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The basic needs approach to development : a case study of rural water supply in Kenya Bowler, Stephen James 1987

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THE BASIC NEEDS APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF RURAL WATER SUPPLY I N KENYA By S t e p h e n James B o w l e r B.A., S p r i n g A r b o r C o l l e g e , 1983 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA O c t o b e r 1987 ©Stephen James B o w l e r , 1987 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f CQMW^ TV Am> KWCS-A^  lhk*)iDoL The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1956 M a i n M a l l V a n c o u v e r , C anada V6T 1Y3 D a t e Qr^U % A?? i i ABSTRACT The meeting of the b a s i c needs of people, p a r t i c u l a r l y the poor, has come to be an important focus of r u r a l development e f f o r t s i n the T h i r d World. T h i s i s l a r g e l y due to the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the b e n e f i t s of p r e v i o u s development e f f o r t s have not reached the poor. The b a s i c needs concept of development p l a c e s the focus on the ends of development. T h i s means a d i r e c t a t t a c k on poverty through meeting the b a s i c human requirements of the ne e d i e s t segment of s o c i e t y , the poor. There are two approaches that can be taken when one adopts the b a s i c needs concept as the t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r a p r o j e c t . The f i r s t i s a top down e f f o r t concerned with s a t i s f y i n g b a s i c needs as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e and i s r e f e r r e d to i n t h i s t h e s i s as a t e c h n o c r a t i c approach to meeting b a s i c needs. The second i s concerned with developing a s u s t a i n a b l e p r o j e c t based on the community so that i t can continue t o meet i t s b a s i c needs and i s r e f e r r e d to i n t h i s t h e s i s as a community development approach to meeting b a s i c needs. The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o i d e n t i f y those elements in the p l a n n i n g process that c o n t r i b u t e to the success of e f f o r t s to meet b a s i c needs i n de v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . Success i s d e f i n e d as the meeting of immediate and long term water needs l e a d i n g to improvements i n h e a l t h , economic and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s of communities. To accomplish t h i s o b j e c t i v e a l i t e r a t u r e review of e f f o r t s to meet the b a s i c need of water i s undertaken. The focus i s on i d e n t i f y i n g elements found i n the l i t e r a t u r e , dominated by a d v o c a t e s o f t h e c ommunity d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s , w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s u c c e s s o f r u r a l w a t e r s u p p l y p r o j e c t s i n p r o v i d i n g an a d e q u a t e s u p p l y o f w a t e r t o t h e p o o r . T h e s e s u c c e s s e l e m e n t s c a n be g r o u p e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g f i v e c a t e g o r i e s : a p p r o p r i a t e k n o w l e d g e ; a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y ; a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s ; a p p r o p r i a t e s u p p o r t ; a n d c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The a s s u m p t i o n a r t i c u l a t e d by most w r i t e r s i s t h a t e a c h o f t h e s e f i v e e l e m e n t s i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f a c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s . T h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e t e c h n o c r a t i c a p p r o a c h , y e t i t i s u s e d i n p r a c t i c e . A c a s e s t u d y o f a r u r a l w a t e r s u p p l y p r o j e c t i n K e n y a , E a s t A f r i c a , w h i c h u s e d a t e c h n o c r a t i c a p p r o a c h , was u n d e r t a k e n w i t h t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t i t w o u l d show a l a c k o f s u c c e s s b e c a u s e o f i t s f a i l u r e t o i n c l u d e t h e f i v e e l e m e n t s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h . I n f a c t , t h e p r o j e c t was f o u n d t o be a s u c c e s s . H o w e v e r , t h e s t u d y d i d r e v e a l t h a t t h e p l a n n e r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o j e c t now b e l i e v e t h a t , f o r t h e l o n g r u n s u s t a i n a b i l i t y o f t h e p r o j e c t , i t i s v i t a l t o make t h e f i v e e l e m e n t s o f t h e c ommunity d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e p r o j e c t . The m a i n c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e t h e s i s i s t h a t a p r o j e c t u s i n g a t e c h n o c r a t i c a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s c a n s u c c e e d i n t h e s h o r t r u n b u t t h a t f o r t h i s p r o j e c t t o c o n t i n u e t o be s u c c e s s f u l t h e r e comes a p o i n t where t h e e l e m e n t s assumed t o be p a r t o f t h e c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s must be i n c l u d e d . o i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES v i i i ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS X 1. INTRODUCTION 2 A. Purpose 2 B. R a t i o n a l e 3 C. O r g a n i z a t i o n of the T h e s i s 4 D. Method 6 2. BASIC NEEDS: FRAMEWORK AND PLANNING 9 A. The Concept of Development 9 B. The Basic Needs Approach to Development 15 1. The E a r l y Years of the Basic Needs Approach 15 2. A D e f i n i t i o n of Basic Needs 18 3. C r i t i q u e s of the Basic Needs Approach 19 4. Some I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Basic Needs Approach 21 5. The Appropriateness of the Bas i c Needs Approach 25 3. THE BASIC NEED OF WATER 29 A. The D e s i g n a t i o n of the Decade 29 B. The Decade 32 1. The 1980 WHO Survey 32 2. The Needs I d e n t i f i e d 35 a) . Water and Other Sectors 35 b) . R u r a l Emphasis and Community P a r t i c i p a t i o n 37 c) . Education, T r a i n i n g and O r g a n i z a t i o n 38 d) . Technology and Funding 38 e) . Operation and Maintenance 39 3. The P a r t i c i p a n t s 39 a) . The UN and I t s Bodies 40 b) . N a t i o n a l Governments 40 c) . Governmental and Non-Governmental O r g a n i z a t i o n s 41 d) . L o c a l Communities 42 V Page C. The D i f f i c u l t i e s F a c e d 42 1. P o l i t i c a l 42 2. I n s t i t u t i o n a l 44 3. Human R e s o u r c e s 45 4. O t h e r F a c t o r s 46 D. The P r o g r e s s Made 47 E. E l e m e n t s I n S u c c e s s f u l P r o j e c t s 50 1 . A p p r o p r i a t e K n o w l e d g e 51 2. A p p r o p r i a t e T e c h n o l o g y 54 3. A p p r o p r i a t e I n s t i t u t i o n s 55 4. A p p r o p r i a t e S u p p o r t 56 5. Community P a r t i c i p a t i o n 58 4. THE CASE STUDY: A DESCRIPTION 62 A. The R e g i o n a l C o n t e x t : S u b - S a h a r a n A f r i c a 62 B. The C o u n t r y C o n t e x t : K e n y a 67 C. The P l a n n i n g C o n t e x t : K e n y a 71 1. O r g a n i z a t i o n 71 2. The F o c u s On R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t and B a s i c Needs 75 3. The W a t e r S e c t o r a n d R u r a l W a t e r S u p p l y 78 D. The Case S t u d y 82 1. The L o c a l C o n t e x t . 82 2. V i l l a g e s W i t h H e l p . 86 3. V i l l a g e s W i t h No E x t e r n a l H e l p 93 4. The P l a n n e r s 97 5. AN ANALYSIS 106 A. The Case S t u d y : Was I t S u c c e s s f u l ? 106 1. The O b j e c t i v e s 107 2. The P e r s p e c t i v e s 110 B. The E l e m e n t s i n S u c c e s s f u l P r o j e c t s 112 1. A p p r o p r i a t e K n o w l e d g e ? 112 2. A p p r o p r i a t e T e c h n o l o g y ? . . . . 114 3. A p p r o p r i a t e I n s t i t u t i o n s ? 114 4. A p p r o p r i a t e S u p p o r t ? 115 5. Community P a r t i c i p a t i o n ? 116 6. O t h e r F a c t o r s 117 C. The B a s i c Needs A p p r o a c h 120 v i Page 6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 123 A. Summary 123 B. Conclus i o n s 125 C. Comment 131 DEFINITIONS 134 REFERENCES 136 APPENDIX 148 v i i LIST OF TABLES T a b l e s Page 1 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 1 ( V i l l a g e s W i t h RWS): G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n 88 2 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 1 ( V i l l a g e s W i t h RWS): I n f o r m a t i o n on W a t e r S u p p l y , U s e , B e n e f i t s , I m p a c t s , O p e r a t i o n a n d M a i n t e n a n c e 89 3 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 2 ( V i l l a g e s W i t h No RWS): G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n 94 4 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 2 ( V i l l a g e s W i t h No RWS): I n f o r m a t i o n on W a t e r S u p p l y , U s e , Community S a t i s f a c t i o n , a n d E d u c a t i o n P r o g r a m 95 5 An E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e S u c c e s s o f t h e MSP 108 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1 P e r c e n t o f R u r a l P o p u l a t i o n W i t h S a f e W a t e r a n d S a n i t a t i o n 34 * 2 Sub-Saharan A f r i c a 63 3 The V a s t C o n t i n e n t o f A f r i c a * 64 4 The S a h e l * 66 5 The R e p u b l i c o f K e n y a * 68 6 Mean A n n u a l R a i n f a l l 70 7 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Framework 73 8 P r o v i n c e s a n d D i s t r i c t s * 73 9 The C o n t e x t o f t h e C a s e S t u d y W i t h i n K e n y a 85 10 T h r e e P h r a s e s : A D i s t i n c t i o n 130 *A11 maps a r e o r i e n t e d t o w a r d s t h e n o r t h . i x ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS BNA - B a s i c Needs A p p r o a c h . CARE - C o o p e r a t i v e f o r A m e r i c a n R e l i e f E v e r y w h e r e . Decade - I n t e r n a t i o n a l D r i n k i n g W a t e r S u p p l y a n d S a n i t a t i o n D e c ade ( a l s o r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e W a t e r D e c a d e ) . ESCAP - E c o n o m i c a n d S o c i a l C o m m i s s i o n f o r A s i a a n d t h e P a c i f i c . FAO - F o o d a n d A g r i c u l t u r a l O r g a n i z a t i o n . GOA - Gover n m e n t o f A u s t r a l i a . GOK - Go v e r n m e n t o f K e n y a . ILO - I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a b o r O r g a n i z a t i o n , km - k i l o m e t e r s , mm - m i l l i m e t e r s . MSP - M a g a r i n i S e t t l e m e n t P r o j e c t . MWD - M i n i s t r y o f W a t e r D e v e l o p m e n t . NGO - n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . NTIS - N a t i o n a l T e c h n i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e . RWS - R u r a l W a t e r S u p p l y . SSA - S u b - S a h a r a n A f r i c a . UN - U n i t e d N a t i o n s UNCTD - UN C o n f e r e n c e on T r a d e a n d D e v e l o p m e n t . UNDP - UN D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m . UNEP - UN E n v i r o n m e n t P r o g r a m . UNICEF - UN I n t e r n a t i o n a l C h i l d r e n ' s E m ergency F u n d . USAID - U n i t e d S t a t e s A g e n c y f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t . WASH - W a t e r a n d S a n i t a t i o n f o r H e . a l t h P r o j e c t . X ACNOWLEDGEMENTS T h i s t h e s i s h a s been c o m p l e t e d w i t h t h e s u p p o r t a n d a s s i s t a n c e o f many p e o p l e . I am i n d e b t e d t o my t h e s i s a d v i s o r s , D r . V.S. P e n d a k u r a n d Mr. P e t e r B o o t h r o y d , f o r t h e i r g e n e r o u s c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t i m e , s c h o l a r l y i n s i g h t s a n d g u i d a n c e i n s e e i n g t h i s work t o c o m p l e t i o n . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k my p a r e n t s who t o o k on t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were b o t h c a r r i e d o u t i n Kenya by t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p e r s o n s a n d c o m p l e t e d on t i m e . I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k Mr. V i d z o Musha f o r h i s t i m e a n d e f f o r t i n c o n d u c t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n t h e 34 v i l l a g e s . F i n a l l y , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k my b r o t h e r a n d s i s t e r f o r t h e i r comments on e a r l y d r a f t s . 1 "Could i t be that the r e l a t i v e f a i l u r e of a i d , or at least our disappointment with the effect iveness of a i d , has something to do with our m a t e r i a l i s t philosophy which makes us l i a b l e to overlook the most important pre-condi t ions of success, which are general ly i n v i s i b l e ? Or i f we do not e n t i r e l y overlook them, we tend to treat them just as we treat material things - things that can be planned and scheduled and purchased with money according to some a l l -comprehensive development p lan . In other words, we tend to think of development, not in terms of evo lut ion , but in terms of c r e a t i o n . . . . Development does not s tart with goods; i t s tarts with people and t h e i r education, organizat ion , and d i s c i p l i n e . Without these three, a l l resources remain la tent , untapped, p o t e n t i a l . . . . Here then l i e s the centra l problem of development. If the primary causes of poverty are de f i c i enc ie s in these three respects , then the a l l e v i a t i o n of poverty depends pr imar i ly on the removal of these d e f i c i e n c i e s . Here l i e s the reason why development cannot be an act of c r e a t i o n , why i t cannot be ordered, bought, comprehensively planned: why i t requires a process of evo lut ion . Education does not 'jump'; i t is a gradual process of great subt le ty . Organization does not 'jump'; i t must gradual ly evolve to f i t changing circumstances. And much the same goes for d i s c i p l i n e . A l l three must evolve step by step, and the foremost task of development po l i cy must be to speed th i s evo lut ion . A l l three must become the property not merely of a t iny minor i ty , but of the whole soc iety ." E . F . Schumacher. 2 1. INTRODUCTION A. PURPOSE. The s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e b a s i c n e e d s of p e o p l e h a s come t o be an i m p o r t a n t f o c u s o f r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t e f f o r t s i n t h e T h i r d W o r l d . The g e n e r a l t e r m u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h i s f o c u s i s t h e b a s i c n e e d s a p p r o a c h (BNA) t o d e v e l o p m e n t o r t h e b a s i c n e e d s c o n c e p t o f d e v e l o p m e n t . The t e r m s a r e u s e d s y n o n y m o u s l y i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e a n d i n t h i s t h e s i s . B a s i c n e e d s c a n be met i n a number o f ways r a n g i n g f r o m an o u t s i d e a g e n c y s i m p l y d e l i v e r i n g a good s u c h a s f o o d o r w a t e r , t o t h e c o m m u n i t y i t s e l f i n i t i a t i n g a n d w o r k i n g t o w a r d s p r o v i d i n g t h e n e e d s t h e m s e l v e s . The f o r m e r method i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h s a t i s f y i n g a b a s i c n e e d a s q u i c k l y a s p o s s i b l e a n d i s u s u a l l y c a r r i e d o u t by t e c h n i c a l l y c o m p e t e n t a g e n c i e s . I t i s r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s t h e s i s a s a t e c h n o c r a t i c a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s . The l a t t e r i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h h e l p i n g t h e p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s meet t h e i r b a s i c n e e d s and t o d e v e l o p a l o n g r u n c a p a b i l i t y o f b e i n g a b l e t o c o n t i n u e t o meet t h e i r b a s i c n e e d s . I t i s r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s t h e s i s a s a c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s . C e r t a i n e l e m e n t s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s v a r y b e t w e e n t h e two a p p r o a c h e s , and i d e n t i f y i n g t h e s e e l e m e n t s may p r o v i d e a c l e a r e r d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e m e t h o d s and g i v e an e x p l a n a t i o n o f why p r o j e c t s f a i l o r s u c c e e d . The p u r p o s e of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o i d e n t i f y t h o s e e l e m e n t s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s u c c e s s o f e f f o r t s t o 3 meet b a s i c needs in r u r a l communities i n developing c o u n t r i e s . P l a n n i n g process i s d e f i n e d as the f o r m u l a t i o n and implementation of p o l i c i e s , programs and p r o j e c t s . The focus i s on r u r a l water supply p r o j e c t s . C. RATIONALE. In November 1980, the General Assembly of the U n i t e d Nations f o r m a l l y d e c l a r e d the decade 1981-90 as the I n t e r n a t i o n a l D r i n k i n g Water Supply and S a n i t a t i o n Decade ( r e f e r r e d from here on as the Water Decade or simply the Decade). I t s o f f i c i a l t a r g e t was c l e a n water and adequate s a n i t a t i o n f o r a l l by 1990 (Agarwal, 1981). At the beginning of the Water Decade, over h a l f the people of the T h i r d World d i d not have safe water to d r i n k . Now, more than h a l f way through the decade i n 1987, the s i t u a t i o n i s even worse. T h i s i s so i n A f r i c a and worse i n i t s s e m i - a r i d r e g i o n s . The r u r a l water supply s i t u a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y severe with only 26% of A f r i c a ' s r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n having reasonable access to water compared with 61% f o r the urban p o p u l a t i o n (WHO, 1980).* Part of the reason behind the low f i g u r e f o r r u r a l water supply (RWS) i s due to the high number of p r o j e c t s that have f a i l e d . The d e s i g n a t i o n of the Decade has served t o focus much more a t t e n t i o n on the problems and a s i g n i f i c a n t number of p r o j e c t cases have been s t u d i e d d e a l i n g with the q u e s t i o n of what makes p r o j e c t s work and what makes them f a i l . The predominant *Reasonable access i s d e f i n e d i n the r u r a l context as a s i t u a t i o n where "the housewife or members of the household do not have to spend a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e p a r t of the day i n f e t c h i n g the f a m i l y ' s water needs." (Agarwal, p. 5, 1981). 4 theme r u n n i n g t h r o u g h t h e l i t e r a t u r e p r o d u c e d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e s e s t u d i e s i s t h a t t h e c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s s h o u l d be an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f r u r a l w a t e r s u p p l y p r o j e c t s . L i t t l e r e f e r e n c e i s made t o t h e t e c h n o c r a t i c a p p r o a c h e v e n t h o u g h i t i s u s e d i n p r a c t i c e . The a s s u m p t i o n , a r t i c u l a t e d by most w r i t e r s , seems t o be t h a t t h e t e c h n o c r a t i c a p p r o a c h l e a d s t o f a i l u r e a n d t h e co m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h t o s u c c e s s . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n w i l l be e x a m i n e d i n t h i s t h e s i s t h r o u g h i d e n t i f y i n g t h o s e e l e m e n t s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s u c c e s s o f e f f o r t s t o meet t h e b a s i c n e e d o f w a t e r i n r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s o f d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . S u c c e s s i s d e f i n e d a s t h e m e e t i n g o f i m m e d i a t e a n d l o n g t e r m w a t e r n e e d s l e a d i n g t o i m p r o v e m e n t s i n h e a l t h , e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f c o m m u n i t i e s . D. ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS. Chapter Two b e g i n s w i t h a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e b a s i c n e e d s a p p r o a c h (BNA) t o d e v e l o p m e n t . The p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o p r o v i d e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e BNA and why i t h a s come t o be a c c e p t e d a s a l e g i t i m a t e s t r a t e g y f o r d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e c o n t e x t o f p o v e r t y a n d s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s . Chapter Three e x a m i n e s t h e b a s i c n e e d f o r w a t e r a n d t h e a t t e n t i o n i t h a s r e c e i v e d g l o b a l l y s i n c e t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f t h e Wa t e r D e c a d e . I n t e r e s t i n g l y e n o u g h , t h e g l o b a l f o c u s on w a t e r s u p p l y c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a b o r O r g a n i z a t i o n ' s ( I L O ) e n d o r s e m e n t o f t h e b a s i c n e e d s c o n c e p t . 5 The Decade i s d e s c r i b e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f h i g h l i g h t i n g t h e i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o t h e b a s i c n e e d o f w a t e r , a n d t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e e f f o r t s t o s u p p l y w a t e r t o r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s . I n c l u d e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r i s a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f some o f t h e p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e s e e f f o r t s , t h e p r o g r e s s made a n d t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f some e l e m e n t s i n t h e p r o j e c t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . The m a i n p a r t i c i p a n t s s t u d i e d i n t h i s t h e s i s a r e t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l a nd n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p l a n n i n g o f r u r a l w a t e r s u p p l y (RWS) p r o j e c t s a n d t h e i r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n t h e f i e l d . The s e c t i o n s i n C h a p t e r T h r e e d e a l i n g w i t h t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c e d , p r o g r e s s made a n d e l e m e n t s i n s u c c e s s f u l p r o j e c t s a r e b a s e d , f o r t h e most p a r t , on r e p o r t s f r o m t h e s e p a r t i c i p a n t s . I n C h a p t e r F o u r , a c a s e s t u d y i n RWS i s d e s c r i b e d . The r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t w i t h i n s u b - S a h a r a n A f r i c a (SSA) i s e x p l a i n e d f i r s t , f o l l o w e d by a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e h o s t c o u n t r y , K e n y a . To p r o v i d e a c o n t e x t f o r t h e c a s e s t u d y , an a n a l y s i s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p l a n n i n g i n K e n y a f o l l o w s . The f o c u s on r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t a n d b a s i c n e e d s i n t h e p o l i c i e s o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t a r e d i s c u s s e d , f o l l o w e d by a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e w a t e r s e c t o r i n g e n e r a l , a n d RWS i n p a r t i c u l a r . T h i s p r o v i d e s a b a s e f r o m w h i c h t o move t o t h e c a s e s t u d y o f RWS among t h e Giriama, a t r i b e l o c a t e d i n t h e r e g i o n n o r t h - w e s t o f M a l i n d i on t h e c o a s t . C h a p t e r F i v e i s an a n a l y s i s o f t h e RWS p r o j e c t . The f i r s t o b j e c t i v e i s t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e p r o j e c t i s s u c c e s s f u l . The s e c o n d w i l l be t o i d e n t i f y t h e e l e m e n t s t h a t 6 c o n t r i b u t e d t o i t s s u c c e s s a n d c o m p a r e them w i t h t h e e l e m e n t s i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w of C h a p t e r T h r e e . The t h i r d w i l l e x a m i n e t h e p r o j e c t i n t e r m s o f t h e BNA a n d i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e e l e m e n t s i d e n t i f i e d a s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e p r o j e c t t o s e e w h e t h e r t h i s i s i n d e e d a v a l i d a p p r o a c h t o t a k e i n r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t . The m a i n q u e s t i o n a s k e d c o n c e r n s t h e e l e m e n t s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s u c c e s s o f e f f o r t s t o meet t h e b a s i c need o f w a t e r . S u b s i d i a r y q u e s t i o n s i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g : - was t h e p r o j e c t s u c c e s s f u l ? ; - what a r e t h e o b s t a c l e s a n d s u p p o r t i n g f o r c e s o f s u c c e s s f u l w a t e r s u p p l y p r o j e c t s ? ; - a r e t h e e l e m e n t s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e s u c c e s s o f RWS p r o j e c t s a p a r t o f t h e BNA t o d e v e l o p m e n t ? ; and - i s t h e BNA t o d e v e l o p m e n t one o f t h e i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t s i n s u c c e s s f u l r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t e f f o r t s ? C h a p t e r S i x i s a summary a n d c o n c l u s i o n s . D. METHOD. C h a p t e r s Two and T h r e e a r e b a s e d on a l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w . C h a p t e r Two f o c u s e d on t h e b a s i c n e e d s l i t e r a t u r e f o u n d m a i n l y i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b r a r y . C h a p t e r T h r e e u t i l i z e d t h e L i b r a r y a s w e l l a s i n t e r - l i b r a r y l o a n s and some r e s e a r c h done a t t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s H e a d q u a r t e r s i n New Y o r k C i t y . 7 The f i r s t p a r t o f C h a p t e r F o u r was a l s o b a s e d on l i t e r a t u r e . The l a s t p a r t o f t h e c h a p t e r i s a c a s e s t u d y i n K e n y a , E a s t A f r i c a . I n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s t u d y was o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h * q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The f i r s t went t o v i l l a g e s b e n e f i t i n g f r o m w a t e r s u p p l y p r o j e c t s . The s e c o n d went t o v i l l a g e s w i t h no w a t e r s u p p l y p r o j e c t s . The t h i r d went t o p l a n n e r s i n v o l v e d i n w a t e r s u p p l y p r o j e c t s i n t h e r e g i o n . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s e n t t o t h e v i l l a g e s were d e s i g n e d t o g a t h e r g e n e r a l h o u s e h o l d i n f o r m a t i o n . The one s e n t t o v i l l a g e s w i t h w a t e r s u p p l y was d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on how t h e v i l l a g e r s v i e w e d t h e p r o j e c t a n d what t h e y p e r c e i v e d as i t s b e n e f i t s . The one s e n t t o v i l l a g e s w i t h o u t w a t e r s u p p l y p r o j e c t s was d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on how t h e v i l l a g e r s v i e w e d t h e i r l a c k o f a r e l i a b l e w a t e r s u p p l y a n d what t h e y saw a s t h e p o s s i b l e b e n e f i t s o f an i m p r o v e d w a t e r s u p p l y . A f i n a l o b j e c t i v e was t o d i s c o v e r w h e t h e r a p r o g r a m t o e d u c a t e t h e v i l l a g e r s a s t o t h e i r n e e d o f a c l e a n a nd d e p e n d a b l e s o u r c e o f w a t e r a n d a t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m t e a c h i n g s e l e c t e d v i l l a g e r s how t o o p e r a t e a n d m a i n t a i n t h e w a t e r s u p p l y s y s t e m h ad been s e t up. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e n t t o t h e two p l a n n e r s was d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on how t h e y v i e w e d t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r RWS a n d what t h e y saw a s t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h e p r o j e c t s t h e y were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r . *The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e A p p e n d i x . 8 " J u d g e d by t h e u s u a l y a r d s t i c k s o f e c o n o m i c g r o w t h , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s o f t h e p a s t t h r e e d e c a d e s was a s p e c t a c u l a r , u n p r e c e d e n t e d , a n d u n e x p e c t e d s u c c e s s : i t r e s u l t e d i n an a n n u a l i n c r e a s e o f more t h a n 3 p e r c e n t i n i ncome p e r h e a d i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g w o r l d . J u d g e d by e v e n t h e n o r m a l m e a s u r e s o f s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s must a l s o be l a b e l e d a s u c c e s s . L i f e e x p e c t a n c y a t b i r t h i n c r e a s e d f r o m o n l y f o r t y - t w o y e a r s i n 1950 t o n e a r l y s i x t y y e a r s i n 1980. B u t j u d g e d by t h e r e d u c t i o n o f p o v e r t y , i t was f a r l e s s s u c c e s s f u l . The a g g r e g a t e s t a t i s t i c s q u o t e d a b o v e h i d e t r e m e n d o u s d i s p a r i t i e s b e t w e e n n a t i o n s a n d w i t h i n n a t i o n s . O v e r a l l e c o n o m i c g r o w t h a n d s o c i a l p r o g r e s s d i d n o t mean much i m p r o v e m e n t i n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e p o o r e r s e g m e n t s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . By W o r l d Bank c a l c u l a t i o n s , e v e n now some 750 m i l l i o n p e o p l e l i v e b e l o w a n u t r i t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d p o v e r t y l i n e . T h i s i s n e a r l y o n e - t h i r d o f t h e c o m b i n e d p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . M u s t s u c h a l a r g e number o f p e o p l e be condemned f o r e v e r t o l i v e i n a b s o l u t e p o v e r t y ? P a u l S t r e e t e n . 9 2. BASIC NEEDS: FRAMEWORK AND PLANNING The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o p r o v i d e t h e c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k f o r t h e t h e s i s . P l a n n i n g f o r r u r a l w a t e r s u p p l y i n a d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e i n many i n s t a n c e s w i t h t h e a i d o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a g e n c i e s . The b a s i c n e e d s a p p r o a c h (BNA) i s one o f t h e more r e c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g i e s o f t h e s e a g e n c i e s . I t h a s emerged l a r g e l y a s a r e s u l t o f r e c e n t e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s a n d r e l a t e d s t u d i e s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p o v e r t y , s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o v e r t h e l a s t 20 y e a r s . T h i s c h a p t e r i s d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s : t h e f i r s t p a r t i s a b r i e f o v e r v i e w o f t h e c o n c e p t o f d e v e l o p m e n t , t r a c i n g t h e e v o l u t i o n i n d e v e l o p m e n t t h o u g h t t o t h e c u r r e n t f o c u s on b a s i c n e e d s . The s e c o n d p a r t i s a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e BNA t o d e v e l o p m e n t . I n c l u d e d i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n a r e : t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e b a s i c n e e d s c o n c e p t ; a d e f i n i t i o n o f b a s i c n e e d s ; c r i t i q u e s o f t h e BNA; some i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e BNA; a n d a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e BNA. A. THE CONCEPT OF DEVELOPMENT. A g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t a s i t h a s been v i e w e d i s : " D e v e l o p m e n t h a s meant t h e p u r s u i t o f ( i t i s assumed) t h e a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y c o r r e l a t e d a i m s o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n , e c o n o m i c g r o w t h , a n d s o c i a l a d v a n c e m e n t . " ( A l l e n a n d A n z a l o n e , 1981, p. 2 1 0 ) . A l l e n a n d A n z a l o n e go on t o i d e n t i f y t h e means t o t h e s e e n d s ( s t r a t e g i e s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t ) a s b e i n g " t h e c a p i t a l i z a t i o n o f 10 a g r i c u l t u r e , i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , a n d t h e b u i l d i n g o f m a t u r e s o c i a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . " ( I b i d ) . The u l t i m a t e g o a l of i n t e r n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t i s t h e e r a d i c a t i o n o f w o r l d p o v e r t y ( S a m e t e r , 1984; S a n d b r o o k , 1982; S r i n i v a s a n , 1984; S t r e e t e n , 1 9 8 1 ; ) . The e a r l y d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g i e s f o c u s e d p r i m a r i l y on e c o n o m i c g r o w t h . S i r A r t h u r L e w i s a n d o t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t e c o n o m i s t s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h i s p o l i c y i n t h e m i d 1950s ( S a m e t e r , 1984; a n d S t r e e t e n , 1 9 8 1 ) . They e m p h a s i z e d t h a t u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t c o u l d be summed up i n t e r m s o f v e r y l o w p e r c a p i t a i n c o m e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , a g r o w t h i n p e r c a p i t a i n c o m e , i n i t i a t e d a n d s u s t a i n e d , w o u l d , i n t i m e , l e a d t o t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e o t h e r p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t s u c h a s p o v e r t y and t h e i n e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f income ( A l l e n a n d A n z a l o n e , 1981; S a m e t e r , 1984; a n d S r i n i v a s a n , . 1 9 8 4 ) . P a u l S t r e e t e n l i s t s t h r e e j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r t h i s e m p h a s i s on e c o n o m i c g r o w t h a s a means t o d e v e l o p m e n t : "One j u s t i f i c a t i o n a s sumed t h a t t h r o u g h m a r k e t f o r c e s - -s u c h a s t h e r i s i n g demand f o r l a b o r , h i g h e r p r o d u c t i v i t y , h i g h e r wages, o r l o w e r p r i c e s - - e c o n o m i c g r o w t h w o u l d s p r e a d i t s b e n e f i t s w i d e l y a n d s p e e d i l y , a n d t h a t t h e s e b e n e f i t s c o u l d b e s t be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h g r o w t h . . . [ T h e s e c o n d ] assumed t h a t g o v e r n m e n t s a r e d e m o c r a t i c , o r a t any r a t e a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e f a t e o f t h e p o o r . T h e r e f o r e , p r o g r e s s i v e t a x a t i o n , s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , a n d o t h e r g o v e r n m e n t a c t i o n w o u l d s p r e a d t h e b e n e f i t s downward. The a l l e v i a t i o n o f p o v e r t y w o u l d n o t be a u t o m a t i c , b u t g o v e r n m e n t s w o u l d t a k e a c t i o n t o c o r r e c t s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h m a r k e t f o r c e s c o n c e n t r a t e d b e n e f i t s . The t h i r d j u s t i f i c a t i o n , more h a r d h e a d e d t h a n t h e p r e v i o u s t w o , s a i d t h a t t h e f a t e o f t h e p o o r s h o u l d n o t be a c o n c e r n i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t . I t was t h o u g h t n e c e s s a r y f i r s t t o b u i l d up t h e c a p i t a l , i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , a n d p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y of an economy so t h a t i t c o u l d i m p r o v e t h e l o t o f t h e p o o r l a t e r . " ( S t r e e t e n , 1981, p. 9 ) . 11 Among t h e more i n f l u e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t e c o n o m i s t s , Simon K u z n e t s a r g u e d t h a t a v e r a g e income l e v e l s a r e v e r y much r e l a t e d t o an i n d e x o f e q u a l i t y ( I b i d . ) . H i s b a s i c t h e o r y was t h a t t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f g r o w t h a r e a c c o m p a n i e d by g r o w i n g i n e q u a l i t y u n t i l t h e p o i n t where income p e r c a p i t a i s $1000 US ( 1 9 7 9 d o l l a r s ) . B e y o n d t h e s e income l e v e l s , f u r t h e r g r o w t h i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e d u c e d i n e q u a l i t y ( K u z n e t s C u r v e ) . E c o n o m i c g r o w t h i n t h e l o n g - r u n , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t e c o n o m i s t s , was t h e b e s t r o u t e f o r t h e u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s t o f o l l o w a s t h e y s o u g h t t o become l i k e t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s o f t h e W e s t . T h i s a p p r o a c h h a d n o t o n l y w o r k e d f o r t h e West b u t a l s o , a s S a m e t e r a r g u e s , i n S o v i e t e x p e r i e n c e . The s t o r y seemed t o be " . . . s a c r i f i c e e v e r y t h i n g b e f o r e t h e g r o w t h i d o l , a n d p r o s p e r i t y w i l l be y o u r r e w a r d . " ( S a m e t e r , 1984, p. 2 ) . The r e s u l t : "Armed w i t h t h i s f a i t h i n t h e l o n g - r u n h e a l i n g e f f e c t s o f e c o n o m i c g r o w t h , b u r e a u c r a t i c p l a n n e r s , e c o n o m i c a d v i s o r s , g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s f r o m E a s t a n d W e s t , t h e s o - c a l l e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m m u n i t y - a l l r u s h e d h e a d l o n g i n t o t h e D e v e l o p m e n t D e c a d e . " ( I b i d . ) . E c o n o m i c g r o w t h had w o r k e d f o r t h e W e s t , d i d i t work f o r t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s ? The i n i t i a l e v i d e n c e was p o s i t i v e . To q u o t e S t r e e t e n , " . . . t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s s i n c e W o r l d War I I h a s been a s p e c t a c u l a r , u n p r e c e d e n t e d , and u n e x p e c t e d s u c c e s s . " ( S t r e e t e n , 1981, p. 1 1 ) . P e r c a p i t a i n come i n c r e a s e d more t h a n a t h i r d i n t h e f i r s t D e v e l o p m e n t D e c a d e , 1960-1970 ( S a n d b r o o k , 1 9 8 2 ) . The a n n u a l g r o w t h r a t e o f GNP p e r c a p i t a f o r a l l 12 d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s was 3.5 p e r c e n t d u r i n g t h e f i r s t D e v e l o p m e n t D ecade a n d 2.7 p e r c e n t i n t h e s e c o n d ( S a m e t e r , 1 9 8 4 ) . E c o n o m i c g r o w t h h a d o c c u r r e d b u t t h e more i m p o r t a n t g o a l o f r e d u c i n g p o v e r t y h a d n o t been a c h i e v e d . S t r e e t e n a r g u e s t h a t , " D e s p i t e t h e h i g h r a t e s o f g r o w t h o f i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n a n d c o n t i n u e d g e n e r a l e c o n o m i c g r o w t h , n o t enough employment was c r e a t e d f o r t h e r a p i d l y g r o w i n g l a b o r f o r c e . Nor were t h e b e n e f i t s o f g r o w t h a l w a y s w i d e l y s p r e a d t o t h e l o w e r income g r o u p s . " ( S t r e e t e n , 1981, p. 1 1 ) . I n f a c t , o t h e r s c h o l a r s w r i t e t h a t t h e l o t o f t h e l o w e s t 40 p e r c e n t o f t h e p e o p l e i n t h e p o o r n a t i o n s was g e t t i n g w o r s e ( S a m e t e r , 1984; a n d S a n d b r o o k , 1 9 8 2 ) . Many d e v e l o p m e n t t h e o r i s t s e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n o v e r i n c r e a s i n g s o c i a l / e c o n o m i c i n e q u a l i t y i n s p i t e o f o b s e r v e d e c o n o m i c g r o w t h : " . . . h u n d r e d s o f m i l l i o n s o f d e s p e r a t e l y p o o r p e o p l e t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d have been h u r t r a t h e r t h a n h e l p e d by e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . U n l e s s t h e i r d e s t i n i e s become a m a j o r and e x p l i c i t f o c u s o f d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c y i n t h e 1970s a n d 1 9 8 0 s , e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t may s e r v e m e r e l y t o p r o m o t e s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e . " ( I r m a A d e l m a n a n d C.T. T a f t i n S a n d b r o o k , 1982, p. 2 ) . The r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t e c o n o m i c g r o w t h h a d n o t w o r k e d a s e x p e c t e d l e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n i n g o f t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h . S t r e e t e n s e e s t h e p r o b l e m a s one where none of t h e a s s u m p t i o n s g i v e n e a r l i e r t u r n e d o u t t o be t r u e ; i . e . 