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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A linguistic analysis of Gurma Beckett, Eleanor 1974

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A LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF GURMA by ELEANOR BECKETT B. A . , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  A THESIS  1962  SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in  the  Department of  Linguistics  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1974  the  In  presenting  an  advanced  the I  degree  Library  further  for  t h i s  shall  agree  s c h o l a r l y  by  his  of  this  w r i t t e n  at  U n i v e r s i t y  the  make  that  it  for  p a r t i a l  freely  permission  purposes  thesis  may  be  It  f i n a n c i a l  for  of  8,  A p r i l  of  B r i t i s h  Canada  8,  1974  of  Columbia,  B r i t i s h  by  gain  Columbia  for  the  understood  L i n g u i s t i c s  University  of  extensive  granted  is  fulfilment  a v a i l a b l e  permission.  Vancouver  Date  in  representatives.  Department  The  thesis  shall  Head  be  requirements  reference copying  that  not  the  of  agree  and  of my  I  t h i s  or  allowed  without  that  study. thesis  Department  copying  for  or  p u b l i c a t i o n my  ABSTRACT  This thesis presents  a l i n g u i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n of Gurma nouns and  verbs based on the Fada N'Gurma d i a l e c t . The f i r s t  c h a p t e r i n t r o d u c e s the Gurmas to the r e a d e r and t e l l s  about the f i r s t w r i t i n g s i n and about t h e i r Chapter two p r e s e n t s  language.  a p h o n e t i c and phonemic a n a l y s i s of  the  language. Chapter t h r e e d e f i n e s  the noun, p r e s e n t s  the noun c l a s s e s , and  shows how t o n a l p a t t e r n s d i v i d e the noun c l a s s e s i n t o s u b - s e t s .  It  shows the pronouns which are i n concord w i t h the noun c l a s s e s as w e l l as the s u b - s e t of p e r s o n a l pronouns.  It  then shows how t o n a l p a t t e r n s  change when nouns or pronouns a r e used i n n e g a t i v e , sessive  constructions.  Chapter f o u r d e f i n e s of  t o n a l change,  then p r e s e n t s  the verb and shows i t s  addition, deletion,  the v e r b a l p a r t i c l e s and shows t h e i r  The t h e s i s i s a brief  by means It  use.  a n a l y s e d to shown nominal  and v e r b a l morphemes i n an a u t h e n t i c Gurma  the f i r s t  inflections  replacement and s u p p l e t i o n .  In c h a p t e r f i v e a Gurma sentence i s  field  r e l a t i v e and p o s -  setting.  concluded w i t h a b i b l i o g r a p h y and two appendixes, r e p o r t on work b e i n g done i n the c u r r e n t l y p o p u l a r  of ideophones,  the second an account of r e f e r e n c e s  Gurma language b e f o r e the t w e n t i e t h  made to  the  century.  The two maps f o l l o w i n g , page i i , show the l o c a t i o n o f Gurma i n r e l a t i o n to G r e e n b e r g ' s language f a m i l i e s o f A f r i c a , to Gurma's immediate language n e i g h b o u r s .  i  and i n r e l a t i o n  Songhai Fuiani Moore  11° |M. Lufc.  Greenberg's Language F a m i l i e s of A f r i c a |Af r o - A s i a t i c Hausa [Nilo-Saharian JNiger-Congo ===Gur Q Gurma c l u s t e r shown at r i g h t w i t h n e i g h b o u r i n g languages iKhoisan  Berba  Bariba  Dagbani  I n d i c a t i n g the Gurma c l u s t e r , language f a m i l i e s of A f r i c a .  in relation  to  the  Gurmd, and the other members of the Gurma c l u s t e r , Moba, K a s e l e , B a s a r i , Chamba, Migangam and Konkomba, and n e i g h b o u r i n g languages.  Map Showing the L o c a t i o n of the Gurma Area i n A f r i c a  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Acknowledgements  vi  Chapter I.  Introduction  1  The Gurma People  2  The Gurma Language  3  Early study of the Gurma language  5  More recent study of the Gurma language  7  Purpose of this study II.  13  Gurma Phonology  14  Description of Gurma vowels  17  Description of Gurma diphthongs  21  Description of Gurma consonants  26  The Gurma vowel phonemes  33  The Gurma consonant phonemes  38  Constraints on the occurrence of the phonemes , .45 The Gurma tone phonemes III.  51  The Morphology of Gurma nouns  53  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Gurma nouns  53  The gender classes and their tonal subdivisions. 54 The noun sub-set, the pronouns  71  The possessive morpheme with tonal patterns  . . 73  The r e l a t i v e morpheme with tonal patterns  ...  The negative morpheme with tonal patterns  . . . .83  iii  79  IV.  The Morphology of Gurma Verbs Identification  87  o f Gurma v e r b s  87  Marking of aspect i n Gurma v e r b s  87  Aspect marked by t o n a l change alone  . . . .  92  Aspect marked by a d d i t i o n ± t o n a l change  .  . 95  Aspect marked by d e l e t i o n  .  . 99  ± t o n a l change  A s p e c t marked by replacement  ± tonal  change  100  Aspect,marked by s u p p l e t i o n ± t o n a l change Inchoative-Causative  forms of Gurma v e r b s  .  . .  103  R e v e r s i v e forms of Gurma v e r b s  107  F u t u r e and i m p e r a t i v e forms of Gurma v e r b s  .  Verbal p a r t i c l e s V.  Bibliography  Appendix 2,  E a r l y References  108  117 .  Gurma Ideophones  .  113  A n a l y s i s of T y p i c a l Gurma Sentence  Appendix 1,  102  .  .  .  .  123 127  to Gurma  iv  135  Tables  1.  Phonetic  t a b l e of Gurma sounds  2.  T a b l e of Gurma phonemes  3.  T a b l e of  .15 32  the Gurma noun c l a s s a f f i x  and c o n c u r r e n t  p a t t e r n system  tonal 67  4.  T a b l e of Gurma noun t o n a l p a t t e r n s  69  5.  T a b l e of Gurma verb t o n a l p a t t e r n s  113  6.  T a b l e of noun and verb t o n a l p a t t e r n s  v  discussed  116  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S In presenting this thesis the writer acknowledges her debt to Mrs. Jean Hume and other fellow missionaries, to the Reverend Andre Prost and h i s confreres, and e s p e c i a l l y to Monsieur Alhassane Lampo and other Gurma colleagues. None of these was the f i r s t to write Gurma, that was probably done by C. G. A. Oldendorp who recorded  "numerals, thirteen nouns and  one sentence" i n Gurma i n 1777. None of these made the f i r s t  extensive  Gurma word l i s t s , that was done by S. W. Koelle and included i n h i s monumental Polyglotta Africana i n 1854. But Mrs. Jean Hume f i r s t discovered Gurma's twenty noun classes and the basic p r i n c i p l e s of i t s grammar.  The Reverend Monsieur Prost's  great contribution to Gurma has been i n e d i t i n g with the Reverend Alphonse Chantoux, the comprehensive Grammaire gourmantche compiled by the Reverend Alexandre Gontier. The concern of Monsieur Alhassane Lampo, Bible t r a n s l a t i n g c o l league of the writer of many years, that the features of vowel length and l a b i a l i z a t i o n so common to Gurma be consistently indicated was partly responsible for Dr. W. E. Welmers' spending a few days at Fada N'Gurma.  He was i n v i t e d to come to help with the orthography problems.  Having advised us on these he suggested that we find out how tone worked in Gurma.  This thesis i s l a r g e l y the r e s u l t of that  research.  When Lampo began whistling tones f o r the writer, even he had no idea of the tonal patterns of h i s own language.  But h i s keen insights  into h i s language (sharpened' no doubt by the fact that he speaks MoSre  vi  and Fulani f l u e n t l y and can  'se d e b r o u i l l e r ' i n Haussa and Djerma),  his willingness to share his knowledge, and his patience evitable checking and rechecking  i n the i n -  of data have resulted i n the present  recording of some of Gurma's tonal patterns.  Lampo's contribution to  t h i s , with that of several other Gurma colleagues  has been invaluable.  The writer wishes to record her gratitude to Dr. R. J. Gregg and to Dr. M. D. Kinkade for their gracious, patient, kindly encouragement as they have directed her work. And  she wishes especially to give thanks to God  to know the Gurma people and work i n their language.  vii  for bringing  her  . . . o u 6 e v acpcuvov 1 Cor. 14: 10  viii  Introduction  Gurma i s  a West A f r i c a n language.  says of i t w i t h i t s p r i s e s the core of  Professor  John Bendor-Samuel  n e i g h b o u r i n g language Moore, " T h i s sub-group the c e n t r a l group o f  com-  the whole Gur family.""'"  D e l a f o s s e suggests t h a t the r o o t gur may have been f i r s t  brought from  2 A f r i c a by the C a r t h a g i n i a n e x p l o r e r Hannon before  Christ:  " L ' u n i q u e mot r a p p o r t e par l e  de son voyage a l a c o t e o c c i d e n t a l e par l ' i n c e r t a i n e  hundred y e a r s  carthaginois  d ' A f r i q u e ne nous est  Hannon connu que  t r a n s c r i p t i o n dont nous avons t i r e l e nom du " g o r i l l e " ;  on en p o u r r a i t seulement r a p p r o c h e r signifiant  at l e a s t f i v e  "homme" dans p l u s i e u r s  l a r a c i n e g o r , k o r , ou g u r ,  langues a c t u e l l e s du bas  "^"John Bendor-Samuel, "Niger-Congo, G u r , "  Senegal."  L i n g u i s t i c s i n Sub-Saharan  A f r i c a i n C u r r e n t Trends i n L i n g u i s t i c s ,  9 vols.,  e d . Thomas A . Sebeok,  (The Hague:  7 (1971)  :  Moutoh & C o . , 1963 -  Grand D i c t i o n n a i r e u n i v e r s e l navigateur  carthaginois  1972),  du XIX s i e c l e , 1 8 7 3 ,  qui v i v a i t  144.  s.v.  Hannon. " . . .  a une epoque i n c e r t a i n e .  de l u i un P e r i c l e ou r e l a t i o n d'un voyage s u r l a c o t e 0. executa l ' a n 1000 Cet ouvrage,  avant J . - C . s u i v a n t  e c r i t originairement  que par une t r a d u c t i o n grecque, aurice Delafosse, monde,  les  uns,  On possede  d'Afrique,  en 500 s u i v a n t  en langue p u n i q u e , ne nous e s t  q u i n ' e s t p e u t - e t r e qu'un  "Langues du Soudan et  de l a G u i n e e , "  ( P a r i s : 1924;  reprint ed.,  Champion, 1952)  d'autres. connu  extrait. Les Langues du  e d . A . M e i l l e t et M . Cohen f o r Centre n a t i o n a l de l a  scientifique  qu'il  recherche  2:25.  2  The Gurma People Gurma i s  spoken by a p p r o x i m a t e l y a q u a r t e r o f a m i l l i o n p e o p l e  who c a l l themselves speakers, a r e a of  and l e s  bigulimanceba.  They a r e c a l l e d Gurmas by E n g l i s h  gourmantches by the F r e n c h .  They l i v e i n the  eastern  the Upper V o l t a R e p u b l i c , and i n the b o r d e r i n g areas o f  N i g e r and Dahomey R e p u b l i c s , and i n n o r t h e r n Togo and Ghana."*"  the They  c l a i m t h e i r descent from a c h i e f who came from heaven on a c h a r g e r w i t h a maiden r i d i n g on the croup of h i s s a d d l e .  They p o i n t to a  rocky " f o o t p r i n t " near Pama, a Gurma town j u s t n o r t h of the Togo2 Upper V o l t a b o r d e r , as the p l a c e and p r o o f of neighbours  t h i s descent.  Their  to the w e s t , the M d s s i s (language Moore), who a r e the p r e -  dominant r a c e i n Upper V o l t a and make up about t h r e e and a h a l f m i l l i o n of  the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of f i v e m i l l i o n , c l a i m t h a t a grandson of  founder of t h e i r empire e s t a b l i s h e d  himself  as an independent  the e a s t of M o s s i t e r r i t o r y and so founded the Gurma r a c e . historians  the  chief  to  European;  mention the M b s s i and Gurma empires from the 13th Century  3 onwards.  Another t r a d i t i o n about Gurma o r i g i n s i n v e s t i g a t e d  De Lavergne  de T r e s s a n , " I n v e n t a i r e l i n g u i s t i q u e de l ' A . 0.  Togo". Memoires de 1 ' I . n s t i t u t f r a n c a i s d '_Afrique n o i r e as IFAN), no.  30 (Dakar, 1953)  Les Guides b l e u e s , Hachette,  1958)  p.  p.  360.  the  F . et du  (hereafter  78.  Afrique occidentale  francaise:  Togo,  (Paris:  Payot,  (Paris:  410.  Robert C o r n e v i n , H i s t o i r e de l ' A f r i q u e , 1 : 356 -  by  1962)  cited  3  Reverend A . P r o s t  and P . M e r c i e r  has the Gurmas r e l a t e d to the male  l i n e o f the c h i e f s  o f the Dagombas (language D a g b a n i , o f the Gur f a m i l y )  i n n o r t h e r n Ghana, and the M o s s i s a l s o r e l a t e d to these c h i e f s , by  the female l i n e .  or  conquered by another A f r i c a n p e o p l e .  but  The Gurmas have never been s u c c e s s f u l l y i n v a d e d  V o l t a became a r e p u b l i c ,  From 1900 to 1960, when Upper  they were under F r e n c h r u l e ,  a part of  Afrique  o c c i d e n t a l e f r a n g a i s e . They c o n t i n u e to have c l o s e t i e s w i t h F r a n c e . The Gurma Language Gurma has t h r e e d i a l e c t s ,  F a d a , e a s t e r n and n o r t h e r n .  The Fada  d i a l e c t has been c o n s i d e r e d the p r e s t i g e d i a l e c t because Fada N'Gurma has been t r a d i t i o n a l l y the s e a t o f the paramount c h i e f o f the Gurmas and,  more r e c e n t l y , up u n t i l  the time of Independence,  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e f o r the Gurmas.  the F r e n c h  I t was f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t  the Sudan I n t e r i o r M i s s i o n chose the Fada d i a l e c t f o r S c r i p t u r e t r a n s lation. The class  e a s t e r n d i f f e r s from the Fada d i a l e c t i n some of i t s noun  prefixes  and concordant pronouns; e . g . ,  n o m i n a t i v e pronoun  'ku' , accusative  gu'  class,  n o m i n a t i v e pronoun  'o/gu'  ga'  class,  n o m i n a t i v e pronoun  'ke  A. Prost, pp.  344 2  1  'gu'  i t has a  'ku - g u '  , where Fada has an ' o / g u -  , accusative  , accusative  'gu; i t has a  'ga'  346. IFAN,  (1954), p p . 12 -  15.  'ke -  , where Fada has  "Notes sur l ' o r i g i n e des Mossis,,'" IFAN,  Paul Mercier,  class,  15,  (1953),  a  4  'gi - g a l c l a s s , n o m i n a t i v e B u t no  important  observed little  and  pronoun  gi  , accusative  s y n t a c t i c d i f f e r e n c e s between these  t h e r e a r e few  lexical differences.  t r o u b l e w i t h m a t e r i a l s w r i t t e n i n Fada  The  northern dialect differs  the n o r t h e r n d i a l e c t has back vowel almost is  (e.g., i n the  inaudible.  the use  a  Eastern readers  concordant  c l a s s ) that both  are  e a s t e r n use  in and  The  n o r t h e r n d i a l e c t c o n s i s t e n t l y u s e s an  v e r b s w h e r e F a d a and  e a s t e r n have  the eastern d i a l e c t s p r e f i x  more r e a d i l y u s e s concordant  'n-'  '-di'.  dialect /ry-/,  j u s t . as.Fada '-si'  ending northern  t o n u m b e r s a b o v e one w h e r e F a d a  a r e more l e x i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n n o r t h e r n and  involved).  Fada than  the There  between  the outstanding d i f f e r e n c e s are s y n t a c t i c .  The  c o n s t r u c t s i t s r e l a t i v e c l a u s e s i n a d i f f e r e n t manner  f r o m t h e o t h e r d i a l e c t s , a n d makes m o r e u s e determinant.  sometimes  'bi-',(when c o u n t i n g a r t i c l e s a l l d i a l e c t s use  e a s t e r n and F a d a , b u t  But  final  In counting, the  pronoun of t h e noun c l a s s of t h e a r t i c l e s  northern dialect  way  eastern,  initial  ( n o r t h e r n u s e s / - r j - / b e f o r e m e d i a l homorganic consonants, eastern do).  have  pronouns.  Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the northern w h e r e F a d a and  on.  dialect.  '-g' o f t e n s o i m p l o s i v e b e f o r e a 1  so  d i a l e c t s have been  c l a s s e s a r e t h e same f o r F a d a and  'ku - g u  of i n i t i a l  , and  f r o m F a d a d i a l e c t i n t h e same  as t h e e a s t e r n w i t h r e g a r d t o p r e f i x e s and where the s u f f i x e s i n these  ga  Fada speakers  o f t h e noun p r e f i x as  have great d i f f i c u l t y  n o r t h e r n e r s , b u t n o r t h e r n e r s l e a r n t o r e a d and with very l i t t l e trouble.  in  a  understanding  hear the Fada  dialect  and  5  E a r l y Study of the Gurma Language The p i o n e e r of  study of Gur languages was made by J . G . C h r i s t a l l e r  the B a s e l M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y .  He f i r s t  mentions Gurma i n h i s  Asante  Grammar as "one of the languages spoken i n the neighbourhood o f . . . M o s i . . . a large  c o u n t r y to the n o r t h of A s a n t e . . . " ,  name Gurma from a former s l a v e i n 1858.^  and says he o b t a i n e d  In 1889  the  C h r i s t a l l e r pub-  l i s h e d a study g i v i n g t h i r t y words i n each of seventy-two l a n g u a g e s , 2 many of them G u r .  He a t t r i b u t e s  t h i s term, G u r , to h i s  colleague,  G. A . K r a u s e , who wrote to him from Ouagadougou (the p r e s e n t  capital  of Upper V o l t a ) w h i l e on a t r i p n o r t h of Asante t e r r i t o r y i n what now n o r t h e r n Ghana and Upper V o l t a , languages are spoken.  the a r e a where Gurma and r e l a t e d  Krause "suggested the use of 3  d e r i v e d from the names Gurma, G u r u n s i ,  etc.,  the term G u r ,  of f r e q u e n t  occurrence  among speakers o f these languages" as a c o l l e c t i v e name f o r ^"Johann G o t l i e b C h r i s t a l l e r , A Grammar of Called Tshi  (Chwee, T w i ) ,  (Basel,  is  them.  the Asante and Fante  Languages  1875), p . XV.  2 Idem, "Sprachbrochen aus dem Sudan von 40 b i s h i n t e r der G o l d - u n d S k l a v e n k i i s t e , " (Berlin,  1889/90),  3:133  -  60 Sprachen und Mundarten  Zeitschrift  f u r A f r i k a n i s c h e Sprachen,  154.  3 J.  Bendor-Samuel i n " N i g e r - C o n g o , G u r " , f u r t h e r l i s t s  G.uren, G u r e s h a , G u r u n s i , G u r i , L i g u r i ,  and Guruba. p .  these as Gurma, 141.  6  This term, Gur, i s now applied by English-speaking as well as German l i n g u i s t s to those related languages spoken i n an area from about 8° north to 14° north of the Equator, and from about 7° west to 4° east of the Greenwich time l i n e .  Much of this area has been under French  influence, and i n 1911 the f i r s t French director of the International A f r i c a n I n s t i t u t e , IAI, (boucle du Niger).^  Delafosse, published Les Eangues volta'iques  Thus he introduced the name voltaique (or V o l t a i c ) ,  to refer to t h i s group of languages spoken i n an area which might also be loosely defined as the upper basin of the Volta r i v e r and i t s tributaries.  French l i n g u i s t s generally use the term voltaique where  English l i n g u i s t s use the term Gur i n r e f e r r i n g to these peoples and languages. In 1927 Westermann c l a s s i f i e d the languages west'of Lake Chad 2 as West Sudanic (versus Central and Eastern Sudanic).  He pointed  out strong l e x i c a l resemblances to the Bantu languages whose d i s tinguishing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , the noun class prefixes, i s analagous to the noun class a f f i x e s of many of these languages.  \taurice Delafosse i n Memoires de' l a Socie'te' de l i n g u i s t i q u e de Paris •16 (6): 386 - 395. 2 D. Westermann, "Die westlichen Sudansprachen und ihre Beziehungen zum Bantu,"  Mittheilungen des Seminars fur orientalische Sprachen, v o l .  30, (Berlin, 1927).  7  More Recent  Study of  I n 1949 -  the Gurma Language  50 P r o f e s s o r G r e e n b e r g , u s i n g Westermann's  evidence,  i n c l u d e d Bantu w i t h West Sudanic,"'" and c a l l e d a l l by a new name,  the  2 Niger-Congo f a m i l y of l a n g u a g e s .  The Western or N i g e r b r a n c h of  f a m i l y i n c l u d e d the members of Wgst Sudanic f o r m e r l y p o s t u l a t e d Westermann, i . e . ,  West A t l a n t i c , Mande, Gur (or V o l t a i c )  and a l s o i n c l u d e d F u l a n i  (or Peuhl)  i n West A t l a n t i c .  by  and Kwa,  This is  t e r e s t to a study of Gurma because the F u l a n i language,  this  of  t h a t of  in-  the  " c a t t l e people" b o r d e r i n g Gurma on the n o r t h and spoken by thousands of  ^"Meinhoff and D e l a f o s s e had a l r e a d y suggested t h i s ; langues du Soudan et  de l a Guine'e,"  Delafosse,  Les Eangues du monde,  "Les  (Paris,  1924)  had s a i d : T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between Bantu languages and Sudanic languages i s not a b s o l u t e .  Both of  them as f a r as i t  is  possible  to  g i v e an o p i n i o n on languages whose o r i g i n and h i s t o r i c a l ment we do not know, seem to b e l o n g  to a s i n g l e l i n g u i s t i c  By the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  points  s y n t a x , by the t o t a l i t y  the p h o n e t i c  of  of  develofamily.  t h e i r morphology and t h e i r laws which govern  them,  by the f o r m a t i v e elements of t h e i r v o c a b u l a r y they show such affinities  that i t  appears d i f f i c u l t  to d i s s o c i a t e  them.  T r a n s l a t e d and quoted by D. Westermann i n " A f r i c a n L i n g u i s t i c C l a s s i f i cation," Africa, 2  (1952), 22  :  252.  Joseph H . G r e e n b e r g , "Studies i n A f r i c a n L i n g u i s t i c Southwestern  Classification,"  J o u r n a l of A n t h r o p o l o g y , V and V I , (1949  - 50),  p u b l i s h e d by Compass P u b l i s h i n g Company, (New Haven, 1955).  later  8  Fulani l i v i n g throughout Gurma t e r r i t o r y , had previously been c l a s s i ;ffite d as Hamitic (  (and thus i n a family unrelated to Gurma) by  Meinhoff."'"  Westermann had included Fulani i n the Gur family but he had termed i t "isolated". 2 In 1963 Professor Greenberg published The Languages of A f r i c a . In this work, emphasizing cognate vocabulary, he attempts to show that a l l indigenous uage families. 3 and Khoisan .  languages of A f r i c a may These are:  be assigned to one of four lang-  Niger-Kordofanian,  Afroasiatic,  N.ilo-Saharan  This l a t e s t proposed grouping i s also of great interest  ^ Meinhoff,  Sprachen der Hamiten, (Hamburg, 1912).  2 Joseph H. Greenberg.  The Languages of A f r i c a , (The Hague:  Mouton and Co. for Indiana University, 1963). 3 Professor M. Guthrie, reviewing Languages of A f r i c a for the Journal of A f r i c a n History, 11: 1962,  pp. 135-136, strongly opposed  Greenberg's c l a s s i f y i n g of Bantu with the West Sudanic languages, i . e . , Gur, Kwa,  etc., on the grounds that his c r i t e r i o n of common vocabulary  i s i n s u f f i c i e n t to e s t a b l i s h the existence of genetic r e l a t i o n s h i p , that "the regular phonologic  development from a common o r i g i n must be shown"  (quoting Greenberg himself), and that Greenberg makes no attempt to do this.  D. Westermann discusses the same points more sympathetically i n  his review of Greenberg's e a r l i e r work' "Studies i n A f r i c a n L i n g u i s t i c C l a s s i f i c a t i o n " , i n A f r i c a 22, (1952), pp. 250-256. See also David Dalby, "Reflections on the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of A f r i c a n Languages," Language Studies, no. XI. (1971).  African  9  to a study of Gurma because, i f i t i s v a l i d , the Gurma language has on her immediate borders languages representing three of the four families of African languages; only the fourth, Khoisan, not being i n any close contact with Gurma speakers. The languages which border on Gurma, starting from the west and moving clock-wise, are: 1  Moore, spoken by the Mossis (west), c l a s s i f i e d by Greenberg as Niger-Kordofanian.  2  Fulani, (north-west), Niger-Kordofanian.  3  Songhai and i t s trade language Djerma (north and North east), Nilo-Saharan.  4  Hausa, which i s north-east and east of Djerma but so i n f i l t r a t e s the t e r r i t o r y as to be almost a neighbour to Gurma, Afroasiatic.  5  Bargu or Bariba (east and south east), Niger-Kordofanian.  6  Berba, Migangam, Moba and Kusal (south), Niger-Kordofanian.  Greenberg divides the Niger branch of Niger-Kordofanian into s i x sub-branches;  these are, west to east, West A t l a n t i c , Mande, Gur, Kwa,  Benue-Congo, and Adamawa-Eastern.  Of the languages l i s t e d above as  bordering on Gurma and belonging with i t to the Niger-Kordofanian family, Fulani belongs to the West A t l a n t i c sub-branch;  the rest, Moore, Bargu,  Berba, Migangam, Moba, Kusal and Gurma i t s e l f belong to the Gur sub-branch. Professor Bendor-Samuel suggests the following main groupings within the Gur sub-branch (Gurma being i n the f i r s t grouping) :"*"  "*"J. Bendor-Samuel i n "Niger-Congo, Gur" pp. 143-145.  10  1  Central Gur  6  Kirma-Tyurama  2  Bargu- (or Bariba)  7  Win  3  Lobiri  8  Senufo  4  Bwamu  9  Seme  5  Kulango  10  Dogon  He further sugggstes dividing Central Gur into: 1.1  Moore*"- Gurma, 1.2 Tamari, 1.3 Grusi.  Of Moore - Gurma he says, "This sub-group comprises the core of the central group of the whole Gur family.  Within the sub-group four  main d i v i s i o n , Western, Central, North-eastern, Eastern and three further subdivisions are c l e a r l y established."  He l i s t s the members  of the eastern group as: "Bimoba 2 Basari-Kasele  - Chamba (Tobote)  Konkomba Gangam (Dye) Gurma"  The Reverend Gustave Alexandre considers this long nasalized /o/,'- oo-,'a "nasale propre au mo"re ( s i c ) " and distinguishes i t from "les nasales francaises".  La Langue more, Memoires,  (IFAN, 1953), 34:15.  2 Perhaps Oldendrop's  Kassente, see appendix 2, pp. 13353.,,  11  Westermann included Berba, Gurma's most easterly neighbour to the south, with this eastern group^ Bendor-Samuel considers i t uncertain whether Berba should be classed as Eastern or Northeastern. He classes Kusal, Gurma's westerly southern neighbour, as Central (north-central), thus recognizing i t s a f f i n i t y with Dagbana (mentioned above, p. 3). In 1929 the Sudan I n t e r i o r Mission  (S. I. M.) sent the Reverend  Douglas Hume and Mrs. Hume to Fada N'Gurma. under a Brethren Mission among the Bantus.  They had previously worked They found the Gurmas  t o t a l l y unlettered, and worked out the alphabet which, with s l i g h t modi f i c a t i o n s , i s s t i l l used.  They set to work to translate the New Test-  ament into Gurma and to provide reading and writing-learning materials for Gurmas.  When they r e t i r e d i n the 1940's they l e f t a Gurma grammar  and dictionary (unpublished) and the manuscript of a t r a n s l a t i o n of Matthew through 1 Corinthians.  The Mission Press i n Jos, Nigeria,  printed their Gospel of John i n 1948.  Early i n the 1950's the Bible  Society printed their Mark, then Matthew through 1 Corinthians.  The  rest of the New Testament was being translated, and i n 1958 the Bible 2 Society published a l l of i t . About two thirds of the Old Testament i s now translated and c i r c u l a t e d i n mimeographed form i n preparation for p r i n t i n g by the Bible Society.  The Society wishes to p r i n t and bind  this with a new t r a n s l a t i o n of the New Testament as soon as possible. ^Diedrich Westermann and M.A. Bryan,  The Languages of West  A f r i c a , (London: Oxford University Press, 1952, reprint ed. London Dawsons, 1970), pg. 68 2 Tidiedo Jesu K i l i s i t i TiCandaano yanantaadi-paano (Le Ftouveau Testament en langue gourmantche' (Gourma) , (La Socie'te Biblique, P a r i s , 1958).  12  The Roman Catholic Mission was 1931.  established i n Fada N' Gurma i n  To date only the two Missions have interested themselves i n  l i n g u i s t i c work i n Gurma. In 1951  the Reverend M. Chazal's French-Gurma dictionary was  mimeographed by IFAN.  