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The conditions that hinder or facilitate conflict resolution in Italian families DiDiomete, Patrizia 1989

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THE C O N D I T I O N S THAT H I N D E R OR F A C I L I T A T E C O N F L I C T RESOLUTION I N I T A L I A N  FAMILIES  by Patrizia B.A. The  DiDiomete  (Human & S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t ) ,  University of B r i t i s h  Columbia, 1979.  A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE  OF  MASTER OF ARTS  in  THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE S T U D I E S Department  We a c c e p t to  of Counselling Psychology  this  t h e s i s as conforming  the required  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF  standard  B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  J u n e 1989 © P a t r i z i a D i d i o m e t e , 1989  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  thesis  in  partial  University  of  British  available for  copying  of  department publication  this or of  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  scholarly  or for  her  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  I further  purposes  the  requirements  gain  that  agree that  may  representatives.  financial  Department  of  Columbia, I agree  and study.  permission.  DE-6 (2/88)  fulfilment  It  shall not  be is  the  an  advanced  Library shall make  permission for  granted  by  understood  be  for  allowed  the  extensive  head  that without  it  of  copying  my or  my written  ABSTRACT T h i s study gathers i n f o r m a t i o n  about which f a c t o r s  f a c i l i t a t e , and, which f a c t o r s hinder  conflict  r e s o l u t i o n , i n second g e n e r a l  Italian Families.  s u b j e c t s were asked questions  using Flanagan's C r i t i c a l  Incident  Technique.  T h i s s t r u c t u r e d s e t of p r i n c i p l e s  i s a t o o l which guides s u b j e c t s new i n f o r m a t i o n The  The  to give important and  about c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n .  study was based on research  the second generation  that i n d i c a t e s that  I t a l i a n Family experiences  c o n f l i c t and d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n during a c c u l t u r a t i o n . There i s i n c r e a s i n g evidence that e t h n i c values and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n play a s i g n i f i c a n t l i f e cycle.  r o l e i n the f a m i l y  Re-adjustment t o a new c u l t u r e i s a  prolonged developmental p r o c e s s which a f f e c t s a l l members d i f f e r e n t l y .  The "adolescent"  seems p a r t i c u l a r l y problematic  f a m i l y stage  s i n c e i n a d d i t i o n to the  normal developmental adjustment r e q u i r e d , I t a l i a n s s t r u g g l e with m u l t i p l e t r a n s i t i o n s which exacerbate inter-generational Intergeneration  conflict. c o n f l i c t was s t u d i e d by  i n t e r v i e w i n g a t o t a l of 10 a d u l t s and 10 one  a d u l t and one adolescent  adolescents;  from each f a m i l y .  The  sample was drawn from the Burnaby North High School Enrollment Roster and interviewed These subjects  i n their  own homes.  r e p o r t e d a t o t a l of 134 i n c i d e n t s —  29  f a c i l i t a t i v e and 105 h i n d e r i n g . The  r e s u l t s of the study i n d i c a t e d 14 b a s i c  categories.  There were 8 c a t e g o r i e s  i n c i d e n t s which f a c i l i t a t e d c o n f l i c t categories  that r e p o r t e d  resolution.  Conflict  that  reported  r e s o l u t i o n and 6  i n c i d e n t s which hinder  conflict  r e s o l u t i o n was f a c i l i t a t e d when  the d i s c u s s i o n reached a l i m i t and became c l o s e d or when humor was used.  Conflict  r e s o l u t i o n was f a c i l i t a t e d by  an apology, showing t o l e r a n c e , compromising arid negotiation.  Other f a c t o r s that were f a c i l i t a t i v e were  p a r e n t a l agreement and f a m i l y c l o s e n e s s . hand c o n f l i c t conflicting  r e s o l u t i o n was hindered  expectations,  On the other  when there was  lack of understanding,  r e j e c t i o n , disagreement, disobedience and d i s r e s p e c t and parental c o n f l i c t .  These f i n d i n g s , t o the I t a l i a n  community, normalizes c o n f l i c t processes as an understandable and r e s o l v a b l e problem. gathered provides  The  information  a c a t e g o r i c a l map which can be used t o  assess the ways c o n f l i c t ways i n which c o n f l i c t  i s maintained and to  i s reduced.  strengthen  iv  T A B L E OF  CONTENTS  Abstract  i  i  CHAPTER 1 - I n t r o d u c t i o n  1  Background  1  Statement  o f the Problem o f t h e problem and purpose  CHAPTER 2 - R e v i e w Cultural  of the Related  of the study  Literature  .  . . .  Context  10  Historical/Sociological Family  Level  11  Dynamic L e v e l  Intrapsychic  The  5 5  Conflict  Conflict  3  Level  and C o n f l i c t  Critical History  17  Incident  25  Resolution  .  Technique  and Development  of the C r i t i c a l  Technique Critical  27 32 Incident 34  Incident  Procedure and Data  Collection Reliability  38 and V a l i d i t y  44  CHAPTER 3 - M e t h o d o l o g y  49  Subjects  49  Background Interview Critical Procedure  of Subjects Preparation  Incident  Interview  51 52 55 58  V  Preparing  Cards  Independent CHAPTER Basic  f o r Independent  Raters  60  Rating  62  4 - Results  64  Categories  Reliability  of Categorization  Participation Expert CHAPTER  64 76  Rate  Evaluation  77 of Categories  5 - Discussion  80  . . . .  81  Limitations  o f t h e Study  82  Theoretical  Implications  83  Practical  Implications  Implications  f o r Further  Summary  of I n i t i a l  3  Contact  Form  Adolescent  . . . . . .  92 94 95  A P P E N D I X TO C H A P T E R  Consent  Research '  REFERENCES  Letter  91  Consent  101 102 104  Form  105  1 Chapter 1 Introduction Background  of the Problem  Adolescence can be a d i f f i c u l t and tumultuous developmental process f o r the i n d i v i d u a l and f o r the family.  I t i s i n the t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d from one  developmental stage to another that f a m i l i e s are most likely 1976). the  t o encounter d i f f i c u l t i e s  (Minuchin, 1974, Haley  During the adolescent developmental stage both  young a d u l t and the parents must adapt and change to  facilitate  the r e s o l u t i o n of t h i s growth stage.  The  adolescent must balance freedom with r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and e s t a b l i s h wider i n t e r e s t and c a r e e r s ( D u v a l l ,  1977),  separate from t h e i r parents and develop o u t s i d e r e l a t i o n s h i p s as t h e i r primary sources of g r a t i f i c a t i o n (Solomon,  1973).  A d u l t s must r e l e a s e young a d u l t s with a p p r o p r i a t e r i t u a l s and a s s i s t a n c e and maintain a s u p p o r t i v e home base  ( D u v a l l , 1977).  The parents must l e a r n to l e t go  and to i n c r e a s e the f l e x i b i l i t y of f a m i l y boundaries t o i n c l u d e the a d o l e s c e n t ' s independence.  They must  shift  p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s to a l l o w a d o l e s c e n t s to move i n and out of the f a m i l y system.  Also, during t h i s  time  2 parents must refocus themselves on m i d l i f e m a r i t a l and career i s s u e s , i n c l u d i n g a s h i f t toward concern about i s s u e s that a r e p r e v a l e n t f o r the o l d e r  generation  (Carter & McGoldrick, 1980). Optimum r e s o l u t i o n of the t r a n s i t i o n from adolescence t o adulthood e n t a i l s s e p a r a t i n g from the f a m i l y , a c h i e v i n g emotional m a t u r i t y , and d e v e l o p i n g an independent s e l f - i d e n t i t y .  F a i l u r e to achieve a mature  s e p a r a t i o n may take the form o f dependency and attachment, or emotional cut o f f and r e a c t i v e  flight.  P a r e n t a l over-attachment may a l s o hinder mature development  and true autonomy o f the c h i l d r e n .  As  c h i l d r e n and parents must adapt to changing r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , r o l e s , boundaries and communication during t h i s t r a n s i t i o n , i t can lead to many c o n f l i c t s as both parent and c h i l d may not be changing a t the same rate and i n the same way.  Both are s t r u g g l i n g t o  e s t a b l i s h new i d e n t i t i e s and p o s i t i o n s r e g a r d i n g each other and t h e i r  environment.  In a d d i t i o n to meeting the l i f e  task of  r e o r g a n i z i n g the f a m i l y to accommodate change,  immigrant  f a m i l i e s must make other major adjustments i n terms of t h e i r i d e n t i t y and e t h n i c i t y .  F i r s t , second and t h i r d  3 generation  immigrants f a c e the task of adapting  c u l t u r e i n which they may of meanings and patterns relationships. and  have to i n t e g r a t e a new  system  When the community has  differing  values  s t r u c t u r e s than that of the f a m i l y , i n d i v i d u a l  contexts  i n order  process may  be s t r e s s f u l and  confusing  f o r the f a m i l y which i s being  purpose of the  I t a l i a n f a m i l y experiences c o n f l i c t and acculturation.  e t h n i c values  and  cycle.  study  generation disorganization-  There i s i n c r e a s i n g evidence that  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n play a s i g n i f i c a n t  f a m i l y l i f e and  the l i f e  for individuals  f o r c e d to change.  Research i n d i c a t e s that the second  during  cultural  to develop a sense of i d e n t i t y . T h i s  Statement of the problem and  in  new  of behaviour i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l  f a m i l y members must respond to opposing  and  to a  i n personal  role  development throughout  Re-adjustment to a new  culture is a  prolonged developmental process which a f f e c t s a l l members d i f f e r e n t l y , depending on the l i f e they are  i n at the time of t r a n s i t i o n .  The  f a m i l y stage seems p a r t i c u l a r l y problematic  c y c l e phase 'adolescent' since i n  a d d i t i o n to the normal developmental adjustment at 'this stage of the f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e , I t a l i a n s  required  4  s t r u g g l e with m u l t i p l e t r a n s i t i o n s and c o n f l i c t s due  to  m i g r a t i o n which exacerbate i n t e r - g e n e r a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t . The purpose of t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y study i d e n t i f y the f a c t o r s which hinder and which f a c i l i t a t e c o n f l i c t immigrant f a m i l i e s .  i s to  those f a c t o r s  resolution in Italian  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be  u s i n g Flanagan's C r i t i c a l  gathered  I n c i d e n t ' s Technique.  procedure allows s u b j e c t s to give s e l f r e p o r t s  This regarding  the s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s regarding c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n .  5 Chapter 2 Review of the R e l a t e d 1.  Literature  C u l t u r a l Context E t h n i c i t y r e l a t e s f a m i l y process to the broader  context  i n which i t evolves.  J u s t as i n d i v i d u a t i o n  r e q u i r e s that we come to terms with our f a m i l y o f o r i g i n , coming to terms with our e t h n i c i t y i s necessary to gain a p e r s p e c t i v e  on the r e l a t i v i t y of our b e l i e f  systems ( S l u z k i , 1979). Sluzki  (1979) p o i n t s out that the d e f i n i t i o n of  family v a r i e s f o r d i f f e r e n t groups.  Different ethnic  groups may have v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e i r f a m i l y l i f e Sluzki  (1979).  cycle,  Some of these d i f f e r e n c e s may be due to  the emphasis that they place on d i f f e r e n t t r a n s i t i o n s such as marriage and death.  There may be d i f f e r e n c e s i n  the c o n t i n u i t y of c u l t u r a l r i t u a l s i n c l u d i n g the changing meanings and f e e l i n g s about these  rituals.  Other v a r i a t i o n s occur i n the occupations that may be chosen by a group.  A l s o d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups d i f f e r  i n what they consider  problematic  s o l u t i o n s t o those problems. help a l s o tend to vary  and the v i a b l e  A t t i t u d e s towards  seeking  i n d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups.  6  Many f a c t o r s w i l l patterns  evolve  i n the f a m i l y .  several factors:  migration,  home; the race and of r e s i d e n c e ;  i n f l u e n c e the ways e t h n i c  their  S l u z k i (1979) i d e n t i f i e d  the languages spoken i n the  country of o r i g i n ; the f a m i l y socio-economic s t a t u s ,  place  educational  achievement and upward m o b i l i t y of f a m i l y members; the emotional process i n the f a m i l y ; t h e i r p o l i t i c a l religious cycle.  t i e s i n the e t h n i c group; and  In a d d i t i o n , a l l s i t u a t i o n a l  and  the f a m i l y  crises;  life  (illness,  divorce,  job l o s s , e t c  identity  c o n f l i c t which causes people to l o s e a sense of  who  are.  they  In order  . . . ) can compound e t h n i c  to explore  c o n f l i c t and  conflict  r e s o l u t i o n the f a m i l y must be d e f i n e d with an awareness of t h e i r  e t h n i c and  cultural differences.  A  brief  i n t r o d u c t i o n to the nature of I t a l i a n f a m i l i e s i s l a t e r followed  by a more comprehensive study of the  immigrant s t r u g g l e to r e s o l v e t h e i r c o n f l i c t s . family p a t t e r n s way  and  r o l e s w i l l be d e f i n e d  in a  to g i v e an understanding of the h i s t o r i c a l  cultural  context  of the  family.  Italian Italian general and  7  There i s no such thing as an I t a l i a n family.  The I t a l i a n family i s a network of four  generations, friends.  nuclear  which i n c l u d e s godparents and c l o s e  family  The i n d i v i d u a l ' s primary duty i n the f a m i l y i s  n e i t h e r to himself  nor t o the community a t l a r g e but  rather t o that network of k i n c a l l e d  "family".  When  i n t e r e s t s of the f a m i l y c o n f l i c t w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l or general  community i n t e r e s t s , the former takes  precedence i Mutual r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s a r e powerful and b i n d i n g on a l l members of the f a m i l y and a l l e g i a n c e t o the  family surpasses a l l other  McGoldrick, 1982).  Separation  loyalties  (Rotanno &  from one's f a m i l y i s an  i n d i v i d u a l ' s worst misfortune and tantamount t o s p i r i t u a l death (Rotanno & McGoldrick, 1982). When I t a l i a n s came t o Canada t h i s cohesiveness and l o y a l t y became even more pronounced.  Immigrants  s h e l t e r e d themselves from f e e l i n g s o f e x c l u s i o n , poverty and  fear that t h e i r  c u l t u r a l b e l i e f s would be l o s t by  t i g h t e n i n g the network of k i n and by demanding a u t h o r i t y over c h i l d r e n and t h e i r b e l i e f s 1948).  ultimate  (Campisi,  8 Value was placed on the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s that would p r o v i d e a cushion a g a i n s t e x t e r n a l i n s t a b i l i t y . H i s t o r i c a l l y the I t a l i a n s r e l y on i n t e r n a l resources and on t h e i r f a m i l i e s .  T h i s i s thought  to have  because of h o s t i l e f o r c e s , i n v a d i n g armies,  developed unstable  p o l i t i c s and the constant flow o f f o r e i g n e r s through I t a l y and the changing Giordano,  power base (McGoldrick, Pearce, &  1982).  Both i n I t a l y or as immigrants i n a new l a n d , family honor i s h i g h l y valued and preserved. of c r i s i s ,  In times  then, the primary coping mechanism i s to turn  to the f a m i l y .  The major d i f f i c u l t y  i n the I t a l i a n  system develops when f a m i l y and i n d i v i d u a l v a l u e s conflict  (McGoldrick, Pearce, & Giordano,  1982).  I t a l i a n s r a i s e t h e i r c h i l d r e n to be mutually supportive and to c o n t r i b u t e t o the f a m i l y .  Italian  parents would f e e l l i k e f a i l u r e s i f they reared c h i l d r e n who were independent,  s e l f s u f f i c i e n t , q u e s t i o n i n g of  family v a l u e s , and u l t i m a t e l y s e p a r a t i n g from the family. I t a l i a n f a m i l y members t r a d i t i o n a l l y have c l e a r l y d e f i n e d r o l e s which determine patters.  and maintain f a m i l y  The f a t h e r has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been the  9 undisputed head o f the household, o f t e n a u t h o r i t a r i a n and r i g i d  i n h i s r u l e s e t t i n g and g u i d e l i n e s f o r  behaviour  (McGoldrick, Pearce, & Giordano, 1982;  Giordano,  1977; Gambino, 1974).  