1) t h a t t h r o u g h m a r k e t f o r c e s e c o n o m i c g r o w t h w o u l d s p r e a d i t s b e n e f i t s w i d e l y a n d s p e e d i l y , 2) t h a t g o v e r n m e n t s a r e d e m o c r a t i c and c o n c e r n e d f o r t h e p o o r , a n d 3) t h a t t h e f a t e o f t h e p o o r w o u l d i m p r o v e l a t e r a s a r e s u l t o f e c o n o m i c g r o w t h ( S t r e e t e n , 1 9 8 1 ) . R o b e r t McNamara e m p h a s i z e d t h e p r i m a r y c o n c e r n s r e g a r d i n g d e v e l o p m e n t a n d a l l e v i a t i o n o f p o v e r t y a s e a r l y a s 1972: 1 3 " I n c r e a s e s i n n a t i o n a l i ncome - e s s e n t i a l a s t h e y a r e -w i l l n o t b e n e f i t t h e p o o r u n l e s s t h e y r e a c h t h e p o o r . They h a v e n o t r e a c h e d t h e p o o r t o any s i g n i f i c a n t d e g r e e i n most d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i n t h e p a s t , a n d t h i s i n s p i t e o f h i s t o r i c a l l y u n p r e c e d e n t e d a v e r a g e r a t e s o f g r o w t h t h r o u g h o u t t h e s i x t i e s . " ( i n S a n d b r o o k , 1982, p. 7 ) . The d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s were n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e same a s t h e c o u n t r i e s o f t h e West. The a s s u m p t i o n s t h a t were v a l i d a n d e n a b l e d e c o n o m i c g r o w t h t o p r o d u c e t h e e x p e c t e d r e s u l t s i n t h e West were n o t a p p l i c a b l e i n t h e T h i r d W o r l d . W i t h t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n came a s e a r c h t o i d e n t i f y t h e d e v e l o p m e n t e l e m e n t s i n T h i r d W o r l d c o u n t r i e s t h a t were d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e i n t h e West. T h e r e was a nee d t o t u r n t o more t h a n j u s t ' g r o w t h i n p r o d u c t i o n ' f o r d e v e l o p m e n t . D u d l e y S e e r s , i n h i s s p e e c h t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1969 on "The M e a n i n g o f D e v e l o p m e n t " , i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e e l e m e n t s t h a t he f e l t c a u s e d t h e t h e o r y o f e c o n o m i c g r o w t h t o meet w i t h s o l i t t l e s u c c e s s i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . They were t h e p r o v i s i o n o f f o o d (a f o c u s on p o v e r t y ) , a j o b and t h e q u e s t i o n o f e q u a l i t y ( S e e r s , 1 9 6 9 ) . He a d v o c a t e d t h a t i n o r d e r t o know i f d e v e l o p m e n t has t a k e n p l a c e i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , t h r e e q u e s t i o n s s h o u l d be a s k e d : 1) What h a s been h a p p e n i n g t o p o v e r t y ? ; 2) What h a s been h a p p e n i n g t o u n e m p l o y m e n t ? ; a n d 3) What h a s been h a p p e n i n g t o i n e q u a l i t y ? ( S e e r s , 1969, p. 3 ) . He b e l i e v e d t h a t a l l t h r e e had t o d e c l i n e b e f o r e one c o u l d s a y t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t h a d t a k e n p l a c e . S e e r ' s r e m a r k s i n i t i a t e d , o r a t l e a s t h e l p e d t o i n i t i a t e , a r a s h o f new t h e o r i e s on d e v e l o p m e n t . The W o r l d Bank s t a r t e d t o s h i f t f r o m a p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h e c o n o m i c g r o w t h t o a b r o a d e r 1 4 c o n c e r n t o e r a d i c a t e p o v e r t y a n d t h e i d e a o f r e d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h g r o w t h . The I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a b o r O r g a n i z a t i o n ( I L O ) a t t e m p t e d t o p r o m o t e e m p l o y m e n t . The i d e a o f a New I n t e r n a t i o n a l E c o n o m i c O r d e r has emerged a l o n g w i t h t h e c o n c e p t s o f a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y a n d t h e b a s i c n e e d s a p p r o a c h ( A l l e n a n d A n z a l o n e , 1981; G h a i , 1977; S a m e t e r , 1984; S a n d b r o o k , 1982; a n d S t r e e t e n , 1 9 8 1 ) . The f i r s t two o f t h e s e new i d e a s , employment a n d r e d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h g r o w t h , h a v e a common p r o b l e m . S t r e e t e n i d e n t i f i e s i t a s "...an i n s t a n c e o f t h e t r a n s f e r o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e l l e c t u a l t e c h n o l o g y f r o m modern s o c i e t i e s t o t h e e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s o f d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . " ( p . 1 2 ) . S i m i l a r l y , G h a i v i e w s t h e p r o p o s e d s o l u t i o n s t o d e v e l o p m e n t p r o b l e m s i n t h e l a s t two d e c a d e s a s c o m i n g f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f d o m i n a n t w e s t e r n s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t ( G h a i , 1 9 7 7 ) . They a r e n o t a l w a y s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e T h i r d W o r l d s i t u a t i o n . D u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1974-77, a g r e a t d e a l o f t h o u g h t was g o i n g on r e g a r d i n g d e v e l o p m e n t and what i t meant o r how i t s h o u l d be a c h i e v e d . The s i m p l e n o t i o n " . . . t h a t t h e p u r p o s e o f e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n i s t o meet t h e human r e q u i r e m e n t s o f p e o p l e , and e s p e c i a l l y t h e minimum n e e d s o f t h e n e e d i e s t " began t o emerge o u t o f t h i s t h i n k i n g ( H a r l o n C l e v e l a n d i n A l l e n a n d A n z a l o n e , 1981, p. 2 1 1 ) . T h i s n o t i o n i s now known a s t h e BNA t o d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h h a s t a k e n " c e n t e r s t a g e " , so t o s p e a k , i n t h e c o n t i n u i n g drama o f w o r l d d e v e l o p m e n t . P a u l S t r e e t e n p u t s i t t h i s way: 15 "The e v o l u t i o n f r o m g r o w t h a s t h e p r i n c i p a l p e r f o r m a n c e c r i t e r i o n , v i a e mployment a n d r e d i s t r i b u t i o n , t o b a s i c n e e d s i s an e v o l u t i o n f r o m a b s t r a c t t o c o n c r e t e o b j e c t i v e s , f r o m p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h means t o a r e n e w e d a w a r e n e s s o f e n d s , a n d f r o m a d o u b l e n e g a t i v e ( e . g . , r e d u c i n g u n e m p l o y m e n t ) t o a p o s i t i v e ( i . e . , m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s ) ( S t r e e t e n i n S a m e t e r , 1984, p. 4 ) . B. THE BASIC NEEDS APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT. I n t h i s s e c t i o n t h e BNA i s d e s c r i b e d a n d b r i e f l y a n a l y z e d t o p r o v i d e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what t h e f r a m e w o r k i s . T h i s i n c l u d e s a s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e f o c u s on b a s i c n e e d s , a d e f i n i t i o n o f b a s i c n e e d s a n d some c r i t i q u e s o f t h e BNA. 1. THE EARLY YEARS OF THE BASIC NEEDS APPROACH. D o u g l a s Rimmer i n h i s p a p e r " B a s i c Needs a n d t h e O r i g i n s o f t h e D e v e l o p m e n t E t h o s " a r g u e s t h a t t h e c o n c e p t o f b a s i c n e e d s i s n o t r e a l l y new (Rimmer, 1 9 8 1 ) . I n f a c t , he p l a c e s i t s b e g i n n i n g s p r i o r t o W o r l d War I I d u r i n g t h e w o r l d d e p r e s s i o n . I t was a t t h i s t i m e t h a t n u t r i t i o n a l d i s c o v e r i e s were b e i n g made a n d a t t e n t i o n was dra w n t o f o o d a n d i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o human w e l l -b e i n g . The L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s was l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r much o f t h e work i n t h i s f i e l d . Rimmer a r g u e s t h a t t h e i r c o n c e r n w i t h n u t r i t i o n e x p a n d e d i n t o a c o n c e r n f o r o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e w i d e r p r o b l e m o f t h e s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g by t h e l a t e 1 930s. A m a j o r s t e p i n t h i s r e g a r d was a s t u d y by t h e ILO i n 1938 e n t i t l e d , The Worker's Standard of Living. The r e p o r t d i s c u s s e d norms o f c o n s u m p t i o n " . . . w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d a c o m b i n a t i o n o f goods an d s e r v i c e s t h a t were recommended by ' e x p e r t s ' " (Rimmer, 1981, p. 2 2 7 ) . T h i s f u r t h e r l e d t o what Rimmer c a l l s t h e " L i v i n g -16 S t a n d a r d s Movement" w h i c h was s t i l l b a s e d p r i m a r i l y on f o o d b u t was m o v i n g t o w a r d s i n c l u d i n g o t h e r i t e m s u n d e r i t s u m b r e l l a . The q u e s t i o n o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s i d e o l o g y was r a i s e d by men l i k e S i r J o h n B o y d O r r ( d i r e c t o r - g e n e r a l o f t h e FAO, f r o m 1945-1948) a nd M.F.W. J o s e p h who r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i f t h e a r g u m e n t s o f t h e p r o p o n e n t s o f t h e movement were t o be t a k e n s e r i o u s l y , "We s h a l l h ave t o e n l a r g e o u r i d e a s o f c o m m u n i t y . J u s t a s we a r e now p r e p a r e d t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t t o t a x t h e r i c h e r p a r t s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n o r d e r t o r a i s e a n d m a i n t a i n an a d e q u a t e s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g i n t h e l o w e r s e c t i o n s , we s h a l l h a v e t o be p r e p a r e d t o do t h i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y " ( i n Rimmer, 1981, p. 230) . I n 1954 Abraham M a s l o w p u b l i s h e d h i s w o r k , Motivation and Personality. I n t h i s , he o u t l i n e s h i s famous h i e r a r c h y o f n e e d s . He d e s c r i b e s them a s e x i s t i n g a t f i v e d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s , t h e b o t t o m two a r e n e e d s t h a t a r e o f a m a t e r i a l n a t u r e a n d t h e r e f o r e more u r g e n t , w h i l e t h e t o p t h r e e a r e n e e d s o f a n o n - m a t e r i a l n a t u r e . " A c c o r d i n g t o M a s l o w one must p r o c e e d up t h e h i e r a r c h y , f r o m c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f b i o l o g i c a l s u r v i v a l t o ' s e l f -a c t u a l i z a t i o n ' " ( A l l e n a n d A n z a l o n e , 1981, p . 2 1 3 ) . The " s u r v i v a l " n e e d s a r e met f i r s t b e f o r e one c a n p r o g r e s s any f u r t h e r . M a s l o w ' s work was l a t e r t o h a v e an i m p a c t on i n t e r n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t t h e o r i e s . The 1960s b r o u g h t a l u l l i n t h e c o n c e r n f o r b a s i c n e e d s l a r g e l y b e c a u s e i t was an e r a o f h i g h o p t i m i s m a n d c o n f i d e n c e . The w o r l d economy was b o o m i n g . Towards t h e end o f t h i s d e c a d e , c o i n c i d i n g w i t h t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t i n s p i t e o f t h e h e a l t h y 17 e c o n o m i e s i n many d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , e c o n o m i c g r o w t h was n o t a c c o m p l i s h i n g i t s o b j e c t i v e a s e x p e c t e d , t h i s o p t i m i s m " . . . g a v e way t o a g r o w i n g d i s e n c h a n t m e n t w i t h t h e p r o c e s s a n d t h e f r u i t s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n " ( I b i d . ) . I n 1969, D u d l e y S e e r s c r y s t a l l i z e d h i s c o n c e r n , s t a t i n g "The s t a r t i n g p o i n t we now f a c e i s t o b r u s h a s i d e t h e web o f f a n t a s y we ha v e woven a r o u n d ' d e v e l o p m e n t ' a n d d e c i d e more p r e c i s e l y what we mean by i t " ( S e e r s , 1969, p. 2 ) . S h o r t l y a f t e r S e e r ' s s p e e c h , i n 1971, D e n i s G o u l e t p u b l i s h e d The Cruel Choice: A New Concept in the Theory of Development. T h i s work, d r a w i n g on M a s l o w , b r o u g h t t h e n o t i o n o f b a s i c human n e e d s i n t o s h a r p e r f o c u s by o r g a n i z i n g n e e d s i n t o t h r e e l e v e l s : t h e f i r s t - f o o d , s h e l t e r a n d c l o t h i n g ; t h e s e c o n d - en h a n c e m e n t n e e d s ; a n d t h e t h i r d - l u x u r y n e e d s ( I b i d . ) . I n t h e m i d - 7 0 s , t h e c o n c e p t o f b a s i c n eeds moved f r o m t h e p a g e s o f s c h o l a r l y w o r k s a n d t h e d e s k s o f s m a l l n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s i s s u e d by a number o f w o r l d o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n T h i r d W o r l d d e v e l o p m e n t ( A l l e n a n d A n z a l o n e , 1 9 8 1 ) . D.P. G h a i i n h i s a r t i c l e "What i s a B a s i c Needs A p p r o a c h t o D e v e l o p m e n t " r e f e r s t o f i v e i n f l u e n t i a l s t a t e m e n t s on b a s i c n e e d s made i n ' t h e y e a r s 1974-1976. T h e s e a r e : 1.) The De cl ar at i on of Cocoyoc ( 1 9 7 4 ) w h i c h was i s s u e d by a g r o u p o f s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , n a t u r a l s c i e n t i s t s a n d e c o n o m i s t s a t a s e m i n a r o r g a n i z e d u n d e r t h e a u s p i c e s o f UNCTD a n d UNEP; 2.) "What Now -Another Development" ( 1 9 7 5 ) f r o m t h e Dag H a m m o r s k j o l d F o u n d a t i o n a t t h e S e v e n t h S p e c i a l S e s s i o n o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y ; 3.) The ILO R e p o r t ( 1 9 7 6 ) ; 4.) Catastrophe or New 18 Society? A Latin American World Model (1976) prepared by s c h o l a r s under the auspices of the B a r i l o c h e Foundation; and 5.) Reshaping the International Order (1976) commissioned by the Club of Rome. The most well-known and g e n e r a l l y accepted endorsement of the b a s i c needs concept i s that given by the ILO i n 1976. In t h e i r r e p o r t they s t a t e , " S t r a t e g i e s and n a t i o n a l development plans and p o l i c i e s should i n c l u d e e x p l i c i t l y as a p r i o r i t y o b j e c t i v e the promotion of employment and the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the b a s i c needs of each country's p o p u l a t i o n " (ILO, 1976, p. 13). The c e n t r a l theme running through the report " . . . i s the d e s i r a b i l i t y of making the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the b a s i c needs of the poor the c e n t r a l focus f o r n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l development e f f o r t s " (Ghai, 1977a, p. 9). By t h i s time, there appeared to be a general agreement among o r g a n i z a t i o n s and people i n v o l v e d i n development concerning the relevance of t h i s theme. 2. A DEFINITION OF BASIC NEEDS. R e f l e c t i n g the general consensus that s a t i s f a c t i o n of b a s i c needs should be c e n t r a l to development, the Cocoyoc D e c l a r a t i o n s a i d the f o l l o w i n g : "Our f i r s t concern i s to r e d e f i n e the whole purpose of development. This should not be to develop things but to develop man. Human beings have b a s i c needs: food, s h e l t e r , c l o t h i n g , h e a l t h , education. Any process of growth that does not l e a d to t h e i r f u l f i l l m e n t - or, even worse, d i s r u p t s them - i s a t r a v e s t y of the idea of development" ( i n Ghai, 1977a, p. 6). The most commonly c i t e d d e f i n i t i o n of b a s i c needs was i n i t i a t e d by the ILO i n 1976: 19 " B a s i c n e e d s , a s u n d e r s t o o d i n t h i s Programme o f A c t i o n , i n c l u d e two e l e m e n t s . F i r s t , t h e y i n c l u d e c e r t a i n minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a f a m i l y f o r p r i v a t e c o n s u m p t i o n : a d e q u a t e f o o d ; s h e l t e r a n d c l o t h i n g , a s w e l l a s c e r t a i n h o u s e h o l d e q u i p m e n t a n d f u r n i t u r e . S e c o n d , t h e y i n c l u d e e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by a n d f o r t h e co m m u n i t y a t l a r g e , s u c h a s s a f e d r i n k i n g w a t e r , s a n i t a t i o n , p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a n d h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n a l a n d c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s t h e s i s i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h one o f t h e i t e m s i n t h e s e c o n d e l e m e n t o f t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , t h a t o f t h e e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e o f p r o v i d i n g s a f e d r i n k i n g w a t e r . 3. CRITIQUES OF THE BASIC NEEDS APPROACH. E v e n t h o u g h t h e BNA t o d e v e l o p m e n t h a s t a k e n c e n t e r s t a g e , t h e r e a r e d i f f e r i n g v i e w s on t h e c o n c e p t . The f i r s t o f t h e s e r a i s e s t h e i s s u e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n g r o w t h a n d t h e b a s i c n e e d s c o n c e p t . The ILO R e p o r t o f 1976, i n i t s Programme o f A c t i o n , s t a t e d , " . . . b a s i c n e e d s c a n n o t be a c h i e v e d [ i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s ] w i t h o u t b o t h a c c e l e r a t i o n i n t h e i r e c o n o m i c g r o w t h a n d m e a s u r e s a i m e d a t c h a n g i n g t h e p a t t e r n o f g r o w t h a n d a c c e s s t o t h e u s e o f p r o d u c t i v e r e s o u r c e s by t h e l o w e s t i n c o m e g r o u p s . " ( I L O , 1976, p. 1 3 ) . The p r o b l e m , a s t h e c r i t i c s o f BNA s e e i t , i s t h a t by e m p h a s i z i n g c o n s u m p t i o n o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t i e s , t h e BNA i m p l i e s a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e g r o w t h r a t e ( H i c k s , 1979; S a m e t e r , 1 9 8 4 ) . One p o s s i b l e r e j o i n d e r t o t h i s i s d e v e l o p m e n t b a s e d on e c o n o m i c g r o w t h , a s p o i n t e d o u t e a r l i e r , h a s n o t w o r k e d . A s e c o n d a r g u m e n t i s b a s e d on t h e v i e w t h a t t h e BNA d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean a r e d u c t i o n i n g r o w t h . Norman H i c k s o f t h e W o r l d Bank made some e c o n o m e t r i c e s t i m a t e s o f t h e v a r i a b l e s 20 e x p l a i n i n g d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s ' g r o w t h d u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1960-73. H i s f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h e f o l l o w i n g : - f i r s t , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t c o u n t r i e s m a k i n g p r o g r e s s i n m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s do n o t h a v e s u b s t a n t i a l l y l o w e r GNP g r o w t h r a t e s ; a n d - s e c o n d , t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f a h i g h e r l e v e l o f b a s i c n e e d s s a t i s f a c t i o n a p p e a r s t o l e a d t o h i g h e r g r o w t h r a t e s i n t h e f u t u r e . ( H i c k s , 1979, p. 9 9 2 ) . T h e r e w i l l p r o b a b l y be c o n t i n u i n g d i s c u s s i o n on t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n g r o w t h a n d t h e b a s i c n e e d s c o n c e p t b u t w h a t e v e r t h e o u t c o m e , t h e r e a r e some i m p o r t a n t a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e b a s i c n e e d s c o n c e p t o v e r e m p h a s i z i n g g r o w t h . G r o w t h i s s t i l l i m p o r t a n t a n d may, i n f a c t , be a p r e c o n d i t i o n a n d n e c e s s a r y e l e m e n t i n m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s , b u t t h e e m p h a s i s , a s shown i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s , s h o u l d be on b a s i c n e e d s when t h e u l t i m a t e g o a l i s t h e e r a d i c a t i o n o f p o v e r t y . P a u l S t r e e t e n a r g u e s t h a t t h e BNA i s an i n t e g r a t i n g c o n c e p t . He l i s t s f o u r a d v a n t a g e s when t h e f o c u s i n d e v e l o p m e n t i s on b a s i c n e e d s ; 1) i t i s a r e m i n d e r t h a t t h e o b j e c t i v e o f d e v e l o p m e n t e f f o r t s i s t o p r o v i d e a l l humans w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a f u l l l i f e ; 2) i t g o e s b e y o n d a b s t r a c t i o n s s u c h a s money, i n c o m e , e m p l o y m e n t ; 3) i t a p p e a l s t o t h e n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m m u n i t y a n d i s t h e r e f o r e c a p a b l e o f m o b i l i z i n g r e s o u r c e s ; a n d 4) i t h a s g r e a t o r g a n i z i n g a n d i n t e g r a t i n g power i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a n d p o l i t i c a l l y ( S t r e e t e n , 1981, p. 2 1 ) . The BNA d o e s n o t h a v e t o be i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t t h e o r i e s b u t c a n be "...an a d j u n c t t o , and a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f . . . t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s " ( I b i d . , p. 3 3 ) . The m a i n d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t i t i s a more d i r e c t a t t a c k on p o v e r t y . As 21 H i c k s a r g u e s , " . . . t h e b a s i c n e e d s a p p r o a c h s h i f t s a t t e n t i o n f r o m t h e g o a l o f o u t p u t m a x i m i z a t i o n t o p o v e r t y m i n i m i z a t i o n " ( H i c k s , 1979, p. 9 8 5 ) . The n e e d s o f p e o p l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e p o o r , a r e i n a d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r y t h a n t h e w a n t s t h a t m a r k e t s s e r v e . The BNA makes t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n much c l e a r e r . Not a l l v i e w s o f t h i s a p p r o a c h a r e s o p o s i t i v e . A c c o r d i n g t o S t r e e t e n , some s e e i t a s a " s o p t o keep t h e p o o r q u i e t " ( S t r e e t e n , 1981, p. 2 6 ) . S a m e t e r s e e s t h e BNA a s a s m o k e s c r e e n . By t h i s he means i t i s n o t h i n g more t h a n " . . . a new i n s t a l l m e n t i n a l o n g c h a i n o f f a b r i c a t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o c o - o p t a n d c o n f r o n t any c h a l l e n g e t o t h e d o m i n a n t s y s t e m " ( S a m e t e r , 1984, p. 8 ) . O t h e r s , h o w e v e r , v i e w t h i s a p p r o a c h a s " . . . r e v o l u t i o n a r y b e c a u s e i t c a l l s f o r t h e r a d i c a l r e d i s t r i b u t i o n n o t o n l y o f income a n d a s s e t s b u t a l s o o f po w e r , a n d f o r t h e p o l i t i c a l m o b i l i z a t i o n o f t h e p o o r t h e m s e l v e s " ( S t r e e t e n , 1981, p. 2 6 ) . T h i s v i e w p o i n t s t o t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e BNA w h i c h t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n w i l l e x a m i n e . 4. SOME IMPLICATIONS OF THE BASIC NEEDS APPROACH. The f i r s t i m p l i c a t i o n i s p o l i t i c a l . S a m e t e r d o e s n o t b e l i e v e t h a t many T h i r d W o r l d g o v e r n m e n t s w o u l d a d o p t t h e BNA. They may do so i n p r i n c i p l e , t o p l e a s e t h e i r p e o p l e a n d t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m m u n i t y , b u t n o t i n p r a c t i c e ( S a m e t e r , 1 9 8 4 ) . He a r g u e s t h a t i t i s n o t i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e r u l i n g c l a s s , b o t h n a t i o n a l a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l , t o c h a n g e t h e e x i s t i n g power s t r u c t u r e . A c c o r d i n g t o S a m e t e r , t h e BNA, i f a d o p t e d , w o u l d c h a n g e t h i s s t r u c t u r e . What t h i s l e a d s t o i s a r e q u i r e m e n t t o 22 v i e w t h e BNA a s a p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s ( F r i e d m a n n , 1979; G h a i , "What i s . . . " , 1977; G h a i a n d A l f t h a n , 1977; L i s k , 1985; S a m e t e r , 1984; S a n d b r o o k , 1982; and S t e w a r t , 1 9 8 5 ) . When t h e BNA i s v i e w e d a s a p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s , t h e c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h t h i s p r o c e s s i s t o be c a r r i e d o u t becomes v e r y i m p o r t a n t . As G h a i and A l f t h a n a r g u e , t h e " . . . s a t i s f a c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l n e e d s c a n n e v e r be a c c e p t e d w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o t h e s y s t e m a n d means by w h i c h i t i s b r o u g h t a b o u t " ( 1 9 7 7 , p. 2 3 ) . T h e r e seems t o be two f a c t o r s t h a t t h e BNA e m p h a s i z e s i n t h i s r e g a r d . The f i r s t s e e k s t o c r e a t e c o n d i t i o n s i n a p a r t i c u l a r c o u n t r y so p e o p l e c a n a c h i e v e a minimum s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g , a n d t h e s e c o n d s e e k s a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e c o n o m i c b e n e f i t s o f d e v e l o p m e n t i n f a v o r o f t h e p o o r ( A l l e n a n d A n z a l o n e , 1981, p. 2 2 ) . T h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l o f l i t e r a t u r e on t h e p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e BNA. The d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h i s w i l l n o t be d e a l t w i t h a n y f u r t h e r h e r e . The m a i n p u r p o s e o f t h e p r e c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h s was t o r a i s e t h e i s s u e a n d s t r e s s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c o u n t r y ' s p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h b a s i c needs p l a n n i n g i s c a r r i e d o u t . T h i s w i l l g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n o f how much c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d i n c r e a t i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n s so a minimum s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g c a n be a c h i e v e d a n d i n r e d i s t r i b u t i n g t h e b e n e f i t s o f e c o n o m i c g r o w t h i n f a v o r o f t h e p o o r . The m a i n i m p l i c a t i o n d i s c u s s e d i n t h e b a s i c n e e d s l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n s t h e n e e d t o t a k e a c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s . The f i r s t e l e m e n t t h a t t h i s a p p r o a c h e m p h a s i z e s i s t h a t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n by t h e p e o p l e i n t h e 23 c o m m u n i t i e s . The ILO i n c l u d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g i n t h e i r 1976 d e f i n i t i o n o f b a s i c n e e d s : A b a s i c - n e e d s - o r i e n t e d p o l i c y i m p l i e s t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e i n m a k i n g t h e d e c i s i o n s w h i c h a f f e c t them t h r o u g h o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t h e i r own c h o i c e . " ( I L O , 1976, p . 2 4 ) . F o l l o w i n g t h e I L O ' s l e a d , D o u g l a s Rimmer s t a t e s : " I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e p e o p l e whose b a s i c n e e d s have t o be met s h o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e n e e d s r a t h e r t h a n h a v i n g them h a n d e d down f r o m a b o v e . " ( 1 9 8 1 , p. 2 3 5 ) . He i s n o t a l o n e i n t h i s ( s e e D e l l , 1984; F r i e d m a n n , 1979; G h a i , 1977a; G h a i a n d A l f t h a n , 1977; Hope, 1982; I L O , 1976; L i s k , 1985; a n d S t r e e t e n , 1981) and t h u s t h e i s s u e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s one o f t h e e l e m e n t s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t e x a m i n e d i n t h e t h e s i s . The g e n e r a l c o n s e n s u s seems t o be t h a t a b r o a d - b a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n by t h e p e o p l e i s i m p o r t a n t f o r s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a b a s i c n e e d s o r i e n t e d p r o j e c t . T h i s c a l l s f o r a d e c e n t r a l i z e d o r g r a s s r o o t s t y p e o f p l a n n i n g . T h i s , a g a i n , r e f l e c t s t h e p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e BNA b u t e m p h a s i z e s t h e v a l u e o f a t t a i n i n g i n p u t f r o m t h e p e o p l e f o r whom t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s a r e f o r . T h i s b r i n g s w i t h i t some a d v a n t a g e s ; t h e p e o p l e f e e l a p a r t o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s ( F r i e d m a n n , 1979; I L O , 1 9 7 6 ) , a n d t h e p e o p l e a r e a b l e t o t h e n m o b i l i z e a n d c h a n n e l l o c a l r e s o u r c e s t o h e l p meet t h e i r own b a s i c n e e d s ( A l l e n and A n z a l o n e , 1981; L i s k , 1985; S t r e e t e n , 1 9 8 1 ) . P o p u l a r p a r t i c i p a t i o n becomes e v e n more e f f e c t i v e when t h e p l a n n i n g i s b r o k e n down t o p a r t i c u l a r c o m m u n i t i e s . F r i e d m a n n 24 b e l i e v e s t h a t most b a s i c n e e d s must be s a t i s f i e d t h r o u g h p r o d u c t i o n a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l . He g o e s e v e n f u r t h e r a n d t r i e s t o e n c o u r a g e t h e c r e a t i o n of a b a s i c n e e d s economy b a s e d on c o m m u n i t y c h o i c e ( F r i e d m a n n , 1 9 7 9 ) . A s e c o n d e l e m e n t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h i s t h e n e e d f o r a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y . Hans S i n g e r , i n h i s a r t i c l e , " A p p r o p r i a t e T e c h n o l o g y f o r a B a s i c Human Needs S t r a t e g y " , s t r e s s e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s k i n d of t e c h n o l o g y . Kempe Hope a r g u e s t h a t t h e p r o v i s i o n o f b a s i c n e e d s and t h e t r a n s f e r o f a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y go t o g e t h e r ( D e l l , 1984; Hope, 1 9 8 2 ) . S a n d b r o o k d e f i n e s a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y a s , "...one t h a t i s more c o n g r u e n t w i t h a s o c i e t y ' s n e e d s , r e s o u r c e s a n d p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t t h a n an a l t e r n a t i v e . " ( S a n d b r o o k , 1982, p. 1 1 ) . The move t o d e v e l o p t h i s t e c h n o l o g y began f a i r l y r e c e n t l y . O r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c h a s A p p r o p r i a t e T e c h n o l o g y I n t e r n a t i o n a l a r e b e g i n n i n g t o make some p r o g r e s s i n t h i s f i e l d . The b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t t e c h n o l o g y a p p r o p r i a t e t o a p a r t i c u l a r c o u n t r y , a n d e v e n a c o m m u n i t y w i t h i n t h a t c o u n t r y , i s an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y , t h e i s s u e o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e BNA i t s e l f h a s been r a i s e d . The a r g u m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g t h i s r a i s e some i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s a n d a r e d i s c u s s e d b e l o w . 25 5. THE APPROPRIATENESS OF THE BASIC NEEDS APPROACH. A l l e n a n d A n z a l o n e i n t h e i r a r t i c l e , " B a s i c N e e d s : New A p p r o a c h t o D e v e l o p m e n t - B u t New A p p r o a c h t o E d u c a t i o n ? " , r a i s e t h e i s s u e o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e BNA t o d e v e l o p m e n t i n T h i r d W o r l d c o u n t r i e s . They b e g i n by p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t t h e BNA may "...be b i a s e d t o w a r d t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e W e s t e r n i n d u s t r i a l n a t i o n s , a n d some a s p e c t s may be i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s f o u n d i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . " ( 1 9 8 1 , p. 2 0 9 ) . Some o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e s e c o u n t r i e s do n o t l o o k t o o k i n d l y on t h e a p p r o a c h b e c a u s e o f t h i s . They f e e l t h a t W e s t e r n n a t i o n s a r e t r y i n g t o b l o c k t h e t r a n s f e r o f h i g h t e c h n o l o g y a n d so l o c k them i n t o t h e i r p r e s e n t s t a g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t ( A l l e n a n d A n z a l o n e , 1 9 8 1 ) . They go on t o a r g u e t h a t l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n h a s been p a i d t o t h e c o n c e p t u a l s i d e o f t h e b a s i c n e e d s message. They r a i s e t h e q u e s t i o n t h a t i f i t i s b i a s e d t o t h e W e s t e r n e x p e r i e n c e , t h e n i t i s t r y i n g t o o p e r a t e on p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d s o c i o l o g i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s t h a t a r e n o t g e n e r a l i z a b l e ( A l l e n a n d A n z a l o n e , p . 2 1 5 , 1 9 8 1 ) . I f t h i s i s t r u e t h e n t h e BNA s h o u l d be c r i t i c a l l y e x a m i n e d by d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s who want t o a d o p t t h i s s t r a t e g y . I n o r d e r t o e x a m i n e t h i s s u s p i c i o n o f a c u l t u r a l c o n c e p t u a l b i a s , A l l e n a n d A n z a l o n e a n a l y z e t h e work o f W i l l i a m L e i s s i n h i s book, The Limits to Satisfaction: An Essay on the Problem of Needs and Commodities. P a r t o f L e i s s ' a r g ument c o n c e r n s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f M a s l o w ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f n e e d s . L e i s s s t a t e s : 26 The s u c c e s s i o n ( u p t h e h i e r a r c h y ) i s a t t h e same t i m e o n t o l o g i c a l : t h a t i s t h e l a t e r s t a g e s r e p r e s e n t a h i g h e r s t a g e o f b e i n g , o r t h e more a p p r o p r i a t e d o m a i n s o f human e x i s t e n c e a s s u c h . . . . M a s l o w ' s a r r a n g e m e n t r e f l e c t s t h e s p e c i f i c o r g a n i z a t i o n o f l i f e i n a t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y a d v a n c e d s o c i e t y , where t h e r e i s a h i g h d e g r e e o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n among f u n c t i o n s a n d a c t i v i t i e s . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f n e e d s seems f a r l e s s a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f e a r l i e r s o c i e t i e s . . . " ( L e i s s i n A l l e n a n d A n z a l o n e , 1981, p. 2 1 6 ) . The BNA h a s a r i s e n o u t o f t h e d e v e l o p e d w o r l d , T h i r d W o r l d n a t i o n s h a v e h a d l i t t l e i n p u t i n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s c o n c e p t . A l l e n a n d A n z a l o n e come t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t , " L e i s s ' a r g u m e n t s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e b a s i c n e e d s d o c t r i n e i s p e r h a p s t o o c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o a p r e v a i l i n g t e c h n o c r a t i c v i e w o f t h e w o r l d - a v i e w t h a t r e d u c e s c o m p l e x s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l a n d c u l t u r a l i s s u e s t o t h e c a t e g o r y o f ' t e c h n i c a l ' p r o b l e m s . " ( 1 9 8 1 , p. 2 1 6 ) . T h e s e a r g u m e n t s r a i s e an i m p o r t a n t p o i n t . I f t h e BNA i s t o h a v e any r e l e v a n c e t o t h e T h i r d W o r l d , t h e T h i r d W o r l d i t s e l f s h o u l d be i n t i m a t e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c o n c e p t . T h i s d o e s n o t mean t h a t t h e r e i s no p l a c e f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s t o become i n v o l v e d i n m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s , b u t i t d o e s s u g g e s t t h e y work t o g e t h e r w i t h d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . D e l l d i s c u s s e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s a nd h o s t g o v e r n m e n t ' s i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s who a r e w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r t o meet t h e b a s i c n e e d s o f t h e p e o p l e . H i s c o n c l u s i o n : F i n a l l y , h o w e v e r i m p o r t a n t i t may be f o r c o u n t r i e s t o make more d e l i b e r a t e p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e n e e d s o f t h e i r p o o r e s t c i t i z e n s , i t d o e s n o t f o l l o w t h a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s h a v e any s p e c i a l c o m p e t e n c e o r e x p e r t i s e t o o f f e r i n d e a l i n g w i t h p o v e r t y p r o b l e m s t h r o u g h p r o j e c t s 27 addressed d i r e c t l y to the poor. On the c o n t r a r y , lac k of f a m i l i a r i t y with the complex p o l i t i c a l , economic, s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l problems of a s s i s t i n g the r u r a l and urban poor should prompt the agencies to o f f e r t h e i r r e s o u r c e s and s e r v i c e s i n the areas where they know from past experience that they can perform w e l l . They do, however, have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to a d v i s e governments on the goals that the l a t t e r have f r e q u e n t l y accepted i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l forums, and on the means of a c h i e v i n g those goals w i t h i n the framework of each n a t i o n a l l y - d e t e r m i n e d s t r a t e g y (p. 141). Chapter Three examines the above r e l a t i o n s h i p i n more d e t a i l through f o c u s i n g on the b a s i c needs of water. 28 " F o r a t l e a s t a q u a r t e r o f m a n k i n d , a c l e a n a n d a d e q u a t e s u p p l y o f w a t e r i s n e i t h e r t h e i r l o t n o r an e a r l y p r o s p e c t . M o s t i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c i t i e s t a k e i t f o r g r a n t e d t h a t a b u n d a n t f l o w , f r e e f r o m h a r m f u l o r g a n i s m s , w i l l be a v a i l a b l e t o t h o s e who c a n a f f o r d t o p a y , a n d t h e y assume t h a t t h e p r i c e w i l l be w i t h i n r e a c h o f a l l . Y e t t h e g r o w t h o f p o p u l a t i o n i n r u r a l a r e a s a n d on t h e b u r g e o n i n g m a r g i n s o f t r o p i c a l c i t i e s p r o b a b l y now e x c e e d s t h e r a t e a t w h i c h i m p r o v e m e n t s i n w a t e r s u p p l y a r e made. R o u g h l y t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e human f a m i l y draw t h e i r w a t e r d a i l y f r o m s o u r c e s o u t s i d e t h e h o u s e h o l d a n d c a r r y i t i n c o n t a i n e r s t o t h e i r h o m e s . . . t h e s o u r c e s r a n g e i n q u a l i t y f r o m c o n t i n u o u s l y p o l l u t e d p o o l s t o s y s t e m s o f f e r i n g s u p p l i e s a s p u r e a s t h e most s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n E u r o p e o r A m e r i c a . B o r e h o l e s , dug w e l l s , open p o n d s , s t r e a m s o f many t y p e s , r o o f t o p r a i n c o l l e c t i o n , p u b l i c f o u n t a i n s o r s t a n d p i p e s - a l l a r e i n common u s e . I n q u a n t i t y , t h e y r u n f r o m i n t e r m i t t e n t a n d f e e b l e s t r e a m s t o c o m p l e t e l y r e l i a b l e a n d u n l i m i t e d f l o w s t h r o u g h p i p e s . R e v i e w i n g t h e s c a n t y g l o b a l s t a t i s t i c s , i t seems l i k e l y t h a t a t t h e v e r y l e a s t one o u t o f e v e r y f o u r p e r s o n s now u s e s d o m e s t i c w a t e r f r o m s o u r c e s s u b j e c t t o c o n t a m i n a t i o n . " G i l b e r t F. W h i t e , D a v i d J . B r a d l e y a n d Anne U. W h i t e . Drawers of Water: Domestic Water Use in East Africa. 29 3. THE BASIC NEED OF WATER The p r e s e n t c h a p t e r w i l l b r i e f l y l a y o u t t h e s t e p s l e a d i n g t o w a r d s t h e d e c i s i o n t o d e s i g n a t e t h e 1980s a s t h e D r i n k i n g W a t e r S u p p l y a n d S a n i t a t i o n D e c a d e . I t w i l l t h e n e x a m i n e t h e D e c a d e ' s g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s , f o l l o w e d by a l o o k a t t h e p r o g r e s s made, p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d a n d i d e n t i f y some o f t h e key e l e m e n t s t h a t were f o u n d t o be p r e s e n t i n some o f t h e s u c c e s s f u l w a t e r s u p p l y p r o j e c t s . T h e s e e l e m e n t s w i l l t h e n be c o m p a r e d t o t h e s u c c e s s e l e m e n t s i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h t h e c a s e s t u d y . I t must be s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e e l e m e n t s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e a l l r e l a t e d t o t h e com m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s . The a s s u m p t i o n a r t i c u l a t e d by most w r i t e r s i s t h a t a p p r o p r i a t e k n o w l e d g e , a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y , a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s , a p p r o p r i a t e s u p p o r t a n d c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e p a r t a n d p a r c e l o f a p r o j e c t t h a t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h m e e t i n g t h e b a s i c n e e d s o f t h e p o o r . I t must a l s o be s t r e s s e d t h a t t h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s b a s e d on two d e c a d e s o f e x p e r i e n c e i n p r o v i d i n g a r u r a l w a t e r s u p p l y (RWS) t o c o m m u n i t i e s . B. THE DESIGNATION OF THE DECADE. The U n i t e d N a t i o n s (UN) and i t s v a r i o u s i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m p o n e n t s h a v e p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n f o c u s i n g a t t e n t i o n on t h e b a s i c n e e d o f w a t e r . The b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c o n c e r n c a n be t r a c e d b a c k t o a W o r l d H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n (WHO) s u r v e y i n 1970. M o s t o f t h e s t a t i s t i c s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e on w a t e r s u p p l y a r e 30 f o u n d i n t h e WHO s u r v e y s . The s u r v e y o f 1970 was c a r r i e d o u t t h r o u g h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s e n t t o d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , 71 o f w h i c h r e t u r n e d them. The d a t a g e n e r a t e d c a n o n l y s e r v e a s a somewhat r o u g h i n d i c a t i o n o f where t h e g l o b a l w a t e r s u p p l y s i t u a t i o n s t o o d a t t h a t t i m e ( W o r l d Bank, 1 9 7 6 ) . I n 1970, 15% o f t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n o f d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s h a d r e a s o n a b l e a c c e s s t o s a f e w a t e r . The u r b a n s i t u a t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r w i t h 7 0 % h a v i n g a c c e s s t o a p i p e d w a t e r s u p p l y ( I b i d . ) . The RWS s i t u a t i o n i s much more o f a p r o b l e m i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when one r e a l i z e s t h a t 7 5-90% o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n r e s i d e s i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s . U s i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t e d i n t h e WHO s u r v e y , t h e UN s e t g o a l s f o r t h e g l o b a l i m p r o v e m e n t o f w a t e r s u p p l y i n t h e S e c o n d D e v e l o p m e n t Decade ( 1 9 7 1 - 1 9 8 0 ) . The g o a l w i t h r e g a r d t o r u r a l w a t e r s u p p l y was t o i n c r e a s e t h e c o v e r a g e f r o m 15% t o 2 5 % by 1980 ( W o r l d Bank, 1976 a n d B i s w a s , 1 9 7 9 ) . H a l f w a y t h r o u g h t h e 7 0 ' s , WHO p u b l i s h e d t h e r e s u l t s o f a n o t h e r s u r v e y b a s e d on i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e end o f 1975. As i n t h e p r e v i o u s s u r v e y , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were s e n t o u t a n d 67 d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s r e s p o n d e d ( B i s w a s , 1 9 7 9 ) . I n t h e r u r a l a r e a s , 20% had r e a s o n a b l e a c c e s s t o s a f e w a t e r c o m p a r e d t o 7 5 % i n t h e u r b a n a r e a s ( I b i d . ) . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , 1976, w a t e r s u p p l y a n d s a n i t a t i o n b e g an t o be i d e n t i f i e d a n d r e c o g n i z e d a s an a r e a f o r c o n c e r n on a b r o a d e r s c a l e ( t h e same y e a r t h a t ILO e n d o r s e d t h e b a s i c n e e d s c o n c e p t ) . The f i r s t i n t e r n a t i o n a l f o r u m t o e n u n c i a t e t h e n e e d f o r a g l o b a l a p p r o a c h t o w a t e r s u p p l y a n d s a n i t a t i o n t o o k p l a c e 31 i n 1976 i n V a n c o u v e r , Canada a t t h e UN C o n f e r e n c e on Human S e t t l e m e n t s (UN, Decade D o s s i e r ) . T h i s was f o l l o w e d i n 1977 by t h e UN W a t e r C o n f e r e n c e i n Mar D e l P l a t a , A r g e n t i n a . T h i s c o n f e r e n c e d e s i g n a t e d 1981-1990 a s t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l D r i n k i n g W a t e r S u p p l y a n d S a n i t a t i o n D e c a d e , a n d i s t h e c o n f e r e n c e most c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e W a t e r Decade ( I b i d . ) . I n 1978, t h e WHO and t h e UN I n t e r n a t i o n a l C h i l d r e n ' s E m e r g e n c y F u n d (UNICEF) s p o n s o r e d t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e on P r i m a r y H e a l t h C a r e w h i c h c o n c l u d e d t h a t s a f e w a t e r a n d b a s i c s a n i t a t i o n were b o t h v i t a l f o r a c h i e v i n g p r i m a r y h e a l t h c a r e . The c o n f e r e n c e s e t o u t two r e l a t e d s t r a t e g i e s t h a t were t o be p u r s u e d d u r i n g t h e D e c a d e : t o ha v e more r e l e v a n t h e a l t h c a r e a n d t o p u t more e m p h a s i s on p r e v e n t i v e h e a l t h ( c l o s e l y t i e d t o s a f e w a t e r ) a n d a l l - r o u n d s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t ( I b i d . ) . The . 3 4 th UN G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y i n 1979 d e c i d e d t h a t i t w o u l d have a s p e c i a l one day m e e t i n g t o f o r m a l l y l a u n c h t h e D e c a d e , t o t a k e p l a c e i n i t s 3 5 t h s e s s i o n i n 1980. P r i o r t o t h i s l a u n c h d a t e , t h e W o r l d C o n f e r e n c e o f t h e UN Decade f o r Women: E q u a l i t y , D e v e l o p m e n t a n d P e a c e , h e l d i n C o p e n h a g e n , Denmark, i n 1980 r e c o g n i z e d t h e t i m e a n d h e a l t h b u r d e n s t h e l a c k o f w a t e r i m p o s e d on women. T h i s c o n f e r e n c e e n c o u r a g e d g o v e r n m e n t s a nd i n t e r n a t i o n a l a n d n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s (NGOs) t o p r o m o t e t h e D e c a d e ' s o b j e c t i v e s i n c o - o r d i n a t i o n w i t h r e l a t e d s e c t o r s o f d e v e l o p m e n t . The D ecade was l a u n c h e d i n t h e 3 5 t h s e s s i o n o f t h e UN G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y . 32 The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e c o n f e r e n c e s must be s t r e s s e d . They have s e t g o a l s t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l g o v e r n m e n t s a r e t o t r y t o a c h i e v e t h r o u g h t h e i r own n a t i o n a l l y d e v i s e d p l a n s . As n o t e d i n t h e q u o t e f r o m D e l l t h a t c l o s e d o f f t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , t h i s l a y s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s t o a d v i s e c o u n t r i e s on t h e s e g o a l s a n d t h e ways t o a c h i e v e them, l e a v i n g t h e a c t u a l d e c i s i o n s t o t h e r e s p e c t i v e g o v e r n m e n t s . The m a i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e f o c u s on w a t e r s u p p l y i s t h e UN and i t s a s s o c i a t e d b r a n c h e s . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , t h e Decade w i l l be e x a m i n e d , m a i n l y t h r o u g h u t i l i z i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h e UN s y s t e m h a s p r o d u c e d . B. THE DECADE. The I n t e r n a t i o n a l D r i n k i n g W a t e r S u p p l y a n d S a n i t a t i o n D ecade i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r o v i d i n g a s a f e a n d r e l i a b l e s u p p l y o f w a t e r t o p e o p l e e v e r y w h e r e . T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Decade w h i c h w i l l s e r v e a s a b a s i s f r o m w h i c h t o e x a m i n e t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c e d i n e f f o r t s t o p r o v i d e w a t e r , t h e p r o g r e s s t h a t h a s been made a n d some e l e m e n t s f o u n d i n s u c c e s s f u l p r o j e c t s . I n o r d e r t o do t h i s , t h i s s e c t i o n w i l l d e s c r i b e t h e 1980 WHO S u r v e y , t h e needs i d e n t i f i e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e Decade a n d t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e D e c a d e . 1. THE 1980 WHO SURVEY. One o f t h e f i r s t s t e p s t a k e n once t h e Decade was l a u n c h e d was f o r t h e WHO t o c a r r y o u t a n o t h e r s u r v e y o f t h e g l o b a l w a t e r s u p p l y s i t u a t i o n f o c u s i n g on t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . T h i s 33 s u r v e y s e r v e s a s t h e p o i n t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e Decade f r o m w h i c h t h e p r o g r e s s o f w a t e r s u p p l y i n c o u n t r i e s w o u l d be a s s e s s e d . The WHO h a s a c e n t r a l r e p o r t i n g f u n c t i o n on Decade p r o g r e s s i n c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h t h e UN's r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c c o m m i s s i o n s . The g l o b a l m o n i t o r i n g f u n c t i o n t h e y p e r f o r m u s e s i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by c o u n t r i e s a n d c o n t a i n e d i n r e p o r t s c a l l e d " c o u n t r y s e c t o r d i g e s t s " (WHO, 1 9 8 4 ) . The i n f o r m a t i o n was n o t r e c e i v e d f r o m a l l d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . Out o f a p o s s i b l e 140 c o u n t r i e s , f o r m s were r e c e i v e d f r o m 87. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , one o f t h e WHO r e g i o n s most a f f e c t e d was A f r i c a , w i t h 5 1 % o f t h e c o u n t r i e s m i s s i n g . T h e r e were a l s o a few p r o b l e m s w i t h no a n s w e r s t o some q u e s t i o n s , m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , e t c . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e d a t a g i v e s a g e n e r a l i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e g l o b a l s i t u a t i o n i n 1980. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e s u r v e y b r o k e t h e d a t a down i n t o r e g i o n s . The r u r a l s i t u a t i o n i n A f r i c a w i l l be t h e m a i n f o c u s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g summary. I n 1980, 74% o f t h e u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n g l o b a l l y was p r o v i d e d w i t h a s a f e w a t e r s u p p l y . A t t h e same t i m e , 3 3 % o f t h e g l o b a l r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n h a d a s a f e w a t e r s u p p l y . The 1990 t a r g e t i s 100% f o r u r b a n a r e a s a n d 85% f o r r u r a l . I n A f r i c a , 22 c o u n t r i e s r e s p o n d e d t o t h e s u r v e y a n d 16 o f t h e s e s t a t e d t h a t 50% o r m o r ' e o f t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n l a c k e d s a f e w a t e r . F i v e o f t h e s e c o u n t r i e s h a d s e t t o t a l c o v e r a g e t a r g e t s i n RWS by 1990 w h i l e t h i r t e e n h a d p r e p a r e d o r were p r e p a r i n g f o r m a l Decade p l a n s . F o r SSA, 2 2 % o f t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n h a d a c c e s s t o s a f e w a t e r c o m p a r e d t o 66% f o r t h e u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n ( s e e F i g . 1 ) . The 1990 t a r g e t s a r e 96% f o r u r b a n a n d 8 1 % f o r r u r a l a r e a s . 34 With Accais to Salt Watar E3 0-20 S i 11-100 Sanitation 1 0-20 3 21-40 3 41-00 4 ti-ao » 01-100 Blank Araaa - NA Map fiaaad on data cdiactad By Www Haaith Organliatlon 1979-1980. ana puOtianad by ina UniiM Nationi Oamopmani Programma in 1961. FIG. 1. PERCENT OF RURAL POPULATION WITH SAFE WATER AND SANITATION. 3 5 The a b o v e d a t a a r e b a s e d on a v e r a g e s o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d f o r A f r i c a a n d so do n o t i d e n t i f y t h e c o u n t r i e s who a r e d o i n g t h e " b e s t " o r " w o r s t " i n t h e i r w a t e r s u p p l y e f f o r t s . I t must a l s o be s t r e s s e d a g a i n t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o n l y r e p r e s e n t s 22 o f t h e A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e d a t a a r e u s e f u l a n d w i l l be u s e d a s a r e f e r e n c e p o i n t when n e e d e d . 2. THE NEEDS ID E N T I F I E D . T h e r e a r e a number o f n e e d s t h a t t h e Decade h a s s e r v e d t o h i g h l i g h t a n d f o c u s a t t e n t i o n o n . T h i s i s r e v e a l e d i n t h e g o a l s o f t h e Decade and t h e c o n c e r n s o f t h e v a r i o u s i n t e r n a t i o n a l b o d i e s . The n e e d s a r e h e r e o r g a n i z e d i n t o f i v e c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y a n d t i e d i n w i t h t h e g o a l s l a i d o u t a t Mar D e l P l a t a . They a r e : t h e n e e d t o r e l a t e p l a n n i n g i n t h e w a t e r s e c t o r t o p l a n n i n g i n o t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t s e c t o r s ; t h e n e e d f o r a r u r a l e m p h a s i s a n d f o r c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; t h e n e e d f o r e d u c a t i o n a nd t r a i n i n g ; t h e n e e d f o r a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y a n d f u n d i n g ; a nd t h e n e e d f o r c o n t i n u e d o p e r a t i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e . a ) . W a t e r and O t h e r S e c t o r s . Two o f t h e g o a l s f o r t h e Decade l a i d o u t a t Mar D e l P l a t a were t o : 1. " E n s u r e t h e c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f c o m m u n i t y w a t e r s u p p l y . . . p l a n n i n g w i t h o v e r a l l w a t e r p l a n n i n g a n d p o l i c y a s w e l l a s w i t h o v e r a l l e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . " ; a n d 2. " C a r r y o u t a p r o g r a m o f h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m m u n i t y w a t e r s u p p l y a n d 36 s a n i t a t i o n , i n o r d e r t o h e i g h t e n t h e p e o p l e ' s a w a r e n e s s w i t h r e s p e c t t o h e a l t h . " (UN, 1981b) One o f t h e m a i n s e c t o r s t h a t w o u l d n e e d t o be c o n s i d e r e d i s t h a t o f h e a l t h . T h i s was e v i d e n t i n t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e WHO/UNICEF c o n f e r e n c e . E.H. H o f k e s p o i n t s t o a s t u d y t h a t i n d i c a t e s 8 0 % o f a l l d i s e a s e s i n t h e w o r l d a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u n s a f e w a t e r ( H o f k e s , 1 9 8 1 ) . T h i s i s n o t s i m p l y a p r o b l e m w i t h t h e q u a l i t y o f w a t e r b u t a l s o w i t h t h e q u a n t i t y . T h e r e needs t o be s u f f i c i e n t w a t e r t o n o t o n l y wash o n e s e l f b u t a l s o t o c l e a n f o o d u t e n s i l s , c l o t h e s , e t c . ( I b i d . ) . The Decade Dossier, a document on t h e W a t e r Decade p u b l i s h e d by t h e UN d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m (UNDP), s t a t e s t h a t w a t e r r e l a t e d d i s e a s e s may c l a i m as many a s 25 m i l l i o n l i v e s a n n u a l l y . A g a r w a l e t . a l . a l s o d i s c u s s t h e p r o b l e m s o f w a t e r - r e l a t e d d i s e a s e s a n d c o n c l u d e s t h a t " i l l -h e a l t h [ l a r g e l y a s a r e s u l t o f u n s a f e w a t e r ] c a n d r i v e a p o o r man i n t o s t a r v a t i o n . " ( A g a r w a l e t . a l . p . 2 5 , 1 9 8 0 ) . A p o o r man who s u f f e r s f r o m f r e q u e n t i l l n e s s i s u n a b l e t o work h i s l a n d a n d p r o d u c e h i s f o o d . T h i s r e q u i r e s h i m t o buy h i s f o o d , l a r g e l y t h r o u g h t h e s a l e o f o t h e r goods s u c h a s l i v e s t o c k , w h i c h i n t u r n r e d u c e s h i s p r o d u c t i v e p o t e n t i a l o n c e he i s w e l l . E v e n t u a l l y t h i s k i n d o f c y c l e c a n l e a d t o s t a r v a t i o n . The a b o v e p o i n t s t o a s e c o n d a r e a t h a t s a f e w a t e r c a n a f f e c t . T h i s i s r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t a n d e v e n t h e g e n e r a l e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t i n a c o u n t r y . A p o o r man who i s a f f l i c t e d w i t h i l l h e a l t h c a n n o t work p r o d u c t i v e l y a n d a t t h e same t i m e d r a i n s h i s income t h r o u g h t h e p u r c h a s e o f m e d i c a t i o n f o r h i s i l l n e s s . The Decade Dossier a r g u e s t h a t t h i s c a n l e a d t o a l o s s i n n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t i v i t y . 37 A t h i r d a r e a f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n c o n c e r n s women and c h i l d r e n . The Decade Dossier a r g u e s t h a t t h i s g r o u p i s t h e most a f f e c t e d by a l a c k o f s a f e w a t e r w i t h i n a r e a s o n a b l e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e i r homes. B i s w a s g i v e s some more s p e c i f i c s t a t i s t i c s s u c h a s : 9 0 % o f a l l w a t e r ( a n d f u e l ) i n A f r i c a i s c o l l e c t e d by women; 50% o f t h e i r w o r k i n g t i m e i s s p e n t i n g e t t i n g w a t e r ; a n d 12% o f t h e i r d a y t i m e c a l o r i c n e e d s a r e t a k e n up i n g e t t i n g w a t e r ( B i s w a s , p . 4 5 0 , 1 9 7 9 ) . O t h e r w r i t e r s a l s o a r g u e t h a t s a f e w a t e r i s i m p o r t a n t t o o v e r a l l d e v e l o p m e n t i n a c o u n t r y . H o f k e s w r i t e s , " f o r s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c o m m u n i t y , an a d e q u a t e s u p p l y o f w a t e r i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e . " ( H o f k e s , p . 1 3 , 1 9 8 1 ) . G.A. Brown, t h e C h a i r m a n o f t h e S t e e r i n g C o m m i t t e e f o r C o o p e r a t i v e A c t i o n o f t h e D e c a d e , s e e s t h e Decade a s "a [ c o m p r e h e n s i v e ] d e v e l o p m e n t e f f o r t , l o n g o v e r d u e , r a t h e r t h a n an i s o l a t e d s e e m i n g l y a r b i t r a r y 1 0 - y e a r p r o g r a m m e r e l y f o r t h e l a y i n g o f p i p e s a n d i n s t a l l i n g o f pumps." ( B r o w n , p.4, 1 9 8 3 ) . b ) . A Rural Emphasis and Community P a r t i c i p a t i o n . Two o f t h e g o a l s f o r t h e Decade by t h e UN were t o : 1. "Adopt p o l i c i e s f o r t h e m o b i l i z a t i o n o f u s e r s a n d l o c a l l a b o r i n t h e p l a n n i n g , f i n a n c i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n , o p e r a t i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e o f p r o j e c t s f o r t h e s u p p l y o f d r i n k i n g w a t e r . . . ; " 2. " C o n s i d e r c a r e f u l l y i n e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e s t a n d a r d o f d r i n k i n g w a t e r . . . s e r v i c e s among t h e v a r i o u s s e c t o r s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . . . P r i o r i t y s h o u l d be g i v e n t o t h e p r o v i s i o n o f d r i n k i n g w a t e r . . . s e r v i c e s i n a r e a s where t h e q u a l i t y a n d q u a n t i t y o f w a t e r s u p p l i e d a r e i n a d e q u a t e , o r . . . i n r u r a l a r e a s . . . " (UN, 1981b) 38 The s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f p e o p l e who have a c c e s s t o s a f e w a t e r i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s h a s a l r e a d y been r e f e r r e d t o . T h i s e m p h a s i s a n d t h a t o f com m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l r e c e i v e much more a t t e n t i o n i n f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p t e r . H o w e v e r , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o h i g h l i g h t t h e n e e d a n d p o i n t o u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e Decade a n d t h e r u r a l a r e a s a n d co m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Bahman K i a b e l i e v e s t h e Decade c a n s e r v e a s an e n t r y p o i n t t o d e v e l o p more e f f e c t i v e c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t ( K i a , 1 9 8 4 ) . The Decade Dossier s t a t e s "maximum p a r t i c i p a t i o n by t h o s e who w i l l b e n e f i t f r o m new s y s t e m s i s central t o t h e a p p r o a c h . " . c) . Education, T r a i n i n g and O r g a n i z a t i o n . Two g o a l s f o r t h e Decade s e t o u t by t h e UN a t Mar D e l P l a t a were t o : 1. " R e v i e w t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f o r c o m m u n i t y w a t e r s u p p l y a n d s a n i t a t i o n , a n d where t h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e , s e t up a s e p a r a t e d e p a r t m e n t f o r t h i s p u r p o s e ; " 2. " E s t a b l i s h , a t t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l , t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s t o meet i m m e d i a t e a n d f u t u r e n e e d s f o r s u p e r v i s o r y s t a f f . " (UN, 1 9 8 1 b ) . S i m i l a r t o (b) a b o v e , t h i s n e e d w i l l r e c e i v e more a t t e n t i o n i n f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . The nee d i s f o r t h e a b i l i t y t o e d u c a t e , t r a i n a n d o r g a n i z e p e o p l e , t o f i r s t o f a l l u n d e r s t a n d t h e n e e d f o r i m p r o v e d w a t e r , a n d s e c o n d l y how t o b u i l d , o p e r a t e a n d m a i n t a i n t h e new s y s t e m . d) . Technology and Funding. One g o a l r e l a t e d t o t h i s n e e d s e t by t h e UN was t o : 39 1. " P r o v i d e m u t u a l a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e t r a n s f e r a n d a p p l i c a t i o n o f t e c h n o l o g i e s ( U N , 1 9 8 1 b ) . T h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n c e r n on t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e c o s t o f t h e D e c a d e . T h i s i s an i m p o r t a n t a r e a and one t h a t c a n ha v e a l a r g e i m p a c t on w a t e r s u p p l y p r o j e c t s . However, t h e q u e s t i o n o f how t h e p r o j e c t s w i l l be f i n a n c e d , how much t h e y w i l l c o s t , e t c . w i l l n o t be d e a l t w i t h t o any g r e a t d e g r e e i n t h i s t h e s i s . The ne e d f o c u s e d on h e r e i s f o r a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g i e s w h i c h i s more d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s t h a n t h e b r o a d e r n e e d o f f u n d i n g . e ) . Operation and Maintenance. S i m i l a r l y t o (b) a n d ( c ) t h i s n e e d w i l l r e c e i v e more a t t e n t i o n l a t e r . E v en t h o u g h i t i s r e l a t e d t o t h e o t h e r n e e d s i t i s s i n g l e d o u t t o s t r e s s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e n e e d f o r o n - g o i n g o p e r a t i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e t o a n y w a t e r - s u p p l y p r o j e c t . The Decade Dossier p o i n t s o u t a WHO e s t i m a t e where 4 0 - 8 0 % o f handpumps i n s t a l l e d i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s a r e i n o p e r a b l e w i t h i n t h r e e y e a r s . A UNICEF s t u d y i n A s i a i n 1976 showed 70% o f t h e pumps n o t w o r k i n g (Decade D o s s i e r , p . 2 2 ) . 3. THE PARTICIPANTS. The Decade h a s many p a r t i c i p a n t s , b e i n g a g l o b a l e f f o r t . The p a r t i c i p a n t s h a v e been g r o u p e d i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s : t h e UN and i t s b o d i e s ; t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s ; t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l a n d non-g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; a n d t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s . 40 a) . The UN and Its Bodies. One o f t h e p r o p o s a l s f o r m a l l y a c c e p t e d by t h e c o u n t r i e s a t t h e m e e t i n g i n New Y o r k i n 1979 was t h a t : "A s e v e n a g e n c y s t e e r i n g c o m m i t t e e be f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e d a n d f o r m a l l y s t r u c t u r e d a s t h e f o c a l p o i n t w i t h i n t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s . " ( M c D o n a l d , p . 1 4 0 , 1 9 8 1 ) . T h i s S t e e r i n g C o m m i t t e e was made up o f e i g h t UN b o d i e s : UNDP; W o r l d Bank; WHO; UNICEF; FAO; I L O ; UNESCO; a n d t h e UN i t s e l f . The c h a i r o f t h e C o m m i t t e e i s t h e UNDP w i t h a G l o b a l W a t e r S u p p l y U n i t i n WHO a s s i s t i n g i n s e c r e t a r i a t f u n c t i o n s ( Decade D o s s i e r , p . 1 1 ) . T h i s C o m m i t t e e was f o r m e d t o h e l p c o - o r d i n a t e t h e i r ( t h e UN s y s t e m ) work w i t h t h e n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s i n t h e p l a n n i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t i n g o f w a t e r s u p p l y a c t i v i t i e s . The UNDP R e s i d e n t R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s b e a r t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o - o r d i n a t i o n i n e a c h c o u n t r y . The s t r a t e g i e s t h e C o m m i t t e e e m p h a s i z e s p r o m o t e s a n d s u p p o r t s Decade p r o g r a m s t h r o u g h v a r i o u s a v e n u e s . T h e s e i n c l u d e t e c h n i c a l c o - o p e r a t i o n , b u i l d - u p o f n a t i o n a l c a p a c i t i e s , g e n e r a t i n g s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g p r o g r a m s , p r o m o t i n g c o - o p e r a t i o n among d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , a n d e n c o u r a g i n g t h e f l o w o f e x t e r n a l f u n d s i n t o n a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s (Decade D o s s i e r , p . 1 1 ) . b) . The N a t i o n a l Governments. The m a i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s i s t o d e v e l o p " N a t i o n a l A c t i o n P l a n s " t h a t e m p h a s i z e Decade g o a l s . The g o v e r n m e n t s a r e i n c h a r g e o f p u b l i c p o l i c y a n d a c t i o n p r o g r a m s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e n a t i o n s . 41 T h e r e a r e t h r e e b r o a d a r e a s o f f o c u s f o r t h e g o v e r n m e n t s . The f i r s t i s i n d e f i n i n g t h e l e g a l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e p r o g r a m s . The s e c o n d r e l a t e s t o t h e k i n d o f e x t e r n a l a i d i t n e e d s f o r t h e s e p r o g r a m s and t h e t h i r d i s t o i d e n t i f y i t s own r e s o u r c e s (UN, 1 9 8 2 b ) , and how t o u t i l i z e them. The most i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e b e i n g t h e p e o p l e . c ) . Governmental and Non-Governmental O r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e s e a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t a c t u a l l y c a r r y o u t t h e b u l k o f w a t e r s u p p l y p r o j e c t s . They d e a l w i t h t h e i s s u e s d i s c u s s e d i n p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n s a nd h a v e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s u c c e s s f u l l y i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e p r o j e c t s . The g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e t h o s e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r c o u n t r y , m o s t l y i n t h e N o r t h . Some e x a m p l e s a r e t h e C a n a d i a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t A g e n c y ( C I D A ) , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s A g e n c y f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t (USAID) and t h e Sweden I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t A g e n c y ( S I D A ) . T h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l o f b i l a t e r a l a i d g o i n g on i n t h e Decade a n d t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e s e a g e n c i e s i s s i g n i f i c a n t . The n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s (NGOs) come i n two g e n e r a l t y p e s ; t h o s e i n d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s who work i n T h i r d W o r l d n a t i o n s a n d t h o s e i n d i g e n o u s t o t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . B o t h p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n w a t e r s u p p l y p r o j e c t s . D. C o l l e t e s t i m a t e s t h a t t h e i r i n v e s t m e n t t o 1983 i n t h e Decade was a p p r o x i m a t e l y $120-130 m i l l i o n p e r y e a r ( C o l l e t , 1 9 8 3 ) . 42 I t i s m a i n l y t h e work o f t h i s c a t e g o r y o f p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t i s e x a m i n e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . I t i s t h e e l e m e n t s i n t h e i r p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t h a t a r e u n d e r e x a m i n a t i o n . d ) . L o c a l Communities. We come f i n a l l y t o t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s , t h e most i m p o r t a n t o f a l l t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . I t i s f o r them t h a t t h e Decade was l a u n c h e d . I t i s t h e c o m m u n i t i e s t h a t w i l l u l t i m a t e l y d e t e r m i n e t h e s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e o f many o f t h e p r o j e c t s . The Decade Dossier a r g u e s t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d c o m m u n i t i e s i s v i t a l : "Members o f l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s a r e t o be i n v o l v e d i n a l l a s p e c t s o f w a t e r . . . - f r o m p l a n n i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d f i n a n c i n g , t o t r a i n i n g , o p e r a t i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e . " (UN, Decade D o s s i e r , p . 1 6 ) . C. THE DIFFICULTIES FACED. P r i o r t o t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f t h e Dec a d e a nd w i t h i n t h e f i r s t few y e a r s , a number o f p r o b l e m s h a v e been i d e n t i f i e d t h a t h a v e s e r v e d t o p r e v e n t t h e s u c c e s s o f many w a t e r s u p p l y p r o j e c t s i n r u r a l r e g i o n s . T h e s e o b s t a c l e s c a n be g r o u p e d i n t o f o u r g e n e r a l a r e a s : p o l i t i c a l ; i n s t i t u t i o n a l ; human r e s o u r c e s ; a n d o t h e r f a c t o r s . 1. POLITICAL. W i t h i n t h e p o l i t i c a l r e a l m , t h e p r o b l e m s c a n be a n a l y z e d i n t e r m s o f two a r e a s , n a t i o n a l a n d l o c a l p o l i t i c s . The n a t i o n a l l e v e l w o u l d be t h e f i r s t o b s t a c l e e n c o u n t e r e d when t r y i n g t o 43 i n t r o d u c e a w a t e r s u p p l y p r o j e c t i n t o a c o u n t r y . I n t h e p a s t , d e v e l o p m e n t i n T h i r d W o r l d c o u n t r i e s h a s been a top-down e x e r c i s e ( K i a , 1984a; K u k i e l k a , 1985; a n d Gow a n d S a n t , 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e r e h a s been an u n w i l l i n g n e s s o f t h e c e n t r a l m i n i s t r i e s t o g i v e m e a n i n g f u l a u t h o r i t y t o p r o j e c t s t a f f o r t h e c o m m u n i t i e s . A t t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l , t h e p o l i t i c s i n a c o u n t r y more o r l e s s d e t e r m i n e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t i s i n p l a c e . F a r r o n t a r g u e s t h a t t h i s e n v i r o n m e n t c a n a f f e c t t h e s p e e d a t w h i c h t h i n g s g e t d o n e , t h e t y p e o f p r o j e c t s a p p r o v e d , t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t c o u l d be b e n e f i c i a l t o a p r o j e c t , e t c . ( F a r r o n t , 1986 a n d K u k i e l k a , 1 9 8 5 ) . B e l o w t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l , l o c a l p o l i t i c s c a n a l s o be a m a j o r o b s t a c l e t o a p r o j e c t . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l g r o u p s i n v o l v e d a t t h i s s t a g e . The p r o j e c t manager a n d h i s s t a f f p l a y a v i t a l r o l e . They a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f a c t o r s t h e p l a n t a k e s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n a n d f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m . I f t h e y w i s h t o i g n o r e c e r t a i n e l e m e n t s s u c h a s t r a i n i n g t h e p e o p l e , i n v o l v i n g t h e p e o p l e , e t c . , t h e y h a v e t h e f r e e d o m t o do so ( S a n t a n d C r a w f o r d , 1 9 8 5 ) . Many t i m e s t h i s i s l a r g e l y due t o a r e l u c t a n c e t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h h o s t g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c i e s o r b e c a u s e t h e y a r e b e i n g d r i v e n by o t h e r p o l i t i c a l i m p e r a t i v e s t o i g n o r e t h e s e e l e m e n t s ( I b i d . ) . The l i t e r a t u r e a l s o d i s c u s s e s t h e l o c a l l e a d e r s who were a l s o f o u n d t o c r e a t e some p r o b l e m s . The ma i n one b e i n g a d e s i r e t o m a n i p u l a t e p r o j e c t r e s o u r c e s a n d a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e i r own ends (Gow a n d S a n t , 1 9 8 5 ) . 44 The l a s t g r o u p a r e t h e v i l l a g e r s t h e m s e l v e s . I n c e r t a i n c a s e s t h e v i l l a g e r s r e f u s e d o r were r e l u c t a n t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r o j e c t ( I b i d . ) . K u k i e l k a f o u n d t h a t t h e p e o p l e i n one v i l l a g e d i d n o t u s e t h e w a t e r t h a t t h e p r o j e c t s u p p l i e d s i m p l y b e c a u s e i t d i d n o t t a s t e r i g h t . T h e s e t y p e s o f " p o l i t i c a l " p r o b l e m s c a n t a k e up l a r g e b l o c k s o f t i m e a n d o t h e r r e s o u r c e s d e s i g n a t e d t o t h e p r o j e c t , i n many c a s e s l e a d i n g t o an u n s u c c e s s f u l e f f o r t . 2. INSTITUTIONAL. The l a c k o f w e l l d e v e l o p e d i n s t i t u t i o n s a t b o t h t h e n a t i o n a l and l o c a l l e v e l was a n o t h e r p r o b l e m i d e n t i f i e d . I n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l r e f e r t o o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t h a v e a s o c i a l a n d e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e ( W e b s t e r ' s New W o r l d D i c t i o n a r y ) b o t h a t t h e n a t i o n a l a n d l o c a l l e v e l s . Many g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s were f o u n d t o h a v e o v e r -l a p p i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h no c l e a r i d e a o f who h a d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r what ( W o r l d Bank, 1 9 7 6 ) . M o r s s , Gow and N o r d l i n g e r f o u n d i n t h e i r s t u d i e s t h a t , i n most c a s e s , no i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a p a c i t y h a d been d e v e l o p e d t o p r o m o t e a n d c a r r y o u t t h e p r o j e c t s . S a n t a nd C r a w f o r d i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e p r o b l e m a r e a s r e l a t e d t o i n s t i t u t i o n s . The f i r s t was t h a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c a p a c i t y o f e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s was i n a d e q u a t e t o t h e t a s k i n many c a s e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A s e c o n d was a p r o b l e m w i t h a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s by t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n s t h a t were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e v e l o p m e n t . The f r a m e w o r k t h a t was i n p l a c e d i d n o t a l l o w t h e f r e e f l o w o f t h e n e c e s s a r y i n p u t s t o t h e p r o j e c t . R e l a t e d t o 45 t h i s was t h e t h i r d p r o b l e m , a w e a k n e s s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e s t h a t were t o s u p p o r t t h e e f f e c t i v e f l o w o f i n f o r m a t i o n b o t h v e r t i c a l l y a n d h o r i z o n t a l l y . 3. HUMAN RESOURCES. One o f t h e m a j o r c o n s t r a i n t s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e c o n t r i b u t i n g t o f a i l e d p r o j e c t s was a l a c k o f p e r s o n n e l e d u c a t e d a n d t r a i n e d i n a l l a s p e c t s o f w a t e r s u p p l y . T h i s was f o u n d t o be a p r o b l e m a t b o t h t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d s u b - p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l s ( B i s w a s , 1979; F a r r o n t , 1986; W o r l d W a t e r , 1986; Okun, 1982; M o r s s , C r a w f o r d a n d Owens, 1985; and Gondwe, 1 9 8 5 ) . A f u n d a m e n t a l p r o b l e m , i d e n t i f i e d by B i s w a s ( 1 9 7 9 ) was a l a c k o f e d u c a t i n g t h e v i l l a g e r s on h y g i e n e . As a r e s u l t t h e w a t e r t h a t was s u p p l i e d was n o t s t o r e d s a f e l y a n d p e o p l e s t i l l d r a n k w a t e r f r o m w a t e r h o l e s when t o o f a r away f r o m t h e s a f e s o u r c e . The r e s u l t was t h e p r o j e c t s d i d n o t s e r v e t h e i r p u r p o s e a n d t h e s a f e w a t e r d i d n o t h e l p t h e c o m m u n i t i e s . A s e c o n d m a j o r p r o b l e m more d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o j e c t i s t h a t o f t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e s y s t e m . I n A f r i c a , p a r t i c u l a r l y , t h i s was, a n d i s , one o f t h e b i g g e s t p r o b l e m s (UNDP, V o l . 5 , N o . 4 ) . M c N e i l l f o u n d t h a t RWS s y s t e m s i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s f r e q u e n t l y f a l l i n t o m i s u s e a n d d i s r e p a i r w i t h i n o n l y a few months o f c o m p l e t i o n ( M c N e i l l , 1 9 8 5 ) . S i m i l a r l y , A g a r w a l e t . a l . (1981) r e p o r t 30% o f RWS s y s t e m s o u t o f o r d e r i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . They a l s o g i v e a f i g u r e o f 3 0 - 7 0 % o f handpumps b r e a k i n g down on a v e r a g e . K i a (1984b) s t a t e s t h a t 40-80% o f handpumps do n o t work a f t e r t h r e e y e a r s . A l a c k 46 o f t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l may n o t be t h e o n l y r e a s o n f o r t h e s e f i g u r e s b u t i s c e r t a i n l y one o f t h e main c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s . 4. OTHER FACTORS. T h e r e a r e a number o f o t h e r f a c t o r s t h a t were f o u n d t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e l a c k o f s u c c e s s o f p r o j e c t s . The p r o b l e m o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y i s one o f t h e more o f t e n c i t e d ( W o r l d B ank, 1976; F a r r o n t , 1986; Okun, 1982; H o n a d l e , S i l v e r m a n a n d M i c k e l w a i t , 1985; and A g a r w a l e t . a l . , 1 9 8 1 ) . T e c h n o l o g y t h a t i s t o o c o m p l e x f o r t h e l o c a l p e o p l e l e a d s t o many o f t h e m a i n t e n a n c e p r o b l e m s p o i n t e d t o a b o v e a n d i s u s u a l l y l i n k e d w i t h h i g h c o s t s . The h i g h c o s t s were a s e c o n d p r o b l e m . The d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s a r e p o o r and c a n n o t a f f o r d t h e s o p h i s t i c a t e d t e c h n o l o g i e s t h a t were b e i n g p r e s e n t e d t o them. Okun d i s c u s s e s a f u n d a m e n t a l i s s u e i n d e v e l o p m e n t where he r e v e a l s t h e d i l e m m a c o m m u n i t i e s , a n d n a t i o n s , f i n d t h e m s e l v e s i n . He s t a t e s , " G i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y o f i n v e s t i n g i n a modern monument t h a t c a n a n n o u n c e t o t h e w o r l d t h a t t h e c o m m u n i t y i s i n t h e v a n g u a r d o f p r o g r e s s , o r i n v e s t i n g i n s i m p l e t e c h n o l o g y , t h e c o m m u n i t y i s l i k e l y t o a d o p t t h e f o r m e r . " (Okun, p.14, 1 9 8 2 ) . I n a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y seems t o be t h e r u l e r a t h e r t h a n t h e e x c e p t i o n due t o t h i s d e s i r e t o p u t on a g o o d f r o n t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y i t w o r k s t o t h e d e t r i m e n t o f t h e c o m m u n i t i e s a n d t h e n a t i o n . A t h i r d f a c t o r b r i n g i n g f r u s t r a t i o n t o n a t i o n a l e f f o r t s f o r i m p r o v e d w a t e r s u p p l y s i n c e 1980 h a s been t h e u n r e a l i s t i c o b j e c t i v e s e a c h c o u n t r y l a i d o u t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e D e c a d e 47 ( K u k i e l k a , 1 9 8 5 ) . The u n r e a l i s t i c g o a l s c r e a t e a f e e l i n g o f d e f e a t , r a t h e r t h a n one o f ho p e . One o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s f r u s t r a t i o n i s t h e i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h h a s a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d t h e p l a n s o f c o u n t r i e s t o s u p p l y t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n s w i t h s a f e w a t e r ( B i s w a s , 1 9 8 7 ) . I n s p i t e o f t h e s u c c e s s e s t h e r e a r e more p e o p l e w i t h o u t r e a s o n a b l e a c c e s s t o w a t e r t h a n e v e r b e f o r e ( I b i d . ) . A f o u r t h o b s t a c l e h a s been f o u n d t o be c u l t u r a l , l a r g e l y due t o t h e f a c t t h a t i t h a s been i g n o r e d ( H o n a d l e , S i l v e r m a n a n d M i c k e l w a i t , 1985; and K a n d a w i r e , 1 9 8 2 ) . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n h e a l t h where t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w o f t h e c a u s e s o f i l l n e s s come i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e s c i e n t i f i c r e a s o n s . A f i f t h p r o b l e m was f o u n d t o be t h e s i z e o f t h e p r o j e c t s . The l a r g e r t h e p r o j e c t t h e more o b s t a c l e s i t e n c o u n t e r e d ( F a r r o n t , 1 9 8 6 ) . F a r r o n t a r g u e s t h a t a l a r g e r a r e a i s more d i f f i c u l t t o manage b e c a u s e o f t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f more d i v e r s i t y i n t h e p h y s i c a l a n d s o c i a l a r e a s o f t h e r e g i o n a n d t h u s t h e more d i f f i c u l t i t becomes t o t a k e a l l t h e n e c e s s a r y f a c t o r s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . D. THE PROGRESS MADE. I n 1986 t h e WHO p u b l i s h e d t h e International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade Review of Regional and Global Data (as at 31 December 1983). T h i s s u r v e y i s t h r e e y e a r s l a t e r t h a n t h e 1980 S u r v e y a n d p r o v i d e s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e p r o g r e s s made t h r e e y e a r s i n t o t h e D e c a d e . The g l o b a l s i t u a t i o n i n 1983 i n d i c a t e d t h a t 74% of t h e u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n was s u p p l i e d w i t h s a f e 48 w a t e r c o m p a r e d t o 39% f o r t h e r u r a l a r e a s . T h e s e g l o b a l s t a t i s t i c s i n c l u d e d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s and t h u s p r o v i d e a somewhat d i s t o r t e d p i c t u r e o f t h e s i t u a t i o n i n t h e T h i r d W o r l d . The number o f c o u n t r i e s r e p o r t i n g f r o m A f r i c a h a d i n c r e a s e d f r o m 22 t o 26. N i n e t e e n o u t o f t h e 26 had 5 0 % o r more o f t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n l a c k i n g s a f e w a t e r . The number o f c o u n t r i e s w i t h t o t a l c o v e r a g e t a r g e t s f o r RWS had d e c r e a s e d f r o m 5 t o 2. The number o f c o u n t r i e s t h a t h a d p r e p a r e d o r were p r e p a r i n g Decade p l a n s i n c r e a s e d f r o m 13 t o 22. F o r A f r i c a i t s e l f , 26% o f t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n h a d a c c e s s t o s a f e w a t e r c o m p a r e d t o 6 1 % f o r u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n s . I n t e r m s o f t h e s t a t i s t i c s a v a i l a b l e , t h e p r o g r e s s h a s n o t been t o o s p e c t a c u l a r . F o r A f r i c a 41 m i l l i o n new b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f RWS were r e p o r t e d . T h i s i s a s i g n i f i c a n t i m p r o v e m e n t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , due t o t h e h i g h p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h r a t e s i n A f r i c a , m i l l i o n s s t i l l h a v e t o w a i t f o r s a f e w a t e r . The p r o g r e s s c a n be m e a s u r e d i n o t h e r ways. The p l a n s t h a t c o u n t r i e s were e n c o u r a g e d t o make a t t h e s t a r t o f t h e Decade p r o v i d e one s u c h way. G.A. Brown r e p o r t s 70 c o u n t r i e s i n v o l v e d i n D e c a d e p l a n n i n g who h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d p r i o r i t i e s i n t h e w a t e r s e c t o r . Bahman K i a ( 1 9 8 4 b ) i s e n c o u r a g e d by t h e f a c t t h a t 25 c o u n t r i e s h a v e d e v e l o p e d p l a n s t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e i d e a s f o c u s e d more on t h e p e o p l e who a r e t o b e n e f i t f r o m t h e p r o j e c t s . A s a r e s u l t o f some o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d , 22 c o u n t r i e s r e v i s e d D ecade t a r g e t s downwards t o a more r e a l i s t i c l e v e l ( W o r l d W a t e r , 1 9 8 6 ) . B i s w a s t a k e s a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t v i e w and r e p o r t s 49 7 5 % o f d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s h a v e n a t i o n a l w a t e r p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s ( B i s w a s , 1 9 8 7 ) . T h e s e p l a n s o r n a t i o n a l p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s s e r v e an i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n . They p u t a t t e n t i o n on c e r t a i n a r e a s a nd a s a r e s u l t more r e s o u r c e s a r e a p p l i e d t o t h a t a r e a . F o r e x a m p l e , B i s w a s b e l i e v e s t h a t a number o f t h i n g s have h a p p e n e d : t h e a s s e s s m e n t of w a t e r r e s o u r c e s h a s i m p r o v e d ; c o m m u n i t y w a t e r s u p p l y h a s r e c e i v e d a l o t more a t t e n t i o n ; e n v i r o n m e n t a n d h e a l t h h a v e r e c e i v e d more a t t e n t i o n ; a n d human r e s o u r c e s r e c e i v e d more a t t e n t i o n e v e n t h o u g h i t i s s t i l l a m a j o r c o n s t r a i n t ( B i s w a s , p . 1 , 1 9 8 7 ) . The n a t i o n a l p l a n s c a n a l s o s e r v e t o r e f l e c t some o f t h e l e s s o n s t h a t have been l e a r n e d s o f a r i n t h e D e c a d e . K i a ( 1 9 8 4 b ) i d e n t i f i e s some o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s . He b e l i e v e s t h e p l a n s r e v e a l a s h i f t f r o m l a r g e - s c a l e e n g i n e e r i n g a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n a p p r o a c h e s t o w a r d s methods t h a t work w i t h p e o p l e t o b r i n g a b o u t l o w e r - c o s t " a p p r o p r i a t e " s o l u t i o n s . They e m p h a s i z e more s e l f - f i n a n c i n g f r o m t h e c o m m u n i t y and n a t i o n a l s o u r c e s r a t h e r t h a n a d e p e n d e n c e on e x t e r n a l d o n o r s . They p l a c e more e m p h a s i s on a d e q u a t e t r a i n i n g , i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s e c t o r s a n d c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d m a i n t e n a n c e s y s t e m s . They a l s o r e f l e c t a t u r n i n g t o w a r d s p e o p l e -t e c h n o l o g i e s , h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n a n d t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f women. T h e s e a r e i m p o r t a n t t r e n d s b u t s i m p l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e w r i t t e n down does n o t mean t h e y w i l l be a p p l i e d . I n a n o t h e r a r t i c l e K i a ( 1 9 8 4 a ) s t a t e s t h a t he d o e s n o t b e l i e v e t h a t t h e p l a n s a c t u a l l y a c c o m p l i s h much. They pay v e r b a l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m b u t do n o t make them an e x p l i c i t p a r t o f t h e p l a n n i n g . 50 As a r e s u l t many o f t h e p l a n s a r e i m p o s e d on c o m m u n i t i e s r a t h e r t h a n s o l i c i t i n g t h e i n p u t o f t h e c o m m u n i t y ( p . 2 , 1 9 8 4 ) . The p r o g r e s s made t o d a t e h a s n o t r e a l l y been i n t h e i n c r e a s e o f t h e number o f p e o p l e s e r v e d . R a t h e r i t h a s been i n t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f what t h e p r o b l e m s a r e and o f what e l e m e n t s a r e i m p o r t a n t f o r s u c c e s s f u l RWS p r o j e c t s . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n w i l l e x a m i n e i n some d e t a i l what t h e s e e l e m e n t s a r e . E. ELEMENTS IN SUCCESSFUL PROJECTS. S u c c e s s f u l w a t e r p r o j e c t s h a v e been d e f i n e d by D e n n i s W a rner a s i n v o l v i n g " . . . a s e t o f a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a c h i e v e t h e o b j e c t i v e s f o r w h i c h t h e y were p l a n n e d . " ( W a r n e r , p . 1 1 8 , 1 9 8 1 ) . He t h e n g o e s on t o e x p a n d a l i t t l e on t h i s by s a y i n g " . . . s u c c e s s f u l w a t e r . . . p r o j e c t s r e p r e s e n t t e c h n o l o g i c a l , b e h a v i o r a l a nd i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a n g e s l e a d i n g t o i m p r o v e m e n t s i n t h e h e a l t h , e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g c o m m u n i t i e s . " ( W a r n e r , p . 1 1 9 , 1 9 8 1 ) . The f i r s t d e f i n i t i o n s t r e s s e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s . The t a s k t h e n becomes one o f i d e n t i f y i n g them. W a r n e r a r g u e s t h a t p r o j e c t p l a n n e r s u s u a l l y f o c u s on i n p u t / o u t p u t r e l a t i o n s h i p s - c o s t s , t h e number o f p r o j e c t s b u i l t , t h e amount of w a t e r p r o d u c e d , e t c . , w h i l e p a y i n g l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o what he c a l l s d e v e l o p m e n t g o a l s - i m p r o v e d h e a l t h , g r e a t e r s o c i a l w e l l -b e i n g , e t c . ( W a r n e r , 1 9 8 1 ) . I t i s t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t g o a l s t h a t h i s s e c o n d d e f i n i t i o n t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t . The d e f i n i t i o n u s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s i s a c o m b i n a t i o n a n d s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f W a r n e r ' s d e f i n i t i o n s . S u c c e s s , i n t h i s t h e s i s , 51 i s d e f i n e d a s t h e m e e t i n g o f i m m e d i a t e a n d l o n g t e r m w a t e r n e e d s l e a d i n g t o i m p r o v e m e n t s i n h e a l t h , e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f c o m m u n i t i e s . When one t u r n s t o i d e n t i f y i n g t h e e l e m e n t s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t seem t o be i n t e g r a l p a r t s o f s u c c e s s f u l p r o j e c t s , one g e n e r a l e l e m e n t s h o u l d be n o t e d . The p l a n n e r a n d t h e p e r s o n who i s t o i m p l e m e n t t h e p r o j e c t must f i r s t o f a l l d e s i g n a f l e x i b l e , o p e n - e n d e d p l a n t h a t r e s p o n d s t o c o m m u n i t y c o n d i t i o n s ( K a l b e r m a t t e n , 1985 and K i a , 1 9 8 4 a ) . The n e x t s t e p w o u l d be t o g a i n t h e v i l l a g e r s a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e p l a n a n d t h e i r t r u s t i n t h e p e r s o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g i t ( S a u n d e r s a n d W a r f o r d , 1976 a n d S t e w a r t a n d R u l l , 1 9 8 1 ) . I n o r d e r t o g a i n t h e i r a c c e p t a n c e a n d t r u s t a number o f e l e m e n t s h a v e been f o u n d t o be o f k e y i m p o r t a n c e . T h e y a r e g r o u p e d h e r e i n t o f i v e c a t e g o r i e s : a p p r o p r i a t e k n o w l e d g e ; a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y ; a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s ; a p p r o p r i a t e s u p p o r t ; a n d com m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n . P i c k f o r d ( 1 9 8 3) s u p p l i e s a w o r k i n g d e f i n i t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e t h a t c o n v e y s t h e c o n c e p t a s i t i s u s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . " C u l t u r a l , e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i o l o g i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e p e o p l e i n any p l a c e d e t e r m i n e what i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r them. To make w a t e r s u p p l y . . . r e a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r p e o p l e i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o know s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e i r b a c k g r o u n d , t h e i r t r a d i t i o n s , t h e i r f a m i l y a n d com m u n i t y s t r u c t u r e s , t h e i r e m p l o y m e n t , t h e e x t e n t o f t h e i r p o v e r t y o r a f f l u e n c e , t h e i n c i d e n c e o f d i s e a s e a n d s o o n . " ( p . 2 0 6 ) . 1. APPROPRIATE KNOWLEDGE. The l i t e r a t u r e d i s c u s s i n g key e l e m e n t s i n w a t e r s u p p l y p r o j e c t s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e i r s u c c e s s i d e n t i f i e s t h r e e c o m p o n e n t s 52 o f a p p r o p r i a t e k n o w l e d g e . The f i r s t two r e f e r t o k n o w l e d g e t h e i m p l e m e n t e r s n e e d , t h e l a s t t o k n o w l e d g e v i l l a g e r s n e e d . The f i r s t h a s been p a r t o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r many y e a r s . I t c a n be g i v e n t h e l a b e l o f " t e c h n i c a l " i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s i n c l u d e s d a t a on t h e p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s - t o p o g r a p h y , s o i l , w a t e r t a b l e , w a t e r s o u r c e , c l i m a t e , n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , e t c ; b i o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s - w a t e r q u a l i t y , w a t e r r e l a t e d d i s e a s e s , e t c . ; e c o n o m i c f e a t u r e s - a s s e t s , a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s , l i a b i l i t i e s , i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , e t c . ; a n d d e m o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s - p o p u l a t i o n , b i r t h r a t e , i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y , l i f e e x p e c t a n c y , e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n , e t c . ( I s e l y , 1 9 8 1 ) . T h i s k i n d o f k n o w l e d g e g a t h e r i n g p r e s e n t s l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y t o t h e a g e n c i e s , i t i s f a c t s a n d f i g u r e s . H owever, Warner ( 1 9 8 1 ) a r g u e s t h a t s t u d i e s g a t h e r i n g t h e f a c t s a n d f i g u r e s s h o u l d be k e p t b r i e f i n o r d e r t o a v o i d f r u s t r a t i n g t h e v i l l a g e r s . A more i m p o r t a n t component o f k n o w l e d g e v i t a l t o t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a n n i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e p r o j e c t i s what w i l l be c a l l e d " p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d " k n o w l e d g e . T h i s p l a c e s t h e e m p h a s i s on k n o w i n g t h e c o m m u n i t y i n i t s f u l l n e s s . W i d s t r a n d a r g u e s t h a t t h e , " l a c k o f . . . k n o w l e d g e [ o f l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s ] i s v e r y o f t e n t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e gap b e t w e e n t h e p l a n a n d t h e s o c i a l / p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y . " ( p . 1 4 1 , 1 9 7 6 ) . S a n t a n d C r a w f o r d p u t i t a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t way, " . . . e f f e c t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g r e q u i r e s an a w a r e n e s s o f t h e p o l i c y e n v i r o n m e n t c o m b i n e d w i t h a s e n s i t i v e a n d d e t a i l e d k n o w l e d g e o f l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s , p r a c t i c e s , a n d n e e d s . " ( p . 1 8 , 1 9 8 5 ) . 53 S t e w a r t a n d R u l l ( 1 9 8 5 ) r e f e r t o t h i s a s a s o c i a l d i a g n o s t i c p r o c e s s . T h e y f o u n d t h e r e i s a n e e d t o i d e n t i f y : v a r i o u s g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y ; f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l l e a d e r s h i p - d e c i s i o n -m a k e r s , i n f l u e n t i a l p e o p l e , c o m p e t i n g g r o u p s , e t c . ; t r a d i t i o n a l h e a l e r s a n d d i v i n e r s ; new i n d i v i d u a l s a n d g r o u p s ; a n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e p e o p l e ' s n e e d s and c o n c e r n a n d t h o s e o f t h e w a t e r p r o g r a m . W a r n e r s t r e s s e s t h a t t h i s " . . . s o c i a l a n a l y s i s c a n a n d s h o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h i n a l l s t a g e s o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . " ( p . 9 1 , 1 9 8 1 ) . I n a d d i t i o n t o g a i n i n g t h i s k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e c o m m u n i t y , w r i t e r s s u c h a s Chambers ( 1 9 8 3 ) , S a u n d e r s and W a r f o r d ( 1 9 7 9 ) , W a rner ( 1 9 8 1 ) a n d K a n d a w i r e (1982) s t r e s s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f u t i l i z i n g k n o w l e d g e o f t h e c o m m u n i t y ' s members. K n o w l e d g e on how w a t e r h a s t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n s u p p l i e d , r e l i g i o u s t a b o o s t h a t c a n i n f l u e n c e t h e u s e o f t e c h n o l o g y , a n d t h e l o c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e l i n k b e t w e e n w a t e r , s a n i t a t i o n , p e r s o n a l h y g i e n e , e n v i r o n m e n t a l h y g i e n e , h e a l t h , e t c . , i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t i f one i s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e w h o l e c o m m u n i t y , i n c l u d i n g i t s c u l t u r a l d i m e n s i o n . The t h i r d component o f a p p r o p r i a t e k n o w l e d g e i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e k n o w l e d g e t h e p e o p l e w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y may n e e d . E d u c a t i n g v i l l a g e r s a s t o t h e i r n e e d o f c l e a n w a t e r a n d t h e b e n e f i t s o f i t i s one o f t h e more f u n d a m e n t a l a r e a s . W i t h t h i s k n o w l e d g e t h e y may be more w i l l i n g t o work t o w a r d s i m p r o v i n g t h e w a t e r s i t u a t i o n ( S a u n d e r s a n d W a r f o r d , 1 9 7 9 ) . A s e c o n d f o c u s w o u l d be t o t r a i n v i l l a g e r s how t o o p e r a t e and m a i n t a i n t h e s y s t e m s . 54 An i m p o r t a n t t h o u g h t t o k e e p i n m i n d i s t h a t a l l c o m m u n i t i e s a r e d i f f e r e n t a n d s h o u l d a l w a y s be a p p r o a c h e d w i t h t h a t a w a r e n e s s ( W h i t e , 1 9 8 1 ) . 2. APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY. F a r r o n t ( 1 9 8 6) d e c l a r e s a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y a s , "one o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t a n d f r u i t f u l c o n c e p t s o f o u r t i m e . . . " ( p . 7 ) . T h i s i s l a r g e l y due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c o n c e p t t a k e s t e c h n o l o g y , a non-human t h i n g , a n d e m p h a s i z e s t h e human f a c t o r . I t i s an a p p e a l i n g c o n c e p t t h a t seems t o be c a t c h i n g o n . B i s w a s ( 1 9 87) r e i n f o r c e s t h i s v i e w by p o i n t i n g o u t t h e p o p u l a r i z a t i o n o f i t i n r e c e n t y e a r s . A p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y h a s been d e f i n e d i n many ways. K a l b e r m a t t e n (1985) b e l i e v e s t h a t t e c h n o l o g y s h o u l d be b a s e d on t h e o b j e c t i v e s t o be a c h i e v e d . T h i s i n c l u d e s t h e s o c i o c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t a n d t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e u s e r t o m a i n t a i n t h e t e c h n o l o g y . F a r r o n t ( 1 9 8 6) s t r e s s e s t h e n e e d f o r a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y t o be t a i l o r e d t o human c i r c u m s t a n c e s a n d p h y s i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . K o l o k o ( 1 9 7 9) w r i t e s t h a t a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y s h o u l d be: a d a p t a b l e t o l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s ; a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e e x i s t i n g work f o r c e who w i l l h a n d l e i t ; a n d c a p a b l e o f r e d u c i n g d e p e n d e n c e on e x t e r n a l s o u r c e s . The UN d e c l a r e d t h a t a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y , " . . . i s t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n r e f e r e n c e t o e x i s t i n g n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s , e x i s t i n g e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s a n d t h e human f a c t o r " (UN, 1981d, p . 9 ) . 55 The common theme r u n n i n g t h r o u g h t h e a b o v e d e f i n i t i o n s i s t h a t o f t h e human e l e m e n t . T e c h n o l o g y i s no l o n g e r v i e w e d a s b e i n g s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e l o c a t i o n w i t h i n w h i c h i t i s p l a c e d . The c h o i c e o f t h e k i n d o f t e c h n o l o g y t o be u s e d h a s b e e n f o u n d t o h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t i m p a c t on w a t e r s u p p l y p r o j e c t s . S a n d b r o o k ' s d e f i n i t i o n p r o v i d e s a good b a s i s on w h i c h t o c h o o s e t h e t e c h n o l o g y u s e d . A p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y s h o u l d b e , "...one t h a t i s more c o n g r u e n t w i t h a s o c i e t y ' s n e e d s , r e s o u r c e s a n d p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t t h a n an a l t e r n a t i v e . " ( p . 1 1 , 1 9 8 2 ) . 3. APPROPRIATE INSTITUTIONS. U n d e r a p p r o p r i a t e k n o w l e d g e t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f v a r i o u s g r o u p s a n d l e a d e r s w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t i e s was l i s t e d a s i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c o m m u n i t y . R e l a t e d t o t h i s i s t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h i n t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y a n d how t h e y r e l a t e t o b o t h n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d a i d a g e n c i e s . L o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s c a n p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n p r o v i d i n g a l i n k b e t w e e n t h e c o m m u n i t i e s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s a t h i g h e r l e v e l s . S a n t a n d C r a w f o r d ( 1 9 8 5 ) a r g u e t h a t t h i s i s i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e , " I n d i g e n o u s s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c a r r a n g e m e n t s s u r v i v e b e c a u s e t h e y p e r f o r m n e c e s s a r y t r a d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s a n d s a t i s f y l o c a l n e e d s . " ( p . 1 8 ) . I n s t i t u t i o n s s u c h a s t h e s e c o u l d be a d a p t e d t o c o n t r i b u t e t o RWS p r o g r a m s . The l a c k o f a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s h a s been f o u n d t o be d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e s u c c e s s o f w a t e r s u p p l y p r o j e c t s ( F a r r o n t , 1986; K o l o k o , 1979; a n d S p e n c e r , 1 9 8 5 ) . Where t h e y were i n p l a c e , p r o j e c t s r a n more s m o o t h l y ( W a r n e r , 1 9 8 1 ) . 56 Warner i s r e f e r r i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y t o l o c a l l e v e l i n s t i t u t i o n s where l o c a l c o m m i t t e e s , who h a v e been s e l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o c u s t o m , a r e i n v o l v e d i n s e t t i n g p r i o r i t i e s a n d management p r o c e d u r e s . I n t h i s way t h e s e l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s c a n be s t r e n g t h e n e d by t h e p r o j e c t a n d become s t r o n g a n d d y n a m i c c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( K i a , 1 9 8 4 a ) . The g r e a t e r n e e d a t a b r o a d e r l e v e l i s f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d human r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t ( B i s w a s , 1 9 8 7 ) . T h i s was i d e n t i f i e d a t t h e I n t e r r e g i o n a l Symposium on I m p r o v e d E f f i c i e n c y i n t h e Management o f W a t e r R e s o u r c e s h e l d i n New Y o r k i n J a n u a r y o f 1987. The r e c o m m e n d a t i o n p u t s an o b l i g a t i o n on a i d a g e n c i e s t o t r a i n b e n e f i c i a r i e s i n o p e r a t i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e o f RWS p r o j e c t s and s t r e s s e s t h e ne e d t o f o c u s e f f o r t s on e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n b u i l d i n g a s p a r t o f a w a t e r s u p p l y p r o j e c t . A n o t h e r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n a t t h e Symposium was f o r g r e a t e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n among l o c a l , n a t i o n a l a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s . 4. APPROPRIATE SUPPORT. A p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e a key component o f a p p r o p r i a t e s u p p o r t . S u p p o r t r e f e r s t o m a i n t a i n i n g t h e p e o p l e , m a i n l y t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g , a n d t h e p r o j e c t ( p a r t s , a d v i c e , t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , e t c . ) . W i t h t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n p l a c e t h e o n g o i n g s u p p o r t w o u l d be much e a s i e r t o d e v e l o p . One a s p e c t o f t h i s s u p p o r t i s human r e s o u r c e s d e v e l o p m e n t . I s e l y e t . a l (1986) a r g u e s t h a t , " a l l u s e r s o f w a t e r s u p p l y . . . s y s t e m s have a l a r g e r o l e t o p l a y i n m a i n t a i n i n g them." ( p . 2 0 ) . The UNDP ( C a s e H i s t o r y #4) a d v o c a t e s t h e t r a i n i n g o f ' b a r e f o o t e n g i n e e r s ' 57 d e f i n e d a s , " o f t e n a v o l u n t e e r , u s u a l l y s e l e c t e d by t h e c o m m u n i t y , t h i s p e r s o n k e e p s p i p e s , pumps a n d w e l l s i n b a s i c r e p a i r a n d , e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t , r e f l e c t s t h e c o m m u n i t y ' s v i e w t h a t t r o u b l e - f r e e o p e r a t i o n o f w a t e r - s u p p l y s y s t e m s i s a s much i t s own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a s t h a t o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t . " ( p . 2 ) . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s b a r e f o o t e n g i n e e r , t h e r e i s a ne e d t o d e v e l o p s k i l l s w i t h i n t h e v i l l a g e t o t a k e on r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a n d o t h e r a s p e c t s ( S t e w a r t a n d R u l l , 1 9 8 1 ) . The f o c u s s h o u l d be on t a k i n g t h e e m p h a s i s o f f t h e p r o j e c t s t a f f a n d d e v e l o p i n g a s t r e n g t h f r o m w i t h i n t h e v i l l a g e . U n t i l t h i s h a p p e n s , t h e r e s h o u l d be a m a i n t e n a n c e o f c o n t i n u e d s u p p o r t by t h e o u t s i d e a g e n c y t o t h e RWS p r o j e c t i n t h e v i l l a g e u n t i l t h e y c a n m a i n t a i n i t t h e m s e l v e s ( I b i d . ) . W a r n e r ( 1 9 8 1 ) i d e n t i f i e s t e c h n i c a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l f a c t o r s a s s u p p o r t c o n d i t i o n s n e e d e d t o n o u r i s h a n d s u s t a i n t h e p r o j e c t . I n p a r t i c u l a r , v i l l a g e r s n e e d t o have a c c e s s t o a p p r o p r i a t e i n f o r m a t i o n on t e c h n o l o g y a n d how t o u s e i t a n d a c c e s s t o t h e n e c e s s a r y p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e p r o j e c t ( i . e . , s p a r e p a r t s ) . M o r s s , Gow a n d N o r d l i n g e r ( 1 9 8 5) a r g u e t h a t t h e s u p p o r t c o n d i t i o n s n e e d t o be d e v e l o p e d l o c a l l y a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e . The d e p e n d e n c e on e x t e r n a l s o u r c e s o f s u p p o r t t a k e s away f r o m t h e s t r e n g t h o f l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d co m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t l e a d i n g t o a d e c r e a s e d c h a n c e o f s u c c e s s f o r w a t e r s u p p l y p r o j e c t s . Q u e s t i o n s t h a t f o c u s on how t o a c h i e v e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l o c a l s u p p o r t c o n d i t i o n s n e e d t o be i n c l u d e d a t a l l s t a g e s o f p l a n n i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e p r o j e c t . 58 5. COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION. I n O c t o b e r 1986, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m 30 A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s a n d 15 e x t e r n a l s u p p o r t a g e n c i e s met i n A b i d j a n , E t h i o p i a a n d s i g n e d t h e " A b i d j a n S t a t e m e n t . " " L a s t i n g h e a l t h a n d e c o n o m i c b e n e f i t s f o r t h e r u r a l a n d u r b a n f r i n g e p o p u l a t i o n s o f A f r i c a c a n be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d c o mmunity management o f w a t e r s u p p l y a n d s a n i t a t i o n s y s t e m s b a s e d on p r o v e n l o w - c o s t t e c h n o l o g i e s . A f r i c a n g o v e r n m e n t s a n d d o n o r s a r e u r g e d t o i d e n t i f y a n d commit a d e q u a t e r e s o u r c e s and p r o v i d e a l l n e c e s s a r y s u p p o r t f o r t h e d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t of c o m m u n i t i e s i n c h o o s i n g , m a n a g i n g a n d p a y i n g f o r t h e i r w a t e r a n d s a n i t a t i o n s y s t e m s . " (UNDP, V o l . 5 , No.4, p . 2 , 1 9 8 6 ) . The A b i d j a n S t a t e m e n t c a l l s f o r more e f f e c t i v e c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Community p a r t i c i p a t i o n h a s been f o u n d t o be t h e key e l e m e n t i n s u c c e s s f u l w a t e r s u p p l y p r o j e c t s by a number o f w r i t e r s ( M i s s i o n t o M a l a w i , 1981; I s e l y e t . a l , 1986; UN, 1979a; Gow and S a n t , 1985; R o a r k , 1980; H o f k e s e t . a l , 1981; K u k i e l k a , 1985; S t e w a r t a n d R u l l , 1981; W h i t e , 1981; K a n d a w i r e , 1982; K i a , 1984a; W a r n e r , 1981; and F a r r o n t , 1 9 8 6 ) . Community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s i n v o l v e d i n a p p r o p r i a t e k n o w l e d g e , a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y , a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d a p p r o p r i a t e s u p p o r t . Warner ( 1 9 8 1 ) and W h i t e (1981) a r g u e t h a t v i l l a g e r s s h o u l d be g i v e n t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f d e c i d i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y want t h e p r o j e c t a t a l l . H o f k e s e t . a l ( 1 9 8 1 ) w r i t e s , " a n a l y s i s o f e x i s t i n g s m a l l c o mmunity w a t e r s u p p l i e s h a s shown t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e e a r l y design s t a g e s g r e a t l y c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e s u c c e s s o f a p r o j e c t . " ( p . 2 8 ) . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r what h a p p e n s i n a v i l l a g e s h o u l d be p l a c e d on t h e v i l l a g e r s . As K u k i e l k a ( 1 9 8 5 ) p o i n t s o u t , " v i l l a g e r s t h e m s e l v e s a r e t h e b e s t 59 j u d g e s o f what s h o u l d be done i n t h e i r v i l l a g e . And e v e n i f t h e i r d e c i s i o n s a r e s o m e t i m e s w r o n g , t h e y s t i l l h a v e t h e r i g h t t o make them." ( p . 1 2 ) . An i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t h a t o f r e s p o n d i n g t o a f e l t n e e d . I t i s n o t a n e e d t h e y h a v e been t o l d t h e y have b u t one t h e y h a v e d i s c o v e r e d o r know t o be a r e a l n e e d i n t h e i r c o m m u n i t y ( M i s s i o n t o M a l a w i , 1981; UN, 1979a; a n d K a n d a w i r e , 1 9 8 2 ) . As K a n d a w i r e ( 1 9 8 2 ) w r i t e s , "...when p e o p l e know t h a t s e l f - h e l p work w i l l b e n e f i t t hem, t h o u g h i t i s o r g a n i z e d by o u t s i d e r s , t h e y w i l l o f f e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r o j e c t . " ( p . 3 0 0 ) . Community p a r t i c i p a t i o n h a s been f o u n d t o be i m p o r t a n t i n a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e p l a n n i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t i n g o f w a t e r s u p p l y p r o j e c t s . The p r o j e c t i s f o r t h e p e o p l e a n d s h o u l d be f o c u s e d on t h e p e o p l e a t a l l s t a g e s . The c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e UN a r t i c l e on c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( 1 9 7 9 a ) s u m m a r i z e s t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e e f f e c t o f g e n u i n e c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n . "When p e o p l e a c c e p t a p r o j e c t o r p r o g r a m a s t h e s o l u t i o n t o a need t h e y f e e l , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s more e f f e c t i v e , t h e i r v i l l a g e wisdom i s a g u i d e t o t h e c h o i c e o f a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y , a nd t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s c a n f a c i l i t a t e e f f e c t i v e f o l l o w -up." ( p . 9, 1 9 7 9 ) . I n summary t h e r e h a v e been a g r e a t many RWS p r o j e c t s p l a n n e d a n d i m p l e m e n t e d o v e r t h e p a s t y e a r s . Some have s u c c e e d e d , b u t a d i s c o u r a g i n g l y h i g h number h a v e f a i l e d . The p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n h a s i d e n t i f i e d some e l e m e n t s f o u n d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t a r e i n s u c c e s s f u l p r o j e c t s . The common t h r e a d i n t h e s e e l e m e n t s i s a 60 f o c u s on t h e p e o p l e f o r whom t h e p r o j e c t s a r e d e s i g n e d . As H a i l e ( 1 9 8 1 ) p o i n t s o u t , " D u r i n g t h e l a s t two d e c a d e s , i t h a s become more a n d more w i d e l y a c c e p t e d t h a t i t i s f u t i l e t o i m p l e m e n t r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m s w i t h o u t t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e i n t e n d e d b e n e f i c i a r i e s , t h e p o o r . " ( p . 9 2 ) . An e n c o u r a g i n g s i g n o f t h e d i r e c t i o n a i d a g e n c i e s may be g o i n g i s f o u n d i n USAID's p u b l i c a t i o n " P o l i c y D i r e c t i o n s f o r R u r a l W a t e r S u p p l y i n D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s . " " S u c c e s s seems more l i k e l y t o be a s s u r e d , h o w e v e r , i f t h e m o t i v a t i o n a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g e x t e n d s a l l t h e way t o t h e v i l l a g e l e v e l . T h i s c a n be a c h i e v e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n t o h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n , t o g e n u i n e c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a n d by m a k i n g s u r e t h a t k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s o c i a l a n d c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f c o m m u n i t y l i f e i n r e l a t i o n t o w a t e r s u p p l y i s d e v e l o p e d a nd u s e d i n p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g a n d p r o j e c t d e s i g n . " ( f o u n d i n R o a r k , p . 5 0 , 1 9 8 0 ) . The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r d e a l t w i t h l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s o f RWS p r o j e c t s a n d f o c u s e d on t h e c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s . The c a s e s t u d y i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h a p r o j e c t t h a t i s r e l a t i v e l y y o u n g , w h i c h b egan a few y e a r s a f t e r t h e I L O s e n d o r s e m e n t o f t h e b a s i c n e e d s c o n c e p t a n d w h i c h t a k e s a t e c h n o c r a t i c a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s . B e c a u s e o f t h i s i t p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t e x a m p l e t o e x a m i n e t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e a s s u m p t i o n a r t i c u l a t e d by w r i t e r s i n t h e b a s i c s n e e d s l i t e r a t u r e i s a v a l i d o n e. T h a t i s , t h a t a t e c h n o c r a t i c a p p r o a c h l e a d s t o f a i l u r e a n d a c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h ( w i t h i t s a s s o c i a t e d e l e m e n t s o f a p p r o p r i a t e k n o w l e d g e , a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y , a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s , a p p r o p r i a t e s u p p o r t a nd c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n ) t o s u c c e s s . 61 "Now I h a v e a n s w e r e d y o u r q u e s t i o n s , when i s t h i s man b r i n g i n g me w a t e r ? " An e l d e r f r o m a v i l l a g e i n B u n g a l e L o c a t i o n i n t h e c a s e s t u d y . 62 4. THE CASE STUDY: A DESCRIPTION W a t e r i s o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e i n A f r i c a . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o n a r r o w t h e a n a l y s i s down t o r u r a l w a t e r s u p p l y (RWS) i n a d i s t r i c t o f K e n y a , E a s t A f r i c a . I n o r d e r t o do t h i s , t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e c a s e s t u d y w i t h i n K e n y a a n d Kenya w i t h i n Sub-S a h a r a n A f r i c a (SSA) w i l l be s e t o u t b e f o r e g o i n g i n t o t h e s p e c i f i c c a s e s t u d y . A. THE REGIONAL CONTEXT: SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA. S u b - S a h a r a n A f r i c a i s a v a s t r e g i o n . S a i (1986) s t a t e s t h a t i t h a s a l a n d a r e a two a n d a h a l f t i m e s l a r g e r t h a n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ( s e e F i g . 2 a n d F i g . 3 ) . I t c o n s i s t s o f f o r t y - f i v e c o u n t r i e s a n d i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be one o f t h e l e a s t d e v e l o p e d a r e a s o f t h e w o r l d . W o l f s o n (1985) e s t i m a t e s t h a t 23 o f t h e w o r l d ' s 35 p o o r e s t c o u n t r i e s a r e i n SSA. The t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e r e g i o n i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 450 m i l l i o n w i t h an a v e r a g e d e n s i t y o f 18 p e o p l e p e r s q u a r e k i l o m e t e r ( S a i , 1 9 8 6 ) . One o f t h e m a j o r p r o b l e m s i n t h e r e g i o n i s i t s f a s t g r o w i n g p o p u l a t i o n , e s t i m a t e d by W o l f s o n ( 1 9 8 5 ) t o be t h e f a s t e s t i n t h e w o r l d . T h i s becomes a s e v e r e p r o b l e m when t h e p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h r a t e e x c e e d s t h e g r o w t h o f f o o d p r o d u c t i o n l e a d i n g t o a n e e d f o r t h e c o u n t r i e s t o i m p o r t t h e i r f o o d . S u b - S a h a r a n A f r i c a s u f f e r s f r o m s u c h a s i t u a t i o n a n d a s a r e s u l t , t h e W o r l d Bank ( 1 9 8 4 ) e s t i m a t e s t h e r e a r e a b o u t 100 m i l l i o n m a l n o u r i s h e d p e o p l e i n SSA. C o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h i s p r o b l e m o f p o v e r t y i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e g i o n . The S a h e l ( d e f i n e d by G r o v e , 1978) i s a zon e o f 63 FIG. 2. SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA. North Africa Sub-Saharan Africa 64 65 g r a s s l a n d , s c r u b a n d t h o r n b r u s h e x t e n d i n g n o r t h t o t h e S a h a r a a n d s o u t h t o t h e s a v a n n a w h i c h g o e s t h r o u g h 19 c o u n t r i e s . The l a n d i n t h e S a h e l i s a r i d a n d s e m i - a r i d , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f r e q u e n t d r o u g h t s . R a i n f a l l o c c u r s i n s h o r t c o n c e n t r a t e d s p e l l s b u t 80-90% o f t h i s m o i s t u r e i s l o s t t h r o u g h e v a p o r a t i o n ( B r a b y n , 1 9 7 7 ) . J e r e m y S w i f t (1977) p o i n t s o u t t h a t r a i n f a l l i n t h e r e g i o n i s b o t h s p a t i a l l y a n d t e m p o r a l l y u n r e l i a b l e . W i t h a mean a n n u a l r a i n f a l l o f l e s s t h a n 150 mm ( G r o v e , 1 9 7 8 ) , t h e n e e d f o r w a t e r i s o b v i o u s . W i t h i n SSA i n g e n e r a l , G r e e n (1985) a r g u e s t h a t t h e p h y s i c a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f o r w a t e r s u p p l y i s one o f t h e w e a k e s t s e c t o r s a n d t h a t t h e human i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s e c t o r s i n d r i n k i n g w a t e r a r e i n many c a s e s i n j u s t a s bad o r w o r s e c o n d i t i o n . He g o e s on t o s a y t h a t t h i s i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y s e v e r e p r o b l e m i n r u r a l a r e a s . D a n i e l , G r e e n a n d L i p t o n ( 1 9 8 5 ) a r g u e t h a t t h e r u r a l p o o r a r e t h e p o o r e s t g r o u p i n SSA and an e m p h a s i s must be p u t on them. T h i s i s o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e w i t h r e g a r d t o w a t e r . Kenya i s one o f t h e c o u n t r i e s w h i c h h a s a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f i t s l a n d i n t h e S a h e l ( s e e F i g . 4 ) . K e n y a s h a r e s many o f t h e same p r o b l e m s a s o t h e r S a h e l i a n c o u n t r i e s , w a t e r b e i n g one o f t h e more u r g e n t . The p r o b l e m s i n h e r r u r a l r e g i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o i n f r a s t r u c t u r e ( a s G r e e n w r i t e s ) a r e a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f o t h e r SSA c o u n t r i e s . To u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e p r o b l e m s i n more d e t a i l , a c a s e s t u d y c o n c e r n e d w i t h RWS i n K e n y a w i l l be u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e s . However, b e f o r e d o i n g t h i s t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e s t u d y i s i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d . 