UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Adolescent loneliness and dimensions of self concept 1989

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ADOLESCENT LONELINESS AND DIMENSIONS OF SELF CONCEPT by KATHY NANCY HARWARD B. Ed., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JUNE 1989 © Kathy N. Harward, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada D a t e S e p t e m b e r 19, 1989 DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT The purpose o f t h i s s tudy was to examine the e x p e r i e n c e of l o n e l i n e s s and i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s t h a t were c o r r e l a t e d wi th the degree of l o n e l i n e s s t h a t an adolescent e x p e r i e n c e s . Areas i n v e s t i g a t e d were the extent o f l o n e l i n e s s p r e v a l e n t i n the sample, and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between l o n e l i n e s s and face t s of s e l f concept , f r i e n d s h i p and background i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s survey study i n v o l v e d 166 a d o l e s c e n t s . S u b j e c t s were grade 10 s tudents a t t e n d i n g secondary schools i n Surrey School D i s t r i c t , Surrey , B r i t i s h Columbia . The survey was conducted i n c l a s s u n i t s d u r i n g r e g u l a r l y scheduled schoo l h o u r s . The ins truments employed i n t h i s s tudy were the R e v i s e d U . C . L . A . L o n e l i n e s s S c a l e measuring the degree o f l o n e l i n e s s exper i enced; a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n of the S e l f D e s c r i p t i o n Q u e s t i o n a i r e I I I measuring 12 face t s o f s e l f concept; a sociogram q u e s t i o n n a i r e examining f r i e n d s h i p s i n the surveyed c l a s s ; and a s u b j e c t i n f o r m a t i o n sheet g a t h e r i n g data on age, gender, language, number o f p a r e n t s , and p a r e n t s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e . The analysis of data included descriptive s t a t i s t i c s of each variable, and i n f e r e n t i a l s t a t i s t i c s of independent variables to the dependent variable loneliness. Following t h i s was a factor analysis of the preliminary s e l f concept variables resulting in four factor socres. F i n a l l y four regression models of the loneliness scores were run. Each model was loaded with different combinations of predictor variables of s e l f concept and background information. There were five key findings of t h i s study. One, seventeen percent of the sample reported feeling "sometimes" to "often" lonely. Two, negative s o c i a l s e l f concept was a sig n i f i c a n t predictor of loneliness, while academic s e l f concept was not. Three, male and female subjects scored v i r t u a l l y the same on loneliness, however when s e l f concept scores were controlled, males were l o n e l i e r than females given a similar family structure. Four, subjects l i v i n g in single parent households were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o n e l i e r than t h e i r peers l i v i n g in two parent households. Five, though not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , there was a strong trend for subjects for whom English was a second language to report substantially greater loneliness than t h e i r peers for whom English was a f i r s t language. i v Table of Contents Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v L I S T OF TABLES v i i DEDICATION v i i i CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1 S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m 5 Dependent and I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s 6 O b j e c t i v e s o f t h e S t u d y 7 R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 7 CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 9 B a c k g r o u n d 9 A t t a c h m e n t T h e o r y 10 C o g n i t i v e T h e o r y 15 A d o l e s c e n c e and L o n e l i n e s s I 7 S e l f C o n c e p t 20 S e l f C o n c e p t a nd Gender 22 I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s 24 D i s c l o s i n g L o n e l i n e s s 27 Summary 31 R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 34 V CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 35 R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 36 D e s c r i p t i o n o f Sample 37 D e f i n i t i o n s o f Key t e r m s 40 I n s t r u m e n t s 42 P r o c e d u r e 50 D a t a A n a l y s i s 51 CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS 55 D e s c r i p t i v e A n a l y s i s 55 R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s 64 A n a l y s i s o f R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 71 CHAPTER F I V E : DISCUSSION 75 Summary 75 D i s c u s s i o n o f R e s u l t s 76 L i m i t a t i o n s 85 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r T e a c h e r s a n d C o u n s e l l o r s . . . . 88 Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 90 C o n c l u s i o n 93 REFERENCES 94 APPENDIX A: CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE FORM 101 APPENDIX B: WRITTEN INSTRUCTIONS TO PARTICIPANTS .. 104 APPENDIX C: SUBJECT INFORMATION SHEET 107 APPENDIX D: SELF DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE I I I .... H I APPENDIX E: LONELINESS SCALE 118 APPENDIX F: SOCIOGRAM QUESTIONNAIRE 121 v i . APPENDIX G: LONELINESS SCALE RESPONSE PROFILE 124 APPENDIX H: CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS OF BACKGROUND VARIABLES WITH LONELINESS 12 6 APPENDIX I : PROFILE OF PARENTS' OCCUPATIONAL PRESTIGE AND MEAN LONELINESS SCORE 128 v i i LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page 4.1 T - T e s t : Mean L o n e l i n e s s S c o r e , S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n T - V a l u e a n d D i f f e r e n c e E x p r e s s e d as a F r a c t i o n o f t h e P o o l e d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n f o r G ender, Language a n d Number o f P a r e n t s 57 4.2 Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f t h e T w e l v e S e l f C o n c e p t V a r i a b l e s a n d t h e i r C o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h L o n e l i n e s s 61 4.3 Mean S c o r e s and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f F r i e n d s h i p V a r i a b l e s a n d C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s o f E a c h V a r i a b l e w i t h L o n e l i n e s s 64 4.4 P r i n c i p a l Components F a c t o r A n a l y s i s 66 4.5 P a r a m e t e r E s t i m a t e s a nd S t a n d a r d E r r o r s f o r F o u r R e g r e s s i o n M o d e l s o f L o n e l i n e s s 69 v i i i . D e d i c a t e d i n memory o f my l o v i n g c a n i n e c o m p a n i o n M e r r y n o o k Bermuda C e d a r . T o g e t h e r we s t a r t e d t h i s j o u r n e y , b u t u n f o r t u n a t e l y t r y as he may, he was u n a b l e t o s e e o u r j o u r n e y t o i t s end. 1. CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Some n e e d s c h a n g e a s l i f e p r o g r e s s e s . L o n e l i n e s s i s f e l t i n t h e i n f a n t as a n e e d f o r c o n t a c t ; i n t h e c h i l d , a s a n e e d f o r a d u l t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s ; a n d i n t h e j u v e n i l e , a s a n e e d f o r c o m p e e r s a n d a c c e p t a n c e . B u t i n t h e a d o l e s c e n t , l o n e l i n e s s i s f e l t as a n e e d f o r i n t i m a t e e x c h ange w i t h a f e l l o w human b e i n g . L o n e l i n e s s i s so t e r r i b l e an e x p e r i e n c e t h a t i t w i l l d r i v e a p e r s o n t o f a c e a n x i e t y i n o r d e r t o make c o n t a c t w i t h a f e l l o w b e i n g . ( S u l l i v a n , 1953, p.310) The above q u o t a t i o n d e s c r i b e s t h e e m o t i o n a l p a i n o f l o n e l i n e s s d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e . S i n c e t h e t i m e o f t h i s s t a t e m e n t l o n e l i n e s s r e s e a r c h h a s become p r e v a l e n t , and k n o w l e d g e a b o u t i t more e x t e n s i v e . S e v e r a l common themes i n t h e c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e p r o v i d e c l a r i t y t o o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f l o n e l i n e s s . P e p l a u a n d P e r l m a n (1982) p r e s e n t t h r e e s t a t e m e n t s t h a t d e s c r i b e t h e s e t h e m e s . F i r s t , l o n e l i n e s s r e s u l t s f r o m d e f i c i e n c i e s i n a p e r s o n ' s s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . S e c o n d l y , l o n e l i n e s s i s a s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e , i t i s n o t synonymous w i t h o b j e c t i v e s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n . P e o p l e c a n be a l o n e w i t h o u t b e i n g l o n e l y , o r l o n e l y i n a c r o w d . 2. F i n a l l y , l o n e l i n e s s r e s u l t s when a d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n d e s i r e d a n d a t t a i n e d e m o t i o n a l c o n n e c t e d n e s s w i t h o t h e r s e x i s t s (p. 2 ) . R u b e n s t e i n and S h a v e r (1982) i d e n t i f i e d t h e f o l l o w i n g l i s t o f f e e l i n g s a n d b e l i e f s t h a t p o r t r a y a s u b j e c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f l o n e l i n e s s : I f e e l d e p r e s s e d , l e f t o u t , u n w a n t e d . - S o r r y f o r m y s e l f ; s a d . - My a c t i o n s f e e l c l u m s y and i n a p p r o p r i a t e . P h y s i c a l l y , I f e e l as t h o u g h I'm i n t h e way. B o r e d , d r o w s y , down. I f e e l s o r t o f empty i n s i d e . L i k e I'm e v a p o r a t i n g o r d i s i n t e g r a t i n g ; l i k e maybe I d o n ' t r e a l l y e x i s t , (p. 209) The e x p e r i e n c e o f l o n e l i n e s s d i f f e r s f r o m a l o n e n e s s i n s e v e r a l ways. A l o n e n e s s " i s t h e o b j e c t i v e s t a t e o f b e i n g a p a r t f r o m o t h e r p e o p l e " ( S e a r s , Freedman & P e p l a u , 1985; p. 2 0 5 ) . B e i n g a l o n e c a n be a p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e , a n d o f t e n p e o p l e c h o o s e t o be a p a r t f r o m o t h e r s ( S e a r s , Freedman & P e p l a u , 1985; S u e d f e l d , 1 9 8 2 ) . The s t a t e o f a l o n e n e s s i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e l i e v e d t o a l l o w o u r p s y c h o l o g i c a l e n e r g y t o t u r n i n w a r d a n d e n c o u r a g e c r e a t i v i t y i n b o t h an i n t r o s p e c t i v e s e n s e a nd i n e x p r e s s i v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , s u c h a s a r t and l i t e r a t u r e 3. ( S e a r s , Freedman & P e p l a u , 1985; S u e d f e l d , 1 9 8 2 ) . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s t a t e o f a l o n e n e s s , l o n e l i n e s s i s a s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e . L o n e l y p e o p l e may n o t have o t h e r s p h y s i c a l l y a r o u n d them, w h i c h may enhance t h e i r f e e l i n g s o f l o n e l i n e s s . However, some p e o p l e a l s o f e e l l o n e l y e v e n when o t h e r s a r e p h y s i c a l l y c l o s e t o them. P e p l a u a n d P e r l m a n (1982) p o i n t o u t t h a t t o o b j e c t i v e l y e v a l u a t e an i n d i v i d u a l as " n o t l o n e l y " b e c a u s e t h e y a r e amongst o t h e r s does n o t a d d r e s s t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s u b j e c t i v e f e e l i n g s o f l o n e l i n e s s (1982; P e p l a u & C a l d w e l l , 1 9 7 8 ) . " L o n e l i n e s s " c a n be d e f i n e d as t h e e m o t i o n a l d i s c o m f o r t e x p e r i e n c e d by i n d i v i d u a l s when t h e r e i s a d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n t h e i r d e s i r e d i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n n e c t e d n e s s t o o t h e r s and t h e i r a t t a i n e d i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n n e c t e d n e s s t o o t h e r s ( B r e n n a n , 1982; P e p l a u & P e r l m a n , 1982; Wood, 1 9 7 8 ) . T h i s e m o t i o n a l d i s c o m f o r t c a n r a n g e f r o m m i l d t o s e v e r e p a i n . A l m o s t e v e r y o n e e x p e r i e n c e s l o n e l i n e s s a t some p o i n t i n t h e i r l i f e ( P e p l a u & P e r l m a n , 1 9 8 2 ) . T h i s e x p e r i e n c e i s n o t a l w a y s d e t r i m e n t a l (May, 1983; P e p l a u , However, l o n e l i n e s s c a n become a d e t r i m e n t i f i t c r e a t e s o r m a i n t a i n s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n e m o t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t ( G e r s o n & P e r l m a n , 1 9 7 9 ) . The i n t e n s i t y and d u r a t i o n o f l o n e l i n e s s f e e l i n g s d e t e r m i n e t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e 4. e x p e r i e n c e ( P e p l a u & P e r l m a n 1 9 8 2 ) . T h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e s l o n e l i n e s s as i t i s e x p e r i e n c e d by a d o l e s c e n t s . When c o n s i d e r i n g a d o l e s c e n t l o n e l i n e s s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o be aware o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l c h a n g e s t h a t o c c u r d u r i n g t h i s t i m e . B e c a u s e a d o l e s c e n c e i s a p e r i o d o f r a p i d e m o t i o n a l , p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l g r o w t h , t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f l o n e l i n e s s i s i n t e r w o v e n w i t h t h e s e components o f d e v e l o p m e n t ( B r e n n a n , 1982; C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i & L a r s o n 1984; Kegan 1 9 8 2 ) . T h i s i s a t i m e when a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o c c u r s : a d o l e s c e n t s b e g i n t o s h i f t t h e i r p r i m a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s f r o m a s t r o n g e m o t i o n a l d e p e n d e n c y on p a r e n t s t o more i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p e e r s ( B r e n n a n , 1982; Kegan 1982) . T h i s t r a n s i t i o n i s a g r o w t h t o w a r d s autonomy; t h a t i s , a d r i v e t o w a r d an i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y . A l o n g w i t h t h i s g r o w t h t o w a r d s autonomy i s a n e e d f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o p r o m o t e i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s (Kegan, 1982; B r e n n a n , 1 9 8 2 ) . I f t h e r e i s a l a c k o f t h e s e i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s a n d a w a r e n e s s , a l a c k o f c o n n e c t e d n e s s w i t h o t h e r s may r e s u l t , c r e a t i n g f e e l i n g s o f l o n e l i n e s s ( B r e n n a n , 1982) . From an e x i s t e n t i a l p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e f e e l i n g o f l o n e l i n e s s c a n come f r o m an a w a r e n e s s t h a t we a r e 5. u l t i m a t e l y s e p a r a t e f r o m o t h e r s (May, 1 9 8 3 ) . F o r a d o l e s c e n t s , t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n o f s e p a r a t e n e s s f r o m b o t h p a r e n t s a nd p e e r s , w h i l e s e e k i n g i n d i v i d u a l i t y , c a n c r e a t e f e e l i n g s o f l o n e l i n e s s (May, 1953/ 1983) . S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m Wood and H a n n e l (1977) showed t h a t l o n e l i n e s s i s f e l t e x t e n s i v e l y d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e a nd e a r l y a d u l t h o o d . A n d e r s o n (1985b) c o n c l u d e d t h a t p e o p l e who e x p e r i e n c e i n t e n s e l o n e l i n e s s o f t e n r e a c t w i t h b e h a v i o u r s t h a t m a i n t a i n o r i n t e n s i f y t h e i r f e e l i n g s o f l o n e l i n e s s . B r o n f e n b r e n n e r (1986) a nd F r a n c e , M c D o w e l l , a n d K n o w l e s (1984) f o u n d t h a t b e h a v i o u r s r e l a t e d t o l o n e l i n e s s i n c l u d e i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h d r u g a n d a l c o h o l a b u s e , d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r , d r o p p i n g o u t o f s c h o o l , a n d s u i c i d e . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o e x a m i n e t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f l o n e l i n e s s and i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s t h a t a r e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e d e g r e e o f l o n e l i n e s s t h a t an a d o l e s c e n t e x p e r i e n c e s . W i t h t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , we may be a b l e t o i d e n t i f y t h o s e a d o l e s c e n t s who a r e s t r u g g l i n g w i t h f e e l i n g s o f l o n e l i n e s s , a n d a s s i s t them i n d e a l i n g w i t h a s s o c i a t e d d i f f i c u l t i e s . 6. Dependent and Independent Variables The d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e i n t h i s s t u d y i s l o n e l i n e s s . A c k n o w l e d g i n g t h a t l o n e l i n e s s may be a p a r t o f n o r m a l a d o l e s c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t , t h i s v a r i a b l e w i l l be m e a s u r e d by d e g r e e o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e , as i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e R e v i s e d U.C.L.A. L o n e l i n e s s S c a l e ( R u s s e l l , P e p l a u & C u t r o n a , 1 9 8 0 ) . T h i s l o n e l i n e s s m e a sure i n c l u d e s a number o f L i k e r t - t y p e i t e m s , e a c h w i t h a r a n g e o f r e s p o n s e s : " n e v e r " l o n e l y , " r a r e l y " l o n e l y , " s o m e t i m e s " l o n e l y a n d " o f t e n " l o n e l y . T h e r e a r e t h r e e g r o u p s o f i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s s t u d y . These i n c l u d e : c omponents o f s e l f c o n c e p t , b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n , and f r i e n d s h i p v a r i a b l e s . The i n s t r u m e n t o f s e l f c o n c e p t e m p l o y e d i n t h i s s t u d y c o n t a i n s 12 s u b s c a l e s w h i c h c o n s i d e r t h e s u b j e c t ' s s e l f p e r c e p t i o n as i t r e l a t e s t o b o t h a c a d e m i c a n d s o c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . A l s o i n c l u d e d as i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s s t u d y a r e s i x b a c k g r o u n d v a r i a b l e s : g e n d e r , age, l a n g u a g e , number o f p a r e n t s , a nd b o t h p a r e n t s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e . The t h i r d g r o u p o f i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s a r e t h o s e m e a s u r e d by t h e s o c i o g r a m q u e s t i o n n a i r e . These i n c l u d e f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h i n t h e s u r v e y e d c l a s s r o o m and mean 7. c l o s e n e s s o f t h e s e f r i e n d s h i p s . T h e r e a r e a l s o two c o n s t a n t v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s s t u d y . F i r s t , t h a t e a c h s u b j e c t who t o o k p a r t was a g r a d e 10 s t u d e n t . And s e c o n d , t h a t e v e r y s t u d e n t was e n r o l l e d i n a s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l i n S u r r e y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , S u r r e y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . O b - i e c t i v e s o f t h e S t u d y The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e : 1. To examine t h e e x t e n t o f l o n e l i n e s s i n a d o l e s c e n c e . 2. To i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n l o n e l i n e s s d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e a n d components o f s e l f c o n c e p t , age, g e n d e r , l a n g u a g e , number o f p a r e n t s , p a r e n t s o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e , f r i e n d s h i p s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m and t h e mean c l o s e n e s s o f t h e s e f r i e n d s h i p s . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s I n t h i s s t u d y t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e i s l o n e l i n e s s a n d t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s a r e components o f s e l f 8. c o n c e p t , f r i e n d s h i p a n d b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n . The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e : 1. To what e x t e n t i s l o n e l i n e s s p r e v a l e n t i n a s a m p l e o f G r a d e 10 a d o l e s c e n t s ? 2. W h i c h o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s o r c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s b e s t p r e d i c t l o n e l i n e s s ? ( e x c l u d i n g t h e two f r i e n d s h i p v a r i a b l e s ) . 3. Do c l a s s r o o m f r i e n d s h i p s a n d t h e c l o s e n e s s o f t h e s e f r i e n d s h i p s h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e d e g r e e o f l o n e l i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e d ? 9. C H A P T E R TWO R E V I E W O F R E L A T E D L I T E R A T U R E The t o p i c o f l o n e l i n e s s h as b e e n p r e s e n t i n l i t e r a t u r e f o r many y e a r s , t h o u g h more common i n t h e l a s t d e c a d e . The r e v i e w o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n c l u d e s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f c u r r e n t l o n e l i n e s s t h e o r i e s a n d r e l a t e d a r e a s t o l o n e l i n e s s r e l e v a n t t o t h i s s t u d y . T h i s r e v i e w b e g i n s w i t h a b r i e f b a c k g r o u n d d i s c u s s i o n o f e a r l y p s y c h o d y n a m i c v i e w s and E x i s t e n t i a l t h e o r y . T h i s w i l l be f o l l o w e d by t h e m a i n f o c u s o f d i s c u s s i o n , A t t a c h m e n t t h e o r y a n d C o g n i t i v e t h e o r y . I n a d d i t i o n , a d o l e s c e n c e a n d l o n e l i n e s s , s e l f c o n c e p t , i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d l o n e l i n e s s , and t h e d i s c l o s u r e o f l o n e l i n e s s a r e d i s c u s s e d . The l a s t s e c t i o n i n t h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . B a c k g r o u n d H i s t o r i c a l l y , t h e p s y c h o d y n a m i c m odel e m p h a s i z e d an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s a n d c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s . L o n e l i n e s s was n o t s e e n as a p o s i t i v e 10 . e x p e r i e n c e . M o s t e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s t h e o r y was g a t h e r e d f r o m c l i e n t s i n c l i n i c a l s e t t i n g s , g e n e r a t i n g t h e b e l i e f t h a t l o n e l i n e s s was p a t h o l o g i c a l i n n a t u r e (Fromm- R e i c h m a n , 1 9 5 9 ) . I n c o n t r a s t t o p s y c h o d y n a m i c b e l i e f s , e x i s t e n t i a l t h e o r y c o n s i d e r s l o n e l i n e s s a p o s i t i v e and common e x p e r i e n c e (May, 1 9 8 3 ) . May (1983) b e l i e v e s a m a j o r l i f e t a s k o f i n d i v i d u a l s i s t o become aware o f , a n d a c c e p t t h e i r u l t i m a t e a l o n e n e s s . F o r w i t h t h i s a w a r e n e s s we a c c e p t o u r s e l f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l i f e . B e c a u s e l o n e l i n e s s i s c o n s i d e r e d a n a t u r a l p a r t o f d e v e l o p m e n t , a n t e c e d e n t s t o l o n e l i n e s s do n o t seem i m p o r t a n t . F r a n k l (1963) d e s c r i b e s l o n e l i n e s s a s a n a t u r a l i n b o r n c o n d i t i o n o f l i f e . When l o n e l i n e s s i s a p r o b l e m , t h e r e s o l u t i o n l i e s w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l . Attachment Theory A p r i m a r y theme i n a t t a c h m e n t t h e o r y i s t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e r e a r e two d i s t i n c t t y p e s o f l o n e l i n e s s ; t r a n s i t o r y and c h r o n i c ( H o j a t , 1 9 8 7 ) . B e c a u s e t h e c o n t r i b u t i n g c a u s e s o f t r a n s i t o r y l o n e l i n e s s a r e d i s t i n c t f r o m c h r o n i c l o n e l i n e s s , so a r e t h e t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k s and i n t e r v e n t i o n s . H o j a t (1987) s u g g e s t s t h a t 11. t r a n s i t o r y l o n e l i n e s s i s due t o e x t e r n a l o c c u r a n c e s s u c h as t h e l o s s o f a s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r , t h e e n d i n g o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p , o r c h a n g i n g p l a c e s o f r e s i d e n c e o r s c h o o l i n g . C l a r i f y i n g and a c k n o w l e d g i n g f e e l i n g s o f l o s s a r e a l i k e l y g o a l o f i n t e r v e n t i o n . An e x a m p l e o f t h i s i s a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h e l o s s o f a s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r , and w o r k i n g t h r o u g h t h e s t a g e s o f g r i e f . T r a n s i t o r y l o n e l i n e s s i s a l s o v i e w e d as a n a t u r a l p a r t o f d e v e l o p m e n t o r l i f e t a s k . C h r o n i c l o n e l i n e s s d i f f e r s f r o m t r a n s i t o r y l o n e l i n e s s as i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o h a v e r o o t s i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d a t t a c h m e n t s ( H o j a t , 1 9 8 7 ) . T h e r e a r e two p r i m a r y means by w h i c h t h i s c a n o c c u r : one b e i n g when t h e p r i m a r y c a r e g i v e r / i n f a n t b o n d i s b r o k e n o r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t e r r u p t e d , s u c h a s when a p r i m a r y c a r e g i v e r d i e s ; s e c o n d when an e m o t i o n a l l y u n h e a l t h l y t i e e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e p r i m a r y c a r e g i v e r and c h i l d . When s u c h a " d i s t u r b e d t i e " e x i s t s , t h e c h i l d i s l i k e l y t o e x p e r i e n c e " u n s a t i s f a c t o r y f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e n e e d s f o r c o n t a c t , i n t i m a c y a n d s o c i a l s t i m u l a t i o n " ( H o j a t , 1987, p. 9 4 ) . A s a d u l t s , t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s may f e e l e m o t i o n a l l y d e t a c h e d f r o m o t h e r s b e c a u s e o f t h e i r f e a r o f b e i n g r e j e c t e d a n d a n x i e t y w i t h f o r m i n g e m o t i o n a l i n t i m a c y w i t h o t h e r s ( H o j a t , 1 9 8 7 ) . 