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African rural-urban migration a decision making perspective Bartle, Philip F. W. 1971

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AFRICAN RURAL URBAN MIGRATION A DECISION MAKING PERSPECTIVE  by PHILIP F. W. BARTLE B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department of A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J a n u a r y , 1971  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the L i b r a r y  shall  I  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  this  written  thesis at  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  it  It  permission.  Depa r t m e n t  Date  Columbia  j Jlf>,& (jp  the  requirements  B r i t i s h Columbia, for  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying of  this  shall  that  not  copying  or  for  that  study. thesis  by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  is understood  financial gain  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  of  for extensive  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d  for  fulfilment of  freely available  that permission  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  ABSTRACT  Rural-urban nomenon.  m i g r a t i o n i s fundamentally  a demographic phe-  I t s h o u l d be a l s o open t o a n a l y s i s a t t h e l e v e l o f  indivi-  d u a l d e c i s i o n making as w e l l as the demographic l e v e l so common i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  The  i n d i v i d u a l a c t s or operates w i t h i n a  and p h y s i c a l environment. a b l e t o him c o n c e r n i n g  social  He p e r c e i v e s some of the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l -  the v a r i o u s dimensions of h i s environment.  He a c t s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o h i s p e r c e p t i o n and h i s m a n i p u l a t i o n of t h a t information. An o b s e r v e r cannot d i r e c t l y p e r c e i v e the p r o c e s s o f a West A f r i c a n making d e c i s i o n s . w h i c h may  However he c o u l d note r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n  be a v a i l a b l e to a m i g r a n t .  the migrant's  actions.  The o b s e r v e r  could then note  From t h e s e two s e t s of d a t a the  observer  might s u r m i s e about t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . might be c a l l e d the I n f o r m a t i o n - d e c i s i o n - a c t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e .  This From  t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e of the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l a s e t o f axioms can be cons t r u c t e d t o g e n e r a t e a number of hypotheses c o n c e r n i n g  migration.  A v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e on r u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n i n A f r i c a , p l u s some from o t h e r g e o g r a p h i c a r e a s f o r c o m p a r i s o n , i s examined w i t h r e s p e c t to t h e hypotheses g e n e r a t e d .  As most of the d a t a r e f e r  t o o v e r a l l movements, a c e r t a i n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the d a t a i s r e q u i r e d t o make them u s e f u l t o the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l of a n a l y s i s attempted i n t h i s t h e s i s .  Most of the s o u r c e d a t a s u p p o r t  the f o u r  ii  (Abstract)  c a t e g o r i e s o f hypotheses I have developed b u t a few n o t a b l e provide a u s e f u l reexamination  exceptions  o f t h e f o r m a l approach o f t h i s  thesis.  A f t e r o u t l i n i n g t h e p e r s p e c t i v e and a p p l y i n g i t t o m i g r a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e I t u r n e d t o study a l o c a l i s e d s e t t i n g i n West A f r i c a . ethnographic  environment o f Kwawu m i g r a n t s  data and p e r s o n a l r e c o l l e c t i o n .  The  i s d e s c r i b e d from census  The s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l environments  o f t h e Kwawu t r a d i t i o n a l a r e a and o f A c c r a , t h e c a p i t a l c i t y t o w h i c h most Kwawu m i g r a t e * thetical individual.  a r e d e s c r i b e d as i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o a hypoT h i s i s f o l l o w e d by a n example o f a p a r t i c u l a r  individual i na transitory state.  The a g g r e g a t e data r e l a t e d t o t h e  d i f f e r e n t i a l m i g r a t i o n o f Kwawu a r e examined and a  demonstration  model i s g e n e r a t e d from t h e I n f o r m a t i o n - d e c i s i o n - a c t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e t o i n d i c a t e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h i s approach i s p r e d i c t i v e . The  i n d i v i d u a l ' s d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s , o r I n f o r m a t i o n -  d e c i s i o n - a c t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e i s o u t l i n e d i n Chapter One and i s r e l a t e d i n Chapter Two t o r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e .  C h a p t e r s T h r e e , F o u r , and  F i v e p a r a l l e l t h e I n f o r m a t i o n - d e c i s i o n - a c t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e ; Chapter Three d e a l s w i t h Kwawu e t h n o g r a p h i c  i n f o r m a t i o n ; Chapter Four i s a  d e s c r i p t i o n o f one Kwawu i n d i v i d u a l ' s d e c i s i o n s ; and Chapter F i v e r e l a t e s the r e s u l t i n g a c t i o n s o f Kwawu m i g r a n t s .  The problems o f  r e l a t i n g aggregate data t o i n d i v i d u a l experiences  and t h e problems  o f i n t e g r a t i n g p e r s o n a l and l i b r a r y s o u r c e s b r i e f l y examined i n a s.ummary c h a p t e r .  of information are  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  i  Table o f Contents  i i i  L i s t o f Diagrams  v i i  L i s t of Tables  viii  L i s t o f Maps  ix  Introduction  1  U r b a n i z a t i o n and R u r a l - U r b a n M i g r a t i o n  1  Importance o f M i g r a t i o n t o Urban Growth  2  Causes o f R u r a l - U r b a n M i g r a t i o n  4  Economic F a c t o r s i n D e c i s i o n s  8  CHAPTER ONE The F o r m a l P e r s p e c t i v e  14  The I n d i v i d u a l  14  Information-Decision-Action  16  A Symbolic Shorthand  17  Needs and O b l i g a t i o n s  20  R u r a l O r i g i n s o f Urban D e c i s i o n s  21  A l t e r n a t i v e Choices  24  V a r i a t i o n s i n Information  25  The E n v i r o n m e n t a l Context o f t h e I n d i v i d u a l Decision  27  iv  CHAPTER  TWO  The L i t e r a t u r e  33  C a t e g o r i e s of Causes  33  C a t e g o r i z i n g Source Data  36  C o s t s of Remaining  37  R e l i g i o n (Sub-hypothesis l.A)  37  E d u c a t i o n (Sub-hypotheses  38  l . B and I.C)  Modern C o s t s ( S u b - h y p o t h e s i s I.D)  39  P r o d u c t i v e Costs (Sub-hypothesis l . E )  40  E d u c a t i o n i n the L i t e r a t u r e ( S u b - h y p o t h e s i s l . B )  41  M i s f i t s ( S u b - h y p o t h e s i s I.C)  43  A f r i c a n Examples  46  New  48  Urban C o s t s i n the V i l l a g e ( S u b - h y p o t h e s i s I.D)  B e n e f i t s of M i g r a t i n g to a C i t y  50  I n f o r m a t i o n ( S u b - h y p o t h e s i s 2.A)  50  E d u c a t i o n ( S u b - h y p o t h e s i s 2.B)  54  Life Style Similarity  56  ( S u b - h y p o t h e s i s 2.C)  Wage O p p o r t u n i t i e s ( S u b - h y p o t h e s i s 2.D)  58  Non-Wage O p p o r t u n i t i e s ( S u b - h y p o t h e s i s 2.E)  63  B e n e f i t s of Remaining  66  B e n e f i t s of Harvest  67  B e n e f i t s of Residence  67  S e c u r i t y as a B e n e f i t  68  Costs of M i g r a t i n g  70  T r a d i t i o n s and F a m i l y H i s t o r i e s o f R u r a l - U r b a n Migration  71  M i d d l e P l a c e s and C o s t s of R u r a l - U r b a n M i g r a t i o n  74  R u r a l T r a i n i n g and F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h Urban C o n d i t i o n s  74  C o n c l u s i o n s Drawn From the L i t e r a t u r e Survey  76  V  CHAPTER THREE Information  78  The E t h n o g r a p h i c  Environments o f a Kwawu M i g r a n t .  The R u r a l A r e a (Kwawu) Nkawkaw  86  Occupations  87  White C o l l a r  91  Agriculture  92  Blue C o l l a r  96  The Urban A r e a ( A c c r a ) The The  82  98  City  98  I.D.A. P e r s p e c t i v e Versus t h e E t h n o g r a p h i c  Information  106 CHAPTER FOUR  Decision  107  Kwaku t h e B l a c k s m i t h Some Notes on a P e r s o n a l H i s t o r y The  Individual  107  H i s Name  109  The  110  P e o p l e He Knows  His'Work  110  H i s Home  111  His Training  111  Kwaku and t h e I n f o r m a t i o n - D e c i s i o n - A c t i o n P e r s p e c t i v e  118  C o s t s o f Remaining  119  Benefits of Migrating  119  B e n e f i t s o f Remaining  121  Costs o f M i g r a t i n g  121  The F i t o f t h e Model  122  vi  CHAPTER FIVE Action  124  Where t o Go? Kwawu Net M i g r a t i o n P a t t e r n s :  a D e m o n s t r a t i o n Model  124  Dis tance  136  Familiarity  136  Urbanization  138  The P r e d i c t i v e Index  140  Improving t h e P r e d i c t i v e Model  143  CHAPTER SIX M e t h o d o l o g i c a l Note  145  Relevance of the P e r s p e c t i v e Sources o f Data and T h e i r I n t e r p r e t a t i o n  145  Appendices  149  References  151  vii  LIST OF  DIAGRAMS  1  Schematic View of D e c i s i o n P r o c e s s  19  2  Three Fundamental F a c e t s  22-23  3  Expected S c a t t e r g r a m A s s o c i a t i o n s  133  4  C a t e g o r i z a t i o n of Spoken Kwawu  137  of the I.D.A. P e r s p e c t i v e  viii  LIST OF TABLES  1  I n c r e a s e i n Urban P o p u l a t i o n i n Ghana:  1921-1960  2  Nkawkaw (Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) 1960  3  Income D i s t r i b u t i o n i n R e l a t i o n t o Neighborhood  4  Comparison o f C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e P o p u l a t i o n of Ghana and t h a t o f t h r e e L a r g e s t Towns 1960  2 88 101  103  5  D i f f e r e n t i a l Access to S c h o o l i n g by T r i b e , A c c r a 1954  105  6  R e g i o n a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Kwawu i n Ghana  126  7  Index o f Kwawu M i g r a t i o n i n Ghana A g a i n s t S e l e c t e d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Ghanaian Census Enumeration Areas  8  (Correlations)  Kwawu M i g r a t i o n R e l a t e d Migration  9  132 to Inverse of D i s t a n c e o f  (Regression)  Kwawu M i g r a t i o n R e l a t e d t o S o c i o - C u l t u r a l S i m i l a r i t y (Regression)  10  135  139  Kwawu M i g r a t i o n R e l a t e d t o Ghanaian U r b a n i z a t i o n (Regression)  142  ix  LIST OF MAPS  1  Census Map o f L o c a l A u t h o r i t i e s  78  2.  S o u t h e r n Ghana (Showing Major Kwawu V i l l a g e s )  81  3  Predominant T r i b e i n t h e A r e a (Ghana)  97  4  S k e t c h o f t h e Kwahu T r a d i t i o n a l A r e a  112  5  V i l l a g e s i n t h e Kwahu A r e a  114  6  G e o g r a p h i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Urban D e n s i t y (Ghana)  141  Acknowledgement  I am g r a t e f u l to t h e f o l l o w i n g persons f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e , w i t h o u t w h i c h I c o u l d not have produced t h i s t h e s i s .  Mr. Mumtaz A h k t a r ,  Mr. Kwame Appah, Nana K o f i B e d i a k o , Dr. C y r i l Belshaw, Mr. P e t e r Boateng, Mr. A p p l e B u t t e r , Dr. Raymond F i r t h , M i s s Donna G r a d i n , Dr. George Gray, Mrs. V e r o n i c a H a t c h , Dr. H a r r y B. Hawthorn, F r . Clement H o t z e , Dr. H e l g a J a c o b s o n , Mrs. M a i r i J o r g e n s o n , Mr. P h i l Lange, Mrs. Daryn L e w i s , Mrs. G a l e L e P i t r e , Dr. M a r t i n M e i s s n e r , Mr. A l b e r t O f o s u - A s i e d u , M i s s Dorothy P i p e r , Mr. Robert P o k r a n t , Dr. R o b i n R i d i n g t o n , Mrs. J o a n S e l b y , Mr. George Sodah Ayenor, M i s s Susanne S t o r i e , M i s s Sharon S u t h e r l a n d , Mr. V i c t o r U j i m o t o , Dr. W i l l i a m E. W i l l m o t t , Dr. George W i n t e r , and S r . P a t r i c i a Wiesner.  They a r e i n no way  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r my  errors.  INTRODUCTION  The I n d i v i d u a l O p e r a t i n g W i t h i n Systems  R u r a l D e c i s i o n s and Urban M i g r a n t s  1  (Introduction)  T h i s p r o c e s s ( U r b a n i z a t i o n ) has s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t c h a r a c teristics: e c o n o m i c a l l y , the s t r u c t u r e of p r o d u c t i o n changes and an i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n of w o r k e r s a r e i n v o l v e d i n n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and have u n e q u a l a c c e s s t o economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; p o l i t i c a l l y , bureauc r a t i c machinery and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l a r e becoming more e x t e n s i v e ; l e g a l l y , c o n f l i c t i n g c l a i m s a r e e x p r e s s e d i n c o n t r a c t u a l r a t h e r t h a n i n s t a t u s arrangements. I n d u s t r i a l u r b a n i z a t i o n i s thus more than a s h i f t i n g of p e o p l e from c o u n t r y t o c i t y , from l a n d bound t o urban o c c u p a t i o n s , and more t h a n i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y and economic d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . I t e n t a i l s a l s o change i n d i s t r i b u t i o n of power, i n t e r e s t s , i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements, norms of c o n d u c t , and s o c i a l v a l u e s , and as a p a r t i c u l a r p r o c e s s of i n c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x i t y , c a n not be i s o l a t e d from the more g e n e r a l c o n t e x t of s o c i a l growth.  U r b a n i z a t i o n and R u r a l - U r b a n M i g r a t i o n Two  major f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e West A f r i c a ' s r a p i d urban growth.  F i r s t , the n a t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n growth r a t e has  increased i n recent  y e a r s as the a p p l i c a t i o n s of modern t e c h n o l o g y have l o w e r e d m o r t a l i t y and m o r b i d i t y but have not overcome an h i s t o r i c a l l y f u n c t i o n a l r e l u c t a n c e to lower b i r t h r a t e s . A f r i c a n urban i n c r e a s e .  Yet t h i s does not account f o r most West  Second, the urban p o p u l a t i o n i s i n c r e a s i n g  as a r e s u l t of m i g r a t i o n from r u r a l  areas.  T a b l e 1 i n d i c a t e s the r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n of Ghana where t h e p e r c e n t a g e of urban d w e l l e r s has i n c r e a s e d t o t a l population  1.  f r o m l e s s t h a n 8% of  the  to more t h a n 23% w i t h i n f o r t y y e a r s .  Kuper, H i l d a . U r b a n i z a t i o n and M i g r a t i o n i n West A f r i c a . v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , 1965, page 1.  Uni-  2  (Introduction)  TABLE 1 INCREASE I N URBAN POPULATION I N GHANA: 1921  1948  181,000  538,000  1,551,000  2,296,000  4,118,000  6,727,000  13.0%  23.1%  Urban* P o p u l a t i o n Rural Population % of P o p u l a t i o n i n urban areas  *  The  7.9%  D e f i n e d as " p e o p l e l i v i n g  Source:  Birmingham  Importance  1921-1960 1960  i n a r e a s o f o v e r 5,000  inhabitants".  et a l . (1966:192).  of M i g r a t i o n t o Urban Growth  Table 1 indicates c r e a s i n g more r a p i d l y  t h a t the Ghanaian  than i s the r u r a l .  urban p o p u l a t i o n i s i n -  That  this  increment i s ac-  c o u n t e d f o r more b y m i g r a t i o n t h a n b y n a t u r a l c a u s e s m i g h t b e c a t e d i n s e v e r a l ways.  F o r p r e s e n t p u r p o s e s , t h r e e s e t s o f demo-  graphic data are o f f e r e d i n support of t h i s tures,  fertility If  d i f f e r e n t i a l s , and  w e r e due  e x p e c t t o f i n d an age  t o m i g r a t i o n , h o w e v e r , he w o u l d  areas.  of employable  This second  age  struc-  birthplaces.  expect  to n a t u r a l  distribution  that found i n the r e s t of the country.  p r o p o r t i o n of persons rural  statement:  t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e u r b a n a r e a s w e r e due  t h e n a demographer would tent with  indi-  I f the  consis-  increase  to f i n d a g r e a t e r  ages i n the urban than i n t h e  demographic  s t r u c t u r e proves  t o be  causes,  the  3  (Introduction)  case. of  I n I960, 45% o f Ghana's t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n was under 15 y e a r s  age, b u t i n the urban c e n t r e s of Kumasi, S e k o n d i , and A c c r a , t h e  p r o p o r t i o n s of c h i l d r e n under 15 were 42%, 40% and 39% r e s p e c t i v e l y (Birmingham, 1967:129, t a b l e 3.11).  F u r t h e r m o r e , assuming t h a t p e r -  sons of employable ages i n c l u d e d a l l t h o s e , and o n l y t h o s e , between the  ages of 15 and 44, t h e n the p e r c e n t a g e of such i n d i v i d u a l s  was  c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r i n the t h r e e major urban a r e a s t h a n i n the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n ; 51% i n each o f the t h r e e c i t i e s , but o n l y 43% i n Ghana as a whole (Birmingham, 1967:129, t a b l e 3.11). S i m i l a r i n d i c a t o r s can a l s o be found i n f e r t i l i t y  differ-  e n t i a l s measured by the r a t i o s o f c h i l d r e n under t h e age of f i v e p e r thousand women aged 15 t o 44.  The r a t i o f o r a l l o f Ghana i s 886 p e r  thousand, b u t i n urban c e n t r e s of o v e r 5,000 i t i s o n l y 816.  The  r a t i o f o r r u r a l Ghana i s 908, but i n Kumasi i t drops t o 827, i n T a k o r a d i t o 729, and i n A c c r a t o 769 (Birmingham, 1967:101, 2.18).  table  These f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e t h a t fewer c h i l d r e n a r e b o r n i n urban  than i n r u r a l areas.  Higher r u r a l b i r t h r a t e s i n d i c a t e t h a t higher  urban growth r a t e s a r e due t o m i g r a t i o n from r u r a l a r e a s t o urban areas. The t h i r d p i e c e o f demographic d a t a — —  that of b i r t h p l a c e  becomes s i g n i f i c a n t when i t i s seen s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h the f i r s t  two i n d i c a t o r s .  The 1960 census found t h a t 80% of Ghanaians  still  l i v e d i n t h e i r b i r t h p l a c e , but t h i s p i c t u r e of r e l a t i v e s t a b i l i t y i n the  c o u n t r y as a whole i s s h a r p l y upset when s e t a g a i n s t the f i n d i n g s  4  (Introduction)  w i t h i n p a r t i c u l a r towns.  F o r example, o n l y 51% of t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n  A c c r a r e p o r t i n g t o the census was b o r n i n t h e A c c r a r e g i o n .  The  p r o p o r t i o n f o r Sekondi and Kumasi was 6 6 % and 58% (Birmingham, 1967: 129, t a b l e 3.11), somewhat h i g h e r than t h a t o f A c c r a , but f a r below the n a t i o n a l f i g u r e . Complementing each o t h e r i n t h e i r f i n d i n g s , t h e s e  three  s i m p l e i n d i c a t o r s p o i n t t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t urban growth i n Ghana i s r a t h e r t h e r e s u l t o f m i g r a t i o n than of n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e .  Causes o f R u r a l - U r b a n  Migration  R u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n poses i n t e r e s t i n g problems t o b u s i n e s s men, p o l i t i c i a n s , s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , and t o t h e m i g r a n t s (Boque, 1959:491).  themselves  I t may be l o o k e d a t as a p r o c e s s and t h e p r o d u c t  of e c o l o g i c a l o r s o c i a l f o r c e s .  The i n t e n t i o n h e r e however, i s t o  examine t h e r u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n p r o c e s s from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e of how t h e s e f o r c e s a f f e c t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s d e c i s i o n about m i g r a t i o n . The m i g r a t i o n d e c i s i o n e q u a l l y i n c l u d e s t h e d e c i s i o n t o remain. When t h e f o c u s o f a study i s on t h e c i t y t h e m i g r a n t s come from a number of a r e a s .  a r e seen t o  When t h e f o c u s i s on a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a ,  where most such d e c i s i o n s a r e made, m i g r a n t s  a r e seen t o have c h o i c e s  o f a number o f p l a c e s t o go, a s w e l l as the c h o i c e t o n o t at  migrate  all. P e o p l e move from p l a c e A t o p l a c e B because they see d i f -  f e r e n c e s between p l a c e A and B, b u t a l s o because they see s i m i l a r i -  5  (Introduction)  ties.  The  choice  to migrate  due  t o p e r c e i v e d d i f f e r e n c e s may  s e e n as a c h o i c e t o m a x i m i s e b e n e f i t s . ted  to p e r c e i v e d s i m i l a r i t i e s  costs.  Migrants  move f r o m A  d i f f e r e n t but not but  not  may  t o be  choice to migrate  s e e n as a c h o i c e t o  t o B because they  too d i f f e r e n t :  so d i f f e r e n t  be  The  different  uncomfortably  be  see  in B  rela-  minimise something  enough to w a r r a n t  a move  alien.  T h e r e h a v e b e e n a number o f p u b l i s h e d s t u d i e s o f W e s t African urbanization. l e v e l explanations  These have g i v e n t h r e e c l a s s e s of  f o r demographic changes:  t i v e i n c l u d i n g c o l o n i a l and p e r s p e c t i v e of a d a p t i n g cum  a diffusionist  m e t r o p o l i t a n i n f l u e n c e ; an  perspec-  evolutionary  t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s ; or geographic,  ecological explanations.  result  "macro"-  The  first  economic  s e e s town g r o w t h as b e i n g  of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s i n c l u d i n g c i v i c c e n t e r s  trans-  p l a n t e d f r o m c o l o n i a l m e t r o p o l i s e s w h i c h a r e e a g e r l y s o u g h t by r u r a l n a t i v e s who  rush  to f i l l  the e x p l a n a t i o n s of Auger's of Obuasi, Gamble's  Ghana, Crowder  (1964) s t u d y  The  This p e r s p e c t i v e permeates  (1968),  Denis  (1966),  (1966) (1967),  (1967).  s e c o n d "macro" l e v e l p e r s p e c t i v e f i n d s i t s r o o t s forms o f i t , and  from u r b a n i z a t i o n , stem from t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s .  a p p r o a c h can be  study  (1967),  (1968) E t h i o p i a n s t u d y , Karmon  the i d e a t h a t u r b a n i z a t i o n , or p a r t i c u l a r arising  Epstein  o f Kenema, S i e r r a L e o n e , G u l l i v e r ' s  Zaremba  the  ( 1 9 6 8 ) Congo s t u d y , Ampene's ( 1 9 6 6 )  South A f r i c a study, Horvath's Ransom ( 1 9 6 5 ) a n d  the town.  a  used s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h the f i r s t  view.  in  structures This Traditional  6  (Introduction)  forms of u r b a n i z i n g o r of r u r a l urban m i g r a t i o n have been v a r i o u s l y described:  by A k i n o l a (1967) who sees l i t t l e c l e a r - c u t d i f f e r e n c e  between r u r a l and urban Yoruba, by Bascom (1959) who a l s o r e f e r s t o Yoruba u r b a n i z a t i o n , by G l e a v e (1966) who sees t r a d i t i o n a l  hill  s e t t l e m e n t s adapted t o town l i v i n g a f t e r the Europeans imposed peace, by Cohen (1969) who  d i s c u s s e d Hausa t r a d i t i o n s i n Yoruba  towns, by Mabogunge, (1962, 1968) who  s u g g e s t s t h a t some t r a d i t i o n a l  urban forms a r e d y s f u n c t i o n a l i n t h a t they may be " p a r a s i t i c " urban growth, by N z i m i r u  (1965) who r e p o r t s t h a t Igbo urban m i g r a t i o n i s ,  among o t h e r t h i n g s , due t o Igbo " p r o g r e s s i v e n e s s " , by S i d d l e (1968) who,  l i k e G l e a v e , t r a c e s S i e r r a Leone war town p a t t e r n s t o town  ing,  by Udo  (1967) who d e s c r i b e s t h r e e c e n t u r i e s of C a l a b a r  by Van V e l s o n who  liv-  history,  sees Tonga m i g r a t i o n as a c o n t i n u i t y f a c t o r , by  Zaremba (1964) who d e s c r i b e s t r a d i t i o n a l c i t i e s such as Kano, Ibadan, and Kumasi, and by Henderson (1966) who compares urban E f i k and Igbo. T r a d i t i o n a l u r b a n i z a t i o n as a f o c u s of a n a l y s i s l e a d s t o two more c o n c e r n s : cyclical  m i g r a t i o n i t s e l f as a t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , and  ( r u r a l - u r b a n - r u r a l ) m i g r a t i o n w i t h concomitant dual r o l e  individuals. examples:  Barbour (1965) p r o v i d e s f o u r r u r a l - r u r a l m i g r a t i o n  Moslem p i l g r i m s from West A f r i c a who s e t t l e d i n the Sudan;  ' M a i l o ' w o r k e r s a t t r a c t e d to Buganda; Western movements of Akuapem cocoa f a r m e r s i n Ghana; and Southbound I g b i r a m i g r a t i o n s i n N i g e r i a . Nzimiro  (1965) mentions Igbo f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y m i g r a t i o n s of p e o p l e  i n s e a r c h of l a n d and freedom from t h e B e n i n Obas.  Oppong (1967)  7  (Introduction)  a n a l y s e s d i f f e r e n t i a l m i g r a t i o n p a t t e r n s i n two k i n d s of N o r t h e r n Ghanaian  communities,  where t h e r e may  be c e n t r a l i s e d p o l i t i c a l  sys-  tems w i t h h i g h l o c a l male m i g r a t i o n and acephalous communities  with  exogamous p a t r i c i a n s h a v i n g female movement a t m a r r i a g e . (1967) notes the e x t e n t of c y c l i c m i g r a t i o n comparing A f r i c a n , and suggests methods of e x a m i n a t i o n . ines d i f f e r e n t Elkan  Alverson  European  and  Ampene (1967) exam-  types of c y c l i c m i g r a t i o n and r e l a t e s i t t o home t i e s .  (1968) r e l a t e s c y c l i c m i g r a t i o n to town growth i n E a s t A f r i c a .  Gutkind  (1965) i n d i c a t e s how  Mayer (1962,  1965)  c y c l i c m i g r a t i o n shapes urban  d i s c u s s e s townsmen who  "continue t h i n k i n g of the  h i n t e r l a n d . . . a s t h e i r permanent home," and G u l l i v e r c y c l i c migration i s functional i n r u r a l  networks.  (1957) shows  society.  E x p l a n a t i o n s which examine s o c i e t a l needs and r e l a t e h a v i o r to the environment's  how  be-  c a p a b i l i t y to s a t i s f y these needs a r e  c l a s s e d as e c o n o m i c - e c o l o g i c a l . T h i s i s the approach i n Acquah's (1958) study of A c c r a . Badouin  Apthorpe  (1958), Armstrong  (1966), E l k a n (1960), Forde  (1965), Kuper  and McGee (1968),  (1967), Gaveh (1961), G u t k i n d  (1965), Moses (1967), and V i l l i e n - R o s s i  (1966) a l l  r e f e r to economic d e c i s i o n s and geographic c o n s t r a i n t s . t h i s , Badouin  (1966), D e s c l o i t r e s  Further to  (1965) and Gluckman see these con-  s t r a i n t s as a form of t e c h n i c a l determinism, where t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes r e s u l t  i n s o c i a l changes.  A l t h o u g h Badouin r e f e r s to psycho-  l o g i c a l f a c t o r s o n l y Imoagene (1967) s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r s to need d i s p o s i t i o n s a p a r t from o b j e c t i v e economic d e t e r m i n a n t s .  Caldwell  8  (Introduction)  (1968) r e f e r s to a number of s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s from h i s study and  Guichard  a u t h o r s w i l l be  (1968) d r a f t s a t y p o l o g y  of seven f a c t o r s .  examined i n more d e t a i l i n Chapter Two,  i n the l i t e r a t u r e on A f r i c a n r u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n specifically  empirical  but  in  i s d e c i s i o n making  Decisions  Human a c t i o n s such as m i g r a t i o n  are often considered  have a p u r e l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l or economic or s o c i o l o g i c a l or  cal  L i k e w i s e i t a l l has  aspects.  An  A l l human a c t i o n has  political  e x c l u s i v e of any  political  i n d i v i d u a l ' s d e c i s i o n to m i g r a t e cannot be  other.  The  i n t o one  of t h e s e  attribu-  categories  d e c i s i o n i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l as i t i s done  by a human i n d i v i d u a l r e l a t i n g to some p s y c h i c I t has  a  economic, p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i -  t e d to a cause t h a t can be c l a s s i f i e d  self.  to  In f a c t , human a c t i o n i s the r e s u l t of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n of  a l l t h e s e causes ( B e i j e r , 1963). aspect.  nowhere  analysed.  Economic F a c t o r s  cause.  These  p r o c e s s w i t h i n him-  p o l i t i c a l a s p e c t s i n t h a t the d e c i s i o n a f f e c t s and  a f f e c t e d by aims and  expressions  of power by o t h e r humans.  f u t i l e to attempt to c a t a l o g u e m i g r a t i o n  d e c i s i o n s , and  Some w r i t e r s who  T h i s i s a f a l s e dichotomy.  i s more  action.  concern themselves w i t h m i g r a t i o n  A f r i c a d i v i d e reasons f o r m i g r a t i o n  It i s  then r e p o r t  t h a t economics i s more important t h a n s o c i o l o g y , or p o l i t i c s important than p s y c h o l o g y i n e x p l a i n i n g  is  i n t o economic and  in  non-economic.  A l l d e c i s i o n s , a n a l y t i c a l l y speaking,  are  9  (Introduction)  u l t i m a t e l y economic.  Economics i s concerned w i t h the p r o d u c t i o n and  a l l o c a t i o n of something c a l l e d w e a l t h , which i s s o c i a l l y h a v i n g a measure of u t i l i t y sometimes  and a measure of s c a r c i t y .  d e f i n e d as Wealth i s  thought of as c o n s i s t i n g of goods and s e r v i c e s , but  mately the v a l u e of a good i s i n the s e r v i c e i t p r o v i d e s .  ulti-  Writers  l e s s f a m i l i a r w i t h economics tend t o see as economic, o n l y t h a t which has a p r i c e t a g . p e o p l e who  T h i s i s an e t h n o c e n t r i c o v e r s i g h t on the p a r t of  a r e f a m i l i a r o n l y w i t h western systems of a l l o c a t i o n ,  which depend to a l a r g e extent on a medium o f exchange and a market system of r a t e f i x i n g .  In l a r g e s e c t o r s o f western s o c i e t i e s , and  i n many non-western s o c i e t i e s t h e r e i s a l l o c a t i o n of w e a l t h ( t h e r e f o r e economic a c t i v i t y ) not based on a market system, or even on a monetary medium of exchange.  D e c i s i o n s o f m i g r a t i o n a r e based on  the s a t i s f a c t i o n of d e s i r e s , or expected income, r e l a t e d to m i n i m i z a t i o n of d i s l i k e s ,  or lower c o s t s .  I n t h i s a n a l y t i c a l sense a l l  d e c i s i o n s have an economic d i m e n s i o n to them, whether or not they may  a l s o be c l a s s i f i e d as p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s o c i o l o g i c a l and so on. Gulliver  (1955:32) f o r example s e p a r a t e s " b r i g h t  reasons from economic, and s u g g e s t s t h a t most always t h e r e a l c a u s e . "  lights"  "economic n e c e s s i t y i s a l -  The p e r c e p t i o n , on the p a r t of t h e  i n d i v i d u a l , o f greener f i e l d s elsewhere, however i s no l e s s "economic" than what G u l l i v e r c l a s s e s as economic gardless, of how Mitchell  (e.g., wages), r e -  " r e a l " such p e r c e p t i o n i s as a cause f o r m i g r a t i o n .  (1959:32) makes a s i m i l a r dichotomy of economic f a c t o r s as  10  (Introduction)  a series of personal events which "triggers o f f his decision to go". He goes farther to suggest that personal rather than economic reasons operate independently of the "underlying f a c t o r s " which he says are "economic."  He distinguishes between incidence and rate of mi-  gration and suggests that personal considerations account for the incidence of r e a l urban migration while economic factors account for the rate of migration.  2 Gugler  (1969) takes up this economic/non-economic dicho-  tomy although he does not agree that non-economic factors should be lumped together. anything  He does not state e x p l i c i t l y that "economic" means  to do with money, f o r example, tax payment time as a time  to migrate (p. 143), but the assumption i s made covertly so that he does not even consider that decisions a f f e c t i n g the a l l o c a t i o n of scarce resources  —  that i s , economic decisions —  what he c a l l s non-economic. economic factors.  are included i n  Later (p. 148), Gugler names some non-  He refers to Watson (1958:70) who reported that  older men directed their attention to positions of p o l i t i c a l importance within the r u r a l community.  Gugler suggests that t h i s mini-  mises p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n cash economy, which i s acceptable, but surely these are economic decisions.  He r e f e r s to Balandier  (1955:222)  who reports that the person who has " f l e d the v i l l a g e " — c a l l s this a non-economic migration decision — ties. 2.  and Gugler  weakens urban-rural  The prediction that an i n d i v i d u a l leaving a v i l l a g e due to  See Appendix 1.  11  (Introduction)  high personal i s not  c o s t s of o s t r a c i s m  d e n i e d , but  decision.  fleeing  Gugler r e p o r t s  does not  encourage o t h e r s  the v i l l a g e was that Garbett  the r e s u l t  of an  to  follow  economic  (1967:312) found t h a t men  in-  c a p a b l e of advancing t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n a t r a d i t i o n a l system tended to c o n t i n u e to work i n wage l a b o r f o r as l o n g as p o s s i b l e . data may  be  c o r r e c t but  to suggest t h a t r e s u l t a n t weakening of  urban t i e s i s non-economic i s f a u l t y because members of h i g h  analysis.  not  economic (p. 148).  m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the term economic. i n economic dimension.  t a r y terms:  personal  satisfaction  connections  This indicates a  t i e s have both a  relatively useful.  of p l e a s i n g a god  to d i s c o v e r  I t i s not  social  which i s consumed, which Wealth i n c l u d e s  or an e l d e r i n the  whether time, money, or l a b o r i s spent oh the p r o d u c t i o n satisfaction.  that  Income i s not measured i n t o t a l l y mone-  income c o n s i s t s of a n y t h i n g  i s r e l a t i v e l y s c a r c e , and  The  rural-  Gugler suggests  income groups m a i n t a i n v i l l a g e  such t i e s a r e s o c i a l and  and  Garbett's  of  the  family that  s u r p r i s i n g , i n terms of economic a n a l y s i s ,  t h a t urban r e s i d e n t s who  d e s i r e and  can a f f o r d to main-  t a i n l i n k s w i t h the v i l l a g e i n what Gugler c a l l s 'non-economic" a c :  tivity.  Gugler concludes  (p. 155)  by  saying  t h a t economic f a c t o r s  a r e more important than non-economic f a c t o r s i n c a u s i n g migration  and  rural-urban  an aggregate l a b o r f u n c t i o n t a k i n g economic and  economic f a c t o r s i n t o account can be a n a l y s i s i s not d e n i e d , so long as monetary-exchange-economic:  constructed.  His  "economic" i s read  non-  further to mean wage-  12  (Introduction)  Among the causes both of rural-urban migration and of the maintenance of urban-rural ties economic factors are of major importance. Analysis has, however, to include non-economic factors. Empirically these are more important i n the case of urban-rural ties. An aggregate labour supply function taking economic and non-economic factors into account can be established. Under present-day conditions i n Subsaharan Africa i t can at no stage be expected to be backwardsloping. The incidence of rural-urban migration and of urbanrural ties i s determined by the differential impact of collective forces on different individuals. Personal history determines which individual has at a given point in time the characteristics that are socially determined to lead to departure to the town or to return to a rural home. Where a pattern, be i t of rural-urban migration or of the maintenance of urban-rural ties, is established i n a given society i t often receives normative support, and the frequency of deviance i s thus reduced. In the case of rural-urban migration, data are available to show that such norms disappear rapidly once economic conditions have changed. (Gugler, 1969:155) There is a danger i n categorizing causes of activity into economic and non-economic. A l l decisions to migrate are decisions affecting the allocation of scarce and useful incomes and as such are economic.  The insistence of a consistent use of the word  economic i s not simply an exercise in pedantry.  The implication  that economic refers only to wage income implies that cultures without money lack economics, yet they do produce and allocate wealth. The assumption may further suggest that non-western i s equivalent to non-economic and possibly non-rational as economy is concerned with allocation decisions.  