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The conditions that hinder or facilitate conflict resolution in Italian families DiDiomete, Patrizia 1989

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THE CONDITIONS THAT HINDER OR F A C I L I T A T E CONFLICT RESOLUTION I N I T A L I A N F A M I L I E S by P a t r i z i a D i D i o m e t e B.A. (Human & S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t ) , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1979. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES De p a r t m e n t o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H J u n e 1989 © P a t r i z i a D i d i o m e t e , COLUMBIA 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Department DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT This study gathers information about which factors f a c i l i t a t e , and, which factors hinder c o n f l i c t resolution, in second general I t a l i a n Families. The subjects were asked questions using Flanagan's C r i t i c a l Incident Technique. This structured set of p r i n c i p l e s i s a tool which guides subjects to give important and new information about c o n f l i c t resolution. The study was based on research that indicates that the second generation I t a l i a n Family experiences c o n f l i c t and disorganization during acculturation. There i s increasing evidence that ethnic values and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n play a s i g n i f i c a n t role in the family l i f e cycle. Re-adjustment to a new culture i s a prolonged developmental process which a f f e c t s a l l members d i f f e r e n t l y . The "adolescent" family stage seems p a r t i c u l a r l y problematic since in addition to the normal developmental adjustment required, I t a l i a n s struggle with multiple t r a n s i t i o n s which exacerbate inter-generational c o n f l i c t . Intergeneration c o n f l i c t was studied by interviewing a t o t a l of 10 adults and 10 adolescents; one adult and one adolescent from each family. The sample was drawn from the Burnaby North High School Enrollment Roster and interviewed i n their own homes. These subjects reported a t o t a l of 134 incidents — 29 f a c i l i t a t i v e and 105 hindering. The results of the study indicated 14 basic categories. There were 8 categories that reported incidents which f a c i l i t a t e d c o n f l i c t resolution and 6 categories that reported incidents which hinder c o n f l i c t resolution. C o n f l i c t resolution was f a c i l i t a t e d when the discussion reached a l i m i t and became closed or when humor was used. C o n f l i c t resolution was f a c i l i t a t e d by an apology, showing tolerance, compromising arid negotiation. Other factors that were f a c i l i t a t i v e were parental agreement and family closeness. On the other hand c o n f l i c t resolution was hindered when there was c o n f l i c t i n g expectations, lack of understanding, rejection, disagreement, disobedience and disrespect and parental c o n f l i c t . These findings, to the I t a l i a n community, normalizes c o n f l i c t processes as an understandable and resolvable problem. The information gathered provides a categorical map which can be used to assess the ways c o n f l i c t i s maintained and to strengthen ways i n which c o n f l i c t i s reduced. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i CHAPTER 1 - I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 B a c k g r o u n d o f t h e P r o b l e m 1 S t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m and p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y . 3 CHAPTER 2 - R e v i e w o f t h e R e l a t e d L i t e r a t u r e . . . 5 C u l t u r a l C o n t e x t 5 C o n f l i c t 10 H i s t o r i c a l / S o c i o l o g i c a l L e v e l 11 F a m i l y D y n a m i c L e v e l 17 I n t r a p s y c h i c L e v e l 25 C o n f l i c t a n d C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n . 27 The C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t T e c h n i q u e 32 H i s t o r y a n d D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t T e c h n i q u e 34 C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t P r o c e d u r e a n d D a t a C o l l e c t i o n 38 R e l i a b i l i t y a n d V a l i d i t y 44 CHAPTER 3 - M e t h o d o l o g y 49 S u b j e c t s 49 B a c k g r o u n d o f S u b j e c t s 51 I n t e r v i e w P r e p a r a t i o n 52 C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t I n t e r v i e w 55 P r o c e d u r e 58 V P r e p a r i n g C a r d s f o r I n d e p e n d e n t R a t e r s 60 I n d e p e n d e n t R a t i n g 6 2 CHAPTER 4 - R e s u l t s 64 B a s i c C a t e g o r i e s 64 R e l i a b i l i t y o f C a t e g o r i z a t i o n 76 P a r t i c i p a t i o n R a t e 77 E x p e r t E v a l u a t i o n o f C a t e g o r i e s 80 CHAPTER 5 - D i s c u s s i o n . . . . 81 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y 82 T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s 83 P r a c t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s 91 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h . . . . . . 92 Summary ' 9 4 REFERENCES 9 5 APPENDIX TO CHAPTER 3 101 L e t t e r o f I n i t i a l C o n t a c t 102 C o n s e n t Form 104 A d o l e s c e n t C o n s e n t F o r m 105 1 Chapter 1 Introduction  Background of the Problem Adolescence can be a d i f f i c u l t and tumultuous developmental process for the indi v i d u a l and for the family. It i s in the tra n s i t i o n period from one developmental stage to another that families are most l i k e l y to encounter d i f f i c u l t i e s (Minuchin, 1974, Haley 1976). During the adolescent developmental stage both the young adult and the parents must adapt and change to f a c i l i t a t e the resolution of this growth stage. The adolescent must balance freedom with r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and establish wider interest and careers (Duvall, 1977), separate from their parents and develop outside relationships as their primary sources of g r a t i f i c a t i o n (Solomon, 1973). Adults must release young adults with appropriate r i t u a l s and assistance and maintain a supportive home base (Duvall, 1977). The parents must learn to l e t go and to increase the f l e x i b i l i t y of family boundaries to include the adolescent's independence. They must s h i f t parent-child relationships to allow adolescents to move in and out of the family system. Also, during th i s time 2 parents must refocus themselves on midlife marital and career issues, including a s h i f t toward concern about issues that are prevalent for the older generation (Carter & McGoldrick, 1980). Optimum resolution of the t r a n s i t i o n from adolescence to adulthood e n t a i l s separating from the family, achieving emotional maturity, and developing an independent s e l f - i d e n t i t y . F a i l u r e to achieve a mature separation may take the form of dependency and attachment, or emotional cut of f and reactive f l i g h t . Parental over-attachment may also hinder mature development and true autonomy of the children. As children and parents must adapt to changing r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , roles, boundaries and communication during t h i s t r a n s i t i o n , i t can lead to many c o n f l i c t s as both parent and c h i l d may not be changing at the same rate and in the same way. Both are struggling to establish new i d e n t i t i e s and positions regarding each other and the i r environment. In addition to meeting the l i f e task of reorganizing the family to accommodate change, immigrant families must make other major adjustments in terms of their i d e n t i t y and et h n i c i t y . F i r s t , second and th i r d 3 generation immigrants face the task of adapting to a new culture i n which they may have to integrate a new system of meanings and patterns of behaviour i n interpersonal relationships. When the community has d i f f e r i n g values and structures than that of the family, individual family members must respond to opposing c u l t u r a l contexts in order to develop a sense of i d e n t i t y . This process may be s t r e s s f u l and confusing for individuals and for the family which i s being forced to change. Statement of the problem and purpose of the study Research indicates that the second generation I t a l i a n family experiences c o n f l i c t and disorganization-during acculturation. There i s increasing evidence that ethnic values and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n play a s i g n i f i c a n t role in family l i f e and in personal development throughout the l i f e cycle. Re-adjustment to a new culture i s a prolonged developmental process which a f f e c t s a l l members d i f f e r e n t l y , depending on the l i f e cycle phase they are in at the time of t r a n s i t i o n . The 'adolescent' family stage seems p a r t i c u l a r l y problematic since i n addition to the normal developmental adjustment required at 'this stage of the family l i f e cycle, I t a l i a n s 4 struggle with multiple transitions and c o n f l i c t s due to migration which exacerbate inter-generational c o n f l i c t . The purpose of this exploratory study i s to i d e n t i f y the factors which hinder and those factors which f a c i l i t a t e c o n f l i c t resolution in I t a l i a n immigrant families. This information w i l l be gathered using Flanagan's C r i t i c a l Incident's Technique. This procedure allows subjects to give s e l f reports regarding the s i g n i f i c a n t factors regarding c o n f l i c t resolution. 5 Chapter 2 Review of the Related Literature 1. Cultural Context Eth n i c i t y relates family process to the broader context in which i t evolves. Just as individuation requires that we come to terms with our family of or i g i n , coming to terms with our ethnicity i s necessary to gain a perspective on the r e l a t i v i t y of our b e l i e f systems (Sluzki, 1979). Sluzki (1979) points out that the d e f i n i t i o n of family varies for dif f e r e n t groups. Different ethnic groups may have variations in their family l i f e cycle, Sluzki (1979). Some of these differences may be due to the emphasis that they place on di f f e r e n t t r a n s i t i o n s such as marriage and death. There may be differences in the continuity of c u l t u r a l r i t u a l s including the changing meanings and feelings about these r i t u a l s . Other variations occur in the occupations that may be chosen by a group. Also d i f f e r e n t ethnic groups d i f f e r in what they consider problematic and the viable solutions to those problems. Attitudes towards seeking help also tend to vary in d i f f e r e n t ethnic groups. 6 Many factors w i l l influence the ways ethnic patterns evolve i n the family. Sluzki (1979) i d e n t i f i e d several factors: migration, the languages spoken i n the home; the race and country of o r i g i n ; the family place of residence; their socio-economic status, educational achievement and upward mobility of family members; the emotional process in the family; their p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s ties in the ethnic group; and the family l i f e cycle. In addition, a l l s i t u a t i o n a l c r i s e s ; ( i l l n e s s , divorce, job loss, etc . . . ) can compound ethnic identity c o n f l i c t which causes people to lose a sense of who they are. In order to explore c o n f l i c t and c o n f l i c t resolution the family must be defined with an awareness of their ethnic and c u l t u r a l differences. A brief introduction to the nature of I t a l i a n families i s l a t e r followed by a more comprehensive study of the I t a l i a n immigrant struggle to resolve their c o n f l i c t s . I t a l i a n family patterns and roles w i l l be defined i n a general way to give an understanding of the h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l context of the family. 7 There i s no such thing as an I t a l i a n nuclear family. The I t a l i a n family i s a network of four generations, which includes godparents and close family friends. The individual's primary duty in the family i s neither to himself nor to the community at large but rather to that network of kin c a l l e d "family". When interests of the family c o n f l i c t with the individual or general community intere s t s , the former takes precedence i Mutual rights and obligations are powerful and binding on a l l members of the family and allegiance to the family surpasses a l l other l o y a l t i e s (Rotanno & McGoldrick, 1982). Separation from one's family i s an individual's worst misfortune and tantamount to s p i r i t u a l death (Rotanno & McGoldrick, 1982). When Ital i a n s came to Canada t h i s cohesiveness and loya l t y became even more pronounced. Immigrants sheltered themselves from feelings of exclusion, poverty and fear that their c u l t u r a l b e l i e f s would be lost by tightening the network of kin and by demanding ultimate authority over children and their b e l i e f s (Campisi, 1948). 8 Value was placed on the personality t r a i t s that would provide a cushion against external i n s t a b i l i t y . H i s t o r i c a l l y the Italians rely on internal resources and on their f a m i l i e s . This i s thought to have developed because of h o s t i l e forces, invading armies, unstable p o l i t i c s and the constant flow of foreigners through Italy and the changing power base (McGoldrick, Pearce, & Giordano, 1982). Both in It a l y or as immigrants in a new land, family honor i s highly valued and preserved. In times of c r i s i s , then, the primary coping mechanism i s to turn to the family. The major d i f f i c u l t y in the I t a l i a n system develops when family and individual values c o n f l i c t (McGoldrick, Pearce, & Giordano, 1982). Ita l i a n s raise their children to be mutually supportive and to contribute to the family. I t a l i a n parents would f e e l l i k e f a i l u r e s i f they reared children who were independent, s e l f s u f f i c i e n t , questioning of family values, and ultimately separating from the family. I t a l i a n family members t r a d i t i o n a l l y have c l e a r l y defined roles which determine and maintain family patters. The father has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been the 9 undisputed head of the household, often authoritarian and r i g i d in his rule setting and guidelines for behaviour (McGoldrick, Pearce, & Giordano, 1982; Giordano, 1977; Gambino, 1974). Fathers were out of the home, for business or male-oriented family a c t i v i t i e s , and therefore had l i t t l e contact with the other family members (McGoldrick, Pearce, % Giordano, 1982). The t r a d i t i o n a l I t a l i a n mother's l i f e centers around the home. Her r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and primary pleasure i s to provide nurturing and emotional sustenance to a l l family members (McGoldrick, Pearce, & Giordano, 1982; Giordano, 1977; Gambino 1974). Her personal needs take second place to those of her husband and in return she i s offered protection and security from a l l outside pressures or threats (McGoldrick, Pearce, & Giordano, 1982). The roles of children are markedly d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between males and females. The boys are allowed and encouraged to act out as an expression of their manliness (Gambino, 1974, McGoldrick, Pearce, Giordano, 1982). They are also encouraged to pa r t i c i p a t e and achieve i n the community (Giordano, 1977). The boys are given guidance and supervision to exemplify a sense of 10 mastery in interpersonal relations as well as in the sexual domain (McGoldrick, Pearce, Giordano, 1982). The g i r l s on the other hand are trained to be domestic, virtuous and y i e l d i n g to the w i l l of men, l i k e their mothers (Gambino, 1974). The extended family plays a central role in a l l aspects of the family. Respect for and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for older family members i s a strong norm in the group (McGoldrick, Pearce, Giordano, 1982). The extended family contributes to family decision making and the ongoing d a i l y functions. I t a l i a n family roles are c l e a r l y defined and established. Their complimentarity severs and maintains the family. It i s only when changes occur that the family structure begins to shake, crack and break apart. For the immigrant family there are multiple changes which challenge the family so greatly that i t becomes a fi g h t for s u r v i v a l . The following sections w i l l explore the changes and stresses that the immigrant I t a l i a n family must endure. 2. Co n f l i c t C o n f l i c t and c o n f l i c t resolution in I t a l i a n families can be explored at the h i s t o r i c a l / s o c i o l o g i c a l 11 l e v e l , at a family dynamic l e v e l , and at an intrapsychic l e v e l . The h i s t o r i c a l / s o c i o l o g i c a l perspective describes the acculturation process as the process of the Italians as a group, adopting the c u l t u r a l t r a i t s or soc i a l patterns of another group. The family dynamic lev e l a r t i c u l a t e s the changing roles, and therefore the changing structure of the family. Included i n t h i s are the stresses and problems these families face. It i s d i f f i c u l t to separate intrapsychic and family dynamics as they are i n t e r - r e l a t e d and interdependent. Interpersonal problems are explored at the family dynamic l e v e l and in the intrapsychic l e v e l . The intrapsychic area focuses on the psychological processes experienced by the i n d i v i d u a l . H i s t o r i c a l / s o c i o l o g i c a l l e v e l The I t a l i a n immigrant family in Canada w i l l undergo some gradual and some dr a s t i c changes. This process of acculturation has been described by Campisi (1948) in three stages. Although the stages are delineated i t i s essential to understand that acculturation i s a continuous process that has no d e f i n i t e time. The f i r s t stage i s the Initial-Contact Stage (Campisi 1948), the f i r s t decade where both parents are 12 of I t a l i a n b i r t h . There i s a strong attempt made to perpetuate an I t a l i a n way of l i f e in the transplanted household. In th i s stage, the Old World family i s s t i l l f a i r l y intact but pressures from within and outside the family are beginning to disrupt and disorganize, although imperceptibly, the t r a d i t i o n a l Old World patterns. Campisi (1948) l i s t e d nine pressures: 1. The very act of physical separation from the parental family and v i l l a g e culture. 2. The necessity to work and operate with somewhat strange and foreign body of household tools, equipment, gadgets, furniture, cooking u t e n s i l s , and other physical objects. 3. Adjustment of the physical environment, including the climate, urban ecological conditions. 4. The b i r t h of children and the increasing contact with American medical practice regarding c h i l d care. 5. The necessity to work for wages at unfamiliar tasks. 6. The attendance of I t a l i a n children i n parochial and public schools. 7. Increased period of i s o l a t i o n from the Old World. 13 8. The acceptance of work by the housewife outside the home for wages. 