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An analysis of British Columbia lumber shipments 1947-1957 Francis, Robert John 1961

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I I AH ANALYSIS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA LUMBER SHIPMENTS 1947 - 1957 by ROBERT JOHN FRANCIS B.A.j University of Rochester, 1957 A THESIS SUBMITTED HI PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF, MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of GEOGRAPHY We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY: OF BRITISH /COLUMBIA fi-nril 1 OAl ii ABSTRACT The conversion of timber reserves into lumber is the largest industrial enterprise in British Columbia. The importance of this activity to the economy depends on a large provincial resource base and the ability to sell the processed goods to domestic and world markets. The objective of this study is to examine the dynamic nature of the, distribution and trends in Coast and Interior lumber trade (1947-1957) as they relate to the inter and intra-action or physical and human conditions in the source areas and markets. Even though Coast extraction of wood exceeds the allowable annual cut at the present level of exploitation and the Interior forests are being undercut, Crown control has been insufficient to effectively regulate the distribution of logging. Therefore, it was the, relative physical and economic accessibility of Interior timber, private cognizance of the limited size of Coast reserves, and.Coast interest in the production of more highly processed wood commodities that resulted in the faster expansion of Interior sawmilling. In the future this trend will probably continue, since the full level of allowable annual, exploitation permits a much larger volume of extraction in the Interior. The distribution of sawmillsng and their size are related to: (1) type and availability of transportation facilities, (2.) amen-ities available from service centers, and (3) duration of lumber prooessingo • Provincial trade expanded fairly steadily to a peak in iii 1956 with the growth of world population and economic recovery after World War II, hut this trend was modified by conditions in specific markets and by maritime freight rates. Interior ship-ments experienced this same increase as they became a more important, but not the major, source of British Columbia lumber. ., In contrast Coast shipments tended to fluctuate markedly. The major markets for provincial lumber were, respectively Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Other countries (primarily the Union of South Africa and Australia). The Coast sawmills have a large water-borne trade with overseas markets and the United States' Atlantic ports, whereas the Interior, which depends on rail transport, sells almost exclusively to North" America. < British Columbia had diff iculty in '^selling-to the United Kingdom because of the direct competition for most.lumber specifications with the closer sources in Sweden, Finland, and the Soviet Union. The volume of provincial shipments fluctuated with the level of British housing construction, import restrict-ions, and the release of stockpiled lumber® The major exporter to the Union of South Africa and Australia was British Columbia, but the United States and the Scandinavian countries, with the addition of Mew Zealand in the Australian market only, were also important suppliers. In both consuming areas the province has an advantage as the result of the type and size of lumber it can provide. The ability of South Africa and Australia to undertake a forestation program, with the expectation of a high degree of success, constitutes greatest' future threat to the British Columbia sawmills. If the consumers in Australia Increasingly accept the inferior grade of lumber,domestically produced from radiata pine, a larger de-mand may also develop for the import of this commodity from New; <• Zealand. Both of these changes would reduce the demand for British Columbia lumber. The Coast contributed the largest volume to the increased trade with the United States (1947-1957)., but sales from this source have not expanded as rapidly or as steadily as those from the Interior. For both source areas the United States markets, in order of decreasing importance, are the Interior, the Atlantic ports, and the Pacific ports^ The Coast Is the major supplier of all but the interior United States market where.because of its shorter; rail connections, Interior British Columbia became , the main source. The relative importance to British Columbia producers of these three market areas, and also the Canadian provincial markets, can be partially explained in terms of their alternate sources of supply, proximity, population, timber reserves, and lumber production. With its pronounced expansion of sales to Western Canada, the Interior became the major provincial shipper to the domestic market. Coast manufacturers have lost in relative importance, because they cannot compete on the unstable lumber market which iii has been created by Interior marketing practices. The clears and high quality, large dimensional British Golumbia lumber sold domestically comer; mainly from the Coast, .'whereas common lumber comes primarily from the Interior. : The relative size of the ere Canadian markets in decreasing order,, British Columbia, Ontario, Alberta, ' Manitoba* Saskatchewan,. Quebec, the Atlantic Provinces and the Territories. The Importance of consumer proximity to the source of production'is clearly pointed out in- Canada where the l u m b e r output of each province provides the major source of competition to outside sources of .supply. ' The /trends and distribution of British Columbia lumber trade werse not static, because the evaluation of supply and demand by both producers and consumers is continually changing. In •presenting- this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at•the University of British Columbia, I agree-that th6 .Library shall make it freely available for reference and .study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted ."by "'the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial • gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Geography The University of•British Columbia, Vancouver $, Canada. iii TABLE OF. 'CONTENTS : CHAPTER I INTRODUCI ION . . . . . . . . . THE IMPORTANCE OF THE LUMBER INDUSTRY TO THE ECONOMY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA . . . Changes from 1938 and 1951 . . . . . . . . . 2 Changes in the forest industry from 1947-% . 4 A comparison between the forest industry in British Columbia and in Canada as a whole . . . . . . 7 II. THE MARKET AREAS FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA LUMBER. • 1947 * 1957 9 III.. THE NATURE OF THE PRESENT STUDY . .. . . . . . . 1 1 Purpose . . . . . . . 11 Definition between Coast and Interior v . . . 1 1 Types of data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Source of data . . . . . . . 1 5 Problems of evaluating data . . 17 Structure of the thesis . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 CHAPTER II THE DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S FOREST RESOURCES AND SAWMILLING ACTIVITIES . . . . . . 2 2 I. THE FOREST REGIONS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA . . . . . 23 The Coast Forests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 The Interior Forests . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 II. AN INVENTORY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S FOREST , RESERVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 The frame of reference for examining forest resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Provincial forest inventories 29 Location of exploitable forest resources and estimated: allowable annual cuts . . . 33 Summary . . .. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . 41 III. SAMsOLLING ACTIVITY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA . . . ..43 The distribution of log scaling by Forest Districts 43 Location of sawmills . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4 The number and capacity of sawmills . . . . . 4 6 vii TABLE OF.. CONSENTS - CONTINUED Page Closure pattern of sawmills . . . . . . . . 48 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 CHAPTER III , LUMBER SHIPMENTS FROM BRITISH COLUMBIA : 1947-195.7 • 5l I. SHIPMENT TRENDS . . . . . .V . . . . . . , . 51 II. REASONS FOR DIFFERING-RATES AND VOLUMES OF SHIPMENTS COAST VS/INTERIOR . . . . . 55 Statistical reasons for differing rates of change '.' ,' . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Physical'availability . . . . . , . . . . . 56 Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Maritime freight rates . . . . . . . . . . 63 III. DESTINATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA:LUMBER SHIPMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . 68 Provincial trade . . . . . . . . . . , . . 68 Coast and Interior Trade . . * . . . , . . 72 IV. SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . 75 ; CHAPTER IV BRITISH COLWBIA LUMBER SHIPMENTS TO NON^NORTH -AMERICAN -MARKETS . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 77 I. 'ORIGIN, ROUTES,- AND MARITIME FREIGHT RATES . . 77 Transport routes for overseas lumber shipments 77 The effect of maritime freight rates on the shipping routes . . . . . . . . . . 79 II. AN EXAMINATION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM MARKET . 80 Evaluation of the major exporters to the U.K. Market . . . . . . . .' ," . . . . . 83 .. U.K. domestic factors affecting the quantity of British Columbia lumber exports 89 III. AN EXAMINATION OF THE MARKET CLASSIFICATION OTHER COUNTRIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 The Union of South Africa . . . , . . . . . 93 -Australia . . . . . . . . . 98 vlii TABLE OF CONTENTS -CONTINUED Page CHAPTER V BRITISH COLTOBIA LUMBER SHIPMENTS TO THE UNITED STATES MARKET . ... „ :, . . . . .• ... . . . . . . ... 104 I. CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE VOLUME AND DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA LUMBER SHIPMENTS . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 The relationship '.between U.S .A. con-struction activity and British Columbia lumber shipments . . . . . . . . . . . • 105 An evaluation of domestic U.S.A. competit-ion for the U.S.A. lumber market . . . . 109 Foreign source areas . . . . . 113 II. THE TRENDS AND PATTERNS OF BRITISH .'.COLUMBIA-•' LUMBER SHIPMENT TO THE UNITED STATES . . . . 116 Coast and Interior lumber shipments to -ti U • S «A. « * a 9 9 • ® ® • s • , * • • • • » The Importance of each U.S.A. market to British Columbia lumber shipments . . . v-.-ll? The importance of each U.S.A.-market area to Coast and Interior; lumber shipments . 124 •The. importance of Coast and Interior lumber shipments to each U.S.A. market . . . . . 1 2 9 III. SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 - CHAPTER VI THE CANADIAN MARKET . . . . . . . . . V > . . . -. . . 133 I. CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE VOLUME AND DISTRI-BUTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA LUMBER SHIPMENTS. 134 Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-' ."'. 134 Alternative areas of domestic lumber supply. 135 Other conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 II. THE TRENDS AND. PATTERNS OF BRITISH. COLUMBIA " .LUMBER SHIPMENTS TO THE CANADIAN M R K E T . . 142 Importance of provincial markets explained by spatial separation and size of markets 142 Trends in shipments to provincial markets f. 147 Differences in Coast and Interior marketing of lumber in Canada . . . . . . . . . . . 148 TABLE OF CONTENTS - CONTINUED Page Trends i n Coast and Interior lumber shipments to the Canadian market . . . . 154 Order of the shipment of lumber to individual provineiai markets from Coast and Interior sawmills . . . . . :. 155 The importance of the Individual provin-cial markets to Coast and Interior lumber producers . . . . . 161 ill. SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . > 164 CHAPTER ¥11 : • SUMMARY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . 166 I. SUMMARY AND FUTURE TRENDS AND PATTERNS . . . . 167 II. PROBLEMS WORTHY OF ADDITIONAL STUDY . . . . . . 1 8 2 ' III. CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . V • • • • • 1 8 3 -BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 4 APPENDIX A 1 * APPENDIX B LIST OF TABLES . Number Page 1. Average annual B.C. lumber shipments to national markets . . . , . . . . . . . ... . 10 2. Area of forest land in B.C. t 1917, 1937, 1957 • 31 3. Annual extraction vs annual allowable cut at current level of exploitation . . . . . . . 38 4. Current average annual cut vs allowable annual cut at two levels of exploitation . . . . . 42 5. Permanent housing building starts for the U.K. : 1947 6. Consumption of lumber per dwelling unit' : 1920 - 1975 . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . 108 7. Residential dwelling unit construction and consumption of lumber 1 1920 - 1975 . . . . 108 8. Population distribution of the U.S 9. Balance of softwood lumber shipments for the Canadian provinces : 1947 - 1957 ... . . . . . 140 10. Predicted vs actual order of total lumber ship-ments to the provinces from B.C. . . . . . . 143 11. Railroad freight rates for lumber per 100 pounds : 1957 . 150 12. Order of lumber shipments to the provinces from the coast and interior : 1947 - 1957 . 158 Xl LIST OF FIGURES Number E 1. Net Value of Production for B.C. Percentage of Total by Industries . . . • 2. Statistics on the B.C. Forest Industries Per-centage of Total by Industry fort Employees, Value of Factory Shipments, Net Value of Production . . • 3. Employment in the Forest Industries for B.C. and Canada as Percentage of Total Secondary Industrial Employment . . . . . , . . . . . .. . 4. Location of B.C. Coast and Interior Forests and Forest Districts, for 1957 . . . . . . . . . . 5. Forest Classification of B.C. . . . . . . . . . i n 6. B.C. Forest Inventory Zones . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . Allowable Annual Cuts at Current Level of Exploitation, by Inventory Zones 8. Allowable Annual Cuts at Full Level of Exploita-tion, by Inventory Zones . . . . . . . , . . • 9. British Columbia, Distribution of Sawmills . . i-n-10. Average Capacity of B.C. Sawmills by Ranger Districts: 1957 . ^ 11.-.-Total Shipments from B.C. Sawmills . . . , . 12. Index of Maritime Charter Trip Freight Rates: For Lumber Shipments from B.C. to the U.K., For World Shipments of all Types of Cargo . . 13. percentage of Total Reported Shipments by National Markets . . . . . . .. . . . . . ... . . 14. B.C. Lumber Shipments by National Markets, 1947r 1957 Total and Average Annual Shipments . . . 15. Coniferous: Lumber Imports of the U.K. by Country. 16. Coniferous Lumber Exports to the Union of South Africa by Country . . . . . . . • 17. Coniferous Lumber Imports of Australia by Country . . . . . . . . » .8 13 -ik u J 36 40 -poek-e% ~poek-et-53 66 69 74 81 95 99 C a'mndo / xii LIST Off FIGURES - CONTINUED Number, E®il® 18. Non-Farm Dwelling Unit Starts in U.S.A. vs. Lumber Shipments from B.C. . . . . . . . . . 106 19. Total Reported Shipments to the U.S.A. Market . 118 20. Percentage of Total Reported Shipments to the U.S.A. by Market Area from B.C. . , . . . 122 a 21. B.C. Lumber Shipments to U.S.A. Markets:. Percentage from Coast and Interior . . . . . 126 22. A. Reported Shipments to U.S.A. Markets, Eleven Year Average (1947-1958) Origin Coastal Mills . . . . . . . . . . • • . • • 127 22. B. Reported Shipments to U.S.A. Markets, . Eleven Year Average (1947-1957) Origin Interior Mills . . . . . . . . . 127a 23. Dwelling Unit Starts in Canada vs Lumber • , . Shipments from B.C. . . . . . > . • • • • • 136 24. Percentage of Total Reported Shipments to -Canadian Markets by Province from B.C. . . . 147a .25. Total Reported Shipments to the Canadian Market . . . . . . . . . 156 •2$. A. Reported Shipments to Western Canadian Markets, Eleven Year Average (1947-1957) Origin Coastal Mills • 157 26. B, Reported Shipments to Eastern Canadian Markets, Eleven Year Average (1947-1957) Origin Coastal Mills . . . . . . . . . . • • 157a 26. C. Reported Shipments to Western Canadian Markets, Eleven Year Average (1947-1957) Origin Interior Mills . . . . . . . . . . • 157b 26. D. Reported Shipments to Eastern Canadian Markets 5 Eleven Year Average (1947-1957) Origin Interior Mills . . . l?7c 27. B.C. Lumber Shipments to Canadian Markets: Percentage from Coast and Interior . . . . . 160-I60a ACKNOWLEDGMENT It is impossible to mention all of the people who gave assistance in the preparation of this thesis5 some supplied valuable information through letters and interviews, others criticized the ideas and writing of the author, and everyone provided encouragement. It is imperative to acknowledge the aid of certain individuals. Dr. Robinson, who introduced me to the University of British Columbia, has patiently read and suggested re-visions in all drafts of this thesis. Dr. Farley, while Dr. Chapman was in England, offered many valuable ideas. Dr. Chapman originally pointed out the possibilities of this study and in reading its final drafts has indicated problems in organization which helped clarify my approach. Mr. Henry Roethel, of the Bureau of Economics and Statistics, gave generously of his time and information in the initial stages of my research. Many individuals associated with the lumber industries in Vancouver willingly made themselves available for interviews and encouraged further inquiries. Of these the interest and enthusiasm of Mr. William Hereford, of Anglo-Canadian Shipping Co.Ltd., Mr> Reed, of Forest Industrial Relations. Ltd., and the sales personnel at MacMillan Bloedell and Powell River Ltd., is gratefully remembered. The assist-ance of my friends and fellow students has been as important as any received. Finally, I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to Dr. Robert Hall Jr., through whom I first developed an interest in geography, and to my parents who have always encouraged and supported my undertakings. Robert J. Francis April, 1961 CHAPTER X INTRODUCTION The economy of British Columbia is largely based on the extraction and processing of primary resources, principally wood, minerals, and fish. The most important of these is v/ood as indicated by the fact that, in 1955, half of the province's population (approximately 620,000 people) was directly or in-directly dependent on the forest industry for their livelihood.1 The place of this industry is related to both the physical and human conditions in British Columbia and the areas with which it has contact. As a result of man's evalution of these conditions in terms of his needs, technology, and interests, sawmilling, the traditional conversion enterprise in the Pacific Northwest, is and has long been the most important of the province's forest manufacturing industries. Therefore, because of its vital importance to the people and economy of British Columbia, lumber will be the topic examined within this study. 1. There were 112,500 persons employed in jobs assoc-iated with the forest industry (86,500 producing logs, lumber, wood products, or pulp and paper: 26,000 servicing the forest industry), two people dependent on every person employed in the forest industry (225,000), and incomes of two and a half persons (farmers, professional men, etc., originating from the flow of money created by the forest wage earner (281,250), for a total of 618,750. Ian Mahood, "What the Forest Resource Means to Employ-ment," Transactions of the Eighth British Columbia Natural Resources Conference, (Victoria, B.C. 1955j, pp. 144-145. I. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE LUMBER INDUSTRY TO THE ECONOMY OP BRITISH COLUMBIA Within the' provincial economy the place of the forest industry and its sawmilling segment is not static. Besause of fluctuations in market demands, costs of production and trans-portation, and availability of resources, the importance of these enterprises is being constantly altered. The nature and implication of these changes will be shown in this section by an examination of recent levels of employment and values of production. Changes from 1958 and .19511 T h e forest industry ex-panded more rapidly from 1938 to 1951 than the provincial economy as a whole (Appendix\Table l). As a result it has increased in importance accounting for 30.per cent of British Columbia's net value of production in 1938 and 40 per cent in 1951 (Figure 1.). During this period the secondary production of all resources replaced primary production as a larger segment of the economy. Such a transition indicates a trend toward the more extensive processing of British Columbia's natural re-sources in which the manufactured value per unit weight of extracted raw materials increases. This potentially means a greater margin of profit. The main element in the growth of secondary production was the greater emphasis on forest manufacturing due primarily Figure 1 NET VALUE OF PRODUCTION FOR B.C. PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL BY INDUSTRIES (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Logging Industry and Summary of the Forest Industries in British Columbia, pt. 2, sec. 1 of the Forest ^ Industries Series (Victoria, B.C.J run., 1955)» pp.. 12-13. (Mimeographed.) „ NET VALUE OF PRODUCTION FOR B.C. PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL BY INDUSTRIES 1 9 3 8 P R I M A R Y P R O D U C T I O N S E C O N D A R Y P R 0 D. m a n u f a c t u r i n g . c o n s t r . 50 100% I 9 5 I P R I M A R Y P R O D . S E C O N D A R Y P R O D U C T I O N m a n u f a c t u r i n g . c o n s t r u c t i o n 10 0% to the expansion of sawmilling and pulp and paper output. The value of sawmill production had a greater absolute increase ($157,634,000) than paper and pulp production ($83,376,000)» However, the net value of. the latter activity grew more rapidly. Even though logging, from 1938-1951, has declined, relative to the entire provincial economy, its net value of production, realized from the sale of logs, expanded more rapidly than the earnings of the other primary industries. With this growth logging replaced mining as the most important primary enterprise. The expansion in logging and the manufacture of forest products has resulted from the use of an abundant resource which is accessible to and needed by Man. The other primary industrie have not had all the advantages of a large resource base, ex-panding market demands, and competitive costs of production to promote their growth. Changes in the forest industry from.. 1242=56.: The post World War II changes within the forest industry demonstrate a continued movement toward the intensive processing of provincial raw materials, (Figure 2 and Appendix A,Table 2). As is indicated by figures for employment and the net and gross value of production, the primary manufacturing portion of the forest industry has increased at approximately the same rate as the entire industry. However, within primary manufacturing a gain has occurred in veneers and plywood, and pulp and paper, while a decrease has occurred in sawmilling activities. Nevertheless, Figure 2 5 :STATISTICS ON THE B.C. FOREST INDUSTRIES PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL BY INDUSTRY FOR: Employees, Value of Factory Shipments, Net Value of Production (a) Canada, Bureau of Statistics, The Lumber Industry 1947 (Ottawa: King's Printer, 1950), p. 5; 1952 (Queen's Printer, 1954). p. A-19v- 1956 (1958) , :p. E-6, (b) Canada,'Bureau of Statistics.. Preliminary Report...ojLJhe-Veneers and Plywoods Industry In Canada 1.942 (Ottawa: King's Printer,~1949), p. 3; 12^2 (Queen's Printer, 1954), p. E-5; 1956 (1958), p. E-6. (c) Canada, Bureau of Statistics, The Pulp and Paper Industry: "King' s Printer:,; 1949):, p.* 3j 1952. (Queen' s Printer, 1954)5 p. H-275 19^6 (1959), P^ H-2B7^ , (d) Canada, Bureau of Statistics, T h e J ^ s h ^ D o o £ ^ n d _ P l a ^ n i Mills Industry In Canada 19.47, (Ottawa: King's Printer ,1949) • " ~ " " i 9 5 g TQueenTs Printer 3 1954), p . - B ^ V 19,56 (1958), p. •D-5. . - •' - •• (e) --.Canada:,.'. Bureau of Statistics, Report on the -Furniture Industry1 ih Ganada/1947' COttaw'a: King's Printer, 1 9 4 9 ) p . ; Canada, Bureau of Statistics, (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 195477 P ^ C - 5 , 1956 (1958)., p. G-5. (f) Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Wood-Using Industries 194£, (Ottawa: King's Printer, 1949), p. 6-7; Canada, Bureau of Statistics, General Review of the Wood-Using-Igdttstrles_2252 . (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1954), p. B-9; 1956 (1958), P- B-10. (g) Canada, Bureau of Statistics, The Roofing Paper Industry in Canada 1947 (Ottawa: King's Printer, 1949), p. 2. (h) Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Miscellaneous_,Paper_Goads 1947: (Ottawa:; King's Printer , 1949) , p. 2. (1) Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Report on t ^ F g M g J I a S L i M . Bag Industry in Canada 1947 (Ottawa: King's Printer, 1949)3 p.5, : "Canada, Bureau of Statistics., General Review of the Pa^er-Uslng. Industries 1952 (Ottawa: Queen' s Printer , 1954), p. STATISTICS ON THE B.C. FOREST INDUSTRIES PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL BY INDUSTRY FOR: EMPLOYEES logging s t a t i s t i c s riot a v a i l a b l e ) 9 4 7 100% VALUE OF FACTORY SHIPMENTS 1947 0 50 NET VALUE OF PRODUCTION L O G G I N G P R I M A R Y M A N U F A C T U R E ; 10 0% S E C O N D A R Y ( s a s h , d o o r,a planing mi If s ; f ur nit ur e; M A N U F A C T U R E : misc. w o o d & p a p e r p r o d u c t s ) s a w m i l l s ( including sh ing le m i l l s ) N\N\ v e n e e r s & p l y w o o d p ul p 8 p a p e r sawmilling has shown the greatest absolute increase and values in employment and the gross and net value of manufactur-ing. The net value of sawmilling has shown a more pronounced decline in relative importance, from 1947 to 1956, than have employment and the gross value of manufacturing. This decrease indicates that the costs of energy and raw materials used in-manufacturing have increased more rapidly than the market price. Therefore part of the potential margin of profit per unit volume of lumber has been forced down even though lumber pro-duction has generally expanded. Because of this change, British Columbia lumber is becoming less capable of competitive marketing particularly when freight costs arising from long distance transportion further reduce profits. In contrast, the pulp and paper and veneers and plywood industries have expanded their net value of production approximately at the same rate as the number of employees and the gross value of production. Therefore, these industries are maintaining part of their potential margin of profit, and hence they are in a better position to compete for the limited provincial forest resources. The secondary forest manufacturing industries have maintained a small and constant position in terms of the gauges of expansion cited. A comparison between the forest industry in British Columbia and in Canada as a whole. The manufacture of forest products is a larger component of industry in British Columbia than in Canada as a whole. To point this out and to compare the importance of individual forest industries, employment figures are cited (Figure 3 and Appendix A,Table 3). The forest industry and its sawmilling, pulp and paper and second-ary wood processing segments are more important to British Columbia because the province has proportionately larger re-serves of accessible timber,, However, in British Columbia pulp and paper and secondary wood processing are of relatively less importance than sawmilling which is the reverse of the situation for all of Canada. There are several reasons for this: , . 1. British Columbia has larger per capita reserves of quality structural timber, (Douglas fir and Western hemlock) which are in demand and can absorb the cost of long distance shipping. 2. British Columbia lacks the advantage of proximity to the large markets found in Eastern Canada and the Northeastern United States, for pulp and paper products and secondary manufactured goods. Since these major population concentrations can easily be supplied from Ontario, Quebec, the Atlantic Provinces and the Eastern United States, British Columbia's markets are mainly limited to the smaller population concentrations of the West Coast. Some of this disadvantage could be overcome in the sales of such secondary manufactured commodities as furniture by intensive sales promotion and the production of quality goods as a means of_absorbing the transportation costs of bulky ana easily damaged items. However, such steps have not been taken in British Columbia. 3. Since there is a greater demand for the production of commodities other than lumber in Eastern Canada, this area uses a smaller proportion of its timber reserves to provide this good. 8 Figure 3 EMPLOYMENT II THE FOREST INDUSTRIES FOR B.C. AND CANADA , AS' PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL' SECONDARY -INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT (a) Canada, Bureau of Statistics; Employment and Pay re lis, with Average Weekly Earnings, vol. 25 (Ottawa: King* s Printer 1947), p. 21-, vol. 30~TQueen! s Printer1952), pp. 18, 235 vol. 34 (1956) pp. 16, 21. EMPLOYMENT IN THE FOREST INDUSTRIES FOR B.C. AND CANADA AS P E R C E N T A G E OF T O T A L SECONDARY INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT B . C . ( e m p l o y m e n t f i g u r e s f o r 1 9 4 7 in l u m b e r p r o d u c t i o n N / A ) I 9 4 7 -r— r 1 9 5 2 -r r 9 5 6 1 — . p.; ioo%. Vl CANADA as a whole 1 9 4 7 5 0 9 5 2 9 5 6 -r-T r 10 0 % a l l w o o d p r o d u c t s I u rnbe r a l l p u l p a n d p a p e r p r o d u c t s a l l o t h e r p r o d u c t s II. THE MARKET AREAS FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA LUMBER 1947 -t 1957 Even though British Columbia sawmills distribute their lumber to many parts of the world most of this commodity is sold to a few industrialized nations. From 1947 through 1957 all hut a small percentage of the total shipments were sold to five such countries. (Table l). Approximately 75 per cent of the total .lumber moved was received by the two largest con-sumers, Canada and the United States. Also, it is important to note that British Columbia was the largest of the domestic provincial markets. These facts indicate that proximity is a major factor influencing the size of sales to market areas. The major portion of the remaining 25 per cent of trade was with the United Kingdom, the Union of South Africa and Australia. All of these Commonwealth countries, with a long history of trade with Canada, are accessible from the British Columbia coast by cheap water-borne transport. To TABLE 1 AVERAGE ANNUAL B.C. LUMBER SHIPMENTS TO NATIONAL MARKETS 1947 - 1957 VOLUME (in millions of bd.f t.) D.B.S.(a) B.C.L.M.A.(b) Canada 1,148 1*740 U.S.A. 1,072 ' •1;2?4 U.K. 492 (c) Other 301 875 Total 3,081 3,839 - PERCENTAGE Canada 38.1 45.3 U.S.A. 35.5 31.9 U.K. 16.5 Co) Other 9.9 22*8 Total 100.0 100oO (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia pt. 2, sec. 2 of the Porest Industries Series (Victoria, B.C. n.n., 1955), pp. A1-A6. (Mimeograuhed); Supplement No. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia (1957), tables on "Shipments of Sawn Lumber and Ties (Mimeographed.). • (b) British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association, 57th Annual Report 1957, (Vancouver: 1958), p. 14. (c) Recorded as part of "Other" shipments. 11 III. THE NATURE OE THE PRESENT STUDY Purpose. Since British Columbia sells its sawmill products to widely scattered areas, an examination of the trends and areal distribution of provincial trade will aid in understanding the evolving characteristics and problems of the lumber industry. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is to examine the movements of this commodity in terms of its origin (Coast or Interior), volumes, mode and routes of trans-portation, changes with time, and destinations, and to seek to understand as fully as possible the reasons for the move-ments. Explanations will emphasize conditions in the physical and human environments, and where possible they will point to interaction of elements whether they are both physical or both human, or physical and human. Also, it will be stressed that these factors of environment, which change with time, operate in and interact between British Columbia source areas, British Columbia markets and alternate source areas to produce the dynamic nature of lumber trade. Definition between Coast and Interior: The distinct-ion between the Coast and the Interior as areas of origin for lumber shipments is fundamental to this discussion, for ship-ment trends and patterns will be examined in terms of it. The line separating the two areas follows approximately the drainage divide of the Cascade Mountains south of the Eraser 12: 2 River and of the Coast Mountains north of the Eraser River„ In the collection of lumber shipment data the British Columbia Forest Service does not strictly adhere to this line, because the administrative boundaries of the provincial Forest and •3 Ranger Districts do not always fall along it. The delin-eation of the division, provided in Figure 4, is applicable to governmental sources and apparently to figures published by the British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association. Infor-mation received from this latter organization identified the two areas as follows.: The geographical division used is roughly the immediate Coast area of Vancouver Island and the mainland from Hope to the Coast in the Southern region and such few mills as are on tidewater in the area north of Vancouver It was also stated that their information was collected, with the co-operation of the British Columbia Forest Service, through 5 the Forest Rangers and the District Forest Offices. Therefore, it is assumed the breakdown of the information is in accord-ance with the definition of Coast and Interior supplied by the Forest Service 2. Statement by Henry Roethel, British Columbia, Bur-eau of Economics and Statistics, Research Division, Victoria, B.C., November 1958, personal interview. 3. Letter from A.O. Robson, Statistician, British Columbia."Lumber Manufacturers Association, Vancouver May 30, I960. 4® Robson, letter. 5. Robson, letter. Figure 4 LOCATION OF B.C. COAST AND INTERIOR FORESTS AND FOREST DISTRICTS ? for 1957 (a) British Columbia, Department of Lands and Forests, British Columbia Forest and Grazing Districts (Map), (Victoria, B.C.; n.n., "Till boundaries corrected to 13 July 1956). T L O C A T I O N OF B.C. C O A S T AND INTERIOR F O R E S T S AND F O R E S T DISTRICTS F O R 1 9 5 7 B o u n dar y b e t w e e n C o a s t a n d I n t e r i o r B o u n d a r y b e t w e e n F o r e s t D i s t r i c t s V "v. V v. . K A M L 0 0 P S/ \ N E L S O N \ N Types of data. The principal statistics used in developing the patterns of movements are those citing volumes of lumber. Volumetric data was adopted for several reasons! 1. By using these figures, it is easy to make a comparison between reserves, allowable annual timber cut, and lumber shipments. 2. A quantitative-; measure of the amount of lumber shipped to an area, when examined over a period of years, is more indicative of demand than dollar values. It indicates whether an area's need for British Columbia lumber is constant or changing. 3. Information on the volume of shipments is avail-able from more sources than monetary statements. 4. The conversion of volumetric units from one scale to another can be accomplished with greater ease and accuracy than the conversion of monetary values. All factors which affect the movement of British Columbia lumber have not been given equal attention. Topics have been examined or passed over depending on the degree to which they affect the validity of the generalizations being investigated. Also, consideration has been given to the ability of the researcher to explore the topics related to this analysis of lumber shipments. A detailed evaluation has not been made of the exact trade routes and the different modes of land conveyance. For example, trucks have not been dealt with because their use as a means of transport is re-stricted to flow within the province and to Alberta. There may have been a very limited movement into the United States by this carrier, but no notation to this effect was made in the Dominion Bureau of Statistics publication on British Columbia sawmills.^ The quality and type of lumber shipped from provincial manufacturers will be given only limited consideration. Yet, it is important to note that the wealth of good quality structural timber is an important factor in the sale of British Columbia's lumber to certain markets. Sources of data. Information obtained for this study falls into two broad categories: 1. Quantitative data which cites volumes of ship-ments, production, and reserves. 2. Qualitative data gathered to explain the signi-ficance of the statistical material to the British Columbia lumber industry. Provincial, federal, and international government releases have been used as the major quantitative sources, because it is felt that they provide regularly published, standard sources ' 7 of material which are readily available to other researchers. 6. Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Production, Ship-ments and Stocks on Hand of Sawmills in British Columbia, vol. 1-5 QOttawa: King's Printer, 1947-1951), table on "Shipment of Sawn Lumber and Ties"; vol. 6-11 (Queen's Printer, 1952-1957), tables on "Shipments of Sawn Lumber and Ties". 7. The main governmental sources are: (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Stat-istics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia, pt. 2, sec. 2 of the Eorest Industries Series (Vic-toria B.C. n.fi., ""Q^j (Mfrwpngraphftd): Supplement No. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia (1957). (Mimeographed.). " When future reference is made to government or Domin-ion Bureau of Statistics lumber shipment figures from B.C. 16 Also Dominion Bureau of Statistics figures have been used for provincial lumber shipments, because they provide a more com-plete breakdown of the market destination of lumber than is available in private publications. To supplement the governmental sources, reference has also been made to shipment data published by the British 8 Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association. This information, which is collected with the assistance of the B.C.Forest Service^ gives a more accurate picture of lumber movements, and therefore, it can be used to confirm and/or modify trends noted by government figures. this will indicate a summary of data published in the fore-going source compiled from the monthly publication: Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Production, Shipments and Stocks on Hand of Sawmills in British Columbia, "vol. 1-5, (Ottawa: King's Printer, 1947-1951), tableTon "Shipment of Sawn Lumber and Ties" vol. 6-11 (Queen's Printer), 1952-1957), table on "Shipment of Sawn Lumber and Ties". (B) Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Production, Shipment and Stocks on Hand of Sawmills East of the Rockies, vol. 2-6, (Ottawa: King's Printer 1947-1951); vol. 7-12 (Queen's Printer 1952-1957)«. (c) British Columbia, Forest Service, Continuous Forest Inventory of British Columbia.: Initial Phase 1957 (Victoria, B.C.: CQueen's Printer, 1959JH (d) British Columbia, Forest Service, Report of the Forest Service (Victoria, B.C.: King's Printer, 1947-1951), Itueen's Printer, 1952-1958). (e) Food and Agriculture Organization, Division of Forestry and Forest Products,1947-1950, Yearbook of Forest Products Statistics (Washingto^i3TcTi947-1950) ; - 1959, (Rome: 1951-1959). 8. British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association, 57th Annual Report 1957 (Vancouver: 1958). 9. "Through the cooperation of the B.C.Forest Service this Association is provided with reports from sawmills in the Province - -we supply the blank forms as per copy enclosed. 17 , The qualitative information has been primarily obtained through personal interviews with employees of the British Columbia government and of the provincial lumber manufacturing and trade corporations. Through Mr. Roethel, of the British Columbia Bureau of Economics and Statistics, and members of the lumber manufacturers' associations, it was possible to obtain statements on the overall aspects of shipments to domestic and world markets. This information was supplemented by interviews with lumber sales personnel who possessed detailed knowledge of trends and significant factors in specific consuming areas. These individuals also indicated broad sales policies and procedures of marketing which are invaluable to the understanding of any industry. The British Columbia Forest Service was able to provide information on timber exploitation policies affecting the availability of this resource for conversion into wood and wood products. Problems of.evaluating data. Before the data can be properly assessed there are several inadequacies in the statis-tical information that require careful examination. The in-completeness of some of the shipment figures is one of these factors. For example, the Dominion Bureau of Statistics estimates that of the total volume of lumber which moves from These are collected by Forest Rangers and forwarded through the District Forest offices". Robson, letter. A copy of the aforementioned forms may be found in Appendix B, Table 1. 18 Interior British Columbia one-third to two-fifths has not been reported, (Appendix A, Table 4). A further suggestion of this is the fact that the B.C.L.M.A. statistics note larger annual volumes of transport than government information, (Appendix A, Table 4 ). However, the privately published data may be slightly high due to duplication in the shipping reports (Appendix A, Table 7). Although no official approximation is available, it is also probable that a large percentage of shipments from provinces east of the Rocky Mountains have not been recorded (Appendix A, Table 5). Reliance on these in-complete figures means two things: 1. The proportional distribution of reported move-ments to given markets may differ from the dis-tribution of that portion of shipments which has been estimated. Where a large percentage of the total trade is estimated there may be a problem of interpretation of trends. Having noted this ' danger, it will be assumed that the reported dis-tribution to the markets is representative of the total shipment figures unless available information suggests otherwise. 2. Figures of reported lumber movement from British Columbia or any other province to any given market can not be compared on an exact quantitative basis because the percentage of estimated shipments is not constant. A further problem in the interpretation of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics information on British Columbia shipments is that sawn lumber and ties are reported together. This grouping does not affect overall generalizations regarding the transport of lumber, since the ties represent only a small percentage of the total movement of the two commodities (Appendix A, Table 6). However, in evaluating the volume and distribution of this grouping of products one must realize that it will differ from that of lumber. Also care should be used in comparing British Columbia trade in lumber and ties with figures which cite only lumber data, e.g. lumber ship-ment statistics for provinces east of the Rocky Mountains.10 Since British Columbia is both the manufacturer of lumber ana a major market for this provincially produced commodity, the question is introduced whether some of the reported shipments represent intra-industry, or intra-company exchange rather than movement to the consumer. If this does occur the shipment of a specific lot of lumber may be reported more than once.. : Mr. Roethel expressed the opinion that there might be some such duplication. However, he doubted that it was extensive.-'-1 The validity of this opinion is reasonably established for both the D.B.S. and B.C.L.M.A. figures by a comparison between reported lumber shipments and lumber pro-duction (Appendix A, Table 7)• In reaching this conclusion it was assumed that there was no extensive duplication if, for a given year or over a period of several years, the reported movement., was approximately the same as the volume of lumber production. 10 Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Sawmills East of the Rockies, vol. 2.-12 (1947-195?). 11 Roethel, personal interview. Finally, the D.B.S. United States market classification as to destination of British Columbia lumber shipments has a major short-coming in that it does not define exactly what is meant by Pacific Ports, Atlantic Ports, and Interior, It is possible to suggest zones of demarcation between these areas, but in some instances exports to a specific location may be designated as either Interior or as Atlantic or Pacific Ports shipments. The vagueness of definition causes difficulty <;a> assess"market potential and the significance of trends in lumber movement. A detailed discussion of this problem will be found in Chapter V, Structure of the thesis. The first section of the introductory chapter establishes the reasons for initiating the, thesis inrterms of the importance of the lumber industry to the provincial economy. Following this is a statement on lumber shipment patterns to orient the reader and emphasize the core of the study. Next there is a statement of purpose of the study within the field of geography; explanations of the sources of Information and problems in evaluating data precedes the present section. Chapter II examines the forest resources and saw-milling activities as a background to the understanding of lumber trade. The location and magnitude of timber reserves suggest either positive or negative controls on the scale of lumber movement from a given area. The size and spatial distribution of sawmilling units are shown to affect market-ing practices and routes of transport used in the dispersal of lumber. Chapters III through VI indicate the reasons for the changing volumes and distributions of movement to the major consuming areas. This begins with a general discussion of total shipment figures (Chapter III) and then analyses with increasing detail ttee overseas markets (Chapter IV), the United States (Chapter V), and the domestic markets (Chapter VI). The final chapter summarizes the important points made in the thesis, suggests possible changes in the future lumber marketing patterns, and cites areas of further possible study. CHAPTER III THE DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S FOREST RESOURCES AND SAWMILLING ACTIVITIES There are many conditions and events whose inter-action have made the utilization of the provincial forests economically feasible and desirable. These include: 1. The application of technical ability to forestry with the expansion of white settlement into the Pacific.Northwest. 2. The increased demand for wood products with the growth in North American and world population. 3. The proximity of the large forest areas to tidewater and the deeply fiorded coastline which permits the use of cheap water transport by providing access to the resource and in shipping to markets. 4. The increased ease of movement with the expansion and improvement of road and rail facilities which can be used in hauling wood and wood products, e.g. the recent extension of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway. 5. The demand for structural softwoods in construction. 6. The. depletion and/or inadequacy of alternate sources of saw timber supply. 7. The change in emphasis of certain areas from the manu-facture of lumber to an emphasis on pulp and paper production, e.g., the Southern Pine Forest Region of the United States and the Eastern provinces of Canada (particularly Ontario and Quebec). Given these considerations which encourage the forest resource development, it is necessary to determine the location of British Columbia's major forests and the effect that the size and distribution of provincial timber reserves and sawmilling activities may have on their utilization. I. THE FOREST REGIONS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. 23 The forest land1 of British Columbia, covering 50.3 2 per cent of the province's•'234,15-5»134 acres, is found in five major forest regions (figure 5? in pocket). As a result of the influence of water and land-forms on climate, these for-est regions are generally oriented on a northwest-southwest line -parallel to the trend: of the Pacific Coast and the pro-vincial mountain ranges. Because of environmental limitation (i.e. steepness of topography and high elevations and latitudes) the remaining 49.7 per cent of the area consists of scrub timber, alpine meadows, snowfields, and glaciers; The Coast Forests; The Coast Forest Region, which contains all of the coast forests, lies to the west of the drainage, divide of the Coast Mountains. The large north-south range of this area is the result of the moderating influence of the ocean and the consistantly high rainfalls.