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Exploratory study on the process of early recollection interpretation Carlin, Richard Michael 1985

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EXPLORATORY STUDY ON THE PROCESS OF EARLY RECOLLECTION INTERPRETATION by RICHARD M. CARLIN Mi'ami Univers i ty , Oxford, Ohio, 1967 Miami Univers i ty , Oxford, Ohio, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS B. A . , M . A . , i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Counsel l ing Psychology) We accept th is thesis as conforming to the reguired standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1985 © Richard Michael C a r l i n , 1985 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT This study explored the reasoning process of interpreters during the process of early r e c o l l e c t i o n (ER) interpretation, and in the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of central l i f e s t y l e theme using Mosak's typology system (1971). ERs from ten subjects were collected using a guestionnaire format and di s t r i b u t e d to six interpreters. Three interpreters were experienced in ER interpretation and three received two hours of training in ER. interpretation prior to the study. A l l interpreters were requested to record their impressions and thoughts during the interp r e t i v e process on audio tape for later analysis, and to assign a primary and secondary l i f e s t y l e theme to each subject using Mosak's typologies. The results of this study provided information about the cues found in ERs that seem to guide interpreters, the e f f e c t of interpreter style on the f i n a l outcome, and the r e l i a b i l i t y of inter-judge agreement on l i f e s t y l e theme from ER interpretation. The results showed that t r a i n i n g in ER interpretation immediately provided the trainees with an a b i l i t y to identi f y the perceptual schema of the subjects but i t did not give them the same s k i l l possessed by the experienced c l i n i c i a n s in metaphor analysis or an understanding of Mosak's typology system. S i m i l a r i t i e s and differences between the experienced c l i n i c i a n s and the trainees were analyzed. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS T i t l e Page i Abstract i i Table of Contents i i i L i s t of Tables v i i Acknowledgements v i i i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 Background and Rationale for Study .... 1 Purpose of Study 3 Significance of this Study 4 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 5 II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 7 Background to ERs 7 Projective Techniques 8 Contrast to Psychometric Studies 8 Projective Theory 9 Validation Studies 11 The Role of ERs in l i f e s tyle Analysis 16 De f i n i t i o n of L i f e Style 16 Origin of L i f e Style 17 Private Logic in L i f e Style 17 L i f e Style Analysis 18 Value of ER Interpretation to L i f e Style Analysis 19 L i f e Style Themes 19 Process of ER Interpretation 21 Techniques for obtaining ERs 21 Approaches to Interpretation 21 Training Techniques 23 i i i III METHODOLOGY 25 Design of the Study 25 Subjects 25 Instrumentation 26 Interpretat ion Procedure 26 Descr ipt ion of Interpreters 27 Experienced C l i n i c i a n s 27 Trainees 27 Data C o l l e c t i o n Procedures 29 Subjects 29 Data Analys is 29 IV RESULTS 33 Transcr ip t Comparison of Anecdotal Comments by the Interpreters 33 Summary of Common Perceptions 36 Interpretat ion Style of Interpreters 37 Reasoning process used by the Interpreters 40 Difference between C l i n i c i a n s and Trainees in S k i l l Level 41 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Centra l L i f e Sty le Theme 43 R e l i a b i l i t y of Using ERs to Identify Centra l Theme -43 Sources of V a r i a b i l i t y between C l i n i c i a n s 48 Problems associated with L i f e Style Typologies 49 The Tra in ing Procedure in ER Interpretat ion 51 V DISCUSSION, LIMITATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 56 Discuss ion of Results 56 Transcr ip t Comparison of i v Anecdotal Comments 56 Summary of Common Perceptions 56 Interpretat ion Style of Interpreters 57 Reasoning Process used by the Interpreters 57 Contrast of S k i l l Level between C l i n i c i a n s and Trainees 58 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Central LS Theme . . . 58 R e l i a b i l i t y of Using ERs to Identify Centra l Theme 58 Sources of V a r i a b i l i t y between C l i n i c i a n s 60 Problems associated with L i f e Style Typologies 62 Implications for the Tra in ing Procedure in ER Interpretat ion 63 Limita t ions and Recommendations for Future Research 64 Limita t ions 64 Recommendations for Future Research 65 Implicat ions and Conclusions 67 FOOTNOTES 69 BIBLIOGRAPHY 70 APPENDIX 1 ER Questionnaire 78 APPENDIX 2 Completed ER Questionnaire 82 APPENDIX 3 L i f e s t y l e by Harold H. Mosak 92 APPENDIX 4 Instruct ions to ER Interpreters 98 APPENDIX 5 Outl ine of the Tra in ing Program 99 APPENDIX 5A v Revised Train ing Program 102 APPENDIX 6 Transcr ip t of Interpreter Comments 105 vi LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1 Summary Table - Common Interpreter Perceptions 36 2 Ident i f i ed L i f e Style Themes 44 3 C o r r e l a t i o n of Primary LS Theme 45 4 Adjusted Trainees 46 5 Weighted L i f e Style Theme Choices 47 6 Extent of Theme Use 50 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I Wish to express my grat i tude to the chairman of my committee, Dr. Bob Armstrong, and to the members of the committee, Drs. Larry Cochran and Norm Amundson for the ir assistance and guidance in th is pro jec t . I am a d d i t i o n a l l y grate fu l to Tom Beames, Edna Nash, Bob Armstrong, Ken Neale, Maryanne Hansen, and Anne Chusid who volunteered the ir time and labor in a s s i s t i n g with th is research. A spec ia l vote of thanks goes to my wife Jo i who was always supportive and he lpfu l during the long hours spent wri t ing th is thes i s . v i i i 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE FOR STUDY The focus of t h i s study i s the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and use of e a r l y r e c o l l e c t i o n s as a t h e r a p e u t i c t o o l . As an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the p r o j e c t , a d e f i n i t i o n of the term e a r l y r e c o l l e c t i o n , and a summary of the a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e f o l l o w s . A unique and f a s c i n a t i n g approach to the understanding of how people p e r c e i v e and i n t e r p r e t the world and i n d i v i d u a l s around them i s gained from the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e i r e a r l y c h i l d h o o d memories. These e a r l y r e c o l l e c t i o n s (ERs) are g e n e r a l l y d e f i n e d as v i v i d l y r e c a l l e d memories of s i n g l e events which occurred before the age of e i g h t . They are not to be confused with r e p o r t s of past events which are memories e s t a b l i s h e d from e i t h e r c o n t i n u a l l y r e c u r r i n g episodes or from s t o r i e s t o l d to one by parents or others (Dreikurs, 1967). The ER must have a v i s u a l image to the i n d i v i d u a l and o f t e n has other sensory e x p r e s s i o n s a s s o c i a t e d with i t . I t i s not an a c c i d e n t a l memory but one which has been s e l e c t i v e l y chosen from c o u n t l e s s other experiences that o ccurred d u r i n g e a r l y l i f e . I t serves to emphasize s i t u a t i o n s , f e e l i n g s or behaviors c o n s i s t a n t with how the person p r e s e n t l y views h i m s e l f and the world (Adler, 1958; 2 K e l l y , 1963; Mayman, 1968; Mosak, 1 9 5 8 ) . In t h i s way t h e ER s e r v e s as a compass t o o r i e n t t h e i n d i v i d u a l . I t p r o v i d e s c o m f o r t or s o l i c e or d i r e c t s t h e p e r s o n t o a c t i o n . The v a l u e o f ERs i n A d l e r i a n P s y c h o l o g y d e r i v e s from t h e i r use i n f o r m u l a t i n g an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e s t y l e . L i f e s t y l e can be d e f i n e d as a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e o p e r a t i n g s t r a t e g i e s , b e l i e f s , and a t t i t u d e s w h i c h form a p e r s o n ' s b a s i c o r i e n t a t i o n toward l i f e . W h i l e i n i t i a l r e s e a r c h f o c u s e d on t h e t a n g i b l e a s p e c t s o f memory ( P o t w i n , 1901; Crook, 1931), l a t e r e f f o r t s examined t h e p r o j e c t i v e n a t u r e o f ERs. A number o f s t u d i e s t e s t e d t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s c o r r e l a t e d or v e r i f i e d t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by a c c e p t e d p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s s u c h as t h e R o r s c h a c h , TAT, B e n d e r - G e s t a l t , W e c h s l e r - B e l l e v u e , and o t h e r s ( K a d i s , Green, and Freedman, 1952; L i e b e r m a n , 1957; M c C a r t e r , Tomkins, and S c h i f f m a n , 1961; Langs, 1 9 6 5 ) . The r e s u l t s showed c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e ERs and o t h e r d e v i c e s t h a t were g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t e x p e c t e d by c h a n c e . F u r t h e r a t t e m p t s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y o f ERs y i e l d e d m ixed r e s u l t s . ERs a r e good p r e d i c t o r s of p e r s o n a l i t y (Langs, 1965, Mayman, 1968; Kopp & Der, 1982) but po o r p r e d i c t o r s o f a c t u a l b e h a v i o r or p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y ( J a c k s o n and S e c h r e s t , 1962; F e r g u s o n , 1964; H e d v i g , 1 9 6 5 ) . N e l s o n (1981) b e l i e v e s t h a t an ER i n d i c a t e s an i n d i v i d u a l ' s e x p e c t a n c i e s from w h i c h h e / s h e t h e n forms an a p p e r c e p t i v e schema w h i c h i n t u r n d e v e l o p s i n t o a l i f e s t y l e . The ER, t h e r e f o r e , shows a 3 p e r s o n ' s a t t i t u d e r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r a c t i o n i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f ERs t o l i f e s t y l e was p o s i t e d by A d l e r (1958) but not r e s e a r c h e d u n t i l F e r g u s o n ( 1 9 6 4 ) . She d e m o n s t r a t e d ER r e l i a b i l i t y i n d e r i v i n g l i f e s t y l e f o r m a t i o n s t h r o u g h i n t e r - j u d g e agreement a t s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n c h a n c e l e v e l s . In t h e c o n c l u s i o n i t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t f u r t h e r s t u d i e s o f i n t e r - j u d g e r e l i a b i l i t y and c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the ER c o n t e n t t a k e p l a c e ( F e r g u s o n , 1964) . The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f l i f e s t y l e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o t y p o l o g i e s was d e s c r i b e d by Mosak (1971) and examined by M a g n e r - H a r r i s e t a l . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . U s i n g t h e t e c h n i q u e o f i n t e r - j u d g e agreement where two out o f t h r e e j u d g e s a g r e e d on one o f Mosak's 13 l i f e s t y l e t y p e s f o r a s u b j e c t i n 41 out o f 60 c a s e s , t h e Mosak " t y p e s " were s a i d t o c o n t a i n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o a l l o w c l i n i c i a n s t o make l i f e s t y l e d e c i s i o n s . To d a t e , no o t h e r s t u d i e s have t e s t e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h i s t y p o l o g y s y s t e m t o l i f e s t y l e . The c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e d e s c r i b e s f u r t h e r s t u d i e s e x a m i n i n g ER v a l i d i t y ( R o g e r s , 1982; Kopp & Der, 1982; H a f n e r & F a k o u r i , 1 9 8 4 ) . The a c r u a l ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o c e s s and t h e methods u s e d t o i n s t r u c t i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s p r o c e s s a r e i n need o f f u r t h e r s t u d y and e l u c i d a t i o n . PURPOSE OF STUDY The g e n e r a l p u r p o s e s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h were t o d i s c o v e r 4 the reasoning process that occurs during ER in terpre ta t ion , the types of centra l l i f e s ty le themes that would be i d e n t i f i e d by in terpreters , and the effect iveness of a t r a i n i n g program in ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the questions th is study attempted to answer were: 1. Do interpreters perceive common ideas from cues found in the ERs? 2. What is the in terpre t ive process used by interpreters and how does the resoning process used in ER in terpre ta t ion compare amongst interpreters? 3. Is there any r e l i a b i l i t y in using ERs to ident i fy an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e s ty le theme using Mosak's typologies? 4. How do the in terpretat ions of the experienced c l i n i c i a n s compare to those of the trainees as a means of examining the effect iveness of a t ra in ing program in ER interpretat ion? SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS STUDY This study has s ign i f i cance for both p r a c t i t i o n e r s , such as counsel lors , psychologists , s o c i a l workers, e t c . , and the research community. It is expected that for interpreters using ERs as a therapeutic too l , the information from this study w i l l provide assistance in the in terpre ta t ion phase through i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as well as c l a r i f i c a t i o n of those perceptual s k i l l s which are most important for successful a n a l y s i s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , to those contemplating t ra in ing in 5 ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a s e n s e o f what can and c a n n o t be e x p e c t e d w i l l be h e l p f u l . The a u t h o r hopes t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h community w i l l be i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e above i n f o r m a t i o n and e x p e c t s t h a t the e v i d e n c e p r o v i d e d f u r t h e r v a l i d a t i n g i n t e r - j u d g e r e l i a b i l i t y and a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i n v o l v i n g Mosak's t y p o l o g y s y s t e m w i l l be a p p r e c i a t e d . T h i s s t u d y i s d i f f e r e n t from t h e r e s t o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g ways: No a t t e m p t has been made p r e v i o u s l y t o document and compare i n t e r p r e t e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s and m e t h o d o l o g y u s e d t o i n t e r p r e t ERs; i n t e r - j u d g e r e l i a b i l i t y o f l i f e s t y l e t y p e s d e r i v e d from ERs has not been p r e v i o u s l y r e s e a r c h e d ; and t h e t r a i n i n g o f c o u n s e l l o r s i n ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e i r a p p r o a c h e s and e f f e c t i v e n e s s t o t h a t o f e x p e r i e n c e d c l i n i c i a n s has n o t been s t u d i e d . DEFINITION OF TERMS E a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m s i s us e d i n t h i s s t u d y . F o r some o f t h e s e i t e m s , a d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between t h e c o n c e p t u a l d e f i n i t i o n , or c o n s t r u c t , and t h e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n as i t r e l a t e s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h i s r e s e a r c h . E a r l y r e c o l l e c t i o n ( E R ) : An i n d i v i d u a l ' s v i v i d l y r e c a l l e d memory o f a s i n g l e e v e n t w h i c h o c c u r r e d b e f o r e t h e age o f e i g h t . L i f e s t y l e ( L S ) : An i n d i v i d u a l ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n o f l i f e movement. T h i s movement a c c o u n t s f o r t h e c o n s i s t a n c y 6 and d i r e c t i o n a l i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s o b s e r v e d v e r b a l and n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r . L i f e s t y l e t y p e : A l i f e s t y l e t y p e i s t h e c e n t r a l theme t h r o u g h w h i c h b e h a v i o r may be u n d e r s t o o d . A number o f t h e s e have been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by Mosak (1971) from s e v e r a l s e l f - d e f e a t i n g a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s , g o a l s , and b e h a v i o r s . E ach l i f e s t y l e t y p e has d i s t i n c t d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a l t h o u g h i t i s n o t e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e y would be f o u n d i n s u c h p u r e form i n most i n d i v i d u a l s . They a r e h e u r i s t i c d e v i c e s not d e s c r i p t i o n s o f a c t u a l p e o p l e . T r a i n e e s : C o u n s e l l o r s p o s s e s s i n g an M.A. d e g r e e w i t h b a c k g r o u n d o f a t l e a s t one b a s i c c o u r s e i n A d l e r i a n p s y c h o l o g y b u t w i t h no s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g i n ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . E x p e r i e n c e d c l i n i c i a n s : C o u n s e l l o r s p o s s e s s i n g an M.A. or Ph.D. d e g r e e , a c c r e d i t e d by t h e A d l e r i a n I n s t i t u t e (an APA a p p r o v e d s c h o o l ) , who a r e t h o r o u g h l y f a m i l i a r w i t h ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and c u r r e n t l y u s i n g t h i s t e c h n i g u e i n t h e r a p y . I n t e r - j u d g e a g r e e m e n t : Agreement by a t l e a s t two out o f t h r e e i n t e r p r e t e r s i n s e l e c t i n g t h e same LS theme from a s u b j e c t s ' ERs. P r i v a t e l o g i c : A s e r i e s o f b i a s e d a p p e r c e p t i o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n t p e r s o n a l v a l u e s and c o n v i c t i o n s o f an i n d i v i d u a l . They a r e not u s u a l l y c o n s e n s u a l l y v a l i d a t e d b u t r a t h e r p r i v a t e l y h e l d c o n v i c t i o n s about l i f e . 7 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE The l i t e r a t u r e relevant to this study is c l a s s i f i e d into four general areas: Background to ERs, projec t ive techniques, the role of ERs in l i f e s ty le analys i s , and the in terpre ta t ion process. BACKGROUND TO ERS The f i r s t mention of ERs in the psychological l i t e r a t u r e occurred around the turn of the century (Hal l , 1899; Henri 1895, and Henri , 1898). Ear ly invest igat ions were p r i m a r i l y d e s c r i p t i v e in nature, occupied with character iz ing the age of the r e c o l l e c t i o n , a f f ec t ive character of the memory and other aspects of memory content (Mosak, 1958). It wasn't u n t i l la ter that ear ly memories were recognized as being a powerful c l i n i c a l t o o l . This tool was recognized by both Sigmund Freud and Al f red Adler, although they d i f f e r e d on i t s meaning. Freud theorized that ERs represented a screen whereby cer ta in repressed c o n f l i c t s were revealed but in disguised form (Freud, 1925; 1938). Memories were thought to cover up traumatic incidents of the past . The in terpre ta t ion of manifest content in ERs from a Freudian perspect ive is not important as the memories only serve to screen repressed thoughts. Adler , however, postulated that the memories were selected to reveal , not hide, s i g n i f i c a n t 8 personal gu ide l ines . They served as reminders of ind iv idua l l i m i t s and the meaning of circumstances (Adler,1931). The in terpreta t ion of manifest content from Adler ' s perspect ive is not only s i g n i f i c a n t but primary to understanding an i n d i v i d u a l ' s fundamental view of l i f e . According to Ansbacher (1973 ), ERs are considered to be the most outstanding and useful technique in Adler ian psychology today. PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES Contrast to psychometric s tudies . A projec t ive technique is one which assigns a r e l a t i v e l y unstructured task to an i n d i v i d u a l and thereby permits an almost unlimited var ie ty of responses (Anastasi, 1976). They t y p i c a l l y are used to provide a g lobal approach to the appraisa l of persona l i ty ; ie , one which focuses on a composite p ic ture of the whole personal i ty , which is e s p e c i a l l y e f f ec t ive in reveal ing covert , latent , or unconscious a t t i t u d e s . In contrast , psychometric procedures tend to present quite structured tasks to the i n d i v i d u a l . In return they t y p i c a l l y provide numerical estimates of s ingle aspects of performance. The two sty les tend to d i f f e r in s tandardizat ion of adminis trat ion , scoring, and the adequacy of norms, r e l i a b i l i t y , and v a l i d i t y . Psychometric tests tend toward structured questions, object ive scoring, s t a t i s t i c a l evaluat ion of re su l t s , and c r i t i c a l v a l i d a t i o n of pred ic t i ve a b i l i t y . Procedures are sought which everyone can use 9 e q u a l l y w e l l ( C r onbach, 1 9 6 0 ) . P r o j e c t i v e d e v i c e s r e l y s t r o n g l y on t h e c l i n i c i a n t o be a s e n s i t i v e and s k i l l f u l a r t i s t t o i n s u r e t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e p r o c e d u r e . In t r u t h , " p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s a r e n o t t r u l y t e s t s , r a t h e r t n e y a r e c l i n i c a l t o o l s . They s e r v e as s u p p l e m e n t a r y q u a l i t a t i v e i n t e r v i e w i n g a i d s i n t h e hands o f a s k i l l e d c l i n i c i a n " ( A n a s t a s i , 1976, p. 5 8 4 ) . U s i n g th e c o n c e p t from I n f o r m a t i o n T h e o r y ( C r o n b a c h & G l e s e r , 1965), p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s a r e "wide-band" p r o c e d u r e s . They y i e l d a w i d e r r a n g e o f i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h a l o w e r l e v e l o f d e p e n d a b i l i t y . T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t t o p s y c h o m e t r i c t e s t s w h i c h a r e v i e w e d as " n a r r o w - b a n d " p r o c e d u r e s p r o d u c i n g more s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n a t a h i g h l e v e l o f d e p e n d a b i l i t y . P r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i g u e s " s e r v e b e s t i n s e g u e n t i a l d e c i s i o n s by s u g g e s t i n g l e a d s f o r f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n " ( A n a s t a s i , 1976, p. 5 8 6 ) . They c a n n o t be e v a l u a t e d i n t h e same terms as u s u a l p s y c h o m e t r i c i n s t r u m e n t s . P r o j e c t i v e t h e o r y . The f u n d a m e n t a l a s s u m p t i o n o f a l l p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i g u e s a c c o r d i n g t o A n a s t a s i (1976) i s " . . . i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e s t o t h e ambiguous s t i m u l i r e f l e c t s i g n i f i c a n t and r e l a t i v e l y e n d u r i n g a t t r i b u t e s " ( p . 5 8 4 ) . The h y p o t h e s e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s a r e embedded i n p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r y . T h i s i s s t r o n g l y i n d i c a t e d by F r a n k ' s v i e w (1948) t h a t " We may t h e r e f o r e l o o k upon t h e p e r s o n a l i t y as a d y n a mic p r o c e s s , m a i n t a i n i n g and d e f e n d i n g t h a t ' p r i v a t e 10 world' wherein he l ives" (p.8) . He elaborates his pos i t ion further s tat ing " . . . t h e i n d i v i d u a l organizes experience as he warps, twists , d i s t o r t s , and otherwise f i t s every s i t u a t i o n , event, and person into the framework of his pr ivate w o r l d . . . " (p.15). It is th is pr ivate uncommunicated perspective that is e lucidated through the in terpre ta t ion of projec t ive devices . Every memory, however t r i v i a l i t may be, is important in that i t contains something memorable. It is an event or experience remembered not so much for i t s e l f but for i t s meaning to the i n d i v i d u a l . Ear ly memories, according to Adler , are e s p e c i a l l y useful.