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Exploratory study on the process of early recollection interpretation Carlin, Richard Michael 1985

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EXPLORATORY STUDY ON THE PROCESS OF EARLY RECOLLECTION INTERPRETATION  by RICHARD M. CARLIN B. A . , M.A.,  Mi'ami U n i v e r s i t y , Miami U n i v e r s i t y ,  Oxford, Oxford,  Ohio, Ohio,  1967 1969  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department  of C o u n s e l l i n g  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as to the  reguired  Psychology)  conforming  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, ©  1985  Richard Michael C a r l i n ,  1985  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may department or by h i s o r her  be granted by the head o f representatives.  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T  DE-6  (3/81)  1Y3  written  ABSTRACT  T h i s study explored the reasoning process of d u r i n g the process of e a r l y and  recollection  i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c e n t r a l  Mosak's typology collected  system  (1971).  ERs  (ER)  interpreters  interpretation,  life  style  theme  from  ten s u b j e c t s  using a g u e s t i o n n a i r e format and d i s t r i b u t e d  interpreters. interpretation interpretation requested  Three  interpreters  and three r e c e i v e d prior  to record  to  were  experienced  in  two hours of t r a i n i n g  the study.  a  primary  and  secondary  outcome, and the r e l i a b i l i t y style that  provided  the  perceptual the  same  metaphor system.  theme  skill  the e f f e c t  theme  from in  trainees  with  ER  or  an  by  interpreter  interpretation  an  ability  study  seem to on the  agreement  The  results  immediately the  but i t d i d not g i v e  them  the experienced  S i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s  ii  style  each  identify  understanding  c l i n i c i a n s and the t r a i n e e s  to  and to  of t h i s  of i n t e r - j u d g e  interpretation.  of the s u b j e c t s  possessed  analysis  of  ER  training  schema  were  to  i n f o r m a t i o n about the cues found i n ERs that  final  showed  style  The r e s u l t s  interpreters,  life  i n ER.  A l l interpreters  life  guide  on  ER  t h e i r impressions and thoughts d u r i n g the  s u b j e c t using Mosak's t y p o l o g i e s . provided  were  to s i x  i n t e r p r e t i v e process on audio tape f o r l a t e r a n a l y s i s , assign  using  clinicians in  of Mosak's  typology  between the experienced  were analyzed.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  T i t l e Page  i  Abstract  ii  Table of Contents List  i i i  of Tables  vii  Acknowledgements  viii  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  1  Background and R a t i o n a l e  II  f o r Study  ....  1  Purpose of Study  3  S i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s Study  4  D e f i n i t i o n of Terms  5  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  7  Background to ERs  7  P r o j e c t i v e Techniques Contrast to Psychometric Studies P r o j e c t i v e Theory V a l i d a t i o n Studies  8  The Role of ERs i n l i f e s t y l e Analysis D e f i n i t i o n of L i f e S t y l e O r i g i n of L i f e S t y l e Private Logic i n L i f e Style L i f e Style Analysis Value of ER I n t e r p r e t a t i o n to L i f e S t y l e A n a l y s i s L i f e S t y l e Themes Process of ER I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Techniques f o r o b t a i n i n g ERs Approaches to I n t e r p r e t a t i o n T r a i n i n g Techniques  iii  8 9 11 16 16 17 17 18 19 19 21 21 21 23  III  METHODOLOGY  25  Design of  the Study  Subjects  25  Instrumentation  26  Interpretation  IV  25  Procedure  D e s c r i p t i o n of I n t e r p r e t e r s Experienced C l i n i c i a n s Trainees  27 27 27  Data C o l l e c t i o n Procedures Subjects  29 29  Data A n a l y s i s  29  RESULTS  33  T r a n s c r i p t Comparison of Anecdotal Comments by the I n t e r p r e t e r s Summary of Common P e r c e p t i o n s I n t e r p r e t a t i o n S t y l e of Interpreters Reasoning process used by the I n t e r p r e t e r s D i f f e r e n c e between C l i n i c i a n s and T r a i n e e s in S k i l l L e v e l I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of C e n t r a l L i f e S t y l e Theme R e l i a b i l i t y of Using ERs to I d e n t i f y C e n t r a l Theme Sources of V a r i a b i l i t y between Clinicians Problems a s s o c i a t e d with L i f e Style Typologies The T r a i n i n g Procedure i n ER Interpretation V  26  DISCUSSION,  LIMITATIONS,  33 36 37 40 41 43 -43 48 49 51  RECOMMENDATIONS  AND CONCLUSIONS  56  D i s c u s s i o n of R e s u l t s T r a n s c r i p t Comparison of iv  56  Anecdotal Comments Summary of Common Perceptions I n t e r p r e t a t i o n S t y l e of Interpreters Reasoning Process used by the I n t e r p r e t e r s C o n t r a s t of S k i l l L e v e l between C l i n i c i a n s and T r a i n e e s I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of C e n t r a l LS Theme . . . R e l i a b i l i t y of Using ERs to I d e n t i f y C e n t r a l Theme Sources of V a r i a b i l i t y between Clinicians Problems a s s o c i a t e d with L i f e Style Typologies I m p l i c a t i o n s for the T r a i n i n g Procedure i n ER I n t e r p r e t a t i o n L i m i t a t i o n s and Recommendations for Future Research Limitations Recommendations for Future Research Implications  and C o n c l u s i o n s  56 56 57 57 58 58 58 60 62 63 64 64 65 67  FOOTNOTES  69  BIBLIOGRAPHY  70  APPENDIX 1 ER Q u e s t i o n n a i r e APPENDIX 2 Completed ER Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  78 82  APPENDIX 3 L i f e s t y l e by Harold H. Mosak  92  APPENDIX 4 Instructions  98  to ER I n t e r p r e t e r s  APPENDIX 5 O u t l i n e of the T r a i n i n g Program APPENDIX 5A  v  99  Revised T r a i n i n g Program APPENDIX 6 T r a n s c r i p t of  Interpreter  vi  102 Comments  105  LIST OF TABLES  TABLE 1  Page Summary Table - Common I n t e r p r e t e r Perceptions  36  2  Identified  Life  Style  3  C o r r e l a t i o n of Primary LS Theme  45  4  Adjusted T r a i n e e s  46  5  Weighted L i f e  6  Extent of Theme Use  Style  Themes  Theme Choices  44  47 50  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I  Wish  to  express  committee,  Dr.  Bob  committee,  Drs.  my g r a t i t u d e  Armstrong,  Larry  Cochran  a s s i s t a n c e and guidance  in t h i s  I am a d d i t i o n a l l y g r a t e f u l Armstrong,  Ken Neale,  volunteered  their  and and  to to  and  of  thanks  chairman  the  Norm  members  Amundson  of of  my the  for  their  project. to Tom Beames,  Maryanne Hansen,  time  the  labor  in  goes  to  and  Edna Nash,  Bob  Anne Chusid  who  assisting  with  this  research. A special always writing  vote  supportive this  and  helpful  thesis.  viii  during  my wife  Joi  the  hours  long  who  was  spent  1 CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  BACKGROUND AND The  focus  early  RATIONALE FOR of t h i s  study  recollections  introduction  STUDY i s the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  as  a  therapeutic  to the p r o j e c t ,  recollection,  and  a  a definition  summary  of  the  and use o f  tool.  As  o f t h e term  available  an early  literature  follows. A u n i q u e and f a s c i n a t i n g how  people  around  perceive  them  and  i s gained  childhood  memories.  generally  defined  events to  which  established from  1967). often is  from  stories  told  before  reports  to  has o t h e r an  selectively  one  recalled  of past  by  occurred situations,  during  from early  feelings  presently  views  memories  of  single  They  recurring or  a r e not  episodes  others  associated  but  countless  and  one other  It  behaviors  himself  (ERs) a r e  or  (Dreikurs,  image t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l and  life.  or  early  e v e n t s w h i c h a r e memories  parents  memory  individuals  of t h e i r  t h e age o f e i g h t .  expressions  accidental  and  recollections  continually  sensory  chosen  the world  early  vividly  either  to the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  The ER must have a v i s u a l  not  person  from  as  with  interpret  These  occurred  be c o n f u s e d  approach  with  which  it.  It  has  been  experiences  that  serves  consistant the world  to with  emphasize how  (Adler,  the  1958;  2  Kelly,  1 9 6 3 ; Mayman,  1968; Mosak,  serves  as  to  comfort  value use  style  degree  obtained  Rorschach, (Kadis,  McCarter, results  showed  attempts  by  1965,  predictors  from  which  he/she  turn  develops  into  then a  Life  the  operating  a  person's  1968;  1961;  the  or v e r i f i e d  the  Langs,  an  by  &  Der,  The  Further yielded  but  poor  ( J a c k s o n and Nelson  individual's  The  personality  1982)  1965).  and  devices  o f ERs of  as  1957;  1965).  chance.  validity  an a p p e r c e p t i v e  style.  such  t h e ERs a n d o t h e r  or psychopathology  indicates  life  tested  Lieberman,  predictors  Kopp  examined  techniques  1952;  1964; H e d v i g ,  forms  efforts  Wechsler-Bellevue,  expected  good  aspects of  of studies  projective  between  behavior  ER  style.  form  correlated  Freedman,  are  Mayman,  an  later  A number  that  1962; F e r g u s o n , that  1931),  the p r e d i c t i v e  ERs  from  on t h e t a n g i b l e  Schiffman,  than  of actual  Sechrest, believes  and  to e s t a b l i s h  of  which  Bender-Gestalt,  correlations  results.  (Langs,  focused  o f ERs.  and  greater  life  derives  life.  Crook,  Green,  t h e ER  I t provides  Psychology  attitudes  accepted  TAT,  way  action.  description  interpretations  Tomkins,  were  mixed  ER  to  individual's  a  research  nature  In t h i s  individual.  the person  an  and  1901;  the  Adlerian  as  toward  initial  to which  others  that  defined  (Potwin,  results  in  beliefs,  projective  the  ERs  orientation  While  the  or d i r e c t s  of  be  strategies,  memory  orient  in formulating  can  basic  compass  or s o l i c e  The their  a  1958).  (1981)  expectancies  schema  ER, t h e r e f o r e ,  which i n shows  a  3  person's  attitude  rather  than  their  action  in  a  given  situation. The Adler  relationship (1958)  but  demonstrated through  ER  levels.  further  studies  of  salient  inter-judge  this  Fakouri,  the in  methods  by  Mosak  ER  by  (1964).  style  was  She  formations better  than  suggested  that  and  clarification  content  take  place  style  studies to  used  to  of  further  PURPOSE  OF  STUDY purposes  and  of  three  said  to  make  life  tested  the  to  have  a  into  examined technique  judges  subject  in  contain  by of  agreed  on  41  of  out  sufficient  style  decisions.  relationship  of  style. describes 1982;  acrual  study  of  the  were  life  instruct  out  and  for  (Rogers,  The  (1971)  types  literature  1984).  information  Using  two  clinicians  validity  style  (1979).  allow  system  general  life  "types"  need  The  i t  the  of  Mosak  current ER  life  reliability  of  where  life  other  typology  examining &  13  to  no  The  al.  agreement  information date,  inter-judge  et  the  Ferguson  posited  significantly  conclusion  described  Mosak's  cases,  the  at  was  .  was  Magner-Harris  To  In  style  until  agreement  of  life  in deriving  organization  typologies  60  to  researched  reliability  1964)  The  of  ERs  characteristics  (Ferguson,  one  not  inter-judge  chance  of  ER  Kopp  further & Der,  1982;  studies Hafner  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n process  individuals in  this  process  and are  elucidation.  this  research  were  to  discover  4 the  reasoning  the  process  that  occurs  types  of  central  life  identified  by  interpreters,  d u r i n g ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ,  style  themes  and  the  that  would  effectiveness  be  of  a  t r a i n i n g program in ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Specifically, answer 1.  the  questions  this  study  attempted  to  were:  Do i n t e r p r e t e r s  perceive  common ideas  from cues  found  in  the ERs? 2.  What i s  the  how does  i n t e r p r e t i v e process  the  resoning  compare amongst 3.  Is  there  any  individual's 4.  How do the  used  in  ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  interpreters? reliability  life  style  in  those of  the  effectiveness  using  ERs to  theme using Mosak's  interpretations  compare to the  process  used by i n t e r p r e t e r s and  of  the  trainees  of  a  as  identify  an  typologies?  experienced  clinicians  a means  examining  training  of  program  in  ER  interpretation? SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS STUDY This as  study  has  counsellors,  research  psychologists,  community.  using  ERs as  study  will  through  significance  It  is  social  tool,  assistance  identification  perceptual  skills  which  analysis.  Additionally,  as  workers,  most those  that  the  in  well  are to  both p r a c t i t i o n e r s ,  expected  a therapeutic  provide  for  for  and  from  interpretation  clarification important  for  contemplating  the  interpreters  information  the  as  etc.,  such  of  this phase those  successful training  in  5 ER  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a sense  will  c a n and c a n n o t  be  expected  be h e l p f u l . The  author  interested evidence  hopes  in  the  provided  and  additional  will  be  above  the  research  information  further  community  and  validating  research  study  will  expects  inter-judge  involving  is different  the following  to  that  Mosak's  that  be the  reliability  typology  system  appreciated.  This in  o f what  document  and  methodology  used  life  types  style  ways:  researched;  the rest  attempt  compare  of the  has been  interpreters'  derived  interpretations  from  the and  to that  ERs  training  has  comparison  of  of experienced  previously  perceptions  not  of  literature  made  t o i n t e r p r e t ERs; i n t e r - j u d g e  and  effectiveness  No  from  reliability been  in  approaches  clinicians  of  previously  counsellors their  and  ER and  has n o t been  studied. DEFINITION Each some  these  conceptual  Early  a  (ER):  single  in this is  construct,  specifically  recollection of a  i s used  distinction  or  as i t r e l a t e s  memory  terms  An  event  made  and to this  study.  For  between  the  the  operational  research.  individual's  which  occurred  vividly  before  the  of eight. Life  of  items,  definition,  definition  age  TERMS  of the following  of  recalled  OF  life  style  ( L S ) : An  movement.  This  individual's characteristic  movement  accounts  f o r the  pattern  consistancy  6 and  directionality  nonverbal  have  style  type:  which  been  pure not  individual's  life may  style be  characterized  life  although  A  behavior  self-defeating Each  the  observed  verbal  and  behavior.  Life through  of  style  type  i t i s not  form  in  most  descriptions Trainees:  background psychology  distinct  expected  that  actual  but  A  central  number  (1971)  from  goals,  and  defining would  They  are  theme  of  these  several behaviors.  characteristics be  found  heuristic  in  such  devices  people.  Counsellors at  the  they  individuals.  of  of  Mosak  beliefs,  has  is  understood.  by  attitudes,  type  possessing  least  one  with  an  basic  no  M.A.  degree  course  specific  in  training  with  Adlerian in  ER  interpretation. Experienced or  Ph.D.  approved  degree,  Inter-judge  and  who  the  Adlerian  thoroughly using  this  Agreement  in  possessing  by  selecting  the  series  of  Institute familiar  technigue at  least  same  LS  in two  theme  an  M.A.  (an  APA  with  ER  therapy. out from  of a  ERs.  representing  validated  are  agreement:  Private  an  Counsellors by  currently  interpreters  subjects'  of  accredited  school),  interpretation  three  clinicians:  logic: the  significant  individual. but  A  rather  They  personal are  privately  not  held  biased values  apperceptions and  usually  convictions consensually  c o n v i c t i o n s about  life.  7  CHAPTER II  REVIEW OF LITERATURE  The four  l i t e r a t u r e relevant general  techniques,  areas:  the  interpretation  role  to  this  study  Background  of  is  to  ERs i n l i f e  classified ERs,  style  into  projective  analysis,  and  the  process.  BACKGROUND TO ERS The  first  occurred 1895,  around the  and H e n r i ,  descriptive of  mention of ERs i n the  the  turn  1898).  the  Early  in nature,  recollection,  of  until  century  occupied with affective  later  both  Sigmund  differed  on  represented  Freud  its  (Mosak,  The  the  and  the  age  memory and  tool  recognized  was  Adler,  recognized  although  were  cover  form  up  is  not  traumatic  were  important  thoughts. selected  (Freud,  the  Adler, to  1925;  1938).  incidents  content as  theorized  they  a screen whereby c e r t a i n repressed c o n f l i c t s  repressed  memories  of  the  ERs  to  Freud  primarily  1958).  This  Alfred  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of manifest  screen  were  Henri  that  thought  perspective  1899;  that e a r l y memories were  meaning.  r e v e a l e d but in d i s g u i s e d were  literature  characterizing  character  as being a powerful c l i n i c a l t o o l . by  (Hall,  investigations  other aspects of memory content It wasn't  psychological  the  past.  in ERs from a Freudian memories  however,  reveal,  of  Memories  not  only  serve  postulated hide,  to that  significant  8 personal  guidelines.  They served  as  reminders of i n d i v i d u a l  l i m i t s and the meaning of circumstances The  interpretation  perspective  is  understanding According most  to  of  not  an  only  content  significant  individual's  Ansbacher  outstanding  manifest  (Adler,1931).  (1973 ),  and u s e f u l  from  but  fundamental ERs are  technique  Adler's  primary  view  of  considered  to life.  to be  in A d l e r i a n  the  psychology  today. PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES C o n t r a s t to psychometric s t u d i e s . is  one  which  assigns  a  relatively  A projective unstructured  individual  and thereby permits an almost  responses  (Anastasi,  provide  a global  ie,  which  one  personality, covert,  quite  which  provide  norms,  toward  tasks  two  evaluation  of  results,  ability.  Procedures  the  of  effective  an  used  to  personality; of  the  in  tend  individual.  estimates styles  of  tend scoring,  whole  revealing  sought  In  to  return  single to  present  aspects differ  and the  scoring,  v a l i d a t i o n of which  everyone  they of in  adequacy  Psychometric t e s t s  objective  and c r i t i c a l are  are  picture  procedures  and v a l i d i t y .  questions,  to  attitudes.  administration,  reliability,  structured  to  typically  composite  task  u n l i m i t e d v a r i e t y of  appraisal  especially  numerical  The  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of of  is  a  psychometric  structured  performance.  on  the  or unconscious  contrast,  typically  They  approach to  focuses  latent,  In  1976).  technique  tend  statistical predictive can  use  9  equally  well  (Cronbach,  Projective sensitive  tests  ,  devices  and  procedure.  In  lower  of  psychometric  level  of  a  tools.  They  of  not  a the  truly  serve  the  Theory  hands  as of  (Cronbach  are  of  This  a  is  &  "wide-band"  information  viewed  specific  be  584).  range  are  more  in  techniques  wider  which  producing  in  with  contrast  as  a to  "narrow-band"  information  at  a  high  dependability.  by  suggesting  p.  586).  They  cannot  The  personality  as  dynamic  seguential  the  fundamental  to  relatively  associated  (1948)  in  according  responses  and  view  in  decisions  exploration"(Anastasi,  evaluated  technigues  significant  best  further  be  theory.  "...individual  hypotheses  for  "serve  same  terms  1976,  as  usual  instruments.  Projective projective  technigues leads  psychometric  a  are  aids  to  success  techniques  p.  dependability.  tests  Projective  in  yield  clinician  the  Information  projective  They  level  1976,  from  the  insure  clinical  (Anastasi,  concept  1965),  procedures  are  on  qualitative interviewing  the  procedures.  to  "projective  tney  clinician"  Gleser,  strongly  artist  truth,  rather  Using  rely  skillful  supplementary skilled  1960).  with  theory.  that  " We  process,  the  maintaining  (1976)  stimuli  techniques  strongly  therefore  of  look  and  are  indicated upon  the  defending  by  a l l is  reflect  attributes"(p.584).  projective is  Anastasi  ambiguous  enduring  This may  to  assumption  The  embedded Frank's  personality  that  'private  10 world'  wherein he  further  stating  lives"  "...the  (p.8).  He e l a b o r a t e s  individual  position  organizes experience  twists,  event,  and person i n t o the framework of h i s p r i v a t e w o r l d . . . "  is  It  is  elucidated  this  and otherwise  private  through  fits  every  as he  warps,  (p.15).  distorts,  his  situation,  uncommunicated p e r s p e c t i v e  the  interpretation  of  that  projective  devices. Every memory, however that  it  contains  experience meaning Adler,  the  are  outlook  crystallized  to  this  of  remember  possible those  are:  basic  unaware of reflect et  al,  which  1965).  Early  They  completely by  an  event  or  but  for  its  according  an  in which he/she 1958).  his/her  From  first  all  the  only chooses  general  (Dreikurs,  to  individual's  and  still  1953).  projective  technigues  i s u n s t r u c t u r e d and t h e r e f o r e open to the of  individual  his  answers;  typically and the  and r e l a t i v e l y enduring a t t r i b u t e s  technique  only  is  itself  depict  supporting  implications  projective  influenced  important i n  an i n d i v i d u a l  into  interpretation; the  They  of the world  is  memories,  (Adler,  fit  hypotheses  significant  are  Early  experiences  It  for  circumstances  The task assigned  individual  much  useful.-  attitude  current perspective The  so  individual.  ana tne  i t may be,  memorable.  not  especially  on l i f e  thousands  something  remembered  to  trivial  recollections as  they  fulfill  unstructured the  can the  since  individual's  be  treated above the  perceptual  is  answers (Zubin as  a  criteria. memory  is  framework  11  which  selects  importance meaning life"  (Mosak,  of  their  and  their  can  be  researched  such  the  use  10  and  TAT  ERs the  from  characteristics  described  girls'  added  for  ERs  both  results This  not  to  characteristics indicate  procedure  enhancing does  were  the  that may  ERs  by  for  establish  of the  the  TAT  accepted,  ERs  They  were  were  Freedman  to  another  Test  (TAT) .  of  teachers.  of  correct  ERs but  concurrent  as the  of  "persuing then  authors  not  (1952)  with  a  20 a  matched the  two  When  the  matchings  state  i n t e g r a t e TAT  use  the  (1955)  each  The  and  the  be  judges  protocols,  clarify  effectiveness  directly  Three  increased.  that  descriptions  girls'  TAT  establish  and  respect  girl the  the  1980;  technique.  teacher's  each  ERs  Barrett,  Apperception  elders".  that  of  been  conjunction  with  part  of  has  can  Monroe  Green,  Thematic  obtaining  to  to  in  a  extent  techniques.  females  "relating  the  the  "facts  view  1947;  projective  Kadis,  of  school  stories  a  as  attributes  To  According  until  involved  high  be  as  them The  (Ansbacher,  projective  technique,  study  private  the  as  projective  to  personal  recognize  them  p r o j e c t i v e technigues  studies.  