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Development planning and the informal sector : a case study of the automobile-repair shops in four cities… Jourdain, Robert M., 1982

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DEVELOPMENT PLANNING AND THE INFORMAL SECTOR: A CASE STUDY OF THE AUTOMOBILE-REPAIR SHOPS IN FOUR CITIES OF TROPICAL AFRICA by ROBERT M. JOURDAIN B. A., U n i v e r s i t y Of Louvain (Belgium), 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School Of Community And Regional Planning We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1982 © ROBERT M. JOURDAIN, 1982 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of School Of Community And Regional. Planning The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Pl a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date: June 15, 1982 i i A b s t r a c t Most A f r i c a n governments are today i n c r e a s i n g l y i n c l i n e d to argue that t h e i r development p l a n n i n g process would be incomplete and perhaps r e t a r d e d u n l e s s the people and a c t i v i t i e s of the in f o r m a l s e c t o r are i n c l u d e d i n t o both the pl a n and the pro c e s s . Between 1977 and 1979, the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O r g a n i z a t i o n (ILO) c a r r i e d - o u t a s e r i e s of i n f o r m a l s e c t o r censuses and sample surveys in the primate c i t i e s of f i v e c o u n t r i e s of Francophone A f r i c a . T h i s t h e s i s i s based upon s e l e c t e d data c o l l e c t e d i n four c i t i e s , namely Nouakchott ( M a u r i t a n i a ) , Bamako ( M a l i ) , Lome (Togo) and Yaounde (Cameroon). The t h e s i s i s introduced by b r i e f l y d e s c r i b i n g the four c o u n t r i e s ' economies , summarizing the debate on the in f o r m a l s e c t o r concept and the ILO survey p r o j e c t o b j e c t i v e s and methodology. The census r e s u l t s are then presented and the focus i s put on a segment of these a c t i v i t i e s , the "modern" in f o r m a l s e c t o r which was sample surveyed. The "automobile-r e p a i r shops", study p o p u l a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s i s i s o l a t e d . A second chapter draws a s t a t i s t i c a l p r o f i l e of the entrepreneurs and t h e i r undertakings i n the four c i t i e s . T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , as a f i r s t o b j e c t i v e , i s compared a g a i n s t the gene r a l average of the o v e r a l l modern i n f o r m a l s e c t o r p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s c o l l e c t i v e p o r t r a i t i n c l u d e s data on the i d e n t i t y , s o c i a l o r i g i n s , education, t r a i n i n g and working l i f e of the entrepreneurs. A p r o f i l e of t h e i r undertakings i s given by s t a t i s t i c s on labour f o r c e , the s a l a r i e s , the net income e t c . In a f o l l o w i n g chapter, the second o b j e c t i v e of t h i s t h e s i s i s to assess the e f f i c i e n c y of the n a t i o n a l development planning process i n these c o u n t r i e s . P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n i s devoted to the a t t i t u d e s of these governments towards the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r . I t i s concluded that both the plan and the process, as p r e s e n t l y o p e r a t i n g i n these c o u n t r i e s , are not the best t o o l s t o use, should a s s i s t a n c e to the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r be given. The f o u r t h chapter dea l s with the o b j e c t i v e of examining the a u t o m o b i l e - r e p a i r shop entrepreneur's response to p o t e n t i a l Governmental a s s i s t a n c e . A d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s i s performed to i n v e s t i g a t e how " u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d " that response c o u l d be. The r e s u l t s show t h a t , even f o r a narrow sub-population of the modern i n f o r m a l s e c t o r , the entrepreneurs do not form an homogeneous mass of people. They are very unequally committed to the p e r s p e c t i v e s of governmental a s s i s t a n c e . The p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s of the preceeding c o n c l u s i o n s are t h r e e f o l d : • Scarce government resources c o u l d be more u s e f u l l y a l l o c a t e d to other s e c t o r s of the economy. • Should a s s i s t a n c e to the inf o r m a l s e c t o r be gi v e n , we would have c l e a r l y to d i s t i n g u i s h between heterogeneous sub-populations. • Today's prospects f o r a s u c c e s s f u l a s s i s t a n c e are not pro m i s s i n g . I t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r these governments to develop meaningful p o l i c i e s which would e f f e c t i v e l y a s s i s t the in f o r m a l s e c t o r . i v Table of Contents A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of Tables v i L i s t of F i g u r e s . . i x Acknowledgement x I. INTRODUCTION 1 11 . THE BACKGROUND 2 A. THE FOUR COUNTRIES : DESCRIPTION OF THEIR ECONOMIES 2 1. COMMON CHARACTERISTICS 2 2. THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF MAURITANIA 6 3. THE REPUBLIC OF MALI 7 4. THE TOGOLESE REPUBLIC 7 5. THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF CAMEROON 8 B. THE INFORMAL SECTOR CONCEPT 9 1. THE DUALISTIC PERSPECTIVE 9 2. THE SYSTEMIC APPROACH 11 3. THE EMPIRICAL APPROACH AND ITS DIFFICULTIES ..13 4. CONCLUSION 16 C. THE ILO SURVEY : OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY 18 1 . OBJECTIVES 18 2. METHODOLOGY 19 D. THE NUMERIC IMPORTANCE OF THE URBAN INFORMAL SECTOR 22 1. THE INFORMAL SECTOR AS A WHOLE 22 2. THE PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES 24 3. THE SERVICES ACTIVITIES 27 4. THE RETAIL TRADE 28 5. STUDY POPULATION OF THIS THESIS 28 I I I . A PROFILE OF THE ENTREPRENEUR AND HIS OPERATION 32 A. DESCRIPTION OF THE ENTREPRENEURS 33 1. IDENTITY OF THE ENTREPRENEURS 33 2. THEIR SOCIAL ORIGINS 38 3. EDUCATION AND TRAINING 44 4. THE WORKING LIFE OF THE ENTREPRENEURS 47 B. DESCRIPTION OF THE ENTERPRISES 52 1. ACTIVITIES, PREMISES AND STATUS 52 2. THE LABOUR FORCE OF THE ENTERPRISE 55 3. THE SALARIES 65 4. THE NET INCOME OF THE ENTREPRENEUR 68 C. COMPLEMENTARY DATA 70 1. THE HOUSEHOLD INCOME 70 2. THE FAMILY EXPENDITURES 73 3. THE INVESTMENT CAPACITY 74 IV. THE GOVERNMENT'S ATTITUDES 78 A. THE NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN AS AN INSTRUMENT OF ECONOMIC GROWTH? 79 1. THE STRUCTURE OF THE PLANNING PROCESS 83 2. THE HUMAN AND FINANCIAL CAPITAL INVOLVED. ...84 3. THE OBJECTIVES , 86 4. REASONS FOR LACK OF SUCCESS AND POSSIBLE IMPROVEMENTS .- 90 V B. THE EXAMPLE OF THE THIRD FIVE-YEAR PLAN FOR THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF MAURITANIA (1976-1980) 92 1 . THE OUTLINE . 92 2. THE GOALS 94 3. THE OBJECTIVES 95 C. THE INFORMAL SECTOR WITHIN THE DEVELOPMENT PLAN .96 1 . MAURITANIA 96 2. MALI 99 3 . TOGO 101 4. CONCLUSION 102 V. THE ENTREPRENEURS'ATTITUDES 103 A. THE BACKGROUND 103 B. THE RESEARCH QUESTION 106 1. THE DISCRIMINATING VARIABLES 108 2. INTERPRETATION 116 3. PREDICTION 118 C. CONCLUSION 119 VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION : THE POLICY IMPLICATIONS ..121 A. THE URBAN INFORMAL SECTOR 121 1 . THE BACKGROUND 121 2. THE ADVANTAGES 123 3. A PORTRAIT 1 24 B. WHAT IS A POLICY? 128 1. POLICY, PROGRAMME, PROJECT 128 2. A DEVELOPMENT POLICY? 129 C. THE ASSESSEMENT 131 1 . THE GOVERNMENT 131 2 . THE ENTREPRENEURS ..133 D. CONCLUSION 134 BIBLIOGRAPHY 135 APPENDIX A - ILO, WEP 2-33 RESEARCH PROJECT : QUESTIONNAIRE 1 42 v i L i s t of Tables 1. Summary of the WEP 2-33 o v e r a l l Informal S e c t o r ' s  Census R e s u l t s (absolute and r e l a t i v e frequency) 22 2. The modern in f o r m a l s e c t o r : Census r e s u l t s ( absolute and r e l a t i v e frequency) 23 3. D i s t r i b u t i o n of the main p r o d u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s ( r e l a t i v e frequency) 25 4. D i s t r i b u t i o n of the main s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s ( r e l a t i v e frequency) 27 5. D i s t r i b u t i o n of the "modern" i n f o r m a l s e c t o r  a c t i v i t i e s surveyed by c i t y ( absolute frequency) 29 6. D i s t r i b u t i o n of the road mileage and number of v e h i c l e s f o r s e l e c t e d years in the four c o u n t r i e s ....31 7. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the m a r i t a l s t a t u s of the entrepreneur ( r e l a t i v e frequency) 33 8. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the age groups of the entrepreneur ( r e l a t i v e frequency) 34 9. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the average age of the entrepreneur (mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D • ) •••••#34 10. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the average number of  dependant c h i l d r e n of the entrepreneur (mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D.) 35 11. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the average number of  dependant c h i l d r e n of the entrepreneur (mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D.) N=107 or 79.3% and N=686 or 74.4% r e s p e c t i v e l y 35 12. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the number of dependants  at the entrepreneur's home (mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D.) 36 13. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the n a t i o n a l i t y of the entrepreneur ( r e l a t i v e frequency) 7777777 37 14. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the p l a c e of b i r t h of the entrepreneur ( r e l a t i v e frequency) 38 15. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the p l a c e of c h i l d h o o d (7- 14 years) of the entrepreneur ( r e l a t i v e frequency) T..40 16. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the l e v e l of education of  the c h i e f of household d u r i n g the c h i l d h o o d of the entrepreneur (mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D.) 41 17. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the l e v e l of occupation of  the c h i e f of household d u r i n g the c h i l d h o o d of the entrepreneur (mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D.) 42 18. D i s t r i b u t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l domestic personnel for three s e l e c t e d years (absolute and r e l a t i v e frequency) 43 19. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the l e n g t h of education (years) of the entrepreneur (mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D.) 44 20. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the l e n g t h of education (years) of the entrepreneur (mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D.) (N=84/135 and N=55l/922) 45 21. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the l e n g t h of t r a i n i n g v i i (years) of the entrepreneur (mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D.) 46 22. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the age at which the  entrepreneur s t a r t e d h i s a c t i v e l i f e a f t e r 14 years o l d (mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D.) 47 23. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the l e n g t h of working l i f e (years) of the entrepreneur (mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D.) 48 24. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the lenght of work  corresp o n d i n g (RF) or not (RN) to the t r a i n i n g (years) of the entrepreneur (mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D.) 48 25. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the number of occupations the entrepreneur has had duri n g h i s a c t i v e l i f e ( r e l a t i v e frequency) 50 26. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the lenght of in f o r m a l  business a c t i v i t y (years) of the entrepreneur (mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D.) 51 27. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the number of years the  entrepreneur has spent i n h i s present occupation (mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D.) 51 28. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s  of a c t i v i t y i n c l u d e d i n the "aut o m o b i l e - r e p a i r shop" p o p u l a t i o n (N=135) ( r e l a t i v e frequency) 53 29. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the d i f f e r e n t kinds of  premises that are housing the a c t i v i t i e s ( r e l a t i v e frequency) 53 30. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the s t a t u s of the land and i t s premises ( r e l a t i v e frequency) 54 31. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the number of workers by  category of occupation (absolute frequency) 5 5 32. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the number of workers by  category of occupation (mean) 56 33. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the number of e n t e r p r i s e s  having the corresponding category of occupation among t h e i r manpower ( r e l a t i v e frequency) 58 34. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the number of workers  members of the entrepreneur's f a m i l y by category of  occu p a t i o n ( r e l a t i v e frequency) 59 35. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the number of workers per  type of e n t e r p r i s e (mean)(N=125l 60 36. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the number of e n t e r p r i s e s by groups of labour f o r c e ( r e l a t i v e frequency) 62 37. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the number of workers  a c c o r d i n g to the type of e n t e r p r i s e ( r e l a t i v e frequency and a b s o l u t e t o t a l ) 77777 63 38. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the number of e n t e r p r i s e s  a c c o r d i n g to the type of manpower ( r e l a t i v e frequency and a b s o l u t e t o t a l ) 777 64 39. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the average weekly s a l a r i e s by category of occupation (mean, $US) 65 40. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the guaranteed i n t e r - o c c u p a t i o n a l minimum wage weekly p a i d i n the "modern" sector ( a b s o l u t e value, year of survey) 67 v i i i 41. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y and category of occupation, of the average weekly net income of the entrepreneur (mean, $US) 69 42. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the a d d i t i o n a l sources of  income of the entrepreneur ( r e l a t i v e frequency) 71 43. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the average t o t a l  household weekly income by category of e n t e r p r i s e (mean, $US ) 7777777777 72 44. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y and category of a c t i v i t y , of the percentage of the net and household income  a f f e c t e d to the fami l y spendings (average r e l a t i v e frequency) 777777777777777777777 73 45. D i s t r i b u t i o n by c i t y and category of a c t i v i t y of the weekly'investment c a p a c i t y of the entrepreneur (mean, $ US) 7777777777777 75 46. D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the weekly investment  c a p a c i t y as a percentage of the net income of the entrepreneur ( r e l a t i v e frequency) 77777777 76 47. D i s t r i b u t i o n of the 135 entrepreneurs a c c o r d i n g to the f i r s t problem that impedes the development of t h e i r e n t e r p r i s e (A540). (absolute and r e l a t i v e frequency) 109 48. L i s t , by name and l a b e l , of the 26 v a r i a b l e s kept f o r the d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s 110 ix L i s t of F i g u r e s 1 . MAP OF AFRICA 5 X Acknowledgement I t i s with p l e a s u r e that I would l i k e ito thank my a d v i s o r s , Dr. V. Setty Pendakur and Dr. T e r r y G. McGee f o r t h e i r guidance in the development and completion of t h i s study. My g r a t i t u d e f u r t h e r goes to P r o f e s s o r Brahm Wiesman, D i r e c t o r of the UBC Planning School. T h i s study i s d e d i c a t e d to the memory of G.N. Acknowledgement i s given to permission by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O r g a n i z a t i o n , Geneva, to reproduce the q u e s t i o n n a i r e used f o r Appendix A. T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s reproduced from "Le secteur non s t r u c t u r e "moderne" de Yaounde (Republique Unie du Cameroun). Rapport d'enquete et analyse des r e s u l t a t s " (World Employment Programme Working Paper WEP 2-33/Doc.16), Annexe 5. 1 I.• INTRODUCTION T h i s t h e s i s has four o b j e c t i v e s : • To provide a s t a t i s t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of an economic a c t i v i t y - the informal s e c t o r - which i s r e c e i v i n g i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n from A f r i c a n governments, I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s and p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s but about which very l i t t l e i s known. • To assess the e f f i c i e n c y of the development p l a n n i n g process i n gen e r a l and the a t t i t u d e s of the governments towards the in f o r m a l s e c t o r i n p a r t i c u l a r . • To examine the informal s e c t o r ' s entrepreneur response to p o t e n t i a l government a s s i s t a n c e . • To draw p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r both the governments and the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r , based upon the c o n c l u s i o n s of the three p r e v i o u s o b j e c t i v e s . 2 II . THE BACKGROUND A. THE FOUR COUNTRIES : DESCRIPTION OF THEIR ECONOMIES 1. COMMON CHARACTERISTICS In M a u r i t a n i a , M a l i , Togo and Cameroon 1 , as i n most A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s , there i s today a l a r g e number of economic a c t i v i t i e s that produce goods and s e r v i c e s generate employment and incomes f o r one of the poorest p a r t s of the p o p u l a t i o n . These a c t i v i t i e s and t r a n s a c t i o n s are not recorded by any o f f i c i a l s t a t i s t i c s . According to v a r i o u s e s t i m a t e s , they employ between f o r t y and s i x t y per cent of the t o t a l urban a c t i v e labour f o r c e 2 . Among the people working i n these a c t i v i t i e s , some are self-employed, others work for an entrepreneur i n s m a l l - s c a l e o p e r a t i o n s , some work in f a m i l y u n i t s , and others with f r i e n d s of the same age-group. There are a l s o job-seekers who o f f e r to s e l l t h e i r labour on a day-to-day b a s i s . They a l l share the same concern : Informal business a r i s e s from the o b s t i n a t e d e s i r e of human being to remain a l i v e . (Robinson, 1979:6). These a c t i v i t i e s cover a l a r g e economic spectrum where one can f i n d a l l p o s s i b l e kinds of r e t a i l t r a d e s , c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r i e s , wood and metal working, e l e c t r i c a l and mechanical 1 Unless otherwise s p e c i f i e d , t h i s heading has adapted s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n from three sources: Van Chi-Bonnardel (1973), The Economist (1980) and The World Bank (1981). 2 Friedmann and S u l l i v a n (1973:394), Mazumdar (1976:658), Sethuraman (1977:344; 1981:188) and L u b e l l (1978:753). 3 r e p a i r i n g , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and numerous other p r o d u c t i o n and s e r v i c e s a c t i v i t i e s . L e g a l or not, these a c t i v i t i e s form an important p a r t of the urban economy i n these c o u n t r i e s . In some c o u n t r i e s these a c t i v i t i e s are c o n t i n u a l l y harassed by government a u t h o r i t i e s while i n others they are t o l e r a t e d . S trangely enough, they sometimes produce goods cheaply and e f f i c i e n t l y under c o n t r a c t with a government. For example, i n 1977 some entrepreneurs i n Nouakchott, the c a p i t a l of M a u r i t a n i a , produced aluminium cooking u s t e n s i l s f o r the M a u r i t a n i a n army. The raw m a t e r i a l u t i l i z e d was recovered from p a r t s of v e h i c l e s and t i n cans. The i n f o r m a l s e c t o r i s the most commonly used term to c l a s s i f y these a c t i v i t i e s . As Hans Singer puts i t , the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r i s l i k e a g i r a f f e : i t i s very d i f f i c u l t t o d e f i n e i t but once you see one you know i t i s a g i r a f f e 3 . T h i s i s not a new phenomenon, and an i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l can be made between i t and the employment problems of England d u r i n g the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n * , ...the s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n of England, which keeps body and s o u l together by begging, s t e a l i n g , s t r e e t -sweeping, c o l l e c t i n g manure, pushing hand c a r t s , d r i v i n g donkeys, p e d d l i n g or performing o c c a s i o n a l j o b s . In every great town a m u l t i t u d e of such people may be found. I t i s a s t o n i s h i n g i n what d e v i c e s t h i s ' s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n ' takes refuge. At the same time, one can observe that almost f i f t y per 3 See J o s h i et a l , 1975:319. 4 F.Engels, " The C o n d i t i o n of the Working-Class i n England. Quoted by Abu-Lughod (1977:51) and Sethuraman (1981:8). 4 cent of the labour f o r c e of these c o u n t r i e s i s unemployed or underemployed. For t h i s " s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n " , the p o s s i b i l i t y of employment in the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r i s the only way to s u r v i v e . World Bank i n d i c a t o r s show t h a t i n 1979 the p o p u l a t i o n s of M a u r i t a n i a , M a l i , Togo and Cameroon have c e r t a i n common f e a t u r e s : a very low l i f e expectancy at b i r t h (between 43 and 47 years) and a h i g h demographic growth averaging between 2.2 and 2.7 per cent per year. The urban p o p u l a t i o n of these c o u n t r i e s , d e f i n e d as a percentage of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , i s s t i l l q u i t e low, between 20 and 35 per cent. Although 68 to 88 per cent of the labour f o r c e i s employed in a g r i c u l t u r a l and p a s t o r a l a c t i v i t i e s , the urban p o p u l a t i o n i s growing at a very r a p i d annual r a t e : between 8.6 per cent f o r M a u r i t a n i a and 5.5 per cent f o r M a l i . Only 10 to 18 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n was, i n 1976, able to read and w r i t e . With the exception of Western Cameroon, a l l these c o u n t r i e s were under French j u r i s d i c t i o n before g a i n i n g t h e i r independance. French i s the language j o i n i n g the m a j o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n . E n g l i s h i s q u i t e important i n Cameroon, as i s Hassania (an Arabic language) i n M a u r i t a n i a . S t a t e c o r p o r a t i o n s manage most of the mining and a g r o - i n d u s t r i e s of these c o u n t r i e s . They are a l l s i n g l e - p a r t y r e p u b l i c s and, with the e x c e p t i o n of Cameroon, major m i n i s t e r i a l departments are headed by m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s . 5 Figure 1 - MAP OF AFRICA CEUTA MELILLA Benghazi. IWORT COAST ("GHANA) Abidjan ( Acer8^ NIGERIA • Lagos WJ.'.HJIM:II C E N T R A L A F R I C A N R E P U B L I C Bangui EQUATORIAL GUINEA Malabo SAO TOME £ -PRINCIPE Yaounde V (Libreville/ GABON Cairo • EGYPT )UGANDA ^Kampala * - / ZAIRE /Brazzaville Kinshasa RWANDA Kigali BURUNDI' Bujumbura 0JSOUT1 Djibouti ETHIOPIA Addis Ababa KENYA .Nairobi Mogadishu TANZANIA I ZANZIBAR I Oar as Salaam ANGOLA NAMIBIA e Windhoek ZAMBIA Lusaka• Lilongwe MALAWI Salisbury! ZIMBABWE C <$-i< BOTSWANA J> ' * Gaborone SOUTH AFRICA Pretoria . Maputo SWAZILAND Mbabane LESOTHO Maseru i M o r o n ^ ^ ^ COMORO IS DAGASCAR 6 2. THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF MAURITANIA A Sahelo-Saharan s t a t e of more than one m i l l i o n square k i l o m e t r e s , M a u r i t a n i a i s almost t w o - t h i r d s d e s e r t . In mid-1977 i t s p o p u l a t i o n was estimated to be 1.6 m i l l i o n people, seventy-f i v e per cent being Arab-Berbers or Maures and t w e n t y - f i v e per cent B l a c k s . T h i s l a t t e r group occupies the southern p a r t of the country, along the Senegal r i v e r . The Moslem r e l i g i o n i s p r a c t i c e d by almost every M a u r i t a n i a n . Ninety per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n l i v e s i n r u r a l a r e a s . The economy i s e s s e n t i a l l y a g r i c u l t u r a l and p a s t o r a l . The mining i n d u s t r y ( i r o n ore, copper, y t t r i u m ) i s the most important source of e x t e r n a l revenues. France, the USA and West Germany are the major s u p p l i e r s of food, t r a n s p o r t equipment and machinery. The European Economic Community (EEC) i s a major customer of M a u r i t a n i a . The Sahel drought of 1971-1976 s e v e r e l y a f f e c t e d the country's economy and i n c r e a s e d the r u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n . The Western-Sahara c o n f l i c t a l s o a f f e c t e d i n d u s t r i a l development p l a n s . M a u r i t a n i a i s c l a s s i f i e d among the 49 lowest-income c o u n t r i e s i n the world. In 1979, i t s GNP per c a p i t a was 320 d o l l a r s 5 , having grown at an annual average of 1.9 per cent s i n c e independance i n 1960. 5 T h i s f i g u r e i s very much d i s t o r t e d because of the i r o n ore i n d u s t r y . 7 3. THE REPUBLIC OF MALI With an area of 1.2 m i l l i o n square k i l o m e t r e s , l a n d l o c k e d M a l i i s the l a r g e s t West-African s t a t e of which more than f i f t y per cent i s d e s e r t . I t s only commercial access to the sea i s through Dakar (Senegal), along the Niger Railway L i n e . Twenty d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups make up a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of 6.8 m i l l i o n people (1979). The Moslem r e l i g i o n i s predominant, followed i n numerical importance by the a n i m i s t and a very small p r o p o r t i o n of C h r i s t i a n s . The economic base of the country i s s t i l l very much p a s t o r a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l . I t depends upon c o t t o n and groundnut i n d u s t r i a l c rops f o r e x t e r n a l revenues. M a l i ' s neighbours, the Ivory Coast, Senegal, Ghana and Upper-V o l t a are i t s p r i n c i p a l customers. France, the USA, S o v i e t Union and China supply most of the country's imports which c o n s i s t of machinery, food, petroleum products, chemicals e t c . L i k e M a u r i t a n i a , M a l i has been s e v e r e l y a f f e c t e d by the Sahel drought. M a l i i s c l a s s i f i e d as one of the 29 l e a s t developed c o u n t r i e s i n the world. In 1979, i t s GNP per c a p i t a was 140 d o l l a r s , growing at an annual average r a t e of 1.0 per cent s i n c e independance in 1960. 4. THE TOGOLESE REPUBLIC One of the s m a l l e s t and most densely populated West A f r i c a n country, Togo has an area of 56,000 square k i l o m e t r e s and a p o p u l a t i o n of about 2.5 m i l l i o n people (1979). Three major e t h n i c groups encompass more than s i x t y per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n . Animism i s the most widespread r e l i g i o n while 8 C h r i s t i a n s represent one f o u r t h of the p o p u l a t i o n and Muslims ( p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the north) represent about ten per cent. I t i s mainly an a g r i c u l t u r a l economy with some l i g h t i n d u s t r y such as c o t t o n and cement products. Phosphates account f o r some 65 per cent of the value of the country's t o t a l e x p o r t s , followed by cocoa and c o f f e e . EEC c o u n t r i e s are the l e a d i n g customers. Togo imports mainly t e x t i l e yarns and f a b r i c s , machinery, food, petroleum products and v e h i c l e s from the EEC. In 1980, 15 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n l i v e d i n urban areas a c c o r d i n g to the country's n a t i o n a l development p l a n . The World Bank estimated i t to be 20 per cent. Togo, l i k e M a u r i t a n i a , i s c l a s s i f i e d among the 49 lowest-income c o u n t r i e s i n the world. In 1979, i t s GNP per c a p i t a was 350 d o l l a r s , having grown at an annual average r a t e of 3.6 per cent s i n c e independance i n 1960. 5. THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF CAMEROON Having an area of l e s s than h a l f - a - m i l l i o n square k i l o m e t r e s , Cameroon i s a bridge between West and C e n t r a l A f r i c a . T h i s i s shown by i t s e x t r a o r d i n a r y t r i b a l d i v e r s i t y which accounts f o r a wide l i n g u i s t i c and r e l i g i o u s d i v e r s i t y . As i n Togo, the animist r e l i g i o n i s predominant. C h r i s t i a n s and Moslems represent 35 and 20 per cent r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t s t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n was 8.2 m i l l i o n i n 1979. T r a d i t i o n a l , n o n - i n t e n s i v e farming employs 85 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n . The a g r i c u l t u r a l economy i s q u i t e d i v e r s i f i e d . Cocoa i s the major source of e x t e r n a l revenue followed by c o f f e e , peanuts, rubber and timber. The i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y i s c e n t e r e d on aluminium p r o d u c t i o n , the raw m a t e r i a l being imported from Guinea. The EEC c o u n t r i e s are 9 both l e a d i n g customers and s u p p l i e r s . Cameroon i s formed by the union of former East and West Cameroon ( r e s p e c t i v e l y under French and E n g l i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n u n t i l 1960-1961). The u n i f i e d s t a t e was c r e a t e d i n 1972. I t s GNP per c a p i t a was 560 d o l l a r s in 1979, with an annual average growth rate of 2.5 per cent s i n c e 1960. I t i s c o n s i d e r e d as a lower-middle income country. B. THE INFORMAL SECTOR CONCEPT 1. THE DUALISTIC PERSPECTIVE Geertz (1963) was one of the f i r s t authors to d i v i d e the urban economy i n t o two s e c t o r s : the bazaar and the firm-type economies. Roberts (1978:110) d e f i n e s the bazaar economy as f o l l o w s : The bazaar economy i s made up of a l a r g e number of small e n t e r p r i s e s , which are h i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e among themselves, which r e l y on the i n t e n s i v e use of l a b o u r , o f t e n drawn from the f a m i l y , and which seek to minimize t h e i r r i s k s r a t h e r than seek p r o f i t maximization. Hart (1973), i n a study of the economic a c t i v i t i e s of the low-income s e c t i o n of the urban labour f o r c e i n Accra, Ghana, introduced the concept of i n f o r m a l income o p p o r t u n i t i e s : For a great p r o p o r t i o n of the l a b o u r - f o r c e , these o p p o r t u n i t i e s are the only way to make a l i v i n g i n the c a p i t a l - s c a r c e economies. His d i s t i n c t i o n between the formal and the i n f o r m a l was based on wage-earnings and self-employment c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Recognizing a d u a l i s t i c nature of these economies, other dichotomies have been proposed by v a r i o u s authors such as Weeks 10 (1975) and Sethuraman (1976): M o d e r n - t r a d i t i o n a l , enumerated-unenumerated, p r o t e c t e d - u n p r o t e c t e d . Each of them depends upon the c r i t e r i a chosen by t h e i r authors: the technology used, the p r o d u c t i v i t y of labour and c a p i t a l , the p o s i t i o n of these a c t i v i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n to the s t a t e , the o r g a n i z a t i o n of product i o n . The d u a l i s t i c approach emphasizes the s t r u c t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n the urban economy. B a s i c a l l y , the d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between what i s co n s i d e r e d a t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , p e r c e i v e d as "non-economic" because the maximization of p r o f i t i s supposed to be non - e x i s t a n t , and the modern a c t i v i t y based on work and, above a l l , c a p i t a l . Consequently, the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e i s a l s o d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t o r s , as i f the "urban poor" had l o c a t e d the- i n f o r m a l s e c t o r . Many of these people are a l s o part of the labour f o r c e i n the formal s e c t o r . Furthermore, the earnings of some entrepreneurs i n the inf o r m a l s e c t o r - a r e q u i t e comparable with those made i n the formal s e c t o r (a p o i n t t o be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r ) . An enlargement of the d u a l i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e i s suggested by va r i o u s authors i n c l u d i n g K r i t z and Ramos (1976) who c l a s s i f y the a c t i v i t i e s (workers) a c c o r d i n g to the r e g u l a r i t y of income they p r o v i d e ( r e c e i v e ) . These authors d i s t i n g u i s h three groups (1976:119): • The f i r s t one i s composed of s a l a r i e d workers i n l a r g e modern establishments who have r e g u l a r jobs with s t a b l e incomes. • The second group, the in f o r m a l s e c t o r , assembles the 11 self-employed and p i e c e - r a t e workers who have r e g u l a r jobs with f l u c t u a t i n g incomes. • The l a s t group i s composed of o c c a s i o n a l workers on the verge of unemployment who have odd jobs with sporadic and f l u c t u a t i n g incomes. The d u a l i s t i c approach supposes that there i s a j u x t a p o s i t i o n between two (or more) s e c t o r s that can be o r g a n i z e d along a continuum on the b a s i s of c r i t e r i a such as, on the one hand, strong economic r a t i o n a l i t y , e f f i c i e n c y , and p r o d u c t i v i t y and, on the other hand, weak o r g a n i z a t i o n , poor management system and low p r o d u c t i v i t y , t h i s combined with important " t r a d i t i o n a l " f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . These two s e c t o r s are r e l a t i v e l y independant from each others even though t r a n s a c t i o n s can take place between them. An important c r i t i q u e of the d u a l i s t i c approach, aimed at i t s p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s i s proposed by McGee (1974:8): The m o d e r n - t r a d i t i o n a l dichotomy...has encouraged a one-sided emphasis on the process of development as a p e n e t r a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l systems by the "elements" of "modernization" which are thought to be equated with development. 