UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A study of college registrars in British Columbia Howman, Cynthia Joan 1994

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-ubc_1994-0190.pdf [ 3.83MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0056009.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0056009-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0056009-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0056009-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0056009-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0056009-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0056009-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0056009-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0056009.ris

Full Text

A STUD Y O F COLLEGE REGISTRARS I N BRITIS H COLUMBI A By CYNTHIA JOA N HOWMA N B.A., Th e Universit y o f Waterloo , 198 3 A THESI S SUBMITTE D I N PARTIA L FULFILLMEN T O F THE REQUIREMENT S FO R THE DEGRE E OF MASTER O F ARTS in THE FACULT Y O F GRADUATE STUDIE S (Department o f Administrative , Adul t an d Highe r Education ) We7accept thi s thesi s a s conformin g to Jfeie_required standar d  THE"UNIVERSj/fY O F BRITISH COLUMBI A March, 199 4 ® Cynthia Joa n Howman , 199 4  In presentin g thi s thesi s i n partia l fulfilmen t o f th e requirement s fo r a n advance d degree a t th e Universit y o f Britis h Columbia , I agre e tha t th e Librar y shal l mak e i t freely availabl e fo r referenc e an d study . I furthe r agre e tha t permissio n fo r extensiv e copying o f thi s thesi s fo r scholarl y purpose s ma y b e grante d b y th e hea d o f m y department o r b y hi s o r he r representatives . I t i s understoo d tha t copyin g o r publication o f thi s thesi s fo r financia l gai n shal l no t b e allowe d withou t m y writte n permission.  (Signature)  Department o f  cfcWgWK^ ixhifW H ^ © W i *  The Universit y o f Britis h Columbi a Vancouver, Canad a Date  DE-6 (2/88 )  April .11 M  Abstract This stud y deal t wit h colleg e registrar s i n the Canadia n provinc e o f Britis h Columbia. Th e purpos e o f thi s stud y wa s three-fold : (i ) t o gathe r informatio n concerning the persona l characteristics, career paths and academic preparatio n o f college registrars , (ii ) t o identif y th e type s o f professiona l developmen t activitie s to whic h thes e individual s subscribe , an d (iii ) t o determin e th e professiona l development need s an d preference s o f colleg e registrars . A revie w o f th e scholarl y literatur e reveale d a limite d numbe r o f studie s dealing with colleg e registrars . N o Canadian studies wer e found whic h deal t wit h this subjec t matter . Othe r relate d literatur e wa s sough t out , particularl y studie s which deal t wit h th e persona l characteristic s an d wor k historie s o f othe r non academic pos t secondar y educationa l administrators . A questionnair e wa s maile d t o al l colleg e registrar s i n Britis h Columbi a (N = 18). Seventee n individuals responded. Fro m the information gathered via the questionnaire, several conclusions were drawn and a profile of the average college registrar i n British Columbia wa s developed. Thi s profile identifie s th e registra r as being a mal e wh o i s roughl y forty-si x year s o f age . H e i s employe d b y a comprehensive community college and earns approximately $64,00 0 annually . H e has hel d thi s positio n fo r clos e t o eigh t years . Thi s individua l ha s complete d a n undergraduate degree in the field of science or mathematics although , he believes that ther e i s n o "preferred " for m o f undergraduat e educatio n fo r potentia l registrars. H e ha s develope d a n understandin g o f th e compute r technologie s ii  utilized a t hi s colleg e through "hands-on " experience an d i s largel y self-taught . Prior to becomin g a registrar h e had worked full-tim e fo r twelv e year s an d had held at leas t two othe r position s withi n a college o r university . Whe n desir e or circumstances necessitat e a job change, this person would seek a position such as Dea n o r Directo r o f Studen t & Ancillar y Service s o r Vice-President , Studen t Services an d Administration . Thi s individua l di d no t activel y pursu e th e goa l o f becoming a college registrar . Give n that thi s individua l did no t inten d to becom e a registrar , i t i s no t surprisin g t o fin d tha t hi s academi c preparatio n wa s no t planned with a view t o futur e wor k a s an administrator i n an institutio n o f highe r learning. The colleg e registra r enjoy s attendin g workshops , seminar s an d meeting s sponsored by the British Columbia Registrars' Association (BCRA). H e is a member of thi s organizatio n a s wel l a s th e Associatio n o f Registrar s o f Universitie s an d Colleges o f Canad a (ARUCC ) and , th e America n Associatio n o f Collegiat e Registrars an d Admissions Officer s (AACRAO) . Several conclusions wer e draw n an d recommendation s wer e made .  iii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  A stud y suc h a s this i s neve r complete d withou t th e assistanc e o f others . I woul d lik e to exten d m y thanks t o the colleg e registrar s i n British Columbi a wh o supported these researc h efforts b y respondin g thoughtfully t o th e questionnaire . Without thei r input , ther e woul d hav e bee n n o study .  To th e thre e wis e men , Drs . Dennison , Kelse y an d Spencer , m y sincer e thanks and gratitude for your patience and very constructive criticisms. Yo u were able to show m e what I had failed to do, without makin g m e feel that I had failed.  Most o f all , I thank m y husban d Gregg , for neve r entertainin g th e though t that I woul d no t finish . You r optimis m wa s contagious , an d you r suppor t wa s indispensable.  iv  TABLE O F CONTENTS  Page Abstract i Acknowledgements i Table o f Content s v List o f Table s vi  i v i  Chapter I. INTRODUCTIO  N1  i) Statemen t o f th e Proble m 1 ii) Researc h Question s 3 iii) Significanc e o f Stud y 3 iv) Terminolog y5 II. LITERATUR  E REVIE W 8  i) Overvie  w o f th e Literatur e 8  ii) Summar  y2  2  S O F THE STUDY 2  4  III. PROCEDURE  i) Pla n of th e Stud y 2 ii) Metho d o f Dat a Collectio n 2 iii) Developmen t o f th e Questionnair e 2 iv) Dat a Analysi s 3 IV. FINDING S O F THE STUDY 3 i) Basi c Demographi c Informatio n 3 ii) Academi c Preparation 3 iii) Caree r Path s an d Work Experienc e 4 iv) Professiona l Developmen t Activitie s 6 v) Professiona l Developmen t Preference s and Need s 7  v  4 5 7 0 2 2 8 8 6 3  V. SUMMARY  , CONCLUSION S AN D RECOMMENDATION S . . . . 7  i) Summar y7 ii) Conclusion s8 iii) Recommendation  7 7 4 9  s8  BIBLIOGRAPHY 9  3  APPENDICES %  9  1. Lis t o f Institution s Surveye d 9 2. Lette r o f Endorsemen t 9 3. Lette r o f Introductio n 10 4. Instruction s t o Participant s 10 5. Questionnair e 10 6. Respons e Car d 11 7. Follow-u p Lette r t o Non-Respondent s 11 8. Lis t o f Acronym s 11  VI  8 8 9 0 1 2 0 1 2  LIST OF TABLES Table Pag 1. Respons 2. Rang  e e Rat e o f Britis h Columbia n Colleg e an d Institut e Registrars B y Institutio n Typ e 2  8  e i n Chronological Ag e o f Britis h Columbia n Colleg e and Institut e Registrar s Surveye d 3  3  3. Gende  r o f Britis h Columbia n Colleg e an d Institut e Registrar s Responding to th e Surve y 3  5  4. Colleg  e an d Institut e Registrar s i n Britis h Columbi a by Se x an d Institutio n Typ e 3  6  5. Salar 6. Number  y Informatio n fo r Colleg e an d Institut e Registrar s i n British Columbi a 3  7  s an d Percentage s o f Britis h Columbia n Colleg e an d Institute Registrar s Accordin g t o Highes t Degre e Hel d . . 3 9  7. Undergraduat e an d Graduat e Preparatio n o f Colleg e an d Institute Registrar s i n Britis h Columbi a b y Majo r Field of Stud y 4  1  8. Colleg  e an d Institut e Registrar s b y Ag e an d Highes t Degre e Earned 4  3  9. Colleg  e and Institut e Registrar s b y Annua l Salar y an d Highes t Degree Earne d 4  4  10. Colleg  e and Institute Registrar s Describe Their Metho d o f Knowledg e Acquisition i n Terms o f Compute r Technologie s 4 6  1 1 . Colleg  e an d Institut e Registrar s b y Se x an d Metho d o f Compute r Knowledge Acquisitio n 4 7  12. Lengt  h o f Servic e a s a Registrar a s Reported b y th e Colleg e and Institut e Registrar s i n Britis h Columbi a 5 vii  0  13. Colleg  e an d Institut e Registrar s b y Lengt h o f Servic e a s a Registrar an d Highes t Degre e Earne d 5  1  14. Reportin  g Relationship s o f th e Colleg e an d Institut e Registrars i n Britis h Columbi a 5  3  15. Year  16. Type  17. Ag  s o f Wor k Experienc e Prio r t o Becomin g a Registra r as Reporte d b y Colleg e an d Institut e Registrar s i n British Columbi a 5  5  s o f Prio r Wor k Experience s Withi n th e Educationa l Environment fo r Colleg e an d Institut e Registrar s o f British Columbi a 5  7  e a t Whic h Colleg e an d Institut e Registrar s i n Britis h Columbia Wer e Firs t Appointe d t o th e Positio n o f Registrar 6  0  18. Potentia  l Futur e Occupatio n Choice s o f Colleg e an d Institute Registrar s i n Britis h Columbi a 6  2  19. Colleg  e an d Institut e Registrar s i n Britis h Columbi a Indicate th e Poin t a t Whic h The y Decide d t o Pursu e the Goa l o f Becomin g a Registra r 6  3  2 0 . Britis  2 1 . Colleg  h Columbia n Colleg e an d Institut e Registrars ' Repor t on Beneficia l Academi c Preparatio n Give n Thei r Current Jo b Responsibilitie s 6 e an d Institut e Registrar s b y Se x an d Membershi p i n Professional Organization s 6  2 2 . Professiona l Developmen t Activitie s Liste d an d Rate d b y College an d Institut e Registrar s i n Britis h Columbi a . . . . 7  7 9  1  23. Colleg  e an d Institut e Registrar s i n Britis h Columbi a Describe Thei r Professiona l Developmen t Need s 7  4  2 4 . Colleg  e an d Institut e Registrar s b y Lengt h o f Servic e a s a Registrar an d th e Numbe r o f Differen t Type s o f Professional Developmen t Activitie s Attende d 7  6  viii  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTIO N  i) Statemen  t o f th e Proble m  In the scholarl y literatur e muc h attentio n ha s bee n focused o n th e "quality o f instruction " an d ho w i t contribute s t o th e qualit y o f education . Much les s attention ha s bee n focused o n ho w th e administrativ e suppor t systems an d ancillar y service s contribut e t o educationa l outcomes . On e particular are a whic h ha s th e potentia l fo r significan t impac t o n th e progres s o f students i s the Registrar' s Office . Th e professiona l managemen t o f th e admissions & record s function s a t an y post-secondar y institutio n i s a considerable challenge . Thi s responsibilit y fall s withi n th e domai n o f th e Registrar. In Britis h Columbia , communit y college s hav e experienced grea t growt h since thei r inceptio n durin g the 1960s . I n addition, there hav e bee n tremendous change s i n technology whic h hav e drastically affecte d th e workplace. On e o f th e mos t significan t change s ha s bee n the introductio n o f the compute r fo r th e managemen t o f on-lin e studen t admissio n / registratio n / 1  2 records systems . I n additio n t o havin g t o adap t t o thes e technica l changes , th e colleges hav e bee n faced wit h a period o f substantia l financia l restrain t an d cutbacks. I t i s apparen t tha t ou r administrator s ar e bein g aske d to d o mor e with less . Thos e wh o hol d administrativ e position s mus t no t onl y b e prepare d to wor k hard , they mus t hav e the education , ability an d professiona l knowledg e required t o optimiz e thei r performance . There i s n o prescribe d cours e o f stud y o r training fo r individual s wh o assume administrativ e responsibilitie s i n Britis h Columbia' s communit y colleges . A cursor y loo k a t th e credential s o f senio r colleg e administrators reveal s tha t many hol d credential s a t th e Master' s level . Thos e wh o hol d graduat e degree s in the fiel d o f educatio n typicall y hav e studied adul t educatio n rathe r tha n focusing o n the administrativ e aspect s o f managin g a post-secondar y institution. Man y senio r official s com e t o administrativ e post s wit h experienc e as divisiona l Chair s o r facult y members . Other s ar e importe d fro m busines s an d industry. Som e trac e thei r root s t o th e secondar y schoo l system . A s i s th e case wit h othe r colleg e administrators , ther e i s n o prescribe d "path " t o th e Registrar's Office . N o discipline specifi c academi c preparatio n i s mandator y an d prior wor k experienc e ca n vary substantiall y fro m institutio n t o institution . Wit h this i n mind , w e shal l focu s o n one particula r grou p of administrator s wh o hav e a relativel y homogeneou s arra y o f responsibilities ; Registrar s withi n th e non university secto r i n Britis h Columbia .  3  The purpos e o f thi s stud y i s three-fold: 1) t  o gathe r informatio n concernin g the persona l characteristics , career path s an d academi c preparatio n o f colleg e registrar s  2) t  o identif y th e type s o f professiona l development activitie s t o which thes e individual s currentl y subscrib e  3) t  o determin e th e professiona l developmen t need s an d preference s of colleg e registrar s  ii) Researc  h Question s  1) Wha  t ar e the educationa l credential s o f th e colleg e an d institut e  registrars i n Britis h Columbia ? 2) Wha  t ar e the prio r wor k experience s o f th e colleg e an d institut e  registrars i n Britis h Columbia ? 3) T  o wha t form s o f professiona l developmen t d o th e colleg e an d institute registrar s i n Britis h Columbi a currentl y subscribe ?  4) Wha  t ar e the professiona l developmen t need s an d preference s o f  the colleg e an d institut e registrar s i n Britis h Columbia ?  iii) Significanc  e o f th e Stud y  This stud y i s significant i n several ways . I t wil l provid e informatio n  4 concerning the persona l characteristic s o f th e member s o f a specifi c occupational grou p that ha s no t bee n studied i n detail: registrar s fro m th e non university secto r i n Britis h Columbia . I t wil l identif y th e professiona l development need s an d preference s o f th e grou p so that purposefu l learnin g experiences ca n b e designed to enhanc e the registrars ' skill s an d abilities . The post-secondar y syste m ha s bee n undergoin g considerabl e change . The author' s persona l experienc e an d the anecdota l evidenc e o f colleague s suggests tha t ther e ar e increase d expectation s fo r registrar s t o b e bot h accountable an d adaptabl e i n changing societal an d institutiona l circumstances . All o f thi s carrie s implication s fo r th e professiona l developmen t o f registrars . I t seems sensibl e t o conside r tw o kind s o f factor s i n attempting t o asses s professional developmen t needs : the persona l characteristics o f th e individua l and the natur e o f th e institution s i n whic h the y work . Th e presen t study , i n surveying the professional , demographic an d institutiona l realitie s o f Britis h Columbia's registrars , wil l provid e a basis fo r th e developmen t o f idea s abou t professional development . The stud y o f non-academi c administrator s i n Canadian highe r educatio n i s very limited . Conversely , a comprehensive revie w o f th e literatur e reveal s considerable informatio n wit h respec t t o facult y member s an d academi c administrators (Departmen t Heads , Chairmen an d Deans) . On e canno t emphasize enoug h the nee d fo r Canadia n educators t o conduc t researc h o n  5 Canadian phenomena . A s wil l b e show n i n chapte r t w o , ther e i s a n extremel y limited amoun t o f wor k conducte d abou t Canadia n institution s o f highe r learning, especiall y th e communit y colleges . I t i s frustratin g whe n w e ar e lef t no alternativ e bu t t o extrapolat e fro m th e experience s o f ou r America n colleagues. This stud y i s limite d i n tha t i t deal s wit h a relativel y smal l grou p o f college registrars , seventee n i t total . Th e result s pertai n onl y t o colleg e registrars w h o wor k i n Britis h Columbia .  iv) Terminolog  y  Terms whic h ar e importan t t o thi s stud y ar e define d i n th e lis t w h i c h appears below . Definition s o f th e acronym s use d i n th e stud y ca n b e foun d i n appendix 8 .  Bachelor's Degre e - Frequentl y referre d t o a s th e "firs t degree" , thi s degre e usually require s thre e t o fou r year s o f full-tim e study . Th e bachelor' s degre e i s the significan t firs t degre e i n universitie s i n Grea t Britain , Commonwealt h nations an d th e Unite s States . (Knowles,1977 , p . 1232) Master's Degre e - Thi s i s frequentl y referre d t o a s th e "secon d degree" . Durin g a progra m o f stud y a t th e master' s level , student s generall y d o mor e highl y  6 specialized wor k i n an academic are a and undertak e som e for m o f scholarl y research. Thi s secon d degre e usuall y require s on e to tw o year s o f full-tim e study beyon d th e bachelor' s degree . (Knowles,1977 , p . 1234 ) Doctorate o r Doctora l Degre e - This i s typically th e highes t degre e held . I n Canada an d the Unite d State s a doctoral degree typically involve s cours e work , oral and/o r writte n examination s an d a thesis o r dissertatio n representin g original research . (Knowles,1977 , p . 1236 ) Community Colleg e - A non-degre e grantin g post-secondar y institutio n whic h offers a comprehensive rang e of educationa l opportunities . Thes e institution s issue certificate s an d diploma s afte r th e successfu l completio n o f a prescribe d course o f study . Program s typically tak e fro m on e to thre e year s o f full-tim e study t o complete . Provincial Institut e - This i s a post-secondary institutio n whic h provide s educational opportunitie s i n specialized fields . Profile - A profil e i s a concise sketc h o f th e characteristic s o f a n individua l o r group wher e th e result s hav e bee n expressed i n some unifor m o r comparabl e terms. (Hopke , 1968) . Registrar - I n this study , th e ter m Registrar , i s an inclusiv e ter m whic h refer s t o an officer o f a post-secondary institutio n whos e primar y tas k i s to overse e th e admissions, registratio n an d record s functions . Registrar's Offic e - This offic e refer s to tha t par t o f th e colleg e an d universit y  7 administrative organizatio n engage d primaril y i n handlin g admission s an d records. Non-instructiona l responsibilitie s o f th e registrar' s offic e distinguis h i t from th e offic e o f th e dean . Th e function s o f th e registrar' s offic e ar e t o organize an d coordinat e th e variou s colleg e activitie s whic h pertai n t o (i ) counselling, (ii ) admissions , (iii ) maintainin g an d securin g studen t records , (iv ) room scheduling , (v ) confirmatio n o f eligibilit y t o graduate , (vi ) directin g registration activities , (vii ) studen t recruitmen t an d (viii ) preparatio n o f th e college calendar , catalogue s an d bulletins . (Thomason , 1949 ) University-College - Thi s typ e o f post-secondar y institutio n i s a relativel y ne w phenomenon i n highe r educatio n i n Britis h Columbia . Student s a t a university college ma y complet e program s a t th e certificate , diplom a an d degre e levels . Only undergraduat e degre e leve l course s ar e offered .  