67 B. THE COUNTRY CONTEXT: KENYA. Kenya i s l o c a t e d i n e a s t e r n A f r i c a a s t r i d e t h e e q u a t o r . F i g u r e 5 shows t h e R e p u b l i c o f Kenya w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f A f r i c a ( t h e c a s e s t u d y a r e a i s n o r t h o f M a l i n d i on t h e c o a s t a n d i s shown i n more d e t a i l l a t e r o n ) . E t h i o p i a , T a n z a n i a , U g a n d a , S o m a l i a a n d Sudan a r e h e r i m m e d i a t e n e i g h b o r s . The c o u n t r y i s 580,367 km 2 i n s i z e w i t h 11,230 km 2 o f t h i s b e i n g w a t e r ( K a p l a n , 1 9 8 4 ) . K e n y a h a s a r e m a r k a b l e v a r i e t y o f t o p o g r a p h i c a l a n d c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . T h e r e a r e t h r e e r e g i o n s w i t h i n t h e c o u n t r y ; t h e f i r s t i s t h e c o a s t a l b e l t w i t h h o t and hu m i d w e a t h e r ; t h e s e c o n d i s t h e c e n t r a l h i g h l a n d s r e g i o n a n d t h e a d j a c e n t l o w e r p l a t e a u s t o t h e west t h a t b o r d e r L a k e V i c t o r i a ; a n d t h e t h i r d i s t h e r e s t o f t h e c o u n t r y w i t h l o w p l a t e a u s t h a t encompass t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f Kenya ( K a p l a n , 1 9 8 4 ) . The l a n d i n t h e f i r s t two r e g i o n s i s t h e b e s t s u i t e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . Haddow (1980) g i v e s f i g u r e s o f 9% a s b e i n g o f h i g h a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l a n d a f u r t h e r 9% o f medium p o t e n t i a l f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . The r e m a i n d e r i s l o w p o t e n t i a l a r i d a n d s e m i - a r i d l a n d . B e r n a r d (1985) d e s c r i b e s t h e s e K e n y a d r y l a n d s a s h a v i n g l o w a n d v a r i a b l e p r e c i p i t a t i o n , h i g h e v a p o r a t i o n r a t e s , s p a r s e v e g e t a t i o n , s h a l l o w s o i l s a n d w i d e l y s p a c e d r i v e r s w i t h i n t e r m i t t e n t f l o w s . The p r e s s u r e p u t on K e n y a ' s r e s o u r c e s i s e x a c e r b a t e d due t o h a v i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 0 % o f t h e l a n d i n t h e a r i d a n d s e m i - a r i d z o n e . T h i s becomes e v e n more p r o b l e m a t i c when t h e d e m o g r a p h i c s i t u a t i o n i s e x a m i n e d . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 7 5 % o f t h e p e o p l e l i v e i n t h e 18% o f t h e l a n d t h a t i s of good a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l . As a 68 F I G . 5. THE REPUBLIC OF KENYA. 69 resul t these lands are densely populated. Sai (1986) gives an average f igure for a l l of Kenya of 34 people per square kilometer while UNEP (1981) gives a f igure of 500-999 people per square kilometer of arable land. To further exacerbate the problem, Kenya current ly has a population close to 20 m i l l i o n and a population growth rate that has been estimated to exceed 4% (Sa i , 1986). The f e r t i l i t y rate (the average number of ch i ldren per woman) i s 8.1, more than double the average of the world ( I b i d . ) . The above indicates the pressure put on the a r i d and semi-a r i d lands i s increas ing . Approximately 85% of the population is r u r a l and i t i s they who are in need of more land as the population r i s e s . The only land l e f t is of low a g r i c u l t u r a l po tent ia l with low r a i n f a l l and the need for managing these lands in the r ight way is of v i t a l importance.. Saggerson (1972) analyzed the water s i tua t ion in East A f r i c a . He concluded that most of East A f r i c a was without an adequate and potable water supply. Many of the r i v e r s and streams only carry water during the wet season. Eastern Kenya was h ighl ighted as being water scarce due to low r a i n f a l l , excessive evaporation and many sources being s a l i n e . G r i f f i t h s (1972) found that Kenya received a r e l i a b l e 30 inches (762mm) of ra in per annum in only 15% of the country (see F i g . 6 ) . The problems facing the government are becoming more severe and the ir need of a so lut ion more urgent, p a r t i c u l a r l y in the r u r a l areas of the marginal lands. The pressure to meet the water needs of i t s population is increasing as people have to move to regions where water is not as readi ly a v a i l a b l e . The 250 millimeters c l e u 560760 7601270 1270-1760 1780 mill imelen or mors > Rainy seasons and maximums I April-July —Maximum in May lla March-May and October-December — Maximums in April and November lib March-M ay and October -November — Maximums in April and October Ilia December-May — Maximum in March Illb December-May—Maximum in April IV March-May—Maximum in April V March-October —Maximum in May VI March-September—Maximums in May and August VII January-December—Maximums in April and December _ Source: Based on information from Irving Kaplan et al.. Area Handbook for Kenya, Washington, 1976, 61. F i g . 6. Mean Annual R a i n f a l l . 71 f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n e x a m i n e s t h e p l a n n i n g f r a m e w o r k t h e g o v e r n m e n t h a s s e t up i n t r y i n g t o p r o v i d e w a t e r . C. THE PLANNING CONTEXT: KENYA. On December 12, 1963 Ke n y a r e c e i v e d h e r i n d e p e n d e n c e . The F i r s t D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n ( 1 9 6 4 - 7 0 ) h a d two m a i n o b j e c t i v e s , t h e r a i s i n g o f n a t i o n a l i ncome a n d t h e f a c i l i t a t i o n o f t h e K e n y a n i z a t i o n o f t h e economy ( W a l k e r , 1 9 8 6 ) . P l a n n i n g e f f o r t s s t a r t e d a t t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l w i t h s u b s e q u e n t P l a n s s h o w i n g t h e ch a n g e i n f o c u s a n d p o l i c y o f t h e Go v e r n m e n t t o w a r d s v a r i o u s i s s u e s . To f a c i l i t a t e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f where RWS f i t s i n t o t h e s e p l a n s , t h i s s e c t i o n i s o r g a n i z e d i n t o t h r e e l e v e l s o f a n a l y s i s : t h e f i r s t w i l l l o o k a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p l a n n i n g i n K e n y a ; t h e s e c o n d w i l l l o o k a t t h e f o c u s on r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t a n d b a s i c n e e d s ; a n d t h e t h i r d w i l l e x a m i n e t h e w a t e r s e c t o r w i t h an e m p h a s i s on RWS. 1. ORGANIZATION. The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p l a n n i n g i n K e n y a began a f t e r t h e F i r s t D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n . I n 1966, a t what h a s come t o be c a l l e d t h e K e r i c h o C o n f e r e n c e , t h e r e was a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n n i n g a t l e v e l s b e l o w t h e n a t i o n a l ( A m b r o s e , 1 9 8 0 ) . The D i s t r i c t L e v e l was t h o u g h t t o be an a p p r o p r i a t e u n i t . I n 1967 t h e Government i s s u e d a d i r e c t i v e r e q u i r i n g p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g t o be u n d e r t a k e n a t n a t i o n a l , r e g i o n a l a n d l o c a l l e v e l s ( I b i d . ) . As a r e s u l t , t h e c u r r e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f r a m e w o r k o f Kenya was s e t up. T h i s s t a r t s a t t h e t o p w i t h t h e C e n t r a l 72 G o v e r n m e n t f o l l o w e d by P r o v i n c e s , D i s t r i c t s , D i v i s i o n s , L o c a t i o n s , S u b l o c a t i o n s a n d V i l l a g e s ( s e e F i g . 7 ) ( K i n g o r i a h , 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e r e a r e e i g h t p r o v i n c e s i n K e n y a . K i n g o r i a h ( 1 9 8 4) a r g u e s t h a t t h e r e a r e a number o f p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e p r o v i n c e s a s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s . Among them a r e t h a t t h e y h a v e been a c a r r y - o v e r f r o m c o l o n i a l t i m e s a n d a s a r e s u l t some a r e v e r y l a r g e , l o n g p r o v i n c e s w i t h t h e i r c a p i t a l s f a r removed f r o m t h e e x t r e m e e d g e s o f t h e p r o v i n c e . O t h e r s a r e t o o s m a l l , t h e o b v i o u s c a s e i s t h e d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d W e s t e r n P r o v i n c e ( s e e F i g . 8 ) . He p o i n t s o u t t h a t few p r o v i n c e s have h o m o g e n e i t y i n p h y s i c a l , e c o l o g i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . H i s m a i n a r g u m e n t i s f o r a r e d e f i n i n g o f p r o v i n c i a l b o u n d a r i e s t o make them more s u i t a b l e f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p u r p o s e s . The D i s t r i c t s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , he c o n s i d e r s a s b e i n g , i n g e n e r a l , "...more compact a n d more f u n c t i o n a l l y i n t e g r a t e d t h a n t h e p r o v i n c e s . " ( K i n g o r i a h , p . 2 3 , 1 9 8 4 ) . P e t e r D e l p ( 1 9 8 0 ) d e a l s i n d e t a i l w i t h D i s t r i c t L e v e l p l a n n i n g a n d much o f what f o l l o w s i s b a s e d on h i s District Planning in Kenya. T h e r e a r e 41 D i s t r i c t s i n K e n y a , N a i r o b i b e i n g a P r o v i n c e a n d a D i s t r i c t . The o t h e r 40 D i s t r i c t s were m o s t l y drawn on h i s t o r i c , e t h n i c o r l i n g u i s t i c l i n e s . One o f t h e m a i n r e a s o n s f o r d i v i d i n g t h e u n i t s t o t h i s e x t e n t i s t h e g r e a t d i v e r s i t y o f t h e c o u n t r y . The s i z e o f t h e D i s t r i c t s r a n g e f r o m 78,078 km^ i n M a r s a b i t D i s t r i c t , a s p a r s e l y p o p u l a t e d a r e a , t o 1959 km^ f o r K i r i n y a g a D i s t r i c t i n C e n t r a l P r o v i n c e . The d i v i s i o n i n t o 73 Administrative Unit Offi cer COUNTRY (KENYA) P r e s i d e n t PROVINCES ( C o a s t ) P r o v i n c i a l C o m m i s s i o n e r D I S T R I C T S ( K i l i f i ) D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r D I V I S I O N S ( M a l i n d i ) D i v i s i o n D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r LOCATIONS ( M a g a r i n i & B u n g a l e ) C h i e f SUB-LOCATIONS S u b - C h i e f V I L L A G E S E l d e r s (Kambi.) F i g . 7. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Framework • K e y t o A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Map C o a s t P r o v i n c e 1 Mombasa 2 K w a l e 3 K i l i f i 4 T a n a R i v e r 5 Lamu F i g . 8. P r o v i n c e s and D i s t r i c t s (F rom K i n g o r i a h , p.22, 1984) 74 D i s t r i c t s attempts to more adequately address the needs of the people w i t h i n the d i v e r s e c o u n t r y . The D i s t r i c t was to become the focus of p l a n n i n g and implementation. To date, two s e t s of D i s t r i c t Development Plans were produced, each c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the T h i r d and Fourth Development P l a n s . The D i s t r i c t Commissioner i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the implementation of the p l a n s with, under him: the D i v i s i o n D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r s as head of the d i v i s i o n s ; the c h i e f as head of the l o c a t i o n ; and the s u b - c h i e f as head of the s u b - l o c a t i o n . The purpose of D i s t r i c t L e v e l p l a n n i n g was t o , " . . . s h i f t . . . p l a n n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s from headquarters to f i e l d p e r s o n n e l . . . [ s o ] . . . the plans should be b e t t e r designed to meet l o c a l c o n s t r a i n t s , and e x p l o i t l o c a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , while promoting stronger commitment from the o f f i c e r s charged with implementing the p r o j e c t . " (Delp, p.8, 1980). To f a c i l i t a t e t h i s t here are the D i s t r i c t Development Committees. They a c t u a l l y e x e r c i s e the c e n t r a l r o l e i n D i s t r i c t p l a n n i n g and are made up of d i s t r i c t heads of departments, Members of Parliament, chairman and c l e r k to the County C o u n c i l s , and any l o c a l or community l e a d e r s , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of boards, government c o r p o r a t i o n s and p r i v a t e or v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s which the D i s t r i c t Development Committee may wish to i n v i t e from time to time. I t i s the D i s t r i c t Development Committee who have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of approving Harambee ( s e l f - h e l p ) p r o j e c t s and *There has probably been a t h i r d set produced fo r the F i f t h Plan but I was unable to f i n d t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . 75 t o make s u r e t h a t l o c a l l y i n i t i a t e d p r o j e c t s a r e i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e D i s t r i c t L e v e l p l a n s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t . D e l p b e l i e v e s t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f D i s t r i c t L e v e l p l a n s f o r t h e F o u r t h P l a n s e r v e d t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y d e c e n t r a l i z e p l a n n i n g t o t h e D i s t r i c t L e v e l . I n s p i t e o f t h i s o p t i m i s m he a l s o b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e K e n y a n b u r e a u c r a c y i s s t i l l h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d . He s t a t e s , "The c e n t r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f c o o r d i n a t i o n , s e t t i n g p o l i c y a n d u l t i m a t e l y c o n t r o l o f t h e p u r s e s t r i n g s w i l l s hape t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s a n d t h e i r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n f o r t h e c o n c e i v a b l e f u t u r e . " ( p . 2 3 ) . The i m p o r t a n t f a c t i s t h a t t h e t r e n d i s t o w a r d s d e c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g and some s i g n i f i c a n t s t e p s h a v e been t a k e n i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n . 2. THE FOCUS ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND BASIC NEEDS. D e v e l o p m e n t e f f o r t s i n Ke n y a a r e d i r e c t e d l a r g e l y t h r o u g h t h e n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s . The F i r s t P l a n ( 1 9 6 4 - 7 0 ) was b a s e d on t h e t r a d i t i o n a l " t r i c k l e - d o w n " v i e w o f d e v e l o p m e n t (House a n d T i l l i c k , 1 9 8 3 ) . I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t i f t h e n a t i o n a l i n come was i n c r e a s e d , b e n e f i t s w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y a c c r u e t o t h e p o o r e r s e g m e n t s o f s o c i e t y . H o w e v e r , i n Kenya a s w e l l a s g l o b a l l y ( a s d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r two) t h i s a s s u m p t i o n , i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e r e s u l t s , h a s become q u e s t i o n a b l e a s t o i t s v a l i d i t y . The S e c o n d P l a n ( 1 9 7 0 - 7 4 ) i n d i c a t e d a q u e s t i o n i n g o f t h e t r i c k l e - d o w n v i e w . I t s o b j e c t i v e was t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n o f r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t a n d t h e r e c t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i m b a l a n c e b e t w e e n u r b a n a n d r u r a l i n c o m e s ( C a r r o l l , 1 9 8 6 ) . 76 H a l f w a y t h r o u g h t h e S e c o n d P l a n , i n 1972, t h e Kenyan G o v e r n m e n t i n v i t e d t h e ILO t o s e n d a m i s s i o n t o K enya t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p r o b l e m s i n t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t e f f o r t s , b o t h r u r a l a n d u r b a n . The I L O ' s s u b s e q u e n t r e p o r t , p u b l i s h e d i n 1972, came t o e x e r t a s i g n i f i c a n t i m p a c t on d e v e l o p m e n t p o l i c i e s . The R e p o r t u r g e d an i n t e g r a t e d a p p r o a c h t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e r u r a l economy. House a n d T i l l i c k ( 1 9 8 3 ) i d e n t i f y t h e f o l l o w i n g e l e m e n t s t h a t were t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s : " t h e i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f l a n d u s e , w i t h a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f e f f o r t d i r e c t e d t o t h e p o o r e r h o u s e h o l d s ; a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a n d t o w a r d s more l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e u n i t s ; t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f u n u t i l i z e d o r u n d e r u t i l i z e d l a n d ; g r e a t e r p r o v i s i o n f o r f a m i n e r e l i e f ; r u r a l w o r k s p r o g r a m s ; and i m p r o v e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e s a n d a m e n i t i e s . " ( p . 4 5 ) . T h i s , i n g e n e r a l , meant a s h i f t i n n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g y t o w a r d s t h e a l l e v i a t i o n o f p o v e r t y m a i n l y t h r o u g h t h e e x p a n s i o n o f p r o d u c t i v e , i n c o m e - e a r n i n g employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , o r " r e d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h g r o w t h " . The T h i r d P l a n ( 1 9 7 4 - 7 8 ) n e v e r r e a l l y h a d a c h a n c e t o a d d r e s s t h e s e i s s u e s due t o t h e o i l c r i s i s . The P l a n was r e v i s e d t o i n c l u d e m e a s u r e s d i r e c t e d a t l e s s e n i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e c r i s i s r a t h e r ' t h a n t o p r o b l e m s w i t h i n t h e c o u n t r y ( C a r r o l l , 1 9 8 6 ) . By t h e t i m e o f t h e F o u r t h P l a n ( 1 9 7 9 - 8 3 ) , t h e G o v e r n m e n t was a b l e t o r e s p o n d t o t h e ILO R e p o r t a n d t o o t h e r more r e c e n t t h e o r i e s on d e v e l o p m e n t and had a s i t s main theme t h e f i g h t i n g o f r u r a l p o v e r t y w h i c h i n c l u d e d a b a s i c n e e d s s t r a t e g y f o c u s i n g on a c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h ( E r g a s , 1 9 8 2 ) . The G overnment o f 77 K e n y a (GOK, 1981) w r i t e s t h a t t h e o b j e c t i v e o f a l l e v i a t i n g p o v e r t y was t o be a t t a c k e d on f o u r f r o n t s : ( 1 ) t h e c r e a t i o n o f i n c o m e - e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; (2) t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f e x p e n d i t u r e p a t t e r n s ; (3) t h e p r o v i s i o n o f o t h e r b a s i c n e e d s , s u c h a s n u t r i t i o n , h e a l t h c a r e , b a s i c e d u c a t i o n , w a t e r a n d h o u s i n g ; a n d (4) i n s t i t u t i o n b u i l d i n g . " ( p . 9 1 ) . The GOK ( 1 9 8 1 ) a l s o i n c l u d e d a d e s c r i p t i o n o f f o u r p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h t h e y f e l t d e f i n e d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s i n K e n y a . T h e s e i n c l u d e d : 1) w i d e s p r e a d p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; 2) d i v e r s i t y o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f o r m s and i n c e n t i v e s ; 3) G o v e r n m e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; a n d 4) m u t u a l s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ( p . 9 0 ) . T h e s e p r i n c i p l e s were t o a p p l y i n any d e v e l o p m e n t e f f o r t s c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e a l l e v i a t i o n o f p o v e r t y . The p r i n c i p l e s were a i m e d a t b u i l d i n g on t h e i n d i g e n o u s s t r e n g t h o f K e n y a n s o c i e t y . I n c l u d e d i n t h e GOK's d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e F o u r t h P l a n i s an e m p h a s i s on a t l e a s t f o u r a r e a s . One o f t h e s e was on a r i d a nd s e m i - a r i d l a n d s . A s e c o n d was a s t r e s s on t h e n e e d f o r d e v e l o p i n g a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y . A t h i r d , s t a t e d e x p l i c i t l y i n t h e P l a n , was a f o c u s on a b a s i c n e e d s s t r a t e g y . The f i n a l e m p h a s i s , a l s o e x p l i c i t l y i n c l u d e d , was on i n s t i t u t i o n b u i l d i n g . I n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e l a t t e r , t h e G o v e r n m e n t w r i t e s , " D u r i n g t h e p l a n n i n g p e r i o d , t h e n a t i o n ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l be s t r e n g t h e n e d a n d e x t e n d e d more w i d e l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y s i d e i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e e s s e n t i a l and s u p p o r t i n g s e r v i c e s f o r t h e p r o g r a m s [ r e f e r r e d t o ] . . . They w i l l be s h a p e d t o u t i l i z e t h e s k i l l s a n d r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s , t o meet t h e n e e d s i d e n t i f i e d by t h e l o c a l p e o p l e , a n d 78 g e n e r a l l y t o f i t i n t o t h e c u l t u r a l , e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l s e t t i n g i n w h i c h t h e y must f u n c t i o n . " ( p . 9 5 ) . E v i d e n t i n t h e s e emphases i s t h e f o c u s on t h e p e o p l e w h i c h r e v e a l s a s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t f r o m t h e F i r s t P l a n . The G o v e r n m e n t s t i l l m a i n t a i n s t h e m a j o r r o l e i n m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s b u t e n c o u r a g e s Harambee a c t i v i t i e s w h e n e v e r p o s s i b l e . The p r e s e n t P l a n , t h e F i f t h ( 1 9 8 4 - 8 8 ) r e f l e c t s e v e n more o f a s h i f t t o w a r d s a f o c u s on t h e r u r a l p o o r . I t s t r e s s e s t h e ne e d t o d e v e l o p a r e l i a n c e on d o m e s t i c r e s o u r c e s f o r f i n a n c i n g d e v e l o p m e n t . I t h a s a s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s on p r o j e c t s t h a t h e l p t h e p o o r . I t h a s an e m p h a s i s on a t t a i n i n g a b e t t e r b a l a n c e b e t w e e n u r b a n a n d r u r a l a r e a s ( C a r r o l l , 1 9 8 6 ) . B a s e d on t h e D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n s , t h e f o c u s i n K e n y a h a s moved t o t h e r u r a l p o o r a n d a BNA t o d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d more s p e c i f i c a l l y , a c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s . An i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h i s i s t h e move t o w a r d s d e v e l o p i n g a s t r e n g t h f r o m w i t h i n t h e n a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n i n c r e a s i n g d e p e n d e n c e on e x t e r n a l s o u r c e s . 3. THE WATER SECTOR AND RURAL WATER SUPPLY. Up u n t i l 1964, t h e M i n i s t r y o f Works was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r w a t e r a n d s e w e r a g e d e v e l o p m e n t . W i t h i n t h e M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e , t h e A f r i c a n L a n d D e v e l o p m e n t O r g a n i z a t i o n was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d o p e r a t i o n o f RWS (Haddow, 1 9 8 0 ) . I n 1964 t h e Wat e r D e v e l o p m e n t D e p a r t m e n t was f o r m e d i n t h e M i n i s t r y o f N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s . I t c o m b i n e d t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f A f r i c a n L a n d a nd D e v e l o p m e n t O r g a n i z a t i o n a n d 79 The M i n i s t r y o f Works w i t h r e g a r d t o w a t e r . I n 1968, t h e Wa t e r D e v e l o p m e n t D e p a r t m e n t was t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e . I n 1974 a new m i n i s t r y , t h e M i n i s t r y o f Wa t e r D e v e l o p m e n t (MWD), was f o r m e d a n d s t i l l e x i s t s t o d a y . I t h a s o v e r a l l s t a t u t o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n , c o n t r o l a n d a p p o r t i o n m e n t o f n a t i o n a l w a t e r r e s o u r c e s u n d e r t h e W a t e r A c t Laws of Kenya ( S h i k w e , 1 9 8 1 ) . T h i s i n c l u d e s w a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t and w a t e r s u p p l i e s . C o n c u r r e n t w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e w a t e r s e c t o r a s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f MWD, was t h e g r o w i n g c o n c e r n w i t h RWS. Toward t h e e n d o f t h e F i r s t P l a n i n 1970, a n a t i o n a l g o a l was s e t t o p r o v i d e w a t e r t o t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n by t h e y e a r 2000 ( S h i k w e , 1 9 8 1 ) . T h i s 30 y e a r p l a n was t o be i m p l e m e n t e d t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f w a t e r s u p p l y p h a s e s , t h e g r e a t e r e m p h a s i s b e i n g on RWS. I n 1970, RWS I b e g a n . I t s g o a l was t o c o n s t r u c t 72 w a t e r schemes by 1972 b u t was a c t u a l l y c o m p l e t e d i n mid-1976 (Haddow, 1 9 8 0 ) . The s e c o n d p h a s e ( RWS I I ) began i n 1972 w i t h an o b j e c t i v e o f 29 sche m e s , a n d was c o m p l e t e d by t h e end o f 1978. RWS I I I s t a r t e d i n 1974 and c o n s i s t e d o f 73 schemes due f o r c o m p l e t i o n by 1980. Haddow p o i n t s o u t t h a t by A p r i l 1980, o n l y 9 o u t o f t h e 73 were c o n s t r u c t e d . The f o u r t h p h a s e began i n 1978 an d h a d 64 schemes t a r g e t e d f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n by m i d - 1 9 8 2 , two o f w h i c h were c o m p l e t e d by J a n u a r y 1980. The RWS p r o g r a m i n K e n y a h a s r e c e i v e d a s p e c i a l e m p h a s i s w i t h i n t h e MWD b u t , a s e v i d e n t i n t h e a b o v e , many p r o b l e m s h a v e been e n c o u n t e r e d . I n 1977, Haddow (1 9 8 0 ) a n d D w o r k i n (1980) 80 e s t i m a t e d t h a t o n l y 1.5 m i l l i o n p e o p l e i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s h a d a r e l i a b l e w a t e r s u p p l y . * W i t h t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f t h e W a t e r D e c a d e , t h e K e n y a N a t i o n a l M a s t e r W a t e r P l a n was d e v e l o p e d . The G o v e r n m e n t e m b r a c e d t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e Decade a n d r e n e w e d e f f o r t s t o s o l v e t h e w a t e r p r o b l e m . P a r t o f t h e M a s t e r W a t e r P l a n was a w a t e r b a l a n c e s t u d y up t o 2008 w h i c h showed t h e t o t a l w a t e r a v a i l a b l e i n K e n y a was more t h a n s u f f i c i e n t t o meet p r o j e c t e d demands (Haddow, 1 9 8 0 ) . I t seems t h a t t h e p r o b l e m i s n o t t h e amount o f w a t e r ( e x c e p t p e r h a p s i n t h e a r i d a n d s e m i - a r i d r e g i o n s ) b u t how t o u t i l i z e i t . The MWD b e a r s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f i n d i n g t h e s o l u t i o n t o t h i s p r o b l e m . I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d how t h e MWD i s t o meet h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , a d e s c r i p t i o n o f how t h e MWD i s o r g a n i z e d a n d how p r o j e c t s a r e c h o s e n i s i m p o r t a n t . D w o r k i n (1980) d e s c r i b e s t h e MWD a s b e i n g h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d . The h e a d q u a r t e r s i s i n N a i r o b i w i t h a b r a n c h o f f i c e i n e a c h o f t h e o t h e r s e v e n p r o v i n c e s . The P r o v i n c i a l W a t e r E n g i n e e r i s t h e h e a d o f t h e r e g i o n a l o f f i c e . H i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n c l u d e t h e o p e r a t i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e o f s y s t e m s , t h e e x t e n s i o n o f e x i s t i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n l i n e s , t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l c o n n e c t i o n s , a n d t h e p r o v i s i o n o f t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e t o s m a l l s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t s ( D w o r k i n , 1 9 8 0 ) . To do t h i s he c a n u t i l i z e t h e D i s t r i c t O f f i c e s , e a c h h e a d e d by a D i s t r i c t W a t e r O f f i c e r . The D i s t r i c t W a t e r O f f i c e r c a n use t h e D i s t r i c t D e v e l o p m e n t C o m m i t t e e t o h e l p h i m c a r r y o u t h i s w o r k . * D w o r k i n ( 1 9 8 0 , p.8) d e f i n e s a r e l i a b l e w a t e r s u p p l y a s , " . . . t h o s e w h i c h do n o t h a v e r e p e t i t i v e i n t e r r u p t i o n s i n s e r v i c e w h i c h c o n t i n u e s f o r two d a y s . " 81 Any w a t e r s y s t e m b u i l t w i t h G o v e r n m e n t a s s i s t a n c e must be a p p r o v e d by t h e D i s t r i c t D e v e l o p m e n t C o m m i t t e e . Many Harambee p r o j e c t s must a l s o be a p p r o v e d by t h i s c o m m i t t e e . I f t h e s e p r o j e c t s a r e a p p r o v e d , t h e MWD a s s i s t s t h e e f f o r t by f u r n i s h i n g a d v i c e on t h e d e s i g n , c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d o p e r a t i o n o f t h e s y s t e m a n d by c o n t r i b u t i n g m a t e r i a l s ( D w o r k i n , 1 9 8 0 ) . One o f t h e g o a l s o f t h e MWD i s t o p r o v i d e w a t e r f a i r l y t o r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y and t o d e v e l o p a c o o r d i n a t e d a n d i n t e g r a t e d e f f o r t b e t w e e n l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s a n d t h e GOK. However, t h e r e a r e some p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e i r p r o g r a m p o i n t e d o u t by Haddow (1980) and D w o r k i n ( 1 9 8 0 ) . Haddow a r g u e s t h a t t h e D i s t r i c t L e v e l i s u n a b l e t o c o l l e c t t h e n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n on d e m o g r a p h i c , e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l f a c t o r s . As a r e s u l t , t h e p l a n s a t a l l l e v e l s c a n n o t be b a s e d on a c c u r a t e d a t a . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e MWD i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e s y s t e m s b u t Haddow a r g u e s t h a t due t o t h e l a c k o f f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r r o l e , t h e s y s t e m s b r e a k down an d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 44% o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n a r e a s c o v e r e d by e x i s t i n g w a t e r schemes a c t u a l l y h a v e a c c e s s t o a r e l i a b l e w a t e r s u p p l y . D w o r k i n p o i n t s t o t h e p r e f e r e n c e o f t h e M i n i s t r y f o r i n d i v i d u a l h o u s e c o n n e c t i o n s a s a m a j o r c o n s t r a i n t . B e c a u s e o f t h i s t h e MWD r e s t r i c t s t h e number o f communal w a t e r p o i n t s , c l o s e s some communal w a t e r p o i n t s a f t e r c o n s t r u c t i o n , d o e s n o t r e p a i r communal w a t e r p o i n t s t h a t b r e a k down, a n d r e s t r i c t s t h e o p e r a t i n g h o u r s o f communal w a t e r p o i n t s . As a r e s u l t , i t i s u s u a l l y o n l y t h e r u r a l e l i t e t h a t a c t u a l l y h ave a c c e s s t o w a t e r 82 b e c a u s e t h e y c a n a f f o r d t h e i n - h o u s e c o n n e c t i o n s . D w o r k i n a l s o a r g u e s t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l a n d d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s a r e u n a b l e t o f u l f i l l t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s due t o f a c t o r s s u c h a s t h e l a r g e s i z e o f some d i s t r i c t s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r o b l e m s a n d manpower s h o r t a g e s . D. THE CASE STUDY. The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c a s e s t u d y w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t w i l l d e s c r i b e where t h e s t u d y t a k e s p l a c e w i t h i n K e n y a , a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Giriama a n d an e x p l a n a t i o n o f how t h e s t u d y was c a r r i e d o u t . The s e c o n d d e s c r i b e s t h e r e s u l t s o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e n t t o v i l l a g e s w i t h no e x t e r n a l h e l p i n t h e i r w a t e r s u p p l y . The t h i r d d e s c r i b e s t h e r e s u l t s o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e n t t o v i l l a g e s w i t h h e l p i n t h e i r w a t e r s u p p l y . The f i n a l s e c t i o n g i v e s t h e v i e w s o f two p l a n n e r s who a r e i n v o l v e d i n RWS i n t h e r e g i o n . 1. THE LOCAL CONTEXT. The c a s e s t u d y t a k e s p l a c e i n K i l i f i D i s t r i c t l o c a t e d i n t h e n o r t h - e a s t e r n p a r t o f K e n y a , E a s t A f r i c a . The p e o p l e i n t h e a r e a a r e d e s c e n d e d f r o m t h e Mijikenda, w h i c h l i t e r a l l y means, " t h e n i n e v i l l a g e s " ( S p e a r , 1 9 7 8 ) . N i n e e t h n i c g r o u p s make up t h e Mijikenda, t h e l a r g e s t b e i n g t h e Giriama who a r e t h e p r e d o m i n a n t t r i b e i n t h e s t u d y a r e a . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s number one a n d two were c o n d u c t e d by V i d z o Musha, a Form I V g r a d u a t e Giriama s t u d e n t . I was a d v i s e d t h a t an A f r i c a n who s p o k e t h e same l a n g u a g e a s t h e v i l l a g e r s 83 s h o u l d do t h e s u r v e y r a t h e r t h a n a f o r e i g n e r who w o u l d be t r e a t e d w i t h s u s p i c i o n a n d g i v e n l i t t l e c o o p e r a t i o n . V i d z o Musha d i d a commendable j o b a n d d e s e r v e s t o be r e c o g n i z e d f o r h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h i s t h e s i s . The Giriama i d e n t i f y t h e m s e l v e s a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h v i l l a g e t h e y b e l o n g t o . On t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , t h e l a s t name o f t h e h e a d o f h o u s e h o l d i s a l s o t h e name o f t h e v i l l a g e . F o r e x a m p l e , D h i d h o Mbauro i s f r o m Mbauro V i l l a g e . The s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e Giriama r e v o l v e s a r o u n d t h e m a l e s a n d when t h e y were c i r c u m s i z e d . Boys a r e d i v i d e d i n t o rikas ( a g e - s e t s ) a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t i m e t h e y w e re c i r c u m s i z e d w h i c h o c c u r s once e v e r y f o u r y e a r s (Mwangudza, 1 9 7 8 ) . T h e r e a r e u s u a l l y t h i r t e e n rikas a t any g i v e n t i m e ( S p e a r , 1973) a n d t h e f i r s t rika a r e t h e s e n i o r e l d e r s who a r e g i v e n t h e name, kambi (Mwangudza, 1 9 7 8 ) . I t i s t h e kambi who a r e t h e m a i n p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s a n d who a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a f f a i r s i n t h e v i l l a g e . A t t h e f a m i l y l e v e l , t h e f a t h e r i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t . The women an d g i r l s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h o u s e h o l d d u t i e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e f e t c h i n g o f w a t e r . I n r e c e n t y e a r s , o t h e r e t h n i c g r o u p s h a v e been c o m i n g i n t o t h e r e g i o n , a t t r a c t e d by g o v e r n m e n t s u p p o r t e d schemes o f v a r i o u s k i n d s . H o w e v e r , t h e Giriama a r e s t i l l p r e d o m i n a n t a n d were t h e o n l y g r o u p i n v o l v e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e number one was t a k e n t o an a r e a a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40 k i l o m e t e r s n o r t h - w e s t o f M a l i n d i , a town o f 12,000 on t h e Ke n y a c o a s t . The v i l l a g e s v i s i t e d h e r e were b e n e f i t i n g f r o m t h e M a g a r i n i S e t t l e m e n t P r o j e c t ( M S P ) , a j o i n t G o v e r n m e n t o f 84 K e n y a / G o v e r n m e n t o f A u s t r a l i a (GOA) v e n t u r e ( l a b e l l e d M a g a r i n i i n F i g . 9 , #3). The a p p r o a c h t h e GOK/GOA t a k e s r e g a r d i n g t h e p r o j e c t i s a t e c h n o c r a t i c a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s . The p r o j e c t a r e a c o m p r i s e s f l a t t o u n d u l a t i n g b u s h l a n d w i t h no p e r m a n e n t w a t e r c o u r s e s , r a n g i n g i n e l e v a t i o n f r o m s e a l e v e l t o 150 m e t e r s . S o i l s f a l l i n t o two m a i n t y p e s w h i c h t o g e t h e r c o v e r 80% o f t h e p r o j e c t : t h e y e l l o w s a n d s o f t h e M a r a f a s y s t e m i n t h e w e s t a n d t h e d e e p g r a y s a n d y c l a y s o f t h e S h a u r i Moyo s y s t e m w h i c h o c c u p y t h e c e n t r a l a n d e a s t e r n p a r t s o f t h e scheme. T e m p e r a t u r e , r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t y a n d p o t e n t i a l e v a p o r a t i o n show l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n f r o m month t o month. T e m p e r a t u r e s r a n g e f r o m 21 d e g r e e s C e l s i u s t o 27 d e g r e e s C e l s i u s (minimum) a n d 25 d e g r e e s C e l s i u s t o 32 d e g r e e s C e l s i u s (maximum). P r e v a i l i n g w i n d s a r e s o u t h - e a s t f r o m A p r i l t o S e p t e m b e r a n d n o r t h - e a s t f r o m O c t o b e r t o M a r c h . R a i n f a l l v a r i e s f r o m a r o u n d 900 mm i n t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t o f t h e p r o j e c t n e a r e s t t h e o c e a n t o l e s s t h a n 600 mm i n t h e n o r t h : d e c r e a s i n g a s one p r o c e e d s n o r t h and i n l a n d . Much of t h e y e a r i s d r y a n d t h e u n c e r t a i n t y o f r a i n f a l l makes l a n d m a r g i n a l f o r f a r m i n g . R a i n f a l l v a r i e s f r o m y e a r t o y e a r w i t h t h e s h o r t r a i n s o f O c t o b e r / N o v e m b e r f r e q u e n t l y f a i l i n g l e a v i n g i n h a b i t a n t s d e p e n d a n t on t h e l o n g r a i n s o f A p r i l - J u n e . * Q u e s t i o n n a i r e number two was s e n t t o v i l l a g e s o u t s i d e o f t h e scheme, l o c a t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80 k i l o m e t e r s n o r t h - w e s t o f M a l i n d i . The a r e a i s much t h e same a s t h a t o f M a g a r i n i e x c e p t t h a t i t i s l o c a t e d i n more s e m i - a r i d t e r r i t o r y ( l a b e l l e d B u n g a l e * T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i s l a r g e l y s u p p l i e d by p e r s o n n e l w o r k i n g i n t h e f i e l d a n d a t t a i n e d t h r o u g h c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . The w r i t e r r e q u e s t e d he r e m a i n anonymous. 85 WITHIN KENYA. 3. M a l i n d i D i v i s i o n . 86 i n F i g . 9 , #3). The f u r t h e r n o r t h a n d w e s t one g o es f r o m t h e c o a s t , t h e d r y e r a n d more m a r g i n a l t h e l a n d . The r e g i o n f o r b o t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i s l i n k e d w i t h M a l i n d i , t h e m a j o r town i n t h e a r e a , by an a l l s e a s o n d i r t r o a d . H o w e v e r , d u r i n g t h e r a i n s , t h i s r o a d c a n c a u s e some d i f f i c u l t y f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and i s p e r i o d i c a l l y c l o s e d . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e number t h r e e was s e n t t o two p l a n n e r s i n v o l v e d i n w a t e r s u p p l y p r o j e c t s i n t h e r e g i o n . Mr. R.T. P o l h i l l , who i s t h e MSP F i e l d O p e r a t i o n s S u p e r v i s o r , was k i n d e nough t o r e s p o n d t o my q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The s e c o n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a n s w e r e d by Mr. Gaye Thompson who w o r k s on an NGO scheme t h a t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e l o c a l p e o p l e . * They p r o v i d e d a somewhat d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e on what i s h a p p e n i n g i n t h e r e g i o n . The i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d by t h e s e two w i l l be s u p p l e m e n t e d by a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h o t h e r p e r s o n n e l i n v o l v e d i n t h e MSP. 2. VILLAGES WITH HELP. The f i r s t two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were t a k e n by V i d z o Musha t o 17 v i l l a g e s l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e MSP a r e a . One h o u s e h o l d w i t h i n e a c h v i l l a g e was s u r v e y e d . The r e a s o n f o r d o i n g i t t h i s way was b e c a u s e e a c h v i l l a g e i s r e a l l y a l a r g e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y a n d e a c h h o u s e h o l d w o u l d p r o b a b l y a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s s i m i l a r l y . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s p r o v i d e v i e w s f r o m 17 d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n *Mr. Thompson i s i n v o l v e d i n r e s e a r c h and p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g ( h e a l t h a n d n u t r i t i o n ) f o r t h e K e nya Freedom From Hunger C o u n c i l . 