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An analysis of the development process in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa Vezina, Daniel 1984

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AN ANALYSIS OF HiE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS IN GUINEA-EISSAU, WEST AFRICA by DANIEL VEZIN& B . S c , M c S i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT C? THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING Wa a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g To t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA F EE.BU A BY 1984 © D a n i e l V§zina, 1984 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the re q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o lumbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t t e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be gr a n t e d by the head o f s»y department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The O n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T Vw'5 f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r t i i i s s i o n f o r Date - i i -1BSTfiACT T h i s study i s an e x a m i n a t i o n of the " i n s i d e " and " o u t s i d e " t r a n s i t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s which determine a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n s u b s i s t e n c e A f r i c a n s o c i e t i e s . More i m p o r t a n t l y however/ i t i s an attempt t o e l a b o r a t e upon a t h e o r e t i c a l model of t h e e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l b a r r i e r s which i n h i b i t the developmental p r o c e s s , p a r a d o x i c a l l y m a i n t a i n i n g and u n d e r m i n i n g r u r a l community v i l l a g e s a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s of t h e i r i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h i n t h e n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r . T h i s s e c t o r i s deeply i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the w o r l d - c a p i t a l i s t system of today. The f o c u s of the s t u d y was f i r s t , to r e v i e w a proper c o g n i t i v e approach f o r " p r i m i t i v e ' 1 s o c i e t i e s and t o r e d e f i n e the c o r r e c t n a t u r e of the heterogeneous A f r i c a n s u b s i s t e n c e s o c i e t i e s and t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e a n a l y t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t modes of p r o d u c t i o n using as a case i n p o i n t ££ a_pi t a 1 i s t a < | r i ^ u l t u r a l . s e l f - s usj.ainirK£ f o r m a t i o n s • or PASF. . Second, the study was to determine the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between th e p r e d o m i n a n t l y p r e - c a p i t a l i s t r u r a l s e c t o r and the urban-based c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r and t o i d e n t i f y the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f each e t h e r s d i f f e r e n t forms cf dominance and c o n t r o l over T r a d i t i o n a l Domestic A g r i c u l t u r e and i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r development. In e s s e n c e , the major aim of the s t u d y was to d e f i n e the i s s u e s of f o o d s h o r t a g e s and r u r a l p o v e r t y i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i n l i g h t of t h e dynamics of the c u r r e n t A f r i c a n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f o r m a t i o n s . The case study of the R e p u b l i c of - i i i -Gu i n e a - B i s s a u i n West A f r i c a (ex-Portuguese Guinea) and the m a r g i n a l r e g i o n of the B i j a g o s a r c h i p e l a g o , where the B i j a g o s t r i b e r e p r e s e n t a p r o t o t y p e of p r e - c a p i t a l i s t a g r i c u l t u r a l s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g f o r m a t i o n s , s e r v e d t o i l l u s t r a t e the p r e s e n t p a t t e r n s o f t h e development p r o c e s s as w e l l as the i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t s which a r e p o l a r i z e d by t h e d i v e r g e n t i n t e r e s t s o f the urban c l a s s e s and the r u r a l c l a s s groups; b e s t e x p r e s s e d h e r e , w i t h i n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r i o r i t y s p l i t between t h e o p t i o n s to d e v e l o p e i t h e r c o m m e r c i a l e x p o r t c r o p s w i t h i n a c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e scheme and s t a t e a g r a r i a n system p r o d u c t i o n or f o o d c r o p p r o d u c t i o n t h r o u g h t r a d i t i o n a l c h a n n e l s t o seek s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l . In o r d e r t o b r i d g e the gap which s e p a r a t e s the two d i s t i n c t and l e g i t i m a t e l o g i c s of the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t and c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m s , the s t u d y argues i n f a v o u r of a l t e r n a t i v e development approaches of bottom-up t o c o n t r a s t w i t h the p r e v a i l i n g center-down, c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n path which has s e e m i n g l y p e r p e t u a t e d uneven develcp.me.nt between the urban-core and t h e r u r a l - p e r i p h e r y . . I t i s ths c o n c l u s i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s t h a t the p r e s s u r e s and a f f l i c t i o n s which f o o d s h o r t a g e s and r u r a l p o v e r t y e x e r t i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s must be d e a l t w i t h from w i t h i n the n a t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e , by s e a r c h i n g f o r the proper means of t r a n s c e n d i n g t h e i n t e r n a l r i f t between t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t and c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r made e v i d e n t b j the b l o c k a g e of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the development by the l a t t e r o n t o the f o r m e r f o r the s a t i s f a c t i o n of s h o r t term g a i n s d i r e c t e d towards a p r i v i l i g e d u r b a n - m i n o r i t y t h a t m a i n t a i n a monopoly of power. Indeed, as i t i s r e v e a l e d i n t h e s t u d y , t h e problem of West - i v -a f r i c a ' s underdevelopment, whether i t be i n a c a p i t a l i s t or s o c i a l i s t o r i e n t e d s t a t e , i s much more a r e s u l t of the d i s c r e t i o n a r y consumption p a t t e r n s p e r p e t u a t e d by the urban c l a s s e s and promoted by a r u l i n g e l i t e ' s wish t o pursue development p o l i c i e s ^ h i c h embody n e o - c o l o n i a l i s t , c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e and e x p o r t o r i e n t e d p r o d u c t i o n f o r i t s own p r o f i t w h i l e showing a r r o g a n c e and d i s d a i n f o r the b a s i c needs of t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n . I t i s not because of f a i l u r e of the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the monetary economy and t o be c a p a b l e of p r c v i d i n a f o r any i n c r e a s e d i n t e r n a l demand of t h e i r s u r p l u s goods. - v -TAB.LjE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER 1: THE IDEOLOGICAL IHIASSE BETWEEN THE CAPITALIST AND PRE-CAPITALIST SYSTEM OF PRODUCTION; A FUNDAMENTAL BARRIER TO THE DEV FLOPMINT OF TRADITIONAL DOMESTIC AGRICULTURE IN PRE-CAPITALIST SOCIETIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 I . The Supremacy o f C a p i t a l i s t I d e o l o g y . . . . . . . ... 5 I I . An I d e o l o g i c a l Impasse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 CHAPTER 2; A REVISION OF TEE TYPOLOGY USED FOR "PRIMITIVE" SOCIETIES AND 11 SUBSISTENCE" AGRICULTURE FORMATIONS/ A DEFINITION OF PR E-CA PITA LIST SELF-SUSTAINING FORMATIONS / AN INTRODUCTION TO THE LINKAGES BETH EEN THE PRE-CAPITALIST AND CAPITALIST SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . 15 I . I n t r o d u c t i o n . 1 5 I I . T y p o l o g i c a l R e v i s i o n s — Toward a b e t t e r U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f 11 P r i m i t i v e " S o c i e t i e s . . . . . . . 1 6 I I I . G e n e r a l F e a t u r e s and C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f P r e - C a p i t a l i s t A g r i c u l t u r a l S e l f - S u s t a i n i n g F o r m a t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 A. The Land and A g r i c u l t u r e . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 B. The S o c i a l and Economic O r g a n i z a t i o n of PASF . . . 2 4 C. The I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of the P r e - C a p i t a l i s t and C a p i t a l i s t Systems . . . ... 26 IV. The R e l a t i o n s h i p c f the P r e - C a p i t a l i s t and C a p i t a l i s t Systems; A D e f i n i t i o n of a Dynamic Model of a W e s t - A f r i c a n S o c i e t y 28 V. C l a s s C o n t r a d i c t i o n Between the P r e - C a p i t a l i s t S e c t o r and the C a p i t a l i s t S e c t o r — O r i g i n s and C o n f l i c t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 - v i -CHAPTER 3: STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS / EXTERNAL AND INTER M L EAEEIEBS TO THE DEVELOPHEET OF PRE-CAPITALIST TRAIITIGNA1 DOMESTIC AGRICU1TUEE . . .. ....36 I . I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . 36 I I . C o n s e r v a t i o n - D i s s o l u t i o n a s E l e m e n t s o f t h e E x t e r n a l B a r r i e r s to A g r i c u l t u r a l D evelopment i n PASF . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . ... . . . ... . 4 0 I I I . P r e s e r v a t i o n as an E l e m e n t o f t h e I n t e r n a l B a r r i e r s t o A g r i c u l t u r a l Development i n PASF . . . . . 45 I V . . Summary . 5 3 CHAPTER 4: A CASE STUDY OF THE E E E u E I I C OF GUINEA-BISSAU AND THE BIJAGOS ARCHIPELAGO: TEE PARADOX OF CONSERVATION AND PRESERVATION OF PASF 57 I . I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 7 I I . G u i n e a - B i s s a u : An O v e r v i e w ,. . . . . . . . . . . . . ,60 I I I . The P r e s e n t Economic O u t l o o k of G u i n e a - B i s s a u . . . 68 IV. The E v o l u t i o n o f t h e Development P r o c e s s i n G u i n e a -B i s s a u : From C o l o n i a l i s m t o P o s t - I n d e p e n d e n c e . . . 77 V. P o s t - I n d e p e n d e n c e Development P a t t e r n s i n G u i n e a - B i s s a u . . . . . . . . . . 80 VI. The C a s e o f t t e B i j a g o s A r c h i p e l a g o 88 V I I . C o n c l u s i o n 97 - v i i -CHA.PT EE 5: AN ALTERNATIVE PATH TO I I ANN.ING FOR AGRICUITUEAI DEVELOPMENT IN PASF: A LOCK AT THE BOTTOM—UP APPROACH TO VILLAGE COUHUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN PASF . . . 1 0 1 I . I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 1 I I . A B r i e f C r i t i c a l Review o f A l t e r n a t i v e Development Mechanisms f o r S t r a t e g y F o r m u l a t i o n : T h e i r S h o r t c o m i n g s and O p p o r t u n i t i e s . . . . . . . 1 1 2 A. Grass .Soots C o n t r o l . . . . . . . 112 B. E d u c a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 C. Technology . . . . . 1 1 6 D. . I n s t i t u t i o n s . .... . . . . ... . . ... . . .,..119 I I I . Summary and C o n c l u s i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 F o o t n o t e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 B i b l i o g r a p h y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Appendix I . . . . . . . . 142 Appendix I I . . . . . . . . . 154 - v i i i -11 SI C F TABLES T a b l e 1: Demographic S t r u c t u r e o f G u i n e a - B i s s a u . 6 2 T a b l e 2: Investment Volume and Pe r c e n t a g e by S e c t o r i n G u i n e a - B i s s a u f o r 1979 . . . . . . . . . . 72 - i x -F i g u r e 1: a D y n a m ic T h e o r e t i c a l M o d e l o f t h e E l e m e n t s o f t h e P r e s e r v a t i o n , C o n s e r v a t i o n and D i s s o l u t i o n P r o c e s s e s . . . 5 2 F i g u r e 2: A C o m p o s i t e Map o f West A f r i c a . . . . 5 9 F i g u r e 3: Map o f t h e C a s e S t u d y A r e a of G u i n e a - B i s s a u a n l t h e B i j a g o s A r c h i p e l a g o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 F i g u r e 4: k Z o m p a r i t i v e G r a p h o f I m p o r t and E x p o r t R e v e n u e s Between 1965 and 1979 . 73 F i g u r e 5: k G r a p h i c I l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e F l o w o f Goods and S e r v i c e s i n G u i n e a - B i s s a u . . . . . .. .. . . . . 7 5 F i g u r s 6: W a g e - E a r n e r D i s t r i b u t i o n i n G u i n e a - B i s s a u . . . . . 85 F i g u r e 7; "Wonder S e e d s " ; A C a r i c a t u r e . 9 6 - x-ACK-NClilEDGEHEHTS My s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Dr. T.G. McGee f o r h i s i n s i g h t and g uidance t h r o u g h o u t t h i s r e s e a r c h . H i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s and h i s a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n was v a l u e d h i g h l y . I am honoured t h a t he a s s o c i a t e d h i m s e l f w i t h t h i s -work. . A l s o t o h i s c o i l e a g e , Dr. w.R. Armstrong f o r making p o s s i b l e the u t i l i z a t i o n of t h e i r m a n u s c r i p t . My thanks t o ii. P i e r r e Veronneau and M. R a f a t Massad o f SUCO { S e r v i c e u n i v e r s i t a i r e Canadien outre-mer) f o r a f f o r d i n g me the o p p o r t u n i t y t o work i n G u i n e a - B i s s a u . To the m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y team members I a s s o c i a t e d w i t h , t h rough d i s c u s s i o n h e l d w i t h the members, my i n t e r e s t was s t i m u l a t e d and I convey ray g r a t i t u d e . I am i n d e b t e d t o Brahm Wiesman, d i r e c t o r of the School o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , f o r h i s a d v i c e , encouragement and s t r o n g f a i t h i n my academic p u r s u i t s . My g r a t i t u d e t o the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r a g r a n t which a i d e d i n the f u n d i n g of the c o m p l e t i o n of the coursework. Dr.. S s t t y Pendakur and Dr. Bernardo B e r d i c h e w s k i have p r o v i d e d d i r e c t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h i s endeavour. T h e i r i n p u t was v e r y s u p p o r t i v e . To my f a m i l y and f r i e n d s , I am t h a n k f u l f o r t h e i r b e l i e f i n what was b e i n g a c h i e v e d and t h e i r c o n t i n u a l encouragement and s u p p o r t . -x i -I owe a s p e c i a l debt c f g r a t i t u d e t o my w i f e C a r o l e , whose g r e a t p a t i e n c e and warm-hearted companionship and i n s p i r a t i o n never f a i l e d t h r o u g h o u t my academic c a r e e r . F i n a l l y , to the E i j a g c s p e o p l e , t o whom I d e d i c a t e t h i s work, my deepest g r a t i t u d e f o r t h e i r a l l o w i n g me t o be p a r t of t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s . The knowledge a c q u i r e d from my e x p e r i e n c e w i t h them can o n l y be p a r t i a l l y r e c i p r o c a t e d by t h i s work. I t i s my hope t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l e n a b l e a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e i r c o n d i t i o n and a c o n c i l i a t i o n o f t h e i r system w i t h the c o u n t r y ' s g o a l of n a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n . -1-...The food mountains t h r u s t upwards i n some c o u n t r i e s w h i l e the hunger and p o v e r t y p e r s i s t s i n o t h e r s , the obese seek nsw c u r e s s h i l e the m a l n o u r i s h e d are not g i v e n remedies. Domestic p e t s are pampered w h i l e hungry c h i l d r e n a re n e g l e c t e d . I s t h i s not a s t r a n g e phenomenon t h a t h i s t o r i a n s and economists w i l l r e g a r d as m y s t e r i o u s and i n e x p l i c a b l e . . . Edouard Saouma, D i r e c t o r G e n e r a l , FAC Rome, October 16th, 1982 Second 8o.rld Food Day In west A f r i c a , t h e problems o f f o o d s h o r t a g e s i n the urban s e c t o r , r u r a l p o v e r t y and the growing dependency upon the world c a p i t a l i s t system a r e t h r e e major i s s u e s which have c o n t i n u o u s l y been a f f l i c t i n g the development p r o c e s s of t h e p o s t - i n d e p e n d e n t s t a t e s . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t to a d d r e s s the problem of under-development, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o f i r s t u n d e r s t a n d what i n h i b i t s i t s development. As t r a d i t i o n a l domestic a g r i c u l t u r e or " s u b s i s t e n c e a g r i c u l t u r e " r e p r e s e n t s between 50 and 70 per c e n t of t h e w o r l d f o o d p r o d u c t i o n , i t i s noteworthy t o suggest t h a t g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o d e v e l o p i t s h o u l d become a very i m p o r t a n t element i n the war a g a i n s t hunger, s t a r v a t i o n , and t h i r d w o r l d development. While i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n has t e n t a t i v e l y imposed s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f r e m e d i a l a c t i o n s t o h e l p a l l e v i a t e the - 2 -f i r s t two problems of food s h o r t a g e and r u r a l p o v e r t y , i t has become i n c r e a s i n g l y apparent t h a t i t has i n c o n t r a s t , o n l y a g g r a v a t e d the economic s u b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n of many West A f r i c a n s t a t e s i n t o a s i t u a t i o n of s u b o r d i n a t e dependency w i t h the c o l l a b o r a t i o n o f c l a s s a l l i a n c e s of the r u l i n g e l i t e . I t i s argued w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of t h i s study t h a t the problems oE food s h o r t a g e s and r u r a l p o v e r t y a r e deeply r o o t e d w i t h i n t h e i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t s which s e p a r a t e the urban-ccmmercial c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r and the r u r a l s u b s i s t e n c e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r . Thus, t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n w i l l o n l y be p o s s i b l e when a l t e r n a t i v a s o l u t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d which w i l l seek t o accomodate both systems. I n the meantime, the past e x p e r i e n c e s of the m o d e r n i s a t i o n Df A f r i c a n a g r i c u l t u r e have only a c c e n t u a t e d t h e r i f t t h a t s e p a r a t e s the urban and r u r a l s e c t o r , as the l a t t e r , by means of i t s c o n t r o l and d o m i n a t i o n over t h e im p o r t e d h i g h t e c h n o l o g y and c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e means of p r o d u c t i o n has supported the " e c o n o m i c a l l y r a t i o n a l " e x p o r t - c r o p p r o d u c t i o n i n s t e a d o f the " l e s s advantageous" f o o d c r o p p r o d u c t i o n and s e l f - r e l i a n c e a l t e r n a t i v e o f a d e c e n t r a l i z e d approach. I t i s the purpose of t h i s s t u d y t o p r e s e n t a t h e o r e t i c a l model of the development p r o c e s s as a p p l i e d t o the West A f r i c a n s t a t e o f j u i n e a - B i s s a u . C e n t r a l t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h i s p r o c e s s i s tha i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between urban-based e l i t e s who c o n t r o l the development p r o c e s s i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h f o r e i g n a i d and r u r a l peasants who a r e r e c i p i e n t s of these d e v e l o p m e n t a l i n p u t s . Both these c l a s s e s a r e s t r u c t u r a l l y l o c a t e d w i t h i n two mcdes of p r o d u c t i o n ; the e l i t e w i t h i n ( c a p i t a l i s m / s t a t e c a p i t a l i s m ) and the v i l l a g e communal farmers -3-w i t h i n p r e c a p i t a l i s t a g r i c u l t u r a l s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g f o r m a t i o n s (PASF) . I n o r d e r t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s t a s k , the s t u d y w i l l f o c u s on an a n a l y s i s of the b a r r i e r s which i n h i b i t the development of the t r a d i t i o n a l d o m e s t i c a g r i c u l t u r e of PASF w i t h i n the West A f r i c a n p e r i p h e r y . I n so d o i n g , the s t u d y w i l l propose a framework c o n s i s t i n g of a system o f c o n c e p t s t o e x p l a i n the d i f f e r e n t i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s which a r e p r e s e n t w i t h i n the development p r o c e s s . The a n a l y s i s w i l l c e n t r e on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the c a p i t a l i s t / s t a t e c a p i t a l i s t system and the PASF so t o understand t h e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s of c o n t r o l and dominance which a r e i n h e r e n t w i t h i n both systems s p e c i f i c a l l y d e a l i n g w i t h the case of p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g f o r m a t i o n s (PASF). The case s t u d y of G u i n e a - B i s s a u and the B i j a g o s a r c h i p e l a g o s e r v s s t o i l l u s t r a t e the d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t s t h a t w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d on t h r o u g h o u t the s t u d y . The c o n c l u s i o n shows how the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of the c l a s s - b a s e d r e l a t i o n s h i p a t t h e l e v e l o f the s t a t e a f f e c t s the development p r o c e s s . To the neophyte p l a n n e r , as I was d u r i n g my two-year c o n t r a c t i n G u i n e a - B i s s a u w i t h the M i n i s t r y of R u r a l Development through the s e r v i c e s o f the Canadian non-governmental o r g a n i z a t i o n SUCO ( S e r v i c e u n i v e r s i t a i r e c a nadien outre-mer) , I hope t h a t t h i s work may s e r v e as a t o o l f o r t h e b e t t e r comprehension o f the' b a r r i e r s and the s t r u c t u r a l elements of the development p r o c e s s i n West A f r i c a n s t a t e s t h a t w i l l e l i m i n a t e any f u t u r e p o s s i b i l i t y of r e g a r d i n g the phenomena of unequal development as m y s t e r i o u s and i n e x p l i c a b l e . _ it-Pas b e s o i n de l u t t e p o p u l a i r e pour dgmontrer l e b e s o i n d'une n o u v e l l e v i s i o n c r i t i q u e du developpement dans l e s pays du t i e r s - m o n d e . Andre" Aubry D€noncer e s t i n d i s p e n s a b l e , c * e s t p a r l a g u ' i l f a u t commencer.„. Ren'e Dumont -5-CH.A P T E B _ 1 T H E I D E O L O G I C A L IMPASSE BETWEEN THE C A P I T A L I S T AND F E E - C A P I T A L I S T SYSTEM OF P H O D U C I I O N : A FUNDAMENTAL BAB.fi.IEfi TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF T R A D I T I O N A L DOMESTIC AGRICULTURE I N P R E - C A P I T ALIS.T_ S O C I E T I E S . TPIE SUPREMACY OF C BP'IT AL.IST IDEOLOGY T h e f i r s t a r g u m e n t b e h i n d t h i s t h e s i s r e s t s cn t h e b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e h i s t o r i c a l b a s i s f o r t h e u n d e r - d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r e - c a p i t a l i s t t r a d i t i o n a l d o m e s t i c a g r i c u l t u r e (1 ) may be t r a c e d b a c k t o the f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h e s u p e r s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t mode o f p r o d u c t i o n : T h e I d e o l o g y of C a p i t a l A c c u m u l a t i o n . I t i s c l e a r f r o m the i n i t i a l e n c o u n t e r o f t h e " c i v i l i z e d " w o r l d w i t h t h e " p r i m i t i v e s " , c l a s s i c a l t h e o r i s t s and e c o n o m i s t s o f t h e d o m i n a n t b o u r g e o i s s y s t e m r e g a r d e d t h e l a t t e r a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a n u n d e r - d e v e l o p e d f o r m o f c a p i t a l i s m . Wi th v a r i o u s o v e r t o n e s , t h e y were s u b s e q u e n t l y r e g a r d e d as no l e s s t h a n a p r o d u c t o f e v o l u t i o n a r y s t a g n a t i o n ( f rom a s o c i a l D a r w i n i s t p e r s p e c t i v e ) o r m o r e o v e r , a s m e r e l y e c o n o m i c a l l y b a c k w a r d l i v i n g w i t h i n a n a t u r a l economy ( M a r x i s t h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m p e r s p e c t i v e ) . ( 2 ) A s t h e s o c i a l c o n t e x t e v o l v e d i n t o t h e c o l o n i a l e p o c h , " p r i m i t i v e " s o c i e t i e s were s t i l l t o be c o n s i d e r e d by t h e w e s t e r n m i n d s a s s i m p l y i r r a t i o n a l i n t h e i r e c o n o m i c b e h a v i o u r a n d r e g r e s s i v e i n t h e i r s o c i a l p a t t e r n s , and i n e v i t a b l y l e a d i n g t o c o m p l e t e e r a d i c a t i o n . S u c h n e g a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s and p e j o r a t i v e t r a i t s - 6 -o c c a s i o n e d e f f e c t s t h a t t r a n s c e n d e d t h e m s e l v e s i n t o the mainstream of development p o l i c i e s up u n t i l the l a s t decade, as w e l l as s t r o n g l y a f f e c t i n g the o r i e n t a t i o n of s e v e r a l academic d i s c i p l i n e s which w i l l te d e s c r i b e d l a t e r . In one extreme, the above c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s have i n many i a s t a n c e s , p r o v i d e d t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of programs and p o l i c y p r e s c r i p t i o n s which have t r e a t e d p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s as a d i s e a s e i n s t e a d of a r i g h t f u l e n t i t y . Sometimes, the d i a g n o s i s f o r the i n c u r a b l e m a l a i s e t h a t sought t o impose r e s i s t a n c e to change determined t h e use of d r a s t i c remedies a g a i n s t s o c i e t a l i m m o b i l i z a t i o n . (3) In h i s Study of H i s t o r y , Toynbee (197.2) s u g g e s t s p a r t o f the r a t i o n a l e behind the essence of western i d e o l o g i c a l supremacy which was commencing t o t r a n s g r e s s n a t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s at the t i me of the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n . The i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l thought has proceeded so f a r t h a t i t has even reproduced the p a t h o l o g i c a l e x a g g e r a t i o n s o f the i n d u s t r i a l s p i r i t . I t i s w e l l known t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s or communities whose e n e r g i e s are c o n c e n t r a t e d upon t u r n i n g raw m a t e r i a l s i n t o l i g h t , h e at, l o c o m o t i o n or manufactured a r t i c l e s a r e i n c l i n e d t o f e e l t h a t the d i s c o v e r y and e x p l o i t a t i o n of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s i s a v a l u a b l e a c t i v i t y i n i t s e l f , a p a r t from the v a l u e f o r Mankind of any r e s u l t produced by the p r o c e s s . They a r e even tempted t o f e e l t h a t i t r e p r e h e n s i b l e i n e t h e r people when they n e g l e c t t o d e v e l o p a l l t h e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l , and they t h e m s e l v e s r e a d i l y become s l a v e s to t h e i r f e t i s h i f they happen t c l i v e w i t h i n a r e g i o n where n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and o p p o i t u n i t e s f o r d e v e l o p i n g them, abound. (4) as has been made e v i d e n t , the t e m p t a t i o n " t o f e e l i t r e p r e h e n s i b l e . . . 1 ' was f r e q u e n t l y s i g n a l l e d by v e r y r e a c t i o n a r y r e s p o n s e s r a n g i n g from e x p l o i t a t i o n t o e l i m i n a t i o n . From the e a r l y c o l o n i a l p e r i o d t o t h e m o d e r n i z a t i o n p e r i o d , (5) i t c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the " p r i m i t i v e " or "savage" on -7-whatever c o n t i n e n t was re g a r d e d not as a man but more as an o b s t a c l e t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n c f a s a c r o s a n c t o r d e r which was s u s t a i n e d by an e t h n o c e n t r i c i d e o l o g i c a l d i s p o s i t i o n . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r d i s p o s i t i o n , d e s c r i b e d by Hutton and Cohen (1975) i n terms of an ' • i n c o r r e c t c o g n i t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n " , was r e v e a l e d l a t e r on w i t h i n d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s o f r e s e a r c h , i n t o a paradigm of r e s i s t a n c e to change which had become s e m i n a l t o the g e n e r a l t r e n d of s t u d i e s c a r r i e d out w i t h i n s e v e r a l d i s c i p l i n e s . In s o c i o l o g y and p s y c h o l o g y , underdevelopment w i t h i n t h e n o t i o n o f r e s i s t a n c e to change l e a d t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t s o c i e t a l i m m o b i l i s m was a t t r i b u t a b l e t o i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c i n c a p a c i t i e s ; l a c k cf e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p , low achievement m o t i v a t i o n , t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s , e t c . Each d i s p l a y e d as major impediments t o any form o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c m o d e r n i z a t i o n . I t was, however, argued t h a t ; the models p o s i t e d , a s p i r e d t o u n i v e r s a l v a l i d i t y d i s r e g a r d i n g t h e c r u c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s between d i f f e r e n t modes of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and the d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of d i f f e r e n t h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d s . (6) Such a r e d u c t i o n i s t approach t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f " p r i m i t i v e " s o c i e t i e s succeeded o n l y i n b e l i t t l i n g t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l v a l u e s and t h e r e f o r e , l e g i t i m i z e d the ex p a n s i o n o f the dominant i d e o l o g y . I t s a p p l i c a t i o n j u s t i f i e d what M e i l l a s s o u x (1981) p o i n t s out as a development p a t t e r n whereby; P l a n s f o r c a s h - c r c p p i n g and mining were c o n c e i v e d w i t h o u t r e g a r d f o r t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e which were c o n s i d e r e d as remnants of a superseded a r c h a i c p a s t . (7) - 8 -Meanwhile, the "conservative mentality" which was defined as the underpinning element of the model of resistance to change, was more seriously examined in order to understand the real nature of the underdevelopment phenomenon. The works of Shapera (1947), Gluckman ( 1960) and of F i r t h (1969) brought consensus in the f i e l d s of s o c i o l o g i c a l and anthropological studies and concluded that the oistinancy of p r e - c a p i t a l i s t "primitive" s o c i e t i e s v i s - a - v i s modernization was l i n k e d not to a "conservative mentality" but much more to two factors;: (1) the avoidance of any form of domination and (2) the lack of opportunities rather than through the f a i l u r e of aspiration. These two points w i l l be examined l a t e r on i n the study (8) and are p i v o t a l to the understanding of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two systems and t h e i r " a r t i c u l a t i o n " . Nevertheless, regardless of the above understanding of the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l contradictions between the dominant c a p i t a l i s t and p r e - c a p i t a l i s t "primitive" systems, many ether d i s c i p l i n e s continued to ignore and d i s c r e d i t the l a t t e r on account of i t s backward, t r a d i t i o n a l and steady-state apparent behaviour. "Le dogme de l ' i r r a t i o n a l i t e " paysanne" explained by Paguette (1982) i s an example of such positions posited i n e a r l i e r studies on a g r i c u l t u r a l development as characterized by Wharton's work (1969) on "subsistence agriculture". He stresses the i r r a t i o n a l i t y of subsistence agriculture to conclude that i t i s destined to be replaced by a more r a t i o n a l modern agriculture. The conventional model of development assumed that the higher y i e l d equated higher yi e l d s to monocultural practices while the p o l y c u l t u r a l practices cf the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t t r a d i t i o n a l domestic agriculture was determined as wasteful of space and -9-time-consuming. In c o n t r a s t , r e c e n t s t u d i e s such as Dup r i e z (1980) c l e a r l y d emonstrates t h a t , i n view of the o v e r a l l e c o l o g i c a l b a l a n c e , the d i f f e r e n t t r a d i t i o n a l agrosystems which have s u r v i v e d a re h i g h l y r a t i o n a l . I n s h o r t , t h i s type of polemic e x p l i c i t l y denotes the i d e o l o g i c a l impasse which e x i s t s between the two systems' fundamental r a i s o n d ' g t r e ; C a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n - e x p l o i t a t i o n of t h e r e s a u r c e s at hand and c o n s i d e r a t i o n of man as a work f o r c e v e r s u s a view of man as an end i n i t s e l f , and t h e product of work as not made a l o n g p u r e l y economic f o r c e s but more i m p o r t a n t l y d e t e r m i n e d by s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l f o r c e s . The dominant l i b e r a l approach p o l a r i z e d around the i d e o l o g i c a l supremacy cf c a p i t a l i s m , which f a i l e d to l e g i t i m i z e t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t system, was a l s o p r e s e n t w i t h i n the p l a n n i n g t h e o r y ' s center-down paradigm o r development "from above" approach which p r e s i d e d i n the 1960's. C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t was yet p a r t o f a n o t h e r domain i m p o r t a n t t o t h e f i e l d of development which has had i m p o r t a n t r e p e r c u s s i o n s on the m o d e r n i z a t i o n p o l i c i e s of t h i r d w o r l d a g r i c u l t u r e c o n s t r a i n e d by an economic r e d u c t i o n i s t p e r s p e c t i v e o r d e r . I n sum, i t i m p l i e d t h a t economic growth by l a r g e - s c a l e i n t e g r a t i o n was e q u i v a l e n t t o "development". S u b s e q u e n t l y , i t s f a i l u r e t o b r e a c h r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t i e s and o n l y p r o v i d e the b e n e f i t s i n t o the hands o f a p r i v i l e g e d c l a s s was c o u p l e d by the enormous i n t e r n a t i o n a l debt c o n t r a c t e d by many t h i r d w o r l d c o u n t r i e s . I n i t i a l l y d eveloped from the n e o - c l a s s i c a l economic w r i t i n g s of Schumpeter (1934) and Rostow (1960) and l a t e r e l a b o r a t e d i n t h e works of Hirschman's p o l a r i z a t i o n and t r i c k l e - d o w n t h e ory (1958) and P e r r o u x ' s (1955) growth p o l e system; i t was not u n t i l Friedmann i n t r o d u c e d these n o t i o n s t o the p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e t h r o u g h the s p a t i a l s t u d i e s o f c o r e - p e r i p h e r y a n a l y s i s (1966) t h a t d i f f e r e n t development s t r a t e g i e s p e r s i s t e d i n s u g g e s t i n g the f i l t e r - d o w n e f f e c t t h a t would' b e n e f i t the p e r i p h e r y i n the same manner t h a t was i n i t i a l l y advantageous t o t h e c o r e . Worse y e t , t h e " t r i c k l e - u p " e f f e c t o f consumer s a l e t o t h e p r i v a t e c i t y a g g r a v a t e s the e x p l o i t a t i o n of the p e r i p h e r y . The i m p l i c i t a s s umption w i t h i n t h e h y p o t h e s i s was the f a c t t h a t i t c l e a r l y r e f u s e d t o d i r e c t the o p p o r t u n i t i e s of development to sub-groups i n the h i n t e r l a n d and t h u s : . . . t h e r e s t o f the p o p u l a t i o n ( o u t s i d e the core) are c o n s i d e r e d i n c a p a b l e c f i n i t i a t i v e s i n making improvements c o n s e q u e n t l y e v e r y t h i n g must be done f o r them. (9) Hence, as the p r e v a i l i n g paradigm was t r a n s p o s e d i n t o the " l e s s d e veloped c o u n t r i e s " , i t e s s e n t i a l l y became a n o t h e r means of i n t e l l e c t u a l i z i n g the i d e o l o g i c a l supremacy o f the c a p i t a l i s t system w h i l e downgrading o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r development from below, i . e . , w i t h i n the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t system. Meanwhile, t h e development "from below" paradigm emerged i n tine 1970's as an a l t e r n a t i v e t h e o r y e f f e c t i n g a b r e a k t h r o u g h from t h e p r e v i o u s d o c t r i n e of center-down development. I t s b a s i c a s sumption f o r promoting bottom-up p l a n n i n g was t h a t f u l l davelopment ( s o c i a l and economic) o f a r e g i o n ' s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and human s k i l l s c o u l d n o t o c c u r w i t h i n l a r g e - s c a l e f u n c t i o n a l i a t e g r a t i o a i n t o the e x i s t a n t dominant economic system, t h a t i s , th e c a p i t a l i s t s ystem. Rooted i n e a r l i e r w r i t i n g s of Proudhon, Bakunin and K r o p o t k i n , t h i s new approach to developmental p l a n n i n g would e n a b l e t h e e n v i s i o n m e n t of p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s no l o n g e r as o b s t a c l e s t h a t r e s i s t e d change and m o d e r n i z a t i o n , but as a c c e p t e d e n t i t i e s w i t h i n a t e r r i t o r i a l c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n v e r s u s the world c a p i t a l i s t s ystem. I n the p a s t decade, s p i n - o f f s from the l a t t e r paradigm have i n c l u d e d a range of d i f f e r e n t development s t r a t e g i e s such as b a s i c needs, p a r t i c i p a t o r y development, l i b e r a t i o n development, a c t i o n - r e s e a r c h , e t c e t e r a . These v a r i o u s s t r a t e g i e s , or r a t h e r t h e development mechanisms w i t h i n them, w i l l be e x p l o r e d i n the f i n a l c h a p t e r as one of the many p o t e n t i a l i n s t r u m e n t s f o r the e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h e b a r r i e r s t o a g r i c u l t u r a l development w i t h i n s p e c i f i c £re-capitalist a g r i c u l t u r a l s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g f o r m a t i o n s to h e l p d e v e l o p mechanisms t h a t c o u l d a l l e v i a t e the n e g a t i v e i m p a c t s of r a p i d c a p i t a l i s t i n t e g r a t i o n o r s t r i c t l y enhance the s e l f - r e l i a n t n a t u r e o f t h e system t o a s s u r e the s u r v i v a l of the l e g i t i m a t e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c e n t i t y depending on t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p and a c t u a l l e v e l o f i n t e g r a t i o n . 