three year p e r i o d beginning i n 19*+7> about 30,000 houses were r e b u i l t or r e p a i r e d . Hong Kong: In Hong Kong s e l f - h e l p housing i s not a separate but p a r t -- and an e s s e n t i a l p a r t — of the p u b l i c r e n t a l housing programs of urban areas. For i n -stance, s i n g l e room apartments are b u i l t to a u s t e r i t y standards and tenants are c a l l e d upon to use s e l f - h e l p to f i n i s h and maintain t h e i r apartments. G e o g r a p h i c a l l y belonging to Europe, Greece i s w e l l o utside the scope of t h i s work. But i n view of i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i m i l a r i t y w i t h the c o u n t r i e s of A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n America, and being the f i r s t to success-f u l l y launch a n a t i o n a l aided s e l f - h e l p program, the d e s c r i p t i o n i s considered r e l e v a n t . l+p United Nations, Housing...Tropics (1952), o p . c i t . . p. 62. 9^ P h i l i p p i n e s ; S i m i l a r l y i n the P h i l i p p i n e s i n the top f l o o r of apartments b u i l t under the Government low-cost housing program i n M a n i l a , tenants are encouraged to b u i l d mezzanine f l o o r s , e t c . by the s e l f - h e l p method, wi t h some t e c h n i c a l guidance. In T h a i l a n d , the P h i l i p p i n e s , Ceylon, Japan, I n d i a , P a k i s t a n , resettlement programs have in c l u d e d the p r o v i s i o n of p r o v i d i n g some i n i t i a l l o a n f o r the e r e c t i o n of houses using s e l f - h e l p methods. CONCLUSION T r a d i t i o n a l s e l f - h e l p b u i l d i n g i s very common i n Asian c o u n t r i e s . I t can r e c e i v e a great stimulus through manipulated governmental a c t i o n s . According to Alcock, " i t has become the common p r a c t i c e where t r a d i t -i o n a l house-building has become a s p e c i a l i z e d a r t , f o r the housebuilder to procure and t r a n s p o r t h i s own m a t e r i a l s , ... and to provide u n s k i l l e d labour through h i s own and ^3 h i s f a m i l y ' s e f f o r t s . " On the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , s e l f - h e l p housing programs are conspicuously absent i n Asian c o u n t r i e s . L o c a l p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s do undertake p r o j e c t s of t h i s k i n d . Every p o s s i b l e encouragement I s provided by the Government. 1 + 3 A l f r e d E. Alcock, e t . a l . , Report of a United  Nations M i s s i o n to Survey and Evaluate S e l f - H e i p Housing  Methods and P r a c t i c e s i n South East A s i a (New D e l h i : January, 1962), a b s t r a c t e d i n E k i s t i c s , l 6 , No. 93 (August, 1963), pp. 82-88. 95 At times, even the Government i n i t i a t e and p i l o t s l o c a l programs, l i k e t h a t i n , f o r example the Faridabad and H i l o k h e r i communities near D e l h i and the Karangi and Liguatabad communities i n Greater K a r a c h i . However^ i n s i g n i f i c a n t these e f f o r t s might be, they do r e f l e c t the i n c r e a s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n of s e l f - h e l p housing method i n the developing c o u n t r i e s . T h i s , however, should not p r e j u d i c e the abundantly present spontaneous and unguided e f f o r t s s t i l l c u r r e n t among the Asian communities. "There are many examples of prodigious achievements i n the f i e l d of b u i l d i n g by i n s p i r e d communities through organized group e f f o r t s i n the shr i n e s and temples of South-East A s i a . " E q u a l l y numerous are the examples of prodi g i o u s s e l f - b u i l t housing communities around the temples and mosques of A s i a . PROGRAMS IN AFRICAN COUNTRIES: In A f r i c a , where the housing problem i s not u n l i k e t h a t i n A s i a , the need f o r s e l f - h e l p housing has been f o r m a l l y recognized by a few governments such as those of Ghana, the United Arab Republic and Kenya. The r e c o g n i t i o n came f i r s t l y , as a r e s u l t of the growing enthusiasm of nat i o n s who emerged from c o l o n i a l r u l e a f t e r I b i d . , p. 86 96 the Second World War, and secondly, because of the repeated recommendations made by various expert committees of the United Nations t h a t community development and the s e l f -help approach are i n e v i t a b l e to the s o l u t i o n of the housing and r e l a t e d s o c i a l problems. For example, one of the major recommendations of experts on housing c o n d i t i o n s i n A f r i c a who met i n Addis Ababa, E t h i o p i a , i n January 1963? reads as f o l l o w s : The S e c r e t a r i a t should c i r c u l a t e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on aided s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t s i n A f r i c a , and i n p a r t i c u l a r ensure the widest p o s s i b l e c i r c u l a t i o n of the re p o r t prepared on t h i s subject by a United Nations T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e expert; the s e c r e t a r i a t should a l s o i n c l u d e the subject of aided s e l f - h e l p on the agenda of the f i r s t meeting of the proposed committee on housing and p h y s i c a l planning. ^"5 N a t i o n a l governments i n A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s have been amply r e c e p t i v e to such proposals. The growing i n t e r e s t i n the area of s e l f - h e l p housing i n co u n t r i e s such as Ghana, Kenya, the United Arab Republic and Morocco i s r e f l e c t e d i n many development programs that are underway. The V o l t a Resettlement Program, f o r example, d i s p l a y s the p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the s e l f - h e l p housing method i n a s u f f i c i e n t l y e f f e c t i v e manner. (Photograph h and 6) J United Nations, Report of the Meeting of Experts on Housing Problems i n A f r i c a . Addis Ababa,  E t h i o p i a , 9-17 January, 1963 (New York: 1963J, p. 2 8 . 97 Besides p o s i t i v e response of governments to s i m i l a r recommendations of f o r e i g n experts working w i t h them, there i s an e n t h u s i a s t i c response from A f r i c a n communities to s e l f - h e l p e f f o r t s i n housing. Askwith i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n A f r i c a : the s e l f - h e l p schemes are e s s e n t i a l l y a p a r t of campaign f o r "better l i v i n g . They would not be n e a r l y so s u c c e s s f u l i f the emotional urge was absent. I n s p i t e of the frequent drudgery of l i f e , A f r i c a n s can be exuberant and j o y f u l people. When t h i s exuberance can be l i n k e d w i t h c o n s t r u c t i o n work, the r e s u l t s are remarkable.So Kenya: In Kenya, a s e l f - h e l p housing program i n Nechako d i s t r i c t , l o c a l l y known as 'mevethya' was launched i n about I960. Three thousand two hundred and t h i r t y four new houses were b u i l t and ^ ,031 renovated by 2,867 groups of neighbours, i n v o l v i n g some 75,000 f a m i l i e s . The Govern-ment d i d not provide any m a t e r i a l a s s i s t a n c e , only guidanee, The whole b a s i s of the e x e r c i s e was mutual cooperation and k? s e l f - h e l p . T. G. Askwith, "Se l f - H e l p Housing i n Kenya," Jo u r n a l of A f r i c a n Administration., VXVII, No. M- (October, 1961) pp. 20^-210," ab s t r a c t e d i n E k i s t i c s . 13, No. 79 (May 1962), p. 329-' I b i d . 98 F o l l o w i n g the exemplary success of the Nechako program, the Government of Kenya was provided w i t h 35,000 d o l l a r s worth of a s s i s t a n c e under the United Nations Regular Program of T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e f o r 1961+- f o r a 1+8 s i m i l a r s e l f - h e l p e f f o r t i n N a i r o b i c o s t i n g $120,000. Through such programs, the Kenyan Government amply demonstrates the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s e l f - h e l p housing methods i n s o l v i n g the housing problem. Ghana: Ghana has demonstrated a combination of s e l f - h e l p housing e f f o r t s i n recent years. The t r a d i t -i o n a l method i s current throughout the country. The Government p o l i c y u t i l i z e s t h i s very a r t . The Ghana B u i l d i n g S o c i e t y provides nominal loans "help i n g people to b u i l d t h e i r own houses." The Governments Roof Loan Scheme provides loans f o r r o o f i n g houses so t h a t the r e s t may become a s e l f - h e l p a f f a i r . The Government a l s o i n i t i a t e s schemes whereby the people are supplie d w i t h such cheap b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s 1+9 as " l a t e c r e t e " (a mix of small amount of cement w i t h 1+8 United Nations, Planning and Implementation  of P i l o t P r o j e c t s i n Housing, B u i l d i n g and Pl a n n i n g , Report by the Secretary General (New York: Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , 1963), p. 31. United N a tions, "People and L i v i n g , " Science  and Technology, V (New York: U n i t e d Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 19S3), P . m . 99 l a r g e amount of l a t e r i t e ) . Such Government patronage encourages the poor Ghanaians to b u i l d cheap houses f o r themselves. The Government c o n v i c t i o n concerning the value of s e l f - h e l p housing i s e x e m p l i f i e d by the f a c t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r demands f o r experts s p e c i a l i z e d i n launching s e l f - h e l p programs are sent to the United Nations. The duty of a c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d United Nations expert (1963) was, f o r example, "to a s s i s t the Government of Ghana i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n f i r s t , of a p i l o t p r o j e c t i n s e l f - h e l p housing, and subsequently i n other 50 s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t s . " Government sponsored programs i n Ghana are many. These are s u f f i c i e n t l y d i s p l a y e d i n the massive resettlement programs f o r the 60,000 f a m i l i e s being d i s p l a c e d by the V o l t a R i v e r Dam P r o j e c t . The method i s being used as a device f o r making the community housing program economical and f o r engendering community and group f e e l i n g s conducive to the emotional adjustment r e q u i r e d a t the time of changing the age-old abode and environment i n the v a l l e y of the V o l t a . (Photographs h-6) Out of the 3»000 houses to be b u i l t a n n ually, a t a r g e t f o r a ten year program f o r the c a p i t a l c i t y of Accra, 17 per cent would be b u i l t by the s e l f - h e l p method J United Nations, P l a n n i n g . . . B u i l d i n g and Planning (1963), l o c . c i t . 100 w i t h some Government l o a n under i t s Roof Loan Scheme. Most of the r e s t would e i t h e r be s u b s i d i z e d by the Govern-51 ment or b u i l t and s o l d through the hire-purchase system. E i g h t y per cent of the people of Ghana are s t i l l capable of b u i l d i n g t h e i r own houses. "Government e f f o r t s , " says a United Nations Expert M i s s i o n , "should ([therefore} be concentrated on the support of such t r a d i t i o n , on the teaching of improved methods, and on the supply of those 52 m a t e r i a l s which cannot be procured l o c a l l y . The f a c t that the Ghanaian Government i s a l i v e to the problem and demonstrably r e c e p t i v e to such proposals i s a matter of great importance. For once the method i s e f f e c t i v e l y f o r m a l i s e d and the experience amply disseminated, other housing-handicapped nations of A f r i c a would h o p e f u l l y a c c e l e r a t e such e f f o r t s . In one of the rare e f f e c t i v e housing programs i n the developing c o u n t r i e s , Ghana's Roof Loan Scheme, a p a r t i c i p a n t i n and stimulant of s e l f - h e l p housing endeavours, helped 13»260 f a m i l i e s b u i l d houses up to September, 1963, and 28,055 f a m i l i e s were w a i t i n g to b e n e f i t from the same scheme. The Government of Ghana has recognized that 17!+,000 u n i t s would be r e q u i r e d over 5lunited Nations, Housing i n Ghana, Report of a T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Housing M i s s i o n to Ghana (New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1957), p. 11. ^ 2 I b i d . , p. ^7. Photograph No. 4 Unfinished 'core houses' finished by guided self-help housing method in Ghana. Photograph No. 5 A row of earth-built houses by guided self-help housing method in Gourna Community, United Arab Republic. Photograph No. 6 Physical manifestation of self-help housing method in Ghana. E F F E C T I V E N E S S O F S E L F - H E L P HOUSING: E X P E R I E N C E IN D E V E L O P I N G C O U N T R I E S A P R I L Master's T h e s i s 19 6 6 Division of Community and Regional Planning U N I V E R S I T Y O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A , V A N C O U V E R , B . C . Amjad A . B . R i z v i S O U R C E : U N I T E D NATIONS, S E L F - H E L P HOUSING G U I D E . (NEW Y O R K : U N I T E D N A T I O N S P U B L I C A T I O N S , 1964) 102 the next seven years s t a r t i n g i n 196*+ and hope to r e l y on 53 s e l f - h e l p programs supported by small loans. The United Arab Republic: In the UAR, u n t i l very r e c e n t l y n e i t h e r development plans nor o v e r a l l housing programs e x i s t e d . The success, however, of some of the i n d i v i d u a l guided s e l f - h e l p endeavours have proved the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of 5k the method i n Egyptian r u r a l s e t t i n g . The United Arab Republic i s going to launch a t h i r t y year long range program a f f e c t i n g over 6,000,000 f a m i l i e s . Use of l o c a l m a t e r i a l s and s e l f - h e l p have been 55 s p e c i f i c a l l y s t r e s s e d i n the program. "Among the new f e a t u r e s that would be introduced are s e l f - h e l p methods 56 of c o n s t r u c t i o n and p r e - f a b r i c a t i o n of the roof elements." ^ U n i t e d Nations,, P r i o r i t i e s i n Housing B u i l d i n g and Planning A c t i v i t i e s i n the Development Decade. An , I n t e r i m Report Prepared by the S e c r e t a r y General (New York: Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , 196*+), p. 13. 5k Eg., Gourna Community S e l f - H e l p Housing Experiment. See Hassan Fathy, "Rural S e l f - H e l p Housing," E k i s t i c s . 13,No. 80 (June, 1962), pp. 398-1+01. ^'United Nations, P r i o r i t i e s . . . Decade (196^), o p . c i t . , p. 16. 5°Ibid.. p. 35. 