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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Disownment of Indo-Canadian women Jheeta, Swinder Kaur 1988

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DISOWNMENT OF INDO-CANADIAN WOMEN By SWINDER KATJR JHEETA B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH F e b r u a r y 1988 ® Swinder Kaur J h e e t a , COLUMBIA 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date APRIL 25, 1988 DE-6(3/81) A b s t r a c t T h i s study explores the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l aspects of the experience of being disowned. Disownment can a r i s e at two l e v e l s . At the i n t r a p e r s o n a l l e v e l disownment i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by: the r e p r e s s i o n of emotions, needs, and aspects of one's p e r s o n a l i t y . At the i n t e r p e r s o n a l l e v e l , disownment i n v o l v e s the complete break i n s o c i a l , emotional, economic, f a m i l i a l support and community r e l a t i o n s . T h i s paper examines the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two. Ten Indo-Canadian women who had experienced an aspect of disownment were i n t e r v i e w e d . R e s u l t s r e v e a l e d that a v a r i e t y o f f a c t o r s can p r e c i p i t a t e t h i s s t r e s s f u l event. How these women cope with the experience was determined by f a c t o r s which e i t h e r f a c i l i t a t e d or hindered the adjustment p r o c e s s . From the a n a l y s i s of the data, disownment not on l y r e s u l t e d as a consequence of a l i f e t r a n s i t i o n but i t a l s o emerged as a t r a n s i t i o n a l p r ocess. The disownment model i s presented to provide a framework f o r understanding t h i s u n d e r l y i n g process. The three stage model of disownment d e s c r i b e s the: 1) a n t i c i p a t i o n of s h i f t , 2) adjustment and 3) r e - i n t e g r a t i o n . I m p l i c a t i o n s of the model f o r c o u n s e l i n g and re s e a r c h are a l s o d i s c u s s e d . i i i F o r J i w a n S i n g h Satwachan Kaur K u l d i p S a t p a l S a r b j i t and I q b a l i v TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i D e d i c a t i o n i i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s i v Acknowledgements v i i CHAPTER I - INTRODUCTION Disownment 3 1. D e f i n i t i o n a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s 3 2. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 8 S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m 9 I n d o - C a n a d i a n Women 10 O b j e c t i v e s o f t h e S t u d y 12 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 13 O v e r v i e w 13 CHAPTER I I - REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE T h e o r e t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s 15 1. V a l u e C o n f l i c t 16 2. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n 16 3. Group V e r s u s I n d i v i d u a l Needs 19 4. S e l f - E s t e e m and I d e n t i t y 20 5. C u l t u r a l C o n f l i c t 21 6. T h r e a t s t o I d e n t i t y 23 7. T h r e a t t o t h e I n d i v i d u a l 25 8. T h r e a t t o t h e F a m i l y 26 9. T h r e a t t o t h e Community 27 Examples From O t h e r C u l t u r e s 28 1. S h u n n i n g 28 2. Bann 2 9 3. L o s s o f F a c e 30 4. S i t t i n g S h i v a 31 C u l t u r a l C o n t e x t 33 1. B i - C u l t u r a l C o n t e x t 33 2. I n d o - C a n a d i a n C u l t u r a l C o n t e x t 36 a. The F a m i l y 36 b. E x t e n d e d F a m i l y 37 c. F a m i l y O b l i g a t i o n s 37 d. R e s p e c t , S t a t u s , and Power 38 e. S i g n i f i c a n t R e l a t i o n s h i p s 40 f . A u t h o r i t y and D e c i s i o n M a k i n g 41 g. S t a t u s o f Women 41 h. Dowry 42 i . E d u c a t i o n 43 j . C o u r t s h i p 43 k. M a r r i a g e 44 1. The M a r i t a l R e l a t i o n s h i p 45 m. D i v o r c e 46 n. F a m i l y C o n f l i c t and P r o b l e m S o l v i n g 47 o. E x p u l s i o n and Disownment 48 3. C o n c l u s i o n 50 CHAPTER I I I - METHODOLOGY R e s e a r c h D e s i g n 51 1. I n t e r v i e w Format 51 2. S t r e n g t h s and Weaknesses 53 3. V a l i d i t y 54 4. R e l i a b i l i t y 55 5. P i l o t S t u d y 55 6. Q u e s t i o n s 56 7. I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e 57 S u b j e c t s 57 The I n t e r v i e w 60 1. S e t t i n g 60 2. R a p p o r t B u i l d i n g 60 D a t a C o l l e c t i o n and A n a l y s i s 61 E t h i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s 63 CHAPTER IV - RESULTS E v e n t s P r e c i p i t a t i n g Disownment 64 C o n t e x t u a l B a c k g r o u n d 66 1. R o l e o f t h e N u c l e a r F a m i l y 66 2. R o l e o f t h e F a m i l y o f O r i g i n 68 3. R o l e o f t h e E x t e n d e d F a m i l y 70 4. R o l e o f t h e Community 72 v i E f f e c t s On The I n d i v i d u a l 73 F a c t o r s Which F a c i l i t a t e and H i n d e r A d j u s t m e n t 75 1. C o n t r o l and D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g 75 2. P h y s i c a l P r o x i m i t y 76 3. Degree o f F a m i l i a l L o s s 77 4. Degree o f I n d i v i d u a l L o s s 79 5. A c c e s s t o a Community 80 6. C u l t u r a l E x p e c t a t i o n s 81 7. P e r s o n a l i t y D i f f e r e n c e s 82 C o p i n g S t r a t e g i e s 82 R e - i n t e g r a t i o n I n t o t h e F a m i l y 84 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f Disownment 85 Summary o f R e s u l t s 86 CHAPTER V - SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION Disownment as a T r a n s i t i o n a l P r o c e s s 88 1. S t a g e One: Shock and I m m o b i l i z a t i o n 90 2. S t a g e Two: D e n i a l 91 3. S t a g e T h r e e : D e p r e s s i o n 92 4. S t a g e F o u r : L e t t i n g Go 93 5. S t a g e F i v e : T e s t i n g O p t i o n s 94 6. S t a g e S i x : S e a r c h f o r M e a n i n g 94 7. S t a g e Seven: I n t e g r a t i o n 95 T h r e e S t a g e Model o f Disownment 98 1. S t a g e One: A n t i c i p a t i o n o f S h i f t 98 2. S t a g e Two: A d j u s t m e n t 99 3. S t a g e T h r e e : R e - i n t e g r a t i o n 100 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r C o u n s e l l i n g 100 L i m i t a t i o n s o f The S t u d y 102 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h 103 C o n c l u d i n g Remarks 104 REFERENCES 107 APPENDIX A: I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e 114 APPENDIX B: Agency R e q u e s t Form 117 APPENDIX C: P a r t i c i p a n t R e q u e s t Form 120 APPENDIX D: C o n t r i b u t i n g F a c t o r s 122 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o Dr. B i l l B o r g e n , Dr. F r a n k E c h o l s , Dr. Marv Westwood and D i a n e P o l l a r d f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t , g u i d a n c e and encouragement. I t h a n k my f a m i l y who s u p p o r t e d me a t a l l s t a g e s o t h i s e n d e a v o u r . To t h e women who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y , I am v e r y g r a t e f u l . F i n a l l y I w i s h t o e x t e n d my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o my f r i e n d s and c o l l e a g u e s who p r o v i d e d c o u n s e l and c r e a t i v e c r i t i c i s m . 1 Chapter I I n t r o d u c t i o n S h i f t s i n t r e n d s f r o m a " n a t i o n a l t o a w o r l d economy" and t h e c r e a t i o n o f a " g l o b a l v i l l a g e " i d e n t i f i e s t h e need f o r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s e n s i t i v i t y t o d i f f e r e n t w o r l d v i e w s ( N a i s b e t t , 1982; T o f f l e r , 1983). W i t h t h e i n c r e a s e o f t h e w o r l d p o p u l a t i o n i n t r a n s i t , more i n d i v i d u a l s f i n d t h e m s e l v e s i n c o n t a c t w i t h p e o p l e who s h a r e d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l w o r l d v i e w s . T h i s g l o b a l movement i s r e f l e c t e d on a much s m a l l e r s c a l e w i t h i n t h e C a n a d i a n c o n t e x t (Ramcharan, 1982; S r i v a s t a v a , 1974; Samuda, B e r r y and L a f e r r i e r e , 1984 ) ) . Immigrant g r o u p s a r r i v e i n Canada u n d e r v a r y i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Some a r r i v e t o e s c a p e r a c i a l , r e l i g i o u s i n t o l e r a n c e and p e r s e c u t i o n , w h i l e o t h e r s come f o r f i n a n c i a l r e a s o n s i n p u r s u i t o f a b e t t e r q u a l i t y o f l i f e . What t h e s e i m m i g r a n t s s h a r e i n common i s t h e " p r o m i s e and e x p e c t a t i o n o f d e v e l o p i n g , p r e s e r v i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i n g t h e i r c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y " ( A k o o d i e , 1984, p. 2 5 3 ) . F o r some o f t h e s e i m m i g r a n t s , movement between s o c i e t i e s and c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t s w h i c h d i f f e r i n r o l e s and v a l u e s , can p r o d u c e immense p s y c h o l o g i c a l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t ( A k o o d i e , 1984; B a l l a r d , 1978; 2 Gosh, 1984; Sue, 1980). O p p o s i n g c u l t u r a l c o d e s , r u l e s o f b e h a v i o r , r o l e c o n f u s i o n , l o s s o f i d e n t i t y and v a l u e c o n f l i c t become p r o b l e m a t i c i s s u e s w h i c h may impede t h e p r o c e s s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l a d j u s t m e n t i n t h e new c u l t u r e ( L e v i n e , 1982). T r a n s i t i o n s w h i c h r e s u l t as a c o n s e q u e n c e o f i m m i g r a t i o n , r e p r e s e n t a c h a l l e n g e f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l who must d e a l w i t h s o c i e t a l p r e s s u r e s and c o n f r o n t i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t s t h a t accompany su c h changes ( A d l e r , 1975; L e v y - W a r r e n , 1987; Ramcharan, 1976; Sue, 1982). F o r t h e i m m i g r a n t t h e t r a n s i t i o n i s an " i n e v i t a b l e p e r i o d o f i n n e r t u r m o i l and i n t e n s e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s " ( P a r k , 1928, p. 8 9 3 ) . W i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h i s l a r g e r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l p a s s a g e , t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s f a c e d w i t h o t h e r l i f e t r a n s i t i o n s s u c h as l e a v i n g home, m a r r i a g e , s e p a r a t i o n , and d i v o r c e ( S c h l o s s b e r g , T r o l l , & L e i b o w i t z , 1978). These l i f e s t a g e s h i f t s , i n v o l v e c hanges i n r e l a t i o n s h i p r o l e s w h i c h can p r o d u c e p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s . W i t h i n t h e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t where v a l u e s , b e l i e f s , and l i f e s t y l e s c l a s h , s u c h s h i f t s can sometimes p r o d u c e d r a m a t i c c o n s e q u e n c e s . S i n c e s o c i a l r o l e s p r o v i d e " t e m p l a t e s " f o r s e l f -c o n c e p t i o n , s o c i a l i d e n t i t i e s become v e r y i m p o r t a n t ( B r e a k w e l l , 1983). I t i s t h e r e a c t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h o s e who a r e i m p o r t a n t t o t h e 3 i n d i v i d u a l t h a t h e l p t o e s t a b l i s h s o c i a l i d e n t i t y (Mead, 1934). These s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s a c t as " m i r r o r s " i n w h i c h a p e r s o n s e e s him o r h e r s e l f and comes t o forms h i s o r h e r s o c i a l i d e n t i t y ( S u l l i v a n , 1953; Mead, 1934; C o o l e y , 1902). W i t h i n t h e c r o s s -c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t where v a l u e s , b e l i e f s and r o l e s c o n f l i c t and demand c o n t r a s t i n g r e s p o n s e s , t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s " s o c i a l r o l e may demand one c o u r s e o f a c t i o n and h i s o r h e r f e e l i n g s f o r a n o t h e r " ( B r e a k w e l l , 1983, p. 1 0 ) . When th e i n d i v i d u a l can no l o n g e r m a i n t a i n t h e m i d d l e p o s i t i o n he or she must a c t t o e l i m i n a t e t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s . But when t h e i n d i v i d u a l moves i n f a v o r o f f u l f i l l i n g e m o t i o n a l needs he o r she may f a c e t h e r i s k o f l o s i n g h i s o r h e r s o c i a l r o l e , s o c i a l i d e n t i t y and s e l f -e s teem. T h i s t y p i c a l l y o c c u r s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f b e i n g d i s o w n e d . Disownment D e f i n i t i o n a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s A l t h o u g h t h e t e rm disownment i s n o t f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , i t s s e l e c t i o n f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y a r i s e s o u t o f p o p u l a r u s a g e among t h e p e o p l e a f f e c t e d . Disownment i s d e f i n e d as t h e " a c t o f d i s o w n i n g or t h e s t a t e o f b e i n g d i s o w n e d " 4 ( W e b s t e r s ' , 1974, p. 6 5 3 ) . D i s o w n i n g c o n s i s t s o f two e l e m e n t s : "1) t h e r e f u s a l t o a cknowledge as b e l o n g i n g t o o n e s e l f and 2) b e i n g d i s m i s s e d o r e x p e l l e d f r o m s o c i e t y o f f r i e n d s " ( W e b s t e r s ' , 1976, p. 6 5 2 ) . Disownment i s t h e u l t i m a t e t h r e a t t o one's need t o b e l o n g and i s f a r more complex t h a n j u s t t h e d i s m i s s a l o f f r i e n d s h i p s . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l , as w e l l as t h e s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e , w a r r a n t g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o B randen ( 1 9 7 1 ) , an i n d i v i d u a l can d i s o w n a s p e c t s o f h i m s e l f o r h e r s e l f i n s e v e r a l ways: 1) by r e p r e s s i n g t h o u g h t s and memories t h a t a r e r e g a r d e d as immoral o r h u m i l i a t i n g ; 2) by r e p r e s s i n g e m o t i o n s t h a t c o n f l i c t w i t h h i s o r h e r " n o t i o n o f s t r e n g t h , m a t u r i t y , s o p h i s t i c a t i o n " and s e n s e o f c o n t r o l ; o r by 3) r e p r e s s i n g d e s i r e s and " c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f p e r s o n a l i t y w h i c h seem i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e s t a n d a r d s o f h i s o r h e r s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s " ( p . 8 8 ) . B r a n d e n (1971) s t a t e s t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l d isowns h i m s e l f o r h e r s e l f i n t h e name o f p r o t e c t i n g s e l f -e steem. The u n d e r l y i n g m o t i v e i s a v o i d a n c e o f some a s p e c t o f r e a l i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o u g h t s t h a t p r o v o k e f e e l i n g s o f r a g e , p a i n , f r u s t r a t i o n and f e a r . T h e s e e m o t i o n s a r e d e n i e d o r d i s o w n e d i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n a s e n s e o f c o n t r o l i n one's l i f e (Welwood, 1983; Kaufman, 1985). 5 S i n c e s e l f - w o r t h i s t i e d t o t h e a p p r o v a l o f o t h e r s , t h e i n d i v i d u a l makes c e r t a i n t h a t h i s o r h e r b e h a v i o r s " c o n f o r m t o t h e m o r a l i d e a l s " o f s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s ( B r a n d e n , 1971, p . 8 8 ) . Out o f a m i s g u i d e d e f f o r t t o a c h i e v e p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l and e s c a p e t h e f e a r o f b e i n g h u r t , t h e i n d i v i d u a l d e n i e s h i s o r h e r r e a l n e e d s . D e n i a l o f needs and e m o t i o n s b e g i n s i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d and e x t e n d s i n t o "more and more a r e a s o f one's e m o t i o n a l l i f e r e s u l t i n g i n a p r o g r e s s i v e l y d e e p e n i n g s e n s e o f s e l f - e s t r a n g e m e n t " ( B r a n d e n , 1971, p. 3 4 ) . Branden ( 1 9 7 1 ) , s t a t e s t h a t "one does n o t d e s t r o y an e m o t i o n by r e f u s i n g t o f e e l i t o r t o acknowledge i t , one m e r e l y d i s o w n s a p a r t o f o n e s e l f " ( p . 3 4 ) . By d i s o w n i n g e m o t i o n s t h a t a r e p e r c e i v e d as t h r e a t e n i n g , t h e i n d i v i d u a l " d i m i n i s h e s h i s o r h e r s e n s e o f s e l f and i n d u c e s f e e l i n g s o f s e l f a l i e n a t i o n " ( B r a d e n , 1971, p . 5 0 ) . D i s o w n i n g a s p e c t s o f t h e s e l f l i m i t s d e v e l o p m e n t and "demands a c o n s i s t e n t e x p e n d i t u r e o f e n e r g y " (Ewen, 1984, p . 4 0 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o Branden ( 1 9 7 1 ) , " i t i s n o t t h e unwanted f e e l i n g s t h a t s a b o t a g e h e a l t h y f u n c t i o n i n g b u t t h e d e n i a l and t h e u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o e x p e r i e n c e acknowledgement o f t h o s e f e e l i n g s " ( p . 1 2 1 ) . The c o n s e q u e n c e o f d e n y i n g f e e l i n g s , p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e , i s t h e i m p o v e r i s h m e n t o f one's s e n s e o f i d e n t i t y . The p a r a d o x i s t h a t by b l o c k i n g n e g a t i v e 6 f e e l i n g s t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t u r n b l o c k s h i s o r h e r c a p a c i t y t o e x p e r i e n c e p l e a s u r a b l e f e e l i n g s as w e l l . A c c o r d i n g t o Kaufman ( 1 9 8 5 ) , " e m o t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a n x i e t y o r shame a r e g e n e r a t e d f i r s t i n s i g n i f i c a n t human r e l a t i o n s h i p s " p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e i n t h e f a m i l y ( p . 8 9 ) . He s t a t e s "we a r e t a u g h t t o disown t h o s e p a r t s o f t h e s e l f i n s i d e us w h i c h a r e d i s o w n e d by s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s " (Kaufman 1985, p. 9 6 ) . So, w h i l e a c c e p t a b l e p a r t s r e m a i n a t t h e l e v e l o f awareness, d i s o w n e d p a r t s w h i c h r e s u l t In f e e l i n g s o f shame and g u i l t e x p e r i e n c e d i n h a v i n g f a i l e d e x p e c t a t i o n s become r e p r e s s e d . " C o n t a i n e d i n shame i s t h e p i e r c i n g awareness o f o u r s e l v e s as f u n d a m e n t a l l y d e f i c i e n t i n some v i t a l way (Kaufman, 1985, p. 8 ) . By d i s o w n i n g p a r t s o f s e l f t h a t c r e a t e unwanted f e e l i n g s o f shame, t h e i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n s t o cop e . T h i s s t r a t e g y o f d i s o w n i n g , works e f f e c t i v e l y u n t i l sudden or u n e x p e c t e d e v e n t s c r e a t e " f r e s h e n c o u n t e r s w i t h shame" (Kaufman, 1985, p. 1 0 3 ) . Kaufman s t a t e s t h a t a number o f f a c t o r s may i n f l u e n c e t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e . These i n c l u d e : ( 1 ) i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e p a r t o f s e l f t h a t has been e x p o s e d or shamed; ( 2 ) s i g n i f i c a n c e o f o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s ' i n v o l v e d i n t h e shaming; ( 3 ) how t h e shame was e x p e r i e n c e d - p u b l i c l y o r p r i v a t e l y ; ( 4 ) r e p e t i t i v e n e s s o f t h e shaming; and (5) c a p a c i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o t o l e r a t e t h e shame (Kaufman, 1985, 7 p. 9 ) . When t h e i n t e r n a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s become t o o unmanageable t h e i n d i v i d u a l can no l o n g e r deny r e p r e s s e d f e e l i n g s . In owning h i s o r h e r e m o t i o n a l s e l f , t h e i n d i v i d u a l r u n s t h e r i s k o f t h r e a t e n i n g v a l u e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . E s p e c i a l l y i f owning one's s e l f t h r e a t e n s t h e g r o u p o f s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s ( B r e a k w e l l , 1983). E i t h e r way, d i s o w n i n g a s p e c t s o f one s e l f and b e i n g d i s owned by s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s a f f e c t s s e l f - e s t e e m and i d e n t i t y ( B r a n d e n , 1971; B r e a k w e l l , 1983). A c c o r d i n g t o A d l e r (1975) movement i n t o d i f f e r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e s p r o d u c e v a r y i n g f o r ms o f p e r s o n a l i t y d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . The d i s i n t e g r a t i o n e f f e c t s d e e p e r l e v e l s o f a f f e c t and i s i n t e n s e l y e x p e r i e n c e d . F o r i n d i v i d u a l s l i v i n g i n two c u l t u r a l s p h e r e s , g r o u p v e r s u s i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s and p r e s s u r e s t o c o n f o r m t o c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l norms a l l o w l i t t l e room f o r i n d i v i d u a l e x p r e s s i o n . As t h e p e r s o n s t r u g g l e s t o make s e n s e o f t h i s o r h e r e x p e r i e n c e as a u n i q u e i n d i v i d u a l and as an o b l i g a t e d member o f t h e f a m i l y , c o n f u s i o n , f r u s t r a t i o n and d e p r e s s i o n a r e e x p e r i e n c e d . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Disownment as a phenomenon does n o t a p p e a r t o be r e s t r i c t e d t o any one s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l g r o u p . Whenever an i n d i v i d u a l d e v i a t e s f r o m t h e norm he o r she may e x p e r i e n c e some a s p e c t o f b e i n g shunned o r d i s o w n e d . Whatever t h e p r e c i p i t a t i n g c a u s e (whether i t s c h o i c e o f s e x u a l p r e f e r e n c e , i n t e r m a r r i a g e , a b o r t i o n , d i f f e r e n c e i n b e l i e f s , d i v o r c e , o r c h a n g i n g one's f a i t h ) , t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t o t a l and c o m p l e t e s e p a r a t i o n f r o m s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s e f f e c t s t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r o f o u n d l y . Degree o f disownment depends on t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n and upon t h e i m p o r t a n c e p l a c e d on t h e a c t by t h e g r o u p o f i n d i v i d u a l s e n g a g i n g i n t h e s e p a r a t i o n . V a l u e c o n f l i c t , c u l t u r a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , g r o u p v e r s u s i n d i v i d u a l n e e d s , r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s , and s e l f i n d i v i d u a t i o n appear t o be c e n t r a l t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e ( H o s t e t l e r , 1980). Disownment i s o f t e n t h e l a s t r e s o r t o r a c t i o n t a k e n by t h e f a m i l y and by t h e community, t o make t h e i r p o s i t i o n c l e a r t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l ( B r e a k w e l l , 1983). B e i n g d i s o w n e d can be e x p e r i e n c e d i n a v a r i e t y o f ways: a t t h e p e r s o n a l , i n t e r p e r s o n a l , f a m i l y and community l e v e l . Disownment can l e a d t o c o n f u s i o n , a l i e n a t i o n , and d e p r e s s i o n ( H o s t e t l e r , 1980; B r a n d e n , 1941). P r i o r t o t h e s e p a r a t i o n , t h e i n d i v i d u a l may e x p e r i e n c e i s o l a t i o n , r e j e c t i o n , h e l p l e s s n e s s , low s e l f - e s t e e m and d e p r e s s i o n . F r i e n d s and f a m i l y members may c o e r c e t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o n o t b r e a k r u l e s o r o v e r - s t e p b o u n d a r i e s . P r e s s u r e t o c o n f o r m t o s o c i a l norms may be used t o r e m i n d t h e i n d i v i d u a l o f h i s o r h e r d u t y t o t h e f a m i l y , t h e community and s o c i e t y as a whole. B e i n g d i sowned can be a s t r e s s f u l , i f n o t t r a u m a t i c , e x p e r i e n c e f o r some i n d i v i d u a l s . O n l y by i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f p e o p l e who have been p e r s o n a l l y d i s owned can we a c h i e v e i n s i g h t i n t o t h e u n d e r l y i n g i s s u e s and p r o b l e m s . In d o i n g s o , u n d e r s t a n d i n g c an be a c h i e v e d and l e a d t o t h e dev e l o p m e n t o f models t o a s s i s t i n d i v i d u a l s f a c e d w i t h s u c h r e a l i t i e s . To d a t e , no suc h models e x i s t . Statement o f the Problem I t was f o u n d t h r o u g h t h e a u t h o r ' s c l i n i c a l c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e r i e n c e t h a t b o t h men and women were b e i n g d i s o w n e d . F u l l e x t e n t o f t h i s s o c i a l p r o b l e m was r e a l i z e d when a young woman was r e f e r r e d f o r c o u n s e l l i n g . A l t h o u g h a s o l i d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e I n d o - C a n a d i a n c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e c l i e n t was g a i n e d t h e r e were q u e s t i o n s t h a t s t i l l r e m a i n e d u nanswered: What t y p e s o f c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s do s u c c e s s f u l a d a p t e r s employ? How can p r o f e s s i o n a l s 1 0 h e l p c l i e n t s make a d j u s t m e n t s t o s u c h e x p e r i e n c e s ? What a r e t h e main e v e n t s t h a t l e a d t o t h e disownment? What t y p e o f r o l e does t h e f a m i l y , e x t e n d e d f a m i l y and t h e community p l a y i n t h e disownment? What a r e t h e g a i n s and t h e l o s s e s t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l ? And f i n a l l y , what f a c t o r s f a c i l i t a t e o r h i n d e r t h e a d j u s t m e n t p r o c e s s ? R e c o g n i z i n g t h a t t h e r e were o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s s h a r i n g s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s and s e e k i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p , t h e need f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g s t u d y became e v i d e n t . Review o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l e d t h a t l i t t l e r e s e a r c h had been c o n d u c t e d on disownment w i t h i n s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l g r o u p s . L a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s u b j e c t , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e d r e p o r t i n g o f t h i s phenomenon, s u g g e s t e d t h e need f o r s u c h r e s e a r c h . G i v e n t h e e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e o f t h e s t u d y , t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n f o c u s e s on disownment as i t i s e x p e r i e n c e d by one s p e c i f i c g r o u p : I n d o - C a n a d i a n women. Indo-Canadian Women A l t h o u g h I n d o - C a n a d i a n women s h a r e a common h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e , t h e y r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o u s , c u l t u r a l , and s o c i a l b a c k g r o u n d s . T h e i r s o c i a l and economic a d a p t a t i o n i n C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y i s b a s e d on t h e " s o c i o - e c o n o m i c , 11 e d u c a t i o n a l , and o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l o f t h e i r h u s b a n d s " (Ghosh, 1984, p . 3 2 9 ) . I n t e g r a t i o n i n t o m a i n s t r e a m C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y i s an i n d i v i d u a l p r o c e s s w i t h e d u c a t i o n b e i n g t h e s i n g l e c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o t h e i r s u c c e s s (Ghosh, 1984). F o r many o f t h e s e women, t h e s t r u g g l e i s n o t an e a s y one. I n f l u e n c e d by t h e p r e v a i l i n g s o c i a l norms o f S o u t h E a s t A s i a , I n d o - C a n a d i a n women r e m a i n c o n s c i o u s o f t h e i r r o l e s and t h e s t a t u s t h a t a c c o m p a n i e s them (Ghosh, 1984). The s h a r p c o n t r a s t between S o u t h A s i a n and C a n a d i a n v a l u e s y s t e m s i s compounded by " i n t i m i d a t i o n , d i f f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t , and s e x i s t a t t i t u d e s b o t h i n t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y and w i t h i n t h e i r own g r o u p " (Ghosh, 1984, p. 3 2 8 ) . F o r women o c c u p y i n g t h e m a r g i n a l s p a c e between two c u l t u r a l s y s t e m s , t h e c o n f l i c t c an become q u i t e d i s t r e s s i n g ( B h a r a t i , 1983). A d j u s t m e n t may become d i s r u p t i v e and l e a d t o p e r s o n a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n ( L e v i n e , 1982). As women come t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r i d e n t i t y t h e y may e x p e r i e n c e a m b i v a l e n c e , g u i l t , a n g e r , and l a c k o f s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e ( B a l l a r d & B a l l a r d , 1977). P a r e n t a l and s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , c o n f l i c t i n g g r o u p l o y a l t i e s and p r e s s u r e s t o c o n f o r m p l a c e s t r e s s n o t o n l y on t h e i n d i v i d u a l b u t on t h e f a m i l y g r o u p (Ray, 1983). The t r a n s i t i o n a l p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e s e women f i n d t h e m s e l v e s i n "poses t h r e a t s t o 1 2 [ t h e i r ] t r a d i t i o n a l i d e n t i t i e s " and f o r some women i t can l e a d t o disownment ( W e i n r e l c h , 1983, p . 