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Athol Fugard and race relations : social dynamics under apartheid Dei, Ernest Cobena 1993

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ATHOL FUGARD AND RACE RELATIONS: SOCIAL DYNAMICS UNDER APARTHEIDbyERNEST COBENA DEIB.A., McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada, 1990Dip., University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana, 1984A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES(Department of Theatre and Film)We accept this thesis as conformingto the required standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAJuly 1993© Ernest Cobena Dei, 1993In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(Signature) Department of ^/ Ff/_,A4The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate (-.) 15'92DE-6 (2/88)ABSTRACTSouth African society operates a highly exploitative and repressive system thatuses race to define relations of power and dependence to ensure the supremacy of itswhite citizens at the expense of non-whites. The major focus of this study will be toexplore the impact of the apartheid policies on individual citizens and race-relations inSouth Africa as portrayed in three of the plays of Athol Fugard.Chapter One, as an introduction, will survey the various legislation Fugard alludesto in some of his plays which ensure racial segregation and oppression and serve as thefoundation of apartheid. Chapter Two will look at the impact of the society's obsessionwith race or skin colour, and its use of it to categorise and control the people as presentedin The Blood Knot. In Chapter Three, the restrictions on mobility and human contact, thedepravity of the dispossessed, their sense of insecurity, and how they attempt to cope withthe absurdity of their existence as exploited victims of apartheid (as evidenced inBoesman and Lena) will be discussed. The relationship between blacks and whites ishandled by Fugard in his most autobiographical play "Master Harold" ... and the boys.Chapter Four looks at this play, focusing on how a little white boy under the pressures ofpersonal insecurity draws upon racism in his desire to have a sense of himself but endsup jeopardising the otherwise intimate relationship he enjoys with a black man.In all the plays of Fugard, brotherhood or the affirmation of the bond of onenessamong the characters who are in extreme intimate relationships, is continually contestedby the imposition of society's racist ideology that undermines the relationships. We alsosee that Fugard condemns and defuses violence, but carefully shows its inevitability if thestatus-quo continues. His ultimate concern is the universal human plight that results fromman's inhumanity towards man rather than the particulars of the South African system. Hisiiplays examine fundamental truths of existence that are not limited to a single society:man's isolation, his lonely search for warmth, his need to affirm his identity, dignity andexistence in a hostile world. Showing how survival in the world of apartheid is made nearlyan impossibility, the plays of Athol Fugard are a tribute to the indomitability of the humanspirit to survive the dehumanizing impact of this crime against humanity.In the Conclusion, I explore how Fugard advocates for racial harmony. A study ofhis plays shows that social and political change grow from individual action as the problemof apartheid is man-made. He suggests as a solution to the problem of racism a changein individual attitudes by calling for tolerance and brotherhood among all races, with therealization that all men are equal regardless of race or skin-colour. In examining humanrelationships and human survival, the plays of Athol Fugard are a contribution to the fieldof modern drama in the effort to effect social change.iiiTABLE OF CONTENTSAbstract^ iiTable of Contents^ ivAcknowledgement vChapter One: INTRODUCTION^ 1Chapter Two: The Blood Knot 9Chapter Three: Boesman and Lena^ 22Chapter Four: "Master Harold" ... and the boys^ 38Chapter Five: CONCLUSION^ 57Bibliography^ 63ivACKNOWLEDGEMENTI am most grateful to the Almighty God, the source of all knowledge and wisdom, formaking it possible for me to achieve this success.I express my sincere gratitude to the Head of the Department of Theatre and Film,Professor Errol Durbach, who is also my Supervisor, for his knowledge, direction andguidance in seeing me through this phase of my academic work.I also thank Professor Peter Loeffler, the Graduate Advisor, for the immensely usefuladvice he gave me in the course of my studies.A special tribute to members of my family, namely: Agnes, George, Edith, Helina, Joyce,Ida and Godwin, for their prayers, continuous support and encouragement.Finally, I owe a debt of gratitude to the many relatives and friends who supported me inthis endeavour.vChapter One INTRODUCTIONApartheid as a political system in South Africa is one that is based on racism. Itis an institution that practises race separation to guarantee the supremacy of the whiterace. Most of the legislation and policies are aimed at controlling the lives of the non-whitecitizens, especially blacks. The effects of this system of government in the multi-racialSouth African society on the everyday life of the individual white and non-white citizen arethe focus of the plays of Athol Fugard.Under the pretence of "parallel development" which is claimed to ensure that thecultures and values of each race remain intact, the Nationalist government which cameto power in 1948 embarked upon policies of racial segregation that institutionalized threecenturies of oppression suffered by the non-white peoples of South Africa.' "Homelands"began to be created as residential locations or reserves for blacks on the outskirts of theindustrial cities and white suburbs. These served both to restrain their contact with whitesand also to supply both industrial and domestic labour for the whites. Notable among such"homelands" were the black townships of Soweto and Sophiatown, two satellites for thewhite suburb of Johannesburg. 2Race is a very important distinction between the people of South Africa. Thistremendously affects social relations in the country. The basic power structure in SouthAfrican society has been that of whites controlling and exploiting non-whites, especiallyblacks, and the crucial division among the races occur between whites and blacks. "White"refers to the European immigrants. They see themselves as superior to all other races."Blacks" are the native people. They are looked down upon by all the other races."Coloureds" are people of mixed race, neither white nor black. They have historically1aligned themselves with whites to see themselves as superior to blacks and enjoy clearadvantages over them, but never have enjoyed the privileges of whites who accept themas partial inheritors of the European culture. "Afrikaners" are the descendants of theDutch, French and German settlers. They perceive the English as enemies as they areseen as outcasts by them. Afrikaners, thus, distinguish themselves from non-whites andalso from whites who are not Afrikaners.The assumption of political power by the Nationalist Party in 1948 set in motion theconstitutionalisation of apartheid in South Africa. Racial segregation became thecornerstone of government policies. Various laws have since been put in place which haveled to disenfranchising all non-white races. The plays of Athol Fugard allude to examplesof such laws and policies that have served as the foundation for apartheid in South Africa.The "Natives Land Act" passed in 1913 prohibited the acquisition of land by blacksoutside the homelands and made it a crime for any black, other than servants, to live ona white farm. With this act, four out of five blacks were restricted to a tenth of the SouthAfrican territory. In 1923, the "Natives Urban Areas Act" was passed to control the influxof black labour in the white suburbs. These acts were broadened with the "Group AreasAct" of 1950 which brought about complete physical racial segregation in all areas of lifein South Africa. Certain areas were declared for the use of whites only. Under this law,residents were removed from Sophiatown and many other black townships and homelandswhich were destroyed to make way for new white suburbs. The result has been that todaywhites who comprise about fifteen percent of the South African population control morethan eighty percent of the country's land. 3 The impoverishment of the homelands andtownships has led to the creation of slums and squatter communities on the outskirts anddump sites of the white suburbs and industrial areas by non-whites to meet their housing2difficulties despite the constant slum clearance by the authorities. Coloured people wereremoved from the Voter's Roll in 1956. They were deprived of their full citizenship andwere represented in parliament by white appointees in the "Coloured Persons'Representative Council Act" of 1968. 4 Fugard takes a look at the predicament of thedispossessed coloured people, in invoking this act together with the "Group Areas Act",in his 1969 play Boesman and Lena.In order to control the movement and residence of non-whites, the "Native Abolitionof Passes and Co-ordination of Documents Act" was enacted in 1952. Under thislegislation, pass laws were made to require non-whites to carry at all times and to produceinstantly on demand an identification called "Reference Book" which indicates theiremployment and where they are permitted to be. Opposition to the pass laws led to the"Sharpeville Massacre" in 1960 when sixty-nine blacks were killed by the police during apeaceful demonstration.5 Fugard's play Sizwe Bansi Is Dead, written in 1972, criticises thepass laws, and the title name "Sizwe" is a reference to "Umkonto we Sizwe" (which means"Spear of the Nation") founded in 1961 as the underground armed section of the AfricanNational Congress which had been banned after the "Sharpeville Massacre". 6The "Immorality Act" of 1927 7 that prohibits sex between whites and blacks isinvoked clearly in the title of the play Statement after an Arrest under the Immorality ActFugard wrote in 1972. This act was amended in 1949 to include all non-white ethnicgroups. The "Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act" 5 was also passed that year to annul orprohibit marriage between whites and all non-whites under the pretence of protecting the"purity" of the blood of individual races against racial mixing. But then these acts wereactually passed to maintain the colour bar as a safeguard for the so-called "superiority"and "sanctity" of the white blood/race from "contamination" from the non-white races which3are thought to be of "inferior" blood.The "Population Registration Act" of 1950 was used to legislate the classificationof all South Africans according to the colour of the skin. This law affects and also dividesfamilies with traumatic consequences, and it is the focus of The Blood Knot which Fugardwrote in 1961. The "Suppression of Communism Act" was enacted in 1950 to suppressmounting opposition to the government's racist policies which people saw as deliberatelyturning non-whites into second-class citizens in South Africa. This act, which terms allopposition to government policies as "communism", legalises the arrest and detentionwithout trial of people seen to oppose the government on its policies. 9 The most seriousoffenders were sent to the maximum security prison on Robben Island, which Fugard'sThe Island written in 1973 alludes to in its title and in his documentation of life in theprisons. The "Unlawful Organisations Act" of 1960 10 was also passed among other securitylaws to cripple mounting opposition to government policies. This was the act used to banthe African National Congress (which was founded by black activists in 1912 to defend therights of black people in South Africa against the racist policies in the society, and alsocall for the recognition of human rights, dignity and opportunities for development of theabilities of all peoples regardless of colour).The 1950's and 1960's saw South Africa increasingly becoming a police state.There was the intense implementation of racist legislation that brought about totalalienation between the racial groups. The South African "issue" has, thus, become morethan a conflict between blacks and whites. It is one between Whites and Non-whites,Blacks and Coloureds, English and Afrikaners, as the whole society has increasinglybecome economically unjust and socially restrictive for non-whites and dissidents of allraces. Racial segregation and white supremacy, born out of the most outrageous political4and legal manifestations of this obnoxious system of apartheid, are seen to dehumanizeall citizens of South Africa. This is what Fugard writes about.The plays of Athol Fugard, thus, give a closer look at the pillars of the SouthAfrican legal system on which the structure of apartheid are built, and more importantlyfocus on the psychopathic effects they exert on individual whites and non-whites in therace-ridden society. In testifying to the effects of apartheid, the plays bring to the fore andexamine the social tensions that exist among the individual races and also amongindividuals "inextricably entangled by the ties of blood, love or friendship"" as theystruggle to survive as a race and as individuals against the man-made barriers of racialsegregation.The word "apartheid" is not mentioned in any of the plays of Athol Fugard exceptonce in Boesman and Lena. 12 Nonetheless, as already pointed out, the policies of thisoppressive and inhuman system and its devastating effect on non-whites are clearlyexposed by the playwright. In a country where the colour of one's skin decides one'ssocial opportunities, rights and privileges, non-white people are considered assubordinates and inferior citizens and are, therefore, subjected to all kinds of restrictionsin their daily lives. Blacks are most often denied any personal identity and human dignity,which leaves them with no sense of their selfhood as human beings. This is the result ofthe system which has entrenched the social status of all non-white racial groups in thesociety by legislating discriminatory and racist policies. Non-white racial groups are, thus,reduced into an exploitative mass for subjugation by the white race as apartheid sets outdeliberately to dehumanize them by denying them opportunities, privileges and rights.The apartheid political philosophy emphasises and exploits differences among theraces to manipulate the vast majority of non-whites for their control by the white minority.5Its racial discriminatory policies which fundamentally keeps one racial group separate fromanother, with dehumanizing impact on non-whites, do not allow harmonious interactionamong people in the multi-racial society of South Africa. Apartheid, thus, makes sure thatthe possibility of any solidarity among the dispossessed races of South Africa to cometogether in unity to fight against their oppression is defeated.The suffering, humiliation, despair and depravity that the dispossessed experienceas individuals in their daily lives impede personal and individual relationships. In thestruggle for freedom, justice, a sense of self-worth and survival against the anonymity ofeveryday existence, the situations revealed in the plays of Fugard depict "man'sinhumanity to man", and we are made aware of "the secret pain we all inflict upon eachother in the private recesses of our closest relationships". 