103 B e l g i a n Congo; There are other numerous examples of s e l f -help housing schemes i n A f r i c a n communities. I n the B e l g i a n Congo, f o r example, labour power, s k i l l s and small savings of workers and t e c h n i c a l and f i n a n c i a l guidance of the Government were pooled to b u i l d 6,600 houses i n 57 E l i z a b e t h v i l l e . Morocco; In Morocco, government supported loans are provided and people guided i n the use of s e l f - h e l p methods i n c o n s t r u c t i n g houses on Government-built foundations. I n 1962, *f,560 "core" u n i t s were constructed through a combination of s e l f - h e l p and loans. A d d i t i o n a l room extensions were made by people themselves i n if,000 one-room core u n i t s . About 50,000 housing u n i t s have been b u i l t by the Moroccan Government through a combination of s e l f - h e l p and other housing management methods during 1956-1962. L i k e P a k i s t a n the Moroccan experience e s t a b l i s h e d the advantages of "core" house approach u n d e r l y i n g the s e l f -h elp housing approach. The program has, however, been confined to urban areas. •"United N ations, "World of Opportunity," Science and Technology f o r Development. I (New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1963), p. 171. ^^United N ations, P r i o r i t i e s . . . Decade, (196*+) o p . c i t . , p. 12. ICh Guinea; The Government of Guinea intends to m o b i l i z e f o r e i g n a i d and indigenous resources and embark upon a s e l f - h e l p housing program. The o b j e c t i v e of the program would be: ... to demonstrate, i n urban and r u r a l areas, how t r a d i t i o n a l b u i l d i n g methods can be im-proved; how the p r e f a b r i c a t i o n of core or skeleton houses can be used to m o b i l i z e the p o t e n t i a l f o r s e l f - h e l p b u i l d i n g i n urban areas and how b u i l d i n g research can develop and improve p r o d u c t i v i t y and the use of l o c a l Somalia: In Somalia, f o r e i g n a s s i s t a n c e i n terms of d o l l a r s and experts have been pooled i n an housing o f f i c e , a nucleus of the Somalian Government Agency f o r Housing which was i n the c r e a t i o n stage i n 1962. The O f f i c e helps i n the development of low-cost c o n t r a c t o r - b u i l t houses and introduces s e l f - h e l p housing methods. the method. With the cooperation of United Nations Economic Commission f o r A f r i c a and the Swedish and E t h i o p i a n Govern-ments, an I n t e r - A f r i c a n E x h i b i t i o n of low-cost housing was h e l d i n 1963 at Addis Ababa. The o b j e c t of t h i s e x h i b i t i o n 60 Attempts have a l s o been made to p o p u l a r i s e I b i d . , p. 15. I b i d . , p. 13. 105 was "to demonstrate b e t t e r and more economical house designs, to introduce s e l f - h e l p methods i n b u i l d i n g and 6 l to demonstrate comprehensive r e s i d e n t i a l planning." CONCLUSION From the above account, i t should appear that i n A f r i c a , as i n A s i a , s e l f - h e l p housing e f f o r t s are w e l l on the move. N a t i o n a l programs are few. The amount of work being done and the amount of i n t e r e s t being generated i n government departments and communities shows c o n v i c t i o n f o r the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the method i n the A f r i c a n s e t t i n g . PROGRAMS IN LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES In the c o u n t r i e s of L a t i n America, spontaneous s e l f - h e l p housing d i v o r c e d from guided e f f o r t s , gave r i s e to the adoption of a formal method. I t was discovered that although the spontaneous method solves the q u a n t i t a t -i v e aspects of the problem, i t creates f u r t h e r problems i n so f a r as the q u a l i t y of housing and amenities are concerrad. Where governments are incapable of s o l v i n g the problem, the people themselves solve i t whatever the cost and whatever the r e s u l t s may be. The p o o l i n g of the people's modest resources through t h e i r own cooperative and democratic methods without expert guidance has taxed the l i m i t e d United Nations, P l a n n i n g . . . B u i l d i n g and Planning (1963) > o p . c i t . , p. TT. 106 resources of governments by e l i c i t i n g the repeated use of p u b l i c resources on short-term c u r a t i v e expedients, which under a preventive d i s p e n s a t i o n would ensure enduring r e s u l t s . U n t i l very r e c e n t l y — and i n most cases s t i l l — most housing programs of South American Governments have become permanent d r a i n s on s t a t e resources. In view of the i n s i g n i f i c a n c e of resources i n p r o p o r t i o n to the housing demands and the method of t h e i r deployment, the problem has been perpetuated r a t h e r than solved. The case of Peru w e l l e x e m p l i f i e s the observation: In the seven year p e r i o d 19^9-1956, an e x c e p t i o n a l l y a c t i v e p e r i o d of b u i l d i n g accom-plishment, the Peruvian Government b u i l t 5>V76 houses on a u n i t cost which made repayment by an average urban f a m i l y impossible. I t was a bi g achievement of the Government i n absolute terms. But t h i s a l s o meant t h a t only 1 per cent of the housing d e f i c i t was solved during the seven year p e r i o d . The r e s u l t was that 50,000 f a m i l i e s took the problem i n t o t h e i r own hands and solved i t through the spontaneous s e l f - h e l p method outside the e s t a b l i s h e d f i n a n c i a l , l e g a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and f i n a n c i a l s u p e r s t r u c t u r e . 2 Such experience which a l s o speaks f o r such Asia n c o u n t r i e s as P a k i s t a n , I n d i a and Hong Kong, and such A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s as the United Arab Republic, Ghana, 0 d- John C. Turner, e t . a l . , "Dwelling Resources i n South America," A r c h i t e c t u r a l Design (London: The Standard Catalogue Co.: August, 1963), p. 389. 107 and Kenya, shows that a u t h o r i t a r i a n i m p o s i t i o n of p u b l i c housing not only does not solve even a p a r t of the problem but a l s o i n c u r s s t i l l more se r i o u s problems. Even wi t h such experience, no attempt was shown by Peru u n t i l 1958 to a s s o c i a t e the resources of s h e l t e r l e s s Peruvians l i v i n g i n slums, w i t h the Government development programs. A f t e r such adverse experiences, some of the L a t i n American Governments have changed t h e i r r o l e from f i n a n c i e r -b u i l d e r to that of promoter and coordinator while launching housing programs. Besides governments, many non-government i n s t i t u t i o n s of L a t i n America promoted the cause of s e l f -help housing i n recent years. A few of them deserve mentioning: the Centro Inter-Americano de V i v i e n d a Y Planeamiento i n Bogota and I n s t i t u t o de C r e d i t o T e r r i t o r -i a l i n Colombia, the I n s t i t u t o Cooperativo Interamericano de l a V i v i e n d a i n Guatemala and the Program Conjunto de V i v i e n d a i n Nicaragua. These i n s t i t u t i o n s have a l s o been g e t t i n g government patronage. T h e i r r o l e has been commendable. In L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s , i n d i v i d u a l s e l f -help housing p r o j e c t s have been common; These are not contemplated as p a r t of the n a t i o n a l housing plans and programs. In some c o u n t r i e s s e l f - h e l p b u i l d i n g i s i n i t -i a t e d by i n s t i t u t i o n s , such as the ones mentioned above, which are s p e c i f i c a l l y meant f o r the purpose. In other 108 c o u n t r i e s , these are c a r r i e d out i n a "haphazard way" as p a r t of the e x i s t i n g l o c a l housing and community development schemes. As such, c o o r d i n a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n remains absent. Jamaica and Puerto R i c o ; Jamaica and Puerto Rico present the most w e l l recorded experience of aided s e l f - h e l p housing both f o r urban and r u r a l areas. The urban p r o j e c t s i n v o l v e d the resettlement of dwellers of slums and squatter camps to the s e l f - b u i l t government-patronized housing communitie The Puerto Rican scheme has been p a r t of the 'Rural Resettlement and Community A c t i o n Program 1 and Jamaica Welfare one, p a r t of the 'Better V i l l a g e Approach' program. In both, according to a United Nations source, "a minimum of cash and a maximum of community organ-i z a t i o n were combined to produce outstanding new homes..." The f o r t y years of experience i n housing programing has taught Puerto Ricans that human i n i t i a t i v e can e f f e c t i v e l y meet the challenge of the goal adopted by the Government. To t h i s end, a housing bank l e g i s l a t i o n was enacted. This provides Housing Bank teams, each c o n s i s t i n g of a b u i l d e r , an engineer, a s e c r e t a r y , and a s o c i a l worker who provides guidance i n s e l f - h e l p e f f o r t s . J United Nations, Housing...Tropics, (1952), o p . c i t . . p. 5^. 109 "Among the urges th a t have l e d to the housing bank l e g i s l a t i o n i s the growing r e c o g n i t i o n that among the low income f a m i l i e s there i s a tremendous i n i t i a t i v e and d r i v e which has not had enough guidance and support. 1 1 Thousands of people have b u i l t t h e i r own houses under t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n . The Puerto Rican "Land and U t i l i t i e s Program" and the "Community A c t i o n P l a n " which dea l w i t h housing problems i n d i r e c t l y have used aided s e l f - h e l p methods e x t e n s i v e l y . The 19^9-1951 p l a n produced s u c c e s s f u l t e s t demonstrations l e a d i n g to wider a p p l i c a t i o n of the method. Under the law, the I n s u l a r Government of Puerto Rico has undertaken a l a r g e s c a l e resettlement program f o r 75,000 f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n crowded temporary shacks. The t e c h n i c a l and management resources of the S o c i a l Program A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (SPA) and the Puerto Rico Planning Board were pooled to accomplish the task. The labour f o r housing and e s s e n t i a l community b u i l d i n g s were co n t r i b u t e d by f a m i l i e s and the SPA provided guidance, t r a i n i n g , m a t e r i a l s and f i n a n c e . The Puerto Rican experience a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t f o r want of d i r e c t housing help , the r e s u l t i n g houses are not compatible w i t h the "Housing Bank - Puerto R i c o . " SIAP News-l e t t e r . San Juan, V I . No. 19 (March, 1962), abstracted i n E k i s t i e s , ih No. Qh (November, 1962), p. 228. 110 good standard of h e a l t h and hygiene r e q u i r e d i n housing 65 communities. The most pr e v a l e n t method f o l l o w e d i n the Puerto Rican aided s e l f - h e l p program i s that the Land A u t h o r i t y purchases the l a n d , sub-divides i t and cedes l o t s to the f a m i l i e s . A f t e r planning and programing, i the cooperative s e l f - h e l p work i s organized p a r t l y under t e c h n i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n of S o c i a l Program A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , •and p a r t l y w i t h the help of Government loans and m a t e r i a l 66 a i d . Crane and McCabe p o i n t out a major drawback of the program a r i s i n g from i t s operating through the 67 United S t a t e s Housing Act: When the tenants income increas e s above the maximum a l l o w a b l e , they are r e q u i r e d to move. Thus, the r e g u l a t i o n causes hardship to those who through t h e i r own f r u g a l i t y make improvements i n t h e i r l i v i n g . T h i s , however, does not defeat the o v e r a l l performance of the aided s e l f - h e l p program. The Puerto Rican experience i s considered to be one of the most s u c c e s s f u l ones i n developing c o u n t r i e s . United Nations, Housing...Tropics (1952), o p . c i t . , p. 57. 66 United Nations, Bureau of S o c i a l A f f a i r s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l Survey of Programs of S o c i a l Development, (New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 19!?5), p. ^ C r a n e and McCabe, o p . c i t . , p. 375. I l l Colombia: Colombia i s another country i n L a t i n America with an admirable s e l f - h e l p housing record. A Government housing agency, one of the o l d e s t of i t s k i n d i n L a t i n America, i . e . , the I n s t i t u t o de C r e d i t o T e r r i t o r i a l (ICT) was created i n 1939* During the f i r s t twenty years of i t s l i f e , the I n s t i t u t e underwent two major changes as a r e s u l t of r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n . By 1956, i t s focus of a t t e n t i o n changed from a r u r a l one to that of urban housing, the r«rrtal housing having been s h i f t e d to an a g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t body. In 1957? housing was divorced from the e x c l u s i v e dependence on d i r e c t l y financed and commercia-l l y c o n tracted methods. The ICT has been promoting and developing housing w i t h an almost e x c l u s i v e dependence on s e l f - h e l p techniques. The Colombian s e l f - h e l p housing experience i s one of t a n g i b l e achievements. In some s e l e c t e d p e r i o d s , say between 1958 and I960, out of the 15?505 houses b u i l t , h a l f were b u i l t f o r low income f a m i l i e s on a s e l f - h e l p b a s i s and h a l f f o r middle income f a m i l i e s by combined methods. I n 1961, the year of greatest achievements, 80 per cent of the t o t a l 18,973 u n i t s were b u i l t on a s e l f - h e l p b a s i s . I n 1962, 60 per cent of the 31,798 u n i t s b u i l t , were b u i l t using s e l f - h e l p methods. The t o t a l t h a t was b u i l t was twice the n a t i o n a l average production for^urban areas. The ICT intended to b u i l d 112 h-0 per cent of the t o t a l houses through s e l f - h e l p methods 68 i n each of the years 1963 and 1965+. Convinced of Colombia's achievements, the United Nations whose main i n t e r e s t i n recent years has been i n the area of low cost s e l f - h e l p housing has been a p p r e c i a t i v e of the score: "The l a r g e s t known non-emergency s e l f - h e l p housing program i n existence today exceeds 20,000 u n i t s i n 1962-1963 ( C o l o m b i a ) . " 6 9 The idea has been w e l l s o l d and the program i s w e l l on the way. Observers are convinced of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of Colombia's program and the r o l e of the ICT i n making the program e f f e c t i v e . Thus Turner observed: The b i g g e s t s i n g l e f a c t o r of ICTs recent plans i s the adoption on a l a r g e s c a l e , of aided s e l f - h e l p techniques: the i n s t i t u t e i s g i v i n g p r i o r i t y to the s e l f - h e l p plans c a r r i e d out through i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t s (esfuerzo propio) and by mutual a i d groups (ayuda mutua), as experience of the l a r g e r programs to date has shown t h e i r e f f e c t i v e -ness w i t h regard to low u n i t c o s t s , f u t u r e owners p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the b u i l d i n g work, considerable saving and investment by the f a m i l i e s i n the b u i l d i n g and completion of t h e i r houses.70 6 8 United Nations, P r i o r i t i e s . . . Decade, (1961+), o p . c i t . , pp. 11-12. 69 United Nations Manual... Housing (196*+), o p . c i t . , p. 68. 7° Turner, o p . c i t . , p. 386. 