1 4 9 ) . O b j e c t i v e s o f The Study W i t h t h e e v e r c h a n g i n g m u l t i c u l t u r a l n a t u r e o f C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y t h e r e i s a g r o w i n g need f o r l i t e r a t u r e on c r o s s - c u l t u r a l i s s u e s and c o n c e r n s , e s p e c i a l l y r e g a r d i n g how i t a f f e c t s t h e i n d i v i d u a l . The main o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t o b e g i n f i l l i n g i n t h e e x i s t i n g gap i n l i t e r a t u r e by: 1) p r o v i d i n g a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e phenomenon o f disownment, 2) c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i s s u e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f disownment; and 3) fr o m t h e d a t a , b u i l d models and d e v e l o p t h e o r y t h a t would be b e n e f i c i a l t o c r o s s -c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l o r s and e d u c a t o r s . A l t h o u g h t h e f o c u s i n t h i s s t u d y i s on one s p e c i f i c e x p e r i e n c e ( t h a t o f disownment) w i t h i n one s p e c i f i c g r o u p ( i n t h i s c a s e I n d o - C a n a d i a n women), t h i s s t u d y i s n e c e s s a r y f o r i n c r e a s i n g knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t r a n s i t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s a r i s i n g o ut o f i m m i g r a t i o n . 1 3 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Community: R e f e r s t o t h e r e l i g i o u s and e t h n i c community t o w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l b e l o n g s . E x t e n d e d F a m i l y : I n c l u d e s r e l a t i v e s t h r o u g h t h e f a m i l y o f o r i g i n and r e l a t i o n s t h r o u g h t h e i n - l a w s . F a m i l y : "Husband, w i f e and t h e i r c h i l d r e n , w h e ther d w e l l i n g t o g e t h e r o r n o t " (Random House, 1975). I n d o - C a n a d i a n : An i n d i v i d u a l o r i g i n a t i n g f r o m t h e I n d i a n sub-c o n t i n e n t . From any one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g g r o u p s : S i k h s , H i n d u s , P a k i s t a n i s , Moslems, I s m a l i s , and T a m i l s ( t o name a f e w ) . E a c h g r o u p i s d i s t i n c t i n i t s own d i a l e c t , r e l i g i o n , and s o c i a l mores. M a i n s t r e a m S o c i e t y : C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y d i s t i n c t l y N o r t h A m e r i c a n i n i t s v a l u e s and i d e o l o g y . O v e r v i e w H a v i n g o u t l i n e d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o b l e m i n c h a p t e r one, t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r examines r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o disownment as a c o n c e p t and p r o v i d e s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f s t u d i e s r e l a t e d t o m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h i s e x p e r i e n c e . A l s o p r e s e n t e d i s an o v e r v i e w o f I n d o - C a n a d i a n c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t p r o v i d e s a b a c k g r o u n d t o disownment. i s a l s o p r e s e n t e d . The t h i r d c h a p t e r o u t l i n e s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l 14 p r o c e d u r e s , i s s u e s and c o n c e r n s o f t h e s t u d y . A n a l y s i s o f t h e r e s u l t s i s i n c h a p t e r f o u r , w h i l e t h e summary, l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y , d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o u n s e l l i n g a r e d i s c u s s e d In c h a p t e r f i v e . 1 5 C h a p t e r I I Review o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e In t h i s c h a p t e r , t h r e e main t o p i c s a r e i n v e s t i g a t e d . These i n c l u d e : 1) t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ; 2) t h e c o n c e p t o f disownment as e x p r e s s e d i n o t h e r c u l t u r e s ; and 3) a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c u l t u r a l v a r i a b l e s w h i c h g i v e shape t o disownment w i t h i n t h e I n d o - C a n a d i a n community. T h e o r e t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e o f i m m i g r a t i o n , P a r k (1928) s t a t e s t h a t t h e " c o n f l i c t o f c u l t u r e s as i t t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e mind o f t h e i m m i g r a n t i s j u s t t h e c o n f l i c t o f t h e d i v i d e d s e l f " ( p . 8 9 2 ) . I t i s t h e c o n f l i c t between " t h e o l d s e l f and t h e new" ( P a r k , 1928, p. 8 9 2 ) . C e n t r a l t o t h e c o n f l i c t a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t and c o n f l i c t i n g v a l u e s ; s e a r c h f o r e t h n i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ; g r o u p v e r s u s i n d i v i d u a l n e e d s ; s e l f - e s t e e m ; i d e n t i t y ; and c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t . T h r e a t s t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l , t h e f a m i l y , and t h e community a r e e v i d e n t i n t h e c o n f l i c t t h a t i s e x p e r i e n c e d ( B r e a k w e l l , 1983; Cahn, 1987; Sue, 1 9 8 1 ) . 1 6 V a l u e C o n f l i c t F o r i n d i v i d u a l s t h a t move between two d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t v a l u e s c l a s h d r a m a t i c a l l y . Movement a c r o s s c u l t u r e s , p l a c e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n a v u l n e r a b l e p o s i t i o n . S i n c e c u l t u r a l v a l u e s d e f i n e what s h o u l d be c o n s t a n t i n s o c i e t y ( s u c h a s : knowledge, o p i n i o n and b e l i e f s a b out t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and a bout o n e s e l f ) e x p o s u r e t o two d i f f e r e n t v a l u e systems c r e a t e s i n t e r n a l i n c o n s i s t e n c y o r what F e s t i n g e r r e f e r s t o a s : " c o g n i t i v e d i s s o n a n c e " ( F e s t i n g e r , 1957). The i n c o n s i s t e n c y r e s u l t s i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s c o m f o r t and t h i s d i s t r e s s s e r v e s as a m o t i v a t o r f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o r e d u c e and e l i m i n a t e t h e d i s c o m f o r t t h a t i s e x p e r i e n c e d . What t h e i n d i v i d u a l t h u s s t r i v e s f o r i s c o n s i s t e n c y between what he o r she knows, b e l i e v e s , and does ( L e c k y , 1961). The d i f f i c u l t y e x p e r i e n c e d i n r e c o n c i l i n g v a l u e c o n f l i c t s i s e f f e c t i v e l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e v a r i e t y o f ways i n w h i c h p e o p l e a d j u s t t o c o n f l i c t i n g c u l t u r a l demands. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n In h i s r e s e a r c h on A s i a n A m e r i c a n s , Sue (1980) o u t l i n e s t h r e e d i s t i n c t ways i n w h i c h p e o p l e cope w i t h v a l u e c o n f l i c t s . One a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o r e m a i n 1 7 l o y a l t o t h e e t h n i c g r o u p , r e t a i n i n g t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s and l i v i n g up t o t h e r o l e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e p a r e n t s . By c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e norms, s t a n d a r d s , and v a l u e s o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f a m i l y , t h e i n d i v i d u a l who b r i n g s honor t o t h e f a m i l y name i s a b l e t o overcome any i n t e r n a l i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s (Thompson, 1974 ). The s e c o n d a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o become o v e r l y W e s t e r n i z e d by r e j e c t i n g t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . T h i s i n d i v i d u a l p r i d e s him o r h e r s e l f i n t h e a b i l i t y t o a c c u l t u r a t e i n t o t h e m a i n s t r e a m A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y . O f t e n f o r c e d t o r e j e c t t h e A s i a n s i d e o f t h e s e l f , t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s ashamed o f a n y t h i n g t h a t a c t s as a r e m i n d e r o f t h e d e n i e d i d e n t i t y . R e f u s a l t o a c c e p t h i s o r h e r e t h n i c i t y may c o n s e q u e n t l y l e a d t o r a c i a l s e l f h a t r e d and an i d e n t i t y c r i s i s . The i n d i v i d u a l may become contemptuous o f t r a d i t i o n a l c ustoms, v a l u e s , b e h a v i o r s and even h a t e h i s o r h e r own p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e . S i n c e t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a n n o t c o m p l e t e l y r i d him o r h e r s e l f o f t r a d i t i o n a l ways and c a n n o t a c c e p t them as c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s o r h e r b e l i e f s y s t e m , t h e p e r s o n i s u n a b l e t o move beyond t h e m a r g i n a l s p a c e between t h e two (Sue, 1980). The t h i r d a l t e r n a t i v e does n o t r e f l e c t s u c h e x t r e m e s . In t h i s g r o u p , t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e b e l s a g a i n s t p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y , b u t moves on t o d e v e l o p i n g an i d e n t i t y t h a t a l l o w s f o r t h e 18 r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e w i t h t h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n . The i n d i v i d u a l a t t a i n s s e l f p r i d e i n h i s o r e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y (Sue, 1980). As e v i d e n c e d by t h e examples o u t l i n e d by Sue ( 1 9 8 0 ) , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e e t h n i c g r o u p i s d e p e n d e n t upon d e g r e e o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n (Westwood & Massey, 1976). The i n d i v i d u a l may: 1) have some i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h b o t h g r o u p s t h a t he o r she moves between, o r 2) c h o o s e t o r e m a i n h i g h l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h h i s o r h e r g r o u p o f o r i g i n o r 3) become h i g h l y a c c u l t u r a t e d t o t h e b r o a d e r c u l t u r e . Whatever d e c i s i o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l makes, t h e c h o i c e a f f e c t s t h e f a m i l y as w e l l as t h e community (Sue, 1973). A c c o r d i n g t o Keyes ( 1 9 8 1 ) , a p e r s o n ' s c h o i c e o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n r e v e a l s t h a t e t h n i c i t y i s s a l i e n t o n l y as f a r as i t s e r v e s t o o r i e n t t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s p u r s u i t o f p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s . The s o c i o - c u l t u r a l m i l i e u t h a t i s s e l e c t e d i n f l u e n c e s and shapes t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l (DeVos, M a r s e l l a & Hsu, 1985; L e V i n e , 1982). Those who a t t e m p t t o s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n c o r p o r a t e v a l u e s f r o m two d i v e r s e c u l t u r e s must n o t o n l y l e a r n t o c o n f o r m t o e x p e c t a t i o n s o f b o t h s o c i e t i e s , b u t a t some p o i n t e f f e c t i v e l y r e s o l v e t h e c o n f l i c t f o r t h e m s e l v e s . 1 9 Group V e r s u s I n d i v i d u a l Needs The s t r u g g l e f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s r e a l l y a c o n f l i c t o f n e e d s . W h i l e on t h e one hand he o r she f e e l s t h e need f o r g r o u p membership, b e l o n g i n g n e s s and r e l a t i n g t o o t h e r s , t h e s t r u g g l e f o r d e v e l o p i n g s e l f - i d e n t i t y i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e g r o u p , c r e a t e s p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l t e n s i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o Fromm (1941) t h e need f o r b e i n g c o n n e c t e d , t h a t i s t o "engage i n m e a n i n g f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r s encompasses t h e need f o r s e c u r i t y , b e l o n g i n g and f e e l i n g as one w i t h t h e g r o u p " ( p . 2 2 ) . S h a r i n g i n t e r e s t s and l i f e s i t u a t i o n s p r o v i d e s t h e b a s i s f o r l o y a l t y and s e n s e o f community. A f f i l i a t i o n w i t h t h e g r o u p p r o v i d e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t : t h e n a t u r e o f t h e w o r l d ( i . e . , p e r s o n a l a s s u m p t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s , e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n , and b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n s ) (Bowlby, 1980). W h i l e e m o t i o n a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l s u p p o r t o f t h e f a m i l y f i l l s b a s i c needs f o r s e c u r i t y and b e l o n g i n g , i t may n o t a l l o w movement towards p e r s o n a l g r o w t h . C o n f l i c t i n g p r e s s u r e s f o r b e l o n g i n g n e s s and u n i q u e n e s s become p r o b l e m a t i c . In s o c i e t i e s where " r e s p e c t , d e f e r e n c e t o a u t h o r i t y , and g r o u p c o h e s i v e n e s s " a r e more h i g h l y v a l u e d t h a n i n d i v i d u a l p u r s u i t s , i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s must t a k e a s e c o n d a r y p o s i t i o n ( R o s h i , 1983, v i i ) . 20 S e l f - E s t e e m and I d e n t i t y Self-esteem i s t i e d to one's c u l t u r e and sense of p e r s o n a l , s o c i a l and e t h n i c i d e n t i t y ( A d l e r , 1963; E r i c k s o n , 1965). Self-esteem i n v o l v e s p e r s o n a l e f f i c a c y and a sense of personal worth (Branden, 1971). I t i s e s t a b l i s h e d and s u s t a i n e d through i n t e r a c t i o n with s i g n i f i c a n t others (Kaufman, 1985; Lain g , 1969; Cahn, 1987; Rogers, 1961; Mead, 1968). L a i n g (1969) s t a t e s , "each person i s always a c t i n g upon and acted upon by others . . . [and that a l l ] . . . i d e n t i t i e s r e q u i r e another i n and through a r e l a t i o n s h i p with whom s e l f - i d e n t i t y [can be] a c t u a l i z e d " (p. 102). R e c o g n i t i o n of one's i d e n t i t y by others p r o v i d e s a f e e l i n g of s e l f - w o r t h and c o n f i r m a t i o n of one's presence (Cahn, 1987; Lai n g , 1969). Roshi (1983) s t a t e s , " i d e n t i t y i s rooted both i n wholeness of s e l f and bel o n g i n g or i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with o t h e r s " (p. v i i ) . Mead (1937) r e p o r t s that i n d i v i d u a l s l e a r n to i n t e r p r e t the world as others do i n order to be accepted. Reactions and e x p e c t a t i o n s of those who are important to us represent templates f o r our behaviour. These s i g n i f i c a n t others are important to the establishment of s o c i a l i d e n t i t i e s or s o c i a l r o l e s which pro v i d e a sense of s e l f (Breakwell, 21 1983). Core r o l e s a r e b a s i c a l l y t h o s e t h a t c o n c e r n our i d e n t i t i e s and can e i t h e r c o n f i r m , d i s c o n f i r m o r r e j e c t s e l f - c o n c e p t (Cahn, 1987). Cahn (1987) r e p o r t s t h a t p e r s o n a l w o r t h and r e l a t i o n s h i p s a t i s f a c t i o n depend upon t h e i n d i v i d u a l s c a p a c i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d o t h e r s . "Communication p r o d u c e s p e r c e p t i o n s o f b e i n g u n d e r s t o o d " (Cahn, 1987; p. '5). P e r c e i v e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s i s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e v a l i d a t i o n o f s e l f ( L a i n g , 1969; Cahn, 1987). A c c o r d i n g t o Cahn ( 1 9 8 7 ) , "messages r e c e i v e d f r o m o t h e r s can e i t h e r c o n f i r m o r deny m u t u a l p e r c e i v e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s e l f - c o n c e p t s ( p . 3 0 ) . Cahn, (1987) o u t l i n e s t h r e e t y p e s o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . These i n c l u d e : 1) c o n f i r m a t i o n o f s e l f c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a c c e p t a n c e , and f e e l i n g s o f b e i n g u n d e r s t o o d ; 2) d i s c o n f i r m a t i o n o f s e l f w h i c h i n v o l v e s n e i t h e r a c c e p t a n c e o r r e j e c t i o n o f s e l f and 3) r e j e c t i o n o f s e l f . C o mmunication t h u s becomes c e n t r a l t o f e e l i n g s o f p e r s o n a l w o r t h , b e i n g u n d e r s t o o d , and v a l i d a t e d . C u l t u r a l C o n f l i c t I n d i v i d u a l s who i d e n t i f y w i t h two c o n t r a s t i n g or c o n f l i c t i n g s o c i a l g r o u p s e x p e r i e n c e p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s (Sue, 1973, 1980; L e V i n e , 1982). The " d u a l i t y o f c u l t u r e s p r o d u c e s a d u a l i t y o f p e r s o n a l i t y o r a d i v i d e d s e l f " ( S t o n e q u i s t , 1937, p. 2 1 7 ) . F o r i n d i v i d u a l s o c c u p y i n g t r a n s i t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s i n s o c i e t y r e d e f i n i t i o n s o f s e l f and i d e n t i t y become s p e c i a l c o n c e r n s ( W e i n r e i c h , 1983). S o c i a l r o l e s b a s e d on c u l t u r a l v a l u e s and b e l i e f s can have a p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e a f f e c t on s e l f -e s teem. F o r i n d i v i d u a l s moving i n and o u t o f two c u l t u r a l w o r l d s , c o n f l i c t i n g s o c i a l r o l e s can g r e a t l y a f f e c t s e l f - c o n c e p t and i d e n t i t y . T h i s c o n f l i c t i s h e i g h t e n e d by c r o s s - c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n r u l e s t h a t g o v e r n and r e g u l a t e i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t y l e s c r e a t e p r o b l e m s i n t h e a r e a s o f i n t i m a c y , f r i e n d s h i p , and m a r r i a g e (Cahn, 1987). F o r t h e m a r g i n a l i n d i v i d u a l c a u g h t i n t h e c o n f l i c t o f c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , t h e dilemma i s b a s i c a l l y one o f " h a r m o n i z i n g and i n t e g r a t i n g t h e v a r i o u s s e l v e s so t h a t a s t a b l e c h a r a c t e r and a m e a n i n g f u l i n n e r l i f e can be a c h i e v e d " ( S t o n e q u i s t , 1937, p. 2 1 6 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o Sue (1980) t h e i n d i v i d u a l a t t e m p t s t o a l l e v i a t e t h e s t r e s s by o p t i n g f o r t o t a l a s s i m i l a t i o n o r by e l e c t i n g t o r e j e c t c u l t u r a l v a l u e s o f t h e m a i n s t r e a m i n f a v o r o f t h o s e o f h e r e t h n i c g r o u p . P r e s s u r e s t o c o n f o r m p l a c e s s t r e s s upon t h e i n d i v i d u a l and t h e g r o u p (Ray, 1984). W a l k e r and Heyns (1967) s t a t e , " i n a s i t u a t i o n where c o n f o r m i t y i s i n s t r u m e n t a l t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f one n eed and 23 n o n - c o n f o r m i t y i s i n s t r u m e n t a l t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f a n o t h e r , t h e b e h a v i o r t h a t w i l l o c c u r depends on t h e r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s o f t h e two n e e d s " ( p . 9 3 ) . The d u a l i s m i s t h e most e v i d e n t when t h e " i n d i v i d u a l ' s s o c i a l r o l e demands one c o u r s e o f a c t i o n and h i s o r h e r f e e l i n g s c a l l f o r a n o t h e r . " ( B r e a k w e l l , 1983, p. 1 0 ) . T h o u g h t s , f e e l i n g s , a c t i o n s , o r e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h c h a l l e n g e t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l o r s o c i a l I d e n t i t y and s e l f - e s t e e m a r e p e r c e i v e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l as t h r e a t s ( B r e a k w e l l , 1983; B r a n d e n , 1981). Thus a n y t h i n g w h i c h a t t a c k s s e l f - e s t e e m becomes a c o n s e q u e n t t h r e a t t o i d e n t i t y . T h r e a t s to I d e n t i t y B r e a k w e l l (1983) r e p o r t s , a " t h r e a t c a n n o t be d e f i n e d i n terms o f what i s , o n l y i n terms o f what i t d o e s " ( p . 1 9 2 ) . T h r e a t s t o s e l f e steem i n c l u d e : 1) a t t a c k i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l ; 2) a t t a c k i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s g r o u p membership; and 3) a t t a c k i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s g r o u p ( B r e a k w e l l , 1983). The s o u r c e o f t h r e a t c a n be " t h e i n d i v i d u a l , o t h e r p e o p l e , o r t h e m a t e r i a l w o r l d " ( B r e a k w e l l , p . 1 5 ) . How t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t s t h e t h r e a t and g i v e s meaning t o i t i s b a s e d on t h e p e r s o n ' s p e r c e i v e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t h r e a t and upon o t h e r p e o p l e ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t h r e a t . B r e a k w e l l (1983) s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e t o t h r e a t s t o I d e n t i t y can t a k e d i f f e r e n t f o r m s . The i n d i v i d u a l c a n : 1) i n v a l i d a t e t h e t h r e a t by r e i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n t h e t h r e a t ; 2) r e c o n s t r u i n g i d e n t i t y by i n t e g r a t i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t o m a i n t a i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h s e l f -e v a l u a t i o n ; 3) p h y s i c a l l y moving away t o evade t h e t h r e a t ; o r 4) by d o i n g n o t h i n g ( i n e r t i a ) ( p . 1 7 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o B r e a k w e l l ( 1 9 8 3 ) , " t h r e a t s t o t h e i d e n t i t y o f a g r o u p and t h r e a t s t o t h e i d e n t i t y o f i t s members a r e n e v e r i n d e p e n d e n t " (p . 2 5 ) . Any " o b j e c t i v e c h a l l e n g e t o t h e power o f t h e g r o u p can be r e g a r d e d as a t h r e a t t o i d e n t i t y " ( p . 2 4 ) . The i n d i v i d u a l f e e l s t h r e a t e n e d i f h i s o r h e r " p o s i t i v e s o c i a l i d e n t i t y i s b a s e d upon t h a t g r o u p membership" ( B r e a k w e l l , 1983, p. 2 3 ) . T h e r e f o r e , when t h e g r o u p i s a t t a c k e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l s s e l f - e s t e e m i s a l s o a t t a c k e d . A n o t h e r way i n w h i c h t h e g r o u p ca n a f f e c t s e l f - e s t e e m i s by d e n y i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l a s s e s s t o t h e g r o u p whose membership he o r she p r i z e s h i g h l y . In t h e c a s e o f disownment, t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s d e n i e d a c c e s s t o t h e g r o u p . H i s o r h e r s o c i a l i d e n t i t y i s c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n . S i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s a r e no l o n g e r a v a i l a b l e t o v a l i d a t e t h e s e l f . S o c i a l r o l e s t h a t once p r o v i d e d meaning and s t r u c t u r e become l o s t . F o r t h e d i s o wned i n d i v i d u a l t h i s d i s c o n t i n u i t y p r o d u c e s p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s . C a l l e d i n t o 25 q u e s t i o n a r e t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f - e s t e e m , s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y . The f a m i l y and t h e community a l s o e x p e r i e n c e l o s s . Threat To The I n d i v i d u a l F o r t h e d i s o w n e d p e r s o n who i s d e n i e d a c c e s s t o t h e community t h a t f u l f i l l s t h e need f o r e t h n i c v a l i d a t i o n , i s o l a t i o n i s e x p e r i e n c e d . E t h n i c d e n i a l l e a d s t o a f e e l i n g o f i n s e c u r i t y and i n f e r i o r i t y w h i c h i n a d v e r t e n t l y a f f e c t s s e l f c o n c e p t and " p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y " ( H i t c h , 1983; K i t w o o d , 1983). S e p a r a t i o n f r o m s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s i s i n t e n s i f i e d by f e e l i n g s o f d i s t r e s s , a n x i e t y , and t e n s i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e l o s s o f i n t i m a c y and s o c i a l and e t h n i c v a l i d a t i o n . The breakdown o f s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s c r e a t e s t h e most damage b e c a u s e t h e y a f f e c t t h e c o r e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y ( A l t m a n & T a y l o r , 1973). L o s s o f t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h r e a t e n ' s r o l e i d e n t i t i e s t h a t a r e u n i q u e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l . The " d e s t r u c t i o n o f s o c i a l i d e n t i t i e s " t h r o u g h t h e c o l l a p s e o f s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s "undermine v a l u e d s u p p o r t f o r s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n " (Duck & L e a , 1983, p. 7 0 ) . F o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l who i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e f e a r o f disownment o r who has a l r e a d y been d i s o w n e d , p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o s t s r u n h i g h . E x c l u s i o n and d e n i a l 26 o f one's e x i s t e n c e by others can produce d e p r e s s i o n , a l i e n a t i o n , l o s s of sel f - e s t e e m , and d i s c o m f i r m a t i o n of s e l f . "Emptiness and f u t i l i t y a r i s e when the [ i n d i v i d u a l ] i s accorded no r e c o g n i t i o n by other, and i f he f e e l s he i s not able to make any d i f f e r e n c e to anyone" ( L a i n g , 1969; p. 17). Once i n c l u s i o n and the experience of having something i n common wit h others i s denied, the i n d i v i d u a l l o oses the markers f o r i n t e r a c t i o n with o t h e r s , that h e l p d e f i n e the s e l f (DeVos, M a r s e l l a , & Hsu, 1985). E x p u l s i o n from f r i e n d s and f a m i l y produces g u i l t , shame and immense g r i e f . D e n i a l of a f f i l i a t i o n r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s i s o l a t e s the i n d i v i d u a l and leaves the person f e e l i n g v u l n e r a b l e and depressed. I s o l a t i o n and s o c i a l r e j e c t i o n impact on s e l f - e s t e e m and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h . " F r u s t r a t i o n becomes de s p a i r when the person begins to q u e s t i o n h i s or her own c a p a c i t y to mean anything to anyone" ( L a i n g , 1969; p. 69). T h r e a t t o t h e F a m i l y The cost of l o o s i n g one of i t s members impacts upon the f a m i l y profoundly. Pressures to keep the members from engaging i n i n a p p r o p r i a t e behavior may i n i t i a l l y l e a d to c o e r c i o n , g o s s i p , emotional, or p h y s i c a l abuse on the p a r t of f a m i l y members. Family group i n t e r e s t s that are i n c o n f l i c t with the 27 i n d i v i d u a l ' s need f o r s e l f e x p r e s s i o n and per s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t may consequently l e a d to a d i v i s i o n w i t h i n the f a m i l y and c r e a t e a v o l a t i l e f a m i l y atmosphere. Threat to f a m i l y cohesion, t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s , and group i n t e r e s t s produce immense s t r e s s on the f a m i l y system. To a l l e v i a t e the s t r e s s the i n d i v i d u a l that i n t r o d u c e s the t h r e a t of change may he e l i m i n a t e d . T h i s a c t i o n i s not only f o r the b e n e f i t of the c h a l l e n g e r but a l s o serves as a reminder f o r other f a m i l y members ( H o s t e t l e r , 1980; Branden, 1971). T h r e a t To The Community The s o c i a l c o s t s to the community and s o c i e t y v ary depending on the value of i t s i n d i v i d u a l members (Aronson, 1980). I f c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and s u r v i v a l of t r a d i t i o n a l values are threatened, then pre s s u r e to keep group membership c o n s i s t e n t and growing becomes imperative. S u r v i v a l of the community becomes the focus of a t t e n t i o n and f a m i l i a l group e f f o r t . Without the support of a l l the members, the community would not s u r v i v e w i t h i n the broader s o c i e t y ( H o s t e t l e r , 1980). 