13 The annihilating power of thesystem forces people to become consumed in their private concerns and struggles toovercome their own desperate situations as individuals so much so that the dispossessedcome to despise and hate one another.The plays of Athol Fugard, thus, reveal that in a race-ridden society where theobsession with race and the colour of the skin is used to define relations of power anddependence, racial attitudes exist even among the dispossessed as they struggle toovercome the shackles that hold them captive to oppression and human degradation.Harmony seems to be far out of reach in the social and personal relationships. Strugglingto have a sense of themselves and survive as authentic human beings, the downtroddenof apartheid also come to face the difficulty of coping with one another in passionatelyclose relationships that embody all the tensions of their society.What Athol Fugard writes about in his plays are, in his own words:the themes, textures, acts of celebration, of defiance and outrage that gowith the South African experience."6In reflecting the reality of life in apartheid South Africa, the playwright, above all, proclaimsthe possibility of human dignity surviving even under suffering and oppression. His works,as evidenced in the three plays that I will discuss (The Blood Knot, Boesman and Lena,and "Master Harold" ... and the boys) are a celebration of the human will and potential toovercome the crippling circumstances of deprivation, humiliation and subjugation.7FOOTNOTES 1. Seidenspinner, Margarete. Exploring the Labyrinth: Athol Fugard's Approach to SouthAfrican Drama. Essen: Verlag Die Blaue Eule, Germany. 1986. p.343.2. Walder, Dennis. Athol Fugard. Macmillan Modern Dramatists. Macmillan Publishers,London. 1984. p.14.3. Vandenbroucke, Russell. Truths The Hand Can Touch: The Theatre of Athol Fugard.New York: Theatre Communications Group, 1985. p.xviii.4. Seidenspinner, Margarete. Exploring the Labyrinth: Athol Fugard's Approach to SouthAfrican Drama. p.349.5. ibid p.346.6. p.348.7. p.345.8. p.3469. p.346.10. p.348.11. Walder, Dennis. Athol Fugard. p.3.12. Fugard, Athol. Three Port Elizabeth Plays: The Blood Knot, Boesman and Lena, Helloand Goodbye. New York: The Viking Press, 1974. p.207.13. Walder, Dennis. Athol Fugard. p.2&3.14. Fugard, Athol. Notebooks: 1960-1977. ed. Mary Benson. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., NewYork. 1983. p.8.8Chapter Two THE BLOOD KNOT: LIVING TOGETHERAthol Fugard's dramatic works provide a documentary on the social life and livedexperiences in South African society which is based on a system and ideology of racialsegregation or apartheid. His Notebooks' and published interviews provide the backgroundand context of his compositions about the life of people and places he has known in hishome country. As noted in the Introduction, apartheid in South Africa is a perfectedsystem of restrictions and prohibitions that severely limits and controls the population whohave been segregated according to race and skin colour. The Blood Knot which Fugardwrote in 1961 tackles the effects of some of the obnoxious laws that regulate the dailylives and relationships among the different peoples who constitute the society, notably the"Population Registration Act" of 1950 (which effectively brought racial classification to thepoint of dividing families), the "Group Areas Act" of 1950 (entailing complete racialsegregation in all areas of life and enforcing residential segregation between all races),and the "Immorality Act" of 1927 (prohibiting inter-racial sexual relationships) which wasamended in the "Immorality Amendment Act" in 1949 to include the Coloureds. Theselaws, among others, limit and control the mobility and human contact of mostly the non-white population and the sexual choices of the white population. In his Introduction toThree Port Elizabeth Plays, Fugard says he wrote The Blood Knot as "a compulsive anddirect experience"2 of life in his native Port Elizabeth and continues with an entry from hisNotebooks on the place the play is set:Korsten in Port Elizabeth: up the road past the big motor-assembly andrubber factories, turn right down a dirt road, pot-holed ... Down this roaduntil you come to the lake - the dumping ground for waste products fromthe factories - a terrible smell. On the far side - like a scab on the hill risingfrom the water - is Korsten location: a collection of shanties, pondoks andmud huts. No streets, no numbers. A world where anything goes - any9race, any creed. When the wind blows in the wrong direction, theinhabitants of Korsten live with the stink of the lake.In one of these shacks at Berry's Corner are the two brothersMorris and Zachariah. 3This is the image of the shanty-town of Korsten on the northern fringe of Port Elizabeth,a place very representative of South Africa where all non-whites are forced to live asoutcasts in poverty-stricken slums or "townships" on the outskirts of the cities to providelabour to the industries and the white population.The image of poverty and deprivation in Korsten is recreated on stage through theset to aptly portray the living conditions of non-whites, especially blacks who live there.The one-room shack as described in the stage directions of The Blood Knot is "apatchwork of corrugated iron, packing-case wood, flattened cardboard boxes, and oldhessian bags" (p.2). Chris Wortham correctly describes this portrait which is a microcosmof the world of non-whites in South Africa as "one of monstrous collage, ...a collection ofwaste products cast off by a dehumanized industrial society, accidentally gathered andarranged haphazardly into an arbitrary pattern out of need to make a home". 5 The set,thus, tells what the occupants, like all non-whites in South Africa, have been reduced to.The play opens and we see an untidy almost-white coloured man, Morris,preparing a foot-bath. A darker-skinned Zachariah enters, also poorly dressed. The actionthat begins has very disturbing implications in this racist society: a white man as a servantto a black man. Here, Fugard subverts the very foundation on which race relations at thecentre of the South African society are based by defying its racial practices. The society'sobsession with race and skin pigmentation, and its use of them to define relations ofpower and dependence among its people, begin to be explored. Morris and Zach are twocoloured brothers born of the same mother but of different fathers, Morris' being "white"and Zach's being "black". The brothers, thus, represent the white and black races of the10South African society. It is their skin colour that has established their identities and evenchances for success from the moment of birth. The play, thus, examines the relationshipbetween these two brothers created by the policies of a racist system.The difference between the two brothers is not only racial, but also psychological,social and cultural. Morris' light skin has enabled him to "pass for white", to be prudent,controlled and literate. Dark-skinned Zach has the white man's prejudiced image of blacksreflected in him. He is sensual and illiterate; he smells, lacks sophiscation, and thinks onlyof momentary pleasures. He is only good for his labour in making profit for the white man.Speaking of the foot-salts manufacturer, he says: "I do the work ...Not him. Its my stinkingfeet that got the hardedness. But he goes and makes my profit" (p.5). It is also the moneyfrom Zach's labour that Morris is saving to secure their future, and which is used to buy"the outfit for a gentleman" (p.72) that enables Morris to assume the role of the white man.This reminds one that the wealth of South Africa is built on the labour of blacks.Morris portrays himself as a man with conscience and a mission who hasrecognised his tie to the black man, his fellow man and brother. Fugard, in an interview,draws a parallel between Morris and himself as "a man on the road with all thepossibilities ... going somewhere" when he "developed an enormous guilt" about hisbrother because he was going through a hard time ... There was just the sense ofresponsibility for another man, for another existence" 6 , that of his brother. Morris, thus,explains his return to Zach as the result of acknowledging his guilt and shame in usinghis light complexion in a dangerous attempt to try for white, abandoning his dark-skinnedbrother to the struggles in their poverty-stricken homeland. He recalls how he hadwandered like Cain after leaving Zach and as it were had a revelation from God: "And hesaid: What has thou done? The voice of thy Brother's blood crieth unto me! [Morris drops11his head in an admission of guilt.] Oh Lord! Oh Lord! So he becomes a hobo andwandered away, on a long road until a year later, in another dream, He spake again:Maybe he needs you, He said. You better go home, Man!" (p.19). He has, therefore, givenup his personal goal to shoulder his responsibility of sharing in the life and struggles ofhis brother. It's "our meaning", he tells Zach, "me and you ... in here" (p.27). As RussellVandenbroucke puts it, Morris hopes his returning home and caring for his brother will bean "atonement for what he perceives to the betrayal of a Cain, the desecration of a bloodrelationship". 7 It was Morris' need to feel at home with himself which impelled him to returnto Korsten and to his brother.Morris sees his mission as bringing order and civilised virtues into the life of hisdark-skinned brother. He makes sure Zach does not smell; he teaches him how to usetoilet paper, and also how to entertain a lady friend. This is suggestive of the supposedsuperiority of the white man and his culture which Morris tried to pass for. Morris is theone concerned with their "saving for a future" (p.8), the implication being that the blackman/Zach on his own does not worry or think about his future. But the truth is, it is Morris'own desires for the future, a "two-man farm" (p.9), that he imposes on Zach. Morris liveson the toils of Zach and is the subservient brother in the domestic arrangement underwhich they live, yet he is able to control Zach with his superior command of words. He,in effect, dominates the breadwinner and is able to keep him under his spell. Zach is,thus, exploited by Morris for his own ends. Morris tries to blot out Zach's memories of hisold friend, memories that remind Zach of the pleasures of drink and women that he usedto enjoy with Minnie, but seen by Morris as threats to the future he is planning for. Byimposing supposedly better values on Zach, Morris actually manipulates his brother toserve his own purpose.12Zach recounts his inhuman treatment at work which typifies their society in itsexploitation and disrespect for the non-white races. Morris joins him in longing for the day"when all the world's my neighbour" (p.7) in shared labour devoid of isolation. Yet in spiteof aligning himself with his black brother, "I'm on your side, they're on theirs" (p.6), Morrisis still destructive of Zach's happiness. Indeed, Zach remarks: "We ... had a good time,for a long time. And then you came..." (p.12). Whereas Zach seeks to escape thehardships of his life through immediate sensual pleasures, Morris impresses upon him thebenefits of sacrificing for the future.To strengthen his grip on Zach and fearful of anything that might spoil his "plansfor the future" (p.13) when Zach makes it clear that he is not going to be deprived of funand woman, Morris offer "A corresponding pen-pal of the opposite sex " (p.17) as asubstitute to Zach. The discovery that Zach's pen-pal, Ethel Lange, is a white womanbrings fear and complicates the relationship between the two brothers. The social realitymakes it impossible and dangerous for Zach to have the white woman as a pen-pal. SouthAfrica is a shrunken world where individuals, groups, communities and races are walledwithin physical and social space allowed them by the system. Indeed, we do not fail torecognise which of the country's laws Morris' line "how to love and what not to love" (p.63)refers to. But Morris rather chastises his brother for his hopes of inter-racial relationshipinstead of expressing opposition to the system that forbids such a relationship. Zach,convinced that his brother is not interested in his happiness, makes it clear that he likes"the thought of this little white Ethel better than our future, or the plans, or getting away,or foot-salts, or any damned thing in here" (p.44). Morris tells Zach: "'s a dream, andthe most dangerous one" (p.46), and cruelly exposes Zach to himself in all his blacknesswith the brutal facts of the legal status of South African blacks, pointing to the horror and13impossibility of "a dark-born boy playing with a white idea" (p.58).The outside world hardly ever intrudes on the world of the play. It is moreinsinuated in the fears and anxieties of the brothers. Zach sees nothing wrong with hiswanting a relationship with a white woman, but Morris reminds him that their society is onein which, as Dennis Walder points out, "to deny the congruence of individual, social andpolitical aspects of life is to play into the hands of the authorities". 8 Morris takes it uponhimself to help Zach to understand his identity and stay away from the white woman, buthe does this with violence and fear constituting his argumentative weapon. As AnnaRutherford comments in an article, Morris "forces Zach to see himself through the eyesof a white man and presents him with the white man's archetypal image of the blackman". 