Fathers were out o f the  home, f o r business or male-oriented f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s , and t h e r e f o r e had l i t t l e  contact with the other f a m i l y  members (McGoldrick, Pearce, % Giordano, The around  1982).  t r a d i t i o n a l I t a l i a n mother's l i f e  the home.  centers  Her r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and primary  pleasure i s to provide n u r t u r i n g and emotional sustenance Giordano,  to a l l f a m i l y members (McGoldrick, Pearce, & 1982; Giordano,  1977; Gambino 1974).  Her  personal needs take second p l a c e to those o f her husband and i n r e t u r n she i s o f f e r e d p r o t e c t i o n and s e c u r i t y from a l l o u t s i d e p r e s s u r e s or t h r e a t s (McGoldrick, Pearce, & Giordano, The  1982).  r o l e s of c h i l d r e n are markedly d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  between males and females. encouraged manliness 1982).  The boys are allowed and  to a c t out as an expression of t h e i r (Gambino, 1974, McGoldrick, Pearce,  They are a l s o encouraged  achieve i n the community given guidance  Giordano,  to p a r t i c i p a t e and  (Giordano, 1977).  The boys are  and s u p e r v i s i o n to exemplify a sense of  10 mastery i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s as w e l l as i n the sexual domain (McGoldrick, Pearce, Giordano, 1982). g i r l s on the other  The  hand are t r a i n e d t o be domestic,  v i r t u o u s and y i e l d i n g to the w i l l of men, l i k e  their  mothers (Gambino, 1974). The  extended f a m i l y p l a y s a c e n t r a l r o l e i n a l l  aspects of the f a m i l y .  Respect f o r and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o r older f a m i l y members i s a strong  norm i n the group  (McGoldrick, Pearce, Giordano, 1982). family contributes ongoing d a i l y  The extended  t o f a m i l y d e c i s i o n making and the  functions.  I t a l i a n f a m i l y r o l e s a r e c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and established. the  family.  T h e i r complimentarity severs  I t i s o n l y when changes occur that the  f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e begins to shake, crack For  and maintains  and break  apart.  the immigrant f a m i l y there are m u l t i p l e changes  which challenge  the f a m i l y so g r e a t l y that i t becomes a  fight for survival.  The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s w i l l  the changes and s t r e s s e s that the immigrant  explore  Italian  f a m i l y must endure. 2.  Conflict C o n f l i c t and c o n f l i c t  f a m i l i e s can be explored  resolution i n Italian  a t the h i s t o r i c a l / s o c i o l o g i c a l  11 l e v e l , at a f a m i l y dynamic l e v e l , and at an i n t r a p s y c h i c level.  The h i s t o r i c a l / s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e  d e s c r i b e s the a c c u l t u r a t i o n process as the process of the I t a l i a n s as a group, adopting the c u l t u r a l t r a i t s or s o c i a l p a t t e r n s of another  group.  l e v e l a r t i c u l a t e s the changing  The f a m i l y dynamic  r o l e s , and t h e r e f o r e the  changing s t r u c t u r e of the f a m i l y .  Included i n t h i s a r e  the s t r e s s e s and problems these f a m i l i e s f a c e . difficult  It i s  t o separate i n t r a p s y c h i c and f a m i l y dynamics  as they are i n t e r - r e l a t e d and interdependent. I n t e r p e r s o n a l problems a r e explored at the f a m i l y dynamic l e v e l and i n the i n t r a p s y c h i c l e v e l .  The  i n t r a p s y c h i c a r e a focuses on the p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes experienced by the i n d i v i d u a l . Historical/sociological  level  The I t a l i a n immigrant f a m i l y i n Canada w i l l some gradual and some d r a s t i c changes.  T h i s process of  a c c u l t u r a t i o n has been d e s c r i b e d by Campisi three stages.  Although  e s s e n t i a l to understand  (1948) i n  the stages are d e l i n e a t e d i t i s that a c c u l t u r a t i o n i s a  continuous process that has no d e f i n i t e The f i r s t  undergo  time.  stage i s the I n i t i a l - C o n t a c t  (Campisi 1948), the f i r s t  Stage  decade where both parents a r e  12 of I t a l i a n b i r t h .  There i s a strong attempt made t o  perpetuate an I t a l i a n way of l i f e i n the t r a n s p l a n t e d household.  In t h i s stage,  f a i r l y i n t a c t but pressures  the Old World f a m i l y i s s t i l l from w i t h i n and outside the  f a m i l y a r e beginning to d i s r u p t and d i s o r g a n i z e , although i m p e r c e p t i b l y , patterns. 1.  Campisi  the t r a d i t i o n a l O l d World  (1948) l i s t e d nine  pressures:  The very a c t of p h y s i c a l separation  from the  p a r e n t a l f a m i l y and v i l l a g e c u l t u r e . 2.  The n e c e s s i t y t o work and operate with somewhat strange and f o r e i g n body of household t o o l s , equipment, gadgets, f u r n i t u r e , cooking u t e n s i l s , and  3.  other  physical objects.  Adjustment of the p h y s i c a l environment, i n c l u d i n g the c l i m a t e , urban e c o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s .  4.  The b i r t h of c h i l d r e n and the i n c r e a s i n g  contact  with American medical p r a c t i c e regarding  child  care. 5.  The n e c e s s i t y t o work f o r wages a t u n f a m i l i a r tasks.  6.  The attendance of I t a l i a n c h i l d r e n i n p a r o c h i a l and public  7.  schools.  Increased  p e r i o d of i s o l a t i o n from the O l d World.  13 8.  The acceptance o f work by the housewife o u t s i d e the home f o r wages.  9.  S o c i a l and economic d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and p r e j u d i c e . Still,  the f i r s t  generation  f a m i l y i n t h i s phase i s  a h i g h l y i n t e g r a t e d one, as i n the O l d World.  The  demands of the Canadian community a r e not s e r i o u s l y f e l t i n the i n s u l a t e d u n i t of the I t a l i a n f a m i l y or commune, and  the c h i l d r e n a r e s t i l l  newly acquired The  too young t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r  needs and wishes.  second g e n e r a t i o n  t y p i c a l l y entering  I t a l i a n f a m i l y i n Canada i s  the C o n f l i c t Stage (Campisi,  1948).  In t h i s stage the f a m i l y experiences the most profound changes and i s t o r n from i t s Old World  foundations.  T h i s stage i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the c o n f l i c t between two ways of l i f e , the  one Canadian and the other  i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f the parents and the c h i l d r e n .  T h i s phase i s g e n e r a l l y apparent d u r i n g decade of l i v i n g  the second  i n Canada, s p e c i f i c a l l y when the  c h i l d r e n express t h e i r acquired and  I t a l i a n , and by  Canadian  expectations  attempt t o have t h e i r needs met i n the f a m i l y  s i t u a t i o n and when the parents i n t u r n , attempt to r e i n f o r c e the O l d World p a t t e r n s . in various  There are c o n f l i c t s  f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s which t h r e a t e n  t o destroy  14 whatever  s t a b i l i t y the f a m i l y had maintained through the  f i r s t period.  I t i s a p e r i o d of great f r u s t r a t i o n and  misunderstanding f o r both parents and c h i l d r e n . the  parents who  It i s  have the most t o l o s e , f o r t h e i r  complete acceptance of the Canadian way of l i v i n g means the  d e s t r u c t i o n of the Old W o r l d . i d e a l .  Without  their  pure c u l t u r e and s o c i a l system to support i t s p o s i t i o n , the to  t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y p a t t e r n , a l r e a d y weakened, begins change d r a m a t i c a l l y :  the f a t h e r l o s e s h i s  importance, the daughter's a c q u i r e unheard of independence, and g e n e r a l l y the c h i l d r e n f o r c e the parents i n t o a more Canadian way Adjustment  of  life.  f o r the second g e n e r a t i o n  adolescent/young adult commonly takes three forms. first life.  The  i s a-complete abandonment of the Old World way of The i n d i v i d u a l changes h i s / h e r I t a l i a n name,  moves away from the neighbourhood or community and has little  to do w i t h h i s / h e r f o r e i g n born p a r e n t s .  The  i d e a l i s to become a c c u l t u r a t e d as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . Irving C h i l d 'Rebel'.  (1943) c a l l s t h i s type of adjustment the  Taking t h i s stance the r e b e l gains d i s t i n c t i v e  rewards f o r a f f i l i a t i o n with the North American group i n the  community.  S/he  continues to encounter p r e j u d i c e  15 against  I t a l i a n s but f o r s u r v i v a l s/he makes  out t o be an exception I t a l i a n group.  him/herself  and not r e a l l y a member of the  This person then l o s e s a f f i l i a t i o n  rewards from the I t a l i a n group and the attempt made to transcend  his/her  1  Italianess , 1  at l e a s t f o r the time The  seems s a t i s f a c t o r y  . ..  being.  next, and most common mode of a d j u s t i n g i s that  the i n d i v i d u a l Canadianized  f e e l s a strong need t o become  and t r i e s to shape the s t r u c t u r e and.  f u n c t i o n s o f the f a m i l y i n accordance with h i s / h e r newly acquired way of l i f e . entirely  repudiated  The p a r e n t a l way of l i f e  although there  i s not  i s some degree of  rejection. Although t h i s i n d i v i d u a l or f a m i l y w i l l out .of the I t a l i a n neighbourhood, i n t i m a t e  l i k e l y move  communication  i s maintained w i t h i n the p a r e n t a l household as w e l l as with the r e l a t i v e s .  A bond of a f f e c t i o n and  understanding i s maintained i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n .  Child  (1943) e x p l a i n s that t h i s type of adjustment does not gain the s u c c e s s f u l p u r s u i t of one s e t of goals  relating  to n a t i o n a l i t y but rather escapes the a n x i e t i e s which are a s s o c i a t e d with those g o a l s . distinctiveness  By l e s s e n i n g the  of the c o n f l i c t i n g goals and the  strength  of their  cultivation  desire  of indifference  in  t h e way o f t h e i r  of  not having his/her  This  person escapes  rewarding  f o r each o f them, and by t h e t o the barriers  achievement, life  t o him/her  stand  s/he g a i n s t h e reward  disturbed  anxiety  that  on t h e s u r f a c e .  and c o n f l i c t  than the loss  which  of other  i s more  potential  gains. The  third  generation  way f o r a p e r s o n t o a d j u s t  family  toward an I t a l i a n family close  remains  i s t o take his/her  orientation  way o f l i f e .  individual or  i n the Italian  to the parental  Italians  the Italian  that  this  community.  neighbourhood Interaction  Child  social  situations  status  than rewards  group.  with non-  interests  rewards  a n d may b e a s s o c i a t e d  are tied  this  i s sometimes  frustrating  from  However, f o r  way o f l i v i n g ,  be more c o m p l e t e a n d  a c c e p t a n c e by t h e C a n a d i a n  come  as a  with a lower  from an o t h e r s t a n c e .  because acceptance by t h e I t a l i a n  status  and s t a y s  (1943) p o i n t s o u t  These  t y p e o f p e r s o n who c h o o s e s  r e w a r d s may w e l l  than  inward  person g a i n s the reward o f secure s t a t u s  member o f t h e I t a l i a n  the  home.  This  i s a t a minimum, and h i s / h e r  with  i n the second  satisfactory  group  group.  these  i s more Although  s/he h a s an  thorough this  affiliation  17 group w i t h i n which s/he can express h o s t i l i t y n o n - I t a l i a n s a t l a r g e i n a supported  toward  group.  Family Dynamic L e v e l At the f a m i l y dynamic l e v e l the c o n f l i c t s a r e more s p e c i f i c and i n d i v i d u a l .  Any s i t u a t i o n that erodes the  I t a l i a n f a t h e r ' s a u t h o r i t y i s l i k e l y to have a pronounced n e g a t i v e impact  on him. The changing  r o l e of  women i n our c u l t u r e n a t u r a l l y p l a c e s great s t r a i n on a t r a d i t i o n a l I t a l i a n man (McGoldrick, Pearce, 1982).  When c h i l d r e n r e j e c t the values p a i n s t a k i n g l y  taught by the f a t h e r , he experiences another stress.  Giordano,  great  Some s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e that the f a t h e r  experiences the g r e a t e s t p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s of a l l family members (McGoldrick, Pearce, Giordano,  1982).  When c h i l d r e n q u e s t i o n and c h a l l e n g e p a r e n t a l v a l u e s the father experiences t h i s as d i s r e s p e c t and d e f i a n c e , an u t t e r l y i n t o l e r a b l e i n s u l t t o the f a t h e r ' s s e l f a l s o when the c h i l d r e n mature, g a i n t h e i r and attempt  image,  independence  t o separate from t h e i r f a m i l i e s , the f a t h e r  experiences severe f e e l i n g s of d e p r e s s i o n , abandonment and worthlessness  (McGoldrick, Pearce, Giordano,  The independence of female c h i l d r e n i s e s p e c i a l l y threatening.  The f a t h e r r e a c t s and expresses h i s  1982).  18 f e e l i n g s by angry o u t b u r s t s , and c o n f l i c t over of the young a d u l t ' s d e c i s i o n s .  control  Some s i t u a t i o n s  result  i n the c h i l d being p a r a l y z e d , o s t r a c i z e d from the f a m i l y or i n p e r p e t u a l c o n f l i c t with the f a m i l y while from extreme g u i l t  suffering  (Gambino, 1974).  I t a l i a n f a t h e r s may l o s e t h e i r high s t a t u s and t h e i r power i n d e c i s i o n making, however, what i s a c t u a l l y the product of s h i f t i n g c u l t u r a l values i s experienced as a l o s s of s e l f esteem on the p a r t of the father.  As he begins to share h i s power with h i s w i f e ,  the f a t h e r notes the d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n a t t i t u d e between himself and h i s f a t h e r ' s time and experiences i t as p e r s o n a l f a i l u r e to command the proper  respect.  Thus,  he may e x h i b i t an i n c r e a s e i n defensiveness and i n s e c u r i t y regarding h i s 'maleness'.  Often t h i s i s  manifested c l i n i c a l l y as d e p r e s s i o n (McGoldrick, Giordano,  Pearce,  1982).  Some immigrant f a m i l i e s , i n t h e i r f o r c e d surrender of power, f e e l sabotaged pressure.  by both o u t s i d e and i n s i d e  As t h e i r morale d i m i n i s h e s , they may become  o b s t i n a t e and r e s e n t f u l .  Some f a t h e r s attempt  l o s t c o n t r o l by w i t h h o l d i n g a f f e c t i o n .  to r e g a i n  T h i s makes  19 c h i l d r e n look upon t h e i r f a t h e r s with d i s d a i n  (Giordano,  1977). The s t a t u s of women i n I t a l i a n f a m i l i e s i s c o n f u s i n g and p a r a d o x i c a l .  Women assume subordinate,  n o n e r o t i c r o l e s that leave them w a i t i n g upon men, i n c l u d i n g t h e i r sons.  They a r e c o n s t a n t l y f u l f i l l i n g  t h e i r motherly d u t i e s , l i k e t a k i n g care of the c h i l d r e n , the cooking, c l e a n i n g and i r o n i n g  (Giordano, 1977).  t h i s r o l e they a r e both e x a l t e d and demeaned.  In  Often the  women came from f a m i l i e s whose f a t h e r s were absent and t h e r e f o r e f a m i l i e s which had no r e a l c l o s e n e s s with a father.  So, when a woman married, her husband  remained  a s t r a n g e r who u s u a l l y f a i l e d t o meet her dependency needs (Giordano, 1977).  Intimacy i n I t a l i a n  i s not a p r i o r i t y or e x p e c t a t i o n .  marriages  The mutual support  and complimentarity o f the r o l e s of husband and wife a r e t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s t o the immediate and extended f a m i l y (McGoldrick, Pearce, Giordano,  1982).  A consequence of  t h i s i s that c h i l d r e n do not have models w i t h i n t h e i r extended  f a m i l i e s f o r r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s and m a r i t a l  i s s u e s through n e g o t i a t i o n and r o l e Mothers,  flexibility.  who were c o n s t a n t l y present and a v a i l a b l e  i n the home, developed powerful r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the  20 children. and  O f t e n mothers, f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r r o l e to serve  s p o i l men,  tended to i n f a n t a l i z e t h e i r sons and  them c l o s e to her a l s o had  (Giordano, 1977).  out  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n (Giordano, 1977).  the unexpressed anger of the p a s s i v e  even  In a d i s t o r t e d  daughters became s u b s t i t u t e husbands and  mother.  Often  chosen to serve the mother's  to hear everyday complaints, worries and  sexual way,  E l d e s t daughters  a s p e c i a l p o s i t i o n v i s - a - v i s the mother.  