12 . The a t t a c h m e n t t h e o r y o f l o n e l i n e s s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t i n t e r m s o f t r e a t m e n t f o r c h r o n i c l o n e l i n e s s . The e m p h a s i s o f t r e a t m e n t i s f o r t h e c l i e n t t o become i n v o l v e d i n a t h e r a p e u t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p ( H o j a t , 1987) . The c l i e n t i s g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o work t h r o u g h t h e i r i n t e r n a l i z e d f e a r s and n e e d s s u r r o u n d i n g i n t i m a c y , w i t h i n t h e c l i e n t - t h e r a p i s t r e l a t i o n s h i p . H o j a t (1987) f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s p r o c e s s i n c l u d e c l a r i f y i n g s e l f - o b j e c t d i f f e r e n t i t a t i o n a n d c o g n i t i v e - b e h a v i o r a l t e c h n i q u e s t o " r e c o n s t r u c t a new s e l f image i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s " (p. 9 8 ) . R e c e n t r e s e a r c h by S c h u l t z and Moore (1987) i d e n t i f i e d two d i s t i n c t p a r e n t a l p a t t e r n s w h i c h s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t s t h e p a r e n t and c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p . T hese a r e : a c c e p t a n c e - r e j e c t i o n r e f e r r i n g t o " t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h p a r e n t s show l o v e a n d r e s p e c t f o r t h e i r c h i l d " , a n d p e r m i s s i v e - r e s t r i c t i v e r e f e r r i n g t o " t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h p a r e n t s a l l o w t h e i r c h i l d autonomy a n d f r e e d o m i n t h e i r b e h a v i o u r " ( S c h u l t z e t a l . , 1987; p. 3 8 ) . T hese r e s e a r c h e r s s u g g e s t t h a t i f t h e p a r e n t a n d c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p i s e x h i b i t e d as an e x t r e m e i n any o f t h e s e two p a t t e r n s an e m o t i o n a l l y u n h e a l t h y r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s , t h u s c r e a t i n g f o r t h e c h i l d o r a d o l e s c e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s e n c o u r a g i n g e m o t i o n a l d i s t a n c e o r d i s c o n n e c t e d n e s s f r o m o t h e r s . A t t a c h m e n t r e s e a r c h by o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s h a s s h i f t e d t h e f o c u s away f r o m p a r e n t a l p a t t e r n s t o s t y l e s o f i n f a n t / c h i l d a t t a c h m e n t . A i n s w o r t h , B l e h a r , W a t e r s and W a l l (1978) i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e p a t t e r n s o f i n f a n t / c h i l d a t t a c h m e n t s t y l e s : s e c u r e a t t a c h m e n t , a n x i o u s a m b i v a l e n t a t t a c h m e n t a n d a v o i d a n t a t t a c h m e n t . S e c u r e a t t a c h m e n t " i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i n f a n t s whose p r i m a r y c a r e g i v e r i s g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e and r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e i n f a n t s n e e d s " ( S h a v e r & H a z a n , 1987, p. 110) . A n x i o u s / a m b i v a l e n t a t t a c h m e n t " i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i n f a n t s whose p r i m a r y c a r e g i v e r i s a l s o a n x i o u s a n d s e e m i n g l y o u t o f s y n c w i t h t h e i n f a n t s n e e d s , b e i n g s o metimes a v a i l a b l e a n d r e s p o n s i v e b u t a t o t h e r t i m e s u n a v a i l a b l e o r i n t r u s i v e " ( S h a v e r & Hazan, 1987, p . 1 1 0 ) . T h i s a t t a c h m e n t p a t t e r n p l a c e s t h e b a b y i n a s e l f - p r o t e c t i v e e m o t i o n a l s t a t e o f " p r o t e s t " . The t h i r d a t t a c h m e n t p a t t e r n o f a v o i d a n t a t t a c h m e n t " i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i n f a n t s whose p r i m a r y c a r e g i v e r i s g e n e r a l l y u n r e s p o n s i v e i f n o t o u t r i g h t r e j e c t i n g " ( S h a v e r & Hazan, 1987, p. 1 1 0 ) . T h i s t h i r d p a t t e r n p l a c e s t h e baby i n a s e l f p r o t e c t i v e e m o t i o n a l s t a t e o f " d e t a c h m e n t " ( B o w l b y , 1969, 1973, 1980) . S h a v e r a n d Hazan (1987) f o u n d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who d e v e l o p e d t h e 14. l a t e r two a t t a c h m e n t s t y l e s a n d t h e i r a c c o m p a n y i n g s e l f p r o t e c t i v e s t a t e s were more l i k e l y t o e x p e r i e n c e l o n e l i n e s s as a d u l t s . A t t a c h m e n t s t y l e s e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d become a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t o f o u r p s y c h o l o g i c a l makeup, e f f e c t i n g o u r a t t a c h m e n t s t h r o u g h o u t o u r a d u l t l i v e s ( S h a v e r & Hazan, 1 9 8 7 ) . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e when i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p e e r s become a p r e v a l e n t p a r t o f e m o t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t (Kegan, 1 9 8 2 ) . As d i s c u s s e d by S u l l i v a n (1953) i n t i m a c y w i t h a f r i e n d becomes a v e r y p o w e r f u l n e e d f o r t h e p r e a d o l e s c e n t . The e x p e r i e n c e o f a c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be so i m p o r t a n t t h a t S u l l i v a n (1953) a s s e r t e d t h a t a p e r s o n who d i d n o t have a f o r t u n a t e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h a n o t h e r p e r s o n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d was n e v e r a b l e t o m a i n t a i n g o o d r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p e e r s i n l a t e r l i f e o r t o f e e l a t e a s e among s t r a n g e r s . The e f f e c t o f a t t a c h m e n t s t y l e s on i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s o u t l i n e d by S h a v e r a n d Hazan (1987) i n t e r m s o f a c y c l e o f l i f e g o a l s . A t t a c h m e n t i s one segment o f a c y c l e w h i c h i n c l u d e s e x p l o r a t i o n , c a r e g i v i n g , s e x u a l m a t i n g a nd a f f i l i a t i o n ( B o w l b y , 1973; S h a v e r & Hazan, 1987).. The component o f a t t a c h m e n t 15. o c c u r s f i r s t , t h e r e f o r e t h e s t r e n g t h s and w e a k n e s s e s o f a t t a c h m e n t have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e r e m a i n i n g components i n t h i s c y c l e ( S h a v e r & H a z a n , 1 9 8 7 ) . I f t h e a t t a c h m e n t component i s t h r e a t e n e d t h e n t h e f o l l o w i n g s y s t e m s o f e x p l o r a t i o n , c a r e g i v i n g , s e x u a l m a t i n g a n d a f f i l i a t i o n w i l l i n t u r n be a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d . Cognitive Theory The c o g n i t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e d o e s n o t c o n s i d e r t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f l o n e l i n e s s t o b e p o s i t i v e , b u t l o n e l i n e s s i s v i e w e d as a n o r m a l a n d n a t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e o f l i f e ( P e p l a u & P e r l m a n , 1982) . A n t e c e d e n t s t o l o n e l i n e s s c a n be due t o s i t u a t i o n a l e v e n t s , an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f b o t h t h e s e . The i n f l u e n c e o f e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s a r e r e c o g n i z e d , b u t t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o g n i t i v e t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s a r e p o s i t e d as t h e m a i n i n f l u e n c e . B r e n n a n (1982) a n d Wood (1978) s u g g e s t t h a t l o n e l y i n d i v i d u a l s a r e t h o s e who e x p e r i e n c e a d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n t h e i r d e s i r e d and a t t a i n e d i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s . T h e r e f o r e , s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n d o e s n o t c r e a t e l o n e l i n e s s u n l e s s t h e i n d i v i d u a l d e s i r e s a h i g h e r l e v e l o f s o c i a l 16. i n t e r a c t i o n . B e i n g p h y s i c a l l y a p a r t o r a l o n e f r o m o t h e r s does n o t e q u a l l o n e l i n e s s . P e p l a u and C a l d w e l l ( 1 9 7 8 ) , f o u n d some s o c i a l l y - i s o l a t e d p e o p l e a d o p t t h e i r n e e d s f o r c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r s i n o r d e r t o d e a l r e a l i s t i c a l l y w i t h t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s . I f t h e y were i n a s i t u a t i o n where c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r s was l i m i t e d , t h e y l o w e r e d t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r c o n t a c t . I n t h e c o g n i t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e , e x t e r n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e n o t a b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i n g l o n e l i n e s s ( P e p l a u , M i c e l i & M o r a s c h , 1 9 8 2 ) . C o g n i t i v e b e l i e f s a nd d e s i r e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a r e what d e t e r m i n e s t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e o f l o n e l i n e s s . A k e y f a c e t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s o f l o n e l i n e s s i s a t t r i b u t i o n t h e o r y . A n d e r s o n a n d A r n o u l t ( 1 9 8 5 a ) , s u g g e s t t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o g n i t i v e p e r c e p t i o n o f s e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s and t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g o f l i f e e v e n t s may be t h e k e y t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g l o n e l y , s h y , and d e p r e s s e d i n d i v i d u a l s . A n d e r s o n and A r n o u l t (1985b) s u g g e s t t h a t " d e p r e s s e d , l o n e l y a nd shy p e o p l e c o n s i s t e n t l y e x p r e s s t h e i r s u c c e s s e s a n d f a i l u r e s i n a s e l f - d e f e a t i n g way; t h e y have a m a l a d a p t i v e a t t r i b u t i o n a l s t y l e " (p. 1 7 ) . A t t r i b u t i o n a l p a t t e r n s o f i n d i v i d u a l s were f o u n d t o " i n f l u e n c e t h e i r a f f e c t i v e r e a c t i o n s t o l o n e l i n e s s , 17 . t h e i r s e l f e s t e e m and t h e i r c o p i n g b e h a v i o u r " ( P e p l a u & P e r l m a n , 1982/ p. 1 2 ) . As a r e s u l t o f t h e i r d y s f u n c t i o n a l a t t r i b u t i o n s t y l e , l o n e l y i n d i v i d u a l s a r e e v a s i v e t o w a r d s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h w o u l d a l l o w o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l r a p p o r t ( A n d e r s o n a n d A r n o u l t , 1 9 8 5 a ) . T h i s l a c k o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s , s e r v e s t o m a i n t a i n t h e c y c l e o f l o n e l i n e s s . Adoleaeence and Loneliness The f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y i s l o n e l i n e s s as i t i s e x p e r i e n c e d b y a d o l e s c e n t s . Thus, i t seems a p p r o p r i a t e t o e x p l o r e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l c h a n g e s w h i c h o c c u r d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d l o n e l i n e s s d u r i n g t h i s t i m e . A s p e c t s o f s o c i a l r o l e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s f r o m p a r e n t s and s o c i e t y , a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p e e r s a n d p a r e n t s become p a r t o f t h e c o m p l e x d e v e l o p m e n t d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e ( B r e n n a n , 1982/ Kegan, 1982/ C s i k s z e n t m i h a l y i & L a r s o n , 1 9 8 4 ) . B e c a u s e o f t h e i n t e n s i f i e d t r a n s i t i o n o f i n d e p e n d e n c e and autonomy f r o m p a r e n t s , t h e p e e r e n v i r o n m e n t becomes i m p o r t a n t . (Kegan, 1983/ B r e n n a n , 1 9 8 2 ) . D e v e l o p m e n t a l l y , t h e r e i s a 18. t r a n s i t i o n f r o m a r o l e - o r i e n t e d f o c u s o f b e h a v i o u r ( I m p e r i a l S t a g e ) t o t h a t o f a more i n t i m a t e i n t e r p e r s o n a l s t y l e o f r e l a t i n g t o o t h e r s ( I n t e r p e r s o n a l S t a g e ) (Kegan, 1 9 8 2 ) . A d o l e s c e n t s p r o g r e s s f r o m b e l o n g i n g m a i n l y t o a g r o u p o f f r i e n d s t o add i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s , w h i c h r e q u i r e s i n c r e a s e d i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s . Kegan (1982) s u g g e s t s t h a t t i m e s o f t r a n s i t i o n b e t w e e n t h e I m p e r i a l a n d I n t e r p e r s o n a l s t a g e s o f e m o t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t c a n be e x p e r i e n c e d as d i f f i c u l t and t r o u b l e d . A d o l e s c e n t s who do n o t d e v e l o p t h e i r i n t e r p e r s o n a l a w a r e n e s s a t t h e same r a t e as t h e i r p e e r s may e x p e r i e n c e l o n e l i n e s s as f r i e n d s s h i f t t h e i r f o c u s t o w a r d s o t h e r s who a r e m a i n t a i n i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A d o l e s c e n t s who a r e s h i f t i n g away f r o m t h e r o l e - o r i e n t e d s t a g e o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n t o one t h a t i s i n t e r p e r s o n a l l y f o c u s e d may e x p e r i e n c e a t r a n s i t i o n t i m e when t h e y a r e b e t w e e n t h e two s t a g e s . They may f e e l l o s t and d i s c o n n e c t e d , r e s u l t i n g i n f e e l i n g s o f l o n e l i n e s s . A t r a n s i t i o n a l s o o c c u r s i n r e l a t i o n t o p a r e n t s , as t h e r e i s a n e e d f o r t h e a d o l e s c e n t and p a r e n t t o e x p a n d t h e i r ways o f c o m m u n i c a t i n g w i t h e a c h o t h e r . The p a r e n t / c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p i s r e c o n s t r u c t e d t o one o f more e q u a l i t y 19. and r e c i p r o c i t y (Kegan, 1 9 8 2 ) . I f t h i s i s n o t a smooth t r a n s i t i o n , t h e s e n s e o f e m o t i o n a l d i s c o n n e c t e d n e s s f r o m p a r e n t s may l e a d t o l o n e l i n e s s . H o j a t (1982) i n v e s t i g a t e d c h i l d h o o d r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f l o n e l y a d u l t s and f o u n d t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d were an i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e on l o n e l i n e s s . I n a s u r v e y o f c o l l e g e s u b j e c t s , H o j a t (1982) r e p o r t e d t h a t a d u l t s who h a d e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h , and f e l t m i s u n d e r s t o o d by t h e i r p a r e n t s as c h i l d r e n , were a t r i s k f o r e x p e r i e n c i n g l o n e l i n e s s as a d u l t s . T h i s same s t u d y a l s o f o u n d t h a t t h o s e who d i d n o t c o m m u n i c a t e and s h a r e t h e i r f e e l i n g s w i t h p e e r s a s c h i l d r e n were a t g r e a t e r r i s k o f e x p e r i e n c i n g l o n e l i n e s s . A l i n k was e s t a b l i s h e d b e t w e e n e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p e e r s o r p a r e n t s , as c h i l d r e n , and l o n e l i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e d as a d u l t s ( H o j a t , 1982) . F i n d i n g s s u c h as t h o s e by H o j a t (1982) d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g l o n e l i n e s s d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d and a d o l e s c e n c e . G o s w i c k a n d J o n e s (1982) s t a t e two r e a s o n s t o f u r t h e r l o n e l i n e s s r e s e a r c h d u r i n g t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p e r i o d s . F i r s t , t h e r e s u l t s t o d a t e l i n k a d u l t l o n e l i n e s s w i t h d i f f i c u l t c h i l d h o o d a n d a d o l e s c e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . S e c o n d l y , l o n e l i n e s s h a s b e e n 20. i d e n t i f i e d as more common d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e t h a n o t h e r age g r o u p . B e c a u s e s t y l e s o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n a r e l e a r n e d i n o u r f a m i l y homes, a d o l e s c e n c e i s a c r u c i a l t i m e t o c l a r i f y d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d i n t r o d u c e i n t e r v e n t i o n s ( G o s w i c k & J o n e s , 1982) . S e l f Concept T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l ways b y w h i c h we d e v e l o p o u r c o n c e p t o f s e l f . One i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h i s p r o c e s s i s i n t r o s p e c t i o n ( G e r g e n & G e r g e n , 1981, 1 9 8 6 ) . We b e g i n t o know o u r s e l v e s , t a k i n g t i m e t o t h i n k a b o u t a n d f o r m u l a t e o u r v a l u e s , b e l i e f s a n d f e e l i n g s . The s e c o n d m a j o r p a r t o f f o r m i n g a s e l f c o n c e p t i s when we e x p l o r e who we a r e i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s . T h i s i n c l u d e s an a w a r e n e s s o f how we a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m o t h e r s . How o t h e r s v i e w and r e a c t t o us i n f l u e n c e s t h e f o r m a t i o n o f o u r c o n c e p t o f s e l f . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y so i n a d o l e s c e n c e when t h e main n e e d i s f o r i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s . I n t h e s e r e l a t i o n s t h e a d o l e s c e n t ' s s e l f - s y s t e m i s open t o a p p r a i s a l s f r o m t h e o t h e r p e r s o n t h a t may w e l l be d i f f e r e n t f r o m 21. t h e s e l f - a p p r a i s a l s r e c e i v e d f r o m p a r e n t s e a r l i e r i n l i f e . Thus, many d i s t o r t e d v i e w s t h e c h i l d m i g h t h a v e o f h i m s e l f a r e open t o c o r r e c t i o n by t h e v i e w s o f p e e r s . From t h i s s t a g e onward t h e g r o w i n g p e r s o n i s open t o e x p e r i e n c e l o n e l i n e s s . L o n e l i n e s s i s e v e n more d i s t r e s s i n g an e x p e r i e n c e t h a n a n x i e t y , so t h e p e r s o n may be d r i v e n t o c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s , a n d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a change i n h i s s e l f - s y s t e m i n s p i t e o f t h e a n x i e t y s u c h a change b r i n g s w i t h i t . ( S u l l i v a n , 1953, p. 953.) As c h i l d r e n grow t h r o u g h a d o l e s c e n c e , t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t o w a r d s autonomy o f t e n means t h e i r s e l f c o n c e p t i s r a d i c a l l y c h a n g e d ( B r e n n a n , 1 9 8 2 ) . The e m o t i o n a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d s o c i a l c o n c e p t s o f s e l f , m o l d e d d u r i n g e a r l y c h i l d h o o d , become d e f i c i e n t d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e ( B r e n n a n , 1982; R a p p a p o r t , 1 9 7 2 ) . As a r e s u l t a d o l e s c e n t s h a v e t h e t a s k o f r e f o r m u l a t i n g t h e i r c o n c e p t o f s e l f t o accommodate t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l , e m o t i o n a l , and s o c i a l c h a n g e s w h i c h o c c u r d u r i n g t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t a l p e r i o d . ( B r e n n a n , 1982; R a p p a p o r t , 1972) . The f e e l i n g s we a s s o c i a t e w i t h o u r s e l f c o n c e p t d e f i n e s t h a t c o n c e p t ( G e r g e n & G e r g e n , 1 9 8 6 ) . I f t h e a s s o c i a t e d f e e l i n g s a r e p o s i t i v e , a p o s i t i v e s e l f c o n c e p t e x i s t s ; i f t h e f e e l i n g s a r e n e g a t i v e , a n e g a t i v e s e l f c o n c e p t e x i s t s ( G e r g e n & G e r g e n , 1 9 8 6 ) . N e g a t i v e s e l f c o n c e p t c a n be p a r t o f a c y c l e w h i c h c r e a t e s a n d 22. m a i n t a i n s l o n e l i n e s s ( G o s w i c k & J o n e s , 1 9 8 1 ) . G o s w i c k and J o n e s (1981) f o u n d t h a t c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s who r e p o r t e d b e i n g l o n e l y h a d as much o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s o c i a l c o n t a c t as s t u d e n t s who r e p o r t e d n o t b e i n g l o n e l y , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t l o n e l y i n d i v i d u a l s may be i n h i b i t e d b y a n e g a t i v e s e l f c o n c e p t i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o i n i t i a t e i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . G o s w i c k a n d J o n e s (1981) s u g g e s t t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s a c t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r " p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l r e a l i t y " ( p . 