In 1954  another p r i e s t , the Reverend Alphonse  Chantoux, completed a Gurma grammar, a Gurma dictionary, and a c o l l e c t i o n of f i f t y Gurma t a l e s .  These seem to be partly i n northern d i a l e c t and  p a r t l y i n Fada d i a l e c t (e.g., both ng_ and _h are used for /rj/) . material was  also mimeographed by IFAN.  This  The Reverend Alexandre Gontier  collected l i n g u i s t i c materials i n the Kantcheri  1  d i a l e c t (which seems  to be a mixture of northern and eastern) which were edited by Chantoux and Prost who  has contributed so much to the knowledge of Gur languages.  (Prost has published grammars of Moba, Migangam, Tamari, Lamba, Naudem . and Degara, and many a r t i c l e s on these and other languages).  This study,  e n t i t l e d Grammaire gourmantche, was published by IFAN i n 1968. Reverend P. Bonny completed a translation of the New northern d i a l e c t .  This was  2  In 1972  the  Testament i n the  p r i v a t e l y published i n a b e a u t i f u l volume,  unfortunately too costly for general use.  The Roman Catholic Mission has  used the S. I. M. translation of Scriptures to date. in adapting his northern d i a l e c t New  Bonny i s now  engaged  Testament to Fada d i a l e c t .  *" Kantcheri i s a Gurma town i n the eastern Gurma area. Chantoux, A., Gontier, A. and Prost, A., Grammaire gourmantche. I n i t i a t i o n s et etudes a f r i c a i n e s no. XXIII. Dalsar: IFAN (1968).  13  Purpose o f t h i s  study.  One can o n l y f e e l  great r e s p e c t ,  a d m i r a t i o n and g r a t i t u d e  for  the work of a l l those who have w r i t t e n about the Gurma language. The purpose of t h i s  study i s  to d e s c r i b e s c i e n t i f i c a l l y the phonology  and morphology of Gurma g i v i n g needed emphasis to the a s p e c t s o f vowel l e n g t h and degrees of l a b i a l i z a t i o n , and the importance o f  tone.  14  Gurma Phonology  Symbolization As f a r as p o s s i b l e  the symbols o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l P h o n e t i c  A l p h a b e t have been u s e d . Stress  is  Tone i s low i\J,  See the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e ,  i n d i c a t e d by [ ] 1  b e f o r e the s t r e s s e d  i n d i c a t e d as f o l l o w s : v e r y low [*]  The symbol  page  v e r y h i g h ["],  15.  syllable. High [ ' ] ,  mid  [~],  , a r i s i n g g l i d e [y'], a f a l l i n g g l i d e [^]  [y] i s used f o r the yod which l e a v e s the symbol  .  [j]  f r e e f o r the v o i c e d p a l a t a l stop"*" matching the symbol [ c ] which i s used f o r the v o i c e l e s s p a l a t a l s t o p .  The f l a p [ d ] i s w r i t t e n  [d]  ;  2 and the i m p l o s i v e  [g]  is written  [g]  .  a r t i c u l a t i o n o f the l a b i o - v e l a r s t o p s :  L i g a t u r e s show the s y n c h r o n i c  [Kb]  ,  [gb],[rjm].  Where  the vowel [ i ] i s f o l l o w e d by [ a ] or [ e ] t h i s i s t o be understood as the o n - g l i d e of a r i s i n g d i p h t h o n g , [ i V ] ; [ i ] h e r e i m p l y i n g a l s o 3  p a l a t a l i z a t i o n of the p r e c e d i n g consonant. S i m i l a r l y when the vowels or [ o ] , [ov] in  [ o ] and  [ u ] are followed b y [ e ] ,  ['t>],  these combinations too a r e to be understood as r i s i n g diphthongs  , and [ u V ] , the [c>] i m p l y i n g l a b i a l i z a t i o n i n a l e s s e r and the a greater  [u]  degree.^  'See P e t e r L a d e f o g e d , A P h o n e t i c Study o f West A f r i c a n Languages, (Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , The A f r i c a n I n s t i t u t e but p r e c e d i n g [ ] 1  i.e.  1964), p .  xv.  recommends w r i t i n g the i m p l o s i v e [ g ]  as  ['g],  i s here kept f o r s t r e s s as the I . P . A . recommends,  [ia],[ia],  [ oe ] , [on ] , [un ]  a  [ uo ]__.  i  O S3 f w  CO  r  < SH1  H  O f  CO CO  M  1  > M  RI CAT VE OIC LESS  1  o  OWE  o > t*i  LOSE  o hd . W 2!  < M  CO  > CO  H  U  H  TO  a  H  P3  cf  3 3  a  CO  cr  c—  c— O  o  21 CO  plain palatalized o-labialized u-labialized  w  H > H  03 l-f  n> t> w H O o 1  3  P3 CO 93 M HN (T> Cu  plain palatalized o-labialized u-labialized  Hi Hi  c-  Hi O Hi  c  ID ff O  CO  CO  M  3  03  o  a  o  f  o cf  O  3  CO  <  O H n CO CO  B  S  <  oH nM  o o  CO H  M H  Hi O  CD rt H"  n  H  O  CO  ft)  CO  a.  93 Cf M  Cu  3 o 3 -3=  Cu O Cu  e-  o  n> o  3 3  O  s  l-i  Cu  3  .Cu  o  rt 3  plain palatalized o-labialized u-labialized  <  plain palatalized o-labialized u-labialized  >  m o t1  fD  o  i-h  CD  O C  a.  CO  cf  fD  ci-  o  «3 <3  o  3  Cu CO  3  03 CO 03  2! H  O  O  i3  L-l. C  o c— o o n c  OQ *3  O CJ  CW O  09 3 09-  o 3  plain o-labialized u-labialized  M s>  r > cd H O < 1  Cd >  ff ST  c3x  plain  <-3)  palatalized  IS  r  1  r  1  plain o  16  Description of Gurma Vowels, (see the l i s t of Gurma vowels, page 17.) No. 1 [ i ] i s a short, tense, close, front vowel with some l i p spreading. ing  It i s less tense and less close and has less l i p spread-  than the French vowel i n sjL; i t i s more l i k e the English vowel  i n sea, but i s not diphthongized.  I t occurs i n such words as:  1.  £*ta;mf  (the horses)  2.  i sSni  (the paths)  and i n such forms as: 1.  o^ntdi  (he has washed h i s hands)  2.  o'cogi  (he i s reading)  The lengthened version of this vowel, |i']'» either.  i s  n  o  t  diphthongized  I t occurs i n such words as: 1.  V  2.  6'ciino  tisdx  (the trees) (the cross cousin)  and i n such forms as: 1.  ofisdi * 1  2.  x  .  (he has l i f t e d the edge)  *  cpisdi  (he has whined about i t )  No. 2 0 i ' ] i s a short, lax, close, front vowel, the tongue being somewhat lowered and retracted f rom the position for [IiJ|; the l i p s are less spread.  This vowel sounds occurs i n words l i k e :  1. gL^bVg^  (the child)  2. ma'ifeb§ni"iT;  (the blood)  and i n such forms as: 1. otp £daii  (hehas swept)  2. o lli/bi* L  (he has set i t down upside down)  c  17  Complete l i s t  of Gurma vowel sounds.  / i" ]  1.  [i  2.  [i]  3.  [e  / e" ]  4.  [e  / e' ]  5.  [a./  6.  CB / n" ]  7.  [a]  8.  [o  9.  [ u / u" ]  a* ]  / o *]  Diphthongs 1 + No. 5 U a ]  10.  No.  11.  No. 1 + No. 3 [ i e ]  12.  No.  8 + No. 6 [ o n ]  13.  No.  8 + No. 4 Coe]  14.  No.  9 + No. 6 [ U D ]  15.  No. 9 + No. 8 [ u o ]  16.  No. 5 + No. 1 [ a i ]  18  No. 3 [,e^ i s a short, tense, h a l f - c l o s e , front vowel with some l i p spreading, but less tense and less close than the French vowel in  tetel't  I t would resemble the English vowel i n sate i f the l a t t e r  were not diphthongized. 1.  o'cjebu  I t occurs i n words l i k e : (the soap)  2. g;6iyi'£g§  (the calabash)  and i n such forms as: 1.  o tiegi  (he i s just)  2.  o'piebi  (he has sounded a note -on a f l u t e )  No. 4 I e'] i s a short, lax, half-open, front vowel; i t resembles the  English vowel i n l e t .  It occurs i n such words as:  1.  i we  (the snakes)  2.  i'pe  (the sheep)  and i n such forms as: 1.  o'pendi (he has gone by)  2.  o'gbeQgi  (he i s fat)  The lengthened version of this vowel,  Ee°il~,  occurs infrequently:  s.  1.  be i  2.  o'ke* i d i  (what? - said i n scorn, d i s b e l i e f , surprise) (he has remonstrated - clucked as does a gecko)  No. 5 [,a-3 i s a short, lax, open front vowel. words as: 1.  a'pala  (the granaries)  2.  li'pali  (the granary)  I t occurs i n such  19  and i n such forms a s : 1.  6'bandi  (he has  learned)  2.  b'cadi  (he has  washed)  The lengthened v e r s i o n of t h i s v o w e l , d i p h t h o n g i z a t i o n i n such words  [a*],  occurs without  as:  1.  o'ta'mo  (the  horse)  2.  o'ta'mo  (the monkey)  and i n such forms as":' 1.  6'fa ni  (he i s washing h i s  2.  b'ga'li  (he i s b l e s s i n g  N o . 6[x)-.] i s vowel.  face)  them)  a s h o r t , o p e n , b a c k , g e n e r a l l y s l i g h t l y rounded *  I t o c c u r s i n such words  r  as:  r.  1.  o'jonmo  and i n such forms  (the b l i n d man)  2.  li'ponli  li'd^gidi  (it's  sufficient)  2.  ll'foTbgi  (it's  a l o n g way)  The lengthened v e r s i o n of t h i s v o w e l , ti'wo'dl  (the c o l d , the c o l d season)  2.  mi'wn'lima  (the  b'wc'li ll'wn'di  as:  indiscretion)  as: (he has rubbed g e n t l y ) ( i t has d r i e d up)  No 7 [ o ] , always s h o r t , it  o c c u r s i n such words  1.  1. 2.  metal)  as:  1.  and i n such forms  (the r e d hot  is  a mid c e n t r a l vowel of l i m i t e d o c c u r r e n c e ,  i s heard i n such forms as:  ka  1.  6'ye  2.  ban'CUD  (let  x them come)  3.  gi'biga  (the  child)  4.  mitama  (the  soil)  (he says t h a t )  I  .5.  pa'dap (bang) (see App. I , p g .  129)  20  No. 8 lo'] i s a s h o r t , lip-rounding.  tense, h a l f - c l o s e ,  I t o c c u r s i n such words  1.  o tafmo  (the  horse)  2.  mi''yoma  (the  flour)  s,  back vowel w i t h medium  as:  and i n such forms a s : 1.  o 'f6  (he i s  alive)  2.  6'bodi  (he i s  lost)  The lengthened v e r s i o n of t h i s v o w e l ,  {To /K], i s v e r y r a r e , o c c u r r i n g  i n the word: l:i.'b<5*'li  (conversation)  and as a phenomenon i n morphophonemic forms, e . g . , it  and i s  seized  screaming).  No. 9 [,u!0 i s  a short,  t e n s e , c l o s e , back vowel w i t h l i p r o u n d i n g ,  but not so tense nor w i t h such p o s i t i v e in  b'cuos mub (he has  :bout,,'.  l i p r o u n d i n g as the French vowel  I t o c c u r s i n words l i k e : 1.  o''bulo  (the  fetish)  2.  t:i'kudi  (the  iron)  and i n forms l i k e : 1.  li tu  2.  o^'gudi  ( l  (:(he's b e t t e r )  ha ^ • b e t t e r ;  (he has p l u c k e d out the  The lengthened v e r s i o n of t h i s v o w e l , 1.  i"musli  (the  rice)  2.  o^gusdu  (the  spine)  and i n forms l i k e : 1.  b'mu:di  2.  1;L. k u ^ g i  (he i s (it  lancing) is  cool)  feathers)  [u;'] o c c u r s i n words such a s :  21  D e s c r i p t i o n o f Gurma d i p h t h o n g s . No.  10 f i e ]  is  position  for [ i ]  and moving to  i n words such  position  1.  o'yienu  (the  sun)  2.  o^piemu  (the  arrow)  front  Ee ].  It  P  occurs  as:  1.  d^'diedi  (he. has become  2.  o fieli  (he has come to an agreement  11 [-ia/] i s  master) with)  a r i s i n g diphthong s t a r t i n g from the  f o r E ±3 and moving to  i n such words  close  front  the v e r y open f r o n t vowel Ea'3. I t  occurs  as: 1.  ll.'miali  (the  nose)  2.  o'biagu  (the  boat)  and i n such forms  No.  the more open f r o n t vowel  close  as:  and i n such forms  No.  a r i s i n g diphthong s t a r t i n g from the  as:  1.  o'cilni  (he has  accompanied)  2.  d''niani  (he has  promised)  12 [otio] i s  a r i s i n g diphthong which has s t a r t e d  from the h a l f  c l o s e back p o s i t i o n f o r [jo!;] and moved over to the more open [D,],I o c c u r s i n such words  It  as:  1.  o'boxigu  (the  arm)  2.  o^cgiDbu  (the  threading device  shredded b a r k ) .  f o r t y i n g mats  with  22  and i n such forms a s : 1.  o'coc'di  (he has counted)  2.  I:l'f6igi  ( i t s f a r away)  No. 13 Eoe ] i s a r i s i n g d i p h t h o n g w h i c h a l s o s t a r t s from t h e h a l f J  c l o s e back p o s i t i o n f o r Eo. ] and moves t o t h e h a l f - o p e n f r o n t v  ['£].  I t o c c u r s r a r e l y , as f o l l o w s :  No.  1. l i ' b o e l i ( t h e c h a t )  .'3.  "i i'koe  ( t h e bush cows) 4.  5.  i^yoe  (the iguanas)  14[ UI1D] i  6.  position 2. b i ' b o e  (they  l'moe ( t h e weeping) i | b p D d i lge  C  h  a  t  ( t h e earthworm)  i s a r i s i n g d i p h t h o n g which s t a r t s from t h e c l o s e back  p o s i t i o n f o r [u,0 w i t h n o t i c e a b l y more l i p - r o u n d i n g than f o r t h e d i p h t h o n g [p^or],  and moves t o t h e open back vowel Iv"}. 1.  li'fuDli  ( t h e woods)  2.  li'puDli  (the l i v e r )  It  o c c u r s as f o l l o w s :  No. 15 Euo,"]is a r i s i n g d i p h t h o n g w h i c h a l s o s t a r t s from the c l o s e back p o s i t i o n f o r [,u.*] w i t h maximum l i p - r o u n d i n g and moves o n l y as far as the rounded h a l f - c l o s e back v o w e l |o']. I t o c c u r s i n : 1.  oduolo  2.  ltbuoli  (the p i g ) (the shallow depression)  and i n such forms a s : 1.  li'kuodi  ( i t i s dry)  2.  o'fuo  (he's b r e a t h i n g )  No. 16 [-ai;] i s a f a l l i n g d i p h t h o n g w h i c h s t a r t s from t h e unrounded open f r o n t p o s i t i o n f o r [a] and moves t o t h e p o s i t i o n f o r [ i ] w i t h cons i d e r a b l e t e n s i n g and l i p s p r e a d i n g .  I t o c c u r s o n l y i n t h e c l a s s o f words  known as ideophones i n such 'adwordaas c a i t j cai  (completely)  ralp.Tt  ('-'sry: -  xvil'H  whir.'.-",  (completely).  )  23  The e f f e c t  of  the  diphthongs  The two d i p h t h o n g s , that  [ie]  they are p a l a t a l i z e d .  o c c u r r i n g a f t e r ['k], It  [g],  and [ i a ]  The f i r s t , [h] ,  affect [ie],  occurs m e d i a l l y and f i n a l l y a f t e r she i s winnowing ( i . e . ,  6  1  bie  he i s  belching  1  tie  he i s  doing  die  he i s  master  cie  he i s  superior  he i s  afraid  6 1 kpie  he i s  whittling  6  it,  6  1  6  1  1  gbie  i.e.,  the  he has taken by f o r c e  6  he has dyed  sie  somewhat  all  d '•' l i e  he has moved over  6 ' yie  he has  [m] ,  restricted,  [n] ,  is  refused  i n a l l y a f t e r - a l l consonants  [h] and  0  1  *1 o  \1 o  \1 o  pia  it,  bia  he i s  tia  he's  dia  he has set  cia  he has  o ' o  1  is,  except  the r o a d ,  is  [g],  [k],  wide  evil cogitating a trap  escaped  he has cut i n t o l i t t l e Kpia  [rj], o r  full  [ia],  1  [p] ,  not  other consonants.  The second diphthong c a u s i n g p a l a t a l i z a t i o n ,  o  so  by s h a k i n g hard up and down)  large pot,  6 •' f i e 1  is  [w] or any n a s a l ,  6 1 pie  o  p r e c e d i n g consonants  he came i n  first  pieces  occurs m e d i a l l y [w].  24  o  gbl.amu  the cane, w a l k i n g s t i c k  o  mia  he has r e q u e s t e d  nia  he has d i s p u t e d  jdfadi,:  he has g r a z e d i t  rjiabi  it,  yffmia  he has wrung i t  fia sia  he i s f l a t / s u n k e n nosed ( i . e . , t h r o u g h l e p r o s y or accident) he has burned i t  lia  he has p l a s t e r e d i t  yia  he's  The d i p h t h o n g s  i . e . , the t o g a , i s too t i g h t  ill  [ o e ] , [ o n ] , [ u o ] , and  [uo] a f f e c t p r e c e d i n g  so t h a t they a r e l a b i a l i z e d , s l i g h t l y by [oe] and and  [uo].  No.  [op] , s t r o n g l y by  [up]  13 [oe] o c c u r s , as shown above, i n one i n s t a n c e m e d i a l l y ,  a f t e r [ b ] , and f i n a l l y a f t e r , The  consonants  diphthongs  [era] and  [b] , [k] , [m], [1] and  [y],, (see pg. 22).  [up] o c c u r i n o p p o s i t i o n a f t e r a l l t h e con-  sonants except t h e double s t o p s , [ K p ] , [gb] and  [ i p i ] , and  [h] and  [w].  Most o p p o s i t i o n s a r e m i n i m a l . b ' pojbdi^  (she has  b  hatched)  1  puodi  (she has t r a v e r s e d )  bob  ( i t i s scratching)  b ' bui)  o  tQDdi  (he  has  taken  b * tarodi (he has removed the f i b e r s , i . e . , from beans)  b  ' dojol^i  (he  has  tied  O  CODdl  (he has  b  1  > I .  / I  -  o jor»ni  down)  to  tow)  counted)  ( he has snagged and i s suspended on)  (he has  liked) r  b  ' duolJL (he has  b 'cu©di b 'juani  (he has  towed)  courted)  ( i t , i . e . , t h e town, i s f a r away)  koo.  (it,  i . e . , the branch,  i s breaking) (he h a s b e n t ,  goSni  mop  i . e . , metal)  (he has wrestled)  b'noBdi  b'kuo  (he h a s e n t e r e d )  b'gucni  b'mup^  (he h a s r e t u r n e d )  (he has sucked on i t )  (he has drawn from, i . e , b'nupdi a knife from i t s sheath) ( i t , i . e . , the water i s deep) mi'puD  mi'poc  ( i t has pleased) ( i t has gone down)  Opsdx  (he has stopped following)  b ' rjuodi  (he has followed)  fongi  (he i s t a l l )  b'fungi  (he i s syphoning)  (he has shuffled o f f )  b 'suo'di  ( i t has a r i c h succulent taste)  o'longu (the investment)  6'luragu  (the deep waterhole)  o'yos  b 'yur>  o 'socdi  (she i s about to)  (she has baby sat)  The diphthong [uo]^ occurs after a l l consonants except [h] , the nasals, and the double stops, and causes l a b i a l i z a t i o n of the preceding consonant.  I t occurs after every consonant i n opposition to [o] as  follows: b'podi  (he has grown old)  b'puodi  ( i t , i e . » the sickness has spread)  b'bodi  ( i t i s stunted)  b'bubdi  ( i t has burned up)  li't&li  ( i t has helped)  li'tuodi  b^dobi  (he has hopped across)  b'dubbi  li'condi  ( i t has rained gently)  li^cuoni  ( i t has echoed) (he has stood on t i p toe) ( i t has caught f i r e )  b ^jogi  (he has pecked at)  o ^jubgi  (he has made plans)  b'kbdi  (he has cut the throat)  b'kuo'di  (he has dried)  'These oppositions do not occur i n a neighbouring Gurma cluster language Konkomba. of Ifetomba. 1966), p. 8.  See Mary Steele and Gretchen Wood, The Phonology  (The I n s t i t u t e of A f r i c a n Studies, University of Ghana,  26  lxgoli  (the hump)  liguoli'"  6 \fb  (he's  6 'fub  (he has (he i s  alive)  ( f u l l n e s s to  satiety)  breathed)  b 'sondi  (he has  sharpened)  b ^suondx  b 'lbdi  (he has  untied)  b h_uodi  (it  b ktfuodi  (he has  b 'yy°dx  (he has melted - the i c e , s a l t , not f a t )  b \aodl  (he has gathered w i t h h i s hands) (he has crumbled)  b 'ybdx  has  silencing) moulted) revealed)  D e s c r i p t i o n of Gurma Consonants No. 1 [ p ] i s  a b i - l a b i a l , voiceless,  slightly  a s p i r a t e d stop  c u r r i n g i n i t i a l l y , m e d i a l l y or f i n a l l y i n such words 'pedx  (chop i t )  If occurring f i n a l i t p a dap  2 [b] is  No.  carp)  unexploded and v e r y  (dig) 3 [t]  is  as: o'bado  an a l v e o l a r ,  (the  chief)  voiceless,  slightly  o c c u r r i n g i n i t i a l l y or m e d i a l l y i n such words 'ta No.  (take i t ) 4 [d] is  i n such words da  data  emphatic:  a b i - l a b i a l , v o i c e d stop o c c u r r i n g i n i t i a l l y or  m e d i a l l y i n such words 'budi  is  (the  as:  (bang , wham)  1  No.  li'papali  oc-  6*'txbu  (the  incomplete  as:  tree)  an a l v e o l a r , v o i c e d stop o c c u r r i n g i n i t i a l l y o r m e d i a l l y  as:  (buy i t )  a s p i r a t e d stop  odogu  (the  town)  27  No. 5 [ d ] i s i n such words 1  a voiced a p i c o - a l v e o l a r f l a p occurring medially only  as:  tadigi  (to be weak)  gi'badiga  (a l i z a r d )  No 6 [ c ]  is  a voiceless,  humping the tongue so t h a t palate. [ky]  the middle p a r t i s  A f r o n t vowel draws i t  , but i t  such words  i s not e i t h e r of  towards [ t / ] these.  made by  i n c o n t a c t w i t h the h a r d and a back vowel  towards  I t o c c u r s i n i t i a l l y or m e d i a l l y  (choose)  o colo  (the  1  7 [j ] is  fox)  the v o i c e d c o u n t e r p a r t of [ c ]  same way by f o l l o w i n g v o w e l s , a l t h o u g h i t is  aspirated stop,  as:  ^ ca  No.  palatal, slightly  also influenced  is neither  in  [dz,] nor [ g y ] .  the It  a v o i c e d p a l a t a l stop o c c u r r i n g i n i t i a l l y or m e d i a l l y i n such words  as: ja  (cut  it)  (the  bat)  r gi'janjarjga No.  8 [k] is  a voiceless,  velar,  i n i t i a l l y or m e d i a l l y i n such words  No.  (sit  down)  li'ku.'li  (the  hoe)  i n such words ga  is  a s p i r a t e d stop o c c u r r i n g  as:  'kali  9 [g]  slightly  a v o i c e d , v e l a r stop  o c c u r r i n g i n i t i a l l y or m e d i a l l y  as:  A  o'gu'do  (take i t (the  — i.e.,  watchman)  from someone's hand)  in  28 No.  10 [ g ] i s a v o i c e d , v e l a r i m p l o s i v e \ made by l o w e r i n g t h e  l a r y n x and drawing i n t h e b r e a t h —  w i t h no a u d i b l e s u c t i o n —  the s t o p i s r e l e a s e d . . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g  before  i t occurs m e d i a l l y only i n  such words a s : mi'sagima  (the i t c h i n e s s )  'boagfdi  (to d i v i d e )  ti'pagidi  (the p r a i s e )  Some s p e a k e r s have been known t o use [ g ] i n i n t i a l p o s i t i o n b e f o r e an u n s t r e s s e d v o w e l , e.g., g i ' b i g e b u t no i n s t a n c e o f [ g j i a n d [ g ] i n o p p o s i t i o n has been  recorded. 2  No.  11 [Kp.] i s a v o i c e l e s s , v e l a r - l a b i a l  s t o p w i t h no a s p i r a t i o n .  The back o f t h e tongue a g a i n s t t h e s o f t p a l a t e makes a v e l a r c l o s u r e as  the g l o t t i s  r i s e s s l i g h t l y and t h e l i p s a r e c l o s e d , t h e n b o t h  are r e l e a s e d together.  stops  T h i s sound o c c u r s i n i t i a l l y and m e d i a l l y i n  such words a s :  But  see  Kpa'  (to h e r d )  olcpelo  (the e l d e r )  L a d e f o g e d , A P h o n e t i c Study, 1964, p. 6. " I n t h e West A f r i c a n  languages i n w h i c h g l o t t a l i c i n g r e s s i v e sounds were recorded,.... (they) were 'SsMomcingr-essive i n t h e sense t h a t on t h e r e l e a s e o f t h e a r t i c u l a t o r y c l o s u r e , a i r flowed" i n t o t h e mouth... .Few p e o p l e would c a l l , such a sound implosive." 2 The  term ' v e l a r - l a b i a l ' i s used h e r e r a t h e r than t h e accepted  term  'labio-  v e l a r ' because a) a p r e c e d i n g n a s a l whether s y l l a b i c o r n o n - s y l l a b i c i s always t h e homorganic v e l a r n a s a l and b) [ k p ] i s confused w i t h [ p ] b u t never w i t h t h e [ k ] ; s i m i l a r l y [ gb ] and [f$a~\ w i t h [ b ] and [m] b u t never w i t h [ g ] and [ n ] .  (by o u t l a n d e r s ) may be confused  29  No. 12 [gb] i s the voiced counterpart of [ K p ] . While no noise of suction has been observed, some speakers when pronouncing [gb] can be seen to draw i n a i r , i . e . [g"b <* gls], but t h i s v a r i a t i o n never occurs i n opposition with [gb]].  This sound occurs i n i t i a l l y and medially i n  such words as: 'fbi'di  (dig)  ogba'do  (the leper)  No. 13 [m] i s a voiced b i - l a b i a l nasal occurring i n i t i a l l y , medially and f i n a l l y i n such words as: ^mf'di omado  (break i t - i . e . the taboo) (the new mother)  bimm  (very, used with to be dark)  Nd. 14 [tj] see at No. 21. No. 15 [nj] i s a voiced, labio-dental nasal occurring i n such forms as: m'fa  (I thank you)  m wD lo,-.. r  ( y younger) m  No. 16 [ n ] i s a voiced, alveolar nasal occurring i n i t i a l l y , -medially and f i n a l l y i n such words as: 'nidi  (to wash the hands)  o^nanlo  (the guinea worm)  'ban  (that they)  No. 17 [ n ] see at No. 21. No. 18 [p] i s a voiced, p a l a t a l nasal, the middle part of the tongue, rather then the t i p as for [ n ] , or the back as for [rj]being i n contact with the hard palate.  It occurs i n i t i a l l y and medially i n such words as:  'pani  (leave)  o'pi,ano  (the porcupine)  30  in  No.  19 [ n ] see at 21.  No.  20 [ r) ] i s a v o i c e d , v e l a r n a s a l , the back of the tongue b e i n g  contact with  the s o f t p a l a t e .  I t occurs  i n i t i a l l y , medially  and  f i n a l l y as f o l l o w s : rja  Nos.  (leave i t alone)  11 ' rjani  ( i t i s good)  cairf  (completely)  14 [m],  17 [ D ] , 19 [ p ] and  21 [ rj ]are s y l l a b i c n a s a l s  determined  by the f o l l o w i n g consonant which i s always preceded by a homorganic n a s a l . These n a s a l s have t h e i r own may  occur  utterance  initial.  They  be preceded by a vowel as f o l l o w s : teno n ' l i g i No.  (hand him my  money)  22 [pin] i s a v o i c e d , v e l a r - l a b i a l n a s a l made by  simultaneously The  tone and may  w i t h making a v e l a r c l o s u r e and  r e l e a s e of both stops i s c o - a r t i c u l a t e d .  c l o s i n g the  r a i s i n g the  lips  glottis.  T h i s sound i s found  i n i t i a l l y and m e d i a l l y i n such words a s :  No.  rjme'  (who?)  OQma'mo  (the monkey)  23 [ f ] i s a v o i c e l e s s , l a b i o - d e n t a l f r i c a t i v e , o c c u r r i n g  initially  and m e d i a l l y i n such words as:  No.  fa  (to wash the  o'fidu  (the  face)  strength)  24 [ s ] i s a v o i c e l e s s , a l v e o l a r f r i c a t i v e , o c c u r r i n g  m e d i a l l y and  f i n a l l y i n such words as:  initially,  31  'sedi  (to s t o p )  cf'sanu No. 25 [ 1 ]  (the  fas  path)  i s a v o i c e d , a l v e o l a r l a t e r a l , always w i t h " c l e a r " resonance  o c c u r r i n g i n i t i a l l y and m e d i a l l y i n such words 'landi  (to take o f f  6'li'bo  (the  No. 26 [w] i s  as:  overhead)  hippopotamus)  a v o i c e d l a b i o - v e l a r b i - l a b i a l semi-vowel o c c u r r i n g  i n i t i a l l y and m e d i a l l y i n such words 'wadi  as:  (to make i t  iwe  (the  No. 27 [ y ] i s  less)  snakes)  a v o i c e d , p a l a t a l semi-vowel o c c u r r i n g i n i t i a l l y  and m e d i a l l y i n such words 'yadi  )l  (completely)  as: (to  scatter)  r -  oyianu  (the  No. 28 [ h ] i s a v o i c e l e s s ,  illness)  l a r y n g a l f r i c a t i v e o c c u r r i n g i n Fada  d i a l e c t o n l y i n i t i a l l y i n a few borrowed Hausa words such a s : 'half  (until/even  halabada  to)  (never)  As the oath K a l , o tj,enu (even to God) i s 1  commonly used to a f f i r m  t r u t h of any statement, from the most t r i v i a l occurs  the  to the most p r o f o u n d ,  [h]  the g l o t t a l stop o c c u r r i n g m e d i a l l y i n such words  as:  frequently.  No. 2 9 [ 2 ]  is  olcpa2ku  (the  box)  (he was t i d y i n g up)  32  Table 2: CONSONANTS  BILABIAL'  Table of Gurma Phonemes LABIODENTAL  ALVEOLAR PALATAL VELAR LABIOVELAR LARYNGAL  Voiceless stops  c  k  kp  Voiced stops  j  g  gb  Nasals  m  Voiceless „ . . Fricatives  c  Lateral SemiVowels  n f  p .  0  fjm i l h  s 1  w  Vowels  front  central  i  0 1  Close Halfclose  u e  Open  back  o  a Phonemic tones are very high /"/, high /'/, mid /-/, low / V and  r i s i n g g l i d e , /•*'/. Stress occurs on the base s y l l a b l e of nouns and on the f i r s t  syllable  of verbs. Length i s phonemic f o r each vowel and i s indicated by writing the vowel twice.  "^The occurrence of this marginal phoneme i s discussed on page 41,  The Gurma Vowel Phonemes The phoneme / 1 / has two variants: [ i ] ana [ i ] . - i I  The short variants [ i ] and  [ i ] never occur i n contrast, [ i ]  i n i t i a l and f i n a l , [ i ] i n almost a l l other environments.  occurs  In a very few  words [ i ] - rather than [ i ]-occurs medially, but only i n the stressed s y l l a b l e , and only i n the environment of consonants that draw [ i ] to the p o s i t i o n of [ i ] , e.g., a following [ i ] or a preceding (the book), A i I I o  (the person), milpime (the water).  between [ i ]and [ i ] has been  /n/ as i n : 1 - i t i l i  No opposition  recorded.  The variant [ i ], short i n stressed s y l l a b l e s becomes very short i n an unstressed syllable,  e.g., b ' t a l t n i  (he i s creeping).  This i s pre-  dictable, regular, and involves no opposition. But [L ] and [ i ] occur i n contrast i n stressed s y l l a b l e s as the following minimal pairs show: b'mfdi  (he has scraped  b'mi'di  (he has broken - i . e . , a taboo)  These data show of one phoneme / i / , /ii/  that [ i ] and  o f f some skin)  [ i ] are p o s i t i o n a l v a r i a n t s , members  and that the lengthened vowel i s another phoneme  i n contrast with li/. The phoneme /e/ has two variants [ e ] and [*e].'  The variant [ e ]  occurs after the front vowel [ i ] on-glide, the v a r i a n t [ e ] occurs i n a l l other environments.  