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A study of college registrars in British Columbia Howman, Cynthia Joan 1994

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A STUD Y O F COLLEGE REGISTRARS I N BRITISH COLUMBI A By CYNTHIA JOA N HOWMA N B.A., Th e Universit y o f Waterloo , 198 3 A THESI S SUBMITTE D I N PARTIAL FULFILLMEN T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FO R THE DEGREE OF MASTER O F ARTS in THE FACULTY O F GRADUATE STUDIE S (Department o f Administrative , Adul t an d Highe r Education ) We7accept thi s thesi s a s conformin g to Jfeie_required standard THE"UNIVERSj/fY O F BRITISH COLUMBI A March, 199 4 ® Cynthia Joan Howman , 199 4 In presentin g thi s thesi s i n partia l fulfilmen t o f th e requirement s fo r a n advance d degree a t th e Universit y o f Britis h Columbia , I  agre e tha t th e Librar y shal l mak e i t freely availabl e fo r referenc e an d study . I  furthe r agre e tha t permissio n fo r extensiv e copying o f thi s thesi s fo r scholarl y purpose s ma y b e grante d b y th e hea d o f m y department o r b y hi s o r he r representatives . I t i s understoo d tha t copyin g o r publication o f thi s thesi s fo r financia l gai n shal l no t b e allowe d withou t m y writte n permission. (Signature) cfcWgWK^ ixhifW H ^ © W i * Department o f The Universit y o f Britis h Columbi a Vancouver, Canad a Date April .11 M DE-6 (2/88 ) Abstract This stud y deal t wit h colleg e registrar s i n the Canadia n provinc e o f Britis h Columbia. Th e purpos e o f thi s stud y wa s three-fold : (i ) t o gathe r informatio n concerning the personal characteristics, career paths and academic preparation of college registrars , (ii ) to identif y th e type s o f professiona l development activitie s to whic h thes e individual s subscribe , an d (iii ) t o determin e th e professiona l development need s and preference s o f colleg e registrars . A revie w o f th e scholarl y literatur e reveale d a  limite d numbe r o f studie s dealing with colleg e registrars. N o Canadian studies were found which deal t wit h this subjec t matter . Othe r relate d literatur e wa s sough t out , particularl y studie s which deal t wit h th e persona l characteristic s an d wor k historie s o f othe r non -academic pos t secondar y educationa l administrators . A questionnair e wa s maile d t o al l colleg e registrar s i n Britis h Columbi a (N = 18). Seventee n individuals responded. Fro m the information gathered via the questionnaire, several conclusions were drawn and a profile of the average college registrar i n British Columbia was developed. Thi s profile identifies the registrar as being a  mal e wh o i s roughl y forty-si x year s o f age . H e i s employe d b y a comprehensive community college and earns approximately $64,00 0 annually . H e has hel d thi s positio n fo r clos e to eigh t years . Thi s individua l ha s completed a n undergraduate degree in the field of science or mathematics although , he believes that ther e i s n o "preferred " for m o f undergraduat e educatio n fo r potentia l registrars. H e ha s develope d a n understandin g o f th e compute r technologie s ii utilized a t hi s college through "hands-on " experience and i s largel y self-taught . Prior to becomin g a  registrar h e had worked full-tim e fo r twelv e year s an d had held at leas t two othe r position s withi n a  college or university . Whe n desire or circumstances necessitate a job change, this person would seek a position such as Dea n o r Directo r o f Studen t &  Ancillar y Service s o r Vice-President , Studen t Services an d Administration . Thi s individua l di d no t activel y pursu e th e goa l o f becoming a college registrar . Give n that thi s individua l did no t inten d to becom e a registrar , i t i s no t surprisin g t o fin d tha t hi s academi c preparatio n wa s no t planned with a  view to future work as an administrator i n an institution o f highe r learning. The colleg e registra r enjoy s attending workshops , seminar s an d meeting s sponsored by the British Columbia Registrars' Association (BCRA). H e is a member of thi s organizatio n a s wel l a s the Associatio n o f Registrar s o f Universitie s an d Colleges o f Canad a (ARUCC ) and , th e America n Associatio n o f Collegiat e Registrars and Admissions Officer s (AACRAO) . Several conclusions wer e draw n and recommendations wer e made . iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS A stud y suc h as this i s never completed withou t th e assistance o f others . I would lik e to exten d m y thanks to the college registrars i n British Columbia wh o supported these researc h efforts b y responding thoughtfully t o the questionnaire . Without thei r input , there would hav e bee n no study . To th e thre e wis e men , Drs . Dennison , Kelse y an d Spencer , m y sincer e thanks and gratitude for your patience and very constructive criticisms. Yo u were able to show me what I  had failed to do, without makin g me feel that I  had failed. Most o f all , I  thank m y husban d Gregg , for neve r entertainin g th e though t that I  would no t finish . You r optimis m wa s contagious , an d you r suppor t wa s indispensable. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract i i Acknowledgements i v Table o f Content s v List o f Table s vi i Chapter I. INTRODUCTIO N 1 i) Statemen t o f th e Proble m 1 ii) Researc h Questions 3 iii) Significanc e o f Stud y 3 iv) Terminolog y 5 II. LITERATUR E REVIE W 8 i) Overvie w o f th e Literatur e 8 ii) Summar y 2 2 III. PROCEDURE S O F THE STUDY 2 4 i) Pla n of the Stud y 2 4 ii) Metho d o f Dat a Collection 2 5 iii) Developmen t o f the Questionnair e 2 7 iv) Dat a Analysi s 3 0 IV. FINDING S O F THE STUDY 3 2 i) Basi c Demographi c Informatio n 3 2 ii) Academi c Preparation  3 8 iii) Caree r Path s and Work Experienc e 4 8 iv) Professiona l Developmen t Activitie s 6 6 v) Professiona l Developmen t Preference s and Needs 7 3 v V. SUMMARY , CONCLUSION S AN D RECOMMENDATION S . . . . 7 7 i) Summar y 7 7 ii) Conclusion s 8 4 iii) Recommendation s 8 9 BIBLIOGRAPHY 9 3 APPENDICES %  9 8 1. Lis t o f Institution s Surveye d 9 8 2. Lette r o f Endorsemen t 9 9 3. Lette r o f Introductio n 10 0 4. Instruction s t o Participant s 10 1 5. Questionnair e 10 2 6. Respons e Car d 11 0 7. Follow-u p Lette r t o Non-Respondent s 11 1 8. Lis t o f Acronym s 11 2 VI LIST OF TABLES Table Pag e 1. Respons e Rat e o f Britis h Columbian College and Institut e Registrars B y Institution Type 2 8 2. Rang e i n Chronological Age o f Britis h Columbian Colleg e and Institute Registrar s Surveye d 3 3 3. Gende r o f Britis h Columbia n Colleg e and Institute Registrar s Responding to th e Surve y 3 5 4. Colleg e and Institute Registrar s i n British Columbi a by Sex and Institution Type 3 6 5. Salar y Informatio n fo r Colleg e and Institute Registrar s i n British Columbia 3 7 6. Number s an d Percentages o f Britis h Columbian Colleg e an d Institute Registrar s Accordin g to Highes t Degre e Hel d .  .  3 9 7. Undergraduat e and Graduate Preparation of Colleg e an d Institute Registrar s i n British Columbi a b y Majo r Field of Stud y 4 1 8. Colleg e and Institute Registrar s b y Age and Highes t Degre e Earned 4 3 9. Colleg e and Institute Registrar s b y Annual Salary an d Highes t Degree Earned 4 4 10. Colleg e and Institute Registrars Describe Their Method o f Knowledg e Acquisition i n Terms o f Compute r Technologie s 4 6 11 . Colleg e and Institute Registrar s by Sex and Method o f Compute r Knowledge Acquisitio n 4 7 12. Lengt h o f Servic e as a Registrar as Reported b y the Colleg e and Institute Registrar s i n British Columbia 5 0 vii 13. Colleg e an d Institut e Registrar s b y Lengt h o f Servic e a s a Registrar an d Highes t Degre e Earne d 5 1 14. Reportin g Relationship s o f th e Colleg e an d Institut e Registrars i n Britis h Columbi a 5 3 15. Year s o f Wor k Experienc e Prio r t o Becomin g a  Registra r as Reporte d b y Colleg e an d Institut e Registrar s i n British Columbi a 5 5 16. Type s o f Prio r Wor k Experience s Withi n th e Educationa l Environment fo r Colleg e an d Institut e Registrar s o f British Columbi a 5 7 17. Ag e a t Whic h Colleg e an d Institut e Registrar s i n Britis h Columbia Wer e Firs t Appointe d t o th e Positio n o f Registrar 6 0 18. Potentia l Futur e Occupatio n Choice s o f Colleg e an d Institute Registrar s i n Britis h Columbi a 6 2 19. Colleg e an d Institut e Registrar s i n Britis h Columbi a Indicate th e Poin t a t Whic h The y Decide d t o Pursu e the Goa l o f Becomin g a  Registra r 6 3 20. Britis h Columbia n Colleg e an d Institut e Registrars ' Repor t on Beneficia l Academi c Preparatio n Give n Thei r Current Jo b Responsibilitie s 6 7 2 1 . Colleg e an d Institut e Registrar s b y Se x an d Membershi p i n Professional Organization s 6 9 22. Professiona l Developmen t Activitie s Liste d an d Rate d b y College an d Institut e Registrar s i n Britis h Columbi a . . . . 7 1 23. Colleg e an d Institut e Registrar s i n Britis h Columbi a Describe Thei r Professiona l Developmen t Need s 7 4 24. Colleg e an d Institut e Registrar s b y Lengt h o f Servic e a s a Registrar an d th e Numbe r o f Differen t Type s o f Professional Developmen t Activitie s Attende d 7 6 viii CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTIO N i) Statemen t o f th e Proble m In the scholarl y literatur e muc h attention ha s been focused on the "quality o f instruction " an d how i t contribute s to the qualit y o f education . Much les s attention ha s been focused on how the administrative suppor t systems an d ancillar y services contribute t o educationa l outcomes . On e particular are a which ha s the potentia l fo r significan t impac t o n the progres s o f students i s the Registrar' s Office . Th e professiona l managemen t o f th e admissions &  record s functions a t any post-secondar y institutio n i s a considerable challenge . Thi s responsibilit y fall s withi n th e domai n o f th e Registrar. In British Columbia , community college s hav e experienced grea t growt h since their inceptio n during the 1960s . I n addition, there hav e bee n tremendous change s i n technology whic h hav e drastically affecte d th e workplace. On e of th e mos t significan t change s ha s bee n the introductio n o f the compute r fo r th e managemen t o f on-lin e student admissio n /  registratio n / 1 2 records systems . I n addition to havin g to adap t t o these technica l changes , the colleges hav e bee n faced wit h a  period of substantia l financia l restrain t an d cutbacks. I t i s apparent tha t ou r administrators ar e being asked to d o mor e with less . Thos e wh o hol d administrative position s mus t no t onl y b e prepare d to wor k hard , they mus t hav e the education , ability an d professiona l knowledg e required to optimiz e thei r performance . There i s no prescribed course o f stud y o r training fo r individual s wh o assume administrativ e responsibilitie s i n British Columbia's communit y colleges . A cursor y loo k a t the credential s o f senio r college administrators reveal s tha t many hol d credentials a t the Master' s level . Thos e who hol d graduate degree s in the fiel d o f educatio n typically hav e studied adul t education rathe r tha n focusing on the administrativ e aspect s o f managin g a post-secondar y institution. Man y senio r official s com e to administrativ e post s wit h experienc e as divisional Chair s or faculty members . Other s ar e imported fro m busines s an d industry. Som e trace thei r root s to th e secondar y schoo l system. A s i s the case wit h othe r colleg e administrators , there i s no prescribed "path " t o th e Registrar's Office . N o discipline specifi c academi c preparatio n i s mandatory an d prior wor k experienc e can vary substantiall y fro m institutio n t o institution . Wit h this i n mind , we shal l focus o n one particula r grou p of administrator s wh o hav e a relativel y homogeneou s arra y of responsibilities ; Registrars withi n th e non -university secto r i n British Columbia . 3 The purpos e of thi s stud y i s three-fold: 1) t o gathe r informatio n concernin g the persona l characteristics , career path s an d academic preparatio n o f colleg e registrar s 2) t o identif y th e types o f professiona l development activitie s t o which these individual s currentl y subscrib e 3) t o determin e the professiona l development need s and preference s of colleg e registrar s ii) Researc h Question s 1) Wha t ar e the educationa l credential s o f th e colleg e and institut e registrars i n British Columbia ? 2) Wha t ar e the prio r wor k experience s o f th e colleg e and institut e registrars i n British Columbia ? 3) T o wha t form s o f professiona l development d o the colleg e an d institute registrar s i n Britis h Columbia currentl y subscribe ? 4) Wha t ar e the professiona l development need s and preferences o f the colleg e and institute registrar s i n British Columbia ? iii) Significanc e o f th e Stud y This study i s significant i n several ways. I t wil l provid e informatio n 4 concerning the persona l characteristics o f th e member s o f a  specifi c occupational grou p that ha s no t bee n studied i n detail : registrars fro m th e non -university secto r i n British Columbia . I t wil l identif y th e professiona l development need s and preferences o f th e grou p so that purposefu l learnin g experiences can be designed to enhanc e the registrars ' skills an d abilities . The post-secondar y syste m ha s bee n undergoing considerable change . The author' s persona l experience and the anecdota l evidence o f colleague s suggests tha t ther e are increased expectations fo r registrar s t o b e bot h accountable an d adaptable i n changing societal an d institutiona l circumstances . All o f thi s carrie s implication s fo r th e professiona l development o f registrars . I t seems sensibl e to conside r two kind s o f factor s i n attempting t o asses s professional development needs : the persona l characteristics o f th e individua l and the natur e o f th e institution s i n which the y work . Th e presen t study , i n surveying the professional , demographic an d institutional realitie s o f Britis h Columbia's registrars , wil l provid e a  basis fo r the developmen t o f idea s abou t professional development . The study o f non-academi c administrator s i n Canadian highe r education i s very limited . Conversely , a  comprehensive revie w o f th e literatur e reveal s considerable informatio n wit h respec t to facult y member s an d academi c administrators (Departmen t Heads , Chairmen and Deans) . On e canno t emphasize enoug h the nee d for Canadia n educators to conduc t researc h on 5 Canadian phenomena . A s wil l b e show n i n chapte r two , ther e i s a n extremel y limited amoun t o f wor k conducte d abou t Canadia n institution s o f highe r learning, especiall y th e communit y colleges . I t i s frustrating whe n w e ar e lef t no alternativ e bu t t o extrapolat e fro m th e experience s o f ou r America n colleagues. This stud y i s limite d i n tha t i t deal s wit h a  relativel y smal l grou p o f college registrars , seventee n i t total . Th e result s pertai n onl y t o colleg e registrars wh o wor k i n Britis h Columbia . iv) Terminolog y Terms whic h ar e importan t t o thi s stud y ar e define d i n th e lis t whic h appears below . Definition s o f th e acronym s use d i n th e stud y ca n b e foun d i n appendix 8 . Bachelor's Degre e -  Frequentl y referre d t o a s th e "firs t degree" , thi s degre e usually require s thre e t o fou r year s o f full-tim e study . Th e bachelor' s degre e i s the significan t firs t degre e i n universitie s i n Grea t Britain , Commonwealt h nations an d th e Unite s States . (Knowles,1977 , p . 1232) Master's Degre e -  This i s frequentl y referre d to a s th e "secon d degree" . Durin g a progra m o f stud y a t th e master' s level , students generall y d o mor e highl y 6 specialized wor k i n an academic are a and undertak e some form o f scholarl y research. Thi s secon d degre e usuall y require s one to tw o year s o f full-tim e study beyon d the bachelor' s degree . (Knowles,1977 , p . 1234 ) Doctorate o r Doctora l Degre e -  This i s typically th e highes t degre e held . I n Canada and the Unite d State s a  doctoral degree typically involve s course work , oral and/or written examination s an d a thesis o r dissertation representin g original research . (Knowles,1977, p . 1236 ) Community Colleg e -  A  non-degre e granting post-secondar y institutio n whic h offers a  comprehensive rang e of educationa l opportunities . Thes e institution s issue certificates an d diplomas afte r th e successfu l completio n o f a  prescribe d course o f study . Program s typically tak e fro m on e to thre e years o f full-tim e study t o complete . Provincial Institut e -  This i s a post-secondary institutio n whic h provide s educational opportunitie s i n specialized fields . Profile -  A  profil e i s a  concise sketch o f the characteristic s o f a n individua l o r group where th e result s hav e bee n expressed i n some unifor m o r comparabl e terms. (Hopke , 1968) . Registrar -  In this study , the term Registrar , i s an inclusive term whic h refer s t o an officer o f a  post-secondary institutio n whos e primar y task i s to overse e th e admissions, registration and records functions . Registrar's Offic e -  This office refer s to tha t par t o f th e colleg e an d universit y 7 administrative organizatio n engage d primaril y i n handlin g admission s an d records. Non-instructiona l responsibilitie s o f th e registrar' s offic e distinguis h i t f rom th e offic e o f th e dean . Th e function s o f th e registrar' s offic e ar e t o organize an d coordinat e th e variou s colleg e activitie s whic h pertai n t o (i ) counselling, (ii ) admissions , (iii ) maintainin g an d securin g studen t records , (iv ) room scheduling , (v ) confirmatio n o f eligibilit y t o graduate , (vi ) directin g registration activities , (vii ) studen t recruitmen t an d (viii ) preparatio n o f th e college calendar , catalogue s an d bulletins . (Thomason , 1949 ) University-College -  This typ e o f post-secondar y institutio n i s a  relativel y ne w phenomenon i n highe r educatio n i n Britis h Columbia . Student s a t a  university -college ma y complet e program s a t th e certificate , diplom a an d degre e levels . Only undergraduat e degre e leve l course s ar e offered . 