113 Through the vigorous program, the Colombian Government expects to s t a b i l i z e the housing d e f i c i t w i t h i n the next f i v e years, that i s by 1971. An annual goal of 26,000 to 30,000 u n i t s has been planned f o r 1965, 1966 and 1967. Out of these, a l i t t l e l e s s than h a l f w i l l be b u i l t using the s e l f - h e l p method b a s i s . The success of the Colombian program and the t a n g i b l e achievements of i t s housing output i n recent years are among the most impressive ones i n the developing c o u n t r i e s . The Colombian experience was fol l o w e d i n other c o u n t r i e s of L a t i n America. The C o r p o r a c i Q n de l a V i v i e n d a (C0RVI) and I n s t i t u t e de V i v i e n d a C a r i t a s i n C h i l e and C e n t r a l O f f i c e f o r C o o r d i n a t i o n and Planning (C0RDIPLAN) and Centro de Estudios para e l D e s a r r o l l o (CENDES) i n Venezuela are p a r a l l e l s of the Colombian ICT. B r a z i l : In B r a z i l s e v e r a l farming communities l o c a l l y t known as "nucleus" are being planned. The f a m i l i e s are given lands, a few hand t o o l s and the b l e s s i n g of the Government. Thus, they t r y to b u i l d t h e i r own houses and stand on t h e i r own f e e t . There i s no evidence of an o v e r a l l s e l f - h e l p housing program at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l . Venezuela; In Venezuela the program i s c a r r i e d out by i n s t i t u t i o n s of the k i n d mentioned above, and the departments such as the Community Development D i v i s i o n , llh as p a r t of t h e i r housing program. The CORDIPLAN i s a guiding and c o o r d i n a t i n g agency. These agencies apply aided s e l f - h e l p methods mainly i n the s t r i c t l y ' c l a s s i c a l ' Puerto Rican f a s h i o n , t h a t i s by supplying owners w i t h m a t e r i a l s and i n s t r u c t i o n s so that they can b u i l d t h e i r own houses. By f a r the most important labour c o n t r i b u t i o n comes from women and c h i l d r e n . C h i l e : The programs i n C h i l e are c a r r i e d out under cooperative schemes. The cooperatives such as Arturo i A l e s s a n d r i P. Palma and A r t u r o P. Cooperative undertake p r o j e c t s as p a r t of t h e i r housing works. The cooperatives r e c e i v e guidance from Government housing agencies such as Corporacion de l a V i v i e n d a (CORVI), the I n s t i t u t e de V i v -i ienda C a r i t a s (UNICA) and the T e c h n i c a l Branch of the Federation of Housing and Cooperatives (TECHNICOOP). The s e l f - h e l p housing system runs on a p r o j e c t b a s i s , and e x t e r n a l c a p i t a l input i s c o n s i d e r a b l e . Peru: In the c i t y of Lima^Peru, there e x i s t s one of the most a s t o n i s h i n g examples of an urban community tha t was developed w i t h the help of spontaneous method by the people themselves: the Pampa de Comas (p o p u l a t i o n 30,000), p a r t of the C a r a b a l l o group of " b a r r i a d a s " i n Lima. These have developed the same way as the 'ranchos' 115 'callampas' and ' f a v e l a s ' i n Caracas, V a l p a r a i s o and Rio de J a n e i r o r e s p e c t i v e l y . The i n h a b i t a n t s , however poor, do produce these planned — though admittedly p r i m i t i v e l y designed — communities on a c i t y s cale and b u i l d thousands of q u i t e acceptable permanent s t r u c t u r e s . These houses, according to Turner are b e t t e r than could be, or has been, provided by the s t a t e or p r i v a t e comm-71 e r c i a l e n t e r p r i s e . CONCLUSION I t i s o f t e n f o r g o t t e n while studying the s q u a t t e r - l a b e l l e d communities i n the b i g c i t i e s of A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n America, such as Caracas, Lima, C a i r o , K a r a c h i , D e l h i , C a l c u t t a , and Hong Kong, that the organic, and a t times, planned growth of these communities i s the r e s u l t e n t i r e l y of the hundred per cent e f f o r t s of the people alone. Some guidance and nominal government a s s i s t a n c e could improve these squatters and could thereby prevent slum c o n d i t i o n s — prevention i s b e t t e r than cure. G e n e r a l l y s e l f - h e l p housing i n L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s i s not contemplated as p a r t of the n a t i o n a l housing plans and programs. In c o u n t r i e s such as Guatemala, Nicaragua and Colombia, the program i s c a r r i e d out by i n s t i t u t i o n s whose o b j e c t i v e i s p r e c i s e l y to c a r r y out such works. I n other c o u n t r i e s , such as B r a z i l and — -71 m Turner, op..cit., p. 376. 116 Argentina, the programs have been developed s p o r a d i c a l l y w i t h i n the e x i s t i n g housing i n s t i t u t i o n s . In s t i l l o t h e r s , the programs have developed as p a r t of the community development endeavours. Such approaches are not conducive to organized and coordinated work, which i s necessary to ensure concrete achievements. The l a c k of n a t i o n a l programs and the e x i s t i n g piecemeal work, however, does not p r e j u d i c e the e x t r a -o r d i n a r y achievements made by housing i n s t i t u t i o n s i n c o u n t r i e s , such as Puerto R i c o , Colombia and C h i l e . I t i s through the stimulus provided by such i n s t i t u t i o n s as the ICT and the experience and knowledge disseminated by such i n s t i t u t i o n s as the CINVA that there i s a s t i r and enthusiasm among n a t i o n a l governments. The stage i s , t h e r e f o r e , set f o r the development of n a t i o n a l s e l f - h e l p housing programs. The L a t i n American experience i n s e l f - h e l p housing a l s o shows th a t i t i s more economical to devise a program whereby the spontaneous s e l f - h e l p housing d i s p l a y e d by the squatter settlements can be manipulated through planning and e n t e r t a i n e d i n the l e g i s l a t i v e framework. Let Charles Abrams words express what i s meant here: I f i n f l u x e s are a n t i c i p a t e d and planned f o r , the planning can be s u b s t a n t i a l l y preserved. 117 This c a l l e d f o r a d e s i g n a t i o n of s i t e s on which i t w i l l be p r e s c r i b e d . I t c a l l s f o r firmness w i t h understanding. I t e n t a i l s a p o l i c y f o r l a n d l a y o u t t h a t w i l l permit settlement according to p l a n , help w i t h m a t e r i a l s where e s s e n t i a l , and even undertake some i n s p i r a t -i o n a l b u i l d i n g by the Government to i n f l u e n c e the character and course of growth.72 Charles Abrams quoted i n : Turner, op.cit..p.388. 118 I I I OVERALL CONCLUSIONS T r a d i t i o n a l l y , spontaneous e f f o r t s have guided the s e l f - h e l p housing approach the world over. Of what-ever q u a l i t y , two hundred m i l l i o n f a m i l i e s s t i l l b u i l d houses themselves. M a n i p u l a t i v e or aided s e l f - h e l p housing a c t i v i t y was born out of i n f o r m a l or spontaneous a c t i v i t y a f t e r the Second World War. The United Nations and some of the developed c o u n t r i e s saw i n t h i s method a new hope f o r the c a p i t a l - d e f i c i e n t labour-abundant c o u n t r i e s of A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n America. Hope was based on the b e l i e f t h a t manipulative s e l f - h e l p could reduce money cost and ensure a higher standard than any other combin-a t i o n of finance and technology. The i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies i n t e r e s t e d i n a l l e v i a t i n g the poverty of l i v i n g of the world's multitudes have demonstrated t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n s e l f - h e l p housing i n vari o u s ways. Large numbers of missions of experts on housing have been delegated, among other t h i n g s , to explore i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . M a t e r i a l s and t e c h n i c a l guidance have been provided; manuals and guides have f r e q u e n t l y been published; conferences and e x h i b i t i o n s have very o f t e n been h e l d , and proposals and recommendations have repeatedly been made to the r e l e v a n t c o u n t r i e s to i n -corporate the s e l f - h e l p method i n n a t i o n a l housing programs. A l l the a v a i l a b l e evidence leads one to conclude that p r a c t i c a l i n t e r e s t on the p a r t of i n t e r n a t i o n a l 119 agencies i n the s e l f - h e l p housing method i s based on the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the system i s an e f f e c t i v e — i f not the only — avenue of s o l v i n g the massive housing problems of the developing c o u n t r i e s . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the s e l f - h e l p housing device i s not recognized on the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l alone. The i d e a has gained currency a l s o among the developing nations where i t i s considered r e l e v a n t i n view of the poor c o n d i t i o n of housing, p a u c i t y of the r e q u i s i t e c a p i t a l i nput and abundance of human input as observed i n Chapter I I I . Although the method has not yet been in c l u d e d i n the l e g i s l a t i v e framework of n a t i o n a l housing programmes, i t has nevertheless gained i n p o p u l a r i t y and i s c u r r e n t l y used i n many l o c a l i z e d programs i n various ways w i t h appreciable success. The development plans of many c o u n t r i e s , such as I n d i a , P a k i s t a n , the United Arab Republic, Ghana, Colombia, Venezuela and Puerto Rico j u s t i f y and use the method as an important t o o l of implementing housing and community development programs. In A s i a n c o u n t r i e s , manipulative s e l f - h e l p has been used since about 1950. The s e l f - h e l p techniques of human m o b i l i z a t i o n are being used through the Volunteer Force and Panchayat Raj i n I n d i a . The L a l g a r h experience i n J a i p u r , the Faridabad experience i n D e l h i , and many others i n Madras, Lucknow and C a l c u t t a and other urban 120 and r u r a l areas of I n d i a have been reported as f a i r l y -e f f e c t i v e . The Government of I n d i a recognizes the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the method. The V i l l a g e A i d and urban community development programs i n P a k i s t a n have made considerable headway during the l a s t ten years. I n the Korangi and North Karachi r e s i d e n t i a l communities, p a r t of the Greater Karachi Resettlement Program, a combination of s e l f - h e l p and government-help techniques have been used w i t h success. The Government promises to u t i l i z e s e l f - h e l p technique through the i n s t i t u t i o n of B a s i c Democracy i n the implemen-t a t i o n of housing and community development programs of the r e c e n t l y launched T h i r d F i v e Year P l a n . The People's Housing Department of Indonesia i s usxng the mutual aided s e l f - h e l p method l o c a l l y known as 1golong r o j o n g 1 and 1tulung-menulung 1. I n M a l a y s i a , the independently administered p u b l i c agencies, such as the Malaysian Housing T r u s t use the method. In T h a i l a n d , Hong Kong, and the P h i l i p p i n e s the method has been used one way or the other under government guidance. I n Asian c o u n t r i e s , s e l f - h e l p housing programs on a n a t i o n a l l e v e l are conspicuously absent. Community programs are given s u f f i c i e n t encouragement by governments which even at times i n i t i a t e them. The method i s , however, w e l l recognized among l e a d e r s , planners and 121 community people at l a r g e . I n A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s too, such as Ghana, the United Arab Republic and Kenya, the program i s recognized by government and i s w e l l on i t s way. The l o c a l l y known 'mevethya* program of Nechako d i s t r i c t i n Kenya, and that of N a i r o b i have been accomplished w i t h success. In Ghana the program i s supported by the Roof Loan Scheme and works of the Ghana B u i l d i n g S o c i e t y . The method i s being used i n the massive resettlement program i n connection w i t h the V o l t a R i v e r Scheme and i s reported as being c a r r i e d out w i t h considerable success. In the United Arab Republic, use of the method has been s p e c i f i c a l l y s t r e s s e d i n a t h i r t y year long range program e f f e c t i n g 6,000,000 f a m i l i e s . I n the B e l g i a n Congo, the Government b u i l t aided s e l f - h e l p communities i n E l i z a b e t h v i l l e . S i m i l a r government i n i t i a t e d schemes have been put through i n Morocco, Guniea, N i g e r i a and Somalia, and have been reported to have scored considerable success. In L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s , aided s e l f - h e l p housing programs were adopted e a r l i e r than i n A s i a and A f r i c a . These are launched through v a r i o u s government supported i n s t i t u t i o n s , as p a r t of the housing p o l i c y and community development programs. Jamaica and Puerto Rico provide the most w e l l -recorded experience of aided s e l f - h e l p housing. In both areas, ''a minimum of cash and maximum of community 122 o r g a n i z a t i o n have been combined to produce outstanding new houses.- Through the Housing Bank L e g i s l a t i o n , and Community A c t i o n P l a n , the S o c i a l Program A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Puerto Rican Planning Board have made exemplary achievements i n s e l f - h e l p housing. Colombia i s another country w i t h an outstanding s e l f - h e l p housing record. The Government supported i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the I n s t i t u t o de C r e d i t o T e r r i t o r i a l (ICT) develop housing w i t h an e x c l u s i v e dependence on s e l f - h e l p techniques. H a l f of the houses b u i l t under ICT's program are b u i l t on an a i d e d - s e l f - h e l p b a s i s . The Colombia experience i s one of the t a n g i b l e achievements. I t had the l a r g e s t known s e l f - h e l p housing programs i n existence i n 1963-6*+ (20,000 u n i t s ) . In B r a z i l , Venezuela, C h i l e and Peru, governmert sponsored s e l f - h e l p housing p r o j e c t s have been accomplished. In a l l these c o u n t r i e s , i n s t i t u t i o n s , s i m i l a r to the ICT of Colombia, supervise the operations and add g r e a t l y to the s o l u t i o n of housing problems. Thus, through the encouragement given by i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies and through t h e i r own "development-mindedness", most of the developing c o u n t r i e s have adopted the manipulative s e l f - h e l p housing methods. By so doing, they are d i r e c t i n g what has been the t r a d i t i o n a l spontaneous method i n t o productive channels. Although n a t i o n a l programs are s t i l l almost n e g l i g i b l e , the success of i n s t i t u t i o n a l and community programs have e s t a b l i s h e d c o n v i c t i o n on the 123 the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the method f o r the s o l u t i o n of the acute housing problem of developing c o u n t r i e s . This should, however, not p r e j u d i c e the grim s i t u a t i o n that even the supposedly most economical s e l f -help housing method helps only i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n meeting the acute d e f i c i e n c y of housing i n the developing c o u n t r i e s . Refinement of the method i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e and i s being developed through p r a c t i c a l experience. IV CHAPTER SUMMARY This chapter deals w i t h the awareness and the p r o f u n d i t y of the i n t e r e s t of i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies, such as the United Nations, and n a t i o n a l governments of developing c o u n t r i e s i n the s e l f - h e l p housing programs. I t e s t a b l i s h e s that p r e v a i l