2. THE SYSTEMIC APPROACH Many authors c h a l l e n g e the v a l i d i t y of the d u a l i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e . Friedmann and S u l l i v a n (op.cit.,387) c o n s i d e r the d i v e r s i t y of occupation and income l e v e l s i n the labour market w i t h i n the s t r u c t u r e of urban employment. The c r i t e r i o n u t i l i z e d here i s the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l form of a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n 1 2 each employment sector a c c o r d i n g to the labour p r o d u c t i v i t y , the economic power and the s o c i a l s t a t u s . The i n f o r m a l s e c t o r a c t i v i t i e s can be found in both the lowest and intermediate l e v e l s of t h e i r model, the i n d i v i d u a l - e n t e r p r i s e s e c t o r and the middle or intermediary s e c t o r . The l a t t e r covers the f a m i l y owned e n t e r p r i s e s as w e l l as the wage-earners of the trade and s e r v i c e s e c t o r s . Breman (1976) c o n s i d e r s that the labour market i s extremely fragmented, that the p o p u l a t i o n s are extremely heterogeneous: Apart from the f a c t t h a t there i s no evidence of an amorphous and d i s i n t e g r a t e d m u l t i t u d e , i t appears r e p e a t e d l y that the i n h a b i t a n t s of low-income pockets and of shanty towns in the urban p e r i p h e r y do not form a separate and d i s t i n c t i v e s o c i a l o r d e r . Studies of slums showed a v a r i e d composition and strong and c l o s e t i e s with i n s t i t u t i o n s of the general urban system ra t h e r than any d e v i a t i n g p a t t e r n of norms and v a l u e s . Breman(1978:1872) T h i s a s s e r t i o n remains to be proven a p p l i c a b l e to West A f r i c a n c i t i e s : Rapid migr a t i o n s from r u r a l areas, which o f t e n i n v o l v e the t r a n s f e r from a semi-nomadic to a sedentary way of l i f e i s a d i f f i c u l t adjustment in which one c o u l d expect to f e e l l i k e a f i s h out of water. Furthermore, as suggested by Abu-Lughod: Numbers alone should a l e r t us to the p r o b a b i l i t y that migrants are shaping the c u l t u r e of a c i t y as much as they are a d j u s t i n g to i t (Quoted by S i n c l a i r , 1978:47) The authors who i n s i s t upon the fragmented nature of the labour market to d i s r e g a r d the d u a l i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e take a h o l i s t i c a t t i t u d e towards the understanding of the " i n f o r m a l s e c t o r " phenomenon. The h y p o t h e s i s that u n d e r l i e s t h i s systemic 13 approach i s that s m a l l - s c a l e p r o d u c t i o n u n i t s cannot be understood without r e f e r e n c e to the economic system as a whole and p a r t i c u l a r l y to the l i n k s between the v a r i o u s sub-systems. 3. THE EMPIRICAL APPROACH AND ITS DIFFICULTIES So f a r , most of the data c o l l e c t e d on the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r are based upon a d u a l i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e of the d e v e l o p i n g economies. To be c o n s i s t e n t and e m p i r i c a l l y t e s t e d , the systemic approach would n e c e s s i t a t e a comprehensive survey of a n a t i o n a l economy as a whole. In 1972 an I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O r g a n i z a t i o n (ILO) mission to Kenya suggested a set of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the i n f o r m a l sector where the u n i t of a n a l y s i s i s the e n t e r p r i s e and not the i n d i v i d u a l . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e : ease of entry, r e l i a n c e on indigenous resources, f a m i l y ownership of e n t e r p r i s e s , small s c a l e of o p e r a t i o n , l a b o u r -i n t e n s i v e and adapted technology, s k i l l s a c q u i r e d o u t s i d e the formal school system and unregulated and c o m p e t i t i v e markets. (ILO,1972:6). Sethuraman (1976:75) going a step f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r e d that an e f f e c t i v e development of that s e c t o r i s only p o s s i b l e when the a n a l y s i s i s focussed on a s p e c i f i c t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n , i . e . w i t h i n the l a r g e u n i v e r s e d e l i n e a t e d by the above c r i t e r i a , one has to choose an homogeneous sub-population that can be more deeply i n v e s t i g a t e d . I t must be emphasized that most of the c r i t e r i a suggested to d e l i n e a t e the i n f o r m a l sector are based on both an e l i m i n a t i o n procedure and a s i n g l e economic approach. No b e t t e r 1 4 option i s a v a i l a b l e f o r sample survey purposes. But, one should s t i l l be aware of the danger in d e s c r i b i n g an economic un i v e r s e without due reference to the s o c i e t y i n which i t performs i t s f u n c t i o n s . The f o r m u l a t i o n of the quest i o n , the way the informal s e c t o r i s d e f i n e d , may p r e j u d i c e the p o l i c y recommendations that w i l l be suggested. As Yeh s t a t e s (1976:76): We must not a u t o m a t i c a l l y a s c r i b e to the "Western" i n d i c a t o r s the kind of u n i v e r s a l i t y i n p l a n n i n g a p p l i c a b i l i t y i n the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s without s c r u t i n i z i n g how they f i t i n t o the o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g system. The f a m i l y ownership of e n t e r p r i s e s , whenever v e r i f i e d , i s an important c r i t e r i o n f o r the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n because i t combines both i t s economic and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s . In c o n j u n c t i o n with the e n t e r p r i s e , i t might be more accurate to study the socio-economic p a t t e r n of o r g a n i z a t i o n of a f a m i l y which, i n i t s e l f c o n s t i t u t e s a u n i t of p r o d u c t i o n -consumption. Instead of u t i l i z i n g the i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c approach to employment problems, the f a m i l y group as an economic agent should be i n v e s t i g a t e d so that employment a s p e c t s would be e v a l u a t e d i n t h e i r s o c i a l c ontext. The concept of employment, as p r e s e n t l y used, i s of l i t t l e h e l p f o r the " n o n - i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c p a t t e r n " of the d e v e l o p i n g economies (Mouly, 1972 and 1977). When the a n a l y s i s i s focussed on the e n t e r p r i s e and p a r t i c u l a r l y the head of e n t r e p r i s e , i t s u n d e r l y i n g assumption i s based on the western co n c e p t i o n of the r o l e of the entrepreneur i n the economic development. He i s 15 promoted as a r i s k t a k i n g i n n ovator. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , many people working i n the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r cannot a f f o r d to take any r i s k s . T h i s i s confirmed by the very low l e v e l of investment that i s being made by the entrepreneur f o r the u n i t of o p e r a t i o n although h i s investment p o t e n t i a l (measured as the net income minus the household spendings) i s r e l a t i v e l y important 6 . The weight or the presence of the extended f a m i l y i n which p a t t e r n s of o b l i g a t i o n s and p r i v i l e g e s a f f e c t a l l members of t e n l i m i t s h i s investment c a p a c i t y . It seems that we are imposing the Western concept of the entrepreneur on a completely d i f f e r e n t environment as i f the c u l t u r e , the a t t i t u d e s towards l i f e , time and space were u n i v e r s a l l y the same. Can a v i s i o n of the world for someone whose l i f e expectancy at b i r t h i s 49 years i n A f r i c a and l e s s than 45 years i n the Sahel be the same as that of a Westener? Disease and d e s p a i r reduce the work c a p a c i t y as w e l l as induce widely d i f f e r e n t behaviour and a t t i t u d e s . What f o r one c u l t u r e i s a norm, as c r i t e r i a o r g a n i z i n g an a c t i o n that might be mo d i f i e d on a short-term b a s i s , i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a norm i n another c u l t u r e . People's a c t i o n s are governed by s p e c i f i c norms and valu e s which cannot be p r o p e r l y understood without due regard to what makes them coherent i n only one p a r t i c u l a r s o c i o -c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . 6 See Chapter 3 s e c t i o n C III . 1 6 4. CONCLUSION The two major approaches - - d u a l i s t i c and systemic-- that have been b r i e f l y e x p l a i n e d i n the preceeding s e c t i o n s , r e s u l t i n opposing viewpoints about the development p o t e n t i a l of the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r . Sethuraman (1981:13) suggests t h a t : The term i n f o r m a l s e c t o r has a c q u i r e d v a r i o u s meanings a c c o r d i n g to the researchers and t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s . Consequently the f i n d i n g s and p o l i c y p r e s c r i p t i o n s a t t r i b u t e d to the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r are not always comparable; o f t e n they c o n t r a d i c t too. The d u a l i s t i c approach u n d e r l i n e s the h e t e r o g e n e i t y of an economic u n i v e r s e . The dichotomy f o r m a l - i n f o r m a l , although p a r t of t h i s approach, i m p l i e s that the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r i s more a t r a n s i t i o n or a hinge between a t r a d i t i o n a l and a modern s e c t o r . More than a concept, "informal s e c t o r " i s a methodological t o o l that s t r u c t u r e s a given r e a l i t y which can then be comprehended through q u a n t i t a t i v e methods such as sample surveys and s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . Instead of proposing c r i t e r i a to a p r i o r i d e f i n e an economic a c t i v i t y , the systemic approach favours a conceptual framework of the economic (and power) r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n t e r - r e l a t e d sub-systems. I t emphasizes the dependence of one system to another through i t s modes of p r o d u c t i o n theory. "Informal s e c t o r " i s seen as a m i s l e a d i n g concept because i t hides the u n i t y and t o t a l i t y of the p r o d u c t i v e system. The development p o t e n t i a l of the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r i s assessed in two d i f f e r e n t ways somewhat r e l a t e d to t h e i r 17 d u a l i s t i c or systemic o r i g i n s . Emmerij (1974) t y p i f i e s very c l e a r l y the fundamental d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n s . Both viewpoints o b v i o u s l y have d i f f e r e n t p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s . Together they agree on only one p o i n t : The i n f o r m a l s e c t o r i s i n a disadvantageous s i t u a t i o n . • The inherent disadvantage i s based on the assumption that the i n d u s t r i a l technology of the West should be the b a s i s of economic growth. T h i s i m p l i e s s c a l e of o p e r a t i o n , e x p e r t i s e and management techniques that are beyond the c a p a b i l i t i e s of small e n t r e p r e n e u r s . A s s i s t a n c e should be given to p a r t i c u l a r l y promising e n t e r p r i s e s o n l y . • The s t r u c t u r a l disadvantage argues that the s c a l e of o p e r a t i o n of the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r i s a consequence of the s t r u c t u r e of the economy in which p o l i c y favours the formal s e c t o r which has a c o m p e t i t i v e advantage that makes i t economically s u c c e s s f u l . If the p r o t e c t i o n of t h i s s e c t o r were to be reduced, both s e c t o r s would be t r a n s i t o r y because they would e v e n t u a l l y merge i n t o a s i n g l e s e c t o r . Emmerij continues by saying that no agreement on the r o l e of governments can be reached between these two v i e w p o i n t s . On the one hand, i t i s suggested that government involvement should be minimal because t h i s s e c t o r i s i n e f f i c i e n t or because i n t e r v e n t i o n would s t i f l e the i n i t i a t i v e of the e n t r e p r e n e u r s . On the other hand, the r o l e of the government i s seen to be u r g e n t l y necessary because there i s no hope of 18 progress without r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n or because i t s dynamism should be used more p r o d u c t i v e l y . These q u e s t i o n s w i l l be examined i n our l a s t chapter on the b a s i s of the s t a t i s t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s of the chosen study p o p u l a t i o n . The approach developed by the ILO p r o j e c t (and d e t a i l e d i n a f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n ) was r e s o l u t e l y e m p i r i c a l , thus o r i g i n a t i n g mainly from the d u a l i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e . T h i s , however, should not imply that i t s c o n c l u s i o n s f i t i n t o one of the above p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s . C. THE ILO SURVEY ; OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY Between 1977 and 1979, the World Employment Programme (WEP) of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O r g a n i z a t i o n (ILO) c a r r i e d out a p r o j e c t e n t i t l e d "Research Programme on S k i l l A c q u i s i t i o n and Self-Employment i n the Urban Informal Sector of Francophone A f r i c a " (ILO, WEP 2-33). 1. OBJECTIVES The short term o b j e c t i v e of the p r o j e c t was to d e f i n e the f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to the esta b l i s h m e n t , p r o d u c t i v i t y and success of small entrepreneurs i n the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r . The long term o b j e c t i v e s were tw o f o l d : • To pro v i d e governments with r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n about the f u n c t i o n i n g of these e n t e r p r i s e s and to recommend improvements so that employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r job seekers c o u l d be c r e a t e d . • To propose that governments implement a c t i o n programmes in the f u n c t i o n a l areas i d e n t i f i e d as major b o t t l e n e c k s 19 to the development of that s e c t o r . The u n d e r l y i n g hypothesis of that survey p r o j e c t was that a p o l i c y f o c u s i n g on s m a l l - s c a l e e n t e r p r i s e s was l i k e l y to have b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s and to be part of a s e l f - r e l i a n t approach to s o l v i n g the growing unemployment problem of these c o u n t r i e s . 2. METHODOLOGY P r i o r to the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the socio-economic survey of the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r , the f i r s t s tep of the p r o j e c t was to undertake an exhaustive census of a l l the n o n - i t i n e r a n t economic a c t i v i t i e s of the inf o r m a l s e c t o r as a whole. Such a census had never taken plac e i n the c i t i e s i n v e s t i g a t e d and i t was co n s i d e r e d necessary f o r two main reasons: • To provide a c l e a r p i c t u r e of the economic a c t i v i t i e s , t h e i r g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n and c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , the r e s p e c t i v e weight of each category of a c t i v i t y compared to o t h e r s as w e l l as to the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n e t c . • To b u i l d a data base from which c o u l d be d e r i v e d sampling procedures and survey l o g i s t i c s . The d i s t i n c t i o n between the formal and the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r , f o r the census implementation, was based upon the assumption that the inf o r m a l s e c t o r has some d i s t i n c t i v e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as the nature of the premises housing the a c t i v i t y . An inf o r m a l s e c t o r occupation i s more l i k e l y to take p l a c e i n the open a i r or i n a s t r u c t u r e such as a hut made of wood or any other l o c a l m a t e r i a l . Whenever there was cause f o r 20 h e s i t a t i o n , a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n such as r e l a t i v e importance of f a m i l y members in the labour f o r c e , absence of accounting procedures, and the nature of the working r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the entrepreneur and h i s manpower were used to i n f l u e n c e the dec i s i o n . A l l the undertakings were l o c a t e d on a map, c a r e f u l l y s p e c i f i e d f o r each block and neighbourhood of the whole c i t y and f i n a l l y s o r t e d out i n accordance to the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Standard I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( I S I C ) . An overview of the census r e s u l t s i s given in the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n 7 . The second step of the p r o j e c t was to s e l e c t a study  p o p u l a t i o n on which the i n v e s t i g a t i o n was to be focused. In accordance with the p r o j e c t ' s o b j e c t i v e s , we s e l e c t e d a range of a c t i v i t i e s producing goods and s e r v i c e s p a r a l l e l to those t y p i c a l l y produced by the "formal s e c t o r " and having a good employment p o t e n t i a l . The a c t i v i t i e s chosen were mainly the f o l l o w i n g : Wood and metal working, e l e c t r i c a l and mechanical r e p a i r i n g , and c o n s t r u c t i o n . These a c t i v i t i e s or u n i t s of o p e r a t i o n d e l i n e a t e d our t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n and were c a l l e d the modern i n f o r m a l s e c t o r 8 In each c i t y , depending upon the s i z e of the modern i n f o r m a l s e c t o r as we l l as time and budget c o n s t r a i n t s , a 15 to 35 per cent sampling r a t i o was a p p l i e d to t h i s t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n . A socio-economic q u e s t i o n n a i r e was designed 9 and 7 Working papers p r o v i d i n g a d e t a i l e d r e p o r t of each census are mentioned i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y (ILO, WEP 2-33). 8 See ILO, WEP 2-33 Nihan: Doc 15. 9 See Appendix: " Q u e s t i o n n a i r e " 21 then p r e - t e s t e d on a random s e l e c t i o n of u n i t s of o p e r a t i o n . Since a l l the undertakings were assigned a number and l o c a t e d on a map,the ones that were chosen f o r the sample were e a s i l y j o i n e d f o r the purpose of i n t e r v i e w s . These were conducted by p r e v i o u s l y s e l e c t e d and t r a i n e d people (having no l i n k s at a l l with any l o c a l a u t h o r i t y ) -in the mother tongue of the head of o p e r a t i o n . The answers were monitored by the p r o j e c t ' s s t a f f who then c o d i f i e d them f o r computer p r o c e s s i n g . Data treatment  and a n a l y s i s was performed and p r e l i m i n a r y r e s u l t s were presented i n d i f f e r e n t working papers 1 0 . Stra t e g y  recommendations were f i n a l l y worked out and d i s c u s s e d with the government of each country. 1 0 Two a r t i c l e s have been p u b l i s h e d i n the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour Review. See f o r example Nihan and J o u r d a i n (1978). 22 D. THE NUMERIC IMPORTANCE OF THE URBAN INFORMAL SECTOR 1. THE INFORMAL SECTOR AS A WHOLE Table 1 shows, f o r the four c i t i e s , the importance of the info r m a l s e c t o r d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t o three groups: p r o d u c t i o n , s e r v i c e s and r e t a i l trade 1 1 1 2 . Table 1 - Summary of the WEP 2-33 o v e r a l l Informal  S e c t o r ' s Census R e s u l t s (absolute and r e l a t i v e frequency) Nouakchott Bamako Lome Yaounde Census Year 1 977 1 978 1 977 1978 Populat ion 134,986 319,336 280,000 389,459 Aver HH S i z e 6.0 8.2 4.9 5.2 #Households 22,497 38,849 56,450 73,627 ACTIVITIES Nbr % Nbr % Nbr % Nbr % PRODUCTION 394 14.0 4,002 24.0 2,786 11.8 2,086 13. 6 SERVICES 405 14.3 1,411 8.5 1,810 7.7 1,027 6. 7 RETAIL 2,016 71.7 1 1 ,263 67.5 18,981 80.5 12,251 79. 7 TOTAL 2,815 100% 16,676 100% 23,577 100% 15,364 100 % Source : Adapted from ILO, WEP 2-33, 1 Working Papers, o p . c i t . 1 1 C o n s t r u c t i o n s e c t o r , 1.5 % of the t o t a l , i s not i n c l u d e d . 1 2 I t should be r e c a l l e d t h at the above t a b l e g i v e s the census r e s u l t s of the n o n - i t i n e r a n t informal s e c t o r a c t i v i t i e s . 23 Table 2 i s e x t r a c t e d from t a b l e 1 and focuses on the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n of the ILO Informal Sector Survey P r o j e c t : The modern in f o r m a l s e c t o r 1 3 . Table 2 - The modern in f o r m a l s e c t o r : Census r e s u l t s ( absolute and r e l a t i v e frequency) Nouakchott Bamako Lome Yaounde TOTAL 241 993 1601 1192 1 4 8.6% 5.9% 6.7% 7.7% 1 5 30.1% 18.3% 34.8% 38.2% Source : Adapted from ILO, WEP 2-33, Working Papers, o p . c i t . S e v e r a l p o i n t s can be emphasized: • The r e t a i l trade s e c t o r i s the major i n f o r m a l economic a c t i v i t y of the four c i t i e s . I t takes up between two-t h i r d s and f o u r - f i f t h s of a l l the o c c u p a t i o n s . • Looking at the t o t a l number of households in each c i t y , we see t h a t , on the average, one household out of e i g h t i s engaged i n an i n f o r m a l business a c t i v i t y i n Nouakchott, almost one out of two i n Bamako and Lome, and one out of f i v e in Yaounde. • The modern i n f o r m a l s e c t o r , the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n of the 1 3 Defined i n s e c t i o n C of t h i s c h a p t e r . 1 4 As a percentage of the t o t a l of t a b l e 1. 1 5 As a percentage of p r o d u c t i o n and s e r v i c e s a c t i v i t i e s mentioned on t a b l e 1. 24 ILO p r o j e c t , represents between 5.9 and 8.6 per cent of the t o t a l i n f o r m a l business a c t i v i t i e s . As we w i l l see i n a f o l l o w i n g chapter, i t s economic and employment p o t e n t i a l i s however f a r more important. Expressed as a percentage of a l l the p r o d u c t i o n and s e r v i c e s a c t i v i t i e s , the modern i n f o r m a l s e c t o r r e p r e s e n t s between 18.3 and 38.2 per cent of these s e c t o r s . T h i s o r d i n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i s i d e n t i c a l to the GNP's d i s t r i b u t i o n given i n s e c t i o n A of t h i s c h a p t e r . 2. THE PRODUCTION ACTIVITIES Table 3 g i v e s a d e t a i l e d d i s t r i b u t i o n of the most important p r o d u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s enumerated i n the four c i t i e s . We observe that about f o u r - f i f t h s of the pr o d u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n these c i t i e s i s conc e n t r a t e d i n t o four or f i v e d i f f e r e n t occupations o n l y . Taking the example of Bamako, almost 80 per cent of the p r o d u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e t a i l o r s and weavers. As f a r as the t a i l o r s are concerned, t h i s means t h a t , at the time of the survey, there was one t a i l o r o p e r a t i o n i n the in f o r m a l s e c t o r f o r 21 households or about 170 people i n the o v e r a l l p o p u l a t i o n of the d i s t r i c t . 25 Table 3 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of the main p r o d u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s ( r e l a t i v e frequency) Nouakchott Bamako Lome Yaounde T a i l o r s 33.0 44.3 59.9 56.7 Weavers 1 6 2.0 34.9 1 .2 1 7 » • Wood workers 18.3 4.9 17.7 21 .8 Blacksmiths 29.4 2.3 3.0 0.5 J e w e l l e r s 1 8 2.1 3.7 • • S u b - t o t a l 82.7 88.5 85.5 79.0 Others 17.3 11.5 14.5 21.0 TOTAL: 100% 1 00% 100% 1 00% Source : Adapted from ILO, WEP 2-33, Working Papers, o p . c i t . The l i n k s of d i f f e r e n t occupations with the c u l t u r e of p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c groups need to be assessed in order to measure how c l o s e a p a r t i c u l a r economic occupation i s a f u n c t i o n of s o c i o - c u l t u r a l background. T h i s i s very e x p l i c i t f o r the blacksmiths i n Nouakchott and the weavers i n Bamako. I t could be an important r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n to assess how f a r the informal income o p p o r t u n i t i e s are r e l a t e d to non-economic v a r i a b l e s . Our approach i s to say that we cannot e x p l a i n t h e i r economic 1 6 F i g u r e s may be m i s l e a d i n g s i n c e they spend the h a r v e s t i n g p e r i o d i n r u r a l areas. 1 7 Means n e g l i g i b l e i . e . i n c l u d e d i n t o " o t h e r s " for. that c i t y . 1 8 Included i n blacksmiths f o r that c i t y . 26 behaviour without due regard to s o c i o - c u l t u r a l v a r i a b l e s . A c t i v i t i e s where r i s k t a k i n g , c a p i t a l o u t l a y and investment are higher (such as i n the modern in f o r m a l s e c t o r ) represent a lower p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l indigeneous economic a c t i v i t y of the c i t y (see t a b l e 2). T h i s premise i s somewhat confirmed f o r the p r o d u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s where the 'wood-worker' i s the only modern i n f o r m a l s e c t o r o p e r a t i o n that i s represented in the above t a b l e . S t i l l , l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s such as the d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g raw m a t e r i a l s can a f f e c t the d i s t r i b u t i o n of these a c t i v i t i e s . 27 3. THE SERVICES ACTIVITIES The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e presents a d e t a i l e d d i s t r i b u t i o n of the major s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s . Table 4 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of the main s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s ( r e l a t i v e frequency! Nouakchott Bamako Lome Yaounde C a r - r e p a i r 1 9 14.5 10.0 18.8 14.5 M i l l e r 3.6 14.8 17.2 10.3 Barber 10.0 • • 17.1 19.5 C y c l e - r e p a i r . • • 15.6 10.1 4.2 C l o c k - r e p a i r 8.2 • • 5.7 6.7 R a d i o - r e p a i r 9.2 5.9 5.0 6.2 Laundryman 32.8 23.5 • • • • Shoemaker 6.4 • • 17.9 S u b - t o t a l 78.3 76.2 73.9 79.3 Others 21.7 23.8 26. 1 20.7 TOTAL 100% 1 00% 1 00% 1 00% Source : Adapted from ILO, WEP 2-33, Working Papers, o p . c i t . We see from the above t a b l e that e i g h t major s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s c o ncentrate between 75 and 80 per cent of a l l in f o r m a l s e r v i c e s of these c i t i e s . Here a l s o , the l i n k s between 1 9 Includes steel-work, p a i n t i n g , r a d i a t o r r e p a i r and welding. 28 d i f f e r e n t occupations and the c u l t u r e c o u l d e x p l a i n some f i g u r e s . The occupation of laundryman for example i s an important f u n c t i o n i n c o u n t r i e s where the Muslim r e l i g i o n i s predominant. T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n does not imply any kind of c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . The two modern i n f o r m a l s e c t o r a c t i v i t i e s r epresented i n the above t a b l e are car and c y c l e s r e p a i r shops. Together they represent between 15 and 25 per cent of the main i n f o r m a l s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s . 4. THE RETAIL TRADE T h i s s e c t o r i s , as shown i n t a b l e 1, the most widespread i n f o r m a l business a c t i v i t y i n these c i t i e s . I t i s very o f t e n a one-woman job, g e n e r a l l y l o c a t e d in the c i t i e s ' markets which are important c e n t r e s of the A f r i c a n s o c i a l l i f e . About t h i r t y d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s were enumerated. The most represented were f r u i t and vegetable shops, r e s t a u r a n t s , grocery s t o r e s , f i s h -shops, and shops for c l o t h i n g , t e x t i l e s , h e a t i n g and cooking m a t e r i a l s . At the time of the census, these a c t i v i t i e s occupied some 44,500 persons who are a d i r e c t (primary or secondary) source of income for one household out of four on the average in these c i t i e s . 5. STUDY POPULATION OF THIS THESIS The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e presents the eleven groups of a c t i v i t i e s surveyed in the f i v e c i t i e s . I t i s on the b a s i s of that t a b l e t h a t the study p o p u l a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s has been chosen. 29 Table 5 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of the "modern" i n f o r m a l sector  a c t i v i t i e s surveyed by c i t y (absolute frequency) C i t y Nouakchott K i g a l i Bamako Yaounde Lome TOTAL Country M a u r i t a n i a Ruanda M a l i Cameroon Togo Wood-working 24 25 50 89 93 281 Metal-working 22 2 23 24 21 92 4-wheel v e h i c l e s 23 2 39 24 49 1 37 2-wheel v e h i c l e s 1 0 49 8 36 94 E l e c t r i c i t y 1 4 1 26 23 22 86 Mechan i c s 0 0 0 1 1 1 7 28 C o n s t r u c t i o n 18 0 1 3 0 24 55 Piece-working 2 0 29 11 26 0 18 84 Sewing 0 0 0 89 0 89 Leather 0 2 0 1 7 0 19 Others 0 5 0 0 0 5 TOTAL 131 48 226 285 280 970 Source : Adapted from ILO, WEP 2 -33, Working Papers, o p . c i t • We see from the above t a b l e that a t o t a l sample of 970 e n t e r p r i s e s has ] been s t u d i e d i n f i v e c i t i e s . • K i g a l i ' s survey i s f i r s t excluded from a p o s s i b l e c h o i c e of c i t i e s because i t has too low a number of cases 2 0 In French "tScherons" i . e . working i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n s e c t o r on a c o n t r a c t b a s i s . 30 compared to the others f o r both the t o t a l and by a c t i v i t i e s . • Among the groups of a c t i v i t i e s , sewing, l e a t h e r and othe r s , as w e l l as mechanics, c o n s t r u c t i o n and p i e c e -working are excluded because they show too low a number of cases or because of an uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n among c i t i e s . • Among the f i v e remaining groups, the two that are the most evenly represented are wood-working and car r e p a i r i n g . T h i s l a t t e r a c t i v i t y has been s e l e c t e d f o r the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s because i t employs a l o t of people compared to the others and, more im p o r t a n t l y , because of i t s r e l a t i v e independance from l o c a l s u p p l i e r s i n the v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s . In the S a h e l i a n s t a t e s such as M a u r i t a n i a and M a l i , wood supply may be a gr e a t e r hindrance to the f u n c t i o n i n g of these wood-working u n i t s , than i n Togo or Cameroon. T h i s c o u l d have c r e a t e d a b i a i s when comparing the entrepreneurs' performance by country. On the other hand, the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y i s a v i t a l p a r t of the economic development of these c o u n t r i e s . I f a p p r o p r i a t e l y s t i m u l a t e d , the indigeneous e n t e r p r i s e s d i r e c t l y s u p p o r t i n g t r a n s p o r t a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d play an important r o l e i n that development. V e h i c l e r e p a i r i s a p p a r e n t l y the most important small s c a l e non-manufacturing a c t i v i t y i n A f r i c a . U n l i k e small s c a l e manufacturing, t h i s subsector r e f l e c t s s u b s t a n t i a l complementarity between the intermediate and formal s e c t o r s i n the economy. Where comparative data e x i s t i t appears that v e h i c l e r e p a i r and 31 manufacture of s p e c i a l i z e d p a r t s are predominantly smal l s c a l e a c t i v i t i e s ( S t e e l , 1977) (Quoted by World Bank, 1979:8). The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e p r e s e n t s some t r a n s p o r t s t a t i s t i c s i n the four c o u n t r i e s . Table 6 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of the road mileage and number of v e h i c l e s f o r s e l e c t e d years i n the four c o u n t r i e s Country M a u r i t a n i a M a l i Togo Cameroon Roads : Year 1975 1971 1977 1976 Ki l o m e t r e s 6,900 14,000 7,170 32,620 Usable yr round .. 7,500 1,137 Surfaced roads .. 1,370 .. 1,270 Seasonal t r a c k s .. .. .. 20,000 V e h i c l e s : Year 1976 1976 1976 1976 Passenger c a r s 6,600 15,200 22,500 59,500 Commercial 5,000 3,600 11,000 51,200 Sources : Adapted from: The Statesman's Year-Book, 1980 ; World Road S t a t i s t i c s , 1980 ; The Europa Year-Book, 1981 ; The Uni t e d -Nations S t a t i s t i c a l Year-Book, 1978 and The Economist, 1980. From now on, we w i l l work with a p o p u l a t i o n of 135 u n i t s of o p e r a t i o n s : The c a r - r e p a i r shops in four c i t i e s of T r o p i c a l A f r i c a . The f o l l o w i n g chapter p r e s e n t s a p r o f i l e of these u n i t s and t h e i r head. 32 I I I . A PROFILE OF THE ENTREPRENEUR AND HIS OPERATION The purpose of t h i s chapter i s to draw a c o l l e c t i v e p o r t r a i t of the entrepreneurs and t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s . Before the data a n a l y s i s and the research q u e s t i o n s are examined the study p o p u l a t i o n must be d e s c r i b e d to answer two types of q u e s t i o n s : Who are these entrepreneurs and how do they make a l i v i n g ? T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n should give some i n s i g h t s i n t o the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s in t h i s segment of the inf o r m a l s e c t o r i n the v a r i o u s c i t i e s . I t should lead to p r e l i m i n a r y q u e s t i o n s and assess the f e a s i b i l i t y of the p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s that c o u l d be drawn af t e r w a r d s . In order t o g i v e some frame of r e f e r e n c e , the automobile-r e p a i r shops p o p u l a t i o n (N=135) w i l l be compared to the general average of the o v e r a l l modern i n f o r m a l s e c t o r p o p u l a t i o n in the same four c i t i e s 2 1 (N=922). 1 2 1 See t a b l e 5: (N Total=970)-(N Kigali=48)=N Four c i t i e s = 9 2 2 'Three types of v a r i a b l e s are used i n t h i s c h a pter: nominal, i n t e r v a l and o r d i n a l . Whenever the f i r s t two types are used,the t a b l e w i l l present frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s which add up v e r t i c a l l y to 100 per cent f o r each column. The o r d i n a l v a r i a b l e s are presented by t h e i r mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S .D. . 33 A. DESCRIPTION OF THE ENTREPRENEURS We w i l l s u c c e s i v e l y d e s c r i b e , through the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s , the i d e n t i t y of the entrepreneurs, t h e i r s o c i a l o r i g i n s , t h e i r education and t r a i n i n g and t h e i r working l i f e . 