8 CHAPTER I I LITERATUR E REVIE W i) Overvie w o f th e Literatur e A comprehensiv e literatur e revie w wa s undertake n to identif y prio r research relevan t to th e study . Afte r completin g the preliminar y revie w i t became apparen t tha t ver y littl e wor k i n this are a had been undertaken . Onl y two studie s wer e foun d whic h specificall y discusse d the professiona l staf f i n the Registrar' s Office s i n Canadian institutions o f highe r learning . Thi s lac k o f information i n itsel f indicate d the nee d to conduc t researc h i n this area . A comprehensive searc h o f the scholarl y literatur e produce d reference s discovere d through a search o f th e Dissertatio n Abstract s o n CD ROM a t the Universit y o f British Columbia' s mai n library , an on-line search of ERI C files includin g a  search of CU E (Curren t Inde x to Journals i n Education) an d RI E (Resources i n Education) an d a manual search of th e car d inde x a t Western Washingto n University's mai n library . A n "on-line " search usin g the indicato r Registrar , produced n o references i n the Canadia n literature . Previous researc h and studies pertainin g to colleg e registrar s wer e sough t out. Informatio n regardin g the functio n an d characteristics o f non-academi c post-secondary administrator s wa s also identified . 9 As a  resul t o f th e lac k o f scholarl y wor k delineatin g th e demographic feature s o f Registrar s i n B.C. , relate d literatur e wa s sough t out . I n particular, informatio n concernin g other post-secondar y administrator s an d studies delineatin g colleg e registrar s i n the Unite d State s wa s reviewed . This revie w reveale d that previou s researc h surrounding non-academi c administrators i n higher education ca n b e classified int o fou r basi c group s dealing specificall y with ; i ) gende r relate d issues , ii ) demographic features , iii ) career path s o f administrators , and iv ) professiona l development initiative s fo r administrators. During the las t decade there ha s been much written abou t the progres s of wome n administrator s i n higher education (Menge s an d Exum, 1983 ; Moore , 1984(a), 1990 ; Lafontaine , 1985 ; Sagaria , 1988 ; Luna , 1989 ; Vaughan , 1989; Dingerson , 1990) . There are several studies o f colleg e and universit y administrator s whic h follow i n the "gende r differences " vein . Sagari a (1985) , discussed th e managerial skills and experiences o f me n and women administrators . Sh e concluded that me n and women involv e themselves i n different form s o f on-the -job training i n order to develo p simila r level s o f manageria l skills . Wome n appear to plac e more importanc e o n the value o f forma l learnin g experiences t o prepare themselves fo r administrativ e responsibilities . Wome n als o cite d committee involvemen t a s being a significant enhancemen t fo r caree r 10 advancement. Sagari a suggested tha t thi s i s because involvemen t wit h committees give s women greate r insigh t int o a n organization's informa l structure an d acts a s a means fo r developin g contacts beyon d one' s administrative unit . Sh e argued that me n typically lear n these things vi a informal network s wit h othe r mal e administrators . The famil y an d career characteristics o f universit y administrator s wa s explored i n research conducted b y Bird (1984) . Thi s wor k i s similar t o Sagaria's i n that caree r characteristic s ar e studied, however, Bir d gathere d interesting demographi c informatio n concernin g the famil y characteristic s o f administrators. Sh e found that wome n believe d that career s an d professiona l activities demande d mor e time than did their mal e counterparts . Me n wer e found to delegat e less than women. Demographically , th e women i n the sample reporte d earlier marriages , had fewer childre n and earned les s mone y than di d their mal e colleagues wit h simila r positions , age ranges an d educationa l credentials. Several studies investigat e caree r pattern s o f variou s highe r educatio n administrators (Moore , 1984(b) ; Ostrot h e t al. , 1984; Chapma n and Benati , 1986; Twombly , 1990 ; White , 1991) . Of particula r interes t i s a study conducte d b y Ostroth e t al . (1984) whic h looked a t the caree r pattern s o f Chie f Studen t Affair s Officer s (C.S.A.O. ) i n the United States . Thei r analysi s involved describing the demographi c feature s o f 11 this group , thei r professiona l activities , wor k experienc e an d caree r aspirations . This stud y reporte d man y interestin g findings . Th e investigator s determine d that a  relationshi p exite d betwee n th e enrolmen t o f th e institutio n an d leve l o f education o f th e C.S.A.O . The y reporte d tha t 5 1 % o f thos e surveye d indicated tha t the y di d no t se t ou t t o becom e C.S.A.O.'s . Ironically , thos e who di d wor k toward s th e goa l o f becomin g a  C.S.A.O . too k longe r t o achiev e this goa l than di d thei r colleague s wh o mor e o r les s "defaulted " int o th e position. Th e author s indicate d tha t ther e wa s a  professiona l concer n amon g the C.S.A.O.' s du e t o a  lac k o f publicatio n i n scholarl y journal s b y thei r peers . They indicate d tha t 7 3 % o f th e sampl e ha d neve r publishe d an y wor k relate d t o their profession . Twombl y (1990) , focuse d o n th e structur e o f th e development o f administrativ e career s i n highe r education . He r wor k i s especially engagin g becaus e i t describe s ho w administrativ e career s i n highe r education diffe r fro m thos e i n othe r moder n organizations . Sh e state d tha t th e ideal caree r ladde r i n man y organization s i s one i n whic h position s ar e clearl y defined an d tightl y ordere d i n a  sequence o f increasin g responsibilit y an d reward, th e pat h on e woul d fol lo w i s highl y structured . Thi s wa s no t th e cas e in institution s o f highe r learning . A s Twombl y pointe d out , ther e wer e multipl e pathways t o nearl y ever y top-leve l administrativ e post , includin g th e presidency. Chapman an d Benat i (1986 ) describe d th e caree r pattern s o f Colleg e 12 Admissions Directors , a  position whic h i s closely aligne d to th e Registra r i n most institutions . Lik e Twombly, the y pointe d ou t tha t ther e i s a relative lac k of clarit y regardin g the path s whic h characteriz e career developmen t fo r highe r education administrators . The y identifie d three common characteristic s whic h seem to b e shared b y admissions directors : i) admission s work a t al l ranks is characterized b y high turnove r ii) admission s personne l are still relativel y youn g when the y reac h the top ran k (3 0 to 40 ) iii) entr y int o admissions does no t necessaril y requir e any advance d degree or specialized training consequently , mobilit y withi n th e administrative structur e o f a n institution ma y b e limite d They indicate d tha t caree r advancement fo r admission s director s frequently mean t movin g out o f admissions . I n order to advanc e i n highe r education administratio n these individual s neede d to develo p their skill s an d knowledge. Chapman and Benat i also pointe d ou t tha t th e rol e o f wome n i n admission merit s furthe r study . Moore (1984(b)) , provide d insigh t int o the structur e o f administrativ e careers b y relatin g he r persona l experiences as an administrator i n the highe r education environment . Onc e again, the theme o f unstructure d caree r path s i s discussed an d highlighted . Moor e drew an analogy betwee n administrativ e career path s an d a super-highway tha t begin s a t a  fixed poin t an d ends a t a n unknown terminus . Sh e made the following observatio n about some individual s who hav e progresse d to the mos t senio r rank s i n post-secondary institutions ; 13 " W e hav e survived unde r the leadershi p of countles s gifte d amateurs, neve r daring to as k how muc h bette r of f w e migh t hav e been i f w e ha d more postsecondaril y literat e peopl e who coul d se e their particula r institutio n a s par t of a  larger worl d and thei r administrative task s a s versions o f a  larger challenge .  .  .  my ow n view i s that w e mus t giv e more thought tha n w e hav e to th e matter o f who m w e selec t fo r administrativ e post s belo w th e Presidency and how the y ar e prepared." The professiona l development an d training of post-secondar y administrators i s the topi c o f numerou s studies , (Garrett , 1946 ; Heaton , 1947 ; Giroux, 1984 ; Skoglund , 1984 ; Stevenson , 1984 ; Woo d e t al. , 1985 ; Henderson, 1990 ; McDade , 1990) . The nee d to creat e professiona l development opportunitie s fo r Registr y staff wa s identifie d a s early as 191 9 (Henderson , 1990) . Toward s th e en d o f World War II , post-secondary institution s wer e preparin g to admi t larg e number s of serviceme n thus creatin g a  significant increas e i n the numbe r o f registrants . Two article s appeare d i n the scholarl y literatur e a t this tim e whic h addresse d the nee d for th e developmen t o f professiona l skills . I n 1946 , Garret t wrot e about "Experimenta l Trainin g for th e Registrar" . H e described a  program whic h was develope d a t the graduat e leve l similar t o th e mor e traditiona l teachin g fellowship, calle d an administrative fellowship . Thi s progra m wa s offere d through Ne w Yor k Universit y an d consisted o f bot h course wor k an d in-servic e training. 14 Heaton's article , written i n 1947 , discusse d the challenge s and choice s facing Registrar s i n post-war America . H e cited the nee d for a  Registrar' s training progra m that woul d lea d to a  bachelor's degree. I n addition, he maintained tha t ther e should b e improvement o f salar y schedules to ensur e tha t the mos t capabl e me n and women woul d b e attracted t o th e position , and tha t there was a  need to develo p and maintain a  records system tha t wa s i n ste p with th e mos t moder n method s known . Ther e are many who woul d argu e tha t these concern s are stil l applicabl e to th e Registrar' s Office s o f th e 1990's . Henderson's (1990 ) "Competencie s fo r Admission s &  Record s Professionals: An AACRA O Guid e to Entr y and Advancement i n the Profession" , provides a  comprehensive analysi s o f th e benefit s o f in-servic e training and a guide to th e skill s an d competencies whic h admission s an d records specialist s should hav e for entr y into , or fo r advancemen t i n the profession . Severa l competency area s are listed, among them; written communications , employe e relations, administration, research , technological knowledge , business practice s and enrolment management . "Staff developmen t an d training" i s the theme o f researc h conducted b y Rostek &  Kladivk o (1988) . The y articulate d the nee d to develo p professiona l development opportunitie s i n two-year college s i n the Unite d States , an d suggested wha t th e element s ar e for successfu l professiona l developmen t programs. The y indicate d tha t professiona l development evolve s ou t o f th e 15 discrepancy betwee n th e curren t estat e o f affair s an d the desire d stat e o f affairs. Eigh t essentia l element s o f a  staff developmen t pla n are: i) institutiona l commitmen t ii) suppor t from top administrator s iii) statemen t o f philosoph y iv) employe e commitmen t an d readines s v) incentive s an d reward s vi) financia l resource s vii) staffin g viii) integratio n int o the organizatio n Brindley an d Frick (1991) , i n an unpublished study, investigat e th e demographic feature s o f th e professiona l staf f i n Registrar' s Office s i n Canadia n universities. Subsequen t to thi s work , they produce d a report whic h investigated "gende r differences i n factors relate d to caree r progressio n o f University administrators" . Thei r wor k describe s how gende r differences hav e influenced th e caree r path s an d individua l experiences o f administrator s i n Canadian universities . Although n o references coul d be found whic h discusse d the demographi c features o f Canadia n Colleg e Registrars , a number o f America n studie s wer e identified whic h delineate d demographi c informatio n abou t registrar s i n tha t country. I t i s importan t t o distinguis h betwee n the rol e of th e colleg e an d university registra r a s there can be considerable differences i n the type s o f wor k undertaken b y members o f eac h group. Furthe r to this , the functio n o f th e 16 Registrar's Offic e ca n differ significantl y betwee n a  college and a university . Several American studies hav e investigated the academi c preparatio n an d career path s o f colleg e and university registrars . O f the fifteen studie s located , only three described the characteristic s o f colleg e as distinct fro m universit y registrars (Tansil , 1928 ; Wallgren , 1937 ; and Jorgensen, 1972) . Althoug h much o f th e informatio n reveale d i n these studie s i s thought provoking , one would hav e to us e extreme cautio n when comparin g result s an d data du e to th e age of th e studies . Th e mos t recen t study wa s complete d ove r twent y year s ago. Tansil (1928) , reporte d on the academi c preparatio n o f libera l arts colleg e registrars i n the souther n Unite d States . O f the thirty-two respondent s i n hi s study, 6.3 % hel d a doctoral degree , 46.9% hel d a masters degree , 37.5% hel d a bachelors degree and 9.4% ha d no post-secondary credential . I n terms o f th e registrars' work experience , the media n numbe r o f year s service i n an educational institutio n wa s 12. 5 years . Specifi c experienc e as a registra r ranged from one to thirty-three , the media n bein g three years . I n addition t o their administrativ e responsibilities , 59.4 % o f the respondent s i n this stud y reported holdin g a part-time facult y appointment . Wallgren's (1937 ) stud y include d 19 8 junior colleg e registrar s fro m across the Unite d States . Sixty-eigh t percen t o f the respondent s indicate d tha t they ha d some form o f post-secondar y education . Doctora l degrees were hel d 17 by 4.5%, 47% hel d master s degrees , and 16.7 % hel d bachelors degrees . Wallgren furthe r explore d the academi c preparatio n o f thi s grou p b y requestin g that the y stat e th e majo r fiel d o f stud y pursued  for earned  degrees. A t bot h th e undergraduate an d graduate level s h e found that th e mos t popula r fiel d o f stud y was education , followed b y english, history an d mathematics . Th e majorit y o f the respondent s fel t tha t th e mos t beneficia l form o f undergraduat e an d graduate education wa s the philosoph y o f education . Educationa l psycholog y was liste d as the secon d mos t preferre d form o f academi c preparation . An analysi s o f th e respondents ' previou s work experienc e reveale d a n average of 5. 6 year s administrative experienc e prio r to assumin g the positio n o f registrar. Th e vast majorit y o f the respondent s held positions (bot h faculty an d administrative) i n some form o f educationa l institution . Typicall y (60 % o f th e cases), these individual s came directl y fro m employmen t i n a secondary school . Thirty-five percen t previousl y hel d a position a t a  junior college , while th e remaining five percen t cam e fro m the universit y sector . Wallgren mad e severa l conclusions followin g th e completio n o f thi s study, among them: 1. th e educationa l preparatio n o f colleg e registrar s wa s comparabl e t o that o f universit y registrar s 2. a  significant numbe r o f registrar s maintaine d activ e membershi p i n professional bodie s and engaged in professional readin g 3. colleg e registrar s mos t frequentl y cam e from the rank s o f facult y 18 4. ther e i s a lack o f recognitio n on the par t o f administrator s an d educational authoritie s concernin g the importanc e o f th e offic e an d making adequat e provision s fo r th e performanc e o f it s function s Of thi s group , Jorgensen (1972) , ha s completed th e mos t recen t wor k with respec t to th e demographi c feature s o f colleg e registrar s i n an unpublishe d doctoral dissertation . Hi s study provide d a profile o f publi c junior colleg e registrars i n the uppe r midwes t o f the Unite d States . Withi n thi s profile , Jorgensen presente d informatio n whic h h e grouped int o fou r categories ; i ) personal and academic characteristics , ii ) professiona l characteristics , iii ) training background , and iv ) supplementa l training recommendation s o f th e registrars. I n terms o f the persona l and academic characteristic s o f th e grou p he found tha t th e positio n o f registra r wa s occupie d predominantl y b y male s (75%). Th e ag e of the respondent s ranged  from betwee n 2 9 an d 6 4 year s wit h the mea n age being 42 years . Fifty-si x percen t o f th e respondent s wer e between the ag e of 3 5 an d 44 years . Ther e was n o significant differenc e i n the ages of th e male s an d females. The highes t degree most frequentl y hel d was the master s degre e (56%) . Approximately 39 % hel d a bachelors degree and roughly 3 % hel d n o degree . The majo r fiel d o f stud y undertake n by the respondent s varied considerabl y however, ther e was a  concentration o f individual s who majore d i n eithe r business o r socia l studies. A t th e graduat e level , the mos t frequentl y cite d 19 major wa s guidanc e and counselling. Th e second mos t popula r fiel d o f stud y was schoo l administration . Jorgensen found tha t th e titl e "Recorder " wa s th e mos t frequentl y use d term to identif y th e individual s wh o hel d the position . An examinatio n o f the respondent s professiona l characteristics reveale d that 47 % ha d held a  position i n a post-secondary institutio n prio r to becomin g a registrar. Th e media n numbe r o f year s experience fo r previou s work i n a college o r universit y wa s fou r years . Prio r work experienc e wa s varie d an d included college instruction , counselling, student affairs , secretaria l work , placement an d office management . I n term s o f thei r professiona l affiliations , there wa s a  tendency t o maintai n membershi p i n the stat e registrars ' association (69% ) rathe r than the nationa l association AACRA O (19%) . Th e extent t o whic h th e various registrar s wer e familia r wit h electroni c dat a processing (EDP ) wa s examined . A  larg e number o f respondent s reporte d tha t they use d EDP equipment i n the execution o f thei r duties . Abou t on e quarte r o f the registrar s wer e abl e to interpre t data receive d from the ED P office, 13 % indicated that the y ha d no training i n the us e of ED P and 5% fel t tha t a background i n EDP was no t important . Jorgensen asked the registrar s to identif y th e types o f supplementa l academic preparatio n that woul d b e most suitabl e fo r individual s aspiring to th e position o f registrar . Th e two mos t frequentl y mentione d subjec t area s were , i ) the theor y o f electroni c dat a processin g i n educational administration , and ii ) college registratio n techniques . Jorgensen concluded with severa l recommendations, among them wer e the following ; 1. Publi c junior colleg e registrar s should seek to becom e mor e activ e in their professiona l associations through increase d membershi p and increased attendance a t annua l meetings o f th e registrars ' associations. 