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John K. Friesen : adult educator, mentor and humanitarian Kennedy, Kathryn Anne 1992

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JOHN K. FRIESEN: ADULT EDUCATOR, MENTOR AND HUMANITARIANbyKATHRYN ANNE KENNEDYA.A., Foothill College, 1969BG.S., Simon Fraser University, 1988A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES(Department of Administrative, Adult and Higher Education)We accept this thesis as conformingto he requijed andard‘I /THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAOctober 1992Kathryn Anne Kennedy, 1992In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.Department of (k/IL.1f /acut,—The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate /7i—DE-6 (2/88)iiABSTRACTDr. John K. Friesen is a Canadian who, for over 50 yearsworked first in the field of adult education in Canada andthen in population planning internationally. He gainedprominence in his own country, considerable internationalstature and a reputation for his vision and capability.Friesen successfully used a democratic, cooperative approachin discovering and responding to community requirements inadult learning. This biographical study provides newmaterial about his character, goals, influences. The thesisfocuses on Friesen’s work as Director of Extension for theUniversity of British Columbia (UBC), Vancouver, Canada(1953 - 1966) but also outlines his life and career beforethis term and gives a synopsis of his international work.A brief description is given of Friesen’s upbringing in asmall rural community in Manitoba, his experiences as aneducator and leader during the great depression and of hiswar service in the RCAF. His work in organizing adulteducation programs for the Manitoba Federation ofAgriculture and his life during post-graduate studies atColumbia University are described. He was involved in thecooperative movement and provided informed, effectiveleadership in Manitoba’s post-war efforts to renew itseducational system and to develop a network of hospitals.The thesis examines Friesen’s commitments, methods and themanagement style he applied in expanding the UBC ExtensionDepartment into a sophisticated organization. Under hisleadership the department became influential in adulteducation, leadership and citizenship training in BritishColumbia; also it was involved in international adulteducation work. Research was conducted into the work ofFriesen and others in originating a graduate program inadult education at UBC. The nature and outcomes of his workin promoting continuing professional education is alsoexamined. The role of Extension in the VancouverInternational Festival and other cultural development workis discussed. Friesen is shown to have extended the workof the University into communities throughout the provinceusing study-discussion groups, lectures, credit and non-credit programs in this work. A change in University policy(1963) forced the Department to abandon much of itscommunity based work; the consequences of this shift areconsidered.Comment from seven of Friesen’s senior colleagues providesinsight into his leadership quality and the perceived valueof the work carried out during his term. Some conclusionsare drawn about Friesen’s life as an educator andhumanitarian and on his approach to adult education. Theideas, ideals, commitments and convictions demonstrated byFriesen remain valid today.TABLE OF CONTENTSPageiiiCHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY,AND STRUCTUREDEFINITIONSPageTITLE PAGE iABSTRACT iiTABLE OF CONTENTSLIST OF FIGURES xi-xiiACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xiiiPHOTO OF JOHN K. FRIESEN, 1985W xivA. INTRODUCTION 1- 3B. GUIDING RESEARCH QUESTIONS 3 - 4C. METHODOLOGY 4- 5D. PEOPLE INTERVIEWED 6 - 11JOHN FRIESEN 6UBC COLLEAGUES 6 - 11E. QUESTIONNAIRES AND RESEARCH APPROACH 11 - 171. FRIESEN 11 - 132. UBC COLLEAGUES 13 - 17a. Selman Interviews 14 - 15b. Other Colleagues’ Interviews 15 - 17F. USE OF QUOTATIONS 17G. OTHER SOURCES 17 - 18H. LIMITATIONS OF SCOPE 18 - 19I. DEFINITIONS 20 - 24ivCHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY, DEFINITIONSAND STRUCTURE- CONT.PageJ. STRUCTURE OF THE THESIS 24 - 28Chapter 2 24 - 25Chapter 3 25Chapter 4 26Chapter 5 26 - 27Chapter 6 28Chapter 7 28Chapter 8 28Chapter 9 28CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW PageINTRODUCTION1. PHILOSOPHICAL IDEAS, AND PEOPLE WHO WEREINFLUENTIAL2. The NATURE AND STATE OF ADULT EDUCATIONIN CANADA DURING HIS CAREER3. THE COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT4. THE PROFESSIONALIZATION OF ADULT EDUCATIONINCLUDING THE EMERGENCE OF THE ACADEMICFIELD IN ADULT EDUCATION 57 - 60CHAPTER 3: THE MANITOBA YEARS (1912-1953) PageA. EARLY YEARS (1912 - 1930) 61 - 68B. HASKETT, MANITOBA (1930- 1935) 68 - 69C. UNIVERSITY OF MANITOBA SUMMER SCHOOL &EXTRA-MURAL STUDIES 70 - 71D. OTHER TEACHING POSTS 7129- 38- 55- 57303855VCHAPTER 3: THE MANITOBA YEARS (1912-1953) - contPageE. INTEREST IN ADULT EDUCATION KINDLED 71 - 72F. UNITED CHURCH, YOUNG PEOPLE’S UNION (YPU)LEADERSHIP 72 - 75G. MANITOBA FEDERATION OF AGRICULTURE 75 - 79H. CANADIAN ASSOCIATION FOR ADULT EDUCATION 79- 80I. WORK WITH FATHER M. M. COADY ANDTHE CREDIT UNIONS 81- 83J. ARTS IN MANITOBA 83 - 84K. THE WAR YEARS (1939 - 1945) 84 - 87L. RETURN TO MANITOBA AFTER WAR (1945 - 1946) 87 - 88M. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY (1946 - 1948) 88 - 93N. MANITOBA WHEAT POOL YEARS (1948 - 1953) 93 - 980. SUMMARY 98 - 99PageFIGURE NOS. 3 - 18 100 -107CHAPTER 4: EXTENSION TRADITION AND THE NEW DIRECTORPageA. UNIVERSITY EXTENSION IN CANADA 108 -110B. JOHN K. FRIESEN’S PREDECESSOR 110C. CAAE CONNECTION 110-113D. UBC ON JOHN K. FRIESEN’S ARRIVAL 113-116E. FRIESEN’S VIEW OF THE EXTENSION FUNCTION 116-120F. JOHN K. FRIESEN’S CENTRAL IDEAS 120-124G. COOPERATION WITH THE FACULTIES 124-126H. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PEOPLE 126-128viI. FRIESEN’S MANAGEMENT STYLE AND LEADERSHIP.128-132CHAPTER 5: EXTENSION DIRECTOR (1953-1959) FIRST SIX YEARSPageA. INTRODUCTION 133-134B. LIVING ROOM LEARNING 135-141C. GROWTH IN NON-CREDIT COURSES 141-142D. SUNMER SCHOOL OF THE ARTS & VANCOUVERINTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL 142-149E. COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT 149-152F. ORIGINS OF ADULT EDUCATION GRADUATEPROGRAM AT UBC 153-159G. COMMUNICATION PROGRAMS 159-161H. WORK IN ASSOCIATIONS FOR ADULT EDUCATION 161-165I. A TIME OF FULFILLMENT 165-166PageFIGURE NOS. 19- 30 167-171CHAPTER 6: EXTENSION DIRECTOR (1960-1966) LAST SIX YEARSPageA. LEADERSHIP PROGRAMS 172-174B. CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION 174-178C. LIBERAL EDUCATION AND STUDY DISCUSSION 178-180D. NATIVE INDIAN CULTURE AND LEADERSHIP 180-183E. EXTENSION ADVISORY COUNCIL 183-185F. THE QUEST FOR A UNIVERSITY POLICY CONCERNINGCONTINUING EDUCATION 185-188G. PROPOSAL FOR CAMPUS RESIDENTIAL CENTREOF CONTINUING EDUCATION 188-191viiCHAPTER 6: EXTENSION DIRECTOR (1960-1966)LAST SIX YEARS - CONT.PageH. RECOGNITION IN INTERNATIONAL ADULT EDUCATION 191-193I. TURBULENT TIMES: PRESIDENT MACDONALD 193-206J. LIFELONG LEARNING 206-208K. REORGANIZATION OF CONTINUING EDUCATION 208-210L. FRIESEN’S REACTION 210-212M. FAREWELL 212-213PageFIGURE NOS. 31 - 40 214-219CHAPTER 7: COMMENTARY ON JOHN FRIESEN: THE MANAND HIS POLICIESPageA. INTRODUCTION AND FRIESEN’S LEGACY 220-226B. PERSONAL/PROFESSIONAL INFLUENCES 226-232C. RELATIONSHIPS 232-238D. SERVICE TO THE FACULTIES 239-241E. PIONEERING CONTINUING EDUCATIONFOR THE PROFESSIONS 241-245F. SUMMATION 245-246CHAPTER 8: THIRD WORLD ADULT EDUCATORPageA. INTRODUCTION 247-249B. BUILDING A FOUNDATION FOR OVERSEAS WORK 249-253C. RAJASTHAN PROJECT, INDIA: 1964-1966 253-260D. POPULATION COUNCIL, TURKEY: 1966-1968 260-262E. POPULATION COUNCIL, IRAN: 1968-1973 262-263viiiF. IDRC, ASIA REGION: 1973-1976 264-265G. IDRC, EAST AFRICA REGION: 1976-1978 265H. IDRC, MIDDLE EAST: 1979-1980 265-266I. CIDA, WORLD TOUR, IPPF: 1982 266-267J. FRIESEN’S SUMMATION OF HIS INTERNATIONAL WORK. .267-271PageFIGURES NOS. 41 - 44 272-273CHAPTER 9: DISCUSSION ND CONCLUSIONSPageA. THE PURPOSE OF THESIS 274B. FRIESEN AND A REVIEW OF HIS CAREER- 274-278C. COMMENTARY AND DISCUSSION 2781. Citizenship Responsibility 279-2802. Study Discussion Groups 2813. Community Leadership Education 281-2824. Non-Credit Courses 282-2855. The University-Community Relationships . . . .285-2876. Adult Education and Democracy 287-2887. Lifelong Education 288-290D. A POOR BARGAIN FOR THE PEOPLE OF B.C 291E. SUMMATION 291-292ixAPPENDICES CONTENTS.293-294NO. 1: JOHN K. FRIESEN’S RESUME(Chapter 5:165) 295-303NO. 2: HIGHLIGHTS OF JOHN K. FRIESEN’S LIFE(Chapter 1:13) 304-314NO. 3: CHRONOLOGY OF JOHN K. FRIESEN(Chapter 1:13) 315-323NO. 4: PUBLICATIONS, TALKS, REVIEWS & CONSULTATIONS(Chapter 1:18, Chapter 3:80) 324-331NO. 5: QUESTIONS TO FRIESEN(Chapter 1:11,12) 332-337NO. 6: QUESTIONS TO GORDON R. SELMAN(Chapter 1:15) 338-345NO. 7: QUESTIONS TO UBC COLLEAGUES(Chapter 1:15) 336-350NO. 8: ETHICS COMMITTEE CONSENT FORM(Chapter 1:16) 351NO. 9: 1953 Resolutions - Report of NCCU & CAAE(Chapter 2:41) 352-354NO. 10: EXTENSION DEPARTMENT ST. F. X. UNIVERSITY,ANTIGONISH, NOVA SCOTIA LETTER FROMMRS. ARSENAULT ON BEHALF OF FATHER COADY(Chapter 3:83) 355-356NO. 11: VIF BENEFITS OF VANCOUVER INTERNATIONALFESTIVAL, REPORTS OF AUGUST 1958, 1959,& 1961 Chapter 5:148) 357-366NO. 12: BROCHURE OF FIRST ADULT EDUCATION GRADUATECOURSE AT UBC, JULY 3-20, 1956(Chapter 5:156) 367NO. 13: SENATE APPROVALS FOR ADULT EDUCATION COURSES(Chapter 5:156) 368-369NO. 14: UBC SUMMER COURSE INSTRUCTORS (1956 - 1966)AT SUMMER SCHOOL FOR ADULT EDUCATION GRADUATECOURSES (Chapter 5:158) 370-371NO. 15: J.B. MA.CDONALD LETTER OCTOBER 9, 1963(Chapter 6:199) 372-373xAPPENDICES CONTENTS - CONT.-NO. 16: 1966 FAREWELL LETTERS(Chapter 6:212) 374-390NO. 17: RAJASTHAN COURSES AT UNIVERSITY OFRAJASTHAN ADULT EDUCATION COURSES INCONTINUING EDUCATION, JULY - SEPT. 1965.(Chapter 8:259) 391-394SOURCES 395-403References 395-401Interviews 401-403BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION 404NOTE: PERMISSION WAS GRANTED TO USE PHOTOGRAPHS!ILLUSTRATIONS PROVIDED BY JOHN K. FRIESEN (IN FIGURE NOS.1- 27 AND FIGURE NOS. 29- 44) & KNtJTE BUTTEDAHL (FIGURENO. 28).xi234567891011121314151617181920212223xiv78.100100100101101101102102103103104105105106106107167167167167LIST OF FIGURESFIGURE NO. PAGEJohn K. Friesen, on occasion of HonoraryDoctor of Laws Degree from Simon FraserUniversity, June 8, 1985Cartoon of John K. Friesen, 1953Childhood family home in Altona, Manitoba...Sarah Klippenstein, Mother of J.K. Friesen..David W. Friesen, Father of J.K. Friesen....John Friesen, violin pupil, June 1923John Friesen in Haskett, 1933John K. Friesen, 1933Collegiate Choir, Gretna, 1935John K. Friesen Graduation, 1936Virden United Church Choir, 1939Regional Youth Training School in Virden.Manitoba Delegates to Western United ChurchYPU Conference, Mount Royal College, 1940...Farewell to Friesen family, 1943Friesen, Flying Officer, 1945Damaged Avro Lancaster’s tail rudder, 1944..7-man crew of Lancaster bomber, 1944Dr. John K. Friesen, June 1948John K. Friesen, 1953Receiving Ford Foundation GrantUBC Extension DirectorGordon Selman and John FriesenDr. Edmund Brunner of Columbia Universityvisits UBC to meet Dean Neville Scarfe andhis former students 168xiiFIGURE NO. PAGE24 Symposium on The Professions, 1961 16825 John K. Friesen @ UBC 16826 Adult Education, First UBC Graduate CourseSummer of 1956. Dr. Kidd, Instructor 16927 Adult Education, Second UBC Graduate CourseSummer of 1957. Dr. Thomas, Instructor 16928 Adult Education, UBC Graduate CourseSummer of 1960. Edward Hutchinson,Instructor 17029 John K. Friesen Family, 1958 17130 John K. Friesen Family, 1959 17131 John K. Friesen Family, 1960 21432 One-time Extension Directors attendDepartment’s 25th Anniversary 21433 The University Council on Education forPublic Responsibility, October 28-29, 1962 21534 John & Marta meet Prime Minister Nehruin India, 1962 21635 Mohan S. Mehta visits UBC, Sept. 1966 21636 ‘Extension chops cut UBC throat’(Ubyssey, March 17, 1964) 21737 ‘Carriage trade seems UBC target now’(Province, March 10, 1964) 21838 ‘Cost cutting on the campus’(Province, March 9, 1964) 21839 ‘Mournful Decision’(Vancouver Sun, March 14,’64) 21940 Ubyssey Cartoon, March 20, 1964 21941 Meeting hospitable Turkish villagers, 1968 27242 Family Reunion in Singapore, 1976 27243 Marta & John, 1980 in Jordan 27344 John & Marta Friesen, Vancouver, 1983 273xiiiACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe researcher acknowledges the generosity and understandingof all the participants. Without exception, they werecourteous, open and cooperative in providing information andI thank each one for the help and kindness given. When Isought Gordon R. Selman’s sponsorship for a biography ofJohn K. Friesen as a thesis topic, he agreed as to itsvalue, but stressed the complexity of the task. However, indeciding to pursue the thesis, I was encouraged by knowingSelman’s reputation as an historian, his dedication to thehighest values of an adult educator and his humane approachto his work. Selman claimed Friesen as his mentor; I wantedto describe the man who had been Selman’s mentor and guide.The task proved to be rewarding. In particular, I owe adebt of gratitude to John K. Friesen for his warm and openattitude in relating his experience and for providing accessto his extensive and valuable collection of private papers.Most of all, a special appreciation to my life-partnerGilbert J. Harthian whose patience, unwavering support andencouragement gave me the opportunity and the confidence topursue this thesis.xivA-’Figure 1: John K. Friesen, on occasion of HonoraryDoctor of Laws Degree from Simon FraserUniversity, June 8, 19851CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY,DEFINITIONS ND STRUCTURECulture is activity of thought and receptiveness to beautyand humane feeling.. . . What we should aim at producing is menwho possess both culture and expert knowledge in somespecial direction. (Alfred North Whitehead)A. INTRODUCTIONThis thesis is a biographical study of Dr. John K. Friesen,a Canadian, who for over 50 years worked first in the fieldof education in Canada, then in population planning in theMiddle East, Asia and Africa. He gained prominence in hisown country, as well as a considerable internationalreputation for his vision and capability. Friesensuccessfully used a democratic approach throughout hiscareer in discovering and responding to communityrequirements in adult learning. He was much influenced byhis experience in the cooperative movement in Manitoba andby other social/religious organizations. Friesen had astrong belief in the power of ideas and actions generatedfrom a pooling of opinions and from discussion at a grassroots level within a community. He saw University Extensionas having a duty to cooperate in, stimulate and expand suchdiscussion so as to lead to a better understanding ofcommonly held aspirations, ideas and priorities.This study focuses on John K. Friesen’s character, goals,work, and influence as Director of Extension at theUniversity of British Columbia (UBC) (1953-1966) and covers2in considerably less detail his life and career during theperiods before and after this term. It is written mainly tocontribute new material to the historic record. Many of hisideas, ideals, commitments and convictions remain validtoday and an examination of the success UBC Extension workachieved during the Friesen era indicates that thecooperative approach used by him would be valuable incontemporary society.A study of John Friesen’s life work, directions and idealsis merited in the context of his work at UBC alone. Inaddition, after his leaving UBC, he embarked on a career ofservice in the international field of population planningand strategy. Friesen’s views on that topic merit urgentconsideration but while his international service isdescribed in outline it is not the focus of this thesis.Dr. John K. Friesen turned eighty in June, 1992; he is awitty, compassionate, lively but modest man who isrecognized internationally as an adult educator of farreaching influence. His biography would appear to offer aninsight into the importance of taking a cooperative approachin the field of adult education. His story is timely andrelevant.This research is a contribution to a largely neglectedaspect of the history of adult education in Canada, that of3biographical studies. Since the inception of UBC’s GraduateStudies in Adult Education in 1956, only two biographieshave been written by graduate students: Betsy McDonald byReva Kalef (1984) and Dorothy Clode by Ricki Carol Moss(1988). Selman supervised both projects. Selman andDampier (1991) assessed this element of historicalliterature in the field of adult education:We have a number of biographies and autobiographieswhich are valuable resources, but this is an underdeveloped aspect of the literature. (Selman andDampier, 1991:293)B. GUIDING RESEARCH QUESTIONSThe following questions provided the foundation on which thegeneral investigation and the questionnaires for theinterviews in this research were developed.(1) What was the nature of John Friesen’s career, hisaccomplishments and the lifetime experience whichshaped his character?(2) How was his belief in a cooperative approach to adultlearning formed?(3) What were the ideas, beliefs that guided hisactions and motivated Friesen to break new ground?(4) In what ways did he have an effect on the arenas inwhich he worked at UBC?4(5) How do those who worked with John K. Friesen at UBCsee him?(6) What effect did John K. Friesen have on them?(7) In what ways did he influence, help the communitiesor nations in which he worked?(8) What were social and cultural issues with which hebecame concerned?C. METHODOLOGYThe methodology employed in this study is qualitative andrelies heavily on oral histories. The researcher usedsemi-structured interviews, telephone interviewing andpersonal communication in exploring Friesen’s life and histerm of office as Director of Extension at UBC. Oralhistory is humanistic in nature. It is a type of historicalsource that relies on the spoken word using interviews withthe witnesses and persons who participated in activities andtherefore is appropriate for the study of human behaviour.Henige defines oral history as, “the study of the recentpast by means of life histories or personal recollections,where informants speak about their own experiences” (Henige,1982:2). Armstrong claims that, “The life history as aninvestigative social science methodology was developed andutilized by the Chicago School of Sociology in the 1920s and51930s...” (Armstrong, 1987:25) . The life history orbiography is an important method which is playing anincreasing role in the study of psychology, psychiatry,anthropology, history, literature, as well as sociology andsocial work (Dollard, 1935). Such a method is suitable forthis project as the field of adult education draws from thebody of knowledge in most of the above disciplines, and thisstudy is strongly based on primary sources.Triangulation was employed by consulting seven of Friesen’smost senior colleagues at UBC; in some cases a cross-checkwas performed using supporting written evidence. Inaddition to interviews and/or personal communications, otherprimary and secondary sources included Friesen’s speechesand private papers, private papers of Selman and Buttedahl,books, scholarly publications, press clippings, journals,UBC Department of Extension Annual Reports, UBC SummerSession Calendars, UBC President’s Reports and SenateRecords during the period Friesen was Director of Extension.According to Borg and Gall (1989) triangulation is simply aform of replication that contributes greatly to theconfidence in the research findings.6D. PEOPLE INTERVIEWED1. JOHN FRIESENThe researcher originally felt some diffidence inapproaching Friesen because of his international stature,but saw it as important that his many outstandingcontributions to the field of adult education be documented.Friesen had declined to participate in a writing of hisbiography some ten years earlier, ‘when approached by agraduate student, because he was not then ready. Contraryto expectation, he turned out to be not in any wayunapproachable; rather he was a gentle, modest and courteousperson. The researcher considers herself fortunate that herrequest came at a time when he was willing to assist in herpresentation of his biography. John Friesen has been verygenerous with his time and has given the researcher free andopen access to his extensive personal papers. Interviewsstarted in October 1, 1991 and extended over ten months.2. UBC COLLEAGUESSeven senior colleagues who worked with Friesen during histenure at UBC were interviewed; of these, Gordon Selman(Director 1967-1974) and Jindra Kulich (1975 ActingDirector, 1978-1988 Director) succeeded him as Directors ofthe Extension Department (renamed in 1970, the Centre forContinuing Education). Other colleagues interviewed wereJack Blaney, Knute Buttedahl, Bert Curtis and Alan Thomas.7Also, interviews were requested from two of Friesen’s mostsenior staff members: MaryFrank Marfarlane and MarjorieSmith. Marjorie Smith, who had also worked under Friesen’spredecessor Gordon Shrum, chose not to participate.MaryFrank Macfarlane readily discussed her work, thedepartment and her views about Friesen. All of Friesen’sclose colleagues have gone on to achieve important positionsin the field of education and some of them in professionalassociations for adult educators as well. Significantly,he was seen as a mentor by all the people interviewed. Ashort synopsis follows of the career paths of the sevenpersons interviewed in this study.GORDON R. SELMAN gained his B.A. (UBC) in 1949 and his History (UBC) in 1963. He joined the Extension staff asa programmer in 1954, became Assistant Director in 1955 andAssociate Director in 1960. He left the Department onNovember 30, 1965 to become Executive Assistant to UBCPresident J.B. Macdonald, returned as Director of Extensionin January 1967, leading the Department as Friesen’ssuccessor until 1974. Selman then served as AssociateProfessor of the Graduate Program in Adult Education at UBCuntil his retirement in June, 1992. He is the foremosthistorian of adult education in Canada.ALAN MILLER THOMAS gained his B.A. in English and Philosophy(University of Toronto) in 1949, M.A. in History of8Education (Columbia University) in 1954 and PhD. in SocialPsychology (Columbia University) in 1964. He was at UBC1956-1961, with a half-time appointment in the Faculty ofEducation, and half-time as Supervisor of CommunicationsStudies and General Administration in the ExtensionDepartment. Thomas was the architect of the Mastersdegree program in Adult Education at UBC. He pioneered anddeveloped an Extension program in the field of broadcasting,television and film making. Earlier he instructedvolunteers for the Study-Discussion Program (Living RoomLearning). In the period 1961-1969 he was ExecutiveDirector, Canadian Association for Adult Education (CAAE).In 1982 Thomas was honoured by Canada as an Officer of theOrder of Canada. For over twenty years he has beenProfessor of Adult Education, Department of Adult Education,The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Toronto,Ontario. He is a leading intellectual in the field of adulteducation.JACK P. BLANEY gained his B.Ed. in History and Geography(UBC) in 1960, M.Ed. in Educational Psychology (UBC) in 1965and Ed.D. in 1970, in Instructional Product Research &Program Evaluation (UCLA). He was employed from 1961 untilAugust 1963 as supervisor of the Study-Discussion Program(Living Room Learning). During 1962-1965 he supervised theEducation Extension Program. In 1966 he became AssistantDirector of Extension and later Associate Director until91974. Then he joined Simon Fraser University as Dean ofContinuing Studies a post he held until 1981, when he wasappointed Vice-President of University Development. Todayhe is Vice President of Simon Fraser’s Harbour Centre Campusand of External Relations.KNUTE BUTTEDAHL gained his B.Com (UBC) in 1950, M.A. inAdult Education (UBC) in 1963 and PhD. in Adult Education(Florida State University) in 1974. He was employed byExtension and given responsibility for the Study-DiscussionProgram in the Liberal Arts 1957-1960 (Living RoomLearning). He subsequently directed the UniversityConference Office and became Assistant Director of theExtension Department (Centre for Continuing Education)1965-1975. During 1966-1968 he was Director of the ColomboPlan funded UBC/Rajasthan Project and was resident in Indiafor one year. He left UBC in 1975 for international work.Today he is a consultant and training specialist in“Buttedahi Research & Development Associates, Inc.”, Ottawa.BERT CURTIS gained his B.A. and B.Ed (UBC). He supervisedShort Courses and Conferences for Extension from 1957 until1959 when the supervision of Short Courses grew to an extentthat it demanded his entire attention. He was Director ofthe Leadership in Education project for the B.C. SchoolTrustees and Assistant Director, Leadership Development forIndian Chiefs and Councillors in B.C., holding both10positions for three years. In 1960 he became AssistantDirector of Extension until his departure in 1964. Hesubsequently served as Director of Adult Education for theOttawa Collegiate Board, Dean of Applied Arts for AlgonquinCollege, Ottawa and then became President, ConfederationCollege, Thunder Bay, Ontario, retiring from the latterposition in 1989. Currently he is a consultant, teacher andprogram organizer for industry, business and government, inthe areas of adult learning and communication theory.JINDRA KULICH gained his B.A. in Slavonic Studies and German(UBC) in 1961 and M.A. in Adult Education (UBC) in 1966. Heserved as Vancouver volunteer coordinator for the Study-Discussion Program (Living Room Learning) from 1958-1961,and became Extension’s Director for the Office for ShortCourses and Conference 1966-1974 and also was the financialadministrator of the Department. He administered theDiploma Program in Adult Education at UBC 1966-1985. Heserved as Assistant Director of the Centre for ContinuingEducation 1974-1975, and as Acting Director during February- June, 1975 and also from 1976-1978. Kulich was appointedAssociate Director 1975-1978, and then served as theCentre’s Director 1978-1988. From 1988-1990 he wasDirector of Special Projects for the Centre for ContinuingEducation at UBC. Kulich, who speaks seven languages, isknowledgeable in the field of adult education in Europe,11Scandinavia and Eastern Block countries where he is alsorecognized as a leading scholar.MARYFRANK MACFARLANE gained her B. Corn (UBC), B. S . W. andM.S.W. She joined the staff as Lectures Secretary in 1959and held this position until 1961 when she became Supervisorof Evening Classes. In 1964 she was the given additionalresponsibility to administer Correspondence Courses. In1965 she becarne Supervisor of the Credit Courses for part-time students in the evening and Spring Session. She took onother enterprises such as the Language program in 1969,which is now known as the Language Institute. She startedthe Department’s non-credit Weekend Programs and FieldStudies activities and organized them until her retirementin 1985, a total service of twenty-seven years.E. QUESTIONNAIRES AND RESEARCH APPROACH1. FRIESENFriesen was furnished with a series of six questionnairesaimed at focussing attention on certain aspects of his life,career, views and convictions. (See Appendix 5: Questionsto Friesen) In the early stages of his interviews, whenreflecting on his lifetime, he preferred to receivequestions in advance. As the interview process progressed,Friesen departed from answering questions and produced a12wealth of background material. At this juncture the methodadopted changed to unstructured interviews. His open,candid approach disclosed a great deal of additionalinformation, insight and evidence about his upbringing,interests, concerns and motivations, all of which haveproved invaluable in describing this multifaceted man. Withhis consent, parts of the initial series of interviews withhim were taped and twenty hours of recorded material weregenerated during the first four months of his response.Thereafter, communication became less formal, by telephonecalls too numerous to recount, by correspondence, by otherwritten material and sometimes through discussions overmeals. The frequency of contact with Friesen ranged fromtwo or three times a week, down to several times a month.The average length of an interview with him was four hours.The dates of such interviews with him were: October 1, 2,7, 9, 10, 18, 22, and 25, 1991; January 8,14,23 and 27,1992; February 4 and 27, 1992; March, 11, 19 and 27, 1992;April 23, 1992; May 11, 1992; June 1 and 18, and July 15,20, 21, and August 7, 1992. Friesen did not responddirectly to all the questions posed (Appendix 5), but usedthe questions as an aid. He commented ruefully that he hadnever known a researcher who probed so deeply forinformation. A broad insight into Friesen’s approach topeople and life in general was obtained, as were his viewson adult education and on the responsibilities of educators.The manner of Friesen’s response was informal and did not13always follow a predictable pattern. Quotations selectedfor the thesis sometimes resulted from a free flow ofFriesen’s conversation during which ideas tumbled one afteranother.Although relaxed in his approach, Friesen took great care toinsure that all information he was providing was accurate.Where necessary, he provided supporting material asevidence. He has maintained meticulous personal records andfrom them the researcher compiled a Chronology which isprovided in Appendix 3 to assist a reader in following hismulti-dimensional career. In response to a questionconcerning the obstacles and challenges which he had toovercome, Friesen provided instead an eloquent synopsis ofhis life’s highlights. Some of his descriptions have beenincorporated into the text of the thesis. For the benefitof other researchers, the full text of his Life’s Highlightsis included in Appendix 2.2. UBC COLLEAGUESAll of Friesen’s colleagues who were interviewed had workedwith him for a considerable period and had had theopportunity to observe directly Friesen’s approach toExtension work, to experience first hand the effects of hisleadership and management style and to judge the results.The methodology adopted used questionnaires provided in14advance of interviews to all except Gordon Selman. A subsetof a questionnaire that was used for Selman was utilized asa research tool in conducting various interviews and/orpersonal communications with other colleagues. Copies ofthese questionnaires are included in Appendices 6, and 7.Questions were intended to be open ended, and the researcherwas not at all concerned about the order in which replieswere made. Often the participants used a free mode ofresponse and were encouraged in this approach.Questionnaires provided a general framework within which theparticipants answered.a. Selman InterviewsAlmost from the outset, Gordon Selman worked as Friesen’sright hand man; and he was Friesen’s immediate successor.In consequence he was able to observe both theimplementation and consequences of Friesen’s work. Selman,who acknowledges Friesen as his mentor, has writtenextensively about the field of adult education in Canada.The interviews with Selman were conducted in his office attJBC. He provided a very direct, personal and frank insightinto the work and character of Friesen. Selman wasparticularly generous, allowing over eleven hours ofinterview time divided into two sessions. In addition, hehas provided several, less formal, meetings in his role assupervisor of the project.15The personal interviews and communications with Selman, hisOccasional Papers and other publications proved to be aninvaluable resource. Because of time constraints, Selmandid not receive a questionnaire in advance but was given aquestionnaire during his first interview and later he wasgiven an outline of Friesen’s perception of his ownpolicies. (See Appendix 6: Questions Gordon R. Selman, a37-item Questionnaire)b. Interviews with Other ColleaguesOther participants all received an identical 20-itemquestionnaire, in advance of being interviewed, along withan outline of Friesen’s perception of his policies (SeeQuestions to UBC Colleagues: Appendix 7). No attempt wasmade, during the interviews in person or by long distancetelephone, to require specific answers to specificquestions; nor were they asked to respond to matters in apredetermined order. Rather the questionnaire served as aframework to prompt a reaction from the participants as totheir various conceptions both of Friesen’s convictions,ideals and professional work and of the nature of hisassociation with the person interviewed.Not all questions were considered relevant by all theparticipants. Also, because some questions were timespecific, participants were not always familiar with allsituations. The people interviewed were entirely free16either to answer from the questionnaire or deal with othermatters which they considered more important. However, noparticipant sought to avoid an issue concerning theirassociation with Friesen. Each interview and/or personalcommunication was taped with the participants’ consent (seeConsent Form: Appendix 8); however in a few instances, atthe request of Friesen and Macfarlane, the researcherstopped recording when the participants wanted to relatethoughts which were not to be included in this research.Such private information was shared to give the researcher abetter understanding of particular situations.Jack Blaney was interviewed for one hour at his office atSimon Fraser University’s Harbourside campus. Theinterviews with Jindra Kulich and MaryFrank Macfarlane wereconducted at their homes. The personal communications withBert Curtis, Knute Buttedahl and Alan Thomas were allconducted by long distance telephone during the evening attheir homes. All received a questionnaire at least oneweek in advance. Each of these participants allowed overtwo hours, either for a personal interview or for a longdistance telephone personal communication.By and large the matters discussed were within the contextof the questionnaire. Kulich dealt thoroughly with thematter of his association with Friesen, his views onExtension programs and University policies affecting the17department. To a greater extent than other participants,Curtis sought to track the questionnaire, but had noreservations in giving an opinion on other matters.MaryFrank Macfarlane, instead of referring to thequestionnaire, chose to present her experiences and views ofFriesen from a distinctly personal perspective. Herinsights were especially welcome as Macfarlane was the onlyfemale colleague available for interview and also becauseshe provided the point of view of a staff member as distinctfrom those who shared general administrativeresponsibilities. Macfarlane was especially candid inexpressing her views. Responses from all people interviewedwere frank and ranged broadly in content.F. USE OF QUOTATIONSMost of the recorded interviews were transcribed to ensureaccuracy. Key-word notes were also taken by the researcherduring interviews. Many of the quotations utilized are fromrecorded comments; therefore, judgment was made by theresearcher to edit material where brevity or grammaticalerror dictated. The essence of each quotation has, however,been maintained both in context and in intended meaning.G. OTHER SOURCESResearch was conducted at the University of British ColumbiaArchives on Senate Minutes and Senate Reports to verify18certain matters relating to Extension programs and policy.The President’s Reports were studied in order to gain aninsight into the views of President Norman MacKenzie. TheAnnual Reports of the Extension Department 1953 - 1966 wereexamined to verify the chronology of program developments,as were other Extension Department publications andmaterial concerning the Mozart Bicentennial Festival and theVancouver International Festival.H. LIMITATION OF SCOPEThe crowded and multi-faceted nature of Friesen’s careermade it impractical to chronicle all interview material,activities, publications, speeches, enterprises and programscarried out or initiated by him. The full range of dataavailable to the researcher was too detailed and extensiveto be incorporated into a Master’s ‘thesis. The researcherhad to be selective and describe some matters in less detailthan a thorough examination would have demanded. Inconsequence, strict judgment and discipline was necessary toreduce the material, yet capture the essence of the man. Tofacilitate inquiry by others, a summary of Friesen’s majortalks, publications, book reviews and consultations isincluded in Appendix 4: Publications. In limiting thescope of this thesis the researcher acknowledges thatadditional material is available on the following topics,among others:19* Friesen’s Manitoba Years.* Columbia University Adult Education Programs.* Friesen’s speeches, films or writings.* The number, nature and extent of the variousprograms of the Extension Department duringFriesen’s tenure.* Friesen’s involvement in the development ofCanadian professional adult education organizations.* The origins and nature of the Graduate AdultEducation Program at UBC.* The development of International House at UBC.* The Colombo Plan/Rajasthan India.* Friesen’s international work.* The variety and content of conferences in whichFriesen participated.* A full history of the Vancouver InternationalFestival.* History of Adult Education in Canada and B.C.The decision was made to focus this study primarily onFriesen’s years as Director of the Extension Department atUBC (1953-1966) and to cover in considerably less detail hislife and career during the periods before and after thisterm. Such a decision was seen to be advisable both inorder to limit the overall dimensions of the task and alsoto concentrate on the aspects of Friesen’s career for whichthe most satisfactory sources were available.20I. DEFINITIONSThe terms “Department”, “Extension” or “ExtensionDepartment”, are interchangeable. All refer to theExtension Department at the University of British Columbia,which in 1970 was renamed the Centre for ContinuingEducation. The term “extension” (not capitalized) refers tothe process or function of adult continuing education at auniversity level.For the purpose of this thesis, adult education is definedas any educational activity, undertaken by adult persons,which is purposefully planned by an agency or by thelearners themselves in which the learners see a satisfactorylearning outcome for themselves in return for the time,energy and funds expended. Adult Education is influenced bycontext, political climate, economics, social circumstances,etc. It is a process to bring about changes in information,knowledge, understanding, skills, appreciation, andattitudes, or to identify and solve personal and communityproblems. The effect can be personal change, social change,social justice, political power, organizational change andeconomic growth.Lifelong learning is a process that continues in one form oranother throughout life. (Darkenwald and Merriam, 1982) Itis a process undertaken by the learner with or without theassistance of an external agent.21The Study Group can consist of anywhere from six to twentypersons, meeting weekly at homes, schools, halls or clubs todiscuss questions of common interest, with a view to findingsolutions to their common problems; the quality of suchdiscussion can be improved by the provision of preparedmaterial, giving all sides of an issue to be debated.Cultural activities and cultural affairs are usedinterchangeably in this thesis. They include all thoseactivities aimed at stimulating the intellectual, social oraesthetic development of a society so as to improve thewell-being of its people. They include, but are not limitedto, the arts, music, drama and literature.Citizenship education aims for a “discovered, informed,activated and dedicated citizenry”; one which strives fordevelopment through continuing social and economic renewal.(Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992) Sir RichardLivingstone writes: “Citizenship goes far beyond voting,paying taxes, sitting on a jury and the other dutiesexpected by a nation from its members. Properly conceived,it involves all a man’s actions which touch his fellowcitizens, and affect the health and well-being of theState...” (Livingstone, “Education for Citizenship,1944:135). Citizenship training or citizenship education22and education for responsible citizenship are usedinterchangeably in this thesis.The democratic approach insures the fundamental right of thecitizen to be consulted, and to participate freely in civilaffairs, and as a member in voluntary or quasi-publicorganizations (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992). TheCooperative approach, as used by Friesen, reflects hisstrong belief in the power of ideas and actions generatedfrom a pooling of opinions and from discussion at a grassroots level within a community. He saw University Extensionas having a duty to cooperate in, stimulate and expand suchdiscussion. His purpose was to lead to a betterunderstanding of issues as well as commonly heldaspirations, ideas and priorities within UBC and in thecommunity. This belief and process, as used by Friesen isdescribed interchangeably in this thesis as a cooperative ora democratic approach.The Cooperative Movement occurs when people unite with theirneighbors in economic activity for the purpose of mutualsupport and advancement. The purpose is to get the thingsthey want at the lowest possible cost consistent with fairdealing. The life blood of the cooperative movement inCanada is the individual members. They have directresponsibility for the formation and operation of the localcooperative. The cooperative movement originated in Great23Britain under pioneer Robert Owen. The first cooperativeswere mainly consumer organizations; later came agriculturalcooperatives. Cooperatives aim to emancipate members,especially the poor, by putting economic control into theirhands, with education as the instrument for change. Themovement has developed in many forms, e.g. credit unions,housing, news wire services, and various social services.The Cooperative Movement has aimed to achieve a largemeasure of economic democracy, inspired by the motto: “Eachfor all and all for each”. Its main characteristics are:one member, one vote; neutrality in political, religious andsocial matters; surplus earnings distributed on the basis ofparticipation and not on amount invested. As cooperation isconsidered to be more than dollars and cents, education ishighlighted, to inform about current operations and activatemembers for future development (Friesen, PersonalCommunication, 1992).Friesen’s view of community development is democratic actionby people to bring about change (development) of benefit totheir community. The activity can be voluntarily initiatedand conducted and/or government supported in varying ways.Government involvement is often found in less developedcountries where financial assistance may be an imperative.The scope of community development may vary, from that of aspecific local project to that of changing the community as24a whole. It is people, not things. Where government orother assistance is warranted, an important factor is thatthe group leader is a change agent, a resource person andnot a creator of the activity (Friesen, PersonalCommunication, 1992). The researcher adopted Selman’sdefinition of Community development: “A process throughwhich the members of a community assess the present state oftheir community, set goals for desired changes, and proceedto attempt to achieve those goals” (Selman, 1991:116).J. STRUCTURE OF THE THESISThe content of the thesis is both chronological andthematic. A strictly chronological approach was notpossible though chronology was maintained where possible.Many of Friesen’s ideas, ideals, commitments, perceptionsand convictions were themes which affected programs andpolicies greatly influencing UBC Extension over a period oftime. The chapter organization, which follows, reflects theduality of theme and chronology.CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW discusses the literature thathelped the researcher understand the shaping of Friesen’sphilosophical position. Also reviewed was relevantliterature related to the setting in which he worked,including the cooperative movement in Manitoba, the natureand state of adult education in Canada then and now and the25development of the professionalization of adult educationincluding the emergence of adult education as a field ofacademic study.CHAPTER 3: THE MANITOBA YEARS (1912 - 1953) describes theperiod from Friesen’s birth in Altona, Manitoba until hejoined UBC as Director of Extension. It relates the storyof his strong family, church and community based upbringing.This thesis makes reference, although all too briefly, tohis years (1930-1940) teaching in prairie high schools (upto grade 11) and collegiates (grades 9 to 12) and howFriesen became much involved in the cooperative movement.It explains how, after the outbreak of the Second World War,Friesen, brought up in a pacifist family, decided to joincombative services in the Royal Canadian Air Force,subsequently earning the Distinguished Flying Cross.After the war, Friesen attended Columbia University under aveterans’ grant and gained his Masters and Doctoraldegrees. This chapter considers the effect all these eventsand influences had on Friesen’s character. It tells how,following the Columbia years, Friesen returned to Manitobaassuming a senior position with the Manitoba Pool Elevators(MPE). The chapter describes how in the post-war decade,Friesen was a forceful advocate in the restructuring of theeducational system of Manitoba and assisted in thedevelopment of a network of new hospitals. Hisrelationship with the CAAE is described.26CHAPTER 4: EXTENSION TRADITION AND THE NEW DIRECTORprovides an introduction to Friesen’s view of the Extensionfunction at UBC. It explains how President Norman MacKenzieand Dr. Gordon Shruin of UBC attracted him to UBC to becomeits third Director of Extension. This chapter describesthe Extension setting at UBC and the qualities andcooperative attitudes Friesen brought to help build thedepartment into a sophisticated Extension function whichoperated throughout British Columbia and far beyond itsborders. The chapter describes his ideas, ideals andconvictions. It comments on some of the consequences ofFriesen’s priorities, reviews his leadership style andexamines comments by his colleagues on his qualities as amentor and leader.CHAPTER 5: EXTENSION DIRECTOR (1953-1959) FIRST SIX YEARSlooks at the first six years of John Friesen’s work at UBC,which is seen as grounded in his earlier experiences and onhis academic qualification. In this period the VancouverInternational Festival was launched and the chapterdescribes how Friesen played an important role. One of hisgoals at UBC was to establish a graduate program in adulteducation, which became the first Master’s program in adulteducation in Canada. The UBC Extension Department grewrapidly in both size and quality in this period. This27chapter also includes comment from Friesen’s colleaguesabout these years.CHAPTER 6: EXTENSION DIRECTOR (1960-1966) LAST SIX YEARSidentifies some of the Extension programs and enterprises ofthe period. Friesen gained added recognition ininternational adult education. Explanation is given abouta change in university administration which resulted in acut in the budget of Extension. Further discussiondemonstrates that there was an unwillingness to finance thedepartment’s non-credit and community service activities,all of which thereafter were required to become increasinglyself-supporting. The work of the department was to benarrowed, in a manner which was contrary Co Friesen’spersonal convictions. The chapter tells how Friesenproposed a reorganization which would have centralized theadministration of Continuing Education under thedepartment’s auspices. It became evident that such areorganization would be long deferred. Friesen set newpriorities in keeping with the requirements of theUniversity administration and established a capable andcreative team of people to act as his successors. At thisjuncture he was invited to take up a new challenge in theinternational arena of population planning. Afterconsiderable soul searching, Friesen left UBC to work forthe Population Council. Comments from his colleagues onthese matters are also included in this chapter.28CHAPTER 7: COMMENTARY ON JOHN FRIESEN: THE MAN AND HISPOLICIES is considerable and wide ranging, and deals withhis commitments, convictions, some of his policies and someof the results he achieved. His colleagues also comment onhis influence on their lives. Observations are made on someof Friesen’s most significant perceptions and policies forthe Extension Department.CHAPTER 8: THIRD WORLD ADULT EDUCATOR briefly discussesFriesen’s international work, a subject which warrants moredetailed research and treatment than can be provided in thisthesis. He saw the devastating effects of over-populationand is convinced that population planning is the mostcritical concern facing humanity today.CHAPTER 9: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS briefly reviews hiscareer; it comments on the relevance of central themes ofFriesen’s efforts, his convictions, attitudes, commitmentsand his contributions to the field of adult education.Observations are made, some conclusions reached aboutapproaches taken and enterprises launched by Friesen whichwould provide lessons of enduring value for contemporarysociety. His thoughts and work as a Third Word adulteducator are outlined. A more thorough study of thissubject could be the topic of another thesis.29CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEWOur first business is to create that awareness, to post theroads of learning so that a student may recognize thecontinuity of the explosive present with the historicalpast, and may intelligently use that knowledge. . . within theallowance of the gods. . . to develop his own later usefulnessand happiness. (Friesen’s Personal Papers, from ColumbiaUniversity: excerpt from a College Program in Action, 1946)Although this biography is based largely on primary sources,the researcher consulted relevant literature which wasconfined to material which led to an understanding or placedin context the work and ideas of Friesen. No attempt wasmade to provide a thorough analysis and review of theseworks. In making such selection, the researcher was guidedby an intent to outline or chronicle material which led toan understanding of Friesen or of the issues he supported.For this purpose sources were considered under the followingtopics:(1) Philosophical ideas, and people who were influential(2) The nature and state of adult education in Canadaduring his career and now(3) The Cooperative Movement(4) The professionalization of adult education includingthe emergence of adult education as a field of academicstudy.301. PHILOSOPHICAL IDEAS, AND PEOPLE WHO WERE INFLUENTIALEduard C. Lindeman’s 1926 book, The Meaning of AdultEducation, has become a classic in the field and appearsdirectly relevant to Friesen’s ideals and methods ofoperating. When he re-published the work in 1961, theeditor, J. R. Kidd noted that Lindeman clearly understoodthe interrelationship that must exist between study andaction. Lindeman was quoted:“You don’t change until you do something. Youdon’t change by listening... .When you step or movein a new way, then the change becomes reallysignificant.” (Lindeman, 196l:xvii)Kidd added that although Lindeman was an idealist, he had atough practical core. “He never hated men, but he had adeep abiding loathing for injustice” (p. xxi). Lindemandescribes how he came to acquire his formal education afterthe age of twenty-one; he had then already experienced lifeas an industrial worker. He decided that most of thelearning he was asked to do bore little or no relationshipto his life’s experience. One of his greatest hopes wasthat “. . . .some day education might be brought out of thecollege halls into the lives of people who do the work ofthe world” (Lindeman, 196l:xxviii). Friesen fully embracedthis hope and a central purpose of the Extension Departmentin his time was to work in the community.31Lindeman comments that adult education, “...has not merelychanged citizens from illiteracy to literacy; it has rebuiltthe total structure of life’s values” (Lindeman, 1961:xxx).Lindeman counsels that the purpose of adult education is toput meaning into the whole of life and he wants staticconcepts to be replaced by a new kind of education thatrelates directly to life experiences. In conventionaleducational systems, he suggests the student is required toadjust to the curriculum: in adult education the curriculumis built around the student’s needs. Friesen’s view ofExtension clearly paralleled Lindeman’s thinking; he wantedthe Department to explore the learning needs of the peoplein the community and to respond with innovative programs andenterprises which matched these aspirations.A theme of Lindeman is, “In what areas do most people appearto find life’s meaning?” (Lindeman, 1961:8) . As will bedeveloped in this thesis, the quest for an abundant life forall people became a central theme in Friesen’s life andphilosophy. Both men believe that a purpose of adulteducation is: “ change the social order so that vitalpersonalities will be creating a new environment in whichtheir aspirations may properly be expressed” (Lindeman,1961:9)Lindeman comments, “Adult learners are precisely those whoseintellectual aspirations are least likely to be aroused by32the rigid, uncompromising requirements of authoritative,conventionalized institutions of learning” (Lindeman,1961:19). Friesen fully accepted the transitory nature ofExtension programming and saw the necessity to change andreflect the shifting needs of society. Friesen’s approachto adult education was a practical expression of Lindeman’snotions about the need for flexibility in educationprograms.Lindeman described the competitive struggle for supremacyamong various power groups and proposed that a solution liesin a form of cooperation in which “power over” is exchangedfor “power with”. Friesen’s cooperative approach to adulteducation responds to this proposition. Lindeman points outthat only by the sustained exercise of intellectual effortcan we keep abreast of science. Now as scientific discoverytakes place at an accelerating rate, one might ask is itstill possible to keep abreast and thereby ensure thatscience does not exercise power over our lives? AlfredNorth Whitehead, eminent mathematician and philosopher,agonized over the potential hold of natural science in ourlives to the detriment of the humanities (Friesen, PersonalCommunication, 1992).Lindeman contends that, “No human being can safely betrusted with power until he has learned to exercise powerover himself” (Lindeman, 1961:28). Power exercised solely33for self gratification evolves towards egotism. Lindemansuggests that, “...if adult education, is to save itself fromdegenerating into another type of intellectualism, it willteach people how to make their thinking glow with the warmthof honest feeling” (Lindeman, 1961:67). This view ofLindeman’s led the researcher to reflect on the collegialmanner in which Friesen led his colleagues to undertakeenterprises. Without exception these colleagues describedthe excitement he cultivated in their work and commented onthe enhanced feelings of self-worth they enjoyed throughassociation.Lindeman asked that a teacher not insist on aestheticconformity. This liberation from conformity was expressedin Extension’s Living Room Learning approach to discussionof the Fine Arts and liberal studies. Lindeman advocated aprocess of creative conflict, not dictation or bargaining,and proposed instead the use of open diplomacy in which amatter may rise or fall according to its integrity, meritand intrinsic worth. Such an open minded approach wasimplicit in Friesen’s non-directive form of management.Lindeman’s philosophical approach to adult education clearlystruck a responsive chord, on many levels, with Friesen.A. F. Laidlaw, in The Man from Margaree (1971), a collectionof the writings and speeches of M.M. Coady, leader of theAntigonish Movement of Nova Scotia, gives us an34understanding of the broad ideas, influences and convictionsof this internationally known educational leader and of theviews on democracy and cooperatives held by him. The bookdemonstrates the force of personality, the drive to takeaction and the breadth of vision of this great Canadianreformer. The vitality of his messages shows how a personalcontact with Maritimer Coady would have a profound affect ona bright idealistic young educator from the prairies. Apartfrom Father Coady’s messages about cooperation anddemocracy, his insistence that action follow discussion waspersuasive with Friesen.Anne Armstrong Masters of Their Own Destiny: A Comparisonof the Thought of Coady and Freire (1977) provides aninteresting comparative analysis of the ideas and approachesof Coady and Freire. The paper was examined because of theinfluence Coady had in the formation of some of Friesen’sideals. According to Armstrong both men viewed education asa tool for social change. Freire’s objective was to achievefreedom for peasants from oppression by Brazil’s dominantupper class by way of a complete reorganization of society.Unlike Freire, Coady wanted to maintain the present systembut make it more equitable and kindlier. Both Coady andFreire saw adult education as providing a focus on what hadgone wrong and what needed to be done. The men were verydifferent in their approach. Armstrong describes Freire as“a gentle advocate and guide moving among the sainted down-35trodden,” and Coady as “a vigorous task-master prodding hisnone-too-saintly flock off their seats and into action”(Armstrong, 1977:12). While Friesen’s compassionate naturemay respond to Freire’s tender approach, Coady as a man ofaction appealed to his entrepreneurial attitude.Friesen has stated that development of his personal careerparalleled in many ways the development of the CAAE.Selman’s The Canadian Association for Adult Education in theCorbett Years: A Re-evaluation (1981) discusses theleadership of the CAAE under Corbett and the changes broughtabout by him in the organization. In early CAAE years thegoals were stated largely in dispassionate terms and as aservant of professional interests; under him it becameheavily engaged in promoting particular social values.Corbett believed, as Friesen does, in the importance ofcitizenship education. The CAE became heavily engaged inCBC Farm Radio and Citizen Forum. Friesen as ManitobaSecretary of CBC Farm Forum was working and broadcasting inFarm Forum both before and briefly after his war service.Selman recounts how a Manifesto was prepared by the CAAE andunanimously adopted in 1943 which proposed a sweepingprogram of social reform. It called for a new post wardirection in which the rights of ordinary people would haveprecedence over individual and sectional profit oradvantage. The Manifesto had a mixed reception, as36conservatives saw it as a partisan, left wing propagandaweapon. Under Corbett the CAAE became increasinglyconcerned about cooperation and coordination in the field ofcitizenship training. Corbett believed fervently inCitizenship education and Canadian nationalism, and so didFriesen; both men were strong advocates of rural adulteducation.Darkenwald and Merriam in their Foundations of AdultEducation (1982) seek to describe and interpret the field ofadult education and the foundations which have been laid forprofessional practice. The authors contend that the conceptof lifelong learning contradicts a tenacious conventionalwisdom that education is limited to what goes on in schoolsand colleges in order to prepare children and young peoplefor adulthood. Particularly helpful is the description byDarkenwald and Merriam (1982) and Elias and Merriam’sPhilosophical Foundations of Adult Education (1980) ondiffering aims in adult education which have resulted fromdiverse philosophical writings.Friesen’s philosophies would appear to embrace elementswithin each of the liberal, progressive and humanisticapproaches to adult education. It is liberal in hisrecognition of the importance of preparing leaders fortomorrow and in his placing emphasis on literature, musicand the arts and in developing intellectual, moral,37spiritual and aesthetic appreciation. The ideal is to freethe mind, in placing emphasis on moral values and onmentor/protege relationships. He adopts progressivism asreflected in his use of adult education to initiate self-help programs and to bring about social change. Communityinvolvement was a priority in his advocacy of social reformand responsibility. Problem-solving techniques are used toensure democracy. He adheres to a humanistic approach inthe way in which he advanced his intuitive belief that eachindividual deserves consideration as an important being.Each person is seen to have a sense of worth, dignity andautonomy and the teacher’s role is seen as assistingindividuals in becoming self-actualied, mature adults whocan live together as fully functioning individuals,enhancing their personal growth and development. His beliefthat humankind is intrinsically good and that power lieswithin individuals to achieve the good life and to strivefor personal development is representative of the humanisticapproach.Darkenwald and Merriam (1982) point out that the adulteducators Lindeman and Bergevin were influenced by the earlyproponent of the progressive education movement- -John Dewey.Dewey believed that democracy can develop only if there istrue education. The idea of social reform as an importantgoal of adult education is a central theme of these writerswho had such a strong influence on Friesen. Like Friesen,38Darkenwald and Merriam advocate a cooperative role for theteacher in adult education in which the adult learns tobecome a full partner in the educational enterprise. Theynote that Bergevin and Benne also support such an approachand that Benne sees the teacher in the role of a helpermodel in which the learner emulates the helper’s evaluativeapproach to knowledge. The authors comment that Freirelooks to Christian humanism and Marxism for intellectualguidance and that Lindeman looks in a different directiontowards secular pragmatism and the philosophy of John Dewey.This insight provided a context in which to considerFriesen’s social objectives. He would accept the Christianhumanism of Freire but not his Marxism; rather he wouldfavour the progressive ideals of Lindeman and Dewey.2. THE NATURE AND STATE OF ADULT EDUCATION IN CANADA DURINGHIS CAREERJ. R. Kidd, then Associate Director of the CAAE, becomingDirector in 1951, published Adult Education in Canada (1950)the first general survey of adult education as a field ofpractice in Canada. It was a collection of writings by manyof the leading figures in the field at the time (of whomFriesen was one). The volume provides useful and timelybackground concerning programs, philosophical points ofview, and institutional roles. The discussion of “Trainingfor Citizenship and Adult Education for All” (pp.24-25) was39of particular interest, as it runs parallel to and confirmsFriesen’s convictions. Also Coady’s commentary on educationas, “.. .an instrument to unlock life to all the people”(Kidd, 1950:27), gives a compelling and fresh understandingof the reasons for Friesen’s belief in the democratic idealsof this man. Corbett, Coady and Friesen all stress thepursuit of an abundant life for all as a primary goal ofadult education.Frank Peers who was at the time the producer of Citizens’Forum in the CBC’s Talks Department, commented that UBCExtension programs for fishermen and agriculture were allnatural developments in the Canadian West, as the Departmentgrew up with the province. Peers said, “It was a case of‘taking the university to the people’....” (Kidd, 1950:81).Friesen, with his rural community upbringing, wascomfortable with this notion but came upon the scene whenBritish Columbia was ‘growing up’ very quickly and was aboutto transform into a service and resource-based industrialsociety trading in a world market. Commentary on the earlydays of the Antigonish Movement and Father J.J. Tompkinswas of interest because of Friesen’s application of some ofthe lessons arising from the movement. Friesen’s belief inthe power of small groups appears also to be rooted in theAntigonish Movement. “Folk Schools in Manitoba”, writtenby Friesen, provides a setting in which his adult educationwork in Manitoba can be viewed.40In Kidd’s later volume Adult Education in the CanadianUniversity (1956), about the role of the university in thefield of adult education he quotes R.H. Tawney from theFinal report, of the Adult Education Committee of theMinistry of Reconstruction in Great Britain, which wasissued in 1919: “Our aim is to make higher education asuniversal as citizenship, because one of the conditions ofgood citizenship is higher education.” (Kidd, 1956:1) Kiddpoints out that there is nothing necessarily anti-intellectual or anti-academic in mobilizing intellectualleadership for all men and women and that the universitynever enjoyed the favour or public confidence until it beganto take on the task of training leaders for society. Thiscommentary supported Friesen’s idea that the Department hada responsibility in the training of community leadership.Kidd points out that while scholars offer divergent views onadult education, they all, in his opinion, assume:The university chooses the work that it shall doand the constituency it shall serve, and that themain factor influencing its choice of studentshould be something else than age or money, orclass, or even the good fortune of being able toenrol for continuous periods of time withinuniversity walls. (Kidd, 1956:10)Kidd concludes that the education of adults remains anabiding function of the university and is consonant with itsother educational functions. He suggests:41the highest university standards will be upheldby university men, who will apply their learningand intelligence to the forms and qualities ofhigher education, as required by the alteredcircumstances of modern life. (Kidd, 1956:27)A joint committee of the National Conference of CanadianUniversities (NCCU) and the CAAE received the foregoingreport from Kidd and recommended it for study and action.The committee stressed the growing responsibility ofuniversities in providing adult education for those who havegraduated and “for other serious minded adults who have notbeen able to attend.” The committee pointed to the low costof adult education relative to its value in society. Anundated copy of the committee’s report is included inAppendix 9: 1953 Resolutions - Report of NCCU & CAAE.Kidd edited a further volume of readings, Learning inSociety (1963) which reflected the state of the field ofadult education in Canada during the Fifties and earlySixties. He pointed out that throughout the world adulteducation had begun to move from obscurity to a place ofpartnership with elementary, secondary and higher education.Kidd included an historical paper by Blythe Eagles, formerDean of Agriculture at UBC, which sheds light on the originsof UBC’s Extension Department. It is interesting to notethat a bonding between university and the community wasconsidered a central reason for the department’s formation.42The University created the Extension Department during thedifficult years of the Great Depression of the 1930’s,deciding to spend for this purpose a major portion of fundsprovided by the Carnegie Corporation. As will be discussedmore fully in Chapter 6 this insight into the origins of theDepartment would prove to be in sharp contrast with thechange in priorities which occurred in 1963 when theUniversity administration described service to the communityas a “fringe benefit”. In Kidd (1963) Friesen wrote of thescope of activities which he saw as proper to theDepartment. He describes it as imperative that theuniversity reach out to the community and that the communityfeel free to utilize the university resources. Friesenrefers to U.S. President Truman’s Commission on HigherEducation which said, “. . .it [is] painfully clear that theColleges and Universities do not recognize adult educationas their potentially greatest service to democraticsociety...” (Kidd, 1963:176) .Kidd’s volume also contains an article by M.M. Coady. Inreferring to the values which should be promoted in Canadiansociety he states:What is the secret of human life? The secret ofhuman life is to release human energy. If yourelease human energy and keep on releasing itperpetually you will always have life. . .A growingcrescendo of life. If that energy is not releasedyou get stagnation first and then death. (Kidd,1963:140)43Coady goes on to point out that “Society, civilization risesabove the ephemeral nature of the human individual. It issomething that can be universal-eternal” (Kidd, 1963:141).Coady says further that education should be coterminous withhuman life and there must be a continuous mobilization ofpeople for adult learning. He says one cannot teachdemocracy through the press or over the air but that it canbe taught in person, to individuals and groups of individualCanadians; these groups add up to the whole of Canada.This message of Coady’s clarified his understanding of howlearning is cultivated at a grass-roots level.The UBC Journal of Education, No. 10, April 1964 provides acontext for considering Friesen’s work in adult education bydescribing University Extension from 1915 to 1963. Aneditorial by Coolie Verner suggests that the scope andsignificance of adult education are often overlooked becauseit differs from traditional forms of education.Roger De Crow Growing Time: Selected Papers from MichiganState Leadership Seminars (1964) published a collection ofpapers presented to Michigan State University Seminars onLeadership; one of which, by Friesen, provided an insightinto his approach to adult education.’ In it he said that auniversity administrator must help bring about anappreciation of “universitas”, the wholeness of knowledge.He talks of perception, of the intuitive hunch that allows44“the courageous leap to a tentative conclusion.” (De Crow,1964:78) Friesen also took a broad view of theresponsibilities of a Director of Extension, yet pointed outthe practical constraints within which such a person mustoperate.Selman’s masters thesis, shortened in-length and extended incoverage to 1965, was published by the CAAE, A History ofFifty Years of Extension Service at the University ofBritish Columbia 1915 to 1965 (1966) . It presents a briefhistoric review of Extension services provided by UBC from1915 to 1965. In this commentary President Macdonaldappears as a supporter of Extension because he expressed anintention to Selman that the role of the University in thefield of adult education would continue to grow in scope andsignificance. Selman pointed out however that shifting goalsand priorities in the University had brought about changesin Extension. As it transpired, these changes subsequentlyproved to be of such significance that the social goals ofthe Extension function became submerged by the academic andprofessional education aims of the institution.Selman wrote a monograph A Decade of Transition: TheExtension Department of the University of British Columbia1960 to 1970 (1975) which examined in detail the developmentof the Extension program in the sixties and describes theprofound changes brought about as a result of action taken45by the University administration to limit the scope ofExtension work. The paper was of particular importancebecause of the unique opportunity the author had to observethis period of transition, first as an associate of Friesenin Extension, and later as Executive Assistant to PresidentMacdonald.Buttedahi published a monograph Living Room Learning inBritish Columbia (1973) which provided a valuable insightinto the Living Room Learning program of the ExtensionDepartment. The program was very successful and popular butwas terminated as a result of budget cuts by the Universityadministration in the mid-sixties. - The study gives anunderstanding of the manner in which this program waslaunched and developed as well as information aboutoperating costs at the time of its cancellation.Both the volume edited by J. Kulich (1976) which contains“reminiscences” of the first four UBC Extension Directorsand Selman’s master’s thesis A History of the Extension andAdult Services of the University of British Columbia 1915-1955 (1963) which described the history of extension andadult education services provided by UBC from 1915 to 1955helped the researcher understand the history of Extensionand to prepare interview questions.46Selman’s study of adult education in the province in the1930’s (1976) describes UBC Extension work during thedepression. Almost all agricultural, vocational trainingand lecture programs of Extension were brought to a haltwhen the Tolmie ministry, the Conservative government whichheld off ice from mid-1928 to late 1933, cut the Universitybudget by two-thirds over a two-year period. It was notuntil 1935, when the Carnegie Corporation of the U.S.A. gavethe University a $50,000 grant, that UBC was able to use$30,000 of this money to form a Department and make a freshstart in extension work. In the latter years of thedepression Gordon Shrum, Friesen’s predecessor, using veryslender resources developed a version suited to B.C. of theDominion Provincial Youth Training School. MeanwhileFriesen was assisting with similar and successful programsin Manitoba.In A Chronology of Adult Education in British ColumbiaSelman (1977) traced the work’s origins back almost 150years to a period before the 1858 gold rush. This providedan historical setting for the place of Friesen’s term atUBC.In Kidd and Selman, Coming of Age (1978) some 56 writersdiscuss the societal setting for adult education during andafter the sixties. This decade brought profound socialchange in Canada; its universities and extension functions47reflected and participated in this change. At that time UBCExtension programs were broadly based and deeply involvedin community, national and international work. Selmancommented that the sixties was a decade in which Canadiansfocussed attention on national politics as never before andthat the adult education movement shouldered new responsibilities. The broad spectrum of commentary collected byKidd and Selman demonstrated that adult education wasgaining new acceptance in Canada. Coming of Age, in itsreflection of the sixties, provided an interestingcounterpoint to current attitudes.D.D. Campbell’s The New Ma-iority (1984) discusses thehistory of Canadian university continuing education. Itstates that North American educators, in an earlier periodbelieved that:“Education was a responsibility of governmentwhich had the duty to sponsor and encourage it.Education ought to be readily available to allcitizens--but be guided by public opinion.(Campbell, 1984:7)This outlook on the importance of adult education for allhas shifted over time with an increasing concentration beingput on education of the young. According to the author apattern has developed among Canadian Universities in whichadult education has moved away from liberal and generalstudies, which were stressed during Friesen’s era, towardan emphasis on vocational studies. This book showed that48UBC Extension was not alone in losing support for itsprograms in the humanities and in being directed away fromcommunity development work.Selman’s The Invisible Giant (1988), a history of the fieldof adult education in British Columbia, puts in perspectivethe relatively limited importance given to adult educationby government, educational institutions, labour,professional and business organizations bearing in mind thelarge size and extent of the field. All these bodies viewadult education as a means to achieve other goals not as anend in itself. Selman points out that despite this limitedvision approximately 21% of the adult population of BritishColumbia become engaged in some form of organized adulteducational activity each year. Through this study theresearcher became convinced that despite its lack ofprominence Canadians take a strong interest in adulteducation provided it promises a satisfactory return to themin terms of personal development. Friesen’s insistence thatadult education programs resonate with the needs foundwithin communities of the Province directly responds to thisinterest.Waite’s Lord of Point Grey (1987) gives an insight into thecontroversy concerning the termination of MacKenzie’spresidency. President Macdonald’s Report of 1962, HigherEducation in British Columbia and a Plan for the Future,49gives an understanding of the reason for the socio-politicalchanges in approach made by President MacKenzie’s successor,which were to have such an impact on adult education ingeneral and Extension in particular.Selman and Dampier’s The Foundations of Adult Education inCanada (1991) provides a discussion of the nature of adulteducation, with an emphasis on the most recent decades. Theauthors suggest that attempts to build extension in Canadaand the United States on the British model foundered becausethat model was based on traditional university fare. In1907 the University of Wisconsin adopted a fresh approachbased on the educational needs of the people to be served.This new model proved much more acceptable as it carried theuniversity to the people. UBC Extension found its roots inthis idea. One example was the Folk Schools of the 30’swhich proved valuable for adult education in Canada andcontinued to do so in many countries. Since the later1950’s thinking in Canada has been changing in reaction toideas about lifelong learning, recurrent education and theviews of some radical writers. The notion that adulteducation be used to bring about radical change in the waysociety functions appears in conflict with Friesen’sconvictions. He proposed that adult education should arisefrom and resonate with the requirements of the adultlearner.50It does not necessarily follow that views on societal changeheld by individual educators in the university will coincidewith those held in the community. In Friesen’s view thediscovery of a common interest between university andcommunity, on such matters as social change, would betterresult from open discussions based on material in which allsides of an issue are addressed. As the authors comment,the line between education and propaganda is sometimesdifficult to draw. The authors acknowledge that, faced withthe possibility of controversy, the trend in the publiceducational system is towards complete withdrawal from suchareas of programming.Selman’s volume on the inter-connection between adulteducation and citizenship Citizenship and the AdultEducation Movement in Canada (1991) was the most thoughtprovoking of the books examined and underscored theincreasing importance of adult education for citizenshipresponsibility. He comments that of the adult educationprograms generated in Canada, almost all those whichattracted international recognition were concerned withcitizenship education and that it is in these areasCanadians have been the most innovative. The author tracedthe changing understanding of our democratic system from itsorigins in an unbridled free enterprise system through aconcern with issues of Welfare and Mass Democracy inresponse to the shock of two world wars and the great51depression of the 1930’s, into an emerging system ofparticipatory democracy. The latter came about as thegrowing bureaucracy of a state-managed system createdfeelings of isolation from political authority. Thismalaise has led ordinary people to want a more directparticipation in political events.Participatory democracy places emphasis on direct actionrather than on action solely through the ballot box andone’s political representative. In consequence the politicalprocess may become subject to manipulation by sectional orspecial interest groups. Such groups are referred to as NewSocial Movements (NSM) by Selman (1991) who comments thatthe NSM are not based on social class. Selman discusses theNSM methods in seeking to achieve action and change throughmass demonstrations and civic disobedience. The authoracknowledges that participation in such events is not alwaysbased on depth of understanding of the issues by the peopleinvolved. It is probable however, that the core leadershipof the NSM understands or is educated in the issues incontention; but the style of operation is more concernedwith moving people to participate than it is in theireducation. For the most part, the NSM are organized and ledby people who have not been elected. Further, televisionand other media are in the position to exploit the energiesof the NSM and thus exercise corporate power in politicalmatters.52As will be discussed in Chapter 9, the author’s comments onparticipatory democracy led the researcher to reflect on anincreasing need in society for such programs of citizenshiptraining for public responsibility as those advocated andintroduced by Friesen. Adult education improves thecapacity of citizens to participate in the democraticprocess. The individual citizen may, through education,become more discriminating in relation to choices made.Liberal education offers to equip the individual withincreased powers of analysis and of expression in thinkingfor themselves. According to Selman this, “allows him orher to be a ‘free’ citizen” (Selman, 1991:15). Selman goeson to describe the role of education in alerting the citizento the workings of the political system and in providing anunderstanding of potential issues. Selman points outhowever that public education is not necessarily bias freeand that some educators such as Paulo Freire insist thateducation is not and cannot be neutral.Adult education has a major contribution to make incitizenship education and ideally, at least in a universitysetting, would be neutral and provide all sides of an issuefor discussion. Selman points to a crucial distinctionbetween adult education to improve citizens’ understandingof public affairs, concerns, topics and social goals asopposed to taking a specific position on those questions.53Up until 1940 or early 1941 the CAAE had done only theformer. At that juncture Corbett set the CAAE on a coursewhich, “. . .in the ensuing two years resulted in theAssociation taking a position on national policy questions”(Selman, 1991:44). Succeeding Directors also worked todirect the influence of the Association towards goals ofsocial reform. Thomas sought to persuade the CAAE andCanada “to continue [the encouragement of] learning andaction in a way no society [had] even done before” (Selman,1991:60). Friesen, a long time member, saw his own careeras running in parallel with the development of the CAAE.Selman goes on to describe an association between the CAAEand the CBC in promoting a better society in Canada;National Farm Radio Forum and Citizen Forum were instrumentsin this endeavour during and after the Second World War.This material provided a setting in which the work ofFriesen in Farm Forum could be seen. According to Selmanthe CAAE also provided much of the initiative and thesecretariat for the Joint Planning Commission (JPC) whichoperated for about twenty years as an ‘unofficial’ body but,“....was clearly a significant element in the cultural,social and educational development of the country duringthat period” (Selman, 1991:109). He. points out that thereis a rich tradition of such work in Canada and thatCanadians may have a predisposition to “communitariarism” inadopting community-based methodologies.54Selman points to two schools of thought with conflictingviewpoints in the field of public affairs or citizenshipeducation. One is relatively comfortable with offeringliberal education in response to the expressed wishes ofindividuals and groups. This point of view does give dueattention to social justice, and the-needs of disadvantagedgroups. The other’s point of view rejects the idea of theeducational agency being a disinterested party, and believesthat adult education has social goals of its own. Adulteducation is seen to be a way of changing society. Forexample Cohn Griffin, a contemporary activist, describes anapproach to adult education which “has to do with the issueof redistribution rather than its individualistic, middleclass ethos,” quoted by Selman (1991:142). Liberals wouldargue that the present state of affairs is changing and issubject to correction or adjustment as society sees fit.Selman suggests that something has gone wrong with oursystem. Adult educators and public education institutionshave retreated from a role in public affairs or citizenshipeducation. He comments that in some instances there appearsto be an assumption that mass media can do a better job;also that adult educators are in a financial squeeze andcannot participate even if they were inclined to do so.Selman suggests that organizers of adult education feelless, or no commitment to discussing controversial issues;55it is simply safer to avoid the risk of becoming involved.Selman points out that challenges facing Canada now,“... strike at the heart of our very existence as acommunity” (Selman, 1991:146). He suggests one creativesolution might lie in an adaptation of a Scandinavianpattern. Education about citizen concerns would be fundedthrough public subsidy of a multitude of educationalactivities, taking on great diversity but organized underprivate control. The study discussion and folk schoolapproach used earlier by Friesen would appear to be in linewith this notion. In any future government sponsoredprograms of education for public responsibility it wouldappear important to ensure that all sides of the issues tobe discussed are delivered in an even-handed way if theprocess is to remain democratic.3. THE COOPERATIVE MOVEMENTKoib and deS. Brunner’s A Study of Rural Society (1952) wasaimed at stimulating an increased interest in the study ofrural life. For rural people adult education became one ofthe chief social developments following the depression. Theauthors claimed that at that time the largest, best financeddivision of adult education in the United States wasentirely rural in nature. The study confirmed Friesen’saccount of the well financed and supported American programshe identified in U.S. farming communities during his56Columbia University days. The study placed emphasis on theimportance of cooperative organizations and acknowledged thepart played by Folk Schools developed along the Danishmodel. The authors pointed out that in Ohio close to 2,000Farm Bureau discussion groups met regularly to exploreissues of public concern and express their judgements.These discussion groups were based - on carefully preparedmaterial giving all sides of any question. Friesen’sdoctoral study: “The Role of the Ohio Farm BureauFederation and its Neighborhood Councils in Rural Education”was cited by the authors as a reference source. The LivingRoom Learning program Friesen later introduced in UBCreveals similarities to this successful Ohio program. Adifference was that the Living Room Learning program topicsand discussions were more sophisticated culturally andintellectually.J. W. Chafe’s Chalk, Sweat, and Cheers (1969) providedinteresting commentary on the history of the ManitobaTeacher’s Society (MTS) and evidence of the conditions underwhich Friesen worked as a principal/teacher during hisManitoba years. Particularly intriguing is material on thedevastating effect of the great depression on rural areas.Vignettes of experiences describe the sad plight ofteachers, with little or no hope for a pension, earning onaverage less than $500 per annum. Chafe also described thevulnerability of these underpaid teachers and the uphill57fight waged by the MTS for improved conditions. The reallife examples given by Chafe from that dark decade arepoignant and upsetting to read. It became difficult tounderstand how Friesen was able to maintain his buoyant,unshakeable optimism and belief in the field of education inthe face of so much adversity. In a chapter describing thewar years, Chafe recalls how teachers and their studentsflocked to join the Navy and RCAF. At the end of the war,teachers in Manitoba were still woefully underpaid and itwas not until the mid-forties that educationalreconstruction got underway. Friesen played an importantrole in this work of improving Manitoba’s educationalsystem. Useful information is given both on the work of theManitoba Wheat Pool and on Friesen’s contribution in thepromotion of the provincial teachers’ credit union. Theprimary value of Chafe’s history was in its description ofthe circumstances in which Manitoba teachers foundthemselves during and after the depression.4. THE PROFESSIONALIZATION OF ADULT EDUCATION INCLUDINGTHE EMERGENCE OF ADULT EDUCATION AS A FIELD OF ACADEMICSTUDY.Jensen, Liveright and Hallenbeck, in their landmark study ofthe emerging “discipline” of adult education (1964) providedvaluable information about the state of adult education inthe U.S. and on the professionalization of adult education.58The editors comment that in ancient times organizededucation was for adults, not youth. The writers make astriking statement that: “For the first time in the historyof civilization, the time span of drastic cultural changehas been telescoped into less than the lifetime of anindividual” (Jensen, 1964:iv). A consequence was and stillis that the well-educated youth- of today may faceobsolescence tomorrow. This reality makes it a necessityto stimulate education for adults throughout life.Friesen’s strong conviction about University Extensionservice being made available in the community respondsdirectly to this imperative.The editors commented on the flexibility that can beobtained in adult education because it is viewed as aperipheral function. Although Friesen believed adulteducation merited increased emphasis, such flexibility was acentral characteristic in his approach to Extension,community development work and the programs for educationin public responsibility. He offered a system which couldremain vigorous through constant renewal. The editorsdescribe how residential centres created expressly for theeducation of adults can, because of their independence,remain free from control imposed by institutions establishedfor other purposes. Such centers contribute substantiallyto the pioneering spirit of the adult education movement butin numerical terms did not appear as a major factor in the59dissemination of adult education. - Friesen campaigned tohave just such a centre built at UBC, but was unsuccessful.Thomas’ (1983) report to the Canadian Commission for UNESCOprovides a framework for understanding how learning does orcan function in society. He points out that learning is anindividual process; that societies cannot themselves learnbut are dependent upon the individual’s capacity to do so.Thomas comments that the Faure Commission’s Report to UNESCO(1972) drew two major conclusions:The first was that it was not a mistake to investheavily and consistently in education as a meansof development, but it an error to concentratethat investment exclusively on the education ofthe young.The second conclusion was that thesignificant factor in change and development,individual and social, was not the provision ofeducational resources and the associated ‘deliverysystems’ but the capacity of human beings, of anyage, to learn. (Thomas, 1985:3)Thomas’ thoughtful analysis put in perspective theimportance of the burden assumed by adult educators and theimpediments and frustrations they face in gainingrecognition for the field.In an Occasional Paper, published in 1985, Selman writes ofthe Thomas Years 1961- 1970 in the CAE. It was of specialvalue since Thomas was a close colleague of Friesen and allthree men took a deep interest in the development of theCAAE. Friesen encouraged his UBC staff to take an active60role in the professionalization of adult education.