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Self-help housing |b an examination of the effectiveness of this policy in selected developing countries Rizvi, Amjad Ali Bahadur 1966

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SELF-HELP HOUSING: AN EXAMINATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THIS POLICY IN SELECTED DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  by  AMJAD A L I BAHADUR RIZVI M.A.,  ( K a r a c h i ) , D.Ek., (Athens)  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n the D i v i s i o n of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1966  In  presenting  requirements Columbia, for  the  c i a l  Head  gain  Department The  and  copying  understood  of  shall  of  U n i v e r s i t y 8,  Date  16.  thesis  in  p a r t i a l  advanced  degree  at  the  that  the  Library  study.  I  t h i s  thesis  of my  that  Vancouver  May  an  agree  reference  tensive by  I  for  this  f u r t h e r  Department  copying not  be  or  or  for by  shall agree  p u b l i c a t i o n  allowed  of  B r i t i s h  without  1966  Columbia  make  it  that  of  f r e e l y  of  this  thesis  my  w r i t t e n  may  for  for be It  exgranted is  f i n a n -  permission.  Planning  the  a v a i l a b l e  permission  purposes  of  B r i t i s h  representatives.  Community and R e g i o n a l Canada  U n i v e r s i t y  s c h o l a r l y his  f u l f i l m e n t  ii ABSTRACT In order to e l i m i n a t e the housing backlog i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s o f A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n A m e r i c a , an annual o u t p u t o f 2k m i l l i o n d w e l l i n g u n i t s o r t e n u n i t s p e r thousand p o p u l a t i o n , a r e r e q u i r e d t o be b u i l t i n t h e f i f t e e n y e a r p e r i o d 1960-1975. i n g economies;  This i s a g i g a n t i c task f o r the develop-  even t h e r e l a t i v e l y developed economies do n o t  b u i l d a t an average r a t e h i g h e r than f i v e d w e l l i n g u n i t s p e r thousand p o p u l a t i o n f o r want o f adequate r e s o u r c e s . What i s more a l a r m i n g i s t h e f a c t t h a t even i f the d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s succeed i n p e r f o r m i n g t h e monumental t a s k o f d o u b l i n g t h e i r n a t i o n a l income i n a g e n e r a t i o n o r so, t h e i r a b s o l u t e p e r c a p i t a income would s t i l l be o n e - e i g h t h o f t h a t o f t h e developed w o r l d .  A t the present rate of develop-  ment, t h e gap between t h e need and t h e r e s o u r c e s f o r h o u s i n g would n o t be s i g n i f i c a n t l y narrowed.  I n s h o r t , even t h e  d i s t a n t f u t u r e appears d i s m a l . What then i s t h e r i g h t p a t h f o r t h e d e v e l o p i n g nations to tread?  T h i s study attempts t o p r o v i d e an answer:  a d o p t i o n o f t h e s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g method. Three main s t e p s c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l approaches  used t o j u s t i f y t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e s e l f - h e l p  h o u s i n g method.  F i r s t l y , t h e need f o r a l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e  approach i n h o u s i n g i s e s t a b l i s h e d by making d e d u c t i o n s as t o t h e inadequacy  of the current c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e  approach.  S e c o n d l y , s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g programs a t n a t i o n a l l e v e l s a r e  i i i e v a l u a t e d i n t e r m s o f t h e i r s u c c e s s e s a n d f a i l u r e s and f i n a l l y , eight s e l f - h e l p housing terms of the c o s t s  p r o j e c t s a r e examined i n d e t a i l  i n c u r r e d and b e n e f i t s g a i n e d .  s u c c e s s o f the programs  The o v e r a l l  and b e n e f i t s r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e  p r o j e c t s t h u s become t h e m e a s u r e s help housing  of e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the  recently  g a i n e d r e c o g n i t i o n among t h e d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s .  housing  self-  method. The s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g m e t h o d h a s  standing  in\  Notwith-  t h e method h a v i n g n o t been e n t e r t a i n e d i n t h e n a t i o n a l programs,  i t has  been e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e d as a t o o l  o f i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e community development programs. the government-guided  piecemeal s e l f - h e l p housing  have n o t o n l y been f a i r l y b e n e f i c i a l b u t have a l s o  Most  of  programs been  practicable. The e i g h t p r o j e c t s a n a l y s e d , Pakistan,  one e a c h f o r  the U n i t e d Arab R e p u b l i c , Jamaica, Colombia,  R i c a , C h i l e , and G u a t e m a l a , h a v e  India, Costa  scored marked success.  than t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of the labour input contained i n  More  the  g u i d e d s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t s have been drawn from t h e f a m i l i e s a t no m o n e t a r y  commitment. The m o n e t a r y v a l u e o f l a b o u r and m a t e r i a l  c o n t r i b u t e d by f a m i l i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t s averages value represents  one-quarter of the p r o j e c t c o s t .  housing This  a d i r e c t b e n e f i t , o r what has been c a l l e d  i n an E g y p t i a n c o n t e x t , the " e k i s t i c e f f i c i e n c y " o f a help housing social  project.  When a c c o u n t i s  self-  taken of the i n d i r e c t  and e c o n o m i c b e n e f i t s r e s u l t i n g f r o m e n v i r o n m e n t a l  improvement,  the b e n e f i t from the use o f the  self-help  iv h o u s i n g method i s e q u i v a l e n t t o about h a l f o f the p r o j e c t c o s t . The s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g management i n p u t , v a l u e d a t 10 p e r c e n t o f t h e p r o j e c t c o s t , i s c r u c i a l t o the s u c c e s s of the p r o j e c t .  The o b j e c t o f the guided s e l f - h e l p method  t h r o u g h e f i i c i e n t management i s t o maximize spontaneous  self-  h e l p i n t h e l o n g r u n by guided a c t i o n i n t h e s h o r t r u n .  When  t h i s o b j e c t i v e i s pursued t o t h e p o i n t where spontaneous  self-  h e l p a c t i v i t y i s s e t i n and guided a c t i o n o r s e l f - h e l p management withdrawn, the b e n e f i t s t o t h e p r o j e c t approach the v a l u e of three-quarters of the p r o j e c t cost. The  s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g approach i s n o t a magic  s o l u t i o n t o the low-income h o u s i n g problem.  G i v e n the  r e q u i s i t e management t e c h n i q u e s , i t can form an e f f e c t i v e method o f meeting the d e f i c i e n c y o f h o u s i n g u n i t s i n the developing countries.  Hence, i n o r d e r t o b r i d g e the gap  between t h e d e f i c i e n c y o f h o u s i n g and t h e inadequacy o f r e s o u r c e s among t h e n a t i o n s o f A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n A m e r i c a , a c o n c e r t e d n a t i o n a l s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g program i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be e s s e n t i a l . I m p l i c i t i n t h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s a f u r t h e r note o f optimism.  I f a c t i v a t e d , t h e s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g p r o c e s s can  a l l e v i a t e t h e s h o r t a g e o f s k i l l e d l a b o u r , p r o v i d e employment, m o b i l i s e b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y , and generate c o o p e r a t i v e s p i r i t . As such t h e s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g can be an e f f e c t i v e t o o l f o r the achievement  o f socio-economic  objectives.  vi TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  v i  LIST OF TABLES  x  LIST OF FIGURES  X±  LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS  xiTT  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  xTv  CHAPTER I  1-13  INTRODUCTORY SETTING ..  1  Dimensions o f t h e P r e s e n t S t u d y .  h  Focus o f S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g ..  5  Why S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g Study?  ..  M e t h o d o l o g i c a l S u p p o r t o f t h i s Study 7  II  D e f i n i t i o n s o f Terms  11  Assumptions  12  C h a p t e r Summary  12  THE CONCEPT AND OBJECTIVE OF SELF-HELP  1*4-27  HOUSING E v o l u t i o n o f S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g ..  I * 1  G o a l s and O b j e c t i v e s o f S e l f - H e l p Housing  19  Approaches t o S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g .  20  B e n e f i t s o f S e l f - H e l p Housing  22  Organization of Self-Help Housing .. .. C h a p t e r Summary  ..  2h 26  vii CHAPTER III  PAGE THE DEFICIENCY OF HOUSING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND THE INADEQUACY OF HOUSING RESOURCES  29-67  Measures o f Development: Developing Countries  29  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Developing Economies  3*+  D e f i c i e n c y o f Housing i n Developing  39  Countries  Quantitative Deficiency  ..  ^1  Asian Countries  ^3  African Countries  ^5 ..  k-6  ..  U-9  Inadequacy o f Resources f o r Housing i n Developing C o u n t r i e s . C h a p t e r Summary  59 65  L a t i n American C o u n t r i e s Qualitative Deficiency  IV  ..  ..  EVALUATION OF SELF-HELP HOUSING PROGRAMS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  68-125  ..  R e c o g n i t i o n o f S e l f - H e l p Housing Method a t I n t e r n a t i o n a l L e v e l v i s - a - v i s Developing Countries ..  68  E v a l u a t i o n o f S e l f - H e l p Housing Programs a t N a t i o n a l L e v e l s .. ..  79  Programs i n A s i a n C o u n t r i e s  ..  81  India  81  Pakistan  85  Indonesia  89  Malaysia  91  Thailand  92  viii CHAPTER  PAGE Greece  93  Hong Kong  93  Philippines  9k ..  9k  Programs i n A f r i c a n C o u n t r i e s .  95  Conclusion  .•  Kenya  97  Ghana  98  The U n i t e d Arab R e p u b l i c  ..  102  B e l g i a n Congo  103  Morocco  103  Guinea  10k 10k  Somalia Conclusion  105  Programs i n L a t i n American Countries  105  J a m a i c a and P u e r t o R i c o .  ..  Colombia  108 I l l 113  Brazil Venezuela  113  Chile  Ilk  Peru  Ilk  Conclusion  Overall Conclusions.. C h a p t e r Summary  115  .. ....  118 12*+  IX  CHAPTER V  PAGE EVALUATION OF SELF-HELP HOUSING PROJECTS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Selection of Self-Help Projects Evaluation Projects  of Self-Help  126-16?  ..  Housing 126 Housing  128  Faridabad P r o j e c t , D e l h i , India.  128  Korangi Project, Pakistan  133  Karachi,  Gourna P r o j e c t , U n i t e d Arab Republic  137  B o n n e t t S t . Mary P r o j e c t , Jamaica  l*+0  Aguablanca P r o j e c t , C a l i , Colombia  1  l*+5 t  San S e b a s t i a n P r o j e c t , San J o s e , Costa Rica  15°  Clara E s t r e l l a Project, Santiago, Chile  155  Colonia Centro-America — Las V i c t o r i a s P r o j e c t , C i u d a d de Guatemala, Guatemala  158  Conclusion C h a p t e r Summary VI  I63 165'  SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  168-180  BIBLIOGRAPHY  181-190  2  LIST OF TABLES TABLE  PAGE  1.  E s t i m a t e d Housing Shortage i n D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s (1960-1975)  ^7  2.  Housing and L i v i n g C o n d i t i o n s i n Selected Countries  53  3.  B o n n e t t S t . Mary S e l f - H e l p Housing P r o j e c t , Jamaica: B e n e f i c i a r i e s C o n t r i b u t i o n t o a T y p i c a l Two Room House  1^3  Aguablanca S e l f - H e l p Housing P r o j e c t . C a l i , C o l o m b i a : C o s t and B e n e f i t Aspect  1^7  San S e b a s t i a n SeT.f-Help Housing P r o j e c t , San J o s e , C o s t a R i c a : C o s t and B e n e f i t A s p e c t  152  C l a r a E s t r e l l a S e l f - H e l p Housing P r o j e c t , S a n t i a g o , C h i l e : C o s t and B e n e f i t Aspect  156  Colonia Centro-America, Las V i c t o r i a s S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g P r o j e c t : C o s t and B e n e f i t Aspect  159  h.  5.  6.  7.  xt LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1.  2.  PAGE Developing Countries of A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n A m e r i c a Quantitative Deficiency  i n Developing 3.  h.  33  o f Housing  C o u n t r i e s , 1960-1975  hQ  Q u a l i t a t i v e D e f i c i e n c y of Housing i n Developing Countries Organizational  5^  Chart f o r a Large  S c a l e S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g Program..  ..  78  5.  Sample S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g P r o j e c t s  ..  127  6.  Faridabad P r o j e c t , D e l h i , I n d i a . .  ..  131  7.  Korangi P r o j e c t , Karachi, Pakistan  «.  136  8.  A g u a b l a n c a P r o j e c t , C a l i , C o l o m b i a ..  l^t-8  t San S e b a s t i a n P r o j e c t , San J o s e , Costa Rica Clara E s t r e l l a Project, Santiago, Chile  157  11.  L a s V i c t o r i a s P r o j e c t , C i u d a d de Guatemala, Guatemala  161  12.  C o l o n i a Centro-America P r o j e c t , Ciudad de Guatemala, Guatemala  161  S e l f - H e l p Housing P r o j e c t s : E x t e n t o f V o l u n t a r y Labour P a r t i c i p a t i o n . ..  I6h  9. 10.  13.  153  •  xTT  LIST OF FIGURES ( c o n ' t ) FIGURE lh.  15.  PAGE S e l f - H e l p Housing P r o j e c t s : D i r e c t Benefits or Saving  16^  O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Chart f o r a Large S c a l e Housing P r o j e c t  I67  LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS PHOTOGRAPH 1.  PAGE T r a d i t i o n a l Round Houses B u i l t bySpontaneous S e l f - H e l p Housing Method i n R u r a l A r e a s  28  T y p i c a l Houses B u i l t by Spontaneous S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g Method i n Urban Areas  28  3.  R a p p o r t i n g and C o n v a s s i n g f o r S e l f H e l p Housing A c t i v i t y  28  h.  U n f i n i s h e d "Core Houses" F i n i s h e d by Guided S e l f - H e l p Housing Method i n Ghana  101  A Row o f E a r t h - B u i l t Houses by Guided S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g Method i n Gourna Community, U n i t e d Arab R e p u b l i c  101  P h y s i c a l Manifestation of Self-Help Housing Method i n Ghana  101  2.  5.  6.  xtrv ,  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The  a u t h o r i s h i g h l y i n d e b t e d t o Dr. H. P e t e r  O b e r l a n d e r , Head o f t h e D i v i s i o n o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Vancouver, f o r p r o v i d i n g t h e i n i t i a l i n c e n t i v e t o undertake  this  study,  and f o r h i s i n s p i r a t i o n . F o r t h e a b l e guidance  and c o n t i n u o u s  encouragement  p r o v i d e d d u r i n g the p r o g r e s s o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e a u t h o r records h i s profound  sense o f g r a t i t u d e t o D r . K e v i n J . C r o s s ,  A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r o f t h e same Department.  The a u t h o r i s  a p p r e c i a t i v e o f t h e b e n e f i t o f d i s c u s s i o n on some methodolo g i c a l problems o f t h i s study extended by D r . P h i l i p F r i e d l y , A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r o f t h e same Department. The  a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i d e d by Mrs. E.D. Dodson, Head  L i b r a r i a n o f t h e Government P u b l i c a t i o n s D i v i s i o n , and M i s s M e l v a J . Dwyer, Head L i b r a r i a n o f t h e F i n e A r t s D i v i s i o n o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s t a f f i s g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged.  Thanks a r e a l s o due t o M i s s P a t  S t r a n d b e r g o f t h e Department o f Pharmacy o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r p o i n t i n g o u t t y p o g r a p h i c a l e r r o r s and l i n g u i s t i c anomalies  i n the concluding chapter.  L a s t l y , t h e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i d e d by t h e West P a k i s t a n U n i v e r s i t y o f E n g i n e e r i n g and Technology, L a h o r e , i n t h e form o f an "Overseas S c h o l a r s h i p " i s s i n c e r e l y acknowledged.  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTORY SETTING  I The  WHY SELF-HELP HOUSING STUDY? c o u n t r i e s o f A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n A m e r i c a  c o n t a i n t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f the world's p o p u l a t i o n .  Half of  t h i s p o p u l a t i o n i s homeless and l i v e s i n e x t r e m e l y o v e r crowded h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s .  An example o f t h e p i c t u r e o f  a slum i n P a k i s t a n i l l u s t r a t e s t h e extreme l i v i n g i o n s o f most o f t h e p e o p l e i n d e v e l o p i n g  condit1 countries:  They l i v e packed l i k e s a r d i n e s i n c o l o n i e s which a r e d i s e a s e - r i d d e n . . . a case o f g r o s s c u l t u r a l r e g r e s s i o n , o f dehumanization, o f 2 d e g r a d a t i o n which s t a g g e r s human i m a g i n a t i o n . I t i s estimated  t h a t i n o r d e r t o a l l e v i a t e poor  h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s and t o e l i m i n a t e t h e p r e s e n t h o u s i n g shortage, a t l e a s t twenty-four m i l l i o n a d d i t i o n a l dwelling u n i t s are required i n these c o u n t r i e s .  T h i s means t h e  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t e n d w e l l i n g u n i t s p e r thousand  population  U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s t a t e d , t h e term " d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s ' m e a n s t h e c o u n t r i e s o f A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n A m e r i c a , as d e f i n e d on page 11 and as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 1 o f t h i s study. ^Tjt. C o l . N a z i r Ahmad, Survey o f S h e l t e r l e s s P e r s o n s i n K a r a c h i ( K a r a c h i : Manager o f P u b l i c a t i o n , 1959) p. 2. "^United N a t i o n s , H o u s i n g and Urban Development, R e p o r t o f a Seminar, F e b r u a r y 7-12, 1962 (New Y o r k : 1 9 6 2 ) , a b s t r a c t e d i n : E k i s t i e s . 1^, No. 81 ( J u l y , 1 9 6 2 ) , p.56.  2 How  d i f f i c u l t a t a s k t h i s i s , can he w e l l  appreciated  from the f a c t t h a t r i c h c o u n t r i e s today are b u i l d i n g a t the r a t e o f s i x t o seven d w e l l i n g u n i t s per if  thousand  population. There i s a b i g d i s p a r i t y between h o u s i n g r e q u i r e ment and r e s o u r c e  c a p a c i t y of d e v e l o p i n g  countries.  The  c a p i t a l investment r e q u i r e d to b u i l d ten d w e l l i n g u n i t s per thousand p o p u l a t i o n would be e q u a l t o a t l e a s t  100  t i m e s the gross n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t per c a p i t a per thousand population.  T h i s i s e q u i v a l e n t t o 10  per -cent o f  the  g r o s s n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t w h i c h i s about the t o t a l ives.tment 5  i n a l l s e c t o r s o f economy o f the d e v e l o p i n g About 90  countries.  per c e n t o f the p e o p l e do n o t p o s s e s s the n e c e s -  s a r y means t o b u i l d a modest house c o s t i n g 800 U.S.  dollars.  1,000  To s u s t a i n an adequate house b u i l d i n g , the  e n t i r e resources The  -  o f the d e v e l o p i n g  c o u n t r i e s are c a l l e d f o r .  e x i s t i n g economic r e s o u r c e s  meagre to s o l v e the immense problem.  as such, are  too  Even i f i n some  c a s e s the growth o f the economy i s s i g n i f i c a n t , i t does n o t l e a d t o any hope o f m e e t i n g the h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e i n the c o n c e i v a b l e t o meet the  future.  W i l l t h e s e c o u n t r i e s ever be  able  challenge?  An a f f i r m a t i v e answer t o the above q u e s t i o n i s Ibid. I b i d . , p.  57.  3 r e g a r d e d as b e i n g t o o o p t i m i s t i c an assumption i n p l a n n i n g quarters.  The hope o f those d e a l i n g w i t h h o u s i n g problems  i n d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s i s based on t h e supposedly  bright  p r o s p e c t s o f non-monetized human c a p i t a l which i s abundant i n t h e s e n a t i o n s b u t h a s h i t h e r t o remained  under-utilized.  The development and u t i l i z a t i o n o f human c a p i t a l t h r o u g h s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g methods i s g a i n i n g importance as one o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t media o f m e e t i n g t h e a c u t e s h o r t a g e o f h o u s i n g i n poor communities.  The few s e l f -  h e l p h o u s i n g experiments a l r e a d y c a r r i e d o u t i n some communi t i e s tend t o s t r e n g t h e n a b e l i e f i n i t s e f f i c a c y f o r t h e improvement o f h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s . Housing i s an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f community planning.  S i n c e h o u s i n g i s a p a r t o f t h e community p l a n n -  i n g p r o c e s s and community p l a n n i n g i s h a r d t o r e a l i s e i n t h e case o f communities  w i t h v e r y l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s and  o t h e r p r e s s i n g p r i o r i t i e s , t h e r e i s a need t o i n t e g r a t e community development t e c h n i q u e s o f s e l f - h e l p w i t h t h e community and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , as c o n c l u d e d b y  6  Bofah.  There i s , t h e r e f o r e , a need t o probe i n t o t h e  s u i t a b i l i t y aspect o f s e l f - h e l p housing i n developing c o u n t r i e s , which i s attempted i n t h i s s t u d y .  R o b e r t Kwaku Buor B o f a h , " I n t e g r a t i o n o f Commu n i t y Development," ( U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s i n Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963), p. 139.  If  I I DIMENSIONS OF THE PRESENT STUDY There a r e many f a c e t s t o t h e concept o f s e l f h e l p h o u s i n g , inasmuch as t h e r e i s a v a r i e t y o f ways i n w h i c h f a m i l i e s b u i l d houses.  The approach ranges from  complete s e l f - r e l i a n c e t o p a r t i a l s e l f - r e l i a n c e on t h e resources o f the family.  I n the f i r s t case, f a m i l i e s  b u i l d houses e n t i r e l y w i t h t h e i r own l a b o u r and from materials that are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . f o r m a l o r spontaneous approach.  This i s the i n -  (Photographs Nos. 1-2)  I n t h e second c a s e , s e l f - h e l p i s supplemented by manual h e l p from o t h e r f a m i l i e s and/or p u b l i c  support i n the  form o f t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e and m a t e r i a l T h i s i s t h e f o r m a l approach.  subsidies.  (Photographs Nos. 3-6)  There a r e many a s p e c t s o f t h e f o r m a l t y p e o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g program.  F o r example, t h e o r g a n i z a t i -  onal aspect e n t a i l s involvement o f f a m i l i e s i n the p r o c e s s e s o f work;  the educational aspect covers o r i e n t a t i o n  and t r a i n i n g o f s e l f - h e l p f a m i l i e s ;  the t e c h n i c a l aspect  d e a l s w i t h t h e economic d e s i g n s and methods o f b u i l d i n g houses, and so on. C o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h e s e methods a r e b e i n g used t o a l i m i t e d extent i n various parts of the world.  It is  recognized i n the developing countries of A s i a , A f r i c a , and L a t i n A m e r i c a , as w i l l be seen i n C h a p t e r s IV and V, t h a t t h e s e l f - h e l p method i s most s u i t a b l e because i t  5  reduces the m o n e t i z e d  c a p i t a l i n p u t s which are s c a r c e i n  these c o u n t r i e s . The c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a v a r i e t y o f f o r m a l o r guided s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g experiments b e i n g made i n a number o f c o u n t r i e s h a v i n g a v a r i e t y o f c u l t u r a l , economic, and p h y s i c a l s i t u a t i o n s forms t h e broad s u b j e c t a r e a o f t h i s study.  The i n f o r m a l , spontaneous o r t r a d i t i o n a l  self-  h e l p h o u s i n g method remains o u t s i d e the scope o f t h i s s t u d y , unless otherwise, at places i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s necessary. Ill  FOCUS OF SELF-HELP HOUSING  The concept o f i n f o r m a l o r spontaneous s e l f help housing i s widely p r e v a l e n t i n developing s o c i e t i e s . However, houses b u i l t by t r a d i t i o n a l methods a r e p r o v e d t o be i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the most minimum s t a n d a r d s o f h y g i e n e and s a n i t a t i o n .  contemporary  That i s why,  as the  e x p e r i e n c e i n some c o u n t r i e s shows, "the l o w e r i n g o f s t a n d a r d s and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s beyond a r e a s o n a b l e l i m i t i s 7  not a wise p o l i c y f o r p u b l i c housing." The s h i f t o f the r u r a l p o p u l a c e t o the r a p i d l y growing urban areas i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s r e s u l t s i n a t r a n s p l a n t a t i o n o f the i n f o r m a l and spontaneous method t o the c i t i e s .  S i n c e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s t a n d a r d s o f the  r e s u l t i n g houses are o f t e n f a r below the minimum s t a n d a r d U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Study on B u i l d i n g C o s t s i n A s i a and the F a r E a s t , (Bangkok: U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s ,  l^iTTpTT.  6  o f u r b a n houses, t h e s p o n t a n e o u s l y t r a n s p l a n t e d houses are graded i n t o slum houses and c l u s t e r s .  "Juggies" i n  I n d i a and P a k i s t a n , " b o d o n v i l l e s " i n A l g e r i a , " b a r r i a d a s " i n P e r u , " c a l l a m p a s " i n C h i l e , "ranchos" i n V e n e z u e l a , " v i l l a s miserias" i n Argentina  and " f a v e l a s " i n B r a z i l  are c a s e s i n p o i n t . This u n i v e r s a l observation,  therefore, necess-  i t a t e s a d e l i b e r a t e refinement o f the f i r s t , i . e . , the spontaneous approach, and t h e u s e o f t h e second approach, viz.,  t h e f o r m a l approach o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g i n t h e  circumstances p r e v a i l i n g i n developing formal  countries.  The  approach has been adopted t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t i n  many d e v e l o p i n g  c o u n t r i e s , so t h a t some i n f o r m a t i o n  r e l e v a n t f o r t h e purpose o f e v a l u a t i n g t h e u t i l i t y and performance o f t h e method i s a v a i l a b l e . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , suggested t h a t based on t h e a v a i l a b l e v ^ d a t a , an e v a l u a t i o n o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g programs a t b o t h t h e n a t i o n a l and l o c a l l e v e l s and an a p p r a i s a l o f some o f t h e p r o j e c t s ( a s d i s t i n c t from programs) i n d e v e l o p i n g  c o u n t r i e s should l e a d t o a  s u b s t a n t i a t i o n of the hypothesis  that:  SELF-HELP HOUSING CAN FORM AN EFFECTIVE METHOD OF MEETING THE DEFICIENCY OF HOUSING UNITS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. The hypothesis  purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o t e s t t h e above  and t o p r o v i d e  e v i d e n c e which may e s t a b l i s h o r  7 contradict i t .  The s u b s t a n t i a t i o n o f t h i s h y p o t h e s i s  would s t r e n g t h e n and c l a r i f y t h e somewhat b l u r r e d b e l i e f i n t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g method as a s o l u t i o n t o t h e h o u s i n g problem i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . Once t h e r e l e v a n c e o f t h e method i s e s t a b l i s h e d and e x p e r i e n c e i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n g a i n e d , r e f i n e m e n t and improvement o f t h e method c o u l d be made by t h o s e h a n d l i n g s e l f help housing p r o j e c t s . IV  METHODOLOGICAL SUPPORT OF THIS STUDY More cumbersome t h a n t h e study o f s e l f - h e l p  h o u s i n g i s t h e development o f r e l e v a n t t e c h n i q u e s t o measure t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g programs and p r o j e c t s .  There a r e many reasons why t h i s i s s o .  Some c o u n t r i e s a r e o n l y a t t h e stage o f awareness o f t h e i r h o u s i n g problems and a l t e r n a t i v e approaches  to the solution.  I n those c o u n t r i e s where t h e r e i s a p r a c t i c a l  demonstration  o f awareness, p r o j e c t s a r e p a r t o f t h e community development programs; i n a few c o u n t r i e s t h e r e a r e independent  projects  u n r e l a t e d t o h e a l t h and s o c i a l w e l f a r e programs. The  s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g concept has n o t y e t become  an a c c e p t e d component o f t h e n a t i o n a l h o u s i n g programs e x c e p t i n a few c a s e s .  A few p r o j e c t s t h a t a r e underway  a r e t o o i s o l a t e d and s m a l l t o p e r m i t e f f e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n f o r t h e purpose o f a s s e s s i n g g e n e r a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g method.  8 The e v a l u a t i o n problem i s compounded a l s o because i n most p r o j e c t s p u b l i c i n p u t i s so much and t h e f a m i l y ' s non-monetized i n v e s t m e n t so s m a l l t h a t t h e r e a l s t a t u s o f t h e s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g programs i s d i s t o r t e d . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e y cannot be e x c l u d e d from  examination.  I n s h o r t , l i m i t a t i o n o f s e l f - h e l p e x p e r i e n c e and p a u c i t y o f d a t a a r e c e n t r a l o b s t a c l e s t o u t i l i z a t i o n o f an e v a l u a t i v e method.  I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o weigh methods i n r e l a t i v e terms  and d e c i d e which a l t e r n a t i v e i s most e f f e c t i v e when s u f f i c i e n t d a t a about a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e . I n s p i t e o f these l i m i t a t i o n s , i t i s n o t impossi b l e t o make a m e a n i n g f u l e v a l u a t i o n and t o attempt t o s u b s t a n t i a t e the hypothesis.  By i n f e r e n c e i t i s p o s s i b l e  t o i d e n t i f y t h e need f o r a l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e method, such as t h e s e l f - h e l p method by making d e d u c t i o n s as t o t h e i n adequacy o f c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e methods p r e s e n t l y i n use i n the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s .  The e x i s t i n g d a t a w a r r a n t s t h e  s t u d y o f t h e magnitude o f h o u s i n g d e f i c i e n c i e s b o t h i n q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e terms, and t h e inadequacy o f p r i v a t e and p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s t o cope w i t h t h e h o u s i n g s i t u a t i o n i n the foreseeable  future.  When a t t e m p t i n g t o make a c o m p a r a t i v e  evaluation  o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g programs a t n a t i o n a l l e v e l s , one n o t o n l y has t o t a k e account o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n p h y s i c a l , c u l t u r a l and economic s e t t i n g s , b u t a l s o t h e g r e a t number of v a r i a b l e s that are involved.  Many o f t h e v a r i a b l e s  9 are n o t c o n d u c i v e t o s t a n d a r d methods o f measurement and comparison.  One i s u n a b l e t o h o l d a l l v a r i a b l e s i n mind  and  them.  evaluate  Under t h i s s i t u a t i o n , u n t i l m e a n i n g f u l  d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e , t h e u s e o f a d e s c r i p t i v e method o b j e c t i v e l y followed with respect  to relevant variables i s a  b e t t e r a l t e r n a t i v e than any o t h e r method which cannot be amenable t o s o p h i s t i c a t e d r e f i n e m e n t under t h e above limitations. E v a l u a t i o n o f " p r o j e c t s " as compared w i t h "programs", and measurement o f t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s p o s s i b l e w i t h t h e h e l p o f c o s t - b e n e f i t t e c h n i q u e s which -have made c o n s i d e r a b l e  headway i n r e c e n t t i m e s .  Nathaniel  L i c h f i e l d * s " W e l f a r e T e s t " o f a c o s t - b e n e f i t type i s 8 c o n s i d e r e d r e l e v a n t t o p l a n n i n g p r o j e c t s . He has a p p l i e d  9 these t e c h n i q u e s i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s t u d i e s .  John K r u t i l l a  a l s o h o l d s " t h a t c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o s t s and b e n e f i t s o f each component p r o j e c t i s t h e b e s t way t o e v a l u a t e t h e effectiveness of a program."  1 0  I n d o i n g so, t h e r e i s t h e  problem o f the measurement o f c e r t a i n variables.  non-quantifiable  T h i s d i f f i c u l t y c a n be s o l v e d by g i v i n g s c o r e s  °Nathaniel L i c h f i e l d , " C o s t ^ B e n e f i t A n a l y s i s i n C i t y P l a n n i n g , " J o u r n a l o f t h e American I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s . XXVI, No.*- (November, 19555, pp. 273-279. 1  C o l i n Buchanan, T r a f f i c i n Towns, R e p o r t o f t h e S t e e r i n g Group and Working Group A p p o i n t e d by the M i n i s t e r o f T r a n s p o r t (London: Her M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y 0 f f i c e , 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 2 2 3 . 9  J o h n V. K r u t i l l a , " C r i t e r i a f o r E v a l u a t i n g R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Programmes," i n R e g i o n a l Development and P l a n n i n g , e d i t e d by John Friedmann and W i l l i a m A l o n s o (Cambridge M a s s a c h u s e t t s ^ M.I.T. P r e s s , 1 9 6 ^ ) , p. ^91. 1 0  10 t o v a r i a b l e s based upon i n t u i t i v e judgement and t a k i n g account o f them i n t h e c o s t - b e n e f i t r a t i o s .  An approx-  i m a t e l y comparable method o f what i s termed as t h e " e k i s t i c e f f i c i e n c y " has been used and recommended by Hassan F a t h y from h i s e x p e r i e n c e i n Egypt.  11  of a r u r a l s e l f - h e l p housing p r o j e c t  I t would appear t o be r e l e v a n t f i r s t l y t o f o l l o w a d e s c r i p t i v e approach i n so f a r as e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s e l f h e l p h o u s i n g method a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l and n a t i o n a l l e v e l s i s concerned.  I n doing  so, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o e x p l o r e p r o c e e d -  i n g s o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s E x p e r t Committees on H o u s i n g , B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g and some a v a i l a b l e n a t i o n a l r e p o r t s to u t i l i z e evidence i n support o f the hypothesis. d a t a on c o u n t r i e s a d o p t i n g  The  such programs can a l s o be used  t o t h e same end. Secondly, a m i c r o - a n a l y t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f s e l e c t e d p r o j e c t s from s e l e c t e d c o u n t r i e s o f A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n A m e r i c a i s used.  T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by e v a l u a t i n g t h e b e n e f i t s  measured i n terms o f t h e s a v i n g r e s u l t i n g from t h e use o f s e l f - h e l p v o l u n t a r y l a b o u r and m a t e r i a l s c o n t r i b u t e d by self-help families.  The s a v i n g thus r e p r e s e n t s a c e r t a i n  p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t ' s c o s t , and thus as a b e n e f i t , i s a measure o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g method. I t i s suggested t h a t these methods a r e l i k e l y t o e f f e c t i v e l y v a l i d a t e the hypothesis.  H a s a n Fathy, "Rural S e l f - H e l p Housing," E k i s t i c s , 13, No. 80 (June, 1962), pp. 398-HOl. X 1  11 V  DEFINITION OF TERMS  F o u r terms c o n t a i n e d i n t h e statement o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s deserve p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n as t o t h e i r t a t i o n i n t h i s study. " E f f e c t i v e Method,"  These a r e :  conno-  " S e l f - H e l p Housing",  " D e f i c i e n c y o f Housing U n i t s , " and  "Developing C o u n t r i e s , " S e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g i s a system o f house b u i l d i n g whereby a number o f f a m i l i e s o r g a n i s e t h e m s e l v e s , o r a r e o r g a n i z e d by an e x t e r n a l agency f o r b u i l d i n g houses f o r complete ownership by t h e f a m i l i e s .  The f a m i l i e s c o n t r i b u t e  t h e i r own s e r v i c e s so t h a t t h e y b e n e f i t from an amount o f work e q u a l t o t h a t which t h e y themselves c o n t r i b u t e . E f f e c t i v e Method means a method which i s s u g g e s t i v e o f d e c i s i v e e f f e c t o r i n d i c a t i v e o f p o s i t i v e consequence as measured by a l t e r n a t i v e means o f d o i n g t h e j o b and meeting the d e s i r e d o b j e c t i v e . D e f i c i e n c y o f H o u s i n g U n i t s means q u a n t i t a t i v e s h o r t a g e and q u a l i t a t i v e inadequacy o f houses w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e demand among poor f a m i l i e s i n d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s . Developing Countries r e f e r to the countries of A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n A m e r i c a , whose p e r c a p i t a r e a l income i s l o w when compared w i t h t h e p e r c a p i t a r e a l  incomes  o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a , Canada, A u s t r a l i a and Western Europe.  (See S e c t i o n I o f C h a p t e r I I I and F i g u r e I )  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Measures o f Economic Development o f Under-Developed C o u n t r i e s . (New York: U n i t e d ' N a t i o n s , 1 2  1951), P. 3.  12 VI  ASSUMPTIONS  T h i s s t u d y proceeds  on t h e f o l l o w i n g  assumptions:  The p e o p l e i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s have t a l e n t s and r e s o u r c e s w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s o b s e r v a t i o n , " a r e n o t b e i n g used o r a l l o w e d t o c o n t r i b u t e 13 t o any o t h e r n a t i o n a l development"; the b u i l d i n g o f a minimum house i s beyond t h e income c a p a c i t y o f a l a r g e number o f f a m i l i e s i n d e v e l o p ing countries; t h e economic r e s o u r c e s o f d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s a r e t o o l i m i t e d t o be spent on mass house b u i l d i n g programs which c o u l d s a t i s f y t h e minimum h o u s i n g demands o f t h e i r populace; t h e s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g method i s a f e a s i b l e method from t h e s o c i a l and t e c h n i c a l p o i n t s o f view; and the economy o f d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i s n o t g o i n g t o change so d r a s t i c a l l y i n t h e f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e as t o w a r r a n t a m a s s i v e b u i l d i n g program t o e l i m i n a t e t h e p r e s e n t h o u s i n g b a c k l o g and t h a t e x p e c t e d i n t h e near VII  future.  CHAPTER SUMMARY  The need f o r t h i s study stems from t h e grim o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t gap between t h e h o u s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t and r e s o u r c e c a p a c i t y o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g  1  (New Y o r k :  - % n i t e d N a t i o n s , Manual o f S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g , U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1964), p. 9.  13 n a t i o n s o f A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n A m e r i c a .  The f a c t t h a t  10 p e r c e n t o f t h e g r o s s n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t , b e i n g presentlyspent i n a l l s e c t o r s o f economy i n t h e s e c o u n t r i e s , i s needed f o r h o u s i n g a l o n e compounds t h e p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n . I t i s contended  by o p t i m i s t s t h a t t h e main t o o l f o r b r e a k i n g  t h e v i s c i o u s c i r c l e o f t h e h o u s i n g dilemma i n d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s i s t h e a d o p t i o n o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g programs. The concept o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g i s m u l t i - f a c e t e d . The f o r m a l l y engendered s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g which i s t h e s u b j e c t o f t h i s study i s b e i n g demonstrated ities.  