Further, i f this false dichotomy i s  (Introduction)  13  p e r s u e d t o t h e p o i n t where economic f a c t o r s a r e s a i d t o be more import a n t i n r u r a l urban m i g r a t i o n t h e n i t might be supposed t h a t  there  was no u r b a n i z a t i o n o r r u r a l urban m i g r a t i o n w i t h o u t  (read  economy  "money" i n s t e a d o f "economy"). T h i s i s t h e a s s u m p t i o n i n s o many s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h t a l k about " t h e impact o f t h e money economy...." This s e r i o u s l y departs  from t h e e m p i r i c a l a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a  indi-  c a t i n g e x t e n s i v e non-western u r b a n i z a t i o n i n West A f r i c a and C e n t r a l America.  Economics, and economic d e c i s i o n s a r e n o t equated w i t h  markets and money d e c i s i o n s .  M i g r a t i o n d e c i s i o n s , as a l l a l l o c a -  t i o n d e c i s i o n s , a r e made w i t h r e s p e c t to a combined m a x i m i z a t i o n  of  e x p e c t e d p e r s o n a l g r a t i f i c a t i o n and m i n i m i z a t i o n o f e x p e c t e d p e r sonal d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n .  To u n d e r s t a n d m i g r a t i o n t h e n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y  t o i n c l u d e an e x a m i n a t i o n o f d e c i s i o n making from t h e i n d i v i d u a l perspective.  CHAPTER ONE  The Formal  Information  Perspective  Decision Action  Weighing Costs and B e n e f i t s The C h o i c e :  Go o r No-Go  14  (The F o r m a l P e r s p e c t i v e )  I t seems, t h e n , t h a t the study of a t o w n - p l u s - h i n t e r l a n d f i e l d , w i t h i t s c i r c u l a t i n g p e r s o n n e l , cannot w e l l hope to p r o c e e d as the a n a l y s i s of "a s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , " and t h a t the quest f o r an a l t e r n a t i v e method o f approach would be j u s t i f i e d . A r e a s o n a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e method, i t i s here s u g g e s t e d , would be to b e g i n a t the study of the m i g r a n t persons t h e m s e l v e s , by mapping out t h e i r networks of r e l a t i o n s from the p e r s o n a l or e g o c e n t r i c p o i n t o f v i e w , as w e l l as n o t i n g t h e i r p a r t s i n the v a r i o u s s t r u c t u r a l systems.^  The I n d i v i d u a l In attempting  to employ Mayer's " r e a s o n a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e  method" t h e l a c k of p r i m a r y  data p r o v i d e s a s e r i o u s o b s t a c l e .  There  i s v e r y l i t t l e o b s e r v a t i o n w r i t t e n about an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s u b j e c t i v e m o t i v e s r e l e v a n t to West A f r i c a n r u r a l urban m i g r a t i o n .  I t i s pos-  s i b l e however, to f o r m u l a t e a p e r s p e c t i v e and examine secondary d a t a , c o l l e c t e d f o r r e a s o n s o t h e r t h a n to emphasize the i n d i v i d u a l . t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e a model can be c o n s t r u c t e d on w h i c h one may  From generate  hypotheses to be used to i l l u m i n a t e l i t e r a t u r e p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e . The  i n d i v i d u a l cannot be viewed as a c t i n g w h o l l y  d e n t l y of s o c i a l processes.  R a t h e r , he o p e r a t e s w i t h i n , and h i s  a c t i o n s r e l a t e t o , such processes manner.  Confronted  i n a s i g n i f i c a n t and  by c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n —  p r o p o s i t i o n s , o r , even, s u p p o s i t i o n s —  1.  indepen-  observable  be i t f a c t s , t h e o r i e s ,  he e v a l u a t e s , w e i g h s , a r r i v e s  P h i l i p Mayer, "Migrancy and the Study of A f r i c a n s i n Towns", A m e r i c a n A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , V o l . 64, 1962, p. 579. Reprinted i n A f r i c a ; S o c i a l Problems of Change and C o n f l i c t , r e a d i n g s s e l e c t e d and e d i t e d by P i e r r e L. Van Den Berghe, C h a n d l e r , San F r a n c i s c o , 1965.  (The  15  Formal P e r s p e c t i v e )  a t a judgment and tive conflicts. quent a c t i o n .  makes a c h o i c e r e s o l v i n g both s u b j e c t i v e and  objec-  From t h i s c h o i c e he moves to h i s d e c i s i o n and  subse-  While the i n t e r n a l , s u b j e c t i v e workings of an  dual's d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a r e n e i t h e r the  information  noted.  By a s c e r t a i n i n g  i n d i v i d u a l and servations may  be  a v a i l a b l e to him,  noting  regarding  inferred.  the  the the  Let  and  the a c t i o n he  "input" or information  i n t e r m e d i a t e stage —  Perspective,  or the  c a l l e d the  I.D.A.  T h i s may  be  a c c r u e to h i s d e c i s i o n .  and  status,  the  include  happiness w i t h i n  the  and  p l e a s u r e and  the  decision-  explanatory,  expects  a r e meant to  an income adequate  they a l s o i n c l u d e such i n -  the  g i v i n g and  of f a m i l y  unaesthetic  foregone l e i s u r e .  costs  l e i s u r e to enjoy and  circle  —  d e m e r i t s , not merely mone-  and  d e t r i m e n t s measured i n monied terms, but,  f a t i g u e , l a c k of s t a t u s ,  as an  certainly include  b e a u t i f u l sunset o r a h i g h l i f e c o n c e r t , l o v e and  of  opposing c o s t s he  to support a s a t i s f a c t o r y l i f e - s t y l e , but as p r e s t i g e ,  ob-  a l t e r n a t i v e s , the i n d i v i d u a l  Here, b e n e f i t s  Benefits  the  device.  complement of c r e d i t s and  t a r y betterment or l o s s .  tangibles  a v a i l a b l e to  the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  used f i r s t  In making a c h o i c e between two weighs i n f i n e b a l a n c e the b e n e f i t s  be  Information-Decision-Action  l a t e r developed i n t o a p r e d i c t i v e  comprise a f u l l  takes, can  t h i s t h r e e f o l d view or p e r s p e c t i v e  i n d i v i d u a l be  will  measurable, b o t h  "output" or r e s u l t i n g a c t i o n , some  making i n an  and  o b s e r v a b l e nor  indivi-  home and  value a receiving  friends. also,  of  Costs  loneliness,  view, foregone  A s u b s t a n t i v i s t economist,  trained  16  (The F o r m a l P e r s p e c t i v e )  i n a c u l t u r e emphasizing t h e market v a l u e o f b e n e f i t s and c o s t s , m i g h t o v e r l o o k more nebulous f a c t o r s .  Not so a Ghananian or any i n d i v i d u a l  i n h e r i t i n g a t o t a l and i n t e g r a t e d approach t o v a l u e s when f a c e d w i t h a p e r s o n a l c h o i c e between v i l l a g e and c i t y .  Information-Decision-Action The  s i m p l e s t I n f o r m a t i o n - d e c i s i o n - a c t i o n model t o employ  would r e l a t e t o an i n d i v i d u a l l i v i n g i n a r u r a l a r e a and p r e s e n t e d w i t h the c h o i c e o f m i g r a t i n g t o o n l y one urban c e n t r e . have o n l y f o u r b a s i c f a c t o r s t o c o n s i d e r :  He would  the b e n e f i t s of migrating,  the c o s t s o f m i g r a t i n g , t h e b e n e f i t s o f r e m a i n i n g ,  and t h e c o s t s o f  remaining.  The i n t e r a c t i o n and r e l a t i v i t y o f t h e s e f o u r f a c t o r s a r e  important.  The i n d i v i d u a l would choose t o m i g r a t e i f t h e  b e n e f i t s o f moving t o t h e c i t y p r e s e n t e d of the other t h r e e .  a g a i n over t h e t o t a l sum  I f t h e two h a l v e s o f t h e e q u a t i o n appeared e q u a l ,  however, and t h e i n d i v i d u a l were caught i n a s t a t e o f i n d e c i s i o n , a r i s e i n any one o f t h e f a c t o r s r e l a t i v e t o t h e o t h e r t h r e e might r e s o l v e t h e dilemma.  F o r example, new i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g  t h e bene-  f i t s o f m i g r a t i o n would t r i g g e r a d e c i s i o n i n f a v o u r o f g o i n g  provided  t h a t t h e o t h e r t h r e e remained c o n s t a n t r e l a t i v e t o t h e new i n f o r m a tion.  Conversely,  t h e d e c i s i o n t o remain i n the r u r a l a r e a would  be s u b j e c t t o t h e same r e l a t i v i t y and m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e p l u s and minus q u a l i t i e s o f t h e f o u r b a s i c f a c t o r s .  An i n d i v i d u a l  presented  w i t h h i g h e r b e n e f i t s a t t a c h e d t o m i g r a t i o n r e l a t i v e to r e m a i n i n g ,  (The Formal P e r s p e c t i v e )  17  might s t i l l r e m a i n i f the c o s t s of m i g r a t i n g were v e r y much h i g h e r the c o s t s of r e m a i n i n g .  A l l four factors  arV  than  calculated simul-  taneously .  A S y m b o l i c Shorthand  A l l of t h e s e f a c t o r s c o n s i s t o f a g g r e g a t i o n s . u s i n g money as the measure, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to w e i g h t h e i m p o r t a n c e of each b e n e f i t and, each c o s t . own  Without relative  Each i n d i v i d u a l g i v e s h i s  d i f f e r i n g e v a l u a t i o n * to each f a c t o r , but the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  t h e f o u r remains t h e same.  For t h e sake of c l a r i t y a v e r y  mathematical formula i s o f f e r e d .  elementary  I t does not m a t t e r w h i c h of t h e f o u r  f a c t o r s i s d i v i d e d , added or s u b t r a c t e d , the most i m p o r t a n t  t h i n g to  n o t e i s t h a t the c h o i c e i n v o l v e s the magnitude of the f o u r f a c t o r s r e l a t i v e to each o t h e r .  The  i n d i v i d u a l must d e c i d e whether the oppor-  t u n i t y of g o i n g to a cinema i s w o r t h the n o i s e o f T h i s may vity.  be r e p r e s e n t e d  Examine Diagram One.  lorries.  s y m b o l i c a l l y f o r the sake of  bre-  L e t C be the a g g r e g a t e of c o s t s w h i c h  an i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s as a c c r u i n g to a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n . then be the c o s t s of r e m a i n i n g  i n a v i l l a g e , and  m i g r a t i n g t o , and l i v i n g i n a c i t y .  Let  C  v  be the c o s t s of  L e t B be the a g g r e g a t e of bene-  f i t s w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l r e g a r d s as a c c r u i n g to a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n . Let B  v  t h e n be the b e n e f i t s of r e m a i n i n g  i n a v i l l a g e , and B  b e n e f i t s of m i g r a t i n g t o , and l i v i n g i n , a c i t y .  c  be  the  (The F o r m a l  The r a t i o the b e n e f i t s B /C c  of  will  c  and  basic  the  that  that  costs  remaining  are  are  rising  Given only  one  city  supposes is  t h e sum o f  remaining  less  visualised to  go  or  rising  a  with a  simple  not  go:  of  —  C  _  c  the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l  If  D is  negative  or  zero r e s u l t resulting  The i n d i v i d u a l go  if:  D>  0  ratio  the  and  costs  ratio a  decrease  benefits.  to  go w i l l  costs  means  all  result  and a l s o This  the  greater may b e  the  than more the  v v  choose  four  i n a non-choice  to m i g r a t e choose  factors or  to  to  the  He d e c i d e s  D <  in  equalize or  a non-decision  remain  city.  remain  is. decides  if  e q u a t i o n where D i s  zero the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l  s t a y s w h e r e he  to  S"B *=-  positive  individual  to  to  remaining.  >C  D is  each o t h e r ,  costs;  mathematical  If  gate  relative  than i t s  the costs  >  A  in  decision  • sc S B c  the v i l l a g e .  The  An i n c r e a s e  relative  greater  u  in a village.  between  t o w h i c h a n i n d i v i d u a l may m i g r a t e ,  that  to  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between the b e n e f i t s  in a city.  benefits  migrating  decision  of  represent  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  of  easily  will  v  costs  hypothesis  benefit  v  to and l i v i n g  indicates  indicates  B /C  represent  migrating  B/C  18  Perspective)  if:  0  to  —  nethe  19  Diagram 1  SCHEMAT/C V/EW OF DEC/S/OA/ PROCESS  ABOUT  I  <r~X  THE  ~*ABOUT THE  J  COSTS  /A/COME OR  OR  OUTLAY  SEA/EF/TS  i  i i ' i i  B B B 8  A  G  G  &  66,  COSTS  /A/COME  OR  SEA/EF/TS  OUTLAY  BBB a  cc c c  i I 4  cc cc G A T  / O A/  OR  OF  V A  L  U £ S  ECy  EC* &AT/Q B /C c  W £  G H / A/ G  /  c  DEC/  S / O N  D-B /C C  C  "Sy/Cy  D>0 /F RAT/O  D /$ A<fOGE THAN ZERO  CHOOSE  GO MORE  /F /SAT/O O /S LESS THAA/ OR EQUAL TO ZERO  TO SO  CHOOSE A  /N FOR MA 7/OA/ AS A RESULT OF ACT/OA/  C  T /  O A/ RATE  TO  STAY  HO GO OF /A/FOR MAT/ON  ACCRET/OH CONSTANT  R>ATZO O /NCREASES WHEN: (OTHER FACTORS CONSTANT) B -BENEF/TS PERCE/VED TO ACCRUE TO REMA/N4NG //V THE V/L%AGE. C -COSTS PERCE/VED TO ACCRUE TO REMA/N/NG /H THE V/LLAGE. . Bv/C-RAT/O OF THE ABOVE TWO. S —BENEFITS PERCEIVED TO ACCRUE TO M/GRA TING TO THE C/TV C -COSTS PERCE/VEO TO ACCRUE TO M/GRAT/NG TO THE CfTY. Bc/CtrRAT/O OF THE ABOVE TWO. v  ¥  e  e  B AND C ARE NOT VALUES MEASURABLE BV AJOA/EY, BUT ARE PERCE/VEO/ AND EVALUATED BY THE DECtS/ON MAKER AS AGGREGAT/ONS OF ' /NFORMA T/OM  20  (The Formal P e r s p e c t i v e )  Needs and  Obligations  Information,  i n the I n f o r m a t i o n - d e c i s i o n - a c t i o n  t i v e does not o n l y i n c l u d e data on expected ing  to predetermined  income o r c o s t s  or o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a .  o r newly p e r c e i v e d ends or g o a l s .  These ends may  n a l i z e d the D f o r m u l a ,  I f these hew  accord-  I t i n c l u d e s new  s t a t u s e s , i d e a s , a e s t h e t i c views; or m a t e r i a l : consumption, t e l e v i s i o n .  perspec-  be  wants  immaterial:  cinema v i e w i n g ,  beer  g o a l s a r e p e r c e i v e d and  inter-  as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the diagram above, changes.  I f they a r e not p e r c e i v e d the want or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n l e v e l remains lower.  I f they become new  g o a l s , arid I f the c i t y i s thought to  the o n l y , or most expedient  channel  D r i s e s and  of a move to the c i t y i n c r e a s e s .  the p r o b a b i l i t y  c i t y i s p e r c e i v e d to be a b a r r i e r view i s l i m i t e d , (C ) £  r i s e s and  of a c c e s s i o n then the v a l u e  to such new  g o a l s , e.g.,  be of  I f the  aesthetic  then the v a l u e f o r c o s t s of m i g r a t i n g to the c i t y  the D v a l u e drops d e c r e a s i n g  the p r o b a b i l i t y  of a  move to the c i t y . These needs a l s o i n c l u d e s u b s t a n t i v e o r b a s i c needs such as f o o d and  sleep.  metabolic  I f the c i t y i s seen to be more  capable  of p r o v i d i n g these needs, v i a j o b , money income, and a s s i s t a n c e from relatives  to s u s t a i n w h i l e  c r e a s e s and  first  i n the c i t y , then the D v a l u e i n -  there i s a higher p r o b a b i l i t y  of a move.  I f these needs  a r e thought of as becoming more s c a r c e , o r l e s s e a s i l y s a t i s f i e d i n the r u r a l a r e a , a g a i n the tendency i s to m i g r a t i o n .  21  (The Formal P e r s p e c t i v e )  A n o t h e r form o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n t h e s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n . Debts, and o b l i g a t i o n s t o d e i t i e s , a n c e s t o r s , and r e l a t i v e s i n t h e r u r a l a r e a may r e q u i r e a n i n d i v i d u a l t o r e m a i n .  T h i s i s so i f by  p r e v i o u s i n t e r n a l i z e d i n f o r m a t i o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l f e e l s such r e p a y ment i s good.  He g a i n s , o r hopes t o g a i n s a t i s f a c t i o n by p a y i n g  such debts o r f u l f i l l i n g such o b l i g a t i o n s . Then t h e r e i s a h i g h e r tendency t o r e m a i n i n the n a t a l a r e a .  I f , on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e  i n d i v i d u a l has n o t i n t e r n a l i z e d such p r e v i o u s i n f o r m a t i o n , o r t h e i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n was i n c o m p l e t e , o f debt a v o i d a n c e .  he may p e r c e i v e a move as a n avenue  T h i s means t h e B e n e f i t a g g r e g a t e o f a go d e c i -  s i o n i s r a i s e d , and t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f a move i s h i g h e r .  R u r a l O r i g i n s o f Urban D e c i s i o n s M i g r a t i o n d e c i s i o n s a r e n o t made o n l y i n t h e home v i l l a g e . An i n d i v i d u a l v i s i t i n g a c i t y i s exposed t o a g r e a t d e a l o f i n f o r m a t i o n o f w h i c h he may h i t h e r t o have been unaware.  He may see t h i n g s  w h i c h he d i s l i k e s , and f e e l t h a t they would be t o o much o f a c o s t t o him i f he were t o l i v e i n t h e c i t y .  He may s e e t h i n g s w h i c h he l i k e s ,  and f e e l t h a t they might o u t w e i g h t h e c o s t s o f l i v i n g i n t h e c i t y , i f he c o u l d g a i n a c c e s s  t o them as a r e s u l t o f h i s l i v i n g I n t h e c i t y .  An i n d i v i d u a l may l e a v e a v i l l a g e w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f r e t u r n i n g and y e t s t a y i n t h e c i t y .  He might l e a v e t h e v i l l a g e w i t h t h e i n -  t e n t i o n o f s t a y i n g away and y e t r e t u r n a f t e r a b r i e f r e s i d e n c e i n t h e city. gram  The m i g r a t i o n d e c i s i o n , a s r e p r e s e n t e d 1  i s i n a continuous  perceived.  by t h e f o r m u l a i n D i a -  s t a t e o f change as new i n f o r m a t i o n i s  22  (The F o r m a l P e r s p e c t i v e )  Diagram 2 The Three Fundamental F a c e t s o f the I.D.A. P e r s p e c t i v e  INFORMATION  Information a v a i l a b l e to the i n d i v i d u a l can be n o t e d by t h e o b s e r v e r .  Includes d e s i r e s , goals,and aims w h i c h a r e d i s c o v e r e d a t various times.  I n f o r m a t i o n and v a l u e s g i v e n to the i n f o r m a t i o n p e r c e i v e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l can o n l y be i n ferred.  I n c l u d e s l e g i t i m a t e boundar i e s w i t h i n w h i c h he may a c t to s a t i s f y those wants and needs. I n c l u d e s l i m i t a t i o n s t o and costs of that s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h i n the v i l l a g e . Includes o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h i n the v i l l a g e to s a t i s f y those needs and wants. Includes o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h i n t h e urban a r e a s w h i c h a r e seen t o be c a p a b l e o f s a t i s f y i n g those d e s i r e s . Includes l i m i t a t i o n s t o that s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the urban a r e a s .  DECISION  D.  Continued  The d e c i s i o n cannot be observed o r otherwise d i r e c t l y perceived. As the n a t u r e o f an o r ganism c a n be i n f e r r e d by o b s e r v i n g a s t i m u l u s and a r e s p o n s e , t h e nat u r e of a d e c i s i o n can be i n f e r r e d , a l t h o u g h in a less satisfactory manner, by o b s e r v i n g i n p u t ( i n f o r m a t i o n ) and output ( a c t i o n ) which a r e l i n k e d v i a t h a t decision.  Includes weighing of r a t i o s o f p e r c e i v e d b e n e f i t s and hopes t o p e r c e i v e d c o s t s , o u t l a y s and l i m i t a t i o n s f o r the p r e s e n t r u r a l p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e and f o r t h e p o t e n t i a l f u t u r e urban p l a c e o f residence. Includes choosing according to a s e t of e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a which a r e c o n s t i t u t e d of p r i o r i n f o r m a t i o n . B a l a n c i n g b e n e f i t s and c o s t s t o d e c i d e between a GO and a NO-GO c h o i c e .  (The F o r m a l  23  Perspective)  Diagram 2 ( c o n t i n u e d ) The Three Fundamental F a c e t s o f t h e I.D.A. P e r s p e c t i v e  ACTION  A.  Positive action implies t h a t a d e c i s i o n has been made t o p u r s u e t h a t action. N e g a t i v e a c t i o n may i m p l y that a d e c i s i o n not to a c t has been made. N e g a t i v e a c t i o n may i m p l y that a decision t c a c t was made but f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n may have a c t e d as a b a r r i e r t o that a c t i o n p r i o r to the d e c i s i o n being implemented.  P o s i t i v e a c t i o n i n c l u d e s two parts: a) L e a v i n g t h e v i l l a g e might be c a l l e d "from" a c t i o n . b) Going t o a c i t y might be c a l l e d " t o " a c t i o n . N e g a t i v e a c t i o n i s nona c t i o n : remaining i n the village.  (The F o r m a l P e r s p e c t i v e )  Alternative  24  Choices  The s i m p l e go/no-go p e r s p e c t i v e , w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l i n a r u r a l a r e a c h o o s i n g to r e m a i n o r t o m i g r a t e , can now There i s no s i m p l e dichotomy: The i n d i v i d u a l may  r u r a l and urban.  be on an i s o l a t e d homestead.  be expanded.  Conditions vary. He c o u l d choose  t o r e m a i n or go to any one of a number of nearby h a m l e t s , or l a r g e r v i l l a g e s , o r l a r g e r towns, o r c i t i e s . migratory a l t e r n a t i v e s .  slightly  There a r e a number o f  I n d i v i d u a l s i n s m a l l v i l l a g e s might choose  to r e m a i n o r m i g r a t e t o a l a r g e r v i l l a g e , a town o r a c i t y . v i d u a l s may  Indi-  l i v e i n towns and might choose to r e m a i n o r to m i g r a t e  to a l a r g e r town o r a c i t y . urban m i g r a t i o n d e c i s i o n s .  A l l of t h e s e might be c l a s s e d as  rural  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n each o f them t h e c h o i c e  i s not s i m p l y between g o i n g and s t a y i n g .  I t i s between r e m a i n i n g  o r moving t o one o f any number o f a r e a s . The m a t h e m a t i c a l  e x p r e s s i o n of the d e c i s i o n must now  be  expanded t o : ( S B - S C )  ( S B - S C )  ,  _  cl; ,  1 , 2 , . . . ,n  >B  .  c2  -5TC  >  B  ->  (S.B-5LC)  , . ..,  C  cn ^B  C  U s i n g t h e same symbols as i n Diagram 1 and where n r e p r e s e n t s the number o f known a l t e r n a t i v e s to r e m a i n i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a , and t h e c h o i c e between D,, 1  D„, o r D  i s the choice D n  2'  ratio: >  ~  B B  - >  g v  such t h a t the g  —  C  g  *,5T C <=—- v  25  (The Formal P e r s p e c t i v e )  i s the h i g h e s t o f t h e known a l t e r n a t i v e s .  I f a l l of the r a t i o s a r e  e q u a l t o o r l e s s than z e r o , he would choose to remain. mathematical e x p r e s s i o n , zero i s a r b i t r a r i l y  In t h i s  s e t t o be e q u i v a l e n t  to t h e s t a t e where an i n d i v i d u a l i s i n d i f f e r e n t  t o going or remain-  i n g , but momentum and f r i c t i o n r e s u l t i n h i s remaining.  Seen as  f o r c e s , t h e aggregate f o u r f a c t o r s c o u l d be seen as always a c t i n g so as t o reduce t h e v a l u e of D to z e r o .  I n t h i s sense t h e formula  c o u l d always be seen as an e x p r e s s i o n of dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m o f a minus number approaching  zero.  V a r i a t i o n s i n Information  A f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n r e q u i r e s another the s i m p l e s t , m e c h a n i s t i c  formula.  m o d i f i c a t i o n of  The c o n t e n t of much i n f o r m a t i o n  which i n f l u e n c e s t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y perceived a t a proximal  time p r i o r to t h e a c t i o n .  time d i f f e r e n c e s between I n f o r m a t i o n  Examples of l o n g  and A c t i o n (thus assumed t o  be between I n f o r m a t i o n and D e c i s i o n ) , i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i r e d d u r i n g the i n d i v i d u a l ' s e a r l y l i f e which i s i n t e r n a l i z e d i n t o such o b l i g a t o r y parameters as w i l l r e s t r i c t h i s l a t e r d e c i s i o n making." T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n a f f e c t s i n t e r n a l i z e d v a l u e s which the i n d i v i d u a l c o n s i d e r s as l i m i t s t o h i s means —  i n a means-ends d e c i s i o n .  i n f o r m a t i o n can a c t as a framework f o r subsequent d i r e c t p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e d e c i s i o n ( f o r example:  Prior  information  " I would go to the c i t y  26  (The F o r m a l P e r s p e c t i v e )  except I must s t a y i n t h e v i l l a g e and care f o r my grandmother", " I wouldn't be so keen t o l i v e i n the c i t y but I want t o g e t o u t o f t h i s p l a c e where my u n c l e makes such demands on me.") C e r t a i n l y the i n f o r m a t i o n r e p o r t e d by a s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t p r e s e n t e d h e r e , i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y e x a c t l y t h e same as t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p e r c e i v e d by a l l or even any of t h e m i g r a n t  individuals.  Ob-  s e r v e d i n f o r m a t i o n , thought t o be a v a i l a b l e to t h e i n d i v i d u a l may be r e c o r d e d , y e t t h e i n d i v i d u a l may p e r c e i v e o n l y a p a r t of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n , o r p o s s i b l y none of i t , or he may p e r c e i v e o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t i n e n t t o h i s d e c i s i o n but not r e c o r d e d by the o b s e r v e r . He s c r e e n s and f i l t e r s h i s p e r c e p t i o n i n v e r y c o m p l i c a t e d ways. The  I n f o r m a t i o n - d e c i s i o n - a c t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e i s n e c e s s a r i l y a mechan-  i s t i c o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a c t u a l p e r c e p t i o n p r o cess.  Both t h e o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and t h e m e c h a n i s t i c v i e w a r e use-  f u l however, as l o n g as t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s a r e a c c e p t e d , and c o n s i d e r e d . The o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n a l l o w s f o r c l a r i t y f o r f u r t h e r , more c o m p l i c a ted  d e s c r i p t i o n s . The m e c h a n i s t i c v i e w a l l o w s f o r c e r t a i n mathema-  t i c a l manipulations,  f r o m i t s s i m p l e s t t o i t s more complex forms,  the I n f o r m a t i o n - d e c i s i o n - a c t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e i s n o t meant t o be a r e p r o d u c t i o n o f any s o - c a l l e d " r e a l i t y " but i s o n l y a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a few c o n c e p t s .  (The F o r m a l P e r s p e c t i v e )  27  The E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t e x t of t h e I n d i v i d u a l D e c i s i o n  I n o r d e r t o f o c u s on t h e i n d i v i d u a l o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n a system o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i m e n s i o n s , i n c o n t r a s t t o a s t u d y o f t h o s e dimensions t h e m s e l v e s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y now t o d i g r e s s s l i g h t l y , t o i n d i c a t e t h e n a t u r e o f t h o s e systems, w i t h i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l acts.  The systems may be more o r l e s s f i x e d i n s t r u c t u r e .  more v a r i a b l e over t i m e and g e o g r a p h i c c l i n e .  Some a r e  A t some l e v e l o f  a n a l y s i s t h e a g g r e g a t i o n s and i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n s comprise some o f t h o s e systems.  A t another l e v e l those  systems themselves i n t e r - r e l a t e t o comprise t h e t o t a l s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l environment.  I t i s s u f f i c i e n t here t o o u t l i n e those s y s -  tems and i n d i c a t e t h e p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between them and t h e i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r t h a n t o make a d e f i n i t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e and dynamics o f those  systems.  F i r s t there a r e the r e l a t i v e l y constant environmental conditions.  These a r e i n a sense e x t e r n a l t o t h e c u l t u r e , a l t h o u g h  not e x t e r n a l t o i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e p t i o n .  Such c o n t i n g e n t c o n d i t i o n s  i n c l u d e t h e e c o l o g i c a l o r p h y s i c a l environment, c l i m a t e and l a n d forms.  These c o n d i t i o n s , n o t d i r e c t l y v a r i a b l e w i t h c u l t u r a l v a r i -  a t i o n s a r e roughly p a r a l l e l t o the c l a s s i c a l economists' p r o d u c t i v e category,  Land, i . e . , t h o s e a s p e c t s o f p r o d u c t i v e f a c t o r s w h i c h  a r e e x t e r n a l t o t h e economic system.  Second, and somewhat more v a r -  i a b l e , i s t h e sum o f demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  T h i s , the product  (The  28  Formal P e r s p e c t i v e )  of p a s t e d u c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s ,  i n c l u d e s the aggregate  c a p a b i l i t i e s , t o o l s , t r a i n i n g , s k i l l s and e n e r g i e s o f the p e o p l e . These a c t i v i t i e s a r e r e l a t e d t o the h i s t o r i c a l dimension, t h a t s e r i e s o f events which l e a d s to a p a r t i c u l a r time.  To some extent  productive category,  structure at a particular  i t i s p a r a l l e l t o the c l a s s i c a l  economists'  c a p i t a l , o r those a s p e c t s o f p r o d u c t i v e  t o r s which a r e the r e s u l t of p r i o r human a c t i v i t y . s i c a l productive category  The t h i r d  facclas-  i s l a b o u r , and i n a f o r m a l i s t approach t o  economics t h a t c o u l d i n c l u d e a l l the p r o d u c t i v e human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l i s t e d below which r e l a t e to t h e s o c i a l environment o f an i n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n maker. Another dimension o f t h e s o c i a l environment w i t h i n which an i n d i v i d u a l operates  i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e extent  c o m p e t i t i o n or c o - o p e r a t i o n i n the s o c i e t y . cal criteria will reflect  to which t h e r e i s  The i n d i v i d u a l ' s  that of h i s s o c i e t y .  ethi-  T h i s dimension may  be examined from the i n d i v i d u a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n two ways.  First,  an i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r n a l i s e s h i s own c o m p e t i t i v e and c o - o p e r a t i v e  cri-  t e r i a , and h i s own s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s e s may be seen as the i n f o r mation f a c e t o f t h e I n f o r m a t i o n - d e c i s i o n - a c t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e .  Second,  an i n d i v i d u a l who i s weighing c o s t s and b e n e f i t s must c o n s i d e r h i s d e s i r e s i n terms o.f a c c e p t e d understanding  norms and parameters o f a c t i o n . H i s  o f t h e extent o f c o - o p e r a t i o n o r c o m p e t i t i o n i n t h e  s o c i e t y must be i n c l u d e d i n h i s c a l c u l a t i o n s .  (The  Formal  29  Perspective)  An i n d i v i d u a l g e n e r a l l y  a c t s i n a manner which he knows  w i l l be a c c e p t a b l e w i t h i n h i s s o c i e t y . co-operation personal  i s personal  satisfaction.  I f h i s s o c i e t y ' s reward f o r  s a t i s f a c t i o n , the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l a c t f o r H i s income i s i n terms o f rewards from  o t h e r s who r e i n f o r c e the e t h i c he has i n t e r n a l i z e d .  He may, o f  course a c t c a l c u l a t i n g the degree o f c o s t as w e l l as the degree o f reward. A s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between a n i n d i v i d u a l and that  s o c i o - c u l t u r a l dimension which might be d e s i g n a t e d as t h e s t r u c -  t u r e o f h a b i t s o r customs. styles,  Components of t h i s system i n c l u d e  life  t a s t e s i n f o o d , a r t , c l o t h i n g , l i t e r a t u r e , and a r c h i t e c -  t u r e as w e l l as m o r a l s , i d e o l o g i e s , and o t h e r c u l t u r a l v a l u e s . i n d i v i d u a l , as he grows up, r e c e i v e s  information  value of a l t e r n a t i v e habits or patterned  about the r e l a t i v e  actions.  The e x t e n t to  which he conforms t o s o c i a l mores r e f l e c t s h i s d e c i s i o n s probable b e n e f i t s or costs  i n terms o f p e r s o n a l  The  regarding  s a t i s f a c t i o n and/or  s o c i a l reward o r o s t r a c i s m . There i s f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n  needed by the i n d i v i d u a l .  He must, a t l e a s t i n t u i t i v e l y i f not e x p l i c i t l y , know something o f the s t r u c t u r e , o r p r o c e s s e s of s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l systems w i t h i n which he may a c t .  He must ask, "What i s t h e e x t e n t , the f u n c t i o n , and  the dynamics o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l  structure?",  "What i s the n a t u r e o f  s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , power, p r e s t i g e , and i n f l u e n c e i n t h e s o c i e t y ? " , "What l e g a l s t r u c t u r e s p r o v i d e rewards o r punishments f o r a l t e r n a t i v e  30  (The Formal P e r s p e c t i v e )  actions?"  He must make h i s d e c i s i o n s i n accordance  mation about t h e s e as s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e s .  with h i s i n f o r -  He must a c q u i r e  eco-  nomic i n f o r m a t i o n about the s u b s t a n t i v e c o s t s and b e n e f i t s of v a r i o u s activities,  including migration.  Then he mus^t r e l a t e h i s own r e -  sources and h i s own needs o r d e s i r e s t o t h e economic environment. He must see the s o c i e t y ' s range of a c c e p t a b l e g o a l s , t h e r e l a t i v e emphasis on immediate o r f u t u r e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f each.  He must  then  r e l a t e h i s own g o a l s t o a l t e r n a t i v e environments and a l t e r n a t i v e g o a l s , and h i s r e l a t i v e  capabilities for f u l f i l l i n g  these g o a l s .  Complementary t o g o a l s a r e t h e k i n d s and e x t e n t o f s t r e s s i n each environment.  The i n d i v i d u a l may seek to minimise t e n s i o n , a^id h i s  decision-making,  i n terms o f the I n f o r m a t i o n - d e c i s i o n - a c t i o n p e r s -  p e c t i v e , might be seen as s t r e s s m i n i m i z a t i o n r a t h e r than g o a l maximization.  E i t h e r way, h i s c h o i c e r e p r e s e n t s t h e maximum r a t i o of  benefits to costs.  The i n d i v i d u a l i s both a f f e c t e d by, and a f f e c t s  the extent and nature o f s t r e s s i n a s o c i a l  system.  F i n a l l y , he needs i n f o r m a t i o n about changes i n t h e s o c i a l structure.  To what extent can he count  on k i n groups t o s a t i s f y  c e r t a i n needs o r d e s i r e s , or a l t e r n a t i v e l y depend on newer s t r u c tures?  These might be a r e f l e c t i o n of the s o c i e t y becoming more  differentiated.  To what e x t e n t a r e c o r p o r a t e groups segmented and  independent, such as c l a n s or v i l l a g e s , o r i n t e g r a t e d and i n t e r d e pendent, such as b u r e a u c r a c i e s , o r c o r p o r a t i o n s ?  To what extent  does each a l l o w f o r the whole range o f s o c i a l human p a r t i c i p a t i o n ?  (The F o r m a l  31  Perspective)  I n a s o c i e t y where t h e extended f a m i l y i s becoming i m p o r t a n c e and tance,  formal  organizations  The  and  secondary  of greater  t h e i n d i v i d u a l must a c t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h  about t h e s e s t r u c t u r a l changes  is  a r e becoming  of  his  information  processes.  focus of the I n f o r m a t i o n - d e c i s i o n - a c t i o n  on t h e i n d i v i d u a l .  I t seeks to i s o l a t e  that  noted above.  ronment, i t  informa-  dimensions of  social  His actions also a f f e c t  first  examine the i n d i v i d u a l o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n a s o c i a l  i s e a s i e r t o assume t h a t v a r i a b l e s i n t h a t held  constant.  