28 Examples From Other C u l t u r e s Examples f r o m o t h e r c u l t u r e s r e v e a l t h a t disownment i s n o t a new phenomenon. L a b e l s s u c h as s h u n n i n g , e x p u l s i o n , e x c o m m u n i c a t i o n , abandonment, and l o s s o f f a c e have been u s e d t o d e s c r i b e s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s t o disownment. What i s common a c r o s s a l l t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s i s t h e l o s s o f e m o t i o n a l , f a m i l i a l and community s u p p o r t s t h a t c h a l l e n g e t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e n s e o f s e l f and e m o t i o n a l w e l l b e i n g ( H o s t e t l e r , 1980). Degree o f disownment depends upon t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n , t h e im p a c t t h a t t h e a c t i o n has on s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s , and t h e meaning t h a t i t c a r r i e s f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l . Shunning S h u n n i n g , a M e n n o n i t e p r a c t i c e , e x c l u d e s i n d i v i d u a l s f r o m s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h members o f a c h u r c h c o n g r e g a t i o n who have been c e n s u r e d f o r some s e r i o u s i n f r a c t i o n . In t h e Amish community, s h u n n i n g o r Meidung i s p r a c t i c e d a g a i n s t members who: 1) l e a v e t h e Amish C h u r c h t o j o i n a n o t h e r ; o r 2 ) m a r r y o u t s i d e t h e b r o t h e r h o o d . The p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f s h u n n i n g i s t o p r e v e n t members o f t h e community f r o m e n t e r i n g o t h e r r e l i g i o u s g r o u p s and s l i p p i n g i n t o m a i n s t r e a m s o c i e t y ( H o s t e t l e r , 1980). 2 9 As a means o f s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , and r e l i g i o u s c o n t r o l s h u n n i n g w o u l d n o t he e f f e c t i v e w i t h o u t t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e e n t i r e community. The r u l e s e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e t h a t : 1) members r e c e i v e no f a v o r s f r o m t h e shunned p e r s o n ; 2) members do n o t buy f r o m o r s e l l t o t h i s i n d i v i d u a l ; 3) no members, i n c l u d i n g t h e f a m i l y , e a t a t t h e same t a b l e w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l ; and f i n a l l y , t h e i n d i v i d u a l must s u s p e n d any e x i s t i n g m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s ( H o s t e t l e r , 1980). Bann P r i o r t o s h u n n i n g , t h e i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t s i n a s t a t e o f bann. The p e r s o n i s n o t i f i e d o f t h e e x p u l s i o n i n a d v a n c e . Once t h e i n d i v i d u a l has been i n f o r m e d o f t h e o f f e n s e he o r she becomes an o u t c a s t , " r e j e c t e d by God and man" ( H o s t e t l e r , 1980). The s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e o f f e n s e o f b r e a k i n g w i t h t r a d i t i o n p r o d u c e s immense p r e s s u r e s on t h e i n d i v i d u a l and p r e s e n t s a s t r a i n on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e f a m i l y w i t h i n t h e community. Bann and s h u n n i n g f u n c t i o n as i n s t r u m e n t s o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l d i s c i p l i n i n g members t o n o t o v e r s t e p b o u n d a r i e s , and p r o v i d e e f f e c t i v e means o f d i s p e n s i n g w i t h o f f e n d e r s t h a t t h r e a t e n t h e l i v e l i h o o d o f t h e community and t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e c h u r c h ( H o s t e t l e r , 1980). 30 Loss of Face F o r many o f t h e E a s t e r n s o c i e t i e s , one's r o l e i n t h e f a m i l y and i n t h e community a r e e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d . Code o f e t h i c s , s o c i a l mores, and f i l i a l p i e t y a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f E a s t e r n c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s . I m p l i c i t and e x p l i c i t r u l e s o f c o n d u c t p r o v i d e t h e framework w i t h i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e h a v i o u r i s g o v e r n e d . S i n c e t h e emphasis i s on t h e g r o u p , r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e h i g h l y v a l u e d (Okabe, 1983). U n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e r e s p e c t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y enmeshed w i t h r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e f a m i l y , l o s s o f i n d i v i d u a l r e s p e c t i m p a c t s upon t h e honor o f t h e f a m i l y as a whole ( K o r n f i e l d , Ram Das & M i y u k i , 1983; Hsu, 1985). L o s s o f f a c e f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e ey e s o f t h e p a r e n t s , f a m i l y , e x t e n d e d f a m i l y and i n t h e community i s c o n s i d e r e d a f a t e w orse t h a n d e a t h . W h i l e l o s s o f f a c e i s an extreme r e a c t i o n t o t h e o f f e n s i v e a c t i o n s , t h e f e a r o f t h e l o s s o f f a c e s e r v e s as an e f f e c t i v e means o f d i s c i p l i n e , s o c i a l c o n t r o l , and e n s u r e s t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , and r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s . 31 S i t t i n g S h i v a In J e w i s h t r a d i t i o n , an i n d i v i d u a l who f o r p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s f e e l s r e l u c t a n t t o p e r f o r m h i s or h e r d u t y " I s d i s q u a l i f i e d f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s ( D o n i n , 1972, p. 2 0 1 ) . One o f t h e most s e r i o u s v i o l a t i o n s i s m a r r i a g e w i t h a p e r s o n who i s n o t o f t h e J e w i s h f a i t h . By v i o l a t i n g t h e a c t o f m a r r i a g e , t h r o u g h a mixed m a r r i a g e , t h e v e r y " f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h e J e w i s h m a r r i a g e and i t s p u r p o s e s [become] a b s e n t " ( D o n i n , 1972, p. 2 9 1 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o D o n i n ( 1 9 7 2 ) , " i f t h e home i s weak, e m o t i o n a l l y , m o r a l l y , and s p i r i t u a l l y [ t h e n a l l o f ] J e w i s h l i f e and a l l i t s r e l i g i o u s , e d u c a t i o n a l , s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s m i r r o r t h a t weakness" ( p . 1 2 1 ) . B e c a u s e m i x e d m a r r i a g e s t h r e a t e n t h e c o r e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e J e w i s h f a i t h , i n d i v i d u a l s who marry o u t s i d e r i s k e x c l u s i o n f r o m t h e J e w i s h community. The i n d i v i d u a l b r i n g s d i s h o n o r t o h i s o r h e r f a m i l y and t o t h e community as a whole. S e p a r a t i o n f r o m t h e i n d i v i d u a l c an be so c o m p l e t e t h a t m o u r n i n g may be e x p r e s s e d by t h e a c t o f s i t t i n g S h i v a w h i c h i s c u s t o m a r i l y u s e d t o mourn t h e dead. To summarize, disownment s e r v e s as i n s t r u m e n t o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l . By t e r m i n a t i n g an a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l t h a t t h r e a t e n s e x i s t i n g v a l u e s , t r a d i t i o n s , b e l i e f s , and s o c i a l norms t h e g r o u p i s a b l e t o keep members i n c o n t r o l . The f e a r o f disownment, e x c o m m u n i c a t i o n , or Meidung i s e f f e c t i v e i n i n d u c i n g c o n f o r m i t y among g r o u p members ( H o s t e t l e r , 1980). B e c a u s e r u l e s a r e so e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d , any o f f e n s e t h a t i s c o n t e m p l a t e d must be g i v e n s e r i o u s d e l i b e r a t i o n . Knowing t h a t when b o u n d a r i e s a r e o v e r s t e p p e d t h e y must be o v e r s t e p p e d beyond t h e p o i n t o f no r e t u r n , t h e i n d i v i d u a l must ponder upon t h e p r o s p e c t o f l i v i n g a m a r g i n a l e x i s t e n c e ( H a l l , 1981; S t o n e q u i s t , 1937). A c c o r d i n g t o S t o n e q u i s t ( 1 9 3 7 ) , a m a r g i n a l p e r s o n i s "one whom f a t e has condemned t o l i v e i n two s o c i e t i e s and i n two n o t m e r e l y d i f f e r e n t b u t a n t a g o n i s t i c c u l t u r e s " ( p . i i i ) . M o t i v a t i o n f o r b r e a k i n g away f r o m t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s a r e m u l t i p l e and v a r i e d . Some o f t h e s e i n c l u d e : l a c k o f p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t ; a b s e n c e o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and c o n t r o l ; i n d i v i d u a l n e e d s ; f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e ; and d e s i r e f o r e x p r e s s i o n o f s e l f -i n t e r e s t ( H o s t e t l e r , 1980). C u l t u r a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s , and t h e p r e s e n c e o f a l t e r n a t i v e c h o i c e s , a r e c e n t r a l t o t h e m a r g i n a l s h i f t when i t does o c c u r . When t h e i n d i v i d u a l moves i n f a v o r o f owning h i s o r h e r e m o t i o n s , n e e d s , and d e s i r e s he o r she i s f a c e d w i t h t h e t h r e a t o f b e i n g d i s o w n e d by s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s . The d e g r e e o f disownment i s g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e v o l u n t a r y o r i n v o l u n t a r y a s p e c t o f t h e 33 disownment. The i n d i v i d u a l may c h o o s e t o v o l u n t a r i l y l e a v e t h e g r o u p o r w i l l be t o l d t h a t he o r she can l o n g e r b e l o n g . L o s s o f s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s , a s h i f t i n r e a l i t y s y s t e m , c o n f u s i o n o f i d e n t i t y , and g r o u p l o y a l t i e s may p r o d u c e d i s b e l i e f , s h o c k , and d i s o r i e n t a t i o n . W h i l e some compromises a r e made i n t h e p r o c e s s o f a d j u s t m e n t , l o s s o f meaning and i n t i m a c y d e r i v e d v i s - a - v i s o t h e r s c a n be t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t l o s s o f a l l . C u l t u r a l Context In o r d e r t o f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f disownment, a c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p s t u d i e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h i s p r e s e n t e d . The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e Indo-C a n a d i a n f a m i l i a l and c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t i s n o t meant t o be an e x h a u s t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n b u t a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e more s a l i e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l s p h e r e s t h a t g i v e s shape t o t h i s phenomenon. B i - C u l t u r a l Context H a l l ' s (1981) d i s t i n c t i o n between " h i g h c o n t e x t " and "low c o n t e x t " c u l t u r e s i s a u s e f u l c o n c e p t f o r p u t t i n g i n t o p e r s p e c t i v e t h e two c u l t u r a l s y s tems t h a t a r e i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s h a p i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f disownment. By d e f i n i t i o n , a " h i g h c o n t e x t " c u l t u r e i s one w h i c h r e f l e c t s a h i g h d e g r e e o f i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h r e l a t i o n s h i p s and s t r e s s e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e c o n t e x t o f e v e n t s i n w h i c h r e l a t i o n s h i p o c c u r . "Low c o n t e x t " c u l t u r e s on t h e o t h e r hand a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y i n d i v i d u a l , g o a l o r i e n t e d and f o c u s e d on i d e a s r a t h e r t h a n on e v e n t s . "Low c o n t e x t " c u l t u r e s a r e m a i n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h m a t e r i a l t h i n g s and s t r e s s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e message r a t h e r t h a n on t h e c o n t e x t . W h i l e b o t h h i g h and low c o n t e x t c u l t u r a l systems have t h e i r s t r e n g t h s and w e a k n e s s e s , t h e s h a r p c o n t r a s t between a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s , b e l i e f s , norms and s o c i a l mores can be d i s o r i e n t i n g f o r t h e p e r s o n moving between t h e two. Movement between t h e s e s ystems c r e a t e s c o n f l i c t and can r e s u l t i n d e p r e s s i o n , and a s e n s e o f n o t b e l o n g i n g t o e i t h e r one o f t h e s e s p h e r e s . The c u l t u r e t o w h i c h t h e m a j o r i t y o f Indo-C a n a d i a n s a d h e r e , r e g a r d l e s s o f i t s v a r i o u s s u b g r o u p s , f i t w i t h i n H a l l ' s (1981) d e f i n i t i o n o f a " h i g h c o n t e x t " c u l t u r e . I m p ortance i s p l a c e d upon r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e f a m i l y , e x t e n d e d f a m i l y and t h e community. The f a m i l y u n i t i s h i g h l y v a l u e d , and c h i l d r e n a r e t a u g h t t o r e s p e c t and honor r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f a u t h o r i t y ( B a l l a r d & B a l l a r d , 1977; Das & B a r d i s , 1979). In t h i s c o n t e x t , a g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e and e n e r g y i s expended i n b u i l d i n g and 35 m a i n t a i n i n g a c t i o n c h a i n s a r o u n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( H a l l , 1982 ). S i n c e t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s y s t e m i s t o m a i n t a i n , s u p p o r t , and enhance f a m i l y bonds, change i s p e r c e i v e d as t h r e a t e n i n g t o t h e f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e . In o r d e r t o p r o t e c t bonds, i m p l i c i t as w e l l as e x p l i c i t c u l t u r a l c o d e s e n s u r e t h a t h i e r a r c h i e s o f c o n t r o l w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y network a r e n o t t h r e a t e n e d o r d i s r e s p e c t e d . B e c a u s e b e n d i n g o r b r e a k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s have c o s t s a t t a c h e d , " b o u n d a r i e s when t h e y a r e c r o s s e d must be o v e r s t e p p e d so f a r t h a t t h e r e i s no t u r n i n g b a c k " ( H a l l , 1982, p. 1 2 7 ) . The h i g h c o n t e x t c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d o f Indo-C a n a d i a n s i s c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h m a i n t a i n i n g and e n h a n c i n g i n v e s t m e n t i n i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In c o n t r a s t , C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e c l o s e l y a p p r o x i m a t e s a "low c o n t e x t " c u l t u r e , one w h i c h i s l a r g e l y o r i e n t e d t o w a r d s t h e p u r s u i t o f i d e a s , t h i n g s , and p e r s o n a l g o a l s ( H a l l , 1981). In t h i s c o n t e x t , i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e , c o n t r o l o v e r one's a f f a i r s , a c h i e v e m e n t , and s u c c e s s a r e e m p h a s i z e d o v e r c o l l e c t i v e g a i n . T h i s s y s t e m i s l e s s bound by d u t y , o b l i g a t i o n , r e s p e c t and h o n o r o f f a m i l i a l t i e s and more d i r e c t i v e i n terms o f i n d i v i d u a l a c h i e v e m e n t and i n d e p e n d e n c e . S e l f -r e l i a n c e , i n d i v i d u a l i s m and p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s s y s t e m (Sue, 1980). The c l a s h i s e s s e n t i a l l y between t h e ' s e l f and t h e 36 ' c o l l e c t i v e ' between two c u l t u r a l spheres.. In t h e n e x t s e c t i o n a b r i e f o u t l i n e o f one s p e c i f i c g r o u p i s p r e s e n t e d . I t i s n o t p r e s e n t e d as a e x h a u s t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n and t h e r e f o r e must be r e a d w i t h d i s c r e t i o n . Indo-Canadian C u l t u r a l Context  The Family The f a m i l y p l a y s a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e l i f e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . I t p r o v i d e s s e c u r i t y , b e l o n g i n g , and a s e n s e o f i d e n t i t y . The f a m i l y m e d i a t e s between t h e i n d i v i d u a l members and t h e e x t e r n a l s o c i e t y . The f a m i l y i s t h e c h i e f s o c i a l i z i n g a g e n t f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l . T h r o u g h t h e f a m i l y , he o r she l e a r n s a b o u t male f e m a l e r o l e s , i d e o l o g y o f t h e c a s t e , t h e community, r e l i g i o n , e x p l i c i t v a l u e s , b e l i e f s , and c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s ( L e a f , 1972). The f a m i l y e s s e n t i a l l y c o n t r o l s m a r r i a g e and economic r e s o u r c e s , d e t e r m i n e s t h e l i f e s t y l e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , and p r o v i d e s t h e b a c k g r o u n d f o r n e a r l y a l l d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s t h a t g i v e d e f i n i t i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l s t a t u s ( L e a f , 1 972). The f a m i l y i s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s h a p i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y and i d e n t i t y . I n d i v i d u a l r e s p e c t i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y t i e d t o f a m i l y r e s p e c t and i s i n s e p a r a b l e f r o m t h e f a m i l y . 37 Extended Family The e x t e n d e d f a m i l y s e r v e s a v a r i e t y o f f u n c t i o n s . C h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n t i m a c y , r e s t r a i n t i n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , m u t u a l a s s i s t a n c e , and e n d u r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y l i m i t s s o c i a l m o b i l i t y and s o c i a l changes by b i n d i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t o g e t h e r (Das & B a r d i s , 1979; Zimmerman & U r n i t r a n , 1975). The a d v a n t a g e o f t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y s y s t e m i s t h a t i t d i f f u s e s dependency among a g r e a t e r number o f r e l a t i v e s and a l l o w s many members t o p o o l t h e i r e c onomic and s o c i a l r e s o u r c e s . F o r t h o s e who i n i t i a t e t h e i r own i n d e p e n d e n c e , t h e p r i c e o f n o n c o n f o r m i t y i s h i g h . In t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y s y s t e m , t h e o n l y i n d i v i d u a l c o n s i d e r e d c o m p l e t e i s t h e m a r r i e d a d u l t . S i m i l a r t o t h e f a m i l y o f o r i g i n , t h e r e s p e c t and honor o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e f l e c t s upon t h e r e p u t a t i o n o f t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y (Zimmerman & U r n i t r a n , 1975). F a m i l y O b l i g a t i o n s W h i l e t h e f a m i l y i s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l , t h e members a r e e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y . W i t h o u t i t s members, t h e f a m i l y would n o t f u n c t i o n e f f i c i e n t l y . By p r o v i d i n g economic s e c u r i t y , e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t , and r e s o u r c e s t o draw upon t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s need f o r s e c u r i t y , b e l o n g i n g n e s s , and p e r s o n a l d i g n i t y a r e f u l f i l l e d . K e e p i n g i t s members happy and c o n t e n t , t h e f a m i l y f u l f i l l s i t s o b l i g a t i o n t o i t s members who i n t u r n work f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e g r o u p as a whole . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n d i v i d u a l members r e m a i n " v e r y c o n s c i o u s o f t h e bonds o f d u t y and a f f e c t i o n w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y " (Ramcharan, 1982, p. 4 5 ) . R e s p e c t , S t a t u s , and Power One o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t v a l u e s and most d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o disownment o f f a m i l y members i s t h a t o f r e s p e c t . R e p u t a t i o n and honor a r e e m o t i o n a l l y l a d e n i s s u e s w h i c h g o v e r n e v e r y a c t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y members. W e a l t h , p r e s t i g e , s t a t u s , and power enhance t h e r e s p e c t o f t h e f a m i l y name. S t a t u s and power a r e c r u c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t f o r I n d o - C a n a d i a n s . S t a t u s i s g i v e n e x p r e s s i o n i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p e o p l e . The s t a t u s i s n o t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e r se b u t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e l a r g e r c o l l e c t i v e - t h a t o f c a s t e and f a m i l y ( L e a f , 1972). F o r most I n d o - C a n a d i a n s , p r o t e c t i o n and i n c r e a s e i n s t a t u s a r e p r i m a r y c o n c e r n s . S t a t u s depends on one's c a s t e membership and on t h e p o s i t i o n o f one's f a m i l y r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r f a m i l i e s o f t h e same c a s t e ( L e a f , 1972). W h i l e t h e s t a t u s o f t h e c a s t e i s f i x e d , t h e s t a t u s o f t h e f a m i l y r e m a i n s m o b i l e . Two f a c t o r s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e t h e s t a t u s o f t h e f a m i l y i n c l u d e : 1) " t h e power i t can command b a s e d upon t h e w e a l t h , i n d u s t r y , c o u r a g e , and g e n e r o s i t y o f i t s male members" and 2) "on t h e c h a s t i t y and r e p u t a t i o n o f i t s f e m a l e members" ( L e a f , 1972, p. 1 9 2 ) . G i v e n t h e d e g r e e o f i m p o r t a n c e p l a c e d upon t h e s t a t u s o f t h e f a m i l y , a g r e a t d e a l o f e n e r g y i s expended i n p r o t e c t i n g one's f a m i l y s t a t u s , and e n g a g i n g i n a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h i n t u r n r a i s e s t a t u s f u r t h e r . A c c o r d i n g t o L e a f ( 1 9 7 2 ) , s t a t u s c a n be i n c r e a s e d by: ( 1 ) a c q u i r i n g more l a n d and w e a l t h ; (2) I n c r e a s i n g t h e number o f f r i e n d s and a c q u a i n t a n c e s t o i n c l u d e p r e s t i g i o u s and p o w e r f u l i n d i v i d u a l s , t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g t h e s p h e r e o f i n f l u e n c e ; o r (3) p r e v e n t i n g t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f " f r i v o l o u s o r e l i c i t s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s " o f f e m a l e f a m i l y members ( L e a f , 1972, p . 9 7 ) . S t r i v i n g f o r s t a t u s i s m e d i a t e d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e f a m i l y and t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y . The s e c u r i t y s y s t e m p r o v i d e d by t h e f a m i l y and t h e c a s t e h e l p s t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r o l s e x u a l i m p u l s e s t h e r e b y s t r i v i n g f o r t h e g o a l o f t h e g r o u p c o l l e c t i v e ( w h i c h e s s e n t i a l l y i s t h a t o f s t a t u s ) . S i n c e t h e f a m i l y i s t h e c r u c i a l u n i t i n I n d o - C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y , i n d i v i d u a l s l i v e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s l a i d down by p a r e n t s and e n f o r c e d by t h e a u t h o r i t y o f e l d e r s . G i v e n t h a t r e l a t i v e s 40 p a r t i c i p a t e i n most e v e n t s and major d e c i s i o n s i n one's l i f e , t h e i n d i v i d u a l does n o t have a v a i l a b l e t o him o r h e r t h e e x p e r i e n c e s n e c e s s a r y i n d e v e l o p i n g a c l e a r c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e s e l f ( L e a f , 1 972). L a c k o f s e l f c o n c e p t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o t h e a b s e n c e o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e a r e a s o f e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , and m a r r i a g e . S i n c e p a r e n t s make t h e d e c i s i o n s and r e l a t i v e s p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s , t h e r o l e t h a t f a m i l y and t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y becomes c r u c i a l . S i g n i f i c a n t R e l a t i o n s h i p s S i n c e " r e l a t i o n s h i p s can do e v e r y t h i n g f o r one o r a g a i n s t one", t h e y become a v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e n o t o n l y f o r t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s b u t a l s o f o r t h e d evelopment o f new s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h r o u g h m a r r i a g e ( P e t t i g r e w , 1972, p. 3 5 1 ) . R e l a t i o n s h i p s e s t a b l i s h e d by m a r r i a g e p r o v i d e s t r a t e g i c l i n k s between f a m i l i e s . R e l a t i o n s h i p s p r o v i d e r e s o u r c e s f o r i n f l u e n c e and a c c u m u l a t i o n o f w e a l t h and power. Money can a l s o a l t e r t h e s t a t u s o f t h e f a m i l y v i s - a - v i s o t h e r s . W e a l t h e n a b l e s t h e f a m i l y t o r a i s e i t s p o s i t i o n by a c h i e v i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r f a m i l i e s o f e q u a l o r g r e a t e r s t a t u s . 41 A u t h o r i t y and D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g In I n d o - C a n a d i a n t r a d i t i o n , t h e e l d e s t male p o s s e s s e s a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e h o u s e h o l d . He i s bestowed w i t h r e s p e c t , l o y a l t y , and d e f e r e n c e . D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n t h e a r e a o f f i n a n c i a l m a t t e r s , m a r r i a g e and d i s c i p l i n e o f c h i l d r e n a r e p a r t o f h i s r o l e i n m a i n t a i n i n g a w e l l r e s p e c t e d f a m i l y . W h i l e women make t h e day t o day d e c i s i o n s , t h e major ones a r e made by t h e male members o f t h e f a m i l y (Das & B a r d i s , 1979). A u t h o r i t y i s a l l o c a t e d t o age and sex w i t h m a l e s h a v i n g g r e a t e r a u t h o r i t y o v e r f e m a l e s ( B r a h , 1978). S t a t u s o f Women W i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e f a m i l y , women p l a y i m p o r t a n t r o l e s as d a u g h t e r s and as w i v e s ( D h a n j a l , 1976). F o r women t h e f o c u s o f c o n c e r n has been t h e f a m i l y r a t h e r t h a n t h e i n d i v i d u a l s e l f . S i n c e t h e c o m p l e t e a d u l t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e m a r r i e d i n d i v i d u a l , t h e s t a t u s o f a m a r r i e d women e x c e e d s t h a t o f a s i n g l e women d e s p i t e age d i f f e r e n c e s . " M a r r i a g e i s c o n s i d e r e d so e s s e n t i a l t h a t w i t h o u t i t a women's l i f e i s c o n s i d e r e d b l i g h t e d " ( K i s h w a r , 1987, p . 