1. IDENTITY OF THE ENTREPRENEURS Table 7 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the m a r i t a l status of the entrepreneur ( r e l a t i v e frequency) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 S i n g l e 17.9 12.2 43.5 37.5 23 .7 27 . 1 Monogamist 43.6 51.0 47.8 • 54.2 48 .9 50 .0 Polygamist 38.5 36.8 8.7 8.3 27 .4 21 .8 Others - - - - - 1 . 1 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, op.c i t . There i s a f a i r l y equal d i s t r i b u t i o n of the "monogamist" m a j o r i t y among the four c i t i e s . The two o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s are p a r t i c u l a r l y a f f e c t e d by the age of the entrepreneurs: Almost f i f t y per cent of them are between 25 and 34 years o l d and almost two t h i r d s are l e s s than 34 y e a r s o l d . Bamako's entrepreneurs are o l d e r than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s in the other c i t i e s : Almost 60 per cent are more than 35 y e a r s o l d . 34 Table 8 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the age groups of the entrepreneur ( r e l a t i v e frequency) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 20-24 2.6 8.2 21 .7 33.3 13. 0 15.4 25-34 38.5 59.2 52.3 41 .7 48. 9 48.5 35-44 41 .0 26.5 21.7 12.5 27. 4 24. 1 45-54 12.8 2.0 4.3 12.5 7. 4 9.7 55+ 5.1 4.1 0.0 0.0 3. 0 2.4 Source : : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, o p . c i t . Table 9 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the average age of the entrepreneur (mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D.) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 Mean 37.3 32.8 29.9 29.6 33.0 32.8 S.D. 8.2 8.1 7.3 7.6 8.4 9.0 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, o p . c i t . The entrepreneurs of Bamako, and Yaounde as w e l l , i n c l u d e the h i g h e s t percentage i n the 45+ age group compared to the other c i t i e s . The v a r i a b l e "age" i s o b v i o u s l y among the most important ones to e x p l a i n the d i f f e r e n c e s of m a r i t a l s t a t u s ( t a b l e 7) as w e l l as the number of c h i l d r e n : 35 Table 10 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , b y . c i t y , of the average number of  dependant c h i l d r e n of the entrepreneur (mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D.) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 Mean 6.3 3.6 2.1 3.4 4.1 3.4 S.D. 7.0 3.4 3.0 3.8 4.9 4.0 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, o p . c i t . These f i g u r e s i n c l u d e those who have no c h i l d r e n which i s the case f o r 28 entrepreneurs or 20.7 per cent of the study p o p u l a t i o n . I t i s a l s o the case f o r 26 per cent of N=922. For the entrepreneurs who have at l e a s t one dependant c h i l d , the f o l l o w i n g s t a t i s t i c s appear: Table 11 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the average number of  dependant c h i l d r e n of the entrepreneur (mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D.) N=107 or 79.3% and N=686 or 74.4% r e s p e c t i v e l y Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 Mean 7.2 4.3 3.7 4.5 5.2 4.6 S.D. 7.0 3.3 3.1 3.8 5.0 4.0 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, o p . c i t . The average number of c h i l d r e n i s o b v i o u s l y higher than i n t a b l e 10. I t f o l l o w s c l o s e l y the age of the entrepreneurs 36 ( t a b l e 8) except in Nouakchott where t h i s i n d i c a t o r may be a f f e c t e d by h i s n a t i o n a l i t y ( t a b l e 13). A l l the necessary elements are now i n place to present what i s c o n s i d e r e d as an important i n d i c a t o r of the entrepreneur's socio-economic p o s i t i o n : the number of dependants at the entrepreneur's home. Table 12 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the number of  dependants at the entrepreneur's home (mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D.) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 Mean 15.5 6.2 4.5 5.5 8.5 6.3 S.D. 12.2 4.3 4.8 4.9 8.8 6.1 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, o p . c i t . T h i s t a b l e , when compared with t a b l e 11, may be s u r p r i s i n g to someone u n f a m i l i a r with the A f r i c a n f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e . The t o t a l number of dependants at the entrepreneur's home only i s more than the double of the number of c h i l d r e n , i n Bamako and Nouakchott. I t i s g r e a t e r by two-thirds i n Lome and Yaounde. I n c i d e n t a l l y , the t o t a l number of persons in charge at home f o r the 135 entrepreneurs i s 1150. As the survey was made on a 20-per-cent-average b a s i s , we may conclude t h a t f o r t h i s study p o p u l a t i o n o n l y , the number of dependants at the home of the entrepreneurs i s almost 6,000 people. These are d i r e c t l y dependent upon the income of the entrepreneurs . I f we c o n s i d e r the o v e r a l l modern i n f o r m a l s e c t o r , t h i s i n d i c a t o r reaches about 37 25,500 persons, f o r the 4,027 modern i n f o r m a l s e c t o r entrepreneurs i n the four c i t i e s . The l a s t i n d i c a t o r of t h i s s e c t i o n i s the n a t i o n a l i t y of the entrepreneur : Table 13 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the n a t i o n a l i t y of the entrepreneur ( r e l a t i v e frequency) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 Malien 92.3 - - - 26. ,7 22. ,7 Togolese - 91 .8 - - 33, .3 26. ,9 Maur i t a n i a n - - 26. 1 - 4. .4 7. .8 Camerooneese - - - 100 17, .8 29. . 1 Other 2 2 7.7 8.2 73.9 - 17, .8 13. .5 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, o p . c i t . The most important f a c t expressed i n the above t a b l e 2 3 i s that i n Nouakchott (Mauritania) almost three entrepreneurs out of four are not c i t i z e n s of that country. T h i s c o u l d be of c o n s i d e r a b l e importance and may have s e r i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a p o l i c y t h a t would be developed by the a u t h o r i t i e s towards t h i s t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n . A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n was found i n Abidjan (Ivory Coast) where 50 per cent of the garage opera t o r s and t r a d e r s and 74 per cent of the t a i l o r s were f o r e i g n e r s i n 1979 2 2 G e n e r a l l y from a neighbouring c o u n t r y . 2 3 The t o t a l and N=922 are not very s i g n i f i c a n t s i n c e they represent o n l y the weight of each sample survey by country. 2 4 See Sethuraman (Ed), 1981, o p . c i t . p.191. 38 2* . The t o t a l and N=922 are not very s i g n i f i c a n t f o r that t a b l e s i n c e they represent only the weight of each sample survey by country. 2. THEIR SOCIAL ORIGINS Table 14 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the pl a c e of b i r t h of the entrepreneur ( r e l a t i v e frequency) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 Country's c a p i t a l 46.2 30. 6 0.0 33. 3 30. 4 20.3 Another c a p i t a l 7.7 2. 0 4.3 0. 0 3. 7 2.0 Country's c i t y 15.4 16. 3 21.7 29. 2 19. 3 23.6 Another c i t y 5.1 2. 0 56.5 0. 0 1 1 . 9 8.3 Urban s u b - t o t a l 74.4 50. 9 82.5 62. 5 65. 3 54.2 Rural i n country 23.0 42. 9 0.0 37. 5 28. 9 40.8 Another r u r a l 2.6 6. 2 17.5 0. 0 5. 8 5.0 Rural s u b - t o t a l 25.6 49. 1 17.5 37. 5 34. 7 45.8 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, op. c i t . No entrepreneur was born i n Nouakchott: T h i s c i t y was b u i l t around 1969 and 73.9 per cent of the entrepreneurs o p e r a t i n g there are not Maur i t a n i a n ( t a b l e 13). We see that the m a j o r i t y (65.3 per cent) were born i n urban ar e a s . The urban s u b - t o t a l confirms t h i s by c i t y . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n does not c o n t r a d i c t the acknowledged evidence of a strong r e l a t i o n s h i p between m i g r a t i o n to c i t i e s and labour a b s o r p t i o n i n the in f o r m a l s e c t o r . Indeed, 39 the above f i g u r e s d e a l only with the head of e n t e r p r i s e and not with h i s manpower. Secondly, with the e x c e p t i o n of Nouakchott, we s t i l l observe that between 25.6 and 49.1 per cent (34.7 on the average) of the entrepreneurs migrated to a c i t y at a c e r t a i n time i n t h e i r l i v e s . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to i n v e s t i g a t e the d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i a l o r i g i n s w i t h i n the e n t e r p r i s e , between the head of o p e r a t i o n and h i s employees. For the o v e r a l l modern i n f o r m a l s e c t o r (N=922), those who were born i n an urban area s t i l l r epresent 54.2 per cent. These f i g u r e s are q u i t e h i g h . They a l s o show t h a t , f o r the study populat i o n , • 30.4 per cent were born i n the c i t y of i n t e r v i e w , • 34.9 per cent migrated from one c i t y t o another, • 34.7 per cent migrated from r u r a l to urban areas. • For the o v e r a l l modern i n f o r m a l s e c t o r (N=922), these f i g u r e s are 20.3, 34.0 and 45.8 per cent r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t seems t h e r e f o r e that the a u t o m o b i l e - r e p a i r shops p o p u l a t i o n has been more "exposed" to urban areas than the average o v e r a l l modern i n f o r m a l s e c t o r p o p u l a t i o n . 40 Table 15 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the place of c h i l d h o o d  (7-14 years) of the entrepreneur ( r e l a t i v e frequency) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 Country's c a p i t a l 53. 8 34. ,7 0. 0 33. ,3 34. , 1 24. ,5 Another c a p i t a l 5. 1 2. .0 4. 3 0. .0 3. .0 3. ,5 Country's c i t y 10. 3 22. ,4 21 . 7 37. ,5 21 . 5 24. ,2 Another c i t y 2. 6 2. .0 52. 2 0. ,0 10. .4 8. ,3 Urban s u b - t o t a l 71 . 8 61 . 2 78. 3 70. .8 68. .9 60. .5 Rural i n country 25. 6 34. .7 0. 0 29. .2 25, .2 34. .7 Another r u r a l 2. 6 4, . 1 21 . 7 0. .0 5, .9 4, .8 Rural s u b - t o t a l 28. 2 38. .8 21 . 7 29. .2 31 , . 1 39, .5 Source : Sample Survey Data, , ILO, WEP 1 2-33, op, . c i t . Compared with t a b l e 14 , we note that there has been, on the average, a s l i g h t m i g r a t i o n of the entrepreneurs d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d . T h i s most l i k e l y was from r u r a l areas to secondary c i t i e s and/or c a p i t a l c i t i e s . A case study should e x p l a i n why t h i s i s not the case for Bamako and Nouakchott where the r u r a l s u b - t o t a l has s l i g h t l y i n c r e a s e d between b i r t h and c h i l d h o o d of the entrepreneur. Another f a c t i s that 37.1 per cent of the entrepreneurs had alre a d y l i v e d i n a c a p i t a l c i t y before they were 15 years o l d ; 31.9 per cent i n a secondary urban c e n t r e and 31.1 per cent had l i v e d in r u r a l a r e a s . These f i g u r e s c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d by the a c t i v i t y of the entrepreneur's parent as we w i l l see i n a f o l l o w i n g t a b l e . For N=922, these f i g u r e s are 41 r e s p e c t i v e l y 28.0, 32.7 and 39.5 per c e n t . The lenght of exposure to an urban s e t t i n g i s confirmed to be longer f o r the a u t o m o b i l e - r e p a i r entrepreneur than f o r the average o v e r a l l modern in f o r m a l s e c t o r p o p u l a t i o n . Table 16 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the l e v e l of education  of the c h i e f of household during the c h i l d h o o d of the entrepreneur (mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D.) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 Without education 56.4 73.5 8.7 41 .7 51 . 9 62. 0 Koranic school 28.2 0.0 56.5 4.2 18. 5 17. 5 Reads & w r i t e s 7.7 10.2 26. 1 29.2 15. 6 10. 1 Primary school 5. 1 16.3 4.3 8.3 9. 6 7. 5 Secondary + 2.6 0.0 4.3 16.7 4. 4 2. 9 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, o p . c i t . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of Koranic school education i n the above t a b l e can be e x p l a i n e d by the importance of that r e l i g i o n i n these c o u n t r i e s 2 5 . I t appears that the great m a j o r i t y of the sample p o p u l a t i o n was not able to read and w r i t e 2 6 . On the other hand, the parents of Yaounde's entrepreneurs had an above average l e v e l of education. Compared with N=922, we observe that the a u t o m o b i l e - r e p a i r entrepreneur's parent i s more h i g h l y 2 5 See Chapter 1, s e c t i o n A . 2 6 In Koranic s c h o o l s , p u p i l s l e a r n by heart verses of the Koran; there i s no other t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g process as we know i t i n Western C o u n t r i e s . 42 educated than the average o v e r a l l p o p u l a t i o n : 29.3 compared to 20.5 per cent r e s p e c t i v e l y can read and w r i t e . Table 17 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the l e v e l of  occupation of the c h i e f of household during the c h i l d h o o d of the entrepreneur (mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D.) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 Nomad 0.0 0.0 17.4 0.0 3.0 4.2 Employee 5.3 8.2 8.7 16.7 9.0 8.0 Workman 7.9 12.2 8.7 16.7 11.2 7.3 On h i s own 86.8 79.6 47.8 62.5 73. 1 77.4 Family a i d 0.0 0.0 17.4 0.0 3.0 1 .6 Other 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.2 0.7 1 .5 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33 , op.c i t . The most i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t about the preceding t a b l e i s that 73.1 per cent of those who were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the education of our entrepreneurs were independent entrepreneurs themselves. T h i s percentage i s s l i g h t l y lower i n M a u r i t a n i a . In a country where 39.2 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n was nomadic i n 1975 2 7 i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g to see that 17.4 per cent of the parents of the entrepreneurs were nomads. On the other hand, s t i l l i n M a u r i t a n i a , 17.4 per cent a l s o were " f a m i l y a i d " , euphemism f o r 2 7 Source : T h i r d N a t i o n a l Plan of Economic and S o c i a l Development, Islam i c Republic of M a u r i t a n i a , Nouakchott, 1976-1980, page 56. 43 " s l a v e " 2 8 . Indeed, t h i s country has s t i l l some 90,000 people who, a c c o r d i n g to our standards, c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d s l a v e s . They are c a l l e d " t r a d i t i o n a l domestic p e r s o n n e l " i n the o f f i c i a l s t a t i s t i c s of the country: Table 18 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l domestic  personnel f o r three s e l e c t e d years (absolute and r e l a t i v e frequency) 1967 1973 1975 Number 86,665 89,990 89,850 Per cent 2 9 16.4 15.4 14.9 Source : Development Plan of M a u r i t a n i a , o p . c i t . page 48. Going back to the o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s , i t should be mentioned that 58.6 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n worked i n the a g r i c u l t u r e , f i s h e r i e s or stoc k - f a r m i n g . The r e t a i l t r a d e i n c l u d e d 11.3 per cent, 15.8 per cent worked i n the p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and 14.3 per cent i n s m a l l - s c a l e e n t e r p r i s e s (modern or t r a d i t i o n a l ) . For N=922, these f i g u r e s are r e s p e c t i v e l y 68.7, 7.5, 9.7, and 9.1 per cent. Here again there i s a d i f f e r e n c e between our study p o p u l a t i o n and the o v e r a l l modern i n f o r m a l s e c t o r . The person who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the entrepreneur's education d u r i n g h i s c h i l d h o o d worked mainly i n p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s m a l l - s c a l e e n t e r p r i s e s and r e t a i l t r a d e 2 8 See a l s o The Globe and M a i l , Toronto, August 12, 1981. 2 9 As a percentage of the p o t e n t i a l l y a c t i v e p o p u l a t i o n . 44 for the a u t o m o b i l e - r e p a i r entrepreneur (41.4 per cent) a g a i n s t 26.3 per cent f o r N=922. 3. EDUCATION AND TRAINING Table 19 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the l e n g t h of  education (years) of the entrepreneur (mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D.) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 Mean 1.2 4.6 2.2 7.2 3.7 3.6 S.D. 2.4 2.4 2.9 1.8 3.2 3.3 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, o p . c i t . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to compare t h i s v a r i a b l e 3 0 a g a i n s t the performance of the entrepreneur i n h i s b u s i n e s s , e s p e c i a l l y between Bamako and Yaounde. However, we a l r e a d y know that Bamako's entrepreneurs are o l d e r than those of Yaounde (mean=37.3 years a g a i n s t 29.6) and t h i s f a c t o r o b v i o u s l y a f f e c t s the l e n g t h of education which i s g r e a t e r nowadays than i t was 30 years ago e s p e c i a l l y i n A f r i c a . I t should be added that 37.8 per cent of the entrepreneurs ( i n c l u d e d in the preceding t a b l e ) d i d n ' t go to school at a l l : 56.9% i n Bamako, 17.6% i n Lome, 25.5% i n Nouakchott and none i n Yaounde. The more educated, i n le n g t h of education, are from Yaounde where the minimum number 3 0 Only the years that were s u c c e s s f u l l y completed ( s t a r t i n g with the e q u i v a l e n t of grade 1) were counted. 45 of s u c c e s s f u l l y completed years i s f i v e and the maximum i s ten. If we exclude the 37.8 per cent who d i d n ' t r e c e i v e any education (or 40.2 per cent f o r N=922) from the preceding t a b l e , we o b v i o u s l y have higher averages: Table 20 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the l e n g t h of  educat ion (years) of the entrepreneur (mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D.) (N=84/135 and N=55l/922) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 Mean 5.0 5.7 5.1 7.2 6.0 6.1 S.D. 2.0 1.0 2.2 1.8 1.7 1.9 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, o p . c i t . I t shows now that the le n g t h of education i s q u i t e s i m i l a r in Bamako, Lome and Nouakchott. On the average, the only entrepreneurs who have completed primary s c h o o l are from Yaounde. These two t a b l e s c o n f i r m to a c e r t a i n extent the re p r o d u c t i o n process of edu c a t i o n : Table 16 shows that those who were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the education of the entrepreneur had, i n Yaounde , a higher l e v e l of education compared to other c i t i e s . The same d i s t i n c t i o n occured one ge n e r a t i o n l a t e r . 46 Table 21 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the l e n g t h of t r a i n i n g (years) of the entrepreneur (mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D.) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 Mean 5.9 5.0 5.3 2.8 4.9 4.0 S.D. 3.2 1.2 3.0 1.2 2.5 2.5 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, o p . c i t . Only s i x entrepreneurs had no t r a i n i n g at a l l (three in Bamako, one i n Nouakchott and two i n Yaounde). If we compare the two preceding t a b l e s , we see t h a t , with the e x c e p t i o n of Yaounde, the average length of t r a i n i n g i s g r e a t e r than the average l e n g t h of education . In terms of e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g , we thus have two d i f f e r e n t u n i v e r s e s : the ones who d i d n ' t stay at school f o r very long but spent much more time in a v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g c a p a c i t y (most probably f o r f a m i l i a l / e c o n o m i c reasons). T h i s i s the case in Bamako and Nouakchott. On the other hand, we have the opposite s i t u a t i o n in Yaounde where the entrepreneurs have had a long e d u c a t i o n a l p e r i o d but a very short t r a i n i n g p e r i o d before e n t e r i n g t h e i r c a r e e r s . In the middle of these two extremes, we f i n d Lome where both i n d i c a t o r s have s i m i l a r means. These d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d be important i n terms of p o l i c i e s f o r the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r : as long as the socio-economic s i t u a t i o n of these c o u n t r i e s evolves as at present, the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r w i l l remain an important b u f f e r f o r these economies. Is i t 47 therefore'more important to i n v e s t i n education so that the i n d i v i d u a l o b t a i n s a degree but without any assurance of g e t t i n g a job or to i n v e s t i n v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g so that h o p e f u l l y , the i n d i v i d u a l c r e a t e s h i s own job with a l l the m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t s at p e r s o n a l , community, r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l l e v e l s ? Both s i t u a t i o n s are present i n our sample. A separate study c o u l d measure the r e s p e c t i v e m e r i t s of education and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n r e l a t i o n to the economic performance. 4. THE WORKING LIFE OF THE ENTREPRENEURS Table 22 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the age at which the  entrepreneur s t a r t e d h i s a c t i v e l i f e a f t e r 14 years o l d (mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D.) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 Mean 19.6 23.3 21.1 20.0 21.3 21.3 S.D. 3.4 3.5 4.0 2.3 3.7 3.9 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, o p . c i t . An average 21.3 years oldhas been determined; i t i s s i m i l a r among three c i t i e s . In Lome i t i s a l i t t l e h i g h e r . When t h i s i n d i c a t o r i s transformed i n t o age groups, we see that 67.4 per cent of the entrepreneurs s t a r t e d t h e i r working l i f e before the age of 22: 79.5 per cent i n Bamako and Yaounde, 60.2 per cent i n Nouakchott and 45.2 per cent i n Lome. 48 Table 23 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , o f . t h e l e n g t h of working  l i f e (years) of the entrepreneur (mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D.) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 Mean 17.7 9.4 8.8 9.6 11.7 11.5 S.D. 7.8 7.4 6.8 6.5 8.1 8.5 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, o p . c i t . T h i s i n d i c a t o r i s a simple combination of the age minus the age at which the entrepreneur s t a r t e d h i s a c t i v e l i f e . Bamako's entrepreneurs are the o l d e s t ( t a b l e 9) and they s t a r t e d working the e a r l i e s t ( t a b l e 22). T h i s r e s u l t s i n a f a r longer work experience than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s of others c i t i e s . Table 24 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the lenght of work  corresp o n d i n g (RF) or not (RN) to the t r a i n i n g (years) of the entrepreneur (mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D.) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 RF Mean 12.0 8.5 5.5 8.1 8.9 8.1 RF S.D. 8.6 7.3 4. 1 7.0 7.4 7.5 RN Mean 5.3 0.6 2.0 1.2 2.3 2.9 RN S.D. 5.8 1 .7 3.7 2.1 4. 1 4.6 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, o p . c i t . 49 From t h i s t a b l e we see t h a t , on the average, most entrepreneurs are or have been working i n the f i e l d of t h e i r t r a i n i n g f o r most of t h e i r c a r r e r s 3 1 . In t h i s sense, we may expect that they have been f a i r l y w e l l exposed to the c o n s t r a i n t s and d i f f i c u l t i e s of t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s . T h i s doesn't mean however that they are now working i n the f i e l d s f o r which they t r a i n e d . From t h i s t a b l e , we can a l s o c a l c u l a t e the average percentage of a c t i v e l i f e spent i n an occupation that corresponds to the t r a i n i n g of the entrepreneur (RF/RF+RN). I t shows that between 70 and 90 per cent of the working l i f e has so fa r been spent i n an occupation that corresponded to the t r a i n i n g . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n may have manpower plann i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s e s p e c i a l l y f o r those who are a c t u a l l y i n t r a i n i n g in the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r — t h e a p p r e n t i c e s (75 per cent of the manpower as shown in a f o l l o w i n g t a b l e ) . A r a p i d comparison with t a b l e 9 (average age) shows that the age doesn't d i r e c t l y a f f e c t the above v a r i a b l e . 3 1 See World Bank,1979b:28 50 Table 25 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the number of  occupations the entrepreneur has had d u r i n g h i s a c t i v e l i f e ( r e l a t i v e frequency) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 Only t h i s one 5.1 36.7 17.4 16.7 20. 7 27.4 Two 38.5 57.2 52.2 50.0 49. 6 38.6 Three 25.6 4.1 26. 1 12.5 15. 7 21 .4 Four + 30.8 2.0 4.3 20.8 14. 0 12.6 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, op.c i t . If 70 per cent of the entrepreneurs have had a maximum of two d i f f e r e n t occupations so f a r , there are some d i f f e r e n c e s among c i t i e s . Bamako's entrepreneurs are the most v e r s a t i l e i n t h i s r e s p e c t , and those i n Lome the l e a s t so. The age of the entrepreneur p l a y s a c e r t a i n r o l e but s t i l l , i n Lome they are not the youngest ( t a b l e 9). T h i s v a r i a b l e may a l s o have been a f f e c t e d by the development p o t e n t i a l of i n f o r m a l business o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n these c o u n t r i e s f o r the past decade. Compared to N=922, the i n t e r - o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y of the automobile-r e p a i r entrepreneur i s , on the average, l e s s important than that of the entrepreneur i n the o v e r a l l modern i n f o r m a l s e c t o r . Other v a r i a b l e s such as the type of premises ( t a b l e 30) or a t t i t u d e s of the a u t h o r i t i e s may a f f e c t that m o b i l i t y . 51 Table 26 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the lenght of i n f o r m a l  business a c t i v i t y (years) of the entrepreneur (mean and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D.) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 Mean 8.3 6.0 5.8 5.1 6.4 6.6 S.D. 7.3 4.2 5.8 5.4 5.8 6.2 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, o p . c i t . We see t h a t , compared to the l e n g t h of a c t i v e l i f e ( t a b l e 23), the entrepreneur had a l r e a d y worked i n some kind of inf o r m a l business f o r q u i t e a number of years. In percentage of a c t i v e l i f e t h i s i s 46 per cent i n Bamako, 63 per cent i n Lome, 65 per cent i n Nouakchott and 53 per cent i n Yaounde. Table 27 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the 7number of years  the entrepreneur has spent i n h i s present occupation (mean~and standard d e v i a t i o n S.D.) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 Mean 6.8 5.4 3.9 4.5 5.4 5.2 S.D. 6.5 3.8 3.2 5.6 5.0 4.9 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, o p . c i t . The entrepreneurs have been i n t h e i r present occupations fo r a number of years c l o s e to the average l e n g t h of i n f o r m a l 52 business a c t i v i t y . B. DESCRIPTION OF THE ENTERPRISES Under t h i s second heading, we w i l l present s t a t i s t i c a l l y the d i s t r i b u t i o n of • The d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s that are i n c l u d e d i n t o the study p o p u l a t i o n , • A d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i r premises and the s t a t u s of t h e i r l o c a t i o n , • The labour f o r c e of the e n t e r p r i s e by p r o f e s s i o n a l c ategory, • The s a l a r i e s of the labour f o r c e . In the l a s t heading , we w i l l present four i n d i c a t o r s that combine the f i r s t two p a r t s of t h i s c h a p t e r : • The net income of the entrepreneur, • The t o t a l household income, • The f a m i l y spendings, • The investment c a p a c i t y of the entrepreneur as head of the household and e n t e r p r i s e . 1. ACTIVITIES, PREMISES AND STATUS. There i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between the garage, steel-work, welding, p a i n t i n g and the g e n e r a l mechanics c a t e g o r i e s . They have had d i f f e r e n t names depending on the c i t y and/or the most important work that was performed i n the e n t e r p r i s e . On the other hand, t i r e and r a d i a t o r - r e p a i r are s m a l l e r u n i t s of o p e r a t i o n . 53 Table 28 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s of a c t i v i t y i n c l u d e d i n the " a u t o m o b i l e - r e p a i r shop" p o p u l a t i o n (N=135) ( r e l a t i v e frequency) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL 3 2 Garage 35.9 63.3 78.3 66.7 58 .5 Steel-work 3 3 12.8 36.7 0.0 25.0 21 .5 T i r e - r e p a i r 20.5 0.0 21.7 8.3 1 1 . 1 General mechanics 28.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 8 . 1 R a d i a t o r r e p a i r 2.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 .7 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, op.c i t . Table 29 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the d i f f e r e n t kinds of  premises that are housing the a c t i v i t i e s ( r e l a t i v e frequency) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 Open a i r / s t a l l 53.8 51 .0 69.6 79. 1 60.0 25.0 Wood 2.6 42.9 13.0 8.3 20.0 24.0 Adobe/concrete 43.6 6. 1 8.7 8.3 17.8 38. 1 Other - - 8.7 4.3 2.2 12.8 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33 , o p . c i t . 3 2 For N=922, by group of a c t i v i t i e s , see t a b l e 5, Chapter 1 3 3 Includes welding and p a i n t i n g . 54 The m a j o r i t y of o p e r a t i o n s are conducted i n the open a i r , with or without s h e l t e r . T h i s c o u l d be a f f e c t e d by both c l i m a t i c and economic c o n d i t i o n s . For Bamako, the concrete s t r u c t u r e i s adobe only 3 * . Compared to N=922, the d i f f e r e n c e s must be seen through the kind of a c t i v i t y combined with the type of s h e l t e r t hat i s economically e f f i c i e n t and a f f o r d a b l e . Table 30 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the s t a t u s of the land  and i t s premises ( r e l a t i v e frequency) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 Owned 17.9 10.2 8.7 16.7 13.3 9.0 Rented 66.7 53. 1 69.6 20.8 54.1 58.0 Family owned 7.7 8.2 4.3 8.3 7.4 7.0 Other 3 5 7.7 28.2 17.4 54.2 25.2 26.0 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, o p . c i t . We see t h a t , with the exception of Yaounde, the m a j o r i t y of the entrepreneurs rent both the la n d and i t s premises. I t seems that our entrepreneur more of t e n owns h i s manufacturing premises than does the entrepreneur i n the o v e r a l l modern i n f o r m a l s e c t o r : 13.3 compared to 9.0 per cent. 3" In French "banco" as the t y p i c a l s h e l t e r made of d r i e d e a r t h . 3 5 Includes "rent the f i e l d but owns the premises" (11.9%) or "rent the f i e l d but has no premises" (6.7%) e t c . 55 2. THE LABOUR FORCE OF THE ENTERPRISE Both the employment s t r u c t u r e and c a p i t a l requirements of v e h i c l e r e p a i r d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from those encountered i n small manufacturing p r o c e s s e s . H i r e d labour forms a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l employment, and s i n g l e worker f i r m s are r a r e . ( S t e e l , 1977; Calloway, 1973). (Quoted from World Bank, I979b:8). The WEP 2-33 survey has allowed us to l e a r n p r e c i s e l y the major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the labour f o r c e of the e n t e r p r i s e . C a t e g o r i e s of occupation, age, family r e l a t i o n s h i p , s a l a r i e s and l e v e l s of education are the most important v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s r e s p e c t . Under t h i s s e c t i o n , we w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e on the major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the labour f o r c e . Table 31 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the number of workers by category of occupat ion (ab s o l u t e frequency) Bamakc > Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 Appr e n t i c e 1 40 1 64 79 107 490 1509 Family a i d 22 0 0 4 26 93 D a i l y worker 0 0 2 0 2 37 Non-qualif.work 1 1 5 1 0 5 31 216 Q u a l i f . worker 35 8 43 13 99 481 Employee 0 0 1 1 2 37 TOTAL 208 1 77 135 130 650 2373 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, o p . c i t . 56 Table 32 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the number of workers  by category of occupation (mean) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 Apprent i c e 3.5 3.3 3.4 4.4 3.63 1 .6 Family a i d 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.19 0.10 D a i l y worker 0.0 0.0 0.08 0.0 0.01 0.04 Non-quali f.work. 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.2 0.23 0.23 Q u a l i f . worker 0.8 0.1 1 .8 0.5 0.73 0.52 Employee " 0.0 0.0 0.04 0.04 0.01 0.04 TOTAL 5.3 3.6 5.8 5.4 4.81 2.57 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, op.c i t . The two t a b l e s above show t h a t : • There i s an average of 4.8 workers per e n t e r p r i s e i n the four c i t i e s . T h i s f i g u r e i s somewhat lower i n Lome. Compared to N=922 , t h i s average i s almost double that of the o v e r a l l modern i n f o r m a l s e c t o r . I t j u s t i f i e s the p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n t h i s study p o p u l a t i o n . •• The t o t a l manpower of the 135 e n t e r p r i s e s i s 650 people which, added to the 135 entrepreneurs, g i v e s a t o t a l labour f o r c e of 785 people who make a l i v i n g from t h i s o c c u p a t i o n . For the o v e r a l l modern i n f o r m a l s e c t o r , the c orresponding f i g u r e i s 3295 job s . • The most important category of the labour f o r c e i s the a p p r e n t i c e s who account f o r some 75 per cent of the 57 employee in the four c i t i e s , although i t i s a l i t t l e h i gher i n Yaounde. T h i s f i g u r e i s a l s o a b i t higher than the one f o r N=922 where a p p r e n t i c e s represent some 63.5 per cent of the t o t a l labour f o r c e . • Q u a l i f i e d and n o n - q u a l i f i e d workers 3 6 account for one f i f t h of the e n t i r e labour f o r c e . • Employees and d a i l y workers are, not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the l e a s t represented c a t e g o r i e s . They are more present i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n s e c t o r . • The f a m i l y a i d worker i s r e l a t i v e l y absent from the above t a b l e . (N=26 or only four per cent of the labour f o r c e ) . T o t a l l y absent i n Lome and Nouakchott, almost nonexistant in Yaounde, he accounts for 10 per cent of the labour f o r c e of Bamako's e n t e r p r i s e s . T h i s l a s t p o i n t doesn't mean th a t 96 per cent of the labour f o r c e i s o u t s i d e of e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l f a m i l i e s : to be a f a m i l y a i d worker i s a category of occupation s i m i l a r to a p p r e n t i c e , d a i l y worker e t c . These a l s o can be f a m i l y members as i t w i l l be shown in a f o l l o w i n g t a b l e . I t should a l s o be mentioned that the above t a b l e s i n c l u d e the e n t e r p r i s e s without a p a r t i c u l a r manpower. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s d e t a i l e d i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e . 3 6 The d i s t i n c t i o n was made by the entrepreneurs themselves with the i n t e r v i e w e r s and c o n t r o l l e d by the survey a u d i t o r s . 58 Table 33 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the number of  e n t e r p r i s e s having the corresponding category of occupation  among t h e i r manpower ( r e l a t i v e frequency) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 Appren t i c e 84.6 89. 7 73.9 91 .6 85 .9 61 . 2 Family a i d 28.2 0. 0 0.0 12.5 10 .4 6. 0 D a i l y worker 0.0 0. 0 8.6 0.0 1 .5 2. 1 Non-qualif.worker 15.3 4. 0 13.0 16.6 1 1 . 1 9. 0 Q u a l i f . worker 35.8 8. 1 47.8 29. 1 26 .7 20. 3 Employee 0.0 0. 0 4.3 4. 1 1 .5 2. 3 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, o p . c i t . Apart from the a p p r e n t i c e s and, to a l e s s e r extent, the q u a l i f i e d workers, there i s a numeric s i m i l a r i t y f o r each category of occupation between our study p o p u l a t i o n and N=922. Considered by c i t y , w i t h i n our a u t o m o b i l e - r e p a i r shops p o p u l a t i o n , we observe that the presence of n o n - q u a l i f i e d workers, apart from Lome, does not i n v o l v e more than some 15 per cent of the e n t r e p r i s e s . The q u a l i f i e d workers on the other hand, are present i n about 30 per cent of the e n t e r p r i s e s i n Bamako and Yaounde , i n almost 50 per cent i n Nouakchott but i n only e i g h t per cent i n Lome. These f i g u r e s c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of manpower or the l e v e l of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of the e n t e r p r i s e . The v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g p o t e n t i a l of an e n t e r p r i s e c o u l d be assessed , among other t h i n g s , on the r a t i o 59 of q u a l i f i e d workers to a p p r e n t i c e s w i t h i n each u n i t . Table 34 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the number of workers  members of the entrepreneur's f a m i l y by category of occupation ( r e l a t i v e frequency) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 Apprentice 11.4 12.8 24.0 23.4 16.5 23.9 Family a i d 100 - - 100 100 100 D a i l y worker - - 0.0 - 0.0 0.0 Non-quali f.work 18.2 0.0 70.0 20.0 32.2 10.1 Q u a l i f.worker 5.7 0.0 20.9 0.0 11.1 12.6 Employee - - 100 1 00 100 29.7 TOTAL 20. 1 11.9 26.6 23.8 20.0 22.6 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33 , o p . c i t . We see t h a t , on the average, 20 per cent of the workers are members of the entrepreneur's f a m i l y 3 7 . For the a p p r e n t i c e s t h i s f i g u r e i s between 11.4 (Bamako) and 24.0 per cent (Nouakchott). Among the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n f o r m a l business a c t i v i t y was the " f a m i l y ownership of the e n t e r p r i s e s " 3 8 . Looking at both t a b l e 30 (7.4 per cent of the e n t e r p r i s e s - l a n d and premises- belong to the f a m i l y ) and the above t a b l e (20 per cent of the labour f o r c e are members of e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l 3 7 But t a b l e 37 w i l l show that almost 46 per cent of the e n t e r p r i s e s don't have any f a m i l y workers at a l l . 3 8 See ILO, Kenya Report, o p . c i t . page 6. 60 f a m i l i e s ) , t h i s i n d i c a t o r can now be b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d f o r t h i s study p o p u l a t i o n : the f a m i l y ownership of an e n t e r p r i s e i s not always a determinant i n d i c a t o r of an i n f o r m a l s e c t o r b u s i n e s s . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n can be extended to the o v e r a l l modern inf o r m a l s e c t o r p o p u l a t i o n (N=922). As we w i l l see i n t a b l e 38, ten e n t e r p r i s e s out of 135 (7.4 per cent) are "one-man e n t e r p r i s e " types. For N=922, t h i s f i g u r e i s 252 or 27.3 per cent. T h i s l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e c o u l d be due to the kind of e n t e r p r i s e : An a u t o m o b i l e - r e p a i r shop i s l e s s l i k e l y to be a "one-man e n t e r p r i s e " type than a 2-wheel v e h i c l e r e p a i r shop f o r example. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e c o n s i d e r s only the 125 e n t e r p r i s e s having at l e a s t one worker. Table 35 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the number of workers  per type of e n t e r p r i s e (mean)(N=125) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 Garage 6.2 3.8 7.3 5.7 6.5 3 9 Steel-work 10.0 4.2 5.8 5.6 T i r e - r e p a i r 1 .4 1 .0 3.0 1 .4 General mechan. 6.0 - - 6.0 R a d i a t o r r e p a i r 1 .0 - - 1 .0 TOTAL 5.6 4.0 6.4 5.6 5.2 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33 , o p . c i t . 3 9 Not a p p l i c a b l e . 61 There are some d i s c r e p e n c i e s between the g l o b a l mean of 4.8 workers per e n t e r p r i s e ( t a b l e 32, N=135) and the means presented i n the above t a b l e by category of a c t i v i t y (N=125): • As expected, the t i r e and r a d i a t o r r e p a i r o p e r a t i o n has the lowest average number of workers (N=12). • The "garage" a c t i v i t y shows a high l e v e l of employment in Nouakchott, Bamako and Yaounde. • The 'steel-work, welding and p a i n t i n g ' a c t i v i t y has, in Bamako, the highest average of workers compared to a l l other a c t i v i t i e s and c i t i e s . T h i s i s not s u r p r i s i n g f o r someone who dares to d r i v e in that c i t y . The road and t r a f f i c c o n d i t i o n s may a l s o e x p l a i n why Bamako i s the only c i t y of our study p o p u l a t i o n where a l l the f i v e d i f f e r e n t types of a c t i v i t i e s are represented. For N=922, a f t e r the 252 e n t e r p r i s e s without any manpower are deducted, the average number of workers f o r a l l the c a t e g o r i e s of a c t i v i t y i s 3.17 per e n t e r p r i s e . T h i s average i s f a r lower than the one of our study p o p u l a t i o n . The d i f f e r e n t types of o p e r a t i o n s might e x p l a i n t h i s d i f f e r e n c e . The average age of the workers i s 19.5 years " 0 . The mean age i s q u i t e s t a b l e among the three other c i t i e s and type of a c t i v i t i e s : 20.1 i n Bamako, 19.1 i n Lome, and 19.3 i n Yaounde * 1 T h i s i s o b v i o u s l y very much a f f e c t e d by the weight of the a p p r e n t i c e s (75 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n ) . We should repeat " 0 T h i s doesn't i n c l u d e the Nouakchott's sample as the q u e s t i o n was not asked in that f i r s t survey. 4 1 With S.D. of 3.8, 2.5 and 2.4 r e s p e c t i v e l y . 62 here that the average age of the entrepreneur i s 33 years ( t a b l e 9). We are thus i n v o l v e d with a young u n i v e r s e f o r whom manpower e v a l u a t i o n and p l a n n i n g c o u l d be a u s e f u l e x e r c i s e . For N=922, the average age of the worker i s 20.0 4 2 . In f a c t , the age group 11 to 15 re p r e s e n t s 9 per cent of the worker's p o p u l a t i o n , and only 10 per cent are more than 24 years o l d . A que s t i o n that c o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d i s i n which age-groups i s the " e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p " p o t e n t i a l l y present? The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e p r e s e n t s a group d i s t r i b u t i o n of the e n t e r p r i s e s a c c o r d i n g to the importance of t h e i r labour f o r c e . Table 36 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the number of  e n t e r p r i s e s by groups of labour f o r c e ( r e l a t i v e frequency) Bamakc > Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 0 5.1 10.2 8.7 4.2 7.4 27.3 1-3 28. 1 50.9 30.4 20.8 35.5 46.4 4-6 38.5 26.7 34.8 45.8 34.8 17.7 7-10 18.0 8.1 8.6 25.0 14.0 6.3 1 1-20 10.3 2.1 17.5 4.2 7.4 1 .9 22-29 0.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 0.4 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, o p . c i t . We see from the above t a b l e that more than 70 per cent of 4 2 N=556, S.D.= 3.7 and the range i s 24 ye a r s : minimum age i s _H and maximum i s 35. 63 the enterprises have between one and six workers and that 8.3 per cent have more than eleven workers. For N=922, we see that more than one enterprise out of four i s a "one-man enterprise". (The type of a c t i v i t y might play an important role here). Si m i l a r l y to the car-repair shops population, the majority of enterprises have between one and six workers. The last two tables of th i s section combine information about the type of manpower working in the enterprises with the number of workers and the number of enterprises. Table 37 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the number of workers  according to the type of enterprise ( r e l a t i v e frequency and absolute total) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 No manpower - - - - - -No fam.worker 34. 1 74.0 24.4 40.7 44.3 51.1 Mixed 62.5 19.2 68.2 52.3 49.8 37.7 Fam.worker only 3.3 6.8 7.4 7.0 5.9 11.2 TOTAL 208 1 77 1 35 1 30 650 2373 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33 , op.cit. It i s quite d i f f i c u l t to deduce a general trend from the above table except for the "family workers only" type of enterprise which has the smallest number of workers in every c i t y and for both t o t a l s . For the car-repair shops population, Lome is the only c i t y where the majority of workers (74.0 per 64 cent) i s employed i n the "No family worker" type of e n t e r p r i s e . But, i t i s a l s o the case (51.1 per cent) f o r the o v e r a l l modern i n f o r m a l s e c t o r p o p u l a t i o n . Table 38 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by* c i t y , of the number of  e n t e r p r i s e s a c c o r d i n g to the type of manpower ( r e l a t i v e frequency and ab s o l u t e t o t a l ) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 No manpower 5.1 10.2 8.7 4.2 7.4 27.3 No fam.worker 33.4 65.4 30.5 41.6 45.9 38.2 Mixed 48.7 12.2 47.8 41 .6 34. 1 18.8 Fam.worker only 12.8 12.2 13.0 12.6 12.6 15.7 TOTAL 39 49 23 24 1 35 922 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33 , o p . c i t . Almost 46 per cent of the e n t e r p r i s e s don't have any fami l y workers at a l l i n our study p o p u l a t i o n . The percentage of e n t e r p r i s e s having only f a m i l y members i n t h e i r manpower i s very s t a b l e among c i t i e s : I t i s 12.6 per cent or one out of e i g h t . Compared to N=922, we have to take i n t o account the type of e n t e r p r i s e and maybe the c i t y as w e l l . However, a l l i n a l l , the f i g u r e s do not show major d i f f e r e n c e s except f o r a s h i f t from the mixed type of manpower to the "no manpower" category. 65 3. THE SALARIES Table 39 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the average weekly  s a l a r i e s by category of occupation (mean, $US) Nouakchott Bamako Lome Yaounde N=1 35 App r e n t i c e s 4.38 Family a i d D a i l y worker 28.84 Non Qual.work. 17.15 Qualif. w o r k e r 35.45 Employee 51.50 TOTAL N=135 : 14.66 N=922 Apprent i c e s 7.16 Family a i d 12.73 D a i l y worker 23.40 Non Qual.work. 17.46 Qualif. w o r k e r 35.25 Employee 54.10 TOTAL N=922 : 17.97 Source : Sample Survey Data 2.04 1.39 3.32 6.63 - 6.62 4.98 6.58 13.60 9.43 13.28 20.55 17.28 3.53 1.75 5.17 2.96 1.68 3.45 5.46 - 6.12 7.14 8.90 6.58 11.13 12.54 10.69 . 20.81 19.44 15.98 11.88 5.02 2.51 5.15 , ILO, WEP 2-33, o p . c i t . The i n f o r m a t i o n was recorded i n l o c a l currency and 66 transformed, d u r i n g the data p r o c e s s i n g , i n t o US d o l l a r s 1 , 3 . The above f i g u r e s show the s a l a r i e s p a i d i n k i n d and i n cash. To be comparable, these s a l a r i e s have to be r e l a t e d to the cost  of l i v i n g of each country. T h i s would c e r t a i n l y e x p l a i n a l o t about the s a l a r i e s p a i d in Nouakchott. The only a v a i l a b l e mean we have i n that respect i s to present the "guaranteed i n t e r -o c c u p a t i o n a l minimum wage" * * t h a t i s p a i d i n the modern s e c t o r of each country. T h i s w i l l be shown in a f o l l o w i n g t a b l e . Before doing so, we see from the above t a b l e t h a t , by c i t y , the s a l a r i e s p a i d to the a u t o m o b i l e - r e p a i r shop workers are, very o f t e n , lower than those p a i d to t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n the o v e r a l l modern i n f o r m a l s e c t o r . T h i s i s more p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e and important f o r 75 per cent of our workers: the a p p r e n t i c e s . One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s that the entrepreneur deducts h i s t r a i n i n g c o s t s which are c e r t a i n l y higher than i n the other o c c u p a t i o n s . We a l s o observe that there i s a gen e r a l c o n t i n u i t y of s a l a r y i n c r e a s e by category of occupation from the a p p r e n t i c e s to the employees i n both p o p u l a t i o n s . " 3 Rates of exchange by c i t y ( y e a r ) : Bamako (1978) 1 FM=0.00216 $ Nouakchott (1977) 1UM=0.0206 $ Lome, Yaounde (1978-79) 1CFA=0.00432 $ . " In French " S a l a i r e minimum impose g a r a n t i " or SMIG. 67 Table 40 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the guaranteed i n t e r - o c c u p a t i o n a l minimum wage weekly p a i d i n the "modern" s e c t o r (absolute value, year of survey) Nouakchott Bamako Lome Yaounde L o c a l UM FM CFA CFA Currency 858 3,215 2,380 2,994 $US 17.67 6.75 10.28 12.93 Source : ILO, WEP 2-33, Working Papers, o p . c i t . Combining the two preceeding t a b l e s , we can compare the s a l a r y percentage earned in the modern informal s e c t o r with the guaranteed i n t e r - o c c u p a t i o n a l minimum wage earned in the modern s e c t o r . We w i l l do t h i s only f o r the a p p r e n t i c e s . They represent 75 per cent of our labour f o r c e and they are the c l o s e s t category to the one f o r whom we have presented the above f i g u r e s . 1 In Bamako, they earn 30 per cent of the guaranteed wage , i n Lome 14 per cent, i n Nouakchott 25 per cent and 26 i n Yaounde 1 , 5 . T h i s s i t u a t i o n has to be c a r e f u l l y q u a l i f i e d , keeping i n mind the socio-economic c o n s t r a i n t s of these c o u n t r i e s . One may say that t h i s confirms the underemployment 1The minimum wage a p p l i e s to "the h e l p worker" who i s not to be confounded with the a p p r e n t i c e . The l a t e r i s not i n c l u d e d i n any g e n e r a l c o l l e c t i v e agreement. As a f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e , the n o n - q u a l i f i e d worker i n M a u r i t a n i a , at the time of the survey, was e n t i t l e d to a weekly minimum wage of $24.78 (US); the q u a l i f i e d worker 28.84 and the employee 57.16. Source : Development Plan of M a u r i t a n i a , o p . c i t . " 5 S i m i l a r ranges are found in other A f r i c a n and Asian c o u n t r i e s . See Sethuraman (Ed), (1981:192). 68 that c h a r a c t e r i z e s the in f o r m a l s e c t o r ; s t i l l , t h i s i s b e t t e r than no employment at a l l . Furthermore, we know very l i t t l e about the e t h n i c l i n k s that may e x i s t between the enterpreneur and h i s a p p r e n t i c e , t h e i r subsequent o b l i g a t i o n s may change the whole p i c t u r e . F i n a l l y , i n the example of Lome, many a p p r e n t i c e s had to pay to work with an entrepreneur. This s i t u a t i o n i s not uncommon i n other A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s and leads us t o t h i n k that earning between 14 and 26 per cent of the guaranteed minimum wage (that i s o f f i c i a l l y s a i d to be) p a i d to the above o c c u p a t i o n a l category i s s t i l l an advantage. T h i s a s s e r t i o n should't impede someone f i n d i n g out ways to improve the c o n d i t i o n of these a p p r e n t i c e s — p r o v i d e d that the "system" can continue to perform i t s f u n c t i o n : to generate employment and income f o r one of the poorest p a r t s of the p o p u l a t i o n . 4. THE NET INCOME OF THE ENTREPRENEUR C a l c u l a t e d as the b e n e f i t of the e n t e r p r i s e (turnover minus o p e r a t i n g c o s t s such as s a l a r i e s , raw m a t e r i a l s , taxes and d e p r e c i a t i o n ) , t h i s b e n e f i t i s then m u l t i p l i e d by the p o r t i o n that goes to the entrepreneur h i m s e l f ( s i n c e few of them have a s s o c i a t e s ) . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e d e t a i l s t h i s net income by category of e n t e r p r i s e , i n US d o l l a r s per week: 69 Table 41 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y and category of occupation, of the average weekly net income of the entrepreneur (mean, $US) Nouakchott Bamako Lome Yaounde Garage 155.29 58.98 35. 1 7 128. 04 Steel-work - 53.92 47.22 96. 39 T i r e - r e p a i r 28.87 31 .20 - 43. 09 General mechan. - 82.02 - -Radiator r e p a i r - 62.75 - -TOTAL 127.81 59.23 39.60 113. 05 N=922 131.28 38.54 33.09 54. 15 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, o p . c i t . We f i r s t observe t h a t , except i n Nouakchott, the net income of the a u t o m o b i l e - r e p a i r entrepreneur i s higher than the average net income of the o v e r a l l modern i n f o r m a l s e c t o r entrepreneur. In Yaounde , t h i s income i s even doubled. Within each c i t y we observe a l a r g e d i s c r e p e n c y of income a c c o r d i n g to the category of o c c u p a t i o n . T h i s c o u l d be l i n k e d to the s i z e of the o p e r a t i o n . However, the number of e n t e r p r i s e s by category of occupation i s too low to draw any c o n c l u s i o n i n that r e s p e c t . Compared to the s a l a r i e s p a i d by the entrepreneur to h i s employees we see that there i s , on the average, a r a t i o i n h i s fa v o r , of 17 to one i n Bamako, 23 to one i n Lome , nine to one in Nouakchott and 22 to one i n Yaounde. To a c e r t a i n extent, 70 with the exception of Noukchott ( t h i s c i t y seems more and more to be a p a r t i c u l a r c a s e ) , these r a t i o s are s i m i l a r (between 17 and 23). S t i l l , there are huge d i f f e r e n c e s i n incomes and how fa r these d i f f e r e n c e s can go should be questionned. Breman (1976:1940) quoting Leys says that the l a t t e r ...has c o r r e c t l y drawn a t t e n t i o n to the c o n t r a s t i n g i n t e r e s t s which e x i s t between employers and employees i n the s o - c a l l e d i n f o r m a l s e c t o r . In terms of incomes compared to the modern s e c t o r we cannot assess how b e t t e r or worse o f f the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r ' s entrepreneur i s since no f i g u r e s were a v a i l a b l e . However, one may reasonably say that they are i n q u i t e a good s i t u a t i o n * 6 . Th i s w i l l be d e a l t with more d i r e c t l y i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . The net income of the entrepreneur i s thus what he i s supposed to take home f o r the d a i l y f u n c t i o n n i n g of h i s household. We now can end t h i s chapter by j o i n i n g i t s two components through the f o l l o w i n g complementary d a t a : Household income, f a m i l y spendings and investment c a p a c i t y . C. COMPLEMENTARY DATA 1. THE HOUSEHOLD INCOME The net income which the entrepreneur d e r i v e s from h i s e n t e r p r i s e may not be the t o t a l income of the household. Indeed, the entrepreneur may have another a c t i v i t y which b r i n g s another income. * 6 See Sethuraman, o p . c i t . p.195. 71 Table 42 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the a d d i t i o n a l sources  of income of the entrepreneur ( r e l a t i v e frequency) Bamako Lome Nouakchott Yaounde TOTAL N=922 None 87.2 73.5 69.6 83.3 78.5 79.4 C r o p / F i e l d 2.6 12.2 8.7 0.0 6.7 5.5 Taxi 2.6 4. 1 0.0 8.3 3.7 1 .7 Worker 4 7 0.0 6.1 0.0 0.0 2.2 2.8 Other 4 8 7.7 4.0 21.7 8.4 9.9 9.6 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, o p . c i t . About one entrepreneur out of f i v e has an a d d i t i o n a l source of income. Four entrepreneurs have two a d d i t i o n a l sources of income 4 9 . To these sources we must add a l l the other incomes that are brought i n t o the household by other f a m i l y members; t h i s i s the case i n 23 per cent of our entrepreneurs' f a m i l i e s . For N=922, t h i s f i g u r e goes up to 27.5 per c e n t . A l l these e x t e r n a l sources of income (whenever brought back home) are then added to the net income of the entrepreneur to g i v e the t o t a l household income as mentioned i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e . 4 7 In the modern s e c t o r . 4 8 Such as r e n t i n g or f i n a n c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 4 9 Two i n Yaounde and two i n Nouakchott. 72 Table 43 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the average t o t a l  household weekly income by category of e n t e r p r i s e (mean, $US ) Nouakchott Bamako Lome Yaounde Garage 196, .03 73, .64 42, .73 1 55, .85 Steel-work 60, .40 56, .39 1 17. 27 T i r e - r e p a i r 31 , .76 32, .55 56. .48 Gen.mechanics 96, .51 R a d i a t o r - r e p a i r 62, .75 TOTAL 160. .32 69. .68 47. .74 1 37. 93 N=922 180. ,83 47. .30 38. .49 62. .70 Compared with the net income of the entrepreneur ( t a b l e 41) we see an average i n c r e a s e of income of 17 per cent i n Bamako, 20 per cent i n Lome , 25 per cent i n Nouakchott and 22 per cent i n Yaounde. Put another way, the b e n e f i t the entrepreneur d e r i v e s from h i s e n t e r p r i s e r e p r e s e n t s , i n percentage of the t o t a l household income, some 85 per cent i n Bamako, 82 per cent i n Lome, 79 per cent i n Nouakchott and 81 per cent i n Yaounde. This i s an important i n d i c a t i o n of • A c e r t a i n s t a b i l i t y among c i t i e s i n terms of the importance the e n t e r p r i s e r e p r e s e n t s f o r the household. • The f a c t that there i s a l s o a c e r t a i n share of r i s k among the household members, expressed i n terms of m u l t i p l y i n g the sources of incomes. 73 For N=922, the b e n e f i t the entrepreneur d e r i v e s from h i s e n t e r p r i s e r e p r e s e n t s , i n percentage of the t o t a l household income, some 73 per cent i n Nouakchott, 81 per cent i n Bamako, 86 per cent i n Lome and Yaounde. We a l s o observe that the household income for N=922 i s , except in.Nouakchott, q u i t e lower than the average household income of the automobile- r e p a i r entrepreneur. 2. THE FAMILY EXPENDITURES Now t h a t the t o t a l household income i s known, we have to present the f a m i l y expenditures. These i n c l u d e the monetary a i d to the f a m i l y who doesn't l i v e with the entrepreneur as head of the household. The f i g u r e s are presented, i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , i n percentage of both the net and the household income. Table 44 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y and category of a c t i v i t y , of the percentage of the net and household income a f f e c t e d to  the f a m i l y spendings (average r e l a t i v e frequency) Nouakchott Bamako Lome Yaounde In percentage of the net income N=135 55.70 63.48 46.54 41.47 N=922 50.18 79.24 46.63 48.73 In percentage of the household income N=135 44.41 53.96 38.60 33.99 N=922 36.43 56.19 37.51 42.08 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, o p . c i t . 74 These f i g u r e s are i n f l u e n c e d by the number of people i n c l u d e d i n the f a m i l y and thus the age and m a r i t a l s t a t u s of the entrepreneur. We can see f o r example that the youngest p o p u l a t i o n (Yaounde) spends the lowest percentage of both the entrepreneur's net income and household income for the f a m i l y spendings. On the other hand, the o l d e s t p o p u l a t i o n (Bamako) spends the highest percentage compared to h i s c o u n t e r p a r t s i n other c i t i e s . For N=922, t h i s i s not e x a c t l y the case; the minor d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d be a t t r i b u t a b l e to the h e t e r o g e n e i t y of the o v e r a l l i n f o r m a l s e c t o r a c t i v i t i e s . A comparison c o u l d be made here with the poverty i n Canada: By d e f i n i t i o n , any Canadian f a m i l y that a l l o c a t e s more than 70 per cent ( i . e . 20 p o i n t s above the surveyed n a t i o n a l average) of i t s budget to food, c l o t h i n g and s h e l t e r i s l i v i n g in poverty (because i t s d i s c r e t i o n a r y income i s very low). Although i t i s d i f f i c u l t to accept that a l l other t h i n g s c o u l d be equal here, and assuming that the above t a b l e only covers the b a s i c needs, we must acknowledge that the average entrepreneur i s not i n a s t a t e of poverty. 3. THE INVESTMENT CAPACITY The preceeding t a b l e has shown that there i s an unspent p o r t i o n of both the net and the household income that must be a f f e c t e d to other items. Although the WEP 2-33 survey p r o j e c t has i d e n t i f i e d t h i s f a c t , no f o l l o w up or f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n has been done so f a r . A l l that we know i s that the unspent 75 p o r t i o n i s very r a r e l y r e i n v e s t e d in the e n t e r p r i s e 5 0 . T h i s confirms other s t u d i e s done so f a r : Se v e r a l s t u d i e s have noted a tendency on the pa r t of small entrepreneurs to d i v e r s i f y t h e i r h o l d i n g s of small s c a l e a c t i v i t i e s r a t h e r than to r e i n v e s t p r o f i t s i n expanding a s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e . . . Such p o r t o f o l i o d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n appears to be a r a t i o n a l response on the p a r t of small e n t e r p r i s e to a s t r u c t u r e of i n c e n t i v e s which p e n a l i z e s firms f o r expanding to the p o i n t where they are n o t i c e d by p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s . . . ( W o r l d Bank,1979b:32) The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s q u a n t i f y t h i s "investment c a p a c i t y " . Table 45 - D i s t r i b u t i o n by c i t y and category of a c t i v i t y of the weekly investment c a p a c i t y of the entrepreneur (mean, $ US) Nouakchott Bamako Lome Yaounde Garage 110.31 Steel-work T i r e - r e p a i r 12.81 General mechan. R a d i a t o r - r e p a i r TOTAL 89.11 N=922 114.08 35.27 18.41 21 .66 42.70 22.79 32.08 20.71 24.92 36.87 29.31 24.04 96. 16 88.47 41 .79 91 .04 36.30 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, o p . c i t 5 0 See WEP 2-33 Working Papers. 76 Table 46 - D i s t r i b u t i o n , by c i t y , of the weekly investment  c a p a c i t y as a percentage of the net income of the entrepreneur ( r e l a t i v e frequency) Nouakchott Bamako Lome Yaounde Garage 71.0 59.8 70.8 76.6 Steel-work - 34. 1 78.0 91 .8 T i r e - r e p a i r 44.3 69.2 - 97.0 General mechan. - 52.0 - -R a d i a t o r - r e p a i r - 36.3 - -TOTAL 69.7 54.2 74.0 80.5 N=922 86.9 53.7 72.6 67.0 Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, o p . c i t . The above f i g u r e s c o n t r a d i c t the popular n o t i o n that these entrepreneurs need f inane i a l a s s i s t a n c e . They co n f i r m the a n a l y s i s that was done by c i t y , f o r the o v e r a l l modern i n f o r m a l s e c t o r . 5 1 . We must recognize that there i s a l a r g e percentage of the i n d i v i d u a l b e n e f i t (between 54 and 80 per cent) that i s l e f t unexplained in the sense that i t i s not r e i n v e s t e d or consumed in the u n i t of oper a t i o n or the household 5 2 . I t shows that 5 1 See WEP 2-33 Doc 4,11 and 16. In the above t a b l e s , N=922 i s a s y n t h e s i s of these f i n d i n g s . 5 2 We only observe that the o l d e r group as the lowest investment c a p a c i t y (Bamako) and that the younger (Yaounde) has the hig h e s t one. 77 there i s an important investment p o t e n t i a l , endogenous to the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r , that c o u l d be the key to i t s development. It i s suggested that f u r t h e r s t u d i e s are necessary to i n v e s t i g a t e the v a l i d i t y of these f i n d i n g s i n order to understand the socio-economic, p o l i t i c a l and/or c u l t u r a l process that i s at the o r i g i n of t h i s s i t u a t i o n . 78 IV. THE GOVERNMENT'S ATTITUDES The second o b j e c t i v e of t h i s t h e s i s i s to determine what government a t t i t u d e i s towards the in f o r m a l s e c t o r . T h i s a t t i t u d e can be analysed • Through the o f f i c i a l p o l i c y document of a government, i . e . the N a t i o n a l Development P l a n . • Or through the c o m p i l a t i o n of the d a i l y experiences of the entrepreneur who, one way or another, faces the r e a l p o l i c y of h i s government. The f i r s t method w i l l be used f o r two reasons: The a n a l y s i s of the development p l a n n i n g process w i l l h e l p us to assess what are the government's p r o p o s a l s i n ge n e r a l , and for the in f o r m a l s e c t o r i n p a r t i c u l a r . I t w i l l at the same time g i v e us some i n s i g h t s i n t o the e f f i c i e n c y of the planning p r o c e s s and i t s relevance to the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s l a t t e r p o i n t i s necessary to determine whether or not a development p l a n i s the a p p r o p r i a t e t o o l to help to a l e v i a t e the in f o r m a l s e c t o r ' s problems. The d a i l y experiences of the entrepreneurs depend upon too many v a r i e d f a c t o r s that would b i a i s the a n a l y s i s : p o l i t i c a l c o n j u n c t u r e , type of - o p e r a t i o n d i f f e r e n t l y p e r c e i v e d i n the four c o u n t r i e s , l o c a t i o n of the e n t e r p r i s e , p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the entrepreneur e t c . However, the f o u r t h chapter w i l l i n d i r e c t l y d e a l with these q u e s t i o n s by t r y i n g to determine what i s the entrepreneur's response to p o t e n t i a l government a s s i s t a n c e . T h i s chapter w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o three s e c t i o n s . The 79 f i r s t heading w i l l present an overview and general a p p r a i s a l of the development p l a n n i n g process. The example of the plan f o r Ma u r i t a n i a w i l l s p e c i f y and provide f u r t h e r evidence to the previous heading. In a t h i r d p a r t , our i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l be focussed on what development plans o f f i c i a l l y i ntend to do f o r the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r i n three c o u n t r i e s 5 3 . A. THE NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN AS AN INSTRUMENT OF ECONOMIC GROWTH? Plann i n g i s co n s i d e r e d by the governments of these c o u n t r i e s 5 * as a set of g u i d e l i n e s that w i l l pave the way to the socio-economic development of the n a t i o n . The plans are above a l l c o n s i d e r e d to be the " s c i e n t i f i c , dynamic and o r d e r l y " mean to achieve that o b j e c t i v e . For example 5 5 : En e f f e t , 1 ' i n t r o d u c t i o n de l a p l a n i f i c a t i o n economique dans l a p o l i t i q u e t o g o l a i s e de developpement a v a i t pour but d'ameliorer fondamentalement l e systeme de g e s t i o n de l'economie n a t i o n a l e pour a i n s i remplacer l a r o u t i n e et 1'improvisat ion par une con c e p t i o n s c i e n t i f i q u e , dynamique et ordonnee du developpement. P r o v i d i n g a b r i e f h i s t o r i c overview of the economic pl a n n i n g i n A f r i c a , Simmons(1976:65) d e s c r i b e s i t s p h i l o s o p h y d u r i n g the l a t e 50s - e a r l y 60s as a 5 3 D e s p i t e many attempts, the development plan f o r Cameroon was never made a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s study. 5 " L i b e r i a , Ruanda and Burundi are the only A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s who have not adopted the phi l o s o p h y of economic p l a n n i n g . (Simmons,1976:65) 5 5 Republique T o g o l a i s e , M i n i s t e r e du Plan et de l a Reforme A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , Plan de Developpement Economique et S o c i a l , 1981-85, p.21 . 80 ... symbolic e x p r e s s i o n of t h e i r d e termination to a c c e l e r a t e the r a t e of economic and s o c i a l progress, and as an e x p r e s s i o n of t h e i r d e s i r e to e s t a b l i s h economic independance in a d d i t i o n to t h e i r newly a c q u i r e d p o l i t i c a l independance. I t i s s t i l l very much nowadays a "popular manifesto f o r n a t i o n a l i s t i c propaganda" (Simmons,op.cit.). For example, the f i r s t sentence of the l a s t f i v e - y e a r plan f o r M a l i reads as f o l l o w s 5 6 : L ' o p t i o n du p a r t i pour une Economie N a t i o n a l e Independante et P l a n i f i e e et l a C o n f i r m a t i o n par l e Congres C o n s t i t u t i f des o b j e c t i f s fondamentaux du Plan Quinquennal 1974/78 et partant des o b j e c t i f s a long terme et des s t r a t e g i e s g l o b a l e s et s e c t o r i e l l e s c i -dessous rappeles que s'est a s s i g n e l e M a l i a ce jour temoigne de l a c o n t i n u i t y de l a p o l i t i q u e de notre pays et de l a j u s t e s s e de ses choix en matiere d ' o b j e c t i f s de developpement economique et s o c i a l . T h i s r a t h e r long sentence shows a permanent need to j u s t i f y p r e v i o u s c h o i c e s as proceeding from some long term far reaching p o l i t i c a l v i s i o n . I t wants to imprint a f e e l i n g of c o n t i n u i t y . Is i t because of an u n d e r l y i n g c r i s i s of p o l i t i c a l l e g i t i m a c y ( i n M a l i ) and/or t e c h n i c a l l e g i t i m a c y ( i n Togo)? Within that environment, the planner sometimes p l a y s a s o r t of a l l encompassing i f not a m y t h i c a l r o l e 5 7 : La p e t i t e experience acquise par l ' e x e c u t i o n des t r o i s premiers Plans a t o u j o u r s f a i t penser, ou p l u t 6 t mediter sur 1' e f f i c a c i t e de l ' o u t i l qu'est l a p l a n i f i c a t i o n . L'Economiste P l a n i f i c a t e u r , t o u j o u r s P r o j e t d ' o r i e n t a t i o n du Plan du M a l i , 1981-1985. Cabinet du M i n i s t r e du Plan, AoOt 1980, page 1 (Unpublished). Development Plan f o r Togo, o p . c i t . page 21. 