2 3 8 ) . I f t h i s r e a l i t y i n c l u d e s a n e g a t i v e c o n c e p t o f s e l f , a n d s e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s , t h e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l h e s i t a t e s t o r i s k i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t . L o n e l y s u b j e c t s were f o u n d t o be f o c u s e d on t h e i r n e g a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n o f s e l f , a n d t h e r e f o r e n o t open t o more p o s i t i v e f e e d b a c k f r o m o t h e r s . S e l f C o n c e p t a n d G e n d e r S o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e a m a j o r i n f l u e n c e upon o u r c o n c e p t o f s e l f ( A n d e r s o n 1985; B r e n n a n , 1972; P e p l a u & P e r l m a n , 1979; R u b i n , 1982) . D u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e t h e s e a r c h f o r an i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y i s h e i g h t e n e d a s i s one's a w a r e n e s s o f m a s c u l i n e / f e m i n i n e r o l e s . T h e r e i s a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e o f g e n d e r s t e r e o t y p i n g i n N o r t h 23. A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y . O f t e n i d e a l i m a g e s a r e p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h t h e m e d i a , s c h o o l s y s t e m , p a r e n t a l and s o c i e t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . The s t r e n g t h o f s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e becomes a p p a r e n t i n r e s e a r c h w h i c h r e l i e s on s e l f r e p o r t s , as l o n e l i n e s s r e s e a r c h d o e s . I n t h e p a s t s i g n i f i c a n t g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t f o u n d i n r e p o r t e d l o n e l i n e s s ( R u s s e l l , P e p l a u & C u t r o n a , 1 9 8 0 ) . However, B o r y s and P e r l m a n (1985) r e v i e w e d 39 s t u d i e s o f l o n e l i n e s s , i n w h i c h t h e r e were o f t e n no g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e p o r t e d l o n e l i n e s s , a l t h o u g h t h e r e were i d e n t i f i a b l e t r e n d s i n s t u d i e s where i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d and s u b j e c t s a s k e d t o l a b e l t h e m s e l v e s as l o n e l y , f e m a l e s r e p o r t e d h e i g h t e n e d l o n e l i n e s s more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n m a l e s . However, i n s t u d i e s i n w h i c h a q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r m a t was u s e d t h a t a s k e d q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o l o n e l i n e s s b u t n o t i f t h e s u b j e c t was a c t u a l l y l o n e l y , m a l e s r e p o r t e d g r e a t e r l o n e l i n e s s t h a n f e m a l e s . The R e v i s e d U.C.L.A. L o n e l i n e s s S c a l e ( R u s s e l l , P e p l a u & C u t r o n a , 1980) i s one o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h g e n e r a l l y r e v e a l s m a l e s as r e p o r t i n g g r e a t e r l o n e l i n e s s t h a n f e m a l e s . S o c i a l i n f l u e n c e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t o r t o g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e d i s c l o s u r e o f l o n e l i n e s s f e e l i n g s ( B o r y s & P e r l m a n , 1985) . They s u g g e s t o u r 24. s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e i s l e s s a c c e p t i n g o f m a l e s who a c k n o w l e d g e t h e i r l o n e l i n e s s . F e a r i n g t h e n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e s o f s o c i e t y , m a l e s c o n f o r m t o e x p e c t a t i o n s o f s e x r o l e s t e r o t y p e s d i c t a t i n g " i t i s u n a c c e p t a b l e f o r m a l e s t o e x p r e s s e m o t i o n a l w e a k n e s s o r d i s t r e s s " (p. 7 3 ) . I n a r e l a t e d s t u d y B e r g & P e p l a u (1982) f o u n d t h a t " p s y c h o l o g i c a l m a s c u l i n i t y a n d f e m i n i t y " i n f l u e n c e d l o n e l i n e s s (p. 6 2 4 ) . S u b j e c t s who were c l a s s i f e d as p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y a d r o g y n o u s , " s c o r i n g h i g h on b o t h m a s c u l i n e a n d f e m i n i n e t r a i t s " were t h e " l e a s t l i k e l y t o f e e l l o n l e y " (p. 62 6 ) . I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s S o l a n o (1987) i n t e g r a t e d m e a s u r e s o f l o c u s o f c o n t r o l a n d a t t r i b u t i o n s t y l e t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h l o n e l i n e s s . O v e r a p e r i o d o f n i n e y e a r s , d a t a were c o l l e c t e d on 2,143 f i r s t - y e a r c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . The g e n e r a l r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t " l o n e l y p e r s o n s s e e s o c i a l s u c c e s s a n d f a i l u r e as b e i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u n c o n t r o l l a b l e s o u r c e s , t h e a c t i o n s o f p o w e r f u l o t h e r s , t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e t a s k , t h e i n f l u e n c e o f c h a n c e , a n d u n c h a n g e a b l e a s p e c t s o f s e l f " ( S o l a n o , 1987, p. 2 1 0 ) . L o n e l y s u b j e c t s a r e d e s c r i b e d as n o t s e e i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n c o n t r o l and n o t w a n t i n g t o be i n c o n t r o l i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . S o l a n o a t t r i b u t e s g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s t u d y t o g e n d e r r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s . L o n e l y f e m a l e s u b j e c t s t e n d e d t o h a v e l o w n e e d f o r c o n t r o l o n l y i n r o m a n t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s . L o n e l y male s u b j e c t s d i d n o t b e l i e v e t h e y h ad c o n t r o l n o r d i d t h e y want c o n t r o l i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . W i l l i a m s (1983) i n v e s t i g a t e d l o n e l i n e s s i n d e l i n q u e n t s as a measure o f n e e d s f o r a f f e c t i o n , i n c l u s i o n and c o n t r o l . The 98 s u b j e c t s r a n g e d i n age f r o m 12 t o 18 y e a r s . W i l l i a m s (1983) f o u n d t h a t i s s u e s o f c o n t r o l i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o l o n e l i n e s s . The d e s i r e t o be c o n t r o l l e d b y o t h e r s , o r t o c o n t r o l o t h e r s i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , was r e l a t e d t o t h e d e g r e e o f l o n e l i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e d . I f a s u b j e c t was a s s e s s e d as h a v i n g a medium t o h i g h n e e d t o c o n t r o l o t h e r s o r t o be c o n t r o l l e d by o t h e r s , a n d t h i s n e e d was u n f u l f i l l e d , t h e n more l o n e l i n e s s was l i k e l y t o o c c u r t h a n t h o s e w i t h l o w n e e d s i n t h e d i m e n s i o n o f c o n t r o l . W i l l i a m s ' f i n d i n g s (1983) a r e i n c o n t r a s t t o S o l a n o ' s (1987) i n r e g a r d s t o d e s i r e s f o r c o n t r o l o r t o be c o n t r o l l e d b y o t h e r s i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 26. T h e r e may be s e v e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e s e d i f f e r e n t f i n d i n g s . F i r s t , t h e S o l a n o s t u d y i n v o l v e d c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s w h i l e W i l l i a m s 1 s t u d y i n v o l v e d 12 t o 18 y e a r - o l d a d o l e s c e n t s . S e c o n d l y , S o l a n o ' s s t u d y i n c l u d e d s u b s t a n t i a l numbers o f e a c h g e n d e r , whereas W i l l i a m s s t u d y i n c l u d e d a t o t a l o f 98 s u b j e c t s , o f w h i c h 7 8 were m a l e . These d i f f e r e n c e s i n age a n d g e n d e r o f p a r t i c i p a n t s may h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e c o n t r a s t i n g r e s u l t s . I n a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h t o c l a r i f y i n g t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l d e s i r e s o f l o n e l y p e o p l e , H o r w i t z a n d F r e n c h (1979) i n v e s t i g a t e d a s p e c t s o f s o c i a l i z i n g i n 479 u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . H o r o w i t z e m p l o y e d a l o n e l i n e s s m e a s u r e , w i t h a l i s t o f 100 i n t e r p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s t h a t r e q u i r e d t h e s u b j e c t t o s o r t a n d a r r a n g e t h e l i s t o f p r o b l e m s f r o m t h e l e a s t t o most f a m i l i a r . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e most f r e q u e n t i n t e r p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m f o r l o n e l y i n d i v i d u a l s i s i n h i b i t e d s o c i a b i l i t y . L o n e l y a n d n o t - l o n e l y s u b j e c t s d i f f e r e d on two d i m e n s i o n s o f i n h i b i t e d s o c i a b i l i t y ; f r i e n d l i n e s s a nd c o n t r o l . On t h e d i m e n s i o n o f f r i e n d l i n e s s , l o n e l y s u b j e c t s e x p e r i e n c e d p r o b l e m s w i t h b e i n g f r i e n d l y , w h i l e n o n - l o n e l y s u b j e c t s e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t y w i t h b e i n g h o s t i l e . On t h e d i m e n s i o n o f c o n t r o l , n o n - l o n e l y i n d i v i d u a l s h a d 27 . d i f f i c u l t y c o n t r o l l i n g s i t u a t i o n s , w h i l e l o n e l y i n d i v i d u a l s h a d d i f f i c u l t y n o t c o n t r o l l i n g s i t u a t i o n s . The s t u d y by H o r o w i t z e t a l . (1979) t e n d s t o s u p p o r t t h e f i n d i n g s o f W i l l i a m s (1983) who f o u n d s u b j e c t s , w i t h a medium t o h i g h n e e d t o c o n t r o l o r t o be c o n t r o l l e d b y o t h e r s , were most l i k e l y t o e x p e r i e n c e l o n e l i n e s s , i f t h e i r n e e d s s u r r o u n d i n g c o n t r o l were n o t met. Disclosing- Loneliness I n t h e i r a r t i c l e "The R e v e l a t i o n o f L o n e l i n e s s , " P e r l m a n a n d J o s h i (1987) d i s c u s s f o u r s e p a r a t e e x p l a n a t i o n s o f why p e o p l e may n o t d i s c l o s e t h e i r f e e l i n g s o f l o n e l i n e s s . F i r s t l y , t h e n e g a t i v e s o c i a l s t i g m a s u r r o u n d i n g l o n e l i n e s s d i s c o u r a g e s t h e d i s c l o s u r e o f f e e l i n g s . S e c o n d l y , p e o p l e may l a c k s e l f a w a r e n e s s o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e phenomenon i n o r d e r t o l a b e l t h e e x p e r i e n c e as l o n e l i n e s s . T h i r d l y , many p e o p l e may h e s i t a t e t o d i s c l o s e l o n e l i n e s s , b e c a u s e t h e y f e e l t h e y s h o u l d be s e l f s u f f i c i e n t a n d n o t d e p e n d on o t h e r s e m o t i o n a l l y . F o u r t h l y , p e o p l e may f e e l d i s c o u r a g e d o r p e s s i m i s t i c t h a t o t h e r p e o p l e w o u l d c a r e enough t o r e s p o n d t o them ( P e r l m a n & J o s h i , 1987) . They p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e e m o t i o n a l p a i n o f l o n e l i n e s s as w e l l as p e r s o n a l b e l i e f s t h a t t h e r e a r e o t h e r s who c a n h e l p , e n c o u r a g e d i s c l o s u r e o f l o n e l i n e s s f e e l i n g s . Common f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e t h e r e v e l a t i o n o f l o n e l i n e s s i n c l u d e : 1) o t h e r s who a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g s i m i l a r f e e l i n g s , 2) o t h e r s who a r e t r u s t w o r t h y , and 3) o t h e r s who we a r e e i t h e r i n t i m a t e l y c o n n e c t e d t o , o r t h o s e who a r e s t r a n g e r s t o u s . When i n v e s t i g a t i n g c h i l d r e n , s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e o f l o n e l i n e s s i s an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r r e s e a r c h e r s . O f t e n t h e r e i s s u b s t a n t i a l d e p e n d e n c y on e x t e r n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h c h i l d r e n a r e i n n e e d o f i n t e r v e n t i o n i n r e g a r d s t o t h e i r s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e k n o w l e d g e t h a t t h e number o f f r i e n d s o r s o c i a l c o n t a c t s i s n o t a r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t i o n o f l o n e l i n e s s i n a d u l t s ( P e p l a u & P e r l m a n , 1982) when c o n s i d e r i n g l o n e l i n e s s o f c h i l d r e n a n d a d o l e s c e n t s , measurement c a n be a p r o b l e m . To c l a r i f y w h e t h e r e x t e r n a l o b s e r v a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s was a p p r o p r i a t e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c h i l d ' s s u b j e c t i v e v i e w , A s h e r , Hymer a n d Renshaw (1984) s t u d i e d 522 s u b j e c t s f r o m g r a d e s t h r e e t o s i x . E m p l o y e d i n t h i s s t u d y was a l o n e l i n e s s m e a s ure, a s e l f r e p o r t measure o f p e e r r e l a t i o n s s a t i s f a c t i o n , a n d a s o c i o m e t r i c m e a s u re. R e s u l t s 29. i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h o s e c h i l d r e n who were l e a s t a c c e p t e d b y p e e r s o r s c o r e d l o w i n s o c i o m e t r i c m e a s u r e s were i n f a c t t h o s e who r e p o r t e d more p e e r r e l a t i o n s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and l o n e l i n e s s . Thus, i t a p p e a r s t h a t e x t e r n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n w i t h s o c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , a n d s o c i o m e t r i c m e a s u r e s o f p e e r s t a t u s a r e l e g i t i m a t e means o f a s s e s s m e n t . P e r h a p s c h i l d r e n do n o t have t h e a b i l i t y t o g i v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f s o c i a l i n c l u s i o n when t h e y do n o t f e e l s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r p e e r r e l a t i o n s . A d u l t s may be more a s t u t e a t l o o k i n g s a t i s f i e d w i t h s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s w h i l e f e e l i n g d i s s a t i s f i e d . The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e s o c i a l s t i g m a s u r r o u n d i n g l o n e l i n e s s may be s t r o n g e r f o r a d u l t s t h a n c h i l d r e n . A s h e r e t a l . (1985) f o u n d l o w s o c i a l s t a t u s c h i l d r e n were r e l u c t a n t t o a d m i t f e e l i n g s o f s o c i a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and l o n e l i n e s s . A l s o i d e n t i f i e d was t h e i n f l u e n c e o f f r i e n d s h i p s i n o t h e r c l a s s e s o r i n t h e i r home n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , w h i c h s u b j e c t s d e p e n d e d on f o r c o m p a n i o n s h i p . A s h e r e t a l . (1984) f e l t t h a t t h i s s e c o n d f a c t o r may e x p l a i n why t h o s e i d e n t i f i e d as l o w i n c l a s s r o o m s o c i a l s t a t u s d i d n o t r e p o r t more p e e r r e l a t i o n s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n a n d l o n e l i n e s s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p among t h e s e v a r i a b l e s were modest. A f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s modest r e l a t i o n s h i p , w h i c h was n o t d i s c u s s e d by A s h e r e t a l . ( 1 9 8 4 ) , i s t h e r o l e o f 30 . f a n t a s y and i m a g i n a r y f r i e n d s . W a t k i n s (1986) s u g g e s t s i m a g i n a l o t h e r s p e r s i s t t h r o u g h o u t o u r l i f e t i m e c h a n g i n g a n d b e c o m i n g more s o p h i s t i c a t e d as do o u r n e e d s , h e l p i n g us t o a s s i m i l a t e r e a l i t y . I f c h i l d r e n a r e s o c i a l l y u n p o p u l a r , l o n e l y , o r l i v i n g i n e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t r e s s e d s i t u a t i o n s t h e y may c o pe by e n r i c h i n g t h e i r l i v e s w i t h i m a g i n a l o t h e r s . F o r e x a m p l e , c h i l d r e n who grow up i n t h e d i s a r r a y o f an a l c o h o l i c f a m i l y may cope e m o t i o n a l l y by r e c o n s t r u c t i n g f a n t a s y p a r e n t s who p r o v i d e t h e n u r t u r i n g t h e i r a l c o h o l i c p a r e n t o r p a r e n t s a r e n o t a b l e t o g i v e ( M i d d l e t o n - M o z & D w i n e l l , 1 9 8 6 ) . W a t k i n s (1986) a l s o i d e n t i f i e s i m a g i n a l o t h e r s a n d t h e i r d i a l o g u e as a means o f w o r k i n g t h r o u g h f e e l i n g s o f a n g e r t o w a r d s s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s w i t h o u t r e t r o b u t i o n . I n r e g a r d s t o l o n e l i n e s s , d aydreams and i m a g i n e r y f r i e n d s h i p s w o u l d a l l o w a d o l e s c e n t s t o p r a c t i c e d i a l o g u e w i t h o u t r i s k i n g r e j e c t i o n b y p e e r s . The A s h e r , Hymel and Renshaw (1984) s t u d y a l s o i d e n t i f i e d a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n n e g l e c t e d and r e j e c t e d p e e r s . I n a l a t e r s t u d y , A s h e r a n d W h e e l e r (1985) p u r s u e d t h e c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s o i c a l s t a t u s o f n e g l e c t e d and r e j e c t e d p e e r s , a s s e p a r a t e g r o u p s . T h e i r s t u d y i n v o l v e d r a t i n g s o f a t t a i n e d . . . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e j e c t e d s t a t u s g r o u p was s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l o n e l y t h a n o t h e r g r o u p s . C h i l d r e n who e x t e n d e d t h e m s e l v e s i n a s o c i a l c o n t e x t b u t were r e j e c t e d b y p e e r s were more l i k e l y t o f e e l l o n e l y t h a n t h o s e , who were n e g l e c t e d s o c i a l l y , b u t b y n o t a t t e m p t i n g t o i n t e r a c t d i d n o t e x p e r i e n c e r e j e c t i o n by p e e r s . N e g l e c t e d p e e r s may be o b e c t i v e l y r a t e d as s o c i a l l y i s o l a t e d b u t n o t r e p o r t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e c a u s e t h e y d o n ' t r i s k i n i t i a t i n g c o n t a c t , t h e r e f o r e e s c a p e t h e e m o t i o n a l p a i n o f r e j e c t i o n . Summary T h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e a n d c o n d i t i o n s o f l o n e l i n e s s i n c l u d e p s y c h o d y n a m i c v i e w s , c o g n i t i v e / s o c i a l l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s a n d a t t a c h m e n t t h e o r y . A l t h o u g h e a c h t h e o r y i s d i s t i n c t t h e r e a r e common t h r e a d s w h i c h r u n t h r o u g h them. As an e x a m p l e , e a r l y c h i l d h o o d p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s s e l f c o n c e p t , a t t a c h m e n t , b o n d i n g a n d i n t i m a c y h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e d e g r e e and e x t e n t o f l o n e l i n e s s we e x p e r i e n c e . C u r r e n t r e s e a r c h h a s r e c o g n i z e d t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t r a n s i t o r y a nd c h r o n i c l o n e l i n e s s . T r a n s i t o r y 32 . l o n e l i n e s s i s o f t e n t h e r e s u l t o f an e n v i r o n m e n t a l l o s s , o r t h e l o s s o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p . C h r o n i c l o n e l i n e s s i s more d e e p l y r o o t e d i n t h e c o n c e p t o f s e l f a nd i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t y l e s w i t h o t h e r s . A s a r e s u l t , c h r o n i c l o n e l i n e s s i s more d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r v e n e i n , a n d t h u s a s i g n i f i c a n t f o c u s o f c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h . The d e v e l o p m e n t a l c h a n g e s d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n r e s e a r c h on l o n e l i n e s s w i t h t h i s age g r o u p . I n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s a n d a w a r e n e s s , a h e i g h t e n e d s e n s e o f s e l f , g r o w t h t o w a r d s autonomy, and p h y s i c a l c h a n g e s a r e p r e d o m i n a n t d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . C u r r e n t r e s e a r c h has f o u n d t h a t p a t t e r n s o f a t t a c h m e n t d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d and a d o l e s c e n c e a r e o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e t o l a t e r e x p e r i e n c e s o f l o n e l i n e s s ( H o j a t , 1 9 8 7 ) . I n t e r p e r s o n a l l y , i s s u e s w i t h c o n t r o l , s e l f c o n c e p t , a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n h a v e an i m p a c t on t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y t o i n i t i a t e and m a i n t a i n e m o t i o n a l l y i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . S t u d i e s o f g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n l o n e l i n e s s i d e n t i f i e d i s s u e s o f c o n t r o l i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a n d s t y l e s o f d i s c l o s i n g l o n e l i n e s s as b e i n g g e n d e r d i f f e r e n t . The s o c i a l s t i g m a a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o n e l i n e s s was shown t o i n f l u e n c e p a t t e r n s o f 3 3 . d i s c l o s u r e . C u r r e n t r e s e a r c h r e l i e s h e a v i l y on s e l f r e p o r t m e a s u r e s , w h i c h c a n be g r e a t l y e f f e c t e d b y t h e s o c i a l s t i g m a s u r r o u n d i n g l o n e l i n e s s . I n r e s e a r c h w i t h c h i l d r e n ( g r a d e s t h r e e t o s i x ) , e x t e r n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e an a c c e p t a b l e means o f a s s e s s i n g c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n i n a s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n c o n t e x t . B u t a f u r t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n c h i l d r e n who a r e r e j e c t e d o r n e g l e c t e d by p e e r s i s n e c e s s a r y t o i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n who a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g l o n e l i n e s s . C h i l d r e n n o t i n c l u d e d s o c i a l l y b y p e e r s a r e f o u n d t o be l o n e l i e s t when t h e y e x p e r i e n c e s o c i a l r e j e c t i o n . Those who do n o t r i s k r e j e c t i o n by e x t e n d i n g t h e m s e l v e s s o c i a l l y a r e n o t l i k e l y t o have as much d i f f i c u l t y w i t h l o n e l i n e s s f e e l i n g s . 34. Research Questions T h i s r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e g i v e s r i s e t o t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s : 1. To what e x t e n t i s l o n e l i n e s s p r e v a l e n t i n a s a m p l e o f Grade 10 a d o l e s c e n t s ? 2. W h i c h o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s o r c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h o s e v a r i a b l e s b e s t p r e d i c t l o n e l i n e s s ? T hese i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e s u b s c a l e s o f s e l f c o n c e p t , f a c t o r s s c o r e s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l s u b s c a l e s , a n d b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n o f age, g e n d e r , l a n g u a g e , number o f p a r e n t s , m o t h e r s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e and f a t h e r s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e . 3. Do t h e v a r i a b l e s c l a s s r o o m f r i e n d s h i p s and c l o s e n e s s o f t h e s e f r i e n d s h i p s , h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e d e g r e e o f l o n e l i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e d ? 35. CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY The purpose of thi s study was to examine the experience of loneliness and i d e n t i f y factors that are correlated with the degree of loneliness that an adolescent experiences. The factors investigated for th e i r relationship to loneliness were facets of s e l f concept, background information and classroom friendships. The subjects i n this study were adolescents attending Grade 10 classes i n Surrey School D i s t r i c t . Formal written permission to conduct the study i n thi s school d i s t r i c t was received p r i o r to i n i t i a t i n g the study. A cross-sectional survey design was chosen because the primary goal was to investigate the relationships of psychological variables already i n existence without any manipulation of these variables. The survey included three attitude scales and a questionnaire pertaining to background information of the subjects. A loneliness scale was employed to measure the degree of loneliness 36. e x p r e s s e d by e a c h s u b j e c t . A m u l t i - f a c e t e d m e a s u r e o f s e l f c o n c e p t was a l s o i n c l u d e d t o measure 12 a r e a s s e l f c o n c e p t . A t h i r d i n s t r u m e n t g a t h e r e d d a t a d e s c r i b i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h c l a s s r o o m p e e r s . The s t a t e m e n t o f t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s , a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s a m p l e and t h e p r o c e d u r e f o r i t s s e l e c t i o n , d e f i n i t i o n s o f k e y t e r m s , a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s , a n d t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o r d a t a p r o c e s s i n g and a n a l y s i s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s The d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e i s l o n e l i n e s s and t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s : age, g e n d e r , number o f p a r e n t s , l a n g u a g e , m o t h e r s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e , f a t h e r s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e , math s e l f c o n c e p t , p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e s e l f c o n c e p t , a c a d e m i c s e l f c o n c e p t , v e r b a l s e l f c o n c e p t , p r o b l e m s o l v i n g s e l f c o n c e p t , p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y s e l f c o n c e p t , r e l a t i o n s w i t h same s e x p e e r s s e l f c o n c e p t , r e l a t i o n s w i t h o p p o s i t e s e x p e e r s s e l f c o n c e p t , r e l a t i o n s w i t h p a r e n t s s e l f c o n c e p t , h o n e s t y s e l f c o n c e p t , e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y s e l f c o n c e p t , g e n e r a l s e l f c o n c e p t , s e l f c o n c e p t f a c t o r s c o r e s d e r i v e d f r o m a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f an a d a p t i o n o f t h e S.D.Q. I l l , 37. c l a s s r o o m f r i e n d s h i p s a n d t h e c l o s e n e s s o f t h e s e f r i e n d s h i p s . The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e : 1. To what e x t e n t i s l o n e l i n e s s p r e v a l e n t i n a s a m p l e o f G r a d e 10 a d o l e s c e n t s ? 2. W h i c h o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s o r c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s b e s t p r e d i c t l o n e l i n e s s ? ( e x c l u d i n g t h e f r i e n d s h i p v a r i a b l e s ) . 