8  CHAPTER I I LITERATUR E REVIE W  i) Overvie  w o f th e Literatur e  A comprehensiv e literatur e revie w wa s undertake n t o identif y prio r research relevan t t o th e study . Afte r completin g th e preliminar y revie w i t became apparen t tha t ver y littl e wor k i n this are a ha d bee n undertaken . Onl y two studie s wer e foun d whic h specificall y discusse d th e professiona l staf f i n the Registrar' s Office s i n Canadia n institution s o f highe r learning . Thi s lac k o f information i n itsel f indicate d th e nee d to conduc t researc h i n this area . A comprehensive searc h o f th e scholarl y literatur e produce d reference s discovere d through a search o f th e Dissertatio n Abstract s o n C D RO M a t th e Universit y o f British Columbia' s mai n library , an on-line searc h of ERI C files includin g a search of CU E (Curren t Inde x t o Journal s i n Education ) an d RI E (Resources i n Education) an d a manual searc h o f th e car d inde x a t Wester n Washingto n University's mai n library . A n "on-line " searc h usin g the indicato r Registrar , produced n o reference s i n the Canadia n literature . Previous researc h and studies pertainin g to colleg e registrar s wer e sough t out. Informatio n regardin g the functio n an d characteristics o f non-academi c post-secondary administrator s wa s als o identified .  9 As a resul t o f th e lac k o f scholarl y wor k delineatin g th e demographic feature s o f Registrar s i n B.C. , relate d literatur e wa s sough t out . I n particular, informatio n concernin g other post-secondar y administrator s an d studies delineatin g colleg e registrar s i n the Unite d State s wa s reviewed . This revie w reveale d that previou s researc h surrounding non-academi c administrators i n highe r educatio n ca n b e classified int o fou r basi c group s dealing specificall y with ; i ) gende r relate d issues , ii ) demographi c features , iii ) career path s o f administrators , an d iv ) professiona l development initiative s fo r administrators. During th e las t decad e there ha s bee n muc h writte n abou t th e progres s of wome n administrator s i n highe r educatio n (Menge s an d Exum , 1983 ; Moore , 1984(a), 1990 ; Lafontaine , 1985 ; Sagaria , 1988 ; Luna , 1989 ; Vaughan , 1989; Dingerson , 1990) . There ar e several studie s o f colleg e an d universit y administrator s whic h follow i n the "gende r differences " vein . Sagari a (1985) , discusse d th e managerial skills an d experiences o f me n and women administrators . Sh e concluded tha t me n an d wome n involv e themselve s i n different form s o f on-the job trainin g i n order t o develo p simila r level s o f manageria l skills . Wome n appear to plac e mor e importanc e o n the valu e o f forma l learnin g experience s t o prepare themselves fo r administrativ e responsibilities . Wome n als o cite d committee involvemen t a s bein g a significant enhancemen t fo r caree r  10 advancement. Sagari a suggeste d tha t thi s i s becaus e involvemen t wit h committees give s wome n greate r insigh t int o a n organization's informa l structure an d act s a s a means fo r developin g contact s beyon d one' s administrative unit . Sh e argued that me n typically lear n these thing s vi a informal network s wit h othe r mal e administrators . The famil y an d career characteristic s o f universit y administrator s wa s explored i n researc h conducted b y Bir d (1984) . Thi s wor k i s simila r t o Sagaria's i n that caree r characteristic s ar e studied, however , Bir d gathere d interesting demographi c informatio n concernin g the famil y characteristic s o f administrators. Sh e found tha t wome n believe d tha t career s an d professiona l activities demande d mor e time tha n di d their mal e counterparts . Me n wer e found t o delegat e les s than women . Demographically , th e wome n i n th e sample reporte d earlie r marriages , had fewer childre n an d earne d les s mone y than di d their mal e colleague s wit h simila r positions , ag e range s an d educationa l credentials. Several studies investigat e caree r pattern s o f variou s highe r educatio n administrators (Moore , 1984(b) ; Ostrot h e t al. , 1984; Chapma n an d Benati , 1986; Twombly , 1990 ; White , 1991) . Of particula r interes t i s a study conducte d b y Ostrot h e t al . (1984 ) whic h looked a t th e caree r pattern s o f Chie f Studen t Affair s Officer s (C.S.A.O. ) i n th e United States . Thei r analysi s involve d describing the demographi c feature s o f  11 this group , thei r professiona l activities , wor k experienc e an d caree r aspirations . This stud y reporte d man y interestin g findings . Th e investigator s determine d that a relationshi p exite d betwee n th e enrolmen t o f th e institutio n an d leve l o f education o f th e C.S.A.O . The y reporte d tha t 5 1 % o f thos e surveye d indicated tha t the y di d no t se t ou t t o becom e C.S.A.O.'s . Ironically  , thos e  w h o di d w o r k toward s th e goa l o f becomin g a C.S.A.O . too k longe r t o achiev e this goa l tha n di d thei r colleague s w h o mor e o r les s "defaulted " int o th e position. Th e author s indicate d tha t ther e wa s a professiona l concer n amon g the C.S.A.O.' s du e t o a lac k o f publicatio n i n scholarl y journal s b y thei r peers . They indicate d tha t 7 3 % o f th e sampl e ha d neve r publishe d an y w o r k relate d t o their profession . Twombl  y (1990) , focuse d o n th e structur e o f th e  development o f administrativ e career s i n highe r education . He r w o r k i s especially engagin g becaus e i t describe s ho w administrativ e career s i n highe r education diffe r fro m thos e i n othe r moder n organizations . Sh e state d tha t th e ideal caree r ladde r i n man y organization s i s on e i n whic h position s ar e clearl y defined an d tightl y ordere d i n a sequenc e o f increasin g responsibilit y an d reward, th e pat h on e woul d follo w i s highl y structured . Thi s wa s no t th e cas e in institution s o f highe r learning . A s Twombl y pointe d out , ther e wer e multipl e pathways t o nearl y ever y top-leve l administrativ e post , includin g th e presidency. Chapman an d Benat i (1986 ) describe d th e caree r pattern s o f Colleg e  12 Admissions Directors , a position whic h i s closely aligne d t o th e Registra r i n most institutions . Lik e Twombly, the y pointe d ou t tha t ther e i s a relative lac k of clarit y regardin g the path s whic h characteriz e caree r developmen t fo r highe r education administrators . The y identifie d thre e commo n characteristic s whic h seem to b e shared b y admission s directors : i) admission s wor k a t al l rank s i s characterized b y hig h turnove r ii) admission s personne l ar e still relativel y youn g whe n the y reac h th e top ran k (3 0 t o 40 ) iii) entr y int o admission s doe s no t necessaril y requir e any advance d degree or specialize d trainin g consequently , mobilit y withi n th e administrative structur e o f a n institutio n ma y b e limite d They indicate d tha t caree r advancemen t fo r admission s director s frequently mean t movin g out o f admissions . I n order t o advanc e i n highe r education administratio n thes e individual s neede d to develo p their skill s an d knowledge. Chapma n an d Benat i als o pointe d ou t tha t th e rol e o f wome n i n admission merit s furthe r study . Moore (1984(b)) , provide d insigh t int o th e structur e o f administrativ e careers b y relatin g he r persona l experiences a s an administrator i n the highe r education environment . Onc e again, the them e o f unstructure d caree r path s i s discussed an d highlighted . Moor e drew a n analogy betwee n administrativ e career path s an d a super-highway tha t begin s a t a fixed poin t an d ends a t a n unknown terminus . Sh e mad e the followin g observatio n abou t som e individual s who hav e progresse d t o th e mos t senio r rank s i n post-secondar y institutions ;  13 " W e hav e survive d unde r th e leadershi p o f countles s gifte d amateurs, neve r darin g to as k ho w muc h bette r of f w e migh t hav e been i f w e ha d mor e postsecondaril y literat e peopl e wh o coul d se e their particula r institutio n a s par t o f a larger worl d an d thei r administrative task s a s versions o f a larger challeng e . . . m y ow n view i s that w e mus t giv e mor e though t tha n w e hav e to th e matter o f who m w e selec t fo r administrativ e post s belo w th e Presidency an d ho w the y ar e prepared."  The professiona l developmen t an d training of post-secondar y administrators i s the topi c o f numerou s studies , (Garrett , 1946 ; Heaton , 1947 ; Giroux, 1984 ; Skoglund , 1984 ; Stevenson , 1984 ; Woo d e t al. , 1985 ; Henderson, 1990 ; McDade , 1990) . The nee d to creat e professiona l developmen t opportunitie s fo r Registr y staff wa s identifie d a s earl y a s 191 9 (Henderson , 1990) . Toward s th e en d o f World Wa r II , post-secondary institution s wer e preparin g to admi t larg e number s of serviceme n thu s creatin g a significant increas e i n the numbe r o f registrants . Two article s appeare d i n the scholarl y literatur e a t thi s tim e whic h addresse d the nee d for th e developmen t o f professiona l skills . I n 1946 , Garret t wrot e about "Experimenta l Trainin g fo r th e Registrar" . H e described a progra m whic h was develope d a t th e graduat e leve l similar t o th e mor e traditiona l teachin g fellowship, calle d a n administrativ e fellowship . Thi s progra m wa s offere d through Ne w Yor k Universit y an d consiste d o f bot h cours e wor k an d in-servic e training.  14 Heaton's article , writte n i n 1947 , discusse d th e challenge s an d choice s facing Registrar s i n post-wa r America . H e cited th e nee d for a Registrar' s training progra m that woul d lea d to a bachelor's degree . I n addition, h e maintained tha t ther e should b e improvemen t o f salar y schedule s t o ensur e tha t the mos t capabl e me n an d wome n woul d b e attracted t o th e position , and tha t there wa s a need to develo p and maintai n a records syste m tha t wa s i n ste p with th e mos t moder n method s known . Ther e ar e man y wh o woul d argu e tha t these concern s ar e still applicabl e to th e Registrar' s Office s o f th e 1990's . Henderson's (1990 ) "Competencie s fo r Admission s & Record s Professionals: A n AACRA O Guid e t o Entr y an d Advancemen t i n the Profession" , provides a comprehensive analysi s o f th e benefit s o f in-servic e trainin g an d a guide t o th e skill s an d competencies whic h admission s an d record s specialist s should hav e for entr y into , o r fo r advancemen t i n the profession . Severa l competency area s ar e listed , among them; writte n communications , employe e relations, administration , research , technological knowledge , busines s practice s and enrolmen t management . "Staff developmen t an d training" i s the them e o f researc h conducted b y Rostek & Kladivk o (1988) . The y articulate d th e nee d to develo p professiona l development opportunitie s i n two-year college s i n the Unite d States , an d suggested wha t th e element s ar e for successfu l professiona l developmen t programs. The y indicate d tha t professiona l developmen t evolve s ou t o f th e  15 discrepancy betwee n th e curren t estat e o f affair s an d the desire d stat e o f affairs. Eigh t essentia l element s o f a staff developmen t pla n are : i) institutiona l commitmen t ii) suppor t fro m to p administrator s iii) statemen t o f philosoph y iv) employe e commitmen t an d readines s v) incentive s an d reward s vi) financia l resource s vii) staffin g viii) integratio n int o th e organizatio n  Brindley an d Fric k (1991) , i n an unpublishe d study , investigat e th e demographic feature s o f th e professiona l staf f i n Registrar' s Office s i n Canadia n universities. Subsequen t t o thi s work , the y produce d a report whic h investigated "gende r difference s i n factors relate d to caree r progressio n o f University administrators" . Thei r wor k describe s ho w gende r difference s hav e influenced th e caree r path s an d individua l experiences o f administrator s i n Canadian universities . Although n o reference s coul d b e found whic h discusse d th e demographi c features o f Canadia n Colleg e Registrars , a number o f America n studie s wer e identified whic h delineate d demographi c informatio n abou t registrar s i n tha t country. I t i s importan t t o distinguis h betwee n th e rol e of th e colleg e an d university registra r a s there ca n be considerable differences i n the type s o f wor k undertaken b y member s o f eac h group. Furthe r to this , the functio n o f th e  16 Registrar's Offic e ca n differ significantl y betwee n a college an d a university . Several American studie s hav e investigate d th e academi c preparatio n an d career path s o f colleg e an d university registrars . O f th e fiftee n studie s located , only thre e describe d the characteristic s o f colleg e as distinct fro m universit y registrars (Tansil , 1928 ; Wallgren , 1937 ; an d Jorgensen, 1972) . Althoug h much o f th e informatio n reveale d i n these studie s i s thought provoking , one would hav e to us e extrem e cautio n whe n comparin g result s an d data du e to th e age of th e studies . Th e mos t recen t stud y wa s complete d ove r twent y year s ago. Tansil (1928) , reporte d o n the academi c preparatio n o f libera l arts colleg e registrars i n the souther n Unite d States . O f th e thirty-tw o respondent s i n hi s study, 6.3 % hel d a doctoral degree , 46.9% hel d a masters degree , 37.5 % hel d a bachelor s degre e and 9.4 % ha d n o post-secondar y credential . I n terms o f th e registrars' wor k experience , the media n numbe r o f year s servic e i n a n educational institutio n wa s 12. 5 years . Specifi c experienc e a s a registra r ranged from on e to thirty-three , the media n bein g three years . I n addition t o their administrativ e responsibilities , 59.4 % o f th e respondent s i n this stud y reported holdin g a part-time facult y appointment . Wallgren's (1937 ) stud y include d 19 8 junio r colleg e registrar s fro m across th e Unite d States . Sixty-eigh t percen t o f th e respondent s indicate d tha t they ha d some for m o f post-secondar y education . Doctora l degree s wer e hel d  17 by 4.5% , 4 7 % hel d master s degrees , and 16.7 % hel d bachelor s degrees . Wallgren furthe r explore d th e academi c preparatio n o f thi s grou p b y requestin g that the y stat e th e majo r fiel d o f stud y pursued fo r earned degrees . A t bot h th e undergraduate an d graduat e level s h e found tha t th e mos t popula r fiel d o f stud y was education , followed b y english , history an d mathematics . Th e majorit y o f the respondent s fel t tha t th e mos t beneficia l for m o f undergraduat e an d graduate educatio n wa s th e philosoph y o f education . Educationa l psycholog y was liste d a s the secon d mos t preferre d for m o f academi c preparation . An analysi s o f th e respondents ' previou s wor k experienc e reveale d a n average o f 5. 6 year s administrativ e experienc e prio r t o assumin g th e positio n o f registrar. Th e vas t majorit y o f th e respondent s hel d position s (bot h facult y an d administrative) i n some for m o f educationa l institution . Typicall y (60 % o f th e cases), these individual s cam e directl y fro m employmen t i n a secondary school . Thirty-five percen t previousl y hel d a position a t a junior college , whil e th e remaining fiv e percen t cam e fro m the universit y sector . Wallgren mad e severa l conclusion s followin g th e completio n o f thi s study, amon g them : 1. th  e educationa l preparatio n o f colleg e registrar s wa s comparabl e t o that o f universit y registrar s  2. a  significant numbe r o f registrar s maintaine d activ e membershi p i n professional bodie s an d engage d i n professiona l readin g  3. colleg  e registrar s mos t frequentl y cam e fro m th e rank s o f facult y  18 4. ther  e i s a lack o f recognitio n o n the par t o f administrator s an d educational authoritie s concernin g the importanc e o f th e offic e an d making adequat e provision s fo r th e performanc e o f it s function s  Of thi s group , Jorgensen (1972) , ha s complete d th e mos t recen t wor k with respec t t o th e demographi c feature s o f colleg e registrar s i n an unpublishe d doctoral dissertation . Hi s study provide d a profile o f publi c junio r colleg e registrars i n the uppe r midwes t o f th e Unite d States . Withi n thi s profile , Jorgensen presente d informatio n whic h h e groupe d int o fou r categories ; i ) personal an d academi c characteristics , ii ) professiona l characteristics , iii ) training background , and iv ) supplementa l trainin g recommendation s o f th e registrars. I n terms o f th e persona l and academic characteristic s o f th e grou p he found tha t th e positio n o f registra r wa s occupie d predominantl y b y male s (75%). Th e ag e of th e respondent s ranged fro m betwee n 2 9 an d 6 4 year s wit h the mea n ag e being 4 2 years . Fifty-si x percen t o f th e respondent s wer e between th e ag e of 3 5 an d 44 years . Ther e wa s n o significant differenc e i n th e ages o f th e male s an d females . The highes t degre e mos t frequentl y hel d wa s th e master s degre e (56%) . Approximately 39 % hel d a bachelors degre e and roughl y 3 % hel d n o degree . The majo r fiel d o f stud y undertake n b y the respondent s varie d considerabl y however, ther e wa s a concentration o f individual s wh o majore d i n eithe r business o r socia l studies. A t th e graduat e level , the mos t frequentl y cite d  19 major wa s guidanc e an d counselling . Th e secon d mos t popula r fiel d o f stud y was schoo l administration . Jorgensen foun d tha t th e titl e "Recorder " wa s th e mos t frequentl y use d term t o identif y th e individual s wh o hel d the position . An examinatio n o f th e respondent s professiona l characteristic s reveale d that 4 7 % ha d hel d a position i n a post-secondary institutio n prio r t o becomin g a registrar. Th e media n numbe r o f year s experience fo r previou s wor k i n a college o r universit y wa s fou r years . Prio r wor k experienc e wa s varie d an d included colleg e instruction , counselling, student affairs , secretaria l work , placement an d offic e management . I n term s o f thei r professiona l affiliations , there wa s a tendency t o maintai n membershi p i n the stat e registrars ' association (69% ) rathe r tha n th e nationa l associatio n AACRA O (19%) . Th e extent t o whic h th e variou s registrar s wer e familia r wit h electroni c dat a processing (EDP ) wa s examined . A larg e numbe r o f respondent s reporte d tha t they use d ED P equipment i n the executio n o f thei r duties . Abou t on e quarte r o f the registrar s wer e abl e to interpre t dat a receive d from th e ED P office, 13 % indicated that the y ha d no training i n the us e of ED P and 5 % fel t tha t a background i n ED P was no t important . Jorgensen aske d the registrar s t o identif y th e type s o f supplementa l academic preparatio n tha t woul d b e mos t suitabl e fo r individual s aspirin g to th e position o f registrar . Th e two mos t frequentl y mentione d subjec t area s were , i )  the theor y o f electroni c dat a processin g i n educationa l administration , an d ii ) college registratio n techniques . Jorgensen conclude d wit h severa l recommendations , amon g them wer e the following ; 1. Publi c junior colleg e registrar s shoul d see k t o becom e mor e activ e in their professiona l associations throug h increase d membershi p and increase d attendance a t annua l meeting s o f th e registrars ' associations. 