i n many commun-  The o u t p u t has n o t y e t been c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y e v a l u a t e d  so t h a t t h e o p t i m i s t i c n o t i o n i n r e g a r d t o i t s " e f f e c t iveness f o r meeting the housing d e f i c i e n c y i n developing c o u n t r i e s " has n o t y e t been s u b s t a n t i a t e d .  The o b j e c t i v e  of accomplishing t h i s i s the focus o f t h i s study. The  study i s based on t h e assumptions  that i n  n a t i o n s under d i s c u s s i o n , r e s o u r c e s a r e l i m i t e d and h o u s i n g needs a r e a c u t e , and t h a t human t a l e n t s a r e abundant b u t a r e n o t b e i n g used.  T a k i n g account o f t h e  l i m i t a t i o n s o f d a t a and t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f many v a r i a b l e s , a d e s c r i p t i v e e v a l u a t i o n method i s chosen as b e i n g most u s e f u l i n t h e case o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g programs. a n a l y t i c a l approach  An  ^ of the c o s t - b e n e f i t type i s used i n  the case o f a sample o f s e l e c t e d p r o j e c t s i n a number o f selected developing countries.  CHAPTER I I  THE CONCEPT AND OBJECTIVE OF SELF-HELP HOUSING  I  EVOLUTION OF SELF-HELP HOUSING The t r a d i t i o n a l form o f spontaneous s e l f - h e l p  house b u i l d i n g i s an a n c i e n t a c t i v i t y g o i n g as f a r back as man's f i r s t h a b i t a t i o n o f t h e e a r t h .  This a c t i v i t y  i s s t i l l w i d e s p r e a d i n many a r e a s o f t h e w o r l d .  The  nomad's t e n t i n A r a b i a , t h e eskimo's i g l o o i n t h e A r c t i c and t h e bushman's h u t i n A f r i c a bear w i t n e s s t o t h i s statement.  These t y p e s o f s h e l t e r s represent-foe use o f  r e a l s e l f - h e l p where f a m i l i e s c o n t r i b u t e t o a c c o m p l i s h 1 everything without external assistance. As t r a d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s became s c a r c e and uns a t i s f a c t o r y i n terms o f d u r a b i l i t y and maintenance, dependence on e x t e r n a l b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s and s e r v i c e s I n t h e N u b i a n O a s i s o f Egypt as e l s e w h e r e , f o r example, t h e e n t i r e h o u s e - b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y i s performed by f a m i l i e s u s i n g t h e i r own l a b o u r and i n d i g e n o u s m a t e r i a l s . The " e k i s t i c e f f i c i e n c y " measured i n terms o f p r o p o r t i o n s o f unmonetized l o c a l i n p u t s i n t h i s c a s e , as i n comparable c a s e s e l s e w h e r e , approaches 100. Hassan F a t h y , " R u r a l S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour Review, LXXXV, ( J a n u a r y - J u n e , 1962), p. 13.  15 seemed i n e v i t a b l e .  The s u p p l y o f b u i l d i n g materJals  appeared t o be so s c a r c e and beyond t h e economic means o f f a m i l i e s , t h a t h o u s i n g d e f i c i e n c i e s and l i v i n g problems grew i n a l a r m i n g p r o p o r t i o n .  Government e f f o r t s p r o v e d  i n a d e q u a t e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , so t h a t the s o c i a l problems c o n t i n u e d t o a g g r a v a t e t h e s i t u a t i o n . These and t h e consequent problems a s s o c i a t e d t h e r e w i t h a t t r a c t e d t h e a t t e n t i o n o f s o c i a l r e f o r m e r s and s o c i a l workers.  The p r o c e s s o f awareness o f problems o f hous-  i n g gave r i s e t o a movement w h i c h became w i d e s p r e a d : the community development movement. S e l f - h e l p housing i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p a r t of the community development movement which s t a r t e d a f t e r t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n and h a s , o f l a t e , g a i n e d w i d e s p r e a d popularity p a r t i c u l a r l y i n developing nations.  The  movement i s " d e s i g n e d t o promote b e t t e r l i v i n g f o r t h e whole community w i t h t h e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n and on t h e 2 i n i t i a t i v e o f t h e community." Community development  B r i t i s h C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , A s h r i d g e C o n f e r e n c e on S o c i a l Development (London: Her M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1 9 5 ^ ) , " M i s c . , 523, "quoted i n E k i s t i c s , No. 102 (May, 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 3^1.  16 connotes "a p r o c e s s by which the e f f o r t s o f the p e o p l e are u n i t e d w i t h those o f government a u t h o r i t i e s t o improve the economic, s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n o f communities." The  above d e f i n i t i o n s b r i n g out two  basic  e l e m e n t s : (a) w i l l i n g n e s s o f the p e o p l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n e f f o r t s to improve t h e i r l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s and p r o v i s i o n of devices  t o i n i t i a t e and  (b)  stimulate self-help  activity. The main b a s i s o f the community development c o n c e p t i s t h a t when an i n p u t o r a s e t o f s t i m u l i i s administered  t o a group, the group responds w i t h a com-  b i n a t i o n of s o c i a l a c t i o n s which determines i t s output. Community development p r o v i d e s n e c e s s a r y s t i m u l i i n c i t e s a c h a i n r e a c t i o n i n the form o f c o n c e r t e d  and group  c o n c e r n ^ and a c t i o n f o r the f u l f i l m e n t o f e s s e n t i a l community o b j e c t i v e s .  I t also provides  the e a s i e s t ways  t o a c c o m p l i s h them. The  e x t e r n a l agency i n i t i a t i n g community d e v e l -  opment a t t e m p t s t o change the p s y c h o - s o c i a l  f i e l d of  the  respondent community so t h a t t h e y r e a l i s e t h e i r p o t e n -  A l f r e d E. A l c o c k , e t . a l . , " S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g Methods and P r a c t i c e s i n S o u t h - E a s t A s i a , " R e p o r t o f the M i s s i o n t o Survey and E v a l u a t e S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g Methods and P r a c t i c e s i n S o u t h - E a s t A s i a , a b s t r a c t e d i n E k i s t i c s . 16, No. 93 (August, 1963),p. 85» J  17 t i a l l t i e s and embark upon d o i n g t h i n g s f o r themselves. The knowledge o f t h e i r d u t i e s and c o n v i c t i o n on means t o a c c o m p l i s h community o b j e c t i v e s a r e e s s e n t i a l a c c o r d i n g t o what H o l i s t s b e l i e v e :  "when p e o p l e know p r e c i s e l y  what t h e y want and t h e most e f f i c i e n t way t o g e t i t , i t i s i r r a t i o n a l f o r them n o t t o choose t h e most e f f i c i e n t means."  The concept o f s e l f - h e l p , which i s a community  development d e v i c e i s , t h u s , engendered i n t o t h e community as one o f t h e most e f f i c i e n t means o f a c h i e v i n g community ends when t h e m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s t o a c h i e v e them a r e d e f i c i e n t o r absent. S e l f - h e l p , as a community development d e v i c e , has gained wide p r o p u l a r i t y i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y through t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s and i t s s p e c i a l i z e d agencies.  I n some c o u n t r i e s n o t a b l y I n d o n e s i a ,  the P h i l i p p i n e s , I n d i a , P a k i s t a n , C e y l o n , t h e U n i t e d Arab R e p u b l i c , Ghana, Colombia,  Guatemala and C h i l e , t h e s e l f -  h e l p concept i s w e l l on t h e move. D u r i n g t h e l a s t t e n y e a r s , most o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s and a i d - g i v i n g c o u n t r i e s , n o t a b l y t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , have geared t h e i r economic a i d towards community development p r o j e c t s i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s .  The  i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s have a l s o recommended t h a t n a t i o n a l governments s u p p o r t such p r o j e c t s , as a U n i t e d N a t i o n s  R o b e r t A. Dahl and C h a r l e s E. L i n d b l o m , P o l i t i c s , Economics and W e l f a r e (New York: H a r p e r and  B r o s . , 19^3)> P. H I .  18 document r e p o r t s : "To be f u l l y e f f e c t i v e community's s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t s r e q u i r e b o t h i n t e n s i v e and e x t e n s i v e 5  a s s i s t a n c e from the Government". The concern o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s goes back t o t h e year 19V7  when i t was recommended t h a t a s e r i e s o f  s t u d i e s be conducted  on t h e s u b j e c t o f s e l f - h e l p  housing  which became one o f the t a r g e t s o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s  6 Development Decade.  S i n c e 1952  t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s has  t a k e n e f f e c t i v e and c o n c r e t e s t e p s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . These s t e p s c r e a t e d i n t e r e s t among t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l f i n a n c i n g agencies.  There i s i n c r e a s i n g e x p e c t a t i o n among  these a g e n c i e s t h a t the a i d and l o a n r e c i p i e n t n a t i o n s s h o u l d use them i n t h e community development endeavours 7 and t h e r e b y demonstrate e f f o r t s t o h e l p  themselves.  I n c r e a s i n g attempts a r e b e i n g made among t h e d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s t o m o b i l i z e s e l f - h e l p r e s o u r c e s so as t o meet n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s f o r r e c e i v i n g e x t e r n a l a i d . T h i s c o m p l i e s w i t h the U n i t e d N a t i o n s concept o f human involvement  as a p r e - c o n d i t i o n f o r a c h i e v i n g t h e aims o f  the Development Decade. N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e i n s i g n i f i c a n t U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , ConceptsZand P r i n c i p l e s o f Community Development and Recommendations on F u r t h e r P r a c t i c a l Measures to.be Taken by I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s (New York: 12th March, 1957)? p. 13.  6  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , U n i t e d N a t i o n s Development Decade P r o p o s a l f o r A c t i o n (New York: U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s ,  1962)  pp. 59-6*f. 7  ' T h i s , however, e x c l u d e s emergency economic a i d or m i l i t a r y a i d .  19 impact o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g i n n u m e r i c a l terms, a p r a c t i c a l method has n e a r l y been found and a g o a l e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e a r e a o f h o u s i n g and community d e v e l o p ment. II  GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF SELF-HELP HOUSING G o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g v a r y  according to d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . s t a t e d i n g e n e r a l terms.  Y e t t h e y c a n be  The I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Housing and  P l a n n i n g C e n t e r Bogota has s t a t e d t h e " e s s e n t i a l g o a l s " o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g t o be as f o l l o w s : a. t o p r o v i d e d w e l l i n g s a t t h e c o s t o f p a r t i c i p a n t f a m i l i e s a s s u r i n g j o i n t maintenance and c o n s e r v a t i o n o f common p r o p e r t y by f a m i l i e s  themselves;  b. t o o f f e r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r own e f f o r t s t o t h e b u i l d i n g , improvement, o  and c o n s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i r  houses.  Here, t h e c o s t o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c l u d e , above all,  t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s i n t h e shape o f t i m e , l a b o u r ,  m a t e r i a l s , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  Thus, t h e s e l f - h e l p  h o u s i n g e f f o r t , as s t a t e d , i s d i r e c t e d p r i n c i p a l l y t o the u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  1  own r e s o u r c e s f o r  home ownership. °Pan American U n i o n , Department o f S o c i a l A f f a i r s , S e l f - H e l p Housing Guide (Bogota: I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Housing and P l a n n i n g C e n t e r , 1962), p. 49.  20. The  same source a l s o s p e l l s o u t t h e "most  important objectives"  o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g as f o l l o w s :  a. t o make p o s s i b l e  i n t e g r a l house p l a n n i n g ,  b o t h as a s e r v i c e and i n t h e g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t o f t h e community; b. t o reduce t h e need f o r t o t a l the  state i n the construction  f i n a n c i n g by  o f houses;  c. t o p u t t h e l a t e n t c a p a c i t y  o f the people t o  work; t o promote i n i t i a t i v e towards c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n ; t o encourage s a v i n g s ; t o c r e a t e a s p i r i t o f e n t e r p r i s e and  strengthen the p a r t i c i p a n t s  1  confidence i n themselves;  and d. t o work f o r c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s and mutual under9 s t a n d i n g among f a m i l i e s who w i l l l i v e i n t h e same d i s t r i c t . Thus, t h e o b j e c t i v e  of s e l f - h e l p housing i s t o  l o o k a f t e r t h e w e l f a r e i n t e r e s t o f t h e community; t o r e l i e v e t h e s t a t e ' s burden; t o engender community f e e l i i g ; t o encourage i n d i v i d u a l s a v i n g and i n v e s t m e n t , and by so d o i n g , t o i g n i t e human energy i n h e r e n t i n t h e community for c o l l e c t i v e house-building. Ill  APPROACHES TO SELF-HELP HOUSING  I t has been s t a t e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g pages  that  t h e r e a r e b a s i c a l l y two ways i n which s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g activity  i s performed.  Ibid.  First  i s t h e spontaneous method,  21 i n which n© o u t s i d e h e l p i s i n v o l v e d ; and second, t h e r e i s the f o r m a l method, i n w h i c h some o u t s i d e a s s i s t a n c e i s utilized.  Thus, t h e r e a r e two extremes o f s e l f - h e l p  h o u s i n g , pure s e l f - h e l p o r c o o p e r a t i v e s e l f - h e l p , o r what the U n i t e d N a t i o n s termed the "maximum c o n t r i b u t i o n " 10 and "minimum c o n t r i b u t i o n " approach.  I t i s the e x t e n t  t o w h i c h o u t s i d e h e l p i s i n j e c t e d t h a t d e c i d e s the l o c a t i o n o f the r e l e v a n t p r o j e c t i n the above continuum. d i v i s i o n s can be r e c o g n i z e d i n t h i s continuum:  Four pure  s e l f - h e l p , m u t u a l a i d e d s e l f - h e l p , engendered s e l f - h e l p and c o o p e r a t i v e s e l f - h e l p . I n the pure s e l f - h e l p c a t e g o r y , l a n d i s t a k e n t o be u b i q u i t o u s .  Management, l a b o u r s e r v i c e s and  m a t e r i a l s , e t c . a r e a l l p r o v i d e d by o w n e r - f a m i l i e s  and  outside help i s n i l . I n the m u t u a l a i d e d s e l f - h e l p d i v i s i o n , e s s e n t i a l requirement  the  i s t h a t m a t e r i a l s and l a b o u r , e t c . ,  a r e p r o v i d e d by n e i g h b o u r s  i n exchange f o r the owner's  a s s i s t a n c e which i s p r o v i d e d f o r h i s  neighbour.  I n the engendered s e l f - h e l p t y p e , government o r p u b l i c agencies organize s e l f - h e l p housing, at times, a l s o by p r o v i d i n g m a t e r i a l h e l p , the o b j e c t b e i n g t o demonstrate the method and t o encourage people t o h e l p themselves. U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Department o f S o c i a l A f f a i r s , Manual on S e l f - H e l p Housing. (New York: U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1964), pp. 7-9.  22 I n the c o o p e r a t i v e s e l f - h e l p program, l a n d , l a b o u r , m a t e r i a l and t r a n s p o r t , e t c . a r e arranged  by  c o o p e r a t i v e s o c i e t i e s whose members a r e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the h o u s i n g  schemes.  Here the member's non-monetized  c o n t r i b u t i o n i s minimum. for  I t i s , therefore, s u i t a b l e only  those f a m i l i e s who a r e a b l e t o pay l o a n  instalments  e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e economic r e n t o f t h e house. IV  BENEFITS OF SELF-HELP HOUSING  S e l f - h e l p housing  e x p e r i e n c e has n o t y e t been  e x t e n s i v e so t h a t i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o determine i m p a c t s on t h e w e l f a r e o f p e o p l e .  concrete  I n t h e absence o f enough  e x p e r i e n c e , b e n e f i t s b e l i e v e d t o be g e n e r a l l y i n h e r e n t a r e s t a t e d as f o l l o w s : I n one o f t h e c o u n t r i e s i n t e r e s t e d i n s e l f - h e l p , "local  l e a d e r s were a d v i s e d on how t o base a l l programs  on t h e needs o f t h e p e o p l e and how t o c o n d u c t these  programs  t h r o u g h s e l f - h e l p so as t o b r i n g about t h e s o c i a l and  11 economic u p l i f t o f the community..."  S o c i a l and economic  u p l i f t o f t h e community, thus c o n s t i t u t e s t h e b e n e f i t o f a s e l f - h e l p housing  program.  By u t i l i z i n g work p o t e n t i a l o f f a m i l i e s (measured i n terms o f man-hours a v a i l a b l e ) , where l a b o u r s u p p l y i s  Democracy p. 56.  R o b e r t D. C a m p b e l l , P a k i s t a n - An Emerging ( P r i n c e t o n : D. Von N o s t r a n d Co., I n c . , 1963),  23 e x c e s s i v e as i n most d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , the method reduces —  i f n o t c o m p l e t e l y wipes out —  the l a b o u r  c o s t , s o c i a l s e c u r i t y payments and c o n t r a c t o r ' s p r o f i t s . I t a l s o s t i m u l a t e s s a v i n g s and c a p i t a l i z a t i o n , i n g n o t o n l y f a m i l i e s but a l s o s t a t e .  benefitt-  By i n v e s t i n g i n a  s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g p r o j e c t , the Government can  substantially  i n c r e a s e the number o f d w e l l i n g u n i t s i n a s h o r t e r p e r i o d than i s p o s s i b l e o t h e r w i s e , t h a t i s , by b u i l d i n g houses e n t i r e l y through p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s . The  e s s e n t i a l aspect of s e l f - h e l p housing i s  t h a t the houses b e l o n g t o the i n h a b i t a n t s . own  Since  their  l a b o u r and i n i t i a t i v e a r e c o n t r i b u t e d t o i t , they  develop p r i d e o f achievement.  The c o l l e c t i v e b u i l d i n g  p r o c e s s g i v e s group work e x p e r i e n c e which can be  utilized  i n o t h e r n a t i o n b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t i e s a t community l e v e l s . S e l f - h e l p housing a l s o creates a l a r g e s k i l l e d l a b o u r f o r c e , which i s s c a r c e i n d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s . When on the j o b , the p a r t i c i p a n t s put i n b e t t e r q u a l i t y work t h a n does wage l a b o u r , because they work f o r t h e i r own  direct benefit.  possibilities,  T h i s c r e a t e s new  occupational  i n c r e a s e s l a b o u r s u p p l y , and  decreases  labour cost. I f e f f e c t i v e l y c a r r i e d out, s e l f - h e l p  housing  appears t o be the o n l y method which can ensure minimum s h e l t e r f o r the mass o f the w o r l d ' s p o p u l a t i o n .  It is  s l i g h t l y c o s t l y t o s t a r t t h e program, but the c o s t o f  24 i n i t i a t i n g a s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g program c a n be r e g a r d e d as i n s i g n i f i c a n t compared w i t h t h e c o s t o f d e v e l o p i n g a p u b l i c h o u s i n g program o f t h e t y p e w h i c h i s c u r r e n t i n most c o u n t r i e s .  A l s o , "even i f t h e program were l i m i t e d  t o one o r a few a r e a s , t h e i d e a has a tremendous i g n i t i o n 12  p o t e n t i a l which m i g h t spark u n s u s p e c t e d e n e r g i e s . " V  ORGANIZATION OF SELF-HELP HOUSING E f f e c t i v e organization of s e l f - h e l p housing  p r o j e c t s o r programs i s b a s i c t o t h e achievement o f housing goals i n developing countries.  While a country-  wide program i s c e n t e r e d on h o u s i n g g o a l s , t h e communitywide p r o j e c t s f u l f i l t h e immediate l o c a l o b j e c t i v e s . B o t h r e q u i r e t h e use o f h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l techniques.  W h i l e t h e c o u n t r y - w i d e programs have n o t y e t  been adopted, community-wide p r o j e c t s have been adopted i n many a r e a s .  The l a t t e r e x p e r i e n c e h a s demonstrated  the need f o r a whole s e r i e s o f p l a n n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e processes. A t h o r o u g h r e s e a r c h method p r e c e e d s t h e s e l e c t i o n  I n v i e w o f a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s , t h e s e words have been t a k e n o u t o f c o n t e x t from: L l o y d Rodwin, "Choosing Regions f o r Development," R e g i o n a l Development and P l a n n i n g , e d i t e d by John Friedmann and W i l l i a m A l o n s o (Cambridge: M.I.T. P r e s s , 1964), p. 58.  25 of  a community i n which s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g program i s  organized.  The p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and economic c h a r a c t e r -  i s t i c s o f the community a r e i n v e s t i g a t e d . of  The r e s o u r c e s  t h e community i n terms o f income and o c c u p a t i o n a l  s t r u c t u r e , a v a i l a b l e f r e e time, a v a i l a b l e b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , e t c . , are assessed.  indigenous The whole psycho-  s o c i a l f i e l d o f the human community i s i n v e s t i g a t e d so t h a t n e c e s s a r y s o c i a l work t e c h n i q u e s s u i t a b l e t o the community a r e d e v e l o p e d . The n e x t stage i s t o p l a n the whole p r o j e c t . Three a s p e c t s o f p l a n n i n g become i m p o r t a n t .  The f i r s t  a s p e c t i s t h e p l a n n i n g o f s o c i a l work, t h e o b j e c t b e i n g the engendering  o f the s e l f - h e l p s p i r i t and s e l l i n g t h e  i d e a t o the community.  The second a s p e c t o f p l a n n i n g i s  t e c h n i c a l preparedness,  t h e o b j e c t b e i n g t o develop a  p l a n f o r t h e community t o p r e p a r e the most e c o n o m i c a l d e s i g n s o f h o u s i n g u n i t s and t o d i s c o v e r i n d i g e n o u s building materials. of  The t h i r d a s p e c t i s the development  a management system which o r g a n i z e s s e l f - h e l p l a b o u r  and c o o r d i n a t e s t h e i r work i n t h e f i e l d and ensures t h a t the work i s a c c o m p l i s h e d  according to plan.  The manage-  ment a l s o l o o k s a f t e r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r o p e r a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f the p r o j e c t . ( F i g u r e 15)  ,  26  VI The  CHAPTER SUMMARY  c o n c e p t o f spontaneous s e l f - h e l p house  b u i l d i n g as a t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i n v o l v i n g maximum f a m i l y c o n t r i b u t i o n and no e x t e r n a l h e l p , i s w i d e s p r e a d i n many p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d .  D e p l e t i o n and s c a r c i t y o f  t r a d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s plus the i n c r e a s i n g n e c e s s i t y of a c h i e v i n g minimum h o u s i n g of housing The  s t a n d a r d s has l e d t o problems  inadequacy and a s s o c i a t e d s o c i a l problems.  awareness o f s o c i a l problems has g i v e n r i s e t o t h e  community development movement whose b a s i c s l o g a n i s s e l f - h e l p , whether i n t h e form o f h o u s i n g o r any o t h e r community improvement endeavour. From t h e s t i m u l u s p r o v i d e d by t h e U n i t e d and some o f t h e r e l a t i v e l y developed  Nations  countries, the  c o n c e p t o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g has gained g r e a t p o p u l a r i t y i n d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s which a r e f a c e d w i t h t h e problems o f acute s h o r t a g e s o f h o u s i n g The  and s c a r c i t y o f r e s o u r c e s .  goal o f s e l f - h e l p housing, i e . , the p r o v i s i o n o f  housing  through  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  1  e f f o r t s and t h e o b j e c t i v e  i . e . t h e encouragement o f community a c t i o n and i g n i t i o n o f s e l f - h e l p energy f o r house b u i l d i n g , a r e geared t o t h e s i t u a t i o n s of developing nations. Approaches o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g range from pure s e l f - h e l p t o cooperative s e l f - h e l p , the intermediate cases b e i n g m u t u a l a i d e d s e l f - h e l p and engendered s e l f help.  The o b j e c t o f engendered s e l f - h e l p w h i c h i s b e i n g  27  s t u d i e d h e r e i s t o maximise pure s e l f - h e l p i n the l o n g r u n by p r o v i d i n g guided a c t i o n i n the s h o r t run. the f o r m , the s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g  Whatever  approach i s o f g r e a t b e n e f i t  t o the d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s , i n t h a t i t p r o v i d e s the o n l y hope f o r s o c i e t i e s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the dilemma o f s c a r c i t y and economic  disability.  housing  Photograph No. 1 Traditional round houses built by spontaneous self-help housing method in rural areas.  Photograph No. 3  Photograph No. 2 Typical houses built by spontaneous self-help housing method in urban areas.  Rapporting and convassing for self-help housing activity.  Source: U n i t e d N a t i o n s , S e l f - H e l p Housing Guide (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1964).  CHAPTER I I I  THE DEFICIENCY OF HOUSING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND THE INADEQUACY OF HOUSING RESOURCES  I  MEASURES OF DEVELOPMENT: DEVELOPING COUNTRIES H i s t o r i c a l study o f economic development shows  t h a t i n many c o u n t r i e s p e r i o d s o f d r e a r y s t a g n a t i o n a l t e r n a t e d w i t h s p u r t s o f economic p r o g r e s s up t o t h e end o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  S i n c e t h e n , t h e r e has  been a c o n t i n u o u s r i s e o f economic p r o s p e r i t y i n t h e c o u n t r i e s o f Europe, N o r t h A m e r i c a and A u s t r a l i a .  These  phenomena, c o i n c i d i n g w i t h t h e o n s e t o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n a r e unique —  unique i n t h e sense t h a t as  a g a i n s t s t a g n a t i o n b e i n g a g e n e r a l r u l e , economic  develop-  ment showed up as an e x c e p t i o n a l phenomenon, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e c o u n t r i e s s i t u a t e d i n t h e n o r t h e r n hemisphere. S i n c e t h e end o f t h e Second W o r l d Mar, t h e n a t i o n s o f A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n A m e r i c a which c o n s t i t u t e 70 p e r c e n t o f t h e w o r l d ' s p o p u l a t i o n , have become i n c r e a s i n g l y "development-minded."  As a consequence, g r e a t  e f f o r t s a r e b e i n g made t o e f f e c t such changes i n t h e s o c i o economic v a r i a b l e s as may be conducive  to the generation  o f p o s i t i v e f o r c e s w i t h i n t h e development p r o c e s s . "Development p r o c e s s " and "economic development" have become watchwords i n economic l i t e r a t u r e .  29  "Social  30 change," " c u l t u r a l change" and " i n s t i t u t i o n a l change" as i n g r e d i e n t s o f development have e l i c i t e d g r e a t c o n c e r n o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s and d e v e l o p e d n a t i o n s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e economic development o f t h e w o r l d ' s p o o r e r c o u n t r i e s . I n terms o f economic development, many a d j e c t i v e s have been used t o d e s i g n a t e t h e c o u n t r i e s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , Europe, and A u s t r a l i a : f o r example, " d e v e l o p e d " , "advanced", " r i c h " and "modern".  S i m i l a r l y , "undW-eloped", "under-  d e v e l o p e d " , "poor" and "backward" a r e a s s i g n e d t o t h e c o u n t r i e s o f A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n A m e r i c a .  There h a s ,  however, been d i f f i c u l t y i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e terms. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e w i d e l y used d e f i n i t i o n g i v e n by t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s , t h e term "underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s " i s used t o mean " c o u n t r i e s i n w h i c h p e r c a p i t a r e a l income i s l o w when compared w i t h t h e p e r c a p i t a r e a l income o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a , Canada, A u s t r a l i a and Western Europe.  I n t h i s sense, an adequate synonym  would be poor c o u n t r i e s . "  1  Even i f s u i t a b l e f o r academic p u r p o s e s , t h e term "underdeveloped" i s , u n d e r s t a n d a b l y , n o t e n t i r e l y s u g g e s t i v e o f t h o s e n a t i o n s which a r e i n d u s t r i a l l y underd e v e l o p e d b u t c u l t u r a l l y may n o t be s o .  "Pre-industrialized"  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Measures f o r t h e Economic Development o f Underdeveloped C o u n t r i e s (New Y o r k :  U n i t e d N a t i o n s " P u b l i c a t i o n s , i 9 5 D » p. 3»  31 and " d e v e l o p i n g " a r e t h e a l t e r n a t e s suggested.  2  The  f i r s t prejudges the p o l i c y conclusions that i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i s tantamount t o economic  development; t h e  second i m p l i e s t h a t a l l c o u n t r i e s a r e i n the p r o c e s s o f development. The U n i t e d N a t i o n s d e f i n i t i o n subsumes — o r does n o t t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n —  the p o t e n t i a l l i m i t  t o t h e development o f human and m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s p o s s e s s e d by t h e s o - c a l l e d underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s . Whatever t h e p r e s e n t l e v e l o f t e c h n o l o g y , economists agree t h a t a l l t h e s o - c a l l e d u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e which have f r e e d themselves from t h e bondage o f c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the p a s t few decades a r e i n a p o s i t i o n t o i n c r e a s e the e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e i r r e s o u r c e s and t h e r e b y i n d u s t r i a l i z e themselves sooner o r l a t e r .  F o r t h i s r e a s o n , economists " r e c o g n i z e  the l i m i t a t i o n s o f such a l i n e a r c o n c e p t i o n o f h i s t o r y and no l o n g e r attempt t o c l a s s i f y c o u n t r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o the s t a g e s o f development."^ Webster's D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n e s " d e v e l o p i n g " as " t o cause t o become more c o m p l e t e l y u n f o l d e d . . . so as t o  Benjamin H i g g i n s , Economic Development: P r i n c i p l e s , Problems and P o l i c i e s (New Y o r k : W.W. N o r t o n & Company, I n c . ,  1959), P. 7."  ^ G e r a l d M. M e i e r and R o b e r t E. B a l d w i n , Economic Development Theory H i s t o r y P o l i c y (New Y o r k : J o h W i l e y & Sons, I n c . , & London: Chapman and H a l l , 1957),p.l45.  32 r e v e a l p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , " and " g r a d u a l advance o r growth t h r o u g h p r o g r e s s i v e changes".  Thus, the term " d e v e l o p i n g " ,  as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r "underdeveloped" conveys the n o t i o n t h a t the c o u n t r i e s a r e i n v o l v e d i n the p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p ment, which i s the f a c t u a l p o s i t i o n . The gap between p e r c a p i t a incomes o f say, r i c h and poor n a t i o n s i s g o i n g t o be reduced n o t so much by d e c e l e r a t i o n o f the former as by the a c c e l e r a t i o n o f the latter;  i m p l i c i t i s the f a c t t h a t tie l a t t e r w o u l d  t o r e a c h the datum l e v e l o f the f o r m e r .  attempt  The term  "developing c o u n t r i e s " has, t h e r e f o r e , gained currency. There a r e r a r e —  i f any —  cases o f n a t i o n s i n which the  Governments a r e n o t d e m o n s t r a b l y i n t e r e s t e d i n and i n c r e a s i n g l y conscious of  development.  I n the l i g h t o f above d i s c u s s i o n , t h e c o u n t r i e s o f A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n A m e r i c a which have l o w e r p e r c a p i t a income (average 150  d o l l a r s a n n u a l l y ) compared  w i t h the c o u n t r i e s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , Europe and A u s t r a l i a (1500  d o l l a r s a n n u a l l y ) , by v i r t u e o f t h e i r engagement  i n the p r o c e s s o f development  a r e termed as " d e v e l o p i n g  c o u n t r i e s " , " d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s " o r " d e v e l o p i n g economies". (Figure I)  ^ P h i l i p Babcock Gove ( e d - i n - c h i e f ) , W e b s t e r s T h i r d New I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y ( S p r i n g f i e l d , Mass: G & C Merriam Company, 1961), p.619. 1  DEVELOPING COUNTRIES O F ASIA AFRICA A N D AMERICA  LATIN  EFFECTIVENESS OF SELF-HELP HOUSING : EXPERIENCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIETS  FIGURE NO.  APBJL I9&6 UNIVERSITY  OF  BClTtSH  COLUMBIA, VANCOUVER  AmjoidL AU & &jvt  1  II  CHARACTERISTICS OF DEVELOPING ECONOMIES In order t o a p p r e c i a t e the relevance o f i n p u t s  for  t h e s o l u t i o n o f community problems, such as t h a t o f  h o u s i n g , an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of the general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of developing c o u n t r i e s i s important. ion  Only t h e e l i m i n a t -  o f economic p o v e r t y i s n o t a s u f f i c i e n t argument t o  j u s t i f y t h e d i f f u s i o n o f a method f o r t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e h o u s i n g problem.  The whole range o f c u l t u r a l problems  s h o u l d be e v a l u a t e d t o see i f t h e method i s t h e most effective possible. A l l a v a i l a b l e s t a t i s t i c a l and d e s c r i p t i v e i n formation reveals that poverty i s a general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of developing c o u n t r i e s .  Higgins discovers that "there i s  i n d e e d a c o r r e l a t i o n between n a t i o n a l p o v e r t y and o t h e r f e a t u r e s o f c o u n t r y ' s economic and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . " Hence, t h e r e i s t h e need t o make an a p p r a i s a l o f p o v e r t y and " a l l o t h e r f e a t u r e s " o f socio-economic o r g a n i z a t i o n . F o r t h e p r e s e n t p u r p o s e s , a summary o f t h e main features o f developing c o u n t r i e s should s u f f i c e .  In  t h i s r e s p e c t , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o improve L e i b e n s t e i n ' s ,11st w h i c h combines most o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s most o f t e n mentioned.  H i g g i n s , o p . c i t . p.11.  35  A. Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  6  a. A v e r y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n a g r i c u l t u r e , u s u a l l y some 70 t o 90 per c e n t .  in  b. "Absolute overpopulation" i n a g r i c u l t u r e , t h a t i s i t would be p o s s i b l e t o reduce the number o f workers i n a g r i c u l t u r e and s t i l l a t t a i n the same t o t a l output. c. E v i d e n c e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e " d i s g u i s e d unemployment" and a l a c k o f employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s outside a g r i c u l t u r e . d.  V e r y l i t t l e c a p i t a l per head.  e. Low income per head and, e x i s t e n c e n e a r the " s u b s i s t e n c e "  as a consequence, level.  f. P r a c t i c a l l y zero savings o f the p e o p l e .  f o r the l a r g e mass  g. Whatever s a v i n g s do e x i s t are u s u a l l y a c h i e v e d by a l a n d h o l d i n g c l a s s whose v a l u e s are n o t c o n d u c i v e t o i n v e s t m e n t i n i n d u s t r y and commerce. h. The p r i m a r y i n d u s t r i e s , t h a t i s a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y and m i n i n g , are u s u a l l y the r e s i d e n t i a l employment c a t e g o r i e s . i. The o u t p u t i n a g r i c u l t u r e i s made up m o s t l y o f c e r e a l s and p r i m a r y raw m a t e r i a l s . j . Major p r o p o r t i o n of expenditure i n food necessities. k.  E x p o r t o f f o o d s t u f f s and raw  1.  Low  and  materials.  volume o f t r a d e per c a p i t a .  m. P o o r c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s and poor m a r k e t i n g facilities. n.  Poor h o u s i n g .  L e i b e n s t e i n has summarized economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s under two h e a d i n g s , namely " g e n e r a l " and " b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a g r i c u l t u r e . " The l a t t e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have n o t been d i s c u s s e d h e r e , s i n c e they are n o t d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t t o the p r e s e n t purpose.  36  B.  per  Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  a. H i g h f e r t i l i t y r a t e s , u s u a l l y above ho thousand.  b. H i g h m o r t a l i t y r a t e s and l o w of l i f e a t b i r t h . c.  expectation  Inadequate n u t r i t i o n , and d i e t a r y d e f i c i e n c e s .  d. Rudimentary h y g i e n e , p u b l i c h e a l t h and sanitation. e.  Rural  overcrowding.  C.  C u l t u r a l and P o l i t i c a l  Characteristics  a. Rudimentary e d u c a t i o n and u s u a l l y a h i g h degree o f i l l i t e r a c y among t h e p e o p l e . b.  Extensive prevalence of c h i l d  labour.  c.  G e n e r a l weakness o r absence o f m i d d l e c l a s s  d.  I n f e r i o r i t y o f women's s t a t u s and p o s i t i o n .  e. T r a d i t i o n a l l y d e t e r m i n e d b e h a v i o u r f o r t h e bulk o f the populace.  for  D.  Technological  and M i s c e l l a n e o u s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  a.  Low y i e l d p e r a c r e .  b. No t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s o r i n a d e q u a t e f a c i l i t i e s the t r a i n i n g of technicians, engineers, e t c .  c. Inadequate and crude communication and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n the r u r a l areas. 7  d.  Crude t e c h n o l o g y . '  Harvey L e i b e n s t e i n , Economic Backwardness and Economic Growth (New Y o r k : London: John W i l e y & Sons, I n c . , I 9 6 0 ) , pp. M-0-4-1.  37 The  above l i s t o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s b r i e f and  suggestive.  I t subsumes the v a s t d i f f e r e n c e i n t a s t e s ,  c l i m a t e and  s o c i o - c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g s among and w i t h i n 8 the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . I t i s i n d i c a t i v e o f most predominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s t u d i e d and observed 9 w r i t e r s on the s u b j e c t . p r o b l e m s , and  I t should  by  appear t h a t economic  t h e r e f o r e , economic p l a n n i n g  are s i m i l a r i n most o f the d e v e l o p i n g  approaches  countries.  For  example, Haque says: ... i f one p i c k s up the p l a n s o f I n d i a , P a k i s t a n , Ghana, E g y p t , N e p a l o r C e y l o n , a t random, what i s s u r p r i s i n g i s n o t t h e i r a p p a r e n t d i f f e r e n c e s but t h e i r b a s i c s i m i l a r i t y . . . " This basic s i m i l a r i t y i n planning techniques i s due t o the b a s i c s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e i r problems of It  planning.  1 0  i s n e c e s s a r y t o i s o l a t e some o f the above  f e a t u r e s from L e i b e n s t e i n * s l i s t so as t o j u s t i f y  the  k i n d o f d i s c u s s i o n t o be t a k e n up i n the f o l l o w i n g chapters.  