These vowels are never i n contrast but members of  the phoneme /el. That -the phoneme le/  i s i n contrast with the lengthened v e r s i o n I eel.  34 can be shown by only one near minimal p a i r : b'gedi |d£mp6  (he has gone home - close by)  b'g^di |d&'mpo  (he has gone home - f a r away)  but the phonemic s i g n i f i c a n c e of the lengthened vowel i s also shown by the following example of morphophonemic phenomenon: b'fie  (he has snatched)  o'fie'sani  (he has snatched and run)  The phoneme /e/ i f f i n a l i n noun forms w i l l become [e*] when i t p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the morphophonemic phenomenon of negation. with /e/ and must be considered  So /ee/ i s i n contrast  as phonemically d i s t i n c t .  The phoneme /a/ has three variants; the short vowels [ a ] , [r>] and [ a ] . The vowel [ a ] occurs i n stressed s y l l a b l e s i n ideophones only (see Appendix 1);  i t occurs i n unstressed  s y l l a b l e s i n the following environments;  a)  a f t e r [ g ] or [m] or [ k ] , e.g., giWiga, mt^pima, o 'yedi ka'da,  b)  i n words of C^VC^ pattern where  i s a nasal, e.g., b a n , ban"*".  "'"A contrast i s suspected between [ a ] and [ a ] i n ban and ban i n the sequences: o+den+igedi+gi+ban+'da h went and bought  o+den+|gedi+gi+ban+'da he went to buy  It seems that the second sequence should be transcribed: o+den+|g£di+gi+ba*n+ da 1  i . e . , ba'n not ban, i n contrast with ban above; and that a suspected analogous pair man and man, does not occur i n Fada d i a l e c t , but i n eastern, and should i n any case be transcribed man and ma'n.  There remains the  possibility that further evidence w i l l come to l i g h t concerning these mordremes and therefore concerning the status of [ a ] .  As n e i t h e r [r>] nor [ a ]  ever occur i n these environments,  [a]  makes  no c o n t r a s t w i t h them. The v a r i a n t [TO] o c c u r s b e f o r e an i m p l o s i v e [ g ] , after  the o n - g l i d e s  [o]  and [ u ]  .  The v a r i a n t [ a ]  after  [w] and  occurs i n a l l  vironments o t h e r than those mentioned f o r [ a ] a n d [r>].  So the  en-  three  v a r i a n t s are i n complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n , members of a phoneme / a / . But the s h o r t phoneme / a / o c c u r s i n c o n t r a s t w i t h the l o n g vowel [ a * ]  as  (he i s  rinsing)  b'ca'ndx  (he i s  selling...by  The p o s i t i o n a l v a r i a n t of [ a ] , as the f o l l o w i n g minimal p a i r s  [n], is  measure)  also  i n c o n t r a s t w i t h [r>* ]  show:  wt)di  (he has t o r n o f f  OTTO dx  (he i s meat hungry)  ~  syllables  follows:  © 'candx  I "  i n stressed  a chicken  the ground - i s  leg)  (it  -  I "• " .WD gX  (it  - i.e.,  wali  (he has  bathed)  wa l x  (he has  caressed)  wadx  (he has  decreased)  wa dx  ( i t - the w a t e r - h o l e --has d r i e d up)  So t h e r e i s  i.e.,  (i.e.  the r a i n - i s  a phoneme / a / whose members are [ a ]  and a phoneme / a ' / whose members a r e [ a * ] The phoneme lol phonemic s i g n i f i c a n c e  dry)  l o n g i n coming)  , [a]  , and [t>];  and [r>*].  has no r e c o r d e d v a r i a n t i n the l e x i c a l d a t a . o f the lengthened vowel Io'I  f o l l o w i n g morphophonemic phenomenon:  .  is  shown by the  The  36  b'cuo  (he has grasped i t )  6 cuo'mui)  (he has grasped i t and i s screaming)  I f a v e r b w i t h f i n a l [-o] i s f o l l o w e d i m m e d i a t e l y by a n o t h e r verb h a v i n g the same s u b j e c t , t h e f i n a l *[-o ] - — ? • [ - o ' • ].  So t h e l e n g t h e n e d vowel  [ o ' ] i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e phoneme /o/ and must be r e garded as a phoneme  lo'I.  The phoneme /u/ and t h e phoneme In'/  have no r e c o r d e d v a r i a n t s .  That t h e s e two a r e i n c o n t r a s t i s shown by t h e f o l l o w i n g m i n i m a l p a i r s : b'budf  (he i s s c r a t c h i n g a s h a l l o w h o l e )  b'bu'di  (he i s c r y i n g )  b 'luni  (he has woven)  b'lu'ni  (he has drawn - i . e . ,  water)  That t h e vowels / a / , / e / , / i / , /o/ and /u/ a r e i n c o n t r a s t w i t h each o t h e r i s shown by t h e f o l l o w i n g m i n i m a l - o r near m i n i m a l - p a i r s . /badi/  ( t o s e p a r a t e one from  /padi/  (to t a t t o o )  /bed!/  ( t o sneer a t )  /pedi/  ( t o chop down)  /bidi/  (to stammer)  Ip'idll  (to sweep)  /bodi/  (to p e r i s h )  /podi/  (to grow o l d )  /bud!/  (to unearth)  /pudi/  (to s p r o u t )  the vowels / a " / , le'l,  If "/,  group)  lo'/  and In'1 are i n c o n t r a s t c a n -  not be shown by m i n i m a l p a i r s i n l e x i c a l i t e m s due t o t h e l i m i t e d o c c u r r e n c e of lo I and /e / i n i s o l a t e d words.  However, t h e f o l l o w i n g examples  37  show a M  t h e l o n g vowels i n c o n t r a s t : b'pa'di b'pedi  (he has conquered) (he has chopped) vs_ cfke''di  (he has c l u c k e d i n h i s t h r o a t i . e . as a gecko)  b'pi'di  (he has exhumed)  b'pu'di  ( i t , i . e . , t h e t r e e , has b u r s t i n t o f l o w e r )  li'tu'li  (the termites)  liWa'li  ( t h e d e s i r e f o r meat)  ldba'lT  (the r i c h e s )  lfcio'li  (the conversation)  The examples show t h a t t h e l e n g t h e n e d vowels a r e i n s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r a s t w i t h each o t h e r as w e l l as w i t h t h e s h o r t vowels and must be r e g a r d e d as t h e phonemes /aa / , /e e/, / i i / , /oo/, and /uu/.  Nasalization  >  A l l vowels may o c c u r w i t h n a s a l i z a t i o n r e s u l t i n g  from t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a p r e c e d i n g o r f o l l o w i n g consonant. d i c t a b l e and makes no c o n t r a s t s . consonant a r e c o m p l e t e l y  This i s pre-  Both t h e n a s a l and t h e f o l l o w i n g  articulated.  6'bandi  (he has learned)  6'bsnx  (he's mature)  b'bindi  (he has spent a y e a r )  IL'bonla  (the thing)  b'bundi  (he has e x p l a i n e d )  38  The Gurma Consonant Phonemes The phoneme /p/ i s shown t o be i n c o n t r a s t i n m i n i m a l o r n e a r m i n i m a l p a i r s w i t h phonemes / b / ,  Ibl  Im/  /kp/  /m/ and /l£p/.  b'pabxdx  (he i s boxing t h e e a r s o f )  b 'babidx  (he i s t a k i n g from t h e mouth o f )  b 'pjibxdi  (he has r e c o v e r e d from a f a i n t )  o mabxdx  (he has drawn out i . e . , as from under arm, from a f i l e , e t c . )  o pagx  (she has cooked i . e . , g r u e l )  \ La*. /  I  o kpagx  (he has tapped i . e . , a n a i l , t h e door)  The phoneme / b / has been shown t o be i n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e phoneme /p/, and i s shown by m i n i m a l p a i r s t o be i n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e phonemes /m/,  /w/, and /gb/. /m/  b 'babjLdi  (he has removed from t h e mouth o f )  b'mabxdi  (he has drawn o u t - i . e . , as from under arm e t c . )  /w/  /g"b/  b'ba'di  (he has s c r a p e d a l l o u t )  b'wa'di  (he has become meat hungry)  b ^babidi  (he has removed from t h e mouth o f )  b 'gbabxdx  (he has u n r o l l e d )  The phoneme It I i s shown by t h e f o l l o w i n g m i n i m a l o r near m i n i m a l p a i r s t o be i n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e phonemes / d / , and / c / .  Id/  b 'tagx  (he has f o l l o w e d )  b 'dagx  (he has hobbled)  39  /c/  The  b 'teli  (he has propped up)  b'celi  (he f i l e s - i . e . , t e e t h )  phoneme /d/ has two v a r i a n t s , [ d ] and  [ d ] . The v a r i a n t  o c c u r s o n l y m e d i a l l y , i n t e r v o c a l i c a l l y , b e f o r e an  unstressed  [d]  medial  / i / as i n t h e f o l l o w i n g words:  The  gifidiga  (the lamp)  gi'tadiga  (the  dish)  v a r i a n t [ d ] o c c u r s i n a l l o t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t s , so [ d ] and [ j i ]  a r e n o t i n o p p o s i t i o n b u t i n complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n , members o f the phoneme /d/. The  phoneme /d/ has been shown t o be i n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e phoneme  / t / , and i s now shown by t h e f o l l o w i n g m i n i m a l o r n e a r - m i n i m a l p a i r s t o be i n c o n t r a s t w i t h the phoneme /j/  The  Itl,  /j/  b 'dad!  (he has l e d )  b 'jadl  (he has d e t o u r e d )  phoneme / c / has been shown t o be i n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e phoneme  i t i s f u r t h e r shown by t h e f o l l o w i n g m i n i m a l p a i r s t o be i n c o n t r a s t  w i t h t h e phonemes / j / ,  /k/, /y/ and / s / .  b 'candi  (he has o f f e r e d h o s p i t a l i t y )  b 'jandi  (he has b u s t l e d  /k/  b 'ca'di  (he has s u r p a s s e d )  lyl  b'ka'di I b candi  (he has asked f o r b l e s s i n g a t t h e time of s a c r i f i c e ) (he has o f f e r e d h o s p i t a l i t y )  b'yandi  ( he has t u r n e d f a c e up - i . e . a book)  /j/  about)  40  Is/  b ca'dx  (he has surpassed)  b 'sa'di  (he has drawn a noose tight)  The phoneme / j / has been shown to be i n contrast with phonemes /d/ and /c/, and i s now shown by the following minimal or. near minimal pairs to be i n contrast with the phoneme /g/. /§/  b\jadi  (he i s detouring)  b 'gadx  (he i s tying with withes)  The phoneme /g/ has two variants, [ g ] , and [g].  The variant [ g ]  occurs only medially i n the environment of a preceding short vowel and a following non-final, unstressed  short vowel i n such words as:  li'dagidi  ( i t i s sufficient)  minoagima  (the ring)  The variant [ g ] occurs i n a l l other environments.  The two variants  [g] and [ g ] are never i n opposition but are complementary, members of the phoneme /g/. The phoneme /g/ has been shown to be i n contrast with the phoneme / j / and i s now shown by the following minimal or near minimal pairs to be i n contrast with the phonemes /k/, /gb/, and /g/. /k/  b gabx kabx  /gb/ b gabx gbabx /n/  (he has seized i n f l i g h t ) (he has beckoned) (he has seized i n f l i g h t ) (he has r o l l e d up)  b gabx  (he has seized i n f l i g h t )  b gabx  ( i t , i . e . , the b i g house, i s f i l l e d to over flowing so people are pressed against each other)  41  The phoneme / h / i s shown to be i n c o n t r a s t at Fada""" i n minimal or near minimal p a i r s w i t h the phoneme / n / . /n/  Vjali  (to  sew)  Hialx  (until)  The o c c u r r e n c e of the g l o t t a l I n the Fada d i a l e c t  it  stop [-2.] i s m a r g i n a l and p r e d i c t a b l e .  o c c u r s i n such words as ok"pa3ku (the box) ,  opo2ku (the o v e r l a p ) , *gui-ti (to overthrow)  and ^baa2ti* (to  grope)  The p l u r a l s of the two nouns c i t e d above have no unusual phonol o g i c a l features  and g i v e a c l u e to the use of the g l o t t a l  w i t h the unusual o c c u r r e n c e o f /-k/ and l-x.I i n i t i a l syllable.  stop a l o n g  i n an u n s t r e s s e d  A comparison w i t h o t h e r nouns forming t h e i r p l u r a l s  t i - d i shows t h a t t h e i r  s i n g u l a r s r e g u l a r l y have the a f f i x e s o-gu w i t h  the base a p p e a r i n g i n the p l u r a l j u s t tiboadi  in  (the arms)  as i n the s i n g u l a r ,  oboagu  (the  e.g.,  arm)  By analogy one might e x p e c t : tilfpagidi  (the boxes)  *ok"pagigu  tiVogidi  (the o v e r l a p s )  *opogigu  In the northern d i a l e c t i n i t i a l position 'hali  (the (the  box) overlap)  t h e phoneme / r j / i s n o t used i n word o r s y l l a b l e  b e i n g r e p l a c e d by /h/ pronounced w i t h s t r o n g (until)  b'fiali  (he sews)  o'-Ra'nu  ( t h e broom)  nasalization,  42  But  it  appears  reduced  that  perhaps  -gigu — ?  as  the  unstressed  vowel sequence  of  i n gu2ti  * - g i k u —5  *-gku — ? *-kku  (to overthrow)  the verb b a a l i  seem t h a t  (to  grope)  occurred perhaps  as  -lidi  —9  *-liti  While  this  reduction is  [-gu]  and [ - d i ]  deleted this  —?> * t t i  common a t  reject  it,  endings.  i n other  The  imperfective It  would  environment of  unstressed  vowel  prehas  occurrence of the  consonant  J>2ti. Fada i t  The short i n Fada  g l o t t a l stop In the  i t precedes,  is not universal,  r e t a i n i n g the medial short  environments  c o n s i d e r e d a phoneme.  by w h a t e v e r /-tti/.  grope).  i n Eastern dialect is baalldi..  ? *lti  regular  [_Z]is not  (to  glottal  follows:  dialect speakers  As  and b a a Z t i  the occurrence of the  vowel and a following  eastern  not  for  ? 2ku.  i n Fada d i a l e c t devoicing of / d / i n the  ceding / l / + unstressed  is  been  follows:  A similar explanation is offered stop  - g i g u has  vowel and  vowel  dialect. i s m a r g i n a l and  orthography  e.g.,  This orthography has been w e l l  interconsonantal  and  it  is  [iku]—>> / k k u / , accepted  predictable, represented  [-.ti]  by newly  —^  literate  adults. The  phoneme  occurs before ments.  in  two v a r i a n t s ,  [m] and [m].  and / w / ; the v a r i a n t  These variants  distribution, If  /f/  /m/ has  members  are not of the  a nasal occurs before  [m] occurs i n a l l other  i n opposition, but  phoneme  The v a r i a n t  in  [n}]  environ-  complementary  /m/.  / m / , f o r instance when a verb w i t h a  the base i s nominalized by the mi-ma noun class  affixes,  e.g.,  nasal  43  ^gbeni ( t o f i n i s h ) the I-n-l  mi+gben+ma  (the f i n i s h i n g )  o f t h e v e r b base a s s i m i l a t e s t o t h e /-m-/  a geminate /-m-/  results:  mxgbemma  (the completion)  I n ideophones e.g., bimm  o f t h e s u f f i x and  (see below, Appendix 1)  /mm/  i s found word  final,  ( v e r y , used w i t h d a r k ) .  The phoneme /m/ has been shown t o be i n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e phonemes /n/ and Ibl  and i s shown by t h e f o l l o w i n g m i n i m a l p a i r s t o be i n con-  t r a s t w i t h /^m/, /fjm/  /w/  /n/  /w/ and /n/.  b 'rnabi  (he has sucked n o i s i l y , i . e . , as g r a v y from his finger)  b 'rjmabi.'.  (he has c a r r i e d i n h i s arms)  b*mabx  (he has n o i s i l y s u c k e d , i . e . , as g r a v y from his fingers)  b'wabx  (he cannot w a l k , i . e . , h i s c r i p p l i n g i s so severe)  bVandx  (he i s p e r s p i r i n g )  b 'nandf  (he i s coming t o resemble)  The phoneme In/  has been shown t o be i n c o n t r a s t w i t h /ml and i s now  shown t o be i n c o n t r a s t i n m i n i m a l o r n e a r - m i n i m a l p a i r s w i t h / j i / and /ji/  In/  b'na'gx  (he i s h e a p i n g up)  b'jia'gx  (he i s a p p l y i n g h e a t a l l around)  b^na'gx  (he has p i l e d up)  bSja'gx  (he has f e i n t e d )  The phoneme [ j i ] has been shown t o be i n c o n t r a s t w i t h / n / , and i s now shown t o be i n c o n t r a s t i n m i n i m a l o r near m i n i m a l p a i r s w i t h and  /yl.  In/  In/.  44  /n/  lyl  b *na*gi  (he i s  b *na°g£  (he has  b |na"di  (it,  b V * di  (be has  a  a p p l y i n g heat a l l around) feinted)  i.e.,  the compound, has burned f u r i o u s l y )  chased)  The phoneme /rjm/ has been shown to be i n c o n t r a s t w i t h the phoneme / m / and i s now shown to be i n c o n t r a s t i n m i n i m a l p a i r s w i t h  the  phoneme / n / . /n/  b 'ijmabi  (he has c a r r i e d i n h i s  o rjabi  (it, i . e . , the house, has been t i g h t l y packed, i . e . , as w i t h people)  The phoneme / f / /p/,  and  lb/.  /p/  b \abi.  is  shown to be i n c o n t r a s t i n minimal, p a i r s w i t h  (he has b r u s h e d / s c o o p e d up a l i t t l e , dirt,  /b/  (he has f l a t t e n e d . . . o u t )  b 'fabi  (he has whipped,  b ^babi  i.e.  w i t h a bunch of  twigs)  (he has put i n h i s own mouth)  The phoneme 1st i s the phoneme  shown to be i n c o n t r a s t i n minimal p a i r s w i t h  /f/.  bW d i  (he has become  b ^fa'di  (he has  itchy)  thanked)  The phoneme /w/ has been shown to be i n c o n t r a s t w i t h the /b/  and / m / .  i.e.,  water)  b 'pabx  fine  /f/  arms)  It  is  of course i n c o n t r a s t w i t h a l l l a b i a l i z e d  as the f o l l o w i n g minimal p a i r s b ^wadi  show:  (he has  lessened)  phonemes consonants  b V  o a (  (he has c r o s s e d / c u t  ii  b puadx  (she has hatched)  b 'noadi  (he has  b 'nuadl  (he has l e f t  across)  followed) off  following)  The phoneme: . / y / has been shown to be i n c o n t r a s t w i t h / n / .  It  would perhaps be u s e f u l to show i t i n c o n t r a s t w i t h the s i m p l e and p a l a t a l i z e d forms of / n / and / n / as  follows:  b ya  (it  - i.e.,  the door - i s  ajar)  b yia  (he's  b na  (he has heaped up)  b nia  (he has d i s p u t e d )  b jia  (he has a p p l i e d heat a l l around)  b Jniadi  (he has b a r e l y touched)  ill)  C o n s t r a i n t s on the Occurence of the Phonemes. a)  A l l consonants may occur i n i t i a l l y , p r e v o c a l i c a l l y : baa  (to o b t a i n )  la  ca "  (to choose)  maa  daa  (to buy)  na  fa  (to wash ones f a c e ) j i a  (to be going out)  gaa  (to t a k e ,  na  (to abandon)'  ijma  (to trample)  /  i.e. ,  from the hand of) I h a l l ,miri 'cua (so long) jia ka g"bie  (cut  pa  (to be s i t t i n g ) (to f i l l  it)  (to  laugh)  (to b u i l d i n mud) (to p i l e up)  (to be s t r o n g )  sa  (to be i n s i p i d )  ta  (to be i n agreement)  wa  (to be s m a l l )  kpa b) this  (to k i l l  A l l consonants  it)  ya  except / h / may occur i n t e r v o c a l i c a l l y i f  p o s i t i o n they are i n i t i a l o\>ado  (the  6-c, aano  i n the s t r e s s e d  (the g u i n e a worm)  (the s t r a n g e r )  onaanu  (the broom)  ojidagu  (the  oijmaamo  (the monkey)  oganu  (the  louse)  opiemu  (the  h\.ti. oj xxnu  (the  root)  osanu  (the path)'  4,aanu  (the  place)  otibu  (the  tree)  /!,-->/ t (the stream)  owomo  (the  deaf  A -  (the necklace}  oyombo  (the  slave)  (the new mother)  ogbaado  ,  A l l consonants  (the  except / h / may occur a f t e r  arrows)  person)  leper)  a homorganic n a s a l  s y l l a b i c and has a tone:  — _ > / —  m+ba+gedi  (I s h a l l  n-t-den+gedi  (I went)  gHtan+gedi  (I s h a l l not  i  and I t l  gris)  (the kapok)  omado  d)  gris  ofuobu  okpenu  which i s  syllable:  onanlo  (the p i e c e of wood)  olaanu  in  chief)  6 I, 'daagu  c)  (to be open)  Only the consonants  go)  go)  /b/, /d/, /g/,  / l / , /m/, /h/ —  i n the s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s e x p l a i n e d above,  may o c c u r i n i t i a l l y i n an u n s t r e s s e d these consonants an u n s t r e s s e d  and / k /  pp. 41 - 4 2 —  syllable intervocalically.  Of  o n l y Ibl, Id/, Igl, III, and /ml may occur i n i t i a l l y  s y l l a b l e between a n a s a l and a vowel:  47  Cn C V  ' C V b tibu  (the  tree)  b'sambu  (the shea  o'bado  (the  chief)  A , xsaandi  (the shea t r e e s )  6'daagu (the p i e c e o f wood)  ogbangu  (the h i d e )  (the neck)  iij enli  (the egg)  muyiemmu  (the c a l a b a s h e s )  1  6 tiiu 1  mi'tama (the /  -1  soil)  tree)  (the b l a c k s m i t h )  o maano  ok~bakku (the box) (to be t i d y i n g )  batti e)  n a s a l s may o c c u r f i n a l l y  following i n i t i a l syllabic,  consonant.  any consonant except  is syllabic final may f o l l o w i t ;  As s t a t e d above i n c) i f the n a s a l / h / may f o l l o w i t .  f)  Also,  if  is  the n a s a l  i n the f i r s t base o f a compound noun, any consonant  the n a s a l w i l l a s s i m i l a t e t o the f o l l o w i n g consonant.  The most common example o f t h i s i s libonla  o n l y when they are homorganic w i t h a  i n compounds made w i t h the noun  (the t h i n g ) and v e r b b a s e s : libonla.  (the t h i n g + b i a (to be bad)—~> l i b o m b i a d i l a  libonla  (the t h i n g + n a n i  (to be n i c e )  — f libonnanla  Only homorganic n a s a l s o c c u r word f i n a l  where / p / , Is/,  except  (the bad t h i n g ) (the n i c e  i n ideophones  and /mm/ have been r e c o r d e d i n word f i n a l p o s i t i o n ,  below Appendix 1): ban  ( t h a t they)  paldap  (wham)  wan  ( t h a t he)  limm  (very, w i t h dark)  min  ( t h a t I)  fas  (completely)  (see  thing)  48  g)  Two / m / phonemes, i.  /-mm-/,  occur:  when a verb whose base contains  a nasal  is  used as  a  gerund,  e.g., Hsanl  (to know) — f mibamma (the  ^gbeni i i .  final  (to  finish)  —^  i n ideophones,  knowledge)  m^|bemma  see  f)  (the  end)  above.  Two / n / phonemes o c c u r w h e n any w o r d t e r m i n a t i n g is  followed by / n / ,  in a vowel  e.g.,  /6'dogu/  (the  /b'banl/  (he knows) + / n i /  town) + / n i /  (in)  6'dogunni  —>  (me)—^ b'baninni  ( i n the  town)  (he knows  me)  C o n s t r a i n t s on Gurma Vowels. a) without  The f i v e vowels, / i / , the  b)  the  isolation  c) f inal,  feature of  as  /e/,  /a/,  lol,  / u / may o c c u r w i t h  length.  vowels /a/,  /a/,  / b / , may o c c u r as  complete morphemes  in  follows:  /a/  (you,  la/  (they,  /bI  (he/she, third person singular pronoun, . f o r o .T" o a n d o - u c l a s s n o u n s )  /aa'/  (you, with  /aa/  (they,  2nd p e r s o n s i n g u l a r pronoun)...  __  3rd person p l u r a l pronoun for.a  2nd person /qaa/)  singular negative  3rd person p l u r a l negative  A l l vowels without e.g.,  or  the  feature  of  .-  a class  it,  i n free  for a -  nouns).  pronoun  variation  a class  l e n g t h may o c c u r m e d i a l  nouns) and  49  final  medial IV  /pldl/  (to  d i g out)  lei  /pedl/  (to  miss)  /a/  /padi/  (to  tear)  lol  /podi/  (to grow o l d )  obado  (the  chief)  In/  /pudi/  (to  osanu  (the  path  d)  ldx ii -  me  (the  g u i n e a corn)  (the  cows)  a p a l a (the  sprout)  Only t h e vowels l±l,  I a-1, and lol  granaries)  may o c c u r word  initial.  In t h i s case they a r e s y l l a b l e s i n themselves and morphemes, e.g.,  e)  itaamf  (the horses)  atana  (the stones)  obado  (the chief)  A l l vowels w i t h t h e f e a t u r e o f l e n g t h may o c c u r m e d i a l b u t  never i n i t i a l .  I n m e d i a l p o s i t i o n the vowels / i i / ,  f r e q u e n t l y , t h e vowels /eel  /aa/ and /uu/ o c c u r  and /oo/ v e r y r a r e l y , e.g.,  piidl  ( t o d i g up)  k^edi  ( t o c l u c k i n t h r o a t , a s a gecko)  paadi  (to separate)  libooli  (the conversation)  puudi  ( t o s p r a y water from one's mouth)  A l l vowels may o c c u r w i t h i n u t t e r a n c e s w i t h t h e f e a t u r e o f l e n g t h i n morphophonemic phenomena. f)  T h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 4 , p. 115.  A l l vowels w i t h o u t t h e f e a t u r e o f l e n g t h o c c u r b e f o r e a n a s a l : /bindi/  ( t o spend a y e a r )  /libendili/  ( t h e drum)  /bandi/  ( t o know)  50  g)  /bbngi/  ( t o be damp)  /bungi/  (to  recall)  Among t h e vowels w i t h t h e f e a t u r e o f l e n g t h o n l y / i i / , /aa/.  /uu/ and /ee/ o c c u r i n t h e environment o f a n a s a l i n t h e d a t a , e.g.,  h)  /mibxima/  (the m i l k )  /mibaama/  (the f a l l )  /buuni/  (to s p r i n k l e )  /fjmde n cua/  (who has come?)  The s i x r i s i n g  d i p h t h o n g s , / i a / , / i e / , /oe/, /oa/, /ua/ and  /uo/, o c c u r word m e d i a l and f i n a l . final  medial libiali  (the b r a c e l e t )  b.ia  (he i s e v i l )  mijiema  (the food)  jie  (he i s a f r a i d )  liboelT  (the c h a t )  bi'boe  misoama  (the b l o o d )  soa  (he's a w i t c h )  obuaggu  (the  water-hole)  sua  (he has t h r e s h e d , i . e . , i n a mortar)  oduolo  (the  pig)  suo  (he has s c o r c h e d . . . i . e . the r o a s t i n g peanuts)  i)  (they a r e c h a t t i n g )  There i s a f a l l i n g d i p h t h o n g w h i c h o c c u r s o n l y i n t h e c l a s s  of words known as ideophones / a i / , e.g., cairj  ( c o m p l e t e l y , w i t h many v e r b s )  fai fai  ( c o m p l e t e l y , i . e . , wash d i r t o u t c o m p l e t e l y )  pai  ( c l e a r l y , i . e . , t e l l him c l e a r l y / v e r y , w i t h w h i t e )  pai  One o t h e r f a l l i n g diphthong has been r e c o r d e d , b u t o n l y i n two e x p r e s s i o n s , (see below, Appendix 1) :  51  [ap, ] i n [ caoij ] (very, used with  to be red)  The Gurma Tone Phonemes The four l e v e l Gurma tones are shown i n the following words or forms: 1.  t i fa  (we have washed our faces)  2.  t i fa  (we have taken up with our hands)  3.  6  4.  b  fa  (he has taken up with h i s hands)  f a b'i?  (has he washed his face?)  In no. 1. [ f a ] i s higher than [ t i ] . [ti].  In No. 2. [ f a ] i s lower than  In no. 3. [ b ] and [ f a ] are on the same low tone, and this w i l l  be considered low [ ]. v  As [ t i ] i s always higher than t h i s tone, and  lower than the tone of [ f a ] i n No. 1, i t w i l l be considered to have a mid tone [-].  In No. 1 [ f a ] which i s higher than [ t i ] w i l l be considered  to have a high tone ['].  In No. 4 [ b i ] i s appreciably higher than [ f a ]  and t h i s tone,[*] , w i l l be considered very high. The four tones may also be observed i n the following examples: 1.  b p i a apala  (he has granaries)  2.  apala  (the hearts)  3.  apala  (the granaries)  4.  lipali  (the  5.  lipali  (the heart)  granary)  In No. 1 [ b ] i s again on a low tone i n r e l a t i o n to the remaining tones, which are l e v e l and on the same pitch.  In No. 2 [a-] i s on a  higher tone than the remaining tones, or than any tone of N. 3.  So the  ['] on [ a - ] of No. 2 may be regarded as a high tone; the remaining tone  52  [-],  of [ - p a l a ] i n No. 2,  a mid tone; [  li-]  and of [ a p a l a ] i n No. 3 may be r e g a r d e d as  and the tone [  x  ]on [ b ] of No. 1 as a low tone.  of No. 5 has a much h i g h e r tone than the f i r s t  [li-]  The f i r s t of No. 4  w h i l e the r e m a i n i n g tones of these two words a r e on the same l e v e l . But No. 4 [ l i p a l i ] i s on [ l i - ]  i n No. 5 i s  i d e n t i c a l i n tones w i t h No. 2 [ a p a l a ] , i n c o n t r a s t w i t h the h i g h tone [ ' ]and i s  so the  tone  a very  h i g h tone [ * ]. The r i s i n g g l i d e  is  b ba"  (he has  fallen)  o da  (he has  bought)  The f a l l i n g g l i d e i s  (the  goat)  tidu'di  (the  pods)  og"bangu  (the  hide)  b ca  (he has  b cua  (he has come) i.e.,  or a n a s a l o f f - g l i d e ,  if  f o l l o w e d by a s y l l a b l e w i t h a lower t o n e ,  f a l l i n g g l i d e on l o n g s y l l a b l e s two s y l l a b l e s  chosen)  a s y l l a b l e w i t h a double vowel or an o n - g l i d e  sentence f i n a l w i t h low t o n e ,  If  forms:  shown by the f o l l o w i n g nouns and forms:  onuabo  Any l o n g s y l l a b l e ,  if  shown by the f o l l o w i n g  w i l l have a f a l l i n g g l i d e .  w i t h low tone occur s u c c e s s i v e l y sentence f i n a l l y ,  b boani  (it,  b gbengi  (he i s  occurrence i s  not be w r i t t e n .  So the  i s p r e d i c t a b l e and need not be w r i t t e n .  the second low tone w i l l be lower than the f i r s t ,  As i t s  or  i.e.,  the t o g a ,  is  e.g., black)  fat)  r e g u l a r and p r e d i c t a b l e , v e r y low tone need  53  The Morphology of Gurma nouns  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Gurma nouns A l l Gurma nouns except a small sub-set, the 1st and 2nd person pronouns, may be i d e n t i f i e d by their occurrence i n the noun class system. There are nine paired classes.  Classes 1 to 7 have double pairs of  a f f i x e s ; prefixes and s u f f i x e s are paired i n the singular plural.  and i n the  Each of these pairs i s phonologically i d e n t i c a l or s i m i l a r .  The singular a f f i x e s are paired with p l u r a l a f f i x e s .  Class 8, a mass  class i n which singular and p l u r a l are not distinguished, has just one pair of a f f i x e s .  Class 9, which includes a small group of bound k i n  terms, i s also the class i n which foreign loan words and onomatopoeic words occur.  