9. Social and economic discrimination and prejudice. S t i l l , the f i r s t generation family in this phase i s a highly integrated one, as i n the Old World. The demands of the Canadian community are not seriously f e l t in the insulated unit of the I t a l i a n family or commune, and the children are s t i l l too young to a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r newly acquired needs and wishes. The second generation I t a l i a n family in Canada i s t y p i c a l l y entering the C o n f l i c t Stage (Campisi, 1948). In t h i s stage the family experiences the most profound changes and i s torn from i t s Old World foundations. This stage i s characterized by the c o n f l i c t between two ways of l i f e , one Canadian and the other I t a l i a n , and by the incompatibility of the parents and the children. This phase i s generally apparent during the second decade of l i v i n g in Canada, s p e c i f i c a l l y when the children express th e i r acquired Canadian expectations and attempt to have their needs met i n the family s i t u a t i o n and when the parents in turn, attempt to reinforce the Old World patterns. There are c o n f l i c t s in various family situations which threaten to destroy 14 whatever s t a b i l i t y the family had maintained through the f i r s t period. It i s a period of great f r u s t r a t i o n and misunderstanding for both parents and children. It i s the parents who have the most to lose, for their complete acceptance of the Canadian way of l i v i n g means the destruction of the Old World.ideal. Without their pure culture and s o c i a l system to support i t s p o s i t i o n , the t r a d i t i o n a l family pattern, already weakened, begins to change dramatically: the father loses his importance, the daughter's acquire unheard of independence, and generally the children force the parents into a more Canadian way of l i f e . Adjustment for the second generation adolescent/young adult commonly takes three forms. The f i r s t i s a-complete abandonment of the Old World way of l i f e . The i n d i v i d u a l changes his/her I t a l i a n name, moves away from the neighbourhood or community and has l i t t l e to do with his/her foreign born parents. The ideal i s to become acculturated as quickly as possible. Irving Child (1943) c a l l s this type of adjustment the 'Rebel'. Taking this stance the rebel gains d i s t i n c t i v e rewards for a f f i l i a t i o n with the North American group in the community. S/he continues to encounter prejudice 15 against I t a l i a n s but for survival s/he makes him/herself out to be an exception and not r e a l l y a member of the It a l i a n group. This person then loses a f f i l i a t i o n rewards from the I t a l i a n group and the attempt made to transcend his/her 1 I t a l i a n e s s 1 , seems sat i s f a c t o r y . . . at least for the time being. The next, and most common mode of adjusting i s that the i n d i v i d u a l feels a strong need to become Canadianized and t r i e s to shape the structure and. functions of the family i n accordance with his/her newly acquired way of l i f e . The parental way of l i f e i s not en t i r e l y repudiated although there i s some degree of reject i o n . Although this individual or family w i l l l i k e l y move out .of the I t a l i a n neighbourhood, intimate communication i s maintained within the parental household as well as with the r e l a t i v e s . A bond of af f e c t i o n and understanding i s maintained in this s i t u a t i o n . Child (1943) explains that t h i s type of adjustment does not gain the successful pursuit of one set of goals re l a t i n g to n a t i o n a l i t y but rather escapes the anxieties which are associated with those goals. By lessening the distinctiveness of the c o n f l i c t i n g goals and the s t r e n g t h o f t h e i r d e s i r e f o r e a c h o f them, a nd by t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f i n d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e b a r r i e r s t h a t s t a n d i n t h e way o f t h e i r a c h i e v e m e n t , s/he g a i n s t h e r e w a r d o f n o t h a v i n g h i s / h e r l i f e d i s t u r b e d on t h e s u r f a c e . T h i s p e r s o n e s c a p e s a n x i e t y a n d c o n f l i c t w h i c h i s more r e w a r d i n g t o h i m / h e r t h a n t h e l o s s o f o t h e r p o t e n t i a l g a i n s . The t h i r d way f o r a p e r s o n t o a d j u s t i n t h e s e c o n d g e n e r a t i o n f a m i l y i s t o t a k e h i s / h e r o r i e n t a t i o n i n w a r d t o w a r d an I t a l i a n way o f l i f e . T h i s i n d i v i d u a l o r f a m i l y r e m a i n s i n t h e I t a l i a n n e i g h b o u r h o o d a nd s t a y s c l o s e t o t h e p a r e n t a l home. I n t e r a c t i o n w i t h n o n -I t a l i a n s i s a t a minimum, and h i s / h e r i n t e r e s t s a r e t i e d w i t h t h e I t a l i a n c o m m u n i t y . C h i l d ( 1 9 4 3 ) p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h i s p e r s o n g a i n s t h e r e w a r d o f s e c u r e s t a t u s a s a member o f t h e I t a l i a n g r o u p . T h e s e r e w a r d s come f r o m s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s a n d may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l o w e r s t a t u s t h a n r e w a r d s f r o m an o t h e r s t a n c e . However, f o r t h e t y p e o f p e r s o n who c h o o s e s t h i s way o f l i v i n g , t h e s e r e w a r d s may w e l l be more c o m p l e t e a n d s a t i s f a c t o r y b e c a u s e a c c e p t a n c e by t h e I t a l i a n g r o u p i s more t h o r o u g h t h a n a c c e p t a n c e by t h e C a n a d i a n g r o u p . A l t h o u g h t h i s s t a t u s i s s o m e t i m e s f r u s t r a t i n g s/he h a s an a f f i l i a t i o n 17 group within which s/he can express h o s t i l i t y toward non-Italians at large in a supported group. Family Dynamic Level At the family dynamic l e v e l the c o n f l i c t s are more sp e c i f i c and i n d i v i d u a l . Any situ a t i o n that erodes the Ita l i a n father's authority i s l i k e l y to have a pronounced negative impact on him. The changing role of women i n our culture naturally places great s t r a i n on a tra d i t i o n a l I t a l i a n man (McGoldrick, Pearce, Giordano, 1982). When children reject the values painstakingly taught by the father, he experiences another great stress. Some studies indicate that the father experiences the greatest psychological stress of a l l family members (McGoldrick, Pearce, Giordano, 1982). When children question and challenge parental values the father experiences this as disrespect and defiance, an utterly intolerable i n s u l t to the father's s e l f image, also when the children mature, gain their independence and attempt to separate from their families, the father experiences severe feelings of depression, abandonment and worthlessness (McGoldrick, Pearce, Giordano, 1982). The independence of female children i s esp e c i a l l y threatening. The father reacts and expresses his 18 feelings by angry outbursts, and c o n f l i c t over control of the young adult's decisions. Some situations result in the c h i l d being paralyzed, ostracized from the family or in perpetual c o n f l i c t with the family while suffering from extreme g u i l t (Gambino, 1974). I t a l i a n fathers may lose their high status and their power in decision making, however, what i s actually the product of s h i f t i n g c u l t u r a l values i s experienced as a loss of s e l f esteem on the part of the father. As he begins to share his power with his wife, the father notes the discrepancies in attitude between himself and his father's time and experiences i t as personal f a i l u r e to command the proper respect. Thus, he may exhibit an increase in defensiveness and insecurity regarding his 'maleness'. Often this i s manifested c l i n i c a l l y as depression (McGoldrick, Pearce, Giordano, 1982). Some immigrant fam i l i e s , in their forced surrender of power, f e e l sabotaged by both outside and inside pressure. As their morale diminishes, they may become obstinate and resentful. Some fathers attempt to regain lo s t control by withholding a f f e c t i o n . This makes 19 children look upon the i r fathers with disdain (Giordano, 1977). The status of women in I t a l i a n families i s confusing and paradoxical. Women assume subordinate, nonerotic roles that leave them waiting upon men, including their sons. They are constantly f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r motherly duties, l i k e taking care of the children, the cooking, cleaning and ironing (Giordano, 1977). In thi s role they are both exalted and demeaned. Often the women came from families whose fathers were absent and therefore families which had no real closeness with a father. So, when a woman married, her husband remained a stranger who usually f a i l e d to meet her dependency needs (Giordano, 1977). Intimacy in I t a l i a n marriages i s not a p r i o r i t y or expectation. The mutual support and complimentarity of the roles of husband and wife are thei r obligations to the immediate and extended family (McGoldrick, Pearce, Giordano, 1982). A consequence of thi s i s that children do not have models within their extended families for resolving c o n f l i c t s and marital issues through negotiation and role f l e x i b i l i t y . Mothers, who were constantly present and available in the home, developed powerful relationships with the 20 children. Often mothers, f u l f i l l i n g their role to serve and s p o i l men, tended to i n f a n t a l i z e their sons and bind them close to her (Giordano, 1977). Eldest daughters also had a s p e c i a l position v i s - a - v i s the mother. Often the eldest daughter was chosen to serve the mother's needs: to hear everyday complaints, worries and even sexual d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n (Giordano, 1977). In a distorted way, daughters became substitute husbands and also acted out the unexpressed anger of the passive aggressive mother. This enabled the mother to remain the idealized madonna in the eyes of sons and husbands (Giordano, 1977). Some mothers aligned children on their side of the b a t t l e f i e l d against the father who remained alone and condemned (Giordano, 1977). Thus in the family with the mother- as the centralized parent figure and absent 'head' or authority figure, i t was the mother who held a great deal of the power. For I t a l i a n children, the contradictions i n the family and the repression imposed by the family structure, l e f t them with no apparent way of resolving i t . Mothers tended to act as a buffer between fathers and children and neither parent showed much interest in 21 their children's personal problems. ' This was not a lack of concern on caring, but rather, the p r i o r i t y of concern for the family as a unit. Children s o c i a l i z e d to American values may experience this as a rejection of their i n d i v i d u a l needs (McGoldrick, Pearce, Giordano, 1982). Within the family there i s intense need for love and a f f e c t i o n . Competition among children centers around fear that parental a f f e c t i o n w i l l be withdrawn. Parents are r i g i d and giving of conditional love (Rolle, 1980). The c o n f l i c t s between the value of family and education have made adolescence extremely d i f f i c u l t for I t a l i a n f a m i l i e s . Children, especially g i r l s , are confused by the c o n f l i c t i n g signals given to her by parents: "get an education . . . but don't change", "grow . . . but remain within the image of the 'houseplant' I t a l i a n g i r l " (Gambino, 1974). In short, children must maintain the d i f f i c u l t balance of c o n f l i c t s which i s the second generation's l i f e s t y l e . Mothers t r a i n g i r l s i n the t r a d i t i o n a l s k i l l s and character t r a i t s . The daughters perceive t h i s e f f o r t as an oppression that s t i f l e s their enjoyment of l i f e , of their dating and their s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t in education and j the pursuit of ind i v i d u a l interests (Gambino, 1974). Following t r a d i t i o n , mothers supervise their children's l i v e s well after they become adults. Frequently, I t a l i a n women say their adults status was never accepted by their parents, even after success i n career and marriage, u n t i l they produce children themselves (Gambino, 1974; McGoldrick, Pearce, & Giordano, 1982). Also, because the g i r l s learn "the old ways", their c o n f l i c t i s only p a r t i a l l y with their parents, the remaining c o n f l i c t i s within themselves, including a l l the special g u i l t and agony of s e l f c o n f l i c t (Gambino, 1974). The rebe l l i o n of daughters against their mothers, having old world values and new world form, make i t extremely d i f f i c u l t for g i r l s to resolve their i d e n t i t y . There are no points of leverage, no understanding or insight into the "momism" model of the I t a l i a n female (Gambino, 1974), therefore, teenage g i r l s don't have a role model which they can relate to or aspire to. Behaviour such as l i v i n g outside the family home, going on dates, informality in public places and quarrelling with the family elders i s considered ways of a "puttane" 1 (Gambino, 1974). Therefore, in trying to 1 s l u t 23 meet the developmental stages encouraged in the new world, g i r l s experience the f r u i t l e s s agony of i l l -understood anger against their families, alternating with confusing g u i l t and anger towards themselves. It i s a search for identity crippled by lack of knowledge of c u l t u r a l roots and an absence of appreciation of one's unique psychology (Gambino, 1974). Male children tend to enjoy a form of adulation, yet they are not allowed to separate easily from either the mother's or father's control. There i s often a lack of understanding of both the fathers and the sons to understand each other's values, which can lead to a breakdown in communication. Sons sometimes resent their father's control and b u i l d up a wall of resentment. Poor s e l f concept i s the result of ethnic jokes, poor language, discrimination, and shameful feelings of inadequacy, p a r t i c u l a r i t y over the parent's poor use of the english language (Giordano, 1977). A hie r a r c h i c a l reversal occurs as children act as translators and interpreters of the culture. This further confuses immigrant children by giving them an inordinate amount of power in the family while 24 maintaining that the father i s the head of the household. Tension i s generated for the young male because the It a l i a n ideals for the "male role" are confusing and obscure i n their o r i g i n s . Males tend to outwardly reject the style of the id e a l while at the same time they have l i t t l e insight (Gambino, 1974). In their search for identity they are greatly bewildered by the incongruities between their i l l understood gut values and many of the values they perceive in the larger society (Gambino, 1974). Another c o n f l i c t imposed on children by I t a l i a n t r a d i t i o n are s t r i c t l y defined roles for each sex, including a sense of shame about sex ( g u i l t to preserve ch a s t i t y ) , damage which i s pervasive because of the old world s o c i a l rationale for these roles has been greatly altered i n the present (Gambino, 1974). There appears to be no mechanism in the family for the c h i l d to express or resolve these c o n f l i c t s . In some cases, the children are not able to a r t i c u l a t e their struggle but seem to be paralyzed and s t i f l e d in the I t a l i a n t r a d i t i o n . Parents are not aware of their children's dilemma as their own acculturation and 25 id e n t i t y struggle seems to be a p r i o r i t y . Frustration and disappointment appears to be an undercurrent in family l i f e . With the family having no outlet to express or resolve inter-generational c o n f l i c t s , feelings (anger, revenge, shame, g u i l t ) may become somatacized. Giordano (1977) l i s t s these: f i r s t order: st u t t e r i n g , constipation, bed-wetting; second order: depression, aggressive acts towards the community, and volcanic quarrels with attempts at r e s t i t u t i o n . Intrapsychic Level C o n f l i c t s also occur at the intrapsychic l e v e l . Self i d e n t i t y develops out of a gradual integration of a personal-subjective inner identity, shaped and formed within the personality structure, and an objective public i d e n t i t y that develops out of a h i s t o r i c a l continuity and i s shaped and formed by contemporary communal and s o c i a l i nteraction (Jacobson, 1972). Personal and group i d e n t i t y are thus interdependent (Jacobson, 1972). Personal identity i s made possible only i n the context of group a f f i l i a t i o n . Ethnicity i s a powerful influence i n determining i d e n t i t y . A sense of belonging and of ones h i s t o r i c a l continuity i s a basic psychological need. When immigrant children 26 repress, block, cutoff, deny, reject or abandon their families and s o c i a l background they begin a process of s p l i t t i n g their i d e n t i t i e s (McGoldrick, Pearce, & Giordano, 1982; Giordano, 1977; Jacobson, 1972). This forms two d i f f e r i n g i d e n t i t i e s ; a personal i d e n t i t y and a public i d e n t i t y . Giordano (1974) describes s p l i t t i n g as an extreme means of defense that occurs in immigrant children. Part of the intrapsychic s e l f i s devoted to the family and other part i s developed and used in the greater society. This " s p l i t t i n g " or using of d i f f e r e n t parts of oneself to deal with d i f f e r e n t environments leads to serious internal tensions. When children receive negative or distorted images of their ethnic background or learn values from the larger society that c o n f l i c t s with their family, they develop a sense of i n f e r i o r i t y and s e l f hate that can lead to aggressive behaviour and discrimination towards other ethnic groups. Another study refutes the s p l i t t i n g i d e n t i t y hypothesis by showing that psychological stresses experienced by the adolescent occur in subcultural ethnic configurations with their own variable stress systems and that these c u l t u r a l contexts structure the 27 largely inseparable currents of personal and s o c i a l identity (Stein, 1971). The immigrant c h i l d faces great internal and external struggles without the resources to resolve and understand their predicament. In some r cases, individuals can recognize their struggle, however, they are caught in a double bind. If they are to resolve their own i d e n t i t y c r i s i s then they w i l l d i r e c t l y challenge and must defiantly oppose their families. This i s very d i f f i c u l t given the psychological bonds and enmeshed boundaries i n I t a l i a n families. If the individuals do not resolve their own identity they s t i l l remain in c o n f l i c t with the family. Con f l i c t and C o n f l i c t Resolution C o n f l i c t and c o n f l i c t resolution have been studied on various a n a l y t i c a l l e v e l s ranging from personality, interpersonal and intergroup. Theories of c o n f l i c t resolution have ranged from mathematical formulas, to programmed .rules, to process models'and recently to contextual models. It i s not in the scope of this paper to present a f u l l review of the c o n f l i c t resolution l i t e r a t u r e so I have chosen one model that applies i t s e l f to studying f a m i l i e s . In p a r t i c u l a r , the model chosen has more emphasis on content, context and the 28 interpretation of sequences of c o n f l i c t events, therefore, i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y adaptable because c u l t u r a l meanings are considered. Dwyer (1976) argues that c o n f l i c t and c o n f l i c t resolution can not be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y understood using either a predominantly i n t u i t i v e methodology or an e s s e n t i a l l y unidimensional framework which assumes that formalized acts of resolution necessarily establish endings to c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s . The c o n f l i c t resolution process may be simple and programmed in which rules specify the outcome, or, they may