These a r e :  the super-abundance o f low income  o  E f f o r t s to develop s a t i s f a c t o r y c r i t e r i a of measurement o f l e v e l s o f l i v i n g are a f o o t . See, e.£.: U n i t e d N a t i o n s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s , and Measurement o f S t a n d a r d s and L e v e l s o f L i v i n g (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , I960), pp.32. E . £ . , among o t h e r s , the f o l l o w i n g : P.N. Rosens t e i n - R o d a n , A l f r e d Sauvy, N. P r o k o p o v i c z , A.L. M i n k s , H. Belshaw, Benjamin H i g g i n s , G e r a l d M. M e i e r , R o b e r t T. B a l d w i n and Harvey L e i b e n s t e i n . 9  M a h b u h u l Haque, S t r a t e g y o f P l a n n i n g (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , P a k i s t a n B r a n c h , 1963) p.l. 10  38 population;  e x i s t e n c e o f " d i s g u i s e d unemployment" and  l a c k o f employment o u t s i d e a g r i c u l t u r e ; low c a p i t a l p e r head;  no s a v i n g s  l o w income and  and i n v e s t m e n t c a p a c i t y ;  m a j o r e x p e n d i t u r e on e s s e n t i a l s , t h a t i s , f o o d and s h e l t e r ; poor c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s ;  uneconomic use o f l i m i t e d  r e s i d e n t i a l over-crowding; facilities;  poor h e a l t h and  capital;  education  t r a d i t i o n a l l y determined behaviour;  crude  t e c h n o l o g y and l a c k o f guidance t o improve c o n d i t i o n s . Some o f t h e above f e a t u r e s a r e t h e r e s u l t s o f low p e r c a p i t a incomes;  o t h e r s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h such  c o n d i t i o n s as produce l o w p e r c a p i t a incomes.  Develop-  ment e f f o r t s a r e d i r e c t e d t o t h e b u i l d i n g up o f i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s which a r e r e q u i r e d t o produce  favourable  c o n d i t i o n s t o growth by removing o b s t a c l e s t o growth. The major c o n c e r n o f d e v e l o p i n g o u t p u t and a c h i e v e h i g h e r  economies i s t o i n c r e a s e  incomes.  The magnitude o f " t r i g g e r approaches" l i k e "remove t h e o b s t a c l e s t o development", " r e l e a s e t h e i n h i b i t o r s " , " s t i m u l a t e i n n o v a t i o n " and " a c c e l e r a t e s o c i a l change" t h r o u g h community development, have t o be viewed i n terms o f t h e r e a l i t i e s o f d e v e l o p i n g economies. For a country  with a saving r a t i o of four per  c e n t o f t h e n a t i o n a l income and a p o p u l a t i o n  growth o f  two p e r c e n t p e r annum, a s a v i n g r a t e o f e i g h t p e r c e n t a y e a r would be r e q u i r e d t o keep a p e r c a p i t a income  39 constant.  To a c h i e v e a two p e r c e n t r i s e o f p e r c a p i t a  income a s a v i n g r a t e o f a t l e a s t 16 p e r c e n t would be  11  required.  As a g a i n s t t h i s s i m p l e a r i t h m e t i c , t h e r e i s  the s i m p l e f a c t t h a t t h e a c t u a l s a v i n g r a t e s a c h i e v e d byd e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i n r e c e n t times averages f i v e p e r cent.  T h i s i s e q u i v a l e n t t o f a r l e s s t h a n what i s  a c t u a l l y r e q u i r e d f o r h o u s i n g programs a l o n e . Ill  DEFICIENCY OF HOUSING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES There i s h a r d l y a c o u n t r y i n t h e world, w i t h o u t  a h o u s i n g problem. combination  The problem has r e s u l t e d from a  o f common f a c t o r s o p e r a t i n g d i f f e r e n t l y i n  d i f f e r e n t circumstances:  urbanization, population  i n c r e a s e , war d e v a s t a t i o n and economic d e p r e s s i o n have g e n e r a l l y been regarded  as b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e  d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e terms. I n both terms d i f f e r e n c e s i n "developed" and " d e v e l o p i n g " c o u n t r i e s a r e e x t r e m e l y wide.  According t o  an e s t i m a t e , made as f a r back as 1952 by t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s , o u t o f t h e 180 m i l l i o n f a m i l y d w e l l i n g u n i t s r e q u i r e d i n t h e w o r l d , 150 m i l l i o n c o n s t i t u t e d t h e r e -  12 quirements o f developing c o u n t r i e s alone. 1 1  Meier  and B a l d w i n , o p c i t . , p. 339. ?  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t on the W o r l d S o c i a l S i t u a t i o n w i t h S p e c i a l R e f e r e n c e t o S t a n d a r d s o f L i v i n g (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1952), p.107. 1 2  ho  The above e s t i m a t e i s somewhat crude.  The  f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n m i g h t i n d i c a t e t h a t the p a u c i t y o f d a t a on the h o u s i n g d e f i c i e n c y has been one o f the f a c t o r s which has i n h i b i t e d p o l i c y makers i n r e a l i s i n g t h e e x t e n t o f the problem.  The problem, as a consequence  has been p e r p e t u a t e d f o r want o f p o l i c y s u p p o r t . now,  Even  a l m o s t no s a t i s f a c t o r y q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a are  a v a i l a b l e which can p e r m i t the e s t i m a t i o n o f h o u s i n g needs.  T h i s i s more so f o r d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s which  c o n t a i n t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f the w o r l d ' s p o p u l a t i o n . a r e reasons why  There  t h i s i s so:  Most o f t h e s e n a t i o n s have emerged from a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d u r i n g the l a s t two decades.  colonial  There i s  d i v e r s i t y o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l f e a t u r e s , so t h a t q u a n t i t a t i v e measures d e v i s e d f o r developed c o u n t r i e s have been i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r comparable r e s u l t s . There i s a s h o r t a g e o f t e c h n i c a l p e r s o n n e l who  are  capable of undertaking housing surveys.  recently,  Until  h o u s i n g has been e n t i r e l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s ; o n l y l a t e l y have governments s t a r t e d t o t a k e i n t e r e s t i n the m a t t e r , so t h a t , as r e p o r t e d i n 1961, f i v e o f the A s i a n c o u n t r i e s , namely Burma, C e y l o n , I n d i a , M a l a y s i a and S i n g a p o r e had m i n i s t r i e s o f h o u s i n g , and  seven,  namely, the P e o p l e s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a , Hong Kong, I n d o n e s i a , Japan, the R e p u b l i c o f K o r e a , the P h i l i p p i n e s , the R e p u b l i c o f Vietnam and P a k i s t a n had h o u s i n g  departments  41  13  a t t a c h e d to a m i n i s t r y . QUANTITATIVE DEFICIENCY  As one o f the consumer goods, m e e t i n g b a s i c p h y s i c a l and  s o c i a l needs o f human b e i n g s , h o u s i n g i s  second t o f o o d i n importance. that housing  I t i s for this  s u r v e y s and e v a l u a t i o n s form  reason  important  c o n s t i t u e n t s o f the U n i t e d N a t i o n s Development Decade a program, o f n e c e s s i t y , geared t o the s i t u a t i o n s o f 14  developing nations.  S t i m u l a t e d by the a c t i o n o f the  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , many c o u n t r i e s have u n d e r t a k e n h o u s i n g surveys.  From the s p o r a d i c a l l y a v a i l a b l e d a t a , i t has  been p o s s i b l e f o r e x p e r t s t o make an approximate estimate of housing The  needs.  e s t i m a t i o n o f h o u s i n g need i s a f u n c t i o n o f  the demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r the p o p u l a t i o n .  In t h i s respect, i t i s appropriate to  know t h a t , as a g a i n s t the w o r l d ' s  1.8  of  a n n u a l growth r a t e o f  per c e n t i n the decade 1950-1960, the growth r a t e s  o f A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n A m e r i c a were 1.9>  2.5  and  2.8  15 p e r c e n t p e r annum (average  o f I96O-I963) r e s p e c t i v e l y .  ^ U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Economic Commission f o r A s i a and F a r E a s t , I n d u s t r i a l Development S e r i e s ; H o u s i n g and B u i l d i n g M a t e r i a l s (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1961), p . l . 14  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Bureau o f S o c i a l A f f a i r s , The U n i t e d N a t i o n s Development Decade - P r o p o s a l f o r A c t i o n (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 6 2 ) , pp.59-64. •'•^United N a t i o n s , Department o f Economic and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , Demographic Yearbook, 1964 (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1965)} p.111.  h2 There a r e no immediate p r o s p e c t s f o r the d e c r e a s e o f t h e s e r a t e s t o any s i g n i f i c a n t degree.  Demographic  e x p l o s i o n and u r b a n i z a t i o n combined, have l e d t o a deficiency of housing. Based on t h e assumption t h a t f u t u r e h o u s e h o l d s i z e would remain the same as t h a t o f the p r e s e n t , a U n i t e d N a t i o n s seminar h e l d a t Copenhagen has e s t i m a t e d h o u s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s t o be as follows: B e f o r e the o n s e t o f the y e a r 1966, t h a t i s , up t o 1965, the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s r e q u i r e d a t o t a l a n n u a l o u t p u t o f 2h m i l l i o n d w e l l i n g u n i t s ;  t h e need f o r 1975  16 would be 27 m i l l i o n u n i t s a n n u a l l y .  This estimate i s  based on the f u r t h e r assumption t h a t t h e e x i s t i n g s h o r t a g e would be e l i m i n a t e d i n t h i r t y y e a r s and t h a t the e x i s t i n g s t o c k s i n urban and r u r a l a r e a s would be r e p l a c e d i n t h i r t y and twenty y e a r s r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The t o t a l r e -  quirements f o r the p e r i o d 1960-1975 a r e e s t i m a t e d t o be i n the neighbourhood o f 390 a i l l i o n d w e l l i n g u n i t s .  1 7  ( T a b l e I F i g u r e 2) •'•^United N a t i o n s , R e p o r t on t h e L a t i n American Seminar on Housing S t a t i s t i c s and Programs, Copenhagen, Denmark"," 2-25 September 1962 (New" Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1963), p.13. 17 U n i t e d N a t i o n s , World H o u s i n g C o n d i t i o n s and E s t i m a t e d Housing Repuirements (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1965), p.3»  ^3 The  t a s k o f so b i g a magnitude i s d i f f i c u l t  i f not impossible —  —  o f accomplishment under t h e t i g h t  economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s  i n which t h e d e v e l o p i n g  nations  are p l a c e d . Asian countries. In  A s i a n c o u n t r i e s , underdevelopment and a f a s t  p o p u l a t i o n growth have been t h e two major f a c t o r s g i v i n g r i s e t o t h e shortage o f h o u s i n g .  V/ith t h e e x c e p t i o n o f  J a p a n , n e a r l y a l l A s i a n n a t i o n s have r a t e s o f p o p u l a t i o n growth t h a t h a r d l y e q u a l t h e r a t e s o f growth o f g r o s s n a t i o n a l product.  There a r e n a t i o n s i n A s i a whose  p o p u l a t i o n grows a t a r a t e as h i g h as 2.5 t o 3»5 p e r c e n t annually; at  urban p o p u l a t i o n grows s t i l l f a s t e r , t h a t i s  t h e r a t e o f f i v e t o seven p e r c e n t a n n u a l l y .  The  f o r e c a s t f o r t h e n e x t t e n y e a r s 1966-1975 i s s t i l l  higher  than t h e above f i g u r e s . Based on a s t u d y o f demographic phenomena a l o n e , i t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t i n t h e f i f t e e n year p e r i o d 1960-1975? the r e q u i r e d h o u s i n g o f 103 m i l l i o n u n i t s ;  s t o c k i n A s i a would be o f t h e o r d e r t h e s h o r t a g e i n I960 was as h i g h  as 305 m i l l i o n u n i t s o f which units.  54 m i l l i o n were u r b a n  According t o the l a t e s t f i n d i n g s , the t o t a l  h o u s i n g d e f i c i t i n t h e y e a r 1960-1975 has been e s t i m a t e d  18 at  290.8 m i l l i o n d w e l l i n g u n i t s d i s t r i b u t e d as f o l l o w s :  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , W o r l d . . . Requirements (1965) op.cit., p A .  Mr M i l l i o n dwelling units Due t o p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e Due t o o b s o l e s c e n c e Due t o e x i s t i n g b a c k l o g  .. ..  .. ..  103.1 110.5  77«2  I n o r d e r t o l i q u i d a t e t h e h o u s i n g d e f i c i t and t o r e p l a c e h o u s i n g u n i t s f a l l i n g o u t o f use w i t h i n a twenty t o t h i r t y y e a r p e r i o d , 17 t o 21 m i l l i o n u n i t s w i l l have  19 to be b u i l t a n n u a l l y .  This i s equivalent to ten  d w e l l i n g u n i t s p e r thousand i n h a b i t a n t s w h i c h , as has been seen, i s t o o b i g a j o b t o a c c o m p l i s h under t h e p r e s e n t economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The above d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e s an approximate p i c t u r e o f the housing shortage i n A s i a g e n e r a l l y . I t c o n c e a l s t h e v e r y a c u t e s h o r t a g e i n some c o u n t r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n b i g urban areas. I n Burma, t h e urban p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d by 61 p e r c e n t from 1931 t o 1953 which has p e r p e t u a t e d t h e urban housing d e f i c i t .  C e y l o n i s e s t i m a t e d t o have a  h o u s i n g b a c k l o g o f 952,000 u n i t s f o r t h e p e r i o d from 1958 t o 1968.  I n M a l a y s i a , h o u s i n g accommodation i s  s h o r t by 100,000 u n i t s .  I n Hong Kong, 80 p e r c e n t o f  h o u s e h o l d s had s u b - s t a n d a r d h o u s i n g accommodation i n 1957. In b i g Indian c i t i e s s i x m i l l i o n dwelling u n i t s are required.  I n d o n e s i a has a s h o r t a g e o f f o u r m i l l i o n u n i t s . U n i t e d N a t i o n s , R e p o r t . . . 1962 (1963) O P . c i t . , p . 1 5 .  h5 I n P a k i s t a n , K a r a c h i c i t y alone had a s h o r t a g e  of w e l l  o v e r 200,000 u n i t s i n about I960, t h e c i t y p o p u l a t i o n  20 b e i n g two m i l l i o n . African countries. I t i s estimated i s expected  that the present  population  t o grow a t a r a t e h i g h e r than 2.2 p e r c e n t  p e r annum i n t h e p e r i o d 1960-1975.  I t i s also  expected  t h a t t h e u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n w i l l i n c r e a s e t w i c e as f a s t as t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e same p e r i o d . The h o u s i n g of A f r i c a i s acute.  shortage  i n almost a l l c o u n t r i e s  The p o p u l a t i o n growth a l o n e would  n e c e s s i t a t e t h e b u i l d i n g o f more than 18 m i l l i o n d w e l l i n g  21 u n i t s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1960-1975.  A further refined  e s t i m a t e on t h e b a s i s o f p o p u l a t i o n growth (22.5  million  u n i t s ) , p l u s the a d d i t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n r e q u i r e d t o a l l e v i a t e t h e h o u s i n g d e f i c i t and c u r r e n t replacement needs means a t o t a l r e q u i r e m e n t o f 53 m i l l i o n d w e l l i n g  22  units.  (Table I F i g u r e  2)  United Nations, Industrial....materials (1961), p a s s i m .  ?1  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , R e p o r t o f t h e Seminar on t h e H o u s i n g S t a t i s t i c s and Programs f o r A s i a and t h e F a r E a s t , Copenhagen, Denmark, 25 August - l4~September, 1963 (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1965), p. 15.  22  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , World...Requirements  loc. c i t .  (1965),  k6 L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s . These c o u n t r i e s a r e e q u a l l y n o t a b l e f o r h i g h p o p u l a t i o n growth and r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n which the h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e .  accentuate  The U n i t e d N a t i o n s made an e s t i m a t e  o f h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e from t h e " i n a d e q u a t e l y a v a i l a b l e " d a t a i n 1962.  I t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t 25 p e r c e n t o f con-  v e n t i o n a l d w e l l i n g s i n L a t i n America had d e n s i t i e s o f t h r e e o r more persons p e r room.  In Argentina, f o r  example, 25 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s i n a d e q u a t e l y housed. The h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e i n t h e C o n t i n e n t f o r t h e p e r i o d 1960-1975 would be o f t h e o r d e r o f 1*8.2 m i l l i o n ; i n o r d e r t o take c a r e o f p o p u l a t i o n growth a l o n e an e s t i m a t e d 23.5 m i l l i o n d w e l l i n g u n i t s would be r e q u i r e d  23 f o r t h e p e r i o d 1960-1975.  The demand due t o o b s o l e s c e n c e  o f e x i s t i n g s t o c k i n t h e same p e r i o d would be i n t h e o r d e r of  IM-.M-  m i l l i o n dwelling units. The h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s ,  as d e s c r i b e d above, i s summarized i n T a b l e I and F i g u r e 2.  Ibid. Ibid.  h? Table  1  I  ESTIMATED HOUSING SHORTAGE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  (1960-1975) (in millions)  Developing Countries  Population Increase  Asia  103.1  Africa Latin America  A l l developing countries  Reasons Obsolescent Stock  Existing Shortage  Total  110.5  77.2  290.8  22.5  17.9  12.5  52.9  23.5  Ih.h  10.3  1*8.2  lh-2.8  100.0  391.9  S o u r c e : U n i t e d N a t i o n s , W o r l d Housing C o n d i t i o n s and E s t i m a t e d H o u s i n g Requirements (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1965)j  Out o f t h e t o t a l h o u s i n g d e f i c i t o f 392 m i l l i o n f o r d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s f o r 1960-1975, A s i a n c o u n t r i e s have t h e h i g h e s t d e f i c i t , t h a t i s , t h r e e - f o u r t h s of a l l d e f i c i t .  An annual h o u s i n g program which produces  t e n t o t w e l v e d w e l l i n g u n i t s p e r thousand p o p u l a t i o n i s , therefore, c a l l e d f o r i n the developing c o u n t r i e s . ( F i g u r e 2)  0  C?,  MILLION ONI  LEGEND \Y\] DOE T O P O P U L A T I O N r.\ \ i INCREASE  JjJJ-OBSOLESCENT. STOelC EXISTING SHORTAGE  EFFECTIVENESS  OF  EXPERIENCE  DEVELOPING  IN  SELF-HELP  HOUSING:  COUNTRIES  UNIVERSITY OF feRITISH COl_U«\&IA, VANCOUVER-.  ^^^^^^^^^^^  FIGURE NO.  ^  ^9 QUALITATIVE DEFICIENCY From the q u a n t i t a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n made i n the p r e d e d i n g pages, i t becomes o b v i o u s t h a t the d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s o f the w o r l d are c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a grave h o u s i n g shortage.  The s h o r t a g e i s due a l s o t o the p o v e r t y o f  l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s consequent on the l o w l e v e l s o f income, so t h a t h o u s i n g i s i n a d e q u a t e from the b a r e s t minimum s t a n d a r d o f h e a l t h and h y g i e n e known today. There i s a d i s t i n c t c o r r e l a t i o n between the q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e d e f i c i e n c y o f h o u s i n g . the  In  judgement o f Crane and P a x t o n , t h e h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n  i n one o f the d e v e l o p i n g c o n t i n e n t s ( A f r i c a ) i s so poor t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s between q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f h o u s i n g cease t o e x i s t a l t o g e t h e r : Between the U n i o n and the S a h a r a l i e some 8 to 10 m i l l i o n square m i l e s . . . i n which i t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t some 125 m i l l i o n p e o p l e l i v e . I n some o f the a r e a , l a n d i s measured o n l y by c o u n t i n g the t r e e s on i t ; i n the main the p e o p l e have n e v e r been counted, much l e s s the h u t s o f g r a s s and mud and w a t t l e s t h a t s e r v e them as houses. The number o f p e o p l e who, f o r the common good o f the W o r l d , need t o be rehoused i s j u s t about e q u a l t o the t o t a l number o f people.25 I f Crane and P a x t o n ' s comments do n o t o v e r estimate the U n i t e d Nations estimates of housing shortage, t h e y do p i n p o i n t the p o v e r t y o f l i v i n g and the q u a l i t a t i v e 25  Jacob L. Crane and Edward T. P a x t o n , "The World-Wide Housing Problem," The Town P l a n n i n g Review. X X I I , No! ( A p r i l , 1 9 5 D , p.29.  50 d e f i c i e n c y o f h o u s i n g i n t h e type o f s o c i e t y t h a t make up t h e d e v e l o p i n g  nations.  I n A s i a n and L a t i n American s e t t i n g s , the p i c t u r e i s n o t d i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t which has been examined above.  I n t h e f o r m e r , a c c o r d i n g t o an e s t i m a t e  made f i f t e e n y e a r s ago, more t h a n 1^-0 m i l l i o n f a m i l i e s l i v e d i n overcrowded, u n s a n i t a r y , and s u b s t a n d a r d 26 quarters. I n the l a t t e r , t h e Pan American U n i o n (19^9) s a i d some 25 m i l l i o n s u b s t a n d a r d d w e l l 27  estimates  i n g s r e q u i r e d replacement.  F o r example, i n t h e  C a r i b b e a n Region a l o n e , t h e c o n d i t i o n has been d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : I n e i g h t o u t o f t e n cases w a l l s a r e o f wood and t h e r o o f s o f t h a t c h o r g a l v a n i z e d i r o n . One-fifth of dwellings lack t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s , o n e - t h i r d a r e t e r m i t e - r i d d e n , t w o - t h i r d s need major r e p a i r s , o n e - t h i r d l a c k a bedroom, onet e n t h have no k i t c h e n s and n i n e o u t o f t e n lack bathing f a c i l i t i e s . " I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o s u p p o r t t h e above p i c t u r e about t h e q u a l i t y o f h o u s i n g from t h e somewhat s u b s t a n t i v e  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Economic Commission f o r A s i a and F a r E a s t , Low-Cost Housing i n South and South E a s t A s i a (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 195D,p.ll. ^ U n i t e d N a t i o n s , "Housing i n t h e T r o p i c s , " Housing and Town and C o u n t r y P l a n n i n g B u l l e t i n No.6 (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1952), p.2. 2 8  Ibid.  51 29 s t a t i s t i c s c o m p i l e d by t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s i n 1965. I n what f o l l o w s , an e v a l u a t i o n i s made o f t h e h o u s i n g and l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n a few d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s randomly s e l e c t e d from A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n America and a comparison i s attempted w i t h c o u n t r i e s s e l e c t e d from N o r t h A m e r i c a , Europe and A u s t r a l i a .  The i n d i c e s o f  c o n d i t i o n o f h o u s i n g i n t h i s r e s p e c t a r e : household d e n s i t y o f occupancy b a t h and t o i l e t  size,  (room) and a v a i l a b i l i t y o f water  facilities.  E x a m i n a t i o n o f T a b l e 2 and F i g u r e 3 b r i n g s o u t the f a c t t h a t an average h o u s e h o l d i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i s s l i g h t l y l e s s than t w i c e as crowded (5.5) as i n developed c o u n t r i e s (3«3)«  T h i s p i c t u r e appears  clearly  f o c u s s e d , i f viewed i n t h e l i g h t o f room d e n s i t y (persons p e r room).  An average room, i t appears, i s  more than t h r e e times as crowded i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s as i n developed c o u n t r i e s : an average o f .9 persons  live  i n a room i n West Germany, p o o r e s t i n t h e f i r s t group compared w i t h 3*1 i n P a k i s t a n , p o o r e s t i n t h e second group.  More than 90 p e r c e n t o f d w e l l i n g s c o n t a i n l e s s  than 1.5 persons p e r room i n developed c o u n t r i e s compared to l e s s t h a n a q u a r t e r o f d w e l l i n g s o f t h e same occupancy i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , t h e p e r c e n t a g e b e i n g as l o w a s  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Department o f Economic and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , S t a t i s t i c a l Yearbook 1964. Seventh I s s u e (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n S e r v i c e , 1965),Pp.652-671  52 10.9 f o r P a k i s t a n and as h i g h as 97.2  f o r Great  Britain.  T h i s says n o t h i n g o f t h e q u a l i t y and s i z e o f rooms and amenities  therein. I n terms o f e s s e n t i a l f a c i l i t i e s i n a d w e l l i n g ,  the s i t u a t i o n i s e q u a l l y poor.  P r o v i s i o n o f p i p e d water  i n s i d e a house i s an e x c e p t i o n i n almost a l l d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s r a t h e r than a r u l e as i n t h e c o u n t r i e s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , Europe, and i n A u s t r a l i a . i n d i c a t e t h e extreme inadequacy  A l l a v a i l a b l e data  o f h o u s i n g and e s s e n t i a l  f a c i l i t i e s i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . ( F i g u r e 3) I t i s s u i t a b l e t o d e s c r i b e some extreme s i t u a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the b i g urban centers o f developing n a t i o n s , the o b j e c t b e i n g t o p o i n t o u t t h e extreme d e v i a t i o n from the average c o n d i t i o n s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p r e d e d i n g  para-  graphs. A l t h o u g h the extreme p o v e r t y o f h o u s i n g and l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n i s p r e v a l e n t both i n u r b a n and r u r a l areas, i t i s i n the urban areas t h a t the d e f i c i e n c y i s a c u t e l y f e l t . I n r u r a l a r e a s , a c q u i r e d wants a r e few, and absence o f e s s e n t i a l u r b a n type f a c i l i t i e s l i k e  piped  water, p u b l i c t o i l e t s , e l e c t r i c i t y and sewerage f a c i l i t i e s '  do n o t c r e a t e h e a l t h h a z a r d s acuteness  as i n u r b a n a r e a s . A l s o ,  o f h o u s i n g p o v e r t y becomes more prominent i n  u r b a n a r e a s because o f t h e c o n t r a s t between poor and rich  housing.  HOUSING AND LIVING CONDITIONS IN SELECTED COUNTRIES  Average s i z e of p r i v a t e househ o l d s (persons per household  COUNTRY  P e r c e n t of D w e l l i n g s (persons p e r room) Average d e n s i t y (person per room)  l e s s than 1.5  Facilities in Dwellings (percent)  1.5 or more  2.0 or more  3.0 or more  Piped water  Bath  Toilet (flush)  Group I United States (1961)  3.3  0.7  96.0  4.0  1.4  0.3  92.9  88.1  89.7  Canada  (1961)  3.9  0.7  94.1  5.1  2.1  0.5  -  80.3  85.2  Great B r i t a i n (1960)  3.0  0.7  97.2  2.8  -  -  98.7  -  93.4  West Germany (1960)  2.9  0.9  91.5  8.5  2.5  0.2  96.7  51.9  75.3  -  0.7  95.3  4.7  1.7  0.4  -  -  Group I I Korea (1960)  5.6  2.5  11.9  88.1  78.1  46.6  Pakistan  5.4  3.1  10.9  89.1  83.7  60.5  U.A.R.(1960) (Urban) Morocco (1960)  4.8  1.6  42.3  57.7  42.0  15.5  4.8  2.2  27.5  72.5  58.8  ' 32.4  52.7  M e x i c o (1960)  6.8  2.9  18.1  81.9  76.2  57.0  23.5  Australia  a.  (1961)  (1960)  12.1  -  -  1.8  -  0.2 -  22.0 20.9  Group I i n c l u d e s developed c o u n t r i e s and Group I I i n c l u d e s d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . b. For the p l a c e s where dashes are marked, no data are a v a i l a b l e . c. For a c c u r a c y and method o f c o l l e c t i o n of d a t a , see notes and f o o t n o t e s on pages 670-671 of the f o l l o w i n g s o u r c e . S o u r c e ; U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Department of Economic and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , S t a t i s t i c a l Yearbook 1964, Seventh I s s u e (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i s h i n g S e r v i c e , 1965) pp. 672-671.  -  QUALITATIVE DEFICIENCY OF HOUSING IN 'DEVELOPING* AND.'DEVELOPED*COUNTRIES D E N S I T Y H O U S E H O L D  S I Z E  O F  OCCUPATION  ( p e i - i o n s p e ^t i o u s e J i o l c t y  R O O M  DE N S I T y  (persons  p e f r o o i n )  2-5  5-5  3-3  0-7  R O O M D E N S I T Y ( p e y c c o l o ^ e of l«S **»°-0 1-5 persons Uvcog U i  room)  22-14  94-8 FACILITIES PIPED  WATER  Cp«feerjkge  I N DWE.LUN6S  of duettos)  294  95-8 &ATH  LEGEND  CP*<"cer>r»ge of eJu>eUt*uJ£)  14-7 D E V E L O P I N G " C O U N T C I E S 73-4 RXUISICLT), U.A.B, Morocco a.nd Mexico ) FLUSH  TOILET  ( pfci-eenkgjB. of eUelUWjs)  0-2 "DEVELOPED" COUNTRIES C A-vercuJe. of iW-ed.  85?  &nJojr>  West 6ertv<evny  EFFECTIVENESS O F SELF-UELP MOUSING: EXPERIENCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  M«£W  Thefts  FIG.  DCvoSO»r> o f Corrvnondy aoct RecjConed. /fca.n0U7<J UNIVEBSITV OF 6RITISH COLUMBIA, V A N C O U V «  SOURCE  OF DATA;  UNITED  NATIONS,  STATISTICAL  YEAB&OQIA.  1964  SEVENTH ISSUE, CNEW YOPK.1 UNITED NATIOMS PUBUCATtON-S, 1965), PP- 6S1-&7I .  3  55 C h a r l e s Abrams p o i n t s out t h a t i n f i v e b i g I n d i a n c i t i e s 60 t o 90 per c e n t o f the w o r k i n g c l a s s f a m i l i e s and 50 p e r c e n t o f the m i d d l e c l a s s f a m i l i e s have been l i v i n g i n s i n g l e rooms and a i r l e s s f l i m s y mud h u t s .  These rooms  s e r v e as " l i v i n g room, bedroom, s i c k room, k i t c h e n and d i n i n g room e t c . , and t o add t o t h i s the number o f persons l i v i n g i n a s i n g l e room ranges from f o u r t o t e n . The s a l l o w c o m p l e x i o n , the emaciated body, the p a l e f a c e s o f  30 the  inmates i m m e d i a t e l y t e l l t h e i r  tale."  A socio-economic s u r v e y o f C a l c u t t a (195^-58) found t h a t t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f households have been l i v i n g i n o v e r crowded c o n d i t i o n s , i . e . , under hO sq. f e e t o f space. "'" A 3  socio-economic s u r v e y o f Bombay (195*+-"56) r e v e a l e d t h a t t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t o t a l f a m i l i e s have been l i v i n g i n an over-crowded a room.  s t a t e , i e . , w i t h more than t h r e e persons t o  A survey o f K a r a c h i i n P a k i s t a n (1959) r e p o r t e d  3 2  527,525 persons o r o n e - f o u r t h o f the c i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n ^0  U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s t a t e d the f a c t u a l d a t a c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s and the f o l l o w i n g f o u r paragraphs are from v a r i o u s s o u r c e s i n C h a r l e s Abrams, "Urban Land Problems and P o l i c i e s , " Housing and Town and C o u n t r y P l a n n i n g . B u l l e t i n 7 (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1953)> PP» 3-58. S . N. Sen, The C i t y o f C a l c u t t a - A S o c i o Economic Survey 195 +~55 t o 1957^8 ( C a l c u t t a : Bookland P r i v a t e L t d . , I960) p . 2&T. 3 1  )  32 D. T. Lakdawala, e t . a l . , M o r k Wages and W e l l B e i n g i n an I n d i a n M e t r o p o l i s - E c o n o m i c Survey o f Bombay, S e r i e s i n Economics NoT 11 (Bombay: U n i v e r s i t y of Bombay, 1963)?p.807.  56 l i v i n g "packed l i k e s a r d i n e s i n c o l o n i e s which a r e disease-ridden."  T h r e e - f o u r t h s o f households i n K a r a c h i  3 3  M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a , as d i s c o v e r e d i n 1959 3^ w a t e r , b a t h and  survey l a c k e d  electricity.  I n I s r a e l , t e n t camps and temporary d w e l l i n g s house t e n s o f thousands o f f a m i l i e s ; i n the new  dwellings  f i v e t o s i x persons t o a room i s n o t uncommon.  I n Turkey,  i t i s n o t u n u s u a l t o f i n d 16 t o 18 p e r s o n s t o be l i v i n g i n one house.  I n M a n i l a , P h i l i p p i n e s , k-0 p e r c e n t o f the  p o p u l a t i o n i s e s t i m a t e d t o have been l i v i n g i n m a k e - s h i f t s h a n t i e s known as  1  barongbaronbs . 1  I n S i n g a p o r e , 13 +-,000 l  p e o p l e l i v e i n s q u a l i d and u n s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s .  In  Hong Kong (1957), 80 p e r c e n t o f h o u s e h o l d s were l i v i n g i n shared accommodation;  160,000 h o u s e h o l d s were l i v i n g i n  c u b i c l e s , bedspaces, c o c k l o f t s and I n the A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s ,  verandahs. Dar-es-Salaam,  T a n g a n y i k a , has an average occupancy f o r A f r i c a n s o f e i g h t p e r s o n s t o a room 16 t o 20 f e e t i n s i z e , the o c c u p a t i o n d e n s i t y b e i n g 12 t o a room i n some c a s e s . A l g i e r s , shanty towns o r ' b i d o n v i l l e s the  1  In  l i e f i v e m i l e s from  c e n t e r o f the c i t y i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s ; each h u t t e n f e e t  L t . C o l . N a z i r Ahmad, S u r v e y o f S h e l t e r l e s s P e r s o n s i n K a r a c h i ( K a r a c h i : Manager o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1959), p.2. 3 3  -> Amjad, A.B. R i z v i , "Housing and L i v i n g C o n d i t i o n s of the P e o p l e s o f K a r a c h i " (paper r e a d a t t h e S e v e n t e e n t h A l l P a k i s t a n S c i e n c e C o n f e r e n c e , K a r a c h i , F e b r u a r y 12-17, 1965), p.5.  57  square, houses an average o f f o u r o r more p e r s o n s and o f t e n a goat as w e l l .  I n Johannesburg, South A f r i c a ,  s p r a w l s q u a t t e r c o l o n i e s a r e a chaos o f shacks and h o v e l s p i e c e d t o g e t h e r by the homeless and d e s t i t u t e . p o o r e r a r e a s o f A c c r a , Ghana, 2.71  I n the  f a m i l i e s l i v e i n an  35 average house l a c k i n g i n e s s e n t i a l f a c i l i t i e s .  This  means an o c c u p a t i o n d e n s i t y o f about 13 p e r s o n s p e r u n i t . A q u a r t e r o f the p o p u l a t i o n i n L a t i n American c i t i e s , such as C a r a c a s , R i o - d e - J a n e i r o , Lima, G u a y a q u i l ,  36 C a l i , M a r a c a i b o , and Bogota l i v e i n slums of  containing types  shacks n o t d i f f e r e n t t o t h o s e which have been p i c t u r e d  above f o r A s i a n c i t i e s .  I n Panama, i t has been r e p o r t e d  t h a t slum c l u s t e r s have houses which a r e b u l g i n g a t t h e seams w i t h as many as 20 i n d i v i d u a l s i n a room ~L$ by feet.  15  I n B o l i v i a , a s i n g l e room i n a crude c a b i n n o t o n l y  s e r v e s one o r more f a m i l i e s b u t the domestic a n i m a l s as well. the  I n M e x i c o , whole c o l o n i e s o f s q u a t t e r s descend upon  l a n d w i t h such speed t h a t t h e y have earned the name  "squatter parachutists".  S e v e n t y p e r c e n t o f the M e x i c a n  houses a r e graded "poor" and 60 p e r c e n t o f B o l i v i a n d w e l l i n g s a r e graded "not h a b i t a b l e " . ^^The U n i t e d N a t i o n s T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Housing M i s s i o n t o Ghana, Housing i n Ghana (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 195777 p. *+9« 3 J . Matos Mar, "The Problems o f Slums i n South A m e r i c a , " E k i s t i c s . 15 No. 90 (May, 1963), p. 26. 6  58 To an o b s e r v e r p e r s o n a l l y a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f such c o u n t r i e s as I n d i a , P a k i s t a n , Lebanon, Turkey and Greece (Greece i s g e o g r a p h i c a l l y i n Europe, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y i n A s i a ) , which do r e p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s o f d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , the s i t u a t i o n appears p o o r e r than the p o o r e s t i m p r e s s i o n a w e s t e r n o b s e r v e r has o f a poor house. I f the same grades o f houses as 'good , ' f a i r ' and 1  'poor' most f r e q u e n t l y used f o r the assessment o f q u a l i t y of houses i n the urban renewal s t u d i e s i n U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada, a r e u t i l i z e d f o r the e v a l u a t i o n o f the q u a l i t y o f houses i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , the houses graded 'poor' i n the former would a l m o s t a l l be p l a c e d under the 'good'  37 or  ' f a i r l y good' c a t e g o r y i n the l a t t e r ,  a fact that  suggests the e x t e n t o f p o v e r t y o f l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f the mass o f the w o r l d ' s p o p u l a t i o n i n A s i a , A f r i c a , and L a t i n America.  B a s e d on the o b s e r v a t i o n s from the a u t h o r ' s a s s o c i a t i o n and a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h the (a) Survey o f S h e l t e r l e s s p e r s o n s i n K a r a c h i 1959, (b) P e o p l e s o f K a r a c h i S u r v e y 1959, ( c ) S u r v e y o f K o r a n g i Township 1960-1961, (d) S u r v e y of B o u r j Hammoud Slum i n B e i r u t , and h i s study o f the Urban Renewal S t u d i e s f o r the c i t i e s o f Canada. J /  59 IV  INADEQUACY OF RESOURCES FOR HOUSING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES For the estimation of resources f o r housing,  some comments can he made w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e e x p e n d i t u r e pattern of f a m i l i e s i n developing countries.  In this  c o n t e x t , i t i s w e l l t o remind o n e s e l f o f t h e well-known E n g e l ' s Law w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t the l o w e r t h e income p e r head t h e greater' t h e p r o p o r t i o n spent on s o - c a l l e d p r i m a r y  38 needs, such as f o o d and s h e l t e r . T h i s s h o u l d n o t l e a d t o t h e happy c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e d e v e l o p i n g economies a r e w e l l p l a c e d w i t h r e s p e c t to s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i n f o o d and h o u s i n g .  The r e a l p o s i t i o n  i s t h a t a b s o l u t e income p e r head ( t e n d o l l a r s a month) i s so meagre, t h a t i t i s a b s o l u t e l y i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r f o o d and  39 shelter.  Even i f n e a r l y a l l p e r s o n a l income i s spent on  f o o d and h o u s i n g , i t would s t i l l be a s m a l l f r a c t i o n o f what i s r e q u i r e d ( a s f u r t h e r e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g paragraphs).  As such, t h e problem o f hunger and t h a t o f  l i v i n g c o n t i n u e s t o haunt t h e d e v e l o p i n g  economies.  L e i b e n s t e i n , o p . c i t . ? p. ^ 2 . 39  The r e c e n t f i n d i n g (Haque, o p . c i t . , p. 112.) t h a t a l o w income l e s s p r o d u c t i v e r e g i o n generates h i g h e r s a v i n g s than r e l a t i v e l y h i g h income and more p r o d u c t i v e r e g i o n s ( E a s t and West P a k i s t a n b e i n g cases i n p o i n t ) , does n o t h e l p because a b s o l u t e s a v i n g i s t o o s a m l l t o b e o f any v a l u e f o r t h e purposes o f i n v e s t m e n t i n s h e l t e r .  60 In t h e U n i t e d Arab R e p u b l i c , t h e p e r c a p i t a annual income i s f o u r E g y p t i a n Pounds.  On t h e b a s i s o f a f a m i l y  s i z e o f s i x , t h e c o s t o f t h e r e q u i r e d 2.8 m i l l i o n minimum s t a n d a r d houses would be l'+OO m i l l i o n E g y p t i a n pounds. Assuming t h a t 20 p e r c e n t o f t h e f a m i l y income i s a v a i l a b l e for  a house ( a l t h o u g h t h i s i s t o o h i g h an a s s u m p t i o n ) ,  t h i s would mean an annual c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t o f £E +.8 p e r 1  family.  On t h i s a c c o u n t , a house t o be p a i d f o r , i n over  20 y e a r s s a y two p e r c e n t i n t e r e s t must n o t c o s t more than £E 83.  As a g a i n s t t h i s , t h e minimum e s t i m a t e d c o s t o f a hO  modest house would be about £E 500.  This i s equivalent  to 100 times t h e annual p e r s o n a l income, 20 t i m e s t h e annual f a m i l y income o r about 100 t i m e s t h e 20 p e r c e n t of  t h e f a m i l y income a v a i l a b l e f o r a house. The E g y p t i a n p o s i t i o n i s f a i r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  of d e v e l o p i n g economies. The above f a c t s speak i n c l e a r terms how d i f f i c u l t i t i s f o r t h e d e v e l o p i n g economies to m o b i l i z e s u f f i c S e ^ t c a p i t a l r e s o u r c e s f o r t h e s o l u t i o n of t h e i r h o u s i n g problem, '^hat i s more s e r i o u s i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e a r e no immediate p r o s p e c t s o f t h e improvement o f t h e p r e v a i l i n g  conditions.  ^ORaSsan F a t h y , " R u r a l S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g " ,  13, No. 80 (June, 1962), pp. 398-HOl.  Ekisties,  61  Assuming t h a t the most developed among t h e d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s manoeuvre t h e i r economies through some m a g i c a l e f f o r t s o r e x t e r n a l a i d ( e . g . , I s r e a l ) and succeed i n i n c r e a s i n g p e r c a p i t a income t o , say, f o u r t i m e s t h e *fl present l e v e l ,  the absolute equivalent a v a i l a b l e f o r  h o u s i n g would s t i l l be i n s u f f i c i e n t .  Even t h e d e v e l o p e d  economies which have as h i g h as 1 0 t o 1 5 times t h e p r e s e n t l e v e l o f incomes o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g economies have t o r e s o r t to  l e g i s l a t i v e r e l a x a t i o n s , t a x exemptions  and s u b s i d i e s t o  keep a r e a s o n a b l e b a l a n c e between t h e demand f o r and s u p p l y of  housing. What a d e v e l o p i n g economy s h o u l d a f f o r d f o r a  h o u s i n g t a s k o f so b i g a magnitude as d i s c u s s e d i n p r e d e d i n g pages can be w e l l v i s u a l i z e d t h r o u g h K r o t k i ' s c o n c l u s i o n s from h i s demographic s t u d y o f P a k i s t a n :  A l t h o u g h i n t h e eyes o f economic t h e o r i s t s , t h i s i s t o o amusing an assumption. F o r example, based on the Rostow Model o f l o n g - t e r m growth o f P a k i s t a n , Haque c o n t e m p l a t e s t h e p e r c a p i t a income c a n r i s e from t h e p r e s e n t R s . 3 0 0 ($60) t o Rs.600 ( $ 1 2 0 ) i n 1 9 8 5 , w h i l e R u s s i a n model can b r i n g a t h r e e times r i s e i n p e r c a p i t a income, i . e . , Rs900 ( $ 1 8 0 ) by t h e y e a r 1 9 8 5 . (Haque, o p . c i t . . pp. 1 * 4 - 1 5 ) . T h i s s t i l l i s around o n e - t e n t h o f t h e p e r c a p i t a income o f t h e d e v e l p e d c o u n t r i e s . The grim a s p e c t o f the m a t t e r i s t h a t t h e v i g o u r o f t h e f i v e t o t e n y e a r p l a n s l e a v e t h e economy t o t h e s i t u a t i o n o f f i v e t o ten y e a r s b e f o r e t h e end o f t h e p l a n p e r i o d s because, as i n many c a s e s , t h e demographic b e h a v i o u r remains c o n t r a r y t o t h a t p r e d i c t e d by t h e p l a n s ; a d d i t i o n a l numbers e a t up t h e i n t e r v e n i n g a d d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t s brought o u t by t h e p l a n s .  62 ...the r e s u l t s o f 1961 p o p u l a t i o n census and conc e i v a b l y also the r e s u l t s o f the e a r l i e r housing census, i f p u b l i s h e d f u l l y and w i t h o u t lumping, a r e bound t o throw l i g h t on t h e c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n . To double t h e s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g i n l e s s t h a n a c e n t u r y . . . w i l l need a n o t h e r h p e r c e n t o f t h e n a t i o n a l income o r a l t o g e t h e r 16 p e r c e n t . There a r e no underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s which c a n p r o v i d e s a v i n g o f t h e i r own on such a s c a l e t o a c h i e v e t h e modest o b j e c t i v e s o f d o u b l i n g t h e n a t i o n a l income i n l e s s than a c e n t u r y . ^ 2 T h i s i s most p r o b a b l y so because, above a l l , "economic p r o g r e s s " as s a i d Nurske, " i s n o t an a u t o m a t i c o r spontaneous  affair."  J  Further prospects i n favour o f p r i o r i t y housing i n most c o u n t r i e s do n o t appear t o be more than b l e a k , because o t h e r problems l i k e s h o r t a g e s o f f o o d and defence a r e so p r e s s i n g t h a t h o u s i n g n o t o n l y does n o t —  and might n o t --  r e c e i v e t h e p r i o r i t y i t d e s e r v e s i n budgetary a l l o c a t i o n s and p l a n s , b u t a l s o t h a t i t s p r i o r i t y s t a t u s i s l o w e r e d f o r t h e good o f t h e n a t i o n s . P a k i s t a n , f o r example, d e s p i t e t h e g r e a t h o u s i n g d e f i c i e n c y had t o decrease t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f a l l o c a t i o n i n h o u s i n g and s e t t l e m e n t s s e c t o r s from 15 p e r c e n t i n the second p l a n (1960-196h) t o 10 p e r c e n t i n t h e t h i r d p l a n (1965-1969).  The t h i r d p l a n contemplates development  ^ C a r o l J . K r o t k i , "A F i r s t G l a n c e a t P a k i s t a n ' s Age D i s t r i b u t i o n , " The P a k i s t a n Development Review, 1,  No. 1 (Summer, 196lT7"p. 75*  C e l s o F u r t a d o , " C a p i t a l F o r m a t i o n and Economic Development," The Economics o f Underdevelopment, e d i t e d by A.N. Agarwala and S.P. S i n g h T N e w Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963), P.313. ^  Haque, o p . c i t . , p. ^0.  63 o f 300,000 p l o t s which i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t o f two c i t i e s , K a r a c h i and Lahore a l o n e t h a t account f o r o n e - t h i r t i e t h of the country's p o p u l a t i o n . The  s i t u a t i o n i n regard to resources f o r housing  i s n o t much d i f f e r e n t among o t h e r d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s .  In  Burma, a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a m i n i s t r y o f h o u s i n g , due t o l i m i t e d b u d g e t a r y a l l o c a t i o n and need f o r s u b s i d i e s , h o u s i n g has n o t k e p t pace w i t h r e q u i r e m e n t s .  In Malaysia,  combined e f f o r t s o f t h e l o c a l government a u t h o r i t i e s and the p r i v a t e s e d t o r a r e s t i l l  short o f the t o t a l  requirement.  I n t h e urban h o u s i n g a r e a , I n d i a e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y p u t "maximum e f f o r t s " i n t h e y e a r 1951-1961, b u t t h e r e s u l t :  hardly  t h r e e m i l l i o n o u t o f a b a c k l o g o f 8.9 m i l l i o n u n i t s c o u l d be b u i l t .  I n d o n e s i a has a s h o r t a g e o f f o u r m i l l i o n  d w e l l i n g u n i t s , but the resources h a r d l y warrant the a t t a i n ^5  ment o f o n e - f o u r t h o f t h e speed r e q u i r e d . D e s p i t e t h e g r e a t performance  i n the area of low-  c o s t h o u s i n g (50,000 u n i t s i n t h e p e r i o d 1959-1963) i n K o r a n g i and N o r t h K a r a c h i townships o f K a r a c h i , . P a k i s t a n , ^6 r e s o u r c e s a r e absent f o r a n o t h e r IM-5,000 u n i t s r e q u i r e d .  1+5 United Nations, I n d u s t r i a l . . . Materials (1961), p a s s i m . I . H u s a i n , M. A f z a l and A.A.B. R i z v i , S o c i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e P e o p l e o f K a r a c h i . Monographs i n t h e Economics o f Development No. (Karachi: Pakistan I n s t i t u t e o f Development Economics, O c t o b e r , 1965), p.125  eh Among t h e A s i a n c o u n t r i e s , even t h e most p r o s p e r o u s Japan f a i l e d t o c a t c h up w i t h t h e h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e . I n A f r i c a , " i t would seem t h a t i n some c a s e s the p r e s e n t e f f o r t s were s u f f i c i e n t t o s a t i s f y o n l y about 1+7  o n e - t h i r d o f t h e e s t i m a t e d need. Ghanaian  scene  A c l o s e observer o f the  states:  There i s a l a c k o f c a p i t a l f o r w o r k i n g funds f o r t h e g r e a t p o r t i o n o f t h e h o u s i n g market which l i e s below t h e upper income 5 p e r c e n t o f popul a t i o n . .. Hanging o v e r t h e whole h o u s i n g problem i s t h e problem o f n a t i o n a l i n v e s t m e n t -- d e v e l o p ment p l a n n e r s may n o t f r e e l y d i p i n t o t h e c o u n t r y ' s s c a r c e c a p i t a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s t o " s t a n d a r d i z e " h o u s i n g i n a b i g wayA° I n L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s as a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d , t h e p r e s e n t r e s o u r c e s c a n h a r d l y ensure o n e - t e n t h o f t h e e s t i m a t e d annual r e q u i r e m e n t o f 12 d w e l l i n g u n i t s p e r thousand  inhabitants. To c o n c l u d e , t h e e s t i m a t e , as d i s c u s s e d i n t h e  p r e c e d i n g pages t h a t an annual o u t p u t o f 2k m i l l i o n d w e l l i n g  ? U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , R e p o r t o f t h e M e e t i n g o f E x p e r t s on Housing Problems i n A d d i s Ababa, E t h i o p i a , 9-17 June 1963 (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , J a n u a r y 1963)? p. 7. George Nez, N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l Development P l a n Purpose and P r o c e d u r e ( A c c r a , Ghana: U n i t e d N a t i o n s R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g M i s s i o n , May 18, 1962), p.7» ^9 loc.cit.  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , R e p o r t . . . 1962 (1963),  65 u n i t s o r t e n d w e l l i n g u n i t s p e r thousand p o p u l a t i o n a r e r e q u i r e d i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , can be compared w i t h the h o u s i n g o u t p u t c u r r e n t l y b e i n g a t t a i n e d by the economies:  except f o r S o v i e t Union  developed  (12.^-), F e d e r a l  R e p u b l i c o f Germany ( 1 0 . 1 ) , S w i t z e r l a n d ( 9 . 3 ) » a l l o t h e r d e v e l o p e d economies b u i l d houses a t a r a t e which i s l e s s 50  t h a n seven u n i t s p e r thousand  inhabitants.  This i s  enough t o j u s t i f y the c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n i n r e g a r d t o t h e complete p a u c i t y o f r e s o u r c e s f o r h o u s i n g i n the d e v e l o p i n g economies. The p a r a d o x i c a l s c a r c i t y o f economic r e s o u r c e s and the e n o r m i t y o f the t a s k e x p l a i n the r e a s o n why  one  wonders i f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g can be one o f the i m p o r t a n t i f n o t the o n l y —  —  r a t i o n a l e x p e d i e n t under the a f o r e -  mentioned c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h the d e v e l o p i n g economies are p l a c e d . V  CHAPTER SUMMARY  The c o u n t r i e s o f A s i a , A f r i c a , and L a t i n  America  which have low p e r c a p i t a income compared w i t h the c o u n t r i e s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , Europe and A u s t r a l i a by v i r t u e o f t h e i r b e i n g engaged i n the p r o c e s s o f development a r e i d e n t i f i e d as " d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . "  As d i s t i n c t from the  "developed  c o u n t r i e s " , the " d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s " a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d  5  ° I b i d * J P«  13.  66 by l o w income p o p u l a t i o n , d i s g u i s e d unemployment, l o w s a v i n g and i n v e s t m e n t p o t e n t i a l , poor h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s , crude t e c h n o l o g y and r e s i s t a n c e t o c u l t u r a l change which i n h i b i t t h e i r r a p i d development. There i s an a c u t e d e f i c i e n c y — and q u a l i t a t i v e —  both q u a n t i t a t i v e  o f housing i n developing  countries. A  s h o r t a g e o f 392 m i l l i o n houses - 291 m i l l i o n i n A s i a , 53 m i l l i o n i n A f r i c a and h-Q m i l l i o n i n L a t i n A m e r i c a - i s estimated  f o r t h e p e r i o d 1960-1975.  An e s t i m a t e d  annual  o u t p u t o f 2*+ m i l l i o n d w e l l i n g u n i t s - 18 m i l l i o n i n A s i a and about t h r e e m i l l i o n each i n A f r i c a and L a t i n A m e r i c a o r an average o f t e n d w e l l i n g u n i t s p e r thousand are r e q u i r e d t o be b u i l t d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d This d e f i c i t , estimated  population  1960-1975.  on t h e b a s i s o f the minimum needs  o f s h e l t e r a c c o u n t s f o r t h e extreme p o v e r t y conditions p r e v a i l i n g i n the developing  of housing  countries.  On t h e o t h e r hand, a house b u i l d i n g t a s k o f such a magnitude i s beyond t h e combined p u b l i c and p r i v a t e resources  o f the developing  economies.  I n order t o b u i l d  a modest house, an average f a m i l y has t o devote 100 the 20 p e r c e n t o f i t s income (though a v e r y assumption) t h a t i s e s t i m a t e d  times  generous  t o be e q u i v a l e n t t o what i s  r e q u i r e d f o r t h e purpose. Even i f t h e d e v e l o p i n g doubling  economies succeed i n  t h e i r n a t i o n a l income i n a g e n e r a t i o n  t a s k o f monumental p r o p o r t i o n s )  —  o r so, (a  the absolute per c a p i t a  67 income would s t i l l be a l m o s t o n e - e i g h t h o f t h a t o f t h e developed world,  so t h a t n e i t h e r t h e maximum p u b l i c n o r  maximum p r i v a t e e f f o r t s can guarantee the m e e t i n g o f t h e housing d e f i c i e n c y i n the conceivable The  estimated  future.  annual o u t p u t o f 2k m i l l i o n o r  t e n d w e l l i n g u n i t s p e r thousand i n h a b i t a n t s , r e q u i r e d i n the d e v e l o p i n g  c o u n t r i e s , c a n be compared w i t h t h e p e r -  formance o f developed c o u n t r i e s : u n i t s p e r thousand i n h a b i t a n t s .  four to s i x dwelling Thus, even t h e developed  economies w i t h income t e n t i m e s h i g h e r  than that of d e v e l -  o p i n g economies do n o t keep up w i t h t h e h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e . As t h e p o s i t i o n s t a n d s ,  the s o l u t i o n to t h i s  dilemma l i e s e i t h e r i n (a) combining e f f o r t s w i t h monetary i n p u t s o r , (b) d i v o r c i n g monetary i n p u t s from e f f o r t s . As seen, t h e f i r s t a l t e r n a t i v e i s d i f f i c u l t — o f achievement;  i f not  impossible  —  t h e second i s , under-  standably,  n o t o n l y p o s s i b l e b u t may be f e a s i b l e through  the community development e x p e d i e n t s e l f - h e l p housing.  t h e concept o f  CHAPTER IV  EVALUATION OF SELF-HELP HOUSING PROGRAMS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  I  RECOGNITION OF SELF-HELP HOUSING METHOD AT INTERNATIONAL LEVEL VIS-A-VIS DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 1  "Spontaneous" as a g a i n s t " f o r m a l " o r " g u i d e d " s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g has been a w o r l d - w i d e t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t y that continues also i n the present times. and McCabe e s t i m a t e d t h a t i n 1950  Crane  a t l e a s t two hundred  m i l l i o n f a m i l i e s , by t r a d i t i o n , and o f n e c e s s i t y o r by c h o i c e b u i l t t h e i r houses —  h u t s , c a b i n s , shacks, 2  houses —  i n v a r i o u s forms. D u r i n g t h e p a s t f o r t y y e a r s , two w o r l d wars, an  economic d e p r e s s i o n and demographic and u r b a n i z a t i o n r e v o l u t i o n s have a g g r a v a t e d the w o r l d h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e . Many governments have been l o o k i n g f o r p o l i c i e s and measures t h a t would h e l p . Among t h e many measures adopted i n v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s a f t e r t h e Second W o r l d War, one was a guided form o f t r a d i t i o n a l s e l f - h e l p , t h a t i s t h e 1  The word " r e c o g n i t i o n " i s used h e r e i n t h e c o n t e x t o f : " t o acknowledge f o r m a l l y , " o r " t o admit b e i n g o f a p a r t i c u l a r s t a t u s . " ( P h i l i p Babcock Gove, W e b s t e r s T h i r d New I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y ( S p r i n g f i e l d , Mass: G. & C. Merriman Co., 1963).p. 1896. * 1  Jacob L. Crane and R o b e r t E. McCabe, "Programs i n A i d o f F a m i l y H o u s e b u i l d i n g , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour Review, L X I No. k ( A p r i l 1950), p. 368.  69. : manipulative or aided s e l f - h e l p .  Among t h e c o u n t r i e s  b e n e f i t t e d were C r e e c e , t h e U n i t e d Kingdon, P u e r t o R i c o , I t a l y , t h e N e t h e r l a n d s , t h e U n i o n o f South A f r i c a , t h e S o v i e t U n i o n and even t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f America. S i n c e t h e n , t h e method has g a i n e d c o n s i d e r a b l e p o p u l a r i t y as a s o l u t i o n t o h o u s i n g problems i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . The r e c e n t upsurge o f i n t e r e s t i n s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g has a r i s e n due t o t h r e e r e a s o n s :  as p o i n t e d o u t  i n C h a p t e r I I I , t h e growing development-mindedness o f t h e newly emerged n a t i o n s ; t h e i n c r e a s i n g i n v o l v e m e n t o f western c o u n t r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a i n t h e socio-economic  development and p o l i t i c a l  d i r e c t i o n o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s and t h e i n c r e a s i n g r o l e o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s and i t s s p e c i a l i z e d  agencies  i n t h e a r e a o f community development and s o c i a l w e l f a r e . The i n t e r e s t i n s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g methods among newly emerged n a t i o n s has a r i s e n from a d e s i r e t o m o b i l i z e i n d i g e n o u s r e s o u r c e s t o t h e maximum, and t o move away from dependence on f o r e i g n - a i d and l o a n e d c a p i t a l .  The method  has appealed t o developed n a t i o n s v i s - a - v i s d e v e l o p i n g ones, because t h e i n i t i a l e x p e r i e n c e has e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t i t can ensure optimum use o f t h e i r c a p i t a l i n p u t . The concern o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s f o r s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g goes as f a r back as t h e l a t e f o r t i e s , when on t h e recommendation o f t h e Economic and S o c i a l Commission, a s e r i e s o f s t u d i e s was u n d e r t a k e n  on t h e s u b j e c t . I n  70 1950,  a m i s s i o n o f e x p e r t s was a p p o i n t e d by t h e U n i t e d  N a t i o n s t o i n v e s t i g a t e l o w - c o s t h o u s i n g i n s o u t h and s o u t h east A s i a .  The m i s s i o n impressed upon t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s  as f o l l o w s : S e l f - h e l p method i s t h e o l d e s t and most w i d e l y a p p l i e d o f a l l methods o f p r o d u c i n g s h e l t e r . . . a i d e d s e l f - h e l p c a n do more t o reduce money c o s t and t o a c h i e v e h i g h e r s t a n d a r d s than any o t h e r c o m b i n a t i o n o f f i n a n c e and technology.3 I n t h e same p e r i o d an i n t e r n a t i o n a l m e e t i n g o f t r o p i c a l h o u s i n g e x p e r t s was h e l d i n C a r a c a s , V e n e z u e l a . S u b s e q u e n t l y an i n t e g r a t e d program was f o r m u l a t e d w i t h t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s and some non-governmental agencies.  By 1952,  i t was r e a l i z e d  that:  P r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n t o t h e c r u s h i n g problem o f t r o p i c a l h o u s i n g must... combine t h e i n i t i a t i v e and r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s o f t h e p e o p l e , t h e r a t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f l o c a l m a t e r i a l s and s k i l l s , t h e s o c i a l advantage o f group work, and t h e b e s t use o f r e s o u r c e s and t e c h n i c a l knowledge a v a i l a b l e . The U n i t e d N a t i o n s has devoted i t s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e a r e a o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g i n t h e form o f guidance and  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Low C o s t Housing i n South and South E a s t A s i a . R e p o r t o f a M i s s i o n o f E x p e r t s (New Y o r k : Department o f S o c i a l A f f a i r s , 195D, p. 28. 1+ U n i t e d N a t i o n s , "Housing i n t h e T r o p i c s , " Housing and Town and C o u n t r y P l a n n i n g B u l l e t i n , ' 6 (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1952), p.2.  71  t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e l o w - c o s t h o u s i n g programs i n the d e v e l o p i n g  countries.  I n 1959,  t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s Economic and S o c i a l  C o u n c i l , i n connection  w i t h a l o n g range c o n c e r t e d  program  o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t i o n i n t h e f i e l d o f h o u s i n g recommended that: The program s h o u l d emphasize t h e r u l e o f p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s i n d i r e c t i n g and c o o r d i n a t i n g h o u s i n g a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l as t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n which s e l f h e l p m u t u a l a i d , c o o p e r a t i v e and s i m i l a r methods can make t o t h e t o t a l e f f o r t . 5 During  the l a s t f i f t e e n years  s e l f - h e l p housing,  as an e x p e d i e n t , has appeared on t h e agenda o f almost a l l the m e e t i n g s o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s , h e l d on t h e s u b j e c t o f h o u s i n g and p l a n n i n g . i n October 1958,  F o r example, i n one o f t h e m e e t i n g s  i t was r e a l i z e d t h a t a s s i s t a n c e t o d e v e l -  o p i n g n a t i o n s s h o u l d aim a t m o b i l i z i n g , t o t h e f u l l e s t  extent,  a l l t h e a v a i l a b l e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e r e s o u r c e s , " i n c l u d i n g resources  o u t s i d e t h e b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y and, i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  the e f f o r t s o f t h e p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s . " T h i s aim was f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d  i n 1961-1962  when t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l c a t e g o r i c a l l y s t a t e d t h a t t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l programs i n  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Long Range Program o f C o n c e r t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l A c t i o n i n t h e F i e l d o f Low-Cost H o u s i n g and R e l a t e d F a c i l i t i e s , S e c r e t a r y G e n e r a l ' s R e p o r t (New Y o r k : Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , 1959), p . l . I b i d . , p.2.  72 housing are meant " f o r the purpose  inter a l i a , of mobili-  z i n g s e l f - h e l p , mutual and c o o p e r a t i o n methods f o r housing and f o r urban development programTes."  7  During the year 1961-1962, n i n e t e e n p r o j e c t s of  the s e l f - h e l p type were approved 8  and i n i t i a t e d ,  by the U n i t e d N a t i o n s  a f a c t t h a t suggests t h a t what was f i r s t  a f o r m a l i n t e r e s t o f the i n t e r n a t i o n a l body was e f f e c t i v e l y instrumentalized. D u r i n g the same p e r i o d , among other programs, a comprehensive f a c t - f i n d i n g  survey and e v a l u a t i o n o f s e l f -  h e l p housing methods and p r a c t i c e s was undertaken i n s e l e c t e d c o u n t r i e s o f A s i a , and A f r i c a .  T h i s was substan-  t i a t e d by a workshop on the e x t e n s i o n o f s e l f - h e l p  housing  and community f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n community development programs i n A f r i c a .  A m i s s i o n o f experts belonging to  the U n i t e d N a t i o n s was p r o v i d e d to f u l f i l 9 l v e , as p a r t o f the program.  the above o b j e c t -  The ' I n t e r e s t o f 'the U n i t e d R a t i o n s i n the s u b j e c t of  s e l f - h e l p housing has n o t been merely  theoretical.  P r a c t i c a l i n t e r e s t i n terms o f t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e and f i n a n c i a l support has been demonstrated  i n many cases.  'United N a t i o n s , P r o g r e s s Made by the U n i t e d N a t i o n s i n the S o c i a l F i e l d During the P e r i o d 1 January 1959 - 31 December I960 and P r o p o s a l s f o r the Program o f Work 1961-1963 (New York: Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , 1961, p.29.  Ibid  73  Through the recommendations o f e x p e r t committees on H o u s i n g , B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g , the r e l e v a n t governments have been a d v i s e d on the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f a d o p t i n g  concerted  h o u s i n g programs and i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f s e l f - h e l p e f f o r t s i n such programs. publications.  I t has a l s o been s e l l i n g the i d e a I n 196^,  were p u b l i s h e d :  one was  two  through  s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g manuals  a handbook f o r v i l l a g e  workers ^ 1  ( p u b l i s h e d i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the S t a f f o f Oceana Publications;  11  the o t h e r was  a h i g h l y i n f o r m a t i v e manual 12  f o r those i n t e r e s t e d i n c a r r y i n g out such programs. The U n i t e d N a t i o n s i n t e r e s t was n o t c o n f i n e d t o A s i a n and A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s . was  s p e c i f i c a l l y addressed  One  o f i t s recommendations  to the L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s .  F o r example, a U n i t e d N a t i o n s sponsored L a t i n American Seminar, h e l d i n Mar  d e l P l a t a , A r g e n t i n a i n 1963?  says  i n vehement terms: In developing c o u n t r i e s p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s should e s t a b l i s h an e f f i c i e n t agency t o g i v e s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o s e l f - h e l p and c o r e h o u s i n g u s i n g . . . local materials. 3  1 0 t V i l l a g e ' says the t i t l e may b o t h r u r a l and urban communities.  be t a k e n t o mean  " ^ U n i t e d N a t i o n s , S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g . A Handbook f o r V i l l a g e Workers (New York:Oceana P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c . , 196*+). 12  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Manual on S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , l$6h). 13  (New  U n i t e d N a t i o n s . P r o v i s i o n a l R e p o r t o f the L a t i n American Seminar on H o u s i n g S t a t i s t i c s and Programs, h e l d a t Mar d e l P l a t a , A r g e n t i n a , May 196,3 ( U n i t e d N a t i o n s : Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , 1963), p.16.  7h I n s p i t e o f what has been s t a t e d , however, e x c e p t f o r t h e t e c h n i c a l and some s p o r a d i c m a t e r i a l s u p p o r t , t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l and e f f o r t s , a p p l i e d so f a r , have been i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n p r o p o r t i o n t o what a r e r e q u i r e d t o b r i n g about an e f f e c t i v e m o b i l i z a t i o n o f i n i t i a l  self-help  endeavours. I n d i v i d u a l c o u n t r i e s o f t h e West have a l s o been instrumental i n g i v i n g assistance i n s e l f - h e l p housing e f f o r t s where they formed p a r t o f t h e community development programs.  The a s s i s t a n c e has been i n two forms:  i n t h e form  o f guidance whereby e x p e r t s a r e s e n t t o conduct s t u d i e s and h e l p l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s c a r r y o u t programs, and m a t e r i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n terms o f d o l l a r s . As an i l l u s t r a t i o n , out o f a t o t a l o f 190.6 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s w o r t h o f l o a n and g r a n t s u p p o r t g i v e n by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Agency f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development (USAID) i n t h e budget year from 30th June I960 t o t h e 30th June 1963, f o r t h e h o u s i n g s e c t o r , t h e breakdown o f s u p p o r t f o r t h e v a r i o u s components has been as f o l l o w s : U.S. d o l l a r s A i d e d s e l f - h e l p and slum c l e a r a n c e e t c Community f a c i l i t i e s commitments .. Seed c a p i t a l t o h o u s i n g f i n a n c e institutions T o t a l D o l l a r A i d Support  102.6  million  M+.9  million  k$,l m i l l i o n 19°.6 m i l l i o n  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l Program on H o u s i n g B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g , R e p o r t by t h e S e c r e t a r y G e n e r a l (New Y o r k : Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , 196 *), p. 10. 1  75 S e p a r a t e f i g u r e s f o r e x p e n d i t u r e made by USAID on s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g have n o t been a v a i l a b l e .  On t h e assumption  t h a t h a l f o f t h e 102.6 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s a l l o c a t e d t o slum c l e a r a n c e and s e l f - h e l p , comes t o t h e l a t t e r s e c t o r , one can r e a c h a c o n c l u s i o n as t o t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t h e program. The U n i t e d S t a t e s d o l l a r a s s i s t a n c e i s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i n d i r e c t s t i m u l u s p r o v i d e d by t h e Peace Corps and t h r o u g h a i d e d g r a n t s and l o a n s advanced t o s o c i a l work and t h e r e c e n t l y d e v e l o p i n g community development programs, which a l s o c o v e r s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g t o some degree.  During  t h e same p e r i o d , 89.90 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s worth o f c a p i t a l was advanced by t h e USAID i n t h e a r e a o f community d e v e l -  15  opment. A l s o , such U n i t e d N a t i o n s a g e n c i e s as t h e World H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n (WHO), t h e Food and A g r i c u l t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n (FAO), t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s R e l i e f and Reh a b i l i t a t i o n A g e n c i e s (UNRRA) and such o t h e r a g e n c i e s as t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n o f American S t a t e s (OAS), t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development A s s o c i a t i o n ( I D A ) , and I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Housing and P l a n n i n g C e n t e r (CINVA), have been p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n , and a t t i m e s , i n i t i a t i n g s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g e f f o r t s i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , and advancing m a t e r i a l  support  where needed."^ ^ I b i d . , p. 16. 16 The d o l l a r s u p p o r t o f t h e s e a g e n c i e s and t h e o u t p u t o f t h e s e s u p p o r t s a r e subsumed under broad programs o f s o c i a l and economic development o f which s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g remains a component p a r t . As such s e p a r a t e d a t a a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e .  76 The I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Housing and P l a n n i n g C e n t e r (CINVA) a t Bogota i s s u p e r v i s e d by the U n i t e d N a t i o n s .  It  p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n the p r o p a g a t i o n o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g programs.  I t conducts s t u d i e s and r e s e a r c h on the  s u b j e c t , g i v e s guidance t o i n t e r e s t e d a g e n c i e s , o r g a n i z e s c o u r s e s and seminars and " f u r n i s h e s and a n a l y s e s exchange of e x p e r i e n c e s i n o r d e r t o a r r i v e a t c o n c l u s i o n s f o r the f o r m u l a t i o n o f g e n e r a l recommendations f o r s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g programs, f o r t h e p r o m o t i o n o f p i l o t p r o j e c t s , o r 17 f o r demonstration p r o j e c t s . " I n 196*+, the U n i t e d N a t i o n s b u i l t up an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l program f o r the guidance o f c o u n t r i e s embarking upon the l a r g e s c a l e s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g program. program i s summarized i n F i g u r e Number  The  h.  The f i g u r e emphasizes the need f o r a s e p a r a t e s p e c i a l i z e d s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g agency i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s w i t h i n the o v e r a l l framework o f a n a t i o n a l h o u s i n g program. The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l framework, i t i s proposed by the a u t h o r s , s h o u l d i t s e l f be b u i l t up on the team work concept:  1? Pan American U n i o n , Department o f S o c i a l A f f a i r s , S e l f - H e l p Housing Guide (Bogota: I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Housing and P l a n n i n g C e n t e r , 1962), p . l .  77 I t i s t h i s team approach t h a t g i v e s t h e program a uniqueness r e q u i r i n g s p e c i a l techniques, o f t e n r e s u l t i n g i n t h e development o f p e r s o n n e l w i t h such a broad o u t l o o k t h a t they a r e o f t e n i n d u c e d by o t h e r departments t o work f o r them a t h i g h e r wages. T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e s h o u l d n o t o n l y be a t r a i n i n g program f o r p e r s o n n e l who w i l l manage and s u p e r v i s e t h e p r o j e c t s , b u t a c o n t i n u o u s program t o p r o v i d e q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n n e l who c a n f i l l t h e s t a f f p o s t s a t a l l times.18 I n s h o r t , i t i s suggested,  as p o i n t e d o u t e l s e -  where i n t h e same c o n t e x t , t h a t i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s e f f i c i e n t t r a i n i n g and management a g e n c i e s s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d t o guide s e l f - h e l p programs. The  above d i s c u s s i o n suggests t h a t t h e r e i s an  i n c r e a s i n g awareness i n t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s and some o f the developed  c o u n t r i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n t e r e s t e d i n  the development o f d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , f o r t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g programs.  The i n t e r e s t has been  m a n i f e s t e d i n terms o f m a t e r i a l a i d , p r o p a g a t i o n media, and t e c h n i c a l and a d v i s o r y guidance.  C l e a r l y , i t appears  t h a t t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f p r a c t i c a l i n t e r e s t i s based on the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g i s an e f f e c t i v e avenue towards which much o f t h e h o u s i n g e f f o r t s h o u l d be directed.  T h i s augurs w e l l i n view o f t h e f a c t t h a t about  f i f t e e n y e a r s ago t h e r e was h a r d l y any f o r m a l m e n t i o n o f t h e s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g concept  i n p l a n n i n g and -housing documents.  18 U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Manual. .Housing,  (196U-),op.cit. .p.  19 U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Housing and Urban Development, Report o f a Seminar 7-12 F e b r u a r y 1962 (New Y o r k : ) 1962, a b s t r a c t e d i n E k i s t i c s , ! ^ , No. 8 l ( J u l y , 1962), p. 61.  ORGANIZATIONAL FOR  LARGE S C A L E  CHART  MOUSING  PBOGRAWMEC*^) POLICY AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AGENCIES  S E L F - H E L P HOUSING AGENCY  LOW-INCOME FAMILIES  LFGAL  LEGAL AND LAND COUNSEL  LAND PLANNING PHYSICAL SOCIAL AND STATISTICS ECONOMIC REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT  PROGRAMME DIRECTOR  PROJECT PLANNER  WORKS ARCHITECT ENGINEER LAND SURVEYOR BUILDER  ARCHITECT  TEAM SUPERVISOR  ENGINEER  HOUSING ARCHITECT ENGINEER PLANNER - PHYSICAL SOCIOLOGIST ECONOMIST  WATCHMAN  PARTICIPANT  FOREMAN  FAMILIES TEAM BUILDING TRAINEES  BUILDING SCHOOLS AND TRADE UNIONS  GROUP WORKER  COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIAL WELFARE  ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT  SPONSORING AGENCY SELF-HELP HOUSING  NOTE: ALL POSTS WITHIN THE HEAVY LINE COMPRISE THE BASIC SELF-HELP TEAM. OTHERS ARE ADDED AS NEEDED.  EFFECTIVENESS OF SELF-HELP HOUSING EXPERIENCE IN DEVELOPING COONTJUES  APRIL 1966  Divistep  of-  UNIVERSITY  Master's *tiie.pif Co-flrrtvmJy as>oL Ha^onaJ, OF  BRITISH  FIG.  Kowowwr  C O L U M B I A , VANCOUVER  AmjcudL A E> Bi^vt SOUBCE:  UNITEO  NATIONS,  ( N E W YOfcK  UMITBO  MANUAL O N SELF-HELP NATIONS  HOUSINO  P U B L I C A T I O N S , t,6<0,p.51.  4  79 I I EVALUATION OF SELF-HELP HOUSING PROGRAMS AT NATIONAL LEVELS Data on h o u s i n g i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i s e x t r e m e l y i n a d e q u a t e , l e t a l o n e i n f o r m a t i o n on s e l f - h e l p housing.  U n t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y , h o u s i n g was an i n d i v i d u a l  m a t t e r l y i n g "beyond t h e p u b l i c j u r i s d i c t i o n . o f t h e h o u s i n g problem  Recognition  a t n a t i o n a l l e v e l s i s a very recent  phenomenon. A l t h o u g h s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g as an e x p e d i e n t has r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n i n most o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s , i t has n o t y e t been absorbed i n t h e n a t i o n a l h o u s i n g programs.  Programs a r e themselves weak due t o t h e  l a c k o f t h e p r e - r e q u i s i t e l e g i s l a t i v e background  and  presence o f h i g h p r i o r i t y development s e c t o r s such as f o o d , i n f r a - s t r u c t u r e s and d e f e n c e , e t c . On t h e o t h e r hand, spontaneous s e l f - h e l p as  20 p o i n t e d o u t by Crane and McCabe, people.  i s p r e s e n t among t h e  Such t r a d i t i o n a l l y p r e v a l e n t but u n d i r e c t e d  e f f o r t s , v e r y o f t e n , l e a d t o poor h o u s i n g and haphazard slums.  The h i g h c o s t o f l a n d and o f p u b l i c  utilities  and m a t e r i a l s i n c o u n t r i e s s u f f e r i n g from a c h r o n i c d e f i c i e n c y o f c u r r e n c y worsens t h e s t a t e o f a f f a i r s .  Provision  o f i n f r a - s t r u c t u r a l s u p p o r t can encourage i n d i v i d u a l and group i n i t i a t i v e , b u t s u b s t a n t i a l p u b l i c c a p i t a l Crane and McCabe, l o c . c i t .  cannot  80 be m o b i l i z e d i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , a d i r e c t i o n most p r o b a b l y e c o n o m i c a l and d e s i r a b l e b o t h t o governments and beneficiary  households. N a t i o n a l h o u s i n g programs i n d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s  f a l l f a r s h o r t o f what the s c a l e o f the problem they s h o u l d be.  suggest  The l e g i s l a t i v e framework and h o u s i n g  s t a n d a r d s , a t times c r e a t e d t o l e s s e n the problem o f poor h o u s i n g , add t o the p e r p e t u a t i o n o f the problem, as i n d i c a t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g  statement:  There are a l o t o f f a m i l i e s i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s w i t h o u t means. What i s even more i m p o r t a n t , most o f them would be w i l l i n g t o c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r maximum e f f o r t s t o o b t a i n a house... F a m i l i e s around the w o r l d are ready t o t u r n t o s e l f - h e l p , i f the need a r i s e s , but o f t e n h e s i t a t e because o f c o n f u s i o n about new s t a n d a r d s and new b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s i n t r o d u c e d by the Governments which a r e d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l ones.21 I t , t h e r e f o r e , appears t h a t t o o l s d e s i g n e d f o r the s o l u t i o n o f h o u s i n g problems i n h i b i t the r e f i n e m e n t and development o f s e l f - h o u s i n g methods. r e a s o n why  T h i s e x p l a i n s the  the U n i t e d N a t i o n s and a g e n c i e s e x p e r t i n t h e  f i e l d such as CINVA ( C e n t r e I n t e r a m e r i c a n o de V i v i e n d a Y P l a n e a m i e n t o , Bogota) impress upon t h e governments t h e need f o r guidance and encouragement o f such e f f o r t s t h r o u g h the use o f p u b l i c i n i t i a t i v e and r e s o u r c e s . D e s p i t e some o f the p r e v a i l i n g f a c t o r s , i t may  inhibitive  be observed from the s p o r a d i c mention  21 U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Namual... Housing o p . c i t . , p. 8.  (196^),  of  81 the s u b j e c t o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , t h a t t h e r e i s a thorough awareness o f t h e advantages o f t h e method, p a r t i c u l a r l y among t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g nations.  There have been few m a n i f e s t a t i o n s  awareness, b u t t h e s e have been d e f i n i t e .  