^ Within the region, on the sheltered sections of Vancouver Island and the southwest coast, are found the largest most productive stands of timber in British Columbia. The dominant species along the coast are western red cedar and western hemlock.4" Douglas fir 1 Forest land is defined as ..land bearing or capable of bearing forests that are commercial by current standards of utilization". British Columbia Forest Service, Continuous Forest Inventory of. British Columbia: Initial. Phase 1957 Tvictoria~B.cV: (Queen's Printer, 1959T77~P» 13. 2 British Columbia. Forest Service. Continuous Forest Inventory of British Columbia, p. 13-. -3 W.E.Halliday, A Forest Classification for Canada, Canada, Dept. of Mines and Resources, Forest Service Bulletin 89, (Ottawa: King's Printer, 1937)s p. 8 4 Ealliday, A Forest Classification p. 8, 26-27. is associated with, til em in the south (Figure 5} Section G-2), .: but further to the north (Figure 5, Section €-3), it is only-present in locally sheltered areas. The Arbutus and Garry dak growing in the dry Straits of Georgia Section (Figure 5S Section C-l) are evidence of a transition with the Montane Forest Region. Amabltis fir. In the Central Section (Figure 5? Section C-3), and Sitka spruce in the North Coast Section (Figure 53 Section C-4), are the main associates of the two dominant species. Throughout the forest alpine fir becomes a prominant Species towards the treeline. The Interior forests. Bast.of the drainage divide of the Coast Mountains are the smaller, less dense 'timber stands of the Interior forests grown under conditions of less pre-cipitation and more changeable and severe temperatures than are present on the Coast. The Interior, however, possesses a forest area approximately seventimes greater than the Coast and by virtue of this, it has a, larger reserve of timber. r The Montane Forest Region occupies most of the Interior plateau. The southern part of the area (Figure 5, Sections M-l and M-2) has dry belt conditions with mean annual precipitations ranging 'from a. high of 25 inches on the plateau to less than 10 inches in some valleys.^ This has resulted in the development of open parkland forests and valley grasslands. The northern half of the Montane Forest Region (Figure pt Section 6 The British Columbia Natural Resources Conference, British Columbia Atlas of Resources, (Vancouver: B.C.N.R.C.' 1956), p. 21."" M-3 and M-4) receives precipitation which is generally in excess of the dry valleys of the Fraser plateau, and the moisture is more effective because of the lower summer temperatures. Hence this section consists of species with increasing toler-ance to colder temperatures, in relatively denser stands, and 7 having few intervening grassland areas.' Ponderosa pine and Douglas fir (smaller and more tapered than the Coast variety) dominant on the lower slopes of the Ponderosa Pine and Douglas Fir Section (Figure 5> Section M-l) are interspersed with aspen and lodgepole pine. Douglas fir occurs in all parts of the Montane Forest Region but decreases in abundance to the north. Also moving northward on the Interior plateau, aspen and Engelmann spruce become increasingly important with aspen reaching its greatest prominance in the Northern Aspen Section (Figure 5, Section M-3). In the Montane Transition Section (Figure 5, Section M-4)s Engelmann spruce and alpine fir are the most common trees. Throughout this forest lodge-pole pine often enters after a fire, while at higher elevations Engelmann spruce commonly marks the transition to the Subalpine O , Forest Region. The flora of the Columbia Forest Region which closely resembles that of the Coast Forest Region, is confined to the valleys of the Columbia Mountain System, parts of the southern 7 Donald F. Putnam, (ed.) Canadian Regions (Toronto: J. Dent and Sons (Canada) Ltd., 1957), p. 443. 8 Halliday, A Forest Classification, pp. 6, 24-25. 26 Rocky Mountain Trench, and a small area near Quesnel. It is not as dense or as tall a forest, since it does not have the high precipitation or moderate temperatures of the Coast. This region contacts the Subalpine Forest Region at higher elevations and the Montane Forest Region at lower elevations. The Southern Section (Figure 5 Section CL-1) has western red cedar and western hemlock accompanied by grand fir, western white pine, western larch, and Douglas fir. The latter two species are particularly noticeable towards the dry areas. In the Northern Section (Figure 5j Section CL-2) western red cedar and western hemlock form the main associations with an ad-mixture of Engelmann spruce and alpine fir evident northward and at higher elevations. Douglas fir is scattered throughout o this forest.v On the upper slopes of the Cordilleran System east of the Coast Mountains, is the essentially coniferous Sub-alpine Forest Region. The area is closely related to the Boreal Forest Region, but is differentiated from it due to the pronounced relief of the mountains. Englemann spruce and Alpine fir are found throughout with the latter species in-creasing toward the treeline, and aspen is present toward the dry fringes. Lodgepole pine tends to be the subclimax element after fires. The Interior Subalpine Section (Figure 55 section SA-2) has intrusions of black and white spruce in the 9 Halliday, A Forest Classification, pp. 9, 27-28. north, from the Boreal Forest Region and western hemlock and Englemann spruce in the northwest and west from the Coast Forest R e g i o n . ^ The Boreal Forest Region of British Columbia, with its characteristically long cold winters, short cool summers, and low precipitation (10 to 20 inches) has some of the poorest commercial forests in the province. White spruce Is the most common species found throughout the area. Aspen is particularly evident in the drier areas and in some locations becomes the dominant species (Figure 5? section B-17). The Mixedwood Section (Figure 5? Section B-18) at the base of the Rocky Mountain foothills, contains balm of Gilead, white birch, balsam fir, and jackpine as well as white spruce. The Foot-hills Section (Figure 5? section B-19) is a transition zone between the Boreal and Subalpine Forest Regions in which lodge-pole pine from the latter area often intrudes after a fire. White spruce is dominant In the Upper Liard Section.(Figure 5, section B-24). In the Stikine Plateau (Figure 5, section Sections v. B-25) and the Yukon (Figure 5, section B-26) forests are restricted to the river valleys. In the former relatively dry zone there are open stands of aspen, white spruce, and lodgepole pine.. Alpine fir is the dominant species of the latter section and it is also increased in importance toward the timber line in the last three sections, (Upper Liard, Stikine Plateau, .and Yukon Sections).1 10. Halliday, A Forest Classification pp. 7, 23-24. 11. Halliday, A Forest Classification pp. 7, 19-20, 22-23. The foregoing discussion of the provincial forests demonstrates that the primary division between Coast and Interior forests is a distinctive and important one. The ex-planation also suggests that within the forest industries there are problems related to the size of the reserves and the characteristics of individual species of trees. For example, the rapid depletion of the Douglas fir has made it necessary to market lumber derived from other suitable species, such as the western hemlock, in order to maintain and increase the level of lumber sales. Similarly, an alternative source of crating material must be found for the southern Interior fruit industry due to the overcutting of ponderosa pine. These and similar problems are acknowledged to exist, but they -will only be given passing attention in order to devote more space to the examination of overall conditions in markets and source areas which affect thedtotal volume of lumber con-sumption, production,and trade. •II. AN INVENTORY OF BRITISH COLOMBIA'S FOREST RESERVES 29 The frame of reference for examining forest resources. That, then must be our objective: to so manage our forests that all our forest land is sustaining a perpetual yield of timber ' to the fullest extent of its productive . capacity.12 This quote of Mr. Justice Gordon Mc.G. Sloan, in the 1945 Royal Commission Report on British Columbia's forest re-' sources, .gives the key to any discussion of provincial forest reserves. If Man is to obtain the maximum benefit from this, renewable resource, timber must be cut on a sustained yield basis. > * Provincial forest inventories. Beginning In,1917s with the report by H.N. Whitford and Roland D. Craig, three provincial forest inventories have been undertaken to provide a basis for the development and administration of British. • Columbia' s forests.^ . Under :the direction of F.D.Mulholland, a second inventory was completed in 1 9 3 7 . T h e most recent evaluation in the Continuous Forest Inventory of British , 'Columbia which was first released in,early 1959. • The estimates of the area, of the provincial forest reserves' have varied with each inventory (Table 2). From 12 British Columbia, Royal Commission on Forest Re-Sources of British Columbia. Report of'the Cotmiiissloner, by The Hon. Gordon McG. Sloan (Victoria, B.C.: King1.s Printer, 1945) ,p. 127. 13 Canada, Commission of Conservation, Forest of British Columbia, by H.N. Whitford and Roland D.c5aIi~T0ttawa: King's Printer, 1918). 14' F.D.Mulholland. The Forest Resources of British • Columbia 1937, B.C.Forest Service "(Victoria, B.C.: King's 30 1937 to 1957 there was a depletion of approximately one-half in the total area of mature timber on the Coast, and there was a similar decrease in the Interior from 1917 to 1937. Though these changes may be partially the result of the difference in accuracy and definition among the various surveys, they were primarily caused by the destructive relationships of Man to the forests. Man has been responsible for many forest fires and in some areas he has overcut the resource. Fungus and insects are also responsible for destroying trees, as is lightning.1^ The amount of fire damage is strongly influenced by the weather conditions of a given season. For example, in 1958 and I960 the province experienced two of the worst forest fire seasons of its history because of pronounced drying. Printer, 1937). 15. British Columbia, Forest Service, Continuous Forest Inventory. TABLE 1 AREA OF FOREST LANS IN B.C. : 1917, 1957, Type of Forest M a t u r e ^ Other Total Scrub Total Scrub Mature Other Total Scrub Total Scrub Mature Other Total Scrub Total Scrub (in acres) ,(a) 1917 Coast 7s271?680 7,734,400 15,006,680 (c) (c) 1937 7,880,000 2,171.000 10,051,000 12,515,000 22,566,000 1957 3,694,000 6,197,679 9,891,679 9,597,000 19,488,679 Interior 26,015,360 54,558,720 80,574,080 •(c) (c) (d) 14,776,000 50,196,000 64,972,000 69,760,000 139,738,000 (e) 18,982,000 74,635,293 93,617,293 25,009,000 118,626,293 1957 Total 33,287,040 62,293,120 95,580,160 (c) (c) 22,656,000 52,367,000 75,023,000 82,281,000 157,304,000 22,676,000 80,832,972 103,508,972 34,606,000 138,114,972 (a) C ana da • Otfmmi's's io'ri of -Cons erv a:t ion » Borests of British Columbia, ifeitford^ahdxRofeffil011awa: King's Printer, 1918), p. 240. (b) Mature forest areas shown in each report include those forests which were considered to contain merchantable timber according to the standards of the day. (c) Not available. ( d) < F.D.MulhoHand, The Forest Resources of British Columbia 1937, British Columbia. Forest Service (Victoria, B.C.: King' Printer, 1937), p. 37.* (e) British Columbia, Forest Service, (Continuous Forest Inventory of British Columbia: Initial Phase 1957, (Victoria B.C.: Queen's Printer, 1959), Chapter 5, Table 7. Several reasons for the increase in the area of the mature Interior forest from 1937 to 1957 can be suggested: 1. Standards of utilization have changed resulting in the processing of smaller logs and formerly unmerchantable species. . This has meant that some timber that formerly had no economic value has become a useable resource. 2. Access limitations were decreased by the expansion of truck logging. Such growth has been made possible by the construction of new roads, which is a matter of private and government policy, and by improvement in the mechanical efficiency of log carriers. 3. The recent use of aerial photography, providing 100 per cent coverage of the provincial forest lands, has made possible an accurate and complete coverage of wood resources.17 Apparently some of the fluctuations in the area of "other" Interior forests reflect changing definitions and degrees of surveying accuracy in distinguishing between "other" and "scrub" forests (Table 2). On the Coast the increase in "other" forests from 1937. to 1957 probably was the result of the overcutting of mature stands. This action causes mature timber areas to revert to the classification "other" more rapidly than the immature trees (classed as "other") can grow to maturity. The size of the Coast and Interior sections of the province, listed in the individual inventories, are not exactly the same (Appendix A, Table 8). The discrepancies are accounted for by : (1) differences in areas of water and swamp land. 1? British Columbia, Forest Service, Continuous Forest_Inventory, p. 172. (2) slight alterations in the boundaries between the Coast and Interior forests, and (3) accuracy in measuring the area of the province. These variations are so slight that they do not significantly affect the estimates of the forest areas of the Coast and Interior for the categories found in Table 2. Location of exploitable forest resources and estimated -] o allowable annual cuts. To develop a clearer understanding of the location and volume of provincial stands of timber, the size of the currently exploitable forest resource1^ and the 20 estimated allowable annual cut will be examined (Appendix A, Table 9).' At the present level of exploitation, nearly 18 Refer to Figure 6, for the location of the Inventory Zones cited in this section. 19 "Forest Resources currently_exploita.ble - This level indicates the size and nature~of that portion of the forest resources which is usable by current standards of logging and utilization. It assumes that current utilization is gener-ally confined to the sound-wood volume in trees 12 inches d.b.h. (diameter at breast height) and over, at a rough standard of utilization reduced for waste and breakage in accessible, operable, mature forests on sites of average or better pro-ductivity. In addition, it assumes that growth will be utilized only in trees 12 inches d.b.h. and over in accessible, operable Immature and mature forests on sites of average or better productivity. At this level, forest depletion due to disease, fire, and insects is considered only on sites of average or better productivity in accessible, operable forest." British Columbia. Forest Service, Continuous Forest Inventory, pp. 183-184. : • ' ~ 2 0 "Allowable Annual Cut - This is the annual volume of timber which may be harvested continually from a forest area, commensurate with the ownership, administration, access-ibility, operability, site, and stand'condition, of forests under managementj using a stated set of utilization standards." British Columbia, Forest Service, Continuous Forest Inventory, P. 179. Figure 6 B.C. FOREST INVENTORY ZONES (a) British Columbia, Forest Service, Continuous Forest Inventory of British Columbia: Initial Phase 1957~TVietor B.C. i CQueen1 s Printer, 19l9J), pT'll. \ \ \ 0 80 i - 1 6 0 m i l e s B.C. F O R E S T I N V E N T O R Y Z O N E S 1 N O R T H C O A S T 2 SOUTH C O A S T 3 N O R T H W E S T I N T E R I O R 4 NORTH C E N T R A L I N T E R I O R 5 S O U T H C E N T R A L I N T E R I O R 6 S O U T H E A S T I N T E R I O R 9 N O R T H E A S T I N T E R I O R \ one billion cubic feet of wood per annum could be taken under a sustained yield program if the distribution of cutting indicated in Figure 7 were followed. Of this total slightly less than one-third could, come from the Coast and the remain-ing two-thirds from the Interior.: - The North Central Zone has the largest allowable cut, approximately 30 per cent of the Interior's total. It is followed by the South Coast Zone having about 80 per cent of the Coast's allowable cut. Total area is only one factor to be considered in determining the size of the permissible timber extraction./ Therefore, despite the fact that only one-eighth of the pro-vincial commercial forest land is on the•Coast (Appendix A, Table 10) it possesses one-third of the allowable cut due to its faster growth rates and a greater carrying capacity per acre. Compared to the South Coast Zone at the present level of exploitation the North Central Zone could have a larger cut, because its greater area of commercial forest compen-sates for a lower growth rate and carrying capacity. Also the less rugged terrain of the North Central Zone allows access to a greater portion of its forests at the current stags of technical and economic development. On the basis of the average scaling figures from 1952 to 1956 the Coast forest is being tfvercut by 53 per cent and the Interior forest undercut by 51 per cent (Table 3). Therefore, in the Coast forest the average gross annual de-pletion of 867 million cubic feet (629 million cubic feet 36 Figure 7 ALLOWABLE ANNUAL CUTS AT CURRENT LEVEL OF EXPLOITATION, By Inventory Zones / (a) British Columbia, Forest Service, Continuous.Forest Inventory of British Columbia; Initial _Pha"s?T957 TVictoria, B.C.: Queen1s Printer, 1959), Chapter 5? Table 2. V ^ T — — , • '— • • -\ \ \ \ • \ I \ LEVEL OF \ \ » \ \ \ ALLOWABLE ANNUAL CUTS AT CURRENT \ EXPLOITATION BY I N V E N T O R Y Z O N E S V o l u m e s in m i l l i o n s o f . c u b i c - f e e t i n t r e e s 12 i n c h e s d.b.h. a n d o v e r w TABLE '3 : AH1UALEXTRACTION VS A M HAL ALLOWABLE CUT AT CURRENT LEVEL OF EXPLOITAT ION : (in millions of cu. ft.) COAST Annual Extraction 629 Annual Allowable Cut 298 Net Annual Depletion _ 331 INTERIOR Annual Extraction 330 669 Annual Allowable Cut Net Annual.Dep1et ion + 339 (a) British Columbia, Forest Service, Continuous Forest Inventory of British. Columbiar Initial Phase T W ? (Victoria, B.C.:(Queen's Printer, 1959J) s Figure 81. 38 extracted timber and 238 million cubic feet of sound wood . residue) is 339 million cubic feet in excess of the allowable annual cut. At this rate in 23 years the currently available mature timber will be liquidated, and the growth in immature stands will be insufficient to sustain the same level of 01 activity in the woods. If cutting continues unabated with-out an appreciable increase in the volume of accessible mature timber, it is evident that there will eventually be a rapid decline in processing by the Coast forest industries. There-fore, the Coast must adjust its manufacturing to the limits set by the size of the natural resource or face economic catastrophy in many communities. It is also, obvious that there must be increased extraction of Interior timber if the province hopes to maintain and expand its returns from the forests. Since utilization is becoming increasingly efficient, at some future date the estimates for the current level of exploitation will require revision. However,, the figure for the present maximum allowable annual cut will be applicable pp for at least two to seven more years. It is therefore a reasonable gauge for indicating short range trends in ex-traction, if any consideration is being given to sustained yield practices. The full level of exploitation of provincial timber 21 British Columbia, Forest Service, Continuous Forest Inventory, pp. 365-166. 22 British Columbia, Forest Service, Continuous Forest Inventory, p. 16?. stands requires a sustained yield production which makes full use of the yearly growth of the provincial f o r e s t s . 2 3 j f this level can be attained, there will be an allowable annual cut of approximately three billion cubic feet per annum or three and times the present allowable removal (Figure.'8AAppendix A, Table 11). Once again approximately two-thirds of the cut would come from; the Interior and one-third from the Coast forest. The South Coast Zone would have the largest allowable annual cut (nearly three-fourths of the Coast total) followed byr the North. Central Interior zone (slightly more than one-third of the total Interior cut). This is a reversal of positions for the two zones as compared with current allowable cut. . The change Is brought about by the assumption that the . rougher landscape in the South Coast Zone will not limit accessibility to the timber which Is grown under superior climatic conditions. 23 "Forest Resources available for long term exploit-tationr assuming full development and utiIl5ation""TSyn. Full Level) - At this level full development and utilization of forest resources is assumed. That is, it is assumed that the sound-wood volume at a close utilization standard in trees ten inches d.b.h. and over in accessible and potentially accessible mature forests will be utilized ultimately, and all the growth in trees ten inches d.b.h. and over in all commercial forests will be realized. At this level, forest depletion due to ' disease, fire, and insects is considered in all commercial forests." British Columbia, Forest Service, Continuous, Forest Inventory, p. 174. 40 Figure 8 ALLOWABLE MNUiL GUTS AT FULL LEVEL OF EXPLOITATION. By Inventory Zones (a) British Columbia, Forest Service, Continuous Forest Inventory of British Columbia: Initial Phase I957~(Victoria, B.C.:(Queen's Printer, 1959)) 5 Chapter 5S Table 4. -ALLOWABLE ANNUAL CUTS AT F U L L L E V E L OF EXPLOITATION BY I N V E N T O R Y Z O N E S Volumes in m i l l i o n s of c u b i c - f e e t in t r e e s 1 0 . i n c h e s ' d.b.h. a n d o v e r 2 0 0 - h ICO-^B 1 v. o - ^ S 41) Summary:. A summary of the relationships, between the current level of logging and allowable annual cuts at the two exploitation levels discussed points out several important facts: 1. It is evident that the sizeable volume of logging residue on the Coast would provide a significant \ source;' of marketable wood (Table 4). If Man were to decide to adopt a policy of conservation with regards to this residue, the rate of production of the forest industry would be expanded without an increased annual timber cut. .'.".'72., To maintain a sustained yield at the present level of exploitation, there must be a readjustment in the Coast and Interior extractions. 3. At the level of full exploitation, the average , annual cut on the Coast can be increased by 15 per - • cent and in the Interior by 453 per'cent (Table 4):. 4. It must be re-emphasized that the greatest return from the forests can only be realized when the cut is adjusted to make complete use of the mature timber and the growth potential in each area. . To cut in excess of an area's maximum growth capacity is to unnecessarily decrease the future availability of the renewable wOod resource. To cut less than the maximum growth capacity, if a demand for the resource exists, means failure to utilize the growth potential and results in the irretrievable loss of a needed and renewable resource. 42 ; TABLE 4 CURRENT AVERAGE AM UAL CUT VS ALLOWAB LE ANNUAL CUT AT TfflQ LEVELS OF EXPLOITATION (in millions of cu. ft.) Current Logging Allowable Cut Location Extracted Residue Current Full Exploitation Exploitation Coast 629 238 298 995 Interior 330 27 669 2,033 (a) British Columbia, Forest Service, Continuous Forest Inventory, of British Columbian Initial pEasFT^7~Tvictoria B.C.: (Queen's Printer7~i959))"5 Figure~Hl. I 43 III. SAWMILLING ACTIVITY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 24 The distribution of log, scaling by Forest Districts. Having described the location and the size of British Columbians forest reserve, one may now discuss the sawmilling activity. The first phase of this industry that requires examination is the distribution of lumber production. The Forest Service does not publish this information for each forest district, but an approximation of it may be obtained from information on the scaling of logs (Appendix A,Table 12). The.Vancouver Forest District is the center of timber extraction and unquestionably of lumber production. However, it is worth noting that this district has been decreasing in relative importance while other areas, particularly those of the Interior, have become increasingly Important. The reasons for these are;(1) the improvement and extension of transportation facilities, e.g. the Pacific Great Eastern Railway, into large areas of underdeveloped forest land, and (a) an increased demand for lumber which could not be met by Coast production. These conditions have had a more pronounced effect in the Kamloops and Prince George Forest Districts than in the still largely inaccessible Prince Rupert Forest District and the more settled Nelson Forest District. As a result, the 24 Referto Figure 4 for the location of the British Columbia Forest Districts. 44 two former districts, which are the major areas of Interior logging activity have had the greatest increase in the volume of scaling (1947 - 1957) and probably in lumber production. Location of sawmills. ^ The larger mills of the Vancouver Forest District are: (1) at or near tidewater in the Lower Fraser Valley,(2) on southeastern Vancouver Island, and (3) near Port Alberni and Tahsis on western Vancouver Island. The location of these units takes advantage of the cheap water transport on the deeply fiorded coast in the collection of timber and the distribution of products. The particularly heavy concentrations of large mills in the Vancouver-New Westminster and Victoria areas.have access to the amenities of large metropolitan and communication centers includingi 1. Good harbour facilities. 2. Rail connections via the Canadian Pacific Railway, the Canadian National .'Railway', and the Great Northern Railway, to markets in Canada and the United States. 3. A large skilled labour force. 4. A wide range of service facilities, e.g. companies specialized in the manufacture and repair of machinery. 5. Commercial and brokerage services to deal effic-; iently with the export and sale of lumber, and other wood products. For the same reasons the majority of the Vancouver Forest District's smaller sawmills have been built in the 25 Figure ? (in pocket) gives the position of sawmills with a daily capacity of 1,000 bd. ft. and over. 45 Lower Fraser Valley and on the periphery of southern Vancouver Island. There are additional concentrations of small units along the Pacific Great Eastern Railway and in the more norther ly coastal areas situated to benefit from the available trans-port. In comparison, to other forest districts of the pro-vince the sawmills in the Kamloops Forest District east of the Fraser River and in the Nelson Forest District west of the Rocky Mountain Trench are dispersed because the transportation net along which they are located provides access to a greater portion of the area. The net includes several rail.lines suited for long distance movement of logs and lumber and a more extensive system of roads which increases the area that can be effectively reached by rail. Two conditions have favoured this development: 1. There are a series of valleys which can be tra-versed with relative ease. This is in contrast to the Vancouver Forest District in which few good routes penetrate the Coast Mountains. 2. The: transportation net has had more time;to expand in the southern part of the Interior, because the area had a longer period of settlement than the northern section. The larger mills as in other areas, tend to. be on sites near major population centers so that a labour pool and technical and commercial services are available. The sawmills of the Prince Rupert and Prince George Forest Districts are largely concentrated in ribbon develop-ments along the only two rail lines, i.e. the Pacific Great Eastern .Railway and the Canadian National Railway. At Prince 46 George where the two routes converge there is a pronounced node of lumber production. The existing system of roads does little to increase accessibility since it has few ex-tensions away from the railways to service additional areas. The transportation net has been slow to develop in these two districts because: 1. There has been little agricultural settlement due to the adverse climatic conditions. 2. Much of the area is too isolated to make the development of the other natural resources econom-ically feasible. In the Peace River area there is a distinct distribution pattern where sawmills, built to fulfill local needs for lumber, occur in isolated clusters around Fort St. John and Dawson Creek. The; number and capacity of sawmills: The number, total daily capacity, and average daily capacity of the sawmills operating in each forest district have shown certain patterns of change in the years 194? through 1957 (Appendix A, Table 13). In the Vancouver Forest District there has been a gradual increase In the average daily capacity. This trend was the result of a general increase in production, and hence in total daily capacity, and a decrease in the number of producing units. The last two trends suggest that the major-ity of mill closures have occurred among the smaller units which are finding it increasingly difficult to compete with the more efficient,large, integrated manufacturers. The economic recession in 1956 and 1957 must have aggravated this condition, 47 because there was a sharp decrease in the number of operating sawmills. The trends in the Prince George and ICamloops Forest Districts have been similar to one another. The number of operating sawmills in both districts has more than doubled over the eleven year period demonstrating, as did the figures on scaling, that the recent rapid expansion of Interior lumber production has largely come from these locations. The peaks of total daily capacity and number of operating sawmills were reached in either 1955 or 1956, after which there was a decline showing the effects of decreased demand for British Columbia lumber. The expansion of the total capacity and the number of producing sawmills . (194701957) in the Prince Rupert and lelson Forest"Districts has been the slowest in the Interior. In; the first GclS© ^ clS ilclS been suggested, this was due to relative isolation and in the latter to a longer period of settlement which permitted more complete earlier development of the timber resources. The average capacity of sawmills in the Individual forest districts has tended to increase, suggesting a maturat-ion process incorporating the construction of larger units and the. closure and/or slower rate of construction of smaller mills. It should be noted that the trend of increased average capacity was less pronounced in the Interior than in the Vancouver Forest District. Such a difference indicates that under conditions of underdeveloped collection facilities, rapid increase In production, an Inflationary economy, and large underdeveloped forest areas, the small and often part-time producer can com-pete fairly successfully with larger units. Maturation is apparently linked to the growth of the transportation net and the duration of settlement, since the average capacity of saw-mills is largest in the Vancouver and Nelson Forest Districts and smallest in the Prince Hupert Forest District. However, the average capacity of sawmills is by no means uniform throughout an individual:forest district (Figure 10, in pocket,and Appendix A, Table 14) especially since capacities are higher in areas of concentrated population. Closure pattern of sawmills: In the Vancouver Forest District it has been shown that the reduction In the number of producing sawmills was due to the closure of units having less than average capacity. This suggests the generalization that mills of smaller than average capacity account for a relatively greater portion of closures than do the larger mills. Appendix A, Table l5gives credence to 'this'suggestion; It notes in fifty-six cases out of sixty-six that the average capacity of the closing mills was less than the mills which have operated throughout the same periods. The explanation of this closure pattern may be suggested by the following reasons: 1. It is probable that many of the smaller mills operate only during part of a year. Thus many of the part-time operations may not have been worked for a sufficient duration in any given year to be counted as active. 49 Figure 10 AVERAGE CAPACITY OF B.C. SAWMILLS BY RANGER DISTRICTS: 1957 (see pocket) (a) . British Columbia, Forest Service, Sawmill Summary -Vancouver.'Forest District: List of Mills Operated during 1957 Cn'.p. t'n/h. ; n."d)". :pp . 1-8 . (MimeographedJ. (b) British Columbia, Forest Service, (prince Rupert Forest District Sawmills), (n.p.:n.n., n.d.),pp. 107. (Mimeographed.). (c) British Columbia, Forest Services Sawmills, Shingle^ Shook Mills and Planer Mills by Ranger Districts"TKamloops Forest District)~Tn.p.: n.n.V ?ebruary 3 1 9 5 S J J p-p... 4-23. (Mimeographed.), (d) British Columbia, Forest Service, Prince George District Sawmills, and Planer Mills_by Ranger Districts "(n.p. :n.n., . revised to November 1, i'9"!?7) •». • pp.' J-J4. ( N4 i weilg ph ed.) (e) British Columbia, Forest Service, List of Active Sawmills for 1957 (Nelson Forest District) ~~Tn.V.":" h'.n., n.d.), P P * 1 - 6 . (Mirn eo.g raphecL) 50 2. Since production of these units is small and fre-quently inefficient, many of them can realize a sufficient profit only when the lumber market is inflated. Therefore, they tend to close if the market is depressed. In the case of large inte-grated industries, a sawmill unit might run at a marginal profit, and still be able to operate on the profit from another part of the firm. 3. Closure can occur more easily among the smaller \ units, for they can.cease operation without putting a large number of individuals out of work and allowing a large capital investment to remain idle. 4. >A higher,drop out rate is expected for the smaller producers since the operations tend to be specul-ative in character^ hence, being poorly conceived, there is a greater chance for failure. Summary: The most significant aspect of the location of sawmills within the province is their uneven dispersal. This is the result of many factors such as:(l) types of transportation, (2) the extent to which the transportation net is developed, (3) the duration and pattern of settlement, and (4) the distribution of the forest resource. The un-evenness has caused lumber production in British Columbia to concentrate in certain areas. For example when Interior lumber shipments are cited, it is evident that the commodity is coming principally from the southern half of this region. Also, it has been Indicated that recent growth In the product-ive capacity has not been equally shared by the forest districts. Two important points are emphasized by the location and changing average capacity of the sawmills: 1. The location of sawmills is influenced by the avail-ability of ocean or rail transport for shipping to distant markets. 2. The operation of a larger than average sawmill is more efficient than that of a smaller unit. CHAPTER III LUMBER SHIPMENTS FROM BRITISH COLUMBIA : 1947-1957 Yearly fluctuations in the volume of lumber shipments from British Columbia sawmills are gauges of the changing strength of interaction between the province and other areas of the world. It is this dynamic relationship ana the dis-tribution of trade as they result from the physical and human conditions of the environment that will be discussed in this and subsequent chapters. I. SHIPMENT TRENDS For the period being examined there were two basic tr in shipments from British Columbia to domestic and foreign markets. As indicated by the volumes and the index values (Figure 11 and Appendix A, Table 16), lumber movements from 1947 through 1955 noted a generally consistent expansion. At the time of maximum trade in 1955s the shipments were 212 per cent of the 1947 figure. This growth was caused by: 1. Greater demands resulting from a larger population. 2. An expansion of housing construction in part due to a backlog of demand built up during World War II. 3. A lifting of restrictions on imports after post-war economic recovery had been accomplished. From 1955 to 1957 shipments decreased to 175 per cent of the 1947 figure. The recession was the result of: (1) a decrease 52 in housing construction in the major British Columbia lumber markets, and (2) the beginning of a general business recession. During the period 1947-1955 there were minor deviations from the trend of increasing activity. In 1949, for example, there was a slackening in the rate of growth, and in the period 1950 through 1953 there was a let up and a slight decrease in the volume of shipments. These shorter term fluctuations were related to such factors as? (1) housing construction. (2) high ocean freight rates, and (3) the beginning of a business re-cession in the late 1940's, The Coast sawmills' trend in lumber movement have the same general form as those for British Columbia as a whole, partially because they make up the major portion of the total shipments. The maximum index value for Coast trade fell below that for the province, and the decline in 1957 was to a lower level. These facts indicate that the Coast sawmills have not, in the post-war period, expanded their lumber shipments in response to market conditions as quickly as have the Interior producers. The relatively lethargic response of the Coast represents a reversal of the situation existing prior to 1937. In the forest inventory of that year Mr. Mulholland noted the "rapidity" with which Coast industries responded to better markets as compared with the more "sluggish" reaction of the Interior.1 The slight decrease in Coast sawmill trade from 1 F.D.Mulholland, The Forest Resources of British Columbia 1937•» British Columbia, Forest Service, ^Victoria, B.C.: King's Printer, 1937), p. 49. Figure 11 TOTAL SHIPMENTS FROM B.C. SAWMILLS (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia, Ft. 2, sec. 2 of the For es't Indus tries S er;ies Victoria, B.C. : n.n. 1955) s pp7"T?U4*rTMiiiieographe5JT" Supplement No. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British ColuiabiaTl9WT7~tab 1 es on "Shipments ©f Sawn Lumber and Ties". ISimeo graphed.), (b) British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association, 57th Annual Report 195?_ (Vancouver1958)s p. 14. TOTAL SHIPMENTS FROM B-C. SAWMILLS ! 0 0 , 0 0 G , 0 0 0 s b d . f . m . ) T o 1 a I s o u r c e D . B . S . C o a s t a l M i l l s s o u r c e D . B . S . I n t e r i o r M i l l s s o u r c e D . B . S . T o t a l s o u r c e B . C . L . M. A . C o a s t a l M i l l s s o u r c e : B . C . L . M A . I n t e r i o r M i l l s s o u r c e B C L . M . A 0 0 9 0 8 0 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 3 0 2 0 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 I 1 9 4 7 9 4 8 9 4 9 19 5 0 951 9 5 2 - 9 5 3 1 9 5 4 I 9 5 5 1 9 5 6 9 5 7 1950 to 1951 was mainly due to a decrease in exports to the United States. The cut back represented a return to a more normal U.S.A. import figure following a temporary peak of housing construction in 1950. Of major importance In the pronounced decline of 1952 Coast lumber movement was the decrease in production caused by: (1) a 45 day strike called by the International Wood Workers of America, and (2) a particularly severe fire season which closed the f o r e s t s . 3 Lumber trade trends of the Interior sawmills vary in some particulars from those of the Coast. At the time of maximum movement in 1955» the increase in Interior shipments was 365 per cent of the 1947 volume. As previously indicated, this represents a greater rate of post-war expansion in shipments than occurred on the Coast. In addition, after 1955 Interior movements declined only 22,515 M. bd.ft. as compared with a 812,352 M. bd.ft. set back for the Coast producers. In view of this trend, it seems more accurate to designate the 1955-1957 period for Interior shipments as one of adjustment to more stable markets than those being served by the Coast. Although differing in detail, figures published by the British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association reveal the same trends as statistics of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics (Figure 12, and Appendix A, Table 16). 2 United States Department of Labor and Department of Commerce, Construction Review, vol. 1 (Washington, D.C.: G.P.O. January 1955)5 p. 15. ~ 3 British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia, pt. 2, sec.2 of the Forest Industries Series (Victoria, B.C. n.ny, 1955) p. 10,(Mimeographed.) „ II. REASONS FOR DIFFERING RATES AND YOLWES OF SHIPMENTS' COAST VS INTERIOR Total shipments of sawn lumber from British Columbia increased substantially in the post-war period. However, the major portion of the expansion came from Interior sawmills. Some of the reasons- for the differing rates and volumes of change can be provided in this discussion of the more general-ized shipping patterns. Others will be examined under factors related to specific market ar eas« Statistical reasons for differing rates of change. The size of the base, with reference to which index values are determined, affect these measures of change.' Hence, index values which are the same but related to different base values of shipments do not represent equal changes in absolute value. i For example, In 1947 the volumes of Coast and Interior trade were respectively 1,710,312 M. bd.ft. and 54-3,662 M. bd.ft. (Appendix A, Table 16). Index values of 2.00 derived from these base values would result from absolute increases of 1,710,312 M. bd.ft. and 543,662 M. bd.ft. Similarly, equal changes in absolute values measured from different base ship-ment values do not give the same index values. Since this is the statistical nature of index values, they should not be examined without reference to volumes of lumber trade. When comparing the index values of the Interior and Coast with those of total provincial lumber shipments, it must be remembered that the latter is a composite of the 56 first two. Therefore, the effect of Interior activity on the total British Columbia index values has increased as the percentage contribution of this source area to the total volume of shipments has become larger (Appendix A, Table 16). With this increasing influence, there, is a greater chance for correspondence between patterns of Interior and total prov-incial shipments. , Physical availability. Since the limited nature of the provincial resource has been established,:it is now necessary to determine to what extent this has affected, ex-traction and, thereby, trends in lumber shipments (1947-1957). Some, restrictions have been imposed on extraction under the British Columbia government's sustained yield program and as a matter of policy in private forest holdings. In the Interior there has been some provincially introduced restrictions on cutting particularly in'the Kamloops and Nelson Forest Districts . However, they are unimportant on the larger scale, because the Interior is being undercut to an extent that has permitted nearly uninhibited exploitation in the north,^ The conditions on the Coast are very different. The 1945 Sloan Commission Report, envisaging a sustained yield production, recognized the danger of excessive extraction on £ the coast.y 4 Statement by R.Gill, British Columbia Forest Service, Vancouver Forest District, Vancouver, August I960, personal interview. 5 British Columbia, Royal Commission on Forest Resources of British'Columbia, Report of the Commissioner, by the Hon£, Gordon McG.Sloan, (Victoria, B.C.:King's Printer, 1945)s PP. 41-43. Mr. Justice Sloan at this time stated: "As a basis for present forest regulation it is my firm opinion that the annual cut on the Coast should not be permitted to exceed 35 billion board 6 feet during the ensuing ten-year period." The average cut per annum (1947-1957) of f,060s243 M. bd. ft. (843,374 M. cu. ft.) was substantially larger than the recommended limit (Appendix . A, Table 17). However, it has become evident that even the estimation was overly optimistic. The Continuous Forest Inventory of British Columbia indicates that an annual ex-traction in excess of 298 million cubic feet on the. Coast 7 • constitutes overcutting. Despite awareness of this situation in the.latter part of the eleven year period, there was insufficient land under Crown authority and insufficient development of the governmentally initiated sustained yield programs to prevent overcutting. In 1952 only 6 per cent of the total timber cut was taken from forest areas under sus-tained yield management. This proportion had risen to 39 per cent by 1956, but it was still too little to provide effective o control. Toward the latter part of the period restrictions, 6 British Columbia, Commission an Forest Resources of British Columbia, Report of the Commissioner, p. 41. • 7 British Columbia, Forest Service, Continuous Forest Inventory of British Columbia ; Initial Phase, 1957 (Victoria, B.C.: (Queen's Printer, 19?9)), Figure 81. . 8 British Columbia, Forest Service, Continuous Forest Inventory, Figure 69. 58 such as disallowance of logging permits may have begun to curtail Coast lumber shipments had the market been expanding. The effect that disallowance can have on logging is shown by what happened after British Columbia Forest Products Limited overcut its private holdings on the Sechelt peninsula. The property has an allowable sustained yield timber extraction of three to four million cubic feet per annum, but during the 1950's over 30 million bd.ft. have been cut per annum.. Be-cause of the excessive exploitation, this major area has been taken almost completely out of production. It has not been 9 replaced since access was denied to other areas. Some loggers, faced with the loss of their resources, have been forced to go out of business thereby reducing their contribution to Coast extraction and potential lumber shipments. Others have gone into the Interior to develop operations. The latter changes have helped to increase Interior production.^ In isolated cases the Forest Service has intentionally permitted overcutting. For example, this has been done on Texada Island where the reserve is small, and it would work a pronounced hardship on loggers to stay within the sustained ] 1 yield cut per annum. However, as a part of total Coast ex-traction, the volume of timber derived here is very small. 9 Gill, personal interview, 10 Gill, personal interview, 11 Gill, personal interview, 12 Gill, personal interview. 59 There are other conditions which affect access to the resource. On the Coast existing forest areas that remain un-claimed for development are often too small to warrant the expenditure necessary to remove the resource. Also, Some sections have not been developed because of problems related to, private ownership of land that would have to be traversed to 12 enter the sections. From the information available, it seems the strongest influences limiting the expansion of Coast extraction have been the greater economy with which the Interior forests can be brought into production and policy decisions affecting private forest holdings. In some instances large private tracts are at present being held out of production until their re-sources can be marketed to obtain the highest possible return. Also, cutting by large companies is being curtailed to reach a sustained yield production. This is being done because nearly all Coast forest land is now held privately or as Crown land. Therefore, overcutting of private holdings could ruin a firm because new areas are no longer available* . Resource availability has not dictated the individual maxima and minima in Coast lumber shipments. These were the results of the world market conditions and undoubtedly affected fluctuations in Coast as well as Interior extractions. The rapid expansion of Interior lumber trade has been allowed and indeed was probably encouraged by the availability of the wood resource. 12 Gill, personal interview 60 As previously indicated, the more efficient utiliza-tion of the sound wood residue (238 cubic feet) from Coast logging would substantially increase the volume of wood re-13 covered without an expansion of logging operations. How-ever, the amount of residue that will be used depends on economic conditions, i.e., the production price of the goods and their marketability. Therefore, when market prices are 14 high the degree of utilization increases. Yet, even with this possible source for increasing Coast sawmilling activities, interior forest reserves will still permit a greater pro-duction of lumber. If the current level of exploitation does not change too rapidly, one could reasonably expect a decrease or at most a very slow Increase in the extraction of timber from the Coast forest. This assumes that government sustained yield policies and cutting policies on the larger private holdings will at least minimize the destruction of the commercial timber stands beyond the environment's ability to,restore the crop,. Even with economic conditions which permit a full level of exploitation the annual cut on the Coast will only be slightly higher than it is at present (refer to Chapter 2, page 43). The Interior at both the current level and full level of exploitation can greatly enlarge its logging activity. y 13 British Columbia Forest Service, Continuous Forest Inventory., p. 166. 