(Friesen, Interview, 1992) Friesen has been a member ofCAE since 1938.Kulich, in Adult Educators and their Associations in BritishColumbia (1986) of which he was the editor, provides anoverview, support for an understanding of the development ofprofessional organizations for adult educators in BritishColumbia and a description of the training and continuingeducation of volunteer and professional adult educators.Buttedahl provides a description of the history andevolution of PACE (Pacific Association for ContinuingEducation) which he sees as an umbrella organization for thebroad field of adult, continuing and community education inBritish Columbia. Friesen was a pioneer, active inpromoting the development of an association for adulteducators in British Columbia as he strongly believed in theimportance of establishing roots for the adult educationprofession.The above review of the literature serves two purposes.Firstly it enables Friesen’s work to be understood in itshistorical context and to be seen in the social andintellectual climate of its time. Secondly, the currentliterature on Canadian adult education sheds light on therelevance of Friesen’s work for contemporary society. Thefollowing chapters will elaborate those issues.61CHAPTER 3: THE MANITOBA YEARS (1912- 1953)A dream can be the highest point of a life.(Ben Okri)A. EARLY YEARS (1912- 1930)John K. Friesen was born June 11, 1912 and raised in Altona(Figure 3), a town of about 1000 people- located in the Red RiverValley of Manitoba, which stretches from the Canada U.S.A. bordernorth to Winnipeg. In 1907 his father, David W. Friesen(Figure 5), had founded a general store, post office, telephoneexchange and mutual insurance firm. John’s three brothers laterexpanded the business into one of Canada’s largest printingestablishments. John was the one brother who did not enter thefamily business. As a boy he worked in the store and said of thistime, “One learned much about people and the community across thestore counter or through the post office wicket” (Friesen,Interview, 1991)Friesen spoke fondly of his father as a role model who told himto be kind to people and kindest to the poorest. He shared apersonal family tribute to their father which was made on May 25,1980 by his brother David K. Friesen. These are some excerptsfrom this intimate, compassionate and prized personal paper:He taught us to avoid shallow mindedness, to thinkthrough our problems, and to act honourably with allmen. . .. Often he would go to someone who he thoughtmight hold something against him and try and restoreunity between them. He was frequently the catalystthat removed disharmony between persons or groups ofpersons. (Friesen, Personal Papers from David K.Friesen, older brother of J. K. Friesen, 1980)62Most of the community was Mennonite and the strong spirit ofcooperation and service he learned from these devout, hardworking people profoundly influenced Friesen’s character andbeliefs. In Friesen’s words:I am a product of a closely knit family which gives youmuch self confidence throughout life. . . .Altona was acommunity which could do things together; almost all ofthe community was Mennonite. I caught the spirit ofcooperation within the community. (Friesen, Interview,1991)The deep religious beliefs and ethics of Mennonite communitiessuch as Altona were forged in the early sixteenth centuryoppression of Dutch Protestants by the Spanish Catholic rulers inHolland. Friesen narrated how his ancestors were persecuted;most were city folk, and artists (Rembrandt painted several ofthese families and some years later converted to the Mennonitereligion). Many Mennonites were burned at the stake. He went onto say that a Mennonite had two convictions different fromLutherans or Catholics, pacifism and adult baptism (Friesen,Interview, 1991)The Spanish lords who owned the lowlands of Holland made it sodifficult for protestant “rebels” that they fled into exile, manyto Switzerland, but Friesen’s ancestors settled in the Danzigarea, what is now the region of Gdansk, Poland where they livedfor two centuries discovering, reclaiming and turning unusedground into rich farmland. In the later eighteenth centuryCatherine the Great invited these Mennonite farmers to the63Ukraine to demonstrate and practice the best in land cultivation.The Ukraine became the bread basket of Russia and large numbersof Mennonites went from Danzig to the Southern Ukraine. After acentury or more, the Mennonite belief in pacifism came intoconflict with the will of the Czar who commanded their young mento serve in the army. According to Friesen:Thousands decided to emigrate to North merica, and myancestors among them. The immigrants first settled inrural areas, experiencing pioneer hardships. Half acentury later many had gravitated to urbancommunities. . . .They went for humanitarian professions:teaching, nursing, medicine, Canada has a great manyMennonite teachers. (Friesen, Interview, 1991)He confirmed that Mennonites mostly kept together and believed incooperation. “If a neighbor’s barn burned down they all gottogether to rebuild it” (Friesen, Interview, 1991). In themainly Mennonite community, the church held a prominent placebecause of its various Sunday and weekday activities. Speakingof his earliest memory, John Friesen said,” Either I heard, orimagined I heard the school bell ringing on November 11, 1918,when World War I was over” (Friesen, Interview, 1991).In 1918 John was enrolled in primary school in Altona. Fond ofschool, he was a bright student whose good grades enabled him toskip a grade. He took a keen interest in sports, skating onself-poured open-air rinks or ponds. Friesen told the researcherthere was limited reading matter available in school, or at home,64mainly newspapers and magazines. Friesen gave an insight intothe teaching practices of those days when he said:In prescribed school readers and in Sunday school, thecontent was moralistic hence, in retrospect, overlyconcerned with sin and death, e.g. a popular poemconcluding with, “. . .and smiling the boy fell dead.”(Friesen, Interview, 1992)Friesen’s boyhood memories reflect the sense of contentment andjoy he had in the working, social and religious activities of hisbustling hometown. At that time, before the ravages caused tothe farming community by the great depression, the lifestyle ofrural Manitoba was deeply satisfying and flowed from the earlyfarming traditions of these hard working people. John Friesenprovided a vignette of these times when he said:I remember driving a team of horses with a load ofgrain during summer vacations; eating lunch with thethreshing gang, hog-killing bees; in the winterdeparting on a family-packed sleigh for a visit and theusual delicious dinner and sweets at the grandparents.(Friesen, Interview, 1992)Altona was alive with music, mainly vocal, although the town alsoprided itself on its brass band. If the church lacked a properorgan, the congregation made up for it by worshipping, in finefour-part harmony with gospel songs and some centuries-oldchorales. Friesen described how as a youngster, visits byreturning missionaries from overseas and reading of distantplaces would stir his imagination. He recalls his boyhood yearswere a happy period:65During my boyhood readings or events would often stirmy imagination in picturing far and luring horizonsvery different from the home setting, however contentedlife was in Altona in those years. (Friesen, PersonalCommunication, 1992)From his childhood experience, Friesen gained a great love formusic. He was taught the rudiments of the piano by an itinerantmusic teacher, and the violin by a school-teacher; but was mostlyself-taught thereafter. Sports in Altona were encouraged, (teamrecords go back to the late 1800’s)’. John Friesen playedbaseball, hockey, some football, and much tennis; the beginningof a lifetime interest in all sports, and enthusiasticparticipation in amateur tournament tennis. Movies arrived inAltona, but were frowned on by the more austere. No dancing waspermitted. To Friesen and his undaunted companions nearby Neche,North Dakota, provided “open season for such prohibitedpastimes.” Looking back on a lifetime of participation in manyevents and causes, Friesen has said:To begin with, I have been generally fortunate insocializing easily with people of virtually any classor interest. Groups and organizations, whether inclubs, sports, cultural or other community endeavors, Isought them out and enjoyed taking part. The bestlater example was, of course, University Extensionwhich involved a variety of interests, as broad as lifeitself. The desire to participate no doubt influencedme in choosing the study of applied rural sociology --observing and problem solving in education, community,political and socioeconomic movements. (Friesen,Personal Communication, 1992)Friesen spent the years 1927-1929 at the residential MennoniteCollegiate Institute in nearby Gretna. Unforgettable to him isthe stern, impressively educated principal, H.H. Ewert from whom66he learned, among other benefits, an appreciation of Germanliterature and serious study habits. He found many friends inthis multi-cultural town. In summer, - the family took severaltrips to Winnipeg, where Friesen beheld Lake Winnipeg, “sovast I couldn’t look across; my first view of the ‘sea’”(Friesen, Interview, 1992).In 1929, Friesen attended the Provincial Normal School inWinnipeg. He enjoyed it immensely although, he commented,“Some of the profound pedagogical observations I failed tocomprehend at age 17” (Friesen, Interview, 1991). He gained highmarks in practice-teaching, and when the Principal, W.A.McIntyre, offered him a choice of two principalships, JohnFriesen had already accepted one at Haskett. At Normal School,he was an active participant in school activities, especiallymusic and drama. He was awarded a medal for writing a one-actplay. In the big city life of Winnipeg, he was especially fondof attending the plays at the Dominion Theatre (starring CharlesWright, Donna Laskey and J.W. Chafe). The city was renowned forits music. Friesen especially appreciated the symphony and thenationally prominent annual Manitoba Music Festival.He remembers with particular fondness one friend Bill Jones, astudent at the University of Manitoba, in the first year of thegreat depression. “Bill opened many doors to a larger world”,said Friesen. Bill also introduced John to future noted scholarMarshall McLuhan and to the family of the President of the67Canadian Pacific Railway at the Lake of the Woods resort. WhenFriesen was elected valedictorian, Bill Jones became the gentlecritic. Bill and John joined the church youth on Sunday nightsin serving charity dinners to the unemployed at Grace UnitedChurch. The minister, Reverend Richmond Craig, also foundedGoodwill Industries (which still operates) collecting andremaking old clothes, furniture, etc. and selling it to replenishthe charity chest.As a teenager, John Friesen made up his mind that he wanted to bea teacher rather than join the family business. His threebrothers took on the latter task and the company prospered,diversified its activities and became one of Canada’s largest andmost successful printing, bookbinding and stationery supplycompanies. Of his goals at that time, Friesen said:However distant the goal, some day I hoped to attendthe university. My parents provided the opportunityfor me to attend an excellent residential high school,and to my older brother David’s credit, I was gratefulin his going “the extra mile” in applying himself inthe family business. (Friesen, Personal Communication,1992)Friesen has proud recollections of - his family and theirsuccesses. He commented to the researcher about “Altona” anillustrated history recently written by Vic Penner, former editorof the town’s weekly newspaper, The Echo. “All they couldremember about me was as someone who was a war veteran and earnedthe first doctorate in the area and was a top tennis player, but68there were 288 photographic references to the D.W. Friesen familyin just that one book” (Friesen, Interview, 1991).B. HASKETT, MANITOBA (1930- 1935)Friesen’s teaching career began in 1930, during the GreatDepression, in Haskett, Manitoba, where at the age of 18 hebecame teacher and principal. Throughout the hungry thirties hewas to teach in a number of Manitoba towns: Haskett, Gretna,Hargrave and Virden. Friesen says of these times:Depression took a heavy social and economic toll offarm and village families. The better off assumedleadership; their children stayed in school longer.I enjoyed teaching and infused a bit more of the artsand sports into the curriculum than was prescribed.(Friesen, Interview, 1991)Friesen told the researcher that in his early teaching years, hegrew up with his students; some often were older than he.Friesen taught all the subjects in grades 7-11. The town ofHaskett has now vanished with the railway’s disappearance.Subsequently, he taught at collegiates in Gretna and Virden. Itis important to note that, even in these early years, Friesennever drew a distinction between community, school, adults andchildren, in the need for education. Stressing this conviction,John Friesen observed:During the depression it wasn’t the children inschool who would lift the community from the doldrums.The influence and ability to do so was in the hands ofadults, parents and older brothers and sisters both athome and in other communities across Canada. Ilearned about adult education from organizations often69meeting in schools. Interesting to see adults grow inthese activities just as their children weredeveloping in school. (Friesen, Interview, 1991)Before long, Friesen had organized a number of community andsports organizations; a community choir, literary club, debatingsociety, baseball and hockey teams, (Figure 7) etc. He concludedthat the depression actually drew people together in order tohelp one another.Friesen enjoyed everything about teaching, and in reminiscingabout another extra-curricular commitment, he said:Some youngsters were interested to continue their musicafter school so, fiddle case under my arm, I trampedfrom home to home to teach- - the fee was a muchappreciated farm-cooked dinner! (Friesen, Interview,1991)Despite long hours spent in school and community activities,Friesen had many quiet evenings to expand his reading and listento the music, news, talks and plays on the radio. Frank Willis’Atlantic Nocturne of poetry with organ music was not to bemissed. Another popular favorite was the Mormon Choir broadcaston their powerful Salt Lake City transmitter. He wrote someamateur verse and enjoyed long solitary evenings walking countryroads. He wondered whether popular novelist Frederick PhilipGrove, a Haskett teacher some years earlier, might have dreamedup his stories walking these same trails.70C. UNIVERSITY OF MANITOBA SUNMER SCHOOL & EXTRA-MURAL STUDIESDuring the years as principal, high school teacher and whileheavily engaged in a range of community activities, Friesen setabout getting a university degree. Frisen’s father told all theboys that he would pay for his children’s education up to grade12; after that he would loan them the money, but they were ontheir own. Since, in common with most people, he did not own acar and Winnipeg was some 70 miles away, much of his course workhad to be done through correspondence study. Summer Schoolattendance at the University of Manitoba was of vital importance.The effect of Summer School on the young Friesen, brought up in arural community, was electrifying:I revelled in Summer Schools. I was the studentrepresentative on the Dean’s Executive in SummerSchool; there were crowds of fellow teachers andinteresting professors. My min& was spinning withlectures, girl friends, concerts, and sports. Amemorable event was the annual tennis tournament andfor three summers I won the singles event. I haddiscovered big city life- -a far cry from my smalltown. This naturally changed me, greatly expanded myhorizons. (Friesen, 1992, Interview)In 1936, John Friesen obtained his B.A. from the University ofManitoba. He became convinced that this is what one aspect ofUniversity Extension work is all about:During the great depression, climbing the educationalladder was easier wished than done; for example, ruralliving expenses and college tuition would have to bepaid out of a very low annual teaching salary.Fortunately, there was a way out: extra-mural classes,- 71correspondence courses and summer school. (Friesen,Personal Communication, 1992)After many a late night’s study in Haskett, and a few summerschools, he earned his degree in History and Sociology. Theimmediate reward, on obtaining the B.A. degree (Figure 10), wasthe qualification to teach in a collegiate, a step above the highschool position. He wanted to go on to the University full time,but resigned himself to continue teaching. A dark cloud waslooming over Europe:The thought of depression and war scuttled my immediateplans for further university studies. With rumors ofimpending war I did some worrying about how I, apacifist, would face critical decisions if war wasdeclared. (Friesen, Interview, 1992)D. OTHER TEACHING POSTSCommenting on his teaching involvement in these years, JohnFriesen added:After five years at Haskett, I took a position withmy prestigious old school at Gretna, the MennoniteCollegiate Institute. Liked teaching older students,and Gretna/Neche communities were livelier thanHaskett. Alas, the school principal was altogethertoo conservative, so a year later the third instructorand I pulled out. I spent a year at Hargrave asprincipal before beginning a three-year term at muchlarger Virden. The town could offer numeroussocial/cultural services and our school was a highlyreputed collegiate. (Friesen, Interview, 1991)E. INTEREST IN ADULT EDUCATION KINDLEDIn the mid-30s, the educational philosophy of David Stewart,director of Manitoba’s sanatorium at Ninette, began to impress72John Friesen, who considered him, “a sort of early Dr. M.M.Coady” (Friesen, Interview, 1991). Stewart envisaged aprovincial organization for adult educators and became a catalystattracting many like souls, including Robert England, later thefirst director of Extension of the University of BritishColumbia. A Manitoba Association for Adult Education was formedin 1934 through Stewart’s leadership. According to Friesen,David Stewart’s clarion call was:More learning? Let us have more for practical everyday uses, more for culture, more for life material,more for living. Where and When may we have morelearning? Here and now. Work! for the night comethwhen no man can work. Who may have this? You and me.A what age? At just what ages are today, age 19 or 90.Who will give it? We, ourselves must give it. Bevery sure nothing worth-while can come into our livesby what other people do, or by what governments do, butonly by what we ourselves do, and sweat in doing.What are the means? Whatever we have ready. Whatis in thy hand? Take it, and use it fully. What is themotive? That we may have life and that we may have itmore abundantly. (Friesen, Personal Papers on Stewart,1934)These words remained an inspiration for John Friesen for all theyears to come.F. UNITED CHURCH, YOUNG PEOPLE’S UNION (YPU) LEADERSHIPFriesen had a strong commitment to democracy and through it tothe cooperative movement in which he was very active in hisManitoba days. He witnessed the hardship suffered in rural areasduring the Depression years, though ,he admits not to have73suffered personally. That experience reinforced Friesen’s beliefthat it is necessary to protect the disadvantaged through welfareand assist them to continue their education.Friesen lived at Virden’s Central Hotel and he saw Virden as ahospitable place with excellent social events. He led the UnitedChurch Choir (Figure 11) and conducted Gilbert & Sullivan’s HMSPinafore at the collegiate. In Virden, Friesen took part in manyaspects of the growing movement for adult education. One of theimportant developments then being launched across Canada was theDominion Provincial Youth Training Program (Figure 12).Friesen became the school’s secretary for the Virden district, Inattendance would be 40 to 50 young men and women who had finishedgrade school, but who had never seen the inside of a high school.They spent their youth on farms steeped in depression. AHomemaking course was offered for young farm women. The programsfor men and women, the one Agricultural Training and Citizenship,the other Homemaking and Citizenship, both involved a cooperativelearning process. The students were able to live and do thesecourses together, for several months, supported by governmentgrants. Friesen said, “This was an intriguing experiment and didwonders for these young men and women” (Friesen, Interview,1991)Through activities of the United Church’s Young People’s Union(YPU) Friesen gained his first important experience in widerleadership and largely as a result of his interest in these74activities he gradually turned from the Mennonite church of hischildhood to the United Church. His active involvement came tomean a great deal to him. He said:I continue to cherish the ideals of my forefathers, butfound the United Church the more acceptable for mebecause it was exceptionally open-minded, politicallyalert, socially committed and ecumenical. Over severalyears (1938-40) the church experience also enabled meto gain a wide experience in community development andprovincial organization and to associate with a largercircle of young Canadians. (Friesen, Interview, 1991)In the period 1938-1940, he was an active participant in churchaffairs. Friesen was strongly encouraged in these activities bygood friends, the Jay Watson family of Brandon, and Reverend BobElliott, a liberal-minded United Church minister in nearby OakLake. Friesen was elected President of the Manitoba Conferenceof the Young People’s Union (YPU), United Church of Canada in1939 and chaired this organization for two years (Figure 13).Writing about highlights in his career, Friesen said of the years1937-1942:Participation in United Church programs was aninvolvement of great personal value. The lingeringdepression and the war years had made the church’smission all the more relevant. My two-year term asManitoba President of the Young People’s Union [YPU]with its large membership, offered me an insight intothe various fields of youth education, a benefit I wassoon to appreciate even more on shortly joining thestaff of the Manitoba Federation of Agriculture. Onmany weekends I traveled the province as a volunteer inthe cause of a strong YPU membership.What memorable days they were -- the sunriseservices and quiet forest strolls amid autumn glory,the joy of ‘sweet singing in the choir’, the clarioncall to dedicated service by a visiting missionary fromChina, or Dr. F. G. Stevens ministering to the prairie75Crees by himself learning Cree, creating their firstdictionary and teaching Cree children in their mothertongue.Over the years I have seen groups espousing thiscause and that; seldom have I observed an associationso zealously committed to self -development andcommunity betterment as was the United Church YPU.(Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)Experience in YPU provincial organization provided a richlearning experience in leadership and introduced Friesen tovarious institutions supported by the church: a hospital inVita, Manitoba, and church activities with native Indian people,through Dr. Stevens in northern Fisher Branch. YPU members werealso keenly interested in foreign missions. Friesen said: “Ourhero was the later illustrious physician Dr. Robert McClure inChina” (Friesen, Interview, 1991).G. MANITOBA FEDERATION OF AGRICULTUREBy the late 1930s, Friesen’s demonstrated leadership inprovincial United Church activities, his belief that no divisionexisted between community and school, and his reputation as arurally oriented teacher, led to his involvement in farmorganizations. He received an invitation from Dr. J.A. Munn,President of the Manitoba Federation of Agriculture (MFA), tohead up the educational arm of the organization which representedvirtually all the cooperative businesses and hence most of theprovince’s farm families (Friesen, Interview, 1991). In July761940, Friesen became the Adult Education Director of the ManitobaFederation of Agriculture (MFA).His job was to discover a way in which the MFA might becomeinvolved, using Friesen’s experience in education, in gettingpeople in rural communities to help themselves. At the MFAFriesen met Fawcett Ransom who was to become an invaluablementor. Speaking of this largely self-taught educator Friesensaid:Since the early ‘twenties, Ransom had been an activistfor rural community development, a pioneer adulteducator on many fronts. Today his name is inscribedin Manitoba’s Agricultural Hall of Fame. It was Ransommore than any other person who urged me to join theMFA. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)Friesen commented on the influence of Ransom in his work on studygroups in Manitoba:How fortunate, I soon found, to have him [Ransom] as afriend and advisor. He had unbounded faith in theeducational dynamics of the study group. The MFA’stravelling folk schools, launched and directed by verycapable young Helen Watson, also derived much benefitfrom Ransom’s understanding of rural communities. Theorganization of an MFA network of more than 400 studygroups by Friesen and his colleagues was a new approachfor the Federation. (Friesen, Personal Communication,1992)The study group was a powerful St. F.X. typemethod. With good subject matter of the participants’choosing, you could help build a live wire organizationthat was motivated for study/action. That’s what weproceeded to do. (Friesen, Interview, 1991)77The MFA study groups later became even more influential bylinking up with the CAAE/CBC’s Farm Forum, of which Friesen wasappointed Manitoba Secretary. The National Office of Farm Forummailed out topic outlines to be studied by the rural groups,which also listened to a CBC radio broadcast on the subject. Theforums reported back to the Provincial Secretary. He then broadcast summaries of their conclusions to reinforce and further thework of the study groups and folk schools. The program proved ofgreat benefit during the war years in providing a national forum,furthering education and boosting morale. Following his involvement in the war (1945-46) Friesen would later return briefly tothis work with Farm Forum. As Friesen observed:This is where again I learned of the power, thedynamism, of the little group. Their influence canexceed that of politicians, as such study/action groupscreate opinion to which politicians must respond.Broadcasting was exciting as in the 40’s radio was amajor medium in the country. (Friesen, Interview, 1992)Friesen goes on to assert that even in his home town of Altona:A name that become associated with cooperative movementwas that of J.J. Siemens. An educated and dynamicrural leader, he roused the depressed farmers of Altonaand southern Manitoba to unite for cooperative economicaction. Subsequently, J.J. served the movement as aboard member in Manitoba and nationally. I learned toadmire Jake Siemens as both a visionary and a nationalorganizer. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)People got together in the tough depression decade and tried toimprove their lot through cooperation., Friesen remembers howadult education, through such community efforts, aimed to78alleviate in modest measure the hardships of farm families.Reflecting on his years with the MFA Friesen comments:In retrospect, I found that organizing for group actionwas usually a rewarding undertaking for theparticipants and at times high adventure for theorganizer. It called for my travelling, often onlonely, snowbound roads, to a round of far off meetingsheld in schools or halls. Arriving for such a meeting,I would connect the car battery to the 16mm filmprojector and hoped the current would hold out for thehour. A talk and discussion were followed by a showingof several National Film Board productions. At theconclusion, the hospitable farm women served welcomerefreshments. For farm communities that had facedtrying times for a decade, the annual schedule oflocal, district and provincial forums and conferencesboosted both economic and social cooperation.(Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)An amusing carton graphically illustrates this period.57 Well—wishers on John & Marta Friesen’sdeparture from Manitoba for UBC,VncouverSummer 1953/P7&•3iJ4)\4’ST W$HES rco TPE CO-OPL cF€15 -.3ULV, I’Figure 2: Cartoon of John K. Friesell, 195379The Manitoba Federation of Agriculture provided funding for theitinerant Folk Schools which became a social and economic boonfor hard-hit and often demoralized rural youth during andfollowing the depression. Friesen was co-author of ManitobaFolk-Schools: The First Ten Years 1940 - 1950 with John M.Parsey (1951). In the study, the folk schools directed by HelenWatson were described as being a Canadian adaptation of theDanish model. The Friesen/Parsey study describes the objectivesof folk schools:-- to awaken a community consciousness and a feelingthat young people have a part to play inmoulding society;-- to develop an understanding of the co-operativemovement in its economic aspects;-- to demonstrate co-operative living through groupexperience;-- to develop the individual’s confidence and abilitythrough public speaking and throughparticipation in the community endeavorsof the school;-- to imbue the students with the will to study foraction; what de Huszar has called ‘not talk-democracy, but DO-democracy’;-- to create, in all activities, a spirit of genuine fellowship through significant social experiences.(Friesen and Parsey, 1951:14)H. CANADIAN ASSOCIATION FOR ADULT EDUCATION (CAAE)In 1938 Friesen joined the CAAE while still a teacher in VirdenManitoba. Ned Corbett was Director of the CAAE and when heretired in 1951 his place was taken by Roby Kidd, a long time80friend of Friesen from Columbia University days. Roby Kiddencouraged John Friesen to become deeply involved in all aspectsof the CAAE. They became very close associates.His connection with Roby Kidd also led to a number of earlyinvitations for Friesen to participate in international work,including the Second UNESCO World Conference on Adult Educationheld in Montreal in 1960, to which he ‘was a delegate. Friesenalso helped Corbett and later Kidd in expanding the network ofsupport for the CAAE, including the convening of regionalconferences. He described the importance of the CAAE:It was also a time of strengthening my bonds with theCAAE through its director, Ned Corbett and laterespecially Roby Kidd. National CAAE conferences inthose years were prominent occasions, attractingforemost figures in education and the media--Fergusonof the press, Coady of St. F.X., university presidentsWallace and James, MacKenzie, Shrum and Andrew of UBC,Cameron of Alberta, Brockington a celebratedbroadcaster, Grierson of the NFB, et al. Through thenational journal and research, the CAAE’s closeassociation with Farm and Citizens Forum was growinginto a national movement and giving support to theemerging profession of adult education. (Friesen,Personal Communication, 1992)Friesen was a regular contributor to the CAAE journals. Some ofhis articles are listed in Appendix No. 4: Publications alongwith his talks, book reviews and consultations. To this day heremains a strong supporter; Friesen sees the CAAE as aninfluential advocate for literacy, public broadcasting, theNational Film Board, and other essential national needs andservices.81I. WORK WITH FATHER M.M. COADY AND THE CREDIT UNIONSFather M.M. Coady of St. Francis Xavier University (St. FX), inAntigonish, Nova Scotia, then “disciple apostle” of thecooperative credit union movement, became a mentor to JohnFriesen, helping to shape his views and strengthening hislifelong commitment to democratic ideals. Coady encouragedFriesen and all who sought his advice to take a cooperativeapproach in resolving economic problems. Coady was a ferventdemocrat. Writing of him in The Man from Margaree (1971), AlexLaidlaw said:For him the world had enough of rule by a few strongmen at the top. A new age would dawn, he believed,when the whole mass of humanity would lift itself to anew level of life, when democratic man would emerge.So his philosophy rested on a deep conviction about thefundamental rightness of democracy and its necessityfor the liberation of the human spirit. (Laidlaw,1971:21)Coady himself said:The stirring events of our time make it imperativethat we take a new look at ourselves and ourdemocracies. Democracy, as we all know, is self rule.It is government of, by, and for the people. It meansparticipation by the people in all the vital socialprocesses. (Laidlaw, 1971:32) “. . . .In the old daysmore than seventy per cent of our people were on farms.They had ownership -- the very foundation of Americandemocracy. It gave the people a measure of economicindependence and that sense of responsibility that goeswith effective political democracy. (Laidlaw, 1971:33)Discussing the period when he fell under the influence of thisdynamic and profoundly humane leader, Friesen said:82I observed in Nova Scotia how Coady and his colleaguesbegan a ground swell of cooperative organizationsamongst poor fisherman and then set out to follow theSt. F.X. model of study groups for Manitoba farmpeople. At our peak we formed four hundred groups inone year ranging in subject matter from credit unionsand cooperatives to soil conservation, health,education, public speaking, etc. (Friesen, Interview,1991)In June 1940, Friesen became a charter member of the VirdenCredit Union. He is among the three original members stillalive who returned to Virden in 1990 for the Credit Union’s50th Anniversary celebration. Based on his experience inestablishing the Virden Credit Union, Friesen took thiscooperative approach in financing to the Manitoba TeachersSociety (MTS). He wrote an article published in the The ManitobaTeacher (September-October, 1945). Following is an excerpt:In the early thirties a teacher could not avoid highinterest charges on loans, but in 1937 the Manitobalegislature cleared the road for action by passing anAct providing for the establishment of credit unions.Today many towns and country communities in Manitobahave efficient credit unions serving their people.What is a Credit Union? It may be simply defined as asmall co-coperative bank which receives shares and[deposits and] loans from its members and makes shortterm [insured] loans to them. (Friesen, 1945:22)The MTS’s historian, J.W. Chafe (1969), highlighted Friesen’scontribution to the formation of the Manitoba Teacher’s CreditUnion Society by saying:Yet when in 1945 a bright young pedagogue, JohnnyFriesen, suggested in the Manitoba Teacher that theMTS [Manitoba Teachers Society] form a credit union,most teachers seem to have yawned, just as they hadwhen group insurance was suggested. . . . In 1950, fiveyears later, the Manitoba Teacher reprinted Johnny’s83article, and presto! Sudden interest! And in that year,the Manitoba Teachers’ Credit Union Society was born.(Chafe, 1969:163)One indication of the close association between Coady and Friesenis that on the day before Coady died (1959) his thoughts were onJohn Friesen. On the invitation of John Friesen and Ken Hardingof Prince Rupert, Coady was due to address a meeting of B.C.fishermen, but as his assistant related in a letter to Mr.Harding, Secretary of the Fishermen’s Co-operative Association:The day before Dr. Coady died he was speaking about youand Dr. Friesen. Even at that time we hoped he wouldrecover but when we mentioned the B.C. trip to him hemerely shook his head and said, ‘No, I’ll never makethat trip, much as I would love to see all my friendson the west coast again. . . . They are fine men and havebeen always very kind to me.... (Friesen, PersonalPapers, Arsenault, 1959 letter, See Appendix No. 10for letter and notes)J. ARTS IN MANITOBAFrom Friesen’s boyhood days he had organized singing andconducted choirs (Figures 9 & 11). The four Friesen brotherswere a four-part harmony (Friesen a baritone) with sister Anne aspianist. A love of the fine arts, particularly music and poetry,remains central to his life today. At each stage of his careerhe has focused much attention on their development. In Manitoba,Friesen encouraged musical and artistic study through theschools. He conducted light operas and was a leader in a groupwhich in 1937 launched the Virden Music Festival, which continuesas an annual tradition to this day. He became involved intheatricals and won a gold medal for play-writing. All of this84early cultural activity prepared John Friesen for the importantcontributions he was to make in the arts later in his career.IC. THE WAR YEARS (1939 - 1945)By late 1941, Canada had already contributed impressively inmanpower and supplies to the war effort. The role of agriculturewas also a crucial one. Friesen worked in agriculture and hadhis own personal struggle with deeply held beliefs about pacifism(which he had inherited from his Mennonite ancestors) when he wasfaced with the decision about service in the Second World War.He found this decision very difficult, as his pacifism was indirect conflict with his impulse to do his duty in defending ademocracy in which he also believed passionately. Friesen simplycommented, “I came from a pacifist family and I was thought quiterevolutionary to join the war” (Friesen, Interview, 1992).He recalls this conflict:What was my own unexpressed attitude toward actualcombative service? Although I was brought up in apacifist family, the thought whether or not to enlistin the active forces was a constant worry. How to makethe deed and the Word agree? I had never doubted thatgenuine conscientious objectors were a brave lot infacing a wartime society’s daily daggers of criticism.But would a life of devotion and compassion,dedicated to community service, however noble, help inany way to eventually crush the ambitions of Hitler andthe monstrous killings by his legions? What doubtlesstipped the scale in my deciding to join up was the newsof mounting casualties among former students and otherfriends. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)85He recognized that going active might pose a threat to one of hisconvictions. Unlike his ancestors under the Czar however, JohnFriesen saw the defense of freedom as a noble cause and once hehad made the decision to serve, characteristically threw himselfwhole-heartily into his service in the Royal Canadian Air Force(RCAF). In his own words:I enlisted in the RCAF, eventually graduating as anavigator. For my parents, the thought of my joiningthe fighting forces was a very sad experience; but Iknew their thoughts and well wishes would alwaysaccompany me. Following training in Western Canada andin northern Britain, we collected as a crew, fourCanucks and three Brits. It was fortunate that we wereposted to Waterbeach, a permanent RAF base in bombercommand in East Anglia-- a half hour bicycle ride tohistoric Cambridge. As was critically essential, ourMcDonald Lancaster crew developed strong cooperativebonds; we grew together into a very closely knit unitfor action. Excellent morale, from Skipper BruceMcDonald down to rear gunner. The esprit de corpsnever faltered. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)John Friesen flew thirty-five combat missions over enemyterritory and was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross(D.F.C). (Figures 15-17) While reluctant to talk of his warexperience, Friesen does speak of lost comrades:War is hell! Our crew survived, physically unscathed,thank God! As to the less fortunate crews of oursquadron --Kathleen Raines’ lines in “Heroes” expressesthe bitter loss:This war’s dead heros, who has seen them?They rise in smoke above the burning city,Faint clouds, dissolving into sky.They are remembered, on duty and on leave, as young andventuresome, not infrequently plagued by a premonitionof no return, and buoyed up at the thought of a brightfuture back home. (Friesen, Personal Communication,1992)86Apart from giving an occasional glimpse of the reality of war,Friesen dwells entirely on the rich experience he gained fromexposure to the cultural life of England and Scotland. For a manfrom a small town in Manitoba to find himself living in an oldand mature civilization was as much of a. cultural awakening asFriesen’s first experience of University life in Manitoba. OfBritain and the University town of Cambridge, which lay close tohis air base, he says:An invaluable reward, between operations was on-leavedays when Britain was your oyster. Much of anyCanadian’s education and my teaching curriculum relatedto British culture, now available for us to enjoy.What a rich cultural feast: nearby Cambridge, Londonand its boundless interest, the south countryand Bournemouth which for weeks was our reception cityon arrival, attending Shakespeare plays inStratford-on- Avon. Dear old Scotland! Our firstposting was at Kirkubright (near Wigtown) on SoiwayFirth, with leaves in Royal Edinburgh and Glasgow. Irecall a memorable evening with former EdinburghUniversity’s Lord Rector, Sir Herbert Grierson in hisspacious apartments overlooking Arthur’s Seat. Ourpre-ops training station was just south of Dumfries,Robert Burns’ country. Brown’s Restaurant in Edinburghwith its special pastry! (Friesen, Interview, 1992)Yet compare this with the image conjured by his comment:Every op was approached and carried out with sometrepidation and in some unforgettable cases withdownright dread. Occasionally I took some favoritepoems with me on flights. (Friesen, Interview,1992)The battlefield had important consequences in forming thecharacter of the man who returned. The repeated transitionbetween peace and war deeply affected John Friesen, a man of87compassionate disposition, and reinforèed his determination toserve humankind through education.L. RETURN TO MANITOBA AFTER THE WAR (1945 - 1946)When John Friesen returned to Canada from overseas, he “decidedto go back to work on ‘civvy street’ immediately. Manitoba PoolElevator welcomed me” (Friesen, Interview, 1992). During thesucceeding year, before his departure for Columbia University, hedid a good deal of editorializing for the Manitoba Cooperator,made broadcasts and talked to various organizations aboutbuilding living memorials, after the devastation of war. Aboutthree months before he was due to depart for Columbia University,Friesen met with Premier Stuart Garson (whom he saw as a man ofvision). The Premier was aware of Friesen’s work before the warand said to him, “What I think we need in this province is aRoyal Commission on Adult Education. John, will you assist us inwriting the terms of reference?” (Friesen, Interview, 1992).Friesen explained that he was to depart shortly for Columbia, butagreed to serve as interim Secretary to initiate the project,formulate the structure, the terms of reference, and suggest afew members. He recommended an old friend and colleague, JackSword (later to become Vice President of the University ofToronto) to continue the work as Secretary to the Commission.The record shows “Mr. J. K. Friesen acted as Secretary protern pending the arrival of Mr. Sword in Winnipeg” (Report of the88Manitoba Royal Commission on Adult Education, 1947:18). JackSword finished the work started by Friesen and wrote the report.Many things grew out of the Royal Commission including finallythe appointment of a Director of University Extension.Friesen felt honored to coordinate the “Joint Manitoba Brief” tothe Massey Commission. In 1948/49 the Government of Canadaappointed a Royal Commission on the Arts, Letters and Sciences.NA.M. MacKenzie, UBC President was a member of that Commission,of which the Hon. Vincent Massey was Chairman. It is interestingto note that John Friesen first met Dr. Norman (Larry) MacKenziein 1949 when Friesen chaired a group of organizations preparingthe brief to the Commission. N.A.M. MacKenzie was later toplay an important role in John Friesen’s life.M. COLTJNBIA UNIVERSITY (1946 - 1948)Talking of his post-war years, John Friesen said:A cultural and academic peak in my post-war period wasColumbia University. Since it was granted its charteras King’s College by King George II, the University hadachieved an enviable reputation, a member of thedistinguished company of Harvard, Princeton and Yale.My subjects were rural sociology and adult education,both directly applicable in later years in continuingeducation at the University of British Columbia and ina better understanding of rural societies in Asia andAfrica. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)Friesen departed for Columbia University in June 1946 toundertake both a Master of Arts Degree and a Doctor of Education89Degree. This further education was made possible by grants madeavailable by Canada to returning veterans. Characteristically,John Friesen set himself the challenging task of accomplishingall of this scholastic work within twenty-four months. It is atestament to his working habits and to the quality of his mindthat Friesen did achieve his objective. In 1947, ColumbiaUniversity granted him his Master’s Degree and in 1948 his Doctorof Education, with a major in Rural Sociology and a minor inAdult Education. (See Figure 18: Columbia Graduation photo)Columbia University was a leading institution in these fields atthat time. At Columbia, Friesen was a colleague and became, inhis own words, a “brother”, of J.R. (Roby) Kidd, who graduatedjust six months prior to Friesen. Roby Kidd was the firstCanadian to obtain a doctorate in Adult Education and JohnFriesen became the second.It became clear, however, that the collection of scholastichonors did not, for long, remain foremost in Friesen’s mind.After his entry to Columbia, he once again found his thoughtsprojected into a new paradigm.It was also my good fortune to reside at InternationalHouse, a tall and attractive Rockefeller-gifted centreaccommodating some five hundred graduate students fromaround the world. The daily association with such astudent body was in itself an education to be prized.(Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)At International House, John Friesen came to meet leading worldfigures in education, business and politics; he was exposed to90the excitement of graduate student discourse and the thrust ofevents that were emerging to create a new world view of economicsocial and political issues. Friesen said:When I was at International House, UNICEF was born,shortly after the nations had signed the UN Charter. Iwas pleased to serve as chairman of the I-House UNICEFCommittee. To launch it we invited Chester Bowles, aformer Cabinet Minister of President Roosevelt, andtwice the popular U.S. Ambassador to India. Bowles,then head of UNICEF/USA, delivered a ringing challengeto the graduate students: ‘Development can ignoreboundaries and be a regional undertaking. We achievedit with the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA).’ Theaudience cheered him. In addressing this assembly in1947 Bowles was also giving a message to the post-warworld. This was my first contact with UNICEF.(Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)The event epitomized John Friesen’s Columbia experience andUNICEF and the UN became an important influences in his life.Friesen recalls:Marta (Friesen’s wife) and I crossed paths again withBowles in India when he was U.S. Ambassador. TheIndians loved internationalist Chester Bowles and hisfamily and he was an influence in-my life. (Friesen,Interview, 1992)Over the years Friesen was especially adept at developingrelations with a good number of outstanding persons. He drewsupport from a network of influential, humanistic and broadgauged people operating at international levels to help himestablish and achieve his own goals, visions and missions in thedevelopment of adult education. He said of personal contactsmade at Columbia:Today the “Who’s Who” of most countries can list someprominent men and women who, over the past seventy91years, were alumni of I-House, New York. (Friesen,Personal Communication, 1992)As a result of his time at Columbia University, there was born inFriesen a personal imperative to set his own endeavors in as widea field as possible. Speaking of his studies at Columbia,Friesen said:My Graduate Studies major was in rural sociology.Recalling some of my professors- - Edmund Brunner andRobert Lynd and the pioneer polling researcher PaulLazarsfeld, Ralph Linton Anthropologist of YaleUniversity (who summed up the term’s lectures withsome do, some don’ t’), Doug Ensminger of FederalAgriculture Extension (later to become representativeof Ford Foundation’s huge aid program in India) wereall influential in my life, in Adult Education- -WilburHallenbeck, et. al. I recall the riveting session“Educational Foundations” that was ,chaired by ProfessorKenneth Benne, who used every personal persuasionpossible to put our convictions through the wringer.I became a panel member to evaluate the extensivecollection of educational films. During the Summer of1947, I was field researcher in rural Ohio, on thetopic of Neighborhood Councils of the Ohio Farm Bureau.(Friesen, Interview, 1991)John Friesen found the cultural amenities of New York Cityexhilarating--the emerging rnerican musicals (Carousel andOklahoma) galleries, theatre, foreign films, ballet, and therenowned Riverside Church nearby. He remembers many outstandingpublic lectures at Columbia University. He looks back:New York City itself presented a rich array ofinterests. Favorite among them was attendance at theMetropolitan Opera (standing room was affordable). Anevent of note was the public address by distinguishedThomas Mann, then resident in California, and whoseworks I had studied, as an extra course, underProfessor von Gronicka. In 1948 there was also thePresidential Election, the media predicting certainvictory for Tom Dewey over Harry Truman. Marta [hiswife-to-be] and I attended a political meeting that92remains a vivid recollection. FDR’s former Secretaryof Agriculture, Henry Wallace, was running as the ThirdParty candidate. While waiting for Wallace to arriveat the large meeting hall in Harlem, the audience wasled in a sing-song by none other than Paul Robeson.Then Wallace arrived, his entourage led by Joe Louis.(Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)When in Columbia he met and later married Marta Korach, in hisown words, “a beautiful and dynamic fellow graduate student atInternational House studying Education for the Handicapped, mostintelligent, with an interesting background and a linguist(Hungarian, French, German, English, Spanish)” (Friesen,Interview, 1991). Speaking of Marta, John Friesen went on toconvey:Shortly after my return to Winnipeg [1948], Marta and Iwere married. A graduate of the Universidad de Chile,Marta lost no time in taking part in communityactivities. She taught Spanish at United Collegeevening classes, joined the Women’s Cooperative Guildand soon began her broadcasts on CBC International toLatin Pmerica. In the following year, we welcomed ourfirst-born Melanie and later in 1953 a son Robert.(Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)Friesen also met Murray Lincoln of the Farm Bureau, Columbus,Ohio and he spent three summer months in Ohio. He was muchinterested in the Neighborhood Councils of Ohio which weresimilar to their counterparts in Manitoba, but with largerbudgets and staff. He wrote his thesis on the rural councils ofOhio and made frequent comparisons with their Manitobacounterparts. Friesen explained, “For me it was always people,people” (Friesen, Interview, 1991).- 93After graduation, Friesen had the option either to take up anagricultural Extension post in the American Mid-West, or returnto the Wheat Pool organization in Winnipeg. The pull back toCanada was strong. Now more than ever he was attracted by thePool’s international outlook. Friesen had always admired theheroic battles of the 1920s when the prairie Pools took thegamble out of grain sales, by being legally designated as thesole selling agent at home and abroad. During the “dirtythirties” the Pools faced grave hardships in having initiallyoverpaid the producers. The Federal government appointed theCanadian Wheat Board to assume national responsibility formarketing, with the Pools continuing to handle the Wheat Coopslocally, through their established community elevatorsassociations. Friesen decided to return to the Manitoba WheatPool.N. MANITOBA WHEAT POOL (MANITOBA POOL ELEVATOR) YEARS(1948- 1953)John Friesen’s stay at Columbia University was exactly what theyoung war veteran needed; his perceived boundaries haddisappeared, his view of the world was wide open. FromFriesen’s youth in a nurturing, yet limiting, small town milieu,his natural intellectual and leadership qualities had carried himto take a “Province-wide” view. The “war” had shown Friesen theimportance of taking a world view and displayed how much richnesslay beyond even the broadest perspective of a Canadian Province.Columbia then showed Friesen how the lives of people like him94could transcend national barriers. Columbia generated in him anurge to play a significant role in this wider arena, and fromthen on John Friesen was never the same. He commented, “As ayoung man I became internationally minded. . . somewhat unusual inthose days” (Friesen, Interview, 1991). The fact is that afterColumbia University, Friesen saw all of his work in aninternational context. Indeed, as the researcher sees thematter, it was a mix of his ties of loyalty to Canada and thebroader international role of the Wheat Pool that lured Friesenaway from the Mid-West and back to Manitoba. Friesen was offereda job at the University of Manitoba as Director of Extension butdid not take it for this reason:Before leaving Columbia, I had accepted, from PresidentW. J. Parker, the post of Director of Field Servicesfor Manitoba Pool Elevators (MPE), the province-wideand expanding grain growers cooperative. Parker’soutstanding career was at its peak; he was a goodfriend and the association would be a timely andvaluable one. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)Friesen came to the conclusion that he would be comfortableworking in the influential Pool organization with its staff andwith leaders like Bill Parker, who had a “world view” and couldcount on a wide network of local associations to implementprogressive measures in community and province. Of Parker,Friesen confirms:I had long been an admirer of Bill Parker as a dynamicand able leader of the MPE and in his many otheroffices; e.g. Vice-President of Canadian Federation ofAgriculture, Board Member of Air Canada (then TransCanada Airlines), Board Member of CBC [CanadianBroadcast Corporation], and on the CNR [Canadian- 95National Railway] board, and Chairman of the Board ofGovernors at the University of Manitoba. He was keenlyinterested in international organizations: theCanadian Federation of Agriculture was a member of theInternational Federation of Agricultural Producers. Ilearned a great deal from Parker and the MPE Board inagricultural economics and what might be termed‘applied political science’. (Friesen, Interview, 1991)Friesen was appointed Director of Field Services for Manitobawith the MPE and was also encouraged to participate ininternational work and in other cooperative endeavours. In1949/50 he became chairman of the first UNICEF Committee inManitoba. In 1950, Friesen served as Vice-President of theUnited Nations Association of Manitoba and as Board member of theManitoba Cooperative Credit Society (the bank of the creditunions). During this period Friesen, in addition to hisprovince-wide activities with the Wheat Pool, became immersed inwork of the CAAE of which he had been a member since the ‘30s.The CAAE, headed by Ned Corbett, needed farm organizationsupport; Friesen, and especially MPE Secretary Fawcett Ransom,were willing advocates. Roby Kidd succeeded Ned Corbett asDirector in 1951. Speaking further of Bill Parker, Friesen gavean indication of his power:When Stuart Garson became Premier he inherited thestrong ongoing (since 1922) Progressive Party ofManitoba. The rural constituencies continued to holdthe power in votes and influence. Bill Parker maywell have been the single most influential figure inthe governments of Premier Garson and later PremierCampbell. (Friesen, Interview, 1991)96In consequence, Bill Parker’s political influence resulted inthe MFA getting the necessary support and finance from theMinistry of Agriculture in issues it promoted throughout theprovince. Urgent issues, not directly connected with farming,faced post-war Manitoba and Friesen addressed himself to thesestressing:My duties at MPE permitted time to follow up on two newurgent provincial developments; hospital constructionand enlarged school administration units. (Friesen,Personal Communication, 1992)The political influence of the farmers was impressive,disproportionate to population some maintained, when comparedwith the cities. Yet, cities had their comprehensive schools,whereas the rural areas did not and remained educationallybackward; according to Friesen:The pressing need was for expanded school units ofadministration, the greater goal, of course, being aconsiderably enriched curriculum. Having studiedschool reorganization over some years, I felt confidentin addressing this concern and cooperated eagerlywith other advocates. (Friesen, Personal Communication,1992)In his words:Little red school houses still dotted the Manitobalandscape. They had served previous generations, butwere now found wanting. The post-war was an idealperiod to build institutions--schools, hospitals,community halls--as living memorials. This was theultimate goal in community development and I wantedto be a part of it. (Friesen, Interview, 1992)97Friesen came into conflict with the Provincial Minister ofEducation of the time, whom he viewed as initially tooconservative and resistant to new ideas. However, with strongbacking from the MFA, MPE, the Teacher’s Society and Trustees,the Manitoba system slowly began to change and the little redschoolhouses were absorbed into the comprehensive schools theyare today.There was a pressing need in Manitoba for the building ofhospitals and again the Wheat Pool lent its support. The MPEmembership pledged a donation to each new hospital to augment thecost of medical equipment. Dr. Fred Jackson, the Deputy Ministerof Education, proposed a plan for a three-tier system of hospitalbuilding:(1) Neighborhood hospitals mainly emergency and maternity.(2) Regional (County) hospitals offering more extensiveservices.(3) Central hospitals with comprehensive facilities inseveral cities.(Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)Jackson asked for the Wheat Pool’s cooperation to implement thisprovincial plan. Bill Parker told Friesen, “. . .devote your timeto this, whatever time it takes.” As Parker saw it, “Every timeyou make a contribution in manpower or means to a hospital it’slike giving it to yourselves. It is your mothers and fathers who98will be using the hospital” (Friesen, Interview, 1991). Friesengoes on to disclose:I assisted the Ministry of Health with launching theircomprehensive hospital plan, both in one research studyand in its advocacy through community meetings andlater presenting MPE grants for equipment to each Boardof a new hospital. (Friesen, Personal Communication,1992)Friesen, accompanied by Dr. Margaret Nix, carried this messagearound the Province. Their job was to convince the people thatwherever a vote came up for a hospital (despite higher taxes)they had better vote yes. As Friesen put it, “Primary servicesfor Manitoba were education and hospitals, and both were greatlyimproved in the decade following World War II” (Friesen,Interview, 1992). Now a new challenge would be sought by JohnFriesen.0. SUMMARYThe more the researcher delved into the many faceted career ofJohn Friesen, the more apparent it became that historicinfluences, his early upbringing and the warm, lively caring,country environment in which he was raised served to shape hisapproach in all he sought to achieve. Reflecting on these years,Friesen adds:Many activities on the West Coast would be a reminderof my prairie years, some appearing as a prologue tocontinuing or more extended programs in B.C. (Friesen,Personal Communication, 1992)99He had an abiding belief in the importance of social cooperation,in planting ideas and then enlisting the support of the peopleof a community to cause them to take place. This inclinationtowards cooperative effort applied to his work wherever it tookplace, whether in the international field, in an academiccommunity, or in cultural and artistic development. He took acooperative approach in the implementation of educationalprograms, in the development of agricultural cooperativemovements and in his important work in the formation of creditunions.Consistently, John Friesen encouraged the people who worked withhim and also the people he sought to serve, to unite in acooperative effort to create an atmosphere in which ideas andgrowth could flourish. In the farming terms of his ancestors,John Friesen would find a field in need of enrichment, arrangefor its cultivation, plant the seed, and nourish it, but wasoften content to let others reap the rewards. It is apparentFriesen gets great satisfaction from encouraging his colleaguesto excel and in watching them achieve their highest personalpotential. He gives his co-workers the freedom to grow andassists and defends them whenever needed. This is the man whocame to the University of British Columbia in August, 1953(Figure 19).YFigure 4: Sarah Klippenstejn, Figure 5: David W. Friesen,Mother of J.K. Friesen Father of J.K. Friesen101Figure 6: John Friesen, violin pupil @eleven years old, June 1923 (Friesen on rt)Figure 8: John K. Friesen, 1933Won Gretna Tennis TourneyFigure 7: John Friesen inHaskett, Manitoba, 1933102IFigure 9: Gretna Collegiate Choir, 1935Friesen, Director (front center)Figure 10: John K. Friese Graduation,1936, University of Manitoba103Figure 12: Regional Youth Training Schoolin Virden, 1939 Dominion-Provincial Programr,.‘N4Figure 11: Virden United Church Choir, 1939Fresen, Director (Back row, right)Figure13:ManitobaDelegatestoWesternUnitedChurchYPUConference,MountRoyalCollege,Calgary,June30toJuly4,1940.(Friesen:Frontrow,thirdfromleft).14--Ic105Figure 14: Farewell to Friesen family, 1943 John’sday of departure for overseas war service.(1 to r; brother Ray, Father, John, Mother, brother Ted)Figure 15: Friesen, Flying Officer, 1945106Figure 16: Damaged Avro Lancaster’s fin rudder and half oftailpiane shot away after one of Friesen’s missionsover enemy territory, July, 18, 1944Figure 17: 7—man crew of Lancaster bomber. Taken oncompletion of 35-mission tour, RAF Squadron 514,Waterbeach, late 1944. (Fri esen: third from left)107TFigure 18: Dr. John K. FrieSen, June 1948Graduated with Ed.D., columbia UniversitY108CHAPTER 4: EXTENSION TRADITION AND THE NEW DIRECTORThe purpose of adult education is to help people to earn aliving, to live a life, and to mould a world - and in thatorder of importance. (Sir Josiah Stamp)A. UNIVERSITY EXTENSION IN CANADAThe UBC Extension Department was established on April 27,1936, its goals and policies were in accordance with theunique North American Extension tradition, of extensionwork, which had been pioneered by the University ofWisconsin early in the century and subsequently adopted bythe provincial universities of Alberta and Saskatchewan.There was a genuine desire by the early administrators atUBC to place the wisdom, thinking and knowledge of theuniversity at the disposal of society. UBC Extension cameto be considered outstanding by many scholars and certainlywas not alone in adopting a community oriented approach toExtension. Selman (1975) quotes President Henry MarshallTory, founder of several Canadian universities, as to theapproach adopted decades earlier by the University ofAlberta:• . the extension of the activities of theUniversity on such lines as will make itsbenef its reach directly or indirectly the massof the people, carrying its ideals of refinementand culture into their homes and its latentspiritual and oral power into their minds andhearts, is a work second to none. (Cited inSelman, 1975:2)109Selman (1975) points out that the first three Presidents ofUBC held much the same view as Dr. Tory and fully approvedthe Extension Department’s broadly based service to society.During its first two decades the Extension program provideda range of services involving study and discussion of thefine arts, a comprehensive service of study courses coveringa wide range of cultural and vocational subjects, availableanywhere in the Province; correspondence instruction;cooperative production and marketing programs for fisherman;accounting courses; instructor teams for home economics andhandicrafts courses; in addition there were programs onfamily life, such as parent education and problems ofaging. It also included a film library with a finecollection of films on a wide range of subjects. Othernotable achievements were Youth Training, Rural LeadershipSchools, and the provincial organization of National FarmRadio Forum and Citizens Forum.According to E.A. Corbett, Director of the CAAE 1936-1951,writing in 1952, there were two main kinds of universityExtension in Canada:The first derives directly from the ‘course-givingfunction of the UNIVERSITY’, i.e., correspondencecourses, night classes, extension classes forextra-mural students, etc. In some cases academiccredits leading to degrees are offered inconnection with the courses but the subject matterof the courses offered is likely to extend beyondthe limits of subjects considered desirable ornecessary in the pursuit of a degree.110The second kind of extension program is built lesson the basis of traditional university work, andmore on the existing activities and interestsof people outside the university and itsimmediate community. This is true of all theuniversities in western Canada, of Laval, St.Francis Xavier, Macdonald College (of McGill) andof most of those colleges not properly calleduniversities but which have strongly developedextension service. (Corbett, 1952:7)Acknowledging that some university administrators regardExtension work as an “entirely unnecessary activity and notproperly the function of an institution whose firstresponsibility lies in teaching and research”, Corbettasserted that, “. . .the closer the bond between theuniversity and the community it serves, the stronger andmore secure its position becomes” (Corbett, 1952:7).B. JOHN K. FRIESEN’S PREDECESSORGordon Shrum (later to become Chancellor of Simon FraserUniversity, and Co-Chairman of BC Hydro) was Friesen’spredecessor as Director of UBC’s Extension Department,having held that post along with other duties from 1937 to1953. Shrum had a very strong commitment to a broadcultural role for university Extension. There can belittle doubt that under Shrum, UBC’s Extension Departmentfell into Corbett’s second classification. In 1949, Shrumsaid:Thus the University, through its program of adulteducation, is making and should continue to make aunique and indispensable contribution to thecultural development of the Province. (Cited inSelman, 1975:7)111C. CAAE CONNECTIONAt the CAAE conference in Winnipeg, in the Summer of 1953,Dr. Shrum asked John Friesen if he would be interested intaking over Extension at UBC. Friesen recognized the widescope UBC would offer and in the end agreed. Describing thespeed at which the appointment took place he said, “I wasthen flown to Vancouver to meet various people. I beganwork on August 1, 1953” (Friesen, Interview, 1991). Friesenthus became the third Director of Extension at UBC, and thefirst for many years to occupy the position on a full-timebasis. Eight years later, in 1961 Friesen took theopportunity to commemorate the UBC Extension Department’s25th Anniversary. The first three Extension directors:Robert England (1936-37); Gordon Shrum (1937-53); and JohnFriesen (1953-66) gathered for a photograph. (Figure 32--EXTENSION 25th ANNIVERSARY photo at end of Chapter 6)Commenting on the years that followed:The most satisfying thing I ever undertook wasUBC. There was no equivalent to UBC in Manitobaand to some extent I didn’t know exactly what Iwas getting into, but saw UBC as a veryactive concern. . .although small, it [Extension]had the makings of a good department; it hadmomentum because of its former influentialDirector Gordon Shrum. Politics are importantin a University and one of the reasons GordonShrum was successful was that he had thereputation of getting things done, notinfrequently as a committee of one.(Friesen, Interview, 1991)112At CAAE meetings and during the Massey Commission hearingsFriesen had, as previously noted, met N.A.M. MacKenzie, thePresident at UBC; he liked him immediately. MacKenzieinformed Friesen on his arrival that University Extensionwas important work which held promise for considerableexpansion and far greater responsibility. Friesen commentedthat, “Undertaking such a position, as I graduallydiscovered, was for any director, a colossal dare” (Friesen,Interview, 1992)Friesen was well equipped through experience, intellect andconviction to carry on in a tradition of providing serviceto the community. When he joined UBC in August of 1953, notonly had a strong momentum been developed in this direction,but also the university leadership was convinced thatservice to society, through an Extension program, was ofimportance to the future recognition and strength of theUniversity. By character, John Friesen was well suited tothe aggressively growing young university. Gordon Shrum,while Chancellor of Simon Fraser University, wrote Friesenwhen he left UBC in 1966 for international work:Perhaps you would be interested in the processby which you were selected for the positionat U.B.C. I had become acquainted with you throughthe meetings and committee work of the CanadianAssociation of Adult Education. I conferred withNed Corbett and Larry MacKenzie and we agreedthat you were the outstanding prospect for thejob. We prepared no lists - long or short-butdevoted all our energies Co devising ways andmeans of luring you from Winnipeg. It wasn’t113easy but there was the satisfaction of succeedingin our quest. (Friesen, Personal Papers, G.M.Shrurn to Friesen, 11, October, 1966)D. UBC ON JOHN K. FRIESEN’S ARRIVALWhat manner of man was this new Director of Extension?Certainly his leadership style would be remarkably differentfrom that of Dr. Shrum, an authoritative figure, wellrespected, sometimes feared, who had achieved great successin his several university positions. John Friesen hadachieved his own impressive record, but by entirelydifferent means. He was a complex, many faceted individualwith a broad cultural background’ and a very strongphilosophy of commitment to his fellow human beings.Speaking of the sense of commitment which Friesen had topeople, Gordon Selman, who became his closest associate atUBC, noted:I think the cooperative movement may havereinforced that [commitment] in him. . . . One cansee it, in some respects as a Christianconviction. But I would generalize a littlefurther in terms of a concern for the welfare ofothers. A compassionate view of society. Onecould call it a humanistic view. . . of what societyshould be like and how it should treat itscitizens. (Selman, Interview, 1992)Friesen commented about the lack of- any strong fine artsbase at UBC in 1953; the arts were in Friesen’s genes:There was not much of it [the arts] academicallyat UBC at that time; no drama department, asmall music department, nothing in ballet, the114fine arts had a department of one with BertBinning as its outstanding head.You learn so much yourself and in closeassociation with all the disciplines. What aprivilege in helping to build a better society!Achieving the abundant life, that’s what intriguesme. (Friesen, Interview, 1991)As discussed in Chapter Three, Johi Friesen had come tobelieve that the building of an abundant life for the manyis the ultimate goal of adult education. He considers adulteducation as life’s grand highway and the servant of life’sgoals. His feeling in 1953 was, “I love this; I havearrived” (Friesen, Interview, 1991). Now he had theopportunity to mold the broad dimensions of adult educationin British Columbia. Thomas claimed that when Friesenarrived he was the right man at the right time, a time whengovernments believed in education (Thomas, PersonalCommunication, 1992). Friesen defined his goal in terms offurthering liberal education for adults, and he cited in oneof his first annual reports a definition of liberaleducation provided by the Carnegie Trustees:The Carnegie Trustees define a liberal educationas implying a knowledge of oneself and others andthe world around us, a general interest in man’shistorical achievements, and an abiding awarenessof his religious and philosophical heritage. ‘Theobjective of liberal education is to producemature men, good men, even - hopefully - wisemen’. (UBC, Extension, 1955-1956:5)One of Friesen’s early staff appointments was Gordon Selmanwhom he approached on the recommendation of Dean Andrew,115Deputy to President MacKenzie. Friesen never regrettedselecting him. Selman soon was promoted to become Friesen’sdeputy in all activities and Friesen acknowledges that muchof what he was able to achieve at UBC was the result ofSelman’s loyal support. Friesen said:How fortunate I was to have Gordon Selman as myright hand man all those twelve years. Gordon andI are brothers and have been all these years,brothers in every way. John is out buildingmountains and Gordon is keeping the house inorder. (Friesen, Interview, 1991)This backing at UBC Extension was essential to Friesen, whowas not about to become desk bound on campus. Instead, heranged the field of adult education, travelling wherever thecutting edge for the department’s work might be, whether itwas in the province, the continent or the world at large.Friesen viewed adult education in the broadest ofperspectives.In writing of his first year as Director of Extension, JohnFriesen described how he had spent the year becomingacquainted with his territory:My initial year was spent in becoming acquaintedwith the growing departmental activities asestablished under my predecessor, Dr. Shruxn.Considerable time was spent in visits to somethirty communities throughout the province.The impression gained was that the ExtensionDepartment is known in virtually every corner ofthe province and its services extend even beyondinto the Yukon. (UBC, Extension, 1953/54:5)116During this year (1954), he was also selected by the AdultEducation Association of the U.S.A. along with nine otherNorth merican adult educators (five were Canadian) toparticipate in a series of seminars in Great Britain,Sweden, Austria, Switzerland, Italy and France, whereFriesen had the opportunity to meet and to discuss the fieldwith leaders in European adult education. The tour wasfunded by the Carnegie Foundation and the Ford Foundation’sFund for Adult Education.E. FRIESEN’S VIEW OF THE EXTENSION FUNCTIONJohn Friesen inherited a very broadly based Extensionprogram, the work of which was largely self-directed and notyet closely integrated with what was being done internallyin the University. The ExtensiOn’ Department of UBC wasalready rated among the best in the country and it added tothat reputation under Friesen’s direction. Friesen had afirm conviction that the University must reach out to thepeople of British Columbia. He knew, however, thatExtension must change if, in the future, it was to meet theneeds of the University in a changing society. Herecognized that important shifts were occurring which wouldalter the Extension function. People were staying in schoollonger, while local school boards and other organizationswere getting involved in adult education. Nevertheless,117Friesen believed that the whole idea of democracy isstrongly rooted in the community and that the University ofB.C. must work to strengthen that heritage.Speaking of his convictions in 1945, at a youth rally inWinnipeg he had stated:The roots of civilization are planted in the smallcommunities. Man did not build cities until hehad first built villages. There is truth in thesaying, ‘God made the country, and man the town.’Democracy is meaningless unless it is rooted inthe properly nourished soil of the smallcommunity, and the greatest challenge in sociallife today is the reclaiming to its proper statusof community life. . . .to shackle our fellowmen orto help free them, ideas which will banish wars,for we may be sure that the war to end wars willnot be fought with guns. There is our challengefor lifting the community to a higher plane and tomore abundant living. (Altona Echo, June 20, 1945)Friesen resolved that the Extension Department would notbecome isolated from the rest of life at the University. Herealized that, as UBC continued to grow, university decisionmakers might increasingly adopt an insular attitude towardssociety, becoming primarily concerned with achieving higherintellectual standards within the University. Should thisoccur, he expected the institution would grow to view itsExtension Department as somewhat marginal to theUniversity’s central purposes unless Extension also raisedits own academic sights (Friesen, Interview, 1992). Underhim the Extension Department was to become a much moresophisticated enterprise.118Selman (1963) commented that Friesen essentially agreedwith the five guidelines suggested in 1952 by the Universityof Chicago’s Cyril Houle in the introduction to Universitiesin Adult Education a publication which he edited for UNESCO(The United Nations Education, Scientific, and CulturalOrganization)1) The universities should restrict themselvesto complex subject matters.2) The universities should be pioneers.3) The universities should train leaders.4) The universities should collaborate with the manyother agencies in society which provide adulteducation.5) Finally, the universities should master adulteducation as a field of knowledge.(Houle, 1952:21-22)While Friesen believed that, a university’s role in thescheme of things is to be a leader, exploring intellectually(Friesen, Interview, 1992), he never abandoned hiscommitment to the broader community of the Province. Hedecided, “The Extension Department must adopt a role that isreasonably high, sophisticated but outgoing, and do its workwith leaders in communities. I did not want the departmentto become internalized and elitist” (Friesen, Interview,1991)Friesen recognized that a university had a duty as part ofits ongoing educational responsibility, to enrich, educateand involve the people of a society in its cultural,119environmental and overall development. There is no doubtthat President MacKenzie held the same view as Friesen inrecognizing the University’s responsibility for leadershipin society. In his President’s Report for 1952/53, hestressed the importance of Extension work, declaring:If we are to have and maintain a society in whichevery adult citizen is called upon to haveopinions and vote on matters not only of local --but of national and international--importance,and if we are to continue to live in a world thatis inter-related so intimately as to regulate thestandard at which we can- live--and indeedwhether we can continue to live at all, --someagencies must exist, or be created to try todevelop and obtain as great an understanding ofthe problems and nature of citizenship--in itsbroadest sense--as is possible. Also if we areto continue to live in a complex technologicalworld that is changing and developingrapidly, we must have agencies to help keep theadult population informed about the changingworld and the implications of those changesboth for their lives and livelihood. (President’sReport, UBC 1952/53:3)According to Friesen, MacKenzie took a very open and broadview of the manner in which Extension should operate:Larry [MacKenzie] would say to me, ‘If a well-conceived program needs funding in the Universitythe money should be found John.’ Many good thingshappened at UBC because Larry MacKenzie wantedthem. During his time, the Extension Departmentwas allowed to be very outgoing towards thecommunity in its expansion. We would organizeprograms which were needed, in some instances,even when departments did not yet exist. (Friesen,1992, Interview)In his introduction to the Extension Department AnnualReport for 1954-55 President MacKenzie said:120In the comprehensiveness of this programme wediffer somewhat on the North American continentfrom the European tradition, and there iscontinuing discussion within our universitiesabout the range of professional training whichshould be undertaken under university auspices;about the degree of emphasis which should beplaced on the undergraduate and on the graduateprogramme; and about the range and scope of theadult education- -or university extension- -programme. But there is no longer any disputeabout the basic value of the adult educationprogramme. (UBC, Extension, 1954-1955:3)Jindra Kulich, who had twenty-three years experience inmanagement positions in the Department, said of Friesen’spriorities for Extension:I have always been very much impressed by John’svision of Adult Education in general andUniversity Extension in particular because it is avery broad vision. It deals not only with theacademic side of the enterprise; he certainly wasvery much interested in upgrading the program moretowards University level in the academic areas.Also in the cultural areas, he strongly believesthe university must be a contributor to thecultural life of its community. (Kulich,Interview, 1992)F. JOHN K. FRIESEN’S CENTRAL IDEASFriesen’s broad view of the role a university might play insociety, the tradition of UBC Extension and the supportiveattitude of President MacKenzie led him to promote twocentral ideas as to the direction the Extension Departmentfunction should follow. He fully understood that, to someextent, these two priorities were atodds with one another.First: Friesen was determined to raise UBC’s adult121educational programs to a higher professional andintellectual level; and second: he wanted to make UBC aleader in the cultural development of British Columbia.Obviously, there was a risk that time and attention given tocommunity cultural affairs would detract from thedepartment’s drive to achieve a higher, more sophisticatedintellectual level on campus. However, John Friesen did notchoose to follow a single route aimed at upgradingeducational programs on campus. He decided the directionsto be taken by the Extension Department must emphasize hisaspirations towards a higher intellectual content, but notto the extent that the University would neglect itsimportant community development role.In reflecting on the difficult task of creating a desire forchange in civic affairs, Friesen recalls a lecture atColumbia in which Eduard Lindeman, described Gunner Myrdal:One of the most discerning scholars to study ourmerican social structure who thinks that theadult education activities in North merica arelaudable efforts; he observes however, that thereis little concerted drive for self education incivic affairs; very little desire for knowledge asa means for achieving power and independence.You will recall the same opinion expressed in therhyme:Come weal, come woe,My status is quo.(Friesen’s Personal Papers, notes for speech toCatholic Seminar, 1948)122To understand the urgency Friesen placed on the University’scommitment to community work we can look to his deepconviction about democracy. In the notes for Friesen’scontribution to a lecture series at the Catholic Seminarheld at St. Mary’s Academy in Winnipeg in 1948, hisstatement on his idea of democracy and how it can beenvisioned within a community:The future of democracy is at stake today. When Ithink of the term “democracy” I associate with itthe term “understanding”. Surely this is afundamental in any democratic society. We cannever learn democracy from books or from lectures.Situations - real situations - have to be createdby means of which we can learn to respect othersas ourselves and to reflect on Mark Twain’s half-humorous statement that one man’s as good asanother- and perhaps a doggone sight better!Your life and mine takes on meaning only in termsof our relationship to the group and thecommunity. Of what organizational opportunitiesare we now taking advantage to create a greaterawareness of democratic understanding?Recognizing a problem is already a beginningtoward its solution; discussing it is one-half thesolution; acting upon pooled opinion is aculminating step in its solution. (Friesen,Personal Papers, 1948)In an article he wrote in 1946, Friesen described hisconviction about the critical importance to democracy ofsupport from small communities:nothing any government can do will bringresults in the field of international goodwill andcooperation unless that spirit is present and isevidenced in every small community in everycountry. It is the individual citizen and not thegovernment official who will eventually determinewhether the world will live in peace andharmony.... (Friesen, Brandon Sun, 1946)123Friesen’s broad vision of the adult educator’s role and ofthe Extension Department’s responsibility ran into obstacleslater when UBC President John Barfoot Macdonald decided toredirect the Extension Department away from non-degree work.It is ironic that Macdonald’s call for a change was directedat Friesen, who from the outset had worked diligently tobring about a higher educational standard in the work ofExtension. Gordon Selman comments on John Friesen’scommitment to professionalism:John saw very clearly as a professional thatuniversity Extension, if it was going tocontinue to find the support of theuniversity, had to be seen to be doing thehigher level things; that we couldn’t be allthings to all men, that the university had to beseeing us as operating at an advanced levelof content and as being leaders in the field ofadult education. (Selman, Interview, 1992)In Friesen’s view, much of Extension’s teaching work inhandicrafts, home economics, and other vocational areas,could and should be left to other agencies; he decidedthat the faculties and his department would concentrateinstead on leadership training and continuing educationwithin the professions. Friesen encouraged innovation..mong many other pioneer efforts, for example, Extensionlaunched the pioneer residential short course for fishermenin Canada and established study courses in remotecommunities. In one of his early annual reports Friesen,speaking of Extension’s role, comments:124It should be stressed that the Department sees itsrole as experimental and venturesome in most ofits activities. Some of these projects - -in theFine Arts, in Pre-School Education, in certainbusiness courses, in Adult Education training, tomention but a few -- may eventually become creditcourses or even departments of the University ifexperimentation has proven this need.... (UBC,Extension, 1955-1966:4)Friesen listed for the researcher five ways in which hewished to see his Department expand:1) Help establish or strengthen continuingeducation in the professions.2) Incorporate continuing education in all of thefaculties.3) Broaden the adult education service and involvefaculty and Extension personnel outreachprograms around the province.4) Enrich the overall program of Extension.5) Help establish a graduate program in adulteducation. (Friesen, Interview, 1992)G. COOPERATION WITH THE FACULTIESFriesen wanted his department to be a natural “extension” ofUniversity life and knowledge, and to reach the peoplebeyond the campus. Thomas comments about Friesen’swillingness to take risks, and the implications of this forrelations with the faculties:I learned a great deal about John’s willingness totake the ideas of adult education into the leastimmediately responsive circles. - John was neverafraid to advance the notion of universityExtension to any group of dinosaurs within theuniversity. (Thomas, Personal Communication,1992)125To accomplish this cooperation, the Extension Department hadto be well accepted by the faculties. Friesen described howhe worked to achieve such recognition and cooperationsaying:I would first and foremost need to maintain closelinks with the faculties, and as their time andresources permitted, help in sharing theimpressive resources of higher education with theprofessions and other alumni, and with an array oforganizations -- from farms and the market place toschools, cultural groups and social services. Onesoon found that the only stability in any academicinterest was the exciting and persistent pursuitof the fleeing boundaries of knowledge. (Friesen,Interview, 1992)To promote cooperation, coordinate programs and make use ofavailable resources, Friesen wanted each of the faculties tohave a representative, working in Extension, on theExtension Department’s staff: Engineering, Pharmacy, Law,Education, et al. At first, only Agriculture had such arepresentative, but he worked with the Faculty Deans tochange that. He gave each faculty representative thefreedom, responsibility and authority to develop programs,in close collaboration with the respective faculty. FromFriesen’s viewpoint, “Every one of them was the particularfaculty Dean’s man as much as my man” (Friesen, 1992,Interview). Friesen described his good relationship withthe faculties when he said:Recalling those UBC years, I found therelationship with faculties cooperative and often126enthusiastic on their part, and the administrationalways understanding and generously supportive.(Friesen, Interview, 1992)By 1956, it was evident that cooperation with the facultieswas proceeding well. UBC Senate Minutes stated:Letters were received from the Faculties ofPharmacy, Graduate Studies, Agriculture, Forestry,Applied Science, and Medicine, recommending theDirector of University Extension be made a memberof these Faculties. Motion carried. (SenateMinutes, 1956:2281)Friesen’s efforts to create cooperative relationships withthe faculties worked well in most instances. In the case ofseveral professional faculties, however, they opted todirect their own continuing education services. This trendbecame particularly pronounced in - the latter years ofFriesen’s tenure, when Commerce, to an extent Education andseveral of the Health Science units took over their ownprograms. This issue was the focal point of a submission onthe organization of Extension work which, in the sixties,Friesen and his colleagues submitted to the Senate which isdiscussed in more detail in Chapter 6.H. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PEOPLEAccording to Gordon Selman, Friesen encouraged hiscolleagues to believe, as he did, that an adult educator“Must have certain kinds of sympathies and commitments towhere society might be going” (Selman, Interview, 1992).Yet, he expected each colleague to seek his own road in127furthering these commitments. Selman said, “I learned a setof commitments and aspirations that I could embrace as anadult educator which I have lived with and resonated all ofmy life” (Selman, Interview, 1992). Kulich commenting onFriesen’s influences on his life told the researcher:I see John up there as a great man along thefootsteps with Ned Corbett of Alberta who reallyset the whole direction for University Extensionin the West, and people like Roby Kidd--they arethe ones who had an impact on UniversityContinuing Education. We are now in an era inwhich we no longer have these great leaders whoinfluence a number of others and give direction toenterprises in society. (Kulich, Interview, 1992)Selman observed that Friesen was influenced to some extentby the philosophies of such men as Carl Rogers and AbrahamMaslow and very much by Father Coady:He believed strongly that people have [the urge]within them to become the best that they canbe.. .and he showed how one can appropriately helpthem to grow and develop. (Selman, Interview,1992)Friesen understood that the Extension Department mustdepend, for its future, on the quality of the people he wasable to develop and leave in place; for him the developmentof people was a primary goal. He encouraged and often urgedstaff members to complete their graduate studies; forexample, Selman talking of his own experience said:He made it possible for me to take extra time offto complete my Master of Arts degree. John saidat crucial points, ‘Gordon you give a week of yourholidays and I’ll give you a corresponding week of128work to get this thing done.’ (Selman, Interview,1992)Selman’s expressions of appreciation for time made availablewere echoed by Blaney, Buttedahi and Thomas who had similarencouragement from Friesen in pursuing their graduatestudies towards their doctorates. Such a humanistic view ofthe role of an adult educator was, and still is, in manyways at variance with the behavioristic view held in somefaculties of the University. Selman pointed out thatFriesen’s view of adult education is satisfying, butdemanding. It can both:(a) be difficult to live up to; and(b) can be eroded in the field of practice by theeffects of professionalization, institutionalization.... I have come to a sense of what adulteducation should stand for which I would not havecome to without John Friesen as a mentor andguide. (Selman, Interview, 1992)I. FRIESEN’S MANAGEMENT STYLE AND LEADERSHIPThe researcher sought to discover something of Friesen’sorganizational, administrative and management styles,because his humanistic philosophy would not appear to lenditself to any rigid system of management. Thomas describeda working environment in which Friesen relied on his staffto use their imagination to carry out interestingendeavours: -There was an enormous amount of freedom and it wasnecessary to do the job. So it meant that John129had to trust the people who worked for him, to notbe damn fools. And he did! He was extremely goodat putting confidence in those people who workedfor him. (Thomas, Personal Communication, 1992)Selman explained that Friesen was well aware of theorganizational dynamics of the continuing educationdepartment and that he was highly skilled in thedevelopment of management skills. His style as theorganizer of an enterprise, was highly professional, butSelman goes on:He had his own style. He was not very directivein a very overt way; he worked to a large extentby indirection. You got a sense of what he washoping you could do and then left you to do it ornot. His leadership of the staff was, to somedegree, leadership by example. He worked longer,harder than any of the rest of us and we thoughtwe were working as hard as we could. By example,he was a very sophisticated leader.The Extension Department had an organization,it had a director, an assistant director,associate director, it was a funny organization,like many academic organizations, in that itdidn’t have a pyramid but a flat organizationalstructure. Programmers were all of equal staturewithout a hierarchical structure amongst them. Sohe worked with a team of us as equals; yes, it wasa band of brothers, so to speak,, and sisters. Hewas part of the team and did not want to distancehimself from the team. (Selman, Interview, 1992)A related, but somewhat different perception of Friesen’smanagement style is given by Kulich:John would never give you a command, but Johnnever forgot the idea he put up to you. . . . Sixmonths later you would either run into John or anote would arrive on your desk, ‘Sometime ago Imentioned such and such idea, what happened toit?’ Not how come you didn’t do it?130He really fires you up. I keep coming backto this unbounded enthusiasm and energy. At thesame time, it was his greatest strength and hisgreatest weakness. It’s the only weakness I seein John because he has no capacity to understandthat not everybody can be as fired up. (Kulich,Interview, 1992)This style of management, though loose, had the advantage ofgiving each individual staff member the inspiration,encouragement and freedom to perform at his or her maximumcreative and intellectual best. Thomas recalls thecommitment Friesen would give them:What John did was tell us to do the job, producethe programs, run them, but keep him informed onwhat we’re doing, while he kept the frontierssafe. He was going to do that by being in thePresident’s Office, talking to the Deans, by beingaround the university all the time, talking toevery body so they know about Extension. He wentto the Senate meetings, went to the Faculty Club,and different places, running town and gownaffairs. (Thomas, Personal Communication, 1992)John Friesen, thus, was able to manage a range of activitiesand to expand the boundaries of influence of the ExtensionDepartment well beyond the extent available to a manager whorelies on his command to run an enterprise. In Selman’swords:There was a delineation of what our tasks were.He sought ways of helping us set our goals, butcreated a sense that we cared more than anyoneelse about what we were achieving and what we hadnot been able to achieve. It was not touchy-feely.There was a clear sense of what your job was, andwhat obligations you had within that job and howyour job related to other people, but they [theteam] worked in a humanistic, friends together,not competitive, but urgent sort of way. He had away of creating an enterprise in such a way that131each of the actors within it felt in charge ofwhat they were doing, and that they hadresponsibilities. John had the right andresponsibility to keep track of what we weredoing. (Selman, Interview, 1992)The qualities of integrity, commitment and responsibility heencouraged allowed the organization to thrive without muchexercise of authority. Thomas speaks of the trust andsupport they received:We were free to do all sorts of things because hetrusted us. Of course that gave us additionalconfidence. If someone in the faculty mightcomplain to the President about Extension, Johnwould never let us down publicly. He might tearus up privately. That’s a lesson I have takenwith me in all my jobs. If I ever treasured alesson from John it is never let any of yourpeople down in public. It sure was John Friesen’sstyle, one that I have appreciated all my life.(Thomas, Personal Communication, 1992)Curtis considers Friesen’s encouragement of his colleaguesand a wide range of talented people as an importantcontribution to adult education:He had the ability to get the best out of peopleand gave them constant encouragement. We got toknow and appreciate the best minds in the businessand made important contributions. He did itthrough other people and he was very good at doingit. That’s a contribution in its own right, butit doesn’t very often get recognized. (Curtis,Personal Communication, 1992)Friesen would describe directions and goals to hiscolleagues, then the creative people around him woulddevelop and implement programs in which they expanded on hisinitial ideas. Their self-directed initiatives left him132free to devote his attention to wider issues within theUniversity, the Province and internationally.Thus in 1953, when he was to step on to the UBC stage,Friesen brought his abilities and a style of managementwhich would change and set the direction of adult educationin British Columbia for many years. His character had beenshaped by his childhood experiences and his young adulthoodon the prairies. He had been tested in war, enrichedthrough his Columbia University years and matured throughhis broad experience as a leader and adult educator inManitoba. The scene was set at the Extension Department ofthe University of British Columbia, but the play had yet tobe written. John Friesen and the people he would gatheraround him would compose a work and assemble a company thatwould have influences in cultural and leadership developmentthroughout the Province and would reach out a helping handto distant and needy people.133CHAPTER 5: EXTENSION DIRECTOR (1953-1959) FIRST SIX YEARSHe who has only vision is a dreamer; he who has only aprogram is a drudge; but he who has both vision and aprogram is a conqueror. (Anon)A. INTRODUCTIONThe convictions, ideas, style and directions brought byFriesen soon were reflected in the programs established bythe Extension Department. The department was bold inexperiment in the field of adult education. There wereimportant new emphases and he introduced a period of rapidgrowth in program variety and number of participants.Throughout Friesen’s term as Director, his commitment tocommunity development and international service wasevidenced in the Department’s and his own activities. Thischapter will review some of the programs resulting fromFriesen’ s leadership.In his 1954-55 Report, Friesen described the field ofprofessional and leadership training as a major area ofactivity. By way of example, he stated that Extension’stwo-week Fisheries Short Course, the first of its kind inCanada, had received enthusiastic endorsement in the Houseof Commons by the Federal Minister of Fisheries and otherMembers of Parliament. A course in community planning cosponsored by the Community Planning Association was alsofeatured.134Friesen commented on progress in the Arts:A highlight in the year’s activities was [the]Summer School of the Arts. The ExtensionDepartment, with substantial assistance from theUniversity Board of Governors, was able to attractoutstanding instructors and speakers in the finearts, the humanities and in leadership training.The five hundred young men and women who attendedsummer classes return to their homes to strengthenand enrich the cultural and social life of theircommunities. (UBC, Extension, 1954/55:6-7)Particular notice was taken by Senate; on August 27, 1954 itcongratulated Extension on Student Registration and programsin Extra-Curricular Summer Courses of 1954. “The Presidentemphasized the importance of this Department and commentedon the fine work being done” (Senate Minutes, 1954:2079).Total enrollment (1954/5) in non-credit evening classes was2,185 and, according to a study conducted at this time, over98 of Extension students had previously attended highschool or university. It was felt that, “an increase incourses in the humanities, public affairs and modernlanguages might well be called for” (UBC, Extension,1954/55:9). In 1955/56 more than 8000 people took part insome continuing form of adult education through theExtension service and, under its auspices, over 75,000attended lectures by faculty members in many communities(UBC, Extension, 1955/56)135B. LIVING ROOM LEARNINGIn 1957, the Extension Department received a three-yeargrant from the Fund for Adult Education, a subsidiary of theFord Foundation. UBC was the only Canadian UniversityExtension Department to receive such a grant (Report of theFund for Adult Education 1951-1961). Using the three-yeargrant money, “Living Room Learning”, a study-discussionprogram in the liberal arts, was organized under thesupervision of Knute Buttedahl. Living Room Learning wasimplemented to provide an ongoing program in the LiberalArts through Extension. Buttedahl described its aims:(1) to help the participant to understand theculture of which he is a part;(2) to help him think independently, critically,and objectively;(3) to develop his tolerance of opinions andideas which differ from his own;(4) to develop his skills in communicating withothers. (Buttedahl, 1973:3-4)The discussion groups met for two hours, once a week for tenweeks. To start and finish at a defined time was a muchappreciated ground rule. Meetings were generally followedby a one-hour coffee session which did much to meld a groupof strangers into a friendly cohesive discussion group. Thegroups had a vociferous appetite for a wide variety oftopics. Initially Living Room Learning relied on packagedprograms available from educational foundations but some of136the U.S. source material was not suitable for Canadianaudiences. Seven packaged programs were developed andtested by UBC Extension. A topic was divided into tenlogical, psychologically effective, discussable and interrelated parts. Two of the most popular topics were “TheWays of Mankind” (on anthropological topics) and “The GreatReligions of the World.” Written material was usuallylimited to 3000 to 5000 words per session and was designedfor readers of moderate skills. Films, slides, recordingsand other audio-visual aids were found to be effective but alimitation of funds and the problems involved in gettingequipment transported to diverse groups mitigated againsttheir use (Buttedahl, 1973)Initially the bulk of discussion leadership training wasconducted by the Program Supervisor, but after three yearsseveral other trainers had been developed and were assuminga larger share of the training responsibilities. Thesepeople were able to weed out those volunteers who appearedto be unsuitable for the role of discussion leader. From 6to 10 hours of leadership training were given in one- totwo-day workshops. Training sessions included a 21 minutefilm “How to conduct a discussion” produced by EncyclopediaBritannica, followed by a discussion of the 11 points raisedin the film. The philosophy and objectives of Living RoomLearning were sunimarized. The Department prepared a 63 pageHandbook for Discussion Leaders; in 1961 this was reproduced137by the CAAE and distributed nationally. The trainingworkshop reviewed how to make use of this handbook and usealso was made of The Study Discussion Leaders Manualpublished by the merican Foundation for ContinuingEducation (Buttedahi, 1973).The program was an immediate success and grew rapidly from1957/58, when twenty-nine groups were organized in threecommunities, (346 participants) to 1963/64, when there wereone-hundred and thirty-one groups in 47 communities withover 1500 participants (Selman, 1975). Jindra Kulichrecalls with pleasure being trained as a Vancouver volunteerdiscussion leader by Alan Thomas. Kulich comments on theprogram:Living Room Learning was one of the mostimaginative projects the Extension Department did.At the height of it, we had groups in 100communities throughout B.C. What was fascinatingwas that, much later on, 20 years after the fact,when you would go into some of these communities,you still run into some people who say: ‘.. . in thelate 1957-60s you had a program Living RoomLearning and we still have a group meeting. Wecontinue to discuss and read. It was too bad theUniversity saw fit to destroy it.’The whole idea was that ordinary people couldget together in their own homes on the basis ofreading materials, or in the case of the arts tolook at pictures and listen to music then discussthem with the aid of a discussion leader, who wasa process person, not an expert in an area. Therewere about twenty such groups in Vancouver. ThenKnute [Buttedahl] took it all over the province.So the discussion leadership and the training wedid, was the process; that’s how you enabled agroup to discuss, whatever the topic was. It wasgetting away from the experts.138Today you would say empowering the adultpopulation, but we didn’t use these big wordsthen; but that was what it was all about. It wasmaking it possible for people with differentbackgrounds to get together to discuss issues, todiscuss questions, so that they would be enrichedby, not only considering the topic, but also byseeing other people’s view, to see it from aslightly different angle, or a completelydifferent angle. As to topics, there were- -Introduction to the Humanities, the GreatReligions of the World, Canada and World affairs,Canadian politics, listening to music, modernpoetry and a range over a field of humanknowledge. We tried to put one on science, butthat failed. In those days there wasn’t muchinterest in science. (Kulich, Interview, 1992)Jack Blaney, who succeeded Buttedahl, ran the program for atwo year period 1961-1963. He has said of Living RoomLearning, “It was in some respects the most fun/rewardingtime I had at UBC” (Blaney, Personal Communication, 1992).Living Room Learning brought the University into thecommunity as a cultural stimulus. The program was designedto encourage independent, critical and objective thinking,to develop tolerance for opinions and ideas which aredifferent from one’s own and to develop communication skills(Buttedahl, 1973)Kulich said of the Living Room Learning Program, “That wasone of the many ideas and contributions of John [Frieseni”(Kulich, Interview, 1992). Buttedahl confirmed Kulich’sattribution to Friesen:The Living Room Learning Program couldn’t havehappened without him [John]. He wouldn’t stand upin the front and take a bow for it. (Buttedahl,Personal Communication, 1992)139By 1960-61 Living Room Learning had grown to have 106 studydiscussion groups with 1400 members. Eventually itspopularity peaked at 131 groups with 1594 participants in1962-63 (Buttedahi, 1973). Selman reported that the initialthree-year grant from the Fund for Adult Education, whichterminated in 1960, was replaced with a new five year grantfrom the same body which made possible an expansion intoother areas as well (Selman, 1975).In 1964, the Living Room Learning Program was terminatedbecause of a new policy directive which required thatExtension Department programs become more fully self-supporting financially (Buttedahi, 1973 and Selman,Interview, 1992). Living Room Learning required a subsidybecause, although discussion leadership was on a volunteerbasis and accommodation was free, publicity, printed coursematerials and the salary of the organizer had to be paidfor. Buttedahi has commented:There was a yearly deficit of $10,000 to$12,000... .When faced with the stark possibilityof disbanding the program, every conceivable andpractical economy was considered. Even withdrastic pruning of expenses, it was apparent thata minimum annual subsidy of at least $6,000 wouldneed to be found in order to maintain themagnitude and scope of the program. (Buttedahl,1973 :29)The question arose: if as Buttedahl claimed, the subsidyrequired to maintain the program was no more than $6,000 to140$12,000 annually, was there not, in 1964, sufficient moneyremaining in the Adult Education Fund’s five year grant, toallow the Living Room Learning program to continue for atleast one more year? Such an extension might have allowedsufficient time to search for additional funding without adrain on University resources? Friesen’s response was:Alas, other new program areas designated by theFund required financing out of the annual grants.(Friesen, Interview, 1992)John Freisen reminisced fondly over utilizing the smallgroup methods borrowed from St. Francis Xavier Universityand how well it had worked in rural Manitoba half a centuryago. Moreover he pointed out the 1991-92 nationalconstitutional debates successfully utilized the smalldiscussion group method, first by Keith Spicer’s consultantsand then at provincial and community meetings.Kulich, commenting on Living Room Learning’s terminationsaid the program terminated simply through the lack ofmaterials. Similar programs, he observed, are wellestablished in Sweden because of financial support from thestate. He went on to suggest that the cost of subsidizingthis discussion program should not have been solelydependent on money from the University, adding:If the support existed in B.C., it would now beeverywhere, including the native community. Thewhole constitutional debate would make more sense141if we had that kind of infrastructure in Canada.(Kulich, Interview, 1992)C. GROWTH IN NON-CREDIT COURSESBy 1957 the Extension Department had become much involvedin organizing non-credit courses with a heavy emphasis onthe liberal arts, including the fine arts. Kulichcommented:John had a very broad view of continuingeducation. That was unusual in his time. Noweveryone pays lip service to that, but then it wasvisionary. There was a cultural part of theenterprise, a citizenship education part of theenterprise, a professional development part of theenterprise, and the individual and personaldevelopment. John saw all of these as being partand parcel of what continuing education is allabout. (Kulich, Interview, 1992)Throughout Friesen’s first ten years, the Extension functioncontinued to grow remarkably. Non-credit evening classenrollment increased by 260, from about 2,600 in 1953, to6,827 in 1963; attendance at Extension Department shortcourses outside the Greater Vancouver region, reached 5,753by 1963, a 23O increase over attendance just 3 yearsearlier (Selman, 1975). Speaking of these years of growth,Friesen stated:As these programs expanded in the province, ourstaff explored new cooperative endeavors inCanada, the United States, and to some extent inEurope and Asia. The ‘fifties and ‘sixties’ weresurely a peak period for continuing education, andmay I add, personally for the growth and happiness142of the Friesen family. (Friesen, PersonalCommunication, 1992)D. SUMMER SCHOOL OF THE ARTS AND THEVANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL FESTIVALThe Summer School programs in music, opera, theatre,ceramics, painting and sculpture grew progressively insophistication and scope during Friesen’s term as director.(Calendars for these years provide ample evidence) UnderFriesen’s administration the Summer School attracted bigaudiences to the University’s auditorium for performances indrama, opera and music.Selman reinforced the information already discovered by theresearcher about Friesen’s dedication to the arts bydescribing Friesen as a person of very broad culturalbackground:He was interested in the Fine Arts, thePerforming Arts, but the arts more broadly. SoJohn was a bit of a revelation for me; he wasinterested in the Ballet and fine music and wasknowledgeable about music. He was broadlyeducated in the arts and passionatelyinterested in them. One of the things that loomslarge in my mind is his range ofsympathies and appreciation for things cultural.(Selman, Interview, 1992)On becoming Director of Extension, Friesen immediately setabout expanding and enriching the department’s role in the143arts. He gave active and enthusiastic leadership andsupport to all aspects of that enterprise.By 1955, formal requests were made to the Senate for aSchool of Music.In view of the number of requests for a School ofMusic, it was agreed that the Chairman inconsultation with appropriate members of Senateshould be asked to appoint a committee to considerthe establishment of a School of Music. (SenateMinutes, 1955:2244)lmong other achievements during this initial period ofcultural growth was the conception of the VancouverInternational Festival, a key element in cultivation of thefine arts in British Columbia; UBC played a major role inthe development and carrying out of this festival whichopened in 1958.Speaking of Friesen’s strong contribution to the arts insociety, Curtis observed:John developed ideas for the Summer School of theArts, and saw the campus benefitting from theVancouver International Festival. That was John’sidea, virtually everyone else did a lot of thework; but it was John’s idea. He invited thepeople; he could phone anyone. . . . It was a majorcontribution, because it was unlike anything otherpeople in other universities were doing at thattime. (Curtis, Personal Communication, 1992)144In July 1954, Nicholas Goldschmidt who, as a consultantdirected eight sessions of the Music program approached JohnFriesen with a proposal, “Mozart Festival 1956: An Idea fora Permanent Vancouver Festival of Music and Drama”. Theproposal had Friesen’s immediate support. So in the sameyear, with Friesen’s backing, Dorothy Somerset, Director ofthe Summer School of the Theatre, John Haar, AssistantDirector of the Extension Department and NicholasGoldschmidt took the brief to (Professor, later Dean Andrew)the Assistant to the UBC President, and convinced him thatan International Festival should be launched. The ExtensionDepartment then worked closely with the Vancouver CommunityArts Council and the Vancouver Festival Committee which werepreparing the way for the launching- of a major Festival.This enterprise resulted not only in UBC’s 1956 MozartBicentenary Program, but later, through cooperation with theVancouver Arts Council, led to the Vancouver InternationalFestival.Commenting on Friesen’s commitment to cultural activitiesBert Curtis said:UBC Summer School of the Arts flowered under John.The Arts were central to his beliefs. He agreedwith Goldschmidt [the Artistic Director of theSummer Schools of Music and Opera] to “think big”,big productions.. .he [Friesen] found the money andsupport. He received support from Larry [N.A.M.]MacKenzie and Geoff Andrew who were both realsupporters of John; they understood adulteducation. (Curtis, Interview, 1992)145In reflecting on his commitment to make UBC a leader incultural activity around the province, Friesen commentedthat:My lively interest and earlier participation inmusic and other arts got a big personal boost wheninviting to the campus world famous performing andteaching artists in all art fields at the rousingannual Vancouver International Festivals (VIF),held both downtown and on campus. One still hearsformer VIF patrons recalling, -with a light intheir eyes, ‘What a rich legacy the Festival leftus!’ (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)By 1956, the Summer School of the Arts had developed to theextent it was able to attract distinguished artists and menand women of letters and worldwide reputation--Sir HerbertRead, arts scholar; Alexander Archipenko, sculptor andscholar; Aksel Schiotz and Marie Schilder, Liederperformers, Theresa Gray, opera singer; UBC’s Harry andFrances Adaskin, concert artists; Lister Sinclair, writerand playwright; and the CBC Vancouver Chamber Orchestra.Performances of the Tinder Box, The Cradle Song, AMidsummer’s Night’s Dream, Cosi Fan Tutte and Menotti’s TheConsul were among the rich cultural offerings of the sununerseasons (Calendar of Events, July and August 1956). The1956 Summer School of the Arts amounted to an Arts Festivalof considerable importance. This enterprise attracted22,420 people to the University Theatre and Gallery over thecourse of a few weeks (UBC Extension, 1955/56:14).146Encouraged by the success of 1956 Summer season at UBC, theCommunity Arts Council under the Presidency of Mary Roafestablished the Vancouver Festival Society with W.C.Mainwaring, Vice-President of B.C. Electric, as President.Nicholas Goldschmidt was appointed Artistic and ManagingDirector of the Vancouver International Festival (VIF) andin the fall of 1957, Peter H. Bennett, former ManagingDirector of the Stratford Shakespearean Festival, wasappointed Administrative Director. John Friesen became amember of the Board of the Festival and served from 1956 to1962.The Publicity Director of the Vancouver Festival Society,Ernie Perrault, writing about the importance of a favorablecultural setting in staging a festival said:When a sufficient number of people appreciate thesame things a climate can be said to exist--in thiscase a climate favorable to the Arts... .It must beapparent that a great Arts Festival doesn’t justhappen any more than a revolution springs from avacuum. . . . Time takes a deliberate interest in thesethings and leads them methodically. . . starting witha idea, with the efforts of a few and ending with amagnificent fact involving the efforts of thousands.(UBC Chronicle, Vol 12, Number 2, Summer, 1958:1).After describing how a desire for cultural enrichmentreached back into the early pioneering days of the Province,Perrault goes on to say:but if any one institution can claim the Festivalas its brilliant child, the University of BritishColumbia has the clearest title. . . .The Summer School of147the Arts proved that a climate favorable to the Artsdid exist in the Province and that people would supporta Festival of major importance. ( Chronicle, Vol 12,No., Summer, 1958:2)On July 19, 1958, celebrating British Columbia’s Centennial,the First Vancouver International Festival of the Artsopened its season. Deeply committed to the arts, Friesenhad worked tirelessly since his appointment to expand andimprove the Extension Department’s programs in the Fine andPerforming arts. His efforts and the creative work of ateam of talented people in his department provided theinitiative, the climate and the practical proof of viabilitywhich collectively contributed greatly to the VancouverInternational Festival’s launching. Reporting on TheRelationship Between the University of British ColumbiaSurnzner School of the Arts and the Vancouver FestivalSociety, Friesen wrote, in August, 1958:The Vancouver International Festival, which grewout of the experimental UBC Summer School of theArts is unique among World Festivals in at leasttwo important aspects:(1) the Festival looks to the University toprovide instruction for many of itsartists, particularly in the youngerage-groups;(2) the Festival co-operates closely withthe University Summer School in makingavailable, wherever possible, theservices of Festival artists andlecturers to student and faculty groupsand community audiences on campus.(Friesen, Personal Papers, August,1958:1)148In Appendix No. 11: y Benefits, the researcher hasprovided copies of Reports (1958, 1959, 1961) by Friesenoutlining the benefits to both University and the Communitywhich arose from cooperation with the Festival. Clearly,both benefitted from the widespread recognition BritishColumbia gained because of the Festival. Moreover, theUniversity’s educational content and teaching were enrichedby Festival artists and lecturers. Perhaps most importantof all, the bond between UBC and the people of B.C. wasstrengthened through the University working in cooperationwith leaders in the Province’s arts and businesscommunities. By 1961, at a week-long conference “Art inthe Community”, leading figures in North merica Artseducation judged the UBC Summer program as one of the bestif not the strongest of its kind in North merica (Selrnan,1975)The Seventh Vancouver International Festival, held July 1- August 1, 1964, was the last. According to one musiccritic (and a founding member of the Junior FestivalCommittee), Ian Davidson, the Festival was ahead of itstime; its goals were probably too high brow for most peopleand the musical and other skills required, for anInternational Festival of this standing, beyond thecapability of many local performers (Ian Davidson, PersonalCommunication, 1992). Whether or not this is true, theFestival established a new cultural paradigm for British149Columbia within which the arts have since been impressivelystimulated.E. COMfrIUNITY DEVELOPMENTThe Extension Department under Friesen had, through its offcampus work, resonated with expressed and unexpressedaspirations or needs in society. Extension promoted andfacilitated enterprises and programs which responded togenuine cultural, citizenship and educational deficienciesin the Province. Friesen was well aware that the ExtensionDepartment’s well-being relied heavily on the cooperationand support of the administration and faculties but he tookthe view that Extension’s duty was to cater to the desirefor knowledge, or cultural improvement, emanating fromsociety outside the campus. He sought to respondeffectively to the legitimate aspirations of communities inBritish Columbia. To quote Friesen, writing on one aspectof his wide perspective:Opportunities are not inherited; they are created.How can we, each in our own community, be moreaware of, and accept this our responsibility inthe days that lie ahead?.. .To meet this demand forinformation, University and various other extension departments will co-operate in recommendingcourses on Post-War Planning. (Friesen, AltonaEcho, January-February, 1943, Re-Building theWorld: V. Challenge to Responsibility)Training of leadership for community development was veryimportant to Friesen. According to Selman:150John had this tremendous commitment to universityin the community and the role of university in thecultural development of the Province. I usecultural not in the sense of fine arts or highculture, but rather the development of society inB.C. (Selman, Interview, 1992)Kulich expressed similar feelings in saying:John had a great sense of mission to assist thecommunity to develop. I think it comes from thePrairie background where people were much moreattuned to helping each other and helping thecommunity. It permeates John’s life, expandingthe program of the university, much more into thecommunity and being a part of the community.(Kulich, Interview, 1992)During the first half of his term, Friesen progressivelyupgraded the department’s role in the community. Changeswere made judiciously; he and Selman carefully searched forand evaluated candidates for new or- replacement staff. In1956 Friesen spoke at the National Conference of CanadianUniversities held in Montreal to report that he recognizedthat community development:is one program which will not pay its way andwill require substantial assistance from theuniversity or its financial friends. . . .Will theuniversity accept the responsibility for carefullyselected pilot programs in adult education-projects a university is uniquely qualified toconduct? (Friesen, 1956:66)A determined effort was made to enlist the support of localleaders, then to persuade and help them to implementprograms within their communities, - using as a resourcefaculty members, artists, professionals, business people and151other community leaders. To note an example: the Mayor ofPenticton informed UBC years later that the birth of thePenticton Summer School of the Arts, owed a great deal tothe consultations of the visiting team of Dorothy Somerset,Ian McNairn, Hans-Karl Piltz and John Friesen (Friesen,Personal Papers). The period was one of buoyant growth inevery aspect of the Department’s programs and Extensionbecame a much more sophisticated enterprise. Selmancommented about Friesen’s insistence on higher standards:How much change took place over five or sixyears was quite impressive. I think John Friesenwas ahead of the University leadership in seeingthat University Extension had to become more highlevel and sophisticated. Some of us were morehappy with the broader based notion of what weshould be doing but John was constantly pushingus in the other direction. (Selman, Interview,1992)In 1957, reporting on Adult Education within thecommunities, Friesen commented:In conclusion, it is apparent to us that thedivisions between formal and voluntary adulteducation are rapidly disappearing. No longer, onany basis whatsoever, can adult education be seenas confined to remedying deficiencies in theeducation of the young. It now exists in its ownright with its own task of serving a populationthat feels more and more the need for lifelonglearning. (UBC, Extension, 1956-1957:28)The UBC Administration was becoming increasingly aware ofExtension’s growing importance to the University. OnWednesday, February 8, 1956, President MacKenzie formally152invited Friesen “. . .to attend the meetings of Senate as anobserver and guest” (Senate Minutes, 1956:2246).Later, in his 1957/59 Biennial Report, John Friesen gavethought to the immense changes that were taking place in theeconomic and social affairs of the Province; he noted thatwe were following a North merican rather than European formof culture with sharp lines drawn between capital andlabour. With reference to a proper balance between materialand cultural development, he comments:Dr. M. M. Coady, of St. Francis Xavier University.had a stirring answer to this question: ‘Man candevelop on five fronts- -physical, economic, socialcultural, and spiritual. That civilization whichdevelops these interests to the maximum, and whichobserved symmetry in its development, will be agreat civilization’ A ringing challenge forBritish Columbia’s second century! (UBC,Extension, 1957-1957:4)Some of the Extension Department’s activities were dependentfor existence upon stimulus from the university. Some ofthe department’s programs would be initiated and then passedon for other institutions to develop or, in the case ofprograms provided on campus, they were frequently taken overby faculties as will be discussed in Chapter 6.153F. ORIGINS OF THE ADULT EDUCATION GRADUATE PROGRAM AT UBC(1956)On the strength of his own participation over the years andin keeping with the principles quoted earlier from CyrilHoule (see Chapter 4:118), Friesen was of the view that theExtension Department must help establish a program to trainfuture adult educators for work throughout the Province; hewanted UBC to take the lead in this field. Friesen wasdetermined to introduce such a program at UBC, that theUniversity would establish a graduate program in adulteducation, a field which was barely developed anywhere inCanada. Also, with his intense interest in internationaladult education, he wanted the Extension Department of UBCto seize the unique opportunity of mutually sharingexperience with adult educators in other countries. Limitedin his powers as Director of the Extension Department,Friesen’s would have to call on his qualities of leadershipand diplomacy.Contrary to earlier folklore, credit for the origination ofan adult education graduate degree program at UBC lies withthe triumvirate: John Friesen, Neville Scarf e and AlanThomas. An earlier publication on the start of graduateprograms, Pioneering a Profession in Canada, (1973) hadsimply ignored the earlier stages and had given emphasis tothe contribution of Coolie Verner. Friesen told the154researcher that his experience at Columbia Universityinspired his dream to, “develop a cadre of adult educatorsin this province” (Friesen, Interview, 1991). He went on tosay:It was quite natural for me to motivate a movefor a graduate program in adult education by theExtension Department, which had frequentlyinitiated new programs in Education. The Facultyof Education, under Dean Neville Scarfe, was thenatural home faculty for graduate work in adulteducation. Hence in 1956, Scarfe and I, who wereclose associates from our Winnipeg days, agreedthat a few programs in graduate adult educationbe tried out in summer sessions. (Friesen,Interview, 1991)Selman said of the origins by Friesen and Scarfe:I don’t know whether there was a plan from thebeginning to start a program or whether they said,‘Let’s test the water. Let’s invite Roby Kidd togive a course and then we’ll see what kind ofresponse we get. If there is a lively responseto it then we can consider the possibility ofcreating a program.’ I suspect-that John Friesenprepared Neville Scarfe for that possibility.(Selman, Interview, 1992)Roby Kidd was recruited to instruct the first of thecourses, and his 1956 class marks the beginning of GraduateAdult Education studies at UBC. The Department of Extensionhelped to organize this first graduate adult educationclass, taught by Kidd, July 3-20, 1956. The course, asannounced in the University Summer Session Calendar, wasentitled Education 514, “ The Administration of AdultEducation Programmes”. The work, thus begun in 1956,155through Friesen’s initiative and Scarfe’s ready cooperation,provided the foundation on which future graduate adulteducation programs at UBC would be built. Selman said ofAlan Thomas’ contribution:Alan Thomas had done all but his dissertation onhis doctorate of education at Columbia Universityby the time he had come to UBC. He was very wellinformed about Adult Education and had worked forRoby Kidd at the CAAE for a couple of years beforehe went to Columbia. Alan was the man on the spotwho was perfectly willing to give the kind ofenergy to the development of something in thefield of adult education. Alan was here with alot of recent knowledge about the academic studyof adult education. I’m Sure’ there was realcommitment in his mind to the development of thefield in Canada. He had gone to Columbia becausethere was no program in Canada. Columbia in thosedays was the most highly recognized programanywhere. (Selman, Interview, 1992)Alan Thomas subsequently worked out the curriculum for theMasters Program in adult education. Asked about the originsof the program, he commented:Who knows who’s idea it was? It may have comefrom a dozen places. Certainly, Roby [Kiddi hadbeen tireless in promotion of that notion inCanada. But Roby wasn’t home on any campus. Youknow enough about University politics that ideasare a dime a dozen, but you’ve got to have someonewho’s willing to do the administrative work toget it done. That’s what John [Frieseni did.John was extremely good at University politicking.He had a very shrewd sense of how you did it andhe was tireless at it. (Thomas, Personal Communication, 1992)It may be that Friesen, Scarfe and Thomas knew that it wouldbe much easier to get the program approved if a course couldbe given and many people turned up. Then they could provide156evidence that interest exists in the community. SeeAppendix 12: Brochure of the first Adult Education GraduateCourse at UBC, July 3 - 20, 1956 taught by Roby Kidd. Theinitial course was well attended--31 registered and 5audited, a total of 36. (See Figure Nos. 26-28 : ClassPhotos--(a) First Graduate Course--Figure 26; (b) SecondGraduate Course--Figure 27; (c) Summer of 1960 GraduateCourse--Figure 28).Clearly the initial course had a lively response andbuilding on its success, at the strong urging of JohnFriesen, the University went on in the subsequent year tocreate a graduate (Masters) degree program in adulteducation. The curriculum was worked out in detail by AlanThomas (in consultation with Friesen and Scarfe) and DeanScarfe steered the proposed program ‘through the UniversitySenate. The Senate approved the Master of Education programin Adult Education on Wednesday, February 13, 1957 as notedin Senate Minutes, 1957:2386 (See Appendix No. 13: SenateApprovals for adult education courses). Commenting on theclose cooperation that existed between Friesen, Thomas andScarfe in establishing this enterprise Selman said:I see that as very much a triumvirate ofinterlocking abilities and readiness to go ahead.Kidd was of course the perfect person to come inhe was the best known adult educator in Canada.(Selman, Interview, 1992)157Alan Thomas had a half time appointment in the Faculty ofEducation and half time in the Extension Department. He wasappointed by Friesen to be the Extension Department’sSupervisor of Adult Education and was given administrativeresponsibility by Dean Scarfe for the Graduate AdultEducation program. Thomas recalls spending most of his timein Extension:I was teaching two courses in adult educationbecause John [Friesen] and Neville [Scarfe]together had decided--I think it was John’s workbasically in persuading Neville--but Neville wasvery supportive, that they wanted to open aprogram in adult education. I did the dog work,but John did the fun work. (Thomas, PersonalCommunication, 1992)After the program was launched, according to Selman, AlanThomas was the only faculty member and for the first severalyears it was not possible to study full time in adulteducation (Selman, Interview, 1992). The instructional loadwas carried in the main by Thomas until he left UBC for theCAAE in 1961. Two visiting lecturers were appointed each toteach full-time for seven months to a year; the firstWilbur Hallenbeck (Friesen’s former professor at Columbia)followed by Coolie Verner of Florida State University. Astudent at that the time, Knute Buttedahl also recallsVerner in 1959 as a one-semester-only instructor, inEducation 518 Methods of Adult Education; he said “Vernerdidn’t return to USC to instruct until I [Buttedahl] hadalready completed the program requirements” (Buttedahl,158Personal Communication, 1992). In addition, other visitorscame to teach Summer Session Courses (See Appendix No. 14:Summer Instructors). According to Thomas:Coolie [Verner] was a powerfuL figure, so a greatmany people assumed the program had been startedby him; there is no doubt that Coolie did a greatdeal to flesh it out and give it a bit ofstructure, but it in fact started earlier.