of this  The method  seems t o be g a i n i n g i n p o p u l a r i t y . PROGRAMS IN THE ASIAN COUNTRIES: India Among t h e c o u n t r i e s o f A s i a , I n d i a f a c e s t h e b i g g e s t h o u s i n g problem.  The s h o r t a g e o f r e s o u r c e s i s  s t i l l a s e r i o u s dilemma.  The community development  e f f o r t s scored  great success during the l a s t f i v e - y e a r  plan periods.  S e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g has been p a r t o f t h i s  movement.  The h i g h l i g h t s o f t h e program o f t h e M i n i s t r y  o f Community Development and C o o p e r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e l a s t few y e a r s have been t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a V o l u n t e e r f o r t h e t o t a l m o b i l i z a t i o n o f human and m a t e r i a l 22  Force  resources  of r u r a l I n d i a . " Many spontaneous group p r a c t i c e s f o r . s o c i a l work i n h e r e n t i n t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a a r e b e i n g f o r example, t h e P a n c h a y a t system.  utilized,  The T h i r d F i v e Y e a r  Plan of India said that: M.V. Ramana Rao ( e d . ) , The S i x t e e n t h Y e a r o f Freedom 1962-63 (New D e l h i : A l l I n d i a Congress Committee, 7 J a n t a r Mantar Road, 196h), P. 31.  82 L o c a l p l a n s a r e v i t a l elements i n t h e success o f Panchayat R a j which p l a c e s i n t h e hands o f the p e o p l e o f each a r e a t h e i n i t i a t i v e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own development and the means and r e s o u r c e s f o r r a p i d advance. 3 2  The P l a n p r o v i d e d 29*- c r o r e s o f Rupees (one 1  c r o r e e q u a l s t e n m i l l i o n u n i t s and one U.S. d o l l a r e q u a l s about f i v e I n d i a n Rupees) f o r such p r o j e c t s . '•Cohesion and mutual s e l f - h e l p w i t h i n t h e community i s one o f t h e i m p o r t a n t t e s t s by which t h e success o f the Panchayat R a j i s measured". No s e p a r a t e s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g program e x i s t s i n I n d i a w i t h i n t h e n a t i o n a l h o u s i n g program.  Whatever  i s b e i n g a c h i e v e d , i s from t h e community development endeavours and t h e many v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s o p e r a t i n g a t t h e l o c a l community l e v e l . D u r i n g t h e l a s t few y e a r s d e m o n s t r a t i o n p r o j e c t s i n I n d i a , as i n some o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , have e i t h e r been i n i t i a t e d o r supported by t h e N a t i o n a l and P r o v i n c i a l Governments.  These i s o l a t e d p r o j e c t s have been  s u c c e s s f u l l y e n g i n e e r e d so t h a t t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s i n g b e l i e f i n t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e method f o r t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e h o u s i n g problem o f 80 m i l l i o n I n d i a n f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n 5\ m i l l i o n s u b - s t a n d a r d  houses.  3 Government o f I n d i a , P l a n n i n g Commission, T h i r d F i v e Year P l a n (New D e l h i : year n o t m e n t i o n e d ) , p. x i y . I b i d . . p. 339.  83 Besides the dissemination o f s e l f - h e l p  housing  e f f o r t s through t h e Panchayat R a j and t h e V o l u n t e e r i n I n d i a , demonstration  Force  p r o j e c t s have been c a r r i e d o u t i n  such urban c e n t e r s as Madras, D e l h i , Lucknow and J a i p u r . The Madras C o r p o r a t i o n s t a r t e d a i d e d s e l f - h e l p projects.  The C o r p o r a t i o n has p r o v i d e d cheap b u i l d i n g  m a t e r i a l s and developed  l a n d , a l l t h e r e s t h a v i n g been  25 c o n t r i b u t e d by t h e p e o p l e .  T  I n Lucknow, f a m i l y e f f o r t s  f a r exceeded t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e p u b l i c i n t h e " c o r e " housing  scheme.  Such p a r t - a s s i s t a n c e schemes a r e common  i n u r b a n I n d i a ; spontaneous schemes a r e c a r r i e d o u t i n rural India.  I n t h e case o f t h e l a t t e r , a Government  p u b l i c a t i o n s a y s : "What i s r e q u i r e d now i s t o encourage and f o s t e r t h e h a b i t o f t h e v i l l a g e r s t o b u i l d h i s own house w i t h l o c a l b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s . "  2 6  I n J a i p u r ( R a j a s t h a n ) , L a r g a r h community has been b u i l t on a s e l f - h e l p b a s i s .  One hundred and e i g h t e e n  houses were b u i l t w i t h t h e h e l p o f guidance m a t e r i a l s p r o v i d e d by t h e government.  and b u i l d i n g  The P r o j e c t proved  t h a t "improved p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n c a n r e s u l t i n m o t i v a t i n g people f o r h i g h e r standard o f l i v i n g . " ' ' 2  2H  * Government o f I n d i a , H o u s i n g i n I n d i a ( D e l h i : P u b l i c a t i o n D i v i s i o n , 1956), p. 31. 2 6  27  I b i d . , p. 2h.  T.K.N. U n n i t h a n and K.B. S i n g h , " S t o r y o f L a l g a r h - A n Experiment i n S e l f - H e l p , " U r b a n and R u r a l P l a n n i n g Thought, I I , No. k- (October, I 9 6 0 ) , p. 201.  8*t-  I n D e l h i , s i x p i l o t p r o j e c t s were i n i t i a t e d w i t h the help o f a Ford Foundation Grant. experience  The r e s u l t i n g  i s s y n t h e s i s e d as f o l l o w s : One o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t f e e l i n g s we have d e v e l o p e d r e l a t e s t o t h e economic a b i l i t y o f slum d w e l l e r s t o u n d e r t a k e s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t s . . . achievements so f a r a r e q u i t e encouraging. In t h r e e o f o u r p r o j e c t s , r e s u l t s have been beyond our e x p e c t a t i o n s ; i n two have met them, and i n one, have f a l l e n s h o r t o f them. ° 2  The  I n d i a n program i s e n c o u r a g i n g ,  but e f f o r t s  are d i r e c t e d towards p i e c e m e a l improvement o f poor w h i c h , as t h e L a l g a r h e x p e r i e n c e o f good r e s u l t s :  housing  shows, i s n o t p r o d u c t i v e  "Such p i e c e m e a l developments a r e n o t  o n l y n o n - b e n e f i c i a l but a l s o w a s t e f u l from  long-term  p o i n t o f view. The  piecemeal s e l f - h e l p housing  efforts i n  I n d i a , as demonstrated by L a l g a r h , N i l o k h e r i and F a r i d a b a d have proved t h a t t h e method i s s u i t a b l e t o t h e I n d i a n c o n d i t i o n and t h a t g i v e n p u b l i c encouragement, i t can work e f f e c t i v e l y . And o f t h i s f a c t t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t awareness among h o u s i n g S e l f - h e l p housing  e x p e r t s and p o l i c y makers.  programs a t n a t i o n a l l e v e l i s s t i l l l a c k i n g ,  ^ B. C h a t t e r j e e , " I n d i a A p p l i e s R u r a l Technique on S e l f - H e l p t o R a p i d l y Growing C i t y Neighbourhoods, J o u r n a l o f H o u s i n g , 18 No. 5 (May 1961), p. 196. 2  29 U n n i t h a n and S i n g h , op_. c i t . , p. 198.  85 Pakistan: I n P a k i s t a n , as i n I n d i a , spontaneous s e l f h e l p a c t i v i t y has been o f t r a d i t i o n a l  c h a r a c t e r . The  i n s t i t u t i o n o f Panchayat has been p a r t o f t h e v i l l a g e social organization.  During the l a s t t e n years, t h e  Government have been t r y i n g t o i n f u s e l i f e i n t o t h e masses and i n d u c e them t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n o r g a n i z e d help a c t i v i t y .  self-  The V i l l a g e - A i d development program and  Urban Community Development program have been r u n under the  same o b j e c t i v e .  S e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g has been an  i m p l i c i t p a r t o f such programs. On t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l , except f o r o c c a s i o n a l m e n t i o n o f t h e advantages o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g method, t h e r e has been no s i g n i f i c a n t  f o r m a l l y o r g a n i z e d program.  T h i s does n o t , however, mean t h a t t h e r e has been a t o t a l absence o f such e f f o r t s a t l o c a l  levels.  The Government o f P a k i s t a n have been c o n s c i o u s of t h e problem and c o n v i n c e d o f t h e need t o m o b i l i z e human r e s o u r c e s f o r h o u s i n g .  One has o n l y t o observe  t h a t t h e f i r s t p o l i c y and p r i o r i t y o f h o u s i n g and s e t t l e ments program under t h e F i r s t F i v e Y e a r P l a n (1955-1960) was p r o p o s e d t o be as f o l l o w s : The Government program must be d e s i g n e d t o m o b i l i z e t o t h e maximum t h e l a b o u r , funds and p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s o f t h e p e o p l e who w i l l own and use t h e houses and community b u i l d i n g s . 3 0 ° Government o f P a k i s t a n , N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , The F i r s t F i v e Y e a r P l a n 1955-60 ( K a r a c h i : Manager of P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1957), p. 20.  86 There i s a more e x p l i c i t mention o f t h e need for  s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g i n t h e Government h o u s i n g program.  F o r example, a l o n g w i t h t h e p r o p o s a l t o b u i l d 250,000 new d w e l l i n g u n i t s i n urban areas (120,000 f o r r e f u g e e s ) d u r i n g t h e F i r s t F i v e Year P l a n p e r i o d , i t was f u r t h e r suggested  that: T h i s work w i l l be done i n new ways d e s i g n e d to s e r v e t h e needs o f the p e o p l e b e t t e r a t l e s s c o s t by t h e maximum use o f l o c a l m a t e r i a l s and " s e l f - h e l p " methods o f construction.31 The o b j e c t was s u b s t a n t i a l l y a c c o m p l i s h e d i n  hundreds o f V i l l a g e A i d p r o j e c t s i n r u r a l a r e a s and some i n urban a r e a s .  Among t h e urban area*, f o r example, i n  the 200,000 s i z e L i a q u a t a b a d urban community, G r e a t e r K a r a c h i , t h e Government i n i t i a l l y p r o v i d e d developed p l o t s , some b a s i c community f a c i l i t i e s and n u c l e u s u n i t s i n 1950-52. ies  Today, i t i s one o f t h e most l i v e l y  communit-  o f l o w income r e f u g e e p o p u l a t i o n i n K a r a c h i i f one  were t o judge from t h e b i g g e s t ever p o l i t i c a l  convulsions  t h a t o c c u r r e d i n t h e a r e a a f t e r t h e J a n u a r y 1965 presidential  elections.  I n P a k i s t a n , b r i g h t p r o s p e c t s f o r encouragement of  t h e s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g method e x i s t under t h e s o c i o -  political  i n s t i t u t i o n o f B a s i c Democracy i n t r o d u c e d by  the Ayub Government i n 1959.  3 1  I b i d . , p. 17  The system, above a l l ,  87 p r e p a r e s one community l e a d e r from each group o f about  1,000-12,000 p o p u l a t i o n who t h e n i n i t i a t e s and h e l p s the p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s i n c a r r y i n g o u t community development works. with  The Government s t a t e s t h e r a t i o n a l e o f t h e program  clarity: The 80,000 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e l e c t e d t o t h e v a r i o u s c o u n c i l s and committees o f B a s i c Democracy were a d v i s e d on how t o base a l l programs on t h e needs o f t h e p e o p l e and how t o conduct these programs t h r o u g h s e l f - h e l p so as t o b r i n g about s o c i a l and economic u p l i f t o f the community and l o c a l i t y they r e p r e s e n t . 3 2 I n 1959,  t h e Government o f P a k i s t a n d r a s t i c a l l y  i n t e n s i f i e d e f f o r t s o f p r e v i o u s governments i n t h e a r e a of refugee housing.  I t embarked upon an a m b i t i o u s  program  o f r e h a b i l i t a t i n g 500,000 p e o p l e o f K a r a c h i who were r e p o r t e d t o be l i v i n g i n 250 slum c l u s t e r s i n v a r i o u s p a r t s  33 of the c i t y f o r the l a s t t h i r t e e n years. l o r t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f slum d w e l l e r s , a township was p l a n n e d . The s e l f - h e l p approach was t o b u i l d a " c o r e " house w i t h a boundary w a l l and a n u n f i n i s h e d room, l e a v i n g a l l o t h e r improvements t o be made by t h e f a m i l i e s themselves.  •3 P a k i s t a n Y e a r s o f P r o g r e s s 1958-61. p. 32; quoted i n Robert D. C a m p b e l l , P a k i s t a n - An Emerging Democracy ( P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : D. Van N o s t r a n d Co., I n c . 1 9 6 3 ) , P. 56. 33 L t . C o l . N a z i r Ahmad, S u r v e y o f S h e l t e r l e s s P e r s o n s i n K a r a c h i ( K a r a c h i : Manager o f Publications,1959),P»  88 W i t h i n f o u r y e a r s (1960-196>+), 150,000 p e o p l e were r e s e t t l e d i n 30,000 houses i n t h e newly c r e a t e d towns h i p o f K o r a n g i s o u t h e a s t o f K a r a c h i , and 50,000 were  3>+ r e s e t t i e d i n 10,000 houses i n N o r t h K a r a c h i township.  A  one-room " c o r e " house p l u s e s s e n t i a l a m e n i t i e s were provided i n i t i a l l y .  A p o s t - r e h a b i l i t a t i o n survey o f the  f i r s t s e t t l e r s o f K o r a n g i community r e s u l t e d i n t h e f i n d i n g t h a t t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f t h e households have b u i l t a d d i t i o n s t o t h e c o r e houses themselves. The f o l l o w i n g statement o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f D o x i a d i s A s s o c i a t e s a t A t h e n s , who have planned and programed t h e above d e s c r i b e d P a k i s t a n i  communities,  throws l i g h t on t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g i n the K o r a n g i p r o j e c t : S e l f - h e l p p r o v i s i o n s were made i n h o u s i n g and s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s and community development methods f o r r e s e t t l e m e n t o f r e f u g e e immigrants emphasised. Low-cost h o u s i n g t e c h n i q u e s were employed f o r l o w e r income groups i n c o n j u n c t i o n with self-help provision f o r building additional rooms w i t h o f f i c i a l guidance and help.35  ° Amjad A.B. R i z v i , S p a t i a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e Housing a n d _ L i v i n g C o n d i t i o n s o f the People o f K a r a c h i , (paper r e a d a t t h e 17th A l l P a k i s t a n S c i e n c e C o n f e r e n c e ,  K a r a c h i , F e b r u a r y 12-17, 1955), p. 3.  Demetrius I a t r i d i s , "The C o n t r i b u t i o n o f S o c i a l Work t o E k i s t i c s , " (paper p r e s e n t e d t o t h e 11th I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference o f S o c i a l Work, R i o de J a n e i r o , B r a z i l , August 1962) i n E k i s t i c s , l h , No. 85 (December,  1962)., p. 276.  89 Indonesia: I n the kampongs of Indonesia,most o f h e l p h o u s i n g a c t i v i t y i s c a r r i e d out i n the  self-  traditional  f a s h i o n . But t h e s e e f f o r t s are v e r y i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n p r o p o r t i o n t o the need: annum.  I n 1951?  1,000,000 d w e l l i n g u n i t s per  the P e o p l e s Housing Department was  t o ensure t h a t the whole p o p u l a t i o n had o b t a i n d w e l l i n g s o f a minimum s t a n d a r d .  created  an o p p o r t u n i t y I t was  to  suggested  t h a t "the c o n s t r u c t i o n of houses, w i l l f o r the most p a r t , be t a c k l e d through a i d e d s e l f - h e l p schemes s i n c e i t i s i n d i g e n o u s to the I n d o n e s i a n c u l t u r e , and l a b o u r i s available.  Human r e s o u r c e s  as compared t o the n a t i o n a l  income devoted t o h o u s i n g are a l m o s t u n l i m i t e d . " I n the s m a l l e r communities o f  Indonesia,  cheap i n d i g e n o u s b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s are used by p e o p l e , and according 1  the n e c e s s a r y l a b o u r i s g e n e r a l l y  t o the c o n c e p t o f m u t u a l h e l p .  J O  the provided  L o c a l l y known as  g o t o n g - r o j o n g , tulung-menulung", the m u t u a l - a i d e d  self-  h e l p c o n c e p t i s a l s o b e i n g used where p l a g u e r e g u l a t i o n s are i n f o r c e .  The  system has, however, d i e d down i n b i g  c i t i e s l i k e ©Jakarta where the h a b i t o f c o l l e c t i v e has l a r g e l y d i s a p p e a r e d .  lk-  No.  life  S e e i n g the p o t e n t i a l i t y o f  R. M o o c h t a r , "Housing i n I n d o n e s i a , " 8*4- (November, 1962), p. 231.  the  Ekisties,  90 system, a U n i t e d N a t i o n s e x p e r t m i s s i o n  concluded:  Thus, s e l f - h e l p methods f o r b u i l d i n g a house c o u l d be c a r r i e d on w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e o f the Government... I t i s recommended t h a t t h i s system o f a i d e d s e l f - h e l p f o r urban, as 07 w e l l as r u r a l a r e a s , be a p p l i e d t o I n d o n e s i a . The f i n a n c i a l consequences o f t a c k l i n g the problem i n I n d o n e s i a may annual budget.  prove t o be a heavy burden on  housing the  D e s p i t e the n o t a b l e Government's e f f o r t s  s i n c e the second w o r l d war,  the problem i s s t i l l  acute.  On the o t h e r hand, t h e r e i s an abundance o f cheap b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , l i k e bamboo, t i m b e r , m a t t i n g , f i b r e s o f sago palm, and i n d u g , a f i b r e o f the a r e n palm.  Besides  b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , t h e r e i s the t r a d i t i o n a l system o f mutual h e l p , t h a t i s , gotong-rojang,  t u l u n g menulung.  Thus,  the two p r e - r e q u i s i t e s o f the s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g program are present.  Only government i n i t i a t i v e and an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  machinery are r e q u i r e d t o do the n e e d f u l . N a t i o n a l s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g program r e q u i r e d i n I n d o n e s i a a r e absent.  The  self-help idea i s gaining i n  p o p u l a r i t y among h o u s i n g departments through U n i t e d N a t i o n s e x p e r t m i s s i o n s who  a r e c o n v i n c e d o f the  suitability  o f the method and have recommended i t s a p p l i c a t i o n .  o p . c i t . . p.  ^ U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Low C o s t . . . A s i a (195D? 13^«  91 Malaysia; In Malaysia, there i s a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s i n the s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g An a i d e d s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g program was  activity.  launched  at Kuala  38 Lampur i n I960 by the M a l a y s i a n Housing T r u s t . program was  thoroughly prepared  The  and s u c c e s s f u l l y advanced.  I n M a l a y s i a c e n t r a l i z e d programs are absent because t h e r e i s no c e n t r a l i s e d department r e s p o n s i b l e f o r housing  and p l a n n i n g p o l i c y .  administered p u b l i c agencies  The work o f  independently  shows t h a t "the Government  i s u t i l i z i n g " a i d e d - s e l f - h e l p " p r i n c i p l e i n the o f the h o u s i n g problem.  solution  The Government s e l e c t s s i t e s ,  s u p p l i e s u t i l i t i e s , p o s t s , r o o f s , and the people do  the  r e s t themselves w i t h guidance from the Government whenever necessary.  The  r e f u g e e s use t h e i r own m a t e r i a l s f o r  s i d i n g s , doors and windows, and s u p p l y t h e i r own  labour  39 t o e r e c t the whole s t r u c t u r e . " More e f f e c t i v e i n t e r e s t o f the Government i s r e q u i r e d f o r the m o b i l i z a t i o n o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g  resources.  T h i s i s n o t p o s s i b l e u n l e s s the method i s e n t e r t a i n e d i n the n a t i o n a l h o u s i n g p o l i c y . I s o l a t e d e f f o r t s , however, s u c c e s s f u l do n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y e f f e c t the t o t a l h o u s i n g r e s u l t s . 3 " A c t i v i t i e s o f the Malayan Housing T r u s t , " Lembaba Perumahan, P e n y a t a Tahunam ( I 9 6 0 ) , a b s t r a c t e d i n E k i s t i e s , Ik No. 81 ( J u l y , 1962), p. 36. J  op. c i t . , p.  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Low-Cost... A s i a (195D>  10k,  92 Thailand; I n T h a i l a n d , a department  o f h o u s i n g under the  M i n i s t r y o f P u b l i c W e l f a r e l o o k s a f t e r the h o u s i n g interests.  Housing s u f f e r s from the l a c k o f  immediate  l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n s and measures f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f programs and an absence o f f o c u s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . F o r m a l i z e d s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g i s i n c o n s p i c u o u s ; i n spontaneous forms i t does e x i s t .  "When a new house i s b u i l t the  f a m i l y has t o buy the m a t e r i a l s  for i t ,  but t h e p e o p l e o f  the hamlet h e l p each o t h e r w i t h t h e i r l a b o u r . " In Thailand, self-help a c t i v i t y i s practised on a comprehensive  basis.  Many r e s e t t l e m e n t schemes have  been p u t t h r o u g h as p i l o t p r o j e c t s .  S e l f - h e l p method i s  a p p l i e d i n a g r i c u l t u r e , h o u s i n g and s o c i a l development a r e a s under e x p e r t guidance.  One o f such p i l o t p r o j e c t s , the  Bangpakong, r e c o r d e d marked s u c c e s s . A l t h o u g h the s e l f - h e l p method i s b e i n g used e f f e c t i v e l y i n i n d i v i d u a l housing p r o j e c t s i t s formal r e c o g n i t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n on n a t i o n a l l e v e l i s absent i n Thailand.  I b i d . , p.  117  93  Greece: Greece p r e s e n t s one o f t h e f i r s t s u c c e s s f u l Government-sponsored and a i d e d s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g programs i n t h e post-war p e r i o d .  I t was one o f t h e f i r s t programs  l a u n c h e d as a p a r t o f t h e o v e r a l l n a t i o n a l h o u s i n g program o f t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f 23 p e r c e n t o f wardamaged h o u s i n g u n i t s o f Greece.  The f i r s t stage o f t h i s  program was t h e s o - c a l l e d " M a t e r i a l - I n - A i d P l a n " under which, i n over a t h r e e y e a r p e r i o d b e g i n n i n g i n 19*+7> about 30,000 houses were r e b u i l t o r r e p a i r e d . Hong Kong: In Hong Kong s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g i s n o t a s e p a r a t e b u t p a r t -- and an e s s e n t i a l p a r t —  of the  p u b l i c r e n t a l h o u s i n g programs o f urban a r e a s . s t a n c e , s i n g l e room apartments  For i n -  are b u i l t to austerity  s t a n d a r d s and t e n a n t s a r e c a l l e d upon t o use s e l f - h e l p to  f i n i s h and m a i n t a i n t h e i r  apartments.  G e o g r a p h i c a l l y b e l o n g i n g t o Europe, Greece i s w e l l o u t s i d e t h e scope o f t h i s work. B u t i n view o f i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i m i l a r i t y with the countries of A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n A m e r i c a , and b e i n g the f i r s t t o s u c c e s s f u l l y l a u n c h a n a t i o n a l a i d e d s e l f - h e l p program, t h e d e s c r i p t i o n i s considered relevant. l+p  United Nations, Housing...Tropics o p . c i t . . p. 62.  (1952),  9^ Philippines; S i m i l a r l y i n the P h i l i p p i n e s i n the top f l o o r o f apartments b u i l t under t h e Government l o w - c o s t  housing  program i n M a n i l a , t e n a n t s a r e encouraged t o b u i l d mezzanine f l o o r s , e t c . by t h e s e l f - h e l p method, w i t h some technical  guidance. In T h a i l a n d , the P h i l i p p i n e s , Ceylon, Japan,  I n d i a , P a k i s t a n , r e s e t t l e m e n t programs have i n c l u d e d t h e p r o v i s i o n o f p r o v i d i n g some i n i t i a l l o a n f o r t h e e r e c t i o n o f houses u s i n g s e l f - h e l p methods.  CONCLUSION T r a d i t i o n a l s e l f - h e l p b u i l d i n g i s v e r y common i n Asian countries. through m a n i p u l a t e d  I t can r e c e i v e a great stimulus governmental a c t i o n s .  According t o  A l c o c k , " i t has become t h e common p r a c t i c e where t r a d i t i o n a l h o u s e - b u i l d i n g has become a s p e c i a l i z e d a r t , f o r t h e h o u s e b u i l d e r t o p r o c u r e and t r a n s p o r t h i s own m a t e r i a l s , ... and t o p r o v i d e u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r through h i s own and  ^3 his family's efforts." On t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l , s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g are c o n s p i c u o u s l y absent i n A s i a n c o u n t r i e s . a u t h o r i t i e s do undertake  programs  Local public  projects of t h i s kind.  Every  p o s s i b l e encouragement I s p r o v i d e d by t h e Government. A l f r e d E. A l c o c k , e t . a l . , R e p o r t o f a U n i t e d N a t i o n s M i s s i o n t o S u r v e y and E v a l u a t e S e l f - H e i p Housing Methods and P r a c t i c e s i n South E a s t A s i a (New D e l h i : J a n u a r y , 1962), a b s t r a c t e d i n E k i s t i c s , l 6 , No. 93 (August, 1 + 3  1963), pp. 82-88.  95 A t t i m e s , even t h e Government i n i t i a t e and p i l o t s  local  programs, l i k e t h a t i n , f o r example t h e F a r i d a b a d and H i l o k h e r i communities n e a r D e l h i and t h e K a r a n g i and L i g u a t a b a d communities i n G r e a t e r K a r a c h i . However^ i n s i g n i f i c a n t t h e s e e f f o r t s m i g h t be, t h e y do r e f l e c t t h e i n c r e a s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g method i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . however,  This,  should not p r e j u d i c e the abundantly present  spontaneous and unguided e f f o r t s s t i l l c u r r e n t among t h e A s i a n communities.  "There a r e many examples o f p r o d i g i o u s  achievements i n t h e f i e l d o f b u i l d i n g by i n s p i r e d communities t h r o u g h o r g a n i z e d group e f f o r t s i n t h e s h r i n e s and temples o f S o u t h - E a s t A s i a . " numerous a r e t h e examples o f p r o d i g i o u s  Equally self-built  h o u s i n g communities around t h e temples and mosques o f Asia.  PROGRAMS IN AFRICAN COUNTRIES: I n A f r i c a , where t h e h o u s i n g problem i s n o t u n l i k e t h a t i n A s i a , t h e need f o r s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g has been f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e d by a few governments  such as  those o f Ghana, t h e U n i t e d Arab R e p u b l i c and Kenya. The r e c o g n i t i o n came f i r s t l y , as a r e s u l t o f t h e growing enthusiasm o f n a t i o n s who emerged from c o l o n i a l r u l e a f t e r  I b i d . , p. 86  96 the Second W o r l d War, and s e c o n d l y , because o f t h e r e p e a t e d recommendations made by v a r i o u s e x p e r t committees o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s t h a t community development and t h e s e l f h e l p approach a r e i n e v i t a b l e t o t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e h o u s i n g and r e l a t e d s o c i a l problems. F o r example, one o f t h e major recommendations o f e x p e r t s on h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n A f r i c a who met i n A d d i s Ababa, E t h i o p i a , i n J a n u a r y 1963? r e a d s as f o l l o w s : The S e c r e t a r i a t s h o u l d c i r c u l a t e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on a i d e d s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t s i n A f r i c a , and i n p a r t i c u l a r ensure t h e w i d e s t p o s s i b l e c i r c u l a t i o n o f t h e r e p o r t p r e p a r e d on t h i s s u b j e c t by a U n i t e d N a t i o n s T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e expert; the s e c r e t a r i a t should a l s o i n c l u d e the s u b j e c t o f a i d e d s e l f - h e l p on t h e agenda o f t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g o f t h e proposed committee on h o u s i n g and p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g . ^"5 N a t i o n a l governments i n A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s have been amply r e c e p t i v e t o such p r o p o s a l s .  The growing i n t e r e s t  i n t h e a r e a o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g i n c o u n t r i e s such as Ghana, Kenya, t h e U n i t e d Arab R e p u b l i c and Morocco i s r e f l e c t e d i n many development programs t h a t a r e underway.  The V o l t a  R e s e t t l e m e n t Program, f o r example, d i s p l a y s t h e p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g method i n a s u f f i c i e n t l y e f f e c t i v e manner. ( P h o t o g r a p h h and 6)  United Nations, Report o f the Meeting o f E x p e r t s on Housing Problems i n A f r i c a . A d d i s Ababa, E t h i o p i a , 9-17 J a n u a r y , 1963 (New Y o r k : 1963J, p. 2 8 . J  97 B e s i d e s p o s i t i v e response o f governments t o s i m i l a r recommendations  o f f o r e i g n experts working w i t h  them, t h e r e i s an e n t h u s i a s t i c response from A f r i c a n communities t o s e l f - h e l p e f f o r t s i n h o u s i n g . A s k w i t h indicates that i n A f r i c a : the s e l f - h e l p schemes a r e e s s e n t i a l l y a p a r t o f campaign f o r "better l i v i n g . They would n o t be n e a r l y so s u c c e s s f u l i f t h e e m o t i o n a l urge was absent. I n s p i t e o f t h e f r e q u e n t d r u d g e r y o f l i f e , A f r i c a n s c a n be exuberant and j o y f u l p e o p l e . When t h i s exuberance can be l i n k e d w i t h c o n s t r u c t i o n work, t h e r e s u l t s a r e remarkable.So Kenya: I n Kenya, a s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g program i n Nechako d i s t r i c t , l o c a l l y known as 'mevethya' was l a u n c h e d i n about I 9 6 0 .  Three thousand two hundred and t h i r t y f o u r  new houses were b u i l t and ^,031 r e n o v a t e d by 2,867 groups o f n e i g h b o u r s , i n v o l v i n g some 75,000 f a m i l i e s . The Government d i d n o t p r o v i d e any m a t e r i a l a s s i s t a n c e , o n l y guidanee, The whole b a s i s o f t h e e x e r c i s e was m u t u a l c o o p e r a t i o n and self-help.  k?  T. G. A s k w i t h , " S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g i n Kenya," J o u r n a l o f A f r i c a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . , V X V I I , No. M- ( O c t o b e r , 1961) pp. 20^-210," a b s t r a c t e d i n E k i s t i c s . 13, No. 79 (May 1962), p. 329' Ibid.  98 F o l l o w i n g t h e exemplary s u c c e s s o f t h e Nechako program, t h e Government o f Kenya was p r o v i d e d w i t h 35,000 d o l l a r s w o r t h o f a s s i s t a n c e under t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s R e g u l a r Program o f T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e f o r 1961+- f o r a 1+8 s i m i l a r s e l f - h e l p e f f o r t i n N a i r o b i c o s t i n g $120,000. Through  such programs, t h e Kenyan Government amply  demonstrates t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g methods i n s o l v i n g t h e h o u s i n g problem. Ghana: Ghana has demonstrated a c o m b i n a t i o n o f s e l f - h e l p housing e f f o r t s i n recent years.  The t r a d i t -  i o n a l method i s c u r r e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y . The Government p o l i c y u t i l i z e s t h i s v e r y a r t . The Ghana B u i l d i n g S o c i e t y p r o v i d e s nominal l o a n s " h e l p i n g people to b u i l d t h e i r own houses."  The Governments Roof Loan  Scheme p r o v i d e s l o a n s f o r r o o f i n g houses so t h a t t h e r e s t may become a s e l f - h e l p  affair.  The Government a l s o i n i t i a t e s schemes whereby the  p e o p l e a r e s u p p l i e d w i t h such cheap b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s 1+9  as " l a t e c r e t e "  ( a m i x o f s m a l l amount o f cement w i t h  1+8  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , P l a n n i n g and I m p l e m e n t a t i o n of P i l o t P r o j e c t s i n H o u s i n g , B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g , R e p o r t by t h e S e c r e t a r y G e n e r a l (New Y o r k : Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , 1963), p. 31. U n i t e d N a t i o n s , "People and L i v i n g , " S c i e n c e and Technology, V (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s ,  19S3), P . m .  99 l a r g e amount o f l a t e r i t e ) . encourages  Such Government patronage  the poor Ghanaians t o b u i l d cheap houses f o r  themselves. The Government c o n v i c t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e v a l u e of s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g i s e x e m p l i f i e d by the f a c t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r demands f o r e x p e r t s s p e c i a l i z e d i n l a u n c h i n g s e l f - h e l p programs a r e sent t o the U n i t e d N a t i o n s .  The  d u t y o f a c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d U n i t e d N a t i o n s e x p e r t (1963) was,  f o r example, " t o a s s i s t t h e Government o f Ghana i n  the o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n f i r s t , o f a p i l o t p r o j e c t i n s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g , and s u b s e q u e n t l y i n o t h e r  50 self-help projects." Government sponsored programs i n Ghana are many.  These a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y d i s p l a y e d i n the massive  r e s e t t l e m e n t programs f o r the 60,000 f a m i l i e s b e i n g d i s p l a c e d by t h e V o l t a R i v e r Dam  Project.  The method i s  b e i n g used as a d e v i c e f o r making t h e community h o u s i n g program economical and f o r engendering community and group f e e l i n g s c o n d u c i v e t o the e m o t i o n a l  adjustment  r e q u i r e d a t t h e time o f changing the a g e - o l d abode and environment  i n the v a l l e y o f the V o l t a . (Photographs  h-6)  Out o f the 3»000 houses t o be b u i l t a n n u a l l y , a t a r g e t f o r a t e n year program f o r the c a p i t a l c i t y o f A c c r a , 17 p e r c e n t would be b u i l t by the s e l f - h e l p method United Nations, Planning... Building P l a n n i n g (1963), l o c . c i t . J  and  100 w i t h some Government l o a n under i t s Roof Loan Scheme. Most o f the r e s t would e i t h e r be s u b s i d i z e d by the Govern-  51 ment o r b u i l t and s o l d through the h i r e - p u r c h a s e system. E i g h t y p e r c e n t o f the p e o p l e o f Ghana are c a p a b l e o f b u i l d i n g t h e i r own houses.  still  "Government e f f o r t s , "  says a U n i t e d N a t i o n s E x p e r t M i s s i o n , " s h o u l d ([therefore} be c o n c e n t r a t e d on the s u p p o r t o f such t r a d i t i o n , on the t e a c h i n g o f improved methods, and on the s u p p l y o f those  52 m a t e r i a l s which cannot be p r o c u r e d l o c a l l y . The f a c t t h a t the Ghanaian Government i s a l i v e t o the problem and d e m o n s t r a b l y r e c e p t i v e t o such p r o p o s a l s i s a matter of great importance.  F o r once the method i s  e f f e c t i v e l y f o r m a l i s e d and the e x p e r i e n c e amply d i s s e m i n a t e d , o t h e r housing-handicapped n a t i o n s o f A f r i c a would h o p e f u l l y a c c e l e r a t e such e f f o r t s . I n one o f the r a r e e f f e c t i v e h o u s i n g programs i n the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , Ghana's Roof Loan Scheme, a p a r t i c i p a n t i n and s t i m u l a n t o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g endeavours, h e l p e d 13»260 f a m i l i e s b u i l d houses up t o September, 1963,  and 28,055 f a m i l i e s were w a i t i n g t o  b e n e f i t from the same scheme.  The Government o f Ghana  has r e c o g n i z e d t h a t 17!+,000 u n i t s would be r e q u i r e d over  5lunited N a t i o n s , Housing i n Ghana, R e p o r t o f a T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Housing M i s s i o n t o Ghana (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1957), p. 11. ^ I b i d . , p. ^7. 2  Photograph No. 4  Unfinished 'core houses' finished by guided self-help housing method in Ghana.  Photograph No. 5  A row of earth-built houses by guided self-help housing method in Gourna Community, United Arab Republic.  Photograph No. 6  Physical manifestation of self-help housing method in Ghana.  APRIL 19 6 6  E F F E C T I V E N E S S O F S E L F - H E L P HOUSING: E X P E R I E N C E IN D E V E L O P I N G C O U N T R I E S Master's T h e s i s D i v i s i o n of Community and Regional Planning UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH COLUMBIA, V A N C O U V E R , B . C . Amjad A . B . R i z v i  S O U R C E : U N I T E D N A T I O N S , S E L F - H E L P H O U S I N G G U I D E . (NEW Y O R K : U N I T E D N A T I O N S P U B L I C A T I O N S , 1964)  102 the n e x t seven y e a r s s t a r t i n g i n 196*+ and hope t o r e l y 53 s e l f - h e l p programs supported by s m a l l l o a n s .  on  The U n i t e d Arab R e p u b l i c : I n the UAR,  u n t i l very r e c e n t l y n e i t h e r  development p l a n s nor o v e r a l l h o u s i n g programs e x i s t e d . The  s u c c e s s , however, o f some o f the i n d i v i d u a l  s e l f - h e l p endeavours have proved the method i n E g y p t i a n r u r a l  guided  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f 5k  setting.  The U n i t e d A r a b R e p u b l i c i s going t o l a u n c h a t h i r t y year l o n g range program a f f e c t i n g over 6,000,000 families.  Use o f l o c a l m a t e r i a l s and s e l f - h e l p have been  55 specifically  s t r e s s e d i n the program.  "Among the  new  f e a t u r e s t h a t would be i n t r o d u c e d are s e l f - h e l p methods 56 o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and p r e - f a b r i c a t i o n o f the r o o f elements." ^ U n i t e d Nations,, P r i o r i t i e s i n Housing B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g A c t i v i t i e s i n the Development Decade. An , I n t e r i m R e p o r t P r e p a r e d by the S e c r e t a r y G e n e r a l (New Y o r k : Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l , 196*+), p. 13. 5k Eg., Gourna Community S e l f - H e l p Housing E x p e r i m e n t . See Hassan F a t h y , " R u r a l S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g , " E k i s t i c s . 13,No. 80 (June, 1962), pp. 398- +01. 1  o p . c i t . , p.  ^ ' U n i t e d N a t i o n s , P r i o r i t i e s . . . Decade ( 1 9 6 ^ ) , 16. 5°Ibid.. p.  35.  103 B e l g i a n Congo; There a r e o t h e r numerous examples o f s e l f h e l p h o u s i n g schemes i n A f r i c a n communities.  I n the  B e l g i a n Congo, f o r example, l a b o u r power, s k i l l s and s m a l l s a v i n g s o f workers and t e c h n i c a l and f i n a n c i a l  guidance o f  the Government were p o o l e d t o b u i l d 6,600 houses i n  57 Elizabethville. Morocco; I n Morocco, government supported l o a n s a r e p r o v i d e d and p e o p l e guided i n t h e use o f s e l f - h e l p methods i n c o n s t r u c t i n g houses on G o v e r n m e n t - b u i l t foundations.  I n 1962,  *f,560 " c o r e " u n i t s were c o n s t r u c t e d  through a c o m b i n a t i o n o f s e l f - h e l p and l o a n s .  Additional  room e x t e n s i o n s were made by p e o p l e themselves i n if,000 one-room c o r e u n i t s . About 50,000 h o u s i n g u n i t s have been b u i l t by the Moroccan Government t h r o u g h a c o m b i n a t i o n o f s e l f - h e l p and o t h e r h o u s i n g management methods d u r i n g 1956-1962. L i k e P a k i s t a n t h e Moroccan e x p e r i e n c e e s t a b l i s h e d t h e advantages  o f " c o r e " house approach u n d e r l y i n g t h e s e l f -  h e l p h o u s i n g approach.  The program has, however, been  c o n f i n e d t o urban a r e a s . • " U n i t e d N a t i o n s , "World o f O p p o r t u n i t y , " S c i e n c e and Technology f o r Development. I (New York: U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1963), p. 171. ^ ^ U n i t e d N a t i o n s , P r i o r i t i e s . . . Decade, (196*+) o p . c i t . , p. 12.  ICh Guinea; The Government o f Guinea i n t e n d s t o m o b i l i z e f o r e i g n a i d and i n d i g e n o u s r e s o u r c e s and embark upon a s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g program.  