2. Th  e regiona l registrars ' associatio n shoul d conside r th e possibilit y of conductin g annua l workshops o r participator y seminar s fo r registrars pertainin g to method s o f dealin g wit h technica l problem s related tot h e performance o f thei r duties .  3. President s shoul d giv e mor e concer n to employin g person s i n th e registrar's positio n wh o hav e previou s professiona l experienc e i n a Registrar's Office . 4. Registrar s shoul d see k t o becom e mor e familia r wit h th e us e an d capabilities o f electroni c dat a processin g application s i n th e performance o f th e dutie s an d function s o f thei r offic e whic h ar e not merel y o f a routine nature . 5. . .  . Salar y differentiatio n base d upo n the se x o f th e registra r should b e eliminated.  White (1991) , provide d a more curren t assessmen t o f th e rol e an d function o f th e registra r i n Australian institution s o f highe r education . Sh e noted th e lac k o f scholarl y wor k pertainin g to Australia n registrar s an d post secondary administrator s i n general. A s state d earlier , a parallel situatio n currently exist s i n Canada. In this study , Whit e surveye d al l Australian registrars . Sh e reporte d a  21 response rat e o f seventy-on e percent . Sixty-tw o people participate d i n th e study. Th e respondent s cam e fro m bot h th e colleg e an d universit y sectors . Basic demographi c informatio n gathere d include s dat a o n sex , age , gender , academic preparation , work history , positio n title, reportin g relationship s an d -v  salary. Th e analysi s o f th e dat a reveale d that Australia n registrar s wer e predominantly male s (89% ) an d wer e betwee n th e ag e of forty-fiv e an d fifty four. Sixty-fiv e percen t ha d graduat e leve l education wit h th e majo r fiel d o f study bein g fairl y evenl y distribute d betwee n Arts/Humanitie s (23%) , Science/Mathematics (21%) , Busines s Administration/Economic s (33%) , an d Education (23%) . Th e respondent s indicate d tha t the y believ e tha t th e nex t generation of Australia n registrar s wil l nee d to hol d a graduate degre e as a minimum qualificatio n fo r th e office . Hal f o f th e registrar s wer e appointe d t o the curren t position s fro m withi n thei r curren t institution . Twenty-thre e percen t had hel d facult y position s a t som e poin t i n their career . Th e majorit y o f th e respondents (80% ) ha d bee n appointed to th e positio n withi n th e pas t fiv e years. The respondent s wer e aske d to indicat e (fro m a pre-defined list ) th e thre e sets of skill s whic h wer e th e mos t importan t fo r a registrar t o possess . Th e five mos t frequentl y endorse d choice s were : 1. hig h leve l of conceptual/analytica l skill s (73% 2. interpersona l communication s (59% 3. chang e managemen t (57%  ) ) )  22 4. staf  f leadershi p (45%  5. politica  l an d conflic t managemen t (41%  ) )  White conclude d b y indicatin g tha t sh e anticipate d tha t b y th e en d o f th e century th e rol e o f registra r i n Australia n highe r educatio n coul d becom e tha t o f a middl e manage r responsibl e fo r studen t services . Sh e als o envisione d th e titl e "registrar" bein g replace d wit h a mor e managerialisti c title .  ii) Summar  y  The literatur e revie w reveale d tha t ther e ha s bee n a ver y limite d numbe r of scholarl y studie s conducte d whic h reporte d informatio n regardin g th e personal characteristic s an d caree r path s o f colleg e registrars . There ha s bee n somewha t mor e researc h undertake n whic h describe s post-secondary administrator s a s a large r group . Thi s typ e o f researc h generall y focused o n issue s relate d t o gende r difference s betwee n colleg e an d universit y administrators, demographi c features , caree r path s an d professiona l development need s an d initiatives . As a resul t o f thi s review , w e hav e learne d tha t ther e i s a genuin e nee d t o conduc t scholarl y researc h whic h concentrate s o n th e non-academi c administrator i n Canadia n institution s o f highe r learning , especiall y th e community college . Thi s concer n fo r th e lac k o f informatio n concernin g non academic administrator s i s reporte d b y scholar s fro m othe r countrie s includin g  the Unite d States , Australi a an d the Netherlands . Previous studie s conducte d i n the Unite d State s whic h focu s o f th e college registrar , emphasiz e th e nee d fo r expande d communication s betwee n the professiona l staf f i n registrar' s office s an d the on-goin g nee d fo r professional development .  24  CHAPTER II I PROCEDURESO F TH E STUD Y The stud y wa s organize d i n a manner whic h woul d allo w fo r th e system atic identificatio n an d analysis o f pertinen t information . Thi s proces s involve d the developmen t o f a plan for th e study , a review o f researc h and relate d studies, the developmen t o f a questionnaire, and data collectio n an d analysis .  i) Pla  n of th e Stud y  A surve y wa s constructe d whic h wa s forwarde d t o communit y college , provincial institut e an d university/colleg e registrar s i n Britis h Columbia . A lis t o f the institution s whos e registrar s wer e invite d to participat e i n the stud y ca n b e found i n appendi x 1 . Al l Britis h Columbia n communit y colleges , university colleges, an d the Britis h Columbi a Institut e o f Technolog y wer e included . Th e British Columbi a Justic e Institute , Emil y Car r Colleg e o f Ar t an d the Pacifi c Marine Training Institut e wer e omitte d du e to th e fac t tha t thei r individua l academic foc i ar e quit e narro w an d specialized. Th e institution s chose n fo r th e study offe r a more comprehensiv e rang e o f program s an d services t o student s  than t o th e thre e exclude d ones , consequently, thei r registrar s ar e require d t o participate activel y i n the managemen t o f thei r institution s i n terms o f providin g administrative directio n an d b y assistin g i n the developmen t o f academi c policy . Information wa s gathere d regardin g persona l characteristics o f th e registrars, their academi c preparation , work historie s an d professiona l development preference s an d needs . Supplementa l dat a o n persona l an d professional characteristic s wa s als o obtaine d fro m a variety o f document s found withi n th e publi c domain . Information wa s collecte d vi a th e questionnair e whic h allowe d fo r th e development o f a profile o f colleg e an d institute registrar s i n Britis h Columbia . This profil e was the n compare d t o dat a fro m relate d American an d Australia n research. Th e balanc e o f th e informatio n collecte d provide d informatio n regarding the type s o f professiona l developmen t activitie s currentl y subscribe d to b y the colleg e an d institut e registrar s i n Britis h Columbia . I n addition, thei r professional developmen t preference s wer e delineate d a s wer e thei r professional developmen t needs .  ii) Metho  d o f Dat a Collectio n  In order t o identif y al l college an d institut e registrar s i n Britis h Columbia , several source s wer e use d and cross-referenced . The membershi p guid e o f th e Association o f Registrar s o f Universitie s an d College s o f Canad a (ARUCC )  26 provided th e initia l lis t o f registrar s fo r thi s study . T o ensur e tha t thi s lis t wa s complete, th e 1991-199 2 Britis h Columbi a Transfe r Credi t Guid e wa s used . This documen t wa s employe d becaus e i t provide s a complet e listin g o f al l post secondary institution s i n th e provinc e includin g th e addres s o f eac h Registrar' s Office. Thi s ensure d tha t al l o f th e desire d institution s woul d b e include d regardless o f thei r membershi p i n ARUCC . Fro m thes e sources , sixtee n institu tions wer e identified . Eac h institutio n wa s contacte d b y telephon e i n orde r t o confirm th e nam e o f th e registra r an d th e appropriat e mailin g address . Fo r those individual s w h o ha d give n name s tha t woul d no t allo w fo r th e accurat e determination o f gender , (i.e. , Chri s o r Dale ) th e se x o f th e Registra r wa s confirmed. Th e atypica l administrativ e structur e a t Vancouve r Communit y College necessitate d th e identificatio n o f thre e individual s w h o hel d th e positio n of registrar . A s a result , ther e wer e sixtee n institution s aske d t o participat e an d eighteen potentia l respondents . Each registra r wa s maile d a packag e containin g th e followin g documents ; a lette r o f introductio n fro m th e researcher , a lette r o f endorsemen t fro m th e past-president o f th e Britis h Columbi a Registrars ' Association , a se t o f instruc tions, a seve n pag e questionnaire , a pre-stampe d retur n envelop e addresse d t o the researcher' s offic e an d a pre-stampe d respons e car d addresse d t o th e researcher's home . Th e syste m use d t o retur n th e complete d questionnaire s was develope d t o serv e t w o purposes : (1 ) t o ensur e th e anonymit y o f th e  individual respondents , and (2 ) t o allo w th e researche r t o identif y thos e wh o had no t returne d th e questionnair e s o that a follow-up lette r coul d b e forwarded. Appendi x on e list s al l of th e institution s whic h participate d i n th e study. Th e lette r o f endorsemen t fro m the Past-Presiden t o f th e Britis h •v  Columbia Registrar s Associatio n ca n b e found i n appendix two . Th e lette r o f introduction fro m th e researche r ca n b e found i n appendix three . Th e instructions t o th e participant s ca n b e found i n appendix four . Appendi x fiv e contains th e seve n pag e questionnaire an d appendix seve n i s a copy o f th e follow-up lette r sen t t o thos e wh o di d no t respon d b y the origina l deadline . Three week s afte r th e initia l package s wer e maile d out , th e respons e cards an d returne d questionnaire s receive d wer e counted . Thirtee n respons e cards an d a corresponding numbe r o f questionnaire s ha d bee n returned . A follow-up lette r wa s sen t t o th e fiv e registrar s wh o ha d no t responded . Thi s generated a n additional fou r response s fo r a total o f seventee n respondents . This resulte d i n a 94.45% respons e rate . N o further attemp t wa s mad e t o contact an y o f th e registrars . Al l o f th e questionnaire s returne d wer e useable . Table 1 report s th e respons e rat e accordin g to institutio n type .  iii) Developmen  t o f th e Questionnair e  The questionnair e employe d wa s a unique document develope d b y th e  TABLE 1 RESPONSE RAT E O F BRITISH COLUMBIA N COLLEG E AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S B Y INSTITUTIO N TYP E  Institution Type Numbe  Community College * 1  r sen t Numbe  31  r returne d Percentag Total 2 92  e of  %  Provincial Institut e 1  1  100  %  University Colleg e 4  4  100  %  Totals 1  81  7 94.44  N = 18  *  Vancouver Communit y Colleg e officiall y list s thre e registrar s therefore , they ar e counted thre e times .  %  researcher specificall y fo r thi s study . Th e individua l question s wer e develope d to gathe r specifi c informatio n deeme d pertinen t t o th e study . Othe r questionnaires develope d t o gathe r simila r informatio n wer e studie d fo r th e content, wordin g an d organization . (Brindle y an d Frick , 1 9 9 0 ; Jorgensen , 1972 ) The thesi s advisor y committe e contribute d greatl y t o th e desig n an d construction o f th e questionnaire . Eac h questio n wa s reviewe d i n detai l t o ensure tha t i t wa s necessar y an d tha t th e subsequen t response s woul d contribute valuabl e information . Th e wordin g o f th e questionnair e wa s scrutinized b y th e committe e t o ensur e clarity . Question s whic h deal t w i t h common subjec t matte r wer e groupe d togethe r s o tha t th e respondent s coul d work throug h th e questionnair e w i t h relativ e ease . Th e instrumen t wa s pre tested b y a post-secondar y institutiona l researche r an d a n Assistan t Registra r from withi n th e colleg e sector . The y wer e aske d t o complet e th e entir e questionnaire an d receive d th e sam e se t o f instruction s tha t woul d b e forwarded t o th e participants . The y wer e aske d t o recor d th e amoun t o f tim e required t o complet e th e questionnair e an d als o t o repor t o n an y item s the y found unclea r o r confusing . Severa l adjustment s wer e mad e a s a resul t o f thei r comments an d suggestions . The questionnair e wa s designe d t o gathe r informatio n concernin g specifi c personal characteristics , academi c preparation , w o r k experienc e an d dat a concerning professiona l developmen t preference s an d needs . Th e dat a col -  lected concernin g persona l characteristic s include d th e responden t s age , gender an d salary . Informatio n describin g academi c preparatio n include d reporting o n th e highes t degre e hel d an d th e majo r fiel d o f study . Th e wor k experience sectio n assemble d informatio n abou t th e lengt h o f tim e th e respon dents ha d hel d thei r curren t appointment , th e enrolmen t a t thei r institutions , their reportin g relationships , an d al l previou s wor k experience . Severa l othe r questions wer e aske d whic h wer e designe d t o collec t informatio n pertainin g t o the futur e caree r goal s o f th e respondents , whethe r o r no t the y ha d consciousl y planned t o becom e a registrar , h o w thei r educationa l choice s wer e shape d b y their caree r goal s an d wha t prio r wor k experience s wer e o f mos t valu e t o the m given thei r curren t responsibilities . The fina l componen t o f th e questionnair e deal t specificall y w i t h pro fessional developmen t preference s an d needs . Th e registrar s wer e aske d t o identify whic h professiona l association s the y belonge d t o , th e type s o f pro fessional developmen t activitie s the y ha d participate d i n sinc e becomin g a registrar, th e exten t o f thei r technologica l expertise , an d th e type s o f pro fessional developmen t activitie s the y woul d fin d mos t beneficial . A cop y o f th e questionnair e ca n b e foun d i n appendi x five .  v) Dat  a Analysi s All questionnaire s wer e evaluate d an d analyzed . Tabulation s wer e mad e  31 from th e response s whic h generate d quantitativ e data . Descriptiv e statistic s such a s mode , mean , median , range an d frequency distribution s wer e employe d to summariz e th e data . A secon d stag e o f analysi s wa s t o conside r a numbe r of cross-tabulations . Seventee n variables forme d th e basi s o f th e questionnaire . This numbe r o f variable s lead s to a larger numbe r o f cross-tabulations . Th e matrix o f al l possibl e combination s o f pair s of variable s wa s examine d t o se e which combination s shoul d b e explored . Thi s resulte d i n the constructio n o f 3 0 cross-tabulations, o f whic h fiftee n yielde d interestin g results . Thes e result s ar e incorporated int o th e presentatio n o f finding s i n Chapter Four . Fro m thes e analyses a variety o f table s wer e generated . Non-numeri c response s wer e recorded an d evaluated . Muc h o f thi s dat a wa s als o represente d i n tabula r form. I n addition t o thes e schemati c representation s o f information , narrativ e description wa s use d to repor t th e finding s i n greate r detail . Comparison s wer e made to relate d studies wher e appropriate .  32  CHAPTER I V FINDING S O F THE STUD Y  The presentatio n o f th e finding s o f thi s stud y wer e organize d accordin g to th e fou r group s o f informatio n gathere d vi a th e questionnaire . Thes e fou r groups were : 1 ) informatio n o n persona l characteristics , 2 ) academi c preparation, 3 ) caree r path s an d wor k histories , an d 4 ) professiona l development preference s an d needs . For eac h se t o f findings , a compariso n t o th e finding s i n th e relate d literature i s reported .  i) Basi  c Demographi c Characteristic s This segmen t o f th e stud y report s finding s regardin g th e age , gende r an d  annual salar y o f th e colleg e an d institut e registrar s i n Britis h Columbia .  Chronological ag e o f colleg e an d institut e registrar s i n Britis h Columbia . A distribution o f th e ag e o f th e grou p i s illustrate d i n tabl e t w o . Th e chronologica l age o f th e colleg e an d institut e registrar s i n Britis h Columbi a wa s withi n th e thirty-four t o fifty-thre e yea r ag e range . Th e mea n ag e o f th e grou p wa s 4 4 . 