2. Th e regiona l registrars ' association shoul d consider th e possibilit y of conducting annua l workshops o r participator y seminar s fo r registrars pertainin g to method s o f dealin g wit h technica l problem s related tot h e performance o f thei r duties . 3. President s should give mor e concern to employin g person s i n the registrar's positio n wh o hav e previous professiona l experienc e i n a Registrar's Office . 4. Registrar s should seek to becom e mor e familia r wit h th e us e and capabilities o f electroni c data processin g applications i n the performance o f the dutie s an d functions o f thei r offic e whic h ar e not merel y o f a  routine nature . 5. . . . Salar y differentiation base d upon the se x o f th e registra r should b e eliminated. White (1991) , provide d a  more current assessmen t o f th e rol e an d function o f th e registra r i n Australian institution s o f highe r education . Sh e noted the lac k o f scholarl y work pertainin g to Australia n registrar s an d post -secondary administrator s i n general . A s stated earlier , a  parallel situatio n currently exists i n Canada. In this study , White surveyed al l Australian registrars . Sh e reporte d a 21 response rat e o f seventy-on e percent . Sixty-tw o people  participated i n th e study. Th e respondent s cam e from bot h the college an d universit y sectors . Basic demographi c informatio n gathere d include s data o n sex, age , gender , academic preparation , work history , positio n title, reportin g relationship s an d -v salary. Th e analysi s o f the dat a reveale d that Australia n registrar s wer e predominantly male s (89% ) an d were betwee n the ag e of forty-fiv e an d fifty -four. Sixty-fiv e percen t ha d graduate leve l education wit h th e majo r fiel d o f study bein g fairly evenl y distribute d betwee n Arts/Humanitie s (23%) , Science/Mathematics (21%) , Busines s Administration/Economics (33%) , an d Education (23%) . Th e respondent s indicate d that the y believ e tha t th e nex t generation of Australia n registrar s wil l nee d to hol d a  graduate degree as a minimum qualificatio n fo r th e office . Hal f o f th e registrar s wer e appointe d t o the curren t position s fro m withi n thei r curren t institution . Twenty-thre e percen t had held faculty position s a t some poin t i n their career . Th e majorit y o f th e respondents (80% ) ha d been appointed to the positio n within th e pas t fiv e years. The respondent s wer e asked to indicat e (fro m a pre-defined list ) the thre e sets of skill s whic h wer e the mos t importan t fo r a  registrar to possess . Th e five mos t frequentl y endorse d choices were : 1. hig h leve l of conceptual/analytica l skill s (73% ) 2. interpersona l communications (59% ) 3. chang e managemen t (57% ) 22 4. staf f leadershi p (45% ) 5. politica l an d conflic t managemen t (41% ) White conclude d b y indicatin g tha t sh e anticipate d tha t b y th e en d o f th e century th e rol e o f registra r i n Australia n highe r educatio n coul d becom e tha t o f a middl e manage r responsibl e fo r studen t services . Sh e als o envisione d th e titl e "registrar" bein g replace d wit h a  mor e managerialisti c tit le . ii) Summar y The literatur e revie w reveale d tha t ther e ha s bee n a  very limite d numbe r of scholarl y studie s conducte d whic h reporte d informatio n regardin g th e personal characteristic s an d caree r path s o f colleg e registrars . There ha s bee n somewha t mor e researc h undertake n whic h describe s post-secondary administrator s a s a  large r group . Thi s typ e o f researc h generall y focused o n issue s relate d t o gende r difference s betwee n colleg e an d universit y administrators, demographi c features , caree r path s an d professiona l development need s an d initiatives . As a  resul t o f thi s review , w e hav e learne d tha t ther e i s a  genuin e nee d to conduc t scholarl y researc h whic h concentrate s o n th e non-academi c administrator i n Canadia n institution s o f highe r learning , especiall y th e community college . Thi s concer n fo r th e lac k o f informatio n concernin g non -academic administrator s i s reporte d b y scholar s fro m othe r countrie s includin g the Unite d States , Australi a an d the Netherlands . Previous studies conducte d i n the Unite d State s whic h focu s o f th e college registrar , emphasize the nee d for expande d communications betwee n the professiona l staf f i n registrar' s offices an d the on-going nee d fo r professional development . 24 CHAPTER II I PROCEDURESO F THE STUDY The study wa s organize d in a manner which woul d allo w fo r th e system-atic identificatio n an d analysis o f pertinen t information . Thi s proces s involve d the developmen t o f a  plan for th e study , a  review o f researc h and relate d studies, the development o f a  questionnaire, and data collection and analysis . i) Pla n of th e Stud y A surve y wa s constructe d whic h wa s forwarded t o communit y college , provincial institut e an d university/college registrar s i n Britis h Columbia . A  lis t o f the institution s whos e registrar s wer e invite d to participat e i n the stud y ca n be found i n appendix 1 . Al l Britis h Columbian communit y colleges , university -colleges, and the Britis h Columbi a Institut e o f Technology wer e included . Th e British Columbi a Justic e Institute , Emil y Car r College of Ar t an d the Pacifi c Marine Training Institut e wer e omitted du e to the fac t tha t thei r individua l academic foc i are quite narro w and specialized. Th e institution s chose n fo r th e study offe r a  more comprehensive rang e of program s an d services t o student s than t o the three excluded ones, consequently, thei r registrar s ar e require d t o participate activel y i n the managemen t o f thei r institution s i n terms o f providin g administrative directio n an d by assisting i n the developmen t o f academi c policy . Information wa s gathere d regardin g persona l characteristics o f th e registrars, their academi c preparation , work historie s an d professiona l development preference s and needs . Supplementa l dat a on persona l an d professional characteristics wa s als o obtained from a  variety o f document s found withi n the publi c domain . Information wa s collecte d via the questionnair e which allowe d fo r th e development o f a  profile o f colleg e and institute registrar s i n British Columbia . This profil e was then compared to dat a from relate d American an d Australia n research. Th e balanc e o f th e informatio n collecte d provide d informatio n regarding the types o f professiona l development activitie s currentl y subscribe d to b y the colleg e and institute registrar s i n British Columbia . I n addition, thei r professional development preference s were delineate d as were thei r professional development needs . ii) Metho d o f Dat a Collectio n In order to identif y al l college and institute registrar s i n Britis h Columbia , several sources wer e use d and cross-referenced. The membershi p guid e o f th e Association o f Registrar s o f Universitie s an d Colleges o f Canad a (ARUCC ) 26 provided th e initia l lis t o f registrar s fo r thi s study . T o ensur e tha t thi s lis t wa s complete, th e 1991-199 2 Britis h Columbi a Transfe r Credi t Guid e wa s used . This documen t wa s employe d becaus e i t provide s a  complet e listin g o f al l post -secondary institution s i n th e provinc e includin g th e addres s o f eac h Registrar' s Office. Thi s ensure d tha t al l o f th e desire d institution s woul d b e include d regardless o f thei r membershi p i n ARUCC . Fro m thes e sources , sixtee n institu -tions wer e identified . Eac h institutio n wa s contacte d b y telephon e i n orde r t o confirm th e nam e o f th e registra r an d th e appropriat e mailin g address . Fo r those individual s wh o ha d give n name s tha t woul d no t allo w fo r th e accurat e determination o f gender , (i.e. , Chri s o r Dale ) th e se x o f th e Registra r wa s confirmed. Th e atypica l administrativ e structur e a t Vancouve r Communit y College necessitate d th e identificatio n o f thre e individual s wh o hel d th e positio n of registrar . A s a  result , ther e wer e sixtee n institution s aske d t o participat e an d eighteen potentia l respondents . Each registra r wa s maile d a  packag e containin g th e fol lowin g documents ; a lette r o f introductio n fro m th e researcher , a  lette r o f endorsemen t fro m th e past-president o f th e Britis h Columbi a Registrars ' Association , a  se t o f instruc -t ions, a  seve n pag e questionnaire , a  pre-stampe d retur n envelop e addresse d t o the researcher' s offic e an d a  pre-stampe d respons e car d addresse d t o th e researcher's home . Th e syste m use d to retur n th e complete d questionnaire s was develope d t o serv e tw o purposes : (1 ) t o ensur e th e anonymit y o f th e individual respondents , and (2 ) to allo w the researche r to identif y thos e wh o had no t returne d the questionnair e so that a  follow-up lette r coul d b e forwarded. Appendi x on e list s al l of th e institution s whic h participate d i n the study. Th e lette r o f endorsemen t fro m the Past-Presiden t o f th e Britis h •v Columbia Registrar s Associatio n ca n be found i n appendix two . Th e lette r o f introduction fro m the researche r ca n be found i n appendix three . Th e instructions t o th e participant s ca n be found i n appendix four . Appendi x fiv e contains the seve n page questionnaire an d appendix seve n i s a copy o f th e follow-up lette r sen t t o thos e wh o di d no t respon d by the origina l deadline . Three weeks afte r th e initia l package s were maile d out , th e respons e cards and returne d questionnaires receive d were counted . Thirtee n respons e cards an d a corresponding numbe r o f questionnaire s ha d been returned. A follow-up lette r wa s sen t to th e fiv e registrar s who ha d no t responded . Thi s generated an additional fou r response s fo r a  total o f seventee n respondents . This resulte d i n a 94.45% respons e rate . N o further attemp t wa s mad e t o contact an y o f th e registrars . Al l o f th e questionnaire s returne d were useable . Table 1  reports the respons e rate according to institutio n type . iii) Developmen t o f th e Questionnair e The questionnair e employed wa s a  unique document develope d b y th e TABLE 1 RESPONSE RATE OF BRITISH COLUMBIAN COLLEG E AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S B Y INSTITUTION TYP E Institution Type Numbe r sent Numbe r returned Percentag e of Total Community College * 1 3 1 2 92 % Provincial Institute 1  1  100 % University Colleg e 4  4  100 % Totals 1 8 1 7 94.44 % N = 18 * Vancouver Communit y Colleg e officiall y list s three registrars therefore, they are counted three times . researcher specificall y fo r thi s study . Th e individua l question s wer e develope d to gathe r specifi c informatio n deeme d pertinen t t o th e study . Othe r questionnaires develope d t o gathe r simila r informatio n wer e studie d fo r th e content, wordin g an d organization . (Brindle y an d Frick , 1990 ; Jorgensen , 1972 ) The thesi s advisor y committe e contribute d greatl y t o th e desig n an d construction o f th e questionnaire . Eac h questio n wa s reviewe d i n detai l t o ensure tha t i t wa s necessar y an d tha t th e subsequen t response s woul d contribute valuabl e information . Th e wordin g o f th e questionnair e wa s scrutinized b y th e committe e t o ensur e clarity . Question s whic h deal t wi t h common subjec t matte r wer e groupe d togethe r s o tha t th e respondent s coul d work throug h th e questionnair e wi t h relativ e ease . Th e instrumen t wa s pre -tested b y a  post-secondar y institutiona l researche r an d a n Assistan t Registra r from withi n th e colleg e sector . The y wer e aske d t o complet e th e entir e questionnaire an d receive d th e sam e se t o f instruction s tha t woul d b e forwarded t o th e participants . The y wer e aske d t o recor d th e amoun t o f tim e required t o complet e th e questionnair e an d als o t o repor t o n an y item s the y found unclea r o r confusing . Severa l adjustment s wer e mad e a s a  resul t o f thei r comments an d suggestions . The questionnair e wa s designe d t o gathe r informatio n concernin g specifi c personal characteristics , academi c preparation , wor k experienc e an d dat a concerning professiona l developmen t preference s an d needs . Th e dat a col -lected concernin g persona l characteristic s include d th e responden t s  age , gender an d salary . Informatio n describin g academi c preparatio n include d reporting o n th e highes t degre e hel d an d th e majo r fiel d o f study . Th e wor k experience sectio n assemble d informatio n abou t th e lengt h o f tim e th e respon -dents ha d hel d thei r curren t appointment , th e enrolmen t a t thei r institutions , their reportin g relationships , an d al l previou s wor k experience . Severa l othe r questions wer e aske d whic h wer e designe d t o collec t informatio n pertainin g t o the futur e caree r goal s o f th e respondents , whethe r o r no t the y ha d consciousl y planned t o becom e a  registrar , ho w thei r educationa l choice s wer e shape d b y their caree r goal s an d wha t prio r wor k experience s wer e o f mos t valu e t o the m given thei r curren t responsibilities . The fina l componen t o f th e questionnair e deal t specificall y wi t h pro -fessional developmen t preference s an d needs . Th e registrar s wer e aske d t o identify whic h professiona l association s the y belonge d to , th e type s o f pro -fessional developmen t activitie s the y ha d participate d i n sinc e becomin g a registrar, th e exten t o f thei r technologica l expertise , an d th e type s o f pro -fessional developmen t activitie s the y woul d fin d mos t beneficial . A cop y o f th e questionnair e ca n b e foun d i n appendi x f ive . v) Dat a Analysi s All questionnaire s wer e evaluate d an d analyzed . Tabulation s wer e mad e 31 from th e response s which generate d quantitativ e data . Descriptiv e statistic s such as mode , mean , median, range and frequency distributions wer e employe d to summariz e th e data . A  secon d stage o f analysi s wa s to conside r a  number of cross-tabulations . Seventee n variables formed the basi s of th e questionnaire . This numbe r o f variable s lead s to a  larger numbe r o f cross-tabulations . Th e matrix o f al l possible combinations o f pair s of variable s wa s examine d to se e which combination s shoul d b e explored. Thi s resulte d i n the constructio n o f 3 0 cross-tabulations, o f whic h fiftee n yielde d interestin g results . Thes e result s ar e incorporated int o the presentatio n o f finding s i n Chapter Four . Fro m these analyses a  variety o f table s wer e generated . Non-numeri c response s wer e recorded and evaluated. Muc h o f thi s dat a wa s als o represente d i n tabula r form. I n addition to these schemati c representation s o f information , narrativ e description was use d to repor t the finding s i n greater detail . Comparison s wer e made to relate d studies wher e appropriate . 