of  take  relate  enduring  of  rarely  1958).  1982).  underlying considered  first  examined  and  Warren,  Validation  to  (Adler,  substantiated  assumptions  They  willing  history  1963;  task,"  are  memories  Individuals  memories.  significant  Hedvig,  Their  1958).  early  personal  tentatively  the  reconstructs  therefore  reflect  ERs  and  these  material. means  of  methodology  validity  of  the  ER  12  itself. also  The  fact  diminishes Lieberman  eleven  the  presence the  of  type  based  of  on  reports  other  more  agreement  on  ERs.  House-Tree-Person ERs  alone  obtained  from  more  in  Her  the  context.  degree  their  results in  ERs  showed relation  psychological  battery  test  as  battery  study  and the to  to  the  consisted  of  the  type  consuming  of  compared  and  tentatively  the  and  reports  Bender-Gestalt,  provide  time  in  girl  psychotic the  disagreement  This  rapidly  eleven  revealed  each  in this  compared  Rorschach,  may  from  ERs  of  data.  test  drawings.  used  using  She  than  The  was  sample  revealed  Wechsler-Bellevue,  that  a  material  projective  based  of  projective  material  the  ER  females.  between  in  one  studied  non-psychotic  found  only  reliability  (1957)  correspondence that  that  of  suggests  data  extensive  that  is  projective  technigues. A was  further  reported  (1961). predict  the  the  a  Test  authors  on  validate by  examined  1  s  are  a  of of  ER the  The  that  valid  however,  used  projective  technigue,  the  researched  in  itself.  number  only  of  one  which  use  and  of  Tomkins-Horn  better PAT  showed than  ER  per  has  not  a  number  chance  and as  appraisal.  subject been  to  Picture  performance  personality  ERs  Schiffman  characteristics  results  using  method  PAT,  projective Tomkins,  significantly  concluded  ER  use  scales.  were  the  McCarter,  the a  (PAT)  predictions  study  tc  study  performance  criterion, This  in  They  Arrangement of  attempt  and  a  thoroughly  13  Similarly, assumption current  Jackson  that  ERs  of  neurotic  behavior.  In  patients  and a  brief, give  have  obvious  memories  results  were  predictive in  a l l  memories  fear,  and  sense, the  but  will  to  anxiety  did  validate  demonstrate  hypotheses  except  the  a  depressed  strong  will  have  ERs  sufferers  will  distress.  The  use  degree  for  overt  recall  gastro-intestinal  insufficient  their  abandonment,  gastro-intestinal  concerning  to  that  of  from  the  current  hypothesized  suffering  tested  correlate  reflect  patients  patients  (1962)  should  i.e.  they  obsessive-compulsive  showing  patient  symptoms;  will  prohibitions,  Sechrest  of of  ERs  in  a  correlation  obsessive-compulsive  patients.  by  The  predictive  Langs  (1965).  prescribed  method  variables the  value  from  and  compared  selected  showed  personality  from  Langs  lies  in  not  the  confirmation, strongly memory  (1965)  but  and  that  the that  predictive  personality"  (p.389).  of,  also  men  were  to  a  "the  general  and This  the  greater  findings,  the  scored  main which  has was  a  study to  TAT,  Rorschach,  autobiography. ER  variables  than  that  thesis must  broad  a  personality  be  The  and  the  expected  of  this  of  to  appears  the  relationship  quantitative  by  report  subjected  (which  content  a  a  76  hypothesis  manifest  in  according  on  interview,  subject's  were  explored  ratings  between  states,  in  was  personal  specific  confirmed) is  48  correlations  variables  chance.  Ers  ERs  Wechsler-Bellevue,  results  of  first to, study  14  utilizing  773  What is  their  the  ER  predictions  the  three  reliance raw  Lieberman specific  cues  results  of  whether  a  formulate  The of  being  the  subjects.  by  clinicians  to d e r i v e  study  There Three  summaries  for  diagnosis. able  to  than  that In  were  a  of  a  later  51  adjustment  extent.  The  a  utilized of  do  by  themes  and  not  The  indicate  judgement  of  from  of  tested  can  clinicians  two  validity  of  using  from  Psychotics,  ERs  none  of  psychopathology  ER  The  first  each  of  Neurotics,  wrote  their  that  diagnoses  of  ERs  out and  at  life then  the a  to  hypotheses:  formulations.  number  showed  d i a g n o s i s of  to  interpretation.  ability  independently  results  applied  formulating valid  style  each  subject  common  30 and  style made  a  judges  were  better  rate  chance.  reached.  diagnose  ER  she  in  life  ten  judges  each  The  make  were  approach  positive,  the  the  obtained  systems  diagnostic  when  and  in  diagnosis.  investigated  judgements  Normals.  or  differential  (1964)  ERs  a  have  evaluation  while  interpretations of  clinician  former,  psychopathology,  part  the  overall  valid  of  to  making  studies  scoring  i n an  diagnostic use  or  opposed  clinician a  quoted  codes  where  intercorrelations.  resulted  the  Ferguson make  as,  (1957),  4,560  previously upon  data  and  study  by  Three  elementary reaction, combined  Hedvig  (1965),  Adlerian and  clinicians  high  conduct results  similar  school  were  students  d i s t u r b a n c e to of  the  three  conclusions able  as  only  to  neurotic a  limited  clinicians  were  15 significantly  better  than  that  expected  by  i n d i v i d u a l l y they d i f f e r e d widely i n d i a g n o s t i c suggested  that the d i a g n o s t i c a b i l i t y  upon the a b i l i t y  chance,  but  ability.  She  appears to be dependent  of the i n d i v i d u a l c l i n i c i a n .  To date, the p r e d i c t i v e use of ERs to a c c u r a t e l y psychopathology by  the  fact  behaviors  appears q u e s t i o n a b l e . that  ERs  (Dreikurs,  an i n d i v i d u a l l i f e  given  life  conditions 1929;  that  Dreikurs, The  second  with  leads  style. a  i s accounted f o r  attitudes  and  1958).  These  1967; Mosak,  create  style  reflect  This  diagnose  not  overt  attitudes  I t i s the i n t e r a c t i o n of a  s e t of  stressful  to manifest  environmental  psychopathology  (Adler,  1950). hypothesis  tested  the use of ERs i n d e r i v i n g l i f e  by Ferguson  (1964) examined  s t y l e formulations.  of s t u d i e s have c o r r e l a t e d ERs to v a r i o u s  A number  personality  traits  (Langs, 1965; Mayman, 1968; Mosak, 1968; Verger & Camp, 1970; Warren, the  1982; Kopp. & Der, 1982),  existance  analysis. written  of  Seven  inter-judge clinicians  by the judges  original  ER p r o t o c o l s  subjects.  The number  but only  Ferguson  reliability  in  matched I  of p a r t obtained  life  from  of matchings  life  style  (see previous  examined style  summaries  page)  to the  10 of the o r i g i n a l (14 sets)  30  resulted in  s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than chance accuracy.  Since  clinicians  and 3 Freudians)  and  were non-Adlerians  unfamiliar  substantiates  with  this  (2 e c l e c t i c s  f i v e of the  use of ERs, Ferguson b e l i e v e s  the idea that  life  this  s t y l e summaries based on ERs  16 are  reliably  workers. is  communicable  In  conclusion,  necessary  regarding  formulations of  her  derived  to  a  given This  of  life  is  ERs  to  expressed coding and  not  THE  the  a l l  on  life  ROLE  OF  style ERs  Definition  IN  of  been  described  1953;  Shulman,  ER"  that  of  professional  "additional  reliability  (Ferguson,  that  study  further  of  1964,  study  study  life,  style  p.410).  i s needed  characteristics  which  of  researched  encompassing Recent  of  ERs  research  (Kopp  use  aspect  ER  One  in  the  that  lead  &  of  descriptions LIFE  STYLE  to  theorists  1 9 7 3 ; Mosak,  style  focused  to  use  the 1983)  life  the  be  on  Barrett,  derive  as  style  of  ER  to  necessary.  ANALYSIS  Style. Adler's  many  life  1982; to  seems  1  has  Der,  ERs  the r e l a t i o n s h i p of  investigations related  Life by  range  formulation.  clinician  Further  wide  suggests  salient  Adler.  scoring  analysis.  is  style only  She  from  the  the  by  and  produce  of  a  inter-judge  recommendations  clarification  to  1977).  theory  of  (Adler,  life  style  1958;  Ansbacher  has  Dreikurs,  (1978)  says  i t  represents,. "...The o r g a n i s m i c i d e a s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l as an a c t o r r a t h e r than a r e a c t o r ; of the p u r p o s i v e n e s s , goal-directedness, u n i t y , s e l f - c o n s i s t e n c y , and u n i g u e n e s s o f t h e individual; and o f t h e u l t i m a t e l y s u b j e c t i v e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of h i s actions" (p.l). For  Adler,  genetics proposed than  the  man and  by sum  was  far  more  environment. Smuts of  (1926), its  complex This  states  parts.  than  the  holistic that  This  the view  composite theory,  whole led  to  is  of  first greater  the  name  17 Individual man,  Psychology,  who  is  mental  more  and  1967,  than  moment with  emotional  of  of  life  birth  how  1971).  he  sum  total  faculties  These  seeks  to  emerges social  style.  a  child  early  indivisibility  of  and  This  belong  and  a l l his  of  physical,  functions"  individual  and  Part  uniqueness  holds  about  Private subjective  personal  life  style  line  with  world  Logic  of  (Dreikurs,  convictions  which  these  that  from  in  plan  which  concepts  the  family  individual for  matures and  living in  (Dreikurs,  ability and  to  the  1953).  establish  beliefs  the  operating  characterizes  does  the  (Pepper,  the  scheme  the  accordance  world  beliefs  he  which  his he  himself. style. of  As life is  value  the  child  events, self  apperception; and  the  his  life  develops  process  selective  feels  i n which  is his  interpretations This  group  of  that  place within  man  and  in l i f e  take  This  out  and  perceives  first  everything  the  created.  continued  and  through  and  the  in  postulated  thinks,  1973).  strategies  goals  acts,  i s the  (Sonstegard,  the  is  observations  environment  of  It  experiences  environment.  is  the  "...the  p.5).  Origin  own  indicating  a  continued  "private  reinforcing  that  systems  makes  is,  through  where  constantly  logic"  strong  bias  new  exper i e n c e s . "The p r i v a t e l o g i c w h i c h e a c h p e r s o n e v o l v e s a p p e a r s t o j u s t i f y h i s m i s t a k e n b e h a v i o r , and p r e v e n t s him f r o m s e e i n g t h a t m o s t o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s and d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s i n h i s l i f e are the l o g i c a l consequences of mistakes i n h i s l i f e plan"  (Dreikurs,  1953,  p.45).  18  Adler world  proposed  left  their  surroundings. overcoming  used  each  by  Life  vivo  behavior,  interpretation  perceive  style.  individual's  theory  of  of  of  inferiority.  life  family  behavior  style  the  inferior to  The  to  strive  approach  analysis  always  observation  constellation  appears,  and  themes a  of  data,  in and  (1978), upon  the  "birds  (Shulman,  counsellor  patterns  hence  convey  the  the  the  state"  the  that  denote  the  occur  the  essence  to  life  of  the  goal.  i t is  provides  allows  response  logic  toward  to Gushurst  i t s nascent  way  motivation  investigation:  private  However,  which  some  a basic  complete  recurrent  movement  constellation ordinary.  A  re-occurring  According  in  of  of e a r l y r e c o l l e c t i o n s .  the  These  caused  summary  client's to  feeling  perception  i s unigue.  areas a  subjective  perceived  observation a  congruent  the  analysis.  three  Direct  This  individual  style  comprises  this  a l l individuals  towards  in  that  information surface,  integration eye  view  in a  to  be  through  of  the  family guite  Adlerian  personality  1962).  "A l i f e s t y l e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n i t i a l l y f o c u s e s on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n s t e l l a t i o n by e x a m i n i n g t h e e x t e n t to which such f a c t o r s as b i r t h order, s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s , and p a r e n t a l v a l u e s and a c t i t u d e s i n f l u e n c e p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t " ( E c k s t e i n e t a l . , 1981, p.28) Once family his  ERs  the developing  constellation, the  environment i t is  conclusions  he  i s understood  possible drew  under  to  through  "...determine  those  the from  circumstances"  19  (Dreikurs,  1967,  individual's The value  current  value of  of  ER  comparing  the  outlook  ERs  to  a  more  through some  others.  the  ER  developed early  the  childhood  experiences.  They  errors:  simplification,  for  whole  the  recognized the  client,  different Life is  the  are-  result  that  s t y l e .is  termed  social  cooperation, equality,  is  to  logic  and  identify  has  created  conclusions one and  Once  portray  themes. the  One  means  of  use  of  LS  represent  groupings  of  probable  associated  with  structure  contradicts  uniqueness  of  exist  of  of  3  elements  on  types  of  a  part  have  been  perceptual  revealed  using  a  that  based  mistaking  the  an to  misconceptions  typify  1973).  in or  social  private  from  reality  as  task  exaggeration  ER  life  such  The  reality  number  of  techniques.  style  through  the  a  the  comes  exhibited  social  others,  often  (Shulman,  within  logic  concepts  These  ERs,  analysis.  analysis  collectively  client's  as  style  style  clinician's  mistakes".  in  life  private  for  the  obtained.  objective  with  The  where  "basic  is  life  norms,  associated  in  life  or  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , respect  interest  of  to  system  These  are  on  interpreting  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to  belief  norms.  interest, self  ER  Through  interpretation  individual's social  p.58).  between  different  the  life  the  individual,  individual  life  organizing  themes  or  Adlerian  While  of any  has  that been  These behavior  taxonomic  assumption  notion  styles  information  typologies.  selections  styles.  the  LS  of  the  similarities posited  by  20  different 1973).  authors These  (Ansbacher  typologies  described  by  has  "Mosak's  been  (Mosak, own  Mosak  1971)  that  words,  devices",  as  Kefir  a  and  the  and  "Mosak's  describes  14  types"  valuable  to  research  which  Adlerian  psychology.  This  Riordan,  Kern,  Curlett^  attention. as  scheme.  (1979)  in  out  In  his  "heuristic  are the  by  referring  book  Typologies  support  pointed  It  Nikelly's  these  to  further  (1974).  specifically,  attempts was  in  Shulman,  and  Corsini  most  classification  general,  1956; upon  described  received  (1979)  not  &  and  Ansbacher, elaborated  types"  have  Mosak  and  were  (1971) 14  &  in  seen  as  tenets  of  Magner-Harris, to  typologies,  "...the p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t y of c a t e g o r i z i n g i d i o g r a p h i c behavior i n t o n o m o t h e t i c u n i t s has t h e p o t e n t i a l o f being accomplished without damaging the t h e o r e t i c a l s p i r i t of Adlerian thought."(p.197) Their types on  study  using  agreeing 60  pool allow  Mosak's  types  contained  (LSQI). on  one  cases. of  the  of  information  Inventory  of  13  examined  The  of  Mosak s 1  13  a  Life  results 13  showed  types  conclusion types  clinicians  (excluding  in  Mosak's  Their  inter-judge  was  contains  to  decisions..."(Magner-Harris,  for  agreement Superiority)  based  Questionnaire  2  of  3  subject  in  a  that  out  "...the  Kern,  &  judges 41  out  conceptual  information  consistant  Riordan,  LS  Style  sufficient  make  on  to  life  style  Curlette,  1979,  p.200) . No typology  further system.  research A  natural  has  been  outcome  of  reported this  study  using would  this be  to  21  explore  t h e u s e o f ERs  typology  OF  ER  have  "The  for obtaining  been  outlined  1979; Kopp actual  provided  more  are  associated  nondirective  ER age  by  from  a  of  follow  from  number The  1958)  eight the  vague  of  this  of  bias  the  recollection"  ERs  as  well  The  f o r using  subjects  interviewer  as  i s done  the f e e l i n g s  need  to  for  reguest  (Dreikurs, of  only  1967).  information  obtaining  (1952)  and that  t o be p h r a s e d  in a  the  interview.  a guestionnaire 1972;  memories  to  elicit  Altman,  1973;  from  Additional given  that  the extent  during  (Rule,  to  to h i g h l i g h t  Dreikurs  (1982)  points  the This  and  by  Der  and  technique  instructions distinguish a report  and  pattern  not  o f 15 q u e s t i o n s  at various  1958;  critical  t h e memory  and  range  (Mosak,  i n s t r u c t i o n s are not  stressed  Kopp  obtaining  (1979),  section.  was  for  i s to use the i n t e r v i e w  number  a precedent  1978).  (Mosak,  a  manner  i s also  Zarski,  Mosak's  by O l s o n  do  stated  of questions.  with  upon  As  a  portion  standardized  There  upon  authors  t h e memory  details  elaborated  ERs  with  vivid  sufficient  i n the  of  provides  details  most  Instructions  number  approach  the c l i e n t  the  they  used  ideal  responds  elicit  a  the d i r e c t i o n s  The  whereby  by  ERs.  and Der, 1 9 8 2 ) .  words  that  (p.69).  then  based  INTERPRETATION  Techniques  Olson,  LS  descriptors.  PROCESS  ERs  i n determining  in  from  before  an the  instructions an  interview  setting. Approaches  t o I n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The l i t e r a t u r e  i s lacking i n  22 specific a  techniques  limited  (Mosak,  number of  1958;  1979)  this  realm to  that  much of  the  between and  Olson,  ERs  The o r d e r l i n e s s i n Mosak's  improved  (1978)  of p r e s e n t i n g  has  his  of  interpretation.  an  of  intrinsic It  and a grasp  falls of  the  theory  of  interpretive  process  interpretations  cannot  i n t e r p r e t i v e process attempts  the  importance  the  better  client  with a  This  process  further  a new v e r s i o n  different  patterns  the  deal  elaborated  construct  what  to  is  by  (1979).  for  order  to  one s k i l l .  and  emotions  emphasizes  perspective  the  substituting  realize  is  in  appears  recognition  Adlerian  the  he  (1979)  client  By  in  as  and Kopp and Der  desired  information  paper  Olson  ER.  to  the  i n a d d i t i o n to t h i s  in  on  it  described.  client  sample  Kopp and  barrier.  (1958)  issues  and  1979;  and a b i l i t i e s  there  easily  Only  techniques  While  based  The t r a n s c r i p t i o n of  this  choosing  so  of  penetrate  existing  not  complexities  easily  Willhite  is  the  of  Willhite  their  or workshop.  to  examples  number of  is  empathy  using  begins  1971;  and vocabulary,  which  personality.  Willhite  i n t e r p r e t i n g ERs.  published  interpretation  patterns  essentials  is  have  classroom  the  needed  somewhere  lost  in  r e s e r v i n g most of t h e i r e x p e r t i s e  themes,  element  authors  use  N i k e l l y and Verger,  Der,  key  and t h e i r  behaviors  originals,  and client  wants  to  avoid.  including  all  client  understand  which  the  the  he/she of  of  assists  the in  emotional the  ER  23  Kopp  &  Der  interpreting to  the  each  client  growth  action  who  interpretation mentioned  assess  An  example  Olson  (1979)  enunciate simple  such  others".  some  self-defeating his The  process It  life  as  which  technigue. found  previously  in  ERs  and  given  by  This  attempts  to  the  ER  is  unfair"  or  the  client  has  beliefs,  There the  provides  an  up  development  procedure. ERs  ER  or  and  He  is  using  "I  like  a to  identified  goals  Mosak  associated  of  no  but  have  practice  a  ERs  person"  "Life for  examples no  and  data  (p.325).  the out  Mosak,  workbook to  and  section  write  reader  ERs.  skill  encourages  Style" the  to  Olson's  practice  and  recollection first  of  the  paper.  ERs.  suggests  reader  is  published  of  summary  interpretation  i n the  meaning  current  virtually  date  examine  assign  i n the  provides a  the  (1980)  to  interpretation to  their  statements  extensive array  fail  interpretation  "  and  papers  i s addressed  in  for  Schneider,  overall  facilitating  interpret  clinicians  programs  technigues  interpretive  related  An  the  growth  to  world  these  Technigues.  to  combine  is  and  style.  which  reader  motto  attitudes,  topic  client  assessment.  of  completion,  is this  with  This  to  used  "the  different  text  memory.  the  principle  which  (1979)  an  the  by  training  separating  the  statement  method  Upon  element  Training on  a  guiding  help  with  a  is called  phrase  to  through  attitudes.  of  the  of  attempts  into  inhibiting  ER  unit  reacts  then  factors  the  with  develop  24 his/her  skill  accomplish t h i s a  program  (1981)  on  at  interpretation  goal.  Nowhere i s  ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  or Lowe and Lowe (1981)  would seem reasonable to teach  the s k i l l s  that  but there such  on l i f e  no  suggested  provided a model as  is  style  given  by  to for  Huber  assessment.  such a program should be  associated  plan  It  developed  with ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  25 CHAPTER III  METHODOLOGY  DESIGN OF THE STUDY ERs were c o l l e c t e d questionnaire The  (Rule,  completed  from 20 s u b j e c t s 1972;  Altman,  questionnaires  individual  and  each,  randomly s e l e c t e d  were  then  interpreters.  These  ten.  interpreters,  The  six  interpretive  interpreted  Mosak's  types  process  as  (1971)  they  inexperienced  comparing derived  clinicians  prior  this  the  from  arrived  tape at  to  study.  were with  choices  t r a n s c r i b i n g the  and the three  and  taped  by  the five  the  one  six  through  extensive  previous  limited  previous  classifying  them  their  using  reasoning  interpretations.  The  training  ER  received  The r e s u l t s  typology  coded  with  their  the  of  questionnaires,  recorded  examining  1978).  sex  interpretation  interpreters  interpretation as a p a r t of  and  for  for  ERs by  established  Zarski,  male  three  the  an  and  three  and  and  sorted  questionnaires  experience  experience,  1973;  were  female  using  subject  in  guestionnaires  were evaluated the  anecdotal  accounts  from  through comments  the  three  5 females  and 5  trainees.  SUBJECTS The males  subjects over  the  for age  p e r s o n a l l y known to  this  study c o n s i s t e d  of  25,  who  were  the  investigator.  of  English  speaking,  The s p e c i f i c  and  identity  26  of  each  subject  was  on  the questionnaire  protected only  through  requiring  as t o t h e sex o f t h e  information  individual.  INSTRUMENTATION In a  this  study,  modification  Altman  (1973),  instructions  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e  of  the instruments  and  Zarski  plus  recollections.  recollections  (not reports)  and  emotions; that  1970);  you  1967);  subject.  i s most  from  The  it  i s based  The  choice  than  a n d how  &  three  to  of  INTERPRETATION coded  based  Dinkmeyer,  f o r ER  early  following true  occurred  1967;  Verger  details i n the  stating  y o u were  order  which  feeling  and order  chronological  of  of  scene  at  this  #1)  accuracy  was  page  which  including  was  (1972),  only  the r e c o l l e c t i o n s  rather  vivid  those  of  the importance  of requesting  Kopp  necessary  record  the  1958; D r e i k u r s ,  importance  Rule of a  recording  only  the  six  are  requested  per  interpretation  increases  when  on a d d i t i o n a l m e m o r i e s  questionnaire  The  and  and  ERs  f o r three  stress  of  (Mosak,  them  (see Appendix  Typically  1970;  to  remember  t h e memory  moment,  the  t h e need  (Dreikurs, of  importance  t h e age o f e i g h t  Camp,  asking  instructions  The  by  It consists  the questionnaire The  to c o l l e c t  developed  (1978).  