The o b j e c t i v e o f the program  would be: ... t o demonstrate, i n urban and r u r a l a r e a s , how t r a d i t i o n a l b u i l d i n g methods can be improved; how the p r e f a b r i c a t i o n o f c o r e o r s k e l e t o n houses can be used t o m o b i l i z e t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r s e l f - h e l p b u i l d i n g i n urban areas and how b u i l d i n g r e s e a r c h can develop and improve p r o d u c t i v i t y and the use o f l o c a l  Somalia: I n S o m a l i a , f o r e i g n a s s i s t a n c e i n terms o f d o l l a r s and e x p e r t s have been p o o l e d i n an h o u s i n g  office,  a n u c l e u s o f the S o m a l i a n Government Agency f o r Housing which was  i n the c r e a t i o n stage i n 1962.  The  Office  h e l p s i n the development o f l o w - c o s t c o n t r a c t o r - b u i l t 60 houses and i n t r o d u c e s s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g methods. Attempts have a l s o been made t o p o p u l a r i s e the method.  W i t h the c o o p e r a t i o n o f U n i t e d N a t i o n s Economic  Commission f o r A f r i c a and the Swedish  and E t h i o p i a n Govern-  ments, an I n t e r - A f r i c a n E x h i b i t i o n o f l o w - c o s t h o u s i n g h e l d i n 1963  a t A d d i s Ababa.  I b i d . , p.  15.  I b i d . , p.  13.  was  The o b j e c t o f t h i s e x h i b i t i o n  105 was  " t o demonstrate b e t t e r and more economical  house  d e s i g n s , t o i n t r o d u c e s e l f - h e l p methods i n b u i l d i n g  and 6l  t o demonstrate comprehensive r e s i d e n t i a l p l a n n i n g . " CONCLUSION From the above account,  i t s h o u l d appear t h a t  i n A f r i c a , as i n A s i a , s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g on the move.  N a t i o n a l programs a r e few.  e f f o r t s are w e l l The  amount o f  work b e i n g done and the amount o f i n t e r e s t b e i n g  generated  i n government departments and communities shows c o n v i c t i o n f o r the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the method i n the A f r i c a n s e t t i n g . PROGRAMS IN LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES I n the c o u n t r i e s o f L a t i n A m e r i c a , spontaneous s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g d i v o r c e d from guided e f f o r t s , gave r i s e to the a d o p t i o n o f a f o r m a l method.  I t was  discovered  t h a t a l t h o u g h the spontaneous method s o l v e s the q u a n t i t a t i v e a s p e c t s o f the problem, i t c r e a t e s f u r t h e r problems i n so f a r as the q u a l i t y o f h o u s i n g  and a m e n i t i e s a r e  concerrad.  Where governments a r e i n c a p a b l e o f s o l v i n g the problem, the people  themselves s o l v e i t whatever the c o s t and whatever  the r e s u l t s may  be.  The p o o l i n g o f the p e o p l e ' s modest  r e s o u r c e s through t h e i r own  c o o p e r a t i v e and  democratic  methods w i t h o u t e x p e r t guidance has taxed the l i m i t e d U n i t e d N a t i o n s , P l a n n i n g . . . B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g (1963) > o p . c i t . , p. TT.  106 resources  o f governments by e l i c i t i n g t h e repeated  p u b l i c resources  on s h o r t - t e r m  use o f  c u r a t i v e expedients,  under a p r e v e n t i v e d i s p e n s a t i o n would ensure  which  enduring  results. U n t i l very r e c e n t l y —  and i n most cases s t i l l  —  most h o u s i n g programs o f South American Governments have become permanent d r a i n s on s t a t e r e s o u r c e s . the i n s i g n i f i c a n c e o f r e s o u r c e s  I n view o f  i n proportion to the  h o u s i n g demands and t h e method o f t h e i r deployment, t h e problem has been p e r p e t u a t e d  r a t h e r than s o l v e d .  The  case o f P e r u w e l l e x e m p l i f i e s t h e o b s e r v a t i o n : I n t h e seven year p e r i o d 19^9-1956, an e x c e p t i o n a l l y a c t i v e p e r i o d o f b u i l d i n g accomp l i s h m e n t , t h e P e r u v i a n Government b u i l t 5>V76 houses on a u n i t c o s t w h i c h made repayment by an average u r b a n f a m i l y i m p o s s i b l e . I t was a b i g achievement o f t h e Government i n a b s o l u t e terms. B u t t h i s a l s o meant t h a t o n l y 1 p e r c e n t o f t h e h o u s i n g d e f i c i t was s o l v e d d u r i n g t h e seven y e a r p e r i o d . The r e s u l t was t h a t 50,000 f a m i l i e s took t h e problem i n t o t h e i r own hands and s o l v e d i t t h r o u g h t h e spontaneous s e l f - h e l p method o u t s i d e t h e e s t a b l i s h e d f i n a n c i a l , l e g a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and f i n a n c i a l s u p e r s t r u c t u r e . 2  Such e x p e r i e n c e  which a l s o speaks f o r such  A s i a n c o u n t r i e s as P a k i s t a n , I n d i a and Hong Kong, and such A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s as t h e U n i t e d Arab R e p u b l i c , Ghana,  - John C. T u r n e r , e t . a l . , " D w e l l i n g Resources i n South A m e r i c a , " A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e s i g n (London: The S t a n d a r d C a t a l o g u e Co.: August, 1963), p. 389. 0d  107 and Kenya, shows t h a t a u t h o r i t a r i a n i m p o s i t i o n o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g n o t o n l y does n o t s o l v e even a p a r t o f t h e problem but a l s o i n c u r s s t i l l more s e r i o u s problems.  Even w i t h such  e x p e r i e n c e , no attempt was shown by P e r u u n t i l 1958  to  a s s o c i a t e the r e s o u r c e s o f s h e l t e r l e s s P e r u v i a n s l i v i n g i n slums, w i t h the Government development programs. A f t e r such adverse e x p e r i e n c e s , some o f t h e L a t i n American Governments have changed t h e i r r o l e from f i n a n c i e r b u i l d e r t o t h a t o f promoter and c o o r d i n a t o r w h i l e l a u n c h i n g h o u s i n g programs. B e s i d e s governments, many non-government i n s t i t u t i o n s o f L a t i n A m e r i c a promoted the cause o f s e l f help housing i n recent years. mentioning:  A few o f them d e s e r v e  the C e n t r o I n t e r - A m e r i c a n o de V i v i e n d a Y  P l a n e a m i e n t o i n B o g o t a and I n s t i t u t o de C r e d i t o T e r r i t o r i a l i n C o l o m b i a , the I n s t i t u t o C o o p e r a t i v o I n t e r a m e r i c a n o de l a V i v i e n d a i n Guatemala and the Program C o n j u n t o de Vivienda i n Nicaragua.  These i n s t i t u t i o n s have a l s o  been g e t t i n g government p a t r o n a g e .  T h e i r r o l e has been  commendable. I n L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s , i n d i v i d u a l h e l p h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s have been common;  self-  These a r e n o t  c o n t e m p l a t e d as p a r t o f t h e n a t i o n a l h o u s i n g p l a n s and programs.  I n some c o u n t r i e s s e l f - h e l p b u i l d i n g i s i n i t -  i a t e d by i n s t i t u t i o n s , such as t h e ones mentioned above, which a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y meant f o r the purpose.  In other  108 c o u n t r i e s , t h e s e are c a r r i e d  out i n a "haphazard  way"  as p a r t o f the e x i s t i n g l o c a l h o u s i n g and community development schemes. integration  remains  As such, c o o r d i n a t i o n and absent.  Jamaica and P u e r t o R i c o ; Jamaica and P u e r t o R i c o p r e s e n t the most w e l l recorded experience of aided s e l f - h e l p f o r urban and r u r a l a r e a s .  housing  both  The urban p r o j e c t s i n v o l v e d  the r e s e t t l e m e n t o f d w e l l e r s o f slums and s q u a t t e r camps to the s e l f - b u i l t government-patronized  h o u s i n g communitie  The P u e r t o R i c a n scheme has been p a r t o f the ' R u r a l R e s e t t l e m e n t and Community A c t i o n Program W e l f a r e one, p a r t o f the ' B e t t e r V i l l a g e program.  1  and  Jamaica  Approach'  I n both, according to a U n i t e d Nations source,  "a minimum o f c a s h and a maximum o f community organi z a t i o n were combined t o produce o u t s t a n d i n g new homes..." The f o r t y y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e i n h o u s i n g programing has t a u g h t P u e r t o R i c a n s t h a t human i n i t i a t i v e can e f f e c t i v e l y meet the c h a l l e n g e o f the g o a l adopted the Government. was  enacted.  consisting  To t h i s end, a h o u s i n g bank l e g i s l a t i o n  T h i s p r o v i d e s Housing Bank teams, each  of a b u i l d e r ,  s o c i a l worker who  J  op.cit..  p.  by  an e n g i n e e r , a s e c r e t a r y , and a  p r o v i d e s guidance i n s e l f - h e l p  efforts.  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , H o u s i n g . . . T r o p i c s , (1952), 5^.  109 "Among t h e urges t h a t have l e d t o t h e h o u s i n g bank l e g i s l a t i o n i s t h e growing r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t among t h e l o w income f a m i l i e s t h e r e i s a tremendous i n i t i a t i v e and d r i v e w h i c h has n o t had enough guidance and s u p p o r t .  11  Thousands o f p e o p l e have b u i l t t h e i r own houses under this  legislation. The P u e r t o R i c a n "Land and U t i l i t i e s Program"  and t h e "Community A c t i o n P l a n " which d e a l w i t h h o u s i n g problems i n d i r e c t l y have used a i d e d s e l f - h e l p methods extensively.  The 19^9-1951 p l a n produced s u c c e s s f u l  t e s t demonstrations l e a d i n g t o wider a p p l i c a t i o n o f the method.  Under t h e law, t h e I n s u l a r Government o f P u e r t o  R i c o has u n d e r t a k e n a l a r g e s c a l e r e s e t t l e m e n t  program  f o r 75,000 f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n crowded temporary s h a c k s . The  t e c h n i c a l and management r e s o u r c e s  Program A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  of the S o c i a l  (SPA) and t h e P u e r t o R i c o  Board were p o o l e d t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e t a s k .  Planning  The l a b o u r  f o r h o u s i n g and e s s e n t i a l community b u i l d i n g s were c o n t r i b u t e d by f a m i l i e s and t h e SPA p r o v i d e d  guidance,  t r a i n i n g , m a t e r i a l s and f i n a n c e .  Rican  The P u e r t o  e x p e r i e n c e a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t f o r want o f d i r e c t h o u s i n g h e l p , t h e r e s u l t i n g houses a r e n o t c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e  "Housing Bank - P u e r t o R i c o . " SIAP Newsl e t t e r . San J u a n , V I . No. 19 (March, 1962), a b s t r a c t e d i n E k i s t i e s , ih No. Qh (November, 1962), p. 228.  110 good s t a n d a r d o f h e a l t h and h y g i e n e r e q u i r e d i n h o u s i n g communities.  65  The most p r e v a l e n t method f o l l o w e d i n the P u e r t o R i c a n a i d e d s e l f - h e l p program i s t h a t the Land A u t h o r i t y purchases  the l a n d , s u b - d i v i d e s i t and cedes  l o t s t o the f a m i l i e s .  A f t e r p l a n n i n g and programing,  i  the c o o p e r a t i v e s e l f - h e l p work i s o r g a n i z e d p a r t l y under t e c h n i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n o f S o c i a l Program A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , •and p a r t l y w i t h the h e l p o f Government l o a n s and m a t e r i a l  66 aid. Crane and McCabe p o i n t out a major drawback o f t h e program a r i s i n g from i t s o p e r a t i n g through  the  67 U n i t e d S t a t e s Housing A c t :  When the t e n a n t s income  i n c r e a s e s above the maximum a l l o w a b l e , they are r e q u i r e d t o move. who  Thus, the r e g u l a t i o n causes h a r d s h i p t o those  through t h e i r own  living.  f r u g a l i t y make improvements i n t h e i r  T h i s , however, does n o t d e f e a t the o v e r a l l  performance o f the a i d e d s e l f - h e l p program.  The  Puerto  R i c a n e x p e r i e n c e i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be one o f the most s u c c e s s f u l ones i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . United Nations, Housing...Tropics 57.  o p . c i t . , p.  66  (1952),  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Bureau o f S o c i a l A f f a i r s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f Programs o f S o c i a l Development, (New York: U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 19!?5), p. ^ C r a n e and McCabe, o p . c i t . , p.  375.  Ill Colombia: Colombia i s another c o u n t r y i n L a t i n w i t h an a d m i r a b l e s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g r e c o r d .  America  A Government  h o u s i n g agency, one o f t h e o l d e s t o f i t s k i n d i n L a t i n A m e r i c a , i . e . , t h e I n s t i t u t o de C r e d i t o T e r r i t o r i a l (ICT) was c r e a t e d i n 1939* its life,  D u r i n g t h e f i r s t twenty y e a r s o f  t h e I n s t i t u t e underwent two major changes as  a result of rapid urbanization.  By 1956,  i t s focus of  a t t e n t i o n changed from a r u r a l one t o t h a t o f urban h o u s i n g , the r«rrtal h o u s i n g h a v i n g been s h i f t e d t o an a g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t body.  I n 1957? h o u s i n g was d i v o r c e d from t h e  e x c l u s i v e dependence on d i r e c t l y f i n a n c e d and commercial l y c o n t r a c t e d methods.  The ICT has been promoting and  d e v e l o p i n g h o u s i n g w i t h an almost e x c l u s i v e dependence on s e l f - h e l p t e c h n i q u e s . The Colombian  s e l f - h e l p housing experience i s  one o f t a n g i b l e achievements.  I n some s e l e c t e d p e r i o d s ,  say between 1958 and I960, o u t o f t h e 15?505 houses b u i l t , h a l f were b u i l t f o r l o w income f a m i l i e s on a s e l f - h e l p b a s i s and h a l f f o r m i d d l e income f a m i l i e s by combined methods.  I n 1961,  t h e y e a r o f g r e a t e s t achievements,  80 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l 18,973 u n i t s were b u i l t on a self-help basis.  I n 1962, 60 p e r c e n t o f t h e 31,798  u n i t s b u i l t , were b u i l t u s i n g s e l f - h e l p methods. t o t a l t h a t was b u i l t was t w i c e t h e n a t i o n a l production for^urban areas.  The  average  The ICT i n t e n d e d t o b u i l d  112 h-0 p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l houses through s e l f - h e l p methods  68  i n each o f the y e a r s 1963 and 196 +. 5  Convinced o f Colombia's  achievements, t h e  U n i t e d N a t i o n s whose main i n t e r e s t i n r e c e n t y e a r s h a s been i n the a r e a o f l o w c o s t s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g h a s been appreciative  o f the s c o r e :  "The l a r g e s t known non-  emergency s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g program i n e x i s t e n c e today exceeds 20,000 u n i t s i n 1962-1963 ( C o l o m b i a ) . "  6 9  The  i d e a has been w e l l s o l d and the program i s w e l l on t h e way.  Observers are c o n v i n c e d o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f  Colombia's  program and the r o l e o f the ICT i n making  the program e f f e c t i v e . Thus T u r n e r observed: The b i g g e s t s i n g l e f a c t o r o f ICTs r e c e n t p l a n s i s the a d o p t i o n on a l a r g e s c a l e , o f a i d e d s e l f - h e l p t e c h n i q u e s : the i n s t i t u t e i s g i v i n g p r i o r i t y t o the s e l f - h e l p p l a n s c a r r i e d out through i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t s ( e s f u e r z o p r o p i o ) and by mutual a i d groups (ayuda mutua), as e x p e r i e n c e o f the l a r g e r programs t o date h a s shown t h e i r e f f e c t i v e ness w i t h r e g a r d t o low u n i t c o s t s , f u t u r e owners p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the b u i l d i n g work, c o n s i d e r a b l e s a v i n g and i n v e s t m e n t by t h e f a m i l i e s i n the b u i l d i n g and c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e i r houses.70  68  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , P r i o r i t i e s . . . Decade, (196 +), 1  o p . c i t . , pp. 11-12. 69  U n i t e d N a t i o n s Manual... Housing o p . c i t . , p. 68. 7° T u r n e r , o p . c i t . , p. 386.  (196*+),  113 Through t h e v i g o r o u s program, t h e Colombian Government e x p e c t s t o s t a b i l i z e t h e h o u s i n g w i t h i n t h e n e x t f i v e y e a r s , t h a t i s by 1971.  deficit An annual  g o a l o f 26,000 t o 30,000 u n i t s has been planned f o r 1965, 1966  and 1967.  Out o f t h e s e , a l i t t l e l e s s t h a n h a l f  w i l l be b u i l t u s i n g t h e s e l f - h e l p method b a s i s .  The success  o f t h e Colombian program and t h e t a n g i b l e achievements o f i t s h o u s i n g o u t p u t i n r e c e n t y e a r s a r e among t h e most i m p r e s s i v e ones i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . The Colombian e x p e r i e n c e was f o l l o w e d i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s o f L a t i n America.  The C o r p o r a c i n de l a Q  V i v i e n d a (C0RVI) and I n s t i t u t e de V i v i e n d a C a r i t a s i n C h i l e and C e n t r a l O f f i c e f o r C o o r d i n a t i o n and P l a n n i n g (C0RDIPLAN) and C e n t r o de E s t u d i o s p a r a e l D e s a r r o l l o (CENDES) i n V e n e z u e l a a r e p a r a l l e l s o f t h e Colombian ICT. Brazil: I n B r a z i l s e v e r a l f a r m i n g communities  locally  t  known as " n u c l e u s " a r e b e i n g p l a n n e d .  The f a m i l i e s a r e  g i v e n l a n d s , a few hand t o o l s and t h e b l e s s i n g o f t h e Government.  Thus, t h e y t r y t o b u i l d t h e i r own houses and  s t a n d on t h e i r own f e e t .  There i s no e v i d e n c e o f an  o v e r a l l s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g program a t t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l . Venezuela; I n V e n e z u e l a t h e program i s c a r r i e d o u t by i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h e k i n d mentioned departments  above, and t h e  such as t h e Community Development D i v i s i o n ,  llh  as p a r t o f t h e i r h o u s i n g program. g u i d i n g and c o o r d i n a t i n g agency. a i d e d s e l f - h e l p methods m a i n l y  The CORDIPLAN i s a These a g e n c i e s  i n the s t r i c t l y  apply  'classical'  P u e r t o R i c a n f a s h i o n , t h a t i s by s u p p l y i n g owners w i t h m a t e r i a l s and own  houses.  i n s t r u c t i o n s so t h a t they can b u i l d By f a r the most i m p o r t a n t  their  labour c o n t r i b u t i o n  comes from women and c h i l d r e n . Chile: The cooperative  programs i n C h i l e are c a r r i e d out under  schemes.  The  cooperatives  such as  Arturo  i  A l e s s a n d r i P. Palma and A r t u r o P. C o o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t s as p a r t of t h e i r h o u s i n g works.  The  undertake cooperatives  r e c e i v e guidance from Government h o u s i n g a g e n c i e s such as C o r p o r a c i o n de l a V i v i e n d a (CORVI), the I n s t i t u t e de V i v i  i e n d a C a r i t a s (UNICA) and  the T e c h n i c a l B r a n c h o f  F e d e r a t i o n o f Housing and C o o p e r a t i v e s  the  (TECHNICOOP).  s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g system runs on a p r o j e c t b a s i s ,  The  and  external c a p i t a l input i s considerable. Peru: I n the c i t y o f L i m a ^ P e r u , t h e r e e x i s t s one of the most a s t o n i s h i n g examples o f an u r b a n community t h a t was  developed w i t h the h e l p o f spontaneous method  by the p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s :  the Pampa de Comas ( p o p u l a t i o n  30,000), p a r t of the C a r a b a l l o group o f " b a r r i a d a s " i n Lima. These have developed the same way  as the  'ranchos'  115 ' c a l l a m p a s ' and ' f a v e l a s ' i n C a r a c a s , V a l p a r a i s o and R i o de J a n e i r o r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The i n h a b i t a n t s , however  p o o r , do produce t h e s e p l a n n e d — p r i m i t i v e l y designed —  though  communities on a c i t y s c a l e and  b u i l d thousands o f q u i t e a c c e p t a b l e These houses, a c c o r d i n g  admittedly  permanent s t r u c t u r e s .  t o T u r n e r a r e b e t t e r than c o u l d  be, o r has been, p r o v i d e d  by t h e s t a t e o r p r i v a t e comm-  71 e r c i a l enterprise. CONCLUSION I t i s often forgotten while studying the s q u a t t e r - l a b e l l e d communities i n t h e b i g c i t i e s o f A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n A m e r i c a , such as C a r a c a s , Lima, C a i r o , K a r a c h i , D e l h i , C a l c u t t a , and Hong Kong, t h a t t h e o r g a n i c , and a t t i m e s , p l a n n e d growth o f t h e s e communities i s t h e r e s u l t e n t i r e l y o f t h e hundred p e r c e n t e f f o r t s o f the people alone.  Some guidance and n o m i n a l government  a s s i s t a n c e c o u l d improve t h e s e s q u a t t e r s and c o u l d t h e r e b y p r e v e n t slum c o n d i t i o n s —  prevention  i s better  than cure. Generally  s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g i n L a t i n American  c o u n t r i e s i s n o t c o n t e m p l a t e d as p a r t o f t h e n a t i o n a l h o u s i n g p l a n s and programs.  I n c o u n t r i e s such as  Guatemala, N i c a r a g u a and C o l o m b i a , t h e program i s c a r r i e d out by i n s t i t u t i o n s whose o b j e c t i v e i s p r e c i s e l y t o c a r r y out such works.  I n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , such as B r a z i l and  —-  71  m  T u r n e r , o p . . c i t . , p.  376.  116 A r g e n t i n a , the programs have been developed w i t h i n the e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s .  sporadically In  still  o t h e r s , the programs have developed as p a r t o f the community development endeavours.  Such approaches  are  n o t c o n d u c i v e t o o r g a n i z e d and c o o r d i n a t e d work, which i s n e c e s s a r y t o ensure c o n c r e t e  achievements.  The l a c k o f n a t i o n a l programs and the e x i s t i n g p i e c e m e a l work, however, does n o t p r e j u d i c e the e x t r a o r d i n a r y achievements  made by h o u s i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s i n  c o u n t r i e s , such as P u e r t o R i c o , Colombia and C h i l e . I t i s through the s t i m u l u s p r o v i d e d by such i n s t i t u t i o n s as the ICT and the e x p e r i e n c e and knowledge d i s s e m i n a t e d by such i n s t i t u t i o n s as the CINVA t h a t t h e r e i s a s t i r enthusiasm among n a t i o n a l governments.  The  and  stage i s ,  t h e r e f o r e , s e t f o r the development o f n a t i o n a l  self-help  h o u s i n g programs. The L a t i n American  experience i n s e l f - h e l p  h o u s i n g a l s o shows t h a t i t i s more economical t o d e v i s e a program whereby the spontaneous s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g d i s p l a y e d by the s q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t s can be m a n i p u l a t e d t h r o u g h p l a n n i n g and e n t e r t a i n e d i n the l e g i s l a t i v e framework.  L e t C h a r l e s Abrams words e x p r e s s what i s meant  here: I f i n f l u x e s a r e a n t i c i p a t e d and p l a n n e d f o r , the p l a n n i n g can be s u b s t a n t i a l l y p r e s e r v e d .  117  T h i s c a l l e d f o r a d e s i g n a t i o n o f s i t e s on which i t w i l l be p r e s c r i b e d . I t c a l l s f o r firmness with understanding. I t entails a p o l i c y f o r l a n d l a y o u t t h a t w i l l permit settlement according to plan, help with m a t e r i a l s where e s s e n t i a l , and even u n d e r t a k e some i n s p i r a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g by t h e Government t o i n f l u e n c e t h e c h a r a c t e r and course o f growth.72  C h a r l e s Abrams quoted i n : T u r n e r ,  op.cit..p.388.  118 III  OVERALL CONCLUSIONS  T r a d i t i o n a l l y , spontaneous e f f o r t s have guided the s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g approach t h e w o r l d o v e r .  Of what-  ever q u a l i t y , two hundred m i l l i o n f a m i l i e s s t i l l houses themselves.  build  Manipulative or aided s e l f - h e l p  h o u s i n g a c t i v i t y was born o u t o f i n f o r m a l o r spontaneous a c t i v i t y a f t e r t h e Second W o r l d War. and some o f t h e developed  The U n i t e d N a t i o n s  c o u n t r i e s saw i n t h i s method a  new hope f o r t h e c a p i t a l - d e f i c i e n t labour-abundant  countries  o f A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n America. Hope was based on t h e b e l i e f t h a t m a n i p u l a t i v e s e l f - h e l p c o u l d reduce money c o s t and ensure a h i g h e r s t a n d a r d than any o t h e r combina t i o n o f f i n a n c e and t e c h n o l o g y . The  i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies i n t e r e s t e d i n  a l l e v i a t i n g the poverty o f l i v i n g o f the world's multitudes have demonstrated t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g i n v a r i o u s ways.  L a r g e numbers o f m i s s i o n s o f e x p e r t s on  h o u s i n g have been d e l e g a t e d , among o t h e r t h i n g s , t o e x p l o r e i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . M a t e r i a l s and t e c h n i c a l guidance  have  been p r o v i d e d ; manuals and guides have f r e q u e n t l y been published; conferences  and e x h i b i t i o n s have v e r y o f t e n  been h e l d , and p r o p o s a l s and recommendations have r e p e a t e d l y been made t o t h e r e l e v a n t c o u n t r i e s t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e s e l f - h e l p method i n n a t i o n a l h o u s i n g programs. A l l t h e a v a i l a b l e evidence l e a d s one t o conclude t h a t p r a c t i c a l i n t e r e s t on t h e p a r t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l  119 a g e n c i e s i n t h e s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g method i s based on the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e system i s an e f f e c t i v e — the o n l y —  i f not  avenue o f s o l v i n g t h e m a s s i v e h o u s i n g problems  of the developing c o u n t r i e s . The  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the s e l f - h e l p housing  i s n o t r e c o g n i z e d on t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l a l o n e .  device The  i d e a has gained c u r r e n c y a l s o among t h e d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s where i t i s c o n s i d e r e d r e l e v a n t i n v i e w o f t h e poor c o n d i t i o n o f housing, p a u c i t y o f the r e q u i s i t e  capital  i n p u t and abundance o f human i n p u t as observed  i n Chapter  III.  A l t h o u g h t h e method has n o t y e t been i n c l u d e d i n  the l e g i s l a t i v e framework o f n a t i o n a l h o u s i n g programmes, i t has n e v e r t h e l e s s gained i n p o p u l a r i t y and i s c u r r e n t l y used i n many l o c a l i z e d programs i n v a r i o u s ways w i t h appreciable  success. The development p l a n s o f many c o u n t r i e s , such  as I n d i a , P a k i s t a n , t h e U n i t e d Arab R e p u b l i c , Ghana, Colombia, Venezuela  and P u e r t o R i c o j u s t i f y and use t h e  method as an i m p o r t a n t t o o l o f implementing  h o u s i n g and  community development programs. I n A s i a n c o u n t r i e s , m a n i p u l a t i v e s e l f - h e l p has been used s i n c e about 1950.  The s e l f - h e l p t e c h n i q u e s o f  human m o b i l i z a t i o n a r e b e i n g used through t h e V o l u n t e e r F o r c e and Panchayat R a j i n I n d i a .  The L a l g a r h e x p e r i e n c e  i n J a i p u r , t h e F a r i d a b a d e x p e r i e n c e i n D e l h i , and many o t h e r s i n Madras, Lucknow and C a l c u t t a and o t h e r u r b a n  120 and r u r a l areas o f I n d i a have been r e p o r t e d as f a i r l y effective.  The Government o f I n d i a r e c o g n i z e s the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the method. The V i l l a g e A i d and urban community development programs i n P a k i s t a n have made c o n s i d e r a b l e headway d u r i n g the l a s t t e n y e a r s .  I n the K o r a n g i and N o r t h  K a r a c h i r e s i d e n t i a l communities, p a r t o f the G r e a t e r K a r a c h i R e s e t t l e m e n t Program, a c o m b i n a t i o n o f s e l f - h e l p and government-help  t e c h n i q u e s have been used w i t h s u c c e s s .  The Government promises t o u t i l i z e s e l f - h e l p t e c h n i q u e t h r o u g h the i n s t i t u t i o n o f B a s i c Democracy i n the implement a t i o n o f h o u s i n g and community development programs o f the r e c e n t l y launched T h i r d F i v e Year P l a n . The P e o p l e ' s Housing Department o f I n d o n e s i a i s usxng t h e mutual a i d e d s e l f - h e l p method l o c a l l y known as g o l o n g r o j o n g 1  1  and t u l u n g - m e n u l u n g . 1  1  In Malaysia,  the i n d e p e n d e n t l y a d m i n i s t e r e d p u b l i c a g e n c i e s , such as the M a l a y s i a n Housing T r u s t use the method.  In Thailand,  Hong Kong, and the P h i l i p p i n e s the method has been used one way o r the o t h e r under government guidance. I n A s i a n c o u n t r i e s , s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g programs on a n a t i o n a l l e v e l are c o n s p i c u o u s l y absent.  Community  programs a r e g i v e n s u f f i c i e n t encouragement by governments which even a t t i m e s i n i t i a t e them.  The method i s ,  however, w e l l r e c o g n i z e d among l e a d e r s , p l a n n e r s and  121 community people a t l a r g e . I n A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s t o o , such as Ghana, t h e U n i t e d Arab R e p u b l i c and Kenya, the program i s r e c o g n i z e d by government and i s w e l l on i t s way.  The l o c a l l y known  'mevethya* program o f Nechako d i s t r i c t i n Kenya, and t h a t o f N a i r o b i have been accomplished the program i s supported  w i t h success.  I n Ghana  by t h e Roof Loan Scheme and works  o f the Ghana B u i l d i n g S o c i e t y .  The method i s b e i n g used  i n t h e m a s s i v e r e s e t t l e m e n t program i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the V o l t a R i v e r Scheme and i s r e p o r t e d as b e i n g c a r r i e d o u t with considerable  success.  I n the U n i t e d Arab R e p u b l i c , use o f t h e method has been s p e c i f i c a l l y s t r e s s e d i n a t h i r t y year l o n g range program e f f e c t i n g 6,000,000 f a m i l i e s .  I n the B e l g i a n  Congo, t h e Government b u i l t a i d e d s e l f - h e l p communities in Elizabethville.  S i m i l a r government i n i t i a t e d  have been p u t through  schemes  i n Morocco, G u n i e a , N i g e r i a and  S o m a l i a , and have been r e p o r t e d t o have s c o r e d  considerable  success. I n L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s , a i d e d  self-help  h o u s i n g programs were adopted e a r l i e r than i n A s i a and Africa. supported  These a r e l a u n c h e d  through v a r i o u s government  i n s t i t u t i o n s , as p a r t o f the h o u s i n g  policy  and community development programs. J a m a i c a and P u e r t o R i c o p r o v i d e the most w e l l recorded experience of aided s e l f - h e l p housing.  I n both  a r e a s , ''a minimum o f cash and maximum o f community  122 o r g a n i z a t i o n have been combined t o produce o u t s t a n d i n g new houses.-  Through the Housing Bank L e g i s l a t i o n ,  and  Community A c t i o n P l a n , the S o c i a l Program A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and P u e r t o R i c a n P l a n n i n g Board have made exemplary achievements  i n s e l f - h e l p housing.  C o l o m b i a i s another c o u n t r y w i t h an o u t s t a n d i n g s e l f - h e l p housing record.  The Government s u p p o r t e d  i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the I n s t i t u t o de C r e d i t o T e r r i t o r i a l (ICT) develop h o u s i n g w i t h an e x c l u s i v e dependence on s e l f - h e l p techniques.  H a l f o f the houses b u i l t under ICT's  program are b u i l t on an a i d e d - s e l f - h e l p b a s i s . C o l o m b i a e x p e r i e n c e i s one o f the t a n g i b l e  The  achievements.  I t had the l a r g e s t known s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g programs i n e x i s t e n c e i n 1963-6*+ (20,000 u n i t s ) . I n B r a z i l , V e n e z u e l a , C h i l e and P e r u ,  governmert  sponsored s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s have been a c c o m p l i s h e d . I n a l l t h e s e c o u n t r i e s , i n s t i t u t i o n s , s i m i l a r t o the ICT o f C o l o m b i a , s u p e r v i s e the o p e r a t i o n s and add g r e a t l y t o the s o l u t i o n of housing  problems.  Thus, t h r o u g h the encouragement g i v e n by i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s and t h r o u g h t h e i r own  "development-  mindedness", most o f the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s have adopted the m a n i p u l a t i v e s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g methods.  By so d o i n g ,  t h e y are d i r e c t i n g what has been the t r a d i t i o n a l method i n t o p r o d u c t i v e c h a n n e l s .  spontaneous  A l t h o u g h n a t i o n a l programs  are s t i l l almost n e g l i g i b l e , the success o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l and community programs have e s t a b l i s h e d c o n v i c t i o n on the  123 the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e method f o r t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e acute h o u s i n g problem  of developing  countries.  T h i s s h o u l d , however, n o t p r e j u d i c e situation  t h e grim  t h a t even t h e supposedly most economical  self-  h e l p h o u s i n g method h e l p s o n l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n meeting the a c u t e d e f i c i e n c y o f h o u s i n g i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g  countries.  Refinement o f t h e method i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e and i s b e i n g developed  through p r a c t i c a l  experience.  IV  CHAPTER SUMMARY  T h i s c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h the awareness and t h e p r o f u n d i t y o f t h e i n t e r e s t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s , such as t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s , and n a t i o n a l governments o f d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i n t h e s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g programs.  I t establishes  that p r e v a i l i n g i n t e r e s t i n the subject o f s e l f - h e l p housing i s based on t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e method i s more e f f e c t i v e t h a n contemporary  ones f o r t h e s o l u t i o n o f h o u s i n g  problems  o f t h e mass o f t h e w o r l d ' s poor m u l t i t u d e s . No s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g programs have been f o r m a l l y e n t e r t a i n e d i n t h e o v e r a l l n a t i o n a l h o u s i n g programs i n most o f t h e c o u n t r i e s o f A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n America; no s i g n i f i c a n t l e g i s l a t i v e support has been extended i n t h i s regard.  T h i s , however, does n o t p r e j u d i c e t h e f a c t t h a t  t h e r e i s an a c t i v e d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e program among t h e d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s . government-guided,  A c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f  p i e c e m e a l and l o c a l i z e d programs w i t h i n  the community development and s o c i a l w e l f a r e areas have been c a r r i e d o u t i n such c o u n t r i e s as I n d i a , P a k i s t a n , Ghana, Kenya, C o l o m b i a , P u e r t o R i c o and Jamaica.  Some  have had marked s u c c e s s . However i n a d e q u a t e and n e g l i g i b l e the t o t a l e x p e r i e n c e gained through i n s t i t u t i o n a l and community development programs might be, i t h a s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , emboldened t h e r e l e v a n t n a t i o n s t o demonstrate  a more  p r a c t i c a l i n t e r e s t i n s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g than h i t h e r t o  125 shown.  There i s m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the growing  i n the l o n g - r a n g e  awareness  economic development p l a n s o f many-  developing nations. T h i s c h a p t e r ends w i t h the hope t h a t because s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g i s a b e t t e r e x p e d i e n t than e x i s t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s , i t m i g h t be widespread  i n the n o t too  distant future.  f a r the b e t t e r  The  q u e s t i o n o f how  a l t e r n a t i v e w i l l h e l p e l i m i n a t e the p a u c i t y o f h o u s i n g i n the e c o n o m i c a l l y handicapped n a t i o n s s t i l l  remains  unanswered u n t i l s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s a r e exposed t o m i c r o s c o p i c e x a m i n a t i o n , i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r : " s e l f - h e l p projects".  housing  CHAPTER V  EVALUATION OF SELF-HELP HOUSING PROJECTS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 1.  THE  SELECTION OF SELF-HELP HOUSING PROJECTS I n the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r ( I V ) , a macro-  e v a l u a t i v e approach e x p e r i e n c e was  f o r the s t u d y o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g  adopted.  a n a l y t i c a l approach  I n t h i s chapter, a micro-  i s f o l l o w e d , whereby a sample o f  s p e c i f i c s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s implemented i n some s e l e c t e d d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s are the f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n . A t o t a l o f e i g h t p r o j e c t s have been chosen f o r examination.  ( F i g u r e No.  5)  Two  o f them, one i n the  U n i t e d A r a b R e p u b l i c and the o t h e r i n Jamaica,  are  s i t u a t e d i n r u r a l a r e a s , w h i l e the r e m a i n i n g s i x are l o c a t e d i n urban a r e a s as f o l l o w s : a. 1  Faridabad P r o j e c t , D e l h i , India.  The method adopted i n the s e l e c t i o n o f s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s i s n o t the s o p h i s t i c a t e d sampling t e c h n i q u e , much a g a i n s t the w i s h o f the a u t h o r and demand o f r e a s o n . The s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s are so few t h a t the o n l y c o u r s e open was t o s e l e c t , out o f the few p r o j e c t s t h a t are r e p o r t e d , o n l y those whose d a t a are s u b s t a n t i v e , and have been r e p o r t e d i n such a way as t o be amenable t o m e a n i n g f u l treatment. I t i s assumed t h a t t h i s method o f s e l e c t i o n would n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y b l u r the c o n c l u s i o n s t o be drawn t h e r e f r o m . The chosen sample r e p r e s e n t s w e l l over h a l f o f the u n i v e r s e i n v e s t i g a t e d .  SAMPLE  C o l o n i a Centro-Ameri Las V i c t o r i a s P r o j e c Ciudad de Guatemala Guatemala San S e b a s t i a n P r o j e San J o s e C o s t a R i c a  SELF-HELP HOUSING  PROJECTS  Paridabad Project Delhi India  Bonnett S t . S t . Mary Project Jamaica Project Karachi Pakistan  Gourna Project U n i t e d Arab Republic  Aguablanca P r o j e c t C a l Colombia Clara E s t r e l l a Project Santiago C h i l e  E F F E C T I V E N E S S EXPERIENCE  APRIL  'N  O F  SE.LF-HELP  DEVELOPING  H O U S I N S - .  C O U N T B 1 E S  FIGURE  1*66 UNIVEBSIRY  O P  BRITISH  C O L U M B I A ,  Amjoui A.U B  POJVI  VANCOUV5S  NO  5  128 b.  Korangi P r o j e c t , Karachi,  Pakistan.  c.  Gourna P r o j e c t , The  d.  B o n n e t t S t . Mary P r o j e c t , J a m a i c a .  e.  Aguablanca P r o j e c t , C a l i , C o l o m b i a .  U n i t e d Arab  Republic.  t  '  f.  San S e b a s t i a n  P r o j e c t , San J o s e , C o s t a R i c a .  g.  C l a r a E s t r e l l a P r o j e c t , Santiago,  h.  C o l o n i a C e n t r o - A m e r i c a -- Las V i c t o r i a s  Chile.  