c h o o s e s a s he i s e x p o s e d a l w a y s remember t h a t perception  T h e n one m i g h t  the environment  not perceive  new  m a i n o r t o go.  The  potential  individual One  external conditions  change,  of a p o t e n t i a l  he may  or  He  i s exposed  the changing c o n d i t i o n s of that  environments.  He p e r c e i v e s  may  a f f e c t h i s d e c i s i o n to r e -  i n d i v i d u a l can be though o f as a u n i t i n a environment.  must  O n l y i n an a n a l y t i c s e n s e ,  sense, i s the environment  information which w i l l  multidimensional  mation about  As  an  as w e l l as t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s  of i t i s constantly changing.  migrant ever s t a t i c .  e x a m i n e how  envi-  environment  to v a r i a t i o n i n that environment.  not i n a p e r s o n a l l y h i s t o r i c  ing  His  environment. To  are  of the various  pro-  to h i s a c t i o n s .  However t h e i n d i v i d u a l does n o t o p e r a t e i n a vacuum.  and p h y s i c a l environment  perspective  the d e c i s i o n making  c e s s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l by r e l a t i n g h i s i n f o r m a t i o n  t i o n c o n s i s t s of h i s perceptions  impor-  to varying  environment  and  vary-  inforthe  a n d i n t e r n a l i z e s some o f  that  32  (The Formal Perspective)  information.  He balances that information as he receives i t and  compares i t to prior information.  He acts according to h i s percep-  t i o n and consideration of that information.  CHAPTER TWO  The L i t e r a t u r e  Weighing C o s t s and B e n e f i t s The Go/No-Go C h o i c e  Information Decision Action  33  (The L i t e r a t u r e )  M i g r a t i o n i s due t o many causes: i t i s impossible to a s s e s s the r e l a t i v e v a l u e of economic, s o c i a l or psyc h o l o g i c a l motives. I t i s encouraged and o r g a n i z e d by the a u t h o r i t i e s and employers i n some c o u n t r i e s ; i n o t h e r s i t i s spontaneous, sometimes even c l a n d e s t i n e .  Categories  of Causes  As  I have w r i t t e n above, the i n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n to m i g r a t e  i s i n essence an economic d e c i s i o n , where economic i m p l i e s t h e b r o a d e s t concept encompassing w e a l t h a l l o c a t i o n , a concept not hampered by w e s t e r n e t h n o c e n t r i c l i m i t a t i o n s such as the equating with  "monetary".  The m i g r a t i o n  o f "economic"  d e c i s i o n i s a c h o i c e based on expec-  t e d r e t u r n s and expected expenses o f v a r i o u s courses  of a c t i o n .  The  weighing o f these r e t u r n s and expenses i s based on the i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o each course which the i n d i v i d u a l There a r e b a s i c a l l y simple  considers.  four c a t e g o r i e s of information i n the  Go/No-Go p e r s p e c t i v e of o n l y one a v a i l a b l e c i t y .  The c h o i c e  depends on i n f o r m a t i o n about i n c r e a s e d b e n e f i t s t o g o i n g , c o s t s to g o i n g ,  i n c r e a s e d c o s t s of s t a y i n g and decreased  of s t a y i n g , each r e l a t i v e t o the other p l a i n e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h o i c e of remaining  chapter,  or m i g r a t i n g  three c a t e g o r i e s .  decreased benefits As ex-  i n t h e expanded p e r s p e c t i v e t h e t o one of any number o f known c i t i e s  depends upon t h e h i g h e s t r a t i o o f b e n e f i t s to c o s t s f o r each o f t h e  1.  J . D e n i s , "The Towns o f T r o p i c a l A f r i c a " V o l . 16, No. 1, 1966 , p . 43.  (Summary),  Civilizations,  34  (The L i t e r a t u r e )  known c h o i c e s . t h i s chapter  F o r t h e sake of s i m p l i c i t y and c l a r i t y  the s i m p l e r "model" i s used.  3  however, i n  I n f o r m a t i o n r e p o r t e d by  o t h e r o b s e r v e r s f o r other purposes i s regrouped  here under the f o u r  c a t e g o r i e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o which a p r o s p e c t i v e migrant  has a c c e s s .  These f o u r c a t e g o r i e s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f o u r hypotheses and t h e i r converses.  As i n Diagram 1, C r e p r e s e n t s c o s t s , B r e p r e s e n t s  b e n e f i t s , and D r e p r e s e n t s the r a t i o o f B e n e f i t s and Costs of mig r a t i n g and remaining.  CATEGORY ONE:  I n f o r m a t i o n about c o s t s o f remaining  i n the v i l l a g e :  HYPOTHESIS 1 Other f a c t o r s c o n s t a n t , an i n c r e a s e i n c o s t s r e l a t e d to r e -  maining ( X ) » w i l l r e s u l t i n an i n c r e a s e i n t h e value, of c  v  D, and i n c r e a s e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f a Go d e c i s i o n . Conversely: Other f a c t o r s c o n s t a n t , a decrease  decrease  i nJ c w i l l result v  i n the v a l u e o f D, and decrease  i na  the p r o b a b i l i t y of  a Go d e c i s i o n . CATEGORY TWO:  I n f o r m a t i o n about b e n e f i t s o f g o i n g to the c i t y :  HYPOTHESIS 2 Other f a c t o r s c o n s t a n t , an i n c r e a s e i n b e n e f i t s r e l a t e d t o migrating, and  ( > B ) , r e s u l t i n an i n c r e a s e i n the v a l u e of D, c  i n c r e a s e the p r o b a b i l i t y of a Go d e c i s i o n .  35  (The Literature)  Conversely: Other factors constant, a decrease i n  B w i l l result i n a — c  decrease i n the value of D, and decrease the p r o b a b i l i t y of a Go decision. CATEGORY THREE:  Information about benefits of remaining i n the village:  HYPOTHESIS 3 Other factors constant, a decrease i n benefits related to remaining 0]> B ), w i l l result i n an increase i n the value of D  3  and increase the p r o b a b i l i t y of a Go decision.  Conversely: Other factors constant, an increase in*> B .  ~  w i l l result i n a  v  decrease i n the value of D, and increase the probability of a No-go decision. CATEGORY FOUR:  Information about costs of going to the c i t y :  HYPOTHESIS 4 Other factors constant, a decrease i n costs related to migrating (<EC ), w i l l r e s u l t i n an increase i n the value of c  D, and increase the p r o b a b i l i t y of a Go decision. Conversely: Other factors constant, an increase i n ^ ;  w i l l result  i n a decrease i n the value of D, and increase the probab i l i t y of a No-go decision.  36  (The L i t e r a t u r e )  A l l f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c h o i c e t o go o r r e m a i n , bel o n g t o one or more of t h e f o u r c a t e g o r i e s above.  The d e c i s i o n  does n o t r e s t on t h e a b s o l u t e q u a n t i t y of any one of t h e f o u r f a c t o r s , but on t h e s t r e n g t h o f each w i t h r e s p e c t t o each o t h e r .  When t h e  c h o i c e i s among many a l t e r n a t i v e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x p e c t e d b e n e f i t s and expected c o s t s f o r each p o s s i b l e a c t i o n , remains t h e same.  I n d i v i d u a l s a c t so as t o i n c r e a s e t h e r a t i o o f e x p e c t e d bene-  f i t s to expected c o s t s .  C a t e g o r i z i n g Source Data The  l i t e r a t u r e on r u r a l urban m i g r a t i o n does n o t e x p l i -  c i t l y r e f e r t o these c a t e g o r i e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n .  However, each  a u t h o r has examined f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o the a c t i o n o f m i g r a t i n g b o t h a t t h e s o c i a l and i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s .  The " c a u s e s " r e -  l a t e d t o demographic movements w i l l h e r e be b r o k e n down and r e examined i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e r s p e c t i v e . s h o u l d be kept i n mind. "causes" of migration?  Two  How does t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e How does he r e a c t o r respond  t i o n r e l a t e d to h i s d e c i s i o n to migrate?  questions these  to informa-  References c i t e d i n t h i s  c h a p t e r a r e o f t e n r e p e a t e d because the causes of m i g r a t i o n o f f e r e d o f t e n f i t i n t o more than one o f t h e f o u r c a t e g o r i e s i n t h i s b e n e f i t cost a n a l y s i s .  37  (Costs o f Remaining)  C o s t s o f Remaining  (Hypothesis  Assuming t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l  1)  has no o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h  causes h i s e v a l u a t i o n o f b e n e f i t s o f r u r a l l i f e and h i s e v a l u a t i o n s o f c o s t s and b e n e f i t s o f an a l t e r n a t i v e  l i f e i n a more urban  setting  to change, then new i n f o r m a t i o n about h i s p e r c e i v e d c o s t s o f r e m a i n i n g i n t h e v i l l a g e w i l l r e s u l t i n a new r a t i o between t h e f a c t o r s and a d i f f e r e n t  tendency t o m i g r a t e .  I f the i n d i v i d u a l  feels  that  c o s t s of l i v i n g i n the v i l l a g e a r e r i s i n g r e l a t i v e t o t h e o t h e r t o r s , he would f e e l more i n c l i n e d t o l e a v e .  fac-  I f he f e e l s t h a t h i s  c o s t s a r e d e c r e a s i n g r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , he would p r o b a b l y be more c o n t e n t t o remain. f e e l i n g of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  These c o s t s range from a g e n e r a l  t o a s p e c i f i c empty stomach.  Religion  (Sub-hypothesis If through r e l i g i o u s  l.A)  c o n v e r s i o n an i n d i v i d u a l f e e l s he  cannot i d e n t i f y w i t h r u r a l l i f e and t h e predominant r e l i g i o u s bel i e f s o f t h e v i l l a g e he may f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t  to remain.  This  would n o t be t h e case i f he became a C h r i s t i a n when t h e v i l l a g e was predominantly  Christian  was p r e d o m i n a n t l y  o r i f he became a Moslem i f t h e v i l l a g e  Moslem.  I t i s not conversion per se which leads  t o c o s t s w h i c h may r e s u l t i n a c h o i c e t o l e a v e .  I t i s a conversion  w h i c h s e t s an i n d i v i d u a l a p a r t f r o m t h e dominant r e l i g i o u s , g i c a l and e t h i c a l b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s o f h i s p r e s e n t  ideolo-  environment  38  (Costs of Remaining)  and which results in "costs" of ostracism or a feeling of being a misfit.  Perhaps the same generalized feeling of wanting new or  different experiences may be expressed i n two ways: conversion to an alien  religion and migration to an alternative environment, but  both can be seen as action resulting in costs attributed to the status quo.  Education  (Sub-hypotheses l.B and I.C) If through an educational experience an individual begins  to perceive himself as being something other than a rural villager, his assessment of his costs of remaining w i l l rise.  In western  cultures two kinds of educational experiences lead to ostracism. The high achiever i s ostracised and called pejorative names such as "egghead".  The low achiever may not be capable of gaining even  medium grades, and thus suffer the patronizing term "slow learner". An individual may be capable of conforming to the requirements of the authorities who decide his grades and progress record, but a general feeling of dissatisfaction with seemingly arbitrary restrictions may be expressed in being both a misfit and a poor scholar, and eventually i n migration.  Thus costs of being labelled abnormal are f e l t  by those who do well and those who do poorly as measured by institutional education standards.  An individual who perceives these as  costs, or as hardships, even i f he does not articulate them as such, w i l l be more likely to make a decision to migrate.  On the other hand  39  (Costs of Remaining)  the i n d i v i d u a l who  does not f i n d the c o s t s of c o n f o r m i n g t o the  "educational" requirements,  and who  tends to have a p r o g r e s s  record  c l o s e r t o the mode or mean of the peer group, w i l l f i n d l e s s o s t r a cism.  He t h e n e x p e r i e n c e s  munity.  The  i n d i v i d u a l who  lower c o s t s i n r e m a i n i n g i s a t e i t h e r end of the  achievement s c a l e i n Western s o c i e t i e s may  i n a r u r a l comeducational  p e r c e i v e t h a t s m a l l e r com-  m u n i t i e s have h i g h e r i n f o r m a l c o n t r o l s than the hoped f o r t a n , " f r e e r " urban s e t t i n g s .  T h i s may  cosmopoli-  a l s o be i n e f f e c t to some ex-  t e n t i n West A f r i c a n communities.  Modern Costs  (Sub-hypothesis  I.D)  I f a West A f r i c a n l i v i n g i n the v i l l a g e f i n d s he has new  ob-  l i g a t i o n s w h i c h a r e i n a sense more connected t o "urban l i v i n g " (as d e s c r i b e d by L o u i s W i r t h , 1938), t h e n he might f i n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o go e l s e w h e r e to seek means o f c o v e r i n g h i s c o s t s .  For example,  an i n d i v i d u a l might never have been r e q u i r e d to use much c u r r e n c y , producing  most of what he consumes, and r e l y i n g on f a m i l i a l o b l i g a -  t i o n s and a s a l e of s u r p l u s p r o d u c t s produce. t a x may  to p r o v i d e what he c o u l d  He might t h e n be f a c e d w i t h new be i n t r o d u c e d .  not  monetary o b l i g a t i o n s .  A  T r a d i t i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n s such as dowry or  f u n e r a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s , f o r m e r l y s u p p l i e d i n the form of f o o d , a l c o h o l , f o w l , g o l d d u s t , or c l o t h , might now He may  be expected i n the form o f  cash.  d e s i r e an a r t i c l e such as a t r a n s i s t o r r a d i o t h a t can o n l y  be  (Costs  of  40  Remaining)  obtained with cash. seek a l t e r n a t i v e ployment.  This  New m o n e t a r y  forms  of  covering  employment  t h e commerce a n d i n d u s t r y  costs  he d e c i d e s  to  may f o r c e a n i n d i v i d u a l  those  costs,  of  urban areas.  living  in  the  rural  of  of  raising  tion.  and c a p i t a l  of  with  the  capital,  individual  the market,  lizers,  or  help  him to  a r e good vidual  a cocoa  insecticides,  cocoa p l a n t a t i o n  to  decide  less  labor, in a  to  costs  or  to  leave of  tempted to  t o some  leading  extent  a result.  not  Crops  might  its  remain escala-  decide  and  to m i g r a t e .  land.  for  greener  studies  of  to  the  costs keep  up  ferti-  much o f  and t h e s e  his  costs  may  h a n d , when  crops  be c o v e r e d t h e  indi-  fields.  perspective interpretations  t o more m i g r a t i o n  by a g g r e g a t e  order  produc-  to  rising  destroy  On t h e o t h e r  p r o d u c t i o n can e a s i l y leave  In  costs  increase  relative  these  as  and  introduce chemical  h e may b e f o r c e d t o  the  fail  be needed f o r  a n d l a n d may r i s e , rural area,  l.E)  necessarily  P o p u l a t i o n may  techniques  f a r m e r may n e e d t o  These i n d i v i d u a l rural  as  area,  eradicate a certain blight,  a n d new c o s t s  is  the r u r a l  intensive  income d e r i v e d from l i v i n g may c a u s e  in  from urban a r e a s .  f o o d may i n c r e a s e  Costs  area with  to  in  move.  may a r i s e  information  and more l a b o r  found  (Sub-hypothesis  New c o s t s result  to  wage em-  He may n o t w i s h  Productive Costs  a  s u c h as  may b e s e e n t o b e m o r e e a s i l y  i n an urban a r e a but w h i l e ting  costs  from r u r a l migration.  areas  of are  rising supported  41  (Costs of Remaining)  Education  (Sub-hypothesis l.B)  If through having a higher than average education, one i n d i v i d u a l has a high probability of migrating then a higher prob a b i l i t y of a number of individuals having more education w i l l be expressed as a larger proportion of them migrating.  Brunner  (1957),  i n a review of a l l p r i o r migrations, found that better educated persons migrate longer distances and to larger c i t i e s . dies seem to concur.  Later stu-  In 1957 Pihlblad and Gregory noted the high  correlations of education and professional t r a i n i n g and the s t a t i s t i c a l tendency of high school graduates i n small Missouri towns (a) to migrate, (b) to migrate longer distances, and (c) to migrate to larger rather than smaller c i t i e s .  The study was done on i n f o r -  mation about 3,415 persons who had graduated ten years p r i o r to the study.  The following year Ramsay and Anderson (1958) noted that  migrants were younger and more educated than non-migrants, and the most common occupational categories of migrants were professional and technical.  They had studied migration i n and out of New  state using census data from 1870 to 1940.  York  Hamilton's study, also  i n 1958, of North Carolina migrants indicated that for the whole population the rates of migration are correlated with the l e v e l of education.  However he found that f o r the population i n the 20 to  34 year age group, net migration from r u r a l areas was most associated with extremes i n education.  This supports the t h e o r e t i c a l  42  ( C o s t s o f Remaining)  c o n t e n t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s burdened w i t h s c h o o l performance more d i s t a n t f r o m t h e i r peer groups' modal performance would f e e l c o s t s of o s t r a c i s m and be more tempted t o l e a v e t h e i r n a t a l community i n s e a r c h o f one w i t h l i g h t e r s o c i a l c o n t r o l s . census d a t a t o a n a l y s e W i s c o n s i n c o r r e l a t i o n between c o m p l e t i o n  Marshal  (1959),  using  p o p u l a t i o n changes, n o t e d a h i g h  o f e d u c a t i o n and m i g r a t i o n t o c i t i e s .  I n A m e r i c a t h e c o n t e n t i o n seems t o be s u p p o r t e d .  Rose (1958:420)  n o t e d t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between m i g r a t i o n d i s t a n c e and s t a t u s .  Later,  i n a study o f f o u r r u r a l Alabama c o u n t i e s , Huie (1962) observed t h i s tendency and d e c r i e s t h e l o s s o f t r a i n e d and b e t t e r educated p e o p l e from t h o s e r u r a l a r e a s as a r e s u l t of d i f f e r e n t i a l emigration. Lijfering  (1959), i n a study o f 1,934 ex-elementary p u p i l s  of 262 c o u n t r y s c h o o l s i n the N e t h e r l a n d s , correlations:  noted four  important  i n t e l l i g e n c e s c o r e s i n c r e a s e d w i t h (a) m i g r a t i o n t o  more urban a r e a s ,  (b) m i g r a t i o n over l o n g e r d i s t a n c e , ( c ) l e v e l o f  e d u c a t i o n and (d) degree o f s o c i a l s t a t u s o f o c c u p a t i o n s . One n o t e o f c a u t i o n however.  This very s u b s t a n t i a l data  on m i g r a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n a l i n d i c e s , showing a p o s i t i v e aggregate s t a t i s t i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n , does not mean t h e i n d i v i d u a l s may n e c e s s a r i l y express  their migration decisions p r i o r to t h e i r migration.  I n a s t u d y of 260 farm h o u s e h o l d s , r e p r e s e n t i n g a t e n p e r cent  ran-  dom sample of Stevens County, Washington, Roy (1961) found t h e l e v e l o f a s p i r a t i o n s t o l e a v e farms f o r urban l i f e was n o t c o r r e l a t e d  (Costs o f Remaining)  43  e i t h e r t o e d u c a t i o n or t o a d d i t i o n a l non-farm s k i l l s o f t h e i n f o r mants.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y Roy d i d n o t o b t a i n d a t a on subsequent m i g r a -  t i o n a c t i o n s o r t h e p a r t o f those p e o p l e s t u d i e d .  I f their actions  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h o t h e r s t u d i e s one might a t f i r s t be tempted t o ask about h i s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  technique.  s p e c u l a t i o n may be a l l o w e d .  Persons who say they w i l l l e a v e  that t h e i r neighbors  However, a t h e o r e t i c a l find  r e a c t n e g a t i v e l y , a s k i n g what t h e m i g r a n t  f i n d s wrong w i t h h i s home.  A p o t e n t i a l m i g r a n t may h e s i t a t e t o  voice h i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h h i s p r e s e n t environment even t o a s o c i o l o g i s t , due t o a n t i c i p a t e d c o s t s o f d i s a p p r o v a l by community or f a m i l y members.  Misfits  (Sub-hypothesis  Somewhat r e l a t e d t o t h e c o s t s o f r e m a i n i n g due  to or c o i n c i d i n g w i t h educational experiences  I.C)  i na village  a r e the costs of  f e e l i n g a l i e n even w h i l e a n a t i v e o f t h e community.  The r e f e r e n c e  t o o s t r a c i s m o f b o t h h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e r s and low e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e r s was made above. t h e i r mates who e x c e l  Whether West A f r i c a n v i l l a g e boys  tease  o r do p o o r l y beyond some t h r e s h o l d i s y e t  t o be documented b u t would n o t p r o v e s u r p r i s i n g i f demonstrated. There i s some s u b s t a n t i v e data l i n k i n g m i g r a t i o n w i t h a l i e n a t i o n . L i j t e r i n g , as mentioned e a r l i e r , n o t e d c o r r e l a t i o n s n o t o n l y w i t h e d u c a t i o n b u t w i t h I.Q.  Duncan (1956:434) n o t e d t h a t c i t i e s seemed  t o a t t r a c t t h e extremes i n i n t e l l i g e n c e , i n p h y s i c a l t r a i t s , and i n  44  (Costs o f Remaining)  s o c i a l ranking.  I have a Kwawu f r i e n d who i s q u i t e t a l l ,  over s i x  f e e t , w h i l s t I would guess t h a t Kwawu a d u l t men average o n l y feet.  five  T h i s f r i e n d has c o n f i d e n t i a l l y a r t i c u l a t e d on a number o f o c -  casions h i s f e e l i n g s of d i s t r e s s a t being As a consequence he was a p p l y i n g h i m s e l f  teased  f o r being  "abnormal".  d i l i g e n t l y to becoming a  lawyer so he c o u l d l i v e i n A c c r a and not have to l i s t e n t o t h e j e e r s of h i s mates.  He wanted to r e t u r n o n l y a t f e s t i v a l time,  Christmas,  E a s t e r , and Afahwe, and then i n a b i g Mercedes c a r s c no one c o u l d see h i s l o n g l e g s .  Ostracism  i s no mean c o s t i n the i n d i v i d u a l  perspective. Martinson Kuder P r e f e r e n c e survey  (1955), u s i n g the B e l l Adjustment  Inventory,  Record and t h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y i n a  o f 1,289 graduates o f Minnesota h i g h s c h o o l s , found t h a t f u -  t u r e r u r a l urban m i g r a n t s were l e s s w e l l a d j u s t e d community and b e t t e r a d j u s t e d  to high schools.  t o f a m i l y and  He suggested t h a t f o r  them t h e h i g h s c h o o l was the symbol o f t h e o u t s i d e world l i t e r a r y , and s c i e n t i f i c p u r s u i t s .  o f academic,  However i n d i v i d u a l s might become  c a t e g o r i z e d as m i s f i t s i n t h e i r r u r a l community, the p s y c h i c  costs  i n v o l v e d o f t e n r e s u l t i n t h e i r s e e k i n g a l t e r n a t i v e modes o f l i v i n g , o r a l t e r n a t i v e environments. Lee  (1958), i n a study o f 56,000 persons admitted  York mental i n s t i t u t e s f o r t h e f i r s t t r o l l i n g f o r age,  sex,  time, r e p o r t e d  to New  that a f t e r  con-  and c o l o r , a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t e d be-  tween m i g r a t i o n and mental d i s e a s e f o r both the t o t a l o f psychoses  45  (Costs of Remaining)  and f o r each s p e c i f i c psychosis.  He goes on to discuss p o s s i b l e r e -  l a t i o n s h i p s between migration and- mental disease: The same f a c t o r s that impel migration may also r e s u l t i n mental disease, or the early stages of mental d i sease may be accompanied by migration. Robins and O'Neal (1958) made a study of 524 persons admitted to a p s y c h i a t r i c c l i n i c between 1924 and 1929, and a c o n t r o l group from the same neighborhoods, sex categories and b i r t h years, f o r Caucasians w i t h I.Q.'s of over 80. They compared 30 year h i s t o r i e s of c l i n i c p a t i e n t s and a c o n t r o l group.  They found that problem  chil-  dren, a f t e r t h i r t y years, had contributed s i g n i f i c a n t l y to crime, divorce, v i o l e n t death by homicide or s u i c i d e , to mental h o s p i t a l populations, and were much more i n c l i n e d to migrate than the c o n t r o l group.  Not a l l data l i n k s a l i e n a t i o n with migration however.  Migran-  cy d i d not seem as c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to delinquency when the migrants were probably not the ones who made the d e c i s i o n to move, that i s c h i l d r e n of migrating parents.  In f a c t , Savitz (1960),in a study  of 890 Negroes i n one of the four highest j u v e n i l e delinquency areas of P h i l a d e l p h i a found: The P h i l a d e l p h i a n born population engaged i n delinquency to a greater extent than d i d a migrant cohort of the same age exposed to a s i m i l a r " r i s k " of delinquency. This study i s not exactly conclusive because i t does not compare those "migrant cohorts" w i t h t h e i r peers i n the communities which they migrated.  from  These studies generally support the hypothesis  that costs of being a m i s f i t , r e s u l t i n emigration decisions.  46  (Costs o f Remaining)  A f r i c a n Examples Some A f r i c a n s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d how r i s i n g c o s t s o f v i l lage l i f e contribute to decisions to leave.  N z i m i r o (1965:121) noted  t h a t r i s i n g c o s t s o f f a r m i n g c o n t r i b u t e d t o d e s i r e s t o m i g r a t e and (1965:123) the d e s i r e o f educated e l i t e s t o f i n d new  occupations,  i n d i c a t e d t h a t c o s t s i n t h e form o f c a s h o u t l a y s o r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n were f a c t o r s o f t h e m i g r a t i o n d e c i s i o n .  Caldwell's  (1968:363) d a t a  i n d i c a t e d t h a t h i g h e r educated Ghanaians tended t o m i g r a t e t o c i t i e s more than l e s s e d u c a t e d . hypothesis  T h i s s u p p o r t s t h e e a r l i e r t h e s i s (Sub-  l.B) that d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n r e l a t e d to higher  educational  status i s a cost a s s o c i a t e d w i t h remaining i n the v i l l a g e . W i n t e r (1955:38) n o t e d t h a t Bwamba i n f o r m a n t s c i t e d a number o f c o s t s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r d e c i s i o n s t o l e a v e village.  " T r o u b l e a t home" was c i t e d most o f t e n .  bounded a t home and c o u l d n o t f u l f i l l  their  Informants f e l t  t h e i r d e s i r e s t o see p l a c e s .  F r i c t i o n w i t h i n t h e i r f a m i l y , t r o u b l e w i t h t h e i r n e i g h b o r s , and b e i n g s u s p e c t e d o f p r a c t i c i n g w i t h c r a f t were a l s o c i t e d .  These examples  i n d i c a t e t h a t c o s t s r e l a t e d t o unhappiness o f l i v i n g i n t h e v i l l a g e c o n t r i b u t e d t o d e c i s i o n s t o go t o t h e c i t y . An i n d i v i d u a l who has c e r t a i n o b l i g a t i o n s w h i c h might be thought o f as t r a d i t i o n a l i n form o r cause, may p e r c e i v e b e i n g a p o t e n t i a l environment f o r c o v e r i n g l.E).  such c o s t s  t h e c i t y as  (Sub-hypothesis  Schapera (1947:142) n o t e d t h a t t h e K g a t l a , as soon as c a s h  became a c c e p t a b l e  for bridewealth  payment i n each v i l l a g e , would  ( C o s t s o f Remaining)  47  a l l o w young men t o go t o a c i t y t o e a r n c a s h . of  T h i s ensured a f l o w  urban r e s o u r c e s i n t o t h e v i l l a g e s . Banton (1957:47) i n h i s s t u d y o f Freetown noted t h a t second  to  t h e a t t r a c t i o n o f wages, freedom from t h e c o n t r o l o f v i l l a g e  e l d e r s , was most c i t e d by youths as a r e a s o n f o r m i g r a t i n g t o t h e city.  The young S i e r r a Leoneans f r e q u e n t l y quoted a p h r a s e :  I go Freetown, make I go f r e e . " be c a l l e d non-economic,  "Make  Sometimes t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n would  b u t as emphasized i n t h i s t h e s i s , i n t h e  d e c i s i o n making framework  i t c e r t a i n l y i s economic.  "Freedom" i n  those terms i s a s c a r c e commodity o r s e r v i c e w h i c h i s d e s i r e d . such i t i s w e a l t h .  As  I n d i v i d u a l s i n v i l l a g e s may b e l i e v e t h a t they can  o b t a i n more o f t h i s w e a l t h i f t h e y r e - l o c a t e t h e i r r e s i d e n c e .  Thus  they a c t i n accordance w i t h a d e s i r e t o i n c r e a s e t h e r a t i o o f benef i t s r e l a t i v e to costs. economic or  "Freedom" h e r e c a n be thought o f a s an  " b e n e f i t " o r consumer good, a p a r t from any m e t a p h y s i c a l  s o c i o l o g i c a l d i m e n s i o n i t may have. B a l a n d i e r (1955:42) c i t e d c a s e s where m i g r a n t s t o B r a z z a -  v i l l e d e c i d e d t o come when t h e i r p o s i t i o n s became u n t e n a b l e t h r o u g h "non-economic f a c t o r s . "  The most common c a s e s were i n d i v i d u a l s who  were a c c u s e d o r s u s p e c t e d o f murder, a d u l t e r y , o r w i t c h c r a f t .  But  i n d i v i d u a l s who have t o l i v e i n a s o c i a l environment where t h e y a r e o s t r a c i s e d , h a s s l e d by t h e i r n e i g h b o r s o r t h e a u t h o r i t i e s ,  find  p s y c h i c c o s t s h i g h enough t o c o n s i d e r moving t o t h e c i t y when anonym i t y t o some e x t e n t r e p r e s e n t s lower c o s t s .  (Costs o f Remaining)  48  G u g l e r (1969:139) argued t h a t b a r r e n women would be t h e f i r s t females t o l e a v e a r u r a l community because " w i t h o u t they a r e i n a weak economic and s o c i a l p o s i t i o n .  1 1  children  The c o s t s o f l i v -  i n g i n a s o c i a l environment w h i c h rewards p r o d u c e r s o f c h i l d r e n i s a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o t h e d e c i s i o n by an i n d i v i d u a l t o l e a v e  that  environment when u n a b l e t o conform t o t h a t v i l l a g e e x p e c t a t i o n o r r e quirement.  The i n d i v i d u a l thus s i t u a t e d might p e r c e i v e t h e c i t y as  b e i n g an environment where c o s t s such as o s t r a c i s m a r e lower (Subhypothesis  I.C).  R i s i n g v i l l a g e costs contribute to the d e c i s i o n  to l e a v e .  A l i e n a t i o n and o s t r a c i s m a r e i n c l u d e d i n such c o s t s .  New "Urban C o s t s " i n t h e V i l l a g e  ( S u b - h y p o t h e s i s I.D)  As w e l l as o b v i o u s c o s t s t o t h e r u r a l v i l l a g e r t h e r e a r e o t h e r c o s t s t h a t make themselves f e l t .  These t o some e x t e n t can be  seen as " o b j e c t i v e " by t h e s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s .  Batton  (1947:21)  n o t e d t h a t due t o s a l e s and t r a n s f e r o f l a n d , N i g e r i a n s and Ghanaians were becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y dependent upon wage e a r n i n g s .  I t i s not  too d i f f i c u l t t o t h i n k o f a r u r a l v i l l a g e r who f i n d s c l a n o r s t o o l l a n d i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o use and u s u f r u c t r i g h t s d i m i n i s h i n g w i t h l a n d a l i e n a t i o n . He then seeks a wage e a r n i n g o c c u p a t i o n by, o r e v e n t u a l l y i n t h e c i t y .  near-  Drought o r crop f a i l u r e might a l s o  r e s u l t i n h i s i n a b i l i t y t o make a l i v i n g .  Costs o f i r r i g a t i o n ,  f e r t i l i z a t i o n , o r i n s e c t i c i d e s becomes t o o much f o r him t o see con-  49  ( C o s t s o f Remaining)  t i n u i n g v i l l a g e r e s i d e n c e as v i a b l e a c t i o n . as c o n s a n g u i n e a l individual.  T r a d i t i o n a l c o s t s such  and/or a f f i n a l o b l i g a t i o n s may be a burden on an  I f they become p a y a b l e i n cash o r goods and he i s un-  a b l e t o produce on t h e l a n d he may seek t o l i v e e l s e w h e r e , o r he may go t o t h e c i t y o n l y l o n g enough t o c o l l e c t s u f f i c i e n t c a s h t o pay for  a dowry o r an o b i t u a r y ceremony. Gugler  (1968:464) noted t h a t among o t h e r c a u s e s , new ob-  l i g a t i o n s caused by t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f c e r t a i n t a x p o l i c i e s i n r u r a l a r e a s , a r e among t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s made by r u r a l r e s i d e n t s l e a v i n g f o r urban a r e a s t o seek wage employment.  These new c o s t s  o r new g o a l s not e a s i l y f i l l e d g i v e n r u r a l r e s o u r c e s , a r e n o t s i m p l y related to migration.  Badouin (1966) suggested t h a t more a t t e n t i o n  be p a i d t o changes i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l a t t i t u d e s of r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n s . The  i n d i v i d u a l must f i r s t p e r c e i v e c o s t s t o a c t on them. New U r b a n - l i k e c o s t s , c a s h demands, t a x e s ,  educational  c o s t s , f a m i l i a l o b l i g a t i o n s , and even f e e l i n g s o f a l i e n a t i o n from t h e n a t a l community, can be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n when s e e k i n g an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e m i g r a t i o n p r o c e s s .  R e l a t i v e to the i n d i -  v i d u a l ' s perception of h i s b e n e f i t s of remaining,  h i s costs of mi-  g r a t i n g t o t h e c i t y , and h i s b e n e f i t s o f m i g r a t i n g t o a c i t y , he would be more prone t o m i g r a t e  i f t h e whole a g g r e g a t i o n  l a g e c o s t s , as he f e e l s them, become g r e a t e r .  of h i s v i l -  (City  50  Benefits)  B e n e f i t s of M i g r a t i n g to a C i t y  2)  (Hypothesis  I f we c o u l d t e m p o r a r i l y assume t h a t a n i n d i v i d u a l has no o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n t o e n a b l e him t o r e - e v a l u a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o s t s and b e n e f i t s o f l e a v i n g o r s t a y i n g , t h e n a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n about b e n e f i t s a c c r u i n g t o a move t o the c i t y would r e s u l t i n a h i g h e r r a t i o of b e n e f i t s t o c o s t s and would tend t o i n c r e a s e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t he would  migrate.  Information  2.A)  (Sub-hypothesis  One o f t h e more i m p o r t a n t  " b e n e f i t s " a c c r u i n g t o an i n d i -  v i d u a l g o i n g t o a n urban environment, i s t h e f e e l i n g o f b e i n g a t ease t h a t comes from a knowledge o r a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f t h a t environment.  T h i s i n c l u d e s knowledge o f p i t f a l l s t h a t may be found i n t h e c i t y , f o r t h a t knowledge r e s u l t s i n t h e c a p a b i l i t y o f d e v e l o p i n g t o a v o i d those p i t f a l l s . or too important be a s s e s s e d  tactics  I f t h e p i t f a l l s a r e j u d g e d t o be t o o many  t h e n o f c o u r s e the c o s t s a c c r u i n g t o t h e move would  as t o o h i g h r e l a t i v e t o t h e b e n e f i t s .  Paradoxically  though, i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e s e c o s t s , i s a n a s s e t n o t a l i a b i l i t y , as i t i n c r e a s e s t h e b e n e f i t / c o s t r a t i o a c c r u i n g t o a move. P r i o r t o t h e move t o a c i t y , a n i n d i v i d u a l r e c e i v e s  infor-  m a t i o n about t h e b e n e f i t s t h a t might a c c r u e t o h i s move t h e r e . may g e t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n v i a a number o f c h a n n e l s — urban c i v i l s e r v a n t s and businessmen i n h i s town, h i s  returned  He migrants,  teachers.  (City  51  Benefits)  l e t t e r s from u r b a n r e l a t i v e s , r a d i o , o r h i s own t r i p t o t h e c i t y . A few g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s s e r v e t o i n t r o d u c e  the e f f e c t s o f such i n f o r -  m a t i o n on the d e c i s i o n o f an i n d i v i d u a l . O f t e n i n c r e a s e d t i o n i t s e l f , has a n e f f e c t o f i n c r e a s i n g f a m i l i a r i t y .  This  a r i t y may be thought o f as a b e n e f i t i n t h e b e n e f i t / c o s t and  i t serves t o increase  Also t h i s information  informafamili-  decision  the p o s s i b i l i t y of a d e c i s i o n to leave.  i n c l u d e s d a t a about new g o a l s and new hopes  w h i c h may be s a t i s f i e d by m i g r a t i o n .  The c i t y may s e r v e as a  c h a n n e l f o r s a t i s f y i n g g o a l s and hopes o r i g i n a t i n g a l s o i n t h e r u r a l environment.  