be less programmed and more disruptive c o n f l i c t s , in which resolution involves the imposition of a deliberate strategy of c o n f l i c t reduction ( F i l l e y , 1975). This concept of c o n f l i c t resolution i s based on the assumption that c o n f l i c t s are considered as an extended sequence of c o n f l i c t interactions. Dwyer (1976) argues that even extended c o n f l i c t sequences tend to be i d i o s y n c r a t i c a l l y bounded; there i s no clear explanation of why a particular sequence includes or excludes p a r t i c u l a r interactive events. Dwyer (1976) says the ascertaining of meaningful boundaries appears best to be achieved through an understanding of how s o c i a l unity i s provided 29 through processes of a psychological, cognitive and/or symbolic sort. Processes involving thought and emotion must be considered, for i t i s precisely through these mechanisms that disputes are linked to ensuing events (Dwyer 1976). Cultural conceptualizations of c o n f l i c t must also be examined, for c r u c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s are made in any c u l t u r a l system between what we might provisionally gloss as " c o n f l i c t " or "normal" situations (Dwyer 1976). In the sense that these representations provide a framework within which individuals develop their attitudes and categorize their experience, these c u l t u r a l conceptualizations a f f e c t thought and emotion and so also ultimately a f f e c t the structure of any particular i n t e r a c t i o n a l sequence. In order that c o n f l i c t be properly analyzed as an interactive process, c o n f l i c t should be understood not merely as behavioral responses to behavior, but as behavioral responses to behavior interpreted (Dwyer, 1976). The interpretation of behavior i s thus central to the c o n f l i c t process - as also, i s a process of generalization by which p a r t i c u l a r i z e d and unique experiences come to be interpreted by disputants and/or 30 outsiders as evidence of broader and more ongoing interactive tendencies (Dwyer 1976). Generalization, as a conscious and cognitive process, tends to be marked during and after disputing (Dwyer, 1976). Disputes consist of unexpected and unsettling behavior which clashes with prior expectations. As such, they tend to stimulate thought in a new vein. This has behavioral implications. Since disputes involve strong and lingering emotions, the effect of disputing on la t e r interactions also tend to be lingering and strong. Dwyer (1976) uses the term " r e d e f i n i t i o n " to characterize these changes and behavioral adjustments. Through r e d e f i n i t i o n , a relationship i s reformulated with respect to i t s rights, duties, and expectations, after a dispute has taken place. It i s important to note that an extended period of r e d e f i n i t i o n follows most interpersonal disputes. Most interpersonal c o n f l i c t s tend to p r e c i p i t a t e a lingering state of ambiguity i n interpersonal relations. This ambiguity occurs because many rights, duties, and expectations within a rela t i o n s h i p remain i n i t i a l l y untested after a dispute (Dwyer 1976). 31 Since redefining of c o n f l i c t relationships i s generally extended and complex, Dwyer (1976) suggests a unit which i s c a l l e d the c o n f l i c t chain of events and i t i s used to analyze the most c r u c i a l aspects of how a relationship i s redefined during or after a dispute. A c o n f l i c t chain of events consists of: ... (l)an analytic composite of the disputants' previous interactions as defined i n terms of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of rights, duties and expectations; (2) the immediate dispute sequence; (3) the subsequent interactions through which rights, duties, and expectations are i n i t i a l l y reassessed. Since the sk e l e t a l structure of a relationship consists behaviorally of right s , duties, and expectations, t h i s furnishes Dwyer's 1976 model for representing the major changes which take place in a relationship. A disputant's explanations of motivations and feelings must be considered in order to understand the c o n f l i c t and resolution of that interaction in that relationship. The extent to and speed with which relationships change during a period of r e d e f i n i t i o n and the ease with which subsequent interactions between disputants takes place depend, i n part, on c u l t u r a l b e l i e f s about the meaning of c o n f l i c t . If disputants believe that c o n f l i c t behavior provides deep and l a s t i n g insights into the s e l f , such behavior w i l l generate marked re-evaluations of character (Dwyer 1976). On the other hand, i f c o n f l i c t i s viewed as revealing a t y p i c a l or temporary aberrations in otherwise more meaningful behavior, then disputing i s l i k e l y to have a more l i m i t i n g effect (Dwyer 1976). T h e , C r i t i c a l Incident Technique The research used for this study i s the C r i t i c a l Incident Technique developed by John Flanagan (1954). Flanagan found the c r i t i c a l incident procedure e f f e c t i v e i n obtaining information from individuals regarding success or f a i l u r e of people's performance. The method e s s e n t i a l l y i s a procedure for c o l l e c t i n g observations of human behavior in such a way as to f a c i l i t a t e their potential usefulness in solving p r a c t i c a l problems and developing broad psychological p r i n c i p l e s (Flanagan 1954). Flanagan's technique i s a 33 f l e x i b l e set of principles which must be modified and adapted to meet the s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n . Flanagan (1954) defines an "incident" as any observable human a c t i v i t y that i s s u f f i c i e n t l y complete in i t s e l f to permit inferences and predictions to be made about the person who i s performing the act. The incident i s " c r i t i c a l " i f i t makes a s i g n i f i c a n t contribution to the event involved. In this study the event i s c o n f l i c t resolution. To be c r i t i c a l an incident must occur in a s i t u a t i o n where the purpose or intent of the act seems f a i r l y clear to the observer and where i t s consequences are s u f f i c i e n t l y d e f i n i t e to leave l i t t l e doubt concerning i t s e f f e c t s . This study gathers information about which factors f a c i l i t a t e , and, which factors hider c o n f l i c t resolution, in second generation I t a l i a n families, by asking subjects questions using Flanagan's structured set of p r i n c i p l e s , c a l l e d the C r i t i c a l Incident Technique. This technique i s able to guide and f a c i l i t a t e subjects to give important and new information about c o n f l i c t resolution. The procedure used involves a system of c o l l e c t i n g incidents of special significance which lead to the 34 s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e o f c a r r y i n g o u t a s p e c i f i c t a s k . O n l y s i m p l e j u d g m e n t s a r e r e q u i r e d o f t h e o b s e r v e r . O n l y r e p o r t s f r o m q u a l i f i e d o b s e r v e r s a r e i n c l u d e d a n d a l l o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e e v a l u a t e d by t h e o b s e r v e r i n t e r m s o f a n a g r e e d upon s t a t e m e n t o f p u r p o s e o f t h e a c t i v i t y ( F l a n a g a n 1 9 5 4 ) . The o b s e r v e r s a r e a s k e d s y s t e m a t i c q u e s t i o n s t o make s u r e t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n m e e t s s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a . D a t a a r e t h e n a n a l y z e d a n d t h e " c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s " a r e d e f i n e d . F l a n a g a n (1954) d e f i n e s a " c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t " a s t h o s e c o n d i t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d by o b s e r v e r s i n s i g n i f i c a n t number o f i n s t a n c e s a s m a k i n g a d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e i n c a r r y i n g o u t an i m p o r t a n t t a s k . H i s t o r y and D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t  T e c h n i q u e The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e d e v e l o p e d a s an o u t g r o w t h o f s t u d i e s i n t h e a v i a t i o n P s y c h o l o g y P r o g r a m o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s A i r F o r c e s i n W o r l d War I I . T h i s P s y c h o l o g y P r o g r a m was e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e summer o f 1941 t o d e v e l o p p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f a i r c r e w s . The f i r s t s t u d y , u s i n g t h i s m e t h o d , was t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e s p e c i f i c r e a s o n s f o r f a i l u r e i n l e a r n i n g 35 t o f l y t h a t were r e p o r t e d by p i l o t c a n d i d a t e s i n 1 9 4 1 . A l t h o u g h t h e s t u d y p r o v i d e d o b s e r v a t i o n s o f p a r t i c u l a r b e h a v i o r s and was f o u n d t o be u s e f u l , i t a l s o i n d i c a t e d a need f o r b e t t e r p r o c e d u r e s f o r o b t a i n i n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e o f f a c t u a l i n c i d e n t s r e g a r d i n g p i l o t p e r f o r m a n c e . I n t h e w i n t e r o f 1943-1944 a s e c o n d s t u d y was done w h i c h e m p h a s i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f f a c t u a l r e p o r t s on p e r f o r m a n c e made b y c o m p e t e n t o b s e r v e r s . The i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d s t i l l d i d n o t p r o v i d e a c o m p l e t e r e c o r d o f a l l t h e i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s b u t was n o n e t h e l e s s f o u n d t o be o f c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l u e . The s y s t e m a t i c t a b u l a t i o n s t h a t were p r e p a r e d p r o v i d e d t h e b a s i s o f i m p o r t a n t r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w h i c h went on t o c h a n g e t h e A i r F o r c e s e l e c t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e s . I n 1 9 4 4 , t h e f i r s t l a r g e s c a l e , s y s t e m a t i c e f f o r t t o g a t h e r s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t s o f e f f e c t i v e o r i n e f f e c t i v e b e h a v i o r w i t h r e s p e c t t o a d e s i g n a t e d a c t i v i t y t o o k p l a c e a d d r e s s i n g t h e p r o b l e m o f combat l e a d e r s h i p . The s u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o r e p o r t i n c i d e n t s o b s e r v e d by them t h a t i n v o l v e d b e h a v i o r w h i c h was e s p e c i a l l y h e l p f u l o r i n a d e q u a t e i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g an a s s i g n e d m i s s i o n . When 36 analyzed, these data p r o v i d e d an o b j e c t i v e and f a c t u a l d e f i n i t i o n of e f f e c t i v e combat l e a d e r s h i p . During the next few years many s t u d i e s were c a r r i e d out that p r o v i d e d data as a b a s i s f o r p l a n n i n g r e s e a r c h on the d e s i g n of instruments and c o n t r o l s and the arrangement of these w i t h i n the cock p i t . A l s o a d i s c u s s i o n of the t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s of procedures f o r o b t a i n i n g the c r i t i c a l requirements of a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y was w r i t t e n ( i n l a t e Spring 1946). At the end of World War II some of the r e s e a r c h p s y c h o l o g i s t s who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the A v i a t i o n Psychology Program e s t a b l i s h e d the American I n s t i t u t e f o r Research. The f i r s t two s t u d i e s undertaken by the i n s t i t u t e i n the s p r i n g of 1947 i n v o l v e d more f o r m a l l y developing and naming the C r i t i c a l Incident Technique. The technique began to be used f o r Naval Research, Aeronautics A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and i n 1949 was used f o r the f i r s t time i n an i n d u s t r i a l s i t u a t i o n f o r General Motors. The procedure developed and was l a t e r used to i d e n t i f y c r i t i c a l requirements f o r d e n t i s t s . As the instrument became more widely used i t was a p p l i e d to other areas i n c l u d i n g d e veloping a f u n c t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n of emotional immaturity and p e r s o n a l i t y . 37 I n i t s p r e s e n t f o r m t h e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p r o c e d u r e f o r g a t h e r i n g i m p o r t a n t f a c t s c o n c e r n i n g b e h a v i o r i n a d e f i n e d s i t u a t i o n . I t i s n o t a r i g i d s e t o f r u l e s , r a t h e r i t i s a f l e x i b l e s e t o f p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h mus t be m o d i f i e d a n d a d a p t e d t o mee t t h e s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n a t h a n d . The f i r s t o f t h e e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t s o f t h e t e c h n i q u e a r e t h a t o n l y s i m p l e t y p e s o f j u d g m e n t s a r e r e q u i r e d o f t h e o b s e r v e r , r e p o r t s f r o m o n l y q u a l i f i e d o b s e r v e r s a r e i n c l u d e d a n d a l l o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e e v a l u a t e d by t h e o b s e r v e r i n t e r m s o f a n a g r e e d u p o n s t a t e m e n t o f p u r p o s e o f t h e a c t i v i t y . The a c c u r a c y a n d t h e o b j e c t i v i t y o f t h e j u d g m e n t s d e p e n d o n t h e p r e c i s i o n w i t h w h i c h a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c h a s b e e n d e f i n e d a n d t h e c o m p e t e n c e o f t h e o b s e r v e r i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h i s d e f i n i t i o n w i t h r e l a t i o n t o t h e i n c i d e n t o b s e r v e d . T h e n e x t e s s e n t i a l s t e p c o n s i s t s o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s . T h i s s t e p i s u s u a l l y i n d u c t i v e a n d r e l a t i v e l y s u b j e c t i v e . O n c e a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m h a s b e e n d e v e l o p e d f o r a n y g i v e n t y p e o f c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s , a f a i r l y s a t i s f a c t o r y d e g r e e o f o b j e c t i v i t y c a n be a c h i e v e d i n p l a c i n g t h e i n c i d e n t s i n t h e d e f i n e d c a t e g o r i e s . The n e x t e s s e n t i a l s t e p r e f e r s t o i n f e r e n c e s r e g a r d i n g p r a c t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s f o r 38 improving performance based on the observed i n c i d e n t s . We are r a r e l y a b l e to deduce or p r e d i c t with a hi g h degree of confidence the e f f e c t s of s p e c i f i c s e l e c t i o n , t r a i n i n g , or o p e r a t i n g procedures on f u t u r e behaviors of the type observed. The i n c i d e n t s must be s t u d i e d i n the l i g h t of r e l e v a n t e s t a b l i s h e d p r i n c i p l e s of human behavior and of the known f a c t s r e g a r d i n g background f a c t o r s and c o n d i t i o n s o p e r a t i n g i n the s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n . From t h i s t o t a l p i c t u r e hypotheses are formulated. C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t s Procedure and Data C o l l e c t i o n Flanagan (1954) suggested that i n order to c o l l e c t r e l e v a n t and important data, each study would r e q u i r e a f l e x i b l e s et of r u l e s which should be modified and adapted to meet the s p e c i f i c purpose of the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n i n v o l v e d . The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique i n v o l v e s 5 main s t e p s . These procedures a r e : General Aims, Plans and S p e c i f i c a t i o n s , C o l l e c t i n g the Data, A n a l y z i n g the Data and I n t e r p r e t i n g and Reporting. The g e n e r a l aim of an a c t i v i t y should be a b r i e f and general statement of the o b j e c t i v e s of the study. The d e s c r i p t i o n of an a c t i v i t y should s p e c i f y e x a c t l y 39 what i s n e c e s s a r y t o do and not t o do i f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a c t i v i t y i s t o be judged s u c c e s s f u l or e f f e c t i v e . P l a n s and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s must be s p e c i f i c t o i n s u r e o b j e c t i v i t y f o r the o b s e r v a t i o n s b e i n g made and r e p o r t e d , p r e c i s e i n s t r u c t i o n s must be g i v e n t o the o b s e r v e r s and the group b e i n g s t u d i e d must be s p e c i f i e d . The r u l e s s h o u l d be c l e a r and s p e c i f i c . The s p e c i f i c a t i o n s w i l l need t o be e s t a b l i s h e d and made e x p l i c i t b e f o r e c o l l e c t i n g t he d a t a . The s i t u a t i o n observed must i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n about the p l a c e , the pe r s o n s , the c o n d i t i o n s and t h e a c t i v i t i e s . The next s t e p i s t o d e c i d e whether or not a s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r which i s observ e d i s r e l e v a n t t o the g e n e r a l aim of the a c t i v i t y . A l s o the e x t e n t o f the e f f e c t on t h e g e n e r a l aim must be c o n s i d e r e d . An i n c i d e n t i s c o n s i d e r e d c r i t i c a l i f i t makes a " s i g n i f i c a n t " c o n t r i b u t i o n , e i t h e r p o s i t i v e l y or n e g a t i v e l y , t o the g e n e r a l aim of the a c t i v i t y . Another s p e c i f i c a t i o n r e g a r d i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e the per s o n s t o make the o b s e r v a t i o n s . Wherever p o s s i b l e , the o b s e r v e r s s h o u l d be s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s o f t h e i r f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the a c t i v i t y . I n c l u d e d i n t h i s i s g i v i n g t h e o b s e r v e r s a r e v i e w of the na t u r e of t h e g e n e r a l aim o f the a c t i v i t y and a stu d y of 40 the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and d e f i n i t i o n s f o r the judgments they w i l l be r e q u i r e d to make. The next step i s c o l l e c t i n g the d a t a . A necessary c o n d i t i o n f o r t h i s phase i s that the behaviors or r e s u l t s observed be recorded while the f a c t s are s t i l l f r e s h i n the mind of the observer. I n c i d e n t s reported that are f a i r l y recent g e n e r a l l y c o n t a i n more comprehensive and more p r e c i s e d e t a i l s . There are four procedures that are used f o r c o l l e c t i n g r e c a l l e d data i n the form of c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s . They are Interviews, Group Interviews, Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and Record Forms. The procedure used i n t h i s study i s the Interview Method. The i n t e r v i e w method i n v o l v e s u s i n g t r a i n e d p ersonnel to e x p l a i n to observers p r e c i s e l y what data are d e s i r e d and to r e c o r d the i n c i d e n t s making sure that a l l of the necessary d e t a i l s are s u p p l i e d . Flanagan (1954) advises that c e r t a i n a c t i o n s should be taken when a c t u a l l y doing the i n t e r v i e w . I t i s e s s e n t i a l that sponsorship of the study i s a r t i c u l a t e d t o the observer. G e n e r a l l y a l l that needs to be s a i d i s t h a t someone known and respected has suggested the i n t e r v i e w . The purpose of the study can be e x p l a i n e d by g i v i n g a b r i e f statement; "we wish to l e a r n ...", or " I f parents are to 41 be more e f f e c t i v e , we n e e d t o be a b l e t o t e l l them t h e t h i n g s t h e y do t h a t a r e e f f e c t i v e a n d i n e f f e c t i v e " . The n e x t s t a t e m e n t s s h o u l d p o i n t o u t t o t h e o b s e r v e r s t h a t t h e y a r e a member o f a g r o u p t h a t i s i n an u n u s u a l l y g o o d p o s i t i o n t o o b s e r v e a n d r e p o r t on t h i s a c t i v i t y , e n s u r i n g t h e o b s e r v e r s r e a l i z e t h e a n o n y m i t y o f t h e d a t a . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e d a t a b e i n g c o n f i d e n t i a l i t s h o u l d a l s o be s t a t e d t h a t t h e d a t a r e p o r t e d c a n n o t harm o t h e r p e o p l e . The most c r u c i a l p a r t o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s a r e t h e q u e s t i o n s a s k e d . The q u e s t i o n s s h o u l d b r i e f l y r e f e r t o t h e g e n e r a l a i m . I t s h o u l d s t a t e t h a t a n i n c i d e n t , a c t u a l b e h a v i o r , o r what t h e p e r s o n d i d i s d e s i r e d . The q u e s t i o n s h o u l d s p e c i f y t h e t y p e o f b e h a v i o r w h i c h i s r e l e v a n t a n d t h e l e v e l o f i m p o r t a n c e i t must r e a c h t o be r e p o r t e d . To e n s u r e a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n , most r e c e n t o b s e r v a t i o n s s h o u l d be a s k e d f o r . A f t e r t h e m a i n q u e s t i o n h a s b e e n s t a t e d , a s k i n g l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s s h o u l d be a v o i d e d . To e n s u r e o b j e c t i v i t y u s i n g t h e C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t T e c h n i q u e , t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e d e s i r e d i n c i d e n t s must be w e l l d e f i n e d . S e v e r a l i n d e p e n d e n t o b s e r v e r s a r e a s k e d t o make o b s e r v a t i o n s a n d i n t e r p r e t t h e i n c i d e n t o b s e r v e d . When o b s e r v e r s r e p o r t s o v e r l a p , t h e 1 4 2 s u b j e c t i v e d a t a b e c o m e s m o r e o b j e c t i v e . A f t e r t h i s t h e d a t a i s s u m m a r i z e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s s o t h a t i n f e r e n c e s c a n b e d r a w n f r o m t h e m . F l a n a g a n ( 1 9 5 4 ) o u t l i n e s t h e i m p o r t a n t a r e a s o f d a t a a n a l y s i s : T h e F r a m e o f R e f e r e n c e - T h e u s e s a r e t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n d e c i d i n g u p o n w h i c h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n e a c h i n c i d e n t f a l l s w i t h i n . T h e p r e f e r r e d c a t e g o r i e s a r e t h o s e b e l i e v e d m o s t v a l u a b l e i n u s i n g t h e s t a t e m e n t o f r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h e C a t e g o r y F o r m a t i o n - O t h e r s r e v i e w t h e t e n t a t i v e c a t e g o r i e s t o m i n i m i z e s u b j e c t i v i t y . T h e p r o c e d u r e f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f c a t e g o r i e s i s a s f o l l o w s . F i r s t , s o r t o u t a s m a l l s a m p l e o f i n c i d e n t s i n t o p i l e s r e l a t e d t o t h e f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e s e l e c t e d . T h e n b r i e f l y d e f i n e t h e s e t e n t a t i v e c a t e g o r i e s a n d a d d o t h e r i n c i d e n t s t o t h e m . T h e n e x t s t e p i s t o r e d e f i n e a n d d e v e l o p n e w c a t e g o r i e s . T h i s p r o c e s s c o n t i n u e s u n t i l a l l o f t h e i n c i d e n t s a r e c l a s s i f i e d . L a r g e c a t e g o r i e s a r e s u b d i v i d e d a n d i n c i d e n t s t h a t d e s c r i b e s i m i l a r b e h a v i o u r a r e p u t i n t h e s a m e g r o u p . A f t e r t h i s t h e d e f i n i t i o n s f o r a l l t h e c a t e g o r i e s a n d m a j o r h e a d i n g s 43 are reexamined in terms of the actual incidents c l a s s i f i e d under. The General Behavior - The optimal balance between generality vs. s p e c i f i c i t y must be determined. This can be gaged by what the findings w i l l be used for. The categories should be reviewed to maintain that balance. Flanagan (1954) of f e r s these guidelines to develop the c r i t i c a l requirements at the desired l e v e l of g e n e r a l i t y / s p e c i f i c i t y : The Headings and requirements must be clear-cut, l o g i c a l l y organized and discernable with an e a s i l y remembered structure. The T i t l e s require meanings in themselves without detailed d e f i n i t i o n s , explanation or d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . Headings for major areas and requirements should be homogeneous, p a r a l l e l in content and structure and neutral. The headings must be a l l of same type and importance. Also, the Headings should f a c i l i t a t e the findings to be e a s i l y applied and maximally useful. The l i s t of headings needs to be comprehensive; covering a l l incidents having 44 s i g n i f i c a n t frequencies when reporting emphasize not only l i m i t a t i o n s but the value of the r e s u l t s . Each of the four steps in the C r i t i c a l Technique; [determination of the general aim, the sp e c i f i c a t i o n s of the observers, groups to be observed and observations to be made, the data c o l l e c t i o n , and the data analysis] must be examined for any bias that could have been introduced. This should be ascertained before going on to interpret the r e s u l t s . R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y Anderson and Nilsson (1964) did a study on the method of the C r i t i c a l Incident Technique with respect to the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the procedure. In order to study the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the procedure Anderson and Nilsson applied the C r i t i c a l Incident technique to analyzing the job of store managers in a Swedish grocery company. About 1800 incidents were co l l e c t e d by interviews and questionnaires. From this study they studied r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the following aspects of the C r i t i c a l Incident Technique: Analysis: Saturation and Comprehensiveness, R e l i a b i l i t y of the Collecting Procedure, Control of Categorization, Analysis of C o n t e n t s o f T r a i n i n g L i t e r a t u r e , The I m p o r t a n c e o f t h e S u b c a t e g o r i e s . A n a l y s i s ; S a t u r a t i o n a n d C o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s r e f e r s t o w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a h a s s u f f i c i e n t l y i n c l u d e d a l l t y p e s o f t h e b e h a v i o r a l u n i t s t h a t t h e m e t h o d i s e x p e c t e d t o c o v e r . A n d e r s o n and N i l s s o n ( 1 9 6 4 ) t o o k 5% o f t h e r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s by e a c h s u b j e c t a n d g r o u p e d t h e s e i n c i d e n t s t o g e t h e r . The n e x t 5% o f t h e i n c i d e n t s o f e a c h s u b j e c t s were t h e n g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r . T h i s p r o c e d u r e c o n t i n u e d u n t i l 20 g r o u p s o f i n c i d e n t s w e r e f o r m e d . The i n c i d e n t s were t h e n c l a s s i f i e d . When 2/3 were c l a s s i f i e d , 95% o f t h e t o t a l s u b c a t e g o r i e s had a p p e a r e d . I t was f o u n d t h a t t h e s u b c a t e g o r i e s i n c r e a s e d r a p i d l y u n t i l 2/3 o f t h e d a t a were c o l l e c t e d . A s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e , 5%, o f t h e s u b c a t e g o r i e s emerged a f t e r t h e 2/3 p o i n t . T h i s p r o c e s s d e t e r m i n e s w h e t h e r t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n h a d s t o p p e d t o o e a r l y o r w h e t h e r i t had b e e n s u f f i c i e n t . I t was p r o b a b l y t h e n t h a t t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n h a d n o t b e e n s t o p p e d t o o e a r l y and was s u f f i c i e n t t o i d e n t i f y t h e e s s e n t i a l p o i n t s o f t h e j o b . The R e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e C o l l e c t i n g P r o c e d u r e i s w h e t h e r , a n d t o what e x t e n t , t h e number o f i n c i d e n t s a n d 46 the ir d i s t r i b u t i o n i n subcategories were affected by the methods of c o l l e c t i o n and by the interviewers . There was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference between the number of c r i t i c a l incidents provided by the interview and the quest ionnaire , as tested by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample tes t . The rank c o r r e l a t i o n between the s izes of the categories from each method was .85 (Anderson & Ni l s son , 1964, p. 400). That indicates that there was a strong c o r r e l a t i o n between the s ize of the categories between the interview and the questionnaire methods. There were no great differences i n the number of incidents per interview between the interviewers who interviewed the subjects . The "Kruskal-Wallace one-way analys i s of variance by ranks" was appl ied and showed that the structures of the materials obtained by the interviewers are very s i m i l a r as shown by the coe f f i c i en t s of concordance (W) and the average corre la t ions ( r s a v ) , e s p e c i a l l y between interviewers A, B and C (Anderson & N i l s s o n , 1964, p. 400). Control of Categor izat ion has been regarded as subject ive and d i f f i c u l t since d i f f erent people may categorize or group inc idents together i n d i f f erent ways. Andersson and Ni l s son (1964) demonstrated that 47 the C r i t i c a l Incident Technique category system was plausible and not too subjective by conducting an experiment. Twenty-four psychology students, working in pairs, were required to sort two sets of 100 incidents, that had been randomly chosen from each area, into subcategories (that had headings). There were 2 dif f e r e n t groups of incidents from each area and each group that had to be c l a s s i f i e d independently, twice. These students had a tendency to place the incidents in the same category indicating that agreement, i n the categories i s high. Analysis of Contents of Training Literature refers to' whether the C r i t i c a l Incident Procedure succeeds i n including a l l the important aspects of work: That i s , whether or not the data that has been collected i s v a l i d . The t r a i n i n g l i t e r a t u r e was examined to explore whether or not the important content would be revealed that had not shown up i n the data analysis. Anderson and Nilsson concluded that t h i s analysis didn't reveal any new aspects. This demonstrates that the c r i t i c a l incident technique had been thorough and that the content was v a l i d . 48 The importance of subcategories examines whether or not the incidents are r e a l l y c r i t i c a l and important to the work at hand. To determine the importance of the subcategories a rating form was constructed i n which the 86 subcategories were rated on a 6 point scale. The average r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t calculated was .83 (Andersson & Nilsson, 1964, p. 402). Based on the studies of these f i v e aspects, the C r i t i c a l Incident i s both r e l i a b l e and v a l i d . The results of Andersson and Nilsson's comprehensive research on the r e l i a b i l i t y and the v a l i d i t y of the c r i t i c a l incident technique conclude that this method of data c o l l e c t i o n i s both r e l i a b l e and v a l i d . 49 Chapter 3 Methodology Subjects A t o t a l of 9 adults and 8 adolescents; one adult and one adolescent from each of the families with one exception, participated i n the study. The sample was comprised of second generation I t a l i a n f a m i l i e s , with children between the ages of 13-19 years old l i v i n g at home. The sample was drawn from the Burnaby North High School Enrollment Roster since the Burnaby d i s t r i c t has a large I t a l i a n population. The school enrollment roster i d e n t i f i e d families who had teenage children. Out of the roster the I t a l i a n families were e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d by their family names. Every fourth I t a l i a n name was chosen to form a l i s t of s i x t y - f i v e I t a l i a n f a m i l i e s . These 65 families were sent l e t t e r s of i n i t i a l contact (see Appendix) written in both English and I t a l i a n . Follow up phone c a l l s were made to discuss p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the study. The subjects were informed that the study would explore the area of intergeneration c o n f l i c t and c o n f l i c t resolution in I t a l i a n f amilies. The subjects were told that about an hour of their time 50 w o u l d be r e q u i r e d f o r i n t e r v i e w s . They were a l s o g i v e n a c h o i c e a s t o where t h e i n t e r v i e w s w o u l d t a k e p l a c e . The i n t e r v i e w s c o u l d be done i n t h e i r own home o r i n a n e u t r a l a r e a ( B u r n a b y N o r t h c o u n s e l l i n g o f f i c e ) . I t was e x p l a i n e d t o t h e s u b j e c t s t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s t u d y i s v o l u n t a r y a n d t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w s w o u l d be t a p e r e c o r d e d . S u b j e c t s were a l s o r e a s s u r e d t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d w o u l d r e m a i n c o n f i d e n t i a l . Out o f 65 f a m i l i e s a p p r o a c h e d o n l y 10 f a m i l i e s a g r e e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . The f i n a l i o f a m i l i e s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y w e r e t h e o n l y s u b j e c t s t h a t v o l u n t e e r e d . The' v o l u n t e e r s w e r e g a t h e r e d o n l y t h r o u g h g r e a t d e t e r m i n a t i o n a n d a g r e a t d e a l o f e f f o r t . I n some c a s e s m u l t i p l e phone c a l l s . w e r e made b e f o r e t h e f a m i l y w o u l d a g r e e t o p a r t i c i p a t e . I n o t h e r c a s e s , t h e f a m i l y o n l y v o l u n t e e r e d a f t e r a p r o c e s s o f p e r s u a s i o n o n t h e phone. I t was v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o r e c r u i t v o l u n t e e r s . M o s t o f t h e f a m i l i e s a p p r o a c h e d seemed v e r y d e f e n s i v e a n d t h r e a t e n e d . T h e r e was a g r e a t number o f p a r e n t s who a d a m a n t l y p r o c l a i m e d t h a t t h e r e was a b s o l u t e l y no c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h e i r t e e n a g e c h i l d r e n . O t h e r s s t a t e d t h a t t h e y d i d n ' t h a v e t h e t i m e t o meet o r 51 t h a t t h e y s i m p l y were n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n t a k i n g p a r t i n t h e s t u d y . B a c k g r o u n d o f t h e S u b j e c t s The f a m i l i e s i n t e r v i e w e d had o r i g i n a t e d f r o m I t a l y . F a m i l i e s f r o m N o r t h e r n a n d S o u t h e r n d i s t r i c t s o f I t a l y p a r t i c i p a t e d . A l l o f t h e f a m i l i e s p r e s e n t l y r e s i d e d i n B u r n a b y a n d had l i v e d i n Canada f o r a minimum o f 5 y e a r s . A l l o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t s a t t e n d e d B u r n a b y N o r t h S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l . E a c h f a m i l y was a two p a r e n t f a m i l y a nd t h e r e were n o t any d i v o r c e d o r r e m a r r i e d s p o u s e s . A l l o f t h e s u b j e c t s s p o k e b o t h I t a l i a n a n d E n g l i s h . The s u b j e c t s r a n g e d f r o m 13 y e a r s o f age t o 51 y e a r s o f a g e . The r a n g e o f a d u l t o c c u p a t i o n s i n c l u d e d a b u s i n e s s p e r s o n , a r e s t a u r a n t o w n e r , an a r t i s t , a c a r p e n t e r / c o n t r a c t o r , a m a r b l e w o r k e r , f a c t o r y w o r k e r , s a l e s p e r s o n , homemaker a n d a j a n i t o r . 52 I n t e r v i e w p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( g e n d e r ) I n c i d e n t s M o t h e r / M o t h e r / F a t h e r / F a t h e r / R e p o r t e d Son D a u g h t e r Son D a u g h t e r By NO. 4 3 2 1 n = 10 I n t e r v i e w P r e p a r a t i o n A m u l t i c u l t u r a l l i a i s o n and c o u n s e l l o r f o r B u r n a b y N o r t h S e n i o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l , I v a n Q u a t t r o c c h i , was c o n s u l t e d a n d i n t e r v i e w e d . The i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s m e e t i n g was t o d e v e l o p a n a w a r e n e s s o f t h e i s s u e s f a c e d b e t w e e n I t a l i a n p a r e n t s a n d t h e i r a d o l e s c e n t c h i l d r e n . The n a t u r e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h was e x p l a i n e d t o I v a n a n d any q u e s t i o n s he had w e r e a n s w e r e d . Then he was a s k e d t o d r a w f r o m h i s own e x p e r i e n c e , a s a c o u n s e l l o r , some g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a b o u t c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . I v a n was a s k e d t o comment on what seems t o f a c i l i t a t e c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n a n d what f a c t o r s seemed t o h i n d e r c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . F o l l o w i n g i s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t I v a n p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h h i s e x p e r i e n c e i n w o r k i n g w i t h I t a l i a n f a m i l i e s . 53 I t was i d e n t i f i e d t h a t one o f t h e m a i n f a c t o r s t h a t h i n d e r e d c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n was t h e p a r e n t a l r o l e a n d t h e v a l u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s . The f a t h e r s a r e t r a d i t i o n a l l y a u t h o r i t a r i a n who b e l i e v e t h a t c h i l d r e n s h o u l d , w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n , r e s p e c t t h e i d e a s o f t h e i r p a r e n t s a n d l i s t e n o r do w h a t e v e r i s a s k e d o f them. The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p a r e n t and c h i l d i s u n e q u a l a n d n o t b a s e d on m u t u a l r e s p e c t . P a r e n t s do n o t t a l k t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n a s e q u a l s a n d t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n p a r e n t a n d c h i l d i s n o t r e c i p r o c a l . P a r e n t s a r e p o s s e s s i v e a n d f e e l a n o w n e r s h i p o v e r t h e c h i l d r e n , no m a t t e r what t h e i r age i s . P a r e n t s t e n d t o demand c o m p l i a n c e t h r o u g h c o n t r o l a n d a n a u t h o r i t y s t a n c e . The p a r e n t s t a k e on a p o s i t i o n o f " I am t h e b o s s ... s o do a s I s a y . " The c h i l d r e n , who a r e e x p e r t s i n C a n a d i a n v a l u e s a n d who h a v e a much g r e a t e r command o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e d o n ' t e x p e r i e n c e t h e i r p a r e n t s a s t h e " b o s s " . They a r e o f t e n p u t i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f t r a n s l a t i n g o r h e l p i n g t h e i r p a r e n t s u n d e r s t a n d C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e . T h i s d i s c r e p a n c y l e a d s t o t h e c h i l d r e n r e s e n t i n g t h e i r p a r e n t s f o r u s i n g t h i s s t a n c e w h i c h f u r t h e r e x a c e r b a t e s c o n f l i c t . 