1*. AH _ I DEQ LOG IC AL_I Mi? AS SE To summarize the g e n e r a l a s p e c t s o f the problem of underdevelopment of p r e - c a p i t a l i s t t r a d i t i o n a l domestic a g r i c u l t u r e , the s t u d y i n s i s t s on two p o i n t s : (1) Ths underdevelopment of p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s and r u r a l p o v e r t y are two i s s u e s which a r e l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e d by the i d e o l o g i c a l a b b e r a t i o n of w o r l d - c a p i t a l i s t systems which i s e s s e n t i a l l y m a n i f e s t e d by the p r e v a i l i n g c o n t r a d i c t o r y c l a s s r e l a t i o n s h i p between an urban m i n o r i t y which a p p r o p r i a t e s and a r u r a l m a j o r i t y which produces. - 1 2 -(2) T h e c o n v e n t i o n a l wisdom w h i c h d e s i g n a t e s p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m s w i t h i n a mode l o f r e s i s t a n c e t o c h a n g e i s no l o n g e r v a l i d . C o n s e r v a t i s m i s s t r i c t l y t o be u n d e r s t o o d as a phenomenon o f s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n a g a i n s t a n y f o r m o f i n c o r p o r a t i o n w i t h i n t h e hegemony o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t s y s t em. T h e r e i s a G iu inean p r o v e r b w h i c h sums up t h e i d e a s e x p r e s s e d a b o v e a n d t h r o u g h o u t t h i s s t u d y : Po s e c o , t u d o t a r d a que t a r d a d e n t r o de i a g o i c a t a b i d a l a g a t o . , L e a v e a l o g i n t h e w a t e r a s l o n g a s y o u l i k e and i t ' l l n e v e r become a c r o c o d i l e . (10) w h i c h i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e i d e o l o g i c a l i m p a s s e b e t w e e n b o t h s y s t e m s c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d a s f o l l o w s : The l o g b e i n g t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m may n e v e r be c a p a b l e o f t u r n i n g i n t o a c r o c o d i l e , t h a t i s t h e c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m , h o w e v e r , t h e w o r l d - c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m may s e l l be c a p a b l e o f m a k i n g t h e l o g r o t w i t h i n i t s w a t e r s i n t o an i m p o v e r i s h e d f o r m o f c a p i t a l i s m t h r o u g h c u l t u r a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . A t a t i m e i n h i s t o r y when t h e r e h a s n e v e r been a c l o s e r c h a n c e o f c o n t a c t b e t w e e n b o t h s y s t e m s , i t i s p e r t i n e n t t o q u e s t i o n t h e p e r s i s t a n c e o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s o f the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s w h i c h have been p r e s e r v e d f o r s o l o n g . T h e i r p r e s e n c e s h o u l d n o l o n g e r be r e g a r d e d a s a mere t r a n s i t i o n a l p h a s e . Nowadays , t h e i r c o - e x i s t e n c e w i t h t h e c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m i s t h r e a t e n i n g c o m p l e t e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e i r s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c o r g a n i z a t i o n , o f t e n i m p o s i n g i r r e v e r s a b l e n e g a t i v e i m p a c t s , what I l l i c h (1971) d e s c r i b e s a s t h e m o d e r n i z a t i o n c f p o v e r t y or t h e p l a n n i n g of. p o v e r t y . P a r t o f the e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r these i r r e v e r s a b l e n e g a t i v e i m p a c t s a r e : Because j f t h e p r o c e s s of a b s o r p t i o n w i t h i n the c a p i t a l i s t econoaiy, the ( p r e - c a p i t a l i s t ) a g r i c u l t u r a l communities, m a i n t a i n e d as r e s e r v e s of cheap l a b o u r , a r e b e i n g undermined and p e r p e t u a t e d a t the same t i m e , undergoing a prolonged c r i s i s , not a smooth t r a n s i t i o n t o c a p i t a l i s m . (11) However, t h e i r f u l l e r a d i c a t i o n -which was f o r e c a s t t o be i n e v i t a b l e e i t h e r by M a r x i s t e v o l u t i o n a r y t h e o r y o r s t r u c t u r a l i s t w o r l d - c a p i t a l i s t a p p r o a c h e s , i s now a c o n t e s t e d f a c t as w i l l be made c l e a r w i t h i n t h i s s t u d y . I t i s argued t h a t because they are here t o s t a y or t o d i e , t h e y s h o u l d be brought t o p l a y a more i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h i r d w o r l d development b o t h f o r t h e i r own b e n e f i t s and f o r those cf t h e c a p i t a l i s t system w i t h o u t r e q u i r i n g i t s complete t r a n s f o r m a t i o n or d i s i n t e g r a t i o n (even though t h i s may seem to be a paradox) . U l t i m a t e l y , t h e r e are two o p t i o n s t o which p l a n n e r s working w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l communities c o u l d adhere i n o r d e r to a s s u r e the s u r v i v a l of p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s i n a dynamic development p r o c e s s c o n t r a r y t o e n v i s i o n i n g them as a p a s s i v e h o r i z o n b e f o r e a t t a i n i n g c a p i t a l i s m . (1) To f o r g e a new path of a l t e r n a t i v e r u r a l devopment. T h i s would h e l p t c i n s t i l l i n n o v a t i o n and i n s t i t u t i o n from w i t h i n the v i l l a g e community i n o r d e r to a v o i d the i p s o f a c t o e n t i r e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n from s l i p p i n g i n t o an i m p o v e r i s h e d form of c a p i t a l i s m as c l a i m e d by M e i l l a s s o u x (1981). (2) To s e a r c h f o r r e m e d i a l a c t i o n s t o c u s h i o n the n e g a t i v e i m p a c t s ( l o s s of autonomy, s e f - s u s t e n a n c e and s e l f - r e l i a n c e ) o f c a p i t a l i s t p e n e t r a t i o n i n those communities t h a t have a l r e a d y i n t e g r a t e d t h e market economy and t h e r e f o r e been exposed t c the f u l l t r a n s i t i o n i n t o modernized p o v e r t y . - 1 4 -B o t h p a t h s s e e m h e r e t o b e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p o l y m o r p h o u s n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t , I n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r , t h e s t u d y w i l l e x a m i n e t h e r e v i s i o n o f d i f f e r e n t t e r m s u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e n a t u r e o f p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s a n d p r o p o s e a d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e f o c u s o f t h e s t u d y : p r e - c a p i t a l i s t a g r i c u l t u r a l s e f - s u s t a i n i n g f o r m a t i o n s . -15-CH,APT£E_2 A. R E V I S I O N DF THE TYPOLOGY USED FOR " P R I M I T I V E " S O C I E T I E S AND " S U B S I S T E N C E " AGRICULTURE FOBHATIONS / A D E F I N I T I O N OF P R E -C A P I T A L I S T S E L F - S U S T A I N I N G FORMATIONS / AN INTRODUCTION TO THE LINKAGES BETWEEN-THE P R E - C A P I T A L I S T AND C A P I T A L I S T SYSTEMS I. INTBODUCTION I t i s n e c e s s a r y to c l a r i f y t h e d i f f e r e n c e s be tween key t e r m i n o l o g y and t o p o i n t o u t t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e l e v e l s o f t h e v a r i o u s n o t i o n s t h a t d e s c r i b e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s t o f i r s t i n t r o d u c e t h e b a s i c e l e m e n t s w h i c h w i l l be p a r t o f t h e s y s t e m s o f c o n c e p t s e l a b o r a t e d upon l a t e r i n c h a p t e r t h r e e i n o r d e r t o e x p l a i n t h e e x t e r n a l a n d i n t e r n a l b a r r i e r s t o a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n P A S F . S i n c e a common l e x i c o n i s e s s e n t i a l t o a v o i d g u a n d r i e s t h a t c o u l d h i n d e r t h e s t u d y ' s a p p r o a c h , r e v i s i o n s o f t h e t e r m s " p r i m i t i v e " a n d " s u b s i s t e n c e " c o n s i d e r e d m i s l e a d i n g and u n a p p r o p r i a t e , w i l l be r e v i e w e d and t h e c o n c e p t c f mode o f p r o d u c t i o n i n t r o d u c e d . The c o n c e p t w i l l be d e f i n e d and l a t e r the d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f o c u s o f t h e s t u d y (PASF) w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d u p o n . G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and f e a t u r e s o f t h e PASF w i l l be p r e s e n t e d t o e x p o s e t h e p e r t i n e n t d i s t i n c t i o n s w h i c h e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t a n d c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m s . F i n a l l y , t h e t h i r d s e c t i o n w i l l ' e x a m i n e t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t a n d c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m s w i t h i n a West A f r i c a n c o n t e x t . - 1 6 -I I . TYPO.LDGIC.AL R E V I S I O N S — TOWARD A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF » P R I M l T l V E ! i _ S O C I J T X E S _ _ _ „ _ „ _ _ _ _ A l t h o u g h , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l c o n t r o v e r s i e s a b o u t t h e s p e c i f i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the n a t u r e o f " p r i m i t i v e " s o c i e t i e s a a o n g t h e d i f f e r e n t a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t ( i n c l u d i n g t h e f u n c t i o n a l i s t , the s t r u c t u r a l i s t and t h e M a r x i s t s c h o o l ) , t h e y n o n e t h e l e s s r e a c h common g r o u n d a b o u t t h e b a s i c d i v i s i o n o f s o c i e t y i n t o two m a i n c a t e g o r i e s : (1) s i m p l e " p r i m i t i v e " o r p r i m i t i v e communism and t r i b a l p r e c l a s s o r s t a t e l e s s s o c i e t i e s ; and (2) c o m p l e x , s t a t e , c l a s s o r " c i v i l i s e d " s o c i e t i e s . (1) T h u s , t h e f i r s t c a t e g o r y o f t h e b a s i c d i v i s i o n i s t h e f o c u s o f o u r a t t e n t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s w i l l p o i n t o u t t h e v a r i o u s i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e s w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h " p r i m i t i v e " s o c i e t i e s a s e x p l a i n e d by B e r d i c h e w s k y ( 1 9 7 3 ) . By e x a m i n i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e , i t i s f o u n d t h a t s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t t e r a i s a r e u s e d i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n a n d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e s o c i e t i e s : " p r i m i t i v e " , " a r c h a i c " , " s u b s i s t e n c e " o r " t r a d i t i o n a l " . T h e i r use i s g e n e r a l l y i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e i n t h e p l a n n i n g d s v e l o p m e n t l i t e r a t u r e w h i l e t h e y a s sume a much t o o s i m p l i s t i c d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e p h e n o m e n o n . I t i s most i m p o r t a n t to u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e s e s o c i e t i e s v a r y g r e a t l y b o t h i n f o r m and f u n c t i o n i a t o d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s o f s o c i a l ^ f o r m a t i o n s . (2) From t h e n e o l i t h i c t r i b a l s o c i e t i e s t o t h e p r e s e n t A f r i c a n t r i b e s m e n , t h e r e e x i s t s a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f " g e n r e s " o f " p r i m i t i v e " s o c i e t i e s r a n g i n g f r o m the s i m p l e h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r t o t h e more -17-c o m p l e x a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t , p a s t o r a l i s t a n d even f i s h e r m e n g r o u p s t o ba d i s t i n g u i s h e d a s s p e c i f i c s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n s . (.3) To b e t t e r c o n c e p t u a l i z e t h e s e v e r a l v a r i a t i o n s o f t h e s e s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n s and t o d i s p e n s e w i t h t h e e t h n o c e n t r i c v a l u e s t h a t a r e a t t a c h e d t o t h e s i m p l i s t i c t e r m s s u c h a s " p r i m i t i v e " and " a r c h a i c " e t c e t e r a , t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s i s u sed a s a s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e s e a m b i g u o u s t e r m s . (4) A l s o a m b i g u o u s i s t h e c o n c e p t and t e r m " s u b s i s t e n c e " w h i c h i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f " p r i m i t i v e " s o c i e t i e s o r f o r t h a t m a t t e r p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s . S u b s i s t e n c e i s a much l i m i t e d t e r m a s p o i n t e d o u t b y G o d e l i e r (1973) b e c a u s e i t i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y s u g g e s t s t h a t " s u r p l u s e s " a r e n o n - e x i s t e n t i n t h e p r i m i t i v e economy. P a r s e q u ' i l masgue l e f a i t que c e s E c o n o m i e s ne s e l i m i t e n t p a s a l a p r o d u c t i o n d e s b i e n s de s u b s i s t a n c e m a i s p r o d u i s e n t un " s u r p l u s " d e s t i n e s au f o n c t i o n n e m e n t d e s s t r u c t u r e s s o c i a l e s . (5) H e n c e , t h e c a p a c i t y f o r p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s t o p r o d u c e e x c e s s g o o d s i s a p r o v e n f a c t a n d e s s e n t i a l t o t h e i r s o c i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n a s M e i l l a s s o u x (1979) e x p l a i n s ; L ' e x i s t e n c e d e s b i e n s o i s i f s de l a p r o d u c t i o n e t de c o n s o m m a t i o n a des f i n s d ' o r g a n i s a t i o n m a t r i m o n i a i e , de p r e s t i g e ou d ' a u t o r i t e m o n t r e l a c a p a c i t e de c e s s o c i e t e s a p r o d u i r e un s u r p l u s i n s t i t u t i o . n e l . (6) T h e r e f o r e , " s u r p l u s e s " a r e an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s . As B e r d i c h e w s k y (1975; 1.3) r e m a r k s h o w e v e r , " F o r us t h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n t h a t s u r p l u s e s e x i s t i n a l l s o c i e t i e s i n c l u d i n g p r i m i t i v e f o r m a t i o n s . The c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n c e i s i n t h e way t h e s u r p l u s i s a p p r o p r i a t e d and d i s t r i b u t e d " . - 18-Th e e x t e n s i o n o f the use o f t h e t e r m s u b s i s t e n c e t o d e s c r i b e t h e p r o d u c t i o n s y s t e m , t h e economy and t h e a g r i c u l t u r e o f p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s (as e x e m p l i f i e d i n W h a r t o n ' s work (1969)) i g n o r e s the f u l l d i m e n s i o n w h i c h e x i s t s w i t h i n t h e s e s o c i e t i e s . . S u c h a s i n t h e c a s e o f W h a r t o n ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f a " s u b s i s t e n c e p r o d u c t i o n s y s t e m " o f a s u b s i s t e n c e s o c i e t y w h i c h c o n s i s t s of a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t u n i t where a l l p r o d u c e i s c o n s u m e d and none i s s o l d and where no c o n s u m e r o r p r o d u c e r g o o d s o r s e r v i c e s o f e x t e r n a l o r i g i n t o t h e u n i t a r e p u r c h a s e d . (7) I n s h o r t , t h i s g i v e s the i m p r e s s i o n o f a p a s s i v e , a n d s t a t i c m o d e l o f t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s w h i c h a r e o b l i g e d t o s t r u g g l e f o r t h e i r d a i l y e x i s t e n c e . T h i s n o t i o n I s d i s c a r d e d by S a h l i n s (1 972) i n h i s wcrk on " p r i m i t i v e " s o c i e t i e s , c a l l i n g them t h e " f i r s t a f f l u e n t s o c i e t y " , a c c o m p l i s h i n g l e s s t h a n f o u r h o u r work d a y s ! (8) A t t h i s p o i n t , i n c r d e r t o p a r t f rom t h e i n a d e q u a c i e s o f t h e a b o v e t e r m i n o l o g y w h i c h e s s e n t i a l l y r e p r e s e n t s a l i n g u i s t i c a l e x t e n s i o n o f t h e d o m i n a n t i d e o l o g y ( 9 ) , and t o g i v e g r e a t e r l a t i t u d e t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n t means o f e x p l o i t a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r o r i t s " a r t i c u l a t i o n " , t h e c o n c e p t o f mode o f p r o d u c t i o n i s i n t r o d u c e d t o f o c u s p r o p e r l y on t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r . The c o n c e p t of mode o f p r o d u c t i o n , u s e d i n an a h i s t o r i c a l s e n s e as i m p l i e d by Aiain (1973) ( 1 0 ) , w i l l s e r v e e s s e n t i a l l y a s a f r a m e w o r k f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the c a p i t a l i s t and p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m s and t o p o i n t o u t t h e - 1 9 -c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and f e a t u r e s of the l a t t e r . F i r s t , a reminder t h a t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f o r m a t i o n s a re c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the modes of p r o d u c t i o n they p o s s e s s . I n t u r n , a mode of p r o d u c t i o n i s d e f i n e d as: The i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n of f o r c e s of p r o d u c t i o n and r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n , the former b e i n g made up of t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n of the i n s t r u m e n t s , means and t e c h n i q u e s of p r o d u c t i o n a l o n g w i t h t h e men who m o b i l i s e t h o s e i n s t r u m e n t s , w h i l e the l a t t e r s i g n i f i e s the r e l a t i o n s of ownership upon the means of p r o d u c t i o n and e f f e c t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n and consumption of m a t e r i a l goods. (11) There a r e s e v e r a l t y p e s o f p r e - c a p i t a l i s t modes o f p r o d u c t i o n which have been d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the realm of " p r i m i t i v e " communities t h a t have e x i s t e d and s t i l l e x i s t today. Marx had o n l y i d e n t i f i e d t h e p r o g r e s s i o n of the d i f f e r e n t modes of p r o d u c t i o n from t h r e e b a s i c p r e - c a p i t a l i s t modes: the " p r i m i t i v e " communal, the a s i a t i c and the f e u d a l which l e a d up t o t h e i r e r a d i c a t i o n t o form t h e c a p i t a l i s t mode o f p r o d u c t i o n . H i s work on p r e - c a p i t a l i s t systems was very l i m i t e d s i n c e he was much more concerned w i t h the d e m o n s t r a t i o n of t h e h i s t o r i c i t y of c a p i t a l i s m {which was c o n s e q u e n t l y a l i e n t o the l o g i c of the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t mode as w e l l ) . Hence, o t h e r contemporary a u t h o r s s u c h as DuprS and Hey (1968) , T e r r a y (1968) and M e i i l a s s o u x (1977) have pursued t h e e s s e n t i a l works of Marx t o e l a b o r a t e a more e x t e n s i v e t y p o l o g y of d i f f e r e n t p r e - c a p i t a l i s t f o r m a t i o n s aad t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n a l a s p e c t s . (12) The s p e c i f i c s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f o r m a t i o n , which has been made t h e f o c u s of t h i s s t u d y — p r e - c a p i t a l i s t a g r i c u l t u r a l s e l f - s u s t a i n i a g f o r m a t i o n s ( P A S F ) — was o r i g i n a l l y d e f i n e d by M e i l l a s s o u x i n h i s works on the Gouro t r i b e i n 196 4. (13) - 2 0 -The PASF c o n s i s t s c f two t y p e s o f modes o f p r o d u c t i o n w i t h i n i t s s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n : (1) t h e communal mode and (2) t h e t r i b u t a r y mode. The c o m b i n a t i o n o f b o t h modes w h i c h a r e f o u n d t o c o - e x i s t i n B A S F ' s a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e f o l l o w i n g common f e a t u r e s o f many p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m s as p o i n t e d o u t b y Amiri ( 1 9 7 3 ) : (1) t h e d o m i n a t i o n o f e i t h e r t h e communal c r t r i b u t a r y mode o f p r o d u c t i o n (2) t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a s i m p l e m a r k e t r e l a t i o n s h i p i n l i m i t e d s p h e r e s o f c i r c u l a t i o n i . e . , r e c i p r o c i t y and r e d i s t r i b u t i o n (3) t h e e x i s t e n c e o f l o n g d i s t a n c e m a r k e t r e l a t i o n s i . e . , t r a n s a c t i o n s w i t h t h e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r a t t h e f r i n g e . (14) T h e f u n d a m e n t a l d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e communal and the t r i b u t a r y mode of p r o d u c t i o n i s t h a t t h e l a t t e r i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a c l e a r c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n w h i c h s e p a r a t e s t h e r e l a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p e a s a n t c o m m u n i t y and t h e r u l i n g c l a s s w h i c h i n t a r n m o n o p o l i s e s t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n o f t h e s o c i e t y and r e c e i v e s t r i b u t e s f rom t h e p e a s a n t c o m m u n i t y . I n G u i n e a - B i s s a u , t h e F u l a n i Moslem t r i b e w o u l d be a c a s e i n p o i n t . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e p r i m i t i v e communal mode c o n s i s t s o f a c l a s s l e s s k i n s h i p r e l a t i o n s h i p and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t r i b u t e i s b a s e d on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s ( k i n s h i p ) o r on a c o l l e c t i v e b a s i s ( l i n e a g e : c l a n o r v i l l a g e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n ) . The e x i s t e n c e o f m a r k e t e x c h a n g e i s much more l i m i t e d i n t h e c o m m u n a l mode t h a n t h e t r i b u t a r y mode a l t h o u g h b o t h a r e t r a n s a c t e d a t t h e f r i n g e o f t h e c o m m u n i t y a n d n o t w i t h i n . A f i n a l d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n b o t h modes i s t h a t t h e communal mode, l a n d i s n e c e s s a r i l y u n d e r communal o w n e r s h i p w h e r e a s i n t h e t r i b u t a r y mode , l a n d o w n e r s h i p i s r e l a t e d to p o l i t i c a l - r e l i g o u s s p h e r e s . I n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e c a s e s t u d y , t h e E i j a g o s a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e d o m i n a n c e o f t h e communal mode w i t h i n P A S F . I I I . GENERAL F E A T U R E S M D C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S OF P R E - C A P I T A L I S T S£L£-MSTA.I1ISS_£Q&M1IPN^________^__I.^^^___.:,_^.• The g e n e r a l f e a t u r e s c f t h e PASF a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s i x p o i n t s and c o m p a r e d w i t h t h o s e o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m . PASF (1) Man i s t h e m a j o r s o u r c e o f e n e r g y (2) L a n d i s a f u n d a m e n t a l means o f p r o d u c t i o n (3) P r o d u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a r e i m m e d i a t e (4) E x c h a n g e w i t h i n t h e s y s t e m i s b a s e d on u s e - v a l u e (5) L a n d p r o p e r t y i s u n d e r communal o w n e r s h i p (6) Work o r g a n i s a t i o n i s d e t e r m i n e d by k i n s h i p and l i n e a g e r u l e s C a p i t a l i s t S y s t e m F o s s i l f u e l i s t h e ma jor s o u r c e o f e n e r g y M a c h i n e s a n d i n d u s t r i e s a r e t h e f u n d a m e n t a l means P r o d u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a r e m a n u f a c t u r e d a n d s p e c i a l i s e d E x c h a n g e - v a l u e i s d o m i n a n t w i t h i n t h e s y s t e m L a n d i s u n d e r p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p i o r k o r g a n i s a t i o n i s d e t e r m i n e d by m e r i t The most i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f PASF i s e x p r e s s e d by t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e communa l c u l t i v a t o r t o t h e l a n d . The -22-d i s t r i b u t i o n of the fundamental means of p r o d u c t i o n i s made a c c o r d i n g t o t h e needs and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the e l i g i b l e kinsmen. Land i s u s u a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o a l l e l i g i b l e kinsmen: from each a c c o r d i n g to h i s s t a t u s o b l i g a t i o n s i n the s o c i a l system, f o each a c c o r d i n g t o h i s r i g h t s i n t h a t system. (15) The p r i n c i p a l economic a c t i v i t y i n a l l PASF i s a g r i c u l t u r e . I t i s commonly complemented by o t h e r forms of a c t i v i t i e s such as f i s h i n g , h u n t i n g , g a t h e r i n g , or p e t t y commodity p r o d u c t i o n . The l a t t e r a c t i v i t y c o n s i s t s of those goods exchanged a t the f r i n g e . For t h e purpose of t h i s s t u d y the PASF a g r i c u l t u r a l system i s r e f e r r e d to as T r a d i t i o n a l Domestic A g r i c u l t u r e and d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : A p r o d u c t i o n system which c o n s i s t s of a c o m b i n a t i o n of s i m p l e a g r i c u l t u r a l t e c h n i q u e s and food g a t h e r i n g p r a c t i c e s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a low l e v e l of p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s . Communal ownership of the l a n d and h i g h p r o d u c t i v i t y per u n i t l a b o u r i n p u t a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e system. The whole i s i n t e g r a t e d w i t h i n a c l a s s l e s s s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and i t e n a b l e s t h e s o c i a l u n i t ( v i l l a g e community) to reproduce i t s e l f by p r o d u c i n g both b i o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l consumption goods. I n g e n e r a l , the v i l l a g e community consumes the g r e a t e r m a j o r i t y of i t s own p r o d u c t i o n w h i l e f o o d exchange i s not exempt as s u r p l u s e s do e x i s t a t c e r t a i n p e r i o d s . Whenever l a n d i s abundant and t h e r e i s a low p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y , t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n system u s u a l l y tends to m i n i m i z e l a b o u r t e c h n i q u e s r e s t i n g on the s e l f - r e n e w i n g c a p a c i t i e s of n a t u r e . Hence, the amount of c a l o r i e s i n v e s t e d i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n system i s o f t e n much l e s s than t h e s e c o l l e c t e d from h a r v e s t . ...beaucoup de s o c i e t e s d i t e s " p r i m i t i v e s " o b t i e n n e n t c i n q a c i n g u a n t e c a l o r i e s a l i m e n t a i r e par c a l o r i e i n v e s t i e dans l a p r o d u c t i o n a g r i c o l e . (16) -23-S l a s h and b u r n f a l l o w c u l t i v a t i o n i s a c l a s s i c example o f a t y p e o f t r a d i t i o n a l d o m e s t i c a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i s e s h i g h o u t p u t p e r u n i t l a b o u r . The B i j a g o s i n S u i n e a - B i s s a u c o n t i n u e to p r a c t i c e s u c h c u l t i v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s on a r o t a t i o n a l b a s i s , r e t u r n i n g t o t h e same l a n d p a r c e l a f t e r a f i v e y e a r f a l l o w p e r i o d . T h e r e a r e many " i n s i d e " a n d " o u t s i d e " f a c t o r s w h i c h c o u l d i m p o s e a t r a n s i t i o n c r c h a n g e i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n s y s t e m of a v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t y l i v i n g w i t h i n a PASF t h a t a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a n d a v a i l a b i l i t y . In t h e c a s e o f s l a s h a n d b u r n f a l l o w c u l t i v a t i o n , t h e c r u c i a l l i m i t i n g f a c t c r s w h i c h c o u l d a l t e r s u c h a p o s i t i v e u t i l i s a t i o n o £ t h e t r o p i c a l f o r e s t s o i l s a r e " i n s i d e " f a c t o r s , s u c h a s t h e i n c r e a s e i n d e m o g r a p h i c p r e s s u r e , c r " o u t s i d e " f a c t o r s , s u c h a s t h e c o m p e t i t i v e u s e o f l a n d o r l a b o u r . W h i c h e v e r o c c u r s , t h e e f f e c t g e n e r a l l y l e a d s to e i t h e r (1) a s h o r t e r f a l l o w p e r i o d i n t h e r o t a t i o n o r (2) e x t e n s i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n o n t o l e s s f e r t i l e l a n d s . I n b o t h c a s e s , t h e i m p a c t i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e o v e r a l l l o s s o f n a t u r a l s o i l f e r t i l i t y by e i t h e r a more i n t e n s i v e use of a p r o p o r t i o n a l l y s m a l l e r l a n d a r e a whose n a t u r a l f e r t i l i t y n a t u r e does n o t h a v e t h e t i m e t o renew o r as a r e s u l t o f p o o r e r s o i l a v a i l a b i l i t y i n t h e e x t e n s i v e a r e a s . H e n c e , t h e i n c a p a b i l i t y t o r e l y on t h e s e l f - r e n e w i n g c a p a c i t i e s o f n a t u r e and t h e e v e n t u a l l o s s o f s o i l f e r t i l i t y r e s u l t s i n t h e r e d u c t i o n o f c r o p y i e l d w h i c h u l t i m a t e l y u n d e r m i n e s t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e s o c i a l u n i t t o p e r p e t r a t e a s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g p r o d u c t i o n s y s t e m . B a s i c a l l y , t h e r e a r e t h r e e o p t i o n s w h i c h a r e l e f t open t o t h e v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t y o f the PASF w h e n e v e r t h e r e i s l o s s o f s o i l f e r t i l i t y e i t h e r by b e i n g f o r c e d i n t o l e s s f e r t i l e l a n d or by r e d u c e d l a n d a v a i l a b i l i t y ; (1) i t c o u l d i n c r e a s e u n i t l a b o u r p e r o u t p u t and c o n t i n u e t o p r a c t i c e t h e same c u l t i v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s on p o o r e r s o i l s . (2) i t c o u l d a d o p t new p r a c t i c e s a n d i n n o v a t i o n s to r e g a i n a s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g l e v e l e q u a l t o b e f o r e t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s . (3) i t c o u l d a l t e r i t s s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t o d e p e n d more on t h e m a r k e t e x c h a n g e s e c t o r a n d t h e r e b y t r a n s f o r m i t s r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n and r e v e r t t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c a s h c r o p s t c g a i n money and t h e n p u r c h a s e t h e f o o d d e f i c i t . C h a p t e r t h r e e w i l l e x a m i n e t h e s t r u c t u r a l b a r r i e r s o f the d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s and i t s d y n a m i c s w h i c h a f f e c t t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f o p t i o n t w o . B * . THE S O C I A L - A N D ECONOMIC ORGANIZATION OF _PASF K i n s h i p r e l a t i o n s d o m i n a t e b o t h t h e s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c o r g a n i z a t i o n o f PASF a d j u n c t t o r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s . T h e s e t h r e e e l e m e n t s c o m b i n e a s m a j o r f o r m s o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l of t h e p r o d u c t i o n s y s t e m . T h e s o c i a l d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r (an a g e / s e x l a b o u r r u l e ) i s i n t r i c a t e l y l i n k e d t o the k i n s h i p and l i n e a g e s y s t e m . P r o d u c t i o n u n i t s a r e c o m p o s e d o f e i t h e r work t e a m s f r o m d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s o f f a m i l i e s a r r a n g e d i n s i m p l e o r c o m p l e x c o - o p e r a t i o n , o r o f t h e u n i o n o f s e v e r a l work t e a m s . An a g e d - d e t e r m i n e d s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y d e l i m i t s a s t r a t a b e t w e e n t h e p r o d u c e r s and t h e n o n - p r o d u c e r s . T h e s e n i o r i t y o f the -25-a l d e r s a s s u r e s them the p r i v i l e g e s o f r e c e i v i n g " s o c i a l l y g u a r a n t e e d s u b s i s t e n c e " f r o m t h e j u n i o r s . H e n c e , t h e j u n i o r s a r e s u b j e c t t o t h e r u l e s o f s o c i e t y t o p r o v i d e t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t c t h e i r v a r i a b l e l e v e l o f s t a t u s . O f t e n d i f f e r e n t age g r o u p s a r e d e s i g n a t e d t o a c c o m p l i s h s p e c i f i c work t a s k s . T h e r e a r e t h r e e f u n d a m e n t a l m e c h a n i s m s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e t h e t r a n s a c t i o n o f f a c t o r s a n d p r o d u c t s t h a t p r e v a i l i n p c e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s a s w e l l a s i n PASF. T h e i r r e s p e c t i v e i m p o r t a n c e v a r i e s w i t h i n t h e d i f f e r e n t p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n . .These i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g s o c i o - e c o n o m i c r u l e s ; (1) r e c i p r o c i t y , (2) r e d i s t r i b u t i o n and (3) m a r k e t e x c h a n g e . S i n c e t h e r e i s t h e d o m i n a n c e o f u s e - v a l u e w i t h i n p r e - c a p i t a l i s t e x c h a n g e m e c h a n i s m s , t h e means o f t r a n s a c t i o n d i f f e r g r e a t l y f r o m t h e e x c h a n g e - v a l u e b a s i s o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m w h i c h i s i n t u r n , g u i d e ! by t h e l a w o f u n i v e r s a l s c a r c i t y , n o n - e x i s t a n t i n p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s . The t h r e s b a s i c s c c i o - e c o n o m i c r u l e s h a v e been d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s by P o l a n y i (1968) ; (1) r e c i p r o c i t y c o n s i s t s o f an " o b l i g a t o r y " g i f t a n d c o u n t e r g i f t g i v i n g b e t w e e n p e r s o n s w h i c h s t a n d i n some s o c i a l l y d e f i n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p t o one a n o t h e r ; (2) r e d i s t r i b u t i o n e n t a i l s a l s o " o b l i g a t o r y " payment o f m a t e r i a l i t e r c s , money o b j e c t s , o r l a b o r s e r v i c e s t o some l o c a l l y r e c o g n i z e d c e n t e r , u s u a l l y a k i n g , c h i e f o r p r i e s t who a l l o c a t e s a p o r t i o n o f what he r e c e i v e s t o p r o v i d e c o mmunity s e r v i c e s — c e r e m o n i a l s , r i t u a l s , f e a s t s , e t c e t e r a ; and f i n a l l y (3) M a r k e t e x c h a n g e , u n l i k e t h e a b o v e , i s a p e c u l i a r i t e m w h i c h i s u s u a l l y c o n f i n e d t o t h e f r i n g e o f t h e c o m m u n i t y w h e n e v e r p e r i p h e r a l c o n t a c t i s made o u t s i d e t h e v i l l a g e c o mmunity and h a s s t a r t e d • t o i m p o s e t h e n e s i f o r m o n e t a r i z e d e c o n o m i e s . (17) - 2 6 -C . THE I N T E R B E L A T I 0 N SHIP OF T H E P R E - C A P I T A L I S T AND C A P I T A L I S T SJ_STE_S___________ : . , • • -T h e m a r k e t e x c h a n g e e c o n o m i c r u l e i s t h e most i n p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n w i t h i n t h e d y n a m i c s o f the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t a n d c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m s , b r i d g i n g t h e j u n c t i o n batween b o t h s e c t o r s a n c t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e e c o n o m i e s ; n o n - m o n e t a r y a n d m o n e t a r y . E a r l y s t a g e p e r i p h e r a l c o n t a c t e x p o s e s the v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t y t o t h e p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t m a r k e t s y s t e m w h i c h i s i n c o m p l e t e C D n t r a d i c t i o n w i t h " r e c i p r o c a l a n d r e d i s t r i b u t a t i v e " p r i m i t i v e e c o n o m i e s . A s T e m p l e (1982) r e m a r k s : On s a i t b i e n que p o u r un s y s t e m e s o c i a l r e "g i p a r l a r e c i p r o c i t y , l a p u i s s a n c e s ' e x p r i m e t r a d i t i o n n e l l e m e n t p a r l e p r e s t i g e , c ' e s t - a - d i r e l a c a p a c i t y de r e d i s t r i b u t i o n ou e n c o r e , au n i v e a u des r e l a t i o n s e M e " m e n t a i r e s de l a l i b e r a t i o n du d o n . D a n s l e s y s t e m e de l ' e " c h a n g e o c c i d e n t a l , l e p o u v o i r a , au c o n t r a i r e , p o u r b a s e I ' a c c u m u l a t i o n . (18) At f i r s t c o n t a c t , c a s h - e a r n i n g s made f r o m t h e e x c h a n g e o f s u r p l u s c o m m o d i t i e s f o r " e l i t e g o o d s " by t h e e l d e r s o r " d i s c r e t i o n a r y m a t e r i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s " m e n t i o n e d by A r r i g h i (1968) i s g e n e r a l l y met by a d i s c r e t e i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e p r o d u c t w i t h i n t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r . T h u s , t h e r e i s a r e c i p r o c i t y o r r e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n s i d e the s o c i e t y w h i l e e x c h a n g e i s t r a n s a c t e d and s e p a r a t e s b e t w e e n t h e two l e v e l s o f s o c i e t y . A s M e i l l a s s o u x (1982) d i s c u s s e s i n r e g a r d s t o c a s h - e a r n i n g a n d m a r k e t e x c h a n g e ; i f no t t a k e n t o o f a r , i t u s u a l l y s e r v e s t o r e i n f o r c e the s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g f o r m a t i o n s , a o w e v e r , as e x p l a i n e d l a t e r i n c h a p t e r t h r e e , g r e a t e r i n t e g r a t i o n -27-w i t h i n t h e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r and the e n s u i n g a t t r a c t i o n of l a b o u r power from the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r t o i n c r e a s e c a s h - e a r n i n g commences a p r o c e s s of d i s i n t e g r a t i o n which p o t e n t i a l l y d e s t a b i l i s e s t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g f o r m a t i o n s and commences a p r o c e s s which w i l l be r e f e r e d to l a t e r on as con s e r va t i o n - D i s s o l u t i o n • phenomenon; whereby t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t system i s p a r a d o x i c a l l y s t a t e d to be d e s t r o y e d and m a i n t a i n e d by the dominant c a p i t a l i s t system's purpose and needs. F i n a l l y , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l l e v e l s o f c a p i t a l i s t i n t e g r a t i o n i a t o p r e - c a p i t a l i s t systems. As t h e c a p i t a l i s t system i n c r e a s e s i t s need of t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r and the l a t t e r becomes more accustomed t o market exchange and t h e monetary economy, we can d i s t i n g u i s h t h r e e d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of p r e - c a p i t a l i s t t r a d i t i o n a l d o m e s t i c a g r i c u l t u r e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e i n t e g r a t i o n of the c a p i t a l i s t system w i t h i n the v i l l a g e community as modelled on the c a t e g o r i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s Bchannan and D a l t o n (1962) make of p r i m i t i v e economies. (1) P r e - c a p i t a l i s t T r a d i t i o n a l Domestic A g r i c u l t u r e ( s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g ) w i t h o u t market exchange e x p o r t - c r o p p r o d u c t i o n . (2) P r e - c a p i t a l i s t T r a d i t i o n a l Domestic A g r i c u l t u r e ( s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g ) w i t h market exchange e x p o r t - c r o p p r o d u c t i o n f o r i n t e r n a l t r a d e o n l y i . e . . K o l a n u t s , t o b a c c o , e t c e t e r a . (3) P r e - c a p i t a l i s t T r a d i t i o n a l Domestic A g r i c u l t u r e (not s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g ) w i t h market exchange e x p o r t - c r o p p r o d u c t i o n i n t e g r a t e d w i t h i n t h e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r i . e . , p e t t y c u l t i v a t i o n of f r u i t s , market gardens, e t c e t e r a . The next s e c t i o n w i l l examine the p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n of PASF w i t h i n t h e contemporary A f r i c a n s o c i e t y by d e f i n i n g a dynamic - 2 8 -m o d e l o f t h a c u r r e n t West A f r i c a n s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n p r e v a l e n t i n most n a t i o n - s t a t e s . I V . THE BE LAT IONS HIP OF T H E P . B E - C A P I T A L I S T AND C A P I T A L I S T S Y S T E M S : A D E F I N I T I O N OF A DYNAMIC MODEL OF A S E S T -Mfilg^M i f gg-I-gll-.:-..:.----———J • T h e p r e s e n t m i l e s t o n e i n West A f r i c a ' s d e v e l o p m e n t , as r e f e r r e d t o by H a r t ( 1 9 8 2 ) , a s t h e s u c c e s s o r s t a t e p e r i o d i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a v a s t m o s a i c o f i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n - s t a t e s . S e v e r a l a u t h o r s h a v e c o n s o r t e d t o f i r s t c h a r a c t e r i s e e a c h n a t i o n as composed o f " d u a l i s t i c " s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n . E s s e n t i a l l y , t h i s h a d d e v e l o p e d b e c a u s e o f t h e d i s t o r t i o n i n c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e c o l o n i a l p e r i o d . A s e p a r a t e d o u b l e p r o d u c t i o n r e l a t i o n was t h e n i n t r o d u c e d t o be d e p i c t e d a s t h e g r a f t i n g o f a modern w o r l d - c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m o n t o the t r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n s o c i e t y , w h e r e b y a d i c h o t o m o u s d i s t i n c t i o n became t h e norm f o r t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s e s o c i e t i e s . The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p o s t - i n d e p e n d e n t s t a t e s o c i e t i e s were d i v i d e d i n t o two s e p a r a t e s e c t o r s : (1) a c e n t r a l l y c o n t r o l l e d u r b a n c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r i n c l u d i n g a s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e made up o f a n e w l y e m e r g e d b l a c k r u l i n g c l a s s , t h e r e m n a n t s o f t h e c o l o n i a l i s t n a t i o n a l a n d b u r e a u c r a t i c b o u r g e o i s i e and a s m a l l w o r k i n g c l a s s . (2) T h e g r e a t e r p o r t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n was f o u n d i n the r u r a l n o n - c a p i t a l i s t / p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r a t o m i s e d i n t o s e v e r a l v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t i e s g e n e r a l l y e n g a g e d i n communal o r p e a s a n t f a r m i n g . Such a s t a t i c d e s c r i p t i o n as t h e a b o v e i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r m s o f a m o d e l o f t h e A f r i c a n s o c i e t y w i t h t h e c u r r e n t d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s . Nc more a r e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a n d the modern -29-s e c t o r or the c a p i t a l i s t and p r e - c a p i t a l i s t systems segregated from each e t h e r . A more dynamic model of the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d i n terms cf t h e c o - e x i s t e n c e of t h e two systems o r t h e f u s i o n of two d i f f e r e n t l o g i c s . The dynamic model cf the c o - e x i s t e n c e of the two systems i s r e f l e c t e d i n g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n i n many T h i r d World co u n t r i e s ; ...a c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r d e e p l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the i n t e r n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l i s t economy and a n o n - c a p i t a l i s t mode of p r o d u c t i o n i n which the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e two s e c t o r s i s p r i m a r i l y a r e s p o n s e t o the pace o f e x p a n s i o n of the c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r . (19) S u b s e q u e n t l y , the n o n - c a p i t a l i s t or p r e - c a p i t a l i s t system i s seen as s u b o r d i n a t e t o the dominant c a p i t a l i s t system. At p r e s e n t , the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r makes up t h e l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n West A f r i c a n s t a t e s . However, as i f i s n o t i c e d even w i t h i n t h e most remote g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s , no l o n g e r a re we t o then r e f e r t o t h e i r i s o l a t i o n from " c i v i l i s a t i o n " , which i s r a p i d l y e n c r o a c h i n g onto t h e i r t e r r i t o r y . aence, p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y b e i n g a f f e c t e d by the e x p a n s i o n of t h e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r which i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e w i d e r p o l i t i c a l and economic i n f l u e n c e s of the urban dominant c l a s s e s . To v a r i o u s d e g r e e s , the n a t i o n a l i s t g o a l s o f the u r b a n - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o i n t e g r a t e t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r i n o r d e r t o i n c o r p o r a t e the m a j o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n i n t o the n a t i o n a l market system. Hence, i t i s sug g e s t e d i n t h i s work t h a t the i m p o s i t i o n of t r a n s i s t i o n a l development c o u l d a l s o be c o n c u r r e n t l y p o s i n g the major b a r r i e r s to the development of t r a d i t i o n a l domestic a g r i c u l t u r e i n the -30-p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r . At f i r s t hand, the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the problem of f o o d s h o r t a g e and r u r a l p o v e r t y i s i n t e r n a l l y d e termined w i t h i n the n a t i o n a l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e may seem p a r a d o x i c a l . However, as w i l l be e x p l a i n e d l a t e r on, the f i r s t a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f the c a u s a t i o n f o r the underdevelopment of p r e - c a p i t a l i s t a g r i c u l t u r e i s i n g r e a t e r p a r t , a consequence o f the i n t e r n a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of c l a s s r e l a t i o n s which oppose t r a d i t i o n a l r u l e i n the r u r a l a r e a s to t h e contemporary p o l i t i c a l r u l e based i n t h e u r b a n - c a p i t a l i s t i n t e g r a t e d c o r e . I n t u r n , t h e s e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s a r e generated by t h e s e v e r a l c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s t h a t s u b s i s t w i t h i n the c o - e x i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s of b o t h systems o f p r o d u c t i o n . In o r d e r t o b e t t e r e x p r e s s th e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s and the o r i g i n s o f t h e i n t e r n a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s between t h e two systems, the study w i l l draw i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l from the h o l i s t i c s t r u c t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e of W a l l e r s t e i n ' s world-system approach (20) and t h e r e f o r e c o n d u c t an i n v e s t i g a t i o n . In t h i s manner he remarks, . . . t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i n t e r n a l c l a s s c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and p a r t i c u l a r s t r u g g l e s of a p a r t i c u l a r s t a t e we must f i r s t s i t u a t e i t i n the world-economy. He can t h e n understand the ways which v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l t h r u s t s may be e f f o r t s t o a l t e r o r p r e s e r v e a p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the world-economy which i s t o the advantage or d i s a d v a n t a g e of p a r t i c u l a r groups l o c a t e d w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r s t a t e . (21) V. CLASS CONTRADICTION BETKEEN THE PRE-CAPITALIST SECTOR AND I f i S - C 4 ! ^ ? 