O b l i g a t i o n s and d e b t s w h i c h might be c l a s s e d as  t r a d i t i o n a l might be seen a s p a y a b l e , o r a v o i d a b l e l e a v e f o r t h e c i t y i s made.  Further,  i f a decision to  the c i t y a f f o r d s  opportunities.  These a r e i n t h e form o f wage o p p o r t u n i t i e s , consumer o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and non-wage o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  The knowledge o f a t r a n s i t o r y e n v i r o n -  ment w i t h i n the c i t y f o r example may s e r v e t o d i m i n i s h any a p p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e unknown.  Such a n environment may t a k e t h e form o f a  g h e t t o - l i k e s o c i e t y w i t h i n t h e c i t y , o f f e r i n g c u l t u r a l c o n t a c t s and c o n t i n u i t y f o r t h e immigrant from t h e v i l l a g e .  A l l of these  things  c o n s t i t u t e i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l may t h i n k o f as b e i n g benefits accruing Caldwell  t o a d e c i s i o n to m i g r a t e . (1968) found t h a t t h e p r o p e n s i t y  ians to migrate to c i t i e s increased  o f r u r a l Ghana-  both w i t h respect  t o geographi-  c a l p r o x i m i t y , and l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n o f t h e p o t e n t i a l m i g r a n t s .  This  i s s i m i l a r t o t h e f i n d i n g s o f Brunner (1957) and P i h l b l a d and Gregory  52  (City Benefits)  (1957) n o t e d above.  T h i s demographic phenomenon t r a n s l a t e d i n t o  i n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n making i n d i c a t e s t h a t f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e c i t y , i n d i c a t e d by c l o s e n e s s t o t h e c i t y and amount of u r b a n i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e form o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n , c a n be c o n s i d e r e d as i n c r e a s e d b e n e f i t s o r p o s s i b l y lower p s y c h i c c o s t s r e l a t e d t o t h e move. Smith (1956) i n a study of 157 f a m i l i e s i n I n d i a n e a p o l i s , concluded  t h a t l a c k of s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o g e o g r a p h i -  c a l immobility.  He p r e d i c t e d t h a t employment i n f o r m a t i o n , i f d i r e c -  t e d t o l a r g e segments o f s o u t h e r n Negro A m e r i c a n p o p u l a t i o n s , would r e s u l t i n p r e s e n t l y unemployed o r underemployed Negroes m i g r a t i n g more t h a n those i n the n o r t h , o r more than those i n C a u c a s i a n segments of the s o u t h e r n  U.S. p o p u l a t i o n .  I n f o r m a t i o n about o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n -  c r e a s e s t h e b e n e f i t r a t i o , as w e l l as i n f o r m a t i o n p e r s e . Payne (1956) n o t e d t h a t G e o r g i a s c h o o l b o y s  tended t o r e f e r  t o i n f o r m a l i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s as s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n when choosing  f u t u r e urban r e s i d e n c e and o c c u p a t i o n s .  Familiarity  w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r urban s o c i a l environment, as a b e n e f i t o f m i g r a t i n g may weigh as h i g h i f n o t h i g h e r than the c o l d e r c a l c u l a t i o n s o f t h e p u r e l y monetary r e t u r n s a c c r u i n g t o such a d e c i s i o n . t h e absence of r e f e r e n c e by h i s i n f o r m a n t s counselling. less  t o formal  Payne noted occupational  Formal e d u c a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s l e s s f a m i l i a r and  trustworthy. D e s c l o i t r e s (1965) c o n t r a s t e d European development w i t h  A f r i c a n development, but t h e c o n t r a s t does not r e p u d i a t e t h e u n i v e r -  (City  Benefits)  53  s a l i t y of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between b e n e f i t i n f o r m a t i o n and r u r a l u r ban m i g r a t i o n . suggests,  He n o t e d t h a t t h e " t r a n s i s t o r  precedes the t o o l "  i n c o n t r a s t t o European economic development and  change, t h a t c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n i n A f r i c a precedes  social  mechanization.  T h i s he s a i d w i l l r e s u l t i n c o n s i d e r a b l e s o c i a l change w i t h o u t r e l a t i v e accompanying t e c h n i c a l p r o g r e s s .  individual  d e c i s i o n s to move on t h e b a s i s of urban i n f o r m a t i o n gleaned radio.  A f r i c a n migrants  The  c h a n n e l s whereby a v i l l a g e r e s i d e n t may  opportuni-  g a i n access  Read (1942:610) n o t e d t h a t the  j o r i t y of t e m p o r a r i l y u r b a n i z e d A f r i c a n s m a i n t a i n e d Van V e l s o n  to  of b e i n g r e p l a c e d by machines on the farms.  urban i n f o r m a t i o n a r e m a n i f o l d .  villages.  from  t h u s have more a c c e s s  town i n f o r m a t i o n and l e a v e more as a r e s u l t of s e e k i n g new t i e s than as a r e s u l t  the  Subsumed however i n t h i s  s o c i a l change a r e m i g r a t o r y movements w h i c h a r e r o o t e d i n  the t r a n s i s t o r  and  links with  to ma-  their  (1960:265) i n a study o f r u r a l Tonga of M a l a w i  noted t h a t a b s e n t v i l l a g e r s s t i l l had a s t a k e i n v i l l a g e a f f a i r s p l a y e d s o c i a l r o l e s d e s p i t e t h e i r absence.. s t u d i e s have a l r e a d y been c i t e d .  E a r l i e r , Gugler  d u a l l o y a l t i e s o f urban r e s i d e n t s who v i l l a g e s i n eastern Nigeria.  Gugler's  maintained  1968  and  (1965) had links with  Read (1942:605) suggested t h a t  great m a j o r i t y of t e m p o r a r i l y urbanized A f r i c a n s maintained l i n k s w i t h t h e i r v i l l a g e s of o r i g i n .  mining  1969 noted  their the some  Ampene (1967) p o i n t e d out  t h e r e were two k i n d s of urban r u r a l c o n n e c t i o n s  and  that  from O b u a s i , a g o l d  town i n Ghana t o t h e v i l l a g e s from w h i c h much of t h e p o p u l a t i o n  54  (City Benefits)  came.  Dagomba, Dagartey and o t h e r migrant wage l a b o r e r s from t h e  n o r t h most o f t e n s t a y f o r j u s t under f i v e y e a r s b e f o r e r e t u r n i n g . Akans, Ewes, Adangbes and o t h e r s from t h e s o u t h o f Ghana u s u a l l y s t a y much l o n g e r , but r e t u r n home a t l e a s t once, and on t h e a v e r a g e , t w i c e a year.  Alverson  c y c l i c migration.  (1967) developed a t i m e s e r i e s a n a l y s i s of A f r i c a n There a r e many more r e f e r e n c e s  t i o n , temporary urban r e s i d e n c e , and c o n t i n u e d migrants,  to c i r c u l a r  migra-  urban r u r a l l i n k s o f  i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e about A f r i c a . C i r c u l a r m i g r a t i o n combined w i t h urban r u r a l communication  l i n k s l e a d s t o a g r e a t e r f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h c e r t a i n urban c o n d i t i o n s on t h e p a r t of r u r a l r e s i d e n t s .  Temporary m i g r a t i o n l e a d s t o more  c i t y i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e v i l l a g e w h i c h i n t u r n l e a d s t o more m i g r a t i o n , p a r t o f w h i c h i s temporary m i g r a t i o n .  To know t h a t t h e r e a r e f r i e n d s  and r e l a t i v e s l i k e h i m s e l f who s u r v i v e i n t h e c i t y i n c r e a s e s t h e benef i t e s t i m a t i o n i n t h e eyes o f a d e c i s i o n maker c o n t e m p l a t i n g life.  city  L a t e r , when examining c i t y c o s t s I w i l l show t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n  and f a m i l i a r i t y have t h e d u a l f u n c t i o n s o f l o w e r i n g c i t y c o s t s and increasing city benefits.  Education  (Sub-hypothesis  2.B)  C l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e e f f e c t of i n c r e a s e d i n f o r m a l i n f o r m a t i o n c a u s i n g a h i g h e r tendency t o m i g r a t e , more f o r m a l s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n a l s o i n c r e a s e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h c i t y  life.  55  (City Benefits)  One of t h e s e more f o r m a l channels i s p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n . e d u c a t i o n a l achievements  J u s t as h i g h e r  r e s u l t i n the c o s t of o s t r a c i s m a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h s t a y i n g i n t h e v i l l a g e , so do t h e s e e d u c a t i o n a l e f f e c t s r e s u l t i n g r e a t e r i n f o r m a t i o n about a more c o s m o p o l i t a n , urban l i f e An i n d i v i d u a l may  style.  f e e l more q u a l i f i e d t o cope i n a c i t y and be more  apt to i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e v a l u e s i n an urban m i l e a u i f he has had a c cess t o c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n i n h i s f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . i n t h e f i r s t category,, r u r a l c o s t s , were Hamilton's N o r t h C a r o l i n a m i g r a n t s , Hine's ties, Lijfering's  Already noted (1958) study of  (1962) study o f f o u r Alabama coun-  (1959) s t u d y of N e t h e r l a n d s m i g r a n t s ,  Brunner's  (1957) r e v i e w , M a r s h a l l ' s (1959) a n a l y s i s of W i s c o n s i n census P i h l b l a d and Gregory's  (1957) s t u d y o f M i s s o u r i g r a d u a t e s , Ramsey  and Anderson's (1958) study o f New  York m i g r a n t s , and C a l d w e l l ' s  (1965) s t u d y of Ghanaian r u r a l urban m i g r a n t s .  A l l of t h e s e found a  r e l a t i v e l y h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n between e d u c a t i o n a l achievements migration to c i t i e s . who  data,  T h i s i s somewhat the f i n d i n g s of Stub  and (1962:80)  r e p o r t e d t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s and managers tended t o m i g r a t e l o n g e r  d i s t a n c e s t h a n do lower s t a t u s m i g r a n t s .  I t i s a l s o s u b s t a n t i a t e d by  A l l e n , Buck, and Winn (1955) who  found r u r a l P e n n s y l v a n i a y o u t h  m i g r a t i o n to be r e l a t e d t o I.Q.  A n o t e of c a u t i o n i s needed  The f o r m a l c h a n n e l s may  n o t be as i m p o r t a n t as i n f o r m a l c h a n n e l s ,  as Payne (1956) c i t e d above, n o t e d . may  though.  The f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n however  p r o v i d e more i n f o r m a t i o n of a g e n e r a l i s e d and a b s t r a c t n a t u r e  which may  r a i s e the b e n e f i t c a l c u l a t i o n i n the e s t i m a t e s of an  indi-  (City  Benefits)  56  v i d u a l c o n s i d e r i n g a move t o t h e c i t y . probably  The i n f o r m a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s  more c o n c r e t e and s p e c i f i c , and i s c i t e d i n r e f e r e n c e t o a  c h o i c e t o move t o a p a r t i c u l a r r e s i d e n c e , n o t m e r e l y t o a c i t y .  Life Style Similarity  ( S u b - h y p o t h e s i s 2.C)  B e n e f i t s o f l i v i n g i n an a l i e n environment a r e much lower t h a n those a c c r u i n g t o an environment t h a t i s somewhat s i m i l a r t o t h e i m m e d i a t e l y p r i o r , f a m i l i a r , environment.  J u s t a s e d u c a t i o n and  o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n makes t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r e p a r e d f o r t h e c i t y so do r u r a l - l i k e e n c l a v e s make t h e c i t y p r e p a r e d f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l .  When  t h e r e a r e a r e a s i n t h e c i t y w h i c h might be c a l l e d g h e t t o s , o r what Hanna (1967) c a l l e d "middle p l a c e s " , they f u n c t i o n so as t o t r a n s m i t information necessary f o r r e - s o c i a l i z a t i o n of the migrant.  Hanna  found t h a t m i g r a n t s tended t o come f i r s t t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e " m i d d l e p l a c e " when they came t o a c i t y .  I n f a c t he found t h a t l i n k s i n  t h e s e p l a c e s were o f t e n s t r o n g e r w i t h t h e v i l l a g e t h a n w i t h modern sectors of the c i t y .  A move t o such a p l a c e might even be s o c i o l o g i -  c a l l y c a t e g o r i s e d as r u r a l - r u r a l m i g r a t i o n r a t h e r than r u r a l - u r b a n migration.  Abu-Lughod (1961) u s i n g 1947 E g y p t i a n  census d a t a n o t e d  t h a t most m i g r a n t s t o C a i r o went t o subcommunities w h i c h comforting grants.  provided  s i m i l a r i t i e s t o t h e former r u r a l l i f e s t y l e of t h e m i -  Ampene (1967). c i t e d e a r l i e r , n o t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t r i b a l  a s s o c i a t i o n s i n Obuasi.  Gutkind  (1965:57) r e p o r t e d t h a t Ganda mov-  i n g i n t o Mulaga found e x t e n s i v e k i n n e t w o r k s , and found t h a t urban-  (City Benefits)  57  i z a t i o n was r a t h e r an e x t e n s i o n of Ganda s o c i e t y . e q u i v a l e n t i n a l l m i g r a t i n g c u l t u r e s however.  The e f f e c t i s n o t  G u t k i n d a l s o found  t h a t non-Ganda found i t n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s t r u c t a " s p e c i f i c  urban  way of l i f e " and tended t o be l i n k e d w i t h " a s s o c i a t i o n based n e t w o r k s " r a t h e r than " k i n - b a s e d networks". r e l a t i v e to c l a s s s t r u c t u r e .  Blumberg  The e f f e c t i s a l s o v a r i e d  (1959) i n a s t u d y c o n s i s t i n g  o f 133 i n t e r v i e w s found t h a t Negro M i g r a n t s t o P h i l a d e l p h i a tended t o go to p l a c e s where they c o u l d r e i n f o r c e k i n t i e s o r c r e a t e pseudo k i n t i e s i f they were of l e s s s o c i a l l y m o b i l e lower c l a s s e s .  How-  ever they tended t o b r e a k k i n t i e s and r e l y more on a s s o c i a t i o n s i f they were more upwardly m o b i l e and m i d d l e c l a s s .  The e f f e c t i s  v a r i e d so as t o have more c o m m e r c i a l l y opportune e f f e c t s i n West Africa.  Cohen (1969) f o r example, wrote how  Hausa have adapted  tra-  d i t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l l i n k s t o d e v e l o p an i n f o r m a l system of l o n g d i s t a n c e t r a d e between Yoruba c i t i e s .  Other i n d i c a t i o n s a r e numerous.  Mayer (1962) n o t e d t h e p r o p e n s i t y f o r many A f r i c a n m i g r a n t s t o East London t o e n c a p s u l a t e themselves w i t h " t r i b a l - l i k e " r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e c i t y and P a r k i n (1969) r e p o r t e d t h e p e r s i s t e n c e of t h e import a n c e of e t h n i c and k i n t i e s i n t h e A f r i c a n c i t y ward he s t u d i e d . Gans (1962:8) r e p o r t e d a s i m i l a r I t a l i a n m i d d l e p l a c e i n B o s t o n . G a r i q u e (1956:1090) d e s c r i b e d a s i m i l a r F r e n c h Canadian  example.  The p e r s i s t e n c e of " g h e t t o - l i k e " communities and e t h n i c s e c t o r s o f c i t i e s e n j o y i n g much human g e o g r a p h i c m o b i l i t y i s f u r t h e r o f the t r e n d .  indication  What i s i m p o r t a n t here i s t h e e f f e c t of t h e s e m i d d l e  (City  Benefits)  58  p l a c e s on t h e i n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n maker.  Such e n c l a v e s  have c l o s e  communication l i n k s t o t h e r u r a l a r e a from w h i c h t h e m i g r a n t popul a t i o n came.  I n f o r m a t i o n about t h e s e more c o m f o r t a b l e ,  familiar  s p o t s w i t h i n t h e a l i e n c i t y g e t s back t o t h e r u r a l r e s i d e n t s . i n f o r m a t i o n i s such t h a t t h e s e e n c l a v e s  If  look l e s s f r i g h t e n i n g , the  i n d i v i d u a l ' s " b e n e f i t o f m i g r a t i n g " assessment w i l l r i s e , and i n c r e a s e h i s p r o b a b i l i t y of migrating to the c i t y .  Wage O p p o r t u n i t i e s  ( S u b - h y p o t h e s i s 2.D)  The most o f t - c i t e d a t t r a c t i o n t o A f r i c a n c i t i e s , i s t h e hope f o r wage e a r n i n g s . are  Most o f t h e p e o p l e who do t h e c i t i n g  p e o p l e who have been s o c i a l i z e d and t r a i n e d i n a w e s t e r n  c u l t u r e , one w h i c h l a y s a h i g h v a l u e on t h e w o r t h of a monetary i n come.  I t has been s t r e s s e d here t h a t income i s n o t e q u i v a l e n t t o  wages nor i s monetary income an i n d e x n e c e s s a r i l y h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d to w e a l t h  consumption.  C o n s e q u e n t l y when i t i s suggested t h a t i n -  come, o r t h e sum of b e n e f i t s a c c r u i n g t o urban m i g r a t i o n , i s a major f a c t o r i n t h e d e c i s i o n t h i s i s n o t t o equate income w i t h wages o r a salary.  S t i l l , many w r i t e r s n o t e t h a t money i s e v a l u a t e d h i g h l y i n  A f r i c a n w e a l t h e s t i m a t i o n s and as a r e s u l t o f w e s t e r n i n f l u e n c e , i t s estimation i s r i s i n g .  One c a n t h e n p o i n t out t h a t t h e q u a n t i t y of  money p e r p e r s o n i s h i g h e r i n more dense p o p u l a t i o n s , o r c i t i e s , i n l e s s dense, or r u r a l a r e a s .  Money i s c o n c e n t r a t e d  than  i n these areas.  (City  Benefits)  59  Thus i n d i v i d u a l s may  move t o t h e s e h i g h e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s  of money i n  the hopes of g e t t i n g some. As e a r l y as f o r t y y e a r s ago  Batton  (1930:100) had  noted  t h a t more and more N i g e r i a n s and Ghananians were becoming w h o l l y dependent on wage e a r n i n g s , and  later  (1947:21) e x p l a i n e d t h i s  as  b e i n g a r e s u l t of the i n t r o d u c t i o n of s a l e s and t r a n s f e r s of l a n d . Shapera (1947:142) r e p o r t e d t h a t K g a t l a would a l l o w young men  to go  t o town t o e a r n cash, e n s u r i n g a c a s h f l o w of urban r e s o u r c e s  into  the v i l l a g e .  S i n c e the second World War,  Eames (1954) s t u d i e d  g r a n t s from Madhopur, a v i l l a g e i n s o u t h e a s t He n o t e d t h a t i n f o r m a n t s  Uttar Pradesh, I n d i a .  gave r e a s o n s f o r m i g r a t i n g as b e t t e r wages  and ease i n f i n d i n g employment. migrating  mi-  These may  have been r e a s o n s f o r  to the c i t y but they d i d not seem to be reasons f o r s t a y -  i n g , as he a l s o found t h a t o n l y 13 of the 91 f a m i l i e s seemed t o have a d j u s t e d t o c i t y l i f e and  t h a t 60 per c e n t had been t h e r e f o r l e s s  t h a n 5 y e a r s w h i l e o n l y 5 per c e n t had s t a y e d over 15 y e a r s . the same t i m e , i n A f r i c a , R i c h a r d s  About  (1954:64) n o t e d t h a t l a b o r e r s i n  Buganda were a t t r a c t e d from t h e i r farms because they were surrounded by consumption and l e a r n e d t o d e s i r e wages. (1957:48) r e c o r d e d i l y come by" was  Three y e a r s l a t e r Banton  t h a t y o u t h s t r e s s e d t h a t money, b e i n g "more eas-  an i m p o r t a n t  c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e i r move to Freetown.  Four y e a r s l a t e r , a few w r i t e r s n o t e d t h e e f f e c t of wage a t t r a c t i o n s on o t h e r c o n t i n e n t s .  I p s e n (1958) argued t h a t the mass  r u r a l u r b a n m i g r a t i o n i n Germany had  i t s r o o t s i n i n d u s t r i a l agglom-  60  (City Benefits)  e r a t i o n r a t h e r than i n r u r a l c o n d i t i o n s .  Saville  (1958) c i t e d c e n t r a -  l i z a t i o n of employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s c o u p l e d w i t h s t e a d y d e c l i n e i n work and unemployment i n r u r a l communities and Welsh m i g r a t i o n i n t h e l a s t 150 y e a r s .  as major f a c t o r s i n E n g l i s h Nash (1958:455) sees  r u r a l urban m i g r a t i o n b a s i c a l l y as a response t o the quest f o r b e t t e r income s o u r c e s .  He c i t e s t h e d i s e q u i l i b r i u m between s u p p l y and  demand as the fundamental f a c t o r . t h a t New  Ramsey and Anderson  (1958) found  Y o r k S t a t e m i g r a n t s tended t o have more l a b o r f o r c e p a r t i -  c i p a t i o n t h a n t h e non-migrant t i o n i s necessary here.  p o p u l a t i o n . However, a word of c a u -  Ramsey and Anderson a l s o found a s l i g h t  tendency f o r m i g r a n t s t o have a lower median o f incomes t h a n nonmigrants.  So t h e hope f o r wages may  be a f a c t o r i n the m i g r a t i o n  d e c i s i o n , but the r e s u l t i n g a c t i o n may t h a t hope b e i n g f u l f i l l e d .  not n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t i n  T h i s a t t r a c t i o n of wages combined w i t h  a c t i o n t h a t l e a d s t o lower t h a n e x p e c t e d wages, m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n a number o f ways.  K e y f i t z (1965) n o t e d t h e predominance of t e r -  t i a r y employment i n South and Southeast A s i a .  He found t h i s to be a  p o l i t i c a l l y s t a b i l i z i n g f a c t o r even i f not " e c o n o m i c a l l y r a t i o n a l . " The a t t r a c t i o n o f wage l a b o r t o towns not c o u p l e d w i t h i n d u s t r i a l growth has l e d t o t h e predominance of t e r t i a r y s e c t o r s i n many deve l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , not o n l y i n West A f r i c a .  Lambert (1965:169) f o r  example n o t e s t h e tendency of m i g r a n t s i n L a t i n A m e r i c a , to make f o r t e r t i a r y sectors. may  Auger (1968) r e p o r t e d t h e same f o r Congo.  People  come t o c i t i e s i n s e a r c h of wages even i f t h i s r e s u l t s i n what  (City Benefits)  61  s u b s t a n t i v i s t economists may  c a l l i n e f f i c i e n t a l l o c a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s .  M i g r a n t s u n a b l e to get r e g u l a r j o b s i n p r i m a r y or secondary end up hawking r e t a i l goods on t h e s t r e e t s .  industries  However, most w e s t e r n  o b s e r v e r s s t i l l see wages as the urban a t t r a c t i o n . A r d e n e r , Edwin and S h i r l e y  (1960:250) c o n c l u d e d f o r ex-  ample t h a t t h e o v e r r i d i n g cause of r u r a l urban m i g r a t i o n i n the Cameroons was  t h e "power of economic f a c t o r s " .  By t h i s they d i d not  mean by "economic" any u n i v e r s a l d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s , as s t r e s s e d i n this thesis.  They meant  c o n f i r m e d by G u l l i v e r  monetary a t t r a c t i o n s .  (1960) who  T h i s view  was  said:  The men l e a v e home t o o b t a i n money, m a t e r i a l w e a l t h ; they do not l e a v e i t i f a r e a s o n a b l e s t a n d a r d i s o b t a i n a b l e by l a b o u r and e n t e r p r i s e a t home. T h i s v i e w a l s o permeates the l i t e r a t u r e on m i g r a t i o n i n Europe.  Kem-  p i n s k i (1961), f o r example, speaks o f "economic p u l l f a c t o r s " when he t a l k s of East German m i g r a n t s who  go t o c i t i e s i n s e a r c h of wages  and t h e n not f i n d i n g them, m i g r a t e t o o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . Four y e a r s l a t e r w r i t e r s on A f r i c a o f f e r e d o b s e r v a t i o n s f o r comparison.  N z i m i r o (1965:125) c i t e d a d e s i r e on the p a r t of  Igbo educated e l i t e s to f i n d new consideration.  Descloitres  o c c u p a t i o n s as a major m i g r a t i o n  (1965), as c i t e d above, observed t h a t  c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n preceded m e c h a n i z a t i o n and q u e s t i o n e d the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of Western economic models. f o r wage l a b o r may  He suggested t h a t t h e d e s i r e  precede any i n c r e a s e i n wage employment o p p o r t u -  n i t i e s due t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments.  The f o l l o w i n g y e a r a few  62  (City Benefits)  arguments were made i n f a v o r o f wages b e i n g t h e major drawing power of c i t i e s .  Ampene (1966) p r i o r t o h i s 1967 s t u d y r e p o r t e d on t h e  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e growth of O b u a s i , i n s o u t h e r n Ghana, a town w h i c h , he s a i d , owes i t s growth t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a g o l d mine. Gamble (1966) saw t h e r a p i d e x p a n s i o n Lunsarj, S i e r r a Leone, as a r e s u l t of t h e j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s of an open c a s t i r o n mine.  Otten-  b e r g (1966:190) saw N i g e r i a n urban growth as due t o commercial a t t r a c t i o n s , m i n i n g and t r a d e .  H u t t o n (1966) w r o t e t h a t the o v e r r i d i n g  f a c t o r of m i g r a t i o n was, a g a i n , "economic" f a c t o r s .  G u g l e r (op. c i t . :  464) n o t e d t h a t among o t h e r c a u s e s , r u r a l r e s i d e n t s when l e a v i n g f o r urban a r e a s seek employment f o r wages.  Badouin (op. c i t . ) ,  however,  i n summing up the L e w i s and Barber t h e o r y and i t s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t economic growth i n urban a r e a s r e s u l t s i n " p u l l " , suggested t h a t t h i s i s not a p p l i c a b l e t o A f r i c a n r u r a l u r b a n m i g r a t i o n .  He n o t e d  t h a t changes i n p s y c h i c a t t i t u d e s of r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n i s more a t t h e r o o t o f the cause of t h i s m i g r a t i o n .  V i l l i e n - R o s s i (1966:5) pub-  l i s h e d d a t a which s u p p o r t s t h i s , as she shows the p e r s i s t e n c e of urban m i g r a t i o n i n s p i t e of urban unemployment i n F r e n c h West A f r i c a . B y l s (1967), i n a s t u d y of l a b o r m i g r a t i o n i n F r e n c h West A f r i c a found t h a t " f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h market economics" was an import a n t f a c t o r i n the r u r a l urban m i g r a t i o n d e c i s i o n .  He n o t e d the  v e r y low demand f o r l a b o r w h i c h was o v e r l o o k e d o r i g n o r e d by m i g r a n t s who  sought work.  T h i s he found as fundamental to e x c e s s i v e l a b o r  t u r n o v e r and low wages i n West A f r i c a .  The a t t r a c t i o n of wage l a b o r  (City Benefits)  63  seems t o be more apparent  than r e a l .  This i s further substantiated  by unemployment f i g u r e s from urban and r u r a l a r e a s i n Ghana.  Bir-  mingham (1967:56, t a b l e 1,21), f o r example, c a l c u l a t e d t h a t 27 p e r cent o f unemployed urban p e o p l e were i n t h e 20-24 y e a r age group w h i l e o n l y 18 p e r c e n t o f t h e r u r a l unemployed were i n t h a t age group. S i m i l a r d i f f e r e n c e s a c c r u e t o t h e 25-29 y e a r age group;15%:8%, and t o t h e 30-34 y e a r age group; 9%:5%.  The l a r g e r t h e c i t y , t h e l a r g e r  t h e p e r c e n t a g e of t h e l a b o r f o r c e was r e c o r d e d as unemployed and a c t i v e l y s e e k i n g work.  Comparable t o a 4% unemployment r a t e f o r  t h e whole o f Ghana, A c c r a t h e l a r g e s t c i t y had 10% unemployed w h i l e Kumasi t h e second l a r g e s t had 8% unemployed and S e k o n d i - T a k o r a d i had 2 an unemployment r a t e o f 9%.  Non-Wage B e n e f i t s  ( S u b - h y p o t h e s i s 2.E)  There a r e numerous i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t m i g r a n t s see w e a l t h a c c r u i n g t o a move t o t h e c i t y , i n f a r more ways t h a n a monetary acquisition.  Some have a l r e a d y been mentioned.  The p o s i t i v e c o r -  r e l a t i o n between e d u c a t i o n and r u r a l urban m i g r a t i o n s u b s t a n t i a t e d by Brunner  (1957), C a l d w e l l (1968) i n Ghana, H a m i l t o n (1958), Huie  (1962), L i j f e r i n g and Gregory  (1959), M a r s h a l (1959), M a r t i n s o n (1958), P i h l b l a d  (1957), Ramsey and Anderson (1958) and Roy (1961) c i t e d  e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r , a l l i n d i c a t e t h a t new goods, new i d e n t i t i e s ,  Y.  See T a b l e i n Chapter  Three.  64  (City Benefits)  new a s p i r a t i o n s , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s l e a d t o the hope t h a t new r o l e s , new o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r " b e t t e r " l i f e s t y l e s , were o f f e r e d by c i t i e s .  The e x i s t e n c e of "middle p l a c e s " and the d a t a  p r o v i d e d by Blumberg (1959), Cohen (1969), Mayer (1962), P a r k i n (1969), Abu-Lughod (1961), Ampene (1967), G u t k i n d (1965), Hanna (1967) i n d i cate " b e n e f i t s " of c e r t a i n c i t y l i f e  styles.  In h i s s t u d y of Bwamba economy, W i n t e r  (op. c i t . : 3 8 ) found  t h a t few urban m i g r a n t s i n Uganda had money uppermost i n t h e i r minds. They l o o k e d a t the c i t y as a p l a c e which had b e n e f i t s r e l a t e d to freedom and anonymity.  G u t k i n d (1965a:128) noted t h a t r u r a l  m i g r a t i o n opened up new  c h o i c e s of r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l .  L a t e r (1965b:4) he  urban  stated:  The f o c u s b e h i n d change and m o d e r n i z a t i o n a r e not r o o t e d i n r a p i d i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n but r a t h e r i n a v e r y w i d e s p r e a d d e s i r e to seek a l t e r n a t i v e ways of making a living. Y e t he i n d i c a t e d t h a t the p e r c e p t i o n of those o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e not l i n k e d to the s t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t s .  To t h e c o n t r a r y :  Even today the unemployed i n most A f r i c a n towns cons t i t u t e between 12 p e r c e n t and 22 p e r c e n t of t h e urban population. (1965:5) Later,Imoagene (1967:380) noted t h a t N i g e r i a n s who  migrated  from  J e s s e , a v i l l a g e community i n M i d w e s t e r n N i g e r i a , t o S a p e l e , an i n d u s t r i a l town, were more m o t i v a t e d by what he c a l l e d " p s y c h o - s o c i a l f a c t o r s of change i n m i g r a n t s ' need d i s p o s i t i o n " t h a n by economic f a c t o r s . "  "objective  T h i s i s s i m i l a r t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n reached by  65  (City Benefits)  B a d o u i n , c i t e d above and G u g l e r (op. c i t . : 4 6 4 ) .  The c i t y was p e r -  c e i v e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o be c a p a b l e of f i l l i n g t h e new needs more r e a d i l y than t h e v i l l a g e .  An example o f such non-monetary b e n e f i t s  was noted above where Gugler (op. c i t . ? 1 3 7 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t b a r r e n women would be t h e f i r s t t o m i g r a t e .  They might p e r c e i v e t h e c i t y  as b e i n g an environment where t h e r e i s more freedom, i n t h e form o f anonymity.  Thus t h e c i t y p r o v i d e s b e n e f i t s . M i g r a t i o n d e c i s i o n s based on wage o p p o r t u n i t i e s do n o t  always y i e l d r e s u l t s as a n t i c i p a t e d .  I t can be f a i r l y s a f e l y  stated  t h a t a n t i c i p a t e d wage b e n e f i t s a c c r u i n g t o an i n d i v i d u a l moving from a r e l a t i v e l y r u r a l a r e a t o a more urban one a r e more i m p o r t a n t than t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of wages p e r s e .  66  ( B e n e f i t s of Remaining)  B e n e f i t s of Remaining  (Hypothesis  3)  Assuming t h e r e were no f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n about c o s t s or b e n e f i t s accruing to migrations  and  t h a t c o s t s of r e m a i n i n g were the  same, i f an i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e d t h a t h i s o v e r a l l income were d i m i n i s h i n g he would c o n s i d e r means of r e c t i f y i n g the s i t u a t i o n . t i o n i s one of such means.  Lower r u r a l income, b o t h m a t e r i a l and  o t h e r w i s e , s h o u l d r e s u l t i n m i g r a t i o n from r u r a l a r e a s . to be the c a s e as r e p o r t e d by most s t u d i e s i n w e s t e r n Martinson  Migra-  T h i s seems cultures.  (op. c i t . ) f o r example, found M i n n e s o t a m i g r a n t s  who  moved, l e s s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h and a d j u s t e d t o t h e i r r u r a l environment. They were b e t t e r a d j u s t e d t o t h e h i g h s c h o o l , symbol of the o u t s i d e w o r l d of academic, l i t e r a r y and s c i e n t i f i c p u r s u i t s , families  and t h e i r community.  rural l i f e resulted  Lower p s y c h i c income a c c r u i n g t o  i n t h e i r seeking a l t e r n a t i v e  environments.  same h o l d s f o r more s u b s t a n t i v e m a t e r i a l i s t i c income. (op. c i t . ) n o t e d a "push" f a c t o r quirements, r e s u l t i n g  saw  as b e i n g a f a l l i n farm l a b o r r e -  F i n d i n g l e s s monetary income r u r a l  dents sought work elsewhere. results  resi-  i n m i g r a t i o n from the r u r a l a r e a s .  (1958:63) saw a steady  m u n i t i e s as a major f a c t o r  thus  Lower r u r a l income, r e l a t i v e to o t h e r  t h i s b o t h as r i s i n g c i t y b e n e f i t s and as l o w e r i n g urban  Saville  The  Kempinski  i n l e s s r u r a l employment i n B e l g i u m , and  i n r u r a l urban m i g r a t i o n .  c o s t s and b e n e f i t s ,  t h a n to t h e i r  He  benefits.  d e c l i n e i n employment i n r u r a l com-  i n r u r a l exodus i n Wales.  ( B e n e f i t s of Remaining)  B e n e f i t s of  67  Harvest  Gulliver  (op. c i t . ) a l s o noted t h a t m i g r a t i o n i n s o u t h e r n  A f r i c a had most of i t s impetus i n y e a r s of poor c r o p s , and t h e n came mostly  from poor a r e a s .  P e o p l e were l e s s i n c l i n e d t o m i g r a t e  the r u r a l a r e a s when c r o p s were good. h y p o t h e s i s of t h i s t h e s i s .  T h i s s u b s t a n t i a t e s the  from third  I t i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y , however, t o the r e -  s u l t s of a study made by C a l d w e l l (op. c i t . : 3 6 5 ) w h i c h showed a h i g h e r p r o p e n s i t y f o r urban m i g r a t i o n amongst t h o s e West A f r i c a n r u r a l r e s i d e n t s who w e l l t o do.  were b e t t e r o f f than f o r t h o s e who  were l e s s  These c o n t r a s t i n g i n d i c a t i o n s , however, a r e not n e c e s -  s a r i l y mutually e x c l u s i v e .  A more w e l l - t o - d o r u r a l r e s i d e n t i n West  A f r i c a would be more f a m i l i a r w i t h urban l i f e s t y l e s prone to m i g r a t e .  T h i s agrees w i t h H y p o t h e s i s  2.  and be more  Then a g a i n , a  g i v e n p o p u l a t i o n , a t a time o f f a i l u r e of r u r a l r e s o u r c e s , would seek a l t e r n a t i v e incomes. lar to  W i t h i n a g i v e n a r e a and d u r i n g a p a r t i c u -  crop s t a t u s people w i t h more knowledge o f urban l i f e would tend m i g r a t e more than those who  Hypothesis  3.  had l i t t l e o r none.  T h i s agrees w i t h  G i v e n a c e r t a i n knowledge o f the c i t y , an  would be more prone to move than d u r i n g bad  individual  times.  B e n e f i t s of Residence  E l k a n (1959) noted how  on n o n - a l i e n a b l e communal l a n d usu3 f r u c t r i g h t s i n A f r i c a depended s o l e l y on o c c u p a t i o n . He p o i n t e d 3.  T h i s i s u n t r u e i n many p a r t s o f A f r i c a , even i n " t r a d i t i o n a l " areas.  68  ( B e n e f i t s o f Remaining)  out t h a t t h i s r e s u l t e d i n no compensation b e i n g p a i d to m i g r a n t s f o r v a c a t i n g the l a n d .  G i v e n the h y p o t h e s i s  g e n e r a t e d above, we  could  p r e d i c t a h i g h e r r a t e of d e c i s i o n s to remain because b e n e f i t s o f remaining  on the l a n d were h i g h e r .  o n l y i f he s t a y e d .  An i n d i v i d u a l had  access to land  But i n A f r i c a t h i s s i t u a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n c i r c u -  l a r m i g r a t i o n r a t h e r than i n r e m a i n i n g  i n the v i l l a g e .  Africans  thus tended to v i e w wage employment i n the c i t y as temporary.  One  a t f i r s t would e x p e c t to f i n d l e s s m i g r a t i o n where l e s s r u r a l  land  i s s a l a b l e , and more m i g r a t i o n where t h e r e a r e compensations f o r v a c a t i n g the l a n d .  