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John K. Friesen : adult educator, mentor and humanitarian Kennedy, Kathryn Anne 1992

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JOHN K.  FRIESEN:  ADULT EDUCATOR, MENTOR AND HUMANITARIAN by KATHRYN ANNE KENNEDY  A.A., Foothill College, 1969 BG.S., Simon Fraser University, 1988  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Administrative, Adult and Higher Education)  We accept this thesis as conforming to he requijed andard  ‘I  /  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1992 Kathryn Anne Kennedy,  1992  In presenting this thesis  in  partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  (k/IL  .1f  /acut,—  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  /7i—  ii ABSTRACT  Dr. John K. Friesen is a Canadian who, for over 50 years worked first in the field of adult education in Canada and then in population planning internationally. He gained prominence in his own country, considerable international stature and a reputation for his vision and capability. Friesen successfully used a democratic, cooperative approach in discovering and responding to community requirements in adult learning. This provides biographical study new material about his character, goals, influences. The thesis focuses on Friesen’s work as Director of Extension for the University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada (UBC), (1953 1966) but also outlines his life and career before this term and gives a synopsis of his international work. -  A brief description is given of Friesen’s upbringing in a small rural community in Manitoba, his experiences as an educator and leader during the great depression and of his war service in the RCAF. His work in organizing adult programs education Federation for the Manitoba of and his life during post-graduate studies at Agriculture Columbia University are described. He was involved in the cooperative movement and provided informed, effective leadership in Manitoba’s post-war efforts to renew its educational system and to develop a network of hospitals. The thesis examines Friesen’s commitments, methods and the management style he applied in expanding the UBC Extension Department into a sophisticated organization. Under his the department leadership influential became in adult education, leadership and citizenship training in British Columbia; also it was involved in international adult education work. Research was conducted into the work of Friesen and others in originating a graduate program in adult education at UBC. The nature and outcomes of his work in promoting continuing professional education is also examined. The role of Extension in the Vancouver International Festival and other cultural development work is discussed. Friesen is shown to have extended the work of the University into communities throughout the province using study-discussion groups, lectures, credit and noncredit programs in this work. A change in University policy forced the Department abandon much of its (1963) to community based work; the consequences of this shift are considered. Comment from seven of Friesen’s senior colleagues provides insight into his leadership quality and the perceived value of the work carried out during his term. Some conclusions drawn are about Friesen’s an life educator and as humanitarian and on his approach to adult education. The ideas, ideals, commitments and convictions demonstrated by Friesen remain valid today.  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page  TITLE PAGE  i  ABSTRACT  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES  xi-xii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS PHOTO OF JOHN K. FRIESEN,  CHAPTER 1:  xiii 1985W  xiv  INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY, DEFINITIONS AND STRUCTURE Page  A.  INTRODUCTION  1  B.  GUIDING RESEARCH QUESTIONS  3  C.  METHODOLOGY  4  D.  PEOPLE INTERVIEWED JOHN FRIESEN UBC COLLEAGUES  6  E.  QUESTIONNAIRES AND RESEARCH APPROACH FRIESEN 1. UBC COLLEAGUES 2. a. Selman Interviews b. Other Colleagues’ Interviews  6 11 11 13 14 15  F.  USE OF QUOTATIONS  G.  OTHER SOURCES  17  H.  LIMITATIONS OF SCOPE  18  I.  DEFINITIONS  20  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  3 4 5 11 6 11 17 13 17 15 17 17  -  -  -  18 19 24  iv CHAPTER 1:  INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY, DEFINITIONS AND STRUCTURE- CONT. Page  J.  STRUCTURE OF THE THESIS Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter  CHAPTER 2:  24  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  24  26  LITERATURE REVIEW  -  -  -  29  PHILOSOPHICAL IDEAS, AND PEOPLE WHO WERE INFLUENTIAL  2.  25 25 26 27 28 28 28 28  Page  INTRODUCTION 1.  28  30  -  38  The NATURE AND STATE OF ADULT EDUCATION IN CANADA DURING HIS CAREER  38  3.  THE COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT  55  4.  THE PROFESSIONALIZATION OF ADULT EDUCATION  -  -  55 57  INCLUDING THE EMERGENCE OF THE ACADEMIC FIELD IN ADULT EDUCATION  CHAPTER 3:  THE MANITOBA YEARS  EARLY YEARS  B.  HASKETT, MANITOBA  C.  UNIVERSITY OF MANITOBA SUMMER SCHOOL & EXTRA-MURAL STUDIES  D.  -  (1930  OTHER TEACHING POSTS  61  1930) -  1935)  -  60  Page  (1912-1953)  A.  (1912  57  68  70  -  -  -  68 69  71 71  V  CHAPTER 3:  THE MANITOBA YEARS  (1912-1953)  -  cont Page  E.  INTEREST IN ADULT EDUCATION KINDLED  F.  UNITED CHURCH, LEADERSHIP  71  YOUNG PEOPLE’S UNION  G.  MANITOBA FEDERATION OF AGRICULTURE  75  H.  CANADIAN ASSOCIATION FOR ADULT EDUCATION  79  I.  WORK WITH FATHER M. M. THE CREDIT UNIONS  81  -  -  -  75 79 80  COADY AND  J.  ARTS IN MANITOBA  K.  THE WAR YEARS  L.  RETURN TO MANITOBA AFTER WAR  M.  COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY  N.  MANITOBA WHEAT POOL YEARS  0.  SUMMARY  83 -  72  (YPU) 72  (1939  -  84  1945)  (1946  -  (1945  -  87  1946)  1948)  (1948  -  88 93  1953)  98  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  83 84 87 88 93 98 99  Page FIGURE NOS.  3  CHAPTER 4:  EXTENSION TRADITION AND THE NEW DIRECTOR  -  18  100  -107  Page  A.  UNIVERSITY EXTENSION IN CANADA  B.  JOHN  C.  CAAE CONNECTION  D.  UBC ON JOHN K.  E.  FRIESEN’S VIEW OF THE EXTENSION FUNCTION  116-120  F.  JOHN K.  120-124  G.  COOPERATION WITH THE FACULTIES  124-126  H.  THE DEVELOPMENT OF PEOPLE  126-128  K.  FRIESEN’S PREDECESSOR  108  -110 110  110-113 FRIESEN’S ARRIVAL  FRIESEN’S CENTRAL IDEAS  113-116  vi I.  FRIESEN’S MANAGEMENT STYLE AND LEADERSHIP  CHAPTER 5:  EXTENSION DIRECTOR  .  128-132  FIRST SIX YEARS  (1953-1959)  Page  A.  INTRODUCTION  133-134  B.  LIVING ROOM LEARNING  135-141  C.  GROWTH IN NON-CREDIT COURSES  141-142  D.  SUNMER SCHOOL OF THE ARTS & VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL  142-149  E.  COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT  149-152  F.  ORIGINS OF ADULT EDUCATION GRADUATE PROGRAM AT UBC  153-159  G.  COMMUNICATION PROGRAMS  159-161  H.  WORK IN ASSOCIATIONS FOR ADULT EDUCATION  161-165  I.  A TIME OF FULFILLMENT  165-166 Page  FIGURE NOS.  19  CHAPTER 6:  EXTENSION DIRECTOR  -  30  167-171  (1960-1966)  LAST SIX YEARS  Page A.  LEADERSHIP PROGRAMS  172-174  B.  CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION  174-178  C.  LIBERAL EDUCATION AND STUDY DISCUSSION  178-180  D.  NATIVE INDIAN CULTURE AND LEADERSHIP  180-183  E.  EXTENSION ADVISORY COUNCIL  183-185  F.  THE QUEST FOR A UNIVERSITY POLICY CONCERNING CONTINUING EDUCATION  185-188  PROPOSAL FOR CAMPUS RESIDENTIAL CENTRE OF CONTINUING EDUCATION  188-191  G.  vii CHAPTER 6:  EXTENSION DIRECTOR (1960-1966) LAST SIX YEARS CONT. -  Page H.  RECOGNITION IN INTERNATIONAL ADULT EDUCATION  191-193  I.  TURBULENT TIMES:  193-206  J.  LIFELONG LEARNING  206-208  K.  REORGANIZATION OF CONTINUING EDUCATION  208-210  L.  FRIESEN’S REACTION  210-212  M.  FAREWELL  212-213  PRESIDENT MACDONALD  Page FIGURE NOS.  31  CHAPTER 7:  COMMENTARY ON JOHN FRIESEN: THE MAN AND HIS POLICIES  -  40  214-219  Page A.  INTRODUCTION AND FRIESEN’S LEGACY  220-226  B.  PERSONAL/PROFESSIONAL INFLUENCES  226-232  C.  RELATIONSHIPS  232-238  D.  SERVICE TO THE FACULTIES  239-241  E.  PIONEERING CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR THE PROFESSIONS  241-245  SUMMATION  245-246  F.  CHAPTER 8:  THIRD WORLD ADULT EDUCATOR  Page  A.  INTRODUCTION  247-249  B.  BUILDING A FOUNDATION FOR OVERSEAS WORK  249-253  C.  RAJASTHAN PROJECT,  253-260  D.  POPULATION COUNCIL,  TURKEY:  E.  POPULATION COUNCIL,  IRAN:  INDIA:  1964-1966 1966-1968 1968-1973  260-262 262-263  viii F.  IDRC,  ASIA REGION:  G.  IDRC,  EAST AFRICA REGION:  H.  IDRC, MIDDLE EAST:  I.  CIDA,  J.  FRIESEN’S SUMMATION OF HIS INTERNATIONAL WORK.  WORLD TOUR,  1973-1976  264-265  1976-1978  265  1979-1980 IPPF:  265-266  1982  266-267 .267-271 Page  FIGURES NOS.  CHAPTER 9:  41  -  44  272-273  DISCUSSION ND CONCLUSIONS Page  A. B. C.  THE PURPOSE OF THESIS  274  FRIESEN AND A REVIEW OF HIS CAREER-  274-278  COMMENTARY AND DISCUSSION  278  1.  Citizenship Responsibility  2.  Study Discussion Groups  3.  Community Leadership Education  281-282  4.  Non-Credit Courses  282-285  5.  The University-Community Relationships  6.  Adult Education and Democracy  287-288  7.  Lifelong Education  288-290  D.  A POOR BARGAIN FOR THE PEOPLE OF B.C  E.  SUMMATION  279-280 281  .  .  .  .285-287  291 291-292  ix APPENDICES CONTENTS  NO.  NO.  NO.  1:  2:  3:  .  293-294  JOHN K. FRIESEN’S RESUME (Chapter 5:165)  295-303  HIGHLIGHTS OF JOHN K. (Chapter 1:13)  FRIESEN’S LIFE 304-314  CHRONOLOGY OF JOHN K. (Chapter 1:13)  FRIESEN 315-323  NO.  4:  PUBLICATIONS, TALKS, REVIEWS & CONSULTATIONS (Chapter 1:18, Chapter 3:80) 324-331  NO.  5:  QUESTIONS TO FRIESEN (Chapter 1:11,12)  NO.  NO.  NO.  NO.  NO.  NO.  NO.  6:  7:  8:  9:  10:  11:  12:  QUESTIONS TO GORDON R. (Chapter 1:15)  332-337 SELMAN 338-345  QUESTIONS TO UBC COLLEAGUES (Chapter 1:15)  336-350  ETHICS COMMITTEE CONSENT FORM (Chapter 1:16) 1953 Resolutions (Chapter 2:41)  -  351  Report of NCCU & CAAE 352-354  EXTENSION DEPARTMENT ST. F. X. UNIVERSITY, ANTIGONISH, NOVA SCOTIA LETTER FROM MRS. ARSENAULT ON BEHALF OF FATHER COADY (Chapter 3:83)  355-356  VIF BENEFITS OF VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL, REPORTS OF AUGUST 1958, 1959, & 1961 Chapter 5:148)  357-366  BROCHURE OF FIRST ADULT EDUCATION GRADUATE COURSE AT UBC, JULY 3-20, 1956 (Chapter 5:156)  367  NO.  13:  SENATE APPROVALS FOR ADULT EDUCATION COURSES (Chapter 5:156) 368-369  NO.  14:  UBC SUMMER COURSE INSTRUCTORS (1956 1966) AT SUMMER SCHOOL FOR ADULT EDUCATION GRADUATE COURSES (Chapter 5:158) 370-371  NO.  15:  J.B. MA.CDONALD LETTER OCTOBER 9, (Chapter 6:199)  -  1963 372-373  x APPENDICES CONTENTS  NO.  NO.  -  CONT.  -  1966 FAREWELL LETTERS (Chapter 6:212)  16:  17:  374-390  RAJASTHAN COURSES AT UNIVERSITY OF RAJASTHAN ADULT EDUCATION COURSES IN CONTINUING EDUCATION, JULY SEPT. 1965. (Chapter 8:259) -  SOURCES  395-403  References  395-401  Interviews  401-403  BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION  NOTE:  404  PERMISSION WAS GRANTED TO USE PHOTOGRAPHS!  ILLUSTRATIONS PROVIDED BY JOHN K. 1  -  NO.  391-394  27 AND FIGURE NOS. 28).  29  -  44)  FRIESEN  (IN FIGURE NOS.  & KNtJTE BUTTEDAHL  (FIGURE  xi LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO.  PAGE  John K. Friesen, on occasion of Honorary Doctor of Laws Degree from Simon Fraser University, June 8, 1985  xiv  2  Cartoon of John K.  3  Childhood family home in Altona, Manitoba... .100  4  Sarah Klippenstein, Mother of J.K.  5  David W.  6  John Friesen, violin pupil,  7  John Friesen in Haskett,  8  John K.  9  Collegiate Choir, Gretna,  Friesen,  Friesen,  Friesen,  1953  Father of J.K.  78  Friesen..  100  Friesen....  100  June 1923  101  1933  101  1933  101 1935  102  10  John K.  Friesen Graduation,  1936  102  11  Virden United Church Choir,  1939  103  12  Regional Youth Training School in Virden.  103  13  Manitoba Delegates to Western United Church YPU Conference, Mount Royal College, 1940...  104  14  Farewell to Friesen family,  105  15  Friesen,  16  Damaged Avro Lancaster’s tail rudder,  17  7-man crew of Lancaster bomber,  18  Dr. John K.  19  John K.  20  Receiving Ford Foundation Grant  167  21  UBC Extension Director  167  22  Gordon Selman and John Friesen  167  23  Dr. Edmund Brunner of Columbia University visits UBC to meet Dean Neville Scarfe and his former students  168  Flying Officer,  Friesen,  Friesen,  1943  1945  105 1944..  1944  June 1948  1953  106 106 107 167  xii FIGURE NO.  PAGE  24  Symposium on The Professions,  25  John K.  26  Adult Education, First UBC Graduate Course Summer of 1956. Dr. Kidd, Instructor  169  Adult Education, Summer of 1957.  Second UBC Graduate Course Dr. Thomas, Instructor  169  Adult Education, Summer of 1960. Instructor  UBC Graduate Course Edward Hutchinson,  27  28  1961  168  Friesen @ UBC  168  170  29  John K.  Friesen Family,  1958  171  30  John K.  Friesen Family,  1959  171  31  John K.  Friesen Family,  1960  214  32  One-time Extension Directors attend Department’s 25th Anniversary  214  The University Council on Education for Public Responsibility, October 28-29, 1962  215  John & Marta meet Prime Minister Nehru in India, 1962  216  35  Mohan S. Mehta visits UBC,  216  36  ‘Extension chops cut UBC throat’ (Ubyssey, March 17, 1964)  217  ‘Carriage trade seems UBC target now’ (Province, March 10, 1964)  218  ‘Cost cutting on the campus’ (Province, March 9, 1964)  218  ‘Mournful Decision’ (Vancouver Sun, March 14,’64)  219  40  Ubyssey Cartoon,  219  41  Meeting hospitable Turkish villagers,  42  Family Reunion in Singapore,  43  Marta & John,  44  John & Marta Friesen, Vancouver,  33  34  37  38  39  March 20,  Sept.  1966  1964  1976  1968  272 272  1980 in Jordan  273 1983  273  xiii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The researcher acknowledges the generosity and understanding of all the participants. Without exception, they were courteous, open and cooperative in providing information and I thank each one for the help and kindness given. When I sought Gordon R. Selman’s sponsorship for a biography of John K. Friesen as a thesis topic, he agreed as to its However, in value, but stressed the complexity of the task. deciding to pursue the thesis, I was encouraged by knowing Selman’s reputation as an historian, his dedication to the highest values of an adult educator and his humane approach Selman claimed Friesen as his mentor; I wanted to his work. to describe the man who had been Selman’s mentor and guide. The task proved to be rewarding. In particular, I owe a debt of gratitude to John K. Friesen for his warm and open attitude in relating his experience and for providing access to his extensive and valuable collection of private papers. Most of all, a special appreciation to my life-partner Gilbert J. Harthian whose patience, unwavering support and encouragement gave me the opportunity and the confidence to pursue this thesis.  xiv  A-’  Figure 1: John K. Friesen, on occasion of Honorary Doctor of Laws Degree from Simon Fraser University, June 8, 1985  1  CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY, DEFINITIONS ND STRUCTURE Culture is activity of thought and receptiveness to beauty and humane feeling.. What we should aim at producing is men who possess both culture and expert knowledge in some special direction. (Alfred North Whitehead) .  .  INTRODUCTION  A.  This thesis is a biographical study of Dr.  of education in Canada, Middle East,  then in population planning  Asia and Africa.  country,  reputation  well  as for  his  as  used  career  discovering  in  requirements  by  considerable  a  and  democratic and  in the  strong belief from a pooling  in of  of  opinions  ideas  and  roots level within a community.  so  as  to  lead  commonly held aspirations,  This work,  study and  focuses  on  influence  to  in Manitoba and Friesen  and actions  had  a  generated a grass  He saw University Extension stimulate and expand such  a  better  understanding  of  ideas and priorities.  John as  community  from discussion at  as having a duty to cooperate in, discussion  to  his  He was much influenced by  organizations.  the power  Friesen  throughout  responding  cooperative movement  social/religious  international  capability.  approach  in adult learning.  experience other  a  in the  He gained prominence in his  vision  successfully  his  Friesen,  who for over 50 years worked first in the field  a Canadian,  own  John K.  K.  Friesen’s  Director  University of British Columbia  (UBC)  of  character, Extension  (1953-1966)  and  goals, at  the  covers  2 in considerably less detail his life and career during the periods before and after this term.  It is written mainly to  contribute new material to the historic record. ideals,  ideas,  commitments  and  convictions  today and an examination of the success during  achieved  cooperative  the  approach  Friesen used  era  remain  valid  UBC Extension work  indicates  him  by  Many of his  would  be  that  the  valuable  in  contemporary society.  A study of John Friesen’s life work, is  merited  and  the  context  of  his  after his leaving UBC,  addition,  in  service  in  the  international  strategy.  consideration  while  but  work  at  UBC  alone.  In  he embarked on a career of  field  Friesen’s views  and ideals  directions  on  his  population  of  planning  topic merit  that  urgent  service  international  is  described in outline it is not the focus of this thesis.  Dr.  John  witty,  K.  Friesen  turned  compassionate,  recognized  lively  internationally  reaching influence.  in June,  eighty  as  but an  modest  adult  1992;  he  man  who  educator  of  is  a is  far  His biography would appear to offer an  insight into the importance of taking a cooperative approach in the  field of  adult  education.  His  story is  timely and  relevant.  This  research  is  a  contribution  to  a  largely  neglected  aspect of the history of adult education in Canada,  that of  3 biographical studies. Studies  in  Adult  Since the inception of UBC’s Graduate  Education  in  1956,  only  two  biographies  have been written by graduate students:  Betsy McDonald by  Reva  Ricki  Kalef  (1984) Selman  (1988). Dampier  (1991)  and  Dorothy  supervised assessed  Clode  both this  by  Moss  Selman  projects. element  Carol  of  and  historical  literature in the field of adult education: We have a number of biographies and autobiographies which are valuable resources, but this is an under developed aspect of the literature. (Selman and Dampier, 1991:293)  B.  GUIDING RESEARCH QUESTIONS  The following questions provided the foundation on which the general  investigation  and  the  questionnaires  for  the  interviews in this research were developed. (1)  What was the nature of John Friesen’s career, his accomplishments and the lifetime experience which shaped his character?  (2)  How was his belief in a cooperative approach to adult learning formed?  (3)  What were the ideas, beliefs that guided his actions and motivated Friesen to break new ground?  (4)  In what ways did he have an effect on the arenas in which he worked at UBC?  4  How do those who worked with John K.  (5)  Friesen at UBC  see him?  (6)  What effect did John K.  (7)  In what ways did he influence, help the communities  Friesen have on them?  or nations in which he worked? What were social and cultural issues with which he  (8)  became concerned?  C.  METHODOLOGY  The methodology  employed  in  relies  on  histories.  heavily  semi-structured  oral  interviews,  this  study  communication in exploring  term  office  of  as  Director  The  telephone  personal  of  is  qualitative researcher  used  interviewing  and  Friesen’s  Extension  history is humanistic in nature.  and  life and his  at  UBC.  Oral  It is a type of historical  source that relies on the spoken word using interviews with the witnesses and persons who participated in activities and therefore is Henige  appropriate  defines  past by means  oral of  for the study of human behaviour.  history  “the  as,  life histories  study  or personal  of  the  recollections,  where informants speak about their own experiences” 1982:2).  Armstrong  investigative  social  claims  that,  “The  recent  (Henige,  life history as  science methodology was  an  developed and  utilized by the Chicago School of Sociology in the 1920s and  5 (Armstrong,  1930s...” biography  is  an  role  increasing  anthropology, social work  1987:25)  important in  the  history, (Dollard,  The  .  method  study  which  history  or  playing  an  is  psychology,  of  literature,  life  psychiatry,  as well as sociology and  Such a method is suitable for  1935).  this project as the field of adult education draws from the body of knowledge in most of the above disciplines,  and this  study is strongly based on primary sources.  Triangulation was employed by consulting seven of Friesen’s most senior colleagues at UBC; was  performed  using  in some cases a cross-check  supporting  written  evidence.  addition to interviews and/or personal communications, and  primary  secondary  and private papers, scholarly  books, UBC  Department  Session  sources  Calendars,  Friesen’s  other  speeches  private papers of Selman and Buttedahl,  publications, of  included  In  clippings,  journals,  Annual  Reports,  UBC  Summer  President’s  Reports  and  Senate  Extension UBC  press  Records during the period Friesen was Director of Extension. According to Borg and Gall form  of  replication  that  (1989)  triangulation is simply a  contributes  confidence in the research findings.  greatly  to  the  6 D.  PEOPLE INTERVIEWED 1.  The  researcher  approaching but  FRIESEN  JOHN  saw  originally  Friesen  because  as  important  it  felt his  of  diffidence  some  international  that  his  in  stature,  outstanding  many  contributions to the field of adult education be documented. Friesen  had  biography  declined  some  ten  to  participate  in  years  earlier,  ‘when  graduate student,  because he was not  to  he  expectation,  unapproachable; person.  turned  out  to  writing  a  approached  then ready. be  of  by  a  Contrary  in  not  his  any  way  rather he was a gentle, modest and courteous  The researcher considers herself fortunate that her  request came at a time when he was willing to assist in her presentation of his biography.  John Friesen has been very  generous with his time and has given the researcher free and open  access  to  his  extensive  started in October 1, 2.  personal  papers.  Interviews  1991 and extended over ten months.  UBC COLLEAGUES  Seven senior colleagues who worked with Friesen during his tenure  at  (Director Director, the  UBC  were  interviewed;  1967-1974)  and  1978-1988 Director)  Extension Department  Continuing  Jindra  Education).  Jack Blaney,  Knute Buttedahl,  these,  Kulich  Gordon  Selman  (1975  Acting  succeeded him as Directors of  (renamed Other  of  in  1970,  colleagues  the  Centre  interviewed  Bert Curtis and  for were  Alan Thomas.  7 Also, senior  interviews were staff  Smith.  requested  members:  MaryFrank  Marjorie Smith, Gordon  predecessor  from two of  Friesen’s most  Marfarlane  and  Marjorie  who had also worked under Friesen’s  Shrum,  MaryFrank  Macfarlane  department  and her views  chose  readily  not  to her  discussed  about  participate.  All  Friesen.  work, of  the  Friesen’s  close colleagues have gone on to achieve important positions in the field of education and some of them in professional associations he was short  for adult educators as well.  seen as synopsis  Significantly,  a mentor by all  the people  follows  career  of  the  interviewed.  paths  of  the  A  seven  persons interviewed in this study.  GORDON R.  SELMAN gained his B.A.  in History  (UBC)  in 1963.  a programmer in 1954, Associate November  Director 30,  1965  President J.B. in  January  successor  until  He joined the Extension staff as  became Assistant Director in 1955 and  in  1960.  to  become  Macdonald,  1967,  in 1949 and his M.A.  (UBC)  left  the  Executive  Department  Assistant  to  on UBC  returned as Director of Extension  leading 1974.  He  the  Selman  Department then  served  as  Friesen’s  as  Associate  Professor of the Graduate Program in Adult Education at UBC until  his  retirement  in  June,  He  1992.  is  the  foremost  historian of adult education in Canada.  ALAN MILLER THOMAS gained his B.A. (University  of  Toronto)  in  in English and Philosophy  1949,  M.A.  in  History  of  8 Education  (Columbia University)  Psychology  (Columbia  University)  1956-1961,  with  a  Education,  and  half-time  Studies  and  half-time  General  Department.  in 1954 in  1964. in  Supervisor  of  as  was  the  in Social was  He  appointment  Administration  Thomas  and PhD.  of  Communications the  Extension the  of  degree program in Adult Education at UBC.  UBC  Faculty  the  in  architect  at  Masters  He pioneered and  developed an Extension program in the field of broadcasting, television  and  volunteers  Director, In 1982 Order  the  for  Learning).  film  In  making.  Earlier  Study-Discussion  the  period  Canadian Association  he  (Living  Program  1961-1969  he  for Adult  instructed  was  Room  Executive  Education  (CAAE).  Thomas was honoured by Canada as an Officer of the of  Canada.  For  over  twenty  years  has  he  been  Professor of Adult Education, Department of Adult Education, The  Ontario  Ontario.  Institute  for  Studies  in  Education,  Toronto,  He is a leading intellectual in the field of adult  education.  JACK (UBC) and  BLANEY  P.  gained  in 1960, M.Ed. Ed.D.  in  August  1963  as  in  supervisor  Director  Extension of  in  History  Instructional  (UCLA).  (Living Room Learning). Education  B.Ed.  and  in Educational Psychology  1970,  Program Evaluation  his  (UBC)  in 1965  Research  &  He was employed from 1961 until of  the  Study-Discussion  Program  During 1962-1965 he supervised the  Program.  Extension  Product  Geography  and  In  later  1966  he  became  Associate  Assistant  Director  until  9 1974.  he  Then  Continuing  joined  Studies  Fraser  Simon  a post  appointed Vice-President  he  of  University  held until  as  Dean  of  when he was  1981,  University Development.  Today  he is Vice President of Simon Fraser’s Harbour Centre Campus and of External Relations.  KNUTE  BUTTEDAHL  gained  Adult  Education  (UBC)  in  B.Com  1963  University)  State  (Florida  his  and  PhD.  1974.  in  in  (UBC)  1950,  in Adult He  M.A.  Education  employed  was  in  by  Extension and given responsibility for the Study-Discussion Program  in  the  Learning). Conference Extension 1965-1975.  He  Liberal  Arts  subsequently  Office  and  Department  1957-1960 directed  became  the  Assistant for  (Centre  (Living  Room  University  Director  Continuing  of  the  Education)  During 1966-1968 he was Director of the Colombo  Plan funded UBC/Rajasthan Project and was resident in India for one year.  He left UBC in 1975  Today  a  he  is  consultant  and  for international work. training  specialist  “Buttedahi Research & Development Associates,  BERT CURTIS gained his B.A.  and B.Ed  Inc.”,  (UBC).  He  Short Courses and Conferences for Extension from  in  Ottawa.  supervised 1957 until  1959 when the supervision of Short Courses grew to an extent that the  it demanded his Leadership  in  entire attention.  Education  project  Trustees and Assistant Director, Indian  Chiefs  and  Councillors  He was Director of for  the  B.C.  School  Leadership Development for in  B.C.,  holding  both  10 positions Director  for  three  years.  Extension  of  In  1960  his  until  he  became  departure  subsequently served as Director of Adult Ottawa Collegiate Board, College,  Ottawa  College,  Thunder  and  position in 1989.  1964.  He  Education for the  Dean of Applied Arts for Algonquin  then  Bay,  in  Assistant  became  President, retiring  Ontario,  Confederation the  from  Currently he is a consultant,  program organizer for industry,  latter  teacher and  business and government,  in  the areas of adult learning and communication theory.  JINDRA KULICH gained his B.A.  (UBC)  in 1961 and M.A.  served  Vancouver  as  Discussion and  Program  in Adult Education volunteer  (Living  Extension’s  became  in Slavonic Studies and German (UBC)  coordinator  Room  Director  Learning) for  the  in 1966.  for from  the  He  Study-  1958-1961, for  Office  Short  Courses and Conference 1966-1974 and also was the financial administrator Diploma  of  Program  served as  the in  Adult  Assistant  June,  of  the  at  Director of  Special  Education at  UBC.  knowledgeable  in  UBC  1966-1985. for  the He  Continuing  and as Acting Director during February  Director Director  administered  Centre  1975 and also from 1976-1978.  Associate Centre’s  He  Education  Director  Education 1974-1975, -  Department.  1975-1978, 1978-1988. Projects Kulich,  the  field  and  Kulich was appointed then  From  1988-1990  for the Centre who of  speaks adult  served  as  the  he  was  for Continuing  seven languages, education  in  is  Europe,  11 Scandinavia  and  Eastern  Block  countries  where  he  is  also  recognized as a leading scholar.  MARYFRANK M.S.W.  MACFARLANE  gained  her  B. Corn  B. S W.  (UBC),  .  and  She joined the staff as Lectures Secretary in 1959  and held this position until 1961 when she became Supervisor of  Evening  Classes.  responsibility  to  In  1964  administer  she was  the  given additional  Correspondence  Courses.  she becarne Supervisor of the Credit Courses  1965  In  for part-  time students in the evening and Spring Session. She took on other  enterprises  which  is  the  such  now known  Department’s  as  E.  the  the  Language  Language  non-credit  Studies activities in 1985,  as  program  Institute. Programs  Weekend  and organized them until  in  She  1969,  started Field  and  her retirement  a total service of twenty-seven years.  QUESTIONNAIRES AND RESEARCH APPROACH  1.  FRIESEN  Friesen was  furnished with  a  series  of  six questionnaires  aimed at focussing attention on certain aspects of his life, career, to  views and convictions.  Friesen)  reflecting  In on  the his  early  (See Appendix 5:  stages  lifetime,  of  he  his  Questions  interviews,  preferred  to  when  receive  questions in advance.  As the interview process progressed,  Friesen  answering  departed  from  questions  and  produced  a  12 wealth of background material. adopted  changed  candid  to  approach  information, interests,  At this juncture the method  unstructured  disclosed  insight concerns  and and  interviews.  great  a  evidence  deal  all  of  open,  additional  of his  about  motivations,  His  upbringing, which  have  proved invaluable in describing this multifaceted man. his consent, him were  during  Thereafter, calls  parts of the initial series of interviews with  taped and  generated  With  twenty hours  the  first  four  of  recorded material  months  of  his  communication became less formal,  too numerous  written  material  meals.  The  two or  three  to recount, and  frequency of times  through  contact  a week,  with  response.  by telephone  by correspondence,  sometimes  were  by other  discussions  Friesen  down to several  over  ranged  times  from  a month.  The average length of an interview with him was four hours. The dates of such interviews with him were: 7,  9,  10,  22,  18,  and  25,  1992;  February 4 and 27,  April  23,  20,  21,  1992; and  May 11,  August  directly to all  7,  known  information.  a A  1992;  January  March,  1992;  June  1992.  Friesen  and  19 and 27,  did  2, 27,  1992;  and July 15, not  (Appendix 5),  respond but used  He commented ruefully that he had  researcher broad  11,  8,14,23  1 and 18,  the questions posed  the questions as an aid. never  1991;  October 1,  who  insight  probed  into  so  Friesen’s  people and life in general was obtained,  deeply approach  for to  as were his views  on adult education and on the responsibilities of educators. The manner  of  Friesen’s  response was  informal  and did not  13 always for  follow  predictable  a  thesis  the  sometimes  pattern.  Quotations  resulted  from  a  selected flow  free  of  Friesen’s conversation during which ideas tumbled one after another.  Although relaxed in his approach, insure that Where  all  Friesen took great care to  information he was providing was  necessary,  he  provided  supporting  accurate.  material  as  evidence.  He has maintained meticulous personal records and  from  the  them  researcher  provided in Appendix 3 multi-dimensional concerning overcome, his  the  compiled  a  Chronology  is  to assist a reader in following his  career.  and  Friesen provided  life’s highlights.  response  In  obstacles  to  challenges  question  a  which  instead an eloquent  had  to  synopsis  of  he  Some of his descriptions have been  incorporated into the text of the thesis. of other researchers,  which  For the benefit  the full text of his Life’s Highlights  is included in Appendix 2.  2.  UBC COLLEAGUES  All of Friesen’s colleagues who were interviewed had worked with  him  opportunity  for to  Extension work, leadership The  a  considerable observe  directly  and  Friesen’s  had  had  approach  the to  to experience first hand the effects of his  and management  methodology  period  adopted  style used  and  to  judge  questionnaires  the  results.  provided  in  14 advance of interviews to all except Gordon Selman.  A subset  of a questionnaire that was used for Selman was utilized as a  research  personal these  in  tool  conducting  communications  questionnaires  with  are  various  other  included  interviews  colleagues. in Appendices  and/or  Copies  of  and  7.  6,  Questions were intended to be open ended, and the researcher was  not  were  at  all  made.  concerned about  Often  response  and  the  were  the  order  in which  participants  used  encouraged  in  free  a  this  replies mode  of  approach.  Questionnaires provided a general framework within which the participants answered. a. Almost right In  Selman Interviews from  the  Gordon  outset,  hand man;  and  consequence  he  he  was  Selman worked  Friesen’s  was  able  immediate  successor.  observe  to  Friesen’s  as  both  the  implementation and consequences of Friesen’s work.  Selman,  who  written  acknowledges  extensively about The  Friesen the  as  field  of  his  mentor,  adult  education  interviews with Selman were conducted  tJBC.  He provided a very direct,  into  the  work  particularly  and  character  generous,  supervisor of the project.  Canada.  office at  personal and frank insight of  allowing  less  in  in his  Friesen. over  formal,  Selman  eleven  interview time divided into two sessions. has provided several,  has  meetings  hours  In addition, in his  was of he  role as  15 The personal  interviews and communications with Selman,  Occasional  Papers  invaluable  resource.  and  other  publications of  Because  time  proved  to  his  be  constraints,  an  Selman  did not receive a questionnaire in advance but was given a questionnaire given  an  during  outline  policies.  his of  first  interview and  Friesen’s  (See Appendix 6:  perception  Questions  later he  was  of  own  his  Gordon R.  Selman, a  37-item Questionnaire) b. Other  Interviews with Other Colleagues participants  outline  Questions made,  received  of  Friesen’s  the  telephone,  to  questions;  interviews require  nor were  of  in person  specific  20-item  along with  policies  his  Appendix 7).  they asked to  predetermined order.  identical  interviewed,  perception  to UBC Colleagues:  during  an  in advance of being  questionnaire, an  all  (See  No attempt was  or by long distance  answers respond  specific  to  to matters  in a  Rather the questionnaire served as a  framework to prompt a reaction from the participants as to their  various  ideals  and  conceptions  professional  both work  of and  Friesen’s of  the  convictions,  nature  of  his  all  the  association with the person interviewed.  