32 CHAPTER I V FINDING S O F THE STUDY The presentatio n o f th e finding s o f thi s stud y wer e organize d accordin g to th e fou r group s o f informatio n gathere d vi a th e questionnaire . Thes e fou r groups were : 1 ) informatio n o n persona l characteristics , 2 ) academi c preparation, 3 ) caree r path s an d wor k histories , an d 4 ) professiona l development preference s an d needs . For eac h se t o f findings , a  comparison t o th e finding s i n th e relate d literature i s reported . i) Basi c Demographi c Characteristic s This segmen t o f th e stud y report s finding s regardin g th e age , gende r an d annual salar y o f th e colleg e an d institut e registrar s i n Britis h Columbia . Chronological ag e o f colleg e an d institut e registrar s i n Britis h Columbia . A distribution o f th e ag e o f th e grou p i s illustrate d i n tabl e two . Th e chronologica l age o f th e colleg e an d institut e registrar s i n Britis h Columbi a wa s withi n th e thirty-four t o fifty-thre e yea r ag e range . Th e mea n ag e o f th e grou p wa s 44 .8 2 years. Th e mea n ag e o f th e femal e registrar s wa s slightl y highe r tha n th e grou p TABLE 2 RANGE IN CHRONOLOGICAL AG E OF BRITISH COLUMBIAN COLLEG E AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S SURVEYE D Distribution o f Registrar s Age Range Male Female Total (55 -  59) (50 -  54) (45 -  49) (40 -  44) (35 -  39) (30 -  34) (25 -  29) Number Responding 2 (15.38% ) 4 (30.77% ) 5 (38.46% ) 1 (  7.69%) 1 (  7.69%) Percent of total Responding 11.76 23.53 29.41 5.88 5.88 Number Responding 1 (25% ) 1 (25% ) 2 (50% ) --Percentage of total Responding 5.88 5.88 11.76 --Number Percentag e of Responding tota l responding 3 5 7 1 1 17.65 29.41 41.18 5.88 5.88 Totals 13 76.46% 23.52% 17 100% Mean age group =  46.8 2 year s Mean age males =  44.3 8 year s Mean age females =  46.2 5 year s Median age =  4 4 year s N =  1 7 CO at 46.2 5 year s whil e th e mea n ag e o f thei r mal e counterpart s wa s 44.3 8 years . The media n ag e wa s forty-fou r an d th e majorit y o f th e respondent s (70%) , fel l within th e fort y t o forty-nin e yea r ag e range . Related studies . Th e finding s reporte d wit h respec t t o chronologica l ag e are ver y simila r t o thos e repor t b y Jorgense n (1972) . H e foun d tha t th e average ag e o f registrar s fro m th e Publi c Junio r College s i n th e Uppe r Midwes t was 42 .8 7 years . Th e averag e ag e o f female s i n this grou p wa s 45.1 1 an d 42 .07 fo r males . White' s (1991 ) stud y o f Australia n universit y an d colleg e registrars foun d tha t th e majorit y o f registrar s i n tha t countr y wer e betwee n th e age forty-f iv e an d fifty-fou r years . Sex o f th e colleg e an d institut e registrar s i n Britis h Columbia . Tabl e thre e represents a  breakdow n b y se x o f thos e wh o participate d i n th e study . Of th e eightee n colleg e an d institut e registrar s i n Britis h Columbia , fourteen wer e male s (78% ) an d fou r wer e female s (22%) . O f thos e wh o participated i n th e study , thirtee n wer e male s (76% ) an d fou r wer e female s (24%). Tabl e fou r represent s th e se x o f th e respondent s b y institutio n type . The fou r femal e registrar s ar e employe d b y communit y colleges . Th e Britis h Columbia Institut e o f Technolog y employee s a  mal e registra r a s d o al l o f th e university-colleges. 35 TABLE 3 SEX O F BRITIS H COLUMBIA N COLLEG E AN D INSTITUT E REGISTRARS RESPONDIN G T O SURVE Y Percentage o f Tota l 7 5 % 2 5 % Totals 1 7 100 % Sex Male Female Number 13 4 Related studies . Th e predominanc e o f mal e registrar s reporte d i n thi s study coincide s wi t h findin g fro m tw o America n studies . Gignillia t (1954 ) found tha t 6 8 % o f th e registrar s fro m Publi c Junio r College s i n th e Unite d States wer e men . Jorgensen' s stud y o f 197 2 reporte d tha t 7 5 % o f th e registrars fro m Publi c Junio r College s i n Uppe r Midwes t wer e men . Whit e (1991) reporte d tha t 8 9 % o f Australia n registrar s wer e men . Salaries o f colleg e an d institut e registrar s i n Britis h Columbia . Tabl e fiv e illustrates a  distributio n o f th e salarie s o f th e respondents . Annua l salarie s ranged betwee n $54,96 0 an d $79,00 0 wit h th e mea n bein g $64,272 . Th e median an d th e mod e wer e bot h calculate d a t $62,00 0 pe r year.Eighty-tw o pe r cent o f th e respondent s ha d salarie s whic h fel l withi n th e $60,00 0 t o $69,00 0 range. A  breakdow n b y gende r reveal s n o significan t differenc e betwee n th e TABLE 4 COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S I N BRITISH COLUMBIA BASE D ON SEX AND INSTITUTIO N TYP E Institution Type University/College Provincial Institut e Community Colleg e Male 4 (28.57% ) 1 (07.14% ) 9 (64.26% ) Female 4 (100% ) Total 4 (22.22% ) 1 (05.56% ) 13 (72.22% ) Totals 14 18 N =  1 8 TABLE 5 SALARY INFORMATIO N FO R COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRARS IN BRITISH COLUMBI A Salary Rang e (75,000 -  79,999 ) (70,000 -  74,999 ) (65,000 -  69,999 ) (60,000 -  64,999) (55,000 -  59,999 ) (50,000 -  54,999 ) 1 7.69 % Distribution of Registrar s Male Number Responding 1 7.69 % 1 7.69 % 2 15.38 % 8 61.50 % Percent of Total 5.88 5.88 11.76 47.06 Female Number Responding --2 50 % 2 50 % Percent of Total --11.76 11.76 Total Number Responding 1 1 4 10 Percent of Total 5.88 5.88 23.53 58.82 5.88 5.88 Totals 13 76.46% 23.53 1 7 99.99% N =  1 7 GO mean salaries o f mal e and female registrars , the former bein g $64,10 9 an d the latter bein g $64,541 . Related studies . Thi s apparen t equit y i n terms o f salarie s o f mal e an d female registrar s doe s no t suppor t the assertio n .made by Bird (1984 ) wh o found tha t mal e universit y administrator s tende d to mak e mor e mone y tha n di d their femal e counterpart s wit h simila r level s o f educatio n and work experience . In fact, the female registrar s i n this study earned  slightly mor e than di d thei r male colleagues . ii) Academi c Preparatio n This segmen t o f th e stud y report s findings relate d to th e academi c credentials o f th e colleg e and institute registrar s i n British Columbia , the majo r fields o f stud y pursued , preferences for undergraduat e education, and th e extent t o whic h th e registrar s enjoye d an understanding o f curren t computin g technologies. Academic credential s accordin g to highes t degree held. Tabl e si x illustrates th e distributio n o f academi c credential s hel d by the colleg e an d institute registrar s i n Britis h Columbia . Al l o f the respondent s hel d some for m of post-secondar y academic credential . On e responden t hel d a  college/institut e TABLE 6 NUMBERS AND PERCENTAGES OF BRITISH COLUMBIAN COLLEG E AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S ACCORDIN G TO HIGHES T DEGREE HELD Distribution o f Registrar s Credential Held College Certificate/Diploma Bachelor's Degre e Master's Degre e Doctoral Degre e Totals number responding 1 7.69 % 8 61.54 % 4 30.77 % -13 Male percentage of tota l 5.88 47.06 23.53 -76.47% number responding 1 25 % 3 75 % -4 Female percentage of tota l 5.88 17.64 -23.53% number responding 1 9 7 -17 Group percentage of tota l 5.88 52.94 41.17 -100% N =  1 7 diploma (5.88%) , nin e hel d bachelor' s degree s (52.94%) , an d seve n hel d master's degree s (41.18%) . A  furthe r analysi s o f thos e wh o hel d master' s degrees reveale d tha t o f th e seve n individual s identified , thre e wer e women . Related studies . Th e finding s sho w t h a f 7 5 % o f th e femal e registrar s i n this stud y hel d graduat e leve l degree s a s oppose d t o 3 3 % o f th e male s wh o held thi s credential . Thi s findin g lend s suppor t t o th e assertio n mad e b y Sangria (1988 ) i n a  study whic h explore d th e manageria l skill s an d experience s of administrator s withi n highe r education . Sangri a foun d tha t wome n typicall y place mor e importanc e o n forma l learnin g experience s t o prepar e themselve s fo r administrative responsibilities . Academic preparatio n o f colleg e an d institut e registrar s b y major . Tabl e seven illustrate s th e undergraduat e an d graduat e preparatio n o f th e respondent s according t o academi c discipline . S o tha t th e tabulatio n proces s coul d b e streamlined, th e variou s field s o f stud y wer e divide d int o si x categories . Thes e categories were : 1 ) Genera l Arts , 2 ) Education , 3 ) Humanities , 4 ) Science/Mathematics, 5 ) Socia l Science , an d 6 ) Business/Economics . In terms o f th e undergraduat e leve l studie s o f th e respondents , fou r (23.53%) ha d complete d degree s i n th e genera l arts , on e (5.88% ) ha d com -pleted a  degre e i n education , three (17.65% ) ha d complete d degree s i n th e humanities, fiv e (29.4 1 %) ha d complete d degree s i n mathematics/science , tw o TABLE 7 UNDERGRADUATE AN D GRADUAT E PREPARATIO N O F COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S IN BRITISH COLUMBI A B Y MAJOR FIEL D OF STUDY Distribution o f Registrar s Major Fiel d of Stud y Undergraduate ( N = 17) Graduat e ( N = 7) Number Respondin g /  Percentag e Numbe r Respondin g /  Percentag e male femal e Tota l mal e femal e Tota l Arts Education Humanities Science/Math Social Scienc e Business 3 (23.08 ) 1 (7.69 ) --5 (38.46 ) 2 (15.38 ) 1 (7.69 ) 1 (25 ) 3(75) 4 (23.53 ) 1 (5.88 ) 3 (17.65 ) 5 (29.41 ) 2 (11.76 ) 1 (5.88 ) 3(75) 1 (25 ) 3 (100 ) 6 (85.71 ) 1 (14.29 ) Totals 13(76.47% ) 4(23.53% ) 17(100% ) 4(57.14% ) 3(42.86% ) 7(100% ) (11.76%) ha d complete d degree s i n th e socia l science s an d on e (5.88% ) ha d completed a  degre e i n business/economics . Th e responden t wh o hel d a college/institute diplom a majore d i n system s analysis . Fo r thos e wh o reported a  graduat e leve l education , si x (85.71% ) chos e t o stud y withi n th e field o f education . Th e onl y othe r graduat e degre e wa s a  master' s degre e i n the sciences , specificall y atmospheri c physics . O f th e si x master' s degree s i n education, fiv e ha d focuse d o n educationa l administratio n an d on e ha d focuse d on adul t education . On e o f th e respondent s indicate d tha t h e hel d a  pro -fessional accountin g designatio n (CGA) . Highest degre e earne d an d age . Th e dat a sho w tha t a  larg e numbe r (57.15%) o f th e registrar s wh o wer e 4 0 year s o f ag e o r les s hel d graduat e leve l degrees. Fift y percen t o f th e registrar s wh o hel d bachelor' s degree s o r les s were 4 0 year s o f ag e o r younger . Tabl e 8  present s thi s data . Highest degre e earne d an d salary . Tabl e 9  show s th e relationshi p between th e highes t degre e earne d an d th e salarie s earne d b y th e registrars . The averag e annua l incom e fo r registrar s wi t h a  graduate degre e wa s $63,923.00. Th e averag e annua l incom e fo r registrar s wi t h a  bachelor' s degree o r les s wa s $64,516.00 . Technical competencies . Th e respondent s wer e aske d t o delineat e thei r TABLE 8 COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S B Y AGE AND HIGHES T DEGRE E EARNED Age Range in years (50 -  54 ) (45 -  49) (40 -  44) (35 -  39 ) (30 -  34) Master's degree 1 (14.29% ) 2 (28.57% ) 3 (42.86% ) 1 (14.29% ) Bachelor's degree (or less ) 2 (20% ) 3 (30% ) 4 (40% ) . 1 (10% ) Totals 10 TABLE 9 COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S BY HIGHEST DEGRE E EARNED AND ANNUAL SALAR Y Annual Salary Master's Degre e Bachelor's Degree (or less) (75,000 -  79,999 ) (70,000 -  74,999 ) (65,000 -  69,999 ) (60,000 -  64,999 ) (55,000 -  59,999 ) (50,000 -  54,999 ) 1 4 1 3 6 Totals 7 (41.18% ) 10 (58.82% ) N =  1 7 average annua l salary fo r thos e wit h master' s degre e =  $63,923.0 0 average annua l salary fo r thos e wit h bachelor' s degre e =  $64,516.0 0 45 education/training wi t h respec t t o th e compute r technologie s employe d b y thei r particular institutions . The y wer e aske d t o conside r bot h mainfram e an d microcomputer environments . Tabl e te n illustrate s a  summary o f th e finding s reported. The respondent s wer e presente d wit h fou r pre-phrase d description s which the y coul d appl y t o thei r ow n situation . Thes e fou r choice s were : 1 ) formal academi c preparation , 2 ) self-taugh t throug h "hands-on " experience , 3 ) skills develope d throug h professiona l developmen t activities , an d 4 ) other . They wer e allowe d t o selec t a s man y option s a s applie d t o thei r situation . Sixteen (94.12% ) o f th e respondent s indicate d tha t the y wer e self-taugh t through "hands-on " experience . Nin e (52.94% ) respondent s indicate d tha t the y had develope d skill s throug h professiona l developmen t activitie s whil e four(23.53%) indicate d tha t the y ha d forma l academi c preparation . Eigh t registrars (47.06% ) indicate d tha t thei r compute r knowledg e resulte d fro m bot h "hands-on" experienc e an d professiona l developmen t i n thi s area . Sex an d acquisitio n o f knowledg e concernin g compute r technologies . Seventy-five percen t o f th e femal e respondent s reporte d tha t the y ha d developed a n understandin g o f compute r technologie s throug h "hands-on " experience, an d tha t the y wer e sel f taught . O f th e mal e respondents , onl y 3 3 % fell int o thi s categor y an d 5 8 % ha d a  combination o f "hands-on " experienc e and professiona l developmen t relatin g directl y t o computing . Tabl e 1 1 TABLE 1 0 COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S I N BRITISH COLUMBI A DESCRIB E THEIR METHO D OF KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION I N TERMS O F COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIE S Type of Learnin g Experience Numbe r Respondin g Percentag e (N = 17) 1 ) Forma l academic preparatio n 4  23.53 % (N = 17) 2 ) Sel f taugh t throug h "hands-on " experience 1 6 94.12 % (N = 17) 3 ) Skill s develope d through professiona l development 9  52.94 % * Forty-seve n percen t o f th e respondent s selected th e combinatio n o f # 2 an d #3 . TABLE 1 1 COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S B Y SEX AND METHO D O F COMPUTER KNOWLEDG E ACQUISITIO N Method of Knowledg e Mal e Femal e Grou p Acquisition 1 onl y 2 onl y 4  (33.33% ) 3  (75% ) 7 3 onl y 1  (08.33%) -  1 1 &  2  2  (16.67% ) -  2 1 & 3 2 &  3  4  (33.33% ) 1  (25%) 5 All 3  1  (08.33%) -  1 Totals 1 2 4  1 6 N =  1 6 1 =  Forma l academic preparatio n 2 =  Sel f taugh t throug h "hands-o n experience " 3 =  Skill s develope d through professiona l development i j illustrates thes e findings . 48 Preferred for m o f undergraduat e preparation . Th e respondent s wer e asked i f the y considere d on e for m o f undergraduat e educatio n t o b e mos t beneficial fo r potentia l registrars . Twelv e (70.59% ) o f th e registrar s fel t tha t n o specific fiel d o f stud y woul d b e advantageous . Fiv e (29.41% ) o f th e registrar s indicated tha t ther e wer e course s whic h a n undergraduat e shoul d complet e i f he/she aspire d t o th e positio n o f colleg e registrar . Th e course s recommende d were; compute r system s management , administrativ e practices , mathematics/statistics, huma n resourc e management , educatio n an d communications. On e responden t indicate d tha t prio r teachin g experienc e would b e o f considerabl e value . iii) Caree r Path s an d Wor k Experienc e This segmen t o f th e stud y report s informatio n concernin g th e caree r paths an d prio r wor k historie s o f th e colleg e an d institut e registrar s i n Britis h Columbia. Th e informatio n gathere d provide s dat a o n a  wid e variet y o f caree r related variable s suc h as ; the numbe r o f year s th e respondent s ha d hel d th e position o f registrar , thei r officia l tit le , thei r reportin g relationships , th e numbe r of year s o f wor k experienc e prio r t o becomin g registrar , th e typ e o f wor k engaged i n prio r t o wor k i n the educationa l administratio n fiel d an d th e ag e a t which the y assume d th e positio n o f registrar . Length o f servic e a s registrar . Th e respondent s wer e aske d t o indicat e the lengt h o f tim e tha t the y ha d worke d a s a  registrar . Tabl e twelv e illustrate s their responses . Th e rang e fo r lengt h o f servic e wa s si x month s t o eightee n years. Th e averag e numbe r o f year s servic e fo r th e grou p wa s 7.75 . Ther e was n o significan t differenc e betwee n male s an d female s wit h respec t t o th e number o f year s the y hel d th e positio n o f registrar . Tabl e 1 3 show s th e relationship betwee n th e lengt h o f servic e a s a  registra r an d th e highes t degre e earned. O f th e registrar s wh o hel d graduat e degrees , 8 6 % ha d les s tha n seve n years service . Fort y percen t o f th e registrar s wh o hel d a  bachelor' s degre e o r less, ha d fewe r tha n seve n year s servic e a s a  registrar . Position t i t le . O f th e seventee n respondents , thirtee n (76.74% ) indicate d that thei r officia l titl e wa s "Registrar" . Th e othe r title s reflec t combine d responsibilities fo r th e Registrar' s Offic e an d othe r administrativ e areas . Thes e four title s were : Dean , Instructiona l Suppor t an d Studen t Services , Assistan t Director o f Studen t Service s an d Registrar , Registra r an d Directo r o f Educationa l Support Services , an d Registra r an d Directo r o f Studen t Services . Related studies . Gignillia t (1954 ) reporte d tha t th e majorit y (43% ) o f th e individuals participatin g i n hi s stud y wer e officiall y referre d t o a s "Registrar" . TABLE 1 2 LENGTH OF SERVICE AS A REGISTRA R A S REPORTE D BY THE COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRARS I N BRITISH COLUMBIA Distribution o f Registrar s Length of Servie Range in Years (0 .0-3.0) (3.5- 6.5 ) (7 .0- 10.0 ) (10.5 -  13.50 ) (14.0 -  17.0 ) (17.5 -  20.5 ) Male # respondin g 4 30.77 % 2 15.38 % 1 7.69 % 5 38.46 % 1 7.69 % 0 percentage 23.53 11.76 5.88 29.41 5.88 0.00 Female # responding percentag e 2 50 % 11.7 6 0 1 25 % 0 0 1 25 % 0.00 5.88 0.00 0.00 5.88 Total # respondin g percentag e 6 2 2 5 1 1 35.29 11.76 11.76 29.41 5.88 5.88 Totals 13 (76.46%) (23.36%) 17 (ioo%; N =  1 7 Range =  . 