4 ) . Women a r e a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m a i n t a i n i n g t h e r e p u t a t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y . F a m i l i e s r a i s e t h e i r 42 d a u g h t e r s on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e y w i l l e v e n t u a l l y m a r r y . E f f o r t s a r e made by a l l members o f t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y and community t o e n s u r e t h a t women p e r f o r m i n good s t a n d i n g i n t h e i r r o l e s as d a u g h t e r s , w i v e s , and as d a u g h t e r - i n - l a w s . T h e i r r o l e s n o t o n l y u p h o l d t h e s t a t u s o f t h e f a m i l y t h e y l e a v e b e h i n d , b u t f u r t h e r add t o t h e r e s p e c t and honor o f t h e new f a m i l y t h e y j o i n ( D h a n j a l , 1976). In t h e I n d o - C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y , m ales c o n t i n u e t o m a i n t a i n p r e f e r e n t i a l s t a t u s o v e r women. U n l i k e some mal e s who a r e p e r c e i v e d t o be p r e c i o u s c o m m o d i t i e s , d a u g h t e r s a r e assumed t o be a b u r d e n ( K i s h w a r , 1987). S i n c e women e v e n t u a l l y l e a v e t h e i r f a m i l y home and become members i n t h e h o u s e h o l d o f t h e i r h usband's f a m i l y , t h e y a r e c o n s i d e r e d a l i a b i l i t y i n t h a t t h e y do n o t c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e economic s u c c e s s o f t h e i r f a m i l y o f o r i g i n . Dowry The dowry i s t h e o n l y s o u r c e o f w e a l t h t h a t t h e woman r e c e i v e s f r o m h e r f a m i l y . When t h e woman e n t e r s h e r husband's f a m i l y , w e a l t h i n t h e f o r m o f i n h e r i t a n c e f r o m t h e f a m i l y o f o r i g i n does n o t accompany h e r . A l t h o u g h g o l d and o t h e r j e w e l r y were t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e c o g n i z e d as t h e woman's p e r s o n a l s e c u r i t y , t h e dowry e s s e n t i a l l y f u n c t i o n s as a " t r a n s f e r o f w e a l t h f r o m men o f one f a m i l y t o t h o s e o f a n o t h e r , w i t h t h e women a c t i n g as t h e v e h i c l e s o f t r a n s f e r " ( K i s h w a r , 1987, p. 6 ) . As t o k e n s o f r e s p e c t , t h e dowry i s a p u b l i c acknowledgement o f male s t a t u s and f a m i l y h o n o r , n o t an i n v e s t m e n t i n t h e g i r l ' s f u t u r e ( V e r g h e s e , 1985). The dowry n o t o n l y o n l y e n hances t h e s t a t u s o f b o t h t h e groom's p a r e n t s and t h e b r i d e ' s f a m i l y , i t f u r t h e r d e f i n e s a "power r e l a t i o n between t h e man and t h e woman" ( K i s h w a r , 1987, p. 1 0 ) . E d u c a t i o n W i t h t h e i n c r e a s e i n economic p r e s s u r e s , women a r e e n c o u r a g e d towards h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and employment. E d u c a t i o n n o t o n l y i n c r e a s e s t h e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f t h e women b u t a l s o r a i s e s t h e s t a t u s o f t h e f a m i l y . However, f o r women, e d u c a t i o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t s s t i l l r e m a i n s e c o n d a r y t o m a r r i a g e . The u n d e r l y i n g b e l i e f i s t h a t a " d a u g h t e r i s n e v e r c o n s i d e r e d s e t t l e d i f she i s n o t m a r r i e d , n o t even i f she has a w e l l p a i d , h i g h s t a t u s J o b " ( K i s h w a r , 1987, p. 4 ) . C o u r t s h i p G i v e n t h a t " b o u n d a r i e s o f communal a f f i l i a t i o n a r e s h a r p l y drawn" and t h a t m a r r i a g e between i n d i v i d u a l s i s r e a l l y a u n i o n o f f a m i l i e s o f e q u a l o r 44 h i g h e r s t a t u s , c o u r t s h i p becomes a s o c i a l l y d i s a p p r o v e d custom. C o n t a c t between members o f t h e o p p o s i t e sex i s d i s c o u r a g e d and d a t i n g i n c u r s c e n s o r s h i p f r o m t h e f a m i l y as w e l l as f r o m t h e community as a whole . S t r o n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h f a m i l y r e s p e c t o r i s a t i s a p o w e r f u l d e t e r r e n t f o r t h o s e c o n t e m p l a t i n g d a t i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r women. Love o r prem i s p e r c e i v e d as i l l u s o r y and impermanent ( F r u z z e t i , 1982). W h i l e sex i s c o n s i d e r e d an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f m a r r i a g e i t i s n o t seen as t h e immediate o r t h e u l t i m a t e aim o f t h e m a r i t a l u n i o n . C o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e male l i n e i s t h e p r i m a r y aim o f m a r r i a g e and t h e f o c a l c o n c e r n o f t h e m a r i t a l a l l i a n c e ( F r u z z e t i , 1982). Marriage A c c o r d i n g t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t o f t h e Indo-C a n a d i a n m a r r i a g e , m a r r i a g e i s an a l l i a n c e between two f a m i l i e s r a t h e r t h a n a r e l a t i o n s h i p between an i n d i v i d u a l man and woman. A r r a n g e d by t h e f a m i l y , i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s become s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e g o a l o f t h e f a m i l y t h a t o f s e c u r i n g s t a t u s and m a i n t a i n i n g o r e n h a n c i n g i t s r e p u t a t i o n . The woman has l i t t l e c h o i c e i n d e c i d i n g t h e terms and c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e m a r r i a g e . In f a c t , i t i s t h e " s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s 4 5 and power o f b r o t h e r s , u n c l e s , g r a n d p a r e n t s , a n d c o u s i n s , t h a t p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e outcome o f t h e m a r r i a g e n e g o t i a t i o n s " ( K i s h w a r , 1987, p. 5 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s c o n c e p t o f m a r r i a g e , l o v e i s n o t p e r c e i v e d t o be t h e b a s i s f o r mate s e l e c t i o n ( F r u z z e t i , 1982). Love m a r r i a g e s c r e a t e t e n s i o n f o r members o f b o t h h o u s e h o l d s and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e k i n and t h e r e f o r e , a r e d i s c o u r a g e d arid condemned ( F r u z z e t i , 1982). Love m a r r i a g e s a r e r e s t r i c t e d b e c a u s e t h e y n o t o n l y r i s k k i n and c a s t e t i e s , b u t m o r e • i m p o r t a n t l y t h e y " c h a l l e n g e t h e male l i n e , members o f t h e l i n e , and r e l a t i v e s i n t h e b u i l d i n g o f f u r t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h r o u g h s u b s e q u e n t m a r r i a g e s " ( F r u z z e t i , 1982, p. 1 2 ) . The M a r i t a l R e l a t i o n s h i p The t r a d i t i o n a l m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by male dominance and f e m a l e dependence. The husband a c t i n g as t h e a u t h o r i t a r i a n f i g u r e d o m i n a t e s t h e m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . The r o l e o f t h e w i f e i s e s s e n t i a l l y one o f p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e t o t h e husband, f a m i l y , and t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y . S i n c e m a r r i a g e c a r r i e s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e l a t i o n s and t h e honor o f t h e f a m i l i e s , permanence o f t h e u n i o n i s u n q u e s t i o n a b l e (Thompson, 1974). 46 M a r r i a g e a c t s a s , t h e main t i e t h a t b i n d s f a m i l i e s o f s i m i l a r s t a t u s and, p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n m a i n t a i n i n g b o u n d a r i e s between g r o u p s ( L e a f , 1 9 72). I n t e r - c a s t e , i n t e r - r e l i g i o u s , and i n t e r -r a c i a l m a r r i a g e s do o c c u r o c c a s i o n a l l y , a l t h o u g h t h e y a r e f o r b i d d e n . The m a r i t a l u n i o n i s v i e w e d as a l i f e l o n g commitment and d i v o r c e , a l t h o u g h p e r m i s s i b l e i s g e n e r a l l y n o t condoned. R i s k o f l o s s o f r e s p e c t f o r b o t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l and t h e f a m i l y p r o v i d e e f f e c t i v e d e t e r r e n t s t o s u c h a c t i o n s . D i v o r c e When t h e f a m i l y , w h i c h i s t h e main c e n t e r o f l i f e f o r t h e woman does n o t f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y , i t i s t h e woman t h a t assumes t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s d o w n f a l l . A d i v o r c e d woman who r e t u r n s t o h e r p a r e n t ' s home i s o f t e n blamed f o r t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p and i s p e r s u a d e d t o r e t u r n t o h e r husband's home. The f a m i l y p r e s s u r e i s l a r g e l y c o n n e c t e d t o f a m i l y r e s p e c t and s a v i n g t h e f a m i l y f r o m d i s g r a c e and shame. " B e a r i n g m a l t r e a t m e n t f r o m h e r husband w i t h o u t l e t t i n g h e r p a r e n t s know o f i t i s n o t o n l y a d u t y she owes t o him b u t a d u t y she owes t o h e r p a r e n t s who s p e n t so much on t h e w e d d i n g " ( K i s h w a r , 1987, p. 7 ) . 47 D i v o r c e i s s t r o n g l y d i s a p p r o v e d and i n some i n s t a n c e s t a b o o e d . G i v e n t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f m a r r i a g e as a s a c r a m e n t , d i v o r c e i s u s u a l l y s o u g h t o n l y as t h e l a s t r e s o r t . A woman c l e a r l y a c k n o w l e d g e s and u n d e r s t a n d s t h a t t h e c h a n c e s o f r e m a r r i a g e w i t h a member o f h e r own community w i l l be s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d i f she c h o o s e s t o l e a v e . She knows t h a t "her w o r l d f r o w n s on d i v o r c e and c a r r i e s a s t i g m a f a r g r e a t e r t h a n widowhood" ( V e r g h e s e , 1985, p. 4 2 ) . I f t h e woman does n o t r e t u r n t o h e r husband's home, she i s e n c o u r a g e d t o r e m a r r y as soon as p o s s i b l e . "Her p a r e n t s may r e l u c t a n t l y t a k e h e r back b u t h e r f o o t h o l d i n t h e i r house r e m a i n s p r e c a r i o u s b e c a u s e she i s t h e r e on s u f f e r a n c e , n o t by r i g h t u n l i k e t h e s o n s " ( K i s h w a r , 1987, p. 7 ) . In s u c h s i t u a t i o n s women e i t h e r succumb t o f a m i l y p r e s s u r e s o r l e a v e t h e community a l t o g e t h e r ( B a l l a r d , 1978). Once t h i s happens, t h e y become a l i e n a t e d f r o m t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y , t h e i n - l a w s , and f r o m t h e i r own f a m i l i e s ( M i l l e r , 1987). Family C o n f l i c t and Problem-Solving I n I n d o - C a n a d i a n f a m i l i e s , c o n f l i c t s a r e k e p t s i l e n t and w e l l h i d d e n . P r o b l e m s a r e d e a l t w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f t h e f a m i l y . I f t h e y a r e n o t 48 e f f e c t i v e l y r e s o l v e d , e x t e n d e d f a m i l y members and w e l l r e s p e c t e d e l d e r s o f t h e community a r e a s k e d t o a c t as an a u d i e n c e . A t t e m p t s a r e made t o r e c o n c i l e d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t t h r e a t e n r e l a t i o n s h i p s and f a m i l y h o n o r o r i s a t . S i n c e g r o u p i n t e r e s t s t a k e p r e c e d e n c e o v e r i n d i v i d u a l c o n c e r n s , f a m i l y c o h e s i v e n e s s becomes t h e c r i t i c a l i s s u e and t h e r e p u t a t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y i s t h e main f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n . F o r f a m i l y members, p r e s s u r e s t o c o n f o r m o r r i s k r e j e c t i o n f r o m p a r e n t s and f a m i l y a c t as e f f e c t i v e means o f c o n t r o l l i n g u n d e s i r a b l e b e h a v i o r . As a l a s t r e s o r t , e x p u l s i o n or disownment o f t h e p e r s o n t h a t t h r e a t e n s t h e s t a t u s quo o f t h e f a m i l y becomes an e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u m e n t i n c o n t r o l l i n g t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e r e m a i n i n g members. E x p u l s i o n and Disownment When i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t s and m a r i t a l p r o b l e m s c a n n o t be r e s o l v e d w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y o r t h e community, t h e i n d i v i d u a l may be e x p e l l e d . The g r o u p i n i t i a l l y e x e r t s s t r o n g p r e s s u r e s i n hopes o f f o r c i n g t h e I n d i v i d u a l t o r e c o n c i l e d i f f e r e n c e s . I f t h e p e r s o n does n o t comply t o t h e p r e s s u r e s , he o r she i s s q u e e z e d o u t o f t h e community and t h e t i e s t o o t h e r e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e s e v e r e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s become i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e community and f r o m e a c h o t h e r (Thompson, 1974). F e a r o f e x p u l s i o n f r o m t h e f a m i l y becomes a s t r o n g f a c t o r i n t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o p u r s u e s e l f i n t e r e s t s o v e r t h o s e o f t h e g r o u p . In r e v i e w o f t h e I n d o - C a n a d i a n c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t , a r e a s o f p o s s i b l e s t r e s s and change i n c l u d e m a r r i a g e , d i v o r c e , and c a r e e r s e l e c t i o n . When c u l t u r a l r u l e s and norms a r e v i o l a t e d , s t r e s s i s i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e e x i s t i n g n e t w ork o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I f t h e s t r e s s can be r e d u c e d and e l i m i n a t e d t h r o u g h s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e means o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , t h e n t h e s y s t e m works e f f e c t i v e l y . But when t h e c o n f l i c t c a n n o t be r e s o l v e d t h r o u g h t r a d i t i o n a l means, t r a n s i t i o n s s u c h as m a r r i a g e , s e p a r a t i o n o r d i v o r c e c an p r o d u c e n e g a t i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s s u c h as disownment. F o r women, t r a n s i t i o n s s u c h as t h e s e c a r r y p r o f o u n d c o n s e q u e n c e s . S e p a r a t i o n f r o m s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s s u c h as p a r e n t s , s i b l i n g s , e x t e n d e d f a m i l y members s u c h as g r a n d p a r e n t s and c o u s i n s i n c l u d i n g t h e i n - l a w s i m p a c t s on t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e n s e o f s e l f and e m o t i o n a l w e l l - b e i n g . The s t i g m a a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b e i n g s i n g l e , o r d i v o r c e d becomes an u n s h a k a b l e marker f o r l i f e . F o r women, who c a n n o t r e m a r r y , t h e community can become a l o n e l y p l a c e . I s o l a t e d f r o m f r i e n d s , f a m i l y and t r e a t e d w i t h d i s r e s p e c t i n t h e community, t h e number o f p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t t h e women can e n t e r i n t o a r e g r e a t l y r e d u c e d . W h i l e 50 t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l o s s , g r i e f , and m o u r n i n g f o r I n d o - C a n a d i a n women, t h e e x p e r i e n c e becomes i n t e n s i f i e d t o an e x t r e m e . C o n c l u s i o n Review o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l , and c u l t u r a l v a r i a b l e s and examples f r o m o t h e r c u l t u r e s r e v e a l t h a t r e s e a r c h on disownment i s l i m i t e d . One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s may be t h e h i g h l y e m o t i o n a l a s p e c t o f t h e t o p i c . C l e a r l y , examples f r o m o t h e r c u l t u r e s i n d i c a t e t h a t disownment does o c c u r and t h a t i t d e f i n i t e l y s e r v e s an i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n i n d i s c i p l i n i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g t h e a c t i o n s o f f a m i l y and community members. O n l y by i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l s who have been d i s o w n e d , i s i t p o s s i b l e t o a c h i e v e g r e a t e r i n s i g h t and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s . I n g e n e r a t i n g more knowledge a b o u t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e v e n t , t h e u n d e r l y i n g i s s u e s and dynamics i n v o l v e d i n b e i n g d i s owned can be i d e n t i f i e d . From t h e d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a , models and t h e o r y can be d e v e l o p e d t h a t would be b e n e f i c i a l f o r c o u n s e l l o r s and e d u c a t o r s . In l i g h t o f t h e m a t e r i a l r e v i e w e d , t h e n e x t c h a p t e r e x p l a i n s t h e p r o c e d u r e s s e l e c t e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f disownment. 51 Chapter I I I Methodology G i v e n t h e e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e o f t h i s s t u d y , a q u a l i t a t i v e t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n was c h o s e n (Bogdan & B i k l i n , 1982; Hammersley & A t k i n s o n , 1983). J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a q u a l i t a t i v e d e s i g n o f t h i s t y p e was b a s e d upon t h e o b j e c t i v e o f t h e s t u d y : t o p r o v i d e a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e phenomenon o f disownment ( S p r a d l e y , 1979). T h i s s t u d y f o c u s e s on p r o v i d i n g knowledge and an i n c r e a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e disownment e x p e r i e n c e . Once t h e d a t a has been a c c u m u l a t e d , models can be d e v e l o p e d t h a t w o u l d p r o v i d e p r o f e s s i o n a l s w i t h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e phenomenon more f u l l y . Research Design Interview Format The open i n t e r v i e w was s e l e c t e d as t h e main f o r m o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . G i v e n t h e h i g h l y e m o t i o n a l q u a l i t y o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f disownment, t h e i n t e r v i e w p r o v e d t o be t h e most s u i t a b l e s t r a t e g y i n o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y i n g e n e r a t i n g a more d e t a i l e d and i n - d e p t h a c c o u n t o f t h e e v e n t . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w was: t o d i s c o v e r new knowledge a b o u t t h e s u b j e c t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e phenomenon o f disownment. S e l e c t i o n o f an open-ended f o r m a t , was b a s e d on t h e f o c u s o f t h e s t u d y , w h i c h i n t h i s c a s e was on t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r c r o s s -c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t . A c c o r d i n g t o S p r a d l e y ( 1 9 7 9 ) , t h e i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e i s u s e f u l i n u n c o v e r i n g c u l t u r a l meanings w h i c h p e o p l e u s e t o o r g a n i z e t h e i r b e h a v i o r and i n t e r p r e t t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . A n a l y s i s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w d a t a i n v o l v e d t h e s e a r c h f o r c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s o f a c u l t u r e and t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f " r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e p a r t s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e w h o l e " ( S p r a d l e y , 1979, p. 9 2 ) . The p r o c e s s o f a n a l y s i s r e q u i r e d t h a t a l l a c c o u n t s be examined and " i n t e r p r e t e d a g a i n s t t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e y were p r o d u c e d " (Hammersley & A t k i n s o n , 1983, p. 126). G i v e n t h e e m o t i o n a l l y l a d e n c o n t e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r , t h e i n t e r v i e w c o v e r e d f i v e a r e a s o f f o c u s . A n o n - d i r e c t i v e a p p r o a c h i n i n t e r v i e w i n g was c h o s e n w i t h some s t r u c t u r e f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w g e n e r a t e d t o keep t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s on t r a c k . A t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o i n s u r i n g t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w r e m a i n e d open-ended so t h a t t h e women c o u l d speak f r e e l y o f t h e i r own disownment e x p e r i e n c e . 53 S t r e n g t h s and Weaknesses A l t h o u g h t h e i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e a p p e a r e d t o be t h e most s u i t a b l e one i n g e n e r a t i n g new d a t a , l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e a p p r o a c h were n o t o v e r l o o k e d . The i n t e r v i e w had some d e f i n i t e a d v a n t a g e s as w e l l as some c l e a r d i s a d v a n t a g e s . Some o f t h e a d v a n t a g e s i n c l u d e d : 1) g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o s u p p l y a more a c c u r a t e and c o m p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e v e n t ; 2) o p p o r t u n i t y t o check f o r c o m p r e h e n s i o n and p r o v i d e c l a r i f i c a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s , i n o r d e r t o r e d u c e t h e chance o f m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g ; 3) f l e x i b i l i t y and c o n t r o l o f words i n t h e q u e s t i o n s ; and 4) a g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o e v a l u a t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n by o b s e r v i n g v e r b a l and n o n - v e r b a l r e s p o n s e s ( G o r d e n , 1980; W i l l i a m s o n , K a r p & D a l p h i n , 1977). Some o f t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w i n c l u d e d : 1) t h e s u b j e c t ' s need t o p r e s e n t a d e s i r a b l e s e l f - i m a g e ; 2) low r e l i a b i l i t y due t o d i f f i c u l t y i n r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v i e w ; 3) l a c k o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n t h e i n t e r v i e w p r o c e d u r e ; and f i n a l l y , 4) no method t o a s s e s s t h e a c c u r a c y o f i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y . ( G o r d e n , 1980; Hammersley & A t k i n s o n , 1983; W i l l i a m s o n , K a r p & D a l p h i n , 1977). V a l i d i t y In r e g a r d t o I n t e r v i e w d a t a , v a l i d i t y r e f e r s t o t h e e x t e n t " t o w h i c h d a t a c o n f o r m t o t h e f a c t " ( G o r d o n , 1980, p. 4 0 ) . T h a t i s , how v a l i d a r e t h e f i n d i n g s b o t h i n t e r n a l l y and e x t e r n a l l y ? I n t e r n a l l y , what i s t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e q u e s t i o n s t o a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s t h e disownment? And e x t e r n a l l y , t o what e x t e n t can t h e r e s u l t s f r o m t h i s p a r t i c u l a r sample be g e n e r a l i z e d t o o t h e r segments o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n ? ( W i l l i a m s o n , K a r p & D a l p h i n , 1977, p. 8 3 ) . In t h i s s t u d y , t h e t h r e a t s t o v a l i d i t y a p p e a r e d i n : t h e l a c k o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f t h e m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t ; i n d a t a a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e s ; i n t h e sample sample s i z e ; and i n t h e non random s e l e c t i o n o f s u b j e c t s i n t h e s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e . R e c o g n i z i n g t h e s e t h r e a t s t o v a l i d i t y , t h e a p p r o a c h was c h o s e n on t h e b a s i s o f p r o v i d i n g g r e a t e r i n - d e p t h c o v e r a g e o f t h e disownment phenomenon. A c l a i m t o v a l i d i t y i n s e l e c t i n g t h i s t y p e o f a p p r o a c h as i s r e p o r t e d by S i l v e r m a n ( 1 9 8 5 ) , " c a s e s a r e n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a p o p u l a t i o n b u t o f some g e n e r a l p r i n c i p a l " , w h i c h i n t h i s c a s e i s disownment (p . 113). 55 R e l i a b i l i t y R e l i a b i l i t y r e f e r s t o t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o n s i s t e n c y o f r e s u l t s a c r o s s t i m e u n d e r s i m i l a r s e t t i n g s . Some o f t h e t h r e a t s t o r e l i a b i l i t y i n t h i s s t u d y i n c l u d e d : 1) t h e e m o t i o n a l and p h y s i c a l w e l l -b e i n g o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ; 2) v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , f o r example t h e c l i m a t e and t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e s e t t i n g ; 3) l a c k o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n t h e measurement p r o c e d u r e ; and 4) i n t e r v i e w e r b i a s . F o r example, t h e i n t e r v i e w e r m i g h t have u n k n o w i n g l y b i a s e d t h e r e s u l t s by g i v i n g v e r b a l and n o n - v e r b a l c ues o r m i g h t have i n t r o d u c e d some b i a s i n t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d and answers p r o b e d ( B o r g and G a l l , 1983). P i l o t S t u d y The i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e was d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h t h r e e p i l o t i n t e r v i e w s . The f i r s t i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e f o l l o w e d an open-ended q u e s t i o n f o r m a t . But t h e s e c o n d i n t e r v i e w had a more f o c u s e d s t r u c t u r e by r e f i n i n g t h e i n s t r u m e n t s a l i e n t q u e s t i o n s began t o emerge. By c o n d u c t i n g t h e p i l o t s t u d y , awareness o f o t h e r c o n c e r n s a r o s e s u c h a s : t h e u s e o f f o r m a l l a n g u a g e d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s ; t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t i m e o f day and t h e e n v i r o n m e n t on t h e e m o t i o n a l c l i m a t e o f t h e s e s s i o n ; and f i n a l l y , t h e t h r e a t e n i n g n a t u r e o f some o f t h e q u e s t i o n s on t h e r i c h n e s s , d e p t h , and q u a l i t y o f t h e d a t a . These i s s u e s a r e l a t e r a d d r e s s e d d u r i n g t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p h a s e . Questions As p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d , t h e i n t e r v i e w f o r m a t had open e n d e d - q u e s t i o n s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f a few c l o s e d - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r o b t a i n i n g r e q u i r e d d e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n . The i n t e r v i e w s t a r t e d w i t h open-ended q u e s t i o n s w i t h more t h r e a t e n i n g q u e s t i o n s a p p e a r i n g toward t h e end o f t h e i n t e r v i e w . L e s s t h r e a t e n i n g q u e s t i o n s were p l a c e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o become c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h e i n t e r v i e w p r o c e s s (Sudman & B r a d b u r n , 1983). C e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d t o a l l women t o e s t a b l i s h some d e g r e e o f f o c u s a c r o s s t h e i n t e r v i e w s and t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r c o m p a r i s o n . D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s , v e r b a l and n o n - v e r b a l p r o b e s ( s u c h as eye c o n t a c t and s m i l e s ) were u s e d t o e n c o u r a g e g r e a t e r d i s c l o s u r e . A c t i v e l i s t e n i n g , p a r a p h r a s i n g , and s u m m a r i z i n g were u s e d t o f a c i l i t a t e more i n - d e p t h e x p r e s s i o n o f t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s ( Egan, 1975; Sudman & B r a d b u r n , 1983). 