- They depict an i n d i v i d u a l ' s outlook on l i f e ana tne circumstances in which he/she f i r s t c r y s t a l l i z e d this a t t i tude (Adler, 1958). From a l l the thousands of poss ible experiences an i n d i v i d u a l only chooses to remember those which f i t into h i s /her general and s t i l l current perspective of the world (Dreikurs, 1953). The basic hypotheses supporting projec t ive technigues are: The task assigned is unstructured and therefore open to i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; the i n d i v i d u a l t y p i c a l l y is unaware of the impl icat ions of his answers; and the answers r e f l e c t s i g n i f i c a n t and r e l a t i v e l y enduring a t tr ibutes (Zubin et a l , 1965). Ear ly r e c o l l e c t i o n s can be treated as a p r o j e c t i v e technique as they f u l f i l l the above c r i t e r i a . They are completely unstructured since the memory is influenced only by the i n d i v i d u a l ' s perceptual framework 11 w h i c h s e l e c t s and r e c o n s t r u c t s memories o f p e r s o n a l i m p o r t a n c e (Mosak, 1 9 5 8 ) . I n d i v i d u a l s r a r e l y r e c o g n i z e t h e meaning o f t h e i r e a r l y memories. They t a k e them as " f a c t s o f l i f e " and t h e r e f o r e a r e w i l l i n g t o r e l a t e them as a p a r t o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y ( A d l e r , 1 9 5 8 ) . The v i e w t h a t ERs r e f l e c t s i g n i f i c a n t and e n d u r i n g a t t r i b u t e s has been t e n t a t i v e l y s u b s t a n t i a t e d ( A n s b a c h e r , 1947; B a r r e t t , 1980; H e d v i g , 1963; Warren, 1 9 8 2 ) . To t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i g u e s c a n be a c c e p t e d , ERs can be c o n s i d e r e d t o be a p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e . V a l i d a t i o n s t u d i e s . A c c o r d i n g t o Monroe (1955) ERs were t h e f i r s t o f t h e p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s . They were not r e s e a r c h e d as s u c h u n t i l K a d i s , G reen, and Freedman (1952) examined the use o f ERs i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a n o t h e r p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e , t h e T h e m a t i c A p p e r c e p t i o n T e s t (TAT) . T h e i r s t u d y i n v o l v e d o b t a i n i n g t e a c h e r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f 20 p r i v a t e h i g h s c h o o l f e m a l e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o " p e r s u i n g a t a s k , " and " r e l a t i n g t o e l d e r s " . T h r e e j u d g e s t h e n matched 10 TAT s t o r i e s from e a c h g i r l f o r e a c h o f t h e two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e s c r i b e d by t h e g i r l s ' t e a c h e r s . When t h e g i r l s ' ERs were added t o t h e TAT p r o t o c o l s , c o r r e c t m a t c h i n g s f o r b o t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c r e a s e d . The a u t h o r s s t a t e t h e s e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t ERs c l a r i f y and i n t e g r a t e TAT m a t e r i a l . T h i s p r o c e d u r e may e s t a b l i s h t h e use o f ERs as a means o f e n h a n c i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e TAT b u t t h e m e t h o d o l o g y does n o t d i r e c t l y e s t a b l i s h t h e c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y o f t h e ER 12 i t s e l f . The f a c t t h a t o n l y one ER was used from e a c h g i r l a l s o d i m i n i s h e s t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f u s i n g ERs i n t h i s c o n t e x t . L i e b e r m a n (1957) s t u d i e d a sample o f e l e v e n p s y c h o t i c and e l e v e n n o n - p s y c h o t i c f e m a l e s . She compared t h e d e g r e e o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between m a t e r i a l r e v e a l e d i n t h e i r ERs and t h a t f o u n d i n o t h e r p r o j e c t i v e d a t a . Her r e s u l t s showed the p r e s e n c e o f more agreement t h a n d i s a g r e e m e n t i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e t y p e o f m a t e r i a l r e v e a l e d i n t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e p o r t s b a s e d on t h e p r o j e c t i v e t e s t b a t t e r y as compared t o t h e r e p o r t s b a s e d on ERs. The t e s t b a t t e r y c o n s i s t e d o f t h e W e c h s l e r - B e l l e v u e , R o r s c h a c h , B e n d e r - G e s t a l t , and H o u s e - T r e e - P e r s o n d r a w i n g s . T h i s s t u d y t e n t a t i v e l y s u g g e s t s t h a t ERs a l o n e may r a p i d l y p r o v i d e t h e t y p e o f d a t a t h a t i s o b t a i n e d from more t i m e c onsuming e x t e n s i v e p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i g u e s . A f u r t h e r a t t e m p t t c v a l i d a t e t h e p r o j e c t i v e use o f ERs was r e p o r t e d i n a s t u d y by M c C a r t e r , Tomkins, and S c h i f f m a n ( 1 9 6 1 ) . They examined t h e use o f ER c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o p r e d i c t p e r f o r m a n c e on a number o f t h e T o m k i n s - H o r n P i c t u r e A r r a n g e m e n t T e s t (PAT) s c a l e s . The r e s u l t s showed a number o f t h e p r e d i c t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n c h a n c e and t h e a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t u s i n g PAT p e r f o r m a n c e as c r i t e r i o n , ER 1 s a r e a v a l i d method o f p e r s o n a l i t y a p p r a i s a l . T h i s s t u d y however, used o n l y one ER p e r s u b j e c t and a p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i g u e , t h e PAT, w h i c h has not been t h o r o u g h l y r e s e a r c h e d i n i t s e l f . 13 S i m i l a r l y , J a c k s o n and S e c h r e s t (1962) t e s t e d the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t ERs o f a p a t i e n t s h o u l d c o r r e l a t e t o t h e i r c u r r e n t n e u r o t i c symptoms; i . e . r e f l e c t c u r r e n t o v e r t b e h a v i o r . In b r i e f , t h e y h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t d e p r e s s e d p a t i e n t s w i l l g i v e memories o f abandonment, o b s e s s i v e - c o m p u l s i v e p a t i e n t s w i l l r e c a l l s t r o n g p r o h i b i t i o n s , p a t i e n t s s u f f e r i n g from a n x i e t y w i l l have ERs s h o wing o b v i o u s f e a r , and g a s t r o - i n t e s t i n a l s u f f e r e r s w i l l h ave memories c o n c e r n i n g g a s t r o - i n t e s t i n a l d i s t r e s s . The r e s u l t s were i n s u f f i c i e n t t o v a l i d a t e t h e use o f ERs i n a p r e d i c t i v e s e n s e , b u t d i d d e m o n s t r a t e a d e g r e e o f c o r r e l a t i o n i n a l l t h e h y p o t h e s e s e x c e p t f o r o b s e s s i v e - c o m p u l s i v e p a t i e n t s . The p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e o f E r s was a l s o e x p l o r e d i n a s t u d y by Langs ( 1 9 6 5 ) . ERs from 48 men were s c o r e d a c c o r d i n g t o a p r e s c r i b e d method and compared t o r a t i n g s on 76 p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d from p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , TAT, R o r s c h a c h , t h e W e c h s l e r - B e l l e v u e , and a s u b j e c t ' s a u t o b i o g r a p h y . The r e s u l t s showed c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e ER v a r i a b l e s and t h e p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s t h a t were g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t e x p e c t e d by c h a n c e . L angs (1965) s t a t e s , " t h e main t h e s i s o f t h i s r e p o r t l i e s n o t i n t h e s p e c i f i c f i n d i n g s , w h i c h must be s u b j e c t e d t o c o n f i r m a t i o n , b u t i n t h e g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s (which a p p e a r s s t r o n g l y c o n f i r m e d ) t h a t t h e m a n i f e s t c o n t e n t o f t h e f i r s t memory i s p r e d i c t i v e o f , and has a b r o a d r e l a t i o n s h i p t o , p e r s o n a l i t y " ( p . 3 8 9 ) . T h i s was a q u a n t i t a t i v e s t u d y 14 u t i l i z i n g 773 p r e d i c t i o n s and 4,560 i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s . What t h e t h r e e p r e v i o u s l y q u o t e d s t u d i e s have i n common i s t h e i r r e l i a n c e upon c o d e s or s c o r i n g s y s t e m s a p p l i e d t o t h e ER raw d a t a as, opposed t o t h e a p p r o a c h u t i l i z e d by L i e b e r m a n (1957), where c l i n i c i a n e v a l u a t i o n o f themes and s p e c i f i c c u e s r e s u l t e d i n an o v e r a l l ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The r e s u l t s o f t h e f o r m e r , w h i l e b e i n g p o s i t i v e , do not i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r a c l i n i c i a n making a d i a g n o s t i c judgement can f o r m u l a t e a v a l i d d i f f e r e n t i a l d i a g n o s i s . F e r g u s o n (1964) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e a b i l i t y o f c l i n i c i a n s t o make d i a g n o s t i c j u d gements when she t e s t e d two h y p o t h e s e s : The use o f ERs by c l i n i c i a n s i n f o r m u l a t i n g v a l i d d i a g n o s e s o f p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y , and t h e v a l i d i t y o f u s i n g ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t o d e r i v e l i f e s t y l e f o r m u l a t i o n s . The f i r s t p a r t o f t h e s t u d y o b t a i n e d a number o f ERs from each o f 30 s u b j e c t s . T h e r e were t e n e a c h o f P s y c h o t i c s , N e u r o t i c s , and N o r m a l s . T h r e e j u d g e s i n d e p e n d e n t l y w r o t e out l i f e s t y l e summaries f o r e a c h s u b j e c t from t h e i r ERs and t h e n made a d i a g n o s i s . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t none o f t h e j u d g e s were a b l e t o make a d i a g n o s i s o f p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y a t a b e t t e r r a t e t h a n t h a t o f c h a n c e . In a l a t e r s t u d y by H e d v i g (1965), s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s were r e a c h e d . T h r e e A d l e r i a n c l i n i c i a n s were a b l e t o d i a g n o s e 51 e l e m e n t a r y and h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s as n e u r o t i c or a d j u s t m e n t r e a c t i o n , c o n d u c t d i s t u r b a n c e t o o n l y a l i m i t e d e x t e n t . The combined r e s u l t s o f t h e t h r e e c l i n i c i a n s were 15 s i g n i f i c a n t l y better than that expected by chance, but i n d i v i d u a l l y they d i f f e r e d widely in diagnostic a b i l i t y . She suggested that the diagnostic a b i l i t y appears to be dependent upon the a b i l i t y of the individual c l i n i c i a n . To date, the predictive use of ERs to accurately diagnose psychopathology appears questionable. This is accounted for by the fact that ERs r e f l e c t attitudes and not overt behaviors (Dreikurs, 1967; Mosak, 1958). These attitudes create an individual l i f e s t y l e . It is the interaction of a given l i f e s t y l e with a set of s t r e s s f u l environmental conditions that leads to manifest psychopathology (Adler, 1929; Dreikurs, 1950). The second hypothesis tested by Ferguson (1964) examined the use of ERs in deriving l i f e s t yle formulations. A number of studies have correlated ERs to various personality t r a i t s (Langs, 1965; Mayman, 1968; Mosak, 1968; Verger & Camp, 1970; Warren, 1982; Kopp. & Der, 1982), but only Ferguson examined the existance of inter-judge r e l i a b i l i t y in l i f e s t y l e analysis. Seven c l i n i c i a n s matched l i f e s t yle summaries written by the judges of part I (see previous page) to the o r i g i n a l ER protocols obtained from 10 of the o r i g i n a l 30 subjects. The number of matchings (14 sets) resulted in s i g n i f i c a n t l y better than chance accuracy. Since f i v e of the c l i n i c i a n s were non-Adlerians (2 e c l e c t i c s and 3 Freudians) and unfamiliar with this use of ERs, Ferguson believes this substantiates the idea that l i f e s t y l e summaries based on ERs 16 a r e r e l i a b l y communicable t o a wide r a n g e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s . In c o n c l u s i o n , She s u g g e s t s t h a t " a d d i t i o n a l s t u d y i s n e c e s s a r y r e g a r d i n g i n t e r - j u d g e r e l i a b i l i t y o f l i f e , s t y l e f o r m u l a t i o n s d e r i v e d from ER" ( F e r g u s o n , 1 9 6 4 , p . 4 1 0 ) . One o f h e r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s i s t h a t f u r t h e r s t u d y i s needed i n t h e c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f ER t h a t l e a d t o a g i v e n l i f e s t y l e f o r m u l a t i o n . T h i s i s t h e o n l y s t u d y w h i c h r e s e a r c h e d t h e 1 r e l a t i o n s h i p o f ERs t o t h e a l l e n c o m p a s s i n g a s p e c t o f l i f e s t y l e as e x p r e s s e d by A d l e r . R e c e n t r e s e a r c h has f o c u s e d on t h e c o d i n g and s c o r i n g o f ERs (Kopp & Der, 1 9 8 2 ; B a r r e t t , 1 9 8 3 ) and not on c l i n i c i a n use o f ERs t o d e r i v e l i f e s t y l e a n a l y s i s . F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e use o f ER t o p r o d u c e l i f e s t y l e d e s c r i p t i o n s seems t o be n e c e s s a r y . THE ROLE OF ERs IN L I F E STYLE ANALYSIS D e f i n i t i o n o f L i f e S t y l e . A d l e r ' s t h e o r y o f l i f e s t y l e has been d e s c r i b e d by many t h e o r i s t s ( A d l e r , 1 9 5 8 ; D r e i k u r s , 1 9 5 3 ; Shulman, 1 9 7 3 ; Mosak, 1 9 7 7 ) . A n s b a c h e r ( 1 9 7 8 ) s a y s i t r e p r e s e n t s , . "...The o r g a n i s m i c i d e a s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l as an a c t o r r a t h e r t h a n a r e a c t o r ; o f t h e p u r p o s i v e n e s s , g o a l - d i r e c t e d n e s s , u n i t y , s e l f - c o n s i s t e n c y , and u n i g u e n e s s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ; and o f t h e u l t i m a t e l y s u b j e c t i v e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f h i s a c t i o n s " ( p . l ) . F o r A d l e r , man was f a r more complex t h a n t h e c o m p o s i t e o f g e n e t i c s and e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s h o l i s t i c t h e o r y , f i r s t p r o p o s e d by Smuts ( 1 9 2 6 ) , s t a t e s t h a t t h e whole i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e sum o f i t s p a r t s . T h i s v i e w l e d t o t h e name 17 I n d i v i d u a l P s y c h o l o g y , i n d i c a t i n g " . . . t h e i n d i v i s i b i l i t y o f man, who i s more t h a n t h e sum t o t a l o f a l l h i s p h y s i c a l , m e n t a l and e m o t i o n a l f a c u l t i e s and f u n c t i o n s " ( D r e i k u r s , 1967, p.5). O r i g i n o f l i f e s t y l e . I t i s p o s t u l a t e d t h a t from t h e moment o f b i r t h a c h i l d a c t s , t h i n k s , and f e e l s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h how he e x p e r i e n c e s and p e r c e i v e s t h e w o r l d (Pepper, 1971). T h e s e e a r l y o b s e r v a t i o n s t a k e p l a c e w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s i s t h e f i r s t g r o u p i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l s e e k s t o b e l o n g and t h r o u g h w h i c h h i s scheme f o r l i v i n g emerges ( S o n s t e g a r d , 1973). T h i s l i f e p l a n m a t u r e s i n t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t and o u t o f t h e s e b e l i e f s and o p e r a t i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h e l i f e s t y l e d e v e l o p s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l and e v e r y t h i n g t h a t he does ( D r e i k u r s , 1953). P a r t o f t h e u n i q u e n e s s o f man i s h i s a b i l i t y t o e s t a b l i s h h i s own g o a l s i n l i n e w i t h t h e c o n c e p t s and b e l i e f s w h i c h he h o l d s a b o u t t h e w o r l d and h i m s e l f . P r i v a t e L o g i c i n l i f e s t y l e . As t h e c h i l d makes c o n t i n u e d s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f l i f e e v e n t s , a " p r i v a t e l o g i c " i s c r e a t e d . T h i s p r o c e s s i s s e l f r e i n f o r c i n g t h r o u g h c o n t i n u e d s e l e c t i v e a p p e r c e p t i o n ; t h a t i s , where s t r o n g p e r s o n a l c o n v i c t i o n s and v a l u e s y s t e m s c o n s t a n t l y b i a s new e x p e r i e n c e s . "The p r i v a t e l o g i c w h i c h e a c h p e r s o n e v o l v e s a p p e a r s t o j u s t i f y h i s m i s t a k e n b e h a v i o r , and p r e v e n t s him from s e e i n g t h a t most o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s and d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s i n h i s l i f e a r e t h e l o g i c a l c o n s e q u e n c e s o f m i s t a k e s i n h i s l i f e p l a n " ( D r e i k u r s , 1953, p.45). 18 A d l e r p r o p o s e d t h a t t h i s s u b j e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e w o r l d l e f t a l l i n d i v i d u a l s f e e l i n g i n some way i n f e r i o r t o t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s . T h i s c a u s e d a b a s i c m o t i v a t i o n t o s t r i v e t o w a r d s o v e r c o m i n g t h e p e r c e i v e d i n f e r i o r i t y . The a p p r o a c h used by e a c h i n d i v i d u a l i s u n i g u e . L i f e s t y l e a n a l y s i s . A c o m p l e t e l i f e s t y l e a n a l y s i s a l w a y s c o m p r i s e s t h r e e a r e a s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n : o b s e r v a t i o n o f i n  v i v o b e h a v i o r , a summary o f f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n d a t a , and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f e a r l y r e c o l l e c t i o n s . D i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n o f b e h a v i o r a l l o w s t h e c o u n s e l l o r t o p e r c e i v e a c l i e n t ' s r e c u r r e n t r e s p o n s e p a t t e r n s t h a t o c c u r c o n g r u e n t t o t h e p r i v a t e l o g i c and hence d e n o t e t h e l i f e s t y l e . T hese r e - o c c u r r i n g themes c o n v e y t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s movement toward a g o a l . A c c o r d i n g t o G u s h u r s t (1978), t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n a f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n a p p e a r s , upon the s u r f a c e , t o be g u i t e o r d i n a r y . However, i t i s t h e i n t e g r a t i o n t h r o u g h A d l e r i a n t h e o r y w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e " b i r d s eye view o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y i n i t s n a s c e n t s t a t e " (Shulman, 1 9 6 2 ) . "A l i f e s t y l e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n i t i a l l y f o c u s e s on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n s t e l l a t i o n by e x a m i n i n g t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h s u c h f a c t o r s as b i r t h o r d e r , s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s , and p a r e n t a l v a l u e s and a c t i t u d e s i n f l u e n c e p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t " ( E c k s t e i n e t a l . , 1981, p.28) Once t h e d e v e l o p i n g e n v i r o n m e n t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h r o u g h t h e f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o " . . . d e t e r m i n e from h i s ERs t h e c o n c l u s i o n s he drew under t h o s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s " 19 ( D r e i k u r s , 1967, p . 5 8 ) . T h r o u g h i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e ERs, t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s c u r r e n t o u t l o o k on l i f e i s o b t a i n e d . The v a l u e o f ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o l i f e s t y l e a n a l y s i s . The v a l u e o f ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o l i f e s t y l e a n a l y s i s comes from c o m p a r i n g the b e l i e f s y s t e m or p r i v a t e l o g i c e x h i b i t e d i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s ERs t o a more o b j e c t i v e s o c i a l r e a l i t y or t o s o c i a l norms. T h e s e norms, c o l l e c t i v e l y termed s o c i a l i n t e r e s t , a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o n c e p t s s u c h as c o o p e r a t i o n , s e l f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , r e s p e c t f o r o t h e r s , s o c i a l e q u a l i t y , and i n t e r e s t i n o t h e r s . The c l i n i c i a n ' s t a s k i s t o i d e n t i f y t h r o u g h t h e ER where t h e c l i e n t ' s p r i v a t e l o g i c has c r e a t e d some " b a s i c m i s t a k e s " . These a r e - m i s c o n c e p t i o n s t h a t d e v e l o p e d i n c h i l d h o o d as a r e s u l t o f c o n c l u s i o n s b a s e d on e a r l y e x p e r i e n c e s . They o f t e n t y p i f y one o f 3 t y p e s o f e r r o r s : s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , e x a g g e r a t i o n and m i s t a k i n g a p a r t f o r t h e whole (Shulman, 1 9 7 3 ) . Once e l e m e n t s have been r e c o g n i z e d w i t h i n t h e ER t h a t p o r t r a y t h e p e r c e p t u a l r e a l i t y o f t h e c l i e n t , t h e l i f e s t y l e . i s r e v e a l e d u s i n g a number o f d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i q u e s . L i f e s t y l e themes. One means o f o r g a n i z i n g LS i n f o r m a t i o n i s t h r o u g h t h e use o f LS themes or t y p o l o g i e s . T h e s e r e p r e s e n t g r o u p i n g s o f p r o b a b l e s e l e c t i o n s o f b e h a v i o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t l i f e s t y l e s . W h i l e any t a x o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e c o n t r a d i c t s t h e A d l e r i a n a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e u n i q u e n e s s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , t h e n o t i o n t h a t s i m i l a r i t i e s e x i s t between i n d i v i d u a l l i f e s t y l e s has been p o s i t e d by 20 d i f f e r e n t a u t h o r s ( A n s b a c h e r & A n s b a c h e r , 1956; Shulman, 1 9 7 3 ) . T h e s e t y p o l o g i e s were e l a b o r a t e d upon and f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e d by Mosak (1971) and K e f i r and C o r s i n i ( 1 9 7 4 ) . I t has been "Mosak's 14 t y p e s " d e s c r i b e d i n N i k e l l y ' s book (Mosak, 1971) t h a t have r e c e i v e d t h e most a t t e n t i o n . In h i s own words, Mosak (1979) d e s c r i b e s t h e s e as " h e u r i s t i c d e v i c e s " , and n o t as a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme. T y p o l o g i e s i n g e n e r a l , and "Mosak's 14 t y p e s " s p e c i f i c a l l y , a r e seen as v a l u a b l e t o r e s e a r c h w h i c h a t t e m p t s t o s u p p o r t t h e t e n e t s o f A d l e r i a n p s y c h o l o g y . T h i s was p o i n t e d o u t by M a g n e r - H a r r i s , R i o r d a n , Kern, & C u r l e t t ^ (1979) i n r e f e r r i n g t o t y p o l o g i e s , " . . . t h e p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t y o f c a t e g o r i z i n g i d i o g r a p h i c b e h a v i o r i n t o n o m o t h e t i c u n i t s has t h e p o t e n t i a l o f b e i n g a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h o u t damaging the t h e o r e t i c a l s p i r i t o f A d l e r i a n t h o u g h t . " ( p . 1 9 7 ) T h e i r s t u d y examined t h e i n t e r - j u d g e a greement on LS t y p e s u s i n g 13 o f Mosak's t y p e s ( e x c l u d i n g S u p e r i o r i t y ) b a s e d on i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n a L i f e S t y l e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e I n v e n t o r y ( L S Q I ) . The r e s u l t s showed 2 out o f 3 j u d g e s a g r e e i n g on one o f Mosak's 13 t y p e s f o r a s u b j e c t i n 41 o u t o f 60 c a s e s . T h e i r c o n c l u s i o n was t h a t " . . . t h e c o n c e p t u a l p o o l o f M o s a k 1 s 13 t y p e s c o n t a i n s s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o a l l o w c l i n i c i a n s t o make c o n s i s t a n t l i f e s t y l e d e c i s i o n s . . . " ( M a g n e r - H a r r i s , R i o r d a n , Kern, & C u r l e t t e , 1979, p.200) . No f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h has been r e p o r t e d u s i n g t h i s t y p o l o g y s y s t e m . A n a t u r a l outcome o f t h i s s t u d y would be t o 21 e x p l o r e t h e use o f ERs i n d e t e r m i n i n g LS b a s e d upon Mosak's t y p o l o g y d e s c r i p t o r s . PROCESS OF ER INTERPRETATION T e c h n i q u e s f o r o b t a i n i n g ERs. I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r o b t a i n i n g ERs have been o u t l i n e d by a number o f a u t h o r s (Mosak, 1958; O l s o n , 1979; Kopp and Der, 1 9 8 2 ) . As s t a t e d by O l s o n (1979), "The a c t u a l words used i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e n o t c r i t i c a l p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e d i r e c t i o n s do n o t b i a s t h e r e c o l l e c t i o n " ( p . 