9 The colour problem and its gravity in his racist society dawns on Zach from hisself-examination as a result of Morris' hard questions and exhortations. Zach acknowledgehis status in his society and his dream of meeting the white Ethel becomes exorcised:ZACHARIAH: I can never have her.MORRIS: Never ever.ZACHARIAH: She wouldn't want me anyway.MORRIS: It's as simple as that.ZACHARIAH: She's too white to want me anyway. (p.61)He admits that: "The whole, rotten, stinking lot is all because I'm black." (p.62) Zachresigns himself to accept the inferiority of his blackness, proclaiming how proud he isabout his race: "I take it. I take them all. Black days, black ways, black things. They areme. I'm happy. Ha ha ha! Do you hear my black happiness?" (p.62) Subsequently, hedeclares his intentions: "...from now on, I'll be what I am. They can be what they like. Idon't care. I don't want to mix. It's bad for the blood and the poor babies. So I'll keep myclean, and theirs I'll scrub off..." (p.63). Ironically, Zach appears to be siding with the racistpolicies against inter-racial marriages because of the humiliation and human degradation14that the coloured suffers under racial segregation. First, he loathes his blackness and thenturns to exult in it. He finally recognises that "after a whole life I only see me properlytonight" and with delight, thanks Morris for the exposure: "You helped me. I'm grateful"(p.64).With the assistance of Morris, Zach loses his racial innocence to find his trueidentity as a black man. It remains for Morris to discover and accept his. Zach, with thesecurity of his true identity, decides to help Morris as "a brother" to find his. He tells Morristo stand in for him as a white man and meet the white pen-pal, because being of light skinhe "would be all right, with her" (p.65). With the savings for their "future two-man farm",Zach gets Morris an "outfit for a gentleman" (p.72). Just as Morris got Zach to forget thememories of his past with Minnie, Zach does away with Morris' hopes for the future.Morris' agreement to the spending of the savings is a sign of his willingness to forget thefuture and live in the present. Zach tells Morris: "You must learn your lesson, Morrie. Youwant to pass, don't you?" (p.78), getting him to actively desire meeting Ethel and onceagain try to pass for white.The world of racist South Africa is hostile to non-whites who are alwaysoverwhelmed with a sense of alienation. The dispossessed, therefore, always long forrecognition and a sense of self-worth. As coloured people in a society dominated by theideology of white racial superiority, Morris and Zach in some measure accept thedegrading status of blacks as social misfits. At the same time, the two brothers long withpart of their being for the whiteness which could give them self-respect, dignity andrecognition in their society which is filled with prejudice against non-whites who areoppressed and humiliated. However, the different chances for success available to the twobrothers from the same mother resulting from the difference in their skin colour is indeed15very tragic. When they recall their childhood, and all the humiliations of being a Capie(coloured) or Kaffertjie (little black Kaffir), Morris "with agitation" doubts the mother thatZach knew: "Zach, are you sure that wasn't somebody else?" (p.48). Their inability tocompletely recognise the same woman who gave birth to them points to their uncertaintyabout their own past and how they have presently been polarised as two entirely differentpeople. So efficient and ruthless has been the white man's propaganda about theinferiority of the black man that Zach begins to doubt his own dignity and beauty as ablack man. In a dream monologue he wears Morris' suit to assume the white man'sidentity to confront his mother. It is a yearning for recognition and acceptance of thedispossessed robbed of his future by an inhuman system. Earlier on his return to Zach,Morris has also tried to come to an understanding of what it means to be black in theirsociety by wrapping himself in Zach's coat to immerse himself in the brother's smell, fleshand pain. Explaining later that his return to his brother after trying for white proves "I'm noJudas" (p.80), Morris sincerely believes he has not betrayed his black brother, but weknow otherwise. His control and imposition of the white man's values on Zach makes hisdark-skinned brother point out to their mother that "he's been such a burden as a brother"(p.81).The two brothers enact an episode of South African racial interaction in theirrespective stereotype roles before an imagined Ethel. Morris wearing "the outfit for agentleman", and passing for white, unleashes a vicious racist taunt, Swartgat (black arse),on Zach who is in the role of a black street vendor. Morris realises that he has gone toofar and apologises to Zach, acknowledging that this parallels the rejection he hadexhibited when he abandoned his dark-skinned brother to pass for white. Knowledge thatthe white pen-pal will not be coming after all plunges the two brothers into their most16dangerous game about the social and political reality of South Africa as enemies acrossthe colour bar. It is a scene of shame, hatred and fear. Morris plays the indifferent, andarrogant white Baas (master), and Zach as the servile Swartgat (a black arse). Zach, moreracially and politically aware, decides to exhibit an additional side of the stereotyped black."The simple, trustworthy type of John-boy" (p.95) turns furiously on his white Baas, readyto strike him. The alarm clock rings, catching the black man standing above the frightened,praying white man who crawls away frantically. This climactic image is pregnant with greatimplications: What happens if the black man decides to assert himself to fight for hisdignity and refuses to accept the role thrust upon him by the white man? There is apotential for inter-racial violence as the black man can no longer stand humiliation andinhuman treatment at the hands of the white man. Zach's victory forecasts that the whiteman is not going be in control of the black man forever and that violence or destructionis inevitable if there is no end to the humiliation, exploitation and inhuman treatment ofnon-whites by whites in South Africa.Fugard, however, does not bring the curtain down on that dreadful image. Thereis a reconstruction of calm before the play ends. The two brothers are shocked back toreality. As Morris draws back in horror, he becomes aware of the full meaning andpossible consequence of the white man's treatment of the black man. Through Zach'sinstruction, Morris forgoes his desire to pass for white. He also abandons his illusionsabout the future and hopes that things can be better for him even as a coloured SouthAfrican. He says: "'s a good thing we got the game. It will pass the time. Because wegot a lot left, you know! (Little laugh.) ... ...I'm not too worried at all. ...I mean, other menget by without a future. In fact, I think there's quite a lot of people getting by without afuture these days." (p.96). He has resigned himself to living in and being content with the17present, and with his brother. To convince himself of Morris' sincerity, Zach asks:ZACHARIAH: What is it, Morrie? The two of us ... you know ... in here?MORRIS: Home.ZACHARIAH: Is there no other way?MORRIS: No. You see, we're tied together, Zach. It's what they call the blood knot... the bond between brothers.^ (p.97)Morris assures Zach that he is content to remain with him and live as a brother with abrother. The brothers are resigned but not defeated even though their future may beunclear. As Fugard noted two years after writing the play: "Far from 'leaping', Morris andZach wake up to find themselves heavy, hopeless, almost prostrate on the earth. ... ...Morrie and Zach at the of The Blood Knot are men who are going to try to live withouthope, without appeal. If there is anything on that stage before the curtain drops it is lucidknowledge, consciousness. In effect, Morrie says: Now we know." 1° Their brotherhood isthe only certainty that can see them through their difficult life under the oppressed system.As Fugard writes in his Introduction to the Three Port Elizabeth Plays, the bond betweenMorris and Zach as brothers is the truth the hand can touch." When all else fails, theirbond of blood and love remains. Like all Fugard characters in very close relationships (forexample, Boesman and Lena in Boesman and Lena, Sam and Hally in "Master Harold'),what Morris and Zach need from one another is mutual dependence, love and respect.Here, we have the true meaning of the blood knot. Polarised to see themselves asdifferent individuals and torn apart from each other in a racist society, they may wish todeny the natural bond between them (as in that awful moment when together they revilethe memory of their mother in the final game). But no matter how hard they will try theyare bound to one another. It is precisely the false separation of people into races fordifferences in their pigmentation, and the prevention of any cordial relationship amongthem that serve the ideology of apartheid and permit practices of inhumanity, prejudice,18exploitation and injustice to continue. The promise of feeling at home in this world lies inessential unity of all men.Since Fugard is exploring the basic South African issue of race, the normalisationof the situation at the end of the play seems to endorse the status-quo, permitting nochallenge to the political and social reality. This may be worrisome to anyone concernedabout the possibility of change in the present South African situation. To that individual,the only logical option for the oppressed and dispossessed non-whites is to assertthemselves through revolution and violence. But this solution is seen to be discarded byFugard. One may say, therefore, that The Blood Knot, in offering no proposal for changein the political and social situation between whites and non-white suggests an acceptanceof human degradation and oppression as permanent features of life, especially when werecall that Fugard writes in his Notebooks that there are no choices for Zach to overcomethe brutalities imposed upon him because of his skin colour. 12 But the message in theclimactic image of the final confrontation between the two brothers should not be takenlightly. Fugard brings home the reality of what can happen if oppressed people continueto be held in bondage. However, instead of violence Fugard offers the brotherhood of allmen as a solution.The Blood Knot emphasises that the individual needs to accept who he is, and notsee himself as inferior to anyone in any situation. This is the message in Zach'saffirmation of his race and Morris' abandonment of his hope to pass for white. It is,therefore, difficult for anyone to suggest that the play gives credence to the notion of thesuperiority of the white man. Athol Fugard examines the South African race issue throughThe Blood Knot, as he does with all his plays, to stress the universal fact that all men arebrothers and that there is the need for people of all races to live peacefully together. The19foreboding and tension of the confrontation between Morris and Zach in the climacticscene of the play portrays the time-bomb on which apartheid in South Africa presently sitswith its policies of segregation. Fugard, however, shows that the way out of the situationis racial unity if only man can acknowledge the root, the basic humanity and thebrotherhood of mankind.20FOOTNOTES 1. Fugard, Athol. Notebooks: 1960-1977. ed. Mary Benson. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., NewYork. 1983.2. . Three Port Elizabeth Plays: The Blood Knot, Boesman and Lena, and Hello andGoodbye. The Viking Press, New York. 1974. p.viii.3. . Notebooks. p.9.4. . The Blood Knot in Three Port Elizabeth Plays. *All quotes throughout the chapterare from this text.5. Wortham, Chris. "A Sense of Place: Home and Homelessness in the Plays of AtholFugard" in Malvern Van Wyk Smith and Don Maclennan (ed.). Olive Schreiner AndAfter: Essays on Southern African Literature. David Philip, Publisher (Pty) Ltd.,Cape Town. 1983. p.167.6. Hodgins, Robert. "Interview with Athol Fugard" in Newscheck, July 21, 1967, p.29.7. Vandenbroucke, Russell. Truths The Hand Can Touch: The Theatre of Athol Fugard.Theatre Communications Group, New York. 1985. p.38.8. Walder, Dennis. Athol Fugard. Macmillan Publishers Ltd., London. 1984. p.61.9. Rutherford, Anna. "Time, Space and Identity in The Blood Knof' in Stephen Gray (ed.).Athol Fugard. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Johannesburg. 1982. p.159.10.Fugard. Notebooks. p.106.11. . Three Port Elizabeth Plays. p.xv.12. . Notebooks. p.9.21Chapter Three BOESMAN AND LENA: BEING TOGETHERThe predicament of the non-white population of the South African society is onceagain brought into focus by Athol Fugard in Boesman and Lena, written in 1969. The playbegins with Boesman and Lena, a coloured couple, arriving at the bank of the SwartkopsRiver. They have been evicted from Korsten where we had found the two brothers Morrisand Zach. The state has consistently claimed that such action of forced removals is torestructure space to ensure the best resort and welfare of the individual races. Boesmanand Lena, however, refutes such claim. Under the slum clearance policy of the SouthAfrican government, the Korsten shanty has been destroyed, leaving its inhabitants whoare all non-whites homeless. The society in which the couple live treats them as "rubbish",as objects, and not as human beings because of the colour of their skin. Boesman andLena, like all coloured people, have become the rejects of the whiteman's world, chasedout of their shelter by the whiteman's bulldozer.Poverty-stricken and carrying with them all that they own in life, Boesman andLena have walked many hours in search of a place to make their new home, but notknowing where. There is, however, a difference in the attitude of Boesman and that ofLena towards their predicament. With the possibility of making a new beginning, Boesmansees the destruction of the Korsten shantytown as a kind of blessing that has enabledthem to leave the rotten place. This is why he thanked the white baas and even gave ahelping hand in acquiesence to humiliation and role-playing which is essential for thesurvival of the dispossessed of South Africa. Lena, on the other hand, sees what hasbeen meted out to them as a "sad story" which is a rape of their life. To her, it is an actagainst their very humanity and survival. She tells Boesman:22LENA: ...When I want to cry, you want to laugh.BOESMAN: Cry!LENA: Something hurt. Wasn't just your fist.BOESMAN: Snot and tears because the whiteman pushed over a rotten oldpondok? ...He did me a favour. I was sick of it. So I laughed.'Boesman seems to accept their fate of being rendered homeless with a positiveattitude, claiming it to be an act that has given him "freedom". He sees the slum clearanceas the whiteman doing away with "something rotten. Us! Our sad stories, our smells, ourworld!" (p.203), all that which has come to represent the dispossessed. Boesmaneffectively reduces his past to nothing. As Russell Vandenbroucke explains, Boesman'sattitude is his attempt to accommodate the situation by denying its effect on his life ---"ameans to exert control over himself when surrounding events are beyond his command". 