3. Do c l a s s r o o m f r i e n d s h i p s a n d t h e c l o s e n e s s o f t h e s e f r i e n d s h i p s h ave a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e d e g r e e o f l o n e l i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e d ? D e s c r i p t i o n o f S a m p l e Sample Selection One h u n d r e d a n d s i x t y - s i x g r a d e 10 s t u d e n t s f r o m t h r e e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s i n S u r r e y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t v o l u n t e e r e d t o t a k e p a r t i n t h i s s t u d y . I n c l u d e d were one h i g h , one medium, a n d one l o w s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s (SES) a r e a s c h o o l . The s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f t h e s c h o o l a r e a s were b a s e d on i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e S c h o o l D i s t r i c t ' s P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . T h e i r s o u r c e o f 38. d a t a was t h e 1981 Canada C e n s u s . A t o t a l o f n i n e c l a s s e s f r o m t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s were c h o s e n t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s . The p r i n c i p a l s o f e a c h s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l were c o n t a c t e d , g i v e n a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s t u d y , a nd were a s k e d f o r p e r m i s s i o n t o h a v e t h e s t u d y c o n d u c t e d i n t h e i r s c h o o l . A f t e r d e c i d i n g t o a l l o w t h e s u r v e y , e a c h p r i n c i p a l a s k e d f o r t e a c h e r s t o v o l u n t e e r some c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n t i m e . I n t h e l o w SES a r e a s c h o o l , two c l a s s e s were s u r v e y e d . These i n c l u d e d 40 s u b j e c t s . The medium SES a r e a s c h o o l c o n t r i b u t e d t h r e e c l a s s e s t o t a l l i n g 72 s u b j e c t s , and t h e h i g h SES a r e a s c h o o l c o n t r i b u t e d f o u r c l a s s e s , w i t h a t o t a l o f 54 s u b j e c t s . The t o t a l number o f s u b j e c t s was 166. The s t u d y was i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e s t u d e n t s by t h e i r r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . A t t h a t t i m e , t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e g i v e n a l e t t e r o f i n t r o d u c t i o n t o be t a k e n home t o t h e i r p a r e n t s o r g u a r d i a n . A l l who w i s h e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e were r e q u i r e d t o h a v e t h e i r p a r e n t o r g u a r d i a n r e a d t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y l e t t e r and r e t u r n t h e c o n s e n t f o r m s i g n e d b y t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h e i r p a r e n t o r g u a r d i a n . I n c l u d e d i n t h e l e t t e r was a s t a t e m e n t t h a t i n f o r m e d t h e p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t o f t h e i r r i g h t t o r e f u s e t o t a k e p a r t o r answer any q u e s t i o n , and t h e 39. o p t i o n t o w i t h d r a w a t any t i m e w i t h o u t r e p e r c u s s i o n s . O n l y t h e s t u d e n t s who c o m p l e t e d and r e t u r n e d a s i g n e d p e r m i s s i o n s l i p were a l l o w e d t o t a k e p a r t . B e c a u s e o f t h e d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y , t h e s t u d e n t s were s u r v e y e d i n a c l a s s u n i t . T h ose s t u d e n t s who d i d n o t t a k e p a r t w o r k e d q u i e t l y a nd i n d e p e n d e n t l y w h i l e t h e s u r v e y was c o m p l e t e d . The p e r c e n t a g e o f p a r t i c i p a n t s w h i c h t o o k p a r t i n t h e s t u d y i s d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r F i v e . Sample Description A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s s t u d y were s t u d e n t s i n S u r r e y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , S u r r e y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S u r r e y i s an i n c o r p o r a t e d c i t y w i t h a y o u t h p o p u l a t i o n ( b i r t h - 18 y e a r s ) o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 57,815 i n 1988. The t o t a l number o f s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n S u r r e y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t i n 1988 was 35,537. T h i s d i s t r i c t i s t h e s e c o n d l a r g e s t i n p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S u r r e y i s l o c a t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 m i l e s f r o m V a n c o u v e r , and i n c l u d e s a m i x o f h i g h d e n s i t y a n d r u r a l r e s i d e n t s . Of t h e 166 s u b j e c t s who t o o k p a r t , 100 were f e m a l e , and 66 were m a l e . E n g l i s h was t h e most f r e q u e n t l y 40. s p o k e n l a n g u a g e i n t h e homes o f 151 o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , w h i l e a l a n g u a g e o t h e r t h a n E n g l i s h was most f r e q u e n t l y s p o k e n i n 12 o f t h e homes. M o t h e r s were p r e s e n t i n 151 o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' homes w h i l e f a t h e r s were p r e s e n t i n 125 o f t h e homes. One h u n d r e d a n d f o u r t e e n p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d two p a r e n t s p r e s e n t i n t h e i r home, 52 r e p o r t e d one p a r e n t p r e s e n t . G r a n d p a r e n t s were a l s o p r e s e n t i n 15 o f t h e homes. F o r t y n i n e p e r c e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y r e p o r t e d h a v i n g one o r more s i s t e r s , w h i l e 58 p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d one o r more b r o t h e r s . Age o f s u b j e c t s r a n g e f r o m 177 months (14.8 y e a r s ) t o 222.0 months (18.5 y e a r s ) . The mean age f o r t h e t o t a l s ample was 192.0 months (16 y e a r s ) w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 6.24 months. Definitions of Key Terms Loneliness L o n e l i n e s s c a n be d e f i n e d as t h e e m o t i o n a l d i s c o m f o r t e x p e r i e n c e d by an i n d i v i d u a l when t h e r e i s a d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n t h e i r d e s i r e d i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n n e c t e d n e s s t o o t h e r s and t h e i r a t t a i n e d i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n n e c t e d n e s s t o o t h e r s ( B r e n n a n , 1982; P e p l a u & 41. P e r l m a n , 1982/ Wood, 1978) . S a l d e r and J o h n s o n (1980) s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s d i s c o n n e c t e d n e s s c a n be f r o m more t h a n j u s t p e o p l e : i t may be d i s c o n n e c t e d n e s s f r o m c o m m u nity, r o o t s , o r one's s e l f . T h i s l a c k o f c o n n e c t i o n may be t h e r e s u l t o f t h e b o n d b e i n g b r o k e n , o r n e v e r h a v i n g b e e n f o r m e d . I n t h i s s t u d y , t h e d e g r e e o f l o n e l i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e s u b j e c t s was d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e u s e o f t h e R e v i s e d U.C.L.A. L o n e l i n e s s S c a l e ( R u s s e l l , P e p l a u & C u t r o n a , 1980; A p p e n d i x E ) . Self Concept S e l f c o n c e p t c a n be d e s c r i b e d as t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f s e l f i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t ( S h a v e l s o n , Hubner, & S t a n t o n , 1976) . I n an a t t e m p t t o a s s i m i l a t e s e l f a n d e n v i r o n m e n t , an i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t s and r e a s o n s t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e w o r l d a r o u n d them t o f o r m a c o n c e p t o f s e l f . T h i s f o r m a t i o n o f s e l f c o n c e p t i s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by s i g n i f i c a n t components o f a p e r s o n ' s e n v i r o n m e n t s u c h as p a r e n t s , e x t e n d e d f a m i l y , p e e r s , community a n d l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e many f a c e t s o f e n v i r o n m e n t 42. and i t s i n f l u e n c e s , c o n c e p t o f s e l f i s m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l (Marsh & S h a v e l s o n , 1 9 8 5 ) . I n t h i s s t u d y a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f t h e S e l f D e s c r i p t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I I I ( C h a r l t o n , 1987) was u s e d t o measure s e l f c o n c e p t . Adolescent An a d o l e s c e n t i s d e f i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y as an i n d i v i d u a l b e t w e e n t h e ages o f 13 a n d 19 who i s l e g a l l y a m i n o r . I n t h i s s a m p l e t h e a d o l e s c e n t s v a r i e d i n age f r o m 177.0 months (14.8) t o 222.0 months (18.5 y e a r s ) . Instruments Revised U.C.L.A. L o n e l i n e s s S c a l e The d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e i n t h i s s t u d y was l o n e l i n e s s . The d e g r e e o f l o n e l i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e d b y e a c h s u b j e c t was d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e U.C.L.A. L o n e l i n e s s S c a l e . The R e v i s e d U.C.L.A. L o n e l i n e s s S c a l e ( R u s s e l l , P e p l a u & C u t r o n a , 1980) was c h o s e n b e c a u s e o f i t s h i g h v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y . R u s s e l l (1980) f o u n d t h e s c o r e s o f t h i s i n s t r u m e n t t o " c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h f e e l i n g abandoned, d e p r e s s e d , empty, h o p e l e s s , i s o l a t e d , a n d s e l f - c l o s e d , a n d w i t h n o t f e e l i n g s o c i a b l e 43. o r s a t i s f i e d " (p. 4 7 5 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e R e v i s e d U.C.L.A. L o n e l i n e s s S c a l e was f o u n d t o c o r r e l a t e w i t h d e p r e s s i o n , a n x i e t y and s e l f - e s t e e m , R u s s e l l , e t a l (1980) e s t a b l i s h e d t h e d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y o f t h i s i n s t r u m e n t . The R e v i s e d U.C.L.A. L o n e l i n e s s S c a l e was more h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d t o an i n d e x o f s e l f - r e p o r t e d l o n e l i n e s s (r=.71) t h a n m e a s u r e s o f p e r s o n a l i t y a n d mood. D i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y was a l s o i n d i c a t e d b y t h e f o l l o w i n g : " l o n e l i n e s s s c o r e s were s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e amount o f t i m e s p e n t a l o n e e a c h d a y , t h e f r e q u e n c y o f e a t i n g d i n n e r a l o n e , t h e number o f c l o s e f r i e n d s , and t h e p e r s o n ' s m a r i t a l o r d a t i n g s t a t u s " , e v e n a f t e r c o n t r o l l i n g f o r mood a n d p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s ( R u s s e l l , P e p l a u & C u t r o n a , 1980, p. 9 5 ) . The r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h i s s c a l e was e s t a b l i s h e d by a r e c o r d e d .94 c o e f f i c i e n t a l p h a f o r i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . T h i s s c a l e c o n s i s t s o f 20 s t a t e m e n t s , 10 o f w h i c h a r e p o s i t i v e l y w o r d e d , a nd 10 n e g a t i v e l y w orded. S u b j e c t s a r e a s k e d t o r e s p o n d t o e a c h s t a t e m e n t b a s e d on a f o u r - p o i n t s c a l e r a n g i n g f r o m N e v e r (1) t o O f t e n (4) . r T h i s s c a l e was d e v e l o p e d by R u s s e l e t a l . t o m e a s u r e t h e d e g r e e o f l o n e l i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e d b y i n d i v i d u a l s . A l t h o u g h w i d e l y u s e d w i t h t h e a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n , t h i s s c a l e has a l s o b e e n s u c c e s s f u l l y e m p l o y e d t o m e a s u r e 44 . l o n e l i n e s s among a d o l e s c e n t s ( F r a n z o i & D a v i s , 1 9 8 5 ; G o s w i c k & J o n e s , 1 9 8 2 ) . F o r a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h i s i n s t r u m e n t a n d t h e i n d i c a t e d r e v e r s e p o l a r i t y i t e m s s e e A p p e n d i x E. The s c o r i n g o f t h i s i n s t r u m e n t b egan w i t h r e v e r s i n g t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e 10 r e v e r s e p o l a r i t y i t e m s . The t o t a l s c o r e on t h i s i n s t r u m e n t was u s e d as t h e l o n e l i n e s s v a r i a b l e . H i g h l o n e l i n e s s s c o r e s i n d i c a t e d h i g h d e g r e e o f l o n e l i n e s s w h i l e l o w s c o r e s i n d i c a t e d l o w l o n e l i n e s s . A p r o f i l e o f t h e s a m p l e ' s r e s p o n s e s t o t h e R e v i s e d U.C.L.A. L o n e l i n e s s S c a l e i s p r o v i d e d i n A p p e n d i x G. T h i s p r o f i l e i n c l u d e s t h e c h o i c e o f r e s p o n s e s t o e a c h i t e m , t h e a v e r a g e r e s p o n s e o f e a c h i t e m , and t h e mean and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f t h e t o t a l t e s t . Self Description Questionnaire III (S.D.Q. I l l ) S e v e r a l i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . I n c l u d e d a r e 12 s u b - s c a l e s o f s e l f c o n c e p t , e a c h c o n s i d e r e d an i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . Math, p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e , a c a d e m i c , v e r b a l , p r o b l e m s o l v i n g , p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y , r e l a t i o n s w i t h same s e x p e e r s , r e l a t i o n s w i t h o p p o s i t e s e x p e e r s , r e l a t i o n s w i t h p a r e n t s , h o n e s t y , 45. e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y and g e n e r a l s e l f c o n c e p t . The i n s t r u m e n t u s e d t o m e a s u r e t h e s e 12 d i m e n s i o n s o f s e l f c o n c e p t was a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f t h e S.D.Q. I l l ( M a r s h & O ' N e i l l , 1984; A p p e n d i x D ) . The o r i g i n a l i n s t r u m e n t c o n s i s t s o f 13 s u b - s c a l e s o f : r e l i g i o n , a c a d e m i c , g e n e r a l , v e r b a l , math, p r o b l e m s o l v i n g , p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y , p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e , r e l a t i o n s w i t h same s e x p e e r s , r e l a t i o n s w i t h o p p o s i t e s e x p e e r s , r e l a t i o n s w i t h p a r e n t s , h o n e s t y , a n d e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y . S u b j e c t s a r e a s k e d t o r e s p o n d t o t h e i t e m s o f t h i s i n s t r u m e n t b a s e d on an 8 - p o i n t s c a l e w h i c h r a n g e f r o m d e f i n i t e l y f a l s e (1) t o d e f i n i t e l y t r u e ( 8 ) . H i g h s c o r e s a r e i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h e s u b j e c t has a p o s i t i v e s e l f c o n c e p t a n d l o w s c o r e s a n e g a t i v e s e l f c o n c e p t . The t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e S.D.Q. I l l i s b a s e d on M a r s h a n d S h a v e l s o n ' s (1985) m u l t i - f a c e t e d , h i e r a r c h i c a l f r a m e w o r k o f s e l f c o n c e p t . They b e l i e v e t h a t s e l f c o n c e p t c a n n o t be e v a l u a t e d e f f e c t i v e l y u n l e s s a m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l a p p r o a c h i s e m p l o y e d . M a r s h a n d O ' N e i l l (1984) p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y a n d v a l i d i t y o f t h e 13 d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e S.D.Q. I I I . They f o u n d t h e " t h e r e l i a b i l i t i e s o f t h e 13 f a c t o r s were v e r y h i g h (median a l p h a = 0.89) and 46. c o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e f a c t o r s were l o w (median r = 0 . 0 9 ) " ( M a r s h & O ' N e i l l , 1984, p. 1 5 3 ) . T h e i r s t u d y a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d t h e s u b s t a n t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e S.D.Q. I l l a n d o t h e r s e l f c o n c e p t m e a s u r e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e T e n n e s s e e S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e ( F i t t s , 1 9 6 5 ) . The v a l i d i t y o f t h e S.D.Q. I l l was a l s o c o n f i r m e d b y a n a l y z i n g r e s u l t s o f t h e measurement t o e x t e r n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s r a t i n g s (Marsh & O ' N e i l l , 1 9 8 4 ) . A m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f t h e S.D.Q. I l l was e m p l o y e d i n t h i s s t u d y . A p r e v i o u s s t u d y b y C h a r l t o n (1987) u s e d t h i s m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n w h i c h d e l e t e d t h e r e l i g i o n s u b - s c a l e and r e d u c e d t h e r e m a i n i n g 12 s u b - s c a l e s t o i n c l u d e o n l y 6 i t e m s e a c h w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l a n d h o n e s t y s u b - s c a l e s w h i c h c o n t a i n e d 8 i t e m s e a c h . These c h a n g e s r e d u c e d t h e t o t a l number o f i t e m s on t h e i n s t r u m e n t t o 76 f r o m an o r i g i n a l 136. A p p r o x i m a t e l y one h a l f o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s a r e s c o r e d i n r e v e r s e p o l a r i t y . T h e r e were s e v e r a l r e a s o n s f o r u s i n g t h e s h o r t e n e d v e r s i o n o f t h e S.D.Q. I l l m e a s u r e f o r t h i s s t u d y . As d i s c u s s e d by M a r s h ( 1 9 8 7 ) , t h e S.D.Q. I l l i s b e s t s u i t e d t o s u b j e c t s 16 y e a r s o r o l d e r who ha v e a f l u e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e . He f u r t h e r p o i n t s o u t t h a t c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e two f a c t o r s , s u b j e c t s 47 . may r e q u i r e 30 m i n u t e s o r more t o c o m p l e t e t h e measurement. The p o p u l a t i o n i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y was n o t c o n t r o l l e d f o r E n g l i s h f l u e n c y o r age o f s u b j e c t . T h e r e f o r e t h e r e was t h e t h r e a t t h a t s u b j e c t s w o u l d n o t h a v e enough t i m e t o c o m p l e t e t h i s measurement as w e l l as t h e t h r e e o t h e r m e a s u r e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e a l l o t t e d t i m e . I n o r d e r t o e n s u r e c o m p l e t i o n o f a l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , t h e s h o r t e n e d number o f 76 i t e m s f r o m t h e S.D.Q. I l l w e r e e m p l o y e d . To s c o r e t h i s i n s t r u m e n t , i t e m s w h i c h r e q u i r e d t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o be r e v e r s e d i n p o l a r i t y were a d d r e s s e d f i r s t , t h e n t h e raw d a t a were g r o u p e d i n t o t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e s u b - s c a l e . E a c h s u b - s c a l e was t h e n t o t a l l e d . B e c a u s e t h e s u b - s c a l e s o f g e n e r a l and h o n e s t y i n c l u d e d 8 i n s t e a d o f 6 i t e m s as d i d t h e o t h e r 10 s u b s c a l e s , t h e means a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r e a c h 8 i t e m s c a l e ( g e n e r a l a n d h o n e s t y ) were m u l t i p l i e d b y .75. T h i s a l l o w e d a common c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s o f t h e 12 s u b - s c a l e s o f s e l f c o n c e p t m e a s u r e . The i n s t r u m e n t a n d t h e r e v e r s e p o l a r i t y i t e m s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x D. 48. Sociogram Questionnaire A s e c o n d g r o u p o f i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s p e r t a i n e d t o components o f f r i e n d s h i p . T h e s e v a r i a b l e s were e a c h s u b j e c t ' s t o t a l number o f f r i e n d s h i p s i n t h e s u r v e y e d c l a s s and mean c l o s e n e s s o f t h o s e f r i e n d s h i p s . The d a t a f o r t h e s e v a r i a b l e s were g a t h e r e d by t h e S o c i o g r a m Q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e v e l o p e d f o r t h i s s t u d y (Harward, 1988; A p p e n d i x F ) . As p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h r e v e a l e d , l o n e l i n e s s i s o f t e n a c c o m p a n i e d b y an i n d i v i d u a l ' s h i g h d e s i r e f o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n n e c t e d n e s s w i t h o t h e r s b u t a l o w a c t u a l a t t a i n m e n t o f t h a t c o n n e c t e d n e s s ( B r e n n a n , P e p l a u & P e r l m a n , 1982) . The d e v e l o p m e n t a l i s s u e s o f s o c i a l a w a r e n e s s a nd i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n n e c t e d n e s s t o o t h e r s become p r e v a l e n t d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e (Kegan, 1 9 8 5 ) . The c r e a t i o n o f t h e s o c i o g r a m was b a s e d on t h e s e t h e o r e t i c a l c o n c e p t s . The s o c i o g r a m was c o n s t r u c t e d t o p r o v i d e us w i t h a s a m p l e o f t h e number o f c l a s s r o o m f r i e n d s h i p s o f t h e s u b j e c t s a n d t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . S e v e r a l s t r a t e g i e s were e m p l o y e d t o s c o r e t h i s q u e s t i o n a i r e . F o r t h e number o f f r i e n d s i n t h e s u r v e y e d c l a s s r o o m s u b j e c t s c o u l d l i s t 0 - 9 f r i e n d s . O n l y t h o s e 49. names t h a t were v e r i f i e d as b e i n g c l a s s m a t e s were i n c l u d e d i n t h e d a t a . L i s t e d f r i e n d s w h i c h were o u t s i d e o f t h e s u r v e y e d c l a s s r o o m were e l i m i n a t e d f r o m t h e s u b j e c t ' s l i s t . The s c o r e was t h e t o t a l number o f c l a s s r o o m f r i e n d s . The s c o r i n g o f t h e mean c l o s e n e s s v a r i a b l e was v e r y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . The s u b j e c t s h a d a c h o i c e o f 4 p o i n t s on a s c a l e r a n g i n g f r o m n o t c l o s e (1) t o very c l o s e ( 4 ) . The s u b j e c t ' s s c a l e r a t i n g was u s e d as raw d a t a . The f i n a l s t e p o f t h i s v a r i a b l e was d e t e r m i n i n g t h e mean c l o s e n e s s s c o r e f o r e a c h s u b j e c t i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r f r i e n d s . Subject Information Sheet S i x b a c k g r o u n d v a r i a b l e s : a g e , g e n d e r , l a n g u a g e , number o f p a r e n t s , m o t h e r s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e a n d f a t h e r s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e c o m p r i s e d t h e t h i r d g r o u p o f i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . The d a t a f o r t h e s e v a r i a b l e s were g a t h e r e d b y t h e S u b j e c t I n f o r m a t i o n S h e e t ( A p p e n d i x C) w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f f i v e q u e s t i o n s . The v a r i a b l e s age, g e n d e r a n d number o f p a r e n t s w e r e p o s e d as d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s . The v a r i a b l e l a n g u a g e , was i n t e r p r e t e d f r o m t h e 50. subject information sheet by determining whether English or another language was most frequently spoken i n the adolescent's home. Parents' occupational prestige was determined by having each subject select a job category that best described t h e i r mother's and/or father's occupation. These categories were then interpreted according to "The. 1981 Socio-Economic Index for Occupations i n Canada" by Blishen, C a r r o l l and Moore (1987). Each category presented i n the parent's occupation question was assigned a scaled score calculated by averaging the prestige values of a l l occupations of the Blishen Scale (1987) within each category (Willms, personal communication, December 5, 1988) . Procedure The four questionnaires used i n t h i s study were presented to the subjects in a stapled booklet form. Each booklet presented the Subject Information Sheet (Appendix C) f i r s t , followed by the s e l f concept measure (Appendix D). The last two instruments, the loneliness scale (Appendix E) and the friendship measure (Sociogram Questionnaire; Appendix F) were included in mixed order. 