6 9 ) . The i d e a l a p p r o a c h i s t o use t h e i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e whereby t h e c l i e n t p r o v i d e s t h e memory and t h e i n t e r v i e w e r t h e n r e s p o n d s w i t h a number o f q u e s t i o n s . T h i s i s done t o e l i c i t more d e t a i l s from vague ERs as w e l l as t o h i g h l i g h t t h e most v i v i d p o r t i o n o f t h e memory and t h e f e e l i n g s t h a t a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s s e c t i o n . The need f o r o b t a i n i n g s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l s was s t r e s s e d by D r e i k u r s (1952) and e l a b o r a t e d upon by Kopp and Der (1982) t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y s t a n d a r d i z e d a r a n g e o f 15 q u e s t i o n s t o be p h r a s e d i n a n o n d i r e c t i v e manner a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w . T h e r e i s a l s o a p r e c e d e n t f o r u s i n g a g u e s t i o n n a i r e t o e l i c i t ERs from a number o f s u b j e c t s ( R u l e , 1972; Altman, 1973; Z a r s k i , 1 9 7 8 ) . The i n s t r u c t i o n s d i s t i n g u i s h a r e p o r t from an ER (Mosak, 1958) and r e g u e s t o n l y memories from b e f o r e t h e age o f e i g h t ( D r e i k u r s , 1 9 6 7 ) . A d d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n s f o l l o w t h e p a t t e r n o f i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n i n an i n t e r v i e w s e t t i n g . A p p r o a c h e s t o I n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The l i t e r a t u r e i s l a c k i n g i n 22 s p e c i f i c techniques and the ir use in in terpre t ing ERs. Only a l imi ted number of authors have published the ir techniques (Mosak, 1958; N i k e l l y and Verger, 1971; Olson, 1979; Kopp and Der, 1979) reserving most of the ir expert ise and a b i l i t i e s in th i s realm to the classroom or workshop. While i t appears that much of the in terpre ta t ion is based on recognit ion of key themes, patterns and vocabulary, there is an i n t r i n s i c element needed which is not so eas i l y descr ibed . It f a l l s somewhere between empathy to the c l i e n t and a grasp of the e ssent ia l s and complexities of the Adler ian theory of p e r s o n a l i t y . The t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the i n t e r p r e t i v e process using examples of ERs and sample in terpre ta t ions cannot eas i ly penetrate this b a r r i e r . The order l iness of presenting the i n t e r p r e t i v e process is los t in Mosak's (1958) paper as he attempts to deal with a number of issues in addi t ion to th is one s k i l l . This process is improved in Olson (1979) and elaborated further by W i l l h i t e (1978) and Kopp and Der (1979). W i l l h i t e has his c l i e n t construct a new version of the ex i s t ing ER. By subs t i tu t ing d i f f eren t behaviors and choosing desired emotions for the o r i g i n a l s , the c l i e n t begins to r e a l i z e what patterns he/she wants to avoid . W i l l h i t e emphasizes the importance of inc luding a l l c l i e n t information in order to better understand the emotional perspect ive of the c l i e n t which ass i s t s in the ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 23 Kopp & Der a s s e s s t h e ER t h r o u g h s e p a r a t i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g e a c h a c t i o n u n i t o f t h e memory. T h i s i s r e l a t e d t o t h e c l i e n t who r e a c t s t o t h e a s s e s s m e n t . An o v e r a l l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h e n a t t e m p t s t o combine t h e p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d f a c t o r s i n t o a s t a t e m e n t o f g r o w th f a c i l i t a t i n g and g r o w t h i n h i b i t i n g a t t i t u d e s . An example o f a method used t o i n t e r p r e t ERs g i v e n by O l s o n (1979) i s c a l l e d t h e m o t t o t e c h n i g u e . T h i s a t t e m p t s t o e n u n c i a t e t h e g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e f o u n d i n t h e ER u s i n g a s i m p l e p h r a s e s u c h as " t h e w o r l d i s u n f a i r " or "I l i k e t o h e l p o t h e r s " . Upon c o m p l e t i o n , t h e c l i e n t has i d e n t i f i e d some s e l f - d e f e a t i n g a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s , or g o a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s l i f e s t y l e . The e l e m e n t w h i c h t h e s e p a p e r s f a i l t o examine i s t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h d i f f e r e n t c l i n i c i a n s a s s i g n meaning t o ERs. I t i s t h i s t o p i c w hich i s a d d r e s s e d i n t h e c u r r e n t p a p e r . T r a i n i n g T e c h n i g u e s . T h e r e i s v i r t u a l l y no p u b l i s h e d d a t a on t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f ERs. O l s o n ' s (1979) t e x t p r o v i d e s an up t o d a t e summary o f examples and t e c h n i g u e s f o r ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n b u t s u g g e s t s no s k i l l d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e d u r e . He p r o v i d e s a r e a d e r p r a c t i c e s e c t i o n w i t h c l i e n t ERs and t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and e n c o u r a g e s t h e r e a d e r t o " . . . s t u d y t h e r e c o l l e c t i o n and w r i t e out i n t e r p r e t i v e s t a t e m e n t s i n t h e f i r s t p e r s o n " ( p . 3 2 5 ) . Mosak, S c h n e i d e r , and Mosak (1980) have a " L i f e S t y l e " workbook w i t h an e x t e n s i v e a r r a y o f p r a c t i c e ERs f o r t h e r e a d e r t o d e v e l o p 24 h i s /her s k i l l at in terpre ta t ion but no suggested plan to accomplish th i s goa l . Nowhere is there provided a model for a program on ER in terpre ta t ion such as is given by Huber (1981) or Lowe and Lowe (1981) on l i f e s ty l e assessment. It would seem reasonable that such a program should be developed to teach the s k i l l s associated with ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 25 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY DESIGN OF THE STUDY ERs were co l l ec ted from 20 subjects using an establ ished quest ionnaire (Rule, 1972; Altman, 1973; and Zarsk i , 1978). The completed questionnaires were sorted for sex of the i n d i v i d u a l and then female and male quest ionnaires , f ive each, were randomly selected for in terpre ta t ion by the six i n t e r p r e t e r s . These questionnaires were coded one through ten. The six in terpre ters , three with extensive previous in terpre t ive experience and three with l imi ted previous experience, interpreted the ERs by c l a s s i f y i n g them using Mosak's types (1971) and tape recorded the ir reasoning process as they arr ived at the ir i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . The inexperienced interpreters received t r a i n i n g in ER in terpre ta t ion p r i o r to examining the subject guest ionnaires as a part of th i s study. The resul t s were evaluated through comparing the typology choices and the anecdotal comments derived from transcr ib ing the taped accounts from the three c l i n i c i a n s and the three tra inees . SUBJECTS The subjects for th is study consisted of 5 females and 5 males over the age of 25, who were Engl ish speaking, and personal ly known to the inves t iga tor . The s p e c i f i c ident i ty 26 o f e a c h s u b j e c t was p r o t e c t e d t h r o u g h r e q u i r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e o n l y as t o t h e sex o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . INSTRUMENTATION In t h i s s t u d y , The q u e s t i o n n a i r e used t o c o l l e c t ERs was a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s d e v e l o p e d by R u l e (1972), A l t m a n (1973), and Z a r s k i ( 1 9 7 8 ) . I t c o n s i s t s o f a page o f i n s t r u c t i o n s p l u s t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s k i n g f o r t h r e e e a r l y r e c o l l e c t i o n s . The i n s t r u c t i o n s s t r e s s t h e f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s : The i m p o r t a n c e o f r e c o r d i n g o n l y t r u e r e c o l l e c t i o n s (not r e p o r t s ) and o n l y t h o s e w h i c h o c c u r r e d b e f o r e t h e age o f e i g h t (Mosak, 1958; D r e i k u r s , 1967; V e r g e r and Camp, 1970); t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f i n c l u d i n g d e t a i l s and e m o t i o n s ; t h e need t o r e c o r d t h e r e c o l l e c t i o n s i n t h e o r d e r t h a t you remember them r a t h e r t han c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r ( D r e i k u r s , 1967); and t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s t a t i n g w h i c h s c e n e o f t h e memory i s most v i v i d and how you were f e e l i n g a t t h i s moment, (see A p p e n d i x # 1 ) T y p i c a l l y f r o m t h r e e t o s i x ERs a r e r e q u e s t e d p e r s u b j e c t . The a c c u r a c y o f t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n c r e a s e s when i t i s b a s e d on a d d i t i o n a l memories (Kopp & Dinkmeyer, 1 9 7 5 ) . The c h o i c e o f r e q u e s t i n g t h r e e memories p e r s u b j e c t f o r t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e was b a s e d on t h e l i t e r a t u r e ( V e r g e r & Camp, 1970; Kopp & Dinkmeyer, 1975) and t h e t i m e r e q u i r e m e n t s n e c e s s a r y f o r ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , (see A p p e n d i x # 2) INTERPRETATION PROCEDURE The c o d e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were p r e p a r e d f o r e x a m i n a t i o n i n 27 t h e f o l l o w i n g manner. They were e a c h d u p l i c a t e d by making a t y p e d copy w h i c h removed h a n d w r i t i n g as a f a c t o r i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n b u t m a i n t a i n e d a l l g r a m m a t i c a l , s y n t a c t i c a l , and s p e l l i n g i d i o s y n c r a c i e s . In a d d i t i o n , s p a c e was p r o v i d e d f o r c l a s s i f y i n g e a c h q u e s t i o n n a i r e as r e p r e s e n t i n g a p r i m a r y l i f e s t y l e and two p o s s i b l e s e c o n d a r y l i f e s t y l e s themes. E a c h c l i n i c i a n and t r a i n e e r e c e i v e d a copy o f t h e t e n numbered q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , an a u d i o t a p e , and a copy o f Mosak's p a p e r (1971) " L i f e s t y l e " , d e s c r i b i n g 14 p r o b a b l e b e h a v i o r s r e l a t e d t o l i f e s t y l e themes (see A p p e n d i x , # 3 ) . They were i n s t r u c t e d (see A p p e n d i x # 4) to r e a d t h e ERs o f e a c h s u b j e c t i n d i v i d u a l l y , and t o t h e n c l a s s i f y e a c h one i n t o one p r i m a r y and two s e c o n d a r y c e n t r a l themes u s i n g Mosak's a r t i c l e . D u r i n g t h i s p r o c e s s t h e y were r e g u e s t e d t o u s e t h e a u d i o t a p e t o v e r b a l i z e t h e i r t h o u g h t s , i m p r e s s i o n s , i n s i g h t s , and r e a s o n s f o r c h o o s i n g p a r t i c u l a r l i f e s t y l e d e s i g n a t i o n s . DESCRIPTION OF INTERPRETERS E x p e r i e n c e d C l i n i c i a n s . The t h r e e e x p e r i e n c e d c l i n i c i a n s c h o s e n were a l l f a m i l i a r w i t h e a r l y r e c o l l e c t i o n s , t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o c e s s , and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o l i f e s t y l e . E ach i s r e c o g n i z e d by t h e A l f r e d A d l e r I n s t i t u t e ( C h i c a g o , 111.), an APA a c c r e d i t e d s c h o o l , as p o s s e s s i n g t h o r o u g h knowledge i n t h i s a r e a o f p s y c h o l o g y . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were p r e p a r e d as e x p l a i n e d above and d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e t h r e e c l i n i c i a n s w i t h t h e Mosak a r t i c l e (1971), a u d i o t a p e and i n s t r u c t i o n s . 28 Trainees . The three trainees chosen were personal ly known to the inves t iga tor . Each possessed a masters degree in Counsel l ing Psychology from an accredited un ivers i ty and each was fami l iar with Adler ian Psychology, although they had not had extensive t r a i n i n g or experience in the use of ERs. Each received two hours t ra in ing in the in terpre ta t ion of ERs. The program used was a modif icat ion of one mentioned by Mosak (1958) and described in d e t a i l by Mica Katz 1 (see Appendix # 5) . The trainees were instructed in the t h e o r e t i c a l framework of ERs as a pro jec t ive technigue, in the method of e l i c i t i n g ERs from c l i e n t s , and in the o v e r a l l i n t e r p r e t i v e process . This process emphasized the fo l lowing: The need to recognize essent ia l themes present about "myself", "others", and "the world"; the need to ident i fy s i g n i f i c a n t elements such as activeness or passiveness of subjects; colours or d e t a i l s present; re la t ionsh ips to others such as smaller, larger , strong, weak, e t c . ; and the importance of s ta t ing the in terpre ta t ion in the f i r s t person. A number of sample ERs and the ir in terpreta t ions taken from Olson (1979) were used to pract i ce th is s k i l l . Competence was considered achieved when the trainees were able to cons i s t ent ly ident i fy information found in the accompanying in terpre ta t ions provided, by Olson (1979). The l i f e s ty l e themes by Mosak (1971) were then examined and matched with the prac t i ce ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . At the end of this t r a i n i n g period the trainees were provided with the 10 numbered 29 quest ionnaires , an audio tape, and ins truct ions i d e n t i c a l to that provided to the experienced c l i n i c i a n s . DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE Subjects . A l l subjects were given the ins truc t ions and the ER guest ionnaire and reguested to complete and return the mater ia l by a spec i f i ed date. The researcher made himself ava i lab le to answer any guestions and a number of the subjects asked for c l a r i f i c a t i o n on a few of the points in the i n s t r u c t i o n s . A number of the subjects commented to the researcher after completing the questionnaire that they found the experience quite enjoyable and asked for add i t iona l information regarding the nature and use of ERs. DATA ANALYSIS The data from this study consisted of the audio taped comments and the i d e n t i f i e d l i f e s ty le themes from the six in terpre ters for each of the ten subjects . The anecdotal comments were analyzed for process information while the typology choices were used to assess c l i n i c i a n r e l i a b i l i t y of ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . The taped narrat ives from the six interpreters were c a r e f u l l y transcr ibed for examination and comparison (see Appendix # 6) . This consisted of a number of progressive steps. The comments by a l l six of the in terpreters were compared for one subject at a time. Commonly i d e n t i f i e d phrases or perceptions were noted and used to assess the type of information ava i lab le to a l l of the i n t e r p r e t e r s . 30 Comments s u c h as " w a n t i n g a t t e n t i o n or r e a s u r r a n c e " or " f e e l i n g overwhelmed and d e j e c t e d " t h a t were r e c o g n i z e d by a t l e a s t f i v e o u t o f s i x i n t e r p r e t e r s were h i g h l i g h t e d and l i s t e d i n T a b l e 1. E a c h i n t e r p r e t e r was n e x t a n a l y z e d f o r th e p r o c e s s t h e y went t h r o u g h i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e t e n s u b j e c t s ' ERs. T h i s i n v o l v e d l o o k i n g f o r p a t t e r n s and s t y l e s used by t h e i n t e r p r e t e r s when t h e y were g e n e r a t i n g t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s f o r e a c h s e t o f ERs. Some o f t h e p a t t e r n s u s e d by t h e i n t e r p r e t e r s were t h e h e a d l i n e t e c h n i q u e ( S i c k G i r l M i s s e s Own P a r t y ) , t h e theme a p p r o a c h s u c h as a l o s s o f c o n t r o l or a s e n s e o f h e l p l e s s n e s s , or a s e r i e s o f s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t how t h e s u b j e c t v i e w s t h e w o r l d , ' o t h e r s , and h i m / h e r s e l f . The d e g r e e t o w h i c h a l l o f t h e ERs were used and t h e number o f examples c i t e d a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e . From t h e s e p a t t e r n s , a d e s c r i p t i o n was p r o p o s e d c o n s i s t i n g o f what e a c h seemed t o be d o i n g when i n t e r p r e t i n g ERs. D i f f e r e n c e s i n s k i l l l e v e l between e x p e r i e n c e d c l i n i c i a n s and t r a i n e e s was d e t e r m i n e d t h r o u g h c o m p a r i n g t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e two g r o u p s u s e d t h e p a t t e r n s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e . A t y p i c a l example would be where a t r a i n e e would use o n l y one o f t h e t h r e e ERs and s a y t h a t t h e s u b j e c t was s c a r e d and l o o k s t o mom t o g e t h e r o u t o f t r o u b l e . A c l i n i c i a n , f o r t h i s same s u b j e c t , s a i d t h e s u b j e c t f e e l s v u l n e r a b l e , l i f e i s d a n g e r o u s , men a r e weak and women s t r o n g , wants t o be i n c o n t r o l b u t f e e l s i n a d e q u a t e , and wants t o be l o o k e d a f t e r by women. The c e n t r a l l i f e s t y l e themes c h o s e n f o r e a c h s u b j e c t by 31 t h e s i x i n t e r p r e t e r s were t h e n o r g a n i z e d and a r r a y e d i n T a b l e 2. The r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e c l i n i c i a n s ' ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s was examined by u s i n g a s y s t e m o f agreement by a t l e a s t two o u t o f t h r e e on p r i m a r y l i f e s t y l e c h o i c e i n a p r o c e s s s i m i l a r t o t h a t used by C l i n e , R i o r d e n , and K e r n ( 1 9 7 8 ) . T h i s p r o c e s s was a l s o f o l l o w e d f o r t h e t r a i n e e s ' l i f e s t y l e d e s i g n a t i o n s . A l l i n t e r p r e t e r s were r e q u e s t e d t o make s e c o n d a r y l i f e s t y l e c h o i c e s f o r e a c h s u b j e c t i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r p r i m a r y s e l e c t i o n . In an e f f o r t t o use a l l o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n l i f e s t y l e themes were w e i g h t e d . I f a theme was u s e d as a p r i m a r y c h o i c e by an i n t e r p r e t e r i t was awarded a v a l u e o f two, and i f u s e d as a s e c o n d a r y c h o i c e a v a l u e o f one. T h i s a l l o w e d f o r more c o m p l e t e c o m p a r i s o n between i n t e r p r e t e r c h o i c e s t h a n p r o v i d e d by a s i m p l e p r o p o r t i o n o f agreement f o r p r i m a r y l i f e s t y l e c h o i c e a l o n e . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e d c l i n i c i a n s and t h e t r a i n e e s s e p a r a t e l y , a v a l u e o f s i x , f i v e , or f o u r f o r a l i f e s t y l e theme f o r any s u b j e c t would i n d i c a t e a s t r o n g d e g r e e o f i n t e r p r e t e r a g r e e m e n t . T h i s theme would have been c h o s e n as p r i m a r y or s e c o n d a r y by a l l t h r e e c l i n i c i a n s o r by a l l t h r e e t r a i n e e s ( t h r e e p r i m a r y c h o i c e s e g u a l s i x p o i n t s , two p r i m a r y and one s e c o n d a r y c h o i c e e q u a l f i v e p o i n t s , and one p r i m a r y and two s e c o n d a r y c h o i c e s e q u a l f o u r p o i n t s ) . The t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e i n ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o v i d e d a s p e c i f i c f o r m a t f o r a n a l y z i n g t h e c o n t e n t o f a s e r i e s o f ERs. The t r a n s c r i p t s f o r e a c h t r a i n e e were examined t o see how 32 c lo se ly they compared to the approach in which they were i n s t r u c t e d . The trainee choice for l i f e s ty le type for each subject was then compared to that chosen by the experienced c l i n i c i a n s where strong c l i n i c i a n agreement provided a r e l i a b l e reference c r i t e r i o n . Using these two approaches the effect iveness of the t ra in ing program was able to be evaluated. 33 CHAPTER IV RESULTS The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e o r g a n i z e d f i r s t i n t o t h r e e b r o a d themes: T r a n s c r i p t c o m p a r i s o n o f a n e c d o t a l comments by t h e i n t e r p r e t e r s ; i d e n t i f i e d c e n t r a l l i f e s t y l e (LS) themes; and t h e t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e i n ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; and t h e n , w i t h i n t h e s e themes a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s as o u t l i n e d i n c h a p t e r one. I m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g s a r e h i g h l i g h t e d , t h o u g h more c o m p l e t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s w i l l be l e f t f o r c h a p t e r f i v e . TRANSCRIPT COMPARISON OF ANECDOTAL COMMENTS BY THE INTERPRETERS The t r a n s c r i b e d comments o f t h e s i x i n t e r p r e t e r s were examined t o i d e n t i f y common p e r c e p t i o n s made from c o g n i t i v e c u e s f o u n d i n t h e ERs, d e l i n e a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t y l e o f t h e c l i n i c i a n s and t r a i n e e s , compare t h e r e a s o n i n g p r o c e s s u s e d by a l l t h e i n t e r p r e t e r s , and c o n t r a s t t h e s k i l l o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e d c l i n i c i a n s t o t h a t o f t h e t r a i n e e s . E a ch o f t h e t h r e e c l i n i c i a n s and t h r e e t r a i n e e s i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e sample ERs p r o v i d e d an a u d i o t a p e o f t h e p r o c e s s t h e y went t h r o u g h t o a r r i v e a t a LS theme from Mosak's t y p o l o g i e s ( 1 9 7 1 ) . A c o m p l e t e t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e r e s u l t s w i l l be f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x , # 6 . A sample from e a c h i n t e r p r e t e r from s u b j e c t one f o l l o w s : 34 C l i n i c i a n C l on s u b j e c t 1: F i r s t ER. A l o t o f e x c i t e m e n t b u t p o s s i b l y a g e t t e r from th e b i r t h d a y p a r t y memory. The basement i s an o v e r w h e l m i n g e x p e r i e n c e - i t makes h e r s i c k . She wanted s u p p o r t and c o n f i d e n c e o f dad i n a t t e n d i n g t o h e r . She made t h i s h appen. A c c o m p l i s h e d t h i s t h r o u g h i n t i m i d a t i o n . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l g e t t e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and someone who t e n d s t o f i n d l i f e o v e r w h e l m i n g when i t goes wrong and f e e l s i n a d e g u a t e (wants s u p p o r t and warmth o f l o v i n g m a l e ) . She f e e l s weak and h e l p l e s s i n an u n p r e d i c t a b l e w o r l d w h i c h i s a b l e t o overwhelm h e r w i t h o u t p r i o r w a r n i n g . L i f e i s u n f a i r when t h i n g s s h o u l d be a t t h e i r b e s t . " L i f e s t r i k e s and I am overwhelmed w i t h a t o t a l l o s s o f c o n t r o l . " She i s e n t i t l e d b u t f e e l i n g i n a d e q u a t e . C l i n i c i a n C2 on s u b j e c t 1: F i r s t ER. The h e a d l i n e f o r t h i s ER i s " s i c k g i r l m i s s e s own p a r t y " . I'm s p e c i a l and men a r e k i n d t o me. L i f e i s a p l a c e where p e o p l e do t h i n g s f o r me. In o r d e r t o have a p l a c e I am the c e n t e r o f a t t e n t i o n ( r e c e i v i n g a t t e n t i o n ) . In a l l t h r e e o f t h e ERs, l i f e i s f u l l o f t h e u n e x p e c t e d . In t h e f i r s t ER she m i s s e s a w o n d e r f u l p a r t y ; i n t h e s e c o n d ER an u n e x p e c t e d g i f t from th e bus d r i v e r ; and i n t h e t h i r d t h e u n e x p e c t e d p u n i s h m e n t . When I do wrong women p u n i s h me and I pay t h e p r i c e . A theme o f g e t t e r f r o m s e n s e o f b e i n g s p e c i a l and g e t t i n g p r e s e n t s . P o s s i b l y some o f v i c t i m f r o m m i s s i n g p a r t y 35 and rece iv ing punishment. C l i n i c i a n C3 on subject 1: This is a getter p e r s o n a l i t y . She gets just about everything she wants: In the f i r s t ER she gets her dad; In the second ER she gets the "biggest candy cane ever seen"; and in the th i rd she gets a "perm". This is not the main theme here but i t is there a l l the same. Excitement also seems to be present in the three ERs. In the f i r s t "everything was so exci t ing", in the second the hol idays and the candy cane were exc i t ing and in the t h i r d "goofing off" was also e x c i t i n g . My t h i r d LS choice is "baby". I see someone who gets a lot of s e r v i c e . This is not very strong. Trainee T l on subject 1: F i r s t ER. Others take care of me. Givers and caretakers give one independence. The world is exc i t ing and dangerous. I am a v i c t i m . Second ER. Others are givers and doers (they give to me) . They contro l the goods. The world is f u l l of goodies and I am a taker of those goodies. Third ER. Others do for me and set rules for me. The world is f u l l of rules and I am a rulebreaker . I must depend on others to act . Trainee T2 on subject 1: L i f e is a dangerous p lace . Things go wrong and accidents occur. I cope by putt ing others in service to me. The subject trys to get things or obtain things from others-poss ib ly p i ty or sympathy. Trainee T3 on subject 1: You are very excited-you have 36 an accident and this disappoints you. You want dad to help you; you l i k e to feel happy. The unexpected is hard to cope with. If you have any fa u l t in i t you fee l g u i l t y . Summary of common perceptions. Upon perusal of the transcribed comments by the interpreters, certain phrases or words were regularly noticed and used in the interpretations. These are summarized in the following table: TABLE 1 Summary Table - Common C l i n i c i a n Perceptions Subject Common perceptions 1 Wants support or attention Puts others in service Excitement or unexpectedness 2 Inadequacy or weakness Revenge or need to control 3 Feeling overwhelmed, sad dej ected Getting from others 4 Out of control Helpless 5 Doing things the right way Being superior or perfect 6 Sense of smallness Being the center of attention 7 The need to be right Pain or suffering 8 The world is f u l l of dangers 9 Controlling 37 10 G e t t i n g a new d r e s s and f i t t i n g i n A t t e n t i o n or r e a s u r r a n c e The f a c t t h a t t h e s e e x p r e s s i o n s were u s e d by t h e i n t e r p r e t e r s d i d n o t i n a l l c a s e s mean t h e y r e a c