57 Interview Schedule The f i n a l i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e was d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e main s e c t i o n s ( s e e A p p e n d i x A ) . The f i r s t s e c t i o n f o c u s e d on t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c l i e n t ' s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h disownment and t h e main e v e n t s t h a t l e a d up t o t h e disownment. The s e c o n d s e c t i o n f o c u s e d upon t h e r o l e o f t h e f a m i l y , e x t e n d e d f a m i l y , and o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i v i d u a l s . The t h i r d s e c t i o n c o n t a i n e d q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i t h r e g a r d t o g a i n s , l o s s e s , s i g n i f i c a n t l e a r n i n g , and i s s u e s o f c o n t r o l . Q u e s t i o n s i n t h e f o u r t h s e c t i o n d e a l t w i t h a d j u s t m e n t , s p e c i f i c a l l y i n r e g a r d t o f a c t o r s w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e d o r h i n d e r e d t h e a d j u s t m e n t p r o c e s s . The i n t e r v i e w c l o s e d w i t h d emographic q u e s t i o n s and an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e s u b j e c t t o f i n i s h w i t h a c o n c l u d i n g s t a t e m e n t . Subj e c t s S u b j e c t s f o r t h e s t u d y were s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g d i s o w n e d . In t h i s c a s e , a n o n - p r o b a b i l i t y s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e , p u r p o s i v e s a m p l i n g , was u s e d . T h i s s t r a t e g y was n e c e s s a r y due t o t h e e m o t i o n a l and t r a u m a t i c n a t u r e o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e . P u r p o s i v e s a m p l i n g was u s e d t o i d e n t i f y and l o c a t e i n d i v i d u a l s t h a t were c r u c i a l t o t h e s t u d y and c o u l d p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n a bout t h e r e l e v a n t i s s u e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e . Random s a m p l i n g was n o t p o s s i b l e due t o t h e l i m i t e d number o f i n d i v i d u a l s r e p o r t i n g t h e disownment e x p e r i e n c e : 1) t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f women who had e x p e r i e n c e d some a s p e c t * o f disownment; and 2) t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s . S u b j e c t s f o r t h e s t u d y were c o n t a c t e d t h r o u g h two a g e n c i e s t h a t d e a l s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h i m m i g r a n t g r o u p s . These two a g e n c i e s were t h e main s o u r c e s f o r p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t s . W r i t t e n c o n s e n t was o b t a i n e d f r o m b o t h a g e n c i e s p r i o r t o t h e i n i t i a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s u b j e c t s ( s e e A p p e n d i x B ) . Agency o f f i c i a l s a p p r o a c h e d p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t s , o u t l i n e d t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y , a c k nowledged t h e v o l u n t a r y and c o n f i d e n t i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e s t u d y , and r e q u e s t e d t h e s u b j e c t s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n . S u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o c o n s i d e r t h e r e q u e s t b e f o r e a n s w e r i n g and were g i v e n t h e o p t i o n t o c o n t a c t t h e r e s e a r c h e r . From t h e e l e v e n women who were c o n t a c t e d o n l y one r e f u s e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . The t e n f e m a l e s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y were f r o m t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a . N i n e o f t h e women were P u n j a b i S i k h s and one i d e n t i f i e d h e r s e l f as H i n d u . S i x o f t h e women were b o r n i n I n d i a and t h e p l a c e o f b i r t h o f t h e o t h e r f o u r were M a l a y s i a , E n g l a n d , Kenya, and Canada. The age o f t h e s u b j e c t s r a n g e d f r o m 22 y e a r s t o 42 y e a r s w i t h t h e a v e r a g e age b e i n g i n t h e e a r l y 30's. W i t h r e g a r d t o m a r i t a l s t a t u s , f o u r o f t h e women were d i v o r c e d , t h r e e were s i n g l e , two were s e p a r a t e d , and one widowed. F i v e o f t h e t e n women had a r r a n g e d m a r r i a g e s and two d i d n o t . F o r t h r e e o f t h e f i v e women, t h e a r r a n g e d m a r r i a g e was an i m p o r t a n t i s s u e i n t h e disownment. In o n l y one c a s e t h e i s s u e o f an a r r a n g e d m a r r i a g e was n o t r e l e v a n t . O n l y two o f t h e women i n t h e sample had c h i l d r e n . In terms o f o c c u p a t i o n , two o f t h e women were homemakers, two unemployed, and t h e o t h e r s v a r i e d i n t h e i r f i e l d o f work: p r o f e s s i o n a l l i b r a r i a n , l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r p r e t e r , community w o r k e r , s e c r e t a r y , j a n i t o r , and s a l e s p e r s o n . S i x o f t h e women had r e c e i v e d some l e v e l o f c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g e i t h e r i n Canada, I n d i a , o r M a l a y s i a . F i v e o f t h e women p l a n n e d t o c o n t i n u e f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n t o E n g l i s h , H i n d i , and P u n j a b i some o f t h e o t h e r l a n g u a g e s spoken by t h e s e women were F r e n c h , U r d u, C h i n e s e , and M a l a y s i a n . 60 The I n t e r v i e w S e t t i n g A r r a n g e m e n t s w i t h r e g a r d t o i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e s were d i s c u s s e d and t h e t i m e and p l a c e most s u i t e d t o t h e s u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d . W h i l e some s u b j e c t s p r e f e r r e d t h e p r i v a c y o f t h e i r homes, o t h e r s c h o s e s e t t i n g s t h a t were c o n v e n i e n t l y more a c c e s s i b l e b u t s t i l l p r o v i d e d p r i v a c y ( s u c h as a room i n t h e r e f e r r i n g a g e n c y ) . D e p e n d i n g upon work and p e r s o n a l commitments, t h e i n t e r v i e w s v a r i e d anywhere f r o m one ho u r t o one and a h a l f h o u r s . R a p p o r t B u i l d i n g In t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e o f t h e m e e t i n g , t h e i n t e r v i e w e r s h a r e d w i t h t h e s u b j e c t t h e i n t e r e s t i n t h e t o p i c o f disownment and t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s t u d y . Q u e s t i o n s , c o n c e r n s , and i s s u e s r e g a r d i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w and t h e f o r m a l w r i t t e n r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y were a d d r e s s e d . A n o n y m i t y and c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y c o n c e r n s were t h e most s a l i e n t i s s u e s and were d i s c u s s e d a t t h e o n s e t . S u b j e c t s were i n f o r m e d o f t h e i r r i g h t t o r e f u s e p a r t i c i p a t i o n and w i t h d r a w f r o m t h e i n t e r v i e w i f t h e y so d e s i r e d . 61 B e f o r e a c t u a l l y s t a r t i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w , s u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o g i v e w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n t o acknowledge t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y ( s e e A p p e n d i x C ) . In t h e c o n s e n t f o r m , s u b j e c t s were i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w s w o u l d be a u d i o - t a p e d . A g a i n , i s s u e s r e g a r d i n g c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y were a d d r e s s e d . S u b j e c t s were i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e t a p e s w o u l d be u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y and t h a t upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e s t u d y , t h e d a t a w o u l d be d e s t r o y e d . S u b j e c t s were f u r t h e r t o l d t h a t t h e y had t h e r i g h t t o t u r n t h e t a p e o f f d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w i f t h e y so d e s i r e d . Upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v i e w , t i m e was t a k e n t o d e b r i e f t h e e x p e r i e n c e , and any c o n c e r n s t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s had a f t e r t h e I n t e r v i e w were a d d r e s s e d . Some o f t h e s e i n c l u d e d : t h e f e a r o f d i s c l o s i n g t o o much p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n ; n o t p r o v i d i n g enough i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f o t h e r s ; and f e a r o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e r b r e a c h i n g c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . A p a r t f r o m t h e c o n c e r n s , a l l o f t h e s u b j e c t s welcomed t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o s h a r e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s . D a t a C o l l e c t i o n and A n a l y s i s A l l i n t e r v i e w s were a u d i o - t a p e d a f t e r w r i t t e n c o n s e n t was g i v e n by t h e s u b j e c t s . A u d i o - t a p i n g was c h o s e n as t h e method o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n b a s e d upon t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : 1) t a p i n g w o u l d e l i m i n a t e e r r o r s i n r e c o r d i n g d a t a ; 2) t a p i n g w o u l d f r e e t h e r e s e a r c h e r f r o m t a k i n g n o t e s t h e r e b y c r e a t i n g a c o n v e r s a t i o n a l atmosphere; and f i n a l l y , 3) i t w o u l d p r o v i d e a more c o m p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h o u t any o m i s s i o n s i n t h e d a t a . The c o m p l e t e d i n t e r v i e w s were t h e n t r a n s c r i b e d and e a c h i n t e r v i e w p r o t o c o l was coded t o m a i n t a i n c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . The t r a n s c r i p t s were t h e n r e a d f o r key s t a t e m e n t s and r e p e t i t i o n o f key p h r a s e s . Index c a r d s were u s e d t o s o r t , o r g a n i z e , and c a t e g o r i z e t h e s e key s t a t e m e n t s i n t o r e l e v a n t domains. By d e f i n i t i o n , a domain i s "any s y m b o l i c c a t e g o r y t h a t i n c l u d e s o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s " ( S p r a d l e y , 1979, p. 1 0 0 ) . As a u n i t o f a n a l y s i s , e a c h domain has a b o u n d a r y and a c o v e r term, and i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s e m a n t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between two o r more i n c l u d e d terms ( S p r a d l e y , 1979). A n a l y s i s o f t h e domains p r o v i d e d an o v e r v i e w o f t h e c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e phenomenon o f disownment was s haped. R e r e a d i n g t h e t r a n s c r i p t s p r o d u c e d new c a t e g o r i e s and a d d i t i o n a l domains. T h i s was done u n t i l a l l c a t e g o r i e s were e x h a u s t e d ( S p r a d l e y , 1979). ; W i t h i n e a c h o f t h e s e v e n domains o f i n q u i r y , s m a l l e r c a t e g o r i e s were g e n e r a t e d . T h e s e c a t e g o r i e s were d e r i v e d f r o m t h e c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h e k e y s t a t e m e n t s . Once t h e c o v e r terms were g e n e r a t e d , t h e 63 p r o t o c o l s were r e a d a g a i n t o a s s e s s t h e r e l e v a n c e o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s . W h i l e s a l i e n t c a t e g o r i e s were e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d , some o f t h e s m a l l e r ones r e q u i r e d more t i m e i n s o r t i n g and o v e r l a p p i n g . In i n s t a n c e s where c a t e g o r i e s were s i m i l a r i n c o n t e n t and meaning, t h e y were combined. Not a l l o f t h e s m a l l e r c a t e g o r i e s were c o l l a p s e d so t h a t r i c h n e s s o f d a t a and i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s w o u l d n o t be l o s t . The r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d o v e r l a p p i n g o r c o m b i n i n g c a t e g o r i e s was t o u n c o v e r c o m m o n a l i t i e s a c r o s s i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e s and t o make t h e d a t a more manageable d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f a n a l y s i s . E t h i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s R e c o g n i z i n g t h e s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h g i v e s shape t o t h e phenomenon o f disownment, t h e k e y f a c t o r s i n t h e s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e o f t h e s t u d y were c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and a n o n y m i t y . V e r b a l and w r i t t e n a s s u r a n c e s , a l t h o u g h n e c e s s a r y , were n o t s u f f i c i e n t i n and o f t h e m s e l v e s . What was r e q u i r e d i n t h e p r o c e s s o f t h e s t u d y r e s t e d upon t h e t r u s t and i n t e g r i t y o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r . E t h i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were n o t o n l y i s s u e s t o c o n t e n d w i t h a t t h e o n s e t o f t h e s t u d y b u t t h e y needed t o be h a n d l e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e p r o c e s s o f a n a l y s i s , d i s c u s s i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f w r i t t e n r e s u l t s . 64 Chapter IV R e s u l t s The r e s u l t s i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e p r e s e n t e d i n s i x p a r t s . T h e s e i n c l u d e : 1) e v e n t s p r e c i p i t a t i n g t h e disownment; 2) t h e c o n t e x t u a l b a c k g r o u n d w h i c h i n c l u d e s a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r o l e o f t h e f a m i l y and t h e community; 3) e f f e c t s o f disownment on t h e i n d i v i d u a l ; 4) t h e c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s o f disownment t h a t can f a c i l i t a t e o r h i n d e r t h e a d j u s t m e n t p r o c e s s ; 5) c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s employed by t h e i n d i v i d u a l ; and f i n a l l y 6) how t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e e v e n t . Events P r e c i p i t a t i n g Disownment Review o f t h e d a t a r e v e a l s t h a t a v a r i e t y o f e v e n t s can l e a d t o disownment. Some o f t h e s e i n c l u d e : c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o b l e m s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p e r c e p t i o n s o f n o t b e i n g u n d e r s t o o d , c o n f l i c t i n g r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s , i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s , and f a m i l i a l and s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . W h i l e some e v e n t s were more s a l i e n t t h a n o t h e r s , t h e r e was c l e a r l y no one s i n g l e c a u s e . I t a p p e a r s t h a t s e v e r a l f a c t o r s i n t e r a c t e d w i t h e a c h o t h e r and p r o d u c e d t h e e r u p t i v e s h i f t . F o r e i g h t o f t h e s u b j e c t s , l a c k o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n t h e i r m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n t h e f a m i l y , w i t h t h e i n - l a w s and t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y was a major i s s u e ( f o r example, r e p o r t s o f n o t b e i n g u n d e r s t o o d and t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s o f b e i n g d e v a l u e d i n t h e p r o c e s s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) . These women f e l t t h a t t h e y were n o t b e i n g h e a r d o r u n d e r s t o o d i n t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . As one women s t a t e d : " E v e r y day was a n i g h t m a r e - l a c k o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , our i n a b i l i t y t o e x p r e s s o u r s e l v e s and t o a p p r o a c h e a c h o t h e r . " O t h e r f a c t o r s t h a t a p p e a r e d t o be q u i t e s a l i e n t were: 1) t h e f e a r and t h r e a t o f an a r r a n g e d m a r r i a g e ; 2) c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r o u n d d a t i n g and p r e m a r i t a l sex; and 3) r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s as d u t i f u l w i v e s and d a u g h t e r s . These f a c t o r s were r e l e v a n t f o r f o u r o f t h e women who were r a i s e d i n Canada. F o r t h e s e f o u r women m a i n s t r e a m , C a n a d i a n v a l u e s , i d e a l s , and l i f e s t y l e s c l a s h e d w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f t h e I n d o - C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e . What was common f o r a l l t e n women, r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e s p e c i f i c p r e c i p i t a t i n g e v e n t , was t h a t a t one p o i n t t h e y a l l d e c i d e d n o t t o r e t u r n t o t h e i r p r e v i o u s r o l e s . The d e c i s i o n t o l e a v e n o t t o r e m a r r y and n o t t o a g r e e t o an a r r a n g e d m a r r i a g e were a l l p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s . The s e v e r i t y o f t h e disownment v a r i e d i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e amount o f c o n t r o l t h e s e women p e r c e i v e d t h e m s e l v e s as h a v i n g i n t h e d e c i s i o n -66 making p r o c e s s . A l l t e n women r e p o r t e d s u r p r i s e a t t h e i m p a c t t h e i r d e c i s i o n had on t h e m s e l v e s and o t h e r s . Contextual Background Review o f t h e s e v e n domains r e v e a l t h a t disownment a r i s e s and u n f o l d s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e f a m i l y , t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y and t h e community. The e v e n t i s g i v e n shape and meaning i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s . The h i g h c o n t e x t o f t h e c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d w h i c h s t r e s s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s e v i d e n t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t by one o f t h e women i n t h e s t u d y : I t i s an a d u l t o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y . Your d u t i e s a r e towards a d u l t s . I t i s an e x t e n d e d s o r t o f f a m i l y . Your d u t i e s a r e tow a r d s e a c h o t h e r . Then y o u r s e l f i s l o s t . Role o f the Nuclear Family F o r t h e m a r r i e d women i n t h e sample, t h e m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s were t y p i c a l l y a b u s i v e , d y s f u n c t i o n a l , u n h e a l t h y , and u n r e w a r d i n g . P h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l a buse, a l c o h o l i s m , and a b s e n c e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . As one woman s t a t e d : 67 My husband d i d n ' t have t o o many good t h i n g s t o s a y about me. Even tho u g h I l e f t t h e f a m i l y f o r him. He s t i l l u s e d t h a t a g a i n s t me. He would s a y , 'Oh! y o u a r e bad, y o u l e f t y o u r f a m i l y ' . He would s t a r t b e a t i n g me. I t h o u g h t , now I am m a r r i e d and he i s b e a t i n g me, he i s t r y i n g t o c o r r e c t me. D e n i a l o f m a r i t a l p r o b l e m s and r e f u s a l t o acknowledge t h e need f o r change on t h e p a r t o f t h e s p o u s e s were f u r t h e r compounded by t h e l a c k o f c o n t r o l o v e r t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g f o r some o f t h e women. As one women s t a t e d : I had no c o n t r o l t o do a n y t h i n g I wanted t o do. Even i f I d i d want t o o , somebody w o u l d come i n and (and s a y ) 'do y o u r d u t i e s h e r e . ' P o i n t o u t what I s h o u l d do. So t h e y made me aware t h a t I was n o t i n c o n t r o l . F o r f o u r o f t h e s u b j e c t s , disownment i s s u e s were n o t r e l a t e d t o m a r r i a g e b u t p r i m a r i l y t o c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s and c o n f l i c t w i t h p a r e n t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . As one women s a i d , "They e x p e c t e d me t o be l i k e my s i s t e r s l i k e a l l E a s t I n d i a n g i r l s . S t a y home, go t o s c h o o l , g e t m a r r i e d , and have k i d s . " T h e s e f o u r women r e p o r t e d f e e l i n g c o n f u s e d a r o u n d t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between C a n a d i a n and I n d o - C a n a d i a n v a l u e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . W h i l e t h e y were e x p e c t e d t o behave a c c o r d i n g t o norms and s t a n d a r d s o f b o t h s o c i e t i e s t h e y f e l t t o r n and f r u s t r a t e d . 68 I n two c a s e s , d e s e r t i o n by t h e spo u s e was t h e major f a c t o r . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e c h i l d r e n , two o f t h e women saw t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o be t h e main r e a s o n f o r s t a y i n g i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e t h a t t h e y d i d . R o l e o f t h e F a m i l y o f O r i g i n The r o l e o f t h e f a m i l y o f o r i g i n was s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e n s e o f s e l f -r e s p e c t , a c c e p t a n c e , and b e l o n g i n g . P r e s s u r e t o c o n f o r m t o r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s as d a u g h t e r s and as w i v e s were r e l a t e d t o i s s u e s o f shame, h o n o r , r e s p e c t , and t h e i n t e n s i t y o f g u i l t t h e s e women e x p e r i e n c e d . L a c k o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . . . and i n some i n s t a n c e s , t h e p r e s e n c e o f p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l a b u s e , added t o t h e d e n i a l o f f a m i l y p r o b l e m s . D e n i a l o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f p r o b l e m s , i n c l u d i n g t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e disownment, was e x p r e s s e d t o be one o f t h e f r u s t r a t i n g a s p e c t s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e f o r n i n e o f t h e women. As s t a t e d : " There was a r e a l d e n i a l on t h e i r p a r t [ t h a t ] t h e r e was s o m e t h i n g wrong." A n o t h e r s a i d , " I n s t e a d o f r e a c h i n g f o r h e l p , o r t a l k i n g t o me, he [ f a t h e r ] was a f r a i d o f a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h a t t h e f a m i l y was n o t a l r i g h t . I had t o l i v e a t home p r e t e n d i n g e v e r y t h i n g was okay." Y e t a n o t h e r women s t a t e d , " . . . f a t h e r c l o s e d h i s ey e s to e v e r y t h i n g , he played a r o l e , t hat was one of h e l p l e s s n e s s and powerlessness . . . my mother, she would say why don't you be q u i e t ? Why don't you look at me? I s u f f e r too*. I wish she had stood up. I understood that i f she had stood up and she came to me, she would get i n t r o u b l e . " And another s a i d , " s t i l l today, they haven't t o l d anybody t h a t t h e i r daughter i s separated. F i n a l l y , "my pare n t s , they d i d not want to own up to the f a c t t hat I was d i v o r c e d " (Case 4 ) . For three women connection with the f a m i l y or at l e a s t one member of the f a m i l y g r e a t l y reduced the impact of the disownment. For women who had l i t t l e or no support, the l o s s of contact with parents and s i b l i n g s was experienced as the g r e a t e s t l o s s o f a l l . One woman re p o r t e d , "I t r i e d phoning my par e n t s . They would hang up on me. I t r i e d v i s i t i n g them and my br o t h e r t o t a l l y ignored me." The major i s s u e s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n the f a m i l y o f o r i g i n concern f a m i l y r e s p e c t or " i s a t " . For the women i n the sample, acceptance by the f a m i l y was the i n i t i a l step toward r e b u i l d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s . For two o f the women, who r e - e s t a b l i s h e d f a m i l y t i e s , the main h u r d l e was one of working through g u i l t and r e g a i n i n g some of the res p e c t that was l o s t d u r i n g the disownment. In cases where the f a m i l y l i v e d f u r t h e r away but continued to support the women 70 ( e i t h e r e m o t i o n a l l y , s o c i a l l y , o r f i n a n c i a l l y ) t h e s e n s e o f f a i l u r e , low s e l f - e s t e e m , and shame were t h e most d i f f i c u l t f e e l i n g s t o overcome. Role of the E x t e n d e d Family The r o l e o f t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y was t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o r a b s e n c e o f e m o t i o n a l , s o c i a l , and f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . As one woman commented: U n c l e had a g r e a t r o l e . Not a s i n g l e day went by [ w i t h o u t ] a f i g h t . He c u t me down, he j u s t t o t a l l y s h a t t e r e d me, j u s t a b o u t e v e r y day o f my l i f e . E v e r y l i t t l e p u n i s h m ent we r e c e i v e d , was u n n e c e s s a r y , and u n f a i r . And a n o t h e r woman r e p o r t e d : E v e r y t i m e Dad would be d i s p l e a s e d w i t h me, he w o u l d phone h e r [ a u n t ] and she wo u l d s t a r t s w e a r i n g a t me. My r e l a t i v e s , t h e y s t o p p e d t a l k i n g t o me. They n e v e r wanted t o t a l k t o me. N o t h i n g t o do w i t h me. A f t e r t h e disownment t h r e e o f t h e women had t h e s u p p o r t o f a t l e a s t one member o f t h e f a m i l y d u r i n g t h e t i m e o f t h e e v e n t . O n l y two f o u n d s u p p o r t f r o m e x t e n d e d f a m i l y members s u c h as u n c l e s , a u n t s and c o u s i n s . F o r t h e m a r r i e d women, t h e r e was no s u p p o r t 71 f r o m t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y members t h r o u g h m a r r i a g e , ( i . e . , t h e i n - l a w s ) . R e g a r d i n g i n - l a w s , two o f t h e women r e p e a t e d : My husband's f a m i l y , t h e y were s h o c k e d . B e c a u s e t h e y t h o u g h t t h a t I am an I n d i a n woman, and w h a t e v e r t h e y w i l l do, I w i l l b e a r t h a t . And t h e y n e v e r t h o u g h t t h a t I wo u l d t a k e a s t e p . So t h e y a r e s h o c k e d . I n - l a w s . . . i t was a t o t a l d i s o w n i n g a t t h e b e g i n n i n g . The son i s a l w a y s f i r s t and she f e e l s t h a t I have wronged them t o o . Beca u s e [ I l e f t ] i t ' s n o t my f a u l t , b u t she f e e l s i t ' s my f a u l t . The most s a l i e n t i s s u e s f o r t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y i n v o l v e d f a m i l y r e s p e c t o r " i s a t " and p r i d e . As e v i d e n c e d by s t a t e m e n t s s u c h a s : "You a r e d i s g r a c i n g u s , r u i n i n g our name" and "My u n c l e , h e 's had a name t o u p h o l d , b u t [ I ] h a v e n ' t f i t i n t o t h e norm." And f i n a l l y : In my f a m i l y , t h e y s h u t t h e f a m i l y o u t , o v e r l o o k e d t h e f a m i l y f o r t h e sake o f t h e community. They f i g u r e d t h a t b e c a u s e t h e y were so g r o u n d e d i n t h e community t h a t t h e i r f a m i l y was w e l l a d j u s t e d t o o . I t was n o t . T h a t was t h e d o w n f a l l o f t h e main c h a r a c t e r s : my p a r e n t s , t h e u n c l e s , t h e a u n t s - who were t h e g o v e r n i n g f o r c e . They f a i l e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e f a m i l y was f a l l i n g a p a r t . Yet what was i m p o r t a n t t o them was how w e l l t h e y were a c c e p t e d i n t h e community. 