the e l d e s t daughter was needs:  bind  also  acted  aggressive  T h i s enabled the mother to remain the i d e a l i z e d  madonna i n the eyes of sons and  husbands  (Giordano,  1977). Some mothers a l i g n e d c h i l d r e n on t h e i r s i d e of b a t t l e f i e l d against  the father who  condemned (Giordano, 1977).  remained alone  'head' or a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e , i t was great  d e a l of the power.  contradictions  For  the mother who  the  the  absent  Italian children,  i n the family and  by the f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e , l e f t  and  Thus i n the f a m i l y with  mother- as the c e n t r a l i z e d parent f i g u r e and  the  repression  held a the imposed  them with no apparent  way  of r e s o l v i n g i t . Mothers tended to act as a b u f f e r between and  c h i l d r e n and  fathers  n e i t h e r parent showed much i n t e r e s t i n  21 t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s p e r s o n a l problems. ' This was of concern concern  on c a r i n g , but  r a t h e r , the p r i o r i t y of  f o r the f a m i l y as a u n i t .  to American values may  not a lack  experience  Children socialized t h i s as a r e j e c t i o n of  t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l needs (McGoldrick, Pearce,  Giordano,  1982). W i t h i n the f a m i l y t h e r e i s intense need f o r love and a f f e c t i o n .  Competition  among c h i l d r e n c e n t e r s  around f e a r that p a r e n t a l a f f e c t i o n w i l l be withdrawn. Parents are r i g i d and g i v i n g of c o n d i t i o n a l love 1980).  The  (Rolle,  c o n f l i c t s between the value of f a m i l y and  education have made adolescence Italian families.  extremely  d i f f i c u l t for  Children, especially g i r l s ,  confused  by the c o n f l i c t i n g  parents:  "get an education  are  s i g n a l s given to her  by  . . . but don't change",  "grow . . . but remain w i t h i n the image of the 'houseplant'  Italian g i r l "  (Gambino, 1974).  In s h o r t ,  c h i l d r e n must maintain the d i f f i c u l t balance c o n f l i c t s which i s the second generation's Mothers t r a i n g i r l s character t r a i t s .  lifestyle.  i n the t r a d i t i o n a l s k i l l s  The daughters  an o p p r e s s i o n that s t i f l e s  and  perceive t h i s e f f o r t  t h e i r enjoyment of l i f e ,  t h e i r d a t i n g and t h e i r s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t  j  of  i n education  as  of and  the p u r s u i t of i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s  (Gambino, 1974).  F o l l o w i n g t r a d i t i o n , mothers s u p e r v i s e t h e i r l i v e s w e l l a f t e r they become a d u l t s .  children's  Frequently,  I t a l i a n women say t h e i r a d u l t s s t a t u s was never  accepted  by t h e i r parents, even a f t e r success i n career and marriage, u n t i l they produce  children  themselves  (Gambino, 1974; McGoldrick, Pearce, & Giordano,  1982).  A l s o , because the g i r l s l e a r n "the o l d ways", t h e i r conflict  i s only p a r t i a l l y with t h e i r p a r e n t s , the  remaining c o n f l i c t  i s w i t h i n themselves,  including a l l  the s p e c i a l g u i l t and agony of s e l f c o n f l i c t  (Gambino,  1974). The  r e b e l l i o n of daughters a g a i n s t t h e i r mothers,  having o l d world v a l u e s and new world form, make i t extremely d i f f i c u l t  f o r g i r l s to r e s o l v e t h e i r  identity.  There are no p o i n t s o f leverage, no understanding or i n s i g h t i n t o the "momism" model of the I t a l i a n (Gambino, 1974), t h e r e f o r e , teenage  female  g i r l s don't have a  r o l e model which they can r e l a t e to or a s p i r e t o . Behaviour  such as l i v i n g o u t s i d e the f a m i l y home,  going on dates, i n f o r m a l i t y i n p u b l i c p l a c e s and q u a r r e l l i n g with the f a m i l y e l d e r s i s c o n s i d e r e d ways o f a "puttane" 1  slut  1  (Gambino, 1974).  T h e r e f o r e , i n t r y i n g to  23 meet the developmental stages encouraged i n the world, g i r l s experience the f r u i t l e s s agony of understood anger against with confusing  new ill-  their families, alternating  g u i l t and anger towards themselves.  It  i s a search f o r i d e n t i t y c r i p p l e d by lack of knowledge of c u l t u r a l roots and an absence of a p p r e c i a t i o n  of  one's unique psychology (Gambino, 1974). Male c h i l d r e n tend to enjoy a form of  adulation,  yet they are not allowed to s e p a r a t e e a s i l y from e i t h e r the mother's or f a t h e r ' s  control.  There i s o f t e n a lack  of understanding of both the f a t h e r s and the sons to understand each o t h e r ' s v a l u e s , a breakdown i n communication. their father's resentment.  which can lead to Sons sometimes  resent  c o n t r o l and b u i l d up a w a l l of  Poor s e l f concept i s the r e s u l t of  ethnic  jokes, poor language, d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and shameful f e e l i n g s of inadequacy, p a r t i c u l a r i t y over the p a r e n t ' s poor use of the e n g l i s h language  (Giordano, 1977).  A  h i e r a r c h i c a l r e v e r s a l occurs as c h i l d r e n act as t r a n s l a t o r s and i n t e r p r e t e r s of the c u l t u r e .  This  f u r t h e r confuses immigrant c h i l d r e n by g i v i n g them an i n o r d i n a t e amount of power i n the f a m i l y while  24 m a i n t a i n i n g that the f a t h e r  i s the head of the  household. Tension i s generated Italian ideals obscure reject  f o r the young male because the  f o r the "male r o l e " are c o n f u s i n g and  i n their origins.  Males tend to outwardly  the s t y l e of the i d e a l while at the same time  they have l i t t l e  insight  search f o r i d e n t i t y  (Gambino, 1974).  In t h e i r  they a r e g r e a t l y bewildered by the  i n c o n g r u i t i e s between t h e i r  ill  understood  gut values  and many o f the values they p e r c e i v e i n the l a r g e r society  (Gambino, 1974).  Another c o n f l i c t imposed on c h i l d r e n t r a d i t i o n are s t r i c t l y defined roles including  by I t a l i a n  f o r each sex,  a sense of shame about sex ( g u i l t  chastity),  t o preserve  damage which i s p e r v a s i v e because of the o l d  world s o c i a l r a t i o n a l e  f o r these r o l e s  altered  (Gambino, 1974).  i n the present  There appears  has been g r e a t l y  to be no mechanism i n the f a m i l y f o r  the c h i l d t o express or r e s o l v e these c o n f l i c t s . some cases, the c h i l d r e n  In  a r e not able to a r t i c u l a t e  t h e i r s t r u g g l e but seem to be p a r a l y z e d and s t i f l e d i n the I t a l i a n t r a d i t i o n .  Parents are not aware of t h e i r  c h i l d r e n ' s dilemma as t h e i r own a c c u l t u r a t i o n and  25 i d e n t i t y struggle and  seems to be a p r i o r i t y .  Frustration  disappointment appears to be an undercurrent i n  family l i f e .  With the f a m i l y having no o u t l e t to  express or r e s o l v e feelings  inter-generational  conflicts,  (anger, revenge, shame, g u i l t ) may become  somatacized.  Giordano (1977) l i s t s these:  first  s t u t t e r i n g , c o n s t i p a t i o n , bed-wetting; second depression,  aggressive  order:  order:  acts towards the community, and  v o l c a n i c q u a r r e l s with attempts at r e s t i t u t i o n . Intrapsychic  Level  C o n f l i c t s a l s o occur at the i n t r a p s y c h i c  level.  S e l f i d e n t i t y develops out of a gradual i n t e g r a t i o n of a personal-subjective within  inner  i d e n t i t y , shaped and formed  the p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e , and an o b j e c t i v e  p u b l i c i d e n t i t y that develops out of a h i s t o r i c a l c o n t i n u i t y and i s shaped and formed by contemporary communal and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n (Jacobson, 1972). P e r s o n a l and group i d e n t i t y are thus interdependent (Jacobson, 1972). only  P e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y i s made p o s s i b l e  i n the context of group a f f i l i a t i o n .  a powerful i n f l u e n c e  Ethnicity i s  i n determining i d e n t i t y .  A sense  of belonging and of ones h i s t o r i c a l c o n t i n u i t y i s a basic psychological  need.  When immigrant c h i l d r e n  26 r e p r e s s , block, f a m i l i e s and  c u t o f f , deny, r e j e c t or abandon t h e i r  s o c i a l background they begin a process of  s p l i t t i n g their  identities  Giordano, 1982;  Giordano, 1977;  forms two  differing  (McGoldrick, Pearce, & Jacobson, 1972).  i d e n t i t i e s ; a personal  a public identity.  This  i d e n t i t y and  Giordano (1974) d e s c r i b e s  splitting  as an extreme means of defense that occurs i n immigrant children.  Part of the i n t r a p s y c h i c s e l f i s devoted to  the f a m i l y and greater  other p a r t i s developed and  society.  used i n the  T h i s " s p l i t t i n g " or using of d i f f e r e n t  p a r t s of o n e s e l f  to deal with d i f f e r e n t environments  leads to s e r i o u s  internal tensions.  When c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e negative  or d i s t o r t e d images  of t h e i r e t h n i c background or l e a r n values  from  the  l a r g e r s o c i e t y that c o n f l i c t s w i t h t h e i r f a m i l y , develop a sense of i n f e r i o r i t y and l e a d to a g g r e s s i v e other  behaviour and  they  s e l f hate that  can  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n towards  e t h n i c groups. Another study r e f u t e s the s p l i t t i n g i d e n t i t y  hypothesis by showing that p s y c h o l o g i c a l experienced by the adolescent  occur i n s u b c u l t u r a l  e t h n i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n s with t h e i r own systems and  stresses  variable stress  that these c u l t u r a l contexts  structure  the  27 l a r g e l y i n s e p a r a b l e c u r r e n t s of personal and  social  identity  faces great  ( S t e i n , 1971).  i n t e r n a l and r e s o l v e and  The  immigrant c h i l d  e x t e r n a l s t r u g g l e s without  the resources  understand t h e i r predicament.  to  In some  r  cases,  i n d i v i d u a l s can recognize  their struggle,  however, they are caught i n a double bind. to r e s o l v e t h e i r own  I f they  i d e n t i t y c r i s i s then they  are  will  d i r e c t l y c h a l l e n g e and must d e f i a n t l y oppose t h e i r families.  T h i s i s very d i f f i c u l t  p s y c h o l o g i c a l bonds and families.  given  the  enmeshed boundaries i n I t a l i a n  I f the i n d i v i d u a l s do not r e s o l v e t h e i r  i d e n t i t y they s t i l l C o n f l i c t and  remain i n c o n f l i c t with the f a m i l y .  Conflict  C o n f l i c t and  Resolution  conflict  r e s o l u t i o n have been s t u d i e d  on v a r i o u s a n a l y t i c a l l e v e l s ranging i n t e r p e r s o n a l and  intergroup.  from p e r s o n a l i t y ,  Theories of  conflict  r e s o l u t i o n have ranged from mathematical formulas, programmed .rules, to process c o n t e x t u a l models. to present  a full  own  I t i s not  to  models'and r e c e n t l y to i n the scope of t h i s paper  review of the c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n  l i t e r a t u r e so I have chosen one model that a p p l i e s itself  to studying  families.  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  chosen has more emphasis on content,  context  the model and  the  28 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of sequences of c o n f l i c t events, therefore,  i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y adaptable because c u l t u r a l  meanings are  considered.  Dwyer (1976) argues that c o n f l i c t and c o n f l i c t resolution either  can  not  be  s a t i s f a c t o r i l y understood using  a predominantly i n t u i t i v e methodology or  an  e s s e n t i a l l y unidimensional framework which assumes that f o r m a l i z e d a c t s of r e s o l u t i o n  necessarily  endings to c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s . process may specify  be simple and  ( F i l l e y , 1975).  resolution  be  rules  l e s s programmed  c o n f l i c t s , i n which r e s o l u t i o n  i m p o s i t i o n of a d e l i b e r a t e  reduction  c o n f l i c t resolution  programmed i n which  the outcome, o r , they may  more d i s r u p t i v e the  The  establish  i s based on  strategy  and  involves  of c o n f l i c t  T h i s concept of c o n f l i c t  the assumption that  c o n f l i c t s are  c o n s i d e r e d as an extended sequence of c o n f l i c t interactions.  Dwyer (1976) argues that  c o n f l i c t sequences tend to be  i d i o s y n c r a t i c a l l y bounded;  there i s no c l e a r e x p l a n a t i o n of why sequence i n c l u d e s events.  even extended  a particular  or excludes p a r t i c u l a r  interactive  Dwyer (1976) says the a s c e r t a i n i n g  meaningful boundaries appears best to be through an understanding of how  of  achieved  s o c i a l unity  i s provided  29 through processes of a p s y c h o l o g i c a l , c o g n i t i v e and/or symbolic s o r t .  Processes i n v o l v i n g thought and emotion  must be considered,  f o r i t i s p r e c i s e l y through these  mechanisms that d i s p u t e s (Dwyer 1976).  a r e l i n k e d to ensuing events  C u l t u r a l conceptualizations  of c o n f l i c t  must a l s o be examined, f o r c r u c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s a r e made i n any c u l t u r a l system between what we might p r o v i s i o n a l l y g l o s s as " c o n f l i c t " or "normal" s i t u a t i o n s (Dwyer 1976).  In the sense that these  representations  provide a framework w i t h i n which i n d i v i d u a l s develop t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and c a t e g o r i z e cultural conceptualizations and  t h e i r experience, these  a f f e c t thought and emotion  so a l s o u l t i m a t e l y a f f e c t the s t r u c t u r e of any  p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r a c t i o n a l sequence. In order t h a t c o n f l i c t be p r o p e r l y  analyzed as an  i n t e r a c t i v e p r o c e s s , c o n f l i c t should be understood not merely as b e h a v i o r a l behavioral 1976).  responses to behavior, but as  responses to behavior i n t e r p r e t e d  (Dwyer,  The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of behavior i s thus c e n t r a l  to the c o n f l i c t process - as a l s o , i s a process o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n by which p a r t i c u l a r i z e d and unique experiences come t o be i n t e r p r e t e d by d i s p u t a n t s  and/or  30 o u t s i d e r s as evidence of broader and more ongoing i n t e r a c t i v e tendencies (Dwyer 1976). Generalization,  as a conscious and c o g n i t i v e  process, tends to be marked during (Dwyer, 1976).  with p r i o r  As such, they tend to s t i m u l a t e  i n a new v e i n . disputes  disputing  Disputes c o n s i s t of unexpected and  u n s e t t l i n g behavior which clashes expectations.  and a f t e r  This has b e h a v i o r a l  thought  implications.  Since  i n v o l v e strong and l i n g e r i n g emotions, the  e f f e c t of d i s p u t i n g on l a t e r  i n t e r a c t i o n s a l s o tend t o  be l i n g e r i n g and s t r o n g . Dwyer  (1976) uses the term " r e d e f i n i t i o n " to  characterize  these changes and b e h a v i o r a l  adjustments.  Through r e d e f i n i t i o n , a r e l a t i o n s h i p i s reformulated with respect  to i t s r i g h t s , d u t i e s , and  after a dispute  has taken p l a c e .  expectations,  I t i s important to  note that an extended p e r i o d of r e d e f i n i t i o n f o l l o w s most i n t e r p e r s o n a l d i s p u t e s .  Most  interpersonal  c o n f l i c t s tend to p r e c i p i t a t e a l i n g e r i n g s t a t e of ambiguity i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l  relations.  This  occurs because many r i g h t s , d u t i e s , and  ambiguity  expectations  w i t h i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p remain i n i t i a l l y untested a f t e r a dispute  (Dwyer 1976).  31 Since r e d e f i n i n g of c o n f l i c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s g e n e r a l l y extended and  complex, Dwyer (1976) suggests  u n i t which i s c a l l e d the c o n f l i c t c h a i n of events i s used to analyze  a  and i t  the most c r u c i a l aspects of how  a  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s r e d e f i n e d during or a f t e r a d i s p u t e . c o n f l i c t chain of events ...  