h e d the same c o n c l u s i o n f o r a c e n t r a l LS theme. T h i s f a c t i s d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h e r e s u l t s . T h e r e d i d a p p e a r t o be a c o r r e l a t i o n between the e x p r e s s i o n s i n t a b l e 1 t o t h o s e f o u n d i n t h e ER q u e s t i o n n a i r e under "your f e e l i n g s d u r i n g t h i s s c e n e . " E v i d e n t l y t h e i n t e r p r e t e r s r e s p o n d e d t o t h e e m o t i o n a l o v e r t o n e s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e f e e l i n g s s e c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n S t y l e o f t h e I n t e r p r e t e r s . E a c h o f t h e i n t e r p r e t e r s went a b o u t the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o c e s s from a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . A summation o f t h e i r s t y l e s seems a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r e a s o n i n g p r o c e s s i t s e l f . C - l : T h i s c l i n i c i a n seems t o l o o k f o r and s t a t e an o v e r a l l p i c t u r e and use e l e m e n t s from e a c h ER t o v a l i d a t e t h e p o s i t i o n . T h e r e i s a c o n t i n u e d r e c o g n i t i o n o f m e t a p h o r s ( h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n = l i t t l e , p h o t o g r a p h = p u b l i c d i s p l a y , d e a t h = u l t i m a t e l o s s o f c o n t r o l ) and comments on v e r b s ( s u b j e c t 2 ) , nouns ( s u b j e c t 3 ) , and o t h e r d e s c r i p t i v e terms ( s u b j e c t 5 and 10) f o u n d i n t h e ERs t h a t s e r v e t o r e i n f o r c e h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . C-2: T h i s c l i n i c i a n u s e s the h e a d l i n e t e c h n i q u e once t o 38 h i g h l i g h t t h e main i d e a i n an ER and t h e n b e g i n s t o use a s e t p r o c e d u r e f o r g o i n g t h r o u g h e a c h ER o f each s u b j e c t . T h i s method i n v o l v e s u s i n g a p h r a s e w h i c h e n c a p s u l a t e s how t h e s u b j e c t v i e w s h i m / h e r s e l f , t h e w o r l d , or o t h e r p e o p l e . The p h r a s e s used a r e : L i f e or t h e w o r l d i s . . . ( s a d , d a n g e r o u s , c o m p l i c a t e d ) ; In o r d e r t o have a p l a c e , I . . . (must be p e r f e c t ) ; o t h e r s a r e . . . ( g i v e r s , p u n i s h e r s ) ; I am . . . ( s m a l l , h e l p l e s s , k i n d ) . In a d d i t i o n t o u s i n g one or a l l o f t h e p h r a s e s above f o r e a c h ER i n a s e r i e s , t h i s c l i n i c i a n v a l i d a t e s h e r p o s i t i o n by u s i n g c o n c r e t e e x amples g i v e n i n the ER i t s e l f . C-3: T h i s c l i n i c i a n a p p e a r s t o be u s i n g a theme a p p r o a c h . T h i s i n v o l v e s g o i n g t h r o u g h e a c h ER i n a s e r i e s and g i v i n g t h e LS theme (from Mosak, 1971) w h i c h seems a p p r o p r i a t e . Examples from w i t h i n t h e ER a r e u s e d t o v a l i d a t e t h e c h o i c e s and c o m p a r i s o n s between t h e ERs a r e u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e f i n a l c e n t r a l theme. T - l : T h i s t r a i n e e u s e s a p a t t e r n s i m i l a r t o t h a t u s e d by c l i n i c i a n C-2. F o r e a c h ER i n a s e r i e s t h e f o l l o w i n g p h r a s e s a r e c o m p l e t e d a c c o r d i n g t o how t h e t r a i n e e u n d e r s t a n d s t h e g i v e n c o n t e n t : O t h e r s a r e . . . , The w o r l d i s . . . , I am... A f t e r t h i s i s done f o r t h e t h r e e ERs a LS theme i s c h o s e n from t h e r e f e r e n c e l i s t (Mosak, 1 9 7 1 ) . T-2: T h i s t r a i n e e a l s o u s e s a s e t p a t t e r n t o i n t e r p r e t t h e ERs. The p h r a s e s , l i f e i s . . . and I c o p e . . . , a r e used t o e x p r e s s t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e ERs. T h i s i s n o t done f o r e a c h ER 39 however, but only once as a summary f o r the whole s e r i e s of three f o r each s u b j e c t . In a d d i t i o n , few examples are used from the ER to v a l i d a t e an o p i n i o n . T - 3 : T h i s t r a i n e e a l s o uses a set p a t t e r n to i n t e r p r e t the ERs but i t i s a very b r i e f one. I t c o n s i s t s of I am... or I l i k e . . . or I want... and i s done only once f o r each s u b j e c t . A l l three of the ERs do not appear to be used to form t h i s statement. Examples from the ER to r e f e r e n c e an o p i n i o n are not used. The s t y l e of the experienced c l i n i c i a n s , although s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t , has d e f i n i t e s i m i l a r i t i e s . They each go through and use a l l of the ERs for each s u b j e c t to formulate t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . For example: The f i r s t ER shows I s e l e c t and those not measuring up go i n t o the garbage where they belong. The second ER shows I d e l i g h t i n doing i t p e r f e c t l y . No comparisons, j u s t me doing i t up to a standard. In the t h i r d ER I am accepted as an a d u l t . They v a l i d a t e t h e i r p o s i t i o n through using examples given i n the ERs and they each comment on the metaphors used w i t h i n the ER. For example: The f i n a l d e c i s i o n f o r the theme i s to be r i g h t because "I was c o r r e c t " i n the f i r s t ER and I was s u r p r i s e d that parents d i d what was c o r r e c t i n the t h i r d ER and i n the second ER I got them a l l c o r r e c t . "I can't make ends meet" is' the body language. The f e e l i n g i s d i f f e r e n t from the a c t i o n . He doesn't f i t . Scene has a l o t of a c t i o n and he i s s i t t i n g . He i s an observer. I don't f i t , I'm o u t s i d e l o o k i n g i n . The t r a i n e e s each use a set format to express t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , but they g e n e r a l l y use very few d e t a i l s , 40 examples, or comparisons between the ERs to r a t i o n a l i z e their f i n a l opinion. Two examples from subject 10 follow: L i f e is f u l l of new things. There are new situations to be dealt with and i t is d i f f i c u l t to adjust to t h i s . I cope by seeking others reassurance and by f i t t i n g i n . I feel nervous every time I am on unfamiliar ground and t e r r i f i e d when threats come up so I need to run away to mom. Mom is important to me. I want her to be with me and do things for me and I fe e l good with her and safe. Reasoning Process used by the Interpreters. This is a derived guantity from examining the interpretive styles shown above. There are two elements that d i s t i n c t l y serve to guide the interpreter's comprehension of the ERs: The metaphorical symbolism and the generalized phrases used to capture the subject's 'perception of themselves, others and l i f e in general. The recognition of metaphorical language was c l e a r l y important toward establishing a base for interpreting the ERs. If the symbolism was misunderstood then the rationale for the interpretation was weakened. An example from subject two serves to demonstrate t h i s . The metaphor of "figh t i n g off lions with their bare hands (ER #1)", was seen by T - l as an example of aloneness, by T-2 as an example of opposing, and not mentioned at a l l by T-3. A l l the experienced c l i n i c i a n s related this metaphor to feelings of weakness, inadeguacy and the need for contr o l . An example from subject four further exemplifies t h i s point. In the runaway scene (ER #1), a l l six of the interpreters recognized the 41 i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e metaphor b u t t o g r e a t l y v a r y i n g d e g r e e s . In t h e l e a s t , i t was s e e n by T-2 as an u n e x p e c t e d a c c i d e n t or s h ock w h i l e T - l and T-3 viewed i t as an e x p e r i e n c e l e a v i n g t h e s u b j e c t as h e l p l e s s . The e x p e r i e n c e d c l i n i c i a n s a l l i d e n t i f i e d t h e f e e l i n g o f h e l p l e s s n e s s , however t h e y f u r t h e r r e c o g n i z e d t h e metaphor as s y m b o l i z i n g a need t o be i n c o n t r o l . The g e n e r a l i z e d p h r a s e ( l i f e i s . . . , I am..., e t c . ) used by t h e i n t e r p r e t e r s i s a p p a r e n t l y a message d e r i v e d from t h e o v e r a l l c o n t e n t o f e a c h ER. Sometimes i t i s a s i m p l e d i s t i l l a t i o n o f t h e e m o t i o n a l c o n t e n t from t h e s u b j e c t ' s ER, w h i l e a t o t h e r t i m e s i t i s ' d e r i v e d from e x p r e s s i o n s n o t d i r e c t l y used by t h e s u b j e c t b u t m e r e l y a l l u d e d t o . T h i s means t h e r e i s sometimes q u i t e a d e g r e e o f v a r i a t i o n between i n t e r p r e t e r s . An example i s seen from s u b j e c t s e v e n : Comments v a r y f o r t h e t h i r d ER from " l i f e i s d a n g e r o u s ( C - 2 ) " , t o " t h e w o r l d i s i n t e n s e and i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e ( T - l ) " , t o " l i f e i s f u l l o f s u f f e r i n g ( T - 2 ) " . T h e s e p h r a s e s summarize t h e " p r i v a t e l o g i c " o f t h e s u b j e c t (Shulman, 1973) and a p p a r e n t l y s e r v e as a l o g i c a l s t e p p i n g s t o n e f o r t h e i n t e r p r e t e r t o j u s t i f y h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and e v e n t u a l l y d e s i g n a t e a t y p o l o g i c a l c a t e g o r y . D i f f e r e n c e s i n S k i l l l e v e l s between E x p e r i e n c e d C l i n i c i a n s  and T r a i n e e s . The e x p e r i e n c e d c l i n i c i a n s as a g r o u p d e m o n s t r a t e d more s k i l l i n ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a n t h e t r a i n e e s . 42 Two of the three trainees did not use a l l of the ERs for each subject for the ir i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . The experienced c l i n i c i a n s used a l l of the ERs provided. The trainees did not use many examples from the ERs to reference the ir statements while the experienced c l i n i c i a n s d i d . The trainees mentioned the metaphorical content of the ERs less often than the experienced c l i n i c i a n s . They apparently r e l i e d upon general ized phrases more than upon metaphors. The experienced c l i n i c i a n s used both elements to in terpre t the ERs. For example, one of the c l i n i c i a n s s a i d : The f i r s t ER shows a common scene of c o n t r o l ; a runaway s i t u a t i o n . You are proceeding comfortably down the road of l i f e in company of loved ones when suddenly things go out of c o n t r o l ; even mom is concerned. The comments of the trainees were: L i f e is f u l l of unexpected accidents and sudden shocks. I cope by gett ing others to comfort and make me fee l safe . I l i k e to be warm and safe and comfortable but l i f e gives me s t a r t l i n g experiences which leave me he lp l e s s . The trainees recognized the elements of danger and safety but d id not a c t i v e l y use the metaphor of a runaway horse to symbolize the need for c o n t r o l . R e l i a b i l i t y in reaching a concensus on LS theme was low amongst the trainees but high amongst the experienced c l i n i c i a n s (see Table 3 and Table 4) . The trainees , in general , had less to say about the ERs 43 t h a n t h e e x p e r i e n c e d c l i n i c i a n s . Where t h e y m i g h t use t h r e e t o f o u r s e n t e n c e s f o r t h e i r whole i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e c l i n i c i a n s would use t h i s many s e n t e n c e s f o r e a c h o f t h e t h r e e ERs and o f t e n end t h e i r comments w i t h a summary. I t has been p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d t h a t few examples were u t i l i z e d and t h a t m e t a p h o r s were o f t e n n o t m e n t i o n e d or e x p l a i n e d . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e t r a i n e e s were making l e s s use o f t h e c o g n i t i v e c u e s w i t h i n t h e ERs t h a n th e more e x p e r i e n c e d c l i n i c i a n s , s i n c e t h e y d i d n o t make r e f e r e n c e t o a l l o f t h e ERs p r o v i d e d and b e c a u s e t h e y s i m p l y r e c o r d e d l e s s i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e a u d i o t a p e . IDENTIFICATION OF CENTRAL L I F E STYLE THEME The c e n t r a l LS themes i d e n t i f i e d by t h e c l i n i c i a n s were examined t h r o u g h t h r e e s u b - s e c t i o n s : The r e l i a b i l i t y o f u s i n g ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n i d e n t i f y i n g l i f e s t y l e s , t h e s o u r c e s o f v a r i a b i l i t y between c l i n i c i a n s t h a t r e s u l t i n d i f f e r e n t c e n t r a l themes b e i n g i d e n t i f i e d , and t h e p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h th e use o f l i f e s t y l e t y p o l o g i e s . The r e l i a b i l i t y o f u s i n g ERs t o i d e n t i f y c e n t r a l LS theme. The r e s u l t s showing t h e c e n t r a l LS themes c h o s e n by t h e s i x i n t e r p r e t e r s f o r t h e t e n s u b j e c t s i s g i v e n i n t a b l e 2. TABLE 2 Ident i f i ed L i f e - S t y l e Themes 44 C-1 C-2 C-3 T-1 T-2 T-3 S u b j e c t 1 S u b j e c t 2 G e t t e r C e t t e r G e t t e r C o n t r o l V i c t i m E x c i t e . [nadeq. Babv C o n t r o l C o n t r o l V i c t i m Inadeq. Inadeq. Inadeq. V i c t i m E x c i t e . Baby G e t t e r Opposer Opposer Opposer E x c i t e . G e t t e r V i c t i m E x c i t e . S u b j e c t 3 S u b j e c t V i c t i m G e t t e r Be L i k e d Inadeq. Be L i k e d [nadeq. C o n t r o l V i c t im Be R i g h t D r i v e r Be L i k e d V i c t i m Be L i k e d G e t t e r [nadeq. C o n t r o l C o n t r o l C o n t r o l V i c t i m G e t t e r Inadeq. V i c t i m [nadeq. S u p e r i o r V i c t i m V i c t i m S u b j e c t 5 S u b j e c t 6 S u b j e c t 7 S u b j e c t 8 S u b j e c t 9 S u b j e c t 10 Be R i g h t Be L i k e d Baby Inadeq. V i c t i m Be L i k e d Be R i g h t Be R i g h t Be L i k e d Be L i k e d E x c i t e . C o n t r o l Baby [nadeq. G e t t e r C o n t r o l G e t t e r E x c i t e . Baby C o n t r o l Inadeq. Be R i g h t S u p e r i o r S u p e r i o r Be Good E x c i t e . Baby Be R i g h t D r i v e r M a r t y r Be L i k e d C o n t r o l C o n t r o l G e t t e r C o n t r o l Baby [nadeg. G e t t e r 8e R i g h t Be R i g h t Be Ri g h t . S u p e r i o r V i c t i m Be L i k e d D r i v e r No F e e l C o n t r o l G e t t e r Be L i k e d V i c t i m Babv M a r t y r D r i v e r Be R i g h t S u p e r i o r Babv G e t t e r M a r t y r 'Jo F e e l Be Good Inadeq. C o n t r o l Be L i k e d Re L i k e d Baby V i c t i m G e t t e r Baby C o n t r o l Be L i k e d Be L i k e d E x c i t e . Inadeq. 45 The resul t s from Table 2 can be s impl i f i ed by grouping subjects whose ER interpretat ions resulted in consistent agreement between in terpreters for choice of LS theme. This degree of c o r r e l a t i o n for primary LS theme is given in Table 3 for both experienced c l i n i c i a n s and tra inees . This i s shown through a proport ion of agreement of 2 of the 3 in terpreters or 3 of the 3 in terpreters as establ ished by C l i n e , Riordan, and Kern (1978) . TABLE 3 C o r r e l a t i o n of Primary LS Theme Experienced C l i n i c i a n s Trainees Agreement by 2/3 3/3 Agreement by 2/3 3/3 Subject # 2 1 Subject # 2 3 4 3 5 7 4 6 5 10 6 7 9 Tota l 5/10 3/10 Total 7/10 Table 3 shows that two or more of the experienced c l i n i c i a n s agreed on the centra l LS theme for 8 of the 10 subjects examined. These resul t s support the work by Ferguson (1964) on inter- judge r e l i a b i l i t y using ERs to e s tab l i sh l i f e s ty le theme. As the t ra inee ' s LS choice did not always concur with that of the experienced c l i n i c i a n s , Table 4 shows the degree of trainee agreement for those times when LS choice was the same for both groups. 46 TABLE 4 Adjusted Trainees Agreement by 2/3 3/3 subject # t o t a l 6 1/10 The resul t s in Table 3 show that s u p e r f i c i a l l y the trainees are nearly as s k i l l e d as the experienced c l i n i c i a n s at ident i fy ing l i f e s ty les from ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . There was agreement by 2 or more of the trainees on LS theme for 7 of the 10 subjects . However, as shown in Table 4 th i s inter- judge agreement only occurs for 1 of the 10 subjects when the LS theme i d e n t i f i e d by the experienced c l i n i c i a n s is used as the c r i t e r i o n . It would appear that the trainees are not e f f e c t i v e l y t rans la t ing the information derived from the ER in terpre ta t ion into Mosak 1s typology system, or they are focusing on some outstanding event and using that to c l a s s i f y the ERs rather than using contradic tory evidence to look for "the l ine that jo ins two points" (Dreikurs, 1965). The d i s p a r i t y between the experienced c l i n i c i a n s and the trainees in designating LS type prompted the author to examine the fol lowing data for the experienced c l i n i c i a n s only . in an attempt to compare a l l of the c l i n i c i a n choices (primary and secondary) for centra l LS theme for each subject , Table 5 was composed. From c l i n i c i a n responses to the ER quest ionnaire , a primary LS choice was awarded a value 47 o f 2 and a s e c o n d a r y LS c h o i c e was a w a r d e d a v a l u e o f 1. T h i s means any LS theme c h o s e n as p r i m a r y by t h r e e c l i n i c i a n s w o u l d h a v e a v a l u e o f 6; c h o s e n t w i c e as p r i m a r y and o n c e as s e c o n d a r y , a v a l u e o f 5; and c h o s e n o n c e as p r i m a r y and t w i c e as s e c o n d a r y , a v a l u e o f 4. TABLE 5 W e i g h t e d L i f e S t y l e Theme C h o i c e s Subject # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 LS Theme Co n t r o l 1 4 1 6 1 2 4(2) 2 Getter 6(1) 1 1(2) 1 1 (4) 1 1 4 Inadeq. 1 3 2(5) 1 2 1(2) 1(2) Be L i k e d 1 3 3(4) 3 2(4) 1(2) V i c t i m 1(2) 3 4(1) 1(5) 1(2) 1 1 Be Right 1 5(3) 1 6 Baby 1(2) 5(4) 2(2) 2(2) E x c i t e . 1(2) 1(1) 1 1(1) Superior (1) 2 1 D r i v e r 1 1(1) 2 No F e e l . 2 1 Be Good 1 (2) Martyr 1(3) Opposer (1) (4) () = t r a i n e e score I n t h e t a b l e , a v a l u e o f 4 o r more i s a c h i e v e d f o r e a c h s u b j e c t e x c e p t f o r s u b j e c t 8. T h i s s u g g e s t s an e v e n g r e a t e r 48 c o r r e l a t i o n for the experienced c l i n i c i a n s than was shown in Table 3. When both the primary and secondary choices are considered the experienced c l i n i c i a n s are able to a r r i v e at a concensus for LS theme for 9 out of the 10 subjects . The presence of more than one LS theme for ind iv idua l s is described by Mosak (1968), and should not be ignored when examining c l i n i c i a n s k i l l in c o r r e l a t i n g ER in terpre ta t ion to LS theme. Sources of v a r i a b i l i t y between c l i n i c i a n s . For reasons enumerated above c l i n i c i a n v a r i a b i l i t y in LS typology choice was considered for the experienced c l i n i c i a n s only. There seemed to be f ive d i s t i n c t causes for common cues within the ERs to resu l t in d i f f e r e n t c l i n i c i a n LS choices . These are: Need for add i t iona l d e t a i l , ER emphasis used, typology d e f i n i t i o n s , need for c l i e n t v e r i f i c a t i o n , and c l i n i c i a n overs ight . In a l l but one subject the c l i n i c i a n s recognized and commented on the same cues found within the ERs. Only in the ERs of subject 8 was th i s not true, and yet 2 of the 3 c l i n i c i a n s commented c l e a r l y for th is subject that they needed add i t iona l d e t a i l to make a more confident determination. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the f i r s t ER provided by a subject is considered to be the most important (Adler, 1931). The weighting of the f i r s t ER versus the two other ERs was evident in the c l i n i c i a n LS choices . It appeared that the 49 p o s i t i o n o f t h e ER a f f e c t e d whether t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was u s e d as t h e p r i m a r y LS theme or as a s e c o n d a r y or a s s o c i a t e d theme. T h i s can be s e e n t h r o u g h e x a m i n i n g t h e c h o i c e s by c l i n i c i a n E-2 f o r s u b j e c t 5, 6, and 9. T y p o l o g y d e f i n i t i o n a f f e c t e d c l i n i c i a n judgement c l e a r l y i n t h e c a s e o f s u b j e c t 3. T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a d e g r e e o f c o n f u s i o n between t h e themes o f " v i c t i m " and " i n a d e q u a t e " . T h i s p r o b l e m i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s . When two or more themes a r e r e c o g n i z e d e q u a l l y by t h e c l i n i c i a n s t h e need f o r c l i e n t v e r i f i c a t i o n becomes o b v i o u s . T h i s o c c u r e d f o r s u b j e c t 5 where p r i o r i t i z a t i o n o f t h e LS theme c h o i c e s "To be R i g h t " and "To be L i k e d " would need s u b j e c t i n p u t b e f o r e a f i n a l d e c i s i o n may be made. C l i n i c i a n o v e r s i g h t a c c o u n t e d f o r 2 o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n LS theme c h o i c e . T h i s i s o b s e r v e d i n r e a d i n g t h e t r a n s c r i p t s f o r c l i n i c i a n E - l on s u b j e c t 10 and t h a t o f c l i n i c i a n E-3 on s u b j e c t 9. In b o t h c a s e s themes a r e d e s c r i b e d and t h e n i g n o r e d when d e c i d i n g t h e f i n a l LS t y p o l o g y . P r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l i f e s t y l e t y p o l o g i e s . T h r e e p o s s i b l e a r e a s o f d i f f i c u l t y became a p p a r e n t d u r i n g t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f T a b l e 2: Skewed theme use, t y p o l o g y c o n f u s i o n , and c e n t r a l v s . a s s o c i a t e d themes. T h e r e was a n o t i c e a b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h d i f f e r e n t LS themes were u s e d by t h e e x p e r i e n c e d c l i n i c i a n s . T h i s i s shown i n T a b l e 6. 50 Table 6 Extent of.Theme Use Theme Number of times used Control 15 Getter 10 Inadequate 10 To be l i k e d 10 V i c t im 9 To be r ight 8 Baby 6 Excitement 5 Super ior 3 Driver 3 No fee l ings 2 To be good 1 Martyr 1 Opposer 0 This inequity might be due to a bias in the subject population used for th is inves t igat ion (white, middle c lass , co l lege graduates), an inherent problem in Mosak's typology choices, or i t may poss ib ly r e f l e c t a c u l t u r a l bias where c e r t a i n l i f e s ty les are more common than are others in the white middle c lass populat ion. Typology confusion appears to ex is t between the themes "victim" and "inadeguate" found in subject 3 as mentioned prev ious ly . Point of view appears to ef fect the dec is ion and th is often needs c l i e n t v e r i f i c a t i o n impossible with a guest ionnaire format. It is poss ib le th is confusion ex is ts as well between other typolog ies . The primary and secondary choices for LS theme made by 51 t h e c l i n i c i a n s a l l r e p r e s e n t p e r c e i v e d c e n t r a l themes. An i n d i v i d u a l may be d e s c r i b e d by c e n t r a l and a s s o c i a t e d themes (Mosak, 1979). T h i s a c c o u n t s f o r some o f t h e r e s u l t s shown i n T a b l e s 2 and 5. T a b l e 2 p o i n t s o u t t h e p r e f e r e n c e s used by t h e i n d i v i d u a l c l i n i c i a n s i n c h o o s i n g t h e c e n t r a l theme o r themes w h i l e T a b l e 5 shows t h e w e i g h t e d i m p o r t a n c e g i v e n t h e themes c o l l e c t i v e l y . From e x a m i n a t i o n o f T a b l e 5, s u b j e c t s 1, 6, and 7 p r o b a b l y r e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n s where o n l y one c e n t r a l theme c l e a r l y e x i s t s ; w h i l e s u b j e c t s 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, and 10 p r o b a b l y have c e n t r a l and a s s o c i a t e d themes composing t h e i r l i f e s t y l e s . S u p e r f i c i a l c o m p a r i s o n of r e s u l t s from T a b l e 2 may l e a d t o e r r o n e o u s c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e s k i l l o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e d c l i n i c i a n s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e l i f e s t y l e o f s u b j e c t s t h r o u g h t h e i r ERs. THE TRAINING PROCEDURE IN ER INTERPRETATION The t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e amounted t o p r e s e n t i n g b a c k g r o u n d and a s s o c i a t e d t h e o r e t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o l l o w e d by p r a c t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s t o i n t e r p r e t ERs and a r r i v e a t a LS theme u s i n g Mosak's t y p o l o g y s y s t e m . In b r i e f , t h e t r a i n e e s were t o l d t h a t ERs r e f l e c t a p e r s o n ' s view o f t h e m s e l v e s and t h e w o r l d . Of a l l t h e many e x p e r i e n c e s o c c u r r i n g i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e o n l y a s e l e c t few a r e remembered from c h i l d h o o d . T h e s e i n c i d e n t s w h i c h c a n s t i l l be v i v i d l y r e c a l l e d a r e t h o u g h t t o c h a r a c t e r i z e c u r r e n t a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s . They a r e remembered b e c a u s e t h e y a r e i m p o r t a n t a l t h o u g h t h e i r v a l u e i s no t c o n s c i o u s l y r e c o g n i z e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l . 