87 t h e GOK/GOA s p o n s o r e d scheme. The i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m q u e s t i o n n a i r e 1 i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1 a n d T a b l e 2. Of t h e 17 h o u s e h o l d , e a c h h e a d o f t h e h o u s e h o l d was m a l e , t h r e e o f w h i c h were away w o r k i n g i n t h e c i t y ( w h i c h c i t y was n o t g i v e n , p r e s u m a b l y M a l i n d i ) . The a c t i n g h e a d i n t h e s e t h r e e c a s e s was f e m a l e i n 2 h o u s e h o l d a n d m a l e i n 1. The a v e r a g e s i z e o f t h e h o u s e h o l d was 15 w i t h t h e s m a l l e s t c o n s i s t i n g o f 5 p e o p l e a n d t h e l a r g e s t o f 45. A l l o f t h e h o u s e h o l d s h a d a n i m a l s o f one k i n d o r a n o t h e r . The Giriama a r e a g r i c u l t u r a l l y o r i e n t e d p e o p l e b u t t h e y k e e p a n i m a l s f o r t h r e e main r e a s o n s : a s a s i g n o f w e a l t h ; f o r s a l e i n e m e r g e n c i e s ( m e d i c i n e , s c h o o l f e e s , f o o d , e t c . ) ; a n d f o r e a t i n g -m a i n l y t h e c h i c k e n s . C a t t l e , t h e most e x p e n s i v e t o a t t a i n a n d k e e p , were h e l d by 8 h o u s e h o l d s , t h e p o o r e s t h o u s e h o l d h a v i n g 2 and t h e w e a l t h i e s t h a v i n g 7 5. The n e x t l e v e l down a r e g o a t s a n d 16 h o u s e h o l d s were a b l e t o ha v e them. E v e r y o n e k e p t c h i c k e n s . The s o u r c e o f w a t e r f o r t h e v i l l a g e s was o f v a r y i n g d i s t a n c e s . T h r e e v i l l a g e s h a d w a t e r w i t h i n h a l f a k i l o m e t e r , t h r e e w i t h i n 1-2 km and t h r e e w i t h i n 4-5 km . The most common d i s t a n c e (8 h o u s e h o l d s ) was f r o m 2-3 km. W i t h i n t h e scheme 16 o f t h e v i l l a g e s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e s o u r c e was a power-pump, u s u a l l y a communal w a t e r t a p . H owever, d u r i n g t h e l o n g r a i n s , most o f t h e v i l l a g e r s a l s o made u s e o f pon d s ( b o t h n a t u r a l a n d man-made) a n d r e s e r v o i r s ( b o t h n a t u r a l a n d man-made). O n l y 3 h o u s e h o l d s s a i d t h e y u s e d a r i v e r o r a s t r e a m . I n a l l c a s e s , w h e r e v e r t h e y c o l l e c t e d t h e i r w a t e r , i t was c a r r i e d by a p e r s o n b a c k t o t h e v i l l a g e i n a b u c k e t . 88 TABLE 1: QUESTIONNAIRE 1 ( V i l l a g e s With RWS) General Information HouseHol d Data: M a l e H e a d s o f H o u s e H o l d - 15 Head o f H o u s e H o l d Away - 3 A c t i n g Head F e m a l e - 2 A c t i n g Head M a l e - 1 A v e r a g e S i z e o f H o u s e h o l d - 15 Range o f S i z e o f H o u s e h o l d - 5- 45 Animal Dat a: Range Average H o u s e H o l d s W i t h C a t t l e 8 2- 75 24 H o u s e h o l d s W i t h G o a t s 16 5-300 37 H o u s e H o l d s W i t h Hens 17 3-200 39 H o u s e H o l d s W i t h D u c k s 2 6- 33 Di s t ance t o Wat er Source: 3 V i l l a g e s 0 -0 .5 km 3 V i l l a g e s 1 -2 .0 km 8 V i l l a g e s 2 -3 .0 km 3 V i l l a g e s 4 -5 .0 km 89 TABLE 2: QUESTIONNAIRE 1 ( V i l l a g e s With RWS) Information on Water Supply, Use, B e n e f i t s , Impacts, Operation and Maintenance. loafer Supply and Use: YES NO S o u r c e : Power Pump 1 6 1 Ponds 15 2 R e s e r v o i r s 1 6 1 R i v e r s 3 -C a r r i e d By B u c k e t : 17 -Pay F o r W a t e r : 8 9 U s e r s o f W a t e r S o u r c e : E v e r y o n e 15 -One T r i b e 2 -Use o f W a t e r : D o m e s t i c U s e * 1 7 -F o r A n i m a l s 10 7 F o r Shamba** 16 •1 F o r I r r i g a t i o n ( D r y S e a s o n ) 6 10 Benefits and Impacts: I m p r o v e d H e a l t h 1 7 -C l e a n e r W a t e r 1 6 1 E a s i e r t o G e t W a t e r 17 -A b l e t o Grow More F o o d t o E a t * * * 1 1 6 A b l e t o Grow More F o o d t o S e l l 10 7 A b l e t o Have More A n i m a l s 1 4 3 A b l e t o S e l l More A n i m a l s * * * * 1 5 2 A b l e t o Have More M i l k 7 6 A b l e t o S e l l More M i l k 7 -A b l e t o Have More F r e e Time 15 2 A b l e t o Have More Time W i t h O t h e r V i l l a g e r s 2 15 The W a t e r i s B e t t e r 1 7 -The W a t e r i s S a l t y 5 -I s W a t e r Needed i n t h e D r y S e a s o n 9 7 I s T h e r e F i g h t i n g O ver t h e Water@ 4 1 3 Has L i f e i n t h e V i l l a g e C h a n g e d S i n c e t h e W a t e r 1 7 -Do You L i k e How I t Has Cha n g e d 17 -I s L i f e i s E a s i e r 1 4 3 A r e You Happy W i t h t h e Government®® 1 7 -Do You Want t o be More I n v o l v e d i n t h e RWS 1 3 3 Operation and Maintenance: V i l l a g e r s A r e R e s p o n s i b l e F o r t h e S o u r c e 5 12 I s A c c e s s t o t h e W a t e r C o n t r o l l e d . 9 8 I s T h e r e an E d u c a t i o n P r o g r a m 5 12 I s T h e r e P r o b l e m s W i t h R e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e S o u r c e 8 -Key on following page. 90 * D o m e s t i c u s e r e f e r s t o w a s h i n g , c o o k i n g , b a t h i n g , a n d d r i n k i n g . **Shamba i s t h e S w a h i l i w o r d f o r a g a r d e n o r s m a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l p l o t . * * * T y p e s o f c r o p s grown i n c l u d e m a i z e , g r e e n g r a m s , c a s a v a , c o c o n u t s , mangoes, p i n e a p p l e , s o y a b e a n s , b e a n s , l e m o n s , o r a n g e s , paw paws, t o m a t o e s , c a b b a g e , sukuma w i k i , b a n a n a s , s i m s i m , t o b a c c o , r i c e , p e a s , c a s h e w n u t s , g r o u n d n u t s , m i l l i t , a n d g u a v a s . The m a i n c r o p s grown a r e u n d e r l i n e d . * * * * A n i m a l s a r e u s u a l l y s o l d f o r e m e r g e n c i e s s u c h a s m e d i c i n e , s c h o o l f e e s , c o o k i n g f u e l , o r e v e n f o o d . @The f i g h t i n g o v e r w a t e r o c c u r s i n t h e l i n e - u p s a t t h e communal t a p s . @@They a r e happy w i t h t h e G o v e r n m e n t b e c a u s e o f i t s e f f o r t s t o s u p p l y t h e i r v i l l a g e w i t h w a t e r . W a t e r was u s e d by e v e r y o n e i n t h e v i l l a g e i n 15 c a s e s , t h e o t h e r 2 s t a t i n g t h a t o n l y t h e one t r i b e (Giriama) u s e d i t . The w a t e r was u s e d m a i n l y f o r d o m e s t i c u s e w h i c h i n c l u d e s w a s h i n g , c o o k i n g , b a t h i n g a n d d r i n k i n g . Ten h o u s e h o l d s a l s o u s e d i t f o r t h e i r a n i m a l s a n d 16 f o r t h e i r shamba (a g a r d e n o r s m a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l p l o t ) . An i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t i s t h a t 6 o f t h e s e 16 a l s o f e t c h e d w a t e r d u r i n g t h e d r y s e a s o n t o i r r i g a t e t h e i r shamba. A number o f q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d t o r e v e a l how t h e v i l l a g e r s v i e w e d t h e i r w a t e r s u p p l y a n d how t h e y t h o u g h t i t a f f e c t e d them. M o s t o f t h e i r r e s p o n s e s were p o s i t i v e . W i t h r e g a r d s t o t h e q u a l i t y o f w a t e r a n d t h e i r h e a l t h : 17 s a i d e v e r y o n e ' s h e a l t h h a d i m p r o v e d ; 16 s a i d t h e w a t e r was c l e a n e r ; a n d 17 s a i d i t was b e t t e r . I n t e r m s o f w a t e r a v a i l a b i l i t y , a l l 17 s a i d i t was e a s i e r now t o f e t c h t h e w a t e r b u t 9 s t a t e d t h a t d u r i n g t h e d r y s e a s o n t h e y s t i l l h a d t o s e a r c h f o r w a t e r . T h e i r g e n e r a l v i e w o f t h e i r l i f e a n d how i t h a d been a f f e c t e d was q u i t e p o s i t i v e : a l l 17 s a i d l i f e h a d c h a n g e d a n d t h e y a l l l i k e d how i t h a d c h a n g e d ; 91 14 s a i d l i f e was e a s i e r . The r e a s o n g i v e n by t h e o t h e r t h r e e f o r l i f e h a v i n g c h a n g e d was t h a t t h e y c o u l d now s p e n d more t i m e i n l a n d c u l t i v a t i o n s i n c e w a t e r i s n e a r , e a s i l y o b t a i n e d a n d f r e e f o r u s e a l l t h e t i m e . The v i l l a g e r s , i n g e n e r a l , b e l i e v e d t h e w a t e r h a d b e n e f i t e d them. M o s t o f t h e h o u s e h o l d s , 11, c o u l d now grow more f o o d t o e a t a n d 10 o f t h e s e c o u l d e v e n s e l l some o f t h e s u r p l u s . S i m i l a r l y , 14 h o u s e h o l d s c o u l d now h a v e more a n i m a l s a n d 15 c o u l d s e l l more o f them. The r e a s o n f o r t h e one e x t r a h o u s e h o l d i s p r o b a b l y due t o i t s a b i l i t y t o grow more f o o d t o e a t , b u t n e e d i n g t o s e l l an a n i m a l i n an e m e r g e n c y . B e c a u s e o f t h e i r a b i l i t y t o h a v e more g o a t s a nd c a t t l e , 7 h o u s e h o l d s were a b l e t o g e t more m i l k a n d a l l 7 were a b l e t o s e l l a p o r t i o n o f t h e m i l k . The w a t e r s u p p l y a l s o e n a b l e d t h e v i l l a g e r s t o h a v e more f r e e t i m e , s a v e d i n t h e t i m e s p e n t f e t c h i n g w a t e r . I n t e r e s t i n g l y e n o u g h , a l l 15 h o u s e h o l d s who r e p o r t e d t h e y h ad more f r e e t i m e s p e n t l e s s o f t h a t t i m e w i t h t h e i r f e l l o w v i l l a g e r s . A g a i n , t h i s was e x p l a i n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y were now s p e n d i n g more t i m e i n l a n d c u l t i v a t i o n t o grow more f o o d t o s e l l . F i n a l l y , a l l 17 h o u s e h o l d s s t a t e d t h e y were happy w i t h t h e GOK f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s i n s u p p l y i n g w a t e r t o them. Many o f t h e s e , h o w e v e r , e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e f o r t h e Gov e r n m e n t t o do e v e n more by b r i n g i n g t h e w a t e r t o e a c h h o u s e so t h e v i l l a g e r s c o u l d u s e i t f o r i r r i g a t i o n f o r t h e i r shambas. A t p r e s e n t t h e y i r r i g a t e t h e f i e l d s by m a k i n g numerous t r i p s t o t h e w a t e r s o u r c e a nd b r i n g i n g t h e w a t e r b a c k i n b u c k e t s . 92 A few o t h e r q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d r e g a r d i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e s y s t e m . T w e l v e h o u s e h o l d s s a i d t h a t v i l l a g e r s w ere n o t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s o u r c e , an e m p l o y e e o f t h e p r o j e c t was. I n 9 c a s e s a c c e s s t o t h e s o u r c e was c o n t r o l l e d b u t t h i s p r e s e n t e d no p r o b l e m . The w a t e r was t u r n e d on f r o m 6:00 am t o 7:00 pm and p e o p l e w o u l d s t a n d i n l i n e s t o f i l l t h e i r b u c k e t s . Some r e p o r t e d f i g h t i n g i n t h e l i n e s , one r e a s o n g i v e n was t h a t t h e w i v e s o f p r o j e c t e m p l o y e e s w o u l d go t o t h e f r o n t t o f i l l t h e i r b u c k e t s r a t h e r t h a n w a i t i n g i n l i n e l i k e e v e r y o n e e l s e . An e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m was r e p o r t e d t o be o p e r a t i n g by o n l y 5 h o u s e h o l d s . T h i s m a i n l y c o n s i s t e d o f b e i n g t a u g h t t o b o i l t h e w a t e r p r i o r t o d r i n k i n g i t . I n one c a s e , t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a i d p r o j e c t p e o p l e a l s o t a u g h t p e o p l e n o t t o s t e p i n t h e w a t e r . The r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e s o u r c e was q u e s t i o n e d i n 8 h o u s e h o l d s . The mai n r e a s o n f o r t h i s was t h a t t h e t a p s d r i e d up a s a r e s u l t o f a b r e a k d o w n i n t h e powerpump, r e n d e r i n g t h e s o u r c e u n u s a b l e . T h i r t e e n h o u s e h o l d s e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e t o become more i n v o l v e d i n t h e RWS p r o j e c t . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e abo v e i n f o r m a t i o n , V i d z o i n c l u d e d some comments made by t h e v i l l a g e r s . One o f t h e s e was t h a t d u r i n g t h e r a i n y s e a s o n p e o p l e w o u l d u s e t h e w a t e r t h a t c o l l e c t e d i n r a i n p u d d l e s c l o s e t o t h e i r homes. A s e c o n d was t h a t 5 h o u s e h o l d s r e p o r t e d t h e t a p w a t e r w o u l d s o m e t i m e s g e t s a l t y o r b i t t e r ( t o o much c h l o r i n e ) a n d so t h e y w o u l d n o t u s e i t , g o i n g i n s t e a d t o p o n d s , p u d d l e s a n d r e s e r v o i r s . 93 3. VILLAGES WITH NO EXTERNAL HELP. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e number two was t a k e n by V i d z o t o 17 v i l l a g e s l o c a t e d o u t s i d e o f t h e MSP a r e a . The same method a s f o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e one was f o l l o w e d , one h o u s e h o l d i n e a c h o f t h e 17 v i l l a g e s b e i n g s u r v e y e d . The i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e s e c o n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 3 a n d 4. A l l 17 h o u s e h o l d s were h e a d e d by m a l e s . H o w e v e r , i n t h e s e v i l l a g e s , 8 h e a d s were away w o r k i n g i n t h e c i t y , one h a d a f e m a l e a c t i n g h e a d and t h e r e s t were m a l e s . The a v e r a g e s i z e o f t h e s e h o u s e h o l d s was 24, l a r g e r t h a n t h o s e w i t h i n t h e scheme. The s m a l l e s t h a d 9 p e o p l e a nd t h e l a r g e s t 7 5. S i m i l a r t o t h e f i r s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a l l h ad a n i m a l s . I n t h i s c a s e o n l y 4 were a b l e t o h a v e c a t t l e , 14 were k e e p i n g g o a t s , 3 w i t h s h e e p , 4 w i t h d u c k s a n d a l l 17 w i t h c h i c k e n s . The s o u r c e o f w a t e r was o f v a r y i n g d i s t a n c e s . One v i l l a g e r e p o r t e d t h e i r w a t e r w i t h i n 2 km, 6 v i l l a g e s w i t h i n 3 km, 1 w i t h i n 4 km, 1 w i t h i n 5 km and t h e r e s t s a i d t h e y h a d t o go f u r t h e r t h a n 5 km t o g e t t h e i r w a t e r . The h o u s e h o l d s w i t h i n 4 km of w a t e r p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h i s was o n l y d u r i n g t h e r a i n y s e a s o n . I n t h e d r y s e a s o n t h e y h a d t o go much f u r t h e r t o f i n d w a t e r . A l l t h e v i l l a g e s g o t t h e i r w a t e r f r o m p o n d s and r e s e r v o i r s , w i t h 7 h o u s e h o l d s a l s o u s i n g a n e a r b y r i v e r . I n a l l c a s e s t h e w a t e r was c a r r i e d home by b u c k e t . E v e r y o n e i n t h e v i l l a g e u s e d t h e w a t e r , m a i n l y f o r d o m e s t i c u s e . O n l y one h o u s e h o l d a l s o u s e d i t f o r t h e i r a n i m a l s a nd none f o r t h e i r shamba, d e p e n d i n g o n l y on t h e r a i n s . 94 TABLE 3: QUESTIONNAIRE 2 ( V i l l a g e s With No RWS) General Information  Hous etiol d Bat a. M a l e Head o f H o u s e H o l d - 16 Head of H o u s e H o l d Away - 8 A c t i n g Head M a l e - 7 A c t i n g Head F e m a l e - 1 A v e r a g e S i z e o f H o u s e H o l d - 24 Range o f S i z e o f H o u s e H o l d - 9-75 Animal Data: H o u s e H o l d s W i t h C a t t l e H o u s e H o l d s W i t h G o a t s H o u s e H o l d s W i t h Hens H o u s e H o l d s W i t h D u c k s H o u s e H o l d s W i t h S h e e p 4 1 4 1 7 4 Range 5 -100 15-120 20-150 1 - 35 10- 60 Aver age 44 69 50 1 5 30 Distance to Water Source: 1 V i l l a g e 6 V i l l a g e s 1 V i l l a g e 1 V i l l a g e 8 V i l l a g e s 1-2.0 km } 2- 3 3- 4 0 km 0 km D u r i n g R a i n y S e a s o n 4-5.0 km > 5.0 km 95 TABLE 4: QUESTIONNAIRE 2 ( V i l l a g e s With No RWS) Information On Water Supply, Use, Community S a t i s f a c t i o n , and Education Program. Water Supply and Use: YES NO S o u r c e : PowerPump 2 -Ponds 17 -R e s e r v o i r s 1 1 -R i v e r 7 -C a r r i e d By B u c k e t 17 -Pay F o r W a t e r - 17 E v e r y o n e U s e s W a t e r S o u r c e 1 7 -Use o f W a t e r : D o m e s t i c U s e * 1 7 -F o r A n i m a l s 1 16 F o r Shamba** —• 17 Community S a t i s f a c t i o n With Water Source: P l e a s e d W i t h T h e i r Water S u p p l y - 17 I s T h e r e E n o u g h W a t e r : D u r i n g R a i n s 17 -D u r i n g D r y S e a s o n 1 16 Do You Have t o S e a r c h F o r W a t e r i n D r y S e a s o n * * * 1 7 -D e s i r e G o v e r n m e n t t o S u p p l y W a t e r 17 R e a s o n s F o r W a n t i n g a W a t e r S u p p l y : B e c a u s e W a t e r i s S c a r c e Now 10 -To I m p r o v e H e a l t h 2 -To Have W a t e r C l o s e r 8 -L i f e W i l l Change W i t h a R e l i a b l e W a t e r S u p p l y 1 7 -F o r t h e B e t t e r 1 7 -T h e r e W i l l Be No More S e a r c h i n g F o r W a t e r 1 4 -The V i l l a g e r s W i l l Be H e a l t h i e r 7 -A r e You S a t i s f i e d W i t h L i f e Now - 17 A r e T h e r e P e o p l e S i c k i n t h e V i l l a g e 1 7 -A r e The C h i l d r e n S i c k M o st O f t e n 4 -A b l e To Grow F o o d t o E a t * * * * 1 7 -A b l e To Grow F o o d t o S e l l 1 16 A b l e To Have A n i m a l s t o E a t 1 6 -A b l e To Have A n i m a l s t o Sell© 1 1 6 A b l e To Have M i l k From A n i m a l s 6 1 1 A b l e To D r i n k t h e M i l k 6 -A b l e To S e l l t h e M i l k 2 4 Education Program: I s T h e r e An E d u c a t i o n P r o g r a m 6 10 I s The P r o g r a m E f f e c t i v e - 3 Key on following page. 96 * D o m e s t i c u s e r e f e r s t o w a s h i n g , c o o k i n g , b a t h i n g a n d d r i n k i n g . **Shamba i s t h e S w a h i l i w o r d f o r a g a r d e n o r a s m a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l p l o t . ***The d i s t a n c e g i v e n by 8 h o u s h o l d s i n s e a r c h i n g f o r w a t e r was 30 km a n d 1 h o u s e h o l d gave a f i g u r e o f g r e a t e r t h a n 5 km. * * * * T y p e s o f c r o p s grown i n c l u d e m a i z e , s o y a b e a n s , g r e e n g r a m s , c a s a v a , b a n a n a s , mangoes, c o c o n u t s , c a s h e w n u t s , paw paws, b e a n s , s i m s i m , p i n e a p p l e s , p o t a t o e s , a nd g r o u n d n u t s . The m a i n c r o p s grown a r e u n d e r l i n e d . @ A n i m a l s a r e s o l d f o r e m e r g e n c y p u r p o s e s s u c h a s m e d i c i n e , s c h o o l f e e s , f o o d , e t c . A number o f q u e s t i o n s w e re a s k e d t o r e v e a l t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e v i l l a g e r s were s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n r e g a r d i n g w a t e r and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f what i t w o u l d mean t o h a v e a r e l i a b l e w a t e r s u p p l y . None o f t h e 17 were p l e a s e d w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t s o u r c e o f w a t e r . A l l b u t one s t a t e d t h e r e was o n l y e n o u g h w a t e r d u r i n g t h e r a i n s , t h e y h a d t o s e a r c h f o r w a t e r d u r i n g t h e d r y s e a s o n , 8 h o u s e h o l d s h a v i n g t o move o v e r 30 km i n s e a r c h o f w a t e r and one m o v i n g more t h a n 5 km. A l l 17 h o u s e h o l d s s t a t e d t h e y w e re n o t p l e a s e d w i t h t h e i r l i v e s now. A l l 17 r e p o r t e d p e o p l e were s i c k i n t h e i r v i l l a g e w i t h 4 h o u s e h o l d s i d e n t i f y i n g t h e c h i l d r e n a s b e i n g s i c k more o f t e n . A l l 17 c o u l d grow f o o d t o e a t b u t o n l y one a c t u a l l y s o l d a n y . A l l b u t one h a d a n i m a l s t o e a t , 11 o f t h e s e b e i n g a b l e t o s e l l t h e i r a n i m a l s . I t was s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e s a l e o f a n i m a l s was done o n l y i n e m e r g e n c i e s . O n l y 6 h o u s e h o l d s c o u l d g e t m i l k f r o m t h e i r l i v e s t o c k w i t h 2 h a v i n g enough e x t r a t o s e l l . When a s k e d i f t h e y w a n t e d t h e G o v e r n m e n t t o s u p p l y them w i t h w a t e r , a l l r e p l i e d a f f i r m a t i v e l y a n d s a i d t h e i r e l d e r s h a d a s k e d t h e G o v e r n m e n t t o do t h i s . Ten h o u s e h o l d s s a i d t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e i r d e s i r e was b e c a u s e w a t e r was s o s c a r c e . Some o t h e r r e a s o n s 97 w e r e t h a t a r e l i a b l e w a t e r s u p p l y w o u l d i m p r o v e t h e h e a l t h o f t h e v i l l a g e r s (2 h o u s e h o l d s ) and w a t e r w o u l d be c l o s e r , t h u s r e d u c i n g t h e n e e d t o move s u c h g r e a t d i s t a n c e s i n s e a r c h o f w a t e r (8 h o u s e h o l d s ) . A l l 17 b e l i e v e d t h e i r l i f e w o u l d c h a n g e f o r t h e b e t t e r , t h e m a i n r e a s o n b e i n g t h e r e w o u l d be no more s e a r c h i n g f o r w a t e r (14 h o u s e h o l d s ) . I n t e r e s t i n g l y e n o u g h , 7 a s s o c i a t e d a r e l i a b l e w a t e r s u p p l y w i t h i m p r o v e d h e a l t h . F i n a l l y , some q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d r e g a r d i n g an e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m t o t e a c h t h e v i l l a g e r s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f h a v i n g c l e a n w a t e r and i t s b e n e f i t s . O n l y 6 v i l l a g e s r e p l i e d t h a t t h e r e was s u c h a p r o g r a m and 3 of t h e s e s a i d i t was b a s i c a l l y i n e f f e c t i v e . The m a i n l e s s o n was t o b o i l w a t e r b e f o r e d r i n k i n g i t . 4. THE PLANNERS. Mr. P o l h i l l , Mr. Thompson a n d t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e f r o m p e r s o n n e l a r e a l l w o r k i n g w i t h i n t h e MSP. Mr. Thompson i s w o r k i n g i n an NGO w i t h i n t h e b r o a d e r scheme, w h i l e t h e o t h e r s work d i r e c t l y w i t h MSP. I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o i n c l u d e t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e scheme i n t h e f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n . The g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s a r e f o u r f o l d : 1) t o i m p r o v e t h e l i v i n g s t a n d a r d o f t h e p e o p l e ; 2) t o s e t t l e l a n d l e s s p e o p l e ; 3) t o i n c r e a s e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n ; and 4) t o g a i n e x p e r i e n c e i n d e v e l o p i n g s e m i - a r i d m a r g i n a l l a n d s . The d e s i g n o b j e c t i v e s o f p h a s e t h r e e o f t h e p r o j e c t ( t h e p r e s e n t p h a s e ) r e l a t e d t o w a t e r * T h e s e o b j e c t i v e s and t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g p h a s e t h r e e a r e f o u n d i n a s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e MSP s u p p l i e d t o me by t h e P r o j e c t Manager o f t h e scheme who r e q u e s t e d he r e m a i n anonymous. 98 a r e t h a t p i p e d g r o u n d w a t e r and open w a t e r s t o r a g e a r e t o be p r o v i d e d t o g e t h e r w i t h f a c i l i t i e s f o r s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . The s p e c i f i c t a r g e t s a r e f o r 183 km o f w a t e r s u p p l y p i p e l i n e a n d 53 s t o r a g e dams by t h e e n d o f p h a s e t h r e e ( J u n e 1 9 8 8 ) . I t s h o u l d a l s o be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e NGO p r o g r a m f o c u s i n g on c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t o f w h i c h Mr. Thompson i s a p a r t , i s a l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e MSP. The m a i n w a t e r r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e p r o j e c t i n c l u d e t h e d r i l l i n g o f d e e p b o r e h o l e s (80m-220m) l o c a t e d a t w e l l f i e l d s i n t h e s o u t h - e a s t , t h e s o u t h - w e s t a n d w e s t e r n p a r t s o f t h e a r e a . T h e s e w e l l s s u p p l y w a t e r t o communal w a t e r p o i n t s v i a a s y s t e m o f r i s i n g m a i n s , s t o r a g e t a n k s a n d a s p r e a d i n g n e t w o r k o f p i p e s . The a i m i s t o h a v e no s e t t l e r w a l k i n g more t h a n 2 km t o f i n d w a t e r . A r e l a t e d a c t i v i t y i s t o c o l l e c t a n d s t o r e s u r f a c e w a t e r r u n - o f f . T h i s i s t o be done by c o n s t r u c t i n g dams, t a n k s a n d w a t e r h o l e s w h i c h a r e t o s u p p l e m e n t t h e p i p e d w a t e r s u p p l y f o r human u s e a n d l i v e s t o c k c o n s u m p t i o n . The o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d management f o r t h e scheme p r e s e n t l y c o n s i s t o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f L a n d s and S e t t l e m e n t s o f t h e GOK and t h e A u s t r a l i a D e v e l o p m e n t A s s i s t a n c e B u r e a u f o r t h e GOA. The MWD i s t o t a k e o v e r t h e w a t e r s u p p l y p a r t o f t h e scheme a t t h e end o f p h a s e t h r e e . The P r o j e c t Manager o f t h e scheme i s b a s e d i n M a l i n d i a n d i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e D i r e c t o r o f S e t t l e m e n t i n N a i r o b i . ( a ) . Mr. P o l h i l l ( i ) . W a t e r S u p p l y . 99 Mr. P o l h i l l f e l t i t was n e c e s s a r y t o s u p p l y w a t e r i n s e m i -a r i d l a n d l i k e t h a t w i t h i n t h e scheme. H i s m a i n r e a s o n s f o r a d o p t i n g t h i s v i e w were t h a t t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e w o u l d i m p r o v e , l a b o r w o u l d be c o n s e r v e d , p e o p l e w o u l d be a b l e t o s e t t l e down and l i v e s t o c k k e e p i n g w o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d . The w a t e r w o u l d be s u p p l i e d f o r t h e p e o p l e a n d t h e i r l i v e s t o c k , n o t t h e i r shambas. The m e thod u s e d f o r s u p p l y i n g w a t e r w o u l d be p i p e s , dams a n d w a t e r h o l e s w h i c h Mr. P o l h i l l t h o u g h t w o u l d t a k e f i v e y e a r s o r l o n g e r a s i t was a c o n t i n u i n g p r o c e s s . The p i p e d s u p p l y w o u l d be a l l y e a r r o u n d w h i l e t h e dams a n d w a t e r h o l e s w o u l d be s e a s o n a l , m a i n l y f r o m A p r i l t o December. The c o s t o f t h e scheme i s b o r n by t h e two g o v e r n m e n t s , a t p r e s e n t 20% by GOK a n d 80% by GOA. When t h e MWD t a k e s o v e r , t h i s w i l l c h a n g e b u t n o t h i n g s p e c i f i c h a s been d e c i d e d on how t h e w a t e r w i l l be p a i d f o r . ( i i ) . Community I n v o l v e m e n t . Mr. P o l h i l l s t a t e s t h e c o m m u n i t y was n o t i n v o l v e d a t a l l i n m a k i n g t h e p l a n . T h i s was done by GOK and GOA. V i l l a g e r s h a d no r o l e o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e scheme b u t Mr. P o l h i l l s t a t e s t h e y a r e j u s t b e i n g i n v o l v e d now t h r o u g h t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e NGOs. No d e c i s i o n s were made by t h e v i l l a g e r s , b u t t h i s i s now c h a n g i n g f a s t a s t h e v i l l a g e r s a r e m o t i v a t e d t o t a k e o v e r t h e w a t e r s u p p l y . The v i l l a g e r s a r e j u s t s t a r t i n g t o be i n v o l v e d i n i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e p l a n , m a i n l y i n t h e dams a n d w a t e r h o l e s . The m a i n a c t o r s a r e t h e e l d e r s a n d women. They a r e j u s t b e g i n n i n g t o 100 f o r m a c o m m i t t e e f o r e a c h d a m / w a t e r h o l e a nd t h e y w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o l l e c t i n g l e v i e s a n d m a i n t a i n i n g t h e s u p p l y . The p r o j e c t p e r s o n n e l w o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e p a i r i n g a n d e n l a r g i n g t h e dams. The c o m m i t t e e i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f e n c i n g o f f t h e dams and c o n t r o l l i n g u s e o f w a t e r f o r h e a l t h r e a s o n s a n d l i v e s t o c k u s e . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h e a r e a i s u n d e r s t o c k e d so t h e r e i s no p r o b l e m w i t h t o o many a n i m a l s u s i n g t h e s o u r c e . ( i i i ) . S o c i a l I m p a c t . Some o f t h e p o s i t i v e i m p a c t s s e e n by Mr. P o l h i l l a r e t h a t t h e p e o p l e a r e s e t t l i n g i n one a r e a , t h e y c a n h a v e more l i v e s t o c k , t h e p e o p l e a n d a n i m a l s a r e h e a l t h i e r ( w i t h t r a i n i n g ) , c h i l d r e n h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o g e t an e d u c a t i o n a n d t i m e a n d e n e r g y i s s a v e d on w a t e r c a r r y i n g . He was n o t s u r e o f o t h e r i m p a c t s b e c a u s e i t was t o o e a r l y t o t e l l . T h i s i n c l u d e s s u c h i m p a c t s a s : p e o p l e b e i n g a b l e t o f e e d t h e m s e l v e s ; p e o p l e h a v i n g more money; and d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f t h e l a n d . ( i v ) . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y F o r The P l a n s . The GOA has t h e main r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The D i s t r i c t O f f i c e i n K e n y a i s b e g i n n i n g t o d e v e l o p p l a n s t h a t a r e a p p r o p r i a t e t o c o n d i t i o n s i n s e m i - a r i d r e g i o n s . The D i s t r i c t O f f i c e i s a l s o j u s t b e g i n n i n g t o be i n v o l v e d i n a d a p t i n g t h e p l a n s o f t h e GOA t o t h e l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . T h i s was n o t h a p p e n i n g i n e a r l y s t a g e s o f t h e scheme. 101 (v ) . The P e o p l e and t h e MSP. B o t h t h e v i l l a g e r s a nd t h e GOK/GOA i n i t i a t e d w a t e r s u p p l y p r o j e c t s f o r c o m m u n i t i e s , d e p e n d i n g on t h e a r e a w i t h i n t h e scheme. No m a t t e r who a s k e d f o r t h e s u p p l y , Mr. P o l h i l l s t a t e s t h a t t h e p e o p l e a r e happy w i t h what h a s h a p p e n e d . An i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e p l a n s o f t h e scheme t h a t p r o b a b l y c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e f r o m t h e p e o p l e i n c l u d e s s u c h a c t i v i t i e s a s l o a n s b e i n g made a v a i l a b l e f o r f a r m e r s t o s t a r t d a i r y o r l i v e s t o c k f a r m i n g o n c e t h e y have t h e i m p r o v e d w a t e r s u p p l y . ( v i ) . Some Comments. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e a b o v e , Mr. P o l h i l l i n c l u d e d some o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . He p o i n t e d o u t t h a t i t i s now a p r i o r i t y t o g e t c l e a n w a t e r t o t h e p e o p l e and t o e d u c a t e them on how t o u s e i t . He s t a t e s t h a t t h i s i s a t o u g h a s s i g n m e n t a s t h e Giriama p e o p l e a r e one of t h e most u n d e v e l o p e d p e o p l e i n K e n y a a s w e l l a s b e i n g a s h i f t i n g p e o p l e who a r e j u s t now b e i n g s e t t l e d on 30 a c r e p l o t s a s a r e s u l t o f t h e scheme. He c o n c l u d e s t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g : " . . . t h e P r o j e c t i s a c l a s s i c a l c a s e o f b e i n g s t a r t e d f r o m t h e t o p and p u s h e d on t h e p e o p l e w i t h o u t t h e i r c o n s e n t o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g . T h i s i s now b e i n g r e c t i f i e d a s f a s t a s p o s s i b l e w i t h t h e p e o p l e b e i n g i n v o l v e d by NGOs a n d t h e P r o j e c t . " ( b ) . Mr. Thompson ( i ) . W a t e r S u p p l y . 102 Mr. Thompson f e e l s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o s u p p l y w a t e r i n s e m i -a r i d r e g i o n s w i t h t h e e m p h a s i s on t h e p e o p l e b e i n g a b l e t o d e f i n e t h e i r n e e d s so t h e y c o u l d be a d e q u a t e l y p r e p a r e d t o l o o k a f t e r a p a r t i c u l a r w a t e r s u p p l y i n t h e i r a r e a t h e m s e l v e s . H i s p o l i c y i s t o a s s i s t t h e p e o p l e t o h e l p t h e m s e l v e s o v ercome t h e p r o b l e m o f no w a t e r by u s i n g a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s t o c o n s t r u c t a s u s t a i n a b l e p r o j e c t m a i n t a i n e d by t h e p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s . The p e o p l e he i s r e f e r r i n g t o a r e l a r g e l y s e t t l e r s who h a v e been a l l o c a t e d p l o t s w i t h i n t h e MSP. The t y p e s o f p r o j e c t s t h a t he i s i n v o l v e d i n a r e t h e u p g r a d i n g and s u s t a i n a b l e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t r a d i t i o n a l s u r f a c e w a t e r s o u r c e s t h r o u g h c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n and m o b i l i z a t i o n . He i s i n v o l v e d i n 14 p r o j e c t s t o be c o m p l e t e d i n 1-3 y e a r s a n d s u s t a i n a b l e a f t e r t h a t . The w a t e r i n t h e s e p r o j e c t s i s a s e a s o n a l s u p p l y ( d u r i n g t h e r a i n s ) a n d a r e t o be u s e d by t h e p e o p l e a n d t h e i r l i v e s t o c k , n o t t h e i r shambas. T h e s e p r o j e c t s a r e t o be p a r t i a l l y p a i d by t h e v i l l a g e t h r o u g h r a i s i n g f u n d s t h e m s e l v e s , a n d p a r t i a l l y by t h e G o v e r n m e n t as p a r t o f t h e a l l o c a t i o n f o r w a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t g i v e n t o MSP. ( i i ) . Community I n v o l v e m e n t . The v i l l a g e r s a r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o j e c t s . The v i l l a g e e l d e r s , h e a d s o f h o u s e h o l d s a n d Dam C o m m i t t e e members were a l l i n v o l v e d i n m a k i n g t h e p l a n . T h e i r r o l e a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n c l u d e d d e f i n i n g t h e i r p r o b l e m s a n d what t h e y i n t e n d e d d o i n g a b o u t i t . The NGO p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n m o t i v a t i n g them i n t h i s a r e a . D e c i s i o n s made by t h e v i l l a g e r s i n c l u d e d d e c i d i n g 103 t h e y c o u l d h e l p t h e m s e l v e s , what t h e y w o u l d be p r e p a r e d t o do a n d w h e r e t h e y w o u l d n e e d h e l p . D e c i s i o n s made by t h e GOK i n v o l v e d s c o o p i n g o u t t r a d i t i o n a l w a t e r s o u r c e s t o make l a r g e dams. T h i s was done w i t h o u t c o m m u n i t y i n v o l v e m e n t . The v i l l a g e r s a r e i n v o l v e d i n i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e p l a n o n l y a s f a r a s l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d l o c a l p h y s i c a l work. T h o s e i n v o l v e d i n c l u d e d t h e e l d e r s , y o u n g men, h e a d s o f h o u s e h o l d s , and women. T h e i r r o l e s a nd r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r e d i r e c t e d m a i n l y t o p r o t e c t t h e w a t e r s o u r c e , i m p r o v e i t when n e c e s s a r y a n d t o u s e t h e w a t e r i n ways w h i c h w i l l h a v e l e a s t c h a n c e o f c a u s i n g s i c k n e s s . The d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s i s c o n s t r a i n e d where t h e d e g r e e o f G o v e r n m e n t i n v o l v e m e n t i s h i g h . A l l o f t h e NGO p r o j e c t s a r e m a i n t a i n e d by t h e p e o p l e a s w e l l a s , i n c r e a s i n g l y , t h e G o v e r n m e n t s u r f a c e w a t e r s u p p l i e s . E q u i p m e n t i s m a i n t a i n e d by t h e G o v e r n m e n t . The a c c e s s t o t h e s o u r c e s i s b e c o m i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y more c o n t r o l l e d by l o c a l l y a c c e p t e d p e o p l e . T h e r e i s no t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m c o n c e r n i n g m a i n t e n a n c e a n d r e p a i r o f t h e s o u r c e . The o n l y m a i n t e n a n c e done by t h e p e o p l e i s on a s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e v e l n o t a s k i l l e d , t e c h n i c a l l e v e l . ( i i i ) . S o c i a l I m p a c t . Among t h e p o s i t i v e i m p a c t s o f t h e p r o j e c t s a r e : t h e p e o p l e c a n h a v e more l i v e s t o c k ; p e o p l e a r e h e a l t h i e r ; a nd c h i l d r e n h ave t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o g e t an e d u c a t i o n . O t h e r i m p a c t s were a l s o i d e n t i f i e d , s u c h a s : t h e l a n d n e a r t h e w a t e r was b e i n g l o o k e d a f t e r b e t t e r ; and t h a t t h r o u g h t h e 104 c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s t h e p e o p l e a r e b e g i n n i n g t o become aw a r e t h a t t h e y s h o u l d n o t c o n t i n u o u s l y s i t b a c k a n d w a i t f o r g i f t s f r o m t h e G o v e r n m e n t . ( i v ) . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y F o r t h e P l a n s . Mr. Thompson i d e n t i f i e s t h e p e o p l e a n d NGO s t a f f , w i t h o t h e r r e l e v a n t G o v e r n m e n t p e r s o n n e l , a s b e a r i n g t h e m a i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e p r o j e c t s he i s i n v o l v e d i n . W i t h i n t h e scheme a s a w h o l e t h e D i s t r i c t O f f i c e h a s some l o c a l f r e e d o m b u t t h e o v e r a l l s t r a t e g y comes f r o m N a i r o b i a n d t h e e x t e r n a l a g e n c y . H o w e v e r , t h e D i s t r i c t O f f i c e d o e s have some f r e e d o m t o a d a p t t h e p l a n s t o l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . ( v ) . The P e o p l e a n d t h e P r o j e c t s . Mr. Thompson's NGO a n d t h e v i l l a g e r s were b o t h i n v o l v e d i n i n i t i a t i n g r e q u e s t s f o r w a t e r s u p p l y . The m a i n p u r p o s e o f t h e NGO p r o j e c t s was t o i n t e g r a t e a n d s t r e n g t h e n c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e t h r o u g h i m p r o v i n g t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n / s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n t h e MSP. To d a t e , t h e p e o p l e a r e h appy w i t h what h a s b e e n d o n e . Mr. Thompson i d e n t i f i e s one i m p o r t a n t component o f t h i s a s b e i n g t h e a w a r e n e s s o f t h e w a t e r p r o b l e m a s e v i d e n c e d by t h e c o n t i n u i n g c o -o p e r a t i o n o f t h e v i l l a g e r s . 105 " I f w a t e r i m p r o v e m e n t were b e i n g p l a n n e d i n a r u r a l a r e a a n d t h e p l a n n e r w a n t e d t o p r e d i c t t h e r e s p o n s e o f l o c a l w a t e r u s e r s , t h e p r o c e d u r e most l i k e l y t o y i e l d a c c u r a t e r e s u l t s w o u l d be t o a r r a n g e f o r t h e u s e r s t h e m s e l v e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n d e s i g n i n g , c o n s t r u c t i n g , a n d o p e r a t i n g t h e scheme. T h e r e i s no more d i r e c t way o f f i n d i n g o u t t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s a n d t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o c o n t r i b u t e t o b u i l d i n g a n d u s i n g t h e i m p r o v e m e n t . . . " G i l b e r t F. W h i t e , D a v i d J . B r a d l e y a n d Anne U. W h i t e . Drawers of Water: Domestic Water Use in East Afr i ca. 106 5. AN ANALYSIS The a n a l y s i s u n d e r t a k e n i n t h i s c h a p t e r i s b a s e d on t h e c a s e s t u d y a n d what i t c a n r e v e a l a b o u t t h e i s s u e s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r s Two a n d T h r e e . The c a s e s t u d y p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n on one l a r g e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t a n d t h e l i m i t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h n a r r o w i n g t h e s t u d y t o t h i s f o c u s a r e many. H o w e v e r , i t i s f e l t t h a t some v a l i d l e s s o n s a n d c o n c l u s i o n s c a n be drawn f r o m t h e s t u d y w i t h r e g a r d t o r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t e f f o r t s o r i e n t e d a r o u n d a b a s i c n e e d s c o n c e p t . The a n a l y s i s w i l l be on t h r e e l e v e l s . The f i r s t w i l l d e a l s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h e c a s e s t u d y i t s e l f a n d a s k t h e q u e s t i o n , "Was t h e MSP s u c c e s s f u l ? " The s e c o n d l e v e l w i l l i d e n t i f y t h e e l e m e n t s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s o u t c o m e . T h i s s t a g e o f a n a l y s i s w i l l be f a c i l i t a t e d by u t i l i z i n g t h e e l e m e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s i d e n t i f i e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e . The t h i r d w i l l e x a m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e e l e m e n t s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e MSP and t h e BNA and a s k , " I s t h e BNA i t s e l f a v i t a l e l e m e n t t o i n c l u d e i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t ? " A. THE CASE STUDY: WAS IT SUCCESSFUL? I n o r d e r t o a n s w e r t h e a b o v e q u e s t i o n , t h e p r o j e c t w i l l be e x a m i n e d i n l i g h t o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f s u c c e s s g i v e n i n t h i s t h e s i s : t h e m e e t i n g o f i m m e d i a t e a n d l o n g t e r m w a t e r n e e d s l e a d i n g t o i m p r o v e m e n t s i n h e a l t h , e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s 107 o f c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h i n t h e scheme. T h i s w i l l be done i n two p a r t s . The f i r s t w i l l l o o k a t s u c c e s s i n t e r m s o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s s e t by t h e GOK/GOA and t h e s e c o n d w i l l l o o k a t s u c c e s s i n t e r m s o f t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s r e v e a l e d i n t h e t h r e e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . * 1. THE OBJECTIVES. The g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e MSP a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g : * * 1) t o i m p r o v e t h e l i v i n g s t a n d a r d o f t h e p e o p l e ; 2) t o s e t t l e l a n d l e s s p e o p l e ; 3) t o i n c r e a s e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n ; a n d 4) t o g a i n e x p e r i e n c e i n d e v e l o p i n g s e m i - a r i d m a r g i n a l l a n d s . The m a i n t a s k i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s i s t o e x a m i n e how t h e p r o v i s i o n o f w a t e r t o r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h i n t h e scheme i s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o u t l i n e d a b o v e . The l i v i n g s t a n d a r d o f t h e p e o p l e w i t h i n t h e 17 v i l l a g e s i n t h e scheme d e f i n i t e l y seems t o h a v e i m p r o v e d . A l l 17 h o u s e h o l d s s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e was i m p r o v e d h e a l t h a s o p p o s e d t o t h e 17 h o u s e h o l d s o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e two who s t r e s s e d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e was s i c k n e s s i n t h e v i l l a g e s . Mr. P o l h i l l a n d Mr. Thompson f e l t h e a l t h h a d i m p r o v e d i n t h e v i l l a g e s a s w e l l . The b u r d e n on t h e women o f g e t t i n g w a t e r seems t o h a v e d e c r e a s e d f o r t h e h o u s e h o l d s w i t h i n t h e scheme, w i t h 14 o f t h e 17 h a v i n g t h e w a t e r w i t h i n 3 km. When c o m p a r e d t o t h e 10 h o u s e h o l d s o u t s i d e o f t h e scheme who h a d t o go f u r t h e r t h a n 3 km f o r t h e i r * S e c t i o n A i s s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e 5. ** T h e s e o b j e c t i v e s h a v e been e x p a n d e d i n T a b l e 5 a n d a r e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h @@. 