i n g i n t e r e s t i n the subject of s e l f - h e l p housing i s based on the c o n v i c t i o n that the method i s more e f f e c t i v e than contemporary ones f o r the s o l u t i o n of housing problems of the mass of the world's poor m u l t i t u d e s . No s e l f - h e l p housing programs have been f o r m a l l y e n t e r t a i n e d i n the o v e r a l l n a t i o n a l housing programs i n most of the c o u n t r i e s of A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n America; no s i g -n i f i c a n t l e g i s l a t i v e support has been extended i n t h i s regard. T h i s , however, does not p r e j u d i c e the f a c t that there i s an a c t i v e demonstration of i n t e r e s t i n the program among the developing n a t i o n s . A considerable number of government-guided, piecemeal and l o c a l i z e d programs w i t h i n the community development and s o c i a l welfare areas have been c a r r i e d out i n such c o u n t r i e s as I n d i a , P a k i s t a n , Ghana, Kenya, Colombia, Puerto Rico and Jamaica. Some have had marked success. However inadequate and n e g l i g i b l e the t o t a l experience gained through i n s t i t u t i o n a l and community development programs might be, i t has, n e v e r t h e l e s s , emboldened the r e l e v a n t n a t i o n s to demonstrate a more p r a c t i c a l i n t e r e s t i n s e l f - h e l p housing than h i t h e r t o 125 shown. There i s m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the growing awareness i n the long-range economic development plans of many-developing n a t i o n s . This chapter ends w i t h the hope th a t because s e l f - h e l p housing i s a b e t t e r expedient than e x i s t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s , i t might be widespread i n the not too d i s t a n t f u t u r e . The question of how f a r the b e t t e r a l t e r n a t i v e w i l l help e l i m i n a t e the p a u c i t y of housing i n the economically handicapped nations s t i l l remains unanswered u n t i l s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s are exposed to microscopic examination, i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter: " s e l f - h e l p housing p r o j e c t s " . CHAPTER V EVALUATION OF SELF-HELP HOUSING PROJECTS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 1. THE SELECTION OF SELF-HELP HOUSING PROJECTS In the preceding chapter ( I V ) , a macro-e v a l u a t i v e approach f o r the study of s e l f - h e l p housing experience was adopted. I n t h i s chapter, a micro-a n a l y t i c a l approach i s f o l l o w e d , whereby a sample of s p e c i f i c s e l f - h e l p housing p r o j e c t s implemented i n some s e l e c t e d developing c o u n t r i e s are the focus of a t t e n t i o n . A t o t a l of e i g h t p r o j e c t s have been chosen f o r examination. (Figure No. 5) Two of them, one i n the United Arab Republic and the other i n Jamaica, are s i t u a t e d i n r u r a l areas, while the remaining s i x are l o c a t e d i n urban areas as f o l l o w s : a. Faridabad P r o j e c t , D e l h i , I n d i a . 1 The method adopted i n the s e l e c t i o n of s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s i s not the s o p h i s t i c a t e d sampling technique, much agains t the wish of the author and demand of reason. The s e l f - h e l p housing p r o j e c t s are so few t h a t the only course open was to s e l e c t , out of the few p r o j e c t s that are reported, only those whose data are s u b s t a n t i v e , and have been reported i n such a way as to be amenable to meaningful treatment. I t i s assumed th a t t h i s method of s e l e c t i o n would not s i g n i f i c a n t l y b l u r the conclusions to be drawn therefrom. The chosen sample represents w e l l over h a l f of the universe i n v e s t i g a t e d . SAMPLE SELF-HELP HOUSING PROJECTS C o l o n i a Centro-Ameri Las V i c t o r i a s P r o j e c Ciudad de Guatemala Guatemala San Sebastian Proje San Jose Costa R i c a Aguablanca P r o j e c t C a l Colombia C l a r a E s t r e l l a P r o j e c t Santiago C h i l e Bonnett S t . St. Mary P r o j e c t Jamaica Paridabad P r o j e c t D e l h i I n d i a Gourna P r o j e c t United Arab Republic P r o j e c t Karachi P a k i s t a n A P R I L 1 * 6 6 E F F E C T I V E N E S S O F S E . L F - H E L P H O U S I N S - . E X P E R I E N C E ' N D E V E L O P I N G C O U N T B 1 E S U N I V E B S I R Y O P B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A , V A N C O U V 5 S Amjoui A.U B POJVI F I G U R E N O 5 128 b. Korangi P r o j e c t , K a r a c h i , P a k i s t a n . c. Gourna P r o j e c t , The United Arab Republic. d. Bonnett S t . Mary P r o j e c t , Jamaica. e. Aguablanca P r o j e c t , C a l i , Colombia. t ' f . San Sebastian P r o j e c t , San Jose, Costa R i c a . g. C l a r a E s t r e l l a P r o j e c t , Santiago, C h i l e . h. C o l o n i a Centro-America -- Las V i c t o r i a s P r o j e c t , Ciudad de Guatemala, Guatemala. The object of exposing the above p r o j e c t s to an e v a l u a t i v e process i n what f o l l o w s , i s to examine the b e n e f i t measured i n terms of saving i n house b u i l d i n g r e s u l t i n g from the s e l f - h e l p labour i n p u t s . G e n e r a l l y , the method adopted i n doing so i s : f i r s t l y , to describe c o n c i s e l y the s e t t i n g under which the r e l e v a n t p r o j e c t s have been undertaken; secondly, to examine the p r o p o r t i o n of s e l f - h e l p labour input to the t o t a l labour i n p u t s i n the p r o j e c t s ; and f i n a l l y , to assess the cost of these v o l u n t a r y i n p u t s which i s e q u i v a l e n t to monetary saving 2 or d i r e c t b e n e f i t . I I EVALUATION OF SELF-HELP HOUSING PROJECTS FARIDABAD PROJECT, DELHI, INDIA. As discussed i n Chapter IV, I n d i a has launched many housing p r o j e c t s i n which the s e l f - h e l p method has I n some cases, where the data were a v a i l a b l e , m a t e r i a l s c o n t r i b u t e d by the s e l f - h e l p f a m i l i e s , were a l s o assessed. 129 been used w i t h considerable success. Of these, the Faridabad P r o j e c t l o c a t e d 17 m i l e s south of D e l h i has gained great p o p u l a r i t y . (Figure No. 6) A Development Board under the Indian M i n i s t r y of R e h a b i l i t a t i o n undertook the scheme of transforming the d i s o r d e r l y camps of P a k i s t a n i refugees i n t o a s e l f -s u f f i c i e n t community i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the Indian Cooperative Union i n 19^7. Spread over an area of 7 s i -m i l e s , the community i n v o l v e d 10,000 f a m i l i e s of i n d u s t r i a l workers and p e t t y t r a d e r s . The P r o j e c t was handled by Indi a n planners under the d i r e c t i o n of Otto Koenigsberger, a United Nations Housing Expert to the Indian Government. At present, Faridabad i s a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d r e s i d e n t i a l community. (Figure No. 6) The Government of I n d i a advanced a loan of Rs. 25,000,000.00 ($5,000,000.00) f o r the i n i t i a t i o n of the P r o j e c t on the understanding that a monthly instalment of Rs. 10.00 from the f a m i l i e s would be forthcoming f o r 25-3° years of the a m o r t i z a t i o n p e r i o d . The average cost of a d w e l l i n g u n i t was very low, i e . about Rs. 2,000 (hOO d o l l a r s ) , and the r a t e of b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n of 500 houses a month was s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h . One of the reasons f o r t h i s was the involvement of b e n e f i c i a r i e s ( i e . s e l f - h e l p f a m i l i e s ) i n the b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y . The Faridabad P r o j e c t i s an example of the aided s e l f - h e l p type of p r o j e c t . The people were induced to work 130 on the c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e i n many ways. As an a i d to s e l f - h e l p b u i l d i n g e f f o r t s , ten b r i c k k i l n s were s t a r t e d , each handled by a producers' cooperative of f i f t y f a m i l i e s . The members managed to r a i s e p a r t of the money themselves ' and the r e s t was advanced by the Government. By so doing, the cost of one of the b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s was s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduced. The i n d i r e c t r e s u l t of the above method was that the producers' cooperatives d i d not cease t h e i r work a f t e r completion of the P r o j e c t but continued to operate on a commercial s c a l e to meet the i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s i n the D e l h i M e t r o p o l i t a n Area. The s e l f - h e l p work was adopted i n a gradual manner. The refugee immigrants worked on a s u b s i d i z e d 3 cooperative b a s i s , during the second year of c o n s t r u c t i o n . The subsidy on wages was as h i g h as 150 per cent i n the beginning but was gr a d u a l l y scaled down to n i l as the apprentice workers mastered t h e i r s k i l l s and s t a r t e d earning normal wages. The method, i n short, provided new avenues of employment. The o v e r a l l extent of d i r e c t s e l f - h e l p involvement on c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the Faridabad P r o j e c t was higher than i n any other known planned p r o j e c t i n Asia n and A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s ; i t a l s o favourably compares w i t h p r o j e c t s i n ork on a s u b s i d i z e d cooperative b a s i s i m p l i e s t h a t the wages normally p a i d to u n s k i l l e d and s k i l l e d workers were s u b s i d i z e d . FARIDABAD PROJECT NDIA DELHI c — ^ ^ u 3 — EFFECTIVENESS OF SELF-HELP HOUSING: EXPERIENCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES V MASTER'S THESIS DIVISIOM OF COAVAUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUIW&IA, VANCOUVER.BC AMJAO.A.B.B>=VI. 132 L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s . One should, however, be mindful of the f a c t that i n L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s , p r o j e c t s are numerous but s m a l l , ranging from the ten house p r o j e c t of Vi v e r o s de Cuyuta i n Guatemala to the four thousand house p r o j e c t of San Gregorio i n Santiago, C h i l e . The s i z e of the Faridabad P r o j e c t was 10,000 houses. "One of the remarkable f e a t u r e s of Faridabad," according to a United Nations e v a l u a t i o n , " i s that more than 95 per cent of the manual labour r e q u i r e d f o r the P r o j e c t was c a r r i e d out by p r e v i o u s l y u n t r a i n e d refugees who were mostly small merchants and shopkeepers, of the if type that t r a d i t i o n a l l y despises manual labour." The economy from manual labour alone reached the l e v e l of 25 per cent of the housing c o s t . In t h i s way, a po p u l a t i o n of 50,000 refugees on welfare subsistence doles c o s t i n g the Government of India:Es.50,000 ($10,000) a day, were not only s e t t l e d p a r t l y through t h e i r own e f f o r t s under Government guidance, but were a l s o taught the a r t of b u i l d i n g and, thus, put on t h e i r way to s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y as u s e f u l and productive c i t i z e n s . I n f a c t , according to c l o s e examiners of the P r o j e c t , Faridabad represents: United Nations, "Housing Through Non P r o f i t O r g a n i z a t i o n , " Report of a Seminar h e l d at Copenhagen i n September - October, 195^, Housing. B u i l d i n g and Planning  No. 10. (New York: Department of Economic and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , 1956T"p. 113. 133 a good example of a township b u i l t by s e l f - h e l p and demonstrates what the cooperative endeavour of the people themselves, w i t h a l i t t l e t e c h n i c a l guidance and modest f i n a n c i a l a i d provided by the Government could achieve.5 KORANGI PROJECT, KARACHI, PAKISTAN In 1961, the Second P o p u l a t i o n Census of P a k i s t a n reported a pop u l a t i o n of 2,0^ -8,7^ +5 i n the c i t y of K a r a c h i . This was four times the c i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n at the end of 19^7, the year the country achieved n a t i o n a l s t a t u s . In 1959? L t . C o l . Ahmad conducted a survey and reported 527,535 s h e l t e r l e s s persons i n Ka r a c h i e i t h e r homeless or l i v i n g on pavements or temporary tenements i n about 250 7 slum c l u s t e r s i n var i o u s p a r t s of the c i t y . The Government's e f f o r t s had been inadequate f o r the s o l u t i o n of even a f r a c t i o n of the problem. The new r e v o l u t i o n a r y Government was s t i r r e d by the poverty of the l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s of the muslim refugees of I n d i a . In 1959, the Government embarked upon an 5 L.R. Vagale, B.M. Bhuta and M.S.V. Rao, "Faridabad- A C r i t i c a l Study of the New Town," Urban and  Rural Planning Thought.11, No. 3 ( J u l y , 1959), p. 106. 6 Government of P a k i s t a n , O f f i c e of the Census Commissioner, P o p u l a t i o n Census of P a k i s t a n 1961 - D i s t r i c t  Census Report; K a r a c h i , P a r t 1-V (Ka r a c h i ; Manager of P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1963), p. 1-1. ^ L t . C o l . N a z i r Ahmad, Survey of S h e l t e r l e s s Persons i n Karachi 1959 (Kar a c h i : M anager of P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1959), P. 2. 13^ ambitious p r o j e c t of r e h a b i l i t a t i n g the e n t i r e s h e l t e r l e s s p o p u l a t i o n of K a r a c h i . A s e l f - c o n t a i n e d township, l i k e t h a t of Faridabad i n I n d i a but ten times bigger i n s i z e , was planned to the south east of the c i t y . (Figure No7) C o n s t r u c t i o n s t a r t e d w i t h great z e a l by the M a r t i a l Law Government as i s evident from the attainment of one of the biggest r a t e of low income house b u i l d i n g i n the world. W i t h i n a year, 15,000 houses were constructed and a l i k e number of f a m i l i e s s e t t l e d . During the four years ending 1963? 30,000 houses were b u i l t and 150,000 persons r e -h a b i l i t a t e d . The work continues to date. The e s s e n t i a l concept used i n the Korangi P r o j e c t i s tha t of an u n f i n i s h e d "core house" (area 1080 sq. f e e t ) , l i k e the one adopted i n the Aguablanca P r o j e c t of C a l l i n Colombia, w i t h an unplastered room, bath and boundary w a l l b u i l t i n cement and l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l ( " B a j r i " from the neighbouring M a l i r R i v e r bed). The assumption of t h i s approach was that the i n i t i a l investment i n the form of a lo a n of Rs. 2,000 ($^00) per house, made by the Government, would be returned by b e n e f i c i a r i e s on a monthly instalment of Rs. 10.00 per month and tha t subsequently a d d i t i o n s and improvements to the u n f i n i s h e d "core house" would be made by the f a m i l i e s themselves on a s e l f - h e l p b a s i s . I a t r i d i s so s t a t e s t h i s approach u n d e r l y i n g the Korangi P r o j e c t : ... community development methods f o r resettlement of refugee immigrants were emphasised 135 ...low-cost housing techniques were employed f o r lower income groups i n con j u n c t i o n w i t h s e l f - h e l p p r o v i s i o n f o r b u i l d i n g a d d i t i o n a l rooms w i t h o f f i c i a l guidance and help.8 The r e s u l t of t h i s i n d i r e c t s e l f - h e l p housing approach i n the Korangi P r o j e c t appeared to be s u b s t a n t i a l when f i n d i n g s of a p o s t - r e h a b i l i t a t i o n sample survey of the f i r s t batch of about 15,000 f a m i l i e s (1960-1961) appeared: Three-fourths of the f a m i l i e s have made s t r u c t u r a l a d d i t i o n s and improvements and have landscaped t h e i r core 9 houses. The author who has been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p r e - r e h a b i l i t a t i o n survey of s h e l t e r l e s s persons of Kara c h i (1959) and the p o s t - r e h a b i l i t a t i o n survey ( f i r s t batch of ^5,000 f a m i l i e s ) and analysed the Korangi 10 experience i n other s t u d i e s estimates that by the end of 196^, the f a m i l i e s had i n v e s t e d , at l e a s t , twice the labour and c a p i t a l i n p u t o r i g i n a l l y s u p p l i e d by the Government. g Demetrius I a t r i d i s , "The C o n t r i b u t i o n of S o c i a l Work to E k i s t i e s , " (paper presented to the 11th I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work, Rio de J a n e i r o , B r a z i l , August, 1962), i n E k i s t i c s . 