Class 9 i s regarded as having zero morphemes i n the  singular p r e f i x and s u f f i x and the p l u r a l p r e f i x . co-occur with tonal patterns.  The class affixes  The choice of these tonal patterns i s  to some extent conditioned by the tone of the stem, so i s not completely arbitrary. Other i d e n t i f y i n g c r i t e r i a for nouns are: a)  occurrence with a possessive preceding  the noun base and i t s  s u f f i x , replacing the class p r e f i x . b)  occurrence i n the form noun base + s u f f i x or possessive + noun  base + s u f f i x as S i n an S V 0  sequence.  This l a s t d e f i n i t i o n w i l l  The noun class system i s generally referred to i n Bantu languages as the gender system. references.  There i s no c o r r e l a t i o n of the genders with sex  54  accomodate markers  any noun,  i n the  The  even the  singular but  class  9 nouns w h i c h have  occur with possessive  morphology of Gurma nouns w i l l  zero  gender  prefixes.  be t a k e n up u n d e r  the  following  headings: a)  the  gender  classes  b)  the  classes w i t h the  c)  the  classes w i t h the r e l a t i v e  morpheme,  d)  the  classes w i t h the negative  morpheme.  The  concurrent  The  Gender C l a s s e s and t h e i r The  and t h e i r  pronouns w i l l  class affixes are  as  tonal  subdivisions,  possessive,  be discussed after  the  Tonal Subdivisions. follows:  Singular Class  Plural  Prefix  Suffix  o-  -o,-0  1  nouns.  Prefix bi-  0  Suffix -ba  a-  -a  l -  -i,-e  2  o-  -o,  3  o-  -u  l -  - i  4  o—bu-  -bu  l -  -di  5  o—gu  -gu  ti-  -di  6  l i -  - l i , - l a  7  gi-  -ga  8  mi  -ma  9  0-  -0  amu-  -mu  (non-count) -mba  55  The noun t o n a l p a t t e r n s . l a b e l l e d f o r convenience  There are e i g h t  from A to H .  common noun t o n a l  Only t h r e e t o n e s , v e r y h i g h / * / ,  h i g h / ' / and mid / - / o c c u r w i t h the s i m p l e nouns. o c c u r s on the b a s e , /  A B C  /  /1  D E  /  /  F  / /  /  G H  //  (the  chief)  onilo  (the  person)  oiiubu  (the shea  otaamo  (the  horse)  oduanu  (the  bed)  obenu  (the branch)  a  — —  II  a  (the  osanu —  tree)  path)  The c l a s s 1 o - o, b i - ba nouns have the  semantic f e a t u r e + human.  U n l i k e some nouns of o t h e r c l a s s e s , p a t t e r n s i n s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l as  lb  lc  feature,  c l a s s 1 nouns have the same tone follows:  bibadiba  (the  okpelo  bikpeliba  (the o l d e r s i b  /  -  -  /  -  chief -  s) -s)  omaano  bimaaba  (the b l a c k s m i t h  onilo  biniba  (the p e r s o n -  i - omado  bimadiba  (the new mother  owabo  biwaba  (the c r i p p l e  ocuado  bicuadiba  (the i n - l a w  oyiado  bxyiadiba  (the m a t e r n a l u n c l e s  opua  bxpuoba  set  (see below p p . £ 6 1 and 64).' ,  obado  -  distinctive  Nouns r e f e r r i n g to humans o c c u r i n t h i s  u n l e s s they have s i z e as a d i s t i n c t i v e  la  which always  (the broom)  onaanu  C l a s s 1 nouns.  Stress,  i s not marked.  obado  I/O  patterns,  -s)  s) -s)  -s) -s)  (the woman -women)  -s)  56  Id  oja  bijaba  ( t h e man -men)  T h i s l a s t noun, o j a ( t h e man), and t h e l a s t noun c i t e d i n l c , 6*pua* ( t h e woman), have a z e r o s u f f i x i n t h e s i n g u l a r , b u t have r e g u l a r affixes i n the p l u r a l . Many nouns i n c l a s s 1 a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g v e r b s as p e r f o r m e r , e.g., ocuado ( t h e i n - l a w ) i n l c above i s one who has s u c c e s s f u l l y courted 6  a girl; ' cuad  compare: 6  (he has c o u r t e d  her with  gifts)  C l a s s 1 nouns have a l t e r n a t e p l u r a l a f f i x e s a - a w h i c h may somet i m e s be used i n s t e a d o f t h e b i -ba a f f i x e s i f a g e n e r a l  or professional  group r a t h e r t h a n a s p e c i f i c group o r s e v e r a l s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l s i s designated: dyidda  ( m a t e r n a l u n c l e s , as a c l a s s )  biyiadiba  (the maternal u n c l e s , p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, awaited, e t c . )  Some c l a s s 1 nouns a r e h e a r d i n t h e p l u r a l w i t h t h e a - a a f f i x e s . These a r e o f t e n nouns t h a t r e f e r t o u n f o r t u n a t e s : owabo  awaba  (the c r i p p l e -s)  oyiamo  ayiama  (the s i c k person -s)  og~baad6*  agbaada  (the leper -s)  A v e r y few nouns w i t h t h e f e a t u r e +human n o t b e l o n g i n g t o c l a s s 1 but t o c l a s s 2 have been r e c o r d e d , e.g., o'yo'mbo'  lyo'mbx  (slave -s)  B o t h t h e p a i r e d a f f i x e s and t h e t o n a l p a t t e r n o f t h i s noun i n d i c a t e c l a s s 2 r a t h e r t h a n c l a s s 1.  57  C l a s s 2 nouns.  The c l a s s 2 o - o, i - i nouns have t h e d i s t i n c t i v e  s e m a n t i c f e a t u r e s +animate"'", -human.  A few c l a s s 2 nouns have a zero  s u f f i x i n t h e s i n g u l a r , and t h e s u f f i x ^ e , r a t h e r t h a n ^ i , i n t h e p l u r a l . They have been t r e a t e d as a s u b - c l a s s of c l a s s 2 r a t h e r t h a n a s e p a r a t e c l a s s because t h e y have t h e d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s +animate, -human, and o c c u r w i t h t h e same t o n a l p a t t e r n s Class  as c l a s s 2 nouns.  2 nouns, u n l i k e c l a s s 1 nouns, g e n e r a l l y have a p l u r a l  p a t t e r n d i f f e r i n g from t h e s i n g u l a r . remains c o n s t a n t ? i n  s i n g u l a r , and  tonal  Only one p a t t e r n was o b s e r v e d w h i c h  plural.  The s u b s e t s o f c l a s s 2 nouns  a r e as f o l l o w s : 2a  2b  2c  2d  onuabo  inuabi  (the goat - s )  6lu6mo  ilu6mi  (the e l e p h a n t - s )  6kaabo  ikiabi  obo&do  iboidi  (the p y t h o n . - s )  onanlo  inanli  ( t h e g u i n e a worm - s )  oliibo  illibl  (the hippopotamus - e s )  otaamo  xtaami  (the h o r s e - s )  otjumbo  inumbi  (the donkey - s )  oduolo  iduoli  (the p i g - s )  6bo4diloa  Ibd'adiloe  (the earthworm - s )  6pia  Ipe  (the sheep)  6yua  lyoe  (the i g u a n a t h a t the w a t e r )  L  (the b i g b i r d - s )  enters  Some common nouns o c c u r i n t h i s c l a s s w h i c h o u t l a n d e r s would n o t c o n s i d e r animate, e.g., onmaalo  ( t h e moon).  58  C l a s s 3 nouns. -animate. class.  The c l a s s 3 o - u, i - i nouns have t h e f e a t u r e  No o t h e r semantic f e a t u r e appears t o be s h a r e d by the whole  S e v e r a l nouns s h a r e t h e f e a t u r e s + l o n g , + s l e n d e r ,  e.g.,  osanu  ( t h e road)  opiemu  ( t h e arrow)  bbenu  ( t h e branch)  ojiinu  (the root)  dbaabu  ( t h e rope)  ogaalu"'"  (the thread)  Other nouns have t h e f e a t u r e 4-place, e.g., dkaanu  (the place)  Nouns i n t h i s c l a s s may qualitatives,  odbgu  ( t h e town)  r e l a t e t o t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g v e r b s as  e.g.,  I i yabi  ( i t i s big)  6 fi d i  (he has been a b l e )  Nouns i n t h i s c l a s s may inanimate performer,  o'yabinu ofidu  (the s i z e ) (the s t r e n g t h )  a l s o r e l a t e t o t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g v e r b as  e.g.,  d pie;  (he has p i e r c e d )  opiemu  ( t h e arrow)  6 nambi  (he has c l e a n e d )  &n£anu  ( t h e broom)  Other s m a l l semantic groupings might be named, e.g., t h o s e s h a r i n g t h e f e a t u r e , +body p a r t , onu  e.g.,  ( t h e hand)  I n p l u r a l s t h e f e a t u r e +food may imaani  (the okra)  imuulf  (the r i c e )  oyaagu  ( t h e jaw)  o c c u r , e.g.,  C l a s s 3 nouns l i k e c l a s s 1 nouns, have t h e same t o n a l p a t t e r n s i n t h e s i n g u l a r and t h e p l u r a l as f o l l o w s : ''"Tonal d a t a l a c k i n g  59  3a  ojlxnu  ij iini  (the r o o t - s )  opiemu  *> // xpxemx  (the arrow - s )  * *  (the broom - s )  // /,  -  onaanu 3b  xnaanx  (the b r a n c h - e s )  xbenx  (the s t r e a m - s )  opoagu  xkpenx / / t xpoagx  (the g r i s g r i s )  osanu  isani  (the p a t h - s )  ocimu  icimi  (the dye p i t - s )  obabu  ibabi  (the  oduanu  iduanx  (the bed - s )  bbaabu  ibaabi  (the rope - s )  blaanu  ilaani  (the n e c k l a c e - s )  obenu okpenu  3c  3d  Class -animate. trees.  "  4 nouns.  *  _ —  forceps)  The c l a s s 4 o ^ b u - b u , i - d i nouns have t h e f e a t u r e  This c l a s s i s noteworthy f o r c o n t a i n i n g  t h e names o f most  Among t h e o t h e r s e m a n t i c g r o u p i n g s i n t h i s c l a s s a r e names o f  body p a r t s , e.g., olambu, ila'ndx ( t h e tongue - s ) . Many f r e q u e n t l y  o c c u r r i n g nouns have c l a s s 4 s i n g u l a r a f f i x e s p a i r e d  w i t h p l u r a l a f f i x e s o f a n o t h e r c l a s s , e.g., opoabu  c l a s s 4 (mouth)  anoana  c l a s s 6 (mouths)  bniimbu  c l a s s 4 (eye)  xnuni  c l a s s 3 (eyes)  Some nouns i n t h i s c l a s s have p l u r a l forms w h i c h d i f f e r from t h e regular  c l a s s p l u r a l , e.g.,  odibu  *ididx  xdx  (the g r a i n s t a l k -s)  Here, where t h e s u f f i x i s t h e same as t h e b a s e , one o f t h e r e d u p l i c a t e d s y l l a b l e s i s deleted;  i t i s a p p a r e n t l y t h e s u f f i x tone and n o t t h e base  60  tone which i s r e t a i n e d . Some f r e q u e n t l y  used nouns w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g v e r b s have s i n g u l a r  forms i n t h i s c l a s s but a r e never p l u r a l i z e d , the s i n g u l a r form b e i n g used w i t h s i n g u l a r o r p l u r a l meaning, e.g., omiabu  (request - s )  opaabu  ( g i f t -s)  otoabu  (war - s )  The  s i n g u l a r p r e f i x e s o- ~»bu-  b e i n g f a v o u r e d by d w e l l e r s village  appear to be i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n , o-  r i g h t i n t h e c a p i t a l , Fada N'Gurma, bu-  by  dwellers.  Only one s e t o f t o n a l p a t t e r n s  remains c o n s t a n t i n s i n g u l a r and  p l u r a l i n c l a s s 4 nouns, the r e s t change.  4a  4b  4c  Class  osaambu  isaandi  (the shea t r e e -s)  of uobii  ifuodi  (the w i l d kapok t r e e -s)  ogaabu  idaadi  (the w i l d s m a l l  odiibu  iduudi  (the l o c u s t bean t r e e - s )  og"be'mbu  igbendi  (the kapok t r e e -s)  olambu  ilandi  (the tongue -s)  otibu  itiidi  (the t r e e -s)  btuobu  ituodi  (the baobab - s )  ocabu  icabidi  (the w i l d c h e r r y  5 nouns.  f i g tree -s)  t r e e -s)  The c l a s s 5 o — ~ g u - gu, t i - d i nouns have a  v a r i e t y o f semantic g r o u p i n g s , e.g., + c o n t a i n e r , e.g., oduugu  ( l o c u s t bean pod)  otugu  (stomach)  otiagu  (dish)  bj ongu  (compound f o r s t r a n g e r s )  61  H-animate,  e.g.,  osayobigu"*" +body p a r t ,  (the bush  e.g.,  oboagu The  rat)  (the arm)  singular prefixes o-~gu-  f a v o u r e d by  ogbarjgu  appear to be  those l i v i n g i n the  (the  skin)  i n free variation;  c a p i t a l , Fada N'Gurma, gu-  by  is village  dwellers. There are a number of nouns i n t h i s c l a s s which are g e n e r a l l y i n the p l u r a l ,  e.g.,  tibiidi  (pus)  tifaadi  (leaves)  tikobidi  (feathers)  timoadi  (grass)  tinandi  (meat)  tiyudi  (hair)  While a s i n g u l a r g e n e r a l l y  e x i s t s , i t seldom  Nouns i n t h i s c l a s s may nouns may  and 5a  o r may  not  a l s o have the f e a t u r e +inanimate, (a b i g or s t r o n g  oyiegu  (a v e r y l a r g e  e.g.,  calabash) same tone p a t t e r n  i n singular  follows:  ogbaijgu  tifbandi  (the h i d e  oboaggu  tiboandi  (the deep, l a r g e water h o l e  odoa^gu  tidoandi  (the f l a t - r o o f e d house  Data i n c o m p l e t e  These  man)  f i v e nouns r e c o r d e d have the  p l u r a l as  occurs.  have the d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e -Harge.  ojagu  Class  used  -s)  -s)  -s)  62  5b  5c  oduugu  txduudi  (the  l o c u s t bean pod  i,^ t okpxngu  tikpindi  (the  greens p l a n t  -s)  bpxngu  txpxndx  (the  s l e e p i n g mat  -s)  odaagu  txdaadi  (the p i e c e -s  odiegu  tidiedi  (the  otiagu  titiadl  (the d i s h  C l a s s 6 nouns. numerous and may have  t  The c l a s s 6 l i -  // _ -  of wood)  compound - s ) -es)  l i , - l a , a ~{^j  v a r i e d semantic f e a t u r e s ,  e.g.,  a  nouns are v e r y +body p a r t s :  liyuli  (the  head);  (the shea f r u i t )  lxtunli  (the  bean)  (the  peanut)  lxfeli  (the  squash)  (the  owl)  lipoli  (the  elf)  (the  axe)  lxtuolx  (the m o r t a r )  (the  house)  lxcaali  (the  (the  lxtaali +fruit  f  leg)  -s)  or 4-vegetable:  lisanli /  /  —  litiinli +animate: lijuuli  • __  +tool: // _ _ liyali +location: lxdieli  The s i n g u l a r s u f f i x v a r i a n t - l a i s thing)  well)  used f o r the noun l i b o n l a  and compounds i n which t h i s noun o c c u r s when u t t e r a n c e  (the  final.  When - l a o c c u r s m e d i a l l y , - l a — J » - l i . T h i s c l a s s may have the d i s t i n c t i v e w i t h the c l a s s 5 f e a t u r e ,  -t-very l a r g e ,  liyeli  a medium s i z e  oyiegu  a very large  f e a t u r e +medium s i z e i n e.g.,  calabash calabash  contrast  63  Whether the p l u r a l s u f f i x s u f f i x w i l l be - n a i f a) because  But i f  e.g.,  of a v o c a l i c o n - g l i d e  of a n a s a l o f f - g l i d e ,  short,  -s).  the p l u r a l s u f f i x w i l l be - l a ,  lifeli  afela  (the squash  lxtili  atila  (the book  In t h i s  c l a s s the t o n a l p a t t e r n s  a  l  6a  6b  6b  2  change i n the p l u r a l .  2  a r e now shown:  atila  (the book  life'li"  afela  (the squash  licaali  acaana  (the w e l l  lituoli  atuona  (the mortar  lidunli  aduna  (the knee  litiinli  atiina  (the peanut  lipali  apala  (the granary  lipoli  apola  (the  lidieli  adiena  (the house  lijuali  aj uana  (the h i l l  lisanir  as ana  (the  lxgoanlf  agoana  (the w a l l  /  1  -es)  litill  _  —  -  '  —  e.g.,  -s)  and l o n g bases w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g s u f f i x e s 6  -s);  e.g.,  atana (the stone  the base vowel i s  -s);  e.g.,  atuona (the mortar  litanli  The  long  agaana (the s a d d l e  lituoli c) because  the base i s  of a double v o w e l ,  ligaali b) because  i s - l a o r - n a depends on the b a s e .  twin  -s) -es)  -s) -s)  -s) -s) -ies)  -s) -s) -s)  c l a y bowl -s)  -s)  The s h o r t  64  6  c  ayula  (the head - s )  l i p a l i  apala  (the  heart  -s) '  l i d i a l i  adiana  (the  withe  basket  lxjuuli  aj u u n a  (the o w l - s )  l i j enli  ajena  (the  egg -s)  ligbinli  ag"bina  (the  knot -s)  licuali  a'cuana  (the  water  ataana  (the  l e g -s)  l:Lyuli  l  "  6d  2  _  //„  —  //  /. -  —  -. '.' " - T lxtaali  C l a s s 7 nouns. semantic of  features  The  The c l a s s  ianimate,  the young, of C l a s s 7:  —  7 gi -  dhuman.  -s)  -s)  g a , mu - mu nouns may have This i s  the c l a s s of s m a l l  c l a s s 6 : c l a s s 5 : : s m a l l : medium : l a r g e .  f e a t u r e +small i s  c o n t a i n e d i n the a f f i x p a i r s ,  c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the a f f i x liliadili litili In  this  things,  diminutives.  g i - g a , mu - mu a l o n e  but d i m i n u t i v e s a r e a l s o formed by u s i n g the base of g i b i g a in  the  (the  pairs,  shirt)  child)  e.g.,  giliadibiga  (the book)  (the  gitibiga  c l a s s the t o n a l p a t t e r n s  (the (the  little  little  shirt)  book)  g e n e r a l l y change i n the p l u r a l  as  follows: 7a  7b  gibiga  mubxmti' 'Ibila  giyiega  muyxemu  gilorjga  / A /l mulommu  giloanga  muloammu  (the (the  the common t o n a l p a t t e r n s  have to determine whether or  small calabash little  -s)  i n the d a t a and do not conform to any  f o r s i m p l e nouns.  this  -es)  drum-s)  (the w e l l " b u c k e t "  These two nouns are so accented of  (the child -ren)  N  tonal pattern is  indeed another t o n a l p a t t e r n .  Further observation  will  an e r r o r of t r a n s c r i p t i o n  65  7c  7d  giwdVjga  muwommu  (the  rabitt  -s)  ginuavjga  munuammu  (the  little  bird  gijuga  mujumu  (the k n i f e  gidaaga  mudaamu  (the market  C l a s s 8 nouns.  of t h i s c l a s s . retained,  If  -ves) -s)  The c l a s s 8 mi - ma nouns r e f e r  non-count q u a n t i t i e s .  Gerunds a r e g e n e r a l l y  -s)  to l i q u i d s and  formed u s i n g the  the v e r b base ends i n a n a s a l i t w i l l g e n e r a l l y  assimilated  to the - m - of the c l a s s  The t o n a l p a t t e r n s  of  t h i s c l a s s a r e as  8a  mitama  (the  8b  misoama  8c 8d  follows: (the  (the b l o o d )  mikpama  (the o i l ,  miyaama  (the  salt)  midaama  (the d o l o ,  mijiema  (the  food)  mijaamma (the  C l a s s 9 nouns.  water the  fat)  i.e.,  beer)  fete)  The c l a s s 9 4> - 0, <f> - mba nouns have a z e r o p r e -  i n the s i n g u l a r ,  noun has one or two s y l l a b l e s , plural suffix  soil)  be  suffix.  mipima^  f i x and s u f f i x  affixes  and a zero p r e f i x i n the p l u r a l .  If  the f i n a l vowel w i l l l e n g t h e n b e f o r e  the the  -mba.  '''The noun minima appears  to be i r r e g u l a r .  That i t s  - jiin-  shown by any compound i n which i t  appears,  water,  e.g.,  s i m p l e form the f i n a l n a s a l of  -rp_n-  i s not r e t a i n e d i n a double -mm- .  the s e a , )  known verb b a s e ,  see  but i n i t s  above p g .  48).  e.g.,  base i s  mipinciamma (the  However, the base i s  is great  t h i s base not a  66  A s m a l l subset of bound k i n terms o c c u r s i n t h i s k i n terms o c c u r i n c l a s s 1. w i t h the p o s s e s s i v e , father).  e.g.,  the bound term - b a ( f a t h e r )  -ba  -baamba  (father -s)  -ya  -yaamba  (grandmother  -yaja  -yajaamba ( p a t e r n a l g r a n d f a t h e r  -na  used  mba (my  e.g.,  -naamba (mother  -s)  -s) -s)  Any Gurma proper name may take the p l u r a l s u f f i x (boy's name)  most  These c l a s s 9 k i n terms a r e g e n e r a l l y  These terms occur s i n g u l a r o r p l u r a l ,  Motaaba  class -  Motaabimba  -mba as  follows:  (Motaaba's chums, "gang", crowd, adherents.)  Tankpaali  (man's name) Tanlqiaalimba  Lompo (Gurma c l a n name)  Lompoomba  (TanKpaali's followers, (a group of people  from t h a t  C l a s s 9 i n c l u d e s most f o r e i g n l o a n words and onomatopoeic such  etc.) clan)  words  as:  soje  soxjieemba  (soldier  gbagba  gbagbaamba  (duck - s )  The tone on the p l u r a l s u f f i x  -s)  mobili cece  mobilimba  ceceemba  of such words i s  (automobile  (sewing machine  generally high  sufficiently minteli  to be p l u r a l i z e d i n t h a t c l a s s , (militaire)  amintela  has r e g u l a r c l a s s 6 p l u r a l The f o l l o w i n g a f f i x e s and t o n a l  table,  singular  e.g.,  (soldier  -s)  affixes. page 67,  patterns.  shows the noun c l a s s e s w i t h  -s)  followed  by m i d , -mba. Some l o a n words have a p p a r e n t l y evoked a noun c l a s s  -s)  their  Tonal Pattern B'  C"-  Class 1 Singular o - o, plural bi - ba obado (the chief) blbadiba (the chiefs)  onilo (the person) binTba (the people)  ocaano (the guest) bfcaamba (the guests)  oja  (the man) bljaba (the men)  2 Singular o - o, plural i - i oboado (the python)  owa (the snake)  oguabo (the goat) inuabl (the goats)  otaamo ' (the horse)  f taamf (the horses)  iboadi (the pythons)  fwe (the snakes)  oduanu (the bed) iduani (the beds)  obenu (the branch) ibeni (the branches)  _, (the path) isani (the paths)  itlidi (the trees)  idiiudl  3 Singular o - o, plural i - 1 onaanu ^ (the broom) irjaani (the brooms)  4 Singular o - bu, plural i - di otibu (the tree)  odubu (the locust bean tree)  osaambu ^ J[the shea tree) isaandl (the shea tree)  (the 1. b. trees)  5 Singular o - gu, plural t i - di odaagu (the plank) tidaadl (the planks)  6 Singular l i  c v  oduugu opTrjgu (the 1. b. pod) (the sleeping mat) tiduudl trplndl (the 1. b. pods) (the sleeping mats)  ogbarjgu (the hide) tlgVandi (the hides)  l i , plural a - l a  atila (the hi-jpks)  lipali (the granary) ayula (the heads)  litill (the book)  aj en a (the eggs)  litanll (the rock)  liyull (the head)  apala (the granaries)  W Singular l i C VN l i , plural a - na W atana (the rocks)  lijenli (the egg)  7 Singular gi - ga. plural mu glyiega (the calabash)  gfwuorjga (the rabbit)  gljuga (the knife)  miyaama (the salt)  mlj iema (the food)  gilong, (the drum)  mujumu (the knives)  muyiemu (the calabashes)  mulCmmtX (the drums)  muwuommQ (the rabbits)  8 Singular ml - ma (non-count nouns) mxtama (the soil) 9 Singular 0 - 0 ,  misoama (the blood)  ON  plural 0 - mba  foreign loan words and onomatopoeic words, tones uncertain  TABLE OF THE GURMA NOUN CLASS AFFIX AND CONCURRENT TONAL PATTERN SYSTEM  Table  3  68  The f o l l o w i n g c h a r t (page 69),  summarizes the t o n a l p a t t e r n s  w i t h the most common Gurma noun form, both s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l .  i.e.,  p r e f i x + base + s u f f i x ,  The numbers 1 - 9  above.  a h i g h e r tone on the base i s  Vowel change i n nouns. occurring utterance f i n a l it will  i n s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l i s  is -o,  or -Na i n a - b a , - g a , o r -ma s u f f i x ,  » o b a d i cua  e.g.,  (the c h i e f has  come)  / b i n i b a cua/  » binibi  cua  (the people have come)  / g i b i g a cua-  > gibigj [  cua  (the c h i l d has  a  /mijiema nukki/  mxjiemi n u k k i  come)  (the food s m e l l s  The f u n c t i o n s o f the a f f i x + t o n a l system. system a)  be  shown above has t h r e e  bad)  The p r e f i x + s u f f i x +  T h i s may be done by s u f f i x +  e.g., tuadi donkeys  (what i s making a n o i s e ? o r by p r e f i x + s u f f i x + t o n e , be  e.g.,  functions:  i t marks Gurma nouns f o r number.  tone a l o n e ,  listed  I f the s u f f i x vowel o f a s i m p l e noun not  the f o l l o w i n g consonant i s n , the vowel change w i l l be to  tone  The  l i s t e d b e f o r e a lower one.  change to a h i g h e r , more f r o n t e d v o w e l ,  /obado c u a /  If  above.  A - H i n d i c a t e the t o n a l p a t t e r n s d e s c r i b e d on page 55  A p a t t e r n t h a t remains constant  first,  in  i n d i c a t e the noun c l a s s  as l i s t e d on page 54 above and d e s c r i b e d on pages 55-66 capital letters  occurring  e.g •  (i.e.,  some d o n k e y s ) ;  >  tuadi  (what i s making a n o i s e ?  the donkeys donkeys).  (i.e.,  c e r t a i n , known  69 Table 4: Class 1  Singular  Plural  C  C " -  A - " -  B  <-  B '  B D  4  -  -  C A  3  **  -  H  X  E * - "  X  E  E -  H  -  -  H F '  X  E '  X  H  -  H " " -  C  -  c-  *  -  B "  H  C'  H  B "  G -  -  B  <-  A -  -  B '  -  C  D -  - - - -  H '  A - - -  F "  B  V  D  X  H " G " - -  C  8  <- -  G  B  7  G "  X  F '  B  6  -  - -  C  X  X  X  X  X X X X  *  >  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  (non^count class)  A B D 9  —  Suffix Change  C"  F  C .5  -  Base Change  ---  F '  <-  -  D -  Patterns  Prefix Change  A D 2  Table of Gurma Noun Tonal  —  Foreign loan words, tonal patterning uncertain  b  b)  i t marks Gurma nouns as d e f i n i t e or i n d e f i n i t e . As the i l l u s -  trations for a) above show, the absence of the p r e f i x marks the noun as -definite.  I f the p r e f i x i s used, the noun i s marked as +definite.  This marking i s not just l i k e that of the English d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e , but i s analagous to i t . c)  as has been discussed above, the p r e f i x + s u f f i x + tone system  has semantic s i g n i f i c a n c e .  The fact that tone contributes to t h i s  in some way i s shown by the following minimal p a i r s : lipali  (granary)  apala  (granaries)  lipali  (heart)  apala  (hearts)  It may be s i g n i f i c a n t that the tone on the base seldom changes, i.e.,  i n two sub-sets of class 6 the tone on the noun base i s higher  and i n one sub-set of class 7 lower i n the singular than i n the p l u r a l (see the table, pp. 69 above).  There are changes i n s i x sub-  sets i n the tone on the s u f f i x , but i n each case the tone i s a step higher i n the p l u r a l than i n the singular. the p r e f i x tone are more numerous..This  The changes i n  tone i s higher i n the  p l u r a l i n the three sub-sets that change i n class 2, and i n a l l the class 7 sub-sets, and i s lower i n the p l u r a l i n a l l the class 6 sub-sets. It may be stated about the tonal patterns that the s i n g u l a r - p l u r a l tonal pattern pairing appears to be as regular and as predictable as the singular + p r e f i x + s u f f i x - p l u r a l + p r e f i x + s u f f i x p a i r i n g . It may further be stated that these tonal patterns w i l l also change regularly and predictably,  71  a)  when t h e noun p r e f i x morpheme i s r e p l a c e d by t h e p o s s e s s i v e  morpheme, and b) morpheme.  when t h e noun p r e f i x morpheme i s r e p l a c e d by t h e r e l a t i v e These changes a r e d i s c u s s e d a f t e r pronouns and t h e p o s s e s s i v e  morpheme a r e i n t r o d u c e d below. The Noun Sub-set, t h e Pronouns The Gurma pronouns may be r e g a r d e d as f a l l i n g i n t o two groups, a)  t h o s e t h a t r e f e r t o f i r s t and second p e r s o n , s i n g u l a r and  p l u r a l , h a v i n g t h e f e a t u r e +human, and b) i.e.,  t h o s e t h a t r e f e r t o t h e t h i r d p e r s o n s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l ,  t h e s u b s t i t u t e s f o r t h e noun c l a s s e s , h a v i n g t h e f e a t u r e thuman. The pronouns r e f e r r i n g t o t h e f i r s t and second person, s i n g u l a r  or  p l u r a l , o c c u r w i t h mid tone i f they a r e S^ i n an SVO sequence.  The  f i r s t p e r s o n pronoun s i n g u l a r i s a s y l l a b i c n a s a l homorganic w i t h a f o l l o w i n g consonant.  The o t h e r f i r s t and second p e r s o n pronouns a r e  g i v e n i n t h e t a b l e below.  I f t h e f i r s t o r second p e r s o n pronouns a r e  0_ i n an SVO sequence, they o c c u r w i t h low t o n e . The c l a s s 9 nouns a r e r e g u l a r l y r e f e r r e d t o by t h e c l a s s 1 pronouns. A pronoun r e f e r r i n g t o t h i r d p e r s o n w i l l be homophonous w i t h the  segments o f t h e p r e f i x o r s u f f i x o f t h e noun t o w h i c h i t r e f e r s ,  b u t w i l l always d i f f e r i n t h e supra-segmental f e a t u r e o f tone from these a f f i x e s .  I f t h e t h i r d p e r s o n pronoun s t a n d s b e f o r e t h e v e r b ,  72  i.e.,  if  it  p r e f i x of  is  i n an SVO sequence, i t w i l l be homophonous w i t h  the noun r e f e r r e d t o .  the  But whereas the tone on t h i s noun  p r e f i x may be v e r y h i g h / " / , o r h i g h / ' / , or mid / - / , the tone on the pronoun i s after  always  the v e r b , i . e . ,  the s u f f i x  of  different.  low / * / .  If  the t h i r d person pronoun stands  0_ i n an SVO sequence,  the noun r e f e r r e d t o ,  but,  The tone on the noun s u f f i x  again,  g i - ga nouns, g i v e n above, /ga/  tone w i l l be  /V.  pronouns r e f e r r i n g to b i - ba nouns,  and mi - ma nouns w i l l change a c c o r d i n g to the  page68»  —^ /gi/,  the  i.e.,  i f not  /ma/ — ^ / m i / ,  b den soan ga  utterance  i.e.,  (he sent i t  The t a b l e below shows the forms of s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l ,  subject  final /ba/ —? / b i / ,  giyiega  - the c a l a b a s h ) ,  and second p e r s o n pronouns,  and t h i r d p e r s o n ,  subject  and o b j e c t .  person s i n g u l a r pronoun has allomorphs m~n~n~n as i t consonant;  because the n e g a t i v e f i r s t s i n g u l a r pronoun o b j e c t  /m/ i s  but  quickly).  