14 British Columbia Forest Service, Continuous Forest Inventory, Figure 81. 15 British Columbia Forest Service, Continuous Forest Inventory, Figure 81. 61 Therefore, the future will see an even greater rate of ex-pansion of Interior lumber trade relative to the Coast than was evident from 1947 through 1957. However, It should be noted that this growth will partially depend on the ability to enter Coast markets. To accomplish this in certain areas, Interior producers will have to make improvements in dependa-bility and specifications in processing quality of timber. Policy. Policy decisions made by governmental bodies of both importing and exporting nations may affect the move-ment of lumber in particular consumer areas. When plans are N. adopted which affect the overseas markets of British Columbia, the major repercussions are felt by the Coast forest producers who supply most of the overseas shipments. Policy decisions may include such provisions as: (1) setting dollar quotas, (2) setting tariff restrictions, (3) devaluation of currency, (4) expansion of domestic timber reserves, (5) government regulation of credit, and (6) dumping of lumber on the world market. Dollar quota restrictions have been imposed on Canadian imports of lumber for several reasons. In Australia the quota restrictions serve both to implement the balance-of 16 payments policy in foreign exchange and to protect the domestic forest industry of the c o u n t r y . I n the latter sense 16 J.C.Britton, "Australia," Foreign Trade, vol. 3, (Ottawa: Queen1s Printer, March 28, 1959), p. 9. 17 Statement by N.R.Dusting, Secretary, British Col-umbia Lumber Manufacturers Association, Vancouver, March 1959 5 personal Interview. 62 it is being used as a protective tariff. The United Kingdom imposed dollar restrictions on Canadian lumber imports due to an unfavourable balance-of-payments existing after World War . 18 II. The effect of these restrictions was to limit the volume of exports from British Columbia. Planned programs of softwood planting are presently underway in Australia, the U.K., and the Union of South A f r i c a . T h e y were initiated to increase domestic reserves of softwood, and decrease dependency on foreign sources. If any of these domestic sources of supply eventually grow a substantial proportion of a nation's softwood requirements, there will be a shrinkage of British Columbia markets for certain types of lumber. The.policy decisions of other surplus lumber areas can weaken British Columbia's competitive position in foreign lumber markets. For example, the devaluation of the Finnish markhe (September 15, 1957) created economic conditions favour-ing increased export activity. This resulted in a marked expansion in Finnish lumber shipments to the U.K. for 1958 as 18 Sir David Eccles, in a speech, "U.K., Restrictions on Dollar Imports Relaxes," given at the Commonwealth Trade and Economic Conference, Montreal September 17, 1958; quoted in Foreign Trade,Vol. 110, (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, October 11, 1958), p. 42. 19 A.P. MacBean, "Forestry of B.C. in Perspective," Transactions of the Eleventh British Columbia Natural Re-sources Conference (Victoria, B.C.: 1959)} pp. 119-121. . on compared with 1957. It is possible that a country poss-essing a controlled economy, such as that of the Soviet Union, might deem it advisable to greatly expand Its world lumber trade for either political or economic reasons. This is an interest-ing possibility because: 1. In 1957 the Soviet Union entered world aluminium trade with a large volume of shipments. A large portion of the influx moved to the U.K. and 2 1 seriously reduced Canada's exports to this market. 2. The. Soviet Union has the reserves to. produce -sufficient lumber to upset world lumber sales if the commodity were released in quantity at an < unusually low price. Maritime freight rates. A factor that can affect the movement of lumber by ocean shipping routes is the cost of chartering a vessel to move this product. The basic charges of a charter depend on the number of days that- a ship is en-gaged in loading, steaming to the destination, and unloading. Thus the length of the charter and part of its cost depend on the speed with which a cargo can be handled by the ship, the speed of a vessel, and the conditions at the port of call. Beyond this the supply and demand for cargo carriers set the 22 final charter rates. One might reasonably expect to find certain repetitive relationships between maritime freight rate levels and activity 20 "Trade and Tariff Regulations," Foreign Trade, vol. 108, (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, October 12, 1957J3 pT™257" 21 United States, Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines, Minerals Yearbook: 1957,i vol. 1 (Washington D.C^G.P.O. 1958), p. 18'2; and Canada, Bureau of Statistics, International Trade Division, Trade of Canada 1957. vol. 2 (Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1958), pp. 24-, 297. 22 Statement by William Hereford, Anglo-Canadian Trans-port Co.Ltd. Vancouver, June 1959, personal interview. 64 in overseas lumber shipments, because shipping charges make up a proportion of overseas marketing costs. It is suggested that the level of maritime shipping rates and the volume of water-borne lumber trade may vary inversely when there is a long term increase of rates and in instances where pronounced short term maximums develop within a few months. This inverse relationship presumes that increased freight rates would present a barrier to the movement of goods in as much as they • represent an increasing portion of the market price of the < • commodity. For long term increases in freight rates this cost becomes slowly-prohibitive as it; forces prices above the level of competitor nations. For an abrupt short term maximum the freight charges may quickly reduce the volume of a commodity, such as lumber, which will be shipped, for the commodity may-be unable to stand the excessively high freight charges and still earn a reasonable profit. In the latter instance it is u the shortage of shipping which cases the rate. In examining such peaks, as they relate: to British Columbia lumber, it must be realized that there will be a lapse of from three to five months before any effect on the volume of trade can be noticed. This represents the time lag between the ordering and the ^ ' 23 delivery of a shipment. It is probable that steady increases of intermediate length (two to four years) in shipping costs and similar low 23 Statement by Robert Edgett, Assistant Sales Manager, Seaboard Shipping Co.Ltd., Vancouver, August i960, personal interview. IGO levels of costs would vary directly with the volume of water-borne shipments. In the former instance, generally rising costs would be caused by a demand for shipping facilities related to a steady Increase in the trade of many commodities including lumber. In the latter case, the low cost of trans-port would be associated with slackened demand for carriers due to a diminished level of international exchange. Attention will now be given to the fluctuations in the maritime shipping indices and in later discussion, relating to individual national markets, it shall be seen whether the suggested hypotheses have any validity. 24 Two maritime indices for charter trips are used in this section. One is an index which applies to all types of 25 cargo (Figure 12, and Appendix A, Table 18), and the other to lumber shipments from British Columbia to the United , Kingdom (Figure 13, and Appendix A, Table 18). Charter trip rates have been examined because approximately 90 per cent of provincial water-borne lumber shipments move under 27 charter trip contracts. : 24 Charter trips are trips which are contracted on the basis of a single voyage from the point of origin of the cargo to its port of disembarkation. 25 Norwegian Shipping Hews (Oslo); the index was compiled,from this source by Canadian Transport Co.Ltd. Vancouver. 26 Compiled by Canadian Transport Co.Ltd.,Vancouver. 27 Statement.by employee, Canadian Transport Co. Ltd. Vancouver, June 1959, Personal interview. Figure 12 INDEX GF MARITIME CHARTER TRIP FREIGHT RATES: For Lumber Shipments from B.C. to the U.K., For World Shipments of All Types of Cargo (a) Norwegian Shipping News (Oslo); information from this source compiled by Canadian Transport Co.Ltd., Vancouver. (b) Canadian Transport Co.Ltd., Vancouver, from company records. INDEX OF MARITIME CHARTER TRIP F R L I o m HATES: FOR LUMBER SHIPMENTS FROM B.C. TO T H E U.K. ; —— - Information not available I 9 5 2 : ICO FOR WORLD S H I P M E N T S OF A L L T Y P E S OF C A R G O July - December 19 47 - 10 0 20 0 ;•. ' [ —: r — [——^ —1 — : •• | " — 1 — " — 194 7 1948 1949 1950 1951 19 52 19 53 : 1954 ,19 55 1956., 1957 67 The changes in the maritime freight rates of both indices show the same important trends,: 1. There appears to be a long term increase in shipping costs in as much as the maximum and minimum values, in the early part of the period-tend to be lower than later comparable figures, 2. .The general increase of1 intermediate duration starting in 1954- and lasting through 1956 was due to a rise in marine operating costs and} as previously suggested, to a high level of industrial activity which stimulated world trade, 3. In the last half of 1949 and the first half of 1950 the low maritime shipping rates, associated , with a decrease in shipping activity, were due to an economic recession and the termination of many foreign aid programs. 4. Shortly after the start of the Korean War (1950) the indices rose and remained at an unusually high level in 1951 and early 1952. These rates were the result of increased trade due to accelerated industrial activity and the use of vessels in moving large volumes of supplies to Korea. The Suez Crisis also produced a sharp term maximum in late 1956 and early 1957., Oh this occasion there was a shortage of transport because shipping was tied up as it was^forced to take the long route in moving between Europe and Asia. . 68 III. : DESTINATION OF BEITISH COLIfflBIA LIJMBEE SHIPMENTS Provincial trade. The examination of lumber shipments to the major national markets, by volumes, index values, and percentages of total shipments (Figure 13), indicates a number of important trends (Appendix A, Table 19). The greatest relative and absolute expansion of British Columbia markets (1947-1957) were recorded by lumber movements to the United States. For the same period, Canada recorded both the second largest relative and volumetric increases. The growth of the North American consumption was related to? ,. 1. A shift in emphasis from overseas areas due to quota and dollar exchange restrictions, strong competition from overseas surplus lumber pro-ducers, and a general Increase in the level of maritime freight rates. 2. Proximity to large North American markets. 3. Lack of prohibitive competition from major non-domestic and domestic source areas. 4. The general expansion of demand with increased population. The grouping Other Foreign Countries, principalis'' the Union of South Africa and Australia, received more lumber in 1957 than in 194-7 (Appendix A, Table 19). There has been a fairly steady increase in movements to these nations since 194-8. However, the 1957 figure is not indicative of values consistently in exeess of the 1947 level. Exports to the United Kingdom have fluctuated considerably, but the overall trend indicates normal volumes decidedly lower than those of the peak years 1947, 1951} and 1952. For the eleven year 69 Figure 13 PERCENTAGE OF.TOTAL REPORTED SHIPMENTS BY NATIONAL MARKETS (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia, pt. 2, sec. 2 of the Forest Industries Series"Tvictoria, B.c7; n.n., 1955) 5 pp. 41-4<d7 (Mlmeograp^dQ"";"^SupplementNo«, _1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia (1957), tables on "Shipments of Sawn Lumber and Ties^rriMiSeographed). PERCENTAGE OF T O T A L R E P O R T E D S H I P M E N T S BY NATIONAL MARKETS IGO period, the U.K. has received $.6 per cent more of British Columbia's lumber shipments than have Other foreign markets. Yet, it seems more important to note the greater stability of consumption and generally expanding volumes of movement that have existed in the Other countries. The lack of competition from Baltic countries in the latter areas is the main factor contributing to these conditions. Having examined the trends, one may be justified in.suggesting that Other overseas markets hold better prospects for the expansion of British Columbia lumber trade than does the U*K. The proportional distribution of lumber shipments clearly points out the relative importance of each market area: (Appendix A, Table 19). The U.K. has decreased. in relative importance from its position as the second consumer of British Columbia lumber in 1947. Coinciding with this was the ex-pansion of the United States market which has received from 35 to 40 per cent of the provincial exports since 1952. The domestic national market is the largest consumer, having taken slightly more than 40 per cent of the shipments. The indicated distribution of trade can leave no doubt that the-North American market is of first importance to British Columbia, lumber producers. Indeed, 1956 and 1957 figures would suggest that overseas areas are at least temporarily continuing to decline In relative importance. It is evident from examinations in this section that the individual variations in trends of lumber movements to national markets are often obscured in an examination of the IGO total shipment trends (Appendix A, Table 16). Thus the pre-viously noted general increase in trade (194-7-1955) obscured the fact that Canadian, U.K., and Other shipments had in several years fallen below their 1947 volumes, because these trends were offset' by increased exports to the United States. In other, years a depression of U.S. trade has been compensated for by increased movement to other areas. For example, exports to the U.S. decreased in 1951, but shipments to all other areas increased resulting in a net expansion of provincial lumber trade. Also the general: market recession 1956-1957 hid the slight recovery in U.K. exports. Lumber shipment figures compiled by the British Columbia Manufacturers Association (Appendix A, Table 19) demonstrate the same general trends as the foregoing government statistics. However, there are important differences in detail: 1. The absolute values of shipments are higher for the privately published figures. 2. The index values for Canadian shipments are much higher in the period 1948 through 1952. This means that volume of movement within Canada contributed more to the earlier expansion of the total trade than had previously been suggested. 3. The percentage distribution indicates that Canada received slightly more and the United States slight-ly less of the total shipments than recorded by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. In addition, B.C.L.M.A. data shows only one year (1950), rather than four, in which the United States' shipments exceeded Canadian shipments. This anamolous value was associated with an exceptionally high level of housing construction in the United States. The private source corroborates the fact that Anglo-America, as the recipient of approximately 70 to 80 per cent of British Columbia's lumber trade, is the most important of the market IGO Coast and Interior Trade, North America provides the major market for shipments from both the Coast and Interior, but clearly the importance of the individual national markets to the two source areas differ (Figure 14 and Appendix A, Table 20). Over the eleven year period, the Coast has shipped approximately one-third of its lumber to Canada, one-third to the U.S.A., and one-third to overseas markets. The volume of lumber movement to the U.S.A. steadily increased to a maximum in 1953 and then declined slightly. The anomalously large volume of shipments in 1950» as noted previously, was due to a high level of housing construction. Coast exports to the U.S.A. have expanded more rapidly and reached a greater volume than Canadian shipments largely because ocean transport permits access to the Atlantic Ports market. Trade with the Canadian Atlantic Coast is unimportant for there is no market of a size comparable to that existing between Baltimore and Boston. In addition, the Atlantic Provinces are a surplus lumber producing area while the Amer-ican Northeast Coast is a lumber deficient area. Even if the Canadian East Coast had a reasonable market potential for certain grades of constructional lumber, British Columbia Coast producers would have difficulty in competing for the trade with producers from the American Pacific Northwest. This problem arises because of the difference in national origin of the good. British Columbia manufacturers,because they are shipping to Canadian markets,must use cargo transports of Canadian registry. However, producers of Washington, Oregon, and northern California can use vessels of foreign registry which cost less to operate because of lower labour costs. Therefore, it has been suggested that these American producers may in the future move more lumber to the Canadian East Coast, 28 via ocean shipping, than British Columbia Coast producers. In distinct contrast to Interior manufacturers who send only a small percentage of their lumber abroad, overseas shipments are of major importance to Coast sawmills. This pattern results from the tidewater location of Coast product-ion and the-quality and size of lumber that the Coast can export to compete in distant markets. The U.K. is the major recipient of overseas shipments, because It has the largest lumber deficiency of any coastally located nation possessing the money to purchase large volumes of this commodity. The Interior (1947-1957) has moved approximately three-fifths of its lumber to Canada and two-fifths to the United States. The volume of trade with both areas has steadily expanded, but the relative and absolute increases, to the U.S.A., have been the largest. The effectiveness with . which the Interior has gained Worth American markets, as compared with the Coast, is partially attributable to shorter rail connects and hence cheaper transportation costs. 28 Edgett, personal interview. IGO Figure 14 B.C. LIMBER SHIPMENTS' BY NATIONAL MARKETS, 1947-1957 Total Shipments and Average Annual Shipments (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, ' Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia, pt. 2, sec. 2 of the Forest Industries Series (Victoria, B.C.; n.n. 1955) 5 PP. ;4l-457~n!MmeoIraphedT;_ Supplement No. 1 to the Stat1stleal Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia~Tl9W). tables on "Shipments of Sawn Lumber and Ties". ''(Mimeographed.).. . c. L U M B E R S H I P M E N T S BY N A T I O N A L M A R K E T S 1 9 4 7 - 1 9 5 7 TOTAL SHIPMENTS S A V E R A G E A N N U A L S H I P M E N T S T O T A L S H I P M E N T S ( i n I x I 0 10 b d . f t. ) 5 H C o a s t a or i g i n 0 I n t e r i o r origin A V E R A G E A N N U A L S H I P M E N T S ( i n I x I 0 9 b d . f t . ) C o a s t a origin Interior origin OTHER-U n i o n o f S o u t h A f r i c a , IGO •17. SUMMARY Information in this chapter has demonstrated two relationships between the provincial sawmillsr and their markets: (1) the strength of associations vary from year to year,and (2) the difference between the Coast and Interior in lumber volume distributions to the individual markets. The strength of associations is measured in absolute terms by volumes and in relative terms by percentage distribution of trade. Example of these relationships include; 1. A general expansion followed by a decrease in British Columbia lumber shipments (194-7-1957). 2. The volume of movements from the Coast and the Interior has varied from year to year, 3. For the eleven year period the markets in order of decreasing importance were Canada, the U.S.A., :" the U.K.., and Other countries. However, there has been a relative increase in the size of some markets (e.g. the U.S.A.) and a decrease in the size of others (.e.g. the U.K.) 4. The Interior has provided an increasing percentage of the total provincial trade to North America. 5. North American markets are relatively more important to the Interior than to the Coast. These relationships are the result of interaction among elements of the physical and human environments in the Coast and the Interior, the markets, and the alternate areas of supply. The dynamic nature of these elements, and hence of their interaction, has been shown in many ways: IGO 1. Maritime freight rates have varied. 2. Physical and economic accessibility of Coast and Interior timber reserves have changed in some areas with overcutting and with extension of transportation facilities. 3. The need for lumber has been influenced by the level of housing construction and increasing world population.. 4. Government economic policies have1 changed. For example, the devaluation of the Finnish currency introduced a new factor of competition. CHAPTER IV BRITISH COLUMBIA LUMBER SHIPMENTS. TO NON-NORTH AMERICAN MARKETS I. ORIGIN 5ROUTES,, AND MARITIME FREIGHT RATES . Shipments from British Columbia to non-North American markets originate almost entirely from Coast sawmills as is shown by data on the source of lumber trade (Appendix A, Table 21). It is noted that never more than 3.1 per cent of the shipments to the U.K. or 1.1 per cent of Other overseas shipments have come from Interior sawmills. The dirth of -movement exists because of the cost involved in moving Interior lumber by rail to the harbour facilities of the coast. This added expense does not allow Interior lumber to compete effectively with Coast lumber which is processed essentially at tidewater.1 Comparable figures/published by the B.C.L.M.A. indi-cate that never more than 3.0 per cent of the overseas exports were from the Interior sawmills (Appendix A,Table 20). This private source, therefore, confirms the generalization that nearly all of British Columbia's non-North American shipments are of Coast origin. Transport routes for overseas lumber shipments. In most years (194-7-1957) 97 per cent or more of the Coast lumber 1 1 Statement by Robert Edgett, Assistant Sales Manager, Seaboard Shipping Co.Ltd., Vancouver, August I960, personal Interview. IGO shipments to the U.K. have gone through the Panama Canal (Appendix A,Table 22). The remainder of the lumber movement was by rail to the Atlantic Coast where the lumber is trans-ferred to ocean vessels for the crossing. This clearly indicates that it is cheaper to ship from Coast mills to the U.K. via the longer all-water passage than by the shorter rail-water route. Maritime freight charges are less over the all water route for two, reasons: 1. Maritime freight rates for long distances are significantly less per unit of length than rail freight rates. 2. There is less handling of lumber, hence lower labour costs, because the product can be loaded directly onto cargo ships at tidewater sawmills. . The major portion of Coast lumber shipments to Other markets also moves from Pacific ports. Two factors tend to produce this pattern: 1. As indicated above ocean freight costs to overseas Atlantic seaboard markets are cheaper than a com-bined rail-water freight charge. This is especially true with the major portion of Other Atlantic ship-ments going to the Union of South Africa, because there is little difference in the length of the two transportation routes. 2. Some of British Columbia's lumber markets are in the Pacific area, and exports to these countries can go only through the Pacific ports. The small volume of Interior lumber that does find its way into overseas markets leaves the province mainly from the Pacific coast (Appendix A,Table 22). This again indicates that ocean transport over a long distance is generally the cheapest way of conveying a bulk commodity. In some years a fairly large percentage of Interior shipments which have gone to the U.K. have first moved- by rail to Canadian Atlantic ports. However, the annual volumes of this Interior trade are so small and variable that it is impossible to make any definite correlations between method of transport and general causes. On the whole a larger percentage of shipments to Other coun»» trd.es, as distinct from the U.K., left via the Pacific ports. This is to be expected because, the routes to a large portion of these, markets lie through the Pacific rather than the Atlantic Ocean. The gffe'ct of maritime freight rates: on the shipping routes: It is now necessary to determine if there has been a relationship between the proportion of lumber moving overseas via the Atlantic ports and the variation in maritime freight rates. In 194-7 and 1956 the greatest percentage of Coast trade was shipped through Atlantic ports to the U.K. These highs occurred at the same time there were pronounced maxima in, maritime freight rates (Figure 12, page 66). The largest percentage of lumber movement via Atlantic ports to Other mar-kets similarly coincided with the peaks in the maritime index of 1947 and 1956 and early 1957. There was no, high in Atlantic ports shipments to correspond with the maximum in freight rates occurring in 1951-1952. There seems to be no association be-tween the use of the land-water route for Coast exports and low levels of the maritime freight index. With one possible exception, the proportion of Interior lumber moving via the Atlantic Coast shows no relationship with the water-borne freight charges. The association, a high maritime index value and the highest percentage of Interior lumber trade through Atlantic ports to the U.K. (1947), is pointed out because it is a repetition of the Coast conditions in 1947. On the basis of the preceding examination, it appears that pronounced maxima in maritime shipping costs sometimes have a short term influence on the route of overseas lumber shipments. This trend develops because Increased maritime freight rates give the land-water transportation route a slightly improved com-petitive position when shipping to Atlantic markets. II. AN EXAMINATION OF THE OTITED KINGDOM MARKET To the Coast sawmills the U.K. represents the largest non-North American market (Appendix A, Table 20). To Interior land-bound producers this market is of little significance, a condition which gives no indication of immediate change (Appendix A, Table 20). During the eleven year period the U.K. market has been the recipient of 21.4 per cent of the Coast shipments. This percentage has varied considerably from year to year as the volumes of shipments have fluctuated markedly. From 1955 through 1957 the volumes of British • Columbia shipments were particularly low because decreased de-mands and increased competition brought difficult marketing conditions. To evaluate the changes in British Columbia lumber trade with the U.K., attention will be given:(1) competitors IGO Figure 15 CONIFEROUS LUMBER IMPOSTS OF THE U.K. BY COUNTRY (a) Food and Agricultural Organization. Division of Forestry and Forest Products, 1949 Yearbook of Forest Products Statistics (Washington D.C.s 1949), p.~5HT 1951 (Rome: ~~195D, p. 62; 1953, (1953), p. 68; 1955 (1955), p. 68: m i (1957), p. 68; 1^59 (1959), p. 44. (b) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry In British Columbia, pt.'2, sec. 2, of the Forest Industries Series Victoria, B.C. n.n. 1955s pp. 41-46; Supplement No. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry In British Columbia Tl957) tables on "Shipments of Sawn Lumber and Ties." (MimeoarapHed.) CONIFEROUS LUMBER I M P O R T S OF T H E U.K. BY C O U N T R Y 0 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 b d . f t 3 5 1 9 4 7 1 9 4 8 1956 1957 C a n a d a B C Sw e d e n Finland O t h e r U. S .S . R. for the U.K. market, (2) monetary exchange problems, (3) fluctuations in the construction of dwelling units, and (4) domestic sources of lumber supply. The major lumber imports of the, U.K. are received from Canada, the Soviet Union, tin-land 5,oand Sweden. (Figure 15 and Appendix A, Table"23).: The aggregate classification of Other exporting countries has accounted for approximately one-seventh to one-third of U.K. imports from 1947 through 1957. In more recent years (1952-1957) this figure has been below 20 per cent. The countries contributing to the group: of minor suppliers have varied in : their significance, but the most important have been Poland, Czechoslovakia, the United States, and Norway. -The U.K. imports from Canada are mainly of British Columbia origin (Appendix A, Table 23), The reasons for this . are In part related 'to Hi) the large surplus of lumber pro-duction in British Columbia; and (2) the higher quality of British Columbia lumber which is particularly suitable fOr construction purposes. It would probably be incorrect to assume that the figures quoted- in Appendix A, Table 23 provide a highly accurate comparison of Canadian and British Columbia shipments, because the statistics are not derived from, the same source;. However, this does not alter the initial state-ment of this paragraph. 2 Food and Agriculture Organization, Division of Forestry and Forest Products, 1949Yearkbook of Forest Products Statistics (Washington, D.C.: 1949X7 p. 66; 19jl^Yeafbook IIoie7~1951), p. 62; 1953 Yearbook (1953), p. 68; lggg Year-bobk (1955), p. 68; 1957 Yearbook (1957), P* 68; 19.59 Yearbook T1959) , P. 44. IGO Evaluation of the major exporters to the U.K. Market. Sweden, Canada, Finland and the Soviet Union respectively have shipped the most softwood lumber to the U.K. from 1947 through 1957 (Appendix A, Table 23). It is also important to note that the two Scandinavian countries of Sweden and Finland provided in most years 30 to 45 per cent of the total Imports. The position of leading exporter to the U.K. market has been held at various times by three of the four major suppliers.. (Sweden seven years, Canada three years, Finland one year). Although Finland was: the leading supplier in only one year it fell just slightly short of the position in several others. British Columbia1s lumber exports to the U.K. have not kept pace with the post-ware increase of exports from the other major U.K. suppliers. Only in two years has the level of British Columbia' shipments exceeded that of the 194-7 ship-ments, and in 1956 and 1957 they were only half this level. In contrast, from 194-7 through 1957v Finland, Sweden., and the Soviet Union have increased their overall level of trade. The Soviet Union showed the greatest relative expansion once it was able to restore its lumber industry which was damaged during World War II. Sweden, Finland, and the Soviet Union were less affected by the 1956 depression of the U.K. lumber market than was British Columbia. Because of the pronounced loss in volume of shipments and in relative importance occurring at this time, one can only conclude that British Columbia's com-petitive position in the U.K. market is less secure than that of other major lumber suppliers. IGO British Columbia is in direct competition^ with the other major exporters for most grades of lumber. Provincial trade with the U.K. is mainly in green common lumber with a 4 small proportion of clears. These shipments are nearly equally divided into material for construction, crating, and joiners. For construction material, British Columbia is in direct competition with the Baltic countries except in lumber sizes three by nine inches and over and lengths sixteen feet and over. These sizes constitute only a small portion of the market demand. For crating material, all the major producers are in direct competition. For joiners the province is in < direct'competition for over 80 per cent of the trade. The superior quality of the Finnish and Swedish lumber sold in the U.K. as compared to that of British Columbia, gives - these countries some market advantage. This difference in quality is due to the following conditions of growth and processing: . 1. Nearly all of British Columbia's shipments are green lumber, while the Scandinavian countries export dried lumber. 2. There is a greater consistency in the quality of Scandinavian lumber, because the trees are pro-duced' under carefully regulated tree farming conditions. This differs from "the British Columbia situation in which the forest growth has not been managed by Man. , 3 Direct competition implies the ability of all suppliers to provide the necessary specifications of lumber. 4 Statement by Mr. Dalton, Overseas Sales Department McMilland Bioed.ell and Powell River Ltd., Vancouver, September I960, personal interview. 5 Edgett, personal interview. 3. The greater care with which the logs are pro-cessed in Finland and Sweden results in lumber cut to more exacting specifications.6 Because of certain disadvantages, relative to the other major suppliers, the volume of British Columbia lumber exports is difficult to maintain on the U.K. Market. The factor of location makes British Columbia's competitive position tenuous. It is 8,650 miles via the Panama Canal from the province to the U.K., but approximately 1350 miles from the Baltic ports 7 to the U.K. The higher freight cost resulting from this difference and from higher labour costs involved in loading at Canadian ports have contributed in keeping British Columbia shipments at a low level. The factor of distance works an especially heavy hardship when maritime freight rates are high, for!the cost differential between British Columbia shipments and shipments from closer points is increased. Thus, the previously mentioned sudden increase of maritime freight rates in the latter part of 1956 and the early part of 1957 probably contributed to the sharper drop in movement from the British Columbia Coast than occurred in trade from the Baltic countries. In order to compete in the U.K. market when shipping rates go up British Columbia sawmills must either reduce their pro-duction costs or receive smaller margins of profit. British Columbia producers have difficulty in adjusting these two var-6 Dalton, personal interview. 7 Forest Tndn.qtrial Relations Limited«. Brief Presented at Conciliation Hearings (Vancouver: May 1958), p. 59. IGO iables when there are sharp and sudden rises in maritime freight rates. One feature of transportation affecting British Columbia shipments to the U.K. will be mentioned, but it cannot be examined historically for the necessary figures are not available. In addition to the deep sea maritime freight rates, there is a separate Baltic Sea maritime freight rate system under which British Columbia's major competitors with the' exception of the Soviet Union move their lumber,to the U.K. market. •/.When the deep sea and Baltic Sea freight rates have the same trends and approximately the same rates of change their influence on the volume of lumber trade from the in-dividual source areas would be least noticeable. If the freight charges fluctuate out of phase or at noticeably differ-ent rates their influence on lumber shipments would be most pronounced. As a rule of thumb, the following relationships between the two rates are noted: 1. When the deep sea rates are twice Baltic Sea rates, provincial, lumber will sell well in the U.K. •.•.'...,"... 2. When the deep sea rates are three times as'large,. British Columbia lumber will sell on the U.K. market but with a degree of difficulty. 3. When they are more than three times as large, British Columbia lumber trade will be carried on only with pronounced difficulty. The government controlled economy of the Soviet Union gives this area an additional advantage which'privately owned 8 Dalton, personal Interview. lumber operations have difficulty in combating. In the past the Soviet Union has quoted the selling price of lumber with the understanding that the price will be.adjusted downward to the current market levels if they have changed by the time the shipment is delivered. This is a practice that cannot be duplicated by private industry.^ It undoubtedly is a feature viewed with favour by U.K. lumber importers. The ability of Finland, Sweden and the Soviet Union to expand lumber production, is important in terms of the future competition which these areas can supply. Finland and,Sweden are operating essentially on a sustained yield basis.^ How-ever, .there are still circumstances under which the amount of lumber moving to the U.K. from these two countries can be increased: 1. A readjustment in the proportion of lumber sold within the individual Scandinavian markets would accomplish this. 2. It is probable that there will be some growth in production with improved utilization of timber resources. 3. The proportion of extracted timber utilized in the manufacture of lumber could increase. However, trends which have occurred in other areas indicate that it is more likely a decreasing proportion of timber will go to lumber production and more to the manufacture of highly processed wood products. 9 Forest Industrial Relations Limited, Brief, p. 82. 10 H.J. Hodgins, "Growth Potential of British Columbia1 Forests, "Transactions of the Fifth British Columbia Natural Resources Conference (Victoria, B.C.: 1952), pp. 180-181; and Lowel Besley,"Potential International Timber Supply," Trans-actions of the Fifth British Columbia Natural Resources Con-ference (Victoria, B.C.: 1952), p. 169. The important fact is that Sweden and Finland are now restricted in the amount of timber they can cut and thus in the amount of lumber they are likely to produce for future export. The present estimate of the allowable cut of timber in the Soviet Union for the maintenance of sustained yield pro-duction, is 180 billion bd.ft. per annum11 The 1956 removals of all types of timber amounted to 32"75l8l thousand cubic 12 13 meters or approximately 73 billion bd.ft. On the basis of these estimates it is feasable for the Soviet Union to in-crease its lumber production by expanding timber extraction. Therefore, the Soviet Union might reasonably be expected to provide greater competition in the U.K. lumber market. Indeed Russian exports to the U.K. have increased fairly steadily from 194-7 through 1957. However, there are factors, which may limit the ability to extend lumber manufacturing and to use an increased volume of lumber for export purposes: 1. It is unlikely that more than a small amount of wood can be exported from the large timber re-serves of Siberia because of the excessive trans-,. portation costs which this movement would entail. 11 A.P.MacBean, "Forestry of B.C. in Perspective," Transactions of' the Eleventh British Columbia Natural Re-sources "Conference (Victoria," B.C.: 195U), p. 1&9. 12 Food and Agriculture Organization, Division of Forestry and Forest Products, 1957 Yearbook (Rome: 1957)5 p.27. 13 One thousand board feet equals 4.53 cubic metres. Food and Agriculture Organization, Division of Forestry and Forest Products Statistics, 1957 Yearbook (Rome: 1957), p.l5l. 14 MacBean, Trans. 11th B.C.N.R.C. (1958), p. 120. IGO 2. For the following reasons, it is evident that the Soviet Union is overcutting its European reserves ; of timber which are the sources for export lumber: (a) most of Russia's cutting is In Europe, (b) on a sustained yield basis extraction can only be doubled, and (c) 80 per cent of the reserves are in Asiatic.Russia. ,3. Because of the heavy domestic demand for Forest products, it is not expected that exports will rise much above present levels.15 Therefore, it Is improbable that the Soviet Union will make lumber available for export in proportion to her ability to increase lumber production. Nevertheless, it seems likely that this area will be a source of growing competition to British Columbia lumber in the U.K. market. U.K. domestic factors affecting the quantity of British Columbia lumber exports. In the U.K. approximately 35 per cent of the imports of soft lumber are used for housing 16 construction. Therefore, one can expect that British Columbia lumber exports to the U.K. will be affected by fluctuations in this type of activity. A comparison of the number of housing starts in the U.K. (Table 5) with the volume of British Columbia lumber shipments (Appendix A, Table 21) shows the following positive correlations: 1. The decrease in shipments from 1947 to 1948 was accompanied by a decrease in housing starts. 2. The generally high level of housing starts from 1952 through 1955 corresponds with a high level of lumber trade. 3. The 1956 and 1957 decrease in housing starts is re-flected by decreased shipments for the same years. 11. MacBean. Trans. 11th B.C.N.R.C. (1958) p. 120 16 G.H.Rochester, "United Kingdom," Foreign Trade, Vol. 107 (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, May 25, 1957), p. 16. IGO Though this examination shows that housing con-struction has an effect on British Columbia lumber shipments, the two trends vary enough to indicate that other factors must be taken into consideration. For example, the maximum lumber shipments to the U.K. (1951) do not correspond with the maxi-mum in housing construction for the eleven year period. It has previously been suggested that dollar shortages in the U.K. have had an adverse effect on the purchase of British Columbia lumber. Specifically, the reduction of E.G.A. funds available to the U.K. was partially responsible for the sharp decline in British Columbia shipments from 1948 through 17 1950. Also from the end of World War II through 1952 the British Government restricted the country's annual softwood 1 o lumber consumption to 2.2 billion bd.ft. This was done to control the import of lumber and thus help to maintain a bal-ance of payments in international trade. Since 1952 a pro-gressive increase of the softwood lumber quota has meant ex-pansion in lumber consumption. Therefore, by 1954 and 1955 British Columbia lumber exports to the U.K. were generally high.- Other factors of government policy can affect the 17 L.R.Andrews, "Lumber Manufacturing and Marketing in British Columbia Forest Industries, "Transactions of the Third British Columbia Natural Resources; Conference (Victoria, B.C. j 1950)7 p. 172. 18 Rochester, Foreign Trade, vol, 107 ( May 25, 1957), p. 16. 91 TABLE 5 . PERMANENT HOUSING BUILDING STARTS FOR THE U.K. : 1947 - 1957 (all houses) Year No. of Starts, 1947 191,692 1948 163,037 1949 201,919 1950 204,159 1951 2 2 7 , 2 7 3 1952 302,174 •1953 354,860 1954 336,961 1955 320,000 1956 285,014 1957 281,223 (a) Great Britain, Central Statistical Office, Monthly Digest of Statistics, no. 61 (London: H.M.S.O. January951) p. 71; no. 109 (January 1955), p. 69; no. 144 (December 1957), p. 61; no. 161 (May 1959), p. 71. IGO yearly variations in annual lumber trade. Thus the 1956 de-crease in shipments was also related to: (1) the imposition by the British government of credit restrictions, and (2) the release for sale of four million bd.ft. of stockpiled soft-19 wood lumber. The effect of the first measure was to de-crease all types of construction activity, and the second measure reduced the need for the importation of foreign lumber. Finally in terms of a long range, effect, it is probable that the U.K.'s decision to increase its domestic supply of timber will cut into lumber shipments of British Columbia origin. In 194-3 the policy of putting five million acres under systematic management was adopted. The plan is to cover a fifty year period, and when achieved it is expected to supply one-third of the U.K.'s requirements for wood. As of 1955 the U.K. was supplying approximately one-thirteenth of its lumber needs.^ 19 Rochester, Foreign Trade, vol. 107 (May 25, 1957) p. 16; and E.J.White, "Canada Seeks Lumber Markets," Foreign Trade, vol. 107 (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, May 25, 1957), p. 5. 20 MacBean, Trans. 11th B.C.N.B.C. (1958), p. 119. IGO III. AN EXAMINATION OF THE MARKET CLASSIFICATION OTHER COUNTRIES Within the category of Other markets the Union of South Africa and Australia are the main recipients of British Columbia lumber. This has been determined by examining the water-borne lumber trade from British Columbia for the years 1947 through 1957 (Appendix A,Table 24). These figures list Australia separately but do not give a separate listing of the countries in Africa receiving shipments. Hox^ ever, two sources suggest that British Columbia's exports to the Union of South Africa comprise the major share of the total African trade: 1. It has been stated that in 1955 and 1956 the Union of South Africa received respectively .76 and 70 per cent of the total Canadian softwood lumber shipment to Africa.21 Since British Columbia is the major lumber exporting area of Canada, by inference, it would appear that much of this province's African trade must go to the Union of South Africa. 2. In the 1958 conciliation brief, presented by Forest Industrial Relations Limited, it was noted that shipments of British Columbia Coast lumber to sterling areas, other than the U.K., were principally to the Union of South Africa and Australia.22 The Union of South Africa. Canada1s and thus British Columbia's major competitors for the Union of South Africa 21 Food and Agriculture Organization, Division of Forestry and Forest Products, 1957 Yearbook (Rome;1957) p. 66. 22 Forest Industrial Relations Limited, Brief, PP. 87-88. ; IGO market are the United States, Sweden, and Finland (Figure 16 and Appendix A,Table 25). The two Scandinavian countries have an advantage over British Columbia in shipping to the Union of South Africa which accrues from greater proximity to the market. The major Scandinavian ports are approximately 7,000 miles from the Union of South Africa as compared with 11,000 miles from Vancouver. This difference in shipping distance puts provincial producers at a slight disadvantage in this market, but they are in a far better competitive position than in the U.K. A factor which helps offset the freight cost differ-ential is the ability of British Columbia to provide the specifications and grades of lumber having the greatest demand in the South African market. The lumber is the same type that is sold in the U.K.,i.e. green common lumber mainly used for constructional purposes. There is also a percentage of clear lumber, but this is even smaller than for U.K. s h i p m e n t s . Attention is again drawn to the fact that Finland and Sweden are presently cutting on a sustained yield basis which will prevent any major increase in the annual timber removal. Therefore, one could not expect an important expansion in competition from the Scandinavian countries, unless there is a readjustment in the proportion of their total shipments going to the Union of South Africa. Such a change is unlikely as long as these countries can continue to ship large volumes 24 of lumber to the closer U.K. market. 23 Dalton, personal interview. 24 Dalton, personal interview. Figure 16 CONIFEROUS LIMBER EXPORTS; TO TIE UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA BY ! '.••••' COUNTRY (a) Food and Agricultural Organization, Division of Forestry and Forest Products, 1949 Yearbook of Forest Prod-gets. Statistics (Washington D.C.: 1949) 5~PP CRome: 195l) pp. 58-59; 19& (1953), pp. 66-675 1955TI955) PP. 66-67; 191Z U957), pp. 66-67, 19£2 (1959), ^ 4 2 - 4 3 . s CONIFEROUS LUMBER EXPORTS TO THE UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA BY COUNTRY 9 5 6 1 9 5 7 C a n a d a U.S .A . Swe den F in load Other The Pacific Northwest which is the major exporting region of the United States, produces essentially the same kinds of lumber as the coast of British Columbia. Also the shipping distance from both regions is approximately the same. However, the United States is a net importer of lumber, and therefore, a large domestic demand exists for the lumber pro-cessed in the American Pacific Northwest. This is reflected in the small percentage of the lumber production from coastal Washington and Oregon that is exported.^ Because of domestic demand, it is improbable that the United States will push itg lumber sales in the Union of South Africa, or any other over-seas markets. In the Union of South Africa restrictions on the use of dollar currency have forced the country to undertake the 26 large scale planting of softwoods. Under this program by 1980, 3.2 million acres of trees will have been planted, and by 2000 these trees will have a projected annual increment of 509 million cubic feet. This is more than double the current annual 27 consumption of 194 million cubic feet of wood. The ability of South Africa to undertake such a program, with the expect-ation of a high degree of success, results from the good growing conditions in the natural environment. The grox^ th rates of the trees being planted are double that of second growth stands of 25 Forest Industrial Relations Limited, Brief, Table 4 , ' . . ' 26 ' Forest Industrial Relations Limited, Brief, p. 87. 