A  consists of:  ( l ) a n a n a l y t i c composite of  the  d i s p u t a n t s ' p r e v i o u s i n t e r a c t i o n s as d e f i n e d i n terms of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of r i g h t s , d u t i e s and  expectations;  (2) the immediate d i s p u t e sequence; (3) the subsequent i n t e r a c t i o n s through which r i g h t s , d u t i e s , and  expectations are  initially  reassessed. Since the s k e l e t a l s t r u c t u r e of a r e l a t i o n s h i p c o n s i s t s b e h a v i o r a l l y of r i g h t s , d u t i e s , and e x p e c t a t i o n s , f u r n i s h e s Dwyer's 1976  model f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g the major  changes which take p l a c e i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p . d i s p u t a n t ' s e x p l a n a t i o n s of m o t i v a t i o n s must be considered and  this  and  i n order to understand  r e s o l u t i o n of that i n t e r a c t i o n i n t h a t  A feelings  the  conflict  relationship.  The extent t o and speed with which  relationships  change during a p e r i o d of r e d e f i n i t i o n and the ease with which subsequent  i n t e r a c t i o n s between d i s p u t a n t s takes  p l a c e depend, i n p a r t , on c u l t u r a l b e l i e f s about meaning of c o n f l i c t .  the  I f d i s p u t a n t s b e l i e v e that  c o n f l i c t behavior provides deep and l a s t i n g  insights  i n t o the s e l f , such behavior w i l l generate marked r e e v a l u a t i o n s of c h a r a c t e r (Dwyer 1976). hand, i f c o n f l i c t temporary  On the other  i s viewed as r e v e a l i n g a t y p i c a l or  a b e r r a t i o n s i n otherwise more meaningful  behavior, then d i s p u t i n g i s l i k e l y limiting effect  (Dwyer  T h e , C r i t i c a l Incident  to have a more  1976). Technique  The r e s e a r c h used f o r t h i s study i s the C r i t i c a l Incident Technique developed by John Flanagan Flanagan found the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t procedure  (1954). effective  i n o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from i n d i v i d u a l s r e g a r d i n g success or f a i l u r e of people's  performance.  The method e s s e n t i a l l y i s a procedure f o r c o l l e c t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s of human behavior i n such a as to f a c i l i t a t e  their potential usefulness i n solving  p r a c t i c a l problems principles  way  and developing broad p s y c h o l o g i c a l  (Flanagan 1954).  Flanagan's technique i s a  33 f l e x i b l e s e t of p r i n c i p l e s which must be m o d i f i e d and adapted t o meet the s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n . Flanagan (1954) d e f i n e s  an " i n c i d e n t " as any  observable human a c t i v i t y that  i s s u f f i c i e n t l y complete  i n i t s e l f t o permit i n f e r e n c e s  and p r e d i c t i o n s  to be  made about the person who i s performing the a c t . The incident  i s " c r i t i c a l " i f i t makes a s i g n i f i c a n t  contribution  to the event i n v o l v e d .  event i s c o n f l i c t  resolution.  In t h i s study the  To be c r i t i c a l an  i n c i d e n t must occur i n a s i t u a t i o n where the purpose or i n t e n t of the a c t seems f a i r l y c l e a r to the observer and where i t s consequences are s u f f i c i e n t l y d e f i n i t e to leave l i t t l e This  doubt concerning i t s e f f e c t s .  study gathers i n f o r m a t i o n about which  f a c i l i t a t e , and, which f a c t o r s hider resolution,  conflict  i n second g e n e r a t i o n I t a l i a n f a m i l i e s , by  asking s u b j e c t s questions u s i n g Flanagan's set of p r i n c i p l e s , c a l l e d the C r i t i c a l Technique.  factors  This  structured  Incident  technique i s able to guide and  f a c i l i t a t e s u b j e c t s to g i v e important and new i n f o r m a t i o n about c o n f l i c t The incidents  resolution.  procedure used i n v o l v e s  a system of c o l l e c t i n g  of s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e which lead t o the  34 success  or f a i l u r e  Only  simple  Only  r e p o r t s from  all of  of carrying  out a s p e c i f i c  task.  judgments a r e r e q u i r e d o f t h e o b s e r v e r . qualified  observers  a r e i n c l u d e d and  o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e e v a l u a t e d by t h e o b s e r v e r an agreed  upon s t a t e m e n t  (Flanagan  1954).  questions  t o make s u r e  specific  defines  The o b s e r v e r s  criteria.  "critical  Data  a "critical  instances  a r e asked  systematic  requirement"  Flanagan  a difference  i n carrying  History  and Development  (1954)  as those c o n d i t i o n s  i n significant  failure  meets  a r e then a n a l y z e d and t h e are defined.  by o b s e r v e r s as making  of the a c t i v i t y  that the information given  requirements"  identified  o f purpose  i n terms  number o f  between  o u t an important  the success or  task.  of the C r i t i c a l  Incident  Technique The  critical  outgrowth of  incident  technique  of studies i n the aviation  the United States A i r Forces  P r o g r a m was e s t a b l i s h e d  to  procedures  classification The analysis  first  of a i r study,  as an  Psychology  i n World  Psychology develop  developed  War  II.  Program This  i n t h e summer o f 1 9 4 1  f o r the s e l e c t i o n and crews. using this  of the s p e c i f i c  reasons  m e t h o d , was t h e forfailure  i n learning  35 to  f l y t h a t were  Although  the study  behaviors a  need  provided  a n d was f o u n d  candidates  observations  t o be u s e f u l ,  f o r better procedures  representative pilot  r e p o r t e d by p i l o t  of particular  i t also  indicated  f o robtaining a  sample o f f a c t u a l  incidents regarding  performance. In t h e w i n t e r  which emphasized  o f 1943-1944 a s e c o n d  t h e importance  study  of factual  p e r f o r m a n c e made b y c o m p e t e n t o b s e r v e r s . information record found  i n 1941.  collected  still  of a l l the important  r e p o r t s on The  d i d not provide  a  events  nonetheless  b u t was  t o be o f c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l u e .  tabulations  was d o n e  t h a t were p r e p a r e d  complete  The s y s t e m a t i c  provided  the basis of  important  recommendations which went on t o change t h e  Air  selection  Force  and t r a i n i n g  In 1944, t h e f i r s t to gather behavior  specific with  subjects that  systematic  t o a designated  or  effort  ineffective  activity  took  t h e p r o b l e m o f combat l e a d e r s h i p .  were asked  to report  involved behavior  inadequate  large scale,  incidents of effective  respect  place addressing  procedures.  i n c i d e n t s observed  w h i c h was e s p e c i a l l y  i n accomplishing  an a s s i g n e d  The  by  them  helpful or  mission.  When  36  analyzed,  t h e s e d a t a p r o v i d e d an o b j e c t i v e  definition  of effective  During out on  the next  y e a r s many s t u d i e s were  t h e d e s i g n o f i n s t r u m e n t s and  discussion obtaining activity At  of these w i t h i n  the c r i t i c a l was  written  t h e end  Psychology  The  i n the s p r i n g  developing  and  two  o f 1947  Motors.  The  identify  critical  industrial  procedure  i n the  Aviation Institute  i n v o l v e d more  naming t h e C r i t i c a l  i n an  1946).  the American  Incident  f o r Naval  A e r o n a u t i c s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and time  for  particular  studies undertaken  t e c h n i q u e began t o be u s e d  first  Also a  I I some o f t h e r e s e a r c h  participated  first  of a  Spring  Program e s t a b l i s h e d  Research.  institute  War  the  b a s i s of procedures  (in late  had  c o n t r o l s and  requirements  of World  carried  for planning research  t h e cock p i t .  o f the t h e o r e t i c a l  p s y c h o l o g i s t s who  The  few  factual  leadership.  t h a t p r o v i d e d d a t a as a b a s i s  arrangement  for  combat  and  i n 1949  situation  developed  requirements  and  formally  Research, was  used  f o r the  for General was  later  i n s t r u m e n t became more w i d e l y used  i t was  other areas  including  functional  description  of emotional  immaturity  the  Technique.  for dentists.  developing a  by  and  used As  applied  the to  personality.  to  37 In is  its  present  essentially  concerning rigid  set  of  essential types from  of  an  on  upon  accuracy the  and  the  interpreting incident  is  the  type  of  of  of  system  c r i t i c a l  the and  can  in  the  categories.  inferences  set  of  to  of  that  observer, and  the  observer  in  of  the  the  observer  with  relation  essential  a  The  regarding  in  terms  has  to  next  been  consists This  for  any  the  essential  of step  Once  satisfactory  practical  depend  the  subjective.  placing  of  in  incidents.  fairly  achieved  a l l  activity.  step  been d e v e l o p e d  simple reports  judgments  the  a  meet  only  included  of  not  the  are  relatively  has  is  characteristic  of  incidents, be  the  c r i t i c a l  objectivity  to  a  next  of  refers  of  f i r s t  facts  It  adapted  are  purpose  which  The  inductive  defined  by  definition  classification  classification  required  competence  this  and The  objectivity  with  flexible  technique  observers  observed.  usually  the  statement  and  a  hand.  evaluated  precision  defined  the  are  is  technique  important  situation.  modified  at  are  qualified  agreed  The  of  it  incident  gathering  defined  be  situation  judgments  observations  a  c r i t i c a l  for  rather  must  elements  only  in  rules,  which  specific  the  procedure  behavior  principles the  a  form  a  given degree  incidents step  procedures  for  38 improving  performance based  We a r e r a r e l y  a b l e t o deduce o r p r e d i c t  degree of c o n f i d e n c e training, the  with a high selection,  on f u t u r e b e h a v i o r s o f  The i n c i d e n t s must be s t u d i e d i n t h e  of relevant established p r i n c i p l e s  behavior  incidents.  the e f f e c t s o f s p e c i f i c  or o p e r a t i n g procedures  type observed.  light  on t h e o b s e r v e d  and o f t h e known f a c t s  o f human  regarding  background  f a c t o r s and c o n d i t i o n s o p e r a t i n g i n t h e s p e c i f i c situation.  From t h i s  total  p i c t u r e hypotheses  are  formulated. Critical  I n c i d e n t s Procedure  Flanagan  and D a t a  (1954) s u g g e s t e d  that i n order  relevant  and i m p o r t a n t  flexible  s e t o f r u l e s which should  adapted  Collection  d a t a , each study  t o meet t h e s p e c i f i c  to c o l l e c t  would r e q u i r e a  be m o d i f i e d and  purpose of the r e s e a r c h  question involved. The steps.  critical  These p r o c e d u r e s  Specifications, and  Interpreting The  incident  technique  i n v o l v e s 5 main  a r e : General  Collecting  the Data,  Aims, P l a n s and  A n a l y z i n g the Data  and R e p o r t i n g .  g e n e r a l a i m o f an a c t i v i t y  and  g e n e r a l statement  The  description  s h o u l d be a  brief  of the o b j e c t i v e s of the study.  o f an a c t i v i t y  should  specify exactly  39 what i s n e c e s s a r y in  the a c t i v i t y  t o do a n d n o t t o do i f p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i s t o be j u d g e d s u c c e s s f u l o r e f f e c t i v e .  P l a n s a n d s p e c i f i c a t i o n s must be s p e c i f i c objectivity reported, observers  to insure  f o r t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s b e i n g made a n d p r e c i s e i n s t r u c t i o n s must be g i v e n  and the group b e i n g  s t u d i e d must be s p e c i f i e d .  The r u l e s s h o u l d be c l e a r a n d s p e c i f i c . specifications will  t othe  The  need t o be e s t a b l i s h e d a n d made  e x p l i c i t before c o l l e c t i n g  the data.  The s i t u a t i o n  observed  must i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e p l a c e , t h e  persons,  t h e c o n d i t i o n s and t h e a c t i v i t i e s .  The n e x t  step i s t o decide  whether o r n o t a s p e c i f i c  which i s observed  i s relevant t o the general aim of the  activity.  A l s o t h e e x t e n t o f t h e e f f e c t on t h e g e n e r a l  a i m must be c o n s i d e r e d . critical  behavior  An i n c i d e n t i s c o n s i d e r e d  i f i t makes a " s i g n i f i c a n t " c o n t r i b u t i o n ,  either p o s i t i v e l y or n e g a t i v e l y , t o the general the a c t i v i t y . observations  Another s p e c i f i c a t i o n  the b a s i s o f t h e i r  nature  regarding  a r e t h e p e r s o n s t o make t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s .  Wherever p o s s i b l e , t h e o b s e r v e r s  Included  aim of  i n this  s h o u l d be s e l e c t e d on  f a m i l i a r i t y with the a c t i v i t y .  i s g i v i n g the observers  a review  of the  o f t h e g e n e r a l aim o f t h e a c t i v i t y and a study o f  40 the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and they w i l l The  be  results fresh that  step i s c o l l e c t i n g  f o r t h i s phase  observed  be  fairly  the  form  the observer.  that are used  The  for collecting  incidents.  of  in this  study  i s the  to r e c o r d the  the necessary  details  (1954) a d v i s e s t h a t c e r t a i n actually  doing  the  are  purpose o f the study statement;  "we  wish  can  Record  The  Method.  what  data  taken  t o the  when  that observer.  i s t h a t someone  the  interview.  e x p l a i n e d by ...",  that  Flanagan  It is essential  said  in  trained  supplied.  suggested  to l e a r n  Forms.  Interview  is articulated  be  data  Interviews,  a c t i o n s s h o u l d be  G e n e r a l l y a l l t h a t needs t o be r e s p e c t e d has  four  i n c i d e n t s making s u r e  interview.  s p o n s o r s h i p of the study  known and  still  recalled  to e x p l a i n to observers p r e c i s e l y  a r e d e s i r e d and  are  There are  They a r e  i n t e r v i e w method i n v o l v e s u s i n g  personnel  all  facts  or  Incidents reported  Group I n t e r v i e w s , Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and used  necessary  i s t h a t the b e h a v i o r s  more p r e c i s e d e t a i l s .  of c r i t i c a l  procedure  A  r e c e n t g e n e r a l l y c o n t a i n more  c o m p r e h e n s i v e and procedures  judgments  the d a t a .  r e c o r d e d w h i l e the  i n t h e mind o f are  f o r the  r e q u i r e d t o make.  next  condition  definitions  or  giving  a  " I f parents  The brief are  to  41  be more e f f e c t i v e , things  they  we n e e d t o b e a b l e  do t h a t a r e e f f e c t i v e  next  statements  they  a r e a member o f a g r o u p t h a t  good p o s i t i o n ensuring  should  realize  In a d d i t i o n t o the data  should  a l s o be s t a t e d t h a t people.  collection questions should  should  s t a t e that an i n c i d e n t ,  the  person  the  type  accurate asked  d i d i s desired.  of behavior  importance  i t must  asking  which  reach  After  asked  defined.  observed.  When o b s e r v e r s  aim. I t  should  o r what specify  i s r e l e v a n t and t h e l e v e l  recent  To  of  ensure  observations  be  using  Several  t o make o b s e r v a t i o n s  harm  The  a c t u a l behavior,  The q u e s t i o n  the characteristics  must be w e l l  asked.  t o the general  should  To e n s u r e o b j e c t i v i t y Technique,  reported cannot  part of the data  t h e main q u e s t i o n  leading questions  activity,  confidential i t  t o be r e p o r t e d .  i n f o r m a t i o n , most  for.  being  the data  refer  that  i s i n an u n u s u a l l y  are the questions  briefly  The  the anonymity of t h e  The most c r u c i a l  procedures  and i n e f f e c t i v e " .  and r e p o r t on t h i s  data.  other  them t h e  point out t o the observers  t o observe  the observers  to t e l l  should  be  has been s t a t e d , avoided.  the Critical  Incident  of the desired incidents independent  and i n t e r p r e t  observers are  the incident  reports overlap, the  1  42  subjective data so  data  is  summarized  to  that  inferences  can  Flanagan data The  becomes more  (1954)  objective.  identify be  the  drawn  outlines  c r i t i c a l  from  the  After  this  the  requirements  them.  important  areas  of  analysis: Frame  of  Reference  consideration incident those  in  f a l l s  -  deciding  within.  believed  The  most  uses  upon  The  are  which  the  in  important  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  preferred  valuable  most  categories  using  the  each  are  statement  of  requirements. The  Category  categories the  Formation  to  minimize  formation First,  piles  of  briefly  incidents develop  to  define to  new the  the  frame  are  subdivided are  definitions  and put  for  of  are  next This  a l l  the the  of  same  is  to  process  and  continues Large  and  After major  Then  add  redefine  describe  group.  categories  for  into  selected.  