first  and o b j e c t ;  c l a s s pronouns, s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l ,  to the f o l l o w i n g  rule  e.g.,  (he sent i t ,  b den soan g i t o n t o n i  with  may be h i g h / ' / , or mid / - / ,  the tone on the pronoun w i l l always be low The t h i r d person o b j e c t  i t w i l l be homophonous  or noun The f i r s t  always  assimilates  chosen as the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  person pronoun i s m i l .  The second  has allomorphs a.~na i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n .  member person  73  Table of the Subject and Object Pronouns  object  subject person  sing.  plur  1  m  ti  ni  ti  2  a  yi  a~Qa  yi  1  o  bi  o  ba  2  o  yi~bi  3  o  yi  o~yu  yi  yi  bu  di  ti  gu  di  3  sing.  plur.  class  4 5  , 1 o~bu 1 o~gu  6  li  a  7  gi  mu  8  mi  9  o  o  yi~ba 2  li,la ga  1  1 a~rja mu  ma bi  o  ba  The Possessive Morpheme with Tonal Pattern The possessive i s i d e n t i c a l with the segments of the pronoun subject.  The tone of the possessive i s either high or mid, so i s always  i n contrast with the low tone of the independent noun class pronoun.  These allomorphs are i n free v a r i a t i o n . E a r l i e r written material has gu as the object pronoun for class 3 but this form has not been observed i n the speech of the serveral Gurma colleagues who helped provide this data.  74  The  possessive displace s. the noun c l a s s p r e f i x , i . e . , i t o c c u r s  before  the noun base + s u f f i x and co-occurs w i t h one o f f i v e t o n a l p a t t e r n s on t h i s noun base + s u f f i x .  I n a l l nouns  observed-  the gender  class  or s u b - c l a s s t o n a l p a t t e r n was r e g u l a r l y r e p l a c e d when a p o s s e s s i v e replaced a class The  prefix.  p o s s e s s i v e p a t t e r n s , l a b e l l e d f o r convenience X, Y, Z, T, V  are as f o l l o w s : Pattern  possessive  noun base  gender  suffix  X Y  '  '  x  Z T V These p a t t e r n s occur w i t h f i r s t  and second person  a l l noun c l a s s p o s s e s s i v e s i n s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l . second person  p o s s e s s i v e i s segmentally  as w e l l as  The f i r s t and  i d e n t i c a l w i t h the pronoun i t  r e p l a c e s , and w i l l have mid o r h i g h tone a c c o r d i n g t o the t o n a l p a t t e r n o c c u r r i n g on the noun base + s u f f i x f o l l o w i n g . examples o n l y o~6s u b s t i t u t e d without  In the f o l l o w i n g  ( h i s ) i s used, but any o t h e r p o s s e s s i v e c o u l d be changing t h e p a t t e r n .  The tone p a t t e r n i s the same  whether t h e noun o c c u r s as S o r as 0 i n an SVO sequence.  75  Possessive pattern X.  Simple class tonal pattern (the chief)  Possessive ^onal pattern X  6badS  1A  obado  2A  onanlo  (the guinea worm)  onanlo  (his guinea worm)  3F  orjoagu  (the g r i s g r i s )  orjoagu  (his  6A  atila  (the books)  otila  /. *, ft  (his books)  7F  muyiemu  (the calabashes)  oyiemu  (his  (his  chief)  grisgris)  calabashes)  Possessive pattern Y. Simple class tonal pattern  Possessive tonal pattern Y  ' '  x  r4B  sg. butibu  (the tree)  otibu  (his  6G  sg. l i y u l i  (the head)  oyull  (his head)  7D  sg. gijuga  (the knife)  ojuga  (his  8D  mijiema  (the good)  oj xema  A sub-set of t h i s pattern occurs as (the dish)  knife) food)  ' ' " as follows: otiagu  5B  sg. gutiagu  5H  odoangu  IB  sg. odoangu (the f l a t - r o o f e d j_ house) p i . biniba (the persons)  1C  p i . bicuadiba  ocuadiba  (the in-laws)  (his  tree)  bniba  (his dish) (his f l a t - r o o f e d house) (his r e l a t i v e s ) (his in-laws)  Possessive pattern Z Simple class tonal pattern  Possessive tonal pattern z  6cuado  1C  sg.  2C  sg. 6nuabo  3H. sg.; Bn&anu  -  rO  (the in-law)  ocuado  (his in-law)  (the goat)  onuabo  (his goat)  (the broom)  onaanu  (his broom)  76  7H  pi.  muwuommu  A s u b - s e t of  (the  rabbits)  owucmmu  t h i s p a t t e r n o c c u r s as goats)  '  '  (his  rabbits)  *  oruiabi  (his  goats)  ocuana  (his water  2H p i .  inuabi  (the  6C p i .  acuana  (the water  2E p i .  itaami  (the  horses)  otaamx  (his horses)  3E p i .  ibaabi.  (the  ropes)  obaabi  (his  pots)  /. /  *  pots)  ropes)  Possessive pattern T Examples of p o s s e s s i v e p a t t e r n T : *o c c u r r e n c e as 0_ i n an SVO sequence. before  *  v  g i v e n below show  its  When t h i s p a t t e r n o c c u r s as S_  the v e r b ,  a)  if  the v e r b tone i s  if  low,  ^ _ /' h  x  b)  e i t h e r high or  the verb tone i s m i d ,  Simple c l a s s t o n a l p a t t e r n  Possessive tonal  pattern  T: - ' * locust  locust  odubu  5C  sg.  oKbi^gu  6C  sg.  litili  (the  book)  otili  7A  sg-  gibiga  (the  child)  obiga  (his  child)  mipima  (the  water)  ojiima  (his  water)  (the  IA  pi.  bik"peliba  5C  pi.  tipindi  greens  (the (the  bean t r e e )  (his  sg-  8A  (the  odubu  4C  plant)  older  sleeping  sibs) mats)  ok*pingu  (his (his  ok^ellba opindi  greens  plant)  book)  (his (his  bean t r e e )  older  sleeping  sibs) mats)  77  Possessive pattern V. Examples of p o s s e s s i v e p a t t e r n V : o c c u r r e n c e as () i n an SVO sequence.  - - \ g i v e n below show  When t h i s p a t t e r n o c c u r s as S_  b e f o r e the v e r b , t h e r e i s no down-glide on the s u f f i x . is  /-ba/,  /-ga/,  or / - m a / ,  w i l l not change,  I f the  suffix  the f i n a l vowel w i l l be f r o n t e d and h i g h e r  and have a low tone r a t h e r than a f a l l i n g g l i d e ; suffixes  its  the vowels  of  other  and the tone w i l l be mid and l e v e l r a t h e r  than a f a l l i n g g l i d e . Simple c l a s s  tonal pattern  Possessive tonal pattern V:  ' -  -\  IB  sg.  onilo  (the person)  onilo  (his  relative)  3G  sg.  osanu  (the path)  osanu  (his  path)  7B  sg.  gilorjga  olonga  ( h i s drum)  6B  p i . ayala  oyala  (his  (the drum) (the axes)  axes)  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the same d a t a arranged to s i m p l e pattern. class  The numbers show the noun c l a s s ,  patterns,  and the l e t t e r s  the l e t t e r s  class  A - H the  X , Y , Z , T and V the p o s s e s s i v e p a t t e r n .  78  Tonal patterns with  possessive.  Singular Poss. pattern  X  Y  Z  Plural  T  V  X  Y  Z  T  V  simple class pattern A  1,2  6  7,8  B  4,5,6  C  7,8  D  7,8  6  1,8 1,2  1  4,5,6  E F  1  2,6  5  2.3 2,4,7  3  G  6  H  4,5,6  3  3 2,3,7  3  The bound possessive pronoun. The possessive may also occur before the bound pronoun -cua. case possessive + -cua  replaces possessive + base + s u f f i x as  " i t " may replace "his book".  In this  i n English  English has no counterpart of this pronoun,  -cua,which more accurately r e f l e c t s the possessed noun i t replaces than the i n d e f i n i t e pronoun " i t " which English uses. current with the class system as follows:  This bound pronoun i s con-  Class simple  bound pronoun  affixes  sing,  plural  sing.  plural  1  o - o  b i - ba  -cua  -cibi,-ciba  2  o - o  i  -  i  -cua  -ci  3  o - u  i  -  i  -cu  -ci  4  o - bu  i  -  di  -cibu  -ci  5  o -  ti  6  li-li,-la  a -  7  gi -  mu - mu  8  mi - ma  9  0-0  gu  ga  -  di a  <f> - mba  -ca  -cigi,-ciga  -cimu  -cibi,-ciba  Patterns r e l a t i v e morphemes:  ya-,  the r e l a t i v e noun p r e f i x and precedes the noun base +  and n , which precedes the verb to which t h i s r e l a t i v e  r e l a t e s as e i t h e r patterns  -cili,-cila  -cua  There a r e two c o - o c c u r r i n g segmental  suffix;  -cidl  -cimi,-cima  The R e l a t i v e Morpheme w i t h T o n a l  which r e p l a c e s  -cigu  its  subject  or i t s  object.  There a r e f o u r  noun tonal  l a b e l l e d 0, P , Q and R which c o - o c c u r w i t h these morphemes,  r e p l a c i n g the noun c l a s s t o n a l p a t t e r n s Relative pattern  relative  as  follows:  noun base  suffix  80  Examples a r e now g i v e n : Relative pattern 0 yabado  (the c h i e f who -m)  yayiega  (the c a l a b a s h which)  Relative pattern P yanilo  (the person who-m)  yajiema  (the food which)  Relative pattern Q yacaano  (the s t r a n g e r who -m)  yajumu  (the k n i v e s which)  Relative pattern R yanlba  (the people who-m)  yajenli  (the egg which)  While y a - r e g u l a r l y o c c u r s w i t h mid tone, a p r e c e d i n g v e r y h i g h w i l l draw t h i s mid tone up t o h i g h If n will  tone  tone.  the r e l a t i v e noun i s s u b j e c t i n i t s own c l a u s e , the p a r t i c l e immediately  noun s u f f i x .  f o l l o w i t and be on t h e same tone as the r e l a t i v e  I f however, the r e l a t i v e noun i s o b j e c t i n i t s own c l a u s e ,  the p a r t i c l e n w i l l precede  the verb which governs the r e l a t i v e  noun,  and i n t h i s case the p a r t i c l e n w i l l have a h i g h tone, o r a r i s i n g g l i d e i f the p r e c e d i n g tone i s mid. The f o l l o w i n g examples i l l u s t r a t e  the p o s s i b l e p o s i t i o n s o f t h e  r e l a t i v e noun w i t h y a - , and the p o s i t i o n o f n:  81  Yabi'gi  _n ye  Who+the+child  lidielin  present+be  the-r-house i n  The-f-child who i s obadi  den  The+chief The  chief  Obadi  -  The-k:hief The  present+be i l l  i n t h e house  1%  is ill.  yabigf  n ye i .  lidielin ni  p a s t + see  who+the- c h i l d  present+be  the-r-house i n  saw  the.child  who was  i n t h e house.  yabigi'  yeni...  n  >  den  . la  past+see  z h i l d whom t h e c h i e f saw... die  The+woman-r-great  p r e s e n t + r u l e the-fchief  obadi  n  den lS. yabi'gi' y e n i past+'&'ee who+-the-<-child  o l d woman owns t h e c h i l d t h e c h i e f saw. The  gender c l a s s o f s u b - c l a s s t o n a l p a t t e r n s  replaced  by t h e r e l a t i v e t o n a l p a t t e r n s  replaces  t h e gender p r e f i x e s .  are regularly  when t h e r e l a t i v e p r e f i x - y a  The  r e l a t i v e pronouns.  The  r e l a t i v e pronouns, concurrent w i t h the noun c l a s s system a r e  formed by adding t o yaaa)  t h e noun c l a s s p r e f i x f o r  b)  t h e noun c l a s s s u f f i x f o r 0  or  i n t h e SVO sequence. I n noun c l a s s e s 1 and 2 , y a a - + p_ — ^ y u a I n t h e c l a s s e s whose p l u r a l p r e f i x i s i^, y a a - + jL — ^ y i . I n c l a s s 6 p l u r a l s , y a a - + a_ — ^ y_a The  yeni  who-f-the+child  Opociamo  The  n i yeni y i a  r e l a t i v e pronoun r e g u l a r l y o c c u r s w i t h  the m i d t o n e .  82  the r e l a t i v e  A t a b l e of  pronouns f o l l o w s : Relative  Class Affixes sing.  Pronoun  sing.  plural i  plural  subject  object  subject  object  yua  yua  yaabi  yaaba  1  o -  2  o - o  i  -  i  yua  yua  yf  yi  3  o - u  i  -  i  yu  yu  yi  yi  4  o - bu  i  -  di  yaabu  yaabu  yi  yi  5  o -  ti  yaagu  yaagu  yaadi  yaadi  6  li  yaali  yaali yaala  ya  ya  7  gi-ga  yaagi  yaaga  yaamu  yaamu  8  mi - ma  yaami  yaama  9  0 - 0  yua  yua  yaabi  yaaba  o  bi -  gu -  -  a -  li la  ba  di a  mu - mu  0 - mba  The p o s s e s s i v e pronoun. These pronouns may be preceded by the possessive on h i g h t o n e , not mid t o n e . c u r r i n g w i t h these pronouns ntili  The f i r s t is  class 6 singular  person s i n g u l a r p o s s e s s i v e  syllabic,  (my b o o k ) — ^ n y a a l i  oc-  i.e.,  r e f e r r i n g to  any  noun).  seem to d i f f e r much s e m a n t i c a l l y , e.g.,  then  e.g.,  (mine,  The p o s s e s s i v e pronoun thus formed,  above, p g . 7 9  but they are  "heill  from the  (mine).  e.g.,  nyaali  (mine) does not  s u b s t i t u t e pronoun d i s c u s s e d  The pronouns  a b l y emphasize the possessive f e a t u r e s more than  formed w i t h y a a - p r o b -  do the  others.  83 The c o n t r a s t i v e p o s s e s s i v e pronoun. If is  a contrast regarding possession,  e.g.,  "mine" v e r s u s "yours"  to be i n d i c a t e d , the bound morpheme - y a - o c c u r s between the  and the noun or pronoun,  e.g., — a it  it tl  nbado nyua  possessive  (my c h i e f )  tl  nyabado  (mine i a n i m a t e )  (my c h i e f ,  nyayua  (mine, i . e . ,  T h i s bound p o s s e s s i v e morpheme - y a - i s morpheme y a - d i s c u s s e d above, p g .  i.e.,  not y o u r s )  not y o u r s )  i n c o n t r a s t to the  80 , by t o n e .  relative  The r e l a t i v e morpheme  y a - o c c u r s w i t h mid t o n e ,  but may be drawn h i g h e r i f preceded and  lowed by v e r y h i g h tone.  The c o n t r a s t i v e p o s s e s s i v e morpheme - y a - o c c u r s  b e f o r e noun bases w i t h v e r y h i g h t o n e .  However when t h i s  contrastive  p o s s e s s i v e - y a - o c c u r s between the possessive and the pronoun, nyayua (mine),  -ya- itself  - y a ——* oyayua ( h i s ,  i.e.,  lowers to h i g h t o n e ,  e.g.,  fol-  e.g.,  oyua ( h i s )  +  not y o u r s ) .  The N e g a t i v e Morpheme w i t h T o n a l P a t t e r n s Gurma sentences may be made n e g a t i v e by l e n g t h e n i n g the vowel o c c u r i n g immediately b e f o r e the v e r b .  When t h i s vowel i s  of  lengthens  the noun S i n the SVO sequence i t a)  as  the s u f f i x  follows:  Singular suffix  Plural  - o -—> - o o ~ - i i  - b a —> b a a « - - b i i  pu — * - u u  - i —V - i i  -li  - a — » -aa  —> - I i i  suffix  - l a —> - l a a -ga — * - g a i i -ma —>  -maii  -V0 — > VV0  -mu —> -muu  vowel  84  b)  a g l i d e r i s i n g to h i g h or v e r y h i g h o c c u r s on the  lengthened  vowel. c)  if  the f o l l o w i n g verb i s  on low t o n e ,  the n e g a t i v e r i s i n g g l i d e to a h i g h tone as A  obado dagxdx  (the c h i e f  obad-oo - i x dagxdx B  t x d a a d i dagxdx  (the goat i s  bnuab-ob - i x dagxdx D.  g i j u g a dagxdx  xtaamx dagxdx  enough)  (sharp)  are (strong)  (the calabashes (the c a l a b a s h e s  enough)  (strong)  a r e (big) are not  enough)  enough) (big)  enough)  as a c o u r t i n g  gift)  (the cows are not a l l r i g h t )  l x j e n l i dagxdx  (the egg i s  (fresh)  enough)  /  '—4  l x j e n l i x dagxdx d)  enough)  (the cows a r e a l l r i g h t , e . g . ,  xnee dagidx H  (sharp)  (the h o r s e s a r e not  muyiemmu dagxdx  xne dagxdx  (the goat i s not good enough)  (the horses  muyiemmuu dagxdx G  o.k.)  (the k n i f e i s not  xtaamxx dagxdx F  o.k.)  good enough)  (the k n i f e i s  g i j u g a i x dagxdx E  c h i e f i s not g e t t i n g on w e l l )  (the wood i s not  orjuabo dagxdx  follows:  g e t t i n g on w e l l )  (the wood i s  t x d a a d i x dagxdx C  (the  is  i t w i l l be drawn a f t e r  if  tone a f t e r  (the egg i s not  (fresh)  enough)  the f o l l o w i n g v e r b o c c u r s w i t h mid t o n e , the n e g a t i v e  obado k u n i obadoo kunx  (the  rising glide,  e.g.,  c h i e f has gone home)  (the c h i e f has not gone home)  this  changes  to low  85  itaami kuni  (the horses have gone home)  l t a a m i i kimi ine k u n i  (the  inee kuni e)  if  (the horses have not gone home) cows have gone home)  (the  cows have not gone home)  the f o l l o w i n g verb has a h i g h tone or a v e r y h i g h tone these  w i l l not be a f f e c t e d  by the n e g a t i v e  r i s i n g g l i d e which w i l l  about l e v e l w i t h the f o l l o w i n g h i g h or v e r y h i g h tone as obado g u a n i  (the (the  i t a a m i guani  (the horses have come back)  obado mill obadoo mia i n e mia i n e e mia If it  (the horses have not come back)  (the  c h i e f has drowned)  (the (the  c h i e f has not  drowned)  cows have drowned)  (the  cows have not drowned)  too may express n e g a t i o n by l e n g t h e n i n g i t s  a  (you)  ti  (we)  yi  (you)  follows:  c h i e f has not come back)  a p e r s o n a l pronoun s u b s t i t u t e s f o r a noun as  m (I)  to  c h i e f has come back)  obadoo guani  i t a a m i i guani  rise  mii(I  . . . 'not)  al~naa ( y o u . . . til yii  (we . . .  not)  not)  (you . . .  not)  i n an SVO  f i n a l vowel as  sequence,  follows:  86  Class  singular  plural  positive  negative  1  o  waa  bi  baa  2  o  waa  bx~yi  baa~yn  3  o~bu  buu  4  o~gu  buu  ti  txx  5  li  lxi  a  aa^naa  6  gl  gll  mu  muu  7  mx  mxx  8  o  waa  bi  baa  positive  negative  yxx  When the r i s i n g tone o f the n e g a t i v e p e r s o n a l pronoun precedes a verb w i t h low t o n e , tone,  it  draws the f i r s t low tone up to a v e r y h i g h  e.g., 6 k u a d i mxyaama  (he has s o l d the  waa ku&di miyaama 6 tongf minima  (he h a s n ' t s o l d the  salt)  (he has heated the water)  waa t$ngf minima But i f  salt)  (he h a s n ' t heated the water)  the verb o c c u r s w i t h mid tone or mid r i s i n g t o n e ,  very high tone, g l i d e of S,  these tones remain unchanged a f t e r the n e g a t i v e  or  rising  e.g.,  6 nambidi b aaa  or h i g h ,  (he i s  fixing)  --(he has bought)  waa nambidi _  waa daa  (he  isn't  fixing)  (he h a s n ' t bought)  o diani  (he has w r i t t e n )  waa d i a n i  (he h a s n ' t w r i t t e n )  b 'rjambx  (he has f i x e d ) -  waa nambi  (he h a s ' t  fixed)  87  The Morphology of Gurma Verbs  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of.Gurma Verbs Gurma verbs may be i d e n t i f i e d by their occurring alone after a time marker preceded by J3 i n an SV sequence. If a Gurma '^volue '^ is asked, Qu :'est-ce que c'est que l e verbe a l l e r 7  en gourmantche? he w i l l reply, Gedi.  This verb base form i s homophonous  with: a)  the form of the second verb i n a series having the same subject  the equivalent of the English i n f i n i t i v e , e.g., n buaa gedi (I want to go); b)  the t h i r d person singular form of the perfective verb, the  equivalent of the English present perfect, e.g., b gedi (he has gone). Gurma verbs are generally monsyllabic, d i s y l l a b i c or t r i s y l l a b i c ; one quadrisyllable verb occurs i n the data.  A l l p o l y s y l l a b i c verbs end  i n - i ; monosyllabic verbs end i n any vowel. Marking of aspect i n Gurma verbs. Almost a l l of Gurma verbs are marked f o r aspect and have contrasting perfective and imperfective forms.  However, there i s a group of verbs  whose base form i s perfective even though semantically of a s t a t i v e nature.  Base forms of these verbs have no contrastive imperfective form. Of one hundred Gurma verbs with contrastive perfective and  Gurmas are 95% i l l i t e r a t e .  A l l formal education i s i n French.  who are l i t e r a t e i n French c a l l themselves 'evolues.'  Those  88  imperfective  forms, chosen p a r t l y at random" ", one was q u a d r i s y l l a b l e , 1  seventeen were t r i s y l l a b i c , s i x t y - o n e  were d i s y l l a b i c and twenty-one  were m o n o s y l l a b i c . Fifty  e i g h t of  imperfective  these one hundred v e r b s d i f f e r e d i n p e r f e c t i v e  a s p e c t s by tone a l o n e .  changed p e r f e c t i v e  T w e n t y - f i v e of the remainder  to i m p e r f e c t i v e by adding a s y l l a b l e ± t o n a l  i n the i m p e r f e c t i v e .  Twelve o f the remainder changed  to i m p e r f e c t i v e by d e l e t i o n ± t o n a l change. suppletive  form i n the  t h i r t y - t w o had the same t o n a l  and the same t o n a l p a t t e r n s While t h i s  p r o b a b l y shows a t r e n d .  ± an a l t e r n a t e  pattern  i s not b e i n g suggested as the p e r for this  pattern,  One of these t h i r t y - t w o v e r b s was  it  quadri-  A l l p o l y s y l l a b i c v e r b s o c c u r r e d w i t h one of  Of the twenty f o u r p o l y s y l l a b i c v e r b s j u s t mentioned  ended i n - d i , one i n - g i , monosyllabic verbs,  two i n - l i and t h r e e i n - n i .  s i x ended i n  two i n _ ^ i .  i s not f e l t  that  t r i b u t i o n for verbs. the expense of  the f i g u r e s  four eighteen eight  do not  from most  others;  g i v e an a c c u r a t e i d e a of s y l l a b i c  Probably monosyllables  disyllabics.  Of the  The endings  "'"Some v e r b s were i n c l u d e d because they were d i f f e r e n t it  patterns  f i v e were t r i s y l l a b i c , e i g h t e e n were d i s y l l a b i c and e i g h t  were m o n o s y l l a b i c . endings.  had a  and i m p e r f e c t i v e were  centage of o c c u r r e n c e frequency i n the language  syllable,  perfective  The r e m a i n i n g f i v e  v e r b s whose p e r f e c t i v e  d i s t i n g u i s h e d by tone a l o n e ,  i n the i m p e r f e c t i v e .  change  imperfective.  Of the f i f t y - e i g h t  i n the p e r f e c t i v e ,  and  dis-  appear too numerous a t  seem to have independent meaning. The other twenty-six of the f i f t y - e i g h t verbs which d i f f e r e d i n perfective and imperfective aspects by tone alone had varying tonal patterns.  Twelve of these verbs, three of them t r i s y l l a b i c and nine  d i s y l l a b i c , ended i n - d i .  Of s i x more d i s y l l a b i c verbs, one ended  i n - g i , two i n - l i and three i n - n i .  The remaining eight verbs of  t h i s group were monosyllabic, s i x ending i n -a and two i n - i . Of the forty two remaining verbs, twenty-five followed this rule: perfective + - d i ±  tonal change — 9  imperfective.  This group of twenty - f i v e verbs included nine whose perfective ends i n - n i , and - n i + - d i — ^ -ndi i n the imperfective. Of these twenty-five verbs, nine were t r i s y l l a b i c , eleven were d i s y l l a b i c , and f i v e monosyllabic. Of the remaining seventeen verbs nine d i s y l l a b i c verbs followed a deletion rule to form the imperfective as follows: perfective - - n i ± tonal change — ^ imperfective. Three other verbs deleted - n i 6 r - l i from the perfective and also replaced i t s base vowel with another vowel ± tonal change to form the imperfective. The f i v e remaining verbs had suppletive forms ± tonal changes i n the imperfective. On the basis of these data the following general statements be made: a)  In about half of Gurma verbs the perfective base and the  may  90  c o n t r a s t i n g i m p e r f e c t i v e are hbmophonous s e g m e n t a l l y and d i s t i n g u i s h e d by  tone  alone;  b)  these v e r b s may be „mono-,di-, t r i - or q u a d r i s y l l a b l e ;  c)  i f p o l y s y l l a b i c , t h e s e v e r b s g e n e r a l l y end i n - d i , - g i ,  - l i . ~ni; d)  v a r i o u s t o n a l p a t t e r n s may make t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between  p e r f e c t i v e and i m p e r f e c t i v e , b u t some a r e much more common than e)  others;  a p e r f e c t i v e base may be changed t o i m p e r f e c t i v e by the  a d d i t i o n o f a s y l l a b l e w i t h h i g h tone ± t o n a l change on t h e base; f) -di,  -gi, - l i , g)  -ndi,  t h e s y l l a b l e s g e n e r a l l y added t o form the i m p e r f e c t i v e a r e or - n i .  i f the i m p e r f e c t i v e i t s e l f  and - n i + - g i — > h)  Verbs ending i n - d i do n o t add - d i . end i n - n i , then - n i + - d i  — *  - n g i i n the imperfective;  a s m a l l number of Gurma v e r b s d e l e t e t h e f i n a l  s y l l a b l e of  the p e r f e c t i v e and may o r may n o t change the tone o f the r e m a i n i n g segments t o form t h e i m p e r f e c t i v e ; i)  v e r b s of t h i s type o c c u r r i n g i n the data a l l ended i n - n i o r  - l i ' ' " - t h e r e was no example o f - d i b e i n g  deleted - i . e . ,  tonal j)  t h e r e a r e a few r e p l a c i v e v e r b s i n Gurma;  k)  some of t h e s e r e p l a c e o r add a vowel i n the base of the  p e r f e c t i v e ± t o n a l change to form the i m p e r f e c t i v e ;  Another p e r f e c t i v e ending, i . e . , - b i , o c c u r s not  appear i n these hundred words.  i n t h e data but d i d  91  1)  some o f t h e s e v e r b s , b e s i d e s r e p l a c i n g a vowel i n t h e base  of t h e p e r f e c t i v e , d e l e t e i t s f i n a l s y l l a b l e and may o r may n o t change tone on t h e r e m a i n i n g  base segments t o form t h e i m p e r f e c t i v e ;  m)  t h e r e a r e a few s u p p l e t i v e verbs i n Gurma;  n)  a few t o n a l p a t t e r n s s u f f i c e f o r t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f v e r b s  forming  t h e i r i m p e r f e c t i v e from t h e i r p e r f e c t i v e by any o f t h e means  mentioned above, i . e . , t o n a l change a l o n e , o r a d d i t i o n , d e l e t i o n , r e placement, s u p p l e t i o n ± t o n a l change, b u t a number o f t o n a l p a t t e r n s o t h e r t h a n these u s u a l ones a r e a l s o used. The most common t o n a l p a t t e r n s w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h between p e r f e c t i v e and i m p e r f e c t i v e v e r b s a r e as f o l l o w s : a)  p e r f e c t i v e w i t h f i n a l mid tone preceded by v e r y h i g h tone  changes t o i m p e r f e c t i v e w i t h h i g h tone ± an added s y l l a b l e w i t h h i g h tone o r + d e l e t i o n perfective with ' K  —»  i m p e r f e c t i v e w i t h '/, , . ^. ( (+ d e l e t i o n )  This p a t t e r n occurs i n both monosyllabic b)  and p o l y s y l l a b i c  verbs.  p e r f e c t i v e w i t h low tone changes t o i m p e r f e c t i v e whose f i n a l  s y l l a b l e , w h i c h may be an added s y l l a b l e , has h i g h tone preceded.by low  tone. perfective with * — ? imperfective with x  This p a t t e r n occurs i n both monosyllabic c)  x  w  +  and p o l y s y l l a b i c  verbs.  p e r f e c t i v e w i t h mid tone changes t o i m p e r f e c t i v e w i t h low tone  ± f i n a l s y l l a b l e with high  tone:  perfective with ~ ~ — ^  imperfective with  This p a t t e r n occurs w i t h d i s y l l a b i c s ± d e l e t i o n .  *  v  +syl  92  d)  perfective with high tone adds a s y l l a b l e with high tone to  form the imperfective: perfective with ' ' — * imperfective with ' ' + s y l This pattern occurs with p o l y s y l l a b l e s . Several other patterns are recorded i n the data.  While these  patterns appear to be used by very few verbs, they are among the verbs most frequently used i n the language. Examples of tonal patterns for perfective and imperfective forms with or without concurrent addition, deletion, replacement p l e t i o n phenomena are now given i n tabular form.  and sup-  Examples of those  verbs that make d i s t i n c t i o n between perfective and imperfective by tonal change alone are given f i r s t ; then those that have the feature of addition, then those that have the feature of deletion, then the replacement verbs and f i n a l l y the suppletive verbs. Aspect marked by Tonal Change Alone .a.  In the following verbs tonal change alone marks the difference, be-  tween perfective and imperfective. Perfective  The pattern of change i s " " -  — * ' ' '.  imperfective  meaning  coagimidi.  t o n c h (as c a t t l e do)  babxdi  babidi  remove from between forceps, toes, etc.  cegxdi  cegidx  loosen clenched teeth  quadrisyllable coagxmx'di  m u  trisyllabic  93  imperfective  Perfective  meaning  disyllabic nuudi  nuudi  wash,  i.e.,  mudi  mudi  break  ca  ca  choose  buu  buu  care for, a nurse  things  monosyllabic  A sub-set imperfective one j u s t  of verbs pattern  given,  covered.  