Not  all  questions  participants. specific,  were  Also,  participants  situations.  The  considered  because were  people  not  relevant  some always  interviewed  by  questions  were  time  familiar with  all  were  entirely  free  16 either to answer from the questionnaire or deal with other matters which they considered more  important.  participant  issue  sought  association with  avoid  to  Friesen.  an  Each  However,  concerning  interview and/or  communication was taped with the participants’ Consent Form: the  of  request  stopped  Appendix 8); Friesen  recording  thoughts  which  when  were  their  personal  consent  (see  however in a few instances, and  the  not  no  Macfarlane,  participants  to  be  included  the  researcher  wanted in  at  to  this  relate  research.  Such private information was shared to give the researcher a better understanding of particular situations.  Jack Blaney was Simon  Fraser  interviewed for one University’s  hour at  Harbourside  his  office  at The  campus.  interviews with Jindra Kulich and MaryFrank Macfarlane were conducted at their homes. Bert  Curtis,  Knute  The personal communications with  Buttedahl  conducted by long distance their week two  All  homes. in advance.  hours,  either  for  of a  Alan  Thomas  were  all  telephone during the evening at  received  Each  and  a  questionnaire  at  these participants  personal  interview  least  one  allowed over  or  for  a  long  distance telephone personal communication.  By and large of  the  matter  the matters discussed were within the  questionnaire. of  Extension  his  Kulich  association  programs  and  dealt  with  University  thoroughly  Friesen, policies  his  context  with views  affecting  the on the  17 department. Curtis  To  sought  reservations MaryFrank  a  greater  to in  track  the  giving  Macfarlane,  extent  than  other participants,  questionnaire, opinion  an  instead  on  of  had  but  other  no  matters.  referring  to  the  questionnaire,  chose to present her experiences and views of  Friesen  a  from  distinctly  personal  perspective.  Her  insights were especially welcome as Macfarlane was the only female  colleague  available  for  interview  and  also  because  she provided the point of view of a staff member as distinct from  those  who  shared  responsibilities.  Macfarlane  expressing her views.  general was  administrative  especially  candid  in  Responses from all people interviewed  were frank and ranged broadly in content.  F.  USE OF QUOTATIONS  Most of  the recorded interviews were  accuracy.  transcribed to ensure  Key-word notes were also taken by the researcher  during interviews.  Many of the quotations utilized are from  recorded  therefore,  comments;  researcher  to  edit  error dictated.  material  judgment where  was  brevity  made  or  by  the  grammatical  The essence of each quotation has,  however,  been maintained both in context and in intended meaning.  G.  OTHER SOURCES  Research was conducted at the University of British Columbia Archives  on  Senate  Minutes  and  Senate  Reports  to  verify  18 certain matters  relating to Extension programs  The  Reports  President’s  insight  into the views  were  in  studied  and policy.  order  examined to verify the were  other  gain  of President Norman MacKenzie.  Annual Reports of the Extension Department 1953  as  to  -  an The  1966 were  chronology of program developments,  Extension  Department  publications  and  material concerning the Mozart Bicentennial Festival and the Vancouver International Festival. H. The  LIMITATION OF SCOPE crowded  made  it  and  multi-faceted  impractical  chronicle  to  activities, publications, carried  out  or  nature  incorporated  into  Friesen’s  interview  career  material,  enterprises and programs  him.  available to the researcher was to be  all  speeches,  initiated by  of  full  The  range  of  data  too detailed and extensive  a Master’s ‘thesis.  The  researcher  had to be selective and describe some matters in less detail than  a  thorough  consequence,  examination  would  have  demanded.  strict judgment and discipline was necessary to  reduce the material, yet capture the essence of the man. facilitate talks,  scope  inquiry by others,  publications,  included  in  of  additional  book  Appendix  this  4:  thesis  material  among others:  In  is  a summary of  reviews  and  Publications. the  researcher  available  on  the  To  Friesen’s major  consultations In  limiting  acknowledges following  is the that  topics,  19  The  *  Friesen’s Manitoba Years.  *  Columbia University Adult Education Programs.  *  Friesen’s speeches,  *  The number, nature and extent of the various programs of the Extension Department during Friesen’s tenure.  *  Friesen’s involvement in the development of Canadian professional adult education organizations.  *  The origins and nature of the Graduate Adult Education Program at UBC.  *  The development of International House at UBC.  *  The Colombo Plan/Rajasthan India.  *  Friesen’s international work.  *  The variety and content of conferences in which Friesen participated.  *  A full history of the Vancouver International Festival.  *  History of Adult Education in Canada and B.C.  decision  was  made  to  films or writings.  focus  Friesen’s years as Director of UBC  term.  and  career  Such  a  the  study  primarily  on  Extension Department at  and to cover in considerably less detail his  (1953-1966)  life  this  during  decision  the was  periods seen  to  before be  and  after  advisable  this  both  in  order to limit the overall dimensions of the task and also to concentrate on the aspects of Friesen’s career for which the most satisfactory sources were available.  20 I.  DEFINITIONS  The  terms  “Department”,  Department”,  are  “Extension”  interchangeable.  or All  “Extension  refer  to  the  Extension Department at the University of British Columbia, which  in  1970  Education.  was  the  renamed  The term “extension”  the process  or function of adult  Centre  for  Continuing  (not capitalized)  refers to  continuing education at a  university level.  For the purpose of  this thesis,  as  activity,  any  which  educational is  purposefully  adult education is defined  undertaken  planned  by  an  by  adult  agency  persons,  or  the  by  learners themselves in which the learners see a satisfactory learning  outcome  for  themselves  in  return  for  the  time,  energy and funds expended.  Adult Education is influenced by  context, political climate,  economics,  etc.  social circumstances,  It is a process to bring about changes in information,  knowledge,  understanding,  skills,  appreciation,  and  attitudes,  or to identify and solve personal and community  problems.  The effect can be personal change,  social  justice,  political  power,  social change,  organizational  change  and  economic growth.  Lifelong learning is a process that continues in one form or  another throughout life.  (Darkenwald and Merriam,  1982)  It  is a process undertaken by the learner with or without the assistance of an external agent.  21  The Study Group can consist of anywhere from six to twenty persons, meeting weekly at homes,  schools, halls or clubs to  discuss questions of common interest, with a view to finding solutions discussion material,  their  to  can  be  common  problems;  improved  by  the  the  provision  of  activities  interchangeably  in  and  this  cultural  thesis.  affairs  They  include  activities aimed at stimulating the intellectual, development  of  a  well-being of its people. to,  such  prepared  giving all sides of an issue to be debated.  Cultural  aesthetic  of  quality  the arts, music,  Citizenship  so  as  to  used  all  those  social or  improve  the  They include, but are not limited  drama and literature.  education  activated and  society  are  for  aims  dedicated  “discovered,  a  citizenry”;  one  which  informed,  strives  for  development through continuing social and economic renewal. Personal  (Friesen, Livingstone paying  Communication,  writes:  taxes,  “Citizenship  sitting  on  a  1992)  goes  jury  and  expected by a nation from its members. it  involves  citizens,  all  and  a  man’s  affect  the  State...” (Livingstone, 1944:135).  actions  Citizenship  and  “Education training  or  Richard  beyond  voting,  the  other  duties  Properly conceived,  which  health  far  Sir  touch  his  well-being for  fellow of  the  Citizenship,  citizenship  education  22 and  education  for  responsible  citizenship  are  used  interchangeably in this thesis.  The democratic approach insures the fundamental right of the citizen to be consulted, affairs,  and  as  organizations Cooperative  a  approach, in  in  member  (Friesen,  strong belief  and to participate freely in civil voluntary  Personal  the power of  quasi-public  Communication,  used  as  or  Friesen,  by ideas  1992).  The  reflects  his  and actions  generated  from a pooling of opinions and from discussion at a grass roots level within a community.  He saw University Extension  as having a duty to cooperate in, discussion.  His  understanding  of  aspirations,  purpose issues and  ideas  community.  stimulate and expand such  was  lead  to well  as  priorities  as  within  This belief and process,  to  a  better  commonly UBC  and  held in  the  as used by Friesen is  described interchangeably in this thesis as a cooperative or a democratic approach.  The Cooperative Movement occurs when people unite with their neighbors  in  economic  activity  support and advancement. they want dealing. Canada  at  the  life  the  purpose  The purpose is  the lowest possible cost  The is  for  blood  individual  of  the  to get  mutual  the things  consistent with fair  cooperative  members.  of  They  movement have  in  direct  responsibility for the formation and operation of the local cooperative.  The  cooperative movement  originated in Great  23 Britain under pioneer Robert  Owen.  The  first  cooperatives  were mainly consumer organizations;  later came agricultural  cooperatives.  to  Cooperatives  especially the poor, hands,  with  movement  emancipate  members,  by putting economic control into their  education  has  aim  developed  the  as  instrument  in many  forms,  for  change. credit  e.g.  The  unions,  housing, news wire services, and various social services.  The  Cooperative  Movement  has  measure of economic democracy, for all  and all  one member,  for each”.  aimed  to  achieve  inspired by the motto: Its main  religious and  As cooperation is  considered to be more than dollars and cents,  members  “Each  surplus earnings distributed on the basis of  participation and not on amount invested.  highlighted,  large  characteristics are:  one vote; neutrality in political,  social matters;  a  education is  to inform about current operations and activate  for  Communication,  future  development  (Friesen,  Personal  1992).  Friesen’s view of community development is democratic action by people to bring about change their community.  countries  involvement where  of benefit to  The activity can be voluntarily initiated  and conducted and/or government Government  (development)  is  financial  often  supported in varying ways. found  in  assistance may be  The scope of community development may vary,  less an  developed  imperative.  from that of a  specific local project to that of changing the community as  24 a whole.  It  is  people,  not  things.  other assistance  is warranted,  the group  is  not  leader creator  a  Communication, definition  a  an important  change agent,  of  the  1992).  of  Where  Community  factor is  or  that  a resource person and  activity  The  government  Personal  (Friesen,  researcher  development:  adopted “A  Selman’s  process  through  which the members of a community assess the present state of their community,  set goals for desired changes,  to attempt to achieve those goals”  J.  (Selman,  and proceed  1991:116).  STRUCTURE OF THE THESIS  The  content  thematic. possible Many and  of  the  of A  thesis  strictly  though  convictions  ideas,  were  both  chronological  chronology  Friesen’s  is  was  and  approach  not  maintained  ideals,  themes  chronological  where  commitments,  which  affected  was  possible.  perceptions programs  and  policies greatly influencing UBC Extension over a period of time.  The chapter organization, which follows,  reflects the  duality of theme and chronology.  CHAPTER 2: helped  the  LITERATURE REVIEW discusses the literature that researcher  philosophical literature  position.  related  including the  understand  to  Also the  the  reviewed  setting  cooperative movement  shaping  in  of  Friesen’s  was  relevant  which  in Manitoba,  he the  worked, nature  and state of adult education in Canada then and now and the  25 development including  of  the  the  professionalization  emergence  of  adult  of  adult  education  education  a  as  field  of  academic study.  CHAPTER 3: period  THE MANITOBA YEARS  from  Friesen’s  birth  (1912  in  1953)  -  Altona,  joined UBC as Director of Extension. of his strong family, This  his years to  makes  thesis  grade  Friesen  It explains how,  veterans’  involved  in prairie high schools (grades in  the  in a pacifist in  earning  After the war,  and  up  services  subsequently  9  to  and  12)  cooperative  to (up how  movement.  the  the  family,  Royal  decided Air  Canadian  Distinguished  Flying  to  join  Force, Cross.  Friesen attended Columbia University under a  grant  degrees.  teaching  too briefly,  after the outbreak of the Second World War,  brought  combative  he  It relates the story  although all  collegiates  much  became  Friesen,  reference,  and  until  Manitoba  church and community based upbringing.  (1930-1940) 11)  describes the  and  his  gained  Masters  and  Doctoral  This chapter considers the effect all these events had on  influences  following  the  Friesen’s  Columbia years,  character.  It  tells  how,  Friesen returned to Manitoba  assuming a senior position with the Manitoba Pool Elevators (MPE).  The  chapter describes  how  in  the post-war decade,  Friesen was a forceful advocate in the restructuring of the educational  system  development  of  a  of  Manitoba  network  of  and  assisted  new  hospitals.  relationship with the CAAE is described.  in  the His  26  CHAPTER  4:  EXTENSION  AND  TRADITION  THE  NEW  provides an introduction to Friesen’s view of function at UBC. and Dr. its  Gordon Shruin of UBC  Extension  cooperative  operated  setting  attitudes  department  into  a  attracted him to UBC to become  The  convictions. Friesen’s examines  UBC  at  Friesen  British  chapter It  This and  Columbia  priorities,  on  comments by his  his  colleagues  function  of  far  ideas, the  and  build  help  and  his  some  reviews  to  describes  qualities  Extension  describes  comments  chapter the  brought  sophisticated  throughout  borders.  the Extension  It explains how President Norman MacKenzie  third Director of Extension.  the  DIRECTOR  the  which  beyond  its  ideals  and  consequences  leadership on his  style  qualities  of and  as  a  mentor and leader.  CHAPTER 5:  EXTENSION DIRECTOR  FIRST SIX YEARS  (1953-1959)  looks at the first six years of John Friesen’s work at UBC, which is seen as grounded in his earlier experiences and on his academic qualification.  In this period the Vancouver  International  launched  Festival  was  and  the  describes how Friesen played an important role. goals  at UBC was  to  chapter  One of his  establish a graduate program in adult  education,  which became the first Master’s program in adult  education  in  rapidly  in  Canada.  both  size  The and  UBC  Extension  quality  in  Department  this  period.  grew This  27 chapter  also  includes  comment  from  Friesen’s  colleagues  about these years.  CHAPTER 6:  EXTENSION DIRECTOR  LAST SIX YEARS  (1960-1966)  identifies some of the Extension programs and enterprises of the  period.  Friesen  gained  international adult education. a  change in  cut  recognition  added  Explanation is given about  in university administration which the  budget  of  in  Extension.  resulted  Further  in a  discussion  demonstrates that there was an unwillingness to finance the department’s  non-credit  and  community  service  activities,  all of which thereafter were required to become increasingly self-supporting. narrowed,  in  The  work  manner  a  of  which  the  department  was  contrary  was  Co  to  be  Friesen’s  personal  convictions.  proposed  a reorganization which would have centralized the  administration department’s  University  chapter  of  Continuing  auspices.  It  reorganization priorities  The  in  would  be  keeping  administration  tells  Education  long  deferred.  with  the  Friesen  under  evident  became  and  how  such  that  Friesen  a  new  of  the  capable  creative team of people to act as his successors. juncture he was international considerable the  soul  Population  these  invited to take up a new challenge arena  of  population  searching,  Council.  Friesen  Comments  planning.  left  from  UBC  his  and  At this in the After  to work  colleagues  matters are also included in this chapter.  a  set  requirements  established  the  for on  28  CHAPTER  COMMENTARY  7:  POLICIES  is  ON  considerable  his commitments,  JOHN  and  wide  Friesen’s most  ranging,  MAN  AND  and deals  HIS with  His colleagues also comment on  his influence on their lives. of  THE  some of his policies and some  convictions,  of the results he achieved.  FRIESEN:  Observations are made on some  significant perceptions  and policies  for  the Extension Department.  CHAPTER  THIRD  8:  WORLD  ADULT  Friesen’s international work,  EDUCATOR  briefly  discusses  a subject which warrants more  detailed research and treatment than can be provided in this thesis. and  He saw the devastating effects of over-population  is  convinced  that  population  planning  the  is  most  critical concern facing humanity today.  CHAPTER 9: career;  it  Friesen’s and  his  DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS briefly reviews his comments efforts,  approaches  are  his  relevance  convictions, to  made,  the  society.  lessons  His are  of  thoughts  some  outlined.  A  central  attitudes, of  adult  conclusions  work more  value as  a  themes  education.  Third  subject could be the topic of another thesis.  about  Friesen which  for  thorough  of  commitments  reached  launched by  enduring and  of  field  taken and enterprises  provide  educator  the  contributions  Observations  would  on  contemporary Word  study  of  adult this  29 CHAPTER 2:  LITERATURE REVIEW  Our first business is to create that awareness, to post the roads of learning so that a student may recognize the continuity of the explosive present with the historical past, and may intelligently use that knowledge. within the allowance of the gods. to develop his own later usefulness and happiness. (Friesen’s Personal Papers, from Columbia University: excerpt from a College Program in Action, 1946) .  .  .  .  Although this biography is based largely on primary sources, the  researcher  consulted  relevant  literature  which  was  confined to material which led to an understanding or placed in context made  to  works.  the work and ideas  provide  a  thorough  of  Friesen.  analysis  In making such selection,  and  No attempt was review  of  these  the researcher was guided  by an intent to outline or chronicle material which led to an understanding of Friesen or of  the  issues he supported.  For this purpose sources were considered under the following topics:  (1)  Philosophical ideas, and people who were influential  (2)  The nature and state of adult education in Canada during his career and now  (3)  The Cooperative Movement  (4)  The professionalization of adult education including the emergence of adult education as a field of academic study.  30 1.  PHILOSOPHICAL IDEAS, AND PEOPLE WHO WERE INFLUENTIAL  Eduard  Lindeman’s  C.  Education,  relevant When  operating. editor, the  become  has  directly  J.  1926  R.  a  to  in  classic  noted  that  that  the  the  exist  of  and  field and  work  Lindeman  must  Meaning  ideals  re-published  interrelationship  action.  The  Friesen’s  he  Kidd  book,  Adult appears  methods 1961,  in  of the  clearly understood between  study  and  Lindeman was quoted:  “You don’t change until you do something. You don’t change by listening... .When you step or move in a new way, then the change becomes really significant.” (Lindeman, 196l:xvii)  Kidd added that although Lindeman was an idealist, tough practical deep  abiding  core.  “He  loathing  for  never hated men, injustice”  (p.  but  he had a he  had  a  Lindeman  xxi).  describes how he came to acquire his formal education after the age of twenty-one; as  an  industrial  he had then already experienced life  worker.  He  decided  that  most  of  the  learning he was asked to do bore little or no relationship to  his  that  life’s  “. . .  .some  college halls the world”  experience. day  One  education  into the  (Lindeman,  lives  of  might  his be  greatest brought  of people who do  196l:xxviii).  hopes out  of  was the  the work of  Friesen fully embraced  this hope and a central purpose of the Extension Department in his time was to work in the community.  31 Lindeman comments  that adult  education,  “...has  changed citizens from illiteracy to literacy; the total structure of life’s values”  not merely  it has rebuilt  (Lindeman,  1961:xxx).  Lindeman counsels that the purpose of adult education is to put  meaning  into  concepts  to  relates  directly  be  the  whole  replaced by a to  educational systems,  life  built  around  and  new kind  wants  he  of  experiences.  education  that  conventional  In  the  in adult education the curriculum  student’s  needs.  Friesen’s  Extension clearly paralleled Lindeman’s thinking; the Department  static  he suggests the student is required to  adjust to the curriculum: is  life  of  to explore  the learning needs of  view  of  he wanted the people  in the community and to respond with innovative programs and enterprises which matched these aspirations.  A theme of Lindeman is, to  find  life’s  “In what areas do most people appear  meaning?”  developed in this thesis, all  people  became  philosophy. education is: personalities their  Both  a  (Lindeman,  .  As  will  be  the quest for an abundant life for  central  men  1961:8)  theme  in  that  believe  Friesen’s a  purpose  life of  and  adult  “...to change the social order so that vital will  aspirations  be may  creating properly  new environment  a  be  expressed”  in which (Lindeman,  1961:9)  Lindeman comments,  “Adult learners are precisely those whose  intellectual aspirations are least  likely to be aroused by  32 the  rigid,  uncompromising  conventionalized  institutions  of  Extension programming the  of  authoritative,  learning”  Friesen fully accepted the  1961:19).  reflect  requirements  (Lindeman,  transitory nature of  and saw the necessity to change and  shifting needs  of  society.  Friesen’s approach  to adult education was a practical expression of Lindeman’s notions  the  about  need  for  flexibility  in  education  for  supremacy  programs.  Lindeman  described  the  competitive  struggle  among various power groups and proposed that a solution lies in a form of cooperation in which “power over” for  “power with”.  Friesen’s  cooperative  is exchanged  approach to adult  education responds to this proposition.  Lindeman points out  that only by the  intellectual  sustained exercise of  can we keep abreast of science. takes place at still  science North  does  Now as scientific discovery  an accelerating rate,  possible  to  not  Whitehead,  keep  abreast  one might ask is thereby  and  exercise  power  eminent  mathematician  over  our  lives to the detriment of the humanities  Lindeman  ensure  lives?  and  agonized over the potential hold of natural  Communication,  effort  it  that  Alfred  philosopher,  science  (Friesen,  in our  Personal  1992).  contends  that,  “No  human  trusted with power until  he has  over himself”  1961:28).  (Lindeman,  being  learned  to  can  safely  be  exercise power  Power exercised solely  33 for  self  gratification  suggests that,  evolves  towards  egotism.  Lindeman  “...if adult education, is to save itself from  degenerating into another type  of  intellectualism,  it will  teach people how to make their thinking glow with the warmth of  honest  feeling”  Lindeman’s  led  manner  which  in  enterprises.  the  (Lindeman, researcher  Friesen  Without  led  This  1961:67). reflect  to his  view  of  on  the  collegial  colleagues  to  undertake  colleagues  described  exception these  the excitement he cultivated in their work and commented on the  enhanced  feelings  of  self-worth  they  enjoyed  through  association.  Lindeman  asked  conformity.  that  This  a  teacher  liberation  not  insist  on  from conformity was  in Extension’s Living Room Learning approach to of the Fine Arts and liberal studies. process  of  creative conflict,  and proposed matter may and  instead the use  rise  intrinsic  implicit  in  or  fall  worth. Friesen’s  expressed discussion  Lindeman advocated a  not dictation or bargaining, of  open diplomacy  according Such  aesthetic  an  to  open  non-directive  its  in which a  integrity,  minded form  merit  approach  of  was  management.  Lindeman’s philosophical approach to adult education clearly struck a responsive chord,  A.  F.  Laidlaw,  of  the writings  Antigonish  on many levels, with Friesen.  in The Man from Margaree and  Movement  speeches of  of M.M.  Nova  (1971), Coady,  Scotia,  a collection  leader of gives  us  the an  34 understanding of the broad ideas, of this views  influences and convictions  internationally known educational leader and of the  on democracy and cooperatives held by him.  demonstrates action  and  reformer.  the the  force  of  breadth  personality,  of  vision  of  the this  The book  drive great  to  take  Canadian  The vitality of his messages shows how a personal  contact with Maritimer Coady would have a profound affect on a bright idealistic young educator from the prairies. from  Father  Coady’s  messages  about  Apart  cooperation  and  his insistence that action follow discussion was  democracy,  persuasive with Friesen.  Anne Armstrong Masters of Their Own Destiny: of  the  Thought  of  Coady  and  Freire  A Comparison  (1977)  provides  an  interesting comparative analysis of the ideas and approaches of Coady and Freire. influence ideals.  Coady had  The paper was examined because of the in  the  freedom for peasants upper class  but  of  some  of  Friesen’s  According to Armstrong both men viewed education as  a tool for social change.  Unlike  formation  it  from  oppression by Brazil’s dominant  by way of a complete reorganization of society.  Freire,  make  Freire’s objective was to achieve  Coady wanted to maintain the present  more  equitable  and  kindlier.  Both  system  Coady  and  Freire saw adult education as providing a focus on what had gone wrong and what  needed to be done.  different in their approach.  The men were very  Armstrong describes Freire as  “a gentle advocate and guide moving among the sainted down-  35 trodden,” and Coady as none-too-saintly (Armstrong,  “a vigorous task-master prodding his  flock  off  their  seats  and  into  action”  While Friesen’s compassionate nature  1977:12).  may respond to Freire’s tender approach,  Coady as a man of  action appealed to his entrepreneurial attitude.  Friesen has  stated that development of his personal in  paralleled  many  ways  the  development  of  career  the  CAAE.  Selman’s The Canadian Association for Adult Education in the Corbett  Years:  A  (1981)  Re-evaluation  discusses  the  leadership of the CAAE under Corbett and the changes brought about by him in the organization. goals  were  stated  servant  of  heavily  engaged  Corbett  believed,  largely  professional in  CBC  Farm  Radio  and  interests;  Friesen  citizenship education.  terms  in dispassionate  promoting  as  In early CAAE years  under  him  particular does,  in  and as it  social  the  the a  became values.  importance  of  The CAE became heavily engaged in  Citizen  Friesen  Forum.  as  Manitoba  Secretary of CBC Farm Forum was working and broadcasting in Farm Forum both before and briefly after his war service.  Selman recounts how a Manifesto was prepared by the CAAE and unanimously program  of  adopted social  in  1943  reform.  proposed  which  It  called  for  a new  a  sweeping post  war  direction in which the rights of ordinary people would have precedence advantage.  over The  individual Manifesto  and had  sectional a  mixed  profit  or  reception,  as  36 conservatives weapon.  saw  it  Under  as  a  Corbett  left  partisan, the  wing  became  CAAE  propaganda  increasingly  concerned about cooperation and coordination in the field of citizenship  training.  Corbett  believed  fervently  Citizenship education and Canadian nationalism, both  Friesen;  men  were  strong  advocates  of  and  in  so did  rural  adult  education.  Darkenwald Education  and (1982)  Merriam  in  their  Foundations  of  Adult  seek to describe and interpret the field of  adult education and the foundations which have been laid for professional practice. of  lifelong  learning  The authors contend that the concept contradicts  tenacious  a  conventional  wisdom that education is limited to what goes on in schools and colleges for  in order to prepare children and young people  adulthood.  Darkenwald  Particularly  and  Philosophical  helpful  Merriam  (1982)  Foundations  of  differing aims  in adult  the  is  Elias  and Adult  description and  by  Merriam’s  Education  (1980)  on  education which have resulted from  diverse philosophical writings.  Friesen’s within  philosophies  each  approaches  of to  recognition tomorrow and and  the  the adult  of  the  in his  arts  and  would  appear  liberal,  progressive  education. importance placing in  embrace  to  It of  on  humanistic  liberal  preparing  emphasis  developing  is  and  elements  in  his  leaders  for  literature,  intellectual,  music moral,  37 spiritual and aesthetic appreciation. the  mind,  in  mentor/protege reflected  placing  in his  use  of  on  emphasis  relationships.  The ideal is to free  He  moral  values  progressivism  adopts  education to  adult  help programs and to bring about social  and  initiate  on as  self-  Community  change.  involvement was a priority in his advocacy of social reform and responsibility. ensure democracy.  Problem-solving techniques are used to He adheres to a humanistic approach  in  the way in which he  advanced his intuitive belief that each  individual  consideration  deserves  Each person autonomy  is  and  seen to have a sense the  teacher’s  individuals  in becoming  can  together  live  as  an  as  role  is  seen  mature  humankind  within  is  individuals  intrinsically to achieve  good  the  and  good  that  life  adults  who  individuals,  enhancing their personal growth and development. that  assisting  as  functioning  being.  dignity and  of worth,  self-actualied, fully  important  His belief power  and  to  lies  strive  for personal development is representative of the humanistic approach.  Darkenwald  and  Merriam  (1982)  point  out  that  the  adult  educators Lindeman and Bergevin were influenced by the early proponent of the progressive education movement- -John Dewey. Dewey believed that democracy can develop only if true education.  The idea of  social  there  is  reform as an important  goal of adult education is a central theme of these writers who had such a strong influence on Friesen.  Like Friesen,  38 Darkenwald and Merriam advocate a cooperative in  teacher  adult  education  in  which  the  become a full partner in the educational  role  adult  for the  learns  enterprise.  to  They  that Bergevin and Benne also support such an approach  note and  that  Benne  the  sees  teacher  in  role  the  of  a  helper  model in which the learner emulates the helper’s evaluative approach looks  knowledge.  to  to  Christian and  guidance  that  The  authors  humanism Lindeman  and  comment  Marxism  looks  in a  for  that  Freire  intellectual  different  direction  towards secular pragmatism and the philosophy of John Dewey. insight  This  provided  context  a  Friesen’s social objectives. humanism  of  Freire  but  not  in  which  to  consider  He would accept the Christian his  Marxism;  rather  he  would  favour the progressive ideals of Lindeman and Dewey.  2.  THE NATURE AND STATE OF ADULT EDUCATION IN CANADA DURING HIS CAREER  J.  Kidd,  R.  then Associate Director of  the  CAAE,  becoming  Director in 1951, published Adult Education in Canada the  first  general  practice in Canada. of  the  Friesen  leading was  background view,  survey of  education as  a  field of  It was a collection of writings by many  figures  one).  adult  (1950)  The  concerning  the  field at  the  volume  provides  useful  in  programs,  and institutional roles.  time  and  philosophical The discussion of  for Citizenship and Adult Education for All”  (of  whom  timely  points  of  “Training  (pp.24-25)  was  39 of particular interest,  as it runs parallel to and confirms  Friesen’s convictions.  Also Coady’s commentary on education  as,  .an  “..  (Kidd,  instrument  1950:27),  to  unlock  life  to  all  the  people”  gives a compelling and fresh understanding  of the reasons for Friesen’s belief in the democratic ideals of  man.  this  pursuit  of  Corbett,  and  Coady  an abundant  life  for  Friesen all  all  as  stress  a primary goal  the of  adult education.  Frank  Peers  Forum  in  who was  the  CBC’s  Extension programs  the  at  Talks for  time  the producer of commented  that  UBC  agriculture  were  all  Department,  fishermen  and  Citizens’  natural developments in the Canadian West, as the Department grew up with the province.  Peers  said,  “It was  ‘taking the university to the people’....” Friesen,  with  his  comfortable with  this  rural  community  notion but  a case of  (Kidd,  1950:81).  upbringing,  came upon  the  was  scene when  British Columbia was ‘growing up’ very quickly and was about to  transform  into  a  service  and  resource-based  society trading in a world market. days  of  the  Antigonish  Movement  industrial  Commentary on the early and  Father  J.J.  Tompkins  was of interest because of Friesen’s application of some of the lessons arising from  the movement.  Friesen’s belief in  the power of small groups appears also to be rooted in the Antigonish Movement. by Friesen,  “Folk Schools  in Manitoba”,  written  provides a setting in which his adult education  work in Manitoba can be viewed.  40  In  Kidd’s  later  University  (1956),  field  of  adult  Final  report,  Ministry issued  of  in  universal  of  “Our  leadership  aim  is  is higher  all  make  education.”  there  men  Great to  is  and  higher  and  from  the  of  the  which  was  education as  the conditions of  (Kidd,  that  Kidd  1956:1)  necessarily  mobilizing  women  Canadian  Tawney  Britain,  nothing in  the  Committee  because one of  or anti-academic  for  R.H.  Education in  in  the university in the  quotes  Adult  citizenship,  that  intellectual  he  Reconstruction  as  Education  about the role of  the  1919:  out  Adult  education  good citizenship points  volume  anti-  intellectual  the  university  never enjoyed the favour or public confidence until it began to  take  on  the  task of  training  for society.  leaders  This  commentary supported Friesen’s idea that the Department had a responsibility in the training of community leadership.  