2To Lena, their being driven out of Korsten is something of great injustice, " have yourlife kicked in its moer (womb)" and to be made to "Put your life on your head and walk"(p.170). The woman sees this as having to do with their very existence as decent humanbeings.Playing out in his mind the luxury of having the opportunity to make a fresh startin life, Boesman, unlike Lena, seems to care less about this real predicament and easilydismisses Lena's sense of anxiety and insecurity. Whereas Lena manifests clearly hersense of loss throughout much of the play, Boesman refuses to admit his own insecurity.All he can do is to blame the woman with her constant questioning for their inability to find"freedom". The truth is that he is himself lost and not sure of where to go.The image of the empty stage that opens the play symbolises in a way the limitlesspossibilities and choices that are available to the couple. But as we see the grotesquelyburdened coloureds carrying between them all that they possess staggering on to the set,we realise that they have come to a no-man's land. They are homeless with no hope of23survival. Cast out of Korsten, Boesman and Lena seek refuge in the cold Swartkopswasteland. The couple experience a desperate need for a home in their homelessness.Boesman can only make their latest makeshift shelter from "an old sack, a few pieces ofwood, an old motor-car door" (p.177). Being "whiteman's rubbish" (p.205) themselves,their home is fashioned from the leftovers of the society which has dispossessed themthat morning. They will be joined later by an old black man who dies in their company.The empty lanscape on which the coloured couple make their makeshift abode for thenight, their predicament and ensuing experience suggest the thousands upon thousandsof squatters who inhabit present-day South Africa.Boesman realises that though the possibilities to make a fresh beginning in life arethere, none would make a difference in the society in which they live. Their plight ascoloured people is caused by a system that sees them as the "whiteman's rubbish"(p.205). There is no way in the system for them as non-whites to improve their lot. Thesituation in which they find themselves is the result of the whiteman's inhumanity towardsnon-whites. They are the by-product of the society in which they live. He and Lena, thus,are left to keep wandering about in the wasteland equally lost.The predicament of the couple is the result of the policies of a society where thecolour of the skin makes non-whites to be treated as outcasts and dispossessed. Theempty and wretched land of the riverbank which is the setting for the play represents aptlythe world of South Africa where non-whites experience great deprivation with noopportunity for survival. Lena's first comments are about the fact of their being on awasteland, a rotten land that swallows its inhabitants: "This piece of world is rotten. Putdown your foot and you're in it up to your knee." (p.168).Boesman's inability to succeed in life and provide for his wife, as a man, has made24him feel ashamed of himself. He is overwhelmed with self-hatred, becoming insecureabout his own self-worth and doubting his manhood. Whereas Lena can honestly admither insecurity, Boesman cannot. Boesman's situation is the constant emasculation ofmanhood by the South African system which denies non-whites the opportunity to havea life-fulfilling existence.Boesman is convinced that he and his wife are worthless. Without a permanenthome and any offspring, he knows they will disappear into oblivion with no remembrancefor their lives. He tells Lena their life is not worth living: "We are not people anymore. ......our life is dumb. Like your moer (womb). All that came out of it was silence. Thereshould have been noise. You pushed out silence. And Boesman buried it. ... ...One dayyour turn. One day mine. Two more holes somewhere. The earth will get naar (sick) whenthey push us in. And then it's finished. The end of Boesman and Lena." (p.212). Theirchildlessness is a form of castration representing the failure of their lives. Boesman, thus,recognizes the futility of their efforts. His response is his passivity.Guilt for not having the means for a successful life as a man, prejudice and fearof not knowing his chances for survival, all conspire together to finally undermineBoesman's ability to love another person directly and forthrightly as he becomes pre-occupied with his own predicament. His failure and resultant self-hatred has consumedhim, making him violent, insensitive and abusive to Lena. Loosing his ability to provehimself a loving and caring husband, Boesman portrays himself rather as someone withno feeling or sensitivity towards another person. His alcoholism intensifies his weaknessand helplessness. He only convinces himself that by being abusive to his wife, he proveshimself to be a man. This picture of Boesman demonstrates how the human qualitiesimportant for a decent relationship are effectively destroyed by the obnoxious system of25apartheid in South Africa. Boesman can hardly be seen as a loving, caring, human being.His manhood and human feelings have been effectively negated by the system.With Boesman focusing his self-hatred on her, Lena feels a sense of injustice inbeing reduced to an object in Boesman's life. She worries at Boesman's brutality andinsensitivity, especially his neglect of her which worsens her life in the wasteland whichshe sees as black and empty as hell. Lena, thus, becomes more uncertain about heridentity, existence and self-worth. To get a sense of herself as an authentic living being,she begins her quest with questions directed to Boesman in search of the truth of herself.Lena attempts to unravel and order her memories of the past. Since man is aproduct of the past and the present, and the loss of one's past is the loss of one's identity,she tries to work out how she got to where she is. Yearning to locate herself in time andin space, Lena, like Zach, recollects memories of her past and identifies the places she'sbeen to through physical and sensory associations, remembering, for example, the pearsshe collected at Redhouse, the wood chopped at Veeplas, the mountains near Kleinskool,and the mud of Swartkops. She realises, however, that she needs more than justremembering the past. Getting accurately the order of that past will give her life a pattern,a certainty and the sense of purpose that will assure her of her existence.Lena's obsession to remember and re-order the past in a way prevents her fromfocusing on the future. She becomes more concerned with her past than her future. Bymaking non-whites insecure about the present, the South African system deprives themof the hope of the future. As the dispossessed is consumed by the insecurity of thepresent and all the deprivations they suffer, the sense of injustice and abuse that they feelabout their predicament in no way allows them to think about the future.Lena's quest, nonetheless, is about the authenticity of existence. As Russell26Vandenbroucke correctly points out, the condition of Lena is that of all men. It is theproduct of a past and forces beyond man's control, and from which man cannot escape. 3No wonder to keep herself sane and soothe the pain of their predicament in the forsakenland, Lena and her husband take to drinking.Lena's struggle is to come to know who she is and the purpose of her existence.Hers is a journey towards self-discovery. Lena repeatedly seeks confirmation fromBoesman for the sequence of their past sojourns. But when she thinks she has discoveredor remembered the past which gives her the assurance of herself as being autonomousand alive, Boesman viciously destroys her elation by tormenting and deriding her with hermistakes rather than presenting her the truth.Since Lena needs her identity and her self-worth to be confirmed in a way to makeher certain about her existence, Boesman's attitude towards her only serves to increasethe pain of her sense of insecurity. She, thus, bluntly asks Boesman to help her.Boesman's responses, as sarcastic as they are -- "What? Find yourself?" (p.180) and"One day you'll ask me who you are." (p.181) --clearly tell Lena's basic need. Lena knows"I'm Lena" (p.182), but realises a mere name is not enough. She is disoriented in herworld and would like to believe she belongs. She wants to be seen and also heard. Hersearch is for the truth about her life. What obsesses Lena is that her degraded conditionshould be observed or witnessed by another human being. Her predicament is whatFugard describes as "ontological insecurity". 4 Lena knows a man's identity in a place isdefined not necessarily by where he is but more importantly by whom he is with. To her,existence is necessarily social. This explains her desperate need for attention andrecognition from her mate.Dispossessed, uprooted and driven out of their home, all that Boesman and Lena27have are each other ---the one sure thing they can never loose. All that Lena is left to lookup to is Boesman, whose back is the "scenery in my world" (p.171). She remindsBoesman of the bond between them as husband and wife: "You don't know what it's likebehind you. Look back one day, Boesman. It's me, the thing you sleep along the roads.My life." (pp.171-172). They are bound to each other. Yet, to Lena, the way Boesmantreats her seems to suggest he is tired of her: "Something that's been used too long. Theold pot that leaks, the blanket that can't even keep the fleas warm. Time to throw it away.How do you do that when it's yourself?" (p.172). This is just like what Morris felt when hetried to pass for white in abandoning his dark-skinned brother Zach. There is therealization that the tie that binds the couple, like the two brothers, can never be broken.They need each other to make their individual lives complete.The fate of Boesman and Lena are basically the same. But whereas Boesman hasresigned himself to his impotence and passivity, and is unconcerned with Lena'squestions, Lena presses for answers and acknowledgement to her existence.Unfortunately, Boesman is not able to provide answers for her. What Boesman does fromthe very beginning of their journey is to deliberately disorient Lena, hoping that herconfusion will cause her to stay with him. He is far more insecure than she is, and needsher far more desperately than she needs him. Indeed, while Boesman has led their hikesfrom one place to the next, and Lena is not sure about her bearings, he is equally lost (afact he refuses to admit). Lena, thus, becomes desperately in need of someone to witnessand acknowledge her life. She desires community. Lena believes man needs to besociable, which is why she prefers the community of Veeplas to the uninhabited wastelandof Swartkops. She yearns for human contact, interdependence, and a way of sharing herplight, but these are what Boesman is incapable of giving her.28Desiring to be a part of something, Lena finds a dying old man, Outa. She isinitially disappointed at Outa being black. This is an indication of the prejudice againstblacks as being inferior in the South African society. Nonetheless, Lena discovers thebrotherhood of all men. Identifying herself with the plight of the old man, she cries out forBoesman to "Do something. Help him. ...It's another person, Boesman." (p.184). With therealization of her own desperate need for someone, she reaches out to Outa saying he's"better than nothing" (p.185) even though Boesman ridiculed her for paying attention toa black man who he sees as being of no value.With the appearance of Outa, both Boesman and Lena in their individualrelationship with him reveal their true human nature. When Boesman threatens to kick thisman out, Lena bribes Boesman with her share of the wine to bring Outa into her life tomeet her needs. Lena tries to care for Outa, albeit out of her own need for company.Outa, thus, affords Lena the opportunity to satisfy her desire for human contact andinterdependence. With him, Lena now has the chance to experience herself.Outa's presence offers Lena hope. He fulfils her desire for a witness to the trialsof her life. Even though the language barrier between them prevents any meaningfulcommunication, Lena tells the old man those parts of her past that she longs to discloseto another person, especially the loss of her six-month-old child, the others born dead, andthe abuse she suffers at the hands of Boesman. "Look, Outa. I want you to look. [Showinghim the bruises on her arms and face.] (p. 188)... ...Only a few words I know, but a longstory if you lived it." (p. 193). The fact of Outa not comprehending what Lena saysemphasises Lena's desire for community or human contact and not necessarily gainingsympathy from another person for her pain.Lena is afforded the opportunity to reach out to another person, to gain the29satisfaction that she is human and alive, and to know that she is not alone through Outa'spresence. The apparent attention that he gives to her as she speaks to him allows her tohave a sense of her self-worth. When he mentions her name, Lena receives enoughcertainty about her existence. Outa's weakness and frailty also give Lena the opportunityto be the mother she never had the chance to be.Prevented by Boesman from spending the terribly cold night in the couple's shelter,Lena and Outa protect each other with the warmth of their human contact. With Boesmanstaring at them silently from inside the shelter, Lena and her black companion stay by thecampfire, share a mug of tea, and break bread. This episode with its religious allusionssuggests something of a social if not sacramental quality in Lena's sharing. It is acelebration of Lena's life that she cares to live and share her life for the benefit of others.Whereas Boesman suffers from the whiteman's desire to distance himself from others,Lena transcends the constricting physical, social and human space in which she has tolive to go beyond the material confines of her determined condition. Upon encounteringthe old man, she finds an existential authenticity that is quite beyond the comprehensionof Boesman.Cruelly amusing himself at the expense of the old man, Boesman's contempt andsense of superiority, as he even tells Lena that "He doesn't belong to us" (p.186), turn tojealousy. The husband who has gleefully invited his wife to leave him on their arrival atSwartkops and has showed a great sense of indifference to her needs now sees Lena'strue worth and importance as she gains the attention of Outa. Boesman feels threatenedby the independence that Lena has gained with the arrival of Outa. He experiencesterrible fear and loneliness, sensing his control over her is lost. What makes Boesmanvery mad is the fact that the one usurping his position is old, feeble and, more particularly,30black ---someone of less value than a corrugated iron sheet, and "for the first time he isunsure of himself" (p.197).The attitude of Boesman towards Outa points to the plight of the dispossessed ofSouth Africa. Unsure of himself, the dispossessed feels threatened by any person whomhe sees as invading what he can claim as his own. This in a way shows how the SouthAfrican system manages to get the dispossessed to endorse its apartheid policy of racialsegregation and discrimination. Boesman hates the fact of Outa being black, fearing thathe and Lena might "end up with a tribe of old kaffers sitting here" ... "turn my placeinto a kaffer nes!" (p.187). By throwing his share of the bread and tea away instead ofgiving it to Lena for Outa as she requested, Boesman amply demonstrates his intentionof being of no help and comfort to the black man.Boesman rejects Outa in precisely the same terms that he, Boesman, has beenrejected on social grounds by the inhumane white society. Iniquity is learned by its victims.As Lena questions Boesman's conduct of insensitivity towards the plight of an equallydispossessed fellow human being, we appreciate the fact of Fugard's pointing out that anindividual's behaviour is not necessarily determined by his racial, social or cultural identitybut rather his commitment to making the world a better place for others. Boesman is asguilty in his treatment of Outa in just the same way as the whiteman who demolished hisshack in Korsten.It is quite significant that Lena manages to reverse the apartheid system beingreinforced by her husband by calling Outa into her life. She sees Outa not as someoneof a different race and therefore inferior, but as another human being just as herself andin need of help. It is, therefore, her moral duty to help alleviate or share his pain andsuffering. As Boesman denies them shelter for the night, Lena sits outside with Outa,31sharing her blanket and body warmth with him to protect him from the bitter cold. She tellsOuta to "Sit close. Ja! Hotnot and a Kaffer got no time for apartheid on a night like this"(p.207). (This is the only instance in which Fugard uses the word "apartheid" in his works).In the play, Outa represents the black race, and his presence suggests all men arebound together. His presence again suggests the dream and hope for the day when SouthAfrica can accommodate black, coloured and white people living together as equalsregardless of race or skin colour. It is a celebration of the brotherhood of mankind thatFugard envisions for the South African society.Reminding Boesman that his shelter is "a coffin" in which he is trying to bury herlife (p.206), Lena makes clear her desire to free herself from him. Calling Outa into herlife and clinging to him with growing intensity of involvement, Lena effectively neutralisesthe control Boesman has over her. Like her insistence on imposing some sense of orderon her past, Lena's choice to stay and be of assistance to the old man despite violentopposition from Boesman shows her determination to take control of her own life andreassert herself against the demands of her abusive husband. This is what RussellVandenbroucke describes as Lena's attempt to "locate herself as an autonomous being". 