I n A f r i c a , i n s t e a d o f l e s s m i g r a t i o n , the m i g r a -  t i o n i s l e s s permanent. Foster education  (1968) d i s a g r e e d w i t h a w i d e l y h e l d a s s u m p t i o n t h a t  caused r i s i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s w h i c h t h e n caused r u r a l u r b a n  m i g r a t i o n and T h i s p o i n t was  thus unemployment due  to l a c k of w h i t e c o l l a r  r a i s e d i n H y p o t h e s i s 1 and H y p o t h e s i s 2.  jobs.  Foster s a i d  t h a t s c h o o l l e a v e r s w i l l take manual j o b s d e s p i t e t h i s a s s u m p t i o n h e l d about them, but even these manual j o b s a r e  unavailable.  S e c u r i t y as a B e n e f i t G i v e n t h e I n f o r m a t i o n - d e c i s i o n - a c t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e one would e x p e c t p e o p l e w i t h a background o r t r a d i t i o n o f urban l i f e to more prone to m i g r a t i o n to the c i t y . the f o l l o w i n g and f i n a l h y p o t h e s i s .  be  T h i s i s examined more f u l l y i n However G u t k i n d  (1968:44) n o t e s :  ( B e n e f i t s of Remaining)  69  We s h o u l d n o t i g n o r e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s f a r l e s s o r g a n i z e d v i l l a g e l i f e i n E a s t than i n West A f r i c a and hence r u r a l y o u t h can move more r e a d i l y to t h e urban a r e a s o f t h e E a s t than t o those o f West A f r i c a . . . . This d i r e c t l y c o n t r a d i c t s a hypothesis w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s which s t a t e s t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l would be more prone t o m i g r a t e g i v e n more urban i n f o r m a t i o n , t h a t i s i f he has grown up i n a c u l t u r e w i t h some urban t r a d i t i o n .  A t t h e same time t h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t an i n -  d i v i d u a l i s more prone t o l e a v e a v i l l a g e i f i t i s i n c a p a b l e , i n h i s eyes, o f p r o v i d i n g enough expected b e n e f i t s .  S e c u r i t y i s one such  b e n e f i t , and more e a s i l y found i n t h e v i l l a g e w i t h a c l a n s t r u c t u r e . Monetary income a l s o poses problems i n terms of t h e A f r i can a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h i s h y p o t h e s i s .  Nash (1958) argued t h a t s u p p l y  and demand d i s e q u i l i b r i u m l e a d s t o a f a l l i n p r o f i t and i n income levels i n agriculture.  T h i s i s caused by o v e r s u p p l y o f a g r i c u l t u r a l  p r o d u c e , and i n f l e x i b i l i t y o f a g r i c u l t u r a l o u t p u t . leads to m i g r a t i o n . to  West A f r i c a .  capital costs.  This i n turn  H i s argument however, does n o t d i r e c t l y  apply  P r i c e s o f farm produce a r e r i s i n g , even r e l a t i v e t o T h i s i s p a r t l y due t o u r b a n i z a t i o n , and a g r e a t e r  demand on t h e market f o r f o o d produce. be met by i m p o r t i n g .  Food s h o r t a g e s o f t e n have t o  The w e s t e r n model o f e x p l a n a t i o n does n o t f i t .  I n c r e a s e i n wage l a b o r r a i s e s demand f o r f o o d . duces s u p p l y o f f o o d .  Rural migration r e -  P r i c e s and thus p r o f i t s on f o o d  production  a r e r i s i n g , n o t f a l l i n g , and y e t t h e r e i s s t i l l r u r a l urban m i g r a t i o n .  70  (Costs o f M i g r a t i n g )  Costs o f M i g r a t i n g  (Hypothesis  4)  Assuming t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l has no o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h causes h i s e v a l u a t i o n 6 f b e n e f i t s o f urban l i f e and h i s e v a l u a t i o n s o f c o s t s and b e n e f i t s o f r e m a i n i n g  i n a r e l a t i v e l y r u r a l s e t t i n g to  change, t h e n new i n f o r m a t i o n about h i s p e r c e i v e d c o s t s o f m i g r a t i n g to  a c i t y w i l l r e s u l t i n a new r a t i o between t h e f a c t o r s and a d i f -  f e r e n t tendency t o m i g r a t e .  I f the i n d i v i d u a l f e e l s that costs of  m i g r a t i n g to and l i v i n g i n a c i t y a r e f a l l i n g r e l a t i v e t o t h e o t h e r t h r e e f a c t o r s then he would be more prone t o l e a v e .  I f he f e e l s t h a t  such c o s t s a r e r i s i n g r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , he would p r o b a b l y be more c o n t e n t  t o remain.  Such c o s t s c o u l d range from a gen-  e r a l f e e l i n g o f a p p r e h e n s i o n t o a s p e c i f i c knowledge o f h i g h r e n t s . I f an i n d i v i d u a l has grown up i n a c u l t u r a l m i l i e u where m i g r a t i o n i s common such c o s t s would be l o w e r .  M i g r a t i o n would be  a more a c c e p t a b l e a c t i o n t h e n i n a l e s s s e d e n t a r y environment may i n c l u d e h i s p r i m a r y  society.  This  s o c i a l i z a t i o n environment, h i s  f a m i l y , h i s c l a n , h i s t r i b e , o r so on.  I f an i n d i v i d u a l t h e r e f o r e i s  of an e t h n i c group w i t h a m i g r a t i o n t r a d i t i o n , o r has a f a m i l y w i t h a h i s t o r y o f m i g r a t i o n , he would p r o b a b l y lower than o t h e r w i s e .  see m i g r a t i o n c o s t s as  As J . C l y d e M i t c h e l l (1959:12) s t a t e d :  The n o r m a t i v e system o f t h e s o c i e t y i s one o f t h e axes a l o n g w h i c h the m o t i v a t i o n o f l a b o r m i g r a t i o n o p e r a t e s . The living.  same a p p l i e s t o a f a m i l y o r e t h n i c t r a d i t i o n o f urban  As w i t h a t r a d i t i o n o f m i g r a t i o n , a h i s t o r y o f urban  life  71  (Costs o f M i g r a t i n g )  i n t h e m i l i e u o f an i n d i v i d u a l l o w e r s t h e p e r c e i v e d c o s t s o f h i s own a n t i c i p a t e d urban r e s i d e n c e . t i o n o r urban e v e n t s .  F r i e n d s and f a m i l y t a l k about m i g r a -  F a m i l i a r i t y lowers the psychic c o s t s .  Elders  r e l a t e t h e i r own p a s t a c t i o n s and the i n d i v i d u a l sees t h a t p e o p l e he knows were a b l e to do i t . i t strange  He t h e r e f o r e i s l e s s l i k e l y t o t h i n k  t h a t he do i t . Such f a m i l i a r i t y  i n c l u d e s knowledge o f c e r t a i n l i f e s t y l e s  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m i g r a t i o n and w i t h c i t y l i f e .  A greater  understand-  i n g o f money, o f wages, o f market t r a n s a c t i o n s i n c r e a s e s t h e m o b i l i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l .  The same a p p l i e s t o a l l h a b i t s more a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h t h e c i t y and c i t y  Traditions  life.  and F a m i l y H i s t o r i e s o f R u r a l Urban M i g r a t i o n There a r e a number o f s t u d i e s w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s  more tendency f o r an i n d i v i d u a l t o m i g r a t e t o t h e c i t y i f he comes from a f a m i l y o r e t h n i c c a t e g o r y i l i a r w i t h urban l i f e s t y l e s . s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophesies  more prone t o m i g r a t e o r more fam-  S t a t i s t i c a l p r o o f s however tend t o be  u n l e s s c a r e f u l l y examined.  To say f o r  example t h a t Igbo's tend t o l i v e i n c i t i e s more than o t h e r West A f r i c a n e t h n i c groups l i v e i n c i t i e s because they have a l w a y s tended t o do s o , i s not much o f a c a u s a l e x p l a n a t i o n .  There i s no d i r e c t  consequence o f r u r a l urban m i g r a t i o n o f any i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e i n g an Igbo.  T h i s i s n o t an h y p o t h e t i c a l example; N z i m i r o  (1965) p o i n t e d  (Costs o f  Migrating)  out t h a t Igbo  have a h i g h e r r u r a l urban m i g r a t i o n r a t e than  o t h e r e t h n i c group. anything  72  Causes of Igbo d e c i s i o n s must be found o u t s i d e  i n t r i n s i c to b e i n g  Igbo.  As e a r l y as f i f t e e n y e a r s ago one way  any  W i n t e r (op. c i t . : 3 8 ) suggested  i n which t r a d i t i o n a l m i g r a t i o n was  P r i o r to the f o r m a t i o n  r e l a t e d to u r b a n i z a t i o n .  of c o m m e r c i a l c e n t e r s , Bwamba i n d i v i d u a l s  found m i g r a t i o n an escape when v i l l a g e s i t u a t i o n s became u n b e a r a b l e . P s y c h i c c o s t s l e a d to m i g r a t i o n as i n H y p o t h e s i s 1. such i n d i v i d u a l s s e e k i n g  Now,  however,  escape see l i f e e a s i e r i n the anonymity of  a c i t y r a t h e r than i n the r e - a d j u s t m e n t to a s i m i l a r nearby v i l l a g e as i n the p a s t .  A t r a d i t i o n of m i g r a t i o n r e s u l t s i n low  migration  costs f o r i n d i v i d u a l s . Shapera (1947:116) noted t h a t t r a v e l was t i o n i n t o manhood i n the Bechuanaland P r o t e c t o r a t e . t r a v e l to a c i t y i s a r e c e n t l y a c c e p t a b l e  custom.  a form of  I n Botswana Akinola  sees Yoruba r u r a l urban m i g r a t i o n l e s s as a consequence of z a t i o n and  initia-  (op. c i t . ) westerni-  commercial m o d e r n i z a t i o n but more of an e x t e n s i o n of  d i t i o n a l urban l i f e s t y l e .  Yoruba, he r e p o r t s , r e f l e c t such t r a d i -  t i o n s i n t h e i r semantic c a t e g o r i e s . h i l l settlements  tra-  C l e a v e (1966:39) mentions  were abandoned a f t e r c o l o n i s t s stopped wars.  how Used  t o such "urban" l i f e , y e t w i t h o u t the need f o r p r o t e c t i o n from a t t a c k , A f r i c a n s then t r a n s p o s e d a t r a d i t i o n of m i l i t a r y - u r b a n l i f e commercial-urban l i f e i n r e c e n t h i s t o r y and  d e c l i n e of war  times.  S i d d l e (1968) t r a c e d  towns i n S i e r r a Leone.  They a r e  the being  to  73  (Costs o f M i g r a t i n g )  r e p l a c e d by commercial towns i n i m p o r t a n c e . of a d a p t a t i o n .  This i s simply a matter  P e o p l e used t o "urban" l i f e o f p r e c o l o n i a l times  found t h a t t h e major i m p o r t a n c e , d e f e n c e , was superceded by a new i n t e r e s t , commerce. Barbour's (1965) f o u r examples o f r u r a l - r u r a l  migrations  has a l r e a d y been c i t e d i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n . C a l d w e l l (op. c i t . ) found t h a t Ghanaians were more i n c l i n e d to  migrate  t o a c i t y i f t h e i r f a m i l y had a m i g r a t i o n p a t t e r n , as w e l l  as f o r t h e r e a s o n s noted e a r l i e r .  Ameyaw (1966) i n d i c a t e d how t h e  Kwawu l o c a t e d themselves i n t h e p r e s e n t Kwawu a r e a by m i g r a t i n g from Adanse, K e n k y i r a , Tena, B r e t u o , Asona, and A s h a n t i . moving, as i n d i c a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s . how t h e Akan, i n c l u d i n g Kwawu c o m p r i s i n g  They a r e s t i l l  Boahen (1966) n o t e d  two-thirds of the population  of Ghana, o r i g i n a t e d as a r e s u l t o f "Negroes m i g r a t i n g t o t h e Dahomey Gap  i n t h e t h i r d m i l l e n i u m B.C., and moving i n t o t h e f o r e s t r e g i o n s  from t h e Bono-Takyiman-Gyaman r e g i o n s .  Abner Cohen (op. c i t . ) n o t e d  how Hausas i n Yoruba towns use e t h n i c customs from r u r a l s o c i e t y t o d e v e l o p a p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h e s t a b l i s h e d economic c o n t r o l s over l o n g d i s t a n c e t r a d e i n c e r t a i n commodities.  These  adaptations  to modern urban l i f e were t h e d i r e c t consequences o f e t h n i c t r a d i tions.  Rural-urban  m i g r a t i o n i n v o l v e s low c o s t s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s i n  c u l t u r e s t h a t have h i s t o r i e s and t r a d i t i o n s o f m i g r a t i o n .  74  (Costs o f M i g r a t i n g )  M i d d l e P l a c e s and C o s t s o f R u r a l Urban M i g r a t i o n  The lower c o s t s a c c r u i n g to c i t y l i f e where m i d d l e p l a c e s e x i s t was  noted above as h i g h e r b e n e f i t s a c c r u i n g to urban m i g r a t i o n .  Hanna (1967), Abu-Lughod (1961), Ampene (1967), Eames (1954), G u t k i n d (1965), Blumberg (1959), Cohen (1969), Mayer (1962), and P a r k i n were already c i t e d .  I t i s here t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s e p a r a t e lower  c o s t s from g r e a t e r b e n e f i t s g i v e n the frameworks and p e r s p e c t i v e s i n which these authors wrote.  R u r a l T r a i n i n g and F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h Urban C o n d i t i o n s F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h urban l i f e s t y l e l o w e r s the c o s t o f c i t y living.  Such c o s t s i n c l u d e those of f i n d i n g work.  Acqua (1958:65)  noted t h a t the m a j o r i t y of jobs i n manufacturing i n A c c r a r e q u i r e d s k i l l e d and s e m i - s k i l l e d  labor.  Persons from s o u t h e r n Ghana and  A s h a n t i had more t r a i n i n g and exposure t o such o c c u p a t i o n s and them, whereas persons from the n o r t h w i t h l e s s exposure j o b s took m e n i a l o c c u p a t i o n s .  Ampene (1967) was  filled  to s k i l l e d  c i t e d above.  The  c l o s e r t i e s of t h e s o u t h e r n e r s to t h e i r r u r a l homes were l i n k e d more permanent urban l i f e s t y l e .  to  P o s s i b l y as r u r a l r e s i d e n t s they  were more f a m i l i a r w i t h urban l i f e due to the more f r e q u e n t v i s i t s of p r i o r m i g r a n t s , so they f e l t "more a t home" when they went to Obuasi.  As a l r e a d y n o t e d , B y l s (1967) found i n Francophone A f r i c a  t h e tendency  f o r persons f a m i l i a r w i t h market economy to m i g r a t e i n  (Costs of  75  Migrating)  s e a r c h of wage l a b o r ,  D o r j a h n (1967) noted i n h i s 1962-63 study  t r a d i t i o n a l entrepreneurs men  were s i n g l e , had  Jyrkila  of  i n Madburaho, S i e r r a Leone, t h a t most t r a d e s -  t r a v e l l e d w i d e l y and were r e c e n t  immigrants.  (1958) i n h i s study of F i n n i s h y o u t h n o t e d t h a t m i g r a n t s  c i t i e s w i t h some c i t y background were b e t t e r a d j u s t e d than w i t h r u r a l backgrounds.  Gugler  in  migrants  (1968:480) found t h a t r u r a l urban  m i g r a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n more wage income i n r u r a l a r e a s w h i c h r e s u l t e d t h e n ,in more r u r a l urban m i g r a t i o n .  C a l d w e l l (op. c i t . ) n o t e d t h a t  t h e p r o p e n s i t y to m i g r a t e t o c i t i e s i n Ghana i n c r e a s e s w i t h the i m i t y t o a l a r g e r town. t h e c i t y was  prox-  T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t more i n f o r m a t i o n from  channeled to p o t e n t i a l migrants  become more f a m i l i a r w i t h urban r e q u i r e m e n t s .  so as t o a l l o w them t o He n o t e d t h a t the  p e n s i t y a l s o i n c r e a s e s w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s i z e of the r u r a l  pro-  center.  I n t e r p r e t e d i n the I n f o r m a t i o n - d e c i s i o n - a c t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e , i n d i v i d u a l s i n l a r g e r r u r a l c e n t e r s a r e more f a m i l i a r w i t h c i t y l i f e than i n d i v i duals i n smaller r u r a l centers. tendency t o m i g r a t e  to a c i t y .  This f a m i l i a r i t y leads to a greater He f u r t h e r n o t e d t h a t the  propensity  to m i g r a t e t o c i t i e s a l s o i n c r e a s e d w i t h the e c o n o m i c a l w e l l - b e i n g of the m i g r a n t or p o t e n t i a l m i g r a n t . a r e more d i s p o s e d  T h i s would suggest t h a t  migrants  to move to urban a r e a s (where p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e  monetary economy i s almost mandatory) i f they a r e b e t t e r o f f  substan-  t i v e l y and more f a m i l i a r w i t h wage economics a s s o c i a t e d w i t h urban life.  M i g r a t i o n f o r such i n d i v i d u a l s does not r e p r e s e n t a b i g jump  from a non-monetary economy but an easy a d a p t a t i o n , t h e p s y c h i c  costs  (Costs o f  76  Migrating)  of w h i c h a r e much l o w e r .  C a l d w e l l a l s o found t h e m i g r a t i o n propen-  s i t y a l s o i n c r e a s e d w i t h the l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n of the Costs a r e lower to  migrant.  f o r the i n d i v i d u a l more f a m i l i a r w i t h c i t y l i f e  contact w i t h teachers, reading of books  t i f i c a t i o n w i t h a more c o s m o p o l i t a n  way  a  due  and a l s o a g r e a t e r i d e n -  of l i f e .  However t h i s  v a t i o n must be tempered w i t h a f u r t h e r f i n d i n g of C a l d w e l l .  obser-  Occupa-  t i o n s were of minor s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n r u r a l urban m i g r a t i o n patterns.  Such data t o some e x t e n t negates t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , o r a t  l e a s t does not support i t . However, the fundamental h y p o t h e s i s  s t i l l applies:  a  de-  c r e a s e i n the p e r c e i v e d c o s t s a c c r u i n g t o a move to a more urban a r e a i n c r e a s e s the r e l a t i v e v a l u e of such m i g r a t i o n , and  increases  the p r o b a b i l i t y o f such a c t i o n .  Conclusions  Drawn From the L i t e r a t u r e Survey  I t i s easy to see why one  category.  "push" f a c t o r s have c o l l a p s e d i n t o  R u r a l push i s u s u a l l y seen as a l o w e r i n g of the cap-  a b i l i t y o f r u r a l a r e a s to s a t i s f y the needs of t h e r e s i d e n t s . must be seen a n a l y t i c a l l y as a change i n o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s of factors:  an i n c r e a s e i n the c o s t s of r e m a i n i n g ,  the b e n e f i t s of r e m a i n i n g . new  forms o f income, new  g o a l s may  As m i g r a n t s  a r e exposed to new  The  two  and a d e c r e a s e i n  o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the b r o a d e s t  be thought t o have i n c r e a s e d .  This  ideas,  sense t h e i r  f a i l u r e of the  rural  77  (The L i t e r a t u r e )  economy and e c o l o g y  t o s a t i s f y t h e s e g o a l s may be thought o f as a  r e l a t i v e decrease i n b e n e f i t s . r e l a t e d to remaining  The i n c r e a s e i n p e r c e i v e d  hardship  may be thought o f as a r e l a t i v e r i s e i n c o s t s .  Both o f these c a n be c a t e g o r i z e d i n t h e same " r u r a l - p u s h " f a c t o r o f r u r a l u r b a n m i g r a t i o n , h i g h e r c o s t s , lower b e n e f i t s . There a r e two l e s s o n s t o l e a r n f r o m t h e e x a m i n a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e with respect to the i n d i v i d u a l perspective.  of the  F i r s t , mone-  t a r y and non-monetary incomes p l a y s i m i l a r r o l e s i n e x p l a i n i n g i n d i v i d u a l decision-making.  Second, one might p r e d i c t a d e c i s i o n t o  r e m a i n g i v e n a w e s t e r n c o n t e x t b u t might f i n d , g i v e n s i m i l a r  informa-  t i o n v a l u e s , temporary o r c i r c u l a r m i g r a t i o n i n s t e a d o f no m i g r a t i o n . C i r c u l a r m i g r a t i o n i s an A f r i c a n a d a p t a t i o n t o combined f o r c e s l e a d i n g to m i g r a t i n g from t h e r u r a l a r e a s and r e m a i n i n g The g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s  i n the r u r a l  areas.  s t i l l i s a v a l i d framework f o r e x p l a n a t i o n i n  that a d e c i s i o n to migrate  i s more l i k e l y when an i n d i v i d u a l p e r -  c e i v e s a r e l a t i v e d e c r e a s e i n the monetary o r non-monetary b e n e f i t s a c c r u i n g t o h i s s t a y i n the r u r a l  area.  Rising v i l l a g e costs, lowering v i l l a g e b e n e f i t s , r i s i n g c i t y b e n e f i t s , and l o w e r i n g c i t y c o s t s a r e a l l i n t e r r e l a t e d f a c t o r s . A l l four contribute to i n d i v i d u a l ' s decisions to migrate.  Some f a c -  t o r s , such as i n c r e a s e d urban i n f o r m a t i o n , a r e d i f f i c u l t t o c a t e g o r i z e as e i t h e r i n c r e a s e d urban b e n e f i t s o r d e c r e a s e d urban c o s t s , b u t i n e i t h e r c a t e g o r y r a i s e the b e n e f i t - c o s t r a t i o o f t h e m i g r a t i o n d e c i sion.  L i k e w i s e as o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s sometimes o v e r l a p , i t i s d i f f i c u l t  t o a s s e s s whether a f a c t o r i s a r i s e i n c o s t o r a d e c r e a s e i n b e n e f i t s .  CHAPTER THREE  Information  The P h y s i c a l and S o c i a l Environment The Environments o f a Kwawu M i g r a n t  Map 1 U  MAP OF LOCAL  CEA/SL'S  P  P  £  73  AU7HO&/T/ES  £  A/ / G  EJ?  Mf ,> LAWRA  X  ^,~  ;<'  ,f> l  TUMU  JCUSASI  FRAFRA \  4  I  \  -\j90/t.SA .  SOUTH  C  MAMP&USI  —> N  O  r /  s6  ft i  •' WESTERN  WESTERN  EASTERN  \  J i  JV  P  r  DAGOM8A  v.  OAGOMBA  \  GONJA ^1  NANUM3A  TERN  Cl_  GO/VUA  <5>  <v> .8UEM  -  KRACH/  BBONG-AHAFO  O  JV  G  H-  NORTH  fBCOAJG*  A  F.  O  ~,~ 3R.OA/G-AHAFO  EAST  AHAFO f CENTRAL  R  aJHUtAA  -  I  -  V  (  KUMASf  ; SEXYERE  \NORTH  >  '  8RONG-  AHAFO I  H\ JtUMASI  SOUTH  \N  KU/UASt. y/ l  -•—Jy'i  T/  Vx 1 ': \ °j  nIS/WAS/* _v  WES  SEFW \W/AWSO\  A  ,.  V.  J  wr  MOM OA/SO  JfS.  'NORTH  KWAHU  \.KPANQO  A S T E R N • •»->_*"'.  AMANS/E  ft  AO ANS I -  TONGU  BANKA  AMENFI-AOWM  •y ANLO ( * NORTH L  ^mwP, SHAI  ^  MSSAU?A--\  ,I  E \MZJMA-CVALUE-\ ^AJOMORO-GW/RA  , •„ ^ ,  )p AR  "> I  COM OA (  \  \  t<' \s  GHANA  (Information)  79  West A f r i c a i s more than a l o c a l e f o r urban s t u d i e s ; i t i s a frame o f r e f e r e n c e f o r e x p l o r i n g n o n - i n d u s t r i a l , a g r i c u l t u r a l , and commercial based c i t i e s . ^ I n West A f r i c a t h e r e a r e a g r e a t number o f v i l l a g e s  from  w h i c h m i g r a n t s l e a v e , and many a r e a s of v a r y i n g urban s t a t u s , t o w h i c h m i g r a n t s choose t o go.  The i m p l i e d p e r m u t a t i o n s a r e t o o  numerous t o l i s t i n d e t a i l h e r e .  I n s t e a d , one c i t y and one r u r a l  a r e a i n Ghana a r e t a k e n as examples. L o c a l A u t h o r i t i e s " on page 78.  See Map One, "Census Map o f  People migrate to that c i t y  from  many o t h e r a r e a s than from t h e one r u r a l a r e a named h e r e , and t h e y a l s o m i g r a t e from t h a t r u r a l a r e a t o p l a c e s o t h e r than t h e c i t y c r i b e d here.  des-  The d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e s e two a r e a s i s o f f e r e d b o t h  as example and as a d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g environment  type w i t h i n which  the i n d i v i d u a l makes a c h o i c e .  The i n f o r m a t i o n i s o f f e r e d i n t h i s  c h a p t e r t o s e r v e two p u r p o s e s .  The f i r s t i s t o p r o v i d e d a t a c o r r e s -  ponding to t h e I n f o r m a t i o n a s p e c t o f t h e I n f o r m a t i o n - d e c i s i o n - a c t i o n model.  The i n f o r m a t i o n p e r c e i v e d a s s i m i l a t e d and weighed by any one  d e c i s i o n maker i n t h e a r e a , o f c o u r s e , cannot be e x a c t l y t h e same as p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s s i n c e no a l l o w a n c e i s made f o r t h e i n d i v i dual s u b j e c t i v e response.  However, t h e s e d a t a do c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e  "Information" aspect of the Information-decision-action p e r s p e c t i v e . The second purpose i s to p r o v i d e t h e r e a d e r w i t h some r e l e v a n t ethnog r a p h i c d a t a about t h e f i e l d so he may be f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l 1.  environment.  Simms, R.F., U r b a n i z a t i o n i n West A f r i c a , A Review of C u r r e n t L i t e r a t u r e . E v a n s t o n , 1965, p. x i i i .  (Information)  80  The r u r a l a r e a chosen h e r e i s t h e Kwawu t r a d i t i o n a l a r e a . Kwawu i s i n a t r o p i c a l farm and r a i n f o r e s t t e r r a i n p a r t l y on a h i l l y p l a t e a u ( a l t i t u d e 1000 f e e t ) and on e i t h e r  side of i t .  of t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n l i v e i n a number o f s m a l l v i l l a g e s .  Most There  i s one l a r g e town i n Kwawu c a l l e d Nkawkaw w h i c h might be c a l l e d a n i n t e r m e d i a t e p o i n t i n a r u r a l urban continuum. m i l e s south i s the c l o s e s t c i t y :  Accra.  About one hundred  See Map Two on page 81.  The continuum o f r u r a l t o urban t h e n , i n t h i s example, comprises v i l l a g e s i n r u r a l Kwawu, Nkawkaw t h e town, and A c c r a t h e c i t y .  The  s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l environments o f each o f t h e s e w i l l be b r i e f l y sketched.  CHAPTER THREE A  The R u r a l A r e a  Kwawu P h y s i c a l and S o c i a l Environment The Environment From Which Kwawu M i g r a t e  82  (Kwawu) There were no p e a s a n t s b e f o r e t h e f i r s t  cities.  The Kwawu Environment The Kwawu a r e a i s s i t u a t e d i n s o u t h e r n Ghana, i n t h e East e r n Region.  I t i s e a s t of A s h a n t i and west o f t h e V o l t a R e g i o n . 2  The p e o p l e l i v e on t h e Kwahu  p l a t e a u , and on t h e Afram p l a i n s t o  the n o r t h and west o f t h e p l a t e a u . i n Each A r e a " , on page 97. of  See Map Three, "Predominant  Tribe  P r i o r t o t h e r i s e o f A s h a n t i , the p e o p l e  the a r e a l i v e d f i r s t i n caves and l a t e r i n v i l l a g e s i s o l a t e d  each o t h e r .  from  A t t h e time o f t h e Adanse d i s t u r b a n c e s , as A s h a n t i was  b e i n g formed, O s e i Twum, moved i n t o t h e a r e a and r u l e d near A k w a t i a . V a r i o u s T w i - s p e a k i n g c l a n s f l e e i n g t h e D e n k y i r a , or l o s i n g l a n d i n Adanse, m i g r a t e d t o t h e a r e a .  I t was t h e n named Okwa'u.  The Tena  and t h e B e r e t u o from Mampong A s h a n t i f i r s t moved t o A s h a n t i Bekwai and t h e n moved as one c l a n t o Mampong A k r o f o n s o .  The c l a n t h e n be-  came i n v o l v e d i n d i s p u t e s w i t h S a h a n t i i n Kodiabe and i n Hwidiem (Ashanti Akim).  They t h e n moved t o Dwerebe h i l l i n Kwawu, and from  t h i s m i l i t a r y vantage p o i n t d e v a s t a t e d Awere and r u l e d i n Abene. L a t e r immigrants came t o Abene from Akwamu i n 1733. The Aduana c l a n 1. 2.  R e d f i e l d , R o b e r t , The P r i m i t i v e World and I t s T r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . I t h i c a , New Y o r k , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1953, p. 31. Both Kwawu and Kwahu r e f e r t o t h e same group. As Okwa'u was t r a n s c r i b e d i n t o a Roman A l p h a b e t the "'" was r e p l a c e d by a "h". As E n g l i s h i s pronounced t h e Kwawu s p e l l i n g i s c l o s e r t o what t h e peop l e s a y . Ghana government documents o f t e n use b o t h , w i t h one o r the o t h e r i n p a r e n t h e s e s , o r e l s e e i t h e r . The Kwahu s p e l l i n g app e a r s more f r e q u e n t l y on m i s s i o n and b u s i n e s s documents, and on government maps. The "Kwawu" s p e l l i n g i s used here t o r e f l e c t t h e p e o p l e ' s p r o n u n c i a t i o n . "Kwahu" i s used t o r e f e r t o p l a c e names and census a r e a s thus d e s i g n a t e d .  83  (Kwawu)  s e t t l e d i n Obo.  The Asona s e t t l e d a t Mpraeso.  The l a s t major group  o f immigrants were t h e Oyoko from A s h a n t i f l e e i n g from Opoku Ware's elders.  They s e t t l e d a t A t i b i e , near Mpraeso.  The Kwawu a l l i e d w i t h  the A s h a n t i t o f i g h t Akyem Kotoku, and A t a r a F i r a m . a n t i war,  t h e Kwawu seceded from A s h a n t i , y e t have m a i n t a i n e d  terms ever s i n c e .  dialects.  amicable  This h i s t o r i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h A s h a n t i accounts  f o r many s i m i l a r i t i e s between Kwawu and A s h a n t i .  137.  W i t h t h e Sager-  Both speak Twi  See Diagram 4, " C a t e g p r i z a t i o n o f Spoken Kwawu", on page 3  Rattray  was s u r e enough about t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s t h a t when he  c o l l e c t e d A s h a n t i t a l e s , f o r t h e most p a r t he g o t them from Kwawu informants. Kwawu i n more r u r a l s e t t i n g s s t i l l do n o t tend t o l i v e i n i s o l a t e d homesteads.  L i k e most Akans they l i v e i n v i l l a g e s c o n t a i n -  i n g more than one,  and up to seven o r e i g h t exogamous m a t r i l i n e a l  clans.  ethnography, such as R a t t r a y , s h o u l d g i v e a more  A standard  comprehensive d e s c r i p t i o n . are rare.  Single nuclear family dwelling units  More common a r e compounds surrounded by rooms o f v a r y i n g  s i z e s f o r members o f t h e abusua o r m a t r i c l a n , and f o r c o o k i n g and so on. The c e n t e r o f t h e compound i s open, y e t e n c l o s e d by rooms or a w a l l .  The a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n , p l u s t h e use o f s w i s h , c l a y ,  b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s r a t h e r t h a n b o t a n i c a l f o r e s t p r o d u c t s b o t h suggest 3.  R a t t r a y , R.S., A k a n - A s h a n t i F o l k T a l e s . O x f o r d , C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1930. F o r f u r t h e r e t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a on A s h a n t i s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e see R a t t r a y , R.S., A s h a n t i . O x f o r d , C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1923.  84  (Kwawu)  t r a d i t i o n s r e a c h i n g back t o a p r e - f o r e s t , savannah e x i s t e n c e .  Nev-  e r t h e l e s s , a h i s t o r y o f u r b a n - l i k e r e s i d e n c e i s p a r t o f Kwawu c u l t u r e . Few p e o p l e l i v e on i s o l a t e d homesteads, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f an o c c a s i o n a l "hamlet" w h i c h may be t e m p o r a r i l y o c c u p i e d by a few p e o p l e near a n i s o l a t e d farm d u r i n g seasons when c o n t i n u o u s  d a i l y work i s  r e q u i r e d f o r a week o r two. Another e x c e p t i o n o f i s o l a t e d l i v i n g i s a h a n d f u l o f f e t i s h p r i e s t s who l i v e a p a r t from Kwawu v i l l a g e s . a l l , however, Kwawu a r e used t o u r b a n - l i k e v i l l a g e  In  life.  Some o f t h e v i l l a g e s on the t o p of t h e Kwawu escarpment include:  Abene, one o f t h e f i r s t Kwawu v i l l a g e s t o be founded;  Awere, w h i c h p l a y e d a n i m p o r t a n t (literally  p a r t i n e a r l y Kwawu h i s t o r y ; A b e t i f i  "palm t r e e - h i g h " i n Twi) w h i c h has t h e h i g h e s t a l t i t u d e o f  the v i l l a g e s on t h e Kwawu escarpment; Mpraeso, w h i c h i s on most maps because o f i t s i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e Americans who b u i l t a paved  road  from Nkawkaw so as t o b r i n g b a u x i t e o u t d u r i n g t h e war; Obo, w h i c h was founded i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y by a woman, Gyemfa Kyaade ( t h e c h i e f o f Obo, Nana K o f i B e d i a k o , Kwawu N i f a h e n e , adopted me as h i s s o n ) ; Obomeng, ( l i t e r a l l y ,  "on t h e way t o Obo", i n T w i ) , sometimes  c a l l e d t h e " f u n e r a l town" due t o t h e d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number o f p e o p l e b u r i e d t h e r e (as e x p l a i n e d l a t e r ) ; T a f o o r Kwahu-Tafo mentioned l a t e r as t h e hometown o f Kwaku t h e b l a c k s m i t h ; and Takwa, somewhat to  t h e e a s t o f t h e o t h e r v i l l a g e s and near t h e n o r t h e a s t edge o f t h e  scarp.  Some o f t h e v i l l a g e s down on t h e p l a i n s on t h e n o r t h e a s t  s i d e o f t h e escarpment i n c l u d e :  Adawso, now a s m a l l f e r r y p o r t and  85  (Kwawu)  f i s h i n g v i l l a g e due t o t h e f l o o d i n g of t h e Afram and t h e c r e a t i o n of t h e V o l t a Lake; A d u f u a , Aframso, Mankron,  S e i d u , and T i r i b u m , w h i c h  were d i s p l a c e d by t h e r i s e of t h e Afram making the V o l t a Lake; and Worobong, w h i c h grew as a r e s u l t of the d i s p l a c e m e n t .  F u r t h e r out  on the Afram p l a i n s a r e the v i l l a g e s o f Abomasalafuo, Aseyensu, Bonkrom, F a s o , K w e s i a d a i , Mopta, Santaboma, and Sumsei.  Many Kwawu  have moved out on t h e Afram p l a i n s and a c r o s s t o t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n b o r d e r o f N o r t h Kwahu, near Kpandu i n the V o l t a R e g i o n , and a l s o as f a r as J a s i k a n , i n t h e Buem K r a c h i a r e a of the V o l t a R e g i o n , near t h e Togo b o r d e r .  The 1960 census r e p o r t e d 53,780 Kwawu l i v i n g i n  South Kwahu enumeration a r e a w h i c h i n c l u d e s the v i l l a g e s on t h e e s carpment, as w e l l as Nkawkaw and t h e nearby s m a l l v i l l a g e s on the southwest s i d e of t h e s c a r p .  I n N o r t h Kwawu, w h i c h i n c l u d e s most  o f t h e A f r a m p l a i n s as f a r e a s t as the V o l t a R i v e r , t h e r e were 38,500 Kwawu.  Of the 1,490  Kwawu i n the V o l t a R e g i o n , 1,040  l i v e d i n the  Buem K r a c h i enumeration a r e a b o r d e r i n g on the Afram, w h i c h i n c l u d e s Jasikan. S k i n n e r (1965:69) i n d i c a t e s t h e e f f e c t of t h e r e t u r n i n g m i g r a n t , o f f e r i n g p r e s e n t s , and h a v i n g h i s p r a i s e sung by m i n s t r e l s . The income a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t r a v e l and o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n urban a r e a s i s c o n t e m p l a t e d by the v i l l a g e r who t h i n k s he t o o may g e t such w e a l t h , such p r e s t i g e by g o i n g t o t h e c i t y .  I n Kwawu, t h e s u c c e s s e s of t h e  r u r a l urban m i g r a n t a r e v i s i b l e e v e r y day.  E l a b o r a t e two s t o r i e d  houses and compounds w i t h cement p a t i o s and g a l v a n i z e d r o o f s a r e  86  (Kwawu)  abundant i n Kwawu v i l l a g e s .  Most o f them, t h e r e c e n t l y b u i l t ones,  have been e r e c t e d f o r s u c c e s s f u l Kwawu businessmen who l i v e away i n some c i t y .  Most o f t h e y e a r they a r e o c c u p i e d by r e l a t i v e s and  a few n o n - k i n  t e n a n t s such as t e a c h e r s and p o s t a l c l e r k s from o t h e r  areas.  The owner o r b u i l d e r may r e t u r n once o r t w i c e a y e a r t o  spend two.weeks d u r i n g C h r i s t m a s , Afahwe, o r E a s t e r f e s t i v a l . A l l y e a r t h e houses and some o f t h e i r r e s i d e n t s s y m b o l i z e v i l l a g e r the o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f the c i t y  to the r u r a l  life.  Nkawkaw Kwaku Otomfuo, who i s mentioned l a t e r , has h i s shop a t Nkawkaw. 16,627.  The 1960 census r e p o r t e d t h a t i t had a p o p u l a t i o n o f T h i s i s f a r i n excess o f 3,106 i n 1931 o r 5,043 i n 1948 a s  r e p o r t e d i n t h e 1948 Census  (p. 1 3 1 ) . The town s e r v e s as a major  stop f o r t h e t r a i n w h i c h r u n s from A c c r a t o Kumasi.  During the sec-  ond w o r l d war l a r g e t r u c k s would come down the c l i f f s i d e b r i n g i n g b a u x i t e from Mpraeso, s i x m i l e s away, up on t h e Kwawu escarpment, t o the t r a i n s t a t i o n f o r shipment t o the c o a s t . c i a l center f o r the area.  The town i s a commer-  I t b o a s t s t h r e e banks, two b a r s , many d r y  goods shops and s i x p e t r o l s t a t i o n s .  I t i s a l s o on t h e highway be-  tween Kumasi, s e v e n t y - f i v e m i l e s n o r t h , and A c c r a , one hundred m i l e s south. Nkawkaw i s n o t a t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e . chief.  There i s no t r u e  Many o f t h e r e s i d e n t s c o n s i d e r Obomeng, a s m a l l v i l l a g e  three  (Kwawu)  87  m i l e s away, up on the escarpment, t o be the p l a c e o f t h e i r b i r t h and b u r i a l .  official  C h i l d r e n a r e b o r n i n Nkawkaw, many a t t h e C a t h o l i c  H o s p i t a l , y e t the p e o p l e r e f e r t o Obomeng as t h e i r "home town". Strangers  o f t e n r e f e r t o Obomeng as " t h e f u n e r a l town" a s t h e number  of f u n e r a l s i n t h a t v i l l a g e seem much too numerous f o r such a s m a l l place.  