8 2 years. Th e mea n ag e o f th e femal e registrar s wa s slightl y highe r tha n th e grou p  TABLE 2 RANGE IN CHRONOLOGICA L AG E OF BRITISH COLUMBIA N COLLEG E AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S SURVEYE D  Distribution o f Registrar s  Age Range  (55 (50 (45 (40 (35 (30 (25 -  59) 54) 49) 44) 39) 34) 29) Totals  Male  Female  Number Responding  Percent o f total Responding  Number Responding  2 (15.38% ) 4 (30.77% ) 5 (38.46% ) 1 ( 7.69%) 1 ( 7.69%)  11.76 23.53 29.41 5.88 5.88  1 (25% ) 1 (25% ) 2 (50% ) -  13  76.46%  Mean age grou p = 46.8 2 year s Mean ag e male s = 44.3 8 year s Mean age females = 46.2 5 year s Median ag e = 4 4 year s N= 1 7  Total Percentage o f total Responding  5.88 5.88 11.76 -  23.52%  Number Percentag e of Responding tota l responding  3 5 7 1 1  17.65 29.41 41.18 5.88 5.88  17  100%  CO  at 4 6 . 2 5 year s whil e th e mea n ag e o f thei r mal e counterpart s wa s 4 4 . 3 8 years . The media n ag e wa s forty-fou r an d th e majorit y o f th e respondent s (70%) , fel l within th e fort y t o forty-nin e yea r ag e range .  Related studies . Th e finding s reporte d wit h respec t t o chronologica l ag e are ver y simila r t o thos e repor t b y Jorgense n (1972) . H e foun d tha t th e average ag e o f registrar s fro m th e Publi c Junio r College s i n th e Uppe r Midwes t was 4 2 . 8 7 years . Th e averag e ag e o f female s i n thi s grou p wa s 4 5 . 1 1 an d 4 2 . 0 7 fo r males . White' s (1991 ) stud y o f Australia n universit y an d colleg e registrars foun d tha t th e majorit y o f registrar s i n tha t countr y wer e betwee n th e age forty-fiv e an d fifty-fou r years .  Sex o f th e colleg e an d institut e registrar s i n Britis h Columbia . Tabl e thre e represents a breakdow n b y se x o f thos e wh o participate d i n th e study . Of th e eightee n colleg e an d institut e registrar s i n Britis h Columbia , fourteen wer e male s (78% ) an d fou r wer e female s ( 2 2 % ) . O f thos e w h o participated i n th e study , thirtee n wer e male s (76% ) an d fou r wer e female s ( 2 4 % ) . Tabl e fou r represent s th e se x o f th e respondent s b y institutio n type . The fou r femal e registrar s ar e employe d b y communit y colleges . Th e Britis h Columbia Institut e o f Technolog y employee s a mal e registra r a s d o al l o f th e university-colleges.  35 TABLE 3 SEX O F BRITIS H COLUMBIA N COLLEG E AN D INSTITUT E REGISTRARS RESPONDIN G T O SURVE Y Sex  Number  Percentage o f Tota l  Male  13  75%  Female  4  25%  Totals 1  7 100  %  Related studies . Th e predominanc e o f mal e registrar s reporte d i n thi s study coincide s w i t h findin g fro m t w o America n studies . Gignillia t (1954 ) found tha t 6 8 % o f th e registrar s fro m Publi c Junio r College s i n th e Unite d States wer e men . Jorgensen' s stud y o f 197 2 reporte d tha t 7 5 % o f th e registrars fro m Publi c Junio r College s i n Uppe r Midwes t wer e men . Whit e (1991) reporte d tha t 8 9 % o f Australia n registrar s wer e men .  Salaries o f colleg e an d institut e registrar s i n Britis h Columbia . Tabl e fiv e illustrates a distributio n o f th e salarie s o f th e respondents . Annua l salarie s ranged betwee n $ 5 4 , 9 6 0 an d $ 7 9 , 0 0 0 wit h th e mea n bein g $ 6 4 , 2 7 2 . Th e median an d th e mod e wer e bot h calculate d a t $ 6 2 , 0 0 0 pe r year.Eighty-tw o pe r cent o f th e respondent s ha d salarie s whic h fel l withi n th e $ 6 0 , 0 0 0 t o $ 6 9 , 0 0 0 range. A breakdow n b y gende r reveal s n o significan t differenc e betwee n th e  TABLE 4 COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S I N BRITISH COLUMBI A BASE D ON SEX AND INSTITUTIO N TYP E Institution Typ e  Male  University/College  4 (28.57% )  4 (22.22% )  Provincial Institut e  1 (07.14% )  1 (05.56% )  Community Colleg e  9 (64.26% )  Totals N= 1 8  14  Female  4 (100% )  Total  13 (72.22% ) 18  TABLE 5 SALARY INFORMATIO N FO R COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRARS IN BRITISH COLUMBI A Distribution o f Registrar s Salary Rang e  Male Number Responding  (75,000 - 79,999 )  1 7.69 %  (70,000 - 74,999 )  Female Number Responding  Percent of Total  Total Number Responding  5.88  -  -  1  5.88  1 7.69 %  5.88  -  -  1  5.88  (65,000 - 69,999 )  2 15.38 %  11.76  2 50 %  11.76  4  23.53  (60,000 - 64,999 )  8 61.50 %  47.06  2 50 %  11.76  10  58.82  Percent of Total  Percent of Total  (55,000 - 59,999 ) (50,000 - 54,999 ) Totals  1 7.69 % 13  5.88  5.88 76.46%  23.53 1 7  99.99%  N= 17  GO  mean salarie s o f mal e an d female registrars , the forme r bein g $64,10 9 an d th e latter bein g $64,541 .  Related studies . Thi s apparen t equit y i n terms o f salarie s o f mal e an d female registrar s doe s no t suppor t th e assertio n .made b y Bir d (1984 ) wh o found tha t mal e universit y administrator s tende d to mak e mor e mone y tha n di d their femal e counterpart s wit h simila r level s o f educatio n an d wor k experience . In fact, th e femal e registrar s i n this stud y earned slightly mor e than di d thei r male colleagues .  ii) Academi  c Preparatio n  This segmen t o f th e stud y report s finding s relate d to th e academi c credentials o f th e colleg e an d institut e registrar s i n Britis h Columbia , th e majo r fields o f stud y pursued , preferences for undergraduat e education , and th e extent t o whic h th e registrar s enjoye d a n understandin g o f curren t computin g technologies.  Academic credential s accordin g to highes t degre e held . Tabl e si x illustrates th e distributio n o f academi c credential s hel d b y th e colleg e an d institute registrar s i n Britis h Columbia . Al l o f th e respondent s hel d some for m of post-secondar y academi c credential . On e responden t hel d a college/institut e  TABLE 6 NUMBERS AN D PERCENTAGE S O F BRITISH COLUMBIA N COLLEG E AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S ACCORDIN G TO HIGHES T DEGRE E HELD  Distribution o f Registrar s Credential Hel d  College Certificate/Diploma  Male number responding  percentage of tota l  1 7.69 %  Female number responding  percentage of tota l  5.88  Group number responding  percentage of tota l  1  5.88  Bachelor's Degre e  8 61.54 %  47.06  1 25 %  5.88  9  52.94  Master's Degre e  4 30.77 %  23.53  3 75 %  17.64  7  41.17  Doctoral Degre e  -  -  -  -  -  -  13  76.47%  4  23.53%  17  100%  Totals  N= 1 7  diploma ( 5 . 8 8 % ) , nin e hel d bachelor' s degree s (52.94%) , an d seve n hel d master's degree s ( 4 1 . 1 8 % ) . A furthe r analysi s o f thos e w h o hel d master' s degrees reveale d tha t o f th e seve n individual s identified , thre e wer e w o m e n .  Related studies . Th e finding s sho w t h a f 7 5 % o f th e femal e registrar s i n this stud y hel d graduat e leve l degree s a s oppose d t o 3 3 % o f th e male s wh o held thi s credential . Thi s findin g lend s suppor t t o th e assertio n mad e b y Sangria (1988 ) i n a stud y whic h explore d th e manageria l skill s an d experience s of administrator s withi n highe r education . Sangri a foun d tha t w o m e n typicall y place mor e importanc e o n forma l learnin g experience s t o prepar e themselve s fo r administrative responsibilities .  Academic preparatio n o f colleg e an d institut e registrar s b y major . Tabl e seven illustrate s th e undergraduat e an d graduat e preparatio n o f th e respondent s according t o academi c discipline . S o tha t th e tabulatio n proces s coul d b e streamlined, th e variou s field s o f stud y wer e divide d int o si x categories . Thes e categories were : 1 ) Genera l Arts , 2 ) Education , 3 ) Humanities , 4 ) Science/Mathematics, 5 ) Socia l Science , an d 6 ) Business/Economics . In term s o f th e undergraduat e leve l studie s o f th e respondents , fou r (23.53%) ha d complete d degree s i n th e genera l arts , on e (5.88% ) ha d com pleted a degre e i n education , thre e (17.65% ) ha d complete d degree s i n th e humanities, fiv e (29.4 1 %) ha d complete d degree s i n mathematics/science , t w o  TABLE 7 UNDERGRADUATE AN D GRADUAT E PREPARATIO N O F COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S IN BRITISH COLUMBI A B Y MAJO R FIEL D OF STUDY Distribution o f Registrar s Major Fiel d of Stud y Undergraduate ( N = 17) Graduat  e ( N = 7)  Number Respondin g / Percentag e Numbe male femal  Arts  3 (23.08 )  Education  e Tota  1 (25 )  1 (7.69 ) --  Humanities  l mal  5 (38.46 )  5 (29.41 )  Social Scienc e  2 (15.38 )  2 (11.76 )  1 (7.69 )  1 (5.88 )  Totals 13(76.47%  ) 4(23.53%  e Tota  l  3(75)  3 (100 )  6 (85.71 )  3 (17.65 )  Science/Math  Business  e femal  4 (23.53 ) 1 (5.88 )  3(75)  r Respondin g / Percentag e  ) 17(100%  ) 4(57.14%  1 (14.29 )  1 (25 )  ) 3(42.86%  ) 7(100%  )  (11.76%) ha d complete d degree s i n th e socia l science s an d on e (5.88% ) ha d completed a degre e i n business/economics . Th e responden t w h o hel d a college/institute diplom a majore d i n system s analysis . Fo  r thos e w h o  reported a graduat e leve l education , si x (85.71% ) chos e t o stud y withi n th e field o f education . Th e onl y othe r graduat e degre e wa s a master' s degre e i n the sciences , specificall y atmospheri c physics . O f th e si x master' s degree s i n education, fiv e ha d focuse d o n educationa l administratio n an d on e ha d focuse d on adul t education . On e o f th e respondent s indicate d tha t h e hel d a pro fessional accountin g designatio n (CGA) .  Highest degre e earne d an d age . Th e dat a sho w tha t a larg e numbe r (57.15%) o f th e registrar s w h o wer e 4 0 year s o f ag e o r les s hel d graduat e leve l degrees. Fift y percen t o f th e registrar s wh o hel d bachelor' s degree s o r les s were 4 0 year s o f ag e o r younger . Tabl e 8 present s thi s data .  Highest degre e earne d an d salary . Tabl e 9 show s th e relationshi p between th e highes t degre e earne d an d th e salarie s earne d b y th e registrars . The averag e annua l incom e fo r registrar s w i t h a graduat e degre e wa s $ 6 3 , 9 2 3 . 0 0 . Th e averag e annua l incom e fo r registrar s w i t h a bachelor' s degree o r les s wa s $ 6 4 , 5 1 6 . 0 0 .  Technical competencies . Th e respondent s wer e aske d t o delineat e thei r  TABLE 8 COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S B Y AG E AND HIGHES T DEGRE E EARNED Age Rang e in years  Master's degree  Bachelor's degree (or less )  (50 - 54 )  1 (14.29% )  2 (20% )  (45 - 49)  2 (28.57% )  3 (30% )  (40 - 44 )  3 (42.86% )  4 (40% )  (35 - 39 )  1 (14.29% )  .  (30 - 34 ) Totals  1 (10% ) 10  TABLE 9 COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S B Y HIGHEST DEGRE E EARNED AND ANNUA L SALAR Y Annual Salary  Master's Degre e  Bachelor's Degree (or less )  (75,000 - 79,999 ) (70,000 - 74,999 )  1  (65,000 - 69,999 )  1  3  (60,000 - 64,999 )  4  6  7 (41.18% )  10 (58.82% )  (55,000 - 59,999 ) (50,000 - 54,999 ) Totals  N= 1 7 average annua l salar y fo r thos e wit h master' s degre e = $63,923.0 0 average annua l salar y fo r thos e wit h bachelor' s degre e = $64,516.0 0  45 education/training w i t h respec t t o th e compute r technologie s employe d b y thei r particular institutions . The y wer e aske d t o conside r bot h mainfram e an d microcomputer environments . Tabl e te n illustrate s a summar y o f th e finding s reported. The respondent s wer e presente d wit h fou r pre-phrase d description s which the y coul d appl y t o thei r o w n situation . Thes e fou r choice s were : 1 ) formal academi c preparation , 2 ) self-taugh t throug h "hands-on " experience , 3 ) skills develope d throug h professiona l developmen t activities , an d 4 ) other . They wer e allowe d t o selec t a s man y option s a s applie d t o thei r situation . Sixteen (94.12% ) o f th e respondent s indicate d tha t the y wer e self-taugh t through "hands-on " experience . Nin e (52.94% ) respondent s indicate d tha t the y had develope d skill s throug h professiona l developmen t activitie s whil e four(23.53%) indicate d tha t the y ha d forma l academi c preparation . Eigh t registrars (47.06% ) indicate d tha t thei r compute r knowledg e resulte d fro m bot h "hands-on" experienc e an d professiona l developmen t i n thi s area .  Sex an d acquisitio n o f knowledg e concernin g compute r technologies . Seventy-five percen t o f th e femal e respondent s reporte d tha t the y ha d developed a n understandin g o f compute r technologie s throug h "hands-on " experience, an d tha t the y wer e sel f taught . O f th e mal e respondents , onl y 3 3 % fell int o thi s categor y an d 5 8 % ha d a combinatio n o f "hands-on " experienc e and professiona l developmen t relatin g directl y t o computing . Tabl e 1 1  TABLE 1 0 COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S I N BRITIS H COLUMBI A DESCRIB E THEIR METHO D OF KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITIO N I N TERMS O F COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIE S Type o f Learnin g Experience Numbe (N = 17) 1  ) Forma l academic preparatio n 4  (N = 17) 2  ) Sel f taugh t throug h "hands-on " experience 1  (N = 17) 3  ) Skill s develope d throug h professiona l developmen t 9  * Forty-seve n percen t o f th e respondent s selecte d th e combinatio n o f # 2 an d #3 .  r Respondin g Percentag  e  23.53  %  6 94.12  %  52.94  %  TABLE 1 1 COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S B Y SEX AND METHO D O F COMPUTER KNOWLEDG E ACQUISITIO N Method of Knowledg e Mal  e Femal  e Grou  p  Acquisition 1 onl y 2 onl y 4  (33.33% ) 3  (75% ) 7  3 onl y 1  (08.33% ) -  1  1& 2 2  (16.67% ) -  2  2& 3 4  (33.33% ) 1  (25% ) 5  All 3 1  (08.33% ) -  1  24  1  1 &3  Totals 1 N= 1= 2= 3=  16 Forma l academi c preparatio n Sel f taugh t throug h "hands-o n experience " Skill s develope d throug h professiona l developmen t i  6  j  48 illustrates thes e findings .  Preferred for m o f undergraduat e preparation . Th e respondent s wer e asked i f the y considere d on e for m o f undergraduat e educatio n t o b e mos t beneficial fo r potentia l registrars . Twelv e (70.59% ) o f th e registrar s fel t tha t n o specific fiel d o f stud y woul d b e advantageous . Fiv e (29.41% ) o f th e registrar s indicated tha t ther e wer e course s whic h a n undergraduat e shoul d complet e i f he/she aspire d t o th e positio n o f colleg e registrar . Th e course s recommende d were; compute r system s management , administrativ e practices , mathematics/statistics, huma n resourc e management , educatio n an d communications. On e responden t indicate d tha t prio r teachin g experienc e would b e o f considerabl e value .  iii) Caree  r Path s an d Wor k Experienc e  This segmen t o f th e stud y report s informatio n concernin g th e caree r paths an d prio r wor k historie s o f th e colleg e an d institut e registrar s i n Britis h Columbia. Th e informatio n gathere d provide s dat a o n a wid e variet y o f caree r related variable s suc h as ; th e numbe r o f year s th e respondent s ha d hel d th e position o f registrar , thei r officia l title , thei r reportin g relationships , th e numbe r of year s o f wor k experienc e prio r t o becomin g registrar , th e typ e o f wor k engaged i n prio r t o wor k i n th e educationa l administratio n fiel d an d th e ag e a t  which the y assume d th e positio n o f registrar .  Length o f servic e a s registrar . Th e respondent s wer e aske d t o indicat e the lengt h o f tim e tha t the y ha d worke d a s a registrar . Tabl e twelv e illustrate s their responses . Th e rang e fo r lengt h o f servic e wa s si x month s t o eightee n years. Th e averag e numbe r o f year s servic e fo r th e grou p wa s 7.75 . Ther e was n o significan t differenc e betwee n male s an d female s wit h respec t t o th e number o f year s the y hel d th e positio n o f registrar . Tabl e 1 3 show s th e relationship betwee n th e lengt h o f servic e a s a registra r an d th e highes t degre e earned. O f th e registrar s w h o hel d graduat e degrees , 8 6 % ha d les s tha n seve n years service . Fort y percen t o f th e registrar s wh o hel d a bachelor' s degre e o r less, ha d fewe r tha n seve n year s servic e a s a registrar .  Position title . O f th e seventee n respondents , thirtee n (76.74% ) indicate d that thei r officia l titl e wa s "Registrar" . Th e othe r title s reflec t combine d responsibilities fo r th e Registrar' s Offic e an d othe r administrativ e areas . Thes e four title s were : Dean , Instructiona l Suppor t an d Studen t Services , Assistan t Director o f Studen t Service s an d Registrar , Registra r an d Directo r o f Educationa l Support Services , an d Registra r an d Directo r o f Studen t Services .  Related studies . Gignillia t (1954 ) reporte d tha t th e majorit y (43% ) o f th e individuals participatin g i n hi s stud y wer e officiall y referre d t o a s "Registrar" .  TABLE 1 2 LENGTH O F SERVICE AS A REGISTRA R A S REPORTE D B Y THE COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRARS I N BRITIS H COLUMBI A Distribution o f Registrar s  Length of Servi e Range i n Years  Male  Total  Female  # respondin g  percentage  # respondin g percentag  (0.0-3.0)  4 30.77 %  23.53  2 50 % 11.7  ( 3 . 5 - 6.5 )  2 15.38 %  11.76  0  ( 7 . 0 - 10.0 )  1 7.69 %  5.88  (10.5 - 13.50 )  5 38.46 %  (14.0 - 17.0 ) (17.5 - 20.5 ) Totals  e  # respondin g percentag 6  35.29  0.00  2  11.76  1 25 %  5.88  2  11.76  29.41  0  0.00  5  29.41  1 7.69 %  5.88  0  0.00  1  5.88  0  0.00  1 25 %  5.88  1  5.88  13  (76.46%)  (23.36%)  17  (ioo%;  6  e  N= 1 7 Range = . 5 - 1 8 year s Median = 7 year s Group mea n = 7.7 5 year s Male mea n = 7.8 8 years , femal e mea n =  7.2 5 year s  O  TABLE 1 3 COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S B Y LENGT H OF SERVICE AS A REGISTRA R AN D HIGHES T DEGRE E EARNED Number o f years service as a registrar  Master's degree  Bachelor's degree  (or less)  (0.0 - 2.0 )  3 (42.68% )  (2.5-4.5)  2 (28.57% )  ( 5 . 0 - 7.0 )  1 (14.29% )  1 (10% ) 1 (10% ) 2 (20% )  (7.5 - 9.5 ) (10.0- 12.0 )  3 (30% )  (12.5 - 14.5 )  2 (20% )  (15.0 - 17.0 )  1 (10% )  (17.5 - 19.5 ) Totals  1 (14.29% ) 10  N= 1 7 Of th e registrar s wh o hel d master' s degrees , 86% ha d les s than 7 years servic e a s a registrar . of th e registrar s wh o hel d bachelor' s degrees , 40% ha d les s tha n 7 year s servic e a s a registrar. f±  52 The combine d titl e o f "Registra r & Dean " wa s hel d b y 2 3 % o f th e respondents . In contras t t o bot h thi s stud y an d Gignilliat' s study , Jorgense n (1972 ) foun d that th e mos t popula r title , hel d b y 4 1 % o f th e registrar s o f Publi c Junio r Colleges i n th e Uppe r Midwest , wa s "Recorder" . Hi s stud y als o reveale d several positio n title s whic h reflecte d combined-jo b responsibilitie s suc h as ; registrar & directo r o f admissions , an d registra r & busines s manager .  