5When Boesman cannot diminish the pleasure, attention and recognition Lena findswith Outa despite his cruel intimidations, he reveals that he had beaten her for the emptybottles he himself got broken. It is a very calculated cruelty of Boesman which Lenaadmits "hurts more than your fists. You know where you feel that one? Inside. Where yourfists can't reach." (pp.217-218). This is a classic example of Boesman'a penchant forreleasing his frustration onto Lena and blaming her for his predicament.As Lena experiences alienation on Outa's death, she revenges herself byconvincing Boesman that he will be suspected of the old man's murder. With fear, anger32and frustration Boesman beats the dead body, but finds no relief other than making iteasier for Lena to point out he has incriminated himself with his bruises on the body.Echoing Zach's refusal to accept responsibility for the proposed visit of Ethel, Boesmanwishes not to accept responsibility for Outa's death. He explains to Lena: "Why must Iworry? I did nothing. clear conscience! This is my place. I was here first. He should havestayed with his own sort" (p.214).Nonetheless, Boesman sees the dead Outa as more of a threat to him than whenhe was alive. He finds it difficult staying "free" of the dead man. Fearing he can becharged with murder, he pleads for Lena to be his witness. He tells her: "Dead men aredangerous. You better get rid of it" (p.214). The effect of the dead Outa on Boesmanpoints out that all men are bound together dead or alive, regardless of race and skincolour.When Lena asks "How do you throw away a dead kaffer? (p.214), we know sheis pointing out the value of blacks also as human beings and, thus, not to be treated as"rubbish". She later questions the intergrity of the authorities with regards to the interestof the state in the welfare of its non-white citizens, demanding "Why don't they ask somequestions when we're alive?" (p.215). We know Lena is concerned about a system thattakes no interest in the survival of non-white people whom it treats as "rubbish" or seesas non-existent when they are living, but come showing apparent concern when they aredead. This suggests the extreme indifference of the apartheid system toward its victims.With great fear, Boesman begins packing their belongings so they can leave theplace. Threatening not to follow Boesman now that she has been able to free herself fromhis control, Lena turns her back on him violently and walks away, with Boesman standingmotionless (p.220). Ending up beside the dead body of the old man, Lena is, however,33forced to recognise her loneliness. It dawns on her that she still needs somebody to affirmher sense of self-worth and existence. She realises that her relationship with Boesmanmeans something and, therefore, decides to follow him even though they still do not knowwhere they are going. She makes Boesman pass over a bucket which she puts on herhead, saying "Hasn't got holes in it yet. Might be whiteman's rubbish, but I can still useit." (p.220) Lena is acknowledging that she still needs Boesman. However, by making ither own decision to follow Boesman, Lena effectively takes control of her life. They bothload up again and leave into the darkness.Lena has always desired to know the proper order of their past journeys, believingthat her past will explain her present. But when Boesman finally tells her the exact orderof their past journeys, she realizes as Boesman had long before that "It doesn't explainanything." (p.221). Lena has, thus, finally come to recognize and accept the fact that theirexistence as the dispossessed of their racist society is beyond comprehension andexplanation. Boesman is able to give Lena a clear indication of where they have been andwhere they now are because he realises the agonising fact that she articulates the painhe feels, and which they both share.Deprived of self-hood and identity by the system because they are not whites,Lena manages to become the vehicle for survival and defiance, while Boesman is passive,impotent and unable to act significantly. As Boesman works out his self-hatred on her, shebecomes aware of what her life and her predicament really are. Lena represents extremesuffering and pain, yet she is able to survive. Even at one moment, she sings and dances,stamping defiantly down on the earth to which her poor body will soon return. Her senseof injustice in her society gives her a value of self that drives her to overcome the self-pitythat afflicts Boesman because of his acceptance of the world in which he finds himself.34It is in Lena that we see the possibility of hope and the will to survive the odds that stackagainst them.Boesman and Lena is indeed Athol Fugard "protesting against the conspiracy ofsilence about how the next man lives and what happens to groups other than our own." 6Fugard shows there is the need for each individual to take time and be of concern andhelp to the needs of the next person. This is a sure way of making life a little bit easierfor all in this difficult world we live in.Throughout the play we see no emotional verbal or physical sign of love or deepaffection passing between Boesman and Lena as husband and wife. Boesman is pushedto the edge in his maltreatment of Lena because he fears loosing her, especially withOuta's presence. Fear and dependency, therefore, link Boesman to Lena instead of love.Boesman's extreme insecurity, hidden beneath an attitude of indifference and bravado,makes him totally dependent on Lena. This explains why he deliberately confuses her inan attempt to make her subservient, depriving her psychologically of the "freedom" toleave him. Their relationship as a whole is, thus, reduced to violent, bitter discord.Dispossessed and humiliated by their society, Boesman and Lena share acommon predicament. Each feels insecure and has no sense of him/herself without theother. They are each other's fate and cannot do without each other. Finally at the brinkof despair, the couple find that the only certainty they have in their deprivation is eachother. In their struggle to regain their humanity and dignity, their relationship is what theyhave to and can rely on as "the truth their hands can touch". It is with this knowledge thatBoesman and Lena journey on with no expectations of finding a better place to live.The couple proceed together into darkness. It is a walk beyond rebellion. Theyseem to accept their fate as the dispossessed of their world. Their next stop will be no35different from the wasteland of Swartkops. Boesman will be followed by Lena for him topossibly intimidate, but we know that Lena will at least be able to stand up to him. Lena'sstatement "I'm alive, Boesman" (p.221) is set in a world full of exploitation and humandegradation, one that does not go away at the end of the play.36FOOTNOTES 1. Fugard, Athol. Three Port Elizabeth Plays. The Viking Press, New York. 1974. pp.169-170. *All quotes from Boesman and Lena throughout the chapter are from this text.2. Vandenbroucke, Russell. Truths The Hand Can Touch: The Theatre of Athol Fugard.Theatre Communications Group, New York. 1985. p.62.3. Ibid. p.60.4. Fugard, Athol. Notebooks: 1960-1977 ed. Mary Benson. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., NewYork. 1983. p.173.5. Vandenbroucke. Truths The Hand Can Touch. p.59.6. Fugard, Athol & Simon, Barney. "The Family Plays of the Sixties" in Stephen Gray. ed.Athol Fugard. McGraw-Hill, Johannesburg. 1982. p.51.37Chapter Four "MASTER HAROLD" ... AND THE BOYS:A PLEA FOR THE BROTHERHOOD OF HUMANITYMost of Fugard's plays, certainly The Blood Knot and Boesman and Lena, areinformed by his observation of lives and experiences around him. None is based solelyon his own life as "Master Harold" ... and the boys, written in 1982."Master Harold" ... and the boys is Fugard's most autobiographical work. In thisplay, he probes his own pain with regards to his relationship with his father and with hisonly childhood friend. Fugard greatly loved and respected both men. However, each of thetwo men had what was in Fugard's perception a "shortcoming" which he, as a little boy,could not so easily bring himself to accept and be identified with. This had a tremendousimpact on the relationship between Fugard and each of the two men in his childhood life,something that he grew to feel guilty about.For fifteen years Fugard's mother, Elizabeth Magdalena Potgieter, had employedSam Semela, a black man, as a servant and a waiter at her Jubilee Boarding House andat the St. George's Park Tea Room in Port Elizabeth. Fugard, as a little boy called 'Nally'until his teens, was especially fond of Semela. He acknowledges that Semela "was themost significant - the only - friend of my boyhood years."' Fugard's friendship with thisman was one of intense intimacy during what he considers his "most formative anddefinitive years, the age between 11, 10 up until the age of 21." 2In what was indeed a very close and shared relationship between a man and alittle boy, Sam Semela, the family's servant, became in every way a surrogate father toFugard. However, since it is very easy for a child to be influenced by the currents of theculture of his society, the little white boy, sought to be the "Master" by lording it over the38black man. The reality of the South African situation in which coloured people, especiallyblacks, are treated as inferior and sub-human, therefore, had an effect on Fugard'srelationship with Sam Semela.When Fugard was about thirteen, and was helping behind the counter in the St.George's Park Tea Room while Semela waited at the table, he and the man had a rarequarrel. Fugard cannot recollect the subject or the cause of this quarrel, but heremembers it made him burn with hatred and resentment towards the black man. Hewrites about this in his Notebooks:Can't remember now what precipitated it, but one day there was arare quarrel between Sam and myself. In a truculent silence we closed thecafe, Sam set off home to New Brighton on foot and I followed a fewminutes later on my bike. I saw him walking ahead of me and, coming outof a spasm of acute loneliness, as I rode up behind him I called his name,and he turned in mid-stride to look back and, as I cycled past, I spat in hisface. Don't suppose I will ever deal with the shame that overwhelmed methe second after I had done that. 3Fugard has often said that his ten-month experience of living and working withpeople of all races as a deckhand on the British trampsteamer SS Graigaur in 1953liberated him from the prejudice endemic among his white folks towards people of colour.He also attributes his awareness of the full impact of the racist policies of the SouthAfrican government on coloured people to the time he worked as a clerk in a 'NativeCommissioner's Court' in 1958. However, Fugard minces no words in making it clear thathe traces his deep sense of guilt and remorse as a white man over the abuse,degradation and inhuman treatment that are meted out to coloured people, especiallyblacks, in South Africa to this specific incident between him and his friend Sam Semeladuring his Port Elizabeth childhood. 4In several interviews, Fugard has described this spitting incident, and mostimportantly pointed out that he had tried unsuccessfully for many years to bring himself39to deal with his shame and guilt for what he did to his childhood friend. This he finallydoes thirty-seven years after the incident with "Master Harold" ... and the boys, a play hewrote to celebrate Sam Semela. In one interview, Fugard states that "one of the climacticmoments in the play is autobiography, straight from my life, when a sixteen year old boy,trying to deal inadequately with an enormously painful conflict within himself, spits in theface of one man he loves, and that man is black." 