4 L I S j T _ 5 E ^ As mentioned e a r l i e r , the c a p i t a l i s t w o r l d economy founded i t s base on the A f r i c a n c o n t i n e n t d u r i n g the c o l o n i a l e r a . The - 3 1 -s u c c e s s o r s t a t e s i n h e r i t e d a s t r u c t u r a l l e g a c y w h i c h h a d a l r e a d y p r e s e t s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c l i n k s w i t h t h e m e t r o p o l i s . The e m e r g e n c e o f a new b l a c k r u l i n g c l a s s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e r e f o r e m e r e l y a t r a n s f e r o f power f r o m t h e h a n d s o f t h e w h i t e c o l o n i a l i s t t o t h e i n d i g e n o u s b l a c k r u l i n g c l a s s . ( G u i n e a - B i s s a u was one e x c e p t i o n i n R e s t A f r i c a t h a t n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e u s e o f f o r c e t o a c h i e v e i n d e p e n d e n c e ) . P a t t e r n s o f t r a d e s u c c e e d e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e t r a n s f e r a n d c o n t i g u o u s l y , f o r e i g n i n v e s t m e n t h e l p e d t o c o n t i n u e t h e p r o c e s s o f m a r k e t e x p a n s i o n f o r t h e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r w i t h i n a n d a b r o a d . I n s h o c t , t h e p e r i o d of n e o - c o l o n i a l i s m was b o r n and t h e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r o f t h e n a t i o n a l c o m m e r c i a l e x p o r t e c o n o m i e s became more d e e p l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l i s t economy, t h e r e f o r e , i n c r e a s i n g i t s d e p e n d e n c y on t h e w o r l d - c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m . The hegemony of t h e n a t i o n a l o r b u r e a u c r a t i c b o u r g e o i s i e c o u p l e d w i t h t h e monopoly c f power o f a m i n o r i t y u r b a n - r u l i n g e l i t e ( o f t e n c o m p r i s e d o f the same e l e m e n t s ) were t h e c o r n e r s t o n e s w h i c h l e d t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f a p r i v i l e g e d u r b a n m i n o r i t y w h i c h a s s o c i a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h t h e p u r s u i t o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l - e x p o r t e n t e r p r i s e s l e f t b e h i n d by t h e i r c o l o n i a l p r e d e c e s s o r s . The s t a t e became, t h e r e f o r e , t h e f o c u s o f a d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s w h i c h s u p p o r t e d c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n w h i l e i t c o n t i n u e d t o p r o v o k e f i s c a l i n d e b t n e s s , w h i l e a l s o g e n e r a t i n g g r e a t e r d i s p a r i t i e s b e t w e e n t h e r u r a l and u r b a n s e c t o r s , i . e . t h e c a p i t a l i s t a nd p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m s . A r e m i n d e r h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s e v e r a l r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s o r t r i b e s w h i c h , b e c a u s e o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , e s t a b l i s h e d e a s i e r a l l i a n c e s w i t h t h e -32-urban-based c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r , and were t h e r e f o r e very much f a v o u r e d i a e a r l y and even r e c e n t development. For example, the F a l a n i Moslems i n G u i n e a - B i s s a u , even though they h o l d no d i s t i n c t powar monopoly w i t h i n the s t a t e a p p a r a t u s , they are s t i l l p r i v i l e g e d p a r t i c i p a n t s because o f t h e i r t o t a l committment to t h e r e l i g i o u s d e t e r m i n a n t s to t h e c o m m e r c i a l - e x p o r t v e n t u r e s dominated by the c a p i t a l i s t system. B e s i d e s t h e p r e v a i l i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s which were e s t a b l i s h e d under the c o l o n i a l i s t p e r i o d and t r a n s p o r t e d i n t o the n a o - c o l o n i a l i s t p e r i o d , t r a n s n a t i o n a l c o n t i n u e d t o s e a r c h f o r new a l l i a n c e s w i t h i n d i g e n o u s urban and r u r a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s . In s o c i a l i s t - o r i e n t e d s t a t e s , i t i s the b u r e a u c r a t i c b o u r g e o i s i e which becomes the t a r g e t of. such a l l i a n c e s under the a u s p i c e s of t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l development a g e n c i e s i n most c a s e s . In both c a s e s , such a l l i a n c e s s u c c e s s f u l l y i m p l a n t the dominant i d e o l o g y of t h e n o t i o n of development which i n c l u d e s the i m p o s i t i o n of (1) c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n r e l a t i o n s , (2) c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , and (3) h i g h t e c h n o l o g y i n n o v a t i o n s . As Corm (1978) remarks, the i d e o l o g i c a l e x p o r t o f the above n o t i o n of development was e a s i l y a c c o m p l i s h e d by the adherence to such n o t i o n s by a " w e s t e r n educated" i n t e l l i g e n s i a t u r n e d r u l i n g e l i t e . (2 2) F i n a l l y , the o r i g i n s o f the i n t e r n a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s are more s u i t a b l y e x p r e s s e d w i t h i n the n o t i o n o f c l a s s c o n f l i c t (even though p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s are c l a s s l e s s , t hey n e v e r t h e l e s s r e p r e s e n t a c o h e s i v e c l a s s group w i t h s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t s which d i f f e r from t h o s e o f the c a p i t a l i s t i n t e g r a t e d urban c l a s s e s ) . The c l a s s c o n f l i c t which s u b s i s t s w i t h i n the d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n s i s b e t t e r d e s i g n a t e d by the o p p o s i t i o n which s e p a r a t e s t h e u r b a n - b a s e d c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r and t h e r u r a l p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r . The f o r m e r i s a c o n f l i c t b e c a u s e i t c o n t i n u e s t o engage L i p r o s p e c t s - - d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s — t o i n c r e a s e c a p i t a l i s t a c c u m u l a t i o n t o w h i c h t h e r u l i n g e l i t e a n d t h e n a t i o n a l b o u r g e o i s i e a r e i n t e r e s t e d and p r i v i l e g e d p a r t i e s , w h i l e o f t e n u n d e r m i n i n g t h e l a t t e r by t u r n i n g i t s members i n t o d e p e n d e n t p r o l e t a r i a n s w i t h o u t a l w a y s r e c e i v i n g f u l l b e n e f i t f r o m t h e t r a n s f e r . The d o m i n a n c e and c o n t r o l o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r by way o f t h e m o n o p o l i z a t i o n o f t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h a r e i n v e s t e d i n t h e c a p i t a l i s t i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r , d i v e r t s t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t i n t o t h e u r b a n s e c t o r w h i l e i t d e p e n d s on t h e a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f s u r p l u s e s and t h e e x p r o p r i a t i o n o f l a b o u r f r o m t h e r u r a l s e c t o r . The l a t t e r s e c t o r g e n e r a l l y s u c c u m b s t o t h e d e n a t u r e d s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t h r o u g h what i s e x p l a i n e d i n c h a p t e r t h r e e as a p r o c e s s o f c o n s e r v a t i o n - d i s s o l u t i o n , whereby t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m i s m a i n t a i n e d a n d u n d e r m i n e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , we n o t e t h a t t h e t r a n s i t i o n i n t o d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t s e e k s t o w i d e n t h e c a p i t a l i s t r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n and i n c r e a s e a l a b o u r f o r c e f r o m w h i c h a s u r p l u s - v a l u e c a n be e x t r a c t e d as B r a d b y (1975) p o i n t s o u t , i m p l i e s t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t economy and t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h i t r e p r e s e n t s . Hence, i t i s c l e a r t h a t i n t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e b a r r i e r s t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t c f p r e - c a p i t a l i s t t r a d i t i o n a l d o m e s t i c a g r i c u l t u r e , we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h t h e a c t i o n s o f a s p e c i f i c s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n s e e k i n g t o p r e s e r v e i t s e l f f r o m t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f t r a n s i t i o n a s w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n c h a p t e r t h r e e u n d e r t h e -34-r e f e r e n c e o f t h e p r o c e s s of p r e s e r v a t i o n and d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . C l a s t c a s (1974) a l s o s t r e s s e s t h e n o t i o n o f an i m p o s i t i o n i n c o n t r a s t t o a n e e d e d and w i l l f u l l c h a n g e f o r m o d e r n i z a t i o n t h a t o c c u r s i n t h i s c a s e when he s t a t e s : C ' e s t b i e n une i m p c s i t i c n de l a t r a n s i t i o n e t non l e b e s o i n t r a n s i t i o n n e l g u i i m p o s e l a r e c h e r c h e de t e c h n i q u e e t s t r a t e g i e ou a p p r c c h e d * i n t e g r a t i o n d a n s une e'conomie de marche". I I d o i t e t r e c l a i r q u ' i l y a f o r c e e x t e r i e u r g u i commands l e c h a n g e n e n t m a i s que l e f o n d du phenomene c ' e s t une n o u v e l l e f o r m e d ' e x p l o i t a t i o n g u i se p a s s e r a s u r une s o c i e t e a l i e n s e t p r o b a b l e m e n t p o s s i b l e p e r t e de c u l t u r e . (23) I n s h o r t , t h e ma i n a r g u m e n t s u p p o r t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t f o r b e n e f i t t o a c c r u e t o b o t h t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s and t o e l i m i n a t e t h e n a t i o n a l f o o d s h o r t a g e s i n d e v e l o p i n g A f r i c a n n a t i o n s , i t i s n e c e s s r y t h a t p r e - c a p i t a l i s t t r a d i t i o n a l d o m e s t i c a g r i c u l t u r e n o t be c h a n g e d t o s u i t t h e modern c a p i t a l i s t a g r i c u l t u r e , b u t i n c o n t r a s t , t o s e e k t o p r o m o t e t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t would a c c o m o d a t e a l e g i t i m a t e p r o d u c t i o n s y s t e m i n t o a b r o a d e r s t r u c t u r a l s y s t e m w i t h o u t t h e l a t t e r c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m h a v i n g t o b l o c k i t s own o p p o r t u n i t e s f o r f e a r o f l o s s o f s e l f - r e l i a n c e . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s c l a i m e d t h a t t h e o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e i n e l i m i n a t i n g t h e b a r r i e r s t o a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n p c e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s s h o u l d f o l l o w t h e r e m a r k o f P a q u e t t e (1982) t h a t ; T o u t e m o i a r n i s a t i o n de I ' a g r i c u l t u r e d o i t s e f a i r e dans l e r e s p e c t de l a r a t i o n a l i t y du p a y s a n . c e n ' e s t qu'A c e p r i x que l a p a y s a n a u g m e n t e r a s a p r o d u c t i o n a l i m e n t a i r e . (24) - 3 5 -A n a d e q u a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e new c o u n t r i e s o f t h e " t h i r d w o r l d " demands t h a t one p u r s u e s c i e n t i f i c q u a r r y a c r o s s any f e n c e d - o f f a c a d e m i c f i e l d i n t o w h i c h i t may h a p p e n t o w a n d e r . C . G e e r t z ( 1 9 6 3 , p. X V I I I ) - 3 6 -CHAPTEfi_3 STRUCTUSAL ELEMENTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT P R O C E S S / E X T EEN AL AND INTERNAL B A E E I E B S TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF P R E - C A P I T A L I S T 1U£S.TI ON A L _ D p a E S T l C , A G E I C U L T O B E I * M l i O O S C T I O N In West A f r i c a , t h e o r i g i n a l o p t i o n f o r n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t by means o f t h e e x p a n s i o n o f an i n d u s t r i a l e x p o r t m a r k e t economy a n d i m p o r t s u b s t i t u t i o n p o l i c i e s p r o c e e d e d by v a r i o u s d e g r e e s w i t h i n t h e d i f f e r e n t i n d e p e n d e n t s t a t e s . ; The s t r u c t u r a l l e g a c y o f t h e p r e v i o u s c o l o n i a l p e r i o d was an i m p o r t a n t b e n c h m a r k f o r t h e d i r e c t i o n and i n t e n s i t y o f t h e f u t u r e p a t t e r n s o f d e v e l o p m e n t t o e v o l v e a n d h e n c e p r e p a r e the e s t a b l i s h i n e n t o f t h e n e c - c o l o n i a l i s t p e r i o d w h i c h p r e v a i l s . As d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , t h e d o m i n a n t p o s i t i o n o f t h e w o r l d - c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m a n d i t s e x p a n s i o n i n t o t h e s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n s o f t h e p e r i p h e r y o f West A f r i c a n s t a t e s h a s i m p o s e d t h e g r o w t h o f d e p e n d e n c y b y i t s c o m p l i a n c e t o t h e n e e d s o f the m e t r o p o l i s . A a i n (1973) sums up t h e s i t u a t i o n i n t h e p h r a s e : " g r o w t h w i t h o u t d e v e l o p m e n t " t h a t i s - - g r o w t h g e n e r a t e d and m a i n t a i n e d f r o m o u t s i d e , w i t h o u t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e c a p a b l e o f b r i n g i n g a s a u t o m a t i c t r a n s i t i o n t o the f u r t h e r s t a g e , t h a t o f i n t e r n a l l y c e n t e r e d and s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g g r o w t h . (1) Now, a s t h e m a j o r i t y c f t h e d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s a r e w e l l - i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e w o r l d - c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m , t h e y a r e f o r c e d t o h o l d a s u b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n w h i l e t h e y c o n t i n u e t o a l t e r t h e i r i n t e r n a l p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m s . The d e p e n d e n c y a s a n a l y s e d , f o r e x a m p l e b y A . G . F r a n k (197 1) a n d S a m i r A min (1973) who u s e s t h e t e r m n e o - c o l o n i a l i s m , c a n be s e e n i n t e r m s o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p by w h i c h t h e a d v a n c e d c a p i t a l i s t w o r l d a t o n c e e x p l o i t e d and k e p t t h e T h i r d W o r l d c o u n t r i e s u n d e r d e v e l o p e d . The d o m i n a n t c a p i t a l i s t p o w e r s ( f i r s t E n g l a n d a n d t h e n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ) e n c o u r a g e d t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f l o c a l p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e s , b o t h d i r e c t l y a n d i n d i r e c t l y t c s e r v e t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . (2) H o w e v e r , t h e d e p e n d e n c y w h i c h was i n c u r r e d t h r o u g h o u t s u c h a p a t t e r n o f d e v e l o p m e n t was n o t u n i q u e l y t o be c o n s i d e r e d a p r o d u c t o f a e o - c o l o n i a l i s m . M o r e o v e r , i t was t h e e f f e c t o f t h e i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e o f c l a s s r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t o p e n e d a v e n u e s t o t h e e n c r o a c h m e n t o f t h e w o r l d m a r k e t economy w i t h i n t h e s u c c e s s o r s t a t e s . I n f a c t , c l a s s c o n t r a d i c t i o n r e s u l t e d i n t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f t h e u r b a n c l a s s e s w h i c h worked t o t h e e c o n o m i c a d v a n t a g e o f t h e m e t r o p o l i s and t o b e n e f i t i t s own c o n s u m p t i o n p a t t e r n s a g a i n s t t h s r u r a l s o c i a l g r o u p s who t e n d e d t o s u f f e r t h e p r o g r e s s i v e u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e r u r a l p e r i p h e r y u n d e r t h e i m p a c t o f p r o g r e s s i v e n a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f c a p i t a l i s m . (3) T h e r e f o r e , t h e s t r u c t u r a l d y n a m i c s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s w h i c h r e v e r b e r a t e t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e p e r i p h e r y i s s t a t e d t o be n o t h i n g more t h a n a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e d o m i n a n c e and c o n t r o l p r o c e s s e s w h i c h b e n e f i t c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n . P r o c e s s e s t h a t a r e w i t h h e l d b y t h e u r b a n - o r i e n t e d c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s e s . H e n c e , t h e s u b j u g a t i o n o f t h e p e r i p h e r y by the c o r e — m e t r o p o l i s - - i s r e l e g a t e d w i t h i n t h e p e r i p h e r y i t s e l f , be tween t h e u r b a n c e n t e r a n d the r u r a l a r e a s ; t h u s a c c o r d i n g t o J o h n s o n as c i t e d i n A r m s t r o n g and McGee ( 1 9 8 3 ) : -38-T h e s y s t e m o f e x t e r n a l d o m i n a t i o n r e a p p e a r s a s an " i n t e r n a l " phenomenon t h r o u g h t h e s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s o f l o c a l g r o u p s and c l a s s e s who s h a r e i t s i n t e r e s t a n d v a l u e s . O t h e r i n t e r n a l g r o u p s and f o r c e s c p p o s e t h i s d o m i n a t i o n a n d i n t h e c o n c r e t e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s t h e s p e c i f i c d y n a m i c o f t h e s o c i e t y i s g e n e r a t e d . (U) A c a s e i n p o i n t i s t h e e x a m p l e o f a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n West A f r i c a , w h i c h i n d i c a t e s v e r y c l e a r l y t h e p o l a r i z a t i o n o f c l a s s i n t e r e s t t h r o u g h t h e f o r c e s o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e c a p i t a l i s t a n d p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m s . T h e p r e s s u r e s o f t h e w o r l d - c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m w i t h i n t h e West A f r i c a n p e r i p h e r y a r e a c t i v e l y d i r e c t i n g a g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e i r i n t e r v e n t i o n e f f o r t s t o w a r d the d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m m e r c i a l - e x p o r t c r o p p r o d u c t i o n t o t h e d e t r i m e n t o f f o o d c r o p p r o d u c t i o n i n o r d e r t o a l l o w f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f b a d l y n e e d e d f o r e i g n c u r r e n c y t o a b s o r b t h e b a l a n c e - o f - p a y m e n t d e f i c i t s and f o r e i g n l o a n d e b t s w h i c h h a v e b e e n a c c u m u l a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e p a s t y e a r s . I n s u c h a s i t u a t i o n , few o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e l e f t t o t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r t o b e n e f i t f r o m t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f means c f p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h c o u l d s e r v e t o i n c r e a s e d o m e s t i c f o o d p r o d u c t i o n f i r s t . T h i s i s r e f e r r e d t o a phenomenon i d e n t i f i e d a s t h e " b l o c k i n g o f p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s " by E e t t e l h e i m (1972) w h i c h i n e s s e n c e i s a p r e d o m i n a n t e l e m e n t o f t h e e x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s t h a t p r e v e n t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t r a d i t i o n a l d o m e s t i c a g r i c u l t u r e . (5) I t i s c l e a r t h a t i n many d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , i t i s c h e a p e r t o i m p o r t f o o d b y ways o f b i l a t e r a l s u b s i d i e s o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l i e f o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t o p r o m o t e c o m m e r c i a l e x p o r t - c r o p p r o d u c t i o n i n s t e a d . T h u s , t o i m p r o v e t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n n e t w o r k s n e c e s s a r y t o i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i o n o f f o o d i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s t r a n s l a t e s i n t o t h e d e l i v e r y o f a g r e a t e r p o r t i o n o f t h e s u r p l u s v a l u e t o t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r , - 3 9 -u l t i m a t e l y l e a v i n g l e s s c o n t r o l of t h e l e v e r s of c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n i n t h e hands of the urban c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r . Hence, t h e m o d e r n i z a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e i n West A f r i c a i n g e n e r a l , has meant the e x p a n s i o n of t h e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r which has t h r o u g h o u t the l a s t two decades f a v o u r e d c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e , h i g h p r o f i l e development schemes r e q u i r i n g l a r g e - s c a l e i n v e s t m e n t . Few c o u n t r i e s a r e now s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t and the m a j o r i t y a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e harsh r e a l i t i e s of the IMF r e v i s i o n s t o r e n e g o t i a t e l a r g e d e b t s . (6) The i r o n y b e h i n d the f o o d s h o r t a g e s i t u a t i o n and the o f t e n s t a t e d d e s i r e s of s t a t e o f f i c i a l s who pronounce themselves i n f a v o u r of a c h i e v i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y as t h e i r prime o b j e c t i v e (as w i t h t h e c a s e of G u i n e a - B i s s a u ) , i s t h a t the r e g r e s s i o n e x p e r i e n c e d by the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t system because of t h e l a c k of o p p o r t u n i t y to seek a l t e r n a t i v e s i s used or b e t t e r , "recupere"", by t h e r u l i n g e l i t e and t h e n a t i o n a l or b u r e a u c r a t i c b o u r g e o i s i e as a p r e t e x t f o r i n c r e a s e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l c r e d i t as Aubry (1982) r e m a r k s : Le paysan et l e probleme a g r a i r e s o n t des p r e t e x t e s e x c e l l e n t s e t c c n v a i n c a n t s pour s o l l i c i t e r l e c r e d i t i n t e r n a t i o n a l . (7) To e x p l a i n the i n c i p i e n t n a t u r e of the r e g r e s s i o n a r y p a t t e r n s of the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t systems t h a t are i n t e g r a t e d by the c a p i t a l i s t system, the s t u d y r e f e r s t o t h e concept of c o n s e r v a t i o n ^ d i s s o l u t i o n whereby the f i n a l outcome i s d e p i c t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: The m e t r o p o l i t a n economy p e n e t r a t e s th e a g r a r i a n s e c t o r i n a p r o c e s s t h a t d i s r u p t s t r a d i t i o n a l terms of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , c o n v e r t s l a n d f r o m an o b j e c t c f c u s t o m a r y r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n i n t o a c o m m o d i t y , a n d t r a n s f o r m s l a b o r f r o m s u b s i s t e n c e and p e t t y c o m m o d i t y p r o d u c t i o n i n t o p r o l e t a r i a n i z e d wage d e p e n d e n c y - (8) I I . C O N S E R V A T I 0 N - D I S S 0 I U T I C N AS ELEMENTS OF T H E EXTERNAL BABRIEBS TO A G R I C U L T U R E DEVELOPMENT IN PASF _ B e c a u s e t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r i s u n a b l e t o i n t e g r a t e o r g a n i c a l l y w i t h i n t h e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r on a c c o u n t o f t h e wide d i v e r g e n c i e s i n b o t h t h e i r l o g i c s , i t i s t h u s r e q u i r e d t h a t a p r o c e s s o f d i s s o l u t i o n o r d e s t r u c t i o n be e n g a g e d whenever t h e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r d i s p o s e s o f t h e n e e d f o r t h e human o r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r f o r i t s own d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e p r o c e s s o f d i s s o l u t i o n i s a t f i r s t , p r o p e r l y p r i m e d by t h e phenomenon o f " b l o c k a g e o f t h e p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t " away f r o m the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r f o r c i n g o n t o t h e l a t t e r t h e a b a n d o n m e n t o f e l e m e n t s o f i t s p r o d u c t i o n s y s t e m s e i t h e r by c o e r c i o n o r f o r t h e p r e s t i g e o f s h o r t - l i v e d g a i n s w i t h o u t b e n e f i t i n g f r c i r any f o r m o f d e v e l o p m e n t . M e a n w h i l e , by t h e a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f s u r p l u s e s , the c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r p r o c e e d s t o d e v e l o p w h i l e t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r i s m a i n t a i n e d by means o f a p r o c e s s o f c o n s e r v a t i o n . The f a c t o r s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e c o n s e r v a t i o n o f t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r r a n g e f r o m e i t h e r c o m p l e t e l a c k o f i n t e r e s t t c a h o l d i n g m e c h a n i s m t o p r e v e n t i t f r o m d e v e l o p i n g a c o m p e t i t i v e e d g e . S l o w l y , w h i l e t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r a r e e x p a n d e d { p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c ) , and g r e a t e r c o n t a c t w i t h the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m i s e x t e n d e d , t h e p r o c e s s o f d i s s o l u t i o n p e n e t r a t e s f r o m f i r s t b e i n g a phenomenon e x p e r i e n c e d o n l y a t t h e f r i n g e o f t h e c o m m u n i t y t o f u l l - s c a l e i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o the m a r k e t - 4 1 -e c o n o m y . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n - d i s s o l u t i o n m e c h a n i s m s a r e e n t i r e l y d e p e n d e n t on t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r a n d the p a c e o f e x p a n s i o n . The ma jor f o r c e o f t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r , t h e l a b o u r power o f t h e y o u n g e r w o r k e r s (or t h e j u n i o r s i n P I S F ) , becomes t h e f o c u s f o r t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e c a s h e c o n o m y . U l t i m a t e l y , the a t t r a c t i o n o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r e x e r t s e n o u g h f o r c e t o p r y t h e l a b o u r f o r c e away i n t o a s i t u a t i o n o f p r o l e t a r i a n i z e d wage d e p e n d e n c y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e wages e a r n e d r a r e l y meet t h e n e e d s o f t h e f a m i l i e s i n the v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t y w h i c h a r e a l s o f a c e d w i t h t h e e f f e c t s o f d e c r e a s e d d o m e s t i c c r o p p r o d u c t i o n . I m p r o v e m e n t s to t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f the v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t y a r e l i m i t e d , i n f a c t , t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n p u r p o s e l y c o n s e r v e d so a s t o r e d u c e t h e p a y m e n t o f i n d i r e c t wages t o l a b o u r — s o c i a l c o s t . I n o t h e r w o r d s , i t i s d e l i b e r a t e p o l i c y f o r t h e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r t h a t w h i l e b e n e f i t i n g f r o m e i t h e r t h e a p p r o p r i a t i o n c f s u r p l u s o r t h e e x t r a c t i o n o f l a b o u r p o w e r , i t c o n t i n u e s t o l e a v e t h e c o s t o f r e p r o d u c t i o n o f a new g e n e r a t i o n o f w o r k e r s t o t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r . I t a l s o c o n s e r v e d i n o r d e r t o a b s o r b t h e r e d u n d a n t e l e m e n t s of s o c i e t y — t h e d i s a b l e d and e l d e r l y d e s t i t u t e s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r i s p a r a d o x i c a l l y c o n s e r v e d b u t a l s o d e p r i v e d a t t h e same t i m e o f a n y o f t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n t o i n s u r e i t s own p e r p e t u a t i o n . By t h i s p r o c e s s , c o n t r a d i c t o r y i n e s s e n c e , t h e d o m e s t i c mode i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y m a i n t a i n e d a n d d e s t r o y e d — m a i n t a i n e d a s a means o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , and d e s t r o y e d b e c a u s e i t i s d e p r i v e d i n t h e end o f i t s means o f r e p r o d u c t i o n u n d e r t h e i m p a c t o f e x p l o i t a t i o n . (9) Ehen t h e v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t y i s n o l o n g e r i n a p o s i t i o n t o l i v e o f f i t s own r e s o u r c e s b e c a u s e o f i n a d e q u a t e t e c h n i c a l a d a p t a t i o n o r e v e n f o r l a c k o f a p p r o p r i a t e i n n o v a t i o n s t o r e a c h t h e i r s e c t o r a s w e l l a s h a v i n g t o be e x p o s e d t o l i m i t e d l a b o u r p o w e r , t h e n , t h e y must f u l l y r e s o r t t o t h e m o n e t a r y e c o n o m y , The v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t y i s t h e r e f o r e o b l i g e d t o c o n c e d e i t s f u l l a u t o n o m y a n d c o n v e r t f r c m a d o m e s t i c a g r i c u l t u r e t h a t s e l f - s u s t a i n s t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t o a p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m m e r c i a l e x p o r t c r o p s w h i c h a t o m i z e s t h e c o m m u n i t y s y s t e m i n t o i n d i v i d u a l p r o f i t - m o t i v a t e d p r o d u c t i o n u n i t s . In s h o r t , d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f c o n s e r v a t i o n - d i s s o l u t i o n , t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r a n d i t s p r i m e e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y — t r a d i t i o n a l d o m e s t i c a g r i c u l t u r e — i s c o m p e l l e d t c s t r a d d l e a f i n e l i n e s i n c e t h e e x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s a r e s u g g e s t e d by the b l o c k a g e o f t h e p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e and t h e e x t r a c t i o n o f t h e l a b o u r power t o d e s t a b i l i s e t h e e q u i l i b r i u m t h a t o n c e e x i s t e d i n t h e s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g s y s t e m . D i s c o n n e c t e d f r o m any a v a i l a b l e means o f p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h c o u l d a m e l i o r a t e t h e p r o d u c t i o n s y s t e m and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y p u n c t u r e d by t h e c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m , t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t a g r i c u l t u r a l s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g f o r m a t i o n s l o s e a l l o p p p o r t u n i t i e s t o s u r v i v e a s an a u t o n o m o u s a n d l e g i t i m a t e s o c i a l u n i t . T h e r e b y t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m i s s e t on the r o a d t o w a r d s an i m p o v e r i s h e d f o r m o f c a p i t a l i s m . From t h e c a p i t a l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e , i t i s c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e a n t a g o n i s m o f c l a s s c o n t r a d i c t i o n w h i c h e m i n a t e s f rom t h e u r b a n - o r i e n t e d c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r a g a i n s t t h e r u r a l g r o u p s i m p o s e s m a j o r r e s t r a i n t o n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r e - c a p i t a l i s t t r a d i t i o n a l d o m e s t i c a g r i c u l t u r e . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e b a r r i e r s i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e - 4 3 -c o n s e r v a t i o n - d i s s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s : a f u n c t i o n c f t h e amount o f i n t e r e s t t h e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r d i r e c t s t o w a r d t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r . I n r e f e r e n c e t o f i g u r e one (p. 5 2 ) , f rom the e x t r e m e b o t t o m s c a l e o f t h e s p e c t r u m — l o w c o n t a c t — , w h e n e v e r c o n t a c t b e t w e e n t h e two s e c t o r s i s n c n - e x i s t a n t , t h e r e i s r e s p e c t i v e l y no c o m p e t i t i o n f o r a n y o f the f a c t o r s o r p r o d u c t s o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n s y s t e m s , so t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g f o r m a t i o n s r e m a i n u n a f f e c t e d s i n c e t h e d i s s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s i m p o s e d by the m e t r o p o l i t a n economy i s n o t g e n e r a t e d a s y e t . A s t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o n t a c t i n c r e a s e s and t h e " a r t i c u l a t i o n " b e t w e e n b o t h s y s t e m s becomes p r e v a l e n t and i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h i n a p o l i c y o f n a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n f o r e x a m p l e , o n l y t h e n a r e t h e e l e m e n t s o f c o n s e r v a t i o n a n d d i s s o l u t i o n e n g a g e d t o p r o d u c e d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s i n t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r , i . e . , d i s i n t e g r a t i o n a n d t h e l o s s o f a u t o n o m y . F i n a l l y , t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t r a d i t i o n a l d o m e s t i c a g r i c u l t u r e i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e d o m i n a n t c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r ' s g o a l t o " r a t i o n a l i z e " and s e e k f o r e m o s t t o p r o m o t e e f f i c i e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h i s e q u i v a l e n t t o : (1) e x t r a c t i n g c h e a p l a b o u r f r o m t h e r u r a l a r e a s and i n c o r p o r a t i n g them i n t o t h e m o n e t a r i z e d economy (2) r e d u c i n g t h e s o c i a l c o s t o f t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n of l a b o u r by t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n o f t h e r u r a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n I n t h e e n d , t h i s would l e a d t o t h e c o m p l e t e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r and p r o l e t a r i a n i z a t i o n c f t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n . B l u n t l y s t a t e d , t h e o n l y i n t e r e s t t h e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r has f o r t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r a p a r t f rom the e a s y a p p r o p r i a t i o n of s u r p l u s and t h e e x t r a c t i o n of l a b o u r , i s the v i s u a l i z a t i o n of the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n as a p o t e n t i a l " p o o l " of consumers t o u l t i m a t e l y s e r v e the purpose of a wider growing p r o c e s s of c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n which b e n e f i t o n l y a very few elements of s o c i e t y m o stly c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the urban s e c t o r . From the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e r e a re a l s o i n t e r n a l b a r r i e r s waich i n h i b i t f o r one, the i n t e g r a t i o n of t h e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r , but a l s o i n many c a s e s t h e i r own a g r i c u l t u r a l development. I t would be n a i v e not t o b e l i e v e t h a t a l l b a r r i e r s a r e determined from t h e e x t e r i o r - i n w a r d . The i n t e r n a l b a r r i e r s a r e e x p l a i n e d by means of t h e concept of p r e s e r v a t i o n which i s based on t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t r e s i s t s the d i s s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s i n order to p r e s e r v e t h e i r t r a d i t i o n . The paradox i n t h i s case, i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the f a c t t h a t the p r e s e r v a t i o n mechanisms g e n e r a t e d by the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r sometimes c o i n c i d e w i t h the c o n s e r v a t i o n measures o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r , thus a c t i n g to a g g r a v a t e the r e s t r a i n t mechanisms and impeding even more the p o t e n t i a l l e v e l o p m e n t o f t r a d i t i o n a l d omestic a g r i c u l t u r e and the nec e s s a r y change f o r the community's s u r v i v a l . The p r e - c a p i t a l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e w i l l f o c u s on t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the p r o d u c t i o n system i n o r d e r t o d i s t i n g u i s h the s t r u c t u r a l c a u s a l i t i e s which determine the i n t e r n a l b a r r i e r s . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n proposes an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s o c i a l elements of a g r i c u l t u r a l s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g f o r m a t i o n s which draws h e a v i l y on F r e n c h a n t h r o p c l i g i s t Claude M e i l l a s s o u x *s t h e o r y of e i d e r dominance t o h e l p e x p l a i n t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n mechanisms. - 4 5 -I I I . PEES ERVATION AS AN ELEMENT OF THE INTERNAL BARRIERS TO AG81CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT I N P R E - C A P I T A L I S T AGRICULTURAL S E L F - S U S T A I N I N G ; FORM AT IONS „„ : - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ The s p e c i f i c a s p e c t o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o l a n d i s t h e f u n d a m e n t a l b a s i s o f M e i l l a s s o u x ' s t h e o r y o f e l d e r d o m i n a n c e i n BASF. I t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t r a n s f o r m e d when l a n d c h a n g e s f r o m b e i n g a s i m p l e o b j e c t o f p r o d u c t i o n / s u b j e c t o f l a b o u r (as i n h u n t e r - g a t h e r e r b a n d s ) , t o b e c o m i n g a means o f p r o d u c t i o n / m e a n s o f l a b o u r . E f f e c t i v e l y t h r o u g h t h i s t y p e o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d a s t i m e and c o n t i n u i t y a s sume e s s e n t i a l r o l e s . T h u s , t h e s o c i a l u n i t and t h e l i n e a g e s y s t e m p r o c e e d s t o d e v e l o p i n t o s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y o r c e n t r a l i z e d power o f c o n t r o l . M e i l l a s s o u x makes i t c l e a r t h a t i t i s t h e c y c l i c a l n a t u r e o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y and t h e n e e d f o r g r e a t e r c a r e i n t h e management o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e e f f o r t a n d t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r o d u c t w h i c h s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o d i f i e s t h e s o c i a l u n i t . One c a n e a s i l y f i n d h e r e t h e m a t e r i a l and t e m p o r a l b a s e s o f t h e e m e r g e n c e o f the " f a m i l y " a s a p r o d u c t i v e and c o h e s i v e u n i t a n d o f " . k i n s h i p " a s an i d e o l o g y : p r i o r i t y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n p e o p l e o v e r t h e r e l a t i o n s o f t h i n g s . L i f e t i m e d u r a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i s e d s o c i a l b o n d s c o n c e r n f o r r e p r o d u c t i o n ; n o t i o n s o f s e n i o r i t y and a n t e r i o r i t y ; r e s p e c t f o r a g e ; c u l t o f t h e a n c e s t o r s ; f e c u n d i t y c u l t , e t c e t e r a . A l l t h e s e f e a t u r e s f i n d t h e i r r o o t s i n t h e s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n and u n d e r l y i n g t h i s i s t h e use o f t h e l a n d a s a n i n s t r u m e n t o f l a b o u r . (10) W i t h i n s u c h a s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n " r o o t e d i n t h e s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n " , i t i s t h e e l d e r s t h a t become t h e n e c e s s a r y f o r e b e a r e r s of the system c f p r o d u c t i o n and who assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the sum of knowledge handed down by word of mouth. The e l d e r s a r e t h o s e who must a l s o o v e r s e e the c o n t r o l of the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s r e p r o d u c t i o n t h r o u g h t h e d i r e c t i o n o f the l a b o u r power w i t h i n the community. The dominance of the e l d e r s i s m a n i f e s t e d by the o b l i g a t i o n of the j u n i o r s t o d i s t r i b u t e "advances" and " r e t u r n s " u n t i l the t i m e they t h e m s e l v e s r e a c h the s e n i o r i t y l e v e l . A u t h o r i t y r e l a t i o n s h i n g e d on s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of the male p o p u l a t i o n by age and k i n s h i p . Both p o l i t i c s and p r o d u c t i o n r e s t e d on s o c i a l l y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y complex r e l a t i o n s of both s o l i d a r i t y and antagonism between l i n e a g e e l d e r s and t h e i r e v e n t u a l r e p l a c e m e n t s , t h e young men. (11) Because t h e r e i s n e i t h e r the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r p h y s i c a l c o e r c i o n nor the monopoly of the means of p r o d u c t i o n i n PASF, because t h e y a r e e a s i l y r e p r o d u c e d , the r e p r o d u c t i o n of the c o n d i t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n a r e a s s u r e d by what H e i l l a s s c u x e x p l a i n s as t h e do m i n a t i o n o f t h e e l d e r s through t h e means of the monopoly on s o c i a l knowledge and m a t r i m o n i a l exchange. I n accordance w i t h t h i s t h e o r y , Dupre" and Hey (197 2) w r i t e : They ( e l d e r s ) r e s e r v e f o r t h e m s e l v e s c o n t r o l of s o c i a l knowledge (knowledge o f g e n e a l o g i e s of h i s t o r y , of marriage r e g u l a t i o n s ) and t h e i r c o n t r o l i s p r o l o n g e d i n t h e spheres of a r t i f i c e s (magic, d i v i n a t i o n , c u l t u r a l r i t e s ) . Above a l l they r e s e r v e f o r t h e m s e l v e s c o n t r o l of c a d e t s and t h e i r own ac c e s s t o women, and they g u a r a n t e e t h i s c o n t r o l by the " e l i t e goods" which a r e i n d i s p e n s i b l e f o r m a r r i a g e . (12) H e n c e f o r t h , the n o t i o n o f s e n i o r i t y and e l d e r dominance d e l i m i t s i t s e l f as a key element i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n of the PASF. Thus, i t can be s i g n a l e d out as a c r i t i c a l p o l i t i c a l element of c o n t r o l o f r e p r o d u c t i o n of the -47-s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which, i n a d d i t i o n , i s a l s o the f o u n d a t i o n of t h e economic c o n t r o l of the means of p r o d u c t i o n . (13) For the purpose o f t h e s t u d y , t h i s p r e c i s i o n over the n a t u r e of the c o n t r o l mechanism i s fundamental i n t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n p r o c e s s . S i n c e the dependency of the c a d e t s v i s - a - v i s t h e e l d e r s b r i n g s t o l i g h t the p r o t e c t i o n i s m of the t a t t e r ' s n o n - p r o d u c t i v e p r i v i l e g e s t h a t c o u l d be eroded whenever g r e a t e r independence become a p o s s i b i l i t y w i t h h i g h e r c o n t a c t w i t h the c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r . At f i r s t c o n t a c t with the c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r , the p o t e n t i a l e r o s i o n o f the e l d e r supremacy i s c o u n t e r e d the f a c t t h a t the market exchane of " s u r p l u s e s " f o r " e l i t e goods" a p p r o p r i a t e d and r e t a i n e d by the e l d e r s i s l i m i t e d a t t h e f r i n g e and c o n t r o l l e d by them as w e l l . L a t e r however, the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e monetary economy and t h e g r e a t e r a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c a s h - e a r n i n g to the younger g e n e r a t i o n c a d e t s c o u l d not o n l y d i r e c t l y t h r e a t e n the e l d e r s ' dominance but a l s o the s t a b i l i t y o f the s o c i a l b alance as t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f " e l i t e goods" becomes u n i v e r s a l . I f p e a s a n t s and p r i m i t i v e s a r e t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r s o c i e t y , c a p i t a l or p r o p e r t y r u l e s and economic chances may not be p e r m i t t e d to work i n ways d i s r u p t i v e of t h e v a l u e s and norms of s o c i e t y . (14) T h e r e f o r e , t o a d e q u a t e l y m a i n t a i n t h e i r s o c i e t y and to p r o t e c t i t from th e d i s r u p t i v e means of the advances of c a p i t a l i s t i n t e r g r a t i o n the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t system e s t a b l i s h e s i t s e l f w i t h i n a p r o c e s s of p r e s e r v a t i o n by use of v a r i o u s " l e v e l i n g mechanisms" (Nash, 1961) o r " r e g u l a t o r s " ( F r a n k l i n , 1969) t o i n t e r n a l i z e whatever changes