Kidd points out that while scholars offer divergent views on adult education,  they all,  in his opinion, assume:  The university chooses the work that it shall do and the constituency it shall serve, and that the main factor influencing its choice of student should be something else than age or money, or class, or even the good fortune of being able to enrol for continuous of time within periods university walls. (Kidd, 1956:10) Kidd  concludes  that  the  education  of  adults  remains  an  abiding function of the university and is consonant with its other educational functions.  He suggests:  41  the highest university standards will be upheld by university men, who will apply their learning and intelligence to the forms and qualities of higher education, required by the altered as circumstances of modern life. (Kidd, 1956:27)  A  joint  committee  Universities report The  of  and  (NCCU)  from Kidd  committee  the  National the  CAAE  Conference received  of  the  Canadian foregoing  and recommended it for study and action. stressed  the  growing  responsibility  of  universities in providing adult education for those who have graduated and “for other serious minded adults who have not been able to attend.” of  adult  undated  education  Appendix 9:  Kidd  of  copy  adult  relative the  a  further  (1963)  which  education  in  Sixties.  He  education had  begun  its  -  of  reflected  the  out  during that  to move  partnership with elementary,  value  in  society.  report  is  An  included  in  Report of NCCU & CAAE.  volume  Canada  pointed  to  committee’s  1953 Resolutions  edited  Society  The committee pointed to the low cost  readings, state the  Learning  of  the  Fifties  throughout  the  from obscurity  to  field  in of  and  early  world  adult  a  place  of  secondary and higher education.  Kidd included an historical paper by Blythe Eagles,  former  Dean of Agriculture at UBC, which sheds light on the origins of  UBC’s  that  a  Extension Department. bonding  between  It  university  is and  interesting to note the  community  was  considered a central reason for the department’s formation.  42 The University difficult  created the  years  of  the  Extension Department during the  Great  Depression  of  the  1930’s,  deciding to spend for this purpose a major portion of funds provided by the Carnegie Corporation.  As will be discussed  more fully in Chapter 6 this insight into the origins of the Department in  change  would  prove  priorities  to  in  be  which  sharp  occurred  contrast in  with  1963  when  the the  University administration described service to the community “fringe benefit”.  as a  of  scope  In Kidd  activities  Department.  He  which  describes  (1963)  he it  saw  Friesen wrote of the as  proper  imperative  as  to  the  that  the  university reach out to the community and that the community feel  free  refers  to  to  utilize  U.S.  as  “. .  and Universities  their  society...”  university  President  Education which said, Colleges  the  potentially  Truman’s  .it  [is]  resources. Commission  recognize  greatest  service  1963:176)  Kidd’s volume also  contains  on  Higher  painfully clear that  do not  (Kidd,  Friesen  adult to  the  education democratic  .  an  article by M.M. Coady.  In  referring to the values which should be promoted in Canadian society he states: What is the secret of human life? The secret of human life is to release human energy. If you release human energy and keep on releasing it perpetually you will always have life. . .A growing crescendo of life. If that energy is not released you get stagnation first and then death. (Kidd, 1963:140)  43 Coady goes on to point out that “Society,  civilization rises  above the  ephemeral nature of the human individual.  something  that  can be universal-eternal”  (Kidd,  It is  1963:141).  Coady says further that education should be coterminous with human  and  life for  people  there must be  adult  continuous mobilization of  a  learning.  He  cannot  one  says  teach  democracy through the press or over the air but that it can be taught in person, Canadians;  these  This message  to individuals and groups of individual  groups  of Coady’s  add  up  to  the  whole  of  Canada.  clarified his understanding of how  learning is cultivated at a grass-roots level.  The UBC Journal of Education,  No.  10,  April 1964 provides a  context for considering Friesen’s work in adult education by describing editorial  University by  Coolie  Extension Verner  from  1915  to  suggests  that  the  1963. scope  An and  significance of adult education are often overlooked because it differs from traditional forms of education.  Roger De Crow Growing Time: State Leadership Seminars papers  presented  Leadership;  one  to of  Selected Papers  (1964)  Michigan which,  published a  State  by  administrator  Friesen,  appreciation of He talks  must  “universitas”,  of perception,  of the  collection of  University  into his approach to adult education.’ university  from Michigan  help  provided  Seminars an  on  insight  In it he said that a bring  the wholeness  of  about  an  knowledge.  intuitive hunch that allows  44 “the courageous leap to a tentative conclusion.” 1964:78)  Friesen  also  took  broad  a  view  responsibilities of a Director of Extension, the  practical  constraints  within which  (De Crow, of  the  yet pointed out  such a person must  operate.  Selman’s masters thesis, coverage Fifty  to  1965,  Years  of  was  shortened in-length and extended in  published by  Extension  British Columbia 1915  Service  to 1965  (1966)  the  CAAE,  at .  the  A History of University  It presents a brief  historic  review of Extension services provided by UBC  1915  1965.  to  In  this  commentary  of  President  from  Macdonald  appears as a supporter of Extension because he expressed an intention to Selman that the role of the University in the field of adult education would continue to grow in scope and significance. Selman pointed out however that shifting goals and priorities  in the University had brought about  in Extension.  As it transpired,  proved to be of  changes  these changes subsequently  such significance that the social goals of  the Extension function became submerged by the academic and professional education aims of the institution.  Selman  wrote  a  monograph  Extension Department 1960 to 1970 of  the  (1975)  of  A  Decade  of  the University of  Transition:  The  British Columbia  which examined in detail the development  Extension program  in  the  profound changes brought about  sixties  and describes  the  as a result of action taken  45 by  the  University work.  Extension  administration  The  paper  was  limit  to  the  particular  of  scope  of  importance  because of the unique opportunity the author had to observe this period of transition, in Extension,  first as an associate of Friesen  and later as Executive Assistant to President  Macdonald.  Buttedahi  Columbia  British into  published  the  monograph  a  which  (1973)  Living  Room  provided  Learning  Room  Living a  program  Learning  valuable of  the  in  insight  Extension  The program was very successful and popular but  Department.  was terminated as a result of budget cuts by the University administration understanding  in of  and  launched  the the  mid-sixties. manner  developed  as  in  The  -  this  which  well  study  gives  program  information  as  an was  about  operating costs at the time of its cancellation.  Both  the  volume  “reminiscences”  edited by J. of  the  first  Kulich four  (1976)  UBC  which  Extension  contains Directors  and Selman’s master’s thesis A History of the Extension and Adult  Services of  1955  (1963)  which  the University of British Columbia 1915described  the  history  of  extension  adult education services provided by UBC from 1915 helped  the  researcher  understand  and to prepare interview questions.  the  history  of  to  and 1955  Extension  46 Selman’s 1930’s  study  and  lecture  adult  education  describes  (1976)  depression.  of  Almost  all  programs  of  UBC  in  the  Extension  agricultural, Extension  province work  during  vocational  were  in  brought  the the  training  to  a  halt  when the Tolmie ministry,  the Conservative government which  held off ice  to late  budget  by  from mid-1928  two-thirds  over  a  1933,  two-year  cut  the University  period.  It  was  not  until 1935, when the Carnegie Corporation of the U.S.A. gave the  University  a  grant,  $50,000  that  UBC  was  able  to  use  $30,000 of this money to form a Department and make a fresh start  in  extension  work.  depression Gordon Shrum,  In  the  latter  years  Friesen’s predecessor,  of  using very  slender resources developed a version suited to B.C. Dominion  Provincial  Friesen was  Youth  assisting with  Training  School.  similar and  the  of the  Meanwhile  successful  programs  in Manitoba.  In  A  Chronology  Selman  (1977)  of  Adult  traced  the  Education work’s  in  British  origins  back  years to a period before the 1858 gold rush. an  historical  setting  for  the  place  of  Columbia  almost  150  This provided  Friesen’s  term at  some  writers  UBC.  In  Kidd  and  Selman,  Coming  of  Age  (1978)  56  discuss the societal setting for adult education during and after change  the  sixties.  in Canada;  This  decade  its universities  brought  profound  social  and extension functions  47 reflected and participated in this change. Extension programs in  community,  were broadly based and deeply involved  national  commented that  At that time UBC  and  international  the sixties was a decade  work.  Selman  in which Canadians  focussed attention on national politics as never before and that  the  adult  bilities.  The  and  Kidd  gaining  education movement broad  Selman  spectrum  demonstrated  new acceptance  reflection  of  the  in  shouldered new responsi  of  commentary  that  Canada.  sixties,  adult Coming  collected education  of an  provided  Age,  in  by was its  interesting  counterpoint to current attitudes.  D.D.  Campbell’s  history  of  The  Canadian  New  Ma-iority  university  (1984)  discusses  the  continuing  education.  It  states that North American educators,  in an earlier period  believed that: “Education was a responsibility of government which had the duty to sponsor and encourage it. Education ought to be readily available to all citizens--but guided public be opinion. by (Campbell, 1984:7) This  outlook  on  the  importance  of  adult  education  for all  has shifted over time with an increasing concentration being put  on  education of  pattern has adult  an  which  emphasis  According to  the author a  developed among Canadian Universities  education  studies,  the young.  has were  moved  away  stressed  on vocational  from  during  studies.  liberal  in which  and  general  Friesen’s  era,  This  showed  book  toward that  48 UBC  Extension  programs  was  not  in  alone  losing  for  support  its  in the humanities and in being directed away from  community development work.  Selman’s  The Invisible Giant  a history of the field  (1988),  of adult education in British Columbia, the  puts in perspective  relatively limited importance given to adult  by  government,  educational  education  institutions,  labour,  professional and business organizations bearing in mind the large size and extent of the  field.  All these bodies view  adult education as a means to achieve other goals not as an end in itself.  Selman points out that despite this limited  vision approximately 21% of the adult population of British Columbia  become  educational  engaged  activity  researcher  became  prominence  Canadians  in  each  form  some  take  that  this  despite  strong  a  organized  Through  year.  convinced  of  adult  study lack  its  interest  in  the of  adult  education provided it promises a satisfactory return to them in terms of personal development. adult  education  programs  Friesen’s insistence that with  resonate  the  needs  found  within communities of the Province directly responds to this interest.  Waite’s Lord of Point Grey controversy  concerning  presidency.  President  Education  British  in  (1987)  the  gives an insight into the  termination  Macdonald’s  Columbia  and  Report a  Plan  of of for  MacKenzie’s 1962, the  Higher Future,  49 gives an understanding of the reason for the socio-political changes in approach made by President MacKenzie’s successor, were  which  to  have  such  an  impact  adult  on  education  in  of Adult Education  in  general and Extension in particular.  Selman and Dampier’s The Canada  (1991)  Foundations  provides a discussion of  the nature of adult  education, with an emphasis on the most recent decades. authors  suggest  that attempts  The  to build extension in Canada  and the United States on the British model foundered because that  model  1907  the  was  on  based  University  of  traditional  university  Wisconsin adopted a  fare.  fresh  In  approach  based on the educational needs of the people to be served. This new model proved much more acceptable as it carried the university to the people. this which  idea.  One  proved  continued  to  example  valuable do  so  UBC Extension found its roots in was  for  in  the  adult  many  Folk  Schools  education  countries.  of  in  Since  the  30’s  Canada the  and  later  1950’s thinking in Canada has been changing in reaction to ideas  about of  views  lifelong learning,  some  radical  recurrent  writers.  The  education and the notion  education be used to bring about radical society  functions  convictions. from  and  learner.  appears  in  that  adult  change in the way  conflict  with  Friesen’s  He proposed that adult education should arise  resonate  with  the  requirements  of  the  adult  50 It does not necessarily follow that views on societal change held by individual educators in the university will coincide with  those  held  in  the  community.  discovery  of  a  community,  on  such matters  common  interest as  Friesen’s  In  between  university  change,  social  view  the and  would better  result from open discussions based on material in which all sides of an issue are addressed. the  line  between  education  As the authors comment,  and  propaganda  is  sometimes  difficult to draw.  The authors acknowledge that,  faced with  the  controversy,  possibility  of  trend  the  in  the  public  educational system is towards complete withdrawal from such areas of programming.  Selman’s  volume  education  and  Education  of  increasing  the  in  the  responsibility.  He  generated  attracted  books  adult  comments in  education  the  and  that  of  recognition that  all  Adult thought the  citizenship education  those  which  concerned  is  Canadians have been the most innovative.  most  adult  were  it  the  for  the  almost  adult  underscored  education  Canada,  and  and  was  (1991)  examined  of  international  citizenship  Citizenship  Canada  importance  between  inter-connection  citizenship  Movement  provoking  programs  on  in  these  with areas  The author traced  the changing understanding of our democratic system from its origins  in  concern  with  response  to  an  unbridled issues  the  shock  free  of  enterprise  Welfare of  two  and  world  system  Mass wars  through  Democracy and  the  a in  great  51 of  depression  participatory growing  the  1930’s,  democracy.  bureaucracy of  feelings  The  of  a  isolation  has  malaise  led  into  came  latter  about  want  to  a  of  as  the  created  authority.  political  people  system  system  state-managed  from  ordinary  emerging  an  This  more  direct  direct  action  participation in political events.  Participatory than  rather  democracy on  action  places  emphasis  solely  through  one’s political representative. process may become subject special interest groups. Social  Movements  (NSM)  on  the  ballot  box  and  In consequence the political  to manipulation by sectional  or  Such groups are referred to as New by  Selman  who  (1991)  the NSM are not based on social class.  comments  that  Selman discusses the  NSM methods in seeking to achieve action and change through demonstrations  mass  and  civic  The  disobedience.  author  acknowledges that participation in such events is not always based on depth of understanding of the issues by the people involved. of  the  It is probable however,  NSM  contention; with  moving  education.  understands but  the  or  style  people  to  is of  have  not  educated  in  the  operation  is  more  participate  For the most part,  by people who  that the core leadership  been  than  it  is  issues  in  concerned in  their  the NSM are organized and led elected.  Further,  television  and other media are in the position to exploit the energies of the matters.  NSM and thus  exercise corporate power in political  52  As will be discussed in Chapter 9,  the author’s comments on  participatory democracy led the researcher to reflect on an increasing need in society for such programs of citizenship training  for  introduced capacity  citizens  The more  Liberal  responsibility  Friesen.  by of  process. become  public  Adult to  citizen  discriminating offers  of analysis  for  According  themselves.  her to be a ‘free’  and of  and  improves  the  the  democratic education,  through to  the  choices  made.  individual  with  expression in thinking  Selman  to  citizen”  may,  equip  to  increased powers  in  relation  in  advocated  education  participate  individual  education  those  as  (Selman,  “allows  this,  him or  Selman goes  1991:15).  on to describe the role of education in alerting the citizen to the workings of the political system and in providing an understanding  of  potential  Selman  issues.  points  however that public education is not necessarily and  that  some  educators  such  Paulo  as  bias free insist  Freire  out  that  education is not and cannot be neutral.  Adult  education  has  a  contribution  major  citizenship education and ideally, setting, for  of  adult  public  opposed  make  in  at least in a university  would be neutral and provide all sides of an issue  discussion.  between  to  to  Selman  education  affairs, taking  points to  improve  concerns, a  to  a  crucial  citizens’  topics  and  specific position on  distinction  understanding  social those  goals  as  questions.  53 Up  until  1940  former.  or  early  1941  the  CAAE  had  only  done  the  At that juncture Corbett set the CAAE on a course  which,  “.  .  .in  the  ensuing  two  years  resulted  in  the  Association taking a position on national policy questions” 1991:44).  (Selman, direct  the  social  reform.  Canada  “to  Succeeding  influence  of  the  Thomas  continue  Friesen,  Association  sought  also  worked  to  goals  of  towards  persuade  to  encouragement  [the  action in a way no society 1991:60).  Directors  the  of]  CAAE  and  learning  and  even done before”  [had]  a long time member,  (Selman,  saw his own career  as running in parallel with the development of the CAAE.  on to describe an association between the CAAE  Selman goes and  the  CBC  in  promoting  a  society  better  in  Canada;  National Farm Radio Forum and Citizen Forum were instruments in  this  This  endeavour  material  Friesen the  in  provided  and a  after  setting  Farm Forum could be also  CAAE  during  secretariat  for  provided the  much  Joint  which  in  the  Commission  work  of  Selman  to  initiative  the  Planning  World War.  According  seen. of  Second  the  and  the  which  (JPC)  operated for about twenty years as an ‘unofficial’ body but, “...  .was  social  clearly and  that period” is  a  rich  a  significant  educational (Selman, tradition  development  1991:109). of  such  in  element of  the  He. points work  in  the  cultural,  country out  Canada  during  that  there  and  that  Canadians may have a predisposition to “communitariarism” in adopting community-based methodologies.  54  Selman  points  viewpoints  in  two  the One  education. liberal  to  field is  education  individuals  schools of  in  This  to  affairs  the  point  conflicting  with  citizenship  or  comfortable  response  and groups.  thought  public  relatively  attention to social justice, groups.  of  with  expressed  offering wishes  of view does  of  give due  and the-needs of disadvantaged  The other’s point of view rejects the idea of the  educational agency being a disinterested party, and believes that  adult  education  education is  seen  has  to  social  be  example Cohn Griffin,  a  way  goals of  of  own.  its  changing  Adult  society.  a contemporary activist,  For  describes an  approach to adult education which “has to do with the issue of  redistribution  class ethos,”  rather  its  than  quoted by Selman  individualistic,  Liberals would  (1991:142).  argue that the present state of affairs  is  middle  changing and is  subject to correction or adjustment as society sees fit.  Selman  suggests  system.  Adult  that  has  something  educators  and public  gone  wrong  education  with  our  institutions  have retreated from a role in public affairs or citizenship education. an  to be also  that  He comments that in some instances there appears assumption adult  participate  Selman  suggests or no  mass  educators  cannot  less,  that  even  that  commitment  if  are  media  can  in  financial  they  organizers  a  were of  to discussing  do  a better  inclined  adult  squeeze to  do  education  controversial  job; and so. feel  issues;  55 it  is simply safer to avoid the risk of becoming involved.  Selman “...  points  strike  at  community”  pattern. through  challenges  the  heart  of  lie  public  in  an  subsidy  taking  on  control.  our  1991:146).  Education about  activities, private  that  (Selman, might  solution  out  very  He  of  Canada  a  one  multitude  a  diversity  study  but  discussion  as  Scandinavian  of  funded  educational  organized and  a  creative  citizen concerns would be of  now,  existence  suggests  adaptation  great  The  facing  folk  under school  approach used earlier by Friesen would appear to be in line with  this  programs  notion.  of  education  appear important be  In  discussed  any  for  future  public  delivered  in  an  sponsored  responsibility  to ensure that all  are  government  it  would  sides of the issues to even-handed  way  if  the  (1952)  was  process is to remain democratic.  3.  THE COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT  Koib and deS. aimed at  Brunner’s A Study of Rural Society  stimulating an increased interest  rural life.  in the study of  For rural people adult education became one of  the chief social developments following the depression.  The  authors claimed that at that time the largest, best financed division entirely  of  adult  rural  in  education nature.  in  The  the study  United  States  confirmed  was  Friesen’s  account of the well financed and supported American programs he  identified  in  U.S.  farming  communities  during  his  56 Columbia University days.  The study placed emphasis on the  importance of cooperative organizations and acknowledged the part  played  model. Farm  Schools  developed  along  the  Danish  The authors pointed out that in Ohio close to 2,000 Bureau  issues These  Folk  by  of  discussion  public  concern  discussion  material  giving  doctoral  study:  groups  groups all  and  were  sides “The  met  regularly  express  based  of  -  any  Role  on  their  judgements.  carefully  question.  of  the  explore  to  prepared Friesen’s  Ohio  Farm  Bureau  Federation and its Neighborhood Councils in Rural Education” was cited by the authors as a reference source. Room  Learning  reveals  program  similarities  Friesen  to  this  later  The Living  introduced  successful  Ohio  in  program.  UBC A  difference was that the Living Room Learning program topics and  discussions  were  more  sophisticated  culturally  and  intellectually.  J.  W.  Chafe’s  interesting  Chalk,  commentary  Teacher’s Society which  Friesen  (MTS)  teachers,  the  Cheers  history  of  provided  (1969) of  as  a  the  principal/teacher  Particularly intriguing is  devastating effect of  on  and  Manitoba  and evidence of the conditions under  worked  Manitoba years.  Vignettes  Sweat,  during  material on the  the great depression on rural  experiences  describe  the  his  sad  with little or no hope for a pension,  areas.  plight  of  earning on  average less than $500 per annum.  Chafe also described the  vulnerability  teachers  of  these  underpaid  and  the  uphill  57  fight waged by life  examples  poignant  and  given  for  by  upsetting  how  understand  the MTS  Friesen  improved conditions.  Chafe  from  to  read.  was  able  that It  to  dark  became  maintain  The  real  decade  difficult his  are to  buoyant,  unshakeable optimism and belief in the field of education in the face of so much adversity. war  years,  Chafe  recalls  how  In a chapter describing the teachers  flocked to join the Navy and RCAF. teachers  in Manitoba  not  was  until  reconstruction in  role  this  system.  were  still  the  work  of  students  woefully underpaid and  Friesen  improving  that played  Manitoba’s  it  educational an  important  educational  Useful information is given both on the work of the  Manitoba  Wheat  promotion  of  Pool the  and  on  Friesen’s  provincial  circumstances  in  contribution  teachers’  primary value of Chafe’s history the  their  At the end of the war,  mid-forties  underway.  got  and  which  credit  in  union.  the The  was in its description of Manitoba  teachers  found  themselves during and after the depression.  4.  THE PROFESSIONALIZATION OF ADULT EDUCATION INCLUDING  THE EMERGENCE OF ADULT EDUCATION AS A FIELD OF ACADEMIC STUDY.  Jensen,  Liveright and Hallenbeck,  in their landmark study of  the emerging “discipline” of adult education (1964)  provided  valuable  information about  the U.S.  and on the professionalization of adult education.  the  state of adult education in  58 The  editors  education  comment  was  for  that  adults,  not  striking statement that: of has  civilization, been  time  telescoped  into  is  that  (Jensen, the  obsolescence to  service  span  being  The  organized  writers  drastic  than  the  youth-  make  a  cultural  change  lifetime  of  of  today  reality makes  for  conviction  made  times  an  A consequence was and still  This  education  strong  of  less  well-educated  stimulate  Friesen’s  youth.  1964:iv).  tomorrow.  ancient  “For the first time in the history  the  individual”  in  adults about  available  in  it  may  necessity  a  throughout  University  the  face  life.  Extension  community  responds  directly to this imperative.  The  editors  obtained  commented  in  peripheral  adult  on  the  education  function.  flexibility  Although  characteristic  in  is  Friesen  education merited increased emphasis, central  it  because  his  remain  vigorous  through  describe how residential education  of  adults  can,  can  viewed  believed  as  be a  adult  such flexibility was a  approach  community development work and the programs in public responsibility.  that  Extension,  to for  education  He offered a system which could constant centres  The  editors  created expressly  for the  because  renewal.  of  their  independence,  remain free from control imposed by institutions established for other purposes.  Such centers  contribute  substantially  to the pioneering spirit of the adult education movement but in numerical  terms did not appear as a major factor in the  59 dissemination  of  adult  education.  -  Friesen  campaigned  to  have just such a centre built at UBC, but was unsuccessful.  Thomas’  report to the Canadian Commission for UNESCO  (1983)  provides a framework for understanding how learning does or can function in society.  He points out that learning is an  individual  societies  process;  that  but are dependent upon the  cannot  individual’s  themselves  learn  capacity to do so.  Thomas comments that the Faure Commission’s Report to UNESCO drew two major conclusions:  (1972)  The first was that it was not a mistake to invest heavily and consistently in education as a means of development, but it an error to concentrate that investment exclusively on the education of the young. The second conclusion was that the significant factor in change and development, individual and social, was not the provision of educational resources and the associated ‘delivery systems’ but the capacity of human beings, of any age, to learn. (Thomas, 1985:3) Thomas’  thoughtful  analysis  in  put  perspective  importance of the burden assumed by adult educators and impediments  and  frustrations  they  face  in  the the  gaining  recognition for the field.  In an Occasional Paper,  published in 1985,  the Thomas Years 1961  1970 in the CAE.  -  Selman writes of It was of special  value since Thomas was a close colleague of Friesen and all three CAAE.  men  took  a  deep  interest  in  Friesen encouraged his UBC  the staff  development to  of  the  take an active  60 role  the  in  professionalization  Interview,  (Friesen,  of  adult  has  been  Friesen  1992)  education. a  member  of  CAE since 1938.  Kulich,  in Adult Educators and their Associations in British  Columbia  (1986)  of  which  he  overview,  support for an understanding of the development of  professional  organizations  Columbia  a  and  education  of  Buttedahl  for  description  volunteer provides  the  adult  of  and  a  was  the  editor,  provides  educators  training  professional  description  of  in  an  British  and  continuing  adult  educators.  the  history  and  evolution  of  Education)  which he sees as an umbrella organization for the  PACE  Association  (Pacific  for  Continuing  broad field of adult,  continuing and community education in  British  Friesen  Columbia.  promoting  the  development  was  of  pioneer,  a  an  active  association  for  in  adult  educators in British Columbia as he strongly believed in the importance  of  establishing  roots  for  the  adult  education  profession.  The  above  Firstly  review  it  enables  historical  context  intellectual literature  on  relevance of  of  the  literature  Friesen’s  climate  and  to  of  its  Canadian adult  work be  serves  purposes.  to be understood  seen  time.  two  in  the  Secondly,  education  sheds  in  social the light  and  current on  Friesen’s work for contemporary society.  following chapters will elaborate those issues.  its  the The  61 CHAPTER 3:  THE MANITOBA YEARS  (1912  -  1953)  A dream can be the highest point of a life. (Ben Okri) A.  EARLY YEARS  John  K.  (1912  Friesen  (Figure 3),  was  1930)  -  born  June  11,  1912  and  raised  in  Altona  a town of about 1000 people- located in the Red River  Valley of Manitoba, which stretches from the Canada U.S.A. border north  Winnipeg.  to  (Figure 5),  In  had founded  1907  his  a general store,  exchange and mutual insurance firm. expanded  the  business  establishments.  father,  into  post office,  Friesen telephone  John’s three brothers later  of  one  W.  David  Canada’s  largest  printing  John was the one brother who did not enter the  family business. As a boy he worked in the store and said of this time,  “One learned much about people and the community across the  store  counter  Interview,  or  through  the  post  office  be  (Friesen,  1991)  Friesen spoke fondly of his father as a role to  wicket”  kind  to  people  and  kindest  to  the  model who told him  poorest.  He  shared  a  personal family tribute to their father which was made on May 25, 1980  by his brother David K.  from this intimate,  Friesen.  These are  some excerpts  compassionate and prized personal paper:  He taught us to avoid shallow mindedness, to think through our problems, and to act honourably with all men. Often he would go to someone who he thought might hold something against him and try and restore unity between them. He was frequently the catalyst that removed disharmony between persons or groups of persons. Personal (Friesen, Papers from David K. Friesen, older brother of J. K. Friesen, 1980) .  .  .  62 Most  of  the  community  cooperation working  and  people  beliefs.  was  service  Mennonite  he  profoundly  and  learned  the  from  influenced  strong  these  Friesen’s  spirit  devout,  of  hard  character  and  In Friesen’s words:  I am a product of a closely knit family which gives you much self confidence throughout life. .Altona was a community which could do things together; almost all of the community was Mennonite. I caught the spirit of cooperation within the community. (Friesen, Interview, 1991) .  The  deep  such  religious Altona  as  beliefs  were  and  forged  ethics in  of  the  .  Mennonite  early  communities  sixteenth  century  oppression of Dutch Protestants by the Spanish Catholic rulers in Holland. most  Friesen narrated how his  were  these  city  families  religion). to  say  folk,  and artists  some years  and  ancestors were persecuted;  (Rembrandt  later  painted  converted to  a  Lutherans  or  Interview,  1991)  Mennonite  Catholics,  two  had  pacifism  The Spanish lords who owned the  convictions and  adult  lowlands  of  of  the Mennonite  Many Mennonites were burned at the stake.  that  several  He went on  different  baptism  from  (Friesen,  Holland made  it  so  difficult for protestant “rebels” that they fled into exile, many to  Switzerland,  area, for  what two  ground  but  ancestors  is now the region of Gdansk,  centuries into  Catherine  Friesen’s  rich  the  discovering, farmland.  Great  invited  In  settled  these  the  Danzig  Poland where they lived  reclaiming the  in  later  and  turning  eighteenth  Mennonite  farmers  unused century to  the  63 Ukraine to demonstrate and practice the best in land cultivation. The Ukraine became the bread basket of Russia and large numbers of Mennonites went from Danzig to the Southern Ukraine. century  more,  or  the  Mennonite  belief  in  pacifism  After a came  into  conflict with the will of the Czar who commanded their young men to serve in the army.  According to Friesen:  Thousands decided to emigrate to North merica, and my ancestors among them. The immigrants first settled in rural areas, experiencing pioneer hardships. Half a century later many had gravitated urban to communities. .They went for humanitarian professions: teaching, nursing, medicine, Canada has a great many Mennonite teachers. (Friesen, Interview, 1991) .  .  He confirmed that Mennonites mostly kept together and believed in cooperation. together  “If  to  a  rebuild  neighbor’s it”  (Friesen,  mainly Mennonite community, because of of  his  down  Interview,  church  held  John Friesen said,”  they  all  got  In  the  1991). a  prominent place  Either  I  Speaking heard,  heard the school bell ringing on November 11,  when World War I was over”  In 1918  the  burned  its various Sunday and weekday activities.  earliest memory,  imagined I  barn  John was  (Friesen,  Interview,  enrolled in primary school  or  1918,  1991).  in Altona.  Fond of  school,  he was a bright student whose good grades enabled him to  skip  grade.  a  He  took  a  keen  interest  self-poured open-air rinks or ponds.  in  sports,  skating  on  Friesen told the researcher  there was limited reading matter available in school,  or at home,  64 mainly newspapers  and magazines.  Friesen gave  an  insight  into  the teaching practices of those days when he said: In prescribed school readers and in Sunday school, the content was moralistic hence, in retrospect, overly concerned with sin and death, e.g. a popular poem concluding with, “. . .and smiling the boy fell dead.” (Friesen, Interview, 1992)  Friesen’s boyhood memories joy he had in the working, bustling hometown. the farming rural  the sense  social and religious activities of his  that  traditions  deeply of  contentment and  of  time,  before  the  ravages  community by the great depression,  Manitoba was  farming  At  reflect  satisfying and  these  caused  to  the lifestyle of  flowed  from the  hard working people.  