81 soucieux de l ' e q u i l i b r e entre ses resources et ses emplois , c ' e s t - a - d i r e de l ' e q u i l i b r e g l o b a l de l'economie, s'est i n t e r r o g e sur l e bien-fonde de l'oeuvre q u ' i l a v a i t accomplie jusqu'a l'heure des b i l a n s , et constate q u ' i l e x i s t e finalement un e c a r t e n t r e l e s p r e v i s i o n s et l e s r e a l i s a t i o n s e f f e c t i v e s qui t r e s souvent, englobent des p r o j e t s et programmes hors de ses p r e v i s i o n s i n i t i a l e s . Sometimes i t i s the plan i t s e l f which i s the master of a country's d e s t i n y . Under the heading "Plan S t r a t e g y f o r 1981-1985 ", sub-heading "Global S t r a t e g y " , the f i r s t two paragraphs of the development plan f o r M a l i read as f o l l o w s 5 8 : Un p l a n de developpement n'est en f i n de compte qu'un m a i l l o n d'une chaine ininterrompue. I l succede a un Plan et un autre l u i succede et ce processus, dans l e cadre d'un developpement harmonieux et bien pense, se derou l e sans r u p t u r e . Un plan c o n s o l i d e l e s acquis du pla n precedant, redresse l e s d e s e q u i l i b r e s e x i s t a n t s et i n i t i e de n o u v e l l e s a c t i o n s . Ghaque Plan tenant done compte a l a f o i s , du passe du present et du f u t u r , revet un cachet p a r t i c u l i e r qui a p p a r a i t tout naturellement a t r a v e r s l e s s t r a t e g i e s y af f e r a n t . I t i s o b v i o u s l y always p o s s i b l e and easy to c r i t i c i z e a development plan on these grounds. We ra t h e r have to assess whether or not i t i s the best t o o l f o r a c h i e v i n g one p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t i v e : To promote the modern in f o r m a l s e c t o r so that i t generates more jobs and incomes f o r one of the po o r e s t s p a r t s of the p o p u l a t i o n . S t i l l , the u n d e r l y i n g philosophy that p r e v a i l s to e l a b o r a t e such a p u b l i z e d document i s u s e f u l to know. To evaluate a development plan many c r i t e r i a c o u l d be Development Plan f o r M a l i , o p . c i t . page 21. 82 a p p l i e d . Some normal ways c o u l d be to compare the p l a n with any a b s t r a c t model of p l a n n i n g p e r f e c t i o n , or with the academic model of socio-economic p l a n n i n g . Another t e s t c o u l d be to measure i t a g a i n s t a d e f i n i t i o n of p l a n n i n g : ... broadly speaking, " p l a n n i n g " i s simply the a p p l i c a t i o n of i n t e l l i g e n c e to problems of c o n t i n u i t y and change... Planning means making assessements of human needs, human values and t e c h n o l o g i c a l and m a t e r i a l resources so that the outcome of our commitments can be b e t t e r than i f e v e r y t h i n g i s l e f t to chance. ( S i l v e r , quoted by Jones, 1976:137) T h i s l a t t e r c r i t e r i o n should u n d e r l i e the f o l l o w i n g pages. Another important c r i t e r i o n c o u l d have been the implementation r e s u l t s ; e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e we a l l know th a t , whenever human nature i s i n v o l v e d , a plan i s never completely c a r r i e d out. The implementation r e s u l t s themselves need p r e c i s e c r i t e r i a with which to be e v a l u a t e d . T h i s i s p a r t of the p l a n n i n g process and would need a separate study i n i t s e l f . The next s e c t i o n shows why t h i s e v a l u a t i o n of the implementation stage cannot be performed here. The assessement of the development planning process w i l l be made on the b a s i s of i t s three most important components: • The s t r u c t u r e of the p r o c e ss, • The human and f i n a n c i a l c a p i t a l i n v o l v e d , • The o b j e c t i v e s . 83 1. THE STRUCTURE OF THE PLANNING PROCESS. Every country we are concerned with has, w i t h i n i t s governmental s t r u c t u r e , a m i n i s t r y or department of p l a n n i n g . T h i s i n s t i t u t i o n i s d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the plan p r e p a r a t i o n . I t works under the p o l i c y s u p e r v i s i o n of a pl a n n i n g board ( u s u a l l y c h a i r e d by the Head of St a t e or h i s Prime M i n i s t e r ) . T h i s c o u n c i l o u t l i n e s i t s p o l i t i c a l v i s i o n t r a n s l a t e d i n t o some broad socio-economic goals f o r the coun t r y ' s mid-term "development", u s u a l l y on a f i v e - y e a r term b a s i s . In other words, i t i s that c o u n c i l which g i v e s the o r i e n t a t i o n of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I t i s , to a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , q u i t e s u r p r i s i n g to see that t h i s i s where the process ends: the governmental s t r u c t u r e doesn't i n c l u d e any department or d i r e c t o r a t e that would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the plan's implementation nor f o r i t s e v a l u a t i o n . We must assume, t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n being given, that the p l a n n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n (and thus the process) i s not very w e l l designed or o r i e n t e d towards the people i t i s supposed to serve. T h i s i s confirmed by the f a c t that the emphasis of the plan's o b j e c t i v e s i s d e f i n i t e l y not on a g r i c u l t u r e although 80 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n i s r u r a l and s u b s i s t s because of the primary s e c t o r . T h i s s e c t o r generates some 50 per cent-of the GDP on the average 5 9 . 5 9 Simmons, o p . c i t . page 65. 84 2. THE HUMAN AND FINANCIAL CAPITAL INVOLVED. These planning departments rely very much on foreign aid for development c a p i t a l and personnel because they are very short of f i n a n c i a l resources and trained manpower: The amount of talent directed to solving problems in a l l developing countries' c i t i e s is woefully inadequate. It is not unusual, for example, to find at most a dozen trained professionals in the planning o f f i c e of a c i t y of fiv e m i l l i o n inhabitants which i s adding to i t s population at a rate of 300,000 persons a year. (Beier et a l , 1976:392) At the technical l e v e l of policy analysis and planning, there are very few i f any l o c a l personnel compared to a large number of foreign "experts" or "advisors" on short term assignments from various b i l a t e r a l and m u l t i l a t e r a l agencies. These experts exert a very s i g n i f i c a n t influence on the nature of development as they play a predominant role in plan formation. Their goals, values, a n a l y t i c a l tools and methods (no matter how dedicated many of them may be) are not necessarily always in harmony with those of the indigenous population, white-collar or not. Yet, because of lack of s k i l l e d personnel and reliance on foreign aid, the experts not only render policy advice but also , in many countries we are concerned with, are responsible for formulating the plan d e t a i l s and implementation strategies. I f , in theory, Western planning ideas are relevant for Third World c i t i e s , in practice there are two important differences (Ward,1973:10): • The urban waves in the Third World have preceeded a 85 f u l l - m o d e r n i z a t i o n . • T h e i r urban growth has been c o n d i t i o n n e d by other economies. Ward i n s i s t s upon the f a c t that these two f e a t u r e s must be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o any urban p o l i c y i n a T h i r d World s i t u a t i o n . We q u e s t i o n the f a c t that t h i s has ever been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o any A f r i c a n development p l a n . Another l i m i t a t i o n i s that the framework of a n a l y s i s i s p r i m a r i l y focused on one s i n g l e d i s c i p l i n e — d e v e l o p m e n t e c o n o m i c s — a n d then o c c a s i o n a l l y broadened to i n c l u d e other approaches 6 0 . Whatever i s i n vogue at the moment, i t seems obvious that an i n t e r - d i s c i p l i n a r y approach would be a p r e r e q u i s i t e . In most c o u n t r i e s , n a t i o n a l development plans a l s o set u n r e a l i s t i c goals and e x p e c t a t i o n s in the context of a v a i l a b l e human and c a p i t a l r e s o u r c e s . The success of the p l a n , from t h i s viewpoint alone, depends mostly upon f o r e i g n a i d and e x p e r t i s e ; very few resources are generated w i t h i n the country i t s e l f . In f a c t , many of these c o u n t r i e s plan t h e i r development assuming a l a r g e i n f l u x of e x t e r n a l a i d 6 1 . For example, the 1975-1980 f i v e - y e a r plan f o r M a l i showed that 85 per cent of the t o t a l c a p i t a l resources would come from e x t e r n a l sources as grants (Western c o u n t r i e s ) and loans ( C e n t r a l l y planned economies) 6 2 . We have seen so f a r how much the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , 6 0 Such as manpower planning, anthropology, r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g . 6 1 Although we don't know how much i s promised. 6 2 See Kurian, 1978:956. 86 f i n a n c i a l dependence and f o r e i g n e x p e r t i s e make plann i n g a very u n c e r t a i n and d i f f i c u l t p r ocess. Designed at the m a c r o - l e v e l , the n a t i o n a l development plan i s a l s o s u b j e c t to many e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s such as s h i f t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s with donor c o u n t r i e s , f l u c t u a t i o n s i n food and raw m a t e r i a l p r i c e s , n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r s e t c . I t i s a l s o very much i n f l u e n c e d by what the donors want to donate, keeping i n mind t h e i r own economic c o n s t r a i n t s . The " l o c a l " or r e g i o n a l plan simply doesn't e x i s t but i s presumed to have been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the n a t i o n a l p l a n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the data base i s at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l only, and has almost no r e l e v a n c e f o r the r e g i o n a l l e v e l . In c o n c l u s i o n , i t i s the shortage of i n f o r m a t i o n , manpower and indigenous f i n a n c i a l c a p i t a l , combined with a d e f i c i e n t i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e that r e s t r i c t and i n f l u e n c e the methodology (and thus the content) of a n a t i o n a l development p l a n . Other more q u a l i t a t i v e f a c t o r s may play an important r o l e : the c o l o n i a l p l a n n i n g h e r i t a g e , the circumstances of g a i n i n g independence, the s t a b i l i t y and competition f o r power among p o l i t i c a l components. A l l these f a c t o r s can e a s i l y induce e x c e s s i v e ambition, l a c k of r e a l i s m or even, sometimes, s o c i o -economic s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n . 3. THE OBJECTIVES Goals and o b j e c t i v e s are not c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d . I t i s understood and w e l l p u b l i z i s e d that the major p o l i t i c a l g oal i s to achieve a given GDP per c a p i t a r a t e of growth. T h i s i s very u n f o r t u n a t e l y a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o the average standard of l i v i n g . 87 The experience of the past few years, however, has c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h at i n the implementation of these plans these r a t e s have very seldom been achieved. (Simmons, 1976:67). But how important i s i t i f the m a j o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n i s not d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by t h i s goal 6 3 ? In f a c t , these r a t e s have a c l e a r p o l i t i c a l (both i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l ) o r i g i n and impact: An examination of the Four-Year Plan ( f o r M a l i ) i n d i c a t e d that the 11+ per cent growth rate was f i x e d by p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n designed to exceed the p r e v i o u s l y d e c l a r e d growth r a t e s of Guinea and Senegal. (Jones,1976:124). In other words, the p o l i c y goal i s a p o l i t i c a l a p r i o r i r a t e of growth which has very l i t t l e to do with the r e a l i t y of the country. Is i t even a goal or simply a s i n g l e r e a c t i v e d e c l a r a t i o n , r e s u l t i n g from some r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c a l higher bidding? T h i s p o l i c y g o a l i s a l s o b i a s e d because of the l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n and a n a l y s i s : What makes the whole process o f t e n somewhat r i d i c u l o u s i s t h a t in an A f r i c a n economy, where the bulk of the output comes from farming much of the investment c a r r i e d out by the farmer i s not even i n c l u d e d i n the GNP e s t i m a t e s . (Kamark, Quoted by Jones,1976:151). Since there i s no f a r reaching v i s i o n of the country's f u t u r e 6 * the plan documents u s u a l l y have u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d We w i l l see in the f o l l o w i n g heading that they indeed are n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t e d by t h i s g o a l . Where i s the country which has one to o f f e r nowadays? 88 o b j e c t i v e s , themselves t r a n s l a t e d i n t o some unclear o v e r a l l programs. Simmons(1976) summarizes i n a t e n - p o i n t l i s t the o b j e c t i v e s that are most o f t e n encountered i n a development p l a n : • Speed up the r a t e of progress in a l l s e c t o r s of the economy. • A c c e l e r a t e the r a t e of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . • Lessen the dependance on imports. • Develop the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. • Widen the e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . • G r a d u a l l y e l i m i n a t e f o r e i g n e r s from the economy. • Provide more equal d i s t r i b u t i o n of income and wealth. • Provide f o r a minimum of s o c i a l w e l f a r e and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . • A c c e l e r a t e the r a t e of c a p i t a l formation. • S t i m u l a t e the flow of f o r e i g n c a p i t a l . We observe from the "average l i s t " that the o b j e c t i v e s are a l l encompassing and q u i t e value loaded. It seems as i f a no-c h o i c e o p t i o n had been taken. I t s common u n d e r l y i n g assumption i s that balanced economic growth, development of the backward r u r a l areas and r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of income are r e a l i s t i c medium-term t a r g e t s . Since a c t i v i t i e s take p l a c e i n space, the s p a t i a l dimension i s of primary importance. I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y absent, except maybe under item f o u r . The negative tone i s a p p l i e d to two items that are both r e l a t e d to the " o u t s i d e " : f o r e i g n e r s and imports. S t r a n g e l y enough, they c o n t r a d i c t the l a s t item of the l i s t . Once again nothing i s e x p l i c i t l y s a i d about the 89 a g r i c u l t u r e . T h i s i s i n d i c a t i v e of a b i a s i n favour of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , a s s i m i l a t e d to development or economic pr o g r e s s . What might be worse i s that the c o n d i t i o n s of success of the planned t a r g e t s don't l i e i n the c o u n t r i e s themselves 6 5 To i n d u s t r i a l i z e they have to import c a p i t a l goods, machinery e t c . To pay f o r these goods, they have to i n c r e a s e t h e i r exports (and no plan w i l l ever p r e d i c t that the imports w i l l i n c r e a s e at a higher r a t e than the exports, although i t i s most o f t e n the c a s e ) . The imports, as w e l l as the exports depend on the p r i c e s that p r e v a i l i n the developed c o u n t r i e s . . . T h i s i s a p a r a d o x i c a l s i t u a t i o n p a r t l y c r e a t e d by c u l t u r a l i m i t a t i o n , p o l i t i c a l higher b i d d i n g and, more p r e c i s e l y , because the s o c i o -economic base has not been c o r r e c t l y d e f i n e d . One way to slowly overcome that problem i s by c r e a t i n g a more organized and i n t e r r e l a t e d system of i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s 6 6 . T h i s should be a major o b j e c t i v e f o r any country. But c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , f o r b i z a r r e reasons, i s an extremely s e n s i t i v e i s s u e i n t h i s r e g i o n . S t i l l , we b e l i e v e that c o l l e c t i o n , c r e a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of i n f o r m a t i o n i s the i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o o l of coherent p l a n n i n g . 6 5 See Simmons, o p . c i t . page 70. 6 6 I t was the f i r s t o b j e c t i v e of the ILO WEP 2-33 Research p r o j e c t . 90 4. REASONS FOR LACK OF SUCCESS AND POSSIBLE IMPROVEMENTS. Comprehensive plan n i n g i s not the panacea to development. (Jones,1976:400) These c o u n t r i e s put a l o t of time, e f f o r t , f i n a n c e and manpower i n t o an e x e r c i s e that r e a l l y seems to gi v e almost no t a n g i b l e r e s u l t s , although p a r t of i t i s designated to a t t r a c t overseas l o a n s . They a l s o concentrate on l a r g e - s c a l e models of comprehensive development p l a n n i n g . They plan with the i l l u s i o n that one can embrace a whole country's present and f u t u r e i n a s i n g l e document. T h i s i s p a r t l y due to the p e r v a s i v e r o l e of governments i n these c o u n t r i e s . T h i s i s a l s o due to the i l l u s i o n (although not p a r t i c u l a r to these c o u n t r i e s ) t h a t , once a plan i s on paper, the r e s t w i l l a u t o m a t i c a l l y f o l l o w . It i s l i k e a c u l t u r a l appendix of the passage from an i l l i t e r a t e to a l i t e r a t e type of s o c i e t y . In f a c t , implementation should be the watershed of pla n n i n g , the best t e s t of i t s u s e f u l n e s s , the only planner's Rubicon. Most of the c r i t i c i s m s that can be made as to the content of a development p l a n can be summarized as f o l l o w s 6 7 : • The ap p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the a l l o c a t i o n of investment resources and the sometime i n t o l e r a b l e a u s t e r i t y which r e s u l t s . • The o v e r e s t i m a t i o n of f o r e i g n a i d : In f a c t a lack of 6 7 For more d e t a i l s , see Jones, 1976 and Simmons, 1976 o p . c i t . 91 p r o j e c t p r e p a r a t i o n i s very o f t e n the cause of a change in the a t t i t u d e of a donor Government. L o c a l f i n a n c i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c a p a b i l i t i e s are not s u f f i c i e n t . • Absence of implementation s t r u c t u r e and e v a l u a t i o n process. The impacts of p r o j e c t s are n e i t h e r pre-assessed nor analysed. • The interdependence of socio-economic sub-sectors i s t o t a l l y ignored. T h i s i s t y p i c a l of the r e a l f a i l u r e of the development pl a n n i n g process: There i s no coherent d e s c r i p t i o n of the soc i o - economies ( r u r a l , t r a d i t i o n a l , i n f o r m a l , modern, marginal, e x p a t r i a t e ) and of t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to put reasonable r e l a t i o n s h i p s between investments and r e s u l t s e x p e c t a t i o n s when ( u n r e a l i s t i c ) o b j e c t i v e s are not (and cannot be) p r o p e r l y l i n k e d to the a v a i l a b l e means of implementing a s t r a t e g y . T h i s being s a i d , one doesn't know whether pl a n n i n g has anything to do with development anymore. More time should be spent on data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s . T h i s would a l s o be very h e l p f u l i n e s t i m a t i n g the probable impacts of p r o j e c t s and o p e r a t i o n s . The focus c o u l d a l s o be put more e x t e n s i v e l y on the areas in which a Government can and must a c t , as a stimulus to the o v e r a l l economy ra t h e r than as i t s manager. The b a s i c Western themes of moral suasion, t a x a t i o n , subsidy and r e g u l a t i o n are not n e c e s s a r i l y o p e r a t i o n a l . The plan should above a l l be c o n c e n t r a t e d on a more " c l i m a t i c " p r e p a r a t i o n f o r domestic and f o r e i g n investments as w e l l as on improving ( i f not 92 changing) the s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n which the p l a n n i n g process i s conceived and made o p e r a t i o n a l 6 8 . B. THE EXAMPLE OF THE THIRD FIVE-YEAR PLAN FOR THE ECONOMIC AND  SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF MAURITANIA (1976-1980) 1. THE OUTLINE The T h i r d Plan of M a u r i t a n i a i s the annex to a law that approves the content of the pl a n 6 9 ... as being the framework f o r p u b l i c investments between 1976 and 1980 and as a t o o l that o r i e n t s the economic growth and the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l p r o g r e s s . The investment programme was set at 33 b i l l i o n ouguiyas 7 0 of which 80 per cent was to be p r o v i d e d by e x t e r n a l sources. In the f i r s t c hapter, "Balance of execution of the previous plan (1970-1973), the M i n i s t r y of Pla n n i n g o u t l i n e s the main f a c t s and inadequacies that were a hindrance t o the implementation of the p r e v i o u s plan 7 1 . There are four major c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : • The e x t e r n a l dependence f o r equipment and f i n a n c i n g was almost t o t a l . • There was not enough c o n s i d e r a t i o n given to the d i r e c t l y p r o d u c t i v e s e c t o r s and p a r t i c u l a r l y the " t r a d i t i o n a l s e c t o r " that concerns the m a j o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n . • There was no r e f e r e n c e to the means of implementing the 8 See Jones,1976:156 9 Law No 76/248, Nouakchott, 16 October 1976. 0 Some $ seven b i l l i o n (US) of 1976. 1 T h i s couragous assessement i s the only one we know of i n the reg i o n . 93 p l a n . • The o b j e c t i v e s were not achieved for the r u r a l s e c t o r because of the weak l e v e l of both n a t i o n a l and f o r e i g n investment. I t i s acknowledged that the l a t t e r was not r e c e i v e d because of the lack of p r e p a r a t i o n and e l a b o r a t i o n of the p r o j e c t s to be funded. As f a r as the l a s t two p o i n t s of the assessement are concerned, i t i s q u i t e d i s a p p o i n t i n g to see t h a t , i n the t h i r d development p l a n , nothing has improved on that q u e s t i o n . There are no r e f e r e n c e s to ways of improving the p r o j e c t e l a b o r a t i o n p a r t of the proc e s s . T h i s i s sad s i n c e 80 per cent i s expected from e x t e r n a l sources. As to the means of implementing the plan, the only co n c r e t e r e f e r e n c e i s th a t , i n each m i n i s t r y , some people have to be design a t e d to be i n charge of "d i s s e m i n a t i n g the in f o r m a t i o n about p r o j e c t implementation and follow-up". S t i l l , the general implementation procedure i s not examined i n terms of systematic s t r a t e g y , cumulative step-by-step approach, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a c t i o n and follow-up. The annual plan (as a s u b d i v i s i o n of the Five-Year Plan) c o u l d be that i n d i s p e n s a b l e support. However, at the time of p u b l i s h i n g the Five-Year Plan, i t was s t i l l a pr o p o s a l and has not been put i n t o p r a c t i c e when the f i r s t p r o j e c t s began to be implemented. 94 2. THE GOALS The major goal s t a t e d i s "To search f o r the w e l l - b e i n g of the M a u r i t a n i a n " . A second goal i s "To search f o r economic independence". The l a t t e r must be understood a's a search f o r more v a r i e d and interdependent r e l a t i o n s h i p s with other c o u n t r i e s . The f i r s t g o a l , through the p r e v i o u s p l a n s , has been m a t e r i a l i z e d as a heavy c a p i t a l investment in i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e equipment for the country 7 2 . In f a c t , t h i s p o l i c y has reduced the standard of l i v i n g because these investment were not conducive to an i n t e r n a l c a p i t a l formation. These investments were d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e with the c a p a c i t y of the nomad, r u r a l , non-monetized m a j o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n . The choice then became the f o l l o w i n g : E i t h e r to pursue the o r i g i n a l goal or to s a t i s f y the b a s i c needs. Although these o b j e c t i v e s are complementary, because of the shortage of resources they form a l t e r n a t i v e s . A l t e r n a t i v e 1 : Continue the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e improvement. I t s impact would be c o n c e n t r a t e d on the modern s e c t o r but i t would c e r t a i n l y not improve the c o n d i t i o n s i n the r u r a l a reas. A l t e r n a t i v e 2 : Improve the r u r a l s e c t o r so that i t can s u s t a i n economic growth by i t s e l f which ought to c r e a t e an i n t e r n a l monetized market. In f a c t , the p l a n does't s o l v e the dilemna by making a 7 2 C o n s t r u c t i o n of Nouakchott, road network, o r g a n i z a t i o n of the P u b l i c S e r v i c e . 95 c l e a r c h o i c e between the two a l t e r n a t i v e s : we go back to the "average l i s t " as f a r as the o b j e c t i v e s are concerned. 3. THE OBJECTIVES The g l o b a l development s t r a t e g y that i s proposed i n the 1976-1980 pl a n i s to balance the development of both the r u r a l and the i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r s . T h i s i s j u s t i f i e d by saying that M a u r i t a n i a has a strong economic dualism with very l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two s e c t o r s : the i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r i s monetized, i t has a strong f o r e i g n presence in both f i n a n c i a l and manpower terms and i t u t i l i z e s the modern technology. The r u r a l s e c t o r , on the other hand, i s " t r u l y n a t i o n a l , based on the exchange of goods without any f i n a n c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . Between the two s e c t o r s , there i s a huge i n e q u a l i t y i n the r e p a r t i t i o n of both human and f i n a n c i a l resources 7 3 . The "balanced" s t r a t e g y i s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o s i x main o b j e c t i v e s : • To c r e a t e 40,000 new job o p p o r t u n i t i e s , mainly in the r u r a l areas. • To ensure that economic growth i s mainly based on the r u r a l s e c t o r . • To base the i n d u s t r i a l development on the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of raw m a t e r i a l s . • To develop the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . • To encourage small s c a l e , labour i n t e n s i v e i n d u s t r y 7 " . 7 3 A l e g i t i m i z a t i o n s t r a t e g y c o u l d then transform the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r i n t o an intermediate socio-economic s t r u c t u r e . 7 a As r e f e r e d to " A r t i s a n a t Moderne de p r o d u c t i o n et s e r v i c e s " which i s the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r , by o p p o s i t i o n to the t r a d i t i o n a l c r a f t s . 96 • To develop a s o c i a l p o l i c y that w i l l improve manpower q u a l i t y . These o b j e c t i v e s are suggested to guide the s e c t o r a l p o l i c i e s i n which a l i s t of p r o j e c t s i s proposed f o r each s e c t o r of the economy. We observe that the in f o r m a l sector c o u l d be d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d through the penultimate o b j e c t i v e . T h i s i s somewhat c o n t r a d i c t o r y with the g l o b a l development s t r a t e g y ( i n d u s t r i a l versus r u r a l s e c t o r ) . More i m p o r t a n t l y , while they want to "encourage" the inf o r m a l s e c t o r , (we w i l l see how i n the f o l l o w i n g heading), i t seems that they miss an important o p p o r t u n i t y that would be to combine t h i s o b j e c t i v e with the t h i r d o b j e c t i v e i . e . to base the i n d u s t r i a l development on the tr a n s f o r m a t i o n of raw m a t e r i a l s . T h i s would l i n k the "modern" and the in f o r m a l s e c t o r s ; i t would enlarge the socio-economic foundations of the planning process, making i t cl o s e r t o the r e a l i t y . C. THE INFORMAL SECTOR WITHIN THE DEVELOPMENT PLAN 1 . MAURITANIA Co n s i d e r i n g the f i f t h o b j e c t i v e of the p l a n f o r M a u r i t a n i a (to encourage small s c a l e , labour i n t e n s i v e i n d u s t r y ) , i t would be l o g i c a l to see some p r o j e c t s being proposed to m a t e r i a l i z e that o b j e c t i v e . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important since one household out of e i g h t , i n Nouakchott o n l y , i s d i r e c t l y dependant upon t h i s s e c t o r 7 5 . 7 5 See Chapter 1, t a b l e 1. 97 In the s e c t o r a l p o l i c y chapter, i t i s proposed to c r e a t e an i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e f o r small s c a l e e n t e r p r i s e s . T h i s p r o j e c t , a c c o r d i n g to the p l a n , would improve the working c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n these e n t e r p r i s e s . Nothing i s s a i d about the entrepreneur's w i l l i n g n e s s to move to such an e s t a t e nor i t s o f f i c i a l s t a t u s 7 6 . I t would have been more a p p r o p r i a t e to suggest ways of h e l p i n g these e n t e r p r i s e s to c r e a t e more jobs f o r the unemployed, immigrants, and s c h o o l drop-outs , or to expand t h e i r market share or to give them some access to c r e d i t ? S t i l l , the main problem the p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t i e s face with t h i s p r o j e c t i s the l a c k of support they w i l l most probably meet when implementing i t . To c r e a t e an i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e without any background i n f o r m a t i o n or d i a l o g u e with the people concerned might j e o p a r d i z e t h e i r economic f u t u r e . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true f o r these v u l n e r a b l e o p e r a t i o n s and these entrepreneurs who are very timorous of government p r e r o g a t i v e s . To j u s t i f y t h e i r c h o i c e , the authors of the plan assess the main hindrances to the development of the small i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r as f o l l o w s : • S c a r c i t y of water. • Absence of energy r e s o u r c e s . • D i f f i c u l t y of supply. • S c a r c i t y and non-monetary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the market. • S c a r c i t y of q u a l i f i e d human r e s o u r c e s . • Lack of l i n k s between i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e s . 7 6 See Chapter 4: 11.1 per cent of the 135 entrepreneurs are w i l l i n g to move and work in such an e s t a t e . 98 • Savings l i m i t e d and o r i e n t e d towards the s p e c u l a t i v e s e c t o r s such as housing and c a t t l e stock. On the b a s i s of t h i s assessement, we don't see how the above f a c t o r s would be a l l e v i a t e d by an i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e , except maybe f o r the f i r s t two or three p o i n t s . Even then, the inf o r m a l s e c t o r of Nouakchott performs q u i t e w e l l under the present s i t u a t i o n . We a l s o q u e s t i o n the v a l i d i t y of some arguments: • The human resources need not be q u a l i f i e d to be p r o d u c t i v e . • The lack of l i n k s between i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r s i s not supported by concrete evidence; i t s economic n e c e s s i t y i s not j u s t i f i e d . • The savings are not p a r t i c u l a r l y l i m i t e d 7 7 We w i l l , i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter, i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s assessement through the answers of the entrepreneurs to the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : What are the (two) problems that seem to impede the f u n c t i o n n i n g and the development of your undertaking ? 7 8 7 9 Is i t f i n a l l y the in f o r m a t i o n that i s l a c k i n g or some kind of irremovable d e s i r e to c o n t r o l people and a c t i v i t i e s ? In the case of Nouakchott, we have seen that f o r the o v e r a l l informal 7 7 See Chapter 2, S e c t i o n C.3. 7 8 See Appendix "Qu e s t i o n n a i r e " Question 54a. The i n t e r v i e w e r determined the f i t n e s s of two answers with 15 p r e s e l e c t e d ones. 7 9 See-also t a b l e 47. 99 sector p o p u l a t i o n (N=922) , 92.2 per cent are not Mauritanian 8 0 The i n f r a s t r u c t u r e approach to development (as economic growth) i s very much e s t a b l i s h e d . T h i s c o u l d be more deeply questionned i f the e v a l u a t i o n stage of the p l a n n i n g process was performed, b e f o r e , during and a f t e r a p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t . Why and how would an i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e improve the working c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the e n t e r p r i s e s ? F i n a l l y , there i s another argument i n favor of the d e f i c i e n c y of the p l a n n i n g process: i t i s not based upon the community i t i s supposed to serve. 2. MALI The plan f o r M a l i (1981-1985) prese n t s a chapter e n t i t l e d "The s m a l l and medium s c a l e e n t e r p r i s e and the t r a d i t i o n a l c r a f t s " 8 1 i n which these a c t i v i t i e s are j u s t i f i e d as a f a c t o r of economic independence. The a u t h o r i t i e s suggest the c r e a t i o n , for the "urban modern c r a f t s s e c t o r " 8 2 of a s e r v i c e of  p o p u l a r i z a t i o n which would have three r o l e s 8 3 : • To g i v e p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g to the workers to improve the o r g a n i z a t i o n of labour and the q u a l i t y of t h e i r products and to develop t h e i r markets. • To e l a b o r a t e long term t r a i n i n g programmes f o r a p p r e n t i c e s . • To s t i m u l a t e community development so that a s s i s t a n c e to c r e d i t , raw m a t e r i a l supply and t r a i n i n g can be given. 0 See Chapter 2 t a b l e 13. 1 In French "La p e t i t e et moyenne e n t r e p r i s e et l ' a r t i s a n a t . 2 In French " A r t i s a n a t u t i l i t a i r e u r b a i n " as compared to the t r a d i t i o n a l c r a f t s . 3 The World Bank would be i n charge of that p r o j e c t . 