108 TABLE 5: AN EVALUATION OF THE SUCCESS OF THE MSP. C r i t e r i a Objectives® P e r s p e c t i v e s * A|B|C| D| E Q1** Q2*** P l a n n e r s ! , Health®® M M i i ! x i G B NA B u r d e n on women decreased®® | j j x j NA B G Water quality®® 1 ! x i ! I B U E d u c a t i o n f o r children®® NA NA G More food®® X G B U More f r e e time## 1 1 1 i x G B NA L i f e i s b e t t e r # # j j ! j X G B NA R e l i a b l e W a t e r Supply®® ! 1 x l 1 I B G Water availability®® j j x! j G B G D i s t a n c e t o w a t e r decreased®® 1 1 1 x i G B G S a t i s f i e d w i t h qovernment## j j ! j X G B NA S a t i s f i e d w i t h MSP## 1 1 i 1x G NA NA S e t t l e Giriama@Q j ! x | I NA NA G More livestock®® j j x | j G B G C a s h crops®® j ! j X i G B U More milk@@ 1 i x i i I B NA G a i n e x p e r i e n c e i n d e v e l o p i n g s e m i - a r i d lands®® i ! 1! I I |x| NA . NA G ©Objectives a r e d e s c r i b e d by u s i n g A=not a c h i e v e d , B = u n c e r t a i n , C = m o d e r a t e l y a c h i e v e d , D = d e f i n i t e l y a c h i e v e d a n d E=not a p p l i c a b l e . * P e r s p e c t i v e s a r e d e s c r i b e d by u s i n g G=good, B=bad, I = i n b e t w e e n , U=unsure a n d NA=not a p p l i c a b l e . * * T h e s e a r e t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s o f t h e v i l l a g e r s o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e one r e g a r d i n g t h e i r v i e w o f t h e MSP. * * * T h e s e a r e t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s o f t h e v i l l a g e r s o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e two r e g a r d i n g t h e i r s i t u a t i o n , n o t t h e MSP. #These a r e t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s o f t h e p l a n n e r s r e g a r d i n g t h e MSP. # # C r i t e r i a t h a t a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y f r o m t h e v i l l a g e r s . ©©Criteria t h a t a r e p a r t o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e MSP. 109 w a t e r , t h i s w o u l d seem t o a l s o i n d i c a t e a s a v i n g i n t i m e and e n e r g y i n f e t c h i n g w a t e r f o r h o u s e h o l d s w i t h i n MSP. The q u e s t i o n o f t h e c h i l d r e n h a v i n g t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o g e t an e d u c a t i o n was b r i e f l y t o u c h e d on by b o t h Mr. P o l h i l l a n d Mr. Thompson. The two p l a n n e r s b o t h a g r e e d t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n w i t h i n t h e scheme h a d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f g e t t i n g an e d u c a t i o n . T h e r e i s , h o w e v e r , no way t o compare t h e c h i l d r e n i n h o u s e h o l d s o u t s i d e t h e scheme w i t h t h o s e w i t h i n due t o a l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n . I t i s t h e r e f o r e u n c e r t a i n w h e t h e r t h i s o b j e c t i v e was met. The a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e o b j e c t i v e o f s e t t l i n g l a n d l e s s p e o p l e i s n o t q u i t e s o c l e a r . I t seems t h a t t h e Giriama (who were a l r e a d y i n t h e r e g i o n ) a r e s e t t l i n g down i n one a r e a more now t h a n i n t h e p a s t a s p o i n t e d o u t by Mr. P o l h i l l . T h i s c a n a l s o be s e e n i n a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e f i r s t two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w h ere 8 h o u s e h o l d s o u t s i d e o f t h e scheme h a d t o s e a r c h f o r w a t e r o v e r d i s t a n c e s e x c e e d i n g 30 km. T h i s p r o b l e m was n o t m e n t i o n e d a t a l l i n q u e s t i o n n a i r e one. The q u e s t i o n o f l a n d l e s s p e o p l e w o u l d r e f e r more t o t r i b e s o t h e r t h a n t h e Giriama s e t t l i n g t h e l a n d . The movement o f a t l e a s t two o t h e r t r i b e s i n t o t h e a r e a was n o t e d on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s b u t n o t h i n g more s p e c i f i c was g i v e n . The o b j e c t i v e w o u l d seem t o be met a s f a r a s t h e Giriama b e c o m i n g more s e t t l e d t h a n p r e v i o u s l y a s a r e s u l t o f h a v i n g a more r e l i a b l e s o u r c e o f w a t e r . A g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n w i t h i n t h e scheme seems t o hav e i n c r e a s e d . I n t h e f i r s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h e m a j o r i t y o f h o u s e h o l d s c o u l d grow more f o o d , s e l l more f o o d , k e e p more a n i m a l s , s e l l more a n i m a l s , h a v e more m i l k a n d s e l l more m i l k . When t h i s i s 110 c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e h o u s e h o l d s o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e two where o n l y 1 h o u s e h o l d c o u l d grow f o o d t o s e l l , 11 h o u s e h o l d s c o u l d s e l l a n i m a l s ( m a i n l y i n e m e r g e n c i e s ) a n d o n l y 2 h o u s e h o l d s c o u l d s e l l m i l k , a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n seems t o h a v e b e e n a f f e c t e d p o s i t i v e l y by t h e p r o v i s i o n o f w a t e r . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e i n c r e a s e d a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n t o t h e s u p p l y o f w a t e r c a n a l s o be s e e n i n a c o m p a r i s o n o f how t h e h o u s e h o l d s i n q u e s t i o n n a i r e one an d q u e s t i o n n a i r e two u s e t h e i r w a t e r . I n t h e f i r s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e d o m e s t i c u s e o f w a t e r , 10 h o u s e h o l d s u s e d w a t e r f o r t h e i r a n i m a l s , 16 h o u s e h o l d s f o r t h e i r shambas and 6 f o r i r r i g a t i o n o f t h e i r shambas d u r i n g t h e d r y s e a s o n . I n t h e s e c o n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e o n l y 1 h o u s e h o l d u s e d w a t e r f o r t h e i r a n i m a l s a n d none f o r t h e i r shamba. The c o n t r a s t i s q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t . I n a d d i t i o n , b o t h p l a n n e r s f e l t t h e p e o p l e were now a b l e t o h a v e more l i v e s t o c k t h a n p r e v i o u s l y . The f o u r t h o b j e c t i v e , g a i n i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n d e v e l o p i n g s e m i -a r i d m a r g i n a l l a n d s , w o u l d seem t o be an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f any p r o j e c t i n s u c h r e g i o n s . E x p e r i e n c e , w h e t h e r p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e , w o u l d h a v e t o be g a i n e d . Mr. P o l h i l l commented a number o f t i m e s on t h e l e s s o n s b e i n g l e a r n e d a n d how t h e management o f t h e MSP was a d a p t i n g t o make t h e i r e f f o r t s more s u i t a b l e t o l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . 2. THE PERSPECTIVES. The h o u s e h o l d s i n t h e f i r s t s e t o f v i l l a g e s seemed t o f e e l t h a t t h e p r o j e c t h a d b e n e f i t e d them i n a number o f ways. I n 111 a d d i t i o n t o what has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , 16 h o u s e h o l d s f e l t t h e w a t e r was c l e a n e r t h a n b e f o r e , 15 f e l t t h e y h a d more f r e e t i m e , 17 s a i d t h e w a t e r was b e t t e r t h a n b e f o r e , 17 l i k e d how t h e i r l i f e h a d c h a n g e d , 14 s a i d l i f e was b e t t e r a n d a l l were happy w i t h t h e G o v e r n m e n t . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e p e r s p e c t i v e s becomes more a p p a r e n t when t h e y a r e c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e v i e w s o f t h e h o u s e h o l d s i n t h e s e c o n d s e t o f v i l l a g e s . I n t h e s e v i l l a g e s 17 h o u s e h o l d s were n o t p l e a s e d w i t h t h e i r w a t e r , a l l f e l t t h a t l i f e w o u l d c h a n g e f o r t h e b e t t e r w i t h a r e l i a b l e w a t e r s u p p l y , 10 f e l t t h a t w a t e r was s c a r c e , 14 s a i d t h e y w o u l d no l o n g e r h a v e t o s e a r c h f o r w a t e r i f i t was s u p p l i e d , a l l were n o t s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r l i f e now a n d a l l h a d a s k e d t h e Government t o s u p p l y w a t e r t o t h e i r v i l l a g e s . B o t h s e t s o f v i l l a g e s seem t o f e e l t h a t t h e scheme i s s u c c e s s f u l . B o t h p l a n n e r s f e l t t h a t t h e p e o p l e were h a p p y w i t h t h e scheme a n d what i t had done f o r them. I n t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e MSP i s b a s e d l a r g e l y on t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e w a t e r s u p p l y p a r t o f t h e p r o j e c t . The l i v i n g s t a n d a r d o f t h e p e o p l e was i m p r o v e d , a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n seemed t o h a v e i n c r e a s e d , more f o o d was s o l d , more l i v e s t o c k was k e p t , more l i v e s t o c k was s o l d , more m i l k was s o l d a n d t h e p e o p l e f e l t t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , t h e i r l i f e h a d c h a n g e d f o r t h e b e t t e r . I t w o u l d p r o b a b l y be s a f e t o s a y t h a t t h e p r o v i s i o n o f w a t e r t o t h e r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h i n t h e scheme d i d r e s u l t i n i m p r o v e m e n t s i n t h e i r h e a l t h , e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . 1 1 2 I n summary, t h e MSP, t o d a t e , d o e s seem t o h a v e a c h i e v e d some s u c c e s s , b o t h i n t e r m s o f m e e t i n g i t s o b j e c t i v e s a n d f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s o f v i l l a g e s w i t h i n t h e scheme, v i l l a g e s o u t s i d e o f t h e scheme, a nd some o f t h e p l a n n e r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e scheme. The n e x t q u e s t i o n t o a s k i s , "What e l e m e n t s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s s u c c e s s ? " B. THE ELEMENTS IN SUCCESSFUL PROJECTS. I n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y t h e e l e m e n t s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e MSP, t h e f a c t o r s d i s c u s s e d a s p a r t o f a com m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s w i l l be t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t . I n o t h e r w o r d s , q u e s t i o n s w i l l be a s k e d r e g a r d i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e f o l l o w i n g : a p p r o p r i a t e k n o w l e d g e ; a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y ; a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s ; a p p r o p r i a t e s u p p o r t ; a n d com m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n , were i n c l u d e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . A f t e r t h i s h a s been d o n e , a d d i t i o n a l e l e m e n t s t h a t a r e p a r t o f a t e c h n o c r a t i c a p p r o a c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . 1. APPROPRIATE KNOWLEDGE? The " t e c h n i c a l " i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d by t h e a g e n c y seemed t o h a v e been an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m . I n t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e r e c e i v e d i t was p o i n t e d o u t t h a t , "The w a t e r system...now [ b e i n g ] i n s t a l l e d was a r r i v e d a t a f t e r e x t e n s i v e s t u d i e s and d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t a l l t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s . " As d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e , t h i s k i n d o f t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n 1 1 3 p r e s e n t s l i t t l e o r no p r o b l e m s f o r t h e a g e n c y a n d i s a n e c e s s a r y e l e m e n t i n any p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The " p e o p l e - o r i e n t e d " k n o w l e d g e i d e n t i f i e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e was n o t a s c l e a r l y i n c l u d e d . The t o n e o f b o t h Mr. P o l h i l l s ' r e s p o n s e s on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e r e c e i v e d i n d i c a t e s v e r y l i t t l e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e p e o p l e b e y o n d t h e f a c t t h e y were Giriama. Mr. Thompson, w o r k i n g w i t h an NGO w i t h i n t h e scheme, h a s a v e r y d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e on how r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d o c c u r and t h r o u g h o u t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h e f o c u s on k n o w i n g t h e p e o p l e comes t h r o u g h q u i t e s t r o n g l y . The d e c i s i o n by t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e MSP t o make an NGO p r o g r a m f o c u s i n g on c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p a r t o f t h e scheme i s t h e o n l y i n d i c a t i o n t h a t a f o c u s on t h e p e o p l e was i m p o r t a n t . I t i s a l s o t h e NGO p r o g r a m t h a t seems t o be u t i l i z i n g t h e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e c o m m u n i t y members i n t h e i r p r o j e c t s , a s e v i d e n t i n Mr. Thompsons' q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The k n o w l e d g e t h e c o m m u n i t y i t s e l f n e e d s was a l s o an e l e m e n t t h a t d i d n o t a p p e a r s t r o n g l y i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m t h e MSP i s i n v o l v e d i n a t p r e s e n t i s m a i n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t e l l i n g t h e v i l l a g e r s t o b o i l t h e i r w a t e r o r t o n o t s t a n d i n p u d d l e s . T h i s seems t o be f a i r l y s h a l l o w i n i t s a p p r o a c h a n d o n l y 5 h o u s e h o l d s e v e n knew s u c h a p r o g r a m e x i s t e d . S i m i l a r l y , a t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e o p e r a t i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e s y s t e m seemed t o be l a c k i n g . O n l y 5 h o u s e h o l d s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s o u r c e , t h e r e s t p o i n t e d t o t h e e m p l o y e e s o f t h e p r o j e c t who h a d t o m a i n t a i n t h e s y s t e m . 114 Mr. Thompsons' r e s p o n s e s p r o v i d e a d i f f e r e n t v i e w o f t h i s i s s u e . He s t a t e s t h a t a l l NGO p r o j e c t s a r e m a i n t a i n e d by t h e p e o p l e b u t he a l s o p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e r e i s no t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m c o n c e r n i n g m a i n t e n a n c e a n d r e p a i r o f t h e s o u r c e . 2. APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY? The q u e s t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y d o es seem t o h a v e been c o n s i d e r e d . I n t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e r e c e i v e d i t was s t a t e d : " E v e r y t h i n g was c o n s i d e r e d - s h a l l o w w e l l s , r o o f c a t c h m e n t , o f f t a k e f r o m t h e S a b a k i ( a r i v e r 15 km d i s t a n t f r o m t h e s o u t h e r n b o u n d a r y o f t h e p r o j e c t ) , b u t i n t h e e n d GOK/GOA a l w a y s came b a c k t o t h e r e t i c u l a t i o n / d a m c o m b i n a t i o n a s b e i n g t h e most s u i t a b l e a n d t e c h n i c a l l y f e a s i b l e f o r t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . " The r e t i c u l a t i o n p a r t o f t h e s y s t e m i s s o l e l y t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e p r o j e c t s t a f f , t h e l o c a l p e o p l e h a v e n o t h i n g t o do w i t h i t . I t d o e s n o t seem t h a t t h i s t e c h n o l o g y i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e l o c a l p e o p l e b u t r a t h e r i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e scheme. The d a m / w a t e r h o l e p a r t o f t h e s y s t e m d o e s a p p e a r t o be more a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e l o c a l p e o p l e . I n f a c t , b o t h Mr. P o l h i l l and Mr. Thompson r e p o r t t h a t t h e v i l l a g e r s a r e b e g i n n i n g t o be made r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s e s o u r c e s . T h i s c a n be done b e c a u s e t h e s i m p l e t e c h n o l o g y r e q u i r e d t o o p e r a t e a n d m a i n t a i n t h e d a m s / w a t e r h o l e s c a n be a d e q u a t e l y h a n d l e d by t h e v i l l a g e r s . 3. APPROPRIATE INSTITUTIONS? A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e scheme t h e use o f l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s was v e r y m i n i m a l t o n o n - e x i s t e n t . Mr. P o l h i l l a n d t h e 115 c o r r e s p o n d e n c e r e c e i v e d s t r e s s e d t h i s f a c t . I t was t h e GOK/GOA who h a d t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e p r o j e c t , t h e l o c a l p e o p l e a n d t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s were n o t i n c l u d e d a t a l l . Mr. P o l h i l l d i d p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e u s e o f l o c a l c o m m i t t e e s t o l o o k a f t e r t h e s o u r c e i s j u s t b e g i n n i n g t o be i m p l e m e n t e d . The o n l y o t h e r m e n t i o n o f a l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n was i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e M a r a f a F a r m e r s C o o p e r a t i v e S o c i e t y where f a r m e r s c a n o b t a i n c a p i t a l a n d s e a s o n a l c r e d i t . An i n s t i t u t i o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r RWS p r o j e c t s was n o t m e n t i o n e d . Mr. Thompsons' NGO p l a c e s much more s t r e s s on u t i l i z i n g t h e l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e v i l l a g e s . Mr. Thompson s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e m a i n p u r p o s e o f h i s a g e n c y was t o i n t e g r a t e a n d s t r e n g t h e n c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n and i n d e p e n d e n c e t h r o u g h i m p r o v i n g t h e existing s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n / s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n t h e MSP. 4. APPROPRIATE SUPPORT? The q u e s t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e s u p p o r t i s t i e d i n w i t h what h a s a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d . The e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m i s o n l y i n i t s i n f a n c y . Mr. P o l h i l l s t a t e d t h a t t h e p r i o r i t y o f t h e p r o j e c t now was t o e d u c a t e t h e p e o p l e on how t o u s e t h e w a t e r . T h i s i n d i c a t e s a r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e i r e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m i s i n n e e d o f i m p r o v e m e n t . S i m i l a r l y , Mr. P o l h i l l a l s o w r o t e t h a t t h e y were j u s t now b e g i n n i n g t o t r a i n v i l l a g e r s on how t o o p e r a t e and m a i n t a i n t h e d a m s / w a t e r h o l e s . I t i s t o o e a r l y t o t e l l i n t h e l i f e o f t h e p r o j e c t w h e t h e r a p p r o p r i a t e s u p p o r t i n e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g i s i n p l a c e . H owever, a t l e a s t t h e r e a l i z a t i o n i s t h e r e a s t o a need f o r i t . 116 A p p r o p r i a t e s u p p o r t i n r e g a r d s t o t h e e q u i p m e n t a n d m a c h i n e r y i s a l s o n o t a s s t r o n g l y i n c l u d e d a s p e r h a p s i t s h o u l d b e . When a s k e d a b o u t t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e i r w a t e r s o u r c e , 8 h o u s e h o l d s m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e t a p s w o u l d p e r i o d i c a l l y d r y up, l a r g e l y due t o m a c h i n e r y o r l a c k o f m a i n t e n a n c e p r o b l e m s . The r e p a i r o f t h e s e s o u r c e s i s l e f t t o p r o j e c t e m p l o y e e s . A t p r e s e n t t h e GOA b e a r s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f m a k i n g s u r e t h e s o u r c e s a r e r e p a i r e d q u i c k l y . No m e n t i o n was made r e g a r d i n g what was t o ha p p e n when t h e MWD t o o k o v e r t h e RWS p a r t o f t h e scheme. A t p r e s e n t a l m o s t 5 0 % o f t h e v i l l a g e s r e p o r t p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e i r s o u r c e s , i f no a p p r o p r i a t e s u p p o r t s y s t e m i s d e v e l o p e d , t h i s p e r c e n t a g e c o u l d i n c r e a s e . 5. COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION? B o t h t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e r e c e i v e d a n d Mr. P o l h i l l s t a t e t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s by t h e l o c a l p e o p l e was p o o r t o n o n - e x i s t e n t . The p r o g r a m came f r o m t h e GOK/GOA a n d , a s Mr. P o l h i l l s t a t e s , was " . . . p u s h e d on t h e p e o p l e w i t h o u t t h e i r c o n s e n t o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g . " I n t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i t was a l s o p o i n t e d o u t t h a t , "The w a t e r s y s t e m was d e s i g n e d a n d i n s t a l l e d w i t h o u t any i n p u t f r o m t h e b e n e f i c i a r i e s . . " On t h e f i r s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h i s l a c k o f i n v o l v e m e n t was a l s o e v i d e n t when t h e v i l l a g e r s were a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e y w a n t e d t o be more i n v o l v e d i n t h e RWS p r o j e c t s w i t h 13 h o u s e h o l d s s a y i n g y e s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e Mr. P o l h i l l s ' v i e w t h a t l a c k o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a p r o b l e m a n d , " i s now b e i n g r e c t i f i e d a s f a s t 117 a s p o s s i b l e w i t h t h e p e o p l e b e i n g i n v o l v e d by t h e NGOs and t h e P r o j e c t . " The NGOs, a s r e p r e s e n t e d by Mr. Thompson, p l a c e much more s t r e s s on c o m m u n i t y i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e i r p r o j e c t s . The e m p h a s i s t h r o u g h o u t Mr. Thompsons' q u e s t i o n n a i r e was on m o t i v a t i n g t h e p e o p l e t o h e l p t h e m s e l v e s s o l v e t h e i r w a t e r p r o b l e m s a n d t o d e v e l o p s u s t a i n a b l e p r o j e c t s w i t h e v e n t h e f u n d i n g b e i n g p a i d i n p a r t by t h e v i l l a g e r s . I t seems t h a t f r o m t h e MSP's p o i n t o f v i e w , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p r o j e c t i s done l a r g e l y t h r o u g h t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e NGOs w o r k i n g w i t h i n t h e scheme. 6. OTHER FACTORS. I n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r , what e l s e h a s been i n c l u d e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t h a t h a s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e p r o j e c t ' s s u c c e s s , a s h o r t summary on t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e f i v e e l e m e n t s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e were i n c l u d e d w o u l d seem a p p r o p r i a t e . The c o n c l u s i o n o f s e c t i o n A i n d i c a t e d t h e p r o j e c t , t o d a t e , c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d a s s u c c e s s f u l . The f o l l o w i n g summary a n d d i s c u s s i o n w i l l a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y what was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s . I t must be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s s t i l l c o n t i n u i n g . The MSP i s n o t a c o m p l e t e d p r o j e c t a n d t h i s must be c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d when r e a d i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s . The GOK/GOA scheme d i d i n c l u d e t h e g a t h e r i n g o f t h e n e c e s s a r y " t e c h n i c a l " i n f o r m a t i o n . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h " p e o p l e -o r i e n t e d " k n o w l e d g e was i n c l u d e d was l a r g e l y l e f t t o t h e NGOs 118 w o r k i n g w i t h i n t h e scheme, t h e h i g h e r l e v e l s (GOA p e r s o n n e l ) were more c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r o j e c t t h a n w i t h t h e p e o p l e . A p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y was i n c l u d e d , a t l e a s t a s f a r a s t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t g o e s . T e c h n o l o g y a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e p e o p l e i s j u s t b e g i n n i n g t o be e m p h a s i z e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e d a m s / w a t e r h o l e s . The i n c l u s i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s was a l m o s t n o n -e x i s t e n t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e scheme. S i m i l a r t o t h e f i r s t two e l e m e n t s , a s t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c o n t i n u e s t h e n e e d t o d e v e l o p a n d u se a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s i s b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d . A p p r o p r i a t e s u p p o r t h a s a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d l i t t l e t o t h e p r o j e c t . The GOA p e r s o n n e l a r e s t i l l i n p l a c e a n d t h e y t e n d t o t a k e much o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e s y s t e m . Community p a r t i c i p a t i o n was a l m o s t n o n - e x i s t e n t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p r o j e c t . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h i t i s b e i n g i n c l u d e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a g a i n seems t o d e p e n d on t h e NGOs w o r k i n g w i t h i n t h e scheme. To d a t e , t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h e f i v e e l e m e n t s o f a c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s h a s been q u i t e m i n i m a l . The p r o j e c t , h o w e v e r , was f o u n d t o be s u c c e s s f u l . F a c t o r s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e d i s c u s s e d a b o v e must h a v e been p r e s e n t . T h e s e f a c t o r s a r e p a r t o f t h e t e c h n o c r a t i c a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s . One f a c t o r w o u l d be t h e l a r g e amounts o f money a n d c a p i t a l i n v e s t e d i n t h e scheme c o m i n g f r o m t e c h n i c a l l y c o m p e t e n t a g e n c i e s b o t h i n Kenya a n d A u s t r a l i a . The p r o v i s i o n o f t h e p i p e d w a t e r s u p p l y s y s t e m d i d a c c o m p l i s h i t s o b j e c t i v e , w a t e r 119 was p r o v i d e d t o t h e p e o p l e w i t h i n t h e scheme. T h i s s i m p l e f a c t was p r o b a b l y t h e most i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e p r o j e c t . A s e c o n d f a c t o r r e l a t e d t o t h e a b o v e i s t h e p r e s e n c e o f A u s t r a l i a n a i d and p e r s o n n e l . I t i s t h e s e f a c t o r s t h a t p r o v i d e d t h e s t a b i l i t y a n d s e c u r i t y f o r t h e p r o j e c t , e n a b l i n g i t t o p r o c e e d . I n summary, i t must be a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e l a r g e i n f u s i o n o f money and c a p i t a l t h r o u g h an e x t e r n a l a g e n c y d o e s meet w i t h s u c c e s s , a t l e a s t a s l o n g a s t h e e x t e r n a l a g e n c y r e m a i n s . H o wever, t h e more i m p o r t a n t i s s u e o f t h e s u s t a i n a b i l i t y o f t h e p r o j e c t a f t e r t h e e x t e r n a l a g e n c y l e a v e s must be c o n s i d e r e d . I t was n o t e d e a r l i e r t h a t t h e MSP i s s t i l l a young p r o j e c t . T h i s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , p l a c e s some c o n s t r a i n t s on b e i n g a b l e t o j u d g e w h e t h e r o r n o t i t i s s u s t a i n a b l e . H o wever, i n t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e r e c e i v e d , c o n c e r n was r a i s e d r e g a r d i n g what w i l l h a p pen when t h e A u s t r a l i a n s l e a v e : "Now w i t h 18 months t o go u n t i l t h e end o f P h a s e 3, w h i c h means t h e e n d o f A u s t r a l i a n f u n d i n g , t h e A u s t r a l i a n s a r e s u d d e n l y b e c o m i n g v e r y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e s u s t a i n a b i l i t y o f t h e s y s t e m we a r e i n s t a l l i n g . I n d e e d i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e Giriama s e t t l e r s c o u l d t h e m s e l v e s hope t o m a i n t a i n s u c h a c o m p l e x and c o s t l y w a t e r r e t i c u l a t i o n s y s t e m w h i c h i s b a s e d on d i e s e l e n g i n e s p u m ping w a t e r f r o m deep u n d e r g r o u n d ( 8 0 -200 m e t e r s ) . " I t seems t h a t b e c a u s e o f t h e l a c k of t h e i n c l u s i o n i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f t h e MSP o f t h e f i v e c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h , i d e n t i f i e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e , t h e l i f e o f t h e scheme i s b e i n g t h r e a t e n e d . T h i s i s why Mr. P o l h i l l a n d t h e 1 20 c o r r e s p o n d e n c e r e c e i v e d now b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o i n c l u d e a p p r o p r i a t e k n o w l e d g e , a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y , a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s , a p p r o p r i a t e s u p p o r t a n d c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . To d a t e t h e MSP h a s been s u c c e s s f u l . I f i t i s t o c o n t i n u e t o meet i t s o b j e c t i v e s , t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s may h a v e t o a d a p t t o i n c l u d e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e e l e m e n t s . A p o s i t i v e s i g n o f t h i s i s t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h e NGOs w o r k i n g w i t h t h e p e o p l e w i t h i n t h e MSP. D. THE BASIC NEEDS APPROACH. I n t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween t h e BNA a n d t h e e l e m e n t s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e RWS p r o j e c t w i l l be e x a m i n e d . T h i s i s i m p o r t a n t i f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e BNA a n d r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t i s t o be u n d e r s t o o d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r m s o f w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e BNA i s i t s e l f an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t . I n C h a p t e r Two, a number o f e l e m e n t s were i d e n t i f i e d t h a t t h e b a s i c n e e d s c o n c e p t f o c u s e d a t t e n t i o n on. T h e s e i n c l u d e d a f o c u s o n : t h e human r e q u i r e m e n t s o f p e o p l e ; t h e n e e d i e s t segment o f s o c i e t y ; c o n c r e t e o b j e c t i v e s ; t h e e n d s o f d e v e l o p m e n t r a t h e r t h a n t h e means; t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p e o p l e r a t h e r t h a n t h i n g s ; d i r e c t l y a t t a c k i n g p o v e r t y ; and t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e s t a b l i s h i n g m u t u a l c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n n a t i o n a l a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s l i s t , t h e o r g a n i z i n g and i n t e g r a t i n g power o f t h e a p p r o a c h and i t s a p p e a l t o t h e n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m m u n i t y , a n d t h u s i t s a b i l i t y t o m o b i l i z e r e s o u r c e s , was a l s o d i s c u s s e d . 121 I n t h e MSP, many o f t h e s e same e l e m e n t s c a n be f o u n d . The scheme i s a j o i n t GOK/GOA v e n t u r e , s t r e s s i n g t h e i r r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f m u t u a l c o o p e r a t i o n . The MSP f o c u s e d a t t e n t i o n on t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a b a s i c n e e d , w a t e r . The MSP i s l o c a t e d i n a r u r a l r e g i o n among one o f t h e most u n d e v e l o p e d t r i b e s i n K e n y a , t h e Giriama. The scheme h a d c o n c r e t e o b j e c t i v e s i n P h a s e 3: 183 km o f w a t e r s u p p l y p i p e l i n e ; 53 s t o r a g e dams; a n d no s e t t l e r s h o u l d h a v e t o w a l k more t h a n 2 km t o f i n d w a t e r . The e l e m e n t s t h a t a r e m i s s i n g a r e t h e e l e m e n t s , f o r t h e most p a r t , t h a t t h e A u s t r a l i a n s r e c o g n i z e a s b e i n g i m p o r t a n t t o i n c l u d e i f t h e scheme i s t o become s u s t a i n a b l e . T h e s e i n c l u d e b e g i n n i n g t o move f r o m t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i n g s t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e Giriama - e d u c a t i o n , t r a i n i n g , e t c . a n d b e g i n n i n g t o i n c l u d e t h e c o m m u n i t i e s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a n d m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e s y s t e m . The MSP seems t o hav e begun w i t h a f o c u s on p r o v i d i n g t h e p e o p l e w i t h i n t h e p r o j e c t w i t h t h e i r b a s i c n e e d , a BNA t o d e v e l o p m e n t . I t seems t h a t , o v e r t i m e , t h e p e r s o n s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e scheme h a v e p r o g r e s s i v e l y r e c o g n i z e d t h e n e e d t o a d o p t a co m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s , r a t h e r t h a n a t e c h n o c r a t i c a p p r o a c h , a s c o n c e r n f o r t h e s u s t a i n a b i l i t y o f t h e MSP h a s been r a i s e d . The e l e m e n t s t h a t went i n t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t h a t made MSP s u c c e s s f u l were p a r t o f a t e c h n o c r a t i c a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s . The e l e m e n t s t h a t a r e now b e i n g i n c l u d e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n o r d e r t o make t h e MSP s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e l o n g r u n a r e p a r t o f a c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h . 122 " T h e r e was a l i t t l e c i t y , a n d few men w i t h i n i t ; a n d t h e r e came a g r e a t k i n g a g a i n s t i t , a n d b e s i e g e d i t , a n d b u i l t g r e a t b u l w a r k s a g a i n s t i t ; Now t h e r e was f o u n d i n i t a p o o r w i s e man, a n d he by h i s wisdom d e l i v e r e d t h e c i t y ; y e t no man remembered t h a t same p o o r man. Then s a i d I , Wisdom i s b e t t e r t h a n s t r e n g t h : n e v e r t h e l e s s t h e p o o r man's w i s d o m i s d e s p i s e d , a n d h i s w o r d s a r e n o t h e a r d . " The B i b l e , A u t h o r i z e d V e r s i o n , E c c l e s i a s t e s 9:14-16. "Mwalimu N y e r e r e i s r i g h t . S o - c a l l e d l e a d e r s do e n t i r e l y t o o much t a l k i n g t o t h e p e a s a n t s . No one e v e r w a n t s t o l i s t e n t o them." A T a n z a n i a n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r . 123 6. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS D e v e l o p m e n t , a s Sc h u m a c h e r s a i d , i s a p r o c e s s o f e v o l u t i o n . The p a s t f o u r d e c a d e s a r e w i t n e s s t o t h i s f a c t . T h e o r i e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t h a v e been a d v a n c e d , p l a n n e d f o r a n d i m p l e m e n t e d w i t h v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f s u c c e s s . E a c h new t h e o r y seemed t o e v o l v e o u t of t h e l e s s o n s l e a r n e d f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s one. T h i s t h e s i s h a s f o c u s e d on one o f t h e more r e c e n t t h e o r i e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h h a s been r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e BNA. T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l b r i e f l y s u m m a r i z e t h e t h e s i s and p r e s e n t some c o n c l u s i o n s w h i c h a r e b a s e d on what t h e c a s e s t u d y o f C h a p t e r F o u r r e v e a l s a b o u t t h e BNA t o d e v e l o p m e n t . 