are imposed from o u t s i d e . The i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s i s r e p r e s e n t e d e i t h e r by -48-transforming whatever gcods transacted at the fringe into " e l i t e goods" which become part of t r a d i t i o n , or moreover by the use of magic, divination and c u l t u r a l r i t e s as a r t i f i c e s to r e s t r i c t contact or to r e d i s t r i b u t e the personal gains from market exchange. , Also, i t i s found that: In numerous s o c i e t i e s the readjustment i s made per i o d i c a l l y by i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d destruction to preserve a balance. (15) Hence, funeral r i t e s , marriage ceremonies, dowries and other i n s t i t u t i o n s which oblige donations are held to maintain and preserve the s o c i a l organization and the conditions of s o c i a l reproduction. Therefore i n the case of monetary gains i t i s explained that: The preservation cf the community as a unit of production e n t a i l s that money i s used for what Balandier (19 59:38) has called " s o c i o l o g i c a l investment" intended to gain or reinforce the dominance of the t r a d i t i o n a l forms... and through which domestic and v i l l a g e r e l a t i o n s are best maintained. (16) In summary, i t i s c l e a r that with the appearance of market exchange between the two systems, the PASF w i l l tend to naturally preserve i t s e l f from the d i s s o l u t i o n process by neutralizing the commodities that are acquired and which penetrate the v i l l a g e community. (Meil lassou x, 1981). Thus, the p r o l e t a r i a n i z a t i o n of the r u r a l labour force i s never an immediate process i n PASF, but i t i s determined gradually through the process of market integration and the breakdown of the l e v e l l i n g mechanism. Through the introduction of the production of cash crops on -49-t h e i r l a n d , the PASF s e t s i n f o r a d i s s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s . Although t h e y a r e s t i l l the owners of t h e i r means of p r o d u c t i o n , d i f f e r e n t from the wage l a b o u r e r , t h e y n e v e r t h e l e s s become dependent on market s a l e s f o r t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d . I n any c a s e , the e n t r y i n t o t h e monetary economy i s v e r y u p s e t t i n g and i n the long run can a g a i n undermine the whole s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n as D a l t o n remarks: T h i s mode o f e n t e r i n g the exchange economy can be as d i s r u p t i v e t o i n d i c e n o u s s o c i a l and economic o r g a n i z a t i o n as wage l a b o u r and f o r t h e same r e a s o n . I t i s not a l i e n a t i o n from the means of p r o d u c t i o n which i s s o c i a l l y d i v i s i v e , but r a t h e r t h e dependence upon i m p e r s o n a l market f o r c e s u n r e l a t e d t o i n d i c e n o u s s o c i a l c o n t r o l ; the s e p a r a t i n g of economy f r o s i s o c i e t y by d i v o r c i n g r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n , work arrangement and product d i s p o s i t i o n from e x p r e s s i o n of s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n and to be s u r e the consequent l o s s of s o c i a l l y g u a ranteed s u b s i s t e n c e as w e l l . (17) R e f e r i n g back t o f i g u r e 1 a g a i n , when c l o s e r c o n t a c t becomes e f f e c t i v e between the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t and the c a p i t a l i s t system and t h a t the l a t t e r d i s t i n g u i s h e s a need f o r the o t h e r s * wage l a b o u r f o r c e , a second l e v e l of " a r t i c u l a t i o n " between t h e two s e c t o r s i s i d e n t i f i e d which w i l l l e a d up t o the f i n a l phase of t h e d i s s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s : t h e p r o l e t a r i z a t i o n of the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n . The e x p r o p r i a t i o n cf l a b o u r power by the c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r weakens the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r . T r a d i t i o n a l economic r u l e s a r e s h o r t - c i r c u i t s — r e c i p r o c i t y and r e d i s t r i b u t i o n — and the market exchange and t h e i n d i v i d u a l guest f o r p r o f i t i s r e i n f o r c e d even though l e v e l i n g mechanisms i n the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r are s t i l l i n e f f e c t . S i n c e , the u n d e r t a k i n g of p e r s o n a l cash s a v i n g i s dangerous to the community, t h i s i s u s u a l l y p r a c t i c e d w i thout the knowledge of o t h e r kinsmen ( M e i l l a s s o u x , 1981). However, f a c t o r s such as t h e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n of t h e younger workers w i t h -50-t h e t r a d i t i o n a l o p p r e s s i v e r u l e s and the l u r e o f the c i t y c o u p l e t o h e l p " i s o l a t e " t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c young e n t r e p r e n e u r cum - - p r o t o - p r o l e t a r i a t . Once r e s o r t t o money f r c m the c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r i s a c c e p t e d as a means o f l o n g t e i u i s a v i n g , the d e g e n e r a t i o n of the domestic economy { p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r ) a c c e l e r a t e s . Each i n d i v i d u a l s a v i n g f o r h i m s e l f so as t o s u p p l y h i s f u t u r e needs as a r e t i r e d worker, does so t o t h e d e t r i m e n t of the p r e s e n t maintenance of h i s community. (18) The f i n a l outcome may l e a d t o complete s o c i a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n as mentioned e a r l i e r . I n c o n c l u s i o n , we note t h a t i n l e v e l s of e i t h e r low or h i g h c o n t a c t , the a b i l i t y t c p r e s e r v e the t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s i s h i g h l y d e t e r m i n e d by the s t r e n g t h of the e l d e r s t o impose the l e v e l i n g mechanisms which e x i s t i n t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r . Hence, the i n t e r n a l b a r r i e r s t o the development of t r a d i t i o n a l domestic a g r i c u l t u r e are s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d by the e l d e r s 1 w i l l i n g n e s s t o p r e v e n t e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s t h a t c o u l d a l t e r the dominant r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n which a r e f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e i r age groups. T h i s p o i n t i s h i g h l i g h t e d by Hart (1982) when he s t a t e s : B e s i d e s , i t i s n o t i n the i n t e r e s t of t h e e l d e r s to a l l o w the c ommercial d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r to d e v e l o p beyond the p o i n t where they c c u l d e a s i l y r e s t r a i n t h e mass of young men and women from e n t r y i n t o t h e market. Such a development c o u l d w e l l undermine the very s o c i a l framework t h a t g i v e them t h e i r p r i v i l e g e s i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . (19) In r e f e r e n c e , t h e r e f o r e , to c o n v e n t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l development p r o j e c t s , the p a s t t r e n d has been t o i n s i s t upon f o r c i n g the i n t e g r a t i o n of the u a r k e t system onto th e PASF by the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f commercial e x p o r t - c r o p p r o d u c t i o n . These t y p e s o f i n t e r v e n t i o n s a r e e i t h e r doomed t o f a i l u r e because of the -51-p r e s e r v a t i o n p r o c e s s i n s t i g a t e d by t h e e l d e r s o r w i l l t e n d t o a g g r a v a t e t h e s i t u a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , w h i c h b y l o s i n g c o n t r o l o v e r t h e j u n i o r s a n d t h e e c o n o m i c r u l e s o f t h e P A S F , w i l l p r o v o k e g r e a t e r s o c i a l c o n f l i c t w i t h i n t h e s o c i e t y a n d p o s s i b l y r e s u l t i n f a s t e r d i s s o l u t i o n , a n a l t e r n a t i v e w h i c h s o m e t i m e s l e a v e s b o t h s y s t e m s w o r s e o f f . -52-F i g u r e 1; A Dynamic T h e o r e t i c a l Model c f the Elements o f P r e s e r v a t i o n , C o n s e r v a t i o n and D i s s o l u t i o n from Low t o High C o n t a c t Between the P r e - C a p i t a l i s t and C a p i t a l i s t S e c t o r . HIGH CONTACT A DISSOLUTION PROIETARIZATION I o EH o w CO EH CO I—I EH I—I CM <C. O *LABOUR E XP.RO P EIATIC N •SURPLUS EX PROP EI ATION CONSERVATION-DISSOLUTION CONTRADICTION •LABOUR EXPROPRIATION • MAINTENANCE/ DESTRUCTION •WAGE LABOUR •EXCHANGE MARKET PRODUCTION •CONSUMERISM PRESERVATION —ITS.IKTEG EAT ION PROCESS •MIXED SUBSISTENCE CASH CROPPING •RURAL EXODUS I O > I—i > H CO i-3 CO o o CONSERVATION-PRESERVATION PARADOX I •SUBPLUS EXPROPRIATION •PERIPHERAL MARKET EXCHANGE LOB CONTACT •INTERNALIZATION •LEVELING MECHANISM NO INTEREST ISOLATION AUTAEKX - 5 3 -I V . SOMHAgY-A f i n a l l o o k a t the dynamic p r o c e s s of the i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s i s n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o g i v e an o v e r a l l e x p r e s s i o n o f the a r t i c u l a t i o n of the two systems i n r e g a r d t o th e development p r o c e s s . F i r s t , i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t with a low p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o n t a c t t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r development a r e s t r i c t l y determined by i n t e r n a l f o r c e s { i n v e n t i o n - c r e a t i v i t y ) . T h i s i s a l s o t h e case when t h e r e i s p o s s i b i l i t y of c o n t a c t but a l a c k of i n t e r e s t on both p a r t s i n n i b i t s any c o n t a c t . As the c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r becomes more v i s i b l e t h r o u g h i t s f u e l e d e x p a n s i o n , the p r e s e r v a t i o n mechanisms of the v i l l a g e community b e g i n t o t a k e e f f e c t . I n t e r n a l b a r r i e r s a re c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e . i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of t h e p r o d u c t o f exchange which i s f i r s t t r a n s a c t e d a t t h e f r i n g e . The degree of the PASF's a b i l i t y t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of p r o d u c t i o n i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e e l d e r s ' p e r s i s t e n c e and powers to r e s o r t t o t h e d i f f e r e n t r e g u l a t o r s . The a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f s u r p l u s e s o r th e i n t r o d u c t i o n of c o m m e r c i a l e x p o r t - c r o p p r o d u c t i o n by the c a p i t a l i s t system i s u s u a l l y made p o s s i b l e by the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a u t h o r i t a r i a n i n s t i t u t i o n s and by c o e r c i v e a c t i o n s ( C o l o n i a l p e r i o d ) . Meanwhile, i n s i d e f a c t o r s may a l s o provoke a t r a n s i t i o n and reduce the e f f e c t cf the p r e s e r v a t i o n guard, N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s t h e dominant c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r which d e c i d e d on i t s needs from the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r and the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r development of t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r e i s more f r e q u e n t l y -54-r e s t r a i n e d by c o n s e r v a t i o n mechanism and the b l o c k i n g of p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s away from the PASF. P a r a d o x i c a l as i t may seem, the c o n s e r v a t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n taechanisms may o v e r l a p t o the b e n e f i t of the c a p i t a l i s t system. (See f i g u r e 1, c o n s e r v a t i c n - p r e s e r v a t o n paradox.). As t h e c a p i t a l i s t system expands and as i t r e q u i r e s a l s o the e x p a n s i o n of the l a b o u r f o r c e , c o n d i t i o n s a r e i n p l a c e f o r the r a p i d d i s s o l u t i o n of the p r e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r . D isenchanted youth become the t a r g e t f o r t h e c a p i t a l i s t ' s b u i l d up of a new work f o r c e . F i n a l l y , the decomposticn of t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r b r i n g s about c o m p l e t e l y new s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and the i n t e g r a t i o n of a s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n a c l a s s system (ScGee, 1978). (See f i g u r e 1, c o n s e r v a t i o n - d i s s o l u t i o n c o n t r a d i c t i o n . ) I n i t s f i n a l phase, the c a p i t a l i s t system would have d i v i d e d communal l a n d ownership r i g h t i n t o i n d i v i d u a l p r o p e r t y o w n e r s h i p . The work f o r c e would then have been c o m p l e t e l y pro.letar.ized and i n t e g r a t e d w i t h i n the dominant market system, l e a d i n g to complete d i s s o l u t i o n o f the community's autonomous s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ( p r o l e t a r i n i z a t i o n ) . Thus, i n o r d e r t o r e p h r a s e th e range of p o s i t c n i n which PASF may be found to c o - e x i s t w i t h the c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r and the c o u r s e of p o s s i b l e a c t i o n s f i r s t d e s c r i b e d i n c h a p t e r one, t h e r e a r e t h r e e s i t u a t i o n s a planner must cope w i t h . The f i r s t s i t u a t i o n o c c u r s whenever t h e r e has been minimal c o n t a c t and t h e p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e i s the o v e r a l l enhancement o f f the q u a l i t y of l i f e w i t h i n the community i . e . , h e a l t h , h a b i t a t , e d u c a t i o n , n u t r i t i o n . The major b a r r i e r s to breakdown - 5 5 -a r e i n t e r n a l p r e s e r v a t i o n s once t h e a p p r o v a l f o r p r o j e c t implement at i o n i s awarded. The second i n v o l v e s t h e r e c o u r s e t o p a l l i a t i v e a c t i o n s t o r e d u c e the n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s of d i s s o l u t i o n by i n c r e a s i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y t c f a c i l i t a t e income e a r n i n g or s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y p r i o r i t i e s . The major b a r r i e r s to breakdown i n c l u d e both i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l p r e s e r v a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n f o r c e s which h i n d e r p r o j e c t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The t h i r d s i t u a t i o n imposes i n t e r v e n t i o n measures t o r e h a b i l i t a t e an endangered c u l t u r a l e n t i t y which i s a l r e a d y d e e p l y i n t e g r a t e d i n the c o m m e r c i a l e x p o r t - c r o p p r o d u c t i o n . The major b a r r i e r t o break-down i s the c o n s e r v a t i o n f o r c e s from th e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r which shuns c o m p e t i t i o n . The t h i r d case d i f f e r s from t h e second i n t h a t the v i l l a g e community u n i t i s i n a s i t u a t i o n of p o t e n t i a l d i s o r d e r . The predominant r e l i a n c e on migrant n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l employment and t h e lew r e t u r n s frcm the r e s i d u a l s of the t r a d i t i o n a l d o m e s t i c a g r i c u l t u r e s e c t o r t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o i n e f f i c i e n t s m a l l - s c a l e commercial f a r m i n g a c t i v i t i e s , a c t s to provoke the p r o c e s s of s o c i a l s t r u c t u r a l disembodiment and i t s near c o l l a p s e . I n c o n t r a s t , the second s i t u a t i o n c o n t i n u e s t o demonstrate a s t r o n g s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s e l f - d e t e r m i n e d v i l l a g e s t r u c t u r e w h i l e the f o r c e s of p r e s e r v a t i o n a r e s t i l l very a c t i v e , though i n many c a s e s , r e s t r i c t i v e . The next c h a p t e r c o n s i s t s of t h e case s t u d y of the R e p u b l i c o f G u i n e a - B i s s a u and the B i j a g o s a r c h i p e l a g o which w i l l s e r v e to i l l u s t r a t e the above d i s c u s s i o n . I t i s a l s o a d e s c r i p t i v e case of t h e f i r s t s i t u a t i o n , t h a t i s , low c o n t a c t and low degree of -56-i n t e r e s t by t h e s t a t e i n a d d i t i o n t o a h i g h l e v e l c f p r e s e r v a t i o n f o r c e s w i t h i n the PASF c f t h e B i j a g o t r i b e . - 5 7 -C H J P T E £ _ _ & CASE STODY OF T H E REPUBLIC CF G U I N E A - B I S S A U A NI) THE BIJAGOS _ R C H I £ E _ A G _ _ _ _ I H E _ P A f i A B O__0 F _ C O N S E E V A T I G N _ A _ D _ P B ES E.R"V ATION_QF_PASF • I . INff iODUCTION G u i n e a - B i s s a u i s r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d i n s i z e and s c a l e t o o t h e r H e s t A f r i c a n s t a t e s . A p o i n t i n f a c t shown by the t o t a l p a p u l a t i o n o f G u i n e a - E i s s a u , w h i c h i s no g r e a t e r t h a n one m i l l i o n . As f o r t h e c a p i t a l , B i s s a u ( w h i c h i s f i v e t i m e s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e s e c o n d - r a n k e d town) , i t t o t a l s l e s s t h a n 150 ,000 i n h a b i t a n t s . The n a t i o n a l g r o w t h r a t e i s e s t i m a t e d a t o n l y 1.4 p e r c e n t , w e l l u n d e r t h e A f r i c a n a v e r a g e o f 3-4 p e r c e n t . A l t h o u g h n o t q u a n t i t a t i v e l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e r e l a t i v e t o t h e d e m o g r a p h i c a n d g e o g r a p h i c s i z e o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g c o u n t r i e s and t o t h e i r e c o n o m i e s , t h e s t u d y a r e a i s n o n e t h e l e s s q u a l i t a t i v e l y o f i n t e r e s t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p a t t e r n i t ha s e x p e r i e n c e d . F i r s t , b e c a u s e o f t h e h i s t o r y o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y c h a n g e and t h e s t r u c t u r a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s s i n c e t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e i n 1973 w h i c h has i n t r o d u c e d r a p i d t r a n s i t i o n i n a v e r y s h o r t t i m e s p a n . S e c o n d , t h e c o n c r e t e a c t i o n s u n d e r t a k e n a f t e r t h e t a k e o v e r by t h e l i b e r a t i o n movement, e s t a b i s h i n g o n e - p a r t y r u l e (PAIGC) (1) t o i n s t a l l an a l t e r n a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g y w h i c h i n c l u d e d e l e m e n t s o f t h e b a s i c n e e d s a p p r o a c h . At t h i s moment t h e " w a t c h w o r d " f o r t h e PAIGC i n G u i n e a - B i s s a u w a s , a s G o u l e t (1978) p o i n t s o u t , t o i m p r o v e the l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n a n d t o a c h i e v e " e q u i t a b l y d i f f u s e d p r o g r e s s " and t h e r e f o r e t h e f i r s t p r i o r i t y was t o o b t a i n n a t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l - 5 8 -s e l . f - s u f f i c i e n c y . Hence, i n terms of t h e a n a l y s i s , the s m a l l s i z e of Guinea p e r m i t s us t o examine more c l o s e l y t h e e x a c t r o l e s of the d i f f e r e n t l e v e r s of change which a r e c o n t i n u i n g to i n t e r a c t t h r o u g h o u t t h e development p r o c e s s and h e l p p o i n t out i n a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n both the i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s which have impeded a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n the B i j a g o s a r c h i p e l a g o where t h e B i j a g o s t r i b e r e p r e s e n t s a p r o t o t y p e of PASF. I n s h o r t , the c o u n t r y r e f l e c t s a s o r t of l a b o r a t o r y model of T h i r d Slorld development, whereas any k i n d of i n t e r v e n t i o n t a k e s on a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e dimension w h i l e r e m a i n i n g very t y p i c a l of the c u r r e n t t r e n d i n many A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s . The case s t u d y w i l l f o c u s on t h e s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l and economic n a t u r e o f the problem of underdevelopment and serve to i l l u s t r a t e the system c f c o n c e p t s e l a b o r a t e d e a r l i e r t o e x p l a i n t h e dynamic f o r c e s which a f f e c t the p r e s e n t p a t t e r n . In a p r e l i m i n a r y s t e p , the case s t u d y w i l l d e a l w i t h a b r i e f s u r v e y o f the Guinean s i t u a t i o n , r e v i e w the e v o l u t i o n of the development p r o c e s s from c o l o n i a l i s m t o t h e s u c c e s s o r s t a t e p e r i o d and a l s o examine the s p e c i f i c c l a s s r e l a t i o n between the urban g u a s i - s t a t e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r and t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r . I n l i g h t of the c o u n t r y ' s d e s i r e t o a c h i e v e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and i t s p r e s e n t s t r u g g l e w i t h s e v e r e fo o d d e f i c i t , the st u d y w i l l f i n a l l y examine t h e c o n d i t i o n s which have imposed the v a r i o u s i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s to the development of t r a d i t i o n a l domestic a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e B i j a g o s a r c h i p e l a g o . (A d e s c r i p t i v e case of the f i r s t s i t u a t i o n was p o i n t e d out i n the summary o f c h a p t e r t h r e e . ) - 5 9 -F i g u r e 2: A composite ilap of West A f r i c a ( Source; Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency, Un monde en developpement, 1982) -60-G u i n e a - B i s s a u , f o r m e r l y Portuguese Guinea, was p a r t of the P o r t u g u e s e Empire's n e c k l a c e of A f r i c a n c o l o n i e s which surrounded the c o n t i n e n t . Among them were t h e Cape Verde I s l a n d s , A n g o l a , t h e I s l a n d s o f Sao Tome and P r i n c i p e and Mozambique. The independence o f G u i n e a - B i s s a u was p r o c l a i m e d on September 24, 1974, a f t e r e l e v e n y e a r s of armed s t r u g g l e had p e r s i s t e n t l y d r a i n e d t h e P o r t u g u e s e m i l i t a r y s u p p o r t of Sa.la.zar f o l l o w e d by t h e Portuguese d i c t a t o r s h i p ' s overthrow by the army c o l o n e l s . G u i n e a - B i s s a u remains one o f the s m a l l e s t and p o o r e s t independent s t a t e s on the A f r i c a n c o n t i n e n t and i n the world. A c o u n t r y e q u a l i n s i z e to the I s l a n d o f H a i t i , i t i s f i v e times l e s s p o p u l a t e d . The p o p u l a t i o n amounts t o 7 77,214 d i s t r i b u t e d amongst 124,354 f a m i l i e s a c c o r d i n g t o the 1979 census. The l a n d mass i s e s t i m a t e d t o c o v e r 3 6 , 125 square k i l o m e t e r s which b r i n g s e s t i m a t e s of p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y t o 21.51 i n h a b i t a n t s per square k i l o m e t e r (2) , w e l l below th e Kest A f r i c a n average of 29. (3) The p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n i s composed of an e v e n l y d i s p e r s e d r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n which t o t a l s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 86 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n w h i l e t h e r e m a i n i n g 14 per c e n t urban populus i s mostly c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e l a r g e s t c i t y of B i s s a u ( p o p u l a t i o n 110,000). The demographic p r e s s u r e i s f a i r l y lew. The c o u n t r y i s bounded on the n o r t h by S e n e g a l and on the e a s t and s o u t h by the R e p u b l i c of Guinea-Conakry. The A t l a n t i c s e a b ord r o u g h l y edges the west c o a s t as the s m a l l l a n d mass i s d r a i n e d by t h r e e major r i v e r s . The s o c i a l system i s made up of a mosaic of e t h n i c groups (twenty i n a l l ) of which th e t h r e e dominant c o n s i s t o f (1) the s o u t h e r n c o a s t a l , a n i m i s t and a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t B a l a n t a t r i b e (32 per c e n t ) ; (2) the n o r t h e r n , p a s t o r a l i s t F u l a n i t r i b e of Moslem f a i t h (22 per c e n t ) ; and the n o r t h c e n t r a l , Moslem, Mandjack t r i b e (14.5 per c e n t ) . Other t r i b e s i n c l u d e the Mandinguas, S a l u s , P a p e l s , F e l u p e s , Beafadas, B i j a g o s and o t h e r s . The B i j a g o s ( a n i m i s t ) account f o r o n l y f o u r per c e n t and c o n s t i t u t e a v e r y i s o l a t e d and m a r g i n a l e t h n i c group m a i n l y l o c a t e d i n the B i j a g o s a r c h i p e l a g o . I n a l l , two t h i r d s o f the p o p u l a t i o n are a n i m i s t w h i l e the r e s t a r e c o m p r i s e d m o s t l y of Moslems. A s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f C h r i s t i a n s i s m o s t l y c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e c a p i t a l c i t y of B i s s a u (a r e v e a l i n g i n d i c a t i o n of the l i m i t e d i n v o l v e m e n t of P o r t u g u a l i n the c o l o n y ) . The demographic s t r u c t u r e i s very young, a f e a t u r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e low l i f e e x p e ctancy (38 years) which p e r s i s t s due t o poor h e a l t h and s a n i t a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s which p r e v a i l t h r o u g h o u t the c o u n t r y . A r e l a t i v e l y low growth r a t e (1.4 per cent) i s a f f e c t e d by a v e r y h i g h i n f a n t i l e death r a t e of 50 per c e n t between t h e ages of a day t o a y e a r . M a l a r i a , d y s e n t r y , t u b e r c u l o s i s , pneumonia and o t h e r major i l l n e s s e s c o n t i n u e t o a f f l i c t e g u a l l y the urban and r u r a l segments of the p o p u l a t i o n . - 6 2 -T a b l e 1: Demographic s t r u c t u r e of G u i n e a - B i s s a u from 197 9 Census A G E _ G _ O a _ _ _ _ _ . _ „ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ., : „,;,,••, ^PE-RCENTAGE 0 - 6 25 7 - 1 4 13 15 - 59 58 60 - over 4 (Source: Quelgues i n d i c a t e u r s economigues de l a G u i n e a - B i s s a u , C e n t r e de documentation A m i l c a r C a b r a l , CECEP, G u i n e a - B i s s a u , August, 1981.) Dur i n g t h e f i v e hundred years of Portuguese d o m i n a t i o n , fewer t h a n a thousand European s e t t l e r s would a t one time p o p u l a t e the c o u n t r y making up p a r t of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and m i l i t a r y r u l e of the o v e r s e a s p r o v i n c e . A m e s t i c o group c o l l e c t e d from the Cape Verde I s l a n d s o c c u p i e d the g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f the c o l o n i a l b u r e a u c r a c y . Over 70 per c e n t of the b u r e a u c r a t i c a p p a r a t u s was made up o f V e r d i a n s . They a l s o p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n the b u i l d - u p o f t h e l i b e r a t i o n movement as th e m a j o r i t y of t h e l e a d e r s of the PAIGC were V e r d i a n s . R e c e n t l y , a m i l i t a r y coup i n 1980 r e p l a c e d t h e Ver d i a n p r e s i d e n t L u i z C a b r a l ( b r o t h e r of t h e a s s a s i n a t e d l e a d e r of the p a r t y , A m i l c a r C a b r a l ) w i t h the former prime m i n i s t e r and Guinean g u e r r i l l a l e a d e r Joao Bernardo "Nino" V i e i r a . S i nce t h e n , most of the V e r d i a n s who h e l d t o p p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s i n t h e s t a t e bureaucracy and p o l i t i c a l p a r t y because of t h e i r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l background have been o u s t e d by Guinean - 6 3 -r e p l a c e m e n t s . The o r i g i n a l o n e - p a r t y , t w o - n a t i o n concept which l i n k e d G u i n e a - B i s s a u w i t h Cape Verde has been t e r m i n a t e d . G o u l e t (1978) c o n t r a s t s t h e s i t u a t i o n of G u i n e a - B i s s a u t o t h e o t h e r e x - P o r t u g u e s e c o l o n i e s . Angola and Mozambique are t e r r i t o r i a l l y l a r g e c o u n t r i e s i n which t h e P o r t u g u e s e i n s t a l l e d a p l a n t e r c l a s s , both b e i n g p r o d i g i o u s l y r i c h i n n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . None of these c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n G u i n e a - B i s s a u , a l a n d which i s s m a l l i n s i z e , which has n e v e r had a " s e t t l e r " c l a s s , and which i s very poor i n n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . It. i s t r u e t h a t t h e I s l a n d s of Sao Tome and P r i n c i p e , a l s o f o r m e r P o r t u g u e s e c o l o n i e s , a r e m i n i s c u l e i n s i z e ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e i r c o l o n i a l economy was founded on a system of sugar and c o c o a p l a n t a t i o n s . T h i s i s not the case wi t h G u i n e a - B i s s a u , whose t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n of s u b s i s t e n c e a g r i c u l t u r e was never s u p p l a n t e d . (4) The p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e , as noted e a r l i e r , i s m inimal as the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y i n G u i n e a - B i s s a u i s f a r from r e a c h i n g a c r i t i c a l p o i n t . A r a b l e l a n d s a r e p l e n t i f u l i n most of the r e g i o n and t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d r i g h t s a r e s t i l l i n e f f e c t over the e n t i r e t e r r i t o r y . I n a d d i t i o n , the f o r e s t r y and f i s h e r y r e s o u r c e s c o n t r i b u t e d to the n a t u r a l endowment on which the " s u b s i s t e n c e " r u r a l s o c i e t i e s c o n t i n u e to h e a v i l y r e l y f o r t h e i r s o c i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n . The c o u n t r y i s d i v i d e d i n t o two major e c o l o g i c a l zones: the n o r t h e r n s e c t o r , sub-Saharan dry r e g i o n and the s o u t h e r n s e c t o r Guinean t r o p i c a l f o r e s t r e g i o n . The savannah v e g e t a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a low r a i n f a l l p a t t e r n (1, 100- 1, 500 m i l l i m e t e r ) c h a r a c t e r i z e s the n o r t h e r n d r y s e c t o r , a r e g i o n where the p r i n c i p a l s t a p l e s grows i n c l u d e c r o p s such as m i l l e t , sorghum, maize as w e l l as the m a j o r i t y of the e x p o r t - c o m m e r c i a l c r o p s (groundnuts and c o t t o n ) . Other p r o d u c t i o n forms i n c l u d e l i v e s t o c k c a t t l e . The B a f a t a r e g i o n has r e v e a l e d a s i z e a b l e - 6 4 -b a u x i t e d e p o s i t d i s c o v e r e d by the R u s s i a n t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e e x p e r t s i n v o l v e d i n most of t h e f o r a g i n g w i t h the M i n i s t r y of N a t u r a l R e sources. P r e s e n t l y , t h e r e a r e no raining a c t i v i t i e s i n o p e r a t i o n i n G u i n e a - B i s s a u . The s o u t h e r n s e c t o r which i n c l u d e s t h e i s l a n d s r e g i o n of the B i j a g o s a r c h i p e l a g e i s mo s t l y covered by v a r i a b l e low t o hi g h d e n s i t y t r o p i c a l f o r e s t v e g e t a t i o n . Large a r e a s of n a t u r a l palm o i l f o r e s t s a r e a l s o p r e s e n t and a r e a predominant f e a t u r e s o f t h e i s l a n d s . The annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n c r e a s e s t o l e v e l s between 2 , 5 0 0 - 3 , 5 0 0 m i l l i m e t e r s f o r l o w e r s o u t h e r n r e g i o n s s u b j e c t t o a r a i n y season. Higher y i e l d i n g w e t - r i c e p r o d u c t i o n i s t h e predominant a c t i v i t y i n the r e g i o n . Once, b e f o r e the r e v o l u t i o n , G u i n e a was s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n r i c e which had become an e x p o r t commodity along w i t h groundnuts and palm o i l . The T o m b a l i - Q u i n a r a r e g i o n accounts f o r 80 per c e n t of the n a t i o n a l r i c e p r o d u c t i o n and i s l a b e l l e d the r i c e b a s k e t of G u i n e a - B i s s a u . At p r e s e n t , the s o u t h e r n r e g i o n i s the f o c u s of o t h e r forms o f p r o d u c t i o n a l s o . E x p l o r a t i o n r e s e a r c h f o r o i l and gas near and around the B i j a g o s a r c h i p e l a g o i s i n p r o g r e s s . A c c o r d i n g t o the l a t e s t r e p o r t s , t h e World Bark i s t o f i n a n c e f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n i n t he a r e a . (Such p r o s p e c t s would i n c r e a s e the e v e n t u a l i t y of c l o s e r c o n t a c t o f the B i j a g o s " n a t u r a l " economy with the c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r monetary economy and open o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l l a b o u r f o r c e t c s h i f t i n t o a wage e a r n i n g l a b o u r f o r c e . ) An e x t e n s i v e c o a s t a l zone dominates the western edge o f Guinea. " P a t t y commodity" and " s u b s i s t e n c e " f i s h i n g a r e favo u r e d by t h e b o u n t i f u l waters which a r e reputed t o h e l d the most abundant f i s h s t o c k s on the West A f r i c a n c o a s t . -65-On a l a r g e r s c a l e , two j o i n t f i s h i n g v e n t u r e s (a Gu i n e an/French, and Guinean/B ussian) are i n v o l v e d i n the c ommercial e x p o r t of shrimp caught i n the c o n t i n e n t a l waters. F r o z e n shrimp, a l o n g with lumber, r e p r e s e n t s , a f t e r groundnuts and palm n u t s , the nost i m p o r t a n t commercial export goods produced i n G u i n e a - B i s s a u and, t o t a l e d t o g e t h e r , o n l y 13 m i l l i o n D.S. d o l l a r s i n e x p e r t revenues f o r 1979. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication are s e v e r e l y impeded by the hundreds of r i v e r s and t r i b u t a r i e s t h a t d i s s e c t the s m a l l l a n d mass. There a r e o n l y a few b r i d g e s and l e s s t h a n 4GO k i l o m e t e r s of paved road i n the e n t i r e c o u n t r y . A s m a l l r i v e r f e r r y system s h o r t e n s road t r a v e l time whenever i t i s not undergoing r e p a i r . A l t o g e t h e r , t h e r e a r e seme 1,800 k i l o m e t e r s of n a v i g a b l e r i v e r s ; however, marititae t r a v e l i s a l s o r e s t r a i n e d on account of h i g h t i d a l a c t i v i t y (4-5 meters) and s h a l l o w r i v e r beds. Delays and f r e q u e n t breakdowns o f the s t a t e owned comm e r c i a l shanty barges of the Armazens do Povo ( P e o p l e ' s s t o r e s ) and of the Socomin ( S t a t e e x p o r t - i m p o r t t r a d i n g f i r m ) are added impediments t o r e g i o n a l l i n k s w i t h the c a p i t a l . F i n a l l y , a s t a t e f e r r y system o p e r a t e d by the Guinepar, c o u n t i n g t h r e e s m a l l c a r g o b o a t s , i n s u r e s the l i a i s o n between t h e s o u t h e r n r e g i o n and t h e i s l a n d s (Bolama and Bubaque). A i r t r a v e l i s reduced t o a minimum and i s a l s o i r r e g u l a r . R e g a r d l e s s , i t i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r of d i s t o r t i o n f o r time t r a v e l and s c h e d u l i n g , f o r i n s t a n c e from B i s s a u to t h e i s l a n d of Bubaque from s i x hours by boat t o f i f t e e n minutes by p l a n e . In s h o r t , the i n f r a s t u c t u r e s and r e s o u r c e s o f G u i n e a - B i s s a u a r e v e r y p o o r l y d e v e l o p e d m a i n l y because of a c o l o n i a l h e r i t a g e which had l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n the l e s s n a t u r a l l y endowed overseas - 6 6 -p r o v i n c e u n d e r P o r t u g u e s e d o m i n a t i o n . A t p r e s e n t , G u i n e a - B i s s a u i s r a n k e d among t h e w o r l d c o u n t r i e s w i t h t h e l o w e s t P Q L I { P h y s i c a l Q u a l i t y o f L i f e I n d e x d e v e l o p e d l y the O v e r s e a s D e v e l o p m e n t C o u n c i l as a m e a s u r e o f human w e l l - b e i n g ) . I n f a c t , i t i s s t a t e d t h a t t h e P o r t u g u e s e r u l e o f f e r e d n o t even t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t b u t more a s t a t e o f n o n - d e v e l o p m e n t a l t o g e t h e r . A t i n d e p e n d e n c e , t h e c o u n t r y was l e f t w i t h o u t a n y modern i n d u s t r i e s o r s k i l l e d w o r k e r s , a l i t e r a c y r a t e o f 3 p e r c e n t , i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y o f 208 p e r t h c u s a n d and a l i f e e x p e c t a n c y o f 38 y e a r s . T h u s , G u i n e a - B i s s a u r e s s e r a b l e d much more a modern e c o n o m i c form o f t a b u l a r a s a a f t e r t h e d e p a r t u r e o f t h e P o r t u g u e s e t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e . (5) - 6 7 -F r g u r e 3 : Hap c f t h e C a s e s t u d y A r e a o f G u i n e a - B i s s a u a n d t h e B i j a g o s A r c h i p e l a g o ( S o u r c e : B u d e b e c k , 1982) - 6 8 -I I I . TH E_ PR E3££T,_ ECQ JIG J IC :.OJIIitiilL2JLj£SI££4zSiS SAU The economic s t r u c t u r e of G u i n e a - B i s s a u i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e c o - e x i s t e n c e of two systems: (1) an urban m i n o r i t y - d o m i n a t e d monetary, q u a s i - s t a t e c a p i t a l i s t system i n v o l v e d i n the c o m m e r c i a l - e x p o r t s e c t o r (state-owned and o p e r a t e d commercial i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r groundnuts and c o t t o n , lumber and f i s h i n g ) , and (2) a r u r a l - b a s e d p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g system i n v o l v e d i n the non-monetary s u b s i s t e n c e s e c t o r . At the end o f the l i b e r a t i o n war, a f t e r the p r o c l a m a t i o n of independence on September 24, 1974, a n a t i o n a l i s t government under a one-party r u l e s t a r t e d t o i n s t a t e the d i f f e r e n t s t a t u t e s of the o f f i c i a l p a r t y program o f t h e PAIGC (see appendix 1). B a s i c a l l y , t h e R e p u b l i c o f G u i n e a - B i s s a u i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the d i f f e r e n t f e a t u r e s o f a s o c i a l i s t - o r i e n t e d form of development, a l t h o u g h i t has never c a l l e d i t s e l f s o c i a l i s t or even l e s s espoused of be i n g of M a r x i s t - l e n i n i s t tendency. S e c t i o n f o u r of the p a r t y program e n t r e n c h e s a statement a c c l a i m i n g t h e d e s i r e d g o a l s of a c h i e v i n g economic independence, a s t r u c t u r e d economy anc the development of p r o d u c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r i n c i p l e of d e m o c r a t i c c e n t r a l i s m . A n a t i o n a l c u r r e n c y was c r e a t e d : the peso which was the l a s t l i n k t o be s e v e r e d w i t h t h e Portuguese c o l o n i a l p a s t . The s t a t e c o n t r o l s f o r e i g n t r a d e and i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s . I n o t h e r words, a s t a t e - c a p i t a l i s t system was e s t a b l i s h e d whereas f o u r t y p e s of ownership were i n s t i t u t e d : s t a t e and c o o p e r a t i v e p r e v a i l e d , p r i v a t e was t o l e r a t e d on the c o n d i t i o n t h a t i t be u s e f u l f o r r a p i d economic development and p e r s o n a l as f a r as the -69-ownership of consumer goods was c o ncerned (see a r t i c l e 3 under s e c t i o n 4 i n appendix 1). R u r a l development and a g r i c u l t u r a l m o d e r n i z a t i o n had a b r o a d l y d e f i n e d s e t of o b j e c t i v e s a l s o e n s h r i n e d i n the program. These were: development and m o d e r n i z a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r e , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the p r e s e n t system i n o r d e r to end the one-crop a g r i c u l t u r a l economy and to e r a s e the o b l i g a t o r y c h a r a c t e r o f e a r t h n u t (groundnut) c u l t i v a t i o n i n " P o r t u g u e s e " Guinea and maize i n the Cape Verde I s l a n d s and t c s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t a g r i c u l t u r a l c r i s e s , d r o u g h t , f l o o d s and f a m i n e . I m p l i c i t i n the program was, a s G o u l e t (1978) makes c l e a r , the prime o b j e c t i v e of r e a c h i n g f o o d s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y f i r s t as w e l l as " e q u i t a b l y d i f f u s e d p r o g r e s s " t h r o u g h o u t the c o u n t r y — n o r t h and s o u t h . Land p r o p e r t i e s and p o s e s s i o n s under the P o r t u g u e s e c o l o n i a l r u l e were c o n f i s c a t e d , t h e r e f o r e t h e few s m a l l p l a n t a t i o n s and farms became state-owned and o p e r a t e d i n most c a s e s . Thus, i t c o n t i b u t e d t o the f o r m a t i o n of a s t a t e - f a r m network as w e l l as t h e b u i l d - u p of the S t a t e a g r a r i a n system. The S t a t e a g r a r i a n system a d m i n i s t e r e d under the p r o v i s i o n s of the M i n i s t r y of R u r a l Development, managed t o b r i n g under i t s wing th e c o n t r o l of the r e c e p t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l i n p u t , the p r i c i n g of a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l produce and a l s o , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n through i t s r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s . F i n a n c i a l and c r e d i t i n s t i t u t i o n s are a d m i n i s t e r e d t o the peasants under very i n f o r m a l c o n d i t i o n s a l t h o u g h f o r m a l i n s t i t u t i o n s are b e i n g experimented w i t h i n d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s ( C o n t c b o e l and Caboxangue). F i n a l l y , w i t h the f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e of m u l t i l a t e r a l a g e n c i e s such as C.SE and F A O , t h e M i n i s t r y of R u r a l Development i s a l s o r e p o n s i b l e f o r two -70-e x p e r i d e n t a l s t a t i o n s which o c c u p i e d the time of most of the s k i l l e d j u n i o r s who had not been r e l o c a t e d i n t o t o p - b u r e a u c r a t i c p o s i t i o n s . " S t u d e n t s s e n t abroad to study d u r i n g t h e armed s t r u g g l e came back a f t e r independence (a m a j o r i t y , i r o n i c a l l y , i n agronomy) however, as much f o r e l i t i s t penchant as f o r l a c k of j u n i o r s t o do b u r e a u c r a t i c work i n s i d e the s t a t e a p p a r a t u s . There a r e now a g r o n o m i s t s who are ambassadors, who work i n i n t e r r a t i o n a l a f f a i r s out of the p r e s i d e n t ' s o f f i c e or f i l l o t h e r p o s i t i o n s which u r g e n t l y need f i l l i n g . " (6) Such were t h e p r e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t l e a d t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the r u l i n g e l i t e as w i l l be d e s c r i b e d l a t e r on. The poor c o n j u n c t u r e o f t h e p r e s e n t s t a t e commercial s e c t o r i s e videnced by i t s l o p s i d e d i m p o r t - e x p o r t r a t i o of 7:1 as the l e s s than 20 m i l l i o n U.S. d o l l a r e x p o r t revenues c o v e r o n l y 34 per c e n t of t h e i m p o r t c o s t s {see t a b l e 2 ) . (7) F o r e i g n a i d o c c u p i e s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n m a i n t a i n i n g the dependency of G u i n e a - B i s s a u on t h e w o r l d - c a p i t a l i s t system t h r o u g h l i n k s w i t h c l a s s a l l i a n c e i n the n a t i o n a l b u r e a u c r a c y as exposed i n c h a p e r s two and t h r e e . At p r e s e n t , most of the e x t e r n a l f i n a n c e i s c o n t r i b u t e d i n the form of b i l a t e r a l c r e d i t s {7 8.2 per cent) however, s e v e r a l m u l t i l a t e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e i n Guinea-Eissau»s "development" such as the EEC, OEC, UNDP, UNICEF, FAO and o t h e r s . D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d between 1976-1979, t h e m a j o r i t y o f b i l a t e r a l a i d was a t t r i b u t a b l e to t h r e e s o u r c e s : the USSB, Sweden and E a s t Germany r e p r e s e n t i n g r e s p e c t i v e l y 15.2, 13.2 and 11 per c e n t of the t o t a l i n vestment budget of 312.8 m i l l i o n U.S. d o l l a r s . (8) In 1982, t h e b a lance-of-payments d e f i c i t r o s e t o 66.7 m i l l i o n U.S. d o l l a r s and a c c o r d i n g t o r e c e n t r e p o r t s , the p r o j e c t e d f o r e c a s t f o r per. c a p i t a a i d w i l l r i s e from 99 t o 234 O.S. d o l l a r s i n 1990. (9) C u r r e n t l y , most of t h e s e e x p e n d i t u r e s a r e d i r e c t e d towards t h e urban s e c t o r and the a m e l i o r a t i o n of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e w h i l e r u r a l development accounts f o r l e s s than 5-6 per cent of the t o t a l i n v e s t m e n t budget (see t a b l e 2 o v e r l e a f ) . (10) - 7 2 -T a b l e 2; Investment Volume and P e r c e n t a g e by S e c t o r i n G u i n e a - B i s s a u f o r 1979 {Source: Lopez (1982), p. 116.) A c t i v i t i e s A g r i c u l t u r e , L i v e s t o c k , and F o r e s t r y F i s h e r i e s N a t u r a l Resources I n d u s t r y and A r t i s a n e r y En ergy T r a n s p o r t T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s E d u c a t i o n H e a l t h and S o c i a l w e l f a r e Or ban Other Planned 201,742 700,848 147,551 435,318 1 19,047 709,785 203.056 256,611 64,401 237,857 211,035 D i s t r i b u t i o n . Percentaqe__ 6. 