pattern  w i t h an  with  or phonetic  '-  alternate  variation with  —i> imperfective w i t h  reason  for  Examples of these verbs  this  '  v a r i a t i o n has  yet  been  bobidi  bobidi-bobidi  remove  f uoni  fuoni~fuoni  whistle  Examples of the between  second  w i t h low tones i n the i n the  Perfective  common t o n a l p a t t e r n  perfective  and i m p e r f e c t i v e  perfective  imperfective,  dis-  are: meaning  high tone  the  ' ~> -  imperfective  difference  as  i.e.,  Perfective  verbs  in this  w h i c h appears to be i n f r e e  perfective No s e m a n t i c  occurs  i.e.,  i.e.,  change \  V  \  '  imperfective  which alone marks  are the  finery  now g i v e n . final  the  These  low tone  to  —^ meaning  trisyllabic labidi  labidi  lie  or  yemidi  yemidi  grumble  lay face  down  94  Perfective  imperfective  meaning  kuadi  kuadi  sell  cubnx  cubni  walk  disyllabic  Examples o f t h e t h i r d common t o n a l p a t t e r n w h i c h a l o n e may mark the d i f f e r e n c e between p e r f e c t i v e and i m p e r f e c t i v e a r e now g i v e n . These v e r b s w i t h mid tone i n t h e p e r f e c t i v e change t o low tone i n t h e imperfective, i . e . ,  - -  — ^  Perfective  v  .  imperfective  meaning  deli  deli  chase  buli  bull  scratch shallow  hole  Other l e s s common t o n a l p a t t e r n s w h i c h a l o n e may mark t h e d i f f e r e n c e between p e r f e c t i v e and i m p e r f e c t i v e o c c u r on d i s y l l a b i c  verbs  as f o l l o w s : a)  p e r f e c t i v e w i t h mid f o l l o w e d by low t o n a l changes t o i m -  p e r f e c t i v e w i t h high tones; i . e . , perfective with Perfective  b)  r  — 7 * imperfective with  ' '.  imperfective  meaning  bid!  bidi  t o stammer  bodi  bodi  t o be s t u n t e d  p e r f e c t i v e w i t h low f o l l o w e d by h i g h tone changes t o i m p e r f e c -  t i v e w i t h low tones, i . e . , perfective with  r  '— ^  imperfective with  v  x  .  95  Perfective  imperfective  meaning  bbbx  bbbx  dress  buabx  buabi  c) tones,  perfective  with  low  tones  v  imperfective  imperfective  with  imperfective  with  mid  -  -  .  meaning  nidi  wash,  i.e.,  hands  fidi^  f i d i  comb,  i.e.,  hair  Marked  by  Addition  following  Polysyllabic perfective  high  to  nidi  The  high  sub-set  gallop  changes  —^  x  Perfective  with  up  i.e., perfective with  Aspect  (self)  verbs  use  very  high  tone,  w i l l  add  two m i d  in  free  - d i  the with -  the  followed  with  in  with '  feature  follow  tone  variation  perfective Perfective  tones  Change  the  that  with  has  tone  verbs  ± Tonal  high  of  addition  common  tonal  by  tone  mid  tone  to  imperfective the  —>  pattern  the with  of  imperfective  to  show  aspect.  pattern: >  imperfective  imperfective; added  three  -di  high  with^/  ,  a  with tones:  s ^ l ~ ~~ ~~  imperfective  meaning  babindi  take  s  $ ^ \  trisyllabic babini  between  blades, bolxni  bolindi-bolindi  destroy  dirjgi  dxrjgidi  soften  njambi  nambxdx-nambidx  toes,  forcep etc.  disyllabic  repair,  arrange,  clean  96  The m o n o s y l l a b i c v e r b s f o l l o w i n g t h i s p a t t e r n may add - - d i , - n i , - n i l or - g i . faa  faadi  become l i g h t  gaa  gaani  t a k e from hand  cia  cianli  escape  mia  miagi  submerge  The f o l l o w i n g v e r b s f o l l o w a t o n a l p a t t e r n w h i c h i s used w i t h the phenomenon of a d d i t i o n o n l y :  p e r f e c t i v e v e r b s w i t h h i g h tone  change t o i m p e r f e c t i v e by t h e a d d i t i o n o f a s y l l a b l e w i t h h i g h  tone.  T h i s added s y l l a b l e w i l l be - d i f o r t r i s y l l a b i c v e r b s and - d i o r g i for  disyllabics. perfective with  /  /  /  —^  imperfective with with  + syl.  imperfective  meaning  koabigi  koabigidi  shorten  kpiligi  kpiligidi  smooth  nuagi  nuagidi  deepen  biiuni  buundi  mix w i t h w a t e r , i . e . . e a r t h , f l o u r , cement  ball  baligi  g a t h e r up r u b b i s h  boali  boaligi  smear on, ( i . e . , plaster)  luuni  guungn  pocket  Perfective trisyllables + - d i  disyllabics + - d i  disyllabics + - g i  97  Perfective  imperfective  meaning  bill  balxni  hem  coabi  coabini  nick, blaze  d i s y l l a b i c s + -ni.  Verbs t h a t f o l l o w t h e common t o n a l p a t t e r n : p e r f e c t i v e w i t h low tone — T > i m p e r f e c t i v e w i t h low tone f o l l o w e d by h i g h t o n e , v a r y  this  p a t t e r n when they add a s y l l a b l e as t h e segments i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e p e r f e c t i v e base r e m a i n on l o w tone i n t h e i m p e r f e c t i v e b u t t h e added s y l l a b l e , - d i , o r - g i t a k e s h i g h tone: perfective with  r  * ——>  Perfective  imperfective with *  .imperfective  r  +syl  meaning  trisyllables +- d i baligi  baligidi  heat a l i t t l e  coagini  coagindi  weary  laani  naandi  cook by b o i l i n g  ceni  cendi  g r e e t on a r r i v a l  gbim  gbiijgi  knot  coani  coa ng]  disyllabics + - d i  d i s y l l a b i c verbs + - g i  monosyllabic  overhang  verbs + - d i  baa  baadi  fii  fiidi  obtain rise  Other l e s s common p a t t e r n s w h i c h use a d d i t i o n ± t o n a l change t o mark t h e d i f f e r e n c e between p e r f e c t i v e and i m p e r f e c t i v e a r e :  98  a)  p e r f e c t i v e w i t h low tone f o l l o w e d by h i g h tone changes  i m p e r f e c t i v e w i t h two low tones-f-di w i t h h i g h perfective with  v  '  —>>  Perfective  b)  to  tone:  imperfective with  v  + syl.  v  imperfective  meaning  tbngx  tbngxdx  heat  bambx  bambidi  cajole  duunx  duundx  rub  Some d i s y l l a b i c v e r b s w i t h mid tone i n the p e r f e c t i v e  b o t h tones to low and add perfective with - -  with high —}  Perfective  change  tone:  imperfective with '  + -ni  v  imperfective  meaning  bibi  bxbxnx  pounce on  biigi  bxigxdx  get  A s u b - s e t of these v e r b s changes and may or may not add - n i w i t h h i g h  to low tone i n the  dark imperfective  tone:  bugi  bugx-bugxnx  c a r r y on s h o u l d e r  goli  gblx-gblinx  wear as  Some m o n o s y l l a b l e s w i t h mid tone i n the p e r f e c t i v e to low tone and add - d i or - n i w i t h h i g h tone f o r the perfective with - — ? Perfective  imperfective with  toga  change mid tone  imperfective: r  \  imperfective  meaning  bii  biidx  darken, i . e . , of  rjmaa  ijmaadx  step on  m o n o s y l l a b l e s + -dx fall, night  99  Perfective  imperfective  meaning  cii  ciinx  gambol  bie  bieni"*"  belch  monosyllabics + - n i  Aspect Marked by D e l e t i o n ± T o n a l Change. A s m a l l number of Gurma verbs mark aspect by d e l e t i o n of syllable.  T h i s may o r may not be accompanied by t o n a l  In the f o l l o w i n g verbs the p e r f e c t i v e  s t a y s on low  perfective with  '  v  Perfective  final  change.  w i t h low tone f o l l o w e d by  h i g h tone changes to i m p e r f e c t i v e when the f i n a l the r e m a i n i n g s y l l a b l e  the  syllable  is  deleted;  tone:  - -syl —imperfective  with  :  x  imperfective  meaning  buni  bu  consult  ceni  ce  cut,  i.e.,  with  scythe In the f o l l o w i n g v e r b s the p e r f e c t i v e w i t h h i g h tones changes i m p e r f e c t i v e when the f i n a l  syllable  is  deleted:  l a b l e has v e r y h i g h tone and down g l i d e , perfective with perfective buuni  nuuni  1  '  ' - -syl  and i t s  to  the r e m a i n i n g s y l vowel  shortens:  imperfective with  "  imperfective  meaning  bu  mix w i t h w a t e r ,  rju  i . e . , earth, cement pocket  SIC  one would have expected b i e n i ; t h i s  verb  irregular.  datum may be f a u l t y ,  or  flour  the  100  This deletion pattern f o r these two verbs i s an alternate for the addition of - d i or - g i with high tone as shown on page 96 . These variant patterns seem to be i n free alternation; no reason has been found for the v a r i a t i o n . In the following d i s y l l a b i c verbs the perfective with mid tone changes to the imperfective with low tone when the f i n a l s y l l a b l e i s deleted: perfective with Perfective  - -syl  > imperfective with . x  imperfective  meaning  dOni  db  climb  pan!  pa  pay  Aspect Marked by Replacement + Tonal Change. Tonal patterns cited above are generally used with replacement.  The most common pattern:  perfective with  //  - —•>  imperfective with ' ' i s used with replacement and addition of - l i i n these verbs: Perfective cie  imperfective  meaning  cenli  break (as twig, string)  cia  canli  escape  Another common tonal pattern used with replacement i s that cited on pp. 96 and 97, .perfective with high tone changes to imperfective with high tone + - g i : perfective with ' ' — ^  imperfective ' '  ± -gi  101  Perfective  imperfective  meaning  diani  dangi  write  waani  wangi  tell  Another common tonal pattern, that c i t e d on p. 97,  (for someone) .  perfective with low tone —-f imperfective with low tone + a s y l l a b l e with high tone, i s probably r e f l e c t e d i n the following verbs, one of which replaces the consonant of the f i n a l s y l l a b l e , while both have replacive vowels: Perfective  imperfective  meaning  cedi  cieni  leave (off)  binx  biinx  bow  the head  The following verb resembles the pattern on page 99 where perf e c t i v e with low tone followed by high tone changes to imperfective when the f i n a l s y l l a b l e i s deleted. i n the imperfective Perfective buli  However, i n this verb the vowel  lengthens: imperfective  meaning  buu  plant  The following verbs resemble the pattern on page 100, perfective with mid tone changing to imperfective with low tone and deletion of the f i n a l s y l l a b l e .  Deletion co-occurs with this pattern i n these  verbs: Perfective  Two  imperfective  meaning  boni  boe  chat  wali  wu  bathe  replacive verbs have been recorded with a tonal pattern not  102  yet used; they have perfective with high tone and down glide changing to imperfective with replacement of the vowel and low tone: Perfective  imperfective  meaning  cue?  c6  seize  ji&  ja  saw  Another tonal pattern not yet cited occurs with these verbs that have perfective with mid tone and up-glide changing to imperfective with shortened vowel and low tone: Perfective  imperfective  meaning  daa  da  buy  maa  ma  b u i l d (in mud)  puni  puuni  give  This l a s t verb follows the same tonal pattern but lengthens the vowel i n the imperfective rather than shortening i t . A few Gurma verbs have suppletive forms; they are among verbs that occur most frequently i n the language.  In general they follow  tonal patterns already c i t e d . The following verbs follow the tonal pattern just cited f o r daa  (buy).  The perfective has mid tone followed by high tone; the  suppletive form has two low tones; Perfective  imperfective  meaning  sani  txini  run  soani  tuunx  work  // _  The verb gedi (to go) follows the most common of a l l verbal patterns c i t e d on page 92 ; mid tone^  the perfective has very high tone followed by  the suppletive form i n the perfective has only one s y l l a b l e  103  with  high tone: Perfective gedi *,*  imperfective  meaning  ca  go  f  ~  gedini  t  caani  cause to go  The verb gedi (go) has a r e p e t i t i v e form which d i f f e r s from the imperfective, i . e . , ca, to go repeatedly. The following verbs follow the common pattern cited on page 9 7 ; perfective with the low tone changing to imperfective with low tone + an added s y l l a b l e with high tone. Perfective  imperfective  meaning  soarjgi  tuijgidi  care for as nurse  cua  k"pendi  come  cuani  Kpendinni  cause to come  The imperfective of the l a s t verb cuani (cause to come) i s i r r e g u l a r . Inchoative - Causative Forms of Gurma Verbs. Many Gurma verbs have inchoative forms with perfective and imperfective aspects.  These forms may often have the meaning + causative.  Some base verbs have themselves a perfective form only.  The  inchoative perfective of these verbs derives from this perfective form by adding - d i , - g i or - n i and follows one of the common tonal patterns already described.  This inchoative perfective has i t s own  imperfective derived from i t by addition or replacement or suppletion occurring with tonal patterns already c i t e d .  No consistent d i s t i n c t i v e  derivational system for the inchoative has been observed except that i t i s generally formed by addition to the base form.  The inchoative  104  can o f t e n be used b o t h p a s s i v e l y the agent cannot be  and t r a n s i t i v e l y .  If  used  passively  expressed.  Examples grouped a c c o r d i n g to t o n a l p a t t e r n s are now g i v e n : -di) inchoative perfective perfective with + ] glI —ni -  This inchoative perfective  has a r e g u l a r i m p e r f e c t i v e  with  with  perfective  meaning  inchoative perfective  inchoative imperfective  meanxng  banx  know  bandx  bandx~bandx  learn  bangx  barjgx-vbarjgx  teach  be r e d  mo and 37  moandx  become, or make r e d  be straight  cubxnx  cubxndx  become, o r make s t r a i g h t  / a  moanx  cuubi"'"  perfective with (see  page 96  '  ' + -gx — ?  inchoative perfective  with  above).  Perfective  meaning  inchoative perfective  inchoative imperfective  meanxng  kpelx  be o l d  kpelxgx  kpelxgxdx  become, make o l d  koabx  be s h o r t  koabxgi*  koabxgxdx  become, o r make s h o r t  Another t o n a l p a t t e r n not y e t above.  cited  c l o s e l y resembles the  A m o n o s y l l a b i c v e r b w i t h h i g h tone and f a l l i n g g l i d e  The t o n a l p a t t e r n i s  so marked, i . e . ,  forms  h i g h + low, but the d a t a f o r  d e f e c t i v e verbs i n t h i s tonal p a t t e r n only i s even l i k e l y ,  one  confused;  it  seem p o s s i b l e  t h a t the tone s h o u l d be marked v e r y h i g h + m i d :  105  an i n c h o a t i v e p e r f e c t i v e by changing to h i g h l e v e l - l i g i w i t h h i g h tone; i t s  tone and adding  i m p e r f e c t i v e i n c h o a t i v e adds - d i w i t h h i g h  tone: Perfective  meaning  sa  be . insipid be sour  A  mi  inchoative imperfective  meaning  saligi  saligidi  become, o r make insipid  miligi  miligidi  become, sour  inchoative perfective  P e r f e c t i v e v e r b s w i t h mid tone may form an i n c h o a t i v e  or make  perfective  w i t h v e r y h i g h tone f o l l o w e d by mid tone ± an added s y l l a b l e w i t h mid tone.  The i m p e r f e c t i v e i n c h o a t i v e w i l l have h i g h tonet  Perfective  meaning  inchoative perfective  inchoative imperfective  meaning  bia  be e v i l  biagi  biagidi  become, o r make corrupt  m a m  be sharp  ma'hgi  mangi  become, sharp  nagi  be near  nagim  ' ' J' nagmdi  become, o r make near  It  /> r  o r make  P e r f e c t i v e m o n o s y l l a b i c verbs w i t h mid tone 'may form an i n c h o a t i v e p e r f e c t i v e by changing to low tone and adding a s y l l a b l e w i t h h i g h tone* the vowel of the p e r f e c t i v e may a l s o  change:  Perfective  meaning  inchoative perfective  inchoative imperfective  meaning  bii  be dark  biigi  biigidi  become, or make dark  goa  be a s l e e p  guani  guandi  go, or put sleep  P e r f e c t i v e v e r b s w i t h mid tone may form an i n c h o a t i v e  to  perfective  106  by changing to low tone and adding a s y l l a b l e w i t h low t o n e . perfective  inchoative w i l l  add a s y l l a b l e w i t h h i g h  Perfective  meaning  inchoative perfective  coagi  be weary  coagini  yia  be i l l  yiagi  da  be l e v e l  dagini  The i m -  tone:  inchoative imperfective  meaning  coagindi  become, weary  or make  yiagidi  become, ill  o r make  dagindi  become, level  or make  P e r f e c t i v e v e r b s w i t h low tone may change to an i n c h o a t i v e fective set  w i t h v e r y h i g h + mid tone.  (see  have the v a r i a n t p a t t e r n  Perfective  meaning  inchoative perfective  pa  be w e l l  paagi  pieni  be w h i t e  pendi  gbengi  be  gbengi  fat  The f o l l o w i n g p e r f e c t i v e  Imperfective  above page 93  in  paagidi~-  meaning  become, or make w e l l  -  pendi ~ ~ - -  become, or make w h i t e  '  become, o r make f a t  gbengidil - ^ '  v e r b s w i t h low tone s i m p l y add a  to h i g h tone f o r the i n c h o a t i v e  syllable  and change the f i n a l  tone  imperfective:  Perfective  meaning  inchoative perfective  f oagi  be  foagidi  boani  be b l a c k  boandi  this  )  inchoative imperfective  w i t h low tone f o r the i n c h o a t i v e p e r f e c t i v e ,  tall  inchoatives  per-  inchoative imperfective  meaning  foagidf  become, o r make t a l l  boandi  become, o r make b l a c k  107  The f o l l o w i n g p e r f e c t i v e v e r b s w i t h low tone form the p e r f e c t i v e by changing f i n a l  low tone to h i g h tone;  the  inchoative  inchoative  i m p e r f e c t i v e adds a s y l l a b l e w i t h h i g h tone preceded by low  tone.  Perfective  meaning  inchoative perfective  inchoative imperfective  meaning  juagi  be h a r d  juagx  juagidi  become, hard  or make  kuugi  be c o o l  kuugi  kuugidi  become, cool  or make  Many Gurma v e r b s w i t h both p e r f e c t i v e  and i m p e r f e c t i v e a s p e c t s have  a corresponding inchoative p e r f e c t i v e with i t s v e r b s occur i n every t o n a l p a t t e r n and m a n i f e s t  own i m p e r f e c t i v e .  These  a l l the f e a t u r e s  of  v e r b f o r m a t i o n a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d so o n l y t h r e e examples a r e g i v e n : Perfective  imperfective  meaning  inchoative perfective  inchoative imperfective  meaning  cogi  cogi  read  cogini  cogmdi  cause to read  gedi  ca  go  gedini  caani  cause to go  bobi  bbbi  dress  bobini  bobind1  cause to d r e s s up  *  /i  -  R e v e r s i v e Forms of Gurma V e r b s This last verb, bobini  (cause to d r e s s up) i s  an example of  a group o f Gurma v e r b s t h a t share the f e a t u r e of h a v i n g r e v e r s i v e The one form g e n e r a l l y ends i n - n i w h i l e the o t h e r , g e n e r a l l y ends i n - d i .  Each form has i t s  the  forms.  reversive,  own p e r f e c t i v e and i m p e r f e c t i v e  aspect. Only a few examples  of t h i s v e r y common phenomenon are now g i v e n :  108  Perfective  meaning  reversive  meaning  babini  put i n mouth  babidi  take from mouth  babini  take between t o e s  babidi  remove from b e tween toes  bugini  put a handle  bugidi  come o u t , i.e., o f a handle  •u  b o a g'ti n ~i  be s i d e by s i d e  Some in  to  -separate  boagidi  verbs w i t h t h i s phenomenon have the one p e r f e c t i v e  - l i w i t h the r e v e r s i v e i n - d i ,  ending,  e.g.,  pili  put on shoes, e t c .  p'idi.  take o f f  loll  tie  lotti  untie  shoes,  etc.  F u t u r e and Imperative Forms of Gurma Verbs Two of  the t o n a l p a t t e r n s  g i v e n above f u r n i s h most v e r b s w i t h  f u t u r e and i m p e r a t i v e t o n a l p a t t e r n s . on page  their  a) and 4)  These a r e p a t t e r n s  91 and 92.  a)  p e r f e c t i v e w i t h * - —>  d)  perfective  with  '  Verbs f o l l o w i n g e i t h e r the i m p e r f e c t i v e  imperfective with  '  imperfective with  +~ '  '  —>  of  these two p a t t e r n s have the same tone as  i n both the f u t u r e and the i m p e r a t i v e ,  '  '  ' .  e.g.,  meaning  imperfective  future perfective  impererative perfective  babini  take b e tween toes  babindi  babini  babini  koabigi  shorten  koabigidi  koabigi  koabigi  Perfective  ,'/,  ll  r  The f u t u r e and i m p e r a t i v e of these two v e r b s , same t o n a l p a t t e r n s  as the p r e s e n t  imperfective  though h a v i n g  are themselves  the  perfectives.  109  If  an i m p e r f e c t i v e  shortening)  future,  or an i m p e r f e c t i v e  on s h o r t e n i n g  it)  b baa k o a b x g i d i imperative,  must be e x p r e s s e d ,  as the p e r f e c t i v e of  e.g.,  (he w i l l keep on  e.g.,  ya koa'bigi'di (keep  t h i s w i l l have the same t o n a l  f u t u r e or i m p e r a t i v e .  But the i m p e r f e c t i v e  the f u t u r e w i l l be i n d i c a t e d by the i m p e r f e c t i v e  b a a , which i s ;(see  below,  p.  i n c o n t r a s t w i t h the p e r f e c t i v e 114  );  by the i m p e r f e c t i v e contrast  the i m p e r f e c t i v e  A s u b - s e t of  aspect  particle  future p a r t i c l e ba,  i m p e r a t i v e w i l l be  i m p e r a t i v e p a r t i c l e ya. (see  t o the p e r f e c t i v e  future  pattern  below,  p.  indicated  115),  in  i m p e r a t i v e which has no p a r t i c l e .  the v e r b s w i t h p e r f e c t i v e  with very high followed  by  low t o n e , and i m p e r f e c t i v e w i t h h i g h tones have t h e i r f u t u r e and imperative with tonal patterns  l i k e the p e r f e c t i v e  r a t h e r than  the  imperfective,e.g., Perfective  "  meaning  imperfective  future perfective  read  cogi  cogi  cogi  The c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c h o a t i v e v e r b c o g i n i  (cause to read)  -  cogi  i, -  b e l o n g to t h i s s u b - s e t , but to the main s e t ; imperative tonal patterns n a  -r  cogini  cause to  '/imperative perfective  are l i k e the f t - , '  i.e.,  its  -  does not  f u t u r e and  imperfective: '  cogmdi  h  i  cogini  t  '  i  t  cogini  read A s u b - s e t of  the v e r b s w i t h p r e s e n t  w i t h h i g h tone has f u t u r e p e r f e c t i v e h i g h tone f o l l o w e d by low t o n e ,  e.g.  perfective  and  imperfective  and i m p e r a t i v e p e r f e c t i v e  alike  with  110  Perfective  meaning  imperfective  future perfective  imperative perfective  diani  write  daiigx  diani  diani  A fairly perfective  common p a t t e r n  (see  above p p . 91 and 98  w i t h mid tone and p r e s e n t  s y l l a b l e w i t h low tone.  meaning  present  i m p e r f e c t i v e w i t h low tone ± a  The f u t u r e and i m p e r a t i v e of verbs w i t h  p a t t e r n have mid tone l i k e the p e r f e c t i v e Perfective  ) has  imperfective  as  this  follows:  future  imperative  perfective  perfective  fjmaa  step on  rjmaadi  Qmaa  rpaa  doni  climb  db  doni  doni  A s u b - s e t w i t h a p a t t e r n v e r y l i k e the l a s t one t h a t adds a syllable  i n the i m p e r f e c t i v e  (see  above page 98 ) has i t  f u t u r e and i m p e r a t i v e not shown o n l y by the p a r t i c l e s set,  but a l s o by an added s y l l a b l e w i t h h i g h t o n e ,  future perfective  future imperfective  imperfective  as does the  e . g . , ( t o pounce on)  imperative perfective  imperative imperfective  r  ba b i b i  baa b i b i n i  last  _  bfbf  _  ya b i b i n i  A s u b - s e t of a few v e r y f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g v e r b s w i t h  perfective  w i t h mid tone and i m p e r f e c t i v e w i t h vowel s h o r t e n i n g and low tone has f u t u r e and i m p e r a t i v e w i t h mid tone as Perfective  daa  meaning  buy  Two v e r b s w i t h t h i s  follows:  imperfective  da  future  imperative  perfective  perfective  da  t o n a l p a t t e r n have the one a s u p p l e t i v e ,  a r e p l a c i v e form i n the f u t u r e and i m p e r a t i v e ,  da the  other  i.e.,  dini  eat  di  ji  ji  puni  give  puuni  pa  pa  Ill  A s u b - s e t of  t h i s p a t t e r n t h a t has p e r f e c t i v e  i m p e r f e c t i v e w i t h low tone ± e i t h e r pg.  101)  w i t h mid tone and  d e l e t i o n o r replacement  has h i g h tone i n the f u t u r e and i m p e r a t i v e as  (see  above  follows:  Perfective  meaning  imperfective  future perfective  imperative perfective  boni  chat  boe  boe  boe  The l a r g e group of verbs w i t h p r e s e n t and p r e s e n t  imperfective  perfective  w i t h low tone  ± an added s y l l a b l e w i t h h i g h tone has  w i t h v e r y h i g h tone f o l l o w e d by f o l l o w e d by h i g h tone as  future  mid t o n e , and i m p e r a t i v e w i t h mid tone  follows:  Perfective  meaning  imperfective  future perfective  imperative perfective  naani  cook by boiling  naandi  naani  naani  A s u b - s e t of v e r b s w i t h p r e s e n t  perfective  sent i m p e r f e c t i v e w i t h low tone w i t h f i n a l  w i t h low tone and  s y l l a b l e with high tone,  a l s o has the f u t u r e w i t h v e r y h i g h tone f o l l o w e d by mid tone l i k e p a t t e r n above,  but d i f f e r s  kuadi  sell  from i t  tone (see  kuadi  kuadi  97 ) ,  kuadi  perfective  i m p e r f e c t i v e w i t h low tone w i t h f i n a l  above p g .  has the i m p e r a t i v e w i t h mid t o n e .  tone,  The f u t u r e ,  l i k e the  last  has f u t u r e w i t h low tone but an u p - g l i d e r i s i n g to v e r y h i g h  on the f u t u r e time, marker which precedes the v e r b , 114  w i t h low  s y l l a b l e with high  i n s t e a d of h a v i n g v e r y h i g h tone f o l l o w e d by m i d - t o n e , set,  as  follows):  the  i n the i m p e r a t i v e which has low tone:  Another s u b - s e t of v e r b s w i t h p r e s e n t and p r e s e n t  pre-  (see  below page  112  Perfective  cua  meaning  imperfective  come  Kbend!  future  imperative  perfective  perfective  ba. . cua  cua  A l e s s common p a t t e r n w i t h p r e s e n t p e r f e c t i v e w i t h low tone and present  i m p e r f e c t i v e w i t h mid tone (see  above p g .  95 ) ,  has f u t u r e w i t h  low tone a g a i n preceded by the f u t u r e p a r t i c l e w i t h mid tone and a v e r y high r i s i n g g l i d e , nidi  and i m p e r a t i v e w i t h mid tone as  follows:  wash nidi ba n i d i nidi (hands) Another l e s s common p a t t e r n has p r e s e n t p e r f e c t i v e w i t h low tone  f o l l o w e d by high:tone and p r e s e n t  i m p e r f e c t i v e w i t h low tone and h i g h  tone on an added s y l l a b l e ,  (see  above p g . 98  ) has f u t u r e w i t h h i g h  tone f o l l o w e d by low t o n e ,  and i m p e r a t i v e w i t h  v  ' :  Perfective  meaning  imperfective  future perfective  imperative perfective  t6ngi  heat  tbngidi  toijgi  tbngi  The t a b l e on the f o l l o w i n g page (113) the t o n a l p a t t e r n s future perfective  observed i n p r e s e n t and i m p e r a t i v e  Verbal p a r t i c l e s .  perfective,  of v e r b s and 1  present  imperfective,  perfective.  Gurma v e r b s are always marked f o r non-pEesent  time by p a r t i c l e s which precede the v e r b . present  gives"examples  The p r e s e n t p e r f e c t i v e ,  i m p e r f e c t i v e and the i m p e r a t i v e a r e unmarked f o r t i m e .  the  All  o t h e r tenses a r e marked by p a r t i c l e s . There are two markers f o r p a s t tense : not f a r t h e r back than the same h a l f  bi_  day; den i n d i c a t e s  These p a r t i c l e s occur w i t h mid tone which i s environment.  indicates  immediate  other past  influenced very little  The n a s a l of den i s homorganic w i t h the f o l l o w i n g  past, time. by  con-  113  T a b l e o f Gurma v e r b t o n a l f u t u r e and i m p e r a t i v e .  p a t t e r n s showing p e r f e c t i v e ,  imperfective,  T a b l e 5.  Perfective  Imperfective  Future  Imperative  Meaning  // dxni  dxndi  dlni  dini  feed  *  Ii  -  cogxni  c6gindi  cogi  c6gi  h  '  c 6 g i n i — •- ' c o g x n i c3gi *  '  t e a c h to read  cSgi  read  m%.  forge metal  ma  ma  koabigi  koabxgxdx  koabigi  koabigi  shorten  dianx  daijgx  diani  diani  write  ijuunx  ijuuni  pocket  ijuunx  ma  ijmaa  ijmaadx  fjmaa  rjmaa  s t e p on  biigx  bxigxdx  bligi  biigi  darken  dinx  di  je  je  eat  boni  boe  boe  boe  chat  naanx  ijaandx  riaanx  boil  kuadi.  kuadi  kuadi  kuadx  sell  cua  Kpendi  cua  cua  come  nxdx  nidi  nxdx  nidi  wash (hands)  tbngx  tongxdx  tongx  v t tongx  *  -  naanx  heat  114  sonant; i t i s always f u l l y a r t i c u l a t e d .  