As p e o p l e d r i v e f r o n Nkawkaw, up t h e s c a r p t h r o u g h Obomeng  to o t h e r p a r t s o f Kwawu more o f t e n than n o t a f u n e r a l i s i n p r o c e s s . I t i s u s u a l l y t h a t o f a r e s i d e n t o f Nkawkaw.  Obomeng s e r v e s more o r  l e s s a s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s e a t o f Nkawkaw. Not a l l Nkawkaw r e s i d e n t s a r e Kwawu but t h e 1960 census l i s t s e t h n i c c a t e g o r i e s o n l y f o r enumeration a r e a s , n o t towns. 3,998 o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n was b o r n i n Nkawkaw (see t a b l e ) .  Only  Another  6,890 came from o t h e r p a r t s o f South Kwawu, and 4,937 came from other regions or other c o u n t r i e s .  Most o f t h e non-Kwawu a r e l a b o r e r s  f r o m the n o r t h , Dagomba, D a g a r t e h , e t c . , Hausa and Yoruba t r a d e r s from N i g e r i a , and Ewe, F a n t i , and Ga m i g r a n t s from o t h e r p a r t s o f s o u t h e r n Ghana.  Nkawkaw, l i k e most West A f r i c a n towns ( L l o y d , 1967:  110), i s a b u s t l i n g , c o s m o p o l i t a n ,  c o l o r f u l , West A f r i c a n town.  Occupations Kwawu have a r e p u t a t i o n i n Ghana f o r being good t r a d e r s . T h i s , i t i s s a i d , i s why they have m i g r a t e d t o so many p l a c e s .  If  you a s k p e o p l e anywhere i n Ghana, they w i l l t e l l y o u Kwawu go t o  88  (Kwawu)  Nkawkaw (Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) 1960  Characteristic  Nkawkaw Town F M  District Treasury F M  Rom.Cath. U.A. C. M i s s i o n Bungalow M F F M  Zongo F M  7890  7737  1270  1274  547  450  292  276  700  647  330 1167 978 846 1592 2231 585 161  346 1214 1180 978 1593 1821 478 127  61 214 177 160 232 320 87 19  57 218 232 145 249 292 69 12  16 56 59 52 87 184 69 24  13 72 64 41 100 125 27 8  19 32 43 27 66 80 22 3  18 37 28 34 64 55 29 11  32 114 64 46 113 239 64 28  38 98 90 65 128 174 46 8  1957  2041  401  423  167  177  70  74  163  164  3098 1746  3792 1471  533 222  632 163  91 115  125 101  130 62  148 42  132 213  153 202  1076 11  426 7  114 0  56 0  177 0  47 0  27 3  7 5  190 2  128 0  6155  5900  956  947  453  347  227  216  537  488  372 62  851 102  73 11  156 11  36 1  54 1  10 2  20 4  54 1  101 5  1152  928  214  158  52  32  44  33  38  26  2401 1837  3118 750  347 251  508 87  321 38  228 24  65 82  107 46  354 79  327 25  331  151  60  27  5  8  24  6  11  4  T o t a l age 15 over 4569 3864 Employed t o t a l Agriculture 1021 206 Unemployed Homemaker 59 Other 440  4019 2584 684 71 1070 294  658 553 190 40 2 63  622 315 122 10 266 31  364 336 61 5 9 14  260 173 32 2 65 20  171 143 40 1 1 26  159 124 57 1 25 9  444 392 78 11 20 21  356 223 19 3 121 9  A l l ages Age: Below one year 1-4 y e a r s 5-9 y e a r s 10-14 y e a r s 15-24 y e a r s 25-44 y e a r s 45-64 y e a r s Over 65 Born i n : This l o c a l i t y Other l o c a t i o n , same r e g i o n Other r e g i o n Other A f r i c a n country Other C o n t i n e n t Schooling: Over 6 y e a r s 6-14 y e a r s : Never a t t e n d e d Past attendance Present a t t e n dance Over 15: Never a t t e n d e d Past attendance Present attendance Employment:  89  (Kwawu)  Characteristic A l l ages  Salvation Army Mission M F  Clinic M F  Rest House F M  Market M F  Presby Miss ;ion M F  1145  1057  909  973  1374  1457  892  804  761  791  45 156 152 109 219 361 82 21  46 173 160 139 219 242 57 21  27 144 115 102 221 232 56 12  37 141 156 137 207 221 56 18  64 200 168 165 312 353 93 19  61 214 214 212 306 333 100 17  30 118 96 101 184 284 63 16  38 124 109 127 170 192 31 13  36 133 104 84 158 178 49 19  38 137 127 78 150 187 63 19  258  220  237  222  332  388  132  146  202  227  445 261  548 197  387 218  493 241  638 237  827 203  386 272  432 202  356 146  434 120  180 1  92 0  66 1  17 0  163 4  37 2  102 0  24 0  57 0  18 0  911  796  714  758  1074  1140  721  618  562  590  51 12  109 17  36 9  102 17  56 13  153 25  29 9  98 11  27 4  58 11  163  131  148  137  228  206  136  103  127  102  352 290  419 103  205 265  354 127  375 337  547 173  225 285  305 87  157 210  323 78  41  17  51  21  65  36  37  14  37  18  683 595 171 21 1 66  539 381 85 18 99 41  521 424 104 19 8 70  502 338 49 4 87 73  777 639 179 58 2 78  756 506 132 20 183 47  547 461 94 35 2 49  406 236 76 9 130 31  404 321 104 16 14 53  419 288 112 4 94 33  Age: Below one y e a r 1-4 y e a r s 5-9 y e a r s 10-14 y e a r s 15-24 y e a r s 25-44 y e a r s 45-64 y e a r s Over 65 Born i n : This l o c a l i t y Other l o c a l i t y , same r e g i o n Other r e g i o n Other A f r i c a n country Other C o n t i n e n t Schooling: Over 6 y e a r s 6-14 y e a r s : Never a t t e n d e d Past attendance Present attendance Over 15: Never a t t e n d e d Past attendance Present a t t e n dance Employment:, T o t a l age 15 over Employed t o t a l Agriculture Unemployed Homemaker Other  (Kwawu)  90  b o t h l a r g e and s m a l l towns t o s e t up shops s e l l i n g canned goods, d r y goods, o r c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l .  Y e t i f one were t o l o o k f i r s t a t  Ghana census t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l d a t a would seem t o c o n t r a d i c t t h i s reputation.  Only a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of t h e Ghana p o p u l a t i o n a r e  t r a d e r s ; f a r below what t h e r e p u t a t i o n would i n d i c a t e .  Out o f a  male o c c u p a t i o n a l f o r c e o f 67,810 engaged as s a l e s w o r k e r s , i n c l u d i n g p r o p r i e t o r s , o n l y 2,249 a r e Kwawu. t r a d e r s o n l y 3,850 o f them a r e Kwawu.  Out o f 278,540 female  I f l e s s than two p e r c e n t  of Ghanaians engaged i n t r a d e a r e Kwawu i t would seem t h i s tation  i s unsubstantiated.  repu-  B u t Kwawu c a n be e x c e l l e n t t r a d e r s , and  t h i s i s r e l a t e d to t h e i r h a v i n g m i g r a t e d understand t h i s i t i s necessary  t o so many p l a c e s .  To  t o b r i e f l y examine t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l  s t r u c t u r e o f Kwawu r a t h e r t h a n i t s p r o p o r t i o n i n the whole economy. The 987,670 women.  Ghanaian l a b o u r f o r c e c o n s i s t s o f 1,573,170 men and Kwawu men i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e account f o r 24,860 o r  6.3 p e r c e n t o f t h e male w o r k f o r c e .  Kwawu women account f o r 22,740  o r 4.3 p e r c e n t o f t h e female w o r k i n g p o p u l a t i o n .  F o r t h e sake o f  c o n s i s t e n c y , t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f men o r women i n v a r i o u s  occupational  c a t e g o r i e s a r e c a l c u l a t e d a s p e r c e n t a g e s o f t h e t o t a l male o r female l a b o u r f o r c e s f o r a l l o f Ghana o r f o r t h e Kwawu p o p u l a t i o n .  This i s  t o compare t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f Kwawu w i t h t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f a l l o f Ghana.  91  (Kwawu)  White C o l l a r Whereas only 3 percent of the Ghana male working populat i o n i s classed as professional, 5.3 percent of employed Kwawu are p r o f e s s i o n a l l y employed.  Of this category, only 1.3 percent of the  Ghanaian working population are teachers, while almost twice the proportion of Kwawu, 2.5 percent, are so employed.  Draughtsmen and  related technicians account for only .57 percent of the t o t a l male working population while they account for 1.81 percent of the Kwawu male working population.  Administrators account for only 0.8 percent  of the t o t a l working population while they account for 1.3 percent of the Kwawu male working population.  Of these, Kwawu tend more to  take government (.56 versus .30) rather than commercial (.12 versus .21) posts.  The proportion of Kwawu c l e r i c a l workers i s almost twice  as high as the proportion of a l l Ghanaian clerks.  Only 2.5 percent  of a l l Ghanaian men are c l e r i c a l workers yet 4.9 percent of employed Kwawu are classed as c l e r i c a l workers.  While only 0.3 percent of  the female Ghanaian labour force are clerks, the proportion of Kwawu women who are clerks i s twice as high, 0.6 percent. The 2,240 Kwawu men employed i n sales account f o r 9 percent of the Kwawu male working population whereas the 278,540 men i n sales i n Ghana account for only 4 percent of the Ghanaian male employed population.  However Kwawu women tend less than a l l Ghanaian women  to take sales jobs.  For the whole population the proportion i s  92  (Kwawu)  28.2 p e r c e n t w h i l e f o r Kwawu i t i s o n l y 18.3 p e r c e n t .  The a b s o l u t e  number o f salesmen and p r o p r i e t o r s o f o t h e r e t h n i c c a t e g o r i e s may be h i g h e r , b u t t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f Kwawu men engaged i n s m a l l shopk e e p i n g i s much h i g h e r .  This substantiates the reputation that  Kwawu men have f o r g o i n g t o v a r i o u s o t h e r towns o u t s i d e Kwawu t o i  set  up r e t a i l  outlets.  Agriculture The p r o p o r t i o n o f farmers i n t h e t o t a l Ghanaian l a b o u r f o r c e and i n t h e Kwawu w o r k i n g p o p u l a t i o n i s r o u g h l y t h e same.  Sixty-  two p e r c e n t o f a l l employed Ghanaian men a r e farmers and 58.1 p e r cent o f a l l Kwawu w o r k i n g men a r e f a r m e r s .  But v e r y few Kwawu a r e  engaged f u l l - t i m e i n t r u c k f a r m i n g ; 5 p e r c e n t compared w i t h t h e n a t i o n a l f i g u r e o f 29 p e r c e n t . farmers.  The m a j o r i t y o f Kwawu farmers a r e cocoa  Whereas o n l y 20 p e r c e n t o f t h e Ghanaian l a b o u r f o r c e i s en-  gaged i n the cocoa i n d u s t r y , 45 p e r c e n t o f t h e Kwawu l a b o u r f o r c e i s i n v o l v e d i n cocoa p r o d u c t i o n .  Cocoa growing  i s q u i t e p r o f i t a b l e and  Kwawu have a r e p u t a t i o n f o r b e i n g r e l a t i v e l y w e a l t h y .  Much o f t h e  p r o f i t g a i n e d i n cocoa f a r m i n g i s r e i n v e s t e d i n r e t a i l  business.  While men p r e f e r cocoa f a r m i n g , Kwawu women a r e more o f t e n engaged i n t r u c k c r o p p i n g and m a r k e t i n g  t h e produce.  Farming o t h e r than cocoa i s l e s s i m p o r t a n t t o Kwawu.  Of  t h e 5,800 men and 660 women engaged i n l i v e s t o c k and p o u l t r y manage-  (Kwawu)  93  ment i n Ghana, o n l y 20 Kwawu a r e c l a s s e d as such. chickens.  A l l o f them r a i s e  The r a i n f o r e s t c l i m a t e and t h e t s e t a e f l y make c a t t l e  r a i s i n g almost i m p o s s i b l e i n Kwawu.  No Kwawu a r e c l a s s e d as f i s h e r -  men a c c o r d i n g t o t h e census but t h i s has changed s i n c e t h e census was  t a k e n i n 1960.  When t h e dam was b u i l t t h e V o l t a R i v e r f l o o d e d  t h e Afram p l a i n s f o r m i n g a l a r g e s h a l l o w l a k e i d e a l f o r f i s h . 1965,  Since  t h e government o f Ghana has been s e n d i n g a d v i s o r s , m a i n l y Ewes  from t h e V o l t a r e g i o n , t o come and f i s h i n N o r t h Kwawu on t h e Afram p l a i n s , and t e a c h t h e Kwawu, many of whose farms were f l o o d e d , how t o e x p l o i t t h i s new source o f w e a l t h .  The f i s h p r o d u c t i o n has ex-  ceded most p r e d i c t i o n s as a r e s u l t o f these One  efforts.  o f t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l o c c u p a t i o n s i s  palm wine t a p p i n g .  The sap o f t h e o i l palm t r e e , because o f i t s  h i g h y e a s t content ferments v e r y q u i c k l y .  The r e s u l t i n g palm wine  i s a v e r y r e f r e s h i n g and i n e x p e n s i v e a l c o h o l i c beverage.  The 1960  census r e p o r t e d 6,820 palm wine t a p p e r s , 100 o f Whom were women.  In  Akan t r a d i t i o n , palm wine t a p p i n g i s r e s e r v e d f o r men, and 80 o f t h o s e women a r e o f Guan, Ewe o r N i g e r i a n e t h n i c groups. who t a p palm wine account  The 6,720 men  f o r l e s s than o n e - h a l f o f one p e r c e n t o f  t h e Ghanaian male l a b o u r f o r c e , but t h e 250 Kwawu palm wine t a p p e r s account  f o r over one p e r c e n t o f Kwawu employed l a b o u r .  census r e p o r t e d z e r o females  The 1960  engaged i n t h i s a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t .  94  (Kwawu)  Blue C o l l a r Manual l a b o u r o c c u p a t i o n s account f o r a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e Kwawu employed p o p u l a t i o n .  Only 0.24 p e r c e n t o f  the male Kwawu w o r k i n g f o r c e a r e m i n e r s o r quarrymen w h i l e over 2 p e r c e n t o f t h e w o r k i n g males o f Ghana a r e so employed.  However s i x  and a h a l f p e r c e n t o f Kwawu men a r e r o a d t r a n s p o r t d r i v e r s w h i l e t h e n a t i o n a l p r o p o r t i o n i s o n l y a l i t t l e over t h r e e p e r c e n t .  Most o f  the Kwawu men employed i n t r a n s p o r t a r e t a x i d r i v e r s o r i n t e r - u r b a n passenger Benz bus o p e r a t o r s .  The Kwawu o v e r a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f c r a f t s -  men i s s l i g h t l y l o w e r t h a n t h e n a t i o n a l p r o p o r t i o n , 13.7 p e r c e n t v e r s u s 18.7 p e r c e n t .  Kwawu p r o p o r t i o n s i n c r a f t s exceed t h e n a -  t i o n a l p r o p o r t i o n o n l y i n t a i l o r i n g ; 5.4 p e r c e n t v e r s u s t h e 2.0 percent n a t i o n a l p r o p o r t i o n .  G e n e r a l l y Kwawu have a low p r o p o r t i o n  i n b l u e c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n s , f a l l i n g q u i t e f a r below i n c a r p e n t r y (0.7 v e r s u s 3.2); b r i c k l a y i n g (0.7 v e r s u s 2 . 0 ) ; u n s p e c i f i e d  unskilled  l a b o u r (1.5 v e r s u s 4 . 9 ) ; and i n domestic s e r v i c e (0.12 v e r s u s 0.59 percent).  A p a r t from t a i l o r s and t a x i d r i v e r s , Kwawu men tend t o be  l e s s r e p r e s e n t e d i n manual and s k i l l e d o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s . The p r o p o r t i o n s f o r women a r e r o u g h l y t h e same except t h a t Kwawu women have a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n n a t i o n a l p r o p o r t i o n i n c r a f t c a t e g o r i e s , 11.3 p e r c e n t v e r s u s t h e n a t i o n a l 10.3 p e r c e n t .  They a r e much more  h i g h l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n domestic s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s t h a n Kwawu men o r e i t h e r men o r women i n t h e t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e .  A p p r o x i m a t e l y 2.3  95  (Kwawu)  p e r c e n t o f employed Kwawu women a r e employed i u s e r v i c e , s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n , w h i l e t h e p r o p o r t i o n s f o r Kwawu men, a l l men, and a l l women, a r e 1.3, 2.5, and 1.6 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y .  In general the  p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e Kwawu employed p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h i s engaged i n b l u e c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n s i s lower t h a n i n t h e Ghana employment d i s t r i bution. The p e r c e n t a g e s  i n t h e above seven paragraphs were c a l c u -  l a t e d from Ghana P o p u l a t i o n Census,, " S e l e c t e d O c c u p a t i o n o f Employed Persons  (Aged 15 and Over) by Sex and T r i b e  (Major g r o u p s ) " ,  Special  Report E , T r i b e s i n Ghana, t a b l e 26, pa£es 114-115, A c c r a , 1964. They i n d i c a t e c e r t a i n t r e n d s o f Kwawu o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s .  Kwawu  tend t o be r e p r e s e n t e d i n some o c c u p a t i o n s more r e l a t i v e t o t h e whole p o p u l a t i o n o f Ghana, and i n some o c c u p a t i o n s l e s s .  They tend t o f a -  vour p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and c l e r i c a l tions.  occupa-  They a r e w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d i n e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l o c c u p a t i o n s .  They  a r e l e s s r e p r e s e n t e d i n a g r i c u l t u r a l o c c u p a t i o n s w i t h t h e n o t a b l e exc e p t i o n o f cocoa f a r m i n g .  T h i s cash c r o p p i n g a c t i v i t y t a k e s l e s s  y e a r round p h y s i c a l e f f o r t , r e q u i r e s a f a i r b i t o f p l a n n i n g and y i e l d s high returns.  These p r o f i t s t e n d t o be r e a l l o c a t e d , s u p p o r t i n g p e t t y  e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a c t i v i t i e s such as t a x i d r i v i n g , t a i l o r i n g and shop keeping.  The Kwawu do n o t tend t o f i l l manual s k i l l e d o r u n s k i l l e d  o c c u p a t i o n s except those which have been r e g a r d e d t r a d i t i o n a l l y as h a v i n g h i g h e r p r e s t i g e - a t t a c h e d t o them, such as palm wine t a p p i n g and Kente weaving.  The Kwawu might as a group r a t e h i g h e r than t h e  whole of Ghana on an o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e s c a l e .  (Kwawu)  96  This for  o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e i n d i c a t e s a Kwawu  occupations  w h i c h a r e more commonly f o u n d i n c i t i e s ,  preference o r i n those  v i l l a g e s w h i c h have elements o f w e s t e r n u r b a n i z a t i o n such as t a x i t r a n s p o r t and shops and o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g c l e r i c a l The by  r e p u t a t i o n Kwawu h a v e f o r b e i n g two s e t s o f d a t a .  Ghana t h e y  have a g r e a t e r  u n l i k e most o t h e r engaged i n o t h e r  dividuals .  out of a small population w i t h i n  concentration of t r a d i n g occupations, and  occupations  such as farming.  i s more i m p o r t a n t  comes t o r e p u t a t i o n s .  tendencies  good t r a d e r s i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d  G h a n a i a n s , f e w Kwawu o u t s i d e t h e Kwahu a r e a , a r e  s u c c e s s f u l , and t h i s it  The f i r s t ,  labour.  than absolute  I t i s important  i n m i n d when l a t e r  Second, they a r e n u m b e r s , when  t o keep these  occupational  examining m i g r a t i o n decisions of i n -  VPPCR  NANKANSI AND GUCENSE  DAGABA  VOLTA  ^BUSANGA A/AMMAN  10 5 0  LOBl-  v C.  SCALS  u A L  &  IN  Mll.es  5 /  0)  A  <3> VAGALA-  V 0  A/  Co K  * A DELE. -NTGUBU  8'  -MTWUMU&U (HCHUMURU)  N  "EWE •BOWL/ 8L/EA4 •AKPAFU SAW TROKOF/ •Lf/KPE -W103/ -NKONYA ) LOG8A !  Z4/=V  n  _  ~A VAT/ME NYANC30 KWAWL/ -AA/UM-BOSCh AX WAMU,  lAof .7*  TO  0  O In  GHANA O'  As-  CHAPTER THREE B  The Urban A r e a  A c c r a P h y s i c a l and S o c i a l Environment The Environment t o Which Some Kwawu M i g r a t e  (Accra)  98  I n v i l l a g e s t u d i e s one i s n o r m a l l y d e a l i n g w i t h p e o p l e o f o n l y one t r i b e . I n towns one meets p e o p l e from a dozen d i f f e r e n t t r i b e s i n t h e course o f t h e d a y . . . m i n i s t e r s o f r e l i g i o n , Muslim teachers, primary school teachers, c i v i l s e r v a n t s , bank c l e r k s , dispensex's, n a t i v e d o c t o r s , ''cowb o y s " ( i d l e young men), t h i e v e s , p o l i c e i n f o r m e r s , goodtime g i r l s ( r a h r a h g i r l s ) , t r a d i t i o n a l b l a c k s m i t h s , s k i l l e d a r t i s a n s d e a l i n g w i t h E u c l i d earth-moving equipment and d i e s e l locomotives, laboratory a s s i s t a n t s , self-confessed w i t c h e s , r i c h t r a d e r s . . . m u l t i p l e forms o f s e g m e n t a t i o n and s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . ^  The  City I n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e u s e f u l d a t a t o examine the I n f o r m a t i o n -  d e c i s i o n - a c t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s must be asked o f t h e a r e a t o w h i c h most Kwawu m i g r a n t s  go.  and i t s major i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s ? t i o n migrated Kwawu?  there?  What i s t h e human p o p u l a t i o n , What p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a -  From where d i d they come?  What a r e t h e o c c u p a t i o n s of Kwawu and o t h e r m i g r a n t s ?  t r a v e l and t r a d e l i n k s a r e t h e r e w i t h Kwawu? By road?  How many a r e from What  How f a r i s i t by r a i l ?  I n s h o r t what a r e t h e Accra-Kwawu communication l i n k s ? A c c r a i s t h e c a p i t a l o f Ghana.  388,396 a c c o r d i n g to the 1960 census.  I t has a p o p u l a t i o n o f  I t s major i n d u s t r i e s a r e r e -  l a t e d t o i t s p o s i t i o n as nerve c e n t e r f o r p o l i t i c s and commerce. I t i s s e r v e d by Tema, a s e a - p o r t , and most o c c u p a t i o n s i n d u s t r i a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , or c l e r i c a l  1.  a r e of a l i g h t  nature.  Gamble, D a v i d P., "Kenema, A growing town i n Mende Country." B u l l e t i n , S i e r r a Leone G e o g r a p h i c a l S o c i e t y , May 1964, p. 254.  (Accra)  99  One  of the most comprehensive d e s c r i p t i o n s of A c c r a  p u b l i s h e d by l o n e Acqua i n 1958, i n g e t h n i c migrant  A c c r a Survey.  was  He notes the f o l l o w -  occupational structure:  I t w i l l be seen t h a t the m a j o r i t y of farmers and f i s h e r men were Gas and Adangmes. Of the 14% Gas and 14% Adangmes, more than 10% were f i s h e r m e n . The manufacturing i n d u s t r i e s composed f o r the most p a r t s e m i - s k i l l e d and s k i l l e d workers. They came mainly from t r i b e s from s o u t h e r n Ghana and A s h a n t i . In the b u i l d i n g {rade, t r i b e s from s o u t h e r n Ghana p r e dominated f o l l o w e d by t r i b e s from A s h a n t i . (p. 65) 5  In the p u b l i c s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s , t r i b e s from N o r t h e r n Ghana c o n t r i b u t e d almost as many persons as d i d Southern Ghana and A s h a n t i t r i b e s . They were engaged as p o l i c e men or i n u n s k i l l e d work ( s a n i t a r y l a b o u r e r s , watchmen and messengers). L a c k i n g e d u c a t i o n , i t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t persons from these n o r t h e r n t r i b e s s h o u l d be conf i n e d to such work. T r i b e s from Southern Ghana and A s h a n t i c o n t r i b u t e on the other h a n d the educated workers i n c l e r i c a l , e x e c u t i v e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s t s , (p. 66) ;  Another s o u r c e of data about A c c r a i s Birmingham et a l . (1966: who  101)  state: . . . i n the s p e c i f i c case of A c c r a the endowment of human c a p i t a l f a r outruns i t s share of the urban p o p u l a t i o n of the c o u n t r y . Only 25% of the urban p o p u l a t i o n of Ghana l i v e d i n A c c r a C D . i n 1960 but i t c o n t a i n e d 34% of p e r sons who had a t t e n d e d i n s t i t u t i o n s of f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n , 52% of the d i r e c t o r s and managers, 58% of the bookkeepers, accountants and c a s h i a r s . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n of human capi t a l i n the A c c r a area i s much l e s s i n r e s p e c t of t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s , mechanics, and d r i v e r s , a l t h o u g h the p e r centage of e l e c t r i c i a n s i n the r e g i o n s i s e q u a l to t h a t of a l l people w i t h h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . The  c i t y c f A c c r a i s on the A t l a n t i c  i n g v i l l a g e c o m p r i s i n g Ga p e o p l e .  See Map  coast.  I t was  a  fish-  3, "Predominant T r i b e i n  (Accra)  100  t h e A r e a " on page 97.  Ga s p e a k e r s b e l o n g t o a language group Ga-  Adangbe, q u i t e d i s s i m i l a r t o Akan. n e i g h b o r Akuapem  Ga-Adangbe i n c l u d e Krobo  on the west and Ewe on t h e e a s t .  " C a t e g o r i z a t i o n of Spoken Kwawu" on page 137. have come f r o m the Congo and N i g e r i a .  See Diagram 4,  Ga-Adangbe a r e s a i d t o  T h e i r language and  s t r u c t u r e a r e more r e l a t e d t o Yoruba t h a n Akan. b o t h o v e r l a n d and v i a t h e ocean.  who  social  They may have come  They a r e good boatmen and f i s h e r m e n ,  and t r a d i t i o n a l t a l e s speak of them a r r i v i n g from the s o u t h by s e a , q u i t e w i t h i n t h e p r o b a b l e sea r o u t e from N i g e r i a .  Akan on the o t h e r  hand a r e s a i d t o have come from t h e N o r t h . The s t o r y of how A c c r a was named was r e l a t e d to me by an Okyeame, or Akan l i n g u i s t . ant —  The Ga c a l l e d themselves a f t e r a c e r t a i n  i n t h e Adangbe language c a l l e d Ga.  T h i s ant l e f t everyone  a l o n e i f n o t p r o v o k e d , but i f d i s t u r b e d would be a f o r m i d a b l e enemy. The Ga c a l l e d themselves such.  When t h e Europeans came t o t h e c o a s t  they met f i r s t w i t h the F a n t i , f u r t h e r w e s t , who  speak Akan.  The  same a n t i n Akan i s c a l l e d Nkran" and the F a n t i s c a l l e d t h a t t h e p l a c e o f the a n t , Nkran'.  Over t h e y e a r s as t h e P o r t u g u e s e , Dutch, and  B r i t i s h mispronounced t h e name, the p l a c e became known as A c c r a . Still,  i n Twi i t i s c a l l e d Nkrang. A c c r a became the c a p i t a l of the G o l d Coast under  British  r u l e , and a l t h o u g h not o r i g i n a l l y p o p u l a t e d by t h e most dominant group, t h e Akans, i t was soon p o p u l a t e d by s t r a n g e r s from Europe and f r o m a l l p a r t s of A f r i c a .  (Accra)  101  The of towns. Accra 80%  1960 c e n s u s d o e s n o t i n c l u d e t h e e t h n i c c a t e g o r i z a t i o n  However, e t h n i c d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e g i o n s  i s provided.  r e g i o n i n Ghana i n c l u d e s t h e c i t y a n d s u r r o u n d i n g  of the population i nAccra  Region l i v e  t h a t r e g i o n a r e 1 0 , 9 2 0 Kwawu p e r s o n s .  i nAccra  This  o r Tema.  Slightly  g i o n a r e men.  more t h a n h a l f ,  This  52.0% of those  o f Kwawu men t o Kwawu women i n A c c r a  The r e l a t i v e l y  the a t t r a c t i o n s o f Kumasi m a r k e t i n g , familiarity,  i nAccra,  One go  ratio  region  p o s s i b l y due t o  t h e g r e a t e r n e e d o f Kwawu wo-  g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r male  or a combination  filled  of these.  T h o s e Kwawu women who do go t o A c c r a , to  high  Region i n d i c a t e s occupational  w h e r e Kwawu women o u t n u m b e r Kwawu men (m = 4 9 . 8 % ) ,  occupations  contains  Kwawu i n A c c r a R e -  I t i s contrasted to Ashanti Region the only  men f o r c u l t u r a l  In  i s f a r above t h e n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e o f 47.9% and  the E a s t e r n Region p r o p o r t i o n of 46,8%.  preference.  About  i s t h e l a r g e s t number o f  them o u t s i d e t h e 1 0 4 , 1 3 0 w i t h i n t h e E a s t e r n R e g i o n w h i c h Kwawu.  areas.  f o r t h e m o s t p a r t go  t r a d e i n one o f t h e l a r g e open a i r m a r k e t s s u c h a s M a k o l a m a r k e t . l e s s e r known m a r k e t i n A c c r a t o meet m a r k e t t r a d e r s , l o r r y  learn  i s a t Kwawu c o r n e r , w h e r e one c a n drivers,  and a s s o c i a t e d people t o  the latest gossip  o f Kwawu.  A miniature  munity i s i n the middle  of Accra.  I t i s not w i t h i n t h e scope o f t h e  present  e n d e a v o u r t o e x a m i n e Kwawu c o r n e r  note that i t e x i s t s and serves munication  systems.  e x p a t r i a t e Kwawu com-  t o any depth,  to f a c i l i t a t e  suffice to  t h e A c c r a - K w a w u com-  D i f f e r e n t i a l Access to S c h o o l i n g by T r i b e A c c r a , 1954  Percentage of A c c r a Populat i o n i n 1948*  Tribe Ga Ewe Fanti Nigerian Hausa Ashanti Adangbe Akuapem Kwahu Zabarima Others Total * **  *****  Source:  51.6 11.1 5.2 4.7 3.4 1.7 2.8 2.2 2.0' 1.8 13.5  Estimated Population i n Accra, 1954**  P r o p o r t i o n of C h i l d r e n of 6-5 i n group, 1948*  99,100 21,300  22.9 19.5 20.5 13.4 13.1 18.6 22.0 18.4 20.9 5.0  9,900  9,000 6,500 3,200 5,400 4,200 3,800 3,400 25,900 191,000  Estimated Child Population 6-15 i n 1954*i!:*  22,700 4,150 2,050 1,200 850 600 1,200 750 800 150  Actual Child Population Attending School 1954**** 20,594 1,656 1,957 769 609 436 1,253 717 112 0  Percentage o f Estimated C h i l d Populat i o n Attending School i n 1951***** 91.0 40.0 96.0 64.0 72.0 72.0 96.0 14.0  Computed from Gold Coast Census of P o p u l a t i o n Based on the assumption that p o p u l a t i o n p r o p o r t i o n s remained constant and u s i n g 191,000 as the estimated p o p u l a t i o n f o r 1954, c a l c u l a t e d to the n e a r e s t hundred. Assuming 1948 p r o p o r t i o n s , c a l c u l a t e d to the nearest f i f t y . D e r i v e d from Acqua. C a l c u l a t e d to the n e a r e s t whole number.  Foster  (1965:120).  (Accra)  103  Comparison of C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Population of Ghana and that of Three Largest Towns, 1960 ( A l l Figures as Percentages)  Kumasi  Sekondi Takoradi  3  39 22 29 8 2  42 23 20 6 1  40 21 30 8 1  102 101  114 152  112 143  117 152  80 12 8  51 32 17  58 30 12  66 18 16  56 4 40  31 3 66  41 4 56  2 60  80 16 4  52 41 7  62 32 6  58 36 6  4 69 62  10 63 3  8  9 65 7  Ghana  Accra  Age Groups: (as proportion of a l l population) 0-14 15-24 25-44 45-64 65+  45 17 26 o  Sex R a t i o s ; A l l population 25-44 years age Birthplace: (as proportion of a l l population) Same Region Another Region Another Country Schooling: (as proportion of a l l i n age group) 6-14 years of age Never Past Present 15+ years of age Never Past Present Economic A c t i v i t y : (as proportion of a l l over 15 years of age) Unemployed Employed Employed i n A g r i c u l t u r e Continued  69 7  104  (Accra)  C o m p a r i s o n o f C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e P o p u l a t i o n o f Ghana a n d t h a t o f T h r e e L a r g e s t Towns, 1 9 6 0 ( c o n t i n u e d ) ( A l l F i g u r e s as  Ghana  Percentages)  Accra  Kumasi  Sekondi Takoradi  32  41  Economic A c t i v i t y ; (continued...) (as p r o p o r t i o n o f females o v e r 15 y e a r s o f a g e ) Females f u l l y o c c u p i e d w i t h home d u t i e s  Source:  36  32  B i r m i n g h a m , W.I. N e u s t a d t , E.N. Omaboe, A S t u d y o f C o n t e m p o r a r y G h a n a , V o l u m e One, Some A s p e c t s o f S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e . George A l l e n and Unwin, London, 1 9 6 6 , page 199, T a b l e 3:11.  105  (Accra)  Accra e x i s t s i n the minds of Kwawu v i l l a g e r s .  I t beckons  to them with i t s busy s t r e e t s , cosmopolitan population and urban attractions.  Kwawu i n d i v i d u a l s may not see the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of  Accra the same way as presented i n the tables i n t h i s chapter, but they know i t i n t h e i r own terms. Every day Accra seems to c a l l .  In the l o r r y park d r i v e r s  and t h e i r mates c a l l , "Accra, Cra. Cra, Cra." ;  Accra.  The two newspapers come from Accra,  cast from Accra.  The t r a i n goes to The w i r e l e s s i s broad-  The store goods come from Accra.  w i l l land i n Accra.  The cocoa i s sent to Accra.  The j e t s overhead A l l this i s infor-  mation that every p o t e n t i a l migrant absorbs i n h i s personal b e n e f i t - c o s t perspective.  CHAPTER THREE C  The I.D.A. P e r s p e c t i v e Versus the E t h n o g r a p h i c I n f o r m a t i o n  Information: Sources Modes Content  106  (Information)  An  i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l environment  Kwawu i s e x p o s e d making. mobility.  t o much i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v e n t t o m i g r a t i o n d e c i s i o n  He i s i n a n a r e a w h e r e h i s t o r i c a l l y He c a n s p e a k a l a n g u a g e ,  South, West, and N o r t h o f him.  t h e r e h a s b e e n much  T w i , u n d e r s t o o d by p e o p l e  make h i m f e e l u n c o m f o r t a b l e .  He g r o w s up i n a s o c i a l  where e n t r e p r e i i e u r s h i p i s emphasised. w i t h a r e more f r e q u e n t l y  tothe  S o c i a l s t r u c t u r e i n these areas a r e  r e l a t e d , a n d even t h o s e t o t h e e a s t a r e n o t so d i s s i m i l a r  Occupations  so as to  environment  he i s f a m i l i a r  trading; or i f agricultural,cocoa  cropping rather than t r a d i t i o n a l subsistence cropping. through school,  of  through immigrants  He i s e x p o s e d  i n c l e r i c a l positions> through  newspaper and r a d i o , and t h r o u g h r e l a t i v e s to v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f commercial  cash  urban  t h a t h a v e g o n e a n d come,  life.  To t h e n o r t h - w e s t i s  K u m a s i a town o f A k a n s , and t o t h e s o u t h i s a l a r g e  cosmopolitan  city, Accra.  costs.  Both these o f f e r a t t r a c t i o n s and a l s o  b i n e s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n he has about  this  ment w i t h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n h e h a s a b o u t so a s t o d e c i d e i f he w i l l  remain  He com-  s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n h i s own c a p a b i l i t i e s a n d d e s i r e s ,  i n Kwawu o r go e l s e w h e r e .  CHAPTER FOUR  Kwaku t h e B l a c k s m i t h  Decision Some Notes on a P e r s o n a l H i s t o r y  (Kwaku)  107  The c a u s e o f a s o c i a l o r i n d i v i d u a l phenomenon i s n e v e r a n o t h e r s o c i a l o r i n d i v i d u a l phenomena a l o n e , b u t a l w a y s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f a s o c i a l a n d a n i n d i v i d u a l phenomenon."''  The  Individual  No  one  person  i s t y p i c a l of migrants  be v a l u a b l e , however, t o examine i n d e p t h t i o n s o f a number o f i n d i v i d u a l s are p o t e n t i a l  urban migrants.  p l i c a t e d methodology.  living  the v a l u e s and  in relatively  tudes  that Caldwell's  latter  Yet  b e n e f i t s not  e x t e n t and  they a c t e d and  1.  e a s i l y admitted  to e l i c i t  by  and  to  to a  t h e f o r m a l and  attisay  stranofficial-  Information-  considerations are  fundamental. detailed  non-migrants w i t h regard to  t y p e of e d u c a t i o n ,  valid  but p r i v a t e  u s e f u l i f i t w e r e p o s s i b l e t o make a  i t s validity,  who  migrant  This i s not  i n the i n d i v i d u a l based  s t u d y o f a number o f m i g r a n t s f a c t o r s as  potential  of u r b a n i s a t i o n i s i n v a l i d ,  d e c i s i o n - a c t i o n perspective these very w o u l d be  and  based h i s c h o i c e .  e v e n more d i f f i c u l t  looking questionnaire.  It  r u r a l areas  t h e h i g h l y p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n s and  (1969) s t u d y  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f c o s t s and g e r w o u l d be  considera-  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a l o n e might not b r i n g a  needed to b r i n g out  upon w h i c h the  I t would  T h i s w o u l d n e c e s s i t a t e a r a t h e r com-  r e s u l t as a s t r o n g empathy b e t w e e n o b s e r v e r w o u l d be  o r Kwawu.  such  t h e i n f o r m a t i o n upon w h i c h  t h e economic and  c u l t u r a l c l i m a t e of  the  Thomas, W.I. a n d F l o r i a n Z u a n i c k i , P o l i s h P e a s a n t i n E u r o p e a n d A m e r i c a , N.Y., A l f r e d K n o p f , 1 9 2 7 . R e p r i n t e d by D o v e r , 1958, Vol. 1, p . 44.  108  (Kwaku)  cities  chosen, the extent  t o w h i c h some h a d a l r e a d y b e e n e x p o s e d t o  u r b a n i z a t i o n by p r e v i o u s v i s i t s , ables.  a n d numerous o t h e r i m p o r t a n t  This would r e q u i r e a t l e a s t a year o f residence i n a  a r e a , o b t a i n i n g t h e t r u s t and t h e c o n f i d e n c e m i g r a n t s , and n o t i n g t h e i r  necessary  Until  previous  ambivalent;  both  t r a n s i t i o n a l person,  t o go a n d t o  Kwaku.  their  i t i s  o f data as census  s t u d i e s , and p e r s o n a l r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f a  w i t h one p a r t i c u l a r ,  through  I c a n make s u c h a s t u d y  f o r me t o r e l y o n o t h e r s o u r c e s  rural  o f a number o f p o t e n t i a l  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and f o l l o w i n g  moves t o more u r b a n a r e a s .  tics,  vari-  statis-  friendship  His decision i s  remain.  I met Kwaku when I was t e a c h i n g e c o n o m i c s a t S t . P e t e r ' s Secondary S c h o o l , i n Nkwatia, mission s c h o o l , supported that I joined the s t a f f ,  a n d we s p e n t  T h e s c h o o l i s a Roman C a t h o l i c  b y t h e Ghana G o v e r n m e n t . t h e headmaster asked  p a i r some p l u m b i n g f i x t u r e s close friends.  Kwawu.  