1 21.3 4.5 13. 2 3.6 21.6 6. 2 7.9 2.0 7.2 6.4 T o t a l 3,283,255 100 * i n m i l l i o n s c f Pesos 3 0 Guinean Pesos = 1 U.S. D o l l a r -7 3-P i y u r c 4: ii C o a i p a r i t i ve Graph o f I m p o r t and E x p o r t Revenues Between 1965 and 1979 C o m m e r c i a l E a l a n c e D e f i c i t ( S o u r c e : C E C E P , B i s s a u , 1 980) I ;ii p o r t E x p o r t 1 U n i t = M i l l i o n P e s o s (py) 30 pg = 1 D.S. D o l l a r lot>P IfOO /See /•foe fzt>* /OaO 8«o • too 'too ZOO —f— bS 7? - 7 4 -F i g u r e 5 g i v e s a g r a p h i c i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e network, o f f l o w s o f g o o d s and s e r v i c e s w i t h i n t h e e c o n o m i c s y s t e m s o f G u i n e a - B i s s a u . The m o d e l i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e t e r r i t o r i a l l e v e l s o f s e c t o r i a l e x h a n g e : l e v e l (1) t h e w o r l d l e v e l i n c l u d e s f o r e i g n a s s i s t a n c e f r o m e i t h e r m u l t i l a t e r a l , b i l a t e r a l c r o t h e r s o u r c e s w i t h i n t h e w o r l d - c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m . I t a l s o i n c l u d e s t h e m o n e t a r y c o m m e r c i a l e x c h a n g e c i r c u i t s o f t h e two b o r d e r c o u n t r i e s , S e n e g a l a n d G u i n e a - C o n a k r y . L e v e l ( 2 ) , t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l e n c o m p a s s e s t h e f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l u r b a n s e c t o r l e v e l and t h e r u r a l p r e - c a p i t a l i s t e x c h a n g e l e v e l . L e v e l {3) r e p r e s e n t s t h e c i r c u l a t i o n w i t h i n l o t h t h e u r b a n and r u r a l l e v e l . I n l e v e l ( 1 ) , t h e f l o w s o f g o o d s and s e r v i c e s c o n s i s t o f a l l i n p u t s f r o m f o r e i g n a i d d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s ( e q u i p m e n t , m a t e r i a l s , o t h e r i m p o r t s ) w h i c h e n t e r by way o f t h e s t a t e - c c m m e r c i a l u r b a n - c e n t e r e d economy w h i l e t h e p e t t y c o m m o d i t y c i r c u i t f rom t h e b o r d e r i n g c o u n t r i e s e n t e r s e i t h e r by way o f t h e f r i n g e p r e - c a x ) i t a l i s t e x c h a n g e m a r k e t s o r t h e u r b a n i n f o r m a l s e c t o r , m o s t l y t h r o u g h i l l i c i t t r a d e a c t i v i t i e s . G o o d s e x c h a n g e d i n c l u d e money c u r r e n c i e s , s p a r e a u t o m o b i l e p a r t s , t o b a c c o and c l o t h e s i n e x c h a n g e f o r n a t i v e c o m m o d i t y g o o d s s u c h a s p a l m o i l , g r o u n d n u t s a n d pa lm n u t s . F r e q u e n t s h o r t a g e s o f b a s i c e s s e n t i a l s ( c o o k i n g o i l , s o a p a n d t o b a c c o ) i n G u i n e a - B i s s a u make s u c h t r a d i n g mechan i sm a n i m p o r t a n t avenue f o r t h e s u p p l y o f b a s i c g o o d s which t h e S t a t e i s u n a b l e t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e m a s s e s . 8 i t h i n t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l ( l e v e l ( 2 ) ) , t h e f l o w o f goods and s e r v i c e s p a s s e s v e r y m e a g e r l y between t h e u r b a n l e v e l and t h e r u r a l l e v e l . M o n e t a r y t r a d e i s c o n d u c t e d t h r o u g h t h e means o f t h e S t a t e - o w n e d n e t w o r k o f P e o p l e ' s s t o r e s ( A r m a z e n s do Povo) and - 7 5 -F i g u r e 5: A G r a p h i c I l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e F l o w s o f G c o d s and S e r v i c e s i n G u i n e a - E i s s a n FOREIGN! . A I D SENEGAL CONAKRy cL O \-u U l V/) H < f 5" LU or :8 UJ ol o a: B UJ O URBAN CENTRE ECONONA/ ^> URBAN BAZAAR ECONOMy T M O N E T A R / • SECTOR NON-MONETARy SECTOR URBAN LEVEL RURAL LEVEL z I o I > ! -> i H m I n E ° I NATIONJAL LEVEL W O R L D L E V E L t h e S t a t e t r a d i n g f i r m (Socomin) which a r e the o f f i c i a l c o m m e r c i a l o u t l e t s f o r the purchase and s a l e of e x p o r t and i m p o r t commodities. The f a c t i s , t h a t t h e r u r a l v i l l a g e s are p o o r l y s e r v i c e d by t h e s e s t o r e o u t l e t s d i s t r i b u t e d m o s t l y throughout the r e g i o n because the p r i o r i t y i s t o s u p p o r t the urban c e n t e r . Monetary t r a d e between the r u r a l s e c t o r and t h e urban l e v e l i s aauch more pro m i n e n t , i t i s s u s p e c t e d , between t h e i n f o r m a l s e c t o r of the urban l e v e l (through k i n s h i p and l i n e a g e l i n k a g e s ) than t h e f o r m a l s e c t o r . However, the non-monetary s e c t o r r e p r e s e n t s p o s s i b l y the g r e a t e s t share o f the f l o w of goods and s e r v i c e s between the two l e v e l s . As was p o i n t e d out i n c h a p t e r two, the i m p o r t a n c e o f the monetary market exchange which appears a t the f r i n g e of the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t v i l l a g e community u s u a l l y v a r i e s i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e degree of p e n e t r a t i o n of the c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r ( s t a t e - c o m m e r c i a l e c oncny). F i n a l l y , w i t h i n the urban l e v e l o f l e v e l ( 3 ) , a d i s t i n c i o n i s made a l o n g the c l a s s i c d i v i s i o n o f the f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l s e c t o r of the urban economy as i n t r o d u c e d by Hart (1973). In G u i n e a - B i s s a u , t h e i n f o r m a l s e c t o r i s very s m a l l i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g c o u n t r i e s . Flows between t h e two s e c t o r s f o r goods a r e b a s i c a l l y r e s i d u a l i n n a t u r e — r e c y c l i n g of c o n t a i n e r s , m a t e r i a l s , boxes e t c e t e r a , w h i l e the s e r v i c e s d e l i v e r e d by s t r e e t v e n d o r s , s h o e s h i n e a t t e n d a n t s , p r o s t i t u t e s , hawkers e t c e t e r a a re m i n i m a l . In summary, i t i s o b v i c u s t h a t the g r e a t e r m a j o r i t y of the consumer goods and s e r v i c e s purchased i n G u i n e a - B i s s a u i n the r u r a l a r e a s a re i m p o r t e d through i l l i c i t t r a d e networks and t h r o u g h non-monetary exchange c i r c u i t s . The urban s e c t o r , i n c o n t r a s t depends much more cn the f o r m a l l i n k s o f i m p o r t - e x p o r t - 7 7 -t r a d e m e c h a n i s m t o s u p p o r t t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . I V . THE EVOLUTION OF T E E DEVELOPMENT PROCESS I N GUINEA—BISSAU: IRQMi.CQLONIALIS.fl TO jPQS5~IMDEPENDE'NCE I n t h e b e g i n n i n g , t h e c o l o n i a l e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e e v o l v e d p a r a l l e l t o t h e p a t h w a y s o f W e s t e r n e c o n o m i c t h o u g h t and was f i r s t d e f i n e d by t h e f o r c e s o f m e r c a n t i l i s m w h i c h l a s t e d f r o m 1450 t o 1750 : L e s v a i s s e a u x e n v a h i s s e n t l a mer e t 1'o c e a n , d e s f l o t t e s i m m e n s e s s o n t c o n s t r u i t e s e t s ' e n t r e d § t r u i s e n t . . . V o i l a l e c o n t e x t e d a n s l e g u e l l e c o l o n i a l i s m e e s t n e a v e c un b u t t r e s p r e c i s e t p a r t i c u l i e r : l a C o n g u S t e de I ' o r . (11) F r o m t h e P o r t u g u e s e E m p i r e , t h e c o n g u e r e r s d e v e l o p e d c o m m e r c i a l t r a d e r e l a t i o n s i n t h e o r i e n t ( s p i c e s ) , i n A f r i c a ( s l a v e t r a d e ) a n d i n B r a z i l ( t o b a c c o , s u g a r and g o l d ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e was n o t much g o l d and t e a few o t h e r r i c h e s t o i n t e r e s t t h e E m p i r e i n G u i n e a a s o p p o s e d t o what e x i s t e d i n A n g o l a and M o z a m b i q u e . I t was P o r t u g u e s e i m p e r i a l p r i o r i t i e s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e d i n a f u n d a m e n t a l way t h e s t r u c t u r e o f c o l o n i a l r u l e t h r o u g h o u t i t s o v e r s e a s p o s s e s s i o n s . E x p o r t t r a d e was e x c l u s i v e l y d e f i n e d by t h e m e t r o p o l i s , t h u s i m p o s i n g on t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s i t d o m i n a t e d , t h e w a n t s and n e e d s o f L i s b o n . A b o v e a l l , i t was e x t r a c t i v e i m p e r i a l i s m w h i c h s o u g h t t o g u a r a n t e e a s u p p l y o f raw m a t e r i a l f r o m t h e c o l o n i e s . L a t e r o n , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c a p i t a l i s m a n d t h e c o i n c i d i n g i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n s h i f t e d t h e f o c u s o f t h e e m p i r e away f r o m t h e s a u r a l a m b i t i o n s t o a d d t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n c r e a s i n g m a r k e t s f o r t h e m a n u f a c t u r e d g o o d s . The p r o d u c t o f -78-i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n was t a i l o r i n g much of the e x p a n s i o n i n s e a r c h a l s o of new r e s o u r c e s from the o v e r s e a s c o l o n i e s . T h e r e a f t e r , t h e i n e q u a l i t y of the i a-pet us of Por t u g u e s e c o l o n i a l development would be d e t e r m i n e d by the uneven endowment o f v i t a l r e s o u r c e s from the c o l o n i e s . C onsequently, unequal i n v e s t m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s were a l l o c a t e d i n response t o the r e t u r n s which c o u l d be produced from t h e i r e x p l o i t a t i o n . G u i n e a - B i s s a u had no i m m e d i a t e l y u s e f u l w e a l t h i n a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . . S u b s e q u e n t l y , i t was the o b j e c t o f very l i t t l e i n t e r e s t . Bradby (1975) e x p l a i n s t h e s e a c t i o n s of the c a p i t a l i s t system by i n d i c a t i n g t h a t ; "... c a p i t a l i s m has d i f f e r e n t needs of p r e - c a p i t a l i s t economies a t d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s of development which a r i s e from s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e . " (1.2) I n Guinea, t h e c o l o n i a l i s t "development" s t r a t e g y , because of the p o v e r t y of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s r e l a t i v e to o t h e r i n t e r e s t , r e l i e d o n l y on a g r i c u l t u r e f o r any s o r t of p o t e n t i a l a c c u m u l a t i o n a f t e r the g l u t of t h e s l a v e t r a d e had ended. (The Portuguese l a c k of i n t e r e s t o v e r a l l i n Guinea i s e v i d e n c e d by the n a t u r e o f the t a b u l a r a s a s t a t e i n which the c o u n t r y was l e f t a f t e r independence as i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r . ) La modestie des i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s l a i s s e " s par l e c o l o n i s a t e u r t§moigne du f a i b l e inte're't §"conomique que l e s P o r t u g u a i s p o r t a i e n t a un pays considered s u r t o u t comme un e n t r e p o t commercial ou une base t n i l i t a i r e . (13) In o r d e r to c r e a t e an a g r i c u l t u r a l s u r p l u s of e x p o r t a b l e v a l u e , the p r o d u c t i o n of groundnuts was i n t r o d u c e d as the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e s o r t e d t o a c o e r c i v e mechanism of dominance to e n s u r e the a p p r o p r i a t i o n of the a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s : - 7 9 -Ihe Portuguese used two main i n s t r u m e n t s t o d e r i v e economic g a i n s : a system of heavy t a x e s on a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s and t r a d i n g arrangements which a l l o w e d them t c purchase groundnuts a t low p r i c e s f o r e x p o r t a t i o n t o P o r t u g u a l . (14) The r e m i t t a n c e earned from the groundnut p r o d u c t i o n was b a r e l y s u f f i c i e n t t o pay the heavy t a x e s . Thus, t h r o u g h the c o l o n i a l form o f e x p l o i t a t i o n , the b e n e f i t s of the p r o d u c t i o n were e n t i r e l y a p p r o p r i a t e d by a m i n o r i t y r u l i n g c l a s s c e n t e r e d I n the urban a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t e r . Hence, as i n G e e r t z ' s (1963) d e s c r i p t i o n o f the c o l o n i z a t i o n o f J a v a , t h e b a s i c f u n c t i o n of P o rtuguese c o l o n i a l i s m i n Guinea was t o " p r y a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s " , e s s e n t i a l l y groundnuts, but a l s o palm k e r n e l s and o i l and l a t e r on, r i c e from the n a t u r a l economy, which were s a l e a b l e on the w o r l d market w i t h o u t f u n d a m e n t a l l y c h a n g i n g the s t r u c t u r e of t h e i n d i g i n e o u s economy. (15) A p e r i o d of low c o n t a c t w i t h t h e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r was m a i n t a i n e d and t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t system was c o n s e r v e d w i t h i n a s u b o r d i n a t e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e r e b y r e l i e v i n g the dominant c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r of the t o t a l c o s t of a s u p p o r t i v e r o l e . As l o n g as t h e r e were no i n d u s t r i e s i n need of a l a b o u r f o r c e , the c o n d i t i o n s f o r the d i s s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s of the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t economy were not p r e s e n t . A s u r p l u s was, t h e r e f o r e , s u c c e s s f u l l y e x t r a c t e d from the c r e a t i o n o f an o p p r e s s i v e system of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s which enabled t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s t o p r e s e r v e t h e m s e l v e s , as w e l l as t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n o f " s u b s i s t e n c e " a g r i c u l t u r e . In s h o r t , the P o r t u g u e s e p a t t e r n of development produced a dynamic o r i e n t e d w h o l l y towards i t s own s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t . A t f i r s t , i t was the urban e n c l a v e c f Bolama, the f i r s t c a p i t a l e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1870, which b e n e f i t t e d and l a t e r , i n 1941, i t -80-would become B i s s a u which then became the new c a p i t a l . (16) The e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s from t h e l a b o u r o f the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t system r e q u i r e d very s m a l l i n v e s t m e n t s — a p o r t , an urban c e n t e r and f i n a l l y a network of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t o w nship c e n t e r s . The u l t i m a t e r e s u l t o f the Portuguese c o l o n i a l i s t r u l e would not even be t h e development of underdevelopment. v« POST—IN PEP EN. PENCE IEVELCPMENT PATTERNS IN G0.lNE.fl—BISSAU" A s e r i e s o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y changes which had been p r o g r e s s i v e l y a p p l i e d by t h e PAIGC i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s of the l i b e r a t e d zones t h r o u g h o u t the armed s t r u g g l e became e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n the e n t i r e c o u n t r y a f t e r l i b e r a t i o n . S c h o o l and h e a l t h u n i t s and P e o p l e ' s s t o r e s p r o v i d e d immediate b e n e f i t s t o the we 1 1 - m o b i l i z e d r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n . Based on the f o u n d a t i o n s of a new s o c i e t y which were i n s p i r e d by the w r i t i n g s and t e a c h i n g s of A m i l c a r C a b r a l which suggested an a l t e r n a t i v e development s t r a t e g y based on s e I f - d e t e r mina t i . on, autonomy, and s e l f - r e l i a n c e . A f t e r the r a p i d e s t a b l i s h m e n t of many s o c i a l r e f o r m s by t h e new r u l i n g e l i t e , the A f r i c a n s o c i a l i s t e x p e r i m e n t was l e s s e f f e c t i v e i n s u p p l y i n g economic r e f o r m s d i r e c t l y t o the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n . Even though the P l a n n i n g M i n i s t e r a t t h i s t i m e , Vasco C a b r a l , had a t t e s t e d t o the need f o r s p e c i a l p r i o r i t y t o t h e r u r a l s e c t o r . " P a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the r u r a l p o p u l u s i s sought a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s . I n o r d e r t o c h a n n e l i n f o r m a t i o n from the base and v i c e - v e r s a , the c o u n t r y has been d i v i d e d i n t o economic zones (the B i j a g o s and Bolama c o n s t i t u t e d zone 4 ) , each zone h a v i n g i t s own economic v o c a t i o n , y e t t h e r e can be no doubt - 8 1 -t h a t s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n must be g i v e n t o the c o u n t r y s i d e . T h i s i s our f i r s t p r i o r i t y . " (17) C o n s e q u e n t l y , a fundamental c o n t r a d i c t i o n embedded i n the c o n f l i c t i n g n a t u r e o f the v a l u e s s u p p o r t e d by the two s t r a t a s o f the Guinean s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n and the d e s i r e of the new c l a s s s t r u c t u r e emerged t o become the major o b s t a c l e t c the achievement of the a l t e r n a t i v e development s t r a t e g y , k e e p i n g i n mind the i d e o l o g i c a l impasse between the c a p i t a l i s t and p r e - c a p i t a l i s t system. . From t h e moment t h e freedom f i g h t e r s e n t e r e d B i s s a u and took t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s , a r a p i d t r a n s i t i o n of the Guinean s o c i e t y had m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f . As G e e r t z a l s o d e s c r i b e s i n the case of J a v a , Guinean s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e e v o l v e d from a c o m p o s i t e of s e l f - c o n t a i n e d s o c i a l l y s e g r e g a t e d s t a t u s groups ( i . e . , d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups) t o a more b r o a d l y comprehensive s e t of a c r o s s - t h e - b o a r d s o c i a l c l a s s e s . (18) At the top of t h e p y r a m i d , t h e new r u l i n g c l a s s was assembled and i t s dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was t h a t i t possessed seme degree of e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t — a t l e a s t f o r the v e r d i a n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a de f a c t o mcncrapoly of power l a n d e d i n t h e i r hands. monopoly of power l a n d e d i n t h e i r hands. A l t h o u g h i t was made up of new r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , t h e new r u l i n g e l i t e was merely a s u b s t i t u t i o n of the o l d , moulded i n t o a s i m i l a r s o c i a l f o r m a t i c r and A c c o r d i n g t o Lopez (1982) , The r e u t i l i z a t i o n of the s t r u c t u r e s i n s t a l l e d by the p r e v i o u s c o l o n i a l government of the p r o v i n c e of Portuguese Guinea (laws, b u r e a u c r a c y e t c e t e r a ) was t c be one of the worst p o l i t i c a l e r r o r s committed by the PAIGC, though f a r from b e i n g done by c h o i c e . (19) -82-The l e g a c y of the co m m e r c i a l - e x p o r t economic system i n h e r i t e d by the emerging urban m i n o r i t y r u l i n g c l a s s imposes s e r i o u s o b s t a c l e s t o the f u l f i l l m e n t of t h e autonomous development p o l i c y . However, w i t h o u t any i n d u s t r i e s , nor the p o s s i b i l i t y of a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l s u r p l u s e s from the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r by c o e r c i v e measures, t h e S t a t e , which needed t o r e l y on the backwash of a c o l o n i a l i s t committed b u r e a u c r a c y , was o b l i g e d t o c o n s i d e r o t h e r means t o s a t i s f y the p o l i t i c a l wants o f the m i n o r i t y urban c l a s s e s i n o r d e r to assu r e i t s own s u r v i v a l . Hence, the s i t u a t i o n o f G u i n e a - B i s s a u e v o l v e d f r o m i t s d e s i r e t o be f u l l y independent and s e l f - r e l i a n t i n t o what c o u l d be c a l l e d a form of q u a s i - s t a t e Eer.ip.her a 1 c a p i t a l i s m . The above c o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , be q u a l i f i e d as a s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n which i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n of an amalgam of c o h e s i v e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a communal or t r i b a l mode or p r o d u c t i o n w i t h a dominant ( s t a t e ) c a p i t a l i s t mode of p r o d u c t i o n dependent on a s t a t e c o m m e r c i a l e x p o r t - s e c t o r market d e e p l y i n t e g r a t e d t o a w o r l d - c a p i t a l i s t system. The disengagement cf a major p o r t i o n of the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s from the a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f t h e s u r p l u s e s by the s t a t e c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d by the l a t t e r 1 s i n a b i l i t y t o d e l i v e r prompt m a t e r i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n to t h e r u r a l communities because of i t s o b l i g a t i o n t o the uban c l a s s e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s t a t e was no l o n g e r i n a p o s i t o n of p o l i t i c a l l y m o b i l i z i n g the r u r a l f o r c e s , s i n c e i t had become aware of the s h i f t of the b a l a n c e o f power i n f a v o u r o f t h o s e who manned the b u r e a u c r a t i c a p p a r a t u s . I t s h o u l d be noted here t h a t the n o r t h e r n F u l a n i t r i b e , who were very c o o p e r a t i v e w i t h t h e c o l o n i a l regime a r e ve r y w e l l i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r a l t h o u g h s t i l l l i v i n g under - 8 3 -p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i a l arrangement { t r i b u t a r y mode of p r o d u c t i o n ) . Thus, i n c o n t r a s t t o o t h e r t r i b e s , t h e i r committment to c o m m e r c i a l c r o p p r o d u c t i o n has f a v o u r e d them g e n e r o u s l y i n r e c e n t y e a r s as w e l l and has adapted s u c c e s s f u l l y t o the monetary economy. F o r e i g n a i d i n t e r v e n t i o n which was prompt and generous because of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y r e p u t e d v a l i d i t y of t h e Guinean cause, which a m i l c a r C a b r a l had so v a l l i a n t l y defended, had as a consequence t o o n l y s t i m u l a t e t h e d i s a l l i a n c e o f the r u l i n g e l i t e and urban c l a s s a g a i n s t t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n . H e n c e f o r t h : L ' a i d e i n t e r n a t i o n a l e g u i f i n a n c a i t l'equipement du pays f a v o r i s a i t a i n s i l e developpement d'un v a s t e s e c t e u r a d m i n i s t r a t i f e t de s e r v i c e s tourn<§ non v e r s 1 ' o r g a n i s a t i o n des f l u x economigues e n t r e l e monde r u r a l e t I ' i n d u s t r i e mais p l u t o t v e r s des a c t i v i t e s d ' i m p o r t - e x p o r t d e s t i n e e s a s a f i s f a i r e s e s p r o p r e s b e s o i n s de consomfflation u r b a i n e . (20) C o n s e q u e n t l y , the s t a t e - c a p i t a l i s t commercial s e c t o r expanded w h i l e the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r was c o n s e r v e d i n the same manner as was p r e v i o u s l y done l y the Portuguese w i t h o u t even c o n c e i v i n g any measures of a smcotb t r a n s i t i o n by way o f d i s s o l u t i o n . Meanwhile, the e l i t e preached a u s t e r i t y , e f f i c i e n c y and p r i o r i t y t o a g r i c u l t u r e and r u r a l development w h i l e i t p r a c t i c e d l u x u r y f o r i t s e l f t h r o ugh w a s t e f u l consumer i m p o r t s ( m a i n l y on account of t i e d a i d ) ; i t i n c r e a s e d the s i z e o f the c i v i l s e r v i c e , which became t o o numerous and i m p r a c t i c a l ; and f i n a l l y d e v c t e d o n l y 5-6 per c e n t of t h e i n v e s t m e n t budget t o r u r a l development up u n t i l 19 79. The f a c t of the n a t t e r was t h a t 90 per c e n t of the budget was b e i n g a l l o c a t e d to pay t h e s a l a r i e s of t h e c i v i l s e r v a n t s (see f i g u r e 6) and t h a t the g r e a t e r m a j o r i t y of the investment budget was o r i e n t e d t c w a r d s t h e economic advantage of the urban -84-c l a s s e s and t h e e x p a n s i o n o f the c o m m e r c i a l - e x p o r t s e c t o r w h i l e b e i n g camouflaged as r u r a l development as i n the case of the CUMERE a g r o - i n d u s t r i a l p r e j e t . The CUMERE a g r o - i n d u s t r i a l complex i m m o b i l i z e d over 20 m i l l i o n U.S. d o l l a r s i n f o r e i g n i n v e s t m e n t c a p i t a l which was e q u i v a l e n t t o more than 10 per cen t of the t o t a l investment budget of G u i n e a - B i s s a u between 1978 and 1980. The complex was d e s t i n e d t o c e n t r a l i z e a l l the a g r i c u l t u r a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g r i c e d e h u s k i n g , peanut o i l m a n u f a c t u r i n g and soap-making. The p l a n t , l o c a t e d near B i s s a u , was designed 50 per cent over c a p a c i t y and c o u l d o n l y employ a l i m i t of 200 h i g h l y s k i l l e d l a b o u r e r s . Because of the many t e c h n i c a l problems e n c o u n t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t the c o n s t r u c t i o n phase, the complex i s s t i l l not i n o p e r a t i o n and w i l l p r o b a b l y never be c a p a b l e of o p e r a t i n g . Dumont (1980), a l s o d i s c u s s e s the i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of such a d e c i s i o n and p o i n t s out t h e urban b i a s nehind the p r o j e c t ' s a c c r e d i t a t i o n by the r u l i n g e l i t e , which he q u a l i f i e s as s i m p l y i n s a n e : TI e s t a peu p r e s depcurvu de r o u t e s , e t l e s v o i e s d'eau c e r t e s p l u s econcmiques, ne d e s s e r v e n t que des zones forcement l i m i t e e s . Une socie"te •'dSvelope'e" a cependant r S u s s i , par des proc^des p a r f o i s t o u t e u x , a l e u r ve.nd.re un p r o j e t v e r i t a b l e m e c t d e m e n t i e l . A CUMERE, t o u t pres de l a c a p i t a l B i s s a u , une encrme u s i n e se propose de d e c o r t i q u e r l a m a j o r i t y du paddy — p o u r f a i r e du r i z . On c e n c e n t r e r a i t a grand f r a i s l e paddy, ce q u i o b l i g e r a i t a t r a n s p o r t e r a u s s i l e s e c o r c e s e n v e l l o p a n t l e s g r a i n s , l e s b a l l e s , q u i d e v r a i e n t t e s t e r au v i l l a g e . De p e t i t e s i n s t a l l a t i o n s a r t i s a n a l e s dans l e s r e g i o n s de p r o d u c t i o n p e r m e t t r a i e n t d'y l a i s s e r s u r t o u t l a v a l e u r a j o u t S e de l a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , q u i p o u r r a i t §tre i n v e s t i e dans l e v i l l a g e . (2 1) - 3 5 -F i g u r e 6: Wage-Earner D i s t r i b u t i o n i n G u i n e a - B i s s a u ( Source; Lopez, 1S.92) C o n c e n t r a t i o n ox wage e a r n e r s i n the c a p i t a l c i t y of B i s s a u Primary S e c t o r Secondary S e c t o r T e r t i a r y S e c t o r m CD am S e c t o r of Employment Sage Earner <3> -86-In f a c t , the r e a s o n s b e h i n d the b e h a v i o r and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g of t h e r u l i n g e l i t e f o r o p t i n g f o r c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e investment a g a i n s t the d e c e n t r a l i z e d , s m a l l e r , more a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t a l l a t i o n i s s u c c i n c t l y p o i n t e d out by Sandbrook (1982) by the fundamental f a c t t h a t : The e x i s t i n g " a r t i c u l a t i o n " of the modes of p r o d u c t i o n thus m i r r o r s the i n t e r e s t of the dominant f o r e i g n and domestic c l a s s e s . B e n e f i t i n g from the o r g a n i z a t i o n of p r o d u c t i o n and consumption p a t t e r n t h i s p e r m i t s , these c l a s s e s use t h e i r p o l i t i c a l power to r e s i s t c o s t l y economic r e f o r m . Any genuine u p g r a d i n g c f the c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s o f the n o n - c a p i t a l i s t and p e t t y c a p i t a l i s t e n t e r p r i s e would c o n s t i t u t e such r e f o r m by removing the p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n of the o l i g o p o l i s t i c f i r m s . (22) I t i s t h e r e f o r e s a f e t o assume t h a t t o have e x p e c t e d , i n the case of G u i n e a - B i s s a u , t h e f u l f i l l m e n t of an autonomous development s t r a t e g y or complete s e l f - r e l i a n c e would have r e q u i r e d profound s t r u c t u r a l change t o occur w i t h i n the dynamic of t h e s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n and more i m p o r t a n t l y , w i t h i n the s t r u c t u r e of the c l a s s f o r m a t i o n . T h i s i s where C a b r a l ' s n o t i o n of " c l a s s s u i c i d e o f t h e p e t t y b o u r g e o i s " becomes most r e l e v a n t ( 2 3 ) , s i n c e i t was the emergence o f t h e new n a t i o n a l b u r e a u c r a t i c b o u r g e o i s i e w i t h i t s d e s i r e s founded on Western models and consumption p a t t e r n s which most o b s t r u c t e d t h e p r o c e s s c f d e l i v e r i n g the b a s i c needs t o the r i r a l p o p u l a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , the d e m o n s t r a t o r e f f e c t of t h e i r Western consumption p a t t e r n s a l s o c r e a t e the d e s i r e s f o r v a s t l y e x s p e n s i v e , new needs. I n summary, they c o u l d not r e s i s t t h e p r i v i l e g e s which come w i t h power nor would they w i t h s t a n d a f e e l i n g o f i n f e r i o r i t y a t a world c l a s s l e v e l and t h u s d e p r i v e t h e m s e l v e s of the a m e n i t i e s and l u x u r i e s of an urban l i f e s t y l e . The quantum l e a p which sould have been r e q u i r e d to f e l l o w through -87-w i t h the a l t e r n a t i v e development s t r a t e g y c o u l d t h e r e f o r e only have been e n t i r e l y r e a l i z e d w i t h the d r i v e of a c h a r i s m a t i c , p r o p h e t / l e a d e r such as A m i l c a r C a b r a l i n o r d e r t o a v o i d the o r g a n i c c l a s s d i v i s i o n and s t r u g g l e p r o c e s s . The above case s t u d y has h e l p e d t o i l l u s t r a t e a key f e a t u r e of the e x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s t c the development of p r e - c a p i t a l i s t t r a d i t i o n a l d o m e s t i c a g r i c u l t u r e , t h a t I s , the b l o c k i n g of the p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s by t h e n a t u r e of the c l a s s c o n t r a d i c t i o n between the urban and r u r a l c l a s s e s . Hence, i n accordance w i t h Dumont (1981) we can f i n a l l y s t a t e t h a t : Le probleme de I ' & f r i q u e " s o u s - d e v e l o p p e " ne v i e n t pas de l a c r i s e I n t e r n a t i o n a l e . . . (ni du c o n s e r v a t i s m e du paysan) ...mais de I ' a r r o g a n c e e t du mepris d'une c l a s s e eduque" et a l l i e c o n t r e des systemes n o n - c a p i t a l i s t e s d i t e s " p r i m i t i v e s " duquel on c o n t i n u e de p r o f i t e r de son t r a v a i l s u r p l u s e t a c c u m u l a t i o n de c a p i t a l q u i s e r v i r a rrenablement p l u s l a v i l l e au depend de l a campagne. (24) The c o n s e r v a t i o n element i s a response which r e f l e c t s the u n w i l l i n g n e s s of the u r b an c l a s s e s t o i n s t a l l the r e q u i r e d r e f o r m s i n the r u r a l a r e a s ; and t o a v o i d response u n t i l a p o i n t of c r i s e s i s r e a c h e d , which when p r o p e r l y u n f u s e d , i s m a i n t a i n e d by t h e urban c l a s s e s and the r u l i n g e l i t e as a means of a c q u i r i n g a g r e a t e r s h a r e of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c r e d i t , u s i n g food s h o r t a g e i n t h e r u r a l a r e a as a pretext, f o r moral p r e s s u r e . I n r e f e r e n c e t o the model i n c h a p t e r t h r e e , the case of S u i n e a - B i s s a u would be r e p r e s e n t e d by the f i r s t l e v e l of c a p i t a l i s t i n t e g r a t i o n and the s u r v i v a l o f a low c o n t a c t s i t u a t i o n w i t h the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r . More p r e c i s e l y , i t i s a case where the s t a t e i s i n d e p e n d e n t l y d e v e l o p i n g the s t a t e / c a p i t a l i s t i c s t r u c t u r e s under a S t a t e a g r a r i a n system to -88-s u i t immediate g a i n s and advantages and very s l o w l y i n t r o d u c i n g a d i s s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s however, r e l y i n g much more upon c o n s e r v a t i o n . The case o f the B i j a g o s a r c h i p e l a g o g i v e n i n the next s e c t i o n w i l l demonstrate the i n t e r n a l b a r r i e r s which ope r a t e w i t h i n a p r e - c a p i t a l i s t a g r i c u l t u r a l s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g f o r m a t i o n as w e l l as i l l u s t r a t e t h e e f f e c t s of development from above as an element of e x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s . v 1 • THE CASE OF THE BIJAGOS ARCHIPELAGO The B i j a g o s a r c h i p e l a g o i s l o c a t e d a t t h e d e l t a o f the Geba r i v e r and i s c o m p r ised of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 60 i s l a n d s of which 20 a r e i n h a b i t e d , p r e d o m i n a n t l y by the B i j a g o s e t h n i c group. A f a i r l y homogenous r e g i o n , the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i s counted as 22,000 i n h a b i t a n t s . The populus i s d i s t r i b u t e d among 756 v i l l a g e s which a r e s p r e a d e v e n l y so as t o r e f l e c t a s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n c o n s i s t i n g of c l u s t e r s of s m a l l v i l l a g e s l o c a t e d a t the e x t r e m i t i e s of each i s l a n d . V i l l a g e p o p u l a t i o n ranges from 300 to 1,000 i n h a b i t a n t s w h i l e i s l a n d d e n s i t y averages 25 i n h a b i t a n t s per s q uare k i l o m e t e r . The B i j a g o s s o c i e t y i s a p r o t o t y p e of t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t a g r i c u l t u r a l s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g f o r m a t i o n . T h e i r s o c i a l and economic o r g a n i z a t i o n r e s t s on t h r e e b a s i s e l e m e n t s : m a t r i l i n e a r c l a n d i v i s i o n s ( l i n e a g e ) , the extended f a m i l y n u c l e i ( k i n s h i p ) and an a g e / c l a s s h i e r a r c h y . (25) They have assumed almost c o m p l e t e s e l f - r e l i a n c e up t o the p r e s e n t . The remote g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n cf s e v e r a l i s l a n d s and t h e i r b e l l i g e r e n t r e p u t a t i o n has p r e s e r v e d them from o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s of the - 8 9 -c a p i t a l i s t w o r l d - s y s t e m , (26) The a g r i c u l t u r a l economic o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the B i j a g o s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e predominance of s l a s h and burn f a l l o w c u l t i v a t i o n . R i c e i s the p r i n c i p a l c r o p which i s grown under a s h i f t i n g c y c l i c a l p a t t e r n of a g r i c u l t u r e based on a 4-5 year r o t a t i o n p e r i o d which has not been a l t e r e d by any demographic p r e s s u r e s i n r e c e n t y e a r s . For th e s e communal c u l t i v a t o r s , the abundant l a n d t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e i s d i s t r i b u t e d a c c o r d i n g t o r u l e s d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r ; t h a t i s t c each a c c o r d i n g t o h i s needs, t o the e l i g i b l e kinsmen and women w i t h i n t h e extended f a n i l y n u c l e i . The d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y o r g a n i z e d a l o n g sex/age d i s t r i b u t i o n of t a s k s . The men are g e n e r a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c l e a r i n g and p r e p a r a t i o n of the l a n d w h i l e the women oversee most of the o t h e r a g r i c u l t u r a l t a s k s w i t h the h e l p c f the c h i l d r e n : s e e d i n g , weeding, p r o t e c t i o n and h a r v e s t . At peak p e r i o d s i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l c y c l e , work teams a r e assembled between f a m i l y members whenever e x t r a l a b o u r i s r e q u i r e d . Renumeration i s p r o v i d e d i n k i n d w i t h food and d r i n k . The means c f p r o d u c t i o n a r e r u d i m e n t a r y i n n a t u r e ; the machete and more r e c e n t l y the hoe a r e the o n l y i m p o r t t o o l s t h a t are w i d e l y used. Complementary a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e f i s h i n g , h u n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g of palm nuts i n the n a t u r a l palm o i l f o r e s t cover and s h e l l f i s h c o l l e c t i o n a t low t i d e . The g e r o n t o c r a t i c r u l e of the e l d e r s i s e x e r c i s e d by t h e i r g r o u p i n g i n t o a c o u n c i l o f e l d e r s (Grandeza) w i t h i n each v i l l a g e . T h e i r a u t h o r i t y and c o n t r o l o f knowledge a s s u r e s them of the r e p e c t of t h e j u n i o r s . A rough s e r i e s o f i n i t i a t i o n r i t e s mark t h e passage o f time i n t o s i x d i f f e r e n t age groups. Complete a d u l t h o o d i s r e a c h e d towards t h e age of 30, a l l o w i n g a j u n i o r to - 9 0 -marry and b u i l d h i s p e r s o n a l house f o r h i s f a m i l y . The women a r e a l s o r e g u l a t e d by a s e r i e s of i n i t i a t i o n c eremonies which e s t a b l i s h t h e i r r i t e s of passage. Women past menopause c o n t r o l the cerem o n i e s . For example, the "Dufuntu" c u l t i s p a r t o f the r i t e s i n which young g i r l s i n c a r n a t e the s p i r i t of t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s who have d i e d d u r i n g t h e i r own i n i t i a t i o n . The young g i r l must l e a d the s p i r i t through the ceremony by i t s r e i n c a r n a t i o n and thus permit i t to reach the beyond. There have been s e v e r a l r e c e n t changes i n the c u l t u r a l / s o c i a l t r a d i t i o n of the B i j a g o s s i n c e G u i n e a - B i s s a u ' s independence. An i n d i c a t i o n of the g r a d u a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l and economic system f o r example, i s the c r e a t i o n i n the v i l l a g e of the g r a s s r o o t s p o l i t i c a l network of v i l l a g e committees o r Comite da tab a n c a . The committees a re composed of s i x members, two o f which must be women. There has been d i f f e r e n t l e g i s l a t i o n passed which has d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d the B i j a g o s i n such ways as; (1) the r e d u c t i o n of the seven year p e r i o d o f s e c l u s i o n i n an i n i t i a t i o n r i t e now reduced t o one week; (2) the p r o h i b i t i o n o f women t o wear f i b e r s k i r t s o u t s i d e t h e v i l l a g e s ; (3) the compulsory e d u c a t i o n and <4) the s t r i c t s a l e o f a l l s u r p l u s gcods to the s t a t e c o m m e r c i a l o u t l e t s of SOCOEIN., Monetary market exchange a t the f r i n g e of the community v i l l a g e i s v e r y l i m i t e d i n the a r c h i p e l a g o save f o r those v i l l a g e s on the i s l a n d of Bubague and Bolama which have much c l o s e r c o n t a c t w i t h the monetary economy. However, a p a r t from t h e s e c u l a r p r a c t i c e of the exchange o f palm n u t s t c t h e t r a d i n g o u t l e t s on the i s l a n d s and the a r t i s a n a l f i s h i n g a c t i v i t i e s which a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d around a f i s h i n g p r o j e c t on the i s l a n d o f Bufaaque, the p r e s e r v a t c n o f the t r a d i t i o n a l system has been f a c i l i t a t e d by the low c o n t a c t which dominates t h e a r e a . Among th e m s e l v e s , s u b s i s t e n c e c r o p s and l i v e s t o c k a r e sometimes t r a d e d t h r o u g h a b a r t e r system u s i n g t o b a c c o l e a v e s as the c h i e f c u r r e n c y , u s u a l l y w i t h the Senegalese t r a d e r s (Nhomincas or D j o u l a s ) which m i g r a t e i n t o the r e g i o n . In s h o r t , the B i j a g o s have r e p r e s e n t e d a very s t r o n g f o r c e of t r a d i t i o n a l p r e s e r v a t i o n . O u t s i d e p r e s s u r e as w e l l as i n s i d e p r e c o n d i t o n s t o the engagement of the d i s s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s have s t i l l t o occur or have c n l y s t a r t e d t o t a k e p l a c e i n t h e form of a slow i n f i l t r a t i o n mechanism o f the c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r which w i l l be compounded by t h e s u b v e r s i v e s o c i a l b e n e f i t s o f b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n t h a t may s l o w l y a c t t o undermine t h e s o c i a l framework. I t i s a p p r o p r i a t e to note here t h a t t h e p r e v a i l i n g e d u c a t i o n system which e x i s t s i n most T h i r d World c o u n t r i e s and i n West A f r i c a i s u s u a l l y , as i n t h e case o f G u i n e a - B i s s a u , c o p i e d from t h e Western system. T h i s may be one of the most i m p o r t a n t elements t o o b s t r u c t the development of t r a d i t i o n a l domestic a g r i c u l t u r e and t o a l s o c ause i t s demise. F i r s t , the younger g e n e r a t i o n i s a c t u a l l y b e i n g a t t r a c t e d away from t h e r u r a l v i l l a g e scene on one s i d e by the e n c o u r a g i n g of v a l u e s which s u g g e s t the p r c l e t a r i n i z a t i o n of the work system and a l s o by t h e t e a c h i n g of s k i l l s which a r e c o n t r a r y t o the b e t t e r m e n t of the v i l l a g e l i f e . The burden o f t h e l o s s from r u r a l exodus of the younger educated g e n e r a t i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a decrease i n the " s u b s i s t e n c e " o u t p u t of t r a d i t i o n a l d omestic a g r i c u l t u r e . While the o p p o s i t i o n by e l d e r s t o the i n t e g r a t i o n o f the j u n i o r s i n t o - 9 2 -t h e wage e a r n i n g work f o r c e through the i m p o s i t i o n of h e a v i e r l e v e l i n g mechanism c o u l d o n l y c r e a t e a more e x t e n s i v e c o n f l i c