52 The p r a c t i c a l information was d irected to ident i fy ing general ized phrases or themes, commenting on s i g n i f i c a n t elements within the ER, using a l l three of the ERs to formulate LS information, and es tab l i sh ing a typology choice . Poss ible themes might r e f l e c t how l i f e appears, how l i f e should be i f a l l were idea l , or the dangers present in l i f e . Some ERs show coping s trateg ies for problem solving or interpersonal approaches to get along in l i f e . The prac t i ce ERs were read out loud and the trainees were asked to to character ize the theme or themes represented using examples from the ER to support the ir idea . Next, the ER was examined for the presence of s i g n i f i c a n t elements or pat terns . These are metaphors representing the personal b e l i e f system of an i n d i v i d u a l . The f i n a l stage involved using Mosak's l i s t of types to character ize the l i f e s ty l e of the subject . Only T - l provided general ized phrases for each ER. Trainee T-2 and T-3 used two or three general ized phrases for the ent i re set of ERs but not for each separate ly . An example fol lows: T - l : In the f i r s t ER, others are nurturers and p o t e n t i a l l y inept pro tec tors . The world is t e r r i f y i n g and a battleground and I am p o t e n t i a l l y alone (one f i g h t e r ) . The second ER has others disregarding my needs and rece iv ing my fury . The world is a place of unfair expectations and I am vengeful and non-cooperative. A passive r e s i s t e r . In the t h i r d ER, 53 others are inept protectors or minimal caretakers . The world i s harsh, cold and dangerous and I am a source of embarrassement and shame. T-2: L i f e opposes me. L i f e is a s truggle . I r e s i s t in a passive manner when people are against me. He constantly seeks revenge without doing anything to obtain i t . Opposer with examples in a l l three ER. In the f i r s t , men are s trugg l ing against l i ons and l o s i n g . I can just lay there and be t e r r i f i e d and others comfort me. In the second, he just sat there upon being photographed but thought about revenge.. In the las t he is somewhat glad that his pants were frozen and th is increased mom's anger. T-3: When I am scared mom helps me out. When I get angry I take act ion myself . When I get into trouble mom helps me out. I can a c t i v i a t e her. S i g n i f i c a n t elements within the ERs were not elaborated upon in much d e t a i l by the tra inees . Where something was mentioned i t was b r i e f and often not explained. Trainee T-2 made reference to the metaphorical content in the ERs of several subjects c o r r e l a t i n g th is through examples taken from the reference m a t e r i a l . T - l and T-3 did not refer to any content in the ERs except through using the general ized phrases explained above. Only trainee T - l cons i s tant ly used a l l three ERs provided for each subject . Trainee T-2 and T-3 made general izat ions for the whole set of ERs, sometimes ignoring or not using 54 information found in one of them. Two or more trainees agreed with each other on typology choice 7 out of 10 times (Table 3), however they agreed with the choice of the experienced c l i n i c i a n s only 1 out of 10 times (Table 4) . When the comments about the ERs made by the trainees are compared to the comments made by the experienced c l i n i c i a n s ' a number of s i m i l a r i t i e s are noted (Table 1). C e r t a i n l y in the example above the trainees amongst themselves ident i fy s imi lar themes: The world is t e r r i f y i n g and unfa ir , I am a passive r e s i s t e r and seek revenge, and I look to others to nurture, comfort and help me out. The l i f e s ty l e chosen by two trainees is "opposer" . This appears to stem from the sense of revenge and a need to r e s i s t the t e r r i f y i n g and unfair world. A l l three of the experienced c l i n i c i a n s also commented on s imi lar themes but two chose a l i f e s ty le of "control" with secondary p o s s i b i l i t i e s being "inadequate" or "vict im". This pattern occurred regu lar ly with a l l of the in terpreters recognizing s imi lar themes but the c l i n i c i a n s and trainees d i f f e r i n g in LS type des ignat ion . Mosak's typologies corre la te personal convict ions with probable se lect ions of behavior. The trainees appear too l i t e r a l in the ir t r a n s l a t i o n of ER content to LS type. By th i s I mean they use the behaviors and fee l ings without detect ing how th i s re lates to the underlying goal or pr ivate log ic of the subject that i s implied in the LS type. The trainees in general only presented a primary typology choice 55 for l i f e s ty l e (Table 2 ) , while they were requested to "give one or two others as your secondary dec is ions". This might also point out the ir d i f f i c u l t y in using the typology system. They were able to f ind one LS type to corre la te to the ER in terpre ta t ion but were unable to perceive poss ible a l t ernat ives that would be congruent to the subject ' s personal conv ic t ions . A summary of the above comments would be that the trainees in general f a i l e d to consider each ER separately on i t s own merit , use s i g n i f i c a n t elements within the ERs to substantiate the ir pos i t ions , and understand the typology system establ ished by Mosak (1971). They did however e f f e c t i v e l y use the general ized phrases to ident i fy the subject 's perception of "him/herself", "the world", and "others", a l b e i t not in great depth. 56 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION, LIMITATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS The d iscuss ion of resu l t s of this study are organized into three broad themes: t r a n s c r i p t comparison of anecdotal comments, i d e n t i f i e d centra l LS themes, and impl icat ion of the t r a i n i n g procedure in ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; and then within these themes according to the research guestions l i s t e d prev ious ly . Interpretat ion of resul t s w i l l be l imi ted to those f indings that this researcher considers most in teres t ing and most important. TRANSCRIPT COMPARISON OF ANECDOTAL COMMENTS Common perceptions made from cogni t ive cues found in the  ERs. The conclusions reached by the in terpreters about each subject were guite s i m i l a r , as shown in Table 1. The emotional overtones expressed by the subjects in the guest ionnaire serve as powerful cues to the experienced c l i n i c i a n and trainee a l i k e . This stage of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of ERs, cons i s t ing of the phrasing of how the subject views him/herse l f , others, and the world, is commonly perceived although to varying degrees depending upon t r a i n i n g and experience (Malamud, 1968). From examining the in terpreter t r a n s c r i p t s i t appears that the port ion of the guest ionnaire that receives much of the at tent ion comes from the "clearest scene" and "your 57 fee l ings during this scene". This would seem to va l idate e a r l i e r f indings that emphasize the importance of ident i fy ing the c learest scene in a memory and the fee l ing associated with this moment (Dreikurs, 1952; Olson, 1979). Interpretat ion s ty le of the i n t e r p r e t e r s . Regardless of whether personal s ty le favors the use of themes, metaphors, general ized phrases, headlines or typologies , i t is important to use a l l the information provided in a l l of the ERs. A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t is important to substantiate an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n using examples given from within the subject ' s own ERs. An examination of the resu l t s suggests the trainees f a i l e d to do this as extensively as the experienced c l i n i c i a n s . Reasoning process used by the i n t e r p r e t e r s . Reasoning process appears to proceed from cue recognit ion to r e l a t i o n s h i p formation to a tentat ive hypothesis which is confirmed, a l tered or dismissed through further examination of the ERs. Success in th is process might be p a r a l l e l e d to the analys is of poetry or l i t e r a t u r e . The more well read and knowledgeable the c r i t i c the more comprehensive the a n a l y s i s . The more experience with Adler ian theory and f a m i l i a r i t y with imagery and symbolism the more adept the in terpreter is in using the observed cues to analyze the re la t ionsh ips and synthesize a p ic ture of the subject 's pr ivate l o g i c . This appears to be the key to understanding the i n t e r p r e t i v e process; the degree to which a l l important cues 58 in an ER are recognized, evaluated and substant iated. Contrast of s k i l l between experienced c l i n i c i a n s and  tra i nees. As the trainees i n i t i a l l y possessed only rudimentary knowledge of Adler ian psychology and received only two hours t r a i n i n g in ER in terpre ta t ion , th is researcher expected less competence in ER in terpre ta t ion than that achieved by the experienced c l i n i c i a n s . This expectation was met by the trainees more s u p e r f i c i a l approach to the in t erpre ta t ion process. The trainees in general did not u t i l i z e a l l of the given ERs for the ir in t erpre t a t ion , they f a i l e d to reference the ir statements with examples from the text, metaphorical content was not del ineated, and o v e r a l l , they had less to say about each subject ' s ERs. It is important to recognize that trainee #1, the most experienced of the three trainees in background and knowledge, demonstrated a more comprehensive in terpre ta t ion s ty le in reference to using a l l of the ERs provided for each subject . A l l of the trainees lacked s k i l l in terpre t ing metaphors and v a l i d a t i n g the ir points with examples. The a b i l i t y demonstrated by the experienced c l i n i c i a n s apparently comes after much more prac t i ce and exposure to ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Exact ly how much add i t i ona l t r a i n i n g resu l t s in improved in terpre ta t ion a b i l i t y is not c l e a r . IDENTIFICATION OF CENTRAL LS THEME R e l i a b i l i t y of using ERs to ident i fy centra l LS theme. The data from Table 3 and 5 show that the three experienced 59 c l i n i c i a n s working independently could agree 9 out of 10 times on LS typologies developed from a subject ' s ER in terpre ta t ions alone. This resu l t is in agreement with the studies conducted by Ferguson (1964) and Colker and Slaymaker (1984). LS summaries rather than LS typologies such as those described by Mosak (1971) were used in the previously mentioned research. These would be comparable to the anecdotal comments described in the previous sect ion of th i s study. If the i d e n t i f i e d LS theme agreed upon by the experienced c l i n i c i a n s is taken as the c r i t e r i o n reference, the trainees were unable to success fu l ly use ERs in a r r i v i n g at a LS typology (see Table 4) . While Ferguson (1964) and Colker and Slaymaker (1984) used a matching technigue of o r i g i n a l ER to derived LS summaries, no work has attempted to examine the progressive a q u i s i t i o n of s k i l l at performing an ER in terpre ta t ion and a r r i v i n g at an i d e n t i f i e d LS theme. The question of how much and what kind of experience and t r a i n i n g is necessary before trainees more c lose ly approximate the s k i l l demonstrated by experienced c l i n i c i a n s is an important one. Table 5 shows more g r a p h i c a l l y than Table 2 the extent to which the experienced c l i n i c i a n s agree on LS typology. It emphasizes the importance of not l i m i t i n g an ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a s ingle LS theme alone. A number of centra l themes may describe an i n d i v i d u a l (Mosak, 60 1979) and may account for a cer ta in degree of v a r i a b i l i t y observed when evaluating the r e l i a b i l i t y of using ERs to ident i fy this centra l LS theme. Sources of v a r i a b i l i t y between c l i n i c i a n s . Very l i t t l e is reported in the l i t e r a t u r e regarding the ideal number of ERs necessary to y i e l d a complete p ic ture of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e s t y l e . Research has shown 3 ERs to be the minimum necessary to provide adequate information for a LS assessment (Verger & Camp, 1970; Kopp & Dinkmeyer, 1975). The optimum necessary to provide the s p e c i f i c information on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e s ty l e would vary from person to person with Ackerknecht (1976) suggesting seven and Papanek (1972) f ive to ten. While 3 ERs per subject was s u f f i c i e n t in most cases in th i s study i t was not enough for in terpreters to assess subject 8. According to Adler (1931), i f the f i r s t memory is an i n d i v i d u a l ' s e a r l i e s t r e c o l l e c t i o n i t "wi l l show the i n d i v i d u a l ' s fundamental view of 1 i fe . . . (p.75) . Mosak (1958) states that, "later r e c o l l e c t i o n s (when the i n d i v i d u a l is older) in a ser ies may furnish d e t a i l s and spec i f i ca t ions for general ized at t i tudes expressed in e a r l i e r r e c o l l e c t i o n s (p.304). Ackerknecht (1976) has character ized the f i r s t seven ERs as demonstrating present day at t i tudes , developmental trends, and the process of s o c i a l maturation and cooperat ion. There have been no reports examining the s ign i f i cance of the e a r l i e s t memory vs. ear ly memories. The emphasis given the f i r s t memory by some c l i n i c i a n s might 61 poss ib ly be due to the ir own t r a i n i n g in ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . This source of v a r i a b i l i t y would need further research to be c l a r i f i e d . Where d i s t i n c t i o n between typologies is unclear error can occur. The typology descr iptors for "victim" and "inadequate" are perhaps incomplete. According to the d i c t i o n a r y , a v ic t im must be hurt or injured by some person or some circumstance and often hopes for a rescuer. An inadeguate person is d e f i c i e n t or i n s u f f i c i e n t and often fee ls oneself to be the cause of h i s /her own problems. Confusion ex is ts even in the names Schlimazel or Schlemiel where there is the juxtapos i t ion of clumsiness (inadequacy) with being taken advantage of (v i c t im) . It is a very subtle d i f ference which needs c l i e n t feedback for determination. This feedback can occur i f the ER in terpre ta t ion occurs through the interview approach instead of by guest ionnaire . Typologies from an Adler ian perspective are not c l a s s i f i c a t o r y schemes, but h e u r i s t i c devices (Adler, 1956; Mosak, 1979). The ER content might be more meaningfully interpreted through synthesiz ing appropriate aspects of each of the pert inent i d e n t i f i e d themes to create a composite portraying the s ty l e s p e c i f i c to the i n d i v i d u a l (Lowe, 1977). If only one centra l theme is proposed by d i f f eren t in terpre ters i t stands to reason that they might choose d i f f e r e n t themes, each one of which is important and representat ive of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s o v e r a l l l i f e s t y l e . 62 C l i n i c a l approaches are open to human e r r o r . C l i n i c i a n oversight appeared to account for two errors in LS typology determination. With c l i e n t feedback this could be. less l i k e l y . From examining the t ranscr ip t s and Table 2, i t is apparent that without these two errors the inter-judge r e l i a b i l i t y of the experienced c l i n i c i a n s would have been higher. Problems associated with l i f e s ty l e typolog ies . There are no published reports inves t igat ing the extent to which d i f f e r e n t LS typologies occur in a given populat ion . The reason that the LS themes of "control", "getter", "inadequate", "need to be l iked" , "victim", and "need to be r ight" appeared most often can only be speculated upon. Adler postulated the theory that a l l i n d i v i d u a l s fee l in some way i n f e r i o r to the ir surroundings and attempt to overcome th i s sense by s t r i v i n g for competance and secur i ty (Adler, 1958). This creates a v e r t i c a l hierarchy where ind iv idua l s view l i f e as a ladder; always seeking to climb over those above and step on those below. The l i f e s ty les which a c t i v e l y r e f l e c t th i s idea would be "control", "getter", and "need to be r i g h t " . L i f e s ty les which pass ive ly r e f l e c t th is perspect ive would be "inadequate", "victim", "baby", and "need to be l i k e d " . Further research is indicated inorder to substantiate th i s hypothesis . Typologies are constructs useful in creat ing images to a s s i s t in the understanding of a l l i n d i v i d u a l s . It may be 63 that Mosak's system has gone too far in de l ineat ing behavior. The fourteen types described poss ib ly compartmentalize behavior to such an extent that an i n d i v i d u a l may not be e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d with any one type or s t y l e . This leads to a des ire to further c l a r i f y and describe the themes so as to make the d i s t i n c t i o n s between them more apparent. Perhaps an a l ternate approach is more f e a s i b l e . Instead of many types being proposed, a system with more general categories would adequately accomplish the i n s t r u c t i o n a l goa l . Adler , for teaching purposes only, described an i n d i v i d u a l ' s method of in terac t ing as e i ther r u l i n g , get t ing , avoiding, or useful (1935). More recently , Kef i r (1971) presented the four "personal i ty p r i o r i t i e s " of pleas ing, s u p e r i o r i t y , c o n t r o l l i n g , and avoiding (comfort). The value of a typology system comes from allowing a general ized c l a s s i f i c a t i o n which then can be shaded and de ta i l ed to more completely describe a p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l . Mosak himself , in a paper on neuroses (1968), presented the idea that ind iv idua l s possess convict ions representing d i f f e r e n t centra l themes in varying proport ions . He then re i t era ted the fact that themes other than the centra l theme ex is t for each person (1979). The future use of appropriate typologies to describe l i f e s ty le would appear to need further examination. IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TRAINING PROCEDURE IN ER INTERPRETATION The t r a i n i n g procedure followed was moderately successful in providing the trainees with a basic a b i l i t y to ident i fy 64 the perceptual schema of the subjects from the ir ERs. This follows from examining the t ranscr ip t s and noting s i m i l a r i t i e s between the trainees comments and those of the experienced c l i n i c i a n s . Beyond th is a b i l i t y the trainees possess i n s u f f i c i e n t s k i l l s in in terpre t ing ERs. The impl icat ions for t r a i n i n g are c l e a r . A longer time is needed to develop s k i l l s and to prac t i ce in terpretat ions and receive feedback on accuracy. This t r a i n i n g should emphasize the need to use a l l of the ERs provided per subject and to recognize repeated elements or apparently contradictory elements. Pract ice is needed in formulating statements r e f l e c t i n g subject perceptions along with supporting examples from the ERs. It is the use of examples which adds the element of completeness and re inforces the "guess". Relating the ER in terpre ta t ion to a LS typology appears to need an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t form of prac t i ce or t r a i n i n g . It perhaps should not be attempted before an interpreter thoroughly understands the theme (I a m . . . , others a r e . . . , l i f e i s . . . ) or movement in the ERs. An e f f ec t ive t ra in ing model for ER in terpre ta t ion would need to develop the appropriate exercises in the most e f f ec t i ve order over the needed time necessary to achieve the s k i l l s that were lacking in the trainees in th is study. LIMITATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH L imi ta t ions . The most apparent l i m i t a t i o n s of th is study 65 are associated with the ERs themselves. F i r s t , and most important, the ERs were co l l ec ted from the subjects through a quest ionnaire . This vehic le , while a tested approach, l i m i t s from the beginning the degree of information obtained through e l i c i t i n g ERs from the subjects . Reference was made e a r l i e r to this factor (see Chapter 4) . Secondly, the number of subjects who provided the pool of ERs was r e l a t i v e l y smal l . The sample s ize would need to be increased to provide a basis for more confident conclus ions . F i n a l l y , the number of ERs co l l ec t ed per subject was the minimum recommended by previous research. While th is seemed to be s u f f i c i e n t in most cases, a larger number of ERs would allow more information against which to test hypotheses. The t r a i n i n g program lasted two hours. This was i n s u f f i c i e n t to adeguately prepare the trainees in ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and de l inea t ion of l i f e s ty l e type using Mosak's format. A longer t ra in ing period with greater emphasis on ident i fy ing and using d e t a i l s within a l l three ERs is necessary. The use of examples from the ERs to corroborate in terpre ta t ion was also weak. The t r a i n i n g program did not s u f f i c i e n t l y emphasize the transfer of information about the ERs into a typology choice . A revised t r a i n i n g program for ER in terpre ta t ion is provided in Appendix #5a. Recommendations for Future Research. Considerat ion of re lated l i t e r a t u r e and examination of the resu l t s from this 66 s t u d y s t i m u l a t e t h e f o l l o w i n g i d e a s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h : The p r i m a r y g o a l o f t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y was t o d e s c r i b e t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e p r o c e s s . T h i s needs f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n . The g u i d e l i n e s p r o v i d e d t o a l l o f t h e i n t e r p r e t e r s must be more s p e c i f i c a b o u t what c u e s a r e r e c e i v i n g t h e i r a t t e n t i o n and what m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s a r e o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g t h e i r r e a d i n g . T h i s m i g h t t a k e t h e form o f s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s or a m o d i f i e d method o f r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e s u b j e c t ERs from what o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h . S u p e r f i c i a l l y , i t a p p e a r s from t h i s s t u d y t h a t d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t e r s t y l e does n o t e f f e c t t h e outcome o f t h e ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T h i s q u e s t i o n needs f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n . B e f o r e e s t a b l i s h i n g r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e t e c h n i q u e i t must be v e r i f i e d t h a t d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t e r s t y l e s do n o t a d v e r s l y a f f e c t t h e a c c u r a c y o f the ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T h e r e i s v e r y l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e e a r l i e s t memory compared t o e a r l y memories i n g e n e r a l . T h i s q u e s t i o n b e a r s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o a s s i s t i n t e r p r e t e r s i n p l a c i n g a p p r o p r i a t e e m p h a s i s on ER c o n t e n t t o d e t e r m i n e l i f e s t y l e i n f o r m a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , f r o m r e s u l t s i n t h i s s t u d y and t o complement the work by A c k e r k n e c h t (1976 ) and Papanek (1972), r e s e a r c h i s needed t o c o r r e l a t e t h e a c c u r a c y o f ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o t h e number o f ERs u s e d . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w ould p r o v i d e p r a c t i t i o n e r s w i t h a r e l i a b l e g u i d e l i n e f o r u s i n g ERs w i t h c l i e n t s . B a s e d on t h e r e s u l t s i n t h i s s t u d y o f i n t e r - j u d g e 67 agreement on LS i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and as a complement to the research by Ferguson (1964) and Magner-Harris e t . a l . (1979), i t would be important to repeat th i s p i l o t study using a larger subject population of ER prototypes to allow for s t a t i s t i c a l analys is of the resu l t s to provide added r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y for this projec t ive technique. To increase the confidence in using LS typologies as representing ind iv idua l l i f e s ty les , more research is needed. This would take the form of inves t igat ing the nature of associated centra l themes, the presence or absence of poss ib le centra l themes in d i f f e r e n t populations, and the general usefulness and a p p l i c a b i l i t y of typologies to ER research. IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS Of the resu l t s generated by th i s study, two stand out for the ir importance to the research community, and three others for the ir p r a c t i c a l impl i ca t ions . In terms of research, inter- judge agreement amongst experienced c l i n i c i a n s has been t enta t ive ly demonstrated using ERs to designate LS themes using Mosak's typologies . This g u a l i t a t i v e conclusion could be re inforced through a more guant i ta t ive study in the future . Results shown in Table 5 demonstrate two reasons why more than one LS theme needs to be i d e n t i f i e d by in terpreters when using a typology system. One reason is to allow for s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n between interpreters in assigning importance to 68 information that is present in the ERs, and the other reason is to stimulate research in associated LS themes. An important p r a c t i c a l cons iderat ion is that r e l i a b i l i t y has been demonstrated even for the b a s i c a l l y trained counsel lor in accurately charac ter i z ing a c l i e n t ' s pr ivate l og i c through the use of ERs. Consistent with th is is the r e a l i z a t i o n that more intensive t r a i n i n g is necessary i f the counsel lor expects to use ERs to ident i fy l i f e s ty le themes. For the experienced c l i n i c i a n the resu l t s from this study t e n t a t i v e l y demonstrate that the i n t e r p r e t i v e s ty l e used when in terpre t ing ERs does not af fect the outcome when Mosak's typologies are used. A l l approaches appear equal and e f f ec t i ve when used by a competent p r a c t i t i o n e r for th is purpose. 