27 MacBean, Trans. 11th B.C.N.R.C. (1958), p. 121. coastal British Columbia. These favourable rates indicate that the main portion of the planting is probably occurring in the mild to warm and moist Cfa and Cfb climates2^ of South Africa's so.utheast coast. As the newly planted trees reach maturity there may be a decreased demand for foreign supplies of wood. When this happens it is inevitable that British Columbia will be affected, because the species being grown will supply common lumber comparable to the commodities which form the major portion of provincial exports to the Union of South Africa. The extent to which foreign lumber demands may be affected has been suggested by Mr. Dalton. He felt, after contact with South African officials, that the country would ultimately be able, to supply 25 to 30 per cent of its lumber requirements.^ 28 MacBean, Trans. 11th B.C.N.R.C. (1958), p. 121. 29 C: warm temperate rainy climates; average tempera-ture of coldest month below 64.4 degrees fahrenheit but above .26.6 degrees; average temperature of warmest month over 50 degrees. f: no distinct dry season; the driest month of summer receives more than 1.2 inches. at" hot summer; average temperature of the warmest month over 71.6 degrees. b: cool summer; average temperature of warmest month under 71.6 degrees. Glenn t. Trewartha, An Introduction to Climate (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1954), pp. 382-383. 30 Dalton, personal interview. IGO Australia: The volume of British Columbia lumber shipments to Australia expanded to a peak in 19555 with several depressions being noted in the general increase, followed by a decrease after 1955. The latter decrease was due to: (1) increased ocean freight rates, (2) a decreased demand, and (3) possibly increased competition from domestic lumber production. The very sharp drop in 1952 shipments probably resulted from:. (1) the high maritime freight rates of that and period,a(2) the 1952 wood workers' strike which decreased the volume of lumber available for export. The major portion of softwood lumber exports to Australia originate in Canada, the Scandinavian Countries (Finland, Sweden, and Norway), the United States, and New Zealand (Figure 17 and Appendix A,Table 26.) The situation by which British Columbia provides most of the Canadian exports to Australia is explained by the following reasons: 1. British Columbia is closer to Australia than any other major Canadian lumber producers. 2. The province is the largest manufacturer of lumber in Canada. 3. The Coast Forest can provide the large timbers and large dimensional lumber which are in demand in Australia. There are discrepancies in Appendix A, Table 25 between Food and Agriculture Organization statistics for the total Canadian shipments and British Columbia trade figures reported by the British Columbia Forest Service. As a result, the recorded British Columbia shipments to Australia were greater in several years than the reported total for Canadian exports. IGO Figure 17 CONIFEROUS LUMBER IMPORTS OF AUSTRALIA BY COUNTRY (a) Food and Agricultural Organization, Division of Forestry and Forest Products, 1949 Yearbook of Forest Products Stat-istics (Washington D. c7T 19"49'T7 P. 69, "&9S?! TRome7~l'9^1), pV 63 1 M 3 (1953), p. 69rl9ii (1955), P- 69? 1222, p. 6.9* 1252 U959), p. 45. (b) Britis Statistical pt. 2, sec. 2, n.n. 1955), pp. 41-: Bebord of. the Lumbe: Tables on "Shipment Vrt ®o >cj .fop h eJ.) CONIFEROUS LUMBER IMPORTS OF AUSTRALIA BY COUNTRY 9 5 7 Canada U. S. A . F i n l a n d , Swe-den, 8 Norway ew Zealand O t h e r IGO Therefore, the F.A.O. figures are apparently incomplete and should be considered only as generalizations. In the period 1947 through 1957 the first supplier of the Australian lumber market has been in various years British Columbia, the United States, and the Scandinavian Countries. However, this position has been occupied by British Columbia since 1953. Several factors have operated to bring the province's leading standings 1. British Columbia is closer to the market than the Scandinavian countries and,there'phas the advantage of lower freight charges. In respect to shipment costs, the Pacific Northwest of the United States and British Columbia are on essentially equal footing. 2. As previously"mentioned the United States is a net importer of lumber and the Scandanavian countries •are producing to the maximum of their ability; therefore, these countries are unlikely to; provide sharply increased competition in the Australian market. However, even a small increase in volume of trade from these countries could affect the sales to this market. 3. Usually the province exports more lumber than the American Pacific Northwest if commodities from the two source areas are selling at the same price. This occurs because the Australian wholesale buyers feel the attention and service given by the British Columbian producers will be superior, for the exist-ence of these firms depends largely on the export trade.32 4. The demand for large timbers and large dimensional lumber can be supplied by the province.33 New Zealand is a competitor in the Australian market because of its proximity and a surplus production of lumber from. 32 Dalton, personal interview. 33 Dalton, personal interview. IGO the exotic Pinus radiata. Lumber from this species con-stitutes the major export to Australia?4 However, it is of inferior quality, and this makes its sale on the Australian market d i f f i c u l t .35 I n addition, Australia is increasing its own production of lumber and is planting radiata pine so that demands for imports of this lower softwood grade may decrease. Therefore, it is probable at least on a short term basis, that Australian imports of New Zealand lumber will decrease or at best increase slowly. This is despite the fact that New Zealand is a surplus lumber producer, capable of doubling its present cut of timber, and is very close to the Australian market.^ The duty structure under which Canada, New Zealand, the United States, and the Scandinavian countries trade with Australia gives Canada no significant advantage over its major competitors. In some cases Canada pays the same duties as the other exporters. For example, the duty, under the "most favoured nation" clause of Australian tariffs, on timber dressed, moulded or tongued, and weather boards is two shillings per hundred super feet. Canada, the United States, the 34 John MacNaught, "New .Zealand Lumber Industry Depressed," Foreign Trade, vol. 108 (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, December 7, 1957), p. 15. 35 "Commodity Notes: New Zealand" Foreign Trade, vol. 108, (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, October 26,1957), p. 30. 36 MacBean, Trans. 11th B.C.N.R.C. (1958), p. 121. IGO Scandinavian countries, and New Zealand are all classified as "most favoured nations" for this commodity grouping. For timber undressed, two by eight inches and larger and less than six by twelve inches, the "most favoured nations" pay a two shilling duty per hundred super feet.- In this instance the United States and the Scandinavian countries are classified as "most favoured nations". Canada and New Zealand, under special agreement, pay no duty on these commodities.^ However, this difference in duty of approximately $.25 per hundred super feet and similar differences are too small to affect competition for the existing market.^ The most serious future threat to British Columbia's Australian exports lies in the Australian government decision to.undertake the large scale planting of softwoods. This decision was made because the native forests were predominantly hardwood Eucalyptus and coniferous lumber had to be imported to meed the needs of the economy.^ This latter feature causes an undesirable drain on the Australian dollar reserve. Such a program of forestation will be particularly effective in 37 Australian Trade Commission, Vancouver, August I960, telephone interview. 38 Edgett, personal, interview. 39 C.K.Orchard, '^Commonwealth Forestry", Trans-actions of the Eleventh British Columbia Natural Resources Conference, Victoria, B.C.: 1958), p. 125. IGO Australia, for it has been discovered that British Columbia softwoods grow at rates four to five times faster in Australia than in British Columbia. This is attributable to better soils, 40 more sunshine, a longer growing season, and a milder climate. If domestic timber resources are able to expand more rapidly than the growing need for domestic requirements, it will be increasingly difficult to move British Columbia lumber Into Australia. Provincial lumber exports to Australia are mainly green common lumber and clears for construction purposes. There is a larger percentage of clears in these shipments than move to either the II.E. or the Union of South Africa. The clears cannot be replaced by Australian domestic sources. However, the imported green construction lumber can be re-placed,: especially if this market learns to accept an inferior 41 T but adequate domestic product. f Australia orients its consumption to the use of domestically grown radiata pine, this may even open the way for more Hew Zealand exports. The demand for large timbers, six by twelve inches and over, is supplied by British Columbia. This demand exists because Australia has the equipment to process such lumber. However, the demand may decrease as Australia begins to concentrate on the use and cutting of smaller dimensional lumber which can 42 be processed from domestic resources. 40 Orchard, Trans. 11th B.C.N.R.C. (1958), p. 125. 41 Dalton, personal interview, 42 Dalton, personal interview. CHAPTER IV BRITISH COLUMBIA LIMBER SHIPMENTS TO THE UNITED STATES MARKET The United States has been the major foreign market for lumber shipments from British Columbia sawmills dtiring 1947-1957. This situation is understandable from both the point of view of the consumer (the U.S.A.) and the supplier (British Columbia).. The United States, as previously mentioned, (p.94) is a large importer of sofjwood lumber, because it has in-sufficient timber to fulfill all of its requirements for the commodity. Current estimates indicate this nationa is already overcutting annually by three billion cubic feet.1 Even though present growth rates can be expected to improve, it is Improbable that expanding consumption of lumber can be met by increased domestic production. Therefore, there will be even Increased dependence, on foreign sources. As the supplier British Columbia has the following advantages: . 1. The province has a large capacity for lumber pro-duction near the market. 2. British Columbia is better suited than any other province, by the nature of its timber reserves, to supply material for residential construction. ''""1 A.P.MacBean, "Forestry of B.C. in Perspective," Transactions of the Eleventh British Columbia Natural Re-sour ces Conference,~(Victoria, B.C.: l958),pjLl67 IGO I. CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE VOLUME AND DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA LUMBER SHIPMENTS. The volume and distribution of British Columbia lumber shipments to the individual United States' markets, is influen-ced by their size and location. Some of the factors affecting-size will be considered in this section, i.e., the use of provincial lumber in the United States and an evaluation of alternate sources of supply. Others such as the relative market potential of areas and the types of transport, will be examined in succeeding sections discussing lumber shipments from the. Coast and Interior to individual market areas. The relationship between U.S.A. construction activity and British Columbia lumber shipments. British Columbia lumber shipped to the United States is mainly utilized In the building 2 of residential housing units. Hence, both short and long term trends in provincial trade with this market are largely dependent on demands created by the construction of these units. The relationship between the two items is shown by the concomitant variations in shipments and dwelling unit starts: and the occurrence of their absolute'' minimums and maximums in the same years (Appendix A,table 27). Furthermore, the line graph in Figure 20 demonstrates a fairly constant ratio between these variables for the eleven year period. The only 2 Statement by Mr. Annan, United States Sales Department, MacMillan and Bloedel Limited, Vancouver, August-i960, personal interview. IGO Figure 18 NON-FARM DWELLING UNIT STARTS IN U.S.A. vs LUMBER SHIPMENTS-FROM B.C. (a) United States, Department of Labor and Department of Commerce, Construction Review, vol. 1 (Washington D.C.: G.P.O., January 1955) s "pTTFT vol. 5 (June 1959), p. 19. (b) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber .Industry in British Columbia, pt. 2, sec. 2 to the Forest Industries Series '(Victoria. ~ B*C. ; n.n,, 1955)3 pp. 4T-4g7~TMimeographed7); Supplement No. I to the Statistical. Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia (1957), tables on "Sawn Lumber and Ties~" fMi.iyveagraph ei.) NON- FARM D W E L L I N G U N I T S T A R T S I N U.S. A. v s L U M BE R S H I P M E N T S F R O M B.C. H U_ • Q m u. o CO o z CO I-z LU Q_ co <r LU CD 3 1 7 5 0 I 5 0 0 1 2 5 0 I 00 0 7 5 0 5 0 0 2 5 0 / / i9SS" + I9f7 •t 19 56 + 1951 / / / " / A / 1950 I9S3 - / / / / / " / / / / + / V / / 19 5 2' / • 19 5-1 ; / / / / ,+ 1948 ' + 19*9. / / / / / / / + I9H7 8 0 0 9 0 0 1 0 0 0 1100 1 2 0 0 1 3 0 0 1 4 0 0 1 5 0 0 DWELLING UNIT S T A R T S IN T H O U S A N D S IGO anomalous plots, apparent from visual inspection, occurred in 1956-1957. They record a situation in which shipments were slow to react to a sharp drop in residential construct-ion. Why this should occur Is difficult to explain, but It is a recurrent pattern which will be shown to have happened in Canada in 1956-1957. Possibly it resulted from antici-pation of greater building activity than developed which caused more lumber to be ordered and shipped than was required. Also this may have been a period in which large lumber inventories were built up by many concerns. Trends within the American construction industry are important to the province because they will affect future demand for lumber in the United States. Over the last several decades there has been a steady reduction in the volume of lumber being consumed per dwelling unit, and the tendency, as predicted by the Stanford "Research Institute, Is likely to continue (Table 61. This decrease is due to the following conditions: (1) loss of market to competing building materials, and (2) change in architectural style which Involves both a reduction in average size of each dwelling unit and in embellish-ments such as porches. The loss to competing materials partially results from the fact that lumber prices have and probably will 108 TABLE 6' CONSUMPTION OF LIMBER PER DWELLING UNIT : 1920 - 1975 Year Consumption (in bd. ft.) 1920 13,100 1930 10,450 1940 9,150 1950 7,800 1953 7,400 i960 7,200 1965 ' 7,000 1970 6,750 1975 6,500 (a) Stanford Research Institute,: America'_s Demand for Wood, 1929-1975 (Tacoma, -'Washington; ,Weyerhaeuse"r~Timber Company, 1954), p. 40. TABLE 7 RESIDENTIAL DWELLING UNIT CONSTRUCTION AND - CONSUMPTION OF LUMBER ? 1920 - 1975 (index 1920 equals 100) Year No. of Lumber consumption Lumber consumption starts per unit Total 1920 100 100 100 1930 109 81 89 1940 185 74 136 1950 433 .62 268 1953 342 56 190 1965 448 51 228 1975 561 ' 46 257 (a) Stanford Research Institute, America's Demand for Wood, 1929-1975) (Tacoma, Washington : Weyerhaeuser Timber Company, 1954), p. 30. IGO continue to rise relatively more rapidly.3 Nevertheless, predictions for the near future indicate the demand for lumber will grow as the number of dwelling unit starts realizes an annual increment (Table 7). Under the conditions cited the most reasonable long term forecast suggests a lumber market which is increasing at a progressively slower rate than the population. This might eventually mean a shrinkage in the Volume of United States consumption should the ^ er capita use of lumber decrease at fit-great e-r. rate than-the population.increment. • A n evaluation of domestic U.S.A. competition for the U.S.A. lumber market. When the possible sources of supply for the United States' markets are within the country, the presence of the international border may give them a competitive advantage over British Columbia lumber producers because: 1. Duties are imposed on British Columbia lumber shipments entering the U.S.A.; as of July 1, 1957, the duties varied from $0.25 to $1.00 per thousand board feet.4 2.. A difference in the value of Canadian and American currency imposes a disadvantage on British Columbia lumber producers if the Canadian currency has the higher value.. Under these conditions prices may be quoted in Canadian dollars and paid in the less valuable American dollar. This difference in ex-change rates meant the loss of 1.8 million dollars of revenue to one Coast sawmill in 1957.? 3 Stanford Research Institute, America's Demand for Mood 1929-1975 (Tacoma. Washington: Weyerhaeuser Timber Company 195417 P. 33. 4 "The U.S.Market: What about Rates Of Duty?" Foreign Trade,, vol. 108 (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, September 1957), p721. 5 -Forest Industrial Relations limited, Brief Presented' at Conciliation Hearings (Vancouver:: May 1958), p. S9.: 110 The forests of the Pacific Northwest6 and the Southern . 7 Pine Regions are respectively the first and second lumber pro-ducing areas of the United. States. The Pacific Northwest manu-factured about two-thirds (20,404 million bd.ft.) of the country's lumber in 1956 (Appendix A,Table 28). Forests of this region had 1,246,441 million board feet of saw timber reserves in 1953 (Appendix A, Table 29), which is greater than twice the reserves of 458,015 million board feet possessed by 8 • British Columbia in 1956. They represent approximately 80 per cent of the total U.S.A. softwood saw timber reserves (Appendix A,Table 28). The physical sites of the region, particularly in Washington, Oregon, and Northern California, have milder climates and less rugged terrain than is found in British Columbia. Therefore, the forests of the American Pacific Northwest have higher growth rates and are more access-ible than those of British Columbia.^ The distances to the major Midwest and Atlantic Coast lumber markets are approximately the same from British Columbia 6 The major lumber producing areas of the Pacific North-west are found in Washington, Oregon, Northern California, and Western Idaho. Clarence Fielden Jones and Gordon Gerald Darken-wald. Economic Geography (rev. ed.; New York: The MacMillan Co., 1954), Po 73. 7 The major lumber producing areas of the Southern Pine Forests are found in Eastern Oklahoma, Eastern Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Northern Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and Southeastern North Carolina. Sones and Darkenwald, Economic Geography, p. 73. 8 Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Canada Yearbook, 1957-_1958, (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1958), p. 467. 9 MacBean, Trans. 11th B.C.N.R.C. (1958), p. 21. and the American Pacific Northwest. However, there are con-ditions which sometimes cause differences in both water-borne and rail transportation costs. Because British Columbia ocean shipments to the U.S.A. Atlantic Ports market move at current single charter rates, these freight charges are highly variable In contrast American mills have stable shipping prices, since the law requires producers trading with domestic markets to use their own vessels at fixed conference rates.10 Given these conditions it can be seen why British Columbia trans-portation costs sometimes exceed and sometimes fall below levees on movement from the Pacific Northwest. For example, during the Suez Crisis, when the price of single charters was high, charges on provincial shipments were greater than those imposed under the U.S.A.conference rates. However, at- other times in the eleven year period, the level of maritime freight rates has often worked to the advantage of the British Columbia 11 „ producers. Rail freight rates from the two source areas to major American markets in the Midwest and on the East Coast are the same. If the rail haul is shorter, e.g. to Colorado or to certain parts of Texas, the American producers pay lower 12 rates. In 1956 the Southern Pine Forest produced approximately one-fifth (6,852) million bd.ft. of Aaerica's lumber (Appendix A 10 Annan, personal interview, 11 Annan* personal interview. 12 Annan, personal interview. IGO Table 28). Its softwood saw timber reserves in 1953 were about 12 per cent (170,399 million bd.ft.) of the national total (Appendix A, Table 29) which is equivalent to only 37 per cent of British Columbia's stands of merchantable softwood. Therefore the province, with smaller production and larger reserves, is in a better position to expand its manufacture of lumber. How-even, a comparison of commercial reserves is not the sole indi-cation of the relative abilities to cut timber, since the growth rates ,of trees in the American Southeast'are more rapid. Over the years the forestry practices carried on in the Southern Pine Forest have been wasteful. The result is that half of the commercial forests are less than 40 per cent fully stocked, and consequently there has been a depletion in growing stocks. Until such time as this condition can be corrected, it is unlikely the area will be in a position to put large addit-. 'f1V • ional supplies of lumber on the U.S,ij-rfliaJ*,ket'. If increased volumes of lumber become available from the American Southeast, they will have an advantage over British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest of lower freight rates in moving lumber to the major Eastern seaboard markets. However, future competition from the Southern Pine Porest will also be affected by its practice of growing timber on a short term basis for conversion to pulp and paper. Since this cutting 13 Lowell Besley, "Potential International Timber Supply," Transactions o_f the Fifth British_Hfilumbia Natural Resources Conference (Victoria, B.C.: 1952)7 p. 168. 14 Porest Industrial Relations Limited, Brief, p. 89. IGO program is likely to expand, it is probable that regional lumber production will not increase as rapidly as the area's timber reserves. Southern Pine lumber does not directly compete with many grades produced in British Columbia, because the latter area manufactures commodities of superior quality. The province also can supply large dimensional lumber (six inches and over and lengths sixteen feet arid over) not available in the American Southeast.1"* Foreign source areas: Statistics published by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations indicate that the United States obtains nearly all of its softwood lumber imports from Canada and Mexico (Appendix A, Table 30). From' 1947 through 1951 the U.S.A. received annually over 100 M. bd. ft. of softwood lumber from Mexico. Since 1952 the volume of imports has continuously decreased, and in 1957 Mexico supplied only 1.9 per cent (51 M bd. ft.) of U.S.A. softwood lumber im-ports. Therefore, Canada remains as the only major exporter of softwood lumber to the United States. British Columbia, the largest Canadian exporter of lumber to the United States, has shipped an increasing pro-portion of the total Canadian trade to the U.S.A. (Appendix A, Table 31). The necessity of using several statistical sources has made It: difficult to determine accurately the percentage 15 Annan, personal, interview. IGO of exports which have'come from British Columbia/ The com-parison of data published by the Food and Agricultural Organiz-ation and the Dominion Bureau of Statistics suggests, in most years, the province has been the source for slightly less than 50 per cent of Canadian shipments (Appendix A, Table 31). The comparison with B.C.L*M.A. statistics indicates the proportion to be approximately 5 per cent greater (Appendix A, Table 31). Dominion Bureau of Statistics figures on shipments from Canadian sawmills recorded•considerably larger percentages of Canadian . trade originating in British Columbia (Appendix A, Table- 31) . • It is assumed that the U.S.A. can report its volumes of Canadian lumber shipment fairly accurately to the F.A.-O.,- since these shipments are recorded by customs at port of entry. Therefore, the most accurate figures are probably found in the matching of B.C.L.M.A, figures, which are more accurate than the D.B.-S. statistics, with F.A.O. data. Quebec and Ontario comprise the second major source of Canadian lumber exports to the U.S.A.(Appendix A, Table 31). Both these areas and the Atlantic Provinces have the advantage, relative to British Columbia producers, of being immediately adjacent to the major lumber markets of the American"Midwest and East Coast. However, their competitive ability is restricted by the limited size of the timber reserves and the inability to produce the quality or large dimension of lumber manufactured on the West Coast. Por these reasons, Eastern Canada probably will not maintain its present position in the American lumber -IGO market as is evident from the reduced volume and decreasing percentage of the Canadian exports which have originated in that area. Alberta is the major source in the Prairie Provinces for U.S.. A. trade. The sawmill ing industry of this province is expanding, and with this the volume of exports to America may expand because lumber markets are being found for Alberta's fairly large reserves of white spruce. Location gives Alberta a rail freight rate advantage over British Columbia particularly in shipping to the western prairies of the U.S.A.16 Never-theless, British Columbia, with 66.5 per cent of Canada's accessible merchantable saw timber reserves should have no trouble maintaining its position as the major Canadian supplier of lumber exports to the United States.17 16 Annan, personal interview 17 Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Canada Year Book 1957-1958. (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1958), p. 467. IGO II. THE TRENDS AND PATTERNS OE BRITISH COLUMBIA LUMBER SHIPMENT TO THE UNITED STATES Coast and Interior lumber shipments: to the U.S.A. /In the period 1947 through 1957 Interior sawmills have" shipped an increasing proportion of British Columbia lumber to the U.S.A. market. According to government statistics by 1957 the pro-portion of Coast to Interior shipments was approximately 60-40. However figures indicate that the Coast has expanded its volume of lumber shipments more than the Interior (Figure 19, Appendix A, Table 32). The data published by the British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association demonstrates the same general trend : but differs in the following details: ,1. records larger volumes of trade for both the Coast and the Interior. 2. The percentage of Coast to Interior exports in 1957 was nearly 50-50 with the Coast still shipping • slightly more lumber. 3. There has been a greater absolute increase in ship-ments from the Interior to the U.S.A. market (Appendix A, Table 32). These demonstrations of the increased importance of Interior activity are in part the result of the area's larger timber reserve. They also are attributable to the attitudes of the Coast and Interior wood processors. The Coast sav/mills consider lumber a third rate commodity, because it earns less per unit of resource consumed than can be realized from more highly processed pulp and paper and plywood products. Therefore, Coast wood industrial units are channeling as much timber as IGO possible into the manufacture of these goods. By doing this they are partially restricting their sale of lumber.18 In contrast the Interior industries, lacking the facilities for the extensive manufacture of plywood and pulp, have emphasized their lumber production and sales. In addition to these foregoing trends, it is evident that Interior lumber shipments to the United States have ex-panded steadily while Coast trade has experienced numerous short term fluctuations. The reasons for this are: 1. The Coast moves a larger percentage of its lumber, than the Interior, to the Atlantic Ports market which is constantly varying in size. 20 The Interior, relative to the Coast, ships a greater proportion of its exports to the steadily expanding Interior U.S.A. market. The importance of each U.S.A. market to British Columbia lumber shipments. Examination of the distribution of British Columbia lumber to the U.S.A. is made more understandable by the market classification present in Dominion Bureau of Statistics' data. However, this classification has major short-comings in that it does not define exactly what is meant by the designations Pacific Ports, -Atlantic Ports,.and Interior (other areas), nor does it indicate which portion within these areas have the major markets. In as far as it has been possible the extent of these -markets has been determined. - 18 Statement by Mr. Steel, Canadian'Sales Department, MacMillan Bloediel arid: PowellVRf^ervBtd. -Vahcauver J.3September-aj§60 interview. Figure 22B TOTAL REPORTED SHIPMENTS TO THE- U.S. A. MARKET (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Col-umbiapt. 2j sec. 2 to the Forest Industries Series {Victoria, . C.: n.n., 1955)f ppT~41-4677MImeographed.) • Supplement No. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbra (1957). tables orT^Sawn Liamber and Ties". ( f!A i m eo ^  ra f W e<£.) (b) British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association, 57th Annual Report 1957 (Vancouver. 1958). p. 14. TOTAL REPORTED SHIPMENTS TO THE U.S.A. M A R K E T ( m i l l i o n b d f t . ) C o a s t a I M i l l s s o u r c e D. B; S. - - - Co a s t a I M i l Is s o u r c e B. C . L . M- A . — — •• I n t e r i o r M i l l s s o u r c e D . B . S . I n t e r i o r M i l l s s o u r c e B. C. L M. A . — • — • 119 Shipments to Pacific Ports move either by water or rail directly to West Coast ocean ports, after which they may he redistributed to hinterlands. In the case of Pacific Ports the hinterlands probably largely are restricted to the states in which the ports are located, i.e., Washington, Oregon, and California. The major Pacific Ports markets for British Columbia lumber are located in Washington and Oregon rather than in the lumber deficient areas of Southern California. The Coast supplies the wood using industries .of the Pacific Northwest with clear lumber which is not available in sufficient supply within the states of the region. British Columbia exports to Southern California are small, because this market is supplied domestically from Washington and Oregon and northern California19 The Atlant ic Ports, which are ocean ports along the 20 Atlantic Coast ,receive mainly water-borne lumber trade. Therefore, the major port markets and their hinterlands occur within the New England States, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and .Florida.. Virginia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Georgia have been excluded because they lack harbour facilities adequate for the docking of large ocean vessels*^ 19 Annan, personal interview, 20 Statement by employee, Dominion Bureau of Stat istics, Vancouver, April I960, telephone interview. 21 Annan, personal interview. 120 However, there 1s a small volume of rail shipments going to Atlantic Ports, so there may he limited movement of lumber to ports in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia which do not receive water-borne shipments. The Atlantic Ports markets in order of decreasing importance are:New York, the Delaware River area, New England excluding Boston, Boston, and .Florida. Important exports to Florida began in about 1954.22 Trade with Interior areas moves by rail to any location which is not an ocean port on the Atlantic or Pacific Oceans. This means, particularly for the East Coast, that shipments designated as Interior move at least into the hinterland fringes of the port markets. It is interesting to note that no water-borne trade has as yet occurred with Gulf Ports.25 This sit-uation indicates the demand for British Columbia lumber has been too small to warrant a full ocean freight shipment. It has been suggested, by individuals associated with the provincial forest industry, that the major portion of exports to the U.S.A. Interior move to the population and manufacturing concentrations of the Manufacturing Belt with particularly heavy sales centered in the Chicago and Lower Great Lakes area. Others have suggested that the main volume of rail shipments go to Atlantic seaboard states. The former seems the most reasonable suggestion because only a small percentage of the movement to these ports were rail shipments, and since the ports and their immediate metropolitan areas are the major markets of the coast states. After the 22 Annan, p;©»sonal interview. 23 Annan, personal interview. 121 Chicago-Lower Great Lakes area, the Southeast, and the West, OA. respectively, are the main Interior markets. On the basis of this market classification we see that the major recipient of provincial exports, for the eleven year period, was the Interior (67.9 per cent of U.S. trade), followed by the Atlantic Ports (29.2 per cent) and the Pacific Ports (2.9 per cent) Figure 20 and (Appendix A Table 32). Similarly, the greatest increase in volumes of shipments were respectively to the Interior, the Atlantic Ports, and the Pacific Ports. The basic reasons for these distributions can be explained in terms of:(1) resistance to movement as the result of spatial separation, (2) size of markets, and (3) availability of alternate sources of lumber supply. An evaluation of these factors can only be considered a generalization, since, as has been noted, it was not possible to obtain a precise delimitation of the U.S.A. market areas. The pacific Ports area, smallest of the U.S.A. lumber markets for provincial lumber, is the market closest to British Columbia's manufacturing sites. This proximity, relative to other parts of America, encourages the movement of lumber into the region, because the freight charges are lower. However, this advantage is overbalanced by other factors 1 24 Annan, personal interview. 1. Nearly all of the demand for lumber is supplied locally to the Pacific Ports and their hinter-lands because they are located in or immediately adjacent to the U.S.A. forest area with the largest lumber production and timber reserves. 2. The Pacific Ports market have a much smaller population, and therefore a smaller need1for lumber than either the Interior or the Atlantic Ports (Table 8). The importance of the Interior market is mainly due to the large population (about per cent of the American total) which gives it the greatest market potential of the three consuming areas. The relative size of the market may actually be larger than suggested by this population distri-bution, because some Interior U.S.A. lumber shipments have moved into Ports markets and it is unlikely that Ports shipments have moved to the Interior markets. The Interior has the additional advantage over the Atlantic Ports of being closer to the British Columbia production source. Neither of these two markets has a relatively smaller demand for provincial lumber because of access to alternate sources of supply since both areas can be reached with nearly equal facility from Eastern Canada and the Southern Pine Forest. . The Atlantic Ports' rank of second U.S. market area for British Columbia exports can be explained as follows 1. The Atlantic Ports by virtue of their population (38.4 per cent of the U.S. population) have the second market potential of the three consuming areas. 2. Belative to the more Important Interior market, the Atlantic Ports are further removed from ,British Columbia so that the resistance to the movement of lumber for rail shipments is greater, because of the freight charges being greater. 122A Figure 20 PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL REPORTED SHIPMENTS TO: THE U.S.A. - BY. MARKET AREA FROM B.C. (a). British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in BrItlsh Columbia, pt. 2, sec. 2 to the Forest-Industries Series~TVictoria, B.C. : n.n. 5 1955), pp7~4l-46. (MimeoiraphedTr Supplement No:. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry In grj-jis"ColumbiiTI7TT tables,on "Sawn Lumber and Ties." (Mim eog ra p^i ei.) P E R C E N T A G E OF T O T A L R E P O R T E D S H I P M E N T S TO T H E U.S.A. BY M A R K E T A R E A F R O M B.C. 123 TABLE 9 POPULATION DISTRIBUTION OF THE U.S.A 1957 Area Number ( in ooo's) Percentage Pacific Coast Interior^ (a) 18,412 83,545 65,133 10.8, Atlantic Coast (c) 49.8 38.4 Total 170,333 100.0 (a) Washington, Oregon, California. (b) Those not included in a and c. (c) Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusettes, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New'Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Washington D.C., Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Florida. (a) United States, Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States 1958,(79th ed., Washington D.C.t gTP.O., 1958j,Cp. 10. v / 124 In addition to the foregoing distribution of ship-ments , it is important to note that trade with the Atlantic Ports has fluctuated markedly, while exports to the Interior generally expanded with the only reversal of this trend associated with the pronounced reduction in dwelling unit starts and business recession of 1956 and 1957. The maxima and minima in exports to the Atlantic Ports were probably associated with variable levels of residential housing con-struction in the small area comprised mainly of the metro-politan conurbations between Boston and Baltimore. The stability of the Interior market may be in large part attri-buted to Its wide areal extent. In contrast to the Atlantic Ports, area, the dispersal of consumers within the larger, area of the Interior market prevents a marked short term low or high level of construction activity in a limited area from having as great an influence on the total volume of received shipments. ' The importance of each U.S.A. market area to Coast and Interior lumber shipments. The order in which the American markets receive shipments from Soast and Interior . .points of origin is the same as the order for the distri-bution of total provincial shipments, i.e. Interior, Atlantic Ports, and Pacific Ports. However, the percent-ages and volumes of Coast and Interior shipments to these markets are different(Figure 21 and 22/Appendix A, Table 34). A smaller percentage and volume of Interior shipments than Coast shipments have gone to the Pacific Ports due to the 125 market demand for clear lumber and the advantages in both rail and water-borne transportation which are available to southwestern Coast producers. The Coast sawmills are better able to supply the clear lumber requirements, because approx-imately 15 per cent of Coast shipments to the U.S.A. as against only five, per cent of Interior shipments are clears.2^ Coast producers have an advantage in rail freight costs, because connections from, Vancouver, via the Great Northern Railways, provide a shorter route to the Pacific Ports than is available from the Interior. Also Coast producers have the advantage of cheap water transportation in moving lumber south along the coast as indicated by the fact that in more than half of the eleven years over 50 per cent of the Coast trade was water-borne (Appendix A, Table 35). A substantially greater percentage and volume of Coast shipments have gone to the U.S.A. Atlantic Ports market because Coast savmiills are located to take advantage of water transport which is cheaper than long distance rail movement.2^ The relative cheapness is demonstrated by the fact that in most years from 1947 through 1957 more than 90 per cent of Coast' exports moved by the Panama Canal route (Appendix A, Table 35). 25 Annan, personal Interview. •'••'. 26 Statement by Robert Edgett, Assistant Sales Manager., Seaboard Shipping Co.LtdVancouver, August I960, personal -Interview.. 126A Figure 20 B.C. LUMBER SHIPMENTS TO U.S.A. MARKETS; PERCENTAGE FROM COAST AND INTERIOR (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economies and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in Britlsh Columbia, pt...' 2, sec. 2 to the For est Indus trIes SerieFTviGtoriarB.C. n.n. 1,955) 5 pp. 41-46 (Mimeographed.); Supplement No. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British C195^T, tables on "Sawn Lumber and Ties."(IVY; WVEOCJ ^ B.C. L U M B E R S H I P M E N T S TO U.S.A. M A R K E T S : P E R C E N T A G E FROM C O A S T A N D I N T E R I O R Pacific Ports 10 0 % 5 0 % 0 % -J. - J— 1 _L. 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Interior I 0 0 % 5 0 % 0 % 1 T 1 : : r _1 i _l : I __!_ _1_ 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 f956 1957 Atlantic Ports oo % 5 0 % 0 % -I i L L. 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 l'954 1955 1956 1957 Coast L Interior 127A Figure 20 REPORTED SHIPMENTS TO U.S.A. MARKETS Eleven Year Average (1947-1957) Origin Coastal Mills (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, St&tlstlcal Record, of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia, pt. 2, sec. 2 t o t he Forest ^ Indust rIe s S er i e s (Victoria, B . C . n . n . 1955), pp.. 41*^46. (Mimeographed,) t Supplement NO. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbla~Tl9^7), tables on "Sawn Lumber and Ties." { M"> <r> eoq ra.91< e.<A •) R E P O R T E D SHIPMENTS TO U . S . A . M A R K E T S E L E V E N YEAR A V E R A G E (1947-1957) ORIGIN C O A S T A L MILLS s O n e b l o c k e q u o l s 2 m i l l i o n b d . f t . o f l u m b e r Figure 22B 'REPORTED SHIPMENTS TO U.S. A. MARKETS Eleven Year Average (1947-1957) Origin Interior Mills Ca) British -Columbia., Bureau"of Economics and Statistics, ' Statistical Record of the lumber Industry In British Columbia, pt. 2, sec. 2 to the Forest Industries Series TYlctorlaj B.C. : n.n. 1955) 3 p p ( M l m e o g r a p h e d 3 ' ; Supplement No. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia^. 1957) 3 tables on ."Sawn Lumber and Ties". (M^e^raphei ) R E P O R T E D SHIPMENTS TO U . S . A . M A R K E T S E L E V E N YEAR A V E R A G E (1947-1957) ORIGIN INTER IOR MILLS O n e b l o c k e q u a l s ~ 2 m i l l i o n b d . f t . o f l u m b e r I n t e r i o r P a c i f i c P o r t s 2 0 0 4 0 0 mi le s 1 128 It should be pointed out that all of the Coast water-borne :lumber shipments to the Atlantic Ports are common lumber and most of it is green. Since 95 per cent of clears exported from the Coast,to the U.S.A. are kiln-dried, they are moved by rail to minimize absorption of moisture and 27 reduce breakage. The' Interior U.S.A. received 96.4 per cent of the Interior provincial lumber trade with the American market and only 56.7 per cent of the Coast trade (Appendix A, Table 34). This difference in distribution indicates the relative cheapness with which Interior producers ship lumber to the Interior market because the rail distances are less. Although most British Columbia Coast shipments normally go to the U.S.A. Interior, in 1950, 1953, and 1954 the Atlantic Ports became the major market probably owing to pronounced local maximums in residential construction (Appendix A, Table 34). The least volume of Coast shipments have always been to the Pacific Ports, while the Interior : U.S.A. market has invariably been the largest recipient of Interior sawmills exports. However, the Pacific ports, which are normally the consumers of the least Interior British Columbia lumber, were the second market in 1952 and 1957 rather than the Atlantic Ports. Since the volume of Interior shipments to these two areas is small, minor variations in construction may have caused these shifts. : 27 Annan, personal interview. 129 The importance of .Coast and Interior lumber shipments to each U.S.A. market: The lumber shipments from the Coast and Interior sawmills to Pacific Ports were so small and fluctuated so markedly that definite trends are difficult to establish and correlate with broader market changes. In recent years the Interior has been the origin of a generally greater portion of the total British Columbia shipments to the Pacific Ports, (Appendix A, Table 35). However, it should be re-emphasized that the Coast with its transportation advantages remains the major supplier of this U.S.A. market. Perhaps the increase in shipments from the Interior was simply the result of the areas more rapidly expanding lumber production and thereby, its more • rapidly expanding ability to supply growing consumer need. The pattern of Coast and Interior shipments to the Interior U.S.A. market are essentially the same as the pattern of total Coast and Interior shipments to the UiS.A. Thus with the steady increase of B.C. Interior trade to a peak in 1957, while Coast export have fluctuated, the former source has provided an increasing proportion of these shipments (Appendix A, Table 36. By 1957 the Interior sawmills had become the larger exporter to the Interior U.S.A.market. The expansion of Interior movement, as previously suggested, is related to: (l) the size of its forest reserves, (2) differences in trans-portation costs, and (3) an emphasis on the sale of lumber. In view of these factors the Interior source may continue to pro-vide an increasing percentage of British Columbia lumber ship-ments to the Interior U.S.A. 130 There has been a tendency, which was particularly marked in 1955 and 1956, for British Columbia Interior shipments to supply an increasing but still minor percentage of the U.S.A. Atlantic Ports market(Appendix A, Table 36). Accompanying this has been a general expansion in volume of shipments from the Interior sawmills similar to increases noted for the other U.S.A. markets. However, the volume of exports are highly Variable and seem to have little correlation with overall market trends. As long as the Coast producers have the ad-vantage of cheap water transport to the Atlantic Ports, it seems unlikely that -they will relinquish any major portion of this market to Interior producers. 131 III* SUMMARY The United States is the largest foreign recipient of British Columbia lumber, because it is closer to the provincial source than any of the other major importers. Since its timber reserves continue to be insufficient to meet domestic require-ments for w6od, the United States will remain in this position. The volume of provincial exports to the U.S.A. is closely associated with requirements for building materials, because the main consumer of lumber is the construction industry. Demand for lumber has increased as yearly expansion in the number of dwelling unit starts has more than offset the decreased lumber requirements per dwelling unit. For the eleven year period the volume of Interior lumber movement to the U.S.A. expanded more than Coast movement so that by 1957 the Interior supplied nearly half of the provincial • shipments. The more rapid growth in Interior sales was due to; . (l) a greater increase in volume of lumber production permitted by larger accessible timber reserves, (2) a greater interest in expanding lumber sales, and (3) lower rail transport costs to many of the major U.S.A. markets. . The American markets in order of decreasing importance were, the Interior, the Atlantic Ports, and the Pacific Ports. The relative importance of these areas to British Columbia was dependent on their: ll). size of population, (2) distance from the province, and (3) access to alternate sources of domestic (The Southern Pine Forests and the Pacific Northwest) and 132 foreign (Quebec, the Atlantic. Provinces, and Mexico) supply. A greater majority of Interior shipments than Coast shipments • went to the Interior U.S.A. and, in addition, the Interior has hecome the larger supplier of the Interior market. These con-ditions were the result of the cheaper rail connections avail-able from this source. In contrast to the Interior, the Coast sold a larger proportion of its lumber to the Atlantic Ports, as well as having been the major; exporter to the Pacific and Atlantic Ports. These positions were held largely due to the availability of cheap water transport routes between the source and the two markets. -CHAPTER VI THE CANADIAN.MARKET The importance of" the proximity of consuming areas he-'comes strongly evident in the examination of the Canadian market, because the nation Is the:largest recipient of-British Columbia lumber and the province is of first importance within this domestic unit. The volume of lumber consigned to the latter market despite the fact that its population is small by North American standards clearly indicates that the ready availability of a resource encourages its use beyond an extent which is— economically feasible in less richly endowed areas. 