During  t h e week  Kwaku t o come a n d r e -  i n my s t a f f b u n g a l o w .  Kwaku a n d I became  He t a u g h t me m o s t o f w h a t I know o f t h e T w i l a n g u a g e  a l o t c f time  was n o t b l a c k s m i t h i n g .  t o g e t h e r when I was n o t t e a c h i n g a n d h e  I introduced him to the western  pastime  of  t r a v e l l i n g o n l y f o r the sake o f t r a v e l l i n g , o f s e e i n g t h e countrys i d e , and o f m e e t i n g o t h e r p e o p l e .  We w e n t a s f a r a s Cote  w h e r e we met some f r i e n d s he h a d n o t s e e n f o r many y e a r s .  d'lvoire He  taught  me many o f t h e f i n e r p o i n t s o f A k a n e t i q u e t t e a n d I came t o a p p r e ciate  t h e c o u r t e s y , g r a c i o u s n e s s , and diplomacy  o f West A f r i c a n s .  Kwaku d o e s n o t r e m a i n anonymous i n t h i s s t u d y , a n d a s a r e s u l t I m u s t  109  (Kwaku)  s u p p r e s s a number o f b e n e f i t a n d c o s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w h i c h h e h a d o c c a s i o n t o make.  I c h o o s e Kwaku a s a n i n d i v i d u a l  i n this  chapter  on d e c i s i o n s because he r e p r e s e n t s a t y p e , a n example, and a  friend  w i t h o u t whom I w o u l d h a v e h a d l i t t l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Kwawu.  His  Name  His  full  name i s P e t e r Kwaku B o a t e n g .  a d d r e s s e d a s Otomfuo.  Peter i sh i s Christian  monly used by t h e C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s . other  He i s s o m e t i m e s  name a n d i s m o s t  com-  A few of t h e Americans and  'Europeans' a t Nkwatia would c a l l him P e t e .  One o f t h e C a n a -  d i a n s a t t h e s c h o o l d u b b e d h i m ' P e t e t h e P l u m b ' a n d t h e name i s s t i l l used.  Kwaku i s h i s d a y name.  L i k e most Akans,Kwaku  ceremony on t h e e i g h t h day a f t e r  h e was b o r n .  d a y week a n d b e i n g b o r n o n a W e d n e s d a y , man  had an o u t d o o r i n g  The A.kans h a v e a s e v e n  h e was a d m i t t e d t o b e i n g h u -  o n t h e f o l l o w i n g Wednesday when h e h a d l i v e d o n e f u l l  weekdays.  So h e was c a l l e d  Wednesday.  round o f  Kwaku, t h e name g i v e n t o m a l e s b o r n o n  Boateng i s what he c a l l s h i s f a m i l y  name.  U n l i k e t h e E u r o p e a n s who h a v e a p a t r i l i n e a l s u r n a m e , t h e A k a n s who a r e m a t r i l i n e a l , h a v e no s u r n a m e , n e i t h e r a r e t h e y a d dressed according names o t h e r his  t o t h e i r abusua o r m a t r i c l a n .  than t h e i r  d a y names.  However  D u r i n g Kwaku's o u t d o o r i n g  f a t h e r g a v e h i m t h e name B o a t e n g .  ceremony,  Ke was t h u s named a f t e r  whom h i s f a t h e r a d m i r e d a n d w i s h e d Kwaku t o e m u l a t e . the  t h e y do h a v e  name B o a t e n g i n a l i k e manner f r o m h i s f a t h e r .  a man  T h i s man g o t  Faced w i t h European  110  (Kwaku)  nomenclature when f i l l i n g o u t forms, most Akans g i v e t h i s k i n d of name as a surname. He  Kwaku thus says h i s f a m i l y name i s Boateng.  i s sometimes a d d r e s s e d as Otomfuo which means  "black-  s m i t h " , an o c c u p a t i o n i n West A f r i c a which preceded by t h r e e hundred y e a r s the b r i n g i n g o f the knowledge of the manufacture ope by m i s s i o n a r i e s from the middle e a s t .  o f i r o n to Eur-  The name, Otomfuo, r i g h t l y  belongs o n l y t o those who reduce i r o n o x i d e t o i r o n , but Kwaku who o n l y works w i t h i r o n , but does n o t produce  it, is still  c a l l e d Otomfuo.  The People He Knows  Kwaku has a w i f e by a C a t h o l i c m a r r i a g e .  He i s s e p a r a t e d  from her and the m i s s i o n a r i e s r e p o r t a lawyer i n Rome i s t r y i n g to have the m a r r i a g e a n n u l l e d . out  v i a a mutual  friend.  Kwaku never t o l d me t h i s ; I found i t  He p r e s e n t l y has a w i f e , Ama, by a t r a d i -  t i o n a l m a r r i a g e , and t h i s i s a c c e p t e d by t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s who would marry them i f h i s p r e v i o u s , b a r r e n marriage became a n n u l l e d . he speaks o f h i s w i f e he r e f e r s  When  o n l y to Ama, by whom he has t h r e e  children.  His  Work  Three a p p r e n t i c e s l i v e w i t h him.  Their families  have g i -  ven Kwaku some t r a d i t i o n a l g i f t s , a f o w l , some a l c o h o l and a s m a l l sum o f money.  He p r o v i d e s t h e i r food and teaches them some s k i l l s on  111  (Kwaku)  t h e f o r g e and  a n v i l and w i t h h i s p l u m b i n g t o o l s .  Kwaku w i t h t h e artifacts  I n r e t u r n they  l a b o u r r e q u i r e d to r u n h i s shop and  sell  any  help  tools  and  t h a t t h e y make.  H i s Home  Kwaku's home t o w n , T a f o , He  has  h i s b l a c k s m i t h s h o p i n Nkawkaw.  a number o f o t h e r a r t i s a n s a n d e l e c t r i c i a n , an automotive and  refer  they  i s a v i l l a g e on  to t h e i r  c a n n o t do.  escarpment.  I t i s i n a compound s h a r e d  craftsmen:  mechanic.  the  a welder,  a p a i n t e r , an  They each a c c e p t v a r i o u s  compound m a t e s t h o s e j o b s o r p a r t s o f j o b s  Kwaku o n c e r e n t e d a r o o m i n Nkawkaw, b u t  c o m p l e t e d b u i l d i n g a h o u s e on  the o u t s k i r t s o f t h e town.  t h e e n c l o s e d w a l l e d compound common t o A k a n v i l l a g e s ,  now  The  i n s i d e i s designed  When he g o e s t o T a f o It  he  like  i s a b o u t f o u r t e e n m i l e s f r o m Nkawkaw t o T a f o  t o f i x my  which he  has  Kwaku  has from  the  t h e more common A k a n h o u s e s .  s t a y s i n a house b e l o n g i n g  m i l e s f r o m Nkawkaw t o N k w a t i a ,  jobs  Unlike  b u i l t a house which resembles t h e bungalows i n the m i s s i o n s outside.  by  a l s o on t h e  to h i s m a t r i c l a n .  and  about  twelve  s c a r p w h e r e Kwaku came  plumbing.  His Training  Kwaku d i d n o t i n Twi,  f i n i s h middle  u s i n g t h e Roman a l p h a b e t  school.  developed  by  He  can r e a d and  write  the Basel m i s s i o n a r i e s  KWAHU  A/OAPTH  aun  SOUTH  SKETCH  AFRAM  PLAINS  KWAHU  OF  THE  KWAHU  T&AD/T/ONAL  AREA  112  (Kwaku)  i n Akuapem.  He speaks Kwawu-Twi and can make himself understood i n  other Akan d i a l e c t s i n c l u d i n g the d i s t a n t l y r e l a t e d Agni i n Cote d'lvoire.  He speaks a few sentences of Hausa, Ga and p i d g i n French.  He does not speak as f l u e n t E n g l i s h as an educated Ghanaian.  He  seldom uses p i d g i n E n g l i s h unless speaking to Northerners or Nigerians.  Instead he speaks h i s own form of English with a f a i r l y l i m i -  ted grammar and vocabulary;, but admirably f l e x i b l e and expanded by h i s use of ingenious circumlocutions, r e f l e c t i n g h i s a b i l i t y to be a n a l y t i c a l , observant and p a t i e n t . He might be c a l l e d a l i t e r a t e , educated, though unschooled, man. He learned blacksmithing as an apprentice, and l a t e r , upon becoming a C a t h o l i c , learned plumbing s k i l l s from a C a t h o l i c brother.  He f e e l s rather obligated to the C a t h o l i c missions but h i s  f e e l i n g s appear somewhat ambivalent.  His f e e l i n g of o b l i g a t i o n r e -  f l e c t s the t r a d i t i o n a l , Akan regard of an a r t i s a n for h i s master, but he does not r e l a t e t h i s regard to an i n d i v i d u a l brother.  The  C a t h o l i c missionaries have, seemingly, many aspects of the Akan matriclan —  they address each other as "Father"', "Brother", or  " S i s t e r " , and l i v e together but do not marry.  Kwaku p r o j e c t s h i s  t r a d i t i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n s of h i s master onto the lineage of h i s master. They do not respond, however, i n q u i t e the same ways as members of an Akan m a t r i c l a n . Since there i s more p r o f i t i n plumbing than i n blacksmithi n g , he t r i e s to buy plumbing f i x t u r e s but they are scarce i n Nkawkaw.  (Kwaku)  113  Such b u s i n e s s  enterprise requires a trip  to A c c r a ,  104  miles  Nkawkaw, i n v o l v i n g , a b o u t t e n t o t w e l v e h o u r s t r a v e l l i n g Benz p a s s e n g e r bus.  Under t h e  circumstances  he  usually  from  time  in a  continues  blacksmithing. The Nkwatia,  C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s i n Nkawkaw, t h o s e  and  the  Sisters at  sends s i s t e r s  n e a r b y i n Nkawkaw.  I t sends Fathers  there are missions, pitals,  and  D i v i n e Word Spirit  a midwifery  of  Missionary  these,  t h e m i s s i o n w h e r e he was t h e S e v e n t h Day  trained.  c o n s i d e r s low f e e s .  i s needed.  of the  he  Often  he  and  S o c i e t y of  Servants  of the  i n Ghana.  has  at Accra, has  Nkwatia,  and  not  and worked the  Nkawkaw.  u s u a l l y w o r k s f o r C a t h o l i c ones..  He  plumbing f i x t u r e s  o f t e n makes h i m s e l f  but  pay  " s c a r c e ' by 5  j o b when t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s s e n d w o r d  i s a v a i l a b l e as  s o o n a s he  t i m e s , h i s e x c u s e s mean o n l y d e l a y a s h e  the  Holy  Kwaku  k n o w l e d g e he  i n Tafo,  w i t h the necessary  a t a f u n e r a l or a t another  at other  Kwaku's home t o w n ,  s c h o o l s , m i d w i f e r i e s , hos-  Sisters  To my  church  Nkwatia.  A d v e n t i s t h o s p i t a l i n M p r a e s o , w h i c h i s on  When he w o r k s f o r m i s s i o n s o f t e n p r o v i d e him  to run a  i n c l u d i n g the headquarters  road between the C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n s  he  at Tafo,  (S.S.p.S.) Order, i n o t h e r r e g i o n s  w h a t he  a Father  to r u n a s c h o o l at  training institutes,  (S.V.D.) a n d  on  same O r d e r i n t h e C a t h o l i c  numerous o t h e r m i s s i o n a c t i v i t i e s  w o r k e d a t a few  at  The  to r u n a h o s p i t a l , and  T h e r e i s a m i s s i o n and  nearby  t h e h o s p i t a l i n Nkawkaw, h i r e h i m  contract f o r t h e i r plumbing j o b s . church  at  i s called,  They him being that and,  eventually reports  JAS/KAN %  £ A S T c " # / V \  £  £  G  /  ON  KOFOP/OUA  VILLAGES  /A/  T/VE  KWAWU  AREA  115  (Kwaku)  f o r work.  Such h e s i t a t i o n s , d e l a y s  and e v e n t u a l  to t h e s o c i a l and economic p r e s s u r e s  r e v e r s a l s a r e due  p u t upon h i m t o s u c c e e d as an  entrepreneur. Kwaku's p r e s e n t w i f e , Ama, i s f r o m T a f o . a  s t o r e o n t h e m a i n s t r e e t o f Nkawkaw s h e s t a y e d  that  she stayed  During  rented  P r i o r to  before  he s t a r t e d  t h e d a y Kwaku c o u l d n o t b e a r o u n d t h e  He was u s u a l l y a t h i s s h o p , o r o u t d o i n g p l u m b i n g j o b s , o r  attending blessing is  in it.  i n a compound room w h i c h Kwaku r e n t e d  b u i l d i n g h i s house. store.  When Kwaku  various  functions  i n the d i s t r i c t .  I t i s n o t an unmixed  t o h a v e a non-wage e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a r t i s a n o c c u p a t i o n .  free to leave  a t any time w i t h o u t a s k i n g  permission  He  f r o m a n em-  p l o y e r , b u t h i s r e l a t i v e s a n d f r i e n d s know t h i s a n d demands f o r f u n e r a l a n d s u c h f u n c t i o n s a r e made a c c o r d i n g l y . obliged  to give  trade.  Kwaku h a s g i v e n Ama  tries,  M o s t A k a n men  t h e i r w i v e s some money a s c a p i t a l s o t h a t some money t o b u y i n g r e d i e n t s  and she o f t e n buys and r e s e l l s  feel  they  may  f o r pas-  bread o r canned goods.  As s h e  m u s t s t a y a t t h e s t o r e s h e c a n n o t go t o t h e l a r g e o p e n a i r m a r k e t t o sell.  I n h i s s t o r e she a l s o s e l l s plumbing f i x t u r e s or v a r i o u s  such as k n i v e s ,  tools  l a d l e s , a n d h o e s , made b y Kwaku a n d t h e a p p r e n t i c e s .  Kwaku makes t h e s e i n r e s p o n s e t o a n a n t i c i p a t e d demand.  A t t h e open-  i n g o f t h e r a i n y s e a s o n h e makes h o e s f o r t h e f a r m e r s t o b u y when start  tending  that  they w i l l  outside  their  selling  land.  sell well.  He makes t h e o t h e r Ama s e l l s  they  t o o l s when h e s e e s  them a t t h e s t o r e , a n d s i t s  t h e bread o r canned goods.  W h i l e Kwaku was b u i l d i n g  116  (Kwaku)  the house and c o u l d n ' t a f f o r d  to rent another  s m a l l back room o f t h e s t o r e .  room t h e y l i v e d  i nthe  S i n c e t h e h o u s e became h a b i t a b l e t h e y  h a v e moved t h e r e . M o s t A k a n women a r e e x p e c t e d  to care f o r t h e i r  B e c a u s e t h e r e i s no f a r m l a n d a v a i l a b l e i n Nkawkaw, Ama to r a i s e f o o d so she must depend on h e r p r o f i t s s t o r e t o buy f o o d f o r t h e c h i l d r e n .  from  children. cannot  selling  farm  a t the  Kwaku a n d Ama e a r n m o r e t h a n  many  Kwawu, a l t h o u g h n o t a s much a s p r o f e s s i o n a l s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , a n d s u c c e s s f u l cocoa  farmers.  A l t h o u g h h e makes no o u t w a r d c o n s t a n t l y as an e n t r e p r e n e u r . are i r r e g u l a r  T h e j o b s t h a t Kwaku g e t s a t h i s s h o p  i n f r e q u e n c y and r e m u n e r a t i o n .  n e s s may b e s l a c k a n d h i s f u n d s t a k i n g a lower p a i d j o b . time he had i n c u r r e d or f u n e r a l s .  s i g n s , Kwaku m u s t c a l c u l a t e  His blacksmithing busi-  l o w a n d h e w o u l d b e more p r o n e t o  T h i s w o u l d b e more l i k e l y  some o b l i g a t i o n s  if,  a t t h e same  such as g i v i n g g i f t s a t b i r t h s  O f t e n one o f t h e p r i e s t s w o u l d t a k e h i m t o A c c r a t o g e t  p a r t s f o r the plumbing to a l s o purchase  j o b , a n d h e c o u l d u s e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o go  plumbing  p a r t s w i t h what s p a r e cash he has  so a s t o do o t h e r j o b s i n Nkawkaw.  saved,  H i s monetary remuneration i n  t a k i n g a j o b a t a m i s s i o n w o u l d b e l o w , c o m p a r e d t o some s m i t h i n g j o b s a t h i s shop. t o do p l u m b i n g  However i f i t i n v o l v e s s u p p l e m e n t i n g  j o b s o u t s i d e o f t h e m i s s i o n he w i l l  to take the m i s s i o n j o b .  his ability  b e more  inclined  117  (Kwaku)  Kwaku a n d t h e p r i e s t s w o u l d n o t p u t i t t h i s way. m i g h t s a y t h a t he h a s c e r t a i n o b l i g a t i o n s might see those o b l i g a t i o n s  i n terms o f h i s r e l i g i o u s  Kwaku m i g h t s e e t h o s e o b l i g a t i o n s former master's c l a n .  to t h e church.  They The p r i e s t s  obligations.  i n terms of o b l i g a t i o n s  toh i s  He d o e s n ' t c o m p l a i n t o t h e p r i e s t s a b o u t l o w  r e m u n e r a t i o n , b u t he l e t s  i t b e known.  The p r i e s t s h a v e  mentioned  t h a t Kwaku d o e s n o t seem t o b e c h a r g i n g a s much a s t h e y m i g h t expected.  They would c e r t a i n l y  makes a l o w b i d . is  not offer  have  t o pay h i m more i f he  They might e x p l a i n h i s l o w b i d s by s a y i n g  t h a t he  c h a r g i n g a c c o r d i n g t o a wage s t r u c t u r e o f many y e a r s ago b e f o r e  i n f l a t i o n when he was t r a i n e d .  S i n c e they have a s m a l l budget and  must m a x i m i s e t h e y w o u l d n o t f i n d  i t to t h e i r advantage to o f f e r  Kwaku a h i g h e r p r i c e i f he makes a l o w b i d . Kwaku i s a n e n t r e p r e n e u r h a l f - w a y b e t w e e n l a g e o f T a f o . and t h e C i t y o f A c c r a . s o c i a l structure of h i s history, of  the western world.  cally, migrant  culturally,  i n s o much a s he l e f t  He i s h a l f - w a y b e t w e e n  there.  and e c o n o m i c a l l y .  He i s a r u r a l  KwawuTafo t o go t o Nkawkaw.  urban  He i s n o t and be-  t h e c i t y ways o f A c c r a b u t c h o s e n o t t o m i g r a t e  H i s r u r a l - - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n d e c i s i o n was n o t a s i m p l e  d e c i s i o n b u t i n v o l v e d a n d i s i n v o l v i n g many c o m p l e x f a c t o r s . g r a t i o n d e c i s i o n i s o n l y one o f a whole up h i s l i f e  society  i n a t r a n s i t i o n a l state geographi-  a r u r a l u r b a n m i g r a n t i n s o much a s he was e x p o s e d t o l i f e came f a m i l i a r w i t h  vilt h e abusua  and. c a p i t a l i s t a n d C h r i s t i a n  Kwaku l i v e s  socially,  his rural  i n an u r b a n i z i n g  complex o f d e c i s i o n s  environment.  go/no-go The m i t h a t make  CHAPTER FOUR B  Kwaku and the I n f o r m a t i o n - D e c i s i o n - A c t i o n P e r s p e c t i v e  Decisions:  P r e d i c t i o n or  Explanation?  118  (Kwaku)  Kwaku and  the I.D.A.  Some q u e s t i o n s i n only one  a r i s e as to the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of p u t t i n g  example i n a f o r m a l a n a l y s i s .  The  keynote here i s  ample" i n t h i s case, because the I n f o r m a t i o n - d e c i s i o n - a c t i o n pective  Kwaku i s used here as a d e m o n s t r a t i o n .  then does I.D.A. p e r s p e c t i v e , as an a b s t r a c t , apply  Given enough examples of p a s t data and t i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l be p l o t t e d ? village.  He  some e x p e r i e n c e Was  past a c t i o n , c o u l d f u t u r e ac-  Kwaku was  born i n T a f o , a  i n A c c r a the c a p i t a l , and  h i s move from Tafo  Is h i s p r e s e n t  migration?  action?  small  l i v e s i n Nkawkaw, a much l a r g e r commercial town.  A f r i c a n towns. tion?  How  to an i n d i v i d u a l ?  i t be used to p r e d i c t f u t u r e a c t i o n , or e x p l a i n p a s t  has had  pers-  (I.D.A.) c a l l s f o r t r a c i n g through many f a c e t s of d e c i s i o n s  of a number of p e o p l e .  Can  "ex-  s e r i e s of t r i p s  a few  He  o t h e r West  to Nkawkaw r u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a to A c c r a p a r t of  W i l l he develop c l o s e r l i n k s w i t h Accra?  rural-urban Could  those  c l o s e r l i n k s , or l o n g e r s t a y s be understood as urban m i g r a t i o n ? he move to Accra?  Is c o m p e t i t i o n  too g r e a t t h e r e , or c o s t s too  f o r a permanent move?  Would he then c o n s i d e r an i n t e r m e d i a t e  alternative:  W i l l he r e t u r n to Tafo?  Kumasi?  be answered by f i e l d work.  individual.  high  sized  These q u e s t i o n s  could  I t i s here p o s s i b l e o n l y to examine b r i e f l y  the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the four b a s i c hypotheses to what i s known about t h i s one  Will  (Kwaku)  119  (Hypothesis  Costs o f Remaining  Kwaku i s n o t what c o u l d be c l a s s e d as a m i s f i t .  1)  Costs  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o s t r a c i s m a r e l o w . He completed a few y e a r s o f p r i mary s c h o o l but t h e q u e s t i o n , as i n Chapter  Two, o f doing w e l l o r  d o i n g p o o r l y i n s c h o o l cannot h e r e be used as an e x p l a n a t i o n o f a d e c i s i o n to migrate.  Kwaku i s i n t e l l i g e n t but n o t a g e n i u s .  school career d i d not r e s u l t a p p l i e s to r e l i g i o u s  i n many o b s e r v a b l e  conversion.  costs.  His  The same  Kwaku i s v e r y p r a g m a t i c .  He be-  came a C a t h o l i c and h i s d e c i s i o n was n e c e s s a r i l y mixed w i t h h i s t r a i n i n g as a plumber.  Yet c o n v e r s i o n t o C a t h o l i c i s m i n h i s v i l l a g e i s  not something w h i c h l e a d s t o o s t r a c i s m c o s t s .  Costs o f r u r a l  life  d i d r i s e f o r Kwaku as he became more i d e n t i f i e d w i t h town l i v i n g due to b l a c k s m i t h and plumbing t r a i n i n g .  U n l i k e most Tafo r e s i d e n t s ,  f a r m i n g p l a y s a v e r y s m a l l p a r t i n Kwaku's t h o u g h t s , activity.  aspirations, or  S u b s t a n t i v e c o s t s o f f a r m i n g p e r se d i d n o t r i s e f o r  Kwaku, as i n the t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s "being a f a r m e r "  of Chapter Two, but t h e c o s t of  c o u l d w e l l have been h i g h e r f o r him.  Kwaku was  f a r from b e i n g a c r i m i n a l l e a v i n g Tafo t o a v o i d c o s t s of a s s o c i a t e d penalties.  B e n e f i t s of M i g r a t i n g  (Hypothesis  2)  Kwaku l e a r n e d about many "urban" t h i n g s as a r e s u l t o f h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the Brothers.  Increased  u r b a n i n f o r m a t i o n as i n  120  (Kwaku)  Chapter  Two  resulted  i n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h urban l i f e  l e d g e , e v e n o f t h e p i t f a l l s , was to  an a s s e t f o r him  the m i g r a t i o n b e n e f i t aggregate.  exposure to cosmopolitan w i t h urban l i f e  life  s t y l e s and  resulted  and  His t r a i n i n g ,  styles  increased  w h i c h he  t o o k me,  called  for a firm,  working  f o r the p r i e s t s ,  firm. was  He  v a l u e d , but  preneurship.  but would not  from Tafo  w h e r e i t was  more d i f f i c u l t  individual. as  Two,  Tafo mity.  100  The  He  to  liked  employed i n a income entre-  have been an i m p o r t a n t  factor  to Accra,  t c e s t a b l i s h ar. i n d e p e n d e n t s m i t h  is difficult  shop.  the d e c i s i o n (Caldx^ell, to assess  C a t h o l i c church  1968)  i n the case of  i s more e a s i l y  m i l e s o r so t o A c c r a . o r t h e 12 m i l e s  of the " b e n e f i t of m i g r a t i n g " . v a l u e of h i s d e c i s i o n .  fares,  from  measures of  f a c t o r o f i n c r e a s e d i n f o r m a t i o n seems t o a c c o u n t  one  explained  c o n t a c t s , or l o r r y  t o Nkawkaw, w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e t h e g e o g r a p h i c The  had  see  monetary  t o Nkawkav?, b u t n o t a l l t h e way  s o c i a l p r o x i m i t y , through the  Kwaku d i d n o t  consider being  Kwaku's " c l o s e n e s s " t o t h e c i t y  r a t h e r t h a n as  City l i f e  p r e f e r r e d the independence of  e f f e c t o f p r o x i m i t y on  i n Chapter  such  o r Kwawu M a r k e t ,  t o o t i e d by wages.  above a l l he  i n h i s going  as n o t e d  Kwawu C o r n e r ,  T h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n may  The  identification  f o r wages, as an unmixed b e n e f i t .  f e l t he w o u l d be  and  Kwawu c u s t o m s i n m o s t o f Nkawkaw,  h e h a s many a c q u a i n t a n c e s .  working  contributed  in a re-identification  more b e n e f i t s i n t h e f o r m o f f a m i l i a r i n an a r e a o f A c c r a  Know-  education  his  t h a t he v a l u e d i n c o m e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u r b a n l i f e .  and  f o r him.  proxif o r most  T h i s was  more  121  (Kwaku)  important  than education  p r e d i c t e d i n Chapter  i n i t s formal  i n s t i t u t i o n a l context,  Two.  B e n e f i t s of Remaining  H i s income, i n terms o f s u b s t a n t i v e  quisition  r e l a t e d to farming,  himself  could.  Caldwell's  was t h e r e f o r e l o w i n T a f o .  income r e l a t i v e  to h i s Tafo peers.  (matriclan) land i n Tafo, finding He d i d a r r a n g e t o g e t a s m a l l p l o t  Nkawkaw. as  a c t i v i t i e s had a  Kwaku d i d n o t c l a i m  abusua  ( n o t e x a c t l y b u t somewhat  W e s t e r n ) house t o l i v e i n w h i l e he w o r k e d a t h i s shop i n Falling  f a r m i n c o m e c a n n o t e x p l a i n Kwaku's m i g r a t i o n oriented l i f e  Costs of Migrat-ing  Travel  4)  (Hypothesis  f o r t h e s a k e o f t r a v e l was a n o v e l  He was e x c i t e d b y t h e new i d e a o f t o u r i s m  e n o u g h money t o l a s t , a n d away we w e n t .  s o much  style.  c o n c e p t t o Kwaku  when I s u g g e s t e d we t a k e a t w o - w e e k h o l i d a y a n d t r a v e l  wife  of  o f l a n d o u t s i d e Nkawkaw h o w e v e r ,  the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h a non-rural  d'lvoire.  Dislike  e n o u g h n o n - f a r m i n c o m e i n Nkawkaw.  w h e r e he b u i l t a d i s t i n c t l y n o n - A f r i c a n resembling  A bad crop  f i n d i n g s n o t e d a b o v e , are. s u b s t a n t i a t e d ,  b e c a u s e K w a k u , due t o h i s p l u m b i n g a n d s m i t h i n g higher  as a  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l a c -  t h e r e f o r e c o u l d n o t a c c o u n t f o r Kwaku's move t o Nkawkaw. farming  3)  (Hypothesis  Kwaku, as m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , d i d n o t i d e n t i f y farmer.  as  to the Cote  and gave h i s  But I f o u n d t h a t  travel  122  (Kwaku)  f o r other reasons  was n o t f o r e i g n t u Kwaku o r o t h e r Kwawu.  we met many r e l a t i v e s a n d a c q u a i n t a n c e s ,  some h e h a d s e e n when a s a  c h i l d h i s f a t h e r had taken w i t h him w h i l e t r a v e l l i n g who h a d s i n c e m i g r a t e d  f r o m Kwawu.  En r o u t e  I n every  to trade,  t o w n o r v i l l a g e we w e n t ,  w h e r e t h e r e was some c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t y we met Kwawu, m o s t l y d e r s , b u t some c l e r k s a n d m i n o r o f f i c i a l s . t h a t t h e y h a d gone t h e r e f r o m Kwawu.  Very  H o s t o f them  town.  t o commerce. People  few were b o r n  elsewhere.  For him the cost of migrating  F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h urban l i f e ensured  mobility  seemed a q u i e t , u n e x c i t i n g  t o what i t w o u l d b e f o r someone  away f r o m t h e n a t a l v i l l a g e the  itself  h e knew h a d t r a v e l l e d .  w o u l d be l o w r e l a t i v e lated village.  Y e t Tafo  tra-  indicated  Kwaku h a d g r o w n up i n a n e n v i r o n m e n t o f much g e o g r a p h i c a l related  such  styles,  i n a more  and w i t h  iso-  residence  low costs,, and i n terms o f  I n f o r m a t i o n - d e c i s i o n - a c t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e (I.D.A.), r e s u l t e d  higher  others  in a  value.  The F i t o f t h e M o d e l  lio a b s t r a c t , o r g e n e r a l i t y a g r e e s of an i n d i v i d u a l n a t u r e . i n Kwaku's examination  case, apart  Tafo  However, c e r t a i n d i s p a r i t i e s  from those mentioned above, c a l l  of the p e r s p e c t i v e .  "once o n l y " n a t u r e  e n t i r e l y w i t h examples  The most i m p o r t a n t  of the p e r s p e c t i v e .  f r o m t h e I.D.A. for a re-  v a r i a n t i s the  Kwaku d i d n o t s i m p l y l i v e i n  a n d d e c i d e t o go o r n o t go t o A c c r a .  He was e x p o s e d t o v a r y i n g  (Kwaku)  123  f a c e t s o f u r b a n l i f e many t i m e s .  He p r e s e n t l y l i v e s a t a n  inter-  m e d i a t e u r b a n a r e a , Nkawkaw, b u t h a s b e e n i n c r e a s i n g h i s c o m m u n i c a tion with Accra.  T h i s i s no s i m p l e o u t how t o l i v e  dichotomy, Rural-Urban, i n an i n c r e a s i n g l y  but a  process  of f i n d i n g  cosmopolitan  world.  T h e r e a r e many i n t e r m e d i a t e p o i n t s a n d n o a b s o l u t e s a t e i t h e r  end. Another important  d i f f e r e n c e i s the v a r i a n c e between t h e  d e c i s i o n a s i t i s made b y a n i n d i v i d u a l , tion.  The p r o c e s s  formula over  and t h e l o g i c  o f d e c i d i n g happens over  time w h i l e the d e c i s i o n  o f f e r e d here i s a s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n which v a r i a b l e s can a l t e r  time. The  tion.  Looking  final  d i f f e r e n c e h a s t o do w i t h n e t a n d g r o s s  a t net migration s t a t i s t i c s often overlooks  cess o f a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s moving back and f o r t h , and  t o w n a s Kwaku d i d , a n d d o e s .  studying aggregates one  of i t s solu-  individualin  differs t h a t same  migrathe pro-  from v i l l a g e  to city  T h e p i c t u r e o n e g e t s f r o m only-  f r o m t h a t w h i c h one g e t s process.  from  studying  CHAPTER F I V E  Where t o  Go?  Action Kwawu N e t M i g r a t i o n  Patterns  A Demonstration Model  (Where to Go)  124  Limited empirical data do not support the hypothesis that migration i s proportional to the population of the c i t y of destination, nor that i t i s inversely proportional to the distance of migration."'' The I.D.A. perspective consists of three parts: t i o n , Decision, Action.  Informa-  Chapter Three, Four and Five attempt to  give Kwawu examples of each of those three parts.  Chapter Three  indicates the information a v a i l a b l e to a Kwawu about the r u r a l and urban areas.  Chapter Four gives an example of a p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i -  dual's decision process.  This chapter attempts to focus on the  aggregate action of Kwawu to see i f such demographic data, as a v a i l able, i s useful for examining the i n d i v i d u a l decision making process. It seeks to ask where have Kwawu people migrated, and i n the l i g h t of the I.D.A. perspective, "why"?  From the perspective a demonstra-  tion model i s constructed to test this data. Kwawu have migrated  to every region i n Ghana, and within  each to almost every census enumeration area.  They have also l e f t  the country to go to Nigeria, Cote d ' l v o i r e , Togo, Dahomey, Great B r i t a i n and America.  I t i s d i f f i c u l t here to estimate the number of  Kwawu who go to each area outside Ghana.  However i t i s possible to  indicate where they have gone within Ghana, using the 1960 census. The Kwawu developed  as a separate ethnic entity i n what i s now the  Eastern Region, i n two census enumeration areas:  1.  North Kwahu and  Stewart, Charles T.,"Migration as a Function of Population and Distance", American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, Vol. 25, June 1960, pp. 347-356.  125  (Where t o Go)  S o u t h Kwahu. two  areas.  T h e w h o l e o f Kwawu t r a d i t i o n a l The t a b l e p r o v i d e d  o r t h e i r r e c e n t a n c e s t o r s have Looking not  s t a t e l i e s w i t h i n these  indicates the regions migrated.  a t t h e t a b l e i t becomes o b v i o u s  t h a t Kwawu h a v e  gone i n e q u a l n u m b e r s t o e a c h r e g i o n i n G h a n a .  tion i soffered for this  t o w h i c h Kwawu  I f an explana-  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n d i s t r i b u t i o n , by draw-  i n g on a f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e a r e a , c e r t a i n f a c t o r s m i g h t be i s o l a t e d b y b e i n g made e x p l i c i t .  These f a c t o r s might then be i n t r o d u c e d  the I n f o r m a t i o n - d e c i s i o n - a c t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e as I n f o r m a t i o n t o a d e c i s i o n maker, and a d e m o n s t r a t i o n from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e . an  These f a c t o r s  contains  migrated  a predictive  i n the Eastern Region.  the census enumeration regions North  i n which the t r a d i t i o n a l  available  generated  c o u l d then be t e s t e d a g a i n s t  i n d i c a t o r of A c t i o n so as to develop M o s t Kwawu l i v e  model c o u l d be  into  tool.  The e a s t e r n R e g i o n  Kwahu a n d S o u t h Kwahu,  s t a t e o f Kwawu d e v e l o p e d .  I f Kwawu h a v e  t o o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e E a s t e r n R e g i o n i t may b e p a r t i a l l y  e x p l a i n e d by s o c i a l  and g e o g r a p h i c a l p r o x i m i t y o f t h e a r e a s .  t h e E a s t e r n R e g i o n o u t s i d e o f Kwahu, o n e w o u l d e x p e c t g r a t e t o t h e l a r g e s t town, K o f o r i d u a , and t h i s  Kwawu t o m i -  i s t h e case.  f r o m t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a r e a , m o s t Kwawu, 2 , 3 6 0 , l i v e  Within  Apart  i n New J u a b e n i n  w h i c h K o f o r i d u a i s s i t u a t e d , o r i n E a s t A k i m Abuakwa, 2,500, w h i c h borders  S o u t h Kwahu.  Most o f t h e p e o p l e  of the Eastern Region a r e  Akans and speak d i a l e c t s o f T w i which a r e s i m i l a r lect.  Geographical  migration.  t o t h e Kwawu d i a -  p r o x i m i t y and urban a t t r a c t i o n s account  f o r much  Regional Distribution of Kwawu i n Ghana  No. of Kwawu 1948  No., of Kwawu 1960  Ghana t o t a l  79,313  131,970  Eastern Region  69,647*  104,130 10,920  Region  Notes  % Kwawu who are male (1960)  Urban % Pop. i n centers 5,000+ (1960)  47.9%  23%  Region of Origin  46.8  20  Major urban area  52.0  80  49.8  25  Accra Region  2,686  Ashanti Region  3,198  8,590  Most:similar, s o c i a l structure, f a i r l y urban, borders Kwawu  Western Region  2,437*  3,840  Related s o c i a l structure, f a i r l y urban, further away  56.3  26  Brong Ahafo  239  2,748  Similar s o c i a l structure, r u r a l , further away  51.7  16  Volta Region  759  1,490  Different s o c i a l structure, borders Kwawu, r u r a l .  53.4  13  67  2.60  Very different c u l ture, most distant, rural  61.5  Norther Regions  Source:  Ghana Census 1948 (p. 131). Ghana Census 1960. Last column: Birmingham et a l . , 1967, Vol. 2, p. 47, Table 1:15. Eastern Region i n 1948 included Birim (K=67,285) and Akuapem New Juaben (K=2,262). Western Region i n 1948 included Ahanta Nzima (K=257), Cape Coast (1,456), Sefui (86) and Wassaw-Aowin (640).  127  (Where t o Go)  The Accra  region with  Region.  Accra.  t h e s e c o n d l a r g e s t number o f Kwaxvu i s t h e  I t i s very  Within  small i n area  b u t i t i n c l u d e s the' c i t y o f  t h i s r e g i o n Kwawu a r e more l i k e l y  t h a n t o Ga-Dangbe a n d S h a i r u r a l o u t s k i r t s .  t o go t o t h e c i t y  The r e g i o n i s t h e t r a -  d i t i o n a l home o f A d a n g b e g r o u p s w h i c h a r e q u i t e d i s t i n c t c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y that The  from Akan.  The b i g g e s t  indicator of this i s  t h e Adangbe groups a r e p a t r i l i n e a l w h i l e Akan a r e m a t r i l i n e a l . city  itself,  h o w e v e r , i s more c o s m o p o l i t a n ,  of t h e p o p u l a t i o n a r e Akan speakers. Kwawu m i g r a t i o n t o A c c r a its  linguisti-  and about  one-fifth  The f a c t o r s a c c o u n t i n g f o r  a r e overwhelmingly f a c t o r s connected t o  u r b a n c h a r a c t e r , f o l l o w e d b y i t s d i s t a n c e t o Kwawu a n d t h e e x t e n t  of f a m i l i a r  life  The  styles  i n the c i t y .  region with  Ashanti Region.  This  the t h i r d  l a r g e s t number o f Kwawu i s t h e  r e g i o n has even c l o s e r h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l  t i e s w i t h Kwawu t h a n o t h e r  p a r t s of the Eastern  Region.  Most o f t h e  Kwawu who do go t h e r e , go t o K u m a s i t h e s e c o n d l a r g e s t c i t y Again, mity  urban a t t r a c t i o n s coupled  help  w i t h s o c i a l and g e o g r a p h i c a l  proxi-  t o e x p l a i n why t h e r e a r e f e w e r Kwawu i n t h e A s h a n t i  Region  than i n the Accra in  i n Ghana.  the remaining  R e g i o n a n d t h e E a s t e r n R e g i o n , b u t more Kwawu t h a n regions.  N o t e t h e r a t i o s o f men t o women.  Kwawu  women o u t n u m b e r t h e men.  The d i f f e r e n c e i s g r e a t e s t a t t h e p o i n t o f  origin.  t h a n women.  to trade.  M o r e men m i g r a t e  Women a r e more l i k e l y  to travel  T h e y t e n d more t o t r a v e l t o a r e a s w h i c h h a v e o u t d o o r m a r -  k e t s , f a m o u s i n Ghana f o r t h e i r w e a l t h y " m a r k e t mammies".  Kwawu  128  (Where t o Go)  women who do t r a v e l  t o t r a d e a r e more a t t r a c t e d t o m a r k e t s w h i c h a r e  g e o g r a p h i c a l l y a n d s o c i a l l y p r o x i m a t e t o t h e i r home. t r a d e r s a r e n o t as a t t r a c t e d sort.  t o outdoor markets  ratios  have fewer e t h n i c s i m i l a r i t i e s , tracted  shops  rather  T h u s Kwawu women o u t n u m b e r Kwawu men  the A s h a n t i and E a s t e r n Regions.  ences i n t h e male-female  Another reason f o r t h e d i f f e r -  i s t h a t t h e men m i g r a t e t o a r e a s w h i c h such as A c c r a , because  they a r e a t -  t o c e r t a i n o c c u p a t i o n s such as shopkeeping and c l e r i c a l  w h i c h do n o t r e q u i r e  even  of the traditional  I f t h e y m i g r a t e t o t r a d e t h e y s e t up s m a l l r e t a i l  t h a n t r a d e i n open a i r m a r k e t s . in  Kwawu men,  t h e comfort and s e c u r i t y p r o v i d e d by w e l l  p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r a c t i o n as i n Akan outdoor markets.  