Reporting relationship . A variet y o f reportin g relationship s wer e described b y th e respondents . Th e registrar s al l indicate d reportin g t o a senio r college officia l a t th e Director , Dea n o r Vic e Presiden t level . T w o o f th e respondents indicate d tha t the y reporte d directl y t o th e Presiden t o f th e institution. Tabl e fourtee n illustrate s th e grea t variet y o f positio n title s use d t o delineate thi s senio r laye r a colleg e administrators . Thre e o f th e registrar s reported t o administrator s a t th e Directo r leve l ( 1 7 . 6 5 % ) , fou r ha d superior s a t the Dea n leve l ( 2 3 . 5 3 % ) , an d eigh t reporte d t o a Vic e Presiden t ( 4 7 . 0 8 % ) . I t should b e note d tha t a t man y college s an d provincia l institute s i n Britis h Columbia, a Dea n an d a Vic e Presiden t hol d th e sam e leve l o f authorit y w i t h th e institutional hierarchy . I f thi s i s take n int o consideration , i t woul d b e appropriate t o indicat e tha t twelv e o f th e respondent s (70.59% ) reporte d directly t o administrator s w h o hel d position s a t th e secon d mos t senio r leve l within th e variou s institutions .  TABLE 1 4 ADMINSTRATORS T O WHO M TH E COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S I N BRITISH COLUMBIA N REPOR T  Title o f Administrato r  Number o f Respondent s  Percentage of Total  Director o f Plannin g Director o f Studen t Service s  1 2  5.88 11.76  Dean of Educationa l Suppor t Service s Dean of Studen t Affair s Dean, Educationa l & Studen t Service s  2 1 1  11.76 5.88 5.88  Associate Vic e President , Financ e Vice Presiden t Vice President , Studen t & Communit y Service s Vice President , Educatio n Suppor t Service s Vice President , Instructio n & Suppor t Service s Vice President , Studen t Service s & Educationa l Suppor t Vice President , Administratio n  1 2  5.88 11.76 5.88 .88 .88 .88 .88  1 1 1 1 1  President Totals N= 1 7  11.76 17  (100%)  Number o f year s o f wor k experience . Th e numbe r o f year s o f wor k experience prio r t o becomin g a registra r fo r th e respondent s i s illustrate d i n Table fifteen . Thes e figure s represen t al l prio r full-tim e wor k experienc e fo r college an d institut e registrar s includin g position s outsid e th e educationa l administration field . x The averag e numbe r o f year s wor k experienc e prio r t o becomin g registra r was 1 2 . 5 4 . Th e rang e start s a t fiv e year s an d end s a t twenty-on e years . Me n reported havin g a n averag e o f 13.3 4 year s experienc e prio r t o becomin g a registrar an d w o m e n average d 1 0 year s wor k experienc e prio r t o becomin g registrar. Thre e (17.65% ) o f th e respondent s indicate d tha t the y ha d hel d th e position o f registra r a t anothe r colleg e immediatel y prio r t o assumin g th e position a t th e institutio n wher e the y wer e employe d whe n the y complete d th e questionnaire fo r thi s study .  Work experience s no t withi n th e post-secondar y environment . Th e college an d institut e registrar s repor t a wid e variet y o f w o r k experience s outsid e of th e post-secondar y environment . Thes e othe r wor k experience s includ e th e following; retai l sales , system s analysi s ( 3 respondents) , laborator y technician , finance/banking ( 3 respondents) , military , self-employment , medi a management , social w o r k , civi l servant , hotel/resor t management , an d recreatio n administration. Fiv e o f th e respondent s (29.41% ) indicate d tha t al l o f thei r full time w o r k experienc e ha d take n plac e withi n a n institutio n o f highe r learning .  TABLE 1 5 NUMBER O F YEARS WORK EXPERIENC E PRIOR TO BECOMIN G REGISTRA R A S REPORTE D BY COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISRTRAR S I N BRITIS H COLUMBI A Distribution o f Registrar s Range in Years (5.0-7.0) (7.5-9.5) (10.0- 12.0 ) (12.5 - 14.5 ) (15.0- 17.0 ) (17.5- 19.5 ) (20.0 - 22.0 ) Totals  Male # respondin g %  o f tota l  1 7.69 % 5.88  %  1 2 5 % 5.8  4 30.77 % 23.5  2  00  1 7.69 % 5.8  8  2 15.38 % 11.7  Total  Female # respondin g %  2 50 % 11.7 6  00  1 25 % 5.8  o f tota l  8  6 8  # respondin g %  o f tota l  2 11.7  6  4 23.5  2  3 17.6  5  3 17.6  5  00  00  3 23.08 % 17.6  5  00  3 17.6  5  2 15.38 % 11.7  6  00  2 11.7  6  13  76.45%  23.53%  17  100%  N = 17 est  56 Work experience s withi n th e post-secondar y environment . Fiftee n o f th e respondents (88.24% ) ha d hel d a t leas t on e othe r positio n i n a post-secondar y institution prio r t o becomin g registrar . Th e averag e numbe r o f w o r k experiences i n a post-secondar y institutio n prio r t o becomin g registra r wa s 2.5 , the media n wa s three , an d th e mod e wa s one . xTable sixtee n illustrate s th e types o f wor k th e registrar s engage d i n prio r t o assumin g thei r curren t responsibilities. Thes e wor k experience s hav e bee n divide d int o t w o categories . These categorie s are ; Registrars ' Offic e / Studen t Service s oriente d w o r k , an d other post-secondar y wor k experiences . T w o respondent s ( 1 1 . 7 6 % ) ha d n o previous experienc e workin g withi n a n institutio n o f highe r learnin g prio r t o becoming a registrar . Bot h o f thes e individual s hel d position s a s System s Analysts immediatel y prio r t o becomin g a registrar . Seve n respondent s (46.67 %) reporte d holdin g position s i n a universit y a t som e tim e prio r t o becomin g registrar. Prior position s whic h involve d wor k i n th e Registrars ' Offic e / Studen t Services are a were ; Associat e Registrar , Assistan t Registrar , Directo r o f Student Services , Assistan t Directo r o f Admissions , Studen t Service s Officer , Admissions Advisor , Schedulin g Officer , Registrar' s Offic e Administrativ e Assistant, Registrar' s Offic e Suppor t Staff , Co-ordinato r o f Schoo l Liaison , Co ordinator o f Studen t Activitie s & Housin g an d Continuin g Educatio n Progra m Co-ordinator. Othe r position s withi n educationa l institution s w e r e ; Secretary , Accountant, Computin g Manager , Informatio n Officer , Assistan t Plannin g  TABLE 1 6 PRIOR WORK EXPERIENC E WITH POST-SECONDAR Y INSTITUTION S AS REPORTE D BY COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S I N BRITISH COLUMBI A  Position Titl e A. (Registrar' s Office/Studen t Services oriented experience)  Number Respondin g Percentag  e o f Tota l  Associate Registra r  2  11.76  Assistant Registra r  5  29.41  Director o f Studen t Service s  2  11.76  Assistant Directo r o f Admission s  1  5.88  Student Service s Office r  1  5.88  Admissions Adviso r  1  5.88  Scheduling Office r  1  5.88  Registrar's Offic e Administrativ e Assistan t  3  17.65  Registrar's Offic e Suppor t Staf f  1  5.88  Co-ordinator o f Schoo l Liaiso n  2  11.76  Co-ordinator o f Studen t Activitie s & Housin g  1  5.88  Continuing Educatio n Progra m Co-ordinato r  2  11.76  \con'  TABLE 1 6 Con' t Number Respondin g Percentag  Position Titl e B. (Othe  e o f Tota l  r Position s Within the Education Field ) 11.76  Secretary  5.88  Accountant  5.88  Computing Manager  5.88  Information Office r  5.88  Assistant Plannin g Office r  5.88  Program Directo r Instructor Elementary Schoo l Teache r  No Experienc e Withi n An y Educationa l Institutio n  2  11.67  1  5.88  11.76  59 Officer, Progra m Director , Instructo r an d Elementar y Schoo l Teacher .  Related studies . Th e grea t numbe r an d variet y o f prio r wor k experience s reported b y th e respondent s i s a goo d exampl e o f th e phenomeno n reporte d b y Twombly (1990) . I n he r examinatio n o f th e catee r path s o f post-secondar y administrators sh e indicate s tha t ther e ar e multipl e pathway s t o almos t ever y administrative pos t withi n highe r education .  Age a t whic h th e respondent s becam e registrars . Tabl e seventee n illustrates th e ag e a t whic h th e respondent s wer e firs t appointe d t o th e positio n of registrar . Th e younges t ag e a t whic h a registra r wa s appointe d wa s twenty nine years , w i t h th e oldes t appointe e bein g forty-seve n year s o f age . Th e mea n age a t appointmen t wa s thirty-seve n year s an d th e media n ag e wa s thirty-si x years. Ver y littl e differenc e existe d betwee n th e age s o f th e me n an d wome n when appointe d t o th e positio n o f registrar , th e forme r bein g 36. 5 year s an d the late r bein g 38.7 5 years . Registrar s wer e mos t frequentl y appointe d t o th e position betwee n th e ag e o f thirt y an d thirty-four .  Related studies . Jorgense n (1972 ) reporte d tha t 5 5 % o f th e respondent s in hi s stud y wer e appointe d t o th e positio n o f registra r whil e withi n th e thirt y t o thirty-nine year s ag e range .  TABLE 1 7 AGE AT WHIC H COLLEG E AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S I N BRITISH COLUMBI A WER E FIRST APPOINTED TO TH E POSITION O F REGISTRAR Distribution o f Registrar s  Age Rang e in Years  Male # respondin g  (45 - 49)  0  (40 - 44)  Female # respondin g % o f tota l  Total # respondin g  0  1 25 %  5.88  1  4 30.77 %  23.53  1 25 %  5.88  5  29.41  (35 - 39 )  4 30.77 %  23.53  0  0  4  23.53  (30 - 34 )  4 30.77 %  23.53  2 50 %  11.76  6  35.29  (25 - 29)  1 7.69 %  5.88  0  1  5.88  23.53%  17  100%  Totals  13  % o f tota l  76.47%  0  % o f tota l  5.88  N = 17  O  61 Potential caree r choices . Th e respondent s wer e aske d t o indicat e wha t they fel t thei r option s wer e i n term s o f futur e caree r choice s afte r holdin g th e position o f registrar . Tabl e eightee n illustrate s th e wid e variet y o f thei r responses. Th e mos t popula r choice s fo r futur e employmen t were ; Directo r o f Student an d Ancillar y Service s ( 4 7 . 0 6 % ) , Dea d o f Studen t Service s (29.41%) , Director o f Institutiona l Researc h & Plannin g ( 2 3 . 5 3 % ) , Vice-Presiden t Studen t Services (29.41%) , an d Vice-Presiden t Administratio n ( 2 3 . 5 3 % ) . Othe r possible option s liste d were ; Directo r o f Internationa l Education , President , Educational Consultan t an d wor k withi n on e o f th e governmen t ministries . Eleven (65% ) o f th e respondent s indicate d tha t the y considere d thei r immediate supervisor' s positio n a s a potentia l caree r choice .  Pursuing th e caree r goa l o f becomin g a registrar . Colleg e an d institut e registrars i n Britis h Columbi a wer e aske d t o commen t o n whe n the y firs t mad e the decisio n t o wor k toward s th e goa l o f becomin g a registrar . Tabl e 1 9 illustrates thei r responses . O f th e sixtee n respondent s w h o addresse d th e question nin e (56.25% ) indicate d tha t the y ha d no t activel y pursue d th e goa l o f becoming a registra r withi n a post-secondar y institution . Man y o f thei r comments ar e noteworthy . Include d i n thes e remark s ar e th e following ; " I became a registra r accidentall y . . . the jo b wa s available" , " Th e opportunit y became available" , " Thi s wa s neve r a goal , jus t a n opportunit y fo r advancement", "Thi s wa s no t a goa l . . . w o r k locatio n wa s a prim e factor" ,  TABLE 1 8 POTENTIAL FUTUR E OCCUPATION CHOICE S O F COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S I N BRITISH COLUMBI A  Position Titl e Numbe  r Respondin g Percentag  e o f Tota l  Dean of Studen t Service s 5  29.4  1  Director o f Institutiona l Researc h & Plannin g 4  23.5  3  Director o f Studen t & Ancillar y Service s 8  47.0  6  Director o f Internationa l Educatio n 1  5.8  8  Educational Consultan t 1  5.8  8  Government Officia l 1  5.8  8  President 2  11.7  6  Vice President , Studen t Service s 5  29.4  1  Vice President , Administratio n 4  23.5  3  N= 1 7 ro  TABLE 1 9 COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S I N BRITISH COLUMBI A INDICAT E THE POINT AT WHIC H THEY DECIDE D TO PERSU E THE GOA L OF BECOMING A REGISTRAR Decision Poin t Numbe  r Respondin g Percentag  While attendin g college/universit y 1  5.8  8  While employe d a t a post-secondary 6  37.5  0  Did no t aspir e t o th e positio n o f registrar / 9 position availabl e whe n unemploye d  56.2  5  6 100  %  Totals 1 N= 1 6  e of Total  and " Ther e wa s n o decisio n point , I sort o f fel l int o th e j o b " . On e responden t began t o pursu e thi s goa l whil e attendin g universit y an d th e remainin g si x respondents indicate d tha t whil e employe d i n a post-secondar y institutio n the y decided t o w o r k toward s th e goa l o f on e da y becomin g a registrar . The respondent s w h o indicate d tha t t h e y d i d no t activel y pursu e th e goa l of becomin g a registra r ha d a n averag e o f approximatel y fiftee n year s o f wor k experience prio r t o becomin g a registrar . Thei r colleague s wh o di d aspir e t o thi s position ha d approximatel y 1 0 year s wor k experience . Whe n th e numbe r o f years wor k experienc e i s furthe r divide d int o "post-secondar y experience " a s opposed t o "othe r w o r k " experienc e w e fin d tha t thos e wh o di d no t aspir e t o the positio n worke d fo r approximatel y seve n year s i n highe r education . Thos e w h o di d activel y pursu e th e goa l o f becomin g a registra r average d nin e year s work experienc e i n highe r education .  Related studies . Ostroth , Efird , an d Lerma n (1984) , reporte d o n th e career pattern s o f Chie f Studen t Affair s Officer s i n th e Unite d States . The y found tha t o f th e respondent s i n thi s study , 5 1 % did no t aspir e t o th e positio n of Chie f Studen t Affair s Officer . Thos e w h o di d wor k toward s th e goa l o f becoming a Chie f Studen t Affair s Office r too k longe r t o achiev e thei r goa l tha n did thos e w h o mor e o r les s "defaulted " int o th e position .  Academic an d caree r choice s prio r t o becomin g a registrar . Th e respondents wer e aske d t o indicat e whethe r o r no t thei r academi c choice s ha d  been affecte d b y thei r desir e t o pursu e th e goa l o f becomin g a registrar . Fourteen o f th e respondent s (82.35% ) answere d " No" . O f th e remainin g thre e respondents, t w o note d tha t the y chos e t o pursu e graduat e degree s i n Educational Administratio n an d on e note d tha t h e decide d t o enhanc e a colleg e diploma w i t h a n undergraduat e degre e i n statistics . The respondent s wer e aske d t o indicat e whethe r o r no t thei r caree r choices ha d bee n affecte d b y th e decisio n t o wor k toward s th e goa l o f becom ing a registrar . Eleve n respondent s (64.71% ) answere d " N o " . O f th e si x respondents w h o answere d "Yes" , fou r indicate d tha t the y mad e a consciou s decision t o remai n withi n th e post-secondar y environmen t t o bette r thei r chances o f eventuall y becomin g a registrar . On e individua l move d fro m th e computer operation s are a o f hi s institutio n t o th e Registrar' s Offic e t o gai n experience, an d a secon d individua l purposefull y worke d throug h a serie s o f increasingly responsibl e position s withi n a Registrar' s Office .  Comments o n mos t valuabl e w o r k experiences . Th e respondent s wer e asked t o commen t o n prio r wor k experience s tha t wer e especiall y beneficia l given thei r curren t responsibilitie s a s a registrar . Th e response s wer e numerou s and rang e fro m " al l prio r w o r k experience s wer e beneficial" , t o " non e o f m y previous wor k experience s wer e usefu l " . Severa l respondent s liste d wor k experiences whic h involve d th e following ; staf f supervision , huma n resourc e management, compute r system s developmen t an d prio r administrativ e wor k within post-secondar y institutions . Othe r beneficia l w o r k experience s include d  faculty position s an d wor k whic h require d repor t writing , statistica l analysis , problem solving , cros s colleg e committe e membership , co-ordinatio n o f ceremonies, documentin g procedures , proces s analysi s & synthesis , colleg e admissions/liaison, publi c speaking , publicatio n o f colleg e document s an d working w i t h th e public . v  Comments o n mos t beneficia l academi c experiences . Th e respondent s were aske d t o commen t o n an y academi c preparatio n the y fel t wa s especiall y beneficial give n thei r curren t responsibilitie s a s a registrar . Tabl e t w e n t y illustrates thei r response s t o thi s question . Seve n respondent s (41.18% ) indicated tha t course s involvin g Busines s Administration/Managemen t techniques wer e helpful . Othe r valuabl e cours e wor k include d th e following ; computer scienc e ( 2 3 . 5 3 % ) , statistic s (11.76%) , critica l thinkin g ( 1 1 . 7 6 % ) , and graduat e leve l course s i n educationa l administration/adul t educatio n (35.29%) Fiv e registrar s (29.4 1 %) indicate d tha t th e "over-all " experienc e o f completing a n undergraduat e degre e wa s beneficial . On e responden t fel t tha t only hi s wor k a t th e graduat e leve l wa s helpful .  iv) Professiona  l Developmen t Activitie s  This segmen t o f th e stud y report s informatio n gathere d concernin g th e college an d institut e registrars ' professiona l developmen t need s an d prefer -  TABLE 2 0 BRITISH COLUMBIA N COLLEG E AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S REPOR T BENEFICIA L ACADEMI C PREPARATIO N BASED O N PERSONAL EXPERIENC E GIVE N THEIR CURREN T JOB RESPONSIBILITIE S Most Beneficia l Course Work Numbe  r Respondin g Percentag  e of Tota l  Graduate leve l Adul t Educatio n 1  5.8  8  Graduate leve l Educationa l Administration 5  29.4  1  Undergraduate leve l Administration/Management 7  41.1  8  Undergraduate leve l Compute r Scienc e 4  23.5  3  Undergraduate leve l Statistic s 2  11.7  6  Undergraduate leve l Critica l Thinkin g 2  11.7  6  N= 1 6 CD  68 ences. Informatio n i s als o presente d concernin g th e type s o f professiona l development activitie s th e respondent s currentl y subscrib e t o , an d whic h professional organization s the y suppor t throug h thei r membership .  Professional associatio n membership . Britis h Columbia n colleg e an d institute registrar s wer e aske d t o indicat e whethe r o r no t the y wer e member s o f any o f th e followin g professiona l associations ; th e Britis h Columbi a Registrars ' Association (BCRA) , th e Associatio n o f Registrar s o f Universitie s an d College s of Canad a (ARUCC) , an d th e America n Associatio n o f Collegiat e Registrar s an d Admissions Officer s (AACRAO) . Tabl e 2 1 illustrate s thei r responses . Al l o f th e respondents reporte d tha t the y wer e member s o f th e BCRA . Fiftee n (93.75% ) were member s o f ARUC C an d eigh t (50% ) wer e member s o f AACRAO . Eigh t (47.6) registrar s wer e member s o f al l thre e organizations . A furthe r analysi s o f this dat a focuse d o n th e relationshi p betwee n se x an d membershi p i n professional organization s reveale d tha t 1 0 0 % o f th e wome n i n th e stud y belonged t o al l thre e professiona l organizations ; BCRA , ARUCC , an d ACCRAO . Thirty-three percen t o f th e me n w h o responde d wh o member s o f al l thre e professional organizations .  