directions:  before  used  three on  ERs  (Kopp  memories  the  1975)  & Dinkmeyer, per subject  literature and  the  (Verger time  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , (see Appendix  1975).  for this &  Camp,  requirements # 2)  PROCEDURE questionnaires  were  prepared  f o r examination i n  27 the  f o l l o w i n g manner.  typed  copy  which  interpretation spelling  for  classifying  life  style  numbered paper  to  two  During to  life  style  (see  Appendix  and  for  DESCRIPTION  a l l  article  read  were  each  copy copy  #  ERs one  reguested  provided a  to  the  of  ten  Mosak's  behaviors  3).  They  were  of  each  subject  into  one  primary  Mosak's use  impressions, style  primary  of  using  life  was  probable  the  themes  process, to  life  with and  the  article. audio  tape  insights,  and  designations.  (Chicago,  audio  to  the  tape  and  is  111.),  recollections,  an  were  in  prepared  clinicians  instructions.  APA  with  this by  the  accredited  this as  the  of  recognized  knowledge  three  clinicians  relationship  Each  thorough  experienced  early the  questionnaires  distributed  (1971),  three  style.  Institute  The  The  familiar  possessing  psychology.  to  syntactical,  a a  a  the  themes.  and 14  in  styles  Appendix,  classify  Clinicians.  Adler  and  they  factor  space  life  making  INTERPRETERS  interpretation  as  4)  particular  interpretation  above  then  by  representing  tape,  (see  choosing  were  school,  themes  thoughts,  OF  as  describing  #  a  received  audio  their  Experienced  Alfred  an  as  addition,  trainee  central  process  verbalize  chosen  to  secondary  this  reasons  and  "Lifestyle",  individually,  In  p o s s i b l e secondary  questionnaires,  instructed  and  two  duplicated  a l l grammatical,  questionnaire  clinician  (1971)  related  maintained  each  each  handwriting  idiosyncracies.  and  Each  were  removed  but  and  They  area  of  explained the  Mosak  28 Trainees. to  the  The three  trainees  investigator.  Each  chosen were p e r s o n a l l y known  possessed  a  masters  degree  in  C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology from an a c c r e d i t e d u n i v e r s i t y and each was  f a m i l i a r with A d l e r i a n Psychology,  had e x t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g or experience Each r e c e i v e d ERs.  although  they  in the use of ERs.  two hours t r a i n i n g in the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  The program used was a m o d i f i c a t i o n of one mentioned by  Mosak  (1958)  Appendix  #  theoretical  and  described  5).  The  framework  of  interpretive process. The  need  to  "myself",  detail  ERs as  and  such  the  themes the  need  activeness  or  to  such  smaller,  strong,  weak,  A number of Olson  (1979)  sample were  considered  consistently  themes  ERs and t h e i r used  by Mosak  to  achieved  identify  interpretations  interpretation  when  (1971)  were  then  the  trainees  were  this  first  found  in  (1979). examined  The  with  person.  Competence able  life  and matched  the  to  accompanying  At the end of t h i s  provided  the  taken from  were the  of  others  and  skill.  trainees  Olson  the p r a c t i c e ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . period  the  information  provided, by  to  interpretations  practice  about identify  etc.;  in the  in  overall  passiveness  relationships  the  the  present  present;  importance of s t a t i n g  in  following:  c o l o u r s or d e t a i l s larger,  (see  and i n the  subjects; as  1  technigue,  emphasized  world";  as  Katz  a projective  essential "the  Mica  instructed  ERs from c l i e n t s ,  recognize  elements  by  were  This process  "others",  significant  in  trainees  the method of e l i c i t i n g  was  had not  10  style with  training numbered  29 questionnaires,  an audio  tape,  and i n s t r u c t i o n s  that provided to the experienced  identical  to  clinicians.  DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE Subjects. ER  guestionnaire  material  were given the i n s t r u c t i o n s and the  and reguested  by a s p e c i f i e d  available subjects the  A l l subjects  to  answer  asked  to  date.  any  and r e t u r n  The researcher  guestions  for c l a r i f i c a t i o n  instructions.  complete  and  a  number  on a few of  A number of the s u b j e c t s  made  the  himself of  the  the p o i n t s  commented  in  to the  researcher after  completing the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  that  they found  the  quite  for  additional  experience  enjoyable  and  asked  i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the nature and use of ERs. DATA ANALYSIS The  data  comments  and the  interpreters comments  from  study  identified  for  were  this  each  of  analyzed  typology c h o i c e s  consisted life  the for  of  style  ten  the  themes  subjects.  process  audio from  taped  the  six  The anecdotal  information  while  the  were used to assess c l i n i c i a n r e l i a b i l i t y of  ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . The carefully Appendix steps. compared  taped  narratives  transcribed # 6).  This  The comments for  one  for  from  the  six  examination  consisted by  all  subject  at  of  six a  a of  interpreters  and comparison number the  time.  of  were (see  progressive  interpreters  Commonly  were  identified  phrases or p e r c e p t i o n s were noted and used to assess the type of  information  available  to  all  of  the  interpreters.  30 Comments  such  "feeling least  the  out  i n Table  process  ERs.  "wanting  they  This  of  six  1.  Each  went  involved  for  each  set  interpreters Party),  sense the  of  these each in was  cited  patterns, seemed  skill  to  groups would  used be  headline  also  of  'others, were  contributed  when  between  to  a  say that  her  out of trouble.  the  subject  and  women  would  feels  was  A clinician,  vulnerable,  strong, and wants life  wants t o be style  and  to  looked themes  in  after chosen  The  t h e number style.  of From  Differences  one  and  typical  example  of the three  looks same  t o mom  men  ERs  to get  subject,  control by  trainees t h e two  i s dangerous,  be  how  to which A  for this  life  about  c o n s i s t i n g o f what  above.  and  or a  him/herself.  the extent  scared  the  Misses  of control  individual  use only  by  Girl  statements  used  by  conclusions  (Sick  and  for  used  used  clinicians  described  the subject  their  loss  and  subjects'  styles  i n t e r p r e t i n g ERs.  comparing  trainee  and  proposed  experienced  the patterns  central  series  by a t  analyzed  patterns  as a  or  highlighted next  technique  t h e ERs  doing  and  The  a  the  a d e s c r i p t i o n was be  was  such  the world,  through  where  inadequate,  or  recognized  were  generating  of  approach  a l lof  level  determined  were  the  views  were  for patterns  Some  t h e theme  reasurrance"  i n t e r p r e t i n g the ten  ERs.  were  to which  examples  they  helplessness,  subject  degree  of  that  interpreter  looking  i n t e r p r e t e r s when  or  interpreters  through  the  Own  attention  o v e r w h e l m e d and d e j e c t e d "  five  listed  as  said  a r e weak  but  feels  women.  f o r each  subject  by  31  the  six  i n t e r p r e t e r s were  2.  The  reliability  examined  by  of  on  three  that  used  using  of a  life  Cline,  followed  also  All  i n t e r p r e t e r s were for  style  if  by  used  for  by  a  the  for  a  strong  egual  six  or  four  points).  The  by  and  training format  transcripts  choice  a  of  two one  for for  each  or  and and  in  analyzing  used  six,  two  ER the  trainee  This by  secondary  were  choices  than  primary  life  clinicians or  a  four  indicate  a  theme  would  a l l  three choices  choice  equal  choices  equal  interpretation of  and  allowed  primary  secondary  content  two,  five,  would  life  primary  This  for  (three  a  of  one.  secondary  one  style primary  as  value  agreement.  primary  procedure  subject  trainees  primary  of  life  information  experienced  value  primary  a l l three  of  to  process  their  agreement  any  interpreter  a  out  designations.  interpreter  the  a  to  was  similar  secondary  this  value  Table  two  This  style  make  Considering  as  life  between  least  process  t h e m e was  a  for  at  (1978).  awarded  proportion  theme  in a  a l l of  in  interpretations  addition  i t was  separately,  of  points,  points,  specific  If  chosen  five  The  weighted.  style  been  clinicians  use  alone.  degree  in  arrayed  by  Kern  to  to  simple  ER  choice  trainees'  subject  and  agreement  and  comparison  trainees life  of  requested  secondary  choice  and  the  interpreter  a  clinicians'  style  effort  complete  provided style  an  were  an  as  more  have  In  themes  choice  for  each  selection.  organized  Riorden,  was  choices  the  system  primary by  then  provided  series  examined  to  a  of  ERs.  see  how  32 closely  they  instructed. subject  reliable  to  the  then compared to where  strong  effectiveness  of  the  for l i f e  that  in  which  style  agreement  they  were  for  each  type  chosen by the  clinician  reference c r i t e r i o n .  evaluated.  approach  The t r a i n e e choice  was  clinicians  compared  experienced provided  a  Using these two approaches the  training  program  was  able  to  be  33 CHAPTER  IV  RESULTS  The broad  results  themes:  of  interpreters;  and  the  outlined though left  themes  for chapter  in  ER  one.  first  into  of anecdotal  central  according  complete  TRANSCRIPT  comparison  procedure  i n chapter  more  are organized  identified  training these  study  Transcript  the  within  this  life  style  comments  the  by  (LS) t h e m e s ;  interpretation;  to  three  research  and  then,  questions  Important  findings  are  interpretation  of these  findings  as  highlighted, will  be  five.  COMPARISON  OF  ANECDOTAL  COMMENTS  BY  THE  interpreters  were  INTERPRETERS The examined cues  transcribed to  found  identify  and  a l l the  experienced Each  of  sample  went  typologies  results  will  be from  to that  three  the  ERs  contrast of the  (1971).  provided to  one  from  A complete  and an  style  of the  process skill  used  of  three  audio  at  the  a  trainees  tape  LS  A  sample  of  theme  transcription  #6.  follows:  the  cognitive  trainees.  arrive  i n Appendix,  subject  made  reasoning  clinicians  through  found  six  interpretation  and  Mosak's  interpreter  delineate  interpreters,  the  the  perceptions  compare  the  they  of  trainees,  clinicians  interpreting process  common  i n t h e ERs,  clinicians by  comments  the from  of  these  from  each  34 Clinician excitement memory. her  but  The  through  to  her.  life  (wants  feels  is  to  when  am  but  ER  is  are  kind  me.  In  ER  an  C2  order  to  A  lot  birthday  party  experience-it  confidence  of  of  makes  dad  in  Accomplished  this  a l l three ER  the  unexpected  and  I  pay  on  when  with  be  a  i t goes  warmth  her  of  in  an  total  feels  unpredictable  of  world  warning.  best.  loss  and  who  male).  prior  their  someone  wrong  loving  without at  and  "Life  Life  strikes  control."  She  is  inadequate. subject misses  Life  is  have  a  a  1:  First  own  party".  place  place  ER. I'm  where  I  am  The  special  people  the  headline  do  center  of  for  and  men  things  for  attention  attention).  the  theme  of she  unexpected  getting  the  happen.  helpless  should  girl  me.  first  A  ER.  characteristics  and  overwhelm  things  "sick  to  (receiving  the  and  this  getter  and  feeling  Clinician  In  from  overwhelming  made  support  overwhelmed  entitled  In  an  overwhelming  weak  able  unfair  this  First  getter  support  She  several  find  She  I  is  wanted  are  inadeguate  and  a  1:  intimidation.  to  which  subject  possibly  She  There tends  on  basement  sick.  attending  is  Cl  the  ERs,  misses  gift  from  punishment.  life a  is  full  wonderful  the  bus  When  I  of  party;  driver; do  the  and  wrong  unexpected.  in  the  in  women  second  the  third  punish  me  price. of  presents.  getter  from  Possibly  some  sense of  of  victim  being from  special missing  and party  35 and r e c e i v i n g punishment. C l i n i c i a n C3 on s u b j e c t 1:  This  is a getter  personality.  She gets j u s t about e v e r y t h i n g she wants:  In the f i r s t  gets  the  her dad; In the second  cane ever seen"; not  the  main  "biggest  and i n the t h i r d she gets a "perm".  theme  Excitement a l s o first  ER she gets  here  but  it  seems to be present  "everything  was  so  and the candy cane  "goofing  off"  "baby".  I see  also  someone  there  were  in  the  exciting  exciting. who gets  all  candy  This  the  a lot  of  In the  second  and i n the  My t h i r d  the third  LS choice  service.  is  same.  in the three ERs.  exciting",  holidays  was  is  ER she  is  This  is  not very s t r o n g . Trainee T l on s u b j e c t me. is  1:  First  G i v e r s and c a r e t a k e r s g i v e e x c i t i n g and dangerous. Second  me) .  ER.  Third  ER.  world i s f u l l on others  The world  I am a v i c t i m .  the goods.  and I am a taker of those  Others take care of  one independence.  Others are g i v e r s  They c o n t r o l  ER.  and doers  The world  is  (they full  give  of  to  goodies  goodies.  Others do for me and set  rules  of r u l e s and I am a r u l e b r e a k e r .  f o r me.  The  I must depend  to a c t .  Trainee  T2 on  Things  go  wrong  others  in service  o b t a i n things Trainee  subject  and  1:  accidents  to me.  Life  is  occur.  The s u b j e c t  a dangerous I  trys  cope  by  to get  place. putting  things or  from o t h e r s - p o s s i b l y p i t y or sympathy.  T3 on s u b j e c t  1:  You are very e x c i t e d - y o u  have  36 an  a c c i d e n t and t h i s  you;  you l i k e  with.  to f e e l  d i s a p p o i n t s you. You want dad to help happy.  I f you have any f a u l t  The unexpected i n i t you f e e l  Summary of common p e r c e p t i o n s . transcribed  Upon  comments by the i n t e r p r e t e r s ,  i s hard  to cope  guilty. perusal  of  the  c e r t a i n phrases or  words were r e g u l a r l y n o t i c e d and used i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . These are summarized  i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e :  TABLE 1 Summary Table - Common C l i n i c i a n  Subject  Perceptions  Common p e r c e p t i o n s  1  Wants support or a t t e n t i o n Puts others i n s e r v i c e Excitement or unexpectedness  2  Inadequacy or weakness Revenge or need to c o n t r o l  3  F e e l i n g overwhelmed, sad dej ected G e t t i n g from others  4  Out of c o n t r o l Helpless  5  Doing things the r i g h t way Being s u p e r i o r or p e r f e c t  6  Sense of smallness Being the center of a t t e n t i o n  7  The need to be r i g h t Pain or s u f f e r i n g  8  The world  is full  9  Controlling  of dangers  37  10  Getting a Attention  The  fact  interpreters conclusion later  in  did for  the  between  that  the  not a  these in  central  LS  under  in  did  the  overtones  expressed  1  This  to  in  fact to  is  be  a  by  feelings  the  the  same  discussed  in  the  this  to  in  correlation  found  during  responded  the  used  reached  those  feelings  interpreters  were  they  appear  table  "your  Evidently  mean  theme.  There  expressions  d r e s s and fitting reasurrance  expressions  a l l cases  results.  questionnaire  new or  ER  scene."  the  emotional  section  of  the  questionnaire. Interpretation interpreters slightly seems  went  different  about  the  the  Interpreters.  interpretation  perspective. to  the  A  of  process  summation  understanding  Each  of  of  from  their  the  the a  styles  reasoning  itself.  C-l: overall  This picture  position.  =  clinician and  There  (horizontal  use is  position  ultimate  (subject  2),  (subject  5  his  of  appropriate  process  death  Style  and  nouns 10)  seems  to  elements a  =  from  continued little,  loss  of  look each  and  ER  to  recognition  photograph  control)  and  (subject  3),  and  other  found  the  ERs  that  in  for  =  state  an  validate  the  of  metaphors  public  comments  display, on  verbs  descriptive  terms  serve  to  reinforce  interpretation. C-2:  This  clinician  uses  the  headline  technique  once  to  38  highlight  the  procedure  for  method  main  going  involves  subject  views  phrases  used  are:  others  helpless,  kind) .  the  ER  above  validate  to  In  addition each by  or  place,  using a  using  set This the  people.  The  dangerous,  I . . . (must I  one  am  be  ...(small,  or  series,  concrete  a  how  ...(sad,  punishers) ;  in  use  subject.  other  is  a  to  ER  each  to  encapsulates  world  have  begins  of  which  ...(givers,  the  This C-2.  given  content:  After  this  is  trainee  a l l of  this  the  clinician  examples  This  ERs.  The the  going  given  in  a  between  pattern  according  to  how  the  trainee  are...,  The  world  list  trainee phrases,  content  of  the  three  (Mosak, also life the  ER  a  series  which  seems  in  are  the  similar  series  for  theme  used  ERs  are  to used  theme.  in a  done  a  ER  ER  Others  using  1971)  the  comparisons  uses  each  Mosak,  within  central  be  through  (from  from  to  each  reference  T-2:  express  final  For  appears  theme  c h o i c e s and  completed  the  LS  Examples  determine  clinician  involves  the  the  T-l:  the  ER  world,  the  clinician  This  appropriate.  from  the  or  position  This  giving  are  each  then  itself.  approach.  to  are  and  phrase  order  for  her  C-3:  and  a  Life  In  ER  through  using  perfect);  validates  i n an  him/herself,  complicated);  phrases  idea  ERs  a  that  following  I  theme  by  phrases  understands is...,  LS  used  the  am...  is  chosen  1971).  uses  a  is... ERs.  the  to  set  and  This  I  pattern cope...,  i s not  done  to are  interpret used  to  f o r each  ER  39  however, three from  but  f o r each the ER  T-3: the or  ERs I  but  The slightly through their  an  summary  or  I  a r e not  examples  are  of  used  uses  want...  set pattern  one.  and  the  a  It consists  i s done  ERs  do  Examples  not  from  to  only  ER  of  once  appear  the  interpret  to  to  I  am...  for  each  be  used  to  reference  an  used.  style  of  different, use  few  series  opinion.  also  of  f o r the whole  addition,  i t i s a very b r i e f  statement.  and  a In  trainee  A l l three  this  as  to v a l i d a t e  like...  opinion  once  subject.  This  subject. form  only  the has  a l l of  interpretation.  experienced definite  the For  ERs  clinicians,  similarities.  f o r each  although  They  subject  to  each  go  formulate  example:  The f i r s t ER shows I s e l e c t and t h o s e n o t m e a s u r i n g up go i n t o t h e g a r b a g e where t h e y b e l o n g . The s e c o n d ER shows I d e l i g h t in doing i t p e r f e c t l y . No c o m p a r i s o n s , j u s t me d o i n g i t up t o a s t a n d a r d . In t h e t h i r d ER I am a c c e p t e d as an adult. They  validate  their  position  the  ERs  and  they  each  the  ER.  For  example:  comment  The f i n a l d e c i s i o n f o r t h e was c o r r e c t " i n t h e f i r s t ER d i d what was c o r r e c t i n t h e got them "I is lot The  through on  using  the  examples  metaphors  given in  used  within  theme i s t o be r i g h t b e c a u s e " I and I was s u r p r i s e d t h a t p a r e n t s t h i r d ER and i n t h e s e c o n d ER I a l l correct.  c a n ' t make ends meet" i s ' t h e body l a n g u a g e . The f e e l i n g d i f f e r e n t from the a c t i o n . He d o e s n ' t f i t . Scene has a o f a c t i o n and he i s s i t t i n g . He i s an o b s e r v e r . I don't f i t , I'm o u t s i d e l o o k i n g i n . trainees  interpretation,  each  use  but  they  a  set  format  generally  use  to very  express few  their  details,  40 examples, final  or comparisons between the ERs to r a t i o n a l i z e  opinion.  Two  examples  from s u b j e c t 10  their  follow:  L i f e i s f u l l of new t h i n g s . There are new s i t u a t i o n s to be d e a l t with and i t i s d i f f i c u l t to adjust to t h i s . I cope by seeking o t h e r s reassurance and by f i t t i n g i n . I f e e l nervous every time I am on u n f a m i l i a r ground and t e r r i f i e d when t h r e a t s come up so I need to run away to mom. Mom i s important to me. I want her to be with me and do t h i n g s f o r me and I f e e l good with her and s a f e . Reasoning Process used by the I n t e r p r e t e r s .  This  is  a  d e r i v e d g u a n t i t y from examining the i n t e r p r e t i v e s t y l e s shown above. the  There are two elements that d i s t i n c t l y  interpreter's  comprehension  symbolism  and  the  subject's  'perception  of the ERs: The m e t a p h o r i c a l  generalized of  serve to guide  phrases  themselves,  used  to  others  capture and  life  the in  general. The  recognition  important ERs.  toward  of  metaphorical  establishing  I f the symbolism  was  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was  two  serves to demonstrate  off  l i o n s with t h e i r bare hands example  and  not  clinicians  of  weakened. this.  aloneness, by  mentioned related  at this  base  The  T-2  a l l by  to  further  (ER  #1),  exemplifies  all  six  of  clearly  interpreting  then  the  metaphor was  of  All  the  rationale subject  "fighting  seen by T - l as  as an example T-3.  metaphor  was  An example from  (ER #1)",  inadeguacy and the need f o r c o n t r o l . four  for  misunderstood  for  an  a  language  of opposing,  the  feelings  experienced of  weakness,  An example from s u b j e c t  this  point.  In  the  interpreters  the  runaway  recognized  scene the  41  importance In  the  shock the  of  the  least,  i t was  while  T-l  subject  identified  but  seen  by  T-3  viewed  and  as  feeling  the  of  to  greatly  as  an  i t  as  T-2  helpless.  the  recognized  metaphor  The  unexpected an  as  degrees.  accident  experience  experienced  helplessness,  metaphor  varying  symbolizing  leaving  clinicians  however a  they  need  or  a l l  further  to  be  in  control. The by  the  generalized  interpreters is  overall  content  distillation while  at  directly means  of  used  there  Comments (C-2)",  and  to  is  "private  a  to  Trainees.  demonstrated trainees.  The more  is  seen ER  logic" a  of  his  is  a  simple  subject's  to.  ER, not This  between  subject  seven:  "life  is  dangerous  incomprehensible  the  the  variation  (T-2)".  logical  from  alluded  of  used  expressions  from  from  and  the  from  degree  etc.)  derived i t  from  merely  suffering  justify  in S k i l l  a  intense  as  typological  Differences and  serve  but  third  of  am...,  Sometimes  quite  is  I  message  i s ' derived  subject  the  a  content  example  full  apparently  interpreter  i t  world  is...,  ER.  emotional  the  for  is the  each  times  An  (life  apparently  sometimes  "the  "life  designate  the  by  vary  summarize  of  other  interpreters.  to  phrase  subject stepping  interpretation  (T-l)",  These  phrases  (Shulman, stone and  for  1973) the  eventually  category. levels  between  experienced skill  in  Experienced  clinicians ER  as  interpretation  Clinicians a than  group the  42 Two of each  the  three  subject  clinicians The  for  trainees  their  d i d not use  all  interpretations.  