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Unpublished doctoral dissertc Univers i ty of South C a r o l i n a . Shulman, B. H. (1962). The family c o n s t e l l a t i o n in persona l i ty d iagnos is . Journal of Ind iv idua l  Psychology, 18, 35-47. Shulman, B. H. (1973). Contr ibut ions to Ind iv idua l  Psychology. Chicago: A l f r e d Adler I n s t i t u t e . Smuts, J . C. (1926). Holism and E v o l u t i o n . New York MacMil ian. Sonstegard, M. (1973). L i f e s ty l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and assessment. Indiv idua l Psychologist , 10, 1-4. Verger, D. M. & Camp, W. L . (1970). Ear ly r e c o l l e c t i o n s : Ref lect ions of the present. Journal of Indiv idua l  Psychology, 17, 510-515. 77 Warren, H. C. (Ed.) (1934). D ic t ionary of Psychology. New York: Houghteon M i f f l i n . Warren, C. (1982). The re la t i onsh ip between ear ly r e c o l l e c t i o n s and behavior pat terns . Journal of  Ind iv idua l Psychology, 38, 223-237. W i l l h i t e , R. G. (1978). "The W i l l h i t e " : A creat ive extension of the ear ly r e c o l l e c t i o n process . In L . Baruth and D. Eckste in (Eds.) L i f e S ty le : Theory, Prac t i ce , and  Research (2nd. E d . ) . Dubuque, Iowa: Kendal l /Hunt . Zarsk i , J . (1978). The ear ly r e c o l l e c t i o n rat ing scale: Development and a p p l i c a b i l i t y in research in l i f e s t y l e . In L . Baruth and D. Eckste in (Eds.) L i f e S ty l e : Theory,  Prac t i ce , and Research (2nd. E d . ) . Dubuque, Iowa: Kendal l /Hunt . Zubin, J . , Eron, L . D.. and Schumer, F . (1965). An Experimental Approach to Pro jec t ive Techniques. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 78 APPENDIX 1 EARLY RECOLLECTIONS QUESTIONNAIRE Date: Sex: The purpose of th is quest ionnaire is to f ind out what memories you can r e c a l l from your ear ly chi ldhood. This information is to be used in a study attempting to e s tab l i sh the r e l i a b i l i t y of using Ear ly Reco l l ec t ion in t erpre ta t ion to ident i fy L i f e Style theme. The responses are to be used for research purposes only and complete c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y is insured. Upon completion of the research a l l of the data is to be destroyed. You have the r ight to refuse to p a r t i c i p a t e or withdraw at any time at your own d i s c r e t i o n . The quest ionnaire should take approximately 30 minutes to complete. If the quest ionnaire is completed i t w i l l be assumed that consent has been given to p a r t i c i p a t e in th i s research. Please keep the fol lowing points in mind when doing th i s quest ionnaire: 1. The ear ly memory should be from before 8 years of age and must be a s p e c i f i c inc ident , event, occurrence, or happening that you can remember. Ear ly memories which describe inc idents that occurred over and over again (example: "We used to do such and such. . .") are not true ear ly r e c o l l e c t i o n s and, consequently, should not be writ ten down. 2. Write down any ear ly r e c o l l e c t i o n that comes to your mind, even i f you are not sure the incident ac tua l ly occurred. 3. Write down the ear ly r e c o l l e c t i o n s in the order that you 79 remember them. It is not important that the r e c o l l e c t i o n s be reported in the ir true chronological order. 4. Please give three (3) ear ly r e c o l l e c t i o n s 5. For each memory could you please supply the fo l lowing: Your approximate age when th is incident occurred. Describe the memory in d e t a i l (this is e s p e c i a l l y important for the f i r s t memory). Which scene or part of the memory is most c lear (stands out the most). Which part of the r e c o l l e c t i o n seems most s i g n i f i c a n t to you. EARLY RECOLLECTIONS Age: D e s c r i p t i o n : (use add i t iona l space on back i f necessary) Cleares t scene: Your f ee l ing during th is scene: Most s i g n i f i c a n t part of the memory to you: Age: D e s c r i p t i o n : (Use add i t iona l space on back i f necessary) Cleares t scene: Your fee l ing during th is scene: Most s i g n i f i c a n t part of the memory to you: Age: D e s c r i p t i o n : (use add i t iona l space on back i f necessary) Cleares t scene: 81 Your fee l ing during th is scene Most s i g n i f i c a n t part of the memory to you: APPENDIX 2 COMPLETED EARLY RECOLLECTIONS QUESTIONNAIRES PRIMARY Subject: 1 LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION: Sex: Female SECONDARY LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION: 1. Age: 4 years DESCRIPTION: It was my 4th Birthday party. That day I was so excited. I was in our unfinished basement with a frie n d , I was r o l l i n q on a h a r r e i . I f e l l o f f and h i t my head on the concrete. I started to vomit and f e l t awful. It was too l a t e to cancel my party but I was r e a l l y s i c k . A l l my friends arrived and I was i n bed. I remember 1 g i r l gave me a doctors k i t . A l l I wanted was my Daddy. He was g o l f i n g and I wouldn't stop crying ' t i l he came home. My mom c a l l e d him and he came home. The party went on without me. CLEAREST SCENE: Crying i n bed and wanting my Dad. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Upset about missing my party. Sad. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: Missinq my Birthday Party. 2. Age: 5 years DESCRIPTION: I was going to the Slack Cat Kindergarden. It was the l a s t day before Xmaa Holidays. The school had th e i r own school bus. The d r i v e r drove me down the backlane and dropped me o f f . As I l e f t he handed me the biggest candy cane I had ever seen. CLEAREST SCENE: Taking the candy cane. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Surprised and happy. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: That the nice bus driver had given me a surprise present. 3. Age: 5 v e a r s DESCRIPTION: My sister and I were having our hair permed by my Mom. My mon had curled our hair and put the lotion on our hair. She told us to stay in the back yard and she would call us when it was time to rinae off lotion. We left the yard. I don't remember where we went, but awhile later Mom found ua, she was so mad at us that I got a spanking with a hair brush and my sister got one also. We had very frizzy hair. CLEAREST SCENE: The spanking. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Sorry that we had left yard. Subject: 2 PRIMARV LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION: Sex: Male SECONDARY LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION: 1. Age: 5 years DESCRIPTION: Lying in bed with my father and mother, with a very high Fever. Because of th i s fever, I had a t e r r i f y i n g i l l u s i n o n : — T h e s t a i r case at the end of the room had men who were part of an African s a f a r i , f i g h t i n g o f f Lions with t h e i r bare hands. It seemed that the men were f i g h t i n g a losi n g b a t t l e , and i f they l o s t , i t would mean that I would be confronted with the Lions. CLEAREST SCENE: Lions fighting men. Mother trying to calm me down with cool towels on the forehead. YOUR FEFLING DURING THIS SCENE: Terri fied. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: Men were going to lose this battle and seemed to be doing so. 2. Age: 6 years DESCRIPTION: A photograph was tn be taken of me sitting on a tricycle. F protested bitterly but to no avail. CLEAREST SCENE: sitting on the tricycle, making faces at the photographer. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: I was furious. I did not want my picture taken. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: I felt that I would get back at someone for this — revenge. 3. Age: 6-7 years DESCRIPTION: It was winter with below zero temperatures, (approx. 10^  below) I fell into water while playing with friends. I came into the house wet and frozen. Mother was furious. She had company and I walked in. I must have embarrased her completely. CLEAREST SCENE: Mother stripping my clothes off me.—giving me a few choice words. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: I was cold, hungry and embarrassed. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: My pants were frozen solid and mother had difficulty taking them off. This in-creased her temper. 84 PRIMARY Subject : 3 LITE STYLE DESIGNATION: Sex: Female SECONDARY LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION: 1. Age: 6 years INSCRIPTION: During my Grade 1 year, we had a Remembrance Day service on November 11th. I took a nickel to school to buy my poppy but on the way. home From school, I lost it!' For two hours, I searched through the snow on the route to the school for the poppy. It was dark and cold and I was in mortal fear that I would be in trouble for losing something I had paid a whole 50 far. Crying and upset, a "big girl"-she must have been in Grade 4 at least- asked me what was wrong. When I told her my ctory, she gave me her poppy and I was all excited to go home and show my ; mother my treasure- only to find, che was out in the snow looking for me because 1 was two hours late arriving home. CLEAREST SCENE: Being out in the snow during "dark time". YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Lost, miserable, scared, upset, cold MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: The girl giving me her poppy. 2. Age: ? * e a r 3 DESCRIPTION: At age 5, the local furniture/toy delivery truck arrived at our door and the man came and took away my tricycle. This was most upsetting situation - my means of transportation with the rest of the kids. Two days later, the same man arrived with a new doll carriage. We lived in a small house that did not have accommodation for both toys so the tricycle was traded in on the doll carriage. CLEAREST SCENE: The man taking off with my tricycle. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Sad, dejected, unloved MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: Being without a tricycle and having to be without a tricycle like the other kids. 3. Age: 6 years DESCRIPTION: When I was six, I went to an ice-cream parlour called the Blue Boy and had my first milkshake. It was served in the big aluminum container and that, plus a long straw, was too high for my short self to reach. I promptly knocked the whole mess over while trying to get onto my knees to drink it. CLEAREST SCENE: Al] my family mopping up my delicious milkshake. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Clumsy, hungry, sad. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEHORY TO YOU: Can't really say, but think I was about 17 before I ever ordered another milkshake! Subject: 4 PRIMARY LIKE STYLE DESICCATION: SECONDARY LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION: DESCRIPTION: My family and I were on our way home after visiting Neighbors. It was dusk and our mode of transport was a Bennet Buggy drawn by a team of horses. We were in our good clothes and as children were snuggled between our parents quite high in the rigg. I recall my baby sister in mothers arms and dad driving the horses The rumble of the buggy and my parents conversation were relaxing. All of a sudden the horses were startled and we were into a runaway situation. CLEAREST SCENE: My Dad being dragged by the lines ahead of the disconnected rigg. Expression of concern from my mother. Riding home in a car and sitting in the front seat. YOUR FEFLING DURING THIS SCENE: Fear for my Father. Confused over my mothers panic. Safe in the car. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: Good safe feeling in the car after the confusion. 2. Age: 7 y e a r s DESCRIPTION: Sliding on rubbery ice with a group of kids during recess and falling through the ice into cold water. I was walked to the school house where I changed into the teachers (lady) slacks, a friends jacket and sat over the furnace register. Felt humiliated at having my long Johns hanging in front of my class friends. The teacher took me home on her horse. Both of us road the same horse. I was uncomfortable about this. I recall my mother serving the teacher tea and the teacher's pleasant conversation with my mother. CLEAREST SCENE: All vivid: Falling in, sitting over the register, riding on horse with teacher. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Dreadful shock and helplessness when I fell in the water. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: The concern end kindness the teacher had for me. 3. Age: 7 years DESCRIPTION: Coming home from school and realizing something was dreadfully sad because my Grand Father was dying from a stroke he experienced. Going to his sick bed and being Alone with him. All he could do is turn his head, looked at me with glazed eyes and desperately moaned. CLEAREST SCENE: my Grand Father looking at me in a helpless manner and moaning. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Helpless myself and confused because I enjoyed many experiences with him and he couldn't relate in my terms. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: The experession of my grandfather's love for me even though I didn't understand it at the time. Sex: Male 1. Age: 5 years 86 PR[MAPv Subject: 5 LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION: Sex: Female SECONDARY LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION: 1. Age: 6 years DESCRIPTION: Grade one. We had spent a lot of time making little figures, trees, houses, etc. with paper and coloring them to make a town on the large sand table at the back of the room. The teacher asked me and another child to choose the best ones and make the town. I tried really hard to pick the best ones and threw the others in a green garbage can placed right beside the table. After we had been working happily for awhile the teacher came back and got mad at me and sent me to the cloakroom. I went back ther, all alone, scared and bewildered. I couldn't understand what I had done to make her so angry. CLEARE5T SCENE: Quite happily picking the people and houses to make a nice town. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Total confusion, I had been doing what I was told and the teacher had gotten mad at me for it. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: It seems to me that I was learning not to try my best. I didn't understand about including kids that couldn't do as *el] as I-but that wasn't what I had been asked. 2. Age: j years DESCRIPTION: My mom sent me to the Pussy Gat Playschool which I loved. The school was in the basement of the teachers house and she was a piano teacher as well. One day we had to be tested for perfect pitch to see if we would be future music students as well, I guess. We all had to wait out in the hall, outside the piano room to wait our turn. When I went in she had us turn our back to the piano and sing intervals as she would play the first note. I did them all correctly. CLEAREST SCENE: Looking at the pannelled ..'all and listening to the notes on the piano. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: I was a little nervous and excited waiting for my turn and then really happy that my teacher was so pleased with my performance. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: I think my happiness at having done so well. 3. Age: 8 years DESCRIPTION: I had gone to bed as usual one beautiful summer evening but couldn't sleep. I finally got up after tossing and turning for ages and wrapped my quild around me and came out of the bedroom. I was expecting to be marched right back to bed, but instead of doing that Mom and Dad told me to come with them. They took me out on the front porch and wrapped me up in the quilt. We sat for awhile looking up at the stars which were beautiful. Then I went back to bed to sleep. CLEAREST SCENE: Sitting on the porch with my parents beside me looking up at the beautiful night 9ky. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: I felt quite grown up to be allowed to stay up past my bedtime and very warm and secure. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YflU: How surprized I was to be allowed to stay up and how my parents seemed to understand about my not being able to sleep. 87 PRIMARV S u b j e c t : 6 LITE STYLE DESIGNATION: Sex: Male SECONDARY LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION: 1. Age: 2-2*5 y e a r s DESCRIPTION: Rainy summer morning in a a small town with one main sLrest that has busy vehicle traffic connecting it to near-by villages. Mud splashing in to the air as trucks and C3rs going by. I am sitting in the dorrway of our house on that street covered only by a very light white night shirt, wondering where my mother is and watching the traffic and the mud flying. CLEAREST SCENE: Trying to pull my night shirt over my toes to be covered completely. It i3 too small and if I pull the front, the back slips up. Trying to squat as small as I can to make the shirt fit. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Cold and alone. Where is my mother? MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: I cannot stretch the shirt, can not make it fit. 2. Age: ^ * e a r s DESCRIPTION: Visiting relatives in a small farming village on a hot fall Sunday afternoon. All the men relations (about 10 of them) sitting outside in the shade of a tree in their Sunday best arid drinking wine and talking. All the women (8-9 of them) sitting in another group in the shade brushing and spinning hemp for rope and weaveing string. (Not knowing any better use for the plants) Doing a job that allows for social gathering with out being idle. L L L A K L J 1 bLLNL: Hemp UUUt anU Hill hanging in the hot afternoon &ir mixed with the smell of wine and the sound of laughter. Being thrown up in the air repeatedly by older cousins in their late teens and wondering when I will hit the ground. YOUR FEELING OURING THIS SCENE: Very happy and feeling secure. Time seems to stand st i l l but st i l l wishing that we would not have to go home ever. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: The contrast between the cool relaxing shade with the smell of wine and noise 3qf Aqpqhter compared to the suffocatingly hot sunny areas. 3years DESCRIPTION: Being in a busy railway station with my Aunt who just got me a jacket with an outside breast-pocket. She is giving me a few coins and instructions to go to a counter and ask for a candy bar. CLEAREST SCENE: letting the candy bar and putting it in my outside breast pocket and toddling back to where my Aunt is waiting for the train. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Feeling very grown up because everbody can see that I have a breast pocket that is bulging because of the candy bar. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: Going back to my Aunt and tripping over my own feet and losing the candy bar. 88 PRIMAPV Subject: 7 LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION: Sex: Female SECONDARY I IFE STYLE DESIGNATION: 1. Age: 5 year3 DESCRIPTION: , Falling from 'monkey bars' on swing set and breaking my arm. I was begging, then demanding that my sister catch me as I hung by one arm from the bars — looking down to the ground. I warned her "I'm going to break my arm" but she didn't listen - I fell on my left arm - it broke in 3 places and I barely cried. I was so angry I just kept saying "I told you I would break my arm." I also remember being in hospital overnight and they kept waking me up. CLEAREST SCENE: Looking down to ground my arm trying to cling to bar as it begins to twist around and I begin loosing my grip. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: fear HOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: I think its funny that I vented my pain and fear in anger rather than crying and allowing myself to feel hurt. 2. Age: 5 years DESCRIPTION: rehearsing for and going to studio to do square dancing (on T.V.) with kinder-garten class. -remeber the intensity of learning words and steps in classroom -my dress meant everything to me - it was beautiful -I would especially watch a Spanish Speaking classmate as I was fascinated by her beautiful dark complexion and jewelry (pierced ears-tiny necklace) CLEAREST SCENE: -Acting out mntions and singing 0"Go in and out the windows" YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: bliss and accomplished satisfaction MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: I was acting with independence, achievement, and feeling creative-singing and dancing. I was extremely proud. '• A a - e : 6 or 7 years DESCRIPTION! Lying in a hospital room with several other people. Doctors and nurses around as well as my mother. I remember them putting the tubes into my urethra and the excruciating Pain. I felt very sick and helpless but people were kind and loving I didn't really understand what was going on. CLEAREST SCENE: how I felt when they were inserting tubes YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: horendous pain and fear MOST SIGNIFICANT PART Of THE MEMORY TO YOU: The contrast of feelings - simultaneous pain and love/warmth from those around me. 89 PRIMARv Subject: 8 L I F E S T y L E : DESIGNATION: Sex: Male - SECONDARY LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION: 1. Age: 7 years DESCRIPTION: I was in the habit of kissing my mom, before we left for school. During this period I was in love with my Grade two teacher. One day, out of habit (or wanten desire) I pushed my lips towards the Gr. 2 teacher, as I was leaving, school, as if she was my mom. CLEAREST SCENE: Pushing my lips toward the teacher as I was leaving school. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: I was oblivious to the fuss I was creating among the other students. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: I turned scarlet, and was very embarassed. 2. Age: 6 years DESCRIPTION: While exploring the neighborhood one day my older brother tripped on some lumber and landed on a concrete spike. CLEAREST SCENE: My brother fallin into the open pit. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: fear. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: The length of the spike 3. Age: 4 years DESCRIPTION: My older brother was crossing the street in front of grandma's house when he was struck by a car and dragged S block. CLEAREST SCENE: Running out of the house to see what had happened. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: I felt a loss, as i f he was already dead. HOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YpU: When they brought him into the house bleeding. 90 Subject: 9 Sex: female 1. Age: 5 years PR/MARY LITE: STYLE DESIGNATION: SECONDARY LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION: DESCRIPTION: I was walking borne From school, alone, hurrying because I had to go to the toilet! Suddenly — it was too late— I messed my pants! At that moment I heard footsteps running from behind and a girl from the neighborhood caught up with me and said "wait for me, I'll walk with you." She was 10 or 11, and I really admired her, and was flattered that she wanted to walk with me — but, I didn't want her to know my predicament! I survived the walk down the hill to my house, but suffered agonies in the process! My father was at home, and stood me on a sheet of newspaper in the open kitchen doorway to wash me; that, how-ever, didn't embarass me at alll CLEAREST SCENE: The moment when this girl caught up to me and began to walk beside me. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Acute embarrassment and discomfort. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: Sorry, I really don't know. 2. Age: 3 ? years DESCRIPTION: During the war, in England, we had frequent air raids. I remember one such time in the late winter afternoon, I think because it wa3 almost dark, and instead of going directly to the air raid shelter, I went first to the other end of the gardent to collect Lhe 3 baby ducklings we kept there in an old bath tub. My mother was angry and shouted at me, but I had no sense of fear or danger at the time. CLEAREST SCENE: Trying to hold all 3 ducklings at once, as I knew I wouldn't get a chance to make a second trip to their pond! YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Mild panic, as Iknew I had to hurry; but it was fear of my parents anger, not fear of the danger of bombings. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: The total absence of any sense of danger. 