1*+, No. 85. (December, 1962), p. 276. 9 Government of P a k i s t a n , C e n t r a l S t a t i s t i c a l O f f i c e , Survey of Korangi P o p u l a t i o n 1960-61 ( K a r a c h i : Manager of P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1962). ^*°See, e£. ,Amjad A.B. R i z v i , Amman and Korangi  Surveys. A Mimeographed Research Report (No.9) intended f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n the P a k i s t a n Development Review. (Ka r a c h i : The I n s t i t u t e of Developemnt Economics, 1965) and Imtiazuddin Ahmad, A f z a l Ahmad and Amjad A.B. R i z v i , S o c i a l Character- i s t i c s of the People of Karachi 1959« Research Monograph 1*+, ( K a r a c h i : The I n s t i t u t e of Development Economics, October 1965) KORANGI PROJECT; KARACHI - PAKISTAN W/A m WIS LEGENO 13 ResoeNOAC COMMUNITIES - " 3 CIVIc/cpMHERCuL. BU I^MESS^ 3 SPECIAL, ° Bun.0lN<S3 A NO WSTITUTICMI GACEM. AREAS *JTM SPECIAL OUO.CTW3S. IRRtOATTD LAN OS. AND CULTIVATIONS. INDUSTRIAL ZONE. •' ' UOMT INDUSTRIES, WORKSHOPS. itfOWROOUS ffA.F AIR BASCf INSTALLATIONS . . A P R I L 1966 E F F E C T I V E N E S S OF S E L F - H E L P HOUSING: EXPERIENCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTR IES UNIVERSITY O F 5EITISH C O L U M B I A , VANCOUVlfw. Amj&JL. A.(i b. ElJVC. F I G . NO. 7 S O U R C E ' : DOXIA.DIS ASSOCIATES, K Q B A M a i P K O I E C C NO . 2 , July, l?5g, ATWEVJS, G K C E C E . 137 B a r r i n g the poor q u a l i t y of a d d i t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n t h a t r e s u l t e d from f a m i l i e s s e l f - h e l p e f f o r t s without t e c h n i c a l i guidance, the f a c t remains that the o r i g i n a l assumption of 11 Korangi planners as to the spontaneity and p o t e n t i a l i t y of s e l f - h e l p housing method was j u s t i f i e d . GOUKNA PROJECT, THE UNITED ARAB REPUBLIC According to a survey c a r r i e d out by the F e l l a h Department of the United Arab Republic, i n 1*+ v i l l a g e s of former Egypt, 51+«3 per cent of rooms had roofs of palm branches and reeds and 27.5 per cent had no roofs at a l l . Whence i t i s concluded that the owners are too poor to be able to a f f o r d even reeds which are very cheap and that "they possess the w i l l to b u i l d , and w i l l put up w a l l s i f 12 not defeated by the problem of roofing'.' Such i s the problem i n the area of r u r a l housing i n v o l v i n g 17 m i l l i o n Egyptian peasants. Both Government and people are h e l p l e s s f o r want of the r e q u i s i t e c a p i t a l . The Gourna s e l f - h e l p housing p r o j e c t was taken up under the above background. A v i l l a g e of peasants d i s p l a c e d from an " a n t i q u i t i e s zone" was to be created i n They were: Doxiadis A s s o c i a t e s - Consultants i n Development and E k i s t i c s , 2*+ S t r a t . Syndesmou, Athens, Greece. '^'rlassan Fathy, "Rural S e l f - H e l p Housing," I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour Review, LXXXV (January-June, 1962), p.2. 138 Lower Egypt. The Government of Egypt designated the Gourna v i l l a g e as a model s e l f - h e l p housing p r o j e c t . P r o f e s s o r Hassan Fathy„ the then Head of the Department of A r c h i t e c t u r e at the U n i v e r s i t y of C a i r o was entrusted w i t h the job of designing and implementing the P r o j e c t . (Photograph No. 5) No concrete r e s u l t s i n terms of monetary economy as a r e s u l t of the use of indigenous b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s and use of peasants labour has been reported to the best of the author's knowledge. What has been reported i s the f a c t t h a t the Gourna P r o j e c t as a demonstration venture was a b i g accomplishment i n the area of r u r a l s e l f - h e l p housing. Fathy a c t u a l l y l i v e d i n the community, motivated people and engaged them i n cooperative work. Mud b r i c k s , l o c a l wood and reeds and peasant's t r a d i t i o n a l craftsmanship was e x t e n s i v e l y used. The inexperienced v i l l a g e r s were taught the technique of b u i l d i n g on the job. And, says Fathy, " I found that i t took three months to t u r n a t o t a l l y inexperienced v i l l a g e r i n t o a mason competent enough to perform a l l needed operations, i n c l u d i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n 13 of v a u l t s and dones." 1 3 I b i d . , p. 11. 139 From the experience of the Gourna P r o j e c t , Fathy has evolved a formula to measure the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s e l f -h elp housing p r o j e c t to be undertaken anywhere: The cost of s e l f - h e l p b u i l d i n g could be reckoned as f o l l o w s : L o c a l labour + l o c a l m a t e r i a l s reckoned i n man-hours and converted i n t o cash: L Imported labour + imported m a t e r i a l s reckoned i n cash: E Then the s o - c a l l e d " e k i s t i c e f f i c i e n c y * ' i e . K of the b u i l d i n g would be: L + L+E What a c t u a l l y was attempted i n the Gourna P r o j e c t was to r a i s e the value of L and reduce the value of E. In the Harga Oasis and Nubia, under the t r a d i t i o n a l b u i l d i n g , the " e k i s t i c e f f i c i e n c y " approaches 100. I n the case of Gourna, however, since i n i t i a l p u b l i c input was s u b s t a n t i a l , the " e k i s t i c e f f i c i e n c y " as high as say 50 could be expected only i f a host of i n t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t s which were „ n y * could *e a r a b l e to Monetary .ea.ure.ent. However, F a t h y 1 s c o n v i c t i o n on the Gourna experiment i s amenable to g e n e r a l i z a t i o n as to the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the s e l f - h e l p housing method: Stated i n the l i g h t of P r o f . Fathy's s l i d e l e c t u r e on the Gourna P r o j e c t at the Athens Technological I n s t i t u t e , Graduate School of E k i s t i c s , Athens, May, I960. l>+0 Once ... some of the houses are up, the s k i l l s implanted and a v i l l a g e plan drawn up, the r e - b u i l d i n g w i l l go of i t s own momentum (and} i f the t r a d i t i o n a l cooperative system can be made to work under n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s , then i t can c l e a r l y be expanded and a p p l i e d to a mass housing programme.15 The method has been recommended f o r the e n t i r e communities of Egyptian f a l a h i n s (peasants), and f o r communities l i v i n g under s i m i l a r circumstances elsewhere. BONNETT ST. MARY PROJECT, JAMAICA. One of the important o b j e c t i v e s of the Jamaica s e l f - h e l p housing p r o j e c t s , says Stockdale, i s "to enable the people to secure, by t h e i r own e x e r t i o n s , both a l i f e and l i v e l i h o o d which w i l l bear comparison w i t h the moral 16 and m a t e r i a l standards of the twentieth century." The Jamaica Welfare L i m i t e d financed o r i g i n a l l y from the United F r u i t and Shipping Company has been pioneering i n the achievement of the above o b j e c t i v e by o r g a n i z i n g s e l f -h elp housing based on r u r a l economy. The Jamaican P r o j e c t p r ovides, by f a r , the most organized experience of cooperative house b u i l d i n g . In the p e r i o d 19^1-19^5, the Jamaica Welfare L i m i t e d took over a number of experimental cooperative house b u i l d i n g p r o j e c t s i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the Lands I b i d . , pp. 12-15. 16 Stockdale quoted i n : United Nations, Survey  of Problems of Low Cost Ru r a l Housing i n T r o p i c a l Area, A P r e l i m i n a r y Report w i t h S p e c i a l Reference to Caribbean Area, (New York: Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s , 1950), p. 69. 1*H Department and subsequently w i t h the A g r i c u l t u r a l Loan S o c i e t i e s Board w i t h t e c h n i c a l guidance from the Government C e n t r a l Housing A u t h o r i t y . The Bonnett S t . Mary P r o j e c t i s one of these experimental schemes. 17 As d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the "community type" of s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t , the Bonnett S t . Mary P r o j e c t f a l l s i n t o the "organized type" of house b u i l d i n g which r e l i e s on the mutual help of members of group to each other i n such a way t h a t each member r e c e i v e s an amount of labour equivalent to that which he has c o n t r i b u t e d . The P r o j e c t d e a l t w i t h the b u i l d i n g of 29 houses on an experimental b a s i s . The i n i t i a l stage was marked by three steps: p r e s e n t i n g the organized s e l f - h e l p i d e a to the people; o r g a n i z i n g them under the s o - c a l l e d " B e t t e r Houses, B e t t e r Settlements and B e t t e r V i l l a g e s Movement", and economising cash expenditure through the use of cheap l o c a l m a t e r i a l s and v o l u n t a r y labour. The house-holders were organized i n t o b u i l d i n g groups of s i x . They worked a l t e r n a t e l y t h r i c e a week having gone through a p r e l i m i n a r y t r a i n i n g p e r i o d . The owner's labour was c r e d i t e d to non-owner members, wi t h deductions made f o r meals provided on the s i t e . The C e n t r a l Housing A u t h o r i t y provided t e c h n i c a l guidance. In the s o - c a l l e d "community type" of cooperative housing, members of the community help t h e i r neighbours to b u i l d t h e i r houses without expectation of any reward or r e t u r n i n k i n d , as i s the case i n the "organized type" of s e l f - h e l p b u i l d i n g . 1*4-2 One t h i r d of the cost of each house was provided by the people themselves i n the form of cash and kind, i e . labour. The extent of the b e n e f i c i a r i e s own contributions i s shown i n monetary terms i n Table 3» ( see next page 143 ) TABLE 3 BONNETT ST. MARY SELF-HELP HOUSING PROJECT, JAMAICA: BENEFICIARIES CONTRIBUTION TO A TYPICAL TWO-ROOM HOUSE Outlay M a t e r i a l s c o n t r i b u t e d 3 . £ 20. 1. 7 M a t e r i a l s paid f o r £ 78.16. 5 T o t a l £ 98.18. 0 a Labour c o n t r i b u t e d £ lh. 3. 6 Labour paid f o r £ 36. 3. 9 T o t a l Food £ 50. 7. 3 £ 2.16. 3 T o t a l Cost = £152. 1. 6 Source of Funds In the form of m a t e r i a l s a c o n t r i b u t e d £ 20. 1. 7 In the form of labour a c o n t r i b u t e d £ Ik. 3. 6 T o t a l £ 3^. 5. 1 Grant £ 50.13.10 Loan £ 67. 2. 7 T o t a l Expenditure = £152. 1. 6 ^ y the house-holders. Source: United Nations, Survey of Problems of Low-Cost  Rura l Housing i n T r o p i c a l Areas, A P r e l i m i n a r y Report wi t h S p e c i a l Reference to Caribbean Area (New York: Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s , 1950), p. hh. From Table 3 i t i s evident t h a t the householder's d i r e c t c o n t r i b u t i o n was equivalent to a l i t t l e l e s s than a quarter of the t o t a l cost of the house. On a t o t a l p r o j e c t b a s i s a l s o , the owners c o n t r i b u t e d £ 5 7 2 worth of m a t e r i a l s and £ 339 worth of labour i e . a t o t a l of £911 out of the t o t a l P r o j e c t ' s c o s t of £ 3 , 6 6 5 . The b e n e f i c i a r i e s d i r e c t c o n t r i b u t i o n amounted to 25 per cent of the P r o j e c t ' s 18 c o s t , as against the planned assumption of 20 per cent. The Table 3 a l s o brings out the f a c t that m a t e r i a l s c o n t r i b u t e d by householders amounted to o n e - t h i r d of m a t e r i a l s purchased, while the labour c o n t r i b u t e d amounted to more than o n e - t h i r d of the labour paid f o r . In t h i s way, the Government grant was economised; i t was reduced to o n e - t h i r d of the P r o j e c t c o s t . The balance between cos t of the P r o j e c t , cost of m a t e r i a l and labour c o n t r i b u t e d , and the Government grant, was to be paid on a weekly instalment of under three s h i l l i n g s per week. This was w i t h i n the reach of every b e n e f i c i a r y . The Bormett S t . Mary experience made the planners hopeful of the p o s s i b i l i t y of i n c r e a s i n g the p r o p o r t i o n of the value of volun t a r y labour from o n e - t h i r d to one h a l f of the p a i d labour, and of economising the time cost s u b s t a n t i a l l y . T h e i r b e l i e f on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s e l f -help housing i n Jamaica was based on t h e i r recommendation United Nations, "Housing i n the T r o p i c s , " Housing and Town and Country Planning B u l l e t i n No. 6, (New York: United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 5 2 ) , P. 55. 145 t h a t i n f u t u r e the method could be d i s t r i b u t e d over a 19 l a r g e r sphere of operations. AGUABLANCA PROJECT, CAII, COLOMBIA The I n s t i t u t o de C r e d i t o (ICT) i n Colombia, as elaborated i n Chapter IV, has been c a r r y i n g out s e l f - h e l p housing p r o j e c t s w i t h an urban focus. The I n s t i t u t e s e l e c t s a p r o j e c t a f t e r considerable research and supervises work under an adequate system of group o r g a n i z a t i o n . I n 1959» the Colombian Government placed on the ICT's shoulders the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of implementing the Aguablanca P r o j e c t w i t h as much s e l f - h e l p involvement of the reDevant community as p o s s i b l e . The plan was part of an emergency a c t i o n to s o l v e the housing d e f i c i e n c y i n the c i t y of C a l i and to counteract the t h r e a t e n i n g growth of s q u a t t e r s . A t o t a l of 20 1589 d w e l l i n g s d i s t r i b u t e d as f o l l o w s were b u i l t : U n f i n i s h e d houses 1,020 Mutual a i d houses 476 S e l f - h e l p houses 93 The Aguablanca s e l f - h e l p housing p r o j e c t was s t a r t e d i n A p r i l of 1959 ( f i g u r e No. 8 ) . The f i r s t stage of work was ^United Nations, "Survey ... Areas," op_. c i t . , p. 46. 