of  the  ERs for  The  experienced  from  the  used a l l of the ERs p r o v i d e d .  trainees  reference  did  their  not  use  statements  many examples  while  the  experienced  ERs to  clinicians  did. The ERs  trainees  less  often  apparently  interpret  than  relied  metaphors.  The  mentioned  upon  the  ERs.  situation.  You are  i n company of  were:  experienced  generalized  a  common  proceeding  Life  is  full  of  like  to  of  of  They upon  both elements clinicians  control;  a  accidents  to  said:  runaway road  of  go out  of  The comments of the  others  the  than  comfortably down the  unexpected  trainees  and  sudden  to comfort and make me f e e l  be warm and safe  g i v e s me s t a r t l i n g experiences trainees  scene  the  more  loved ones when suddenly t h i n g s  I cope by g e t t i n g I  used  one of  content  clinicians.  phrases  clinicians  even mom i s concerned.  shocks. safe.  metaphorical  For example,  ER shows  control;  the  The experienced  first  life  the  and comfortable  which leave  but  life  me h e l p l e s s .  The  recognized the elements of danger and s a f e t y but d i d  not a c t i v e l y use  the metaphor of a runaway horse to  symbolize  the need for c o n t r o l . Reliability amongst  the  clinicians  (see  in  reaching  trainees  a concensus  but  high  Table 3 and Table  The t r a i n e e s ,  in general,  on LS theme was  amongst  the  low  experienced  4).  had l e s s  to  say  about  the ERs  43 than to  the  experienced  four  sentences  clinicians three  been  and  that  is  would  ERs  has  and  cues  information  on  central  sources  the did  CENTRAL  LIFE  LS  themes three  of  associated  with  reliability  results  interpreters  use of  showing for  make  in  the  of  ten  life ERs  by  style  subjects  use  It  of  the  experienced  to  a l l  of  the less  clinicians  The  were  reliability  life  styles,  that and  result  the  of the in  problems  typologies.  identify  LS  utilized  recorded  the  identified,  central  It  more  clinicians  to  summary.  THEME  identifying  being  the  less  the  the  explained.  simply  STYLE  between  using the  they  three  of  were  reference  identified  themes  the  than  use  each  a  or  making  sub-sections:  variability  central  with  examples  were  not  for  mentioned  ERs  tape.  interpretation  different  The  trainees  audio  through  ER  not  because  the OF  comments few  might  interpretation,  sentences  that  often  they  and  IDENTIFICATION  examined  the  since  many  stated  they  whole  their  within  provided  The  end  were  Where  their  this  often  that  clinicians,  using  use  metaphors  cognitive  The  for  previously  possible  ERs  clinicians.  themes  is given  central chosen in  LS  by  table  theme. the  2.  six  44  TABLE 2 Identified  C-1  C-2  L i f e - S t y l e Themes  C-3  Subject  T-1  T-2  Getter  Cetter  Getter  Victim  Excite.  Control [nadeq.  Victim  Excite. Babv  Getter  Opposer  Control  Control  Victim  Opposer  Opposer  Inadeq. Victim  Inadeq.  Inadeq. Excite.  Victim  [nadeq.  V i c t im  Getter Be L i k e d  Control  Be R i g h t Driver  Control  Control  Control  Inadeq. Be L i k e d  Be L i k e d Victim  Be L i k e d Getter  Be  Right  Be L i k e d  Be R i g h t  Be  Liked  Be R i g h t Superior  Superior Be Good  Baby  Excite.  Baby  Inadeq. Victim  Baby Be R i g h t  [nadeg. Getter  8e R i g h t  Be R i g h t  Excite. Control  T-3  Baby  1  Subject Excite.  2 Getter  Subject [nadeq.  Getter  Inadeq.  3 Victim [nadeq.  Subject Victim  Superior  Victim  Victim  Subject Be R i g h t  Be L i k e d  Be L i k e d  5 Be R i g h t Superior  Subject Babv  Babv  Victim  Be R i g h t .  Martyr  Getter  Getter  Driver Martyr  Superior Victim  Driver  Martyr  Baby  Be  'Jo F e e l  Be Good  Inadeq.  Baby  [nadeq. Getter  Control  Control Be L i k e d  Control  Be L i k e d  Driver  Control  Be L i k e d  Be L i k e d  Getter Excite.  Control  No F e e l Control  Baby  Getter  Getter  Control Inadeq.  Control  Be L i k e d Victim  6  Subject 7  Subject Liked  8  Subject 9 Excite.  Subject 10  Re L i k e d  Baby  Inadeq.  45 The  results  subjects  from  whose  ER  agreement between  Table  2 can be  interpretations  simplified resulted  i n t e r p r e t e r s for choice  in  of  of c o r r e l a t i o n for primary LS theme is  3  both  shown  experienced  through  interpreters Cline,  a  or  Riordan,  clinicians  proportion 3  of  the  and Kern  3  of  and  consistent  LS theme.  degree for  by grouping  given  i n Table  trainees.  agreement  interpreters  of as  This  This  2  of  is  the  established  3 by  (1978) . TABLE 3  C o r r e l a t i o n of Primary LS Theme Experienced C l i n i c i a n s Agreement by Subject #  2/3  2  Total  3/3 1 4 7  3 5 6 10 5/10  Table clinicians  3  3/10  shows  agreed  on  examined.  Ferguson  (1964)  establish  life  that of of  the  on  style  trainee's  the  two  or  agreement  same for both groups.  2/3  Subject #  2 3 4 5 6 7 9 7/10  central  These  more  results  inter-judge  of  LS theme  the for  3/3  experienced 8  support  reliability  of  the  the  10  work  by  ERs  to  using  theme. LS c h o i c e  did  the experienced c l i n i c i a n s ,  trainee  Agreement by  Total  that  subjects  As  Trainees  for  those  not  always  concur  Table 4 shows the  times when LS c h o i c e  with  degree was  the  46  TABLE 4 Adjusted T r a i n e e s  The  results  trainees at  identifying  the  2/3  subject # total  6 1/10  in  Table  3  10  life  styles  agreement  only  used as the c r i t e r i o n . effectively  the  line  into  joins  the  Mosak s  examine only.  the  the  following  and  Table 5 was  ER q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  for  in  1 of  Table  the  10  the  composed.  subjects is are  or  the  to  central  are  classify  to  look  clinicians the  for  the LS  theme  to  clinicians  clinician  From c l i n i c i a n  and the  author  experienced of  they  1965).  prompted  to compare a l l for  this  trainees  system,  (Dreikurs,  type for  4  i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d from the  experienced  LS  There  clinicians  c o n t r a d i c t o r y evidence  data  secondary)  clinicians  event and using that  two p o i n t s "  designating  i n an attempt  (primary subject,  in  shown  typology  1  The d i s p a r i t y between the trainees  as  the  on LS theme for 7  by the experienced  on some outstanding  that  experienced  It would appear that  ERs r a t h e r than using  "the  superficially  trainees  occurs  translating  ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  that  ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s .  the  However,  3/3  the  from  when the LS theme i d e n t i f i e d  focusing  as  by 2 or more of  subjects.  inter-judge  not  show  are n e a r l y as s k i l l e d  was agreement of  Agreement by  choices  for  each  responses  to  a primary LS c h o i c e was awarded a value  47  of  2  This  and means  would  have  secondary, as  a  secondary  LS  choice  a n y LS theme c h o s e n a value  o f 6;  a value  o f 5;  secondary,  a value  was  as p r i m a r y  chosen  twice  and chosen  of  awarded  value  by t h r e e  as p r i m a r y  once  of  1.  clinicians and  as p r i m a r y  once  and  as  twice  4. 5  TABLE Weighted  Life  Style  Theme  1  2  3  4  Control  1  4  1  6  Getter  6(1)  1  1(2)  1  1  Inadeq.  1  3  2(5)  1  2  1  3  4(1)  1(5)  Subject #  a  5  6  Choices 7  8  9  10  1  2  4(2)  2  1  1  4  LS Theme  Be L i k e d Victim  1(2)  3  Be R i g h t 1(2)  Excite.  1(2)  1(2)  5(3)  1(2)  1  1  6  5(4)  Superior  (1)  2  2(2)  1(1)  1  1  2  1(1) 2  Be Good  1(2) 1  2(2)  No F e e l . 1  1 (2)  Martyr Opposer  2(4)  1  1(1)  Driver  1(2)  3  3(4)  1  Baby  (4)  1(3) (4)  (1)  () = t r a i n e e s c o r e  In subject  the table, except  a value  for subject  of 4 8.  o r more This  i s achieved  suggests  an  even  f o r each greater  48 correlation Table  3.  for  the  experienced  When both  considered  primary and  the experienced  concensus  for  presence  the  of  described  LS theme more  by  clinicians  for  than  Mosak  clinicians  9 out  one  (1968),  examining c l i n i c i a n s k i l l  and  secondary are able  of  LS  than was  the  theme  in  choices  are  to a r r i v e at a  10  subjects.  for  should  shown  The  individuals  not  be  ignored  is when  in c o r r e l a t i n g ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  to  LS theme. Sources  of v a r i a b i l i t y between c l i n i c i a n s .  enumerated was  above  considered  clinician variability for  seemed to be f i v e ERs to Need  result for  the  distinct  need  for  ER  client  choice  only.  There  common cues w i t h i n  c l i n i c i a n LS c h o i c e s .  detail,  reasons  in LS typology  clinicians  causes for  in d i f f e r e n t  additional  definitions,  experienced  For  emphasis  These  the are:  used,  typology  and  clinician  verification,  overs i g h t . In  all  but  one  commented on the ERs  of  subject  clinicians needed  subject  the  clinicians  recognized  same cues found w i t h i n the ERs. 8 was  commented  additional  this  not  clearly detail  true,  for to  and  this  yet  Only in 2  of  subject  make  a  and  the  that  more  the 3  they  confident  determination. Traditionally, considered weighting evident  to of  in  the  be the  the  first  the  most  first  clinician  ER provided important  ER versus LS c h o i c e s .  by  a  (Adler,  the  two It  subject 1931).  is The  other  ERs  was  appeared  that  the  49  position used  of  as  the  the primary  theme.  This  clinician  can  E-2  the  case  confusion This  affected  whether  LS  or  be  theme  seen  as  5,  6,  affected  of  3.  subject  between  problem  the  i s discussed  or  was  associated  the  choices  by  9.  appears  of  in  secondary  clinician  There  themes  interpretation  examining  and  definition  the  a  through  for subject  Typology in  ER  judgement to  "victim"  the  be  and  following  a  clearly  degree  of  "inadequate".  section  of  the  equally  by  the  results. When  two  clinicians This  or  the  occured  theme  for  input  theme  for  ignored  9.  Problems possible  confusion, There different This  of and  was LS  cases  i s shown  with  may  for 2  6.  be  the  would  the t r a n s c r i p t s  are  described  E-3  and  on  then  typology.  style became  difference by  need  of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n  themes LS  LS  made.  of c l i n i c i a n  Skewed  used  Liked"  in reading  vs. associated  were  be  of  that  life  2:  noticeable  in Table  "To  obvious.  and  difficulty  Table  themes  10  the f i n a l  central a  and  accounted  becomes  prioritization  decision  subject  associated  examination  verification  i s observed  both  of  recognized  where  final  This  deciding  areas  5  Right"  a  E - l on In  when  be  oversight  clinician  are  for client  before  choice.  subject  themes  subject  "To  Clinician LS  need  choices  subject  more  the  typologies. apparent theme  Three during  use,  the  typology  themes. i n the degree experienced  to  which  clinicians.  50 Table 6 Extent of.Theme Use  Theme  Number of times  Control Getter Inadequate To be l i k e d V i c t im To be r i g h t Baby Excitement Super i o r Driver No f e e l i n g s To be good Martyr Opposer This  inequity  p o p u l a t i o n used college  might  for  graduates),  choices,  or  certain  life  it  an  15 10 10 10 9 8 6 5 3 3 2 1 1 0  be  this  due  to  inherent  are  a  bias  investigation  may p o s s i b l y  styles  used  in  (white,  the  subject  middle  class,  problem i n Mosak's  reflect  a  cultural  more common than are  typology  bias  others  where in  the  white middle c l a s s p o p u l a t i o n . Typology "victim"  and  confusion  appears  "inadeguate"  to  found  exist in  between  subject  previously.  P o i n t of view appears to e f f e c t  this  needs  often  guestionnaire  client  format.  as w e l l between The primary  other  It  verification is  possible  the  3 as  mentioned  the d e c i s i o n and  impossible  this  themes  confusion  with  a  exists  typologies.  and secondary  choices  for  LS theme made by  51  the  clinicians  individual  a l l represent  may  be  1979).  (Mosak, in  Tables  by  the  2  described  This  and  5.  individual  Table  2  5  shows  themes  collectively.  From  1,  and  central 9,  Table  probably  theme  and  10  composing results  clearly  their from  2  concerning  the  determining  the l i f e  THE  TRAINING The  and  training  techniques  that Of  reflect  a  select  incidents  which  characterize remembered not  interpret  a l l t h e many  only  IN  ER  still  current  because  consciously  they  to  of  be  vividly  attitudes  2,  4,  3,  one  5,  8,  themes  comparison  of  conclusions  their  in  ERs.  the  a  from  background  by  LS  practical  theme  trainees  i n an  and  were the  using told world.  individual's childhood.  recalled  and  important by  at  themselves  remembered  recognized  only  followed  the  occurring  are  subjects  where  presenting  arrive  brief,  view  experiences  can  and  In  a person's  are  the  clinicians  through  or  INTERPRETATION  ERs  few  given  5,  erroneous  information  system.  used  theme  associated  experienced  amounted  theoretical  to  to  of subjects  procedure  typology  ERs  the  and  Superficial  lead  of  style  PROCEDURE  associated  Mosak's  skill  subjects  central  may  Table  situations  while  shown  preferences  the c e n t r a l  of  An  themes  results  importance  examination  styles.  the  the  the weighted  have  Table  out  themes.  associated  of  i n choosing  exists;  life  and  f o r some  represent  probably  central  central  points  clinicians  while  7  by  accounts  themes  6,  perceived  are  individual.  These  thought  beliefs. although  life  their  They value  to are is  52 The  practical  generalized elements  information  phrases  within  or  the  was  directed  to  identifying  commenting  on  significant  all  of  themes,  ER,  using  three  the  ERs  formulate LS i n f o r m a t i o n , and e s t a b l i s h i n g  a typology  Possible  appears,  themes  should be i f Some  ERs  might  a l l were  show  interpersonal  reflect ideal,  coping  how  life  strategies  approaches  to get  for  problem  along in  choice.  how  or the dangers present  in  life life.  solving  to  to  characterize  using examples ER was  from the  examined  patterns. belief  for  These  system  of  an  u s i n g Mosak's l i s t the  theme  or  themes  ER to support t h e i r  the  are  the  presence  metaphors  of  significant  The  final  were  represented  idea.  representing  individual.  or  life.  The p r a c t i c e ERs were read out loud and the t r a i n e e s asked  to  Next,  the  elements or the  personal  stage  involved  of types to c h a r a c t e r i z e the l i f e  s t y l e of  subject. Only  T-l  provided  generalized  phrases  for  each  ER.  T r a i n e e T-2 and T-3 used two or three g e n e r a l i z e d phrases  for  the  An  entire  example T-l:  set  of  ERs but  not  for  each  separately.  follows:  In the  first  inept p r o t e c t o r s .  ER, others  are n u r t u r e r s and  The world i s  and I am p o t e n t i a l l y  alone  others  my  disregarding  t e r r i f y i n g and a b a t t l e g r o u n d  (one  needs  fighter). and  A  passive  The second  receiving  world i s a p l a c e of u n f a i r e x p e c t a t i o n s non-cooperative.  potentially  resister.  my  ER has  fury.  and I am vengeful In  the  third  The and ER,  53 others are inept p r o t e c t o r s or minimal c a r e t a k e r s . is  harsh,  cold  and  dangerous  and  I  am  The world  a  source  of  embarrassement and shame. T-2:  Life  passive  opposes me.  manner  seeks  revenge  with  examples  struggling and just  be  when  terrified  sat  revenge..  there  take out.  action  He  me.  and  and others  ER.  obtain  In  losing.  it.  first,  I can  just  but  Opposer men lay  In the  photographed  in a  constantly  the  comfort me.  being  resist  there  second,  thought  are  he  about  increased mom's anger.  myself.  When  I  get  into  When I get  trouble  angry I  mom helps me  I can a c t i v i a t e h e r .  in  elements w i t h i n the  much d e t a i l it  to  subjects  reference  content  in  by  was b r i e f  reference  several the  against  When I am scared mom helps me o u t .  mentioned made  I  In the l a s t he i s somewhat glad that h i s pants were  Significant upon  three  lions  upon  frozen and t h i s T-3:  are  a struggle.  doing anything to  all  against  is  people  without in  Life  trainees.  and often  the  correlating this  ERs  not  metaphorical  material.  the  the  ERs were Where  elaborated  something  was  explained.  T r a i n e e T-2  content  the  in  ERs of  through examples taken from  T - l and T-3  except  not  through  d i d not using  the  refer  to  any  generalized  phrases e x p l a i n e d above. Only t r a i n e e T - l c o n s i s t a n t l y used a l l three ERs provided for  each  for  the  subject. whole  set  Trainee of  ERs,  T-2 and T-3 made g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s sometimes  ignoring  or  not  using  54 i n f o r m a t i o n found i n one of them. Two or more t r a i n e e s choice the  7 out of  choice  times  10 times  of  the  (Table 4 ) .  trainees  number  themselves  identify  and u n f a i r ,  example  by two  they  the  sense  of  also  style  of  "inadequate" all  1 out  world.  "victim".  selections in  this  mean  trainees  and seek  10  their  terrifying  detecting  how t h i s  logic  the  use  relates  subject  in general  that  is  only presented  the  two chose a  possibilities occurred similar  regularly themes but  designation.  trainees  and  to  too  LS t y p e .  By  feelings  the  a primary  with  appear  u n d e r l y i n g goal in  being  convictions  ER content  implied  resist  to  themes but  The  to the  life  experienced  personal  behaviors  The  the  d i f f e r i n g in LS type  of  and I  appears  to  of  recognizing  behavior.  the  This  need  pattern  correlate  of  a  secondary  This  translation  they  and  1).  amongst  revenge,  "opposer" .  A l l three  interpreters  typologies  literal  of  (Table  The world i s  on s i m i l a r  the c l i n i c i a n s and t r a i n e e s  probable  is  " c o n t r o l " with  the  Mosak's  with  experienced  noted  the  resister  revenge  commented  or  of  typology  agreed  only  are  themes:  trainees  clinicians  trainees  on  to n u r t u r e , comfort and help me o u t .  and u n f a i r  of  clinicians  above  similar  terrifying  I  however  similarities  I am a p a s s i v e  chosen from  of  the  look to others  with  each other  When the comments about the ERs made by the  in  life  (Table 3),  experienced  Certainly  stem  with  are compared to the comments made by the  clinicians ' a  style  agreed  without  or p r i v a t e  LS t y p e . typology  The choice  55 for  life  one  or  (Table 2 ) , while  style  two others  as  they were requested  your secondary d e c i s i o n s " .  to  "give  This might  a l s o p o i n t out t h e i r d i f f i c u l t y i n using the typology  system.  They were  the ER  able  interpretation  A  that  summary  were would  of  the  in general  own m e r i t ,  substantiate system  one  LS type  to  correlate  unable  to  perceive  be  congruent  to  to  possible  the  subject's  convictions.  trainees its  find  but  alternatives personal  to  use  their  failed  positions,  subject's "others",  use  the  perception  by  comments  Mosak  elements and  be  within  understand  (1971).  generalized of  would  that  to c o n s i d e r each ER s e p a r a t e l y  significant  established  effectively  above  phrases  "him/herself",  a l b e i t not i n great d e p t h .  They  the the did  ERs  the on to  typology however  to  identify  the  "the  world",  and  56 CHAPTER V  DISCUSSION,  The into  discussion  three  comments, the  LIMITATIONS,  broad  of  results  themes:  identified  RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS  are  organized  t r a n s c r i p t comparison of  anecdotal  central  of  this  study  LS themes,  and  implication  of  t r a i n i n g procedure i n ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; and then w i t h i n  these  themes  previously. those  according  to  the  Interpretation  findings  that  research  of  this  results  guestions  will  researcher  be  listed  limited  considers  to  most  i n t e r e s t i n g and most important. TRANSCRIPT COMPARISON OF ANECDOTAL COMMENTS Common p e r c e p t i o n s made from c o g n i t i v e cues found i n the ERs.  The c o n c l u s i o n s  subject  were  emotional  overtones  guestionnaire clinician  guite  serve  and  reached  by the  interpreters  similar,  as  in  expressed as  by  powerful  trainee  the  cues  alike.  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of ERs, c o n s i s t i n g subject  shown  views h i m / h e r s e l f ,  others,  Table  to  the  The  in  the  experienced  stage  of  the p h r a s i n g of  and the world,  each  1.  subjects  This of  about  the  how  the  i s commonly  p e r c e i v e d although to v a r y i n g degrees depending upon t r a i n i n g and  experience From  that the  the  (Malamud,  examining p o r t i o n of  attention  comes  the the  1968). interpreter  transcripts  guestionnaire  from  the  that  "clearest  it  appears  receives  much of  scene"  and  "your  57 feelings earlier the  during  this  findings  clearest  scene".  that emphasize  scene  with t h i s moment  in  personal  generalized to  use  style  phrases,  all  the  Additionally,  it  is  failed  the  use  do  this  as  identifying associated  Regardless  themes,  or t y p o l o g i e s , provided  in  important  validate  1979).  of  it  of  important the  ERs.  substantiate  an  given from w i t h i n the suggests the  extensively  of  metaphors, is  all  to  An examination of the r e s u l t s to  to  feeling  Olson,  the  headlines  information  seem  interpreters.  favors  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n using examples own ERs.  and  (Dreikurs, 1952; the  would  the importance of  a memory  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t y l e of whether  This  as  the  subject's trainees  experienced  clinicians. Reasoning process process  appears  relationship confirmed, of  the  the a n a l y s i s knowledgeable  using  and  the  proceed  or  Success  a  from  in this  cue  tentative  dismissed  recognition  hypothesis  through  process  Reasoning  further  might  be  which  is  examination  The more w e l l the  to  read and analysis.  with A d l e r i a n theory and f a m i l i a r i t y with  symbolism  observed  appears  to  paralleled  the c r i t i c the more comprehensive  the  cues  s y n t h e s i z e a p i c t u r e of This  to  interpreters.  of poetry or l i t e r a t u r e .  The more experience imagery  to  formation  altered  ERs.  used by the  to  i n t e r p r e t i v e process;  more adept to  analyze  the  interpreter  the  relationships  the s u b j e c t ' s p r i v a t e be  the  key  to  in and  logic.  understanding  the degree to which a l l  is  important  the cues  58 in an ER are r e c o g n i z e d , C o n t r a s t of s k i l l t r a i nees.  As  rudimentary  evaluated  and  substantiated.  between experienced c l i n i c i a n s and  the  trainees  knowledge  of  initially  Adlerian  possessed  psychology  only two hours t r a i n i n g i n ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , expected  less  competence  in  ER  by  the  trainees  more  process.  The  utilize  the  ERs for  failed  all to  of  reference  text,  metaphorical  they  had  less  important  to  of  three  the  All  of  to  say  the  more  trainees their  demonstrated  that  by  the  lacked  how  much  examples  they  from  ERs.  