100 F i r s t of a l l , t h e i r t a r g e t i s not c l e a r because they argue that the urban modern c r a f t s s e c t o r i s a s s i m i l a t e d "more or l e s s " to the small and medium-scale e n t e r p r i s e s 8 " . Once again , nothing i s s a i d about what e x a c t l y the entrepreneurs and t h e i r workers want, nor about the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e under which the p r o j e c t would be c a r r i e d - o u t , nor i t s expected impacts. Within the document, the three r o l e s of that " s e r v i c e of p o p u l a r i z a t i o n " are not j u s t i f i e d by any e m p i r i c a l evidence. We observe that t r a i n i n g appears i n the three above-mentioned o b j e c t i v e s . T h e i r t a r g e t s are not c l e a r . I t seems that they expect through community development to i n t r o d u c e a chargeable t r a i n i n g system. T h i s would o b v i o u s l y be r a r e l y followed by the a p p r e n t i c e s . How would the entrepreneur r e a c t to the up-grading of h i s a p p r e n t i c e ' s s k i l l s ? How would the community development be stimulated? Too many unknown f a c t o r s lead to a p r o v i s i o n a l c o n c l u s i o n : The p r o b a b i l i t y of f a i l u r e of such a p r o j e c t , i s very great because of i t s absence of o v e r a r c h i n g o b j e c t i v e preceeding and o r i e n t i n g the p r o j e c t ' s d e t a i l s and the lack of monitoring pro c e s s . I t would have two concrete consequences: • F u r t h e r i s o l a t i o n of the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r ' s entrepreneur from h i s a u t h o r i t i e s . • Waste of scarce f i n a n c i a l resources and most probably waste of time f o r q u a l i f i e d c i v i l s e r v a n t s whose op p o r t u n i t y cost has not been c a l c u l a t e d . * I f i t i s so, why would the p l a n devote a whole separate s e c t i o n to these e n t e r p r i s e s ? 101 3. TOGO Under the heading "Employment p o l i c y and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g " , the Plan f o r Togo 8 5 f i r s t summarizes the ILO p r o j e c t WEP 2~-33 by d e s c r i b i n g the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r and i t s p o t e n t i a l . It then puts i t i n t o p e r s p e c t i v e with the f o r e c a s t s f o r drop-outs from the t r a d i t i o n a l school system, the s t a t i s t i c s of unemployment and under-employment. Within a very coherent framework of needs, means and community p a r t i c i p a t i o n p o t e n t i a l , the plan suggests v a r i o u s p r o j e c t s and programs r e l a t e d to i t s employment p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e . I t devotes a p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n to the "modern informal s e c t o r " 8 6 and suggests an investment programme of some 100 m i l l i o n FCFA to be spent in two phases, the second being subject to a p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of the impacts of the f i r s t phase. I t would be d i f f i c u l t , f o r the u n f a m i l i a r reader to understand that the ILO p r o p o s a l s have been accepted and would be implemented as such 8 7 . I t i s q u i t e strange to see how the government planners j u s t i f y such a p r o j e c t 8 8 : ...However, the f u n c t i o n n i n g of these o p e r a t i o n s on a day to day b a s i s and the lack of management means r i s k to j e o p a r d i z e the f u t u r e of the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r . T h i s i s why, f o r i t s s u r v i v a l . . . The government planners do not say what kind of f u t u r e they expect or p l a n f o r these o p e r a t i o n s . I t seems c l e a r that they 5 o p . c i t . page 241. 6 Quoted as such in the t e x t , page 253. 7 The d e t a i l s can be found in WEP 2-33/Doc.13 or /Doc.5 f o r M a u r i t a n i a and /Doc. 1 5 f o r M a l i . 8 Plan f o r Togo, o p . c i t . page 253. 1 02 b e l i e v e i n a modernization process without which no f u t u r e seems p o s s i b l e . They do not say, f o r example, that because of government i n t e r f e r e n c e , these o p e r a t i o n s are o b l i g e d to envisage a day to day system of work. 4 . CONCLUSION Rather than a program-project o r i e n t e d approach, and because of the a b o v e - i s o l a t e d shortcomings, i t would be b e t t e r to have an e x p l i c i t p o l i c y statement emphasizing the p o t e n t i a l r o l e of the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r and the n e c e s s i t y to p r o t e c t i t without undue i n t e r f e r e n c e . Is such a l a i s s e z - f a i r e a t t i t u d e ever p o s s i b l e ? T h i s c o u l d c r e a t e a c l i m a t e of o p p o r t u n i t y , through f r e e , endogenous inducement of these small u n i t s , producing goods and s e r v i c e s as w e l l as c r e a t i n g jobs, much more than the modern s e c t o r c o u l d do. But, i n the present s t a t e of the p l a n n i n g process i n these c o u n t r i e s , the plan does not seem to be the best device with which to e s t a b l i s h a policy-program-p r o j e c t package for the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r . The scarce resources of the government should be devoted to other urgent tasks such as the r u r a l s e c t o r . T h i s might be the best way f o r a government to prove i t s u s e f u l n e s s : To focus on the most important i s s u e s without c o s t l y i n t e r f e r e n c e i n o t h e r s . Furthermore, any v i s i b l e h e l p from the government to the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r , i f accepted by the entrepreneurs, c o u l d c r e a t e f u r t h e r problems. The p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s chapter, combined with the f o l l o w i n g one w i l l be d e a l t with i n the c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s study. 1 03 V. THE ENTREPRENEURS'ATTITUDES A. THE BACKGROUND t Any p o l i c y that i s aimed at h e l p i n g the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r has to take i n t o account a s e r i e s of v a r i a b l e s that r e f l e c t i t s socio-economic s i t u a t i o n and i d e a l l y to a d j u s t the programme to d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l success, and a t t i t u d e s towards the a u t h o r i t i e s . In the preceeding chapter, we have seen that present programmes proposed by v a r i o u s agencies and governments seem to a p r i o r i assume that entrepreneurs do have a f a i r l y good p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r economic s i t u a t i o n . They assume the entrepreneur w i l l r e a ct m e c h a n i c a l l y , the way they expect him to r e a c t . We q u e s t i o n t h i s b a s i c assumption of a government toward the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r . I t has a l r e a d y been formulated as f o l l o w s : ...the audience (of the entrepreneurs) i s (not) an u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d one and w i l l (not) respond in a more or l e s s i d e n t i c a l ( i . e . " r a t i o n a l " ) f a s h i o n to s i m i l a r o p p o r t u n i t i e s . (Hunt, 1971:888) To our knowledge, no government or i n t e r n a t i o n a l agency has ever i n v e s t i g a t e d the entrepreneur's w i l l i n g n e s s to r e c e i v e a s s i s t a n c e . T h i s becomes even more c r i t i c a l i f we c o n s i d e r the s t a t i s t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of h i s investment c a p a c i t y ( t a b l e 45). We argue that there i s no evidence to j u s t i f y the a p r i o r i approach. In f a c t , the c o n t r a r y seems more reasonable to support: P e a t t i e ( 1 9 8 0 : 1 4 ) , summarizing her f i e l d w o r k i n Bogota (Columbia), says that the owners she i n t e r v i e w e d d i d not have a 1 04 c l e a r idea of how the business was going. Although her t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n i s the r e t a i l t r ade, her remarks are of d i r e c t i n t e r e s t . A f t e r a month of running a shop, a young man and h i s mother intended to make a general i n v e n t o r y to c a l c u l a t e t h e i r p r o f i t . T h i s being done, they weren't any f u r t h e r ahead: ...they seemed not q u i t e sure how much stock they had bought at the beginning of the month...(the young man) would a l s o every day or so take money out of the t i l l to r e - i n v e s t i n more stock, and there was no r e c o r d of these t r a n s a c t i o n s . . . F u r t h e r m o r e , the e n t i r e family...had a l l been e a t i n g out of the shop a l l month...He had a nagging f e e l i n g t h at the shop was not paying, but he continued to tend counter. In our sample, 3.7 per cent of the entrepreneurs have a negative net income. Would they continue going bankrupt i f they were aware of that f a c t ? C e r t a i n l y not f o r a long time. How can they s u r v i v e then? Probably by d e - i n v e s t i n g i n both c a p i t a l and labour but a l s o by borrowing or r e c e i v i n g support from t h e i r extended f a m i l y , or t h e i r own dependants. T h i s kind of economy can l a s t f o r q u i t e a long time and i s extremely d i f f i c u l t to apprehend with q u a n t i t a t i v e t e c hniques. Other evidence a g a i n s t the a p r i o r i approach of governments i s p r o v i d e d by C h i l d and summarized as f o l l o w s 8 9 Anecdotal evidence i n d i c a t e s that managers of small firms were f r e q u e n t l y s u r p r i s e d to l e a r n that on the b a s i s of data which they p r o v i d e d the c o s t of a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y exceeded the revenue generated. 9 Quoted from World Bank,1979:30 105 T h i s q u e s t i o n however i s f a r from a n e c d o t a l : Governments intend to devote some f r a c t i o n of t h e i r scarce resources (both f i n a n c i a l and manpower) to an economic s e c t o r whose p r o t a g o n i s t s themselves don't know i f i t pays o f f . T h i s a p r i o r i approach a l s o c o u l d be c r i t i c i z e d i f i n d i s c r i m i n e n t l y a p p l i e d to the entrepreneurs who have e x t e r n a l sources of income (N=46 or 34.0 per cent) versus those who don't. The same q u e s t i o n a l s o i s v a l i d f o r those who do not d i s t i n g u i s h between the e n t e r p r i s e and the household as f a r as the monetary flows are concerned (N=73 or 54.1 per c e n t ) . An a c t i o n programme that doesn't take i n t o account these elements of u n c e r t a i n t y might be misunderstood or simply r e j e c t e d by i t s b e n e f i c i a r i e s . I t wouldn't t h e r e f o r e be f u l l y a c h i e v a b l e : Part of the p r o j e c t ' s investment would be l o s t . One can argue that m a t e r i a l evidence only c o u l d decide i n t h i s r e s p e c t : That i s the very c o n c r e t e i n d i c a t o r of an " a t t i t u d e " . L e t ' s then c o n s i d e r the "management t o o l s " that are u t i l i z e d by the entrepreneurs 9 0 : An order booklet was used by 10.4 per cent of the entrepreneurs (85.7 per cent of these come from Lome or Yaounde). A b i l l s booklet was used by 29.6 per cent (85.0 per cent of these come from the above same c o u n t r i e s ) . An income- expenditure booklet was used by 18.5 per cent (None i n Bamako and one only i n Nouakchott). T h i s l a s t f i g u r e i s most i n t e r e s t i n g c o n cerning the d a i l y management of the e n t e r p r i s e . 9 0 T h i s does not imply a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p from management t o o l s to p e r c e p t i o n of economic performance. 1 06 An income-expenditure booklet i s expected to be the most b a s i c t o o l , e n a b l i n g the entrepreneur to have a p r e c i s e knowledge of the monetary flows of h i s b u s i n e s s . I t should h e l p him to b e t t e r p e r c e i v e h i s s i t u a t i o n although t h i s i s not a p r e r e q u i s i t e nor a c e r t a i n t y . We observe that f o u r - f i f t h s of the a u t o m o b i l e - r e p a i r shops p o p u l a t i o n doesn't use such a t o o l . Taking i n t o account a l l these f a c t o r s , we would be i n c l i n e d to i n v e s t i g a t e f i r s t how they p e r c e i v e t h e i r socio-economic s i t u a t i o n . T h i s should be a p r e r e q u i s i t e to an a c t i o n programme. B. THE RESEARCH QUESTION T h i s context being kept i n mind, the t h i r d o b j e c t i v e of t h i s t h e s i s i s to examine the entrepreneurs' a t t i t u d e s towards p o s s i b l e governmental h e l p . We have seen i n a preceeding chapter that governments, through t h e i r n a t i o n a l development p l a n s , are p r e s e n t l y proposing, and i n some c o u n t r i e s implementing, v a r i o u s a c t i o n programmes for these entrepreneurs. In the reviewed p l a n s , no mention was made that t h i s was done at the entrepreneur's request. Our q u e s t i o n would thus precede that step to assess the f e a s i b i l i t y and the l i m i t a t i o n s (as w e l l as the p o t e n t i a l ) of an a c t i o n programme. The WEP 2-33 q u e s t i o n n a i r e 9 1 presented the entrepreneurs with an a l t e r n a t i v e : Do you wish a g r e a t e r h e l p from the banks and the a u t h o r i t i e s or do you t h i n k that the government should 9 1 Appendix 1, Question 48a 1 07 not i n t e r v e n e i n your business? Out of the 135 respondents, 72.6 per cent wished f o r a i d and 27.4 per cent d e c l a r e d that the government should not intervene i n t h e i r o p e r a t i o n . Considered by country, there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n that s p l i t . The higher percentage a g a i n s t government a s s i s t a n c e came from Nouakchott but i s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t 9 2 . T h i s c o u l d be l i n k e d to the n a t i o n a l i t y of the entrepreneurs. We a l r e a d y see that not a l l the entrepreneurs would welcome an a c t i o n programme being implemented: More than one out of four i s not i n favor of government a s s i s t a n c e . Our concern i s to be able to s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h between these two groups i n l i g h t of s e l e c t e d d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i a b l e s . The o b j e c t i v e of a d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s i s to d i s t i n g u i s h or c l a s s i f y our two groups, by a set of independent v a r i a b l e s , i n t o some mutually e x c l u s i v e and exhaustive c a t e g o r i e s 9 3 . In d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s , each group (as measured by i t s c e n t r o i d ) i s t r e a t e d as a p o i n t and each d i s c r i m i n a t i n g f u n c t i o n i s a unique (orthogonal) dimension d e s c r i b i n g the l o c a t i o n of the group r e l a t i v e to the o t h e r s . (Nie et al,1975:442) Three c r i t e r i a are used f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s 9 4 . • Which independant v a r i a b l e s are the best d i s c r i m i n a t o r s ? We thus want to i s o l a t e a set of v a r i a b l e s that would 9 2 N=135, Chi-Square of 7.6148, DF=3, and Significance=.0547 9 3 See Morrison, 1969:156 9 4 Performed under the SPSS procedure; see Nie et a l , op.cit.:434. 108 " e x p l a i n " the s p l i t between our entrepreneurs. • How w e l l do these v a r i a b l e s perform i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between the two groups? T h i s i s the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n stage of the t e s t . • Can we c l a s s i f y a l l the entrepreneurs ( i . e . the u n i v e r s e of the a u t o m o b i l e - r e p a i r shops) for o p e r a t i o n n a l purposes? T h i s i s the p r e d i c t i o n stage, which i s p a r t i c u l a r l y necessary and u s e f u l i n the case of sample surveys and impacts assessments. 1. THE DISCRIMINATING VARIABLES In order to a v o i d a p r i o r i c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , as much as p o s s i b l e , 72 v a r i a b l e s were kept to operate a f i r s t s e l e c t i o n of d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i a b l e s . They were choosen on the b a s i s of t h e i r s t a t i s t i c a l f i t n e s s to enter the t e s t (very few i f any m i s s i n g v a l u e s , no alphanumeric v a r i a b l e s e t c . ) Because of workspace problems, these 72 v a r i a b l e s were a r b i t r a r i l y d i v i d e d i n t o two s e t s . The d i s c r i m i n a t i o n procedure i s o l a t e d a t o t a l of 23 v a r i a b l e s which were then kept f o r the f i n a l a n a l y s i s . One important d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i a b l e has been recoded i n t o four dummy v a r i a b l e s : A540 ( F i r s t problem that impedes the f u n c t i o n n i n g and development of your e n t e r p r i s e . ) 9 5 . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n c l u d e d 12 dimensions which are presented in the f o l l o w i n g frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n t a b l e . 9 5 See Appendix 1, Question 54 a 109 Table 47 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of the 135 entrepreneurs according to the f i r s t problem that impedes the development of t h e i r e n t e r p r i s e (A540). (absolute and r e l a t i v e frequency) CATEGORY LABEL CODE NBR % D i f f i c u l t y o b t a i n equipment 1 . 19 14.1 Cost of equipment 2. 1 2 8.9 D i f f i c u l t y o b t a i n raw mat. 3. 1 1 8.1 Cost raw m a t e r i a l 4. 7 5.2 D i f f i c u l t y s e l l i n g 5. 43 31.9 I n s t a b i l i t y of business 6. 1 0.7 Lack of funds 7. 23 17.0 Lack q u a l i f manpower 8. 2 1 .5 I n s e c u r i t y of e n t e r p r i s e 12. 2 1 .5 Concurrence 13. 5 3.7 Premises l o c a t i o n 15. 8 5.9 Doesn't know (Ass.Miss.) 88. 2 1 .5 TOTAL 1 35 100.0 < V a l i d c a s e s : 133 > < M i s s i n g cases: 2 > Source : Sample Survey Data, ILO, WEP 2-33, o p . c i t . On the b a s i s of the above twelve c a t e g o r i e s , four dummy v a r i a b l e s were c r e a t e d and r e i n s e r t e d i n t o the l a s t a n a l y s i s : D1 "Supply problem" (Code 1,3,8 versus e l s e ) N= 32 D2 "Market problem" (Code 5,6 versus e l s e ) N = 44 D3 " S p e c i f i c problem" (Code 12,13,15,88 versus e l s e ) N=17 1 10 D4 " F i n a n c i a l problem" (Code 2,4,7 versus e l s e ) N=42 The 26 v a r i a b l e s , i n c l u d i n g the transformed ones, that were s e l e c t e d i n the f i r s t step of the a n a l y s i s are l a b e l l e d h e r e a f t e r . Table 48 - L i s t , by name and l a b e l , of the 26 v a r i a b l e s kept f o r the d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s V a r i a b l e name V a r i a b l e l a b e l A030 # of dependant c h i l d r e n A060 # of y r s r e s i d e i n c a p i t a l c i t y A1 51 Wish t r a i n i n g i n accountancy A1 54 Wish t r a i n i n g admin, r e g u l a t i o n s A160 7-14 y r s l e v e l education c h i e f household A270 #famembers work enter s l i v e i n household A321 # hrs/week assoc. works B320 # hrs/week search raw m a t e r i a l B321 # hrs/week r e c y c l i n g and recover. A450 D i s t i n g u i s h money fa m i l y from e n t e r p r i s e A550 Wish change job A560 Member p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n A61 0 # Dependants l i v e i n HH and work o u t s i d e NAFT # Family a i d NOQT # Q u a l i f i e d workers A270F # Work famembers l i v e i n household TTT # T o t a l work time (Entre+Assoc.) R1 8G # %TTT spent on management tasks EDT Lenght of education ( yrs) A006 Qu e s t i o n n a i r e number MANTYPE Type of manpower OTHERINC Other sources of income D1 Supply problem D2 Market problem D3 S p e c i f i c problem D4 F i n a n c i a l problem Before p r e s e n t i n g the program and i t s r e s u l t s , we observe that the net income the group of a c t i v i t y the labour or c a p i t a l p r o d u c t i v i t y and the lenght of t r a i n i n g have not been s e l e c t e d as d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i a b l e s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e number has been 111 kept by the same a n a l y s i s ! T h i s c o u l d be due to chance, or to a p a r t i c u l a r numbering c r i t e r i o n (which d i d n ' t o c c u r ) , or more l i k e l y t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c o u n t r i e s (as continuous v a r i a b l e ) with our dependent v a r i a b l e . The program and t e s t r e s u l t s are presented h e r e a f t e r . 1 GET FILE SLCTDATA FILE SLCTDATA HAS 137 VARIABLES THE SUBFILES ARE . . NAME NO OF CASES SLCTDATA 135 CPU TIME REQUIRED . . 0.24 SECONDS 22 23 24 20 VALUE LABELS 21 DISCRIMINANT 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 2 "IF 3 *IF 4 "IF 5 *IF 6 VAR LABELS (A540 EO 1 OR 3 OR 8) D1 = 1 (A540 EO 5 OR 6) D2 = 1 (A540 EO 12 OR 13 OR 15 OR 88) D3 = 1 (A540 EO 2 OR 4 OR 7) D4 = 1 A480 ATTITUDE VS GVT/ EOT EDUCATION <YRS>/ A151 WISH TRAIN ACCOUNT/ D3 SPECIFIC PROBLEM/ A610 (fDPTS LIV IN HH + WORK OUT/ A270F 0WRKING FAMEMBERS LIV IN HH/ A060 <CYRS RESIDE CAPITAL CITY/ D2 MARKET PROBLEM/ A321 #HRSWEEK ASSOC WORK/ B321 tfHRSWEEK RECYCL AND RECUPER/ B320 0HRSWEEK SEARCH RAW MATERIALS/ A160 7-14YRS LEVEL EDUC CHIEF HH/ A154 WISH TRAIN ADMIN REGULATIONS/ A560 MEMBER PROF ASSOCIATION/ A480 (1)WISH AID (2)AGST GVT INTERV/ GR0UPS=A48O(1,2)/ VARIABLES' A 151.A 160,A060.B321.B320,A321,A450,A270,A 154, A030, EDT.NAFT,A0O6.A610,OTHERINC,A270F,D1,D2,D3,D4,TTT.R18G.MANTYPE, 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 OPTIONS A550.A560.NOOT/ ANALYSIS' A 151,A 160.A060.B321.B320.A32 1,A450,A270,A 154,A030, EDT,NAFT,A006,A610.OTHERINC.A270F,D1,D2,D3.D4,TTT.R18G.MANTYPE . A55O.A56O.N00T/ METHOD=WILKS/ MAXSTEPS=20/ 1,3,5,7,9 THIS DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS REQUIRES 16512 ( 16.IK) BYTES OF WORKSPACE. 112 ON GROUPS DEFINED BY A480 ATTITUDE VS GVT 135 (UNWEIGHTED) CASES WERE PROCESSED. O OF THESE WERE EXCLUDED FROM THE ANALYSIS. 135 (UNWEIGHTED) CASES WILL BE USED IN THE ANALYSIS. NUMBER OF CASES BY GROUP NUMBER OF CASES A480 UNWEIGHTED WEIGHTED LABEL 98 37 98.0 WISH AID 37.0 AGST GVT INTERV TOTAL 135 135.0 ON GROUPS DEFINED BY A480 D I S C R I M I N A N T A N A L Y S I S ATTITUDE VS GVT ANALYSIS NUMBER 1 STEPWISE VARIABLE SELECTION SELECTION RULE: MINIMIZE WILKS' LAMBDA MAXIMUM NUMBER OF STEPS 20 MINIMUM TOLERANCE LEVEL 0.OO100 MINIMUM F TO ENTER 1.0000 MAXIMUM F TO REMOVE 1.0000 CANONICAL DISCRIMINANT FUNCTIONS MAXIMUM NUMBER OF FUNCTIONS 1 MINIMUM CUMULATIVE PERCENT OF VARIANCE... 100.00 MAXIMUM SIGNIFICANCE OF WILKS' LAMBDA.... 1.OOOO PRIOR PROBABILITY FOR EACH GROUP IS 0.50000 VARIABLES IN THE ANALYSIS AFTER STEP 13 VARIABLE TOLERANCE F TO REMOVE WILKS' LAMBDA A151 0. .6152008 5 .6882 0 .7078738 A160 0. .8243077 1 , ,9691 0 .6870935 A060 0. .8592263 4 .3737 0 .7005289 B321 0. 7913066 4 .5886 0 .7017300 B320 0. .5249943 3 .2741 0 .6943851 A321 0. ,5934187 3. .3876 0, .6950195 A154 0. .6281227 1 , ,3227 0. .6834813 EDT 0. 8424640 3. .6745 0. ,6966220 A610 0. 8519105 6. .8530 0, .7143821 A270F 0. 8871106 2. ,8407 0. 6919635 D2 0. 8566977 4. .4942 0, 7012022 D3 0. 8222831 1 , 6469 0. 6852931 A560 0. 8394761 1. ,0417 0. ,6819117 113 VARIABLES NOT IN THE ANALYSIS AFTER STEP 13 MINIMUM VARIABLE TOLERANCE TOLERANCE F TO ENTER WILKS' LAMBDA A450 0. 8059887 0. 5100765 0. 12952 0. 6753620 A270 0. 0670472 0. 0665601 0. 15612 0. 6752125 A030 0. 67371 10 0. ,5242101 0. 18610 0. 6750441 NAFT 0. 6170841 0. ,5249740 0. 64759 0. 6724619 AOOS 0. 8556065 0. ,5249355 0. 45228 0 6735523 OTHERINC 0. ,7190043 0. ,5242314 0. 29380 0. .6744397 D1 0. 6871265 0. ,5212890 0. 16808 0 .6751453 D4 0. .5794880 0. ,5212890 0. 16808 0. ,6751453 TTT 0. .1671148 0 , 1671148 0. .22367 0 .6748331 R18G 0, ,7851744 0 .5212321 0, 67734E-01 0 .6757095 MANTYPE 0 .4805729 0 .4493877 0 .37540 0 .6739825 A550 0. .8627698 0 .5233842 0 .69515 0 .6721970 NOQT 0 .7527998 0 .5228799 0 .99155 0 .6705502 F LEVEL OR TOLERANCE OR VIN INSUFFICIENT FOR FURTHER COMPUTATION. SUMMARY TABLE ACTION VARS WILKS' STEP ENTERED REMOVED IN LAMBDA SIG. LABEL 1 EDT 1 0. 940282 0. 004 3 EDUCATION <YRS> 2 A151 2 0. 888247 0. 0004 WISH TRAIN ACCOUNT 3 D3 3 0. 854478 0. 0001 SPECIFIC PROBLEM 4 A610 4 0. 825352 0. 0000 #DPTS LIV IN HH + WORK OUT 5 A270F 5 0. 797917 0. oooo #WRKING FAMEMBERS LIV IN HH 6 A060 6 0. 772753 0 .oooo #YRS RESIDE CAPITAL CITY 7 D2 7 0, .752557 0 .0000 MARKET PROBLEM 8 A321 8 0. .731631 0 .0000 (CHRSWEEK ASSOC WORK 9 B321 9 0 .717963 0 .0000 #HRSWEEK RECYCL AND RECUPER 10 B320 10 O .701923 0 oooo 0HRSWEEK SEARCH RAW MATERIALS 1 1 A160 1 1 0 .688168 0 .0000 7-14YRS LEVEL EDUC CHIEF HH 12 A154 12 0 .681912 0 .oooo WISH TRAIN ADMIN REGULATIONS 13 A560 13 O .676091 0 .oooo MEMBER PROF ASSOCIATION CANONICAL DISCRIMINANT FUNCTIONS PERCENT OF CUMULATIVE CANONICAL FUNCTION EIGENVALUE VARIANCE PERCENT CORRELATION : 1* 0.47909 100.00 100.00 0.5691301 * MARKS THE 1 CANONICAL DISCRIMINANT FUNCTION(S) TO BE USED IN THE REMAINING ANALYSIS. AFTER FUNCTION WILKS' LAMBDA CHI-SOUARED D.F. SIGNIFICANCE O 0.6760909 49.516 13 O.OOOO STANDARDIZED CANONICAL DISCRIMINANT FUNCTION COEFFICIENTS FUNC 1 A151 0. 47468 A160 0. 24490 A060 0. 35404 B321 0. 37756 B320 -0. 39361 A321 0. 37642 A154 0. 23054 EDT 0. 32864 A610 -0. .44073 A270F 0 28254 D2 -0 .35924 D3 0 .22454 A560 -0 .17718 1 1 4 CANONICAL DISCRIMINANT FUNCTIONS EVALUATED AT GROUP MEANS (GROUP CENTROIDS) GROUP FUNC 1 0.42214 -1 . 1 1810 SYMBOLS USED IN PLOTS SYMBOL GROUP LABEL WISH AID AGST GVT INTERV F R E 0 U E N c Y ALL-GROUPS STACKED HISTOGRAM -- CANONICAL DISCRIMINANT FUNCTION 1 --i s + 12 .2 OUT. 22 22222 2 22 2 2 1 1 2 2 12 2 2 1 1 22 12 1 1 2 21212211 211 .1 111122112 1111 11 11111211111111111 1221 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111 1 111111 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 -2 1 1 1 1 . . + . 3 GROUP CENTROIDS CLASSIFICATION RESULTS ACTUAL GROUP NO. OF CASES PREDICTED GROUP MEMBERSHIP 1 2 GROUP 1 WISH AID GROUP 2 AGST GVT INTERV 98 37 72 73.5% 7 18 . 9% 26 26 . 5% 30 81 . 1% PERCENT OF "GROUPED" CASES CORRECTLY CLASSIFIED: 75.56% CLASSIFICATION PROCESSING SUMMARY 135 CASES WERE PROCESSED. O CASES WERE EXCLUDED FOR MISSING OR OUT-OF-RANGE GROUP CODES. 135 CASES WERE USED FOR PRINTED OUTPUT. TRANSPACE REQUIRED.. 400 BYTES 4 TRANSFORMATIONS 0 RECODE VALUES + LAG VARIABLES 52 IF/COMPUTE OPERATIONS CPU TIME REQUIRED. 0.68 SECONDS 33 FINISH 115 We see from the preceeding pages t h a t , a f t e r 13 s t e p s , 13 v a r i a b l e s were entered (and none removed) and kept as d i s c r i m i n a t i n g our dependent v a r i a b l e . These 13 v a r i a b l e s can be somewhat grouped i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s . The step at which they were entered and the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t sign are mentioned i n b r a c k e t s . • The very f i r s t d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i a b l e i s the l e n g t h of e ducation (1+ EDT). T h i s i s thus the s i n g l e most important d i s c r i m i n a n t v a r i a b l e . Other v a r i a b l e s , c o n c e p t u a l l y r e l a t e d to the entrepreneur's education are 'Wish to have a t r a i n i n g i n accountancy' (2+) 'Wish h e l p for admin.regulations' (12+) '7-14yrs i n s t r u c t i o n c h i e f household (HH)' (11+) • V a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d to the present f u n c t i o n i n g of the  e n t e r p r i s e are ' S p e c i f i c problem ' (3+) ' Market problem ' (7-) ' #hrs/Week spent by assoc. ' (8+) ' #hrs/Week r e c y c l i n g & r e c u p a r a t i n g ' (9+) ' #hrs/Week sea r c h i n g raw m a t e r i a l ' (10-) ' Membership to p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n ' (13-) • V a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d to the entrepreneur's f a m i l y or h i s p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y are ' #dependants l i v e i n HH and work out the e n t e r . ' (4-) ' #work.family members l i v e i n HH ' (5+) ' #yrs residence in c a p i t a l c i t y ' (6+) 1 16 The s t e p at which each v a r i a b l e i s entered i s an i n d i c a t i o n of i t s a d d i t i o n a l d i s c r i m i n a t i n g power, the previous v a r i a b l e s being taken i n t o account. 2. INTERPRETATION The Wilks A s t a t i s t i c s i s a measure of group d i s c r i m i n a t i o n which can a l s o be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a Chi-square f o r a t e s t of i t s s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t focuses on the cohesion or homogeneity w i t h i n the group of d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i a b l e s . The l a r g e r A i s , the l e s s d i s c r i m i n a t i n g power i s pres e n t . T h i r t e e n of the o r i g i n a l 26 v a r i a b l e s have been s e l e c t e d before the a d d i t i o n of any other v a r i a b l e to Wilks A became non s i g n i f i c a n t . These 13 v a r i a b l e s produced a A of .6760909 which shows a low degree of s e p a r a t i o n but, t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a C h i -square g i v e s a s i g n i f i c a n c e of .0000 ( f o r a value of 49.516 with 13 degrees of freedom) which i s q u i t e h igh. The s t a n d a r d i z e d c a n o n i c a l d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s represent the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n of each v a r i a b l e to the f u n c t i o n (or dependant v a r i a b l e ) . The dichotomic/nominal v a r i a b l e s p r e s e n t i n g a negative c o e f f i c i e n t tend (according to the value of that c o e f f i c i e n t ) to belong to the group of entrepreneurs who do not wish f o r an a i d and c o n v e r s e l y . For the i n t e r v a l and continuous v a r i a b l e s , the p o s i t i v e c o e f f i c i e n t expresses a d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y : The higher i t i s on the s c a l e , the more the entrepreneur w i l l tend to belong to the f i r s t group ( i . e . those who wish a i d ) . The higher the c o e f f i c i e n t , the g r e a t e r the l i k e l i n e s s the v a r i a b l e would c o n t r i b u t e to the f u n c t i o n . Keeping the three c a t e g o r i e s i s o l a t e d e a r l i e r , we observe t h a t : 1 1 7 • As f a r as education i s concerned, the three v a r i a b l e s have a p o s i t i v e c o e f f i c i e n t ; the stronger one i s f o r 'Wish a t r a i n i n g i n accountancy' (which i s a l s o a dichotomic v a r i a b l e ) . • For the f u n c t i o n i n g of the e n t e r p r i s e , among the s i x v a r i a b l e s , three have a negative c o e f f i c i e n t . The stronger one i s ' Number of hours spent at se a r c h i n g f o r raw m a t e r i a l s ' . On the other hand, the stronger p o s i t i v e c o e f f i c i e n t i s given by 'Number of hours spent at r e c y c l i n g and r e c o v e r i n g ' . T h i s o p p o s i t i o n i s q u i t e an i n t e r e s t i n g i n d i c a t i o n of two a c t i v i t i e s , having the same o b j e c t i v e but i n v e r s e l y d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a same f u n c t i o n . Another i n t e r e s t i n g o p p o s i t i o n i s between those who d e c l a r e they have a market problem (as d e f i n e d i n the dummy v a r i a b l e D2): They d e c l a r e themselves a g a i n s t government a s s i s t a n c e . On the other hand, those who d e c l a r e they have a ' s p e c i f i c ' problem (D3) have the converse a t t i t u d e ; they wish to r e c e i v e a s s i s t a n c e . • Concerning the entrepreneur's f a m i l y , the higher the number of years of re s i d e n c e i n the c i t y of i n t e r v i e w , the more l i k e l y the entrepreneur w i l l wish a i d from the government. Although t h i s v a r i a b l e came out only i n step #6, t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n i s important to know s i n c e most of the inf o r m a l s e c t o r p o p u l a t i o n i s migrant 9 6 . T h i s being s a i d , the above d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s t e l l s us 9 6 See Chapter I I , s e c t i o n 2. 1 18 only about a s t a t i s t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p but not about a cause-e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p . Our purpose i s not to f i n d out what i s causing such an a t t i t u d e by o p p o s i t i o n to another but r a t h e r to provide an environment about which we know, through the d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s , t hat one v a r i a b l e ( a t t i t u d e versus government) i s i n r e l a t i o n ( p o s i t i v e or negative) to a s e r i e s of other v a r i a b l e s . To the c o n t r a r y , those who haven't been i s o l a t e d a l s o have t h e i r i n t e r e s t . 3. PREDICTION The a n a l y s i s a l s o t e l l s us that the above 13 v a r i a b l e s can c o r r e c t l y c l a s s i f y 75.56 per cent of the e n t r e p r e n e u r s . In other words, 24.44 per cent have s a i d something that doesn't correspond to the "norm" of the sample (or t h e i r -counterparts as c l a s s i f i e d ) . Out of these 33 entrepreneurs, we observe that 78.7 per cent answer that they wish f o r a i d although t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would d r i v e them to the "no-aid group" ; 21.3 per cent are i n the converse s i t u a t i o n . Going back to the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e s u l t s , we c o u l d then conclude that only 72 entrepreneurs out of 135 (53.3 per cent) who belong and are p r e d i c t e d to belong to group 1 (Wish f o r a i d ) would l i k e l y be the only ones to e x p l i c i t e l y wish f o r a i d and to p e r c e i v e i t c o r r e c t l y : 53.3 per cent, that i s a l i t t l e b i t more than one out of two. The other entrepreneurs can be d i v i d e d i n t o two groups. • A f i r s t group of 22.22 per cent (N=30) belong to those who say no and are p r e d i c t e d to do so. Any government h e l p would l i k e l y send them underground. • The second group i s i n a l e s s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d s i t u a t i o n : 119 E i t h e r they say yes and should have s a i d no or v i c e v e r s a . In any case, i t i s very l i k e l y t h a t a governmental a s s i s t a n c e would be misunderstood. C. CONCLUSION Studying "Some pers o n a l r o o t s of modernity among small i n d u s t r i a l i s t s i n I n d i a " , R.Hunt a p p l i e s a s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e ...to demonstrate the p o t e n t i a l u t i l i t y of measures of m o t i v a t i o n and c a p a c i t y f o r p r e d i c t i n g i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s i n response to development programming (1971:899) T r y i n g to achieve a d i f f e r e n t goal w i t h i n a s i m i l a r c o n t e x t , our a n a l y s i s f o l l o w s p a r a l l e l l i n e s and c o n c l u s i o n s : • Entrepreneurs working in the i n f o r m a l sector are not a l l committed to "being a s s i s t e d " . • We have to d i f f e r e n t i a t e these entrepreneurs i n t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s or t h e i r r e a c t i o n about "seeking out and e s t a b l i s h i n g l i n k a g e s " with non-informal sources of a s s i s t a n c e . • S t a t i s t i c a l l y , we have observed that those entrepreneurs who are most educated "...are the most s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n t h e i r understanding of the interdependence of b u s i n e s s , government and p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s " 9 7 . F i n a l l y , we would hypothesize that an a c t i o n programme aimed at h e l p i n g the i n f o r m a l a u t o m o b i l e - r e p a i r shop s e c t o r 9 7 Hunt, o p . c i t . p.899 1 20 would at the maximum be c o r r e c t l y p e r c e i v e d and accepted by one entrepreneur out of two. At l e a s t f i f t y per cent of the e f f o r t and money would not be c o r r e c t l y a s s i g n e d or spent. This a l s o r a i s e s the p r o b a b i l i t y that the e f f e c t s of such programmes c o u l d very w e l l be q u i t e unexpected. I t would a l s o widen the misunderstanding that both governments and the in f o r m a l s e c t o r have of each other. 