3. Age: 6 years DESCRIPTION: Walking with my mother and another woman, on our way to visit my aunt. My mother was talking about the birth a few months earlier of my sister. I over-heard some of her remarks, and as a result I imagined babies were born in plastic bags, filled with water, and that the top of the bag had to be cut open with scissors very quickly, or the baby would drown. CLEAREST SCENE: The clearest part of this incident is actually the visual memory of the alley-way along which we were walking, beside railway tracks. I can st i l l see the stones, patches of grass and a single cement step, and feel the warmth of the sun. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Great curiosity! MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: It't interesting, looking back, to note that I never even considered asking my mother, then or later, any questions about childbirth. Subject: 10 PRIMARY LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION: Sex: Female SECONDARY LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION: 1. Age: * years DESCRIPTION: I remember a ballet class. Perhaps I had been 2 or 3 times already, I don't remember. The thing I remember most is the new dark green ballet dress my mother had made for me. All the children had the same outfit, and we were learning how to point our toes. The building was old and smelled old. I didn't know anyone in my class. CLEAREST SCENE: Standing in front of the mirror, facing South, in my new green ballet dress. My mother was at the back of the room watching the class. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: I was nervous because I didn't know any of the children, but felt important be-cause I had the required green dress. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: Probably the fact that it may have been the first class of any sort I had attended t a„-. . so it has stayed in my mind. I. Age: 3 years DESCRIPTION: I re~ember I had just gotten a new bed. I suppose I was in a crib before this time. My mother was washing windows outside. I think she had a scarf on her head. I was crying. My mother suggested I was tired, and would tuck me into my new bed for a nap. CLEAREST SCENE: My mother kneeling down washing a basement window from the outside. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: I had nothing to do. I wanted some attention. I remember crying. I didn't want my mother to wash tlie window. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: When my mother suggested the nap , the fact that she was going to come and cover me up and make comfortable was a good feeling. Maybe because it was a new bed '• *98: 5 years I was excited about sleeping in it. DESCRIPTION; We had a back lane behind our house, and 2 doors down on the opposite side of the lane, was where my fiiend lived. In order to get to her house I had to pass a home with a dog. The dog was always in the backyard - fenced in, but barking. I was always afraid of dogs, especially this one. I would run past the house, screaming, and fell on the gravel grazing both my knees. CLEAREST SCENE: Running as fast as I could, with the dog at my heels, screaming. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Absolute terror that the dog would bite me. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: I don't remember if I was afraid of dogs before this time, but after this I never got over the fear. I was attacked by a dog aa well in my early teens. 92 APPENDIX 3 LIFESTYLE Harold H. Mosak An Ind iv idua l ' s L i f e - S t y l e (Lebenssti1), h is "style of ac t ing , thinking and perce iv ing ," const i tutes a cogni t ive framework within which he se lects the s p e c i f i c operations which enable him to cope with l i f e tasks. It expresses the cen tra l theme through which his behavior can be understood. While he may not be completely aware of his l i f e s t y l e , he acts congruently within th i s apperceptive scheme, and we can deduce his l i f e s t y l e through observing his verbal and nonverbal behavior. The l i f e s t y l e forms a unifying p r i n c i p l e , a gesta l t , to which behavior is bound in accordance with the i n d i v i d u a l "law of movement". Through th i s framework, developed ear ly and remaining f a i r l y constant throughout l i f e , an i n d i v i d u a l in terpre t s , contro l s , and predic ts experience. Since the l i f e s t y l e is a subject ive view of s e l f in r e l a t i o n s h i p to l i f e , conclusions arr ived at through "biased apperception" contain f i c t i o n a l elements. The i n d i v i d u a l , however, may pers i s t in assuming that only under the condit ions held in the l i f e s t y l e can he adequately cope with l i f e tasks and f ind his place in l i f e . When l i f e puts him to 93 the test , he frequently finds himself mistaken. He may then resort to behavior which he presumes w i l l f a c i l i t a t e the evasion of l i f e tasks, provide an excuse for that evasion, and protect his self-esteem. Both construct ive and nonconstructive behavior can emanate from the l i f e s t y l e convic t ions , and we cannot predic t which behavior w i l l co inc ide with a given l i f e s t y l e . We can speak only of more or less probable se lect ions of behavior. Probable behaviors associated with commonly observed l i f e s t y l e s may be described as fol lows: The "getter" explo i t s and manipulates l i f e and others by a c t i v e l y or pass ive ly putt ing others into his s e r v i c e . He tends to view l i f e as unfair for denying him that to which he fee ls e n t i t l e d . He may employ charm, shyness, temper, or in t imidat ion as methods of operat ion. He is insa t iab le in his ge t t ing . The "driver" is the man in motion. His overconscientiousness and his dedicat ion to his goals r a r e l y permit him to r e s t . He acts as i f he wants to "it" (whatever i t may be) completed on the day he d i e s . Underneath he nurses a fear that he is "nothing", and his overt, overambitious behavior is counterphobic. The "contro l ler" is e i ther a person who wishes to contro l l i f e or one who wishes to ensure that l i f e w i l l not contro l him. He general ly d i s l i k e s surpr i ses , controls his 94 spontaneity, and hides his fee l ings since a l l of these may lessen his c o n t r o l . As subst i tutes he favors i n t e l l e c t u a l i z a t i o n , r ightness , order l iness , and neatness. With his godlike s t r i v i n g for per fec t ion , he depreciates others . The person who "needs to be r ight" elevates himself over others whom he arranges to perceive as being wrong. He scrupulously avoids e r r o r . Should he be caught in error , he r a t i o n a l i z e s that others are even more wrong than he. He treats r ight and wrong as i f they were the only important issues in a s i t u a t i o n and cannot to l erate ambiguity or an absence of gu ide l ines . The person who "needs to be superior" may refuse to enter a l i f e arena where he w i l l not be seen as the "center" or the "best". He may devote himself to s o c i a l l y nonconstructive endeavors - achieving the record for number of days of underground b u r i a l . If he cannot a t ta in s u p e r i o r i t y through being f i r s t or best, he often se t t l e s for being la s t or worst. The person who "needs to be l iked" fee ls required to please everyone a l l the time. P a r t i c u l a r l y s ens i t ive to c r i t i c i s m , he fee ls crushed when he does not receive universa l and constant approval . He t ra ins himself to read other, people c a r e f u l l y in order to discover what might please them and s h i f t s from pos i t i on to p o s i t i o n in an attempt to please . He sees the evaluations of others as the yardst icks of his 95 worth. 7. The person who "needs to be good" prefers to l i v e by higher moral standard than his contempories. Sometimes these standards are higher than God's, s ince he acts as i f God w i l l forgive trespasses that he, himself, cannot. This goodness may serve as an instrument for moral s u p e r i o r i t y so that he may not only elevate himself over others but may ac tua l ly discourage the " in fer ior" person, a frequent device of the "model c h i l d " or the a l c o h o l i c ' s wife. 8. The person who "opposes" everything l i f e demands or expects of him r a r e l y possess a p o s i t i v e program in which h he stands for something. He only knows he is against the wishes or p o l i c i e s of others . He may behave pass ive ly , not openly opposing but merely circumventing the demands of others . "Mother deafness" is not uncommon in ch i ldren of th is type. 9. Everything b e f a l l s the "victim" sometimes ca l l ed the sch l imaze l . Innocently or a c t i v e l y he pursues the vocation of "disaster chaser". Associated c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may be a f ee l ing of n o b i l i t y , s e l f - p i t y , res ignat ion , or proneness to acc ident . Secondari ly, he may seek the sympathy or p i t y of others . 10. The "martyr" i s , in some respects, s imi lar to the "vict im". Tlhe "martyr" also suf fers , but whereas the "victim" merely "dies", the "martyr" dies for a cause or for a p r i n c i p l e . His goal is the attainment of n o b i l i t y , and his vocation is that of " in jus t i ce c o l l e c t o r " . Some martyrs advert ise the ir 96 suf fer ing to an unconcerned audience, thus accusing them of further i n j u s t i c e ; others enhance the ir n o b i l i t y by s i l e n t l y enduring and s u f f e r i n g . 11. The "baby" finds his place in l i f e through charm, cuteness, and the e x p l o i t a t i o n of others . Often his voice is high pi tched, and the intonation and meter of his speech is c h i l d l i k e . Often he has been the baby in his family c o n s t e l l a t i o n , but this is not a necessary c o n d i t i o n . 12. The "inadequate" person acts as i f he cannot do anything r i g h t . Through his defaul t , he indentures others as his servants . He may be clumsy or awkward; he may l i m i t his a c t i v i t i e s to those few where he is c er ta in he w i l l succeed; he may f a i l whenever r e s p o n s i b i l i t y is given him. Since his. behavior proclaims his i n f e r i o r i t y , he is the paradigm of the i n f e r i o r i t y complex. 13. The person who "avoids feel ings" may fear his own spontaneity which might move him in d i r e c t i o n s for which he has not preplanned. He holds the conv ic t ion that man is a r a t i o n a l being and that reason can solve a l l problems. He lacks s o c i a l presence and feels comfortable only in those s i tua t ions where i n t e l l e c t u a l expression is p r i z e d . His most valued techniques are l og i c , r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , i n t e l l e c t u a l i z a t i o n , and "talking a good game". 14. The "excitement seeker" despises routine and r e p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s , seeks novel experiences, and revels in commotion. When l i f e becomes d u l l , he st imulates or provokes i t in order 97 to create excitement. He requires the presence of other people and often places himself in league with others on whom he can re ly to a s s i s t him in search for excitement. Some excitement seekers, however, do not involve others and f ind excitement through fears, rumination, or masturbation. Since the i n d i v i d u a l is h o l i s t i c , his l i f e s t y l e may be assessed at any point - through e i ther past or current behavior - and through a var ie ty of behavioral manifestat ions, gestures, language, ear ly r e c o l l e c t i o n s , or l i f e n a r r a t i v e . Some Adler ians who do a formal analys i s of a c l i e n t ' s l i f e s t y l e c o l l e c t information concerning his family c o n s t e l l a t i o n - b i r t h order, s i b l i n g re la t ionsh ips , achievements and de f i c i enc i e s , p a r e n t - c h i l d re la t ionsh ips , parental r e la t ionsh ips , and family c l imate . To understand his current outlook and goals the c l i e n t ' s ear ly r e c o l l e c t i o n s are in terpre ted . The goal of th i s d iagnost ic a c t i v i t y is to e l i c i t the pattern of l i v i n g - the l i f e s t y l e . 98 APPENDIX 4 INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE INTERPRETATION OF EARLY RECOLLECTIONS 1. Insure that you have ava i lab le a tape recorder along with the supplied tape cassettes . 2. Read through the 3 ERs of the f i r s t case study. 3. Formulate your ideas as to the main themes, s i g n i f i c a n t representations and patterns for th is person. 4. Indicate which case number you are doing and record the above thoughts along with your L i f e Style choice, and reasons on the tape casset te . You may use the number from the l i s t of ava i lab le p o s s i b i l i t i e s from Mosak's a r t i c l e . 5. If you are unsure of the L i f e Style type record your best approximation as the primary designation and give one or two others as your secondary dec i s ions . 6. Indicate these decis ions on the actual case study sheet and continue to the next subject 's ERs. 99 APPENDIX 5 OUTLINE OF THE TRAINING PROGRAM IN ER INTERPRETATION I n t r o d u c t i o n t o E a r l y R e c o l l e c t i o n s . E a r l y memories r e f l e c t a p e r s o n ' s p r e s e n t view o f t h e m s e l v e s and t h e w o r l d . They a r e d i f f e r e n t from a r e p o r t ( i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y have been t o l d and c a n n o t a c t u a l l y v i s u a l i z e ) and from i n c i d e n t s t h a t o c c u r r e d r e p e a t e d l y . They have happened t o t h e s u b j e c t b e f o r e t h e age o f 8 y e a r s . I n f o r m a t i o n on how t o e l i c i t ERs f r o m c l i e n t s . T h i s i n v o l v e d l e a r n i n g , how t o ask f o r ERs, g e t t i n g enough d e t a i l , s e l e c t i n g t h e most p o i g n a n t moment and the f e e l i n g s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s moment. G e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n on ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . ERs a r e o f t e n n e g a t i v e ; r a r e l y p o s i t i v e or e x i s t e n t i a l . The f i r s t ER g i v e n i s g e n e r a l l y t h e most i m p o r t a n t i n terms o f i n d i c a t i n g l i f e s t y l e . Remember t h a t a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e ER a r e s e l e c t i v e l y remembered f o r t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e t o us t o d a y . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o c e s s . The ERs s h o u l d be examined f i r s t t o d e t e r m i n e what theme i s b e i n g e x p r e s s e d and s e c o n d l y t o i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s p r e s e n t . The themes f a l l i n t o s i x d i f f e r e n t t y p e s w h i c h i n d i c a t e a t t i t u d e s a b o u t e i t h e r my s e l f or my w o r l d . T h e s e t a k e t h e fo r m o f s t a t e m e n t s s u c h as " I am " I cope w i t h p r o b l e m s by " I i n t e r a c t w i t h o t h e r s by ..." and " L i f e i s 100 "the Ideal l i f e is . and "the Dangers in l i f e are The s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s to recognize are that s p e c i f i c people mentioned are prototypes of people in general (gender is often a key po int ) , the stance of the subject (active p a r t i c i p a n t or passive observer) is important, the place or context of the r e c o l l e c t i o n (open or closed spaces, people present or absent, etc . ) is valuable, re la t ionsh ips to others such as smallness, looking down on others, f ee l ing weak or strong compared to others has meaning, and any great amount of d e t a i l or colour sense can represent crea t ive , a r t i s t i c or i d e a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e s . Any patterns found between ERs increase the l i k l i h o o d of that p a r t i c u l a r element being important to the i n d i v i d u a l . It is important to examine each ER separately for themes and d e t a i l s and then to integrate a l l of the information for a complete i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . This is presented to the c l i e n t in the f i r s t person to add a sense of ownership and modified together to come up with a f i n a l acceptable vers ion . Prac t i ce session using sample ERs. After the above information was given and discussed a number of sample ERs taken from Olson (1979) were used to prac t i ce s k i l l s . This continued u n t i l each trainee was able to cons i s tant ly ident i fy the major themes and some of the s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s present. Assignment of LS theme from Mosak (1971). The 14 types e luc idated by Mosak were read over and compared to the 101 in terpre ta t ions derived from the above sample ERs. This process was done b r i e f l y and without any method to check accuracy of theme assignment. 102 APPENDIX 5A REVISED TRAINING PROGRAM IN ER INTERPRETATION This revised training program in ER interpretation originates from the results observed in this current study. A longer period was thought to be necessary (4-7 hours) coupled with more extensive practice and feedback sessions. Before any training is i n i t i a t e d i t is important to have the trainees read some s p e c i f i c Adlerian references on private logic, personal goals, and l i f e s t y l e (Adler, 1958; Dreikurs, 1967; Mosak, 1977; Shulman, 1973). This w i l l prepare the trainees for an introduction to what early r e c o l l e c t i o n s are and why they are important. The steps one and three in the previous program would then remain e s s e n t i a l l y the same. In teaching trainees the technigue of e l i c i t i n g ERs from c l i e n t s the process would need to be lengthened. A technique similar to that developed by Kopp and Der (1979) should be used where s p e c i f i c questions are asked which produce more elaborate, complete and richer ERs. The trainees should practice this technique with each other, recording the results for later analysis. The c r u c i a l stage involving the interpretation process should l a s t from 2-4 hours. The approach would be similar to that given in Appendix 5 (step 4) with these additions: 103 1. Begin using w r i t t e n samples of 3-5 ERs i n a s e t . 2. Go through each ER s e p a r a t e l y g i v i n g the major theme ("I am...", " L i f e i s . . . " , etc.) and p r o v i d e s p e c i f i c examples f o r why you made t h i s d e c i s i o n . 3. Note aloud or l i s t the d i f f e r e n t metaphors or r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s found i n each ER. Compare i n d i v i d u a l o b s e r v a t i o n s amongst t r a i n e e s inorder to i n c r e a s e t h e i r l e v e l of cue r e c o g n i t i o n . 4. Make o v e r a l l statements about each set of ERs p u t t i n g together the repeated themes and the s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s . Again i t would be important to use examples from the ERs. 5. F i n a l l y , the t r a i n e e s should p r a c t i c e t h i s process using each o t h e r . T h i s w i l l t e s t out t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and allow them to r e c e i v e feedback i n o r d e r to modify or a d j u s t t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s . T h i s approach should encourage the t r a i n e e to be a more as t u t e observer and user of the vast a r r a y of i n f o r m a t i o n provided i n ERs. The primary weaknesses found i n the t r a i n e e s i n the c u r r e n t study were t h e i r lack of examples, i n e f f e c t i v e use of metaphors, and only p a r t i a l use of a l l of the provided ERs. The l a s t step i n the t r a i n i n g process would be to f a m i l i a r i z e the students with t y p o l o g i e s i n general and Mosak's system (1971) in s p e c i f i c . T h i s should take between one and two hours. The time would be spent reading, d i s c u s s i n g and understanding how each "type" encapsulates a 104 feature of l i f e s t y l e . The previous ly used samples of ERs would be re-examined with th i s added perspective and elements in the ER would be re lated to features in the typologies . Mosak, Schneider, and Mosak (1980) have a good workbook with a number of sample ERs with the ir "types" i d e n t i f i e d . These should be used in pract i ce sessions to develop s k i l l in th is aspect of ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The suggestions above compensate for the observed d e f i c i e n c i e s found in the trainees performance in th i s study. The degree of success of th is program must await future implementation. 105 APPENDIX 6 TRANSCRIPT OF INTERPRETER COMMENTS C l on s u b j e c t 2: The f i r s t ER has a s e n s e o f i n a d e q u a c y ; b e i n g h o r i z o n t a l ; l i t t l e and w i t h p a r e n t s . The i l l u s i o n c a r r i e s f e a r and l o s s o f c o n t r o l o f own f a t e . The w o r l d i s a j u n g l e . Men f i g h t w i t h b a r e hands (not p r o p e r l y e g u i p p e d ) t h e l i o n s o f t h i s w o r l d . T h e r e a r e two i s s u e s h e r e : c o n t r o l and i n a d e g u a c y . In ER two t h e p h o t o g r a p h i s a means o f b e i n g r e c o r d e d f o r p o s t e r i t y . I t i s a p u b l i c d i s p l a y ; no c o n t r o l . T h e r e i s a h i g h amount o f an g e r and r e v e n g e . I t i s a q u e s t i o n o f e n t i t l e m e n t . I can g e t even i f i t d o e s n ' t go my way. The t h i r d ER shows t h e c l i e n t s u b j e c t t o t h e e x i g e n c i e s o f n a t u r e . When I am c o l d and wet, I g e t b l a s t e d . T h e r e a r e many a c t i v e v e r b s : p r o t e s t , r e v e n g e , f r o z e n , f u r i o u s , e m b a r r a s s e d , e t c . A p e r s o n w i t h s t r o n g e m o t i o n a l movement. L i f e i s more t h a n p e o p l e c an h a n d l e - e v e n mom. He a l s o t r i e s t o i n d e n t u r e a number o f o t h e r s , even mom; t h i s i s t y p i c a l o f i n a d e g u a c y . C2 on s u b j e c t 2: I'm v u l n e r a b l e . In o r d e r t o have a p l a c e I s h o u l d be l o o k e d a f t e r , o r p e o p l e s h o u l d be c o n c e r n e d a b o u t me. L i f e 1 0 6 i s dangerous: men are weak; women are strong, know what to do, are overpowering. I need women to look after me. It is wrong to embarrass others, from t h i r d ER, poss ibly weak. Contro l - I should be in contro l but I c a n ' t . Poss ibly a b i t of inadequacy. Not wanting photograph of me-I try to contro l l i f e but there's no p o s s i b i l i t y , others take over. The only way I can contro l l i f e is to have women look after me; on my own others are in c o n t r o l . C3 on subject 2: V i c t i m : I saw v ic t im in f i r s t plus r e b e l l i o n and revenge in the second. Also v ic t im in the t h i r d . Inadequate: Feel ings of inadequacy in the f i r s t and the t h i r d ER. "I am unable to stave these men off". F a l l s in creek and gets in trouble . Excitement: A random shot, poss ib ly not v a l i d . T l on subject 2: In the f i r s t ER, others are nurturers and p o t e n t i a l l y inept pro tec tors . The world is t e r r i f y i n g and a battleground and I am p o t e n t i a l l y alone (one f i g h t e r ) . The second ER has others disregarding my needs and rece iv ing my fury . The world is a place of unfair expectation and I am vengeful and non-cooperative. A passive r e s i s t o r . In the t h i r d ER, others are inept protectors or minimal 107 caretakers . The world is harsh, cold and dangerous and I am a source of embarrassement and shame. I am inadequate to care for myself . A opposer, getter (gets mom in service through inadequacy) . T2 on subject 2: L i f e opposes me- l i f e is a s truggle . I r e s i s t in a passive manner when people are against me. He constantly seeks revenge without doing anything to obtain i t . Opposer with examples in a l l three ER. In f i r s t , men are s truggl ing against lions" and l o s i n g . I can just lay there and be t e r r i f i e d and others comfort me. In the second, He just sat there upon being photographed but thought about revenge. In the las t he is somewhat glad that parents were frozen and th is increased mom's anger. T3 on subject 2: When I am scared mom helps me out. When I get angry I take act ion myself . When I get into trouble mom helps me out. I can act ivate her. C l on subject 3: A c l a s s i c v i c t i m . In the f i r s t ER she los t the poppy and looking in the dark and c o l d . F u l l of fear and then rescued. The c leares t scene is snow but most s i g n i f i c a n t 108 part is being given the poppy. This excitement is dashed. A l l the emotions are about being lost, miserable, upset, etc. except the one point of excitement. L i f e i s an overwhelming exper ience. In the second ER she experiences the loss of the tri c y c l e - n o c o n t r o l . The emotional content is sad, dejected, unloved, and helpless. In the thi r d ER, again, even while doing the right thing, I f e e l clumsy, hungry and sad. L i f e i s one successive mess after another. Things I want are beyond my own reach. Overall there is a sense of vic t i m i z a t i o n ; getting, too (doll carriage and new poppy). To be liked i s very weakly present. C2 on subject 3: General scenes: (1) I am careless, I should be c a r e f u l . People are h e l p f u l . When one does wrong women or others are concerned. (2) I am helpless. In order to have a place I should be l i k e others. Men are in co n t r o l . Others decide important things in l i f e and I accept. (3) I am small and careless. In order to have a place I should b be t a l l e r , bigger. Inadequate; The common theme in a l l : f i r s t , losing poppy and even gone from home too long; second, others in control, I am out of control; t h i r d , being small, inadeguate and careless and missing out on special things. 