It  and  knowledge,  each  examples.  to  training  is  experienced  style  The  in  subject.  i n t e r p r e t i n g metaphors  clinicians  the  and o v e r a l l ,  the most  and exposure  not  not  ERs provided for  experienced  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a b i l i t y is  did  interpretation  with  additional  general  background  skill  points  the  #1,  was the  subject's  comprehensive  that  to  delineated,  trainee  than  interpretation,  with  each  in  researcher  approach  in  their  not  about  much more p r a c t i c e  Exactly  was  trainees  a  trainees  statements  content  to using a l l of  validating  after  their  recognize  demonstrated reference  given  received  This expectation  superficial  interpretation  this  interpretation  achieved by the experienced c l i n i c i a n s . met  and  only  and  ability  apparently  comes  ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  results  in  improved  clear.  IDENTIFICATION OF CENTRAL LS THEME Reliability data  from  of using ERs to i d e n t i f y c e n t r a l LS theme. The  Table  3  and  5  show  that  the  three  experienced  59 clinicians  working  times  LS  on  independently  typologies  interpretations  alone.  developed  agree  from  This r e s u l t  s t u d i e s conducted by Ferguson (1984).  could  is  9  a  out  of  10  subject's  ER  in agreement  with  (1964) and Colker and Slaymaker  LS summaries r a t h e r than LS t y p o l o g i e s such as  described  by  mentioned  research.  anecdotal  Mosak  comments  the  (1971)  were  used  These  would  described  in the  in  be  the  previously  comparable  previous  those  section  to  the  of  this  study. If  the  identified  clinicians were  is  unable  typology  derived  taken as the to  (see  Slaymaker  Table 4 ) .  question  aquisition  reference,  ERs  While Ferguson  arriving  has  of  skill  of  attempted  an  at  before  demonstrated  trainees  by experienced  at  a LS  original to  closely  clinicians  ER to  examine  performing  identified  more  trainees  (1964) and Colker and  technigue  no work  and a r r i v i n g at  in  experienced the  an  LS theme.  of how much and what kind of experience  necessary  skill  use  used a matching  LS summaries,  interpretation  criterion  successfully  (1984)  progressive  is  LS theme agreed upon by the  ER The  and t r a i n i n g  approximate is  the  the  an important  one. Table 5 shows more g r a p h i c a l l y than Table 2 the extent which  the  emphasizes  experienced the  interpretation  to  clinicians  importance identification  A number of c e n t r a l  agree  of of  not  on  LS t y p o l o g y . limiting  a single  themes may d e s c r i b e  LS theme  an  to It ER  alone.  an i n d i v i d u a l (Mosak,  60  1979)  and may account  observed  when  identify  this  for  a  evaluating  certain  the  degree  reliability  of  of  i n the  necessary style.  l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g the  to  1970;  the  specific  vary  suggesting  to  seven  individual's individual's states  Adler  earliest  1975).  person and  is  i d e a l number of ERs life  to  "later  person  Papanek  (1931),  if  (p.304). seven  Ackerknecht ERs  as  developmental  cooperation.  significance emphasis  of  given  expressed (1976)  and  has  the  There have the e a r l i e s t the  first  Ackerknecht  five  the  first  to  it  memory  "will  ten. this  (when  in  no  by  the  first  attitudes,  social  maturation  examining  e a r l y memories.  some  for  day  reports  memory v s .  is  recollections  characterized  of  an  (1958)  individual  earlier  process  memory  Mosak  8.  the  and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s  present  been  the  is  show  1 i f e . . . (p.75) .  demonstrating  trends,  life  in most cases i n  recollection  recollections  attitudes  with  (1972)  i n a s e r i e s may f u r n i s h d e t a i l s  generalized  necessary  i n t e r p r e t e r s to assess s u b j e c t  fundamental view of  that,  (Verger &  The optimum  was s u f f i c i e n t  i t was not enough for  According  and  little  i n f o r m a t i o n on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  from  While 3 ERs per subject  older)  Very  i n f o r m a t i o n for a LS assessment  Kopp & Dinkmeyer,  would  (1976)  study  to  Research has shown 3 ERs to be the minimum necessary  provide  style  ERs  to y i e l d a complete p i c t u r e of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  to p r o v i d e adequate Camp,  using  c e n t r a l LS theme.  Sources of v a r i a b i l i t y between c l i n i c i a n s . reported  variability  clinicians  the The  might  61  possibly  be due  T h i s source  to  their  own t r a i n i n g  of v a r i a b i l i t y would need  in ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . further  research  to  be  clarified. Where d i s t i n c t i o n between t y p o l o g i e s occur.  The  typology  "inadequate" dictionary, or  some  person  oneself  where  perhaps  circumstance  Confusion  descriptors  a v i c t i m must  inadeguate feels  are  to  exists  there  is  the  be hurt or  deficient  be  the in  taken advantage  difference  which  feedback  through the  can  from  classificatory  the  The  but  one  interpreters different  ER  ER content  identified  central it  themes,  representative  stands each  of the  to one  or  Schlemiel  (inadequacy)  is  a very  for  of by  is  reason of  to  are  more  create  proposed  which  they is  individual's overall l i f e  not  (Adler,  1956;  meaningfully  a  of  by  each  composite  i n d i v i d u a l (Lowe,  that  occurs  guestionnaire.  a p p r o p r i a t e aspects  to the  subtle  determination.  devices be  often  problems.  interpretation  might  themes  theme  It  An  own  perspective  heuristic  through s y n t h e s i z i n g  pertinent  only  the  the  and  clumsiness  Adlerian  p o r t r a y i n g the s t y l e s p e c i f i c If  of  feedback  if  an  schemes,  1979).  interpreted of  occur  to  rescuer.  Schlimazel  (victim).  client  a  his/her  i n t e r v i e w approach instead  Typologies  Mosak,  of  for  insufficient  of  juxtaposition  and  i n j u r e d by some person  or  names  "victim"  According  hopes  cause the  with being  This  often  is  needs  for  incomplete.  and  even  i s u n c l e a r e r r o r can  1977).  different  might  choose  important style.  and  62 Clinical oversight  approaches  appeared  determination. likely.  to  are  account  With  that  reliability  of  the  human e r r o r .  two  errors  feedback  the  without  to  for  client  From examining  apparent  open  these  two  experienced  in LS typology  this  transcripts  Clinician  could  be.  and Table  errors  the  clinicians  2,  less it  is  inter-judge  would  have  been  higher. Problems a s s o c i a t e d with l i f e no  published  different reason  reports  the  "inadequate", right"  "need  appeared  to  way  their  sense  1958). view  by  as  and  actively  reflect  on this  "need to be r i g h t " . perspective  be  "need to be l i k e d " .  Typologies assist  in  the  are  be  population.  and "need  attempt and  seeking The  to  life  "control",  Further research  in some overcome (Adler,  over  those  styles  which  "getter",  and  reflect  this  "baby",  and  "victim", is  be  individuals  climb  s t y l e s which p a s s i v e l y  "inadequate",  to  upon.  security where  to  The  "getter",  individuals feel and  are  which  speculated  hierarchy  below.  to  "control",  only  idea would be Life  would  substantiate this  always  those  given  competance  a vertical  There  extent  "victim",  surroundings  ladder;  step  can  for  the  of  liked",  often  striving  a  a  theory that a l l  This creates  life  above  to  in  themes be  most the  inferior  occur  LS  Adler postulated  this  investigating  LS t y p o l o g i e s that  style typologies.  indicated  inorder  to  creating  images  to  hypothesis. constructs  understanding  useful of  all  in  individuals.  It  may be  63 that Mosak's system has gone too The  fourteen  behavior easily  to  types such  identified  a desire  to  described  an  extent  being  type  adequately  more  individual  accomplish  interacting  as  More  "personality  the  only,  either  described ruling,  recently,  individual. presented  convictions  than  the  future  central  use  of  The in  categories  goal.  would  Adler,  for  or  of  useful  the  four  superiority,  The value of a typology classification  which  i n a paper on neuroses individuals  central the  for  fact  each  appropriate typologies  to  themes that  person  possess  in varying  themes (1979).  describe  life  other The style  examination.  FOR THE TRAINING PROCEDURE IN ER INTERPRETATION  t r a i n i n g procedure followed  providing  many types  i n d i v i d u a l ' s method  that  different  exist  of  to more completely d e s c r i b e a  reiterated  theme  Perhaps an  pleasing,  idea  would appear to need f u r t h e r IMPLICATIONS  to  presented  (comfort).  the  He then  themes so as  (1971)  Mosak h i m s e l f ,  representing  proportions.  to  avoiding,  of  then can be shaded and d e t a i l e d  (1968),  leads  getting,  Kefir  and a v o i d i n g  an  system comes from a l l o w i n g a g e n e r a l i z e d  particular  be  Instead  instructional  priorities"  controlling,  may  This  the  a system with more general  purposes  not  or s t y l e .  feasible.  behavior.  compartmentalize  between them more apparent.  approach i s  (1935).  an  f u r t h e r c l a r i f y and d e s c r i b e  proposed,  teaching  possibly  that  with any one  make the d i s t i n c t i o n s alternate  far i n d e l i n e a t i n g  the  trainees  with  was moderately  a basic  ability  successful to  identify  64 the  perceptual  follows  schema  from  similarities  the  this  in  the  are c l e a r .  ability  the  A longer  ERs.  time  interpretations  per  apparently  The  is  the  Relating to  need  It  perhaps  adds  effective skills  the  for  to develop  training  skills  feedback  recognize  elements.  from the  insufficient  on  and  to  accuracy.  repeated  Practice subject  the  ERs.  element  of  elements  or  needed  in  is  perceptions It  is  along  the  use  completeness  of and  "guess".  the  ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  should  different not  be the  or movement  An e f f e c t i v e to  of  the need to use a l l of the ERs  reflecting  understands  is...)  This noting  and those  possess  receive  to  examples  an e n t i r e l y  thoroughly  need  and  statements  which  reinforces  life  subject  supporting  examples  ERs.  and  implications  needed  and  contradictory  formulating with  comments  trainees  T h i s t r a i n i n g should emphasize provided  from t h e i r  transcripts  trainees  interpreting  practice  subjects  clinicians.  Beyond skills  the  examining  between  experienced  of  the  a LS typology  form of  attempted theme  (I  practice  appears  or t r a i n i n g .  before  an  interpreter  am...,  others  are...,  in the ERs.  t r a i n i n g model  develop  to  for  appropriate  order over the needed  that were l a c k i n g in the  ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n exercises  time necessary trainees  in  would  the  most  to achieve  in this  the  study.  LIMITATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH L imitations.  The most  apparent  limitations  of  this  study  65 are  associated  important,  with  the  ERs  themselves.  the ERs were c o l l e c t e d  questionnaire.  This v e h i c l e ,  to  this  ERs from the factor  subjects  (see  Chapter  i n f o r m a t i o n obtained Reference  4).  pool  most  from the s u b j e c t s through a  subjects.  who provided the  and  while a t e s t e d approach,  from the beginning the degree of eliciting  First,  of  ERs was  through  was made  Secondly,  the  limits  earlier  number  relatively  of  small.  The sample s i z e would need to be increased  to p r o v i d e a b a s i s  for  the  more c o n f i d e n t  collected  While t h i s number of  which to t e s t The  training to  interpretation format.  emphasis  on  did  Appendix  lasted  adeguately  A  longer  The  not  program  for  use  of was  ERs i n t o ER  life  cases, against  details examples also  style  a typology  interpretation  with  from  the  is  using  all  three ERs  to  training  transfer  choice.  ER  greater  the The  was  in  type  within  weak.  emphasize  This  trainees  period  of  A revised  provided  in  #5a.  Recommendations for F u t u r e Research. related  i n most  hours. the  training  sufficiently the  of  and using  interpretation  two  prepare  delineation  identifying  i n f o r m a t i o n about training  program  necessary.  corroborate program  seemed to be s u f f i c i e n t  ERs would allow more i n f o r m a t i o n  and  Mosak's  is  number of ERs  hypotheses.  insufficient  ERs  Finally,  per s u b j e c t was the minimum recommended by p r e v i o u s  research. a larger  conclusions.  literature  and examination  of  Consideration the  results  from  of this  66  study  stimulate  The  the  primary  describe  the  goal  interpreters  The must  receiving  their  occurring  during  subject  or  affect  that  the  There  memory  question  bears  style and  limited  appropriate  complement  (1972),  ER  research to  early  emphasis  research  In the is  interpretation  to  would  practitioners  using  provide ERs  Based  with on  the  number  cues  are  the  that  outcome further  are  form to  of the  different of  the  ER  examination.  technique  styles  on  to  on  by  needed  the  research.  the  do  i t must not  be  adversly  importance  memories  content from  of  ERs  with  a  the  general.  to  This  determine  results  correlate  of  interpreters  Ackerknecht  to  in  assist  ER  addition, work  of  interpretation.  investigation  information.  to  interpreter  the  compared  the  to  processes  study  the  of  a l l  responding  this  needs  reliability  further  take  of  this  effect  needs  what  might  during from  was  mental  method  question  of  very  earliest  placing  not  different  accuracy is  modified  This  establishing  verified  This  study  to  about  reading.  does  interpretation.  provided  what  occurred  research:  This  specific  i t appears  style  future  exploratory  and  a  what  Superficially,  Before  more  their  for  process.  attention  from  interpreter  this  guidelines be  questions ERs  of  ideas  interpretive  clarification.  specific  following  in  (1976 ) the  used.  accuracy This  reliable  life  this and  in  study  Papanek of  ER  information  guideline  for  clients. the  results  in  this  study  of  inter-judge  67 agreement  on LS i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ,  r e s e a r c h by Ferguson (1964) it  would  larger  be  important  subject  statistical reliability To  possible  the  take  the  life form  results  themes  usefulness  and  in  of  in  using  al.  to  using  allow  LS  added  or  as  needed.  nature  of  absence  of  populations, of  for  typologies  the  presence  applicability  a  technique.  more r e s e a r c h i s  different  the  (1979),  provide  investigating the  to  study  to  projective  styles,  themes,  pilot  ER prototypes  confidence  the  central central  general  of  individual  would  associated  of  this  and v a l i d i t y for t h i s  representing This  repeat  population  increase  a complement  and Magner-Harris e t .  to  analysis  and as  and  typologies  the  to  ER  two stand out  for  research. IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS Of the r e s u l t s their for  generated  importance to  their practical In  terms  experienced using This  of  research,  designate  gualitative  more g u a n t i t a t i v e  research  study,  community,  and three  others  implications.  clinicians  ERs to  Results  the  by t h i s  has  been  LS themes  conclusion study  inter-judge  could  in the  agreement  tentatively  amongst  demonstrated  using  Mosak's  be  reinforced  typologies. through  a  future.  shown i n Table 5 demonstrate  two reasons  why more  than one LS theme needs to be i d e n t i f i e d  by i n t e r p r e t e r s when  using  to  a typology  variation  between  system.  One reason  interpreters  in  is  allow  assigning  for  slight  importance  to  68  information is  that  to s t i m u l a t e  is  present  i n the  ERs, and the  research in a s s o c i a t e d  been  demonstrated  counsellor logic  in  through  realization counsellor  even  for  the  ERs.  a  Consistent  that more i n t e n s i v e  that  identify  with  demonstrate  interpreting typologies  ERs does are  effective  when  that not  used. used  the  is  the  necessary  if  the  life  by  a  style  themes.  from t h i s  study  i n t e r p r e t i v e s t y l e used when  affect  All  private  this  For the experienced c l i n i c i a n the r e s u l t s tentatively  trained  client's  training is  expects to use ERs to  reliability  basically  characterizing  of  is  the  accurately use  reason  LS themes.  An important p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n has  other  the  outcome  approaches  competent  when  appear  Mosak's  equal  and  for  this  practitioner  purpose. To that  the  the  counsellor  most  understanding statements the  world.  client  of  using  effective of  This  is  apperception  found i n the ERs  interpretation  private  how the  ERs with  logic  client  enhanced taken  is  occurs  expressed  sees  it  is  clear  when  accurate  through  thematic  him/herself,  others,  through a d d i t i o n a l comments  from  themselves.  a client,  the  symbolism  and  and on  metaphors  69 FOOTNOTES Mica Katz, Workshop on E a r l y R e c o l l e c t i o n s P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n of B. C , J u l y , 1981)  (Adlerian  70 BIBLIOGRAPHY Abt,  L . E . and B e l l a k , L . (Eds.) (1950). P r o j e c t i v e psychology. New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf.  Ackerknecht, L . K. (1976). New aspects of ERs as a d i a g n o s t i c and t h e r a p e u t i c d e v i c e . I n d i v i d u a l P s y c h o l o g i s t , 13, 44-54. A d l e r , A. (1929). The problems of n e u r o s i s . Paul.  London: Kegan  A d l e r , A. (1935). 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L i f e S t y l e : Theory, P r a c t i c e , and Research (2nd. E d . ) . Dubuque, Iowa: K e n d a l l / H u n t . Zarski, J . (1978). The e a r l y r e c o l l e c t i o n r a t i n g s c a l e : Development and a p p l i c a b i l i t y i n r e s e a r c h i n l i f e s t y l e . In L . Baruth and D. E c k s t e i n (Eds.) L i f e S t y l e : Theory, P r a c t i c e , and Research (2nd. E d . ) . Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt. Zubin, J . , Eron, L . D.. and Schumer, F . (1965). An Experimental Approach to P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s . York: John Wiley and Sons.  New  78 APPENDIX 1  EARLY RECOLLECTIONS QUESTIONNAIRE  Date:  Sex:  The  purpose  memories  you  information the  of  can  is  this  questionnaire  recall  from  to be used  your  i n a study  is  to  early  Life  Style  theme.  out  childhood.  attempting  r e l i a b i l i t y of using E a r l y R e c o l l e c t i o n  identify  find  to  what This  establish  interpretation  The responses are to be used  research  purposes  only  and  insured.  Upon completion of  complete  for  confidentiality  is  research a l l  of  the  to be d e s t r o y e d .  You have the r i g h t to refuse  to  participate  or  any  withdraw  at  questionnaire  should  complete.  the  assumed  If that  time  the  to  at  take  your  has  been  discretion.  approximately  questionnaire  consent  own  is  given  30  completed to  data  is  The  minutes  to  it  be  participate  will in  this  i n mind when doing  this  research. Please keep the  following  points  questionnaire: 1.  The e a r l y memory should be from before 8 years of age and must be a s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t , event, o c c u r r e n c e , or happening that you can remember. Early memories which describe i n c i d e n t s that occurred over and over again (example: "We used to do such and such...") are not true early r e c o l l e c t i o n s and, consequently, should not be w r i t t e n down.  2.  Write down any e a r l y r e c o l l e c t i o n that comes to your mind, even i f you are not sure the i n c i d e n t a c t u a l l y o c c u r r e d .  3.  Write  down  the  early  recollections  in  the  order  that  you  79 remember them. It i s not important that the r e c o l l e c t i o n s be r e p o r t e d in t h e i r true c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r . 4. Please g i v e three (3) e a r l y r e c o l l e c t i o n s 5. For each memory could you please supply the f o l l o w i n g : Your approximate age when t h i s i n c i d e n t o c c u r r e d . D e s c r i b e the memory in d e t a i l ( t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y important for the f i r s t memory). Which scene or p a r t of the memory i s most c l e a r (stands out the most). Which p a r t of the r e c o l l e c t i o n seems most s i g n i f i c a n t to you.  EARLY RECOLLECTIONS Age:  Description:  Clearest  (use  additional  space on back i f  necessary)  scene:  Your f e e l i n g d u r i n g t h i s  scene:  Most s i g n i f i c a n t  the memory to you:  part of  Age:  Description:  Clearest  (Use a d d i t i o n a l  space on back i f  necessary)  scene:  Your f e e l i n g d u r i n g t h i s  scene:  Most s i g n i f i c a n t  the memory to you:  p a r t of  Age:  Description: Clearest  (use  scene:  additional  space on back i f  necessary)  81  Your f e e l i n g  during t h i s  Most s i g n i f i c a n t  scene  p a r t of the memory to you:  APPENDIX 2  COMPLETED EARLY RECOLLECTIONS  QUESTIONNAIRES  PRIMARY Subject: 1  LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION:  Sex:  SECONDARY LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION:  1.  Female Age: 4 years DESCRIPTION:  It was my 4th Birthday p a r t y . That day I was so e x c i t e d . I was i n our u n f i n i s h e d basement with a f r i e n d , I was r o l l i n q on a h a r r e i . I f e l l o f f and h i t my head on the concrete. I s t a r t e d t o vomit and f e l t awful. I t was too l a t e t o c a n c e l my party but I was r e a l l y s i c k . A l l my f r i e n d s a r r i v e d and I was i n bed. I remember 1 g i r l gave me a doctors k i t . A l l I wanted was my Daddy. He was g o l f i n g and I wouldn't stop c r y i n g ' t i l he came home. My mom c a l l e d him and he came home. The party went on without me. CLEAREST SCENE: Crying i n bed and wanting my Dad. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Upset about missing my p a r t y . Sad. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: M i s s i n q my Birthday P a r t y . 2. Age: 5 years DESCRIPTION: I was going t o the Slack Cat Kindergarden. I t was the l a s t day before Xmaa H o l i d a y s . The school had t h e i r own school bus. The d r i v e r drove me down the backlane and dropped me o f f . As I l e f t he handed me the biggest candy cane I had ever seen.  CLEAREST SCENE: Taking the candy cane. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Surprised and happy. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: That the nice bus driver had given me a surprise present. 3.  Age:  5  v  e  a  r  s  DESCRIPTION: My sister and I were having our hair permed by my Mom. My mon had curled our hair and put the lotion on our hair. She told us to stay in the back yard and she would call us when it was time to rinae off lotion. We left the yard. I don't remember where we went, but awhile later Mom found ua, she was so mad at us that I got a spanking with a hair brush and my sister got one also. We had very frizzy hair.  CLEAREST SCENE: The spanking. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Sorry that we had left yard.  Subject:  2  Sex: Male 1.  PRIMARV LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION: SECONDARY LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION:  Age: 5 years DESCRIPTION:  Lying i n bed with my father and mother, with a very high Fever. Because o f t h i s fever, I had a t e r r i f y i n g i l l u s i n o n : — T h e s t a i r case at the end of the room had men who were part o f an A f r i c a n s a f a r i , f i g h t i n g o f f Lions with t h e i r bare hands. It seemed that the men were f i g h t i n g a l o s i n g b a t t l e , and i f they l o s t , i t would mean that I would be confronted with the L i o n s .  CLEAREST SCENE: Lions fighting men. Mother trying to calm me down with cool towels on the forehead. YOUR FEFLING DURING THIS SCENE: Terri fied. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: Men were going to lose this battle and seemed to be doing so. 2. Age: 6 years DESCRIPTION: A photograph was tn be taken of me sitting on a tricycle. but to no avail.  F protested bitterly  CLEAREST SCENE: sitting on the tricycle, making faces at the photographer. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: I was furious. I did not want my picture taken. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: I felt that I would get back at someone for this — revenge. 3. Age: 6-7 years DESCRIPTION: It was winter with below zero temperatures, (approx. 10^ below) I fell into water while playing with friends. I came into the house wet and frozen. Mother was furious. She had company and I walked in. I must have embarrased her completely.  CLEAREST SCENE: Mother stripping my clothes off me.—giving me a few choice words. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: I was cold, hungry and embarrassed. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: My pants were frozen solid and mother had difficulty taking them off. creased her temper.  This in-  84  PRIMARY  Subject:  3  LITE STYLE DESIGNATION:  Sex: Female 1.  SECONDARY  Age: 6 years  LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION:  INSCRIPTION:  During my Grade 1 year, we had a Remembrance Day service on November 11th. I took a nickel to school to buy my poppy but on the way. home From school, I lost it!' For two hours, I searched through the snow on the route to the school for the poppy. It was dark and cold and I was in mortal fear that I would be in trouble for losing something I had paid a whole 50 far. Crying and upset, a "big girl"she must have been in Grade 4 at least- asked me what was wrong. When I told her my ctory, she gave me her poppy and I was all excited to go home and show my ; mother my treasure- only to find, che was out in the snow looking for me because 1 was two hours late arriving home. CLEAREST SCENE: Being out in the snow during "dark time". YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Lost, miserable, scared, upset, cold MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: The girl giving me her poppy. 2. Age: * ?  e a r 3  DESCRIPTION: At age 5, the local furniture/toy delivery truck arrived at our door and the man came and took away my tricycle. This was most upsetting situation - my means of transportation with the rest of the kids. Two days later, the same man arrived with a new doll carriage. We lived in a small house that did not have accommodation for both toys so the tricycle was traded in on the doll carriage.  CLEAREST SCENE: The man taking off with my tricycle. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Sad, dejected, unloved MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: Being without a tricycle and having to be without a tricycle like the other kids. 3.  Age: 6 years  DESCRIPTION: When I was six, I went to an ice-cream parlour called the Blue Boy and had my first milkshake. It was served in the big aluminum container and that, plus a long straw, was too high for my short self to reach. I promptly knocked the whole mess over while trying to get onto my knees to drink it.  CLEAREST SCENE: Al] my family mopping up my delicious milkshake. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Clumsy, hungry, sad. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEHORY TO YOU: Can't really say, but think I was about 17 before I ever ordered another milkshake!  PRIMARY LIKE STYLE DESICCATION:  Subject: 4 Sex: 1.  SECONDARY LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION:  Male Age: 5 years  DESCRIPTION: My family and I were on our way home after visiting Neighbors. It was dusk and our mode of transport was a Bennet Buggy drawn by a team of horses. We were in our good clothes and as children were snuggled between our parents quite high in the rigg. I recall my baby sister in mothers arms and dad driving the horses The rumble of the buggy and my parents conversation were relaxing. All of a sudden the horses were startled and we were into a runaway situation. CLEAREST SCENE: My Dad being dragged by the lines ahead of the disconnected rigg. Expression of concern from my mother. Riding home in a car and sitting in the front seat. YOUR FEFLING DURING THIS SCENE: Fear for my Father.  Confused over my mothers panic.  Safe in the car.  MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: Good safe feeling in the car after the confusion. 2. Age: 7 r s y e a  DESCRIPTION: Sliding on rubbery ice with a group of kids during recess and falling through the ice into cold water. I was walked to the school house where I changed into the teachers (lady) slacks, a friends jacket and sat over the furnace register. Felt humiliated at having my long Johns hanging in front of my class friends. The teacher took me home on her horse. Both of us road the same horse. I was uncomfortable about this. I recall my mother serving the teacher tea and the teacher's pleasant conversation with my mother. CLEAREST SCENE: All vivid:  Falling in, sitting over the register, riding on horse with teacher.  YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Dreadful shock and helplessness when I fell in the water. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: The concern end kindness the teacher had for me. 3. Age: 7 years DESCRIPTION: Coming home from school and realizing something was dreadfully sad because my Grand Father was dying from a stroke he experienced. Going to his sick bed and being Alone with him. All he could do is turn his head, looked at me with glazed eyes and desperately moaned.  CLEAREST SCENE: my Grand Father looking at me in a helpless manner and moaning.  YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Helpless myself and confused because I enjoyed many experiences with him and he couldn't relate in my terms. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: The experession of my grandfather's love for me even though I didn't understand it at the time.  86  Subject: 5 Sex: Female 1.  Age: 6 years  PR[MAPv LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION: SECONDARY  LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION:  DESCRIPTION: Grade one. We had spent a lot of time making little figures, trees, houses, etc. with paper and coloring them to make a town on the large sand table at the back of the room. The teacher asked me and another child to choose the best ones and make the town. I tried really hard to pick the best ones and threw the others in a green garbage can placed right beside the table. After we had been working happily for awhile the teacher came back and got mad at me and sent me to the cloakroom. I went back ther, all alone, scared and bewildered. I couldn't understand what I had done to make her so angry. CLEARE5T SCENE: Quite happily picking the people and houses to make a nice town. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Total confusion, I had been doing what I was told and the teacher had gotten mad at me for it. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: It seems to me that I was learning not to try my best. I didn't understand about including kids that couldn't do as *el] as I-but that wasn't what I had been asked. 2. Age: j years DESCRIPTION: My mom sent me to the Pussy Gat Playschool which I loved. The school was in the basement of the teachers house and she was a piano teacher as well. One day we had to be tested for perfect pitch to see if we would be future music students as well, I guess. We all had to wait out in the hall, outside the piano room to wait our turn. When I went in she had us turn our back to the piano and sing intervals as she would play the first note. I did them all correctly.  CLEAREST SCENE: Looking at the pannelled ..'all and listening to the notes on the piano.  YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: I was a little nervous and excited waiting for my turn and then really happy that my teacher was so pleased with my performance. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: I think my happiness at having done so well. 3. Age: 8 years DESCRIPTION: I had gone to bed as usual one beautiful summer evening but couldn't sleep. I finally got up after tossing and turning for ages and wrapped my quild around me and came out of the bedroom. I was expecting to be marched right back to bed, but instead of doing that Mom and Dad told me to come with them. They took me out on the front porch and wrapped me up in the quilt. We sat for awhile looking up at the stars which were beautiful. Then I went back to bed to sleep. CLEAREST SCENE: Sitting on the porch with my parents beside me looking up at the beautiful night 9ky. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: I felt quite grown up to be allowed to stay up past my bedtime and very warm and secure. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YflU: How surprized I was to be allowed to stay up and how my parents seemed to understand about my not being able to sleep.  87  Subject:  PRIMARV LITE STYLE DESIGNATION:  6  Sex: Male 1. Age: 2-2*5 y e a r s  SECONDARY LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION:  DESCRIPTION: Rainy summer morning in a a small town with one main sLrest that has busy vehicle traffic connecting it to near-by villages. Mud splashing in to the air as trucks and C3rs going by. I am sitting in the dorrway of our house on that street covered only by a very light white night shirt, wondering where my mother is and watching the traffic and the mud flying.  CLEAREST SCENE: Trying to pull my night shirt over my toes to be covered completely. It i 3 too small and if I pull the front, the back slips up. Trying to squat as small as I can to make the shirt fit. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Cold and alone. Where is my mother? MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: I cannot stretch the shirt, can not make it fit. 2. Age: ^ * e a r s  DESCRIPTION: Visiting relatives in a small farming village on a hot fall Sunday afternoon. All the men relations (about 10 of them) sitting outside in the shade of a tree in their Sunday best arid drinking wine and talking. All the women (8-9 of them) sitting in another group in the shade brushing and spinning hemp for rope and weaveing string. (Not knowing any better use for the plants) Doing a job that allows for social gathering with out being idle.  LLLAKLJ1  bLLNL:  Hemp UUUt anU Hill hanging in the hot afternoon &ir mixed with the smell of wine and the sound of laughter. Being thrown up in the air repeatedly by older cousins in their late teens and wondering when I will hit the ground. YOUR FEELING OURING THIS SCENE: Very happy and feeling secure. Time seems to stand s t i l l but s t i l l wishing that we would not have to go home ever. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: The contrast between the cool relaxing shade with the smell of wine and noise 3qf Aqpqhter compared to the suffocatingly hot sunny areas. 3years DESCRIPTION: Being in a busy railway station with my Aunt who just got me a jacket with an outside breast-pocket. She is giving me a few coins and instructions to go to a counter and ask for a candy bar.  CLEAREST SCENE: letting the candy bar and putting it in my outside breast pocket and toddling back to where my Aunt is waiting for the train. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Feeling very grown up because everbody can see that I have a breast pocket that is bulging because of the candy bar. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: Going back to my Aunt and tripping over my own feet and losing the candy bar.  88  Subject:  7  Sex: Female 1.  Age:  5 year3  PRIMAPV LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION: SECONDARY  I IFE STYLE DESIGNATION:  DESCRIPTION: , Falling from 'monkey bars' on swing set and breaking my arm. I was begging, then demanding that my sister catch me as I hung by one arm from the bars — looking down to the ground. I warned her "I'm going to break my arm" but she didn't listen - I fell on my left arm - it broke in 3 places and I barely cried. I was so angry I just kept saying "I told you I would break my arm." I also remember being in hospital overnight and they kept waking me up. CLEAREST SCENE: Looking down to ground my arm trying to cling to bar as it begins to twist around and I begin loosing my grip. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: fear HOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: I think its funny that I vented my pain and fear in anger rather than crying and allowing myself to feel hurt. 2. Age: 5 years DESCRIPTION: rehearsing for and going to studio to do square dancing (on T.V.) with kindergarten class. -remeber the intensity of learning words and steps in classroom -my dress meant everything to me - it was beautiful -I would especially watch a Spanish Speaking classmate as I was fascinated by her beautiful dark complexion and jewelry (pierced ears-tiny necklace)  CLEAREST SCENE: -Acting out mntions and singing 0"Go in and out the windows"  YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: bliss and accomplished satisfaction MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: I was acting with independence, achievement, and feeling creative-singing and dancing. I was extremely proud. '• 6 or 7 years A a  e :  DESCRIPTION! Lying in a hospital room with several other people. Doctors and nurses around as well as my mother. I remember them putting the tubes into my urethra and the excruciating Pain. I felt very sick and helpless but people were kind and loving I didn't really understand what was going on.  CLEAREST SCENE: how I felt when they were inserting tubes YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: horendous pain and fear MOST SIGNIFICANT PART Of THE MEMORY TO YOU: The contrast of feelings - simultaneous pain and love/warmth from those around me.  89  Subject: Sex: 1.  8  Male  Age:  L I F E  -  PRIMARv DESIGNATION:  S T y L E :  SECONDARY LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION:  7 years  DESCRIPTION: I was in the habit of kissing my mom, before we left for school. During this period I was in love with my Grade two teacher. One day, out of habit (or wanten desire) I pushed my lips towards the Gr. 2 teacher, as I was leaving, school, as if she was my mom.  CLEAREST SCENE: Pushing my lips toward the teacher as I was leaving school. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: I was oblivious to the fuss I was creating among the other students. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: I turned scarlet, and was very embarassed. 2. Age: 6 years DESCRIPTION: While exploring the neighborhood one day my older brother tripped on some lumber and landed on a concrete spike.  CLEAREST SCENE: My brother fallin into the open pit. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: fear. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: The length of the spike 3. Age: 4 years DESCRIPTION: My older brother was crossing the street in front of grandma's house when he was struck by a car and dragged S block.  CLEAREST SCENE: Running out of the house to see what had happened. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: I felt a loss, as i f he was already dead. HOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YpU: When they brought him into the house bleeding.  90  PR/MARY  Subject: 9  LITE: STYLE DESIGNATION:  Sex: female  SECONDARY LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION:  1.  Age:  5 years  DESCRIPTION: I was walking borne From school, alone, hurrying because I had to go to the toilet! Suddenly — it was too late— I messed my pants! At that moment I heard footsteps running from behind and a girl from the neighborhood caught up with me and said "wait for me, I'll walk with you." She was 10 or 11, and I really admired her, and was flattered that she wanted to walk with me — but, I didn't want her to know my predicament! I survived the walk down the hill to my house, but suffered agonies in the process! My father was at home, and stood me on a sheet of newspaper in the open kitchen doorway to wash me; that, however, didn't embarass me at alll CLEAREST SCENE: The moment when this girl caught up to me and began to walk beside me. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Acute embarrassment and discomfort. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: Sorry, I really don't know. 2. Age: 3 ? years DESCRIPTION: During the war, in England, we had frequent air raids. I remember one such time in the late winter afternoon, I think because it wa3 almost dark, and instead of going directly to the air raid shelter, I went first to the other end of the gardent to collect Lhe 3 baby ducklings we kept there in an old bath tub. My mother was angry and shouted at me, but I had no sense of fear or danger at the time. CLEAREST SCENE: Trying to hold all 3 ducklings at once, as I knew I wouldn't get a chance to make a second trip to their pond! YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Mild panic, as Iknew I had to hurry; but it was fear of my parents anger, not fear of the danger of bombings. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: The total absence of any sense of danger. 3. Age: 6 years DESCRIPTION: Walking with my mother and another woman, on our way to visit my aunt. mother was talking about the birth a few months earlier of my sister. heard some of her remarks, and as a result I imagined babies were born plastic bags, filled with water, and that the top of the bag had to be open with scissors very quickly, or the baby would drown.  My I overin cut  CLEAREST SCENE: The clearest part of this incident is actually the visual memory of the alleyway along which we were walking, beside railway tracks. I can s t i l l see the stones, patches of grass and a single cement step, and feel the warmth of the sun. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Great curiosity! MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: It't interesting, looking back, to note that I never even considered asking my mother, then or later, any questions about childbirth.  Subject: Sex: 1.  10  Female  PRIMARY LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION: SECONDARY LIFE STYLE DESIGNATION:  Age: * years  DESCRIPTION: I remember a ballet class. Perhaps I had been 2 or 3 times already, I don't remember. The thing I remember most is the new dark green ballet dress my mother had made for me. All the children had the same outfit, and we were learning how to point our toes. The building was old and smelled old. I didn't know anyone in my class.  CLEAREST SCENE: Standing in front of the mirror, facing South, in my new green ballet dress. My mother was at the back of the room watching the class. YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: I was nervous because I didn't know any of the children, but felt important because I had the required green dress. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: Probably the fact that it may have been the first class of any sort I had attended t Age: a„-. 3 . years so it has stayed in my mind. I. DESCRIPTION: I re~ember I had just gotten a new bed. I suppose I was in a crib before this time. My mother was washing windows outside. I think she had a scarf on her head. I was crying. My mother suggested I was tired, and would tuck me into my new bed for a nap.  CLEAREST SCENE: My mother kneeling down washing a basement window from the outside.  YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: I had nothing to do. I wanted some attention. I remember crying. I didn't want my mother to wash tlie window. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: When my mother suggested the nap , the fact that she was going to come and cover me up and make comfortable was a good feeling. Maybe because it was a new bed '• *98: 5 years I was excited about sleeping in it. DESCRIPTION; We had a back lane behind our house, and 2 doors down on the opposite side of the lane, was where my fiiend lived. In order to get to her house I had to pass a home with a dog. The dog was always in the backyard - fenced in, but barking. I was always afraid of dogs, especially this one. I would run past the house, screaming, and fell on the gravel grazing both my knees.  CLEAREST SCENE: Running as fast as I could, with the dog at my heels, screaming.  YOUR FEELING DURING THIS SCENE: Absolute terror that the dog would bite me. MOST SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE MEMORY TO YOU: I don't remember i f I was afraid of dogs before this time, but after this I never got over the fear. I was attacked by a dog aa well in my early teens.  92 APPENDIX 3  LIFESTYLE  Harold H. Mosak  An  Individual's  acting,  thinking  framework  central While  may  not  a c t s congruently his  he  life  a with  throughout  Since  the  which "law  operations  scheme, his  behavior  verbal a  and  unifying  is  bound  movement".  interprets,  he  and we can  in  Through  e a r l y and remaining f a i r l y  individual  the  understood.  lifestyle,  forms  of  cognitive  expresses  his  of  constant  controls,  and  experience. the  apperception"  conditions  of  lifestyle  to  a  can be  observing  individual  an  It  apperceptive  The  "style  specific  tasks.  aware  through  developed  life,  relationship  however,  this  gestalt,  t h i s framework,  predicts  within  the  behavior  completely  behavior.  principle, accordance  be  his  constitutes  selects  cope with  lifestyle  nonverbal  life  perceiving,"  which  him to  (Lebenssti1),  theme through which h i s  he  deduce  and  within  which enable  Life-Style  lifestyle to  life,  contain  may held  persist i n the  is  a  subjective  conclusions fictional in  a r r i v e d at elements.  assuming  lifestyle  tasks and f i n d h i s p l a c e  view  that  of  through The only  When l i f e  in  "biased  individual, under  can he adequately  in l i f e .  self  the  cope with  puts him to  93 the  test,  resort  to  evasion and  he f r e q u e n t l y behavior  of  life  protect  tasks,  nonconstructive  coincide  which  his  convictions,  finds  himself mistaken.  he  presumes  provide  an excuse  self-esteem.  behavior  and  we  can  Both  emanate  cannot  with a given  will  lifestyle.  facilitate  for  that  the  evasion,  constructive from  predict  He may then  the  which  and  lifestyle  behavior  We can speak  only  will  of more  or l e s s probable s e l e c t i o n s of b e h a v i o r . Probable lifestyles  The  behaviors  may be d e s c r i b e d as  "getter"  actively  or  exploits  passively  tends to view l i f e feels  entitled.  intimidation his  as  and  with  commonly  follows:  manipulates  putting  others  life  into  and  his  methods  employ of  charm,  He i s  by He  to which he  shyness,  operation.  others  service.  as u n f a i r for denying him that He may  observed  temper,  or  insatiable  in  getting.  The  "driver"  is  overconscientiousness permit him to r e s t . it  associated  may  nurses  be) a  that  on  life him.  "controller"  is  generally  motion.  to h i s  day  he  dies.  "nothing",  His  goals r a r e l y  i f he wants to " i t "  is  (whatever  Underneath and  he  his  overt,  to  control  not  control  counterphobic.  