John  early  Friesen  provided a vignette of these times when he said: I remember driving a team of horses with a load of grain during summer vacations; eating lunch with the threshing gang, hog-killing in bees; winter the departing on a family-packed sleigh for a visit and the usual delicious dinner and sweets at the grandparents. (Friesen, Interview, 1992) Altona was alive with music, mainly vocal, prided itself on its brass band. organ,  the  four-part chorales. returning  congregation made up harmony Friesen  with  missionaries  If the church lacked a proper for  gospel  described from  it by worshipping,  songs how  as  overseas  places would stir his imagination. were a happy period:  although the town also  and a and  some  in  fine  centuries-old  youngster, reading  visits of  by  distant  He recalls his boyhood years  65 During my boyhood readings or events would often stir my imagination in picturing far and luring horizons very different from the home setting, however contented life was in Altona in those years. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992) From his music.  childhood  experience,  records  go  baseball,  back  to  hockey,  lifetime  Sports in Altona were encouraged,  the  some  late  football,  interest  in  John  1800’s)’.  all  sports,  North  played  enthusiastic  Movies arrived in No dancing was  To Friesen and his undaunted companions nearby Neche,  Dakota,  pastimes.”  (team  the beginning  and  but were frowned on by the more austere.  permitted.  Friesen  and much tennis;  participation in amateur tournament tennis. Altona,  for  and the violin by a school-teacher; but was mostly  self-taught thereafter.  a  love  He was taught the rudiments of the piano by an itinerant  music teacher,  of  Friesen gained a great  provided  “open  season  for  such  prohibited  Looking back on a lifetime of participation in many  events and causes,  Friesen has said:  To begin with, I have been generally fortunate in socializing easily with people of virtually any class or interest. Groups and organizations, whether in clubs, sports, cultural or other community endeavors, I sought them out and enjoyed taking part. The best later example was, of course, University Extension which involved a variety of interests, as broad as life itself. The desire to participate no doubt influenced me in choosing the study of applied rural sociology observing and problem solving in education, community, political and socioeconomic movements. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992) --  Friesen  spent  the  years  Collegiate Institute the  stern,  1927-1929  at  in nearby Gretna.  the  residential  Mennonite  Unforgettable to him is  impressively educated principal, H.H. Ewert from whom  66 he  learned,  among  literature and this  serious  multi-cultural  trips vast  couldn’t  I  1929,  where  look  Friesen  attended  “Some  the  it  profound  comprehend at age 17” in  across;  enjoyed  offered  my  the  -  first  family  view  1991).  and  the  two  was  an  active  music and drama.  participant  in  school  Donna Laskey and J.W.  its music.  Chafe).  School  in  commented, I  failed  to  He gained high  principalships,  John  At Normal  activities,  School,  especially  writing a one-act  he was especially fond  of attending the plays at the Dominion Theatre Wright,  ‘sea’”  W.A.  He was awarded a medal for  In the big city life of Winnipeg,  play.  “so  Principal,  Friesen had already accepted one at Haskett. he  he  observations  of  in  several  the  Normal  Interview,  choice  German  friends  took  of  although,  when  of  Lake Winnipeg,  Provincial  pedagogical  a  found many  beheld  immensely  (Friesen,  him  summer,  the  practice-teaching,  McIntyre,  He  Friesen  1992).  He  marks  In  appreciation  an  study habits.  Interview,  Winnipeg. of  benefits,  town.  to Winnipeg,  (Friesen,  In  other  (starring Charles  The city was renowned for  Friesen especially appreciated the symphony and the  nationally prominent annual Manitoba Music Festival.  He  remembers  with particular  fondness  student at the University of Manitoba, great  depression.  said Friesen. Marshall  “Bill  one  friend Bill  Jones,  a  in the first year of the  opened many doors  to a  larger world”,  Bill also introduced John to future noted scholar  McLuhan  and  to  the  family  of  the  President  of  the  67 Canadian  Pacific Railway at  Friesen was critic. in  the  Lake  elected valedictorian,  of  the Woods  resort.  Bill Jones became  When  the gentle  Bill and John joined the church youth on Sunday nights  serving  Church.  charity  The  Goodwill  dinners  minister,  Industries  to  Reverend  unemployed Richmond  still  (which  remaking old clothes,  the  at  Craig,  operates)  Grace  United  also  founded  collecting  and  furniture, etc. and selling it to replenish  the charity chest.  As a teenager, a  teacher  brothers  John Friesen made up his mind that he wanted to be  rather took  on  than the  the  join latter  task  family and  business. the  His  company  three  prospered,  diversified its activities and became one of Canada’s largest and most  successful  companies.  printing,  bookbinding  Of his goals at that time,  and  stationery  supply  Friesen said:  However distant the goal, some day I hoped to attend the university. My parents provided the opportunity for me to attend an excellent residential high school, and to my older brother David’s credit, I was grateful in his going “the extra mile” in applying himself in the family business. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992) Friesen  has  successes.  proud He  recollections  commented  to  the  of  -  his  researcher  family about  illustrated history recently written by Vic Penner, of  the  town’s  weekly  newspaper,  The  Echo.  “All  and  their  “Altona”  an  former editor they  could  remember about me was as someone who was a war veteran and earned the first doctorate in the area and was a top tennis player,  but  68 there were 288 photographic references to the D.W. in just that one book”  B.  HASKETT, MANITOBA  Friesen’s  teaching  Depression,  in  (Friesen,  (1930  began  to teach in a number of  Hargrave and Virden.  in  Manitoba,  became teacher and principal. was  1991).  1935)  -  career  Haskett,  Interview,  Friesen family  during  1930,  where  at  the  the  age  of  Great 18  he  Throughout the hungry thirties he Manitoba towns:  Haskett,  Gretna,  Friesen says of these times:  Depression took a heavy social and economic toll of farm and village families. The better off assumed leadership; their children stayed in school longer. I enjoyed teaching and infused a bit more of the arts and sports into the curriculum than was prescribed. (Friesen, Interview, 1991) Friesen told the researcher that in his early teaching years, grew  up  Friesen Haskett  with  his  taught has  all now  students; the  some  subjects  vanished  with  often  in  were  grades  older  7-11.  the railway’s  than  The  town  he taught at collegiates in Gretna and Virden.  is  to  never  drew a  children,  note  that,  even  distinction between  in  these  early years,  community,  in the need for education.  he. of  disappearance.  Subsequently, important  he  school,  It  Friesen  adults  and  Stressing this conviction,  John Friesen observed: During the depression it wasn’t the children in school who would lift the community from the doldrums. The influence and ability to do so was in the hands of adults, parents and older brothers and sisters both at home and in other communities across Canada. I learned about adult education from organizations often  69 meeting in schools. Interesting to see adults grow in these activities as their just children were developing in school. (Friesen, Interview, 1991) Before  long,  Friesen  sports organizations;  had  organized  the  number  a community choir,  society, baseball and hockey teams, that  a  depression  actually  of  community  literary club,  (Figure 7)  drew people  and  debating  He concluded  etc.  together  in  order  to  help one another.  Friesen  enjoyed  everything  about  teaching,  and  in  reminiscing  about another extra-curricular commitment, he said: Some youngsters were interested to continue their music after school so, fiddle case under my arm, I tramped from home to home to teach- the fee was a much appreciated farm-cooked dinner! (Friesen, Interview, 1991) -  Despite  long  hours  spent  in  school  and  community  activities,  Friesen had many quiet evenings to expand his reading and listen to the music, Atlantic  missed. on  news,  Nocturne  talks and plays on the radio. of  poetry  with  organ  Another popular favorite was  their  powerful  Salt  Lake  City  music  Frank Willis’ was  not  to  be  the Mormon Choir broadcast  transmitter.  He  wrote  some  amateur verse and enjoyed long solitary evenings walking country roads. Grove,  He  wondered  whether  popular  novelist  a Haskett teacher some years earlier,  up his stories walking these same trails.  Frederick  Philip  might have dreamed  70 UNIVERSITY OF MANITOBA SUNMER SCHOOL & EXTRA-MURAL STUDIES  C.  During  the  years  as  principal,  heavily engaged in a range of  high  12;  teacher  community activities,  about getting a university degree. boys  school  and  while  Friesen set  Frisen’s father told all the  that he would pay for his children’s education up to grade after  that  their own.  he  Since,  would  loan  them the money,  in common with most people,  but  they were  on  he did not own a  car and Winnipeg was some 70 miles away,  much of his course work  had  study.  to  be  done  through  correspondence  Summer  School  attendance at the University of Manitoba was of vital importance. The effect of Summer School on the young Friesen, brought up in a rural community, was electrifying: I revelled in Summer Schools. I was the student representative on the Dean’s Executive in Summer School; there were crowds of fellow teachers and interesting professors. My min& was spinning with lectures, girl friends, concerts, and sports. A memorable event was the annual tennis tournament and for three summers I won the singles event. I had discovered big city life- -a far cry from my small town. This naturally changed me, greatly expanded my horizons. (Friesen, 1992, Interview)  In  1936,  Manitoba.  John  Friesen obtained his  He became  convinced that  B.A. this  from the University of is what  one aspect  University Extension work is all about: During the great depression, climbing the educational ladder was easier wished than done; for example, rural living expenses and college tuition would have to be paid out of a very low annual teaching salary. Fortunately, there was a way out: extra-mural classes,  of  71  -  correspondence courses Personal Communication, After many a schools,  he  night’s  late  his  earned  immediate reward,  and summer 1992) study  degree  in  in  school.  Haskett, History  on obtaining the B.A.  school position. but  resigned  and a  and  degree  the qualification to teach in a collegiate,  (Friesen,  few summer  Sociology.  The  (Figure 10),  was  a step above the high  He wanted to go on to the University full time,  himself  to  continue  teaching.  A  dark  cloud  was  looming over Europe: The thought of depression and war scuttled my immediate plans for further university studies. With rumors of impending war I did some worrying about how I, a pacifist, would face critical decisions if war was declared. (Friesen, Interview, 1992) D.  OTHER TEACHING POSTS  Commenting  on  his  teaching  involvement  in  these  years,  John  Friesen added: After five years Haskett, I took a position with at my prestigious old school Gretna, the Mennonite at Collegiate Institute. Liked teaching older students, and Gretna/Neche communities were livelier than Haskett. Alas, the school principal was altogether too conservative, so a year later the third instructor and I pulled out. spent a year at I Hargrave as principal before beginning a three-year term at much larger Virden. The town offer could numerous social/cultural services and our school was a highly reputed collegiate. (Friesen, Interview, 1991) E.  In  INTEREST IN ADULT EDUCATION KINDLED  the  director  mid-30s, of  the  educational  Manitoba’s  philosophy  sanatorium at  Ninette,  of  David  began  to  Stewart, impress  72 John  Friesen,  Coady”  who  considered  (Friesen,  him,  Interview,  “a  sort  1991).  of  Dr.  early  Stewart  M.M.  envisaged  a  provincial organization for adult educators and became a catalyst attracting first  director  Columbia. in  many like souls,  1934  of  including Robert England,  Extension  of  the  University  later the  of  British  A Manitoba Association for Adult Education was formed through  Stewart’s  leadership.  According  to  Friesen,  David Stewart’s clarion call was: More learning? Let us have more for practical every day uses, more for culture, more for life material, more for living. Where and When may we have more learning? Here and now. Work! for the night cometh when no man can work. Who may have this? You and me. A what age? At just what ages are today, age 19 or 90. Who will give it? We, ourselves must give it. Be very sure nothing worth-while can come into our lives by what other people do, or by what governments do, but only by what we ourselves do, and sweat in doing. What are the means? Whatever we have ready. What is in thy hand? Take it, and use it fully. What is the motive? That we may have life and that we may have it more abundantly. (Friesen, Personal Papers on Stewart, 1934) These words remained an inspiration for John Friesen for all the years to come.  F.  UNITED CHURCH,  Friesen had a the  strong  cooperative  Manitoba days. during  the  YOUNG PEOPLE’S UNION (YPU)  commitment  movement  in  to  which  LEADERSHIP  democracy and he  was  very  through it active  in  to his  He witnessed the hardship suffered in rural areas  Depression  years,  though ,he  admits  not  to  have  73 suffered personally.  That experience reinforced Friesen’s belief  that it is necessary to protect the disadvantaged through welfare and assist them to continue their education.  Friesen lived at Virden’s  Central  Hotel  and he saw Virden as a  hospitable place with excellent social events. Church Choir  (Figure 11)  He led the United  and conducted Gilbert & Sullivan’s  Pinafore at the collegiate.  In Virden,  HMS  Friesen took part in many  aspects of the growing movement for adult education.  One of the  important developments then being launched across Canada was the Dominion  Provincial  Youth  Training  Program  (Figure  12).  Friesen became the school’s secretary for the Virden district,  In  attendance would be 40 to 50 young men and women who had finished grade school, but who had never seen the inside of a high school. They  spent  their  youth  on  farms  in  steeped  depression.  Homemaking course was offered for young farm women. for men and women,  A  The programs  the one Agricultural Training and Citizenship,  the other Homemaking and Citizenship, both involved a cooperative learning process.  The  courses  together,  grants.  Friesen said,  wonders  for  these  students were able  for  several  months,  to live and do  supported  by  these  government  “This was an intriguing experiment and did  young  men  and  women”  (Friesen,  Interview,  1991)  Through (YPU)  activities  Friesen  leadership  and  of  gained  the  United Church’s  his  first  largely  as  a  important  result  of  Young  People’s  experience  his  interest  Union  in  wider  in  these  74 activities he gradually turned from the Mennonite church of his childhood to the United Church. mean a great deal to him.  His active involvement came to  He said:  I continue to cherish the ideals of my forefathers, but found the United Church the more acceptable for me because it was exceptionally open-minded, politically alert, socially committed and ecumenical. Over several years (1938-40) the church experience also enabled me to gain a wide experience in community development and provincial organization and to associate with a larger circle of young Canadians. (Friesen, Interview, 1991) In the period 1938-1940,  good friends, Elliott,  a  the Jay Watson family of Brandon, liberal-minded  Lake.  Friesen was  of  Young  1939  participant  in church  Friesen was strongly encouraged in these activities by  affairs.  the  he was an active  and  chaired  United Church minister in nearby Oak  elected President of  People’s this  Union  and Reverend Bob  the Manitoba Conference  (YPU),  United  organization  for two  Writing about highlights in his career,  Church years  of  Canada  (Figure  in  13).  Friesen said of the years  1937-1942: Participation in United Church programs was an involvement of great personal value. The lingering depression and the war years had made the church’s mission all the more relevant. My two-year term as Manitoba President of the Young People’s Union [YPU] with its large membership, offered me an insight into the various fields of youth education, a benefit I was soon to appreciate even more on shortly joining the staff of the Manitoba Federation of Agriculture. On many weekends I traveled the province as a volunteer in the cause of a strong YPU membership. What memorable days they were the sunrise services and quiet forest strolls amid autumn glory, the joy of ‘sweet singing in the choir’, the clarion call to dedicated service by a visiting missionary from China, or Dr. F. G. Stevens ministering to the prairie --  75 Crees by himself learning Cree, creating their first dictionary and teaching Cree children in their mother tongue. Over the years I have seen groups espousing this cause and that; seldom have I observed an association zealously so committed self -development to and community betterment as was the United Church YPU. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)  in  Experience learning various Vita,  YPU  provincial  experience  in  institutions  Manitoba,  through Dr.  leadership  supported  introduced  and  by  the  church:  China”  G.  By  a  Stevens in northern Fisher Branch.  the  a  rich  Friesen  to  hospital  in  and church activities with native Indian people,  also keenly interested in foreign missions. hero was  provided  organization  later  Friesen said:  illustrious physician Dr.  Interview,  (Friesen,  YPU members were “Our  Robert McClure  in  1991).  MANITOBA FEDERATION OF AGRICULTURE  late  the  1930s,  Friesen’s  demonstrated  provincial United Church activities, existed  between  rurally  community  oriented  organizations. President  of  teacher,  He the  and  received  Manitoba  an  in  his belief that no division  school,  led  leadership  to  and  invitation of  reputation as  involvement  his  Federation  his  from Dr.  Agriculture  in J.A.  a  farm Munn,  (MFA),  to  head up the educational arm of the organization which represented virtually all province’s  the cooperative businesses and hence most  farm families  (Friesen,  Interview,  1991).  of  the  In July  76 1940,  Friesen became the Adult Education Director of the Manitoba  Federation of Agriculture  His  was  job  people Friesen mentor.  to discover a way in which the MFA might become  using  involved, in  Friesen’s  rural  met  (MFA).  experience  communities  Fawcett  Speaking  of  Ransom this  to  help  who  was  largely  in  education,  themselves. to  become  self-taught  in At  an  getting the  MFA  invaluable  educator  Friesen  said:  Since the early ‘twenties, Ransom had been an activist for rural community pioneer development, a adult educator on many fronts. Today his name is inscribed in Manitoba’s Agricultural Hall of Fame. It was Ransom more than any other person who urged me to join the MFA. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992) Friesen commented on the influence of Ransom in his work on study groups in Manitoba: How fortunate, I soon found, to have him [Ransom] as a friend and advisor. He had unbounded faith in the educational dynamics of the study group. The MFA’s travelling folk schools, launched and directed by very capable young Helen Watson, also derived much benefit from Ransom’s understanding of rural communities. The organization of an MFA network of more than 400 study groups by Friesen and his colleagues was a new approach for the Federation. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992) The study group was a powerful St. F.X. type method. With good subject matter of the participants’ choosing, you could help build a live wire organization that was motivated for study/action. That’s what we proceeded to do. (Friesen, Interview, 1991)  77 The  MFA  groups  study  later  linking up with the CAAE/CBC’s  became  more  even  Farm Forum,  influential  by  of which Friesen was  appointed Manitoba Secretary.  The National Office of Farm Forum  mailed  be  out  topic  outlines  to  studied  by  the  rural  groups,  which also listened to a CBC radio broadcast on the subject. forums reported back to the Provincial Secretary.  The  He then broad  cast summaries of their conclusions to reinforce and further the work of the study groups and folk schools.  The program proved of  great benefit during the war years in providing a national forum, furthering education and boosting morale. ment  in the war  (1945-46)  this work with Farm Forum.  Following his involve  Friesen would later return briefly to As Friesen observed:  This is where again I learned of the power, the dynamism, of the little group. Their influence can exceed that of politicians, as such study/action groups create opinion to which politicians must respond. Broadcasting was exciting as in the 40’s radio was a major medium in the country. (Friesen, Interview, 1992) Friesen goes on to assert that even in his home town of Altona: A name that become associated with cooperative movement was that of J.J. Siemens. An educated and dynamic rural leader, he roused the depressed farmers of Altona and southern Manitoba to unite for cooperative economic action. Subsequently, J.J. served the movement as a board member in Manitoba and nationally. I learned to admire Jake Siemens as both a visionary and a national organizer. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)  People got improve adult  together in the tough depression decade and tried to  their  lot  education,  through  cooperation.,  through  such  Friesen  community  remembers  efforts,  aimed  how to  78 alleviate  in  Reflecting on  modest  measure  the  hardships  of  farm  families.  his years with the MFA Friesen comments:  In retrospect, I found that organizing for group action usually was a rewarding undertaking for the participants and at times high adventure for the organizer. It called for my travelling, often on lonely, snowbound roads, to a round of far off meetings held in schools or halls. Arriving for such a meeting, I would connect the car battery to the 16mm film projector and hoped the current would hold out for the hour. A talk and discussion were followed by a showing of several National Film Board productions. At the conclusion, the hospitable farm women served welcome refreshments. For farm communities that had faced trying times for a decade, the annual schedule of local, district and provincial forums and conferences boosted both economic and social cooperation. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992) An amusing carton graphically illustrates this period.  / P7&  ) \4’ 4 •3iJ  cF€15 -.3ULV, I’ ST W$HES rco TPE CO-OPL 57 Well—wishers on John & Marta Friesen’s  departure from Manitoba for UBC,Vncouver Summer 1953  Figure 2:  Cartoon of John K. Friesell, 1953  79 The Manitoba Federation of Agriculture provided itinerant for  Folk Schools  hard-hit  following  and  the  which became  often  demoralized  depression. First  Friesen  Folk-Schools:  The  Parsey  (1951).  In the study,  Watson  were  described  Danish model.  a  as  Ten  social  and  rural  youth  was  Years  funding for the  co-author  1940  1950  -  economic  boon  during of  and  Manitoba  with  John  M.  the folk schools directed by Helen  being  a  Canadian  adaptation  of  the  The Friesen/Parsey study describes the objectives  of folk schools: --  --  --  --  --  --  H.  to awaken a community consciousness and a feeling that young people have a part to play in moulding society; to develop an understanding of the co-operative movement in its economic aspects; to demonstrate co-operative living through group experience; to develop the individual’s confidence and ability through public speaking and through participation in the community endeavors of the school; to imbue the students with the will to study for action; what de Huszar has called ‘not talkdemocracy, but DO-democracy’; to create, in all activities, a spirit of genuine fel lowship through significant social experiences. (Friesen and Parsey, 1951:14)  CANADIAN ASSOCIATION FOR ADULT EDUCATION  (CAAE)  In 1938 Friesen joined the CAAE while still a teacher in Virden Manitoba.  Ned  Corbett  retired  1951  his  in  was  Director  place was  of  the  CAAE  taken by Roby Kidd,  and a  when  long  he  time  80 friend of  Friesen  from  Columbia University  Roby Kidd  days.  encouraged John Friesen to become deeply involved in all aspects of the CAAE.  His  They became very close associates.  connection  invitations  with  for  including the  Friesen  Kidd to  also  led  participate  to in  Second UNESCO World Conference  held in Montreal also helped support  Roby  in 1960,  a  number  of  early  international  work,  on Adult  Education  to which he ‘was a delegate.  Friesen  Corbett and later Kidd in expanding the network of  for  CAAE,  the  conferences.  including  the  convening  of  regional  He described the importance of the CAAE:  It was also a time of strengthening my bonds with the CAAE its through Ned Corbett director, and later especially Roby Kidd. National CAAE conferences in those were years prominent occasions, attracting foremost figures in education and the media--Ferguson of the press, Coady of St. F.X., university presidents Wallace and James, MacKenzie, Shrum and Andrew of UBC, Cameron Alberta, of Brockington celebrated a broadcaster, Grierson of the NFB, et al. Through the national journal and research, the CAAE’s close association with Farm and Citizens Forum was growing into a national movement and giving support to the emerging profession of adult education. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)  Friesen was a regular contributor to the CAAE journals. his  articles  are  with his talks, remains  a  influential National services.  listed  4:  Publications  book reviews and consultations.  strong  supporter;  advocate  Film  in Appendix No.  Board,  Friesen  for  literacy,  and  other  sees  public  essential  Some of along  To this day he the  CAAE  as  broadcasting, national  needs  an the and  81 I.  WORK WITH FATHER M.M.  Father M.M.  Coady of St.  Antigonish,  Nova  cooperative  credit  union  helping  lifelong  commitment  approach  and in  democrat.  all  Francis Xavier University  Scotia,  Friesen,  Friesen  COADY AND THE CREDIT UNIONS  to  movement,  shape to  who  resolving  “disciple  then  his  views  democratic  sought  his  economic  became  ideals.  advice  problems.  in  of  the  mentor  to  John  strengthening  take Coady  cooperative  a was  Writing of him in The Man from Margaree  his  encouraged  Coady  to  FX),  apostle” a  and  (St.  a  fervent  (1971),  Alex  Laidlaw said: For him the world had enough of rule by a few strong men at the top. A new age would dawn, he believed, when the whole mass of humanity would lift itself to a new level of life, when democratic man would emerge. So his philosophy rested on a deep conviction about the fundamental rightness of democracy and its necessity for the liberation of the human spirit. (Laidlaw, 1971:21) Coady himself said: The stirring events of our time make it imperative that we take new look a ourselves at and our democracies. Democracy, as we all know, is self rule. It is government of, by, and for the people. It means participation by the people in all the vital social processes. the old days (Laidlaw, 1971:32) “. . . .In more than seventy per cent of our people were on farms. They had ownership the very foundation of American democracy. It gave the people a measure of economic independence and that sense of responsibility that goes with effective political democracy. (Laidlaw, 1971:33) --  Discussing  the period when he  fell  dynamic and profoundly humane leader,  under the  influence of  Friesen said:  this  82 I observed in Nova Scotia how Coady and his colleagues began a ground swell of cooperative organizations amongst poor fisherman and then set out to follow the F.X. model of study groups for Manitoba farm St. At our peak we people. formed four hundred groups in one year ranging in subject matter from credit unions and cooperatives soil to conservation, health, education, public speaking, etc. (Friesen, Interview, 1991) In  June  Credit  1940,  Friesen  Union.  He  is  alive who returned to 50th  Anniversary  establishing cooperative  became  a  charter  member  among  the  three  original  in  1990  for the  Credit Union’s  on  experience  Virden  celebration.  the  Virden  approach  in  Society  (MTS).  Teacher  (September-October,  Based  Credit  his  to  the  the  Virden  members  Friesen  Union,  financing  of  still  took  Manitoba  in this  Teachers  He wrote an article published in the The Manitoba 1945).  Following is an excerpt:  In the early thirties a teacher could not avoid high interest charges on loans, but in 1937 the Manitoba legislature cleared the road for action by passing an Act providing for the establishment of credit unions. Today many towns and country communities in Manitoba have efficient credit unions serving their people. What is a Credit Union? It may be simply defined as a small co-coperative bank which receives shares and [deposits and] loans from its members and makes short term [insured] loans to them. (Friesen, 1945:22) The  MTS’s  historian,  contribution  to  the  J.W.  Chafe  formation  of  highlighted  (1969),  the Manitoba  Friesen’s  Teacher’s  Credit  Union Society by saying: Yet when in 1945 a bright young pedagogue, Johnny Friesen, suggested in the Manitoba Teacher that the MTS [Manitoba Teachers Society] form a credit union, most teachers seem to have yawned, just as they had when group insurance was suggested. In 1950, five years later, the Manitoba Teacher reprinted Johnny’s .  .  .  83 article, and presto! Sudden interest! And in that year, the Manitoba Teachers’ Credit Union Society was born. (Chafe, 1969:163) One indication of the close association between Coady and Friesen is that on the day before Coady died John Friesen. of  Prince  fishermen, Harding,  his thoughts were on  (1959)  On the invitation of John Friesen and Ken Harding  Rupert, but  Coady  as  his  was  due  to  assistant  address in  related  meeting  a a  letter  of  B.C.  to  Mr.  Secretary of the Fishermen’s Co-operative Association:  The day before Dr. Coady died he was speaking about you and Dr. Friesen. Even at that time we hoped he would recover but when we mentioned the B.C. trip to him he merely shook his head and said, ‘No, I’ll never make that trip, much as I would love to see all my friends on the west coast again. They are fine men and have been always very kind to me.... (Friesen, Personal Papers, Arsenault, 1959 letter, See Appendix No. 10 for letter and notes) .  .  .  J. ARTS IN MANITOBA  From  Friesen’s  conducted  choirs  boyhood (Figures  were a four-part harmony pianist.  days 9  he  &  had The  11).  organized four  (Friesen a baritone)  singing  and  Friesen brothers  with sister Anne as  A love of the fine arts, particularly music and poetry,  remains central  to his life today.  At each stage of his career  he has focused much attention on their development.  In Manitoba,  Friesen  through  encouraged  schools.  musical  and  artistic  study  the  He conducted light operas and was a leader in a group  which in 1937 launched the Virden Music Festival, which continues as  an  annual  tradition  to  this  theatricals and won a gold medal  day.  He  became  for play-writing.  involved  in  All of this  84 early cultural  activity prepared John Friesen for the  important  contributions he was to make in the arts later in his career.  IC.  THE WAR YEARS  By  late  1941,  (1939  Canada  -  1945)  had  already  contributed  manpower and supplies to the war effort. was  also a crucial  one.  impressively  in  The role of agriculture  Friesen worked in agriculture and had  his own personal struggle with deeply held beliefs about pacifism (which he had inherited from his Mennonite ancestors) faced with the decision about He  found  direct  this  decision very  conflict with his  service  in the  difficult,  as  Second World War.  his  impulse to do his duty  democracy in which he also believed passionately. commented,  when he was  pacifism was  in  in defending a Friesen simply  “I came from a pacifist family and I was thought quite  revolutionary to join the war”  (Friesen,  Interview,  1992).  He recalls this conflict: What was my own unexpressed attitude toward actual combative service? Although I was brought up in a pacifist family, the thought whether or not to enlist in the active forces was a constant worry. How to make the deed and the Word agree? I had never doubted that genuine conscientious objectors were a brave lot in facing a wartime society’s daily daggers of criticism. But would a life of and compassion, devotion dedicated to community service, however noble, help in any way to eventually crush the ambitions of Hitler and the monstrous killings by his legions? What doubtless tipped the scale in my deciding to join up was the news of mounting casualties among former students and other friends. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)  85 He recognized that going active might pose a threat to one of his convictions. Friesen  Unlike his ancestors under the Czar however,  John  saw the defense of freedom as a noble cause and once he  had made the decision to serve,  characteristically threw himself  whole-heartily into his  in the Royal  (RCAF).  service  Canadian Air Force  In his own words:  I enlisted in the RCAF, eventually graduating as a For my parents, the thought of my joining navigator. the fighting forces was a very sad experience; but I knew their thoughts and well wishes would always accompany me. Following training in Western Canada and in northern Britain, we collected as a crew, four Canucks and three Brits. It was fortunate that we were posted to Waterbeach, a permanent RAF base in bomber command in East Anglia a half hour bicycle ride to historic Cambridge. As was critically essential, our McDonald Lancaster crew developed strong cooperative bonds; we grew together into a very closely knit unit for action. Excellent morale, from Skipper Bruce McDonald down to rear gunner. The esprit de corps never faltered. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992) --  John  Friesen  flew  territory  and  (D.F.C).  (Figures  experience,  was  thirty-five awarded 15-17)  the  While  combat  missions  Distinguished reluctant  to  over  enemy  Flying  Cross  talk  of  his  Friesen does speak of lost comrades:  War is hell! Our crew survived, physically unscathed, thank God! As to the less fortunate crews of our squadron --Kathleen Raines’ lines in “Heroes” expresses the bitter loss: This war’s dead heros, who has seen them? They rise in smoke above the burning city, Faint clouds, dissolving into sky. They are remembered, on duty and on leave, as young and venturesome, not infrequently plagued by a premonition of no return, and buoyed up at the thought of a bright future back home. Personal Communication, (Friesen, 1992)  war  86 Apart  from giving an occasional  Friesen  dwells  entirely  on  the  glimpse rich  of  the  reality of war,  experience  he  gained  from  exposure to the cultural life of England and Scotland.  