5 The play is, therefore, Fugard's attemptat exorcising his pain and unburdening himself of the shame and guilt he had borne allthose years for mistreating his childhood friend.Fugard also alludes to complex parent-child relationship he had with his father inthe play. The father, Harold David Lannigan Fugard, was a cripple. This disability madeit difficult for Fugard to see in his father the role-model and man that he needed to lookup to as a child growing up. Fugard, thus, harboured resentment toward his father (whowas an alcoholic, a bigot and a layabout) for his infirmity and weakness which meant hishumiliating servitude to the father, like emptying chamber pots, despite loving him so. Inwriting the play, Fugard hoped to deal with the very complex and ambivalent relationshiphe had with his disabled father just as he had attempted before in Hello and Goodbyewhich he wrote in 1971. "Master Harold" ... and the boys, thus, also provides an insightinto Fugard's attitude towards his disabled father whose "absence" could be inferred asthat which drew Fugard to look up more to Sam Semela, the only man he knew during hischildhood years.Fugard explains thatin writing "Master Harold", the real dialogue was with myself, because Iwas dealing with ghosts. Because I've got a few left. Certainly in mynotebook there were any number of entries asking the question, "Is thewriting of this play an attempt at something way, way back, most probablythe genesis of myself as the man that I am - which over the years has notbeen resolved and which I was coming to terms with?"640Indeed, one of the central themes in the play is Fugard's unqualified hope in the abilityof the individual as an authentic person to make choices for himself and determine thequality of the life he is going to live regardless of the existing social and political reality."Master Harold" ... and the boys is, thus, primarily about the failed relationshipFugard had as an adolescent with his black friend Sam Semela, and another black waiter,Willie Malopo, who had supposedly also worked for his mother during the same time,while sharing an insight into Fugard's attitude towards his crippled father. At the play'scentre is that traumatic spitting incident, and Fugard's attempt to deal with itsconsequences in terms of race relations in their race-ridden society. In exploring his owndespair at race relations in the play, Fugard has tried to explore that of the people ofSouth Africa."Master Harold" ... and the boys is set in 1950 in the St. George's Park Tea Room.The play opens with Sam and Willie, the waiters, enjoying their work and surroundings.Willie painstakingly mops the floor as he sings. Sam, leaning nonchalantly on a solitarytable, pages through a comic book. Suddenly, Willie swings heavily into a dance step withan imaginary partner. This leads to a discussion of the forthcoming New Brighton BallroomDancing Competition with Sam instructing Willie.Like Styles and Robert/Sizwe before them (Sizwe Bansi is Dead written in 1973),the two men are a contrasting pair: Willie is as awkward as Sam is graceful, and he hasto listen as Sam offers guidance and instructions to him on the quickstep and on how totreat his partner, the unseen Hilda. "It must look like romance", Sam tells Willie, "...whenthe judges look at you and Hilda, they must see a man and a woman who are dancingtheir way to a happy ending. What I saw was you holding her like you were frightened shewas going to run away!" "Jar replies Willie, "Because that is what she wants to do!" 7 The41gap between the ideal world imagined by Sam and the harsh, even violent reality knownto Willie is clearly established in this short exchange.Sam and Willie are joined by the seventeen year-old 'Nally' -as Sam affectionatelycalls the white schoolboy whose mother runs the tea room. Nally inquires from the twoblack men on his arrival: "How's it, chaps?" Willie responds, springing to attention andsaluting: "At your service, "Master Harold" (p.9). This initial exchange clearly portrays theexisting "Master-boys" relationship between the little white boy and the two black men asexpected in the South African racist society. Hally's condescending attitude towards his"boys" is deduced immediately from the way he furiously orders them to "get on with theirwork and stop fooling around" as the rag Willie hurls at Sam for teasing him about histrouble with Hilda misses and hits Nally instead. And when he is informed about hismother's visit to the hospital, Nally shows his frustration at the possible home-coming ofhis disabled father who repels him.As Nally begins to talk about his school-work, he and Sam soon engage in theirfavourite game of teaching and learning, something that has established a teacher-studentrelationship between the little white boy and the black man. We see that Hally takesgenuine pleasure in imparting to Sam whatever he learns, be it mathematics, vocabulary,history, literature, or geography. Here, one becomes aware of the adolescent naivety andthe feeling of racial superiority of the little white boy. "There's something called progress"(p.15), he informs Sam, when the servant tells him about the beatings black men receivein prison. Indeed, Hally's idea of progress is as limited as his idea of history: "You'venever been a slave, you know" he tells Sam, "And anyway we freed your ancestors herein South Africa long before the Americans." (p.20). What Hally seems to forget is the plightand subservient status of blacks in apartheid South Africa. Even though they are not42slaves in the official sense of the word, blacks have no right to self-determination in thesociety. Nonetheless, the exchanges tell of the closeness and warmth between the"teacher" and his "student".The rainy day prevents customers from patronising the tea room, so Nally, Samand Willie spend the rest of the afternoon following the threads of shared memory. Theonly interruptions are by the telephone calls from the hospital where Hally's father is beingtreated for his amputated leg. These calls will provoke the frustrated, unhappy outburstswhich culminate in Hally's abuse of Sam.The exchanges, which the three men do enjoy, take them back to the old JubileeBoarding house servants' quarters, where Hally first met Sam and Willie. The little whiteboy, having no place to which he undeniably belongs, recollects spending more time withthe two black men in the servants' quarters than anywhere else during the years "notremembered as the happiest ones of an unhappy childhood" (p. 24). Nally admits that butfor Sam, he would have no happy memories, the most special one of all being the daySam made him a kite.The flying of the kite reminds us of the car ride reenacted by Morris and Zach inThe Blood Knot. It is an act that tells of the special bond between the two characters,sending their minds to a shared happy moment in their past. Flying the kite had not onlyappeared strange to Nally as he points out: "Little white boy in short trousers and a blackman old enough to be his father flying a kite. It's not every day you see that" (p.31), butit had also made him appreciate the kindness and humanity of his friend Sam. This is theonly time in the play Hally refers to Sam as if he were his father. However, thecomparison that exists throughout the play has already been implied in Hally's earlier fearof being laughed at and embarrassed by other kids if they were to see him with Sam flying43the kite. This feeling of embarrassment is again what comes over Hally when his motherwears an evening gown, but it is no where near the public humiliation he felt when hefollowed Sam carrying his drunken father down the crowded Main Street.Just as Hally and Sam seem to be closest, the present reasserts itself in thetelephone call from Hally's mother. The prospect of Hally's father returning from hospitalis no good news for the little white boy. The thought of further humiliating service to hisdisabled father plunges Hally into despair and anger, which he vents on the servants.When Hally is supposedly disturbed by the two men with their dancing practice as he triesto do his homework, he grabs his ruler and gives Willie a vicious whack on the bum,saying: "How the hell am I supposed to concentrate with the two of you behaving likebloody children! ...... Get back to your work. You too, Sam. (His ruler) Do you wantanother one, Willie?" (p.38) The basic structure of the South African society in theexercise of power is revealed here: the white child can hit a black man, and the black manhits the black woman (Willie abuses his partner Hilda just as Boesman does to Lena). Itis a system in which violence spirals down in a hierachy of degradation. Hally, thus,exercises his power as "Master" to humiliate the black men, who have been dispossessedof their dignity and respect by the system of apartheid, as the means of getting rid of hisfrustration.Sensing Hally's frustration, Sam attempts to console him by evoking the pleasureof dancing which to him is "like being in a dream about a world in which accidents don'thappen" (p.45). With a vivid description of the 1950 Eastern Province Open BallroomDancing Championships, Sam gets Hally interested to write about this "significant event"(p.42) for his school assignment. Sam's utopian vision of the dance floor where people areharmoniously related becomes a portrait or metaphor for the ideal world they both yearn44for: an ideal state of human co-operation and avoidance of "collision". Nally becomesimpressed and shows his patronising affection for his mentor, saying: "You've got a visionSam!" (p.46). He subtitles his essay "Ballroom Dancing as a Political Vision" (p.47), hopingfor a world in which powers and people can come together in harmony.This joyous dream, the imagined world Sam and Hally have created, is finallydestroyed by the second telephone call which reminds Nally of the harsh reality thathaunts him: his father is, after all, returning. We can remember Nally saying after the firsttelephone call from his mother: "Just when things are going along all right, without failsomeone or something will come along and spoil everything. Somebody should write thatdown as a fundamental law of the Universe. The principle of perpetual disappointment."(p.35) This time, he cries out to Sam: "So much for a bloody world without collisions."(p.50)The utopian world they are fantasising about comes crashing down in the face ofreality, and Hally tears up the notes for his essay. His father is indeed returning home,and so will he, as he says, to "Home-sweet-fucking-home. Jesus, I hate that word." (p.51)Showing his disappointment, Hally draws Sam's attention to the real world they know asopposed to their dream: "Do you want to know what is really wrong with your lovely littledream, Sam? ... You left out the cripples." With pain, he paints a chilling image of thereality: "When you come to think of it, it's bad enough on two legs ... but one and a pairof crutches! Hell, no, Sam. That's guaranteed to turn the dance floor into shambles." ToNally, this is the way things really are in the ballroom and in the real world. He, thus,renames the dancing competition: "the All-Comers-How-to-Make-a-Fuckup-of-LifeChampionships" (pp.51-52), making no secrets about his anger at the imposition on himof responsibility towards his own disabled father who shames him and is the source of his45frustration.Aware of Hally's true feelings in the mockery and derision of his father, Samreproaches him, saying: "It's your father you are talking about. ... It's a terrible sin for ason to mock his father with jokes like that. ... Your father is your father even if he is a ...cripple man." (p.52) The older and wiser man, thus, draws the little white boy's attentionto his unfilial attitude. The little white boy becomes ashamed of himself.What Hally does is once again to redirect his anger and frustration at what RussellVandenbroucke sees as "a safer object, Sam."8 He takes advantage of his whiteness asgranted by his society to save face by turning his shame and guilt into rage by humiliatingthe black man. His guilty wish to avoid coping with his invalid father turns into a racialistexplosion against the only person closest to him. With rage and in fury, Hally warns him:"be careful, Sam. Very careful! You're treading on dangerous ground. Leave me and myfather alone." (p.52.) He reminds the black man of his position within the South Africansociety as a servant who is to be concerned only with his work.Here, Nally resorts to the racial relations within the apartheid system which toquote Errol Durbach, "ignores traditional relationships of labour and management, of paidemployee to paying employer, or contractual relationships between freely consentingparties"9 to rebuff Sam's explanation of the nature of his employment:HALLY: You'are only a servant here, and don't forget it. ... And as far as my fatheris concerned, all you need to remember is that he is your boss.SAM: (Needled at last) No, he isn't. I get paid by your mother.RALLY: Don't argue with me, Sam!SAM: Then don't say he's my boss.HALLY: He's a white man and that's good enough for you. (p.53)Hally is, of course, clinging to his father's whiteness in the hope of regaining superiorityfor himself and his father over the black man. Within the South African system, everywhite man is the "Master" to the black man who is a "boy". Hally's misguided attempt to46achieve self-worth and status take the form of humiliating the one person he can demean-a black man in his parents' employment. What pains Sam greatly is that he is beingdenied his basic human respect and dignity by someone he cares about. He is in asociety that degrades him as much as Hally is in a family that shames him. Hally's questis to secure his self-respect and identity at Sam's expense with no regard for their intimaterelationship which ought to provide them with mutual support and love in their individualpredicament.The little white boy demands that Sam address him as Willie does: "Master Harold"(p.54), a sign of respect "that's long overdue ...... I can tell you now that somebody whowill be glad to hear I've finally given it to you will be my Dad. Yes! He agrees with myMom. He's always going on about it as well. "You must teach the boys to show you morerespect, my son." " (p.55) Within a racist society, respect is taught through intimidation justas giving respect is by self-abasement. It is easy to teach Willie respect by whipping himbecause he lacks the ability to oppose such treatment. All Willie can do is to insist thatothers be made to share in his suffering (that HaIly should whip Sam as well) or visitinghis pain upon his dancing partner, Hilda, the black woman. HaIly cannot command respectfrom Sam who demonstrates compassion and moral strength, so he resorts to humiliatinghim through the insult, abuse and blackmail of the system. He is able to degrade andhumiliate Sam and even trample upon him because the black man is a servant. Hisdemand, therefore, to be called "Master" is a proclamation of his racial superiority.The little white boy, in a determination to increase his sense of self by humiliatingthe black man, next associates himself with his father, the very cause of his shame, bytelling a crude racialist joke they both enjoy about "A nigger's arse" not being "fair" (p.55).As the two black men stare at him with disbelief, he gives the meaning of "fair" as light47in colour and just and decent. Sam understands clearly what Hally is implying morally inhis attempt to redefine his relationship with the two black men within the context of asystem which sees "black" as base. Seeing this as an attempt by Hally to demand respectthrough insult and abuse, Sam addresses him: "You're really trying hard to be ugly, aren'tyou? And why drag poor old Willie into it? He's done nothing to you except show you therespect you want so badly. That's also not being fair, you know ... and / mean just ordecent." (pp.55-56)In an act of self-abasement that severely rebukes and shames the little white boy,Sam drops his trousers and underpants and presents his backside for Hally's inspection(p.56) to see how "fair" it is. As Errol Durbach correctly points out, the justice, decency,and fairness of the system which encourages a child to humiliate a man because the manis of a different skin-colour is called into question through Sam's potent ace ° Greatlyembarrassed, Hally calls Sam quietly and