51. Some booklets contained the loneliness scale followed by the friendship measure, other booklets presented the friendship measure f i r s t and the loneliness scale l a s t . Instructions to the subjects were presented in a standardized format to each cl a s s . Written instructions for each questionnaire were included i n the booklet of questionnaires, and verbal instructions were provided by the administrator to ensure the measures were completed i n the correct manner (see Appendix B). The survey was conducted i n class groups. Each class' survey booklets were completed within a one hour period including instructions to subjects and debriefing after a l l booklets were completed. The surveys were completed anonymously. Each class that took part was surveyed within a two week period, beginning the l a s t week of May 1988 and ending the f i r s t week of June 1988. Data A n a l y s i s Processing Each completed survey booklet was assigned a unique i d e n t i f i c a t i o n code based on the school, class, and randomly assigned subject number within class. The data could be compiled as a sample t o t a l or according to an 52. i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l o r c l a s s . A f t e r e a c h i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n c o d e was e n t e r e d , t h e s u b j e c t ' s raw d a t a w e r e e n t e r e d d i r e c t l y i n t o t h e c o m p u t e r . The s t a t e m e n t s i n t h e s e l f c o n c e p t a nd l o n e l i n e s s m e a s u r e s w h i c h were r e v e r s e p o l a r i t y were i d e n t i f i e d a n d t h e r e s p o n s e v a l u e c h a n g e d a c c o r d i n g l y . The s e l f c o n c e p t d a t a were t h e n g r o u p e d i n t o t h e 12 i n d i v i d u a l s e l f c o n c e p t s u b s c a l e s . Analysis The d a t a f r o m t h e f o u r i n s t r u m e n t s e m p l o y e d i n t h i s s t u d y were a n a l y z e d u s i n g t h e LERTAP ( N e l s o n , 1974) a n d SPSS-X ( L a i , 1986) p r o g r a m s on t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a m a i n f r a m e c o m p u t e r . The s t e p s o f a n a l y s i s i n c l u d e d d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s o f e a c h v a r i a b l e , t h e n i n f e r e n t i a l s t a t i s t i c s o f i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w i t h t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e l o n e l i n e s s . The f i n a l and k e y a n a l y s e s t o t h i s s t u d y was t h e r e g r e s s i o n o f l o n e l i n e s s s c o r e s on t h e r e l e v a n t i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . The d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s u s e d t h e LERTAP p r o g r a m ( N e l s o n , 1974) t o e x a m i n e t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e d e p e n d e n t and i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n , mean a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f a l l v a r i a b l e s were e s t i m a t e d . T - t e s t c a l c u l a t i o n s f o r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n l o n e l i n e s s were t h e n c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s o f g e n d e r , l a n g u a g e and number o f p a r e n t s . C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s b e t w e e n t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e l o n e l i n e s s a n d t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s were a l s o e s t i m a t e d . T h e s e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d t h e 12 s u b - s c a l e s o f s e l f c o n c e p t , t h e s i x b a c k g r o u n d v a r i a b l e s , and t h e two f r i e n d s h i p v a r i a b l e s . The f i n a l s t e p o f a n a l y s i s was t h e r e g r e s s i o n o f l o n e l i n e s s s c o r e s u s i n g t h e SPSS-X R e g r e s s i o n p r o g r a m ( L a i , 1 9 8 6 ) . A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e 12 s u b - s c a l e s o f s e l f c o n c e p t was p e r f o r m e d p r i o r t o t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . T h e r e a r e two r e a s o n s f o r p e r f o r m i n g t h i s f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e 12 s e l f c o n c e p t v a r i a b l e s . F i r s t , t h e l a r g e number o f s e l f c o n c e p t v a r i a b l e s may mean t h e s e v a r i a b l e s a r e i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d , w h i c h c o u l d c a u s e a p r o b l e m w i t h c o l l i n e a r i t y ( C h a t t e r j e e & P r i c e , 1 9 7 7 ) . I f c o l i n e a r i t y e x i s t s , t h e r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s w o u l d h a v e l a r g e s t a n d a r d e r r o r s , r e d u c i n g t h e s t r e n g t h o f i n f e r e n c e o f t h e d a t a ( C h a t t e r j e e & P r i c e , 1 9 7 7 ) . The f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e v a r i a b l e s p r o d u c e d a new s e t o f v a r i a b l e s t h a t a r e u n c o r r e l a t e d , a n d t h e r e f o r e e l i m i n a t e s t h e r i s k o f c o l i n e a r i t y . The s e c o n d r e a s o n f o r t h e f a c t o r a n a l y s i s was t o i n c r e a s e p a r s i m o n y among t h e v a r i a b l e s . The f a c t o r a n a l y s i s 54. r e d u c e d t h e s e t o f 12 v a r i a b l e s t o a s e t o f f o u r f a c t o r s . A f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , f o u r r e g r e s s i o n m o d e l s were r u n . These i n c l u d e d d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s as p r e d i c t o r s . The i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d were t h e o r i g i n a l 12 s e l f c o n c e p t v a r i a b l e s , t h e d e r i v e d f o u r s e l f c o n c e p t f a c t o r s c o r e s , a n d t h e f i v e b a c k g r o u n d v a r i a b l e s . The two f r i e n d s h i p v a r i a b l e s were n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e g r e s s i o n f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , s i n c e t h e f r i e n d s h i p q u e s t i o n n a i r e was an o r i g i n a l i n s t r u m e n t i t s r e l i a b i l i t y a n d v a l i d i t y were unknown; s e c o n d l y , t h e f r i e n d s h i p v a r i a b l e s were c o n s i d e r e d outcome r a t h e r t h a n p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s o f l o n e l i n e s s . 55. C H A P T E R F O U R RESULTS T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s t h a t a d d r e s s t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s s t a t e d i n C h a p t e r Two. These r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h r e e s e c t i o n s : d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s e s , r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s and d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . Descriptive Analyses An i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h i s s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t o f l o n e l i n e s s r e p o r t e d by t h i s s a m p l e o f a d o l e s c e n t s . The R e v i s e d U.C.L.A. L o n e l i n e s s S c a l e ( R u s s e l l , P e p l a u & C u t r o n a , 1980) was u s e d t o m e a s u r e t h e d e g r e e o f l o n e l i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e d by e a c h s u b j e c t . The l o w e s t p o s s i b l e s c o r e on t h i s s c a l e i s 20, t h e h i g h e s t , 80. I n t h i s s t u d y ' s s a m p l e t h e t o t a l s c o r e s r a n g e d f r o m 21 t o 67, w i t h a mean o f 38.34 and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 10.49. The 2 5 t h p e r c e n t i l e o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n was 30; t h e 5 0 t h p e r c e n t i l e was 36; t h e 7 5 t h p e r c e n t i l e was 44. F o r a p r o f i l e o f t h e s a m p l e s a v e r a g e r e s p o n s e t o e a c h i t e m o f t h e l o n e l i n e s s s c a l e ; 56. s e e A p p e n d i x G. Background Variables The b a c k g r o u n d v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s s t u d y w e r e : g e n d e r , l a n g u a g e , number o f p a r e n t s , f a t h e r s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e , m o t h e r s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e a n d age. T - t e s t s were c o n d u c t e d t o compare t h e mean l o n e l i n e s s s c o r e s f o r v a r i o u s s u b s a m p l e s . T a b l e 4.1 p r e s e n t s mean s c o r e s and T - t e s t s o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r g e n d e r , l a n g u a g e a nd number o f p a r e n t s . T h e r e was v i r t u a l l y no d i f f e r e n c e i n r e p o r t e d mean l o n e l i n e s s b e t w e e n t h e male a nd f e m a l e s u b j e c t s . A T - t e s t measure was p e r f o r m e d t o t e s t f o r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n l o n e l i n e s s s c o r e s b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s who s p o k e E n g l i s h most f r e q u e n t l y a t home, and t h o s e who spoke a l a n g u a g e o t h e r t h a n E n g l i s h most f r e q u e n t l y a t home. As T a b l e 4.1 i n d i c a t e s , t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n mean l o n e l i n e s s s c o r e s f o r t h e s e two c a t e g o r i e s o f l o n e l i n e s s i s s u b s t a n t i a l . However, t h e d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t b e c a u s e o f t h e s m a l l number o f s u b j e c t s who spoke a l a n g u a g e o t h e r t h a n E n g l i s h most f r e q u e n t l y a t home (n=12). The number o f p a r e n t s a t home was c o l l a p s e d i n t o 57 . two c a t e g o r i e s : those a d o l e s c e n t s l i v i n g i n two p a r e n t households , and those l i v i n g i n s i n g l e parent households . A t - t e s t performed between these two subsamples proved to be s i g n i f i c a n t , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t ado lescents l i v i n g i n s i n g l e p a r e n t households exper ience s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l o n e l i n e s s than t h e i r peers l i v i n g i n two parent househo lds . Table 4.1 T - Test Mean Loneliness Score, Standard Deviation, T-Value and Difference Expressed as a Fraction of the Pooled Standard Deviation for Gender, Language and Number of Parents Difference Expressed as a Fraction of the Pooled Loneliness Standard T Standard Variable N Mean Deviation Value Deviation Gender male 65 38.12 11.12 0.13 .02 female 100 38.33 10.03 Language English 151 38.02 10.63 1.17 .35 other 12 41.71 8.16 Number of Parents two 114 37.56 10.11 1.43* .24 one 52 40.06 11.19 * £ < .05 58. The b a c k g r o u n d v a r i a b l e , age, was r e p o r t e d a s an i n t e r v a l s c a l e . The age o f s u b j e c t s t a k i n g p a r t i n t h i s s t u d y r a n g e d f r o m 177.0 months (14.8 y e a r s ) t o 222.0 months (18.5 y e a r s ) . The mean age was 192.0 months (16 y e a r s ) w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 6.24 months. No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was f o u n d b e t w e e n age a n d l o n e l i n e s s (r= .0034, p = .483) . M o t h e r s ' a nd f a t h e r s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e w e re r e p o r t e d on an o r d i n a l s c a l e . To g a t h e r d a t a f o r t h i s v a r i a b l e , s u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o c h o o s e one o f 15 c a t e g o r i e s t h a t b e s t d e s c r i b e d e a c h o f t h e i r p a r e n t s ' o c c u p a t i o n s . E a c h c a t e g o r y d e s c r i b e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n was a s s i g n e d an o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e s c o r e . As e x p l a i n e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e , t h i s s c o r e was c a l c u l a t e d b y a v e r a g i n g t h e p r e s t i g e v a l u e s o f a l l o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h e B l i s h e n s c a l e (1987) w i t h i n e a c h c a t e g o r y . The mean o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e s c o r e f o r m o t h e r s was 35.40 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 12.79. The o c c u p a t i o n p r e s t i g e s c o r e f o r f a t h e r s was f o u n d t o h a v e a mean o f 41.65 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 9.70. No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was f o u n d b e t w e e n e i t h e r p a r e n t s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e a n d l o n e l i n e s s ( m o t h e r r = -.097; f a t h e r r = - . 0 8 8 ) . F o r more d e t a i l s on o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s f o r m o t h e r a nd f a t h e r , t h e 59. a v e r a g e p r e s t i g e s c o r e , and a v e r a g e l o n e l i n e s s s c o r e f o r e a c h o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y s e e A p p e n d i x I . The C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e s i x b a c k g r o u n d v a r i a b l e s w i t h l o n e l i n e s s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x H. N e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s were f o u n d b e t w e e n l o n e l i n e s s a n d number o f p a r e n t s , m o t h e r s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e a n d f a t h e r s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e . Of t h e s e t h r e e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o n l y number o f p a r e n t s was s i g n i f i c a n t . The r e m a i n i n g b a c k g r o u n d v a r i a b l e s o f age, g e n d e r a n d l a n g u a g e were f o u n d t o have p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o l o n e l i n e s s , b u t none o f t h e s e t h r e e r e l a t i o n s h i p s were s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . S e l f Concept As e x p l a i n e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e , a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f t h e S.D.Q. I l l was u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y t o m e a s u r e 12 d i m e n s i o n s o f s e l f c o n c e p t . The p r o c e s s o f e v a l u a t i n g t h e s e l f c o n c e p t s c o r e s i n c l u d e d a d j u s t i n g r e v e r s e p o l a r i t y q u e s t i o n s d i v i d i n g i t e m s i n t o t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e s u b - s c a l e s , a n d t o t a l l i n g s u b - s c a l e s c o r e s . The two s u b s c a l e s t h a t c o n t a i n e d 8 r a t h e r t h a n 6 i t e m s w e re a d j u s t e d as d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y t o a l l o w f o r a common c o m p a r i s o n among t h e s u b s c a l e s . 60 . The h i g h e s t means were r e p o r t e d f o r t h e s e l f c o n c e p t v a r i a b l e s o f p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y , r e l a t i o n s w i t h same s e x p e e r s , g e n e r a l , v e r b a l , r e l a t i o n s w i t h p a r e n t s , and h o n e s t y . The s i x l o w e s t r e p o r t e d means were f o r t h e v a r i a b l e s o f r e l a t i o n s w i t h o p p o s i t e s e x , p r o b l e m s o l v i n g , math, a c a d e m i c , e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y a n d p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e . I n T a b l e 4.2 ( f o l l o w i n g page) t h e mean s c o r e , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n a n d c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f e a c h s e l f c o n c e p t v a r i a b l e w i t h l o n e l i n e s s i s p r e s e n t e d . A l l t h e s e l f c o n c e p t v a r i a b l e s h a d a n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h l o n e l i n e s s , e i g h t o f w h i c h were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Of t h e e i g h t s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s , r e l a t i o n s w i t h same s e x p e e r s s e l f c o n c e p t p r o v e d t o have t h e s t r o n g e s t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h l o n e l i n e s s f o l l o w e d b y g e n e r a l s e l f c o n c e p t , r e l a t i o n s w i t h o p p o s i t e s e x p e e r s s e l f c o n c e p t , e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y s e l f c o n c e p t , p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e s e l f c o n c e p t , p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y s e l f c o n c e p t , v e r b a l s e l f c o n c e p t , a nd r e l a t i o n s w i t h p a r e n t s ' s e l f c o n c e p t . The f o u r r e m a i n i n g s e l f c o n c e p t v a r i a b l e s o f math, h o n e s t y , a c a d e m i c and p r o b l e m s o l v i n g d i d n o t have a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h l o n e l i n e s s . 61. Table 4 . 2 Means and Standard Deviations of the Twelve Self Concept Variables and t h e i r Correlations with Loneliness Mean Self Concept Variable Male Female Total Standard Deviation Correlation for with Mean Total Loneliness Physical Appearance Emotional S t a b i l i t y Academic Math Problem Solving Relations with Opposite Sex Peers Honesty' 30.66 27.60 30.24 28.09 29.83 28.86 31.72 28.38 32.59 30.27 32.49 31.41 31.69 32.72 Relations with Parents 32.65 32.00 Verbal General* Relations with Same Sex Peers Physical A b i l i t y 34.30 32.62 39.00 32.91 36.12 35.43 39.60 35.76 28.74 28.89 29.24 29.59 31.13 31.80 32.28 32.35 33.28 35.29 36.62 37.18 5.95 7.40 8.72 11.17 5.39 9.33 4.89 8.82 7.21 8.55 5.95 9.65 -.433** -.463** -.071 -.050 -.070 -.553** -.096 -.134* -.228** -.617** -.627** -.345** These subscales included 8 items each. Their means and standard deviations were adjusted to allow comparison of a l l 12 v a r i a b l e s . *E < -05 **B <.01 62 . Friendship Findings The d a t a c o n c e r n i n g a s p e c t s o f f r i e n d s h i p were g a t h e r e d b y t h e s o c i o g r a m q u e s t i o n n a i r e . These d a t a c o n s i s t o f two c o m p o n e n t s : f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h i n t h e s u r v e y e d c l a s s r o o m and a v e r a g e c l o s e n e s s o f t h e s e f r i e n d s h i p s . As d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e , d a t a f o r t h e v a r i a b l e o f f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m was g a t h e r e d by h a v i n g t h e s u b j e c t s l i s t t h e i r f r i e n d s w i t h i n t h e s u r v e y e d c l a s s . L a t e r d u r i n g t h e a n a l y s i s o f d a t a , t h e names were c h e c k e d f r o m a r e c o r d o f c l a s s r o o m s t u d e n t s t o e n s u r e t h e names were t h o s e o f c l a s s m a t e s . Those names n o t on t h e m a s t e r c l a s s l i s t were c o n s i d e r e d as o u t o f c l a s s r o o m f r i e n d s h i p s a n d e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s . The s t u d y r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d a mean s c o r e f o r f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h i n t h e s u r v e y e d c l a s s r o o m o f 4.51 f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 2.57. The s e c o n d f r i e n d s h i p v a r i a b l e a n a l y z e d was t h e mean c l o s e n e s s r a t i n g o f t h e l i s t e d f r i e n d s h i p s . A s o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e , d a t a f o r t h i s v a r i a b l e was d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e s u b j e c t ' s c l o s e n e s s r a t i n g s o f t h e i r c l a s s r o o m f r i e n d s h i p s . S u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o r a t e t h e c l o s e n e s s on t h e f o l l o w i n g 4 p o i n t s c a l e i n c l u d i n g : n o t Close ( 1 ) , c a s u a l a c q u a i n t a n c e ( 2 ) , c_l£S_e_ ( 3 ) , a n d m y 63. C l o s e (4) . The r e p o r t e d mean c l o s e n e s s o f f r i e n d s h i p s was 2.23 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f .73. These f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t c a s u a l t o c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h c l a s s r o o m p e e r s was most common among t h i s s a m p l e . As T a b l e 4.3 d i s p l a y s , b o t h f r i e n d s h i p v a r i a b l e s h a d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p< . 0 5 ) n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h l o n e l i n e s s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e two f r i e n d s h i p v a r i a b l e s a n d l o n e l i n e s s were r e l a t i v e l y weak. B o t h v a r i a b l e s were a p p r o x i m a t e l y r= -.20. Mean Scores and Standard Deviations of Friendship Variables and Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s of Each Variable with Loneliness. Table 4.3 Variable N Mean Standard C o r r e l a t i o n Deviation C o e f f i c i e n t s Friends i n Class 166 4.50 2.60 -.193** Mean Closeness 166 2 .23 .73 -.210** Note: ** £ <.01 64. R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s B e f o r e b e g i n n i n g t h e r e g r e s s s i o n o f l o n e l i n e s s s c o r e s a p r e l i m i n a r y s t e p o f f a c t o r a n a l y z i n g t h e 12 s e l f c o n c e p t v a r i a b l e s was p e r f o r m e d . A p r i n c i p a l components f a c t o r a n a l y s i s w i t h v a r i m a x r o t a t i o n was em p l o y e d , w h i c h p r o d u c e d f o u r o r t h o g o n a l f a c t o r s ( t h e c r i t i c a l e i g e n v a l u e was 1 . 0 ) . The v a r i a b l e b r e a k d o w n and e i g e n v a l u e f o r e a c h f a c t o r a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4.4. F a c t o r 1 was r e l a b e l l e d " s o c i a l " s e l f c o n c e p t . S i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t o r s t o t h i s f a c t o r s c o r e were g e n e r a l s e l f c o n c e p t w h i c h i s a measure o f s e l f e s t e e m , r e l a t i o n s w i t h same s e x p e e r s s e l f c o n c e p t , e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y s e l f c o n c e p t , p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e s e l f c o n c e p t , r e l a t i o n s w i t h o p p o s i t e s e x p e e r s s e l f c o n c e p t and p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y s e l f c o n c e p t . These v a r i a b l e s w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t c o n c e p t o f s e l f a n d s e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s was t h e theme o f t h i s f a c t o r s c o r e . F a c t o r 2 was r e l a b e l l e d " v e r b a l " s e l f c o n c e p t . S i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t o r s t o t h i s f a c t o r s c o r e were v e r b a l s e l f c o n c e p t and p r o b l e m s o l v i n g s e l f c o n c e p t . T hese v a r i a b l e s w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t v e r b a l s k i l l s a n d r e a s o n i n g a b i l i t y were themes o f t h i s f a c t o r ( M a r s h , 1987) . F a c t o r 3 was r e l a b e l l e d " h o n e s t y " s e l f c o n c e p t . 65. The s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t o r s o f t h i s f a c t o r a r e h o n e s t y s e l f c o n c e p t a nd r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p a r e n t s s e l f c o n c e p t . These v a r i a b l e s w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t b e i n g r e l i a b l e a n d t r u s t w o r t h y a nd h a v i n g p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p a r e n t s were themes o f t h i s f a c t o r (Marsh, 1 9 8 7 ) . F a c t o r 4 was r e l a b e l l e d " a c a d e m i c " s e l f c o n c e p t . S i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t o r s t o t h i s f a c t o r were math s e l f c o n c e p t a nd a c a d e m i c s e l f c o n c e p t . T hese v a r i a b l e s w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t m a t h e m a t i c a l r e a s o n i n g a b i l i t y and f e e l i n g s o f b e i n g a s u c c e s s f u l a c a d e m i c s t u d e n t a r e themes o f t h i s f a c t o r ( M a r s h , 1987) . Table 4.4 P r i n c i p a l Components Factor Analysis Variables Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4 General .78 9* Physical App. .7 65* Opposite Sex .683* Same Sex .637* Physical A b i l i t y .636* Emotion .599* Verbal .142 Problem Solving .069 Parent .062 Math .058 Academic -.042 Honesty -.017 .251 .108 .074 .186 -.037 -.090 .017 -.167 -.323 -.062 .052 .294 -.333 -.026 .325 .112 .398 -.044 .811* .139 .028 .759* -.047 .318 .045 .812* .073 .190 .085 .879* .483 .384 .624* 0.548 .814* .123 Eigenvalue Percent of Variance Cum. Percent 3.24365 2.35162 27.0 19.6 27.0 46.6 1.29231 1.01912 10.8 8.5 57.4 65.9 Note: Si g n i f i c a n t Factor Loading *sf>.55 The r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s o f l o n e l i n e s s s c o r e s i n v o l v e d f i t t i n g t h e d a t a t o f o u r s e p a r a t e r e g r e s s i o n m o d e l s u s i n g o r d i n a r y l e a s t s q u a r e s . The f i r s t s t e p i n t h e a n a l y s i s was t o s t a n d a r d i z e t h e outcome v a r i a b l e t o h a v e a mean o f z e r o and a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 1.0. E a c h o f t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t v a r i a b l e s were a l s o s t a n d a r d i z e d . The r e m a i n i n g p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s were c e n t r e d a r o u n d t h e i r s a m p l e means, b u t n o t s t a n d a r d i z e d . T h i s s c a l i n g f a c i l i t a t e s i n t e p r e t a t i o n b e c a u s e t h e i n t e r c e p t f o r t h e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n i s t h e n z e r o , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e e x p e c t e d s c o r e f o r a s t u d e n t who i s a v e r a g e i n e v e r y way, and t h e u n s t a n d a r d i z e d r e g r e s s i o n w e i g h t s r e p r e s e n t e f f e c t s i z e s , e x p r e s s e d as f r a c t i o n s o f a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n on t h e outcome v a r i a b l e . F o r e x a m p l e , an e s t i m a t e o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t f o r "Age" o f -0.01 w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t f o r e a c h month a s t u d e n t i s o l d e r t h a n t h e s a m p l e a v e r a g e , h i s o r h e r l o n e l i n e s s s c o r e i s 0.01 o f a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n l o w e r . F o u r d i f f e r e n t r e g r e s s i o n m o d e l s were r u n , e a c h u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n o f p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s . M o d e l 1 was a r e g r e s s i o n r u n i n v o l v i n g o n l y t h e b a c k g r o u n d v a r i a b l e s . As T a b l e 4.5 i n d i c a t e s none o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . A l l o f t h e b a c k g r o u n d v a r i a b l e s w e r e n e g a t i v e p r e d i c t o r s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f l a n g u a g e . The model 1 r e g r e s s i o n 68 . a c c o u n t s f o r o n l y 4.4 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e . The r e g r e s s i o n o u t l i n e d i n M o d e l 2 i n v o l v e d t h e b a c k g r o u n d v a r i a b l e s a n d t h e 12 o r i g i n a l s e l f c o n c e p t v a r i a b l e s as p r e d i c t o r s . As i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 4.5 t h e v a r i a b l e s g e n d e r , r e l a t i o n s w i t h same s e x p e e r s , r e l a t i o n s w i t h o p p o s i t e s e x p e e r s , a n d g e n e r a l s e l f c o n c e p t were a l l s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . A l l 4 o f t h e s e s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s were n e g a t i v e p r e d i c t o r s o f l o n e l i n e s s . T h i s r e g r e s s i o n m o d e l a c c o u n t e d f o r 67.5 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e . The p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s i n M o d e l 3 were t h e f i v e b a c k g r o u n d v a r i a b l e s a n d t h e f o u r f a c t o r s c o r e s o f s o c i a l s e l f c o n c e p t , v e r b a l s e l f c o n c e p t , h o n e s t y s e l f c o n c e p t and a c a d e m i c s e l f c o n c e p t . The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s r e g r e s s i o n were number o f p a r e n t s (p<.05), g e n d e r (p<.01) a n d s o c i a l s e l f c o n c e p t (p<.01). These t h r e e v a r i a b l e s h a d n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h l o n e l i n e s s . As i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 4.5 t h i s r e g r e s s i o n m o d el a c c o u n t e d f o r 60.6 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e . The f o u r t h m o d el i n c l u d e s o n l y t h o s e v a r i a b l e s t h a t were s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r s o f l o n e l i n e s s i n m o d e l 3. F i f t y s e v e n p o i n t f o u r (57.4) p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e was a c c o u n t e d f o r i n m o d e l 4. 