For a man  from a small  in an old  town  in Manitoba to find himself  living  and mature  civilization was  Friesen’s  first experience of University life in Manitoba.  as much of  a.  cultural  Britain and the University town of Cambridge,  awakening as Of  which lay close to  his air base, he says: An invaluable reward, between operations was on-leave days when Britain was your oyster. Much of any Canadian’s education and my teaching curriculum related to British culture, now available for us to enjoy. What a rich cultural feast: nearby Cambridge, London its and boundless interest, the south country and Bournemouth which for weeks was our reception city on arrival, attending Shakespeare plays in Stratford-on- Avon. Dear old Scotland! Our first posting was at Kirkubright (near Wigtown) on Soiway Firth, with leaves in Royal Edinburgh and Glasgow. I recall a memorable evening with former Edinburgh University’s Lord Rector, Sir Herbert Grierson in his spacious apartments overlooking Arthur’s Seat. Our pre-ops training station was just south of Dumfries, Robert Burns’ country. Brown’s Restaurant in Edinburgh with its special pastry! (Friesen, Interview, 1992) Yet compare this with the image conjured by his comment: Every op was approached and carried out with some trepidation and in some unforgettable with cases downright dread. Occasionally I took some favorite poems with me on flights. (Friesen, Interview, 1992) The  battlefield  character between  of  peace  the and  had  man war  important who  consequences  returned.  deeply  affected  The John  in  forming  repeated Friesen,  the  transition a  man  of  87 compassionate  disposition,  and  reinforèed  his  determination  to  serve humankind through education.  L.  RETURN TO MANITOBA AFTER THE WAR  (1945  1946)  -  When John Friesen returned to Canada from overseas, to go back to work on ‘civvy street’ Elevator welcomed me”  immediately.  Interview,  (Friesen,  he  “decided  Manitoba Pool During  1992).  the  succeeding year, before his departure for Columbia University, he did a made  good deal broadcasts  building  of  editorializing  and  talked  living memorials,  for  various  to  after  the Manitoba  the  Cooperator,  organizations  devastation of  war.  about About  three months before he was due to depart for Columbia University, Friesen met with Premier Stuart Garson  (whom he saw as a man of  vision).  The Premier was aware of Friesen’s work before the war  and  to  said  him,  “What  I  think we  need  Royal Commission on Adult Education. writing the terms of reference?”  in  this  province  is  a  John, will you assist us in Interview,  (Friesen,  1992).  Friesen explained that he was to depart shortly for Columbia, but agreed  to  formulate  serve the  as  interim  structure,  Secretary  the  terms  of  few members.  He  recommended an old  Sword  to  become  (later  Toronto)  to  continue  The record shows  “Mr.  the J.  Vice work K.  tern pending the arrival of Mr.  to  reference,  friend and  President as  initiate  of  Secretary  Friesen  acted  the to as  Sword in Winnipeg”  the and  project, suggest  colleague,  Jack  University the  a  of  Commission.  Secretary  pro  (Report of the  88 Manitoba  Royal  Commission  on  Adult  Education,  Jack  1947:18).  Sword finished the work started by Friesen and wrote the report. Many  things  grew out  of  the  Royal  Commission  including  finally  the appointment of a Director of University Extension.  Friesen felt honored to coordinate the “Joint Manitoba Brief” the  Massey  appointed  Commission. a Royal  NA.M. MacKenzie,  In  1948/49  the  Government  of  to  Canada  Commission on the Arts, Letters and Sciences. UBC President was a member of that Commission,  of which the Hon. Vincent Massey was Chairman.  It is interesting  to note that John Friesen first met Dr.  (Larry)  in 1949  Norman  MacKenzie  when Friesen chaired a group of organizations preparing  the brief  to  the  Commission.  N.A.M.  MacKenzie was  later  to  play an important role in John Friesen’s life.  M.  COLTJNBIA UNIVERSITY  (1946  Talking of his post-war years,  -  1948)  John Friesen said:  A cultural and academic peak in my post-war period was Columbia University. Since it was granted its charter as King’s College by King George II, the University had achieved an enviable reputation, a member of the distinguished company of Harvard, Princeton and Yale. My subjects were rural sociology and adult education, both directly applicable in later years in continuing education at the University of British Columbia and in a better understanding of rural societies in Asia and Africa. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992) Friesen  departed  for  Columbia  University  in  June  1946  to  undertake both a Master of Arts Degree and a Doctor of Education  89 Degree.  This further education was made possible by grants made  available by Canada to returning veterans. John  Friesen  all of  himself  the  challenging  task  of  accomplishing  this scholastic work within twenty-four months.  testament that  set  Characteristically,  to his working habits  Friesen  did  achieve  It is a  and to the quality of objective.  his  his mind  1947,  In  Columbia  University granted him his Master’s Degree and in 1948 his Doctor of  Education,  Adult  with  a  Education.  his just  six  Canadian  a  months to  Rural 18:  Sociology Columbia  and  a  minor  Graduation  in  photo)  was a leading institution in these fields at  At Columbia,  own words,  in  Figure  (See  Columbia University that time.  major  Friesen was a colleague and became,  “brother”, prior  obtain  to  a  of  J.R.  (Roby)  Friesen.  doctorate  Roby  in  Adult  in  who graduated  Kidd,  was  Kidd  the and  Education  first John  Friesen became the second.  It  became  honors  did  After his  clear, not,  however, for  long,  that remain  entry to Columbia,  the  of  collection  foremost  he once again  in  scholastic  Friesen’s  found his  mind.  thoughts  projected into a new paradigm. It was also my good fortune to reside at International House, a tall and attractive Rockefeller-gifted centre accommodating some five hundred graduate students from around the world. The daily association with such a student body was in itself an education to be prized. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)  At  International House,  figures  in  education,  John Friesen came to meet  business  and politics;  he  leading world  was  exposed  to  90 the  of  excitement  graduate  student  discourse and  the  thrust  of  events that were emerging to create a new world view of economic social and political issues.  Friesen said:  When I was at International House, UNICEF was born, shortly after the nations had signed the UN Charter. I was pleased to serve as chairman of the I-House UNICEF To launch it we invited Chester Bowles, a Committee. former Cabinet Minister of President Roosevelt, and twice the popular U.S. Ambassador to India. Bowles, then head of UNICEF/USA, delivered a ringing challenge to the graduate students: ‘Development can ignore boundaries and be a regional undertaking. We achieved it with the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA).’ The audience cheered him. In addressing this assembly in 1947 Bowles was also giving a message to the post-war world. This was my first contact with UNICEF. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992) The  event  UNICEF  epitomized  and  John  UN became  the  Friesen’s  an  Columbia  important  experience  influences  in his  and life.  Friesen recalls: Marta (Friesen’s wife) and I crossed paths again with Bowles in India when he was U.S. Ambassador. The Indians loved internationalist Chester Bowles and his family and he was an influence in-my life. (Friesen, Interview, 1992) Over  the  relations support gauged  Friesen  years with  from  a  a  people  was  good  number  network  of  operating  of  adult  of  at  adept  outstanding  influential,  establish and achieve his own development  especially  at  developing  persons.  humanistic  international  levels  He and  to  broad  help  him  goals, visions and missions in the  education.  He  said  of  personal  contacts  made at Columbia: Today the prominent  drew  “Who’s Who” of most countries can list some men and women who, over the past seventy  91 years, were alumni of Personal Communication,  I-House, 1992)  New  York.  As a result of his time at Columbia University,  (Friesen,  there was born in  Friesen a personal imperative to set his own endeavors in as wide a  field  as  possible.  Speaking  of  his  studies  at  Columbia,  Friesen said: My Graduate Studies major was in rural sociology. Recalling some of my professors- Edmund Brunner and Robert Lynd and the pioneer polling researcher Paul Lazarsfeld, Ralph Linton Anthropologist of Yale University (who summed up the term’s lectures with some do, some don’ t’), Doug Ensminger of Federal Agriculture Extension (later to become representative of Ford Foundation’s huge aid program in India) were all influential in my life, in Adult Education- -Wilbur Hallenbeck, et. al. I recall the riveting session “Educational Foundations” that was ,chaired by Professor Kenneth Benne, who used every personal persuasion possible to put our convictions through the wringer. I became a panel member to evaluate the extensive collection of educational films. During the Summer of 1947, I was field researcher in rural Ohio, on the topic of Neighborhood Councils of the Ohio Farm Bureau. (Friesen, Interview, 1991) -  John  Friesen  found  exhilarating--the Oklahoma)  the  cultural  emerging  galleries,  amenities  rnerican  theatre,  foreign  renowned Riverside Church nearby.  of  musicals films,  New  York  City  (Carousel  and  ballet,  and  the  He remembers many outstanding  public lectures at Columbia University.  He looks back:  New York City itself presented array a of rich interests. Favorite among them was attendance at the Metropolitan Opera (standing room was affordable). An event of note was the public address by distinguished Thomas Mann, then resident in California, and whose works I had studied, an extra as course, under Professor von Gronicka. In 1948 there was also the Presidential Election, the media predicting certain victory for Tom Dewey over Harry Truman. Marta [his wife-to-be] and I attended a political meeting that  92 remains a vivid recollection. FDR’s former Secretary of Agriculture, Henry Wallace, was running as the Third Party candidate. While waiting for Wallace to arrive at the large meeting hall in Harlem, the audience was led in a sing-song by none other than Paul Robeson. Then Wallace arrived, his entourage led by Joe Louis. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)  When in Columbia he met and later married Marta Korach, own words,  “a beautiful  and dynamic  fellow graduate  in his  student  International House studying Education for the Handicapped, intelligent,  with  (Hungarian,  French,  an  1991).  Interview,  interesting German,  Speaking  of  background  English, Marta,  and  a  Spanish)”  John  at  most  linguist (Friesen,  Friesen went  on  to  convey: Shortly after my return to Winnipeg [1948], Marta and I were married. A graduate of the Universidad de Chile, Marta lost no time in taking part in community activities. She taught Spanish at United College evening classes, joined the Women’s Cooperative Guild and soon began her broadcasts on CBC International to Latin Pmerica. In the following year, we welcomed our first-born Melanie and later in 1953 a son Robert. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)  Friesen Ohio  also he  and  interested similar  met  spent  in  the  their  to  budgets and staff. Ohio  and  made  counterparts. people”  Murray  Lincoln  three  summer  Neighborhood counterparts  the  months  Farm in  Councils in  Bureau, Ohio.  of  Manitoba,  He  Ohio but  Columbus, was  much  which were  with  larger  He wrote his thesis on the rural councils of frequent  comparisons  Friesen explained,  (Friesen,  of  Interview,  “For me  1991).  with  their  Manitoba  it was always people,  93  -  After  graduation,  Friesen  had  the  either  option  take  to  agricultural Extension post in the American Mid-West, to  the Wheat  Canada was  Pool  organization  strong.  Now more  Pool’s  international  heroic  battles  gamble  out  sole  of  grain  selling  thirties”  agent  at  Pools  faced  the  overpaid  the  Canadian  Wheat  marketing,  with  locally,  through  associations.  the  when  and  grave The  to  Pools  prairie  legally  back  as  to  to  the the  initially  appointed  the Wheat  community  the  “dirty  responsibility  to handle  return  took  the  having  government  established to  Pools  designated  in  national  continuing  admired  During  hardships  Federal  Friesen decided  always  abroad.  assume  their  had  the  by being  home  producers. Board  Friesen  1920s  sales,  or return  pull  The  an  than ever he was attracted by the  outlook.  the  of  in Winnipeg.  up  the for  Coops  elevators  the Manitoba Wheat  Pool. N.  MANITOBA WHEAT POOL (1948  -  war  stay at Columbia University was exactly what  veteran  disappeared, Friesen’s  YEARS  1953)  John Friesen’s young  (MANITOBA POOL ELEVATOR)  his  needed;  view  of  his  the  perceived  world  was  youth in a nurturing, yet limiting,  boundaries  wide  open.  the had From  small town milieu,  his natural intellectual and leadership qualities had carried him to take a “Province-wide” view.  The  “war” had shown Friesen the  importance of taking a world view and displayed how much richness lay beyond even the broadest perspective of a Canadian Province. Columbia  then  showed  Friesen  how  the  lives  of  people  like  him  94 could transcend national barriers. urge  to play  a  then  on  Friesen was  John  young man  I became  those days” Columbia  University,  it  this  the  never  wider arena,  same.  Friesen  saw  Indeed,  a mix of  broader international  1991).  Interview,  context.  was  in  role  He  internationally minded.  (Friesen,  international matter,  significant  Columbia generated in him an  his  role of  of  ties  .  commented,  fact  of  his  the  from “As  somewhat unusual  The  all  as  .  and  a in  is that after work  researcher  in  sees  an the  loyalty to Canada and the  the Wheat Pool  away from the Mid-West and back to Manitoba.  that  lured Friesen  Friesen was offered  at the University of Manitoba as Director of Extension but  a job  did not take it for this reason: Before leaving Columbia, I had accepted, from President W. J. Parker, the post of Director of Field Services for Manitoba Pool Elevators (MPE), the province-wide and expanding grain growers cooperative. Parker’s outstanding career was at its peak; he was a good friend and the association would be a timely and valuable one. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)  Friesen  came  to  the  conclusion  working in the influential with leaders  like Bill  count  wide  on  a  progressive  Parker,  network  measures  Pool  in  of  that  he  would  be  comfortable  organization with its who had a local  community  “world view”  associations and  province.  staff and and could implement  to Of  Parker,  Friesen confirms: I had long been an admirer of Bill Parker as a dynamic and able leader of the MPE and in his many other offices; e.g. Vice-President of Canadian Federation of Agriculture, Board Member of Air Canada (then Trans Canada Board Airlines), Member of CBC [Canadian Broadcast Corporation], and on the CNR [Canadian  95  -  National Railway] board, and Chairman of the Board of Governors at the University of Manitoba. He was keenly in interested international organizations: the Canadian Federation of Agriculture was a member of the International Federation of Agricultural Producers. I learned a great deal from Parker and the MPE Board in agricultural economics and what might termed be ‘applied political science’. (Friesen, Interview, 1991) Friesen with  was  the  appointed  international 1949/50  and  MPE  he  Manitoba.  In  was  work  became  Director  and  also in  of  Friesen  Field  Services  encouraged  other  chairman  1950,  of  served  first as  Manitoba  participate  to  cooperative  the  for  endeavours.  UNICEF  Committee  Vice-President  of  in In in the  United Nations Association of Manitoba and as Board member of the Manitoba  Cooperative  unions).  During  Credit  this  Society  period  (the  Friesen,  bank in  province-wide activities with the Wheat Pool,  of  the  addition  credit to  his  became immersed in  work of the CAAE of which he had been a member since the ‘30s.  The  CAAE,  support;  headed  Friesen,  by and  were willing advocates. Director in 1951.  Ned  Corbett,  especially MPE  needed  farm  Secretary  Roby Kidd succeeded  organization  Fawcett  Ned  Speaking further of Bill Parker,  Ransom,  Corbett  as  Friesen gave  an indication of his power: When Stuart Garson became Premier he inherited the strong ongoing Party (since Progressive 1922) of Manitoba. The rural constituencies continued to hold the power in votes and influence. Bill Parker may well have been the single most influential figure in the governments of Premier Garson and later Premier Campbell. (Friesen, Interview, 1991)  96 In  consequence,  the  MFA  Bill  getting  Ministry  of  province.  Parker’s  the  necessary  Agriculture Urgent  in  issues,  faced post-war Manitoba  political  and  support  issues  not  influence  it  and  finance  promoted  directly  resulted  in  from  the  throughout  the  connected with  Friesen addressed himself  farming, to  these  stressing: My duties at MPE permitted time to follow up on two new urgent provincial developments; hospital construction and enlarged school administration units. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)  The  political  disproportionate with  the  whereas  influence to  cities. the  rural  of  population  Yet,  cities  areas  did  the  farmers  some  maintained,  had  their  not  and  was  impressive, when  compared  comprehensive  schools,  remained  educationally  backward; according to Friesen: The pressing need was for expanded school units of administration, the greater goal, of course, being a considerably enriched Having curriculum. studied school reorganization over some years, I felt confident in addressing this concern and cooperated eagerly with other advocates. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992) In his words: Little red school houses still dotted the Manitoba landscape. They had served previous generations, but were now found wanting. The post-war was an ideal period to build institutions--schools, hospitals, community halls--as living memorials. This was the ultimate goal in community development and I wanted to be a part of it. (Friesen, Interview, 1992)  97 Friesen  came  into  of  the  Education  conservative and backing the  conflict time,  Manitoba  schoolhouses  whom  resistant  from the MFA, system were  with he  to new  MPE,  the  Provincial  viewed  into  to the  as  Minister  initially  However,  ideas.  Teacher’s  slowly began  absorbed  the  of too  with strong  Society and Trustees,  change  and  the  comprehensive  little  schools  red they  are today.  There  was  hospitals  a and  pressing again  need  the  in  Wheat  Manitoba Pool  lent  for  the  its  support.  building The  of MPE  membership pledged a donation to each new hospital to augment the cost of medical equipment. of Education,  Dr.  Fred Jackson,  the Deputy Minister  proposed a plan for a three-tier system of hospital  building:  (1)  Neighborhood hospitals mainly emergency and maternity.  (2)  Regional  (County)  hospitals offering more extensive  services. (3)  Central hospitals with comprehensive facilities in several cities. (Friesen,  Personal Communication,  1992)  Jackson asked for the Wheat Pool’s cooperation to implement this provincial plan. to this,  Bill Parker told Friesen,  whatever time it takes.”  “. .  .devote your time  As Parker saw it,  “Every time  you make a contribution in manpower or means to a hospital it’s like giving it to yourselves.  It is your mothers and fathers who  98 will be using the hospital”  (Friesen,  Interview,  1991).  Friesen  goes on to disclose: I assisted the Ministry of Health with launching their comprehensive hospital plan, both in one research study and in its advocacy through community meetings and later presenting MPE grants for equipment to each Board of a new hospital. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992) Friesen,  accompanied  by Dr.  Margaret  Nix,  carried  this  message  around the Province.  Their job was to convince the people that  wherever  up  a vote  came  they had better vote yes.  for  a  in  Interview,  the  1992).  decade  (despite  As Friesen put it,  for Manitoba were education and improved  hospital  hospitals,  following  higher  taxes)  “Primary services  and both were greatly  World  War  II”  (Friesen,  Now a new challenge would be sought by John  Friesen.  0.  SUMMARY  The more John  the  Friesen,  influences,  researcher delved the  more  into  apparent  his early upbringing and  country environment  in which he was  approach in all he sought to achieve.  the many  faceted career of  it  became  that  historic  the  warm,  lively  caring,  raised served to  shape his  Reflecting on these years,  Friesen adds: Many activities on the West Coast would be a reminder of my prairie years, some appearing as a prologue to continuing or more extended programs in B.C. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)  99 He had an abiding belief in the importance of social cooperation, in planting ideas and then of  community  a  to  cause  enlisting the support of the people  them to  take  place.  This  inclination  towards  cooperative effort applied to his work wherever it  place,  whether  community,  or  cooperative programs,  in  the  in cultural approach  in  movements and  international and artistic  in  the  in his  of  important work  an  in  academic  development.  implementation  development  the  field,  took  He  took a  of  educational  agricultural  cooperative  in the  formation of  credit  unions.  Consistently, him  and  also  cooperative growth  John Friesen encouraged the people who worked with the  people  effort  could  its  often  Friesen gets to  excel  and  potential. assists came  to  to  great in He  the  (Figure 19).  the  others  gives  them  his  serve,  to  atmosphere farming  seed, the  and  of  which  of  his  nourish  it, is  It  co-workers  their  the  British  This  Columbia  is  in  a  and  arrange but  was  apparent  colleagues  highest  freedom  in  ancestors,  from encouraging his achieve  ideas  enrichment,  rewards.  them whenever needed.  University  unite  to  in  terms  in need of  reap  satisfaction  watching  and defends  an  field  plant  let  sought  In the  find a  cultivation,  content  create  flourish.  John Friesen would for  to  he  to  personal grow  and  the man who August,  1953  Y  Figure 4: Sarah Klippenstejn, Mother of J.K. Friesen  Figure 5: David W. Friesen, Father of J.K. Friesen  101  John Friesen, violin pupil @ eleven years old, June 1923 (Friesen on rt)  Figure 6:  Figure 7: John Friesen in Haskett, Manitoba, 1933 Figure 8: John K. Friesen, 1933 Won Gretna Tennis Tourney  102  Figure 9: Gretna Collegiate Choir, 1935 Friesen, Director (front center)  I Figure 10:  John K. Friese Graduation, 1936, University of Manitoba  103  ‘  r,.  N 4  Figure 11: Virden United Church Choir,  1939  Fresen, Director (Back row, right)  Regional Youth Training School in Virden, 1939 Dominion-Provincial Program Figure 12:  -  Figure 13: Manitoba Delegates to Western United Church YPU Conference, Mount Royal College, Calgary, June 30 to July 4, 1940. (Friesen: Front row, third from left)  I  4  .1  c  105  Figure 14: Farewell to Friesen family, 1943 John’s day of departure for overseas war service. (1 to r; brother Ray, Father, John, Mother, brother Ted)  Figure 15:  Friesen, Flying Officer, 1945  106  Figure 16: Damaged Avro Lancaster’s fin rudder and half of tailpiane shot away after one of Friesen’s missions over enemy territory, July, 18, 1944  Figure 17: 7—man crew of Lancaster bomber. Taken on completion of 35-mission tour, RAF Squadron 514, Waterbeach, late 1944. (Fri esen: third from left)  107  T  Figure 18: Dr. John K. FrieSen, June 1948 Graduated with Ed.D., columbia UniversitY  108 CHAPTER 4:  EXTENSION TRADITION AND THE NEW DIRECTOR  The purpose of adult education is to help people to earn a living, to live a life, and to mould a world and in that order of importance. (Sir Josiah Stamp) -  A.  UNIVERSITY EXTENSION IN CANADA  The  UBC  1936,  Extension Department  its  goals  North  unique  policies  American  which  work,  and  had  provincial  There UBC  was  to  a  place  university at  the  were  in  on April  accordance  tradition,  pioneered  by  the  of  with  27, the  extension  University  of  century and subsequently adopted by  universities  genuine  established  Extension  been  Wisconsin early in the the  was  of  desire by  wisdom,  the disposal  Alberta the  and  Saskatchewan.  early administrators  thinking  and  of society.  knowledge  of  at the  UBC Extension came  to be considered outstanding by many scholars and certainly was not alone in adopting a community oriented approach to Extension.  Selman  (1975)  founder of several  Tory,  approach  adopted  decades  quotes  President  Henry  Canadian universities, earlier  by  the  Marshall as  to the  University  Alberta:  the extension of of the activities the University on such lines will make as its benef its reach directly or indirectly the mass of the people, carrying its ideals of refinement and culture into their homes and its latent spiritual and oral power into their minds and hearts, is a work second to none. (Cited in Selman, 1975:2) •  .  of  109 Selman  points out that the first three Presidents of  (1975)  UBC held much the same view as Dr.  Tory and fully approved  the Extension Department’s broadly based service to society. During its first two decades the Extension program provided a  range  of  services  fine arts,  involving  study and  discussion  of  the  a comprehensive service of study courses covering  a wide range of cultural and vocational subjects, anywhere  in  the  Province;  correspondence  available  instruction;  cooperative production and marketing programs for fisherman; accounting courses; handicrafts  instructor teams for home economics and  courses;  in  addition  family  life,  such  as  aging.  It  also  included  collection notable Schools,  of  films  achievements and  Radio Forum  the  on  a  were  wide  film  were  range  of  organization  programs  on  problems  of  and  library  Youth Training,  provincial  with  a  subjects. Rural of  fine Other  Leadership  National  Farm  and Citizens Forum.  According to E.A.  Corbett,  writing  there  in  education  parent a  there  1952,  Director of  were  two  main  the CAAE kinds  of  1936-1951, university  Extension in Canada: The first derives directly from the ‘course-giving function of the UNIVERSITY’, i.e., correspondence night courses, classes, extension classes for extra-mural students, etc. In some cases academic leading credits degrees to are offered in connection with the courses but the subject matter of the courses offered is likely to extend beyond the limits of subjects considered desirable or necessary in the pursuit of a degree.  110 The second kind of extension program is built less on the basis of traditional university work, and more on the existing activities and interests of people outside the university and its immediate community. This is true of all the universities in western Canada, Laval, of St. Francis Xavier, Macdonald College (of McGill) and of most of those colleges not properly called universities but which have strongly developed extension service. (Corbett, 1952:7) Acknowledging  that  some  university  administrators  regard  Extension work as an “entirely unnecessary activity and not properly  the  function  responsibility asserted  lies  that,  university  in  the  and  and  closer  community  it  more secure its position becomes” B.  JOHN K.  Gordon  whose  institution  teaching  .the  “. .  an  of  research”,  the  bond  serves,  the  (Corbett,  to  (later  University,  and  predecessor  as  little fell  between  the  stronger  and  1952:7).  become  Co-Chairman Director  Chancellor  of  of  BC  Hydro)  UBC’s  of  Simon was  Extension  having held that post along with other duties  cultural  Corbett  FRIESEN’S PREDECESSOR  Shrum  1953.  first  Shrum  had  a  role  for  university  doubt  that  very  under  into Corbett’s  strong  Shrum,  UBC’s  from 1937 to to  broad  a  There  Extension  second classification.  Friesen’s Department,  commitment  Extension.  Fraser  can  be  Department  In 1949,  said: Thus the University, through its program of adult education, is making and should continue to make a unique and indispensable contribution to the cultural development of the Province. (Cited in Selman, 1975:7)  Shrum  111 C.  CAAE CONNECTION  At the CAAE Dr.  conference in Winnipeg,  Shrum asked  in the Summer of  John Friesen if he would be  taking over Extension at UBC.  which  then flown to  the appointment Vancouver  work on August 1,  1953”  Describing the  took place he  meet  to  interested in  Friesen recognized the wide  scope UBC would offer and in the end agreed. speed at  various people. Interview,  (Friesen,  said,  for many years Eight  basis.  opportunity  to  Friesen  1991).  Robert Friesen  England  later,  commemorate The  the  first  (1936-37);  (1953-66)  and the  to occupy the position on a full-time  years  Anniversary.  25th  “I was I began  thus became the third Director of Extension at UBC, first  1953,  in  1961  UBC  Friesen  Extension  three  directors:  (1937-53);  gathered for a photograph.  and John  (Figure  EXTENSION 25th ANNIVERSARY photo at end of Chapter 6) Commenting on the years that followed: The most satisfying thing I ever undertook was UBC. There was no equivalent to UBC in Manitoba and to some extent I didn’t know exactly what I was getting into, but saw UBC as a very active concern. .although small, it [Extension] had the makings of a good department; it had momentum because of its former influential Director Gordon Shrum. are Politics important in a University and one of the reasons Gordon Shrum was successful he was that had the reputation of getting things done, not infrequently as a committee of one. (Friesen, Interview, 1991) .  the  Department’s  Extension  Gordon Shrum  took  32--  112 At CAAE meetings and during the Massey Commission hearings Friesen had, President informed was  as previously noted, UBC;  at  he  Friesen  important  on  work  liked  his  him  arrival  which  held  met N.A.M.  MacKenzie,  the  immediately.  MacKenzie  that  Extension  University  promise  considerable  for  expansion and far greater responsibility.  Friesen commented  that,  as  “Undertaking  such  position,  a  discovered, was for any director, Interview,  I  a colossal dare”  gradually (Friesen,  1992)  Friesen was well equipped through experience, conviction to carry on to the community.  intellect and  in a tradition of providing service  When he joined UBC in August of 1953, not  only had a strong momentum been developed in this direction, but  also  service  to  importance University. the  the  university  society, to  the  through future  By character,  aggressively  growing  while Chancellor of  leadership an  Extension  recognition  convinced  was  and  program,  was  strength  of  John Friesen was well young  that  university.  Simon Fraser University,  the  suited to  Gordon wrote  Shrum, Friesen  when he left UBC in 1966 for international work: Perhaps you would be interested in the process by which you were selected position for the at U.B.C. I had become acquainted with you through the meetings and committee work of the Canadian Association of Adult Education. I conferred with Ned Corbett and Larry MacKenzie and we agreed that you were the outstanding prospect for the prepared no lists job. We long or short-but devoted all our energies Co devising ways and means of luring you from Winnipeg. It wasn’t -  of  113  easy but there was the satisfaction in our quest. (Friesen, Personal Shrurn to Friesen, 11, October, 1966)  D.  UBC ON JOHN K.  What  manner  FRIESEN’S ARRIVAL  man  of  of succeeding Papers, G.M.  was  this  new  Director  of  Extension?  Certainly his leadership style would be remarkably different from  that  of  respected, in  his  Dr.  his  university own  different means. with  a  broad  philosophy Speaking people, UBC,  an  sometimes feared,  several  achieved  Shrum,  of  of  authoritative  positions.  the  sense  Gordon Selman,  of  Friesen  but  by  had  entirely  many faceted individual  background’ to  John  record,  He was a complex,  commitment  well  who had achieved great success  impressive  cultural  figure,  his  and  very  a  fellow  human  which  Friesen  commitment  who became his  strong beings. had  to  closest associate at  noted: I think the cooperative movement may have reinforced that [commitment] him. One can in it, see in some Christian respects a as conviction. But I would generalize a little further in terms of a concern for the welfare of others. A compassionate view of society. One could call it a humanistic view. of what society should be like and how it should treat its citizens. (Selman, Interview, 1992) .  .  Friesen  commented  about  base at UBC in 1953;  the  lack  .  .  .  of- any  strong  fine  the arts were in Friesen’s genes:  There was not much of it [the arts] academically at UBC at that time; no drama department, a small music department, in ballet, the nothing  arts  114 fine arts had a of department Binning as its outstanding head.  one with Bert  learn You so much yourself and in close association with all the disciplines. What a privilege in helping to build a better society! Achieving the abundant life, that’s what intrigues me. (Friesen, Interview, 1991)  As  in  discussed  Chapter  Three,  Johi  Friesen  had  come  to  believe that the building of an abundant life for the many is the ultimate goal of adult education.  He considers adult  education as life’s grand highway and the servant of life’s goals. arrived”  feeling  His  in  (Friesen,  was,  1953  Interview,  “I  love  this;  Now  1991).  he  I had  have the  opportunity to mold the broad dimensions of adult education in  British  Columbia.  Thomas  claimed  that  when  arrived he was the right man at the right time, governments  believed  Communication,  1992).  in  education  his  first  annual  a time when Personal  (Thomas,  Friesen defined his goal in terms of  furthering liberal education for adults, of  Friesen  reports  a  and he cited in one  definition  of  liberal  education provided by the Carnegie Trustees: The Carnegie Trustees define a liberal education as implying a knowledge of oneself and others and the world around us, a general interest in man’s historical achievements, and an abiding awareness of his religious and philosophical heritage. ‘The objective of liberal education is to produce mature men, good men, even hopefully wise men’. (UBC, Extension, 1955-1956:5) -  -  One of Friesen’s early staff appointments was Gordon Selman whom  he  approached  on  the  recommendation  of  Dean  Andrew,  115 Deputy  to  President  selecting him.  MacKenzie.  Friesen  never  regretted  Selman soon was promoted to become Friesen’s  deputy in all activities and Friesen acknowledges that much of  what  he  was  Selman’s loyal  able  achieve  to  support.  