spits in his face in a desperate attempt topreserve his wounded pride and protest his own sense of degradation.This is the climax of the play, and as Dennis Walder describes it, the image of thewhite teenager spitting in the face of one of his mother's black servants is "one oftheatre's most disturbing moments."" It is an image that symbolises the very ugliness ofracism in South Africa. As shocking and unexpected as it is, it causes a long and heartfeltgroan from Willie who looks on dumbfoundedly (p.56). It is not surprising, therefore, thatthis racist and adolescent betrayal, which completely makes Hally lose his racialinnocence, is the source of Fugard's deepest feelings of guilt and remorse about racerelations and the way coloured people, especially blacks, are degraded and humiliated inhis society.48The spitting incident at the centre of "Master Harold" ... and the boys epitomisesall the personal roots of racism and the worst excesses of behaviour a person can exhibitin his most intimate relationship. As in the climactic moment of The Blood Knot, furtheroutburst of hatred and violence seems imminent. However, the natural, expected responseis resisted by the black man. With an overwhelming sense of maturity and moralintelligence, Sam avoids the temptation to be dehumanised. With tremendous amount ofself-control and great restraint, Sam wipes his face instead of retaliating.Sam distances himself from being a father to Hally by making the little white boyacknowledge his misdirecting the frustration he feels against the wrong source: "The faceyou should be spitting in is your father's ... but you used mine, because you think you'resafe inside your fair skin ... and this time I don't mean just or decent." (p.56) It is Hally'swhite father who ensures the "principle of perpetual dissappointment" (p.35) in his life, andwhose imminent home-coming he cannot cope with; yet it is on Sam that Hally visits withimpunity his anguish and contempt because he is black.With a careful thought about aggression, Sam points out to Hally (just as Willie willalso remind Sam later) that the individual who persecutes is as much a victim as theperson whom he persecutes regardless of one's status, class or skin colour. Indeed in hisracist outbursts, the little white "Master" manages to humiliate and demean only himself.Sam would feel the same if he were to retaliate. One agrees, therefore, with RussellVandenbroucke that it is the blackman who "keeps his dignity" and forces the little white"Master" to "feel ignominious". 12Instead of striking Hally for the spitting, Sam and Willie agree to endure the insultwith weeping and groaning as Willie reminds Sam that Hally is a "Little white boy. Longtrousers now, but he's still a little boy." (p.57) Further violence is, therefore, averted not49because the black man accepts suffering as his lot, but because through exemplarybehaviour and forgiveness "Master Harold" will come to acknowledge the implications ofhis cruel conduct. Here, Fugard has been criticised as condoning the racial insult andhumiliation at the centre of the play. 13 It is true forgiveness rather than retaliation forHally's racist behaviour is offered. However, this does not necessarily mean the play islimited to serving the status quo. As in The Blood Knot, violence is presented anddefused. Fugard shows that more violence is imminent unless there is a change in theattitude of whites towards people of colour.Sensing Hally has lost his sense of self-worth and dignity, Sam recollects thepromise he made to himself after carrying home the little white boy's drunken father, whichwas to help Hally to believe in himself instead of being ashamed of his father. Heacknowledges that Hally's distress is the result of inability to cope with his shameful fatherwhom the little white boy admits he nonetheless loves. Sam then tells the little white boy:"That's not the way a boy grows up to be a man! ... But the one person who should havebeen teaching you what that means was the cause of your shame. If you really want toknow, that's why I made you the kite. I wanted you to look up, be proud of something, ofyourself." (p.58) The kite was a symbolic gift from Sam to console Hally and help raisehim above the ground of shame in taking responsibility of his drunken and crippled father,and to think of his own capabilities. Sam made Hally the kite and taught him how to fly itas a means of salvaging the little white boy's pride.Sam explains further that he could not join Hally to share in the experience of thehigh-flying kite because the little white boy was sitting on a bench marked "Whites Only".Here, he draws Hally's attention to a system that deliberately sets out to separate andhumiliate blacks in every social sphere of existence and regulate the relationship between50whites and blacks. Within the context of attitudes and relations promoted by apartheid, thelittle white boy is "Master Harold" and the black man is the "boy". This is how the SouthAfrican system defines white and black relationship. Hally has the system on his side toresort to subjugating his black companions into servitude as his "boys" and playing"master" to them. As he realises the full implications of his attitude towards Sam, Hallybecomes much more ashamed for betraying his friend, mentor and surrogate father whohas shown him nothing but compassion, love and moral strength.We see that Hally has in the course of the afternoon's events undertaken a ritesof passage, a journey from innocence to knowledge at great personal pain. The little whiteboy has been shamed into self-knowledge about the implications of his actions. He hasbecome aware of betraying both his father and his friend to the extent that in the end, hecannot bring himself to remain with the two black men in friendship. Finding it difficult evento say anything, he is ready to leave with the shame and guilt that have come over him.Having taken off his servant's jacket that had made him a "boy", Sam stops Hallyfrom leaving, and offers him an olive branch. He addresses the little white boy informallyagain despite his previous vow, saying "I've got no right to tell you what being a manmeans if I don't behave like one myself, and I'm not doing so well at that this afternoon.Should we try again, Hally?" (p.59) It is with compassion that Sam forgives the little whiteboy who knows no better for his racist behaviour. He behaves like a man in order to teachHally how to grow into the man he seeks to be. Sam offers to Hally the chance to "flyanother kite", saying "it worked once, and this time I need it as much as you do." (p.59)What Sam does is to open the door for a second chance in the hope of salvaging theirfriendship. By the extention of his gesture to Hally, Sam also offers the hope and thepossibility that all humanity, regardless of race and colour, may come to accept each other51and live together in peace and harmony.Throughout the play we feel quite ambivalent about the little white boy. Nally isessentially a good boy. Unlike most white people in South Africa, he is open to blacks,willing to teach them and to communicate with them. We can see that he is not racist untilhe becomes unyielding as "Master Harold" in an attempt to preserve his pride, cover uphis shame and avert criticism. This is evident in the way he dictates the nature of therelationship with Sam. He forces the roles of a servant, a pupil, or an intimate on Sam atone moment or the other. As he and Sam try to discuss people whose works have beenof benefit to mankind, the little white boy shows extreme satisfaction at the work he hasdone in "educating" Sam. At one moment, he will yell at Sam: "Just get on with yourbloody work and shut up." (p.53) At another time, he will let Sam become intimate andshow his genuine admiration of his vision of an ideal world, saying, "Jesus, Sam! That'sbeautiful! ... You've got a vision." (p.46) He shifts from intimate familiarity with his blackfriends by realigning their friendship into the social and political reality and playing"master" as a means of saving face. In the end, Hally is faced with the choice of joiningwith the two black men in harmony and brotherhood of mankind, or remaining "master"in isolation.Sam tries to re-establish his friendship with Hally, warning that something shouldhave been learned that afternoon, but the little white boy leaves the tea room sayinghelplessly, "I don't know. I don't know anything anymore." (p.59) We remember Hallysaying he oscillates "between hope and despair for this world" (p.15). He hopes thatthrough the efforts of some "social reformer", the world can be transformed for the better.However, for most of the time, we see him manifesting his despair because of the socialand political reality of apartheid and man's inhumanity towards his fellow man. As Sam52offers Hally the chance to salvage their friendship, the little white boy reminds him of whathe told him earlier about the impossibility of flying a kite on a rainy day. They bothacknowledge that the South African political reality (represented by the rain pouringoutside the tea room) has constraints on the choices individuals make in their personalrelationships. This fact notwithstanding, the challenge Sam offers Hally stresses the hopeand certainty of Fugard that through personal determination on the part of individualsapartheid can be brought down regardless of the political and social condition. It is thisfaith in the individual to work for racial harmony that gives Fugard hope for a decent socialorder in South Africa. Fugard is emphasising the point that the task of ensuring that theSouth African society is free from racial discrimination, bigotry and man's inhumanity toman is primarily the responsibility of every single person. It is an expression of confidencein the ability and conscience of the individual South African to bring about the changeneeded for all men to be seen, accepted, and treated as equal, regardless of race or skin-colour in that society. The task of dismantling apartheid becomes centred on individualattitudes and behaviour. Viewed against the arrogance, disrespectfulness, and racistbehaviour of Hally is the compassion, humanity, and friendship exhibited by Sam. Thereis the hope here in the possibility of reform in the individual to achieving racial harmonyin the society. It is no wonder that individual responsibility is emphasised as Sam pointsout to Hally: "You don't have to sit up there by yourself. You know what that bench meansnow, and you can leave it any time you choose. All you have to do is stand up and walkaway from it." (p.60) Sam expresses much hope in Hally to make the personal choice torestore their friendship which can mean helping to foster racial harmony regardless of thesocial and political reality of the South African situation.It is pathetic then that the play ends without reconciliation between the two people53who have been close and then become estranged. However, we have been made toacknowledge how difficult it can be for the little white boy to re-establish his relationshipwith Sam. Hally cannot so easily bring himself to accept Sam's offer of reconciliation afterhis shocking racist attitude which has shown him betraying their friendship. Paralysed byshame, he lacks the strength to join Sam and Willie. So he stumbles off into the dark,leaving the two black men alone in the tea room.We can, however, be certain and hopeful that as the little white boy leaves, herealizes fully what has been spelt out very clearly for him by Sam. The choice is his,whether to accept Sam's challenge and decide what man he is going to be within theSouth African situation. Hally must acknowledge that to remain sitting on a "Whites Only"bench is to do something damaging not only to Sam, but to himself also. He has aresponsibility to himself and to his friendship with Sam to help make their world a place"with no collisions". The decision is Hally's. It is within his power as an authentic individualto break away from supporting the status-quo which seeks to place barriers among menbecause of the differences in the colour of their skin or their race.With Sam and Willie left alone, the latter expresses the hope that a lesson hasbeen learnt that afternoon and that it "is going to be okay tomorrow." (p.60) At least hehas learnt his. Promising not to be violent against his dancing partner, he comforts Samby endorsing his dream of life as a ballroom. He puts his bus fare into the jukebox whichcomes to life with a song that expresses pity for an unhappy child who is a product of hissociety. "Let's dream" (p.60), he tells Sam, and they begin to dance together to achievea moment of grace denied to them by their social context. Perhaps we can interpret thisfinal action to mean that in spite of the cruel and mean attitude of whites towards them,life goes on for black people, at least on their own terms.54The final image Fugard presents is not all that reassuring in terms of racialharmony. It is an image of a world where people are driven apart by racist attitudes andwhites leave blacks to act in solidarity. This is because we see that "Master Harold" bynot joining Sam and Willie has excluded himself from the harmony and brotherhoodoffered by the two black men. However, one can be reassured that Sam and Williedancing happily together presents us with a resonant image of the brotherhood ofhumanity. The idea of dancing as a paradigm of universal harmony is used to offset theterrible loneliness that descends on Hally for betraying his friendship with Sam. Sincethere is the hope that the shame and guilt that Hally has experienced might cause him torestore his friendship with the two black men, the final image envisions the possibility ofracial harmony.It must be acknowledged all the same that the final dramatic image that we are leftwith is quite ambigious in oscillating between hope and despair at the possibility ofharmony among all races. It is Fugard at his best. He emphasises individual experienceand commitment to change situations for the better. Fugard sees the South Africanexperience as one that demands choices on the part of individuals in that society. Eachperson has got to make his own decisions in the way he lives and relates to people fromraces other than his own. It is indeed Hally's choice to get up and walk away from the"Whites Only" bench any time he decides, as Sam suggests. In "Master Harold" ... andthe boys, Fugard provokes us to think about what can happen if racist attitudes continue.Fugard seems to be asking through the final image of the two black men dancingtogether: Do we allow a situation where racist attitudes set people apart?55FOOTNOTES 1. Fugard, Athol. Notebooks: 1960-1977. ed. Mary Benson. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., NewYork. 1983. p.25.2. Staden, Heinrich von. "An Interview with Athol Fugard." Theatre (Yale), Vol 14. YaleSchool of Drama, New Haven. Winter 1982. p.42.3. Fugard, Notebooks: 1960-1977. p.264. Walder, Dennis. Athol Fugard. Modern Dramatists Series. Macmillan Publishers Ltd.,London. 