5 - 1 8 year s Median =  7  years Group mea n =  7.7 5 year s Male mea n =  7.8 8 years , femal e mea n =  7.2 5 year s O TABLE 1 3 COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S B Y LENGTH OF SERVICE AS A REGISTRAR AN D HIGHES T DEGRE E EARNED Number o f years service as a registrar (0.0 -  2.0 ) (2 .5-4 .5) (5 .0- 7.0 ) (7.5 -  9.5 ) (10.0- 12.0 ) (12.5 -  14.5 ) (15.0 -  17.0 ) (17.5 -  19.5 ) Master's degree 3 (42.68% ) 2 (28.57% ) 1 (14.29% ) 1 (14.29% ) Bachelor's degree (or less) 1 (10% ) 1 (10% ) 2 (20% ) 3 (30% ) 2 (20% ) 1 (10% ) Totals 10 N =  1 7 Of th e registrar s wh o hel d master' s degrees , 86% ha d less than 7  years service as a registrar . of th e registrar s wh o hel d bachelor' s degrees , 40% ha d less than 7  years service as a registrar. f± 52 The combine d titl e o f "Registra r &  Dean " wa s hel d b y 2 3 % o f th e respondents . In contras t t o bot h thi s stud y an d Gignilliat' s study , Jorgense n (1972 ) foun d that th e mos t popula r tit le , hel d b y 4 1 % o f th e registrar s o f Publi c Junio r Colleges i n th e Uppe r Midwest , wa s "Recorder" . Hi s stud y als o reveale d several positio n title s whic h reflecte d combined-jo b responsibilitie s suc h as ; registrar &  directo r o f admissions , an d registra r &  busines s manager . Reporting relationship . A  variet y o f reportin g relationship s wer e described b y th e respondents . Th e registrar s al l indicate d reportin g t o a  senio r college officia l a t th e Director , Dea n o r Vic e Presiden t level . Tw o o f th e respondents indicate d tha t the y reporte d directl y t o th e Presiden t o f th e institution. Tabl e fourtee n illustrate s th e grea t variet y o f positio n title s use d t o delineate thi s senio r laye r a  college administrators . Thre e o f th e registrar s reported t o administrator s a t th e Directo r leve l (17.65%) , fou r ha d superior s a t the Dea n leve l (23.53%) , an d eigh t reporte d t o a  Vice Presiden t (47.08%) . I t should b e note d tha t a t man y college s an d provincia l institute s i n Britis h Columbia, a  Dea n an d a  Vic e Presiden t hol d th e sam e leve l o f authorit y wi t h th e institutional hierarchy . I f thi s i s taken int o consideration , i t woul d b e appropriate t o indicat e tha t twelv e o f th e respondent s (70.59% ) reporte d directly t o administrator s wh o hel d position s a t th e secon d mos t senio r leve l wi thin th e variou s institutions . TABLE 1 4 ADMINSTRATORS T O WHOM THE COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S I N BRITISH COLUMBIAN REPOR T Title o f Administrator Number of Respondents Percentage of Total Director o f Plannin g Director o f Studen t Service s 1 2 5.88 11.76 Dean of Educationa l Suppor t Service s Dean of Studen t Affair s Dean, Educationa l &  Studen t Service s 2 1 1 11.76 5.88 5.88 Associate Vic e President , Financ e Vice Presiden t Vice President , Studen t &  Communit y Service s Vice President , Education Suppor t Service s Vice President , Instructio n &  Suppor t Service s Vice President , Student Service s &  Educationa l Suppor t Vice President , Administratio n 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 5.88 11.76 5.88 .88 .88 .88 .88 President 11.76 Totals 17 (100%) N =  1 7 Number o f year s o f wor k experience . Th e numbe r o f year s o f wor k experience prio r t o becomin g a  registra r fo r th e respondent s i s illustrate d i n Table f i f teen . Thes e figure s represen t al l prio r full-tim e wor k experienc e fo r college an d institut e registrar s includin g position s outsid e th e educationa l administration field . x The averag e numbe r o f year s wor k experienc e prio r t o becomin g registra r was 12.54 . Th e rang e start s a t fiv e year s an d end s a t twenty-on e years . Me n reported havin g a n averag e o f 13.3 4 year s experienc e prio r t o becomin g a registrar an d wome n average d 1 0 year s wor k experienc e prio r t o becomin g registrar. Thre e (17.65% ) o f th e respondent s indicate d tha t the y ha d hel d th e position o f registra r a t anothe r colleg e immediatel y prio r t o assumin g th e position a t th e institutio n wher e the y wer e employe d whe n the y complete d th e questionnaire fo r thi s study . Work experience s no t withi n th e post-secondar y environment . Th e college an d institut e registrar s repor t a  wide variet y o f wor k experience s outsid e of th e post-secondar y environment . Thes e othe r wor k experience s includ e th e fol lowing; retai l sales , system s analysi s ( 3 respondents) , laborator y technician , finance/banking ( 3 respondents) , military , self-employment , medi a management , social work , civi l servant , hotel/resor t management , an d recreatio n administration. Fiv e o f th e respondent s (29.41% ) indicate d tha t al l o f thei r full -time wor k experienc e ha d take n plac e withi n a n institutio n o f highe r learning . TABLE 1 5 NUMBER O F YEARS WORK EXPERIENC E PRIOR TO BECOMIN G REGISTRA R A S REPORTED BY COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISRTRAR S I N BRITISH COLUMBI A Distribution o f Registrar s Range in Years (5 .0-7.0) (7 .5-9.5) (10.0- 12.0 ) (12.5 -  14.5 ) (15.0- 17.0 ) (17.5- 19.5 ) (20.0 -  22.0 ) Male # respondin g %  o f tota l 1 7.69 % 5.88 % 4 30.77 % 23.5 2 1 7.69 % 5.8 8 2 15.38 % 11.7 6 0 0 3 23.08 % 17.6 5 2 15.38 % 11.7 6 Female # respondin g %  o f tota l 1 25 % 5.8 8 0 0 2 50 % 11.7 6 1 25 % 5.8 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total # respondin g %  of tota l 2 11.7 6 4 23.5 2 3 17.6 5 3 17.6 5 0 0 3 17.6 5 2 11.7 6 Totals 13 76.45% 23.53% 17 100% N = 17 est 56 Work experience s withi n th e post-secondar y environment . Fiftee n o f th e respondents (88.24% ) ha d hel d a t leas t on e othe r positio n i n a  post-secondar y institution prio r t o becomin g registrar . Th e averag e numbe r o f wor k experiences i n a  post-secondar y institutio n prio r t o becomin g registra r wa s 2.5 , the media n wa s three , an d th e mod e wa s one . xTable sixtee n illustrate s th e types o f wor k th e registrar s engage d i n prio r t o assumin g thei r curren t responsibilities. Thes e wor k experience s hav e bee n divide d int o tw o categories . These categorie s are ; Registrars ' Offic e /  Studen t Service s oriente d work , an d other post-secondar y wor k experiences . Tw o respondent s (11.76% ) ha d n o previous experienc e workin g withi n a n institutio n o f highe r learnin g prio r t o becoming a  registrar . Bot h o f thes e individual s hel d position s a s System s Analysts immediatel y prio r t o becomin g a  registrar . Seve n respondent s (46.67 -%) reporte d holdin g position s i n a  universit y a t som e tim e prio r t o becomin g registrar. Prior position s whic h involve d wor k i n th e Registrars ' Offic e /  Studen t Services are a were ; Associat e Registrar , Assistan t Registrar , Directo r o f Student Services , Assistan t Directo r o f Admissions , Studen t Service s Officer , Admissions Advisor , Schedulin g Officer , Registrar' s Offic e Administrativ e Assistant, Registrar' s Offic e Suppor t Staff , Co-ordinato r o f Schoo l Liaison , Co -ordinator o f Studen t Activitie s &  Housin g an d Continuin g Educatio n Progra m Co-ordinator. Othe r position s withi n educationa l institution s were ; Secretary , Accountant, Computin g Manager , Informatio n Officer , Assistan t Plannin g TABLE 1 6 PRIOR WORK EXPERIENC E WITH POST-SECONDAR Y INSTITUTION S AS REPORTE D BY COLLEGE AND INSTITUTE REGISTRARS IN BRITISH COLUMBI A Position Titl e A. (Registrar' s Office/Studen t Services oriented experience) Associate Registra r Assistant Registra r Director o f Studen t Service s Assistant Directo r o f Admission s Student Service s Office r Admissions Adviso r Scheduling Office r Registrar's Offic e Administrativ e Assistan t Registrar's Offic e Suppor t Staf f Co-ordinator o f Schoo l Liaiso n Co-ordinator o f Studen t Activitie s &  Housin g Continuing Educatio n Progra m Co-ordinato r Number Respondin g Percentag e o f Tota l 2 5 2 1 1 1 1 3 1 2 1 2 11.76 29.41 11.76 5.88 5.88 5.88 5.88 17.65 5.88 11.76 5.88 11.76 \con' TABLE 1 6 Con' t Position Titl e Number Responding Percentag e of Tota l B. (Othe r Positions Within the Education Field) Secretary Accountant Computing Manager Information Office r Assistant Plannin g Office r Program Directo r Instructor Elementary Schoo l Teache r 2 1 11.76 5.88 5.88 5.88 5.88 5.88 11.67 5.88 No Experience Withi n An y Educationa l Institutio n 11.76 59 Officer, Progra m Director , Instructo r an d Elementar y Schoo l Teacher . Related studies . Th e grea t numbe r an d variet y o f prio r wor k experience s reported b y th e respondent s i s a  goo d exampl e o f th e phenomeno n reporte d b y Twombly (1990) . I n he r examinatio n o f th e catee r path s o f post-secondar y administrators sh e indicate s tha t ther e ar e multipl e pathway s t o almos t ever y administrative pos t withi n highe r education . Age a t whic h th e respondent s becam e registrars . Tabl e seventee n illustrates th e ag e a t whic h th e respondent s wer e firs t appointe d t o th e positio n of registrar . Th e younges t ag e a t whic h a  registra r wa s appointe d wa s twenty -nine years , wi t h th e oldes t appointe e bein g forty-seve n year s o f age . Th e mea n age a t appointmen t wa s thirty-seve n year s an d th e media n ag e wa s thirty-si x years. Ver y littl e differenc e existe d betwee n th e age s o f th e me n an d wome n when appointe d t o th e positio n o f registrar , th e forme r bein g 36. 5 year s an d the late r bein g 38.7 5 years . Registrar s wer e mos t frequentl y appointe d t o th e position betwee n th e ag e o f thirt y an d thirty-four . Related studies . Jorgense n (1972 ) reporte d tha t 5 5 % o f th e respondent s in hi s stud y wer e appointe d t o th e positio n o f registra r whil e withi n th e thirt y t o thirty-nine year s ag e range . TABLE 1 7 AGE AT WHICH COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S I N BRITISH COLUMBIA WER E FIRST APPOINTED TO THE POSITION OF REGISTRAR Distribution o f Registrar s Age Range (45 -  49) (40 -  44) (35 -  39) (30 -  34 ) (25 -  29) in Years Male # respondin g 0 4 30.77 % 4 30.77 % 4 30.77 % 1 7.69 % % o f tota l 0 23.53 23.53 23.53 5.88 Female # respondin g 1 25 % 1 25 % 0 2 50 % 0 % o f tota l 5.88 5.88 0 11.76 0 Total # respondin g 1 5 4 6 1 5.88 % o f tota l 29.41 23.53 35.29 5.88 Totals 13 76.47% 23.53% 17 100% N = 17 O 61 Potential caree r choices . Th e respondent s wer e aske d t o indicat e wha t they fel t thei r option s wer e i n term s o f futur e caree r choice s afte r holdin g th e position o f registrar . Tabl e eightee n illustrate s th e wid e variet y o f thei r responses. Th e mos t popula r choice s fo r futur e employmen t were ; Directo r o f Student an d Ancillar y Service s (47.06%) , Dea d o f Studen t Service s (29.41%) , Director o f Institutiona l Researc h &  Plannin g (23.53%) , Vice-Presiden t Studen t Services (29.41%) , an d Vice-Presiden t Administratio n (23.53%) . Othe r possible option s liste d were ; Directo r o f Internationa l Education , President , Educational Consultan t an d wor k withi n on e o f th e governmen t ministries . Eleven (65% ) o f th e respondent s indicate d tha t the y considere d thei r immediate supervisor' s positio n a s a  potentia l caree r choice . Pursuing th e caree r goa l o f becomin g a  registrar . Colleg e an d institut e registrars i n Britis h Columbi a wer e aske d t o commen t o n whe n the y firs t mad e the decisio n t o wor k toward s th e goa l o f becomin g a  registrar . Tabl e 1 9 illustrates thei r responses . O f th e sixtee n respondent s wh o addresse d th e question nin e (56.25% ) indicate d tha t the y ha d no t activel y pursue d th e goa l o f becoming a  registra r withi n a  post-secondar y institution . Man y o f thei r comments ar e noteworthy . Include d i n thes e remark s ar e th e fol lowing ; "  I became a  registra r accidentall y .  .  .  the jo b wa s available" , "  Th e opportunit y became available" , "  Thi s wa s neve r a  goal , jus t a n opportunit y fo r advancement", "Thi s wa s no t a  goa l .  .  .  wor k locatio n wa s a  prim e factor" , TABLE 1 8 POTENTIAL FUTURE OCCUPATION CHOICES OF COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S I N BRITISH COLUMBI A Position Title Numbe r Respondin g Percentag e o f Tota l Dean of Studen t Service s 5  29.4 1 Director o f Institutiona l Researc h &  Plannin g 4  23.5 3 Director o f Studen t &  Ancillary Service s 8  47.0 6 Director o f Internationa l Educatio n 1  5.8 8 Educational Consultan t 1  5.8 8 Government Officia l 1  5.8 8 President 2  11.7 6 Vice President , Student Service s 5  29.4 1 Vice President , Administration 4  23.5 3 N =  1 7 ro TABLE 1 9 COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S I N BRITISH COLUMBI A INDICAT E THE POINT AT WHICH THEY DECIDE D TO PERSU E THE GOAL OF BECOMING A REGISTRAR Decision Point Numbe r Responding Percentag e of Total While attendin g college/universit y 1  5.8 8 While employe d a t a  post-secondary 6  37.5 0 Did no t aspir e to th e positio n o f registrar / 9  56.2 5 position available when unemploye d Totals 1 6 100 % N =  1 6 and "  Ther e wa s n o decisio n point , I  sort o f fel l int o th e job" . On e responden t began t o pursu e thi s goa l whil e attendin g universit y an d th e remainin g si x respondents indicate d tha t whil e employe d i n a  post-secondar y institutio n the y decided t o wor k toward s th e goa l o f on e da y becomin g a  registrar . The respondent s wh o indicate d tha t theyd i d no t activel y pursu e th e goa l of becomin g a  registra r ha d a n averag e o f approximatel y fiftee n year s o f wor k experience prio r t o becomin g a  registrar . Thei r colleague s wh o di d aspir e t o thi s position ha d approximatel y 1 0 year s wor k experience . Whe n th e numbe r o f years wor k experienc e i s furthe r divide d int o "post-secondar y experience " a s opposed t o "othe r work " experienc e w e fin d tha t thos e wh o di d no t aspir e t o the positio n worke d fo r approximatel y seve n year s i n highe r education . Thos e who di d activel y pursu e th e goa l o f becomin g a  registra r average d nin e year s work experienc e i n highe r education . Related studies . Ostroth , Efird , an d Lerma n (1984) , reporte d o n th e career pattern s o f Chie f Studen t Affair s Officer s i n the Unite d States . The y found tha t o f th e respondent s i n thi s study , 5 1 % did no t aspir e t o th e positio n of Chie f Studen t Affair s Officer . Thos e wh o di d wor k toward s th e goa l o f becoming a  Chie f Studen t Affair s Office r too k longe r t o achiev e thei r goa l tha n did thos e wh o mor e o r les s "defaulted " int o th e position . Academic an d caree r choice s prio r t o becomin g a  registrar . Th e respondents wer e aske d t o indicat e whethe r o r no t thei r academi c choice s ha d been affecte d b y thei r desir e t o pursu e th e goa l o f becomin g a  registrar . Fourteen o f th e respondent s (82.35% ) answere d "  No" . O f th e remainin g thre e respondents, tw o note d tha t the y chos e t o pursu e graduat e degree s i n Educational Administratio n an d on e note d tha t h e decide d t o enhanc e a  colleg e diploma wit h a n undergraduat e degre e i n statistics . The respondent s wer e aske d t o indicat e whethe r o r no t thei r caree r choices ha d bee n affecte d b y th e decisio n t o wor k toward s th e goa l o f becom -ing a  registrar . Eleve n respondent s (64.71% ) answere d "  N o " . O f th e si x respondents wh o answere d "Yes" , fou r indicate d tha t the y mad e a  consciou s decision t o remai n withi n th e post-secondar y environmen t t o bette r thei r chances o f eventuall y becomin g a  registrar . On e individua l move d fro m th e computer operation s are a o f hi s institutio n t o th e Registrar' s Offic e t o gai n experience, an d a  second individua l purposefull y worke d throug h a  series o f increasingly responsibl e position s withi n a  Registrar' s Office . Comments o n mos t valuabl e wor k experiences . Th e respondent s wer e asked t o commen t o n prio r wor k experience s tha t wer e especiall y beneficia l given thei r curren t responsibilitie s a s a  registrar . Th e response s wer e numerou s and rang e fro m "  al l prio r wor k experience s wer e beneficial" , t o "  non e o f m y previous wor k experience s wer e usefu l " . Severa l respondent s liste d wor k experiences whic h involve d th e fol lowing ; staf f supervision , huma n resourc e management, compute r system s developmen t an d prio r administrativ e wor k within post-secondar y institutions . Othe r beneficia l wor k experience s include d faculty position s an d wor k whic h require d repor t writ ing , statistica l analysis , problem solving , cros s colleg e committe e membership , co-ordinatio n o f ceremonies, documentin g procedures , proces s analysi s &  synthesis , colleg e admissions/liaison, publi c speaking , publicatio n o f colleg e document s an d working wi t h th e public . v Comments o n mos t beneficia l academi c experiences . Th e respondent s were aske d t o commen t o n an y academi c preparatio n the y fel t wa s especiall y beneficial give n thei r curren t responsibilitie s a s a  registrar . Tabl e twent y illustrates thei r response s t o thi s question . Seve n respondent s (41.18% ) indicated tha t course s involvin g Busines s Administration/Managemen t techniques wer e helpful . Othe r valuabl e cours e wor k include d th e fol lowing ; computer scienc e (23.53%) , statistic s (11.76%) , critica l thinkin g (11.76%) , and graduat e leve l course s i n educationa l administration/adul t educatio n (35.29%) Fiv e registrar s (29.4 1 %) indicate d tha t th e "over-all " experienc e o f completing a n undergraduat e degre e wa s beneficial . On e responden t fel t tha t only hi s wor k a t th e graduat e leve l wa s helpful . iv) Professiona l Developmen t Activitie s This segmen t o f th e stud y report s informatio n gathere d concernin g th e college an d institut e registrars ' professiona l developmen t need s an d prefer -TABLE 2 0 BRITISH COLUMBIA N COLLEG E AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S REPOR T BENEFICIAL ACADEMIC PREPARATIO N BASED O N PERSONAL EXPERIENC E GIVEN THEIR CURREN T JOB RESPONSIBILITIES Most Beneficia l Course Work Numbe r Responding Percentag e of Tota l Graduate leve l Adul t Educatio n 1  5.8 8 Graduate leve l Educationa l Administration 5  29.4 1 Undergraduate leve l Administration/Management 7  41.1 8 Undergraduate leve l Computer Scienc e 4  23.5 3 Undergraduate leve l Statistics 2  11.7 6 Undergraduate leve l Critica l Thinking 2  11.7 6 N =  1 6 CD 68 ences. Informatio n i s als o presente d concernin g th e type s o f professiona l development activitie s th e respondent s currentl y subscrib e to , an d whic h professional organization s the y suppor t throug h thei r membership . Professional associatio n membership . Britis h Columbia n colleg e an d institute registrar s wer e aske d t o indicat e whethe r o r no t the y wer e member s o f any o f th e fol lowin g professiona l associations ; th e Britis h Columbi a Registrars ' Association (BCRA) , th e Associatio n o f Registrar s o f Universitie s an d College s of Canad a (ARUCC) , an d th e America n Associatio n o f Collegiat e Registrar s an d Admissions Officer s (AACRAO) . Tabl e 2 1 illustrate s thei r responses . Al l o f th e respondents reporte d tha t the y wer e member s o f th e BCRA . Fiftee n (93.75% ) were member s o f ARUC C an d eigh t (50% ) wer e member s o f AACRAO . Eigh t (47.6) registrar s wer e member s o f al l three organizations . A  furthe r analysi s o f this dat a focuse d o n th e relationshi p betwee n se x an d membershi p i n professional organization s reveale d tha t 100 % o f th e wome n i n th e stud y belonged t o al l thre e professiona l organizations ; BCRA , ARUCC , an d ACCRAO . Thirty-three percen t o f th e me n wh o responde d wh o member s o f al l thre e professional organizations . Attendance a t conferences , workshop s an d seminars . Th e registrar s were aske d t o lis t al l o f th e conferences , workshops , an d seminar s the y ha d attended sinc e becomin g a  registrar . The y wer e instructe d t o lis t onl y thos e TABLE 2 1 COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S B Y SEX AND MEMBERSHI P IN PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATION S Name of Professiona l Associatio n Male Femal e Grou p BCRA only 1  (8%) -  1  (6.25%) ARUCC only AACRAO only BCRA & ARUCC 7  (58%) -  7  (43.75%) BCRA & ACCRAO ACCRAO & ARUCC BCRA, ARUCC & ACCRAO 4  (33%) 4  (100%) 8  (50%) Totals 1 2 4  1 6 N = 16 activities whic h relate d i n som e wa y t o thei r responsibilitie s a s a  registrar . After listin g thes e activities , the y wer e aske d t o rat e th e valu e o f eac h activit y on a  scale o f on e t o three , wher e on e represente d "o f littl e value" , tw o represented "o f som e value" , an d thre e represente d "o f grea t value" . Th e respondents liste d a  grea t variet y o f activitie s offere d b y a  numbe r o f differen t organizations /  associations . Tabl e twenty- tw o illustrate s informatio n gathere d regarding th e fol lowing ; hos t organization , typ e o f event/activity , numbe r o f respondents wh o participated , an d th e averag e valu e assigne d t o th e even t / activity. The registrar s attende d workshop s /  conference s hoste d b y approximately twenty-fou r differen t association s /  organizations . Th e mos t frequently attende d workshop s wer e hoste d b y th e BCRA . A  collectiv e ratin g of 2. 