P r o j e c t , C i u d a d de Guatemala, Guatemala. The  o b j e c t o f e x p o s i n g the above p r o j e c t s t o  an e v a l u a t i v e p r o c e s s i n what f o l l o w s , i s t o examine the b e n e f i t measured i n terms of s a v i n g i n house b u i l d i n g r e s u l t i n g from the s e l f - h e l p l a b o u r i n p u t s . the method adopted i n d o i n g so i s :  Generally,  f i r s t l y , to  describe  c o n c i s e l y the s e t t i n g under which the r e l e v a n t p r o j e c t s have been u n d e r t a k e n ; s e c o n d l y ,  t o examine the  proportion  o f s e l f - h e l p l a b o u r i n p u t t o the t o t a l l a b o u r i n p u t s i n the p r o j e c t s ;  and f i n a l l y , t o a s s e s s the c o s t o f these  v o l u n t a r y i n p u t s which i s e q u i v a l e n t t o monetary  saving  2 or d i r e c t b e n e f i t . II  EVALUATION OF SELF-HELP HOUSING PROJECTS  FARIDABAD PROJECT, DELHI, INDIA. As d i s c u s s e d  i n C h a p t e r IV, I n d i a has  launched  many h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s i n which the s e l f - h e l p method  has  I n some c a s e s , where the d a t a were a v a i l a b l e , m a t e r i a l s c o n t r i b u t e d by the s e l f - h e l p f a m i l i e s , were a l s o assessed.  129 been used w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e s u c c e s s .  Of t h e s e , the  F a r i d a b a d P r o j e c t l o c a t e d 17 m i l e s south o f D e l h i has gained g r e a t p o p u l a r i t y . ( F i g u r e No. 6) A Development Board under t h e I n d i a n M i n i s t r y o f R e h a b i l i t a t i o n undertook  t h e scheme o f t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e  d i s o r d e r l y camps o f P a k i s t a n i r e f u g e e s i n t o a s e l f s u f f i c i e n t community i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h t h e I n d i a n C o o p e r a t i v e U n i o n i n 19^7.  Spread o v e r an a r e a o f 7 s i -  m i l e s , t h e community i n v o l v e d 10,000 f a m i l i e s o f i n d u s t r i a l workers and p e t t y t r a d e r s .  The P r o j e c t was handled by  I n d i a n p l a n n e r s under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f O t t o  Koenigsberger,  a U n i t e d N a t i o n s Housing E x p e r t t o t h e I n d i a n Government. At present, Faridabad i s a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d r e s i d e n t i a l community. ( F i g u r e No. 6) The Government o f I n d i a advanced a l o a n o f Rs.  25,000,000.00 ($5,000,000.00) f o r t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f t h e P r o j e c t on t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t a monthly i n s t a l m e n t o f Rs. 10.00  from t h e f a m i l i e s would be f o r t h c o m i n g f o r 25-3°  years o f the a m o r t i z a t i o n p e r i o d .  The average c o s t o f a  d w e l l i n g u n i t was v e r y low, i e . about Rs. 2,000 (hOO d o l l a r s ) , and t h e r a t e o f b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n o f 500 houses a month was  s u f f i c i e n t l y high.  One o f t h e reasons f o r t h i s was t h e  involvement o f b e n e f i c i a r i e s ( i e . s e l f - h e l p f a m i l i e s ) i n the b u i l d i n g  activity.  The F a r i d a b a d P r o j e c t i s an example o f t h e a i d e d s e l f - h e l p type o f p r o j e c t .  The p e o p l e were i n d u c e d t o work  130 on t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e i n many ways.  As an a i d t o  s e l f - h e l p b u i l d i n g e f f o r t s , t e n b r i c k k i l n s were s t a r t e d , each h a n d l e d by a p r o d u c e r s ' c o o p e r a t i v e  of f i f t y f a m i l i e s .  The members managed t o r a i s e p a r t o f t h e money themselves ' and  t h e r e s t was advanced by t h e Government.  By so d o i n g ,  the c o s t o f one o f the b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s was s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduced. The i n d i r e c t r e s u l t o f the above method was t h a t the p r o d u c e r s ' c o o p e r a t i v e s  d i d n o t cease t h e i r work a f t e r  completion of the P r o j e c t but continued  t o o p e r a t e on a  commercial s c a l e t o meet t h e i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s i n the D e l h i M e t r o p o l i t a n  Area.  The s e l f - h e l p work was adopted i n a g r a d u a l manner.  The r e f u g e e immigrants worked on a s u b s i d i z e d  3 cooperative  basis,  d u r i n g t h e second y e a r o f c o n s t r u c t i o n .  The s u b s i d y on wages was as h i g h as 150 p e r c e n t i n t h e beginning apprentice  b u t was g r a d u a l l y s c a l e d down t o n i l as t h e workers mastered t h e i r s k i l l s and s t a r t e d  e a r n i n g normal wages.  The method, i n s h o r t , p r o v i d e d  new  avenues o f employment. The o v e r a l l e x t e n t o f d i r e c t s e l f - h e l p i n v o l v e m e n t on c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e F a r i d a b a d  P r o j e c t was h i g h e r  than i n  any o t h e r known p l a n n e d p r o j e c t i n A s i a n and A f r i c a n countries; i t also favourably  compares w i t h p r o j e c t s i n  ork on a s u b s i d i z e d c o o p e r a t i v e b a s i s i m p l i e s t h a t t h e wages n o r m a l l y p a i d t o u n s k i l l e d and s k i l l e d workers were s u b s i d i z e d .  PROJECT NDIA  FARIDABAD  DELHI  c — ^ ^ u 3 —  EFFECTIVENESS OF SELF-HELP HOUSING: EXPERIENCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES V MASTER'S DIVISIOM  THESIS  OF COAVAUNITY AND REGIONAL  UNIVERSITY  OF BRITISH  PLANNING  COLUIW&IA, VANCOUVER.BC  AMJAO.A.B.B>=VI.  132 L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s .  One s h o u l d , however, be m i n d f u l  o f t h e f a c t t h a t i n L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s , p r o j e c t s a r e numerous b u t s m a l l , r a n g i n g from t h e t e n house p r o j e c t o f V i v e r o s de Cuyuta i n Guatemala t o t h e f o u r thousand p r o j e c t o f San G r e g o r i o i n S a n t i a g o , C h i l e .  house  The s i z e o f  the F a r i d a b a d P r o j e c t was 10,000 houses. "One  o f t h e remarkable  features o f Faridabad,"  a c c o r d i n g t o a U n i t e d N a t i o n s e v a l u a t i o n , " i s t h a t more than 95 p e r c e n t o f t h e manual l a b o u r r e q u i r e d f o r t h e P r o j e c t was c a r r i e d o u t by p r e v i o u s l y u n t r a i n e d refugees who were m o s t l y s m a l l merchants and shopkeepers,  of the if  type t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l l y d e s p i s e s manual l a b o u r . "  The  economy from manual l a b o u r a l o n e reached t h e l e v e l o f 25 per cent o f the housing c o s t . I n t h i s way, a p o p u l a t i o n o f 50,000 r e f u g e e s on w e l f a r e s u b s i s t e n c e d o l e s c o s t i n g t h e Government o f India:Es.50,000 ($10,000) a day, were n o t o n l y s e t t l e d p a r t l y through t h e i r own e f f o r t s under Government guidance, but were a l s o t a u g h t t h e a r t o f b u i l d i n g and, t h u s , p u t on t h e i r way t o s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y as u s e f u l and p r o d u c t i v e citizens.  I n f a c t , a c c o r d i n g t o c l o s e examiners o f t h e  P r o j e c t , Faridabad represents:  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , "Housing Through Non P r o f i t O r g a n i z a t i o n , " Report o f a Seminar h e l d a t Copenhagen i n September - October, 195^, H o u s i n g . B u i l d i n g and P l a n n i n g No. 10. (New York: Department o f Economic and S o c i a l A f f a i r s ,  1956T"p. 113.  133 a good example o f a township b u i l t by s e l f - h e l p and demonstrates what t h e c o o p e r a t i v e endeavour o f t h e p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s , w i t h a l i t t l e t e c h n i c a l guidance and modest f i n a n c i a l a i d p r o v i d e d by t h e Government c o u l d a c h i e v e . 5 KORANGI PROJECT, KARACHI, PAKISTAN I n 1961, t h e Second P o p u l a t i o n Census o f P a k i s t a n r e p o r t e d a p o p u l a t i o n o f 2,0^-8,7^+5 i n t h e c i t y o f K a r a c h i . T h i s was f o u r times t h e c i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n a t the end o f 19^7,  t h e year t h e c o u n t r y a c h i e v e d n a t i o n a l s t a t u s . I n  1959? L t . C o l . Ahmad conducted a s u r v e y and r e p o r t e d  527,535 s h e l t e r l e s s p e r s o n s i n K a r a c h i e i t h e r homeless o r l i v i n g on pavements o r temporary tenements i n about 250  7 slum c l u s t e r s i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e c i t y .  The  Government's e f f o r t s had been i n a d e q u a t e f o r t h e s o l u t i o n o f even a f r a c t i o n o f t h e problem. The new r e v o l u t i o n a r y Government was s t i r r e d by the p o v e r t y o f t h e l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e muslim r e f u g e e s of I n d i a .  I n 1959, t h e Government embarked upon an  5  L.R. V a g a l e , B.M. Bhuta and M.S.V. Rao, " F a r i d a b a d - A C r i t i c a l Study o f t h e New Town," Urban and R u r a l P l a n n i n g Thought.11, No. 3 ( J u l y , 1959), p. 106. 6 Government o f P a k i s t a n , O f f i c e o f t h e Census Commissioner, P o p u l a t i o n Census o f P a k i s t a n 1961 - D i s t r i c t Census R e p o r t ; K a r a c h i , P a r t 1-V ( K a r a c h i ; Manager o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1963), p. 1-1. ^ L t . C o l . N a z i r Ahmad, Survey o f S h e l t e r l e s s P e r s o n s i n K a r a c h i 1959 ( K a r a c h i : M n a g e r o f P u b l i c a t i o n s ,  1959), P. 2.  a  13^ ambitious p r o j e c t o f r e h a b i l i t a t i n g the e n t i r e s h e l t e r l e s s population of Karachi. that of Faridabad was  A s e l f - c o n t a i n e d township, l i k e  i n I n d i a b u t t e n times b i g g e r i n s i z e ,  p l a n n e d t o t h e south e a s t o f t h e c i t y .  Construction  (Figure No7)  s t a r t e d w i t h g r e a t z e a l by t h e M a r t i a l Law  Government as i s e v i d e n t from t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f one o f t h e b i g g e s t r a t e o f l o w income house b u i l d i n g i n t h e w o r l d . W i t h i n a y e a r , 15,000 houses were c o n s t r u c t e d number o f f a m i l i e s s e t t l e d .  and a l i k e  D u r i n g t h e f o u r y e a r s ending  1963? 30,000 houses were b u i l t and 150,000 p e r s o n s r e habilitated.  The work c o n t i n u e s The  to date.  e s s e n t i a l concept u s e d i n t h e K o r a n g i  P r o j e c t i s t h a t o f an u n f i n i s h e d " c o r e house" ( a r e a  1080  sq. f e e t ) , l i k e t h e one adopted i n t h e Aguablanca P r o j e c t o f C a l l i n C o l o m b i a , w i t h an u n p l a s t e r e d  room, b a t h and  boundary w a l l b u i l t i n cement and l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l ( " B a j r i " from t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g M a l i r R i v e r The  bed).  assumption o f t h i s approach was t h a t t h e  i n i t i a l i n v e s t m e n t i n t h e form o f a l o a n o f Rs. 2,000 ($^00) per house, made by t h e Government, would be r e t u r n e d by b e n e f i c i a r i e s on a monthly i n s t a l m e n t  o f Rs. 10.00 p e r  month and t h a t s u b s e q u e n t l y a d d i t i o n s and improvements t o the u n f i n i s h e d "core house" would be made by t h e f a m i l i e s themselves on a s e l f - h e l p b a s i s .  I a t r i d i s so s t a t e s t h i s  approach u n d e r l y i n g t h e K o r a n g i P r o j e c t :  resettlement  ... community development methods f o r o f r e f u g e e immigrants were emphasised  135 . . . l o w - c o s t h o u s i n g t e c h n i q u e s were employed f o r l o w e r income groups i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h s e l f - h e l p p r o v i s i o n f o r b u i l d i n g a d d i t i o n a l rooms w i t h o f f i c i a l guidance and help.8 The r e s u l t o f t h i s i n d i r e c t s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g approach i n t h e K o r a n g i P r o j e c t appeared  t o be s u b s t a n t i a l  when f i n d i n g s o f a p o s t - r e h a b i l i t a t i o n sample s u r v e y o f the f i r s t b a t c h o f about 15,000 f a m i l i e s (1960-1961) appeared:  T h r e e - f o u r t h s o f t h e f a m i l i e s have made s t r u c t u r a l  a d d i t i o n s and improvements and have l a n d s c a p e d t h e i r c o r e  9 houses. The a u t h o r who h a s been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p r e - r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s u r v e y o f s h e l t e r l e s s persons o f K a r a c h i (1959) and t h e p o s t - r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s u r v e y  (first  b a t c h o f ^5,000 f a m i l i e s ) and a n a l y s e d t h e K o r a n g i  10 experience i n other studies  e s t i m a t e s t h a t by t h e end  of 196^, t h e f a m i l i e s had i n v e s t e d , a t l e a s t , t w i c e t h e l a b o u r and c a p i t a l i n p u t o r i g i n a l l y s u p p l i e d by t h e Government. g  Demetrius I a t r i d i s , "The C o n t r i b u t i o n o f S o c i a l Work t o E k i s t i e s , " (paper p r e s e n t e d t o t h e 11th I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference o f S o c i a l Work, R i o de J a n e i r o , B r a z i l , August, 1962), i n E k i s t i c s . 1*+, No. 85. (December, 1962), p. 276. 9  Government o f P a k i s t a n , C e n t r a l S t a t i s t i c a l O f f i c e , Survey o f K o r a n g i P o p u l a t i o n 1960-61 ( K a r a c h i : Manager o f P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1962). ^*°See, e£. ,Amjad A.B. R i z v i , Amman and K o r a n g i S u r v e y s . A Mimeographed Research R e p o r t (No.9) i n t e n d e d f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n t h e P a k i s t a n Development Review. ( K a r a c h i : The I n s t i t u t e o f Developemnt Economics, 1965) and I m t i a z u d d i n Ahmad, A f z a l Ahmad and Amjad A.B. R i z v i , S o c i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e P e o p l e o f K a r a c h i 1959« Research Monograph 1*+, ( K a r a c h i : The I n s t i t u t e o f Development Economics, October 1965)  KORANGI PROJECT; KARACHI - PAKISTAN W/A  m  WIS  LEGENO 13  ResoeNOAC COMMUNITIES  3  CIVIc/cpMHERCuL. BU^IMESS^  3  SPECIAL, ° Bun.0lN<S3 A NO WSTITUTICMI GACEM. AREAS  *JTM  - "  SPECIAL  OUO.CTW3S.  IRRtOATTD LAN OS. AND CULTIVATIONS. INDUSTRIAL ZONE. •' ' UOMT INDUSTRIES, WORKSHOPS. itfOWROOUS ffA.F  AIR  BASCf INSTALLATIONS . .  EFFECTIVENESS OF SELF-HELP HOUSING: E X P E R I E N C E IN D E V E L O P I N G COUNTRIES  FIG. NO. A P R I L  UNIVERSITY  1966 SOURCE':  DOXIA.DIS  O F 5EITISH C O L U M B I A , VANCOUVlfw. A m j & J L . A.(i b . ElJVC.  ASSOCIATES,  KQBAMai  PKOIECC  NO . 2 , July, l ? 5 g , ATWEVJS, G K C E C E .  7  137 B a r r i n g the poor q u a l i t y o f a d d i t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n t h a t r e s u l t e d from f a m i l i e s s e l f - h e l p e f f o r t s w i t h o u t t e c h n i c a l i  guidance, the f a c t remains t h a t the o r i g i n a l assumption  of  11 Korangi planners of  as t o the s p o n t a n e i t y and  s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g method was  potentiality  justified.  GOUKNA PROJECT, THE UNITED ARAB REPUBLIC A c c o r d i n g t o a s u r v e y c a r r i e d out by the F e l l a h Department o f the U n i t e d Arab R e p u b l i c , i n 1*+ v i l l a g e s o f former E g y p t , 5 +«3 per c e n t o f rooms had r o o f s o f palm 1  branches and reeds and 27.5  p e r c e n t had no r o o f s a t a l l .  Whence i t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t the owners are too poor t o be a b l e t o a f f o r d even reeds which a r e v e r y cheap and t h a t "they p o s s e s s the w i l l t o b u i l d , and w i l l p u t up w a l l s i f  12 n o t d e f e a t e d by the problem o f roofing'.' problem  i n the a r e a o f r u r a l h o u s i n g i n v o l v i n g 17  Egyptian peasants. for  Such i s the million  B o t h Government and p e o p l e are h e l p l e s s  want o f the r e q u i s i t e  capital.  The Gourna s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g p r o j e c t was up under the above background.  taken  A v i l l a g e of peasants  d i s p l a c e d from an " a n t i q u i t i e s zone" was  t o be c r e a t e d i n  They were: D o x i a d i s A s s o c i a t e s - C o n s u l t a n t s i n Development and E k i s t i c s , 2*+ S t r a t . Syndesmou, A t h e n s , Greece. '^'rlassan F a t h y , " R u r a l S e l f - H e l p Housing," I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour Review, LXXXV ( J a n u a r y - J u n e , 1962),  p.2.  138 Lower Egypt.  The Government o f Egypt d e s i g n a t e d the  Gourna v i l l a g e as a model s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . P r o f e s s o r Hassan Fathy„ the then Head o f the Department o f A r c h i t e c t u r e a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f C a i r o was e n t r u s t e d w i t h t h e j o b o f d e s i g n i n g and implementing (Photograph No.  the P r o j e c t .  5)  No c o n c r e t e r e s u l t s i n terms o f monetary economy as a r e s u l t o f the use o f i n d i g e n o u s b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s and use o f p e a s a n t s l a b o u r has been r e p o r t e d t o the b e s t o f the a u t h o r ' s knowledge.  What has been r e p o r t e d i s the f a c t  t h a t the Gourna P r o j e c t as a d e m o n s t r a t i o n v e n t u r e was b i g accomplishment  a  i n the a r e a o f r u r a l s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g .  F a t h y a c t u a l l y l i v e d i n t h e community, m o t i v a t e d p e o p l e and engaged them i n c o o p e r a t i v e work.  Mud  bricks,  local  wood and reeds and peasant's t r a d i t i o n a l c r a f t s m a n s h i p was  e x t e n s i v e l y used.  The i n e x p e r i e n c e d v i l l a g e r s were  t a u g h t t h e t e c h n i q u e o f b u i l d i n g on the j o b .  And,  says  F a t h y , " I found t h a t i t took t h r e e months t o t u r n a t o t a l l y i n e x p e r i e n c e d v i l l a g e r i n t o a mason competent enough t o p e r f o r m a l l needed o p e r a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n 13 o f v a u l t s and dones."  1 3  I b i d . , p. 11.  139 From t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e Gourna P r o j e c t , F a t h y has e v o l v e d a f o r m u l a t o measure t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s e l f h e l p h o u s i n g p r o j e c t t o be u n d e r t a k e n anywhere:  The c o s t  o f s e l f - h e l p b u i l d i n g c o u l d be reckoned as f o l l o w s : L o c a l l a b o u r + l o c a l m a t e r i a l s reckoned i n man-hours and c o n v e r t e d i n t o c a s h :  L  Imported l a b o u r + i m p o r t e d m a t e r i a l s reckoned i n c a s h :  E  Then t h e s o - c a l l e d " e k i s t i c e f f i c i e n c y * ' i e . K o f t h e b u i l d i n g would be:  L  +  L+E What a c t u a l l y was attempted i n t h e Gourna P r o j e c t was t o r a i s e t h e v a l u e o f L and reduce t h e v a l u e o f E.  In  the Harga O a s i s and N u b i a , under t h e t r a d i t i o n a l b u i l d i n g , the " e k i s t i c e f f i c i e n c y " approaches 100.  I n t h e case o f  Gourna, however, s i n c e i n i t i a l p u b l i c i n p u t was s u b s t a n t i a l , the " e k i s t i c e f f i c i e n c y " as h i g h as say 50 c o u l d be e x p e c t e d o n l y i f a h o s t o f i n t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t s which were „ n y * c o u l d *e a r a b l e t o Monetary . e a . u r e . e n t . However, F a t h y s c o n v i c t i o n on t h e Gourna experiment i s amenable t o 1  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n as t o t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g method:  Stated i n the l i g h t of P r o f . Fathy's s l i d e l e c t u r e on t h e Gourna P r o j e c t a t t h e Athens T e c h n o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e , Graduate S c h o o l o f E k i s t i c s , A t h e n s , May, I 9 6 0 .  l>+0 Once ... some o f the houses a r e up, the s k i l l s i m p l a n t e d and a v i l l a g e p l a n drawn up, the r e - b u i l d i n g w i l l go o f i t s own momentum (and} i f the t r a d i t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i v e system can be made t o work under n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s , then i t can c l e a r l y be expanded and a p p l i e d t o a mass h o u s i n g programme.15 The method has been recommended f o r the e n t i r e communities o f E g y p t i a n f a l a h i n s ( p e a s a n t s ) , and f o r communities l i v i n g under s i m i l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s e l s e w h e r e . BONNETT ST. MARY PROJECT, JAMAICA. One o f the i m p o r t a n t o b j e c t i v e s o f the Jamaica s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s , says S t o c k d a l e , i s " t o enable the  p e o p l e t o s e c u r e , by t h e i r own e x e r t i o n s , b o t h a l i f e  and l i v e l i h o o d w h i c h w i l l bear comparison w i t h the m o r a l 16 and m a t e r i a l s t a n d a r d s o f the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . "  The  J a m a i c a W e l f a r e L i m i t e d f i n a n c e d o r i g i n a l l y from the U n i t e d F r u i t and S h i p p i n g Company has been p i o n e e r i n g i n the  achievement o f the above o b j e c t i v e by o r g a n i z i n g  h e l p h o u s i n g based on r u r a l economy.  self-  The Jamaican P r o j e c t  p r o v i d e s , by f a r , the most o r g a n i z e d e x p e r i e n c e o f c o o p e r a t i v e house b u i l d i n g . In  the p e r i o d 19^1-19^5, the Jamaica W e l f a r e  L i m i t e d took over a number o f e x p e r i m e n t a l c o o p e r a t i v e house b u i l d i n g p r o j e c t s i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the Lands I b i d . , pp. 12-15.  16  S t o c k d a l e quoted i n : U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Survey of Problems o f Low C o s t R u r a l Housing i n T r o p i c a l A r e a , A P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t w i t h S p e c i a l R e f e r e n c e to C a r i b b e a n A r e a , (New Y o r k : Department o f S o c i a l A f f a i r s , 1950), p. 69.  1*H  Department and s u b s e q u e n t l y w i t h the A g r i c u l t u r a l Loan S o c i e t i e s Board w i t h t e c h n i c a l guidance C e n t r a l Housing A u t h o r i t y .  from the Government  The Bonnett S t . Mary P r o j e c t i s  one o f these e x p e r i m e n t a l schemes. 17 As d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the "community t y p e "  of  s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t , the Bonnett S t . Mary P r o j e c t f a l l s  into  the " o r g a n i z e d t y p e " o f house b u i l d i n g which r e l i e s on  the  m u t u a l h e l p o f members o f group to each o t h e r i n such a  way  t h a t each member r e c e i v e s an amount o f l a b o u r e q u i v a l e n t t o t h a t which he has c o n t r i b u t e d . The P r o j e c t d e a l t w i t h the b u i l d i n g o f 29 houses on an e x p e r i m e n t a l b a s i s . three steps:  The  initial  stage was marked by  p r e s e n t i n g the o r g a n i z e d s e l f - h e l p i d e a to  the p e o p l e ; o r g a n i z i n g them under the s o - c a l l e d " B e t t e r Houses, B e t t e r S e t t l e m e n t s and B e t t e r V i l l a g e s Movement", and economising  cash e x p e n d i t u r e through the use o f cheap  l o c a l m a t e r i a l s and v o l u n t a r y l a b o u r . The h o u s e - h o l d e r s groups o f s i x .  were o r g a n i z e d i n t o b u i l d i n g  They worked a l t e r n a t e l y t h r i c e a week  h a v i n g gone through a p r e l i m i n a r y t r a i n i n g p e r i o d . owner's l a b o u r was  The  c r e d i t e d t o non-owner members, w i t h  d e d u c t i o n s made f o r meals p r o v i d e d on the s i t e . C e n t r a l Housing A u t h o r i t y provided t e c h n i c a l  The  guidance.  I n the s o - c a l l e d "community t y p e " o f c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g , members o f the community h e l p t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s to b u i l d t h e i r houses w i t h o u t e x p e c t a t i o n o f any reward o r r e t u r n i n k i n d , as i s the case i n the " o r g a n i z e d t y p e " o f s e l f - h e l p building.  1*4-2 One  t h i r d of the c o s t of each house was  p r o v i d e d by the  people themselves i n the form of cash and k i n d , i e . l a b o u r . The extent of the b e n e f i c i a r i e s own  c o n t r i b u t i o n s i s shown  i n monetary terms i n T a b l e 3» ( see next page 143  )  TABLE 3 BONNETT ST. MARY SELF-HELP HOUSING PROJECT, JAMAICA: BENEFICIARIES CONTRIBUTION TO A TYPICAL TWO-ROOM HOUSE  Outlay Materials  contributed  £  20. 1. 7  M a t e r i a l s paid f o r  £  78.16. 5  Total  £ 98.18. 0  3 .  a  £ lh. 3. 6  Labour c o n t r i b u t e d Labour p a i d f o r  £ 36. 3. 9  £ 50.  Total  £  Food T o t a l Cost  =  7. 3 2.16. 3  £152. 1. 6  Source o f Funds I n t h e form o f m a t e r i a l s contributed I n t h e form o f l a b o u r contributed  a  £ 20. 1. 7  a  £ Ik. 3. 6  £ 3^.  Total Grant  £ 50.13.10  Loan  £ 67. 2. 7  Total Expenditure  ^y  5. 1  =  £152. 1. 6  the house-holders.  S o u r c e : U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Survey o f Problems o f Low-Cost R u r a l Housing i n T r o p i c a l A r e a s , A P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t w i t h S p e c i a l R e f e r e n c e t o C a r i b b e a n A r e a (New York: Department o f S o c i a l A f f a i r s , 1950), p. hh.  From T a b l e 3 i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e h o u s e h o l d e r ' s d i r e c t c o n t r i b u t i o n was e q u i v a l e n t t o a l i t t l e l e s s than a q u a r t e r o f t h e t o t a l c o s t o f t h e house.  On a t o t a l p r o j e c t  b a s i s a l s o , t h e owners c o n t r i b u t e d £ 5 7 2 w o r t h o f m a t e r i a l s and £ 3 3 9 worth o f l a b o u r i e . a t o t a l o f £911 o u t o f t h e t o t a l Project's cost of £3,665.  The b e n e f i c i a r i e s d i r e c t  c o n t r i b u t i o n amounted t o 25 p e r c e n t o f t h e P r o j e c t ' s 18 c o s t , as a g a i n s t t h e p l a n n e d assumption o f 20 p e r c e n t . The  Table 3 also brings out the f a c t that  m a t e r i a l s c o n t r i b u t e d by h o u s e h o l d e r s amounted t o o n e - t h i r d of m a t e r i a l s purchased, while the labour  contributed  amounted t o more t h a n o n e - t h i r d o f t h e l a b o u r p a i d f o r . I n t h i s way, t h e Government g r a n t was economised; i t was reduced t o o n e - t h i r d o f t h e P r o j e c t c o s t .  The b a l a n c e  between c o s t o f t h e P r o j e c t , c o s t o f m a t e r i a l and l a b o u r c o n t r i b u t e d , and t h e Government g r a n t , was t o be p a i d on a weekly i n s t a l m e n t o f under t h r e e s h i l l i n g s p e r week. was  This  w i t h i n t h e r e a c h o f every b e n e f i c i a r y . The  hopeful  Bormett S t . Mary e x p e r i e n c e made t h e p l a n n e r s  of the p o s s i b i l i t y of increasing the proportion of  the v a l u e o f v o l u n t a r y l a b o u r from o n e - t h i r d t o one h a l f o f the p a i d l a b o u r , and o f economising t h e time c o s t substantially.  T h e i r b e l i e f on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s e l f -  h e l p h o u s i n g i n J a m a i c a was based on t h e i r recommendation U n i t e d N a t i o n s , "Housing i n t h e T r o p i c s , " H o u s i n g and Town and C o u n t r y P l a n n i n g B u l l e t i n No. 6, (New Y o r k : U n i t e d N a t i o n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 5 2 ) , P. 5 5 .  145 t h a t i n f u t u r e t h e method c o u l d be d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r a 19 l a r g e r sphere o f o p e r a t i o n s . AGUABLANCA PROJECT, C A I I , COLOMBIA The  I n s t i t u t o de C r e d i t o (ICT) i n C o l o m b i a , as  e l a b o r a t e d i n C h a p t e r I V , has been c a r r y i n g out s e l f - h e l p housing  p r o j e c t s w i t h an urban f o c u s . The I n s t i t u t e s e l e c t s a  p r o j e c t a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h and s u p e r v i s e s work under an adequate system o f group o r g a n i z a t i o n . I n 1959» t h e Colombian Government p l a c e d on t h e ICT's shoulders  t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e Aguablanca  P r o j e c t w i t h as much s e l f - h e l p i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e reDevant community as p o s s i b l e . The p l a n was p a r t o f an emergency a c t i o n to solve the housing  d e f i c i e n c y i n t h e c i t y o f C a l i and t o  c o u n t e r a c t t h e t h r e a t e n i n g growth o f s q u a t t e r s . A t o t a l o f 20 1589 d w e l l i n g s d i s t r i b u t e d as f o l l o w s were b u i l t : U n f i n i s h e d houses 1,020 M u t u a l a i d houses 476 S e l f - h e l p houses 93 The Aguablanca s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g  p r o j e c t was s t a r t e d  i n A p r i l o f 1959 ( f i g u r e No. 8 ) . The f i r s t stage o f work was  ^ U n i t e d N a t i o n s , "Survey ... A r e a s , "  op_. c i t . ,  p. 46. 20  U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e quoted d i f f e r e n c t l y , t h e u n o p i n i o n a t e d f a c t u a l d a t a i n t h i s and t h e r e m a i n i n g pages o f t h i s c h a p t e r a r e from: Pan A m e r i c a n U n i o n , Department o f S o c i a l A f f a i r s , S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g Guide ( B o g o t a : I n t e r A m e r i c a n H o u s i n g and P l a n n i n g C e n t e r , 1962), p. 4 ( p r e s e n t r e f e r e n c e page ).  marked by the f o r m a t i o n o f groups and t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n . I t t o o k seventeen months t o complete U-76 mutual a i d e d 21 s e l f - h e l p houses. A g r a t i f y i n g number o f 35 houses p e r month were b u i l t w i t h the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the a i d e d self-help method. The e s s e n t i a l e v a l u a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on an average mutual a i d s e l f - h e l p house i s summarized i n T a b l e h.  ( see n e x t  page 147 )  the the  T h i s p e r i o d e x c l u d e s the i n t e r v a l between s t a r t o f the f i r s t , i e . the d e m o n s t r a t i o n group and second group.  TABLE h AGUABLANCA SELF-HELP HOUSING PROJECT C A L I , COLOMBIA: COST AND BENEFIT ASPECT Extent of Voluntary Total dwellings  Participation  involved  1+76'  P a r t i c i p a n t s labour: Man-hours per house Man-hours p e r s q r . meter  515 11.2  P e r c e n t a g e man-hours on c o n s t r u c t i o n : P a r t i c i p a n t s labour Paid labour  nil  Cost Aspect  100  Colombian Pesos  Cost per dwelling C o s t p e r s q r . meter  3,1+03.00 22.39  Average c o s t o f m a t e r i a l s and components p e r d w e l l i n g  1,500.00  Average c o s t o f cement s l a b f o u n d a t i o n and f l o o r per d w e l l i n g  1,188.00  Estimated value o f p a r t i c i p a n t s labour per dwelling A c t u a l c o s t per  dwelling  d  6,091.00  ^3y O c t o b e r , I960, 273 houses were completed and 203 were a t advanced stage o f c o n s t r u c t i o n . The d a t a p e r t a i n s t o t h e average o f 273 houses.  The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and management c o s t i s n o t i n c l u d e d because a charge o f 10 p e r c e n t was added t o the p r i c e o f the developed l a n d t o c o v e r these expenses. °In I960 when the P r o j e c t was i n p r o g r e s s , Pesos was e q u i v a l e n t t o U.S. $0.1*+.  a Colombian  ^No a p p r a i s a l was made o f the v a l u e r e p r e s e n t e d l a b o u r o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  by t h e  S o u r c e : Pan American U n i o n , Department o f S o c i a l A f f a i r s , S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g G u i d e , (Bogota: I n t e r - A m e r i c a n H o u s i n g and P l a n n i n g C e n t e r , 1962), p. 5.  AGUABLANCA PROJECT, CALL C O L O M B J A gllilMlHITfTIUlllHI toUdi SITE  FLOOR  PLAN  • °° °° i  A P R I L 1966  EFFECTIVENESS  OF  EXPERIENCE  DEVELOPING  Division  of  UNII/EOSITY  SOURCE •  IN  Commumfy OF  BRITISH  S E L F - HELP  HOUJNG  COUNTRIES  * Regional  P|»ooiOg  C O L U M B I A , VANCOUVER  P A N - AA\ERI£Ai4 UNION, SELF-Hfel-P HOUVNC GO'DE^ &OG.OTA I N T E R - A M E R I C A N U O O S I N O * P I A N N 1 H G C E N T E R " , tyl), fV 4-5"  PLAT4  1^9 The  t a b u l a r i n f o r m a t i o n can be s u b s t a n t i a t e d from  a comparison w i t h t h e n o n - s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t s as f o l l o w s : Colombian pesos Cost of s i m i l a r unfinished c o n t r a c t e d house Additional cost to bring i n l i n e w i t h D i r e c t e d Mutual A i d Dwelling (Table IV)  (  8,052.00  ^50.00  8,502.00 E s t i m a t e d a c t u a l c o s t o f an AMD d w e l l i n g (Table I I I ) D i f f e r e n c e o f c o s t , i e . economy with self-help  - 6.091.00 2,^+11.00  T h i s economy r e s u l t s e n t i r e l y from the r e d u c t i o n o f b u i l d i n g c o s t as a consequence o f c o n t r i b u t e d l a b o u r and m a t e r i a l s under t h e s e l f - h e l p method as f o l l o w s : Net b u i l d i n g c o s t o f contracted dwelling  2  2  3,911.00  Net b u i l d i n g c o s t o f s i m i l a r AMD d w e l l i n g ( T a b l e h)  -1,500.00  Difference of cost, i e . economy w i t h s e l f - h e l p 2,^11.00 The t a b u l a r i n f o r m a t i o n i s s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y . C e r t a i n f a c t s strengthening  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the guided  s e l f - h e l p method can be e a s i l y i s o l a t e d as e v i d e n c e . r e s u l t o f t h e 100 p e r c e n t i n v o l v e m e n t o f p a r t i c i p a n t  22  -<  l e s s f i x e d v a l u e o f developed l a n d and cement-slab o f f o u n d a t i o n i n amount o f ^,591.00  As a  150 l a b o u r and improvement i n the q u a l i t y of houses f o r the same r e a s o n , a c l e a r - c u t s a v i n g o f $ 2 , f l l , i e . 28.7  per  l  c e n t o f the h o u s i n g  cost r e s u l t s .  A l s o the d i f f e r e n c e i n  the n e t b u i l d i n g c o s t r e p r e s e n t s a s a v i n g of 62 per f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  cent  T h i s i s a s a v i n g made by b u i l d i n g  a house u s i n g s e l f - h e l p method under p u b l i c i n i t i a t i v e and  guidance. I t i s of i n t e r e s t t o d e s c r i b e c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s  o f the amply s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s of the Aguablanca P r o j e c t o f Colombia.  These were:  rapid execution; of investment  o r g a n i z e d and planned  work;  outstanding q u a l i t y of labour;  economy  on the p a r t o f the ICT i n c o n t r a c t e d houses;  spontaneous g e n e r a t i o n of s a v i n g i n p a r t i c i p a n t f a m i l i e s ; the avenues of t e c h n i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t r a i n i n g ; awakening o f a d e s i r e f o r c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n and  the  social  improvements i n the community. The Aguablanca P r o j e c t , however s m a l l , has been one of the most w e l l o r g a n i z e d and s u c c e s s f u l ones among the c o u n t r i e s o f L a t i n A m e r i c a .  I t i s one of the  strongest  cases t h a t supports a b e l i e f i n the s i g n i f i c a n c e of  self-  h e l p h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s i n the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . SAN  SEBASTIAN PROJECT, SAN  J O S E , COSTA RICA 1  The San S e b a s t i a n s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g p r o j e c t i s one o f the numerous guided p r o j e c t s executed  by  the  I n s t i t u t o N a c i o n a l de V i v i e n d a y Urbanismo i n C o s t a R i c a .  151 The  P r o j e c t d e a l i n g w i t h 352  1958.  ( F i g u r e No.  9)  d w e l l i n g u n i t s was  Under the o r g a n i z e d  a c t i v i t y , f o u r u n i t s were r a i s e d per day, P r o j e c t was  group b u i l d i n g so t h a t the whole  presumably completed i n t h r e e months time.  e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e o f the d w e l l i n g s was  t o t r a d i t i o n a l dimensions of C o s t a r i c a n woods.  according The  design  s i m i l a r t o slum e l i m i n a t i o n p r o j e c t s c a r r i e d out under  the V i v i e n d a en Marcha (Housing on the March) and h o u s i n g programs.  )  rural  T a b l e 5 summarizes the e s s e n t i a l  e v a l u a t i v e a s p e c t s o f the P r o j e c t . ( see n e x t page  152  The  t h a t they were p r e -  c u t and p a r t i a l l y assembled i n modular p a n e l s  was  started i n  152 TABLE 5 SAN  SEBASTIAN SELF-HELP HOUSING PROJECT SAN  JOSE' COSTA RICA:  COST AND BENEFIT ASPECT  Extent of Voluntary Participation Total dwellings  352  P a r t i c i p a n t s labour: Man-hours p e r u n i t Men-hours p e r s q r . meter  650 11.8  Approximate p e r c e n t a g e men-houEs in construction: P a r t i c i p a n t labour Paid labour  62 38  Cost Aspect Costa Rican Cost per d w e l l i n g  6,790.00 28.00  C o s t p e r s q r . meter Average c o s t o f m a t e r i a l and p a i d labour per dwelling Average c o s t o f management p e r dwelling Estimated value o f p a r t i c i p a n t s labour per dwelling T o t a l estimated cost per dwelling (including p a r t i c i p a n t s labour cost  a  Colons  9,108.11 953.88 1,1+62.50  18,31^*^9  6 . 6 0 C o l o n s a r e e q u i v a l e n t t o U.S. $1.00  S o u r c e : Pan American U n i o n , Department o f S o c i a l A f f a i r s , S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g Guide. (Bogota: I n t e r - A m e r i c a n H o u s i n g and P l a n n i n g C e n t e r , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 1 1 .  a  S A N SEBASTIAN  PROJECT  COSTA  E F F E C T L E S S EXPERIENCE  RICA  O F SELF-HELP IN DEVELOPING  Division  of  UNIVERSITY  CommiiniJy OF  BRITISH  AmjoidL SOURCE  HOUSING COUNTRIES  %e.s\s  Metiers  APRIL  SAN JOSE*  A  FIG.  * Region^/, P/fl/JOio^ COLUM&IA, VANCOUVER  B> R.I;VI  .  P A N - AWEDICAM UNION, S E L F - H E L P H O U S I N G OiUIDE C B a ^ O T A V INTEP- AMERICAN H O U S I N G AMD PLANNING C E N T E B , p ll 1  }  1^' The p a r t i c i p a n t f a m i l i e s i n the San S e b a s t i a n P r o j e c t as appears from Table 5 had put i n 650 o f work per d w e l l i n g u n i t .  man  hours  T h i s c o n s t i t u t e s 62 p e r c e n t  o f the l a b o u r r e q u i r e d i n the P r o j e c t ; the r e s t , i e . 38 c e n t was p u b l i c l y p a i d f o r . i c i p a n t l a b o u r was  I n monetary terms, the p a r t -  e q u i v a l e n t t o 1,^62.50 Colons  t o the then p r e v a i l i n g wage r a t e s . t h a t a s a v i n g e q u i v a l e n t t o 7*5 o f the d w e l l i n g u n i t was  per  according  Whence, i t i s concluded  per c e n t o f the t o t a l c o s t  a c h i e v e d by each house b u i l d i n g  family. The was  s a v i n g gained i n the San S e b a s t i a n P r o j e c t  about o n e - t h i r d t o o n e - f o u r t h l e s s than i n the I n d i a n ,  E g y p t i a n and Colombian P r o j e c t s .  T h i s was most c e r t a i n l y  because i n the C o s t a R i c a n c a s e , h o u s i n g and community d e s i g n was  s u f f i c i e n t l y a m b i t i o u s compared to the A s i a n  and A f r i c a n c a s e s .  Three bed-rooms were planned on an  average d w e l l i n g a r e a o f 5*+.88 m over $2,000.  and the c o s t was  well  This i n d i c a t e s that a high l e v e l of b u i l d i n g  s p e c i f i c a t i o n s were used which i s n o t g e n e r a l l y the case adopted i n s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t s t h a t a r e meant e n t i r e l y f o r the l o w e r income group.  T h i s i s a p r o h i b i t i v e c o s t which  cannot work i n A s i a t i c and A f r i c a n s e t t i n g s . i n d i c a t e s the reason why  This also  v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n was  i n C o s t a R i c a ( c o n t r i b u t e d l a b o u r c o s t 7.5  lower  p e r c e n t o f the  d w e l l i n g c o s t ) than i n o t h e r p r o j e c t s d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r .  155  •  CLARA ESTRELLA PROJECT, SANTIAGO CHILE The C l a r a E s t r e l l a s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g p r o j e c t i s one  o f the many o r g a n i z e d  Vivienda i n Chile. 1959  The  by the C o r p o r a t i o n  P r o j e c t was  de l a  begun i n F e b r u a r y o f  w i t h the s o l e o b j e c t of s t i m u l a t i n g s e l f - h e l p e f f o r t s  among the p a r t i c i p a n t f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n slums and  thereby  a l l e v i a t i n g the h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e i n the growing c i t y Santiago.  ( F i g u r e No.  10)  The P r o j e c t was b u i l d i n g o f l,kl7 under e x p e r t  concerned w i t h o r g a n i z i n g  supervision.  The  f a m i l i e s were  groups.  The  organized 1,300  groups b u i l t  bed-room houses and made a money c o n t r i b u t i o n  t o t w o - t h i r d s of the d w e l l i n g c o s t .  