20 Unless otherwise quoted d i f f e r e n c t l y , the un-opinionated f a c t u a l data i n t h i s and the remaining pages of t h i s chapter are from: Pan American Union, Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s , S e l f - H e l p Housing Guide ( Bogota: I n t e r -American Housing and Planning Center, 1962), p. 4 ( present reference page ). marked by the formation of groups and t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n . I t took seventeen months to complete U-76 mutual aided 21 s e l f - h e l p houses. A g r a t i f y i n g number of 35 houses per month were b u i l t w i t h the a p p l i c a t i o n of the aided self-help method. The e s s e n t i a l e v a l u a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on an average mutual a i d s e l f - h e l p house i s summarized i n Table h. ( see next page 147 ) This p e r i o d excludes the i n t e r v a l between the s t a r t of the f i r s t , i e . the demonstration group and the second group. TABLE h AGUABLANCA SELF-HELP HOUSING PROJECT CALI, COLOMBIA: COST AND BENEFIT ASPECT Extent of Volu n t a r y P a r t i c i p a t i o n T o t a l d w e l l i n g s i n v o l v e d P a r t i c i p a n t s labour: Man-hours per house Man-hours per sqr. meter Percentage man-hours on c o n s t r u c t i o n : P a r t i c i p a n t s labour P a i d labour 1+76' 515 11.2 100 n i l Cost Aspect Cost per d w e l l i n g Cost per sqr. meter Average cost of m a t e r i a l s and components per d w e l l i n g Average cost of cement s l a b foundation and f l o o r per d w e l l i n g Estimated value of p a r t i c i p a n t s labour per d w e l l i n g A c t u a l c o s t per d w e l l i n g Colombian Pesos 3,1+03.00 22.39 1,500.00 1,188.00 d 6,091.00 ^3y October, I960, 273 houses were completed and 203 were at advanced stage of c o n s t r u c t i o n . The data p e r t a i n s to the average of 273 houses. The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and management cost i s not i n c l u d e d because a charge of 10 per cent was added to the p r i c e of the developed l a n d to cover these expenses. °In I960 when the P r o j e c t was i n progress, a Colombian Pesos was equivalent to U.S. $0.1*+. ^No a p p r a i s a l was made of the value represented by the labour of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . Source: Pan American Union, Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s , S e l f - H e l p Housing Guide, (Bogota: Inter-American Housing and Planning Center, 1962), p. 5. AGUABLANCA PROJECT, CALL COLOMBJA gllilMlHITfTIUlllHI toUdi S I T E PLAT4 F L O O R P L A N • °° °° i A P R I L 1966 E F F E C T I V E N E S S O F S E L F - HELP HOUJNG E X P E R I E N C E IN DEVELOP ING COUNTRIES D i v i s i o n o f C o m m u m f y * R e g i o n a l P | » o o i O g UNII/EOSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A , V A N C O U V E R S O U R C E • P A N - AA\ERI£Ai4 U N I O N , S E L F - H f e l - P H O U V N C G O ' D E ^ & O G . O T A I N T E R - A M E R I C A N U O O S I N O * P I A N N 1 H G C E N T E R " , tyl), fV 4-5" 1^9 The t a b u l a r i n f o r m a t i o n can be su b s t a n t i a t e d from a comparison with the no n - s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t s as f o l l o w s : Colombian pesos Cost of s i m i l a r u n f i n i s h e d ( contracted house 8,052.00 A d d i t i o n a l cost to b r i n g i n l i n e w i t h D i r e c t e d Mutual A i d Dwelling (Table IV) ^50.00 8,502.00 Estimated a c t u a l cost of an AMD d w e l l i n g (Table I I I ) - 6.091.00 D i f f e r e n c e of co s t , i e . economy wit h s e l f - h e l p 2,^+11.00 This economy r e s u l t s e n t i r e l y from the re d u c t i o n of b u i l d i n g cost as a consequence of c o n t r i b u t e d labour and m a t e r i a l s under the s e l f - h e l p method as f o l l o w s : Net b u i l d i n g c o s t of contracted d w e l l i n g 2 2 3,911.00 Net b u i l d i n g cost of s i m i l a r AMD d w e l l i n g (Table h) -1,500.00 D i f f e r e n c e of c o s t , i e . economy wi t h s e l f - h e l p 2,^11.00 -< The t a b u l a r i n f o r m a t i o n i s s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y . C e r t a i n f a c t s strengthening the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the guided s e l f - h e l p method can be e a s i l y i s o l a t e d as evidence. As a r e s u l t of the 100 per cent involvement of p a r t i c i p a n t 22 l e s s f i x e d value of developed land and cement-slab of foundation i n amount of ^,591.00 150 labour and improvement i n the q u a l i t y of houses f o r the same reason, a c l e a r - c u t saving of $ 2 , l f l l , i e . 28.7 per cent of the housing cost r e s u l t s . A l s o the d i f f e r e n c e i n the net b u i l d i n g cost represents a saving of 62 per cent f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s . This i s a saving made by b u i l d i n g a house using s e l f - h e l p method under p u b l i c i n i t i a t i v e and guidance. I t i s of i n t e r e s t to describe c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s of the amply s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s of the Aguablanca P r o j e c t of Colombia. These were: organized and planned work; r a p i d execution; outstanding q u a l i t y of labour; economy of investment on the p a r t of the ICT i n contracted houses; spontaneous generation of saving i n p a r t i c i p a n t f a m i l i e s ; the avenues of t e c h n i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t r a i n i n g ; the awakening of a d e s i r e f o r cooperative a c t i o n and s o c i a l improvements i n the community. The Aguablanca P r o j e c t , however s m a l l , has been one of the most w e l l organized and s u c c e s s f u l ones among the c o u n t r i e s of L a t i n America. I t i s one of the strongest cases t h a t supports a b e l i e f i n the s i g n i f i c a n c e of s e l f -help housing p r o j e c t s i n the developing c o u n t r i e s . SAN SEBASTIAN PROJECT, SAN JOSE 1, COSTA RICA The San Sebastian s e l f - h e l p housing p r o j e c t i s one of the numerous guided p r o j e c t s executed by the I n s t i t u t o N acional de V i v i e n d a y Urbanismo i n Costa R i c a . 151 The P r o j e c t d e a l i n g w i t h 352 d w e l l i n g u n i t s was s t a r t e d i n 1958. (Figure No. 9) Under the organized group b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y , four u n i t s were r a i s e d per day, so t h a t the whole P r o j e c t was presumably completed i n three months time. The e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e of the dwellings was that they were pre-cut and p a r t i a l l y assembled i n modular panels according to t r a d i t i o n a l dimensions of C o s t a r i c a n woods. The design was s i m i l a r to slum e l i m i n a t i o n p r o j e c t s c a r r i e d out under the V i v i e n d a en Marcha (Housing on the March) and r u r a l housing programs. Table 5 summarizes the e s s e n t i a l e v a l u a t i v e aspects of the P r o j e c t . ( see next page 152 ) 152 TABLE 5 SAN SEBASTIAN SELF-HELP HOUSING PROJECT SAN JOSE' COSTA RICA: COST AND BENEFIT ASPECT Extent of Voluntary  P a r t i c i p a t i o n T o t a l dwellings P a r t i c i p a n t s labour: Man-hours per u n i t Men-hours per sqr. meter Approximate percentage men-houEs i n c o n s t r u c t i o n : P a r t i c i p a n t labour P a i d labour 352 650 11.8 62 38 Cost Aspect Cost per d w e l l i n g Cost per sqr. meter Average cost of m a t e r i a l and p a i d labour per d w e l l i n g Average co s t of management per d w e l l i n g Estimated value of p a r t i c i p a n t s labour per d w e l l i n g Costa Rican C o l o n s a 6,790.00 28.00 9,108.11 953.88 1,1+62.50 T o t a l estimated cost per d w e l l i n g ( i n c l u d i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s labour cost 18,31^*^9 a6.60 Colons are equi v a l e n t to U.S. $1.00 Source: Pan American Union, Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s , S e l f - H e l p Housing Guide. (Bogota: Inter-American Housing and Planning Center, 1962), p. 11. SAN SEBASTIAN PROJECT SAN JOSE* COSTA RICA A P R I L E F F E C T L E S S O F S E L F - H E L P H O U S I N G E X P E R I E N C E I N D E V E L O P I N G C O U N T R I E S Metiers %e.s\s D i v i s i o n of C o m m i i n i J y * Region^/, P/fl/JOio^ UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUM&IA, VANCOUVER Amjo idL A B> R.I;VI . FIG. S O U R C E P A N - AWEDICAM U N I O N , S E L F - H E L P H O U S I N G OiUIDE C B a ^ O T A V I N T E P - A M E R I C A N H O U S I N G AMD P L A N N I N G C E N T E B , p l l 1 } 1^' The p a r t i c i p a n t f a m i l i e s i n the San Sebastian P r o j e c t as appears from Table 5 had put i n 650 man hours of work per d w e l l i n g u n i t . This c o n s t i t u t e s 62 per cent of the labour r e q u i r e d i n the P r o j e c t ; the r e s t , i e . 38 per cent was p u b l i c l y p a i d f o r . In monetary terms, the p a r t -i c i p a n t labour was equivalent to 1,^62.50 Colons according to the then p r e v a i l i n g wage r a t e s . Whence, i t i s concluded that a saving equivalent to 7*5 per cent of the t o t a l cost of the d w e l l i n g u n i t was achieved by each house b u i l d i n g f a m i l y . The saving gained i n the San Sebastian P r o j e c t was about o n e - t h i r d to one-fourth l e s s than i n the Indian, Egyptian and Colombian P r o j e c t s . This was most c e r t a i n l y because i n the Costa Rican case, housing and community design was s u f f i c i e n t l y ambitious compared to the A s i a n and A f r i c a n cases. Three bed-rooms were planned on an average d w e l l i n g area of 5*+.88 m and the cost was w e l l over $2,000. This i n d i c a t e s t h a t a h i g h l e v e l of b u i l d i n g s p e c i f i c a t i o n s were used which i s not g e n e r a l l y the case adopted i n s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t s that are meant e n t i r e l y f o r the lower income group. This i s a p r o h i b i t i v e cost which cannot work i n A s i a t i c and A f r i c a n s e t t i n g s . This a l s o i n d i c a t e s the reason why v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n was lower i n Costa R i c a ( c o n t r i b u t e d labour cost 7.5 per cent of the d w e l l i n g cost) than i n other p r o j e c t s described e a r l i e r . 155 • CLARA ESTRELLA PROJECT, SANTIAGO CHILE The C l a r a E s t r e l l a s e l f - h e l p housing p r o j e c t i s one of the many organized by the Corporation de l a V i v i e n d a i n C h i l e . The P r o j e c t was begun i n February of 1959 w i t h the s o l e o b j e c t of s t i m u l a t i n g s e l f - h e l p e f f o r t s among the p a r t i c i p a n t f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n slums and thereby a l l e v i a t i n g the housing shortage i n the growing c i t y of Santiago. (Figure No. 10) The P r o j e c t was concerned w i t h o r g a n i z i n g the b u i l d i n g of l,kl7 houses f o r a l i k e number of f a m i l i e s under expert s u p e r v i s i o n . The f a m i l i e s were organized under twelve cooperative groups. The groups b u i l t 1,300 two bed-room houses and made a money c o n t r i b u t i o n equivalent to two-thirds of the d w e l l i n g c o s t . Accordingly the investment made by the CORVI (Corporation de l a Vivienda) was reduced to o n e - t h i r d of the P r o j e c t c o s t . The procedure adopted was f i r s t the m o b i l i z a t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t groups through s o c i a l work techniques. T e c h n i c a l and s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n under the guidance of masons, b u i l d e r s and s o c i a l workers on the nature of work foll o w e d t h e r e - a f t e r . Previous experience from s i m i l a r 23 p r o j e c t s was amply u t i l i z e d to achieve the maximum economy. The h i g h l i g h t of a t y p i c a l housing u n i t i s contained, i n Table 6 . "Eg., German Riesco and La Palma P r o j e c t s i n the c i t y of Santiago. 156 TABLE 6 CLARA ESTRELLA SELF-HELP HOUSING PROJECT, SANTIAGO, CHILE: COST AND BENEFIT ASPECT Extent of Voluntary P a r t i c i p a t i o n T o t a l d w e l l i n g s 1,^+17 P a r t i c i p a n t s labour: Man-hours per u n i t ^ 663 Man-hours per sqr. meter 25 2 Percentage man-hours per m : P a r t i c i p a n t labour 80 Pa i d labour 20 Cost Aspect C h i l e a n Escudos C Average co s t per d w e l l i n g 283*90 Average cost per sqr. meter 1.19 Cost of m a t e r i a l s and p a i d labour & per d w e l l i n g 1,529.65 Average cost of management 111.96 Estimated value of p a r t i c i p a n t s labour per d w e l l i n g 231.25 T o t a l estimated cost per d w e l l i n g 2.5^0.50 a Average of stages 1 and 2. b Refer to stage 2 o n l y . c Escudos the C h i l e a n currency was on par wit h the U.S. d o l l a r i n I960. Of t h i s amount, the p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n t r i b u t e d a sum of E° 3*+l«39 i n v e s t e d d i r e c t l y by them at the i n i t i a l stage. Source: Pan American Union, Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s , S e l f - H e l p Housing Guide. (Bogota: Inter-American Housing and Planning Center, 1962), p. 17. ) CLARA ESTRELLA PROJECT SANTIAGO-CHILE T Y P I C A L DETAIL FROM SITE P L A N TRRYIY F L O O R BEDROOM BEDROOM OKDROOM BEDROOM 1 OATH BATH 1 p — " T l KITCHEN L I V I N O I I KITCHeN|BBO«oo«l A P R I L 1 9 6 6 EFFECTIVENESS O F S E L F - HELP HOUSING E X P E R I E N C E IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES /^ a-stars Theses Div i s i on o f C o m m t i n t i y ewd . GegcOioajt ^ft/)0"Mt UNIVERSITY* OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, VANCOUUEU FIG.NO. IO S O U R C E P A N - A M E R I C A N O N I O N , S E L F - H E L P H O U S I N G C U ' P E . T B O S O T A I N T E R - A M E R I C A N M O U S I N G , A P L A N N I N G C E N T & R , I*»62). P P 1 6 - 1 7 158 The C h i l e a n C l a r a E s t r e l l a P r o j e c t i s s u c c e s s f u l to the extent that 80 per cent of the t o t a l man-hours i n c o n s t r u c t i o n were put i n by v o l u n t a r y f a m i l i e s themselves. T h i s represents a saving of 13 per cent of the housing c o s t . I f t h i s i s added to the amount they c o n t r i b u t e d i n the form of m a t e r i a l and downpayment as a r e s u l t of i n t i m a t e i n t e r e s t i n the s e l f b u i l t houses, the burden on the p u b l i c exchequer i s s c a l e d down to the l e v e l of 33 per cent of the housing c o s t . T h i s represents a s u b s t a n t i a l r e d u c t i o n of p u b l i c resources r e s u l t i n g from the a p p l i c a t i o n of s e l f - h e l p method i n the area of low income housing. C0L0NIA CENTRO-AMERICA — LAS VICTORIAS PROJECT, CIUDAD DE GUATEMALA, GUATEMALA The twin p r o j e c t s of Centro-America and Las V i c t o r i a s i n Guatemala were implemented by the I n s t i t u t o Cooperativo Interamericano de l a V i v i e n d a . The f i r s t was c a r r i e d out during J u l y , 1957 to September, 1959 and the second from J u l y , 1958 to October, 1959 (Figure Nos. 11 and 12). The approach behind the two p r o j e c t s was the same, namely, the " u t i l i z a t i o n of c o l l e c t i v e manpower of p a r t i c i p a n t s . " The p r o j e c t s i n v o l v i n g U-18 houses were organized as a s i n g l e whole. In the f i r s t , however, ten groups each of 28 persons and i n the second two groups each of about h-5 persons c o n s t i t u t e d the s e l f - h e l p housing team. Each group worked on dwellings designed on a modular form i n v o l v i n g r e - i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t i n g and panel assembling. 