1. SUMMARY. T h i s t h e s i s began by t r a c i n g t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e n e w e s t t h e o r y o r a p p r o a c h t o d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e BNA. I t i s q u i t e e v i d e n t t h a t t h e BNA h a s been f o r m u l a t e d t o a l a r g e d e g r e e on what d e v e l o p m e n t t h e o r i s t s a n d p r a c t i t i o n e r s have l e a r n e d f r o m what h a s been h a p p e n i n g i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s o v e r t h e l a s t f o u r o r so d e c a d e s . The b a s i c p r e m i s e upon w h i c h t h e b a s i c n e e d s c o n c e p t i s b u i l t i s t h a t i t f o c u s e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t e f f o r t on p e o p l e n o t t h i n g s . T h i s f o c u s a r o s e o u t o f t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t p r e v i o u s a p p r o a c h e s have n o t b e n e f i t e d t h e p o o r i n g e n e r a l a n d t h e r u r a l p o o r i n p a r t i c u l a r . The b a s i c n e e d s c o n c e p t c o n c e n t r a t e s on t h e ends o f d e v e l o p m e n t , i m p r o v i n g t h e l o t o f t h e p o o r , r a t h e r t h a n t h e means t o t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t . The c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h t o 1 24 m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s , h o w e v e r , s u g g e s t s means s u c h a s c o mmunity p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d t h e u s e o f a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y . One a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h i s t h a t when t h e f o c u s i n d e v e l o p m e n t i s on t h e b a s i c n e e d s o f p e o p l e t h e s e two e l e m e n t s a u t o m a t i c a l l y w i l l p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t e f f o r t . An a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e BNA t o d e v e l o p m e n t ( u n d e r w h i c h t h e c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h a n d t h e t e c h n o c r a t i c a p p r o a c h f a l l ) i s t h a t a b r o a d e r r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d r e s u l t f r o m a f o c u s on m e e t i n g t h e b a s i c n e e d s o f t h e r u r a l p o o r . I n o t h e r w o r d s , when p e o p l e no l o n g e r h a v e t o w o r r y a b o u t t h e i r b a s i c n e e d s t h e y c a n c h a n n e l t h e i r now a v a i l a b l e t i m e a n d e n e r g y i n t o more p r o d u c t i v e p u r s u i t s . I n o r d e r t o e x a m i n e t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s , t h e e f f o r t s t o meet one b a s i c n e e d , w a t e r , a n d t h e r e s u l t s o f t h o s e e f f o r t s , was e x a m i n e d . T h i s was d one i n t h r e e s t e p s . The f i r s t s t e p was t o l o o k a t t h e g l o b a l f o c u s on p r o v i d i n g a s a f e a n d r e l i a b l e d r i n k i n g w a t e r s u p p l y t h a t came w i t h t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f t h e 1980s a s t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l D r i n k i n g W a t e r S u p p l y and S a n i t a t i o n D e c a d e . T h i s d e s i g n a t i o n s e r v e d t o s t i m u l a t e a g r e a t d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n on RWS p r o g r a m s . Numerous p r o j e c t s were s t u d i e d and many r e p o r t s w r i t t e n on what was a n d h a d been t a k i n g p l a c e . C h a p t e r T h r e e r e v i e w e d t h i s l i t e r a t u r e w i t h t h e m a i n f o c u s b e i n g on t h e e l e m e n t s s c h o l a r s a n d o t h e r s i d e n t i f i e d a s b e i n g i m p o r t a n t t o t h e s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e o f t h e p r o j e c t s . T h i s l i t e r a t u r e was d o m i n a t e d by a d v o c a t e s of t h e c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s and t h e e l e m e n t s t h e s e w r i t e r s i d e n t i f i e d a s b e i n g i m p o r t a n t were g r o u p e d 125 i n t o f i v e c a t e g o r i e s . T h e s e a r e a p p r o p r i a t e k n o w l e d g e , a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y , a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s , a p p r o p r i a t e s u p p o r t , a n d co m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h e s e f i v e e l e m e n t s were f o u n d t o be o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e f o r t h e l o n g r u n s u s t a i n a b i l i t y o f p r o j e c t s . The s e c o n d s t e p was t o t a k e a s p e c i f i c c a s e s t u d y o f RWS i n K e n y a , E a s t A f r i c a a n d d e t e r m i n e what e l e m e n t s c o n t r i b u t e d t o i t s s u c c e s s . The s t u d y was done on t h e b a s i s o f t h r e e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s e n t t o K e n y a : one t o v i l l a g e s b e n e f i t i n g f r o m a RWS p r o g r a m , t h e MSP; one t o v i l l a g e s w i t h o u t a RWS p r o g r a m ; a n d one t o two p l a n n e r s i n v o l v e d i n e f f o r t s t o s u p p l y v i l l a g e s w i t h w a t e r . The t h i r d s t e p was t o a n a l y z e t h e c a s e s t u d y i n t e r m s o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w o f C h a p t e r T h r e e a n d t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e BNA i n C h a p t e r Two. The a i m was t o i d e n t i f y t h e e l e m e n t s t h a t go i n t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t a n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s t o t h e BNA. The r e s u l t s s h o u l d i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e BNA a r e v a l i d a n d w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e BNA i s i t s e l f a v i t a l e l e m e n t t o i n c l u d e i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t . 2. CONCLUSIONS. One l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e c a s e s t u d y was t h a t i t i s a you n g p r o j e c t . The i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i r e d d e a l t w i t h P h a s e T h r e e o f t h e p r o j e c t w h i c h was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e scheme. The d u r a b i l i t y o r s u s t a i n a b i l i t y o f t h e p r o j e c t c o u l d n o t r e a l l y be d e t e r m i n e d . T h e r e f o r e , t h e 1 26 c o n c l u s i o n s d rawn f r o m t h e c a s e s t u d y a n d i t s a n a l y s i s c a n o n l y be b a s e d on t h e s h o r t r u n . I n C h a p t e r F i v e i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e MSP was s u c c e s s f u l , a t l e a s t i n t h e s h o r t r u n . T h i s i s t r u e i n s p i t e o f a l a c k o f i n c l u s i o n o f t h e f i v e c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e co m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s . Community p a r t i c i p a t i o n was b a s i c a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t , a p p r o p r i a t e k n o w l e d g e was l i m i t e d t o t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n ( t h e t e c h n o l o g y was o n l y a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t ) , a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s were h a r d l y c o n s i d e r e d a n d a p p r o p r i a t e s u p p o r t was j u s t b e g i n n i n g t o be r e c o g n i z e d a s b e i n g i m p o r t a n t . The s u c c e s s o f t h e p r o j e c t c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e a d o p t i o n o f a t e c h n o c r a t i c a p p r o a c h w h i c h i n c l u d e d t h r e e f a c t o r s : 1) t h e i n f u s i o n o f l a r g e amounts o f money a n d e q u i p m e n t c o m i n g f r o m t e c h n i c a l l y c o m p e t e n t a g e n c i e s ; 2) t h e A u s t r a l i a n p r e s e n c e ; a n d 3) t h e f o c u s on t h e b a s i c n e e d o f w a t e r . The f o c u s o f t h e p r o j e c t on t h e b a s i c n e e d o f w a t e r seemed t o l e a d t o i m p r o v e m e n t s i n t h e h e a l t h , e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e c o m m u n i t i e s . The v i l l a g e s b e n e f i t i n g f r o m t h e MSP were b e t t e r o f f t h a n t h e v i l l a g e s o u t s i d e o f t h e p r o j e c t . E v e n t h o u g h t h e p r o j e c t i s s t i l l i n t h e s h o r t r u n , t h e c o n c e r n s o f t h e two p l a n n e r s r e g a r d i n g t h e l o n g r u n s u s t a i n a b i l i t y o f t h e p r o j e c t came t h r o u g h r a t h e r s t r o n g l y i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . I t was a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t t h e e l e m e n t s o f a c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h , d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , came t o be r e c o g n i z e d a s b e i n g v i t a l t o t h e o n g o i n g s u c c e s s o f t h e MSP. Mr. P o l h i l l , i n p a r t i c u l a r , c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e p e o p l e must become 127 involved i f the project was to be sustained. Once the Austra l ians leave, which means the end of external funding and ass is tance , the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the project rests on the nat iona l s , and in p a r t i c u l a r the Giriama. Mr. P o l h i l l r e a l i z e d that i t was time to stop ta lk ing and to s tar t l i s t e n i n g to the people and how they proposed to sustain the pro jec t . It must be stressed that sustaining the project refers to more than simply maintaining the pumps. The community development approach to meeting basic needs is also concerned with more than just maintaining the pumps. There are a number of other factors contr ibut ing to the continuing success of the scheme. In addi t ion to the problem of assuring a cont inui ty in the supply of water to the communities are such issues as: who w i l l decide on the a l l o c a t i o n of the water; who w i l l use the water; who is responsible for water q u a l i t y problems; and who is responsible for developing an education and t r a i n i n g program for the v i l l a g e r s . A f i n a l issue deals with developing s e l f -motivation among the Giriama so that they see the scheme as the ir own and w i l l i n g l y take on the comprehensive maintenance of the MSP. The questionnaires and the correspondence received revealed some problems in the areas mentioned above. The correspondence received mentioned that the Giriama were a somewhat undeveloped people with a l e thargic a t t i tude to development problems. They are seldom motivated to solve the i r own problems, pre ferr ing to wait for the government to help . The questionnaires revealed 1 28 t h a t t h e r e was f i g h t i n g i n t h e l i n e s a t communal w a t e r p o i n t s w i t h no m e n t i o n o f a n yone b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s o l v i n g t h e d i s p u t e s . The q u a l i t y o f t h e w a t e r was s a l t y o r b i t t e r (due t o t o o much c h l o r i n e ) r e s u l t i n g i n t h e p e o p l e r e f u s i n g t o u s e t h e s o u r c e . T h e r e d i d n o t seem t o be any l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n p l a c e where t h e s e t y p e s o f p r o b l e m s c o u l d be r e p o r t e d a n d d e a l t w i t h . The s o c i a l a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p e o p l e i s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e scheme. Once t h e e x t e r n a l a i d a g e n c y l e a v e s , i t i s t h e l o c a l p e o p l e who w i l l h a v e t o m a i n t a i n t h e s y s t e m . A v i t a l p a r t o f Mr. Thompsons' w o r k , a s m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , was t o i n t e g r a t e and s t r e n g t h e n c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e t h r o u g h i m p r o v i n g t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n / s t r u c t u r e o f t h e Giriama. I f t h i s was n o t an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s , t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e scheme w o u l d be q u e s t i o n a b l e e v e n i f t h e v i l l a g e r s knew how t o m a i n t a i n t h e pumps. The p o i n t i s t h a t t h e t h o u g h t p r o c e s s i n t h e m i n d s o f t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e MSP ( a n d o t h e r RWS p r o j e c t s ) s h o u l d i n c l u d e a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e c o mmunity d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h . The a p p r o a c h p l a c e s e m p h a s i s n o t o n l y on t h e t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e MSP b u t a l s o on i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l f a c t o r s v i t a l t o t h e c o n t i n u i n g s u c c e s s o f t h e p r o j e c t . T h i s i s s t a r t i n g t o o c c u r i n t h e MSP. I n t h e b e g i n n i n g s t a g e s o f t h e scheme t h e m a i n a i m was t o c o n s t r u c t t h e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e a n d i m p l e m e n t t h e p l a n . Now, t h e c o n c e r n h a s t u r n e d t o d e v e l o p i n g c o mmunity p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a p p r o p r i a t e 129 t e c h n o l o g y , a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s , a p p r o p r i a t e s u p p o r t a nd g a i n i n g more a p p r o p r i a t e k n o w l e d g e i f t h e scheme i s t o s u r v i v e . The MSP i s a s u c c e s s i n t h e s h o r t r u n l a r g e l y b e c a u s e o f t h e f o c u s on s a t i s f y i n g t h e b a s i c n e e d s o f t h e Giriama. The p r o b l e m now i s t h a t f o r t h e p r o j e c t t o c o n t i n u e t o be s u c c e s s f u l , t h e e l e m e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h must be an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e scheme. B o t h a t e c h n o c r a t i c a p p r o a c h a n d a c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s come u n d e r t h e u m b r e l l a o f a BNA t o d e v e l o p m e n t ( s e e F i g . 1 0 ) . The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e assumed t h a t p r o j e c t s w h i c h a d o p t e d a b a s i c n eeds c o n c e p t o f d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d h a v e t o i n c l u d e t h e c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h f o r t h e p r o j e c t t o s u c c e e d . The MSP d i d s u c c e e d w i t h o u t i n c l u d i n g t h i s a p p r o a c h , r a t h e r i t e m p h a s i z e d a t e c h n o c r a t i c a p p r o a c h . However, t h e s u s t a i n a b i l i t y o f t h e scheme i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . The c o n c l u s i o n t h a t c a n be drawn f r o m t h i s i s t h a t a p r o j e c t t h a t a d o p t s a t e c h n o c r a t i c a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s c a n s u c c e e d i n t h e s h o r t r u n b u t t h e r e comes a p o i n t when, f o r t h e p r o j e c t t o s u c c e e d i n t h e l o n g r u n , a c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s must be i n c l u d e d . A f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p h r a s e s : a BNA t o d e v e l o p m e n t ; a t e c h n o c r a t i c a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s ; a n d c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e eds must be made c l e a r b o t h i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e a n d i n t h e m i n d s o f t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t . A t p r e s e n t t h e r e seems t o be c o n f u s i o n a s t o what e x a c t l y i s meant by t h e s e p h r a s e s . 130 BASIC NEEDS APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT F o c u s o n : ends o f d e v e l o p m e n t n e e d i e s t segment o f s o c i e t y human r e q u i r e m e n t s o f p e o p l e d i r e c t a t t a c k on p o v e r t y c o n c r e t e o b j e c t i v e s TECHNOCRATIC APPROACH - t o p down - i m m e d i a t e d e l i v e r y o f t h e b a s i c n e e d by t e c h n i c a l l y c o m p e t e n t a g e n c i e s . COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT APPROACH - b o t t o m up -community d e v e l o p s s e l f - r e l i a n c e i n m e e t i n g t h e n e e d F i g . 10. Three Phrases: A D i s t i n c t i o n , I n C h a p t e r Two a r e f e r e n c e was made t o D u d l e y S e e r s c o n c e r n r e g a r d i n g t h e n e e d t o d e t e r m i n e what i s meant by ' d e v e l o p m e n t ' . The same c a n now be s a i d o f t h e ' b a s i c n e e d s ' r h e t o r i c . The c o n c l u s i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t t h e r e a r e two d i s t i n c t m e t h o d o l o g i e s t o e m p l o y when t r y i n g t o meet t h e b a s i c n e e d s o f t h e p o o r . One i s a t e c h n o c r a t i c a p p r o a c h a n d t h e o t h e r i s a com m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h . B o t h a r e p a r t o f a BNA, b u t t h e f o r m e r i s a t o p down e f f o r t r e s u l t i n g i n i m m e d i a t e d e l i v e r y o f t h e b a s i c n e e d w h i l e t h e l a t t e r i s a b o t t o m up e f f o r t t h a t r e s u l t s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f community s e l f - r e l i a n c e i n m e e t i n g t h e n e e d ( s e e F i g . 1 0 ) . I n summary, t h e c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t c a n be drawn f r o m t h i s s t u d y a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g : 131 1) . A d i s t i n c t i o n between the phrases, a BNA to development, a t e c h n o c r a t i c approach to meeting b a s i c needs, and a community development approach to meeting b a s i c needs must be made c l e a r i n the l i t e r a t u r e and i n the minds of those i n v o l v e d i n r u r a l development i n the T h i r d World; 2) . In the short run, a p r o j e c t that uses a t e c h n o c r a t i c approach to meeting b a s i c needs can be s u c c e s s f u l without the i n c l u s i o n of the elements of a community development approach which are community p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a p p r o p r i a t e technology, a p p r o p r i a t e knowledge, a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s , and a p p r o p r i a t e support; 3) . In the short run the funding, a s s i s t a n c e and presence of an e x t e r n a l a i d agency i s important t o the success of a r u r a l development e f f o r t ; 4) . In the long run a community development approach to meeting basic needs which i n c l u d e s community p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a p p r o p r i a t e technology, a p p r o p r i a t e knowledge, a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s and a p p r o p r i a t e support i s e s s e n t i a l to i n c l u d e in the pl a n n i n g process f o r r u r a l development i f the p r o j e c t i s to be s u s t a i n a b l e ; 5) . In both the short run and the long run, a BNA to development i s an e s s e n t i a l element to i n c l u d e i n the p l a n n i n g process for r u r a l development i n dev e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s ; and 6) . A p r o j e c t u s i n g a t e c h n o c r a t i c a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c needs c a n s u c c e e d i n t h e s h o r t r u n b u t f o r t h i s p r o j e c t t o c o n t i n u e t o be s u c c e s s f u l t h e r e comes a p o i n t where t h e e l e m e n t s assumed t o be p a r t o f a co m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s must be i n c l u d e d . C. COMMENT. A f i n a l comment must be made re g a r d i n g the i s s u e of la n d . The land q u e s t i o n and i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o i t are o u t s i d e the scope of t h i s t h e s i s , yet the importance of land, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Kenya, r e q u i r e s that a few paragraphs be devoted to i t . There are a number of f a c t o r s w i t h i n Kenya that p o i n t to the importance of f i n d i n g s o l u t i o n s to the land problem. Kenya has 80% of i t s land i n the a r i d and s e m i - a r i d zone, 85% of the po p u l a t i o n i s r u r a l and 75% of the people l i v e i n 18% of the 132 l a n d . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e f a c t o r s , K e n y a i s s a i d t o have t h e h i g h e s t p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h r a t e i n t h e w o r l d , e s t i m a t e d a t a r o u n d 4.1%. T h e s e f o u r f a c t o r s t o g e t h e r i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l o f p r e s s u r e b e i n g p u t on t h e m a r g i n a l l a n d s . T h i s i s due t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g s c a r c i t y o f l a n d i n t h e h i g h l a n d s r e g i o n o f Kenya b e c a u s e o f t h e r a p i d l y g r o w i n g p o p u l a t i o n who move t o t h e m a r g i n a l a r e a s l o o k i n g f o r l a n d t o s e t t l e a n d grow t h e i r c r o p s . I n r e s p o n s e t o t h i s p r o b l e m t h e GOK h a s s p o n s o r e d p r o j e c t s s i m i l a r t o t h e MSP i n an e f f o r t t o p r o v i d e some c o n t r o l o v e r what i s h a p p e n i n g i n t h e m a r g i n a l l a n d s . The MSP i s a s e t t l e m e n t p r o j e c t i n a d d i t i o n t o i t s b a s i c n e e d s o r i e n t a t i o n . I t i s l o c a t e d i n a s e m i - a r i d a r e a a n d a t t e m p t s t o s e t t l e t h e Giriama, a s h i f t i n g p e o p l e , o n t o 30 a c r e p l o t s a n d p r o v i d e them w i t h w a t e r . To d a t e , a s p o i n t e d o u t e a r l i e r , t h e p r o j e c t h a s met w i t h s u c c e s s . H o w e v e r , some p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m s r e l a t e d t o l a n d t e n u r e and l a n d u s e hav e begun t o emerge a n d may have t o be s o l v e d i n t h e f u t u r e . Among t h e s e p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m s a r e i n c r e a s i n g c o n f l i c t s b e t w e e n the Giriama and o t h e r t r i b e s who a r e b e g i n n i n g t o move i n t o t h e p r o j e c t a r e a . To d a t e t h e r e h a s been l i t t l e o r no f r i c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e s b u t i n t h e f u t u r e , a s t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e n a t i o n c o n t i n u e s t o grow a n d l a n d i n t h e c e n t r a l r e g i o n s o f Kenya becomes more s c a r c e , more Kikuyu, Kamba a n d o t h e r t r i b e s c o u l d m i g r a t e t o t h e a r e a l e a d i n g t o c o n f l i c t s o v e r who c o n t r o l s t h e l a n d a n d what i t i s t o be u s e d f o r . A s e c o n d p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m may emerge w i t h i n t h e Giriama t h e m s e l v e s . As f a m i l i e s grow i n s i z e , t h e 30 a c r e p l o t s may n o t 1 3 3 be o f s u f f i c i e n t s i z e t o b o t h f e e d t h e f a m i l i e s a n d t o s u b - d i v i d e t h e p l o t s among t h e m a l e c h i l d r e n when t h e y come o f a g e . The Giriama may h a v e t o f i n d more l a n d e l s e w h e r e . A t h i r d p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m may a r i s e c o n c e r n i n g t h e s u s c e p t i b i l i t y o f t h e Giriama and t h e i r l i v e s t o c k t o d r o u g h t . They a r e l o c a t e d i n a s e m i - a r i d z o n e t o b e g i n w i t h w h i c h means an u n r e l i a b l e a n d i n s u f f i c i e n t r a i n f a l l . The MSP i s p r e s e n t l y a b l e t o s u p p l y w a t e r t o meet t h e n e e d s i n t h e a r e a b u t i t may n o t be a b l e t o c o n t i n u e t o s u p p l y w a t e r i n s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t y a s t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f p e o p l e a n d l i v e s t o c k i n t h e r e g i o n g r o w s . When one l o o k s a t t h e f u t u r e o f t h e MSP a n d t h e r e g i o n w i t h i n w h i c h i t i s l o c a t e d , a number o f p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m s r e l a t e d t o l a n d t e n u r e a n d u s e may a r i s e . I t may be i m p o r t a n t t o s t a r t t o d e v e l o p t h e n e c e s s a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s now t h a t w o u l d h a v e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s e p r o b l e m s i n t h e f u t u r e . The same t y p e s o f p r i n c i p l e s a s e m p h a s i z e d u n d e r t h e co m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a p p r o a c h t o m e e t i n g b a s i c n e e d s c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o s o l v i n g t h i s p r o b l e m . 134 D EFINITIONS A p p r o p r i a t e - c u l t u r a l , e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i o l o g i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e p e o p l e i n a n y p l a c e d e t e r m i n e what i s s u i t a b l e f o r them. A p p r o p r i a t e I n s t i t u t i o n s - o r g a n i z a t i o n s a c c e p t e d by t h e c o m m u n i t y and f o r t h e c o m m u n i t y . A p p r o p r i a t e K n o w l e d g e - i n f o r m a t i o n on t e c h n i c a l m a t t e r s , on t h e p e o p l e a n d t h e i r c o m m u n i t y and on t h e k n o w l e d g e a n d s k i l l s o f t h e members o f t h e c o m m u n i t y . A p p r o p r i a t e S u p p o r t - t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e p e o p l e ( t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g ) a n d o f t h e p r o j e c t ( p a r t s , a d v i c e , a s s i s t a n c e , e t c . ) t h r o u g h a means s u i t a b l e t o t h e c o m m u n i t y . A p p r o p r i a t e T e c h n o l o g y - a t e c h n o l o g y t h a t i s more c o n g r u e n t w i t h a s o c i e t y ' s n e e d s , r e s o u r c e s a n d p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t t h a n an a l t e r n a t i v e . B a s i c Needs - n e e d s s u c h a s a d e q u a t e f o o d , s h e l t e r a n d c l o t h i n g a s w e l l a s e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by a n d f o r t h e c o mmunity a t l a r g e , s u c h as s a f e d r i n k i n g w a t e r . Community D e v e l o p m e n t A p p r o a c h - t h e s t r a t e g y f o r d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h e m p h a s i z e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a p p r o p r i a t e k n o w l e d g e , a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y , a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s , a p p r o p r i a t e s u p p o r t and c o m m u n i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o e f f o r t s t o meet t h e b a s i c n e e d s o f t h e p o o r . B a s i c Needs A p p r o a c h (BNA) - t h e a p p r o a c h t o d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t p l a c e s p r i m a r y e m p h a s i s on m e e t i n g t h e b a s i c n e e d s o f p e o p l e . T e c h n o c r a t i c A p p r o a c h - t h e s t r a t e g y f o r d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t p r o v i d e s f o r t h e i m m e d i a t e d e l i v e r y o f b a s i c n e e d s t o t h e p o o r by t e c h n i c a l l y c o m p e t e n t a g e n c i e s . C ommunity P a r t i c i p a t i o n - t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e members o f a c o m m u n i t y i n b o t h t h e p l a n n i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t i n g s t a g e s o f a p r o j e c t . G i r i a m a - t h e l a r g e s t t r i b e o f t h e M i j i k e n d a p e o p l e s who g e n e r a l l y i n h a b i t t h e r e g i o n s a l o n g t h e K enyan c o a s t . Harambee - s w a h i l i f o r " l e t ' s p u l l t o g e t h e r " a n d i s u s u a l l y u s e d t o r e f e r t o s e l f - h e l p d e v e l o p m e n t e f f o r t s . Kambi - t h e o l d e s t r i k a , t h e e l d e r s . M a l i n d i - a town on t h e c o a s t o f K e n y a 120 km. n o r t h o f Mombasa. M i j i k e n d a - a g r o u p i n g o f n i n e t r i b e s o f w h i c h t h e G i r i a m a a r e t h e l a r g e s t . 1 3 5 P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s - t h e f o r m u l a t i o n a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s , p r o g r a m s a n d p r o j e c t s . 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W o r l d W a t e r . L o n d o n : Thomas T e l f o r d L t d . 7. W h i t e , Anne U. 1981. "The R o l e o f t h e Community i n W a t e r S u p p l y a n d S a n i t a t i o n P r o j e c t s . " The I m p a c t o f I n t e r v e n t i o n s i n  W a t e r S u p p l y a n d S a n i t a t i o n . E d . James D. L i n d s t r o m . P r e p a r e d f o r USAID. N a t i o n a l T e c h n i c a l I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m ( N T I S ) PB85-112654. 121-138. 147 W h i t e , G i l b e r t F., D a n i e l J . B r a d l e y , a nd Anne U. W h i t e . 1972. D r a w e r s o f W a t e r : D o m e s t i c W a t e r Use i n E a s t A f r i c a . C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s . W i d s t r a n d , C a r l . 1976. " R u r a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P l a n n i n g . " D e v e l o p m e n t From B e l o w : A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s a n d D e v e l o p m e n t  S i t u a t i o n s . E d . D a v i d C. P i t t . 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The I n t e r n a t i o n a l D r i n k i n g W a t e r S u p p l y a n d S a n i t a t i o n D e c a d e : R e v i e w o f N a t i o n a l  B a s e l i n e D a t a ( a s a t 31 December 1 9 8 0 ) ^ G e n e v a . W o r l d H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n . 1986. The I n t e r n a t i o n a l D r i n k i n g W a t e r S u p p l y and S a n i t a t i o n D e c a d e : R e v i e w o f R e g i o n a l  and G l o b a l D a t a ( a s a t 31 December 1 9 8 3 ) . G e n e v a . W o r l d W a t e r . 1986. W a t e r Decade R e a c h e s H a l f w a y . L o n d o n : Thomas T e l f o r d L t d . APPENDIX Q u e s t i o n n a i r e #1: V i l l a g e W i t h i n t h e MSP. 1) . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e # D a t e V i l l a g e T r i b e 2) . Head o f h o u s e h o l d i n f o r m a t i o n : Name Sex Age O c c u p a t i o n ( a ) . I f h e a d o f h o u s e h o l d i s a b s e n t , who i s a c t i n g h e a d ? Name Sex Age O c c u p a t i o n ( b ) . Why i s h e a d o f h o u s e h o l d n o t p r e s e n t ? 3) . W a t e r s u p p l y i n f o r m a t i o n : ( a ) . How f a r i s i t t o t h e w a t e r s o u r c e f r o m y o u r h o u s e ? • 0-.5 km .5-1 km 1- 2 km 2- 3 km 3- 4 km 4- 5 km > 5 km 1 49 (b) . What i s the type of source? Hand-drawn w e l l Animal-drawn w e l l Hand-pump Power-pump Man-made pond } Man-made r e s e r v o i r } What months of the N a t u r a l pond } year i s there water? R i v e r } Other (c) . How do you c a r r y water from the source to your home? Bucket c a r r i e d by human Bucket c a r r i e d by animal Ca r t drawn by human Car t drawn by animal By b i c y c l e Other (d) . Do you have to pay any money f o r your water? Yes, No. To the government? To anyone i n the v i l l a g e ? Who? Br i b e ? (e) . Who i n the v i l l a g e uses the source? Only one t r i b e J u s t men J u s t women Everyone W a t e r u s e i n f o r m a t i o n : ( a ) . What i s t h e h o u s e h o l d s i z e ? ( b ) . What do y o u u s e t h e w a t e r t h e mos t f o r : D r i n k i n g W a s h i n g c l o t h e s a n d d i s h e s C o o k i n g B a t h i n g O t h e r ( c ) . L i v e s t o c k i n f o r m a t i o n : ( i ) . Number a n d t y p e o f l i v e s t o c k ( i i ) . Do y o u c o l l e c t w a t e r f o r y o u r l i v e s t o c k ? F o r t h e l i v e s t o c k t o d r i n k O t h e r ( i i i ) . How do y o u f e e d y o u r l i v e s t o c k ? L e t them roam f r e e l y t o g r a z e C u t g r a s s f o r them a n d f e e d them (d ) . F o o d i n f o r m a t i o n : ( i ) . Do y o u h a v e a shamba? ( i i ) . What k i n d s o f f o o d do y o u g r o w ? ( i i i ) . D u r i n g what m o n t h s do y o u grow f o o d ? ( i v ) . Do y o u c o l l e c t w a t e r t o u s e i n y o u r shamba 151 5 ) . C o m m u n i ty s a t i s f a c t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n : ( a ) . What do y o u s e e a s t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t w a t e r ? ( i ) . I m p r o v e d h e a l t h f o r t h e o l d . I m p r o v e d h e a l t h f o r t h e y o u n g . I m p r o v e d h e a l t h f o r e v e r y o n e . ( i i ) . C l e a n e r w a t e r . ( i i i ) . E a s i e r t o g e t t h e w a t e r . ( i v ) . Grow more f o o d . I f s o , i s t h e e x t r a f o o d u s e d f o r : e a t i n g . s e l l i n g . ( v ) . A b l e t o h a v e more l i v e s t o c k . I f s o , what do y o u do w i t h t h e e x t r a l i v e s t o c k : e a t t h e m , s e l l t h e m , k e e p t h e m . Do y o u g e t more m i l k f r o m t h e l i v e s t o c k ? I f s o , what do y o u do w i t h t h e m i l k ? d r i n k i t s e l l i t - s h i l l i n g s / d a y d r i n k a n d s e l l ( b) . A r e y o u h a p p y w i t h what t h e g o v e r n m e n t h a s d o n e i n s u p p l y i n g y o u r v i l l a g e w i t h w a t e r ? ( c ) . Do y o u w i s h t h a t t h e v i l l a g e a n d v i l l a g e r s h a d more t o do w i t h t h e w a t e r s u p p l y t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t h a s p r o v i d e d ? 1 5 2 6). I m p a c t s on t h e v i l l a g e : ( a ) . Do l i k e t h e w a t e r y o u h a v e now more t h a n t h e w a t e r y o u h a d b e f o r e ? ( b ) . Has h a v i n g w a t e r n e a r y o u r v i l l a g e c h a n g e d t h e way y o u l i v e ? Do y o u have more f r e e t i m e ? Do y o u s p e n d more o r l e s s t i m e w i t h o t h e r v i l l a g e r s ? Can y o u keep y o u r l i v e s t o c k n e a r b y ? Do y o u h a v e t o l o o k f o r w a t e r d u r i n g t h e d r y s e a s o n ? I s l i f e e a s i e r ? ( c ) . Do y o u l i k e what h a s h a p p e n e d i n y o u r v i l l a g e s i n c e y o u have w a t e r n e a r by? ( d ) . A r e v i l l a g e r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r l o o k i n g a f t e r t h e s o u r c e a n d e q u i p m e n t f o r t h e w a t e r ? ( i ) . I s t h e r e t r o u b l e w i t h how t h i s i s done? ( i i ) . I s t h e r e f i g h t i n g o v e r t h e water" ( i i i ) . Can e v e r y o n e u s e t h e w a t e r when t h e y n e e d i t ? ( e ) . I s a c c e s s t o t h e s o u r c e c o n t r o l l e d ? ( f ) . I s t h e r e an e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m t o t e a c h t h e v i l l a g e r s a b o u t t h e w a t e r a n d how t o r e p a i r a n d m a i n t a i n t h e w a t e r s u p p l y ? Q u e s t i o n n a i r e #2: V i l l a g e s O u t s i d e o f t h e MSP. 153 1 ) . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e # V i l l a g e D a t e T r i b e 2 ) . Head o f h o u s e h o l d i n f o r m a t i o n : Name Sex Age O c c u p a t i o n ( a ) . I f h e a d o f h o u s e h o l d i s a b s e n t , who i s a c t i n g h e a d ? ( b ) . Why i s h e a d o f h o u s e h o l d n o t p r e s e n t ? 3 ) . W a t e r s u p p l y i n f o r m a t i o n : ( a ) . How f a r i s i t t o t h e w a t e r s o u r c e f r o m y o u r h o u s e ? 0- .5 km .5-1 km 1- 2 km 2- 3 km 3- 4 km 4- 5 km > 5 km Name Sex Age O c c u p a t i o n 1 5 4 ( b ) . What i s t h e t y p e o f s o u r c e ? H a n d - d r a w n w e l l A n i m a l - d r a w n w e l l Hand-pump Power-pump Man-made p o n d } Man-made r e s e r v o i r } What m o n t h s o f t h e N a t u r a l p o n d } y e a r i s t h e r e w a t e r ? R i v e r } O t h e r ( c ) . How do y o u c a r r y w a t e r f r o m t h e s o u r c e t o y o u r home? B u c k e t c a r r i e d by human B u c k e t c a r r i e d by a n i m a l C a r t d r a w n by human C a r t d r a w n by a n i m a l By b i c y c l e O t h e r (d) . Do y o u h a v e t o p a y a n y money f o r y o u r w a t e r ? Y e s , No. To t h e g o v e r n m e n t ? To a n y o n e i n t h e v i l l a g e ? Who? B r i b e ? ( e ) . Who i n t h e v i l l a g e u s e s t h e s o u r c e ? O n l y one t r i b e J u s t men J u s t women E v e r y o n e W a t e r u s e i n f o r m a t i o n : ( a ) . What i s t h e h o u s e h o l d s i z e ? (b) . What do y o u u s e t h e w a t e r t h e most f o r : D r i n k i n g W a s h i n g c l o t h e s a n d d i s h e s C o o k i n g B a t h i n g O t h e r ( c ) . L i v e s t o c k i n f o r m a t i o n : ( i ) . Number o f l i v e s t o c k ( i i ) . Do y o u c o l l e c t w a t e r f o r y o u r l i v e s t o c k ? F o r t h e m t o d r i n k O t h e r ( i i i ) . How do y o u f e e d y o u r l i v e s t o c k ? L e t them roam f r e e l y t o g r a z e C u t g r a s s f o r them a n d f e e d t h e m ( i v ) . Do y o u h a v e e n o u g h l i v e s t o c k t o : - e a t ? - s e l l ? ( v ) . Do y o u g e t m i l k f r o m y o u r l i v e s t o c k ? -do y o u d r i n k i t ? - s e l l i t ? - d r i n k a n d s e l l i t ? 1 56 ( d ) . F o o d i n f o r m a t i o n : ( i ) . Do y o u h a v e a shamba? ( i i ) . What k i n d s o f f o o d do y o u g r o w ? ( i i i ) . D u r i n g what m o n t h s do y o u grow f o o d ? -Do y o u h a v e e n o u g h f o o d t o : - e a t ? - s e l l ? ( i v ) . Do y o u c o l l e c t w a t e r t o u s e i n y o u r shamba? 5 ) . C o m m u n ity s a t i s f a c t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n : ( a ) . A r e y o u p l e a s e d w i t h t h e w a t e r y o u u s e ? Do y o u want t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o s u p p l y y o u r v i l l a g e w i t h w a t e r ? ( b ) . A r e t h e p e o p l e i n y o u r v i l l a g e u s u a l l y s i c k ? Who i s s i c k more o f t e n ; The o l d . The y o u n g . E v e r y o n e . ( c ) . Do y o u h a v e e n o u g h w a t e r f o r : D r i n k i n g . C o o k i n g . W a s h i n g c l o t h e s a n d d i s h e s . B a t h i n g . G r o w i n g f o o d . Y o u r l i v e s t o c k . 1 5 7 ( d ) . Have y o u o r t h e e l d e r s a s k e d t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o come t o y o u r v i l l a g e a n d s u p p l y t h e v i l l a g e w i t h w a t e r ? I f s o , why?-6 ) . I m p a c t s o f no g o v e r n m e n t a s s i s t a n c e . ( a ) . Do y o u h a v e t o move d u r i n g t h e d r y s e a s o n t o f i n d w a t e r f o r y o u r : H o u s e h o l d . L i v e s t o c k . ( b ) . W o u l d y o u l i k e t o h a v e y o u r w a t e r c l o s e r t o t h e v i l l a g e ? ( c ) . Do y o u l i k e t h e way y o u l i v e i n t h e v i l l a g e ? ( d ) . Do y o u t h i n k t h a t y o u r l i f e i n t h e v i l l a g e w i l l c h a n g e i f t h e g o v e r n m e n t comes t o s u p p l y w a t e r ? ( e ) . Do y o u t h i n k i t w o u l d b e : b e t t e r ? w o r s e ? Why? ( f ) . I s t h e r e an e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m t o t e a c h t h e v i l l a g e r s a b o u t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c l e a n w a t e r a n d i t s b e n e f i t s ? 158 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e #3. P l a n n e r s W o r k i n g W i t h i n t h e MSP. 1 ) . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e # O f f i c e P o s i t i o n D a t e Name A d d r e s s 2 ) . Do y o u f e e l i t i s n e c c e s s a r y t o s u p p l y w a t e r i n t h e s e m i -a r i d r e g i o n s ? 3 ) . What i s y o u r e x p l i c i t p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g w a t e r s u p p l y f o r s m a l l r u r a l v i l l a g e s i n s e m i - a r i d r e g i o n s ? 4 ) . Why do y o u s u p p l y w a t e r t o s m a l l r u r a l v i l l a g e s i n s e m i -a r i d r e g i o n s ? 5 ) . What k i n d s o f w a t e r p r o j e c t s a r e b e i n g c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e s e m i - a r i d r e g i o n t h a t y o u r o f f i c e i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r ? ( i ) . How many? ( i i ) . W i l l t h e s e p r o j e c t s be c o m p l e t e d i n : 1 y e a r ? 5 y e a r s ? 159 6) . Does w a t e r s u p p l y f r o m y o u r p e r s p e c t i v e r e f e r t o s u p p l y i n g w a t e r t o : H o u s e h o l d s o n l y . H o u s e h o l d s and t h e i r s h a m b a s . H o u s e h o l d s a n d t h e i r l i v e s t o c k . H o u s e h o l d s , t h e i r l i v e s t o c k a n d t h e i r s h a m b a s . 7) . W o u l d t h i s be a s e a s o n a l s u p p l y ? W h i c h m o n t h s ? 8) . C o s t i n f o r m a t i o n . ( a ) . Who i s t o pay f o r t h e w a t e r p r o j e c t s ? The v i l l a g e ? The g o v e r n m e n t ? O t h e r . (b) . How a r e t h e y g o i n g t o p a y ? ( c ) . How much w i l l i t c o s t f o r e a c h v i l l a g e ? 9) . I s t h e v i l l a g e i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s o f s u p p l y i n g w a t e r ? ( a ) . Were t h e y i n v o l v e d i n m a k i n g t h e p l a n ? ( i ) . I f s o , who was c o n s u l t e d ? V i l l a g e e l d e r s . H e ads o f h o u s e h o l d s . O t h e r . 160 ( i i ) . What was t h e r o l e a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e v i l l a g e a n d t h e v i l l a g e r s ? ( i i i ) . What d e c i s i o n s w e r e made by t h e v i l l a g e r s ? ( i v ) . What d e c i s i o n s w e re made by t h e g o v e r n m e n t ? ( b ) . A r e t h e v i l l a g e r s i n v o l v e d i n i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e p l a n ? ( i ) . Who i s i n v o l v e d ? The e l d e r s ? Y o u n g men? Hea d s o f h o u s e h o l d s O t h e r . ( i i ) . What a r e t h e r o l e s a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e v i l l a g e a n d t h e v i l l a g e r s ? ( i i i ) . What d e c i s i o n s a r e made by t h e v i l l a g e r s ? 161 ( i v ) . What d e c i s i o n s a r e made by t h e g o v e r n m e n t ? ( v ) . Who m a i n t a i n s t h e w a t e r s u p p l y s o u r c e a n d e q u i p m e n t ? ( v i ) . I s a c c e s s t o t h e s o u r c e c o n t r o l l e d ? I f s o , i s i t c o n t r o l l e d by s o c i a l l y a c c e p t e d members o f t h e t r i b e ? I s t h e r e a l i m i t on how many p e o p l e a n d c a t t l e c a n h a v e a c e s s t o t h e s o u r c e ? A r e t o o many c a t t l e u s i n g t h e s o u r c e ? ( c ) . I s t h e r e a t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m c o n c e r n i n g m a i n t e n a n c e a n d r e p a i r o f t h e s o u r c e ? I f s o , what k i n d ? 1 0 ) . S o c i a l I m p a c t Q u e s t i o n s . What do y o u s e e a s t h e i m p a c t s on t h e p e o p l e i n t h e s e s e m i -a r i d r e g i o n s o f s u p p l y i n g them w i t h w a t e r ? - T h e y s e t t l e i n one a r e a -The r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t r i b e s a r e i m p r o v e d -The p e o p l e c a n h a v e more l i v e s t o c k -The p e o p l e a r e h e a l t h i e r -The c a t t l e a r e h e a l t h i e r 162 -The p e o p l e a r e a b l e t o f e e d t h e m s e l v e s -The p e o p l e h a v e more money -The l a n d b a s e d e t e r i o r a t e s n e a r t h e v i l l a g e s -The l a n d i s l o o k e d a f t e r b e t t e r t h a n p r e v i o u s l y -The c h i l d r e n h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o g e t an e d u c a t i o n - O t h e r 11) . Who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e v e l o p i n g t h e p l a n s f o r t h e w a t e r s u p p l y p r o j e c t s ? -Do t h e y come f r o m t h e N a i r o b i O f f i c e ? - I s t h e D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r e s p o n s i b l e ? -Does t h e N a i r o b i O f f i c e g i v e t h e D i s t r i c t O f f i c e t h e f r e e d o m t o d e v e l o p p l a n s t h a t a r e a p p r o p r i a t e t o c o n d i t i o n s i n s e m i - a r i d r e g i o n s ? -Do t h e p l a n s come f r o m a n e x t e r n a l a g e n c y ? - I s t h e D i s t r i c t O f f i c e i n v o l v e d i n a d a p t i n g t h e s e p l a n s t o l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s ? 12) . D i d y o u a s k t h e p e o p l e i f t h e y w a n t e d a more d e p e n d a b l e w a t e r s u p p l y o r d i d t h e y a s k y o u ? 1 3 ) . Do y o u r p l a n s i n c l u d e a l t e r n a t i v e means o f l i v e l i h o o d f o r t h e p e o p l e ( i f n e e d e d ) o n c e t h e y h a v e t h e i m p r o v e d w a t e r s u p p l y ? 1 4 ) . A r e t h e p e o p l e h a p p y w i t h what y o u h a v e d o n e ? -Why? 

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