at  UBC  was  result  the  of  Friesen said:  How fortunate I was to have Gordon Selman as my right hand man all those twelve years. Gordon and I are brothers and have been all these years, brothers in every way. John is out building mountains and Gordon is keeping the house in order. (Friesen, Interview, 1991)  This backing at UBC Extension was essential to Friesen, was not about to become desk bound on campus. ranged the field of adult education,  Instead,  in the province,  Friesen  viewed  the  adult  continent education  he  travelling wherever the  cutting edge for the department’s work might be, was  who  or in  whether it  the world at the  large.  broadest  of  perspectives.  In writing of his first year as Director of Extension, Friesen  described  how  he  had  spent  the  year  John  becoming  acquainted with his territory: My initial year was spent in becoming acquainted with growing the departmental activities as established under my predecessor, Dr. Shruxn. Considerable time was spent in visits to some thirty communities throughout the province. The impression gained was that the Extension Department is known in virtually every corner of the province and its services extend even beyond into the Yukon. (UBC, Extension, 1953/54:5)  116  During this year  (1954),  Education Association North  merican  a  Austria,  Sweden,  of  adult  in  participate  he was also selected by the Adult the  U.S.A.  educators  series  of  along with nine  (five  seminars  Switzerland,  were in  to  Canadian)  Great  and  Italy  other  Britain,  France,  where  Friesen had the opportunity to meet and to discuss the field with  leaders  in  European  adult  education.  The  tour  was  funded by the Carnegie Foundation and the Ford Foundation’s Fund for Adult Education.  E.  FRIESEN’S VIEW OF THE EXTENSION FUNCTION  Friesen  John  program, yet  inherited  very  a  broadly  based  Extension  the work of which was largely self-directed and not  closely  integrated with what was  in the University.  being done  The ExtensiOn’ Department  internally of UBC was  already rated among the best in the country and it added to that  reputation under  firm conviction people  of  that  British  the University must Columbia.  Extension must change if, needs  of  the  direction.  Friesen’s  He  University  in  reach out  knew,  in the future,  however,  to  a  the that  it was to meet the  changing  a  Friesen had  society.  He  recognized that important shifts were occurring which would alter the Extension function. longer, were  while  getting  local  school  involved  in  People were staying in school  boards adult  and  other  education.  organizations Nevertheless,  117 Friesen  believed  that  the  whole  idea  of  democracy  is  strongly rooted in the community and that the University of B.C. must work to strengthen that heritage. Speaking  of  his  convictions  in  1945,  at  a  youth  rally  in  Winnipeg he had stated: The roots of civilization are planted in the small communities. Man did not build cities until he had first built villages. There is truth in the saying, ‘God made the country, and man the town.’ Democracy is meaningless unless it is rooted in the properly nourished soil small of the community, and the greatest challenge in social life today is the reclaiming to its proper status of community life. .to shackle our fellowmen or to help free them, ideas which will banish wars, for we may be sure that the war to end wars will not be fought with guns. There is our challenge for lifting the community to a higher plane and to more abundant living. (Altona Echo, June 20, 1945) .  Friesen  resolved  that  .  the  Extension  Department  would  not  become isolated from the rest of life at the University.  He  realized that, makers might society,  he  the  central  as  somewhat  purposes  unless  own academic sights the  Extension  Should this  institution would grow to view its  Department  University’s  him  standards within the University.  expected  Extension  its  increasingly adopt an insular attitude towards  becoming primarily concerned with achieving higher  intellectual occur,  as UBC continued to grow, university decision  (Friesen,  Department  sophisticated enterprise.  was  marginal  Extension also  Interview, to  to  become  the raised  1992). a  much  Under more  118 Selman  commented  (1963)  that  Friesen  essentially  agreed  with the five guidelines suggested in 1952 by the University of Chicago’s Cyril Houle in the introduction to Universities in Adult Education a publication which he edited for UNESCO Nations  United  (The  Education,  Scientific,  Cultural  and  Organization)  While  1)  The universities should restrict themselves to complex subject matters.  2)  The universities should be pioneers.  3)  The universities should train leaders.  4)  The universities should collaborate with the many other agencies in society which provide adult education.  5)  Finally, the universities should master adult education as a field of knowledge. (Houle, 1952:21-22) Friesen  believed  that,  a  university’s  scheme of things is to be a leader, (Friesen,  Interview,  commitment  to  decided,  the  1992),  broader  in  the  exploring intellectually  he  community  never of  the  abandoned  his  Province.  He  “The Extension Department must adopt a role that is  reasonably high,  sophisticated but outgoing, and do its work  with leaders in communities. to  role  become  internalized  and  I did not want the department elitist”  (Friesen,  Interview,  1991)  Friesen recognized that a university had a duty as part of its and  ongoing involve  educational the  people  responsibility, of  a  society  to in  enrich, its  educate  cultural,  119 environmental  and  overall  development.  There  is  no  doubt  that President  MacKenzie held the same view as  Friesen in  recognizing  University’s  leadership  in  society.  the  In  his  responsibility  President’s  Report  stressed the importance of Extension work,  for  for  1952/53,  he  declaring:  If we are to have and maintain a society in which every adult citizen have is called upon to opinions and vote on matters not only of local of but national and international--importance, and if we are to continue to live in a world that is inter-related so intimately as to regulate the standard at which we can- live--and indeed whether we can continue to live at all, --some agencies must exist, or be created to try to develop and obtain as great an understanding of the problems and nature of citizenship--in its broadest sense--as is possible. if we are Also to continue to live in a complex technological world that is changing and developing rapidly, we must have agencies to help keep the adult population informed about the changing world and the implications of those changes both for their lives and livelihood. (President’s Report, UBC 1952/53:3) --  According to Friesen,  MacKenzie took a very open and broad  view of the manner in which Extension should operate: Larry [MacKenzie] would say to me, ‘If a wellconceived program needs funding in the University the money should be found John.’ Many good things happened at UBC because Larry MacKenzie wanted them. During his time, the Extension Department was allowed to be very outgoing towards the community in its expansion. We would organize programs which were needed, in some instances, even when departments did not yet exist. (Friesen, 1992, Interview) In  his  introduction  to  the  Extension  Department  Report for 1954-55 President MacKenzie said:  Annual  120  In the comprehensiveness of this programme we differ somewhat on the North American continent from the European tradition, and there is continuing discussion within our universities about the range of professional training which should be undertaken under university auspices; about the degree of emphasis which should be placed on the undergraduate and on the graduate programme; and about the range and scope of the adult education- -or university extensionprogramme. But there is no longer any dispute about the basic value of the adult education programme. (UBC, Extension, 1954-1955:3) -  Jindra  Kulich,  management  who  positions  had  twenty-three  in  the  years  Department,  experience  said  of  in  Friesen’s  priorities for Extension: I have always been very much impressed by John’s vision Adult of Education general in and University Extension in particular because it is a very broad vision. It deals not only with the academic side of the enterprise; he certainly was very much interested in upgrading the program more towards University level in the academic areas. Also in the cultural areas, he strongly believes the university must be a contributor to the cultural life of its community. (Kulich, Interview, 1992) F.  JOHN K.  FRIESEN’S CENTRAL IDEAS  Friesen’s broad view of the role a university might play in society,  the  attitude  of  central  tradition of UBC Extension and the President  ideas as  function should extent, First:  MacKenzie  led  him  to  supportive  promote  two  to the direction the Extension Department follow.  He  fully understood that,  to some  these two priorities were atodds with one another. Friesen  was  determined  to  raise  UBC’s  adult  121 educational  programs  intellectual  level;  leader  in  Obviously,  the  to  and  cultural  second:  cultural  department’s  educational to be  of  make  to  British  and UBC  a  Columbia.  drive  affairs  would  to achieve a higher,  follow  a  programs  However,  single  route  on campus.  from  detract more  the  sophisticated  John Friesen did not aimed  upgrading  at  He decided the directions  taken by the Extension Department must emphasize his  aspirations to  wanted  development  intellectual level on campus. to  he  professional  there was a risk that time and attention given to  community  choose  higher  a  the  towards  extent  a higher  that  the  intellectual  University  content,  but not  neglect  would  its  important community development role.  In reflecting on the difficult task of creating a desire for change  in  civic  affairs,  Friesen  Columbia in which Eduard Lindeman,  recalls  described  a  lecture  Gunner Myrdal:  One of the most discerning scholars to study our merican social structure who thinks that the adult education activities in North merica are laudable efforts; he observes however, that there is little concerted drive for self education in civic affairs; very little desire for knowledge as a means for achieving power and independence. You will recall the same opinion expressed in the rhyme: Come weal, come woe, My status is quo. (Friesen’s Personal Papers, Catholic Seminar, 1948)  notes  for  at  speech  to  122 To understand the urgency Friesen placed on the University’s commitment  to  conviction  about  contribution held  at  statement  community  to  democracy. a  lecture  Mary’s  St. on  work  his  can  In  the  series  Academy  idea  we  of  notes the  at  in  look  for  his  and  in how  deep  Friesen’s  Catholic  Winnipeg  democracy  to  Seminar  1948, it  can  his be  envisioned within a community: The future of democracy is at stake today. When I think of the term “democracy” I associate with it the term “understanding”. Surely this is a fundamental in any democratic society. We can never learn democracy from books or from lectures. Situations real situations have to be created by means of which we can learn to respect others as ourselves and to reflect on Mark Twain’s halfhumorous statement that one man’s as good as another and perhaps a doggone sight better! Your life and mine takes on meaning only in terms of our relationship group to the and the community. Of what organizational opportunities are we now taking advantage to create a greater awareness of democratic understanding? Recognizing a problem is already a beginning toward its solution; discussing it is one-half the solution; acting upon pooled opinion is a culminating step in its solution. (Friesen, Personal Papers, 1948) -  -  -  In  an  article  conviction  he  about  wrote the  in  critical  1946,  Friesen  importance  to  described democracy  support from small communities: nothing any government can do will bring results in the field of international goodwill and cooperation unless that spirit is present and is evidenced in every small community in every country. It is the individual citizen and not the government official who will eventually determine whether the world in will live peace and harmony.... (Friesen, Brandon Sun, 1946)  his of  123 Friesen’s broad vision of  the adult educator’s role and of  the Extension Department’s responsibility ran into obstacles later when UBC President John Barfoot Macdonald decided to redirect the Extension Department away from non-degree work. It is ironic that Macdonald’s call for a change was directed at  who  Friesen,  bring  a  about  Extension.  from  the  higher  outset  had  educational  Gordon  Selman  worked  standard  comments  on  diligently  in  the  John  work  to of  Friesen’s  commitment to professionalism: John saw very clearly as a professional that university Extension, it was if going to continue to find of the support the university, had to be seen to be doing the higher level things; we that couldn’t be all things to all men, that the university had to be seeing us as operating advanced at an level of content and as being leaders in the field of adult education. (Selman, Interview, 1992)  In  Friesen’s  handicrafts, could that  and the  instead within .mong  view,  much  home  should  the many  be  left and  leadership  to  his  pioneer  vocational  agencies;  department and  Friesen efforts,  would  he  encouraged  in  areas, decided  concentrate  continuing  for  work  teaching  other  other  training  professions. other  and  economics,  faculties on  Extension’s  of  education innovation.  example,  Extension  launched the pioneer residential short course for fishermen in  Canada  communities.  and  established  In one  of  his  speaking of Extension’s role,  study  courses  early annual comments:  in  reports  remote Friesen,  124 It should be stressed that the Department sees its role as experimental and venturesome in most of its activities. Some of these projects -in the Fine Arts, in Pre-School Education, in certain business courses, in Adult Education training, to mention but a few may eventually become credit courses or even departments of the University if experimentation has proven this need.... (UBC, Extension, 1955-1966:4) -  --  Friesen  listed  for  the  researcher  five  ways  in  which  he  wished to see his Department expand:  G.  1)  Help establish or strengthen continuing education in the professions.  2)  Incorporate continuing education in all of the faculties.  3)  Broaden the adult education service and involve faculty and Extension personnel outreach programs around the province.  4)  Enrich the overall program of Extension.  5)  Help establish a graduate program in adult education. (Friesen, Interview, 1992)  COOPERATION WITH THE FACULTIES  Friesen wanted his department to be a natural “extension” of University beyond  the  life  and  campus.  knowledge, Thomas  willingness to take risks,  and  to  comments  reach about  the  people  Friesen’s  and the implications of this for  relations with the faculties: I learned a great deal about John’s willingness to take the ideas of adult education into the least immediately responsive circles. John was never afraid advance to of university the notion Extension to any group of dinosaurs within the university. Personal Communication, (Thomas, 1992) -  125  To accomplish this cooperation,  the Extension Department had  to be well accepted by the faculties. worked  he  to  achieve  such  Friesen described how  recognition  and  cooperation  saying: I would first and foremost need to maintain close links with the faculties, and as their time and resources permitted, help sharing the in impressive resources of higher education with the professions and other alumni, and with an array of organizations from farms and the market place to schools, cultural groups and social services. One soon found that the only stability in any academic interest was the exciting and persistent pursuit of the fleeing boundaries of knowledge. (Friesen, Interview, 1992) -  -  To promote cooperation, available resources, have  a  Department’s  Education,  et  al.  representative, that.  freedom, in  Friesen wanted each of the faculties to  representative,  Extension  change  coordinate programs and make use of  close  At  but He  working  in  staff:  Engineering,  first,  only Agriculture  he gave  worked  with  each  the  with  the  “Every one of  faculty  as  Dean’s  Interview).  man  Friesen  much  as  described  Pharmacy,  his  the Law,  such  Deans  a to  the  to develop programs,  them was  my  had  Faculty  respective  Friesen’s viewpoint,  on  representative  faculty  responsibility and authority collaboration  Extension,  man” good  faculty.  From  the particular (Friesen,  relationship  the faculties when he said: Recalling those UBC years, I found the relationship with faculties cooperative and often  1992, with  126 enthusiastic on their part, and the administration always understanding and generously supportive. (Friesen, Interview, 1992) By 1956,  it was evident  was proceeding well.  that cooperation with the faculties  UBC Senate Minutes stated:  Letters were received from the Faculties of Pharmacy, Graduate Studies, Agriculture, Forestry, Applied Science, and Medicine, recommending the Director of University Extension be made a member of these Faculties. Motion carried. (Senate Minutes, 1956:2281) Friesen’s  efforts  to  create  cooperative  relationships  the faculties worked well in most instances. several  professional  faculties,  however,  In the case of they  direct their own continuing education services. became  particularly  Friesen’s tenure, several  of  programs. the  the  pronounced  in  when Commerce, Health  Science  -  opted  to  This trend  latter  the  with  years  of  to an extent Education and units  took  over  their  own  This issue was the focal point of a submission on  organization  of  Extension work which,  in  the  sixties,  Friesen and his colleagues submitted to the Senate which is discussed in more detail in Chapter 6. H.  THE DEVELOPMENT OF PEOPLE  According  to  Gordon  colleagues  to  believe,  “Must  have  where  society  Yet,  he  Selman, as  certain kinds might  expected  be  each  he of  did,  colleague  an  that  sympathies  going”  encouraged  Friesen  and  (Selman, to  seek  adult  educator  commitments  Interview, his  own  his  to  1992). road  in  127 furthering these commitments. of  commitments  Selman said,  and aspirations  that  I  “I learned a set  could embrace as  an  adult educator which I have lived with and resonated all of my  life”  (Selman,  Interview,  1992).  Kulich  commenting  on  Friesen’s influences on his life told the researcher: I see John up there as a great man along the footsteps with Ned Corbett of Alberta who really set the whole direction for University Extension in the West, and people like Roby Kidd--they are the ones who had an impact on University Continuing Education. We are now in an era in which we no longer have these great leaders who influence a number of others and give direction to enterprises in society. (Kulich, Interview, 1992) Selman observed that  Friesen was  influenced to some  by the philosophies of such men as Carl Rogers and  extent Abraham  Maslow and very much by Father Coady: He believed strongly that people have [the urge] within them to become the best that they can be.. .and he showed how one can appropriately help them to grow and develop. (Selman, Interview, 1992)  Friesen depend,  understood  that  for its future,  the  Extension  of people was a primary goal. members  example,  to  must  on the quality of the people he was  able to develop and leave in place;  staff  Department  complete  for him the development  He encouraged and often urged their  graduate  studies;  Selman talking of his own experience said:  He made it possible for me to take extra time off to complete my Master of Arts degree. John said at crucial points, ‘Gordon you give a week of your holidays and I’ll give you a corresponding week of  for  128 work to get this thing done.’ 1992)  Interview,  (Selman,  Selman’s expressions of appreciation for time made available were echoed by Blaney, encouragement  from  Buttedahi and Thomas who had similar  Friesen  in  studies towards their doctorates. the  role  of  an adult  ways at variance faculties  of  Friesen’s  view  demanding.  (a)  pursuing  their  graduate  Such a humanistic view of  educator was,  and  still  is,  in many  with the behavioristic view held in some  the  University.  of  adult  Selman  education  is  pointed  out  satisfying,  that but  It can both:  be difficult to live up to; and  (b) can be eroded in the field of practice by the effects of professionalization, institutional ization.... I have come to a sense of what adult education should stand for which I would not have come to without John Friesen as a mentor and guide. (Selman, Interview, 1992) I.  The  FRIESEN’S MANAGEMENT STYLE AND LEADERSHIP  researcher  organizational,  sought  to  discover  administrative  something  and  of  management  Friesen’s styles,  because his humanistic philosophy would not appear to lend itself to any rigid system of management. a working environment to  use  their  endeavours:  Thomas described  in which Friesen relied on his  imagination  to  carry  out  staff  interesting  -  There was an enormous amount of freedom and it was necessary to do the job. So it meant that John  129 had to trust the people who worked for him, to not be damn fools. He was extremely good And he did! at putting confidence in those people who worked for him. (Thomas, Personal Communication, 1992) Selman  explained  organizational  development organizer  of  of  Friesen  dynamics  and  department  that  an  that  of  he  management enterprise,  was the  was  aware  of  skilled  in  the  as  the  professional,  but  His  highly  the  education  continuing  highly  skills. was  well  style  Selman goes on: He had his own style. He was not very directive in a very overt way; he worked to a large extent by indirection. You got a sense of what he was hoping you could do and then left you to do it or not. His leadership of the staff was, to some degree, leadership by example. He worked longer, harder than any of the rest of us and we thought we were working as hard as we could. By example, he was a very sophisticated leader. The Extension Department had an organization, it had a director, an assistant director, associate director, it was a funny organization, like many academic organizations, in that it didn’t have a pyramid but a flat organizational structure. Programmers were all of equal stature without a hierarchical structure amongst them. So he worked with a team of us as equals; yes, it was a band of brothers, so to speak,, and sisters. He was part of the team and did not want to distance himself from the team. (Selman, Interview, 1992) A  related,  but  somewhat  different  perception  of  Friesen’s  management style is given by Kulich: John would never give you a command, but John never forgot the idea he put up to you. Six months later you would either run into John or a note would arrive on your desk, ‘Sometime ago I mentioned such and such idea, what happened to it?’ Not how come you didn’t do it? .  .  .  130 He really fires you up. I keep coming back to this unbounded enthusiasm and energy. At the same time, it was his greatest strength and his greatest weakness. It’s the only weakness I see in John because he has no capacity to understand that not everybody can be as fired up. (Kulich, Interview, 1992) This style of management, each  giving  individual  though loose, had the advantage of staff  member  the  encouragement and freedom to perform at his creative  and  intellectual  best.  Thomas  inspiration, or her maximum recalls  the  commitment Friesen would give them: What John did was tell us to do the job, produce the programs, run them, but keep him informed on what we’re doing, while he kept the frontiers safe. He was going to do that by being in the President’s Office, talking to the Deans, by being around the university all the time, talking to every body so they know about Extension. He went to the Senate meetings, went to the Faculty Club, and different places, town running and gown affairs. (Thomas, Personal Communication, 1992) John Friesen,  thus, was able to manage a range of activities  and to expand the boundaries of  influence of  the Extension  Department well beyond the extent available to a manager who relies  on  his  command  to  run  an  enterprise.  In  Selman’s  words: There was a delineation of what our tasks were. He sought ways of helping us set our goals, but created a sense that we cared more than anyone else about what we were achieving and what we had not been able to achieve. It was not touchy-feely. There was a clear sense of what your job was, and what obligations you had within that job and how your job related to other people, but they [the team] worked in a humanistic, friends together, not competitive, but urgent sort of way. He had a way of creating an enterprise in such a way that  131 each of the actors within it felt in charge of what they were doing, and that they had responsibilities. right John had the and responsibility to keep track of what we were doing. (Selman, Interview, 1992) The qualities of integrity, encouraged allowed the exercise  of  commitment and responsibility he  organization to thrive without much  authority.  Thomas  speaks  of  the  trust  and  support they received: We were free to do all sorts of things because he trusted us. Of course that gave us additional confidence. If someone faculty might in the complain to the President about Extension, John would never let us down publicly. He might tear us up privately. That’s a lesson I have taken with me in all my jobs. If I ever treasured a lesson from John it is never let any of your people down in public. It sure was John Friesen’s style, one that I have appreciated all my life. (Thomas, Personal Communication, 1992) Curtis and  a  considers wide  Friesen’s  range  of  encouragement  talented  of  people  as  his an  colleagues important  contribution to adult education: He had the ability to get the best out of people and gave them constant encouragement. We got to know and appreciate the best minds in the business and made important contributions. He did it through other people and he was very good at doing it. That’s a contribution in its own right, but it doesn’t very often get recognized. (Curtis, Personal Communication, 1992)  Friesen  would  colleagues,  describe  then  the  directions  creative  and  people  goals  around  his  to him  would  develop and implement programs in which they expanded on his initial  ideas.  Their  self-directed  initiatives  left  him  132 free  devote  to  in  1953,  when  brought  Friesen  attention  wider  to  issues  within  the  the Province and internationally.  University,  Thus  his  he  his  was  to  abilities  step and  on a  the  to  style  UBC  of  stage,  management  which would change and set the direction of adult education in British Columbia for many years.  His character had been  shaped by his childhood experiences and his young adulthood on  the  through his  prairies. his  broad  Manitoba.  He  Columbia experience  had  been  University as  a  tested years  leader  and  war,  enriched  matured  adult  through  educator  in  The scene was set at the Extension Department of  the University of British Columbia, be  and  in  written.  John  Friesen  and  the  but the play had yet to people  he  would  gather  around him would compose a work and assemble a company that would have influences in cultural and leadership development throughout  the  Province and would reach out a helping hand  to distant and needy people.  133  EXTENSION DIRECTOR  CHAPTER 5:  FIRST SIX YEARS  (1953-1959)  He who has only vision is a dreamer; he who has only a program is a drudge; but he who has both vision and a program is a conqueror. (Anon) A. The  INTRODUCTION convictions,  ideas,  style  and  directions  brought  by  Friesen soon were reflected in the programs established by the  Extension  experiment  in  Department. the  field  important new emphases growth  in  program  The  of  department  adult  was  education.  bold  There  in were  and he introduced a period of rapid  variety  Throughout  Friesen’s  term  community  development  and  as  number  Director,  and  of  participants.  his  commitment  international  service  to was  evidenced in the Department’s and his own activities.  This  chapter  from  will  review  some  of  the  programs  resulting  Friesen’ s leadership.  In  his  1954-55  professional activity. two-week Canada, of  Report,  and  had  Commons  Members of sponsored featured.  leadership  By way of Fisheries  Friesen  training  example,  Short  described  Course,  he  as  a  the major  stated that  the  first  of  received enthusiastic endorsement by  the  Federal  Parliament. by  the  Minister  A course  Community  of  field  of  area  of  Extension’s its  kind  in  in the House  Fisheries  and  other  in community planning co  Planning  Association  was  also  134 Friesen commented on progress in the Arts: A highlight in the year’s activities was [the] School Summer of the Arts. The Extension Department, with substantial assistance from the University Board of Governors, was able to attract outstanding instructors and speakers in the fine arts, the humanities and in leadership training. The five hundred young men and women who attended summer classes return to their homes to strengthen and enrich the cultural and social life of their communities. (UBC, Extension, 1954/55:6-7)  Particular notice was taken by Senate;  on August 27,  1954 it  congratulated Extension on Student Registration and programs in Extra-Curricular Summer Courses of 1954. emphasized the on the  importance of  2,185 and, 98  of  school  or  in  the  It  had was  humanities,  might  well  1954:2079).  be  previously felt  that,  public  called  affairs  for”  high  attended “an  (UBC,  over  increase and  form  service lectures  Extension,  of  and, by  adult  under  faculty  1955/56)  its  education auspices,  members  in  many  in  modern  Extension,  In 1955/56 more than 8000 people took part  continuing  attended  (Senate Minutes,  in non-credit evening classes was  students  university.  1954/55:9).  Extension  and commented  according to a study conducted at this time,  languages  (UBC,  (1954/5)  Extension  courses  some  this Department  fine work being done”  Total enrollment  “The President  through over  in the  75,000  communities  135 B.  LIVING ROOM LEARNING  In  1957,  the  Extension  Department  received  grant from the Fund for Adult Education, Foundation.  Ford  UBC  was  the  Canadian  only  for  grant  Adult  money,  program  in  Education “Living  the  1951-1961).  Room  liberal  supervision  of  Knute  implemented  to  provide  was  Buttedahl. an  Arts through Extension.  Using  Learning”,  arts,  a  University  (Report of the the  three-year  study-discussion  organized  under  the  Room Learning was  Living  ongoing  three-year  a subsidiary of the  Extension Department to receive such a grant Fund  a  program  in  the  Liberal  Buttedahl described its aims:  to help the participant (1) culture of which he is a part; (2) to help him think and objectively;  to  understand  critically,  independently,  to develop his tolerance (3) ideas which differ from his own;  of  the  opinions  and  to develop his skills in communicating with (4) others. (Buttedahl, 1973:3-4) The discussion groups met for two hours, weeks.  To  start  and  finish at  appreciated ground rule.  a  once a week for ten  defined  Meetings were  time was  generally  a much  followed  by a one-hour coffee session which did much to meld a group of strangers into a friendly cohesive discussion group. groups topics.  had  a  vociferous  appetite  for  a  wide  variety  The of  Initially Living Room Learning relied on packaged  programs available from educational foundations but some of  136 the  source  U.S.  Seven  audiences. tested  by  logical,  material  packaged  Extension.  UBC  psychologically  related parts.  limited to 3000 for readers  not  suitable  programs topic  A  effective, the  most  were  was  World.”  for  developed  discussable  popular  Written  Canadian  divided  into  and  topics  (on anthropological topics)  the  of  of  Two  Ways of Mankind” Religions  was  and ten  inter  were  “The  and “The Great was  material  usually  to 5000 words per session and was designed  of moderate  skills.  Films,  slides,  recordings  and other audio-visual aids were found to be effective but a limitation  of  funds  and  equipment  transported  their use  (Buttedahl,  Initially  the  bulk  the  problems  diverse  to  in  getting  mitigated  against  involved  groups  1973)  of  discussion  leadership  conducted by the Program Supervisor,  training  was  but after three years  several other trainers had been developed and were assuming a  larger  share  of  the  training  people were able to weed out  responsibilities.  those volunteers who appeared  to be unsuitable for the role of discussion leader. to  10  hours  of  leadership  two-day workshops.  These  training  were  Training sessions  given  in  From 6 one-  to  included a 21 minute  film “How to conduct a discussion” produced by Encyclopedia Britannica, in the film.  followed by a discussion of the 11 points raised The philosophy and objectives of Living Room  Learning were sunimarized.  The Department prepared a 63 page  Handbook for Discussion Leaders;  in 1961 this was reproduced  137 by  the  CAAE  and  distributed  nationally.  The  training  workshop reviewed how to make use of this handbook and use also  was  made  published  of  by  Education  the  (Buttedahi,  The  Study  merican  Discussion Foundation  Leaders for  Manual  Continuing  1973).  The program was an immediate success and grew rapidly from 1957/58,  when  communities, one-hundred over  1500  twenty-nine  groups  (346 participants) and  thirty-one  participants  were  organized  to 1963/64,  groups  (Selman,  in  47  1975).  in  three  when there were communities Jindra  with  Kulich  recalls with pleasure being trained as a Vancouver volunteer discussion  leader by Alan Thomas.  Kulich  comments  on  program: Living Room Learning was one of the most imaginative projects the Extension Department did. At the height of it, we had groups in 100 communities throughout B.C. What was fascinating was that, much later on, 20 years after the fact, when you would go into some of these communities, you still run into some people who say: ‘.. . in the late 1957-60s you had a program Living Room Learning and we still have a group meeting. We continue to discuss and read. It was too bad the University saw fit to destroy it.’ The whole idea was that ordinary people could get together in their own homes on the basis of reading materials, or in the case of the arts to look at pictures and listen to music then discuss them with the aid of a discussion leader, who was a process person, not an expert in an area. There were about twenty such groups in Vancouver. Then Knute [Buttedahl] took it all over the province. So the discussion leadership and the training we did, was the process; that’s how you enabled a group to discuss, whatever the topic was. It was getting away from the experts.  