categories  that  procedure  incidents  reference  step  tentative  follows.  c l a s s i f i e d .  incidents in  as  the The  sample  tentative The  incidents  is  small  categories.  of  behaviour  a  these  review  subjectivity.  out  them.  a l l  Others  categories  sort  related  -  other and  until  categories similar this  the  headings  43 are  reexamined  classified  i n terms of the a c t u a l  incidents  under.  The General Behavior - The optimal balance between g e n e r a l i t y vs. s p e c i f i c i t y must be determined.  T h i s can  be gaged by what the f i n d i n g s w i l l be used f o r .  The  c a t e g o r i e s should be reviewed to maintain that balance. Flanagan the c r i t i c a l  (1954) o f f e r s these g u i d e l i n e s to develop requirements at the d e s i r e d l e v e l of  generality/specificity: The Headings  and requirements must be c l e a r - c u t ,  l o g i c a l l y organized and d i s c e r n a b l e with an  easily  remembered s t r u c t u r e . The T i t l e s r e q u i r e meanings i n themselves  without  d e t a i l e d d e f i n i t i o n s , e x p l a n a t i o n or differentiation. Headings  f o r major areas and requirements should be  homogeneous, p a r a l l e l i n content and s t r u c t u r e and neutral.  The headings must be a l l of same type and  importance.  A l s o , the Headings  should f a c i l i t a t e  the f i n d i n g s to be e a s i l y a p p l i e d and useful.  The l i s t  comprehensive;  maximally  of headings needs to be  c o v e r i n g a l l i n c i d e n t s having  44 s i g n i f i c a n t f r e q u e n c i e s when r e p o r t i n g emphasize not only l i m i t a t i o n s but the value of the r e s u l t s . Each of the four steps i n the C r i t i c a l  Technique;  [determination  of the general aim, the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of  the observers,  groups to be observed and o b s e r v a t i o n s to  be made, the data c o l l e c t i o n , and the data a n a l y s i s ] must be examined f o r any b i a s that c o u l d have been introduced.  T h i s should  be a s c e r t a i n e d before going on  to i n t e r p r e t the r e s u l t s . R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y Anderson and N i l s s o n (1964) d i d a study on the method of the C r i t i c a l to the r e l i a b i l i t y order  Incident Technique with  respect  and v a l i d i t y of the procedure.  to study the r e l i a b i l i t y  In  and v a l i d i t y of the  procedure Anderson and N i l s s o n a p p l i e d the C r i t i c a l Incident technique t o a n a l y z i n g managers i n a Swedish grocery  the job of s t o r e  company.  About 1800  i n c i d e n t s were c o l l e c t e d by i n t e r v i e w s and questionnaires. reliability Critical  From t h i s study they s t u d i e d  and v a l i d i t y of the f o l l o w i n g aspects  Incident Technique:  Analysis:  o f the  S a t u r a t i o n and  Comprehensiveness, R e l i a b i l i t y of the C o l l e c t i n g Procedure, C o n t r o l of C a t e g o r i z a t i o n , A n a l y s i s of  Contents  of Training  Literature,  The  Importance  of the  Subcategories. Analysis; to whether  included  the method (1964)  took  subject  and grouped  these  classified.  t o cover.  incidents  o f each  This procedure were  formed.  When 2/3  The  incidents  increased rapidly  early  emerged a f t e r  or whether  probably stopped  then  essential  the data  the data a n d was  found  until  t h e 2/3  2/3  The  each next  grouped  20 g r o u p s  of  then  that  total  the  of the data  5%, o f t h e point.  collection  collection  sufficient  by  This  process  had stopped  too  I t was  had not been  to identify  the  p o i n t s of the job.  The R e l i a b i l i t y whether,  and  95% o f t h e  i t had been s u f f i c i e n t .  that  too early  I t was  A small percentage,  whether  were  were c l a s s i f i e d ,  subcategories  determines  together.  continued u n t i l  had appeared.  subcategories  Anderson  s u b j e c t s were then  subcategories  were c o l l e c t e d .  has  5% o f t h e r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s  5% o f t h e i n c i d e n t s together.  of data  refers  a l l types of the b e h a v i o r a l units  i s expected  Nilsson  incidents  and Comprehensiveness  or not the c o l l e c t i o n  sufficiently that  Saturation  and t o what  of the C o l l e c t i n g  Procedure i s  e x t e n t , t h e number o f i n c i d e n t s  and  46 t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n i n subcategories were a f f e c t e d methods of c o l l e c t i o n and by the i n t e r v i e w e r s .  by the  There  was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the number of critical  i n c i d e n t s p r o v i d e d by the i n t e r v i e w and the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , as t e s t e d by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov twosample t e s t .  The rank c o r r e l a t i o n between the s i z e s of  the c a t e g o r i e s  from each method was .85  Nilsson,  p . 400).  1964,  (Anderson &  That i n d i c a t e s that there was a  strong c o r r e l a t i o n between the s i z e of the  categories  between the i n t e r v i e w and the q u e s t i o n n a i r e methods. There were no great d i f f e r e n c e s  i n the number of  i n c i d e n t s per i n t e r v i e w between the i n t e r v i e w e r s who i n t e r v i e w e d the s u b j e c t s .  The "Kruskal-Wallace one-way  a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e by ranks" was a p p l i e d and showed that the s t r u c t u r e s of the m a t e r i a l s o b t a i n e d by the i n t e r v i e w e r s are very s i m i l a r as shown by the coefficients  of concordance (W) and the  correlations  (r  s a v  ),  average  e s p e c i a l l y between i n t e r v i e w e r s A ,  B and C (Anderson & N i l s s o n , 1964,  p.  400).  C o n t r o l of C a t e g o r i z a t i o n has been regarded as s u b j e c t i v e and d i f f i c u l t s i n c e d i f f e r e n t people may c a t e g o r i z e or group i n c i d e n t s together ways.  in different  Andersson and N i l s s o n (1964) demonstrated that  47  the C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Technique category system was p l a u s i b l e and not too s u b j e c t i v e by conducting an experiment.  Twenty-four psychology s t u d e n t s , working i n  p a i r s , were r e q u i r e d to s o r t two s e t s of 100 i n c i d e n t s , that had been randomly chosen from each area, i n t o subcategories (that had headings).  There were 2  d i f f e r e n t groups of i n c i d e n t s from each area and each group that had t o be c l a s s i f i e d independently, twice. These students had a tendency to p l a c e the i n c i d e n t s i n the same category i n d i c a t i n g that agreement, i n the categories i s high. A n a l y s i s of Contents of T r a i n i n g L i t e r a t u r e to' whether  the C r i t i c a l  refers  Incident Procedure succeeds i n  i n c l u d i n g a l l the important aspects of work:  That i s ,  whether  or not the data that has been c o l l e c t e d i s  valid.  The t r a i n i n g l i t e r a t u r e was examined  whether  or not the important content would be r e v e a l e d  that had not shown up i n the data a n a l y s i s .  to e x p l o r e  Anderson  and N i l s s o n concluded that t h i s a n a l y s i s d i d n ' t any new a s p e c t s .  reveal  T h i s demonstrates that the c r i t i c a l  i n c i d e n t technique had been thorough and that the content was v a l i d .  48 The  importance of s u b c a t e g o r i e s examines whether or  not the i n c i d e n t s are r e a l l y c r i t i c a l and the work at hand.  important  To determine the importance of the  subcategories a r a t i n g form was  c o n s t r u c t e d i n which the  86 s u b c a t e g o r i e s were rated on a 6 p o i n t s c a l e . average r e l i a b i l i t y (Andersson  c o e f f i c i e n t c a l c u l a t e d was  & N i l s s o n , 1964,  p. 402).  Based on  s t u d i e s of these f i v e a s p e c t s , the C r i t i c a l both r e l i a b l e and The  The .83 the  Incident i s  valid.  r e s u l t s of Andersson and N i l s s o n ' s  comprehensive research on the r e l i a b i l i t y  and  v a l i d i t y of the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique  the  conclude  that t h i s method of data c o l l e c t i o n i s both r e l i a b l e valid.  to  and  49 Chapter 3 Methodology Subjects A t o t a l of 9 a d u l t s and 8 a d o l e s c e n t s ; one a d u l t and one a d o l e s c e n t from each of the f a m i l i e s with one e x c e p t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study. comprised  The sample was  o f second g e n e r a t i o n I t a l i a n f a m i l i e s , with  c h i l d r e n between the ages o f 13-19 years o l d l i v i n g a t home. The sample was drawn from the Burnaby North  High  School Enrollment Roster s i n c e the Burnaby d i s t r i c t has a large I t a l i a n population.  The school enrollment  r o s t e r i d e n t i f i e d f a m i l i e s who had teenage  children.  Out of the r o s t e r the I t a l i a n f a m i l i e s were e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d by t h e i r f a m i l y names. name was chosen families.  to form a l i s t  Every f o u r t h  of s i x t y - f i v e  Italian  Italian  These 65 f a m i l i e s were sent l e t t e r s of  i n i t i a l c o n t a c t (see Appendix) w r i t t e n i n both E n g l i s h and I t a l i a n .  Follow up phone c a l l s were made to d i s c u s s  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study.  The s u b j e c t s were informed  that the study would e x p l o r e the area of i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n c o n f l i c t and c o n f l i c t  resolution i n Italian  families.  The s u b j e c t s were t o l d that about an hour o f t h e i r  time  50 would be r e q u i r e d f o r i n t e r v i e w s . a c h o i c e a s t o where The  t h e i n t e r v i e w s would  i n t e r v i e w s c o u l d be done  neutral  area  explained study  (Burnaby North  i n their  take  given  place.  own home o r i n a  counselling office).  to the subjects that participation  I t was  i nt h e  i s v o l u n t a r y and that t h e i n t e r v i e w s would  recorded.  Subjects  information  were a l s o r e a s s u r e d  collected  would  Out o f 65 f a m i l i e s agreed  to participate  families  used  volunteered.  only  10  cases  m u l t i p l e phone  subjects only  after  I n other  a process  that  through  deal of effort.  c a l l s . w e r e made b e f o r e  to participate.  volunteered  families  The f i n a l i o  the only  and a great  tape  confidential.  i n the study. were  be  that the  The' v o l u n t e e r s w e r e g a t h e r e d  determination  would agree  remain  approached  i n the study  great  only  They were a l s o  I n some  the family  cases,  the family  of persuasion  on the  phone. It of  was v e r y  the families  threatened.  difficult approached  Others  seemed  T h e r e was a g r e a t  adamantly proclaimed conflict  to recruit  that there  between themselves  stated that  they  very  number  volunteers.  Most  d e f e n s i v e and of parents  who  was a b s o l u t e l y n o  and t h e i r  teenage  d i d n ' t have t h e time  children. t o meet o r  51  that the  they  s i m p l y were n o t i n t e r e s t e d  i n taking  part i n  study.  Background of the Subjects The  families  Families  from  participated.  i n t e r v i e w e d had o r i g i n a t e d  Northern  and Southern  A l l of the families  years.  A l l of the adolescents attended  i n Canada f o r a minimum o f 5  Each  family  Burnaby  was a t w o p a r e n t  and  t h e r e were n o t any d i v o r c e d o r r e m a r r i e d  All  of t h e s u b j e c t s spoke both The  years  s u b j e c t s ranged  o f age.  business  The range  person,  salesperson,  from  Italian 13 y e a r s  and  homemaker  and a  worker, janitor.  family  English.  o f a g e t o 51  of adult occupations  a marble  North  spouses.  included a  a r e s t a u r a n t owner, an a r t i s t ,  carpenter/contractor,  Italy  presently resided i n  and had l i v e d  School.  Italy.  d i s t r i c t s of  Burnaby  Secondary  from  factory  a worker,  52 Interview  participation  (gender)  Incidents  Mother/  Mother/  Father/  Father/  Reported  Son  Daughter  Son  Daughter  By  4  NO.  2  3  1  n = 10 Interview  Preparation  A multicultural North  Senior  consulted  liaison  Secondary  and c o u n s e l l o r  School,  and i n t e r v i e w e d .  Ivan  f o r Burnaby  Quattrocchi,  The i n t e n t i o n  of  was  this  meeting  was t o d e v e l o p a n a w a r e n e s s o f t h e i s s u e s  between  Italian  The n a t u r e any  of this  questions  to draw  and t h e i r  research  was e x p l a i n e d  f r o m h i s own e x p e r i e n c e , about  conflict  t o comment o n w h a t  resolution resolution. provided families.  adolescent  he h a d w e r e a n s w e r e d .  generalizations asked  parents  and what  factors  Following  through  seems  Then  children.  t o Ivan  and  h e was  asked  as a c o u n s e l l o r ,  resolution.  Ivan  to facilitate  seemed  to hinder  i s the information  h i s experience  faced  i n working  some was  conflict conflict  that with  Ivan Italian  53 It  was i d e n t i f i e d  hindered the  conflict  values  resolution  authoritarian  should,  without  parents  and l i s t e n  relationship  on mutual  children and  as equals  child  feel  children  the ideas of i s asked  and c h i l d  Parents  o f them.  i s unequal  do n o t t a l k  over  Parents  the children,  The  and not  to their parent  a r e possessive and no m a t t e r  what  age i s . Parents  tend  and  an a u t h o r i t y  of  " I am t h e b o s s  t o demand c o m p l i a n c e stance.  The p a r e n t s  through take  ... s o d o a s I s a y . "  The  greater  of t h e E n g l i s h language don't  their  parents  position  of translating  understand  which  resenting their further  a n d who h a v e a m u c h experience  They a r e o f t e n p u t i n t h e  or helping t h e i r  Canadian c u l t u r e .  children  stance  as t h e "boss".  position  children,  i n Canadian values  command  control  on a  who a r e e x p e r t s  the  their  and t h e communication between  i s not r e c i p r o c a l .  an ownership  their  who b e l i e v e t h a t  o r do w h a t e v e r  respect.  that  The f a t h e r s a r e  question, respect  between parent  factors  was t h e p a r e n t a l r o l e a n d  associated with this.  traditionally  based  t h a t one o f t h e main  This  discrepancy  parents  exacerbates  parents  f o r using  conflict.  leads to this  54  Another p a r e n t s do is  the  not  handles  contribute  factors  families  outside  the  dealing  with  a  Italian Of  family  seems t o get  child  parents, fight reject  for  and  solve who and  parents  the by  this  well  not  using  and  to  " d i v i d e and  conquer"  as e f f e c t i v e l y  These  conflict  the  factors  not  as  resolution a  r u l e seek  tradition  family  in  unit as  help  of  and  do  not  negative  for  When p r o b l e m s d e v e l o p more r i g i d .  hate the  There  the .  is a  e v e n more c o n t r o l  This,  i n turn,  lost  parents' of  how  The  family.  t i m e has  survival full by  house  exercise  problem.  becomes h i s  parents  the  i t i s perceived  in conflict.  to  of  t h e y do  problems w i t h i n  go  running  authority.  be  letting  hopes the  to  home.  I t a l i a n s have a  t h e i r p r o b l e m s as  family  the  the  the  father  of  hinder  i s that  The  b e t w e e n them on  i n the  that  family.  i s that  out  what t h e y want as  conflict  Italian  share  day  their parents to  Other  to  often  learn quickly  getting  undermining  day  conflict  team i n p a r e n t i n g .  discussion  Children  method of  a  increases  f i g u r e but  the  is little  parent.  that  create  authority  mother there  factor  and  his  I t becomes  rejection.  language,  in  discourages  a l l trust in  enemy.  fear  failing  a  Children at  55 school,  presenting  aggressive The conflict and  and  the c h i l d .  to  trust  with  their  factor  conflict  communication  skills.  on o u t i n g s  Included  parents  conflict  Less  c o u l d be  achieved focus  on  reframed  by s p e n d i n g  more  o r i n t h e home. as  i s the use of i n this  (Italian  learning listening  i s decreased  relating  were  i s identified  resolution  down o f t h e l a n g u a g e b a r r i e r also,  success  that  the parent  c o u l d be  load.  i n the family l i f e  children  between  This  work  and f i n a n c i a l  Another major facilitating  their  resolving  friends  changes.  reducing  " g e t t i n g ahead"  time  being  t o one a n o t h e r ,  and becoming  as important  ahead"  as  on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  Becoming c l o s e r  the parents  "getting  t h a t were i d e n t i f i e d  focussed  more, b u i l d i n g  by  a s "macho" a n d  non-compliant.  factors  identified  themselves  i s the breaking  v s . E n g l i s h ) and  skills.  