(Thomas, Personal Communication, 1992)In 1961, when Thomas left the University, there is no doubtthat Thomas was a highly regarded, partly because of hisoutstanding capability as a teacher; Selman said:Alan was and is such a magnificent teacher thatpeople who took a course with Alan early on, likemy friend Bert Curtis, would simply be captured bythe guy and thereby by the field. They changedtheir career expectations and came into the fieldof adult education. It is doubly inadequate notto recognize Alan Thomas, John Friesen and NevilleScarfe as the originators of the adult educationgraduate program at UBC. (Sëlman, Interview,1992)According to Friesen, development of the Graduate AdultEducation program involved him in a cooperative endeavourwith Gordon Selman and Alan Thomas. Columbia University wasthe model on which Friesen and his colleagues in Extensiondesigned the Adult Education Graduate program for UBC.In 1961 Coolie Verner was invited to return to UBC as thefirst full-time professor in this field. He also acted as aconsultant to the Extension Department (until 1964) and in159the 1961-62 Annual Report for Extension, Friesen welcomedhis appointment to the Faculty of Education saying:In view of the growing commitment to ContinuingEducation by government and private agencies, andwith the developing body of knowledge in thisareas of study, the Department [Extension]particularly welcomed the senior appointment of aprofessor of adult education in the person of Dr.Coolie Verner. The continuing close associationbetween the Faculty of Education and thisDepartment has been strengthened through ProfessorVerner’s outstanding work in research, instructionand consultation. (UBC, Extension, 1961-62:3-4)G. COMMUNICATION PROGR4SAnother area in which the Extension Department pioneered newprograms was the field of broadcasting, television and film-making. Thomas directed a program series on Communicationfor the Department of Extension under a grant frombroadcasters in B.C. In the 1956 Annual Report, Friesendescribes this activity:Mr. Alan Thomas has been active during the lastyear developing plans for courses for personsinterested or enployed [sic] in the mass media.Discussions have been carried on with the BritishColumbia Association of Broadcasters in thisconnection and it is hoped that during the comingmonths a five-year non-credit program in radio,television, and film will be launched withstudents from various parts of Canada. A majorseminar on radio is planned for the spring of1958. (UBC, Extension, 1956/57:12/13)In his 1960 Report on Extension, after describing the helpreceived by way of grants and the broadcast opportunitiesprovided by the Broadcast and Television industry to the160University, Friesen. stresses the fundamental importance ofthese media to the institution:We consider this [television] to be one of themost urgent needs for University Extension. Thetelevision stations of the province welcome theopportunity to use University programs -- and thiscontribution in higher education in BritishColumbia could be impressive- but at present theDepartment requires the necessary televisionequipment for such an undertaking. Facilitiescould also be utilized in experimenting withclosed circuit television for regular classinstruction. (UBC, Extension, 1959-60:2)By 1959 the Extension Department’s Communication programsand courses were progressing well; interest and attendanceindicated a continuing need. The Extension departmentreported on one particular success in this field:A tribute to the quality of instruction, and tothe ability of the students in the 1959 SummerSchool Film Production class, was the winning ofthe plaque for the Best mateur Film of the Yearand a Certificate of Merit from the Canadian FilmAwards held in Ottawa. (UBC, Extension, 1959-60:14/15)There was impressive expansion in broadcasting activity, bythe Communication division. A special grant from CKWXenabled the Department to engage a full-time programproducer and to broadcast more than thirty radio programsentitled “Sounds of the City”. There were numerous otherprograms produced. In 1960 the department, in competitionwith other educational radio production centres from allover the continent, was awarded a Grant in Aid from the161Educational Television and Radio Centre Ann Arbor, Michigan(UBC Extention, 1959/60). A broader aim of Extension inpromoting work in television, radio and film making was toorganize a national network involving the University andcommunities of B.C. The University later retreated frommuch of this work. In due course, the Knowledge NetworkTelevision program on Channel 5 introduced and now providescommunication facilities and study programs such as thoseFriesen encouraged, as a community service in lifelonglearning.H. WORK IN ASSOCIATIONS FOR ADULT EDUCATIONFriesen has a strong belief in the importance of theprofessional associations for adult educators. Commentingon his own early involvement in these and other institutionsFriesen said:During my prairie years (1945-53), I becameinvolved increasingly in adult educationassociations; with the Director of Extension andother University faculties, through CBC andprivate radio broadcasts, in editorial writing andin such community endeavours as the U.N.Association, UNICEF, the Provincial CreditSociety, the United Church and CAAE conferences.(Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)An important initiative taken by Friesen in this period wasthe creation of what later became the British Columbia AdultEducation Council. Seeing the need for launching aprovincial association of persons and agencies interested in162the field, he enlisted the cooperation of Laurie Wallace ofthe B.C. Department of Education and Graham Bruce ofVancouver School Board in co-hosting an organizationaldinner on September 23, 1954, with Roby Kidd of the CAAE asthe guest speaker (Friesen, Personal, Papers). Out of thisinitiative came a first conference in December of that year,which was followed on a regular semi-annual basis by similarconferences, a pattern maintained until the organizationchanged form in 1961. The B.C. Adult Education Council wasthe first such provincial body for adult education createdin Canada in the post-war period, and represented a furthersignificant contribution by Friesen to the organization ofthe field (Selman, Personal Communication, 1992).Speaking of the development of a provincial association foradult educators, Kulich said:He has been the leading light in B.C.associations. When Gordon joined the ExtensionDepartment, one of his jobs was to be Secretaryto the provincial organization. UBC played agreat role in bringing the whole enterprisetogether. John played a significant role thereand on the international scene. John’s leadershipcan be seen at UBC in building up the bestdepartment of the time. Provincially he advancedthe call for adult education and its organization.His leadership was felt, through the UniversityExtension group, culturally in the community,nationwide and internationally. (Kulich,Interview, 1992)Friesen’s staff acknowledged that he made a determinedeffort to encourage them to establish and maintain active163contacts with other adult educators, personally and throughthe professional associations. Friesen preferred to workbehind the scene in professional organizations, but it isnotable that two of his proteges, Thomas and Selman, came toserve as President of the CAAE and his colleague Buttedahibecame President of the Pacific Association for ContinuingEducation (PACE). Most of his senior colleagues were activein meetings and correspondence with their counterparts inthe field.Buttedahi commented on Friesen’s wide network ofacquaintances and about his stature in the field ofprofessional adult education saying:He had amongst his friends and acquaintances thekey people who were writing on the emergence of aprofession in the field of adult education. Johnhimself joined the ranks of those who were givingleadership in that area. John was veryinfluential in adult education organizationsduring the SOs and 60s on both the Canadian andAmerican sides, in terms of helping theassociations. He took quite a number ofleadership roles on boards, not as President butin an advisory capacity. He really broughttogether the first attempt in this province tobuild a professional organization for adulteducators. (Buttedahl, Personal Communication,1992)Selman recognized in Friesen an undoubted personal capacityto lead associations of adult educators successfully;instead Friesen pressed his colleagues to do so. Selmancommented:164In terms of the professional field of adulteducation he was content to be behind the sceneshelping in what ever way he could. I wondered abit why he was pushing the rest of us to do thesethings when he would have done them superbly well.The essential point I want to make is that Johnseemed to have a driving commitment within himselfto help his close colleagues grow and develop andget every advantage possible to that end.(Selman, Interview, 1992)Curtis also commented of Friesen’s inclination to workbehind the scenes in professional organizations:John was the person who made things happen innational organizations or organizations of adulteducators, but it was Gordon Selman who did thejob. I don’t doubt that John encouraged the doingof it, but Gordon did it. Gordon worked nationally to professionalize adult education in Canada.(Curtis, Personal Communication, 1992)From all this comment by his colleagues it is clear thatFriesen pushed his senior staff to assume leadership rolesin professional associations at a Provincial and Nationallevel. In an interview, Selman expressed some puzzlementabout “John’s own apparent lack of interest, as a prominentadult educator, in taking up important jobs such as thePresidency of our National organization” (Selman, 1992,Interview). When the researcher enquired of Friesen aboutthis attitude, he said:My main interest lay in starting or in laying thegroundwork for such organizations and in choosinggood leadership from amongst the young blood ofthe profession. I was not prepared to spend anysignificant part of my life in chairingcommittees. (Friesen, Interview, 1992)165When Friesen saw a specific need for his personalinvolvement, he was ready to serve. .mong various positionshe held in voluntary associations were these: Board memberof The Community Arts Council of Vancouver (1953-1955) andof the Vancouver International Festival (1956-1962);President, International House Association, UBC (1957-1958);Chairman, British Columbia Conference on Aging (1957 &1960); Associate Chairman, Education Year Committee,Canadian Conference on Education (1960-1962). (See AppendixNo. 1 - Resume for others).I. A TIME OF FULFILLMENTBy 1959 the Adult Education Graduate program and a number ofprograms in continuing professional education were firmlyestablished: Living Room Learning groups were meetingthroughout the Province; a burgeoning program of non-creditcourses was underway in various communities; there had beensignificant accomplishments by The Summer School of theArts; the Vancouver International Festival had beenlaunched; and UBC had started to gain recognition fromFriesen’s work in International Adult Education. In thatyear, Extension Supervisor Bert Curtis organized 99conferences attended by 8,377 people. The breadth ofprogramming was evidenced in the Department’s AnnualReports. The Extension Department was well respected andprogressing favourably. Selman commented on this time:166At the beginning of the 1960’s, UBC’s Extensionprogram had a reputation for excellence,diversity, community-service and able leadership,and was strongly supported by the administrationof the University. (Selman, 1977:12)It is not surprising that John Friesen would feel a sense ofwell-being and fulfillment; reflecting about that time heshared his feelings about 1959 with the researcher:There occurs a time in one’s professional andfamily life when things come together and oneexperiences a unique joy and contentment. Themid-point of my UBC period was such a time whenlife seemed at its best. Life was exhilaratingwith no end to challenges. (Friesen, Interview,1992)The University of British Columbia Extension Department wasactive on campus and throughout the province providing adulteducation. Its leadership role within the community washelping to raise the general level of cultural and socialdevelopment in British Columbia.167Figure 20: Receiving Ford FoundationFigure 19: Grant. (Gordon Selman, 2nd from left,Friesen, 1953 N.A.M. MacKenzie, middle,C. Scott Fletcher, 2nd from right,John Friesen, far right)It Balanced! jFigure 21: UBCExtension DirectorFigure 22: Gordon Selman (ift)and John Friesen (rt)168Figure 23: Dr. Edmund Brunner of Columbia Universityvisits UBC to meet Dean Neville Scarfe and his formerstudents——Dr. Coolie Verner and Dr. John K. Friesen.(r to 1: Brunner, Verner, Scarfe, Friesen)Figure 25: John K.Fri esen @ UBCFigure 24: Symposium on the Professions, 1961.(1 to r: Coolie Verner, Leonard C. Marsh (UBC),Paul Sheats F Roby KIdd, John Friesen)Figure 26: Adult Education, First UBC Graduate CourseSummer of 1956. Dr. Roby Kidd, Instructor (Kidd: Front Row2nd from right; Friesen: Second Row far right)-ç4Figure 27: Adult Education, Second UBC GraduateCourse Summer of 1957. Dr. Alan Thomas, Instructor(Front Row: far right)170Figure 28: Adult Education, U.BC Graduate CourseSummer of 1960. Edward Hutchinson, Instructor(Back Row: 2nd from left)171Figure 29: John K. Friesen Family, 1958(1 to r: John, Robert, Melanie, Marta)Ui__/Figure 30: John K. Frieseñ Family, 1959(1 to r: Melanie, Marta, John, Robert)172CHAPTER 6: EXTENSION DIRECTOR (1960-1966) LAST SIX YEARSOf a good leader...When his work is done, his aim fulfilled,They will all say, “We did this ourselves”(Lao Tzu, 6th Century B.C.)The sixties were to be turbulent years for the Department ofExtension. For the first half of the decade success crownedsuccess and the department was growing vigorously,pioneering programs and broadening its scope with emphaseson liberal education, public issues, community development,leadership and continuing professional education programs,to name a few. Then came a serious reversal of fortune,because of a shift in policy by a new universityadministration, followed by an extended period ofretrenchment during and after Friesen’s term.A. LEADERSHIP PROGRAMSIn discussing the proposed liberal arts programs for thesixties, the Extension Department Annual Report said thatspecial emphasis would be given to “Education for publicresponsibility. . . this encompasses education at all levels ofgovernment, both voluntary and professional” (UBC,Extension, 1960/61) . In the Spring of 1960, Friesen wasinvited, along with fifty-nine other Extension Directors,political scientists, and senior administrators fromAmerican universities and colleges, to a conference- 173sponsored by the Fund for Adult Education. At theconference, UBC Extension was acknowledged as a leader inLiberal Adult Education. The theme under study was “Whatis ‘public responsibility’, and how can we educate forinformed leadership in this area of adult education?”Friesen spoke to the conference on Creating A FavorableClimate for Continuing Liberal Education. Reporting on thehighlights of the meeting, C. Scott Fletcher, President ofthe Fund for Adult Education used the UBC Extension programsas a good example to follow; Fletcher was quoted in theeditorial:-realistic appraisal [was made] of presenttrends in liberal education, which were bothoptimistic and challenging. He pointed to suchinnovations as curriculum revision of liberaladult education; imaginative programs for alumni,professional, government and social groups; study-discussion programs (including the projectsundertaken by U.B.C, C.A.A.E and a number ofmember groups)... (Food for Thougbt, Editorial,May, 1960)This theme persevered for another two years. In October,1962 Friesen attended, with UBC President MacKenzie, theUniversity Council meeting of Presidents and ExtensionDirectors on “Education for Public Responsibility”, atUniversity of Oklahoma (funded by the Ford Foundation’s Fundfor Adult Education). See Figure 33: UNIVERSITY COUNCIL ONEDUCATION FOR PUBLIC RESPONSIBILITY at end of chapter.174Later in the mid-sixties, UBC Extension was to become activein leadership training in the field of public responsibilityin cooperation with other organizations. Extension’s Reportfor 1965-1966 comments:A program of continuing education in leadershiptraining is being carried out by the ExtensionDepartment in association with several communitygroups and government departments. This year,Human Relations training projects were presentedto leaders in business, government, educationinstitutions, and voluntary organizations.With the financial support of the CitizenshipBranch of the Federal Government, the first ofthese was a Group Process Institute jointlysponsored by this Department and Simon FraserUniversity’s Centre for Communication and the Artsin association with the Vancouver Human RelationsCouncil. (UBC, Extension, 1965/6:23)B. CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL EDUCATIONFriesen commented on the department’s growing interest inthe field of continuing education in the professions:This area is becoming, and will continue to be amajor concern of higher Adult Education. TheDepartment, in cooperation with the faculties andwith professional organizations, has organized arapidly increasing number of seminars andconferences for a great variety of groups - -teachers, police officers, lawyers, agriculturalists, directors of defence, broadcasters,businessmen, physiotherapists, workers with theaging, and many others. An important new area ofprofessional education is the recently organizedDepartment of Continuing Medical Education, underthe direction of Dr. Donald H. Williams, andworking in close cooperation with the UniversityExtension. (UBC, Extension, 1959/60:1)175On October 25, 1961, on the twenty-fifth anniversary of thecreation of the Extension Department, the latter organized aSymposium on Continuing Education in the Professions at UBCwhich was attended by representatives of various professional organizations (Figure 24). The purpose of theSymposium was to discuss ways and means by which theExtension Department could assist in the development ofcontinuing education in the various disciplines. PresidentMacKenzie, in his foreword to the report of the symposium,recognized the important work being done by the ExtensionDepartment when he wrote:For just as preparing young men and women forentry in the professions is a major function ofthe regular teaching program of the University, soassisting practising professionals to continuetheir learning throughout life is rightly anincreasingly significant part of the University’sextension services. I congratulate Dr. JohnFriesen, Director of the Department of UniversityExtension, and those who worked with him fororganizing this timely seminar on this importantsubject. (UBC, Symposium Proceedings, 1962:5)In reporting on the symposium, which was attended by eightypersons representing some twenty professional groups,Friesen commented:Already there are indications that the symposiumhas been influential in encouraging increasedinterest in continuing education by theprofessions. (UBC, Extension, 1961/62:3)Friesen wanted Extension to engage in an ongoing cooperativeenterprise, with support from the various professional176faculties. Extension’s purpose would be to organizeprograms, with professional associations and faculties,which would promote a close association between theUniversity and the professions, in the provision ofContinuing Professional Education. - Friesen had strongsupport from a number of deans especially those in theFaculties of the Arts and Education.Commenting on Extension’s involvement in continuingprofessional education in the field of medicine, Curtisrecalled:I was sent over [by John] to be a member of theoriginal committee of UBC who founded andorganized the Centre for Continuing MedicalEducation. This committee originated the plan andprocess which resulted in the UBC Health SciencesCentre, which is acknowledged to be an outstandingcentre of medical and paramedical training.(Curtis, Personal Communication, 1992)An important event for UBC in the early sixties was thecreation of a Department of Continuing Medical Education.This was a clear demonstration that pioneering work by theExtension Department was leading to important developmentswithin the University. In its 1960/61 Annual Report thedepartment stated:More recently, an extensive division of ContinuingMedical Education was launched by its Faculty andExtension which aims in time to encompass a widescope of advanced continuing health education.(UBC, Extension, 1960/61:3)- 177The early sixties provided a period of broadening scope asthe Extension Department continued to grow in size and inbreadth of programs. Friesen comments:Recalling those UBC years, I found therelationship with faculties cooperative and oftenenthusiastic, and the administration alwaysunderstanding and generously supportive. .. .Hence,it was to be expected that UBC opened the way fora marked expansion in continuing education, by1966 serving in excess of 20,000 enrollees inall... .The Annual Report of that year (1966) notedthat almost all academic schools and facultieswere conducting their Continuing Educationprograms through the Extension Department.(Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)Extension organized a wide range of programs for manyimportant organizations and institutions outside the UBCcampus. Subject matter areas included: Agriculture,Commerce and Business Administration, Education, Fisheries,Forestry, Health, Sciences, Law, Librarianship, Social Workand Liberal Education. The Department conducted jointspecial projects with the B.C. School Trustee Association,the Provincial Council of Women, The Alumni Association, TheCommunity Planners Association, the University of Washingtonand the National Secretaries Association (B. C. Chapter).Some three years after he retired in 1962, apparentlyMacKenzie still held to his conviction that Extension shouldhave a responsibility in professional training, stating:The extension department should also have eitherthe direct responsibility or a general interest in178refresher courses that should be offered to menand women in the professions, medicine, dentistry,law, engineering, technology; . . . in which newknowledge and new skills are available, but may beoverlooked or by-passed in the midst of a busyprofessional practice. (Kidd and Selman, 1978:145)In 1962, the Extension Department organized an Education-Extension Program to plan and administer credit and non-credit courses dealing with education, in consultation withthe Faculty of Education. Jack Blaney, then supervisor ofLiving Room Learning, was appointed by Friesen to be head ofthe new enterprise. Blaney described this appointment bysaying:[The enterprise] was essentially the professionaldevelopment program arm of the Faculty ofEducation, and was new. I worked with John andGordon and with the faculty to establish that. Itwas a good experience for me in terms ofdeveloping faculty relationships that wereimportant for establishing trust and getting theprogram going. The job involved coordinating,managing, the credit programs throughout theinterior of B.C. and also organizing the non-credit programs: weekend seminars, conferences forprincipals, administrators, school teachers, etc.(Blaney, Interview, 1992)C. LIBERAL EDUCATION ZND STUDY DISCUSSIONIn his 1961 twenty-fifth anniversary report, Friesen pointsout that throughout its existence University Extension hadworked to provide opportunities for a broadly-based liberaleducation for adults in British Colunbia:179While today’s university is vitally concerned witheducation in the professions, it must at the sametime take account of the larger community. ‘Tolive a life’ abundantly requires more than a highschool education or a university degree. Itimplies lifelong learning. Liberal education foradults presents a very broad spectrum of activityfor the university to explore and to define interms of its unique function. (UBC, Extension,1960/61: 3)In an erudite and penetrating address to the Adult EducationConference of the CAAE, (British Columbia Division) given byFriesen in December, 1963, he described how Canada had theopportunity to go through a process of renewal by acceptingand implementing a determined commitment to achieve a highrate of adult literacy throughout the country. He describedthe U.N.’s proposed world wide campaign to achieve adultliteracy as a momentous task. As he put it in his openingremarks: “Education is the axis on which the wheel ofprogress turns,” and then quotes a. declaration made at the1960 UNESCO meeting in Montreal.We believe that Adult Education has become of suchimportance for man’s survival and happiness that anew attitude towards it is needed. Nothing lesswill suffice than that people everywhere shouldcome to accept Adult Education as a normal part,and that governments should treat it as anecessary part of the educational provision ofevery country. (Friesen, Personal Papers, Dec.1963)The Department was deeply involved in expanding its Provincewide, off-campus programs to the community and for a timereceived supporting grants from the Board of Governors forthis purpose. The Report comments:180The Department, keenly aware of its responsibilityto provide service to all parts of BritishColunibia, has during the past year continued toexpand its Province-Wide Program with thecontinuing assistance of a special grant from theBoard of Governors for this purpose. (UBC,Extension, 1961/62:7)D. NATIVE INDIAN CULTURE AND LEADERSHIPFriesen points out that in the early ‘sixties UBC’s socialscientists (Hawthorn, Jamieson and others) published timelyresearch on a wide range of Indian culture and developmentproposals (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992). In1961/62 the Extension Department organized two pilotprograms for native Indian people, including a two-dayresidential leadership workshop for 35 chiefs and councilorsfrom 24 bands. Looking back at years of paternalism andneglect of native communities in Canada, one can creditExtension for arranging forums in which Indians could freelyexpress themselves:A new field of university adult education wasexplored this year in the area of Indianleadership education. As a result of discussionsbetween the Extension Department and the IndianAffairs Branch, and requests from the NorthAmerican Indian Brotherhood and from Indians inthe Cowichan Agency... (UBC, Extension, 1961/2:19)John Friesen encouraged the Extension Department staff topioneer in leadership programs throughout the Province.Supervisor Marjorie Smith did just that. Describing its181activities with the (native) Indian people, the Department’sreport stated:Three-day workshops with Indian chiefs andcouncillors were held for the Kamloops, Nicola andOkanagan agencies. A five-day workshop at theUniversity brought together 23 chiefs andcouncillors from various agencies throughout theprovince. The program was financed jointly withthe Federal Indian Affairs Branch. (UBC,Extension, 1962/63:14)Curtis confirmed the importance of Friesen’s support instimulating leadership training for Native Indians:John would encourage us to do leadership trainingwith Native Indians. Some twenty years latersome of these same individuals have become theIndian Band leaders of today. (Curtis, PersonalCommunication, 1992)Thomas, speaking of the work done by Marjorie Smith andothers added:Marjorie did a lot of work in establishingcooperative day-care education way ahead of thefashion. In Indian affairs, I don’t think therewas another Extension Department in the countrydoing anything like UBC did at the time. So Ithink in terms of the imaginative programs, thescope, the number of different groups that saw theUniversity as a resource, UBC had a claim ofhaving a very good Extension Department. (Thomas,Personal Communication, 1992)For financial reasons, the department had to discontinue itswork in human relations and family life education, but withthe financial assistance of the Federal Branch of Indian182Affairs, Extension was able to continue some of its workwith the Indian people:Prior to March 1964 the work on the IndianLeadership Development Project continued on alimited basis, with financial support from theFederal Indian Affairs Branch. Commencing April1, 1964 the Branch provided a substantiallyincreased grant for this project. This coincidedwith the change in emphasis in the ExtensionDepartment, with the result that the work onCommunity Organization and Family Life wasdiscontinued, with the supervisor [Marjorie Smith]of this section devoting practically all of hertime to the Indian Project. (UBC, Extension,1963/64:10)Marjorie Smith, Tom Brown, Bert Curtis and other colleaguesreached out to the Indian people. As noted in theDepartment’s Annual Report:The aim of these programs was to’ assist chiefs andcouncillors to understand more clearly theirfunctions, responsibilities and authority, and tolearn how to understand and solve problems in bandaffairs, in the context of their Indiancommunities. (UBC, Extension, 1961-62:20)Speaking of Marjorie Smith and of others working in thisarea through Extension, Friesen observed:On campus the later fifties witnessed a growingconcern over the continuing desperate conditionsof our native population. Professor Harry Hawthornand colleagues were producing much needed researchon Canadian Indians. Dean Geoffrey Andrewencouraged Bill Reid, a future famous Canadianartist, to teach and practice totem and other artforms. In the Extension Department the supervisorwho launched Indian groups study was MarjorieSmith. Rendering assistance to.the disadvantagedby fostering self-help had always been hercommitment; hence it was no surprise to find her183organizing an extended series of leadershipprograms in the interior solely for and withIndians. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)During 1965-66, the Extension Department’s emphasis shiftedfrom providing short-term workshops to an intensive programwith selected Indian bands. The Annual Report states:At the request of the Federal Indian AffairsBranch, which provided financial support, themajor part of the year was spent in a concentratedprogram with bands in the Stuart Lake and BurnsLake Agencies. The objective was to expandcommunity leaders’ understanding of Band Councilfunctions and develop leaders’ self-confidence inassuming increased responsibility for themanagement of band affairs. Many informalmeetings took place, culminating in workshops heldfor bands in each agency. (UBC, Extension1965/66:22)E. EXTENSION ADVISORY COUNCILFriesen recognized the need to get added support forExtension in its negotiations with the Universityadministration and with the faculties. He introduced a‘Town and Gown’ Extension Advisory Council. This broadlybased Advisory Council contained a number of communitymembers with the expectation that this would strengthen theDepartment’s position, but it proved in practice to besomewhat unproductive and was allowed to lapse. While theidea of such a council appeared attractive, Friesen and hiscolleagues found the committee, as structured, toothless.Thomas said of the Council:184That never worked; it never amounted to much.People weren’t really interested in relating tothe University as a whole, they wanted to relateto the parts they were interested in. (Thomas,Personal Communication, 1992)Friesen acknowledged the Advisory Council did not, as itturned out, work as successfully as had been hoped:It consisted of six persons from campus, a fewdeans, and six people from the business community,labor, etc. It met a few times a year. Memberswere asked their opinions on continuing education;however the advice was too general to be useful tothe university’s program. The Council wasdisbanded after a few years. (Friesen, Interview,1992)The reasons for initiating such a committee appeared to bemainly political. Jack Blaney describing Friesen’sstrategy, said:No doubt about it, John saw himself first as anadult educator, as opposed to a university facultymember. This is an important distinction. Johndid not plan in a way manuals tell you how toplan; but in terms of his development of astrategy or of directions for the future, he was amaster at it. Strategy is a craft. His strategywas built on a vision, taking advantage ofopportunities, actually feeling it. (Blaney,Interview, 1992)Kulich, speaking of what he saw as John Friesen’sunwillingness to be confrontational, perhaps provided somerelevant insight:John would have an idea about what he wanted todo, but he was also politically aware and astute.John would never, ever, have a confrontation ormeet anyone head on. He would try to persuade andhe may, if it was a matter of a body- -Board ofGovernors or Senate for example- -he would try to185get someone on board before he launched ontosomething. Then he would go with a really goodkick, but if it didn’t go he would back off.(Kulich, Interview, 1992)Probably the Council was too cumbersome to provide asatisfactory vehicle between Extension and the otherparties involved. In any event, it did not appear to addto the influence of the department within the Administrationor the Senate.F. THE QUEST FOR A UNIVERSITY POLICY CONCERNING CONTINUINGEDUCATIONThe Extension Department, reporting on its first sessionunder new UBC President Macdonald, described the year asone of self-evaluation, stating:The Department completed four studies on aspectsof continuing education which our staff felt wouldbe significant in future development. The reportswere presented to and discussed with the Presidentand the Committee of Academic Deans. The studiesdealt with the following aspects of UniversityExtension:(1) A coordinated plan for administeringUniversity continuing education.(2) The extra-mural program.(3) Continuing university education inBritish Columbia.(4) A Centre for continuing education.• . .The policies of the foregoing studies, afterconfirmation and amendment by the President andfaculties, will result in some basic changes andnew directions for continuing education at thisUniversity. (UBC, Extension, 1962/63:2)186The Extension Department wanted to centralize theadministration of continuing education under its auspices.But, as it turned out, this was not to be. Not all Deansshared this view, favoring instead the provision ofcontinuing education by their own faculties. Commenting onthis matter, Kulich explained that after Friesen took theinitial risks and inaugurated Continuing Education for theProfessions, a few Academic Deans wanted and took ownershipof this prestigious, and potentially lucrative field(Kulich, Interview, 1992). He said that Commerce led theopposition. Although, from the Extension Department’sviewpoint, Kulich considered these raids on programs unfair,he understood and to some extent sympathized with the Deans’ambitions. Whatever the inequities of this situation,clearly problems in reviewing, planning and continuity werecreated for the Extension Department. Perhaps moreimportantly, the department lost revenues that supported theliberal arts and community development programs which wereat the heart of Extension’s work.Following an example set by the Faculty of Medicine, a fewprofessional faculties were to demonstrate an increasingdesire to take over adult education for their graduates. Inthe period 1961-1963, Friesen pushed hard to get thedepartment’s four-point initiative accepted by the Senateand proposed a major reorganization. The reports,187collectively, recommended that continuing education andextra-mural programs be centralized at UBC under Extension.They also stressed the need for a residential adulteducation facility to be built on the campus. Thedepartment’s timing proved to be unfortunate, because someof the Senate were at odds with the idea of thecentralization of continuing education, and against theExtension Department’s growing involvement in communitydevelopment and non-degree activities. Jack Blaney,speaking of the difficulties the Extension Department facedin presenting a plan for reorganization said:Within the University context that plan forContinuing Education Reorganization was flawedbecause it would never work. It did not respectthe realities or power that rested within theUniversity and how you ally yourself with thatpower to get things done. Power is never intransition. The power is always held by thefaculties. (Blaney, Interview, 1992)The Extension Department’s reports were “tabled” forconsideration by faculties and committees or otherwiseshuffled within the bureaucracy. In consequence, it was tobe several years before even a somewhat coherent policywould emerge from Senate.Beginning in the MacKenzie years, the Extension Departmentopened up Continuing Education programs for severalprofessional disciplines. As these enterprises prospered,188the faculties took an increasing interest; it soon becameapparent that the Deans were going to take over more andmore of continuing education. The University administration(under Macdonald) appeared unconcerned that the field ofcontinuing education was becoming uncoordinated anddecentralized.G. PROPOSAL FOR CAMPUS RESIDENTIAL CENTREOF CONTINUING EDUCATIONOne project Friesen favoured, but was not able to bring tocompletion, was his plan for the creation of a residentialcentre for continuing education, serving both the Universityand the community. Once again, in 1963 Friesen stressed theneed for action on a Centre of Continuing Education,stating:One of the most pressing problems remains the lackof suitable facilities in which to conductcontinuing education activities, especially duringthose periods of the year when the University isin regular session.In view of the lack of response for theUniversity’s submission to the provincialcentennial authorities for a Centre for ContinuingEducation on the campus, other means must be foundto meet this pressing need. (UBC, Extension,1963/4:2)Unfortunately Friesen’s request for a ‘Centre’ came during aperiod in the sixties, when funds for new buildings at UBC189were severely constrained. Further, it came at a time whenmuch of the Extension Department’s work in general communityservice was discouraged by the Macdonald administration.Friesen envisioned such a centre as having up-to-datetechnology, the media, etc. to link the University withcommunities throughout British Columbia. The building planswere drawn, a model was made with the support of PresidentMacKenzie. Friesen pushed hard for these facilities duringhis term at UBC, but the necessary funds were notforthcoming. Speaking of the need for a centre, Curtissaid:What we wanted was a residential conference centreand we worked like hell to get it, but it neverhappened. I went to Minnesota; we went toKellogg; but I think we were three years too late.(Curtis, Personal Communication, 1992)The University continued, to build residence halls forregular students, but little if any regard was given to theneeds of Extension students and programs. Selman, however,in writing about the struggle to get such a centre wrote:The Extension Department had for years beenseeking the construction of a residential adulteducation facility on the campus. A newopportunity presented itself in 1963 when theUniversity established a committee to adopt aproject to be presented to the ProvincialGovernment as a possible centennial project. TheUniversity committee adopted the residentialcentre as its project. It was subsequentlypresented to Victoria but was not in the endfunded by the senior governments. (Selman,1975:16)190The need for such a Centre was evidenced by the growingeducational work of the Extension function in the liberalarts and training for citizenship responsibility, theincrease in continuing professional education programs andthe large number of conferences being arranged. In theprogram year 1962/63 Extension organized 102 conferencesattended by 11,094 people, a strong indication that aconference facility was merited.Again UBC’s Ex-President MacKenzie, three years after hisretirement, continued to extend his support, this time forsuch a centre:As the work of the university and of the extensiondepartment developed I would consider and supportthe establishment of a special centre forextension and continuing education which mightinclude lecture rooms, studios, an auditorium,too, and film libraries, record libraries, .. .1might in due course even include residentialaccommodation which, . . .would facilitate theholding of conferences and seminars throughout theyear... (Kidd and Selman, 1978:146/147)It wasn’t until after Friesen’s departure that Extension’squarters in huts on the East Mall were moved to a wing ofthe newly acquired residence halls of St. Mark’s College onthe northeast corner of the campus (UBC Reports/Oct. 1,1970). It would seem, however, that Extension was not thesole victim of a moratorium on new buildings. Waite’s Lordof Point Grey: Larry MacKenzie of U.BC., which claimedresearch into the private papers of Geoffrey Andrew and191MacKenzie, reporting on the absence of many new buildinginitiatives under President Macdonald and commented:In 1966, when John Barfoot Macdonald announced hewould retire from U.B.C. the next year, Larryasserted privately that there wasn’t a buildingunder construction in 1966 (except the Instituteof Higher Education) that had not been planned,approved, and financed before he [MacKenzie] leftin 1962. (Waite, 1987:222)H. RECOGNITION IN INTERNATIONAL ADULT EDUCATIONFrom the outset of his term as Director of Extension in1953, Friesen had remained active in international work.His network of international contacts was progressivelywidening. In addition to his membership in the Canadiandelegation to the UNESCO Second World Conference on AdultEducation held in Montreal August 1960, he was also a memberof the official delegation to the twelfth session UNESCOGeneral Biennial Conference, held at UNESCO’s Parisheadquarters in November-December, 1962. Friesen participated in many international conferences on educationalmatters. One of the practical outcomes of Friesen’speripatetic existence was that he came to rely more and moreon his deputy, Selman, to oversee day-to-day administration.Through the work of several campus units, UBC was gainingrecognition as an important contributor to Third Worlddevelopment programs. In consequence, Friesen becameinvolved in considerable travel related to advisory work on192international adult education, within Canada and in othercountries.Reporting on the Department’s increasing involvement ininternational matters, he declared:In all developing countries adult education isseen to be an urgent need in resource developmentand democratic citizenship. (UBC, Extension1961/62:4)In 1962, he was abroad for half of the year. Starting inJanuary, Friesen undertook a four month leave-of-absencefrom UBC and, as a member of a U.S./Canada team (funded bythe Carnegie Foundation of New York), worked intensivelywith African educators. In February through April, 1962,Friesen participated as a Fellow in UNESCO’s project“Mutual Appreciation of Eastern and Western CulturalValues.” On this study-tour he also observed and discussedcontinuing education with educators in India, South-eastAsia and Japan. In November to December he was a member ofofficial Canada delegation to the UNESCO General BiennialConference in Paris.In consultation with Indian authorities and the CanadianExternal Aid Office, Friesen helped to establish a multiyear aid project for the University of Rajasthan in India.The UBC/Rajasthan Universities’ project was designed toassist that institution in initiating much of its university193extension work. In October, 1964- July, 1965, Friesen wasDirector of this Project in Continuing Education between UBCand University of Rajasthan, India and became resident inJaipur. Friesen inaugurated the project, and headed up theteam made up of himself and James Draper, which was based inJaipur for the year 1966-67. The project organized threeadult education conferences for Vice Chancellors and facultymembers. The Canadian team were nationally influential inIndia, augmenting the leadership provided by Rajasthan’sVice-Chancellor, Mohan Mehta.One of several goals of the Rajasthan project was to be thebuilding of a Centre for Continuing Education. While UBCExtension efforts in India, on the Rajasthan Project, wereachieving success in many directions, back home in BritishColumbia Extension was battling to maintain its position.It was somewhat ironic that Canada’s High Commissioner waslaying a “corner stone” for a Centre for ContinuingEducation in an Indian University at the same time as urgentrequests for such a facility fell on deaf ears at UBC.I. TURBULENT TIMES: PRESIDENT MACDONALDOn December 31, 1959, N.A.M. (Larry) MacKenzie sent aconfidential memorandum to UBC’s Chancellor, Dal Grauer,indicating he had finally settled on a date for retirement:194To avoid misunderstanding and uncertainty and toprevent the circulation of rumours, I feel ituseful to state that I proposed to announce formalretirement.. .on the 1st of July 1963, to takeeffect one year from that date, i.e. 1st of July,1964. (Waite, 1987:185)These dates were not acceptable to some members of theBoard, who decided to expedite matters. A committee of sixmembers of the Board was formed to find a successor toMacKenzie on his retirement. The Presidential SearchCommittee had in mind John Barfoot Macdonald (Waite, 1987).Former UBC Chancellor and Chairman of the Board ofGovernors, Nathan Nemetz, recently confirmed in conversationwith the researcher that he was one of the board members whosought out Macdonald in Boston, where he was a professor ofdentistry in charge of a large research institute at Harvard(Nemetz, Personal Communication, May, 28, 1992).Macdonald had met Senate members earlier as a visitingconsultant at UBC in Dental Education. The minutes of theSenate Meeting of December 14th, 1955 confirms this (SenateMinutes, 1955:2241)Waite (1987), describing President MacKenzie’s retirement in1962, two years earlier than he wished, and commenting onthese difficult times, wrote:He [MacKenzie] always thought it was a conspiracyof Phyllis Ross and G.T. Cunningham, both of whomcontinued to go from strength to strength. OnJuly 27, [1962] the Board agreed that in view ofGrauer’s illness, Cunningham, the chairman of thepresidential search committee, would be actingchancellor. Grauer died the next day. Hisdethronement of Larry [MacKenzie] and [Gordon]195Shrum on June 29 was his last official act forU.B.C. (Waite, 1987:190)After the appointment in 1962 of John Barfoot Macdonald asPresident of UBC, John Friesen and the Extension Departmentencountered difficult times. Macdonald proved to have verydifferent views about the Extension function than had beenheld by his predecessor. Macdonald did not support thebroad “community-based” type of Extension program which hadbeen built up at UBC and at other Western provincialuniversities. He was from-the “East”, where the Extensiontradition was based more on part-time degree completion andcontinuing professional education. Macdonald was anxious toexpand graduate study and other academic priority areas atUBC and he framed his budgets accordingly. He cut theExtension budget in 1964 by twenty-five percent (Selman,Interview, 1992)The trend which Friesen had initiated towards higheracademic standards was not moving fast enough to satisfyPresident Macdonald. Certainly there was room for expansionin the two areas of Extension work which Macdonald wasprepared to support, part-time studies towards a degree andcontinuing professional education. Macdonald had in mindthat UBC should concentrate on achieving a high reputationfor its degree granting and professional education functions(Macdonald, 1962). Under President Macdonald’s concept,UBC would become more elitist than before and confine its196activities to fields that could not effectively be served byother educational institutions. The President and theExtension Director differed as much on program content as instyle. John Friesen had always firmly believed that issueswere best settled by discussion, not by mandate and thateducation for public responsibility was an important part ofthe process. In his words: “Jack Macdonald cut our budgetall to pieces, without asking, for which later he expressedregret” (Friesen, Interview, 1992).Jack Blaney confirmed this:That evening of Friesen’s farewell, John BarfootMacdonald came to it and said to me and two otherpeople, I can’t remember who they were, that, “Imade a mistake about Extension. You really dovery, very good work. I really appreciate thequality of what you are doing.” (Blaney,Interview, 1992)Following on his report on Higher Education, commissioned bythe provincial government, Macdonald recommended that theB.C. Government establish a number of two-year colleges inseveral regions of the Province. In addition, he wanted itto develop four-year colleges in the Lower Fraser Valley,the Okanagan and Victoria. Within the hierarchy of highereducation, Macdonald wanted UBC to be recognized as thesenior educational institution (Macdonald, 1962). Againsthis ambitious program for expansion, Extension appearedunimportant to Macdonald, who wanted to sweep away much ofthe non-degree, citizenship education and cultural197development work. From the actions he took, it was apparentthat on joining UBC, Macdonald was not much concerned with,impressed by or in favor of, what the Extension Departmentwas doing in communities throughout the Province. Macdonaldjust did not accept these endeavours as being properly thework of a university, nor in his opinion did they meetrequired academic standards. Perhaps, also the universityhad increasing reservations about becoming involved incontroversial social issues.Reflecting on Extension’s budget cuts in his 1975 paper on“The Decade of Transition” Selman pointed out that a movetowards higher standards in degree credit work already wasunderway in the department. He commented:The 1960’s would have been a period of change andreassessment for the Extension Department evenwithout the crisis produced by the budget cuts.Dr. Friesen had made this clear by his actionsbefore and during the early Sixties that he wasattempting generally to upgrade the intellectuallevel of the Extension program and to createcloser links between the Extension work and theacademic community. (Selman, 1975:31)As described earlier Friesen had clearly recognized emergingtrends and sought to accelerate the development of creditdegree and continuing professional education programs duringthe second half of his term, but held to his conviction thatthe University also had a. broad responsibility incitizenship education. Selman said of this:198John saw what was going on very quickly, he wasmeeting with the President [Macdonald] and sendinghim reports and information to try to inform himand to win him over to a point of view sympatheticto a broadly based Extension function for theuniversity. But it probably was a lost cause fromday one. John knew that, but he had to try.Macdonald in the end said ‘I am going to chop youguys.’ It was a miserable process all around.(Selman, Interview, 1992)On October 9, 1963, Macdonald wrote to Friesen making hisposition absolutely clear and setting out three principleson which he believed the Extension Department should beworking:* The University should accept financialresponsibility for credit courses offeredthrough the Department of Extension.* The University should not commit funds tosupport non-credit courses.* The University should not acceptresponsibility for courses incontinuing professional educationoffered to groups who are in theposition to pay the full cost.(J.B. Macdonald Letter to Friesen, Oct. 9, ‘63)Speaking of the implications of Macdonald’s directivesconcerning the scope and nature of Extension Programs,Selman said:The principles outlined in this letter were tobecome the basis for policy in the next few yearsand signaled a sharp change in- the University’sapproach to adult education. The only part of theExtension program which Dr. Macdonald and theBoard of Governors (which accepted his view) werewilling to support financially was degree creditwork... (Selman, 1975:19)199In explaining his motive for withdrawing financial supportfor the Extension Department’s non-credit courses, PresidentMacdonald wrote to Friesen:• . . The reason for this is that in general non-credit courses are offered as a service tothe community, a fringe benefit to thecommunity in having a university. It can beexpected that such courses will not be offeredat the usual level of an academic discipline[bold mine] (See Appendix No. 15: J.B.Macdonald Letter to Dr. J.K. Friesen, October 9,1963 :1)It appears the new President considered that “having” aUniversity should be reward enough for the community, i.e.the people of the province. Selman commented:In his famous letter [Macdonald wrote] to theExtension Department in [October 9] 1963, thatExtension work is a fringe benefit to thecommunity for the fact that there is a university.If they were going to enjoy that fringe benefit,then they [the community] were going to have topay for it. John Macdonald was playing the samegame as the Senate. (Selman, Interview, 1992)By refusing to fund Extension’s non-degree activities,Macdonald cut much of the “substance” out of the ExtensionDepartment’s work; the cut was particularly damagingbearing in mind that the department’s mandate to do degreerelated work was limited by existing regulations of theuniversity. Macdonald’s directive also cut the “heart” outof the department, by foreclosing plans it might have topromote education for public responsibility, community and200cultural development off-campus. In one devastating move,Macdonald struck at the very essence of the work being done,even though at the time the UBC Extension Department washighly regarded throughout North America and internationallyfor the work that was being cut.During the last years of Friesen’s term, the administrationsought to abandon UBC’s ongoing commitment towards theprovision of a broadly based educational service to thecommunity. Although it soon became evident the universitywas on a new course, Friesen did not change his personalconvictions and retained his sense of commitment to theinterests of citizens living outside the limits of thecampus. Although an overall shortage of funds may have beena factor in the administration’s shift in policy, it appearsthat the cut in Extension funding was not forced, nornecessarily desired, by the government of the day. Selman,on the basis of working in the President’s office explained:The university didn’t take a line-by-line budgetto government; it by and large just got a big potof money. Then, the battle over who got the moneyand how much Extension got was fought out withinthe university. In the end the administrationdecided, not only were they not going to put moremoney in, but would take money out. (Selman,Interview, 1992)In his 1963/4 report to the administration, Friesencommented on the consequences which resulted from thesepolicy changes:201In the year under review in this Report theExtension Department’s programme has been stronglyinfluenced by two major policy changes in theUniversity. The creation of new universities inthe province and the increased emphasis at theUniversity of British Columbia on graduate workand professional training have accelerated thetrend within the Extension programme to focus to agreater extent on professional and liberaleducation courses for the university graduate. Inaddition, the decision by the Board of Governorsthat the Extension programme must becomesubstantially more self-supporting has madenecessary both a revision of the Department’s feestructure and the elimination of curtailment ofsome important aspects of the programme. (UBC,Extension, 1963-64:2)Even Extension’s Extra-Sessional Credit Course offeringswere under fire. In the Senate Minutes on September 8,1964, the Senate Executive Committee reprimanded Extensionfor listing credit courses without prior discussion with theDepartments concerned, particularly with respect toprerequisites and timetables. Justice Nemetz and S.Friedman (Faculty of Medicine) presented a motion (which wascarried) that the list of credit courses to be offered byUBC away from the campus, or available in extra-sessionalclasses must be submitted to Senate for approval through therespective Faculties.In 1965, the department provided a graph (UBC, Extension,1965/66:30) illustrating that 75 of all attendance atExtension programs was in non-credit courses, l1 inCorrespondence courses and only 14 in Extra-SessionalCredit Courses. These percentages demonstrate how deeplythe redirection of priorities for Extension would cut into202the substance of the department’s work, both province-wideand to a considerable extent, in the evening classesconcerning the humanities.Although President Macdonald appears as the person whoinfluenced a reversal of fortune for the ExtensionDepartment, more correctly his action can be viewed as anexpression of a much deeper shift in power and directiontaking place within the University of British Columbia. AtUBC one outcome of the increased emphasis on academic degreerelated studies had been a shift in power from thePresident’s Office and the Board of Governors to the Senate.The academic Deans have become more powerful and exercisediscretion as to which programs are acceptable. Selman,discussing this shift in power, commented:The leadership in the University shifted over theyears from the President’s Office and the Board ofGovernors, who used to be the powers within theUniversity, to the faculties, the academiccommunity as symbolized by the Senate. When thatkind of shift is going on then if you have builtyour strength on the support from the President’sOffice and have done a lot of things that theacademic community, academic departments weren’tenthusiastic about then in the long run they aregoing to come and get you. . . so they cut Extensionto strengthen graduate work. The Deans are moreinclined to do that if what is going on inExtension is not seen by the Faculty as truly anextension of the University. (Selman, Interview,1992)Selman, who worked in President Macdonald’s Office fromDecember, 1965 until 1967, observed:203Macdonald was a very intelligent administrator.But he was of the same view, by and large, as theSenate and the Faculties. He wanted to pull backfrom Extension and other things as well, in orderto get as much money together as he could so as toget on with graduate studies. (Selman, Interview,1992)The shift towards a strictly academic agenda was not simplya manifestation of a change within the University or in theProvince. Rather it was part of a phenomenon in whicheducational money was becoming increasingly focussed oneconomic development. The government in Victoria had beentelling the University for some time to put more emphasis onsuch things as commerce, engineering and the professions.Similarly, pressures came from the Federal government whichwas much concerned with manpower training, technical andvocational studies. The University has rightly defended itsindependence in deciding how to spend the monies given toit, but clearly University policy was subject to beingsteered since the two governments control the educationalpurse strings. As Selman put it:Government money is going very heavily intovocational/technical training. The humanities andthe liberal arts are getting squeezed out, exceptwhere they fit into the academic approach.(Selman, Interview, 1992)Despite all Friesen’s personal efforts to provideencouragement to the team which had built the Extensionfunction with such care and commitment, they became somewhatdemoralized. Friesen reported with regret that a few204senior colleagues had resigned to take other positions or toresume their studies (UBC, Extension, 1963/4).The termination of the Living Room Learning project which by1964 had grown to have nearly 1600 participants in 131groups serving 47 communities was discussed in Chapter 5.The ending of the worthwhile and successful Living RoomLearning program was symbolic of UBC’s abrupt departure fromthe field of education for public responsibility, communitydevelopment and studies in liberal education. There was agood deal of public concern expressed about UBC’scurtailment of its community development work and theresearcher has provided copies of several newspaper articlesof the time criticizing the University for its policychanges regarding Extension (See Figures 36-40, MediaCriticizes UBC). As a consequence of 1964 budget cuts, thenumber of non-degree programs offered to the public declinedsteadily from 250 in 1962/63 to 195 in 1965/6 andregistration in courses around the Province fell from 5753to 2707 (Selman, 1975)In November 1964, the Board of Governors instructed thedepartment to cease offering the Summer School of the Artsprogram in Opera and Theatre and ordered that further staffpositions in the fine arts should be eliminated. This couldbe justified in part by the Faculty of Arts expanding the205Music and Theatre departments. As Selman has pointed out,“So not only was the budget cut, but the department wasreceiving specific instructions as to how, in part, toadjust to the cuts” (Selman, 1975). Nonetheless, reportingin 1964/5, Friesen pointed out that his view of theUniversity’s proper role within society remained unchangedas he tried to convey to the UBC Administration the vitalimportance of a commitment to citizenship education andcommunity service:In our day another dimension has been added toteaching and research, namely that of directlysharing the fruits of learning not only with thestudents on campus but with the community atlarge. National and international growth arecontingent upon an adequate supply of educatedcitizenry and trained manpower; without itprogress in developing and developed societieswould come to a halt and rapidly decline.What are the concerns of adults for furthereducation? We submit that they are threefold: tomake a living, to enrich experience and purpose inlife, and to participate actively in citizenaffairs. University Extension interprets theseareas as civic, liberal and professionaleducation. (UBC, Extension, 1964/65:5)Despite the restrictions put on Extension’s non-degreeactivities, the department was working hard to renew itself.In adapting to new policies Extension sought to retain allit could of its commitment to community service. In 1965,6325 adults enrolled in its Humanities programs. This highdemand indicated a continuing desire for Liberal ArtsEducation by the general populace of British Columbia.- 206In steering the Extension function away from an involvementin non-degree, education for public responsibility and othercommunity oriented work, the administration was satisfiedthat it was in tune with the wishes of those faculty memberswho were suspicious that Extension’s work was too far out inleft field or not at a sufficiently standard intellectually.Also, the administration assumed that any vacuum caused bythe University’s departure from community education workwould be filled. It may have expected the work would bepicked up by the new community colleges, School boards orother institutions. As it turned out, this proved not to bethe case (Selman, Interview, 1992 and Selman, 1991).J. LIFELONG LEARNINGWhen the annual report of 1964-65 of the Department had beencirculated to Senate, Friesen made a further attempt to gainattention from the Senate for the three guideposts accordingto which he believed continuing education should proceed.His report was received for information only.* An endeavour to create a climate and purposefor lifelong learning.* A commitment to higher education.* Developing a broad base for leadership.(Senate Minutes, December 20, 1965:20)The year 1966 was Friesen’s last as Director of Extension atUBC. He had made the changes in priorities required by the207administration, but continued to emphasize the ExtensionDepartment’s determination to provide whatever communityservice it could manage, despite limitations put on itsbudget. He described the department’s work by stating:Continuing education at the University of BritishColunbia is a response to community and regionalneeds. Higher education should not be all thingsto all men; instead, it endeavours to servegenerally the more advanced levels ofprofessional, social and cultural leadership.Continuing education seeks to create a climate anda purpose for lifelong learning. In all itsefforts the goals of University Extension is [sic]to stir the imagination and increase the capacityfor self-renewal through individual growth, andfor community and national development. (UBC,Extension, 1966:8)Under the new budgeting terms, Extension non-credit programshad to be funded by fees from students. Also, coursesoffered were increasingly directed to those students withthe ability to pay. In consequence, many of its coursestended to focus on very practical matters involvinginstruction, rather than intellectual exploration. Friesenreflected on the changes which took place:On returning to Vancouver [from India in 1965], Imet up with several formidable problems. UBCPresident John B. Macdonald, who succeededExtension enthusiast Larry MacKenzie, had earlierannounced [October, 1963] a reduction in theExtension grant. He also co-opted my stalwartassociate, Gordon Selman, as his ExecutiveAssistant. Gordon later returned to succeed me asDirector. We admittedly lost some ground, butwith the timely, competent efforts of colleaguesBlaney, Matthews, Buttedahl et al, on the safeprediction [made to the administration] that theproposed programs would yield a satisfactory208return, the Department, on the advice of thefaculties and professional bodies concerned,managed to appoint three more supervisors, forlegal education, the sciences and engineering.A second challenge was the defeat in Senate,mainly by a vote of one faculty, Commerce andBusiness Administration, of a well-researchedpolicy and plan for a future, thoroughlyintegrated, faculties/Extension facility.(Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)The administration’s demand that Friesen put emphasis ondegree and professional work was reasonably in line withFriesen’s own drive to have Extension achieve higherintellectual standards. But gone was the opportunity towork off-campus, in helping to equip citizens to bringindependent critical and objective thinking to theirconsideration of social and other community issues. Gonewas the opportunity to follow Friesen’s deep commitment tocultural development and community service.K. REORGANIZATION OF CONTINUING EDUCATIONThe mid-to-late sixties was a period of great uncertainlyfor the Extension Department as it moved within the narrowedmandate which had been imposed upon it. On returning fromIndia in the Summer of 1965, Friesen tried to resolve thematters of Organization and of University Policy concerningExtension. On March 1, 1966 (Revised on April 25, 1966) hesubmitted to the Administration and the Senate “A RevisedOrganization of Continuing Education at the University ofBritish Columbia” (Senate Records) proposing once again a209policy of centralized administration for ContinuingEducation. There was however considerable opposition fromsome of the professional faculties. After the recommendations had been put forward by Extension, they werediscussed with the Senate, which then referred them to thefaculties for comment and to the Senate Committee on NewPrograms. President Macdonald, in a letter of March 15,1966 to the chair of this committee, commented:Adoption of such a policy might very well be wise,although I feel that it would need to excludeContinuing Medical Education because of the veryspecialized problems which exist in this area andbecause of the success of that operation aspresently organized. (Senate Records)It became clear, however, that the suggested Extensionpolicy was not acceptable to several deans, especially tothe Faculty of Commerce which was in the position to benefitfrom a large share of the income generated from continuingeducation programs for the business community. Blaneycomments:John always wanted to do programs in business andPhil White [Dean of Commerce] wouldn’t let him dothem. Phil White fought very hard against theCentre becoming a School for Continuing Studies.We tried to establish it prior to John leaving andafter John left. (Blaney, Interview, 1992)It appears the opposition was led by the Dean of the Facultyof Commerce and Business Administration. Commenting onFriesen’s decision to press this whole policy question to aclear conclusion, Selman commented:210He [Frieseni may have felt that forcing the issuein this way was not likely to produce what hewanted--and he has been criticized for doing it--but he also may have felt that the ExtensionDepartment’s future (and his own commitment to it)depended on his being able to bring about someclearer definition of University policy in thisarea. (Selman, 1975:25)Friesen was in the eyes of Selman, “an inspirational leader,but not a hard nosed negotiator” (Selman, Interview, 1992).Evidently, it was not in Friesen’s character to becomeinvolved in a power struggle over departmental territory.What mattered most to him was, “. . .the knowledge that thepublic would be well-served wherever the responsibilityfinally lay” (Friesen, 1992, Interview). The proposal forreorganization languished with the faculties until it wasrevived, two years after Friesen had left, by his successor,Gordon Selman on January 23, 1968 in a new documentRecommendation to the Senate Concerning the Organization ofContinuing Education (Senate Records). This issue remainedunsettled until 1970 (Selman, and Kulich, Interviews, 1992).L. FRIESEN’S REACTIONThe administration’s decision to’ depart from UBC’scommitment to community development, leadership endeavoursand Liberal Arts Education ran directly counter to Friesen’spersonal convictions about the University’s role. He is,however, quite emphatic in stating that the change inadministration policy was not a consideration when he211decided to leave the University. Nevertheless, Friesen didleave with considerable regret; of this he said:Resigning from my position at UBC after manyrewarding years was a difficult decision. Perhapsit was time for a change and there was theassurance of a first-rate staff to carry on. Thecollection of tapes and letters of appreciationfrom near and far and, the farewell parties by astaff I loved--these mementos and events haveremained an enduring treasure. (Friesen, PersonalCommunication, 1992)Friesen was deeply committed, by then, to internationalservice and more particularly to the proposition that the“population time bomb” was a threat to world peace secondonly to the threat of a nuclear holocaust. Friesenexplained that in the Summer of 1966, he received aninvitation to join the Population Council of New York, arespected international research body, as a resident adviserbased in Turkey:During several weeks of vacation I visited thatcountry. My knowledgeable guide there and latervaluable colleague was Dr. Lewis Anderson, formerMedical Health Officer for North Vancouver.Turkey, it was to be! We enrolled the children inthe Cambridge School of Weston (near Boston) andtook off for Ankara. My new challenge and purposewere never in question. After all, disturbingevidence of the world’s population explosion I hadalready observed many times in India and Africa(Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)So in September 1966, Friesen departed from UBC and joinedthe staff of the Population Council in Turkey. The issue hewas to tackle was and is of vital importance to the world;212Friesen felt he could not refuse such a challenge, howevermodest the contribution of the any single person could be.M. FAREWELLFriesen was to be very much missed, and at his farewelldinner there were moving expressions of respect, admirationand personal loyalty given by many of his colleaguesincluding President Macdonald (Friesen, Personal Tapes).There could be no doubt left with any listener about thedeep trust he had inspired in his associates. No personcould have experienced a greater outpouring of fun, warmthand friendship from his co-workers. Also, John Friesenreceived many letters (too numerous to acknowledge in thisthesis) from prominent people who were sorry to see himleave UBC. A few of these letters are included in AppendixNo. 16 - 1966 Farewell Letters. Selman expressed hispersonal sense of loss when Friesen left:His policies on how we should apply our energiesin university Extension were an expression of theman, his priorities and his values. Thosepolicies I found wholly admirable. That is onereason why that work was so compelling forme. . . something I missed very badly when I leftUniversity Extension and went into the President’s[Macdonald] Office [as Executive Assistant to thePresident] . . .the job didn’t grab me the way mywork in Extension grabbed me. But I didn’t knowthat until I left and got into a situation wherethat emotional, philosophical dimension wasn’tthere. (Selman, 1992, Interview)Friesen was to carry these values, emotional andphilosophical dimensions, into his international work.213Since the Friesen era, the tides of change at the universityhave increasingly flowed against the kind of Extensionfunction he believed to be important to the future wellbeing of an incredibly resource-rich-society. There is nowa concentration on academic, professional, vocational andother non-controversial matters; not on--”a persistentstriving for the abundant life for the many.” That was JohnFriesen’s ultimate shining goal.214Figure 31: John K. Friesen Family, 1960(1 to r: Melanie, Robert, Marta, John)Figure 32: One—time Extension Directors attend Department’s25th Anniversary on November 23, 1961. (left to right:Dr. Robert England (1936-37); Dr. Gordon Shrum (1937-53);Dr. John K. Friesen (1953-66)]QLEHWL.,ATT.WI’1.AR:DH.XH3,5YLVANLHStATh3EV.AMSH.LtL’,NEc1UIPSItY:AH.?(LJ,SVRACJS).J!jESAMJ‘4ACHk)(ZH.,JHfl:.I?1SHCLJLHHS,•JHidi?YH.&t:,s;THWLsrHHX4,!Wi.S.s.r&SEsThRN,*K1SPAuLH.SKHAT..1EV...tCALEiU1ALL.X.AHDHIVUARCuRs,SRAJSLJh.A.H.LpJH3Et11,L:H..UC.AHT,.n.AlGRlW,u.:.L.A.HAAI1,HHASVATh.1H..u3H1H.?RHA,313!V.CfHR:r1sHL)H,:AL.L.1I4,JE.AK1Iii:m..I_AKJ4A.1.zZ.LrVA,KNHTHIHLL:AN,1VI/ILSHlYiC1.tk1&3VARCCALAA1.(HkAALH3HATI.LjC.H.H1CUT•H.1.H.FJNLI1HAUL?Ai1h‘CAHTIHA,H3.HLAW,JAIi.C)WA.’lA.?’bCAHLt.UiAHSH3l,HW.HtJ1H1CU.AH3A3TAHIHJIHJH..UAVI1CH3T41iNH.,I.C’JCSGiH,.jJ.fH.IH.k.HJIAN,HCHHC‘LHJHCCAR..‘ThI.HCH4PhFigure33:TheUniversityCouncilonEducation1forPublicResponsibility.October28-29,1962.THHCNCISCTYCCAVILCAHAHJILkHHSPiNSCRILCTT•RH.R.CH—Z,N1C*LAHLNACIXCR.HrCACCATCWCJDLGUCAT1CAJNCVIRSC?tCfI-.’31216Figure 34: John & Marta meet Prime Minister Nehruin India, 1962. Nehru expressed enthusiasm forUniversity of Rajasthan/UBC Project in Adult Education.Figure 35: Mohan S. Mehta visits UBC, Sept. 1966UBC/University of Rajasthan Project(1 to r: Knute Buttedahi, Mohan Mehta,John Friesen, John Macdonald, Roby KiddV tiJysseY.ensionhópá cutUBC throat’UBC is cutting its own throat by chopping the extension department program, two department supervisors havecharged.They say UBC is falling inits duty to the community anc II is jeopardizing its supporLamong the public.The UBC contribution to theI dépärtment will be cut by halfel’rni.’ ‘_•years.All departments have beentold they must make their program self-supporting.“This V is ridiculous,” saidone supervisor. “How can athing like a seminar make aV profit.“It is like telling a professorhe will get paid on the basisof the number of people whoare in his class.“I could put on programs thatwould make money, but whatare we, hucksters or educators?”One s.upervisor said the department as it is today will probably be disbanded in a fewyears.He said it is being sacrificecLto the university’s desire tobuild primarily a graduateschool. V“It all depends on what therole of a university will be,”said another.“Is it to serve a nationalelite -or is it to serve the community? -“And how can it legitimatelyask for community support Vfinancially if it is not involvedin the community?”He said extension department activities V are the onlycontact many people in the interior havewith the university. VThe cutback on communityprograms may well alienatethem from it.“And this at a time whenUBC is looking for public support for its program.”The department will continue with V its education program for doctors,lawyers and teachers, and continue its present evening creditcourses.But cultural activities, suchas the province-wide homestudy discussion program, havecome under the axe.More than 1,500 persons havebeen involved in the program,which is to be ended at theend of the month.“Continuing education forthe professions is the fashionable thing to do these days, butcultural programs like this arefelt unnecessary,” said one employee.“Where is the old ideal ofthe liberal education?”He said increase in fees forcourses will make it impossiblefor low-income families to benefit.Both supervisors asked notto be quoted by name, becausethey have not yet left the department.217Figure 36: ‘Extension chops cut UBCthroat’(Ubyssey, March 17. 1964)218Jarriage trade seemsUBC target now_ovIwc_By ORMOND TURNERDoes UBC plan to concen-trate on the carriage tradewith a view to putting thenew Simon Fraser Universitya notch down the academicladder? Will only prestige-type seminars be held by UBC?’Does UBC plan to weed outdepartments that aren’t prof.itable and let SFTJ (a newcompetitor for grants) pickthem up?The answer, judging fromthe reaction of UBC officialsto an item here yesterday,which revealed drastic cuts inits extension department, isyes.The extension departmentbudget has been cut by. $100,.000 and any program or pro.ject that doesn’t pay its ownway is out. Four supervisorshave left UBC and officialsadmit they don’t know how•many more• will follow, orhow many projects will suffer.Figure 37: ‘carriage trade seems UBCtarget now’ (Province, March 10, 1964)Cost cuttingMc-&q-6’(-on the campusBy ORMOND TURNER I in the past few days and sal-iaries have been cut from someUBC president John B. Mac- j thing like $220,000 to $80,000donald says extension services for the next three-year period.have doubled in the past On top of that, most extensionseven years, with 23,000 per-I departments have been toldSons registered last year. But’ they must pay their own waycampus reports say at least as of April 1. The only sectionsfour extension supervisors’ that look as if they might behave either quit or been fired self-sustaining are• the photo,printing and audio-visual departments.Extension fees are being increased and the word is thatUBC is more interested inprestige-type professional seminars than in housewives andloggers.• Figure 38: ‘Cost cutting on thecampus’ (Province, March 9, 1964)Dr. John Frlésen, extensionhead, said three• supervisorshave quit or given notice. Hedenied their resignations haveanything to do with economycuts in their departments.They are:. Margaret Frederickson, women’s programstudies; Fred Walden, liberalarts, and John Grant, publicaffairs. The fourth casualtyreported here yesterday, isRôseniar Carlile, publicistfor the department.Her boss, UBC publicist JimBanham, said her quitting hasnothing to do with the reduced budget. “How manymore leave, though, will depend on finances. Future staffwill depend on what programsthe university decides to keep,in light of the finances theyget.” He said more programsmay be affected if supportfrom foundations and organizations is not forthcomingAssociate director GordonSelman said the extension department is having a toughtime financing itself. The budget of $700,000 is made up of$500,000 from fees and grants,and $200,000 from UBC. Thelatter amount has been cutin half.219Mournful DecisionThere is much to mourn in theeconomy wave in University of B.C.’sextension departtnent.It occurs at a time when ever-Increasing ‘values are being placed on continuingeducation.UBC has beeii particularly proud of its28-year record in this valuable field; itsprogram probably was the largest amongCanadian universities. Its leaders used toay it was imperative for the universityto reach out to the community. surely itstill is.Yet this year the $200,000 annual grantof the university to its extension programwill be pared to $160,000. Next year itwill go down to $130,000. The followingyear, $100,000, or• half of the presentgrant.An immediate casualty appears to bethe department’s Study Discussion Pro‘gram, nee Living Room Learning, whichlast year attracted more than 2,000 members in more than 90 province-widegroups. This is reason in itself for mourning.VA-A.’ 5i,V,M-’-J-”f-But the whole field of general ‘liberaleducation and fine arts Is vulnerable. Andwhere courses aren’t discontinued, feeswill go up.Only courses for professional and business people seem really secure; They paytheir way.The consolation that Vancouver SchoolBoard’s vast night school program willfill the gap isn’t convincing. The boardadmits it cannot approach the highacademic level of the university extension programming. VIf this were simply an Internal rearrangement, a matter of pruning outweaknesses, thereVcould be no criticism.The same would ‘be true were SimonFraser University in a position to offera V substitute.Neither is the case.For reasons of economy, it appears,continuing education Is relegated to therole of such other pay-their-own-wayoperations as the parking lot and thecafeteria.In a booming province, such a depression-type cutback IS all rather sad.Figure 39: ‘Mournful Decision’(Vancouver Sun, March 14,’64)Sure, chief. I cut the extension grant to UB C in half. After all, if we allow the peopleto get too educated, they might find out that there are other parties.Figure 40: Ubyssey Cartoon,March 20, 1964220CHAPTER 7: COENTARY ON JOHN FRIESEN: THE MANAND HIS POLICIESCooperation has been and is a great spiritual factor inman’s upward march. It has meant mutual aid, amity, peace,concord. It has united men, not divided them; it hasconserved life, not destroyed it. Its law is the law oflove... . It has a place in all religions and in every systemof ethics. . . It is the yardstick by which we measurecivilization. (Friesen, Personal Papers on J.T. Hull,philosopher, press editor for the Wheat Pools of WesternCanada)A. INTRODUCTION AND FRIESEN’S LEGACYFriesen credits his ease of association with people, atevery level of society, to his supportive family/communitybackground. He acknowledges “community” as his middle name.John Friesen is a gentle and compassionate man ofconsiderable wisdom; he has a deep understanding of adulteducation and of the important contributions it can make insociety. He believes that it is incumbent on all citizensto make provision for disadvantaged people; Friesen looksat each community in this context, whether international,national, provincial, or local. In each instance he sees itas the duty of the more affluent to assist the lessfortunate. Friesen does not view the provision of such helpas a charitable act, but as the manner in which anycivilized society, including the world community, canpreserve its own best interest. He has a conviction,fostered by his upbringing in rural Manitoba, that much221power lies within the reach of ordinary people if they canlearn to work collectively to achieve a purpose. All of hisexperience, in war and peace, has reinforced thisconviction. He believes that where communities are introuble a cooperative approach in leadership is, all toooften, the missing ingredient. He sees adult education as ameans to stimulate such leadership. Curtis commented:Because of his experience in co-ops and the wholecooperative movement in Manitoba, he understoodthe self-help movement, advocated it and worked atit.John encouraged me to understand what adulteducation was all about; and a lot of it wasdirectly from John. But much was from being inthe department of 45 professional staff, who ate,drank coffee, took courses in adult educationtogether, and lived adult education in one form oranother all day long. (Curtis, PersonalCommunication, 1992)Friesen can best be described as an outstanding founder andpromoter (in the best sense of the term) rather than simplyas an administrator. John Friesen acted as an entrepreneurwhen he saw opportunities to take action, but his approachwas always moderated by a belief in the worth of eachindividual. It was his nature to encourage people, neverwishing to see them fail. Though Friesen is personallymodest, he has always had far reaching goals and thecapacity to inspire others to great achievement. Above all,he was a leader who insisted that discussion be followed byaction. His life experiences forged a stability ofcharacter and personality while his personal capabilities222and qualities fitted Friesen well for his work as an adulteducator and mentor.Friesen’s first 10 years at UBC as Director of Extensionwere, as it turned out, the glory years of the Extensionfunction. They were years in which the department wasthriving, and placing the university’s resources ofknowledge and skill at the disposal of society. Selman saidof this time:This was a period of growth and success for theExtension Department. It was of course not knownat the time, but the early 1960’s were the highpoint of the development of UBC’s extensionprogram along the lines which had been followedsince the late 1930s. (Selman, 1975:17)In discussing Friesen’s approach to planning and lookingahead to the future, Kulich said:Very obviously his whole thrust was to enrich inwhichever way he analyzed or perceived best tomeet the needs of adults in British Coluithia andfurther afield. (Kulich, Interview, 1992)Interviews with Friesen’s colleagues and staff revealed asomewhat nostalgic wish, if not a longing, for the old daysunder his leadership. Without exception, his closeassociates referred to a sense of commitment and excitementFriesen had generated in them for their work. All of hiscolleagues had experienced an expanded sense of purpose, ahigher measure of self-worth and had resonated with the223compassionate view of life Friesen had led them to accept.Buttedahl said:I was much impressed as he was a compassionateperson, very concerned about humanity and people.He was trying to better the community, to improvethe quality of life for people; his concern wasfor the less fortunate. His whole personal andprofessional life showed he was concerned to helppeople.Occasionally, he would reveal some of theharrowing experiences over Europe, on the bombingmissions. I felt a kindred spirit with him when Ireturned from the service. We lost friends, yetwe had both come through unscathed, we had done itall. Maybe we have a little responsibility to theworld as we were spared. I have- that same feelingwith John to make life better for people. Ireally feel that. (Buttedahl, Interview, 1992)When asked by the researcher about the legacy left to thedepartment by Friesen, Selman, who was to be Friesen’ssuccessor said:In terms of legacy over the operation when he hadgone, I would say his influence was very strong aslong as I was there, because I was partly what hemade me. After that conditions changed so.Eventually I left because I couldn’t take it. Theuniversity’s attitudes and policies towardscontinuing education had changed so that Icouldn’t live with it anymore.Perhaps one of the most important humanlegacies of John Friesen’s work at UBC lay in theenrichment he brought to the lives and potentialof those who worked with him. (Selman, Interview,1992)Talking of Friesen’s compassionate approach to life, Selmanwent on to say:224If you put together all the qualities of John andthe philosophy of John about wanting to make ourwork count in the improvement of people’s lot inlife and their development you get an idea of thedepth of understanding he brought to thedepartment. Added to this level of understandingwas his belief in the cooperative movement, whichhe also applied to the activities of UniversityExtension. The consequence was a broad andcompassionate approach to community work. Therewas always something else to be done. There wasalways another step or horizon to move on to.(Selman, Interview, 1992)The mission of University Extension appears as essentiallydifferent from the role of the academic and professionalfaculties. The faculties seek to develop a growing body ofknowledge, teach programs and carry out research. All ofthese can be recognized and built upon after a particularleader has gone. A legacy for successors is created throughthe enduring nature of a faculty’s work, measured in thesize and reputation of the faculty. An Extension departmentdoes not seek such a tangible goal. As society changes,Extension seeks to discover how best the department canadapt and respond to the new requirements of the community,in enhancing the quality of life for its citizens. To usean analogy, Extension is not one ship in the great armada ofthe University sailing at the command of an admiral. RatherExtension is a fleet of small pinnaces, exploring the sea ofthe community’s adult educational needs. Occasionally, apinnace commander will cry “Eureka”, and provide a newdirection for the Armada to sail.225Thomas pointed out that Friesen fully recognized and enjoyedthe exploratory, yet somewhat transitory, nature ofExtension work:There would always be something to do; he knewbetter than anybody that Extension was a veryfragile blossom. It was very much a day-to-day,week-to-week affair. So you did something goodlast week, you do something else next week. Thereis no guarantee what you will be doing after that.It is very much a matter of seizing anopportunity.That’s the nature of Extension. It isn’tbased on chairs, endowments, and huge libraries;it is based on programs and a program is veryephemeral. John better than anybody else couldlive with that. He understood it and he liked it.(Thomas, Personal Communication, 1992)Buttedahi commented that Friesen had both expanded andupgraded Extension’s work and reputation in this arena:I think there is little doubt that he raised thestature of Extension within UBC, giving itrecognition in North America for its breadth ofprogramming in the liberal arts, professionaldevelopment and leadership. He gained recognitionfrom other University Extension Departments allover North America. They were very laudatoryabout UBC Extension programs’ reputation. We werevery proud to be identified with UBC by ourcolleagues. (Buttedahl, Personal Communication,1992)Curtis affirmed Friesen’s contribution in gaining a highreputation in the field of adult education:The most important contributions of John werefirst, attracting and retaining professionalstaff, second, the encouragement of ideas. Thenthere was the whole business of his personalassociation with the staff and his encouragementof the staff to associate with the top rankingpeople in the field. He did that, all the time,226with everybody. We were recognized as in thetop three [Extension Departments] in NorthJmerica. We heard it from 100 knowledgeablepeople from California, New York, and then UBC;everybody talked about it. You heard iteverywhere you went. (Curtis, PersonalCommunication, 1992)A major legacy of Friesen’s term at UBC was the team ofcapable people he left in place. These were creativeindividuals he inspired and assisted in their personalgrowth. There was a measure of brilliance in the manner inwhich he encouraged people to reach their highest potential.This legacy benefitted not only UBC but also otheruniversities and colleges because some of his colleagues andproteges moved on to assume important roles andresponsibilities elsewhere. When Friesen left to dointernational work, he left behind a talented group ofpeople to lead Extension at UBC. One enduring testimony toFriesen is that of the people he assisted in their personaldevelopment, some became his successors who led thedepartment effectively, despite difficult times. Althoughfaced with change because of shifting policies, both UBCExtension and its successor the Centre for ContinuingEducation, remain highly respected in the field.B. PERSONAL/PROFESSIONAL INFLUENCESIn the interviews, all Friesen’s colleagues described aheightened sense of enthusiasm and an increased feeling of227self-worth through association with him. In part this camefrom the type of person he is and in part from hisconviction that in every individual lies an ability toperform beyond an habitual level if challenged. To releasethis personal drive and energy a person requires thegranting of freedom to act, in the knowledge that supportwill be given whatever the outcome. Friesen wasparticularly well fitted to use a non-directive style ofmanagement because he believed strongly in a democraticapproach to action. This attitude toward his colleaguesfulfilled Lindeman’s proposition:if we faced every conflict in life as anopportunity for creativeness, most of thedrabness, futility and wastefulness of humanintercourse could be transmuted into excitingadventures. (Lindeman, 1961:57)His ego did not stand in the way of promoting the welfareof his colleagues; rather Friesen took pride in theiraccomplishments. Friesen had the ability to stir upenthusiasm for an idea, then get a commitment and watch hiscolleagues expand on an enterprise and bring it to fruition.The approach certainly worked. His colleagues feltenhanced and the Extension Department gained widespreadrecognition for the quality of its work. The above style isby no means restricted to individuals of Friesen’s calibre;it can be learned. Friesen’s colleagues, for example,described how they had successfully adopted his style intheir own approaches to leadership. The essence of his228style lay in the establishment of a trusting relationship inwhich he and his colleagues would, as a team, agree on aimsor goals and the dimensions of a task to be undertaken,after which the colleagues would take action. SometimesFriesen’s colleagues felt they were ,venturing beyond theirown depth or capability, but given freedom and unqualifiedsupport from him, found they could operate successfullybeyond self-conceived limitations. Kulich concluded:It was a great time. If you had a feel for it anda vision, the sky was the limit. You saw theneeds of your community and you could do somethingabout it; John inspired a number of people to dothat. He saw very strongly that the university,especially UBC with its tradition, has a role toplay in continuing education for its community inall these aspects at an appropriate Universitylevel. .. .John’s leadership can be seen at UBC inbuilding up the best department of the time.