1984. pp.21-22.5. Maclennan, Don. "Athol Fugard and Don Maclennan: A Conversation." English in Africa,Vol.9, No.2. Institute for the Study of English, Rhodes University, Grahamstown,South Africa. October 1982. p.5.6. Ibid. p.4.7. Fugard, Athol. "Master Harold" ... and the boys. Viking Penguin Inc. New York. 1982.pp.5-6. *All quotes from the play throughout the chapter are from this text.8. Vandenbroucke, Russell. Truths The Hand Can Touch: The Theatre of Athol Fugard.Theatre Communications Group. New York. 1985. p.189.9. Durbach, Errol. " "Master Harold" ... and the boys: Athol Fugard and thePsychopathology of Apartheid" in Modern Drama, Vol.30, No.4. University ofToronto Press, Toronto. 1987. p.507.10.Ibid. p.508.11.Walder. Athol Fugard. p.119.12.Vandenbroucke. Truths The Hand Can Touch. p.189.13.Walder. Athol Fugard. p.125.56Chapter Five CONCLUSIONThe three plays of Athol Fugard that I have discussed, (The Blood Knot, Boesmanand Lena, and "Master Harold" ... and the boys), are primarily about relationships,although they have their broader social and political implications. These plays, like allothers written by Fugard, focus on people inextricably involved in passionately closerelationships of blood, love and friendship that embody the tensions of the South Africanapartheid society. The nature of the characters' relationships points to the profound social,political, and racial forces prevalent in their society. Relationships in Fugard's plays areinterdependent. The characters are involved in intense emotional relationships betweenbrother and brother, brother and sister, husband and wife, and friends. These charactersdemand love, attention, sympathy, mutual support and respect from one another whichare the fundamental needs of man's existence as he searches for his identity and dignityamid the pressures of apartheid.Apartheid as evidenced, for example, in the climactic image of the confrontationbetween Zach and Morris as enemies across the colour bar in The Blood Knot andthrough the petty dehumanizing attitude of Master Harold towards Sam in "Master Harold",inherently leaves no room for compromise and survives only by coercion and violence.The horror and injustice in the lives of black people become unbearable. The charactersin the plays of Fugard struggle to survive the intolerable suffering imposed on them as aresult of the basic relationship at the centre of the structure of the South African society.One would, therefore, agree with Errol Durbach that characters like Lena and Sam"turning the other cheek" to their oppressors "may not be politically expedient as aresponse to apartheid". However, as he continues to point out, where problems are57engendered at the personal level in the way people relate to one another, we cannot faultFugard in his suggestion that it is only at the personal level that these problems may beresolved.' For instance, instead of responding with violence and fury to Master Harold'sinsulting and dehumanizing behaviour towards him, Sam uses moral suasion andexemplary behaviour to move the little white boy to abandon his racist attitude andsalvage their friendship. This is what Margarete Seidenspinner sees as Fugard's "searchfor values more profound than those motivated by mere political gestures". 2Nonetheless, since relations within the South African context are built on theprinciple of apartheid that is given statutory enforcement, every social gesture becomesan affirmation or negation of the system. Every act becomes more or less political. Thepolitical reality of the question of race and racism in the world of apartheid is, thus,reflected in an individual's social attitudes. To deny this is to serve the system's rulingideology. For this reason, to offer solutions to the South African predicament in personal,rather than political terms as Fugard does in his plays may be seen as a response thatis lacking in revolutionary fervour.By concentrating on individual character and personal truth, Fugard, indeed,addresses concerns such as the need to relate his characters' predicaments to their socialclass, and to understand the nature of social relations in South Africa in the properhistorical and political perspective. This is Fugard's way of dealing with the South Africansituation which he sees as a potential for inter-racial violence if the downtrodden and theoppressed choose to respond to their inhuman treatment at the hands of the oppressorby retaliating with violence and even revolution. What he aims at is to show that violenceand destruction are inevitable, unless whites see and respond to the demands of theirsubmerged and dispossessed non-white population by changing individual attitudes of58racial discrimination and bigotry, but he disavows violence as the only necessary oracceptable response.Fugard allows us to recognise a radical impetus for change by exploring the effectof violence on those who carry it out. In a manner that may portray the tendency to reflectand even endorse the status quo, as he does in "Master Harold" ... and the boys, Fugardchooses the path of love and denounces that of hatred as the answer to the question ofracism. His characters may show passivity in the face of oppression in a bleak and almostmeaningless world, but (as in the climactic scene of The Blood Knot) he demonstrates thepotential of revolution or subversion to undermine the status quo if situations continuewithout any effort to address the inhuman treatment that they are subjected to. Themessage revealed to us in the plays of Fugard is that things need not be the way theyhave been, or the way they are. Fugard condemns and defuses violence, but he carefullyshows its inevitability if oppression continues. The Blood Knot and "Master Harold" ... andthe boys call for change in individual behaviour and attitudes, if not revolutionary action,by making us aware that better political systems ultimately depend on changes of heart.Fugard stands between the lines of racial intolerance and advocates a non-racial society.Indeed, he sees social injustices as evils caused by men and that can, therefore, beunmade by men. Fugard's hope is that in the little acts of decency that individuals mayshow to one another in their personal relationships, a South Africa free of prejudice andracism may be born.The South African experience which emerges from Fugard's plays is bitter andpainful to think about, but at the same time, there is a deep faith in the potential of theindividual human being to change things for the better. For all their apparent bleakness,the plays are uplifting testaments in celebration of the indomitability of man. The59characters suffer crippling oppression; yet, somehow their survival becomes an affirmationof the durability of life and the human spirit in the face of almost impossible odds.Fugard's characters do not affirm or cure their plight, but they learn to live with it. Theyare isolated men and women who toy with their hopes and dreams before discarding themas illusory to embrace lucid consciousness. In The Blood Knot, Morris attempts "passingfor white", while Zach hopes for a relationship with a white woman. At the end, bothbrothers become aware of reality and affirm their black race. Boesman and Lena suggeststhat men may survive the most intolerable conditions if they are able to discover andarticulate a meaning for their suffering. As the play ends and Lena follows Boesman, weknow that she is no longer going to allow herself to be pushed around by her partnerbecause she has her sense of self-worth. Sam and Willie dance happily together insolidarity and brotherhood at the end of "Master Harold"when Hally leaves them in shamefor his insulting behaviour towards them. In all his plays, we see Fugard's characterstrying to transcend the horizons and possibilities decreed by the restrictive social structureof the South African situation. They are victims of the system that seeks to deny themtheir humanity and existence. Their only wish, then, is to survive. The suffering, humiliationand despair the characters suffer never totally destroy the possibility of their survival withdignity. Indeed, survival is the key to life for the oppressed in South Africa and is, thus,one of the main themes in the plays of Fugard. The plays, in effect, affirm nothing but manhimself.Grounded in the particulars of race and racism, and particularly makingobservations about life in his native Port Elizabeth, Fugard's plays depict people trappedin the struggle for freedom from indignity and servitude. The plays, thus, portray andprotest the quality of life in apartheid South Africa. They achieve the expression of the60everyday experience of suffering and protest by the dispossessed of South Africa, and inso doing help ensure the continuity of that protest. In short, Fugard's plays tell the humanstory of South Africa, and show the time-bomb on which the society sits in terms of itsrace-relations.By extension, if Port Elizabeth is a paradigm, or a microcosm of South Africa, sois South Africa for the world. The inhumanity and exploitation of man on the basis of raceis a constant reality in all societies. The plays, therefore, have universal application. Thecharacters are brother and brother, brother and sister, husband and wife, and friends.These primal relationships that Fugard deals with in his plays suggest that his ultimateconcern is less with the particulars of the South African situation than with those besettingthe whole family of man. His concern is about the alienation of all men wherever they are.The goal of the writer, then, is that of bridging the gap between the races not only in hishome country of South Africa, but in all societies for racial harmony with the acceptanceand treatment of people of all races and colour as equal. By examining humanrelationships and human survival in his plays, Athol Fugard contributes to the field ofmodern drama in the effort to effect social change. This is what makes him a playwrightof great repute.Chris Wortham, writing about the Port Elizabeth plays, testifies to the durability andtimelessness of the plays of Athol Fugard. He states:However much South Africa may change in the future, Fugard has faithfullyrecorded in his... plays what it was to be in and a part of a particular placeat a particular time, what it meant in terms of human needs and sufferingsthat never change in themselves but only in intensity. The authentic, livingworld of the... plays will assuredly continue to hold the attention ofaudiences and to move them to recognition of themselves, long afterapartheid has become a record of an evil hour in which men actedperversely and, not for the first time and not for the last, excludedthemselves from making the world a home. 361FOOTNOTES 1. Durbach, Errol. " "Master Harold" ... and the boys: Athol Fugard and thePsychopathology of Apartheid" in Modern Drama, Vol.30, No.4. University ofToronto Press, Toronto. 1987. p.510.2. Seidenspinner, Margarete. Exploring the Labyrinth: Athol Fugard's Approach to SouthAfrican Drama. Essen: Verlag Die Blaue Eule, Germany. 1986. p.333.3. Wortham, Chris. "A Sense of Place: Home and Homelessness in the Plays of AtholFugard" in Malvern Van Wyk Smith and Don Maclennan (ed.). Olive Schreiner AndAfter: Essays on Southern African Literature. David Philip, Publisher (Pty) Ltd.,Cape Town. 1983. p.183.62BIBLIOGRAPHYA. WORKS BY ATHOL FUGARD(a)Plays (dates of first performance):Klaas and the Devil (1956)The Cell (1957)No Good Friday (1958)The Blood Knot (1961)Hello and Goodbye (1965)The Coat (1966)People are Living There (1968)Boesman and Lena (1969)Orestes (1971)Statements after an Arrest under the Immorality Act (1972)Sizwe Bansi is Dead (1972)The Island (1973)Drivers (1973 -Adapted from Mille Miglia by David Muir)Dimetos (1975)A Lesson from Aloes (1978)The Drummer (1980)"Master Harold" ... and the boys (1982)The Road to Mecca (1984)A Place with the Pigs (1988)My Children! My Africa! (1989)Playland (1992)(b)Film Scripts (other than adaptations of the plays):The Occupation (1968)The Guest (1977)Marigolds in August (1980)(c) Non-dramatic Works:Tsotsi (1980)Notebooks: 1960-1977 (1983)B. BOOKS:1. Brooks, Edgar H. Apartheid: A Documentary Study of Modern South Africa. Routledge& Kegan Paul, London. 1968.2. Gray, Stephen (ed.). Athol Fugard. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Johannesburg. 1982.[Essays and Interviews]3. Orkin, Martin. Drama and the South African State. Manchester University Press,Manchester. 1991.4. Seidenspinner, Margarete. Exploring the Labyrinth: Athol Fugard's Approach to SouthAfrican Drama. Essen: Verlag Die Blaue Eule, Germany. 1986.5. Vandenbroucke, Russell. Truths The Hand Can Touch: The Theatre of Athol Fugard.Theatre Communications Group, New York. 1985.6. Welder, Dennis. Athol Fugard. Modern Dramatists Series. Macmillan Publishers Ltd.,London. 1984.7. . Selected Plays of Fugard. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 1987.C. ARTICLES:1. Benson, Mary. "Athol Fugard and "One Little Corner of the World" " in Yale/Theatre,Vol.4, No.1. Yale School of Drama, New Haven. Winter 1973. pp.55-62.2. Durbach, Errol. " "Master Harold" ... and the boys: Athol Fugard and thePsychopathology of Apartheid" in Modern Drama, Vol.30, No.4. University ofToronto Press, Toronto. 1987. pp.505-513.3. Green, Robert J. "Politics and Literature in Africa: The Drama of Athol Fugard" inChristopher Heywood (ed.). Aspects of South African Literature. AfricanaPublishing, New York. 1976. pp.163-173.4. Jeyifo, Biodun. "The Reductive 'Two-Hander' Dramaturgy of Athol Fugard: Aspects ofthe Art and Society Dialectic" in Biodun Jeyifo. The Truthful Lie: Essays in aSociology of African Drama. Villiers Publications Ltd., London. 1985. pp.98-104.5. Maclennan, Don. "Athol Fugard and Don Maclennan: A Conversation" in English inAfrica, Vol.9, No.2. Institute for the Study of English, Rhodes University,Grahamstown, South Africa. 1982. pp.1-11.6. McKay, Kim. "The Blood Knot Reborn in the Eighties: A Reflection of the Artist and hisTimes" in Modern Drama, Vol.30, No.4. pp.496-504.647. Mshengu (Robert Macleran or Kavanagh). "Political Theatre in South Africa and theWork of Athol Fugard" in Theatre Research International, Vol. VII, No.3. OxfordUniversity Press, Oxford. 1982. pp.160-179.8. Munro, Margaret. "Some Aspects of Visual Codes in Fugard" in English in Africa, Vol.9,No.2. 1982. pp.13-25.9. Roberts, Sheila. " "No Lessons Learnt": Reading the Texts of Fugard's A Lesson fromAloes and "Master Harold" ... and the boys." in English in Africa, Vol.9, No.2. 1982.pp.27-33.10.Staden, Heinrich von. "An Interview with Athol Fugard" in Theatre (Yale), Vol.14, No.1.Yale School of Drama, New Haven. Winter 1982. pp.41-46.11.Vandenbroucke, Russell. "In Dialogue with Himself: Athol Fugard's Notebooks" inTheatre (Yale), Vol.16, No.1, Fall/Winter 1984. pp.43-48.12.Wortham, Chris. "A Sense of Place: Home and Homelessness in the Plays of AtholFugard" in Malvern Van Wyk Smith and Don Maclennan (ed.). Olive Schreiner AndAfter: Essays on Southern African Literature. David Philip, Publisher (Pty) Ltd.,Cape Town. 1983. pp.163-183.65


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