54 A n o t h e r f a c t o r t h a t i n c r e a s e s c o n f l i c t i s t h a t t h e p a r e n t s do n o t c r e a t e a team i n p a r e n t i n g . The f a t h e r i s t h e a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e b u t o f t e n o u t o f t h e home. The m o t h e r h a n d l e s t h e d a y t o d a y r u n n i n g o f t h e h o u s e a n d t h e r e i s l i t t l e d i s c u s s i o n b e t w e e n them on how t o p a r e n t . C h i l d r e n l e a r n q u i c k l y t h e " d i v i d e and c o n q u e r " m e t h o d o f g e t t i n g what t h e y want as w e l l a s e f f e c t i v e l y u n d e r m i n i n g t h e i r p a r e n t s a u t h o r i t y . T h e s e f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e t o c o n f l i c t i n t h e f a m i l y . O t h e r f a c t o r s t h a t h i n d e r c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n i n I t a l i a n f a m i l i e s i s t h a t t h e y do n o t a s a r u l e s e e k h e l p o u t s i d e t h e f a m i l y . I t a l i a n s h a v e a t r a d i t i o n o f d e a l i n g w i t h p r o b l e m s w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y u n i t and do n o t s h a r e t h e i r p r o b l e m s a s i t i s p e r c e i v e d a s n e g a t i v e f o r a f a m i l y t o be i n c o n f l i c t . When p r o b l e m s d e v e l o p t h e . I t a l i a n f a m i l y seems t o g e t more r i g i d . T h e r e i s a f e a r Of l e t t i n g go a n d p a r e n t s e x e r c i s e e v e n more c o n t r o l i n h o p e s t o s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m . T h i s , i n t u r n , d i s c o u r a g e s t h e c h i l d who by t h i s t i m e h a s l o s t a l l t r u s t i n h i s p a r e n t s , and becomes h i s p a r e n t s ' enemy. I t becomes a f i g h t f o r s u r v i v a l f u l l o f h a t e and r e j e c t i o n . C h i l d r e n r e j e c t p a r e n t s by n o t u s i n g t h e l a n g u a g e , f a i l i n g a t 55 s c h o o l , p r e s e n t i n g t h e m s e l v e s a s "macho" a n d b e i n g a g g r e s s i v e a n d n o n - c o m p l i a n t . The f a c t o r s t h a t were i d e n t i f i e d a s r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t f o c u s s e d on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e p a r e n t a n d t h e c h i l d . B e c o m i n g c l o s e r t o one a n o t h e r , r e l a t i n g more, b u i l d i n g t r u s t and b e c o m i n g f r i e n d s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d a s i m p o r t a n t c h a n g e s . T h i s c o u l d be a c h i e v e d by t h e p a r e n t s r e d u c i n g t h e i r work l o a d . L e s s f o c u s on " g e t t i n g a h e a d " a n d f i n a n c i a l s u c c e s s c o u l d be r e f r a m e d t o " g e t t i n g a h e a d " i n t h e f a m i l y l i f e by s p e n d i n g more t i m e w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n on o u t i n g s o r i n t h e home. A n o t h e r m a j o r f a c t o r t h a t i s i d e n t i f i e d a s f a c i l i t a t i n g c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n i s t h e u s e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s . I n c l u d e d i n t h i s i s t h e b r e a k i n g down o f t h e l a n g u a g e b a r r i e r ( I t a l i a n v s . E n g l i s h ) and a l s o , p a r e n t s l e a r n i n g l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s . I n a d d i t i o n , c o n f l i c t i s d e c r e a s e d when p a r e n t s l e a r n p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s . The C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t I n t e r v i e w The C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e was s e l e c t e d t o h e l p s u b j e c t s i d e n t i f y f r o m t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e , w h i c h c o n d i t i o n s f a c i l i t a t e and w h i c h c o n d i t i o n s h i n d e r c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . 5 6 Data were collected using individual interviews with the adult and the adolescent of each family. The following describes the interview and research methodology. The interviewer began each interview by meeting the subject and trying to establish rapport, talking informally about something unrelated to the research. After a few minutes the interviewer reminded the subject about the nature of the research stating, "I'm investigating which factors f a c i l i t a t e c o n f l i c t resolution in I t a l i a n families and which conditions hinder c o n f l i c t resolution. I ' l l be asking you some questions because you, as I t a l i a n parents, can i d e n t i f y most accurately these conditions." The interviewer then began with the following standard preamble. Immigrant parents sometimes have d i f f i c u l t i e s with their teenage children. A common experience i s that adults maintain t r a d i t i o n a l values while their growing children learn different values in the Canadian culture. This situation may create c o n f l i c t or understanding between parent and c h i l d . By sharing your experiences in parenting you can 57 h e l p i d e n t i f y t h e f a c i l i t a t i n g a n d h i n d e r i n g f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n i n I t a l i a n f a m i l i e s . B e g i n by t h i n k i n g o f a n e n d u r i n g k i n d o f c o n f l i c t . T h i n k b a c k t o a t i m e when s o m e t h i n g h a p p e n e d t h a t e i t h e r h e l p e d you o r h i n d e r e d y o u i n r e s o l v i n g a c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n y o u a n d y o u r c h i l d . What I'm i n t e r e s t e d i n i s c o n c r e t e e v e n t s r a t h e r t h a n o p i n i o n s o r t h e o r i e s . The i n t e r v i e w t h e n p r o c e e d e d w i t h o p e n - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o e l i c i t a s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i o n a n d c o n t e x t by t h e s u b j e c t s . I n t e r v i e w T h i n k o f t h e l a s t t i m e y o u had a c o n f l i c t w i t h y o u r c h i l d . D i d y o u r b e h a v i o r h e l p o r h i n d e r t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h i s c o n f l i c t ? ... What w e r e t h e g e n e r a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s l e a d i n g up t o t h i s i n c i d e n t ? T e l l me e x a c t l y what was s a i d a n d done d u r i n g t h i s 58 i n c i d e n t ( t h a t h e l p e d / h i n d e r e d t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f c o n f l i c t ) ... Why was t h i s s o c r i t i c a l i n h e l p i n g / h i n d e r i n g t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f c o n f l i c t ? (What e x a c t l y h a ppened t h a t was s o h e l p f u l i n t h i s i n c i d e n t . . . ) (What was t h e i m p a c t ) P r o c e d u r e The s u b j e c t s who a g r e e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e were t e l e p h o n e d a nd i n t e r v i e w t i m e s were a r r a n g e d . The i n t e r v i e w s t o o k p l a c e i n t h e s u b j e c t s ' r e s i d e n c e s . The i n t e r v i e w e r i n t e r v i e w e d t h e p a r e n t s a nd t h e a d o l e s c e n t s b a c k - t o - b a c k t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s d i d n ' t s h a r e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s and f e e l i n g s w i t h e a c h o t h e r b e f o r e t h e i n t e r v i e w . B e f o r e t h e i n t e r v i e w b e gan t h e s u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o s i g n a c o n s e n t f o r m ( A p p e n d i x ) . The s u b j e c t s were r e m i n d e d t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w w o u l d t a k e a b o u t an h o u r . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s u b j e c t s were g i v e n a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n a n d t h e n t h e i n t e r v i e w e r went on t o a s k 59 them t h e i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s . E a c h i n t e r v i e w was t a p e -r e c o r d e d . A f t e r t h e i n t e r v i e w , t h e t a p e s w e re r e v i e w e d a n d e a c h c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t was t r a n s c r i b e d o n t o i n d e x c a r d s . When a l l o f t h e i n c i d e n t s were r e c o r d e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r b e g a n s o r t i n g t h e c a r d s and l o o k i n g f o r i n c i d e n t s w h i c h had a common m e a n i n g . The s o r t e d i n c i d e n t s f o r m e d c a t e g o r i e s i n many d i f f e r e n t ways. T e n t a t i v e c a t e g o r i e s w ere f o r m e d a n d t h e n a few d a y s l a t e r t h e c a t e g o r i e s w e r e r e v i e w e d t o e n s u r e t h a t a l l o f t h e i n c i d e n t s were c l e a r l y b e i n g r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e c a t e g o r i e s and t h a t a l l i n c i d e n t s s p e c i f i c a l l y b e l o n g e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r c a t e g o r y . Over t i m e , t h i s s o r t i n g f o r m e d b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s . The t e n t a t i v e b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s w e r e t h e n r e v i e w e d by a r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t who p r o v i d e d f e e d b a c k a b o u t t h e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n . U s i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n some c a t e g o r i e s w e r e r e d e f i n e d w h i c h r e f o r m e d a n o t h e r s e t o f b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s . T h i s p r o c e s s was c o n t i n u e d u n t i l e a c h c a t e g o r y was d i s t i n c t a n d c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m the. o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s . E a c h i n c i d e n t f i t o n l y i n t o one c a t e g o r y , w i t h m i n i m a l o v e r l a y s . A h e a d i n g t i t l e was c h o s e n f o r e a c h c a t e g o r y . The h e a d i n g s c h o s e n c o n v e y 6 0 t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e i n c i d e n t s i n t h a t c a t e g o r y . The h e a d i n g s a r e s i m p l e , c l e a r l o g i c a l . When t h i s was c o m p l e t e d t h e c a t e g o r i e s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e d c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n a nd t h e c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h h i n d e r e d c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n emerged. Now t h e b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s were r e a d y t o be t e s t e d by an i n d e p e n d e n t r a t e r . P r e p a r i n g t h e C a r d s f o r t h e I n d e p e n d e n t R a t e r s I n o r d e r t o p r e p a r e t h e c a r d s f o r t h e i n d e p e n d e n t r a t e r s a r o u g h e s t i m a t e o f t h e s t r a t i f i e d s a m p l e o f t h e e v e n t s was e s t a b l i s h e d . E a c h c a t e g o r y was r a t e d a s e i t h e r a m i n i m a l l y r e p o r t e d s a m p l e , a medium r e p o r t e d s a m p l e o r a h e a v i l y r e p o r t e d s a m p l e . I f a c a t e g o r y h a d a m i n i m a l l y r e p o r t e d s a m p l e t h e n one e v e n t was t a k e n t o r e p r e s e n t t h a t c a t e g o r y . I n a medium r e p o r t e d c a t e g o r y two e v e n t s were t a k e n t o r e p r e s e n t t h a t c a t e g o r y . F i n a l l y , i f a c a t e g o r y was h e a v i l y r e p o r t e d t h e n t h r e e e v e n t s were t a k e n t o r e p r e s e n t t h a t c a t e g o r y . The f o l l o w i n g shows t h e number o f e v e n t s f r o m e a c h c a t e g o r y : 61 S t r a t i f i e d Sample; Events from Each Category Total incidents Discussion Closed 1 Parental Agreement 1 Humor 1 Apology 2 Tolerance 4 Compromise & Negotiation 4 Greater Understanding 12 Reinforcing Family Closeness 4 C o n f l i c t i n g Expectations 27 Lack of Understanding 1 Rejection 7 Disagreements 16 Disobedience & Disrespect 46 Parental C o n f l i c t 8 Min. med. heavy reported Min. Min. Min. Min. Med. Med. Heavy Med. Heavy Min. Med. Heavy Heavy Med. S t r a t i f i e d sample representation 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 2 3 3 2 Total 13/29 Total 14/105 Total 27/134 62 The c l e a r e s t i n c i d e n t s i n e a c h c a t e g o r y were c h o s e n t o r e p r e s e n t t h a t c a t e g o r y . The c h o s e n s t r a t i f i e d s a m p l e o f i n c i d e n t s was r e - w r i t t e n on a c a r d . The r e v i s e d c a r d c o n t a i n e d one o r two s e n t e n c e s t h a t r e v e a l e d t h e k e y n a t u r e o f t h e e v e n t . T h i s r e v i s i o n was made t o c l a r i f y t h e e v e n t by r e m o v i n g t h e e x t r a n e o u s i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h some i n c i d e n t s c o n t a i n e d . The e v e n t was s u m m a r i z e d and w r i t t e n so t h a t t h e f i r s t p h r a s e d e s c r i b e d what l e d up t o t h e i n c i d e n t a n d t h e l a s t p h r a s e s t a t e d t h e k e y c o n c e p t o f t h e e v e n t . I n d e p e n d e n t R a t i n g The r a t e r s were g i v e n a b r i e f summary o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e 27 c a r d s a s a n i n t r o d u c t i o n . T hey were t o l d t h a t t h e c a r d s were i n s t a n c e s o f f a c t o r s w h i c h e i t h e r f a c i l i t a t e o r h i n d e r c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . I t was e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e c a r d s h a d b e e n s o r t e d a n d c a t e g o r i z e d and t h a t e a c h c a t e g o r y h a d a h e a d i n g . The r a t e r s were a s k e d t o p l a c e t h e c a r d s i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c a t e g o r i e s . T h e r e a r e 14 d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h e a c h h a d a h e a d i n g . As t h e " H e a d i n g " c a r d s w e re l i n e d u p, a v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e m e a n i n g o f e a c h o f t h e h e a d i n g c a t e g o r i e s was g i v e n . To p r e v e n t c o n f u s i o n , t h e r a t e r 63 was informed about the format of the i n c i d e n t . They were t o l d t h a t the f i r s t phrase i n d i c a t e d what l e d up to the event and that the l a s t phrase contained the a c t u a l i n c i d e n t . The r a t e r s were then l e f t to p l a c e the random cards i n t o the a p p r o p r i a t e c a t e g o r i e s . Both r a t e r s p l a c e d the cards i n the a p p r o p r i a t e c a t e g o r i e s 100% of the time. Both r a t e r s commented that p l a c i n g the cards a p p r o p r i a t e l y was performed with ease. 64 Chapter 4 Results In t h i s c r i t i c a l incident study on what f a c i l i t a t e s or what hinders c o n f l i c t resolution in I t a l i a n families the 20 subjects, 10 adults and 10 adolescents, reported a t o t a l of 134 incidents - 29 f a c i l i t a t i v e and 105 hindering. There was one adult and one adolescent from the same family who both reported that there was no c o n f l i c t between them and therefore could report no incidents. There was also one adolescent who agreed to pa r t i c i p a t e in the interview but avoided the interview three times. The f i r s t time, she l e f t the house while I was setting up the tape recorder; the second time, after agreeing to the time and place of the interview, she did not show up; and, the t h i r d time, she agreed to pa r t i c i p a t e over the phone but remained quiet and did not report any incidents. The actual number of subjects who cooperated were 9 adults and 8 adolescents; 17 i n t o t a l . The average number of incidents reported per subject was approximately 8. Basic Categories Fourteen basic categories were i d e n t i f i e d . There were eight categories that reported incidents which 65 F a c i l i t a t i v e f a c i l i t a t e d c o n f l i c t resolution and six categories that reported incidents which hinder c o n f l i c t resolution. These categories are l i s t e d below. Basic Categories Hindering 1. Conflicting Expectations 2. Lack of Understanding 3. Rejection 4. Disagreement 5. Disobedience & Disrespect 6. Parental C o n f l i c t Discussion Closed Parental Agreement Humor Apology Tolerance Compromise & negotiation 7. Greater understanding 8. Reinforcing family rapport There were four categories that consisted of one incident only. In the f a c i l i t a t i v e incidents the three categories which consisted of one incident were: discussion closed, parental agreement, and humor. In the hindering incidents that one incident category was, lack of understanding. The incidents that formed these categories were clear, well formed and d i s t i n c t . These incidents would not be appropriate for any of the 66 e x i s t i n g c a t e g o r i e s a n d b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e o t h e r s , demanded t h e i r own c a t e g o r y . I n t o t a l t h e r e w e r e 134 i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d . S e v e n t y - e i g h t % o r 105 o f t h e 134 were r e p o r t e d a s f a c t o r s w h i c h h i n d e r e d c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 22% o r 29 o u t o f 134 i n c i d e n t s w e r e r e p o r t e d a s f a c t o r s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e d c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . The f r e q u e n c i e s f o r e a c h c a t e g o r y a r e p r e s e n t e d b e l o w . Proportional Frequency Number of of incidents reported Discussion Closed 1 Parental Agreement 1 Humor 1 Apology 2 Tolerance- 4 Compromise & Negotiation 4 Greater Understanding 12 Reinforcing Family Closeness 4 C o n f l i c t i n g Expectations 27 Lack of Understanding 1 Rejection 7 Disagreement 16 Disobedience & Disrespect 46 Parental C o n f l i c t 8 Proportional Frequency x 134 (total) .746 .746 .746 1.492 2.985 2 .985 8.95 2.985 20.149 .746 5.223 11.940 34.33 5.97 n = 134 6 8 C o n f l i c t i n g E x p e c t a t i o n s T h i s c a t e g o r y c o v e r s t h e d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s h e l d by t h e c h i l d a n d a d u l t i n t e r m s o f v a l u e s , s i b l i n g s , s e x r o l e s and d a t i n g . C o n f l i c t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s c o n s i s t o f o n g o i n g e v e n t s w h i c h r e m i n d t h e c h i l d a n d t h e a d u l t j u s t how d i f f e r e n t t h e y a r e . . B o t h t h e a d u l t a n d t h e c h i l d h o l d t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e y a r e c o r r e c t . When an i s s u e a r i s e s i t p o l a r i z e s t h e b e l i e f s a n d t h e c h i l d a n d a d u l t a r e p u s h e d a p a r t a n d i n c o n f l i c t t o d e f e n d t h e i r p o s i t i o n . T h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s t h e a d u l t s h a v i n g c o n f l i c t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r d i f f e r e n t s i b l i n g s a n d t h e c h i l d p e r c e i v i n g t h i s a s u n j u s t . T h e r e may be d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r male and f e m a l e c h i l d r e n a n d a l s o i n t h e same s e x . C o n f l i c t s a r o s e i n t h i s c a t e g o r y b e c a u s e t h e c h i l d w o u l d n o t c o m p l y w i t h t h e s e x r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t h e p a r e n t h o l d s . T h e r e were a few e x a m p l e s i n w h i c h p a r e n t s e x p e c t e d t h e f e m a l e c h i l d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n h o u s e h o l d c h o r e s a n d d u t i e s r a t h e r t h a n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a c t i v i t i e s o u t o f t h e home. A l s o t h e p a r e n t s h e l d v e r y d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s o v e r d a t i n g . T h e r e was a r a n g e o f b e h a v i o r i n t h i s a r e a . Some p a r e n t s w e re a n g r y t h a