2 (o n a  scale o f 3 ) wa s assigne d t o thi s activity . Th e othe r mor e popula r activities were ; th e annua l PACCRA O conference s whic h wer e attende d b y approximately 2 9 % o f th e respondents , th e annua l WARUC C conferenc e attended b y approximatel y 3 5 % o f th e respondents , an d th e SRSU G bi-annua l meeting attende d b y approximatel y 4 1 % of th e respondents . Events whic h rate d a  " 3 " rankin g wer e a s fol lows ; th e MAET T worksho p on th e commo n applicatio n system , th e PMD I strategi c plannin g seminar , th e CLI worksho p o n creativ e thinkin g skills , SFU' s worksho p o n ED I information , the tri-annua l meetin g o f th e B.C . Counci l o n Admission s &  Transfers , th e BCAC's worksho p o n assessin g lifelon g learning , and th e ARUC C annua l TABLE 2 2 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMEN T ACTIVITIES LISTE D AND RATE D BY COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRARS I N BRITISH COLUMBI A Host Organization1 PACRAO AACRAO BCRA ARUCC WARUCC CUMREC ACCC Career Trac k SRSUG MAETT SCT Corporatio n Type of Event # o f Respondents Conferences Conferences Bi-Annual Meeting s Conferences Conferences Conferences Conferences "Self-Directed Wor k Teams " Bi-Annual Meeting s "HRD Focus Group" "Common Application Syste m Review " "Technical Currency " 5 2 15 1 6 2 1 1 7 1 2 2 (29.41%) (11.76) (88.24) (5.88) (35.29) (11.76) (5.88) (5.88) (41.18) (5.88) (11.76) (11.76) M e a n ran k Values (Scale of 1  -> 3) 2.8 1.5 2.2 3 2.33 2.75 2 1 2.86 2 2.4 2.5 1 Acronyms explaine d i n appendi x 8 TABLE 22 Con' t Host Organization2 Type of Event # o f Respondent s Carleton Universit y Ministry o f Educatio n PMDI CLI SESOC SFU B.C. Counci l on Adminssion s and Transfer s Private Training Co . PNAIRP BCAC CAAE League o f Innovatio n "Voice Respons e Technologies " "Changing the Educationa l Path " "Strategic Plannin g fo r Post-Sec. Institutions " "Creative Thinking Skills " Tri-Annual Meeting s "EDI Information" Tri-Annual Meeting s "Social Styl e Training" "Student Teaching/Outcome s Assessment Annual Conference s "Accessing Lifelon g Learning " Annual Conference s World Congres s o n Educationa l 1 (5.88 ) 1 (5.88 ) 1 (5.88 ) 1 (5.88 ) 2 (11.76 ) 1 (5.88 ) 1 (5.88 ) 1 (5.88 ) 2 (11.76 ) 1 (5.88 ) 1 (5.88 ) 1 (5.88 ) Mean rank Values (Scale o f 1  -» 3) 2 1 3 3 2 3 3 3 2.2 2 3 2 2 Ac ronyms expla ine d i n appendi x 8 conference. 73 v) Professiona l Developmen t Preference s and Need s The respondent s wer e aske d to indicat e the types o f professiona l devel-opment activitie s tha t the y fel t the y woul d beriefi t fro m a t presen t o r i n the future. Tabl e twenty-three illustrate s a  summary o f thei r responses . The mos t frequentl y cite d professiona l developmen t nee d was th e development o f compute r relate d skills and knowledge. Thi s wa s liste d b y 35 % of th e respondents . On-goin g contact wit h othe r professional s throug h associ -ations wa s liste d b y four o f the respondent s (23.53%) . Strategi c planning , human resourc e managemen t an d administration/management skill s i n a higher education setting wer e liste d b y approximately 18 % o f th e respondents . Othe r professional development need s noted includ e the following ; graduat e leve l work i n educationa l administration , interpersona l communications , stres s / change management , tim e management , Tota l Qualit y Managemen t (TQM) , an d dealing with difficul t people . Related studies . Henderson' s (1990 ) "Competencie s fo r Admission s & Records Professionals " list s a  number o f skill s an d competencies fo r thos e wh o work i n an admissions/records capacity . Th e professiona l developmen t need s established b y the respondent s to thi s stud y ar e all included as significan t competency area s i n Henderson' s guide . TABLE 2 3 COLLEGE AND INSTITUTE REGISTRARS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA DESCRIB E THEIR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT NEEDS Subject Matter/Topic s Number Responding v Computer Skills/Informatio n System s On-going Contac t wit h Othe r Professional s through Assoiciation s Strategic Plannin g Human Resourc e Managemen t Graduate leve l Highe r Ed . Admin/Managemen t Graduate leve l Studen t Service s Administratio n Doctoral Work i n Educationa l Administratio n Interpersonnal Communication s Stress/Change Managemen t Time Managemen t Total Qualit y Managemen t (TQM ) Dealing With Difficul t Peopl e 4 3 3 3 2 Percentage o f Tota l 35.29% 23.53 17.65 17.65 17.65 11.76 5.88 5.88 5.88 5.88 5.88 5.88 N = 17 75 Number o f differen t type s o f professiona l development activitie s attende d and the lengt h o f servic e as a registrar. Tabl e 2 4 show s th e relationshi p between th e lengt h o f servic e as a registrar an d number o f differen t type s o f professional developmen t activitie s attended . A n analysi s o f th e dat a reveale d that th e respondent s wit h longe r service as a registrar tende d t o participat e i n a greater variet y o f professiona l development activities . O n the average , those with si x o r mor e years o f servic e as a registrar attended 3. 6 differen t type s o f professional developmen t events , while those wit h les s the si x year s experienc e attended 2. 4 differen t type s o f professiona l development event s o r activities . We found tha t th e academi c preparatio n of th e individua l registrar s di d not appea r to influenc e the type o f professiona l development activitie s the y selected. Th e age of the registra r wa s als o found t o b e irrelevant . Th e data d o suggest however , tha t se x was a  factor. Seventy-fiv e percen t o f th e femal e respondents indicate d that they attende d onl y events whic h focuse d specificall y on the operatio n of th e Registrar' s Office . Fo r example, conferences an d workshops sponsore d b y organizations suc h as the BCRA , ARUCC , PACRA O and WARUCC. Th e me n reported attending the sam e types o f Registrar' s Office oriente d conferences and workshops however , the y als o attende d a  wide variety o f event s sponsore d b y non-registraria l organizations. Statistically , 92 % of th e me n attended othe r types o f professiona l development whil e onl y 25 % o f the wome n atten d non-registraria l professiona l development activities . TABLE 2 4 COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S B Y LENGTH OF SERVICE AS A REGISTRA R AND THE NUMBER O F DIFFERENT TYPES OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMEN T ACTIVITIES ATTENDE D Number of Differen t Activities Attended Length of Service as a Registrar (0 - 2.9 ) (3 -  5.9 ) (6 - 8.9 ) (9 -  11.9 ) (12 -  14.9 ) (15 -  17.9 ) (18 -  20.9 ) 1 2 -----1 i 2 1 1 -1 --_ Totals N =  1 6 77 CHAPTER V  SUMMARY , CONCLUSION S &  RECOMMENDATION S Chapter fiv e consist s o f a  summary o f the purpose s o f th e study , th e procedures employed an d the finding s reported . I n addition, conclusions ar e drawn and recommendations proffered . i) Summar y Purposes of th e study . Th e study ha d several purposes . Th e firs t purpose was t o gathe r specifi c demographi c informatio n abou t th e academi c preparation and work historie s o f th e college and institut e registrar s i n Britis h Columbia. Dat a were gathere d concerning age, gender, annua l salary , academi c credentials, prio r wor k experiences , position title , reportin g relationship s an d future caree r options . The second purpos e of the study wa s to gathe r informatio n concernin g the types o f professiona l development activitie s t o whic h th e colleg e an d institute registrar s currentl y subscribe . Th e respondent s wer e aske d to lis t al l 78 events, such as conferences, workshops , seminars an d meetings , whic h the y had attended sinc e assuming the positio n o f registrar . The third an d final purpos e of stud y wa s to determin e the curren t professional development need s o f th e colleg e and institute registrar s i n Britis h Columbia. Th e respondent s wer e asked to indicat e the types o f activitie s the y would lik e to participat e i n a t that poin t i n time. The four researc h questions constructe d fo r th e study wer e a s follows ; 1) Wha t ar e the educationa l credential s o f th e college and institut e registrar s in British Columbia ? 2) Wha t ar e the prio r wor k experience s o f th e college an d institut e registrar s in British Columbia ? 3) T o wha t form s o f professiona l development d o the college and institut e registrars i n Britis h Columbi a currentl y subscribe ? 4) Wha t ar e the professiona l development need s and preferences o f th e college and institute registrar s i n British Columbia ? Procedures of the study . Th e populatio n for th e study consiste d o f college and institute registrar s i n the Canadia n provinc e of Britis h Columbia . Registrars from eleven comprehensive communit y colleges , four university -colleges, and one provincia l institut e o f technology wer e involved . Sinc e sixteen institution s wer e represented , and one community colleg e ha d three registrars, there were eightee n individual s within the population . 79 A questionnair e wa s develope d fo r th e collectio n o f th e dat a required . Each registra r wa s maile d a  cop y o f th e questionnaire , a  covering lette r fro m the researcher , a  lette r o f endorsemen t fro m th e past-presiden t o f th e BCR A and a  se t o f instructions . O f th e eightee n questionnaire s sent , seventee n wer e returned an d useabl e resultin g i n a  94 .44% respons e rate . Data collecte d fro m th e complete d questionnaire s wer e analyze d an d tabulated. Finding s wer e reporte d usin g th e appropriat e descriptiv e statistic s i n both narrativ e an d tabula r formats . Wher e appropriate , comparison s wer e mad e to relate d research . Findings o f th e stud y accordin g t o th e researc h questions . Fou r questions wer e aske d wi t h respec t t o th e colleg e an d institut e registrar s i n British Columbia . Thes e questions , alon g wi t h a  summary responses , ar e presented i n thi s sectio n o f th e summary . Question # 1 -  Al l o f th e colleg e an d institut e registrar s i n Britis h Columbia wh o participate d i n th e stud y hel d som e for m o f post-secondar y credential. Th e majorit y (94% ) o f th e registrar s hel d a n undergraduat e degree . Seven (4 1 %) o f th e registrar s hel d graduat e degree s an d on e registra r hel d a community colleg e diploma . Th e mos t popula r fiel d o f stud y a t th e undergraduate leve l wa s science/mathematic s (29.41%) , fol lowe d b y genera l arts (23.52%) , humanitie s (17.65%) , an d socia l scienc e (11.76%) . A t th e graduate level , six o f th e seve n wh o hel d a  master' s degre e (86%) , ha d completed a  program i n the fiel d o f education . Question # 2 -  This questio n was answere d i n several parts . Ther e wa s information gathe r concernin g the numbe r o f year s work experienc e prio r t o becoming registrar , the type o f wor k experience s withi n post-secondar y education an d the types o f wor k experience s outside post-secondar y education . Prior to becomin g a  registrar th e respondent s averaged 12.5 4 year s o f total wor k experience . Th e numbe r o f year s ranged  from fiv e t o twenty-one . The lengt h of tim e employe d i n their curren t capacit y a s registrar range d fro m six month s t o eightee n years with a  mean of 7.7 5 years . Th e registrar s liste d a great variety o f prio r wor k experience s bot h withi n an d outside o f th e fiel d o f higher education . Th e mos t frequentl y cite d position s wit h post-secondar y institutions wer e associate/assistan t registra r (4 1 %), an d registrar' s Offic e support staff/administrativ e assistan t (23.45%) . Th e mos t frequentl y cite d work experience s outside post-secondar y institution s wer e system s analysi s (17.65%), an d banking/financ e (17.65%) . Fiv e of th e registrar s (29.4 1 %) indicated tha t al l of thei r full-tim e wor k experienc e ha d taken plac e i n a  college or university . Tw o registrar s (11.75% ) reporte d n o prio r wor k experienc e i n a post-secondary institutio n prio r to becomin g registrar . Question # 3 -  The respondent s collectively liste d a  comprehensive grou p of professiona l developmen t activitie s whic h the y ha d participated i n since becoming a  registrar. Twenty-fou r differen t group s o r organizations sponsore d 81 these various professiona l development opportunities . Th e mos t frequentl y cited activit y wa s attendin g a British Columbia Registrars ' Associatio n (BCRA ) workshop o r bi-annua l meeting . Th e respondents rate d the valu e o f thes e experiences quit e favourabl y (  2.2 ou t o f 3.0) . Th e Studen t Record s System s Users Grou p (SRSUG ) hoste d bi-annua l meetings attende d b y approximatel y 40% o f th e registrars . Thes e meeting s earne d high rating s from th e attendee s (2.88 ou t o f 3.0) . Th e Western Association o f Registrar s o f Universitie s an d Colleges o f Canad a (WARUCC ) hel d conferences which wer e attende d b y approximately 35 % o f the respondents . Thi s activit y earne d a  rating o f 2.3 3 out o f 3.0 . Th e Pacifi c Associatio n o f Collegiat e Registrar s an d Admission s Officers (PACRAO ) hoste d conferences attended b y approximately 29 % o f th e registrars. Thi s activit y earned  a relatively hig h rating o f 2. 8 ou t o f 3.0 . The respondent s wer e aske d to indicat e whethe r o r no t the y wer e members o f th e various professiona l associations fo r registrar s i n Canada an d the Unite d States . Al l o f the respondent s were member s o f the BCRA . Appro -ximately 94 % wer e member s o f the nationa l association, ARUCC and , 50% reported being members o f the American association , AACRAO. Question # 4 -  When asked to commen t o n preferred form s o f academi c preparation fo r registrars , seventy percen t o f the respondent s indicate d tha t n o particular progra m of undergraduat e study wa s advantageou s fo r potentia l registrars. Th e remainin g thirty percen t fel t tha t ther e wer e particula r course s which coul d hel p to prepar e individual s aspiring to th e positio n o f registrar . Th e 82 courses recommende d were , computer system s management , administrativ e practices, mathematics/statistics , huma n resource management , education , and communications. In terms o f thei r specifi c professiona l development needs , they collective -ly lis t a  wide variet y o f topic s t o b e addressed. Th e mos t frequentl y mentione d area of deficienc y wa s compute r relate d skills an d knowledge . Othe r topic s o f shared interes t were ; ongoing contact wit h peers , strategic planning , huma n resource management , an d advanced leve l course wor k i n higher educatio n administration an d student service s administration . A profil e o f colleg e and institute registrar s i n Britis h Columbia . In addition to th e informatio n provide d i n response to th e fou r researc h questions, other significan t dat a wer e reporte d i n the finding s o f th e study . Th e organization and synthesis o f thi s informatio n allow s fo r th e creatio n o f a  profil e of a  typical  colleg e o r institut e registra r fro m Britis h Columbia . This profil e identifie s the registra r a s being a male who i s roughly forty -six year s o f age . H e is employed b y a comprehensive communit y colleg e an d earns approximately $64,00 0 annually . H e has held this positio n fo r clos e t o eight years . Thi s individua l has completed a n undergraduate degre e i n the fiel d of science/mathematic s although , he believes tha t ther e i s no "preferred " for m of undergraduat e education fo r potentia l registrars . H e has developed a n understanding o f the compute r technologie s utilize d a t hi s college throug h 83 "hands-on" experienc e an d i s largel y self-taught . Prior t o becomin g a  registra r h e ha d worke d full-tim e fo r twelv e year s an d had hel d a t leas t tw o othe r position s withi n a  college o r university . Whe n desire o r circumstance s necessitat e a  job change , thi s perso n woul d see k a position suc h a s Dea n o r Directo r o f Studen t & xAncillary Service s o r Vice-Presi -dent, Studen t Service s an d Administration . Shoul d hi s superviso r resign , h e would b e incline d t o appl y fo r hi s o r he r position . Our typical  registra r di d no t activel y pursu e th e goa l o f becomin g a college registrar . Fo r al l intent s an d purposes , thi s choic e wa s th e resul t o f circumstance an d opportunity . Ironically , h e spen t les s tim e employe d i n th e post-secondary environmen t tha n di d hi s colleague s wh o "planned " t o becom e a registrar . Give n tha t thi s individua l di d no t inten d t o becom e a  registrar , i t i s not surprisin g t o fin d tha t hi s academi c preparatio n wa s no t planne d t o comple -ment futur e wor k a s a n administrato r i n a n institutio n o f highe r learning . This individua l enjoy s attendin g workshop , seminar s an d meeting s sponsored b y th e Britis h Columbi a Registrars ' Associatio n (BCRA) . H e i s a member o f thi s organizatio n a s wel l a s the Associatio n o f Registrar s o f Univer -sities an d College s o f Canad a (ARUCC ) and , the America n Associatio n o f Collegiate Registrar s an d Admission s Officer s (AACRAO) . Whe n tim e permits , and financia l resource s ar e available , h e als o like s t o atten d workshop s an d conferences sponsore d b y th e Studen t Record s System s User s Grou p (SRSUG) . When invite d t o commen t o n hi s curren t professiona l developmen t needs , h e 84 admits tha t h e would benefi t fro m the enhancemen t o f hi s skills i n terms o f computer system s managemen t an d development. H e would als o lik e th e opportunity t o mee t mor e frequently wit h othe r professional s t o discus s common concerns . ii) Conclusion s Based on the finding s describe d i n chapter four , severa l conclusions ca n be drawn wit h respec t to th e college registrar s i n British Columbia . 