t and r i s k c o m p l e t e l y undermining the s o c i a l framework. More i n t e r e s t i n g i s t h e f a c t p o i n t e d o u t by Susan George (1976), i n r e s p e c t t o the c a s e of e x t e n s i o n workers w i t h European educatons who a r e unable to r e i n t e g r a t e i n t o the r u r a l atmosphere and thus seek o n l y the u r b a n - o r i e n t e d p r o m o t i o n , t h e r e f o r e r e l i n q u i s h i n g the p r o v i s i o n of needed t r a i n e d p e r s c n e l f o r the m o d e r n i z a t i o n o f the i m p o v e r i s h e d r u r a l community; a v i s c i o u s c y c l e which p e r p e t r a t e s i t s e l f t o e x t i n c t i o n . I n s h o r t , t h e s e are a l l epiphenomena which are i n part brought about by the i n t e g r a t i o n of the c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r and the p r o c e s s of d i s s o l u t i o n i t engenders. In l i g h t of the c u r r e n t minimal e f f o r t s d i r e c t e d towards r u r a l development i n G u i n e a - B i s s a u (5-6 per c e n t t o t a l i n v e s t m e n t ) f o r which the s t a t e has s o l e r e s p o n s i b i l t i y through t h e means o f the M i n i s t r y of R u r a l Development and a complete monopoly over the c o n t r o l and d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s a c q u i r e d from o u t s i d e , the p r e s e n t s e c t i o n w i l l examine t h e case of development "from above" as i t appears i n Guinea a i d e d by i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and e x p l o r e the reasons which make t h i s development p r o c e s s d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e v i l l a g e a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e B i j a g o s and, i n c o n t r a s t , b e n e f i c i a l t o the development of the S t a t e a g r a r i a n system. At p r e s e n t , the M i n i s t r y of R u r a l Development ( h e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as MRD) i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r two e x i s t i n g s t a t e farm i n t h e r e g i o n o f the B i j a g o s a r c h i p e l a g o . They r e p r e s e n t t h e n a t i o n a l i z e d p r o p e r t i e s o f the Gouveia f a m i l y , which c o n s i s t e d of a s m a l l coconut p l a n t a t i o n , p e t t y farm p r o d u c t i o n and dwarf palm -93-o i l g r o v e s on the i s l a n d s of Bolama and Bubague. The M i n i s t r y employs a t o t a l o f 80 workers w i t h i n the s t a t e farm system who l o o k a f t e r p l a n t a t i o n and engage i n p e t t y farm p r o d u c t i o n . A r e g i o n a l o f f i c e l o c a t e d i n Bolama o v e r s e e s t h e management and c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n of the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s and produce. These two s m a l l farms form o n l y a s m a l l l i n k i n the c h a i n of o p e r a t i o n s conducted by t h e M i n i s t r y , w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e o v e r a l l N a t i o n a l S t a t e a g r a r i a n e n t e r p r i s e . These i n c l u d e o p e r a t i o n s such as improved seed ( r i c e ) p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n from two e x p e r i m e n t a l s t a t i o n s l o c a t e d i n t h e North a t C o n t u b o e l and i n t h e s o u t h a t Caboxangue, f e r t i l i z e r and phyto s a n i t a r y i n p u t d i s t r i b u t i o n t h r o u g h the network of r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s (eight i n a l l ) and the p r o d u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s of a network of s t a t e f arms, market gardens, p l a n t a t i o n s , l a n d r e c l a m a t i o n e t c e t e r a . A g r i c u l t u r a l m o d e r n i z a t i o n i n G u i n e a - B i s s a u has been mostly funded through the a u s p i c e s of m u l t i l a t e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as t h e FAO and the EEC. I t has e s s e n t i a l l y been d i r e c t e d a t the improvement of the S t a t e a g r a r i a n system. A c l a s s i c example cf the h o l d i n g mechanism through which the s t a t e has a d j u n c t l y promoted t h e i r own o p e r a t i o n s to the d e t r i m e n t of t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r w i t h the h e l p of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s exposed i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . I n 1981, t h e OSBO { s p e c i a l o p e r a t i o n s r e l i e f bureau) d i v i s i o n o f the FAO uas c a l l e d upon, at t h e r e q u e s t of the p r e s i d e n t o f t h e R e p u b l i c c f G u i n e a - B i s s a u , t o the v i t a l a i d of t h e people of the B i j a g o s a r c h i p e l a g o a f t e r the p r e s i d e n t had p e r s o n a l l y w i t n e s s e d " s t a r v a t i o n " and "hunger" d u r i n g a c r u i s e t o u r of the r e g i o n . An FkO e x p e r t faas d i s p a t c h e d t o pursue a p r o j e c t - 9 4 -i d e n t i f i c a t i o n m i s s i o n i n the B i j a g o s i s l a n d s . The p r o j e c t d e s i g n was e l a b o r a t e d i n s i t u a f t e r b r i e f v i s i t s t o the d i f f e r e n t v i l l a g e s to examine the c o n d i t i o n s f i r s t hand and c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e i n the d i f f e r e n t departments of t h e MDE i n B i s s a u . The r e s u l t o f the c o g i t a t i o n was b u i l t i n t o an a g r i c u l t u r a l development package e s t i m a t e d a t 150,000 O.S. d o l l a r s f o r a one y e a r emergency p l a n which would be r e f e r r e d to under t h e r u b r i c P r o j e t d'urgence en vue de 1 * a m e l i o r a t i o n de l a p r o d u c t i o n v i v r i e r e dans l ' a r c h i p e l des B i j a g o s . FAG-OSRO TCP/GBS/G105/CSEC/GBS/101/MSC (See appendix 2) (24) In b r i e f , the p r o j e c t c o n s i s t e d of p r o v i s i o n s f o r the d e l i v e r y of (1) 35 t o n s of h i g h - y i e l d r i c e seeds,; (2) 130 t o n s c f f e r t i l i z e r and f i n a l l y , t h e e q u i v a l e n t i n p u t s f o r p e s t i c i d e implements and o t h e r c o n t i g e n c i e s . The amount of new " m i r a c l e seeds" were e q u i v a l e n t t o the t o t a l s u r f a c e o f c u l t i v a t e d a r e a i n the r e g i o n ( p a r t of which c o n t a i n e d s t o c k s t h a t were r e j e c t e d i n Madagascar because they d i d not meet s a n i t a r y s t a n d a r d s ) . (25) A s i n g l e t e c h n i c a l a d v i s o r would be p r o v i d e d by t h e terms of t h e c o n t r a c t f o r two three-month m i s s i o n s w i t h the mandate to s u p e r v i s e the r e c e p t i o n , d e l i v e r y and d i s t r i b u t i o n of the m a t e r i a l s and equipment of the p r o j e c t as w e l l as the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f v i l l a g e d e m o n s t r a t i o n k i t s and t e s t i n g p l o t s on r i c e f i e l d s w i t h i n the two S t a t e farms. The f i r s t t e n t a t i v e a s s a u l t on r u r a l development i n the B i j a g o s a r c h i p e l a g o was e x t r a v a g a n t t o say the l e a s t . With a s u p e r f l u o u s s t o c k o f h i g h - y i e l d r i c e seeds a l o n g w i t h the -95-r e q u i r e d d o s e o f c h e m i c a l f e r t i l i z e r and p e s t i c i d e , t h e r e l i e f h e l p was e x p e c t e d t o p r o d u c e i n s t a n t a n e o u s i n c r e a s e s i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l o u t p u t . H o w e v e r , w i t h o u t t r a i n e d e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s a n d p r o p e r l y c o o r d i n a t e d v i l l a g e p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e r e s u l t s p r o d u c e d m e a s u r e d up c a r i c a t u r a l l y t o a few b u r n e d - u p p a r c e l s o f r i c e c r o p w h i c h r e c e i v e d o v e r d o s e s o f n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z e r a n d / o r i n f e s t e d h i g h - y i e l d r i c e w h i c h , w i t h o u t p r o p e r i n s e c t i c i d e s p r a y i n g was l e s s r e s i s t a n t t o a t t a c k s t h a n t h e h e a r t i e s t l o c a l b r e e d s o f r i c e . In s h o r t , t h e f i n a l o u t c o m e c o u l d be t a b u l a t e d i n t h e f o r m o f t h e f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n ; (A) t h e communal f a r m e r s l o s t f a i t h i n t h e t e c h n i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s ; (E) t h e s t a t e a p p a r a t u s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e MED g a i n e d d i r e c t c a s h e a r n i n g s f r o m the s a l e o f t h e f e r t i l i z e r s t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s o f t h e p r o j e c t a n d (C) t h e FAO f o u n d a q u i c k way t o s g u a n d e r 1 5 0 , 0 0 0 U . S . d o l l a r s w h i c h had been d o n a t e d i n g o o d f a i t h by t h e c i t y o f B o l o g n a , I t a l y . I t r e m a i n s t o d i s c o v e r i f t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s o f s u c h " w e l l i n t e r i t i o n e d " a i d was much more d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t i e s t h a n o f t h e b e n e f i t s a c c r u e d t o t h e s t a t e a g r a r i a n s y s t e m . - 9 6 -F i g u r e 7: " f i o r d e r S e e d s " C a r i c a t u r e Source; Georges, Susan and N i g e l , Paige; 1982, Food For Beginners, Pantheon, New York. " F u r t n e r m o r e , some f o r m s c r a i d a r e e f f e c t i v e i n a c h i e v i n g i m m e d i a t e g o a l s t u t may p r o v e c o u n t e r - p r o d u c t i v e i n t h e l o n g t e r m . " ( M a k a r h a m , A b b o t J . C . , A q r i c u l t u r e and M a r k e t i n g i n t h e T i o r i c s , p . 160) -.97-V I * - CGNCLOSIOI In c o n c l u s i o n , the f a i l u r e on b e h a l f of t h e government, the n a t i o n a l b u r e a u c r a c y and a m u l t i l a t e r a l development agency t o not have assumed a more c c n p r e h e n s i b l e approach i n the promotion of a g r i c u l t u r a l development w i t h i n the B i j a g o s a r c h i p e l a g o d emonstrates i n many ways t h e c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s t h a t i n h i b i t any major r e f o r m from c c c u r i n g i n f a v o u r of the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r . The d i f f i c u l t i e s c f l a r g e i n t e r n a t i o n a l development a g e n c i e s t o cope w i t h s p e c i f i c micro-problems which c o u l d have macro-consequences when wrongly approached i s a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d . I n s t e a d of c o n c e r t i n g t h e i r e f f o r t s t o s t r u c t u r e a long term development p l a n , money was wasted by the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of an ad hoc p r o j e c t which s e r v e d t o b e n e f i t the S t a t e a g r a r i a n e n t e r p r i s e much more than i t d i d the r u r a l masses. The t o ns of " m i r a c l e " seeds were u s e l e s s to the communal f a r m e r who had no need f o r i n c r e a s e d c r o p y i e l d as most would have e v e n t u a l l y have r o t t e d away because of i mproper s t o r a g e c o n d i t i o n s and ended up being a c o s t l y i n v e s t m e n t * However, t h i s p e c u l i a r i t y d e f i e d the n o t i o n of "peasant c o n s e r v a t i o n i s m " a s i t was f a i r l y easy t o a t t r a c t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t o the p r o j e c t . U l t i m a t e l y , such b a n d - a i d a c t i o n s d i r e c t e d toward the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r c o n t i n u e s o n l y to p r o f i t t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n d i s s o l u t o n p r o c e s s meanwhile, the S t a t e a g r a r i a n e n t e r p r i s e b e n e f i t s f u l l y from the p r e t e x t t h a t t h e r e i s a s h o r t a g e of food i n t h e c o u n t r y . However, more d e t r i m e n t a l to the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r , as e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e B i j a g o s , i s t h a t i t s s o c i a l - 9 8 -o r g a n i z a t i o n i s s l o w l y b e i n g undermined, i n t h i s case not e x p l i c i t l y by an e n c r o a c h i n g market system - — a p p r o p r i a t i o n of s u r p l u s — nor by the immediate e x t a c t i c n of l a b o u r , but by the e d u c a t i o n a l system which i s p r e p a r i n g the younger g e n e r a t i o n to i n t e g r a t e the c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r and become the f u t u r e p r o l e t a r i a t . The r a t i o n a l e i s s i m p l e : an u r b a n i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l program i s l u r i n g t h e youth i n the v i l l a g e s t o r e j e c t t r a d i t o n a l v a l u e s . W ithout any a d j u stment to t h e i r l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s and r e a d i n g to l e a n v e anytime w i t h t h e n e c e s s a r y s k i l l s i n o r d e r t o e n t e r the wage work f o r c e , w i t h o u t needed change and r e a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r development i n s e r t e d i n t o t h e i r systems, the f i n a l r e s u l t l e a d i n g to f u l l s c a l e c u l t u r a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n a s Brokensha and P e n s a l l have i n d i c a t e d : " t h o s e a r e a s where p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n has made the g r e a t e s t p r o g r e s s , t h e l u r e o f h i g h e r income from employment i n n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o r t o r a p i d l y growing urban c e n t e r s t h e r e , a l l t o o f t e n , t h e y add to a l r e a d y h i g h r a t e s o f unemployment and t h e problem of both a g r i c u l t u r e and i n d u s t r i a l development are a g g r a v a t e d " ( p . 7 ) . The q u e s t i o n which r e s t s t o be r e s o l v e d i s how might i t be p o s s i b l e t o b r i n g about a g r i c u l t u r a l improvement i n the sense of i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i v i t y t o EASF such as i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e , a t t e m p t to s u i t the needs of the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r by merging w i t h t h e S t a t e ' s d e c l a r e d e x p l i c i t o p t i o n f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y p o l i c y and i m p l i c i t o p t i o n t o b l o c k o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r and t h u s , " a g g r a v a t e " the whole s i t u a t i o n . In o r d e r to answer t h i s q u e s t i o n , the next c h a p t e r w i l l examine an a l t e r n a t i v e development r o u t e i n l i g h t of the development from "below" approach and propose an e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e v a r i o u s i n s t r u m e n t a l means o r mechanism which c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d t o mediate .between two p o l a r extremes o f e i t h e r c omplete i s o l a t i o n and s e l f - r e l i a n c e o r f a c i l i t a t e r a p i d fflonetarizaton/transformation whereas the d i s s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s would be made w i t h i n a r a p i d t r a n s i t i o n b e n e f i c i a l b o th t o PASF and the S t a t e ' s o v e r a l l development o b j e c t i v e s . -100-L 1 e m p i r e de l a f a i m ne prospere gue dans l a aesure ou r e c u l e n t l a p a r t i c i p a t i o n p o p u l a i r e e t l e s d r o i t s de 1'homme. V a i n c r e l a f a i m f i c ' e s t p o s s i b l e J.Y. C a r f a n t a n e t C. Condamines Nous somraes l e c u l du raonde. Personne ne f a i t a t t e n t i o n a ce gue nous d i s c n s . On ne nous e c o u t e pas. Nous sommes bons pour a t t e n d r e a l e u r p o r t e . Eux, ceux g u i on l e " p a p i e r " passent devant. Eux sont soign§s, t r c u v e n t des p l a c e s a l'e'cole e t dans 1 ' a d r a i n i s t r a t i o n . Pour nous, r i e n . S i nous ne nous d e b r o u i l l o n s pas nous-monies, en nous r @ u n i s s a n t , c ' e s t f i n i . (words from an I v o r y C c a s t peasant) c i t e d f r c m L*Afrigues des v i l l a g e s , J.-M. E l a (19£2) - 1 0 1 -CHAPTEfi_5 AN A L T E R V E PATH TO PLANNING FOE AGEICULTUR AL DEVELOPMENT IN PASF: A LDOK AT THE BOTTOM-UP APPROACH TO VILLAGE COMMUNITY 0MELOPMENT_IN -PAS|:„______. _.___„__„«___„_ _ I . IITRODUCTION Tha main purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was t o f o r m u l a t e a t e n t a t i v e t h e o r e t i c a l model c f the b a r r i e r s t o a g r i c u l t u r e / r u r a l development t h a t a f f l i c t PASF from both w i t h i n and w i t h o u t the system. To c o n c l u d e , as t h e major o b s t a c l e s have been i d e n t i f i e d , t h i s s t u d y w i l l a l s o a t t empt t o examine what are the s h o r t c o m i n g s and p i t f a l l s o f the bottom-up approach towards a c h i e v i n g t a n g i b l e s o l u t i o n s t c the problems o f underdevelopment i n PASF. Whereas, t h e b a s i c hypotheses s t a n d out as b e i n g : development from below or bottom-up p l a n n i n g i s a p l a u s i b l e and v a l i d a l t e r n a t i v e to the c e n t e r down approach. In a d d i t i o n , i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t development from below i s p o s s i b l y more e f f e c t i v e a t promoting d i r e c t a c t i o n s which e i t h e r a c t i v a t e l o c a l r esponse t o problems b e f o r e t h e y o c c u r or h e l p a l l e v i a t e the poor l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s t h a t are o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d e g e n e r a t i v e underdevelopment p r o c e s s of d i s s o l u t i o n i n which PASF i s engaged i n , a t p r o g r e s s i v e l y h i g h e r c o n t a c t w i t h the c a p i t a l i s t system. T h e r e f o r e , i n accordance w i t h Apthorpe (1975), i t i s agreed i n p r i n c i p l e t h a t : -102-Any approach to p l a n n i n g o r s o c i a l s c i e n c e t h a t e x c l u d e s the p o s s i b i l i t y of dynamism "from below" i s d e f e c t i v e however d i f f i c u l t t he peasant m o b i l i z a t i o n may be t o s u s t a i n i n r e a l i t y . (1) In o t h e r words, i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the c o n c i l i a t i o n o f seemingly c o n f l i c t i n g g o a l s between t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t and c a p i t a l i s t systems has a g r e a t e r p r o b a b i l i t y of c o n v e r g i n g by means of a bottom-up development d o c t r i n e than through t h e c e n t e r down approach. However, our t a s k i s not t o debate t h i s broad i s s u e , f o r t h i s would be a t h e s i s i n i t s e l f , but t o a c c e p t the p r i n c i p l e and r e v i e w the v a r i o u s c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t l i m i t i t s a p p l i c a t i o n and i n h i b i t i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t o the b e n e f i t of both the c a p i t a l i s t and p r e - c a p i t a l i s t system. A g a i n , a f u l l c r i t i q u e i s beyond the scope o f t h i s t h e s i s , t h e r e f o r e , t h e f o l l o w i n g w i l l p r e s e n t o n l y a b r i e f o v e r v i e w of major development mechanisms which are p a r t of the c u r r e n t a r s e n a l of v a r i o u s bottom-up development s t r a t e g i e s p r e s e n t l y b e i n g t e s t e d i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . They s h a l l be b r i e f l y d e f i n e d as w e l l as t h e i r i m p o r t a n t shortcomings and d i f f i c u l t i e s of becoming o p e r a t i o n a l f o r the b e n e f i t of the p l a n n e r i n d e s i g n i n g a s p e c i f i c s t r a t e g y f o r a p a r t i c u l a r c a s e . Beforehand, the macro-aspects of our above d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be h i g h l i g h t e d as a reminder o f t h e p r i n c i p l e d e t e r m i n a n t s i n v o l v e d i n the development p r o c e s s . A p i v o t a l element t h r o u g h o u t the main d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s t h e s i s i s the i m p o r t a n c e o f e x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s t h a t have imposed s e v e r a l h a n d i c a p s upon PASF, and which f o r the g r e a t e r p a r t are a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e deep i n t e g r a t i o n of West A f r i c a n n a t i o n a l economies w i t h i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m . As w e l l , we n o t i c e d how the i n s u i n g c l a s s c o n t r a d i c t i o n c h a r a c t e r which - 1 0 3 -d i s t i n g u i s h e s the r u r a l p r e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r and the urban based c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r i s a l s o a c r i t i c a l element of e x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s to a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n PASF. A l t h o u g h i n some p r i v i l e g e d c a s e s , c e r t a i n t y p e s o f r u r a l s o c i e t i e s (e.g. the F u l a n i Moslem t r i b e i n G u i n e a - B i s s a u ) have adapted t h e m s e l v e s g u i t e w e l l t o t h e changing r e q u i r e m e n t s of t h e s t a t e / c a p i t a l i s t g o a l s ( p r i n c i p a l l y d etermined by the needs of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l i s t system) e s p e c i a l l y because of t h e i r s p e c i f i c s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( b a s i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d by the dominance of a t r i b u t a r y mode of p r o d u c t i o n ) . They have a v o i d e d the beaten t r a c k which o f t e n l e a d s p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s t o an i m p o v e r i s h e d and d e b i l i t a t i n g form of c a p i t a l i s m . I n o t h e r words, they have a s s i m i l a t e d themselves v e r y w e l l t o t h e dominant v a l u e s of the c a p i t a l i s t system. I n many o t h e r i n s t a n c e s however, the p r o c e s s of n a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n and development has l e d t o u n f a v o u r a b l e and i n extreme cases c l e a r l y d i s a d v a n t a g e o u s development dynamic both d u r i n g t h e c o l o n i a l and n e o - c o l o n i a l p e r i o d . I n which c a s e , the d e c l i n e of d o m e s t i c f o o d p r o d u c t i o n and the c u l t u r a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of many v i l l a g e communities a r e the most v i s i b l e s i g n s of the n e g a t i v e impact s u s t a i n e d by p r e - c a p i t a l i s t systems. (This v a r i e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the d i f f e r e n t degree o f c o - e x i s t e n c e w i t h the c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r . ) C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t has been demonstrated t h a t b oth t h e l a c k of i n t e r e s t or the b l o e k a _ e of t h e p r o d u c t i o n f o r c e s have c o n s i s t e d of the two most c r i t i c a l f a c t o r s t h a t have a f f l i c t e d t he r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t and c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r s i n e i t h e r p e r i o d . T o g e t h e r , they a re fundamental t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the mechanism of c o n s e r v a t i o n , which b r i e f l y - 1 0 4 -s t a t e d , are an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e d e n i a l of t h e s t a t e ( r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e r u l i n g e l i t e : b l a c k o r white) t o i n v e s t i n n e c e ssary s o c i a l or economic r e f o r m s beyond a c r i t i c a l p o i n t t h a t c o u l d amount t o s i g n i f i c a n t l o s s of t h e i r own p r i v i l e g e s as w e l l as t h o s e of the m o s t l y urban-based c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s e s . I n s h o r t , t h e o b l i g a t i o n o f h a v i n g to a c q u i e s c e to t h e d e l i v e r y of a g r e a t e r s h a r e o f s u r p l u s v a l u e to the r u r a l masses and t h u s , t o submit t o s u b s i d y payments i s a major p o i n t which i s , i n essence, a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e dominant i d e o l o g y . Hence, i t i s c l e a r t h a t these r e s p o n s e s o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r v i s - a - v i s PASF - - l a c k o f i n t e r e s t and b l o c k a g e — u l t i m a t e l y r e s t r i c t t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r PASF t o adapt t o the d i f f e r e n t o u t s i d e / i n s i d e t r a n s i t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s (e.g., demographic p r e s s u r e , l i m i t i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s ) which can a l t e r t h e e f f i c i e n c y of t h e i r agrosystem. T h i s l o s s of r e s i l i e n c e i s t r a n s l a t e d e i t h e r by PASF inadequacy t o p r o v i d e s u b s i s t e n c e f o r i t s own s u s t e n a n c e o r t o produce p r o f i t a b l e e x t r a - s a l e a b l e s u r p l u s e s to t h e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r . (The l a t t e r a c t i v i t y n e c e s s a r i l y r emains a f u n c t i o n of the v a r i a b l e l e v e l s of c o n t a c t which a l r e a d y e x i s t s between b o t h systems.) I t must a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d t h a t , on account of ( 1 ) fundamental s t r u c t u r a l d e f i c i e n c i e s i n h e r i t e d by a newly emerged b l a c k r u l i n g e l i t e f r o a a c o l o n i a l past and (2) the p e r v a s i v e i n t e r e s t t o commit i t s e l f t o c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e & c o m m e r c i a l - e x p o r t c r o p development, (which i s a d i r e c t i o n most n o u r i s h e d by i t s c l a s s a l l i a n c e w i t h i n the w o r l d - c a p i t a l i s t system and s u s t a i n e d by t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l development community), t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e development a c t i o n s and i n t e r v e n t i o n s are apt t o be l a b e l l e d a n t i - d e v e l o p m e n t onto the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r , - 1 0 5 -and i n most c a s e s , c l e a r l y c o n t x a r y to t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t e x c e p t f o r a s p e c i f i c c l a s s . On the o t h e r hand, t h i s s t u d y has a l s o s t r e s s e d the f a c t t h a t f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l development t o occur i n PASF and be s u c c e s s f u l , i t must a l s o contend wi t h i n t e r n a l b a r r i e r s which have been p r e s e n t e d under the p r e s e r v a t i o n c o n c e p t u a l mechanism. However, i t i s i m p o r t a n t to r e i t e r a t e t h a t i t i s not i n t e r n a l b a r r i e r s which p r o h i b i t the d i r e c t i n t r o d u c t i o n of i n n o v a t i o n s to p r e - c a p i t a l i s t systems s i n c e , once o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e presented i n a manner t h a t s e r v e s the b e n e f i t o f the o v e r a l l s o c i e t y w i thout e n d a n g e r i n g the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e y are f o r s e e a b l y w e l l - a c c e p t e d and f u l l y p e r p e t u a t e d . (The r a p i d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s i n Western A f r i c a n kingdoms and a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s from t u b e r c r o p p r o d u c t i o n to c e r e a l c r o p p r o d u c t i o n — r i c e — d u r i n g the l a t e r p a r t o f the t r a d i t i o n a l p e r i o d and f i r s t c o n t a c t w i t h European c o l o n i a l i s t s i s a case i n p o i n t . ) In s h o r t , the v a r i o u s p r e s e r v a t i o n mechanisms of PASF has helped them t o guard a g a i n s t the dominance of t h e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t c r and the p o t e n t i a l l o s s of t h e i r own s e l f - r e l i a n c e . However, what i s p a r a d o x i c a l i s t h a t i t can a l s o be r e f r a c t o r y and a n t i - d e v e l o p m e n t a l f o r p r e - c a p i t a l i s t , s o c i e t i e s somehow, as a n t i - d e v e l o p m e n t as the c o n s e r v a t i o n mechanism det e r m i n e d by the c a p i t a l i s t system. In PASF, the b a s i c problem o f a n t i - d e v e l o p m e n t r e f e r s back t o the e l d e r s 1 i n c a p a c i t y t o cope w i t h change o r the changing c o n d i t i o n s , c o u p l e d by t h e i r p r o t e c t i n g of t h e i r own p r i v i l e g e s as a dominant c l a s s group w i t h i n t h e i r system. T h i s i n c a p a c i t y to cope, or u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c c e p t change i s c o n f r o n t e d by the younger g e n e r a t i o n ' s d e s i r e s t o see change i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the -106-s o c i e t y . . The l i m i t i n g e f f e c t o f t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n mechanisms i s t h a t t u r n i n g i n w a r d s and not b e i n g a b l e t o r e a c t t o t r a n s i t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s imposes upon t h e v i l l a g e community a s i m i l a r t h r e a t t h a n t h a t of d i s s o l u t i o n o f i t s c o h e s i o n , i n c o n t r a s t from b e i n g frosB w i t h o u t , i t i s from w i t h i n PASF. A f t e r r e i n s t a t i n g t h e s e macro-aspects o f t h e development p r o c e s s w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t of the a r t i c u l a t i o n of t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t and c a p i t a l i s t systems i n d e v e l o p i n g West A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s , t h e s t u d y examines the d i f f i c u l t i e s which i n h i b i t the a d o p t i o n of bottom-up development i n l e s s - d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s as an a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g . In c h a p t e r one, t h e two d i v e r g e n t c o n c e p t i o n s i n d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g ( c e n t e r down and bottom-up) s e r e b r i e f l y p r e s e n t e d . I t was noted t h a t , the fundamental c h a r a c t e r of the c o n t r a d i c t o r y c l a s s - b a s e d i n t e r e s t which dominates the o v e r a l l development p r o c e s s o p p o s i n g th e urban-based c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s e s a g a i n s t t h e r u r a l - b a s e d p r e - c a p i t a l i s t m a j o r i t y l e a d s us t o f o c u s on the bottom-up approach as a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e development path . However, n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l i c i t i n t h i s a s s u m p t i o n , ( i n a n a t i o n a l i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e ) , i s t h a t t h e e q u i t y / e f f i c i e n c y r a t i o s h o u l d b a l a n c e towards the e q u i t y s i d e o f t h e s c a l e as a d e s i r e d p o l i t i c a l o p t i o n i f i t i s t c be s u c c e s s f u l l y implemented a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l . Hence, i n t h e s h o r t and l o n g term p e r s p e c t i v e , i f " e q u i t a b l y d i f f u s e d p r o g r e s s " i s to p r e v a i l as a major n a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e f o r a s i n g l e s t a t e , (as i n the case of Guinea) , the bottom-up approach r e p r e s e n t s a most v a l u e d approach which would a l l o w f o r d i r e c t a c t i o n , s p e c i f i c a l l y f o c u s i n g upon a l l e v i a t i n g a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g " i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t s between the urban m i n o r i t y which - 1 0 7 -a p p r o p r i a t e s and t h e r u r a l m a j o r i t y w h i c h l o s e s t h e s u r p l u s p r o d u c e d i n t h e s o c i e t y " ( A r m s t r o n g and McGee , 198 3 ) . H o w e v e r , a s t h e c a s e s t u d y d e m o n s t r a t e d , e v e n i n A f r i c a n n a t i o n s w h i c h p r e s e n t a s o c i a l i s t o r i e n t a t i o n and t h a t p r o c l a i m t h e m s e l v e s o f f i c i a l l y f o r " e q u i t a b l y d i f f u s e d p r o g r e s s " , t h e r e e x i s t s e v e r a l m a j o r o b s t a c l e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n d i s c u s s e d as s t r u c t u r a l l y p r e v e n t i n g t h e p r o p e r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a b o t t o m - u p a p p r o a c h . T h i s i s most e v i d e n t a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e r u r a l s u b s i s t e n c e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r . (At t h e o r i g i n o f t h e c a u s e f o r t h e s e o b s t a c l e s a r e t h e t r a n s m i t t e d s t r u c t u r a l d e f i c i e n c i e s o f t h e c o l o n i a l l e g a c y . ) D e v e l o p m e n t f r o m " b e l o w " a n d t h e s u b s e q u e n t a d v o c a c y o f t h e many i n s t r u m e n t a l p o l i c y m e a s u r e s w h i c h a r e d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t ( d e s c r i b e d l a t e r on) a r e l a r g e l y s h u n n e d by t h e r u l i n g e l i t e on a c c o u n t o f t h e d e m o n s t r a t e d c o n t r a d i c t o r y c l a s s m o t i v e s b u t a l s o by t h e p r e s s u r e s o f a c o l o n i a l l e g a c y w h i c h t h e y i n h e r i t e d a s w e l l . I n G u i n e a , t h e s i t u a t i o n r e s u m e s i t s e l f t o a b u r e a u c r a t i c b o u r g e o i s i e , r e m n a n t o f t h e p a s t c o l o n i a l r u l e , t h a t c o u l d n o t t r a n s f o r m i t s e l f i n t o an a v a n t - g a r d e o f t h e r u r a l mas se s and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y c o n t i n u e t o d e t a c h i t s e l f f rom the v a l u e s o f t h e w o r l d - c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m . T h e r e b y , b e c a u s e o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n w i t h i n t h e d e c i s i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , t h e y r e l i e d upon i m p o r t a n c e f o r t h e s u r v i v a l o f t h e s t a t e a p p a r a t u s and g e o l o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n , an u r b a n b i a s was a u t o m a t i c a l l y a t t a c h e d t o s e v e r a l d e v e l o p m e n t s c h e m e s w h i c h were a d o p t e d e v e n u n d e r a c e n t r a l d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e s s , e . g . , t h e CUMERE a g r o - i n d u s t r i a l c o m p l e x . I n G u i n e a - B i s s a u , t h i s was a l s o t r a n s l a t e d by t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a s t a t e a g r a r i a n s y s t e m p r o m o t e d by a c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s a l l i a n c e b e t w e e n t h e s t a t e / c a p i t a l i s t r u l i n g e l i t e and - 1 0 8 -N a t i o n a l and b u r e a u c r a t i c b o u r g e o i s i e and the i n t e r n a t i o n a l development community which s h a r e s the common v a l u e s and i n t e r e s t of t h e c a p i t a l i s t f u n c t i o n of c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i c n . Other r e a s o n s t h a t a l s o e x p l a i n t h e impediments t o the ac c e p t a n c e or r e a l i z a t i o n c f a l t e r n a t i v e development s t r a t e g i e s based on the bottom-up approach, as e x e m p l i f i e d w i t h i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l development c o n t e x t , i s the b a s i c f a c t t h a t i t s r e n d e r i n g o f the g r e a t e r amount o f s u r p l u s v a l u e to the r u r a l masses i n t r o d u c e s a s p e c t e r of c o m p e t i t i o n t h a t c o u l d e a s i l y d e s t a b i l i z e most of the f r a g i l e s t a t e a p p a r a t u s e s which govern West A f r i c a n n a t i o n s . The e v e r p r e s e n t t h r e a t of overthrow of p o p u l i s t regimes by a d i s s a t i s f i e d n a t i o n a l b o u r g e o i s i e or b u r e a u c r a t i c b o u r g e o i s i e i s of prime concern to a r u l i n g e l i t e which i d e o l o g i c a l l y c o u l d come c l o s e , a t sometime, t o espousing s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t p o l i c i e s . Hence, the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e remains t h a t any major upgrading of the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r ' s c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s , which S a n d l r o o k r e f e r r e d t o ( c i t e d e a r l i e r ) , c o n s t i t u t e s such r e f o r m t h a t i t removes much o f the a c q u i r e d p r i v i l e d g e s of the dominant urban c l a s s e s of the c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r and i s t h e r e f o r e a t h r e a t t o the i n t e g r i t y of t h e e l i t i s t dominance over the r u r a l masses. Along o t h e r l i n e s o f thought, t h e development from "below" approach i n s m a l l d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s l i k e G u i n e a - E i s s a u , which have a l i m i t e d number cf j u n i o r s , p r o f e s s i o n a l s and t e c h n i c a l l y s k i l l e d w o r k e r s , i s handicapped from the s t a r t as the a v a i l a b l e s k i l l e d human r e s o u r c e s a r e e i t h e r f u n n e l l e d i n t o a c e n t r a l i z e d b u r e a u c r a c y or c o m p l e t e l y a l i e n a t e d from t h e i r a c q u i r e d s k i l l s by h a v i n g t o a c c e p t h i g h - l e v e l p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e s t a t e a p p a r a t u s . In r e g a r d s t o a g r i c u l t u r a l development, w i t h i n a p o l i c y o f -109-a g r i c u l t u r a l f o o d s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , i t i s u n t h i n k a b l e t h a t a m i n o r i t y or s k i l l e d a g r i c u l t u r a l workers be f u l l y employed to f o c u s s t r i c t l y on the enhancement of domestic c r o p p r o d u c t i o n . Because of i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r e s s u r e s of the w o r l d - c a p i t a l i s t system t h a t f o r c e the s t a t e t o c o n c e n t r a t e i t s p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s on " t h e more e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e " , c o m m e r c i a l - e x p o r t c r o p p r o d u c t i o n becomes a t o p p r i o r i t y e n t e r p r i s e . Hence, t h e r e i s a c o n c e n t r a t i o n of s k i l l e d l a b o u r d i r e c t e d a t i m p r o v i n g the i m p o r t a n t e x p o r t c r o p p r o d u c t i o n i n s t e a d of f o o d c r o p s . The same i s t r u e f o r the amount of i n v e s t m e n t c a p i t a l which i s d i r e c t e d towards the purpose of a c c e n t u a t i n g the v a l u e o f p r o d u c t i o n t h a t would promote f o r e i g n t r a d e , even i f i t i s h i n d e r e d by unequal exchange. I n s h o r t , bottom-up development approaches must s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t d i f f i c u l t odds whereas th e disagreement of the urban-based c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s e s w i t h the c o n c e p t c f bottom-up development i s hidden between two p o i n t s i n t h a t development from "below" i m p l i c i t l y means: (1) r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of s u r p l u s v a l u e to t h e m a j o r i t y o f the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n as opposed t o i t s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on an urban m i n o r i t y (2) the l o s s of s e l e c t p r i v i l e g e s and changes i n t h e i r c o n s u m p t i v e b e h a v i o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e d i r e c t g a i n s from t h e i r monopoly on c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n development schemes. At p r e s e n t , the w o r l d - c a p i t a l i s t development p r o c e s s by way of i t s i n t e r e s t i n p e r i p h e r a l markets and t h e i n t e g r a t i o n of n a t i o n a l economics i n l e s s - d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s i s g i v i n g o n l y v e r y s l i g h t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r development t o m a r g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n groups such as t h o s e r e p r e s e n t e d i n West A f r i c a by PASF. - 1 1 0 -Nevertheless, large international cooperation agencies have espoused the basic p r i n c i p l e s of the bottom-up approach to help a l l e v i a t e the p l i g h t of these people;; i t i s hardly reasonable to think, that i t would be possible to promote the f u l l scale p o t e n t i a l of bottom-up development. The across-the-board adoption of policy measures that would unleash required reforms to help give d i r e c t access t c needed opportunities i s i l l u s o r y at be s t . Therefore, the elements of bottom-up development as presented by Stohr (1982) should be viewed more as goals for which unequal p o l i c y measures could be inspired i n the formation o f a strategy to counter the distress caused by dissolution rather than a " U t o p i a n blueprint" to what ought to be: (1) provision of broad access to land (2) the introdution of new, or r e v i v a l or the old t e r r i t o r i a l l y organized structures for equitable communal decision making (3) Granting a higher degree of self-determination to rural and other peripheral areas (4) choice of regionally adequate technology (5) assignment oi p r i o r i t y to projects which serve the s a t i s f a c t i o n of basic needs (6) the introduction of national pricing p o l i c i e s (7) improvement of r u r a l - t o - r u r a l and r u r a l - t o - v i l l a g e transport and communications f a c i l i t i e s . (2) It i s also impossible to suggest a s p e c i f i c model of development which could be capable of adequately responding to the f u l l range of l e v e l s o f a r t i c u l a t i o n of PASF which co-exist with the c a p i t a l i s t sector. In f a c t , as Stohr also states, -111-no u a i f o r m p o t e n t r e c i p e f o r such, s t r a t e g i e s ( t h o s e f o r d e v e l o p m e n t f r o m "below") can be o f f e r e d as i s done f o r s t r a t e g i e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t from " a b o v e " . (3) Hence, t h e p l a n n e r must meet t h e t a s k o f f a c i l i t a t i n g a smooth t r a n s i t i o n of PASF t o c a p i t a l i s m , e q u i p p e d w i t h a t o o l box of s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s o f mechanisms which c o u l d m e d i a t e between t h e r e a l i t y o f t o t a l d i s s o l u t i o n o r c u l t u r a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n a g a i n s t c o m p l e t e i s o l a t i o n and s t a g n a n t p r e s e r v a t i o n o f l i v i n g museums. F o r , as b o t h D a l t o n (1971) and M e i l l a s s o u x (1979) a c c o r d i n a s s e r t i n g — i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o f u l l y r e t a i n i n d i g e n e o u s s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e new e c o n o m i c s o f m arket and m a c h i n e s . Thus, t h e p l a n n e r ' s g r e a t e s t dilemma whenever he a d o p t s bottom-up d e v e l o p m e n t as a p h i l o s o p h i c a l a p p r o a c h t o t h i s c a s e , i s t o d e c i d e on t h e pace o f e v e n t u a l i n t e g r a t i o n and what b u f f e r s a r e b e s t s u i t e d to h e l p p r e s e r v e i d e n t i t y and c o h e s i v e n e s s . T h e r e a r e numerous p r o p o s a l s and c o m b i n a t i o n s o f p o l i c y measures f o r a l t e r n a t i v e d e v e lopment which have been e l a b o r a t e d upon i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n the p a s t d e c a d e . In t h e f o l l o w i n g f i n a l s e c t i o n , I w i s h o n l y t o b r i e f l y t o u c h upon t h o s e p o t e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t measures which p r e s e n t i n t e r e s t i n g p r o s p e c t s i n c i r c u m v e n t i n g t h e b a s i c dilemma and d i s c u s s them s u i t a b l y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f PASF. They a r e g r o u p e d under t h e h e a d i n g s : (1) g r a s s r o o t s c o n t r o l , (2) e d u c a t i o n , (3) t e c h n o l o g y and (4) i n s t i t u t i o n . -112-I I . A BRIEF CRITICAL BEVIES OF ALTERNATIVE DEVELOPMENT MECHANISMS FOR STRATEGY FORMULATION: THEIB SHORTCOMINGS.,.. AND :. OEPQRTUNITIES .