These markers are used with  the present perfective and imperfective i n f l e c t i o n s to indicate past time. A negative p a r t i c l e _g_i may precede either of these p a r t i c l e s . If i t does, the noun or pronoun subject, S_, w i l l not have a negative form.  The negative p a r t i c l e _gi appears to be i n free v a r i a t i o n  with the negative form of S_ (see above pp. 83  and 85 ).  The p a r t i c l e dja. ( s t i l l ) may occur before the imperfective, e.g., 6 da co'gi" (he i s s t i l l reading).  The negative daa (not yet) may  occur before the perfective, e.g., b daa bandi (he doesn't know, i . e . hasn't learned, y e t ) . The future of Gurma verbs i s indicated by p a r t i c l e s which precede the verb, as well as by tonal changes.  The future p a r t i c l e s alone may  distinguish between future perfective and future imperfective. The future perfective p a r t i c l e i s ba with mid tone.  But i f the verb  following ba. has low tone, ba w i l l have a very high r i s i n g g l i d e , e.g., b ba cua (he w i l l come). The future imperfective p a r t i c l e i s baa apparently i n free v a r i a t i o n with ba ya.  The future negative perfective p a r t i c l e i s kan. Both  p a r t i c l e s precede the verb. are kan ya.  The future negative imperfective p a r t i c l e s  Except f o r the change of tone mentioned above for ba, tone  on future p a r t i c l e s i s not greatly influenced by the environment. The imperative has no marker i n the perfective p o s i t i v e singular. The imperative p l u r a l w h e t h e r perfective or imperfective, p o s i t i v e or negative, has the p a r t i c l e man! immediately after the verb.  The  115  negative perfective  i m p e r a t i v e is  da; the n e g a t i v e i m p e r f e c t i v e Examples cogi  ya*.  imperative i s  (read - s g . ) (don't  cSgi  preceded by da y a .  c o g i mani - (read -  read - s g . )  da c o g i man!  (keep on r e a d i n g - s g . )  da ya co'gi  (don't  da ya c&gi m i n i  keep on r e a d i n g -  (don't  keep on r e a d i n g -  on the f i r s t  syllable  last syllable.  its  pi.) read -  (keep on r e a d i n g -  pi)) s y l l a b l e which causes  But i f mani i t s e l f  own tone may become lower.  must be made b e f o r e more  can be made about the t o n a l p a t t e r n s w i t h t h i s  not  the  detailed  particle.  When Gurma v e r b s occur i n a s e r i e s w i t h a common is  is  T o n a l changes  of mani a p p a r e n t l y determine the tone of  More o b s e r v a t i o n s  pi.)  sg.)  a p r e c e d i n g h i g h tone on the verb to be h i g h e r . preceded by a lower t o n e ,  (don't  y a c<5gi mani  The p a r t i c l e mani has v e r y h i g h tone on the f i r s t  rules  particle  follow:  cSgi  da  marked by the p r e c e d i n g  subject:  a)  the s u b j e c t  repeated,  b)  any time marker o c c u r s w i t h the f i r s t  c)  the v e r b s are j o i n e d i n one of two ways which appear to  verb and i s  not  repeated, be  i n free v a r i a t i o n : i.  the p a r t i c l e j * i may o c c u r between the b den fx g i gedi' dempo.  ii)  the vowel of the b den f i x  If lated,  first  g e d i dempo  (He got  vowel  up and went home)  verb may be  lengthened:  (He got up and went home)  t h e r e are three v e r b s i n the s e r i e s , the lengthened  verbs:  and two a r e c l o s e l y  w i l l o c c u r between these two,  p a r t i c l e j | i w i l l occur between one of  re-  and the  these and the t h i r d v e r b :  pi.)  116 6 den f i i c i i n d i g i kuni  (He got up and sneezed, and went home)  6 den f i g i k u n i i dxni  (He got up, and went home and ate)  Table of Noun and Verb Tonal Patterns Discussed. Simple nouns  +Possessive /  t  t  ii  Table 6.  +Relative  it  it  a  t  f  f  fi it  it  Verbs Perfective  Imperfective  Future  Imperative  n  it t  t  r  t  t  i  i  t  t  \  \  /  t r  t  t  t  f  f  ~  t  t  f  t  117 A n a l y s i s o f a Typical,"Gurma  Sentence  T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l be l i m i t e d to a b r i e f  d i s c u s s i o n of Gurma grammar  u s i n g examples i n which the morphemes are embedded i n a u t h e n t i c Gurma sentences.  These examples w i l l  o caanl 5 (  0  (  show some s a l i e n t  koabfgidxtx jdaadxgl'bxgl po. 0  C|  features  of  (the guest i s  the  language.  shortening  the s t a k e s f o r the c h i l d ) . The segmented  sentence f o l l o w s ,  i s o l a t i o n are g l o s s e d , it  then the f e a t u r e s  o c c u r s i n the sentence a r e o 4- j c a a n + i +  ( '  (  0  of each word as g l o s s e d  and as  discussed.  ^ - ) + 0 + ^koabi + g i + d i + ( '  + t i + d a a + d i + ( ' ~ ~) o+caan+o  then the words as they would o c c u r - i n  + g i +'bi + g i + ( ~  '  * '  ) +  (  '  )  po + ( - ) .  guest + the + s i n g u l a r + animate  zero time marker — p r e s e n t  koabi+gx+dx tx+daa+dx  short + t r a n s i t i v i z e r + continuative wood + the + p l u r a l + inanimate + c o l l e c t i v e  gx+bx+ga c h i l d + the + s i n g u l a r + s m a l l ± animate po  for Gurma sentences f o l l o w the o r d e r s u b j e c t - v e r b - o b j e c t ,  can r e a d i l y be seen i f ation,  sentence 1 i s w r i t t e n w i t h i t s words as i f  and w i t h a g l o s s beneath:  ocaano the guest i s  S V 0.  koabigidi  tidaadi  gibiga  s h o r t e n i n g the s t a k e s the c h i l d  for  po  This  in isol-  118  The v e r b k o a b i g i d i has s e v e r a l f e a t u r e s a) i-  n  it  ends i n - C V and - V i s  ~C + ~ i when sentence b)  It  imperfective, c)  The morpheme - d i w i t h h i g h tone sometimes  but i f  as i t  it  is  an added s u f f i x  the meaning + c a u s a t i v e ,  + ^+ " V  (see  between p e r f e c t i v e  i . e . , k o a b i (to be s h o r t ) + - g i - f r  .  own t o n a l p a t t e r n , i . e . ,  more than h a l f  high + high +  In t h i s v e r b no t o n a l c o n t r a s t o c c u r s w i t h the  koabigi.  As has  p?.!?882) most Gurma v e r b s do have a t o n a l c o n t r a s t  and i m p e r f e c t i v e ,  perfective with  short).  an added morpheme i t may c a r r y  t o n a l p a t t e r n which i s h i g h + h i g h + h i g h ,  been shown above  e)  which may a l s o  shorten).  high + high,  perfective  is  as i t does h e r e ,  The v e r b k o a b i g i d i has i t s  perfective  almost always means +  i s preceded by the morpheme - g i ,  be p a r t o f the verb base; but i f - g i  d)  it  occurs  does h e r e .  The morpheme - d i  k o a b i g i (to  A l l Gurma p o l y s y l l a b i c v e r b s end  final.  ends i n - d i .  i n the v e r b b a s e ,  / i / .  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Gurma v e r b s :  -  —9  the commonest p a t t e r n b e i n g :  i m p e r f e c t i v e w i t h "* "* .  With p r o b a b l y  of a l l Gurma v e r b s t o n a l c o n t r a s t alone d i s t i n g u i s h e s  from the  imperfective.  the stem k o a b i -  is  synonymous w i t h the verb b a s e ,  The sentence t i d a a d i k o a b i  t i d S a d T k o a b i g i (the  (the  s t a k e s are s h o r t )  s t a k e s have been shortened)  as they are i n E n g l i s h .  But the form k o a b i g i d i  koabi and the  k o a b i g i d i used i n sentence 1.  That i s ,  may be used p a s s i v e l y o r a c t i v e l y . expressed.  (to be sentence  are n e a r l y synonymous, which has j u s t been used  p a s s i v e l y i s homophonous segmentally and s u p r a - s e g m e n t a l l y w i t h the  agent can not be  the  form  t h i s Gurma v e r b , l i k e many o t h e r s ,  However, i f  it  i s used p a s s i v e l y ,  the  1.19  f)  the v e r b k o a b x g i d i has a 0 tense marker d e n o t i n g p r e s e n t  i n c o n t r a s t w i t h o t h e r tense m a r k e r s , e . g . , tidaadx  (the  o'caanT + bx_ + k o a b i g i d i +  guest was j u s t now s h o r t e n i n g the s t a k e s ) where bx i s  tense marker d e n o t i n g immediate p a s t ; or i m p e r f e c t i v e aspect,  i t may be used w i t h  a  perfective  ocaanx + baa + koabxgxdx txdaadx j(the guest  going to be s h o r t e n i n g the s t a k e s ) , where baa i s f u t u r e used w i t h the i m p e r f e c t i v e The s u b j e c t ocaano, features  time  is  a tense marker d e n o t i n g  aspect.  the a c t o r ,  a l s o has manly o f the  characteristic  o f Gurma nouns:  a)  i t begins in this  similar,  and ends w i t h p h o n e t i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l segments,  case  and . - o ,  and most Gurma nouns have p h o n e t i c a l l y  i f not i d e n t i c a l , a f f i x e s  which o c c u r i n p a i r s , s i n g u l a r and  plural. b)  the a f f i x p a i r of the noun ocaano, o - o,  singular.  If  the meaning p l u r a l  (-  s i n g u l a r ) were to be marked, the  o - o would be changed to the p a i r b i - b a , e . g . , A t a b l e of the a f f i x plural  guests).  i s now g i v e n :  o - o  / * ocaano  stranger  2 bi  1  o - o  ocuado  in-law  3 aa -  4  o  -  oja  man  2 bi -  1  o  - o  o taamo  horse  5 i  4  o  -  y onua  cow  6  7 o - u  // . osanu  8 bu -• bu  -  - ba  bxcaamba  the  strangers  da  acuada  the  in-laws  ba  bxjaba  the men  - i  xt aamx  the  i  - e  xne  the cows  path  9 i  - i  9- -  the  otibu  tree  9i  - di  ^daagu  wood  11 t i  1%  litiii  book  13 a, • ".a  atila  1^  "Mciei. L  Iiou.se  14 a  ad:.en?.  0  0  gu -• gu li  bxcaamba (the  pair  p a i r s , showing t h e i r double p a i r i n g f o r s i n g u l a r  1  10  has the meaning +  -  0 -  i s an-i  di  ns.  horses  paths  ltudi  trees  txdaadx  wood  (collec.)  ok s housf":;,  -  120  12  l i - Mi litili  book  13 a -  la  atila  12  l i - l i lidieli  house  14 a - na  adiena  /*  /  \  15  l i - l a libonkalikaala chair  16  g i - ga  gisanga  18  mi - ma  minima  19  0 - 0 c)  bowl  17  water  o-,  bowls  gerunds)  0-mba sojeemba  20  soldiers  o f the a c t o r noun ocaano has d e t e r m i n a t i v e  I f two people i n a hut hear a n o i s e o u t s i d e ,  to the ob.her, fjmee y^ l i k a n i ? r e p l y , ocaano  mi - mu musammu  (mass nouns,  soldier  The p r e f i x o-  connotation.  houses  v. \  V  soje  books  (Who i s  there?).  one may say  The l a t t e r may w e l l  (the s t r a n g e r ) which i s marked +determined by the  affix,  and would i n d i c a t e t h a t a c e r t a i n s t r a n g e r , one a l r e a d y named,  discussed, d) affix  expected,  etc.,  the a f f i x p a i r ,  e) in final closely  the s u f f i x - o  there.  o - o, has the f e a t u r e -(-animate, as do the  p a i r s of c l a s s e s 1,  marked +human i n t h i s  was  2,  3, 4,  5,  and 6.  Only c l a s s e s 2 and 3 are  system of numbering. which appears when ocaano i s  p o s i t i o n has changed to j M i n t h i s l i n k e d to the f o l l o w i n g word.  i n i s o l a t i o n or  sentence where ocaano  is  P h o n e t i c change of an u n s t r e s s e d  f i n a l noun vowel when the noun i s not u t t e r a n c e f i n a l  is  characteristic  f o r Gurma. f)  the tone p a t t e r n of the noun ocjfano, high+ high+ m i d , '  may be d e s c r i b e d as h a v i n g the f e a t u r e - p o s s e s s e d . (the guest) i s  pattern  "*"  The form ocaano  i n c o n t r a s t w i t h the form ocaano* ( h i s guest)  through the c o n t r a s t between the t o n a l p a t t e r n (high+high+mid i s  '  ' ~  *  solely  and the t o n a l  i n c o n t r a s t w i t h mid+high+very h i g h  121  +downglide,  see  pg.  74 a b o v e ) .  The importance of tone d i s t i n c t i o n s  Gurma may be f u r t h e r shown by the f o u r f o l l o w i n g l o o k - a l i k e s o c c u r s i n sentence No. 1, '  1.  g)  i  pg.  the  guest guest  ocaano'  his  3.  bcaano  he i s  4.  bcaano  he i s v i s i t i n g him  accompanying him  the base of the noun ocaano,  -caan- is  form caani. of the verb c a n i , often  probably r e l a t e d  (to v i s i t ,  to  be guest  of).  found i n Gurma nouns and v e r b s .  The second noun, t i d a a d i (the member of noun c l a s s 1 as l i s t e d its  1 .  117.  2.  This relationship i s  a)  - no.  -  ocaano  the i m p e r f e c t i v e  in  p r e f i x t i - marks i t  stakes)  above.  the p a t i e n t noun, i s  I t has these  as + d e f i n i t e ;  a  characteristics:  these a r e c e r t a i n , known  stakes. b)  the p r e f i x _ti a l s o marks i t  c)  the a f f i x  i.e.,  plural.  d)  the p l u r a l markers t i - d i a l s o mark t h i s noun as  possibly  collective,  p a i r t i - d i mark i t  many p l u r a l s i n t h i s  than as count nouns, e)  e.g.,  b)  as - s i n g u l a r ,  c l a s s b e i n g viewed c o l l e c t i v e l y  // _ _  tiyudi (hair),  /" -  This order i s  The t h i r d noun g i b i g a has these  child,  -animate  the p a t i e n t noun t i d a a d i precedes  the a c t i o n of the v e r b .  a)  as  its  p r e f i x g i - marks i t  but a c e r t a i n its  affix  /  / -  timuadi  - /_  rather  (grass).  gibiga,  the b e n e f i c i a r y  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Gurma  syntax.  characteristics:  as + d e f i n i t e :  this  i s not j u s t  one. p a i r g i - ga mark i t  as  +singular.  of  any  122  c) ±animate,  this affix  c l a s s , no.  16,  is  the c l a s s of s m a l l o r young  things  so g i b i g a i s marked as s m a l l or young, but not marked f o r  the animate or the human f e a t u r e . d)  the ending b e f o r e p_o, i . e . , - g i ,  occur i n i s o l a t i o n , ending i n - g a ,  i.e.,  -ga.  It  the one t h a t would  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Gurma nouns  and a l s o those ending i n -ma and - b a ,  are not sentence or phrase f i n a l , morphophonemic change, 78)  is  i s not  e.g.,  11)  if  that  a)  as f o r +possessed-  a postposition.  It  is  characteristic  marked f o r t o n e , po_ ( f o r ) ,  a p a r t from the segmentally with high tone.  they  (see  above,  p p . 74  vowel.  is:  they o c c u r w i t h p o s t p o s i t o n s r a t h e r than w i t h b)  if  they have not undergone a  t h e i r f i n a l vowel changes to a h i g h e r more f r o n t e d The word p_o ( f o r )  1)  mid tone.  homophonous p_o_ ( t o ,  of Gurma nouns  that  prepositons. T h i s keeps i t  clearly  f r o m ) , which o c c u r s  -  123  Bibliography Books A l e x a n d r e , Gustave.  L a Langue more.  Bendor-Samuel, John.  Me^moires. Dakar: IF AN, 1953.  "Niger-Congo, Gur,"  Sub-Sahara, v o l . 7, 1971,  of C u r r e n t Trends i n L i n g u i s t i c s , gen. ed. Thomas A. Sebeok. The Hague: Mouton. Chantoux, A., G o n t i e r , A., and P r o s t , A. Grammaire gourmantche^ I n i t i a t i o n s e t etudes a f r i c a i n e s no. X X I I I .  Dakar: IFAN, 1968.  C h r i s t a l l e r , Johann G o t t l i e b . A Grammar o f t h e A s a n t e and F a n t e Languages Called Tshi. Clarke, J .  Basel:  1875.  Specimens o f d i a l e c t s . . .  i n Africa.  Berwick-on-Tweed/  London, 1948, r e p r i n t ed. Farnborough: Gregg, 1972. Cornevin, Robert.  H i s t o i r e de l ' A f r i q u e .  Delafosse, Maurice.  Paris:  P a y o t , 1962.  "Langues du Soudan e t de l a Guine'e,"  du monde, ed. A. M e i l l e t e t M. Cohen.  Paris:  Centre  Les Langues national  de l a r e c h e r c h e s c i e n t i f i q u e , 1924, r e p r i n t ed., P a r i s :  Champion,  1952. Doke, C. M.  The S o u t h e r n Bantu Languages.  London:  Oxford  University  London:  Longmans, Green,  P r e s s , 1954. .  Bantu L i n g u i s t i c T e r m i n o l o g y .  1935. F o r t u n e , George.  An A n a l y t i c a l Grammar o f Shona.  London:  Longmans,  Green, 1955. Greenberg, J o s e p h H. S t u d i e s i n A f r i c a n L i n g u i s t i c C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Compass P u b l i s h i n g  Company.  New Haven, 1955.  124  .  The Languages of A f r i c a .  Guides b l e u e s , L e s . Hachette,  Afrique occidentale  francaise:  Hume, M r s . J e a n .  Togo.  Paris:  M i s s i o n a r y House,  Fada N'Gurma, c a .  Polyglotta Africana.  1854,  reprint ed.,  Sprachen der Hamiten.  Oldendorp, C h r i s t i a n Georg A n d r e a s .  London:  (Typewritten). Church  Graz, A u s t r i a :  1963.  Geschicte  der M i s s i o n der Inseln,  S. Thomas,  U n i v e r s i t y of Ghana,  The Phonology of Konkomba.  en langue gourmantche de T r e s s a n , de L a v e r g n e . Memoires n o .  (Gourma)) . Inventaire  30.  Dakar:  Westermann, D. and Ward, Ida C . A f r i c a n Languages.  Press,  London:  Paris:  IFAN,  de l ' A . O . F .  et  1958.  du  1953.  P r a c t i c a l Phonetics  f o r Students of  Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s  r e p r i n t e d . London:  Testament  L a Socie'te' B i b l i q u e ,  linguistique  The Languages of West A f r i c a . 1952,  Accra:  1966.  TIDIEDO JESU K I L I S I T I TICANDAANO YANANTAADI-PAANO (Le Nouveau  .  S.  1777.  S t e e l e , Mary and Wood, G r e t c h e n .  Togo.  Hair.  Hamburg, 1912.  E v a n g e l i s c h e n Briider aus den c a r a i b i s c h e n Barby. L e i p z i g ,  1940.  I n t r o d u c t i o n by P . E . H .  Akademische Druck - u . V e r l a g s a n s t a l t . Carl.  London:  f o r L A I , 1948.  A Gurma Grammar.  Sigismund W i l h e l m .  IAS,  1963.  The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the Bantu Languages.  Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press  Meinhoff,  Mouton,  1958.  G u t h r i e , Malcolm.  Koelle,  The Hague:  for IAI,  1964.  London Oxford U n i v e r s i t y  Dawsons,  1970.  125  Articles C h r i s t a l l e r , Johan Gottlieb. Sprachbrochen aus dem Sudan von 40 b i s 60 Sprachen und Mundarten hinter der Gold-und-Sklavenk'uste.  11  Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r Afrikanische Sprachen. 3:133-154 (Berlin,. 1889/90). Dalby, David.  "Reflections on the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of A f r i c a n Languages."  A f r i c a n Language Studies, XI. London, 1971. Delafosse, Maurice.  "Memoires de l a Societe de l i n g u i s t i q u e de P a r i s . "  16(6): 386-395, P a r i s : 1911. Grand Dictionnaire universal du XIX s i e c l e , 1873, s.v. "Hannon". Guthrie, Malcolm.  Review of "Languages of A f r i c a . "  J.A.H. 11:135-136.  1962. Hair, P. E. H. "Collections of Vocabularies the Polyglotta: Kunene, E. P.  A Key."  of West A f r i c a before  JAfrL, 1966, 5:3:211-214.  "The ideophone i n Southern Sotho." J A f r l ,  Mercier, Paul, "Gourma" Newman, Paul.  1965:4:20.  Dakar: IFAN, 1954:12-15.  Ideophones from a Syntactic Point of View."  JWAL, 1968;  2:107-117. :"La Langue gourma dans l a Polyglotta Africana."  Prost, A.  Language Review. .  African  1966;5:134.  Determining the Meaning of Ideophones."  JWAL.  1967:IV:  2:35-41. .  "Appropriateness and Metaphor i n the Use of Ideophones."  Orbis. 1971:20: 356-369. . XLL.  "Survey of Bantu Ideophones:. A f r i c a n Language Studies,  London, 1971. Bibliography.  126  Westermann, D. Bantu." v o l . 30. .  "Die westlichen Sudansprachen und ihre Beziehungen zum  Mittheilungen des Seminars f u r o r i e n t a l i s c h e Sprachen, Berlin:1927. "African L i n g u i s t i c C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . " A f r i c a .  22:252. 1952.  APPENDIX 1 Ideophones  127  i n Gurma  Anyone s t u d y i n g Gurma, though c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r a n t of  linguistic  t r e n d s , must be impressed by the f r e q u e n t o c c u r r e n c e of words seem d i f f e r e n t  from a l l the o t h e r words i n the language.  rence o f such words, known as ideophones  that  The o c c u r -  - i d e a sounds - as  discussed  by Samarin andeNewmaririscGommonot6.fAfricane-languages. A b i b l i o g r a p h y c o m p i l e d by P r o f e s s o r Samarin l i s t i n g m a t e r i a l s c o n t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about ideophones has over one hundred i t e m s , earliest of  h a v i n g been p u b l i s h e d i n 1850.  the works l i s t e d fra/te been p u b l i s h e d  shows the i n c r e a s e d  present  interest  That over s e v e n t y - f i v e i n the l a s t  affectifs,  unites  of an i d e a i n s o u n d ' . exclamation,  mimic nouns, i n t e n s i v e  interjections,  the ideophone as a ' v i v i d  F o r t u n e (1955:421) d e f i n e s  c o l o u r , sound, s m e l l ,  are ono-  Doke (1935:118) - who may  it  sometimes onomatopoeic, which i n d i c a t e s  of a c t i o n , a s t a t e ,  years  i n t h i s c a t e g o r y o f words.  polymonemes, mots-images.  have c r e a t e d the term - d e f i n e s  percent  twenty-five  Among the names v a r i o u s a u t h o r s have g i v e n to ideophones matopoeic a d v e r b s , i n t e n s i f i e r s ,  the  as  it  as a d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f a c t i o n s and s t a t e s .  It  is  felt  ' a v i v i d or g r a p h i c  an a c t i o n o r manner  or s e n s a t i o n ' .  defines  representation  Kunene (1965:20)  t h a t the Gurma ideophones now l i s t e d may be but a s m a l l  sampling of a f a i r l y  l a r g e c l a s s of words.  why Gurma ideophones  'seem d i f f e r e n t '  and why such a d j e c t i v e s  as  'vivid'  But these few examples  from o t h e r words i n the  show  language,  and ' d r a m a t i c ' are a p p l i c a b l e .  It  should be mentioned b e f o r e the words are read t h a t they are to be  thought  of as b e i n g s a i d w i t h some added f o r c e o r c l e a r n e s s  that  helps  to make them stand o u t .  or intonation  128  1  ideophone  example (the gloss i s underlined)  bag! bagf  0 maadi bagi bagi.  (He talks very much)  0 kpaani bagi bagi. 2. b e l i  beli  L i se b e l i b e l i  (He i s proclaiming very loudly)  (It stands very high)  3. b i d i b i d - ± l  Mi  4. bTmm  L i b i i g i bimm (It i s very dark)  5. caorj  Oyienu n kua yayogunu gu yen moandi caorj.  na b i d i bid-i  ( I t , i . e . , the water, i s sputtering out).  (When the sun  goes down i t i s often very red). v  Bee n t i e n i caoj yeni?  caorj  (Asked when food dropped into  hot f a t - what made that s i z z l i n g noise?)  7. cap  0 pundi g i sedi cap (He has arrived and stopped exactly (onr the l i n e ) .  8. c a s  A maadi yeni cas (You have said exactly that).  x  9. cob(i) c o b ( i ) ^ Unglossed 10. c o l i  coli  J a n l i foagi c o l i c o l i ( J a n l i i s very  11. c o l i  coli  Mijiima pubi c o l i c o l i (The water drips constantly).  tall)  12. c o l i p c o l i p  0 duugi colip c o l i p (He limps along)  13. colu  drop by drop  14. c6*ndi co'ndi  0 g~bagidii d i i d i condi condi (He turned and looked a l l around)  15. cu(uuu) cu(u'u'u) I d i wutti cuuuu (The grain i s running out f a s t ) . i i Gitaagi mi cuu cuu. i i i Cu cu yogunu  (It i s raining hard)  p i a mikoma (Hard (raining) time has  hunger, i . e . , there i s near famine during the rainy season). iv  Okpaataali cu.  (His pantlegs come right down ( i . e . ,  to his heels).  Tonal data are lacking f o r some of the ideophones and f o r a l l of the examples showing them i n context.  16.  dindini  carefully  •  17.  faaaa  0 noadi gijuga faaaa (He has put the k n i f e a l l  L z y  the way into the scabbard). 18.  fa"  fai  Li  nudi g i nani f a i f a i .  ( I t , i . e . , the stain,  has washed out completely). 19.  fas  0 bani fas  20.  fiiii  0 g"bengi f i i i i  (He knows a l l about i t ) (He's very fat)  21.  g a n i gani"*"  Li  22.  geli  Soje sedi geni geni (The soldier has stood  23.  g e n i geni"*"  24.  jaaaa  Astonishment  25.  ja ja ja jaja  ( no no no no no)  26.  jegi  (very much - with the verb  27.  jo  28.  kabi kabi  geli"*"  mi gani gani (It has rained a l i t t l e )  absolutely r i g i d )  jegi  /Ijuo  'tremble')  (surprise - unpleasant) a de kabi kabi (They, i . e . , a t i l a (the books) are exactly a l i k e ) .  29.  kala kala  Bi  wuli mitambima kala kala.  (They have dumped  the sand i n heaps). 30.  kalam kalam  0 boani kalam kalam (She i s very black)  31.  Kpada  0 mandi Icpada- (He i s perspiring very much)  32.  Kpa Kpa  Osanu se kpa Kpa (The path i s very s t r a i g h t ) .  33.  kubiligap kubiligap  0 n a l i kubiligap kubiligap (He i s swallowing noisily)  34.  Jiiii  N nua gu j i i i i i okorjkorjgu,  (I can barely see i t , i . e . , the thorn)  35.  padap  0 pua padap (He h i t i t wham)  36.  pai pai  Waano p a i pai ( T e l l him p l a i n l y )  130 37.  pa'lxgi.da p a l i g i d a  0 tua p a l i g i d a p a l i g i d a (The horse  is  making a noise l i k e p...p...) 38.  pampani  0 cuaa sua ke n da tieni. pampani (He came and found that I had just done i t ) .  39.  pampani  Mubini pampani (Hold i t very firmly)  40.  pepe  Waano pepe (Tell, him p l a i n l y )  41.  puo puo  B i k u l i de puo puo.  (They are exactly the  same size) 42.  sair;  Libabuuli ya buaa j<ia l i yen kubi saitj (When a limb has been 'asleep'), when the numbness i s about to leave i t , i t keeps tingling.  The range of meaning of kubi  sajq here i s not yet known. 43.  so do*d6do  L i moani sodododo (It's very red)  44.  tia  L i jfbie t i a (It's very f u l l )  45.  tontonl  Gedi tontoni (Go quickly)  46.  ya ya  A kubi ya ya (You're a l l wrought up).  This  second idiom with kubi, kubi ya ya, i s not understood 47.  yegi yegi  either).  L i moani yegi yegi (It's very red)  The following ideophones may form a sub-set.  They occur with ttiej.  (to be, the copula), i t s inchoative tua, (to become), or with y_e (to be, the locative), 48.  fila/fida  0 t i e f i d a (He, i . e . , the baby, i s f a t )  49.  gbaaa  Dinla t i e g~baaa (It's misty today) Also used of the eyes.  50.  jaja'  0 t i e j a j a (He stands very straight)  51.  joaga joaga  Osaabu t i e joaga joaga (The mush i s i n pieces, i . e . , rather than i n whole cakes).  131  52.  kala  oyama t i e kala  (He i s anxious)  53.  kalamm  .Li t i e kalamm  54.  kuna kuna  Likani t i e kuna kuna  55.  jialip  Njiinli ye j i a l i p  56.  jiiiii  Okabo t i e j i i i i  57.  pala  Dinla n tua pala  58.  sinsiria  L i t i e sinsina  59.  wada wadi  (It i s very s t i l l ) (It's h i l l o c k y there)  (My tooth keeps having twinges of pain) (The plane i s barely v i s i b l e ) (Let today be the l a s t ) (It's upside down, backside fore, inside out)  0 t i e wada wada minima t i e nua  0 cuoni yengam  (It i s multi-colored) yeni yeni  (The water i s very clear)  (He i s walking with a swagger)  The following c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are noteworthy: a)  phonetic The consonants 7p/ and Is/ occur f i n a l i n some ideophones  whereas i n other words they occur i n i t i a l and medial only.  The  sonant /p/ occurs f i n a l l y s i x times, the consonant Is/ twice. the consonant /m/  occurs f i n a l 'in other words, /mm/  conWhile  occurs f i n a l l y i n  ideophones only, three times i n the l i s t just given. The stressed vowel /a/ occurs as [ia]  i n ideophones only, i n con-  trast to other words i n the language where unstressed vowel /a/ occurs as  LVa] .  The vowel order i n diphthongs i n ideophones may be from low vowel to higher vowel, e.g. , cain,. whereas i n other, normal words the order  132  i s always higher vowel to lower vowel. b)  morphophonemic Reduplication f o r emphasis i s common as i t i s i n other words.  But whereas i n verbs i t i s f a c u l t a t i v e and the unreduplicated form i s the main member, i n many ideophones there i s no unreduplicated form, e.g., p a i pai  (very,, used with be white/clear) never reduces to p a i .  The ideophones cited, consist  of - from one to four, s y l l a b l e s ;  each ideophone i s a unit which cannot be  apparently  segmented.  No ideophones cited occur with gender affixes as do nouns, (see above pg. 53 )• No ideophones cited occur preceded by a possessive adjective (see above page  53 ).  Only one ideophone cited, cu, occurs i n the _S_ theme i n an SVO sequence, (see above no. 15, i i i ) .  