Attendance a t conferences , workshop s an d seminars . Th e registrar s were aske d t o lis t al l o f th e conferences , workshops , an d seminar s the y ha d attended sinc e becomin g a registrar . The y wer e instructe d t o lis t onl y thos e  TABLE 2 1 COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S B Y SEX AND MEMBERSHI P I N PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATION S Name o f Professiona l Associatio n Male Femal  BCRA only 1  e Grou  p  (8%) -  1  (6.25%)  (58%) -  7  (43.75%)  (33%) 4  (100%) 8  (50%)  ARUCC only AACRAO only BCRA & ARUCC 7 BCRA & ACCRAO ACCRAO & ARUCC BCRA, ARUCC & ACCRAO 4 Totals 1 N = 16  2 4  1  6  activities whic h relate d i n som e wa y t o thei r responsibilitie s a s a registrar . After listin g thes e activities , the y wer e aske d t o rat e th e valu e o f eac h activit y on a scal e o f on e t o three , wher e on e represente d "o f littl e value" , t w o represented "o f som e value" , an d thre e represente d "o f grea t value" . Th e respondents liste d a grea t variet y o f activitie s offere d b y a numbe r o f differen t organizations / associations . Tabl e t w e n t y - t w o illustrate s informatio n gathere d regarding th e following ; hos t organization , typ e o f event/activity , numbe r o f respondents w h o participated , an d th e averag e valu e assigne d t o th e even t / activity. The registrar s attende d workshop s / conference s hoste d b y approximately twenty-fou r differen t association s / organizations . Th e mos t frequently attende d workshop s wer e hoste d b y th e BCRA . A collectiv e ratin g of 2. 2 (o n a scal e o f 3 ) wa s assigne d t o thi s activity . Th e othe r mor e popula r activities were ; th e annua l PACCRA O conference s whic h wer e attende d b y approximately 2 9 % o f th e respondents , th e annua l WARUC C conferenc e attended b y approximatel y 3 5 % o f th e respondents , an d th e SRSU G bi-annua l meeting attende d b y approximatel y 4 1 % of th e respondents . Events whic h rate d a " 3 " rankin g wer e a s follows ; th e MAET T worksho p on th e commo n applicatio n system , th e PMD I strategi c plannin g seminar , th e CLI worksho p o n creativ e thinkin g skills , SFU' s worksho p o n ED I information , the tri-annua l meetin g o f th e B.C . Counci l o n Admission s & Transfers , th e BCAC's worksho p o n assessin g lifelon g learning , an d th e ARUC C annua l  TABLE 2 2 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMEN T ACTIVITIES LISTE D AND RATE D B Y COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRARS I N BRITISH COLUMBI A Host Organization 1  Type of Event  PACRAO  Conferences  5  (29.41%)  2.8  AACRAO  Conferences  2  (11.76)  1.5  BCRA  Bi-Annual Meeting s  15  (88.24)  2.2  ARUCC  Conferences  1  (5.88)  3  WARUCC  Conferences  6  (35.29)  2.33  CUMREC  Conferences  2  (11.76)  2.75  ACCC  Conferences  1  (5.88)  2  Career Trac k  "Self-Directed Wor k Teams "  1  (5.88)  1  SRSUG  Bi-Annual Meeting s  7  (41.18)  2.86  MAETT  "HRD Focu s Group"  1  (5.88)  2  "Common Applicatio n Syste m Review "  2  (11.76)  2.4  "Technical Currency "  2  (11.76)  2.5  SCT Corporatio n  1  Acronyms explaine d i n appendi x 8  # o f Respondent s  Mean ran k Values (Scale of 1 -> 3)  TABLE 2 2 Con' t Host Organization 2  Type o f Even t  # o f Respondent s  Mean rank Values (Scale o f 1 -» 3)  Carleton Universit y  "Voice Respons e Technologies "  1 (5.88  )  2  Ministry o f Educatio n  "Changing th e Educationa l Path "  1 (5.88  )  1  PMDI  "Strategic Plannin g fo r Post-Sec. Institutions "  1 (5.88  )  3  CLI  "Creative Thinkin g Skills "  1 (5.88  )  3  SESOC  Tri-Annual Meeting s  2 (11.76  )  2  SFU  "EDI Information "  1 (5.88  )  3  B.C. Counci l o n Adminssion s and Transfer s  Tri-Annual Meeting s  1 (5.88  )  3  Private Trainin g Co .  "Social Styl e Training "  1 (5.88  )  3  PNAIRP  "Student Teaching/Outcome s Assessment  2 (11.76  )  2.2  BCAC  Annual Conference s  1 (5.88  )  2  CAAE  "Accessing Lifelon g Learning "  1 (5.88  )  3  League o f Innovatio n  Annual Conference s  1 (5.88  )  2  World Congres s o n Educationa l  2  A c r o n y m s explaine d i n appendi x 8  73 conference.  v) Professiona  l Developmen t Preference s an d Need s  The respondent s wer e aske d to indicat e th e type s o f professiona l development activitie s tha t the y fel t the y woul d beriefi t fro m a t presen t o r i n th e future. Tabl e twenty-thre e illustrate s a summary o f thei r responses . The mos t frequentl y cite d professiona l developmen t nee d wa s th e development o f compute r relate d skills an d knowledge . Thi s wa s liste d b y 35 % of th e respondents . On-goin g contac t wit h othe r professional s throug h associ ations wa s liste d b y fou r o f th e respondent s (23.53%) . Strategi c planning , human resourc e managemen t an d administration/managemen t skill s i n a highe r education settin g wer e liste d b y approximatel y 18 % o f th e respondents . Othe r professional developmen t need s note d includ e th e following ; graduat e leve l work i n educationa l administration , interpersona l communications , stres s / change management , tim e management , Tota l Qualit y Managemen t (TQM) , an d dealing wit h difficul t people .  Related studies . Henderson' s (1990 ) "Competencie s fo r Admission s & Records Professionals " list s a number o f skill s an d competencie s fo r thos e wh o work i n a n admissions/records capacity . Th e professiona l developmen t need s established b y the respondent s to thi s stud y ar e all include d a s significan t competency area s i n Henderson' s guide .  TABLE 2 3 COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S IN BRITIS H COLUMBIA DESCRIB E THEIR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMEN T NEED S  Subject Matter/Topic s  Number Respondin g v  Computer Skills/Informatio n System s  Percentage o f Tota l  35.29%  On-going Contac t wit h Othe r Professional s through Assoiciation s  4  23.53  Strategic Plannin g  3  17.65  Human Resourc e Managemen t  3  17.65  Graduate leve l Highe r Ed . Admin/Managemen t  3  17.65  Graduate leve l Studen t Service s Administratio n  2  11.76  Doctoral Wor k i n Educationa l Administratio n  5.88  Interpersonnal Communication s  5.88  Stress/Change Managemen t  5.88  Time Managemen t  5.88  Total Qualit y Managemen t (TQM )  5.88  Dealing Wit h Difficul t Peopl e  5.88  N = 17  75 Number o f differen t type s o f professiona l developmen t activitie s attende d and th e lengt h o f servic e a s a registrar. Tabl e 2 4 show s th e relationshi p between th e lengt h o f servic e a s a registrar an d numbe r o f differen t type s o f professional developmen t activitie s attended . A n analysi s o f th e dat a reveale d that th e respondent s wit h longe r servic e a s a registrar tende d t o participat e i n a greater variet y o f professiona l developmen t activities . O n the average , thos e with si x o r mor e year s o f servic e a s a registrar attende d 3. 6 differen t type s o f professional developmen t events , whil e thos e wit h les s the si x year s experienc e attended 2. 4 differen t type s o f professiona l developmen t event s o r activities . We foun d tha t th e academi c preparatio n of th e individua l registrar s di d not appea r t o influenc e th e typ e o f professiona l developmen t activitie s the y selected. Th e ag e of th e registra r wa s als o foun d t o b e irrelevant . Th e dat a d o suggest however , tha t se x wa s a factor. Seventy-fiv e percen t o f th e femal e respondents indicate d that the y attende d onl y event s whic h focuse d specificall y on the operatio n o f th e Registrar' s Office . Fo r example , conferences an d workshops sponsore d b y organizations suc h as the BCRA , ARUCC , PACRA O and WARUCC . Th e me n reporte d attendin g th e sam e type s o f Registrar' s Office oriente d conference s an d workshop s however , the y als o attende d a wid e variety o f event s sponsore d b y non-registraria l organizations. Statistically , 92 % of th e me n attende d othe r type s o f professiona l developmen t whil e onl y 25 % o f the wome n atten d non-registraria l professiona l development activities .  TABLE 2 4 COLLEGE AND INSTITUT E REGISTRAR S B Y LENGT H O F SERVICE AS A REGISTRA R AND THE NUMBER O F DIFFERENT TYPES OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMEN T ACTIVITIES ATTENDE D Length of Servic e as a Registra r  Ni Number of Differen t Activitie s Attende d  1  2  (0 - 2.9 )  2  1  (3 - 5.9 )  -  1  ( 6 - 8.9 )  -  -  (9 - 11.9 )  -  1  (12 - 14.9 )  -  -  (15 - 17.9 )  -  -  (18 - 20.9 )  1  _  Totals N= 1 6  77  CHAPTER V SUMMARY , CONCLUSION S & RECOMMENDATION S  Chapter fiv e consist s o f a summary o f th e purpose s o f th e study , th e procedures employe d an d the finding s reported . I n addition, conclusion s ar e drawn an d recommendation s proffered .  i) Summar  y  Purposes of th e study . Th e study ha d several purposes . Th e firs t purpose wa s t o gathe r specifi c demographi c informatio n abou t th e academi c preparation an d wor k historie s o f th e colleg e an d institut e registrar s i n Britis h Columbia. Dat a wer e gathere d concernin g age, gender, annua l salary , academi c credentials, prio r wor k experiences , positio n title , reportin g relationship s an d future caree r options . The secon d purpos e of th e stud y wa s t o gathe r informatio n concernin g the type s o f professiona l developmen t activitie s t o whic h th e colleg e an d institute registrar s currentl y subscribe . Th e respondent s wer e aske d t o lis t al l  78 events, suc h a s conferences, workshops , seminar s an d meetings , whic h the y had attende d sinc e assumin g th e positio n o f registrar . The third an d fina l purpos e o f stud y wa s t o determin e th e curren t professional developmen t need s o f th e colleg e an d institut e registrar s i n Britis h Columbia. Th e respondent s wer e aske d to indicat e th e type s o f activitie s the y would lik e to participat e i n a t tha t poin t i n time. The fou r researc h questions constructe d fo r th e stud y wer e a s follows ; 1) Wha  t ar e the educationa l credential s o f th e colleg e an d institut e registrar s  in Britis h Columbia ? 2) Wha  t ar e the prio r wor k experience s o f th e colleg e an d institut e registrar s  in Britis h Columbia ? 3) T  o wha t form s o f professiona l developmen t d o the colleg e an d institut e registrars i n Britis h Columbi a currentl y subscribe ?  4) Wha  t ar e the professiona l developmen t need s and preference s o f th e  college an d institut e registrar s i n Britis h Columbia ?  Procedures of th e study . Th e populatio n fo r th e stud y consiste d o f college an d institut e registrar s i n the Canadia n provinc e of Britis h Columbia . Registrars fro m eleve n comprehensiv e communit y colleges , four university colleges, and on e provincia l institut e o f technolog y wer e involved . Sinc e sixteen institution s wer e represented , and one community colleg e ha d thre e registrars, there wer e eightee n individual s withi n th e population .  79 A questionnair e wa s develope d fo r th e collectio n o f th e dat a required . Each registra r wa s maile d a cop y o f th e questionnaire , a coverin g lette r fro m the researcher , a lette r o f endorsemen t fro m th e past-presiden t o f th e BCR A and a se t o f instructions . O f th e eightee n questionnaire s sent , seventee n wer e returned an d useabl e resultin g i n a 9 4 . 4 4 % respons e rate . Data collecte d fro m th e complete d questionnaire s wer e analyze d an d tabulated. Finding s wer e reporte d usin g th e appropriat e descriptiv e statistic s i n both narrativ e an d tabula r formats . Wher e appropriate , comparison s wer e mad e to relate d research .  Findings o f th e stud y accordin g t o th e researc h questions . Fou r questions wer e aske d w i t h respec t t o th e colleg e an d institut e registrar s i n British Columbia . Thes e questions , alon g w i t h a summar y responses , ar e presented i n thi s sectio n o f th e summary . Question # 1 - Al l o f th e colleg e an d institut e registrar s i n Britis h Columbia w h o participate d i n th e stud y hel d som e for m o f post-secondar y credential. Th e majorit y (94% ) o f th e registrar s hel d a n undergraduat e degree . Seven (4 1 %) o f th e registrar s hel d graduat e degree s an d on e registra r hel d a community colleg e diploma . Th e mos t popula r fiel d o f stud y a t th e undergraduate leve l wa s science/mathematic s ( 2 9 . 4 1 % ) , followe d b y genera l arts ( 2 3 . 5 2 % ) , humanitie s (17.65%) , an d socia l scienc e ( 1 1 . 7 6 % ) . A t th e graduate level , si x o f th e seve n wh o hel d a master' s degre e ( 8 6 % ) , ha d  completed a program i n the fiel d o f education .  Question # 2 - This questio n wa s answere d i n several parts . Ther e wa s information gathe r concernin g the numbe r o f year s wor k experienc e prio r t o becoming registrar , th e typ e o f wor k experience s withi n post-secondar y education an d the type s o f wor k experience s outsid e post-secondar y education . Prior to becomin g a registrar th e respondent s average d 12.5 4 year s o f total wor k experience . Th e numbe r o f year s ranged fro m fiv e t o twenty-one . The lengt h o f tim e employe d i n their curren t capacit y a s registra r range d fro m six month s t o eightee n year s wit h a mean o f 7.7 5 years . Th e registrar s liste d a great variet y o f prio r wor k experience s bot h withi n an d outsid e o f th e fiel d o f higher education . Th e mos t frequentl y cite d position s wit h post-secondar y institutions wer e associate/assistan t registra r (4 1 %), an d registrar' s Offic e support staff/administrativ e assistan t (23.45%) . Th e mos t frequentl y cite d work experience s outsid e post-secondar y institution s wer e system s analysi s (17.65%), an d banking/financ e (17.65%) . Fiv e of th e registrar s (29.4 1 %) indicated tha t al l o f thei r full-tim e wor k experienc e ha d taken plac e i n a colleg e or university . Tw o registrar s (11.75% ) reporte d n o prio r wor k experienc e i n a post-secondary institutio n prio r t o becomin g registrar . Question # 3 - The respondent s collectivel y liste d a comprehensive grou p of professiona l developmen t activitie s whic h the y ha d participate d i n sinc e becoming a registrar. Twenty-fou r differen t group s o r organization s sponsore d  81 these variou s professiona l developmen t opportunities . Th e mos t frequentl y cited activit y wa s attendin g a British Columbi a Registrars ' Associatio n (BCRA ) workshop o r bi-annua l meeting . Th e respondent s rate d the valu e o f thes e experiences quit e favourabl y ( 2.2 ou t o f 3.0) . Th e Studen t Record s System s Users Grou p (SRSUG ) hoste d bi-annua l meeting s attende d b y approximatel y 4 0 % o f th e registrars . Thes e meeting s earne d hig h rating s fro m th e attendee s (2.88 ou t o f 3.0) . Th e Wester n Associatio n o f Registrar s o f Universitie s an d Colleges o f Canad a (WARUCC ) hel d conferences whic h wer e attende d b y approximately 35 % o f th e respondents . Thi s activit y earne d a rating o f 2.3 3 out o f 3.0 . Th e Pacifi c Associatio n o f Collegiat e Registrar s an d Admission s Officers (PACRAO ) hoste d conference s attende d b y approximatel y 29 % o f th e registrars. Thi s activit y earned a relatively hig h ratin g o f 2. 8 ou t o f 3.0 . The respondent s wer e aske d to indicat e whethe r o r no t the y wer e members o f th e variou s professiona l association s fo r registrar s i n Canad a an d the Unite d States . Al l o f th e respondent s wer e member s o f th e BCRA . Appro ximately 9 4 % wer e member s o f th e nationa l association , ARUCC and , 50 % reported bein g member s o f th e America n association , AACRAO . Question # 4 - When aske d to commen t o n preferre d form s o f academi c preparation fo r registrars , sevent y percen t o f th e respondent s indicate d tha t n o particular progra m o f undergraduat e stud y wa s advantageou s fo r potentia l registrars. Th e remainin g thirt y percen t fel t tha t ther e wer e particula r course s which coul d hel p t o prepar e individual s aspirin g to th e positio n o f registrar . Th e  82 courses recommende d were , compute r system s management , administrativ e practices, mathematics/statistics , huma n resourc e management , education , an d communications. In terms o f thei r specifi c professiona l development needs , they collective ly lis t a wide variet y o f topic s t o b e addressed. Th e mos t frequentl y mentione d area of deficienc y wa s compute r relate d skill s an d knowledge . Othe r topic s o f shared interes t were ; ongoing contact wit h peers , strategic planning , huma n resource management , an d advanced leve l course wor k i n highe r educatio n administration an d student service s administration .  A profil e o f colleg e an d institut e registrar s i n Britis h Columbia . In additio n t o th e informatio n provide d i n respons e to th e fou r researc h questions, othe r significan t dat a wer e reporte d i n the finding s o f th e study . Th e organization an d synthesis o f thi s informatio n allow s fo r th e creatio n o f a profil e of a typical colleg e o r institut e registra r fro m Britis h Columbia . This profil e identifie s th e registra r a s bein g a male wh o i s roughl y forty six year s o f age . H e i s employed b y a comprehensive communit y colleg e an d earns approximatel y $64,00 0 annually . H e has hel d this positio n fo r clos e t o eight years . Thi s individua l ha s completed a n undergraduat e degre e i n th e fiel d of science/mathematic s although , he believe s tha t ther e i s n o "preferred " for m of undergraduat e educatio n fo r potentia l registrars . H e ha s develope d a n understanding o f th e compute r technologie s utilize d a t hi s colleg e throug h  83 "hands-on" experienc e an d i s largel y self-taught . Prior t o becomin g a registra r h e ha d worke d full-tim e fo r twelv e year s an d had hel d a t leas t t w o othe r position s withi n a colleg e o r university . Whe n desire o r circumstance s necessitat e a job change , thi s perso n woul d see k a position suc h a s Dea n o r Directo r o f Studen t & x Ancillary Service s o r Vice-Presi dent, Studen t Service s an d Administration . Shoul d hi s superviso r resign , h e would b e incline d t o appl y fo r hi s o r he r position . Our typical registra r di d no t activel y pursu e th e goa l o f becomin g a college registrar . Fo r al l intent s an d purposes , thi s choic e wa s th e resul t o f circumstance an d opportunity . Ironically , h e spen t les s tim e employe d i n th e post-secondary environmen t tha n di d hi s colleague s w h o "planned " t o becom e a registrar . Give n tha t thi s individua l di d no t inten d t o becom e a registrar , i t i s not surprisin g t o fin d tha t hi s academi c preparatio n wa s no t planne d t o comple ment futur e w o r k a s a n administrato r i n a n institutio n o f highe r learning . This individua l enjoy s attendin g workshop , seminar s an d meeting s sponsored b y th e Britis h Columbi a Registrars ' Associatio n (BCRA) . H e i s a member o f thi s organizatio n a s wel l a s th e Associatio n o f Registrar s o f Univer sities an d College s o f Canad a (ARUCC ) and , th e America n Associatio n o f Collegiate Registrar s an d Admission s Officer s (AACRAO) . Whe n tim e permits , and financia l resource s ar e available , h e als o like s t o atten d workshop s an d conferences sponsore d b y th e Studen t Record s System s User s Grou p (SRSUG) . When invite d t o commen t o n hi s curren t professiona l developmen t needs , h e  84 admits tha t h e woul d benefi t fro m th e enhancemen t o f hi s skill s i n terms o f computer system s managemen t an d development. H e would als o lik e th e opportunity t o mee t mor e frequentl y wit h othe r professional s t o discus s common concerns .  