159 The h i g h l i g h t s of the P r o j e c t (both p r o j e c t s combined) of i n t e r e s t f o r the purpose of e v a l u a t i o n i s contained i n Table 7. TABLE 7 COLONIA CENTRO-AMERICA — LAS VICTORIAS SELF-HELP HOUSING PROJECT: COST AND BENEFIT ASPECT Extent of voluntary p a r t i c i p a t i o n T o t a l d w e l l i n g s U-18 Average area of a d w e l l i n g i n sqr. meter 5l.*+2 P a r t i c i p a n t s labour: Man-hours per u n i t 1,600 Man-hours per sqr. meter 31.06 Percentage man-hours per sqr. meter: P a r t i c i p a n t s labour 75 P a i d labour 25 Cost Aspect Quetzales or U.S. Average developed land cost 6lH.OO per d w e l l i n g Average cost of p a i d labour and 1,290.00 m a t e r i a l s Average of cost of management 885.00 per, d w e l l i n g Estimated value of p a r t i c i p a n t s 560 labour per d w e l l i n g T o t a l estimated c o s t per d w e l l i n g 3,376.00 Source: Pan American Union, Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s , S e l f - H e l p Housing Guide, (Bogota: Inter-American Housing and Planning Center, 1962), p. 21. LAS VICTORIAS PROJECT, GUATEMALA S I T E P L A N COLONIA CENTRO-AMERICA PROJECT S I T E P L A N 0 --Q a- •a a-r a j o: a-a-C -a o--a a-3a LLh A P R I L < 9 6 6 EFFECTIVENESS OF SLLF-UELP HOUSING E X P E R I E N C E > N D E V E L O P I N G C O L > N T R \ E S M t * S r e r j Ihesis Division o f C o m m u n i i y «S» R e g i o n a l P la/wi i )^ UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A VANCOUVER Amj««* A b P.15VI FIG. NOS 11-12 S O U - a C e - P A . N - A M E B I C A N UNION, * S E L F - H E L P H O U S I N G G U I S E * C l N T E R - A M E R I C A N M O U S I N G A N D P L A N N I N G C E N T E R , & O G O T A 1 9 4 2 ) . pp 2 0 - 2 1 162 Table 7 re v e a l s t h a t t h r e e - f o u r t h s of the t o t a l man-hours i n v o l v e d i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y of the P r o j e c t were c o n t r i b u t e d f r e e of charge by b e n e f i c i a r i e s . The estimated value of the thus c o n t r i b u t e d labour c o n s t i t u t e s 17 per cent of the housing cost which, t h e r e f o r e , i s the c l e a r - c u t cash saving from the C o l o n i a Centro-America — Las V i c t o r i a s P r o j e c t i n Guatemala. 163 I I CONCLUSION, In the developing c o u n t r i e s , almost a l l s e l f -h elp housing p r o j e c t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n urban areas are manipulative and formal i n nature. The success of p r o j e c t s i n terms of saving r e s u l t i n g from the vo l u n t a r y involvement of b e n e f i c i a r i e s depends almost e n t i r e l y on the competence of the management handling the p r o j e c t . Given the e f f e c t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n of s o c i a l m o b i l i z a t i o n techniques e x e m p l i f i e d by the p r o j e c t s , i t i s p e r f e c t l y p o s s i b l e to draw from the p a r t i c i p a n t f a m i l i e s a donation equivalent to more than three-quarters of the labour r e q u i r e d to b u i l d houses on a s e l f - h e l p b a s i s . (Figure No. 13) The monetary value of labour and m a t e r i a l s c o n t r i b u t e d by p a r t i c i p a n t f a m i l i e s f o r t h e i r houses ranges from 7.5 per cent (San Sebastian Costa Rica) to 28.7 per cent (Aguablanca, Colombia) and averages to 25 per cent of the p r o j e c t c o s t . (Figure No. ih) However, where t h i s p r o p o r t i o n i s low, i t i s because the housing s p e c i f i -c a t i o n s and f a m i l y incomes i n v o l v e d are s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h . This means that the method works — though l e s s e f f e c t i v e l y — i n the case of higher income groups. There i s a l s o some hope among planners handling s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t s to increase the saving to twice the present l e v e l . The P a k i s t a n ' s Korangi experience, the Colombia's Aguablanca experience and India's Lucknow experience (as discussed i n chapter IV) have a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d the m e r i t s , SELF-HELP HOUSING PROJECTS E X T E N T O F V O L U N T A R Y L A & O U R P A R T I C I P A T I O N SELF-HELP HOUSING PROJECTS DIRECT BENEFITS OR SAVING A P R I L 19U EFFECTIVENESS OF SELF-HELP MOUSING '. EXPERIENCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES . Motet's Ihesis Division op Commum^Y * Regional Pfonnind UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH COLUIM&IA, VANCOUVEB Amjiwi A L D.Bi^ut FIGS. 13-/4 165 of s e l f - h e l p approaches un d e r l y i n g " u n f i n i s h e d core houses". The u n f i n i s h e d and inadequate house represents to the householders a permanent reminder of an un-achieved goal. This reminder s t i m u l a t e s higher savings and higher a p p l i c a t i o n of s e l f - h e l p labour on the p a r t of the owner f a m i l i e s . That three-quarters of the f a m i l i e s i n the Korangi P r o j e c t of P a k i s t a n have made s t r u c t u r a l a d d i t i o n s . and improvements to t h e i r unplastered one-room core house i s a case i n p o i n t . S i m i l a r examples e x i s t i n the Ghanaian p r o j e c t s . The p r o j e c t s i n v e s t i g a t e d a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d some of the i n d i r e c t b e n e f i t s accrued to s e l f - h e l p community. The a r t of b u i l d i n g and manufacturing of b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s t h a t people l e a r n t , as e x e m p l i f i e d by the Indian Faridabad and Egyptian Courna experience, became important source of income and employment to the r e s p e c t i v e communities a f t e r the completion of the p r o j e c t s . The s e l f - h e l p housing concept draws h e a v i l y on the community development techniques. Through such l e a n i n g comes an important i n d i r e c t b e n e f i t : i t i s one of the best ways to teach democratic a c t i o n and a s p i r i t of s o l i d a r i t y i n the developing communities of the developing c o u n t r i e s . P r o f e s s o r F a t h y 1 s recorded experience of Gourna i n Egypt and s i m i l a r experiences elsewhere prove the perpetuation of democratic s o l i d a r i t y stemming from s e l f - h e l p housing p r o j e c t experience. In t h i s way the s e l f -help housing p o l i c y can s t i m u l a t e peoples' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n socio-economic endeavours. 165 I I I CHAPTER SUMMARY In t h i s chapter, e i g h t sample s e l f - h e l p housing p r o j e c t s c a r r i e d out i n developing c o u n t r i e s have been discussed and evaluated i n terms of cost i n v o l v e d and b e n e f i t s accrued to the r e l e v a n t f a m i l i e s and r e s p e c t i v e government agencies. Discounting the i n d i r e c t economic and s o c i a l b e n e f i t s r e s u l t i n g from l i v i n g i n b e t t e r housing and community environment than i n slum c o n d i t i o n s , the b e n e f i t s measured i n terms of monetary savings to s e l f - h e l p communities averaged out to 25 per cent of the housing cost. (Figure No. 2k) I f , however, the i n d i r e c t s o c i a l b e n e f i t s are accounted f o r i n monetary terms then the saving or b e n e f i t s may be presumably scaled up to w e l l over 50 per cent of the t o t a l c o s t . This saving r e s u l t s from the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of s e l f - h e l p v o l u n t a r y labour to the extent of 85 per cent of the t o t a l labour i n p u t . That a s e l f - h e l p housing p r o j e c t could amass such a l a r g e number of people i n house b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y i s a f u r t h e r j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the author's c l a i m , as w e l l as of those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r such p r o j e c t s , t h a t the s e l f - h e l p housing method i s s u i t a b l e i n the c a p i t a l - d e f i c i e n t , labour-abundant c o u n t r i e s of A s i a , A f r i c a , and L a t i n America. In short, given a competent management machinery, as e x e m p l i f i e d i n F i g u r e No. 15> the s e l f - h e l p housing 166 concept can be an e f f e c t i v e method compared to e x i s t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e ones, i n asmuch as i t s a p p l i c a t i o n r e s u l t s i n c onsiderable economy i n housing cost and s u b s t a n t i a l socio-economic b e n e f i t s to the communities i n v o l v e d . ORGANIZATIONAL CHART FOR A SELF-HELP HOUSING PROJECT-4OO UNITS ONE Y E A R PROGRAMME 400 FAMILIES 400 HOUSES 10 GROUPS O F 40 PERSONS E A C H T E A M I GROUP 1 1st MONTH GROUP 2 2nd MONTH GROUP 4 3rd MONTH T E A M 2 GROUP 3 2nd MONTH GROUP 5 3rd MONTH. GROUP 7 4th MONTH . T E A M 3 GROUP 6 3rd MONTH GROUP 8 4th MONTH T E A M 4 GROUP 9 4th MONTH GROUP 10 5th MONTH S E L F - H E L P H O U S I N G A G E N C Y 1 ADMINISTRATIVE ' ASSISTANT 2 GROUP WORKERS 4 T E A M S 4 CONSTRUCTION F O R E M E N [—t L A N D E X P E R T M 1 DIRECTOR M —) P R O J E C T P L A N N E R | T E C H N I C A L —| A R C H I T E C T '• A S S I S T A N C E { L E G A L E X P E R T - | E N G I N E E R " H FINANCE E X P E R T |, H_SOCIAL W O R K E R Lj C O M M U N I T Y D E V E L O P M E N T E X P E R T 1 2 WATCHMEN A P R I L 1966 E F F E C T I V E N E S S OF S E L F - H E L P HOUS ING: EXPER IENCE IN D E V E L O P I N G C O U N T R I E S Dfvision op C o m ^ i W v Qea^cX Pf«ooi 'od UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMB IA • VANCOUVER, AmjooL A.8. Vxyji, S O U R C E : V,N'JPD N A T I O N S . S E L F - H E L P H O U S I N G A H A N D B O O K F O P ~ ~ V 1 7 L I ^ • W 0 R U ^ ? C N t W Yo«.« •" o c S * N * ^ P U B L I C A T I O N * . . I N C , 1,5). P-To. CHAPTER VI SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This study i s the product of a sombre observation that the gap between housing needs and a v a i l a b l e resources among the developing n a t i o n s of A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n America i s extremely wide. The cost of b u i l d i n g a minimum house i n these c o u n t r i e s i s greater than the f a m i l y can a f f o r d , and the cost of b u i l d i n g enough houses to f u l f i l the l e g i t i m a t e needs of people i s greater than the economy can a f f o r d . T h i s i s the t i g h t corner i n which the developing nations f i n d themselves. On the other hand, the commonly used contemporary methods f o r b r i d g i n g the gap between housing requirements and economic resources are not s u f f i c i e n t . Along with t h i s f a c t , there i s a not too f a r fetched assumption t h a t the economy of the developing nations w i l l not change so d r a s t i c a l l y i n the foreseeable f u t u r e as to warrant the massive b u i l d i n g program of e l i m i n a t i n g the housing backlog. What then i s the r i g h t path f o r these nations to tread? This study has been undertaken to provide an answer to t h i s c r u c i a l question. The answer to the above question l i e s i n the f u l l u t i l i z a t i o n of the abundantly a v a i l a b l e labour f o r c e i n developing c o u n t r i e s so as to b u i l d houses through what has always been a t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t y : s e l f - h e l p housing. 169 On the strength of a grim assumption, namely the in-adequacy of contemporary methods to grapple w i t h the housing dilemma, t h i s study has i n i t s o b j e c t i v e a ra t h e r ambitious cl a i m to v a l i d a t e : " S e l f - h e l p housing can form an e f f e c t i v e method of meeting the d e f i c i e n c y of housing u n i t s i n developing c o u n t r i e s " ; "developing c o u n t r i e s " connotes the c o u n t r i e s of A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n America which have low per c a p i t a income compared w i t h the c o u n t r i e s of North America, Europe and A u s t r a l i a . Approaches to the s e l f - h e l p housing ranges from spontaneous or t r a d i t i o n a l s e l f - h e l p to guided or formal s e l f - h e l p . In the f i r s t case, the f a m i l i e s make maximum c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h e i r labour and m a t e r i a l s to the b u i l d i n g of t h e i r houses. I n the second, i e . the guided s e l f - h e l p , e x t e r n a l guidance and help i s embred as a stimulus f o r the generation of the r e q u i s i t e response i n the form of house b u i l d i n g endeavours. The houses b u i l t w i t h the help of spontaneous method c o n f l i c t w i t h the most minimum contemporary standards of h e a l t h and hygiene. When, however, the spontaneous b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y i s ch a n a l i s e d through guidance, the r e s u l t i s guided or formal s e l f - h e l p . The object of guided s e l f -help i s to maximise spontaneous s e l f - h e l p i n the long run by encouraging guided a c t i o n i n the short run. Many methodological steps have been fo l l o w e d to e s t a b l i s h the above hypothesis. F i r s t l y , i n order to focus the relevance of the hypothesis, the magnitude of housing 170 d e f i c i e n c y - both i n q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e terms -i n developing c o u n t r i e s has been s t u d i e d . Secondly, the extent of inadequacy of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e resources i n housing r e c e i v e d a t t e n t i o n ] This l e d to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of needs f o r l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e methods by making deductions as to the inadequacy of c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e methods p r e s e n t l y i n use. T h i r d l y , the s e l f - h e l p housing programs at i n t e r -n a t i o n a l and n a t i o n a l l e v e l s have been evaluated f o r t h e i r success or f a i l u r e . F i n a l l y , eight s p e c i f i c s e l f - h e l p housing p r o j e c t s undertaken i n developing c o u n t r i e s have been given d e t a i l e d examination i n terms of the cost i n c u r r e d i n them and b e n e f i t s or savings gained by the a p p l i c a t i o n of s e l f - h e l p method. Success of the programs and b e n e f i t s from the p r o j e c t s thus becomes a measure of e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s e l f - h e l p housing method. I t has been found t h a t there i s an acute p a u c i t y of housing i n developing c o u n t r i e s . A d e f i c i t of 392 m i l l i o n d w e l l i n g u n i t s — 291 m i l l i o n i n A s i a , 53 m i l l i o n i n A f r i c a and k8 m i l l i o n i n L a t i n America — has been estimated on the b a s i s of increase i n the number of households and need f o r r e p l a c i n g the obsolescent stock i n the f i f t e e n year p e r i o d from I960 to 1975> as w e l l as the e x i s t i n g backlog. Coupled w i t h t h i s q u a n t i t a t i v e d e f i c i e n c y the q u a l i t a t i v e d e f i c i e n c y of housing i n developing c o u n t r i e s staggers the imagination of western housing experts and observers. The above f i g u r e s appear more meaningful when i t i s considered t h a t an annual output of 2k m i l l i o n d w e l l i n g 171 u n i t s — 18 m i l l i o n i n A s i a and three m i l l i o n each i n A f r i c a andt L a t i n America — i s r e q u i r e d during 1960-1975. This i s equivalent to an annual output of ten d w e l l i n g u n i t s per thousand population. How stupendous i s t h i s task f o r developing nations can be imagined by the f a c t that the average house b u i l d i n g performance of the