1) Th e college registrar s typically di d no t inten d to becom e a  registra r until they bega n working i n the fiel d o f highe r education o r unti l th e opportunity becam e available . Give n this, i t i s reasonable to conclud e that th e lac k o f identificatio n an d academic plannin g prio r t o becomin g a registrar wa s no t a  barrier to eventuall y becomin g one . 2) Colleg e registrar s i n British Columbi a ha d an extremely limite d amount o f forma l education with respec t to compute r informatio n systems. Th e vast majorit y o f colleg e registrar s ha d developed compute r skills and knowledge through "hands-on " experience supplemented b y workshops an d seminars. Ver y fe w o f the registrar s (<24% ) reporte d any for m o f forma l instructio n i n computer technologie s o r applications . It appears that th e registrar s are able to functio n effectivel y withou t th e advantage o f forma l compute r training . O f course , thi s conclusio n i s based o n th e assumptio n tha t th e individua l registrar s ar e performin g their dutie s effectively . Althoug h the y appea r t o b e functionin g adequately, the y consistentl y reporte d th e nee d t o enhanc e an d develo p their abilitie s i n thi s area . On e mus t conclud e tha t a t th e tim e o f th e study, ther e wer e insufficien t professiona l developmen t opportunitie s available i n th e compute r o r system s managemen t are a fo r individual s who wor k i n a  senio r capacit y i n a  registrar' s off ice . The cross-tabulatio n whic h explore d th e relationship s betwee n th e method o f compute r knowledg e acquisitio n an d se x o f th e registra r showed tha t th e me n an d wome n i n the stud y acquire d computin g knowledge quit e differently . Wome n seeme d ver y reluctan t t o engag e i n formal educationa l experience s o r professiona l developmen t i n thi s subject area . Th e me n i n th e stud y showe d n o suc h reluctance . W e should not e a t thi s poin t tha t al l o f th e femal e registrar s ha d academi c credentials i n th e area s o f eithe r arts , th e humanitie s o r education . Sixty -one percen t o f th e me n hel d degree s i n th e field s o f business , scienc e o r mathematics. I t seem s reasonabl e t o conclud e tha t wome n ma y fin d th e prospect o f learnin g abou t compute r system s an d application s mor e daunting tha n d o thei r mal e counterparts . 3) Registrar s i n thi s provinc e hav e rarel y com e t o th e positio n withou t some previou s administrativ e experienc e withi n a  college o r university . As i s the cas e wi t h man y othe r position s withi n post-secondar y education, ther e ar e multipl e pathway s whic h lea d individual s t o th e position o f registrar . Administrator s w h o begi n thei r career s i n a university settin g mov e quit e easil y t o administrativ e post s withi n th e college system . Th e registrar s generall y agree d tha t th e positio n o f registrar nee d no t b e a  terminal postin g withi n th e colleg e sector . Th e majority o f registrar s indicate d tha t th e potentia l exist s fo r the m t o mov e into th e mor e senio r positio n o f Dea n o f Studen t Services 1. Fro m thi s we conclud e tha t prio r wor k experienc e i n a n administrativ e capacit y a t a college o r universit y i s almos t alway s necessar y prio r t o securin g th e position o f registra r a t a  college i n Britis h Columbia . 4) Severa l significan t conclusion s ca n b e draw n concernin g th e relationships betwee n age , salar y an d wor k experience . Initially w e wer e startle d t o fin d tha t thos e wh o hel d a  master' s degre e earned slightl y les s than thos e wh o hel d a  bachelor' s degre e o r less . I t was temptin g t o dra w th e conclusio n tha t th e leve l o f academi c 1This particula r position , Dea n o f Studen t Services , i s also frequentl y referre d a s either th e Directo r o f Studen t Service s o r Vic e Presiden t o f Studen t Services . 87 achievement fo r registrar s wa s unimportan t i n terms o f decidin g appropriate financia l compensation , however , thi s conclusio n woul d hav e been false. A  mor e carefu l analysis of the data reveal s tha t thos e wh o held graduate degrees were mor e likel y to b e under the ag e of forty . They als o reporte d havin g les s work experienc e i n the capacit y o f registrar tha n di d those wit h onl y an undergraduate degre e or less . W e should remembe r tha t salar y decisions are influenced b y bot h relevan t experience and credentials . Fro m these observations w e ca n conclud e that a s the curren t grou p of registrar s mov e on to ne w position s o r retire , the ne w appointee s wil l mor e frequently hol d academic credential s a t th e graduate level . O f the registrar s appointed withi n the pas t seve n years , 86% hol d graduate degrees . Thi s i s considerably highe r than th e 29 % o f registrars wh o hol d graduate degrees and have mor e than seve n year s experience as a  registrar . 5) Tabl e fou r show s th e relationshi p betwee n se x an d institutio n type . All o f th e femal e registrar s wor k a t community colleges . Al l fou r o f th e university college s and the Britis h Columbia Institut e o f Technolog y employ me n as registrars . Thi s could b e purely a  coincidence, however , one could conclude that wome n ma y fac e some sor t o f barrie r o r impediment whe n applyin g for registra r position s a t institution s othe r than community colleges . 88 6) Th e relationshi p betwee n se x an d membershi p i n professiona l organizations merit s furthe r comment . A s w e indicate d earlier , tabl e 2 1 illustrates thi s relationship . On e hundre d percen t o f th e femal e registrar s belong t o al l thre e professiona l group s whil e onl y 3 3 % o f th e me n belon g to al l three groups . Fro m thi s w e conclud e tha t wome n plac e considerably mor e significanc e o n developin g professiona l contact s through membershi p i n th e variou s professiona l registrar' s association s (BCRA, ARUC C an d AACRAO) . Becaus e wome n registrar s typicall y hav e less wor k experienc e i n th e positio n o f registra r (50 % hav e les s tha n 3 years experienc e compare d t o 3 1 % of th e men) , the y probabl y fee l a greater nee d t o develo p a s man y professiona l contact s a s quickl y a s possible. 7) Th e Britis h Columbi a Registrar s Associatio n consistentl y provide d the preferre d for m o f professiona l developmen t fo r colleg e registrar s i n this province . Th e associatio n provide d bot h th e opportunit y fo r th e exchange o f idea s wi t h colleague s an d a  variety o f valuabl e professiona l development experiences . O n goin g professiona l developmen t wa s vita l to th e registrars . W e conclud e tha t th e BCR A i s the organizatio n wi t h the mos t potentia l fo r significan t impac t o n th e professiona l staf f wh o ar e employed i n registrar' s office s i n thi s province . 8) Give n the overwhelmin g respons e rate o f thi s study , w e ca n assume tha t a s a group the colleg e registrar s i n British Columbi a ar e interested i n the developmen t o f thei r professiona l group and that the y are also willin g t o participat e i n this developmen t give n the opportunity . v iii) Recommendation s The findings reporte d i n the stud y hav e lead us to severa l conclusions . Based on these conclusions , the followin g recommendation s ca n b e made . 1) Give n that ther e i s no specific for m o f undergraduat e educatio n required i n order to becom e a  registrar, individual s take o n this tas k wit h a variety o f backgrounds . Therefore , i t i s imperative tha t professiona l development opportunitie s concentratin g on the professiona l management o f th e registrar' s offic e b e made available . Sinc e virtuall y every registra r come s to the office wit h a n undergraduate education , i t would b e appropriate to develo p formal educationa l opportunitie s a t th e graduate level . B y pursuing a graduate leve l education registrar s no t onl y enhance their abilit y t o perfor m their curren t responsibilities , they ensur e that whe n th e opportunit y arises , they wil l hav e the educationa l credentials whic h wil l allo w them to progres s to mor e senio r level s o f administration. A s Brindley , (1990 ) noted , the greates t barrie r t o advancement fo r universit y registrar s was their lac k of a n advance d degree. Althoug h mos t o f th e registrar s wh o reporte d havin g a  graduat e degree studie d i n th e fiel d o f education , onl y on e hel d a  degre e i n adul t education an d non e o f th e registrar s reporte d havin g studie d highe r education. Sinc e th e stud y o f highe r educatio n focuse s o n managemen t and administratio n i n college s an d universities , on e migh t expec t tha t those hol d position s suc h a s "registrar " woul d fin d stud y i n thi s are a most closel y aligne d t o thei r ow n occupationa l interests . T o a  slightl y less degree , the sam e coul d b e sai d fo r th e stud y o f adul t education . More informatio n coul d b e disseminate d b y bot h th e Universit y o f Britis h Columbia an d th e Britis h Columbi a Registrar' s Associatio n regardin g th e study o f highe r an d adul t educatio n i n thi s province . Shor t ter m workshops an d seminar s dealin g wi t h specifi c registraria l issue s shoul d always b e mad e availabl e t o supplemen t th e mor e forma l cours e offering s at th e graduat e level . 2) Th e pursui t o f a n advance d educatio n i s importan t fo r thos e wh o aspire t o a  senio r positio n withi n a  registrar' s off ice . A s reporte d i n th e findings, an d discusse d i n th e conclusions , thos e wh o hol d a  graduat e level degre e ar e bein g hire d mos t frequentl y a s ne w colleg e registrars . Although one' s educatio n i s no t th e onl y facto r take n int o consideratio n when makin g a  hirin g decision , i t coul d b e viewe d a s on e o f th e mor e significant factors . W e recommen d tha t thos e individual s wh o hop e t o 91 advance to th e positio n o f registra r prepar e by pursuing post -baccalaureate o r graduat e leve l studies i n the fiel d o f highe r and/o r adul t education. 3) I n addition to th e mor e formal learnin g experiences offere d a t th e university level , there need s to b e specific emphasi s place d on developin g workshops an d seminars i n the fiel d o f compute r technologies , which ar e designed to mee t th e need s of th e administrative staf f withi n registrar' s offices. Grea t care mus t b e taken whe n plannin g fo r an d developin g these professiona l developmen t opportunities , althoug h man y registrar s intuitively kno w tha t the y nee d a more comprehensive understandin g o f this subjec t matter , man y ma y no t b e able to specificall y indicat e th e type o f learnin g they coul d benefi t frorn . Furthe r investigatio n mus t b e undertaken to determin e specificall y th e types o f informatio n thi s grou p could benefi t from . Indeed , we ma y find that ther e currentl y exist s several level s o f knowledg e an d skil l within th e group . W e recommen d that th e BCR A coordinat e a  task-group to investigat e i n greate r dept h the needs of the registrar s i n terms o f developin g their skill s an d knowledg e in the fiel d o f compute r technologies . 4) A s discussed i n the conclusions , women appea r to acquir e knowledge abou t compute r technologie s differently tha n d o their mal e 92 counterparts. The y see m t o rel y mor e frequentl y o n learnin g throug h "hands-on" experienc e an d d o no t participat e a s readil y i n forma l learnin g or professiona l developmen t opportunities . W e recommen d tha t thos e responsible fo r developin g an d deliverin g compute r relate d professiona l development opportunitie s tak e thi s into^consideratio n whe n creatin g an d advertising workshop s an d seminar s dealin g wi t h compute r relate d technologies. Cours e coul d b e designe d t o reduc e th e potentia l fo r anxiety o r trepidatio n amongs t thos e wh o fee l somewha t intimidate d b y the technolog y whic h surround s the m an d impact s o n th e operatio n o f their respectiv e offices . Bibliography Barrax, Joa n D . " A Comparativ e Caree r Profil e o f Femal e an d Mal e Universit y Administrators." Journa l o f th e Nationa l Associatio n fo r Wome n Deans , Administrators, &  Counselor s Vol . 48 , No . 2  (Winte r 1985) : 2 6 - 3 1 . Bernstein, Aliso n R . "Foundatio n Suppor t fo r Administrativ e Advancement : A Mixed Record. " Ne w Direction s fo r Highe r Educatio n No.4 5 (Marc h 1984): 77-83 . Bird, Glori a W . 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Ne w Direction s fo r Highe r Education : Administrativ e Careers an d th e Marketplac e No.7 2 (Winte r 1990) : 29-37 . Dingerson, Michae l R. ; Rodman , Joh n A. ; an d Burns , Debra . "Th e Hirin g o f Underrepresented Individual s i n Academi c Administrativ e Positions. " Research i n Highe r Educatio n Vol.23 , No. 3 (1985) : 115-134 . Dzierlenga, Donna . "Source s an d Information : Wome n i n th e Communit y College." Ne w Direction s fo r Communit y College s Vol .3 4 (1984) : 79 -87. Eaton, Judit h S . "Tappin g Neglecte d Leadershi p Sources. " Ne w Direction s fo r Higher Educatio n No . 4 6 (Jun e 1984) : 93-99 . Garrett, Thomas . "Experimenta l Trainin g fo r th e Registrar. " Colleg e & University Vol .22 . No. 1 (Octobe r 1946) : 58-63 . 94 Garretty, Helen . "Managemen t o f Staf f i n a  Registry. " Journa l o f Tertiar y Educational Administratio n Vol . 7 , No . 1  (Ma y 1985) : 85-95 . Gignilliat, Arthu r M . " A Critica l Analysi s o f th e Functio n o f th e Registrar' s Office i n th e Publi c Junio r College s o f th e Unite d States. " Ph.D . disserta -t ion, Universit y o f Texas , 1954 . Giroux, Yve s M . "Trainin g Universit y Administrator s a t th e Universit e Laval. " International Journa l o f Institutiona l Mariaqemen t i n Highe r Educatio n Vol. 8 , No . 1  (Marc h 1984) : 33-39 . Goerss, Katherin e Va n Wessem . Wome n Administrator s i n Education : A  Revie w of Researc h 1960-1976 . Rut h Stran g Researc h Awar d Monograp h Serie s No. 3 . Washington , D.C. : Nationa l Associatio n fo r Wome n Deans , Admin -istrators, &  Counselors , 1977 . Grossman, Rober t J . an d Ross , Elizabet h D . "Managemen t Style s o f Registrar s and Officer s o f Admission. " Colleg e &  Universit y Volum e LXVI , No . 2 (Winter 1991) : 83-88 . Heaton, H . L . "Th e Developin g Rol e o f Registrar. " Colleg e &  Universit y Vol.22, No. 2 (Januar y 1947) : 164-167 . Henderson, Stanle y E . "Competencie s fo r Admission s an d Record s Pro -fessionals: a n AACRA O Guid e t o Entr y an d Advancemen t i n th e Pro -fession." Colleg e &  Universit y Volum e LXV , No . 3  (Sprin g 1990) : 243 -259. Hopke, Willia m E . (ed.) . Dictionar y o f Personne l an d Guidanc e Terms . Chicago : J.G. Ferguso n Publishin g Co. , 1968 . John, Pete r W . M . Statistica l Desig n an d Analysi s o f Experiments . Ne w York : Collier-Macmillan Limited , 1971 . Johnsrud, Lind a K . "Administrativ e Promotion. " Journa l o f Highe r Educatio n Vol .62, No. 2 (March/Apri l 1991) : 119-149 . Jorgensen, Donal d F . " A Profil e o f th e Publi c Junio r Colleg e Registrar s i n th e Upper Midwest. " Ed.D . dissertation , Th e Universit y o f Sout h Dakota , 1972. Kaplan, Sheila ; Secor , Cynthi a an d Tinsley , Adrian . "Gettin g th e Best : Con -clusions, Recommendation s an d Selecte d Resources. " Ne w Direction s for Highe r Educatio n No.4 5 (Marc h 1984) : 8 5 - 9 1 . 95 Kauffman, Josep h F . "Administratio n The n an d Now. " Ne w Direction s fo r Higher Education : Administrativ e Career s an d th e Marketplac e No . 7 2 (Winter 1990) : 99-107 . Keegan, Desmon d J . "Th e Administratio n o f Studen t Suppor t Service s a t th e Open University. " Th e Journa l o f Educationa l Administratio n Vol . XXII , No. 1  (Winte r 1984) : 83-96 . Khazanie, Ramakant . Elementar y Statistics : I n a  World o f Applications . 