(Kulich, Interview, 1992)Blaney, discussing the significance of Friesen’s influenceon his life, commented:John Friesen was one of the two or three majormentors in my life. I credit a lot that I havelearned about management. . . to John Friesen interms of how he worked with people; he enabledpeople to be free to work, to challengethemselves, to work 80 hours a week. He’s had theenormous capacity to make people feel good aboutwhat they were doing. (Blaney, Interview, 1992)In discussing Friesen with his ex-colleagues the researcherfound that each described, in differing ways, how they hadbeen enriched as individuals through association with him.229Thomas spoke of the enduring lesson to take risks and notgive up one’s beliefs in the face of obstacles:John never let up on his efforts to convince theestablishment of its [adult education’s]importance. Never! When you are young andexcited about the ideas of adult education, as Iwas intellectually, sometimes the spirit flagswhen you know it [adult education] always isliving on the margin. John knew that, but nevergave up. That’s a very powerful lesson for ayounger person when you see a guy, as serious asJohn, willing to keep on taking the risks indeveloping something that isn’t central to thefunction of the [UBC] administration. For me, I’mquite sure that the example that John had set,about keeping the faith, wa much of whatsustained me in the nine years that I was at theCAAE. (Thomas, Personal Communication, 1992)Speaking of his close professional relationship as AssociateDirector, Selman said of Friesen:I would describe it as an absolutely perfect modeland perfect relationship as far as I wasconcerned. I came to admire John as a person andas a leader and as administrator of our ExtensionDepartment. (Selman, Interview, 1992)Selman goes on to describe his understanding of Friesen’sapproach to society:John was a person of great commitment to thedevelopment of society, to politics, tointernational affairs to playing a leading,certainly a responsible part as a citizen.(Selman, Interview, 1992)Curtis, spoke of his personal experience with Friesen:What John did was, he put me in touch with thebest people in adult education in the world, some230were in Canada, Great Britain and some were in theUnited States. John knew them all. He reallyencouraged me to get to know what adult educationwas all about, in all sorts of ways.The way John encouraged people to get theirwork done well was to use their own self-evaluation. This approach helped me no end withthe rest of my career, both in ‘my work in Ottawaand after I went into college in Ontario. Johnwould come along with ideas and ask: ‘What do youthink of them? What do you think we should do?’He would ask questions, so you had to improve onthem. (Curtis, Personal Communication, 1992)MaryFrank Macfarlane described in vivid terms thetransformation that came into her life upon coming to workfor Friesen in Extension. She said:I thought I must be dreaming, and I pinchedmyself. Here I was just straight out of the homewith four kids, pregnant with the fifth, andthirty-five years old. I was changed, thought Iwas an old woman, but had a belief in continuingeducation. I was suddenly shoved intoadministration, for the University, of lecturersfrom around the world, for the- Summer. I justcouldn’t believe it. He [Friesen] made ajudgement and pushed you out of the nest. I wouldtell people I started the May-June Session CreditPrograms; I really didn’t. John told me what hewanted and then we went over and saw a Dean and aDean said ‘sure,’ so we started to do it.(Macfarlane, Interview, 1992)Sometimes Friesen’s personal example set standards hiscolleagues thought might be too high for them to achieve.Buttedahi commented a little ruefully:Personal example was quite important and he sethigh sights for everyone, the staff wouldsometimes say, ‘That’s okay for John, but the restof us were not quite that able, that ability thathe has for reaching for the sky.’ I picked up hisleadership skills over the years, how he handles231people. He knew how to get the best out ofpeople. That they would have a part to play inimportant developments. (Buttedahl, PersonalCommunication, 1992)Talking of the inspiration he received from Friesen, Kulichsaid:I see John’s unbounded enthusiasm and energy. Thevision he has of the whole field influenced mevery much. I was inspired by the broad scope ofhis vision. Certainly by his very strong sense ofthe responsibility UBC has to the communitiesthroughout the province. (Kulich, Interview,1992)Friesen’s compassionate regard for his fellow human beings,his personal energy and drive were the source of his abilityto fire the imagination of his colleagues. Blaney said ofthis charismatic leadership style:The most important thing to me about John Friesenwas his ability to help people get a sense ofexcitement about what they were doing. Makingthem feel that they could do it and then givingthem the freedom to do it. He may, or may nothave faults as an administrator but as a personwho could create a vision and excitement, and makeyou feel good about your job; he was absolutelyoutstanding. For me, he was my first mentor. Iwas very fortunate to work with him. (Blaney,Interview, 1992)Selman, in commenting on Friesen’s commitment to achievinghigher academic standards in the department’s work,described his influence:One of the Houle’s [see Chapter 4:118] points isthat university work in the field of adulteducation should be conducted at a fairly advancedlevel intellectually in terms of its programs andactivity. I think it was abundantly clear to John232at the time, and abundantly clear arising out ofhis actions, that he saw it as important thatExtension raise its sights intellectually.(Selman, Interview, 1992)Blaney spoke of the high reputation achieved by Extension inthe mid-sixties. He explained how, because of an insistenceby Friesen on high standards in all activities, therepresentatives of the department were highly respected atconferences of adult educators:We just knew that he expected everything to bedone right, the program, the whole activity. Heexpected a very, very high standard. He had anenormous interest in things international, thosethings which were cultural, and our programsreflected that. We did pioneering work inProfessional Adult Education. At that time, themid-sixties, the Extension Department was the bestin the country. I would go to an internationalconference as a representative of the Departmentof Extension, UBC. Quite frankly, I then had thesame status as a Director from any other of theplaces represented. We were clearly a premier[Extension] Department. You had a certain kind ofauthority. You received a certain kind of respectbecause you were from UBC. We did things thatwere pioneering, that other people weren’t doing.(Blaney, Interview, 1992)C. RELATIONSHIPSFriesen inspired a deep sense of loyalty in his colleaguesand staff, but it did not manifest itself as devotion to aleader. Rather, it was a loyalty arising out of anassociation among equals and the loyalty was returned byFriesen. There was a feeling of brother- and sister-hoodbetween him, his colleagues and staff. It is apparent that233most of the people with whom he worked have been enhanced bythe experience and all recognize an enduring change inthemselves and in the approach they took to the rest oftheir careers.In talking with his colleagues and staff it became apparentthat his leadership success was not just an artifice ofacquired style or adopted methods. Rather it came from deepconvictions Friesen held about the power of a democratic andcooperative approach in achieving shared objectives.According to his associates, he never sought to limit thetask or goal an individual or a team had to accomplish.Instead, he would discuss the general objectives he thoughtsociety might want to achieve, then would describe theimportance of the issue. Thereafter he would set the personor team free to work on the task. Before he did allocatetasks in this way, however, Friesen invariably inspired apersonal commitment to achieve the best result possible. Itproved to be a very effective form of leadership. Selmancomments:He was skillful at taking part and working withingroups, at providing leadership which was not thedomineering, top down variety at all, but he wouldbe part of a group and give leadership to thatgroup. The group could come out feeling it haddone it. But the most important thing about thatwas that it was not just a consciously developedset of professional skills on John’s part; it wasbased on a real conviction about other people andthe kind of relationship he wanted to have withthem. (Selman, Interview, 1992)234Buttedahl described the process through which Friesen gainedsupport of the people with whom he worked:He was always able to set an example; he reachedout in some of the directions. He was very muchfunctionally working in a participatory manner.He gave all sort of opportunities for the peoplewho worked with him. He was so liked wherever hewent, a pleasant personality. No other word woulddescribe him. I don’t ever remember him givingorders to anyone. (Buttedahl, PersonalCommunication, 1992)Talking of the sixties and of the freedom Friesen gave hiscolleagues during that period, before the strictures of theMacdonald years were imposed, Thomas said:These were years in which enormous struggles weregoing on at the University of California, forexample, where [U. of Cal] Extension Departmentbegan to do such wild and wonderful things thatthe rest of the University lowered the boom onthem and said you can only do things that areapproved of by internal faculty. That was neverthe case with us. (Thomas, Personal Communication,1992)As previously mentioned, Friesen’s ability to encourage hiscolleagues and staff to achieve their highest personalpotential was legendary. All agreed that staff developmentwas one of his greatest strengths; his capability in thisarea appears as outstanding. He took to heart BertrandRussell’s wise advice about the exercise of authority:“When you have power, use it to build up people not torestrict them” (Friesen, Interview, 1992). Blaney commentson Friesen’s leadership style:235His leadership style was one of envisioning thingsand empowering people. He wasn’t a linearthinker. He saw things as to how they are and howthey could be. He would encourage you to do thesame thing. He would drop into your office andyou would talk about things. He just made youfeel so special. (Blaney, Interview, 1992)Selman, commenting on the bold experimental nature of someof Extension’s programs, described how Friesen would takerisks many educators and administrators would seek to avoid:Many people in University Extension would not gobeyond what the faculty thought was a wonderfulidea. John came with a strong sense of communityneeds. It didn’t worry him too much in thosecircumstances if the internal faculty groups ordepartments were not producing the related kind ofprograms or enterprises. It did not bother himtoo much to turn around and say that’s too bad,they’re not with it yet, so we’ll go ahead and doit. Whereas many people in University Extensionwouldn’t take that second step, they would say--‘Oh that’s too bad; that limits us because thefaculty doesn’t see that, therefore we can’t doit.’ John’s conclusion was that if the facultydoesn’t see that yet, they will someday; meanwhilewe will do it. Here was John Friesen thecommunity based person and the inheritor of anadult education tradition taking the leadershipresponsibility. (Selman, Interview, 1992)Curtis described the wonderful sense of freedom andflexibility he experienced with Friesen:I don’t know of a place where I have worked wherethere was more freedom to experiment and trythings. There were a lot of bright people aroundus to test the ideas. John wasn’t afraid of newideas or different ways of doing things. Johnwouldn’t so much as raise his eyebrows. Whenasked if anyone has tried it that way John wouldsay- - ‘not that I know of, maybe we should give ita try, but come back when you have a more236organized plan.’ He wouldn’t flinch if you cameout with some outlandish idea. That’s a leadership style that’s very useful... .He wouldn’t knockit just because it was a different idea. Heallowed everybody in the place the freedom tocreate anything they wanted to as long as itrelated to adult education. Some of the creationswere really wonderful. (Curtis, PersonalCommunication, 1992)Kulich has commented on Friesen’s personal dedication andthe level of commitment he expected of his colleagues andstaff:He would not order you do to anything, but in hismind he had a demand on your total time and totalresources. He could not understand that on aSunday afternoon you were not available becauseyou wanted to be with your family. He would tellsomebody Monday morning that ‘I was trying to gethold of you yesterday, where were you?’ John wasso much into it, that when something occurred tohim you had to be there. (Kulich, Interview,1992)Thomas reacted along a similar line when he said:He let his own excitement run away with him. Hedidn’t always bring his staff along with him.Occasionally, we found ourselves committed tothings that we were not willing or able to do--human resources. John’s enthusiasm took us beyondresources and hours. (Thomas, PersonalCommunication, 1992)Despite the qualification made by his colleagues thatFriesen could stretch them beyond the usual demands of ajob, there was a general, perhaps, unIversal satisfaction inhis leadership. Selman summed up the feeling:237I found something that I had a real commitment toand I think I worked desperately hard insubsequent years in that job, but it all felt soworthwhile. (Selman, Interview, 1992)Curtis fondly recalls the lasting friendships developed:I look back on the place [Extension] with a greatdeal of awe and with this joy and delight. Theexperience switched my life around so much. Itgave me so much self-confidence. .. .1 respecteverything that had happened to me while I wasthere; I was treated extremely well. I think ofthe people who were there; they were super people.Gordon, Alan, Marjorie Smith are really my bestfriends in the country still. I’m still veryclose friends with them. That says somethingabout the department because there was so muchworking together. (Curtis, Personal Communication,1992)MaryFrank Macfarlane was entrusted by Friesen withresponsibility for the organization and administration ofthe Extension Department Evening Courses and Lectures in1961 and later (1966) Credit Courses as well. Macfarlaneexplained the manner in which the tasks were assigned toher:For twenty minutes he spoke with me at one ofthese courses about visiting Oklahoma and of theirLiberal Education. For twenty minutes I thoughthe wanted me to read a book, and only after thetwenty minutes did I realize that he wanted me togo visit all these places: New York, Berkeley,UCLA, and Syracuse [Extension Departments].He shoved you out, into the world, and gaveyou the responsibility. Most, all, of the ideaswere really his, but I thought they were mine.You were out way over your depth, but you did it.Marvellous way to train staff.I was passing things out at lectures one timewhen Gordon asked me if I would like to do thatjob for the Credit Program. I asked which way is238up? Credit Programs! So I took it, but itwasn’t as much fun as the Evening Classes [non-credit]. It was straight administration; therewas nothing creative about it; a credit course isa credit course. Creativity came only in the non-credit courses. (Macfarlane, Interview, 1992)Macfarlane explained how, after Friesen sent her to look atthe Extension Departments of N.Y.U., Berkeley and UCLA, hearranged for her to attend a World Conference in Denmark, asUBC’s representative. She paid for her own travel andaccommodation, but Extension financed her conference fees.Speaking of the conference Macfarlane stated:The conference was great, it changed my [personal]life dramatically. I felt a weight lifted off myshoulders. All my experiences were like that. Ichanged from knit suits that women wore then and Iproceeded to become more casual. I thinkhousewives, married women, profoundly needcontinuing education. John moved me. I had beenwasting years; I knew what I was really going todo now. (Macfarlane, Interview, 1992)Selman speaks warmly about Friesen’s retirement and thepersonal influence on him:Now that I have seen John in retirement I justfeel that he is the most successful retired personI know. This is just another revelation of mywitnessing the kind of resources and human qualitywithin him. One of the best things that everhappened to me was that I came into associationwith John Friesen both professionally andpersonally. I just feel that it was one of theluckiest things that ever happened to me.(Selman, Interview, 1992)239D. SERVICE TO THE FACULTIESWhen he arrived at UBC, Friesen came to the conclusion thata primary function of the department was to act as a servicearm of the faculties, to organize and administer programsrequired by these major clients. Extension ably administered and considerably expanded continuing education withand for the faculties. In practice, Extension frequentlytook the lead in originating programs and/or enterprises.Indeed, Extension, under Friesen’s leadership, proved to bevery much the ‘initiator’. In some instances, pioneeringwork by Extension led to the enrichment of existingprograms. The Extension Department was particularlyinfluential in working with professional associations; itinitiated programs, with faculty collaboration, incontinuing education for areas such as medicine, law,fisheries, engineering, pharmacy, business (in the earlieryears), education, planning, and forestry. It was involvedin funding and expanding departments for the fine arts,music and especially theatre.Kulich took strong exception to Friesen’s perception of theExtension Department’s function as a service arm or unit ofthe faculties. Kulich believed Extension should stand as adistinct entity, on its own merit and integrity, that itshould operate beyond the normally accepted levels ofuniversity work. Kulich said:240What is happening now is an increased pressure forapproval. Through this you become the serviceunit of the faculty, the organizer of what thefaculty wants to do. Then it becomes universityExtension. Logically, by definition, you can onlyextend that which is internal. I think it is verysignificant that a number of universities arechanging the name [of the function] back toExtension. I have less trouble with extendedstudies than Extension; it means extending beyondthe normal frame of the university, where [thename] Extension doesn’t have that. (Kulich,Interview, 1992)Although Kulich is perhaps overly concerned about semantics,he provides an interesting insight into the alternativeperceptions available: either seeing the department’sfunction as an Extension of the internal work of theUniversity, or viewing it as a response to a desire forknowledge, or cultural improvement, emanating from societyoutside the campus. Kulich saw the Extension Department asan academic entity in its own right, not as a servant to thefaculties. Kulich said of Friesen’s approach:One of his aims was in striving for the ExtensionDepartment to become an excellent servicedepartment to the academic units and I abhor that.We are not a service unit to anybody. We aretheir equals. I felt that through our actions,through our work, we had to get into the positionto become equals. It cannot come by fiat. Thisis where I disagree with John; the title [Dean ofExtension] changes nothing. It’s only throughyour work that you prove your worth and gainrecognition especially in the academic community.(Kulich, Interview, 1992)In considering Kulich’s viewpoint, bear in mind thatalthough, under Friesen, Extension did seek to cooperate241with and serve faculties wherever possible, he did not seeits role as subservient. As reported earlier in thischapter, Selman and Curtis point out that if the facultieswere not ready to move on a program, Friesen would do so ifhe felt it was worthwhile.Macfarlane saw this issue differently. In the years 1957 to1966, she took an ever increasing responsibility inorganizing and administering lectures, evening classes, andcorrespondence courses. By 1966 she was supervisor of theCredit programs and these were not affected by the budgetcuts. Fortunately for Macfarlane, her job was not injeopardy as result of the budget cuts because the universitywas still prepared to finance the credit courses sheadministered. Macfarlane was, therefore, able to take asomewhat objective view of the Macdonald years. She said:I always felt the Extension Department should bean extension of the University and subsequently,when some of my colleagues would get all upsetabout the School Boards and colleges, I took theview that if the colleges could do it then youpassed things over. You improved it and then ifsomeone else could do it as well as you, that’sfine, go back and find something only theuniversity can start. (Macfarlane, Interview,1992)E. PIONEERING CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR THE PROFESSIONSFriesen’s interest in pioneering and developing programs forvarious professional disciplines is well reflected in the242record. It shows that the Extension Department was veryactive in establishing links between the University and theprofessions through, for example, personal contact andseminars. Friesen saw a growing need for adult education inmany professional disciplines, if members were to keepabreast of changes within their areas of competence.Because of technological advances and rapidly shiftingsocio-economic circumstances there would be a continuingcall for education during a professional’s life time as apractitioner. Friesen and his colleagues initiated andpromoted Continuing Professional Education programs for anumber of disciplines. They achieved this in cooperationwith university faculties and the leadership of theprofessional organizations concerned. Continuing educationfor the professions has become, and remains today anessential growing enterprise within UBC.Macfarlane said of Friesen’s work of service to thefaculties in promoting continuing education for theprofessions:I had all the evening courses, not agriculture,but business, real estate, the ‘whole schrnier. Itwas amazing! Then gradually someone would come infor Pharmacy, Business etc. It got to become abigger and bigger department. I think the mindbehind all this was John Friesen. (Macfarlane,Interview, 1992)243Kulich described how Friesen took great care in lining upthe faculties in setting up programs for the professions.Apparently, it. was a sensitive matter. Kulich said:John felt very strongly that whatever we do had tobe approved by faculties and be f an “appropriateacademic level.” Gordon followed the same line,but he wasn’t working as much with the deans asJohn was. The reason was in John’s time he wasworking hard to convince the professionalfaculties to come on board and do professionalprograms. (Kulich, Interview, 1992)Curtis talked very candidly about the financial consequencesto the Extension Department when some of the faculties,particularly Commerce, proceeded to take over programs incontinuing education for their professions. Extension hadpioneered this field of education for the University andthought of the programs as part of its own work andresponsibility. Curtis recalled:John got along with just about everybody. He wasa polished person himself. He would do and saythe right things on every occasion. The onlyexceptions would be the faculty of Commerce, andfor a time Medicine. We were at open warfare withCommerce, mostly because they wanted their ownExtension Department. Commerce had taken all thelucrative courses and they kept them tothemselves. They made a lot of money. All ofthat should have been done through Extension.(Curtis, Personal Communication, 1992)Blaney, commenting on the legacy of programs inherited byUBC from the Friesen years, first spoke of the department’swide ranging work in international, cultural and artistic244matters and then said of the department’s achievements inpioneering professional development work:Clearly, Extension was responsible for theemergence of professional continuing educationprograms in Law, Engineering, Education,Architecture, Pharmacy and started a few others;those were the legacy. He created a foundation.(Blaney, Interview, 1992)The Extension function was considered by the Universityadministration, starting with President Macdonald, assecondary or even peripheral to the University’s purpose asan educational institution. In consequence, the ExtensionDepartment constantly has been faced with the problem ofgaining appropriate recognition and financial support forits programs. Friesen tried to remedy this situation andduring MacKenzie’s presidency made some progress inattracting program and project funds from governments,foundations and other private sources. However, he metwith obstacles in his attempt to achieve a level of autonomyfor the department equivalent to that enjoyed by faculties.Friesen wanted the head of Extension to have a statuscommensurate with responsibility, equivalent to that of aDean. He saw such status as necessary if the department wasto have the power to negotiate, for funds and on othermatters, on an equal footing in Senate. Not all of hiscolleagues agreed; Kulich in particular felt very stronglyon the matter:245I read John’s idea that he fought very hard tobecome a dean, because that gave you stature inthe community, especially in those days. It isthe one point I have always disagreed with John.He was and still is much concerned about levels ofpeople and where they fit with job title. I havealways brushed this aside. My opinion is thatyour status depends on the job you are doing.John felt the title must be there in order to do abetter job, because you will be perceived bypeople that way. I don’t think it’s thatimportant, it may help, I don’t know. It may opensome doors, but I felt that is what I left behindin Europe. This is a much more open andegalitarian society. I may be fooling myself.(Kulich, Interview, 1992)On the other hand, Thomas took a different view and saw thatgreater influence was needed in the Senate. He hasdescribed Friesen’s efforts to achieve a better position forthe department:He was tireless in that; he was basically involvedin protecting the Extension Department’s back inthe University. (Thomas, Personal Communication,1992)F. SUNMM’IONIt is clear from the information gained in the interviewsconducted with Friesen’s senior Extension colleagues thatthey had a uniformly high opinion of John Friesen’s personalqualities and leadership style. All express admiration andgratitude for his influence on their own development. Thereare clearly shades of differences in their views of hishandling of aspects of campus “politics”, but at a morepersonal level, all his colleagues who have been consulted246in connection with this study have expressed strongly theaffection and admiration they hold for their formercolleague and “boss”.A management style like Friesen’s can prove valuable wherepioneering work or creativity is required. The stylebenefits from the capabilities and creativity of the entireteam and is not reliant solely on the qualities of theleader. John Friesen’s non-directive management methodappears particularly appropriate in the development of adulteducators.247CHAPTER 8: THIRD WORLD ADULT EDUCATORMan cannot discover new oceans unless he has thecourage to lose sight of the shore. (anon)A. INTRODUCTIONThroughout his term as Director of Extension for theUniversity of British Columbia, Friesen was active ininternational adult education through various bodies andassociations. On leaving Extension in 1966 at the age of 54to join the Population Council, he embarked on a career offull-time international service. In doing so, he took onthe toughest challenge of a lifetime that had been marked bydemanding work. He had no illusions about the difficultieshe faced, because he had previously observed at first handthe suffering and deprivation that results from overpopulation.From childhood days in Manitoba, when returning missionariesbrought intriguing news of far away places, John Friesen’simagination had been stirred by the thought that one day hetoo would journey there and serve. His days atInternational House at Columbia had filled him withexcitement and knowledge about the important tasks to becarried out in the Third World. From then on he knew thathe would be able to use his talents, as an adult educator,in helping to shape a better world. His career led himinevitably to full-time service in the international arena.248Now he was faced with the practicalities of the dauntingtask he so much wanted to assume.In 1966, Friesen saw the impending population explosion as athreat to humankind second only to the nuclear bomb. Today,as the danger of a nuclear war has diminished, Friesen ranksover-population above all other dangers, in terms of thedevastation it may cause.In this century much progress had to occur beforea manageable family size in Canada was achieved.The same scenario holds for the Third World today,only within a short time frame. Nationaldevelopment is their imperative, including adetermined commitment to family planning.(Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)He offers no quick solutions, and contends that a massivechange in prevailing conditions is essential before thedanger of over-population can be contained. Friesen warns:Population growth in such areas as Africa andIndia is like a runaway train, but no solution tothe problem can be imposed from outside thecountry involved. (Friesen, PersonalCommunication, 1992)Some of those who wield economic, political and religiouspower in poor countries are yet to be convinced of a needfor population planning if they are to turn their countriesaway from the existing situation. To compound this problem,the people themselves want large families for a variety ofpersonal, religious and economic reasons.249According to Friesen a reversal of existing negativeattitudes toward population planning will of necessity haveto emerge from within the particular countries involved. Incounselling caution he says: “donors and advisers must beoverly sensitive to the whole culture they hope to serve”(Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992). He believes iturgent to promote adult education in population planning atevery level of political and social leadership, because of“a runaway population growth” in certain underdevelopedcountries. There is some incongruity between themes ofcaution and urgency; admittedly a lack of sensitivity willbe counter productive, but undoubtedly, time is running outin such a runaway situation. According to Friesen donorcountries will have to respond promptly and generously torequests for assistance in adult education, contraceptiveresearch, training and supplies. Friesen claims:To change this state of affairs will also require,in socio-economic development, urgent andeffective adult education at every level ofleadership. If the poor populous countries fail,the world is heading for a disaster of colossalproportions. (Friesen, Personal Communication,1992)-B. BUILDING A FOUNDATION FOR OVERSEAS WORKBefore describing Friesen’s work in the international fieldof population planning, it is worthwhile to review theinternational experience already gained by him in adulteducation. During the Manitoba years, his positions in farm250and co-op grain organizations allowed him the opportunityfor work in international associations. Friesen tookleadership responsibility in presiding over the UNICEFcampaign and serving as Vice-President of the Provincial UNAssociation. He promoted a wide range of endeavours throughthe media aimed at bringing the needs of underdevelopednations to the attention of Canadians. At UBC a widerpotential for overseas service opened up to John Friesen.As Director of Extension at UBC, he worked on manycommittees, councils and congresses, and served overseas ona number of occasions, sometimes for several months at atime.The University’s need for international recognition and hispersonal mission to provide adult education in lessdeveloped countries, were mutually supportive. Friesen setabout building a network of contacts with adult educatorsfrom other countries. He established contact with manylike-minded people working to aid poor countries. He gainedassistance and grants for this work from large philanthropictrusts in the United States (Ford, Carnegie) as well as fromUNESCO, government and voluntary sources in Canada. In1954, shortly after joining UBC, Friesen was appointed tothe U.S./Canada team which attended European seminars incooperation with adult educators in Scandinavia, the UK,Austria, Switzerland and Italy, a project funded by theCarnegie Foundation of New York (Friesen, Personal251Communication, 1992). These European seminars served adouble function because Friesen as an adult educator wasable to share experiences, offer advice and assistance, andat the same time build a cooperative network with adulteducators from abroad.Friesen’s mentor and strong supporter, UBC President NormanMacKenzie, became the Chairman of the National Commissionfor UNESCO (1957 and 1958). MacKenzie also was appointedChairman for the Board of Trustees of the CarnegieFoundation for the Advancement of Teaching (Senate Minutes).The latter was a significant philanthropic organization inthe U.S.A. It helped that the two men held similar beliefs.The Friesens (John and Marta) were among the first topromote the building of International House on the UBCcampus--hardly surprising, as their own lives had been somuch enriched by their International House experiences atColumbia (Friesen, Interview, 1992). In 1958, InternationalHouse, financed by the Vancouver Rotary and Zonta Clubs, wasopened on the campus with Eleanor Roosevelt as an honouredguest. Friesen was then President of the InternationalHouse Association.The sixties showed Friesen undertaking an ever increasinginvolvement in international work. In 1960, he wasappointed a delegate to the Second UNESCO Conference on252Adult Education held in Montreal; and in 1961 he was adelegate to the founding International Congress onContinuing University Education held at Sagamore, New York.He began the year 1962 with four hectic months of anoverseas study-tour, with a U.S./Canada team to the All-Africa Conference on university adult education held inAccra, Ghana. Each member of the team then visited aselection of countries in order to meet with, advise andlearn from adult educators. Friesen chose Nigeria, SouthernRhodesia (later Zimbabwe) Tanganyika (later Tanzania),Kenya, Ethiopia and Egypt. As an East-West Fellow ofUNESCO, he journeyed to India in late January, 1962 wherehis meetings with prominent leaders in that country were tohave a particularly important outcome for UBC (Figure: 34).Subsequently he visited Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand andthe spent the month of April in Japan.Also in late 1962, External Affairs appointed him a memberof the official Canadian delegation to the UNESCO GeneralBiennial Conference in Paris enabling him to establishfurther international contacts and friendships. So during1962, Friesen spent six months abroad. In discussing hisincreasing commitment to international work in adulteducation Friesen observed:The adult education project initiated in India byour Department in 1964 had, for me, a much earlierstart. A long list of international experiencesincluded World War II, my broadcasts on CBC253International from U.N. sessions in Chile,associations with universities abroad, meetingdelegates from many countries at UNESCO meetingsin Montreal and Paris, and that memorable f our-month study-tour to Africa, India and the FarEast. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)C. RAJASTHAN PROJECT, INDIA (1964 - 1966)Through his efforts in India and other countries Friesen wasable to establish enduring connections for the University ofBritish Columbia in the international field of adulteducation. Following closely on Friesen’s visit to India,the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Rajasthan, Dr.Mohan S. Mehta, came to UBC (Figure 35) and also visitedgovernment officials in Ottawa. The result of Dr. Mehta’svisit was the launching of the Rajasthan Project. Friesengave his account:In India, initial discussions in Jaipur with Vice-Chancellor Mohan S. Mehta and the State’s ChiefMinister concerned a proposal for a UBC/RajasthanUniversity Project in Adult Education. Also I wasprivileged to meet Prime Minister Nehru at hisresidence who heartily endorsed the Rajasthanproject. I was also granted an audience with theVice-President, the eminent Indian philosopher Dr.S. Radhakrishnan (later to - be President).(Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)Canada’s External Aid Office (later renamed CanadianInternational Development Agency-- CIDA) financed theRajasthan Project under the Colombo Plan. Friesen becamethe first Director of the project, which was for the purposeof devising and developing the continuing education programof the University of Rajasthan. He lived and worked in254Jaipur, India from October ‘64 - July ‘65, while GordonSelman managed the Extension Department work back home.Roby Kidd was to serve on the Project staff from December1966 to August 1968.Friesen was accompanied during his year in India by James A.Draper, who stayed on a second year. In the initial yearthe UBC advisors, supported by a Rajasthan research team,conducted a State wide needs-survey concerning adulteducation. The Rajasthan project was one from which otherUniversities in India might learn, and they did. Fiftyother Indian Universities were to follow the example set byRajasthan (Friesen, Interview, 1992). Discussing hisexperience in India Friesen said:My memories of India include the sharp contrast ofour affluence in the face of their poverty, ourrelatively recent Renaissance compared withIndia’s rich cultural heritage over millennia.More than once we met with greatness in India. Inthe cool and quiet chambers of the distinguishedVice-President, Dr. Radhakrishnan opened doors toan understanding of Hinduism and to ‘the mysteryand immensity of human existence.’ In PrimeMinister Nehru, who heartily endorsed our project,Canadians would find a charming host, his calmbelying his constant concern for over half-abillion people. (Friesen, Personal Communication,1992)In Friesen’s Annual Report for 1965/66, he emphasized theimportant outcomes that had resulted from UBC Extension’sinternational work in India. He reported that the secondyear of the Colombo Plan Project had been completed255successfully. The Canadian teams including Friesen, Draper,Buttedahi, William Day and Kidd helped the University ofRajasthan draw up a plan for a comprehensive system of adulteducation which Rajasthan University submitted forgovernment acceptance in 1964/65. On its approval, Kiddand Draper advised Rajasthan University on implementationof the first phase of the plan. Friesen reported on atimely and significant action by India’s National EducationCommission:In a monumental report of their [CommissionReport] recently concluded two-year study, on allaspects of education in India, the NationalEducation Commission [India] has called fordrastic reconstruction of the present educationsystem. On several occasions, the UBC adviserswere invited to advise the Commission on aspectsof continuing education. The Commissionrecommended a stepping up of Adult Education atall levels of education, both public andvoluntary. It called for a widespreadorganization of correspondence courses and otherforms of home study. With respect touniversities, the Commission stated they shouldassume a much larger reponsibility [] foreducation of adults and that institutions ofhigher education should now proceed to set upformal departments of adult education and shouldbe given the finances to conduct this workeffectively.-- (UBC, Extension, 1965/66:7)Friesen also reported on progress made in India towards aNational Policy for Continuing Education, then underdevelopment, on which the UBC advisors had acted asconsultants. The priorities established for the Jaipurproject were as follows:256PROGRAM PRIORITIES-- college extension services through the trainingof selected staff members in some 25 Rajasthancolleges affiliated with the University;-- professional training courses for personnel incommunity development, literacy, co-operatives,teachers, women’s groups, business and various[other] community leaders [organizations];-- an institute of correspondence study at theUniversity;-- plans for the first of several new eveningcolleges in Rajasthan;-- a determined effort to raise adult literacythrough special training and research at theUniversity. (UBC, Extension, 1965/66:7)Friesen also took the opportunity, when submitting his1965/66 report, to advise the administration at UBC aboutthe proposed building of a Centre for Continuing Educationin Jaipur:On December 23, 1965, an event of special interestat the Jaipur campus was the cornerstone laying ofthe residential Centre for Continuing Education,by the Honourable D. R. Michener, Canadian HighCommissioner for India. . . .The Centre will [aim to]provide a base for professional and leadershiptraining and many forms of continuing education inRajasthan and the Western Region. (UBC, Extension,1965/66:7)The obvious inference that UBC should not lag behindRajasthan in building such a centre apparently failed toexcite the interest of the UBC administration. No actionwas taken then or since to build such a facility on campus.257Friesen acknowledged that Rajasthan’s University Vice-Chancellor Mehta was at all times an invaluable adviser onthe project. Highly respected in India, a one-time closedisciple of Gandhi, a Chief State Minister, an ambassador toseveral European countries Mehta was a long-time presidentof the Indian Adult Education Association (Friesen,Interview, 1992). Friesen said of the association with Dr.Mehta:It was our good fortune, in the very first year,to assist Dr. Mehta in organizing three nationaladult education conferences in Bhopal, Mount Abuand Rajasthan attended by half of India’s Vice-Chancellors. To his credit, Dr. Mehta thusarranged for a maximum sharing of East and Westideas and activities. That was a major objectiveof the Colombo Plan Project. It was thisdissemination that soon revealed to universitiesin other more prosperous states the nature and thescope of the Rajasthan program. (Friesen, PersonalCommunication, 1992)Twenty years later, long after Friesen had left UBC, hereceived a letter (dated March 6, -1984) from Dr. Mehta(written at the age of 90) requesting help for the depressedtribal Villages surrounding his home city, Udaipur. In adirect, yet simple appeal, Mehta wrote:Please keep up your effort and try to securesupport for one of the four or five objects whichI am keenly pursuing--as Projects of Seva Mandir:1) Health Education...2) Nursery Schools...3) Finishing the Rural Workers TrainingCentre...2584) Building Community Centres in all ourVillages...5) Provision of training and establishingcottage industries....Each one of the Projects will need a sum ofmoney between twenty-five thousand and fortythousand dollars... (Friesen, Personal Papers,1984)This letter, from just one of many outstanding andcommitted adult educators in a country of over 800 millionpeople, revealed how basic needs of the masses remainedunfulfilled and how desperately they seek assistance fromabroad. How enduring Friesen’s earlier work with Mehta andin India must have been, for Mehta ,to reach out 20 yearslater.Friesen found India a fascinating country to visit.Recounting some of his experience he said:Unusual incidents were numerous during theseactivities in out-of-the-way places, with itsunfamiliar food, at one time restricting oneselfto a single diet of bananas; on occasion sleepingvirtually in the open and in the morning beinginformed that, under my charpoy (cot) the sandcurves suggested some crawling creature’s visit; aMaharaja’s guest on his wild duck-shoot, repletewith entourage of palace servants; the warmhospitality in Delhi of the Micheners at theCanadian residence. Marta, adapting readily, feltat home in Indian apparel and with Indian food andrevelled in the discovery, in Indian villages, ofRajasthan’s lively art forms. -She also assistedin the founding of the University Women’s Club ofJaipur. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)Yet, Friesen explained, the problems involved in suchdeveloping countries as India are immense, complex and will259not be readily resolved. The Rajasthan Project embodied theidea of Adult Education as one key progressiv