69. Table 4.5 Parameter Estimates and Standard Errors f o r Four Regression Models of Loneliness Independent Variables Model 1 b S.E. Model 2 b S.E. Model 3 b S.E. Model 4 b S.E. Constant .000 Age -.0 07 Gender -.031 Language .2 69 Number Parents -.319 Mom Occup. Prest. -.008 Dad Occup. Prest. -.008 Math General Honesty Opposite Sex Verbal Parent Academic Emotion ProblemSolving Physical Appear. Same Sex Physical A b i l i t y Factor 1 (Social S.C.) Factor 2 (Verbal S.C.) Factor 3 (Honesty S.C.) Factor 4 .078' .015 .190 .356 .190 .010 .007 .000 .014 .375* .321 .166 .048 .010 .132 .232 .121 .001 .006 .001 .002 . 309** .012 .325** .090 .056 .000 .109 .011 .024 .325** .043 .004 .081 .092 .070 . 076 .076 .067 .090 .072 .072 .081 .071 .072 .000 .051 .011 .010 .460**.132 .286 .242 .248* .124 .000 .007 .006 .005 .768**.062 .120 .063 .103 .061 .028 .063 .000 .051 -.423**.129 -.270* .120 .770**.063 (Academic S.C.) R2 .044 S.E. 1.000 Sign i f i c a n t F .513 .676 .618 .000 .606 . 655 .000 .574 . 661 .000 Note: Signi f i c a n t T value *p<.05 **o<.01 70. I n model 4 t h e p a r a m e t e r e s t i m a t e f o r number o f p a r e n t s was -.270 (p<.05). T h i s f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t s u b j e c t s l i v i n g i n two p a r e n t f a m i l i e s s c o r e d 27 p e r c e n t o f a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n l o w e r on t h e l o n e l i n e s s s c a l e t h a n t h e s u b j e c t s l i v i n g i n one p a r e n t f a m i l i e s , a f t e r t a k i n g a c c o u n t o f t h e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s i n t h e m o d e l . The p a r a m e t e r e s t i m a t e f o r g e n d e r was -.423 (p<.01). T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t f e m a l e s s c o r e d 42 p e r c e n t o f a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n l o w e r on t h e l o n e l i n e s s s c a l e t h a n t h e i r m a le p e e r s a f t e r t a k i n g a c c o u n t o f t h e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s i n t h e m o d e l . M a l e s i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e , were l o n e l i e r t h a n f e m a l e s , g i v e n c o m p a r a b l e l e v e l s o f s e l f - c o n c e p t and a s i m i l a r f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e . The p a r a m e t e r e s t i m a t e f o r " s o c i a l " s e l f c o n c e p t was -.770 w h i c h was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l . T h i s f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t f o r e v e r y s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n i n c r e a s e on t h e s o c i a l s e l f - c o n c e p t s c a l e , s u b j e c t s s c o r e d 77 p e r c e n t o f a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n l o w e r on t h e l o n e l i n e s s s c a l e , c e t e r i s p a r i b u s . The s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n " s o c i a l " s e l f c o n c e p t and l o n e l i n e s s e m p h a s i z e s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f s e l f c o n c e p t i n p r e d i c t i n g l o n e l i n e s s . S u b j e c t s who h a d l o w s o c i a l s e l f c o n c e p t s t e n d e d t o s c o r e h i g h on t h e l o n e l i n e s s s c a l e , i n d i c a t i n g g r e a t e r l o n e l i n e s s . The p a r a m e t e r e s t i m a t e s o f m o d e l 4 a r e t h e k e y 71. f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y . T h i s r e g r e s s i o n i n c l u d e d t h e p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s o f number o f p a r e n t s , g e n d e r a n d s o c i a l s e l f c o n c e p t , a c c o u n t i n g f o r 57.4 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e . A n a l y s i s o f t h e R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 1. To what e x t e n t i s l o n e l i n e s s p r e v a l e n t i n a s a m p l e o f G r a d e 10 a d o l e s c e n t s ? I n t h i s s a m p l e t h e l o n e l i n e s s s c o r e t o t a l s r a n g e d f r o m 21 t o 67, w i t h a m e a n o f 3 8 . 3 4 a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 1 0 . 4 9 . E i g h t - t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t s h a d l o n e l i n e s s s c o r e i n d i c a t i n g t h e y f e l t " n e v e r " t o " r a r e l y " l o n e l y w h i l e 17 p e r c e n t h a d s c o r e i n d i c a t i n g t h e y f e e l " s o m e t i m e s " t o " o f t e n " l o n e l y . 2. W h i c h o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s o r c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s b e s t p r e d i c t l o n e l i n e s s ( e x c l u d i n g t h e two f r i e n d s h i p v a r i a b l e s ) ? As t a b l e 4.5 i n d i c a t e s , 4 d i f f e r e n t r e g r e s s i o n m o d e l s o f l o n e l i n e s s s c o r e s were r u n . The f i n a l f i n d i n g o f t h i s s t u d y was m o d e l 4. I n c l u d e d i n t h i s r e g r e s s i o n w e r e t h e p r e d i c t i o n v a r i a b l e s o f g e n d e r , n u m b e r o f p a r e n t s a n d f a c t o r 1 s o c i a l s e l f c o n c e p t . The p a r a m e t e r e s t i m a t e f o r number o f p a r e n t s was - .270 ( p < . 0 5 ) , f o r g e n d e r - . 4 2 3 ( p < . 0 1 ) , a n d f o r " s o c i a l " s e l f c o n c e p t - . 7 7 0 ( p < . 0 1 ) . T h i s r e g r e s s i o n model a c c o u n t s f o r 57.4 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e . Do c l a s s r o o m f r i e n d s h i p s a n d t h e c l o s e n e s s o f t h e s e f r i e n d s h i p s h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e d e g r e e o f l o n e l i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e d ? B o t h f r i e n d s h i p v a r i a b l e s h a d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p<.05) n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h l o n e l i n e s s . However, as i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 4.3, b o t h r e l a t i o n s h i p s were v e r y weak: f r i e n d s i n c l a s s r = - . 1 9 3 a n d mean c l o s e n e s s o f t h e s e f r i e n d s h i p s r= - . 2 1 0 . Summary I n t h i s s t u d y t h e mean l o n e l i n e s s s c o r e was 38.34 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 10.49. Of t h e , s i x b a c k g r o u n d v a r i a b l e s i n v e s t i g a t e d f o r t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h l o n e l i n e s s , o n l y number o f p a r e n t s was f o u n d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t . Language was f o u n d t o h a v e a s t r o n g t r e n d t o w a r d s a n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h l o n e l i n e s s , t h o u g h n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . E i g h t o f t h e t w e l v e s e l f c o n c e p t v a r i a b l e s h a d s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h l o n e l i n e s s . T h ese were r e l a t i o n s w i t h same s e x p e e r s , g e n e r a l s e l f c o n c e p t , r e l a t i o n s w i t h o p p o s i t e s e x p e e r s , e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y , p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e , p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y , v e r b a l , a n d r e l a t i o n s w i t h p a r e n t . B o t h v a r i a b l e s o f f r i e n d s h i p s were f o u n d t o h a v e weak n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h l o n e l i n e s s ( p < . 0 5 ) . The r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s o f l o n e l i n e s s s c o r e s i n v o l v e d an e x a m i n a t i o n o f f o u r s e p a r a t e m o d e l s , e a c h i n v o l v i n g a d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n o f p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s . The p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s were t h e s i x b a c k g r o u n d v a r i a b l e s , t h e o r i g i n a l 12 s e l f c o n c e p t v a r i a b l e s , p l u s f o u r f a c t o r 74 . s c o r e s o f s e l f c o n c e p t w h i c h were a r e s u l t o f a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e o r i g i n a l s e l f c o n c e p t v a r i a b l e s . The k e y f i n d i n g o f t h i s s t u d y was r e g r e s s i o n model f o u r . T h i s model was l o a d e d w i t h t h e p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s o f number o f p a r e n t s (p<.05), g e n d e r (p<.01) and f a c t o r 1 " s o c i a l " s e l f c o n c e p t (p<.01), a c c o u n t i n g f o r 57.4 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e . 7 5 . Chapter Five D I S C U S S I O N I n C h a p t e r F i v e a summary a n d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e s u l t o f t h e s t u d y w i l l be p r e s e n t e d . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y , i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e r e s u l t s , and c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h w i l l a l s o be i n c l u d e d . Summary The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o e x a m i n e t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f l o n e l i n e s s a n d i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s t h a t were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e d e g r e e o f l o n e l i n e s s a d o l e s c e n t s e x p e r i e n c e . L o n e l i n e s s was i n v e s t i g a t e d by e x p l o r i n g i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o d i m e n s i o n s o f s e l f c o n c e p t , f r i e n d s h i p a n d b a c k g r o u n d v a r i a b l e s . An anonymous s u r v e y d e s i g n was e m p l o y e d t o c o l l e c t d a t a . I n c l u d e d i n t h e s u r v e y was a l o n e l i n e s s s c a l e , a m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l s e l f c o n c e p t m e a s u r e , a f r i e n d s h i p m e a s u r e , and a s u b j e c t i n f o r m a t i o n s h e e t . The mean age o f s u b j e c t s was 16 y e a r s . The 166 v o l u n t e e r s u b j e c t s w e r e Grade 10 s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d a t s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s i n 76. S u r r e y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t . T h e r e were t h r e e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s e x p l o r e d i n t h i s s t u d y . One, t o what e x t e n t w i l l l o n e l i n e s s be p r e v a l e n t i n t h e s a m p l e ? Two, w h i c h o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s o r c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s b e s t p r e d i c t l o n e l i n e s s ( e x c l u d i n g t h e two f r i e n d s h i p v a r i a b l e s ) ? T h r e e , do t h e v a r i a b l e s o f c l a s s r o o m f r i e n d s h i p s a n d t h e c l o s e n e s s o f t h e s e f r i e n d s h i p s h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e d e g r e e o f l o n e l i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e d ? The a n a l y s i s o f d a t a i n v o l v e d two m a j o r c o m p o n e n t s . A p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s i n v e s t i g a t e d a l l v a r i a b l e s t o d e r i v e t h e d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s . The s e c o n d component i n v o l v e d a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e 12 o r i g i n a l s e l f c o n c e p t v a r i a b l e s a n d r e g r e s s i o n o f l o n e l i n e s s i n v o l v i n g f o u r d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s o f p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s . D i s c u s s i o n o f R e s u l t s T h e r e were f i v e m a j o r f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y . F i r s t , 17 p e r c e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t s h a d l o n e l i n e s s s c o r e s t h a t i n d i c a t e d t h e y f e l t " s o m e t i m e s " t o " o f t e n " l o n e l y . S e c o n d , n e g a t i v e s o c i a l s e l f c o n c e p t was a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r o f l o n e l i n e s s w h i l e n e g a t i v e a c a d e m i c s e l f c o n c e p t was n o t . T h i r d , m a le a n d f e m a l e s u b j e c t s s c o r e d 77 . v i r t u a l l y t h e same on l o n e l i n e s s , h owever when s e l f c o n c e p t s c o r e s were c o n t r o l l e d , m a l e s were on a v e r a g e l o n e l i e r t h a n f e m a l e s , g i v e n a s i m i l a r f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e . F o u r , s u b j e c t s l i v i n g i n s i n g l e p a r e n t h o u s e h o l d s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o n e l i e r t h a n t h e i r p e e r s l i v i n g i n two p a r e n t h o u s e h o l d s . F i v e , s u b j e c t s f o r whom E n g l i s h was a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e were l o n e l i e r t h a n t h e i r p e e r s f o r whom E n g l i s h was a f i r s t l a n g u a g e , t h o u g h n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o n e l i e r . P a s t r e s e a r c h h a s i n d i c a t e d t h a t l o n e l i n e s s i s a w i d e s p r e a d e x p e r i e n c e d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e ( B r e n n a n , 1982; B r e n n a n d & A u s l a n d e r , 1979; R u b e n s t e i n & S h a v e r , 1 9 8 2 ) . T h i s f i n d i n g was g e n e r a l l y n o t s u p p o r t e d b y t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y . A p o s i t i v e l y skewed d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l o n e l i n e s s was f o u n d w i t h a mean s c o r e o f 38.34 a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 10.49. A p p r o x i m a t e l y 17 p e r c e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t s h a d s c o r e s t h a t i n d i c a t e d t h e y f e e l " s o m e t i m e s " t o " o f t e n " l o n e l y . The r e m a i n i n g 83 p e r c e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t s h a d t o t a l l o n e l i n e s s s c o r e s t h a t i n d i c a t e d t h e y f e e l " n e v e r " t o " r a r e l y " l o n e l y . B e c a u s e t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t o n l y 17 p e r c e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d f e e l i n g l o n e l y , t h e y do n o t i n d i c a t e l o n e l i n e s s i s w i d e s p r e a d . However t h e r e s u l t s do i d e n t i f y l o n e l i n e s s as a p r o b l e m w h i c h n eeds t o be 7 8 . a d d r e s s e d f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l amount o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t p o p u l a t i o n . The r e s u l t s o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s o f l o n e l i n e s s s c o r e s f o u n d s e v e r a l o f t h e p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s t o be s i g n i f i c a n t . The f i n a l r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n (model 4) was l o a d e d w i t h t h e p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s o f s o c i a l s e l f c o n c e p t (b=-.770) g e n d e r (b=- .423) and number o f p a r e n t s ( b = - . 2 7 0 ) . These v a r i a b l e s a c c o u n t e d f o r 57.4 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e . The p a r a m e t e r e s t i m a t e o f s o c i a l s e l f c o n c e p t i n d i c a t e s t h i s v a r i a b l e h a d t h e s t r o n g e s t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h l o n e l i n e s s i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h t h e 2 o t h e r v a r i a b l e s i n t h e e q u a t i o n . An a d o l e s c e n t w i t h a l o w s o c i a l s e l f c o n c e p t i s more l i k e l y t o e x p e r i e n c e h e i g h t e n e d f e e l i n g s o f l o n e l i n e s s . The f a c t o r s o c i a l s e l f c o n c e p t c r e a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y was t h e r e s u l t o f a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e o r i g i n a l 12 v a r i a b l e s on t h e s e l f c o n c e p t m e a s ure. S i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t o r s t o t h i s f a c t o r s c o r e were g e n e r a l s e l f c o n c e p t w h i c h i s a m e a s u r e o f s e l f e s t e e m , r e l a t i o n s w i t h same s e x p e e r s s e l f c o n c e p t , e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y s e l f c o n c e p t , p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e s e l f c o n c e p t , r e l a t i o n s w i t h o p p o s i t e s e x p e e r s s e l f c o n c e p t and p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y s e l f c o n c e p t . T hese v a r i a b l e s w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t c o n c e p t o f s e l f , a n d 79. s e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s was t h e theme o f t h i s f a c t o r s c o r e . T h i s f i n d i n g i n d i c a t i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f s e l f p e r c e p t i o n i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o l o n e l i n e s s t e n d s t o s u p p o r t t h e c o g n i t i v e t h e o r y o f l o n e l i n e s s ( P e r l m a n & P e p l a u , 1982; P e p l a u , M i c e l i & M o r a s c h , 1 9 8 2 ) . C o g n i t i v e t h e o r y c e n t r e s on t h e i n f l u e n c e o f " s u b j e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s and s t a n d a r d s " ( P e p l a u , M i c e l i * M o r a s c h , 1982, p. 137) . C o g n i t i v e t h e o r i s t s b e l i e v e t h a t " l o w s e l f e s t e e m i s o f t e n embedded i n an i n t e r r e l a t e d s e t o f s e l f - d e f e a t i n g c o g n i t i o n s and b e h a v i o u r s t h a t i m p a i r s o c i a l c o m p e t e n c e and s o p u t p e o p l e a t r i s k f o r l o n e l i n e s s " ( P e p l a u , M i c e l i & M o r a s c h , 1982, p. 145) . H o j a t (1987) i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f a t t a c h m e n t t h e o r y a l s o i d e n t i f i e s s e l f c o n c e p t as i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g l o n e l i n e s s . I n t e r m s o f a t t a c h m e n t t h e o r y , l o w s e l f e s t e e m a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c h r o n i c l o n e l i n e s s i s b e l i e v e d t o be t h e r e s u l t o f a n e g a t i v e s e l f c o n c e p t i n f l u e n c e d by p a s t a t t a c h m e n t e x p e r i e n c e s ( S h a v e r & Hazan, 1 9 8 7 ) . C o g n i t i v e t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h e n c o u r a g e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e c l i e n t ' s " s e l f image i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s " i s c i t e d b y H o j a t (1987) as an i m p o r t a n t s e c o n d a r y component o f i n t e r v e n t i o n f o r l o n e l i n e s s (p. 9 8 ) . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f s o c i a l s e l f c o n c e p t w o u l d a l s o 8 0 . l e n d s u p p o r t t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p e e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e . B r e n n a n (1982) and Kegan (1983) b o t h v i e w a d o l e s c e n c e as a p e r i o d when p e e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e h i g h l i g h t e d . D e v e l o p m e n t a l l y a d o l e s c e n t s a r e s h i f t i n g f r o m a r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n w i t h p e e r s t o a f o c u s o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s (Kegan, 1983) . I n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s g e n e r a t e g r e a t e r a w a r e n e s s o f s e l f a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o t h e r s (Kegan, 1 9 8 3 ) . B r e n n a n (1982) p e r c e i v e s a d o l e s c e n c e as a p e r i o d when s e l f c o n c e p t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r a b l e b e c a u s e o f t h e e m o t i o n a l a n d p h y s i c a l t r a n s i t i o n s o c c u r r i n g . The f i n d i n g s o f t h e f i n a l l o n e l i n e s s r e g r e s s i o n model 4, g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t t h e s e v i e w s . A d o l e s c e n t s who h a v e a l o w o r n e g a t i v e c o n c e p t o f s e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o p e e r s a n d s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s w i l l e x p e r i e n c e s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r l o n e l i n e s s t h a n t h e i r p e e r s who h a v e more p o s i t i v e c o n c e p t s . G o s w i c k and J o n e s (1982) i d e n t i f i e d s i x p r e d i c t o r s o f l o n e l i n e s s d u r i n g i n a d o l e s c e n c e . N e g a t i v e p r e d i c t o r s were s o c i a l f a c i l i t y , s o c i a l a c c e p t a n c e a nd s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n . P o s i t i v e p r e d i c t o r s w e r e a l i e n a t i o n , i n f e r i o r i t y f e e l i n g s and n e g a t i v e s c h o o l a t t i t u d e s . Once a g a i n t h e themes o f s e l f e s t e e m a n d s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e h i g h l i g h t e d . Of a l m o s t e q u a l i n t e r e s t t o t h e s e s i g n i f i c a n t 81. f i n d i n g s a r e t h e r e s u l t s i d e n t i f y i n g v a r i a b l e s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o l o n e l i n e s s . These s e l f c o n c e p t v a r i a b l e s were h o n e s t y ( i n d i c a t i n g t h e s u b j e c t ' s b e l i e f t h a t t h e y a r e an h o n e s t , t r u s t w o r t h y p e r s o n ) , math, a c a d e m i c , a n d p r o b l e m s o l v i n g . T h i s w o u l d s u g g e s t t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n v a r i a b l e s o f s e l f c o n c e p t r e l a t e d t o a c a d e m i c work and l o n e l i n e s s . F u r t h e r t o t h i s f i n d i n g a f t e r t h e f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e p r e l i m i n a r y s e l f c o n c e p t v a r i a b l e s , " a c a d e m i c " s e l f c o n c e p t w h i c h was l o a d e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e math a n d a c a d e m i c s e l f c o n c e p t ( f a c t o r 4) v a r i a b l e s was n o t a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e i n t h e r e g r e s s i o n o f l o n e l i n e s s . The s e c o n d s t r o n g e s t v a r i a b l e i n t h i s s t u d y ' s f i n a l r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n was g e n d e r . The p a r a m e t e r e s t i m a t e o f t h i s v a r i a b l e s u g g e s t s t h a t , i n t h i s s ample, m a l e s r e p o r t e d g r e a t e r l o n e l i n e s s t h e n t h e i r f e m a l e p e e r s when c o n t r o l l e d f o r s e l f c o n c e p t . P r e v i o u s l y R u s s e l l , P e p l a u and C u t r o n a (1982) f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e g e n d e r s i n r e p o r t e d l o n e l i n e s s among y o u n g a d u l t s . Wood a n d H a n n e l l (1977) a l s o f o u n d no g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n a s t u d y o f l o n e l i n e s s i n adol e s e n c e ' . However m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l m e asure o f s e l f c o n c e p t were n o t f a c t o r s i n t h e s e s t u d i e s , t h o u g h Wood & H a n n e l 82 . (1977) d i d i n c l u d e a measure o f s e l f e s t e e m . T h e r e f o r e , t h e f i n d i n g t h a t m a l e s a r e l o n e l i e r t h a n f e m a l e s when c o n t r o l l e d f o r s e l f c o n c e p t i s a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n c o n t r a d i c t o r y . I n a r e v i e w o f 39 c u r r e n t s t u d i e s , B o r y s a n d P e r l m a n (1985) f o u n d t h e m e t h o d o f l o n e l i n e s s measurement t o h a v e an e f f e c t on r e p o r t e d g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n l o n e l i n e s s . T h e r e was a t e n d e n c y f o r m a l e s t o r e p o r t g r e a t e r l o n e l i n e s s t h a n f e m a l e s on w r i t t e n m e a s u r e s w i t h i n d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s n o t r e q u i r i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s t o s e l f l a b e l t h e m s e l v e s as l o n e l y . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h i s , s t u d i e s u s i n g i n t e r v i e w s r e q u i r i n g s e l f l a b e l l i n g o f l o n e l i n e s s a s a means o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n were more l i k e l y t o f i n d f e m a l e s r e p o r t i n g g r e a t e r l o n e l i n e s s t h a n m a l e s . B o r y s a nd P e r l m a n (1985) s u g g e s t t h a t s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t o r t o t h e s e g e n d e r d i f f e r e n e s i n d i s c l o s u r e o f l o n e l i n e s s f e e l i n g s . The r e v i s e d U.C.L.A. L o n e l i n e s s S c a l e ( R u s s e l l , P e p l a u & C u r o n a , 1980) u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y was i d e n t i f i e d b y B o r y s a nd P e r l m a n (1985) a s an i n s t r u m e n t l i k e l y t o show r e s u l t s o f m a l e s i n d i c a t i n g g r e a t e r l o n e l i n e s s t h a n f e m a l e s . I n t h i s s t u d y t h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t m a l e s were on a v e r a g e l o n e l i e r t h a n f e m a l e s g i v e n c o m p a r a b l e 83. l e v e l s o f s e l f c o n c e p t and f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e . T h e r e f o r e b a s e d on t h e p r e v i o u s c o n c l u s i o n s o f B o r y s a nd P e r l m a n ( 1 9 8 5 ) , t h e i d e n t i f i e d g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n l o n e l i n e s s was i n t h e e x p e c t e d d i r e c t i o n . A n o t h e r k e y f i n d i n g o f t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s l i v i n g i n s i n g l e p a r e n t h o u s e h o l d s r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r l o n e l i n e s s t h a n t h e i r p e e r s l i v i n g i n two p a r e n t h o u s e h o l d s . T h i s f i n d i n g was i n t h e d i r e c t i o n e x p e c t e d as we c a n assume t h o s e a d o l e s c e n t s who l i v e i n h o u s e h o l d s w i t h o n l y one p a r e n t may f e e l a l e v e l o f d i s c o n n e c t e d n e s s w i t h t h e a b s e n t p a r e n t . I n a p r e v i o u s s t u d y B r e n n a n and A u s l a n d e r (1979) f o u n d no d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i n f l u e n c e o f number o f p a r e n t s i n l o n e l i n e s s . However t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s c a u t i o n e d r e a d e r s a s t h e y f e l t t h i s was a c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o e x p e c t e d f i n d i n g s ( B r e n n a n , 1 9 8 2 ) . T h e r e does n o t a p p e a r t o be an o b v i o u s r e a s o n f o r t h e c o n t r a d i c t o r y f i n d i n g s t o t h e B r e n n a n and A u s l a n d e r s t u d y (1979) i n r e g a r d s t o number o f p a r e n t s a n d l o n e l i n e s s . P e r h a p s s u b t l e c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n f a m i l y e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d r o l e s b e t w e e n t h e A m e r i c a n s t u d y ( B r e n n a n & A u s l a n d e r , 1979) a n d t h i s C a n a d i a n s t u d y a r e a v i a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p a r e n t s was c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n 84. t h i s s t u d y . The s e l f c o n c e p t v a r i a b l e o f r e l a t i o n s w i t h p a r e n t s was i d e n t i f i e d as h a v i n g a n e g a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o l o n e l i n e s s . T h e r e f o r e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e number o f p a r e n t s i n t h e a d o l e s c e n t s h o u s e h o l d i n r e l a t i o n t o l o n e l i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e d i s a c o n s i s t e n t theme i n t h i s s a m p l e . A s t r o n g t r e n d i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s s t u d y was t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n l a n g u a g e a n d l o n e l i n e s s . Though n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , t h e r e was a t r e n d f o r t h o s e s u b j e c t s f o r whom E n g l i s h was a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e t o r e p o r t a h e i g h t e n e d l e v e l o f l o n e l i n e s s . B e c a u s e o f t h e s m a l l number o f s u b j e c t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y (n=12), t h e h i g h e r s c o r e s were n o t f o u n d t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . However, i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t E n g l i s h as a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a d o l e s c e n t s w i l l l i k e l y e x p e r i e n c e h e i g h t e n e d f e e l i n g s o f l o n e l i n e s s . These a d o l e s c e n t s may be more s u b j e c t t o l o n e l i n e s s as t h e y e x p e r i e n c e e m o t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t s t o an u n f a m i l i a r and d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c u l t u r e . We m i g h t e x p e c t t r a n s i t o r y l o n e l i n e s s t o be more common among E n g l i s h as a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a d o l e s c e n t s e x p e r i e n c i n g t h i s t r a n s i t i o n . The number o f f r i e n d s h i p s e a c h s u b j e c t h a d i n t h e s u r v e y e d c l a s s a n d t h e c l o s e n e s s o f t h e s e f r i e n d s h i p s w ere f o u n d t o h a v e weak, n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h l o n e l i n e s s . T hese r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e i n t h e e x p e c t e d d i r e c t i o n , as we c a n assume t h o s e a d o l e s c e n t s w i t h o u t e v e n c a s u a l f r i e n d s h i p s i n c l a s s w o u l d e x p e r i e n c e g r e a t e r l o n e l i n e s s t h a n t h o s e w i t h f r i e n d s h i p s . E x a m i n i n g o n l y one c l a s s , t h a t i s t h e c l a s s i n w h i c h t h e s u r v e y was a d m i n i s t e r e d , as a s a m p l e o f t h e s u b j e c t s ' s o c i a l c o n n e c t i o n t o p e e r s c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o b e a l i m i t e d e x a m p l e . C l o s e f r i e n d s h i p s p r o v i d i n g e m o t i o n a l c o n n e c t e d n e s s t o o t h e r s c a n e x i s t i n many o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t s l i f e , w h i c h may h a v e shown a s t r o n g e r n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o l o n e l i n e s s i f e x a m i n e d . Limitations F o u r f a c t o r s l i m i t t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y : t h e u s e o f s e l f - r e p o r t i n g m e a s u r e s , v o l u n t a r y s u b j e c t s , i n c l u s i o n o f o n l y r e g u l a r p r o g r a m s t u d e n t s i n t h e s a m p l e , and t h e u s e o f a s o c i o g r a m q u e s t i o n a i r e w i t h o u t p r o v e n r e l i a b i l i t y o r v a l i d i t y . T h i s s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d a s a s u r v e y w i t h s e l f r e p o r t e d m e a s u r e s w h i c h a r e o p e n t o m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a n d d e p e n d on h o n e s t y o f r e s p o n s e . I t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e r e s u l t s may be b i a s e d i n t h e s u b j e c t s u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o d i s c l o s e l o n e l i n e s s o r n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s a b o u t 86. t h e m s e l v e s . The i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y c a n be w eakened by s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y . The s e c o n d l i m i t a t i o n c o n c e r n s t h e p o t e n t i a l b i a s o f a s a m p l e o f v o l u n t a r y s u b j e c t s . The s a m p l e may b i a s e d i n t h a t s t u d e n t s who f e l t l o n e l y o r d i s c o n n e c t e d f r o m t h e i r c l a s s m a t e s w o u l d n o t v o l u n t e e r t o t a k e p a r t . B e c a u s e o f t h e d e s i g n o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e s t u d e n t s were s u r v e y e d i n c l a s s u n i t s . T h e r e f o r e t h e t o t a l number o f s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n e a c h o f t h e n i n e c l a s s e s s u r v e y e d r e p r e s e n t e d t h e t o t a l number o f p o s s i b l e p a r t i c i p a n t s . However, b e c a u s e p a r t i c i p a t i o n was v o l u n t a r y , d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n emerged. An a v e r a g e o f 99 p e r c e n t o f p o s s i b l e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e l o w and medium SES a r e a s c h o o l s v o l u n t e e r e d t o t a k e p a r t . I n t h e h i g h SES a r e a s c h o o l o n l y 55 p e r c e n t o f p o s s i b l e p a r t i c i p a n t s v o l u n t e e r e d . A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t e a c h e r e n t h u s i a s m a b o u t t h e s t u d y . The l o w and medium SES a r e a s c h o o l s w e r e r e p r e s e n t e d b y two t e a c h e r s who a p p e a r e d t o be g e n u i n e l y e n t h u s i a s t i c a b o u t t h e s t u d y , s p e n d i n g t i m e e n c o u r a g i n g s t u d e n t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e . We c a n assume by t h e h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f p a r t i c p a n t s i n t h e s e two s c h o o l s , t h a t t h e e n t h u s i a s m o f t h e t e a c h e r s h a d a p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e on s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The t e a c h e r who r e p r e s e n t e d t h e h i g h SES a r e a s c h o o l a p p e a r e d 87. c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s e n t h u s i a s t i c a b o u t t h e s t u d y , w h i c h we c a n assume by t h e l o w number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s , n e g a t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e d s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h i s t y p e o f i n f l u e n c e c o u l d weaken t h e e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y o f t h e s t u d y b e c a u s e one c o u l d e x p e c t t h a t , on t h e a v e r a g e , v o l u n t e e r s w o u l d be l e s s l o n e l y t h a n t h o s e who d e c l i n e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e . The t h i r d l i m i t a t i o n a l s o c o n c e r n s t h e p o t e n t i a l b i a s o f t h e s a m p l e i n t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m p o p u l a t i o n o n l y . T h i s s t u d y d i d n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y i n c l u d e a s p e c i a l n e e d s c l a s s , t h e r e f o r e o n l y t h o s e s p e c i a l n eeds s t u d e n t s i n t e g r a t e d i n t o r e g u l a r c l a s s e s were i n c l u d e d . S p e c i a l needs s t u d e n t s w ere b a s i c a l l y u n r e p r e s e n t e d . T h i s l i m i t a t i o n i n e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y must be c o n s i d e r e d when g e n e r a l i z i n g t h e s t u d y r e s u l t s . The f o u r t h l i m i t a t i o n d e a l s w i t h t h e S o c i o g r a m Q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h m e a s u r e d t h e f r i e n d s h i p f i n d i n g s . B e c a u s e t h i s i s an o r i g i n a l i n s t r u m e n t c o n s t r u c t e d o n l y f o r t h i s s t u d y , t h e c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y a r e u n p r o v e n . D a t a g a t h e r e d f r o m t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e e n h a n c e d t h e s t u d y f i n d i n g s b u t i n f e r e n c e s and c o n c l u s i o n s drawn f r o m t h i s m e a s u r e s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h c a u t i o n . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r T e a c h e r s a n d C o u n s e l l o r s The r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d i n a p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e r e f o r e , e a c h o f t h e f i v e m a j o r f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y h a v e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t e a c h e r s a n d c o u n s e l o r s w o r k i n g w i t h p o t e n t i a l l y l o n e l y a d o l e s c e n t s w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m . F i r s t , 17 p e r c e n t o f t h e s a m p l e r e p o r t e d f e e l i n g " s o m e t i m e s " t o " o f t e n " l o n e l y . I n t h e c o n t e x t o f a c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g , i n a c l a s s o f 30 s t u d e n t s , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 o f t h e 30 s t u d e n t s w o u l d p r o b a b l y be e x p e r i e n c i n g some d e g r e e o f l o n e l i n e s s . P r e v i o u s r e s a r c h h a s i d e n t i f i e d d r u g and a l c o h o l a b u s e , d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r , d r o p p i n g o u t o f s c h o o l , a n d s u i c i d e as b e h a v i o u r s r e l a t e d t o l o n e l i n e s s d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e ( B r o n f e n b r e n n e r , 1986; F r a n c e , M c D o w e l l a n d K n o w l e s , 1 9 8 4 ) . These f i n d i n g s w o u l d i m p l y t h a t t h e r e i s a n e e d f o r t e a c h e r s t o be aware o f t h e e x t e n t a n d d i m e n s i o n s o f l o n e l i n e s s d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e . The s e c o n d m a j o r f i n d i n g was t h a t n e g a t i v e s o c i a l s e l f c o n c e p t as a s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i c a t o r o f l o n e l i n e s s w h i l e n e g a t i v e a c a d e m i c s e l f c o n c e p t was n o t . I n r e l a t i o n t o s e l f c o n c e p t t h e s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f s c h o o l 89. a r e s t r o n g e r i n d i c a t o r s o f l o n e l i n e s s t h a n a c a d e m i c a s p e c t s . C r e a t i n g c l a s s r o o m a t m o s p h e r e s w h i c h e n c o u r a g e s o c i a l i n c l u s i o n a n d i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h p e e r s w o u l d l i k e l y h e l p t o a l l e v i a t e f e e l i n g s o f l o n e l i n e s s . I n t u r n , t h o s e a d o l e s c e n t s who a p p e a r t o be s o c i a l l y i s o l a t e d a n d e m o t i o n a l l y d i s c o n n e c t e d f r o m p e e r s a n d s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s a r e l i k e l y t o be e x p e r i e n c i n g l o n e l i n e s s . The t h i r d m a j o r f i n d i n g was m a l e and f e m a l e s u b j e c t s s c o r e d v i r t u a l l y e q u a l i n l o n e l i n e s s s c o r e s . However, f e m a l e s s c o r e d l o w e r i n s e l f c o n c e p t . T h e r e f o r e , when s e l f c o n c e p t s c o r e s were c o n t r o l l e d , m a l e s were l o n e l i e r t h a n f e m a l e s . T h i s f i n d i n g i m p l i e s t h a t a d o l e s c e n t m a l e s a r e more l i k e l y t h a n f e m a l e s t o e x p e r i e n c e h e i g h t e n e d l o n e l i n e s s when s e l f c o n c e p t f a c t o r s a n d home s t r u c t u r e a r e e q u a l . T h i s w o u l d f u r t h e r i m p l y t h e r e a r e g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n l o n e l i n e s s among a d o l e s c e n t s . The f o u r t h m a j o r f i n d i n g was t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s l i v i n g i n s i n g l e p a r e n t h o u s e h o l d s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o n e l i e r t h a n t h e i r p e e r s l i v i n g i n two p a r e n t h o u s e h o l d s . T h i s f i n d i n g i m p l i e s t h a t s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s s u c h as number o f p a r e n t s i n t h e a d o l e s c e n t s h o u s e h o l d a r e r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t o r s o f i n c r e a s e d r i s k f o r l o n e l i n e s s i n a d o l e s c e n t s . 90. The f i f t h m a j o r f i n d i n g was t h e s t r o n g t r e n d f o r a d o l e s c e n t s f o r whom E n g l i s h i s a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e t o s c o r e c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r i n l o n e l i n e s s t h a n p e e r s f o r whom E n g l i s h i s a f i r s t l a n g u a g e . I t c o u l d be assumed f r o m t h i s f i n d i n g t h a t t h e s e a d o l e s c e n t s f i n d s o c i a l i n c l u s i o n and e m o t i o n a l c o n n e c t e d n e s s w i t h p e e r s more d i f f i c u l t . T h e r e f o r e , as w i t h s o c i a l s e l f c o n c e p t , a t m o s p h e r e s t h a t e n c o u r a g e s o c i a l i n c l u s i o n and p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h p e e r s w o u l d be c r u c i a l i n a l l e v i a t i n g l o n e l i n e s s among E n g l i s h as a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a d o l e s c e n t s . Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r Research Recommendations f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n c l u d e p o s s i b l e m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s c u r r e n t s t u d y a n d a r e a s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a s s o c i a t e d t o t h e s t u d y r e s u l t s . S u g g e s t i o n s t o m o d i f y t h i s s t u d y ' s d e s i g n f o c u s on t h e s e l f c o n c e p t a n d f r i e n d s h i p m e a s u r e s . The o r i g i n a l S e l f D e s c r i p t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I I I (Marsh, 1984) i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l o n g e r i n i t e m s t h a n t h e m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . I n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i t may be b e n e f i c i a l t o empl o y t h e o r i g i n a l f u l l l e n g t h i n s t r u m e n t i n o r d e r t o e x t r a c t g r e a t e r d e t a i l o f t h e s u b j e c t s ' s e l f 91. c o n c e p t . I n r e g a r d s t o t h e s o c i o g r a m q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h i s o r i g i n a l i n s t r u m e n t c o u l d be i m p r o v e d upon by r e w o r k i n g t h e component o f number o f c o n t a c t s w i t h f r i e n d s . B e c a u s e t h i s was an open e n d e d r e s p o n s e q u e s t i o n t h e r e were a l a r g e number o f e x t r e m e s c o r e s , w h i c h g r e a t l y skewed t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n . F o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i t w o u l d be b e n e f i c i a l t o p r o v i d e s u b j e c t s w i t h a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e r a n g e t o r e s p o n d t o r a t h e r t h a n l e a v i n g t h e r e s p o n s e open end e d . I f t h i s a s p e c t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s c o u l d be r e l i a b l y m e a s u r e d i t may f u r t h e r e nhance o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f l o n e l i n e s s . I n r e f e r e n c e t o a r e a s o f new r e s e a r c h a s s o c i a t e d t o t h i s s t u d y , e x p a n d i n g on t h e i n f l u e n c e o f s o c i a l s e l f c o n c e p t c o u l d be a f o c u s . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t w o u l d be a s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i n t e r v e n t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a i m e d a t e n c o u r a g i n g p o s i t i v e s e l f e s t e e m and s o c i a l s e l f c o n c e p t . B e c a u s e o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t i n g t h e s t r o n g n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s o c i a l s e l f c o n c e p t and a d o l e s c e n t l o n e l i n e s s i t w o u l d seem l o g i c a l t h a t i n t e r v e n t i o n s a i m e d t o i m p r o v e t h e s e c o n s t r u c t s i n l o n e l y a d o l e s c e n t s w o u l d be a p p r o p r i a t e . However, a " t r u e " e x p e r i m e n t (Cook & C a m p b e l l , 1979) e m p l o y i n g s t r a t e g i e s o f i n t e r v e n t i o n w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r 92. e f f e c t i v e n e s s . F u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n v o l v i n g s p e c i a l needs s t u d e n t s w o u l d a l s o be o f i n t e r e s t . The r o l e l o n e l i n e s s p l a y s i n t h e l i v e s o f a d o l e s c e n t s who a r e s e g r e g a t e d f r o m p e e r s b e c a u s e o f p h y s i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r e m o t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s n e e d s t o be e x a m i n e d . T h i s t y p e o f d a t a w o u l d be an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r s c h o o l s d e v e l o p i n g p o l i c i e s t o w a r d s s t u d e n t i n t e g r a t i o n v e r s u s s e g r e g a t i o n i s s u e s . As t h e s t u d y r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e i n r e l a t i o n t o s e l f c o n c e p t , s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f s c h o o l a r e more i m p o r t a n t t h a n a c a d e m i c a s p e c t s . The e m o t i o n a l i m p a c t o f s e g r e g a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o a c a d e m i c a b i l i t y i s l i k e l y t o have a n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e on s e l f c o n c e p t . A n o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g a p p r o a c h f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h on l o n e l i n e s s w o u l d be a s t u d y t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f l o n e l i n e s s . T h e r e a r e d i s t i n c t i o n s b e t w e e n t r a n s i t o r y and c h r o n i c l o n e l i n e s s , a nd t h e r e f o r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . By i d e n t i f y i n g t h e t y p e o f l o n e l i n e s s , i n t e r v e n t i o n s s p e c i f i c t o e a c h t y p e c o u l d be e m p l o y e d a c c o r d i n g l y t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . C o n c l u s i o n B a s e d on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y s o c i a l s e l f c o n c e p t , g e n d e r , number o f p a r e n t s and e t h n i c i t y a r e v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o l o n e l i n e s s . The r e s u l t s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r c o u n s e l l o r s w o r k i n g w i t h l o n e l y a d o l e s c e n t s . F u t u r e r e s e a r c h f u r t h e r c l a r i f y i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n l o n e l i n e s s a n d t h e s e v a r i a b l e s , a n d t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e i n r e g a r d s t o i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s , w o u l d be b e n e f i c i a l . 94. 