when p a r e n t s  In addition,  learn parenting  skills. The  Critical The  help  Critical  subjects  conditions conflict  Incident  Interview  Incident technique  identify  facilitate  resolution.  from t h e i r and which  was s e l e c t e d t o  own e x p e r i e n c e ,  conditions  hinder  which  56  Data were c o l l e c t e d using i n d i v i d u a l with the a d u l t and  the adolescent  of each f a m i l y .  f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i b e s the interview and methodology.  The  interviews The  research  interviewer began each i n t e r v i e w by  meeting the subject and  t r y i n g to e s t a b l i s h rapport,  t a l k i n g i n f o r m a l l y about something u n r e l a t e d to the research.  A f t e r a few minutes the interviewer reminded  the subject about the nature of the research "I'm  i n v e s t i g a t i n g which f a c t o r s f a c i l i t a t e  stating, conflict  r e s o l u t i o n i n I t a l i a n f a m i l i e s and which c o n d i t i o n s hinder c o n f l i c t  resolution.  questions because you,  I ' l l be asking you some  as I t a l i a n parents, can  most a c c u r a t e l y these c o n d i t i o n s . " began with the f o l l o w i n g standard Immigrant parents  i n t e r v i e w e r then  preamble.  sometimes have d i f f i c u l t i e s  with t h e i r teenage c h i l d r e n . experience  The  identify  A common  i s that a d u l t s maintain  traditional  values while t h e i r growing c h i l d r e n l e a r n d i f f e r e n t values i n the Canadian c u l t u r e . This s i t u a t i o n may understanding  create c o n f l i c t or  between parent  sharing your experiences  and c h i l d .  i n parenting you  By can  57 help  identify  factors  influencing  Italian  by t h i n k i n g  conflict. happened  Think  that either  child.  concrete  resolution i n  o f an enduring  back  i n resolving  your  conflict  and h i n d e r i n g  families.  Begin  you  the f a c i l i t a t i n g  t o a t i m e when  something  helped  you o r h i n d e r e d  a conflict  between you and  W h a t I'm  events  kind of  interested  rather than  i ni s  opinions or  theories. The  interview  questions context  designed  then proceeded to elicit  with  open-ended  a specific  c r i t e r i o n and  by t h e s u b j e c t s .  Interview Think  of the last  child.  D i d your  of  conflict?  this  What w e r e  time  behavior  you had a c o n f l i c t  help or hinder  with  the resolution  ...  the general circumstances  l e a d i n g up t o t h i s  incident? Tell  me  exactly  your  w h a t was s a i d  and done d u r i n g  this  58 incident  (that helped/hindered  conflict)  Why  was  the r e s o l u t i o n of  ...  this  resolution  so c r i t i c a l  of  i n helping/hindering  the  conflict?  (What e x a c t l y  happened t h a t  was  so h e l p f u l i n t h i s  incident...) (What was  the impact)  Procedure The  subjects  who  agreed  telephoned  and i n t e r v i e w  interviews  took place  interviewer  their the  experiences  sign  reminded In  the parents that  residences.  and t h e  the subjects  and f e e l i n g s w i t h  The The  adolescents  didn't  each other  share before  interview. Before  to  to ensure  t i m e s were a r r a n g e d .  i n the subjects'  interviewed  back-to-back  t o p a r t i c i p a t e were  the interview  a consent that  form  (Appendix).  the i n t e r v i e w  a d d i t i o n , the subjects  introduction  began the s u b j e c t s  and then  would  The  subjects  take about  were g i v e n  the interviewer  a  were  an  asked were  hour.  brief went  on t o ask  59 them t h e i n t e r v i e w  questions.  Each  interview  was  tape-  recorded. After  the interview,  each c r i t i c a l  t h e tapes were  i n c i d e n t was t r a n s c r i b e d  onto  When a l l o f t h e i n c i d e n t s w e r e r e c o r d e d began had  sorting the cards  a common m e a n i n g .  categories  and l o o k i n g The s o r t e d  were  reviewed being  incidents  represented  specifically  category.  Over  time,  this  categories  the categories  by t h e c a t e g o r i e s i na  which  formed  a l l of the incidents  belonged  cards.  researcher  Tentative  formed and then a few days l a t e r  clearly  the  f o rincidents  were  that  index  incidents  i n many d i f f e r e n t w a y s .  t o ensure  reviewed and  were  and that a l l  particular  s o r t i n g formed  basic  categories. The by  tentative basic  a research  redefined  categories. category other  chosen  Using which  This  with  this  another  Each  minimal  incident overlays.  f o reach category.  reviewed  some  about t h e categories  s e t of basic  p r o c e s s was c o n t i n u e d and c l e a r l y  then  feedback  information  reformed  was d i s t i n c t  categories.  category,  were  a s s i s t a n t who p r o v i d e d  categorization. were  categories  until  each  d i f f e r e n t from the. f i t only  i n t o one  A heading  The h e a d i n g s  title  chosen  was  convey  60  the  meaning of  headings  are  completed  the  incidents  simple, clear  the and  resolution  emerged.  be  the  t e s t e d by  Preparing In  an  a  events  was  either  a minimally  represent events  the  f o r the  i f a category to  shows t h e  one  I n a medium  to represent was  heavily  represent number o f  was  independent sample of rated  a medium  reported sample.  were t a k e n  ready  Raters  stratified  r e p o r t e d sample then  were t a k e n  following  cards  Each c a t e g o r y  that category.  conflict  rater.  reported sample,  a heavily  conflict  hindered  Independent  the of  established.  a minimally  events  f o r the  was  b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s were  independent  rough e s t i m a t e  sample or  Finally,  the  to prepare  raters  two  Now  The  When t h i s  c a t e g o r i e s which  the Cards  order  logical.  categories that f a c i l i t a t e d  resolution  to  i n that category.  reported  was  reported  that  taken  had to  category  category.  reported then  that category. events  as  I f a category event  the  from  each  three The  category:  61  S t r a t i f i e d Sample; Events from Each Category Total  Min.  Stratified  incidents  med.  sample  heavy  representation  reported D i s c u s s i o n Closed  1  Min.  1  P a r e n t a l Agreement  1  Min.  1  Humor  1  Min.  1  Apology  2  Min.  1  Tolerance  4  Med.  2  Compromise & N e g o t i a t i o n  4  Med.  2  Greater  12  Heavy  3  4  Med.  Understanding  Reinforcing  Family  Closeness  Total 13/29 C o n f l i c t i n g Expectations  27  Heavy  3  Lack of Understanding  1  Min.  1  Rejection  7  Med.  2  Disagreements  16  Heavy  3  Disobedience & Disrespect  46  Heavy  3  Parental Conflict  8  Med.  2 Total 14/105  Total 27/134  62  The c l e a r e s t i n c i d e n t s i n e a c h c a t e g o r y represent of  that  i n c i d e n t s was  contained nature the  category.  The c h o s e n  one o r two s e n t e n c e s  e v e n t by r e m o v i n g  This  to  that  sample  The r e v i s e d  revealed  the extraneous  card  the key  r e v i s i o n was made t o  some i n c i d e n t s c o n t a i n e d . so t h a t  stratified  r e - w r i t t e n on a c a r d .  of the event.  written  were c h o s e n t o  clarify  information  which  T h e e v e n t was s u m m a r i z e d a n d  the f i r s t  phrase  the i n c i d e n t and the l a s t  described  phrase  stated  what  l e d up  the key  concept of the event. Independent The  r a t e r s were g i v e n  information were t o l d either  the cards  facilitate  that  asked  i n t h e 27 c a r d s  that  explained and  Rating  that  each category  to place  summary o f t h e  as an i n t r o d u c t i o n .  were  or hinder  the cards  a brief  instances  conflict  of factors  resolution.  had been s o r t e d  had a heading.  the cards  and  which I t was  categorized  The r a t e r s  i n the appropriate  T h e r e a r e 14 d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s  They  were  categories.  which each had a  heading. As  the "Heading"  description categories  cards  were  lined  up, a  verbal  o f t h e meaning o f each o f the heading was g i v e n .  To p r e v e n t  confusion,  the rater  63  was  informed  were t o l d the  about  that  the format  the f i r s t  event and t h a t  o f the i n c i d e n t .  phrase  the l a s t  indicated  phrase contained  incident.  The r a t e r s were t h e n l e f t  cards i n t o  the appropriate  Both categories placing  raters 100%  placed  what  to place  They l e d up t o  the actual t h e random  categories.  the cards  of the time.  Both  the cards a p p r o p r i a t e l y  i n the raters  appropriate commented  was p e r f o r m e d w i t h  that ease.  64 Chapter 4 Results In t h i s c r i t i c a l  i n c i d e n t study on what  or what h i n d e r s c o n f l i c t  facilitates  resolution in Italian families  the 20 s u b j e c t s , 10 a d u l t s and 10 a d o l e s c e n t s ,  reported  a t o t a l of 134 i n c i d e n t s - 29 f a c i l i t a t i v e and 105 hindering.  There was one a d u l t and one adolescent  the same f a m i l y who both r e p o r t e d  from  that there was no  c o n f l i c t between them and t h e r e f o r e could r e p o r t no incidents.  There was a l s o one adolescent  p a r t i c i p a t e i n the i n t e r v i e w but avoided three times.  The f i r s t time, she l e f t  was s e t t i n g up the tape r e c o r d e r ; agreeing  who agreed to the i n t e r v i e w  the house while I  the second time, a f t e r  t o the time and p l a c e of the i n t e r v i e w , she d i d  not show up; and, the t h i r d  time, she agreed to  p a r t i c i p a t e over the phone but remained q u i e t and d i d not r e p o r t any i n c i d e n t s .  The a c t u a l number of s u b j e c t s  who cooperated were 9 a d u l t s and 8 a d o l e s c e n t s ; total.  17 i n  The average number of i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d per  subject was approximately 8. Basic  Categories Fourteen b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s were i d e n t i f i e d .  were e i g h t c a t e g o r i e s that reported  There  i n c i d e n t s which  65 facilitated conflict reported  r e s o l u t i o n and s i x c a t e g o r i e s  i n c i d e n t s which hinder  that  conflict resolution.  These c a t e g o r i e s are l i s t e d below. Basic  Categories Hindering  Facilitative Discussion  1. C o n f l i c t i n g  Closed  Expectations  P a r e n t a l Agreement  2. Lack of Understanding  Humor  3.  Apology  4. Disagreement  Tolerance  5. Disobedience & D i s r e s p e c t  Compromise &  6. P a r e n t a l  Rejection  Conflict  negotiation 7. Greater  understanding  8. R e i n f o r c i n g f a m i l y  rapport  There were four c a t e g o r i e s that c o n s i s t e d of i n c i d e n t only.  In the f a c i l i t a t i v e i n c i d e n t s the  c a t e g o r i e s which c o n s i s t e d of one  i n c i d e n t s that one  lack of understanding.  The  three  i n c i d e n t were:  d i s c u s s i o n c l o s e d , p a r e n t a l agreement, and the h i n d e r i n g  one  humor.  i n c i d e n t category  In was,  i n c i d e n t s t h a t formed these  c a t e g o r i e s were c l e a r , w e l l formed and d i s t i n c t . i n c i d e n t s would not be a p p r o p r i a t e  f o r any  of  the  These  66  existing from  c a t e g o r i e s and because  t h e o t h e r s , demanded In  total  there were  their 134  they were very own  category.  incidents  Seventy-eight  % o r 1 0 5 o f t h e 134 w e r e  factors  hindered  which  Approximately reported  presented  The below.  reported. reported  as  resolution.  2 2 % o r 29 o u t o f 134  as f a c t o r s  resolution.  conflict  different  incidents  that facilitated  f r e q u e n c i e s f o r each  were  conflict category  are  P r o p o r t i o n a l Frequency Number of  Proportional  of  Frequency  incidents  x  reported 134 D i s c u s s i o n Closed  1  .746  P a r e n t a l Agreement  1  .746  Humor  1  .746  Apology  2  1.492  Tolerance-  4  2.985  Compromise & N e g o t i a t i o n  4  2 .985  Greater  12  8.95  Understanding  Reinforcing  Family  Closeness Conflicting  4 Expectations  27  2.985 20.149  Lack of Understanding  1  .746  Rejection  7  5.223  Disagreement  16  11.940  Disobedience & Disrespect  46  34.33  Parental  8  5.97  Conflict  n = 134  (total)  68  Conflicting This held  Expectations  category  by t h e c h i l d  siblings,  the  and  this  because  than  expectations  are. . Both they are  the parents  held  expected  i n activities different  would phone  their  that  child,  a teenager  with There  t h e female  and d u t i e s o u t o f t h e home.  expectations  T h e r e was a r a n g e o f b e h a v i o r were angry  arose i n  holds.  chores  There  female  not comply  the parent  i n household  very  as unjust.  Conflicts  would  i n which parents  participating  includes the  f o r male and  the c h i l d that  and i n c o n f l i c t  for different  perceiving this  expectation  to participate  Some p a r e n t s sex  remind the  that  category  i n t h e same s e x .  were a few examples  dating.  they  the belief  This  expectations  and a l s o  sex role  rather  hold  conflicting  and t h e c h i l d  category  child  which  how d i f f e r e n t  position.  may b e d i f f e r e n t children  events  and a d u l t a r e pushed apart  their  having  siblings  Conflicting  When a n i s s u e a r i s e s i t p o l a r i z e s t h e b e l i e f s  the child  adults  Also  just  expectations  i n terms o f v a l u e s ,  c o n s i s t of ongoing  a d u l t and the c h i l d  to defend  the  and a d u l t  and t h e a d u l t  correct.  the different  sex r o l e s and d a t i n g .  expectations child  covers  i n this  over  area.  of the opposite  some p a r e n t s  believed i n  69 chaperons and s t r u g g l e d w i t h out  unsupervised  dating.  Another  different  letting  a n d some p a r e n t s area  i n which  their  just  daughter  would  parents  go  not allow  and c h i l d r e n had  e x p e c t a t i o n s was t h e amount o f t i m e  spent  with  y  peers.  Parents  and c h i l d r e n  money, b o u n d a r i e s , Categories Lack o f In clearly  this  doesn't  work e t h i c ,  That Hindered  and duty  Conflict  beliefs  about  to the family.  Resolution  Understanding this  category  there  i s o n l y one i n c i d e n t .  states that the c h i l d  interest, In  had d i f f e r e n t  involvement  incident  perceives a lack  I t  of  and c o m m u n i c a t i o n by t h e p a r e n t .  the c h i l d  know o r u n d e r s t a n d  indicated  that the father  this.  Rejection Children  and a d u l t s f e e l  abandoned by t h e a c t i o n By  the c h i l d  language, rejected. parents  parent  the parents  of the other  feel  as i f they  parents  i s offering  there  category.  are being  experience  When t h e c h i l d  and  traditional  refuse advice  I t a l s o makes t h e p a r e n t s  parenting role.  i n this  t o use the parent's  A l s o when c h i l d r e n  are extending,  rejection. their  refusing  hurt, devalued  feel  or help  this  that  as a  inadequate  i n  r e f u s e s what t h e  i s a rejection  of the adult  70 identity,  a sort  o f abandonment o f e v e r y t h i n g  they  believe i n . Disagreement Disagreement widely  between  reported.  arguments acceptable  disagreements  behavior.  a decision  daughter  though Another  the child's  when t h e c h i l d  may  be an For  the parents  i n a s k iweekend,  had wanted  area of disagreement  agree with  d e c i s i o n s and  made b y t h e p a r e n t .  to participate  the daughter  about  c e n t e r e d around  to stay  i s at a friend's  forcing even  i n the city.  i s when t h e p a r e n t  behavior.  was  instances of  The d i s a g r e e m e n t  example one c o n f l i c t their  and the parent  This covers active  and clear  argument about  the child  Examples  doesn't  of this are  house and t h e p a r e n t  w a n t s t h e m a t home. Disobedience This acted  and  Disrespect  involves  out against  demonstrated  a deliberate the wishes  of the parent.  i n the form o f non-compliance  demands, o r v i o l a t i n g around  agreements.  chores, curfews, routines  Disobedience  and d i s r e s p e c t  The  lied  children  b e h a v i o r by t h e c h i l d  to their  T h i s may with  The i s s u e s and  studying.  was a l s o  exhibited  parents to avoid  be  simple  centred  by  lying.  dealing  with  71 other  issues.  report  card  F o r example, one g i r l  to avoid the issue of fallen  Another  child  Another  mode o f b e i n g  the  child  children parents or  talking  feel  back  t o the parent.  at their  guilty  that  parents  wishes  disobedience. against  about  This  the parent. from  were e x p e r i e n c e d When t h e c h i l d r e n  a t them t h i s  were  the child  Some a c t s  were  the family's point of alcohol i n the  as s e r i o u s acts of personally acted  speaking  or  expected  swearing  relationship  within  and the boundaries  of  the family.  