134 I. CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE VOLUME AND DISTRIBUTION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA LUMBER SHIPMENTS Several factors have operated to produce the trends in British Columbia lumber shipments from 1947 through 1957. Some of these including construction* inflation, government policy, and the alternate areas of domestic lumber supply will be ex-amined as a general background to the domestic trade. Con-sideration Of distance, population, and per capita production of lumber will be evaluated in the study of the individual source areas'and provincial markets. Construction. In Canada, as in the United States, be-cause the major use of lumber is in construction, fluctuation in shipments generally correspond to variations in dwelling unit starts (Appendix A, Table 37)* The line graph in Figure 23 plotting annual totals of dwelling unit starts against volumes of lumber shipments, while showing this generally con-stant relationship, notes anomalous plots in 1950 and 1956-1957. The 1956-1957 anomaly may have occurred, as previously suggested for the U.S. market, for the following reasons5 (l) the anticipated demand for lumber was greater than the actual demand; and (2) wholesale businesses were building their lumber inventories. The 1950 anomaly indicates that factors other than Canadian construction influence the volume of domestic lumber shipments from British Columbia. In this year the excessively large volume of exports to the U.S.A. Atlantic Ports to meet needs for building, absorbed shipments which normally would have gone to the domestic construction market. This created the unusual situation in which a maximum demand-within the; Canadian construction industry occurred In the same year that the volume of lumber supplied from -British Columbia was at a minimum,, Alternative areas of domestic lumber supply. On the basis of the absolute and per capita size of its timber re-serves, British Columbia has the greatest physical capacity for expanding domestic lumber shipments (Appendix A, Table 38). Large volumes of reserves are also found in Ontario, Alberta,, Quebec, and the Atlantic Provinces. : However, the per capita reserves of Alberta dnd the Atlantic Provinces indicate they, are in a better position to meet future internal requirements and to export, these reserves, as manufactured products,,: to other areaso A comparison of the percentages of sav/n timber reserves possessed by each province with their present softwood lumber production further indicates where British Columbia sawmills may experience increased competition (Appendix A, Table 3,9). British Columbia, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan are manufacturing lumber roughly in proportion to their reserves of' timber. One would not expect a relative increase in competition from Quebec and, to a lesser extent, from the Atlantic Provinces, because they are producing more than their share of lumber compared to the reserves which they possess. The Territories are under-producing; yet, even if they produced lumber in proportion Figure' 23 DWELLING UNIT STARTS IN CANADA vs LUMBER SHIPMENTS FROM B.C. (a) Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Economic .Research Depar tment, Ho us ing' in Canada (Ottawa: C.M.H.C,, January 1949), p. 28; Economic Research,Department, Canadian Housing Statistics, Quarter 4, 1955 (Ottawa: C.If.H.C., March 19^J~p. 8"; Quarter 2, 1958 (September 1958), p. 8. (b) British Columbia, Bureau of Economies and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Col-mnbia, pt. 2, sec. 2 of the Forest Industries Series (Victoria, B.C.: n.n. 1955),^pp7^41^4S7~^Mimeographed.) Supplement No. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia (1957) tables on "Shipments of Sawn Lumber and Ties". (Mi^ r^apKeA.') DWELLING UNIT STARTS IN CANADA v s L U M B E R SHIPMENTS FROM B.C. " i . . 1 ! + l3Sb + 19 5 7 i ^ i . S 'X s s / / / y s 1947 + ^ . y s + I9SM / + 195-i + I9S-1 ^  -z' ' + 1950 60 8 0 100 120 1 4 0 160 DWELLING UNIT S T A R T S IN T H O U S A N D S 137 to their reserves, the absolute increase would he too small to be significant within the national market. Apparently Ontario is also underproducing. The lumber output for Eastern Canada probably underestimates the relative drain on timber, because there is extensive extraction for conversion to pulp. Conversely, the relative drain on timber reserves- for the provinces of Western Canada is probably overestimated, because they produce proportionately less pulp. Alberta, as the result of relative underproduction and large reserves, may be expected to expand its sawmilling rapidly to provide large additional volumes of lumber. With an expansion of lumber output Alberta can compete with the British Columbia sawmills, because proximity to Prairie markets should make it possible for Alberta to meet or even undercut British Columbia prices. Alberta, due to the nature of her timber/resources, will supply grades of common lumber similar to those shipped by Interior British Columbia. : To evaluate recent trends in domestic competition, the movement of lumber from each provincial source has been estab-lished as accurately as the incomplete data will allow (Appendix A, Table 40). The distribution of these shipments demonstrate the two following relationships: 1. Lumber produced within each province is the major source of competition to lumber entering the areas from outside. 2. In most cases each province is the major supplier of its lumber requirements. 138 Manitoba and Saskatchewan have been exceptions to this latter generalization, because the quality and small size of their limber reserves have allowed insufficient lumber production to fulfill the majority of their consumer needs. Most.:,of the timber in these two provinces is immature and while acceptable for pulping, it is unsuitable for lumber manufacturing. Fire and heavy lumbering operations during the two World Wars have depleted the mature timber reserves."'" The extent to which the remainder of the provinces supply their markets falls into three categories: 1. Accessibility to large mature timber resources permit the Atlantic Provinces and Quebec to ' supply better than .80 per cent of their lumber shipments. For the Atlantic Provinces this situation is likely to continue because of the previously mentioned large per capita reserves of timber in the area. Since Quebec has small per cap-ita reserves, the tendency for an increasing per-centage of lumber to be supplied from outside the province (1947-1957) may continue. 2. Ontario and Alberta have provided approximately 60 per cent of their lumber requirements. In view of the emphasis placed on pulp production for the United States market, Ontario will probably supply a decreasing percentage of Its lumber re-quirements. Alberta, as suggested, may supply an increasing portion of its lumber, requirements be-cause of relatively large timber reserves. 3'. British Columbia, because of Its large reserves, has filled essentially all of the province's softwood lumber needs. 1 Saskatchewan, Department of Natural Resources, Conservation Information Service, Forest Resources in Saskat-chewan, by D.F. Symington, Conservation Bulletin No. 8 iRegina Saskatchewan: Queen's Printer, n.d.), p. 9.. 139 Statistics showing balance of trade indicate which provinces are net markets and which are net suppliers of lumber (Table 9). These figures are.assumed to represent most of the lumber trade of any one province, since Canada imports very little softwood lumber. Positive net balances of trade have existed for British Columbia, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Alberta, and Quebec. It should be noted that in 1947 Alberta was a net importer, but in the two subsequent years cited (1952 and 1957) the province's lumber industry had expanded sufficiently to reverse this balance of trade. The importers include areas of small per capita reserves, i.e., Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Prince Edward Island. Ontario, with larger per capita timber reserves, than Quebec, is the major net im-porter and Quebec a net exporter, because Quebec has a larger accessible mature saw timber resource. Finally, it is necessary to note the Canadian markets in which the surplus lumber areas compete with British Columbia sawmills. In the Prairie Provinces the provinces of Eastern Canada have never provided more than 2 per cent of the lumber Shipments. Alberta is the major competitor with British Columbia for the resource deficient areas of the Prairies. In Eastern Canada British Columbia's major competition come from Quebec which is the second largest surplus lumber producer in Canada. This province, because of this surplus and proximity to the market, is the major Eastern lumber shipper to Ontario. 140 TABLE 9 BALANCE'OF SOFTWOOD LUMBER SHIPMENTS FOR THE CANADIAN PROVINCES ; 1947 - 1957 (in M. bd.ft.) 1947 Province ;; 1 Exports Imports Balance P.E.I.(a) , , 0 1,253 - 1,253 Nova Scotia / } 47,662 7,378 + 40,284 New Brunswick > 53,920 • 17,593 + 36,327 Quebec 233,582 82,598 + 150,984 Ontario t \ 138,837 239,111 - 100,274 Manitoba ( s . 20,322 103,749' - 83,427 Saskatchewan 16,829 90,-628 - 73,799 AlbertaU; , , 61,178 82,001 _ 20,823 British Columbiav J 1,720,501 : 627 +1,719,874 1952 P.E.I. -251 379 _ 128 Nova Scotia 22,149 . 4,524 + 1 7 * 6 2 5 New Brunswick 60,267 11,504 + 48,763 Quebec 197,184 76,669 +120,515 Ontario 117,291 233,192 - 115,901 Manitoba , 16,3-51 88,518 - 72,167 Saskatchewan 19,664 91,812 - 72,148 Alberta 119,935 93,855 + 26,080 British Columbia 2,259,377 • 175 +2,259,202 1957 P.E.I. 124 479 - 355 Nova Scotia 25,995 6,005 19,99.0 New Brunswick 65,454 11,-380 + 54,074 :Qu§Bec • • . 179,387 91,448 + 87,939 Ontario 84,017 300,413 -216,396 .Manitoba 13,450 76,317- - 62,867 •Saskatchewan 1,761 78,081 - 76,320 Alberta 104,524 92,732 + 2 6 , 4 4 3 British Columbia ' 2,170,334 • +2,170,334 (a) Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Shipments and Stocks on Hand of Sawmills East of the Rockies, vol. 2 \0ttawa: King's Printer, January-December 1947), tabTes on "Lumber Shipped by Reporting TABLE 9 - CONTINUED 141A Operators"; vol. 7 (Queen's Printer, January-December 1952), tables on "Lumber Shipped by Reporting Operators"; vol. 12, (January - December 1957), tables on "Lumber Shipped by Reporting Operators." r - • .(b) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia, pt. 2. sec. 2 of the Forest Industries Series (Victoria. B.C. • n.ri. 1955), pp. 41-4,6.. (Mimeographed.)] Supplement No.. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia. (1957), tables on "Shipments of Sawn Lumber and Ties" (Mimeo-graphed.) .. 141 New Brunswick and Nova Scotia move the major part of their inter-provincial lumber shipments to points within the Atlantic Prov-inces or to Quebec. Except in movement of lumber to P.E.I,f which is a lumber deficient afea, trade constitutes essentially an exchange of.products probably involving: * 1. Movement of different types of lumber between two areas. 2., Exchange across borders when this movement, be-cause of differences in distance, is more economical than exchange within a province. Other conditions: Any evaluation of short term trends in the Canadian lumber market must recognize the conditions which affect the volume of housing construction. An inflationary econ-omy is one situation which tends to restrict building activity, because construction costs and interest rates charged for finan-cing a mortgage tend to be high at these times. Thus in 1'9"51, con-current: with the initial economic inflation of the Korean War period, there was a pronounced decrease in Canadian housing con-struction. Government financial policy can also have some influence on construction. In 1957 the decrease in dwelling unit starts was partially due to the federal government's "tight money" 2 policy which caused high mortgage interest rates. The prospect for the long term lumber demand in Canada is a moderate rate of increase, because demand created by popular— tion growth is being more than offset by the decrease in the per . 3 capita consumption of lumber. 2 Forest Industrial Relations Limited, Brief firesented at ..Conciliation Hearings (Vancouver; May 1958), p. 93 . 3 R.W.WeJlwood, "The Requirements of the Forest-Based Industries", Transactions of the Tenth British Columbia Natural Resources Conference (Victoria B.C.: 19.57), p. 156. 142 II. THE TRENDS AND PATTERNS OE BRITISH COLUMBIA LUMBER SHIPMENTS TO THE CANADIAN MARKET Importance of provincial- markets explained by spatial separation and size of markets. The importance of'^ the in-dividual provincial markets as recipients of British Columbia's lumber shipments can partially be explained by: (l) spatial separation,. (2) size of population, (3) per capital production of lumber, and (4) alternate domestic sources of supply. Three of these factors are considered in•this section, and the fourth, the alternate domestic sources of supply has been considered in the previous section. Distance, i.e. the order of the provinces away from the British Columbia source, is cited in this study, since it is in rough proportion to the transportation costs involved in the movement of lumber.^ Precise units of cost „a.nd distance are hot used., because the centers of British Columbia Coast and Interior' production and the centers of the provincial markets cannot be accurately located. Time is not used because relatively small time differences in the shipment of lumber are unimportant sales factors. Predictions of lumber shipments based on distance agree only in part with the actual distribution of shipments (•Table 10). The demand for a commodity is in direct relationship to the size of the markets, other things being equal. Available . figures do not give the annual consumption of lumber on a pro-vincial basis which can serve as a direct indication of market .;, TABLE 10 ' PREDICTED VS ACTUAL ORDER OF TOTAL LUMBER SHIPMENT TO THE PROVINCES FR011 B.C. Actual British Columbia Ontario Alberta Manitoba Saskatchewan Quebec (a) Atlantic Provinces Territories Ontario Quebec Atlantic Provinces mi-zj&i FOR ALL OF CANADA Predicted by distance British Columbia Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba Ontario Quebec Atlantic Provinces Predicted by population Ontario Quebec Atlantic Provinces British Columbia Alberta -Saskatchewan Manitoba Territories FOR EASTERN CANADA Ontario Quebec Atlantic Provinces Ontario Quebec Atlantic Provinces Predicted by per capita production Manitoba Saskatchewan Ontario Quebec Alberta,' T J Territories '•. • Atlantic Provinces (b) Ontario Quebec Atlantic Provinces FOR WESTERS CANADA British Columbia Alberta Manitoba Saskatchewan British Columbia Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba British Columbia Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta (b) ; TABLE 10 - CONTINUED (a) The Atlantic Provinces are New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland. This grouping has • been made because shipments to the individual provinces are small and tend to fluctuate considerably from year to year. Therefore, the grouping gives a clearer impression- of the importance of the area, to British Columbia lumber producers. •(b) British Columbia, has been deleated, for it is both the producer with the lumber surplus and the market whose demand is being measured by provincial lumber production. (c) ' British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in-Br.itlsh Columbia, pt. 2, sec. 2 of the-Forest Industries SeriesTvictoria. B.C. i n.n. 1955)? pp. 41-46. (Mimeographed?; Supplement No. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbi-a. T W 3 7 J a b 1 es on~^h£pments of Sawn Lumber and Ties. ( |V\i iv\Soo ra p bed.) 145 demand,.. Therefore, two means of estimating the relative size of the provincial markets for British Columbia lumber have been cited and compared with the actual lumber shipments (Table 10). Both methods assume that the per capita consumption of lumber is approximately the same for all provinces. One method takes demand as directly proportional to the number of individuals In a provincial market. The other assumes* that the sizes of the provincial markets, for British Columbia sources of supply, vary Inversely with the ability of each area to supply its own lumber needs. The provincial per capita softwood lumber production is a measure of this ability.(Appendix A, Table 41). When considered together, the weaknesses, in each method are largely overcome. Popul-ation, figures do not take into account^ as does provincial per capita production, the extent to which an Individual's demand for external sources of lumber will be diminished by the ability of the home province to produce this commodity. Per capita production does not estimate variations in over-all demand resulting from the number of consumers in a market as does population. . The comparison of the actual order and predicted order In which lumber shipments are received from British Columbia clearly indicates that no single factor explains the distri-bution of lumber shipments. However, an interaction of factors appears partially to explain the trade, patterns in the following manner: 146 1. British Columbia. Resistance to movement is at a min-imum because production and consumption of lumber occur either in immediate or relatively close proximity. In the lower Mainland both the major provincial concen-tration of production and consumption occur within the same region; "Relative to other Western Canadian markets, British Columbia has the largest population to consume lumber products. For these reasons British Columbia is its Own best market.. " u 2. Ontario. Size of the Ontario population apparently is the factor of greatest importance in making Ontario a larger market than any of the individual provincial Prairie markets. The size of the markets are influenced more by this difference than by the lower per capita lumber production on the Prairies. Ontario is more important than any other segment of Eastern Canada be-cause of proximity to the lumber source and the size of market as influenced by both the size of population and the relative per capita ability to meet provincial lumber requirements. 3. Alberta. Proximity to the source area, resulting in low cost of transportation, appears to be the most important factor in the receipt of lumber shipments* 4. Manitoba. Relative to Quebec and the Atlantic Provinces., proximity and the inability on a per capita production basis to meet lumber demands offset the market effect of larger populations. Manitoba's lower per capita pro-duction is more important In creating a demand for lumber than Saskatchewan's larger population (30,625 greater in 1956) and shorter transportation distances. 5. Saskatchewan. Proximity to the British Columbia sawmills and low per capita lumber production places Saskatchewan ahead of the Atlantic Provinces and Quebec. 6. Quebec. ..This province is a relatively unimportant market because of long shipping distances and a relatively, high per capita lumber production. 7. Atlantic Provinces. Because they are the greatest distance from the source of production and have the highest Ganadian •.., per capita production after British Columbia, the Atlantic • Provinces have the least demand of the provincial markets. 8. Territories. The least important market for British . Columbia lumber are the Territories. Their very small population, only 4 per cent of the next largest market . area, is sufficient to account for this position. 147 When Eastern and Western Canada are examined separately the predicted and actual order in which shipments are received agree closely, because the individual factors of market size tend to rank provinces in the same order of potential import-ance (Table 10). The predictions for Western Canada do not always agree with the real condition. Contrary to two methods of forecasting, distance and population, Manitoba received more British Columbia lumber than Saskatchewan. Apparently, as previously suggested, this is due to Manitoba's lower per capita production of lumber. Trends in shipments to provincial. markets_.. Examination of volumes, and percentage distribution (Figure 24) of British Columbia lumber trade indicates a fairly consistant and large absolute increase of shipments to the markets of British Columbia (Appendix A, Table,42). This development has occurred with the pronounced growth of Interior lumber production which has supplied rapidly expanding local markets. The Volume of shipments to Eastern Canada excepting Ontario have generally been smaller during the last four or five years of. the eleven year period than they were in the first half of the period, 4 Possibly rail freight increases since April.1.948 have cut into •profits to the extent that this area is no longer viewed favourably as a market for most grades of lumber. Trade with Ontario has tended to increase reflecting the overall tendency 4 British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association, K.e.^ the Canadian Freight Bate Structure (Vancouver: January 17, 1958):, p. 3. (Mimeographed.). 147A Figure 20 PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL REPORTED 'SHIPMENTS TO CANADIAN MARKETS BY PROVINCE FROM B.C. • ' • (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia^ pt. 2, sec.: 2 of the- Fores't Industries .Seri^s~Tviet©ria, B.C. n.n. 1955) j pp. 41-46^ (Mimeographed^; Supplement. No. I to the Statistical Record, of the Lumber industry in British Columbia (19^7). tables on "Shipments of Sawn Lumber and Ties".. (Miweocj rapped.) I; P E R C E N T A G E OF T O T A L R E P O R T E D S H I P M E N T S T O CANADIAN MARKETS BY P R O V I N C E FROM B.C. 148 toward greater Canadian consumption of lumber. In Alberta and Saskatchewan the loss in Coast shipments has been approximately, equalled by the Increase in shipments from the Interior; there-fore, there has been little overall decrease in British Columbia lumber shipments . Shipments to Manitoba tended-to be lower in the second half of the period. This has occurred because the marked decline in Coast lumber movement, which was greater than that for the other Prairie Provinces, exceeded the ex-pansion of Interior trade. The data published by the British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association indicates approximately the same distribution, of trade as noted in the government data, i.e. 65.5 per cent to British Columbia, 18.0 per cent to Western Canada, 18.0 per cent to Eastern Canada (Appendix A, Table 42)These figures clearly establish the continuous and vblumetrieally large increase in lumber shipments moving to British Columbia markets. The other patterns noted from the governmental source are obscured by the market groupings of the B.C.L.M.A. figures. Differences in Coast and Interior marketing of lumber in. Canada. An understanding of distinctive Coast and Interior Sales practices and grades of lumber sold Is prerequisite to an analysis of the varying importance of the individual pro-vincial markets to these two sources. At the present time the major portion of Coast and Interior' shipments to the non-British Columbian domestic markets are respectively in clear 149 and common lumber. This difference of emphasis has been a post-World War II development which has occurred with the expansion of Interior lumber production and the decrease in the sizeable Coast common lumber market of the Prairie 5 Provinces. The Interior has captured the major portion of this common market, because significantly lower transportation costs have allowed it to sell the same grades of lumber as the Coast at a reduced price (Table 11). In. addition, this problem has been aggravated for the Coast producers by in-creases in lumber rail freight rates. For example, charges on 100 pounds of lumber moving from Vancouver to Winnipeg which were $0.56£ prior to April 8, 1948 had increased to $1.33 by January 1, 1957.; Hence, Coast producers.have de-cided to sell more of their common lumber in other markets which can provide a greater profit.'7 For British Columbia producers Eastern Canada has been mainly a market for clears, because this higher priced commodity can absorb the cost of long distance transportation and still provide a reasonable profit. The Coast sales In 5 Statement by Mr. Steel, Canadian Sales Department, MacMillan and Bloedel Ltd., Vancouver, August I960, personal interview. 6 British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association, Rate Structure, p. 3. 7 Steel, personal interview. To: From: Coast Vancouver Interior Kamloops Prince George TABLE 11 -RAILROAD FREIGHT BATES FOR LUMBER PER 100 POUNDS. : 1957 (minimum car loading 50,000 lbs.) Calgary Edmonton Regina Winnipeg Toronto $0.86 0.58 0.80 $0.91 0.69 0.62 $1.18 1.01 1.01 $1.33 1.18 1.18 $1.55 1.52 J i. 5o| Montreal $1.56^ 1.54-1-1.54-1 (a) Information obtained from the Canadian National Railways, Vancouver, September I960, personal interview. H o 151 this area have not been appreciably affected by Interior competition for two reasons: 1. Relative to Prairie markets, a smaller difference in freight rates between Coast and Interior pro-ducers does much to equalize the competitive position of the two areas (Table 11)8 2. The Coast is able to supply larger dimensions and the important need for a higher quality of lumber more easily than the Interior. For the last reason, the Coast has maintained many of its markets for clear lumber in the Prairie Provinces.9 In British Columbia., Coast producers sell all grades of lumber, to. the Immediate local markets. In these areas there Is no problem of Interior competition for the common lumber market, because the Interior is at a disadvantage due to freight costs. The generally large size of Coast sawmilling oper-ations and the small size of Interior operations has resulted in two distinct methods of lumber marketing. Coast manu-facturers sell their lumber directly to wholesale firms or to large commercial firms which in turn sell on the whole-sale market. This type of marketing is possible because a few of the largest companies have salesmen in the major cities of Canada where they can contact xtfholesale outlets or sell on a wholesale basis themselves. The larger producers, with this type of sales organization, are the commercial firms which buy and sell lumber. Which ever method is employed, the lumber is sold at a stated price.10 8 Steel, personal interview. 9 Steel, personal Interview. 10 Steel, personal interview., 152 The Interior operators because of their small size lack outlets capable of making wide contacts on the wholesale market. Therefore, much of the Interior lumber is consigned for sale to commission agents. For example, an agent might move fen rail cars, possibly originating at ten different locations, on consignment to the Winnipeg area. The price the agent receives: for a particular shipment depends on Immediate market conditions. Since the open lumber market is continuously fluctuating, the sales price may vary on a week to week basis as much as three or four dollars per 100 board 11 feet. Sometimes it is necessary to sell lumber being held in transit at a low price in order to avoid paying rent on the loaded rail cars. The exact sales price is not of major concern to. the agent, because his commission "is not sub-stantially affected by market fluctuations. The large Coast producers do not sell on this unstable type of market, be-cause they must be able to depend on a certain return before it is economically advantageous to dispose of .the lumber! Therefore, a Coast sawmill will often hold lumber in stock •jo until it can obtain a reasonable profit. A small Interior operator normally must sell his product quickly in order to meet immediate expenses of labour and operating overhead. The method of marketing Interior common lumber on the Prairies has made lumber sales unstable and., thereby, has contributed to the withdrawal of Coast competition. 11 Steel, personal Interview. 12 Steel, personal interview. 153 Dependability of delivery and the ability to supply a.variety of wood commodities are advantageous in certain marketing situations. The Coast firms have built a reputation for dependability based on prompt filling of accepted orders regardless of their size or changes in the market price of the lumber which may have occurred since the time the order was placed. In contrast. Interior sawmills are.considered unreliable, because occasional producers have given priority to orders which realize the largest profit and have allowed other orders to remain unfilled regardless of the sequence in which they were received. Such an emphasis on dependa-bility, which t.ends to channel economic contact to the Coast, might arise if a building contractor needed lumber by a certain date to be able to meet contract obligations. When acquisition of a variety of wood products, in-cluding lumber, is important, an order would probably be placed on the Coast. For example, a small outlet in Saskatchewan might annually require one or two carloads of wood products containing such commodities as fir and hemlock clear and common lumber , shingles, molding, and plywood. A,wholesaler can buy these goods from one of the large integrated manu-facturing units on the; Coast, but the Interior producers are,- at present, too small and too poorly organized to supply all of these needs. These differences in marketing practices and trans-portation costs for the Coast and the Interior have caused changes and specialization in spatial interaction between pro-vincial sawmills and their consumers. 154 Trends in Coast and Interior lumber shipments to the Canadian market. During the period 1947 through 1957 an increasing proportion of trade with the domestic market has come from the Interior (Appendix A, Table 43). By 1951, according to the statistics published by the British Columbia Manufacturers Association, the Interior was the major supplier of the Canadian market. From 1952 through 1957 ship-ments coming from the Coast and Interior remained at a nearly constant ration of 2:3 which is apparently a temporary, balance in the size of the Interior common lumber market and the Coast clear lumber market. However, domestic consumption increases, the Interior may provide a larger proportion of the lumber because of its ability to expand logging activities and production. The figures published by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics agree with B.C.L.M.A. information in trends but not the relative importance of Coast and Interior shipments. The discrepancies in the percentage values arise because the, government reported Interior shipments are far short of the actual movement Indicated by governmental estimates and B.C.L.M.A. data. Therefore, the indicated proportions are inaccurate. Government statistics confirm trends evident in the B.C.L.M.A. information but do not recognize the Interior as the more important supplier of.the domestic market. Examination of the volumes of lumber shipments in-dicates Coast trade has fluctuated without noting any con-sis tant changes in size, while a steady increase in shipments 155 has more than.doubled Interior trade Figure 27 and (Appendix A, Table 43). The theme of comparative stagnation in sales versus increasing sales demonstrates the partial inability and the reluctance of Coast producers to expand Canadian shipments a;s contrasted with the ability and desire of the Interior operators to expand sales;. Qrder of the shipment of lumber to individual pro-vincial markets from Coast and Interior sawmills.. (Figure 26^ There is nearly complete agreement between the order In which Coast and Interior lumber shipments move to provincia;! markets, and the previously examined order of lumber shipments from the whole of British Columbia (Table 12). However, in two instances the distribution of Coast trade differs from that of the Interior and the provincial total. 1. The Coast shipped, more lumber to Quebec than to the Prairie Provinces because Interior pro-ducers have taken, over a major portion of the Prairie common lumber market, but they have failed to make significant advances in the, Quebee clear lumber market. 2. Manitoba exchanged places with Alberta to become the third provincial market for the Coast. This difference^ as' compared to the order for Interior and total provincial shipments, arose because the Coast experienced less competition in Manitoba prior to the major expansion of Interior pro-duction, than In Alberta., The competition from . the Interior was greater in Alberta beeause it is closer to this source than to the Coast. 156a Figure 26B TOTAL REPORTED SHIPMENTS TO THE CANADIAN MARKET (a) British Columbia, Bureau ofEconomics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in'British Columbia pt. 2, see, 2 to the Forest Industries Series Tvlctoria, B.C. n.n., 1955) , pp. 41 -4^7~Wimeographed.)Supplement No. 1 £g^M-Sj.atlstical Record of the Lumber Industry in British 1 1957), tables on "Sawn Lumber and Ties".•CMimedgra.pheJL) (b) British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association, .57th Annual Report 195? (Vancouver; 1 Q^ ftK p. 14. TOTAL REPORTED SHIPMENTS TO THE CANADIAN MARKET (m il l i o n b d . f t . ) C o a s t a l M i l l s s o u re e D. B. S I n t e r i o r M i l l s s o u r c e D. B. S. C o a s t a l M i l l s s o u r c e B . C . L . M . A . I n t e r i o r M i l l s s o u r c e B . C . L . M . A . 15 00 I 4 0 0 i 3 0 0 I 20 0 10 0-10 0 0 9 0 0 86 0 7 0 0 60 0 5 0 0 4 0 0 3 0 0: 20 0 0 0 / / / / \ 9 4 7 9 4 8 1 9 4 9 9 5 0 1 9 5 1 9 5 2 19 5 3 19 5 4 9 5 5 9 5 6 19 5 7 157a Figure 26B \ REPORTED SHIPMENTS TO WESTERN CANADIAN MARKETS , Eleven Year Average.(1947-1957) Origin Coastal Mills-(a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, ££Migtic^_RecQi'd of the Lumber industry in British Columbia, pt. 2, sec.2 to the Forest Industries. Series (Victoria, B.C. n.n. , 1955) s PP.. 41-45T~Tlimeo.graphed.) ; Supplement No. 1 to lagJIjat, 1st leal Record of the Lumber Industry In British ~ £SlSSbia C1957T7 tables on "Sawn Lumber and Iies,1.(NWo3raPv1e<U : R E P O R T E D SHIPMENTS T O W E S T E R N CANADIAN MARKETS ELEVEN YEAR AVERAGE ( I947" I957) ORIGIN COASTAL MILLS O n e b l o c k e q u a l s 2 m i l l i o n b d . f t . o f l u m b e r "f A l b e r t a I Saskatchewan I Manitoba \ 1 0 0 2 0 0 m i l e s 157a Figure 26B REPORTED SHIPMENTS TO EASTERN CANADIAN MARKETS Eleven Year Average (1947-1957) Origin Coastal Mills (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Sgay^tical Record of the Dumber Industry In British Columbia, pt. 2, sec. 2; of the -Forest Industries Ssrles~Tvicto.r la B.C.; n.n.: 1955), pp. 41-46. TM&ographecOT Supplement No. 1 to the.Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry In British Colmbia (1957), tables on "Shipments of Sawn Lumber and Ties". R E P O R T E D S H I P M E N T S T O E A S T E R N CANADIAN MARKETS E L E V E N YEAR A V E R A G E ( I 9 4 7 " I 9 5 7 ) ORIGIN C O A S T A L MILLS Ontar io O n e b l o c k e q u a l s 2 m i l l i o n b d . f t . o f l u m b e r 157a Figure 26B REPORTED SHIPMENTS TO WESTERN CANADIAN MARKETS Eleven Year Average (1947-1957) Origin Interior Mills (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the. Lumber Industry in British.Columbia, pt. 2, sec. 2 of the Forest Industries Series '(Victoria, B.C. n<n.1955) ? pp. 41-4-6 (Mimeographed#); Supplement No. 1 to the Stat1stleal Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia (1957). tables on "Shipments of Sawn Lumber and Ties". ( Mime.oCj ra jbViedu) / R E P O R T E D SHIPMENTS T O W E S T E R N CANADIAN MARKETS E L E V E N YEAR A V E R A G E ( I 9 4 7 " I 9 5 7 ) L ORIGIN INTER IOR MILLS O n e b l o c k e q u a l s 2 m i l l i o n b d . f t . o f l u m b e r Alberta M a n i t o b a I S a s k a t c h e w a n ! i 1 0 0 2 0 0 m i le s 157a Figure 26B REPORTED SHIPMENTS TO EASTERN CANADIAN MARKETS Eleven Year Average (1947-1957) Origin Interior Mills (a) BTltisk Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber.Industry In British Columbia, see. 2 of the Forest Industries Series (Victoria, B.C.; h.n. 1955)5 PP« 41-46 (MimeographedTT; Supplement No. 1 to the statistical Record of the Lumber Industry In British Columbia (1957), tables on "Shipments, of Sawn Lumber and Ties". R E P O R T E D S H I P M E N T S TO E A S T E R N CANADIAN MARKETS E L E V E N YEAR A V E R A G E (1947-1957) ORIGIN INTERIOR M ILLS / 1 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 m i l e s 2107 . TABLE 12 ORDER OF LIMBER SHIPMENTS TO THE PROVINCES FROM THE COAST: AND .INTERIOR : From Coast British Columbia Ontario Quebec v Manitoba Alberta Saskatchewan Atlantic. Provinces Territories From Interior British Columbia Ontario Alberta Manitoba Saskatchewan Quebec Atlantic Provinces Territories From Province British Co 1 umb I a. Ontario Alberta Manitoba Saskatchewan Quebec Atlantic Provinces Territories (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia pt. 2, sec. 2 of the Forest Industries Series (Victoria,B.C.; n.n. 1955), pp. 4-1 - 46~TM im e o g r aphedJJ~S up pi em ent No. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia. :Xl957) taH^son~71SMpments of Sawn Lumber and Ties" (Mimeographed). 160 FIGTLRG 27 B.C. LUMBER SHIPMENTS TO CANADIAN MARKETS; PERCENTAGE FROM COAST AND INTERIOR B.C. L U M B E R S H I P M E N T S T O CANADIAN MARKETS: P E R C E N T A G E F R O M C O A S T A N D I N T E R I O R B . C . I 0 0 % 5 0 % 0 % 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 10 0 % 5 0 % 0 % 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1 0 0 % 5 0 % 0 % 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 I 0 0 % 5 0 % 0 % 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 A l b e r t a 1 1 r--I 1 I I 1 1 I __!_ Saskatchewan 1 1 1 1 1 r Figure 27 - Continued 160a (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia, Pt. 2, sec. 2 of the Forest Industries Series. (Victoria, . B.C.: n.n., 1955), pp7~4l^4£T (Mimeographed.); Supplement Ho. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in~ British Columbia (19'57) ."TaETes~on~TrShiprnfintc; ZT~Sa.\m Lumber and Ties". (Mimeographed.) Ontar io I 0 07.- r i i 5 0% 0 % 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Quebec 00% 5 0 % 0 % i i -J L. 1 I I 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 A t l a n t i c Provinces I 0 0 % 5 0% 0 % -I _L -I ; l_ -1— 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 T e r r i t o r i e s 10 0% 5 0 % -i r r I N/A 0% ' 1 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1352 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 C 0 a St I n t e r i o r 159a The importance of the individual provincial markets to,Coast and Interior lumber producers. Both Dominion Bureau of Statistics and British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Assoc-iation data show that a large and increasing proportion of Coast and Interior lumber shipments have moved to the British Columbia market (Appendix A, Table 44). The importance of this area, as has been suggested, results from its proximity to sources of production. The market's growing significance to Co ast producers results from the decrease in the volume of trade with the rest of Canada which has occurred at the same time as.an expansion in British Columbia trade. The increasing importance of the local market for Interior shipments has : developed because movement to British Columbia has expanded more rapidly than trade with other areas as a result of the following: 1. The population Of British Columbia has grown at a faster rate than in any other province of Canada. Therefore, it is probable that the consumer demand for lumber has increased at a greater rate. 2. The Interior has supplied most of this greater demand because its production has advanced a;t a faster rate than that of the Coast. According to B.C.L.M.A. figures, the Prairie Provinces consume only 11„3 per cent of the Coast shipments to the Canadian market as compared with 23.5 per cent of Interior shipments. The volume of movement from the Coast has de-creased while Interior transport of lumber has expanded. Coast shipments to the Prairie market have declined in im-portance relative to the total Coast domestic trade:. The increase in Interior trade with the Prairies has not kept pace with the overall expansion of Interior domestic shipments; therefore, a decreasing percentage of movement has gone to this area. Examination of l.B.S. data confirms the decline in relative importance of the Prairie markets to both the Coast and Interior sawmills (Appendix A, Table 44). There has also been a decrease in the relative importance of both Coast and Interior lumber trade with Eastern Canada. At the same time the Interior shipments have increased in volume and the Co&st shipments have decreased slightly. (B.C.L.M.A., Appendix A, Table 44). Examination of D.B.S. figures indicates that Coast shipments to Quebec and the Atlantic Province, be-cause of the ability of higher quality lumber to absorb trans-portation costs, were of greater relative and absolute importance than Interior shipments (Appendix A, Table 44). ; The Quebec and Atlantic Provinces have received respectively 1«8 per cent and per cent of the Interior and 5.0 per. cent and 1.5 per cent of the Coast lumber movement to the domestic.market, ^everthe-le ss, the volume of Coast Shipments to both areas declined and interior shipments to Quebec, though apparently not to the Atlantic Provinces, expanded. The absolute decrease in Coast trade resulted from increased Interior competition and Coast marketing of lumber on more favourable markets. The importance of Coast and Interior lumber shipments to •the provincial markets. From the B.C.L.M.A. figures/ it is1 seen that the Interior has become the major supplier of the British Columbia market (Appendix A, Table 45). A trend to-ward this distribution is indicated by the less complete D.B.S. statistics (Appendix A, Table 4.5)- Both sets of data show the Interior has shipped an increasing percentage of British Columbia lumber to the area. Also the figures point out that the Interior was the major supplier of the Prairie Provinces and has supplied an increased percentage of shipments to Eastern Canada. The B.C.L.M.A. data indicates from 1952 through 1957 that the Interior supplied a greater volume Of shipments to this area from 1952 through 1957 than was supplied by the Coast. D.B.S. information suggests this was accounted for solely by a larger volume of Interior trade with Ontario because the' Coast is cited as origin for 81.9 per cent and 95.4 per cent, respectively of Quebec and Atlantic Provinces lumber shipments. Even though the government statistics are incomplete, it seems doubtful that they are so inaccurate as to change the position of the Coast as the major shipper to Quebec and the Maritimes. It seems possible that the relatively large volume of Coast shipments to the Atlantic Provinces, Quebec, and Ontario may occur because extensive use can be made of cheap water-borne transportation. However, this has not been the case since only 0.6 per cent of Ontario shipments, 5.3 per cent of Quebec shipments, and 8.6 per cent of Atlantic Province ship-ments from the Coast were so moved. (Appendix A, Table 46). A combination of several factors explains this situation: 1. As previously mentioned. Eastern Canada is primarily a clear lumber market for Coast producers. 2. Ocean freighters carry a.very large volume of lumber compared to that which can be carried in a railway freight car. If such a large volume of clear lumber were unloaded in any one Eastern Canadian city the ' market would be too small. 3. Most of the Coast clear lumber moving into the Canadian market is kiln dried; therefore, it is moved by rail to prevent the absorption of an un-desirable amount of moisture. 4. Clear lumber is moved by rail to minimize breakage. 5. Lumber cannot move to Eastern Canada by water during the^winter months, because ice conditions interrupt deliveries to most areas. Possibly with the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway, the volume of water-borne shipments to Eastern Canada will increase with the improved access to the major population concentrations of Ontario III. SUMMARY The significance of the proximity of markets to the source areas was demonstrated in this chapter by the facts that: (l) Canada was the largest national market for British Columbia lumber shipments, and (2) British Columbia was the largest provincial market. The relative importance of the provincial markets was also shown to depend on: (1) population, (2) per capita lumber production, and (3) access to alternate sources of supply. Evaluation of alternate sources of supply indicates that British Columbia, Alberta, and the Atlantic Provinces are, on the basis of their timber reserves, In the best position to expand lumber production.- Furthermore, it was shown that British Columbia's major competition for all provincial markets came from within the individual provinces, while extra-provincial Competition for the lumber deficient areas of Western and Eastern Canada was respectively from Alberta and Quebec. The size of the provincial markets for British Columbia lumber were in order of decreasing importance British Columbia, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Quebec, the Atlantic Provinces, and the Territories. This order, applied to the Interior as well as to the total provincial shipments but not to the Coast. This,in addition to differences in the volume and distribution of Coast and Interior shipments,was primarily the result of rail transport costs and marketing practices. Throughout the eleven year period British Columbia was the largest market for both the Coast and the Interior. The Interior has become the major supplier for the province as the increased demand for lumber has largely been met b y the ex-pansion of Interior production. In comparison to the Coast, the Interior moved a greater proportion of its Canadian lumber shipments to the Prairie Provinces and Ontario. Also, this source has increased its lead as the main supplier of the Prairies and has become the larger exporter to Ontario. The gain on; the Prairies was due to the Interior's sale of lumber on the open market and lower freight rates which have either forced out or prevented an increase in competition. The Interior has increased its shipments to Ontario because there was a demand for common lumber. However, Coast trade with this market has not decreased because this source has been able to retain its markets for high quality, structural and clear lumber which can absorb the long distance transportation costs and still earn a reasonable profit. For the latter reason and since there was little demand for common lumber, Quebec and the Atlantic Provinces were of relatively greater importance to the Coast. The most distinctive characteristic of the Canadian market has been the specialization in Interior common lumber shipments to the Prairie Provinces and Ontario and in Coast clear lumber shipments to Eastern Canada. CHAPTER VII SUMMARY This concluding chapter deals with the following topics (l) a summary of the important points made within the text of the study, (2) suggestions of possible future trends and patterns which relate to the topics examined, and (3) reference to problems which seem worthy of additional investigation. The probable future changes, which will be included as part of the summary remarks, are broad hypotheses made within the limits of information cited by this thesis. I. SUMMARY AND FUTURE TRENDS AND PATTERNS 1. In the period 1938 to 1951 secondary manufacturing-and industries of British Columbia became more important than primary industries. In this transition a prominent feature ' was the growth of the forest industries, and in particular, their major components lumber and pulp and paper production. Of these two activities the former had the largest absolute gain in net value of production, while the latter grew at the fastest rate. 2, From 1947 through 1957 the basic change within the forest segment of-the economy was the faster rate of expansion relative to sawmilling, of the plywood and pulp and paper industries. They processed the wood resource more intensively and thereby received a higher monetary return per unit of raw material consumed. The importance of more intensive processing was emphasized by a more pronounced decrease in the net lumber production relative to gross value of production, than occurred in the plywood and pulp and paper industries. Therefore, poten-tial profits from lumber became comparatively smaller. Never-theless, sawmilling noted the largest absolute increase among the forest industries in all items examined (number of employees net value of production and gross value of production). The tendency for a higher degree of processing will undoubtedly continue within primary forest manufacturing and may eventually extend into secondary manufacturing if markets for such products as furniture, veneers, and door and sash frames can be found. 