72 There was a d e f i n i t e movement i n the l e v e l of support r e c e i v e d over time. For some of the women who were r e i n s t a t e d back i n t o the f a m i l y , the extended f a m i l y g r a d u a l l y began to reconnect and support these women. Family r e s p e c t or " i s a t " and the stigma that these women c a r r i e d , however, s t i l l remained i n t a c t . Thus, even when the women regained some connection with s i g n i f i c a n t others i n the f a m i l y and the extended f a m i l y , the s t r u g g l e continued i n r e b u i l d i n g t h e i r l e v e l of re s p e c t v i s - a - v i s these r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Role o f the Community In r e f e r e n c e to the Indo-Canadian community, the I most s a l i e n t i s s u e s were the absence of s o c i a l acceptance, group membership, and l a c k of understanding. In a l l ten cases, the women d i d not f e e l supported by t h e i r community, a f t e r the disownment. A sense of shame, d i s g r a c e , and h u m i l i a t i o n was experienced and i t was r e p o r t e d to be f e l t the s t r o n g e s t at the community l e v e l . The stigma of being a s i n g l e woman and the l o s s of s t a t u s and r e s p e c t that accompanied i t was the most d i f f i c u l t aspect of the experience to overcome. As one woman s t a t e d , " . . . s o c i e t y g e n e r a l l y has a very d i f f i c u l t time when a women i s s i n g l e . Whether she i s d i v o r c e d o r she i s by h e r s e l f . " A n o t h e r s a i d , " e v e r y t i m e I make some k i n d o f a p p r o a c h o r e f f o r t t h e y l o o k a t i t w i t h so much s u s p i c i o n and d o u b t " . F i n a l l y , "when i t comes t o s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s t h e y n e v e r i n v i t e me. T h i s i s t h e s i t u a t i o n o f a s i n g l e woman i n our community." Thus ". . . y o u d o n ' t g e t t h e same r e s p e c t o r e q u a l i t y t h a t y o u would g e t o u t s i d e o f t h e c u l t u r e . " In r e a c t i o n t o t h e community, t h e women r e s p o n d e d by b r e a k i n g c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h t h e I n d o - C a n a d i a n community. As one o f t h e women s a i d , "At c e r t a i n p o i n t s y o u have t o , even i f y o u d o n ' t want, y o u have t o keep away." The woman l e a r n e d t h a t " . . . e i t h e r y o u s t a y i n t h e community o r y o u d o n ' t " . The most d i f f i c u l t and f r u s t r a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e was r e p o r t e d by th e women who worked w i t h t h e community. The s t i g m a o f b e i n g s i n g l e was a c o n s t a n t r e m i n d e r o f t h e i r p l i g h t . E f f e c t s on the I n d i v i d u a l F o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e women, t h e i n t e n s i t y o f th e e x p e r i e n c e v a r i e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e l o s s o f s t a t u s . The women r e p o r t e d f e e l i n g a s e n s e o f h u m i l i a t i o n and p e r s o n a l i n a d e q u a c y . They f e l t i s o l a t e d , condemned, and j u d g e d i n t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s . The s t i g m a t h a t t h e s e women f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s l i v i n g 74 w i t h became u n s h a k a b l e . As one women s t a t e d , "becomes a marker f o r l i f e . " Even i n i n c i d e n c e s where t h e women were abandoned and had l i t t l e c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s i t u a t i o n , t h e women f e l t o s t r a c i z e d , m i s t r e a t e d , and l a b e l e d . These women f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s o u t c a s t s , i s o l a t e d , l o n e l y w i t h r e l a t i v e l y few f r i e n d s and l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o d e v e l o p new r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I f i n d i t r e a l l y h a r d t o be c l o s e t o a few women f r i e n d s I do have, h u t I am so d o u b t f u l about what t h e i r husband's w o u l d t h i n k . How t h e y w o u l d t r e a t me i f I g o t c l o s e t o t h e i r f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d t h a t I r e a l l y r e f r a i n f r o m d o i n g s o . The l o s s o f s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e s t i g m a o f b e i n g s i n g l e , p r o d u c e d an a r r a y o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f disownment were m a n i f e s t e d i n s e v e r a l f o r m s . Some o f t h e s e i n c l u d e d p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s e s s u c h as u l c e r s , i n s o m n i a , d e p r e s s i o n , and w e i g h t l o s s . A d d i c t i v e b e h a v i o r s s u c h as a l c o h o l i s m and smoking i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g t h e disownment p r o c e s s . S o c i a l s k i l l s were a l s o p r o b l e m a t i c f o r t h r e e o f t h e women. In o r d e r t o cope w i t h t h e many changes t h a t t h e disownment a c t e d as a c a t a l y s t t o o , t h e women employed a v a r i e t y o f c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s . A d j u s t m e n t t o b e i n g d i s o w n e d was i n f l u e n c e d by a number o f f a c t o r s w h i c h e i t h e r 75 f a c i l i t a t e d or hindered t h i s p rocess. In the next s e c t i o n , the major f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to the adjustment of the disownment are d i s c u s s e d . F a c t o r s Which F a c i l i t a t e and H i n d e r A d j u s t m e n t R e s u l t s r e v e a l that s e v e r a l f a c t o r s f a c i l i t a t e and h inder the process of adjustment. These i n c l u d e : 1 ) degree of c o n t r o l ; 2) p h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y to the f a m i l y ; 3 ) degree of l o s s experienced by the f a m i l y ; 4) I n d i v i d u a l l o s e s ; 5) absence of support from the f a m i l y and the community; 6) c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s ; 7 ) i n d i v i d u a l and p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s ; and 8 ) s i g n i f i c a n c e of the event. C o n t r o l and D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g So i t comes to a p o i n t where you say, I can't handle i t anymore. Something snapped i n s i d e of me. I s a i d , no more. So i t was e i t h e r stay or lea v e . For those women who i n i t i a t e d the break by l e a v i n g t h e i r husbands, l e a v i n g t h e i r homes, or attempting s u i c i d e , the degree of disownment v a r i e d a c r o s s the f a m i l y of o r i g i n , extended f a m i l y , and the community. For those women who p e r c e i v e d themselves as having no c o n t r o l , as i n the case of d e s e r t i o n , 76 t h e disownment e x p e r i e n c e d a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e f a m i l y was l e s s t r a u m a t i c t h a n t h e disownment e x p e r i e n c e d a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e community. F o r women who had t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e f a m i l y , t h e p r o c e s s o f a d j u s t m e n t was d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e women who were c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e l o s s o f p a r e n t s , s i b l i n g s , o r c h i l d r e n . F o r t h e l a t t e r g r o u p , l e n g t h o f ti m e engaged i n t h e g r i e v i n g p r o c e s s v a r i e d i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f c o n t r o l t h e women had i n t h e e v e n t s p r i o r t o t h e disownment. F o r t h e women who p e r c e i v e d t h e m s e l v e s as h a v i n g c o n t r o l i n t h e i r l i v e s and t o o k t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e i r a c t i o n s , r e a c h i n g a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e disownment s i t u a t i o n t o o k l e s s t i m e t h a n f o r t h o s e women who v i e w e d t h e e v e n t s as b e i n g o u t o f t h e i r c o n t r o l . The l e v e l o f s t r e s s a l s o v a r i e d i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e amount o f c o n t r o l t h e s e women p e r c e i v e d as l e a r n i n g i n t h e i r l i v e s . P h y s i c a l P r o x i m i t y The r e l a t i o n s h i p between p h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y t o f a m i l y and t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f b e i n g d i s o w n e d by t h e f a m i l y o f o r i g i n was q u i t e s t r i k i n g . F i v e o f t h e women who l i v e d i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o t h e i r f a m i l i e s , p e r c e i v e d t h e m s e l v e s as h a v i n g been d i s o w n e d . F o r t h r e e o f t h e women, whose r e l a t i v e s and f a m i l i e s 77 l i v e d i n I n d i a o r a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y , disownment was n o t e x p e r i e n c e d as i n t e n s e l y . Two o f t h e t h r e e women s t a t e d t h a t i f t h e y were t o r e t u r n t o I n d i a o r i f t h e i r f a m i l i e s were h e r e i n Canada, t h e s i t u a t i o n w o u l d have been v e r y d i f f e r e n t . As one women s t a t e d : I f t h e y were l i v i n g h e r e and r e l a t i n g t o t h e s e p e o p l e h e r e , t h e y m i g h t have been c o n c e r n e d about b e i n g o u t c a s t e d . But I know f o r s u r e t h a t t h e y w o u l d n o t have s a c r i f i c e d me t o a n y t h i n g l i k e t h a t . A l t h o u g h I'm s u r e i t would have made some d i f f e r e n c e . R i g h t now t h e y know, even i f t h e y want t o f o r c e me, t h e y c a n ' t . . . O t h e r w i s e , t h e y m i g h t have t r i e d a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t l y . D e g r e e o f F a m i l i a l L o s s They were s h a t t e r e d . They had no i d e a t h a t one o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n c o u l d do s u c h a t h i n g . T h a t l e a v i n g them, i t was n o t h e a r d o f f . You j u s t d o n ' t l e a v e f a m i l y . You d i e , b u t y o u d o n ' t l e a v e t h e f a m i l y . F o r t h e n u c l e a r f a m i l y , t h e f a m i l y o f o r i g i n , and t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y t h e c o s t s r u n h i g h . In extreme c a s e s , t h e l o s s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s g r i e v e d and mourned as an a c t u a l p h y s i c a l d e a t h . F o r example: "Dad d o e s n ' t speak t o me. He s a i d t o me y o u have d i e d ! , I d o n ' t know what b e t t e r way t o d e s c r i b e t h a t I have been d i s o w n e d . " 78 The e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e l o s s o f t h e woman a p p e a r s t o he dependent upon t h e d e g r e e o f v a l u e p l a c e d on r e s p e c t , h o n o r , and f a m i l y p r i d e . A ccompanying t h e woman i s a l s o t h e l o s s o f honor o r " i s a t " o f t h e f a m i l y name. To i l l u s t r a t e , "He s a i d , t h a t y o u a r e bad and t h a t y o u have r u i n e d t h e f a m i l y ' s name. You d i s g r a c e d me. You d i s g r a c e d y o u r mother. You d i s g r a c e d a l l our f a m i l y . " Even when t h e f a m i l y i s aware o f t h e e m o t i o n a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y a b u s i v e s i t u a t i o n s t h a t t h e s e women f i n d t h e m s e l v e s i n , t h e f e a r o f shame and d i s g r a c e w i t h i n t h e community may i n some c a s e s b l o c k t h e f a m i l y f r o m a c c e p t i n g t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . As one woman s a i d : He was t r y i n g t o p r o t e c t h i m s e l f and he was t r y i n g t o p r o t e c t t h e f a m i l y . E v e r y o n e t h o u g h t h i s d a u g h t e r s were good. He had t h e b e s t t h r e e d a u g h t e r s i n t h e w o r l d . No one knew, what had happened i n t h e f a m i l y . Once t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e s i t u a t i o n s h o c k s t h e f a m i l y i n t o a c t i o n i t i s o f t e n t o o l a t e . The f a m i l y p ays t h e h i g h p r i c e o f t h e l o s s o f one o f i t s f e m a l e members. Embarrassment and h u m i l i a t i o n i s e x p e r i e n c e d i n f a i l i n g t o keep f a m i l y members i n l i n e . The shame i s e x p r e s s e d b e h a v i o u r a l l y by d e n y i n g f a m i l y members c o n t a c t w i t h t h e di s o w n e d woman. A t a s y m b o l i c l e v e l t h e woman i s p e r c e i v e d no 79 l o n g e r b e i n g a l i v e i n t h e f a m i l y n e t w o r k . I n d o i n g so , t h e e n t i r e f a m i l y e n t e r s t h e m o u r n i n g p h a s e . Some members may m a i n t a i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e d i s o w n e d woman b u t p r e s s u r e t o b r e a k a l l t i e s may be e x e r t e d by t h e e l d e r s . By d e n y i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e woman, t h e f a m i l y e n t e r s t h e g r i e v i n g p r o c e s s o f a l l t h e l o s s e s i n v o l v e d . Degree o f I n d i v i d u a l Loss L o s s o f a l i f e s t y l e , r e p u t a t i o n , e v e r y t h i n g , s e l f - r e s p e c t . Sometimes y o u have t o f a c e i t . You mi g h t end up l o s i n g y o u r p a r e n t s , t h e f a m i l y , e v e r y t h i n g . You l o s e y o u r i d e n t i t y as an E a s t I n d i a n . You can n e v e r go back. You can n e v e r g e t t h a t r e s p e c t . F o r t h e s e women s e v e r i t y o f t h e disownment v a r i e d i n d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e meaning t h a t t h e l o s s e s c a r r i e d . Some o f t h e l o s s e s i n c l u d e d : t h e s u p p o r t o f f r i e n d s and f a m i l y , s e n s e o f s e c u r i t y , h e a l t h , p r i d e , s e l f - r e s p e c t , l o s s o f p o t e n t i a l c h i l d r e n and f a m i l y l i f e , and f i n a l l y , t h e l o s s o f v a l u a b l e t i m e . The a c c u m u l a t i o n o f l o s s e s a t t h e p e r s o n a l , i n t e r p e r s o n a l , f a m i l i a l , s o c i a l , and community l e v e l were n o t as d e b i l i t a t i n g as t h e l o s s o f p e r s o n a l meaning, c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and g r o u p membership. A d j u s t m e n t t o t h e a c c u m u l a t i v e l o s s e s r e q u i r e d a 80 g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e and e n e r g y i n w o r k i n g t h r o u g h t h e g r i e v i n g p r o c e s s . As one woman r e p o r t e d : I c a n ' t s i t w i t h t h e P u n j a b i , where am I g o i n g t o s i t ? I c a n ' t w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n s , where am I g o i n g t o s i t ? I d o n ' t know where my p o s i t i o n i s . Not b e l o n g i n g t o any g r o u p . So I am l o s t i n t h i s way. A c c e s s To A Community " I t was a v e r y h a r d , d i f f i c u l t p e r i o d i n my l i f e , b u t t h e s t e p s t h a t I t o o k t o become a p a r t o f t h i s s o c i e t y , some s o c i e t y , t h e C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y were r e a l l e a r n i n g s t e p s . " F o r some o f t h e women, a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e disownment was f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s u p p o r t s ystems and a c c e s s t o p u b l i c and community s e r v i c e s . Some f o u n d s u p p o r t i n t h e i r f i e l d o f work, w h i l e o t h e r s a c t i v e l y s o u g h t s p e c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o h e l p i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n s . In n i n e c a s e s , s e p a r a t i o n f r o m t h e I n d o - C a n a d i a n community was a n e c e s s a r y s t e p t o w a r d t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t . In a l l t e n c a s e s , a c c e s s t o t h e m a i n s t r e a m community was t h e c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r i n t h e i r a d a p t a t i o n . I f I was back i n I n d i a , I p r o b a b l y w o u l d n o t have had t h e c o u r a g e t o move o u t o f t h e home. Even tho u g h I was m i s e r a b l e , I w o u l d have t o go back t o my f a t h e r ' s home. My f a t h e r was t h e t y p e who would be v e r y t r a d i t i o n a l . He would s a y , 'My honor i s a t 81 s t a k e , my d a u g h t e r has t o go hack and I am n o t g o i n g t o s u p p o r t y o u . Your c o f f i n i s g o i n g t o go o u t o f t h e h o u s e . ' You j u s t have t o b e c a u s e , t h a t ' s what our c u l t u r e i s . . . bu t h e r e t h e r e a r e two, so I was a b l e t o make a c h o i c e . C u l t u r a l E x p e c t a t i o n s "My Mom and Dad t a u g h t me c e r t a i n t h i n g s . They g o t me m a r r i e d , so I had t o be a d u t i f u l d a u g h t e r , mother, w i f e , and p e r f o r m d u t y i n s o c i e t y . " C o n f l i c t i n t h e a r e a o f c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d t o r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s , d u t y t o one's husband, f a m i l y , e x t e n d e d f a m i l y , and t h e community was e v i d e n t a c r o s s a l l t e n c a s e s . As one woman s a i d , "You c an do what i s e x p e c t e d o f you. You can l i v e by t h e r u l e s o r n o t l i v e by t h e r u l e s . In o t h e r words, y o u c a n ' t go b o t h ways." F o r t h e women i n t h i s s t u d y , c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , d u t y and o b l i g a t i o n t o o t h e r s were e x p r e s s e d as r e a s o n s f o r s t a y i n g i n t h e i r f a m i l i e s and i n t h e i r m a r r i a g e s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y d i d . The g u i l t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h a v i n g f a i l e d i n t h e i r d u t i e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s a p p e a r s t o have g r e a t l y h i n d e r e d t h e a d j u s t m e n t p r o c e s s . 82 P e r s o n a l i t y D i f f e r e n c e s R e s u l t s showed t h a t i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s were i m p o r t a n t . P a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e disownment was p e r c e i v e d , d e a l t w i t h , and r e s o l v e d . I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s a p p e a r t o he t h e s t r o n g e s t i n t h e a r e a o f c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t t h e s e women employed. The two women who were s u c c e s s f u l i n r e - i n t e g r a t i n g hack i n t o t h e f a m i l y were e f f e c t i v e i n t h e i r c o p i n g t e c h n i q u e s . B o t h t a l k e d o f coming t o a l e v e l o f a c c e p t a n c e w i t h t h e m s e l v e s b e f o r e a t t e m p t i n g t o b r i d g e t h e gap back i n t o t h e f a m i l y . F o r t h e o t h e r e i g h t women, f e e l i n g s o f i n a d e q u a c y and low s e l f - w o r t h were b a r r i e r s t h a t b l o c k e d s u c h movement. C o p i n g S t r a t e g i e s The t y p e o f c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t t h e s e women employed c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o two main c a t e g o r i e s : c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l s t r a t e g i e s . In t h e c o g n i t i v e c o p i n g s t r a t e g y c a t e g o r y , d e n i a l s e r v e d as an e f f e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e o f t h e disownment. Once t h e women were a b l e t o work t h r o u g h t h e d e n i a l , come t o terms w i t h t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , and f a c e t h e i r l o s s e s , t h e y were a b l e t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e i r a n g e r . B e c a u s e t h e women i n t h e sample were a t d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s o f disownment, n o t a l l o f t h e women had worked t h r o u g h t h e d e n i a l p h a s e . One woman, was c l e a r l y b l o c k e d a t t h i s s t a g e . W h i l e a member o f h e r f a m i l y had s t a t e d she had been o u t - c a s t e , she d i d n o t p e r c e i v e h e r s e l f as b e i n g d i s o w n e d . A n o t h e r c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g y employed by most o f t h e women, was t o s h i f t n e g a t i v e t h o u g h t s t o more p o s i t i v e t h o u g h t s . R e f r a i n i n g and c h a l l e n g i n g some o f t h e n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s r e q u i r e d a g r e a t d e a l o f ti m e and e n e r g y ( t h e l e n g t h o f ti m e v a r i e d a c r o s s t h e s a m p l e ) . B e l i e f i n f a t e o r " k i s m a t , " was made r e f e r e n c e t o by a l l t e n women. By f o c u s i n g on t h e f u t u r e , i f n o t f o r t h e m s e l v e s , t h e n f o r t h e sake o f t h e c h i l d r e n , t h e women f o r c e d t h e m s e l v e s t o t a k e c o n t r o l o f t h e i r l i v e s . Y e t a n o t h e r e f f e c t i v e c o g n i t i v e c o p i n g s t r a t e g y was t o f o c u s on t h e disownment e v e n t as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e i r s p i r i t u a l j o u r n e y . In t h e b e h a v i o r a l c a t e g o r y , c r y i n g was employed as an e f f e c t i v e means o f g r i e v i n g t h e l o s s o f t h e sp o u s e , t h e c h i l d r e n , c o n t a c t w i t h f a m i l y , and t h e l o s s o f t h e community. W h i l e t h e i r j o b s p r o v i d e d s t r u c t u r e f o r some o f t h e women, o t h e r s had t o f o r c e t h e m s e l v e s t o wake up and g e t on w i t h t h e day. S e e k i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p and f i n d i n g t h e s u p p o r t o f o t h e r s w i t h s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s were d e f i n i t e f a c t o r s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g new s o c i a l c o n t a c t s . W h i l e some o f t h e women ch o s e t o s e v e r a l l t i e s w i t h t h e f a m i l y , t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y , and t h e community, o t h e r s l i m i t e d t h e i r c o n t a c t w i t h t h e f a m i l y and t h e community. T h r e e o f t h e women u s e d v o l u n t e e r work as a means o f r e c o n n e c t i n g w i t h and p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e t o t h e I n d o - C a n a d i a n community. F o r t h e s e t h r e e p a r t i c i p a n t s , t h i s e x p e r i e n c e was n o t as p o s i t i v e as t h e y i n i t i a l l y hoped. I n s t e a d o f b e i n g u n d e r s t o o d o r s u p p o r t e d , t h e s e women were c o n t i n u o u s l y b e i n g r e m i n d e d o f t h e i r low s t a t u s p o s i t i o n . F o r two o f t h e women, r e c o n n e c t i n g w i t h one o r more members o f t h e f a m i l y e v e n t u a l l y l e d t o b e i n g r e i n s t a t e d i n t o t h e f a m i l y . R e - i n t e g r a t i o n Into The Family B e i n g r e - i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e f a m i l y r e q u i r e d a g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e and e n e r g y . H a v i n g t h e s u p p o r t o f a b r o t h e r o r a s i s t e r g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e s u c c e s s o f r e - e n t r y . The most d i f f i c u l t a s p e c t o f t h i s s t a g e was t h e s t r u g g l e t o a c h i e v e a l e v e l o f a c c e p t a n c e t h a t v a l i d a t e d t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' new f o u n d i d e n t i t y . The two women who were r e - i n s t a t e d back i n t o t h e f a m i l y r e c o g n i z e d t h e m s e l v e s as h a v i n g changed and grown i n t h e p r o c e s s . A l t h o u g h t h e y were c o n t e n t , r e m i n d e r s o f t h e i r l o s s o f s t a t u s g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d t h e i r f e e l i n g s o f s e l f w o r t h . R e - e s t a b l i s h i n g f a m i l y t i e s was p e r c e i v e d by b o t h o f t h e women t o be w o r t h t h e s t r u g g l e and t h e p a i n . On t h e o t h e r hand, women who had n o t s u c c e e d e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t i e s w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s o r t h e community u s e d t h e i r t i m e t o engage i n s e l f - g r o w t h a c t i v i t i e s e i t h e r t h r o u g h f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l e n d e a v o r s o r t h r o u g h community and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . Significance of the Disownment I was so d e t e r m i n e d f o r them t o n o t b r e a k me, t h a t t h e y b r o k e me. Maybe i t ' s p o s s i b l e t h a t my r e b e l l i o u s a t t i t u d e was a s i m p l e c r y f o r a t t e n t i o n , b u t I r e a l l y f e l t I d i d n ' t want t h a t k i n d o f a t t e n t i o n . But i f i t meant g e t t i n g h e r e i n t h e p r o c e s s , I was w i l l i n g t o a l l o w t h a t . S i m p l y b e c a u s e I wanted t o open t h e r o a d , t h e way f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e c h i l d r e n , b e c a u s e a l l t h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n were a l o t y o u n g e r t h a n I was, and I wanted them t o n o t s u f f e r t h e way t h a t I was s u f f e r i n g . In t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d h a v i n g g a i n e d g r e a t e r i n d e p e n d e n c e , p e a c e o f mind, p e r s o n a l s t r e n g t h and an i n c r e a s e i n s e l f c o n f i d e n c e . W i t h t h e i n c r e a s e o f s e l f - c o n t r o l , t h e r e emerged f r e e d o m , an i n c r e a s e i n l e v e l o f s e l f - e s t e e m , s e l f l o v e , and a c c e p t a n c e . W i t h a new f o u n d s e n s e o f s e l f t h e r e was g r e a t e r r e c o g n i t i o n o f p e r s o n a l p o t e n t i a l , 86 d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o s u c c e e d , and a s t r o n g w i l l t o s u r v i v e . F o r t h r e e o f t h e women, t h e s e r i e s o f e v e n t s t r i g g e r e d a s p i r i t u a l awakening. Luck, f a t e o r " k i s m a t " were made r e f e r e n c e t o t h r o u g h o u t t h e t e n c a s e s . Whatever meaning t h e women a t t a c h e d t o t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , a l l o f t h e women spoke o f p e r s o n a l g r o w t h and d i s c o v e r y o f a new way o f b e i n g i n t h e w o r l d . Summary o f R e s u l t s To summarize, s e v e r a l themes emerged i n t h e p r o c e s s o f t h e a n a l y s i s . A c r o s s t h e t e n c a s e s , t h e s e themes r e f l e c t t h e h i g h c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t i n w h i c h disownment i s g i v e n shape and e x p r e s s i o n . The r o l e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e f a m i l y , t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y and t h e community r e v e a l s t h a t disownment can be t r i g g e r e d by any number o f f a c t o r s . I n t e n s i t y o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e v a r i e d i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e number o f l o s s e s a c q u i r e d and t h e p e r c e i v e d meaning o f t h o s e l o s s e s t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l . A d j u s t m e n t was i n f l u e n c e d by s u c h f a c t o r s as c o n t r o l , p h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y t o t h e f a m i l y , d e g r e e o f l o s s e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e f a m i l y and t h e i n d i v i d u a l , a b s e n c e o f s u p p o r t f r o m t h e f a m i l y and t h e community, c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s , and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e e v e n t . D rops i n s e l f - e s t e e m were r e l a t e d t o t h e l o s s o f 87 r e s p e c t and s o c i a l a c c e p t a n c e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e n i e d a c c e s s t o " s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s " . In o r d e r t o r e d u c e t h e l e v e l o f s t r e s s i n t r o d u c e d by t h e disownment, t h e women employed a v a r i e t y o f c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s . R e - i n t e g r a t i o n back i n t o t h e f a m i l y was r e p o r t e d by o n l y two o f t h e women. A l t h o u g h t h e r e were many n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e , t h e women a l s o r e p o r t e d p o s i t i v e g a i n s s u c h as p e r s o n a l g r o w t h , s t r e n g t h , and i n d e p e n d e n c e . 88 C h a p t e r V Summary And D i s c u s s i o n F o r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s s t u d y , disownment was e x p e r i e n c e d as t h e f i n a l c o n s e q u e n c e o f an u n p r e d i c t a b l e l i f e e v e n t s u c h as abandonment, s e p a r a t i o n , and d i v o r c e . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f disownment r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e a c c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t s o f t h e l o s s e s and fr o m t h e trauma p r o d u c e d by t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e o f disownment. A n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a r e v e a l e d t h a t disownment n o t o n l y o c c u r s as an end r e s u l t o f one t r a n s i t i o n b u t i t i s a l s o a t r a n s i t i o n a l p r o c e s s i n i t s e l f . One way t o a s s i s t i n t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r phenomenon i s t o a p p l y a s t a g e model t o t h e d a t a . Disownment As A T r a n s i t i o n a l P r o c e s s Hopson and Adams (1976) d e f i n e a t r a n s i t i o n as an e v e n t i n w h i c h "an i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e s d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n h i s o r h e r l i f e ( p . 