developed nations i s about f i v e d w e l l i n g u n i t s per thousand p o p u l a t i o n . This i s i n d i c a t i v e of the g r a v i t y of the s i t u a t i o n and the i n c a p a c i t y of developing nations to grapple w i t h t h e i r housing problem. The problem i s f u r t h e r compounded by the f a c t t h a t even i f the developing economies succeed i n doubling t h e i r n a t i o n a l income i n a generation or so - a task of monumental p r o p o r t i o n - the absolute per c a p i t a income would s t i l l be not more than one-eighth of that of the developed world. In s h o r t , even the d i s t a n t f u t u r e appears bleak at best. Let, however, t h i s gloomy p i c t u r e be dampened down by another observation: although the c a p i t a l i s scarce m the developing economies, the labour i s not; consequent upon the p r e v a i l i n g unemployment, underemployment and d i s g u i s e d unemployment, there i s an abundance of human resource p o t e n t i a l amenable to being put to productive use. I n s h o r t , given i n i t i a l s t i m u l a n t , people can be made to respond and thereby do t h e i r own job; i n the case i n p o i n t they can be encouraged to b u i l d t h e i r own houses through guided s e l f - h e l p . Under the grim circumstances presented above, the s o l u t i o n to the c r i t i c a l housing problem l i e s i n e i t h e r combining e f f o r t s w i t h monetary e f f o r t s or d i v o r c i n g 172 monetary inputs from e f f o r t s . The f i r s t a l t e r n a t i v e , as has been proved, i s d i f f i c u l t - i f not impossible - to achieve; i n the second l i e s the "hope". The "hope" has been based on the b e l i e f on the pa r t of i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies such as the United Nations and some of the developed n a t i o n s , such as the United S t a t e s of America and Canada which are i n t e r e s t e d i n the development of these developing c o u n t r i e s , that guided s e l f - h e l p could reduce money cost and ensure 'a higher standard than any other combination of science and technology'. The i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies, n o t a b l y the United Nations, have amply demonstrated t h e i r i n t e r e s t on s e l f - h e l p housing i n a p r a c t i c a l manner. Numerous UN expert missions have studied the problem i n the f i e l d ; many conferences have been h e l d and the iss u e discussed; money support has been extended to propagate the concept. The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s e l f - h e l p housing method i s not recognised on the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l alone. The idea has gained currency a l s o among the developing n a t i o n s . Although the method has s t i l l not been e n t e r t a i n e d i n the l e g i s l a t i v e framework of n a t i o n a l housing programs, the development plans of many c o u n t r i e s use i t as an important t o o l of implementing community development programs. Considerable number of government-guided piecemeal s e l f - h e l p housing programs are c u r r e n t l y underway i n many developing c o u n t r i e s , l i k e I n d i a , P a k i s t a n , the United Arab Repub l i c , Ghana, Kenya, Somalia, the B e l g i a n Congo, N i g e r i a , 173 Jamaica, Colombia, Puerto R i c o , Venezuela, C h i l e and Peru. Most of these programs have been reported to have scored marked success. T h e i r concrete achievements, i t has been found, produces c o n v i c t i o n on the s u i t a b i l i t y of s e l f - h e l p housing method not only i n terms of i t s w o r k a b i l i t y but a l s o i n terms of the b e n e f i t s r e s u l t i n g therefrom. The r e c o g n i t i o n of the s e l f - h e l p housing as an e f f e c t i v e t o o l to the s o l u t i o n of housing problems does not l u r k behind the o s t e n s i b l e n a t i o n a l community development endeavours alone. In the e i g h t p r o j e c t s gleaned from the developing c o u n t r i e s and m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y examined f o r t h e i r performance a l s o l e a d to the same c o n c l u s i o n , namely, s e l f -help housing i s an e f f e c t i v e method i n the context of developing economies. I t i s found that about 80 per cent of the t o t a l labour input (paid and voluntary) contained i n the guided s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t examined, has been drawn from the f a m i l i e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n these p r o j e c t s at no cost whatsoever; a l s o i n some p r o j e c t s , the m a t e r i a l s have been c o n t r i b u t e d by the p a r t i c i p a t i n g f a m i l i e s . That a p r o j e c t could amass such a l a r g e number of people and t h e i r resources i n house b u i l d i n g augurs w e l l and guarantees the p r a c t i c a b i l i t y of the method. The monetary value of labour and m a t e r i a l s put i n by the f a m i l i e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the s e l f - h e l p housing p r o j e c t s does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y vary among Asi a n , A f r i c a n and L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s . I t , however, depends on how organized the p r o j e c t i s and what i s the socio-economic status of the r e l e v a n t community. Thus, out of the t o t a l housing c o s t , the value of the c o n t r i b u t e d labour and m a t e r i a l v a r i e s from 7*5 per cent i n San Sebastian P r o j e c t , Costa R i c a to 28.7 per cent i n the Aguablanca P r o j e c t , Colombia. This value averages to one-quarter of the t o t a l c o s t i n the e i g h t p r o j e c t s evaluated. Not t a k i n g i n t o account the i n d i r e c t economic and s o c i a l b e n e f i t s a r i s i n g out of the improved housing and community environment, a saving equivalent to the above value (25 per cent) represents a d i r e c t b e n e f i t to the community. This i s what P r o f e s s o r Fathy would say, > • the " e k i s t i c e f f i c i e n c y " of a s e l f - h e l p housing p r o j e c t , which according to him, approaches 100 i n some of the Egyptian peasant communities where spontaneous s e l f - h e l p housing has been current. I f , however, the i n d i r e c t s o c i a l and economic b e n e f i t s r e s u l t i n g from the environmental improvements of the community from slums to planned housing, are accounted f o r , the above value (25 per cent) as a measure of e f f e c t -iveness of s e l f - h e l p housing method i s scaled up to w e l l over 50 per cent of the housing c o s t . I f , again, t h i s value i s added to the value represented by the "hope" of planners and community development experts of, f o r example, the Egyptian Gourna p r o j e c t , the Jamaican Bonnett St. Mary P r o j e c t , the Costa Rican San Sebastian p r o j e c t and the Colombian Aguablanca p r o j e c t , to increase the d i r e c t 175 saving through improved o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s k i l l from 25 per cent to w e l l over 50 per cent of the t o t a l housing c o s t , the b e n e f i t s , or the " e k i s t i c e f f i c i e n c y " , may w e l l approach three-quarters of the housing c o s t . The object of guided s e l f - h e l p , as s t a t e d e a r l i e r , i s to maximise spontaneous s e l f - h e l p i n the long run by guided a c t i o n i n the short run. The numerous i n s t i t u t i o n a l and government-initiated p r o j e c t s c u r r e n t l y underway represent guided a c t i o n i n the short run. The cost of t h i s guided a c t i o n i s e q u i v a l e n t to ten per cent of the housing c o s t . When, however, the above o b j e c t i v e has been pursued to the p o i n t where spontaneous s e l f - h e l p a c t i v i t y has been set i n , the guided a c t i o n can be withdrawn from the cost inventory. The saving from t h i s withdrawal to the extent of ten per cent of the housing cost would be added to the b e n e f i t i n v e n t o r y . I t f o l l o w s that when i n the long run the t r a d i t i o n a l approach of spontaneous house b u i l d i n g i s f u l l y r e v i v e d and improved i n keeping w i t h the contemporary standards of minimum housing, the b e n e f i t or the " e k i s t i c e f f i c i e n c y " might w e l l approach 100. When t h i s would be p o s s i b l e depends on the n a t i o n a l circumstances and the vigour w i t h which the guided s e l f - h e l p housing programs are put through. The p r o f u n d i t y of t h i s vigour and the time p e r s p e c t i v e are only d i f f i c u l t to p r e d i c t . What can, however, be commented on the strength of the f i n d i n g s of 176 t h i s study i s : however small the numerical strength of the programs might be, the disseminated i d e a i t s e l f has a tremendous " i g n i t i o n p o t e n t i a l " which might spark unsuspected energies f o r socio-economic development of the developing n a t i o n s . The experiences o f , f o r example, P a k i s t a n , I n d i a , Guinea and Colombia have proved the me r i t s of s e l f - h e l p approaches underlying the " u n f i n i s h e d core houses". Such u n f i n i s h e d and inadequately b u i l t houses represent to. the occupants a permanent reminder of an un-achieved g o a l . This reminder acts as a stimulant of f a m i l y ' s savings and s e l f - h e l p a c t i o n . Three quarters of the f a m i l i e s i n the Pakistan's Korangi p r o j e c t have made s t r u c t u r a l a d d i t i o n s and improvements to t h e i r unplastered one-room core houses. S i m i l a r r e s u l t s i n the V o l t a Dam Resettlement P r o j e c t s e s t a b l i s h e s the mer i t of the s e l f - h e l p housing un d e r l y i n g "core home" scheme. The above d i s c u s s i o n leads to the f o l l o w i n g concluding p e r o r a t i o n : Given the competent o r g a n i z a t i o n techniques, as are known today, and given a l s o the present r a t e of development of the developing c o u n t r i e s , the benefits gained through the a p p l i c a t i o n of the s e l f - h e l p housing method compared to those gained through the contemporary a l t e r n a t i v e housing development methods i n the area of low-income housing, are s i g n i f i c a n t enough to v a l i d a t e the hypothesis t h a t : 177 SELF-HELP HOUSING CAN FORM AN EFFECTIVE METHOD OF MEETING THE DEFICIENCY OF HOUSING UNITS IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. The assumptions und e r l y i n g t h i s hypothesis are c r i t i c a l . They tend to produce a veneer of dimness on the author's c l a i m . To maintain the "givens" i t s e l f i s a stupendous task f o r the developing n a t i o n s . To organise and t r a i n an estimated ten per cent of the labour f o r c e through s e l f - h e l p methods, and thus, to maintain the cost of competent o r g a n i z a t i o n i s economically strenuous f o r the developing nations under t h e i r present growth performance. I t has been found t h a t the management input i s a c r i t i c a l c a t a l y s t f o r engendering s e l f - h e l p housing a c t i v i t y . This c a t a l y s t i s valued a t ten per cent of the p r o j e c t c o s t . As a management i s s p e c i a l i z e d , the b e n e f i t s accruing from the p r o j e c t are maximized to the l e v e l of 90 per cent of the p r o j e c t cost. At t h i s p o i n t , the marginal value of the management to the p r o j e c t becomes zero. I t s withdrawal r a i s e s the b e n e f i t from the p r o j e c t to 100 per cent, suggesting that improved v e r s i o n of the spontaneous s e l f -help a c t i v i t y has been set i n and o b j e c t i v e achieved. In t h i s way, ei g h t to ten management u n i t s equivalent to the cost of one f u l l f r e s h p r o j e c t where b e n e f i t s are s t i l l minimum or ten matured p r o j e c t s where b e n e f i t s are maximum can operate as many p r o j e c t s as the number of management u n i t s . 178 This r e q u i r e s a b i g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l task a t n a t i o n a l l e v e l . Nothing short of a m i n i s t r y of housing and planning can handle i t : hence the need f o r such a m i n i s t r y i n most of the developing c o u n t r i e s which have none. A concerted n a t i o n a l s e l f - h e l p housing p o l i c y and program i s r e q u i r e d to solve the dilemma of the housing d e f i c i e n c y and economic d i s a b i l i t y of the na t i o n s of A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n America. I m p l i c i t i n t h i s recommendation i s a f u r t h e r note of optimism. The s e l f - h e l p housing i s a dynamic process. I f a c t i v a t e d , the process can help achieve housing o b j e c t i v e s . The housing o b j e c t i v e s serves as a means to a higher end: socio-economic development. The t r a i n i n g of b u i l d e r s and masons, the p r o v i s i o n of g a i n f u l employment and the generation of cooperative s p i r i t become pa r t of the s e l f - h e l p housing process. As has been seen i n the Indian Faridabad and' N i l o k h e r i experiences and the Egyptian Gourna experience, the s e l f - h e l p housing p r o j e c t provides a source of g a i n f u l employment to a l a r g e number of unemployed and underemployed p o p u l a t i o n . The a r t of b r i c k making i n the Indian case, f o r example, was commercially p r a c t i s e d a f t e r the completion of the p r o j e c t . In t h i s way, besides p r o v i d i n g employment, the s e l f - h e l p program helps a l l e v i a t e the shortage of b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s . An e q u a l l y important advantage of the s e l f - h e l p 179 housing program i s , t h a t i t provides an e f f e c t i v e avenue of on-the-job t r a i n i n g to the u n s k i l l e d labour f o r c e . This i s of s u b s t a n t i a l importance i n view of the f a c t that i n the developing c o u n t r i e s , the r e q u i s i t e s k i l l e d labour f o r c e i n the n a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y i s d e f i c i e n t , and a l l c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s compete w i t h each other f o r t h i s l i m i t e d resource. This r e s u l t s i n i n f l a t i o n a r y cost increases and, at t i m e s , d i s r u p t i o n of b u i l d i n g programs. The s e l f - h e l p housing i s a s o l u t i o n to t h i s problem. Another p o s i t i v e advantage a r i s i n g out of the s e l f - h e l p housing program stems from t h e i r l e a n i n g on the community development techniques of human m o b i l i z a t i o n . The s e l f - h e l p b u i l d i n g s t i m u l a t e s community i n t e r a c t i o n , and produces i n the i n h a b i t a n t s a sense of belonging to t h e i r house and community. The experience has shorn t h a t the f a m i l i e s look a f t e r the s e l f - b u i l t house with a greater i n t e r e s t than the government-built house i n which they l i v e . Once a c t i v a t e d , the s e l f - h e l p process a l s o operates i n areas other than housing development. A community developed by s e l f - h e l p method i s a community not only of b r i c k s and mortars but a l s o — and more importantly — of the people. Because the energies and s p i r i t of people are i n v o l v e d , i t i s a community not only " f o r the people" but a l s o "by the people". 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