either  or one who wishes to He  the  he  in  dedication  He a c t s as  overambitious behavior i s The  man  and h i s  completed fear  the  a person  ensure  dislikes  that  who wishes life  surprises,  will  controls  his  94 spontaneity, lessen  and hides  his  his  feelings  control.  intellectualization, With  his  godlike  As  all  of  substitutes  rightness, striving  since  he  orderliness,  for  these may  and  perfection,  favors neatness.  he  depreciates  others. The  person  others  who  whom  "needs  he  rationalizes  that  treats  right  and  issues  in  absence of  be  arranges  s c r u p u l o u s l y avoids  a  to  to  error.  situation  elevates  perceive  as  himself  being  Should he be caught  others  are  wrong  right"  as  even  if  and  more  they  cannot  were  wrong  tolerate  wrong.  He  in error,  he  than  the  only  he w i l l  He may devote  endeavors  -  achieving  underground b u r i a l . being  He  important or  an  guidelines.  arena where  "best".  he.  ambiguity  The person who "needs to be s u p e r i o r " may refuse life  over  first  or  If  best,  not be seen as himself the  to  he  often  "center"  socially  record  he cannot  the  for  settles  or  a the  nonconstructive  number  attain  to enter  of  days  superiority for  being  of  through last  or  worst. The person who "needs to be l i k e d " f e e l s everyone he  feels  constant carefully shifts sees  all  the  time.  crushed  in  order  Particularly sensitive  when  approval.  he  does  He t r a i n s to  evaluations  receive to  what  might  discover  of  not  himself  from p o s i t i o n to p o s i t i o n the  r e q u i r e d to  others  read  as  the  to c r i t i c i s m , universal other,  please  i n an attempt  please  and  people  them  and  to p l e a s e .  He  yardsticks  of  his  95 worth. 7.  The person who "needs to be good" p r e f e r s moral  standard  than  his  contempories.  standards are higher than God's, forgive  trespasses  may serve may  not  as  he,  an instrument  only  discourage  that  elevate  the  since  over  " i n f e r i o r " person,  The person who "opposes"  for  something.  policies  of  opposing  but  He only  others.  "Mother deafness" 9.  Everything  of  of  accident.  This  but  frequent  goodness  so  may  the  chaser".  nobility,  device  of  life  demands or  the  expects  program i n which h he he  is  behave  or a c t i v e l y Associated  Secondarily,  he  wife.  against  the  passively, the  "victim"  self-pity,  that  actually  not  demands  sometimes he  pursues  of  the  he may seek  the  or  openly others. type.  called  characteristics  resignation,  stands  wishes  not uncommon in c h i l d r e n of t h i s  Innocently  "disaster  feeling  is  a  circumventing  befalls  schlimazel.  knows  He may  merely  others  these  i f God w i l l  superiority  everything  of him r a r e l y possess a p o s i t i v e  Sometimes  cannot.  for moral  himself  l i v e by higher  he acts as  himself,  "model c h i l d " or the a l c o h o l i c ' s 8.  to  the  vocation may be  a  or proneness  to  sympathy or p i t y  of  others. 10.  The "martyr" i s , Tlhe  "martyr"  "dies", His goal that  of  the is  also  i n some r e s p e c t s , suffers,  "martyr" the  dies  attainment  "injustice  s i m i l a r to the " v i c t i m " .  but whereas for of  collector".  a  cause  nobility,  the or  " v i c t i m " merely for  and h i s  a principle. vocation  Some martyrs a d v e r t i s e  is  their  96 suffering further  to  an unconcerned  injustice;  others  audience,  enhance  thus  their  accusing  them of  n o b i l i t y by  silently  enduring and s u f f e r i n g . 11.  The "baby" f i n d s h i s p l a c e and  the  exploitation  pitched,  and  childlike.  the  12.  he  The "inadequate" right.  Through  his  activities  to  The  lacks  who  being  social  "avoids  he or  and  He holds that  he  his  do  is  family  anything  others  he  may  c e r t a i n he w i l l is  high  condition. cannot  awkward;  is  speech  in  indentures  presence  and  feels  techniques  "excitement  the  reason  valued  When l i f e  if  as  his  limit  his  succeed;  given him.  feelings"  where i n t e l l e c t u a l  activities,  as  his  baby  i n f e r i o r i t y , he i s  situations  The  the  voice  Since  his.  the paradigm of  the  may  fear  which might move him in d i r e c t i o n s  intellectualization, 14.  of  responsibility  preplanned.  rational  meter  cuteness,  complex.  person  not  his  those few where he i s  whenever  spontaneity has  acts  clumsy  behavior p r o c l a i m s h i s  13.  been  default,  He may be  inferiority  and  Often  i s not a necessary  person  servants.  he may f a i l  has  but t h i s  through charm,  others.  intonation  Often  constellation,  of  in l i f e  are  conviction  can  solve  all  man i s  problems. only  in  is prized.  logic,  own  for which he that  comfortable  expression  his  a He  those  His most  rationalization,  and " t a l k i n g a good game". seeker"  despises  seeks novel experiences,  becomes d u l l ,  he s t i m u l a t e s  routine  and  and r e v e l s  repetitive  i n commotion.  or provokes i t  i n order  97 to  create  people he  excitement.  and often  can  rely  to  He  behavior  him  search  any  life  achievements parental  is  is  involve  -  holistic, through  through  a  his  others  Some  and  lifestyle  either  past  variety  language,  collect  early  of  or  are  order,  deficiencies,  outlook  and  may be current  recollections,  and  sibling  parent-child  family  interpreted.  to e l i c i t  find  behavioral  i n f o r m a t i o n concerning h i s  birth  relationships,  recollections activity  and  current  excitement.  Some A d l e r i a n s who do a formal a n a l y s i s  lifestyle  constellation  do not  for  r u m i n a t i o n , or m a s t u r b a t i o n .  gestures,  narrative.  client's  his  point  and  manifestations,  in  however,  individual  -  other  assist  through f e a r s ,  at  of  i n league with others on whom  excitement  assessed  presence  himself  seekers,  the  the  places  excitement  Since  requires  goals  climate. the  The goal  of a  family  relationships, relationships, To understand client's  of  or  this  the p a t t e r n of l i v i n g - the  early  diagnostic lifestyle.  98 APPENDIX 4  INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE INTERPRETATION  1.  Insure  that  you have  the s u p p l i e d tape  available  OF EARLY RECOLLECTIONS  a tape  r e c o r d e r along  cassettes.  2.  Read through the 3 ERs of the f i r s t case s t u d y .  3.  Formulate  your  representations 4.  5.  Indicate  which  ideas  as  to  and p a t t e r n s case  number  the  main  themes,  you  are  doing  and  Style choice,  on  the  the  of  available possibilities  If  cassette.  you are unsure of  You may use  the  significant  for t h i s p e r s o n .  above thoughts along with your L i f e tape  with  record  the  and reasons  number from  the  list  your  best  from Mosak's a r t i c l e . Life  Style  type  record  approximation as the primary d e s i g n a t i o n and g i v e  one or two  others as your secondary d e c i s i o n s . 6.  Indicate  these d e c i s i o n s  on the a c t u a l case study sheet and  continue to the next s u b j e c t ' s ERs.  99 5  APPENDIX  OUTLINE  OF  Introduction person's  to Early  present  different cannot  from  8  most  Early  of themselves  have  and  happened  INTERPRETATION  memories  reflect  and t h e w o r l d .  (information  visualize)  o n how  they  from  a  They a r e  have  been  incidents  that  to the subject  to e l i c i t  ERs from  t o a s k f o r ERs, g e t t i n g moment  information rarely  generally  style.  told  and  occurred  before  and  the  clients. enough  This  detail,  feelings  interpretation.  positive  or e x i s t e n t i a l .  t h e most  t h e age  involved selecting  associated  what  identify  specific  attitudes  about  theme  The is  into  either such  interact  of  ERs  with  of  often  ER  given  indicating are  life  selectively  today.  should  be  examined  expressed  and  first  to  secondly  to  present. six different  my as  with  are  The f i r s t  t h e ER  t o us  being  details  fall  of statements "I  importance  ERs  i n terms  a l l aspects  process.  determine  themes  important  that  for their  Interpretation  The  o n ER  Remember  remembered  by  Recollections.  report  poignant  negative;  form  IN ER  moment.  General  is  PROGRAM  years.  l e a r n i n g , how  this  a  They  Information  the  view  actually  repeatedly. of  THE T R A I N I N G  self  o r my  " I am others  types  world. "I cope  by  ..." and  which These with "Life  indicate take  the  problems is  100 "the Ideal l i f e The  is  .  specific  and "the Dangers i n l i f e  details  to  recognize  are  people mentioned are prototypes of people is  often  a  key  participant context  point),  or p a s s i v e  of  the  as  strong  stance  observer)  recollection  present or absent, such  the  etc.)  smallness,  of  is  or  is valuable,  others  the  attitudes.  closed  the  increase  the  important  to the  It  is  feeling  a l l of  This  is  information  was  given  from Olson  identify  weak  or  a r t i s t i c or ERs  element  being  the  for  themes  i n f o r m a t i o n for to  the  client  person to add a sense of ownership and modified  to come up with a f i n a l  continued  others  between  presented  acceptable v e r s i o n .  P r a c t i c e s e s s i o n u s i n g sample ERs.  taken  found  particular  integrate  interpretation.  first  people  and any great amount  patterns that  or  individual.  and then to  a complete  together  of  place  spaces,  important to examine each ER s e p a r a t e l y  and d e t a i l s  i n the  liklihood  (active  r e l a t i o n s h i p s to  has meaning,  Any  (gender  subject  of d e t a i l or c o l o u r sense can represent c r e a t i v e , idealistic  specific  in general  l o o k i n g down on o t h e r s ,  compared to  that  important,  (open  are  the  and d i s c u s s e d  (1979)  were  each  trainee  until major  After  themes  used  the  a number of  above  sample ERs  to p r a c t i c e s k i l l s .  was  and some  able of  the  to  This  consistantly  specific  details  present. Assignment of LS theme from Mosak elucidated  by  Mosak  were  read  (1971). over  and  The  14  compared  types to  the  101  interpretations process  was  derived  done  accuracy of theme  briefly  from and  assignment.  the  above  without  sample  any  ERs.  method  to  This check  102 APPENDIX 5A  REVISED TRAINING PROGRAM IN ER INTERPRETATION  This  revised  originates A  longer  from  training  program  the r e s u l t s  period  was  in  observed  thought  ER  interpretation  in this  to be  current  necessary  study.  (4-7  hours)  coupled with more e x t e n s i v e p r a c t i c e and feedback s e s s i o n s . Before any t r a i n i n g the  trainees  private  logic,  Dreikurs, prepare  the  three  specific  Mosak,  trainees  i t i s important Adlerian  and l i f e  1977;  Shulman,  f o r an  the  style  (Adler,  1973).  introduction  previous  program  to  would  the technigue  to that  developed  where s p e c i f i c  The should  complete this  crucial  by Kopp and Der  questions and  are asked  richer  technique  for later  last  will  what  of e l i c i t i n g  similar  results  This  early  then  the process would need to be lengthened.  practice  1958;  The steps one  clients  elaborate,  on  remain  the same.  In t e a c h i n g t r a i n e e s  used  to have  references  are and why they are important. in  essentially  some  p e r s o n a l goals,  1967;  recollections and  read  is initiated  with  ERs. each  other,  from  A technique  (1979) should be  which The  ERs  produce  trainees  more should  recording  the  analysis. stage  involving  from 2-4 hours.  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  The approach  process  would be s i m i l a r to  that given i n Appendix 5 (step 4) with these  additions:  103  1.  Begin  2.  Go  using  written  through  each  am...", " L i f e why 3.  you  ER  aloud  of 4.  5.  cue  or  the  it  be  would  Finally,  amongst  provide  the  in  set.  the  major  specific  different  each  trainees  statements  repeated  ER.  inorder  the  This  theme  ("I  examples  for  metaphors  Compare to  or  individual  increase  their  perceptions.  astute  to  observer  provided  in  trainees  the use  provided  their  level  familiarize  of  current  study  of metaphors,  the  to  the  process  modify  array  and  their  only  to  of  weaknesses  were  Again  ERs.  trainee  vast  primary  putting  using  interpretations  inorder  the  ERs  details.  this  their  encourage  The  step the  Mosak's s y s t e m  discussing  feedback  user  from  practice out  of  or  adjust  be  a  partial  more  information  found  lack  and  of use  in  the  examples, of  a l l of  ERs.  last  and  and  set  specific  examples  test  should  ERs.  in  ineffective  The  receive  approach  each the  should  will  them  This  to use  trainees  other.  about  themes and  important  allow  one  in a  giving  and  list  found  overall  together  the  etc.)  ERs  recognition.  Make  each  3-5  decision.  representations observations  of  separately  is...",  made t h i s  Note  samples  two and  in  the  students (1971)  hours.  training with  typologies  in s p e c i f i c . The  understanding  time how  process  This would each  would  in  should be  "type"  be  general take  spent  to and  between reading,  encapsulates  a  104 feature  of  life  style.  The p r e v i o u s l y  would be re-examined with t h i s in  the  Mosak,  ER would Schneider,  a number of  The  and Mosak  of ERs  to  features  (1980)  in  the  typologies.  have a good workbook with "types"  in practice sessions  identified.  to develop s k i l l  These in  this  of ER i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . suggestions  deficiencies The  related  samples  added p e r s p e c t i v e and elements  sample ERs with t h e i r  should be used aspect  be  used  degree  above  compensate  found i n the t r a i n e e s of  implementation.  success  of  this  for  the  observed  performance i n t h i s program  must  await  study. future  105 6  APPENDIX  TRANSCRIPT  Cl  first  horizontal; fear Men of  this  ER  little  and l o s s fight  INTERPRETER  COMMENTS  2:  on s u b j e c t The  OF  has  bare  world.  sense  and w i t h  of control  with  a  parents.  o f own  hands  There  of  fate.  inadequacy; The  are  two  illusion  The w o r l d  (not p r o p e r l y  carries  is a  eguipped)  issues  being  here:  jungle.  the  lions  control  and  inadeguacy. In for a  ER  two  posterity.  high  amount  entitlement. The of  the photograph  many  of  ER  and  When  active  shows I am  etc.  Life  than  i s more  A  no  revenge.  of being control.  It  i f i t doesn't  i s a g o my  subject  person  revenge,  with  strong  can handle-even  of others,  even  recorded There  i s  question  of  way.  to the exigencies  and wet, I g e t b l a s t e d .  protest,  people  i n d e n t u r e a number  display;  the c l i e n t  cold  verbs:  embarrassed,  to  anger  I c a n g e t even  third  nature.  It i s apublic  i s a means  There a r e  frozen,  furious,  emotional  movement.  mom.  mom;  He  this  also  tries  i s typical  of  inadeguacy.  C2  on s u b j e c t I'm  looked  2:  vulnerable.  after,  In  or people  order should  to have be  a  place  concerned  I  about  should me.  be  Life  106 is do,  dangerous:  men are weak;  are overpowering.  I need women to  wrong to embarrass o t h e r s , Control-I bit  of  life  strong,  know what  look a f t e r  from t h i r d ER, p o s s i b l y  should be i n c o n t r o l but I c a n ' t .  inadequacy.  control  women are  but  Not  wanting  there's  no  The only way I can c o n t r o l me; on my own others  photograph  possibility,  life  is  me.  It  to is  weak. Possibly a  of  me-I  others  try  to  take  over.  to have women look  after  are in c o n t r o l .  C3 on s u b j e c t 2 : Victim: revenge  I  victim  in the second.  Inadequate: third  saw  ER.  "I  in  first  plus  A l s o v i c t i m i n the  F e e l i n g s of  am unable  to  rebellion  third.  inadequacy i n the  stave  and  first  these men o f f " .  and the Falls  in  creek and gets in t r o u b l e . Excitement:  Tl  A random shot,  p o s s i b l y not  valid.  on s u b j e c t 2 : In  the  first  inept p r o t e c t o r s .  ER, others The world i s  and I am p o t e n t i a l l y alone The  second  receiving expectation  my  are  ER has fury.  others  and I am vengeful  and  potentially  t e r r i f y i n g and a b a t t l e g r o u n d  (one  The  nurturers  fighter). disregarding  world  is  a  my  place  and n o n - c o o p e r a t i v e .  needs of  and  unfair  A passive  resistor. In the  third  ER, others  are  inept  protectors  or minimal  107  caretakers.  The world  a  embarrassement  source  of  is  harsh,  c o l d and dangerous and I am  and  shame.  getter  (gets  mom  me-life  is  I  am inadequate  to  care for m y s e l f . A  opposer,  in  service  through  inadequacy) .  T2 on s u b j e c t Life passive  2:  opposes manner  when  people  a are  struggle. against  I  resist  me.  He  seeks revenge without doing anything to o b t a i n Opposer are  with  struggling  examples  against  there and be t e r r i f i e d He j u s t revenge.  sat  there  In the  frozen and t h i s  T3 on s u b j e c t  in  all  three  lions" and  is  somewhat  glad  out.  Cl  action  myself.  I can a c t i v a t e  on s u b j e c t  looking  rescued.  can  just  In the  lay  second,  thought  that  men  parents  about were  2:  When  I  get  into  When I get trouble  angry I  mom helps me  her.  3:  A classic and  first,  increased mom's anger.  When I am scared mom helps me o u t . take  I  upon being photographed but he  constantly  In  and others comfort me.  last  a  it.  ER.  losing.  in  in  victim. the  dark  The c l e a r e s t  In  the  first  and c o l d . scene  is  ER she Full  snow  but  of  lost  the poppy  fear  most  and  then  significant  108 part All  i s being  given  the poppy.  This  excitement  i s dashed.  the emotions are about being l o s t , miserable, upset, e t c .  except  the one p o i n t of excitement.  Life  i s an overwhelming  exper ience. In  the second  tricycle-no control. unloved, ER,  ER  she  experiences  The emotional  the l o s s  content  i s sad, d e j e c t e d ,  and h e l p l e s s .  again,  of the  In the t h i r d  even while doing  the r i g h t  thing,  I feel  clumsy,  hungry and sad. Life  i s one s u c c e s s i v e mess  want are beyond my own reach. victimization; To be l i k e d  C2  getting,  Overall  too ( d o l l  another. there  Things  I  i s a sense of  c a r r i a g e and new  poppy).  i s very weakly p r e s e n t .  on s u b j e c t 3: General  careful.  scenes:  People  (1)  I  are h e l p f u l .  others are concerned.  (2)  am  decide small  important  and c a r e l e s s .  taller,  I am h e l p l e s s .  in life  In order  I  should  be  In order  to have  Men are i n c o n t r o l .  Others  and I a c c e p t .  to have a p l a c e  (3)  I should  I am b be  bigger.  Inadequate; poppy  things  careless,  When one does wrong women or  a p l a c e I should be l i k e o t h e r s .  and even  control, and  after  The gone  common from  theme  in a l l :  home too long;  I am out of c o n t r o l ;  third,  being  first,  losing  second,  others i n  small,  inadeguate  c a r e l e s s and m i s s i n g out on s p e c i a l t h i n g s .  109  C3 on s u b j e c t Getter:  3: S i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of f i r s t  ER i s  someone "giving  her the poppy". Victim:  Sense of v i c t i m i z a t i o n -upset and u n l o v e d .  l o s s of the  tricycle.  Driver: pursuit  of  Some of  goal.  everything's  the d r i v e r i n f i r s t  She  is  too b i g for her; she t r i e s  on s u b j e c t First  and my t h i n g s  the  last  in  one,  and goofs up.  Wanting to know the  Others are h e l p f u l or p o t e n t i a l  The world i s  full  without  treasures.  advertise  in  rests  rules.  3:  ER:  the  ER, never  overly ambitious;  Wanting to be r i g h t :  Tl  The  givers;  punishers,  of e l u s i v e I  godlike,  treasures show  concerned with me authorities.  and I am unworthy and  off;  use  being  upset  to  my h e l p l e s s n e s s .  Second ER: my t h i n g s .  Others are concerned with and i n c o n t r o l  The world i s  r e q u i r e s a trade o f f .  limited,  possibly  I am unloveable  of  for  treasures  and  without  my t h i n g s  and  my goodies;  the  i n a down p l a c e . Third world i s off;  ER:  limited,  Others  are  possible  concerned  with  for t r e a s u r e s  and r e q u i r e s a trade  I am a messmaker coming from a down p l a c e . The  doesn't  subject feel  is  entitled.  a  getter,  concerned  Victim:  feels  with  unworthy.  getting  and  110  T2 on s u b j e c t  3:  The tape d i d not record t h i s T3 on s u b j e c t I  3:  had a b i g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y but I blew i t  unfair  and  hard  unable to do i t  on s u b j e c t First  situation. life  again.  r i g h t ; others help me out when I blow i t .  do i t  Cl  one r e p o r t .  to  right.  ER:  A  am so  is  very  clumsy  and  Inadequate.  common  You are  Second ER:  scene  proceeding  of  control;  comfortably  a  runaway  down the  road of  loved ones when suddenly  even mom i s  Third  I  because  can't  4:  i n company of  control;  cope' with  Life  I  things  go out  of  concerned.  U n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y and l o s s of c o n t r o l .  ER:  F a c i n g death,  the  ultimate  loss  of  control.  He f e e l s h e l p l e s s and confused. Definitely a  sense  of  inadequacy sensitivity  helplessness and to  place, possibly  I  be  (I  The secondary  go  liked;  along  present  for  the  themes would be ride)  in a n e g a t i v e  equal way  to  as  a  to  have  a  end  it  is  to c r i t i c i s m .  C2 on s u b j e c t First  a controller.  4:  ER: should  I am safe be  close  and c o n t e n t . to  others.  the beginning of another ER.  In order At  the  I am h e l p l e s s which  is  Ill  a l s o present Second  in the next two ERs. ER:  I am h e l p l e s s .  should look n i c e , and  helpful.  respectable  Women or  In order  to  have  or a p p r o p r i a t e .  people  are  a place  I  Women are kind  interested  and enjoy  one  another. Third  ER:  confusing.  control;  confused  can  you  here  life You  and  concerned.  of  surprises;  out  of  Life  is  in c o n t r o l . first,  control;  people  third,  out  control,  nothing he could do.  feeling  (2) v i c t i m ;  with  is  than f i r s t  is  do.  full  he  and h e l p l e s s ,  and  Remember  is  second,  ER he  helpless  an element of being not  life  Much l e s s second  am  There i s  Control: of  I  theme i s  (1)  uncomfortable  was p e r f e c t fall  into  grandfather  and  to be  liked  and being  poor  water-what me  I  go can  can't  in  the  embarrassed;  and then t h i n g s the  ;  do  bad-what you  do.  anything  either.  C3 on s u b j e c t 4: All  the  helplessness: one f e e l  Tl  the  represent runaway  some  situation  out  of  and  the  control lness, last  ER where  h e l p l e s s and confused.  To be liked;  ERs  liked:  not  strong  but with  teacher  g r a n d f a t h e r - a n i c e snuggle with parents  a need  to  be  i n f i r s t ER.  on s u b j e c t 4: First  ER:  Others  are  protectors  and  appeart  to  be  in  112 control world  but is  basically  potential center-a  helpless  danger.  in  the  face  comfortable I  have  of but  a place  the  unexpected.  full  quite  of  high  unexpected, and  ER:  deathbed.  the  i n the  face  unexpected.  Third  world  front  Others are p r o t e c t o r s and c a r e t a k e r s of me.  