ii) Conclusion  s  Based o n the finding s describe d i n chapter four , severa l conclusion s ca n be drawn wit h respec t t o th e colleg e registrar s i n Britis h Columbia .  1) Th  e colleg e registrar s typically di d no t inten d t o becom e a registra r  until the y bega n workin g i n the fiel d o f highe r educatio n o r unti l th e opportunity becam e available . Give n this, i t i s reasonabl e t o conclud e that th e lac k o f identificatio n an d academi c plannin g prio r t o becomin g a registrar wa s no t a barrier t o eventuall y becomin g one .  2) Colleg  e registrar s i n Britis h Columbi a ha d an extremely limite d  amount o f forma l educatio n wit h respec t to compute r informatio n systems. Th e vast majorit y o f colleg e registrar s ha d developed compute r skills an d knowledg e throug h "hands-on " experience supplemente d b y workshops an d seminars . Ver y fe w o f th e registrar s (<24% ) reporte d any for m o f forma l instructio n i n computer technologie s o r applications . It appear s that th e registrar s ar e able to functio n effectivel y withou t th e  advantage o f forma l compute r training . O f course , thi s conclusio n i s based o n th e assumptio n tha t th e individua l registrar s ar e performin g their dutie s effectively . Althoug h the y appea r t o b e functionin g adequately, the y consistentl y reporte d th e nee d t o enhanc e an d develo p their abilitie s i n thi s area . On e mus t conclud e tha t a t th e tim e o f th e study, ther e wer e insufficien t professiona l developmen t opportunitie s available i n th e compute r o r system s managemen t are a fo r individual s w h o w o r k i n a senio r capacit y i n a registrar' s office .  The cross-tabulatio n whic h explore d th e relationship s betwee n th e method o f compute r knowledg e acquisitio n an d se x o f th e registra r showed tha t th e me n an d wome n i n th e stud y acquire d computin g knowledge quit e differently . Wome n seeme d ver y reluctan t t o engag e i n formal educationa l experience s o r professiona l developmen t i n thi s subject area . Th e me n i n th e stud y showe d n o suc h reluctance . W e should not e a t thi s poin t tha t al l o f th e femal e registrar s ha d academi c credentials i n th e area s o f eithe r arts , th e humanitie s o r education . Sixty one percen t o f th e me n hel d degree s i n th e field s o f business , scienc e o r mathematics. I t seem s reasonabl e t o conclud e tha t w o m e n ma y fin d th e prospect o f learnin g abou t compute r system s an d application s mor e daunting tha n d o thei r mal e counterparts .  3) Registrar  s i n thi s provinc e hav e rarel y com e t o th e positio n withou t  some previou s administrativ e experienc e withi n a colleg e o r university . As i s th e cas e w i t h man y othe r position s withi n post-secondar y education, ther e ar e multipl e pathway s whic h lea d individual s t o th e position o f registrar . Administrator s w h o begi n thei r career s i n a university settin g mov e quit e easil y t o administrativ e post s withi n th e college system . Th e registrar s generall y agree d tha t th e positio n o f registrar nee d no t b e a terminal postin g withi n th e colleg e sector . Th e majority o f registrar s indicate d tha t th e potentia l exist s fo r the m t o mov e into th e mor e senio r positio n o f Dea n o f Studen t Services 1 . Fro m thi s w e conclud e tha t prio r wor k experienc e i n a n administrativ e capacit y a t a college o r universit y i s almos t alway s necessar y prio r t o securin g th e position o f registra r a t a colleg e i n Britis h Columbia .  4) Severa  l significan t conclusion s ca n b e draw n concernin g th e  relationships betwee n age , salar y an d wor k experience .  Initially w e wer e startle d t o fin d tha t thos e w h o hel d a master' s degre e earned slightl y les s tha n thos e w h o hel d a bachelor' s degre e o r less . I t was temptin g t o dra w th e conclusio n tha t th e leve l o f academi c  1  This particula r position , Dea n o f Studen t Services , i s als o frequentl y referre d a s either th e Directo r o f Studen t Service s o r Vic e Presiden t o f Studen t Services .  87 achievement fo r registrar s wa s unimportan t i n terms o f decidin g appropriate financia l compensation , however , thi s conclusio n woul d hav e been false. A mor e carefu l analysi s o f th e dat a reveal s tha t thos e wh o held graduat e degree s wer e mor e likel y t o b e unde r th e ag e of forty . They als o reporte d havin g les s work experienc e i n the capacit y o f registrar tha n di d those wit h onl y a n undergraduat e degre e o r less . W e should remembe r tha t salar y decisions ar e influenced b y bot h relevan t experience an d credentials . Fro m these observation s w e ca n conclud e that a s the curren t grou p of registrar s mov e o n to ne w position s o r retire , the ne w appointee s wil l mor e frequentl y hol d academi c credential s a t th e graduate level . O f th e registrar s appointe d withi n th e pas t seve n years , 86% hol d graduat e degrees . Thi s i s considerably highe r tha n th e 29 % o f registrars wh o hol d graduat e degree s an d hav e mor e tha n seve n year s experience a s a registrar .  5) Tabl  e fou r show s th e relationshi p betwee n se x an d institutio n type .  All o f th e femal e registrar s wor k a t communit y colleges . Al l fou r o f th e university college s an d the Britis h Columbi a Institut e o f Technolog y employ me n a s registrars . Thi s coul d b e purely a coincidence, however , one could conclud e tha t wome n ma y fac e som e sor t o f barrie r o r impediment whe n applyin g fo r registra r position s a t institution s othe r than communit y colleges .  88 6) Th  e relationshi p betwee n se x an d membershi p i n professiona l  organizations merit s furthe r comment . A s w e indicate d earlier , tabl e 2 1 illustrates thi s relationship . On e hundre d percen t o f th e femal e registrar s belong t o al l thre e professiona l group s whil e onl y 3 3 % o f th e me n belon g to al l thre e groups . Fro m thi s w e conclud e tha t wome n plac e considerably mor e significanc e o n developin g professiona l contact s through membershi p i n th e variou s professiona l registrar' s association s (BCRA, ARUC C an d AACRAO) . Becaus e wome n registrar s typicall y hav e less wor k experienc e i n th e positio n o f registra r ( 5 0 % hav e les s tha n 3 years experienc e compare d t o 3 1 % of th e men) , the y probabl y fee l a greater nee d t o develo p a s man y professiona l contact s a s quickl y a s possible.  7) Th  e Britis h Columbi a Registrar s Associatio n consistentl y provide d  the preferre d for m o f professiona l developmen t fo r colleg e registrar s i n this province . Th e associatio n provide d bot h th e opportunit y fo r th e exchange o f idea s w i t h colleague s an d a variet y o f valuabl e professiona l development experiences . O n goin g professiona l developmen t wa s vita l to th e registrars . W e conclud e tha t th e BCR A i s th e organizatio n w i t h the mos t potentia l fo r significan t impac t o n th e professiona l staf f w h o ar e employed i n registrar' s office s i n thi s province .  8) Give  n th e overwhelmin g respons e rat e o f thi s study , w e ca n  assume tha t a s a group the colleg e registrar s i n Britis h Columbi a ar e interested i n the developmen t o f thei r professiona l grou p an d that the y are also willin g t o participat e i n this developmen t give n th e opportunity . v iii) Recommendation  s  The finding s reporte d i n the stud y hav e lea d u s to severa l conclusions . Based o n these conclusions , the followin g recommendation s ca n b e made .  1) Give  n that ther e i s no specific for m o f undergraduat e educatio n  required i n order to becom e a registrar, individual s tak e o n this tas k wit h a variety o f backgrounds . Therefore , i t i s imperativ e tha t professiona l development opportunitie s concentratin g o n the professiona l management o f th e registrar' s offic e b e made available . Sinc e virtuall y every registra r come s t o th e offic e wit h a n undergraduat e education , i t would b e appropriate to develo p forma l educationa l opportunitie s a t th e graduate level . B y pursuin g a graduate leve l education registrar s no t onl y enhance their abilit y t o perfor m their curren t responsibilities , the y ensur e that whe n th e opportunit y arises , they wil l hav e the educationa l credentials whic h wil l allo w the m t o progres s to mor e senio r level s o f administration. A s Brindley , (1990 ) noted , the greates t barrie r t o advancement fo r universit y registrar s wa s their lac k o f a n advance d  degree. Althoug h mos t o f th e registrar s wh o reporte d havin g a graduat e degree studie d i n th e fiel d o f education , onl y on e hel d a degre e i n adul t education an d non e o f th e registrar s reporte d havin g studie d highe r education. Sinc e th e stud y o f highe r educatio n focuse s o n managemen t and administratio n i n college s an d universities , on e migh t expec t tha t those hol d position s suc h a s "registrar " woul d fin d stud y i n thi s are a most closel y aligne d t o thei r o w n occupationa l interests . T o a slightl y less degree , the sam e coul d b e sai d fo r th e stud y o f adul t education . More informatio n coul d b e disseminate d b y bot h th e Universit y o f Britis h Columbia an d th e Britis h Columbi a Registrar' s Associatio n regardin g th e study o f highe r an d adul t educatio n i n thi s province . Shor t ter m workshops an d seminar s dealin g w i t h specifi c registraria l issue s shoul d always b e mad e availabl e t o supplemen t th e mor e forma l cours e offering s at th e graduat e level .  2) Th  e pursui t o f a n advance d educatio n i s importan t fo r thos e w h o  aspire t o a senio r positio n withi n a registrar' s office . A s reporte d i n th e findings, an d discusse d i n th e conclusions , thos e w h o hol d a graduat e level degre e ar e bein g hire d mos t frequentl y a s ne w colleg e registrars . Although one' s educatio n i s no t th e onl y facto r take n int o consideratio n when makin g a hirin g decision , i t coul d b e viewe d a s on e o f th e mor e significant factors . W e recommen d tha t thos e individual s w h o hop e t o  91 advance t o th e positio n o f registra r prepar e b y pursuin g post baccalaureate o r graduat e leve l studies i n the fiel d o f highe r and/o r adul t education.  3) I  n additio n t o th e mor e forma l learnin g experiences offere d a t th e  university level , there need s to b e specific emphasi s place d o n developin g workshops an d seminars i n the fiel d o f compute r technologies , whic h ar e designed to mee t th e need s o f th e administrativ e staf f withi n registrar' s offices. Grea t car e mus t b e taken whe n plannin g fo r an d developin g these professiona l developmen t opportunities , althoug h man y registrar s intuitively kno w tha t the y nee d a more comprehensiv e understandin g o f this subjec t matter , man y ma y no t b e able to specificall y indicat e th e type o f learnin g they coul d benefi t frorn . Furthe r investigatio n mus t b e undertaken t o determin e specificall y th e type s o f informatio n thi s grou p could benefi t from . Indeed , we ma y fin d tha t ther e currentl y exist s several level s o f knowledg e an d skill withi n th e group . W e recommen d that th e BCR A coordinat e a task-group to investigat e i n greate r dept h th e needs o f th e registrar s i n terms o f developin g their skill s an d knowledg e in the fiel d o f compute r technologies .  4) A  s discusse d i n the conclusions , women appea r t o acquir e  knowledge abou t compute r technologie s differentl y tha n d o their mal e  92 counterparts. The y see m t o rel y mor e frequentl y o n learnin g throug h "hands-on" experienc e an d d o no t participat e a s readil y i n forma l learnin g or professiona l developmen t opportunities . W e recommen d tha t thos e responsible fo r developin g an d deliverin g compute r relate d professiona l development opportunitie s tak e thi s into^consideratio n whe n creatin g an d advertising workshop s an d seminar s dealin g w i t h compute r relate d technologies. Cours e coul d b e designe d t o reduc e th e potentia l fo r anxiety o r trepidatio n amongs t thos e w h o fee l somewha t intimidate d b y the technolog y whic h surround s the m an d impact s o n th e operatio n o f their respectiv e offices .  Bibliography Barrax, Joa n D . " A Comparativ e Caree r Profil e o f Femal e an d Mal e Universit y Administrators." Journa l o f th e Nationa l Associatio n fo r Wome n Deans , Administrators, & Counselor s Vol . 4 8 , No . 2 (Winte r 1985) : 2 6 - 3 1 . Bernstein, Aliso n R . "Foundatio n Suppor t fo r Administrativ e Advancement : A Mixed Record. " Ne w Direction s fo r Highe r Educatio n No.4 5 (Marc h 1984): 7 7 - 8 3 . Bird, Glori a W . "Famil y an d Caree r Characteristic s o f Wome n an d Me n Colleg e and Universit y Administrators. " Journa l o f th e Nationa l Associatio n o f Women Deans , Administrator s & Counselor s (Summe r 1984) : 2 1 - 2 8 . Brindley, Jan e E . an d Frick , Phyllis . (June , 1991) . Gende r Difference s i n Factors Relate d t o Caree r Progressio n o f Universit y Administrators . Unpublished manuscript , Athabasc a University . Brindley,Jane E . an d Frick , Phyllis . (October , 1990) . Gende r Difference s i n Management: A Stud y o f Professiona l Staf f i n Registrar' s Office s i n Canadian Universities . Unpublishe d manuscript , Athabasc a University . Chapman, Davi d an d Benati , Susan . "Caree r Pattern s fo r Colleg e Admission s Directors." Th e Journa l o f Colleg e Admission s No . 11 1 (Sprin g 1986) : 3-8. Dingerson, Michae l R . "Lesson s i n Hirin g Practice s fo r Aspirin g Academi c Administrators." Ne w Direction s fo r Highe r Education : Administrativ e Careers an d th e Marketplac e No.7 2 (Winte r 1990) : 2 9 - 3 7 . Dingerson, Michae l R. ; Rodman , Joh n A. ; an d Burns , Debra . "Th e Hirin g o f Underrepresented Individual s i n Academi c Administrativ e Positions. " Research i n Highe r Educatio n Vol.23 , No. 3 (1985) : 1 1 5 - 1 3 4 . Dzierlenga, Donna . "Source s an d Information : Wome n i n th e Communit y College." Ne w Direction s fo r Communit y College s V o l . 3 4 (1984) : 79 87. Eaton, Judit h S . "Tappin g Neglecte d Leadershi p Sources. " Ne w Direction s fo r Higher Educatio n No . 4 6 (Jun e 1984) : 93-99 . Garrett, Thomas . "Experimenta l Trainin g fo r th e Registrar. " Colleg e & University V o l . 2 2 . No. 1 (Octobe r 1946) : 58-63 .  94 Garretty, Helen . "Managemen t o f Staf f i n a Registry. " Journa l o f Tertiar y Educational Administratio n Vol . 7 , No . 1 (Ma y 1985) : 85-95 . Gignilliat, Arthu r M . " A Critica l Analysi s o f th e Functio n o f th e Registrar' s Office i n th e Publi c Junio r College s o f th e Unite d States. " Ph.D . disserta tion, Universit y o f Texas , 1954 . Giroux, Yve s M . "Trainin g Universit y Administrator s a t th e Universit e Laval. " International Journa l o f Institutiona l Mariaqemen t i n Highe r Educatio n Vol. 8 , No . 1 (Marc h 1984) : 33-39 . Goerss, Katherin e Va n Wessem . Wome n Administrator s i n Education : A Revie w of Researc h 1960-1976 . Rut h Stran g Researc h Awar d Monograp h Serie s No. 3 . Washington , D.C. : Nationa l Associatio n fo r Wome n Deans , Admin istrators, & Counselors , 1977 . Grossman, Rober t J . an d Ross , Elizabet h D . "Managemen t Style s o f Registrar s and Officer s o f Admission. " Colleg e & Universit y Volum e LXVI , No . 2 (Winter 1991) : 83-88 . Heaton, H . L . "Th e Developin g Rol e o f Registrar. " Colleg e & Universit y Vol.22, No. 2 (Januar y 1947) : 164-167 . Henderson, Stanle y E . "Competencie s fo r Admission s an d Record s Pro fessionals: a n AACRA O Guid e t o Entr y an d Advancemen t i n th e Pro fession." Colleg e & Universit y Volum e LXV , No . 3 (Sprin g 1990) : 243 259. Hopke, Willia m E . (ed.) . Dictionar y o f Personne l an d Guidanc e Terms . Chicago : J.G. Ferguso n Publishin g Co. , 1968 . John, Pete r W . M . Statistica l Desig n an d Analysi s o f Experiments . Ne w York : Collier-Macmillan Limited , 1 9 7 1 . Johnsrud, Lind a K . "Administrativ e Promotion. " Journa l o f Highe r Educatio n Vol.62, No. 2 (March/Apri l 1991) : 119-149 . Jorgensen, Donal d F . " A Profil e o f th e Publi c Junio r Colleg e Registrar s i n th e Upper Midwest. " Ed.D . dissertation , Th e Universit y o f Sout h Dakota , 1972. Kaplan, Sheila ; Secor , Cynthi a an d Tinsley , Adrian . "Gettin g th e Best : Con clusions, Recommendation s an d Selecte d Resources. " Ne w Direction s for Highe r Educatio n No.4 5 (Marc h 1984) : 8 5 - 9 1 .  95 Kauffman, Josep h F . "Administratio n The n an d Now. " Ne w Direction s fo r Higher Education : Administrativ e Career s an d th e Marketplac e No . 7 2 (Winter 1990) : 9 9 - 1 0 7 . Keegan, Desmon d J . "Th e Administratio n o f Studen t Suppor t Service s a t th e Open University. " Th e Journa l o f Educationa l Administratio n Vol . XXII , No. 1 (Winte r 1984) : 8 3 - 9 6 . Khazanie, Ramakant . Elementar y Statistics : I n a Worl d o f Applications . 