109 C3 on subject 3: Getter: S i g n i f i c a n t part of f i r s t ER is someone "giving her the poppy". V i c t i m : Sense of v i c t i m i z a t i o n -upset and unloved. The loss of the t r i c y c l e . D r i v e r : Some of the dr iver in f i r s t ER, never rests in pursu i t of goa l . She is overly ambitious; in the las t one, everything's too big for her; she t r i e s and goofs up. Wanting to be r i g h t : Wanting to know the r u l e s . T l on subject 3: F i r s t ER: Others are he lp fu l g ivers ; concerned with me and my things or po tent ia l punishers, godl ike , a u t h o r i t i e s . The world is f u l l of e lus ive treasures and I am unworthy and without the treasures . I show off ; use being upset to advert ise my helplessness . Second ER: Others are concerned with and in contro l of my things . The world is l imi t ed , poss ib ly for treasures and requires a trade o f f . I am unloveable without my things and in a down p lace . Third ER: Others are concerned with my goodies; the world is l i m i t e d , poss ib le for treasures and requires a trade of f ; I am a messmaker coming from a down p lace . The subject is a getter, concerned with gett ing and doesn't fee l e n t i t l e d . V i c t i m : feels unworthy. 110 T2 on subject 3: The tape did not record this one report . T3 on subject 3: I had a big r e s p o n s i b i l i t y but I blew i t again. I can't do i t r i g h t ; others help me out when I blow i t . L i f e i s very unfair and hard to cope' with because I am so clumsy and unable to do i t r i g h t . Inadequate. C l on subject 4: F i r s t ER: A common scene of c o n t r o l ; a runaway s i t u a t i o n . You are proceeding comfortably down the road of l i f e in company of loved ones when suddenly things go out of c o n t r o l ; even mom is concerned. Second ER: U n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y and loss of c o n t r o l . Third ER: Facing death, the ultimate loss of c o n t r o l . He feels helpless and confused. D e f i n i t e l y a c o n t r o l l e r . The secondary themes would be a sense of helplessness (I go along for the ride) equal to inadequacy and to be l i k e d ; present in a negative way as a s e n s i t i v i t y to c r i t i c i s m . C2 on subject 4: F i r s t ER: I am safe and content. In order to have a place , I should be close to others . At the end i t is poss ib ly the beginning of another ER. I am helpless which is I l l also present in the next two ERs. Second ER: I am he lp le s s . In order to have a place I should look nice , respectable or appropriate . Women are kind and h e l p f u l . Women or people are interested and enjoy one another. Third ER: I am helpless and concerned. L i f e is confusing. There is an element of being not in c o n t r o l . C o n t r o l : l i f e is f u l l of surpr i ses ; f i r s t , people out of c o n t r o l ; second, he is out of c o n t r o l ; t h i r d , c o n t r o l , confused and helpless , nothing he could do. Much less than f i r s t theme is (1) to be l iked ; in the second ER he is f ee l ing uncomfortable and being embarrassed; and (2) v i c t im; l i f e was perfect and then things go bad-what can you do. You f a l l into the water-what can you do. Remember with grandfather and poor me I can' t do anything here e i t h e r . C3 on subject 4: A l l the ERs represent some out of contro l lness, helplessness: the runaway s i t u a t i o n and the las t ER where one feel helpless and confused. To be l i k e d : not strong but with teacher a need to be l i k e d ; grandfather-a nice snuggle with parents in f i r s t ER. T l on subject 4: F i r s t ER: Others are protectors and appeart to be in 112 contro l but helpless in the face of the unexpected. The world is b a s i c a l l y comfortable but f u l l of unexpected, p o t e n t i a l danger. I have a place quite high and in front center-a s t a r . Second ER: Others are protectors and caretakers of me. The world has unexpected shocks and I am helpless in the face of the unexpected. Third ER: Others are concerned with me even on the ir deathbed. Others have l imi ted power and are h e l p l e s s . The world s t r ikes people down and I am helpless in the face of the world. The themes are superior and v i c t i m . T2 on subject 4: L i f e is f u l l of unexpected accidents and sudden shocks. Bad things are always coming along, often scary . I cope by gett ing others to comfort and make me fee l safe . Theme is the v i c t i m . T3 on subject 4: I l i k e to be warm and safe and comfortable but l i f e gives me s t a r t l i n g experiences which leave me h e l p l e s s . This means s i tua t ions that I do not have any contro l over. Seeing that I can do nothing I am resigned to the fact that l i f e is l i k e that . Theme is v i c t i m . 113 C l on subject 5: Overa l l impression is the need to be r ight , not super ior . But just be r ight and have others be wrong. , F i r s t ER: I se lect and those not measuring up go into the garbage where they belong. Di f ferent standards from me are bewildering and confusing. Second ER: Del ight in doing i t p e r f e c t l y . No comparisons, just me doing u i t up to a standard. Third ER: I am accepted as an adu l t . Themes are r i g h t ; to be l iked a weak second ( from teacher not l i k i n g my work) and no t h i r d theme seen. C2 on subject 5: F i r s t ER: In general I am confused. In order to have a place I should do the r ight thing or please others . People are confusing and not c l e a r . I do wrong when others are unclear. Second ER: I am happy. In order to have a place I must do things r i g h t . L i f e i s exc i t ing and people support and are interested in me when I do the r ight t h i n g . Poss ibly an element of needing to be best compared to the other kids , e tc . Third ER: I am content or s p e c i a l . I have a place when I am accepted for what I am. People are understanding and accepting. The world is in teres t ing and e x c i t i n g . Themes are: need to be l iked (when I do the r ight 114 th ing) , to be r ight (others are even more wrong than me), and super ior . C3 on subject 5: F i r s t ER: Right away I see the need to be r ight , because of the i n j u s t i c e of the th ing . Possible the need to be good because she thinks she did everything r ight and everybody else go mad. Second ER: We see the element of s u p e r i o r i t y - t h e center bes t -This might be what is confusing me with moral s u p e r i o r i t y . Third ER: She is surprised her parents are so f a i r - h e denigrates them. The f i n a l dec i s ion for the theme is to be r ight because "I was correct" in the f i r s t ER and I was surprised that parents did what was correct in t h i r d ER and in the second ER I got them a l l c o r r e c t . The other poss ible themes might be s u p e r i o r i t y and to be good. T l on subject 5: F i r s t ER: Others are makers, doers, ru le set ters , and encouragers/discouragers . The world is unclear and has unreasonable expectations and I am cooperative, a pleaser, evaluator and a judge. Second ER: Others are encouragers (of my independence) and testors and evaluators . The world expects perfect ion in 115 performance and I am a pleaser . Third ER: Others accept and comfort me and are unpredictable with respect to the ir expectat ions. The world is a place of beauty and I appreciate beauty and expect/ look for approval . The themes are: (1) to be l i k e d , focused on others expectations and approval; (2) to be r ight , importance to perform r i g h t ; and (3) to be superior , r a t i o n a l i z e d errors through moral s u p e r i o r i t y . T2 on subject 5: You have to be r i g h t . You do the r ight thing to seek approval of others, e s p e c i a l l y authori ty f i gures . I cope by doing the r ight thing and seeking approval and the person who is c r i t i c i z i n g me is even more wrong. T3 on subject 5: I want to do the r ight thing and I get very confused when others don't understand me. I don't think that ' s f a i r . I l i k e to be put apart because i t is important that others approve of what I do. I l i k e i t when mom and dad understand me as i f I were a grown up l i k e them. It i s important to please other people. C l on subject 6: F i r s t ER: "I can' t make ends meet" is body language. 116 The fee l ing is d i f f eren t from the action-He doesn't f i t . Scene has a lo t of act ion and he is s i t t i n g . He is an observer. I don't f i t , I'm outside looking i n . Second ER: An a r t i s t i c person from the colours and d e s c r i p t i v e language. A very companiable atmosphere. He is the center of act ion but not a doer. My l i f e i s f u l l of marked contrasts ; sex roles seem stereotyped and segregated. Third ER: Women are the workers and the providers and give the tasks to do. I am small and incompetent and I don't f i t . I enjoy being the center of a t t r a c t i o n and I am a good observer. The themes are baby; inadeguate (I also mess up); v ic t im and a poor fourth is ge t ter . C2 on subject 6: F i r s t ER: I am small and alone. In order to have a place I observe exc i t ing things . The world is e x c i t i n g . Women should be near by. Second ER: I am small and people are soc iab le . Men have a spec ia l place and women work. L i f e is e x c i t i n g . To have a place I should be part of the excitement (from being thrown up in the a i r ) . I would l i k e to have more d e t a i l of t h i s . Third ER: I am small and s p e c i a l . In order to have a place I should show people I can do things by myself. Women bel ieve in me but I don't measure up. The themes are excitement ( tra in s ta t ion is e x c i t i n g ) ; 117 baby (thrown in a i r and smallness is common to a l l three ER); and maybe to be r ight but th i s is a long shot. C3 on subject 6: F i r s t ER: Baby poss ib ly from an attempt to be small and waiting for mom. Second ER: Baby here also from being center of a t tent ion and smallest . Third ER: Here he goofs up in the end. The themes are baby; inadequate, from f i r s t and t h i r d ER but not very s o l i d ; and ge t ter . I always think of baby and getter together. T l on subject 6: F i r s t ER: Others are act ive and not there for me. The world is sensual and f u l l of f l y i n g mud. I am p o t e n t i a l l y exposed, alone and smal l . Second ER: Others are task focussed and s o c i a l l y or i en ted . Men take in , ta lk and consume. Women are in the work place and involved in producing and include me. The world i s sensual and f u l l of contrasts : heat and shade, threatening and pro tec t ing . I am part of a s o c i a l world, an experiencer and an object of p lay . Third ER: Others are there for me: g ivers , focussed on me. The world is f u l l of goodies and I act independently with others in background as support. 118 For a theme none r e a l l y f i t although poss ibly an exper iencer/dependent. T2 on subject 6: D i f f i c u l t to categor ize . Very c lear d e s c r i p t i o n but no pa t t ern . Maybe a baby: a lo t of charm and cuteness, the focus of a t tent ion of others and gaining approval of others . He is not happy when he is not being not iced . T3 on subject 6: I am alone and cold waiting for mom and there is no one there. I can't get away from the c o l d . I l i k e to fee l I belong and be the center of a c t i v i t y although I am a fra id that something w i l l happen-it always does. L i f e is that way. C l on subject 7: F i r s t ER: Business is proving "I was r ight"; then contro l (begging and demanding). I to ld you so, but I was not l i t ened to . There is a strong sense of proving I was r i g h t and also v i c t im i f I loose c o n t r o l . Second ER: Intensity of learning and the need to be r i g h t . A lo t of pr ide when a t ta in ing a sa t i s fac tory performance. Third ER: This one is the opposite with respect to be r i g h t . A paradox of emotional s tate: pain withlove and 119 warmth. Pain is i n f l i c t e d by same others who are g iv ing love. There is no correct response poss ib le . The themes are to be r i g h t ; c o n t r o l ; and excitement (seems to be in a l l of the ERs). C2 on subject 7: F i r s t ER: I am r i g h t . In order to have a place people should l i s t e n to me. L i f e is dangerous. People don't understand or l i s t e n to me. Second ER: I am capable (the element about s tanding) . In order to have a place I should know what to do and how to do i t . She was and she was spec ia l in every way. Doing and looking perfec t . Third ER: I am he lp le s s . L i f e is dangerous and I can be hurt . People are kind and lov ing . L i f e i s confusing. The themes are to be r igh t , from f i r s t knowing what was to happen but being ignored and second she was doing everything c o r r e c t l y ; d r i v e r , th is element was in the second in achieving and s a t i s f a c t i o n ; and martyr, unfair when people don't l i s t e n and she could get hurt . C3 on subject 7: F i r s t ER: Need to be r ight or superior or c o n t r o l . Second ER: Confusing, th is i s almost a report . The whole ER is miss ing . It seems to be superior , some accomplishment. 120 Third ER: To be r i g h t . Demanding her s i s t e r - h e r s i s t e r d i d n ' t l i s t e n to her . She was r i g h t . When you don't know what is going on you su f f er . The themes are to be r i g h t ; to be superior; and v ic t im (two instances of s u f f e r i n g . T l on subject 7: F i r s t ER: Others do not l i s t e n to my needs and wants. The world is unyie lding and a place of melodrama. I need to be r ight and w i l l act out to prove rightness and I am e n t i t l e d to run the show. Second ER: Others are a l l performers with some others being exo t i c . The world is a place of intense drama with beauty being s u p e r f i c i a l . I act out motions and am s u p e r f i c i a l . Third ER: Others cause pain and pretend kindness. The world is intense and incomprehensible. I am ? The themes are getter from a sense of entitlement and martyr to prove rightness and moral s u p e r i o r i t y . T2 on subject 7: In l i f e i t is ioimportant to obtain goals . L i f e is f u l l of s u f f e r i n g . You suffer for a cause in order to get what you want or do what you bel ieve is r i g h t . Suffer ing from f i r s t ER in gett ing what you want and in t h i r d to please other people because they are kind and 121 l o v i n g . The subject is also goal d irec ted , ambitious and a d r i v e r . The themes are therefore martyr and d r i v e r . T3 on subject 7: I get very angry when things don't go my way; so I do a l l I can to make them to . I am proud that I don't cry when something hurts . It is important to me that people I admire, pay at tent ion to me. I w i l l endure anything so long as they do pay at tent ion to me. C l on subject 8: F i r s t ER: A sense of a baby or j u v e n i l e . Doing whatever I want with no s o c i a l involvement. Second ER: A sense of helplessness . The world is dangerous and unpredictable and I can only be a f r a i d and I can't he lp . Third ER: This is almost i d e n t i c a l to the second. My older brother so I must be younger i f not the youngest. I am an observer. The themes seem to be baby; followed by inadequate and very weakly ge t ter . C2 on subject 8: F i r s t ER: I am loving and a f f ec t ionate . In order to 122 have a place I should do what others approve of or what others ecpect. People are c r i t i c a l . From a l l three ERs i t seems that women expect a f f e c t i o n . Second ER: L i f e is dangerous and threatening. Common to second and t h i r d ER is the idea that I am helpless and a f r a i d and people get hurt . In contrast to the f i r s t ER (the second and third) expect a f f ec t ion and loving with women while men face danger. There i s harshness there but d e t a i l is lacking so I am not sure where the c l i e n t f i t s in other than having to protect her s e l f . The themes are to be l i k e d , showing a f f ec t ion and lov ing; and contro l , l i f e is dangerous so I must be in contro l inorder to be safe . There is a threat of los ing people near to you. If the second and t h i r d ER had more d e t a i l , contro l could be the primary l i f e s ty l e but I stuck with the f i r s t s e l ec t ion due to the act ion in the f i r s t ER. C3 on subject 8: Poss ib ly the older brother is a guiding l i g h t . He t e l l s you what to avo id . Spontaneity gets you into trouble : he in the f i r s t ER and his brother in the second ER. This i s a d i f f i c u l t one and I would l i k e to have more ERs. I would choose to be l i k e d from the f i r s t ER. T l on subject 8: 123 F i r s t ER: Others are des irable and the world is a place of love and shame. I push myself toward others, have shameful des ires and act unthinkingly from habi t . Second ER: Others are leaders who t r i p up or blunder. The world is a place of danger and I fol low. Third ER: Others are act ive , doers, and v i c t i m s . The world is a place of danger and I watch. The theme chosen is inadequate because the subject is a follower and he would f a i l i f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y is g iven. Watching is one way of l i m i t i n g a c t i v i t y and less s i tua t ions where you can be inadequate. T2 on subject 8: Family contacts are important. It is important to express c lossness . If a family member is hurt then you fee l g u i l t y . I cope with stress through moral judgements of myself . There is a gread need to be good. The theme chosen i s to be good. In the f i r s t ER i t is d i f f i c u l t to accept a very simple mistake and in the second he f e l t bad about what happened to his brother . T3 on subject 8: I don't mind taking chances to get what I want as long as I don't get caught. I e a s i l y imagine phys ica l fee l ings l i k e softness and 124 pain . Blood reminds me of death and I think about i t a l o t . C l on subject 9: F i r s t ER: A need for c o n t r o l : her own body and her new f r i e n d . I also sugfer embarrassement and discomfort . Second ER: Nobody not even war is going to make me follow r u l e s . Holding a l l three ducks at once speaks to the idea of c o n t r o l . Third ER: Again c o n t r o l . A perceived necess i ty for a quick r e s o l u t i o n . Complete contro l of the s i t u a t i o n . It is a comfortable scene but s t i l l present. The themes are contro l f i r s t ; getter, second (a people c o l l e c t o r or of l i v i n g t h i n g s - f r i e n d , ducks, and i m p l i c i t gain of new s i s t e r ; and weakly excitement the t h i r d theme (she is always in the middle of a predicament). C2 on subject 9: F i r s t ER: I am in contro l or should be in contro l or maintain c o n t r o l . In order to have a place I must be acceptable to other . People are f r i e n d l y and he lp fu l or women are f r i e n d l y and men are understanding and h e l p f u l . L i f e is f u l l of the unexpected and I handle i t with d i f f i c u l t y . Second ER: I am calm and f e a r l e s s . In order to have a place I should avoid other" s anger ord iapprova l . People have expectations of me. When I am t e c h n i c a l l y correct 125 others think I am wrong. Third ER: I am curious, content, and the world is f a s c i n a t i n g . Women are knowledgeable. In order to have a place I should know the t r u t h . The theme is between contro l and to be l i k e d . I choose to be l iked f i r s t because in the f i r s t ER she wants to be accepted by the eleven year old and in the second she d i d n ' t want mom's d i sp leasure . The t h i r d ER also shows a des ire for strong acceptance and belonging. C3 on subject 9: The counsel lor s tar t s ta lk ing about the idea of contro l but then drops i t . Avoids f ee l ings : In the second ER there i s a t o t a l absence of any danger, no fear of danger. There i s no embarrassement in the f i r s t ER. Going for reason leads to success. D r i v e r : In the second ER she pursues her goal and in the t h i r d she is curious a l l by herse l f with no others . Control is chosen for the f i n a l poss ible theme. T l on subject 9: F i r s t ER: Others are f l a t t e r e r s , have d i s tant ideals and receive my admiration or are caretakers . The world has r e a l i t y time cons tra in t s : s u r v i v a l in comfort requires time c o n s t r a i n t . I am in a down p o s i t i o n , focussed on bodi ly needs and a messmaker. 126 Second ER: Others are po tent ia l threats . The world requires s u r v i v a l against those threats as well as attending to time l i m i t s . I am focussed on my own needs-counter to author i t y . Third ER: Others are s o c i a l and include me. The world requires you to act with speed. I am an experiencer. The themes are to be l iked (she w i l l l i v e with discomfort to receive others admiration) and excitement (from the rush and r i s k ) . T2 on subject 9: L i f e is an arena where events and people w i l l try to contro l you i f poss ib le . This is to be r e s i s t e d . She deals with stress through keeping things order ly to avoid surpr i s e s . The theme is c o n t r o l . F i r s t the surprise bowel movement is embarrassing-to avoid i t and cover up or hide spontaneity. Second she gets the ducks even though i t is forbidden. She was determined. In the t h i r d i t was easier to think of c h i l d b i r t h as what her mother, to ld her rather than looking c loser to avoid d i s turb ing thoughts. T3 on subject 9: How others see me is very important. I want to do the r ight thing and to be accepted because I l i k e that . I fee l curious about things I don't understand but i t i s 127 too r i sky to ask questions about i t . It could be embarrassing and therefore too dangerous so I would rather not ask-just imagine what people might think of me. C l on subject 10: F i r s t ER: Quite i n t e r e s t i n g . The new dress might be a get ter; mom made i t so poss ib ly inadequate. A people watcher: she knows what other kids are doing and have on. A l l her senses are focussed and a c t i v e l y involved-eyes, smell , co lour; there is the sense of being on the outside (possibly inadequate). The need to belong (the r ight dres s ) . Second ER: Again: l i f e ' rears tremendous b a r r i e r s to her progress (the dog). The fear of dogs also creates a b a r r i e r . It is d i f f i c u l t to deal with the tasks of l i f e - i n th i s case, f r i endsh ip . Third ER: A sense of gett ing-the new bed. Mom is outside so a sense of separat ion . Mom is a supporter but removed. There is a sense of separation, being low down, therefore one of manipulation and power, through water power. The theme is p r i m a r i l y that of baby, followed by secondary ones of contro l , and inadequate. C2 on subject 10: F i r s t ER: "I am unsure and uncerta in". In order to have a place I should meet requirements or be l i k e others or 128 have what others have. Women or people are watching me. L i f e is challenging-new experiences. Second ER: I am a fra id and defenseless . L i f e is threatening and dangerous. In order to have a place I must be protected or in c o n t r o l . Third ER: "I am alone". In order to have a place I should have others at tent ion when I want i t . Women work hard. L i f e should give me what I want. The theme could be e i ther getter or c o n t r o l . Getter elements in a l l three ERs. Green dress in the f i r s t ER with s p e c i a l l y earned acceptance. In second, she needs a protector and is e n t i t l e d to protect ion and in the t h i r d she gets a new bed and wants mom's a t t en t ion . Control i s shown in the f i r s t by the fact she is secure and in contro l with her dress . In the second ER she is out of contro l and in the t h i r d she is not in contro l and wants to contro l others . C3 on subject 10: F i r s t ER: The need to be l iked or to be a part of something. The t h i r d ER changes the s lant of the f i r s t . She is a getter here and wants to get service and at tent ion from mom. The getter theme is chosen because of the at tent ion from the new green b a l l e t dress with mom watching. The secondary themes are being l i k e d and a part of the group and v ic t im which is kind of thrown in without any reasons. 129 T l on subject 10: F i r s t ER: Others are g ivers , doers and concerned with me or are l i k e me. The world is a sensual place of images and beaut i fu l co lors or aes thet i c s . I am . a student or learner and need to know-an image maker. Second ER: Others are worthy of my r i sk tak ing . The world is a t e r r i f y i n g place and I am alone and I run from danger and feel helpless or defenseless . Third ER: Others ought to focus on me always. They should give to me and they are the workers. The world i s a comfortable place and f u l l of goodies. I play helpless and use tears to get others to focus on me. The baby theme is chosen due to the helpless and dependent stance with the tendancy to play crybaby. T2 on subject 10: L i f e is f u l l of new th ings . There are new s i tua t ions to be deal t with and i t is d i f f i c u l t to adjust to t h i s . I cope by seeking others reassurance and by f i t t i n g i n . This doesn't seem to f i t into any category. Poss ibly to be l i k e d because in the f i r s t ER she f e l t apprehension and the new dress l i k e the others helped her f i t in and others would approve. When she was chased by the dog there was no one there to reassure her . It was very fr ightening and r e a l l y d i f f e r e n t . In the new bed scene she wanted at tent ion 130 and wanted mom to tuck her in and to reassure her. She wants reassurance and i t is scary when i t is not g iven. T3 on subject 10: I fee l nervous everytime I am on unfamil iar ground and t e r r i f i e d when threats come up so I need to run away to mom. Mom is important to me. I want her to be with me and do things for me and I fee l good with her and safe. 

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