The world has unexpected shocks and I am h e l p l e s s the  in  star.  Second ER:  of  The  Others are  Others have  strikes  people  concerned with me even  on  their  l i m i t e d power and are h e l p l e s s .  down and I am h e l p l e s s  in  the  The  face  of  world. The themes are s u p e r i o r and v i c t i m .  T2 on s u b j e c t 4: Life  is  Bad t h i n g s getting the  full  of unexpected  are always  others  to  accidents  coming along,  often  comfort and make me f e e l  and sudden scary.  shocks.  I cope by  safe.  Theme  is  victim.  T3 on s u b j e c t 4: I  like  to  be  warm  and  g i v e s me s t a r t l i n g experiences means s i t u a t i o n s  that  safe  and  comfortable  which leave me h e l p l e s s .  I do not have any c o n t r o l  that  I can do nothing I am resigned to the  like  that.  Theme i s  victim.  but  fact  over. that  life This  Seeing life  is  113 Cl  on s u b j e c t  5:  Overall superior.  impression  is  the  need  to  be  right,  not  But j u s t be r i g h t and have others be wrong. ,  First  ER:  I select  the garbage where  they  and those not belong.  measuring  Different  up go  standards  into  from me  are b e w i l d e r i n g and c o n f u s i n g . Second  ER:  comparisons,  Themes  right;  to  doing  it  perfectly.  No  as an a d u l t .  be  not l i k i n g my work)  First  are  I am accepted  are  C2 on s u b j e c t  place  in  j u s t me doing u i t up to a s t a n d a r d .  T h i r d ER:  teacher  Delight  liked  a  weak  and no t h i r d  second  (  from  theme seen.  5:  ER:  In general  I should do the  confusing  and  I am confused.  right  not  thing  clear.  I  In order to have a  or please do  wrong  others. when  People  others  are  unclear. Second ER: do things  I am happy.  right.  Life  interested  in  element  needing  of  In order to have a p l a c e  is exciting  me when to  I  do  be  the  best  and people right  support and are  thing.  compared  to  I must  Possibly  the  other  an  kids,  etc. T h i r d ER: I  am accepted  accepting. Themes  I am content for  what  The world i s are:  need  or s p e c i a l .  I am.  People  interesting to  be  liked  I have a p l a c e when are  understanding  and  and e x c i t i n g . (when  I  do  the  right  114 thing),  to be r i g h t  (others are even more wrong than me),  and  superior.  C3 on s u b j e c t First  ER:  because of be  good  5:  the  Right  away  injustice  of  because  she  I see the  thinks  the  need  thing.  she  to  Possible  did  be  right,  the  everything  need  right  to and  everybody e l s e go mad. Second ER: best-This  We see  might  be  the element of s u p e r i o r i t y - t h e what  is  confusing  me  center  with  moral  superiority. Third  ER:  denigrates  She  is  s u r p r i s e d her  was  are so  fair-he  right  because  them.  The f i n a l d e c i s i o n "I  parents  correct"  in  for  the  the  first  theme i s ER and  to be  I  was  surprised  that  parents d i d what was c o r r e c t i n t h i r d ER and i n the second ER I got  them a l l  superiority  Tl  The other  themes might  be  5:  ER:  Others are makers,  encouragers/discouragers. unreasonable evaluator  possible  and to be good.  on s u b j e c t First  correct.  expectations  The and  doers,  world  is  rule  setters,  unclear  I am c o o p e r a t i v e ,  a  and  and has  pleaser,  and a judge.  Second  ER:  Others are encouragers  and t e s t o r s and e v a l u a t o r s .  (of my  independence)  The world expects p e r f e c t i o n  in  115 performance  and I am a  Third  ER:  Others  unpredictable  with  is  beauty  a place  of  pleaser. accept  respect  to  and  their  comfort  me  expectations.  and I a p p r e c i a t e  beauty  and  and  are  The world expect/look  for a p p r o v a l . The  themes  expectations perform  are:  and  right;  (1)  approval;  and  (3)  to  through moral  superiority.  T2 on s u b j e c t  5:  You have  to  approval  of  doing the is  be  others,  right  I  want  be  right.  to  be  focused  right,  superior,  You do  on  others  importance  rationalized  the  right  authority  errors  thing  figures.  to  to  seek  I cope by  even more wrong.  5: to  like  (2)  liked,  t h i n g and seeking approval and the person who  do  when others don't I  be  especially  c r i t i c i z i n g me i s  T3 on s u b j e c t  to  to  the  right  thing  understand me. be  put  apart  and  I  I don't  because  it  get  very  confused  think t h a t ' s is  important  fair. that  others approve of what I do. I like  it  grown up l i k e It  Cl  is  if  I were a  them.  important to p l e a s e other  on s u b j e c t First  when mom and dad understand me as  people.  6:  ER:  "I  can't  make  ends meet"  is  body  language.  116 The  feeling  Scene  has  is a  observer.  different  lot  of  I don't  Second  ER:  action  fit,  language.  the  of  Third  ER:  sex  fit.  I enjoy being  he  I'm o u t s i d e  but  not  roles  Women are  g i v e the tasks to do.  action-He is  He  person  from  a doer.  the  is  workers  colours  atmosphere.  My l i f e  an  and  and the  of a t t r a c t i o n  and He i s  is  full  of  segregated.  p r o v i d e r s and  I am small and incompetent  the center  fit.  looking i n .  seem stereotyped the  doesn't  sitting.  A very companiable  action  marked c o n t r a s t s ;  the  and  An a r t i s t i c  descriptive center  from  and I d o n ' t  and I am a good  observer. The themes are baby; inadeguate and a poor f o u r t h i s  C2 on s u b j e c t First place  I  (I a l s o mess up);  victim  getter.  6:  ER:  observe  I  am small exciting  and a l o n e . things.  In  The  order  world  to  have  a  is  exciting.  are s o c i a b l e .  Men have  is e x c i t i n g .  To have a  Women should be near by. Second ER: a special place  p l a c e and women work.  I should be p a r t of  up i n the a i r ) . Third place  I am small and people  ER:  The  in  excitement  (from being  I would l i k e to have more d e t a i l I am small  I should show people  believe  the  Life  and s p e c i a l .  of  In order  I can do t h i n g s  to  by m y s e l f .  thrown this. have  a  Women  me but I d o n ' t measure up.  themes are  excitement  (train  station  is  exciting);  117  baby  (thrown i n a i r and smallness  and maybe to be r i g h t but t h i s  C3 on subject First waiting  i s common to a l l three ER);  i s a long  6:  ER:  Baby p o s s i b l y  from an attempt  attention  ER:  and  Baby  here  also  from  Here he goofs up i n the  The themes are baby; inadequate, but not  very s o l i d ;  getter  ER:  is  sensual alone  Second oriented.  and g e t t e r .  end.  from f i r s t  I always  and t h i r d ER  think  of  Others are a c t i v e and  full  and not  of  flying  are  task  there  baby and  mud.  for me.  and s m a l l .  ER:  Others  Men take  in,  place  and  is  sensual  talk  involved and  in  full  focussed  and consume. producing of  and  and  contrasts:  include heat  experiencer  and an o b j e c t  play.  The world  with others  Others are there is  full  of  i n background as  f o r me:  goodies support.  and  givers, I  act  in  me.  and  I am p a r t of a s o c i a l  of  socially  Women are  and p r o t e c t i n g .  T h i r d ER:  The  I am p o t e n t i a l l y  threatening  me.  of  6:  First  exposed,  world  center  together.  on s u b j e c t  work  being  smallest.  T h i r d ER:  world  to be small and  for mom.  Second  Tl  shot.  the The  shade,  world,  an  focussed  on  independently  118  For  a  theme  none  really  fit  although  possibly  an  exper i e n c e r / d e p e n d e n t .  T2 on s u b j e c t  6:  Difficult pattern.  to  Maybe  categorize. a baby:  a  Very c l e a r d e s c r i p t i o n but no lot  of  charm  and cuteness,  focus  of a t t e n t i o n of others and g a i n i n g approval  He i s  not happy when he i s  T3 on s u b j e c t  of  I  6:  I c a n ' t get like  although does.  Cl  to  I  is  on s u b j e c t First  control not  away from the  feel  I belong  am a f r a i d  Life  that  to.  Business  ER:  A  cold.  and be  the  something  lot  is  center  will  proving  and demanding). There  is  r i g h t and a l s o v i c t i m i f  right.  no one  of  activity  happen-it  always  7:  (begging  Second  is  that way.  ER:  litened  others.  not being n o t i c e d .  I am alone and c o l d w a i t i n g for mom and there there.  the  of  a strong  I loose  Intensity pride  I  of  "I told  was  right";  you so,  sense  of  but  proving  then I was I  was  control. learning  when  and  attaining  the a  need  to  be  satisfactory  performance. Third right.  ER:  This  A paradox  of  one  is  the  emotional  opposite  with  state:  pain  respect  to  withlove  be and  119  warmth. love.  Pain  is  There i s The  inflicted  by  same  no c o r r e c t response  themes  are  to  be  others  who  are  giving  possible.  right;  control;  and  excitement  (seems to be in a l l of the E R s ) .  C2 on s u b j e c t First should  7:  ER:  I am r i g h t .  listen  to  me.  understand or l i s t e n Second  ER:  In order to have a p l a c e  Life  is  dangerous.  I am capable  (the  She was and she was s p e c i a l  looking  perfect.  be h u r t .  I am h e l p l e s s .  People  happen  in every way.  are kind and l o v i n g .  standing).  dangerous  Life  from f i r s t  confusing.  knowing what  and martyr, u n f a i r when  people  don't  hurt.  listen  and she could get  C3 on s u b j e c t  whole  ER  she  was  i n a c h i e v i n g and s a t i s f a c t i o n ;  this  second  I can  second  correctly; driver,  and  is  and  i n the  Second  ignored  is  Doing and  doing  First  being  about  was  everything  but  element  Life  The themes are to be r i g h t , to  don't  I should know what to do and how to  do i t .  ER:  People  to me.  In order to have a p l a c e  Third  people  element was  7:  ER:  Need to be r i g h t or s u p e r i o r or c o n t r o l .  ER: is  accomplishment.  Confusing,  missing.  It  this  is  seems  almost to  be  a  report.  superior,  The some  120 T h i r d ER: didn't  listen  To be r i g h t . to  her.  Demanding her s i s t e r - h e r  She was  right.  sister  When you d o n ' t know  what i s going on you s u f f e r . The  themes  (two instances  Tl  on s u b j e c t First  be  and  being  Others do not  will  ER:  act  out  victim  to my needs  and wants.  The world  being  to  prove  I need  rightness  and  to  I am  show.  Others are  exotic.  beauty  listen  u n y i e l d i n g and a p l a c e of melodrama.  to run the  Second  be s u p e r i o r ; and  of s u f f e r i n g .  ER: is  entitled  to  7:  The world right  are to be r i g h t ;  all  is  performers with  a place  superficial.  I  act  of  some  intense  out  others  drama  motions  and  with am  superficial. Third world i s The  ER:  Others cause pain  and pretend k i n d n e s s .  intense  and incomprehensible. I am ?  themes  are  getter  from  a sense  of  entitlement  The  and  martyr to prove r i g h t n e s s and moral s u p e r i o r i t y .  T2 on s u b j e c t In l i f e of you  7: it  suffering.  is  i o i m p o r t a n t to o b t a i n g o a l s .  You s u f f e r  for  want or do what you b e l i e v e Suffering  third  to  from f i r s t  please  other  a cause is  in order  to  is  full  get  what  right.  ER i n g e t t i n g people  Life  because  what you want and i n they  are  kind  and  121  loving. The driver.  subject  also  goal  I get  something  very  angry when  is  important  to me.  to me.  C l on s u b j e c t  8:  First  to  I will  pay a t t e n t i o n  ER:  things  don't  go my way;  I am proud that  A  me  a  so  I do  I d o n ' t c r y when  dangerous  ER:  sense  A  that  people  I  endure anything so  of  a  I want with no s o c i a l  Second  can't  and  hurts.  attention  whatever  ambitious  7:  I can to make them t o .  It  directed,  The themes are t h e r e f o r e martyr and d r i v e r .  T3 on s u b j e c t  all  is  sense  or  long  as  pay  they  juvenile.  do  Doing  involvement.  of  and u n p r e d i c t a b l e  baby  admire,  helplessness.  and  I can  The  only be  world  afraid  is  and I  help. Third  ER:  This  is  almost  identical  to  the  second.  o l d e r b r o t h e r so I must be younger i f not the youngest.  My I am  an o b s e r v e r . The  themes  very weakly  be baby;  followed  by inadequate and  getter.  C2 on s u b j e c t First  seem to  8:  ER:  I  am l o v i n g  and a f f e c t i o n a t e .  In order  to  122 have  a  place  I  others e c p e c t .  should  do  People are  to  second  afraid  expect  sure her  Life  and t h i r d  is  contrast  approve  of  seems that women expect dangerous  ER i s  and people get  In  There  ER:  others  what  the  idea  first  ER  affection.  and t h r e a t e n i n g .  Common  that  I am h e l p l e s s  (the  second  and  hurt.  to  the  and  third)  a f f e c t i o n and l o v i n g with women while men face danger. is  harshness  where  there  the  client  themes  are  but d e t a i l  fits  in  other  is  lacking  so  I am not  than having to  protect  self. The  loving;  and  control  inorder  people detail,  near  to  to  you.  control  C3 on s u b j e c t  to  control,  with the f i r s t  be  be  life  liked, is  safe. If  the  showing  dangerous There  second  could be the primary  is and life  a  so  affection I  must  threat third style  This ERs.  be  in  losing  but  I stuck  s e l e c t i o n due to the a c t i o n i n the f i r s t ER.  8:  you what to a v o i d . the f i r s t  of  and  ER had more  P o s s i b l y the o l d e r b r o t h e r i s a g u i d i n g l i g h t .  Tl  or  critical.  From a l l three ERs i t Second  what  He t e l l s  Spontaneity gets you i n t o t r o u b l e : he  in  ER and h i s b r o t h e r in the second ER. is  a difficult  I would choose  on s u b j e c t  8:  one  and I would l i k e  to be l i k e d  to  from the f i r s t ER.  have more  123 First of  love  ER:  Others are d e s i r a b l e and the world i s a p l a c e  and  shame.  shameful d e s i r e s Second  I  push  myself  others,  have  and act u n t h i n k i n g l y from h a b i t .  ER:  Others are  leaders  who t r i p  The world i s a p l a c e of danger and I Third  toward  ER:  Others are  active,  up or b l u n d e r .  follow. doers,  and v i c t i m s .  The  world i s a p l a c e of danger and I watch. The theme chosen follower  and  Watching  is  he  is  would  fail  one way of  where you can be  T2 on s u b j e c t Family  inadequate because if  the  subject  responsibility  limiting activity  is  and l e s s  is  a  given.  situations  inadequate.  8: contacts  express c l o s s n e s s .  are If  important.  It  is  important  to  a f a m i l y member i s hurt then you  feel  guilty. I cope  with  stress  through moral  judgements  of  myself.  There i s a gread need to be good. The theme chosen difficult he f e l t  to  accept  is  to be good.  a very simple mistake  first  and i n  ER i t  the  is  second  bad about what happened to h i s b r o t h e r .  T3 on s u b j e c t  8:  I d o n ' t mind taking chances as I d o n ' t get I  In the  easily  to get  what  I want  as  long  caught. imagine  physical  feelings  like  softness  and  124 pain .  Cl  Blood reminds me of death and I think about  on s u b j e c t First  friend.  A need for c o n t r o l :  I a l s o sugfer  follow  lot.  9:  ER:  Second  it a  ER:  rules.  her own body and her new  embarrassement  Nobody  not  Holding a l l  even  three  and d i s c o m f o r t .  war  is  going  to  make me  ducks at once speaks  to  the  idea of c o n t r o l . Third quick  ER:  Again  resolution.  a comfortable  scene but s t i l l  gain  of  (she  is  or new  of  C2 on s u b j e c t First maintain  control  living  sister;  always  are  Life  is  situation.  for  a  It  is  present. first;  getter,  things-friend,  and  weakly  second  ducks,  excitement  (a  and  the  people  implicit  third  theme  9: I am i n c o n t r o l  control.  women  the  necessity  i n the middle of a p r e d i c a m e n t ) .  ER:  acceptable  A perceived  Complete c o n t r o l of  The themes are collector  control.  to  In  order  other.  friendly full  of  or  to  People  should  have  are  and  men  are  the  unexpected  be  a  place  friendly  and  understanding and  in  I  control  or  I  must  be  helpful  or  and  handle  helpful. it  with  difficulty. Second ER: place have  I  should  I am calm and f e a r l e s s . avoid  expectations  of  other" me.  s  anger  When  I  In order to have a ordiapproval.  am  technically  People correct  125  others  think I am wrong.  Third  ER:  fascinating. place  I  curious,  Women are  content,  knowledgeable.  and In  the  world  order  to  is  have  a  I should know the t r u t h . The theme i s  to  am  be  liked  accepted  between c o n t r o l and to be l i k e d .  first  by the  because  strong acceptance  ER she  The t h i r d  wants  second  to  she  be  didn't  ER a l s o shows a d e s i r e  for  9:  but then drops Avoids  starts  t a l k i n g about  the  idea  of  control  it.  feelings:  of  first  and b e l o n g i n g .  The c o u n s e l l o r  absence  the  eleven year o l d and i n the  want mom's d i s p l e a s u r e .  C3 on s u b j e c t  in  I choose  any  embarrassement  In  danger, in  the  the  no  first  second  ER there  fear  of  danger.  ER.  Going  for  is  a  There reason  total is  no  leads  to  success. Driver:  In  the t h i r d she Control Tl  and  reality  time  constraint.  ER she  pursues  c u r i o u s a l l by h e r s e l f  her  with no  for the f i n a l p o s s i b l e  goal  and  in  others.  theme.  9:  ER:  receive  second  i s chosen  on s u b j e c t First  is  the  Others  are  flatterers,  my a d m i r a t i o n or constraints: I  am  in  needs and a messmaker.  a  are  caretakers.  survival down  have  in comfort  position,  distant  ideals  The world has requires  focussed  on  time  bodily  126 Second  ER:  Others  are  requires  s u r v i v a l against  to  limits.  time  I  potential  threats.  those t h r e a t s  am focussed  as w e l l  The world as  attending  on my own needs-counter  to  author i t y . Third  ER:  Others are s o c i a l  r e q u i r e s you to act with speed. The  themes  discomfort the  are  to  to r e c e i v e  be  Life  liked  experiencer.  (she  others admiration)  will  live  with  and excitement  (from  is  9: an  arena  where  c o n t r o l you i f p o s s i b l e .  avoid  events  This  She d e a l s with s t r e s s  is  and  to be  people  will  try  to  orderly  to  resisted.  through keeping  things  surprises. The theme i s  control.  embarrassing-to  Second was  I am an  The world  rush and r i s k ) .  T2 on s u b j e c t  is  and i n c l u d e me.  she  gets  childbirth closer  as  avoid i t  the  determined.  ducks  In  what  the  her  s u r p r i s e bowel  and cover up or hide even though  third  it  it  was her  is  movement  spontaneity.  forbidden.  easier  to  think  rather  than  She of  looking  thoughts.  9:  How others  see  me i s  very  r i g h t t h i n g and to be accepted I feel  the  mother, t o l d  to avoid d i s t u r b i n g  T3 on s u b j e c t  First  important.  I want  because I l i k e  c u r i o u s about t h i n g s  to  do  the  that.  I d o n ' t understand but i t  is  127 too  risky  to  ask  questions  imagine what people might think of me.  getter;  ER:  Quite i n t e r e s t i n g .  made  it  watcher:  she  knows  what  All  senses  smell,  colour;  (possibly  her  rather  is  the  inadequate.  kids  are  and  actively  sense  of  doing  l i f e ' rears The  difficult  fear  to d e a l  A  and have  on the  (the  with  dogs the  on.  outside  right  tremendous of  people  involved-eyes,  being  The need to belong  dog).  might be a  dress).  barriers  also tasks  to  creates of  a  life-in  friendship.  Third outside  is  other  Again:  (the  It  case,  would  The new dress  possibly  focussed  there  ER:  progress  barrier. this  are  so  inadequate).  Second  I  be  10:  mom  her  so  could  not a s k - j u s t  First  dangerous  It  and  on s u b j e c t  too  it.  embarrassing  Cl  therefore  about  ER:  so  a  A sense  sense  of  a  sense  of  getting-the  separation.  new  Mom i s  bed.  Mom  a supporter  is but  removed. There therefore The  is  separation,  one of m a n i p u l a t i o n and power, theme  is  primarily  C2 on s u b j e c t  low  down,  through water  power. by  of  baby,  In  order  to  I should meet requirements or be l i k e others  or  and inadequate.  10:  ER:  have a p l a c e  that  being  followed  secondary ones of c o n t r o l ,  First  of  "I  am unsure  and  uncertain".  128 have  what  Life  is  others  have.  Women  challenging-new  Second  ER:  threatening  I  or  people  are  watching  me.  experiences.  am  afraid  and dangerous.  and  defenseless.  In order  Life  to have a p l a c e  is  I must  be p r o t e c t e d or i n c o n t r o l . Third should hard.  ER:  have  elements  am alone".  others  Life The  "I  attention  could  in a l l  three ERs.  protector  when  I  to  want  earned and i s  be  either  Green dress  acceptance. entitled  getter  the  first  her d r e s s . third  by the  a place  I  Women work  In  control.  i n the  second,  she  she  is  secure  not i n c o n t r o l  C3 on s u b j e c t  ER with needs  to p r o t e c t i o n and i n the  fact  Getter  first  third  Control  is  and wants to c o n t r o l  a she  shown  and i n c o n t r o l  In the second ER she i s out of c o n t r o l  she i s  First  it.  or  gets a new bed and wants mom's a t t e n t i o n . in  have  should give me what I want.  theme  specially  In order  with  and in the  others.  10:  ER:  The need  to  be  liked  the  slant  or  to  be  the  first.  a  part  of  something. The t h i r d getter  ER changes  here and wants to get  The g e t t e r  of  s e r v i c e and a t t e n t i o n  are  being  liked  and a p a r t  of  the  a  from  The secondary  group and  which i s kind of thrown i n without any reasons.  is  from mom.  theme i s chosen because of the a t t e n t i o n  the new green b a l l e t dress with mom watching. themes  She  victim  129  Tl  on s u b j e c t First  ER:  me or are and  10:  l i k e me.  beautiful  learner  The world  colors  or  is  doers  and concerned with  a sensual  aesthetics.  I  place  am . a  of  images  student  or  and need to know-an image maker.  Second world  Others are g i v e r s ,  is  ER:  Others are  a terrifying  danger and f e e l Third  place  helpless  ER:  worthy of and  my r i s k  I am alone  Others ought  to  focus  on  are the workers.  comfortable  place  of  The  baby  and f u l l others  theme  I run from  me always.  to me and they  to get  and  The  or d e f e n s e l e s s .  should g i v e  use t e a r s  taking.  goodies.  They  The world  is  I play helpless  a  and  to focus on me. is  chosen  due  to  the  helpless  and  dependent stance with the tendancy to play crybaby.  T2 on s u b j e c t Life  10:  is f u l l  of new t h i n g s .  be d e a l t with and i t  is  There are new s i t u a t i o n s  d i f f i c u l t to adjust  by seeking others reassurance and by f i t t i n g This doesn't be the  liked  because  new dress  would approve. one  there  really  to  seem to f i t in  like  the the  When she reassure  different.  In the  ER she  felt  P o s s i b l y to  apprehension and and  others  was chased by the dog there  was no  her.  helped her  I cope  in.  i n t o any c a t e g o r y .  first others  to t h i s .  to  It  was  fit  very  in  frightening  new bed scene she wanted  and  attention  130 and wanted mom to tuck her i n and to reassure h e r . reassurance and i t  T3 on s u b j e c t I  feel  terrified Mom i s things  is  scary when i t  She wants  i s not g i v e n .  10: nervous everytime  I am on u n f a m i l i a r  when t h r e a t s come up so  important  to  me.  for me and I f e e l  I want  ground and  I need to run away to mom. her  to  be with me and do  good with her and s a f e .  


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