Conflict this  category  the parental relationship i s  by t h e p a r e n t - c h i l d  disagreement  and c o n f l i c t  because o f the c h i l d ' s  a  was a n u n h e a r d o f way t o d i s o b e y  the  affected  their  t h e p a r e n t s , by l a u g h i n g a t them, by c l o s i n g  t o disrespect the authority  In  i s by  included  were v i c t i m i z i n g  and  Parental  smoking.  o u t o f t h e f a m i l y home a g a i n s t t h e  on them w h i l e t h e y  directly  grades.  parents, or making  they  disrespectful  and being  about her  disobedient or disrespectful  D i s g r a c i n g t h e f a m i l y by d r i n k i n g  community  door  when c o n f r o n t e d a b o u t  complaining  particularly view.  lied  swearing  simply  lied  conflict.  occurs  actions.  Tension,  between t h e spouses I n some c a s e s  one  72 parent other  would parent  child. by  if  felt  male  anxiety  cases  i s in conflict  felt  son would  that  a great  deal  the  parental  Facilitated  the  resolution.  categories  which  conflict resolution.  the  which  explained  h i s f a t h e r , then  that he  towards h e r . her husband, too created  reported  that  t h e c h i l d r e n he w i l l  of pressure These  not  Conflict  dealing  instances  r e l a t i o n s h i p i n a negative  There were 8 d i f f e r e n t conflict  i n the middle  taking  the c h i l d r e n approach the  husband and t h e c h i l d r e n .  that  doing  a t her and t h i s  her  Categories  the parent  anger  with  parent  t h e i s s u e by  Another mother  i s angry  She f e e l s  issue with the  when s h e s u p p o r t e d  be a n g r y  f o r the mother.  with  between t h e  the other  One p a r e n t  this  t o them a n d t h e r e f o r e  mother.  supported  s t r a i n e d and stuck  when h e r h u s b a n d talk  the ongoing  s t r e s s and a n x i e t y .  mother  of a mediator  to resolve  In these  angry and expresses  Another the  to the c h i l d  actions.  the child  gets  resolve  Sometimes t h e p a r e n t  mediating created  on t h e r o l e  to help  appealing  certain  take  with  affect  way.  Resolution  categories  that  facilitated  The f o l l o w i n g i s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f were  identified  as  facilitating  73 Discussion In anger will the  Closed  this  and be  the  anything  fears but  discussion resolved  for  child  Parental This conflict  The  the  When t h e  parent  down.  accepts  not  as  longer this  the  be  as  a  limit  further  of  discussion  becomes t h a t and  there  cannot  i s not  end.  issue  angry do  further  The  conflict  becomes out  challenged  by  his  the  is  of  child.  limit.  Agreement category by  involves  discussing  activity  gives  frustration  of  the  the  the  parents  situation  spouse a  dealing  through understanding by  As  r e a c h e s an  parent  no  no  happen next  conflict  can  reaches a  that  back  the  parent  realizes  w h a t may  to  the  b o u n d s and  This  child  tolerated.  child  The  category  and  with  the  conflict  a l o n e and  the  spouse  the  with  release the  support  discussing  resolving  the  parent  reinforces  of  child  by  their  is  the  spouse.  tension. reduced  spouse.  feels  a  that  Also, he  is  parent's  position. Humor Humor a l s o category the  humor  involves  is different releases  the  a  from  release the  tension  of  tension.  previous during  category  the  This in  conflict,  that not  74  after. to  I t involves the child  deflect  and d i f f u s e  parent  i s i n the heat  anger,  and the c h i l d  moment i n w h i c h with  deliberately  the parent's  using  anger.  humor  When t h e  o f a s e r i o u s a n d i n t e n s e moment o f uses  humor, t h e p a r e n t  to reflect  and e x p e r i e n c e  i s given a  the situation  a different perspective.  Apology This  category  i n v o l v e s an a c t i v e  and d e l i b e r a t e  action  t o acknowledge a mistake  parent  apologizes and recognizes t h e misunderstanding,  it  communicates  make u p .  took  punished,  says  towards  that even  the child,  didn't  do.  takes  their  though  i t may i n v o l v e  have done t h i s ,  as they  The A p o l o g i z i n g  who h a s a c t e d w r o n g f u l l y  or blaming  frustration  s h e was  her parents  f o rthe mistake.  includes a parent  When t h e  and a w i l l i n g n e s s t o  she c o u l d f o r g i v e  responsibility  category  they  regret to the child  One c h i l d  unjustly  by t h e p a r e n t .  them f o r something  a situation  where a  o u t on t h e c h i l d ,  they parent  and, r e a l i z i n g  apologize.  Tolerance The certain  tolerance category a c t i o n s which  generally  involves parents  may b e d e f i a n t  d i s a g r e e upon.  Both  and t h a t  the parents  tolerating they  and t h e  75 c h i l d r e n acknowledge rules, the  however  behavior.  however  no  one  There  implicitly  knows he's category  that the  being  talks i s no  not  the  babysitting  actually  Compromise and The  over  an  they  negotiating privilege,  or  helps  angry  hook.  lying  or  The  tells  confronts  the  and  event,  the  child  tolerance  to their  parents  about  It also includes  the  goes out  which  the  w a n t e d and the  and  event  the  parents  he  with his  is  going  friends.  facilitates  issue. times,  the  n e g o t i a t e or  parent they  child  conflict  and  reach  Included giving  the a  child  gain  some  satisfactory  in this in after  exchanging  compromise  category  are  withholding a  a chore  i n order  to  privilege.  Understanding  The one  Both  curfew  allowed a  Greater  are  i s t h a t the p a r t i e s  a g r e e m e n t on  be  category  issue.  o f what  child  disobeyed  Negotiation  sixth  resolution  the  confronted.  i n c i d e n t s where  has  d i s c u s s i o n about  l e t o f f the  being  but  about  the parents  includes children  smoking and  child  greater understanding  both  parties  learn  them t o u n d e r s t a n d  category  consists  of  the  or the  category  experience other  parent  suggests something  person.  m a k i n g an  that which  This active  effort  76  to  listen  or the parent  the c h i l d  feels  experiencing after  understood.  the child's  counselling  examples o f t h i s anger her  through  thoughts  reaction going  This family  child in  and f e e l i n g s  category  emotional  The  events  showing  spending  touch  psychology  which  a particular  time  about her  i s c r y i n g and  reinforce  such  This  interest  with the family.  i n the  Engaging  as s k it r i p s , a t t e n d i n g  are a l l included and p h y s i c a l  i n this  proximity and  category.  reinforces  child.  of the Categorization  independent  volunteers.  explaining  i n t i m a c y and r a p p o r t .  c l o s e n e s s between parent  Reliability  Some  had done, and t h e p a r e n t  room when t h e c h i l d  activities,  physical  t o her daughter  involves  church or recreation Also  context  Closeness  the parent  family  i n a different  t o him.  Family  and a l s o  the parent  being able t o vent her  the c h i l d  closeness through  includes  behavior  includes  t o h e r mother, a mother  t o something  Reinforcing  I t also  are a child  talking  talking  t o t h e p o i n t where  a n d d e v e l o p i n g some i n s i g h t .  to the child's  simply  communicating  One  raters  judge  student  o r "judges" were  i s a 26 y e a r  and t h e o t h e r  willing  o l d counselling  judge  i s a 28 y e a r o l d  77  woman who h a s a B.A. participated  i n the categorization  homes i n d e p e n d e n t The  i n Sociology.  raters  o f one  different  c a t e g o r i e s which  heading.  The r a t e r s and then  belonged  in.  read  decided  Both  raters  to place  s t a t e d that they  rating  i n their  27 c a r d s  a l l had a s e l f  own  into  14  explanatory  t h e c a r d , then  looked  which  the incident  placed  the a p p r o p r i a t e c a t e g o r i e s . both  judges  another.  were asked  headings  Both  category  100% o f t h e cards i n  In addition,  were a b l e  over t h e  the  judges  to c a t e g o r i z e the cards  easily. Participation  Rate  Participation soundness which a  of a category.  different  facilitation  people  inter-subjective  to  achieve  subjects in  had  over  of the  the extent to  r e p o r t t h e same k i n d o f e v e n t and i s analogous  as  t o the use  agreement by i n d e p e n d e n t  observers  objectivity.  participation represented  the following  responded  I t indicates  or hindrance  of  The  r a t e i s one i n d i c a t i o n  rate f o r the percentage  i n each b a s i c category  table.  The p e r c e n t a g e  t o each category  seems l o w .  of  i s reported  of subjects Only  47% of the s u b j e c t s represented.  that  4 categories These  78 categories  are  Expectations, and  i n the  Disagreement,  facilitative  T h e r e was categories. the  i n the hindrance  a  low  Disobedience  factors,  greater  participation  rate  Conflicting and  Disrespect  understanding. i n some  These c a t e g o r i e s were m a i n t a i n e d  distinctness  and  clarity  of  r e s p o n s e s c o u l d not  f i t into  that  individual  a  factors,  s e p a r a t e and  the category.  other  categories  category  was  because  of  Also,  the  indicating  necessary.  79 Percentage P r o p o r t i o n of S u b j e c t s  Represented  i n Each B a s i c  Category B a s i c Category  % Proportion for basic  each category  % subjects represented Hinder i n g 1.  Conflicting  expectations  2.  Lack of Understanding  1/17  6%  3.  Rejection  4/17  24%  4.  Disagreement  8/17  47%  5.  Disobedience  12/17  71%  6.  Parental Conflict  4/17  24%  & Disrespect  10/17  59%  Facilitating 1.  D i s c u s s i o n Closed  1/17  6%  2.  P a r e n t a l Agreement  1/17  6%  3.  Humor  1/17  6%  4.  Apology  2/17  12%  5.  Tolerance  3/17  18%  6.  Compromise  4/17  24%  7.  Greater  8/17  47%  8.  R e i n f o r c i n g Family  4/17  24%  & Negotiation  Understanding  & Closeness  Intimacy  80 Expert  Evaluation  of  Categories  The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s an  expert  who  i s c u r r e n t l y working  was  with  Ivan Quattrocchi  categories  form an approximated p i c t u r e o f t h e k i n d that  C a n a d i a n home. valid.  would  u s u a l l y take  In h i s opinion  I v a n commented  that  c o m p r e h e n s i v e and he c o u l d that  should Ivan  be  felt  counsellors. forthcoming family  This  that Since  with  areas  this  having results  the categories  Italians  would  the counsellor  that  typical  could  parent  groups.  were else  w o u l d be u s e f u l f o r  typically  n o t be  feel  help  could  Italian  identify  families  to support  ashamed  parents  and d e f e n s i v e .  be t a u g h t  conflict  to parents  about  the experience.  a t ease and normalize  in facilitating  skills  were  of anything  offer p o s i t i v e alternatives that  successful  of  Italian-  s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e and i n f o r m a t i o n  I t may  parents  i n an  the categories  information  would put the f a m i l y  experience.  the  included.  problems,  conflict  that  place  not think  to  Italian  families.  interaction  commented  reported  their  rather Also  than  the  are proven  resolution.  These  i n counselling or i n  f  81  Chapter  5  Discussion The this Of  r e s u l t s indicate that  study  these  could  be r e l i a b l y  categories,  facilitate  conflict  eight  that  results  of the study.  hinder  when  became c l o s e d showing  facilitated family  of and  resolution.  were o t h e r  These a r e t h e and  towards a l i m i t and An  apology,  and n e g o t i a t i n g Parental  factors  when  resolution, i n Italian there  understanding, disrespect  conflict  that  that  also  agreement and  facilitated  resolution.  Conflict hindered  reached  o r when humor was u s e d .  closeness  conflict  f a m i l i e s was moved  conflict  categories.  C o n f l i c t between parents  or compromising  in  s i x indicate  resolution.  the discussion  tolerance,  reported  i n t o 14  indicate factors  conflict  in Italian  resolution  grouped  resolution while  factors  children  the incidents  was c o n f l i c t i n g  expectations,  r e j e c t i o n , disagreement,  between parent  and c h i l d .  was a n a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r  resolution.  f a m i l i e s , was  that  lack  disobedience Parental  hindered  conflict  82 Limitations Two the  of  Study  considerations  results.  large  the  The  number o f  s i z e of  Italian  most were d e f e n s i v e a  small  who  number  Further,  living  School  population  but  self  and  biases.  One  This  exclude  reported available method  as  can  the  to  cannot  reporting  not  which  The  reflect  one  has  a  small  Italians  therefore  only  report  important subject  him/her. account  incidents.  the  families  the  the  Burnaby only  large area  families  what  for  the  that  Italian  of  an  Vancouver  interview  in  method  indicate certain they are  information  Also,  North  reside.  may  does not  conflict  families.  includes  were c o l l e c t e d u s i n g  report  may  may  Burnaby  i s only  Of  approached,  have c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g  numbers of  data  were  of  u n w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e , while  drawn from  Roster  school.  The  who  i s small.  in Italian-Canadian  i n B u r n a b y who  large  generalizability  sample  parents  or  s a m p l e was  particular  which  the  the  reluctantly volunteered.  process  the  Secondary  of  and  d i d p a r t i c i p a t e may  resolution  limit  aware  that  have t h a t self  individual  report  can  of. not  be  information interview  differences  in  83 The  data  category  collection  system,  not  each category. order  on  with determining  Further  to ascertain  i s focused  developing the  r e s e a r c h c o u l d be  each category's  a .  validity  of  conducted  in  validity.  Theoretical Implications The  results  conflict  this  resolution  identifying conflict  14  the  The  as  understanding,  related  rejection,  between parent  conflict.  Conflicting  by  (1957);  Bernard  (1957);  Coser  Deutsch  (1965);  evokes  who  study  and  incompatibility.  are  in  resolution of  disobedience  and  parental  The  child  and  (1960);  lack  early  been  Steiner  of  between p a r t i e s  Snyder (1964);  as  a  factor  understanding Bernard  (1957)  conceptual and  goal or  (1960) d e s c r i b e d  and  identified  Mack and  work o f  a v e r b a l or  Rapoport  hinders  expectations, lack  B e r e l s o n and  by  or  study  conflict  i s g e n e r a l l y accepted  i s supported  misunderstanding  the  e x p e c t a t i o n s has  conflict.  i t as  of  of  by  disagreement,  Rapoport  (1956);  classified  the  literature.  conflicting  disrespect  category  findings  categories that hindered  identified  which  facilitate  in Italian-Canadian families  resolution.  The  study  b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s o f what h e l p s  agreement w i t h  are  of  value the  84  disagreement parties  category  about  (values).  category  as  arguments  and  disrespect.  with  of persuasion  explaining  away t h e  1965)  this  category  process  sensitivity  t o d i f f e r e n c e s and  awareness of  suspicious, readiness  attitude  to exploit  the  readiness  to respond  The  rejection  category  a  result  of  the withdrawal immediate The  the of  resolution category  identified  i n the  which  and  of  called  others  an  leads  analogous ending  parties  conflict  to  a the increasing  i s marked  without (Peterson  Parental  requests.  to separation  parental conflict  literature.  The  minimizing  needs w h i l e  The  both the  (Deutsch,  increased  negatively to others'  c o u l d be  or  adopting  i t increases  other's  conflict. one  removing  threats while  similarities,  the  as  and  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  hostile  direct  a competitive process.  competitive  the  this  brainwashing,  (1962) and  as  of  various  opponents mind w i t h  Boulding  be"  cites  parties  of  opponent's b e l i e f s  outlook.  to  the area  literature  use  as  the  "what o u g h t  i n which  the  such  a s s o c i a t e d i n the  label  The  verbal interaction  at each other  o n e ' s own  or  between  (1960) a l s o i d e n t i f i e d  techniques  threats  a disagreement  "what i s " ( f a c t s )  Rapoport  disobedience  as  was  by  an 1983). not  conflict  85 hindered  conflict  closeness  i n the  children to gain  tend  parental  t o use  The  resolution: closed,  that  discussion  with  the  When u s i n g factors  gave  of  the  of  family  in  study  are  factors  tolerance,  agreement,  of  Blood for  limited  compromising  family  the  closeness  family  members.  Two  for of  f i t into Blood's  be  the  resolving following:  enlargement reducing  the  factors  categorized  systems  of  areas  tension identified  (1960) mechanisms  Parental  for  Agreement and as  a  a  studies  living, priority  facilities,  to  encouraged Other  (1960) l i s t e d  conflict.  facilitative  mechanisms f o r  valves  could  that  interacting.  