t a t e e n a g e r o f t h e o p p o s i t e s e x w o u l d p h o n e t h e i r c h i l d , some p a r e n t s b e l i e v e d i n 69 c h a p e r o n s a n d s t r u g g l e d w i t h l e t t i n g t h e i r d a u g h t e r go o u t u n s u p e r v i s e d a n d some p a r e n t s j u s t w o u l d n o t a l l o w d a t i n g . A n o t h e r a r e a i n w h i c h p a r e n t s a n d c h i l d r e n h a d d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s was t h e amount o f t i m e s p e n t w i t h y p e e r s . P a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n had d i f f e r e n t b e l i e f s a b o u t money, b o u n d a r i e s , work e t h i c , and d u t y t o t h e f a m i l y . C a t e g o r i e s T h a t H i n d e r e d C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n  L a c k o f U n d e r s t a n d i n g I n t h i s c a t e g o r y t h e r e i s o n l y one i n c i d e n t . I t c l e a r l y s t a t e s t h a t t h e c h i l d p e r c e i v e s a l a c k o f i n t e r e s t , i n v o l v e m e n t a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n by t h e p a r e n t . I n t h i s i n c i d e n t t h e c h i l d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e f a t h e r d o e s n ' t know o r u n d e r s t a n d t h i s . R e j e c t i o n C h i l d r e n a n d a d u l t s f e e l h u r t , d e v a l u e d a n d a b a n d o n e d b y t h e a c t i o n o f t h e o t h e r i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . By t h e c h i l d r e f u s i n g t o u s e t h e p a r e n t ' s t r a d i t i o n a l l a n g u a g e , t h e p a r e n t s f e e l a s i f t h e y a r e b e i n g r e j e c t e d . A l s o when c h i l d r e n r e f u s e a d v i c e o r h e l p t h a t p a r e n t s a r e e x t e n d i n g , p a r e n t s e x p e r i e n c e t h i s a s a r e j e c t i o n . I t a l s o makes t h e p a r e n t s f e e l i n a d e q u a t e i n t h e i r p a r e n t i n g r o l e . When t h e c h i l d r e f u s e s what t h e p a r e n t i s o f f e r i n g t h e r e i s a r e j e c t i o n o f t h e a d u l t 70 i d e n t i t y , a s o r t o f abandonment o f e v e r y t h i n g t h e y b e l i e v e i n . D i s a g r e e m e n t D i s a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e c h i l d a n d t h e p a r e n t was w i d e l y r e p o r t e d . T h i s c o v e r s a c t i v e i n s t a n c e s o f a r g u m e n t s a n d c l e a r d i s a g r e e m e n t s a b o u t d e c i s i o n s and a c c e p t a b l e b e h a v i o r . The d i s a g r e e m e n t may be an argument a b o u t a d e c i s i o n made by t h e p a r e n t . F o r e x a m p l e one c o n f l i c t c e n t e r e d a r o u n d t h e p a r e n t s f o r c i n g t h e i r d a u g h t e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s k i w e e k e n d , e v e n t h o u g h t h e d a u g h t e r had w a n t e d t o s t a y i n t h e c i t y . A n o t h e r a r e a o f d i s a g r e e m e n t i s when t h e p a r e n t d o e s n ' t a g r e e w i t h t h e c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r . E x a m p l e s o f t h i s a r e when t h e c h i l d i s a t a f r i e n d ' s h o u s e a nd t h e p a r e n t w a n t s them a t home. D i s o b e d i e n c e a nd D i s r e s p e c t T h i s i n v o l v e s a d e l i b e r a t e b e h a v i o r by t h e c h i l d a c t e d o u t a g a i n s t t h e w i s h e s o f t h e p a r e n t . T h i s may be d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e f o r m o f n o n - c o m p l i a n c e w i t h s i m p l e demands, o r v i o l a t i n g a g r e e m e n t s . The i s s u e s c e n t r e d a r o u n d c h o r e s , c u r f e w s , r o u t i n e s a n d s t u d y i n g . D i s o b e d i e n c e a nd d i s r e s p e c t was a l s o e x h i b i t e d by l y i n g . The c h i l d r e n l i e d t o t h e i r p a r e n t s t o a v o i d d e a l i n g w i t h 71 o t h e r i s s u e s . F o r e x a m p l e , one g i r l l i e d a b o u t h e r r e p o r t c a r d t o a v o i d t h e i s s u e o f f a l l e n g r a d e s . A n o t h e r c h i l d l i e d when c o n f r o n t e d a b o u t s m o k i n g . A n o t h e r mode o f b e i n g d i s o b e d i e n t o r d i s r e s p e c t f u l i s by t h e c h i l d t a l k i n g b a c k t o t h e p a r e n t . T h i s i n c l u d e d c h i l d r e n s w e a r i n g a t t h e i r p a r e n t s , o r m a k i n g t h e i r p a r e n t s f e e l g u i l t y t h a t t h e y were v i c t i m i z i n g t h e c h i l d o r s i m p l y c o m p l a i n i n g a b o u t t h e p a r e n t . Some a c t s were p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s r e s p e c t f u l f r o m t h e f a m i l y ' s p o i n t o f v i e w . D i s g r a c i n g t h e f a m i l y by d r i n k i n g a l c o h o l i n t h e c o m m u n i t y and b e i n g o u t o f t h e f a m i l y home a g a i n s t t h e p a r e n t s w i s h e s were e x p e r i e n c e d a s s e r i o u s a c t s o f d i s o b e d i e n c e . When t h e c h i l d r e n p e r s o n a l l y a c t e d a g a i n s t t h e p a r e n t s , by l a u g h i n g a t them, by c l o s i n g a d o o r on them w h i l e t h e y w e r e s p e a k i n g o r s w e a r i n g d i r e c t l y a t them t h i s was a n u n h e a r d o f way t o d i s o b e y a n d t o d i s r e s p e c t t h e a u t h o r i t y a n d t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e e x p e c t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y . P a r e n t a l C o n f l i c t I n t h i s c a t e g o r y t h e p a r e n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a f f e c t e d by t h e p a r e n t - c h i l d c o n f l i c t . T e n s i o n , d i s a g r e e m e n t and c o n f l i c t o c c u r s b e t w e e n t h e s p o u s e s b e c a u s e o f t h e c h i l d ' s a c t i o n s . I n some c a s e s one 72 p a r e n t w o u l d t a k e on t h e r o l e o f a m e d i a t o r b e t w e e n t h e o t h e r p a r e n t t o h e l p r e s o l v e t h e o n g o i n g i s s u e w i t h t h e c h i l d . Sometimes t h e p a r e n t s u p p o r t e d t h e o t h e r p a r e n t by a p p e a l i n g t o t h e c h i l d t o r e s o l v e t h e i s s u e by t a k i n g c e r t a i n a c t i o n s . I n t h e s e c a s e s t h e p a r e n t d o i n g t h e m e d i a t i n g f e l t s t r a i n e d a n d s t u c k i n t h e m i d d l e w h i c h c r e a t e d s t r e s s and a n x i e t y . One p a r e n t e x p l a i n e d t h a t i f t h e c h i l d i s i n c o n f l i c t w i t h h i s f a t h e r , t h e n he g e t s a n g r y and e x p r e s s e s t h i s a n g e r t o w a r d s h e r . A n o t h e r mother f e l t t h a t when she s u p p o r t e d h e r h u s b a n d , t h e m a l e s o n w o u l d be a n g r y a t h e r and t h i s t o o c r e a t e d a n x i e t y f o r t h e m o t h e r . A n o t h e r m o t h e r r e p o r t e d t h a t when h e r h u s b a n d i s a n g r y w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n he w i l l n o t t a l k t o them and t h e r e f o r e t h e c h i l d r e n a p p r o a c h t h e m o t h e r . She f e e l s a g r e a t d e a l o f p r e s s u r e d e a l i n g w i t h h e r h u s b a n d and t h e c h i l d r e n . T h e s e i n s t a n c e s a f f e c t t h e p a r e n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i n a n e g a t i v e way. C a t e g o r i e s t h a t F a c i l i t a t e d C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n T h e r e were 8 d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e d c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g i s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h w e r e i d e n t i f i e d a s f a c i l i t a t i n g c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . 73 D i s c u s s i o n C l o s e d I n t h i s c a t e g o r y t h e p a r e n t r e a c h e s a l i m i t o f h i s a n g e r and t h e c h i l d r e a l i z e s t h a t no f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be t o l e r a t e d . When t h e p a r e n t becomes t h a t a n g r y t h e c h i l d f e a r s what may h appen n e x t a n d c a n n o t do a n y t h i n g b u t t o b a c k down. As t h e r e i s n o t f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n t h e c o n f l i c t r e a c h e s an e n d . The c o n f l i c t i s r e s o l v e d f o r t h e p a r e n t a s t h e i s s u e becomes o u t o f b o u n d s and c a n no l o n g e r be c h a l l e n g e d by t h e c h i l d . The c h i l d a c c e p t s t h i s a s a l i m i t . P a r e n t a l A g r e e m e n t T h i s c a t e g o r y i n v o l v e s t h e p a r e n t s r e s o l v i n g a c o n f l i c t by d i s c u s s i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n w i t h t h e i r s p o u s e . T h i s a c t i v i t y g i v e s t h e s p o u s e a r e l e a s e o f t e n s i o n . The f r u s t r a t i o n o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h e c h i l d i s r e d u c e d t h r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s u p p o r t by t h e s p o u s e . A l s o , by d i s c u s s i n g t h e c o n f l i c t t h e p a r e n t f e e l s t h a t he i s n o t a l o n e and t h e s p o u s e r e i n f o r c e s t h e p a r e n t ' s p o s i t i o n . Humor Humor a l s o i n v o l v e s a r e l e a s e o f t e n s i o n . T h i s c a t e g o r y i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s c a t e g o r y i n t h a t t h e humor r e l e a s e s t h e t e n s i o n d u r i n g t h e c o n f l i c t , n o t 74 a f t e r . I t i n v o l v e s t h e c h i l d d e l i b e r a t e l y u s i n g humor t o d e f l e c t and d i f f u s e t h e p a r e n t ' s a n g e r . When t h e p a r e n t i s i n t h e h e a t o f a s e r i o u s a n d i n t e n s e moment o f a n g e r , a n d t h e c h i l d u s e s humor, t h e p a r e n t i s g i v e n a moment i n w h i c h t o r e f l e c t and e x p e r i e n c e t h e s i t u a t i o n w i t h a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . A p o l o g y T h i s c a t e g o r y i n v o l v e s an a c t i v e and d e l i b e r a t e a c t i o n t o a c k n o w l e d g e a m i s t a k e by t h e p a r e n t . When t h e p a r e n t a p o l o g i z e s a n d r e c o g n i z e s t h e m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , i t c o m m u n i c a t e s r e g r e t t o t h e c h i l d a n d a w i l l i n g n e s s t o make up. One c h i l d s a y s t h a t e v e n t h o u g h s he was u n j u s t l y p u n i s h e d , s he c o u l d f o r g i v e h e r p a r e n t s a s t h e y t o o k r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e m i s t a k e . The A p o l o g i z i n g c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s a p a r e n t who h a s a c t e d w r o n g f u l l y t o w a r d s t h e c h i l d , o r b l a m i n g them f o r s o m e t h i n g t h e y d i d n ' t do. i t may i n v o l v e a s i t u a t i o n where a p a r e n t t a k e s t h e i r f r u s t r a t i o n o u t on t h e c h i l d , a n d , r e a l i z i n g t h e y have done t h i s , a p o l o g i z e . T o l e r a n c e The t o l e r a n c e c a t e g o r y i n v o l v e s p a r e n t s t o l e r a t i n g c e r t a i n a c t i o n s w h i c h may be d e f i a n t and t h a t t h e y g e n e r a l l y d i s a g r e e u p on. B o t h t h e p a r e n t s a n d t h e 75 c h i l d r e n a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t t h e c h i l d h a s d i s o b e y e d t h e r u l e s , however no one t a l k s a b o u t t h e e v e n t o r c o n f r o n t s t h e b e h a v i o r . T h e r e i s no d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t t h e e v e n t , however i m p l i c i t l y t h e p a r e n t s a r e a n g r y and t h e c h i l d knows he's b e i n g l e t o f f t h e h o o k . The t o l e r a n c e c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s c h i l d r e n l y i n g t o t h e i r p a r e n t s a b o u t s m o k i n g and n o t b e i n g c o n f r o n t e d . I t a l s o i n c l u d e s i n c i d e n t s w h ere t h e c h i l d t e l l s t h e p a r e n t s he i s g o i n g b a b y s i t t i n g b u t a c t u a l l y g o e s o u t w i t h h i s f r i e n d s . Compromise a n d N e g o t i a t i o n The s i x t h c a t e g o r y w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e s c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n i s t h a t t h e p a r t i e s n e g o t i a t e o r c o m p r o m i s e o v e r an i s s u e . B o t h t h e p a r e n t and t h e c h i l d g a i n some o f what t h e y w a n t e d and t h e y r e a c h a s a t i s f a c t o r y a g r e e m e n t on t h e i s s u e . I n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y a r e n e g o t i a t i n g c u r f e w t i m e s , g i v i n g i n a f t e r w i t h h o l d i n g a p r i v i l e g e , a n d t h e c h i l d e x c h a n g i n g a c h o r e i n o r d e r t o be a l l o w e d a p r i v i l e g e . G r e a t e r U n d e r s t a n d i n g The g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g c a t e g o r y s u g g e s t s t h a t one o r b o t h p a r t i e s l e a r n o r e x p e r i e n c e s o m e t h i n g w h i c h h e l p s them t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e o t h e r p e r s o n . T h i s c a t e g o r y c o n s i s t s o f t h e p a r e n t m a k i n g an a c t i v e e f f o r t 76 t o l i s t e n o r t h e p a r e n t c o m m u n i c a t i n g t o t h e p o i n t where t h e c h i l d f e e l s u n d e r s t o o d . I t a l s o i n c l u d e s t h e p a r e n t e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r i n a d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t a f t e r c o u n s e l l i n g a n d d e v e l o p i n g some i n s i g h t . Some e x a m p l e s o f t h i s a r e a c h i l d b e i n g a b l e t o v e n t h e r a n g e r t h r o u g h t a l k i n g t o h e r m o t h e r , a m o t h e r e x p l a i n i n g h e r t h o u g h t s a n d f e e l i n g s t o h e r d a u g h t e r a b o u t h e r r e a c t i o n t o s o m e t h i n g t h e c h i l d had done, a n d t h e p a r e n t g o i n g t o t h e c h i l d ' s room when t h e c h i l d i s c r y i n g and s i m p l y t a l k i n g t o h i m . R e i n f o r c i n g F a m i l y C l o s e n e s s T h i s c a t e g o r y i n v o l v e s e v e n t s w h i c h r e i n f o r c e f a m i l y c l o s e n e s s t h r o u g h i n t i m a c y and r a p p o r t . T h i s i n c l u d e s t h e p a r e n t s h o w i n g a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n t h e c h i l d a n d a l s o s p e n d i n g t i m e w i t h t h e f a m i l y . E n g a g i n g i n f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s , s u c h a s s k i t r i p s , a t t e n d i n g c h u r c h o r r e c r e a t i o n a r e a l l i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . A l s o p h y s i c a l t o u c h a n d p h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y r e i n f o r c e s e m o t i o n a l c l o s e n e s s b e t w e e n p a r e n t and c h i l d . R e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e C a t e g o r i z a t i o n The i n d e p e n d e n t r a t e r s o r " j u d g e s " were w i l l i n g v o l u n t e e r s . One j u d g e i s a 26 y e a r o l d c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y s t u d e n t a n d t h e o t h e r j u d g e i s a 28 y e a r o l d 77 woman who h a s a B.A. i n S o c i o l o g y . B o t h j u d g e s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n r a t i n g i n t h e i r own homes i n d e p e n d e n t o f one a n o t h e r . The r a t e r s w e r e a s k e d t o p l a c e 27 c a r d s i n t o 14 d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h a l l had a s e l f e x p l a n a t o r y h e a d i n g . The r a t e r s r e a d t h e c a r d , t h e n l o o k e d o v e r t h e h e a d i n g s a n d t h e n d e c i d e d w h i c h c a t e g o r y t h e i n c i d e n t b e l o n g e d i n . B o t h r a t e r s p l a c e d 100% o f t h e c a r d s i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c a t e g o r i e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e j u d g e s b o t h s t a t e d t h a t t h e y were a b l e t o c a t e g o r i z e t h e c a r d s e a s i l y . P a r t i c i p a t i o n R a t e P a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e i s one i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e s o u n d n e s s o f a c a t e g o r y . I t i n d i c a t e s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e r e p o r t t h e same k i n d o f e v e n t a s a f a c i l i t a t i o n o r h i n d r a n c e and i s a n a l o g o u s t o t h e u s e o f i n t e r - s u b j e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t by i n d e p e n d e n t o b s e r v e r s t o a c h i e v e o b j e c t i v i t y . The p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e f o r t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f s u b j e c t s r e p r e s e n t e d i n e a c h b a s i c c a t e g o r y i s r e p o r t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e . The p e r c e n t a g e o f s u b j e c t s t h a t r e s p o n d e d t o e a c h c a t e g o r y seems l o w . O n l y 4 c a t e g o r i e s had o v e r 4 7 % o f t h e s u b j e c t s r e p r e s e n t e d . T h e s e 78 c a t e g o r i e s a r e i n t h e h i n d r a n c e f a c t o r s , C o n f l i c t i n g E x p e c t a t i o n s , D i s a g r e e m e n t , D i s o b e d i e n c e and D i s r e s p e c t and i n t h e f a c i l i t a t i v e f a c t o r s , g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g . T h e r e was a l o w p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e i n some c a t e g o r i e s . T h e s e c a t e g o r i e s were m a i n t a i n e d b e c a u s e o f t h e d i s t i n c t n e s s and c l a r i t y o f t h e c a t e g o r y . A l s o , t h e r e s p o n s e s c o u l d n o t f i t i n t o o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a s e p a r a t e and i n d i v i d u a l c a t e g o r y was n e c e s s a r y . 