work, known  Where t h e men  o u t n u m b e r t h e women t h e m o s t i s i n t h e N o r t h e r n R e g i o n s w h e r e f e w Kwawu m i g r a t e , w h e r e c u s t o m s  a r e most u n f a m i l i a r , and where  urban  o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e the fewest. The  r e g i o n w h e r e t h e f o u r t h l a r g e s t Kwawu p o p u l a t i o n h a s  gone i s t h e W e s t e r n R e g i o n . live  A k a n s s u c h a s t h e F a n t i and t h e N z i m a  i n the Western R e g i o n , and these a r e about a s s i m i l a r  Kwawu a s a r e t h e B o r o n a n d t h e A g n i Region.  However t h e W e s t e r n  ( A n y i ) who l i v e  tothe  i n t h e Brong  Ahafo  R e g i o n i s o n t h e c o a s t , h a s h a d more  historical  exposure  t o a n d c o n t a c t w i t h E u r o p e , a n d i s more u r b a n .  Faced w i t h  two a r e a s w h i c h a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same d i s t a n c e away,  and a p p r o x i m a t e l y a s s i m i l a r  i n customs  a n d l a n g u a g e , t h e Kwawu t e n d  t h e n t o move t o t h e a r e a w h i c h i s more u r b a n .  Thus t h e Brong  R e g i o n i s f o u r t h o n t h e s c a l e i n T a b l e IV.1 w h i l e is  third.  the Western  Ahafo Region  (Where t o Go)  129  The V o l t a R e g i o n i s a n i n t e r e s t i n g a r e a . borders p a r t l y relatively gion,  o n Kwawu a n d i s g e n e r a l l y q u i t e  This  close.  f e w Kwawu h a v e m i g r a t e d t o t h a t r e g i o n .  However,  Within the r e -  f e w e r Kwawu h a v e m i g r a t e d t o t h e more u r b a n c o a s t a l s o u t h ,  a n d m o r e h a v e m i g r a t e d t o Buem--Krachi  i n the north.  T h e Kwawu m i -  g r a t i o n d i f f e r e n t i a l h e r e must be e x p l a i n e d b y c u l t u r a l r a t h e r t h a n by d i s t a n c e o r urban o p p o r t u n i t i e s . in  t h e V o l t a r e g i o n a r e Ewes.  These  region  s u c h a s Kwawu.  p o r t i o n o f Akans,  on t h e A f r a m p l a i n s  which a r e very d i f f e r e n t  Only i n Buem-Krachi  the Krakye.  Most o f t h e p e o p l e  Many a r e G a - d a n g b e a n d many a r e G u a n .  groups have l a n g u a g e s and customs  Akan t r i b e s  similarity  from  i s there a large pro-  I t i s q u i t e e a s y f o r a Kwawu  living  i n N o r t h Kwahu, t o c r o s s t h e l a k e a n d l i v e i n  Buem. The a r e a s t o w h i c h t h e l e a s t number o f Kwawus m i g r a t e a r e i n the Northern Region.  A l m o s t t w i c e a s many Kwawu men a s Kwawu  women go t c t h e N o r t h e r n R e g i o n s . rural. differ  These  areas are r e l a t i v e l y  very  T h e y a r e t h e f u r t h e s t i n Ghana f r o m Kwawu a n d t h e p e o p l e t h e m o s t f r o m Kwawu i n l a n g u a g e a n d c u s t o m s . Looking a t this  Kwawu m i g r a t i o n , These v a r i a b l e s  d e s c r i p t i v e account of t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n  three independent v a r i a b l e s  evident.  c a n be seen as i n f o r m a t i o n p e r c e i v e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l  d e c i d i n g where o r i f t o m i g r a t e . to w h i c h each a r e a o f f e r s cost of getting  seem t o b e m o s t  These v a r i a b l e s  urban b e n e f i t s ,  t h e r e i s l o w , a n d 3)  2)  are:  1)  the extent  the extent to which the  the extent to which the culture  (VThere  t o Go)  130  of each a r e a i s s i m i l a r difficult but  t o t h e c u l t u r e o f t h e home a r e a ,  to decide a t t h i s point which  t h e degree o f urban  o p p o r t u n i t i e s seems t o a c c o u n t  est part of the migration. similar  v a r i a b l e i s most  The e x t e n t t o w h i c h  It i s important  f o rthe great-  the host areas a r e  i n s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e t o t h e home a r e a seems t o b e m o r e  impor-  t a n t f o r Kwawu women t h a n f o r Kwawu men. Combining t h e hypotheses  with a l i m i t of four variables, a  d e m o n s t r a t i o n model c a n be c o n s t r u c t e d . gression techniques can be i n d i c a t e d . f  (X , X , X ) . A  JL  _>  who m i g r a t e be:  U s i n g some e l e m e n t a r y r e -  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n T h i s xrould be e x p r e s s e d  i n the form o f Y =  L e t t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e b e t h e number o f Kwawu  to a p a r t i c u l a r area.  extent t o which  L e t t h e three independent  t h e areas a r e urban,  Kwawu, a n d t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h  variables  distance to the area  from  Kwawu may b e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e l a n -  guage a n d customs o f t h e a r e a . Given t h e n a t u r e . o f t h e v a r i a b l e s and t h e sources o f t h e d a t a , t h e i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e s e f o u r v a r i a b l e s must be d i s t o r t i o n s a n d representations of the variables. l i s t e d here. census not  lists  No c e n s u s  A few o f these d i s t o r t i o n s a r e  data on recant migrations e x i s t .  t h e number o f Kwawu i n 69 r e g i o n s o f G h a n a , b u t d o e s  i n d i c a t e t h e p r o p o r t i o n who h a v e m i g r a t e d i n e a c h  born i n each.  However  5  o r who h a v e b e e n  u s i n g t h e t o t a l number o f Kwawu i n e a c h r e -  g i o n r a t h e r t h a n o n l y t h e number who h a v e m i g r a t e d not  The 1960  t o a n a r e a , does  r e s u l t i n a s e r i o u s m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r two r e a s o n s .  First,  131  (Where t o Go)  t h e Kwawu d e v e l o p e d  fairly  r e c e n t l y as a n independent group  f r o m t h e A s h a n t i o r o t h e r A k a n who f o r m e d t h e Kwawu. t a l number o f Kwawu i n e a c h r e g i o n r e p r e s e n t of people sion.  who h a v e m i g r a t e d  Second  v a l u a b l e i f concerned  with the d i f f e r e n t i a l  Thus a r e l a t i v e l y  t o t h e a b s o l u t e number o f m i -  high migration to that  D e n s i t y may n o t b e v a l i d  a r e a may b e i n c l u d e d w i t h i n b o u n d a r i e s  pied areas.  For purposes of approximation  c o n s i s t i n g o f the percentage a r b i t r a r y number o f p e o p l e  divi-  o r v a r i a t i o n i n immigra-  e x t e n t t o w h i c h a r e g i o n i s u r b a n m u s t a l w a y s be a n  when u s i n g c e n s u s d a t a . ban  o r progeny  h i g h Kwawu p o p u l a t i o n i n a n y r e g i o n o t h e r  t h a n Kwawu i n d i c a t e s a l s o a r e l a t i v e l y The  t h e people  i f u s e d i n r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i s more  t i o n t o each o f t h e areas, r a t h e r than grants.  Thus t h e t o -  t o each p o s t - c o l o n i z a t i o n census  the i n d i c a t o r ,  3  separate  of people  i ssufficient.  approximation  because a very u r -  encompassing v a s t however, a crude  living  area.  unoccuindicator  i n centers o f over  This i s reasonable  as long  as  the boundaries  As  a r o u g h m e a s u r e o f t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m Kwawu t o e a c h r e g i o n , a  straight to  line  encompass s i m i l a r g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s  and p o p u l a t i o n s .  d i s t a n c e , m e a s u r e d o n t h e map, f r o m t h e c e n t e r o f Kwawu  t h e c e n t e r o f each r e g i o n i s iidequate.  a r e n o t t h e same a s e c o n o m i c d i s t a n c e s . straight  some  lines.  Costs  Ghana t h a n i n N o r t h e r n  Straight line  Roads a l m o s t  n e v e r go i n  o f t r a v e l p e r m i l e a r e much l o w e r Ghana due t o a more e f f i c i e n t  distances  i n Southern  infrastructure.  T h i s a g a i n i s n o t a s e r i o u s d i s t r a c t i o n t o t h e model so l o n g a s t h e indicator  i s t o be used f o r r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s .  What i s i m p o r t a n t  132  (Where t o Go)  Simple C o r r e l a t i o n  Table  I n d e x o f Kwawu M i g r a t i o n i n Ghana A g a i n s t S e l e c t e d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Ghanaian Census Enumeration Areas  Number o f Kwawu  % of Kwawu  -0.299  -0.423  0.404  0.529  Total population  0.580  0.027  Number o f A k a n  0.200  0.056  Number o f T w i S p e a k e r s  0.216  0.133  Number o f A k a n S p e a k e r s p l u s T w i S p e a k e r s  0.570  0.219  Percent o f Akan  0.024  0.163  Percent o f Twi speakers  0.150  0.254  P e r c e n t Twi p l u s Akan  0.172  0.338  No. i n d i v i d u a l s  r e s . i n c e n t e r s o v e r 5,000 p o p .  0.812  0.308  No. i n d i v i d u a l s  r e s . i n c e n t e r s o v e r 10,000 p o p .  0.780  0.322  0.778  0.274  0.802  0.316  0.328  0.454  0.303  0.413  D i s t a n c e i n d e x , (map s t r a i g h t Inverse distance  index  Speakers  speakers  Number o f wage e m p l o y e d Index o f urban s i z e % individuals  lines)  individuals  (Sum o f a b o v e t h r e e )  r e s . i n c e n t e r s o v e r 5,000 p o p .  Percentage index o f urban  Numerical Migration  size  Index:  ( A k a n + T w i s p e a k e r s ) ( P o p . o v e r 5,000 + P o p , o v e r 1 0 , 0 0 0 + Wage E a r n e r s ) (distance) 0.853  0.311  EXPECTED  SCA TTEPG&AM  ASSOC/AT/ONS  B,%>0  1  01.  • bi  B >0 3  FAM/L/AP/TY  NOTE:-SIMPLE L/NEAP PE6PESS/0/VS ONLY. -MULT/PLE WEAP PE6PESS/0N /S MOT Sb'/TABLE FOP W0 0/MENS/OMAl 6PAPK/CAL gEPPESENTATJOM.  OFKWAHU  mm CUSTOMS*SOCIAL IN EACH APEA  STPUCTUPE  (Where t o Go)  134  i s not the absolute distance but the r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n d i s tances between t h e p o t e n t i a l c h o i c e s open t o an i n d i v i d u a l .  The  same a p p l i e s t o a n i n d i c a t o r o f s i m i l a r i t y o f language and h a b i t s . The p e r c e n t a g e o f p e o p l e i n each a r e a who speak Akan d i a l e c t s i s o n l y an a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f t h e degree t o w h i c h a Kwawu m i g r a n t may be fami l i a r w i t h the c u l t u r e .  P e o p l e who speak Nzima i n t h e Western Re-  g i o n would be c l a s s e d as Akan y e t have more d i f f e r e n t customs t h a n have t h e Akuapem who a r e c l o s e r t o the Kwawu b o t h s o c i a l l y and geographically  s  y e t b o t h a r e c l a s s e d as Akan.  For regression analy-  s i s t o be v a l i d t h e i n d i c a t o r s must i n d i c a t e t h e degree t o w h i c h t h e v a r i a b l e s v a r y w i t h each o b s e r v a t i o n which i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e a b s o l u t e measure o f t h e v a r i a b l e . The dependent v a r i a b l e i s t h e e x t e n t of Kwawu m i g r a t i o n to each a r e a as i n d i c a t e d by t h e v a r i a t i o n i n numbers o f Kwawu i n each a r e a .  The independent v a r i a b l e s a r e .  degree t o w h i c h each  a r e a i s urban, d i s t a n c e t o each a r e a , and s i m i l a r i t y of c u l t u r e o f t h e p e o p l e i n each a r e a . v a r i a b l e s i s measured by:  The v a r i a t i o n i n t h e s e t h r e e independent 1) p e r c e n t o f p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g i n c e n -  t e r s o f over 10,000, 2) d i s t a n c e from t h e c e n t e r o f Kwawu t o t h e cent e r o f each a r e a , and 3) p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n each a r e a w h i c h speaks a n Akan language. the 1960 census o f Ghana.  The s o u r c e s f o r each o f t h e s e i s found i n  (Where t o Go)  Simple L i n e a r R e g r e s s i o n  Table  Kwawu M i g r a t i o n R e l a t e d t o I n v e r s e o f D i s t a n c e o f M i g r a t i o n  Y = A  2  + Cx  2  Where: Y  = Number o f Kwawu i n each census enumeration a r e a  x,,  = I n v e r s e o f t h e d i r e c t l i n e d i s t a n c e from t h e c e n t e r o f Kwahu t o t h e c e n t e r o f each o t h e r census d i v i s i o n = Constant  f o r the r e g r e s s i o n  C  = C o e f f i c i e n t o f independent v a r i a b l e x„  592.4  = A r i t h m e t i c mean o f Y  1450  = Standard  1,463  = A r i t h m e t i c mean o f x  1.064  = Standard  A  = -2.13  ( s t a n d a r d e r r o r = 279.2)  C  = 5^55  ( s t a n d a r d e r r o r = 15,480)  r  2  = 0.163  F.prob. = 0.0000  d e v i a t i o n of Y 2  deviation of x  2  (Where to Go)  136  Distance  The number of Kwawu i n each of the 67 census areas was taken as an i n d i c a t i o n of the number of Kwawu who had migrated there from the two Kwawu census areas. variable.  This was set as the dependent  The f i r s t independent variable was distance.  As distance  from Kwawu increased i t was predicted that fewer Kwawu would migrate.  See Diagram 3, page 133, Part 2. This was the case. The  c o r r e l a t i o n for Kwawu and distance was -0.30, which i s low, but considering the very crude measure of distance, straight l i n e s on a map, this was not surprising.  A second independent variable, the inverse  of the distance, as measured by the f i r s t method, was correlated with Kwawu and i t was found to be higher:  0.41. This was used for sub-  sequent computations.  Familiarity  The second independent variable, extent to which the area i s s i m i l a r i n s o c i a l structure to Kwawu, was indicated i n an i n t e r esting way.  Greenberg (1965:50) has already shown the relationship  between language, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and s o c i a l alignment i n multil i n g u a l urban s i t u a t i o n s . ber  of Twi speakers —  The number of Akan speakers plus the num-  as noted i n the 1960 census document Tribes  i n Ghana (Special Report E) was used as an indicator. a d i a l e c t of Twi.  Twi i s an Akan language.  zation of Spoken Kwawu", on page 137.  Kwawu-Twi i s  See Diagram 4,"Categori-  The indicator thus calculated  CATEGO&tZAT/OA/  OF  SPOKEN  KWAWU  GC/&MA AKAN TW/ KWAWU  FANT/-TW/ FA  NT/  GA-ADANGBE  P/IAPA  GA  XYAM8U  AOANGBE  (KWAHU) AG ON A ASANTE  NZEMA A//AFO  MOLE  NZEMAEVALUE  AHANTA  DAYOM8A A/ANUA48A  6UAN  BAA/DA ANY/-8AWLE  ASE/V  /GBO  KWBO  EWE BOgOA/  KOMKOA'KA  8/MO8A  ADA 5HA/  (ASHAA/T!)  Y0PU8A  SAHW/ CSEFW/J  A  Oh//A/  EFl/TU  AWUW  KYEPEPONG  WAL6A DAGA8A (DA6A&TE) 81//ISA  OANKY/QA  (DENCMteA)  8AWLE  LAGTE  A/ANKANSI GU&ENS/  WASA  KYOKOSJ  ANUM-BOSO  GONGYA  HA  USA  (G'ONJA) FU/AN/  (Where t o Go)  138  was as i f z e r o p o i n t s were g i v e n t o each non-Akan speaker,  one p o i n t  were g i v e n t o each Akan b u t non-Twi s p e a k e r , and two p o i n t s were g i ven t o each Twi speaker.  The a g g r e g a t e o f p o i n t s i n each census  a r e a was used as t h e i n d i c a t o r o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e a r e a might be f a m i l i a r t o a p o t e n t i a l Kwawu m i g r a n t . P a r t 3.  See Diagram 3, page 133,  I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough the "Akan" v a r i a b l e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a  c o e f f i c i e n t o f 0.20 and t h e "Twi"' c o r r e l a t e d s l i g h t l y h i g h e r w i t h 0.22 b u t t h e combined i n d e x o f e t h n i c s i m i l a r i t y had a c o e f f i c i e n t o f 0.57.  Urbanization S t i l l u s i n g census enumeration a r e a s , i t was d i f f i c u l t t o b u i l d i n an i n d e x o f u r b a n i z a t i o n and r e m a i n t h e o r e t i c a l l y c o n s i s tent .  So f o r each a r e a p o i n t s were a g a i n g i v e n t o i n d i v i d u a l s , as  i n the e t h n i c s i m i l a r i t y i n d i c a t o r :  zero p o i n t s f o r each p e r s o n  l i v i n g i n c e n t e r s o f l e s s than 5,000 p o p u l a t i o n , one p o i n t i f he l i v e d i n a c e n t e r o f over 5,000 o r two p o i n t s i f he l i v e d i n a cent e r o f over 10,000, and one e x t r a p o i n t i f he earned a wage income no matter where he l i v e d .  Thus r e l a t i v e s i z e of urban c e n t e r s , and  a l s o wage employment c o u l d be combined as an i n d e x of u r b a n i z a t i o n n  i.  i n each census a r e a .  2.  Even though t h e r e a r e o t h e r measures o f "urban-  See Map 6, " G e o g r a p h i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Urban D e n s i t y " on page 141. T h i s was c o n s t r u c t e d by c a l c u l a t i n g t h e p e r c e n t o f p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g i n c e n t e r s o f over 5,000 p o p u l a t i o n u s i n g 1960 Census d a t a , and s h a d i n g each census enumeration a r e a w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i ate density.  (Where t o Go)  139  Simple L i n e a r R e g r e s s i o n T a b l e Kwawu M i g r a t i o n R e l a t e d t o S o c i o - C u l t u r a l  Y =  A3  + Dx  Similarity  3  Where: Y  =  Number o f Kwawu i n each census d i v i s i o n ,  (dependent  variable) =  S o c i o - c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t y i n d e x (independent v a r i a b l e ) i n each census d i v i s i o n a p o i n t each p e r i n d i v i d u a l who: speaks any Akan language speaks Twi  D  =  C o e f f i c i e n t o f independent v a r i a b l e , x  A^  =  Constant f o r the r e g r e s s i o n  592.4  -  A r i t h m e t i c mean o f Y  1450  =  Standard d e v i a t i o n of Y  53670  -  A r i t h m e t i c mean o f x ^  59260  =  Standard d e v i a t i o n of x.  A  =  -156.3  (standard  e r r o r = 198.6)  D  =  0.0140  (standard  e r r o r = 0.0025)  =  0.325  -  0.0000  r  2  F.prob.  (Where to Go)  140  ness' t h i s indicator should roughly correspond to the v a r i a t i o n be!  tween the census areas of whatever might be measured as urbanization. See Diagram 3, Part 1, page 133.  The number of persons l i v i n g i n  centers of over 5,000 correlated with a c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.81.  This  was the highest of the degrees of relationship with Kwawu migration. The number of persons l i v i n g i n centers of over 10,000 correlated to Kwawu migration with a c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.78, a l i t t l e lower. The number of paid employees was just s l i g h t l y lower than 0.78 (0.7779) and the index of urbanization,  used i n further calculations corre-  lated with a c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.80.  The Predictive Index Combining  the three indicators into one index which i s  the multiple of the degree of urbanness, the extent of ethnic simil a r i t y and the inverse of distance, Kwawu migration correlated with a c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.85.  By combining the three variables into a  multiple regression formula  a predictive formula was calculated:  with Kwawu migration as the dependent v a r i a b l e , the constant was -507.8, the urbanization index independent variable c o e f f i c i e n t was 0.01,  the inverse of the distance was 0.43 and ethnic  similarity  was 0.48 with an F p r o b a b i l i t y f o r the whole equation of 0.0000,but the r squared was 0.74.  Combining the indications as the degree of  urbanness m u l t i p l i e d by the degree of ethnic s i m i l a r i t y divided by the distance from Kwawu, the F p r o b a b i l i t y was again 0.0000 but the  D/STA?/8L/r/ON  'CAL  OF LW3AN  DFMS/TY 1  #/  £ j£  •i-Avr/fA •  •  4 f  Q>  JffS§§  4  J^. » • • • • * * • • • 4*w<-*7. ••••••.••••V <P • • • • • • •• • •• • • ••••*•• p A • • • • • •••••••• • * • • «y * • §QiJ~7rf+ • A/f&SUJS• •••• ^  /OX  • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 4|  >V *>•>•••• • • •  LEGEND  i A ftevwm*-1  • • • ruMO  • • ^t^^S*^*"  =  • • • • • • • • • • a  Vi, a •  207.  • • " •""*X*'-)» •••••••••••» *V•-5"-j-T»T> • (J^<^— *• *.4  m Af m * • ^V •  • • • • • • • • • • • • • •  < • • • • • • •  EZ3  y_yT^ -»•*  407.  EH  •*•".•"•*•*•*•"*  60'/o  Hi  ' • • * \4"/ • • • • * /7* • • • • • • • • • jT« ty* • • jfji . • • *"* "* *• ' • ' • * * * • *• • ••• • • • • • • • • » *-J » • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •"".*"•*•*•*.*.•"•*•••",•"•"• tfMsr&w: • • • • • • • • • • ) • •• • • • • • • • • • • J * 4-*'  80'/o  • • • • • • • • • • • •\^**V * * " * • • • • • • • 5  p  >  • * • • •  • • • • • • • • • • • • • •  "*"7 * " » * • * • * * " " • * « •"•*^"*•**"•"•"*'*•*• . "•  ^•t^*'" m-m^Z.^ •  , ,  a •k"~»»^« • • • • • • * »J • * ' J " « " " * * " » * X  #  ^K-tTT!::::::::  i  • • * • •_«^«_a_^*« • • • • • • • ••••••• c  "*-«^•*«••••••* • *••••••  > •, R  >  •  ^^.-jLr^rW *V*  •  •^j^-x***." • *  • • • • • • • • « . • • • * * • • • •••*•••••••••• \j/k • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • a  /OOX  •  *r tJ*S••J*• . *• • •***•*•*  Mr* • • • • • •  • • *  AANUAMAA^^l-jg  <V .  : 'GWJA ::::: •  •••••  • • • "if • •• • •  K  mOOMAA  •  « i r » A i » i r J •! • • / • < • " » • 8RPNS.-'.• 'J. . . . . . . .  \4&if.T/f.'-T\\  » : • • • • . ; . ; . • . : . K - ^ » . t C - I ^ P A r A «r-«/. m-t*rA -  -  . .  • • • • • A:u*i-*tSi *  " " i'-vy*. "*"X' *•*•'• T ^ ^ ^ ^ "  Min-  •••••••••••••••  •AWSS/£ • •••••••• • • • • • • • • • • y« y.  W' ADA TVS*/-" TH*"'? ' J:-:-j:^:ii-:-N'- • ? v . • •. >• ?_i <A . * A * . . . . .i. . . . . . . . . M* « * ' . w w . w * •. V ^ ^ ^ T J w ^ g y N W r ^ t ^ t ^ . J  i}&*t*r. i ^ ^ v i y r : : ' V ^ r X f L * v  :/:|: *i *  * *~_'T/t*'T  . • • • • • • . '<I  'NORTH  m^m^^-^f&S::::::: 1 Vt1']Xii*i*Himf'  \i  w***^»-* * * ^\j^<^*\7  &tOG£APrt/CAL  D/S/X/GU  //UM  Or L/XaAN  UcHXi/Y  (Where t o Go)  142  Simple L i n e a r R e g r e s s i o n T a b l e Kwawu M i g r a t i o n R e l a t e d t o Ghanaian  Urbanization  Y = A + Bx  Where: Y  =  Number o f Kwawu i n each census  division  A  =  Constant f o r t h e r e g r e s s i o n  B  =  C o e f f i c i e n t o f independent v a r i a b l e , x  x  =  Urban Index: Number o f p e o p l e i n c e n t e r s o v e r 5,000, p l u s Number o f p e o p l e i n c e n t e r s over 10,000, p l u s Number o f wage employees  592.4  -  A r i t h m e t i c mean of c, (dependent  1450  -  Standard d e v i a t i o n o f Y  46200  =  A r i t h m e t i c mean o f X, (independent v a r i a b l e )  109,300  -  Standard d e v i a t i o n of x  A  -  101.36  B  -  0.011  =  0.642  =  0.0000  r  2  F.prob.  variable)  (Where to Go)  r squared was 0.73.  143  This may be roughly translated as saying that  about three-quarters of the v a r i a t i o n can be "explained" i n terms of each formula, and given an area with a c e r t a i n degree of urbanness, a c e r t a i n degree of ethnic s i m i l a r i t y to Kwawu and a c e r t a i n distance from Kwawu, one could predict how many Kwawu would have migrated to that area.  This conclusion d i r e c t l y contradicts Stewart (1960:356)  who reported: Limited empirical data do not support the hypothesis that migration i s proportional to the population of the c i t y of destination, nor that i t i s inversely proport i o n a l to the distance of migration. If his data had been less limited, i f he had used a formal rather than an empirical approach, and i f he had seen migration from the i n d i v i d u a l perspective, he might have come up with another conclusion.  Improving the P r e d i c t i v e Model There i s no doubt that with better indicators of the three indexes, a highly p r e d i c t i v e formula could be calculated. The " d i s tance" v a r i a b l e i s highly suspect.  Simple straight l i n e distances  on a map from the rough center of Kwawu to the rough center of each census area i s very crude.  Road distances vary tremendously. For  example i t i s only forty or f o r t y - f i v e miles due East by a i r from the center of Kwawu to the center of the Ho census d i s t r i c t .  But to  get there by l o r r y , i t i s one hundred miles f i r s t from Nkawkaw South-  (Where t o Go)  144  e a s t to A c c r a , then about one hundred m i l e s N o r t h e a s t a g a i n from A c c r a t o the town o f Ho.  D i r t roads  c o s t more i n terms o f discom-  f o r t , t i m e , and l o r r y p r i c e s , than paved highways.  Most p e o p l e m i -  g r a t i n g from Kwawu t o t h e nearby Kpandu a r e a o f t h e V o l t a r e g i o n p r o b a b l y do not m i g r a t e the whole d i s t a n c e from t h e c e n t e r o f Kwawu t o t h e c e n t e r o f Kpandu, b u t s i m p l y a few m i l e s a c r o s s t h e b o r d e r .  A  b e t t e r i n d i c a t o r o f d i s t a n c e than s t r a i g h t l i n e map d i s t a n c e s used i n t h i s model, would be t h e l o r r y p r i c e s from c e n t e r t o c e n t e r . l a r c r i t i c i s m c o u l d e a s i l y be l a i d a g a i n s t t h e " s i m i l a r i t y " t o r and t h e "urban" i n d i c a t o r .  Simiindica-  I t i s s u r p r i s i n g , i n f a c t , t h a t such  crude measures, t h e o n l y ones p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n w h i l e i n Vancouver, c o u l d show such h i g h p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e s . collect  G i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o  d a t a w i t h i n t h e c o u n t r y , even b e t t e r r e s u l t s should a c c r u e .  CHAPTER S I X  Methodological  Note  Relevance of the Perspective Sources of Data and T h e i r  Interpretation  (Methodological Note)  145  The approach taken i n this endeavour was fraught with p i t falls.  However, they proved tc be h e u r i s t i c a l l y useful.  study was undertaken, certain d i f f i c u l t i e s were expected.  When the Most of  the data available did not lend themselves to the i n d i v i d u a l perspective.  Migration data tend to be demographic, and reports i n the  l i t e r a t u r e tend to examine them as s o c i o l o g i c a l , p o l i t i c a l , economic or e c o l o g i c a l .  Given the traditions of these d i s c i p l i n e s , struc-  tures, networks or processes were always sought.  Yet migration does  not lend i t s e l f to these t r a d i t i o n a l examinations.  To understand  migration one must combine these "macro" views with the understanding of an individual's decision.  Further problems were expected:  reliance on personal memory; reliance on a few notes i n a diary, written at a time when research was not an objective; reliance on l i b r a r y sources i n a l i b r a r y dedicated to Asian rather than A f r i c a n c o l l e c t i o n s , resulted i n sketchy data.  The most d i f f i c u l t method-  o l o g i c a l problem rested on the fact that the experience of deciding to migrate from a West A f r i c a n v i l l a g e cannot be transmitted as an experience to the observer of that migration. expected.  These problems were  More became apparent. The Information-decision-action perspective cannot be used  very well to make predictive statements about urbanization, that i s , about the growth of c i t i e s or increase of c i t y ways. to help understand urbanization a l i t t l e more.  It can be used  The Information-  decision-action perspective can be also used to develop a model to  (Methodological  Note)  146  p r e d i c t r u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n , one to h e l p understand  the p r o c e s s  f a c e t of u r b a n i z a t i o n , as w e l l as  of r u r a l - u r b a n m i g r a t i o n .  The  m a t i o n - d e c i s i o n - a c t i o n f o r m a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s v e r y simple but s i m p l i c i t y i s deceptive. be e a s i l y f o r m u l a t e d  so as to generate  The  scope of t h i s t h e s i s was  can  a whole s e r i e s of subhypotheses, on the l i t e r a t u r e ,  Yet the m i g r a t i o n d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s  cated.  the  From i t the f o u r hypotheses or axioms  some of which were mentioned i n the chapter Two.  Infor-  Chapter  i s much more c o m p l i -  not l a r g e enough to  explore  some of the more i n t e r e s t i n g c o m p l i c a t i o n s .  For example the  s h i p between a c t i o n and  the l a t t e r i n f l u e n c e s the  i n f o r m a t i o n , and how  relation-  former, as w e l l as v i c e v e r s a as mentioned above, would be v e r y esting.  The  o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t the D formula  tends to be  m i g r a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from a p o s i t i v e number, and i d e n c e w i t h a new  negative,  l e a d i n g to a new  n e g a t i v e D c o u l d have been expanded.  r e s u l t e d i n a whole new  was  underway, was  Another weakness n o t seen u n t i l  the mode of t h a t i n f o r m a c i o n  media or r e t u r n e d or c i r c u l a r m i g r a n t s . information i t s e l f —  i s always  the p r o j e c t  Nor was  the phenomenon of e x p l o r e d i n depth  aggregation.  In the examination one  de-  channel, be i t news  both n e g a t i v e and p o s i t i v e —  as a f a c e t of the b e n e f i t  s u g g e s t i o n t h a t any  have  dimension of hypotheses r e l a t e d to a dynamic  the d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t of i n f o r m a t i o n on the  c i s i o n depending on  res-  T h i s may  e q u i l i b r i u m model where D always tends to approach zero, and minimized by a c t i o n s .  inter-  of the l i t e r a t u r e  the t h e s i s r e j e c t s  f a c t o r i s more important  as a "cause",  the  than  (Methodological  another.  Note)  147  A d e c i s i o n i s based on t h e b a l a n c i n g o f aggregates i n t h e  four categories. each category.  The d a t a  potheses generated  their  from t h e I n f o r m a t i o n - d e c i s i o n - a c t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e  examined.  None d i s p r o v e d a n y h y p o t h e s e s y e t a l l , b y  and  the r u r a l area  the c i t y ,  due t c l a c k o f d a t a .  Five, thei n -  The environments  e x a m p l e , Nkawkaw, t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e t o w n , a n d  as w e l l as t h e observer  and reader.  potential The i n -  c i t e d c o u l d n o t be used as a type o r as a model, y e t be-  c a u s e he was n o t k e p t ing  into  ter  examination,  a n o n y m o u s , more p e r s o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  t h e decision, making process done w i t h f i e l d  c o u l d n o t be i n c l u d e d .  research  should  an a c t u a l i n d i v i d u a l  t h e example p r o v e d a d i f f i c u l t  Information-decision-action perspective.  bet-  f i t into the  The  a g a i n was h a m p e r e d b y l a c k o f d a t a a n d l a c k o f s o u r c e s produced a s u r p r i s i n g l y high p r e d i c t i v e c a p a b i l i t y .  a n a r g u m e n t f o r much more i n t e n s i v e s t u d y  A  As a s k e t c h o f  One man i s n o t a  model; he i s a complex s o c i o - b i o l o g i c a l o r g a n i s m .  enter-  i n c l u d e a number o f  anonymous i n d i v i d u a l s t u d i e s i n d e p t h f o r c o m p a r i s o n .  it  "micro" or  a r e a l l p e r c e i v e d d i f f e r e n t l y by d i f f e r e n t  r e a l i z e d migrants,  dividual  this  t h e Kwawu e x a m p l e , C h a p t e r s T h r e e , F o u r ,  f o r m a t i o n d a t a was s k e t c h y  Accra,  here t o f i t i n t o  l e v e l of a n a l y s i s . In  of Tafo,  into  Some a p p a r e n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n s t o t h e h y -  "macro" n a t u r e were d i f f i c u l t  individual  fitted  The f o u r f a c e t s o f t h e d e c i s i o n a c t a s a s y n t h e s i s  of a l l other o b s e r v a t i o n s .  were b r i e f l y  i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e were s i m p l y  simple  A c t i o n " example of data.  Yet  This acts as  using the individual decision-  (Methodological  148  Note)  making as the framework f o r o b s e r v a t i o n and a n a l y s i s . cially  suited for migration.  I t i s espe-  T r a d i t i o n a l a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l approaches  do not l e n d themselves to such a study o f s o c i a l change. approach i s n e c e s s a r y .  This  APPENDICES  Appendix  OFFER  OF M/GgATO&Y  LA80UJS FgOM  .ONE  I  PEG/ON  Wm  Ws  Sn  Ss  Sm  S - supply of lobour Ws ™ woge providing workers subs/sconce minimum. YVm~ wage securing moxim supply of labour Sn - supply for non-economic reasons Ss ~ Sn p/us supply of those vsho cannot subsist in rural Sm~ maximum supply  economy  Source• Gugler, Joseph, *On the Theory of Qurol - Orb on Migration; The Cose of Subsaharon Africa" in Migration edited by J.A. Jackson, Cambridge, Sociological Studies 2, Un/vers/ty Press, Cambridge /969, , /S4 oc/opfed from Muhlenberg, Fried rich, IVondergrbeit in Sjidofriko : /Jrsachen eins Arbeitsmorfrfpfydnomens Quo/isfischer ft/irfschaffsgese/lschaf/en (Stufgart) IPS7, p. 220. p  150  APPENDIX I I  Urban F e r t i l i t y D i f f e r e n t i a l s as M e a s u r e d Child-Woman R a t i o s ( C h i l d r e n , 0-4,  per  1,000  females  by  15-44) Urban d i f f e r e n c e from Regional ratio, pereen  Urban Area  C-W Ratio  A l l urban population*  816  o f Ghana  886  -  A l l urban population  816  All rural population  908  -10  Accra**  769  All of  886  -13  Kumasi  827  Ashanti  Takoradi  792  W e s t e r n and  Central  903  -12  Cape C o a s t  797  W e s t e r n and  Central  903  -12  Koforidna  797  Eastern  924  -14  Nkawkaw***  895  Eastern  924  -  Sunyani  907  Brong Ahafo  Ho  672  Volta  Tamale  788  Northern  and  Bawku  763  Northern  and  T o t a l area or Region All  C-W Ratio  population  population Ghana  1,006  1,017  -12  865  -22  Upper  756  +  4  Upper  756  +  1  P o p u l a t i o n i n c e n t e r s w i t h 5,000 o r more i n h a b i t a n t s .  **  Accra  ***  C a l c u l a t e d from t a b l e i n Chapter  Source:  Birmingham  (1967:102) T a b l e  3  -10  *  m u n i c i p a l i t y ; not A c c r a  8  Capital District. Four.  2.18.  151  APPENDIX I I I C r o s s N a t i o n a l C o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h Urban P o p u l a t i o n Correlation Variable coefficient number & & no. o f code name^ obs.  Listed on page^  Correlated on  67  267  9 PC20  100  120  69  269  19 GGEM  82  18  Employed by g e n e r a l government, s o c i a l s e c u r i t y and p u b l i c e n t e r p r i s e s as percent o f w o r k i n g age population.  175  279  52NONA  78  75  N o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l employment as a p e r c e n t a g e o f w o r k i n g age p o p u l a t i o n .  217  283  63 PSED  72  115  P r i m a r y and secondary school p u p i l s as a percent of p o p u l a t i o n aged 5-19.  175  279  50 LFAG  -72  92  Percentage o f labour f o r c e employed i n a g r i c u l t u r e .  149  277  44 GNPC  71  110  Gross N a t i o n a l P r o d u c t p e r capita.  196  281  57 L I F E  71  69  107  272  31 NEWS  69  115  D a i l y newspaper c i r c u l a t i o n per 1,000 p o p u l a t i o n .  202  283  59 PHYS  -69  114  Inhabitants per p h y s i c i a n .  28  265  3 WAGE  69  76  118  274  35 RADS  68  109  184  280  53 INDY  67  76  Continued  P 8 a  e 3  D e f i n i t i o n o f cross national variable Percent of population i n urban a r e a s o f o v e r 20,000 population.  L i f e expectancy - females a t age z e r o .  Wage and s a l a r y e a r n e r s as a p e r c e n t o f w o r k i n g age p o p u l a t i o n . Radios p e r 1,000 p o p u l a t i o n . Employment i n i n d u s t r y as a p e r c e n t a g e o f w o r k i n g age population.  152  Correlation Variable coefficient number & , & no. o f , 4 , code name obs.  Listed on Page  Correlated on „ 3 page  172  278  49 GPAG  221  283  111  2  D e f i n i t i o n of cross national variable P e r c e n t a g e o f g r o s s domest i c product o r i g i n a t i n g i n agriculture.  -67  73  64 L I T  66  109  273  32 DOML  65  68  207  282  60 HOSP  -62  117  128  275  38 CINE  62  96  213  283  62 HIED  56  100  118  274  37 TELE  54  67  T e l e v i s i o n s e t s p e r 1000 population.  111  273  33 FOML  54  66  Items o f f o r e i g n m a i l p e r capita.  132  275  39 LANG  54  61  Speakers o f dominant l a n guage as a p e r c e n t o f population.  248  287  74 CHRS  50  95  A l l c h r i s t i a n s as a p e r cent o f t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n .  34  265  5 BRTH  -50  80  L i v e b i r t h s p e r 1,000 population.  284  67 IMMG  50  39  Immigrants p e r 1,000 population.  231  1. 2. 3. 4.  Percentage l i t e r a t e of p o p u l a t i o n aged 15-64. Items o f domestic m a i l p e r capita. Inhabitants per h o s p i t a l bed. Cinema a t t e n d e n c e p e r capita. Students e n r o l l e d i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n p e r 100,000 population.  S o u r c e : R u s s e t t , B.M. e t a l . ( e d s . ) , World Handbook o f P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l I n d i c a t o r s . Page i n R u s s e t t on w h i c h names o f c o u n t r i e s and v a l u e o f v a r i a b l e found. Page i n R u s s e t t on w h i c h c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h PC20 i s f o u n d . V a r i a b l e number and code name a s s i g n e d by R u s s e t t .  REFERENCES  153  Abu-Lughod, J a n e t 1961 "Migrant A d j u s t m e n t t o C i t y L i f e : The E g y p t i a n Case", American J o u r n a l of S o c i o l o g y , V o l . 67, J u l y , pp. 22-32. Acqua, l o n e 1958  "Accra Survey".  Addo, N.O. 1967  1966  London U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , London.  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