121 VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION : THE POLICY IMPLICATIONS My f a t h e r thought he was b r i n g i n g S a l v a t i o n to A f r i c a . I do not any longer know what s a l v a t i o n i s . I only know that one man cannot f i n d i t f o r another man, and one land cannot b r i n g i t to another. (Margaret Laurence, The Tomorrow-Tamer). A. THE URBAN INFORMAL SECTOR 1 . THE BACKGROUND In the primate c i t i e s of M a u r i t a n i a , M a l i , Togo and Cameroon, an average of one household out of three i s "engaged i n economic a c t i v i t i e s that are not recorded by any o f f i c i a l s t a t i s t i c s . The e x i s t e n c e of that " i n f o r m a l s e c t o r " i s the symptom of a socio-economic s i t u a t i o n whose roots are complex. But t h i s does not mean that t h i s s e c t o r should continue to be overlooked by A f r i c a n policy-makers. Among v a r i o u s f a c t o r s , i t i s an e x p r e s s i o n of the i n a b i l i t y of these governments to a l l o c a t e s u f f i c i e n t resources to the adequate s e c t o r s of t h e i r economy. The r a p i d urban p o p u l a t i o n growth 1 of these c o u n t r i e s i s , at the same time, the e f f e c t and the cause of m i s a l l o c a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s . Rural to urban m i g r a t i o n i s p a r t l y e x p l a i n e d by the 1The annual average growth rate of the urban p o p u l a t i o n i n the four c o u n t r i e s i s between 8.6 and 5.5 per cent. The percentage of urban p o p u l a t i o n i n the l a r g e s t c i t y i s between 60 per cent (Togo) and 21 per cent (Cameroon). In Canada, these f i g u r e s are r e s p e c t i v e l y 1.7 per cent (annual urban growth r a t e ) and 18 per cent. Source World Development Report, 1981 o p . c i t . 8 Where some 75 per cent of our c o u n t r i e s ' p o p u l a t i o n s t i l l l i v e today. 1 22 lack of job o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the r u r a l areas 9 8 . On the other hand, there i s the i n a b i l i t y of the "modern" s e c t o r to provide jobs or the u n w i l l i n g n e s s of p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e s to make the best p o s s i b l e investments f o r th a t purpose. T h i s i s p a r t l y because of i t s heavy dependence on imports as w e l l as i t s extreme v u l n e r a b i l i t y to e x t e r n a l market c o n d i t i o n s . Under these circumstances, the urban i n f o r m a l s e c t o r p l a y s a v i t a l r o l e in labour a b s o r p t i o n , employment and income generat i o n as w e l l as i n the s a t i s f a c t i o n of b a s i c needs. I t has s u r v i v e d so f a r because of the mot i v a t i o n of i t s members, without any government support and even sometimes d e s p i t e d i r e c t unfavourable a c t i o n s . I t s people make up the p o p u l a t i o n of these c o u n t r i e s and are r e s p o n s i b l e for a major p a r t of t h e i r economies. They l i v e i n c o u n t r i e s that are i n a process of t r a n s i t i o n . Most are c l a s s i c cases of t r a d i t i o n a l economies and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the r a p i d growth of enclave-type of modern a c t i v i t y . (Westebbe, 1971:v) But the a t t i t u d e s of the governments of these c o u n t r i e s change. Governments are i n c r e a s i n g l y i n c l i n e d to argue that t h e i r development plan n i n g process would be incomplete and perhaps r e t a r d e d unless the people and a c t i v i t i e s of the inf o r m a l s e c t o r are i n c l u d e d i n both the plan and the proc e s s . 1 23 2. THE ADVANTAGES Many authors have shown the numerous advantages of the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r , as economic u n i t s producing goods and s e r v i c e s f o r the m a j o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n s of these c o u n t r i e s 9 9 . • I t uses l i t t l e c a p i t a l per worker. • I t i s labour i n t e n s i v e , which i s c o n s i s t e n t with the abundant supply of manpower, p a r t i c u l a r l y the u n s k i l l e d • one. • I t has a high c a p i t a l p r o d u c t i v i t y . • I t performs an important f u n c t i o n of s k i l l s t r a n s m i s s i o n , on the job and at no c o s t to s o c i e t y . • I t uses mostly l o c a l resources and other raw m a t e r i a l s which are o f t e n recovered and r e c y c l e d . I t thus h i g h l y s u b s t i t u t e s f o r imports. • I t i s the only source of a f f o r d a b l e goods and s e r v i c e s f o r the m a j o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n s of these c o u n t r i e s . • Most importantly, i t i s the c r a d l e of e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . These seven advantages are commonly accepted. Others however are proposed which are more q u e s t i o n n a b l e : • Marsden for example (1981:33) suggests that the small f i r m 1 0 0 m o b i l i z e s some savings f o r p r o p r i e t o r s who i n v e s t i n t h e i r own f i r m s . We have seen i n a preceeding chapter that our entrepreneurs , having a high investment c a p a c i t y , do not very o f t e n use i t f o r the 9 9 See f o r example Marsden, 1981 and Sethuraman (Ed), 1980. 100 Here a s s i m i l a t e d to the modern i n f o r m a l s e c t o r . 124 growth of the o p e r a t i o n . • Sethuraman (1980:33) w r i t e s that . . . r e c o g n i t i o n of the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r i n the development plans c o u l d a u t o m a t i c a l l y ensure the d i s t r i b u t i o n of b e n e f i t s r e s u l t i n g from the development in favour of the disadvantaged groups and thus depart from the t r i c k l e - d o w n philosophy followed h i t h e r t o i n many developing c o u n t r i e s . I f a country's development plan n i n g process i s i n e f f e c t i v e we would p r e f e r , f o r the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r , not to see i t i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o that process 1 0 1 . On the other hand, 1 0 2 we have shown that the entrepreneurs were not overwhelmingly favourable t o government a s s i s t a n c e . I f such a s s i s t a n c e were to be given, we would p r e d i c t that a good number of the entrepreneurs would go "underground", with a l l the negative m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t s that c o u l d p o s s i b l y produce. 3. A PORTRAIT The a u t o m o b i l e - r e p a i r entrepreneur has been taken as an example. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r group was chosen f o r t e s t i n g the "homogeneity" of a given sub-population i n responding to p o t e n t i a l government a s s i s t a n c e . I t was a l s o chosen on the b a s i s of i t s importance to the c o u n t r i e s ' economic development: The automobile repairman c o u l d be a d e c i s i v e a c t o r i n the development of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y . 1 0 1 T h i s was the q u e s t i o n addressed i n Chapter 3. 1 0 2 T h i s was the purpose of Chapter 4. 125 People, i n f o r m a t i o n and goods would not flow, at the same cost nor with the same convenience, i f the auto-r e p a i r business d i d n ' t e x i s t i n these c o u n t r i e s . P r i v a t e l y owned p a r a t r a n s i t s e r v i c e s and p u b l i c auto businesses 1 0 3 are extremely demand r e s p o n s i v e : They o f t e n provide a b e t t e r s e r v i c e than the p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t . They are sometimes the only p o s s i b l e means to reach job o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Whatever the number of these v e h i c l e s i s , they c a r r y a very high p r o p o r t i o n of passengers simply because of the l a c k of p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t . The r o l e played by t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n p r o v i d i n g the m o b i l i t y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y to keep the urban economy f u n c t i o n i n g i s a paramount one. The e f f i c i e n c y of the urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system i s a s u b s t a n t i a l i n d i c a t o r of the p r o d u c t i v i t y and the l i v a b i l i t y of a c i t y (World Bank, 1975). The p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e of a c i t y , i t s s i z e and spread, i t s way of l i f e and c h a r a c t e r are a l l dependant upon the nature and q u a l i t y of the urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system (Thomson,1977). A l l i n a l l , the v i t a l i t y of the urban t r a n s p o r t p r o v i d e d i n a c i t y a f f e c t s the way i n which the c i t y and i t s c i t i z e n s f u n c t i o n . (Pendakur,1981:1). • The a u t o m o b i l e - r e p a i r a c t i v i t y i s very o f t e n an import s u b s t i t u t e _ f o r s p a r e - p a r t s , and sometimes for whole v e h i c l e s 1 0 * . 1 0 3 Such as " c a r - r a p i d e " or " t a x i - b r o u s s e " i n Francophone A f r i c a . 1 0 4 In Bamako, we met an " i n f o r m a l s e c t o r " entrepreneur who was b u i l d i n g a complete c a r , only with recovered m a t e r i a l s and pa r t s. 126 ' • S p a t i a l y and socio-economicaly, c i t y and c o u n t r y s i d e would be much more separated than they are today. Because of the continuous sprawl of c i t i e s , urban m o b i l i t y would be much more d i f f i c u l t than i t i s today. I f a "modal" p o r t r a i t of the a u t o m o b i l e - r e p a i r entrepreneur in M a u r i t a n i a , M a l i , Togo and Cameroon were to be drawn, the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n would be proposed. He i s 33 years o l d , married to one w i f e , and has f i v e c h i l d r e n . However, three more dependants l i v e i n h i s home. He was born in a secondary c i t y or a r u r a l area, of parents without any formal e d u c a t i o n , a l r e a d y themselves working on t h e i r own, i n the primary s e c t o r . The entrepreneur has had the chance to go to school f o r s i x years; as an a p p r e n t i c e he had f i v e years of p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g . He s t a r t e d h i s a c t i v e l i f e at 21 and has a l r e a d y had two d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n s . He has worked on h i s own, i n t h i s s e c t o r , f o r more than s i x years, most of which has been in t h i s present b u s i n e s s . He r e n t s the e n t e r p r i s e ' s premises and l a n d . He has f i v e workers, more than three of them are a p p r e n t i c e s . Although there are l a r g e v a r i a t i o n s , most of the time he doesn't employ f a m i l y members in h i s b u s i n e s s . Compared to the o f f i c i a l minimum wage, he doesn't pay h i s labour f o r c e very w e l l but he himself makes a good l i v i n g . He very r a r e l y pays taxes. His household income i s somewhat higher than h i s net income because some f a m i l y members are engaged i n an a c t i v i t y and they b r i n g t h e i r earnings back to the household. A l t o g e t h e r , they don't spend more than f i f t y per cent of t h e i r t o t a l net income. 127 Most of the time the other h a l f i s not r e i n v e s t e d i n t o the e n t e r p r i s e . The d e s t i n a t i o n of such a high "investment c a p a c i t y " i s u n c e r t a i n . We would presume that i t i s d i r e c t e d to s p e c u l a t i v e investment 1 0 5 and, more of t e n i n t o the " A f r i c a n s o c i a l s e c u r i t y system": Consumption of o s t e n t a t o r y items f o r community and f a m i l y c e l e b r a t i o n s such as baptism, wedding, f u n e r a l s , r e l i g i o u s f e a s t - d a y s 1 0 6 as w e l l as games of chance 1 0 7 . As B h a l l a suggested (1970:528): In the l e s s developed c o u n t r i e s where there i s no unemployment insurance the extended fam i l y system p l a y s an economic r o l e by s u b s i d i s i n g the unemployed and the underemployed. The gains from the d e c l i n e of t h i s system may not n e c e s s a r i l y o f f s e t the s o c i a l c o s t s i n v o l v e d . I t i s one t h i n g i s to r e c o g n i z e the socio-economic importance of the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r . I t i s another to d e f i n e the best p o s s i b l e p o l i c y w i t h i n the framework of an a c c e p t a b l e goal f o r the c ountry's development. An assessement of the present i n s t i t u t i o n s and s t r u c t u r e s (as framework f o r p o l i c y development) i s necessary before a s s i g n i n g t h e i r r o l e s . Our examination of the l i t e r a t u r e leads us to propose that even such a task ought to be preceeded by a c l e a r understanding of the n o t i o n of p o l i c y . 1 0 5 Such as housing or t a x i i n M a u r i t a n i a . 1 0 6 In one word " p o t l a c h " . 1 0 7 Such as t o n t i n e or l o t t e r y i n Togo, M a l i and Cameroon. 1 28 B. WHAT IS A POLICY? The term " p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s " too oft e n i s understood as "what p r o j e c t s should be undertaken?". T h i s i s not the exact meaning of the notion of p o l i c y nor the kind of c o n c l u s i o n we intend to draw. Before i n v e s t i g a t i n g the "what" and the "how", i t i s much more important to understand the "why" and the "whom". A p o l i c y i s designed from these i m p l i c a t i o n s and only then t r a n s l a t e d i n t o o b j e c t i v e s or programmes and p r o j e c t s . 1. POLICY, PROGRAMME, PROJECT S a l i s b u r y (1968:152) suggests that the three p o s s i b l e conceptions of the notion of " p o l i c y " are combined i n F r i e d r i c h ' s d e f i n i t i o n 1 0 8 1 0 9 : A proposed course of a c t i o n of a person, group or government w i t h i n a given environment p r o v i d i n g o b s t a c l e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s which the p o l i c y was proposed to u t i l i z e and overcome i n an e f f o r t to reach a goal or r e a l i z e an o b j e c t i v e or a purpose .... I t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the p o l i c y concept that there be a go a l , o b j e c t i v e or purpose. From the above d e f i n i t i o n we understand that the goal i s the moving f o r c e that transforms an idea i n t o an a c t i o n so as to achieve that g o a l . We a l s o observe that there i s an u n d e r l y i n g " a u t h o r i t a t i v e a l l o c a t i o n of va l u e s " (Easton). In t h i s sense a p o l i c y ought to be c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from a program or a set 8 C a r l J . F r i e d r i c h , Man and His Government (New York: Mc Graw-H i l l Book Co., 1963), p.79. 9 Although i t i s unfortunate to f i n d the word " p o l i c y " i t s e l f used i n t o i t s d e f i n i t i o n . 1 29 of p r o j e c t s . C o n c r e t e l y speaking, a p o l i c y i s composed of s i x necessary and s u f f i c i e n t dimensions 1 1 0 : • Goal o r i e n t a t i o n , • S p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s , • General a p p l i c a b i l i t y , • A v a i l a b i l i t y of re s o u r c e s , • Impact e v a l u a t i o n , • I n s t i t u t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t y . To o f t e n i n the l i t e r a t u r e " p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s " are drawn as a c a t a l o g of programmes or p r o j e c t s . Whatever t h e i r i n t e r e s t may be, they are not based upon a c l e a r f a r re a c h i n g g o a l . They are not expressed as the t r a n s l a t i o n of a goal i n t o i t s subsequent o b j e c t i v e s , programmes and p r o j e c t s . A p o l i c y i s not a r e a c t i v e process ( p r o b l e m - s o l u t i o n ) , i t must to be p r o a c t i v e . A p r o j e c t emphasis co u l d be d e v a s t a t i n g because of i t s lack of i n t e r a c t i v e and i n t e g r a t i v e approach that c r e a t e s the s p e c i f i c i t y as w e l l as the re l e v a n c e of a p o l i c y . 1 1 1 2. • A DEVELOPMENT POLICY? In the preceeding s e c t i o n we i s o l a t e d what we b e l i e v e to be an ignored source of the problems encountered today i n p r o j e c t implementation, i n the de v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i n p a r t i c u l a r . Another important source of d i f f i c u l t y in d e f i n i n g a p o l i c y i s that i t must be a "development p o l i c y " and development i s a most 1 1 0 P r o f . H. Peter Oberlander, P u b l i c . P o l i c y i n Urban Planning and Development UBC, Planning School, 1982. 1 1 1 An e x c e l l e n t example of p o l i c y versus p r o j e c t approach i s given by N i g e l P o l l a r d The G e z i r a Scheme - A Study i n F a i l u r e 130 e l u s i v e concept. Although i t i s not the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s t o d e f i n e i t , l e t us make the f o l l o w i n g three remarks: • I t i s an unfortunate h i s t o r i c a l f a c t that "development" has been a s s i m i l a t e d to economic development. Whatever the importance of that dimension i s , i t should not be used as the s i n g l e and only dimension of that concept. Rather than growth and output, development i n v o l v e s changes i n i n s t i t u t i o n s and socio-economic s t r u c t u r e s 1 1 2 • • Development ought to be a normative concept i n v o l v i n g s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l values and g o a l s . The problem we then p e r c e i v e i s whose values and goals are to be taken i n t o account? We then reach the concept that i s c e n t r a l t o the f u n c t i o n i n g of s o c i e t y : power. Such d e c i s i o n s so f a r have been p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s . I t i s not (yet) the business of s c i e n c e to decide whether people are making the r i g h t c h o i c e s . • Although not exempted from some of the above d i f f i c u l t i e s , the n o t i o n of development we would adopt as a f a r reaching goal i s the one given by F r a n c o i s Perroux (1964:155): Development i s the combination of mental and s o c i a l changes of a p o p u l a t i o n that enable i t to i n c r e a s e , c u m u l a t i v e l y and durably, i t s r e a l g l o b a l product. 1 1 2 See B a s t e r , 1972:15 131 Whatever the economic system i n place i s , development i s very much a q u e s t i o n of c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y that ought to be respected and understood. These dimensions are not taken i n t o account i n today's development process (as a s s i m i l a t e d to modernization) and sometimes they reappear d r a m a t i c a l l y to change the course of "economic development" in an opposite d i r e c t i o n . Never and nowhere has the present approach ever given any cumulative and durable r e s u l t s . C. THE ASSESSEMENT 1. THE GOVERNMENT Government a t t i t u d e s have been examined through n a t i o n a l development p l a n s . Our assessement of the pl a n n i n g process was twofold, f i r s t the plan as a whole, second the government's i n t e n t i o n s towards the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r . Based upon a p o l i c y viewpoint, we have observed t h a t : • There i s no i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t y (implementation and monitoring stages are not adequately supported by any s p e c i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n s ) . • The plan i s not impact e v a l u a t i v e . • The resource a v a i l a b i l i t y i s u n c e r t a i n . • The o b j e c t i v e s are all-encompassing, sometimes c o n t r a d i c t i n g each other: There i s no c l e a r focus . • The policy-makers want to cover e v e r y t h i n g , from value a l l o c a t i o n ( o f t e n imported and thus unstable) to programme design and p r o j e c t undertaking. Beyond the f a c t s , the reasons are m u l t i p l e but nobody c o u l d 1 32 reasonably be blamed f o r not having a c l e a r idea of the needs-a l l o c a t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p or f o r not c o n s i d e r i n g the interdependence between socio-economic sub-systems. On the other hand, there i s no p o l i t i c a l w i l l to r e a l l y change a s i t u a t i o n and there i s no " o b j e c t i v e " a p p r a i s a l or d e c i s i o n as to the country's p r i o r i t i e s . As f a r as the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r i s concerned, we have observed a p r o j e c t approach such as the c r e a t i o n of an i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e or a s e r v i c e of p o p u l a r i z a t i o n . T h i s i s not based upon any needs'assessement; nor i s i t compatible with the d i v e r s i t y of a t t i t u d e s of the inf o r m a l s e c t o r ' s p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s kind of approach might very w e l l end up by c o n t r o l l i n g the development of a c t i v i t i e s r a t h e r than by induci n g g r e a t e r e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . The country's human p o t e n t i a l i s not co n s i d e r e d as i t s most v a l u a b l e resource. Furthermore, the p o s s i b l e impacts of such p r o j e c t s have not been assessed. There hasn't been any dialo g u e or i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t i o n (at l e a s t i n two c o u n t r i e s ) to support and prepare such p r o j e c t s . T h i s a p r i o r i approach has been c l e a r l y q u a l i f i e d by Harper and Soon (1977:90): Some small business people may reasonably be excused i f they f e e l that the government i s l i k e a man who runs over you with h i s car and then ensures that you r e c e i v e the best h o s p i t a l treatment. 133 2. THE ENTREPRENEURS The entrepreneurs' a t t i t u d e s towards governmental a s s i s t a n c e have been examined w i t h i n a given context of u n c e r t a i n t y about how they p e r c e i v e d t h e i r economic s i t u a t i o n . A d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s has shown that the entrepreneurs are not a l l e q u a l l y committed to such a s s i s t a n c e . In f a c t , out of the 72.5 per cent who s a i d that they wished to r e c e i v e an a i d , 73.5 per cent have been p r e d i c t e d as such by the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of t h e i r p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The length of education being the s i n g l e most important d i s c r i m i n a n t v a r i a b l e i n that r e s p e c t . The major i m p l i c a t i o n of the above f i g u r e s i s t h a t , at best, only one entrepreneur out of two 1 1 3 would e v e n t u a l l y be r e c e p t i v e to such a s s i s t a n c e i n i t s most vague sense. We have seen t h a t , i n M a u r i t a n i a , when a s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t i s suggested ( i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e ) t h i s f i g u r e i s even f a r lower. In other words, the a u t o m o b i l e - r e p a i r shop business i s NOT composed of an homogeneous mass of people. They are very unequally committed to the p e r s p e c t i v e of government a s s i s t a n c e . I t can t h e r e f o r e be hypothesised t h a t such programmes or p r o j e c t s might have negative e f f e c t s on a c e r t a i n p a r t of the a u t o m o b i l e - r e p a i r p o p u l a t i o n . Such an hypothesis c o u l d be extended to the o v e r a l l i n f o r m a l s e c t o r . I t s c o n t r i b u t i o n to labour a b s o r p t i o n , employment and income generation as w e l l as the s a t i s f a c t i o n of b a s i c needs c o u l d be somewhat a f f e c t e d i n the medium and long term. 1 1 3 53.3 per cent e x a c t l y or 73.5 per cent of 72.5 per c e n t . 134 D. CONCLUSION Even w i t h i n a sub-segment of the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r , the aut o m o b i l e - r e p a i r shops, and f o r p o t e n t i a l a s s i s t a n c e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , we have observed very d i f f e r e n t groups of people and commitments. T h i s i s of paramount importance i f " a s s i s t a n c e " were given and community p a r t i c i p a t i o n expected. The n a t i o n a l development p l a n n i n g process, as i t i s today o p e r a t i n g i n the c o u n t r i e s i n v e s t i g a t e d , needs to be improved , should a s s i s t a n c e to the in f o r m a l s e c t o r be g i v e n . Keeping i n mind the c o n s t r a i n t s i n these c o u n t r i e s , government resources c o u l d be more u s e f u l l y a l l o c a t e d to other economic or r e g i o n a l s e c t o r s . I f any kind of informal s e c t o r a s s i s t a n c e were contemplated today 1 1." , we would suggest t h a t , before answering the que s t i o n what to do and how to do i t , i t would be more f r u i t f u l to ask and understand, through d i a l o g u e , between i n f o r m a l s e c t o r and government, the quest i o n s why, f o r whom and by whom. When an a l l encompassing goal f o r the i n f o r m a l s e c t o r has been s o c i a l l y d e f i n e d and p o l i t i c a l l y accepted only then can the t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s of the problem be p r o p e r l y d e f i n e d and a p p l i e d . T h i s should ensure g r e a t e r chances of success. 1 1 4 T h i s study w i l l not break st r o n g c u l t u r a l temptations. 135 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Abu-Lughod, Janet and Hay, R i c h a r d J r . , 1977, T h i r d World U r b a n i z a t i o n : Methuen, Toronto. 2. Acharya, S., 1981, Development P e r s p e c t i v e s and P r i o r i t i e s  in Sub-Saharan A f r i c a : Finance and Development, V o l 18 No1 p p T 1 6 - 1 9 (March) . 3. Bast e r , N., (Ed) 1972, Measuring Development - The Role and  Adequacy of Development I n d i c a t o r s : Frank Cass, London. 4. B e i e r , G. 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P e a t t i e , L i s a R., 1980, A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s on the Concepts of Dualism, the Informal Sector, and M a r q i n a l i t y  in Developing Urban Economies : I n t e r n a t i o n a l Regional Science Review, V o l . 5, No. 1, pp. 1-31. 47. Perroux, F., 1964, L'Economie du XXeme S i e c l e Presses  U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de France , 2eme E d i t i o n . 48. P o l l a r d , N., 1981, The G e z i r a Scheme-A Study in F a i l u r e The E c o l o g i s t , Vol.11, No1, (Jan-Feb). 49. Re publique Islamique de Ma u r i t a n i e , 1976, M i n i s t e r e du Plan et des Mines, T r o i s i e m e Plan de Developpement Economique et S o c i a l , 1976-1980. 50. Re publique du Mali , 1980, 'Projet d ' o r i e n t a t i o n du Plan du M a l i , 1981-1985. Cabinet du M i n i s t r e du Plan, (AoQt) (Unpublished). 51. 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Yeh, S.H., 1976, The Use of S o c i a l I n d i c a t o r s i n  Development Planning In: Idem, Unesco (Ed), 1976, pp. 61-88 S o c i a l Sciences Methods and A n a l y s i s D i v i s i o n , The Unesco Press, P a r i s . 142 APPENDIX A - ILO, WEP 2-33 RESEARCH PROJECT : QUESTIONNAIRE. In June 1977, i n Nouakchott ( M a u r i t a n i a ) , the o r i g i n a l model of the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Copyright ILO, 1979) was designed by the author of t h i s study i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n with the l a t e G. Nihan, Chief of the WEP 2-33 Research P r o j e c t on S k i l l A c q u i s i t i o n and Self-Employment i n the Urban Informal Sector of Francophone A f r i c a . The p r o b l e m - d e f i n i t i o n stage of t h i s p r o j e c t , as source of t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , can be found i n the ILO WEP 2-33 Working Papers. T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e was kept i d e n t i c a l f o r the f i v e c i t i e s i n which i t was a p p l i e d , except f o r some improvements and other m o d i f i c a t i o n s because of l o c a l c o n t i n g e n c i e s such as the education system, the languages, e t c . As t e c h n i c a l support-memo f o r the i n t e r v i e w e r s , a "Fiche d ' i n s t r u c t i o n pour l e s enqu§teurs" was prepared f o r each survey. T h i s a l s o can be found i n the above-mentioned Working Papers and should be c o n s i d e r e d as important f o r a complete understanding of each module of t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Bureau i n t e r n a t i o n a l du T r a v a i l - Programme mondial de l'Emnlol - Geneve Questionnaire de l'enquete du secteur non structure de YAOUNDE (Cameroun) (Blanc-5.0./F-;N.r,.P./r»-N.R.P.) Ho de questionnaire Date Norn de l'enqueteur E c h a n t i l l o n no. Secteur d ' a c t i v i t y no. Denomination de l ' a c t i v i t e : s p e c i f i e z L i e u de t r a v a i l : - q u a r t i e r No. (a) L o c a l i s a t i o n (b) D e s c r i p t i o n : A006 A007 6LJ A.008 iLJ-J A009 ^LJ-J—I ftn1» 1?/ / _/ 9. Pays de cltovennete" I] en p l e i n a i r e t a l a t e l i e r en planches(3) a t e l i e r en_dur (4) chantier batiment (5) autre (6) 1.c)Habitez-vous sur votre l i e u de t r a v a i l (oui = 1 ; non = 2) E t a t - c i v l l : c e l i b a t a i r e (I) mariape mono^amc ( 2 ) maria^e poly^ame (j) divorct' (4) veuf(ve) (5) Nombre d'enfants a charge habitant ou nan avec l'entr. ARC Sexe (Manculin = 1 ; femlnim = 2) Depuis corablen d'annees habitez-vous Yaounde" Li e u de nalosance : - Yaounde ou Douala (1) - C a p i t a l e d'un autre pays d'Afrique (?.) - Centre urbaln secondaire au Cameroun ( 3 ) - Centre urbain secondaire (autre.pays d'Afrique<(4) - Zone r u r a l e au Cameroun (5) - Zone r u r a l e (autre pays d'Afrique) (6) - Autre ( 7 ) s p e c i f i e z 8. Lieu ou l'enqu?te a passe1 l ' e s s e n t i e l de son enfance (mSmee cat6gorieE) 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. i4/_/B010 15/ /C010 16/ /A020 17/ / /AQ30 19/ / /A040 2i/_/A050 ??/ i /A060 24/_/A070 25/_/A080 Camerour'. ( 3 0 ) Togo 20 Nigeria Senegal (24) Ghana 21 ( 0 2 ) Niger 25 Mali (03 Tchad 31 Benin ( 2 2 ) Emp.Centrafr. 32 Gabon (33) Guinee Equat.(34) Quince (35) Soudan (36) Autre pays ( 7 7 ) A090 26/ / / 1 0 . Langue de 1'interview Francais (02) Bamlleke (34) Foulani Anglais ( 3 1 ) Douala (35) Makeya Pidgin (32) Bassa (36) Autre Ewondo (33) Foulbe (37) 1 1 . Langue a a t e r n e l l e (mSmes categories) 1 2 . Niveau d ' l n s t r u c t l o n (oul/non) # annees c e r t i f i c a t 1 2 (note 1) (note 2) A100 28/ / / A110 30/ / / systeme (note 3) 32/_7A112 33Z_/A120 34^_/A121 35/_/A122 36£_/B122j C 1 2 3 37/__/A12 3 38/_/B123 j 39A_/ 4 0/_/Al 28 4 i/_/B128 ) Sans i n s t r u c t i o n Ecole coranlque Alphab£tis£ simple EnseJgn. primaire (6 ans) Ens. primaire sup£rleur Ens. poj l - ; i r l m a l r e a r t i a a n a l (SAR, EM/SM) (2 a 3 a i - ) Second degre general (te-2e cycle ) 42^ /A124 /B124-] Second degre1 techn. (1e-2ecycl*>) Second degre1 normal (ENIA-EN^ et cours normaux) Enseignement sp6clalis6 Enseignement supSrleur C125 4 4/_/A125 45/_/BI25^ 6/— / 47i_/A126 43^_/B126' 49L_/A129 50/_/B129; /A127 5 2/-fel27< C127 5 3 / _ / ( 1 ) Lee annees r e d o u b l e s ne dolvent pas 6 t r e ccmptees. ( 2 ) Cycle nor. achevS - 0 / C e r t i f i c a t - 1 / BEPC ou, CAP - 2 / Prob. «• 3 / PAC - 4 / GCEOL ou RSA - 5 / GCEAL - 6 / ENIA - 7 / ENI • 8 / Cours normaux « 9 / ( 3 ) Systeme s c o l a i r e : francophone - 1 / anglophone - 2 /mixte»3. (3) PIT. J u i l l e t 1978 (Blanc- S.0./8=N.S.P./9» N.R.P.) 13. Formation spe'ciflque apres l'Ecole No. ... - auto-apprentissage ... - apprentlssage chez un a r t i s a n trarUlionnel ... - apprentissage chez un a r t i s a n "moderne" ... - apprentlssage dans une entreprlse rlu secteur moderne ... - formation dans un centre professionnel d 1 e n t r e p r l s e apres l e CEPE ... - formation dans un centre professionnel de l ' E t a t (apres CEPE, BEPC ou CAP), souligner l e centre concern^ ... - formation en centre de formation profes-s i o n n e l l e prlvS non agrfig ... - cours de promotion s o c i a l e du s o l r pour d£tenteurs du CAP et menant au brevet professionnel Certlflcat (Dur£e en (oul=1 annges) CAP=»2 B.P.=5) 54/ / 56Z—£_/B130 60/ / /Rl "39 65Z_/_/Bl3567/_/Dl35 68/ / ATI37 io/__iD157 71/ / /B138 73Z_^)138 14. Type de s p e c i a l i s a t i o n , s p e c i f i e z : (secteur d ' a c t i v i t e ) M 4 0 r 4 ' i i 1 15. 2. 3. a) Souhaiteriez-vous recevoir une formation do type - cours d'alphabetisation - formation a l a comptabilite - formation pour vous aider a mieux organiser 1'entreprine - fonnutlon pnur vous nidor h u t l l . Itiur des machines plus modernes - formation pour vous aider h mieux connaltre l e B re/jlements a d m i n i s t r a t i f 3 b) Souhaiteriez-vous acquerir cette formation (enumerez l e s rubriques suivantes et en f a i r e c h o i o i r deux) 1/0 12 hi I I I (oui/non) 1 J.2 6 Z _ /A150 7Z_7A151 8 /_/A152 9^_/A153 10/ /A154 c) d) 16. par des s p e c i a l i s t e s qui passent vous a i d e r de temps en temps(l) dans un centre de formation de l ' E t a t (2) dans un centre de formation cre'e par des p e t i t s entrepreneurs comme vous-meme (3) par l a radio (4) par l a t e l e v i s i o n (5) par des documents que vous pou r r i e z regarder ouB150 B151 l i r e quand vous en avez l e temps (6) ne souhaite r i e n (7) 11 Seriez-vous prets a p a r t i c i p e r a une p a r t i e des f r a i s de t e l s programmes o u i , s i c'est une somme minime o u i , meme une somme importante non (3) Autoriseriez-vous vos apprentls a p a r t i c i p e r a des cours de formation de quelques heures par semaine, organises durant l a journee de t r a v a i l avec s a l a i r e normal (1) Iii JNLJ C150 avec sans non s a l a i r e s a l a i r e r e d u i t e) (5) S i vous n'autorisez pas cette p a r t i c i p a t i o n , est-ce a cause des couts (1) trop de t r a v a i l dans votre e n t r e p r i s e (2) crai n t e de v o i r p a r t i r l e t r a v a i l l e u r ensuite vous croyez que c e l a ne l u i s e r t a r i e n (4) R^petez l a question d) pour l e s autres t r a v a l l l e u r s  Repetez l a question e) pour l e s autres t r a v a l l l e u r s Quand vous aviez entre 7 et 14 ans, quel e t a i t a) l e niveau d ' i n s t r u c t i o n du chef de f a m i l l e m f ) D150 E150 F150 17/ / G150 sans i n s t r u c t i o n ecde coranique (2) alphabetise simple (3) ecole primaire (4) secondaire I e r cycle (5) AT Cr\ secondaire 2eme cycle (6) A X O U enseignement supe'rleur (7) 18/ / ( S i ce n'est pas l e chef de f a m i l l e qui s'est l e plus occupe de l'enquete, poser l e s questions a+b+c pour l a personne qui a p r l s 1'Intercast en charge, s o i t en tant que tuteur ou sous toute autre forme de.,,-, r e s p o n s a b i l i t e (meme code) | A l b l l e niveau d ' i n s t r u c t i o n du remplacant 19/ / (Blanc=S.0./P=N.S.P./9=N.R.P.) tO'lc niveau d 1 occupation , »le niveau d'occupation du chef de jami-Lie BloO du remplagant on I j ( v o i r Note 1) ( v o i r Note J ) c)»le secteur d'occupation du d i d de f i u n i l l o p~n cr\ (vo.i v No Le 22 2 l / _ / B161 • l e secteur d'occupation du rem pi ag ant ( v o i r Not? :!) 