3. A major expansion in the more intensive processing of wood occurred on the Coast where, .lumber is viewed as a commodity with less earning power than pulp and paper or plywood.. In contrast, the Interior,which is very interested in the manufacture of lumber, has limited facilities for the production of the more highly processed goods* Therefore, figures, if they were available, would undoubtedly indicate that sawmilling in both absolute and relative terms is far more important in the Interior, than on the Coast. This difference in emphasis on lumber will continue as long as lumber in its present form is made within the province, and may grow as Interior lumber ..production increases more rapidly and as the Coast changes more quickly to the processing of pulp and paper and manufacture of plywood. 4. A comparison of the lumber and the pulp and paper industries in Canada as a whole and in British Columbia indicates that the former activity is relatively more important to the economy of the province than of Canada. This difference arises because? A. Eastern Canada is in a position to supply pulp and paper to the largest population concentrations of North America. B. British Columbia, lacking comparable close pulp and paper markets, concentrated on the production of lumber which can be sold competitively to both major domestic and foreign markets. 5- Assuming a sustained yield program at the present rate of allowable annual cut the Coast forests are being.over-cut by approximately 50 per cent, while the Interior is being undercut by about 100 per cent. Therefore, to maintain the present level of logging., and thereby lumber production, there must be a redistribution of extraction. Failure of the. Coast to bring exploitation within natural growth limits could mean cessation of cutting and economic distress to many communities. •6. Since Crown control was insufficient to regulate excessive Coast extraction, the more rapid expansion of Interior lumber shipments, and thereby production,resulted from: A. Greater economic and physical accessibility of Interior timber reserves. B. Restraint in the volume of Coast exploitation by private companies due to the cognizance of the limited nature of Coast reserves and a desire to guarantee future sources of timber. C. The emphasis in the Interior on lumber production, ; and the contrasting desire of Coast enterprises to channel an increasing proportion of their wood resources Into the manufacture of more highly processed commodities. 7. At a full level of exploitation approximately one-third of provincis.1 logging can occur on the Coast and two-thirds in the Interior. Also Coast cutting can increase only slightly above its present level, while Interior activity can expand approximately four times relative to the average annual removal of timber for the period 1952 through 1956. This means that the Interior will strengthen its recently achieved position as the major lumber shipping and producing area of the province. . 8. The. distribution of sawmills within British Columbia varies with the available transportation:facilities and the r'o size of service centers. On the Coast these units are located near tidewater to take advantage of water-borne transport. They are also heavily concentrated in the Vancouver-New Westmin ster and the Victoria metropolitan areas where the best service facilities are .'available-; e.g. machinery repair and production enterprises, banks, brokerage houses, and sales agencies. There is an additional concentration of sawmills in the Lower Fraser Valley where excellent rail and road collection and distribution facilities are available. - In the southern Interio the sawmills"t#nd to be dispersed along the relatively well developed rail and road transportation nets.- This is in con-, trast to the northern Interior where mills are concentrated linearly along the Pacific Great Eastern and the Canadian National Railways. At Prince George, which is the central transportation hub and service center of the central Interior., there is a pronounced node of lumber manufacturing. Sawmills in the Peace River area are concentrated around population centers to supply the local market because the area lacks suitable facilities for the long distance transport of lumber. 9. The average capacity of sawmills in the individual forest districts largely depends on: (a) size of the service centers, (b) type of transport,and (c) length of time that an area has been manufacturing lumber. Mills in the Vancouver Forest District are the largest because: (a) available water transport provides the cheapest means of collecting logs, and (b) the area has the best service, commercial,and transport-ation facilities of British Columbia. The Vancouver and the Nelson Forest Districts' sawmills are larger than the provincial average partially be-cause lumber has been processed in these areas for a longer period of time. This suggests over a long period Of time that -the smaller mills tended;to drop'out of production be-cause they were less efficient than the larger units. This conne|jt of a maturation process, iie. an increase in the average dapacity of sawmills, with time, is supported by the following: A. The average capacity of the provincial sawmills dropping out' of production during the eleven year . period was generally smaller than the average capacity ,of the sawmills remaining in production. B. . The average capacity of sawmills throughout the province tended: to increase. In the Vancouver Forest District this change was largely due to the closure of the smaller units as the total number of sawmills decreased, whereas in the Interior it was also due to the more rapid construction of larger than average units. 10. The general trend in provincial lumber trade was an increase to a maximum in 1956 followed by a decrease In 1957. The expansion In sales and thus world demand for lumber was attributable to: A. Increased dwelling unit construction resulting from increased world population. B. Recovery and expansion of national economies after World War II. The decline in trade was due to: (a) an economic recession and : (b) a temporary decrease in construction activity particularly in North America. 11. The Coast and Interior did not share equally in the growth of exports. Shipments from the Coast, while increasing the most in volume, fluctuated noticeably during temporary-economic recessions, e.g.,. 1956-1957, and periods of increased competition in overseas markets. In contrast, the Interior lumber sales expanded more rapidly and steadily "until 1956, because this area took advantage of its shorter rail.connections in shipping to Canadian and Interior U.S.A. markets. 12. The major British Columbia lumber markets (1947-1957) were in order of decreasing importance? Canada, the United States,, the United Kingdom, and Other countries (mainly the Uni on Of South Africa and Australia). Co as t exports were distributed fairly evenly among the two Worth American markets and the overseas market with the United States, Canada, and the non«North American markets respectively receiving the largest volume of lumber." The Interior traded almost ex-clusively with the Canadian and American markets with the former country being the larger consumer. This difference in distri-bution arises because Interior producers shipped most of their lumber by rail,while Coast sawmills at tide-water moved large volumes of exports to overseas and United States Atlantic Ports by cheap water-borne transport. 13. The majority of both Coast and Interior shipments to the U.K. moved by the all-water Panama Canal route rather than by the combined rail and water route across Canada and the Atlantic Ocean. This indicates the relative cheapness of transporting bulk commodities by water over long distances. Host shipments to Other countries also moved from British Columbia ports, since the all-water routes to these markets are usually shorter and cheaper. 14. There are many conditions in both consuming and comp.e_ti.ng lumber producing areas which affected British Columbia' lumber exports: A. Imposition of quotas on lumber imports by the U.K., Australia, and the Union of South Africa. B. Restriction on the consumption of lumber by the U.K. after World War II. C. Devaluation of Finnish currency in 1958 which made economic conditions for the export of lumber more favourable. 15. When sharp short term maximums in maritime freight rates develop, increased transport costs make the profitable Sale;/of British Columbia lumber in overseas markets difficult. An example of this occurred when the high maritime freight-rates of 1956, resulting from the Suez Crisis, corresponded to a minimum In lumber exports to the U.K. 16. The volume of provincial.lumber trade with the U.K. was generally lower from 1952 to. 1957 than from 1947 to 1951 This was mainly due to the increased exports from the other major suppliers, Sweden, Finland, and the Soviet Union, which are in direct competition with most of the lumber commodities shipped from British Columbia. In many cases green, common lumber, which constitutes the major proportion of provincial exports, is at a disadvantage because it Is inferior in quality to the kiln-dried lumber coming from Finland and Sweden. Also the dimensions of lumber produced in Scandinavia are in greater demand than those produced in British Columbia. It seems probable that the combined effect of a general increase in maritime freight rates and the relative proximity of other suppliers will make British Columbia's sales to this market in-qkaa^i-ngl-y -difficult-. 17. The greatest future increase in exports to the U.K. may be expected to come from the Soviet Union since: (a) it has larger timber reserves than the other European sources, and (b) Sweden and Finland have essentially reached the limit of sustained yield production. 18.. Future demand for British Columbia lumber may be decreased by the. U.K. forestation program which was undertaken to. supply a greater proportion of domestic wood requirements. However, even at its full level of development, this program is only expected.to meet one-thirteenth of domestic require-ments. -19. The U.K. construction industry is the major con-sumer of British Columbia lumber. Therefore., the volume of provincial exports was affected by the level of dwelling starts. However, it is evident that other conditions of the human environment, such as the.cessation of foreign aid in 1949 and the release of stockpiled lumber in 1956, also affected trade. 20. Canada was the largest foreign supplier of lumber to the Union of South Africa, but major shipments were also received from Finland, Sweden, and the United States. British Columbia was the source of the major proportion of the Canadian trade. Increased competition is not expected from the other major suppliers because: (A) the Scandinavian countries are already at a level of sustained yield logging, and (b) the U.S.A. is a net lumber importer. In South Africa, British Columbia^competed more effectively with the Scandinavian count-/ • ' • 1 • „:-ries than was possible in the U.K. since: (A) It supplied the type of lumber (green common) and the dimensions of lumber for which there is the greatest demand, rr>l (B) There was less difference in ocean freight charges. 21. The greatest percentage of Canadian exports to Australia fame from British Columbia. This situation was attributable to the following: A. British Columbia is closer to the market than the rest of Canada. B.' The province produced more lumber than the rest of Canada. C„ The province supplied Australia's demand for large dimensional lumber. 22. Canada (mainly British Columbia), the Scandinavian countries (Sweden, Finland, and Norway), the U.S.A., and New Zealand were in order of decreasing importance the major ex-porters to the Australian market. Here the province has the advantages of: A. Being closer: to the consumers than the Scandi-navian countries. B. Providing the quality, large dimensional lumber not available in New Zealand. C. Being a net exporter whereas the United States, is a net importer. 23. Much of Australia's softwood reserves are in radiata pine which is an adequate but Inferior grade of lumber to that produced in British Columbia. At present the import of radiata pine from New Zealand is being restricted to protect the dom-estic^Mmber industry. However if radiata pine gains wider acceptance in Australia, home production may become insufficient I : - ' • ' • * to; meet needs, and restrictions on imports from New Zealand may be lifted. Both of these changes would negatively affect the volume of provincial lumber exports, because the latter are more expensive than radiata pine lumber. 24. The initiation of extensive programs of fore-station represents one of the greatest future threats to the export of British Columbia lumber to. Australia and the Union of South Africa. 25• Since the majority of British Columbia's exports to the, U.S.A. market are consumed by the construction industry, there was a positive relationship between the number of dwelling unit starts and the volume of provincial lumber shipments. For example, a temporary peak in both activities occurred in 1955. Similar general relationships were also evident in the examina-tion of British Columbia lumber shipments and dwelling unit starts for Canada. 260 Total lumber requirements for housing construction in North America are increasing but at a slower rate than population, because lumber consumption per dwelling is decreasing. This trend is the result of: A. Competition from other building materials. B. Reduction in the average size of dwelling units and the number of embellishments found on houses. G. The more rapid increase in the price of lumber than in other building materials. These/cotf3.itions may eventually affect the use of lumber in construction to the extent' that demand for this commodity will / ce^se to grow. .27. British Columbia meets its strongest competition in the U . S . A . fr0m domestic producers of the Pacific Northwest and the Southern Pine Region. Although trade with the U.S.A. market may be difficult in years when the demand is depressed, the overall prospects are good, because: A. The U.S.A. is a net importer of lumber, incapable of supplying its wood requirements at a sustained yield production level. B. Brit ish Columbia is the largest surplus lumber producer close to this area. 28. Interior lumber shipments to the United States expanded steadily and at a faster rate to a maximum in 19,56. However, the volume of Coast increase was greater. :These differences are partially explained by the following: A. Coast shipments were greater in volume because this area supplied substantial exports to both the Interior and Atlantic Ports markets, whereas the Interior shipped almost exclusively to the Interior U.S.A. B. Interior' shipments expanded more rapidly because the size of the Interior market increased at a faster rate than the other U.S.A. markets. C. Interior shipments were less susceptable to fluctuations due to the emphasis on the consistantly growing Interior U.S.A. market, whereas the Atlantic Ports market which was of major importance to the Coast tended to be unstable. 29. The United States markets in order of decreasing importance to British Columbia shippers were: the Interior, the Atlantic Ports, and the Pacific Ports. The size of the markets was in direct relation to their population and for the Interior and the>tlantic Ports in inverse relation to their distance from/the provincial source. The Pacific Ports received only a small volume of exports because they are in or close to the largest lumber ..producing area of the U.S.A. ' 30* Due largely to the accessibility of cheap water transport routes, the Coast shipped the largest volume of lumber to the U.S.A. Atlantic Ports and Pacific Ports., The Interior source became the main supplier of the Interior U.S.A. as a result of its shorter rail transportation distances and hence lower freight costs, and rapidly Increasing production of lumber. For -the same reasons the Ports markets took a greater percentage of the total American trade from the Coast, while the Interior market took a greater percentage of Interior exports. 31.- Alberta and the Atlantic Provinces, on the basis of their timber reserves, are in the best position to expand, their production and provide increased domestic competition to British Columbia lumber shipments. 32. Examination of inter-provincial lumber trade indicates British Columbia's major competition in all provinces come from within those provinces. However, the greatest extra-provincial 'competition in the lumber deficient areas of Western Canada and Eastern Canada came respectively from Alberta and Quebec, 33. According to the British Columbia Lumber Manu-facturers Association data, the Interior became a larger supplier of the Canadian market than the Coast because of its: (a) practice of selling common lumber on the open market, (b) lower/rail transportation costs to the Prairie Provinces and Ontario,and (c) faster expansion in the production of lumber. " . 34. The Canadian provincial markets for British Columbia lumber- were in order of decreasing importance: British Columbia, Ontario, Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Quebec, the Atlantic Provinces, and the Territories. This order was . closely related to the distance of the consuming areas from the source, but it was also affected by: ' , A. The population of the markets which made Ontario more important than the Prairie Provinces. B. The per capi ta lumber production - of the provinces which made Manitoba more important than Saskatchewan. 35. The relative importance of each province to Interior producers agreed with that for the whole of British Columbia, but Coast distribution differed to the extent that: A.v Quebec was a larger market than any of the individual Prairie Provinces, because Interior competition kept down the volume of Coast lumber trade on the Prairie markets. B. Manitoba received more Coast lumber than Alberta, since the Interior's proximity to. Alberta made the Coast's competitive position in the market more difficult than in any of the other Prairie Provinces. 36. The Interior became the major supplier of the British Columbia market., as its increased production has allowed it to provide a larger part.of the rapidly growing provincial lumber requirements. The Prairie Provinces received a greater , proportion of total Interior than total Coast lumber shipments, for Canada, as a result of the Interior's marketing practices and lower/rail costs. Also as the Interior increased its voiume^of trade from 1947 through 1957, it strengthened its position as the major supplier of the area. During the same period Coast shipments either decreased in volume, as in Mani-toba, or remained fairly constant, as in Saskatchewan and Alberta. For the same reasons that the Interior expanded sales to the Prairie Provinces it increased its volume of trade with Ontario and attained the lead as supplier of this market. The Interior also shipped a larger percentage of its lumber to this area. However, in Ontario the Interior had less of a competitive advantage than in possessed in the Prairie Provinces, because there, was a smaller difference in the freight charges from the two British Columbia sources. Therefore, there was some increase in the volume of Coast shipments to Ontario. In contrast to Ontario and Western Canada, the Coast remained the leading supplier of Quebec and the Atlantic Provinces and moved a greater proportion of its Canadian shipments to these areas. This results from the Coast's production of hi^h quality, structural and clear lumber capable of absorbing the long distance rail freight charges. As the Interior continues to produce and increasing 181a proportion of the total provincial lumber, it will undoubtedly strengthen its position in the Western Canadian and the Ontario markets. However, Quebec and the Atlantic Provinces will probably remain primarily Coast markets, because these areas can supply their own needs except for large dimensional and special quality lumber. II. PROBLEMS WORTHY OF ADDITIONAL STUDY This examination of the British Columbia lumber industry has brought forth many problems'worthy of additional study. . Some of the more, important of these are: 1. An analysis of the movement of lumber by rail from its source in British Columbia to its exact . destination in North America. Such a detailed evaluation;would permit a more detailed examination of Coast and Interior competition and the factors affecting market size. 2. An evaluation of the volumes, trends, and costs in the movement of Interior lumber to the British Columbia coast might provide some indication of the feasibility of transporting large Interior lumber shipments to overseas markets. It might also indi-cate whether Interior markets will remain almost exclusively those of North America. 3. The establishment of the lumber hinterlands of the United States' Ports markets for British Columbia trade, so the effect on competition of rail and ocean freight rates could be partially understood. 4. The study of the possible nature of future Interior lumber production and sales. Several persons suggested that the Interior mills may develop inte-grated manufacturing and sales operations similar to those of the Coast. This problem could be attacked by examining the nature of the Coast industry and seeing how It could be adapted to the Interior. III. CONCLUSION In conclusion the two persistant themes in this study should he examined. They are: 1. The pronounced Increase in the degree of assoc-; lation between the provincial sources and the North American markets (measured by the large volumetric, and relative increase in their size) : as.compared to overseas markets. This change, in the strength of associations was largely due to: A. Strong competition from other source areas in overseas markets. B. Lack of foreign competition in shipping to the lumber deficient areas of North America. : C. Increased demand for lumber in North America and the proximity of this market. The greater importance of the North American markets will persist and may continue to increase unless new major foreign markets are found. 2. The Increased relative and absolute importance of Interior trade as compared to Coast trade and thus 1'"- the increased economic contact between the Interior and their markets resulting from: A. An attitude favouring the expansion of . Interior lumber production. , B. Shorter Interior rail connections to major North American markets. C. Greater physical and economic accessibility of Interior timber reserves. Since all of these conditions of the physical and human environ-ments will operate in the future, the Interior will continue to become an increasingly important source of lumber shipments. BIB L10 GRAPHY A. BOOKS Jones, Clarence Flelden and Gordon Gerald Darkenwald. Economic Geography, rev. ed., New York: The Mac-Millan Co. Putnam, Donald T., ed. Canadian Regions. Toronto: J. Dent and Sons (CanadaT^td7TT9577 Stanford Research Institute. America's Demand for Wood 1929-12Zl* Tacoma, Washington: Weyerhaeuser Timber Co. . 1954/ Trewartha,, Glenn T. An Introduction to Climate. New York: McGraw-Hill, Book Co ,"~Tnc77~l'954. B. PERIODICALS: GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE Britton, J.C. "Australia" Foreign Trade, vol. Ill (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, March 28, 1959), pp. 8-10. "Commodity Notes : New Zealand." Foreign Trade, vol. 108 (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, October 26, 1957), p.30. Eccles, Sir David. In a speech, "U.K., Restrictions on Dollar Imports Relaxes." given at the Commonwealth Trade and Economic Conference, Montreal: 17. September 1958; quoted in Foreign Trade. Vol. 110, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, October 11, 1958, pp. 42-43. MacNaught. "New Zealand Lumber Industry Depressed." Foreign Trade,vol.' 108 (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, December 7, 1957), pp. 15-16. Norweiglan Shipping News. 0 slo j Ind ex o f Mar i t ime fr e ight : rates compiled from this source by Canadian Trans-port Co.Ltd. Vancouver. Rochester, G.H., "United Kingdom." Foreign Trade, Vol. 107 (Ottawa; Queen's Printer, May~25, "195?)", PP 16-17. "Trade and Tariff Regulation." Foreign Trade, vol. 108 (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, October 12, 1957), pp. 27-28. "The U.S.Market: What about Rates of Duty?" Foreign Trade vol. 108, (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, September 2b, 1957), PP. 19-25. White, E.J. "Canada Seeks Lumber Markets." Foreign Trade, vol. 107 (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, May 25,1957), pp. 2-5. C.' EBBLICATIOMS OF SOCIETIES AND CORPORATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH GOVERNMENT. : ~~ ~ ; : Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Economic Research _ Department. Canadian Housing Statistics. Quarter 4, 1955, Quarter.2, 1958,,Ottawa: Central Mortgage and , Housing Corporation, March 1956, September 1958. Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Economic Research Department. Housing in Canada. Ottawa: Central Housing Mortgage,Corporation, January 1949. Transactions British Columbia Natural Resources Conferences "Victoria.. B.C. : British Columbia Natural Resources Conference. Andrews, L.R.,"Lumber Manufacturing and Marketing In British Columbia Forest Industries." Third Transactions (1950)i pp. 160-175. ' ' Besley, Lowell^ "Potential Interior Timber Supply." Fifth Transactions (1952), pp. 163-171. Hodgins, H.J. "Growth Potential of British Columbia's Forests" Fifth Transactions (1952)5 pp. 176-181. MacBean, A.P. "Forestry of B.C. In Perspective." Eleventh . Transactions (1958), pp. 115-123. Mahood, Ian. "What the Forest Resource Means to Employment" Eighth Transactions (1955)5 pp., 144-147. Orchard, C.K. "Commonw e alt h Fo r e s t r y " El ev enth Trans act ions (1958), pp. 123-127. Wellwood, R.W. "The Requirements of the Forest-Board In-dustries" Tenth Transactions (1957). PP. 150-160. D. PROVINCIAL,, NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL GOVERNMENT : PUBLICATIONS,. British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the_ Logging Industry and Summary of the Forest .Industries in British Columbia. Victoria7 B.C.: n.n. 1955. (Forest Industries Series, pt. 2, sec. 2.). (Mimeographed.) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia. Victoria, B.C.: n.n., 1955* (Forest Industries Series, pt. 2. sec. 1). (Mimeographed,) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia, Supplement Wo. 1. Victoria, B.C.: n.n. 19577 iForest Industries Series, : pt. 2, sec. 2). (Mimeographed.) British Columbia, Forest Service, Continuous Forest Inven-tory of British Columbia: Initial Phase, 19^7 Victoria, B.C. "('Queen's Printer, 1959). -British Columbia, Forest Service. List of Active Sawmills .jfor 195?.. (Nelson Forest District), n.p,: n.n., n.d. TMimeographed.) British Columbia, Forest Service. Prince^  George. District Sawmills and Planer _Milis by Ranger Districts., n.p.: n.n.,revised to November 1, lf577~~ (Mimeographed). British Columbia, Forest Service.. Prince Rupert Forest District Sawmills, n.p, :n.n., n.d. (Mimeographed.) British Columbia, Forest Service. Report of the Forest Service,1947-1958. Victoria, B.C.: Queen's: Printer, 1948-1959. British Columbia, Forest Service, Sawmill' Summary-Vancouver Forest District : List of Mills Operated During 195?. n * « * n • n • ^  ii 7d." "(Mimeographed.) British Columbia, Forest Service. Sawmills, Shingle, Shook Mills, and Planer Mills by.Ranger Districts. (Kamloo"ps'~F5rreJt ~DistrictT7~n7p.: n.n. February3:, 1,958. (Mimeographed.) British Columbia, Royal Commission on Forest resources of British Columbia. Report of the Commissioner, by the Hon.. Gordon.McG. Sloan, Victoria, B.C.: King's Printer, 1945. Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Canada Yearbook, 1957-1958, .1959. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1955, I960. Canada, Bureau of Statistics Employment and Payrolls with Average Weekly Earnings. voT7~257~30, 34, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1947, 1952, 1956. Canadaj Bureau of-Statistics, The Furniture Industry. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1954, 1958. Canada, Bureau of Statistics. General Review of the Paper-S d ^ O M E S ^ e s l ^ g ^ l ^ . Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 19l4~ 19187 ™ Canada., Bureau of Statistics. General Review of the Wood-n§ing_Indus|_ries ,19527T956. "6'ttawai Queen's ~~ . Pr int er, 19^4, 19557^ Canada, Bureau of:Statistics3 The Lumber Industry, 1947. iSSitilg? Ottawa: Queen's Printer, lf^ O,, 1954, 1959. Canada, Bureau of Statistics. Miscellaneous Paper Goods 1947. Ottawa: King's Printer, 1949. Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Preliminary Report on the Vergers and Plywoods Industry in CanadaV 1947, 1952, ,19567 Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1949, 1954, 1958. Canada, Bureau of Statistics. Production, Shipment, and ; Stocks on Hand of Sawmills East of the Rockies, vols. 2-12, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1947-1957. Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Production, Shipments, and Stocks on Hand of Sawmills in British Columbia, vols. 1-11, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1947-1957. Canada, Bureau of Statistics, The Pulp and Paper Industry, 1947, 1952, 1956, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1949, Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Report on the Furniture Industry; in Canada, .194.7. Ottawa: King's Printer, 1949. Canada, Bureau of Statistics. Report on the Paper Box and Bag Indus try In Canada, ,1.947,. Ottawa: King's Printer, 1949. Canada, Bureau of Statistics.. The Roofing Paper Industry in Canada, 1947, Ottawa: King's Printer, 1949. Canada, Bureau of Statistics, The Sash, Poor., and Planing Mills Industry in Canada, 1947, 1952, 19 Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1949, 1954719^8. Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Wood-Using Industries 1947. Ottawa: King's Printer, 1949. Canada, Bureau of Statistics, International Trade Division. £ggde_of_ Canada.-1957. 011awi~~Queen'"s~PrinterT 1958, vol. 2. Canada, Commission of Conservation. Forests of 'British Columbia, by H.N. Whitford and Roland D. Crail, Ottawa: King's Printer, 1918. Great Britain, Central" Statistical Office. Monthly Digest of Statistics, nos. 61, 109, 144, 161, London: H.M.S.O., January 19515 January 1955* December 1957, May 1959. Food and Agriculture Organization, Division of Forestry and Forest Products. Yearbook of Forest Products Statistics, 1947-1959. Ifashlngton. D.C.: Food and Agriculture Organization,1947-1950, Rome; Food and Agriculture Organization, 1951-1959. Halliday., W.E. A Forest Classification for Canada. Ottawa: King's Printer, 1937 TCanada, Dept. of Mines and Resources, Forest Service Bulletin .89). Mulholland, F.D., The Forest Resources of British Columbia 1937. British Columbia Forest Service, Victoria, B.C.-s King's Printer, 1937. Saskatchewan.,, Department of Natural Resources, Conservation Information Service. Forest Resources in Saskatchewan by D.F.Symington, Reglna, Saskatchewan: Queen's Printer, n.d. (Conservation Bulletin No. 8). United States, Bureau of Census. Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1959« 8.0th ed., Washington, D.C.; G.P.GT~lf59. • United States, Bureau of the Census, Industry Division, Wood Products,"Facts for Industry., Lumber Production, and Mill Stocks, 19577 Washington, D.C.:. G.P.O. 1959. United States, Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines. Minerals Yearbook: 1957. Washington D.C.:,. G.P.O. 1^7~vol. 1. United States, Department of Labor and Department of Comm-erce. Construction Review, vols. 1, 5} Washington, D.C.: G.P.O., January 1955, June 1959. Ee PRIVATELY PUBLISHED REPORTS British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association, 57th -teual^Report Vancouver : British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association, 1958. Forest Industrial Relations Ltd., Brief Presented at Con-ciliation Hearings, Vancouver7~Forest Industrial' Relations Ltd., May 1958. F. MPS 'AMD ATLASES British Columbia Department of Lands and Forests, British Columbia,. Forest and Grazing Districts. Victoria, B.C.: n.n. all boundries corrected to July 13. 1956. (Map). ' British Columbia Natural Resources Conference."British Columbia Atlas of Resources. Vancouver; British Columbia Natural Resources conference, 1956. G» UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association. Re the Canadian Freight Rate Structure. Vancouver: British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association, January 17, 1958) (Mimeographed). British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association "Report of Lumber-Shingles-Ties-Shook 1959 Production-Shipments-Stocks." Vancouver, British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association (enclosure" In letter from 1.0. Robson, May 30, I960), (Mimeo-graphed questionnaire). Canadian Transport Co.Ltd., Vancouver, Index of Maritime Freight Rates for Lumber Shipments from B.C. to the U.K. taken from company records. Robson, A.O., Statistics, British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association, Vancouver. Personal correspondence. May 30th,I960. H. .. INTERVIEWS Annan,b,United States Sales Department MacMillan, Bloedel, and Powell River Ltd., Vancouver. Personal Inter-view, August I960. Australian Trade Commission, Vancouver, Telephone Inter-view with employee, August I960. Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Vancouver, Telephone Inter-view with an employee, April I960. Canadian National Railways, Vancouver, Personal Interview • with an employee, September I960. Canadian Transport Co.Ltd., Vancouver, Personal Interview with an employee, June 1959. Dal ton ,e, Overseas: Sales Department, McMillan, Bloedeljl, ahd ' POwell'River Ltd. Vancouver,'Personal Interview. September I960. Dusting, N.R. Secretary, British Columbia Lumber Manu-facturers Association, Vancouver, Personal Interview, March 1959. Edgett, Robert. Assistant Sales Manager, Seaboard Shipping Co.Ltd., Vancouver, Personal Interview, August I960. . Gill, R,., British Columbia Forest Service, Vancouver Forest District, Vancouver, Personal Interview-. August I960. Hereford, William, Anglo-Canadian Shipping Go.Ltd., Personal Interview, August i960. Roethel, Henry, British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Research Division, Victoria, B.C., Personal Interview, November 1958. Steel5B,Canadian Sales Department , MacMillan , Bloedel, and : Powell River Ltd., Vancouver, Personal Interview, September, i960. APPENDIX A - CONTINUED Table 1. Net value of production in B.C. by industries: 1938 and 1951 2. Forest manufacturing industries of B.C.: 1947, 1952, and 1956. 3- Employment in forest industries vs total industrial employment: for B.C. and Canada as a whole. 4. The incompleteness of B.B.S. lumber shipment data for B.C.: 1947-1957. 5. An estimate of unreported lumber shipments from provinces east of the rockies: 1952 6. The percentage of sawn ties in the total production of sawn lumber and ties for B.C.: 1947 - 1957. 7. B.C. lumber production vs shipments and changes in inventory: 1947 - 1957. 8. Total area in the Coast and Interior forest regions: 1917, 1937s 1957 9. Forest resources of B.C. and allowable cut in inventory zones assuming that the current level of exploitation continues 10. Areas of B.C. commercial forest by inventory zones: 1957 11. Forest resources of B.C. and allowable cuts in inventory zones assuming the full development and utilization of all commercial forests 12. Timber scaled in B.C. by forest districts : 1947 - 1957= 13. Statistics on the sawmills of B.C. by forest district : 1947 - 1957 14. Statistics on the sawmills of B.C. by ranger district : 1957 15. Statistics on the sawmills of B.C. by forest districts going out of production: 1947 - 1957 16. Total lumber shipments from B.C. Coast and Interior: 1947 - 1957 APPENDIX A - CONTINUED Table 17. Limber scaled In B.C. : 1947 - 1957 18. Maritime freight rate index-for charter trips ^19. Total B.C.lumber shipments to national markets : 1947 - 1957 20. .Coast and Interior lumber shipments to National markets : 1947 - 1957 21. Coast and Interior lumber shipments to non-North American, markets: 1947 1957. 22. Water-borne shipments vs total shipments Coast and Interior to Non-North American markets 1947 - 1957. 23. Coniferous lumber; imports of the U.K. : 1947 _ 1957 24. B.C.Water-borne lumber shipment ? 1947 - 1957 25. Coniferous lumber exports to the Union of South -Africa : 1947 - 1957 26. Coniferous lumber imports of Australia : 1947 - 1957 27. New non-farm dwelling unit starts in U.S.A. vs. Lumber shipments from B.C. : 1947 - 1957 28. Softwood lumber production of the U.S.A.: selected areas and states 1956 29. Saw timber softwood lumber reserves of the U.S.A.: 1953 30. Coniferous lumber imports of the U.S.A.: 1947 - 1957 31. Source of Canadian softwood exports to the U.S.A.: : 1947 - 1957 32. Coast and Interior lumber shipments to the U.S.A.: 1947-1957 33. Total B.C. lumber shipments to U.S.A. market areas, 1947 - 1957 . 34. Coast and Interior lumber shipments to U.S.A. market areas : 1947 - 1957 35. Water-borne shipments vs total shipments: Coast to U.S.A. market areas : 1947 - 1957 APPENDIX A - CONTINUED Table 36. Coast and. Interior lumber shipments to the U.S.A. Market areas: 1947-1957 37. Dwelling unit starts in Canada vs lumber shipments from B.C. : 1947 - 1957 38. Accessible saw timber softwood reserves of Canada : 1956 39. Percentage distribution by province of Canadian softwood lumber production and accessible softwood reserves 40. Canadian provincial lumber shipments : 1947, 1952, 1957. 41. Per capita softwood lumber production by province : 1956 42. Total B.C. lumber shipments to provincial markets : 1947 - 1957 ,43. Coast and Interior lumber shipments to the Canadian market .: 1947 - 1957 44. Coast and Interior lumber shipments to provincial markets : 1947 -'1957 D.B.S. Data 45. Coast and Interior lumber shipments to provincial markets : 1947 - 1957 D.B.S. Data 46. Coast water-borne shipments vs total shipments to Eastern Canada : 1947 - 1957 TABLE I NET YALUE OF PRODUCTION IN B.C. BY INDUSTRIES : 1938 AND 1951 INDUSTRY Primary Production 1938 $000's % 1951 $000's : I* Agriculture Logging Fisheries Trapping Mining Electric Power 27,758 32,607 8,669 653 42,207 13,748 12.1 14.3 3.8 0.3 18.5 6.0 81,039 163,205 40,638 1,589 122,467 36,003 6.7 13.5 3.3 0.1 10.1 3.0 Totals 125,642 55.0 444,941 36.7 Secondary Production Manufactures Sawmills Other wood-using Pulp and Paper Other paper using Other manufacture Construction - £0i472_ 19,657 5,257 7,543 1,600 12,459 " 561*458" 2.3 3.3 0.7 24.2 5.4 592,44^ 167,291 52,127 90,919 9,698 272,752 174,864 48.9 ~13.8 4.3 7.5 0 . 8 _22.i 14.4 Totals 102,931 45.0 767,313 63.3 Grand Total 228,573 100.0 1,212,254 100.0 a. British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Logging Industry and Summary of the Forest Industries in British Columbia, pt. 2, sec. 1 of the Forest Industries Series Tvictoria, B.C.n.n., 1955), PP• 12-13. (Mimeographed.), f TABLE 13 - CONTINUED FOREST MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES OF B.C.: 1947, 1952 AND 19% 1947 INDUSTRY Employees Gross Value Net Value number % > $000»s fa $000's % Forestry (a) (a) 145,108 28. ,9 91,888 33.1 Primary Manufacture Sawmills & shingle Mills (b) 22,865 22,946 80. 61. 0 5 ^02,081 2lF,235 60. 43. 2 161,2li 113,740 40.9 Veneers & plywood (c) 2,493 6. 7 22,499 4. 5 13,798 5.0 Pulp and ?aper (d) 4,426 11. 8 61,341 12. 2 34,377 12.4 Secondary Manufacture Sash,door,planing mills (e)~ ..'2 >451 i,Soo 20. 4. 0 S _54,il3 13,486 10. ~ 2. Q 7 8.6 2.0 Furniture (f) 2,037 5. 5 10,348 2. 1 5,'212 1.9 Other wood products (g) 2,200 5. 9 15,162 3. 0 6,935 2.5 Other paper products(h,i 1,414 3. 8 15,317 •3. 1 6,224 2.2 Total 37,316 100. 0 501,502 100. 0 277,740 100.1 1952 Forestry (a) (a) 232,747 28. 2 201,262 41.2 Primary Manufacture 38,471 • M . 8 484,191 8 245,823 -50.4 Sawmills & Shingle Mills (b)28,59o 62. 3 31^,724 35. 154,069 31.& Veneers & plywood (c) 3,825 8. 3 42,177 5. 1 22,108 4.5 Pulp and paper (d) 6,048 13. 2. 125,290 15. 2 69,646 14.3 Secondary Manufacture Sash,door,planing mills (e) 2,447 2, $58 16. ~ Z . 2 2 106,231 4^,289 J 0 0 S_40,95i 15,591 8.4; 3.2 Furniture (f) 1,880 4. 1 14,782 1. 8 7,512 1.5 Other wood products (g) 1,253 2. 7 18,862 2. 3 7,553 1.6 Other paper products (k) 1,456 3. 2 26,798 3. 3 10,297 2.1 Total 45,918 100. .0 823,669 100 .0 488,038 100.0 TABLE 13 - CONTINUED 1956 INDUSTRY Employees number % Gross $000's Value fo Net ; $000«s Value Forestry (a) (a) 338,672 29 . 4 293,169 44.3 Primary Manufacture Sawmills & Shingle Mills(b) Veneers & plywood (c) Pulp and paper (d) -42,731 30,295 6,050 7,386 _82.2 57.3 11.4 14.0 661,^93 397,935 87,532 184,526 -58.1 34.5 7.6 16.0 118,658 178,£30 42,792 97,236 48.2 27.0 6.5 14.7 Secondary Manufacture Sash,door,planing mills (e) Furniture (f) Other wood products (g) Other paper products (k) 3,158 4,002 2,196 1,215 1,745 -12.3 7.6 4.1 2.3 3.3 144,^02 ~7£,412 20,351 17,425 29,844 12.5 ~ z.i 1 .8 1 .5 2.6 -4-3,638 23,487 9,302 6,454 10,395 - 14 3.5 1.4 1.0 1.6 Total 52,889 100.0 1 ,152,697 100.0 661,465 100.0 Footnotes on following page Not available Canada, Bureau of Statistics, The Lumber Industry. 1947 (Ottawa: King's Printer, 1950), P. 5; 1952 (Qlieh^s -Printer, 1954), p. A-19; 1^6 (1959), p. A-18. Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Preliminary Report on the Veneers and Plywoods Industry Tn Canada 1947 (Ottawa: King's Printer^ 1949), pT~~3Tl952 (QueenTs~Pr inter. 1954), p. E-5;. 1956 (1958), p. E-6. Canada, Bureau of Statistics, The Pulp and Paper Indust£2L_li42 (Ottawa: King's Printer, 1949), p. 3; 1912 (Queen's Printer, 1954), p. H-27; 19.56 (1959), Canada, Bureau of Statistics, The Sash, Door and Planing Mills Industry in Canada 1947 (Ottawa: King' "Printer, 1949), p. 2; 1952 TQueen's Printer, 1954), p. D-5; 1956 (1958). p. D-5. Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Report on the Furniture Industry in Canada 1947 (Ottawa: King's Printer, 1949), p. 2; Canada, Bureau of Statistics, The Furniture Indusiry_1952 (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1954), p. C-5; 1£56 (1958), p. C-5. Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Wood-Using Industries 1947. (Ottawa: King's Printer, 1949), p. 6-7; Canada, Bureau of Statistics, GeneralReview of the Wood-Using Industries 1952~Tottawa: Queen's Printer, 1954), p. B-9; 1956T1958): p/ B-10. Canada, Bureau of Statistics, The Roofing Paper Industry in Canada 1947 (Ottawa: King's Printer, 1949), p. 3. Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Miscellaneous Paper Goods 1947 (Ottawa: King's Printer, 1949), p. 2. Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Report on the Paper Box and Bag Industry in Canada 1947 ("OttawaT' King' s Printer, 1949) , p. "5. Canada, Bureau of Statistics, General Review of the Paper-Using Industries 1952 (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1954), p. 1-10; 195^~T1958), p. 1-10. TABLE 3 EMPLOYMENT IN FOREST INDUSTRIES vs TOTAL INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT: FOR B.C. AND CANADA AS A WHOLE B.C. Year ' Number Wood Products Paper Industrial (le ss lumber) Lumber Products Total 1947 20,829 (b) 8,723 74,630 1952 27,740 25,728 7,213 73,304 1956 32,162 29,697 8,597 83,146 Percent 1947 27o9 (b) 11.6 100.0-1952 37o8 35.1 9.8 lOO.O 1956 38.7 35.7 10.3 100.0-CANADA Number 1947 72,208 38,730 64,159 1,002,850 1952 79,664 49,422 75,871 1,057,156 1956 89,597 55,515 87,280 1,144,015 Percent 1947 7.2 3.9 6.4 100 ®0 1952 7.5 4.6 7.2 100.0 1956 7.8 4.9 7.6 100,0 (a) Employment figures are applicable to the 1st of January of the years examined. (b) Not available. (c) Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Employment and Payrolls with Average Weekly Earnings, vol. 25 (Ottawa1 King's Printer 1947), p. 21; vol. 30 (Queen's Printer, 1952), pp. 18, 23; vol. 34 (1956), pp. 16, 21. TABLE 13 - CONTINUED THE INCOMPLETENESS OF D.B.S. LUMBER SHIPMENT DATA FOR B.C.; 1947-1957 A. SHIPMENTS ESTIMATED BY D . B . S . • • 1 (volumes in M bd. ft.) (a) Year 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Estimated Volume 100,357 176,535 161,451 120,169 112,378 88,461 82,126 116,905 102,140 69,640 74,131 Total 1,204,293 COAST Total Volume 2,026,041 2,046,702 2,179,592 2,491,674 2,447,372 2,183,610 2,476,329 2,704,219 2,792,510 2,491,803 2,415,397 26,255,249 Estimated 5< 8, 7= 4, 4, 4, 3. 4. 3. 2, 3. 0 6 4 8 6 1 3 3 7 8 1 4.6 INTERIOR Estimated Volume Total Volume 166,393 191,455 218,703 298,078 334,228 364,187 364,423 612,972 795,693 737,092 684,570 534,663 552,190 524,063 716,125 880,507 1,119,270 1,098,437 1,572,032 1,984,848 1,980,158 1,967,643 4,767,794 12,929,936 Percentage Estimated 31.1 34.7 41.7 40.4 38.0 32.5 33.2 39.0 40.1 37.2 34.8 36.9 (a) The published data demonstrates the incompleteness of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics figures. It is shown that 1/3 to 2/5 of the total shipments from Interior sawmills as compared with never more than 8.6 per cent from the Coast have been estimated (Table 4A). A main reason for this difference in the reporting is that the large Coast operators have the facilities to maintain detailed sales records while the generally smaller Interior manufacturers cannot afford these excessories. The statistics supplied by the B.C.L.M.A. indicate larger volumes of lumber shipments than are recorded and estimated by the D.B.S. (Table 4B). This may be the result of an underestimation of shipments on the part of the government and/or an overestimation by the B.C.L.M.A. due to duplication in the reporting of shipments. The latter possibility is discussed in Table (b) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry n.n., 1< in British Columbia. 2, sec. 2 of the Forest Industries Series (Victoria, B.C. 41^45. (Mimeographed.); Supplement No. 1 to the Statistical R^nrri nf th« TABLE 4 CONTINUED B COAST REPORTED SHIPMENTS: D.B.S. vs B.C.L.M.A. (volumes in millions bd. ft.)(c) Year. D.B.S. B.C.L.M.A. 1947 1415 2130 1948 1870 2262 1949 2018 2197 1950 2371 2600 1951 2335 2535 1952 2095 2287 1953 2394 2582 1954 2587 2723 1955 2690 2794 1956 2422 2528 1957 2341 2386 (d) D.B.S. 377 361 305 427 546 755 734 959 1189 1243 1283 INTERIOR (b) B.C.L.M.A, 740 892 759 1047 1123 1265 1482 1785 2080 2096 1940 (d) Lumber Industry in British Columbia (1957), tables on "Shipments of Sawn Lumber and Ties". CWWrneogr-a-pHedl.) " (c) D.B.S. data rounded off from volumes given in M. bd. ft. (d) British Columbia Lumber Manufacturer's Association, 57th Annual Report 1957 (Vancouver: 1958), p. 14. TABLE 13 - CONTINUED AM ESTIMATE OE UNREPORTED LUMBER SHIPMENTS FROM PROVINCES EAST OE THE ROCKIES; 1952^^ (volumes in M, bd. ft.) 1. PRODUCTION OF SAWN LUMBER P.E.I. N.S® N»B»- QUE. ONT. MAN. SASK. ALTA. 13,241 236,822 281,138 1,125,753 957,871 54,227 79,206 332,944 2. LUMBER SHIPPED BY REPORTING OPERATORS 3,670 120,095 160,046 659,384 547,679 30,412 42,613 280,220 3. DIFFERENCE (1.-2.) 9,571 116,727 111,092 466,369 410,192 23,815 37,043 52,724 4. APPROXIMATE PERCENTAGE OF UNREPORTED SHIPPED LUMBER (3,-KL.xlOO) 72 49 41 41 43 44 47 16 (a) The conclusion that a large percentage of lumber movements from provincial sawmills east of the Rocky Mountains are not being reported is based on the assumption that lumber shipments for any given year are likely to approximate the provincial lumber productions. If, as is shown in the above table, the volume of transport is considerably lower than the volume manufactured the proportion of unreported shipments is probably substantial. (b) Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Production. Shipments and Stocks on Hand of Sawmills East of the Rockies. vol. 7 (Ott awal Queen's Printer, December 1952), P. 3. TABLE 13 - CONTINUED THE PERCENTAGE OF SAM TIES IN THE TOTAL PRODUCT ION OF .(a) SAWN LUMBER AND TIES FOR B.C..J_ (volumes in M.bd.ft.) COAST Year 1. Production of lumber and ties 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1939157 2005780 2137577 2531379 2439655 2170769 2 5 5 1 4 6 1 2 7 0 1 1 9 5 2537598 2485633 2326313 2. Production of ties 107709 145702 72569 21916 38864 48930 105695 7377 27475 13856 23792 3. Percentage of ties (2.fl.xl00) 5.6 7.'3 3.4 0.9 1.6 2 . 3 4.1 0.3 1.1 0.6 1.0 Total 25826517 613885 2.4 INTERIOR 1947 626278 42555 6.8 1948 636093 89324 14.0 1949 710439 40850 5.7 1950 852794 30646 3.6 1951 1013887 33521 3.3 1952 1166099 51010 4.4 1953 1225913 179040 14.6 1954 1518766 26996 1.8 1955 2070604 28844 1.4 1956 2 1 3 1 2 9 9 5 1279 2 . 