2n d ed. Glenview , Illinois : Scott , Foresma n an d Company , 1986 . Kline, Theres a J . B . e t al . " A Stud y o f Jo b Satisfaction : Makin g a  Cas e fo r Using Smal l Sampl e Sizes , Includin g a  Variet y o f Variable s an d Testin g for Significanc e wi t h Randomizatio n Tests. " Colleg e &  Universit y Vol.67 , No.1 (Fal l 1991) : 15-21 . Knowles, As a S . Ed . Internationa l Encyclopedi a o f Highe r Education . Jossey-Bass Publishers , Sa n Francisco , 1977 . Lafontaine, Edwar d an d McKenzie , Bonni e Jean . "Bein g Ou t o n th e Insid e i n Higher Educatio n Administration : Women' s Response s t o Rol e an d Statu s Incongruity." Journa l o f th e Nationa l Associatio n o f Wome n Deans . Administrators an d Counselor s Vol.48 . No. 2 (Winte r 1985) : 19-25 . Levin, Jack . Elementar y Statistic s i n Socia l Research . Ne w York : Harpe r & Row, Publishers , 1973 . Luna, Gaye . "Pa y Equit y i n Academe : Th e Communit y Colleg e Role. " Commun -ity Colleg e Revie w Vol.17 . No. 1 (Summe r 1989) : 40-46 . Marshall, Catherine . "Me n an d Wome n i n Educationa l Administratio n Pro -grams." Journa l o f th e Nationa l Associatio n o f Wome n Deans , Adminis -trators an d Counselor s Vol.44 . No. 1 (Fal l 1984) : 3-12 . McDade, Sharo n A . "Plannin g fo r Caree r Improvement. " Ne w Direction s fo r Higher Education : Administrativ e Career s an d th e Marketplac e No . 7 2 (Winter 1990) : 47-55 . Menges, Rober t J . an d Exum , Willia m H . "Barrier s t o th e Progres s o f Wome n and Minorit y Faculty. " Journa l o f Highe r Educatio n Vol .54 , No. 2 (1983) : 123-144. 96 Mertz, Norm a T. , an d Venditti , Fredric k P . "Advancin g Wome n i n Administra -t ion: A  Stud y o f a n Interventio n Strategy. " Ne w Direction s fo r Highe r Education Vol.5 . No. 1 (Sprin g 1985) : 31 -41 . Midkeff, Stephe n J . "Th e Rol e an d Functio n o f th e Offic e o f th e Registra r i n Selected College s an d Universitie s i n the Unite d States. " Ph.D . disserta -t ion, Ohi o University , 1991 . Moore, Kathry n M . "Career s i n Colleg e an d Universit y Administration : Ho w ar e Women Affected? " Ne w Directio n fo r Highe r Educatio n Vol.4 5 (Marc h 1984): 5-15 . Moore, Kathry n M . "Creatin g Strength s Ou t o f Ou r Differences : Wome n an d Minority Administrators. " Ne w Direction s fo r Highe r Education : Adminis -trative Career s an d th e Marketplac e No . 7 2 (Winte r 1990) : 1-13 . Moore, Lind a L . "Wome n a s Managers. " Ne w Direction s fo r Communit y Col -leges Vol.3 4 (1984a) : 67-77 . Moore, Kathry n M . "Th e Structur e o f Administrativ e Careers : A  Pros e Poe m i n Four Parts. " Th e Revie w o f Highe r Educatio n Vol . 8 , No. 1 (Fal l 1984b) : 1-13. Ostroth, D . David ; Efird , France s D. ; an d Lerman , Lewi s S . "Caree r Pattern s o f Chief Studen t Affair s Officers. " Journa l o f Colleg e Studen t Personne l Vol.25, No. 5 (Septembe r 1984) : 443-448 . Ramsey, Gregor . "Th e Realitie s o f Managin g Tertiar y Education. " Journa l o f Tertiary Educationa l Administratio n Vol . 7 , No . 1  (Ma y 1985) : 35-46 . Rickard, Scot t T . "Th e Chie f Studen t Affair s Officer : Progres s Towar d Equity. " Journal o f Colleg e Studen t Personne l Vol .25 . No. 1 (Januar y 1985) : 5-10 . Ross, Marlen e an d Green , Madelein e F . "Th e Rule s o f th e Game : Th e Unwritte n Code o f Caree r Mobil i ty. " Ne w Direction s fo r Highe r Educatio n No . 72 . (Winter 1990) : 67-77 . Rostek, Stephe n an d Kladivko , Deborah . "Staf f Developmen t an d Training " Ne w Directions fo r Communit y College s No.6 2 (Summe r 1988) : 37-52 . Sagaria, Mar y An n D . "Administrativ e Mobilit y an d Gender. " Journa l o f Highe r Education Vol.59 , No. 3 (May/Jun e 1988) : 305-326 . 97 Sagaria, Mar y An n D . "Th e Manageria l Skill s an d Experience s o f Me n an d Women Administrators : Similaritie s an d Differences. " Journa l o f Educa -tional Equit y an d Leadershi p Vol . 5 , No . 1  (Sprin g 1985) : 1930 . Skoglund, Anders . "Staf f Trainin g an d Developmen t fo r Universit y Managemen t and Administratio n -  Swedis h Experience. " Internationa l Journa l o f Institutional Managemen t i n Highe r Educatio n Vol . 8 , No . 3  (Novembe r 1984): 218-223 . Speizer, Jeann e J . "Th e Administrativ e Skill s Program : What Hav e W e Learned?" Ne w Direction s fo r Highe r Educatio n No.4 5 (Marc h 1984) : 35 -45. Stevenson, Jef f J . "Institutiona l Perception s Abou t th e Preparatio n o f Colleg e Administrators." Community/Junio r Colleg e Quarterl y Vol.8 , No. 1 (1984): 69-79 . Tansil, Rebecc a C . "Th e Presen t Statu s o f th e Registrar' s Offic e i n th e Smal l Accredited Libera l Art s Colleg e o f th e Souther n States. " Peabod y Journa l of Educatio n No . 5  (Ma y 1928) : 333-338 . Thomason, Fred . "A s I  See th e Wor k o f th e Registrar. " Colleg e an d Universit y XXIV (January , 1949 ) 190 . Tinsley, Adrian . "Caree r Mappin g an d th e Professiona l Developmen t Process. " New Direction s fo r Highe r Educatio n No.4 5 (Marc h 1984) : 17-24 . Twombly, Susa n B . "Caree r Map s an d Institutiona l Highways. " Ne w Direction s for Highe r Educatio n No.7 2 (Winte r 1990) : 5-19 . Vaughan, Georg e B . "Femal e Communit y Colleg e Presidents. " Communit y College Revie w Vol.17 . No. 2 (Fal l 1989) : 20-26 . Wallgren, Axe l S . "Personne l Stud y o f Junio r Colleg e Registrars. " Junio r College Journa l No. 7 (Apri l 1937) : 370-375 . White, Clare . "Th e Rol e an d Functio n o f th e Registra r i n Australia n Highe r Education Institutions. " Journa l o f Tertiar y Educatio n Administratio n Vol.13, No. 2 (Octobe r 1991) : 165-187 . Wood, Linda ; Winsto n Jr. , Roge r B. ; an d Polkosnik , Mar k C . "Caree r Orienta -tions an d Professiona l Developmen t o f Youn g Studen t Affair s Pro -fessionals." Journa l o f Colleg e Studen t Personne l Vol .26 , No. 6 (Novem -ber 1985) : 532-539 . 98 APPENDIX 1 LIST OF INSTITUTIONS REPRESENTE D BY THE RESPONDENT S 1) Britis h Columbi a Institut e o f Technolog y 2) Camosu n Colleg e 3) Capilan o Colleg e 4) Colleg e o f Ne w Caledoni a 5) Dougla s Colleg e 6) Eas t Kootena y Colleg e 7) Malaspin a Colleg e 8) Nort h Islan d Colleg e 9) Norther n Light s Colleg e 10) Northwes t Communit y Colleg e 11) Okanaga n Colleg e 12) Selkir k Colleg e 13) Universit y Colleg e o f th e Caribo o 14) Universit y Colleg e o f th e Frase r Valle y 15) Vancouve r Communit y Colleg e -  Kin g Edwar d Campu s 16) Vancouve r Communit y Colleg e -  Langar a Campu s 17) Vancouve r Communit y Colleg e -  Cit y Centr e Campu s VANCOUVER COMMUNITY COLLEGE q q LANGARA CAMPUS APPENDIX 2 April 2 1 , 1993 Dear Colleague: Ms. Cynthia Howman is a graduate student at the University of British Columbia. A s well, I  know Ms . Howman as she i s employed b y Vancouver Communit y College . I am writing to encourage your participation in her research by completing the enclosed questionnaire. A t th e moment , she is not working in a Registrar's Office , bu t i n the past sh e ha s don e s o an d ha s indicate d a n interes t i n returnin g t o thi s are a i n th e future. Sh e has a  keen interes t i n our professio n and i s hoping to expan d the bod y of knowledg e regarding Registrars and their offices . W e al l know there i s very littl e research i n this area . I  therefore encourag e yo u to complet e th e questionnair e an d thank you for your willingness . Sincerely, Valerie Nielse n Past Presiden t B.C.R.A. i n n m — i n . u i  x r D  r~ \rcv T7/ C T J rtn^u1/«H  E->~ . t/-J\A\ 21 / c c « A P P E N D I X 3 TOO Cynthia J . Howma n    (Personalized Address ) Dear Sir/Madame : This lette r i s a n invitatio n t o participat e i n a  ver y interesting^researc h projec t whic h deal s specificall y w i th Registrar s i n Britis h Columbia n Communit y College s an d Provincia l Institutes . I t shoul d tak e approximately 1 5 t o 2 0 minute s t o complet e th e questionnair e attached . The informatio n gathere d vi a th e attache d questionnair e wil l b e use d t o for m th e basi s o f m y M.A . thesis (Highe r Education ) whic h I  am currentl y completin g a t th e Universit y o f Britis h Columbi a unde r the directio n o f Dr . Joh n Denniso n (telephon e #822-5252) . The eightee n individual s wh o hol d th e positio n o f Registra r fo r th e province' s college s an d institute s makeup th e populatio n studied . Th e tit l e o f th e stud y is ; A  Stud y o f th e Caree r Path s &  Academi c Preparation o f Colleg e Registrars i n B.C. an d an Analysis o f thei r Professiona l Developmen t Preference s and Needs . The purpos e o f th e stud y i s three fo ld : 1) t o gathe r specifi c demographi c informatio n concernin g th e academi c preparation an d caree r path s o f colleg e Registrar s 2) t o identif y th e type s o f professiona l developmen t activitie s thes e individual s subscrib e to 3) t o determin e th e professiona l developmen t need s an d preference s o f th e populatio n As man y o f yo u ar e wel l aware , ther e i s a n considerabl e lac k o f researc h concernin g post-secondar y education i n Canada, especially a t the non-degre e grantin g level . B y participating i n this study you wi l l be contributin g t o th e smal l (bu t growing ) bod y o f knowledg e i n thi s area . If yo u hav e an y question s regardin g thi s endeavour , pleas e d o no t hesitat e t o contac t m e a t VCC . I have attache d m y busines s car d fo r you r convenience . Please remember , yo u wil l b e answerin g thi s questionnair e anonymousl y therefore , al l informatio n revealed wil l remai n confidential . Pleas e complet e an d retur n th e questionnair e an d th e acknowledgement car d b y Jun e 3 0 , 1993 . I woul d lik e t o than k yo u i n advanc e fo r you r cooperation . Sincerely yours . Cynthia J . Howma n M.A. Candidate , UB C A P P E N D I X 4 1 0 1 FZEfi&HSHSEH'EH^^ £ Instruction s t o Participant s 1. Pleas e b e sure t o rea d th e letter  of  introductio n from  th e researcher . 2. Pleas e b e sure t o rea d th e letter  of  endorsement  from  the  Presiden t of th e B.C . Registrar s Association . 3. Pleas e rea d th e cove r shee t o f the questionnaire . 4. Pleas e complet e th e questionnaire . Mak e n o a t t empt t o identif y yourself o r th e inst i tut io n yo u wor k for . 5. Plac e the questionnair e i n the stamped , pre-addressed envelop e provided. 6 . Mai l bot h th e envelop e an d the respons e car d b y Ma y 31,1993 . Please not e t h a t th e envelop e containing th e questionnair e wil l b e sent t o my office a t VCC . Th e respons e car d wil l be mailed t o m y home . Thi s procedure wil l hel p to ensur e th e anonymit y o f th e respondents . The envelopes containin g th e questionnaire s wil l b e opened b y the researche r once they hav e al l bee n accounted  for . Fo r th is reason . I ask t h a t yo u return th e questionnair e an d respons e for m eve n t f you do  not  plan  to complete the  questionnaire. In the even t t h a t a  ne w Registrar i s appointed  durin g th e study , would th e individual i n receipt  of  th i s packag e please  forward  i t t o th e appropriate person. Thank you fo r taking  the  t im e t o participate  i n th is study . Cynthia Howman 102 APPENDIX 5 ' HCOL  • urli Q[\coT-\Q\m:i\rc  for'CoWhqe/Uv.  itil'iil-* RtV)it."'t"rtir-j> i n I3rif.bh Columbi a "/i«•;•.".•• ku  Ih-ff:  •  i fi il  l.'c\t"l'pttirnt I  '\"ftT(.r,r.f- &  Nrr.t-  i-i  !>••; COVEK S H E E T Title of Project: A  Study o f the Career Path s an d Academic  Preparatio n o f College Registrars i n British Columbia  and An Analysis o f Their Professiona l Development Preferences  and  Heeds Name of Investigator.  Cynthia  J . Howman , wor k phone 324-525 3 Purpose of Project: 1) t o gather  Informatio n concerning  the career  paths  and academic preparation  o f College registrars i n British' Columbia 2) t o identif y th e types of professional development  activitie s thes e Individuals subscribe to 3) t o determine the  professional  development  needs  and  preferences  of  the group It I s Important that  yo u understand  that  yo u have the right  t o refus e t o participate  i n this study . I t should take  approjdmatel y 1 5 to 20 minute s to complete  the  questionnaire. There will be no follow-up questionnaires  sen t t o you. Ther e will be.no follow-up phon e calls . If the questionnaire I s completed and  returned.  I t will be assumed that  yo u have given your consent to  participate  i n the study. I f you choos e not to participate,  there  wil l be no repercussions for either you or your Institution . You will not be asked t o Identif y yoursel f o r the institution yo u work for during the completion of  the questionnaire.  If , during the analysis of the questionnaire, the  researcher Is able to Identify  the  respondent,  yo u are guaranteed that  all  Information revealed  wil l remain confidential. After the  questionnaires  have  bee n analyze d the y wil l be destroyed. 103 Please take the  time  to  complet e the entire questionnaire. i. Pleas e indicate  your current ag e in years. 2. Ar e you a Male  or  Female  ? (circle one) 3. Pleas e indicate  your annual salary 4. Pleas e indicate  both  the level of education completed  and  the area of specialization . a) Hig h School Graduation or equivalent YE S N O Specialization b) Colleg e Certificate or Diploma YE S N O PARTIALL Y Area of c) Bachelor' s Degree d) Master' s Degree e) Doctora l Degree YES N O PARTIALL Y YES N O PARTIALL Y YES N O PARTIALL Y Page 1 of 7 1 0 4 5. Ho w long have you held your current positio n ? 6. Wha t i s the exact t it le o f your position ? 7. Wha t was the full-time equivalen t enrollment a t you r institution during the 1991-9 2 academic year ? 8. T o whom do you report ? 9. I n the char t provide d below, please list your work history prior t o assuming your current position.  Pleas e include all previous full-time work experiences , even those no t i n an educational environment.  (Start with th e mos t recent.  I f you nee d more room, please write on the revers e of thi s page. ) TYPE OF ORGANIZATION NUMBER OF YEARS OFSERVKE POSITION TITLE Page 2 of 7 105 10. I n your opinion, what other position s can  the job of Registra r lea d to ? 11. Whe n did you first mak e the decision to wor k towards the goa l of becoming a  Registrar? 12. Pi d the decision  to work  towards th e goa l of becoming  a  Registra r affect your career choices? YE 5 N O If yes , how were they affected ? 13. Pi d the decision to wor k towards the goal of becoming  a  Registra r affect your choice of acacemic  preparation?  YE S N O If yes. > -how was this choice  affected ? • Page 3 of7 14. Pleas e list wor k experiences which have been most helpfu l to you given your current responsibilitie s as Registrar . 15. Pleas e list the academic preparation  whic h has been most helpfu l to you given your current  responsibilitie s as Registrar . 16. Wha t types of professional development activities would  you find  mos t useful at thi s poin t i n your career? _ Page 4 of 7 17. Do  you believe  that  there  i s a "preferred" form of undergraduate preparation for  potential  Registrars ? YE S N O If yes, what type o f undergraduate  preparation  would you  suggest ? 18. Ar e you currently an active member  of the following professiona l associations ? a) Britis h Columbia Registrar' s Association (BCRA ) YES N O b) Associatio n of Registrars of Universities and Colleges of Canada (ARUCC) YES N O c) America n Association of Collegiate Registrars & Admissions Officers (AACRAO ) YES N O Page 5 of 7 19. I n the char t provided  below , please lis t an y conferences,  workshops or seminar s whic h you hav e attended  sinc e assuming your curren t position. (only list those activities tvhic h have taken place during the las t 5 years ) You nee d only list thos e activitie s whic h relate i n some way to you r current responsibilities . Beside each notation , please indicate  ho w valuable the P.P . activity experience wae for  yo u on a scal e o f 1  t o 3 . (1 = of littl e value . 2 =  of som e value. 3 =  of great value ) Format conf. /sem. /wkshp Hosting Institution/Group Topic or Conference Nam e Value 1 2  3 Page 6 of 7 109 20. Ho w would you describe your education/training wit h respec t t o th e computer technologies use d I n your institutio n ?  (thi s refer s t o bot h mainframe  and microcomputer environments) Please place an  X  beside th e appropriate  descriptions). Formal academic preparation Self taugh t throug h hands-on  experienc e Appropriate skill s developed throug h P.O.  experiences Other (please  specify) Please feel free to mak e any comments concerning the stud y in the space below. Thank you very much for your participation. Pa$e7of7 Appendix 6 110 From: Mr. J. Registra r College of Good  Idea s Box 1254 Big Sky, B.C. V3K3J5 Ef YES. I have returned my questionnaire Appendix 7 1 11 Cynthia Howma n Thursday, Jun e 17 , 199 3 Registrar's Addres s Dear Mr. : Just a  gentle reminde r tha t i t i s no t to o lat e t o retur n th e questionnair e I sent to you last month dealin g with Colleg e Registrar s i n British Columbia . I woul d greatl y appreciat e i t i f yo u coul d fin d tim e t o complet e an d forward th e questionnair e a s I  valu e you r response s an d woul d lik e t o include the m i n m y thesis . If yo u hav e alread y maile d th e questionnair e an d respons e card , I  than k you. Sincerely yours , Cynthia Howma n M.A. Candidate , UB C 112 Appendix 8 ACRONYMS USE D I N THE STUD Y AACRAO America n Associatio n o f Collegiat e Registrar s &  Admission s Officer s ACCC Associatio n o f Canadia n Communit y College s ARUCC Associatio n o f Registrar s o f Universitie s an d College s o f Canad a BCAC Britis h Columbi a Associatio n o f College s BCRA Britis h Columbi a Registrars ' Associatio n CAAE Canadia n Associatio n o f Adul t Educator s CLI Creativ e Learnin g Institut e HRD Huma n Resourc e Developmen t MAETT Ministr y o f Advance d Education , Trainin g &  Technolog y (Britis h Columbia) PACRAO Pacifi c Associatio n o f Collegiat e Registrar s an d Admission s Officer s PMDI Pacifi c Managemen t Developmen t Institut e PNAIRP Pacifi c Nationa l Associatio n o f Institutiona l Researc h &  Plannin g SESOC Senio r Educationa l Service s Officer s Committe e SFU Simo n Frase r Universit y SRSUG Studen t Recor d System s User s Grou p WARUCC Wester n Associatio n o f Registrar s o f Universitie s &  College s o f Canad a 

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