-. -,, , • _____,_„ Grass r o o t c o n t r o l of development i s a l o n g term, s e l f - h e l p development mechanism which r e l i e s upon " t r a d i t i o n a l " s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s throughout a l l s t a g e s of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s — f r o m problem i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t o and throughout the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . The g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e b e h i n d i t s promotion i s summarized by the f o l l o w i n g : t h a t i t i s commonly agreed peasants or communal f a r m e r s , w h i c h e v e r , have a s u p e r i o r knowledge o f t h e i r m i l i e u which s u r p a s s e s the f i n d i n g s brought i n from the e x t e r i o r . The many f a i l u r e s of p a s t c o l o n i a l a t t e m p t s t o i n t r o d u c e many d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f c r c p s and d r a s t i c a l l y change the c e r t a i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s have proven t h i s s e v e r a l times w h i l e i n t h e same t r a d i t i o n , t o d a y ' s Western-educated agronomist and e x t e n s i o n workers i n A f r i c a a r e h a r d - p r e s s e d t o h e l p peasants w i t h i n a m e l i o r a t e d c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s which r e q u i r e h i g h i n v e s t m e n t c o s t . The " A n i m a t i o n R u r a l e e x p e r i e n c e " , a l t h o u g h i t was f i r s t promoted t o i n t e g r a t e peasant f a r m e r s to the p r o d u c t i o n of commercial e x p o r t c r o p s , c o u l d be s t a t e d as b e i n g a t the o r i g i n of the g r a s s - r o o t l e v e l of a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l p l a n n i n g . S i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n , t h e r e have been s e v e r a l o f f s h o o t s which f o r m u l a t e t h e i r a c t i o n s w i t h i n a s i m i l a r framework but which have -1 13-b r a n c h e d o u t i n t o a much b r o a d e r s c o p e o f a c t i o n s i n c l u d i n g s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c f i e l d s e . g . , P a r c i p a t c r y D e v e l o p m e n t , C o m m u n i t y R e s p o n s i v e P l a n n i n g , " R e c h e r c h e - A c t i o n " , e t c e t e r a . T h e l a t t e r a l l h a v e a common g o a l — t h a t i s t c a c c o m o d a t e m o d e r n i z a t i o n t o t h e m a s s e s a n d n o t v i c e - v e r s a a n d t h u s a c k n o w l e d g e a b a s i c p h i l o s o p h i c p o s i t o n t h a t i s e x p l a i n e d b y t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t . S t a r t f r o m w h a t s o c i e t y i s , w h a t i t l i v e s , w h a t i t k n o w s , w h a t i t t h i n k s , w h a t i t w a n t s a n d w h a t i t i t c a n d o f o r i t s e l f . G r a s s r o o t c o n t r o l o f d e v e l o p m e n t i s p r o b a b l y t h e m o s t d i f f i c u l t m e c h a n i s m t o p r o m o t e f r o m o u t s i d e f o r e i g n a i d p e r s p e c t i v e . I t r e q u i r e s a n e x t e n s i v e c o m m i t m e n t t o h e l p f a s h i o n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n — m o b i l i z a t i o n a n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n . M e a n w h i l e , i t i s i m p e r a t i v e t h a t i t b e b u i l t o n a s o l i d f o u n d a t i o n — v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t y , commune, h o m o g e n e o u s r e g i o n a n d w i t h a p r o f o u n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e d y n a m i c s o f t h e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l s y s t e m w h i c h i t t a r g e t s . B a s i c a l l y , i t m u s t o p e r a t e w i t h s k i l l e d t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e — a n i m a t o r s w h i c h a r e a g e n t s o f d e v e l o p m e n t o r t u r n k e y o p e r a t o r s f o r v a r i o u s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a c t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n a m i c r o e n v i r o n m e n t . H e n c e , i t s r a n g e i s l i m i t e d . N o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d o t h e r v o l u n t e e r a g e n c i e s a r e u s u a l l y b e s t s u i t e d t o m a n a g e s u c h i n d e p e n d e n t a c t i o n s w h i l e t h e g r e a t e s t d r a w b a c k t o w h i c h t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d a g e n c i e s m u s t l e a r n t o c o n t e n d w i t h , i s t h e e v e r - p r e s e n t p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e s t a t e a p p r o p r i a t i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i r p o s i t i v e a c t i o n s b y m e a n s o f f i s c a l , l e g a l o r b u r e a u c r a t i c d e m a g o g e r y t o u n d e r m i n e a d v a n c e m e n t i n t h e r u r a l s e c t o r . -114-Give a man a f i s h and you've f e d him f o r a day. Teach him how to f i s h and you've fed him f o r l i f e . Mao Tse Tung To mediate between the b a r r i e r s of c o n s e r v a t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n as a d e v e l o p m e n t a l mechanism, r e v e a l s i t s e l f as a double-edged sword which c o u l d s e v e r e i t h e r the l i n k s of e x p l o i t a t i o n and i g n o r a n c e o r the bonds of a c o h e s i v e , r u r a l , s o c i a l framework. At p r e s e n t i n West A f r i c a , the s t a t e i s t h e e d u c a t o r (Hart, 1982; 97) and e d u c a t i o n a l programs f o c u s e s p e c i a l l y on l i t e r a c y and numeracy i n view o f t h e needs of the urban c l a s s cu l a - p r o l e t a r i a t . T h i s f a c t has been i d e n t i f i e d by Dumont (1980) and George ( 1976) , as w e l l as H a r t (1982) , t o be a major s t i m u l u s of r u r a l e m i g r a t i o n , t h u s a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o the d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l d omestic a g r i c u l t u r e . However, we have noted t h a t t h e s e are n o t the d i r e c t causes but epiphenomena of the d i s s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s . T h e r e f o r e , an a l t e r n a t i v e pedagogy which would be shaped to s u i t t h e need of the r u r a l v i l l a g e communities can become the spearhead f o r a c t i o n and i n t e r v e n t i o n which c o u l d d i r e c t l y a f f e c t the c o n d i t i o n s of l i f e i n the r u r a l community - h a b i t a t , h e a l t h , h y g i e n e , n u t r i t i o n , a g r i c u l t u r e . Although i t i s argued t h a t s p e c i f i c r u r a l s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a are e l i t i s t ( H a r t , 1982; 97) i n which manner t h a t i t s e p a r a t e s the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n from the -115-p o s s i b i l i t y of s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , I agree t h a t i t i s o b j e c t i o n a b l e i f and when a l p h a b e t i s a t i o r j i s not encouraged f i r s t . The s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t i l l i t e r a c y remains a c r u c i a l element i n whatever s t r a t e g y f o r r u r a l development might be c o n s i d e r e d . A l p h a b e t i s a t i o n and r u r a l o r i e n t e d s c h o o l programs which t a r g e t t h e s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f the problems and c o n d i t i o n s i n view of a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and c r i t i c a l approach t o t h e i r immediate environment i s keystone to r e a l p r o g r e s s i n the community. E x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n a l p h a b e t i s a t i o n such as Paulo F r e i r e ' s A l p h a b e t i s a t i o n - C o r i s c i e n t i s a t i o n , which was t e s t e d i n the n o r t h e a s t e r n s e c t o r o f B r a z i l d u r i n g the 1.960's, hel p e d p a t e n t a new c o n c e p t u a l approach t o the problem of i l l i t e r a c y and i t has proven t o be a very e f f e c t i v e bottom-up development nechanism. Indeed, t h e r e a r e a g a i n s e v e r a l p i t f a l l s which p r e v e n t the f u l l b e n e f i t of t h e programs t o a c h i e v e t o t a l s u c c e s s i n e i t h e r e r a d i c a t i n g i l l i t e r a c y c r l e a r n i n g new s k i l l s as i l l u s t r a t e d by a ca s e example i n G u i n e a - E i s s a u . An a l p h a b e t i s a t i o n program was i n t r o d u c e d i n Guinea (which s u f f e r s a 95 per c e n t i l l i t e r a c y r a t e ) by F r e i r e and the IDAC I n s t i t u t e . A l t h o u g h numerous a t t e m p t s were made t o e n t r e n c h the f l e x i b l e model i n t o many d i f f e r e n t programs d e s t i n e d f o r a d u l t , y o u t h , urban, r u r a l and womens groups, very few p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s were c o l l e c t e d a t t h e end of the f i v e year program. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s the r e a l cause of the s e f a i l u r e s , b u t p a r t of t h e problem, as e x p l a i n e d i n a r e p o r t by an ex-SUCO v o l u n t e e r who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e program ( J o b i d o n , 1982) was due t o t h e poor t r a i n i n g of t h e c a d r e s and t h e i r l a c k of b a s i c a b i l i t y to convey i n f o r m a t i o n i n d e s i g n a t e d t o p i c s o f c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n — h e a l t h , -116-hygiene and a g r i c u l t u r e . F i n a l l y , the l a c k o f proper c o o r d i n a t i o n and d i f f i c u l t i e s of the c a d r e s to i n t e g r a t e the r i r a l m i l i e u i s a l s o l a b e l e d as j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the f a i l u r e . Once a g a i n , the e v i d e n c e c l e a r l y s u g g e s t s t h a t f o r change to oc c u r ( e i t a a r s o c i a l or economic), i t must f i r s t come from w i t h i n t h e s o c i e t y and cannot t e imposed from o u t s i d e , however w e l l - t e s t e d t h e development mechanism. I t must be c l e a r , however, t h a t e d u c a t i o n r e m a i n s the c o r n e r s t o n e on which r e s t s t h e v i n d i c a t i o n of man's e x p l o i t a t i o n o f man. During t h e p a s t decade, a l t e r n a t i v e o r a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y has become an i m p o r t a n t s u b j e c t o f i n t e r e s t i n the f i e l d of development as w e l l as a major p o l i c y o p t i o n or mechanism i n t h e promotion of development from "below". S i n c e Schumacher (1973) p o p u l a r i z e d the theme o f i n t e r m e d i a r y t e c h n o l o g y ( a l t e r n a t i v e o r a p p r o p r i a t e i s c o n s i d e r e d here as synonomous) w i t h h i s c l a s s i c work, Sma11 i s B e a u t i f u l , he noted t h a t amongst o t h e r phenomena, t h a t p a r t of the problem of h i g h unemployment and r u r a l e m i g r a t i o n was r e l a t e d t o the t e c h n o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s a c c o c i a t e d w i t h t h e modern s e c t o r ( c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e d e v e l o p m e n t ) . T h i s i s d e f i n e d by Schumacher as l e a d i n g t o what he c a l l s "a p r o c e s s of mutual p o i s o n i n g " between the h i n t e r l a n d and the b i g c i t y , where j o b s are t h e r e f o r e s a c r i f i c e d over c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n . I n t e r m e d i a t e t e c h n o l o g y i s a con c e p t t h a t Schumacher exposed as p o s i t i o n i n g work o p p o r t u n i t i e s ( l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e development) -117-ahead o f p r o d u c t i v i t y ( c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e development) and which he j u s t i f i e s on the b a s i s t h a t the d i g n i t y of man and t h e pri m a r y need f o r work. s h o u l d be the p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e of economic p l a n n i n g (p. 145) . I n r e f e r e n c e t o the case of G u i n e a - B i s s a u , i t means the d i f f e r e n c e between h a v i n g a c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d , c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e , a g r c - i n d u s t r i a l complex employing only 200 h i g h l y s k i l l e d urban d w e l l e r s a g a i n s t r e s o r t i n g t o s m a l l - s c a l e , l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e equipment, d i v e r s i f i e d a t the v i l l a g e l e v e l . There i s no need here t o r e p e a t once a g a i n what provokes such d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . However, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the b a s i c argument which the r u l i n g e l i t e and b u r e a u c r a t i c b o u r g e o i s i e iamediately draw up when p r e s e n t e d wi t h the a l t e r n a t i v e of i n t e r m e d i a t e t e c h n o l o g y — i s t h a t i t ' s second b e s t and i f f i r s t i s good f o r you, why keep us o u t . O b v i o u s l y , by now i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e r e f l e c t i o n of c l a s s i n t e r e s t i s fundamental i n such a r e a c t i o n . 7A t e c h n o l o g i c a l f i x , c o u p l e d by a prompt h i k e i n the Gro s s N a t i o n a l P r o d u c t i s enough to s a t i s f y the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s t h a t t h e i r c o u n t r y i s on the road to development; but f o r whom? I n t e r m e d i a t e t e c h n o l o g y i s l e s s a t t r a c t i v e t o the r u l i n g e l i t e and t h e n a t i o n a l or b u r e a u c r a t i c b o u r g o i s i e than l a r g e - s c a l e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o j e c t s because i t does n o t h i n g t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e s t a t e r u l e i n the r u r a l a r e a s . T h i s i s a f a c t . There a r e very few backwards and forwards l i n k a g e s whica a r e c r e a t e d a t t h e urban c o n t r o l l e v e l . A l s o , i t m i n i m i z e s the use o f i m p o r t m a t e r i a l s and s t r e s s e s s e l f - d e p e n d e n c y . I n a l l , much l e s s l u c r a t i v e t o the o f f i c i a l s i n v o l v e d i n the s t a t e a p p a r a t u s which h o l d a b e t t e r g r i p on p o t e n i a l p a y - o f f s o f f of l a r g e - s c a l e p r o j e c t s . -1 18-Tha sheer d a r i n g cf s h u t t i n g o f f a major r i v e r i n order t o i r r i g a t e m i l l i o n s c f a c r e s of dry l a n d i s b r e a t h t a k i n g — a n d d i f f i c u l t t o t u r n down i n f a v o r of some cheap, s m a l l - s c a l e peasant scheme. (4) As a p o l i c y measure at a m i c r o s c a l e l e v e l , the p l a n n e r must t a k e c a u t i o n and s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n , even f o r i n t e r m e d i a t e t e c h n o l o g y , the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a u n i - l e v e l t e c h n o l o g i c a l improvement. The a p p l i c a t i o n of a t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n scheme s h o u l d a lways be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n the o v e r a l l s o c i o - e c o n o m i c framework. Never s h o u l d i t be imposed c r f i t t e d s o l e l y t o enhance a s p e c i f i c s e c t o r o f a c t i v i t y i n the r u r a l v i l l a g e community. The unbalance i t c o u l d provoke may w e l l c o n t r i b u t e t o worsen the r u r a l c o n d i t i o n w i t h i n the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t system than improve i t . I n c r e a s i n g c r o p y i e l d by e i t h e r c h e m i c a l f e r t i l i z e r and t r a c t o r s or oxen-plough and cow dung f e r t i l i z e r c o u l d do as much harm t o t h e system i f not e n v i s i o n e d i n a comprehensive manner. Without p r o p e r s t o r a g e and t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s , the e x t r a y i e l d would j u s t s p o i l whereas t h e e x t r a burden o f h a v i n g t o c a r e f o r the a n i m a l s and s p r e a d t h e manure c o u l d add up t o e x t r a work l o a d s f o r women. I n many i n s t a n c e s , the i n t r o d u c t i o n of i n t e r m e d i a t e t e c h n o l o g y i s t h e opening of the door to e x p a n s i o n of the monetary economy w i t h i n t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r . As noted e a r l i e r , t h i s can be absorbed t o a c e r t a i n l i m i t of i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n and w e l l - u s e d . However, i t a l s o can s t a r t a p r o c e s s of work s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and a c c u m u l a t i o n which, without t h e proper i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a n n e l t o keep b e n e f i t from the i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i v i t y , the new i n v e n t i o n c o u l d j u s t as w e l l a c t - 1 1 9 -l i k e w i s e to a g g r a v a t e th e c o n d i t i o n s of t h e r u r a l community i n s t e a d of h e l p i n g i t . For i n s t a n c e , i n a p r e - c a p i t a l i s t a g r i c u l t u r a l s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g s o c i e t y t h a t a l s o p r a c t i c e s a c o m b i n a t i o n of o t h e r economic a c t i v i t i e s , f o r example f i s h i n g ; i f f i s h i n g n e t s a r e i n t r o d u c e d and the s t a t e opens up t r a n s p o r t l i n k s t o market t o c o m m e r c i a l i z e the f i s h c a t c h without e x e r c i s i n g any o t h e r i n c e n t i v e t o a g r i c u l t u r e , t h i s has the e f f e c t of a t t r a c t i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l e n t r e p r e n e u r and o t h e r members of the v i l l a g e work f o r c e . T h i s p r o c e s s of p r o l e t a r i z a t i o n u l t i m a t e l y b reaks up the f a m i l y economy without n e c e s s a r i l y assuming b e t t e r c o n d i t i o n s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e i m p e r a t i v e t h a t t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s , whether i n t e r m e d i a t e or advanced, be d e s i g n e d and- i n t r o d u c e d w i t h i n a m u l t i - l e v e l approach and t h a t a c t i o n programmes s h o u l d a lways c o n s i d e r t h e d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t Impacts i t M i l l t r i g g e r , and t h u s p l a n f o r t h e i r m i t i g a t i o n as w e l l . °- INSTITUTIOMS The p o l i c y o p t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n a l mechanism d e s t i n e d t o promote development frcm "below", i s as much p i v o t a l t o the s u c c e s s of r u r a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , as i t i s the A c h i l l e s h e e l of development from "below" i n the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r . I n s u c h , i t i s o f t e n n e g l e c t e d i n the p l a n n i n g approach because o f the s t a t e ' s d o m i n a t i o n and c o n t r o l over t h e l e g a l p r o c e s s and t h e i r a p p r o v a l . The f u n d a m e n t a l problem i s t h a t of h a v i n g to cope w i t h P&SF's g r a d u a l a b s o r p t i o n w i t h i n the c a p i t a l i s t sphere wi t h - 1 2 0 -s u r p l u s p r o d u c t i o n . Hence, e n s u r i n g t h a t i t can b e n e f i t the most from i n t r o d u c e d c a s h - e a r n i n g s c r e a t e d by o t h e r mechanisms such as e d u c a t i o n and t e c h n o l o g y by c h a n n e l i n g the cash s a v i n g i n t o more p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s and n o t becoming trapped by the drudgery of c u l t u r a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . A g a i n , depending on the s p e c i f i c c a s e , the recommendation of p o t e n t i a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l mechanisms ( p r o d u c t i o n c r e d i t . People's banks) which c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d can o n l y be made from an a n a l y s i s of a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n which v a r i e s w i t h t h e degree of i n t e g r a t i o n and form o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement which a l r e a d y e x i s t s i n the c o u n t r y . I d e a l l y , i n s t i t u t i o n a l mechanisms which c o u l d b e s t encourage t h e p r o p a g a t i o n of s e l f - r e l i a n c e . W i t h i n a m o n e t a r i z e d economy a r e t h o s e which a s c r i b e t o a t r a j e c t o r y of development t h a t would not c o n s i d e r t h e s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n of the ' t r a d i t i o n a l * s o c i a l framework. In c o n t r a s t , a l l i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m s i m p l y a p a r t i a l i f not t o t a l d e s t r u c t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , the f o r m a t i o n o f an a g r a r i a n c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s can only l e a d t o t h e d e t e r i o r a t i o n of t h e i n d i g e n o u s s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , a l r e a d y a t tim e s very u n d e s i r a b l e n a t i o n a l economic c o n d i t i o n s on the o t h e r hand, the p a r a c h u t i n g of l a r g e r u n i t s ( C o — o p e r a t i v e s , C o l l e c t i v e s , Communes or P e o p l e ' s Bank) have not n e c e s s a r i l y produced v e r y p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s i n A f r i c a i n g e n e r a l . The o b j e c t i o n r a i s e d i s t h a t they u s u a l l y s p l i n t e r the s o c i a l framework i n t o a p a u p e r i z e d m a r g i n a l c l a s s or t h a t the new s t r u c t u r e s t o t a l l y c o l l a p s e from mismanagement. Hence, the p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e t h a t i s t o f a c i l i t a t e income e a r n i n g s w i t h i n a smooth t r a n s i t i o n a l p r o c e s s o f d i s s o l u t i o n i s a -121-most d i f f i c u l t t a s k . Here i s t h e c h a l l e n g e f c r p l a n n e r s t o prove t h e i r c r e a t i v i t y — I do not contend t o have the s o l u t i o n which c o u l d h e l p b r i d g e t h e gap o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r dilemma. Thus, I l e a v e i t here t o be added to t h e r e s e a r c h agenda of those p l a n n e r s who agree w i t h the p h i l o s o p h y exposed t h r o u g h o u t t h i s t h e s i s which i n sum, t h a t m o d e r n i z a t i o n s h o u l d be accommodated t o the p e a s a n t s and not v i c e - v e r s a . T h i s i d e a i s b e s t d e s c r i b e d by the F r e n c h geographer Gourou's r e f l e c t i o n : I I e s t n e c e s s a i r e d'aborder l e dgveloppement a g r i c o l e a p a r t i r d'une c c n n a i s a n c e p r e c i s e e t d e " t a i l l e des a g r i c u l t e u r s l o c a l e s et des o p i n i o n s e t s e n t i m e n t s des paysans s u r i e u r propre a g r i c u l t u r e . .Les prog r e s p o s s i b l e s d o i v e a t e t r e r e a l i s e dans une o p t i g u e paysanne et d'abord au p r o f i t des p a y s a n s ; r e f c r i e r l e s campagnes s e l o n c e s sch&mas gen§raux e t des c o n c e p t i o n s p h i l o s o p h i c o - g c o n o m i q u e s a b o u t i s s a n t a l a d i s e t t e a t au diesordre. (5) In c o n c l u s i o n , t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f r u r a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s of d e v e l o p i n g p r e - c a p i t a l i s t t r a d i t i o n a l d o m e s t i c a g r i c u l t u r e w i t h i n t h e growing sphere o f i n f l u e n c e o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r e x p l a i n the need t o c o n s i d e r m u l t i - l e v e l d i m e n s i o n s of p o l i c y mechanisms f o r s t r a t e g y f o r m u l a t i o n . D e s p i t e the weaknesses t h a t e x i s t i n the bottom-up development a l t e r n a t i v e , i t s a p p l i c a t i o n i s t h o u g h t t o have a b e t t e r chance o f e l i m i r a t i n g the p l a n n i n g of p o v e r t y than the c a n t e r down approach. Meanwhile, th e " b a r e f o o t p l a n n e r " (he who a s p i r e s t o promote bottom-up development) must r e a l i s e t h a t h i s recommendations are o n l y as v a l i d as the w i l l t h a t e x i s t s w i t h i n the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y i n b r e a k i n g down the s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e s t h a t s e p a r a t e the r u r a l s e c t o r from the urban s e c t o r . As l o n g as i n t e r n a l c l a s s -122-c o n f l i c t s , which a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a d o m i n a t i o n and e x p l o i t a t o n o£ t h o s e who produce by t h o s e who a p p r o p r i a t e i s not e l i m i n a t e d , t h e r e i s l i t t l e hope i n t h i n k i n g t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l development (food c h a i n or commercial) through g r a s s r o o t s c o n t r o l ; a n i m a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , a l p h a b e t i z a t i o n , e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s , t e c h n o l o g i c a l development or a l t e r n a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s ; would be c a p a b l e of t r u l y s u r v i v i n g a f t e r the t a k e ever by the i n d i g e n e o u s p o p u l a t i o n a t the time o f d e p a r t u r e of f o r e i g n a i d p a r t i c i p a n t s . F i n a l l y , f o r r u r a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n to be synonomous t o r u r a l p r o g r e s s i n the end, i n c r e a s i n g c r o p p r o d u c t i o n i s probably the l a s t s t e p an a g r i c u l t u r a l p l a n n e r and p r o j e c t d e s i g n e r s h o u l d c o n s i d e r whenever bottcm-up p l a n n i n g i s I n v o l v e d i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e adequate l e v e l s o f l i v i n g i n PASF. I I I . SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION T h i s work i s p r i m a r i l y an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the mechanisms which e x p l a i n t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s o f the c u r r e n t development p r o c e s s i n A f r i c a . These p r o c e s s e s have had a p a r a d o x i c a l tendency to p a u p e r i z e a segment of s o c i e t y w h i c h , p r i o r t o the i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o the n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l i s t s ystem, was e x i s t i n g i n a l e g i t i m a t e mode of l i v i n g and a p r o d u c t i o n system t h a t a l l o w e d t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n of d i s t i n c t s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r c e n t u r i e s . The r e s u l t , f o r t h e g r e a t e r p a r t of the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n s t h a t have i n t e g r a t e d the c a p i t a l i s t system w i t h t h e i r own, i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n an underdeveloped form of c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n -123-tfhicb. l e a v e s t h e v i l l a g e community w i t h l e s s food than i t was c a p a b l e o f p r o d u c i n g by i t s own " t r a d i t i o n a l " means. We have examined the a r t i c u l a t i o n between two very d i f f e r e n t p r o d u c t i o n sytems - - p r e - c a p i t a l i s t and c a p i t a l i s t — and more p r e c i s e l y , the s o c i a l and economic o r g a n i z a t i o n of an a g r i c u l t u r a l s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g f o r m a t i o n and i t s i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the s t a t e - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r through the p e r s p e c t i v e of i n t e r n a t i o n a l development. I have attempted t o c l a r i f y c e r t a i n m i s c o n c e p t i o n s which are a d d r e s s e d by t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l wisdom of development o r g a n i z a t i o n s whenever they a t t e m p t the same e x e r c i s e . That i s , t o e x p l a i n the d i f f i c u l t i e s and v a r i o u s o b s t a c l e s t o the development of t r a d i t i o n a l d omestic a g r i c u l t u r e i n p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s or " s u b s i s t e n c e " economies; not i n terms o f the s t a t i c , backward economies v a r s u s modern economies, but w i t h i n the dynamics of c l a s s c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n the d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s . The c e n t r a l i d e a of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o d i s p e l the n o t i o n t h a t t h e problem of underdevelopment i s s t r i c t l y due to the c o n s e r v a t i v e n a t u r e of t h e p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s t o e x p l a i n t h e r e a s o a s f o r t h i s c o n s e r v a t i v e tendency and I wish to demonstrate t h a t a t e c h n i c a l , narrow approach t o a g r i c u l t u r a l development i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e and s e r v e s , i n the end, o n l y the i n t e r e s t of the dominant c a p i t a l i s t system of p r o d u c t i o n and o f the urban c l a s s e s . For the p l a n n e r , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o t r y to p o i n t out the m u l t i - f a c e t e d a s p e c t s of t h e problem of a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s and t o attempt t o d e v e l o p an approach to development p l a n n i n g t h a t would a p p r o p r i a t e l y expose the v a r i o u s l e v e l s of c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and paradoxes t h a t a r e p r e s e n t i n the -124-dynamics of the developusenta 1 p r o c e s s . I have a l s o p r e s e n t e d the v a r i o u s dilemmas i n v o l v e d i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a r a d i c a l J i n the g r a s s - r o o t sense) a l t e r n a t i v e development p a t h . I n e s s e n c e , I b e l i e v e t h i s t o be a s t e p towards b r i d g i n g the gap between t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o n a t i o n a l economies and c l a s s c o n f l i c t t h a t a re prominent i n the A f r i c a n s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n . Under the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the p r o c e s s of p r o l e t a r i a n i z a t i o n i s e q u i v a l e n t to t h e d e g r a d a t i o n of s o c i a l e n t i t i e s of p r e - c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s and the mostly i n p u t t e d dependency on t h e s e r v i c e of t h e c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r w h i l e r e j e c t i n g a m a r g i n a l i z e d c l a s s i n the o u t s e t , the d i s s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s of p r e - c a p i t a l i s t economies i s more o f t e n a s i g n of l o s s of c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y and u n i f o r m i z a t i o n than o f a symbol o f " c i v i l i z a t i o n " . F i n a l l y , the s t u d y r e f u t e s any h i s t o r i c a l d e t e r m i n i s m and t h e e v o l u t i o n a r y p a t h of d i a l e c t i c m a t e r i a l i s m by s u p p o r t i n g the view t h a t the p r e - c a p i t a l i s t mode of p r o d u c t i o n can be c a l l e d upon t o c o n t i n u e to a d e q u a t e l y produce s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and be s e l f - r e l i a n t w h i l e s l o w l y a c c e p t i n g market exchange under terms t h a t a r e e q u i t a b l e f o r both p a r t i e s and do not l e a d toward a zero-sum game. However, t o c o n c l u d e , i t s h o u l d be c l e a r t h a t the a l t e r n a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t a l path and s e l f - d e v e l o p m e n t s t a g e s w i l l a lways e n c o u n t e r a major s t u m b l i n g b l o c k a l o n g any cou r s e which seeks t o implement i t . Hence, i n t h e same manner Raphael (1981) mentions the d i f f i c u l t i e s of t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of p a r i c i p a t o r y p l a n n i n g f o r low-income h o u s i n g development, as l o n g as i n t e r n a l c l a s s c o n f l i c t r e l a t i o n s a re not met head on whenever urban c l a s s e s show d i s d a i n f o r t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n and b u r e a u c r a t i c - t e c h n o c r a t s p e r s i s t i n e n v i s i o n i n g the b e t t e r l i f e i n t h e " b i g c i t y " , i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t t o supplement the a l t e r n a t i v e path w i t h t h e i n d i g e n o u s t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s of n a t i o n a l s whom i t can b e s t s e r v e . F i n a l l y , i t i s i m p e r a t i v e t h a t , i n the words of C a b r a l , " l e s c a d r e s d o i v e u t e c l a i r e r ceux g u i s o n t dans 1 * i g n o r a n c e " i f development i s to e v e r e q u a l l y b e n e f i t a l l l e v e l s of the A f r i c a n s o c i e t y both i n t h e c i t i e s and i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s . - 1 2 6 -FOCTNQTES CHAPTEE_i (1) For a d e f i n i t i o n of p r e c a p i t a l i s t t r a d . i t i o . n a l domestic a g r i c u l t u r e see c h a p t e r .2. (2) S a r x ' s h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s t c o n s i d e r e d the n a t u r a l economies of t h e p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s as a f i r s t s t a g e i n the l o n g e v o l u t i o n t o communism and t h a t Marx and many of h i s f o l l o w e r s such as Kautsky and L e n i n i n h i s e a r l y works, tended t o f o r e c a s t t h e imminent or i n e v i t a b l e e r a d i c a t i o n of those forms or r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n which were a l i e n t o the zone of p r o d u c t i o n founded on c a p i t a l and wage l a b o u r (Cherahev, 19 82, p.89) . (3) For an a c c o u n t of the d e c i m a t i o n of the South American I n d i a n s , see C l a s t r e s , P i e r r e , " E t h n o c i d e , " i n Recherche dlanthrop.olo^ie_ p o l i t i c s ue. ( P a r i s ; S e u i l , 1980), pp. 47-57. (4) Toynbee, A r n o l d , A Study of His t o r y . , (New York: Weathervane Books, 1972), p. 32. (5) H a r t d e s c r i b e s a f i v e p a r t c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of the h i s t o r y o f West A f r i c a d i v i d e d i n t o two b a s i c p e r i o d s : (a) T r a d i t i o n a l P e r i o d ( i ) M e d i e v a l E r a (1500 and b e f o r e ) ( i i ) European M e r c a n t i l i s m / A t l a n t i c S l a v e Trade (1500- 1830) (b) Modern P e r i o d ( i i i ) The N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y C r i s i s (1830-1900) ( i v ) C o l o n i a l i s m (1900-1960) (v) The S u c c e s s o r S t a t e s (1960 onwards) H a r t , K e i t h , The P o l i t i c a l Economy of West A f r i c a n A g r i c u l t u r e , (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982), pp. 28-29. (6) B e r n s t e i n , Henry ( e d i t o r ) , Underdevelopment and Development, The T h i r d E o r l d Today, (Penguin Books, 1973), p. 20. (7) M e i l l a s s o u x , cp__. c i t . . p. v i i . (8) E l a i s a r e c e n t West A f r i c a n author t o emerge and p o i n t out t h e s e f a c t s as w e l l as t h e many o t h e r s b e f o r e him, t h a t " L ' A f r i g u e des paysans n'est gu'en apparence ferme' aux i n n o v a t i o n s t e c h n o l o g i g u e s . Ce g u i e c l a i r e son comportement devant l e s a p p o r t s e x t S r i e u r s c ' e s t l a v o l o n t e d'echapper a t o u t e s formes de d o m i n a t i o n g u i prennent l e masgue de l a " m o d e r n i s a t i o n " . E l a , Jean-Marc, 1 'Afriejue des v i l l a g e s . ( P a r i s : K a r t h a l a , 1982) , p. ,181. - 1 2 7 -(9) S t o h r , W a l t e r E . , " D e v e l o p m e n t F r o m A b o v e : The B o t t o m ' s Up and P e r i p h e r y - I n w a r d D e v e l o p m e n t P a r a d i g m " , i n S t o r h , W . B . a n d D. 8 . F r a s e r T a y l o r , D e v e l o p m e n t s From- A b o v e o r B e l o w ? . ( L o n d o n : J o h n W i l e y and S o n s , 1 9 8 1 ) , p . 4 1 . (10) D a v i d s o n , B a s i l , A f r i c a i n M o d e r n H i s t o r y : The S e a r c h f o r a New• S o c i e t y , ( P e n g u i n B o c k s , 1 9 7 8 ) , p . 2 8 0 . (11) M e i l l a s s o u x , c____ c i t _ , p . 9 8 . CHAP_______2 (1) B e r d i c h e w s k y , B e r n a r d o , A n t h r o t o l o g y and S o c i a l _ _ _ _ _ _ _ i n - S u r a l Area s - t (The H a g u e , Eouton7"~ 1 973) , ~ p . 1 oT (2) p . 9 . T h e d e f i n i t i o n o f a s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n i s q u o t e d as f o l l o w s . . Seme a u t h o r s h a v e g i v e n a b r o a d e r m e a n i n g t o t h e c o n c e p t , mode o f p r o d u c t i o n , c o n f u s i n g i t i n a way , w i t h s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f o r m a t i o n ( F i o r v a n t i , 1 9 7 2 ) . (See a l s o G o d e l i e r , 1 9 7 3 : 1 8 , who e x p l a i n s t h e s e two m e a n i n g s o f mode o f p r o d u c t i o n . ) A s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f o r m a t i o n — d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t o f mode o f p r o d u c t i o n — a l w a y s c o r r e s p o n d s t o a c o n c r e t e s o c i e t y a n d d e v e l o p s i n a n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h a l l t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r i s i t s c o n d i t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n . (3) I b i _ _ # P . 10 . (4) T h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n n o n - c a p i t a l i s t and p r e - c a p i t a l i s t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t and t h e y a r e u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e h o w e v e r , f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y , we h a v e a d o p t e d t h e t e r m p r e - c a p i t a l i s t b e c a u s e n o n - c a p i t a l i s t i s o f t e n u s e d a s an a n t o n y m f o r c a p i t a l i s t i n l i e u o f s o c i a l i s t . M e a n w h i l e , p r e - c a p i t a l i s t c a n a l s o s u g g e s t an e v o l u t i o n a r y t h e o r y w h i c h i s c o n t r a r y t o o u r i n t e n t i n t h i s c a s e . (5) G o d e l i e r , M a u r i c e , H o r i z o n s e t t r a j e t s m a r x i s t e s en _ _ _ _ £ 2 £ _ _ _ * _ i § / ( P a r i s : M a s p e r o , 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 2 7 . (6) M e i l l a s s o u x , C l a u d e , T e r r a i n s e t t h e o r i e s , ( P a r i s : A n t h r o p o s , 1 9 7 7 ) , p . 87.. (7) W h a r t o n , C . ( e d i t o r ) , S u b s i s t e n c e - A__ri__jilt__rre and E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t , ( C h i c a g o : C h i c a g o U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 196 9 ) , p . 13 . (8) S a h l i n s , M a r s h a l l , S t o n e ______ E c o n o m i c s , ( C h i c a g o : A l d i n e - A t h e r t o n , 1 9 7 2 ) . (9) A v a g u e n e s s t h a t does n o t s u g g e s t a n y a n a l y t i c a l p o i n t o f v iew on any m e a n i n g f u l b a s i s . -128-(10) A i a i n , S a m i r , l e d e v e l g p p . e m e n t „ n e _ _ l > ( P a r i s : M i n u i t , 19 73} , p . . 9 . Le c o n c e p t de mode de p r o d u c t i o n e s t un c o n c e p t a f a s t r a i t g u i n ' i m p l i q u e a u c u n o r d r e de s u c c e s s i o n h i s t o r i q u e p o u r t o u t e p e r i o d e d e i ' h i s t o i r e des c i v i l i s a t i o n s g u i s ' e t e n d d e s p r e m i e r e s f o r m a t i o n s d i f f e r e n c e s j u s g u ' a u c a p i t a l i s m e . (11) B e r d i c h e w s k y , o £ _ c i t - . , p . 8 . (12) G o d e l i e r , o__ c i t . , p . 6 7 . (13) M e i l l a s s o u x , C l a u d e , A n t h r o _ o l O £ i e Sec r o m i q u e • de s _ 1 £ 2 S i S U £ 2 i § d _ I v o i r e # ( P a r i s : M o u t o n , 1 9 6 4 ) . (14) A m i n , o£__ ,c±t»f p . 12 . (15) D a l t o n , G e o r g e , E c o n o m i c • A n t h r o p o l o g y a n d D e v e l o p m e n t , (New Y o r k ; B a s i c B o o k s , 1971) ,~ *p . 3 7 0 . (16) P a q u e t t e , E o m a i n , D i s e n g a g e m e n t p a y s a n • e t s o u s - p r o d u c t i o n a l i m e n t a i r e , ( M o n t r e a l : P r e s s e de 1 ' U n i v e r s i t e " de M o n t r e a l T 1982)"/ p . 2 4 . (17) D a l t o n , o p . c i t . , p p . 3 7 0 - 3 7 1 . (18) T e m p l e , D o m i n i q u e , " E c h a n g e i n g g a l ou e t h n o c b S v e l o p p e m e n t , l e C a s I n d i e n s S h i p i b o de I ' A m a z o n i e P § r u v i e n n e " , P l u r i e l , 2 S , 1 9 8 2 , p . 6 9 . (19) A r m s t r o n g , W.f i . and T.G. M c G e e , C o 1 1 a b e r a t o r s and C o r p o r a t i o n s : C a p i t a l A c c u m u l a t i o n , C l a s s a n d C i t i e s i n La^t in A m e r i c a a n d A s i a * u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , 1983 . (20) H a l l e r s t e i n d e s i g n a t e s t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e a p p r o a c h a s b a s e d on " t h e a s s u m p t i o n i m p l i c i t l y and e x p l i c i t l y , t h a t t h e modern w o r l d c o m p r i s e s a s i n g l e c a p i t a l i s t w o r l d - e c o n o m y w h i c h h a s emerged h i s t o r i c a l l y s i n c e t h e 16th c e n t u r y and w h i c h s t i l l e x i s t s t o d a y " . W a l l e r s t e i n , I m m a n u e l , The C a p i t a l i s t H o r l d - B c o n o m y , ( C a m b r i d g e : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 9 ) , p . 5 3 , (21) I b i c L , p p . 5 3 - 5 4 . (22) C o r m , G e o r g e s , " S a p e r I ' I d e o l o g i e du D S v e l o p p e m e n t " , i n Le Monde D i p l o m a t i q u e , A p r i l , 1978 , p . 2 1 . (23) C l a s t r e s , P i e r r e , l a s o c i e t e c o n t r e t a t , ( P a r i s ; S i n u i t , 197 4 , p . 164 . (24) P a q u e t t e , o p . _ _ _ _ , p . 2 3 . - 1 2 9 -C 3 A P T E R 3 ' (1) A m i n , S a r a i r , N eo c o l p n i a 11 s m i n West A f r i c a , ( L o n d o n ; P e n g u i n B o o k s , 1 9 7 3 ) , p . 6 6 . (2) R o b e r t s , B r y a n , C i t i e s o f P e a s a n t s , ( L o n d o n : A r n o l d , 1978) , p . 1 3 . (3) F o r r e v i e w s of t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t a n d d e p e n d e n c y t h e o r i e s o f u n e q u a l d e v e l o p m e n t b y Amin (1973) , c o r e - p e r i p h a r y d e p e n d e n c y b y F r a n k (1969) and W a l l e r s t e i n ' s W o r l d C a p i t a l i s t S y s t e m (1979) s e e R o b e r t s , c h a p t e r 1, A r m s t r o n g and M c G e e , c h a p t e r s 1 and 2 a n d C h i l c o t e , R . , " D e p e n d e n c y ; A C r i t i c a l S y n t h e s i s o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e " , i n L a t a n A m e r i c a n P e r s p e c t i v e s I . 1974 , p p . . 4 - 2 9 . * (4) A r m s t r o n g and M c G e e , o p . c i t . , p . 1 . 1 6 . (5) S e t t l e h e i m , C h a r l e s , ( 1 9 7 2 ) , p . 291 c i t e d i n I b i d . , p . 3 . 24 . (6) F o r an u p d a t e o f t h e n e g o c i a t i o n o f t h i r d w o r l d d e b t s o f 700 m i l l i o n , s e e C o i n , G e o r g e s , " U n e f r u c t u e u s e r e n e g o c i a t i o n d e s d e t t e s " , i n Le monde d i p l o m a t i q u e , S e p t e m b e r , 1983 , p . 5. (7) A u b r y , A n d r e , " l e s a g r o n o m e s de l a f a i m , vue du C h i a p a s , une c r i t i q u e de l a n o u v e l l e s t r a t e g i c a g r i c o l e M e x i c a i n e " , i n T r i c o n t i n e n t a l , 1982, f a m i n e s e t p e n u r i e . ( P a r i s : M a s p e r o , 1 9 8 2 ) , p . 142 . (8) P o r t e s , A . and J . W a l t o n , L a b o u r C l a s s and t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l - S y s t e m , (New Y o r k : M o n t h l y R e v i e w P r e s s , 1981) , p . 1 8 3 . (9) M e i l l a s s o u x , p p . c i t . , p . 9 7 . (10) M e i l l a s s o u x , C l a u d e , " F r o m R e p r o d u c t i o n t o P r o d u c t i o n , A M a r x i s t A p p r o a c h t c E c o n o m i c A n t h r o p o l o g y " , i n Economy a n d S o c i e t y . , Vo lume 1, Number 1, 1972 , p p . 9 9 - 1 0 0 . (11) H a r t , o £ ^ c i t . , p . 3 6 . (12) D u p r e , G e o r g e s and P i e r r e - P h i l l i p e R e y , " R e f l e c t i o n s on t h e P e r t i n e n c e o f a I h e o r y o f t h e H i s t o r y o f E x c h a n g e " , i n i i l d S o c i e t y ; , Volume 1, Number 1, 1972, p . 145. (13) I b i d , . , p . 150-(14) N a s h , M a n n i n g , P r i m i t i v e a n d P e a s a n t E c o n o m i c S y s t e m s , (San F r a n c i s c o ; C h a n d l e r , 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 3.5.. (15) D u p r e a n d R e y , op^. c i t , . , p . 149 . - 1 3 0 -(16) M e i l l a s s o u x , op. c i t . , p. 130 , (17) D a l t o n , op... c i t . . , p. 3 7 6 . (18) M e i l l a s s o u x , cp.