5 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o Hopson and Adams (1976) t r a n s i t i o n m odel, t h e s e v e n s t a g e s i n v o l v e an i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e i n l e v e l o f s e l f - e s t e e m , w h i c h i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e t h r e a t o f a l o s s , o r a c c u m u l a t i o n o f s e v e r a l l o s s e s . Brammer and Abrego (1981) s t a t e t h a t some o f t h e l o s s e s i n v o l v e " s u b t l e changes i n r e l a t i o n s h i p 89 c o m f o r t , o r s e c u r i t y i n f a m i l i a r s u r r o u n d i n g s " and p r o d u c e p e r c e i v e d l o s s e s i n t h e a r e a s o f " v a l u e s , r o l e s , and s e l f i d e n t i t y " ( p . 2 0 ) . Ac c o m p a n y i n g t h e l o s s e s , i s a d e c r e a s e i n s e l f - e s t e e m w h i c h r e s u l t s as a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e "anger t o w a r d t h e p e r s o n o r e v e n t t h a t i s p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e l i f e c hange" (Brammer and Abreg o , 1981, p. 2 0 ) . R e a c t i n g t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e d l o s s e s , t h e i n d i v i d u a l e n t e r s t h e t r a n s i t i o n p r o c e s s w h i c h i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a g e s : shock and i m m o b i l i z a t i o n , d e n i a l , d e p r e s s i o n , l e t t i n g go, t e s t i n g o p t i o n s , s e a r c h f o r meaning, and i n t e g r a t i o n (Hopson and Adams, 1976; Brammer and A b r e g o , 1981). A l t h o u g h t h e s e s e v e n s t a g e s p r o v i d e a u s e f u l framework f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a t t h e d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s , t h e y do n o t f i t e v e r y c a s e . W h i l e some i n d i v i d u a l s move t h r o u g h t h e v a r i o u s s t a g e s i n a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t d u r a t i o n o f t i m e , o t h e r s may become b l o c k e d . Some p e o p l e who t a k e l o n g e r a t one s t a g e w i l l f e e l t h e l e v e l o f i n t e n s i t y l e s s a c u t e l y a t t h e o t h e r s t a g e s , o r r e g r e s s t o e a r l i e r s t a g e s (Brammer & A b r e g o , 1981). The r a t i o n a l e f o r s e l e c t i n g t h i s p a r t i c u l a r model was b a s e d on t h e model's emphasis on s h i f t s i n s e l f -e s t e e m d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f t r a n s i t i o n . As a c o n s e q u e n c e o f b e i n g d i s o w n e d , t h e women i n t h i s s t u d y e x p e r i e n c e d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n t h e i r l i v e s , 9 0 w h i c h r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e y " d e v e l o p new a s s u m p t i o n s and b e h a v i o r s " i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e y f i n d t h e m s e l v e s (Brammer and A b r e g o , 1981, p . 1 9 ) . Disownment, even though i t i s a t r a u m a t i c e v e n t , has b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s on t h e women and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . A l t h o u g h t h e j o u r n e y t o w a r d s a c c e p t a n c e i s f r u s t r a t i n g and slow, movement t h r o u g h t h e s e v e n s t a g e s l e a d s t o t h e " e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f new l i f e g o a l s and d i r e c t i o n s t h a t l e a d t o g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a n b e f o r e t h e p a i n f u l t r a n s i t i o n t o o k p l a c e " (Brammer and Abrego , 1981, p. 1 9 ) . F o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e women i n t h i s sample, t h i s s t a t e m e n t d e s c r i b e s t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s t h e d a t a o f t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y i n terms o f t h e s e v e n s t a g e s model o u t l i n e d by Hopson & Adams ( 1 9 7 6 ) , and Brammer and Abrego ( 1 9 8 1 ) . S t a g e One: Shock and I m m o b i l i z a t i o n F o r t h e women i n t h i s sample, t h e d e g r e e o f shock v a r i e d w i t h t h e l e v e l o f i n t e n s i t y o f t h e disownment e x p e r i e n c e d . F o r t h o s e women who m a i n t a i n e d c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s and e x t e n d e d f a m i l i e s , t h e l e v e l o f i n t e n s i t y e x p e r i e n c e d was g r e a t e r t h a n f o r t h o s e women who l i v e d f u r t h e r away f r o m t h e i r f a m i l i e s . C o n t a c t w i t h t h e community f u r t h e r added t o t h e d e g r e e o f shock e x p e r i e n c e d . R e a c t i o n t o t h e shock 91 prompted t h e women t o i s o l a t e t h e m s e l v e s and engage i n p a r t i a l i f n o t c o m p l e t e s e p a r a t i o n f r o m t h e i r f a m i l i e s , r e l a t i v e s , and t h e community. Shame and g u i l t , e x p e r i e n c e d t h r o u g h c o n t a c t w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s prompted t h e women t o s e p a r a t e t h e m s e l v e s , so as t o m a i n t a i n some d e g r e e o f c o n t r o l and s e l f -e s teem. Stage Two; D e n i a l D u r i n g t h e t r a n s i t i o n p r o c e s s , d e n i a l p l a y s a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e . D e n i a l s e r v e s an i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n i n t h a t i t d e l a y s t i m e and p r o v i d e s r e l i e f f r o m e m o t i o n a l s u f f e r i n g (Brammer and Ab r e g o , 1981; L a z a r u s , 1979). Even p r i o r t o t h e disownment, t h e r e i s d e n i a l o f t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e f a m i l y p r o b l e m s and m a r i t a l d i s c o r d . O n l y u n t i l t h e s y s t e m i s bumped by a c r i s i s e v e n t , s u c h as s u i c i d e , s e p a r a t i o n , o r abandonment, i s t h e p r o b l e m f i n a l l y r e c o g n i z e d . But even t h e n t h e e v e n t may be c o v e r e d , d e n i e d , o r n e v e r d i s c l o s e d . D e n i a l o f t h e a c t u a l disownment s e r v e s as a p r o t e c t i v e mechanism a g a i n s t t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e s e p a r a t i o n . The shock o f t h e disownment i s l e s s e n e d t h r o u g h d e n i a l and a v o i d a n c e by a l l p e o p l e c o n c e r n e d . D e n i a l o f t h e woman's e x i s t e n c e , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s u c h a s t a t e m e n t s a s , "She i s dead," o r "You a r e no l o n g e r 92 my d a u g h t e r , " p r o v i d e s t i m e f o r t h e f a m i l y t o g r i e v e t h e l o s s . But as t h e women r e p o r t e d , d e n i a l c a n n o t be m a i n t a i n e d f o r t o o l o n g b e c a u s e t h e y a r e c o n s t a n t l y r e m i n d e d o f t h e i r r e a l i t y by f a m i l y members, r e l a t i v e s , and community members. Stages Three: Depression A f t e r t h e shock, i m m o b i l i z a t i o n , and d e n i a l , f u l l r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e change o c c u r s (Brammer and Ab r e g o , 1981). T h i s s t a g e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e s p i r a l downward towards i n t e n s e s a d n e s s , h e l p l e s s n e s s , l o n e l i n e s s , and i n extreme c a s e s s u i c i d e . G r i e f and m o u r n i n g a r e s t r o n g r e a c t i o n s t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e d l o s s e s . I n t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f g u i l t , c o u p l e d w i t h l o s s o f s e l f - e s t e e m and r e p u t a t i o n adds t o t h e c o n f u s i o n and d e s p a i r e x p e r i e n c e d a t t h i s s t a g e . The " r a g e a c companying t h e shame may e i t h e r be d i r e c t e d e x t e r n a l l y o r i n w a r d l y " (Kaufman, 1985; p. 1 0 6 ) . When t h e r a g e i s d i r e c t e d a t t h e s e l f , g r e a t e r shame i s e x p e r i e n c e d , w h i c h i n t u r n p e r p e t u a t e s and m a i n t a i n s t h e d e p r e s s i o n w h i c h c o n t i n u e s t o s p i r a l . T h i s p a t t e r n w h i c h Kaufman (1985) r e f e r s t o as t h e " i n t e r n a l shame s p i r a l " i s c r e a t e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t h r o u g h t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s . I s o l a t e d f r o m f a m i l y and f r i e n d s , t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e changes a r e e x p e r i e n c e d more a c u t e l y . L o s s o f s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s , and t h e b u r d e n o f t h e disownment s t i g m a keep t h e women i n t h i s s t a g e t h e l o n g e s t . As one s u b j e c t s t a t e d , " h i t t i n g r o c k b o t t o m and s u r f a c i n g was t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e . " A l l t h e women r e p o r t e d g r i e f and a c u t e d e p r e s s i o n . Two o f t h e woman r e a c t e d by a t t e m p t i n g s u i c i d e and one woman c o n t e m p l a t e d b u t d i d n o t a c t upon s u i c i d a l t h o u g h t s . W o r k i n g t h r o u g h t h e a n g e r , p a i n , and h u m i l i a t i o n t h e s e women g r a d u a l l y b e g i n t o l e t go. Stage Four; L e t t i n g Go Towards t h e end o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n s t a g e where f e e l i n g s a r e e x p e r i e n c e d d e e p l y , t h e women l e a r n e d t o l e t go. In t h i s s t u d y a l l t h e women e x p l o r e d new o p t i o n s and g o t down t o t h e b u s i n e s s o f s u r v i v a l . I f n o t f o r t h e m s e l v e s , t h e n f o r t h e sake o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n . F o r o t h e r s , l e t t i n g go o c c u r r e d i n r e a c t i o n t o t h e i r f a m i l i e s , t o show them t h a t t h e y c o u l d make i t as s i n g l e women. One way o f l e t t i n g go o f t h e shame a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s t i g m a was t o l e t go o f c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r I n d o - C a n a d i a n ' s and embrace new r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n m a i n s t r e a m s o c i e t y . S a d n e s s and ang e r a p p e a r t o accompany t h i s s t a g e o f l e t t i n g go 94 and r e s o l u t i o n r e q u i r e d a g r e a t d e a l o f c o u r a g e and r i s k - t a k i n g (Brammer and Ab r e g o , 1981; C h e i k i n , 1 9 81). S t a g e F i v e : T e s t i n g O p t i o n s C h a r a c t e r i z e d by e x p l o r a t i o n and t e s t i n g o f new o p t i o n s , t h i s s t a g e p r o d u c e d a g r e a t d e a l o f a n x i e t y . W h i l e on one hand, t h e women r e c o g n i z e d t h e need t o change, t h e y were h e l d back by f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t , shame, and r e s e n t m e n t . Independence c r e a t e d c o n f u s i o n and d i s o r i e n t a t i o n , and r e q u i r e d t h e l e a r n i n g o f new s k i l l s and b e h a v i o r s . One a r e a where o p t i o n s were e x p e r i e n c e d t o be v e r y l i m i t e d i n v o l v e d i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The a b s e n c e o f f r i e n d s h i p s o u t s i d e t h e f a m i l y c i r c l e l i m i t e d t h e s i z e o f t h e i r s o c i a l n e t w o r k s . L a c k o f a p p r o p r i a t e s o c i a l s k i l l s and low s e l f - e s t e e m were h i n d r a n c e s t o d e v e l o p i n g new r e l a t i o n s h i p s . F o r t h e s e women who had s u p p o r t o f s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s , s u c h as f r i e n d s and s i b l i n g s , v a l i d a t i o n o f s e l f - w o r t h was p o s s i b l e . S t a g e S i x : S e a r c h f o r M e a n i n g The s e a r c h f o r meaning was r e p o r t e d by a l l t e n women t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e . F a t e o r " k i s m a t " i s q u e s t i o n e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g , 95 m i d d l e and a t t h e end o f t h e j o u r n e y and r e f l e c t s t h e o n - g o i n g n a t u r e o f t h e women's s e a r c h f o r meaning. The s i g n i f i c a n c e and meaning t h a t t h e women a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y b u t f o r a l l women i t was d e f i n i t e l y a c o n c e r n . W h i l e f o u r women p e r c e i v e d t h e e v e n t t o be an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e i r s p i r i t u a l j o u r n e y , t h e o t h e r women v i e w e d i t t o be a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e i r s e l f - g r o w t h . In t h e i r s t r u g g l e t h e women worked t o make t h e i r p e r s o n a l e x i s t e n c e m e a n i n g f u l . Stage Seven: I n t e g r a t i o n The f i n a l s t a g e i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n p r o c e s s i s i n t e g r a t i o n . A t t h i s p h ase, new v a l u e s and b e h a v i o r s were t e s t e d and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e women's l i f e s t y l e s (Brammer and A r e g o , 1981). In t h i s s t u d y o n l y two o f t h e women had a c h i e v e d i n t e g r a t i o n . T h e s e women a r r i v e d a t a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , t h e m s e l v e s , and o t h e r s . P e r s o n a l g r o w t h , s t r e n g t h , and i n d e p e n d e n c e was embraced w i t h a s e n s e o f i n n e r p r i d e . A l t h o u g h t h e s t i g m a o f b e i n g d i s o w n e d was s t i l l p r e s e n t , and o n l y some r e s p e c t f r o m t h e f a m i l y has been r e g a i n e d , t h e r e was hope and a s t r o n g w i l l t o s u r v i v e . R e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e f a m i l y was c o n s i d e r e d t o be a major a c c o m p l i s h m e n t d u r i n g t h i s s t a g e . W h i l e t h e community and e x t e n d e d f a m i l y 96 members d i d n o t a l w a y s acknowledge o r a c c e p t t h e women t o t a l l y , b e i n g r e i n s t a t e d back i n t o t h e f a m i l y was t h e f i r s t s t e p i n b r i d g i n g t h e gap to w a r d s r e -i n t e g r a t i o n . The o t h e r e i g h t women had n o t y e t a r r i v e d a t t h i s s t a g e . To summarize, one o f t h e main d i s c o v e r i e s f r o m t h e d a t a was t h a t disownment i s a t r a n s i t i o n a l p r o c e s s . Disownment v a r i e s i n t h e d e g r e e o f i n t e n s i t y and o p e r a t e s a t t h e f a m i l y , t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y and t h e community l e v e l s . F i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y l e n d s u p p o r t t o t h e r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o disownment a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r two. As e x p r e s s e d i n t h e s t o r i e s o f t h e women, t h e j o u r n e y b e g i n s i n one c u l t u r a l s p h e r e and moves i n t o a n o t h e r . The p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e s e women f i n d t h e m s e l v e s i n i s a m a r g i n a l one c r e a t e d by e x c l u s i o n f r o m t h e i r f a m i l i e s and f r o m membership i n t h e community ( S t o n e q u i s t , 1937; H i t c h , 1 983). The d u a l i t y o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e c r e a t e d c o n f l i c t i n t h e a r e a s o f v a l u e s , r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s , e t h n i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , g r o u p v e r s u s i n d i v i d u a l n e e d s , i n t e r -p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i d e n t i t y and s e l f - e s t e e m ( W e i n r e i c h , 1983; B r e a k w e l l , 1983; Cahn, 1987). " D i s c o n f i r m a t i o n " o f s e l f by s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s , t h r o u g h disownment r e s u l t e d i n d e p r e s s i o n , a l i e n a t i o n , and l o s s o f s e l f - e s t e e m ( L a i n g , 1969). Disownment n o t o n l y t h r e a t e n e d i n d i v i d u a l s e l f - e s t e e m b u t f a m i l y g r o u p i d e n t i t y as w e l l ( B r e a k w e l l , 1983). Women who had s t r o n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e i r e t h n i c community had a more d i f f i c u l t t i m e s e p a r a t i n g t h e m s e l v e s p h y s i c a l l y , s o c i a l l y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y . B r e a k i n c o n t i n u i t y o f s e l f c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e c o n f l i c t between t h e o l d s e l f and t h e new s e l f p r o d u c e d v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f p e r s o n a l i t y d i s i n t e g r a t i o n ( A d l e r , 1975). The s t i g m a t h a t t h e s e women f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s b u r d e n e d w i t h d i s c o n f i r m e d t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e and p e r s o n a l w o r t h ( H i t c h , 1983). Re-i n t e g r a t i o n back i n t o t h e f a m i l y and a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s u p p o r t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s p r o v i d e d a c c e s s t o s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s who were a b l e t o p r o v i d e some v a l i d a t i o n and c o n f i r m a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l w o r t h and s o c i a l i d e n t i t y . S i n c e disownment o c c u r s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f f a m i l i a l and s o c i a l n e t w o r k s , t h i s s t u d y s u p p o r t s t h e r e s e a r c h on t h e r o l e t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s p l a y i n t h e v a l i d a t i o n o r d i s c o n f i r m a t i o n o f s e l f - i d e n t i t y and s e l f - e s t e e m . T h r e e S t a g e Model o f Disownment W h i l e Hopson and Adams' (1976) s e v e n s t a g e model i s u s e f u l i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e u n d e r l y i n g p r o c e s s , a s i m p l i f i e d and more e n c o m p a s s i n g t h r e e s t a g e model o f disownment i s p r e s e n t e d as a n o t h e r way o f 98 c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g t h e p r o c e s s . The disownment p r o c e s s can b a s i c a l l y be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s t a g e s w h i c h i n c l u d e : 1) a n t i c i p a t i o n o f s h i f t ; 2) a d j u s t m e n t ; and 3) r e - i n t e g r a t i o n . T hese t h r e e s t a g e s p a r a l l e l t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l model o u t l i n e d by Hopson and Adams (1977) and Brammer and Abrego ( 1 9 8 1 ) . The t h r e e s t a g e model p e r m i t s g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g d i f f e r e n c e s a c r o s s i n d i v i d u a l s . S t a g e One: A n t i c i p a t i o n o f S h i f t S t a g e One c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e i m p e n d i n g s h i f t w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y o r i n t h e m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s phase i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f e a r and d e n i a l o f t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f m a r i t a l and f a m i l y p r o b l e m s . C o n f u s i o n and a n x i e t y a r o u n d i n i t i a t i v e t o l e a v e and l a c k o f c o n t r o l k e e p s i n d i v i d u a l s g r o u n d e d i n t h i s phase u n t i l e v e n t s s u c h as d i v o r c e , s e p a r a t i o n , abandonment, o r s u i c i d e s h o c k s them i n t o a c t i o n . Once t h e i n d i v i d u a l b e g i n s t o a c c e p t i n n e r f e e l i n g s and a c t s t o meet d e n i e d n e e d s , t h e y f a c e b e i n g d i s o w n e d . The c o n f l i c t i s one o f a c c e p t i n g , t h a t i s owning one s e l f o r b e i n g d i s o w n e d by s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s . M o t i v a t i o n f o r b r e a k i n g away f r o m t r a d i t i o n i n c l u d e : t h e d e s i r e f o r p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t , i n d e p e n d e n c e , f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e , and s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n . 99 Whatever d e c i s i o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l makes, t h e r e i s an i m p l i c i t u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e r e i s no t u r n i n g b a c k . When b o u n d a r i e s a r e o v e r s t e p p e d , t h e y must be o v e r s t e p p e d so f a r t h a t t h e r e i s no t u r n i n g b a c k ( H a l l , 1 9 82). Stage Two: Adjustment S t a g e Two o f t h e disownment p r o c e s s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d e p r e s s i o n and i n t e n s e s a d n e s s . T h i s s t a g e can be t h e l o n g e s t and t h e most d i f f i c u l t p e r i o d t o p a s s t h r o u g h . F e e l i n g s o f i n t e n s e g u i l t , shame, and low s e l f - e s t e e m h i n d e r t h e p r o c e s s o f a d j u s t m e n t . M o v i n g t h r o u g h t h i s s t a g e r e q u i r e s w o r k i n g t h r o u g h a n g e r , g r i e v i n g , l e t t i n g go o f t h e l o s s e s , b u i l d i n g s e l f - e s t e e m , t e s t i n g new o p t i o n s , t r y i n g d i f f e r e n t b e h a v i o r s , and d e v e l o p i n g new r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The most s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s t o s u c c e s s f u l a d j u s t m e n t i n v o l v e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f new r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t p r o v i d e a s e n s e o f b e l o n g i n g and v a l i d a t e new f o u n d s e n s e o f s e l f . Movement i s made i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e new community w i t h t h e b e l i e f t h a t h e r e " o n l y t h e new me w i l l be known" and t h a t t h e s e new o t h e r s w i l l h e l p t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o l e a v e t h e o l d s e l f b e h i n d (Kegan, 1982, p. 2 1 8 ) . 100 S t a g e T h r e e : R e - I n t e g r a t i o n The t h i r d s t a g e o f t h e p r o c e s s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . In t h i s s t a g e , t h e r e i s g r e a t e r a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e s e l f and r e c o g n i t i o n o f p e r s o n a l s t r e n g t h , i n d e p e n d e n c e , and g r o w t h . R e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h one o r two o f t h e f a m i l y members o r r e - i n t e g r a t i o n back i n t o t h e f a m i l y i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h i s s t a g e . Re-i n t e g r a t i o n back i n t o t h e f a m i l y w h i c h i s a s l o w and p a i n f u l p r o c e s s can have b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s on t h e di s o w n e d i n d i v i d u a l ' s l e v e l o f s e l f -e s teem. Some o f t h e major d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h i s s t a g e c o n c e r n t h e n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s o f t h e s t i g m a w h i c h a r e s t i l l p r e s e n t . W h i l e t h e i n d i v i d u a l may f e e l good a b o u t h i s o r h e r s u c c e s s , i n d e p e n d e n c e , and new f o u n d s e n s e o f s e l f he or she may be s h a t t e r e d when t h e f a m i l y does n o t r e c o g n i z e o r v a l i d a t e t h e s e c h a n g e s . Common a c r o s s a l l t h r e e s t a g e s o f t h e disownment p r o c e s s a r e t h e e m o t i o n a l s h i f t s and t h e d r o p s i n s e l f - e s t e e m a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e shame and s t i g m a . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r C o u n s e l l i n g The v a l u e o f t h i s s t u d y and t h e f i n d i n g s a r e i m p o r t a n t t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e o f c o u n s e l l i n g . T hese p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e 1 01 d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : 1. E f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g and t h e r a p e u t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n s r e q u i r e awareness and an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f a " h i g h c o n t e x t " c u l t u r e when i t c o n f l i c t s w i t h a "low c o n t e x t " c u l t u r a l s y s t e m . 2. The t h r e e s t a g e model o f disownment p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l g u i d e f o r h e l p i n g i n d i v i d u a l s a d j u s t t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f a m a r g i n a l e x i s t e n c e and t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g p r o b l e m s . 3. The model when shown t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a n h e l p him o r h e r u n d e r s t a n d what m i g h t be e x p e c t e d a t t h e d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s w i t h b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e outcomes. 4. E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p o s s i b l e r o u t e s s u c c e s s f u l women i n t h i s s t u d y t o o k i n r e - i n t e g r a t i n g b a c k i n t o t h e i r f a m i l i e s r e v e a l what k i n d o f s t r a t e g i e s would be u s e f u l i n h e l p i n g o t h e r s . 5. F o r t h o s e who were n o t s u c c e s s f u l o r c o u l d n o t r e j o i n t h e i r f a m i l i e s , s u p p o r t and c o u n s e l l i n g , f o c u s i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y on v a l i d a t i o n o f s e l f , i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t f o r a d j u s t m e n t . 6. C o u n s e l l o r t r a i n i n g programs and i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g f o r community p r o f e s s i o n a l s w o u l d be b e n e f i c i a l f o r t h o s e who work w i t h s u c h c a s e s . 7 . F i n a l l y , t h e model a s s i s t s i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n r e c o g n i z i n g symptoms o f d i s t r e s s , 1 02 t a k i n g p r e v e n t i v e measures b e f o r e disownment becomes an i s s u e . A l t h o u g h t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s s t u d y were f r o m a d i s t i n c t e t h n i c g r o u p ; g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e model o f disownment t o o t h e r d i s t i n c t g r o u p s i s p o s s i b l e . B a s e d upon t h e r o l e t h e f a m i l i e s p l a y e d i n t h e r e p o r t e d e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e s e women, t h e c o u n s e l l o r i s once a g a i n r e m i n d e d t h a t w i t h many c l i e n t s , t h e f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n and d ynamics c a n n o t be i g n o r e d . A l o n g w i t h t h e awareness o f t h e c l i e n t s c u l t u r a l w o r l d view, t h e c o u n s e l l o r needs a s o l i d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t r a n s i t i o n a l p r o c e s s . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y In t h i s s t u d y , l i m i t a t i o n s a p p e a r e d i n t h e a r e a s o f a c c u r a c y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e d a t a and i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . In t h e a r e a o f r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s , t h e major drawback o f t h e p u r p o s i v e sample was t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e c o n t r o l o v e r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s o f t h e s t u d y . Thus, t h e r e was l i t t l e a s s u r a n c e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who were s e l e c t e d were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . In t h i s s t u d y , g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y was r e d u c e d f o r t h e sake o f i n c r e a s i n g knowledge and d e p t h o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e phenomenon o f disownment. 