the  138 Today you would say empowering the adult population, but we didn’t use these big words then; but that was what it was all about. It was making it possible for people with different backgrounds to get together to discuss issues, to discuss questions, so that they would be enriched by, not only considering the topic, but also by seeing other people’s view, to see it from a slightly different angle, completely or a different angle. As there to topics, wereIntroduction the to Humanities, the Great Religions of the World, Canada and World affairs, Canadian politics, listening to music, modern poetry and a range over field of human a knowledge. We tried to put one on science, but that failed. In those days there wasn’t much interest in science. (Kulich, Interview, 1992) -  Jack Blaney, two  year  period  Learning, time  I  who succeeded Buttedahl,  “It  1961-1963.  was  had at UBC”  Living  Room  in  some  has  respects  (Blaney,  Learning  He  the  community as a cultural stimulus. to to  encourage develop  independent, tolerance  for  critical  said  Living  of  the most  Personal  brought  ran the program for a Room  fun/rewarding  Communication, University  1992).  into  the  The program was designed and  opinions  objective  and  ideas  thinking, which  are  different from one’s own and to develop communication skills (Buttedahl,  1973)  Kulich said of the Living Room Learning Program, one of  the many ideas and contributions  (Kulich,  Interview,  1992).  Buttedahl  of John confirmed  “That was [Frieseni” Kulich’s  attribution to Friesen: The Living Room Learning Program couldn’t have happened without him [John]. He wouldn’t stand up in the front and take a bow for it. (Buttedahl, Personal Communication, 1992)  139 By 1960-61 Living Room Learning had grown to have 106 study groups  discussion  popularity peaked 1962-63  with at  (Buttedahi, grant  three-year  131  the  same  the  1964,  because  of  body  Extension  Interview,  made  (Selman,  Room  for.  possible  participants  Education,  an  Program  the  expansion  programs  become  (Buttedahi,  was  which  which  into  terminated  required  more  fully  1973  and  that self-  Selman,  Living Room Learning required a subsidy  although discussion leadership was  and  in  1975).  directive  basis and accommodation was materials  for Adult  Learning  policy  financially 1992).  Fund  which  Department  supporting  because,  new  1594  its  was replaced with a new five year grant  Living  a  with  Eventually  Selman reported that the initial  from the  other areas as well  In  members.  groups  1973).  terminated in 1960, from  1400  salary  free,  of  the  publicity,  on a volunteer printed course  organizer had  to  be  paid  Buttedahi has commented: There was a yearly deficit of $10,000 to $12,000... .When faced with the stark possibility of disbanding the program, every conceivable and practical economy was Even with considered. drastic pruning of expenses, it was apparent that a minimum annual subsidy of at least $6,000 would need to found be in order the to maintain magnitude and scope of the program. (Buttedahl, 1973 :29)  The  question arose:  if  as  Buttedahl  claimed,  the  subsidy  required to maintain the program was no more than $6,000 to  140 $12,000  annually,  was  there not,  in 1964,  sufficient money  remaining in the Adult Education Fund’s five year grant, allow  the  Living Room Learning program to  least one more year?  continue  to  for at  Such an extension might have allowed  sufficient time to search  for additional  drain on University resources?  funding without a  Friesen’s response was:  Alas, other new program areas designated by the Fund required financing out of the annual grants. (Friesen, Interview, 1992)  John  Freisen  group  methods  reminisced borrowed  fondly  from  over  St.  the  utilizing  Francis  Xavier  small  University  and how well it had worked in rural Manitoba half a century Moreover  ago.  constitutional  he  pointed  debates  discussion group method,  the  out  utilized  successfully  national  1991-92  the  small  first by Keith Spicer’s consultants  and then at provincial and community meetings.  Kulich, said  commenting  the  materials.  program  on  Living  terminated  Similar  Room  Learning’s  simply  through  programs,  he  observed,  termination the  lack  are  of  well  established in Sweden because of financial support from the state. this  He went on to suggest discussion  program  that the cost of subsidizing  should  not  dependent on money from the University,  have  been  solely  adding:  If the support existed in B.C., it would now be everywhere, including the native community. The whole constitutional debate would make more sense  141 if we had that kind of infrastructure (Kulich, Interview, 1992) C.  GROWTH IN NON-CREDIT COURSES  By 1957 in  in Canada.  the Extension Department had  organizing  the  non-credit  liberal  arts,  courses  including  become much involved  with a the  heavy  fine  emphasis  on  Kulich  arts.  commented:  John had a very broad view of continuing That was unusual in his time. education. Now everyone pays lip service to that, but then it was visionary. There was a cultural part of the enterprise, a citizenship education part of the enterprise, a professional development part of the enterprise, and the individual personal and development. John saw all of these as being part and parcel of what continuing education is all about. (Kulich, Interview, 1992)  Throughout Friesen’s first ten years, continued enrollment 6,827  in  to  grow  remarkably.  increased by 260, 1963;  attendance  at  the Extension function  Non-credit  from about 2,600 Extension  1963,  earlier  a  23O  (Selman,  increase 1975).  over  attendance  class  in 1953,  Department  courses outside the Greater Vancouver region, by  evening  to  short  reached 5,753 just  3  years  Speaking of these years of growth,  Friesen stated: As these programs expanded in the province, our staff explored new cooperative endeavors in Canada, the United States, and to some extent in Europe and Asia. The ‘fifties and ‘sixties’ were surely a peak period for continuing education, and may I add, personally for the growth and happiness  142 of the Friesen family. Communication, 1992)  D.  Personal  (Friesen,  SUMMER SCHOOL OF THE ARTS AND THE  VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL FESTIVAL  The  Summer  ceramics,  School  programs  painting  and  in  music,  sculpture  grew  opera,  theatre,  progressively  in  sophistication and scope during Friesen’s term as director. (Calendars Friesen’s  for  these  years  administration  provide  the  ample  Summer  Under  evidence)  School  attracted  big  audiences to the University’s auditorium for performances in drama,  opera and music.  Selman reinforced the information already discovered by the researcher  about  describing  Friesen  Friesen’s as  a  dedication person  of  to  very  the broad  arts  by  cultural  background:  He was interested in the Arts, the Fine Performing Arts, but the arts more broadly. So John was a bit of a revelation for me; he was interested in the Ballet and fine music and was knowledgeable about music. He was broadly educated in the arts and passionately interested in them. One of the things that looms large in my mind is range of his sympathies and appreciation for things cultural. (Selman, Interview, 1992) On becoming Director of  Extension,  Friesen  immediately set  about expanding and enriching the department’s  role  in the  143 arts.  gave  He  active  and  enthusiastic  leadership  and  support to all aspects of that enterprise.  By  1955,  formal  requests  were  made  to  Senate  the  for  a  School of Music. In view of the number of requests for a School of it Music, was agreed that in the Chairman consultation with appropriate members of Senate should be asked to appoint a committee to consider the establishment of a School of Music. (Senate Minutes, 1955:2244)  lmong  other  cultural  achievements  growth  was  the  International Festival, fine arts the  during  conception  and  initial of  period  the  of  Vancouver  a key element in cultivation of the  in British Columbia;  development  this  carrying  UBC played a major  out  of  this  role  festival  in  which  opened in 1958.  Speaking society,  of  Friesen’s  strong  contribution  to  the  arts  Curtis observed:  John developed ideas for the Summer School of the Arts, and saw the campus benefitting from the Vancouver International Festival. That was John’s idea, virtually everyone else did a lot of the work; but it was John’s idea. He invited the people; he could phone anyone. . It was a major contribution, because it was unlike anything other people in other universities were doing at that time. (Curtis, Personal Communication, 1992) .  .  in  144 In  July  1954,  Nicholas  Goldschmidt  who,  as  consultant  a  directed eight sessions of the Music program approached John Friesen with a proposal, a  Permanent  proposal year, the  Vancouver  had  “Mozart Festival 1956:  Festival  Friesen’s  immediate  with Friesen’s backing, Summer  Director  School of  the  of  of  the  Music  and Drama”.  support.  So  in  Extension  John  the Assistant to the UBC President,  the  same  Haar,  Assistant  and  Nicholas  Department  (Professor,  The  Director of  Dorothy Somerset,  Theatre,  Goldschmidt took the brief to  An Idea for  later Dean Andrew)  and convinced him that  an International Festival should be launched.  The Extension  Department then worked closely with the Vancouver Community Arts Council and the Vancouver Festival Committee which were preparing This  the  way  enterprise  for  the  resulted  launching- of not  only  in  a  major  UBC’s  Festival.  1956  Mozart  Bicentenary Program, but later,  through cooperation with the  Vancouver Arts  the Vancouver  Council,  led to  International  Festival.  Commenting  on  Friesen’s  commitment  to  cultural  activities  Bert Curtis said: UBC Summer School of the Arts flowered under John. The Arts were central to his beliefs. He agreed with Goldschmidt [the Artistic Director of the Summer Schools of Music and Opera] to “think big”, big productions.. .he [Friesen] found the money and support. He received support from Larry [N.A.M.] MacKenzie and Geoff Andrew who were both real supporters of John; they understood adult education. (Curtis, Interview, 1992)  145  In  reflecting  cultural  on  activity  his  commitment  around  the  to  make  province,  UBC  a  leader  Friesen  in  commented  that: My lively interest and earlier participation in music and other arts got a big personal boost when inviting to the campus world famous performing and teaching artists in all art fields at the rousing annual Vancouver International Festivals (VIF), held both downtown and on campus. One still hears former VIF patrons recalling, -with a light in their eyes, ‘What a rich legacy the Festival left us!’ (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992) By 1956,  the Summer School of the Arts had developed to the  extent it was able to attract distinguished artists and men and women of Read,  arts  scholar;  scholar;  Aksel  performers, Frances  letters  Alexander  Schiotz  Theresa  Adaskin,  and worldwide  Gray,  reputation--Sir Herbert  Archipenko,  and  singer;  concert  artists;  and playwright;  and  CBC Vancouver  Performances  the  of  the  Tinder  Midsummer’s Night’s Dream,  Schilder,  Marie  opera  UBC’s  Lister  Box,  sculptor  and  Lieder  Harry  Sinclair,  and  writer  Chamber Orchestra.  The  Cradle  Song,  A  Cosi Fan Tutte and Menotti’s The  Consul were among the rich cultural offerings of the sununer seasons  (Calendar  of  Events,  July  and  August  1956).  The  1956 Summer School of the Arts amounted to an Arts Festival of  considerable  importance.  This  enterprise  attracted  22,420 people to the University Theatre and Gallery over the course of a few weeks  (UBC Extension,  1955/56:14).  146 Encouraged by the success of 1956 Summer season at UBC, Community  Arts  established Mainwaring, Nicholas  the  the  Vancouver  Goldschmidt  was  of  of  1957,  the  the  Festival of  B.C.  Stratford  H.  Electric, Artistic  Mary with  as  and  John  W.C.  Managing (VIF)  former  Shakespearean  Roaf  President.  Festival  Bennett,  Director.  of  Society  International  Peter  appointed Administrative  Presidency  appointed  the Vancouver  fall  Director  under  Vice-President  Director of in  Council  the  Managing  Festival,  Friesen  and  was  became  a  member of the Board of the Festival and served from 1956 to 1962.  The  Publicity  Director  Ernie Perrault,  of  the  Vancouver  Festival  Society,  writing about the importance of a favorable  cultural setting in staging a festival said: When a sufficient number of people appreciate the same things a climate can be said to exist--in this case a climate favorable to the Arts... .It must be apparent that a great Arts doesn’t just Festival happen any more than a revolution springs from a vacuum. Time takes a deliberate interest in these things and leads them methodically. starting with a idea, with the efforts of a few and ending with a magnificent fact involving the efforts of thousands. (UBC Chronicle, Vol 12, Number 2, Summer, 1958:1). .  .  .  .  After  describing  how  a  desire  .  cultural  for  enrichment  reached back into the early pioneering days of the Province, Perrault goes on to say: but if any one institution can claim the Festival as its brilliant child, the University of British Columbia has the clearest title. .The Summer School of .  .  147 the Arts proved that a climate favorable the Arts to did exist in the Province and that people would support a Festival of major importance. ( Chronicle, Vol 12, No., Summer, 1958:2)  On July 19, the  First  opened  1958,  celebrating British Columbia’s Centennial,  Vancouver  its  season.  had worked  International Deeply  tirelessly  Festival  committed to  since  his  the  appointment  of  the  arts, to  Arts  Friesen  expand and  improve the Extension Department’s programs in the Fine and Performing team  of  arts.  talented  initiative, which  His  people  International Relationship  Society,  in  and his  the  creative  department  work  provided  of  a  the  the climate and the practical proof of viability  collectively  Surnzner  efforts  School  contributed  Festival’s Between of  the  the  Friesen wrote,  greatly  to  launching. University  Arts  and  in August,  the  Reporting of  the  Vancouver on  The  British  Columbia  Vancouver  Festival  1958:  The Vancouver International Festival, which grew out of the experimental UBC Summer School of the Arts is unique among World Festivals in at least two important aspects: (1)  the Festival looks to the University to provide instruction for many of its artists, particularly in the younger age-groups;  (2)  the Festival co-operates closely with the University Summer School in making available, wherever possible, the services of Festival artists and lecturers to student and faculty groups and community audiences on campus. (Friesen, Personal Papers, August, 1958:1)  148 In  No.  Appendix  provided  11: of  copies  Benefits,  y  Reports  1959,  (1958,  researcher  the  Friesen  by  1961)  has  outlining the benefits to both University and the Community which  from  arose  both  from  benefitted  Columbia  gained  because  of  all,  of  bond  the  leaders  in By  Clearly,  recognition  Festival.  British  Moreover,  the  and  UBC  the  the  Province’s  figures  arts  in  of  people  at a week-long  leading  important  Perhaps most  the University working  1961,  Community”,  Festival.  content and teaching were enriched  between  through  communities. the  the  artists and lecturers.  strengthened with  the  widespread  the  University’s educational by Festival  with  cooperation  in  B.C.  cooperation  and  business  conference  “Art  merica  North  was  in  Arts  education judged the UBC Summer program as one of the best if not the strongest of  its kind in North merica  (Selrnan,  1975)  The Seventh Vancouver International Festival, -  August  critic  and  was  the  founding  a  (and  Committee), time;  1964,  1,  Ian  According  last.  of  member  Davidson,  the  held  the  Festival  to  one  Junior was  July 1 music  Festival  ahead  of  its  its goals were probably too high brow for most people the  musical  International  and  Festival  skills  other of  this  required,  standing,  beyond  capability of many local performers  (Ian Davidson,  Communication,  not  Festival  Whether  1992).  established  a  new  or  cultural  this  paradigm  for  is  an the  Personal true,  for  the  British  149 Columbia within which the arts have since been impressively stimulated.  E.  COMfrIUNITY DEVELOPMENT  The Extension Department under Friesen had, campus  resonated  work,  needs  aspirations  or  facilitated  enterprises  genuine  cultural,  in the Province.  in  with  expressed  society. and  and  and  Extension  programs  citizenship  through its  which  off  unexpressed promoted  and  responded  educational  to  deficiencies  Friesen was well aware that the Extension  Department’s well-being  relied heavily on  the  cooperation  and support of the administration and faculties but he took the view that for  Extension’s  knowledge,  society  outside  or  duty was  cultural  the  campus.  to  cater to  the desire  improvement,  emanating  He  to  sought  from  respond  effectively to the legitimate aspirations of communities in British Columbia.  To quote Friesen,  writing on one aspect  of his wide perspective: Opportunities are not inherited; they are created. How can we, each in our own community, be more aware of, and accept this our responsibility in the days that lie ahead?.. .To meet this demand for information, University and various other exten sion departments will co-operate in recommending courses on Post-War Planning. (Friesen, Altona Echo, January-February, 1943, Re-Building the World: V. Challenge to Responsibility) Training  of  leadership  important to Friesen.  for  community  development  According to Selman:  was  very  150  John had this tremendous commitment to university in the community and the role of university in the cultural development of the Province. I use cultural not in the sense of fine arts or high culture, but rather the development of society in B.C. (Selman, Interview, 1992) Kulich expressed similar feelings in saying: John had a great sense of mission to assist the community to develop. I think it comes from the Prairie background where people were much more attuned to helping each other and helping the community. It permeates John’s life, expanding the program of the university, much more into the community and being a part of the community. (Kulich, Interview, 1992)  During  the  upgraded  first  the  half  1956  his  department’s  were made judiciously; and  of  evaluated Friesen  at  role  in  the  progressively  community.  Changes  he and Selman carefully searched for  candidates spoke  Friesen  term,  for  the  new or- replacement  National  Universities held in Montreal  Conference  to report  staff.  of  that he  In  Canadian  recognized  that community development: is one program which will not pay its way and will require substantial assistance from the university or its financial friends. .Will the university accept the responsibility for carefully selected pilot programs in educationadult projects a university is uniquely qualified to conduct? (Friesen, 1956:66) .  .  A determined effort was made to enlist the support of local leaders,  then  programs  within  to  persuade  their  and  help  communities,  -  them  using  to as  implement a  resource  faculty members, artists, professionals, business people and  151 other community leaders. Penticton  informed  To note an example: years  UBC  Penticton Summer School  of  later  that  the Arts,  the  the Mayor of birth  of  owed a great deal  the to  the consultations of the visiting team of Dorothy Somerset, Ian  McNairn,  Personal every  Hans-Karl  Papers).  aspect  became  a  of  much  Piltz  and  Friesen  John  (Friesen,  The period was one of buoyant growth in the more  Department’s  programs  and  Extension  enterprise.  sophisticated  Selman  commented about Friesen’s insistence on higher standards: How much change took place over five or six years was quite impressive. I think John Friesen was ahead of the University leadership in seeing that University Extension had to become more high level and sophisticated. Some of us were more happy with the broader based notion of what we should doing but John was constantly pushing be us in the other direction. Interview, (Selman, 1992) In  1957,  reporting  communities,  on  Adult  Education  within  the  Friesen commented:  In conclusion, it is apparent to us that the divisions between formal voluntary and adult education are rapidly disappearing. No longer, on any basis whatsoever, can adult education be seen as confined to remedying deficiencies in the education of the young. It now exists in its own right with its own task of serving a population that feels more and more the need for lifelong learning. (UBC, Extension, 1956-1957:28) The  UBC  Administration was  Extension’s Wednesday,  growing February  becoming  importance 8,  1956,  to  increasingly the  President  aware  University.  MacKenzie  of On  formally  152 invited Friesen  “. .  observer and guest”  Later,  in  his  .to attend the meetings (Senate Minutes,  1957/59  Biennial  of Senate as an  1956:2246).  Report,  John  Friesen  gave  thought to the immense changes that were taking place in the economic and social affairs  of the Province;  he noted that  we were following a North merican rather than European form of  culture  labour.  with  sharp  lines  drawn  between  capital  and  With reference to a proper balance between material  and cultural development,  he comments:  Dr. M. M. Coady, of St. Francis Xavier University. had a stirring answer to this question: ‘Man can develop on five fronts- -physical, economic, social cultural, and spiritual. That civilization which develops these interests to the maximum, and which observed symmetry in its development, will be a great civilization’ A ringing challenge for British Columbia’s second century! (UBC, Extension, 1957-1957:4)  Some of the Extension Department’s activities were dependent for  existence upon  stimulus  from the university.  Some  of  the department’s programs would be initiated and then passed on  for  other  institutions  programs provided on campus,  to  develop  or,  in  the  case  of  they were frequently taken over  by faculties as will be discussed in Chapter 6.  153 F.  ORIGINS OF THE ADULT EDUCATION GRADUATE PROGRAM AT UBC (1956)  On the strength of his own participation over the years and in  keeping  Houle  with  the  principles  (see Chapter 4:118),  earlier  quoted  from  Cyril  Friesen was of the view that the  Extension Department must help establish a program to train future adult educators for work throughout the Province; wanted  UBC  take  the  lead  introduce  such  to  determined  to  University  would  education,  a  Canada.  field which was  Also,  with  adult education, to  seize  establish  his  in  field.  this program  a  at  graduate  a  barely  intense  Friesen  UBC,  was  that  program  in  the  adult  developed anywhere  interest  in  he  in  international  he wanted the Extension Department of UBC  the  unique  opportunity  of  mutually  sharing  experience with adult educators in other countries.  Limited  in  his  powers  as  Director  of  Extension  the  Department,  Friesen’s would have to call on his qualities of leadership and diplomacy.  Contrary to earlier folklore,  credit for the origination of  an adult education graduate degree program at UBC lies with the  triumvirate:  Thomas. programs,  An  John  earlier  Pioneering  Friesen,  publication a  Neville on  Profession  the in  Scarf e start  and  of  Canada,  Alan  graduate  (1973)  had  simply ignored the earlier stages and had given emphasis to the  contribution  of  Coolie  Verner.  Friesen  told  the  154 researcher  that  his  experience  inspired his dream to, in this province”  at  Columbia  University  “develop a cadre of adult educators Interview,  (Friesen,  1991).  He went on to  say: It was quite natural for me to motivate a move for a graduate program in adult education by the Extension Department, which had frequently initiated new programs in Education. The Faculty of Education, under Dean Neville Scarfe, was the natural home faculty for graduate work in adult education. Hence in 1956, Scarfe and I, who were close associates from our Winnipeg days, agreed that a few programs in graduate adult education tried out in summer sessions. be (Friesen, Interview, 1991) Selman said of the origins by Friesen and Scarfe: I don’t know whether there was a plan from the beginning to start a program or whether they said, ‘Let’s test the water. Let’s invite Roby Kidd to give a course and then we’ll see what kind of response we get. If there is a lively response to it then we can consider the possibility of creating a program.’ I suspect-that John Friesen prepared Neville Scarfe for that possibility. (Selman, Interview, 1992)  Roby  Kidd  courses,  was  recruited  instruct  to  first  and his 1956 class marks the beginning of  Adult Education studies at UBC. helped  the  to  class,  organize  taught by  announced entitled Education  in  the  this Kidd,  Education  514,  Programmes”.  graduate  July 3-20,  “  The  the  Graduate  The Department of Extension  first  University  of  Summer The  adult  1956.  The course,  Session  Calendar,  Administration  work,  thus  education  begun  as was  of  Adult  in  1956,  155 through Friesen’s initiative and Scarfe’s ready cooperation, provided  the  foundation  education programs Alan Thomas’  on  which  future  at UBC would be built.  graduate  adult  Selman said of  contribution:  Alan Thomas had done all but his dissertation on his doctorate of education at Columbia University by the time he had come to UBC. He was very well informed about Adult Education and had worked for Roby Kidd at the CAAE for a couple of years before he went to Columbia. Alan was the man on the spot who was perfectly willing to give the kind of energy to the development of something in the field of adult education. Alan was here with a lot of recent knowledge about the academic study of adult education. I’m Sure’ there was real commitment in his mind to the development of the field in Canada. He had gone to Columbia because there was no program in Canada. Columbia in those was the days most highly recognized program anywhere. (Selman, Interview, 1992) Alan Thomas  subsequently worked out  Masters Program in adult education. of the program,  the  curriculum for the  Asked about the origins  he commented:  Who knows who’s idea it was? It may have come from a dozen places. Certainly, Roby [Kiddi had been tireless in promotion of that notion in Canada. But Roby wasn’t home on any campus. You know enough about University politics that ideas are a dime a dozen, but you’ve got to have someone who’s willing to do the administrative work to get it done. That’s what John [Frieseni did. John was extremely good at University politicking. He had a very shrewd sense of how you did it and he was tireless at it. Personal Com (Thomas, munication, 1992)  It may be that Friesen,  Scarfe and Thomas knew that it would  be much easier to get the program approved if a course could be given and many people turned up.  Then they could provide  156 evidence  that  Appendix 12:  in  the  community.  See  Brochure of the first Adult Education Graduate  Course at UBC,  July 3  initial  course  audited,  a  was  total  Photos--(a) Graduate  exists  interest  of  First  -  20,  1956  taught by Roby Kidd.  well  attended--31  36.  (See  Graduate  Course--Figure  Figure  registered Nos.  Course--Figure Summer  27;  (c)  course  had  and  26-28 26;  of  The 5  Class  :  Second  (b)  Graduate  1960  Course--Figure 28).  Clearly  the  building  on  Friesen,  the University went  create  a  initial its  success,  graduate  the  at  on  a  strong  in the degree  (Masters)  lively  response of  urging  subsequent  John  year to  in  program  and  adult  education.  The curriculum was worked out in detail by Alan  Thomas  consultation with  Scarfe Senate.  (in  Friesen and  and Dean  Scarfe)  steered the proposed program ‘through  the University  The Senate approved the Master of Education program  in Adult Education on Wednesday, in Senate Minutes,  1957:2386  February 13,  1957 as noted  (See Appendix No.  Approvals for adult education courses).  13:  Senate  Commenting on the  close cooperation that existed between Friesen,  Thomas and  Scarfe in establishing this enterprise Selman said: I that see as very much triumvirate a of interlocking abilities and readiness to go ahead. Kidd was of course the perfect person to come in he was the best known adult educator in Canada. (Selman, Interview, 1992)  157 Alan Thomas  had a half  time  appointment  in the  Faculty of  Education and half time in the Extension Department. appointed  by  Friesen  Supervisor of Adult responsibility  be  the  Extension  Education and was  by  Education program.  to  Dean  Scarfe  Department’s  given administrative the  for  He was  Graduate  Adult  Thomas recalls spending most of his time  in Extension: I was teaching two courses in adult education because John and Neville [Friesen] [Scarfe] together had decided--I think it was John’s work basically in persuading Neville--but Neville was very supportive, that they wanted to open a program in adult education. I did the dog work, but John did the fun work. (Thomas, Personal Communication, 1992)  After  the  program was  launched,  according  to  Selman,  Alan  Thomas was the only faculty member and for the first several it  years  was  education  not  possible  to  Interview,  (Selman,  study  full  time  in  adult  The instructional load  1992).  was carried in the main by Thomas until he left UBC for the CAAE in 1961.  teach  Two visiting lecturers were appointed each to  full-time  for  Wilbur Hallenbeck  seven  (Friesen’s  followed by Coolie Verner student Verner  at in  Education didn’t already  that  the  1959  as  518  return  months  of  time, a  a  to  year;  former professor at Florida Knute  State  one-semester-only  of Adult Education;  to  to  completed  the  instruct program  until  I  first  Columbia)  University.  Buttedahl  Methods USC  the  also  recalls  instructor, he  said  in  “Verner  [Buttedahl]  requirements”  A  had  (Buttedahl,  158 Personal Communication,  1992).  In addition,  came to teach Summer Session Courses Summer Instructors).  other visitors  (See Appendix No.  14:  According to Thomas:  Coolie [Verner] was a powerfuL figure, so a great many people assumed the program had been started by him; there is no doubt that Coolie did a great deal to flesh it out and give it a bit of structure, but it in fact started earlier. (Thomas, Personal Communication, 1992) In 1961, that  when Thomas left the University,  Thomas  was  a  highly  regarded,  there is no doubt  partly  because  of  his  outstanding capability as a teacher; Selman said: Alan was and is such a magnificent teacher that people who took a course with Alan early on, like my friend Bert Curtis, would simply be captured by the guy and thereby by the field. They changed their career expectations and came into the field of adult education. is doubly inadequate not It to recognize Alan Thomas, John Friesen and Neville Scarfe as the originators of the adult education graduate program at UBC. (Sëlman, Interview, 1992) According  to  Education  program  Friesen,  development  involved  him  in  with Gordon Selman and Alan Thomas. the model  on which Friesen and his  of a  the  Graduate  cooperative  Adult  endeavour  Columbia University was colleagues  in Extension  designed the Adult Education Graduate program for UBC.  In 1961  Coolie Verner was  invited to return to UBC as  first full-time professor in this field. consultant  to the Extension Department  the  He also acted as a (until  1964)  and in  159 the  1961-62  Annual  Report  for  Extension,  Friesen  welcomed  his appointment to the Faculty of Education saying: In view of the growing commitment to Continuing Education by government and private agencies, and with the developing body of knowledge in this areas of the Department study, [Extension] particularly welcomed the senior appointment of a professor of adult education in the person of Dr. Coolie Verner. The continuing close association between the Faculty of Education and this Department has been strengthened through Professor Verner’s outstanding work in research, instruction and consultation. (UBC, Extension, 1961-62:3-4) G.  COMMUNICATION PROGR4S  Another area in which the Extension Department pioneered new programs was the field of broadcasting, making. for  television and film-  Thomas directed a program series  the  Department  broadcasters  in  of  B.C.  In  Extension the  1956  on Communication  under Annual  a  grant  Report,  from  Friesen  describes this activity: Mr. Alan Thomas has been active during the last year developing plans for courses for persons interested or enployed [sic] in the mass media. Discussions have been carried on with the British Columbia Association of Broadcasters in this connection and it is hoped that during the coming months a five-year non-credit program in radio, television, and film will with be launched students from various parts of Canada. A major seminar on radio is planned for the spring of 1958. (UBC, Extension, 1956/57:12/13) In his  1960  Report  on Extension,  after describing the help  received by  way  of  grants  and  the  provided  the  Broadcast  and  Television  by  broadcast  opportunities  industry  to  the  160 University,  Friesen.  stresses  the  fundamental  importance  of  these media to the institution: We consider this [television] to be one of the most urgent needs for University Extension. The television stations of the province welcome the opportunity to use University programs and this contribution in higher education British in Columbia could be impressive but at present the Department requires the necessary television equipment for such an undertaking. Facilities could also be utilized in experimenting with closed circuit television for class regular instruction. (UBC, Extension, 1959-60:2) --  -  By  1959  the  Extension  and courses indicated  Department’s  were progressing well; a  continuing  need.  Communication interest  The  programs  and attendance  Extension  department  reported on one particular success in this field: A tribute to the quality of instruction, and to the ability of the students in the 1959 Summer School Film Production class, was the winning of the plaque for the Best mateur Film of the Year and a Certificate of Merit from the Canadian Film Awards held in Ottawa. (UBC, Extension, 195960:14/15) There was the  impressive expansion in broadcasting activity,  Communication  enabled  the  producer  and  entitled  “Sounds  division.  Department  programs produced. with  other  over  the  the  educational  continent,  more City”.  In 1960  was  special  engage  to  to broadcast of  A  than  grant  full-time  a  thirty  There  were  the department,  radio  production  awarded  a  from  Grant  by  CKWX  program  radio programs numerous  other  in competition  centres  from  all  Aid  from  the  in  161 Educational Television and Radio Centre Ann Arbor, (UBC  Extention,  promoting work organize  of  network  B.C.  of  this  A broader  in television,  national  a  communities much  1959/60).  work.  In  in  radio and film making was  to  involving  course,  due  of  Extension  University  The  aim  Michigan  the  later the  University  and  retreated  from  Knowledge  Network  Television program on Channel 5 introduced and now provides communication Friesen  facilities  encouraged,  and  as  programs  study  community  a  such  service  in  as  those  lifelong  learning.  H.  WORK IN ASSOCIATIONS FOR ADULT EDUCATION  Friesen  has  professional  a  strong  belief  associations  for  in  the  adult  importance  educators.  