4 1957 2036121 50477 2.4 Total 13988293 624542 4.5 TABLE 6 - CONTINUED (a) It is assumed that the movement of ties from British Columbia sawmills represent only a small proportion of the total sawn lumber and ties shipments because the production of t ies is only a small percentage of the combined manu-factured volume of the two commodities. Examination of the production statistics indicate two generalizations: 1, Ties represent a smaller percentage of production on the Coast, and therefore, they have less affect on the proportion distribution of lumber and ties shipments to the individual markets. The large Coast sawmills manu-facture a smaller proportion of ties because they prefer to market their limited resources in a form which will have a high value. The smaller Interior sawmills are more prone to selling their forest products in any form even if the value per unit weight is low, 2. Ties in the latter part of the period 1947 through 1957 had less influence on the proportional distribution of the combined commodities because they were a smaller percentage of the total production of these goods. This development on the Coast probably represents an increased awareness of the limited nature of the timber resource and therefore an increased reluctance on the part of the manufacturers to squander the wood on the less profitable commodities. The trend in the Interior may also reflect this attitude, and also it suggests that the demand for lumber is increasing more rapidly than the demand for ties. (b) Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Production, Shipments, and Slocks on Hand of Sawmills in BrjUiish_Columbia? vols. 1-5 (Ottawa: King's Printer, 1947-195D, Table 2; vols. 6-11 (Queen's Printer, 1952-1957), Table 2. TABLE 7 B.C. LUMBER PRODUCTION vs SHIPMENTS M B CHANGES IN INVENTORY; 1947 - 1957^ A. D.B.S. DATA (volumes in M.bd.ft.) Year 1.Production^2.Shipments^ 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 2565435 2853949 2848016 3498506 3456476 3688814 3891174 4515652 4724515 4867193 4307544 Total 41217274 2569704 2731871 2703655 3207799 3327879 3302880 3574766 4264211 4777358 4471941 4383040 39315104 Stocks on hand December 1957 Less Stocks on hand Uanuary 1947 Change in inventory 3.Difference ( 1 « •*"' 2 6 ) + 4269 - 122078 - 144361 - 290707 - 128597 - 385934 - 316408 - 251441 + 52843 - 395252 + 75496 -1902170 (c) (d) 585852 239943 + 345909 4® % difference ( 3 . - K L . X 1 0 0 ) + 0o2 - 4.3 - 5.1 - 8o3 - 3.7 -10»5 - 8.1 - 5.6 + 1.1 - 8.1 1.8 * 4*6 Difference between total production and shipments -1902170 Less Change in inventory + 345909 Surplus of production above shipments and change in inventory - 1556262 Production unaccounted for (-1556262)-^ - Total production (41217274) x 100 = Production unaccounted for (3.8%) TABLE 13 - CONTINUED B. B.C.L.M.A. D A T A ^ (volumes'in million bd.ft.) Year 1. Production 2. Shipments 3. Difference 4.% Difference (1.-2.) (3-l.xlOO) 1947 2703 2870 + 1948 2862 3154 + 1949 2873 2956 + 1950 3564 3649 + 1951 3579 3658 + 1952 3470. 3552 + 1953 4055 4064 + 1954 4482 4508 + 1955 4850 4874 + 1956 4675 4624 1957 4325 4326 + Total 41438 42237 + 83 85 79 82 9 26 24 49 1 799 4-+ + + + + + + + + 6, 10, 2. 2, 2, 2, 0, 0< 0. 1.0 0 . 0 + 1.9 Less Plus Stocks on hand December 31, 1957 Stocks on hand December 31, 1946 1940 740 +1200 Difference between total production and shipments + 799 Change in inventory +1200 Surplus of shipments and change in inventory +1999 above production Surplus of shipments and inventory (+1999)+- Total production (41438) x 100 = Surplus of shipments and inventory (+4 (a) The Dominion Bureau of Statistics figures give neither an affirmative nor a negative indication of whether there has been duplication in the reporting of lumber movement (Table 7A). They do show that shipment figures have been underestimated because there was a greater volume of lumber production than can be accounted for by shipments and an increase in inventory. Since this is true, there could be some duplication of reports which would not cause lumber movement to exceed production. However, assuming the figures to be fairly accurate, there is no indication of extensive duplication in the records. The volumes of shipments and change in inventory as in-dicated by data from the B.C.L.M.A. are greater than production (Table 7B). If these statistics are correct, there has been duplication in the reporting of lumber movement. However, this source of error is too small to affect generalizations regarding the volume or percentage distribution of shipments. / -u \ Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Production, Shipments and stocks on Haiid of Sawmills in British Columbia, vols. 1-5 (Ottawa King's Printer, January-December, 1947-1951), Table 2; vols. 6-11 (Queen's Printer, January-December, 1952-1957), Table 2. TABLE 7 - CONTINUED (c) Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Sawmills in British Columbia Vol. 11, (Queen's Printer, December 1957), p. 3. ' (d) Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Sawmills in British Columbia Vol. 1 (King's Printer, January 1947), p. 4. (e) British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association, 57th Annual Report 1957 (Vancouver: 1958), p. 14. ~ ~ TABLE 8 TOTAL_AR|^_IN_THE COAST AND INTERIOR FOREST RF.aTDTO.q; isizi-i^x-isiz (in acres) Total Year Coast Interior 19l7 a 415064,960 188,197,120 229,262,080 ID 1937 41,159,000 193,224,000 234,383,000 1957° 40,526,130 193,589,201 234,115,304 (a) Canada, Commission of Conservation, Forests of British Columbia, by H.N. Whitford and Roland D. Craig (Ottawa: King's Printer, 1918), pp. 245, 326. (b) F.D, Mulholland, The Forest Resources of British C£l™bia_19i7, British Columbia, ForeiTServlce (Victoria, B.C.: King's Printer, 1937). (c) British Columbia, Forest Service, Continuous Forest Inventory of British Columbia: Initial Phase (Victoria BTCT: TQueen's Printer, 1957)), p. 17. 5 TABLE 9 FOREST RESOURCES OE B.C. AND ALLOWABLE CUT IN INVENTORY ZONES ASSUMING THAT THE CURRENT LEVEL OF EXPLOITATION CONTINUES (volumes in millions of cu. ft. in trees 12 inches d.b.h. and over) Inven- Usable volume -tory in exploitable zone mature forests on manageable ownerships ex-cluding lodge-pole pine and deciduous species 1 2 Total Coast 3 4 5 6 9 Total Interior B.C. Total 5, 200 13,900 19,100 2,485 16,450 2,700 5,800 4,260 31,695 50,795 Average annual growth in exploitable mature forests 3,365 13,908 17,273 17,253 31,678 6,248 29,715 4,774 89,660 106,933 Average annual de-pletion in exploitable mature forests 12,251 28,651 40,902 30,061 69,170 9,604 1 7 , 0 2 1 35,104 160,960 201,862 Average annual ex-ploitable growth in immature forests after reduction for decay and fire 6,968 84,972 91,940 10,390 255,318 40,257 75,699 16,989 • Assumed Rotation 100 100 120 120 120 120 120 398,653 490,593 Estimated Allowable annual cut 58 240 298 42 250 52 160 165 669 967 (a) British Columbia, Forest Service, Continuous Forest Inventory of British Columbia Initial Phase 1957 (Victoria, B.C.: ^ Queen's Printer, 1959)), Chapter 5, Table 2. TABLE 10 AREAS OF B.C. COMMERCIAL FOREST BY INVENTORY ZONES; 1957 Inventory Millions of Percentage Zone Acres 1 3 . 4 2 . 9 2 . 11,4 9,7 Coastal Total 14.8 12.6 3 7*6 6o4 4 29.0 24.6 5 Ho3 9o6 6 13»6 ii„5 9. 41.6 3 5 . 3 Interior Total 103.1 ' 87.4 B.C.Total 117.9 100.0 (a) British Columbia, Forest Service, Continuous Forest Inventory of British Columbia^ Initial Phase 1957 m ctoria, B.C.:(Queen1s Printer, 1959),Figure 4. TABLE 11 FOREST RESOURCES OF B.C. AND ALLOWABLE GUTS IN INVENTORY ZONES ASSUMING THE FULL DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION OF ALL COMMERCIAL FORESTS (volumes in millions of cu.ft. in trees 10 inches d.b.h. and over) Inven- Sound wood tory volume in all Zone mature forests on manageable ownerships 1 2 Coast Total 3 4 5 6 9 Interior Total B . C a Total 24,448 54,837 79,285 27,418 53,329 9,290 23,483 29,561 143,081 222,366 Average annual growth in all mature forests 0.813 40.375 41.188 84,012 46.318 11.747 54.827 13.992 210o896 252.084 Average annual depletion in all mature forests 33.248 88.149 121.397 85c403 151.380 20.393 62o264 96.258 415.698 537.095 Average annual growth in immature forests after reduction for decay and fire 12.666 168.471 181.137 30.377 497.480 144..489 194.115 297.925 1,164.386 Assumed Estimated Rotation allowable annual cut 100 100 120 120 120 120 120 1,345.523 255 740 995 268 630 150 400 585 2,033 3,028 (a) British Columbia, Forest Service, Continuous Forest Inventory of British Columbia, Initial Phase 1957 (Victoria, B.C.: (Queen's Printer, 1959)77~Chapter 5, Table 4. f TABLE 12 TIMBER SCALED IN B.C. BY FOREST DISTRICTS : 1947 - 1957 Forest District 1947 (Volume in M. bd.ft.) VOLUME' 1948 1949 1950 1951 Vancouver Pr. Rupert 3098866 187122 3091276 175108 2962078 174799 3314537 161555 3090659 240896 Total (Coast) 3285988 3266384 3136877 3476092 3331555 Pr. Rupert Pr. George Kamloops Nelson 84585 234806 316603 265834 100373 297219 334672 294817 98910 263404 298230 252261 124467 321295 355947 282279 169059 429956 456291 309486 Total (Interior) 901828 1027081 912805 1083988 1364792 Total (Province) 4187816 4293465 4049682 4560080 4696347 TABLE 13 Forest District 1952 Vancouver 3102784 Pr. Supert 232357 Total (Coast) 3335141 Pr. Rupert 181210 Pr. George 493962 Kamloops 561753 Nelson 365899 Total (Interior) 1602824 Total (Province) 4937965 Vancouver Pr. Rupert Total Coast Pr. Rupert Pr. George Kamloops Nelson Total Interior Total Province 1953 3380185 321913 3702098 185052 499158 559963 345316 1589489 5291587 1957 3216652 331497 3548149 197500 645733 839983 430416 2113632 5661781 - CONTINUED 1954 1955 1956 3674156 323825 3595749 335893 3502591 387842 3997981 179204 446034 618256 325948 3931642 216146 609359 893392 458663 3890433 235923 675329 1004550 591084 1569442 2177560 2416886 5567423 Total 36029533 2872807 38902340 1772429 4916255 6239640 3832003 16760327 55662667 6109202 6307319 TABLE 12 - CONTINUED \ PERCENTAGE Forest District 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Total Vancouver Pr. Rupert 74.0 4.5 72.0 4.1 73.2 4.3 72.7 3.5 65.8 5.1 62.8 4.7 63.9 6.1 66.0 5.8 58.9 5.5 55.5 6.2 56.8 5.9 64.7 5.2 Total Coast 78.5 76 .1 77.5 76.2 70.9 67.5 70.0 71.8 64.4 61.7 62.7 69.9 Pr. Rupert Pr. George Kamloops Nelson 2.0 5.6 7.6 6.3 2.3 6.9 7.8 6.9 2.4 6.5 7.4 6 .2 2 .7 7.1 7.8 6 .2 3.6 9.2 9.7 6.6 3.7 10.0 11.4 7.4 3.5 9.4 10.6 6.5 3.2 8.0 11 .1 5.9 3.5 10.0 14.6 7.5 3.7 10.7 15.9 8 .0 3.5 11.4 14.8 7.6 3.2 68.8 11.2 6.9 Total Interior 21.5 23.9 22.5 23.8 29.1 32.5 30.0 28.2 35.6 38.3 37,3 30.1 Total Province 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (a) British Columbia,- Porest Service, Report of the Forest Service i 1948 (Victoria, B.C.: King's Printer, 1948), p. 81; 1950 (1951), P. 99;" 1952 "('Queen's Printer, 1953), P. 133; 1354 (1955), p. H i ; 12£6 (19577, P. H3; (122Z)TW8), p. 93. TABLE 13 - CONTINUED STATISTICS ON THE SAWMILLS OF B.C. BY FOREST DISTRICT : 1947 - 1957 (daily capacity, is estimated in M. bd.ft. for an eight hour day) 1947 1948 1949 Forest No. of Total Average No. of Total Average No. of Total Average District Sawmills. Daily Daily Sawmills Daily Daily Sawmills Daily Daily Capacity Capacity Capacity Capacity Capacity Capacity Vancouver 486 8543 19 448 8417 19 448 8858 20 Pr. Rupert 205 1288 7 237 1672 7 231 129 6 6 Pr..George 329 2961 9 345 3040 9 384 3396 9 Kamloops 3 67 2161 7 349 2615 7 355 2674 8 Nelson . 247 2593 10 292 2826 10 253 2858 11 Total 1634 17546 10 1671 18570 11 1671 19082 11 1950 1951 1952 Vancouver 426 8529 20 439 9084 21 385 9003 23 Pr. Rupert 267 1393 5 322 2055 6 330 2034 6 Pr. George 447 3672 8 551 4370 8^  604 4829 8 Kamloops 411 2734 7 466 3110 7 57 8 4331 7 Nelson 275 2815 10 322 3129 10 :326 3236 10 Total 1826 19143 10 2100 21748 10 2223 23433 11 TABLE 13 - CONTINUED Forest 1953 1954 1955 No. of Total Average No. of Total Average No. of Total Average District Sawmills Daily- Daily Sawmills Daily Daily Sawmills Daily Daily Capacity Capacity Capacity Capacity Capacity Capacity Vancouver 380 8739 23 338 . 9683 29 359 9679 27 Pr. Rupert 345 2047 6 311 2003 6 323 3009 9 Pr. George 689 5394 8 700 5714 8 730 6060 8 Kamloops 675 4045 6 677 5134 8 735 5766 8 Nelson 324 3075 9 320 3068 10 342 3502 10 Total 2413 23300 10 2346 25602 11 2489 28016 11 1956 1957 Vancouver 295 10098 34 243 9442 39 Pr. Rupert 327 2049 6 315 1923 6 Pr. George 687 6107 9 704 6535 9 Kamloops 788 7025 9 695 5627 8 Nelson 338 3801 11 298 3225 11 Total 2435 29080 12 2255 26752 12 (a) British Columbia, Forest Service, Report of the Forest Service; 1947 (Victoria, B.C.: i p."93; 1242 (195077 P. ii9;* 1229 U95D, P. ill; ? p. 1922 (1953) 5 p. 146; 1912 (1954), P. 143; 1214 (1955), 1956 (1957), p. 125;. 1252 (195B)tp. 105. ^ ^ King' Printer, 1948), p. 87; 1948 (19497 1951 (Queen's Printer, 1952), p. 129; p. 125; 12£2 (1956), p. 122 TABLE 13 - CONTINUED STATISTICS ON THE SAWMILLS OF B.C. BY RANGER DISTRICT ; 1957 (dally capacity is estimated in M.bd.ft. for an eight hour day) Vancouver Forest District Ranger No. of Total Ave, Prince Rupert For. Dist. Ranger No. of Total Ave, Dist. Sawmills Daily Daily Dist. Sawmills Daily Daily Cap. Cap. Cap. Cap. 1 21 164 7.8 1 7 29 5.8 2 7 215 30.7 2 A 38 9.5 3 2 5 2.5 3 5 55 11.0 4 16 549 34.3 4 20 219 11.0 5 52 5,109 98.2 5 19 140 7 .4 6 6 66 11.0 6 28 171 6.1 7 7 21 3.0 7 38 282 7.4 8 5 10 2.0 8 30 173 5.8 9 6 725 120.8 9 73 390 5.3 10 6 8 1.3 10 13 193 14.8 11 2 2 1.0 11 42 202 4.8 12 1 1 1.0 12 20 102 5.1 13 0 0 0.0 13 78 374 4.7 14 3 6 2.0 14 5 38 7.6 15 5 23 4.6 16 4 10 2.5 17 8 107 13.4 18 11 51 4.6 19 6 26 4.3 20 9 171 19.0 21 9 337 37.4 22 3 11 3.7 23 23 492 21.4 24 7 572 81.7 25 6 241 40.2 26 3 236 78.7 27 8 81 10.1 Total 236 9,239 39.1 380 2,406 6.3 Kamloops Forest District 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14. 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 . of Total Ave. .wmills Daily Daily Cap. Cap. 66 377 5.7 7 180 25.7 11 120 10.9 20 352 17.6 14 214 15.3 30 240 8.0 19 221 11.6 14 132 9.4 31 280 9.0 24 263 11.0 23 174 7.6 37 341 9.2 69 . 920 13.3 14 92 6.6 14 222 15.9 (f) (f) (f) 25 426 17.0 3 110 36.7 34 237 7.0 (f) (f) (f) 51 659 12.9 20 169 8.4 24 338 14.1 29 253 8.7 579 6,320 10.9 Prince (dj George For. Dist • Ranger No. of Total Ave. Dist. Sawmills Dally Daily Cap. Cap. 1 29 240 8,3 2 9 125 13.9 <3 16 240 15.0 4 7 74 10.6 5 15 213 14.2 6 6 38 6.3 7 1 4 4.0 8 23 284 12.3 9 5 54 10.8 10 9 123 13.6 11 14 141 10.1 12 11 122 11.1 13 22 243 11.0 14 16 209 13.1 15 3 85 28.3 16 7 70 10.0 17 22 195 8.9 18 23 199 8.7 19 11 210 19.1 20 10 80 8.0 21 8 108 13.5 22 14 124 8.9 Total 281 3181 .11.3 TABLE 13 - CONTINUED Nelson Forest District Ranger Mo. of Dist. Sawmills 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 25 9 67 75 27 56 84 30 58 59 37 20 40 26 44 35 21 Total Daily Cap. 395 267 642 1575 480 441 1481 640 442 469 195 457 220 240 ::515 323 79 (e) Ave. Daily Cap. 15.8 29.7 9.6 21.0 17.8 7.9 14.7 21.3 5.1 7.9 5.3 22.9 5.5 9.2 11.7 9.3 3.8 713 12,4 TABLE 13 - CONTINUED (a) British Columbia, Forest Service, Sawmill Summary -Vancouver Forest District ; List of MillV Operated 3=2 5Z (n.p. :n.n., n.d), pp. 1-8. (MimeographedT (b) British Columbia, Forest Service. (Prince Rupert Forest District Sawmills), (n.p.:n.n., n.d.), pp. 1-7. (Mimeographed.) (c) British Columbia, Forest Service, Sawmills. Shingle. Shp^k_Millg._and Planer Mills by Ranger Districts (Kamloops > Forest District; (n.p.: n.n., February"3, 1958), pp. 4-23. (Mimeographed.) (d) British Columbia, Forest Service, Prince George District Sawmills,and. Planer Mills by Ranger Districts (n.p.T~n7n7T rev i s e d • t o No-v . cm ; ^TZJr a P h e a.) (e) British Columbia, Forest Service, List of Active Sawmills forA212 (Nelson Forest District) (n.p.: n.n., n.d,), pp.1-6. CMi r»eij! a pbad.) (f) No available information; a reasonable suggestion is that there were no operating mills. f TABLE 15 STATISTICS ON THE SAWMILLS OE B.C. BY FOREST DISTRICTS GOING OUT OF PRODUCTION: 1947 - 1957 (daily capacity is estimated in M. bd.ft. for an eight hour day) 1947 1948 1949 Forest . No. of . Total .Average •No, of Total Average No. of ..:TotaI Average District -sawmills daily daily Sawmills daily daily sawmills daily daily cap. cap « c sip ® cap. cap. cap. Vancouver 29 158 5 49 326 5 95 1157 12 Pr. Rupert 9 52 6 12 68 6 23 163 7 (a) Pr. George 53 265 5 39 188 5 57 385 7 Kamloops 28 124 4 58 163 3 82 305 4 Nelson 24 155 6 21 185 9 57 363 6 Total 140 754 5 179 840 5 314 3373 8 1950 1951 1952 Vancouver 59 268 5 63 334 5 103 651 6 Pr. Rupert 20 158 8(a) 23 159 7(a) 33 223 7 (a) Pr. George 85 554 7 65 411 6 94 601 6 Kamloops 18 109 6 112 426 4 67 373 6 Nelson 52 373 7 30 144 5 35 244 7 -Total 234 1462 6 294 1,474 5 332 2,092 6 f TABLE 15 - CONTINUED Forest ffOo of Total Average No. of Total Average No. of Total Average District Sawmills daily daily Sawmills daily daily Sawmills daily daily cap. cap. cap. cap. cap. cap. 1953 1954 1955 Vancouver 89 952 11 105 353 3 100 480 5 Pr, Rupert 25 192 8(a) 29 187 6(a) 46 317 7 Pr. George 79 617 8(a) 90 599 7 92 459 5 Kamloops 6 38 7(a) 71 616 9(a) 81 540 7 Nelson 55 419 8 72 526 7 85 489 6 Total 286 2186 ) 8 367 2,281 6 404 2,285 6 1956 1957 . . . . . ^ 'X r .' v V Vancouver 87 266 3 107 701 7 Pr. Rupert 47 270 6(a) 67 368 5 Pr. George 114 698 6 167 974 6 Kamloops 41 ' 194 5 62 298 5 Nelson 101 585 6 111 783 7 Total - 330 2pi3 - 5 514 3,124 6 (a) These are values which are equal to or greater than the average capacities cited in Appendix A, Table 13. All other values are less than the average capacities cited in Appendix A, Table 13. (b) British Columbia, Forest Service, Report of the Forest Service; 1947 (Victoria, B.C.: King's Printer, 1948), p. 87; 1948 (1949), p. 93; 1949 (19307, p. 119; 1950 (1951), p. Ills 1951 (Queen's Printer, 1952), p. 129; 1952 (1953), p. 146; 1953 (1954), p. 143; 1954 (1955), p. 125; 1955 (1956), p. 122; -1256; (19577, p. 125; 1957 (19587, p. 105. TOTAL LUMBER SHIPMENTS VOLUMES (in M. Bd.ft) Year Coast Interior Total 1947 1,710,312 543,662 2,253,974 1948 2,046,072 552,190 2,598,262 1949 2,179,592 524,063 2,703,655 1950 2,491,674 716,125 3,207,799 1951 2,447,372 880,507 3,327,879 1952 2,183,610 1,119,270 3,302,880 1953 2,476,329 1,098,437 3,574,766 1954 2,704,219 1,572,032 4,276,251 1955 2,792,510 1,984,848 4,777,358 1956 2,491,803 1,980,158 4,471,961 1957 1,980,158 1,967,643 3,947,801 Total 25 , 50 3 , 651 12,938,395 38,442,586 •R 1947 2,130 740 2,870 1948 2,262 892 3,154 1949 2,197 759 2,956 1950 2,600 1,049 3,649 1951 2,535 1,123 3,658 1952 2,287 1,265 3,552 1953 2,582 1,482 4,064 1954 2,723 1,785 4,508 1955 2,794 2,080 4,874 1956 2,528 2,096 4,624 1957 2,386 1,940 4,326 Js^ ada go 27,024 15,211 42,235 TABLE 16 4 B.C. COAST AND INTERIOR : 1947 - 1957 D.B.S. DATA(a) INDEX V M iUE3 P1RCBNTASE (1947 - 1. 00 ) Coast Interior. Total Coast Interior Total 1.00 1.00 1.00 75.9 24.1 100.0 1.20 1.02 1.15 78.7 21.3 100,0 1.27 .96 1.20 80.6 19.4 100.0 1.46 1.32 1.42 77.7 22.3 100.0 1.43 1.62 1.48 73.5 26.5 100.0 1.27 2.06 1.47 66,1 33.9 100.0 1.45 2.02 1.59 69.3 30.7 100.0 1.58 2.89 1.90 63.2 36.8 100.0 1.63 3.65 2.12 58.5 41.5 100.0 1.41 3.64 1.98 55.7 44.3 100.0 1.16 3.62 1.75 50.2 49.8 100.0 1.36 2.16 1.55 66.3 33.7 100.0 C.L.M.A. DATA(b) 1.00 1.00 1.00 74.2 25.8 100.0 1.06 1.21 1.10 71.7 28.3 100.0 1.03 1.03 1.03 74.3 25.7 100,0 1.22 1.42 I .27 71.3 28.7 100.0 1.19 1.52 1.27 69.3 30.7 100.0 1.07 1.71 1.24 64.4 35.6 100.0 1.21 2.00 1.42 63.5 36.5 100.0 1.28 2.41 1.57 60.4 39.6 100.0 1.31 2.80 1.70 57.3 42.7 100.0 1.19 2.83 1.61 54.7 45.3 100.0 1.12 2.62 1.51 55.2 44.8 100.0 1.15 1.87 1.54 64.0 36.0 100.0 TABLE 16 - CONTINUED (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia, pt. 2, sec. 2 of the Forest Industries Series (Victoria, B.C.: n.n., 1955), PP. 41-46. (Mimeographed); Supplement No. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industr,I^n_Brit^_CojAjmbia (1957), tables on "ShipmiEts oi Sawn Lumber and Ties". (Mimeographed.) (b) British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association, 57th Annual Report 1957 (Vancouver; 1958), p. 14. TABLE 1 7 LUMBER SCALED IN B.C.. : 1947 - IQR7 (volumes M. bd.ft.) Year Volume 1947 1948 1949 1950 195.1 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 4,187,816 4,293,465 4,049,682 4,560,080 4,696,347 4,937,965 5,291,587 5,567,423 6,109,202 6,307,319 5,661,781 Average 5,060,242 (a) British Columbia, Eorest Service, Report of the Forest Service; 1948 (Victoria, B.C.: King's Printer, 1949), p. 81; 1950 (Queen's Printer, 1951), p. 90, 1951 (1952), p. 117; 1953 (1954), p. 131; 1.955, (1956), P. 109; 1957 (1958), p. 93. ;TABLE 18 MARITIME FREIGHT RATE INDEX FOR CHARTER TRIPS A. GENERAL INDEX(a) (freigh t rate index July/Dec . 1947 - 100) Month 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 January 120.0 105.5 90.9 75.0 139.6 167.9 89.9 83.4 119.9 138.9 178.3 February 125.1 100.2 93.6 73.3 152.9 155,8 88.8 85.6 123.3 134.8 171.5 March 126.1 98.7 91.8 74.0 173.5 138.2 90.9 88.3 116.9 138.9 154.9 April 125.0 91.5 91.6 75.2 182.7 128.1 93.5 87.8 115.1 146.0 144.3 May 119.1 88.5 91.2 76,6 190.2 124.9 93.4 88.6 124.9 146.2 132.0 June 118.1 90.0 87.2 75.8 190.3 108.4 89.1 87.2 130.7 151.9 122.2 July 102.5 88.6 81.1 77.0 177.2 89.3 87.3 85.4 131.9 152,0 117.6 August 96.1 84.9 70.9 90.1 175.8 83.7 83.3 87.1 130.2 154.8 100. 5 September 99.3 84.8 68.3 89.8 182.0 87.2 82.5 94.0 134.0 158.7 99.0 October 99.6 81.0 67.5 92.4 186.0 90.3 85.1 102.8 149.3 156.2 95.8 November 98.9 83.8 70.4 99.1 192.0 90.3 85.1 111.7 139.7 173.1 93.2 December 102.5 87.8 75.6 120.9 177.9 89.5 84.4 120.1 141.6 181.2 88.6 Average 111.0 90.4 81.2 84.9 176.7 112.7 87.8 93.5 129.8 124*6 / TABLE 18 •: CONTINUED (b) B. ; INDEX FOR LUMBER SHIPMENTS FROM B.C. TO THE U.K. v ' (freight rate index 1952 = 100) Month 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 January 55.5 143.0 174.0 79.5 '.69.0 132.0 154.5 202.0 February 53.5 165.0 162.0 80.0 '70.5 137.5 143.5 193.0 March 53.5 166.5 125.5 80.5 69.0 118.5 162.5 151.5 April 56.0 160.0 102:. 0 70.0 ' 65.5 116.5 162.5 136.0 May 62.0 162.5 -94.5 76.5 69.0 130.5 162.5 113.0 June 58.5 57.0 166.5 .91.5 ii-i 69.0 133.5 156.0 107.0 July 55.0 153.0 .62.5 65.5 67.0 130.0 162.5 99.0 August 52.5 75.5 150.0 . 69.5 64.5 68.0 129.5 166.5 81.0 September 50.5 79.5 152.0 78.5 63.5 90.0 132.0 171.0 78.5 October 56.0 83.5 164.0 82.5 67.5 93.5 149.0 183.0 80.5 November 56.0 85.0 155.0 79.5 69.0 112.0 145.5 183.0 82.5 December 55.5 106.0 161.5 77.5 67.5 116.5 150,5 183.0 78.0 Average 55.0 68.5 158.0 100.0 71.5 80,0 134.0 166.0 117.0 (a) Norwegian Shipping News (Oslo); the index was compiled from this source by-Canadian Transport Co.Ltd., Vancouver. (b) Compiled by Canadian Transport Co.Ltd., Vancouver. ;TABLE 19 Year 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Total TOTAL B.C. LIMBER '.SHIPMENTS- TO NATIONAL MARKETS: 1947 - 1957 A. D.B.S. DATA(a) (VOLUMES (in M.Bd.Ft. ) Canada U.S.A. U.K. Other 1,018,978 260,167 677,429 335,594 1,051,151 546,610 379,601 235,680 1,018,261 731,814 306,327 259,097 938,612 1 ,376 576'3 227,928 255,249 990,923 870,290 729,630 290,430 1,012,044 993,828 693,072 151,288 1,111,522 1 ,238,287 468,949 311,362 1,165,919 1 ,391,193 655,738 333,524 1,359,215 1 ,503,789 600,096 416,425 1,505.041 1 ,476,581 339,145 344,462 1,454,004 1 ,401,506 385,694 383,134 12,625,670 11 ,790,828 5,463,609 3,316,245 Total 2,292,168 2,213,042 1,960,448 3,153,603 2,881,273 2,850,232 3,130,120 3,546,374 3,879,525 3,665,229 3,624,338 33,196,352 INDEX VALUES (1947=1.00) PERCENTAGE Year Canada U.S.A. U.K:. Other Total Canada U.S.A. U.K. Other Total 1947 1.00 1.00 1 .00 1.00 1.00 44.5 11.4 29.5 14.6 100.0 1948 1.03 2.10 .56 .70 .97 47.5 24.7 17.2 10.6 100.0 1949 1.00 2*81 .45 .77 1.01 43-. 0 31.6 13.2 1 j. 2 100.0 1950 .92 5.29 .34 .76 1.22 29.8 54.9 7.2 8.1 100.0 1951 .97 3.35 1.07 .87 1.26 34.4 30.2 25.3 10.1 100.0 1952 .99 3.82 1.02 .45 1.24 35.5 34.9 24.3 5.3 100.0 1953 1.09 4.76 .69 .93 1.37 35.5 39.6 15.0 9.9 100.0 1954 1.14 5.35 .97 .99 1.55 32.9 39.2 18.5 9.4 100.0 1955 1.33 5.78 .89 1.24 1.69 35.0 38.8 -15.5 10.7 100.0 1956 1.48 5.68 .50 1.03 1.60 41.1 40.3 9.2 9.4 100.0 1957 1.43 5.39 .57 1.14 1.58 40.1 38.7 10.6 10.6 100.0 Total 1.12 4.12 .73 .90 1.32 38.1 35.5 16.5 9.9 100.0 / TABLE 19 •: CONTINUED B. B.C.L.M.A. DATA : (VOLUMES: (in millions of bd.ft.) Year 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Total INDEX VALUES (1947 Canada 1410 1675 1513 1,553 1,574 1,534 1817 1868 2,080 2,193 1920 19,137 B 100) U.S.A. 317 725 809 1,573 988 1078 1-383 1,555 1,716 1724 1597 13,465 Other 1143 754 634 521 1096 940 864 1,085 1,078 707 809 9,631 K Total 2,870 3154 2,956 3,647 3,658 3552 4,064 4,508 4,874 4,624 4326 42,233 PERCENTAGE Year Canada U.S.A. Other Total Canada U.S.A. Other Total 1947 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 49.1 11.1 39.8 100.00 1948 1.19 2.29 .66 1.10 53.1 23.0 23.9 100.00 1949 1.07 2.55 .55 1.03 51.2 27.4 21.4 100.00 1950 1.10 4.96 .46 1.27 42.6 43.1 14.3 100.00 1951 1.12 3.12 .96 1.27 43.0 27.0 30.0 100.00 1952 1.08 3.40 .82 1.24 43.2 30.3 26.5 100.00 1953 1.29 4.36 .76 1.42 44.7 34.0 21.3 100.00 1954 1.32 4.91 .95 1.57 41.4 34.5 24.1 100.00 1955 1.48 5.41 .94 1.70 42.7 35.2 22.1 100.00 1956 1.56 5.44 .62 1.61 47.4 37.3 15.3 100.00 1957 1.43 5.35 .71 1.51 44.4 36.9 18.7 100.00 Total 1.23 3.86 .71 1.34 45.3 31.9 22.8 100.00 TABLE 19 - CONTINUED (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the,Lumber Industry in British Columbia, '-.n?^ ° f t h e ?° r g S t IndustrieSlterlfls (v-j^n-^j * H,"' nPl? 4 1 - 4 6• (Mimeographed.); Supplement No. 1. to the _Sta^isj^cal_Record_ of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia (1957), tables on "Shipments of Sawn Lumber and Ties" (Mimeographed.) (b) British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association, 57th Annual Report 1957 (Vancouver: 1958), p. 14. COAST AND INTERIOR 1947 747,883 177,114 1948 789,404 451,142 1949 785,135 662,111 1950 686,075 1,206,795 1951 670,811 660,848 1952 555,101 717,171 1953 638,226 984,798 1954 638,101 978,607 1955 729,312 957,853 1956 819,043 925,699 1957 743,343 837,640 Total 7,802,433 8,559,778 1947 39.1 9.2 1948 42.6 24.4 1949 39.1 32.9 1950 28.9 50.9 1951 28.7 28.3 1952 26.5 34.2 1953 26.6 41.1 1954 24.7 37.8 1955 27.I 35.6 1956 33.8 38.2 1957 31.7 35.8 Total 31.2 34.2 ;TABLE 20 : SHIPMENTS TO NATIONAL MARKETS: 1947 - 1957 A. COAST (Volumes in M. bd.ft.) VOLUME 658,052 331,84.9 1,914,898 376,558 235,233 1,852,337 304,266 258,627 2,010,139 223,580 255,054 2,371,504 713,477 289,858 2,334,994 671,911 150,966 2,095,149 462,093 310,935 2,396,052 638,821 331,786 2,587,314 587,758 415,447 2,690,370 333,264 344,157 2,422,163 377,958 382,325 2^ .341,266 5,347,738 3,306,237 25,016,186 PERCENTAGE 34.4 17.3: 100.0 20.3 12.7 100.0 15.1 12.9 100.0 9.4 10.8 100.0 30.6 12.4 100.0 32.1 7.2 100.0 19.3 13.0 100.0 24.7 12.8 100.0" 21.9 15.4 100.0 13.8 14.2 100.0 16.2 16.3 100.0 21.4 13.2 100.0 TABLE 20 - CONTINUED B. INTERIOR (Volumes in M. VOLUMES bd.ft.) Year Canada U.S.A. U.K. OTHER 1947 271,095 83,053 19,377 3,745 1948 261,747 95,468 3,043 447 1949 233,126 69,703 2,061 470 1950 252,626 169,968 4,348 195 1951 320,112 209,442 16,153 572 1952 456,943 276,657 21,161 322 1953 473,233 253,487 6,856 427 1954 527,819 412,586 16,917 1,738 1955 629,903 545,936 12,338 978 1956 685,998 550,882 5,881 305 1957 710,662 563,866 7,736 809 Total 4,823,264 3,231,050 115,871 10,008 TOTAL 377,270 360,705 305,360 427,137 546,279 755,083 734,005 959,060 1,189,155 1,243,066 1,283,073 8,180,193 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Total 71.9 72.6 76.3 59.1 58.6 60.5 64.5 55.0 53.0 55.2 55.4 59.0 PERCENTAGE 22.0 5.1 26.5 0.8 22.8 0.7 39.8 1.0 38.3 3.0 36.6 2.8 34.5 0,9 43.0 1.8 45.9 1.0 44.3 0 .5 44.0 0.5 39.5 1.4 1.0 0.1 0.2 0.1 ,1 ,1 ,1 , 2 ,1 .0 '9 0.1 0.1 1 0 0 . 0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1 0 0 . 0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia, pt. 2, sec. 2 of the Forest Indust7IeF"Series' (Victoria, B.C. n.n. 1955) , pp. 41-46. (Mimeographed.); Supplement No. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry In British Columbia (1957), tables on "Shipments of Sawn Lumber and Ties." (Mimeographed.). TABLE 21 COAST ANDvINTERIOR LIMBER SHIPMENTS TO TON-NORTH AMERICAN MARKETS: 1947 - 1957 Year Coast Interior Total Coast Interior Total 1947 658,052 19,377 677,429 331,849 3,745 335,594 1948 376,558 3,043 379,601 235,233 447 235,680 "1949 304,266 2,061 306,327 258,627 470 259,097 1950 223,580 4,348 227,928 255,054 195 255,249 1951 713,477 16,153 729,630 289,858 572 290,430 1952 671,911 21,161 693,072 150,966 322 151,288 1953 462,093 6,856 468,949 310,935 427 311,362 1954 638,821 16,917 655,738 331,786 1,738 333,524 1955 587,758 12,338 600,096 415,447 978 416,425 1956 333,264 5,881 339,145 344,157 305 344,462 1957 377,958 7,736 385,694 382,325 809 383,134 Total 5,347,738 115,871 5,463,609 3,306,237 9,708 3,316,245 PERCENTAGE 1947 97.1 2.9 100,0 98.9 1.1 100.0 1948 99.2 0.8 100.0 99.8 0.2 100.0 1949 99.3 0.7 100.0 99.8 0.2 100.0 1950 98.1 1.9 100.0 99.9 0.1 100.0 1951 97.8 2.2 100.0 99.8 0.2 100.0 1952 96.9 3.1 100.0 99.© 0.2 100.0 1953 98.5 1.5 100.0 99.9 0.1 100.0 1954 97.4 2.6 100.0 99.5 0i5 100.0 1955 97.4 2.1 100.0 99.8 0.2 100.0 1956 98,3 1 .7 100.0 99.9 0 . 1 100.0 1957 98.0 2.0 100.0 99.8 0.2 100.0 Total 97.9 2.1 100.0 99.7 0.3 100.0 Year 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Total TABLE 21 CONTINUED B. B.C.L.M.A. DATA (b) (Volume in millions of bd.ft.) T0_ ALL NON~NORTH AMERICAN MARKETS VOLUME Coast 1,109 738 625 513 1,075 918 842 1,065 1,063 701 801 9,450 Interior 34 16 9 8 21 22 22 20 15 6 8 181 Total 1,143 754 634 521 1,096 940 864 1,085 1,078 707 809 9,631 PERCENTAGE 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Total 97.0 97.9 98.6 J,0 98, 98, 97. 97.5 98, 98. 99. 99. 3. 2.1 1, 1. 1. 2, 2. 1. 98.1 4 5 9 3 5 8 1.4 0.8 1.0 1.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia, pt. 2, sec. 2 of the Forest Industries Series (Victoria, B.C.; n.n., 1955) , PP. 41 -46.~TMimeograr>hed.); Supplement No. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia U957), tables on "Shipments of Sawn Lumber and Ties". (Mimeographed.) (b) British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association, 57th Annual Report 1957 (Vancouver: 1958), p. 14. TABLE 22 WATER-BORNE SHIPMENTS VS TOTAL SHIPMENTS COAST AND INTERIOR TO NON-NORTH AMERICAN MARKETS: 1947 - 195.7 (volumes in M. bd.ft.) A. COAST TO U.K. Year Total Water- % Volume borne Water-borne 1947 . 658,052 605,629 92,0 1948 376,558 365,104 97.6 1949 304,266 296,180 97.3 1950 223,580 221,167 98.9 1951 713,477 705,969 98.9 1952 671,911 661,153 98.4 1953 462,093- 454,065 98.3 1954 638,821- 623,906 97.7 1955 587,758 585,516 99 «.7 1956 333,264 318,989 95.7 1957 377,958 369,799 97.8 Total 5,347,738 5,207,477 97.4 TO OTHER COUNTRIES 1947 331,849 312,444 94.2 1948 235,233 228,626 97*2 1949 258,627 247,782 95.8 1950 255,054 251,047 98.4 1951 289,858 286,471 98.8 1952 150,966 148,550 98.4 1953 310,935 309,032 99.4 1954 331,786 327,071 98.6 1955 415,447 412,695 99.3 1956 344,157 335,558 97.5 1957 382,325 371,972 97.3 Total: 3,306,237 3,231,248 97.7 (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia pt. 2, sec. 2 of the Forest~^ndustries Series (Victoria, B.C. n.n., 1955), pp. 41-46. (Mimeographed.); Supplement No. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia (1957). tables on "Shipments of Sawn Lumber and Ties". (Mimeographed.) -TABLE 2186 - CONTINUED BO- INTERIOR TO U. K« Year 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952' 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Total Volume 19,377 3,043 2,061 4,348 16,153 21,161 6,856 16,917 12,338 5,881 7,736 Water-borne Volume 3,479 1,045 1,543 3,156 12,032 15,027 6,127 8,576 ' 9,391 4,827 4,504 % Water-borne 18 .0 34.3 74.9 72.6 74.5 71.0 89.4 50 0 7 76< 82, 58, Total 115,871 69,707 60.2 TO OTHER COUNTRIES 1947 3,745 1,831 48.9 1948 477 28 5.9 1949 470 179 23e2 1950 195 73 37.4 1951 572 347 60.7 1952 322 272 84.5 1953 427 418 97.9 1954 1,738 1,626 93.6 1955 978 978 100.0 1956 305 185 60.7 1957 809 809 100o0 Total 9,708 6,746 69.5 (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia pt. 2s sec. 2 of the Porest Industries Series"(Victoria,. B.C. h.n.5 1955), pp. 41-46; (Mimeographed.) : Supplement No. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British ColUmblaTr9^7T7~tahIes on~7TShIpments of Sawn Lumber and Ties" r*TMimeo graphed.) TABLE 23 CONIFEROUS LIMBER IMPORTS OF THE U.K : 1947 - 1957^ (VOLUMES (in M. bd.ft.) Year b Canada U.S.S.R. Finland^ Sweden*3 Otherb Total B.C...0 VOLUMES 1947 988.0 14.3' 383.3 405.9 575.2 2,366.7 677.4 1948 522.5 45.7v 310,1 417.4 455.6 1,751.3 379.6 1949 430.8 180.2 444. 5 457.6 666,5 2,179=6 306.3 1950 237.2 319.6 255.6 191.7 580,9 1,585.0 227.9 1951 751.4 204.0 699.5 700.5 891.6 3,247.0 729.6 1952 807.9 138.0 281.0 382.5 333.2 1,942.6 693.1 1953 514.6 271.3 637.0 915.9 487.9 2,826.7 468,9 1954 825.3 332.5 534.6 729.6 510.6 2,932.6 655.7 1955 853.9 475.8 643.7 913.0 496.8 3,383.2 600,1 1956 440.6 411.7 461,1 818.1 423.3 2,554.8 - 339.1 1957 416.2 569.1 550.0 93000 419.2 2,884.5 385.7 Total 6,788.4 2,962.2 5,200.4 6,862.2 5,840.8 27,654.0 5,463.4 PERCENTAGE 1947 41.7 .6 16.2 28.5 24.3 100.0 28,6 1948 29.8 2.6 17.7 17.2 26.0 100.0 21,7 1949 19.8 8.3 20.4 23.8 30.4 100.0 14.1 1950 15.0 20.2 16.1 21.1 36.6 100.0 14,4 1951 23.1 6.3 21.5 12.1 27.5 100.0 22.5 1952 41.6 7.1 14.5 21.6 17.1 100,0 35.7 1953 18.2 9.6 22.5 19.7 17.3 100,0 16.6 1954 28.2 11.3 18.2 32.4 17.4 100.0 22.4 1955 23.8 13.3 18.0 24.9 19.4 100,0 17.7 1956 17.2 16.1 18.1 25.5 16.6 100.0 13.3 1957 14.4 19.7 19.1 32.0 14.5 100.0 13.4 Total 24.6 10.7 18.8 24.8 21.1 100,0 19.8 (a) Volumes of lumber include ooniferous sawnwood and boxboards. (b) Food and Agricultural Organization, Division of Forestry and Forest Products, 1949 Yearbook of Forest Products Statistics (Washington D.C.: 1949). p. ~6'8~; 1951 Home; 195l) pTT2f (1953), P. 68; 1912 (1955), p. 55: l?57 (1957), P. 68; 1959 (1959), p. 44. (c) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia, pt. 2, sec n.n., 1955), PP. 41-46; Record, ofthe Lumber Industry of the Forest Industries" Series rvictoria,B.C.: Supplement KoT 1 to the Statistical in British Columbia"("19571 tables on "Shipments of Sawn Lumber and Ties." ciw« meoqr a pHed.) B.C. WATERS To 1947 China, Hong Kong, Formosa 48,426 India 8,783 Africa 69,136 Egypt, Arabia, Israel 28,451 Belgium 180 France 26,107 Germany 0 Holland 52,813 Italy 80 Norway, Denmark, Sweden 0 United Kingdom 74-4,804 Belgium, Holland (b) Mexico, Central America 7 United States 205 West Indies 18,934 Australia 71,313 Japan, Korea 0 New Zealand 15,362 Phillipine Hawaiian Is. 73 South Sea Islands 6,388 South America 5,519 Foreign Unclassified 12,597 Total 1,109,178 TABLE 24 LUMBER SHIPMENT : 1947 im (in M. bd. 1948 34,390 2,497 108,384 10,291 1,203 30 0 7,883 47. 0 470,445 (b) 435 104,636 4,328 54,376 0 6,768 13,901 5,930 5,486 10,568 841,589 1949 4,318 12,261 101,957 11,744 3,202 1,841 51 1,945 295 309 345,812 (b) 4,619 310,411 9,754 83,523 0 10,702 11,806 7,668 7,234 6,939 935,670 '1950 7,087 2,621 89,152 0 0 1,917 549 714 243,632 (b) 89 736,831 8,654 90,936 86 '8,823 13,112 7,751 2,227 20,423 1,251,196 1951 21,382 7,396 94,412 22,426 (a) 1,672 291 (a) 1,221 1,107 763,267 7,720 463 71,316 9,969 93,566 101 13,311 11,353 9,917 2,067 13,335 1,146,291 / TABLE 24 •: CONTINUED 1952 1953 China, Hong Kong, Formosa 7 ,915 9,206 India 1 ,029 16,695 Africa 52 ,344 123,064 Egypt, Arabia, Israel 498 2,191 Belgium 2 ,390 8,951 France 1 ,172 1,382 Germany 73 105 Holland 1 ,217 4,524 Italy 637 1,084 Norway, Denmark, Sweden 227 247 United Kingdom 77 2 ,527 502,814 Belgium, Holland (b) (b) Mexico, Central America 463 269 United States 229 ,809 542,472 West Indies 3 ,404 12,235 Australia 36 ,060 89,658 Japan, Korea 82 23,742 New Zealand 7 ,839 16,036 Philippines & Hawaiian Is 9 ,558 7,577 South Sea Islands 8 ,538 8,563 South America 2 ,164 3,924 Foreign Unclassified 10 ,107 20,217 Total 1,148 ,053 1,384,956 1954 3 ? 599 4,397 145,308 2,368 4,977 2,950 15 4,123 2,284 175 697,298 (b) 29,192 509,661 12,062 115,464 8,216 13,465 4,998 8.402 648 4,674 1,574,276 1955 1,909 1,745 188,567 1,320 . 3,121 2,845 732 4,042 4; 349 109 611,451 (b) 33,788 345,694 10,516 137,308 10,725 12,588 12,715 16.140 5,756 3,603 1956 1,275 416 145,132 1,394 2,628 3,191 177 3,802 3,007 0 320,293 (b) 41,937 283,834 11,599 99,829 5,852 14,097 13,183 15,339 16,541 1,221 1957 1,256 468 181,560 5,766 5,095 4,110 169 3,552 6,530 0 385,237 14 49,885 275,452 12,085 87,213 3,713 11,030 7,668 8,147 25,503 2,363 1,410,203 984,747 1,076,816 (a) (b) Listed as Belgium and Holland. \uj Listed separately as Belgium and Holland, (c) British Columbia, Forest Service, Report of the Forest Service; 1949 (Victoria, B.C.: King' Printer, 1950), p. 106; 1957 (Queen's Printer, 1958J, p. '92. Year 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Tota 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Tota (a) Year ;TABLE 25 CONIFEROUS LUMBER EXPORTS TO THE UNIOH OF.SOUTH AFRICA; 1947 - 1957 (VOLUMES in M.. bd.ft.) Canada U.S.A. SWeden Finland Others Total 97.4 81.8 26.3 20.4 6.8 • 232.7 92.5 65.3 62.4 0.0 ~ 5.9 226.1 71.3 58.0 27.9 •16.5 7.9 181.6 60.6 38.2 50.9 52.5 5.9 208.1 72.1 76.2 34.0 49.9 14.9 247.1 42.0 73.3 34.8 16.4 4.0 170.5 '"93v9 51.9 25.5 7.3 4; 6 183.2 91.9 102.2 25.1 8.9 5.7 233.8 147.9 61.8 28.3 11.5 4.5 254.0 105.3 35.0 33.1 23.6 2.6 199.6 133.3 38.4. 17.8 17.2 1.8 208.5 1,008.2 682.1 366.1 224.2 64.6 2,345.2 PERCENTAGE 41.9 35.1 11.3 8.8 2.9 100.0 40.9 28.9 27.6 0.0 2.6 100.0 39.3 31.9 15.4 9.1 4.3 100.0 29.1 18.4 24.5 25.2 2.8 100.0 29.2 30.8 13.8 20.2 6.0 100.0 24.6 43.0 20.4 9.6 2.4 100.0 51.3 28.3 13.9 4.0 2.5 100.0 39.3 43.7 10.8 3.8 2.4 100.0 58.2 24.3 11.2 4.5 1.8 100.0 52.8 17.5 16.6 11.8 1.3 100.0 63.9 18.4 8.5 8.2 1.0 100.0 43.0 29.1 15.6 9.5 2.8 100.0 d Agricultural Organization, Division of Forestry and Forest Products, 1949 Forest Products Statistics (Washington D.C.: 1949), pp. 64-65; 1951(Rome! 195D UVWJ, pp. 66-67; 1212 (1955), PP. 66-67; 1222 (1957) PP 66-67, 1929 TABLE 26 (a) CONIFEROUS LUMBER IMPORTS OF AUSTRALIA t Year Canada^ U.S.A. CTOLUME8 (in M. bd. f t.) /•hN Finland x .... Sweden(b) New Norway Zealand Other(b) Total T, ~ B.C. 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 96,6 43.6 48.7 34.7 95.6 52.1 76.4 105.7 141.4 104.7 81.6 41.2 49.5 86.9 79.6 80.6 97.0 37.0 72.5 93.4 71.7 75.6 2.6 37.2 63.2 104.3 139.2 57.4 10.3 21.4 33.5 23.2 18.4 6.3 22.0. 21 $ 2 14.1 20.6 14.1 17.2 31.1 37.2 33.3 28.3 0.4 4.9 12.3 23.7 63.6 28.5 14.7 23.5 14.3 16.0 4.0 147.1 157.2 232.3 256.4 399.6 249.1 155.6 254.2 319.8 248.9 207.9 71.3 54.4 83.5 90.9 93.6 30.1 89.7 115.5 137.3 99.8 87.2 Total 881.1 785.0 510.7 245.4 205.9 2,628.1 953.3 PERCENTAGE 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 65.7 27.7 21.0 13.5 23.9 20.9 49.1 41.6 44.2 42.1 39.2 28.0 31.5 37.4 31.0 20.2 39.0 23.8 28.5 29.2 28.8 36.4 1.7 23.7 27.2 40.7 34.8 23.1 6.6 8.4 10.5 9.3 8.4 4.3 14.0 9.1 5.5 5.2 5.6 11.1 12.2 11.6 13.4 13.6 0.3 3.1 5.3 9.3 15.9 11.4 9.4 9.3 4.5 6.4 1.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 48.5 34.6 36.0 35.5 23.4 14.5 57.6 45.3 42.9 40.1 41.9 Total 33.5 29.9 19.4 9.4 7.8 100.0 36.3 TABLE 26 - CONTINUED (a) Volumes of lumber include coniferous sawnwood and boxboards. (b) Food and Agricultural Organization, Division of Forestry and Forest Products, 1949 Yearbook of Forest Products Statistics (Washington D.C.; 1949), p. 69; 195ITRome, 1951). iglg 1953 , P. 69; 1255 (1955), P. W t u Z Z U957) ' 1959 (1959), p. 45. (c) British Columbia, Forest Service, Report of the Forest Service:._lg4g (Victoria, B.C.: King's Printer, 19WT, p. 106: 125Z (Queen. s Printer, 1958), p. 92. TABLE 27 NEW NONFARM DWELLING UNIT STARTS IN U.S. A, VS. LIMBER SHIPMENTS FROM B.C.; 1947 - 195.7 Y e a r Wo. of starts(a) Lumber shipments(b) ( in 1,000's) ( in M.bd.ft.) 849.0 260,167 1948 931.6 546 610 1949 1 ,025 .1 : . i n s m 1950 1,396.0 1," 576,763 1951 1,091.3 870,290 1952 1,127.0 993,828 1953 1,130.8 1,238,287 1954 1,220.4 1,391,193 1955 1,328.9 1,503,789 1956 1,118.1 1,476,581 1957 1,041.9 1,401,506 (a) United States. Department of Labor and Department of Commerce, Construction Review, vol. 1 (Washington D.C.: G.P.O., January 1955), p. 15; vol. 5 (June 1959), p. 19. (b) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia, pt. 2, sec. 2 to the Forest Industries Series~Tvictoria, B.C.: n.n., 1955), pp. 41-46^ (Mimeographed.); Supplement No. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia ""(1957). tables on "Sawn Lumber and Ties". ( Mi vn. eoa ra p H ed.) TABLE 28 SOFTWOOD LIMBER PRODUCTION OF THE U.S.A: SELECTED AREAS M P STATES 1956 (Volumes in millions of bd.ft.) Area Volume Northeast New England Middle Atlantic 1,096 848-(a) North Central (a) South Atlantic Virginia West Virginia North Carolina South Caroline Georgia 4,772 730 (a) 1,478 (c) 628 (c) 1,418 (c) East South Central Kentucky Tennessee Alabama Mississippi 2,018 (a) 231 880 (c) 805 (c) West South Central Arkansas • Louisiana Texas 1,698 665 (c) 358 (c) 620 (c) Mountain Montana Idaho Wyoming Colorado 3,574 979 (b) 1,608 (b) (a) (a) Pacific Washington Oregon California 17,817 2,616 (b) 8,321 (b) 5,880 (b) Total 30,231 (a) Estimates of production too inaccurate to warrant publication. (b) States included as part of the major lumber producing areas of the Pacific Northwest. Clarence F. Jones and Gordon G. Darkenwald, Economic Geo-graphy (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1954), p. 73. TABLE 28 - CONTINUED (c) States included as part of the major lumber producing areas of the Southern Pine Forest. Jones and Darkenwald, Economic Geography p. 73. (d) United States, Bureau of the Census, Industry Division, Wood Products, Facts for Industry, Lumber Production and Mill Stocks 1957 (WashinTb^T; D.C.: G.P.0.,~l^^J7~p7~37 ;TABLE 29 SAW TIMBER SOFTWOOD LUMBER RESERVES OF THE U.S.A. : 1953 (volumes In millions of bd. ft.) Area Volume Area Volume Area : New England - 27,169 Plains 670 Pacific Northwest Connecticut 263 Kansas 6 Oregon Maine 16,898 Nebraska -187 Washington Massachussets 1,299 N.Dakota 0 N.Hampshire 5,527 Oklahoma W. 0 California Rhode Island 29 S.Dakota E. 107 Vermont 3,153 Texas W. 370 N. Rocky Mountains Idaho Middle Atlantic 13,328 South Atlantic 51,144 Montana Delaware 518 N.Carolina 22,459(b) S.Dakota W. Maryland 1,526 S.Carolina 18,876(b) Wyoming New Jersey 351 Virginia 9,809 New York 6,517 Pennsylvania 2,881 Southeast 76,833 S. Rocky Mountains West Virginia 1,535 Alabama 21,929(b) Arizona Florida 18,064(b) Colorado Lake 14,355 Georgia 23,112(b) Nevada Michigan 5,469 Mississippi 11,138(b) New Mexico Minnesota 5,039 Tennessee 2,590 Utah Wisconsin 3,847 West Gulf 54,956 Central 3,420 Arkansas 17,777(b) Illinois 44 Louisiana 18,208(b) Indiana 54 Texas E. 16,741(b) U.S.A.Total Iowa 0 Oklahoma E. 12,230(b) Kansas 2,167 Missouri 809 Ohio 346 Volume 731,433 424,721(a) 354,012(a) 354,024(a) 165,682 95,809(a) 55,075(a) 3,167 11,631 65,589 19,817 23,777 565 14,038 7,392 1,558,603 TABLE 2198 - CONTINUED (a) Areas included as part of the major lumber producing areas of the Pacific Northwest. Clarence F. Jones and Gordon G. Darkenwald, Economic Geography (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1954), p. 73. (b) States included as part of the major lumber producing areas of the Southern Pine Forest. Jones and Darkenwald, Economic Geography, p. 73. (c) United States, Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States 1959- (80th ed.: Washington, D.C.: G.P.O., 1959), P. 690. TABLE 30 CONIFEROUS LIMBER IMPORTS OF THE U.S.A. Year Canada Mexico 1947 952,182 136,818 1948 1 ,504;998 142,758 1949 1 ,313,928 116,028 1950 2 ,923,668 191,664 1951 2 ,096,028 118,998 1952 2 ,155,428 93,060 1953 O £ ,430,450 "73?260 1954 2 ,762,694 74,448 1955 3 ,241,656 69,696 1956 3 ,075,336 47,916 1957 2 ,660,328 51,282 Totals 25 ,114,696 1,115,928 (Volume in M.bd.ft.) VOLUME Other 12s6?2 18,810 8,960 50,688 51,084 34,848 44,352 32,472 31,086 22,374 18,810 326,156 1947-1957(a) Total 1,101,674 1,666,566 1,438,866 3,166,020 2,266,110 2,2835336 2,548,602 2,869,614 3,342,438 3,145,626 2,730,420 26.559,270 PERCENTAGE 1947 86.4 12.4 1.2 100.0 1948 90.3 8.6 1.1 100.0 1949 91.3 8.1 0.6 100.0 1950 92.3 6.1 1.6 100.0 1951 92.5 5.3 2.2 100.0 1952 94.4 4.1 1.5 100.0 1953 95.4 2.9 1.7 100.0 1954 96.3 2.6 1.1 100.0 1955 97.0 2.1 0.9 100.0 1956 97.8 1.5 0.7 100.0 1957 97.4 1.9 0.7 100.0 Totals 94.6 4.2 1.2 100.0 (a) Volumes of lumber include sawn wood and boxboards. (b) Food and Agricultural Organization, Division of Forestry and Forest Products, 1949 Yearbook of Forest Products Statistics, (Washington D.C.; 1949), p. 68; 1951 (Rome, 1951), P. 62; (1953), p. 68; 1221 (1955), p. 68; 1222 (1957), p768; 1212 (1959), p. 44. Year 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Tota! Year 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Tota • •TABLE 31 SOURCE OF CANADIAN SOFTWOOD EXPORTS TO THE U.S.A. V 1947 - 1957 A. D.B.S. AND F.A.O, DATA'"' (Volume in M.bd.ft.) .Percentage B.C.(a> Rest of(b) Total B.C. Rest of Canada Canada 260,167 692,015 952,182 27.3 72.7 546,610 958,388 1,504,998 36.3 63.7 731,814 582,114 1,313,928 55.7 44.3 1,376,763 1,546,905 2,923,668 4 7 . 1 52.9 870,290 1,225,738 2,096,028 41.5 -58.5 993,828 1,161,600 2,155,428 46.1 53.9 1,238,287 1,192,163 2,430,450 50.9 49.1 1,391,193 1,371,501 2,762,694 50.4 49.6 1,503,789 1,737,867 3,241,656 46.4 53.6 1,476,581 1,598,755 3,075,336 48.0 52.0 1,401,506 1,258,822 2,660,328 52.7 47.3 11,790,828 13,325,868 25,116,696 46.9 53.1 B. B.C.L.i i.A. AND F.A.O. DATA (c) (b) Total B.C. Rest of Can 317 635 952 33.3 66.7 725 780 1,505 48.2 51.8 809 505 1,314 61.6 38.4 1,573 1,351 2,924 53.8 46.2 988 1,108 2,096 47.1 52.9 1,078 1,077 2,155 50.0 50.0 1,383 1,047 2,430 56.9 43.1 1,555 1,208 2,763 56.3 43.7 1,716 1,526 3,242 52.9 47.1 1,724 1,351 3,075 56.1 43.9 1,574 1,063 2,637 60.0 40.0 13,442 11,651 25,093 53.6 46.4 Year 1947 1952 1957 1947 1952 1957 B.C. 1,018,978 993,828 1,401,506 48.8 7 5 9 2 86.3 Alta. 26,121 81,295 73,937 4.9 6.2 4.6 TABLE 31 - CONTINUED C. D.B.S. DATA ( V o l u m e i n M.bd.ft.) Sask. 6 , 9 8 6 18,531 1,761 1.3 1.4 0,1 Man. 10,562 15,986 13,450 PERCENTAGE 2,0 1.2 0 . 8 Ont. 106,548 83,377 40,273 20.0 6.3 2.5 Que. 101,407 97,181 72,803 1 9 . 0 7.4 4.5 Maritlmes 21,432 30,636 19,763 4.0 2.3 1,2 Total 533,223 ,320,834 ,401,506 100.0 100,0 100,0 (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia, pt. 2, sec. 2 of the Forest Industries Series (Victoria, B.C.: n.n., 1955), pp. 41-46. (Mimeographed.); Supplement No. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry In British Columbia (19577, tables on '"Shipment of Sawn Lumber and Ties.'1 <.t-we^ ap^ ) (b) Food and Agricultural Organization, Division of Forestry and Forest Products, 1949 Yearbook of Forest Products Statistics, (Washington D.C.L 1949), p. 68; 1951 ;Rome, 1951), p7~S2; T^3~H953), p. £87~i?55, (1955), p. 68; 195Z (1957), p. 1252 (1959), p. 44. (c) British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association, 57th Annual Report 1957, (Vancouver; 1958), p. 14. (d) Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Shipments and Stocks on Hand of Sawmills East of the Rockies, vol. 2 (Ottawa: King's Printer, January-December, 1947), tables on, "Lumber Shipped by Reporting Operators"; vol. 7 (Queen1s Printer, January-December, 1952), tables on, "Lumber Shipped by Reporting Operators"; vol. 12 (January-December 1957), tables on, "Lumber Shipped by Reporting Operators". In Tables A and B the volume of U.S.A.imports has been taken from data published by the F.A.0. To determine the proportion of Canadian shipments of Canadian shipments originating in the / TABLE 31 •: CONTINUED "Rest of Canada" the volume of British Columbia exports, as prescribed by the D.B.S. and the B.C.L.M.A., were subtracted from the F.A.O. figures, The data in Table C is tabulated by the D.B.S. from the reported lumber shipments of individual sawmills. Since many mills do not supply this information the values in this table are inaccurate and can only be taken as an indication of trends. TABLE 32 COAST AID INTERIOR LUMBER SHIPMENTS Year 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 TO THE U.S.A.: 1947 - 1957 : A. D.B.S. DATA(a) (VOLUMES(in M. bd.ft.) Coast 177,114 . 4519142 662,111 1,206,795 660,848 717,171 984,798 978,607 957,853 925,699 837,640 Interior 83,053 95,468 69,703 169,968 209,442 276,657 253,487 412,586 545,936 550,882 563,866 Total 260,167 546,610 731,814 1,376,763 870,290 1,093,828 1,238,285 1,391,193 1,503,789 1,476,581 1,401,506 Total 8,559,778 3,231,050 11,790,828 PERCENTAGE 1947 68.1 31.9 100.0 1948 .82.5 17.5 100.0 1949 90.5 9.5 100.0 1950 87.7 12.3 100.0 1951 75.9 24.1 100.0 1952 72.2 27.8 100.0 1953 79.5 20.5 100.0 1954 70.3 29.7 100.0 1955 63.7 36.3 100.0 1956 62.7 37.3 100.0 1957 59.8 40.2 100.0 Total 72.6 27.4 100.0 TABLE 32 CONTINUED : B. B.C.L.M.A DATA(b) •C70EBM1 (in millions bd.ft.) Year Coast Interior Total 1947 203 114 317 1948 541 184 725 1949 677 132 809 1950 1)273 300 1,573 1951 690 298 988 1952 733 345 1,078 1953 1,023 360 1,383 1954 • 990 565 1.555 1955 966 750 I;716 1956 949 775 1,724 1957 825 772 1,597 Total 8,870 4,595 13,464 PERCENTAGE 1947 64.0 36.0 100.0 1948 74.6 25.4 100.0 1949 83.7 16.3 100.0 1950 80.9 19.1 100.0 1951 69.8 30.2 100.0 1952 68.0 32.0 100.0 1953 74.0 26.0 100.0 1954 63.7 36.3 100.0 1955 56.3 43.7 100.0 1956 55.0 45 .0 100.0 1957 51.7 48.3 100.0 Total 65.9 34.1 100.0 (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia, pt. 2, sec. 2 of the Forest Industries SeriesTVictoria, B.C.: n.n. 1955), p. 41-46. (Mimeographed.); Supplement No. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia, (1957), tables on "Shipments of Sawn Lumber and Ties". (Mimeographed.) . . .. (b) British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association, 57th Annual Report 1957 (Vancouver* 1958), p. 14. Year 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 TABLE 33 TQgAL B.C. LIMBER SHIPMENTS TO U.S.A. MARKET AREAS ; 1947 - 195? (Volumes in M. bd. ft.) - . VOLUMES . Pacific Ports Interior Atlantic Ports Total 10,639 29,008 19,334 31,558 36,331 26,167 37,375 51,628 33,966 25,742 35,632 241,671 408.947 405.948 628,205 756,372 743,601 686,727 851,313 1,087,313 1,138,635 1,054,130 7,858 108,655 306,532 717,000 77,587 224,060 514,185 488,252 382,510 312,204 311,744 260,167 546,610 731,814 1,376,763 870,290 993,828 1,238,287 1,391,193 1,503,789 1,476,581 1,401,506 Total 337,380 8,002,862 3,450,586 11,790,828 PERCENTAGE 1947 4.1 92.9 3.0 100.0 1948 5.3 74.8 19.9 100.0 1949 2.6 55.5 41.9 100.0 1950 2 .3 45.6 52.1 100.0 1951 4.2 86.9 8.9 100.0 1952 2.6 74.8 22:. 6 100.0 1953 3.0 55.5 41.5 100.0 1954 3.7 61.2 35.1 100.0 1955 2.3 72.3 25.4 100.0 1956 1.7 77.1 21.2 100.0 1957 2.5 75.2 22.3 100.0 Total 2.9 67.9 29.2 100.0 (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia., pt. 2, sec. 2 of the Forest~Industries Series "(Victoria, B.C.: n.n. 1955), pp. 41-467 (MimeagrapKedT")';" Supplement No. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry; in British Columbia (1957), fables on "Shipments and Stocks of Sawn Lumber and Ties". (Mimeographed.) TABLE 34 COAST AND INTERIOR LUMBER SHIPMENTS TO U.S.A. MARKET AREAS ; 1947 - 1957 (volumes in M. bd.ft.) COAST VOLUMES Atlantic Total Ports 3,325 177,144 106,265 451,142 304,740 662,111 713,500 1,206,795 75,996 660,848 221,052 717,171 510,529 984,798 483,544 978,607 353,140 957,853 291*567 925,699 303,656 837,640 3,367,314 8,459,778 PERCENTAGE 1947 3.9 94.2 1.9 100.0 1948 6.1 70.3 23.6 • 100.0 1949 2.9 51.1 .46.0 100.0 1950 2.3 38.6 59.1 -100.0 1951 5o4 83.1 11.5 100.0 1952 3.2 66.0 30.8 100.0 1953 3.6 44.6 51.8 100.0 1954 5.2 45®4 49.4 100.0 1955 2.6 60.5 36.9 100.0 1956 2.2 66.3 31.5 100.0 1957 3.3 66 * 5 '$6*2 100.0 Total 3.5 56.7 39.8 100.0 Year Pacific Interior Ports 1947 6,943 166,846 1948 27,594 317,283 1949 19,151 338,220 1950 28,239 465,056 1951 35,683 549,169 1952 22,732 473,387 1953 34,933 439,336 1954 51,123 443,940 1955 25,081 579,632 1956 20,611 613,521 1957 27,413 506,571 Total 299,503 4,792,961 TABLE 2207 - CONTINUED INTERIOR Year 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Total Pacific Ports 3.696 1,414 183 3,319 648 3,435 2,442 505 8,885 5,131 8,219 37,877 VOLUMES Interior Atlantic Total Ports 74,825 4,532 83,053 91,664 2,390 95,468 67,728 1,792 69,703 163,149 3,500 169,968 207,203 1,591 209,442 270,214 3,008 276,657 247,391 3,656 253,489 407,373 4,708 412,586 507,681 29,370 545,936 525,114 20,637 550,882 547,559 8,088 563,866 3,209,901 83,272 3,331,050 PERCENTAGE 1947 4.5 90.1 5.4 100.0 1948 1.5 96.0 2o5 100 eO 1949 0.3 97.1 2.6 100,0 1950 2.0 96.0 2.0 100.0 1951 0.3 98.9 0.8 100.0 1952 1.2 97.7 1.1 lOOoO 1953 1.0 97.6 1®4 100.0 1954 o a 98.7 1«2 lOOoO 1955 1.6 93.0 5.4 100.0 1956 0.9 95.3 3.8 100.0 1957 1.5 97.1 1.4 100.0 Total 1«1 96.4 2.5 100.0 (a) British Columbia Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Becord of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia, pt. 2, sec. 2 of the Forest Industries SeriesTVictoria. B.C.: n.n., 1959), pp. 41-467 (Mimeographed.); Supplement No. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia (1957), tables on Shipments of Sawn Lumber and Ties." TABLE 35 WATER-BORNE SHIPMENTS VS TOTAL SHIPMENTS: COAST TO U.S.A. MARKET AREAS: 1947 - 1957 (volumes in M. bd.f t.) TO PACIFIC PORTS Year Total Water- % Volume borne Water-Volume borne 1947 6,943 1,459 21.0 1948 , 27,594 19,951 72.3 1949 19,151 14,401 75.2 1950 28,239 18,109 64.1 1951 35,683 19,742 55»3 1952 22,732 16,831 74.0 1953 34,933 26,918 77.1 1954 51,123 23,874 46.7 1955 25,081 6,070 24.2 1956 20,611 8,380 40*7 1957 27,413 8,432 30.8 Total 289,494 164,167 56.7 TO ATLANTIC PORTS 1947 3,325 70 2.1 1948 106,225 91,130 85.8 1949 304,740 296,272 97.2 1950 713,500 699,819 98.1 1951 75,996 62,841 82.7 1952 221,052 209,617 94.8 1953 510,529 495,569 97.1 1954 483,544 455,460 94.2 1955 353,140 334,261 94.7 1956 291,567 275,732 94.6 1957 303,656 278,812 91.8 Total 3,367,274 3,199,583 95.0 (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia, pt. 2, sec. 2 of the Forest Industries Series (Victoria. B.C.: n.n., 1955), pp. 41-46. (Mimeographed.); Supplement No. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia (1957); tables on "Shipmentt s of Sawn Lumber and Ties". ( M i m e o g r a p h e d.) TABLE 36 COAST AND INTERIOR LUMBER SHIPMENTS TO THE U.S.A. MARKET AREAS; 1947 - 1-957 (volumes in M. bd.ft.) TO PACIFIC PORTS VOLUMES Y e a r Coast Interior Total 1947 6,943 3,696 10,639 1948 27,594 1,414 29 008 1949 19,151 183 19 334 1950 28,239 3,319 31 558 1951 35,683 648 36,331 1952 22,732 3,435 26 167 1953 34,933 2,442 37,375 1954 51,123 505 51,628 1955 ; 25,081 8,885 33,966 1956 20,611- 5,131 25,742 1957 27,413 8,219 35,632 Total 299,503 37,877 337,380 PERCENTAGE 1947 65.3 37o4 100.0 1948 95.1 4.9 100.0 1949 99.1 0.9 100.0 1950 89.5 10.5 100.0 1951 98.2 1.8 100.0 1952 86.9 13.1 100.0 1953 93 «5 6.5 100.0 1954 99.0 1.0 100.0 1955 73 ®8 26.2 100.0 1956 80.1 19.9 100.0 1957 76.9 23.1 100.0 Total 88.8 11.2 100.0 TABLE 2210 - CONTINUED Year TO INTERIOR U.S.A. VOLUME Coast Interior Total 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 166*846 317,283 338,220 465,056 549,169 473,387 439,336 443,940 579,632 613,521 506.571 74,825 91,664 67,728 163,149 207,203 270,214 247,391 407,373 507,681 525,114-547,559 241,671 408.947 405.948 628,205 756,372 743,601-686,727 851,313 1,087,313 1,138,635 1,054,130 Total 4,892,961 3,109,901 8,002,862' PERCENTAGE 1947 69.0 31.0 100.0 1948 77.6 22.4 100.0 1949 83.3 16*7 100.0 1950 74.0 26.0 100.0 1951 72.6 27.4 100.0 1952 63.7 36.3 100.0 1953 64.0 36.0 100.0 1954 52.1 47.9 100.0 1955 53o3 46.3 100.0 1956 53.9 46.1 100.0 1957 48.1 51.9 100.0 Total 61.1 38.9 100.0 TABLE 36 - CONTINUED TO ATLANTIC PORTS VOLUME Year Coast Interior Total 1 9 4 7 3,325 4,532 7,857 1948 106,265 2 390 108 655 1949 304,740 1,792 306 532 1950 " 1 1951 1952 1953 1954 ' 1955 1956 1957 106,265 2,390 1,792 713,500 3,500 75,996 1,591 221,052 3,008 510,529 3,656 483,544 4,708 353,140 29,370 291,567 20,637 303,656 8,088 3,367,314 83,272 717,000 77,587 224,060 514,185 488,252 382,510 312,204 311,744 Total 3,450,586 PERCENTAGE 1947 42.3 - 57.7 100.0 1948 97.8 2.2 100.0 1949 99.4 0.6 100.0 1950 99.5 0.5 100.0 1951 97.9 2.1 100.0 1952 98.7 1.3 100.0 1953 99.3 0.7 100.0 1954 99.0 1.0 100.0 1955 92.3 7.7 100.0 1956 93.4 6.6 100.0 1957 97.4 2.6 100.0 Total 97.6 2.4 100.0 (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia, pt® 2, sec. of the Forest Industries Series (.Victoria, B.C.: n.n., 1955), pp. 41-46, (Mimeographed); Supplement No. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia (1957), tables on "Shipments of Sawn Lumber and Ties." (M-iwie-'ogr TABLE 37 DWELLING UNIT STARTS IN CANADA VS • LUMBER SHIPMENTS_gRQM; B.jIO/]7 -J.957 Y e a r No. of Starts(a) Lumber Shipments(b) (in M. bd.ft.) 74,263 1,108,978 1948 90,194 1,051,151 1949 89,509 1,018,261 .^50 92,531 938,702 1951 , 68,579 990,923 1952 83,246 1,012,044 1953 102,409 1,111,459 1954 113,527 1,165,919 1955 138,276 1,359,215 1956 127,311 1,505,041 1957 122,340 1,454,005 (a) Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Economic Research Department, Housing in Canada (Ottawa: C.M.H.C., January 1949), p. 28; Economic Research Department, Canadian Housing Statistics. Quarter 4, 1955 (Ottawa: C.M.H.C., March 1956) p. 8; Quarter 2, 1958 (September 1958), p. 8. (b) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Stat istical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columhia, pt. 2, sec. 2 of the Forest Industries Series (Victoria, B.C.: n.n., 1955), pp. 41-46. (Mimeographed.); Supplement No. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia (1957)» tables on "Shipments of Sawn Lumber and Ties". cw.meojraphed.) TABLE 38 ACCESSIBLE SAW TIMBER SOFTWOOD RESERVES OE CANADA ; 1956 Provinces Atlantic Provinces Newfoundland J? • IE) • X • Nova Scotia New Brunswick Quebec Ontario * Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta British Columbia Territories Total p. 142, fa) Reserves ' Population^ Per Capita .in millions reserves!" in of bd. ft.) 'M. bd. ft. 28_, 650 16.2 11,331 415,074 27.3 220 99,285 2.2: 4,849 694,717 7.0 12,250 554,616 - 22.1 37,005 4,628,378 8.0 80,703 5,404,933 14.9 4,896 850,040 5.8 ' .5,881 880,665 6.7 65,277 1,123,116 58.1 458,075 1,398,464 327.6 2,750 31,503 87.3 683,177 16,080,791 42.3 Statistics, Canada Yearbook 1957 - 1958 er, 1958), p . 467. Statistics, Canada Yearbook 1958 (I960), TABLE 39 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION BY PROVINCE OF CANADIAN SOFTWOOD LUMBER PRODUCTION AND ACCESSIBLE SOFTWOOD RESERVES 1956 Province f a ) Production^ ' Reserves Newfoundland 0.4 X ® T P • £ t 1 « 0.1 (c) Nova Scotia 3.7 1.9 New Brunswick 3.4 1.8 Quebec 13.0 5.3 Ontario 8.4 11.7 Manitoba 0.4 0„6 Saskatchewan 0.6 0.8 Alberta 4.9 9.3 British Columbia 65.0 66.5 Territories - 0.1 0.4 Total 100.0 100.0 (a) Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Canada Year Book, 1959 (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1959), p. 478. (b) Canada. Bureau of Statistics, Canada Year Book. 1957 1958, (1958), p. 466. (c) ^ess, than 0.05 percent. To. Nfia. P.E.I. N .S. N.B. Que. Ont. Man. Sask. Alta. B.C. ;TABLE 40 CANADIAN PROVINCIAL LUMBER SHIPMENTS 1^47, 19^7 (a) TQTAI 4,292,648 (volumes in M. bd.ft.) 1947 VOLUMES; From Total P.E.ir' N.S: (b) (b) N.B (b) 3,913 164,230 158,983 634,888 604,375 131,442 139,177 215,453 572,294 2,660 CANADA 2,624,755 U.S. 533,223 U.K. 785,338 Other 349,332 FORE ISM 1,66 7,893 2,660 Que (b) Ont^b) Man(b) Sask<b) Alta.(b) 70 156,852 6,765 4,294 195 156,852 6,765 4,294 2,067 2,062 904 349 4,347 552,290 71,858 728 2,660 170,048 160,618 630,476 5,490 27,451 15,942 15,998 1,525 2,752 -34,466 204,514 34,692 195,310 101,407 49,201 4,788 155,396 785,872 B.C.(c) 84 113 344 16,441 365,264 864 341 218 3,750 27,693 4,004 1,771 6,679 48,549 635 61 41 803 1,691 7,090 21,605 133,452 566 5,849 6,096 50,505 150,563 88,388 64,678 81,148 571,667 382,585 35,447 57,695 165,248 1,018,978 106,548 9,795 4,173 120,416 10,562 2,006 12,568 6,986 697 7,683 26,121 2,761 500 29,382 260,167 677,429 335,594 1,273,190 504,101 48,015 65,378 194,630 2,292,168 / TABLE 40 •: CONTINUED PERCENTAGE TO PROM Total P.E.I. N.S. N.B. Que. Ont. Man. Sask. Alta. B.C. Nfld. P.E.I. 100.0 68.0 1.8 5.0 23.1 2.1 N.S. 100.0 95.5 0.6 0.2 0.1 3.6 N.B. 100.0 4.3 88.9 2.7 0.2 (d) 3.8 Que. 100.0 0.7 1.7 87.0 2.6 0.1 7.9 Ont. 100.0 .3 1.2 11.9 60.4 0.6 0.3 0.3 24.9 Man. 100.0 0.5 0.7 21.1 5.1 5,4 67.2 Sask. 100.0 0,2 2.9 34.9 15.5 46.5 Alta. 100.0 0.1 0.3 61.9 37.7 B.C. 100.0 (d) 0.1 99.9 CANADA 100.0 0.1 6.5 6.1 24.0 14,6 1.4 i\> • ro 6.3 38.8 U.S. 100.0 1.0 3.0 19.0 20.0 2.0 1.3 4,9 48.8 U.K. 100.0 3.5 2.0 6.3 1.2 0.2 0.1 0.4 86.3 Other 100.0 0.4 0.8 1.4 1.2 0.1 96,1 FOREIGN 100.0 2.1 2.1 9.3 7.2 0,7 0.5 1.8 76.3 TOTAL 100.0 0.1 4.8 4.5 18.3 11,7 1.1 1.5 4.5 53.4 TABLE 40 - CONTINUED 1952 VOLUMES From To. Total P • E 9 I a N.S. N.B. Que. Ont • Man. Sask. Alta. B.C. Nfld. 1,173 94 145 64 870 P • I« 3,798 3 ,419 162 155 62 N.S. 102,470 97,946 1,187 639 16 2,682 N.B. 111,283 20 5,007 99,779 2,211 142 4,124 Que. 538,869 67 6,104 12,056 462,200 • 22,387 20 187 35,848 Ont. 663,580 164 1,050 5,162 82,053 430,388 1 69 6,726 137,967 Man. 102,579 70 919 14 ,061 1,064 10,358 76,107 Sask. 114,311 396 344 22,499 21,214. 69,858 Alta. 254,140 152 32 160,285 93,671 B.C. 589,068 20 155 538,893 CANADA 2 ,481,271 3 ,670 110,363 118,484 547,389 454,300 14 ,426 23,632 198,925 1 ,010,082 U.S. 1 ,320,834 2,609 28,027 97,181 83,377 15 ,986 18,531 81,-295 993,828 U.K. 731,085 5,495 9,270 14,539 8,709 693,012 Other 158,749 1,628 4,265 275 1,293 151,288 FOEEIgN 2 ,210,668 9,732 41,562 111,995 93,379 15 ,986 18,531 81,295 1 ,838,188 TGTALo 4 ,691,939 3 ,670 120,095 160,046 659,384 547,679 30 ,412 42,163 280,220 2 ,848.270 TABLE 40 - CONTINUED PERCENTAGE From To Total P • ^  • Z • N.So N.B. Que. Ont. Man. Sask. Alta. B.C. Nfld. 100,0 P.E.I. 100.0 90.0 . 4.3 4.1 1.6 N.S. 100.0 95.6 1 o 2 0.6 (d) 2.6 N.B. 100.0 (d) 4.5 89.7 2.0 0.1 3.7 Que. 100.0 (d) 1.1 2.2 85.8 4.2 (d) (d) 6.7 Ont. 100.0 (d) 0.2 0.8 12.4 64.8 (d) (d) 1.0 20.8 Man. 100.0 0.1 0.9 13.7 1.0 10.1 74.2 Sask. 100 oO 0.3 0.3 19.7 18,6 61.1 Alt a 100.0 0.1 63.1 36.8 B.C. 100.0 (d) (d) 100.0 CANADA 100.0 0.1 4.4 4.8 22.1 18.3 0.6 1.0 8.0 40.7 U.S. 100.0 0.2 2.1 7.4 6.3 1.2 1.4 6.2 75.2 U.K. 100.0 0.7 1.3 2.0 X ® 2 94.8 Other 100.0 1.0 2.7 0.2 0.8 95.3 IQREIP 100.0 0.4 1.9 5.1 4.2 0.7 0.8 3.7 83.2 M A I : 100.0 0.1 2.6 3.4 14.0 11.7 0.6 0.9 6.0 60.7 TABLE 40 - CONTINUED 1957 VOLUMES From To Total P.E.I. N.S. N.B. Que. Ont. Man. Sask. Alta. B.Co Nfld. 3,654 27 1,467 224 324 1,612 P .E. 1.8 4,106 3,627 211 48 . 45 100 75 N.S. 119,361 21 113,356 2,191 829 169 2,795 N-.B. 98,959 68 4,543 87,579 2,179 908 3,682 Que. 531,951 8 2,794 21,005 440,503 32,722 1,241 33,678 Ont. 652,109 506 12,150 91,634 351,696 13,845 182,278 Man. 83,460 43 225 7,143 4,656 71,393 Sask. 101,161 40 157 23,080 10,845 67,039 Alta. 230,976 12 138,244 92,66© B«C * 998,425 998,425 CANADA 2 ,824,970 3,751 122,877 123,197 535,609 385,977 7,143 23,080 168,831 1 ,454,005 U.S. 1 ,623,473 657 19,086 72,803 40,273 13,450 1,761 73,937 1 ,401,506 U.K. 428,748 15,742 10,189 10,320 6,803 385,694 Other 387,589 76 561 1,158 2,657 383,134 POBEip 243,810 16,474 29,836 84,281 49,736 13,450 1/761 73,937 2 ,170,334 TOTAL 5 ,264,280 3,751 139,351 153,033 619,890 435,713 20,593 24,841 242,768 3 ,624,339 TABLE 40 - CONTINUED PERCENTAGE To From Total 3? $ S«X & N.S. N.B. Que. Ont. Man. Sask. Alta. B. C » Nfld. P.E.I. 100.0 88.3 5.2 1.2 X © X 2.4 1.8 N.S. 100.0 (d) 95.0 1 • B 0.7 0.2 2.3 N.B. 100.0 0.1 4.6 88.5 2.2 • 0.9 3.7 Que. 100.0 (d) 0.5 4.0 82.8 6.2 0.2 6.3 Ont. 100.0 0.1 1.9 14.1 53.9 2.1 27.9 Man. 100.0 0.1 0.3 8.5 5.6 85.5 Sask. 100.0 (d) 0.2 22 .8 10.7 66.3 Alt a. 100.0 (d) 59.9 40.1 B.C. 100.0 100.0 CANADA 100.0 o a 4.3 4.4 19.0 13.7 0.2 0.8 6.0 51.5 U.S. 100.0 (d) 1«2 4.5 2.5 0.8 0.1 4.6 86.3 U.K. 100.0 3.7 2.4 2.4 1.6 89.9 Other 100.0 (d) 0.1 0.3 0.7 98.9 FOREIGN 100.0 0.7 1.2 3.4 2.0 0.6 0.1 3.0 89.0 TOTAL; 100.0 0.1 2.6 2.9 11.8 8.3 0.4 0.5 4.6 68.8 TABLE 40 - CONTINUED (a) Figures in this table are compiled from reported ship-ments, and in some instances it is probable that large volumes of movement from individual provinces have gone unreported. No estimation of unreported shipments has been given by the D.B.S. except for British Columbia where there is a figure for the total unreported shipments. (b) Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Shipments and Stocks on Hand of Sawmills East of the Rockies, vol. 2 (Ottawa* King's Printer, January-December 1947), tables on "Lumber Shipped by Reporting Operators"; vol, 7 (Queen®s Printer, January-December 1952), tables on "Lumber Shipped by Reporting Operators". (c) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia, pt. 2, sec. 2 of the Forest Industries Series (Victoriar B.C.: n.n., 1955), pp. 41-46~j (Mimeographed.); Supplement No. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia, (1957), tables on "Shipments of Sawn Lumber and Ties." (Mime o gr aphe d.). (d) Less than 0.1 per cent. ;TABLE 41 PER CAPITA SOFTWOOD LUMBER PRODUCTION BY PROVINCE : 1956 Province Production (in M. bd. ft.) Atlantic Provinces 556,714 Newfoundland 30,902 P.E.I. 7,325 Nova Scotia 269,230 New Brunswick 249,257 Quebec 947,141 Ontario 612,215 Manitoba 28,411 Saskatchewan 43,387 Alberta 352,907 British Columbia 2,730,180 Territories 8,288 Total 7,279,243 Population Per Capita Production (in bd. ft.) 1.261,692 31j>.'»77_ 415,074 74<>4 99,285. 73.8 694,717 387.5 554,616 449.1 4,628,378 204.6 5,404.933 113.3 850,040 33.4" 880,665 49.3 1,123,116 314.2 1,398,464 1,952.3 31,503 263.1-16,080,791 452.7 (a) Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Canada Year Book 1959 (Ottawa; Queen's Printer, 1959) p.478. (b) Canada, Bureau of Statistics, Canada Year Book 1959 (1959), p. 142. Year 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Tota 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Tota TABLE 42 TOTAL B.C. LUMBER SHIPMENTS TO PROVINCIAL MARKETS 5 1947 — 1957 (A0 D.B.S . DATA^ -(¥©LSMii (in M. bd.ft.) B 9 G ® Al "b s>« Sask. Man. Ont. Que. 571?667 81,148 64,678 88,388 150,563 50,50'5 606,947 72,827 47,793 81,253 170,737 59,818 585,338 82,824 59,913 85,781 155,696 38,612 541,292 75,177 59,686 67,551 132,976 44,935 564,897 75,040 49,493 76,591 152,001 57,642 588,893 93,671 69,858 76,107 137,967 35,848 644,897 105,704 83,300 67,943 162,931 38,080 736,675 101,788 67,204 70,170 154,022 29,458 921,915 81,910 55,018 77,210 173,644 37,892 i;022,408 94,909 54,441 74,629 203,355 45,929 998,425 92,660 67,039 71,393 182,378 33,678 7,783,354 957,658 678,423 847,016 1,776,270 472,397 PERCENTAGE 56.1 8.0 6.3 8.7 14.8 4.9 57.8 6.9 4.6 7.7 16.3 5.7 57*5 8.2 5.9 8.4 15.3 3.8 57.7 8.0 6.3 7.2 14.2 4.8 57.0 7.6 5.0 7.7 15.3 5.8 58.2 9.3 6.9 7.5 13.6 3.5 58.0 9.5 7.5 6.1 14.7 3.4 63.4 8.7 5.8 6.0 13.2 2.5 67.8 6.0 4.1/ 5.7 14.7 2.8 67.9 6.3 3.6 5.0 13.5 3.1 68.7 6.4 4.6 4.9 12.5 2.3 61.6 7.6 5.4 6.7 14.1 3.7 TABLE 42 - CONTINUED A, D.B.S. D A T A ^ (mLT®E§:(in M.i bd. .ft-) Year 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Total Atlantic Provinces 12^029 11,776 9,111 16,219 14,831 9,206 8,082 6,456 9,786 9,016 8,164 114,676 N.B, 6,096 6,739 5,276 8,685 4,658 5,592 4,124 2,586 2,916 4,029 3,682 54,383 P • E«I« 84 358 270 353 162 62 216 140 371 220 75 2,311 N.S, 5,849 4,679 3,339 6,572 8,451 2,682 2,178 2,870 3.794 3,268 2.795 New-Pndlnd, 46.477 - 226 609 1,560 870 1,564 860 2,705 1,499 1,612 11,505 Terri-tories 986 866 428 494 522 146 1,840 354 268 Total 1,018,978 1,051,151 1,018,261 938.702 990,923 1,012,044 1,111,459 1,165,919 1,359,215 1,505,041 1,454,005 5,904 12,625,678 PERCENTAGE 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1.2 1.0 0.9 1.8 1*5 1.0 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.9 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) ,6 >4 >3 0.7 0.9 0, 0< 0.3 0.3 0 o 2 0.2 (c) (c) (d) 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 (c) (c) 0.1 0 . 1 (d) (d) 0.1 (d) 0.1 (d) (d) 100.0 100 oO 100.0 " 100*0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Total 0.9 0.4 (d) 0.4 0.1 (d) 100.0 TABLE 42 - CONTINUED B. B.C.L.M.A. DATA ^  e^ (VOLUMES(in millions of bd.ft.) Year British Prairie Eastern Columbia Provinces Canada Total 1947 789 334 287 1,410 1948 972 323 380 1,675 1949 933 305 275 1,513 1950 974 302 277 1,553 1951 1,063 245 266 1,574 1952 '1,038 263 233 1,534 1953 1,119 403 295 1,817 1954 , 1,259 358 251 1,868 1955 1,480 317 283 2,080 1956 1,535 328 330 2,193 1957 1,370 266 284 1,920 Total 12,532 3,444 3,161 19,137 PERCENTAGE 1947 56.0 23.7 20.3 100.0 1948 58.0 19.3 22.7 100.0 1949 61.7 20.1 18.2 100.0 1950 62.7 19*5 17.8 100.0 1951 67.5 15.6 16.9 100.0 1952 67.7 17.1 15.2 100.0 1953 61.6 22.2 16.2 100.0 1954 67.4 19.2 13.4 100.0 1955 71.2 15.2 13.6 100.0 1956 70.0 15.0 15.0 100 oO 1957 71.3 13.8 • 14.9 lOOoO Total 65.5 18.0 16.5 100.0 (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia, pt. 2, sec. 2, of the Forest Industries Series"(Victoria. B.C.: n.n., 1955), pp. 41-46; Supplement No. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in "British Columbia (1957). tables on "Shipments of Sawn Lumber and Ties". (b) The Atlantic Provinces are New Brunswick, P.E.I., Nova Scotia,and Newfoundland. (c) Not recorded. (d) Less than 0.1 per cent. (e) British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association, 57th Annual Report 1957 (Vancouver 1958), p. 14. Year 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Tota 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Tota (a) ;TABLE 43 COAST AND INTERIOR LUMBER SHIPMENTS TO THE CANADIAN MARKET •. 1947 - 1957 A. D.B;;S. D A T A ^ Volume in M. Bd.fft. Coast Interior Total 747,883 271,095 1,018,978 789,404 261,747 1,051,151 785,135 233,126 1,018,261 686,076 252,626 938,702 670,811 320,112 990,923 555,101 456,943 1,012,044 638,226 473,233 1,111,459 :;658;ioo 527,819 1,165,919 729,312 629,903 1,359,215 819,043 685,998 1,505,041 743,343 710,662 1,454,005 7,802,434 4,823,264 12,625,698 B. 'B.C.L.M.A DATA Volume in millions of bd.ft.) 818 592 1,410 983 692 1,675 895 618 1,513 814 739 1,553 770 804 1,574 636 898 1,534 717 1,100 1,817 668 1,200 1,868 765 1,315, 2,080 878 1,315 2,193 760 1,160 1,920 8,704 10,433 19,137 Percentage Coast Interior Total 73.5 26.5 100.0 75.1 24.9 100.0 77.2/ 22.8 100.0 73 ® X 26.9 100.0 67.7 32.3 100.0 54.8 45.2 100.0 57.3 42.7 100.0 54.7 45.3 100.0 53.7 46.3 100.0 54.1 45.6 100.0 51.2 48.8 100.0 61.8 ' 38.2 100.0 Percentage 58.0 42.0 100.0 58,7 41.3 100/0 59.2 40.8 100.0 52.3 47.7 100.0 48.9 51.1 100.0 41.5 . 58.5 100.0 39.5 60.5 100.0 35.8 64.2 100.0 37.0 63.2 100.0 40.0 60.0 100.0 39.6 60.4 100.0 45.5 54.5 100.0 itish Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber y in British Columbia, pt. 2, sec. 2 of the Eorest Industries Series (Victoria, B.C.: / TABLE 43 •: CONTINUED n.n., 1955)» pp. 41-46, Supplement No« 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia (1957). tables on "Shipments of Sawn Lumber and "Ties". (Mimeographed) (b) British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association, 57th Annual Report 195?•» (Vancouver: 1958), p. 14. - » Year 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Total 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Total ;TABLE 44 60AST AND INTERIOR LUMBER SHIPMENTS TO PROVINCIAL MARKETS : 1947 ~ 1957 A. D.B.S. DATA*-3-) (volumes in M. bd. ft) VOLUMES - FROM COAST B.C. Alta. Sask. Man. Onta. Que. 490,582 32,882 29,251 42,692 97,307 44,054 507,930 28,814 27,907 47,305 111,042 54,902 490,690 34,478 43,082 59,232 112,648 35,414 4-27,080 30,555 30,977 40,724 100,429 39,923 414,194 29,315 17,790 .39,843 105,847 49,046 372,523 24,477 16,928 27,514 78, '02-1 27,321 426,031 27,720 22,710 28,408 96,908 28,552 472,921 27,121 14,969 15,686 77,871 23,084 550,511 27,445 11,020 16,578 87,549 26,737 621,711 32,656 12,339 17,672 90,888 35,766 592,554 24,779 11,405 15,921 69,154 22,047 5,366,727 320,242 238,378 351,575 1,027,664 386,851 PERCENTAGE 65.6 4.4 3.9 . 5.7 13.0 5.9 64.3 3.7 3.5 6.1 14.0 6.9 62.5 4.4 5.4 7.5 14.4 4.4 62.2 4.5 4.5 6.0 14.6 5.8 61.7 4.3 2.7 6.0 15.8 7.3 67.2 4.3 3.0 5.0 14.1 4.9 66.7 4.4 3.6 4.4 15.2 - 4.5 74.1 4.2 2.4 2.5 12.2 3.6 75.7 3.8 1.5 2.3 12.0 3.7 75.9 4.0 1.4 2.2 11.1 4.4 79.8 3.4 1.5 2.1 9.3 3.0 68,8 4.1 3.0 4.5 13.1 4,9 TABLE 44 - CONTINUED A. D.B.S. DATA ^ (Volumes in M. bd. ft) VOLUMES - FROM COAST Year Atlantic /^x N.B. 0 D « X« N.S. New- Terri- Total Provinces Fndlnd tories 1947 11,115 5,463 84 5,568 (c) (c) 747,883 1948 11,504 6,538 358 4,608 (c) (c) 789,404 1949 8,959 5,210 270 3,253 June-d^- 226 632 785,135 1950 15,931 8,573 330 6,419 609 457 686,076 1951 14,594 4,534 162 8,412 1,486 182 670,811 1952 18,220 5,269 62 2,416 473 97 555,101 1953 7,767 4,093 216 2,083 1,375 130 638,226 1954 6,297 2,453 140 2,870 834 146 638,100 1955 9,273 2,732 345 3,628 2,568 199 729,312 1956 7,988 3,691 186 2,826 1,285 23 819,043 1957 7,265 3,494 75 2,367 1,329 218 743,343 Total8 108,773 52,050 2,228 44,450 10,185 2,084 7,802,634 PERCENTAGE 1947 ' 1.5 0.2 ; (a) 0.8 (c) •(c). 100.0 1948 1.5 0.8 (d) 0.6 (c) •(c) 100.0 1949 1.1 0,7 (d) 0.3 (d) 0.1 100.0 1950 2.3 1.2 (d) 0.9 0.1 0.1 100.0 1951 2.2 0.7 (d) 1.3 0.2 (d) 100.0 1952 1.5 0.9 U ) 0.4 0.1 (d) 100.0 1953 1.2 0.6 (d) 0.3 0.2 (d) 100.0 1954 1.0 0.4 (d) 0.4 0.1 (d) 100.0 1955 1.2 0.4 (d) 0.5 0.4 (d) 100.0 1956 1.0 0.5 (d) 0.3 0.2 (d) 100.0 1957 0.9 0.5 (d) 0.3 0.2 (d) 100.0 Total 0u5 . 0.7 (d) 0.6 0.1 (d) 100.0 TABLE 44 - CONTINUED FROM INTERIOR VOLUMES Year B.C. •A.1 "b 3- ® Saslc. Man. . Ont. Que» 1947 81,085 48,266 35,427 45,696 53,256 6,451 1948 99,017 44,013 19,886 33,948 59,695 4,916 1949 94,648 48,346 16,831 26,549 43,048 3,198 1950 114,212 44,622 28,709 26,827 32,547 5,012 1951 150,703 45,725 31,703 36,748. 46,154 8,596 1952 216,370 69,194 52,930 48,593 59,946 8,527 1955 218,866 77,984 60,590 39,535. 66,023 9,528 1954 263,754 74,667 52,235 54,484 . 76,151 6,369 1955 371,404 54,465 43,998 60,632 - 86,095 11,15.5 1956. 400,697 62,253 42,102 56,957 112,467 10,163 1957 405,871 67,881 55,634 55,472 113,224 11,631 Total 2,416,627 637,416 440,045 485,441 748,506 85,546 PERCENTAGE 1947 29.9 17.8 13.0 •17.0 19.6 2.3 1948 37.8 16.8 7.6 12.9 22.9 1.9 1949 40.7 20.6 7.3 11.6 18.4 1.3 1950 45 oO 17.8 .. 11.4 10.7 13.0 1.9 1951 47.1 14.3 9.9 llo5 14.4 2.8 1952 47.3 15.1 11.6 10.7 13.1 1.9 1953 46.3 16,4 12.9 8.4 13.9 2,1 1954 50.0 14.2 9.9 10,2. 14.4 1.2 1955 58.9 8.6 7.0 9.7 13.7 1.7 1956 58.5 9.1 6.1 8.3 16.3 1.5 1957 57.1 9.6 7,9 7.7 15.9 1.7 Total 50.1 13.2 9.-1 10.1 15.5 1,8 / TABLE 44 •: CONTINUED PROM INTERIOR VOLUMES Year Atlantic NiB. P.E.I. N.S. New Terri- Total Provinces Pndlnd tories 1947 914 633 0 281 (c) <c> 271,095 1948 272 201 0 71 : (c) (c) 261,747 1949 152 66 0 86 Jons - Dec. 0 354 233,126 1950 288 112 23 153 0 409 252,626 1951 257 124 0 39 74 246 320,112 1952 986 323 0 266 397 397 456,943 1953 315 31 0 95 189 392 473,233 1954 159 133 0 0 26. 0 527,819 1955 513 184 26 166 137 1,641 629,903 1956 814 338 34 442 214 331 685,998 1957 616 188 „_o 428 283 50 710,662 Total 5,266 2,333 83 2,027 1,320 3,820 4,823,264 194$ 0.4 0.2 Cd) 0.1 (c) (c) 100.0 1948 0.1 0.1 m (d) (c) (c) 100.0 1949 (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) 0.1 100.0 1950 0.1 (d) (d) 0.1 (d) 0.1 100.0 1951 (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) 100.0 1952 0.2 0.1 (d) Cd). 0.1 (d) 100.0 1953 (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) 100.0 1954 0.1 (d) (d) (d) Cd) (d) 100.0 1955 0.1 (d) (d) (d) Cd) 0.3 100.0 1956 0.1 (d) '(d) 0.1 (d). 0.1 • 100.0 1957 0.1 (d) (d) 0.1 (d) (d) 100.0 Total- 0.1 (d) (d) (d) (d) 0.1 100.0 air: 140 130 139 111 88 68 78 58 57 63 56-988 194 193 166 191 157 195 325 300 260 265 210 456 TABLE,44 CONTINUED B. B.C.L.M.A. D A T A ^ (volumes in millions of bd.ft.) FROM COAST PERCENTAGE .Canada Total B.C. Prairie E.Canada Total 164 818 62.8 17.1 . .20.1 100.0 211 983 65.3 13.2 21.5 100.0 182 895 . 64.2 15.5 20.3 100.0 185 814 63.6 13.7 22.7 100.0 178 770 65.5 11.4 23.1 100.0 135 636 68.1 10.7 21.2 100.0 145 717 68.9 10.9 20.2 100.0 116 668 73.9 8.7 17.4 100.0 128 ' 765 75.8 7.5 16.7 100.0 155 878 75.2 7.2 17.6 100.0 114 760 77.6 7.4 i5.o 100.0 1,713 8,704 69.0 11.3 19.7 100.0 FROM INTERIOR 123 592 46.4 32.8 20.8 100.0 169 692 47.7 27.9 24.4 100.0 93 618 58.1 26.9 15.0 100.0 92 739 61.7 25.8 12.5 100.0 88 804 69.5 19.5 11.0 100.0 98 898 67.4 21.7 10.9 100.0 150 1,100 56.8. 29.6 13.6 100.0 135 1,200 63.8 25.0 11.2 100.0 155 1,315 68.4 19.8 11.8 100.0 175 1,315 66.5 20.2 13.3 100.0 170 1,160 67.2 18.1 14.7 100.0 1,448 10,433 62.6 23.5 13.9 100.0 (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia, pt. 2, sec. 2 of the Forest Industries SeriesTvictoria, B.C.: n.n., 1955), pp. 41-46, (Mimeographed.); Supplement Mo. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia (1957). tables on "Shipments of Sawn Lumber and Ties". t fAimebg r a p>\ ei'l . (b) The Atlantic Provinces are New Brunswick, P.E.I.r Nova : Scotia, and Newfoundland. (c) Not recorded. (d) Less than 0.1 per cent. (e) British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association, 57th Annual Report 1957 (Vancouver; 1958), p. 14. ;TABLE 45 COAST'AMD INTERIOR " LUMBER SHIPMENTS TO PROVINCIAL MARKETS ; 1947 - 19 57 A. B.B.S. DATA(a) (Volumes in M. £d,pt.) TO: BRITISH COLUMBIA. VOLUME PERCENTAGE Year Coast Interior Total Coast Interior Total 1947 490,582 81,085 571,667 85.8 14.2 100.0 1948 507,930 99,017 606,947 83.7 16.3 100.0 1949 490,690 94,648 585,338 83.8 16.2 100.0 1950 427,080 114,212 541,292 79.9 21.1 100.0 1951 414,194 150,703 564,897 73.3 26.7 100.0 1952 372,523 216,370 588,893 63.3 36.7 100.0 1953 426,031 218,866 644,897 66.1 33.9 100.0 1954 472,921 263,754 736,675 64.2 35.8 100.0 1955 550,511 371,404 921,915 59.7 40.3 100.0 1956 621,711 400,697 1,022,408 60.8 39.2 100.0 1957 592,554 405,871 998,425 . 59.3 40.7 100.0 Total 5,366,727 2,416,627 7,783,354 69.0 31.0 100.0 ALBERTA 1947 "132,882 48,266 81,148 40.5 59.5 100.0 1948 28,814 44,013 72,827 39.6 60.5 100.0 1949 34,478 48,346 82,824 41.6 58.4 100.0 1950 30,555 44,622 75,177 40?S6 59.4 100.0 1951 29,315 45,725 75,040 39.1 60.9 100.0 1952 24,477 69,194 93,671 26.1 73.9 100,0 1953 27,720 77,984 105,704 26 a 2 73.8 100.0 1954 27,121 74,667 101,788 26.5 73.4 100.0 1955 27,445 54,465 81,910 33.5 66.5 100.0 1956 32,656 62,253 94,909 33.4 65.6 100.0 1957 24,779 67,881 92,660 26.7 73.3 100.0 Total 320,242 637,416 95®,658 - 33.4 66.6 100.0 TABLE 45 - CONTINUED SASKATCHEWAN VOLUME PERCENTAGE Year Coast Interior Total Coast Interior Total 1947 . 29,251 35,427 64,678 45.2 54.8 100.0 1948 27,907 19,886 47,793 58® 4 41.6 100.0 1949 43,082 16,831 59,913 71.9 .. 28;.i 100.0 1950 30,977 28,709 59,686 51.9 48.1 100.0 1951 17,790 31,703 49,493 35.9 64.1 • 100.0 1952 16,928 52,930 69,858 24.2 75.8 100.0 1953 22,710 6or590 83,300 27.3 72.7 100.0 1954 14,969 52,235 67,204 22.3 77.7 100.0 1955 11,020 43,998 55,018 20.0 80.0 100.0 1956 12,339 42,102 54,441 22.7 77.3 100.0 1957 11,405 55,634 67,039 17.0 83.0 100.0 Total 238,378 440,045 678,423 35.1 64.9 100.0 MANITOBA:?: 1947 42,692 45,696 88,388 48.3 51.7 100.0 1948 47,305 33,948 81,253 58.2 41.8 100.0 1949 59,232 26,549 85,781 69.1 30.9 100.0 1950 40,724 26,827 67,551 60.3 39.7 100.0 1951 39,843 36,748 76,591 52.0 48.0 100.0 1952 27,514 48,593 76,107 36.2 63.8 100.0 1953 28,408 39,535 67,943 41.8 58.2 100.0 1954 15,686 54,484 70,170 22.4 77.6 100.0 1955 16,578 60,632 77,210 21.5 78.5 100.0 1956 17,672 56,957 74,629 23.7 76.4 100.0 1957 15,921 55,472 71,393 22.3 77.7 100.0 Total 351,575 485,441 837,016 42.0 58.0 100.0 TABLE 45 - CONTINUED ONTARIO VOLUME PERCENTAGE Year Coast Interior Total Coast Interior Total 1947 . 97,307 53,256 150,563 64.6 35.4 100.0 1948 111,042 59,695 170,737 65.0 35.0 100.0 1949 112,648 43,048 155,696 72.4 27.6 100.0 1950 100,429 32,547 132,976 75.5 24. 5 100.0 1951 105,847 46,154 152,001 69.6 30.4 100.0 1952 78,021 59,946 137,967 56,6 43.4 100.0 1953 96,908 66,023 162,931 59.5 40.5 100.0 1954 77,871 76,151 154,022 50.6 49.4 100.0 1955 87,549 86,095 173,644 50.4 49.6 100.0 1956 90,888 112,467 203,355 44.7 55.3 100.0 1957 69,154 113,224 182,378 37.9 62.1 100.0 Total i;0277664 748,506 1,776,270 57.9 42.1 100.0 QUEBEC 1947 44,054 6,451 50,505 87.2 12,8 100,0 1948 54,902 4,916 59,818 91.8 8.2 100.0 1949 35,414 3,198 38,612 91.7. 8.3 100.0 1950 39,923 5,012 44,935 88.8 11.2 100.0 1951 49,046 8,596 57,642 85.1 14.9 100.0 1952 27,321 8,527 35,848 76.2 23.8 100.0 1953 28,552 9,528 38,080 75.0 25.0 100.0 1954 23,084 6,369 29,458 78.4 21.6 100.0 1955 26,737 11,155 37,892 70.6 29.4 100,0 1956 35,766 10,163 45,929 77.9 22.1 100.0 1957 22,047 11,631 33,678 65.5 34.5 100.0 Total 386,851 85,546 472,397 81.9 18.1 100.0 rH 05 +3 o EH o o o o o o o o o o o o • • • • • • • • • • • • • ooooooooooo o ooooooooooo o H H H H H H H H H H H rH o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o rH I-H r-I H H H H H H H H rH O H -H O fH -=t| CD EH +=• fe d (HJ H o « M CV •R OT Ctj o o NO ro CNCO NO 00 OMR\ CVJ CM 00 NO CN CM rH rH rH NO RO CM 1T\ On CN- -vt-IN- RO CM -D" CM 001T\00 CO CM • • • e • • o o « e CM CVCO CO CO o~)\0 IN^J-OOL ONONONONONONONONONONON UNON ^OrOrOINCOCOHrn^H ro ® ® • • • t « o « © e « « O no H rH CM tr\ o QO irv rH MD O tNI>-rOCM CM CTNC^VO ON ON C cO CO C"*- "SF ON ro >H CO ON GN ON O N ON ON ON ON ON ON ON Q w fe M tH fe O o CO P3 o fe M > O/ pr vfw, o M EH fe EH < rH cd o EH O •H FH (D £3 ON NO rH ON rH NO CM \Q VO CM rH CM IN- H rH no O CO IfNOO O CO O IN- iH CM 00 CM O CN-CO CO CM rH O"N\0 ^  ONCONO ONOO C"-H H rH rH rH CM CM CO C*-NO T^N ON rO rH C^-ITSOO roco rimHHH ON CM rH CM CM ON rO rH ITSCO NO ON no o NO NO M 1TN w o M CO PQ fx} \D ONlTMrscO CM NO NO ON CM ON rococoUN ON CM 00 rH CM GO O fH CM NO NO C^N rH ON O NO NO NO ITNCO V \ CM CM ST no rOiHvQCM'tfnOrHrO-sd-aDcO COO NO rH CM CM rOPOOO <*OGO NO CM rH rH CO HrHrOrH CO CO ro 1T\ ro roro CVJ H 1 O 4J w cd O O •tfW ON r-H ^  O D- roco "LTN HOirsrOONCMNOON fN-oO NO i—I"U"NON ON1TNCM (N-CM CM ON CM rH rH CO UN CO O-vO ON Cs. rH rH rH rH rH ro tN. t>~ CO o rH roco O PO si- ONrorO CM H vO RORH t>-rO\D ON UN ro ON ON *vt" ifN CM tr\ir\ CM O C^ nO "sd-ixnmd liAoo ir\ CM CM ro ro o UV o CM irv m O-00 ON O rH CM ro T-TNVQ C*-cd sh ^  irMrwrsLrMrMjrMrwrN CD ON ON ON C\ ON ON ON ON ON ON ON N, H H H H H H H H H r l H rH cd -P O EH l>-CO ON O rH CM rO "^j" lfN\£) t>-sf- ir\irN\r\trN\rMfMXNirN ONaNaNONONONONONONaNON HHrlHrlHHrlHHH rH cd +3 O EH TABLE 45 - CONTINUED NOVA SCOTIA VOLUMES PERCENTAGE Year Coast Interior Total Coast Interior Total 1947 5,568 281 5,849 95.2 4.8 100.0 1948 4,608 71 4,679 98.5 1.5 100.0 1949 3,253 86 3,339 97.4 • 2.6 100.0 1950 6,419 153 6,572 97.7 2.3 100.0 1951 8,412 39 8,451 99.5 0,5 100.0 1952 2,416 266 2,682 90.1 9.9 100.0 1953 2,083 95 2,178 95.6 4.4 100.0 1954 2,870 2,870 100.0 0.0 100.0 1955 3,628 166 3,794 95.6 4.4 100.0 1956 2,826 442 3,268 86.5 13.5 100.0 1957 2,367 428 2,795 84.7 15.3 100.0 Total 44,450 2,027 46,477 95.6 4.4 100.0 PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND 1947 84 : 84 100.0 0.0 100.0 1948 358 358 100.0 0,0 100.0 1949 270 270 100.0 0.0 100.0 1950 330 23 353 93.5 6.5 100.0 1951 162 162 100.0 0.0 100.0 1952 62 62 100.0 0.0 100,0 1953 216 ' 216 100.0 0.0 100.0 1954 140 140 100.0 0,0 100.0 1955 345 ' 26 371 93.0 7.0 100.0 1956 . 186 34 220 84.5 15.5 100.0 1957 75 — 75 100.0 0.0 100,0 Total 2,228 83 2,311 96.4 3.6 100.0 TABLE 45 - CONTINUED NEWFOUNDLAND: Year Coast Interior Total 1947' (c) (c) •(c) 1948 (c) (c) (c) 1949 226 ^ —— June - Dec. 226 1950 609 609 1951 1,486 74 1,506 1952 473 397 87© 1953 1,375 189 1,564 1954 834 26 860 1955 2,568 137 2,705 1956 1,285 214 1,499 1957 1,329 283 1,612 Total 10,185 1,320 11,505 TERRITORIES 1947 (c) (c) (c) 1948 (c) (c) (c) 1949 632 354 986 1950 457 409 866 1951 182 246 428 1952 97 397 484 1953 130 392 522 1954 146 —0. 146 1955 199 1,641 1.840 1956 23 331 '354 1957 218 50 268 Total 2,084 3,820 5,904 PERCENTAGE Coast Interior (c) (c) (c) (c) 100.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 95.3 4.7 54.4 45.6 87.9 12.1 97.0 3.0 94.9 5.1 85.7 14.3 82.4 17.6 88.5 11.5 (c) (c) 64.1 52.8 42.5 19.6 24.9 100.0 10.8 6.5 81,3 (c) (c) 35.9 47.2 57.5 80.4 75.1 0.0 89.2 93.5 18.7 35.3 64.7 Total (c) (c) 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (c) (c) 100.0 100.0 100,0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Year 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Total 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Total TABEE 45 - CONTINUED B, B.C.E.M.A.; DATA^ /*..'• (volumes in millions of bd.ft.) VOLUMES TO BRITISH'COLUMBIA'' TO PRAIRIE PROVINCES Coast Interior Total Coast Interior Total 514 275 789 140 194 334 642 330 972 130 193 323 574 359 - 933 139 166 305 518 456 974 111 191 302 504. 559 1,063 . 88 157 245 433 605 1,038 68 195 263 494 625 1,119 78 325 403 494 765 1,259 58. 300 358 580 . 900 1,480 57 260 317 660 875. 1,535 63 265 328 590 780 1,370 56 210 266 6,003 6,529 12,532 988 2,456 3,444 PERCENTAGE 65.1 34.9 100.0 41.9 58,1 100.0 66.0 34.0 100.0 40.2 59.8 100.0 61.5 38.5 100.0 45.6 54.4 100.0 53.2 46.8 100.0 36.8 63.2 100.0 47.4 52.6 100.0 35.9 64.1 100.0 41.7 58.3 100.0 25.9 74.1 100.0 44.1 . 55.9 100.0 19.4 80.6 100.0 39.2 60.8 100.0 16.2 83.8 100,0 39.2 60.8 100.0 18.0 82.0 100.0 43.0 57.0 100.0 19.2 80.8 100.0 43.1 56.9 100.0 21.1 79.9 100.0 47.9 52.1 100.0 28.7 71.3 100.0 TO EASTERN CANADA Coast Interior Total 164 123 . 281 211 169 380 182 93 275 185 92 277 178 88 • 266 135 98 233 145 150 295 116 135 251 128 155 283 155 175 330 114 170 284 1,713 1,448 3,161 57.1 42,9 lOO.i 55.5 44.5 100.1 66,2 33.8 100,1 66.8 33.2 100,1 66.9 33.1 100,1 57.9 42,1 100,1 49.2 50.8 100,1 46.2 53.8 100.1 45.2 . 54.8 100.1 47.0 53.0 100.1 40,1 59.9 100.1 54,2 45.8 100.1 TABLE 45 - CONTINUED (a) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia, pt. 2, sec, 2 of the Forest Industries Series (Victoria, B.C.: n.n. 19J5), pp. 41-46. (Mimeographed). Supplement No. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia•(1957), tables on "shipment of Sawn Lumber and Ties". (Mimeographed.) (b) The Atlantic Provinces are New Brunswick, P.E.I., Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. (c) Not recorded (d) British Columbia Lumber Manufacturers Association, 57th Annual Report 1957 (Vancouver; 1958), p. 14. TABLE 46 COAST WATER-BORNE: SHIPMENTS VS TOTAL SHIPMENTS TO EASTERN CANADA : 1947 - 1957 (Volumes in M. bd.ft.) To (ONTARIO To QUEBEC Year Total Water- % Total Water- % Volume borne Water- Volume borne Water-Volume borne Volume borne 1947 97,307 90 0.0 44,054 0 0.0 1948 111,042 0 0.0 54,902 0 0.0 1949 112,648 0 0.0 35,414 199 0.6 1950 100,429 0 0.0 39,923 7,352 18.4 1951 105,847 0 0.0 49,046 3,115 6.4 1952 78,021 0 0.0 27,321 53 0.2 1953 96,908 952 ' 1.0 28,321 5,396 18.9 1954 77,871 1,465 1.9 23,089 . 3,332 14.4 1955 87,549 3,464 4.0 26,737 873 3.3 1956 90,888 0 0.0 35,766 0 0.0 1957 69,154 0 0.0 22,047 1,000 4.5 Total 1,027,664 5,881 (a) 386,851 21,320 ,5.5 To NEW- BRUNSWICK To P.E.I. 1947 5,463 0 0.0 84 0 0.0 1948 6,538 0 0.0 • 358 0 0.0 1949 5,210 0 0.0 270 100 37.0 1950 8,573 4,444 51.8 330 256 77.6 1951 4,534 4,534 1.2 162 0 0.0 1952 5,269 754 14.3 62 0 0.0 1953 4,093 1,914 46.8 216 0 0.0 1954 2,453 703 28.7 140 0 0.0 1955 2,732 100 3.7 345 0 0.0 1956 3,691 0 0.0 186 0 0.0 1957 3,494 0 0.0 75 0 0.0 Total 52,050 12,449 16.0 2,228 356 1 G.O TABLE 46 - CONTINUED Year To I0VA SCOTIA' To NEWFOUNDLAND Total Water- • • . % Total Water- % Volume borne Water- Volume borne Water volume borne volume borne 1947 5,568 0 0.0 (b) (b) (a) 1948 4,608 0 0.0 (h) (b) (a) 1949 3,253 0 0.0 226 0 0.0 1950 6,419 530 8.3 609 0 0.0 1951 8,412 0 0.0 1,486 0 OoO 1952 2,416 0 0.0 473 0 0.0 1953 2,083 0 0.0 1,375 0 0.0 1954 2,870 850 29.6 834 0 0.0 1955 3,268 0 0.0 2,568 0 0.0 1956 2,826 0 0.0 1,285 0 oco 1957 2,367 0 0.0 1,328 0 0.0 Total 44,450 1,180 2.7 10,185 0 0.0 (a) ^ess than 0.1 per cent. (b) Not recorded. (c) British Columbia, Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia. Pt. 2, sec. 2 of the Forest Industries Series~( Victoria. B.C.: n.n., 1955), pp. 41-46. (MimeographelTTiSupplement No. 1 to the Statistical Record of the Lumber Industry in British Columbia (1957), tables on "Shipments of Sawn Lumber and Ties." (Mimeographed.) „ APPENDIX B Table 1. Report of Lumber - Shingles - Ties - Shooks, 1959 Production - Shipments - Stocks. 2. Common and genetic names of tree species. TABLE 1 REPORT OF LUMBER - SHINGLES - TIES - SHQOKS 1959 PRODUCTION - SHIPMENTS - STOCKS NOTE: Please show: - Lumber figures in M Feet Board Measure Shingle figures in Squares NAME OF COMPANY ; ',. POST OFFICE ADDRESS . NORMAL DAILY CAPACITY OF MILL V , • ,'. NO. OF SHINGLE MACHINES •-•.,,, ^ . ' ' . -NO. MEN EMPLOYED (Average Normal) Approximate No. of Days operated Jan. 1st to Dec. 31st,1959 TOTAL PRODUCTION - Jan 1 - Dec. 31/59 (Including over-run) ' Lumber Purchased or Shingles Purchased January 1st' to December 31st,1959 Approx. Total Stocks - Dec 31st, 1959 . DISTRIBUTION OF SHIPMENTS By Percent or in "M" Ft. B.M. for Year 1959 - Approximately (Shingle figures by percent or in Squares) Local Sales B.C.Points RAIL Prairie Provinces Eastern Canada United States WATERBORNE California Percent or Atlantic Coast (U.S.) Percent or East era Canada • Percent or Export Markets Percent or NOTES 1.. Plans for I960 - More ? Less? How Much ? 2. Does this mill do its own logging? • 3. Has this mill a planer plant? ~~ 4. Has this mill a dry kiln? 5. If this mill cuts BOX SHOOKS what percentage of production goes into BOX SHOOKS? 6. Does this mill cut TIES ONLY ? ~ 7. What species of wood are cut? Fir % Hemlock % Cedar pine Jo Spruce % Balsam % Larch % Alder _% Birch % Cottonwood % Maple % Other % PLEASE NOTE This information is requested for use in connection with Tariffs, Legislation, etc. so that it will be available at once when needed. It will be treated as STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL and used in group totals only, (a) Enclosure in letter from A.O.Robson, May 30, I960. _Percent or MBM Percent or Percent or Percent or Percent or TABLE 1 COMMON AMD GENETIC NAMES OF TREE SPECIES Cedar Western Red Douglas Fir Fir Alpine Amabilis Balsam Grand Hemlock Western Larch Western Pine . Jack Lodgepole Ponderosa Western White Yellow-Ponderosa Spruce Black Englemann Sitka White Arbutus Birch White Oak Garry-Poplar Balm of gilead CONIFEROUS SPECIES Thuja plicta Pseudotsuga taxifolia (Pseudotsuga Douglassi-coast type, Pseudotsuga glauca-interior type, Pseudotsuga Douglassi variety caesia-Columbia and Rockv Mountain type.) Abi es lasiocarpa Abies amabilis Abies balsamae Abies grandis Tsuga heterophylla Larix occidentalis Pinus Banksiana Pinus contorta variety latifolia Pinus.ponderosa Pinus monticola Picea mariana PI: cea Engelmanni Picea sitkensis Picea glauca BR0AD-LEAVED SPECIES Arbutus menziesii Betula papyrifer Quercus Garryana Populus candicans t L r ^ f ^ ^ f i 1 ^ 7 ' ^-I^M-Classification for Canada. Canada v Mi n e s. a n d Resources, Forest Service iiulletin 89, (Ottawa: King's Printer, 1937), pp. 46-48. I 0 0% 5 0% 0 % Ontario ' — — 1— 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 I 00% 5 0% 0% Quebec i i i i i i i i 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Atlantic Provinces 100% 5 0% 0 % 1 L 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Territories 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 T952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 C o ast \ | In te r io r RJF B.C. L U M B E R S H I P M E N T S TO CANADIAN MARKETS: P E R C E N T A G E F R O M COAST AND I N T E R I O R i o o % 5 0 % 0 % i i B.C. i i 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1 9 5 6 1957 Alberta I 0 0 % 5 0 % -0 % i i 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 I 0 0 % 5 0 % Saskatchewan 0 % 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1 9 5 7 lis f \ "AM* . n rH > ' At^  Manitoba I 0 0 % 5 0 % 0 % 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 EMPLOYMENT IN THE FOREST INDUSTRIES FOR B.C. AND CANADA AS PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL SECONDARY INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT B . C . (employment figures for 1947 in lumber production N'M) 1 9 4 7 1952 t 1 1 r 1956 I p 100% CANADA as a whole tm , , , 1947 T P T P 1952 -i p mm 0 50 1956 100% all wood products I umber all pulp and paper products all other products R J F STATISTICS ON THE B.C. FOREST INDUSTRIES PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL BY INDUSTRY FOR: EMPLOYEES (logging statistics not available) 1947 100% VALUE OF FACTORY SHIPMENTS 1947 1952 00% NET VALUE OF PRODUCTION M 1947 CA 1952 10 0 % LOGGING SECONDARY (sash.door.a planing mills;furniture; MANUFACTURE: misc. wood S paper products) PRIMARY MANUFACTURE; sawmills (including shrngle mills) ^ veneers 8 plywood pulp 3 paper R J F NET VALUE OF PRODUCTION FOR B.C. PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL BY INDUSTRIES 1 9 3 8 P R I M A R Y P R O D U C T I O N 5 0 S E C O N D A R Y P R O D . manufacturing .constr. 100% 1 9 5 1 P R I M A R Y PROD. S E C O N D A R Y P R O D U C T I O N manufacturing construction 5 0 100% Forestry Sawmills R J F \ I o L_ LOCATION OF B.C. COAST AND INTERIOR FORESTS AND FOREST DISTRICTS FOR 1957 G> B o u n d a r y b e t w e e n Coast and In te r io r Boundary between Forest Distr icts A-.. V •s.' ur-Is..' V V v \ •V. K A M L O O P S / ? ) / N E L S 0 N \ N 80 I 60 miles V-jA N C O < a V ) V E "R A v .— ' / / / REPORTED SHIPMENTS TO EASTERN CANADIAN MARKETS ELEVEN YEAR AVERAGE (1947-1957) ORIGIN INTERIOR MILLS / / / One b lock e q u a l s 2 mill ion-bd. ft. of lumber -\ fv) / Ontario Q uebec / — ^ ^Atlantic Provinces 0 100 200 300 miles •— 1 i RJF rr .vv-^ * > REPORTED SHIPMENTS TO WESTERN CANADIAN MARKETS ELEVEN YEAR AVERA6E ( I 9 4 7 " I 9 5 7 ) ORIGIN INTERIOR MILLS Qne b lock e q u a l s 2 m i l l i on bd- f t . o f lumber S a s k a t c h e w a n ! J 100 £00 m i les I L REPORTED SHIPMENTS TO EASTERN CANADIAN MARKETS ELEVEN YEAR AVERAGE (1947-1957) ORIGIN COASTAL MILLS / / / / / / Ontario One b lock e q u a l s 2 mi lion bd. ft. of lumber \ i Quebec i ' — \. J • Atlantic Provinces • \ 100 200 30 0 miles R J P REPORTED SHIPMENTS TO WESTERN CANADIAN MARKETS ELEVEN YEAR AVERAGE ( I 9 4 7 " I 9 5 7 ) ORIGIN COASTAL MILLS / \ •-•A. One b lock e q u a l s 2 mMlion b d . f t . o f lumber B. C. "7 Alberta \ S a s k a t c h e w a n 1 M an i toba TOTAL REPORTED SHIPMENTS TO THE CANADIAN MARKET (million bd. ft.) 1 5 0 0 I 4 0 0 1 3 0 0 1200 Coostol Mil ls source D.B.S. Interior Mi l ls source D.B.S. Coastal Mills source Interior Mills source B.C. L . M . A . — B.C. L.M.A. I 100 1000 9 0 0 80 0 7 0 0 600 5 0 0 4 0 0 3 0 0 200 I 0 0 7 / I 9 4 8 1 9 4 9 1 9 5 0 19 5 1 9 5 2 1 9 5 3 19 5 4 1 9 5 5 1 9 5 6 19 5 7 RJF PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL REPORTED SH IPMENTS TO CANADIAN MARKETS BY PROVINCE FROM B.C. RJF DWELLING UNIT STARTS IN CANADA vs LUMBER SHIPMENTS FROM B.C. !*! C 1800 o ID Ii. O CO z o CO I-UJ s Q. X CO a: UJ m 2 I 600 1400 I 20 0 1000 800 + ISS4 + 19 57 • I9S£ s s * ISH7 + y y S' + 19*48 ' + . + M9 s ' + I9S4 y + I9SJ y s + I9S0 60 80 100 120 140 160 DWELLING UNIT STARTS IN THOUSANDS \ -\ RJf REPORTED SHIPMENTS TO U.S.A. MARKETS ELEVEN YEAR AVERAGE (1947-1957) ORIGIN INTERIOR MILLS One block e q u a l s 2 mi l l ion bd. ft. of lumber REPORTED SHIPMENTS TO U.S.A. MARKETS ELEVEN YEAR AVERAGE (1947-1957) ORIGIN COASTAL MILLS 8 One block e q u a l s 2 mi l l ion bd. ft. of lumber B.C. L U M B E R S H I P M E N T S TO U.S.A. M A R K E T S : P E R C E N T A G E FROM COAST AND I N T E R I O R Pac i f i c P o r t s 0 % 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Interior i o o % 5 0 % • -0 % 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 T956 1957 Atlantic P o r t s I 0 0 % 5 0 % 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 l'954 1955 1956 1957 Coas t Interior pel nux-A P E R C E N T A G E OF T O T A L R E P O R T E D S H I P M E N T S TO THE U.S.A. BY M A R K E T A R E A F R O M B.C. TOTAL REPORTED SHIPMENTS TO THE U. S. A. MARKET (million bd. ft.) Coas t a l Mi l ls source D.B.S. Coastal Mills source B .C . L .MA . Interior Mi l l s source D.B.S. Interior Mil Is source B.C.L.M.A. 1 ' 1 NON-FARM DWELLING UNIT STARTS IN U.S. A. vs L U M B E R SHIPMENTS FROM B.C. o m u. o CO z o CO I-UJ 5 CL X CO oc Ul GO 1750 1500 1250 100 0 75 0 500 2 5 0 ./ I9SS" + I9?7 •+ 1956 + 195H / / / / / ™/I / 4 1950 1953 / / / / / t / / ' + / / / / 1952 / 1951 / / / / ,•(• 1948 ' •+ 1919 / / / / / / / -J. I9H7 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 DWELLING UNIT STARTS IN THOUSANDS CONIFEROUS LUMBER IMPORTS OF AUSTRALIA BY COUNTRY 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 <SiLi IfI Ufi M ^ fi •/! i-7 Canada U.S.A. Finland, Swe-den, 8 Norway New Zealand Other CONIFEROUS LUMBER EXPORTS TO THE UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA BY COUNTRY 1947 1948 1949 1950 956 1957 1 * i -A ' ; 1 Canada U.S.A. Swe den Finland Oth-er SJf CONIFEROUS LUMBER I M P O R T S OF THE U.K. BY C O U N T R Y 0 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 bd.ft 35 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Canada B.C. Sw eden F in land Other U S.S.R. nJf B.C. L U M B E R S H I P M E N T S BY N A T I O N A L M A R K E T S 1947-1957 TOTAL SHIPMENTS ft A V E R A G E ANNUAL S H I P M E N T S T O T A L S H I P M E N T S ( i n I x I o'° bd. f t . ) C o a s t a I origin 5 -1 £ In t e r i o r origin 5 0 A V E R A G E A N N U A L S H I P M E N T S ( i n I x I 0 9 bd. f t . ) Coastal origin Interior origin OTHER: Un ion of Sou th A f r i c a , R J . F PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL REPORTED SHIPMENTS BY NATIONAL MARKETS INDEX OF MARITIME CHARTER TRIP FREIGHT RATES: FOR LUMBER SHIPMENTS FROM B.C. TO THE U.K. FOR WORLD SHIPMENTS OF ALL TYPES OF CARGO TOTAL SHIPMENTS FROM B.C. SAWMILLS To ta l s o u r c e B.C.L.M.A.-Coastal Mills source B.C.L.M.A. Interior Mills source B.C.L.M.A. I 0 0 9 o : 8 0 : • 7 0 : : 60 < : ; ; ' 5 4 3 2 I 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 Tota l source D.B.S. (00 ,000 ,000s bd.f.m.) Coas ta l Mi l ls s o u r c e D .B .S . Inter ior Mil ls s o u r c e D.B.S. !. ALLOWABLE ANNUAL CUTS AT FULL LEVEL OF EXPLOITATION I N V E N T O R Y Z O N E S Volumes in millions of cubic-feet in trees 10 inches d.b.h. and over =» 100 \ V 160 miles i l — — 0 L_ ALLOWABLE ANNUAL CUTS AT CURRENT LEVEL OF EXPLOITATION BY I N V E N T O R Y Z O N E S Volumes in millions of cubic-feet in trees 12 inches d.b.h. and over 80 1 L. 160 miles B.C. FOREST INVENTORY ZONES 1 NORTH C O A S T 2 SOUTH C O A S T 3 NORTHWEST INTERIOR 4 NORTH CENTRAL INTERIOR 5 SOUTH CENTRAL INTERIOR 6 SOUTHEAST INTERIOR 9 NORTHEAST INTERIOR \ v \ "N \ RJf 

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