79 Percentage Proportion of Subjects Represented in Each Basic  Category Basic Category % Proportion for each basic category % subjects represented Hinder ing 1. C o n f l i c t i n g expectations 10/17 59% 2. Lack of Understanding 1/17 6% 3. Rejection 4/17 24% 4. Disagreement 8/17 47% 5. Disobedience & Disrespect 12/17 71% 6. Parental C o n f l i c t 4/17 24% F a c i l i t a t i n g 1. Discussion Closed 1/17 6% 2. Parental Agreement 1/17 6% 3. Humor 1/17 6% 4. Apology 2/17 12% 5. Tolerance 3/17 18% 6. Compromise & Negotiation 4/17 24% 7. Greater Understanding 8/17 47% 8. Reinforcing Family Intimacy & Closeness 4/17 24% 80 E x p e r t E v a l u a t i o n o f C a t e g o r i e s The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s was r e p o r t e d t o a n e x p e r t who i s c u r r e n t l y w o r k i n g w i t h I t a l i a n f a m i l i e s . I v a n Q u a t t r o c c h i commented t h a t t h e c a t e g o r i e s f o r m a n a p p r o x i m a t e d p i c t u r e o f t h e k i n d o f i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t w o u l d u s u a l l y t a k e p l a c e i n a n I t a l i a n -C a n a d i a n home. I n h i s o p i n i o n t h e c a t e g o r i e s were v a l i d . I v a n commented t h a t t h e c a t e g o r i e s were c o m p r e h e n s i v e and he c o u l d n o t t h i n k o f a n y t h i n g e l s e t h a t s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d . I v a n f e l t t h a t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w o u l d be u s e f u l f o r c o u n s e l l o r s . S i n c e I t a l i a n s w o u l d t y p i c a l l y n o t be f o r t h c o m i n g w i t h s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e a n d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t f a m i l y p r o b l e m s , t h e c o u n s e l l o r c o u l d i d e n t i f y t h e c o n f l i c t a r e a s t h a t t y p i c a l I t a l i a n f a m i l i e s e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s w o u l d p u t t h e f a m i l y a t e a s e a n d n o r m a l i z e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . I t may h e l p t o s u p p o r t p a r e n t s r a t h e r t h a n h a v i n g p a r e n t s f e e l ashamed and d e f e n s i v e . A l s o t h e r e s u l t s o f f e r p o s i t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e s t h a t a r e p r o v e n s u c c e s s f u l i n f a c i l i t a t i n g c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . T h e s e s k i l l s c o u l d be t a u g h t t o p a r e n t s i n c o u n s e l l i n g o r i n p a r e n t g r o u p s . f 81 C h a p t e r 5 D i s c u s s i o n The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d i n t h i s s t u d y c o u l d be r e l i a b l y g r o u p e d i n t o 14 c a t e g o r i e s . Of t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s , e i g h t i n d i c a t e f a c t o r s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n w h i l e s i x i n d i c a t e f a c t o r s t h a t h i n d e r c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . T h e s e a r e t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y . C o n f l i c t b e t w e e n p a r e n t s a n d c h i l d r e n i n I t a l i a n f a m i l i e s was moved t o w a r d s r e s o l u t i o n when t h e d i s c u s s i o n r e a c h e d a l i m i t a n d became c l o s e d o r when humor was u s e d . An a p o l o g y , s h o w i n g t o l e r a n c e , o r c o m p r o m i s i n g and n e g o t i a t i n g a l s o f a c i l i t a t e d c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . P a r e n t a l a g r e e m e n t and f a m i l y c l o s e n e s s were o t h e r f a c t o r s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e d c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . C o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n , i n I t a l i a n f a m i l i e s , was h i n d e r e d when t h e r e was c o n f l i c t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s , l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g , r e j e c t i o n , d i s a g r e e m e n t , d i s o b e d i e n c e a n d d i s r e s p e c t b e t w e e n p a r e n t a n d c h i l d . P a r e n t a l c o n f l i c t was a n a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r t h a t h i n d e r e d c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . 82 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y Two c o n s i d e r a t i o n s l i m i t t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s . The s i z e o f t h e s a m p l e i s s m a l l . Of t h e l a r g e number o f I t a l i a n p a r e n t s who were a p p r o a c h e d , most were d e f e n s i v e and u n w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e , w h i l e a s m a l l number r e l u c t a n t l y v o l u n t e e r e d . The f a m i l i e s who d i d p a r t i c i p a t e may o r may n o t r e f l e c t t h e c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s i n I t a l i a n - C a n a d i a n f a m i l i e s . F u r t h e r , t h e s a m p l e was d rawn f r o m t h e B u r n a b y N o r t h S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l R o s t e r w h i c h i n c l u d e s o n l y f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n B u r n a b y who h a v e c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l . B u r n a b y has a l a r g e I t a l i a n p o p u l a t i o n b u t i s o n l y one s m a l l a r e a o f V a n c o u v e r i n w h i c h l a r g e numbers o f I t a l i a n s r e s i d e . The d a t a w e r e c o l l e c t e d u s i n g an i n t e r v i e w method o f s e l f r e p o r t and t h e r e f o r e may i n d i c a t e c e r t a i n b i a s e s . One c a n o n l y r e p o r t what t h e y a r e a w a r e o f . T h i s may e x c l u d e i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t c a n n o t be r e p o r t e d a s t h e s u b j e c t d o e s n o t have t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o h i m / h e r . A l s o , t h e s e l f r e p o r t i n t e r v i e w method c a n n o t a c c o u n t f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e p o r t i n g i n c i d e n t s . 83 The d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i s f o c u s e d on d e v e l o p i n g a . c a t e g o r y s y s t e m , n o t w i t h d e t e r m i n i n g t h e v a l i d i t y o f e a c h c a t e g o r y . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h c o u l d be c o n d u c t e d i n o r d e r t o a s c e r t a i n e a c h c a t e g o r y ' s v a l i d i t y . T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y f a c i l i t a t e t h e s t u d y o f c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n i n I t a l i a n - C a n a d i a n f a m i l i e s by i d e n t i f y i n g 14 b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s o f what h e l p s o r h i n d e r s c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . The f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y a r e i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e . The c a t e g o r i e s t h a t h i n d e r e d c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n a r e i d e n t i f i e d a s c o n f l i c t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s , l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g , r e j e c t i o n , d i s a g r e e m e n t , d i s o b e d i e n c e and d i s r e s p e c t b e t w e e n p a r e n t a n d c h i l d a n d p a r e n t a l c o n f l i c t . C o n f l i c t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s h a s b e e n i d e n t i f i e d by B e r n a r d ( 1 9 5 7 ) ; R a p o p o r t ( 1 9 6 0 ) ; Mack a n d S n y d e r ( 1 9 5 7 ) ; C o s e r ( 1 9 5 6 ) ; B e r e l s o n and S t e i n e r ( 1 9 6 4 ) ; D e u t s c h ( 1 9 6 5 ) ; and i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d a s a f a c t o r w h i c h e v o k e s c o n f l i c t . The l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g c a t e g o r y i s s u p p o r t e d by e a r l y work o f B e r n a r d (1957) who c l a s s i f i e d i t as a v e r b a l o r c o n c e p t u a l m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g b e t w e e n p a r t i e s and g o a l o r v a l u e i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y . R a p o p o r t ( 1960) d e s c r i b e d t h e 84 d i s a g r e e m e n t c a t e g o r y a s a d i s a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e p a r t i e s a b o u t "what i s " ( f a c t s ) o r "what o u g h t t o be" ( v a l u e s ) . R a p o p o r t (1960) a l s o i d e n t i f i e d t h e a r e a o f d i s o b e d i e n c e and d i s r e s p e c t . The l i t e r a t u r e c i t e s t h i s c a t e g o r y a s v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n w h i c h p a r t i e s d i r e c t a r g u m e n t s a t e a c h o t h e r w i t h t h e u s e o f v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s o f p e r s u a s i o n s u c h a s b r a i n w a s h i n g , e x p l a i n i n g away t h e o p p o n e n t ' s b e l i e f s a n d r e m o v i n g t h r e a t s a s s o c i a t e d i n t h e o p p o n e n t s m i n d w i t h a d o p t i n g o n e ' s own o u t l o o k . B o u l d i n g (1962) and o t h e r s ( D e u t s c h , 1965) l a b e l t h i s c a t e g o r y a s a c o m p e t i t i v e p r o c e s s . The c o m p e t i t i v e p r o c e s s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a n i n c r e a s e d s e n s i t i v i t y t o d i f f e r e n c e s and t h r e a t s w h i l e m i n i m i z i n g t h e a w a r e n e s s o f s i m i l a r i t i e s , w h i c h l e a d s t o a s u s p i c i o u s , h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e and i t i n c r e a s e s t h e r e a d i n e s s t o e x p l o i t t h e o t h e r ' s n e e d s w h i l e i n c r e a s i n g t h e r e a d i n e s s t o r e s p o n d n e g a t i v e l y t o o t h e r s ' r e q u e s t s . The r e j e c t i o n c a t e g o r y c o u l d be a n a l o g o u s t o s e p a r a t i o n a s a r e s u l t o f t h e c o n f l i c t . The e n d i n g i s m arked by t h e w i t h d r a w a l o f one o r b o t h p a r t i e s w i t h o u t an i m m e d i a t e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e c o n f l i c t ( P e t e r s o n 1 9 8 3 ) . The c a t e g o r y c a l l e d p a r e n t a l c o n f l i c t was n o t i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . P a r e n t a l c o n f l i c t 85 h i n d e r e d c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n a s c o m m u n i c a t i o n and c l o s e n e s s i n t h e p a r e n t a l s y s t e m was l a c k i n g . A l s o , t h e c h i l d r e n t e n d t o u s e t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s a s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o g a i n what t h e y want a n d may p l a y t h e p a r e n t s a g a i n s t e a c h o t h e r f u r t h e r i n g t h e c o n f l i c t . The c a t e g o r i e s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e d c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n : d i s c u s s i o n r e a c h e s a l i m i t a nd becomes c l o s e d , humor, a p o l o g y , s h o w i n g t o l e r a n c e , c o m p r o m i s i n g and n e g o t i a t i n g , p a r e n t a l a g r e e m e n t , f a m i l y c l o s e n e s s c o n c u r w i t h t h e c o n f l i c t l i t e r a t u r e . When u s i n g Dwyer's (1976) m o d e l , t h e f a c i l i t a t i v e f a c t o r s g a ve t h e p a r e n t a n d c h i l d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e d e f i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i n a way t h a t e n c o u r a g e d a m u t u a l l y p o s i t i v e way o f i n t e r a c t i n g . O t h e r s t u d i e s h a v e s t a t e d t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l m e c h a n i s m s f o r r e s o l v i n g f a m i l y c o n f l i c t s . B l o o d (1960) l i s t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g : i n c r e a s e d f a c i l i t i e s f o r f a m i l y l i v i n g , p r i o r i t y s y s t e m s f o r t h e u s e o f l i m i t e d f a c i l i t i e s , e n l a r g e m e n t o f a r e a s o f autonomy and s a f e t y v a l v e s f o r r e d u c i n g t e n s i o n b e t w e e n f a m i l y members. Two o f t h e f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s s t u d y f i t i n t o B l o o d ' s ( 1 9 60) m e chanisms f o r r e s o l v i n g f a m i l y c o n f l i c t . P a r e n t a l A g r e e m e n t and Humor a r e f a c t o r s t h a t c o u l d be c a t e g o r i z e d a s a s a f e t y v a l v e \ 86 f o r r e d u c i n g t e n s i o n b e t w e e n f a m i l y members. B l o o d ( 1 9 6 0 ) s a y s t h a t t h e c a t h a r s i s o f " u n l o a d i n g " o n e ' s d i f f i c u l t i e s h e l p s t o b r e a k t h e v i c i o u s c i r c l e o f a t t a c k a n d r e t a l i a t i o n w h i c h i s p r e s e n t i n f a m i l i e s w i t h a h i s t o r y o f c o n f l i c t . When p a r e n t s u n l o a d by s h a r i n g t h e i r f e e l i n g s a n d f r u s t r a t i o n s a b o u t t h e c h i l d i t r e d u c e s t h e t e n s i o n . S i m i l a r l y , t e n s i o n and a n x i e t y a r e r e d u c e d when humor i s u s e d i n a s t r e s s f u l c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n . I n t h i s s t u d y , t h e c a t e g o r y , d i s c u s s i o n c l o s e d s u p p o r t s and i s a n a l o g o u s t o t h e a c c o m m o d a t i o n c a t e g o r y l i s t e d by Dwyer ( 1 9 7 6 ) . A c c o m m o d a t i o n i s t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f a f a i l u r e t o a g r e e a nd t h e r e f o r e t h e d i s c u s s i o n i s c l o s e d . A l s o s u p p o r t i n g t h i s n o t i o n a r e L a w r e n c e and L o r s c h ' s ( 1 9 67) c a t e g o r y o f f o r c i n g , B u r k e ( 1 9 7 0 ) and Fogg ( 1 9 8 5 ) . Coming t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t f u r t h e r a t t e m p t s t o i n f l u e n c e t h e o t h e r a r e n o t w o r t h t h e c o n f l i c t , d e n o t e s a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f c o o p e r a t i o n . The t o l e r a n c e c a t e g o r y i n t h i s s t u d y i s s i m i l a r t o t h e a c t o f c o n c e s s i o n c i t e d by F i l l e y ( 1 9 7 5 ) , t h a t i s , one p e r s o n d e c i d e s t o d r o p t h e c o n f l i c t by d r o p p i n g t h e i r demands; o t h e r s t o p r o c e e d w h i l e s t e p p i n g a s i d e ( P a t c h e n , 1970; F o g g , 1 9 8 5 ) . 87 The c a t e g o r y o f co m p r o m i s e o r n e g o t i a t i o n i s s u p p o r t e d h e a v i l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n l i t e r a t u r e ( B u r k e , 1970; F i l l e y , 1 9 7 5 ; P e t e r s o n , 1 9 8 3 ; F o g g , 1985; and o t h e r s ) . When p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n c o m p r o m i s e o r n e g o t i a t e b o t h p a r t i c i p a n t s d e - e s c a l a t e t h e c o n f l i c t by a s m a l l amount e n c o u r a g i n g c o o p e r a t i o n . The p a r e n t w i n s a n d t h e c h i l d w i n s a n d t h e y b o t h e x p e r i e n c e a m u t u a l l y s a t i s f y i n g s o l u t i o n t o t h e c o n f l i c t a s w e l l a s e x p e r i e n c i n g a p o s i t i v e c h a n g e i n t h e r i g h t s , d u t i e s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . L i s t e n i n g s k i l l s , a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n a r e i d e n t i f i e d i n v a r i o u s ways i n c l u d i n g c o - o p e r a t i o n a nd p r o b l e m s o l v i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n ( D e u t s c h & K r a u s e , 1 982; D e u t s c h 1 9 6 5 ; A l e x a n d e r , 1 9 7 3 ; G o t t m a n , 1 9 7 9 ; R o b i n , 1 9 8 1; a n d o t h e r s ) . I n t h i s s t u d y t h e c a t e g o r y o f g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g s u p p o r t s t h e a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e a s a f a c t o r f a c i l i t a t i n g c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . C o m m u n i c a t i o n a l l o w s i n d i v i d u a l s t o f e e l h e a r d , r e s p e c t e d a nd u n d e r s t o o d . T h i s o p e n s up many o p t i o n s , s o l u t i o n s a n d a l t e r n a t i v e s t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t . I t a l s o e n c o u r a g e s a r e d e f i n i t i o n f o l l o w i n g a c o n f l i c t ( D w y e r , 19 8 2 ; P a t c h e n , 1 9 7 0 ) . 88 The c a t e g o r y o f a p o l o g y i s n o t d i r e c t l y s u p p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , however D e u t s c h (1965) a d d r e s s e s p e r c e p t i o n s a s a c o o p e r a t i v e p r o c e s s where t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e d s e n s i t i v i t y t o s i m i l a r i t i e s and common i n t e r e s t s w h i l e m i n i m i z i n g t h e s a l i e n c e o f d i f f e r e n c e s and a l s o , t h e o t h e r ' s a c t i o n s a r e t h e n p e r c e i v e d a s c o n c i l i a t o r y . F a m i l y c l o s e n e s s was a c a t e g o r y w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e d c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . C l o s e n e s s o r a f e e l i n g o f t r u s t i n c r e a s e s t h e w i l l i n g n e s s t o r e s p o n d h o p e f u l l y t o t h e o t h e r s n e e d s a n d r e q u e s t s ( D e u t s c h , 1 9 6 5 ) . P e t e r s o n (1983) a n d F o g g (1985) r e f e r t o a f f e c t i o n , i n t i m a c y and t r u s t a s b e i n g f a c i l i t a t i v e d u r i n g t h e r e s o l u t i o n p r o c e s s . The P a r e n t a l A g r e e m e n t c a t e g o r y was n o t c i t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . P a r e n t a l A g r e e m e n t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e p a r e n t s a r e t a k i n g an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n t h e c h i l d a nd i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r own c o m m u n i c a t i o n . P a r e n t s c o m m u n i c a t i n g w i t h e a c h o t h e r i s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n v e n t i n g t h e i r f e e l i n g s a n d r e c e i v i n g f e e d b a c k f r o m t h e s p o u s e w h i c h s u p p o r t s t h e i r p o s i t i o n . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t i n I t a l i a n f a m i l i e s b e c a u s e p a r e n t s , when t h e i r c h i l d r e n a r e i n c o n f l i c t w i t h them, e x p e r i e n c e 89 t h i s a s a p e r s o n a l f a i l u r e a n d a b l o w t o t h e i r s e l f e s t e e m . When c o n s i d e r i n g a l l c a t e g o r i e s , m e t a - c a t e g o r i e s emerge. The t h r e e o b v i o u s c a t e g o r i e s f o r m e d a r e 1) f e e l i n g s a n d p e r c e p t i o n s , 2) b e h a v i o r ( c o n f l i c t ) , 3) c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . E a c h c a t e g o r y f a l l s d i s t i n c t l y i n t o one o f t h e meta c a t e g o r i e s a s f o l l o w s : 1) F e e l i n g s a nd P e r c e p t i o n s 1. c o n f l i c t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s o r v a l u e s 2. l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g 3. r e j e c t i o n 2) B e h a v i o r ( c o n f l i c t ) 1. d i s a g r e e m e n t 2. d i s o b e d i e n c e a n d d i s r e s p e c t 3. p a r e n t a l d i s a g r e e m e n t 3) C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n 1. d i s c u s s i o n r e a c h e d a l i m i t and t h e n c l o s e d 2. humor 3. a p o l o g y 4. s h o w i n g t o l e r a n c e 5. l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n 6. g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g 7. c o m p r o m i s i n g a n d n e g o t i a t i o n 90 8. p a r e n t a l a g r e e m e n t a n d f a m i l y c l o s e n e s s The c a t e g o r i e s move f r o m a n i n t r a p s y c h i c s t r u g g l e t o a n i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n . The e v i d e n c e o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s s u p p o r t s Dwyer's (1982) c o n c e p t o f c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . The c a t e g o r i e s i n d i c a t e a p r o c e s s w h i c h i s o c c u r i n g i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p and t h e r e f o r e t o some e x t e n t d e f i n e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . C o n f l i c t i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s has many m e a n i n g s and e a c h c o n f l i c t s e q u e n c e i n f l u e n c e s t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . Dwyer ( 1 9 8 2 ) p o s t u l a t e s t h a t i n c o n s i d e r i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t one must ex a m i n e p r e v i o u s i n t e r a c t i o n s as d e f i n e d i n t e r m s o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r i g h t s , d u t i e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . D u r i n g c o n f l i c t p r o c e s s e s , f e e l i n g s a n d m o t i v a t i o n s must a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d a n d w i l l a f f e c t how t h e p e r s o n i n t e r p r e t s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n . A f t e r t h e c o n f l i c t t h e r e i s a r e d e f i n i n g o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e p e r s o n s a n d t h e i r r i g h t s , d u t i e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s t o one a n o t h e r . I n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e n o t s t a t i c b u t a r e i n c o n s t a n t m o t i o n . R e l a t i o n s h i p s c h a n g e and e v o l v e a s p e r s o n s i n t e r a c t w i t h one a n o t h e r . I t i s c r u c i a l t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e way i n w h i c h c o n f l i c t i s r e s o l v e d . 