This position  (one of three i n  which this ideophone occurs) would o r d i n a r i l y be f i l l e d by a possessive nominal.  Compare:  cu cu yogunu p i a mikoma obado biga p i a mikoma where cu cu : obado : : a proverb; compare  (hard  rain's  time has hunger)  (the chief's c h i l d has hunger)  yogunu :  biga.  However t h i s sentence may be  "many a mickle makes a muckle'; i t may not r e f l e c t  ordinary morphology. Many p o l y s y l l a b i c  ideophones end i n / i / ,  and many monosyllabic  ideophones end i n a vowel, as do verbs, see above, page  87 •  But  only one ideophone, cu, see above 15, i v , can presumably occur immediately after a time marker, which i s a c r i t e r i o n for recognizing verbs.  133  Syntax Except for cu, a l l Ideophones l i s t e d follow  immediately  after  the verb. In every example the verb used with an ideophone i s p o s i t i v e . In every example the verb used with an ideophone i s declarative. Some ideophones occur with t r a n s i t i v e verbs, some with the copula or>stative verbs, but t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n arises because of the observer's English-speaking background and may not be v a l i d for Gurma. .No research has been done to discover whether any given ideophone may be used with both t r a n s i t i v e and stative verbs, or i n fact whether any given ideophone may be used with any other verb than that c i t e d above.  How-  ever i n no 1 cited above the same ideophone i s used with d i f f e r e n t verbs, and j i i i i , nos. 33, 55, i s cited with a t r a n s i t i v e verb and also with the copula. Semantic In a l l cases but three, no. 21 gani gani. no. 34 j i i i i and no. 49. gbaaa, the ideophones are i n t e n s i f i e r s i n a positive d i r e c t i o n ; with these three ideophones  the d i r e c t i o n i s negative.  There are some cognates, e.g., bagi bagi. used with two speaking verbs; compare bagi (to question), baagi (to console) b e l i b e l i , used with stand upright; compare obeligu,  the sucker,  the slender, t a l l shoot from a root. d i n d i n i , c a r e f u l l y ; compare dirjgi pampani, recently; compare -pan-  (be soft) and French doucement (new, young)  134  No research has been done to determine the percentage of borrowings among ideophones.  135 APPENDIX 2 The e a r l i e s t l i n g u i s t i c mention of a language o f the Gurma subgroups may be t h a t of G. C. A. Oldendorp, a German i n the West I n d i e s , i n 1774"* : -  Baptist missionary  "Numerals, t h i r t e e n nouns, and  one  sentence (a t r a n s l a t i o n o f ' C h r i s t has l o v e d us and washed away our s i n s w i t h H i s b l o o d ' ) i n each of t w e n t y - f o u r languages was from s l a v e s . "  collected  P r o f e s s o r H a i r c o n s i d e r s t h a t one o f t h e s e v o c a b u l a r i e s ,  l i s t e d by Oldendorp as K a s s e n t i , may be i n the K a s e l e language.  The  K a s e l e , who number about twenty thousand, l i v e i n northern Togo j u s t s o u t h of the Gurma.area i n Upper V o l t a .  Westermann mentions K a s e l e  as a member of the Gurma d i a l e c t c l u s t e r . ^  The c l o s e n e s s of i t s r e -  l a t i o n to Gurma may be b e s t j u d g e d by comparing w i t h today's Gurma the words Oldendorp c o l l e c t e d two hundred y e a r s ago from a s l a v e i n the West I n d i e s two thousand m i l e s away from home.  1  C h r i s t i a n Georg Andreas Oldendorp, G e s c h i c h t e der M i s s i o n der  E v a n g e l i s c h e n Briider aus den c a r a i b i s c h e n I n s e l n , S. Thomas, S. C r o i x and S. Barby, ( L e i p z i g , 1777), pp. 344-346. 2p. E. H. H a i r , " C o l l e c t i o n s o f V o c a b u l a r i e s of West A f r i c e b e f o r e the P o l y g l o t t a :  a Key".  J o u r n a l of A f r i c a n Languages, h e r e a f t e r JAL,  (1966), 5:3:211. 3  I b i d . , p. 214.  4 D i e d r i c h Westermann and M. A. B r y a n , Handbook of A f r i c a n P a r t I I , the Languages  o f West A f r i c a , f o r the I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f r i c a n  I n s t i t u t e , h e r e a f t e r IFA, (London: r e p r i n t ed. London:  Languages,  Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,  Dawsons of P a l l M a l l , 1970), p. 67.  1952,  136 Kassenti  Gurma  obaa  yendo  yendo  one  illee  bilie  nlee  two  ittaa  bitaa  ntaa  three  inna  bina  nna  four  immu  bimuu  mmuu  five  illoop  biluoba  nluoba  six  illelee  bilele  nlelee  seven  imeen  binii  nnii  eight  uwah  biyia  nwia  nine  piek  piiga  piiga  ten  piekninobaa  p i i g i n yendo  p i i g i n yendo  eleven  piekninilee  piigin  piiga  twelve  pilee  piilie  (Fada)  Gurma  bilie  (northern^)  lee  piilee  English  twenty thirty  not r e c o r d e d f o r  Kassenti  one hundred one  The t h i r t e e n  thousand  nouns  Uweentjauwi  Otienu  Oyeenu  God  Ktak  tampoli  tampoli  heaven  (gita-ga)  ( k i - ) t a « ga  (the)  oyienu  oyeenu  sun  Uwin  ISee Chantoux, G o n t i e r and P r o s t give Kantcheri d i a l e c t 6 nluoba,  7 n lele  ka p i l i e  (sic).  as:  (sic),  1 n le, 8 nni,  i n Grammaire gourmantche.  2 nle  9 n-ya  (sic), (sic),  3 nta,  4 nna,  10 ka p i g a  rain)  pg.  5 nmu,  (sic),  20  61  137  Kassenti  Gurma (Fada)  Gurma (northern)  English  Ungmar  ofynaalo  fjhaalo  moon  Inno  onuu  nuu  hand  Itta  litaali  taali  foot  Dur  liyuli  yuli  head  Dtja  oja  jua  man  Uppi  opua  pua  woman  Tibbik  gibiga  (ki-)biga  child  Ubija  -ba  -ba  father  (obijua  obijua  his  -na  -na  mother  ona  his  (bound morpheme)  Onaa  son),  (bound morpheme) (ona When comparing the word l i s t s  one s h o u l d take i n t o account O l d -  endorp's m a t e r n a l tongue - German - and n o t i c e the f i n a l consonants /-b/  of i l l o o p  (six)  and / - g / even though he wrote  i n t o account  different  prefixed  ' - p ' and ' - k ' .  (or K a s e l e )  T  lengthened  (see  may w e l l have  been  One must a l s o  take  Introduction).  numbers, o n l y obaa (one)  from any of the Gurma r e n d e r i n g s .  f o l l o w e d by a geminate  t h a t what he heard f o r  and p i e k ( t e n )  t h a t Gurma has t h r e e d i a l e c t s  Of Okfehdorp's K a s s e n t i  ' b i - ' (for counting).  vowels much as Gurma has them today.  i l l o o p (si^> may have been / - b / . e n t i r e l y u n r e l a t e d to Gurma.  is  very  He heard an i n i t i a l ' i - '  consonant where northern now tends to use  n - ' and Fada p r e f i x e d  mother)  only  He r e c o r d e d  His f i n a l  '-p:' i n  Of h i s nouns o n l y Ktak (heaven) seems Taking i n t o account  the  ' k i - . ga'  class  138  of  the e a s t e r n  and  d i a l e c t which would be c l o s e s t g e o g r a p h i c a l l y  O l d e n d o r p ' s mother tongue,  the word f o r  'rain',  Gurma word f o r  would seem p o s s i b l e  that  have been g i v e n i n s t e a d of in  the nouns i s  i n Onaa,  some i n d i c a t i o n o f  eastern ketaaga,  approximates  too  the Gurma words g i t a a g a  the word f o r  'father'.  or  (two),  ittaa  (three),  illoop  uwah (nine)  Oldendorp's verse,  piiga  (moon). (six),  But the piek  (ten), nlee  recorded for the  lengthened  (ten),  and f i n a l lengthened  (two), nwia  (nine).  "In der Sprache der K a s s e n t i :  ka undum mitjam duppan:  Christus  und gewaschen mit B l u t von S c h u l d . " ,  i n Gurma:  C h r i s t u s den bua t i  g i nuudi t i p a n a l e n osoama.  God.  vowel  correspond to Gurma  might be t r a n s l a t e d  words:  It  Gurma o b i j u a , may  The o n l y lengthened  and o r p a a l o  o n - g l i d e vowels: nluoba ( s i x ) ,  hat uns g e l i e b e t ,  son',  'heaven'.  i n Ktak and Ungmar resembling^, as they do  (rain)  C h r i s t u s t j a u wigeem,  'his  the  whereas one would have looked  vowels i n the numbers, both m e d i a l , illee  or e l s e t h a t  the K a s e l e word f o r  (mother),  /-a«-/  Kasele  i t would seem t h a t he may have been g i v e n  Fada g i t a a g a ,  'rain'  to  Oldendorp's f i r s t  three  C h r i s t u s t j a u wigeem must be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h h i s word g l o s s e d Comparing these w i t h modern Gurma: Uweentj auwi C h r i s t u s t j a u w i geem C h r i s t u s bua t i  i t would seem that  tjau-  ( C h r i s t has l o v e d > bua,  So O l d e n d o r p ' s word f o r God i s  (has  loved)  r e a l l y three  us) and t h a t wi  > jtx_  (us)  words:  Uween t j a u w i , i n modern Gurma, Uween  » O t i e n u (God), t j a u  »bua  (has  loved)  139  wi  —>  gi,  _tx_ ( u s ) .  The modern c o n n e c t i v e between c o n c u r r e n t v e r b s i s  compare Oldendorp's gee.  I t i s suggested t h a t t h e word d i v i s i o n  i s f a u l t y h e r e and t h a t -m + k a + undu —-> nUudi (washed), and t h a t the  f o l l o w i n g -yn_  > l e n ( w i t h u n s t r e s s e d ) , m i t j a m —-> misoama ( b l o o d ) ,  duppan —•>  t i p a n a (our d e b t s ) .  Oldendorp  Christus  tjau  wi  Modern  Kilisiti  bua  Gloss  Christ  has  So t h e comparison i s as f o l l o w s : gee  mkaundu m  mitjam  duppan  t i gi  nuudi  len  misoama  tipana  us  washed  with blood  and  our d e b t s .  loved The correspondence between Gurma and K a s e l e i s v e r y a p p a r e n t . The n e x t known c o l l e c t i o n s of v o c a b u l a r i e s do n o t have a r e c o g n i z e d as b e i n g Gurma o r Gurma r e l a t e d !  These a r e :  T. E. Bowdich, M i s s i o n from Cape Coast t o Ashantee 1819.  Numerals  list  . . ., London,  i n each of t h i r t y - t w o l a n g u a g e s , m a i n l y o f G o l d  C o a s t and h i n t e r l a n d :  a d d i t i o n a l b r i e f v o c a b u l a r i e s i n f i v e of  t h e s e . . . E x t e n s i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d by C h r i s t a l l e r and D e l a f o s s e . H. K i l h a m , Specimens  of A f r i c a n languages spoken i n t h e Colony of  S i e r r a Leone, London, 1828.  Numerals and about s i x t y terms i n  each of t h i r t y l a n g u a g e s , i n t h e f i r s t work devoted s o l e l y t o 2 A f r i c a n v o c a b u l a r i e s . . . P a r t l y i d e n t i f i e d by Latham, c. most o f t h e remainder i d e n t i f i e d by D e l a f o s s e . ^Hair, "Collections. 2  I t a l i c s mine.  . . .", pp. 211 - 212.  1850,  140  J.  Clarke,  Specimens  of d i a l e c t s  Tweed/London, 1848-49 . of  about 250 d i a l e c t s  been i d e n t i f i e d Westermann.  .  Berwick-on  and languages  . . .  A f a i r number have  by Latham, C h r i s t a l l e r , D e l a f o s s e , recently  S t r u c k and  identified  e d i t e d by E . Ardener (Gregg, 1972)  is  as  in follows:  Clarke  Koelle  Fada  northern  meaning  mikel  odso  oja  ojua  the man  alamis  wopua  opua  opua  the woman  nub a  mba  mba  mba  my f a t h e r  min na  min ma  my own mother  mxnna na (nna)  - n a (nna)  nima  nyima  jtiima  oyenu  oyenu  oyienu  oyeenu  the  omun  ugmaro  oijma'lo  onma'lo  the moon  kokoro  kokuro  kokolo  kokolo  fowl  The f i r s t  extensive l i n g u i s t i c  Wilhelm K o e l l e i n h i s  justly  -na  (nna)  jaima  mother  (my own mother)  water sun  r e c o r d of Gurma i s  famed P o l y g l o t t a A f r i c a n a  Church M i s s i o n a r y House, 1854).  that of  Sigismund  (London,  T h i s German-born m i s s i o n a r y ,  trained  a t the B a s e l M i s s i o n a r y Seminary, then at the Church M i s s i o n a r y  Society  College i n Islington,  Missionary Society it  in Africa,  .Numerals a n d / o r t e n nouns i n each  C l a r k e ' s Gurma specimen,  a new e d i t i o n ,  first  . . .  i n 1847.  went to A f r i c a as a manber of At t h i s time the S o c i e t y was  the  Church  encouraging  missionaries To study A f r i c a n Languages, of b r i n g i n g P r o t e s t a n t  first  as a p r a c t i c a l means  C h r i s t i a n i t y to the a t t e n t i o n  of  141  Africans, secondly  not l e a s t through B i b l e t r a n s l a t i o n , i n order that  and  the p r o d u c t i o n of grammars  and l i t e r a t u r e might demonstrate  the e s s e n t i a l huma-  n i t y of A f r i c a ' s tongues, and hence p e o p l e ,  and thus  s e r v e as a f i n a l argument i n the h u m a n i t a r i a n campaign against  the A f r i c a n S l a v e Trade.""'"  Koelle's Polyglotta Africana i s ,  i n the words of h i s  own extended  "A comparative v o c a b u l a r y of n e a r l y t h r e e hundred words and phrases more than one hundred d i s t i n c t  A f r i c a n languages."  One of  title, in  these  languages i s Gurma. In h i s Hair  I n t r o d u c t i o n to the r e p r i n t of K o e l l e ' s work P r o f e s s o r  says, With each v o c a b u l a r y K o e l l e s u p p l i e d a note on the informant and h i s of  the d i s t r i c t  life-history,  i n which the language was  C o n s i d e r i n g the vague knowledge at  this date,  and on the  the P o l y g l o t t a ' s  topography spoken.  of i n t e r i o r  Africa  geographical  infor-  mation was remarkably exact and at times i n of p r e v i o u s knowledge.  P.  E . H. Hair,  Africana,  On the p u r e l y  I n t r o d u c t i o n to r e p r i n t ed.  (C. M . H . , London, 1954,  u. V e r l a g s a n s t a l t ,  advance  (Graz - A u s t r i a ,  of S. W. K o e l l e ,  reprint ed., 1963), p .  7.  Polyglotta  Akademische Druck  -  142  linguistic:: side  K o e l l e ' s work was v a s t l y b e t t e r t h a n  that of h i s predecessors:  f i r s t , i n that h i s s e l e c -  t i o n o f forms was based on some g r a m m a t i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of A f r i c a n l a n g u a g e s , ( f o r i n s t a n c e he d i s t i n g u i s h e d p r e f i x e s and added p l u r a l f o r m s ) , and s e c o n d l y i n t h a t his  o r t h o g r a p h y was c o n s i s t e n t , r e a s o n a b l y s u b t l e , and  based on a s t a n d a r d model.""'" K o e l l e ' s i n f o r m a n t f o r t h e Gurma v o c a b u l a r y , as he t e l l s us h i m s e l f i n t h e P o l y g l o t t a A f r i c a n a , was Adsima o r John W i l h e l m , b o r n i n Bungu and brought up at Datanu, a n o t h e r Gurma town, where he l i v e d about h i s t w e n t y - f o u r t h y e a r .  till  Three y e a r s a f t e r h i s  b e i n g k i d n a p p e d , he was s o l d t o t h e S p a n i a r d s i n A s a n t e . He has been i n S i e r r a Leone s i x y e a r s , w i t h f o u r countrymen, who however a r e o l d , and have f o r g o t t e n much o f t h e i r n a t i v e  language.  "Alphabet de l i n g u i s t i q u e u n i v e r s e l l e " , p u b l i s h e d i n B e r l i n i n 1855 by t h e noted E g y p t o l o g i s t C. R. L e p s i u s who was " i n d u c e d t o d i r e c t his  s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s u b j e c t by a v i s i t from Rev. S. W.  Koelle."  I n 1863 L e p s i u s p u b l i s h e d A l p h a b e t d e s t i n e a r e d u i r e l e s  d i v e r s e s langues a une o r t h o g r a p h e u n i f o r m e en c a r a c t e r e s europeens (Londres e t B e r l i n , 1863).  L e p s i u s ' a l p h a b e t had two hundred  forty  c h a r a c t e r s so was clumsy > b u t i t a n t i c i p a t e d t h e I.P.A. by about t h i r t y years.  143  Adsima  (Fada d i a l e c t , A j i m a ) i s a name commonly g i v e n by Gurmas  today t o a c h i l d , male o r f e m a l e , b o r n on F r i d a y .  I t i s of A r a b i c  o r i g i n , perhaps through Hausa; compare t h e Hausa word f o r F r i d a y , Adjimma'a.  The Reverend A. P r o s t has suggested t h a t t h e town named  Datanu where Adsima grew up may be t h e p r e s e n t n o r t h e r n Togo town Dapango, and t h a t t h e b i r t h p l a c e Bungu r e f e r s n o t t o a town b u t t o a r e g i o n i n s o u t h e a s t e r n Gurma t e r r i t o r y j u s t n o r t h o f t h e Togo border."*"  I n t h i s case Adsima would be an e a s t e r n d i a l e c t  speaker.  K o e l l e ' s c o n s i s t e n t use o f [hj i n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n where Fada d i a l e c t would have /n/ c o u l d t e n d t o c o n f i r m t h i s ; i t may however, suggest a n o r t h e r n d i a l e c t speaker.  K o e l l e has one v e r b g b a s i , hear  Fada and e a s t e r n d i a l e c t s , g b a d i ) whose - s i ending d e f i n i t e l y the n o r t h e r n d i a l e c t .  (compare suggests  S e v e r a l o t h e r t h i n g s too nebulous t o p r e s e n t  w i t h o u t f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n suggest t h i s a l s o .  Alternatively  however, any o f t h e s e f e a t u r e s c o u l d be t h e r e s u l t o f i n f l u e n c e from t h e languages i m m e d i a t e l y t o t h e s o u t h Moba, K u s a l o r Berba.  o f t h e Gurma a r e a , Migangam,  A comparative s t u d y o f Gurma d i a l e c t s and t h e s e  n e i g h b o u r i n g Gur languages c o u l d w e l l s e r v e t o e s t a b l i s h t h e d i a l e c t of K o e l l e ' s Gurma speaker. K o e l l e ' s v o c a b u l a r y i l l u s t r a t e s a l l t h e Fada Gurma d i a l e c t  con-  sonant phonemes and t h e i r v a r i a n t s ( e x c l u d i n g two b o r d e r phonemes)  A. P r o s t , "La Langue gurma dans l a P o l y g l o t t a A f r i c a n a " , A f r i c a n Language Review ( p r e v . S i e r r a Leone Language Review) v o l . 5 (1966), p. 134.  144  except t h a t he does not show v o i c e l e s s - v o i c e d and / g b / ,  or, generally,  between / c /  use a modern phonemic method. length,  c o n t r a s t between / l i p /  and If/.  He n a t u r a l l y d i d not  He uses the symbol  and the symbol ' ' ' to i n d i c a t e a c c e n t .  1  -  1  to  indicate  The f o l l o w i n g  ex-  amples from h i s v o c a b u l a r y have been grouped a c c o r d i n g to our p r e s e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the phonemes and t h e i r v a r i a n t s : phoneme K o e l l e  /p/  Ibl  It/ Idl  Id  Koelle's Gurma  •-  p stressed s y l l a b l e i n i t i a l , h e r e a f t e r SSI b SSI and m e d i a l a f t e r  Fada ^ Gurma  meaning  p i emu  arrow  biana  armlets slave  piemu [-m-J  biana yombo  ri  yombo  2 w unstressed s y l l a b l e i n i t i a l , h e r e a f t e r US I (intervocalic)  ^ nyawo  v USX'  koviti  kobidi  hair  t SSI d SSI  tamu da  t a ' mo da  horse buy  t US I  titi  ti'di  tree  k once b e f o r e a several times b e f o r e f-i-]  kakati  caca'di  shoe"^  okiro  ocilo  moon  kinti  ci*ndi  sneeze  kiewu  ciebu n  soap  bodsawili  boacabili n  ds  several  times  jiabo/jioabo  alligator  shoulder  Tone i s not marked to a v o i d c o n f u s i o n w i t h K o e l l e ' s o r t h o g r a p h y ; s t r e s s i s not marked as i t  falls  on the base and can be p r e d i c t e d .  . 2 K o e l l e r e f e r s t o Hebrew c h a r a c t e r s i n h i s p r e f a c e . he i s  t h i n k i n g of f-w-J as [ - v - J ,  (compare ["3 j  and u s i n g i t  as  Could i t be t h a t intervocalicQ-b-D  and £3. 3) ?  In F a d a ^ d i a l e c t these are p l u r a l forms, t r e e s ,  shoes.  here  145  phoneme  Koelle  If I  ds SSI; used g S S I ; used before  Izl  Koelle's Gurma  Fada Gurma  meaning  often  dsandsan *u  Janjangu  bat  twice  gendi _/ ginu  Jenli  egg  Ji'nu  vein  gale  ga'li  thread  suan g u  soangu  mat  boru  buagu  arm  kare  kali  sit  gbana _/ gbana _/ ugmaro  gba'nx  kneel  kpa'na  spears  orjma ''lo  moon  an'mita  arjmi *da  kuskus  [-e-J,  [-1-]  g SSI and USI..  r /k/  usi.:  1  k SSI b e f o r e  C-u-J  /gb/ /kp/  gb  [-a-]  ,  SSI  2  3  /fjm/  gm  SSI (once o n l y )  n*m  Arabic,  that i s ,  n o r t h e r n speakers  is  equivalent  a v o i c e d v e l a r or u v u l a r f r i c a t i v e . t h i s phonemic v a r i a n t of lg/  is  gbe-nyo ewe, initial  and g b e t o e n i  / p / p e n q a l i ewe,  For many Fada and  i m p l o s i v e , £ - g - J , but  C^p-J* may e a s i l y  3 Prost, grammar  the way  contrast here.  He r e c o r d e d  ram, which i n a l l c u r r e n t Gurma d i a l e c t s  have  p e t o n l i ram; d i d K o e l l e t h i n k he heard [.kp-j  ( i n Gurma double stops the second i s  as [gb-}  in  it.  ^Koelle has not r e c o r d e d the v o i c e l e s s - v o i c e d  it  LVD o r f B j )  to £ ( I . P . A .  occurs i n complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n of £ g - J and t h i s i s  K o e l l e uses  (sic)  SSI (once o n l y  •""Koelle s t a t e s that h i s [ r l  it  , [-o-]  always s t r o n g e r  be heard by an o u t l a n d e r as [p-J)  than the f i r s t  so  even though he r e c o r d e d  ?  Chantoux and G o n t i e r s t i l l use [gmj f o r /fjm/ i n t h e i r new Gurma (1968) though they now use Ir^l where they used  £ngj.  146  phoneme  Koelle  /m/  m SSI or medial  Koelle's Gurma  <miare piemu yombo  In/  n SSI or medial  I?'  ny SSI  In,  n' SSI and s y l l a b l e  final,  sometimes followed by -g-  Fada Gurma  meaning  miali  nose  n  arrow  p i emu  slave  yombo /i  nahama  nanam"a  milk  dsano * nanti  ca'no  stranger  nandi  animal (meat)  nyawo  jiabo/jioabo a l l i g a t o r  n an  na'n(-i) cook  len"ga  lenga  bed  Ion a  longa  drum  h SSI (eastern sometimes) and northern (always) use simple aspiration where Fada uses In/. hu"awo  nuabo  goat  hn" once only  hn"ani  nani  good  1  la  la  see  yali  yali  axe  miari  miali  nose  \  Ill  •  SSI, occasionally USI  r generally used for USI .  •. /f/ Is/  f generally used f o r USI  yari fo  n  yari  axes  f uo  breathe  s This opposition i s notnow recognized in Fada or northern , Prost does not mention i t i n eastern.  NI  w SSI  lyl  y SSI  sane  sani  run  sasati  sasa'-di  itch  wuli  bathe  ya'ma  salt  . wuli _/  yama  Koelle's preface l i s t s nine vowels, t h e i r usage i l l u s t r a t e d by English words.  He uses seven of these i n the Gurma vocabulary:.  147  a,  e,  e,  i , o,  v a r i a n t of  o,  u.  The symbol [V] i s used s e v e r a l  [aj when l a b i a l i z a t i o n has not been i n d i c a t e d ,  (/buagu/) arm, nyoromo  (/jioagima/)  earring.  o f [ - a - J and so does not use h i s He seems to have heard [ e j word-final position;  i  -  i'  symbol ' o ' ,  and [ i j  e.g.,  indicates nuan'gu  (/kpagili/)  the  quality  (/nuarjgu/)  e d u a l i pigpj, w i t h oluomo,  where one would expect the noun c l a s s a f f i x e s and gbawile  borgu  bird.  i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n i n w o r d - i n i t i a l and  1  compare o d u a l o ,  i n both c a s e s ,  e.g.,  Whenver K o e l l e shows  l a b i a l i z a t i o n he a p p a r e n t l y f e e l s t h i s s u f f i c i e n t l y  elephant^),  times as a back  (/Icpabili/)  bench, where one would expect the  bone, w i t h suffix  iluemi  to be  'o -  o,  gbarile  to be [ - l i ]  i n each  case. K o e l l e shows vowel l e n g t h on almost Fada d i a l e c t  as  a l l vowels r e c o g n i z e d  long:  Koelle  Fada  meaning  tamu  talmo  horse  bill  billi  breast  muri  mu'li  rice  However many vowels marked as l o n g a r e not l o n g , boy, vowel  a l s o r e c o r d e d as b i r a , •  boy, -  short i n four.  K o e l l e ' s Gurma speaker  e.g.,  and m b i r a , i b i r a ,  segment of the b a s e , £ i - J i s  and c o r r e c t l y l e f t  syllabified  •  •  Where a vowel i n Fada d i a l e c t i n t h i s way:  kebira  son.  (/gibiga/)  In t h i s case  i n c o r r e c t l y marked l o n g i n one A possible  explanation of  the e l i c i t e d  has an o n - g l i d e ,  the  instance  this is  Gurma words and i n  doing gave a f a l s e i m p r e s s i o n of l e n g t h on some s h o r t  it  i n current  that  so  segments.  Koelle generally  writes  148  Koelle  Fada  meaning  piemu  piemu  arrow  bia  bia  bad  He d i s t i n g u i s h e s between two degrees o f l a b i a l i z a t i o n : boano  boani  black  bua  bjaa  love  but n o t always as done today i n Fada d i a l e c t : /_ . soan e  soangi  wet  suan gu  soangu  mate  I f K o e l l e does not r e c o r d an o n - g l i d e he o f t e n marks t h e v o w e l f o r length: _/  yiga  yiega  calabash  _>  Iowa  luoba  six  S i m i l a r l y , where today i n Fada D i a l e c t [-V+N+C-] o c c u r s , K o e l l e may have r e c o r d e d i t i n t h i s way, e.g., gendi Tenli  egg  o r he may have marked the v o w e l f o r l e n g t h and ommitted C, beni  benli  chest  gT>ani  k~pa*nli  spear  K o e l l e has g e n e r a l l y marked s t r e s s on t h e base o f t h e Gurma words where i t f a l l s today, b u t sometimes e l s e w h e r e , e.g., d s u r a (/juga/) k n i f e , w i t h s t r e s s marked oh '-u-' i n t h e b a s e , i s a l s o r e c o r d e d k ^ d s u r a ( / g i j u g a / ) and s t r e s s i s marked on '-e-' i n t h e p r e f i x w h i l e t h e base segment '-u-' i s marked f o r length.''" T h i s too may be because of t h e way t h e Gurma speaker s y l l a b i f i e d .  x  T h e r e a r e a number o f such c a s e s ; i n a l l such K o e l l e ' s l e n g t h s i g n r e a l l y i n d i c a t e s primary s t r e s s w h i l e h i s "accent", " ' secondary s t r e s s .  indicates  '-'  149  K o e l l e ' s v o c a b u l a r y shows most o f the noun c l a s s a f f i x e s today;  some examples  follow: Fada  Koelle singular o - o  meaning  plural b i - ba  king  obado  i t e people  bisareba o -  o/u  e/i  -  i  singular  plural  o - o  b i - ba  obado  bibadiba  onisaMo binisasliba o - o  i -  i  idsumo  edsumi •  mosquito  ojumo  ijumi  otamu  itami  horse  ota*mo  itaimi  etili  throat  otilu  itili  *  y  tiiu - u  -  i -  ogbembu  igbendi  otibu  iti:di  o - gu  ti -  arm  obuagu  tibuadi  wood -2  odafgu  cotton tree  titi ru  b - bu  ti  gbemi  -  recognized  te -  tree  21 (sic)'  te  di  di  9  /  boru  tedate -  -V+  / -, _  li  ra  * -  -  tida*di  - V+li  a - V+la  yali -Vli/re  yara  axe  liyali  ayala  depore  depora  rat  lidapoli  adapola  The meaning-tree  ismasrKoell'ecgave _ i t ,  the form i s  V+li  p l u r a l and h i s  V+la  singular  might have been t i w u . :  2  The s i n g u l a r of collective,  t h i s noun means ' a p i e c e of wood',  'wood',  i.e.,  many p i e c e s of wood.  the p l u r a l form i s  150  Koelle  Fada  singular  plural  -V+re/le  meaning  a -V+na  singular  plural  li  a -V+na  -V+li  tale  atana  leg  lita'li  ata'na  blare  bxana  armlet  libiali  ab i a n a  g i ~ ga  mu - mu  child  gibiga  mubimu/abila  sword  gijusiega  mujusiemu  ke - r a  -mu  kebxra dusxral »  *  duslemu  me - ma  mi - ma  mefama  tomorrow  mifa'ma  nahama  milk  minanam'ira  1  A c c o r d i n g to H a i r , K o e l l e ' s arrangement of languages was designed  to show a f f i n i t i e s ,  and the language  were both an advance on p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s d u r i n g the next  groups K o e l l e  classification  specifically  designated  and the b a s i s of  further  century.  K o e l l e grouped Gurma w i t h languages he c a l l s Mose, D s e l a n a , G u r e s a , L e g b a , K a u r e , Kiamba, Kouama, B a g b a l a n , Kasm and Y u l a . i n the v o c a b u l a r y l i s t s ) . languages and d i a l e c t s  (Section  Bendor-Samuel d e s c r i b e s  o f the Gur group .  .  these as "some twelve  . identifiable  One would have expected K o e l l e to r e c o r d d s u s x r a h e r e , d s u r a , mosquito dsumjb, the o n l y other o c c u r r e n c e s P.  E . H. Hair,  I n t r o d u c t i o n to P o l y g l o t t a ,  p.  IV A , B , C , D  14.  of  as B a r g u ,  compare  Buli  'knife'  /gu-/ in Koelle.  151  Dompago, dialects)  J.  Gurma, K a b r e , (2 d i a l e c t s ) , Moore, P i l a p i l a , and Tem.3  Bendor-Samuel,  "Niger-Congo, G u r " , p .  141.  Sisala  (2  

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