1 03 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h W h i l e t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y on disownment f o c u s e d on t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f women, a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h can be c o n d u c t e d i n a number o f o t h e r a r e a s . R e p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y w i t h members o f o t h e r e t h n i c a l l y homogeneous g r o u p s w o u ld be u s e f u l t o a s s e s s t h e r e l e v a n c e o f t h e model p r o p o s e d . A s e c o n d a r e a o f p o t e n t i a l r e s e a r c h c o u l d be f o c u s e d on f a m i l i e s who have been d i s o w n e d by an i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y member. I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t much l i k e t h e i n d i v i d u a l , t h e f a m i l y , may a l s o move o v e r t h r o u g h t h e s t a g e s o f d e n i a l , d e p r e s s i o n , l e t t i n g go o f f a i l e d e x p e c t a t i o n s , t e s t i n g new o p t i o n s i n p a r e n t i n g , and s e a r c h i n g f o r meaning. R e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a w o u l d be u s e f u l i n h e l p i n g f a m i l i e s move t h r o u g h t h e t r a n s i t i o n more e f f e c t i v e l y . F o l l o w up on t h i s s t u d y w o u l d be b e n e f i c i a l t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l e v a n c e o f f a c t o r s , s u c h as l a c k o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , i n t h e disownment p r o c e s s . A n o t h e r p o s s i b l e a r e a f o r r e s e a r c h c o u l d f o c u s on i n d i v i d u a l s t h a t t y p i c a l l y m e d i a t e between t h e di s o w n e d p e r s o n and t h e f a m i l y . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s ( i . e . , s i b l i n g s ) p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e disownment h u t t o what e x t e n t , s t i l l r e m a i n s u n c l e a r . U s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be g a i n e d f r o m t h e s t r a t e g i e s t h a t t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s u s e i n b r i d g i n g t h e d i s t a n c e between t h e f a m i l y and t h e i n d i v i d u a l . R e s e a r c h i n t h e s e a r e a s w o u l d be u s e f u l i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e model p r o p o s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . Concluding Remarks In r e v i e w , any number o f e v e n t s can p r e c i p i t a t e t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f disownment. How t h e i n d i v i d u a l a d j u s t s t o t h i s s t r e s s f u l l i f e e v e n t i s d e pendent upon a number o f f a c t o r s w h i c h i n c l u d e : i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s , a c c e s s t o community s e r v i c e s , s o c i a l s u p p o r t n e t w o r k s , c o n t a c t w i t h f a m i l y , t h e number and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f l o s e s a c q u i r e d , and a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Disownment w h i c h i s embedded i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e f a m i l y , t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y , t h e e t h n i c community ( i n t h i s c a s e t h e I n d o - C a n a d i a n community) v a r i e d i n d e g r e e and i n t e n s i t y . I n t e n s i t y o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e was a f f e c t e d by t h e number o f l o s s e s a c c u m u l a t e d . Some o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t l o s s e s were s t a t u s , g r o u p membership, and t h e l o s s o f c o n t a c t w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s . The d e g r e e o f i m p o r t a n c e p l a c e d , by t h e i n d i v i d u a l , on t h e s e l o s e s gave shape and c o l o r t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f disownment. The p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f b e i n g d i s o w n e d i n some c a s e s were d r a m a t i c . In r e s p o n s e t o t h i s 1 05 s t r e s s f u l e v e n t , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s s t u d y , employed a v a r i e t y o f c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l c o p i n g t e c h n i q u e s . D e s p i t e t h e n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s o f b e i n g o u t c a s t e d , i s o l a t e d , and a l o n e i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e t h e r e were d e f i n i t e r e w a r d s . Some o f t h e g a i n s i n c l u d e d an i n c r e a s e d l e v e l o f t o l e r a n c e o f s e l f and o t h e r s , p e r s o n a l g r o w t h , i n d e p e n d e n c e , g r e a t e r s e l f c o n t r o l , and t h e c o u r a g e t o l i v e on. G i v e n t h a t c u l t u r e i s t y p i c a l l y e v o l v i n g and g o i n g t h r o u g h change, i t i s t h e v i e w o f t h e a u t h o r t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e disownment p r o c e s s was d i f f i c u l t and d i s r u p t i v e t o t h e s e women, t h e r e was a b e n i g n e f f e c t . More p r e c i s e l y , i t was o b s e r v e d t h a t by c o p i n g and r e d e f i n i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n new ways t h e s e women were models f o r younger members o f t h e i r f a m i l i e s who became aware o f o t h e r ways o f b e i n g . Changes a t t h e p e r s o n a l , i n t e r p e r s o n a l , and a t t h e f a m i l y l e v e l s , b r o u g h t about as a c o n s e q u e n c e o f disownment, may be i n f a c t t h e most a d a p t i v e f o r t h e c h a n g i n g make-up o f t h e community. As more and more i n d i v i d u a l s b e g i n t o a c c e p t t h e m s e l v e s and e x p r e s s t h e i r i d e n t i t i e s w i t h i n t h e m a r g i n a l s p a c e between two c u l t u r a l w o r l d s , t h e y c an h e l p t o b r i d g e t h e c u l t u r a l gap and b r i n g a bout s o c i a l change. C l e a r l y c u l t u r a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n must b e g i n w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l no m a t t e r how p a i n f u l t h e p r o c e s s . These women i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e , d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e 1 06 p r o c e s s r e q u i r e s p e r s o n a l s t r e n g t h and a g r e a t d e a l o f c o u r a g e . As t r a u m a t i c as t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f disownment I s , t h e v a l u e o f changes t h a t t a k e p l a c e as a c o n s e q u e n c e o f disownment can n o t go u n r e c o g n i z e d a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l , s o c i a l , and community l e v e l s . 1 07 REFERENCES A r o n s o n , E. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . The S o c i a l A n i m a l s . San F r a n c i s c o : W.H. Freeman & Company. A d l e r , P. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . The t r a n s i t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e : An a l t e r n a t i v e v i e w o f t h e c u l t u r e s h o c k . J o u r n a l  o f H u m a n i s t i c P s y c h o l o g y , 15, pp. 13-23. A k o o d i e , M.A. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . I d e n t i t y and s e l f - c o n c e p t i n im m i g r a n t c h i l d r e n . In R. J . Samuda; J.W. B e r r y , and M. L a f e r r i e r e ( E d s . ) , M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m i n Canada. T o r o n t o , A l l y n and Bacon, I n c . . A l t m a n , I . & T a y l o r , D.A. ( 1 9 7 3 ) . S o c i a l p e n e t r a t i o n : t h e dev e l o p m e n t o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p s . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , I n c . . B a l l a r d , R. & B a l l a r d , C. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . The S i k h s : t h e dev e l o p m e n t o f S o u t h A s i a n s e t t l e m e n t s i n B r i t a i n . In J . L . Watson ( E d s . ) , Between Two  C u l t u r e s : M i g r a n t s and M i n o r i t i e s i n B r i t a i n . O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , pp. 21-27. B a l l a r d , R. ( 1 9 7 3 ) . F a m i l y o r g a n i z a t i o n among t h e S i k h s i n B r i t a i n . New Community, 2, pp. 12-24. B a l l a r d , C. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . A r r a n g e d m a r r i a g e s i n t h e B r i t i s h c o n t e x t . New CommunIty, b. Brammer, L.M., & Abreg o , P . J . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . I n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s f o r c o p i n g w i t h t r a n s i t i o n s . The  C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t , 9^ , pp. 19-36. B h a r a t i , J . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . C o n f l i c t i n t h e E a s t I n d i a n community i n T o r o n t o . A s i a n a d i a n 5_, p. 10. B r a h , A. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . S o u t h A s i a n t e e n a g e r s i n S o u t h a l l : t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f m a r r i a g e , f a m i l y , and e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . New C ommun i t y , 6_, pp. 197-206. Bogdan, R.C. & B i k l e n , S.K. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . Q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h f o r e d u c a t i o n . B o s t o n : A l l y n and Bacon. B r a n d e n , N. ( 1 9 7 1 ) . The Disowned S e l f . Los A n g e l e s : Nash Pub.. Br a n d e n , N. ( 1 9 6 9 ) . The p s y c h o l o g y o f s e l f - e s t e e m : A new c o n c e p t o f man's p s c y h o l o g i c a l n a t u r e . Los A n g e l e s : Nash Pub. C o r p . . 1 08 B r e a k w e l l , G ( 1 9 8 3 ) . T h r e a t e n e d I d e n t i t i e s . New York , John W i l e y and Sons L t d . B o r g , W.R. & G a l l , M.D. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . E d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h : An I n t r o d u c t i o n . New Yo r k : Longman. Bowlby, J . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . A t t a c h m e n t and L o s s . 1-3. Cahn, D.D. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . L e t t i n g Go: A p r a c t i c a l t h e o r y  o f r e l a t i o n s h i p d i s e n g a g e m e n t and reengagement. New Yo r k : S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New York P r e s s . C h e i k i n , M.L. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . L o s s and r e a l i t y . The P e r s o n n e l and G u i d a n c e J o u r n a l . 59, pp. 335-338. C o o l e y , C.H. ( 1 9 0 2 ) . Human n a t u r e and t h e s o c i a l  o r d e r . New Yo r k : S c r i b n e r s . Das, M.S. & B a r d i s , P.D. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . The F a m i l y i n  A s i a . London: George A l l e n & Unwin. DeVos, G., M a r s e l l a , A . J . , & Hsu, F.L.K. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . I n t r o d u c t i o n : A p p r o a c h e s t o C u l t u r e and S e l f . In G. DeVos, A . J . M a r s e l l a , & F.L.K. Hsu ( E d s . ) . C u l t u r e and S e l f : A s i a n and W e s t e r n P e r s p e c t i v e s . New Yo r k : T a v i s t o c k P u b l i c a t i o n . D h a n j a l , B. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . S i k h women i n S o u t h h a l l . New  Community. 1, PP« 109-114. D o n i n , H.H. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . To Be A Jew. New Yo r k : B a s i c Books I n c . . Duck, S. & L e a , M. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . Breakdown o f p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h e t h r e a t t o p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y . In G. B r e a k w e l l , ( E d s . ) . T h r e a t e n e d  I d e n t i t i e s . New Yo r k : John W i l e y and Sons L t d . Egan, G. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . The s k i l l e d h e l p e r . M o n t e r e y , C a l i f o r n i a : B r o o k s / C o l e . Ewen, W. L. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . Becoming f r e e : The s t r u g g l e f o r human d e v e l o p m e n t . D e l a w a r e : S c h o l a r l y R e s o u r c e s , I n c . . F e s t i n g e r , L. ( 1 9 5 7 ) . A t h e o r y o f c o g n i t i v e d i s s o n a n c e . I l l i n o i s : P e t e r s o n & Company. Fromm, E. ( 1 9 4 1 ) . E s c a p e f r o m Freedom, New Yo r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t , & W i n s t o n . F r u j i e t t i , L. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . The G i f t o f a V i r g i n , R u t g e r s : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1 09 Ghosh, R. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . E d u c a t i o n , Gender and t h e Immigrant E x p e r i e n c e . In R. J . Samuda; J . ¥. B e r r y and M. L a f e r r i e r e ( E d s ) . M u l t i c u l t u r a l ism  i n Canada. T o r o n t o : A l l y n and Bacon, I n c . . Gorden, R.L. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . I n t e r v i e w i n g : s t r a t e g y , t e c h n i q u e s and t a c t i c s . Homewood: The D o r s e y P r e s s . Gove, P.B. ( E d s . ) . ( 1 9 7 6 ) . W e b s t e r ' s T h i r d New I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y . S p r i n g f i e l d , Mass.: G & C M e r r i a m Company. H a l l , E.T. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . Beyond c u l t u r e . New Y o r k : A n c h o r Book. Hammersley, M. & A t k i n s o n . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . E t h n o g r a p h y :  p r i n c i p a l s i n p r a c t i c e . London: T a v i s t o c k P u b l i c a t i o n s . H i t c h , P. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . S o c i a l A s i a n c h i l d . In ( E d s . T h r e a t e n e d i d e n t i t i e s . S ons, pp. 107-128. i d e n t i t y and t h e h a l f -). G.M. B r e a k w e l l . C h i c h e s t e r : John W i l e y & Hopson, B., & Adams, J . ( 1 9 7 6 ) . Towards an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t r a n s i t i o n : D e f i n i n g some b o u n d a r i e s o f t r a n s i t i o n d y n a m i c s . In J . Adams: D. Hayes & B. Hopson ( E d s . ) . T r a n s i t i o n :  u n d e r s t a n d i n g and managing p e r s o n a l change. M o n t c l a i r , NJ: A l l e n h a l d and Osmund. Hsu, F.L.K. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . The s e l f i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e . In G. DeVos, A . J . M a r s e l l a , & F.L.K. Hsu ( E d s . ) C u l t u r a l and s e l f : A s i a n and  W e s t e r n P e r s p e c t i v e s . New Y o r k : T a v i s t o c k P u b l i c a t i o n s . I z m i r l i a n , H. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . S t r u c t u r e and s t r a t e g y i n  S i k h s o c i e t y . Manohar. Kaufman, G. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . Shame: The Power o f C a r i n g , (2nd E d . ) . Cambridge, Mass.: Schenkman P u b l i s h i n g Company, I n c . . Kegan, R. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . The e v o l v i n g s e l f : p r o b l e m and  p r o c e s s i n human d e v e l o p m e n t . Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . K e y e s , C F . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . E t h n i c Change. S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s . 110 K i s h w a r , M. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . Dowry: t o e n s u r e h e r h a p p i n e s s o r t o d i s i n h e r i t h e r ? M a n u s h i , 34 ( 6 ) ; pp. 2-13. K i t w o o d , T. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . S e l f - c o n c e p t i o n among young B r i t i s h - A s i a n M u s l i m s : C o n f u t a t i o n o f a s t e r e o t y p e . In G. B r e a k w e l l ( E d s . ) T h r e a t e n e d  i d e n t i t i e s • John W i l e y & Sons L t d . K o r n f i e l d , J . , Das, R., M i y u k i , M. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . P s y c h o l o g i c a l a d j u s t m e n t i s n o t l i b e r a t i o n . In J . Welwood ( E d s . ) . Awakening t h e h e a r t . B o s t o n : New S c i e n c e L i b r a r y , pp. 33-42. L a i n g , R.D. ( 1 9 6 9 ) . The D i v i d e d S e l f . New Y o r k : P a n t h e o n Books. L a i n g , R.D. ( 1 9 6 9 ) . S e l f and O t h e r . London: T a v i s t o c k P u b l i c a t i o n s . L a z a r u s , R.S. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . P o s i t i v e d e n i a l : t h e c a s e f o r n o t f a c i n g r e a l i t y . P s y c h o l o g y Today ( 1 1 ) , pp. 44-6 0. L e a f , M. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . I n f o r m a t i o n and B e h a v i o r i n a S i k h  V i 1 l a g e . B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s . L e c k y , P. ( 1 9 6 1 ) . S e l f - C o n s i s t e n c y a T h e o r y o f  P e r s o n a l i t y . Shoe S t r i n g P r e s s I n c . L e v y - W a r r e n , M.H. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . M o v i n g t o a new c u l t u r e : C u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , l o s s , and m o u r n i n g . In ( E d s . ) . J . B l o o m f e s h b a c k , The p s y c h o l o g y o f  s e p a r a t i o n and l o s s . New Y o r k : J o s s e y - B a s s . L e V i n e , R.A. (1982) C u l t u r e , B e h a v i o r and P e r s o n a l 1 t y . New Y o r k : A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g Company. Mead, G.H. ( 1 9 3 4 ) . Mind, s e l f and s o c i e t y . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s . Mead, G.H. ( 1 9 6 8 ) . The G e n e s i s o f t h e S e l f . In C. Gordon & K. Gergen ( E d s ) . S e l f and S o c i a l  A c t i o n . New Y o r k : John W i l e y . M i l l e r , E.G. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . Women b r e a k t r a d i t i o n a l s i l e n c e t o seek l e g a l a i d . The C h r i s t i a n S c i e n c e  M o n i t o r , 79 ( 8 5 ) , pp. 2. N a i s b e t t , J . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . M e g a t r e n d s . New Y o r k : Warner Books. 111 Okabe, R. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . C u l t u r a l a s s u m p t i o n s o f e a s t and w e s t . In W.B. Gudykunst ( E d s . ) . I n t e r c u l t u r a l  c o m m u n i c a t i o n t h e o r y : c u r r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e  i n t e r n a t i o n a l and i n t e r c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n  A n n u a l , 7_, B e v e r l y H i l l s , C a l i f . : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s . P a r k , R.E. ( 1 9 2 8 ) . Human M i g r a t i o n and t h e M a r g i n a l Man. The A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y . 3 3 ( 6 ) , pp. 881-893. P e t t i g r e w , J . ( 1 9 7 2 ) . S o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s y s t e m o f t h e S i k h J a t s . New Community, 1 ( 5 ) , pp. 354-363. Ramacharan, S. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . R a c i s m : n o n - w h i t e s i n  Canada. T o r o n t o : B u t t e r w o r t h . Ray, D.W.V. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . C u l t u r a l I d e n t i t y and E d u c a t i o n I n . R. J . Samuda; J.W. B e r r y ; and M. L a f e r r i e r e ( E d s . ) . M u l t i c u l t u r a l ism i n Canada. T o r o n t o : A l l y n and Bacon, I n c . . R o g e r s , C. ( 1 9 6 1 ) . On Becoming a P e r s o n . B o s t o n : Houghton, M i f f l i n . R o s h i , J.S. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . Where i s t h e s e l f ? In ( E d s . ) . J . Welwood, Awakening t h e h e a r t : E a s t / w e s t  a p p r o a c h e s t o p s y c h o t h e r a p y and t h e h e a l i n g  r e l a t i o n s h i p s . B o s t o n : New S c i e n c e L i b r a r y . Samuda, R . J . , B e r r y , J.W., & L a f e r r i e r e , M. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . M u l t i c u l t u r a l i sm i n Canada: S o c i a l and  e d u c a t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s . T o r o n t o : A l l y n and Bacon, I n c . . S c h l o s s b e r g , N.K. T r o l l , L.E. & L e i b o w i t z , Z. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . P e r s p e c t i v e s on c o u n s e l l i n g a d u l t s :  i s s u e s and s k i l l s , M o n t e r e y , C a l i f . : B r o o k s / C o l e P u b l i s h i n g Company. S i l v e r m a n , D. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . Q u a l i t a t i v e m e t h o d o l o g y and s o c i o l o g y : D e s c r i b i n g t h e s o c i a l w o r l d . E n g l a n d : Gower. S p r a d l e y , J.P. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . The e t h n o g r a p h i c i n t e r v i e w . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n . S r i v a s t a v a , R.P. ( 1 9 7 4 ) . F a m i l y o r g a n i z a t i o n and change among t h e o v e r s e a s I n d i a n ' s w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o I n d i a n i m m i g r a n t f a m i l i e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Canada. In ( E d s . ) . S t u d i e s i n t h e  s o c i a l s c i e n c e s : The f a m i l y i n I n d i a - A r e g i o n a l v i e w , Mouton. 1 1 2 S t o n e q u i s t , E.V. ( 1 9 3 7 ) . The m a r g i n a l man: A s t u d y  i n p e r s o n a l i t y and c u l t u r e c o n f l i c t . New Y o r k : R u s s e l l & R u s s e l l I n c . . Sudman, S. & B r a d b u r n , N.M. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . A s k i n g  Q u e s t i o n s . San F r a n c i s c o : J o s s e y - B a s s P u b l i s h e r s . Sue, D. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . C o u n s e l l i n g t h e c u l t u r a l l y D i f f e r e n t : t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e . New Y o r k : John W i l e y & Sons. Sue, D. ( 1 9 7 3 ) . E t h n i c i d e n t i t y : t h e i m p a c t o f two c u l t u r e s on t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f A s i a n i n A m e r i c a . In D. Sue and N. Wagner ( E d s . ) . A s i a n A m e r i c a n s : p s y c h o l o g i c a l  p e r s p e c t i v e s . P a l o A l t o , C a l i f . : S c i e n c e & B e h a v i o u r Books. S u l l i v a n , H.S. ( 1 9 5 3 ) . The I n t e r p e r s o n a l T h e o r y o f  P s y c h i a t r y . New York: N o r t o n . Thompson, M. ( 1 9 7 4 ) . The s e c o n d g e n e r a t i o n P u n j a b i o r E n g l i s h ? New Community, 3 ( 3 ) . T o f f l e r , A. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . P r e v i e w s and p r e m i s e s . New Y o r k : W i l l i a m Morrow & Company. Urdang, L. ( E d s . ) . ( 1 9 7 5 ) . The random house c o l l e g e d i c t i o n a r y . New Y o r k : Random House, Inc . . V e r g h e s e , J . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . Her g o l d h e r body, D l s t . G h a z i a b a d : V i k a s P u b l i s h i n g House. W a l k e r , E.L. & Heyns, R.W. ( 1 9 6 7 ) . An anatomy f o r  c o n f o r m l t y . Belmont, C a l i f . : B r o o k s / C o l e P u b l i s h i n g Company. W e i n r e i c h , P. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . E m e r g i n g f r o m t h r e a t e n e d i d e n t i t i e s : e t h n i c i t y and g e n d e r i n r e d e f i n i t i o n s o f e t h n i c i d e n t i t y . In G.M. B r e a k w e l l ( E d s . ) . T h r e a t e n e d i d e n t i t i e s . New Y o r k : John W i l e y & Sons L t d . . Welwood, J . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . Awakening t h e h e a r t : E a s t / w e s t  a p p r o a c h e s t o p s y c h o t h e r a p y and t h e h e a l i n g  r e l a t i o n s h i p . B o s t o n : New S c i e n c e L i b r a r y . Westwood, M. & Massey, D. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . Model f o r E t h n i c  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n . U n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t . W i l l i a m s o n , J . , K a r p , D.A., D a l p h i n , J.R. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . The r e s e a r c h c r a f t : An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o s o c i a l  r e s e a r c h methods. B o s t o n : L i t t l e Brown & Company. Zimmerman, C.C. & U n n i t h a n , T.K.N. (197 5 ) . F a m i l y  and c i v i l i z a t i o n : i n t h e e a s t and w e s t . Bombay T h a c k e r & Co. L t d . . A p p e n d i x A I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e 1 1 5 Interview Schedule D i f f e r e n t p e o p l e e x p e r i e n c e b e i n g d i s o w n e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways. I want t o u n d e r s t a n d t h i n g s f r o m y o u r p o i n t o f vi e w . I f y o u f i n d any o f t h e q u e s t i o n s c o n f u s i n g , l e t me know so t h a t I can c l a r i f y them. I w o u l d l i k e t o r e m i n d y o u a g a i n t h a t c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y w i l l be m a i n t a i n e d and t h a t y o u have t h e r i g h t t o r e f u s e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The i n t e r v i e w w i l l t a k e between one t o two h o u r s . Do yo u have any q u e s t i o n s o r c o n c e r n s b e f o r e we s t a r t . 1. B e i n g d i s o w n e d i s j u s t one way o f d e s c r i b i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e . How would y o u d e s c r i b e y o u r e x p e r i e n c e ? 2. Would y o u s a y y o u have been disowned? Can y o u g i v e me examples t h a t w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h i s ? 3. Can y o u t e l l me t h e main e v e n t s t h a t l e a d t o t h e s e p a r a t i o n ? What was s i g n i f i c a n t a b out e a c h one? Now I w o u l d l i k e t o ask y o u a few q u e s t i o n s a b o u t y o u r f a m i l y . 1. Can y o u t e l l me about some o f y o u r r e l a t i v e s who a r e i m p o r t a n t t o y o u , and what t h e y a r e l i k e ? 2. I f I went t o v i s i t y o u r f a m i l y and I a s k e d about y o u , what do y o u t h i n k t h e y w o u l d s a y ? 3. What k i n d o f an e f f e c t do y o u t h i n k t h e disownment had on t h e f a m i l y ? 4. Would y o u r f a m i l y a c t u a l l y s a y y o u have been d i s o w n e d ? 5. What k i n d o f r e l a t i o n s h i p do y o u have w i t h y o u r f a m i l y ? The n e x t s e t o f q u e s t i o n s f o c u s e s on y o u r e x p e r i e n c e . 1. How d i d t h e e x p e r i e n c e a f f e c t you? 2. What d i d y o u l e a r n f r o m t h e e x p e r i e n c e ? What were t h e g a i n s and t h e l o s e s ? 3. How much c o n t r o l do y o u f e e l y o u had i n what happened? Who had t h e most o r t h e l e a s t s a y ? 1 1 6 4 . How i s y o u r l i f e any d i f f e r e n t f r o m : a. B e f o r e t h e e v e n t ? b. What i t would have been l i k e i f y o u had n o t been disowned? D i f f e r e n t p e o p l e a d j u s t t o t h e s e changes d i f f e r e n t l y . 1. What do y o u t h i n k h e l p e d y o u t o a d j u s t ? Can y o u g i v e me examples? 2. We have t a l k e d about has h e l p e d . Now I would l i k e y o u t o t h i n k a bout what d i d n o t h e l p . Can y o u g i v e me examples? 3 . You have t o l d me what h e l p e d and what d i d n o t h e l p . Now I would l i k e y o u t o t h i n k a bout what c o u l d have h e l p e d . I n o t h e r words, what d i d y o u n o t t r y ? What c o u l d o t h e r s have t r i e d . 4 . How w e l l do y o u t h i n k y o u a r e d o i n g r i g h t now? 5. I s t h e r e a n y t h i n g e l s e I s h o u l d know? We a r e n e a r l y f i n i s h e d . Now I would l i k e t o ask y o u some g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s . 1. In what r e l i g i o n were y o u r a i s e d ? 2. What y e a r were y o u h o r n ? 3 . Where were y o u b o r n ? 4 . What y e a r d i d y o u a r r i v e i n Canada? 5. Do y o u speak any o t h e r l a n g u a g e s ? 6. What i s y o u r m a r i t a l s t a t u s ? 7. What t y p e o f work do y o u do? 8. A r e y o u p r e s e n t l y a t t e n d i n g h i g h s c h o o l , c o l l e g e , o r o t h e r p o s t s e c o n d a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s ? B e f o r e we f i n i s h i s t h e r e a n y t h i n g e l s e y o u t h i n k I s h o u l d know? 1 1 7 A p p e n d i x B A g e n c y R e q u e s t Form S i n c e t h e e t h i c s committee a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e q u i r e s w r i t t e n p r o o f o f y o u r a g e n c y ' s c o n s e n t , p l e a s e c o m p l e t e t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . Name o f Agency Agency O f f i c i a l h e r e b y g i v e s p e r m i s s i o n t o Swinder J h e e t a t o i n t e r v i e w p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t s f o r h e r s t u d y on t h e E x p e r i e n c e o f E x p u l s i o n ( d i s o w n m e n t ) . A p p e n d i x C P a r t i c i p a n t R e q u e s t Form Appendix D C o n t r i b u t i n g F a c t o r s FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE DISOWNMENT C o n t r o l P e r s o n a l i t y D i f f e r e n c e s C u l t u r a l E x p e c t a t i o n s P h y s i c a l P r o x i m i t y to F a m i l y DISOWNMENT S u p p o r t and A c c e s s to F a m i l y and E x t e n d e d F a m i l y Degree of L o s s to F a m i l y "Isa t" or "Honour" Degree of L o s s to the I n d i v i d u a l "Isa t" or " S e l f -R e s p e c t " . Suppor t and A c c e s s to a Community 

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