91 The r e s u l t s i d e n t i f y p r o c e s s e s o r c a t e g o r i e s o f c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n i n I t a l i a n f a m i l i e s and d e p e n d i n g on w h i c h f a c t o r s a r e u s e d , w i l l i n f l u e n c e t h e r e d e f i n i t i o n o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p a f t e r a c o n f l i c t . P r a c t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s The s t u d y h a s i d e n t i f i e d c o n f l i c t p r o c e s s e s i n I t a l i a n f a m i l i e s w h i c h h i n d e r c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n a n d f a c t o r s w h i c h a r e f a c i l i t a t i v e . To t h e I t a l i a n c o m m u n i t y t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n n o r m a l i z e s c o n f l i c t p r o c e s s e s a s a n u n d e r s t a n d a b l e a n d r e s o l v a b l e p r o b l e m . The i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d a l s o p r o v i d e s a c a t e g o r i c a l map w h i c h c a n be u s e d t o a s s e s s t h e ways c o n f l i c t i s m a i n t a i n e d a n d t o s t r e n g t h e n ways i n w h i c h c o n f l i c t i s r e d u c e d . P r a c t i t i o n e r s c a n g e n e r a t e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r c l i e n t s o f I t a l i a n f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d . When c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h h i n d e r c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n t h e y i n h e r e n t l y c o n t a i n t h e s o l u t i o n t o a v o i d t h e c o n f l i c t . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e c a t e g o r y o f c o n f l i c t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s l e a d s t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r t o l e a r n t o n e g o t i a t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s b e t w e e n p a r e n t and c h i l d i s v e r y p r o d u c t i v e . The c a t e g o r y o f l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g d i r e c t s t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r t o c l a r i f y t h e p a r e n t p o s i t i o n 92 a n d v a l u e s t o t h e c h i l d and v i c e v e r s a t o e n c o u r a g e e a c h i n d i v i d u a l t o h a v e a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d more i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o h i m / h e r . When c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n p r a c t i t i o n e r s may u s e t h e c a t e g o r i e s t o g i v e t h e i r c l i e n t s i n f o r m a t i o n a n d a l t e r n a t i v e s w h i c h w i l l i n c r e a s e t h e i r p r o b l e m s o l v i n g a n d c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n s k i l l s . F o r e x a m p l e where t h e r e i s a l a c k o f humor t h e n t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r c o u l d i n s p i r e t h e ' c u l t i v a t i o n o f humor. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h F u r t h e r s t u d i e s a r e r e q u i r e d t o c o n f i r m t h e f i n d i n g s f r o m t h i s s t u d y u s i n g a l a r g e r s a m p l e . Now t h a t a c a t e g o r y s y s t e m h a s been i d e n t i f i e d f u t u r e r e s e a r c h c o u l d be c o n d u c t e d i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e v a l i d i t y a n d p o t e n c y o f e a c h c a t e g o r y . The c a t e g o r i e s a p p e a r t o be s e q u e n t i a l , m o v i n g f r o m a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s f e e l i n g s a n d p e r c e p t i o n s t o some b e h a v i o r w h i c h t h e n may i n v o l v e some f u r t h e r a c t i o n i n v o l v i n g a n o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l i n o r d e r t o s e e k r e s o l u t i o n . T h i s h a s f a r r e a c h i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r a c t i t i o n e r s who c o u l d u s e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n o r " m o d e l " a s a t o o l i n t h e r a p y o r i n w o r k s h o p s . A l s o t h e s t u d y r a i s e s some c r i t i c a l q u e s t i o n s . How do p a r e n t s s e t l i v a b l e e x p e c t a t i o n s i n u p s e t t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s ? How do p a r e n t s m a i n t a i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g when m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h r e a t e n s ? How c a n p a r e n t s m a i n t a i n r e s p e c t when t h e f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e c h a n g e s ? How do p a r e n t s a l l o w t o l e r a n c e when i t i s a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e i r own s e l f w o r t h ? How c a n p a r e n t s c r e a t e g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g when l a n g u a g e i s s u c h a b a r r i e r ? How c a n c o u n s e l l o r s f o s t e r c o m p r o m i s e and n e g o t i a t i o n i n p a r e n t s when o l d v a l u e s e n f o r c e t h a t t h e e l d e r s r u l e a n d make t h e d e c i s i o n s ? How c a n c o u n s e l l o r s e n c o u r a g e c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n p a r e n t and c h i l d when t h e p a r e n t r e g a r d s e x p r e s s i o n by t h e c h i l d a s t a l k i n g b a c k a n d d i s r e s p e c t f u l ? How c a n c o u n s e l l o r s t e a c h p a r e n t s t h a t r e j e c t i o n by t h e i r c h i l d r e n i s an a c t o f s e l f p r e s e r v a t i o n a n d i d e n t i t y t e a c h i n g ? F u t u r e r e s e a r c h may be d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s p r o v i d i n g c o u n s e l l o r s w i t h more i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n i n I t a l i a n f a m i l i e s . I t may a l s o be a b u i l d i n g b l o c k t o e x p l o r e p a r e n t i n g i n I t a l i a n C a n a d i a n f a m i l i e s . 94 Summary This study examined factors which hinder and factors which f a c i l i t a t e c o n f l i c t resolution in I t a l i a n f a milies. A t o t a l of 9 adults and 8 adolescents, one adult and one adolescent from each family, were studied. Interviews were conducted using Flanagan's C r i t i c a l Incident Technique. The results indicate that the incidents reported in this study could be r e l i a b l y grouped into 14 categories. Of these categories 6 were hindering factors and 8 were f a c i l i t a t i v e factors. R e l i a b i l i t y was tested using 2 judges who grouped the categories and were in 100% agreement. Out of thi s evolved a categorical map which i s useful when considering the maintaining of c o n f l i c t or the resolution of c o n f l i c t in Canadian-Italian f a m i l i e s . 95 REFERENCES A l e x a n d e r , J . F . ( 1 9 7 3 ) . D e f e n s i v e and S u p p o r t i v e C o m m u n i c a t i o n i n n o r m a l a n d d e v i a n t f a m i l i e s . J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g a n d C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 40, .223-231. A n d e r s o n , B., & N i l s s o n , S. ( 1 9 6 4 ) . S t u d i e s i n t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e . J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 4 8 , ( 6 ) , 398-403. B e r e l s o n , B., & S t e i n e r G. ( 1 9 6 4 ) . Human B e h a v i o r : An a n a l y s i s o f S c i e n t i f i c F i n d i n g s . New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d W o r l d . B e r n a r d , J . ( 1 9 5 7 ) . P a r t i e s a n d I s s u e s i n C o n f l i c t . J o u r n a l o f C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n , 1 ( 2 ) . p p . 1 1 1 -12 1 . B e r n a r d , J . ( 1 9 6 5 ) . Some c u r r e n t c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s i n t h e f i e l d o f c o n f l i c t . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f  S o c i o l o g y , 70 ( 4 ) , 442-454. B o u l d i n g , K. ( 1 9 6 2 ) . C o n f l i c t a n d D e f e n s e . New Y o r k : H a r p e r . B l o o d , R.O. J r . ( 1 9 6 0 ) . R e s o l v i n g f a m i l y c o n f l i c t s . J o u r n a l o f C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n , I V ( 2 ) , 2 0 9 -219. 96 B u r k e , R . J . ( 1 9 7 0 ) . M e t h o d s o f r e s o l v i n g s u p e r i o r -s u b o r d i n a t e c o n f l i c t : The c o n s t r u c t i v e u s e o f s u b o r d i n a t e d i f f e r e n c e s a n d d i s a g r e e m e n t s . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r a n d Human P e r f o r m a n c e , 5 ( 4 ) , p p . 393-411. C a m p i s i , P. ( 1 9 4 8 ) . E t h n i c F a m i l y P a t t e r n s : The I t a l i a n F a m i l y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n C o r d a s c o , F. a n d B u c c h i o n i , E. ( E d s ) . The I t a l i a n s . ( p p . 3 1 1 - 3 2 0 ) . New Y o r k : S e n t r y P r e s s . C a r t e r , E.A. and M c G o l d r i c k , M. ( E d s ) . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . The F a m i l y L i f e C y c l e : A f r a m e w o r k f o r F a m i l y T h e r a p y . New Y o r k : G a r d n e r P r e s s . C h i l d , I . ( 1 9 4 3 ) . I t a l i a n o r A m e r i c a n ? I n C o r d a s c o , F. a n d B u c c h i o n i , E. ( E d s . ) . The I t a l i a n s . ( p p . 3 2 1 - 3 3 7 ) . New Y o r k : S e n t r y P r e s s . C o s e r , L. ( 1 9 5 6 ) . The F u n c t i o n s o f S o c i a l C o n f l i c t . New Y o r k : F r e e P r e s s . D e u t s c h , M. ( 1 9 7 1 ) . C o n f l i c t And I t s R e s o l u t i o n , I n S m i t h , C.G. (Ed.) C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n :  C o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s . N o t r e Dame, I n d i a n a : U n i v e r s i t y o f N o t r e Dame P r e s s . D e u t s c h , M., and K r a u s e , R.M. ( 1 9 6 2 ) . S t u d i e s o f 97 I n t e r p e r s o n a l B a r g a i n i n g . J o u r n a l o f C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n 6, 1, pp. 52-76. D u v a l l , E.M. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . M a r r i a g e and f a m i l y d e v e l o p m e n t . New Y o r k : L i p p i n c o t t . Dwyer, D.H. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . C u l t u r a l C o n c e p t i o n s o f C o n f l i c t a n d V a r i a b i l i t y i n C o n f l i c t B o u n d a r i e s - A M o r o c c a n E x a m p l e . J o u r n a l o f C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n , December 20 ( 4 ) , 663-686. F i l l e y , A.C. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . I n t e r p e r s o n a l C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n . G l e n v i e w , I l l i n o i s : S c o t t , F o r e s m a n an d Company. F l a n a g a n , J.C. ( 1 9 5 4 ) . The C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t T e c h n i q u e . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 51 ( 4 ) , 327-355. F o g g , R.W. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . D e a l i n g w i t h C o n f l i c t : A r e p e r t o i r e o f c r e a t i v e , p e a c e f u l a p p r o a c h e s . J o u r n a l o f C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n , 29, ( 2 ) , 330-358. Gambino, R. ( 1 9 7 4 ) . B l o o d o f My B l o o d . G a r d e n C i t y , New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y a n d Co., I n c . G i o r d a n o , J . ( 1 9 7 7 ) . E t h n i c i t y , S o c i a l C l a s s and M e n t a l H e a l t h . I n T o m a s i , S. ( E d ) . P e r s p e c t i v e s  i n I t a l i a n I m m i g r a t i o n and E t h n i c i t y . ( p p . 110 -). New Y o r k . 98 H a l e y , J . ( 1 9 7 6 ) . P r o b l e m S o l v i n g T h e r a p y . San F r a n c i s c o : J o s s e y - B a s s . J a c o b s o n , D. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . The I n f l u e n c e o f C u l t u r a l I d e n t i f i c a t i o n on F a m i l y B e h a v i o r . I n T o m a s i , S.M. ( E d ) . P e r s p e c t i v e s i n I t a l i a n I m m i g r a t i o n and  E t h n i c i t y . P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e Symposium h e l d a t C a s a I t a l i a n a . C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , May 2 1 - 2 3 , 1976. The C e n t r e f o r M i g r a t i o n S t u d i e s o f New Y o r k , I n c . N i c h o l s , M i c h a e l . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . F a m i l y T h e r a p y C o n c e p t s and  M e t h o d s . G a r d n e r P r e s s , p. 1 4 9 - 1 5 0 . I n D u v a l l ' s S t a g e s o f t h e F a m i l y L i f e C y c l e . Mack, R.W. and S n y d e r , R.C. ( 1 9 7 1 ) . The A n a l y s i s o f S o c i a l C o n f l i c t - T o w a r d an O v e r v i e w and S y n t h e s i s . I n S m i t h , C.G. (Ed) C o n f l i c t R e s o l u t i o n :  C o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s . N o t r e Dame, I n d i a n a : U n i v e r s i t y o f N o t r e Dame P r e s s . M c G o l d r i c k , P e a r c e , G i o r d a n o . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . E t h n i c i t y and  F a m i l y T h e r a p y . New Y o r k : The G u i l f o r d P r e s s . M i n u c h i n , S. ( 1 9 7 4 ) . F a m i l i e s a n d F a m i l y T h e r a p y . C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . P a t c h e n , M. ( 1 9 7 0 ) . M o d e l s o f c o o p e r a t i o n and 99 c o n f l i c t : a c r i t i c a l r e v i e w . J o u r n a l o f C o n f l i c t  R e s o l u t i o n , X I V ( 3 ) , pp. 386-404. P e t e r s o n , D.R. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . C o n f l i c t . I n K e l l y , H.H. a n d B e r s c h e i d , E. a n d C h r i s t e n s e n , A. and H a r v e y , J.H. and H u s t o n , T.L. and L e v i n g e r , G. and M c C l i n t o c k , E. and P e p l a u , L.A. and P e t e r s o n , D.R. C l o s e  R e l a t i o n s h i p s . New Y o r k : W.H. Freeman a n d Company. R o b i n , A.L. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . A c o n t r o l l e d e v a l u a t i o n o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n t r a i n i n g w i t h p a r e n t -a d o l e s c e n t c o n f l i c t . J o u r n a l o f B e h a v i o r a l  T h e r a p y , 12, 5 9 3 -609. R a p o p o r t , A. ( 1 9 6 0 ) . F i g h t s , Games a n d D e b a t e s . Ann A r b o r . U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n P r e s s . R o l l e , A. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . The I t a l i a n A m e r i c a n T r o u b l e d R o o t s . New Y o r k : The F r e e p r e s s , A d i v i s i o n o f M a c M i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co., I n c . R o t u n n o , M., and M c G o l d r i c k , M. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . I t a l i a n F a m i l i e s . I n M c G o l d r i c k M., P e a r c e J . , G i o r d a n o J . , ( E d s . ) , E t h n i c i t y and F a m i l y T h e r a p y New Y o r k , The G u i l d f o r d P r e s s , p. 341. S l u z k i , C. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . M i g r a t i o n and F a m i l y C o n f l i c t . F a m i l y P r o c e s s , 18 ( 4 ) , 3 7 9-390. 100 S o l o m o n , M.A. ( 1 9 7 3 ) . A d e v e l o p m e n t a l c o n c e p t u a l p r e m i s e f o r f a m i l y t h e r a p y . F a m i l y P r o c e s s , 1 2 , 1 79-188. S t e i n , R.F. ( 1 9 7 1 ) . D i s t u r b e d Y o u t h and E t h n i c F a m i l y  P a t t e r n s . S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New Y o r k P r e s s : A l b a n y . ) APPENDIX TO CHAPTER 104 C o n s e n t Form R e s e a r c h P r o j e c t : F a c t o r s w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e o r h i n d e r i n t e r - g e n e r a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t i n I t a l i a n i m m i g r a n t f a m i l i e s . P r o j e c t S u p e r v i s o r : D r . L a r r y C o c h r a n R e s e a r c h e r : P a t r i z i a D i D i o m e t e , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , T h i s p r o j e c t i s i n t e n d e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e k i n d s o f e v e n t s t h a t a f f e c t c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s b e t w e e n p a r e n t and c h i l d . From t h e c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s t h a t p e o p l e d e s c r i b e , a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s e t o f c a t e g o r i e s w i l l be d e v e l o p e d t h a t i n d i c a t e w h i c h f a c t o r s h e l p o r h i n d e r t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f c o n f l i c t i n I t a l i a n I m m i g r a n t f a m i l i e s . T h i s i n t e r v i e w w i l l l a s t a b o u t an h o u r . You w i l l be a s k e d t o d e s c r i b e e v e n t s t h a t have h e l p e d o r h i n d e r e d y o u i n r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s i n t e r v i e w w i l l be t a p e r e c o r d e d a n d l a t e r , t h e e v e n t s y o u d e s c r i b e w i l l be e x t r a c t e d a n d t h e t a p e s e r a s e d . C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y w i l l be m a i n t a i n e d by r e s t r i c t i n g a c c e s s t o r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l , by number c o d i n g , and by t h e e v e n t u a l e r a s u r e o f t h e t a p e s . Some e v e n t d e s c r i p t i o n s w i l l p r o b a b l y be p u b l i s h e d i n r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s . You have t h e r i g h t t o w i t h d r a w f r o m t h i s i n t e r v i e w o r r e f u s e t o answer any q u e s t i o n s , w i t h no c o n s e q u e n c e s o f any k i n d . You may a s k any q u e s t i o n s t o c l a r i f y p r o c e d u r e s now o r d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w . Name: 105 A d o l e s c e n t C o n s e n t Form R e s e a r c h P r o j e c t : F a c t o r s w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e o r h i n d e r i n t e r - g e n e r a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t i n I t a l i a n i m m i g r a n t f a m i l i e s . P r o j e c t S u p e r v i s o r : D r . L a r r y C o c h r a n R e s e a r c h e r : P a t r i z i a D i D i o m e t e , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , T h i s p r o j e c t i s i n t e n d e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e k i n d s o f e v e n t s t h a t a f f e c t c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s b e t w e e n p a r e n t and c h i l d . From t h e c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s t h a t p e o p l e d e s c r i b e , a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s e t o f c a t e g o r i e s w i l l be d e v e l o p e d t h a t i n d i c a t e w h i c h f a c t o r s h e l p o r h i n d e r t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f c o n f l i c t i n I t a l i a n I m m i g r a n t f a m i l i e s . T h i s i n t e r v i e w w i l l l a s t a b o u t an h o u r . You w i l l be a s k e d t o d e s c r i b e e v e n t s t h a t have h e l p e d o r h i n d e r e d you i n r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s i n t e r v i e w w i l l be t a p e r e c o r d e d a n d l a t e r , t h e e v e n t s you d e s c r i b e w i l l be e x t r a c t e d a n d t h e t a p e s e r a s e d . C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y w i l l be m a i n t a i n e d by r e s t r i c t i n g a c c e s s t o r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l , by number c o d i n g , and by t h e e v e n t u a l e r a s u r e o f t h e t a p e s . Some e v e n t d e s c r i p t i o n s w i l l p r o b a b l y be p u b l i s h e d i n r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s . You have t h e r i g h t t o w i t h d r a w f r o m t h i s i n t e r v i e w o r r e f u s e t o answer any q u e s t i o n s , w i t h no c o n s e q u e n c e s o f any k i n d . You may a s k any q u e s t i o n s t o c l a r i f y p r o c e d u r e s now o r d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w . Name: 

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