^ c i t , p. , 133-(19) H a r t , o£_. c i t . , p. 3 8 . CHAPTER- 4 (1) The PAIGC i s the A f r i c a n P a r t y f o r t h e Independence of G u i n e a - B i s s a u and Cape Verde founded i n 1 9 5 6 by A m i l c a r C a b r a l , t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y l e a d e r o f t h e s t r g g l e f o r l i b e r a t i o n who was murdered a year b e f o r e independence was d e c l a r e d i n 1 9 7 4 . The PAIGC i s s t i l l t h e s o l e p o l i t i c a l p a r t y i n e x i s t e n c e i n Guinea. (2) Lopez, C a r l o s , fitnia, Estado e B e i a c o e s de Poder aa G u i n e - B i s s a u . ( L i s b o n ; E d i c o e s 7 0 , 1 9 8 2 ) , p. 1 7 . (3) H a r t , o£_. c i t , . , p. 2 3 . (4) G o u l e t , D e n i s , l o o k i n g a t G u i n e a - B i s s a u ; A New N a t i o n ^ s Development S t r a t e q y , (Washington, Overseas Development C o u n c i l , 1 9 7 8 ) , O c c a s s s i o n a l Paper Number 9 , March, 1 9 7 8 , p. 1 . (5) Young, C , Ij3ecdca,y> and Development i n A f r i c a , (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y I r e s s , 1 9 8 2 ) , p. 4 2 . (6) Urdang, S t e p h a n i e , " G u i n e a - B i s s a u ; A g r i c u l t u r e t o d a y , A g r i c u l t u r e Tomorrow", S o u t h e r n i f r i c a , December, 1 9 7 6 , p. 21 c i t e d i n G o u l e t on p. 3 5 . (7) A f r i c a C o n f i d e n t i a l , " G u i n e a - B i s s a u " , December 1 5 , 1 9 8 2 . (8) Lopez, op. c i t . . , p. 1 1 7 . (9) A f r i c a C o n f i d e n t i a l , l o c ^ c i t . (10) Budebeck, L a r s , Problemes de p o u v q i r p p p u l a i r e et•de 41lg ,3 i22 :E i IxBt iL t r a n s i t i o n d i f f i c i l e en G u i n e e - B i s s a u , Research Report Number 6 3 , ( U p s a l l a : S c a n d i n a v i a n I n s t i t u t e of A f r i c a n S t u d i e s , 1982) , p. 1 5 . (11) V i i e y , D., P e t i t h i s t o i r e des qrandes d o c t r i n e s e c o n o i i q u e , L i b r a r i e de M e d i c i s , (P.U.S., 1 9 4 4 ) , p. 2 4 . (12) Bradby, B a r t a r a , "The D e s t r u c t i o n o f the N a t u r a l Economy", i n Economy and S o c i e t y , Volume 4 : 2 , 1 9 7 5 , p. 1 2 9 . (13) F e l k a i , I s t a n , "Gu I n g e - B i s s a u : t e n i r l a prcmesse f a i t e aux paysans", Le monde d i p l o m a t i q u e . A p r i l , 1 9 . 8 3 , p. 1 3 . (14) G o u l e t , op. c i t . , p. 2 1 . - 1 3 1 -(15) G a a c t z , C l i f f o r d , i a r i c u l t u r a l I _ f j o l M _ i 5 £ » ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) . (16) L o p e z , o__ c i t _ , p . 63. (17) G o u l e t , o_,_- c_t_. , p . 20. (18) G e e r t z , ojg_ c i t _ , p. 19 (19| L o p e z , op.j_ c i t _ , p . 8 9 . (20) F e l k a i , l o c _ c i t _ (21) Duraont, Rgne and M. - F . M o t t i n , L ' a f r i q u e 1 ' e t r a n q l e e * ( P a r i s : S e u i l , 1980) , p . 2 2 3 . (22) S a n l b r o o k , R i c h a r d , T h e P o l i t i c s o f B a s i c __jeeds__ U r b a n a s p e c t s o f A s _ s a u l t i n q P o v e r t y i a A f r i c a , ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o ,~T982) , p . 6 3."" (23) S o v e r e i g n t o C a b r a l ' s t h e o r y f o r a new A f r i c a n s o c i e t y i s t h e n o t i o n o f " t h e s u i c i d e o f t h e p e t t y b o u r g e o i s c l a s s " w h i c h x a s t h e most i m p o r t a n t , l i n k t o s e v e r w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r i n o r d e r t o end f o r e i g n d o m i n a t i o n . I r o n i c a l l y , G u i n e a - B i s s a u went a h e a d t o g i v e i t s e l f t h e c o r r e c t t o o l s f o r c o m p l e t e s e l f - r e l i a n c e — a n o n - c o n v e r t i b l e c u r r e n c y and an a l t e r n a t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g y h o w e v e r , i t was n e v e r c a p a b l e o f c o m p l e t i n g t h e p r e c o n d i t i o n s t o a c h i e v e t h e n e e d s o f a new s o c i e t y . (24) D u m o n t , Feng a n d M a r i e - F r a n c e M o t t i n , L e I _ i i l i _ _ § _ _ _ _ a . S l _ _ _ £2 . A m e r i q ue L at i n e , ( P a r i s ; S e u i l , 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 19TT (25) SUCO, ( S e r v i c e u n i v e r s i t a i r e C a n a d i e n o u t r e - m e r ) , L e 4 § _ § _ 2 £ E § I _ _ _ £ J i _ _ i i .S ._l l___ _S _ _ r g q i o n d e B o l a m a , figpu b l i q u e de l a - S u i n e a - I i s s a u , ( M o n t r g a l : 1 9 8 2 ) , p . 4 0 . (26) The " p a c i f i c a t i o n " movement u n d e r t a k e n by t h e P o r t u g u e s e was met by f i e r c e r e s i s t a n c e f r o m t h e B i j a g o s u n t i l 1936 and s t i l l t o d a y , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e s t a t e on s o c i e t y ( t r a n s l a t i o n by a u t h o r ) . L o p e z , o_>._ • c i t._, p . 6 5 . (27) R e f e r e n c e t c P r o j e c t Document FAO-OSRO TCP 1007; Gu i n e a - B i s s a u . (28) P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , h e a d o f p r o j e c t . - 1 3 2 -_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (1) A p t h o r p e , Baymond , " P e a s a n t s and P l a n i s t r a t o r s i n E a s t e r n A f r i c a , 1 9 6 0 - 1 9 7 0 " , i n B e r d i c h . e s s k y , o£__ c i t . , p . 7 8 . (2) S t o h r , op__ c i t _ , p p . 6 4 - 6 7 . (3) I b i d _ , p . 5 8 . (4) B a r t , o__ c i t _ , p . 9 4 . 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Rey, P i e r r e - P h i l l i p > e , C o l o n i a l i s m , Neo-Co i o n i a l ism e t t r a n s i t i o n au c a p i t a l i s m , ( P a r i s : Maspero, 1971). R o b e r t s , B r y a n , C i t i e s of P e a s a n t s , (London: Edward A r n o l d , 1978). Rodney, W a l t e r , How Europe Underdeveloped A f r i c a , (Washington: Development Paperback, 198 1). Rodney, W a l t e r , A H i s t o r y - of the Upper Guinea Coast i f i 1.545 to 1800* (New Y o r k ! Monthly Review Press7~T970). ~ Rudebeck, L a r s , G u i n e a - B i s s a u : A Study o f P o l i t i c a l _ 2 _ i l i z _ t _ 2 _ » ( U p s a l l a , I n s t i t u t e o f S c a n d i n a v i a n A f r i c a n Studies7~974) . Rudebeck, L a r s , Les r r o b i ernes de i_2__2_E c o p u l a i r e e t de d_evelo__£efflent: G u i n g e - B i s s a u , ( U p s a l l a , I n s t i t u t e o f A f r i c a n S t u d i e s , 1982). 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Schumpeter, J.A., The Theory; of Economic Development; An I n q u i r y i _ _ 2 P r o f i t s x C a p i t a l C r e d i t , I n t e r e s t and t h e Business £___.__» (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1934). -141-Shapera, I . , M i g r a n t Labour and T r i b a l L i f e , (O.V.P., 1947), Shaw, Timothy M. and Kenneth A. Heard ( e d i t o r s ) , The P o J . i t i c s of AfisiSi.!- £££^fldence and Development, ( D a l h c u s i e : D a l h o usie U n i v e r s i t y , 1979) . Stewar d , J u l i a n H. ( e d i t o r ) , Contemporary Change i n T r a d i t i o n a l S ° . £ i § i i § § r (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1967). S t o h r , W a l t e r B. and D.R. T a y l o r ( e d i t o r s ) , Development from Above or Below? The D i a l e c t i c s o f Reg i o n a l P l a n n i n g i n De v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s , (London: John W i l e y , 1981). SUCO ( S e r v i c e u n i v e r s i t a i r e Canadien outre-mer) , Le d'eveloppement r u r a l en Afr.igue, ( M o n t r e a l , 1982). SUC0, Le df v e 1 op,p.ement r u r a l i n t e q r e de l a r e g i o n de Bolama, ]|££Sl2Litue de l a G u i n e - B i s s a u , (Montre-al, 1082). Sweezy, P.M., The Theory, o f C a p i t a l i s t Development^ P r i n c i p i e s of M arxian P o l i t i c a l Economy, (New York: Modern Reader, 1 968). Temple, Dominique, "Echange i n e g a l ou ethnodeveloppement, l e cas des I n d i e n s S h i p i b o de l'Amazonie P e r u v i e n n e " , P i U r i e l 29, (1982) . Tenby, E. , Le Marxism devant l e s soci<§ t e s " p r i m i t i v e s " , ( P a r i s : Maspero, 1 96 8) . Toynbee, A r n o l d , A Stud_y. o f H i s t o r y , (New York: Weathervane Books, 1972) . Uchendu, H.C., "The P a s s i n g o f T r i b a l Man: A West A f r i c a n E x p e r i e n c e " , i n C a h i e r s d* gtude A f r i c a i n e . (Volume I , 1960). V i l e y , D., P e t i t h i s t o i r e des gr.andes d o c t r i n e s economiques, ( P a r i s : L i b r a r i e de m e d i c i s , 1944) . W a l l e r s t e i n , Immanuel, The C a p i t a l i s t World Economy, (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979). W a l l e r s t i e n , Immanuel, " E t h n i c i t y and N a t i o n a l I n t e g r a t i o n i n West A f r i c a " , i n C a h i e r s d*jjtude A f r i c a j n e s , (Volume I , 1960). " Wharton, C. ( e d i t o r ) , S u b s i s t e n c e - A g r i c u l t u r e and Economic Devolopment, (Chicago: C h i c a g o U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969). Young, C., Ideolo£y. and Development i n A f r i c a , (New Haven; Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982) . - 1 4 2 -AIEENDIX I THE PAETY PECGBAM OF THE PAIGC -143-The f o l l o w i n g t r a n s l a t i o n of the p a r t y program o f the PAIGC i s found i n Ronald H. C h i l c o t e , Emerging N a t i o n a l i s m i n Portuguese M r i c a , Documents ( S t a n f o r d : Hoover I n s i t u t i o n P r e s s , 1972), pp. 360-366. I t i s a t r a n s l a t i o n from S t a t u t s e t Proaramme, Conakry, PAIGC (no date) , pp. 19-27. (Source: Rudebeck, 1974, pp. 253-257.) The P a r t y Program of th€ PAIGC The,-,, PAIGC _M i n o r _ Pro «jr a m 1. S t r u c t u r a l union of a l l n a t i o n a l i s t and p a t r i o t i c f o r c e s of " P o r t u g u e s e " Guinea and the Cape Verde I s l a n d s i n o r d e r to l i q u i d a t e P o r t u g u e s e i m p e r i a l i s t d o m i n a t i o n i n these two A f r i c a n Na t i o n s . 2. S t r u c t u r a l union of n a t i o n a l i s t and p a t r i o t i c f o r c e s of Guinea and Cabo Verde at home and abroad i n the f i g h t f o r the l i q u i d a t i o n of P o rtuguese c o l o n i a l i s m . 3. E f f e c t i v e a l l i a n c e w i t h n a t i o n a l i s t and p a t r i o t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n o t h e r P o r t u g u e s e c o l o n i e s f o r mutual s u p p o r t and c o o r d i n a t i o n of the f i g h t f o r l i q u i d a t i o n of Portuguese c o l o n i a l i s m . C o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h A f r i c a n , A s i a n , and L a t i n American p e o p l e s who a r e f i g h t i n g a g a i n s t c o l o n i a l i s m and i m p e r i a l i s m . 4. E f f e c t i v e t r a i n i n g based on m o b i l i z a t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e p o p u l a r masses t o f i g h t a g a i n s t Portuguese - 1 4 4 -c o l o n i a l i s m and i m p e r i a l i s m . 5 . S t r u g g l e — a n d o n l y i f n e c e s s a r y , a rmed c o n f l i c t — f o r t h e r a p i d and t o t a l d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e P o r t u g u e s e c o l o n i a l f o r c e s i n " P o r t u g u e s e " G u i n e a end i n t h e C a p e V e r d e I s l a n d s a n d f o r the c o n q u e s t o f c o m p l e t e n a t i o n a l i n d e p e n d e n c e f o r t h e p e o p l e s o f G u i n e a a n d C a b o V e r d e . F i g h t a g a i n s t i m p e r i a l i s m . . 6 . . S t r u c t u r a l u n i o n c f a l l p o l i t i c a l , u n i o n , and mass o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n " P o r t u g u e s e " G u i n e a and t h e C a p e V e r d e I s l a n d s , t o b u i l d a l i f e o f p e a c e , w e l l - b e i n g , and p r o g r e s s f o r t h e p e o p l e s o f G u i n e a and C a b o V e r d e . I n t h i s u n i o n w i l l be t h e p e r m a n e n t d e f e n s e o f the i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p e a s a n t s and u r b a n w o r k e r s who make up a l m o s t t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n . 7. D u r i n g t h e f i g h t f o r l i b e r a t i o n and a f t e r t h e c o n q u e s t o f n a t i o n a l i n d e p e n d e n c e , c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h a l l the p r o g r e s s i v e a n t i - c o l o n i a l and a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t f o r c e s o f t h e w o r l d f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a l i f e or p e a c e and p r o g r e s s f o r a l l p e o p l e s . I k £ J P M S C _ a a i o r _ P r o 2 i c a m I . . I m m e d i a t e , t o t a l i n d e p e n d e n c e 1 , I m m e d i a t e c o n q u e s t , u s i n g any n e c e s s a r y means , o f n a t i o n a l , t o t a l , and u n c o n d i t i o n a l i n d e p e n d e n c e f o r t h e p e o p l e s o f " P o r t u g u e s e " G u i n e a and t h e Cape V e r d e I s l a n d s . 2.. C o n q u e s t o f p o w e r , i n " P o r t u g u e s e " G u i n e a , by t h e p e o p l e o f P o r t u g u e s e G u i n e a a n c i n t h e Cape V e r d e I s l a n d s , by t h e p e o p l e o f Cabo V e r d e . 3. T e r m i n a t i o n of a l l c o l o n i a l i s t i c o r i m p e r i a l i s t i c - U S -r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; a n d end t c a l l t h e P o r t u g u e s e and f o r e i g n p r e r o g a t i v e s o v e r t h e p o p u l a r m a s s e s ; r e v i s i o n c r r e v o c a t i o n o f a l l a g r e e m e n t s , t r e a t i e s , a l l i a n c e s , c o n c e s s i o n , made by t h e P o r t u g u e s e c o l o n i a l i s t s i n v o l v i n g " P o r t u g u e s e " G u i n e a and the C a p e V e r d e I s l a n d s . 4 . N a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o v e r e i g n t y o f " P o r t u g u e s e " G u i n e a and t h e C a p e V e r d e I s l a n d s . E c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l , d i p l o m a t i c , m i l i t a r y , and c u l t u r a l i n d e p e n d e n c e . 5 . . P e r m a n a n t v i g i l a n c e , b a s e d on t h e w i l l c f t h e p e o p l e , t o p r e v e n t o r d e s t r o y a n y a t t e m p t s by i m p e r i a l i s t s a n d c o l o n i a l i s t s t o r e - e s t a b l i s h t h e m s e l v e s , i n new f o r m s , i n " P o r t u g u e s e " G u i n e a a n d t h e Cape V e r d e I s l a n d s . I I . N a t i o n a l U n i t y i n " P o r t u g u e s e " G u i n e a and i n t h e C a p e V e r d e I s l a n d s 1. E g u a l r i g h t s and d u t i e s , s o l i d u n i o n and f r a t e r n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n among t h e c i t i z e n s , w h e t h e r c o n s i d e r e d i n d i v i d u a l l y , b y s o c i a l c l a s s , o r b y e t h n i c g r o u p s . P r o h i b i t i o n a n d e x t e r m i n a t i o n o f a l l a t t e m p t s t o d i v i d e t h e p e o p l e . 2 . E c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , a n d c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . I n " P o r t u g u e s e " G u i n e a t h i s u n i t y w i l l t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e d i v e r s e e t h n i c g r o u p s , w h a t e v e r t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n . I n t h e Cape V e r d e I s l a n d s , e a c h i s l a n d c r g r o u p o f s i m i l a r i s l a n d s i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y w i l l be a b l e t o e n j o y a c e r t a i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t o n o m y , a l w a y s w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f u n i t y and n a t i o n a l s o l i d a r i t y . 3. The r e t u r n t o " P o r t u g u e s e " G u i n e a o f a l l e m i g r a n t s who w i s h t o r e t u r n t o t h e i r c o u n t r y . T h e r e t u r n t o the Cape V e r d e -146-I s l a n d s o f e x i l e d e m i g r a n t s c r workers who w i s h to r e t u r n t o t h e i r c o u n t r y . Free c i r c u l a t i o n of c i t i z e n s throughout t h e n a t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y . I I I . U n i t y between t h e peoples of " P o r t u g u e s e " Guinea and the Cape Verde I s l a n d s 1. A f t e r the conquest of n a t i o n a l independence i n " P o r t u g u e s e " Guinea and i n the Cape Verde I s l a n d s , union of the p e o p l e s of t h e s e c o u n t r i e s f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a s t r o n g and p r o g r e s s i v e A f r i c a n f a t h e r l a n d based on o p p o r t u n i t y c o n s u l t e d p o p u l a r w i l l . 2. The form of u n i o n between the two p e o p l e s w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e i r l e g i t i m a t e , f r e e l y e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . 3. E q u a l r i g h t s and d u t i e s , s o l i d u n i o n , and f r a t e r n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n between the peoples of Guinea and Cabo Verde. P r o h i b i t i o n and e x t e r m i n a t i o n of a l l a t t e m p t s to d i v i d e the two p e o p l e s . IV. A f r i c a n U n i t y 1. A f t e r t h e conquest o f n a t i o n a l independence and i f d e s i r e d by f r e e l y m a n i f e s t e d p o p u l a r w i l l , t o f i g h t f o r the u n i t y of A f r i c a n p e o p l e s , c o n s i d e r e d as a whole or by c o n t i n e n t a l r e g i o n s , always governed by r e s p e c t f o r l i b e r t y , d i g n i t y , and t h e s e peoples* r i g h t s t o p o l i t i c a l , economic, s o c i a l , and c u l t u r a l p r o g r e s s . 2. To combat any attempt by any n a t i o n whatsoever t o annex -147-or put p r e s s u r e on t h e people of " P o r t u g u e s e " Guinea o r the Cape Verde I s l a n d s . 3. Defense of the r i g h t s and the p o l i t i c a l , economic, s o c i a l , and c u l t u r a l g a i n s of the p o p u l a r masses i n "Portuguese" Guinea and i n the Cape Verde I s l a n d s i s the f u n d a m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e r e a l i z a t i o n of u n i t y w i t h o t h e r A f r i c a n p e o p l e s . V. D e m o c r a t i c , a n t i - c c l o n i a l i s t , a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t regime 1. A r e p u b l i c a n , d e m o c r a t i c , l a y , a n t i - c o l o n i a l i s t , and a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t r e g i m e . 2. E s t a b l i s h m e n t cf f u n d a m e n t a l l i b e r t i e s , r e s p e c t f o r the r i g h t s of man, and g u a r a n t e e s o f t h e e x e r c i s e c f these l i b e r t i e s and r i g h t s . 3. E q u a l i t y of c i t i z e n s b e f o r e the law, w i t h no d i s t i n c t i o n as t o n a t i o n a l i t y or e t h n i c group, s e x , s o c i a l o r i g i n , c u l t u r a l l e v e l , p r o f e s s i o n , w e a l t h , r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s , or p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n v i c t i o n s . Men and women w i l l e n j o y e q u a l i t y w i t h r e g a r d t o the f a m i l y , work, and p u b l i c a c t i v i t i e s . 4. A l l i n d i v i d u a l s or i n d i v i d u a l groups who, by t h e i r a c t i o n s or c o n d u c t , f a v o r c o l o n i a l i s m , i m p e r i a l i s m , or the d e s t r u c t i o n of t h e p e o p l e ' s u n i t y w i l l be d e p r i v e d of t h e i r f undamental l i b e r t i e s , by whatever means n e c e s s a r y . 5. G e n e r a l , f r e e e l e c t i o n s o r organs o f power based on u n i v e r s a l , d i r e c t , and s e c r e t s u f f r a g e . 6. T o t a l e l i m i n a t i o n of the c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e and e s t a b l i s h e m e n t of a n a t i o n a l , d e m o c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e - 1 4 8 -by t h e i n t e r n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y . 7 . P r o t e c t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n s o f a l l f o r e i g n e r s l i v i n g and w o r k i n g i n " P o r t u g u e s e " G u i n e a and i n t h e Cape V e r d e I s l a n d s who o p e r a t e w i t h r e s p e c t f o r t h e c u r r e n t l a w s . V I . E c o n o m i c i n d e p e n d e n c e , a s t r u c t u r e d e c o n o m y , and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r o d u c t i o n 1. T e r m i n a t i o n c f a l l c o l o n i a l i s t i c o r i m p e r i a l i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s . C o n g u e s t c f e c o n o m i c i n d e p e n d e n c e f o r " P o r t u g u e s e " G u i n e a and t h e C a p e V e r d e I s l a n d s . 2. H a r m o n i o u s p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e e c o n o m y . E c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y w i l l be d i r e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f d e m o c r a t i c c e n t r a l i s m . 3 . F o u r t y p e s o f o w n e r s h i p : s t a t e , c o o p e r a t i v e , p r i v a t e , a n d p e r s o n a l , T h e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ; t h e p r i n c i p a l means o f p r o d u c t i o n and o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s ; s o c i a l s e c u r i t y ; t h e r a d i o and t h e o t h e r aienas o f b r o a d c a s t i n g , o f i m p a r t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d o f s p r e a d i n g c u l t u r e w i l l c o n s i d e r e d as b e l o n g i n g t o t h e n a t i o n o f " P o r t u g u e s e " G u i n e a and o f t h e C a p e V e r d e I s l a n d s a n d w i l l be e m p l o y e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e n e e d s o f r a p i d e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . V o l u n t a r y c o o p e r a t i v e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the l a n d and a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n of c o n s u m e r g o o d s , and o f h a n d i c r a f t s . P r i v a t e e x p l o i t a t i o n c a n be d e v e l o p e d a s n e e d e d t o p r o m o t e p r o g r e s s , on t h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t i t be u s e f u l t o t h e r a p i d e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f " P o r t u g u e s e " G u i n e a and c f t h e Cape Verde I s l a n d s . -149-P e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y - - e s p e c i a l l y i n d i v i d u a l consumer goods, houses, a n i s a v i n g s earned through work w i l l be i n v i o l a b l e . 4. Development and m o d e r n i z a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e . T r a n s f o r m a t i o n of t h e p r e s e n t system i n o r d e r t o end the one-crop a g r i c u l t u r a l aconomy and t c e r a s e th e o b l i g a t o r y c h a r a c t e r of e a r t h n u t c u l t i v a t i o n i n " P o r t u g u e s e " Guinea and maize c u l t i v a t i o n i n the Cape Verde I s l a n d s . S t r u g g l e a g i n s t a g r i c u l t u r a l c r i s e s , d r o u g h t , f l o o d s , and f a m i n e . 5. A g r a r i a n r e f o r n i n the Cape Verde I s l a n d s , w i t h p r o v a t e r u r a l p r o p e r t y to be l i m i t e d i n e x t e n t so t h a t a l l peasants may have enough l a n d t o work., In " P o r t u g u e s e " Guinea, t c p r o f i t from t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l s t r u c t u r e s and t o c r e a t e new ones t h a t w i l l p e r m i t th e l a n d t o be used i n a manner t h a t w i l l most b e n e f i t the p e o p l e ' s p r o g r e s s . 6. Both i n " P o r t u g u e s e " Guinea and i n the Cape Verde I s l a n d s , c o n f i s c a t i o n cf l a n d s and o t h e r p o s s e s s i o n s of proven enemies of the p e o p l e ' s l i b e r t y and o f n a t i o n a l independence. 7. Development of modern i n d u s t r y and commerce. P r o g r e s s i v e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of s t a t e c o m m e r c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s . Development of an A f r i c a n a r t i s a n c l a s s . S t a t e c o n t r o l o f f o r e i g n t r a d e and c o o r d i n a t i o n of domestic commerce. P r i c e a d j u s t m e n t and s t a b i l i z a t i o n . E l i m i n a t i o n of s p e c u l a t i o n and u n j u s t p r o f i t s . Harmony between urban and r u r a l economic a c t i v i t i e s . 8. Budgetary e q u i l i b r i u m . C r e a t i o n of a new f i s c a l system. C r e a t i o n of n a t i o n a l c u r r e n c y , s t a b i l i z e d and f r e e from i n f l a t i o n . - 1 5 0 -V I I . J u s t i c e a n d p r o g r e s s f o r a l l A . A t t h e s o c i a l l e v e l 1. P r o g r e s s i v e e l i m i n a t i o n o f m a n ' s e x p l o i t a t i o n o f man, o f a l l f o r m s o f s u b s e r v i e n c e c f t h e human p e r s o n f o r the p r o f i t o f i n d i v i d u a l s , g r o u p s , o r c l a s s e s . E l i m i n a t i o n o f m i s e r y , i g n o r a n c e , f e a r , p r o s t i t u t i o n , and a l c o h o l i s m . 2 . P r o t e c t i o n o f t h e r i g h t s o f w o r k e r s and g u a r a n t e e o f work f o r a l l who c a i w o r k . A b o l i t i o n o f f o r c e d l a b o r i n " P o r t u g u e s e " G u i n e a a n d o f e x p o r t a t i o n o f f o r c e d l a b o r e r s o r l a b o r e r s t a k e n " u n d e r c o n t r a c t " t o t h e Cape V e r d e I s l a n d s . 3 . J u s t s a l a r i e s a n d f e e s b a s e d on t h e p r i n c i p l e o f e g u a l pay f o r e g u a l w o r k . P o s i t i v e c o m p e t i t i o n i n w o r k . l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e l e n g t h o f t h e work day c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p r o g r e s s t h a t must be made, b u t a l s o w i t h t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e w o r k e r s . P r o g r e s s i v e e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n ( w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r ) u r b a n and a g r i c u l t u r a l w o r k e r s . 4 . F r e e d o m s f o r u n i o n a n d g u a r a n t e e s f o r t h e i r e f f e c t i v e e x e r c i s e . P a r t i c i p a t i o n and c r e a t i v e i n i t i a t i v e on t h e p a r t o f t h e p o p u l a r m a s s e s e f f e c t i v e i n a l l l e v e l s o f n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p . I n s t i g a t i o n and s u p p o r t o f b o t h u r b a n and r u r a l mass o r g a n i z a t i o n s , p r i n c i p a l l y t h o s e of women, y o u t h , and s t u d e n t s . 5 . S o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r a l l u n e m p l o y e d , i n v a l i d , o r i l l c i t i z e n s i n v o l u n t a r i l y i n n e e d . A l l i n s t i t u t i o n s o f p u b l i c h e a l t h a n d h y g i e n e w i l l be d i r e c t e d o r c o n t r o l l e d by the s t a t e . -151-6. E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e s t o be t i e d t o the p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t y . P r o t e c t i o n f o r pregnant women and i n f a n t s . P r o t e c t i o n f o r the aged. R e s t , r e c r e a t i o n , and c u l t u r e f o r manual, i n t e l l e c t u a l , and a g i c u l t u r a l workers. B. At the e d u c a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l l e v e l 1. E d u c a t i o n a l c e n t e r s and t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d as p o s s e s s i o n s of the n a t i o n and, as such, w i l l be d i r e c t e d o r c o n t r o l l e d by the s t a t e . E d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m , development of secondary e d u c a t i o n , c r e a t i o n o f u n i v e r s i t i e s and of s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e s . 2. R a p i d e l i m i n a t i o n o f i l l i t e r a c y . Compulsory, f r e e p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n . F o r m a t i o n and u r g e n t l y needed improvement of t e c h n i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f . 3. T o t a l e l i m i n a t i o n of the complexes c r e a t e d by c o l o n i a l i s m , of the ccnseguences o f c o l o n i a l i s t i c c u l t u r e and e x p l o i t a t i o n . 4. In " P o r t u g u e s e " G u i n e a , s t i m u l a t i o n o f the use of n a t i v e l a n g u a g e s and of the c r e o l e d i a l e c t ; c r e a t i o n of a s c r i p t f o r t h e s e languages. I n Cabo Verde, s t i m u l a t i o n o f and a s c r i p t f o r the c r e o l e d i a l e c t . Development o f the c u l t u r e s of t h e v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups and of the p e o p l e o f Cabo Verde. P r o t e c t i o n and development of l i t e r a t u r e and the n a t i o n a l a r t s . 5. U t i l i z a t i o n o f a l l t h e g a i n s and d i s c o v e r i e s of value made by human c u l t u r e f o r the p r o g r e s s of t h e p e o p l e s of Guinea and of Cabo Verde. C c n t i b u t i c n c f t h e s e p e o p l e s * c u l t u r e t o humanity i n g e n e r a l . 6., S u p p o r t and development of p h y s i c a l e d u a t i o n and s p o r t s - 1 5 2 -f o r a l l c i t i z e n s o f " P o r t u g u e s e " G u i n e a and o f t h e Cape V e r d e I s l a n d s . C r e a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a n d s p o r t s i n s t i t u t e s . 7 . R e l i g i o u s f r e e d o m ; f r e e d o m t o have o r n o t h a v e a r e l i g i o n . P r o t e c t i o n c f c h u r c h e s and m o s q u e s , o f p l a c e s and o b j e c t s o f w o r s h i p , o f l e g a l r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s . I n d e p e n d e n c e f o r r e l i g i o u s p e r s o n n e l . V I I I . E f f e c t i v e N a t i o n a l d e f e n s e b a s e d on t h e p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s 1. C r e a t i o n o f t h e g r o u p s n e c e s s a r y f o r an e f f e c t i v e n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e : a r m y , n a v y , and a i r f o r c e , t i e d t c t h e p e o p l e a n d l e d by n a t i o n a l c i t i z e n s . The f i g h t e r s f o r t h e c o n q u e s t o f i n d e p e n d e n c e w i l l f o r m the c e n t r a l c o r e o f n a t i o n a l d e f e n s e . . 2 . D e m o c r a t i c s y s t e m w i t h i n t h e armed f o r c e s . D i s c i p l i n e . C l o s e c o l l a b o r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e armed f o r c e s a n d the p o l i t i c a l p o w e r s . 3 . a l l t h e p e o p l e must p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e v i g i l a n c e and t h e d e f e n s e a g a i n s t c o l o n i a l i s m , i m p e r i a l i s m , and t h e e n e n d e s o f the p e o p l e ' s u n i t y and p r o g r e s s . 4 . A b s o l u t e p r o h i b i t i o n o f f o r e i g n m i l i t a r y b a s e s i n t h e n a t i o n a l t e r r i t o r y . I X . I n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i c y t o be d e v e l o p e d i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e n a t i o n , o f A f r i c a , o f p e a c e , a n d o f t h e p r o g r e s s o f h u m a n i t y 1. P e a c e f u l c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h a l l t h e p e o p l e s o f t h e w o r l d , w i t h r e s p e c t f o r t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f m u t u a l r e s p e c t , n a t i o n a l s o v e r e i g n t y , t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y , n o n a g g r e s s i o n and -153-n o n i n t e r f e r e n c e i n domestic a f f a i r s , e q u a l i t y and r e c i p r o c i t y , and p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e . Development of economic and c u l t u r a l agreements with a l l p e o p l e s whose governments a c c e p t and r e s p e c t t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s . 2.. Respect f o r t h e p r i n c i p l e s of the U n i t e d Nations Ch a r t e r . 3. Nonalignment wi t h m i l i t a r y b l o c s . 4. P r o t e c t i o n f o r n a t i v e s of Guinea and Cabo Verde r e s i d i n g abroad. -154-156 INTRODUCTION ET JUSTIFICA1TCJT Depuis quelques anndes l\a;rriculturo -de lr. Guinde-Bissau est frr-ivep.e:-.t menacde par un rdgime pluviomdtrique ddficitaire se traduisar.t par de graves pertes de rdcoltes. Ce phdnomen:! climatique a atteint son point culminant en 1980> affect."ait p l u 3 particulierement la production vivriere des lies de l'Archipel Bijagos. -— L'Archipel Bijagos situd dans le sud de l a Guinde-Bissau est constitad d'environ 50 lies" ot Hots a'dtendant sur une superficie ;?:lobale n'excddant pas 1 630 km . - . Lc. population de l'Archipel, selon les estimations les plus rdcentes, est d'environ 22 000 habitants pour la plupart ruraux. L 1 agriculture est pratique'e dans-.^Kllao d'importance noycnne. La culture vivriere de base est lc riz-.7 On distingue(aeux types de rizicul+ure prddominant dans, les lies. Le riz pluvial, installd onrorot clairc en culture i^indraire, et le riz de man.rjrove installd dans les bas—fonds en bordure de mer.- En 1'absence de semences de qualitd adaptdes, d'engrais, de pesticides, et d'outils aratoires, le rendement de cos deux types do rizioulture n'atteint que 700 kg/hectare pour le r i z de mangrove et 35^ k^/hectare pour le riz pluvial. ffc* Des cultures vivrieres de comoldncnt sent oraticudes aux abords des cases. (Pi - . . I telles le manioc: la patate douce, le mals, le haricot, et les fruits et ldrumes. L'arachide e 3 t cultivde sur des aires plus dt'endues, permettant de ddgacer cn anr.des propices de m-Viostes surplus exportaqles, Parmi les cultures industrielles or. compte le palmier a huile, le cocctier et 1'anacardier,.concontrdes essentiellement dans 1'ile do Boloma^ Les rruatre fermes d'Ltat existant (lie do Bcloma: et l i e de Bubaque) manquent de r.oyens de production lour permettant de poursuivre n^rmalement leurs objectifs (production de semence3, pdpinieres arboricoles). Les produits exportables son-t liraitds a 1'huile dt- palme, l a noix de coco, lo cajou et l'arachido. Dans son ensemble, telle •ru'ello est pratique jic^aglTement '7^^ai^ic^t\v r'e dans l'Archipel n'est ons an r-iasn-.-p ric c c u v r i r • on rfdriode de soudure-s' l e s bes->ins alimentaires des• insulaires. : ; i d'aosurer 1'exportati on riS-Siiero de cultures industrielles produisant des devises permettant de satisfaire le minimum des b e 3 o i n s mor.dtaires de 1 'Archipel, II y aurait iieude rdaliser de nouveau amdnagemonts (construction de digues de protection centre 1'introduction saline en narde haute), 1'exploitation da rizieres de mancTove pourrait alors cciinaitre une expansion. 157 Outre les d i f f i c u l t e s climatiqu.es st 1 a manque de structures d'encadrcraent et de vul g a r i s a t i o n dans 1 ' u t i l i s a t i o n des me*thodes cu l t u r a l e s avancees, 1 1 insuffisance dos moyons de com~Jiiicatior>,. du transport maritime et t e r r e s t r e , repr^scnte une contrainte s€rieuso pour l e developpement a ^ r i c o l e de l ' A r c h i p e l . Conscient du grave d e f i c i t alimentaire si.-jnaie dans l e rapport do l a mission d'Evaluation FAO/?AK en mars i g S l , et confirme", en p a r t i c u l i e r pour l ' A r c h i p e l 3ijagos, par l a mission de-formulation du present projet en septembre 1981, l e Directeur general a decide une action d'urcence en faveur des l i e s de l ' A r c h i p e l . Cette action ccnsistera, d'une part, dans l a fourr.iture de facteurs do production et d 1equipements divers, qui sera finance'e ,-p-acc a une contribution de l a "Tille dc Bolojne ( i t a l i e ) qui a octroye. 127 861 655 l i r e s i t a l i e n n e s (Equivalent a. environ 106 5°0 d o l l a r s E .U . ) a. l a FAO dans l e cadre de l a carapagno centre l a faim on Afrique. D'autre part, l e Directeur general mettra a. l a d i 3 T o s i t i ~ i des autoritcSs de l ' A r c h i p e l Bijagos l e s services d'un spe"ciali5te en production r i z i c o l e , . sous financemont du Programme de Cooperation Technique de l a FAO, pour a s s i s t o r d a n 3 1 ' u t i l i s a t i o n approprieo d e 3 facteurs de productior, air.si que de 1'dquiper.er.t et dans l a dissemination de technicrues c u l t u m l e s amdlior^ u s . Ce projet sera mis en oeuvre conjointement avec l e projet FAM 2383 "DSvelcppement r u r a l a buts multiples" dont un. v-rlet s p e c i a l est pr^vu pour l' A r c h i p e l Bijagos, et i l b e n ^ f i c i e r a egalemer.t de 1'appui technique du projet FAC/Pircil GBS/SO/OOoJ'Expe rimentation et m u l t i p l i c a t i o n de sentences", I I . OBJEGTIFS 33 L»ASSISTANCE A s s i s t e r l e Oouvemement dans ses e f f o r t s de relance de l a productim v i v r i e r e duns l' A r c h i p e l 3ijagos par l a f ourr.iture de facteurs de producticr. r i z i c o l e , ' d'dquipement et d'a3s.istar.ee technique, A s s i s t c r dsns l'dtablisser.ont de champs de demonstration dans l ' A r c h i p e l . Bijagos pour l a production de r i z de qualite.-A s s i s t o r les services de vul g a r i s a t i o n dans l a dissemination des techniques arr:eiior£es de l a r i z i c u l t u r e dans l ' A r c h i p e l . • 158 - 3 -I I I . P L i i l DE TRAVAIL Septembre 1981 M i s s i o n de c o n s u l t a n t en p r o d u c t i o n r i z i c n l (un m o i s ) . ..Formulation du p r o j e t e t E v a l u a t i o n des b e s o i n s de r i z , e n f ~ a i s , p e s t i c i d e s . , Equipements pour l a r e l a n c e des c u l t u r e s v i v r i e r e s dans l ' A r c h i p e l 3 i j a g o s . Commande des raatEriels e t Equipements. M i s s i o n de c o n s u l t a n t (3 m o i s ) , Avec l a c o l l a b o r a t i o n du M i n i s t e r e du dEvelopponent r u r a l : — C c n t r o l e e t d i s t r i b u t i o n des Equipements, semences, i n t r a n t s , f o u r n i s par l e p r o j e t d ' a i d e . — O r g a n i s a t i o n et mise en p l a c e de p a r o e l l e de d e m o n s t r a t i o n : - Bubaque : Ferme d'Stat ( r i z p l u v i a l ) ^ - Boloma : Ferme d'Stat de P r E c E l e b r e ( r i z de mangrove) Avec l a c o l l a b o r a t i o n du FAM: — A i d e a l i m e n t r . i r e aux deux f e r a e s d'Stat dEsigndes pour e f f e c t u e r un programme de p r o d u c t i o n de r i z de q u a l i t E a m l l i o r d e . — V u l g a r i s a t i o n de tec h n i q u e s c u l t u r a l e s a m E l i o r d e s . Octobre - novembre 1982 M i s s i o n de c o n s u l t a n t (2 mois) REcup E r a t i o n de g r a i n e s de r i z pouvant e t r e u t i l i s e e s comme semences l o r s de l a p r o c h a i i campagno 1983: E v a l u a t i o n de 1'impact dv. p r o j e t d ' a s s i s t a n s u r : — 1'amElioration de rendement des r i z i e r a s c o u v e r t e s par l ' a i d e — l e b i l a n de l a p r o d u c t i o n dc r i z r E a l i s E e par l e s fermes d'etat de 3 c l o n a et Bubaqu' P r E p a r a t i o n et r e d a c t i o n dv. r a p p o r t f i n a l * Avril - juin 1982 159 L 'Assistance technique e t l a foumiture d 'dcTiipements/intrants permettront: | — 1'extension, durant l a campagne 198^, deB r i z i e r e s c u l t i v d e s s ur • une s u p e r f i c i e d ' e n v i r o n 300 h e c t a r e s -— 1 1 a m e l i o r a t i o n du rendement u n i t a i r e de paddy dans l e s r i z i e r e s -**^ b d n d f i c i a n t de 1 *aider — l a mise en activiteV^es deux^ormes d'Etat pour la p r o d u c t i o n de r i z de q u a l i t d -— 1 1 a m e l i o r a t i o n de l a qualite du r i z au n i v e a u des a ^ r i c u l t e u r s par l ' e t a b l i 3 s e m e n t de champs dedemonstration et la d i s s d m i n a t i o n de mdthodes c u l t u r a l e s a m d l i o r d e s . ^ Lo-^v--»> ika-*.< :^*-Sl£co V. APF0ET3 LA FAO 1. P e r s o n n e l C o n s u l t a n t , s p d c i a l i s t e en p r o d u c t i o n r i z i c o l o 6 m/h 2 F o u r n i t u r e s (Annexe i ) Semences dc q u a l i t y a chetdcs a l ' d t r a n ^ e r (IR 22, ROIC 5t •su v a r i d t d s s i m i l a i r e s ) Equipement. a r a t o i r e , moycns de t r a n s p o r t , en.jrais. p e s t i c i d e s 3. F r a i s d ' o p d r a t i o n s Jusqu'a. concurrence de 10 000 ?£.U. Sur p r e s e n t a t i o n par le „ ~. . . ... . M i n i s t e r e du d d v e l o p -Cout t r a n s p o r t m a r i t i m e et t e r r e s t r e . , ,, r , penent r u r a l d'uncompte d d t a i l l d A. Appui technique Le p r o j e t FAO/PITUD 33S/80/009 i n t i t u l d " Experimentation et m u l t i p l i c a t i o r . de semences" doimera son s o u t i e n technique et l o ^ i s t i q u e au prdsent p r o j e t dans l a mesure du p o s s i b l e . 160 V I . RAPPORTS Au terme de chaque m i s s i o n , 1'expert s p d c i a l i s t e on p r o d u c t i o n r i z i c o l e r E d i g e r a un r a p p o r t t e c h n i q u e ; Oh r a p p o r t f i n a l r e l a t i f aux r E s u l t a t s obtenus par c e t t e a s s i s t a n c e s o r a p r E p a r l par l e Gouvernement a p r c s c o n c l u s i o n du p r o j e t . V I I . , CONTRIBUTION ET SOUTIEN DU GOUVERNEMENT Le Gouvernement, par 1 ' i n t e r m E d i a i r o du M i n i s t e r e du d'veloppement r u r a l , a c c o r d e r a t o u t l ' a p p u i p o s s i b l e au projet.; e t , nofcamment, m e t t r a a. l a d i s p o s i t i o n •de 1 ' o p e r a t i o n t o u t e s l e s s t r u c t u r e s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s et de v u l g a r i s a t i o n e x L s t a n t o s dans l ' A r c h i p e l de B i j a g o s . Le Gouvernement a c c o r d e r a egalcment son s o u t i e n aux deux fermes d'Etat designees pour l a p r o d u c t i o n de semences de r i z . I I f a c i l i t e r a l e dddouanement et 1 ' i m p o r t a t i o n hors t a r e des f o u r n i t u r c s en provenance de l ' d t r a n g e r . I I a s s u r e r a l a r e c e p t i o n , l e t r a n s p o r t , l a r e p a r t i t i o n e t l a d i s t r i b u t i o n des E q u i p e m e n t s / i n t r a n t s f o u r n i s par l a FAO, aux a g r i c u l t e u r s s i n i s t r d s . Le Gouvernement. par 1' interme'diaire du M i n i s t e r e du dEvelopperaent r u r a l , p r endra des d i s p o s i t i o n s n d c e s s a i r e s en f i n de canpagne V$82 pour l a c o l l e c t e ot r e d i s t r i b u t i o n dea semences de r i z r e p r o d u i t e s pour a s s u r e r l a . m e i l l e u r e u t i l i s a t i o n du m a t e r i e l semencier par l e s a g r i c u l t e u r s de l ' A r c h i p e l pendant l a p r o c h a i n e canpagne a g r i c o l e . ' En cas de vente p a r t i e l l e ou t o t a l e des f c u r n i t u r e s provenant de l ' a i d c , l o Gouvernement a s s u r e r a que l e s fends r e c u e i l l i e s s e r c n t r d u t i l i s d s pour l e deVeloppement n i a l dans l ' A r c h i p e l de B i j a g o s . Le Gouvernement a u t o r i s e r a towte personne. designee par l a PAC a v i s i t e r l e s l i e u x du p r o i e t a f i n d'examiiier l o s progres des o p e r a t i o n s e t d'dvaluer l e s r d s u l t a t s obtenus par 1 ' a s s i s t a n c e f o u m i e . 161 BUD GST DU PROJET COUVRANT LES CONTRIBUTIONS D~ LT. PAO ET DS LA VILLE DE BOLOGNE (en d o l l a r s E.U.) P a y s : Denomination du p r o j e t : NumEro du p r o j e t : GU_JEE-BISSAU A s s i s t a n c e d'urgence pour l ' A r c h i p e l de B i j a g o s en vue de l a r e l a n c e de l a p r o d u c t i o n v i v r i e r e , OSRO, TCP :O/GBS/IOI/MSC /GBS/0105 ( E ) V i l l e de Bolo~ i e PAO/TCP TOTAL 10. P e r s o n n e l (6 mois/homme) - 42 000 4' COO 40. P r a i s gene"raux d ' o p e r a t i o n 2 000 8 000 10 000 50. M a t E r i e l s e t f o u r n i t u r e s . 100 000 5 0.00 105 000 90. D i v e r s .4 .500 2 000 6 500 TOTAL 106 500 57 000 163 500 9. 162 ANNEXE I LISTE DES POUHNITURES. Q u a n t i t d ( a p p r o x i m a t i v e ) SemenceB de r i z Semences de r i z de Mangrove 13 tonnes (ROK S ou s i m i l a i r e ) Semences de r i z p l u v i a l 22 tonnes ( H I 22 ou s i m i l a i r e ) (p.m. 9 tonnes de r i z de d i v e r s e s v a r i d t d s pour l a r e m u l t i p l i c a t i c n , ddja. f o u r n i e s en aout I98l.au t i t r e de ddmarrage e t sur financement FAO/OSRO sdpard) E n g r a i s E n g r a i s complet KPX * 70 tonnes Urde . 6 0 tonnes P e s t i c i d e s • Lindane (poudro 20$) -300 k g A c t e l l i c (poudre zf°) 500 leg M a l a t h i o n ( l i q u i d e 95$) 600 l i t r e s P u l v d r i s a t e u r s a dos, manuels • 60 u n i t d s Tambours de d d s i n f e c t i a n de semences 2 u n i t d s ( f a b r i c a t i o n l o c a l e ) O u t i l s a g r i c o l e s C n a r e t t e s a. bras 50 u n i t d s Houes 300 u n i t d s Coupe—coupes ( f a b r i c a t i o n l o c a l e ) 3Q0 u n i t d s T a r a r e s 2 u n i t d s D i v e r s Sacs de j u t e de 50 k g F i l e t de p r o t e c t i o n a n t i a v i a i r e ( C r i l d e " -500 unitdB 100 k g 163 Cftnt estlratlf des fournlturea 55 I Semenoes da paddy a $ 600/T + 3.000 $ 21e000,00 Kngmia 80 3JH-C > 5 290/T + 10.150.- $ 23.200 60 T Ure> " $ 370/T + 11.100.- $ 22.200 Peatioides _ 1.000 KG Idndamft 2% 1.600 1.000 Kg A c t i l l i a 2% 2.800 Materiel de transport 2 Moteura Has bad 40 CT a $ 3.000 6.000 4 Mobylottea a$ 1.000 4*000 2 Bicyolettes " * 150 300 Plboes de reohaage 1.550 Effot-pementa . 60 Pulvarisateurs a 70 + 700 4.200 30 Gharxaes (Axaxa)» SINS a 310 9*300 60 Charrettes &. taaa a 165 9.900 300 Hdiea k J 2.100 300 Coupa-ootxpes S 4*5 1*350 2 Taxara a, aanlrelle a 1.500 3.000 2 lamboses de deainf otiau a- 200 400 500 Saes.^tcte , It 1.50 750 100 KG Polyethylene (Fibre) 650 Pobette a.havicau Total 116.500 

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