safety  that  becomes  opportunity  child  instrumental  family  and  and  parent  facilities  between  resolving  limit  r e l a t i o n s h i p i n a way  autonomy and  this  showing  conflict  the  conflicts.  use  facilitated  (1976) model,  p o s i t i v e way  for  against  Dwyer's  mutually  increased  parents  literature.  the  the  the  the  opportunity  conflict  the  have s t a t e d  play  an  Also,  conflict.  parental  redefine  family  may  and  lacking.  s i t u a t i o n s as  reaches a  humor, a p o l o g y ,  negotiating,  concur  these  f u r t h e r i n g the  categories  communication  s y s t e m was  what t h e y want and  each other  and  r e s o l u t i o n as  safety  Humor valve  86  \  for  reducing  (1960) says  helps  t o break  r e t a l i a t i o n which  history their  f a m i l y members.  that the catharsis  difficulties and  t e n s i o n between  of c o n f l i c t . feelings  of "unloading"  the vicious  i s present  the tension.  reduced  when h u m o r  Similarly,  i s used  unload  about  one's  c i r c l e of attack  i n families  When p a r e n t s  and f r u s t r a t i o n s  reduces  Blood  with  a  by s h a r i n g  the c h i l d i t  t e n s i o n and a n x i e t y a r e  in a stressful  conflict  situation. In  this  supports listed  study,  the category,  and i s a n a l o g o u s  by Dwyer  recognition discussion  (1976).  Lawrence and L o r s c h ' s (1970) and Fogg further the  attempts  (1967) c a t e g o r y Coming  a certain  tolerance category  a c t of concession  one  person  decides  this  of forcing,  1970; Fogg,  are not  study  worth  while  i s similar  (1975),  the c o n f l i c t  1985).  Burke  degree of cooperation.  by F i l l e y  to proceed  notion are  to the conclusion that  i n this  cited  t o drop  demands; o t h e r s  (Patchen,  and t h e r e f o r e t h e  to influence the other  the  their  t o agree  category  i s the  Also supporting  (1985).  c o n f l i c t , denotes The  t o the accommodation Accommodation  of a f a i l u r e i s closed.  discussion closed  by  to  that i s ,  dropping  stepping  aside  87 The c a t e g o r y supported  o f compromise o r n e g o t i a t i o n  heavily  literature  throughout  (Burke,  the c o n f l i c t  1970; F i l l e y ,  Fogg, 1985; and o t h e r s ) .  the  resolution  1975; P e t e r s o n ,  When p a r e n t s  compromise or n e g o t i a t e both  and  participants  de-escalate cooperation.  The p a r e n t  wins and the c h i l d wins and they  experience  a mutually  the  as w e l l  to the  as experiencing a p o s i t i v e  skills,  v a r i o u s ways  solving 1965;  change i n  Alexander,  a factor  c o - o p e r a t i o n and  (Deutsch  & Krause,  1973; Gottman,  In this  understanding  and communication a r e i d e n t i f i e d  including  communication  others).  as  satisfying solution  both  r i g h t s , d u t i e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p . Listening  in  1983;  children  c o n f l i c t by a s m a l l amount e n c o u r a g i n g  conflict  i s  study  supports  1982;  1979; Robin,  the category  Deutsch  1981; and  of greater  the already existing l i t e r a t u r e  facilitating  Communication a l l o w s  problem  conflict  individuals  resolution. to feel  heard,  respected  and understood.  T h i s o p e n s up many o p t i o n s ,  solutions  and a l t e r n a t i v e s  to resolve conflict.  encourages a r e d e f i n i t i o n 1982;  Patchen,  1970).  following  a conflict  I t also (Dwyer,  88  The in  the  category  of apology  literature,  perceptions  as  a  however D e u t s c h  directly (1965)  cooperative process  increased  sensitivity  interests  while minimizing  and  the  also,  i s not  other's  addresses  where t h e r e  to s i m i l a r i t i e s the  supported  and  is  an  common  s a l i e n c e of d i f f e r e n c e s  actions are  then  perceived  as  conciliatory. Family conflict  resolution.  increases others  the  as  was  a category  Closeness  w i l l i n g n e s s to  needs and  (1983) and trust  closeness  Fogg  being  requests  or  a  (1985) r e f e r  of  trust  hopefully to 1965).  to a f f e c t i o n , during  facilitated  feeling  respond  (Deutsch,  facilitative  which  the  the  Peterson intimacy  and  resolution  process. The the  P a r e n t a l Agreement c a t e g o r y  literature.  parents  are  increasing  t a k i n g an their  communicating their  feelings  which supports important their  P a r e n t a l Agreement  own  with and  receiving  their  are  interest  each other  not  cited  indicates that  communication.  in Italian  children  active  was  i n the  child  position. families  in conflict  This  from the is  and  venting  spouse  particularly  because parents, with  the  Parents  i s instrumental i n feedback  in  them,  when  experience  89 this  as a personal  failure  and a blow t o t h e i r  self  esteem. When c o n s i d e r i n g three  a l l categories,  emerge.  The  obvious  feelings  and p e r c e p t i o n s ,  conflict  resolution.  categories 2) b e h a v i o r  Each category  into  one o f t h e meta c a t e g o r i e s  1)  Feelings  and  of  f o r m e d a r e 1) (conflict),  falls  expectations  as f o l l o w s :  or  values  understanding  3. r e j e c t i o n 2)  Behavior 1.  (conflict)  disagreement  2. d i s o b e d i e n c e 3. p a r e n t a l 3)  Conflict  Resolution  2.  humor  3.  apology  4.  showing  5. l i s t e n i n g greater  disrespect  disagreement  1. d i s c u s s i o n  6.  and  reached  a limit  and then  tolerance skills  and  communication  understanding  7. c o m p r o m i s i n g  and  negotiation  3)  distinctly  Perceptions  1. c o n f l i c t i n g 2. l a c k  meta-categories  closed  90  8. p a r e n t a l The  categories  interpersonal categories  extent  interaction. Dwyer's  The c a t e g o r i e s  defines  sequence  interpersonal interactions  the definition  conflict  and w i l l  Interpersonal constant persons  conflict  must a l s o  a f f e c t how t h e p e r s o n the conflict  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between duties  previous  During  considered  rights,  conflict  i n terms o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  and e x p e c t a t i o n s .  After  t o some  i n considering  f e e l i n g s and m o t i v a t i o n s  interaction.  there  i sa  interact with  redefining  that  influenced  b y t h e way i n w h i c h  but arei n  change and e v o l v e  one a n o t h e r .  understand  their  t o one a n o t h e r .  r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e not s t a t i c Relationships  be  interprets the  the persons and  and e x p e c t a t i o n s  motion.  which i s  of ther e l a t i o n s h i p .  one must examine  as d e f i n e d  duties  that  conflict  Conflict i n  processes,  of  of  indicate a process  h a s many m e a n i n g s a n d e a c h  (1982) p o s t u l a t e s  rights,  (1982) concept  the r e l a t i o n s h i p .  influences  t o an  The e v i d e n c e o f t h e  i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p and t h e r e f o r e  relationships  Dwyer  closeness  move f r o m a n i n t r a p s y c h i c s t r u g g l e  supports  resolution. occuring  agreement and f a m i l y  I t i s crucial  as to  interpersonal relationships are greatly conflict  i s resolved.  91 The  results  resolution factors  identify in Italian  are used,  relationship Practical The  a  of  conflict  and d e p e n d i n g on  influence  which  the r e d e f i n i t i o n of a  conflict.  Implications study  has i d e n t i f i e d  families  factors  which  community  which  this  information  information  gathered  c a n be u s e d  maintained  hinder  conflict  processes i n  conflict  resolution  are f a c i l i t a t i v e .  an u n d e r s t a n d a b l e  which  or c a t e g o r i e s  families  will  after  Italian  as  processes  To t h e  normalizes  and r e s o l v a b l e also  Italian  conflict  processes  problem.  The  provides a categorical  to assess  and  map  t h e ways c o n f l i c t i s  a n d t o s t r e n g t h e n ways  i n which  conflict i s  reduced. Practitioners clients the  of Italian  factors  inherently For  which contain  example,  leads  can generate useful  information for  family  When  hinder  background. conflict  the solution  the category  the practitioner  to learn  between parent  productive.  The c a t e g o r y  the practitioner  to avoid  of conflicting  expectations  directs  resolution  to  of  to clarify  they  the conflict. expectations  negotiating  and c h i l d  of lack  considering  i s very understanding  the parent  position  92 and  values  individual  to the c h i l d  t o have a g r e a t e r  information factors  facilitate  practitioners  their For  may  s o l v i n g and c o n f l i c t  could  Implications  f o r Further  findings that  inspire  from t h i s  study  could  validity  and potency  in  using  be c o n d u c t e d  order  information workshops.  the  o f humor.  a l a r g e r sample. identified  i n order  for practitioners o r "model"  This  categories  individual's which  another  then  use  i n therapy  may  individual  has f a r reaching  who c o u l d  as a t o o l  future  The  t o some b e h a v i o r  resolution.  Now  t o determine the  from an  further action involving  t o seek  implications  resolution skills.  o f each category.  and p e r c e p t i o n s some  increase  Research  t o be s e q u e n t i a l , m o v i n g  involve  which w i l l  the 'cultivation  s y s t e m has been  research  feelings  their  studies are required to confirm the  a category  appear  to give  i s a l a c k o f humor t h e n  practitioner  Further  a n d more  conflict resolution  use the categories  example where t h e r e  each  When c o n s i d e r i n g t h e  i n f o r m a t i o n and a l t e r n a t i v e s  problem  t o encourage  understanding  a v a i l a b l e t o him/her.  which  clients  and v i c e v e r s a  this or i n  Also do  the study  parents  raises  set livable  circumstances?  How  do  threatens?  How  can parents  understanding counsellors  worth?  How  can parents  when l a n g u a g e  foster  enforce  the  How  decisions?  by t h e i r  preservation Future counsellors  building families.  How  How c a n  a n d make  can c o u n s e l l o r s encourage and c h i l d  when t h e p a r e n t  as t a l k i n g  back and  can c o u n s e l l o r s teach parents children  and i d e n t i t y r e s e a r c h may  i s an a c t o f  i n Italian  that  self  teaching? be d i r e c t e d  towards p r o v i d i n g  w i t h more i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g  block  greater  i s such a b a r r i e r ?  e x p r e s s i o n by t h e c h i l d  disrespectful?  create  that the elders rule  communication between parent  resolution  How  compromise and n e g o t i a t i o n i n p a r e n t s  when o l d v a l u e s  rejection  changes?  a l l o w t o l e r a n c e when i t i s a t t h e e x p e n s e o f  own s e l f  regards  How  understanding  r e s p e c t when t h e f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e  parents  their  questions.  expectations i n upsetting  do p a r e n t s m a i n t a i n  when m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g maintain  some c r i t i c a l  families.  I t may  to explore parenting  conflict  a l s o be a  i n Italian  Canadian  94 Summary T h i s study examined f a c t o r s which hinder and f a c t o r s which f a c i l i t a t e c o n f l i c t families.  A t o t a l of 9 a d u l t s and 8 a d o l e s c e n t s , one  a d u l t and one adolescent Interviews  resolution i n Italian  from each f a m i l y , were s t u d i e d .  were conducted using Flanagan's  Incident Technique. i n c i d e n t s reported  Critical  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that the i n t h i s study could be r e l i a b l y  grouped i n t o 14 c a t e g o r i e s .  Of these c a t e g o r i e s 6 were  h i n d e r i n g f a c t o r s and 8 were f a c i l i t a t i v e f a c t o r s . R e l i a b i l i t y was t e s t e d using 2 judges who grouped the c a t e g o r i e s and were i n 100% agreement. evolved  Out of t h i s  a c a t e g o r i c a l map which i s u s e f u l when  c o n s i d e r i n g the m a i n t a i n i n g r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t  of c o n f l i c t or the  i n Canadian-Italian f a m i l i e s .  95  REFERENCES Alexander,  J . F . (1973).  Communication Journal  Defensive  and  Supportive  i n normal and deviant  of Consulting  families.  and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 40,  .223-231. A n d e r s o n , B . , & N i l s s o n , S.  (1964).  Studies  reliability  and v a l i d i t y o f t h e c r i t i c a l  technique.  Journal  of Applied  i nthe incident  Psychology,  48,  (6),  398-403. Berelson,  B., & S t e i n e r  analysis  Journal  (1964).  Human B e h a v i o r :  of Scientific Findings.  Harcourt, Bernard, J .  G.  New  An  York:  Brace and World. (1957).  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M.,  Pearce  Family  Italian J . , Giordano  T h e r a p y New  York,  341.  (1979).  M i g r a t i o n and  Process,  18  Family  ( 4 ) , 379-390.  Conflict.  100 S o l o m o n , M.A. premise  (1973).  A developmental  for family  therapy.  conceptual  Family  Process,  12,  179-188. Stein,  R.F.  (1971).  Patterns.  D i s t u r b e d Y o u t h and  State University  of  Albany.  )  New  Ethnic  York  Family  Press:  APPENDIX TO CHAPTER  104  Consent  Research Project: inter-generational families. Project  Factors which f a c i l i t a t e or hinder c o n f l i c t i n I t a l i a n immigrant  Supervisor:  Researcher: Columbia,  Form  Patrizia  Dr. Larry  Cochran  DiDiomete, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  This project i s intended to identify the kinds of events t h a t a f f e c t c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s between parent and c h i l d . From t h e c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s t h a t p e o p l e d e s c r i b e , a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s e t o f c a t e g o r i e s w i l l be developed that i n d i c a t e which factors help or hinder the r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t i n I t a l i a n Immigrant f a m i l i e s . T h i s i n t e r v i e w w i l l l a s t about an hour. You w i l l be a s k e d t o d e s c r i b e e v e n t s t h a t h a v e h e l p e d o r h i n d e r e d you i n r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s . This interview w i l l be tape r e c o r d e d a n d l a t e r , t h e e v e n t s you d e s c r i b e w i l l be e x t r a c t e d and t h e tapes e r a s e d . Confidentiality w i l l be m a i n t a i n e d by r e s t r i c t i n g a c c e s s t o r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l , by number c o d i n g , a n d by t h e e v e n t u a l erasure of the tapes. Some e v e n t d e s c r i p t i o n s w i l l p r o b a b l y b e published i n research reports. You h a v e t h e r i g h t t o w i t h d r a w f r o m t h i s i n t e r v i e w o r r e f u s e t o answer a n y q u e s t i o n s , w i t h no c o n s e q u e n c e s of any k i n d . Y o u may a s k a n y q u e s t i o n s t o c l a r i f y p r o c e d u r e s now o r d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w .  Name:  105 Adolescent  Research Project: inter-generational families. Project  Form  Factors which f a c i l i t a t e or hinder c o n f l i c t i n I t a l i a n immigrant  Supervisor:  Researcher: Columbia,  Consent  Patrizia  Dr. Larry  Cochran  DiDiomete, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  This project i s intended t o i d e n t i f y the kinds of events that a f f e c t c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s between parent and c h i l d . From t h e c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s t h a t p e o p l e d e s c r i b e , a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s e t o f c a t e g o r i e s w i l l be developed that i n d i c a t e which f a c t o r s help or hinder t h e r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t i n I t a l i a n Immigrant f a m i l i e s . T h i s i n t e r v i e w w i l l l a s t about an hour. You w i l l be a s k e d t o d e s c r i b e e v e n t s t h a t h a v e h e l p e d o r h i n d e r e d you i n r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s . This interview w i l l be tape r e c o r d e d a n d l a t e r , t h e e v e n t s you d e s c r i b e w i l l be e x t r a c t e d and t h e tapes erased. Confidentiality w i l l be m a i n t a i n e d by r e s t r i c t i n g a c c e s s t o r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l , b y number c o d i n g , a n d b y t h e e v e n t u a l erasure of t h e tapes. Some e v e n t d e s c r i p t i o n s w i l l p r o b a b l y b e published i n research reports. You have t h e r i g h t t o w i t h d r a w f r o m t h i s i n t e r v i e w or r e f u s e t o answer a n y q u e s t i o n s , w i t h no c o n s e q u e n c e s of any k i n d . Y o u may a s k a n y q u e s t i o n s t o c l a r i f y p r o c e d u r e s now o r d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w .  Name:  

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