23/ / Cl6l 1 7 a . P r o f i l p r o f e s s i o n n e l de l'enquete A quel age avez-vous commence a t r a v a i l l e r de facon productive (exclus apprentissage, formation profession-n e l l e , y comprin l e t r a v a i l non remunero dans l a famille.. apron 14 ann) 24^ D e s c r i p t i o n den occupations: Occupation avant-l e r e intermediaire derniere occupation l a plus occupation lmportante A170 LJ I ^ L-l—LJ &LJ—J-J ^1—LJlJ\ Denomination de 1 ' a c t i v i to: s p e c i f i e z Puree en annees  Niveau d ' occupation ( v o i r note 1) Secteur d'occupation ( v o i r note 2) Lieu d'occuuation ( v o i r qu. 7) Province ( v o i r note 3) A171 B171 A172 B17? A173 BW3-35 / / / 37 [__[_/ 39 / / / 41 ^L_/C171 42/1_JC172 44 LJDYll 45 /_/Di72 47Z_/E171 48Z_fcl72 50 Z-/F171 51 Z../P172 43 L_/ C173 46 /_/ D173 49 Z_/ E173 52 Z_/ F173 1) Niveau d'occupation:') Secteur d'occupation Ambulant (0) Nomade ( l ) Employe (2) Ouvrier (3) A compte propre (4) Aide f a m i l i a l (5) Chomeur (6) Autre (menagerc, etc. (7) A r t i s a n a t t r a d i t i o n n c l Art.i:;anat "moderne" Entrcprinc moderne Administration publiquc A g r i c u l t u r e Elevage, peche Commerce ne relevant par de 1'entreprise moderne Sans occupation precise H ill (0) 3) Province Centre Sud L i t t o r a ] Ouest Sud-Otest Nord-Ouest Est Nord Autre pays I (7) 17b.Total don anrnV-n de chnmago, s ' i l V a l i e u 5V / /B170 18a. Depuis combien d'annees possedez-vous votre p e t i t e entreprise et t r a v a i l l e z - v o u s a compte propre sur ALSO c e l l e - c l a Yaounde ou a i l l e u r s (s i meme entrepr ise) . 55 £ {__/ 18b. Quand vou3 etes devenu l e chef de votre e n t r e p r i s e , comment avez-vous paye l e s depenses neceS3aires: (indiquez pour l e s categories suivantes l a r e p a r t i -t i o n en dixiemes, 10/10=0; N .S.P.-N.R.P. ne peuvent pas etre u t i l i s e s ; l e t o t a l d o i t etre 10) 18c. 19. depart (10b) - e'pargne persomeUe/gains entreprise 57/ /B181 - aide de l a grande famille (preteou dais) 59/ /B182 - heritage 6lZ_/B183 - emprunt a un p e t i t preteur profes-63/_/B184 65^ _/B185 67/_/B186 69Z_/B187 s i c n n e l - enprunt a une banque, caisse d 'epargne d 'Etat - aide du Gouvernement ou d'un organisme d'aide - emprunt a une a s s o c i a t i o n d'amis, a une cooperative privee inv . sup. (10c)«-5 8 / _ / 60 l_ / 62 LJ Ul—f 66 [ _ / 68 L—l 70 /__/ 71 l—l Avez-vous ensuite affrandi votre entreprise,-- __-fequipement, batiment, v e h i c u l e s ) ? " i o u  (1- o u i ; 2=non) 15i oui:' - montant des investissements • uppl'.'mcntaires~en" valeur de revente CT89 d'aujourd'hui (done sans depreciation) 72/ I I I I " r e p a r t i t i o n _ d c s ^sources de financement (!.'c colcmnc" du codu,";e" de l a qu. 10: — • I I I cam 01S2 CU33 C184 C1S5 C186 C1S7 UM Valeur de revente au.jourd'hui (sans depreciation)  dc ce que VOUG posr.udiez quand vous etes devenu l e i chef de 1 ' e n t r e p r i s e ' | 1 / 0 / 3 / 3 / ,- o u t i l s , p e t i t materiel et m o b i l i e r de t r a v a i l A190 6/ / / / / / • J *JUK - l e s moyens de transport A191 ^ I I I I I J '/UM - 1'equipement lourd Al Q? 16/ } I I I / / /UM VUY - l e stock des matieres premieres.QUq, 21/ / / / / / / pieces de rechange - If l i e u de t r a v a i l ( s i p r o p r i e t a l n e . 26/ / / / / / / dt 1 ' a t e l i e r ) A l y 4 -/UM (Blanc-S.0./8=M.S.P./9=N.R.P.) 20a. 20b. 20c. 20d. 20e. 21. 22a. Combien do pcrsonncs t r a v a l l l a i e n t dans 1 'entreprlse a cc moment-la (i n c l u n len apprentis; enqueti: ot ~ ' ' 31/. associe(s) exclus) Combien aviez-vous d'associes a ce moment l a Combien d'ouvriers q u a l i f i e s <• Combien d'ouvriers non q u a l i f i e s •* Combien d'apprentis <> Le montant, a ce moment l a , des benefices de 1'entreprlse (argent gagnu par l a vente d'un produit, l a reparation d'un objet, l a cons-t r u c t i o n et que vous pouviez u t i l i s e r par semaine normale pcur f a i r e v i v r e votre famille ou achctcr des o u t i l s , etc.) /A200 33/ / /B200 35/ / /C200 37/ / /D200 vii i /-Rpnn Locaux 41/ / / f'yLi—fm Terrain Gros e'qui- pement 22b. ?2c. Stat u t de 1'entreprise: - vous eten l o c a t a i r e (1) - arr-vrti cr t .': -ntro fami ]] " ( ? ) - vous appartient (3) - autre (r.pecifier) (4) 45/. / 46/ / 47/ / A221 AZ7A A 272 S i vous etcn l o c a t a i r e , combien paycz-vous par moi3: - pour 1 ' a t e l i e r et/ou pour le tergay^Q 48/ I I I I f /Ul>i pour l e t;ros (iquipement B221 52/ / / / •V—•UM S i vous otcn p r o p r l c t a l r e du batiment et/ou t e r r a i n - valour eutimuc de l o c a t i o n du batiment et/ou t e r r a i n C220 56/ / / / / / /UM - valour estimee de vente du C221 23. batiment et/ou t e r r a i n Surface t o t a l e disponible Surface de t r a v a i l u t i l i s e e Surface de t r a v a i l sous t o i t , en dur 60/ / / / / / / / /UM se/ / / / / m2 A230 70/ / / / / m2 A232 74/ / / / / m2 A233 S i l'enquSte' possede batiment et t e r r a i n , proportion valour batiment sur t o t a l valeur vente dc'clarfe en caoes 60 c;-.(codo 0 a 0/1O) 78/_/ A234 1/0 /4 hi I I I 24a. Est-ce que vous couhaitez ur. autre emplacement -dans un autre q u a r t i e r (1) -dans un centre t r t i s a n a l (2) -dans un demaine i n d u s t r i e l (3) -dans un endroit plus c e n t r a l (4) -cn m i l i e u r u r a l ou aemi-urbaln(5) -ne souhaite r i e n (6) A2406 L / C240 IL—I 25- De combien de p r o p r i e t a i r e s ou d'associes depend votre e n t r e p r i s e (enquete i n c l u s ) A250 SZ / 26a. Combien de personnes t r a v a i l l e n t dans 1'entreprise (enquete + associe(s) exclus) A260 9/ / / 26b. S ' i l y a l i e u , combien d'associes t r a v a i l l e n t aussi dans 1'entreprise B260 1 1 / / 27. Combien de membres de l a f a m i l l e , t r a v a i l l a n t dans 1'entreprise , habitent avec vous A270-'-^ I 28. S i vous avez des apprentis, est-ce que par hasard ceuje-ci vous paient quelque chose. S i o u i , n o o n quel est l e montant t o t a l que vous recever. A 2 8 0 par mois d'eux tous 13/ / / / / / UM 29a. Recevez-vous frequemment des demandes pour un apprentissage au cein de votre entreprise (oui=l; non=2) A2901 6^ / 29b.-Combien d'apprentis pourriez-vous prendre, sans augmenter votre Oquipement, en plus de ceux que vous avez deja,3i vous receviez une prime en argent pour chacun d'eux 'R7QQ17/ / / -Quel devrait etre l e montant minimum de c e t t e _ _ _ _ prime par apprenti supplementaire et BZ91 par semaine 19/ / I f f /UM 29c. Combien d'apprentis formes par vous sont devenus des t r a v a i l l e u r s q u a l i f i e s depuis l e domarrage de 1'entreprise - dans votre e n t r e p r i s e C290 22/ / / - dans une autre entreprise comme l a votrelC291 24/ / / - dans une grande entr e p r i s e ou pour l e Gouvernement C292 26/ / / (BlaiLC-S.0./8=N.S.P./9=N.R.P.) ;">1. Combien d';<pprontlu forraon par vouo ont mi3 sur pied une p e t i t e entreprise comme l a votre 2 9 e . Combien de t r a v a l l l e u r s , q u a l i f i e s ou non, (ex-apprentls exclus) ont quitto vntre entre-prise depuis son de'marrage 3 0 a . Recevez-vous frequemment deo demandes d'emploi en provenance ile ^ornonnel q u a l l f i ^ seulement de personnel autre qu'apprentl non q u a l i f i e seulement de personnel nortant d'une ecole technique 30b. Avez-voun d f j a enga^6 du personnel Bortant d'une ecole technique 30c, Jugez-vouc: l a formation de cc personnel adapter? .in trii»t.ji reVl ct aux besoins do votre entre-p r i je 3 0 d . I,'rntropreneur ne recoi t jama! 3 de i.'emandes (.-.j c'l-st !<• car, cod.-.-r 1) 31a.Combien do mo la far an voire entreprl3e t r a v a i l l e - t - e l l e . 31b.Aosurez-voua l a responsabilite' de geut.ior. de votre entrepri3e en permanence (oui = 1; non = 2 ) . Si OUI, passez a l a question 3 2 a . 31c.- SI NON, nombre de mois 'le ,»<>;jtion e f f e c t i v e " accomplie par voun-nvlme. - qui vous remplace aloro durant votre absence . aanocie' (1) . ouvrier p r i n c i p a l ( 2 ) . fai.'.ille (pern,etc.)(?) . ami (4) 20/ / / D 2 9 0 30/ / / E 2 9 0 oui/non 1 2 3 ? / _ / A 3 0 1 33Z_/A302 3 4 / _ / A 3 0 3 35Z_ /B300 }6Z_JC 300 37A_*300 3.y' / / A 3 1 0 4 U L _ / B 3 1 0 „ / / / C 3 1 0 " 3 Z _ / C 3 1 1 3 2 a . - Quel est l e temp3 t o t a l de t r a v a i l que y^ua consacrez a votre a c t i v i t y i c i . . . . . , , , , / (heureo/semalne) AjdV 44/ i i—/ - temps total conaacre par votre ou vos assocl^a t r a v a l l l a n t effectivemont dans 1'entreprise ' (heures/semaine) A 3 2 1 Ml I I I 32b.Total d'heures/semaine consaor^es par vous et  eVontuellement vos assocl^g aux a c t i v i t c s de : - recherche de matifere premiere, pieces de___-. re change, materiaujr. "Jt-y 50 I I I } - recyclage ou recuperation B 3 2 1 53 / / / / - production ( f a b r i c a t i o n , reparations ou construction nuivant type d ' a c t i v i t e - n i o o p r i n c i p a l e ) B 3 2 2 56 I I I I -B323 5 9 / / / / - vente de produit 59 I I I I _^ - formation des apprentis B 3 2 4 62 I I I I ^ - comptahllite B 3 2 5 65 I I / / - recherche de marches, commandes et , aoun-traitances, etc. B 3 2 6 68 I I I / - organisation des t3ches, s u r v e i l l a n c e _ B 3 2 7 71 / / / / ( i ' a d d i t i o n deo rubriques sous b. doit, ccrrespor.dre au t o t a l des 2 re'ponses de l a question 32a.) 33- Comment trouvez-vous surtout votre c l i e n t e l e - eherch" lul-meme sen c l i e n t s (1) - attend l e s c l i e n t s chez l u i ( 2 ) - essaie de f a i r e de l a p u b l i c i t y par l a f a m i l l e , l e s amis ( 3 ) | - f a i t de l a p u b l i c i t e dane le Journal (4) A 3 3 0 - l e client, f a i t ma p u b l i c i t e (6) 74/ / 1/0/3/ / / A 1/0/6/ / / / ' / " / V / / / /j 1/0/8/ / / / 341 Type d 'enga-gement {No Lev 1) l 2 24/£_/ 3 42/C_/ 4 60/D/ 5 6/E/ 6 24/F/ 7 42/G_/ 8 60/H/ 9 6/1./ 10 24/J / 11 42/K_/ 12 60/L / 13 6/_My 14 24/N / 15 4?/0_/ 16 60/P_/ 34. R e p a r t i t i o n de J i 2 m l a main-d'oeuvre de 344 1 1 entreprise et c a r a c t e r i s t i q u e s diverses 341?- ir3^b-^242 ique a — - ^ q Nombre S a l a i r e par d'heures de ncmainc normale t r a v a i l par ('OOUM) ncmainc nurmale t m m m m m Pour une semaine: estimation valour paiement nature (nourriture, loiip. ments. etc.'OOlfrl) Niveau Membre Nombre education de l a C r i t e r e d'annees formation f a m i l l e embauche dans flji'leT] Oui- 1 (note 'j) 1'entreprise 34 V I I 9/ / / f—h 25/ / / 27/ / / l—l-43/ / / 45/ / / /—h 61/ / / 63/ / / /-/-V / / <)! I I h—h 25/ / / 27/ / / / - y -43/ / / 45/ / / A - H  6 V / / 63/ / / A H -7/ / / 'V / / A - V -25/ / / 21l_LJ—tdb <V / / 45/ / / A - A ; ^1 / / / 63/ / / /—/-7/ / / 9/ / / 25/ / / 27/ / / A - H -43/ / / 45/ / / / — 6 l / _ _ i _ / (.3/ / / A - A -V 1 2 / / / — A - / y 3 0 / / W ^ wl_L_L-d=d J 66/ / / / / j 30/ / A - T W y 48/ / A - A - V V 66/ / A - / — / i / 12/ / A H H i 30/ / /—V—/ V 48/ / / / / 1/ 66/ / H W -/ 12/ / H H V 30/ / / — / — / "-/ 40/ / A H H y 66/ / A - T W Ilon=2 14^_/ i 5 / _ y 1 6/_/ 32/_/ 3 3 ^ / 3 4 Z _ / 50/ / 5 l / _ / 52/_/ 6 8 / _ / 69/_/ 70/_/ 14/_/ 15/_/ 3 6/ / 32/_/ 33/_/ 34/_/ 50/_/ 5 1 / _ / 52/ / 68/ / 69/_/ 7Q/_/ 14/_/ 15/_/ 16Z_/ 32/_/ 33 /L_ / 34/_/ 50/_/ 51/_/ 5 2 ^ / 6B/_/ 69/_/ 7(£_/ 14/ / 1 5 Z _ / 1 6 / _ / 32/_/ 3 3 / _ / 34/ / 50/_/ 5 1 / _ / 52/_/ 68/_/ 6 9 Z _ / 70^_/ 17/ / / 35/ / / 53/ / / 71/ / / 17/ / / 35/ / / 53/ / / 71/ / / 17/ / / 35/ / / 53/ / / 71/ / / 17/ / / 35/ / / 53/ / / 71/ / / Age du t r a v a l l -l c u r 19/ / / 37/ / / 55/ / / 73/ / / 19/ / / 37/ / / 55/ / / 73/ / / 19/ / / 37/ / / 55/ / / 73/ / / 1'V / / 37/ / / 55/ / / 73/ / / Sexe Manc.--1 Nombre Fern. = 2 personnen| a charge 21/ /22/ / / 39Z_/ 40/ / / 57/ / 58/ / / 75 / /76/ / / 21/__/ 22/ / / 39/ / 40/ / / 57 / _ / 58/ / / 7 5 / _ / 76/ / / 2 1 / — / / / 39/ / 40/ / / 57 / / 58/ / / 7 5 / _ / 76/ / / 2 1 / _ / 22/ / / 39/__/ 40/ / / 57/_/ 50/ / / 75 A_/ 76/ / / (1) Apprenti (1) Aide f a m i l i a l (2) Jo u r n n l i o r (3) Ouvrier q u a l i f i e (4) Ouvrier non qualifie'(5) Employe (6) Compagnon (7) ( o ' i l r e g o i t un s a l a i r e , ninon l e considerer comme un assocle - v o i r questions 39d-39e) (2) Sans i n s t r u c t i o n et nans apprentissage Apprentissage seulement Alphabetic; ou e'c. primaire/ post-prjmaire seulement Prim/pont-prim.+ apprent. . Prim/por,t-prim.+ centre formation professionnelle Second, general seulement Second.technique seulement Second. + apprentissage Second. + centre form. prof. Ne repond pas/ne s a l t pas iS! HI (4 6) 7) 8) 9) Famille Amis Type formation Experience F i a b i l i t e Be3oin urgent main-d'oeuvre Sur o f f r e de t r a v a i l , sans plus (7) 34. R e p a r t i t i o n de l a main-d-oeuvre de 1'entreprise et c a r a c t e r i s t i q u e s diverses 1 •i/O/9/ / / /, 1/1/0/ / / i / w / / /. 1/1/2/ / / /j 24L 17. 18' 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 20 29 30 31 32 .212- .214. ^ 5 346 347 Type d '(!n;;a-perr.ent No to- 1) 24/R/ 42/_s/ 60/T/ 6/U/ 24/V_/ 42/W/ 60/X/ 6£L/ 24 /2 . / <12/_/ S0/__/ 6A_/ 2 4 / _ / 42/ / © / _ / I-ombre d'heurco de t r a v a i l par semaine nonnalc 7/ / / 25/ / / 43/ / / 6V / / 7/ / / 25/ / / 43/ / / 6 1 / _ i _ / 7/ / / 25/ / / 43/ / / 61/ / / 7/ / / 25/ / / 43/ / / 61/ / _/ Sal. i i r o par nciiiulnc normal o ( 'OOUfi) Pour une ."."inajno:. e:i U.in.il.1 " i i va I (Mix-pnioiont l u i l i i r " ( n ourri ture, le^e-:ibi 349 Niveau Membre Nonbre education do l a |C r i t o r e d'anndca Age du formation fanlllf1exbauche dana t r a v a i l -(Note2l 'Oui=l (note 3) 1'entreprise l e u r Non-2 Sexe Masc.-l Nombre Fern.=2 persenner a charge 0/ / / f—b=t 21/ I I 1—1—1 45/ / / h—h—l 63/ / / (—t=/ 9/ / / h-h—l 27/ / / 45/ I I / / / 63/ / / / — / — / 9/ / / I—I—I 27/ / / f—r—l 45/ I I I I i 63/ / / / — r W 9/ / / H - V 21 l_J_J_J==h=/ 45/ / / A-A-V 63/ / / / / / 12/ / 30/ / / — / — / 48/ / /—7—/, 66/ / / — / — / 12/ /• 30/ / / — r — / 48/ / / - A - / 66/ / /—V—/ 12/ / / - ^ 30/ / H W 46/ / / — A - / 66/ / / — H 12/ / / - / - / 30/ / A ^ - / 48/ / A - A - / 66/ / W 14/_/ 1 5 / _ / 1 6 / _ / 3 2 / _ / 33/_/ 34/_/ 50/_/ 5 l / _ / 52/_/ 6 0 / _ / 69/_/ 70/ / 14 / _ / 15/_/ ^ 6 / _ / 32/_7 ?3/_/ 34/_/ 50/_^ 51/_/ 52/_/ 68/ / 69/_/ 7CL_/ 14/_/ 1 5 / _ / 1 6 / _ / 32/_/ 33/_/ 34/_/ 50/_/ 5 1 / _ / 52/_/ 6 3 / _ / 6 9 / _ / 70/ / 14/_/ 15/_/ 1 6 / _ / 32/_/ 33/_/ 34/ / 50/_/ 51Z_/ 52/_/ 6 8 / _ / 6 9 / _ / 70/_/ 17/ / / 35/ / / 53/ / / 71/ / / 17/ / / 35/ / / 53/ / / 71/ / / 17/ / / 35/ / / 53/ / / 71/ / / 17/ / / 35/ / / 53/ / / 71/ / / 19/ / / 37' / / 55/ / / 73/ / / 19/ / / 37/ / / 55/ / / 73/ / / 19/ / / 37/ / / 55/ / / 73/ / / 19/ / / 37/ / / 55/ / / 73/ / / 2\[_/22i /_ 39/_/ 40/ / / 57/_/5S/ / / 75/_/T6/ / / 2 1 / _ / 22/ / / 39/_/ 40/ / / 57 / _ / 58/ / / 7 5 / _ / 76/ / / 21/__/ ^ 2/ / / 39/_/ 40/ / / 57Z_7 58/ / 75 Z_7 76/ / / 21/ / 22/ / / 3 9 / _ / 40/ / / 57 / _ / 58/ / 7 5 / / " • • / / / Anprenti ( l ) Aide l ' a r . i l i a l (2) J o u r n . i l i c r 13) Ouvrier q u a l i f i e (4) Ouvrier non q u a l i f l e ( 5 ) Employe (6) Compagnon- (7) ( s ' l l r e g o i t un s a l a i r e , sinon l e considerer comme un associe - v o i r questions 39d-39e) Sans i n s t r u c t i o n et sans •ipprenticcagc Approntinsa,;e seulement Alphabetise ou e'c. primaire/ post-prjmalre seulccicnt Prim/post-prim.+ apprent. rrir:/post-pr.in.+ centre formation p r o f e s s i o n n e l l e Second, general seulement Second.technique seulement Second. + apprentissage Second. + centre form. prof. Ne repond pas/ne s a l t pas 111 (4) (6) (7) (8) (9) (3) F a m i l l e Amis Type formation Experience F i a b i l i t ^ Besoin urgent main-d'oeuvre Sur o f f r e de t r a v a i l , sans plus (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) -p-CALCUL DE LA VALEUR DE L'EQUIPEMENT LOURD + LES VEHICULES Des c r i p t i o n de chaque p i c e d'equtpemcnt 1curd/vohiculc(n) Nombre d'uni-tes P r i x a c t u e l d'achat a ncuf Valeur de revente a c t u e l l e Nombre annees fonctionnemenl Achete' neuf ou occasion [voir qi (.''<>) Origine equipe-ment (v o i r 1) P r i n c i p a l e source de financement de 1'achat ( v o i r 2) TOTA L . (on moyenne) EQUlPEMEtIT 1 1 1 VEHICULES 1. ORIGINE : (equipement et v g h i c u l e l s ) ;rsonnelle achete a un autre p e t i t 1) f a b r i c a t i o n pei~  2) ' " entrepreneur ':>) achete dans une grande entreprise SOURCE DE FINANCEMENT 1) £pargne/gains untreprir.e '.') aide grande famUle (prets/doin) "')) heritage 4) emprunt h uri p e t i t prot.eur prof c.'-sionnel 5) emprunt :. une banque ou caisr.e d'epargne d'Etat aidn gouvernoment ou " j v a i i . d 'aide 7) emprunt a ansor. entraido nu roopt'rat i v i ' (0) CALCUL DES MATIERES PREMIERES OU MATER I AUX OU PIECES DE RECHAUC.5 UTILISES TOUR U!!E SEMAJ.IIE NORMA LE Norn matiere, mate-riaux ou piece Unite m r 3 u r e s i appl. P r i x moyen estime par uni te Origine-: recycle Or:.,;inn : S.II.5. Origine: S . M. Total o n U M Hemarqucn Quantiti' ou /10c Q u a i i tit''- uu /10-: Quantiti* o u /10e 1 V A L E U R T O T A J i K (MM) X X o (Blanc=S.0./8=N.S.P./9=N.R.P.) 1/1/3/3/ / / / 35. (on remplit S i 1'entreprlse a plus de 32 personnes a l o r s l a question 34 pour l a main-d'oeuvre l a plus c a r a c t e r i s t i q u e ) ou s i l'enque'te' refuse de repondre au tableau prdc(?dent , on appelle l e responsable de 1 1 enquete Nombre Total des palements  en especes et en nature 6/ / / 8/ / / / h-4-13/ / /15/ / / / Niveau moyen  education/ formation ( v o i r codagc page preced. /UM 12/ / /UM 19/ / 20/ / /22/ I I I / / /UM 26/_/ / /29/ / / / A - ^ - V U M 33/_/ - apprentis - aides f a m i l i a u x - J o u r n a l i e r s - ouvriers q u a l i f i e s 2 7 / - ouvriers non qual. 34/ - employes - compagnons 48/ / /50/ / / / / / /UM 54/ / - temps hebdomadaire moyen de t r a v a i l par personne 55/ (_ I I I A - f W U M 4o/_y 41/ / /43/ I I I / / /UM 47/_/   / / / A -1-3 O M W W 36. C a l c u l de l a valeur de 1'entreprise Combien pourriez-vous maintenant revendre - vos o u t i l s (marteau, pince, etc.) votre p e t i t m a t e r i e l et votre m o b i l i e r de t r a v a i l VALEUR A36 0 57/ / / / / A - A V U M - votre equipement lourd (remplir tableau ci-contre) Origine P r i n c i p a l e Mode p r i n c i - source f i - d'achat  ale nancement (neuf-1 v o i r ci-contre occas,-2) notes 1 et 2) i I I 62/ 7 63/ / 64/ / B%t C360 D360 A361 65/ / / / / / / /UM - votre stock dc matieres premieres A362 7 V / / / / / / /UM , - votre stock de produit.s f i n i d ou valeur des constructions en cours 70/ / 71/ / 7 2 / _ / — B 3 6 1 C 3 6 1 D 3 6 1 YaiA/y I I I A363 6/ / / / / A- UM vehlcule(s) (remplir tableau c i - c o n t r f j A364 IV ( I I I 16/_/ B364 17/_/ 1 8 / _ / C364 D364 37. 38a. 38b. 30o. Quelles matieres premieres, pieces de rechange ou materiaux u t i l i s e z - v o u s durant une semaine normale (remplir tableau ci-contre) Recycle 19 I I I SNS 221 I I I r—r—l SM 26/ / I I I—f—/ TOTAL 30/ / / / / / / B370 C370 p370 U370 Quel est l e montant t o t a l que vous avez u t i l i s e pour l e s memes matieres, pieces et materiaux durant : A 3 8 0 34/ / / / A - A - ^ U M 1381 I I I / — A - Y U M -/UM - l a semaine dernibre - une bonne semaine, en moyenne - une mauvaise semaine, en moyenne ? 42/ I I I / / Quel est l e montant que vous devez aussi payer durant une peri ode d'un mois pour 1'elec t r i c i te B380 durant une periode d'un mois pour l'eau 49/ 46/ / / /—t J=t VUM -/UM / / / - durant une semaine normale pour les " JOi. autres f r a i s de fonctionnement(transport materiaux, e t c . ) , l e s services que vous achetez comme l a reparation du ma t e r i e l , l a l o c a t i o n d'equipement, l e s services d'un tacheron (exclus l o c a t i o n a t e l i e r ) 52/ / / / / / / . . B382 UM Comment payez-vous generalement l e s matieres premieres, pieces.etc. que vous u t i l i s e z - avec votre argent (1) - avance recue du c l i e n t au moment de l a commande (2) - a c r e d i t , du vendeur (3) - grace h un pret d'un ami ou d'un parent (4) - grace a un emprunt pres d'un p e t i t preteur (5) - emprunt h l a banque (6) - aide d'une a s s o c i a t i o n d'entraide ou d'une . cooperative (7) C380 56/ / 39b. Combien recevez-vous comme palements pour l e s produits, s e r v i c e s , reparations ou constructions que vous f a i t e s et vendez h vos c l i e n t s durant une semaine normale (ce montant d o i t c o u v r i r l e p r i x de r e v i e n t , c a l c u l i au verso + l e benefice de 1 entrepreneur) UM 57/ / / / / M-i B390 C a l c u l approximatif du p r i x de revlent (semaine normale) (A remplir par l'enqueteur pour v e r i f i e r l a f i a b l l i t e de l a reponse de l'enquete h l a question 39b ) C o " t s loyer (qu. 22b) 4 Remunerations — — - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , (qu. 34) matiere premlorco etc. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (qu. 37) E l e c t r i c i t y ( q u > , 8 b ) 4 Eau -—-___________ ( l u " - 5 8 b) 4 Autres f r a i s (qu. 38b) __ Sous t o t a l _______________ auxquels i l faut eventuellement ajouter, apres avoir rempli l e s questions 44d. 53a. et 64b. l e s remboursement d'emprunte - a un preteur professionnel _____________ (qu. 44d) - a une banque q u - , ? - 5 a (qu. 53a) 4 " imputa (qu. 64b) 52 TOTAL (Blanc=S.0./8=N.S.P./9=N.R.P.) 39c. Comment ae r ^ p a r t i t ce montant entre voa c l i e n t s (reponse en dixiemea; 10/10=0; NSP-NRP ne peuvent paa etre u t i l i s e s ; l e t o t a l d o l t etre 10) - p e t i t s a r t i s a n s comme vous 62/ / C391 - p e t i t s commercanta 53/ / C392 - fonctionnaires du Gouvernement ou personnel 64/ / C396 des grandes entreprises - autres p a r t i c u l i e r s ( l e s gagne-petit) 65/ / C390 - intermediaires t r a v a i l l a n t avec l e a grandes 66/ / C393 entrepriaea - commande8 dea grands magasins ou grandes 67/ / C394 entrepriaea - commandes du Gouvernement (service o f f i c i e l 68/ / C 3 9 5 de 1'Etat) 39d. Nombre d'associes qui partagent l e s benefices 69/ / /D^OO avec vous 39e. Pourcentage des benefices qu'ils regoivent (%) 71/ / 40a. Montant des vontes ou paiements regus durant l a scmalne dcrnierc A 4 Q Q 7 V / / / / / / / I J H 40b. E t a i t - c e une semaine: - normale (1) - bonne (2) - mauvaise (3) -» 73/ / B400 1/1/5/3/ / / / 41a. Vos vcntes r.ont-cllcs re;:uli?!rca durant toute l'annee 6 / _ / A410 •- oui (1) (passes h 42) - non (2) 41b. Montant des ventes ou paiements regus, en moyenne, pour une bonne aemaine de l'annee ecoulee B410 i i I I I I / — / — / u m 41c. Montant des ventes ou paiements re?us, on moyenne, pour une mauvalsq. oomaine do l'annee ccoulee C 4 1 0 1 2 / / / / / / / /UM 41d. Quelle eat l a proportion de semaines sur l'annee qui sont - normales 17/ / D410 - bonnes 18/__/ D411 - mauvaise a 19/ / E412 (rgponses en dixiemes;10/10e=O; NSP-NRP ne peuvent pas etre u t i l i n 6 o ; l e t o t a l doit etre egal a 10^ 42. 44a 44b. Est-ce que vous t r a v a i l l e z surtout - sur commande (1) ou - pour conatltuer un stock (2) Pour auivre voa a f f a l r e o avez-vous - un cahier de commandea - un cahier de factures - un cahier de depenses et re c e t t e s - un compte b a n c a i r e / l i v r e t d'^pargne - UTE comptabilite plus developpee - une personne qui s'occupe de ces problemes 20/__/A420 oui/non 1 1 2 2iZ_7A430 22__/A431 23/_/A432 24/_/A433 25/_/A434 26/_/A435 Comment decidez-vous du p r i x de vos ventes ou de vos services (L'enqueteur n'enonce pas les rubrlques suivantes. On enregistre 5 en reponso3 qui correspondent a ces rubriques dans les canon ailequatcn cn i n n c r i v a n t l e c h i f f r e 1) - marchandage (aucune notion de couts de productioij)27/__/A440 28/_/A441 - appreciation personnelle d'un p r i x qui s o i t acceptable par l e c l i e n t par discussion avec d'autre s ar t i sans (compa-raiaon avec l e s p r i x du secteur non s t r u c t u r e ) 29/ /A442 par comparai3on avec l e a p r i x du secteur modane 30/ /A443 par calcul nrjx de revlent/vente. S i o u i , comment calculez-vuun l e p r i x de vente (he pas enumerer l e a rubrique3 ci-des30us). S i non, £assez_?i_44b. 31/ /A444 T cout de l a main-d'oeuvre I 32/l_/B444 . co3t de l a matiere premiere 33/ /C444 . f r a i s generaux 34/ /D444 . amortissement de l'equipement 35/ /E444 . marge b e n e f i c i a i r e I 36/_/F444 Devez-vous p a r f o l a vendre a perte pour obtenir un peu d'argent (souvent-1; rarement=2; j a n w l f 44c. Montant du dernier emprunt rembourse ou non de l'entas-j p r i s e f a i t a un p e t i t preteur profesaionnel 38_ ;) 37/ /A445 ^ 4 4 5 U M / / / A - ^ W 44d. Montant du remboursement par 8emaine 44e. Nombre de aemaines prevues pour l e remboursement H A A M g / / / / — / — / D445 45/ / / (Blanc-S.0./8=N.S.P./9=N.R.P.) 45- En temps o r d i n a i r e , distinguez-vous l'argent neccsnalrc au fonctionnement de 1'entreprise de 1'argent nocessaire pour f a i r e v i v r e votre f a m i l l e (oui ---- 1; non = 2) 47/ /A450 46. Lorsque vous avez f a i t une bonne a f f a i r e , que faites-vous avec cet argent, l e plus souvent: - achat de matiere premiere (1) - achat d'oquipement (2) - epargnc pour l e a moments d i f f i c i l c s (entrcprise)(3) - prc"t a i n t e r e t h quelqu'un (4) - inveatiaaement dana une autre entreprise (5) - conaommation courante du menage (6) - epargne ou achats exceptionnels pour l a fa m i l l e ( 7 ) 48/ /A460 47a. Avez-vous decide, dans l e s prochaina mols de proceder h un inveatiaaement pour augmenter l a production (oui = 1; non = 2) 49/ /A465 • S i o u i , lequel (ne pas c l t e r l e a rubrlques Bulvantes; e n r e g i s t r e r l e s reponses adequates en i n s c r i v a n t 1 dans l a case correspondante) - acheter de l'equipement 50/ /A470 - acheter un moyen de transport 51/ /A471 - agrandir 1 ' a t e l i e r , c o n s t r u i r c un batiment, etc. 52/ /A472 S'j] y a l i e u , quel ncra l e cout t o t a l de cc3 investi3acment3 A47'*$53/ / / / / / / /UN • Dans l e s prochains mois, avez-vous decide aussi (oui= 1; non= 2). Citez l e s 2 riibriques suivantes : - d'engager don trava i l l e u r s 58/ /A474 - de sulvre des cours de formation professionnelle 59/__/A475 47b. S ' i l y a l i e u , comment financerez-vous surtout le3 depen3e3 pour vos nouveaux inventisnements. Avec: - von e'pargnos ou le3 gains entreorine (1) - l ' a i d e de votre f a m i l l e ,dons ou prctn (2) - un emprunt a un p e t i t pretcur professionnel (3) - un emprunt a une banque ou une caiaae d'epargne de l'Et a t ( 4 ) - l ' a i d e d'un service de 1'Etat ou d'un organisme d'entraide(5) - un emprunt a une association d'entraide ou cooperative privee (6) 60/_/B470 40a. Souhalteriez-vous une plus grande aide des banques et de3 a u t o r i t e n (1) ou au contralre pensez-voua que l e Gouvernement d o i t vou8 l a l s s e r f a i r e aana trop i n t e r v e n i r danB vos a f f a i r e s (2) 61/ / (8i code=2, passer a question 49) A480 48b. S i voua souhaltez une plug grande aide des banques et des~autorites, dans l e q u e l des domaines suivants e s t - i l l e plus important d'gtre aide pour l'obtention d'un pret ou de f a c i l i t e s pour: (enumerez l e s rubrlques suivantes) - achat de matieres premieres ou pieces de rechange ou materiaux (1) - achat materiel d'oquipement, machines ( 2 ) - achat t e r r a i n (3) - construction ou agrandissement a t e l i e r (4) - autre, 3 p e c i f i e z (5) 62/ / 49. Avez-vous .jamais easaye d'obtenir un pret d'une B480 banque ou d'un service de 1'Etat (oui = 1 ; non = 2) l A 4 9 0 6 ^ 1 — (tion) : Passez h l a question 50 (oui) : Le pret a - t - i l ete obtenu (oui-1; non=fr 6 ^ f •Oui : Posez questions 52, 53 .Hon : Posez question 51 50. Vous n'avez pas essaye parce que vous estimiez que - l a procedure est d i f f i c i l e (1) - 1'entreprise est trop p e t i t e (2) - Ic3 garanties que vous pouviez o f f r i r e taient in3uffisantes (3) - i l e t a i t impossible de s a t i s f a i r e l e n conditions de pret requises (4) - c ' e t a i t i n u t i l e d'essayer parce que ce que vous f a i t e s n'interesse pas l e s a u t o r i t e c (5) - V0U3 n'aviez pas besoin de cet argent (6) 6 5 / _ / A500 p?assez a l a question 54| 51. Vous avez easaye d'obtenir un pret mais sana succes, ent-ce a cause de: - Procedure d i f f i c i l e (1) - Entrepri3e trop p e t i t e (?) - Manque de garanties a o f f r i r (3) - I m p o s s i b i l i t e B a t l s f a i r e conditions de pret requisea (4) I • A510 6 6^- /4 52. Quel e3t l e montant du pret obtenu 67/ / / / / / / /UM A520 (Blanc=S.0./8=N.S.P./9=N.R.P.) 5 3 a . 1/1/6/3/ / / / 5 3 b . 5 3 c 5 3 d . Montant par mole du remboursement Dur6e prfivue pour l e remboursement (en mois) Taux d ' i n t ^ r f i t demand^ (,//// h—rWUM A530 10/ / / / B530 13/ / / C530 l e oas ^ che'ant, combien de mois r e s t e - t - i l T>cTn encore pour terminer l e remboursement 1 5J / / Dp30 54a. 54b. 55. QuelB sont l e s problemes qui paraissent g?ner l e plus l e fonctionnement et l e developpement de votre entrqrise (l'enqueteur ne c i t e pas l e s rubriques suivantes et c h o i s i t s i possible l e s deux reponse3 qui l e u r correspondent l e mieux) - d i f f l c u l t e de trouver 1'equipement e t l e s o u t i l s (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) - cout de 1'equipement et des o u t i l s - d i f f l c u l t e d'approvisionnenent en matieres premibres ou en pieces detachees - cout des matieres premieres et des pieces de rechange - d i f f i c u l t e s de vente: trop peu de c l i e n t s , trop peu de commandes - i n s t a b i l i t e du volume de3 ventes et des commandes - manque de fonds - manque de main-d'oeuvre q u a l i f i e e - coutt! c x c c s s i f s de l a main-d'oeuvre - manque de formation professionnolle - manque d ' i n s t r u c t i o n de base - i n s e c u r i t c de 1'entreprise face aux l o i s et reglements a d m i n i s t r a t i f s (7) (8) (9) (10) ( I D (12) (13) - concurrence trop grande du meme type d'entre p r i s e - concurrence excessive du secteur moderne (14) - d i f f i c u l t ' * d 'obtonti.on d'un t e r r a i n A540 („, A541 17/ / / 19 / / / Pour l e s deux problbmes majeurs qui vous genent, profercrinz-vous recevoir - une aide pcraonncllc (1) - une aide apportee a une cooperative dont vous f e r i e z p a r t i e (2) Ces problomc3 s o n t - i l s assez g'nants pour que vous d o o i r i e z changer d'emploi (oui- 1; non= 2) ?1/_/B540 ?2/_/A550 SI QUI, quel jenre d'emploi rechercheriez-vous: - employe1 dans une grande entreprise ou dans 1'administration (1) - ouvrier (2) - p e t i t entrepreneur dans un secteur d i f f e r e n t du votre ( 3 ) - commercant ou transporteur (4) a g r i c u l t u r e ^•')A55!1?' [_ / 56a. Etco-vous membre d'une a s s o c i a t i o n p r o f c s s l o n n e l l e ou d'une a s s o c i a t i o n d'entraide comme:(oul»1;non=2) - Chambre de Commerce A56024 / / - a s s o c i a t i o n d'entraide p r i v f e : s p d c l f i e z A563.25 L / - autre a s s o c i a t i o n : s p e c i f i e s A 56226 / / 56b. Etes-vous organise - en pre-cooperative (1) - en cooperative (2) - n°n (3) B5 6 027 / _ / 57. Lorsque vous avez des problemes avec votre e n t r e p r i s e , a qui demandez-vous de l'aide en premier l i e u : - a un autre p e t i t entrepreneur (1) - un parent ou un ami (2) _^  - Chambre de Commerce (3) yj^ - autre association (case 26) (4) Vjl - une as s o c i a t i o n d'entraide (5) - autre - personne 50a. S i vous n'etes pas encore membre d'une association d'entraide, seriez-vous p r M h p a r t i c i p e r a l a creation d'une t e l l o organisation (oui--l; non= 2.) 29/ / A580 59a. Avez-vous d'autres sources do revenue; ou de moyens d'existence que ceux procures par votre p e t i t e entreprise : (2 choix) - l o c a t i o n d'une maison (1) - t e r r a i n ou champ k l a campapie (2) - t a x i ou camion (3) - troupeau (4) - p a r t i c i p a t i o n f i n a n c i e r e a 'one a c t i -v i t e autre que l a votre (commerce, (5) . a t e l i e r , etc.) ' - ou v r i e r dans l e secteur moderne (6) - a ^ r e (7) 4590 A 5 g i - r i e n (blanc) (Passez h l a question 60) 30/ / 31/ / 59b. S i o u i , combien c e l a vous r a p p o r t e - t - i l en moyenne par semaine (entimez, o i c'est en nature) 32 / / / / / /UM B590 (5  (6) A 5 7 0 2 8 / _ / (nianc-S.0./fV-N.S.P./9^H.R.P.) 59c. Combien d'heures par semaine passez-vous a mener cette autre a c t i v i t e 60. Combien y - a - t - i l de personnes qui habitent chez vous et dont vous avez l a charge 61a. Combien- parmi ceB personnes t r a v a i l l e n t en dehors de votre entreprise 61b. Combien c e l l e s - c i vous apportent-ejjen d'argent par semaine B610 62. Combien depcnsez-vous en moyenne par semaine a) pour votre f a m i l l e et vous-meme ( l o y e r , n o u r r i t u r e , vetements, sante, d i v e r s menage, transport, education des enfants) A620 44/ / b) et pour l ' a i d e h l a f a m i l l e qui n'habite pas avec vous B620 47/ / 63. Etes-vous enregiatre auprcs des organi3mcs suivants: - FOGAPE (Fonds garantie PME/credit) - CAPME (Centre assistance p e t i t e et moyerne entrep r i s e ) - AFCA ( A s s o c i a t i o n de formation des cadres) - SATEC (Soci6te d'assistance technique) - Chamgie de Commerce - M u n i c i p a l i t y (obtention d'un t e r r a i n domanial) - Service de l'Urbanieme (Permis de construire) - Tribunal de 1ere instance (No de r e g i s t r e de commerce) - Caisse nationale de preVoyance soc i a l e - D i r e c t i o n dea imp8ts - D i r e c t i o n S t a t i B t i q u e (Min. Econ. Plan) - D i r e c t i o n de l a Main-d'Oeuvre (Min. T r a v a i l ) •»/ / /C590 37/ / /A60Q 39/ / /A610 41 / / / A-A-VUM / / / /UM / / / /UM oui/non 1 2 50__/A630 5i__/A631 52__/A632 53/_/A633 54__/A634 55__/A635 56__/A636 57/_/A637 58__/A638 59/_/A639 60/ /A63A 61//A63B 64a. Quels impSts et taxes payez-vous normalement : oui/non (ne pas £nuim§rer l e a rubrlques suivantes) 1 2 - l a patente A640 62/ / - l'impot sur l e c h i f f r e d ' a f f a i r e s A64F 63/ / - l e BIC (benefices l n d u s t r l e l s et commerciaux)l 64/ / - l a surtaxe progressive eur l e s revenus A645 65/ / - l e d r o i t de timbre A64G 66/ / - l a taxe d'apprentissage A64H 67/ / - l e s c o t i s a t i o n s caisse de pr^voyance s o c i a l e D 68/ / 64b. Montant t o t a l pay£ 1'annee derniere : B640 69/ / / / / / / /UM POUR LES ENTREPRENEURS NON ORIGINAIRES DE YAOUNDE : oui/non 1 2 1. Pour quelles raisons §tes-vous venu a Yaounde : - pour vos Etudes A650 74/__/ - pour trouver un emploi A65175/ / - parce que vous y aviez de l a f a m i l l e A652 76/ / - parce que vous comptiez a v o i r plus de c l i e n t s pourTOtre entreprise A6 5 3 77/ / - parce q u ' i l est plus f a c i l e d'y trouver l'equipement et l a matiere premiere A654 78/__/ - parce que l a v i e est plus agreable A655 79/ / 2. Seriez-vous eventuellement i n t e r e s s e de retourner dans un centre secondaire - pour y ddvelopper votre en t r e p r i s e avec l' a i d e du gouvernement (1) - pour y t r a v a i l l e r dans une entreprise moderne (2) - pour y f a i r e de 1'agriculture avec l ' a i d e du gouvernement ( (3) - oui, d'une maniere generale ' non \\] so/ / A650 

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