2n d ed. Glenview , Illinois : Scott , Foresma n an d Company , 1 9 8 6 . Kline, Theres a J . B . e t al . " A Stud y o f Jo b Satisfaction : Makin g a Cas e fo r Using Smal l Sampl e Sizes , Includin g a Variet y o f Variable s an d Testin g for Significanc e w i t h Randomizatio n Tests. " Colleg e & Universit y Vol.67 , No.1 (Fal l 1991) : 1 5 - 2 1 . Knowles, As a S . Ed . Internationa l Encyclopedi a o f Highe r Education . Jossey-Bass Publishers , Sa n Francisco , 1977 . Lafontaine, Edwar d an d McKenzie , Bonni e Jean . "Bein g Ou t o n th e Insid e i n Higher Educatio n Administration : Women' s Response s t o Rol e an d Statu s Incongruity." Journa l o f th e Nationa l Associatio n o f Wome n Deans . Administrators an d Counselor s Vol.48 . No. 2 (Winte r 1985) : 19-25 . Levin, Jack . Elementar y Statistic s i n Socia l Research . Ne w York : Harpe r & Row, Publishers , 1973 . Luna, Gaye . "Pa y Equit y i n Academe : Th e Communit y Colleg e Role. " Commun ity Colleg e Revie w Vol.17 . No. 1 (Summe r 1989) : 4 0 - 4 6 . Marshall, Catherine . " M e n an d Wome n i n Educationa l Administratio n Pro grams." Journa l o f th e Nationa l Associatio n o f Wome n Deans , Adminis trators an d Counselor s Vol.44 . No. 1 (Fal l 1984) : 3-12 . McDade, Sharo n A . "Plannin g fo r Caree r Improvement. " Ne w Direction s fo r Higher Education : Administrativ e Career s an d th e Marketplac e No . 7 2 (Winter 1990) : 4 7 - 5 5 . Menges, Rober t J . an d Exum , Willia m H . "Barrier s t o th e Progres s o f Wome n and Minorit y Faculty. " Journa l o f Highe r Educatio n V o l . 5 4 , No. 2 (1983) : 123-144.  96 Mertz, Norm a T. , an d Venditti , Fredric k P . "Advancin g Wome n i n Administra tion: A Stud y o f a n Interventio n Strategy. " Ne w Direction s fo r Highe r Education Vol.5 . No. 1 (Sprin g 1985) : 3 1 - 4 1 . Midkeff, Stephe n J . "Th e Rol e an d Functio n o f th e Offic e o f th e Registra r i n Selected College s an d Universitie s i n th e Unite d States. " Ph.D . disserta tion, Ohi o University , 1 9 9 1 . Moore, Kathry n M . "Career s i n Colleg e an d Universit y Administration : Ho w ar e Women Affected? " Ne w Directio n fo r Highe r Educatio n Vol.4 5 (Marc h 1984): 5-15 . Moore, Kathry n M . "Creatin g Strength s Ou t o f Ou r Differences : Wome n an d Minority Administrators. " Ne w Direction s fo r Highe r Education : Adminis trative Career s an d th e Marketplac e No . 7 2 (Winte r 1990) : 1-13 . Moore, Lind a L . "Wome n a s Managers. " Ne w Direction s fo r Communit y Col leges Vol.3 4 (1984a) : 67-77 . Moore, Kathry n M . "Th e Structur e o f Administrativ e Careers : A Pros e Poe m i n Four Parts. " Th e Revie w o f Highe r Educatio n Vol . 8 , No. 1 (Fal l 1984b) : 1-13. Ostroth, D . David ; Efird , France s D. ; an d Lerman , Lewi s S . "Caree r Pattern s o f Chief Studen t Affair s Officers. " Journa l o f Colleg e Studen t Personne l Vol.25, No. 5 (Septembe r 1984) : 4 4 3 - 4 4 8 . Ramsey, Gregor . "Th e Realitie s o f Managin g Tertiar y Education. " Journa l o f Tertiary Educationa l Administratio n Vol . 7 , No . 1 (Ma y 1985) : 3 5 - 4 6 . Rickard, Scot t T . "Th e Chie f Studen t Affair s Officer : Progres s Towar d Equity. " Journal o f Colleg e Studen t Personne l Vol.25 . No. 1 (Januar y 1985) : 5-10 . Ross, Marlen e an d Green , Madelein e F . "Th e Rule s o f th e Game : Th e Unwritte n Code o f Caree r Mobility. " Ne w Direction s fo r Highe r Educatio n No . 7 2 . (Winter 1990) : 67-77 . Rostek, Stephe n an d Kladivko , Deborah . "Staf f Developmen t an d Training " Ne w Directions fo r Communit y College s No.6 2 (Summe r 1988) : 3 7 - 5 2 . Sagaria, Mar y An n D . "Administrativ e Mobilit y an d Gender. " Journa l o f Highe r Education Vol.59 , No. 3 (May/Jun e 1988) : 3 0 5 - 3 2 6 .  97 Sagaria, Mar y An n D . "Th e Manageria l Skill s an d Experience s o f Me n an d Women Administrators : Similaritie s an d Differences. " Journa l o f Educa tional Equit y an d Leadershi p Vol . 5 , No . 1 (Sprin g 1985) : 1930 . Skoglund, Anders . "Staf f Trainin g an d Developmen t fo r Universit y Managemen t and Administratio n - Swedis h Experience. " Internationa l Journa l o f Institutional Managemen t i n Highe r Educatio n Vol . 8 , No . 3 (Novembe r 1984): 2 1 8 - 2 2 3 . Speizer, Jeann e J . "Th e Administrativ e Skill s Program : Wha t Hav e W e Learned?" Ne w Direction s fo r Highe r Educatio n No.4 5 (Marc h 1984) : 35 45. Stevenson, Jef f J . "Institutiona l Perception s Abou t th e Preparatio n o f Colleg e Administrators." Community/Junio r Colleg e Quarterl y Vol.8 , No. 1 (1984): 6 9 - 7 9 . Tansil, Rebecc a C . "Th e Presen t Statu s o f th e Registrar' s Offic e i n th e Smal l Accredited Libera l Art s Colleg e o f th e Souther n States. " Peabod y Journa l of Educatio n No . 5 (Ma y 1928) : 333-338 . Thomason, Fred . "A s I Se e th e Wor k o f th e Registrar. " Colleg e an d Universit y XXIV (January , 1949 ) 190 . Tinsley, Adrian . "Caree r Mappin g an d th e Professiona l Developmen t Process. " New Direction s fo r Highe r Educatio n No.4 5 (Marc h 1984) : 17-24 . Twombly, Susa n B . "Caree r Map s an d Institutiona l Highways. " Ne w Direction s for Highe r Educatio n No.7 2 (Winte r 1990) : 5-19 . Vaughan, Georg e B . "Femal e Communit y Colleg e Presidents. " Communit y College Revie w Vol.17 . No. 2 (Fal l 1989) : 20-26 . Wallgren, Axe l S . "Personne l Stud y o f Junio r Colleg e Registrars. " Junio r College Journa l No. 7 (Apri l 1937) : 370-375 . White, Clare . "Th e Rol e an d Functio n o f th e Registra r i n Australia n Highe r Education Institutions. " Journa l o f Tertiar y Educatio n Administratio n Vol.13, No. 2 (Octobe r 1991) : 165-187 . W o o d , Linda ; Winsto n Jr. , Roge r B. ; an d Polkosnik , Mar k C . "Caree r Orienta tions an d Professiona l Developmen t o f Youn g Studen t Affair s Pro fessionals." Journa l o f Colleg e Studen t Personne l V o l . 2 6 , No. 6 (Novem ber 1985) : 5 3 2 - 5 3 9 .  98 APPENDIX 1  LIST O F INSTITUTION S REPRESENTE D B Y THE RESPONDENT S 1) Britis h Columbi a Institut e o f Technolog y 2) Camosu n Colleg e 3) Capilan o Colleg e 4) Colleg e o f Ne w Caledoni a 5) Dougla s Colleg e 6) Eas t Kootena y Colleg e 7) Malaspin a Colleg e 8) Nort h Islan d Colleg e 9) Norther n Light s Colleg e 10) Northwes t Communit y Colleg e 11) Okanaga n Colleg e 12) Selkir k Colleg e 13) Universit y Colleg e o f th e Caribo o 14) Universit y Colleg e o f th e Frase r Valle y 15) Vancouve r Communit y Colleg e - Kin g Edwar d Campu s 16) Vancouve r Communit y Colleg e - Langar a Campu s 17) Vancouve r Communit y Colleg e - Cit y Centr e Campu s  VANCOUVER COMMUNITY  COLLEGE  qq  LANGARA CAMPU S  APPENDIX 2  April 2 1 , 199 3 Dear Colleague : Ms. Cynthia Howma n i s a graduate student a t the Universit y of Britis h Columbia . A s well, I know Ms . Howma n a s she i s employe d b y Vancouve r Communit y College . I am writing to encourage your participation in her research by completing the enclose d questionnaire. A t th e moment , sh e i s no t workin g in a Registrar's Office , bu t i n th e past sh e ha s don e s o an d ha s indicate d a n interes t i n returnin g t o thi s are a i n th e future. Sh e has a keen interes t i n our professio n and i s hopin g to expan d the bod y of knowledg e regardin g Registrar s and their offices . W e all kno w ther e i s very littl e research i n this area . I therefore encourag e yo u to complet e th e questionnair e an d thank yo u for you r willingness . Sincerely,  Valerie Nielse n Past Presiden t B.C.R.A.  innm—in.u i x  rD  r~ \rc v T7/ C T J rtn^u1/«H  E->~  . t/-J\A\ 2 1 / c c «  APPENDIX 3  TOO Cynthia J . Howma n  (Personalized Address )  Dear Sir/Madame : This lette r i s a n invitatio n t o participat e i n a ver y interesting^researc h projec t w h i c h deal s specificall y w i t h Registrar s i n Britis h Columbia n Communit y College s an d Provincia l Institutes . I t shoul d tak e approximately 1 5 t o 2 0 minute s t o complet e th e questionnair e attached . The informatio n gathere d vi a th e attache d questionnair e wil l b e use d t o f o r m th e basi s o f m y M.A . thesis (Highe r Education ) w h i c h I am currentl y completin g a t th e Universit y o f Britis h Columbi a unde r the directio n o f Dr . J o h n Denniso n (telephon e # 8 2 2 - 5 2 5 2 ) . The eightee n individual s w h o hol d th e positio n o f Registra r fo r th e province' s college s an d institute s makeup th e populatio n studied . Th e titl e o f th e stud y is ; A Stud y o f th e Caree r Path s & Academi c Preparation o f Colleg e Registrar s i n B.C. an d an Analysis o f thei r Professiona l Developmen t Preference s and Needs . The purpos e o f th e stud y i s thre e fold : 1) t 2) t 3) t  o gathe r specifi c demographi c informatio n concernin g th e academi c preparation an d caree r path s o f colleg e Registrar s o identif y th e type s o f professiona l developmen t activitie s thes e individual s subscrib e to o determin e th e professiona l developmen t need s an d preference s o f th e populatio n  A s man y o f yo u ar e wel l aware , ther e i s a n considerabl e lac k o f researc h concernin g post-secondar y education i n Canada, especially a t the non-degre e grantin g level . B y participatin g i n this stud y yo u wil l be contributin g t o th e smal l (bu t growing ) bod y o f knowledg e i n thi s area . If y o u hav e an y question s regardin g thi s endeavour , pleas e d o no t hesitat e t o contac t m e a t VCC . I have attache d m y busines s car d fo r you r convenience . Please remember , y o u wil l b e answerin g thi s questionnair e anonymousl y therefore , al l informatio n revealed wil l remai n confidential . Pleas e complet e an d retur n th e questionnair e an d th e acknowledgement car d b y Jun e 3 0 , 1 9 9 3 . I w o u l d lik e t o than k yo u i n advanc e fo r you r cooperation . Sincerely yours .  Cynthia J . Howma n M.A. Candidate , UB C  101  APPENDIX 4  FZEfi&HSHSEH'EH^^  £ Instruction  1. Pleas  s t o Participant s  e b e sur e t o rea d th e letter of  introductio n from t h e researcher .  2. Pleas e b e sure t o rea d t h e letter of endorsement from of t h e B.C . Registrar s Association . 3. Pleas  the Presiden t  e rea d t h e cove r shee t o f t h e questionnaire .  4. Pleas e complet e t h e questionnaire . Mak e n o a t t e m p t t o identif y yourself o r t h e institutio n yo u wor k for . 5. Plac e t h e questionnair e i n t he stamped , pre-addressed envelop e provided. 6 . Mai  l bot h t h e envelop e an d t h e respons e car d b y Ma y 3 1 , 1 9 9 3 .  Please not e t h a t t h e envelop e containin g t h e questionnair e wil l b e s e n t t o my offic e a t VCC . Th e respons e car d wil l b e maile d t o m y home . Thi s procedure wil l hel p t o ensur e t h e anonymit y o f t h e respondents . The envelopes containin g t h e questionnaire s wil l b e opened b y t he researche r once t h ey hav e al l bee n accounted for . Fo r t h i s reason . I ask t h a t yo u return t h e questionnair e an d respons e for m eve n t f you do not plan to complete the questionnaire. In t he even t t h a t a ne w Registra r i s appointed durin g t h e s t u d y , woul d t h e individual i n receipt of t h i s packag e please forward i t t o t h e appropriate person.  Thank yo u fo r taking the t i m e t o participate i  Cynthia Howman  n t h is study .  102 APPENDIX 5  ' HCOL • urli Q[\coT-\Q\m:i\rc for'CoWhqe/Uv. itil'iil-* RtV)it."'t"rtir-j> i n I3rif.b h Columbi a "/i«•;•.".•• ku Ih-ff: • i fi il l.'c\t"l'pttirnt I  '\"ftT(.r,r.f- & Nrr.t- i-i  COVEK S H E E Title of Project: A  !>••;  T  Study o f the Career Path s an d Academic Preparatio n o f College Registrars i n British Columbia and An Analysis o f Their Professiona l Development Preferences and Heeds  Name of Investigator. Cynthia  J . Howman , wor  k phon e 3 2 4 - 5 2 5 3  Purpose o f Project: 1) t  o gather Informatio n concerning the career paths and academic preparation o f College registrars i n British' Columbia  2) t  o identif y th e types o f professional development activitie s thes e Individuals subscribe t o  3) t  o determine the professional development needs and preferences of the group  It I s Important that yo u understand that yo u have the right t o refus e t o participate i n this study . I t should take approjdmatel y 1 5 to 2 0 minute s to complete the questionnaire. There will be no follow-up questionnaires sen t t o you. Ther e will be.no follow-up phon e calls. If the questionnaire I s completed and returned. I t will be assumed that yo u have given you r consent to participate i n t he study. I f you choos e no t to participate, there wil l be no repercussions fo r either you or your Institution . You will not be asked t o Identif y yoursel f o r the institution yo u work for during the completion of the questionnaire. If , during th e analysis o f t he questionnaire, the researcher Is able to Identify the respondent, yo u ar e guaranteed that all Information revealed wil l remain confidential. After the questionnaires have bee n analyze d the y wil l be destroyed.  103  Please take the time to complet e the entire questionnaire.  e indicate your current ag e in years.  i. Pleas  e you a Male  2. Ar 3. Pleas  or  Female  ? (circle one)  e indicate your annual salary  4. Pleas e indicate both the level of education completed and the area of specialization . a) Hig  h School Graduation o r equivalent YE  SN  O  Area of  Specialization b) Colleg c) Bachelor'  e Certificate or Diploma YE s Degree  SN  O PARTIALL  Y  YES N  O PARTIALL  Y  d) Master'  s Degree  YES N  O PARTIALL Y  e) Doctora  l Degree  YES N  O PARTIALL Y  Page 1 o f 7  104  5. Ho  w long have you held your current positio n ?  6. Wha  7. Wha  t i s the exact title o f your positio n ?  t was the full-tim e equivalen t enrollmen t a t you r institution during  the 1991-9 2 academic year ? 8. T 9. I  o whom do you report ? n the char t provide d below , please list your work history prio r t o  assuming your current position. Pleas e include all previous full-time work experiences , even those no t i n an educational environment. (Start with th e mos t recent. I f you nee d mor e room, please write on the revers e of thi s page. )  TYPE OF ORGANIZATION  NUMBER OF YEARS OFSERVKE  Page 2 of 7  POSITION TITLE  105  10. I  n your opinion, what othe r position s can the job of Registra r lea d to ?  11. Whe n did you first mak e the decisio n to wor k towards th e goa l of becoming a Registrar?  12. Pi  d the decision to work towards th e goa l of becoming a Registra r affect you r career choices ? YE 5 N O If yes , how were they affected ?  13. Pi d the decisio n to wor k towards the goa l of becoming a Registra r affect you r choice of acacemic preparation? YE S N O >  If yes. how was this choice affected ?  -  •  Page 3 of7  14. Pleas e list wor k experiences which hav e been most helpfu l to yo u given your current responsibilitie s a s Registrar .  15. Pleas e list th e academic preparation whic h has bee n most helpfu l to yo u given your current responsibilitie s a s Registrar .  16. Wha t types o f professional development activities would you find mos t useful at thi s poin t i n your career ? _  Page 4 of 7  17. Do you believe that there i s a "preferred" form of undergraduate preparation for potential Registrars ? YE S N O If yes, what typ e o f undergraduate preparation would you suggest ?  18. Ar  e you currently an active member of the following professiona l associations ? a) Britis  h Columbi a Registrar' s Associatio n (BCRA ) YES N O  b) Associatio n o f Registrars of Universities an d Colleges of Canada (ARUCC ) YES N O c) America n Association of Collegiate Registrars & Admissions Officers (AACRAO ) YES N O  Page 5 of 7  19. I n th e c h a r t provided below , please lis t an y conferences, workshops or seminar s whic h yo u hav e attended sinc e assuming your curren t position. (only list thos e activities tvhic h have taken plac e during the las t 5 years )  You nee d onl y list thos e activitie s whic h relat e i n some wa y to you r current responsibilities . Beside eac h notation , please indicate ho w valuable th e P.P . activity experience wae for yo u o n a scal e o f 1 t o 3 . (1 = of littl e value . 2 = of som e value. 3 = o f great value )  Format conf. /sem. /wkshp  Hosting Institution/Group  Topic or Conference Nam e  Page 6 o f 7  Value 12 3  109  20. Ho w would yo u describ e you r education/trainin g wit h respec t t o th e computer technologies use d I n your institutio n ? (thi s refer s t o bot h mainframe and microcomputer environments) Please plac e an X beside th e appropriate descriptions). Formal academic preparation Self taugh t throug h hands-on experienc e Appropriate skill s developed throug h P.O. experiences Other (please specify)  Please feel free t o mak e any comments concerning th e stud y in the spac e below .  Thank you very much for your participation.  Pa$e7of7  Appendix 6  From:  Mr. J. Registra r College of Good Idea s Box 1254 Big Sky, B.C. V3K3J5  Ef  YES. I have returned my questionnaire  110  Appendix 7  1 11  Cynthia Howma n  Registrar's Addres s  Thursday, Jun e 17 , 1 9 9 3  Dear Mr. : Just a gentle reminde r tha t i t i s no t to o lat e t o retur n th e questionnair e I sent t o you las t mont h dealin g wit h Colleg e Registrar s i n British Columbia . I woul d greatl y appreciat e i t i f yo u coul d fin d tim e t o complet e an d forward th e questionnair e a s I valu e you r response s an d woul d lik e t o include the m i n m y thesis . If yo u hav e alread y maile d th e questionnair e an d respons e card , I than k you. Sincerely yours ,  Cynthia Howma n M.A. Candidate , UB C  112 Appendix 8 ACRONYMS USE D I N TH E STUD Y  AACRAO America  n Associatio n o f Collegiat e Registrar s & Admission s Officer s  ACCC Associatio  n o f Canadia n Communit y College s  ARUCC Associatio  n o f Registrar s o f Universitie s an d College s o f Canad a  BCAC Britis  h Columbi a Associatio n o f College s  BCRA Britis  h Columbi a Registrars ' Associatio n  CAAE Canadia CLI Creativ HRD Huma  n Associatio n o f Adul t Educator s e Learnin g Institut e n Resourc e Developmen t  MAETT Ministr y o f Advance d Education , Trainin g & Columbia)  Technolog y (Britis h  PACRAO Pacifi  c Associatio n o f Collegiat e Registrar s an d Admission s Officer s  PMDI Pacifi  c Managemen t Developmen t Institut e  PNAIRP Pacifi  c Nationa l Associatio n o f Institutiona l Researc h & Plannin g  SESOC Senio  r Educationa l Service s Officer s Committe e  SFU Simo  n Frase r Universit y  SRSUG Studen  t Recor d System s User s Grou p  WARUCC Wester  n Associatio n o f Registrar s o f Universitie s & College s o f Canad a  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0056009/manifest

Comment

Related Items