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R i c h a r d Young D e p t . o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e a r P a r e n t / G u a r d i a n : Re: Survey Study of "Adolescent Loneliness" T h i s l e t t e r i s a r e q u e s t f o r p e r m i s s i o n t o a l l o w y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r t o t a k e p a r t i n a s o c i a l s c i e n c e s r e s e a r c h s t u d y on a d o l e s c e n t l o n e l i n e s s , a t s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s i n S u r r e y . T h i s s t u d y o f a d o l e s c e n t l o n e l i n e s s i s b e i n g c o n d u c t e d by D r . R i c h a r d Young and K a t h y H a r w a r d , g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t , f r o m t h e d e p a r t m e n t o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . We f e e l t h e r e i s a n e e d f o r r e s e a r c h e r s , c o u n s e l l o r s , a n d t e a c h e r s t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d a d o l e s c e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e o f l o n e l i n e s s . T a k i n g p a r t i n t h i s s t u d y w i l l a l s o a s s i s t t h e a d o l e s c e n t s t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h e i r f e e l i n g s o f l o n e l i n e s s . The s t u d y c o n s i s t s o f c o m p l e t i n g f o u r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w h i c h w i l l r e q u i r e one h o u r o f y o u r s o n ' s / d a u g h t e r ' s c l a s s r o o m t i m e . A f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , t i m e w i l l a l s o be p r o v i d e d f o r y o u r s o n / d a u g h t e r t o a s k q u e s t i o n s o r t o d i s c u s s t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r . The f o u r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s o f t h e s t u d y c o n s i s t p r i m a r i l y o f a s u b j e c t i n f o r m a t i o n s h e e t , a s e l f - c o n c e p t q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a l o n e l i n e s s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a n d a c l a s s r o o m s o c i o g r a m q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h a s k s s t u d e n t s t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r c l a s s r o o m f r i e n d s h i p s . T h i s s t u d y i s b e i n g c o n d u c t e d w i t h a p p r o v a l by a n d p e r m i s s i o n f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E t h i c s C o m m i t t e e , S u r r e y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , y o u s o n ' s / d a u g h t e r ' s s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l , as w e l l as t h e A P P E N D I X B W R I T T E N I N S T R U C T I O N S T O P A R T I C I P A N T S 105 . K a t h y H a r w a r d UBC G r a d u a t e S t u d i e s DR. R i c h a r d Young UBC S u p e r v i s o r Re: "Adolescent Loneliness" The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e p a r t o f a s u r v e y s t u d y o f a d o l e s c e n t l o n e l i n e s s . P a s t r e s e a r c h has f o u n d t h a t l o n e l i n e s s i s more i n t e n s e d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e and e a r l y a d u l t h o o d t h a n a t any o t h e r t i m e i n o u r l i v e s . T h e r e a r e two m a j o r p u r p o s e s t o t h i s s t u d y . The f i r s t i s t o c l a r i f y o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f l o n e l i n e s s f o r a d o l e s c e n t s , a n d t h e s e c o n d i s t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n so t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s c a n p r o v i d e h e l p f u l g u i d a n c e f o r a d o l e s c e n t s e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h l o n e l i n e s s . T h e r e a r e a t o t a l o f f o u r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o be c o m p l e t e d by e a c h p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h e s t u d y . The f i r s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s a s u b j e c t i n f o r m a t i o n s h e e t w h i c h - c o v e r s b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n o f a l l s u b j e c t s t a k i n g p a r t i n t h e s t u d y . The s e c o n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s a s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o i n v e s t i g a t e y o u r f e e l i n g s a b o u t y o u r s e l f a n d y o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s . The t h i r d q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s a l o n e l i n e s s s c a l e w h i c h s u r v e y s y o u r f e e l i n g s o f a l o n e n e s s a n d l o n e l i n e s s . The f i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s a c l a s s r o o m s o c i o g r a m w h i c h g a t h e r s i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t y o u r f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s t u d e n t s i n y o u r c l a s s . I t i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t t h a t y o u r e s p o n d t o t h e q u e s t i o n s and s t a t e m e n t s on a l l f o u r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s as c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y and h o n e s t l y a s p o s s i b l e . P l e a s e d o n ' t be t e m p t e d t o a n s w e r a c c o r d i n g t o what you t h i n k i s a d e s i r e d r e s p o n s e ; h o n e s t y o f r e s p o n s e i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t . The i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i s c o n f i d e n t i a l . Y o u r names a r e n o t t o be u s e d on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ; t h e r e f o r e , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i s anonymous. The i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s s u r v e y i s t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e a 106. p a t t e r n o f r e s p o n s e , n o t t o s i n g l e o u t o r e x a m i n e any i n d i v i d u a l t a k i n g p a r t . I n t o t a l , t h e f o u r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i l l r e q u i r e one h o u r o r l e s s t o c o m p l e t e . A l l s u b j e c t s c o n s i d e r i n g t a k i n g p a r t i n t h i s s t u d y have t h e r i g h t t o r e f u s e t o t a k e p a r t a t any t i m e , o r r e f u s e t o answer any q u e s t i o n on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n o r n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y w i l l h a ve no c o n s e q u e n c e on y o u r c l a s s s t a n d i n g i n any way. I t w i l l be assumed t h a t c o n s e n t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y i s g i v e n upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . S i n c e r e l y , Kathy Harward A P P E N D I X C S U B J E C T I N F O R M A T I O N S H E E T 108 . The q u e s t i o n s on t h i s s h e e t a r e i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e B a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n on s t u d e n t s t a k i n g p a r t i n t h i s s u r v e y . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r t o work o u t a v e r a g e s . T h e r e f o r e , no one p e r s o n w i l l be s i n g l e d o u t o r i d e n t i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . P l e a s e answer e a c h q u e s t i o n s as h o n e s t l y and a c c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e . 1. Age: Y e a r s M o n t h s : . 2. Gender: M a l e F e m a l e : . 3. W h i c h l a n g u a g e do you most o f t e n speak a t home 4. W h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p e o p l e l i v e i n t h e same h o u s e h o l d as y o u r ? (Mark a l l t h a t a p p l y . ) Yes No M o t h e r O t h e r f e m a l e q u a r d i a n ( s t e p / f o s t e r mother) F a t h e r O t h e r M a l e q u a r d i a n ( s t e p / f o s t e r f a t h e r ) S i s t e r (s) ( s t e p s i s t e r ( s ) / h a l f - s i s t e r (s) ) B r o t h e r s ( s ) ( s t e p b r o t h e r ( s ) / h a l f - b r o t h e r ( s ) ) G r a n d p a r e n t ( s ) O t h e r a d u l t s 109. 5. I t would be h e l p f u l to get some i n f o r m a t i o n about the jobs most r e c e n t l y h e l d by your mother and f a t h e r (parents , guardians or s t e p - p a r e n t s w i t h whom you l i v e ) . Please choose a category below that best describes t h e i r most recent jobs. (Mark ONE f o r EACH p a r e n t . ) MOTHER FATHE.R CLERICAL, such as bank t e l l e r , bookkeeper secretary, t y p i s t , mail c a r r i e r CRAFTSMAN, such as automobile mechanic machinist, painter, plumber, carpenter FARMER, FARM MANAGER LABOURER, such as construction worker, car washer, farm labourer MANAGER, ADMINISTRATOR, such as o f f i c e / restaurant/sales manager, school administrator, buyer, government o f f i c i a l MILITARY, such as career o f f i c e r , l i s t e d man or waman i n the Armed Forces OPERATIVE, such as meat cutter, machine operator, welder, taxi/bus/truck d r i v e r PROFESSIONAL, such as accountant, a r t i s t registered nurse, engineer, l i b r a r i a n , writer, s o c i a l worker, actor/actress, athlete, p o l i t i c i a n , school teacher PROFESSIONAL, such as clergyman, dentist, physician, lawyer, s c i e n t i s t , college teacher PROPRIETOR OR OWNER, such as owner of a small business, contractor PROTECTIVE SERVICE, such as detective, p o l i c y o f f i c e r or guard, s h e r i f f , f i r e f i g h t e r 110 . MOTHER FATHER SALES, such as salesperson, advertising or insurance agent, r e a l estate broker SERVICE, such as barber, beautician, p r a c t i c a l nurse, ja n i t o r , waiter/waitress TECHNICAL, such as draftsman, medical or dental technician, computer programmer NEVER WORKED NOT LIVING AT HOME DON'T KNOW OTHER (write in) I l l . A P P E N D I X D S E L F D E S C R I P T I O N Q U E S T I O N N A I R E I I I 112 . This questionnaire i s made up of a number of a number of statements about the way people f e e l about themselves. Each represents a commonly held opionion, and there are no right or wrong answers. Please read each statement c a r e f u l l y and c i r c l e the number of the response which i s closest to how true or how false the statement i s for you personally. NOTE; Asterisk * indicates reverse p o l a r i t y . d e f i n i t e l y false/mostly false/mostly t r u e / d e f i n i t e l y true 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ! SAMPLE a I l i k e summer holidays. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1. I f i n d many mathematical problems i n t e r e s t i n g and challenging. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2. Overall, I have a l o t of respect f o r myself. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 3. I often t e l l small l i e s to avoid embarrassing s i t u a t i o n s . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 4. I get a l o t of attention from members of the opposite sex. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 5. I have trouble expressing myself when t r y i n g to write something. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 6. I am usually pretty calm and relaxed. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7. I hardly ever saw things the same way as my parents when I was growing up. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8. I enjoy doing work for most academic subjects. 113. d e f i n i t e l y false/mostly false/mostly t r u e / d e f i n i t e l y true 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9. I am never able to think up answers to problems that haven't already been figured out. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10. I have a p h y s i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e body. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 11. I have few friends of the same sex who I can r e a l l y count on. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12. I am a good athlete. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 13. I have hesitated to take courses that involve mathematics. 14. Overall, I lack self-confidence. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 15. People can always r e l y on me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 16. I f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to meet members of the opposite sex whom I l i k e . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 17. I can write e f f e c t i v e l y . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 18. I worry a l o t . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 19. I would l i k e to bring up children of my own ( i f I have any) as my parents raised me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 20. I hate studying for many academic subjects. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 21. I am good at combining ideas i n ways that others have not t r i e d . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 114 . d e f i n i t e l y false/mostly false/mostly t r u e / d e f i n i t e l y true 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ! 22. I am ugly. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 23. I am comfortable t a l k i n g to members of the same sex. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 24. I am awkward and poorly co-ordinated at most sports and physical a c t i v i t i e s . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 25. I have generally done better i n mathematics courses than other courses. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 26. Overall, I am pretty accepting of myself. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 27. Being honest i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y important to me. 28. 1 have l o t s of friends of the opposite sex. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 29. Relative to most people, my verbal s k i l l s are quite good. 30. I am happy most of the time. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 31. I s t i l l have many unresolved c o n f l i c t s with my parents. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 32. I l i k e most academic subjects. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 33. I wish I had more imagination and o r i g i n a l i t y . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 34. I have a good body b u i l d . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 35. I don't get along very well with other members of the same sex. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 115. d e f i n i t e l y false/mostly false/mostly t r u e / d e f i n i t e l y true 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ! * 36. I hate sports and physical a c t i v i t i e s . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 * 37. I have trouble understanding anything that i s based upon mathematics. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 * 38. Overall, I don't have much respect for myself. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 39. I nearly always t e l l the truth. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 * 40. Most of my friends are more comfortable with members of the opposite sex than I am. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 * 41. I often have to read things several times before I understand them. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 * 42. I am anxious much of the time. 1 2 3 4 5 6 ' 7 8 * 43. My parents have usually been unhappy or disappointed with what I do and have done. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 * 44. I have trouble with most academic subjects. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 45. I enjoy working out new ways of solving problems. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 * 46. There are lo t s of things about the way I look that I would l i k e to change. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 47. I make friends e a s i l y with members of the same sex. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 48. I have a high energy l e v e l i n sports and physical a c t i v i t i e s . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 49. I am quite good at mathematics. 116. d e f i n i t e l y false/mostly false/mostly t r u e / d e f i n i t e l y true 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 50. Overall, I have a l o t of self-confidence. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 51. I sometimes take things that do not belong to me. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 52. I am comfortable t a l k i n g to members of the opposite sex. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 53. I am good at expressing myself. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 54. I hardly ever f e e l depressed. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 55. My values are s i m i l a r to those of my parents. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 56. I'm good at most academic subjects. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 57. Im not much good at problem-solving. 58. My body weight i s about right (neither too fat not too skinny) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 59. Other members of the same sex f i n d me boring. * 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 60. I am poor at most sports and physical a c t i v i t i e s . * 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 61. I have always done well i n mathematics classes. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 62. Overall, nothing that I do i s very important. 117 . d e f i n i t e l y false/mostly false/mostly t r u e / d e f i n i t e l y true 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ! 63. I never cheat. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 64. I am quite shy with members of the opposite sex. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 65. In school, I had more trouble learning to read than most other students. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 66. I tend to be high-strung, tense and r e s t l e s s . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 67. I l i k e my parents. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 68. I'm not p a r t i c u l a r l y interested i n most academic subjects. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 69. I am an imaginative person. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 70. I d i s l i k e the way I look. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 71. I share l o t s of a c t i v i t i e s with members of the same sex. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 72. I enjoy sports and physical a c t i v i t i e s . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 73. Overall, I have pretty negative fee l i n g s about myself. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 74. I am a very honest person. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 75. I would f e e l OK about cheating on a tes t as long as I d i d not get caught. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 76. Overall, I have pretty p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s about myself. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A P P E N D I X E L O N E L I N E S S S C A L E 119. Directions: Indicate how often you f e e l the way described i n each of the following statements. C i r c l e one number for each. Never ESialy. Sometimes Often 1. I f e e l i n tune with the people around me. 1 2 3 2. I lack companionship. 1 2 3 * 3. There i s no one I can turn to. 1 2 3 * 4. I do not f e e l alone. 1 2 3 5. I f e e l part of a group of friends. 1 2 3 6. I have a l o t i n common with the people around me. 1 2 3 7. I am no longer close to anyone. 1 2 3 * 8. My interests and ideas are not shared by those around me. 1 2 3 9. I am an outgoing person. 1 2 3 10. There are people I f e e l close to. 1 2 3 11. I f e e l l e f t out. 1 2 3 * 12 . My s o c i a l r e l a tionship are , s u p e r f i c i a l . 1 2 3 * 13. No one r e a l l y knows me well. 1 2 3 *14. I f e e l i s o l a t e d from others. 1 2 3 * 15. I can f i n d companionship when I want i t . 1 2 3 Note: Asterisk * marks reverse p o l a r i t y questions. 120 . 16. There are people who r e a l l y understand me. 17. I am unhappy being so withdrawn. *18. People are around me but not with me. 19. There are people I can talk to. 20. There are people I can turn to. Never RarelySometimes Often 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 A P P E N D I X F S O C I O G R A M Q U E S T I O N N A I R E 122 . I n t h e l e f t - h a n d c o l u m n b e l o w , l i s t t h e names o f p e o p l e i n t h i s c l a s s whom y o u f e e l c o n n e c t e d t o on a p e r s o n a l l e v e l , o r whom you c o n s i d e r as f r i e n d s . They may be p e o p l e y o u meet w i t h a f t e r s c h o o l , f r i e n d s y o u t a l k t o , p e o p l e y o u p l a y s p o r t s w i t h , o r s t u d y w i t h , o r o t h e r s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s . You may l i s t any number o f p e o p l e you w i s h , up t o a l i m i t o f t e n . P l e a s e u s e o n l y t h e i r f i r s t name a n d l a s t i n i t i a l on t h e l i s t . A f t e r you have l i s t e d t h e i r names i n t h e l e f t - h a n d c o l u m n , t h e n d e c i d e how c l o s e y o u f e e l t o e a c h p e r s o n , u s i n g t h e numbers i n t h e m i d d l e c o l u m n . B a s e d on t h e f o u r - p o i n t s c a l e , r a n g i n g f r o m 1 ( n o t c l o s e ) t o 4 ( v e r y c l o s e ) , c i r c l e t h e number b e s i d e e a c h p e r s o n ' s name w h i c h b e s t d e s c r i b e s how c l o s e y o u f e e l t o t h a t p e r s o n . F i n a l l y , i n t h e t h i r d c o l u m n , t h i n k a b o u t t h e number o f t i m e o v e r t h e p a s t s e v e n days t h a t y o u ha v e s p e n t t i m e w i t h e a c h p e r s o n y o u ' v e l i s t e d . I f y o u know t h e e x a c t number o f t i m e s , t h a t ' s f i n e ; b u t , i f n o t , g i v e an a p p r o x i m a t e number ( e s t i m a t e — p l e a s e be as h o n e s t and a c c u r a t e as p o s s i b l e ) . The t i m e s p e n t t o g e t h e r w o u l d i n c l u d e d o i n g a c t i v i t i e s s u c h as t h o s e l i s t e d i n t h e f i r s t p a r a g r a p h ( e . g . , t a l k i n g , p l a y i n g s p o r t s , s t u d y i n g , m e e t i n g w i t h , e t c . ) . 123. Example.; a. Martha 1 2 3 4 times 1 = not close 2 = casual acquaintance 3 = close 4 = very close N a m e a C l o s e n e s s Time Spent Together During Past 7 Days . 1 2 3 4 times — _ _ 1 2 3 4 times . 1 2 3 4 times . 1 2 3 4 ' times ___ 1 2 3 4 times 1 2 3 4 times 1 2 3 4 times 1 2 3 4 times — . 1 2 3 4 times 1 2 3 4 times A P P E N D I X G L O N E L I N E S S S C A L E R E S P O N S E P R O F I L E 125 . Loneliness Scale Statement I f e e l in tune with the people around me. 2. I lack companionship. 3. There i s no one I can turn to. I do not f e e l alone. I f e e l part of a group of fr i e n d s . I have alot i n common with the people me. 7. I am no longer close to anyone. S. My in t e r e s t and ideas are not shared by those around me. 9. I am an outgoing person. 10. There are people I f e e l close to. 11. I f e e l l e f t out. 12. My s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p are s u p e r f i c i a l . 13. No one r e a l l y knows me we l l . 14. I f e e l i s o l a t e d from others. 15. I can f i n d companionship when I want i t . 16. There are people who r e a l l y understand me. 17. I am unhappy being so withdrawn. 18. People are around me but not with me. 19. There are people I can t a l k to. 20. There are people I can turn to. T o t a l Sample Mean 38.34 Number of Responses to Statement N«v«r(l) Rar«ly(2) Son»tim«s(3) Often(4) 3 39 79 26 5 84 42 43 31 35 62 9 13 60 31 4 6 10 65 42 38 15 18 38 56 15 10 57 67 62 40 15 20 40 64 10 9 74 42 25 44 60 25 47 60 40 49 50 44 51 57 56 42 50 31 31 78 19 20 57 103 83 18 21 82 112 17 18 25 13 85 77 22 21 121 120 Response Mean 3.41 2.29 1.92 2.84 3.49 3.33 1.90 2.28 3.34 3.57 2.24 2.33 2.36 2.09 3.13 3.19 2.24 2.37 3.62 3.60 Standard Deviation 10.49 A P P E N D I X H C O R R E L A T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T S O F B A C K G R O U N D V A R I A B L E S W I T H L O N E L I N E S S Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s of Background Variables with Loneliness Age Gender Language Mother's Father's Number Occupational Occupational of Prestige Prestige Parents Loneliness .0034 .0098 .0921 -.0968 -.0783 -.1482* (165) (165) (163) (147) (141) (165) p=.483 p=.450 p=.121 p=.122 p=.178 p=.029 * S i g n i f i c a n c e £ < .05 A P P E N D I X I P R O F I L E O F P A R E N T ' S O C C U P A T I O N A L P R E S T I G E A N D M E A N L O N E L I N E S S S C O R E S 129 . Parent 13 Occupational Occupational Loneliness Score Category N Prestige Score Mean S. D. Father Homemaker/Housewife 3 22 .08 50 .67 6 .51 Labourer 17 28 .82 36 .41 7 .19 Farm/Farm Manager 1 39 .97 47 .00 — Craftsman 23 34 .90 38 .52 9 .82 Proprietor/Owner 17 36 .35 37 .32 10 .94 Service 1 37 .27 30 .00 — C l e r i c a l 2 37 .57 40 .00 7 .07 Operative 12 38 .62 41 .13 10 .69 Protective Service 11 44 .34 40 .50 12 .32 Sales 4 44 .62 36 .75 12 .31 Technical 10 45 .72 35 .20 8 .22 Manager/Administrator 19 50 .88 32 .95 9 .08 M i l i t a r y 4 51 .94 27 .25 2 .99 Professional (1) 12 58 .18 39 .00 9 .15 Professional (2) 4 62 .63 44 .00 23 .22 Mother Homemaker/Housewife 56 22 .08 39, .34 11 .79 Labourer 2 28 .82 44. .00 15, .56 Farm/Farm Manager 2 31 .97 28. .50 .71 Craftsman 0 34 .90 — — Proprietor/Owner 5 36 .35 31. .60 5, .27 Service 14 37 .27 41. .00 9, .47 C l e r i c a l 23 37 .57 40. .44 11, .49 Operative 5 38 .62 35. .00 6, .49 Protective Service 3 44 .34 38. .67 12, .22 Sales 5 44 .62 37. .80 12, .32 Technical 4 45 .72 26. .25 2, .87 Manager/Administrator 7 50 .88 36. .43 11, .39 M i l i t a r y 0 51 .94 — — Professional (1) 16 58 .18 39. .06 8, .33 Professional (2) 3 62 .23 33. .67 11, .02

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