Accordingly  i n v e s t m e n t made by the CORVI ( C o r p o r a t i o n de l a was  the  houses f o r a l i k e number o f f a m i l i e s  under t w e l v e c o o p e r a t i v e two  of  equivalent the  Vivienda)  reduced t o o n e - t h i r d o f the P r o j e c t c o s t . The  p r o c e d u r e adopted was  f i r s t the m o b i l i z a t i o n  o f p a r t i c i p a n t groups t h r o u g h s o c i a l work Technical  and  s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n under the guidance o f  masons, b u i l d e r s and followed there-after.  23  projects  was  techniques.  s o c i a l workers on the n a t u r e o f work Previous  e x p e r i e n c e from s i m i l a r  amply u t i l i z e d t o a c h i e v e the maximum economy.  The h i g h l i g h t o f a t y p i c a l h o u s i n g u n i t i s contained, i n Table  6.  "Eg., German R i e s c o i n the c i t y of S a n t i a g o .  and L a Palma P r o j e c t s  156 TABLE 6 CLARA ESTRELLA SELF-HELP HOUSING PROJECT, SANTIAGO, CHILE: COST AND BENEFIT ASPECT  Extent o f Voluntary  Participation  Total dwellings  1,^+17  P a r t i c i p a n t s labour: Man-hours p e r u n i t ^ Man-hours p e r s q r . meter  663 25  2  P e r c e n t a g e man-hours p e r m : P a r t i c i p a n t labour Paid labour  80 20  Cost Aspect C h i l e a n Escudos Average c o s t p e r d w e l l i n g Average c o s t p e r s q r . meter C o s t o f m a t e r i a l s and p a i d l a b o u r  per d w e l l i n g  Average c o s t o f management Estimated  283*90 1.19 &  1,529.65 111.96  value o f p a r t i c i p a n t s  labour per dwelling T o t a l estimated cost per dwelling  231.25 2.5^0.50  a Average o f stages 1 and 2. b R e f e r t o stage 2 o n l y . c Escudos t h e C h i l e a n c u r r e n c y was on p a r w i t h t h e U.S. d o l l a r i n I960. Of t h i s amount, t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n t r i b u t e d a sum o f E° 3*+l«39 i n v e s t e d d i r e c t l y by them a t t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e . Source:  Pan American U n i o n , Department o f S o c i a l A f f a i r s , S e l f - H e l p H o u s i n g Guide. (Bogota: Inter-American Housing and P l a n n i n g C e n t e r , 1962), p. 17.  C  )  C L A R A ESTRELLA PROJECT SANTIAGO-CHILE TYPICAL  D E T A I L FROM SITE P L A N  TR YIY R  FLOOR  BEDROOM  OKDROOM  1 OATH  BEDROOM  BEDROOM  p—"Tl BATH  KITCHEN  1  LIVINO  I  KITCHeN|BBO«oo«l  EFFECTIVENESS EXPERIENCE  A P R I L  1966  SELF- HELP  DEVELOPING  HOUSING  COUNTRIES  /^a-stars Theses Division  of  UNIVERSITY*  SOURCE  OF IN  I  C o m m t i n t i y e w d . GegcOioajt ^ f t / ) 0 " M t OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA, VANCOUUEU  PAN-AMERICAN ONION, S E L F - H E L P HOUSING CU'PE. TBOSOTA I N T E R - A M E R I C A N M O U S I N G , A P L A N N I N G C E N T & R , I*»62). P P 1 6 - 1 7  FIG.NO. I O  158 The C h i l e a n C l a r a E s t r e l l a P r o j e c t i s s u c c e s s f u l to  the e x t e n t t h a t 80 per c e n t of the t o t a l man-hours i n  c o n s t r u c t i o n were put i n by v o l u n t a r y f a m i l i e s  themselves.  T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a s a v i n g o f 13 p e r c e n t o f the h o u s i n g c o s t . I f t h i s i s added t o the amount they c o n t r i b u t e d i n t h e form of m a t e r i a l and downpayment as a r e s u l t o f i n t i m a t e i n t e r e s t i n the s e l f b u i l t houses, the burden on the p u b l i c  exchequer  i s s c a l e d down t o the l e v e l o f 33 per c e n t o f the h o u s i n g cost.  This represents a s u b s t a n t i a l reduction of p u b l i c  r e s o u r c e s r e s u l t i n g from the a p p l i c a t i o n o f s e l f - h e l p method i n the a r e a o f low income h o u s i n g . C0L0NIA CENTRO-AMERICA — DE GUATEMALA, GUATEMALA  LAS VICTORIAS PROJECT, CIUDAD  The t w i n p r o j e c t s o f C e n t r o - A m e r i c a and Las V i c t o r i a s i n Guatemala were implemented by the I n s t i t u t o C o o p e r a t i v o I n t e r a m e r i c a n o de l a V i v i e n d a . d u r i n g J u l y , 1957 J u l y , 1958  The f i r s t was  t o September, 1959  t o October, 1959  c a r r i e d out  and the second  from  ( F i g u r e Nos. 11 and 12).  The  approach b e h i n d t h e two p r o j e c t s was  the same, namely, the  " u t i l i z a t i o n o f c o l l e c t i v e manpower o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . " p r o j e c t s i n v o l v i n g U-18 whole.  The  houses were o r g a n i z e d as a s i n g l e  I n the f i r s t , however, t e n groups each o f  28  persons and i n the second two groups each o f about h-5 persons c o n s t i t u t e d the s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g team. worked on d w e l l i n g s d e s i g n e d on a modular form r e - i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t i n g and p a n e l a s s e m b l i n g .  Each group involving  159 The h i g h l i g h t s o f the P r o j e c t ( b o t h p r o j e c t s combined) o f i n t e r e s t f o r the purpose o f e v a l u a t i o n i s contained i n Table  7. TABLE 7  COLONIA CENTRO-AMERICA —  LAS VICTORIAS SELF-HELP  HOUSING PROJECT: COST AND  BENEFIT ASPECT  Extent of voluntary p a r t i c i p a t i o n Total dwellings  U-18  Average a r e a o f a d w e l l i n g i n s q r . meter  5l.*+2  P a r t i c i p a n t s labour: Man-hours per u n i t Man-hours per s q r . meter  1,600 31.06  P e r c e n t a g e man-hours per s q r . meter: P a r t i c i p a n t s labour Paid labour  75 25  Cost Aspect Quetzales Average developed l a n d c o s t per d w e l l i n g Average c o s t o f p a i d l a b o u r and materials  6 H.OO l  1,290.00 885.00  Average o f c o s t o f management per, d w e l l i n g  560  Estimated value of p a r t i c i p a n t s l a b o u r per d w e l l i n g T o t a l e s t i m a t e d c o s t per d w e l l i n g  or  3,376.00  S o u r c e : Pan American U n i o n , Department of S o c i a l A f f a i r s , S e l f - H e l p Housing G u i d e , (Bogota: I n t e r - A m e r i c a n Housing and P l a n n i n g C e n t e r , 1962), p. 21.  U.S.  LAS VICTORIAS  PROJECT, GUATEMALA  SITE  P L A N  COLONIA CENTRO-AMERICA PROJECT SITE  PLAN  a•a a- a- ao:  0-  -Q  raj  C  3a  o-aa-a  LLh  EFFECTIVENESS OF SLLF-UELP HOUSING EXPERIENCE  >N D E V E L O P I N G  Mt*Srerj  APRIL  <966  Division  o f C o m m u n i i y «S» R e g i o n a l  UNIVERSITY  O F BRITISH  Amj««* SOU-aCe-  PA.N-AMEBICAN MOUSING  CENTER,  Pla/wii)^  COLUMBIA  FIG. NOS  VANCOUVER  A b P.15VI  UNION, * S E L F - H E L P H O U S I N G  A N D PLANNING  COL>NTR\ES  Ihesis  & O G O T A  GUISE*  ClNTER-AMERICAN  1 9 4 2 ) . pp  20-21  11-12  162 T a b l e 7 r e v e a l s t h a t t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f the t o t a l man-hours i n v o l v e d i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n  activity  o f t h e P r o j e c t were c o n t r i b u t e d f r e e o f charge by beneficiaries.  The e s t i m a t e d  v a l u e o f t h e thus c o n t r i b u t e d  l a b o u r c o n s t i t u t e s 17 p e r c e n t o f t h e h o u s i n g c o s t w h i c h , t h e r e f o r e , i s t h e c l e a r - c u t cash s a v i n g from t h e C o l o n i a Centro-America —  L a s V i c t o r i a s P r o j e c t i n Guatemala.  163 I I CONCLUSION, I n t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , almost a l l s e l f h e l p h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n urban a r e a s a r e m a n i p u l a t i v e and f o r m a l i n n a t u r e .  The success o f p r o j e c t s  i n terms o f s a v i n g r e s u l t i n g from t h e v o l u n t a r y i n v o l v e m e n t o f b e n e f i c i a r i e s depends almost e n t i r e l y on t h e competence o f t h e management h a n d l i n g t h e p r o j e c t .  Given the e f f e c t i v e  a p p l i c a t i o n of s o c i a l m o b i l i z a t i o n techniques e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e p r o j e c t s , i t i s p e r f e c t l y p o s s i b l e t o draw from t h e p a r t i c i p a n t f a m i l i e s a d o n a t i o n e q u i v a l e n t t o more t h a n t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t h e l a b o u r r e q u i r e d t o b u i l d houses on a s e l f - h e l p b a s i s .  ( F i g u r e No. 13)  The monetary v a l u e o f l a b o u r and m a t e r i a l s c o n t r i b u t e d by p a r t i c i p a n t f a m i l i e s f o r t h e i r houses  ranges  from 7.5 p e r c e n t (San S e b a s t i a n C o s t a R i c a ) t o 28.7 p e r c e n t (Aguablanca, Colombia) and averages  t o 25 p e r c e n t o f  the p r o j e c t c o s t . ( F i g u r e No. ih) However, where t h i s p r o p o r t i o n i s low, i t i s because t h e h o u s i n g  specifi-  c a t i o n s and f a m i l y incomes i n v o l v e d a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h . T h i s means t h a t t h e method works —  though l e s s  i n t h e case o f h i g h e r income groups.  effectively—  There i s a l s o some  hope among p l a n n e r s h a n d l i n g s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t s t o i n c r e a s e the s a v i n g t o t w i c e t h e p r e s e n t l e v e l . The P a k i s t a n ' s K o r a n g i e x p e r i e n c e , t h e Colombia's A g u a b l a n c a e x p e r i e n c e and I n d i a ' s Lucknow e x p e r i e n c e ( a s d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r IV) have a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d t h e m e r i t s ,  SELF-HELP HOUSING PROJECTS EXTENT  OF  VOLUNTARY  LA&OUR  PARTICIPATION  SELF-HELP HOUSING PROJECTS DIRECT  BENEFITS  OR  SAVING  E F F E C T I V E N E S S OF SELF-HELP MOUSING '. E X P E R I E N C E IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  APRIL  19U  . Motet's Ihesis Division op Commum^Y * Regional Pfonnind UNIVERSITY  O F BRITISH COLUIM&IA, VANCOUVEB Amjiwi A L D.Bi^ut  FIGS. 13-/4  165  o f s e l f - h e l p approaches u n d e r l y i n g " u n f i n i s h e d c o r e houses".  The u n f i n i s h e d and i n a d e q u a t e house r e p r e s e n t s  t o the h o u s e h o l d e r s goal.  T h i s reminder  a permanent reminder o f an  un-achieved  s t i m u l a t e s h i g h e r s a v i n g s and h i g h e r  a p p l i c a t i o n o f s e l f - h e l p l a b o u r on the p a r t o f the owner families.  That t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f the f a m i l i e s i n t h e  K o r a n g i P r o j e c t o f P a k i s t a n have made s t r u c t u r a l a d d i t i o n s . and improvements t o t h e i r u n p l a s t e r e d one-room c o r e house i s a case i n p o i n t .  S i m i l a r examples e x i s t i n the  Ghanaian p r o j e c t s . The p r o j e c t s i n v e s t i g a t e d a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d some o f the i n d i r e c t b e n e f i t s a c c r u e d t o s e l f - h e l p community. The  a r t o f b u i l d i n g and m a n u f a c t u r i n g o f b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s  t h a t people l e a r n t , as e x e m p l i f i e d by the I n d i a n F a r i d a b a d and E g y p t i a n Courna e x p e r i e n c e , became i m p o r t a n t source o f income and employment t o the r e s p e c t i v e communities a f t e r the c o m p l e t i o n o f the p r o j e c t s . The  s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g concept draws h e a v i l y  the community development t e c h n i q u e s .  on  Through such  l e a n i n g comes an i m p o r t a n t i n d i r e c t b e n e f i t :  i t i s one  o f the b e s t ways t o t e a c h d e m o c r a t i c a c t i o n and a s p i r i t o f s o l i d a r i t y i n the d e v e l o p i n g communities o f the developing c o u n t r i e s . P r o f e s s o r F a t h y s recorded 1  experience  o f Gourna i n Egypt and s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s elsewhere the p e r p e t u a t i o n o f democratic  prove  s o l i d a r i t y stemming from  s e l f - h e l p housing p r o j e c t experience.  I n t h i s way  the  self-  h e l p h o u s i n g p o l i c y can s t i m u l a t e p e o p l e s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n socio-economic  endeavours.  165 III  CHAPTER SUMMARY  I n t h i s c h a p t e r , e i g h t sample s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s c a r r i e d out i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s have been discussed  and  evaluated  i n terms o f c o s t i n v o l v e d  b e n e f i t s a c c r u e d to the r e l e v a n t f a m i l i e s and  and  respective  government a g e n c i e s . Discounting  the i n d i r e c t economic and  social  b e n e f i t s r e s u l t i n g from l i v i n g i n b e t t e r h o u s i n g  and  community environment t h a n i n slum c o n d i t i o n s , the  benefits  measured i n terms o f monetary s a v i n g s t o s e l f - h e l p communities averaged out t o 25 cost.  ( F i g u r e No.  2k)  per c e n t o f the h o u s i n g  I f , however, the i n d i r e c t s o c i a l  b e n e f i t s are accounted f o r i n monetary terms then the s a v i n g o r b e n e f i t s may  be presumably s c a l e d up t o w e l l  over 50 per c e n t o f the t o t a l  cost.  T h i s s a v i n g r e s u l t s from the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f self-help voluntary  labour  o f the t o t a l l a b o u r  input.  t o the e x t e n t o f 85  per  cent  That a s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g  p r o j e c t c o u l d amass such a l a r g e number o f p e o p l e i n house b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y i s a f u r t h e r j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f the c l a i m , as w e l l as o f those r e s p o n s i b l e  author's  f o r such p r o j e c t s ,  t h a t the s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g method i s s u i t a b l e i n the c a p i t a l - d e f i c i e n t , l a b o u r - a b u n d a n t c o u n t r i e s of A s i a , A f r i c a , and L a t i n America. I n s h o r t , g i v e n a competent management m a c h i n e r y , as e x e m p l i f i e d  i n F i g u r e No.  15>  the s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g  166 concept can be an e f f e c t i v e method compared t o e x i s t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e ones, i n asmuch as i t s a p p l i c a t i o n  results  i n c o n s i d e r a b l e economy i n h o u s i n g c o s t and s u b s t a n t i a l socio-economic b e n e f i t s  t o t h e communities  involved.  ORGANIZATIONAL CHART FOR A SELF-HELP HOUSING PROJECT-4OO UNITS  ONE Y E A R PROGRAMME 400 FAMILIES 400 HOUSES  S E L F - H E L P HOUSING  A G E N C Y  10 GROUPS O F 40 PERSONS E A C H TEAM I  {LEGAL EXPERT  GROUP 1 1st MONTH GROUP 2 2nd MONTH GROUP 4 3rd MONTH  1 ADMINISTRATIVE ' ASSISTANT  [—t L A N D E X P E R T —) P R O J E C T P L A N N E R  TEAM 2  4  TEAM 3  1 DIRECTOR  M  2 GROUP WORKERS  GROUP 3 2nd MONTH GROUP 5 3rd MONTH. GROUP 7 4th MONTH .  M  T E C H N I C A L  —| A R C H I T E C T  A S S I S T A N C E  -| ENGINEER" H  TEAMS  TEAM 4  FINANCE E X P E R T  H_SOCIAL W O R K E R  4 CONSTRUCTION FOREMEN  GROUP 6 3rd MONTH GROUP 8 4th MONTH  2 WATCHMEN  EFFECTIVENESS OF S E L F - H E L P HOUSING: E X P E R I E N C E IN D E V E L O P I N G COUNTRIES Dfvision  op  UNIVERSITY  Qea^cX  Com^iWv OF  BRITISH  AmjooL A.8. SOURCE:  V,'JP N  •  W  0  D  R  U  ^ ?  NATIONS. C N  t  W  |,  1  Lj C O M M U N I T Y DEVELOPMENT EXPERT  GROUP 9 4th MONTH GROUP 10 5th MONTH  A P R I L 1966  |  • '  S E L F - H E L P  Yo«.« •" o c  S  Pf«ooi'od  C O L U M B I A • VANCOUVER,  Vxyji,  HOUSING  A  H A N D B O O K  *N* ^PUBLICATION*..INC,  FOP~~V17LI^  1,5).  P-To.  CHAPTER V I  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS T h i s study i s t h e p r o d u c t o f a sombre o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t t h e gap between h o u s i n g needs and a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s among t h e d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s o f A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n A m e r i c a i s e x t r e m e l y wide.  The c o s t o f b u i l d i n g a  minimum house i n these c o u n t r i e s i s g r e a t e r than t h e f a m i l y c a n a f f o r d , and t h e c o s t o f b u i l d i n g enough houses t o f u l f i l t h e l e g i t i m a t e needs o f p e o p l e i s g r e a t e r than the economy c a n a f f o r d .  T h i s i s the t i g h t c o r n e r i n which  the d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s f i n d  themselves.  On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e commonly used contemporary methods f o r b r i d g i n g t h e gap between h o u s i n g and economic r e s o u r c e s a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t .  requirements Along w i t h  t h i s f a c t , t h e r e i s a n o t t o o f a r f e t c h e d assumption t h a t the economy o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s w i l l n o t change so d r a s t i c a l l y i n t h e f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e as t o w a r r a n t t h e m a s s i v e b u i l d i n g program o f e l i m i n a t i n g t h e h o u s i n g  backlog.  What then i s t h e r i g h t p a t h f o r these n a t i o n s t o t r e a d ? T h i s study has been undertaken  t o p r o v i d e an answer t o  t h i s c r u c i a l question. The answer t o t h e above q u e s t i o n l i e s i n t h e f u l l u t i l i z a t i o n o f the abundantly  a v a i l a b l e labour force  i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s so as t o b u i l d houses through what h a s always been a t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t y : s e l f - h e l p  housing.  169 On t h e s t r e n g t h o f a grim assumption, namely the in-adequacy o f contemporary methods t o g r a p p l e w i t h the h o u s i n g dilemma, t h i s s t u d y has i n i t s o b j e c t i v e a rather ambitious claim to v a l i d a t e :  "Self-help housing  can form an e f f e c t i v e method o f m e e t i n g t h e d e f i c i e n c y o f housing u n i t s i n developing c o u n t r i e s " ; "developing c o u n t r i e s " connotes t h e c o u n t r i e s o f A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n A m e r i c a which have l o w p e r c a p i t a income compared w i t h t h e c o u n t r i e s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , Europe and A u s t r a l i a . Approaches t o t h e s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g ranges from spontaneous o r t r a d i t i o n a l s e l f - h e l p t o g u i d e d o r f o r m a l self-help.  I n t h e f i r s t c a s e , t h e f a m i l i e s make maximum  c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e i r l a b o u r and m a t e r i a l s t o t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e i r houses.  I n t h e second, i e . t h e guided s e l f - h e l p ,  e x t e r n a l guidance and h e l p i s embred as a s t i m u l u s f o r the g e n e r a t i o n o f t h e r e q u i s i t e response i n t h e form o f house b u i l d i n g  endeavours.  The houses b u i l t w i t h t h e h e l p o f spontaneous method c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e most minimum contemporary s t a n d a r d s o f h e a l t h and h y g i e n e .  When, however, t h e spontaneous  b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y i s c h a n a l i s e d t h r o u g h guidance, t h e r e s u l t i s guided or formal s e l f - h e l p . h e l p i s t o maximise  The o b j e c t o f guided s e l f -  spontaneous s e l f - h e l p i n t h e l o n g r u n  by e n c o u r a g i n g guided a c t i o n i n t h e s h o r t r u n . Many m e t h o d o l o g i c a l s t e p s have been f o l l o w e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e above h y p o t h e s i s . F i r s t l y , i n o r d e r t o f o c u s the r e l e v a n c e o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s , t h e magnitude o f h o u s i n g  170 d e f i c i e n c y - b o t h i n q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e terms i n developing  c o u n t r i e s has been s t u d i e d . S e c o n d l y , t h e  e x t e n t o f inadequacy o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e r e s o u r c e s i n housing received a t t e n t i o n ]  T h i s l e d t o the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  of needs f o r l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e methods by making d e d u c t i o n s as t o t h e inadequacy o f c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e methods i n use.  presently  T h i r d l y , the s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g programs a t i n t e r -  n a t i o n a l and n a t i o n a l l e v e l s have been e v a l u a t e d success or f a i l u r e .  for their  F i n a l l y , eight s p e c i f i c self-help  housing p r o j e c t s undertaken i n developing  c o u n t r i e s have  been g i v e n d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n i n terms o f the c o s t i n c u r r e d i n them and b e n e f i t s o r s a v i n g s a p p l i c a t i o n o f s e l f - h e l p method.  gained by the  S u c c e s s o f the programs  and b e n e f i t s from the p r o j e c t s thus becomes a measure o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g method. I t has been found t h a t t h e r e i s an acute p a u c i t y of housing i n developing dwelling units —  countries.  A d e f i c i t o f 392  million  291 m i l l i o n i n A s i a , 53 m i l l i o n i n A f r i c a  and k8 m i l l i o n i n L a t i n A m e r i c a —  has been e s t i m a t e d  on  the b a s i s o f i n c r e a s e i n the number o f h o u s e h o l d s and need f o r r e p l a c i n g the o b s o l e s c e n t  s t o c k i n the f i f t e e n year  p e r i o d from I960 t o 1975> as w e l l as the e x i s t i n g b a c k l o g . Coupled w i t h t h i s q u a n t i t a t i v e d e f i c i e n c y t h e q u a l i t a t i v e d e f i c i e n c y of housing i n developing imagination  c o u n t r i e s staggers  of western housing experts  and  the  observers.  The above f i g u r e s appear more m e a n i n g f u l when i t i s considered  t h a t an annual o u t p u t o f 2k m i l l i o n d w e l l i n g  171 units —  18 m i l l i o n i n A s i a and t h r e e m i l l i o n each i n A f r i c a  andt L a t i n A m e r i c a —  i s r e q u i r e d d u r i n g 1960-1975. T h i s i s  e q u i v a l e n t t o an annual o u t p u t o f t e n d w e l l i n g u n i t s per thousand p o p u l a t i o n . How  stupendous i s t h i s t a s k f o r  d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s can be imagined by the f a c t t h a t the average house b u i l d i n g performance o f the developed  n a t i o n s i s about  f i v e d w e l l i n g u n i t s per thousand p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s i s i n d i c a t i v e o f the g r a v i t y o f the s i t u a t i o n and the i n c a p a c i t y o f developing nations to grapple w i t h t h e i r housing The  problem.  problem i s f u r t h e r compounded by the f a c t t h a t  even i f the d e v e l o p i n g economies succeed i n d o u b l i n g t h e i r n a t i o n a l income i n a g e n e r a t i o n o r so - a t a s k o f monumental p r o p o r t i o n - the a b s o l u t e per c a p i t a income would s t i l l n o t more t h a n o n e - e i g h t h  o f t h a t o f the developed  be  world.  In  s h o r t , even the d i s t a n t f u t u r e appears b l e a k a t b e s t . L e t , however, t h i s gloomy p i c t u r e be dampened down by a n o t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n : a l t h o u g h the c a p i t a l i s s c a r c e  m  the d e v e l o p i n g economies, the l a b o u r i s n o t ; consequent upon the p r e v a i l i n g unemployment, underemployment and d i s g u i s e d unemployment, t h e r e i s an abundance o f human r e s o u r c e  potential  amenable t o b e i n g put t o p r o d u c t i v e u s e . I n s h o r t , g i v e n i n i t i a l s t i m u l a n t , people do t h e i r own  can be made t o respond and  thereby  j o b ; i n the case i n p o i n t they can be encouraged  t o b u i l d t h e i r own houses through guided Under the g r i m c i r c u m s t a n c e s  self-help.  p r e s e n t e d above, the  s o l u t i o n t o the c r i t i c a l h o u s i n g problem l i e s i n e i t h e r combining e f f o r t s w i t h monetary e f f o r t s o r  divorcing  172 monetary i n p u t s from e f f o r t s . has been p r o v e d ,  The f i r s t a l t e r n a t i v e , as  i s d i f f i c u l t - i f not impossible - to  a c h i e v e ; i n t h e second l i e s t h e "hope". The  "hope" has been based on t h e b e l i e f on t h e  p a r t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s such as t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s and some o f t h e developed n a t i o n s , such as t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a and Canada which a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e development o f these d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , t h a t guided s e l f - h e l p c o u l d reduce money c o s t and ensure  'a h i g h e r  s t a n d a r d than any o t h e r c o m b i n a t i o n o f s c i e n c e and technology'.  The i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s , n o t a b l y t h e  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , have amply demonstrated t h e i r on s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g i n a p r a c t i c a l manner.  interest Numerous  UN e x p e r t m i s s i o n s have s t u d i e d t h e problem i n t h e f i e l d ; many c o n f e r e n c e s have been h e l d and t h e i s s u e d i s c u s s e d ; money support has been extended t o propagate t h e concept. The  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g method  i s n o t r e c o g n i s e d on t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l a l o n e .  The  i d e a has gained c u r r e n c y a l s o among t h e d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h e method has s t i l l n o t been e n t e r t a i n e d i n t h e l e g i s l a t i v e framework o f n a t i o n a l h o u s i n g programs, t h e development p l a n s o f many c o u n t r i e s use i t as an i m p o r t a n t t o o l o f implementing  community development programs.  C o n s i d e r a b l e number o f government-guided  piecemeal  s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g programs a r e c u r r e n t l y underway i n many d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , l i k e I n d i a , P a k i s t a n , t h e U n i t e d Arab R e p u b l i c , Ghana, Kenya, S o m a l i a , t h e B e l g i a n Congo, N i g e r i a ,  173 J a m a i c a , C o l o m b i a , P u e r t o R i c o , V e n e z u e l a , C h i l e and Most o f t h e s e programs have been r e p o r t e d marked s u c c e s s .  Peru.  t o have s c o r e d  T h e i r c o n c r e t e achievements, i t has  been  f o u n d , produces c o n v i c t i o n on the s u i t a b i l i t y o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g method n o t o n l y i n terms of i t s w o r k a b i l i t y  but  a l s o i n terms o f the b e n e f i t s r e s u l t i n g t h e r e f r o m . The  r e c o g n i t i o n o f the s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g as  an  e f f e c t i v e t o o l t o the s o l u t i o n o f h o u s i n g problems does n o t l u r k behind the o s t e n s i b l e n a t i o n a l community development endeavours a l o n e .  I n the e i g h t p r o j e c t s gleaned from  the  d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s and m i c r o s c o p i c a l l y examined f o r t h e i r performance a l s o l e a d to the same c o n c l u s i o n , namely, s e l f h e l p h o u s i n g i s an e f f e c t i v e method i n the c o n t e x t o f d e v e l o p i n g economies. I t i s found t h a t about 80 per c e n t o f t h e labour  i n p u t ( p a i d and v o l u n t a r y )  s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t examined, has  contained  i n the  total guided  been drawn from the f a m i l i e s  p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e s e p r o j e c t s a t no c o s t whatsoever; a l s o i n some p r o j e c t s , the m a t e r i a l s have been c o n t r i b u t e d the p a r t i c i p a t i n g f a m i l i e s .  That a p r o j e c t c o u l d amass  such a l a r g e number o f p e o p l e and b u i l d i n g augurs w e l l and  by  t h e i r r e s o u r c e s i n house  guarantees the p r a c t i c a b i l i t y  of  the method. The monetary v a l u e o f l a b o u r  and m a t e r i a l s  put  i n by the f a m i l i e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s does n o t  s i g n i f i c a n t l y v a r y among A s i a n ,  and L a t i n American c o u n t r i e s .  African  I t , however, depends on  how  o r g a n i z e d the p r o j e c t i s and what i s the s t a t u s o f the r e l e v a n t community.  socio-economic  Thus, out of the  h o u s i n g c o s t , the v a l u e o f the c o n t r i b u t e d l a b o u r  total  and  m a t e r i a l v a r i e s from 7*5 per c e n t i n San S e b a s t i a n P r o j e c t , C o s t a R i c a to 28.7 Colombia.  per c e n t i n the Aguablanca P r o j e c t ,  T h i s v a l u e averages t o o n e - q u a r t e r  o f the  total  c o s t i n the e i g h t p r o j e c t s e v a l u a t e d . Not t a k i n g i n t o account the i n d i r e c t economic and s o c i a l b e n e f i t s a r i s i n g out o f the improved h o u s i n g and community environment, a s a v i n g e q u i v a l e n t t o the above v a l u e (25 community.  p e r c e n t ) r e p r e s e n t s a d i r e c t b e n e f i t t o the T h i s i s what P r o f e s s o r F a t h y would say,  > • the  " e k i s t i c e f f i c i e n c y " of a s e l f - h e l p housing p r o j e c t , which a c c o r d i n g t o him, approaches 100 i n some o f the E g y p t i a n p e a s a n t communities where spontaneous s e l f - h e l p  housing  has been c u r r e n t . I f , however, the i n d i r e c t s o c i a l and economic b e n e f i t s r e s u l t i n g from the e n v i r o n m e n t a l  improvements o f  the community from slums t o p l a n n e d h o u s i n g , are f o r , the above v a l u e (25  accounted  p e r c e n t ) as a measure o f e f f e c t -  i v e n e s s o f s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g method i s s c a l e d up t o w e l l over 50 p e r c e n t o f the h o u s i n g c o s t .  I f , again, t h i s  v a l u e i s added t o the v a l u e r e p r e s e n t e d by the "hope" o f p l a n n e r s and community development e x p e r t s o f , f o r example, the E g y p t i a n Gourna p r o j e c t , the Jamaican Bonnett St. Mary P r o j e c t , the C o s t a R i c a n San S e b a s t i a n p r o j e c t and  the  Colombian A g u a b l a n c a p r o j e c t , t o i n c r e a s e the d i r e c t  175 s a v i n g through improved o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s k i l l from 25  per  c e n t t o w e l l over 50 p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l h o u s i n g c o s t , the b e n e f i t s , o r the " e k i s t i c e f f i c i e n c y " , may  well  approach t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of the h o u s i n g c o s t . The o b j e c t o f guided s e l f - h e l p , as s t a t e d e a r l i e r , i s t o maximise spontaneous s e l f - h e l p i n the l o n g r u n by guided a c t i o n i n the s h o r t r u n .  The numerous i n s t i t u t i o n a l  and g o v e r n m e n t - i n i t i a t e d p r o j e c t s c u r r e n t l y underway r e p r e s e n t guided a c t i o n i n the s h o r t r u n .  The c o s t o f  t h i s g u i d e d a c t i o n i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t e n per c e n t o f the housing cost.  When, however, the above o b j e c t i v e has been  pursued t o the p o i n t where spontaneous s e l f - h e l p a c t i v i t y has been s e t i n , t h e guided a c t i o n can be withdrawn the c o s t i n v e n t o r y .  The  from  s a v i n g from t h i s w i t h d r a w a l t o  the e x t e n t o f t e n per c e n t o f the h o u s i n g c o s t would be added t o the b e n e f i t i n v e n t o r y . I t f o l l o w s t h a t when i n the l o n g run the traditional  approach o f spontaneous house b u i l d i n g i s  f u l l y r e v i v e d and improved i n k e e p i n g w i t h the s t a n d a r d s o f minimum h o u s i n g , the b e n e f i t o r the e f f i c i e n c y " m i g h t w e l l approach 100.  contemporary "ekistic  When t h i s would be  p o s s i b l e depends on the n a t i o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s and the v i g o u r w i t h which the guided s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g programs are put t h r o u g h .  The p r o f u n d i t y o f t h i s v i g o u r and  time p e r s p e c t i v e a r e o n l y d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d i c t .  the  What can,  however, be commented on the s t r e n g t h o f the f i n d i n g s o f  176 t h i s study i s :  however s m a l l t h e n u m e r i c a l s t r e n g t h o f  the programs m i g h t be, t h e d i s s e m i n a t e d i d e a i t s e l f has a tremendous " i g n i t i o n p o t e n t i a l " which might spark unsuspected  e n e r g i e s f o r socio-economic  development o f  the d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s . The  e x p e r i e n c e s o f , f o r example, P a k i s t a n , I n d i a ,  Guinea and Colombia have proved t h e m e r i t s o f s e l f - h e l p approaches u n d e r l y i n g t h e " u n f i n i s h e d core houses".  Such  u n f i n i s h e d and i n a d e q u a t e l y b u i l t houses r e p r e s e n tto.t h e occupants  a permanent reminder o f an un-achieved  goal.  T h i s reminder a c t s as a s t i m u l a n t o f f a m i l y ' s s a v i n g s and self-help action.  Three q u a r t e r s o f t h e f a m i l i e s i n t h e  P a k i s t a n ' s K o r a n g i p r o j e c t have made s t r u c t u r a l a d d i t i o n s and improvements t o t h e i r u n p l a s t e r e d one-room core houses.  S i m i l a r r e s u l t s i n t h e V o l t a Dam  Resettlement  P r o j e c t s e s t a b l i s h e s the merit of the s e l f - h e l p housing u n d e r l y i n g "core home" scheme. The above d i s c u s s i o n l e a d s t o t h e f o l l o w i n g concluding p e r o r a t i o n : G i v e n t h e competent o r g a n i z a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , as a r e known today, and g i v e n a l s o t h e p r e s e n t r a t e o f development o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , t h e benefits gained through t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g method compared t o those gained through t h e contemporary a l t e r n a t i v e h o u s i n g development methods i n t h e a r e a o f low-income h o u s i n g , a r e s i g n i f i c a n t enough t o v a l i d a t e the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t :  177 SELF-HELP HOUSING CAN FORM AN EFFECTIVE METHOD OF MEETING THE DEFICIENCY OF HOUSING UNITS IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. The critical.  assumptions u n d e r l y i n g t h i s h y p o t h e s i s a r e  They tend t o produce a veneer o f dimness on  the a u t h o r ' s c l a i m .  To m a i n t a i n  the "givens"  a stupendous t a s k f o r t h e d e v e l o p i n g and  t r a i n an e s t i m a t e d  nations.  itself i s To  ten per cent of the labour  t h r o u g h s e l f - h e l p methods, and t h u s , t o m a i n t a i n of competent o r g a n i z a t i o n i s e c o n o m i c a l l y the d e v e l o p i n g  organise force the cost  strenuous f o r  n a t i o n s under t h e i r p r e s e n t growth  performance. I t has been found t h a t t h e management i n p u t i s a critical  c a t a l y s t f o r engendering s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g a c t i v i t y .  This c a t a l y s t i s valued  a t t e n per cent o f the p r o j e c t c o s t .  As a management i s s p e c i a l i z e d , t h e b e n e f i t s a c c r u i n g  from  the p r o j e c t a r e maximized t o t h e l e v e l o f 90 p e r c e n t o f the p r o j e c t c o s t .  At t h i s p o i n t , the marginal value of  the management t o t h e p r o j e c t becomes z e r o .  I t s withdrawal  r a i s e s t h e b e n e f i t from t h e p r o j e c t t o 100 p e r c e n t , suggesting  t h a t improved v e r s i o n o f t h e spontaneous s e l f -  h e l p a c t i v i t y has been s e t i n and o b j e c t i v e  achieved.  I n t h i s way, e i g h t t o t e n management u n i t s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e c o s t o f one f u l l f r e s h p r o j e c t where b e n e f i t s a r e s t i l l minimum o r t e n matured p r o j e c t s where b e n e f i t s a r e maximum can o p e r a t e as many p r o j e c t s as t h e number o f management u n i t s .  178 This requires a b i g organizational task a t national level.  Nothing short of a m i n i s t r y of housing  and p l a n n i n g can h a n d l e i t : hence the need f o r such a m i n i s t r y i n most o f the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s which have none.  A c o n c e r t e d n a t i o n a l s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g p o l i c y and  program i s r e q u i r e d t o s o l v e the dilemma o f the h o u s i n g d e f i c i e n c y and economic d i s a b i l i t y o f the n a t i o n s o f A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n  America.  I m p l i c i t i n t h i s recommendation i s a f u r t h e r n o t e o f optimism. process.  The s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g i s a dynamic  I f a c t i v a t e d , t h e p r o c e s s can h e l p a c h i e v e  housing o b j e c t i v e s .  The h o u s i n g o b j e c t i v e s s e r v e s a s a  means t o a h i g h e r end:  socio-economic  development.  The  t r a i n i n g o f b u i l d e r s and masons, the p r o v i s i o n o f g a i n f u l employment and the g e n e r a t i o n o f c o o p e r a t i v e s p i r i t become p a r t of the s e l f - h e l p housing process. As has been seen i n t h e I n d i a n F a r i d a b a d and' N i l o k h e r i e x p e r i e n c e s and t h e E g y p t i a n Gourna e x p e r i e n c e , the s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g p r o j e c t p r o v i d e s a source o f g a i n f u l employment t o a l a r g e number o f unemployed and underemployed population.  The a r t o f b r i c k making i n the I n d i a n c a s e , f o r  example, was c o m m e r c i a l l y p r a c t i s e d a f t e r the c o m p l e t i o n o f the p r o j e c t .  I n t h i s way, b e s i d e s p r o v i d i n g employment,  the s e l f - h e l p program h e l p s a l l e v i a t e t h e s h o r t a g e o f building materials. An e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t advantage o f the s e l f - h e l p  179 h o u s i n g program i s , t h a t i t p r o v i d e s an e f f e c t i v e avenue o f o n - t h e - j o b t r a i n i n g t o the u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r f o r c e . T h i s i s o f s u b s t a n t i a l importance i n v i e w o f the f a c t t h a t i n the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , the r e q u i s i t e  skilled  l a b o u r f o r c e i n the n a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y i s d e f i c i e n t , and a l l c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s compete w i t h each o t h e r f o r t h i s l i m i t e d resource.  This results i n i n f l a t i o n a r y cost  i n c r e a s e s and, a t t i m e s , d i s r u p t i o n o f b u i l d i n g programs. The  s e l f - h e l p housing i s a s o l u t i o n to t h i s  problem.  Another p o s i t i v e advantage a r i s i n g out o f the s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g program stems from t h e i r l e a n i n g on the community development t e c h n i q u e s o f human m o b i l i z a t i o n . The  s e l f - h e l p b u i l d i n g s t i m u l a t e s community i n t e r a c t i o n ,  and produces  i n the i n h a b i t a n t s a sense o f b e l o n g i n g t o  t h e i r house and community.  The e x p e r i e n c e has shorn t h a t  the f a m i l i e s l o o k a f t e r t h e s e l f - b u i l t house w i t h a g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t than the g o v e r n m e n t - b u i l t house i n which they l i v e .  Once a c t i v a t e d , the s e l f - h e l p p r o c e s s a l s o  o p e r a t e s i n a r e a s o t h e r than h o u s i n g development. A community developed by s e l f - h e l p method i s a community n o t o n l y o f b r i c k s and m o r t a r s but a l s o and more i m p o r t a n t l y —  o f the p e o p l e .  —  Because the e n e r g i e s  and s p i r i t o f people are i n v o l v e d , i t i s a community n o t o n l y " f o r the p e o p l e " but a l s o "by the p e o p l e " .  In short,  as the s e l f - h e l p h o u s i n g e x p e r i e n c e shows, the method i s one o f the b e s t ways t o t e a c h d e m o c r a t i c s o c i a l l y  effective  180 c o o p e r a t i o n and i n i t i a t e community s o l i d a r i t y f o r c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n , so e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e development o f d e v e l o p i n g countries. I t i s i n t h e l i g h t o f these f a c t s t h a t a concerted n a t i o n a l  s e l f - h e l p program i s c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l  f o r t h e s o l u t i o n o f the double dilemma o f h o u s i n g  deficiency  and economic d i s a b i l i t y c u r r e n t i n A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n America.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Abrams, C h a r l e s . Man's S t r u g g l e f o r S h e l t e r i n an U r b a n i z i n g W o r l d . Cambridge: M a s s a c h u s e t t s i n s t i t u t e o f Technology P r e s s , 196*+. Ahmad, I . , e t . a l . 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