of  the  Commenting  on his own early involvement in these and other institutions Friesen said: During my prairie years I became (1945-53), involved increasingly in adult education associations; with the Director of Extension and other University faculties, through CBC and private radio broadcasts, in editorial writing and in such community endeavours as U.N. the Association, UNICEF, the Provincial Credit Society, the United Church and CAAE conferences. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992) An important initiative taken by Friesen in this period was the creation of what later became the British Columbia Adult Education  Council.  Seeing  the  need  for  launching  a  provincial association of persons and agencies interested in  162 the field,  he enlisted the cooperation of Laurie Wallace of  the  Department  B.C.  Vancouver  School  of  Board  dinner on September 23, the guest  speaker  Education  and  Graham  co-hosting  in  an  Bruce  of  organizational  1954, with Roby Kidd of the CAAE as  (Friesen,  Personal, Papers).  Out of  this  initiative came a first conference in December of that year, which was followed on a regular semi-annual basis by similar conferences,  a  pattern  changed form in 1961. the  first  maintained  such provincial body for adult  significant  contribution by  (Selman,  organization  the  The B.C. Adult Education Council was  in Canada in the post-war period,  the field  until  education created  and represented a further  Friesen to the  Personal Communication,  organization of  1992).  Speaking of the development of a provincial association for adult educators, Kulich said: He has been the leading light in B.C. associations. When Gordon joined the Extension Department, one of his jobs was to be Secretary to the provincial organization. UBC played a great role in bringing the whole enterprise together. John played a significant role there and on the international scene. John’s leadership can be seen at UBC in building up the best department of the time. Provincially he advanced the call for adult education and its organization. His leadership was felt, through the University Extension group, culturally in the community, nationwide and internationally. (Kulich, Interview, 1992)  Friesen’s  staff  effort  encourage  to  acknowledged them  to  that  he  made  a  determined  establish and maintain active  163 contacts with other adult educators, the  professional  behind  the  associations.  Friesen  in professional  scene  personally and through preferred  organizations,  but  notable that two of his proteges, Thomas and Selman, serve as became  President of  President  Education  of  and  the  work it  is  came to  colleague Buttedahi  Pacific Association for Continuing  Most of his senior colleagues were active  (PACE).  in meetings  the CAAE and his  to  correspondence  with  their  counterparts  in  the field.  Buttedahi  commented  acquaintances  and  on  Friesen’s his  about  stature  wide in  network the  field  of of  professional adult education saying: He had amongst his friends and acquaintances the key people who were writing on the emergence of a profession in the field of adult education. John himself joined the ranks of those who were giving leadership in area. that John was very influential in adult education organizations during the SOs and 60s on both the Canadian and American sides, terms in helping of the associations. He took quite a of number leadership roles on boards, not as President but in an advisory capacity. He really brought together the first attempt in this province to build professional a organization for adult educators. (Buttedahl, Personal Communication, 1992) Selman recognized in Friesen an undoubted personal capacity to  lead  instead  associations Friesen  commented:  pressed  of his  adult  educators  colleagues  to  successfully; do  so.  Selman  164 In terms of the professional field of adult education he was content to be behind the scenes helping in what ever way he could. I wondered a bit why he was pushing the rest of us to do these things when he would have done them superbly well. The essential point I want to make is that John seemed to have a driving commitment within himself to help his close colleagues grow and develop and every get advantage possible to that end. (Selman, Interview, 1992) Curtis  also  commented  of  Friesen’s  inclination  to  work  behind the scenes in professional organizations: John was the person who made things happen in national organizations or organizations of adult educators, but it was Gordon Selman who did the I don’t doubt that John encouraged the doing job. of it, but Gordon did it. Gordon worked national ly to professionalize adult education in Canada. (Curtis, Personal Communication, 1992)  From all  this  comment  Friesen pushed his in  professional  level.  In an  by  his  colleagues  senior staff  associations interview,  it  at  Selman  a  Provincial  expressed  “John’s own apparent lack of interest,  adult  educator,  Presidency Interview).  of  our  taking  National  When the  this attitude,  up  clear  that  to assume leadership roles  about  in  is  important  and  some  researcher enquired of  puzzlement  as a prominent  jobs  organization”  National  such  as  (Selman,  the  1992,  Friesen about  he said:  My main interest lay in starting or in laying the groundwork for such organizations and in choosing good leadership from amongst the young blood of the profession. I was not prepared to spend any significant part of in my life chairing committees. (Friesen, Interview, 1992)  165 When  Friesen  involvement,  saw  specific  a  need  he was ready to serve.  his  for  .mong various positions  he held in voluntary associations were these: of  The  of  Community Arts  the  Vancouver  of Vancouver  Council  International  International House Association,  Chairman,  British  1960);  Associate  Conference  Chairman,  No.  1  I.  A TIME OF FULFILLMENT  (1953-1955)  and  (1956-1962);  UBC  (1957-1958);  Aging  on  Education  Canadian Conference on Education  Board member  Festival  President,  Columbia  personal  Year  (1957  &  Committee,  (See Appendix  (1960-1962).  Resume for others).  -  By 1959 the Adult Education Graduate program and a number of programs  in  continuing  established:  Living  professional  Room  throughout the Province;  Learning  education groups  were  were  firmly meeting  a burgeoning program of non-credit  courses was underway in various communities;  there had been  significant  accomplishments  School  Arts;  Vancouver  the  launched;  and  UBC  Friesen’s  work  in  year,  Extension  Supervisor  programming  was  The  started  International  attended  by  Extension  to  in  Festival gain  Adult  Bert  8,377  evidenced  progressing favourably.  Summer  International  had  conferences  Reports.  The  by  Department  was  the been  recognition  Curtis  the  had  Education.  people.  of  In  organized The  breadth  Department’s well  from that 99 of  Annual  respected  Selman commented on this time:  and  166  At the beginning of the 1960’s, UBC’s Extension program had a reputation for excellence, diversity, community-service and able leadership, and was strongly supported by the administration of the University. (Selman, 1977:12) It is not surprising that John Friesen would feel a sense of well-being  and  fulfillment;  reflecting  about  that  time  he  shared his feelings about 1959 with the researcher: There occurs a time in one’s professional and family life when things come together and one experiences a unique joy and contentment. The mid-point of my UBC period was such a time when life seemed at its best. Life was exhilarating with no end to challenges. (Friesen, Interview, 1992) The University of British Columbia Extension Department was active on campus and throughout the province providing adult education. helping  to  Its raise  leadership the  role  general  within  level  development in British Columbia.  of  the  community  cultural  and  was  social  167  Figure 19: Friesen, 1953  Figure 20: Receiving Ford Foundation Grant. (Gordon Selman, 2nd from left, N.A.M. MacKenzie, middle, C. Scott Fletcher, 2nd from right, John Friesen, far right)  It Balanced! j UBC Figure 21: Extension Director  Gordon Selman (if t) Figure 22: and John Friesen (rt)  168  Figure 23: Dr. Edmund Brunner of Columbia University visits UBC to meet Dean Neville Scarfe and his former students——Dr. Coolie Verner and Dr. John K. Friesen. (r to 1: Brunner, Verner, Scarfe, Friesen)  Figure 25: John K. Fri esen @ UBC  Symposium on the Professions, 1961. Figure 24: Coolie Verner, Leonard C. Marsh (UBC), (1 to r: Paul Sheats Roby KIdd, John Friesen) F  Adult Education, First UBC Graduate Course Summer of 1956. Front Row Dr. Roby Kidd, Instructor (Kidd: 2nd from right; Friesen: Second Row far right)  Figure 26:  -ç  4  Figure 27: Adult Education, Second UBC Graduate Course Summer of 1957. Dr. Alan Thomas, Instructor (Front Row: far right)  170  Figure 28:  Adult Education, U.BC Graduate Course Edward Hutchinson, Instructor Summer of 1960. (Back Row: 2nd from left)  171  Figure 29:  (1 to r:  John K. Friesen Family, 1958 John, Robert, Melanie, Marta)  Ui /  Figure 30:  (1 to r:  John K. Frieseñ Family, 1959 Melanie, Marta, John, Robert)  172 CHAPTER 6:  EXTENSION DIRECTOR  (1960-1966)  LAST SIX YEARS  Of a good leader... When his work is done, his aim fulfilled, They will all say, “We did this ourselves” (Lao Tzu, 6th Century B.C.)  The sixties were to be turbulent years for the Department of For the first half of the decade success crowned  Extension.  and  success  the  department  on liberal education,  public issues,  leadership  and  to  few.  Then  came  a  shift  in  a of  because  growing  vigorously,  programs and broadening its scope with emphases  pioneering  name  was  continuing  administration,  community development, education programs,  professional a  policy  followed  reversal  serious  an  by  new  a  by  of  fortune,  university  extended  period  of  retrenchment during and after Friesen’s term.  A.  In  LEADERSHIP PROGRAMS  discussing  sixties, special  the  the  responsibility.  Extension, invited, political American  liberal  Extension Department  emphasis  government,  proposed  .  .  would  Annual to  programs Report  “Education  for  said for  the that  public  this encompasses education at all levels of  both 1960/61)  along  given  be  arts  voluntary In  .  with  the  and Spring  fifty-nine  professional” of  other  scientists,  and  senior  universities  and  colleges,  1960,  Extension  Friesen  a  was  Directors,  administrators to  (UBC,  from  conference  173  -  sponsored  the  by  conference,  UBC  Fund  for  Extension was  Liberal Adult Education. ‘public  is  informed  spoke  and  this  can  how  area  of  a  we  the  leader  in  “What  educate  adult  of  for  education?”  the conference on Creating A Favorable  Climate for Continuing Liberal Education. highlights  At  The theme under study was  in  to  Education.  acknowledged as  responsibility’,  leadership  Friesen  Adult  the meeting,  C.  Reporting on the  Fletcher,  Scott  President of  the Fund for Adult Education used the UBC Extension programs as  a  good  example  to  follow;  Fletcher  editorial:  was  quoted  in  the  -  realistic appraisal of present [was made] trends in liberal which were both education, optimistic and challenging. He pointed to such innovations as curriculum revision of liberal adult education; imaginative programs for alumni, professional, government and social groups; studydiscussion programs the projects (including undertaken by U.B.C, C.A.A.E and a number of member groups)... (Food for Thougbt, Editorial, May, 1960)  This  theme  1962  Friesen  University Directors  persevered attended,  Council on  for  another  with  meeting  “Education  for  UBC of  two  years.  President Presidents  Public  In  October,  MacKenzie, and  the  Extension  Responsibility”,  at  University of Oklahoma  (funded by the Ford Foundation’s Fund  for Adult Education).  See Figure 33:  UNIVERSITY COUNCIL ON  EDUCATION FOR PUBLIC RESPONSIBILITY at end of chapter.  174 Later in the mid-sixties, UBC Extension was to become active in leadership training in the field of public responsibility in cooperation with other organizations.  Extension’s Report  for 1965-1966 comments: A program of continuing education in leadership training is being carried out by the Extension Department in association with several community and government groups This year, departments. Human Relations training projects were presented in business, to leaders government, education institutions, and voluntary organizations. With the financial support of the Citizenship Branch of the Federal Government, the first of these was Group Process jointly a Institute sponsored by this Department and Simon Fraser University’s Centre for Communication and the Arts in association with the Vancouver Human Relations Council. (UBC, Extension, 1965/6:23)  B.  CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION  Friesen  commented  on  the  department’s  growing  interest  the field of continuing education in the professions: This area is becoming, and will continue to be a major concern of higher Adult Education. The Department, in cooperation with the faculties and with professional organizations, has organized a rapidly increasing seminars number of and conferences for a great variety of groups teachers, police officers, lawyers, agricultural ists, directors of defence, broadcasters, businessmen, physiotherapists, workers with the aging, and many others. An important new area of professional education is the recently organized Department of Continuing Medical Education, under the direction of Dr. Williams, Donald H. and working in close cooperation with the University Extension. (UBC, Extension, 1959/60:1) -  -  in  175 On October 25,  1961,  on the twenty-fifth anniversary of the  creation of the Extension Department,  the latter organized a  Symposium on Continuing Education in the Professions at UBC  was  which sional  attended  by  organizations  Symposium  was  Extension  Department  to  representatives (Figure  discuss could  The  24).  ways  various  profes  purpose  of  the  which  the  means  and  assist  of  in  the  by  development  continuing education in the various disciplines. MacKenzie,  in his  recognized  the  foreword to the report of  important  work being  done  by  of  President  the symposium, the  Extension  Department when he wrote: For just as preparing young men and women for entry in the professions is a major function of the regular teaching program of the University, so assisting practising professionals to continue their learning throughout is rightly an life increasingly significant part of the University’s extension services. John I congratulate Dr. Friesen, Director of the Department of University Extension, and those who worked with him for organizing this timely seminar on this important subject. (UBC, Symposium Proceedings, 1962:5)  In reporting on the symposium, persons  representing  some  which was attended by eighty twenty  professional  groups,  Friesen commented: Already there are indications that the has been influential in encouraging interest in continuing education professions. (UBC, Extension, 1961/62:3)  symposium increased by the  Friesen wanted Extension to engage in an ongoing cooperative enterprise,  with  support  from  the  various  professional  176 faculties. programs, which  Extension’s with  would  professional  promote  a  University  and  Continuing  Professional  support  from  purpose  a  the  would  associations  close  in  Education. of  to  and  association  professions,  number  be  deans  the  faculties,  between provision  Friesen  -  organize  especially  had those  the of  strong in  the  Faculties of the Arts and Education.  on  Commenting professional  Extension’s  education  in  involvement  the  field  of  in  continuing  medicine,  Curtis  recalled: I was sent over [by John] to be a member of the original committee of UBC founded and who organized the Centre for Continuing Medical Education. This committee originated the plan and process which resulted in the UBC Health Sciences Centre, which is acknowledged to be an outstanding centre of medical and paramedical training. (Curtis, Personal Communication, 1992) An  important  creation  of  event a  for  UBC  Department  of  in  the  early  Continuing  sixties  Medical  This was a clear demonstration that pioneering Extension Department within  the  was  University.  leading In  its  to  important  1960/61  Annual  was  the  Education. work by the  developments Report  department stated: More recently, an extensive division of Continuing Medical Education was launched by its Faculty and Extension which aims in time to encompass a wide scope of advanced continuing health education. (UBC, Extension, 1960/61:3)  the  177  -  The early sixties provided a period of broadening scope as the  Extension Department  breadth of programs.  continued  to grow  in  size  and  in  Friesen comments:  Recalling those UBC I found the years, relationship with faculties cooperative and often enthusiastic, and the administration always understanding and generously supportive. .Hence, it was to be expected that UBC opened the way for a marked expansion in continuing education, by 1966 serving in excess of 20,000 enrollees in all... .The Annual Report of that year (1966) noted that almost all academic schools and faculties were conducting their Continuing Education programs through the Extension Department. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992) ..  Extension  organized  important  organizations  campus.  Subject  a  wide  range  and  institutions  matter  areas  and  Health,  Liberal  Sciences,  Education.  Law,  The  Librarianship,  School  many  the  UBC  Agriculture,  Education,  Department  special projects with the B.C.  for  outside  included:  Commerce and Business Administration, Forestry,  programs  of  Fisheries, Social Work  conducted  joint  Trustee Association,  the Provincial Council of Women, The Alumni Association, The Community Planners Association,  the University of Washington  and the National Secretaries Association (B.  Some  three  years  after  he  retired  in  C. Chapter).  1962,  apparently  MacKenzie still held to his conviction that Extension should have a responsibility in professional training,  stating:  The extension department should also have either the direct responsibility or a general interest in  178 refresher courses that should be offered to men and women in the professions, medicine, dentistry, law, engineering, technology; which in new knowledge and new skills are available, but may be overlooked or by-passed in the midst of a busy professional practice. (Kidd and Selman, 1978:145) .  In  1962,  the  Extension  Extension  Program  to  Department  plan  and  .  organized  administer  credit courses dealing with education, the Faculty of Education.  .  an  credit  Educationand  non-  in consultation with  Jack Blaney,  then supervisor of  Living Room Learning, was appointed by Friesen to be head of the  new  enterprise.  Blaney described  this  appointment  by  saying: [The enterprise] was essentially the professional development program arm of the Faculty of Education, and was new. I worked with John and Gordon and with the faculty to establish that. It was a good for experience me of in terms developing faculty relationships were that important for establishing trust and getting the program going. The involved coordinating, job managing, the credit programs throughout the interior of B.C. and also organizing the noncredit programs: weekend seminars, conferences for principals, administrators, school teachers, etc. (Blaney, Interview, 1992)  C.  LIBERAL EDUCATION ZND STUDY DISCUSSION  In his 1961 twenty-fifth anniversary report, out  that  throughout  its  Friesen points  existence University Extension had  worked to provide opportunities for a broadly-based liberal education for adults in British Colunbia:  179 While today’s university is vitally concerned with education in the professions, it must at the same time take account of the larger community. ‘To live a life’ abundantly requires more than a high school education or university degree. It a implies lifelong learning. Liberal education for adults presents a very broad spectrum of activity for the university to explore and to define in terms of its unique function. (UBC, Extension, 1960/61: 3) In an erudite and penetrating address to the Adult Education Conference of the CAAE, Friesen in December,  (British Columbia Division)  1963,  given by  he described how Canada had the  opportunity to go through a process of renewal by accepting and implementing a determined commitment  to achieve a high  rate of adult literacy throughout the country. the U.N.’s proposed world literacy as remarks:  wide  campaign to  a momentous task. “Education  progress turns,”  is  the  He described achieve  adult  As he put it in his opening axis  on  which  the  wheel  and then quotes a. declaration made at  of the  1960 UNESCO meeting in Montreal. We believe that Adult Education has become of such importance for man’s survival and happiness that a new attitude towards it is needed. Nothing less will suffice than that people everywhere should come to accept Adult Education as a normal part, and that governments should treat it as a necessary part of the educational provision of every country. Personal Papers, (Friesen, Dec. 1963)  The Department was deeply involved in expanding its Province wide,  off-campus  programs  received supporting grants this purpose.  to  the  community and  for a  from the Board of Governors  The Report comments:  time for  180  The Department, keenly aware of its responsibility provide service to all parts to of British Colunibia, has during the past year continued to its expand Province-Wide Program the with continuing assistance of a special grant from the Board of Governors this for purpose. (UBC, Extension, 1961/62:7)  D.  NATIVE INDIAN CULTURE AND LEADERSHIP  Friesen points scientists  out that  (Hawthorn,  in the early  Jamieson and others)  research on a wide range of proposals 1961/62  (Friesen, the  programs  native  social  published timely  Indian culture and development  Personal  Extension  for  ‘sixties UBC’s  Communication,  Department  Indian  organized  people,  including  1992). two a  In  pilot two-day  residential leadership workshop for 35 chiefs and councilors from 24  bands.  neglect  of  Looking back  native  at  years  in  communities  of  Canada,  paternalism and one  can  credit  Extension for arranging forums in which Indians could freely express themselves: A new field of university adult education was explored this year in the area Indian of leadership education. As a result of discussions between the Extension Department and the Indian Affairs Branch, and requests North from the American Indian Brotherhood and from Indians in the Cowichan Agency... (UBC, Extension, 1961/2:19)  John  Friesen  pioneer  in  Supervisor  encouraged  leadership Marjorie  the Extension Department staff to  programs  Smith  did  throughout  just  that.  the  Province.  Describing  its  181 activities with the  (native)  Indian people,  the Department’s  report stated: Three-day with workshops Indian chiefs and councillors were held for the Kamloops, Nicola and Okanagan agencies. A five-day workshop at the University brought together 23 chiefs and councillors from various agencies throughout the province. The program was financed jointly with the Federal Indian Affairs Branch. (UBC, Extension, 1962/63:14)  Curtis  confirmed  the  importance  of  Friesen’s  support  in  stimulating leadership training for Native Indians: John would encourage us to do leadership training with Native Indians. Some twenty years later some of these same individuals have become the Indian Band leaders of today. (Curtis, Personal Communication, 1992)  Thomas,  speaking  of  the  work  done  by  Marjorie  Smith  and  others added: did Marjorie lot work a in of establishing cooperative day-care education way ahead of the In Indian affairs, I don’t think there fashion. was another Extension Department in the country doing anything like UBC did at the time. So I think in terms of the imaginative programs, the scope, the number of different groups that saw the University as a resource, UBC had a claim of having a very good Extension Department. (Thomas, Personal Communication, 1992) For financial reasons,  the department had to discontinue its  work in human relations and family life education, the  financial  assistance  of  the  Federal  Branch  but with of  Indian  182 Affairs,  Extension  was  able  to  continue  some  of  its  work  with the Indian people: Prior to March 1964 the work on the Indian Leadership Development Project continued on a limited basis, with financial support from the Federal Indian Affairs Branch. Commencing April the 1, 1964 Branch provided substantially a increased grant for this project. This coincided with the change in emphasis in the Extension with the result that the work on Department, Organization Community and Family was Life discontinued, with the supervisor [Marjorie Smith] of this section devoting practically all of her time Indian Project. to the Extension, (UBC, 1963/64:10)  Marjorie Smith, reached  out  to  Tom Brown, the  Bert Curtis and other colleagues  Indian  people.  As  noted  in  the  Department’s Annual Report: The aim of these programs was to’ assist chiefs and councillors to understand more clearly their functions, responsibilities and authority, and to learn how to understand and solve problems in band affairs, in the of their context Indian communities. (UBC, Extension, 1961-62:20) Speaking  of  Marjorie  Smith  area through Extension,  and  of  others  working  in  Friesen observed:  On campus the later fifties witnessed a growing over the continuing desperate conditions concern of our native population. Professor Harry Hawthorn and colleagues were producing much needed research on Canadian Dean Indians. Andrew Geoffrey encouraged Bill Reid, a future famous Canadian artist, to teach and practice totem and other art forms. In the Extension Department the supervisor who launched Indian groups study was Marjorie Smith. Rendering assistance to.the disadvantaged fostering by self-help had always been her commitment; hence it was no surprise to find her  this  183 organizing an extended series of leadership programs in the interior solely for and with Indians. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992)  During 1965-66,  the Extension Department’s emphasis shifted  from providing short-term workshops to an intensive program with selected Indian bands.  The Annual Report states:  At the request of the Federal Indian Affairs which provided Branch, financial support, the major part of the year was spent in a concentrated program with bands in the Stuart Lake and Burns Lake Agencies. The objective was to expand community leaders’ understanding of Band Council functions and develop leaders’ self-confidence in assuming increased responsibility for the management of band affairs. Many informal meetings took place, culminating in workshops held for bands in each agency. Extension (UBC, 1965/66:22) E.  EXTENSION ADVISORY COUNCIL  Friesen  recognized  Extension  in  administration ‘Town  and  based  Advisory  the  its and  Gown’  need  to  get  negotiations with  the  Extension Council  with  faculties.  Advisory  contained  He  number  for  University  the  Council. a  support  added  introduced This of  a  broadly  community  members with the expectation that this would strengthen the Department’s  position,  but  it  proved  in  practice  somewhat unproductive and was allowed to lapse. idea of such a council appeared attractive, colleagues  found  the  committee,  Thomas said of the Council:  as  to  be  While the  Friesen and his  structured,  toothless.  184 That never worked; it never amounted to much. People weren’t really interested in relating to the University as a whole, they wanted to relate to the parts they were interested in. (Thomas, Personal Communication, 1992) Friesen  acknowledged  the  Advisory  Council  did  not,  as  it  turned out, work as successfully as had been hoped: It consisted of six persons from campus, a few deans, and six people from the business community, labor, etc. It met Members a few times a year. were asked their opinions on continuing education; however the advice was too general to be useful to the university’s program. Council was The disbanded after a few years. (Friesen, Interview, 1992) The reasons mainly  for initiating  political.  strategy,  Jack  such a committee appeared to be Blaney  describing  Friesen’s  said:  No doubt about it, John saw himself first as an adult educator, as opposed to a university faculty member. This is an important distinction. John did not plan in a way manuals tell you how to plan; in terms but of a of his development strategy or of directions for the future, he was a master at it. Strategy is a craft. His strategy was built on a vision, taking advantage of opportunities, actually feeling it. (Blaney, Interview, 1992) Kulich,  speaking  unwillingness  to be  of  what  he  saw  confrontational,  as  John  perhaps  Friesen’s  provided  relevant insight: John would have an idea about what he wanted to do, but he was also politically aware and astute. John would never, ever, have a confrontation or meet anyone head on. He would try to persuade and he may, if it was a matter of a body- -Board of Governors or Senate for example- -he would try to  some  185 get someone on board before he launched onto something. Then he would go with a really good kick, but if it didn’t go he would back off. (Kulich, Interview, 1992) Probably  the  satisfactory parties  Council  was  vehicle  between  involved.  too  cumbersome Extension  In any event,  to and  provide the  a  other  it did not appear to add  to the influence of the department within the Administration or the Senate.  F.  THE QUEST FOR A UNIVERSITY POLICY CONCERNING CONTINUING EDUCATION  The  Extension  under new UBC  Department,  reporting  President Macdonald,  one of self-evaluation,  on  its  described  first  session  the year  stating:  The Department completed four studies on aspects of continuing education which our staff felt would be significant in future development. The reports were presented to and discussed with the President and the Committee of Academic Deans. The studies dealt with the following aspects of University Extension: (1) A coordinated plan for administering University continuing education. (2)  The extra-mural program.  (3)  Continuing university education in British Columbia.  (4)  A Centre for continuing education.  .The policies of the foregoing studies, after confirmation and amendment by the President and faculties, will result in some basic changes and new directions for continuing education at this University. (UBC, Extension, 1962/63:2) •  .  as  186 The  Extension  administration of But,  as  shared  continuing  turned out,  it  view,  this  wanted  Department  to  centralize  education under  this was not  favoring  Not all Deans  the  provision  continuing education by their own faculties. this  matter,  initial  Kulich  Professions, of  and  risks  this  Friesen  took  the  for the  a few Academic Deans wanted and took ownership  Interview,  opposition. viewpoint,  after  of  Commenting on  inaugurated Continuing Education  prestigious,  (Kulich,  that  explained  auspices.  its  to be.  instead  the  and  He  1992).  Although,  potentially said  from  the  lucrative  that  Commerce  Extension  field led  the  Department’s  Kulich considered these raids on programs unfair,  he understood and to some extent sympathized with the Deans’ ambitions.  Whatever  clearly problems created  importantly, liberal  arts  inequities  in reviewing,  the  for  the  Extension  of  this  situation,  planning and continuity were Department.  Perhaps  more  the department lost revenues that supported the and community development programs  which were  at the heart of Extension’s work.  Following an example set by the Faculty of Medicine, professional  faculties  were  to  demonstrate  a few  increasing  an  desire to take over adult education for their graduates. the  period  department’s and  1961-1963, four-point  proposed  a  Friesen  pushed  initiative  major  hard  accepted  reorganization.  to by The  get  the  In the  Senate  reports,  187 collectively,  recommended  that  continuing  education  and  extra-mural programs be centralized at UBC under Extension.  also  They  stressed facility  education  Senate  the  to  centralization  be  were  for  built  of  at  a on  residential  adult  campus.  The  the  and  development  with  odds  continuing  Department’s  Extension  need  timing proved to be unfortunate,  department’s of  the  the  education,  growing  non-degree  because idea  and  involvement  of  against in  the the  community  Jack  activities.  some  Blaney,  speaking of the difficulties the Extension Department faced in presenting a plan for reorganization said: Within the that plan University for context Continuing Education Reorganization was flawed because it would never work. It did not respect the realities or power that rested within the University and how you ally yourself with that power to get things done. Power is never in transition. The power is always held by the faculties. (Blaney, Interview, 1992)  The  Extension  consideration  Department’s by  faculties  reports and  shuffled within the bureaucracy. be  several  years  before  even  a  were  “tabled”  for  or  otherwise  In consequence,  it was to  committees  somewhat  coherent  policy  would emerge from Senate.  Beginning opened  in the MacKenzie years,  up  professional  Continuing disciplines.  the  Education As  these  Extension Department  programs  for  enterprises  several  prospered,  188 the  faculties  apparent  that  took the  an  increasing  Deans  were  going  more of continuing education. (under Macdonald) continuing  appeared  education  was  interest; to  it  take  soon became  over more  and  The University administration that  unconcerned becoming  the  field  uncoordinated  of and  decentralized.  G.  PROPOSAL FOR CAMPUS RESIDENTIAL CENTRE OF CONTINUING EDUCATION  One project Friesen favoured, completion,  but was not able to bring to  was his plan for the  centre for continuing education, and the community. need  for  action  Once again, on  a  creation of a residential serving both the University  in 1963 Friesen stressed the  Centre  of  Continuing  Education,  stating: One of the most pressing problems remains the lack of suitable facilities in which to conduct continuing education activities, especially during those periods of the year when the University is in regular session. In view of the lack of response for the University’s submission to the provincial centennial authorities for a Centre for Continuing Education on the campus, other means must be found to meet this pressing need. Extension, (UBC, 1963/4:2)  Unfortunately Friesen’s request for a ‘Centre’ period in the sixties,  when funds  came during a  for new buildings at UBC  189 were severely constrained.  Further,  it came at a time when  much of the Extension Department’s work in general community service  was  Friesen  envisioned  discouraged  the  technology,  by  such  media,  the  a  centre  etc.  to  administration.  Macdonald  having  as  link  the  communities throughout British Columbia.  up-to-date  University  with  The building plans  were drawn,  a model was made with the support of President  MacKenzie.  Friesen pushed hard for these facilities during  his  term  at  forthcoming.  UBC,  but  Speaking  of  the the  necessary need  for  funds a  were  centre,  not  Curtis  said: What we wanted was a residential conference centre and we worked like hell to get it, but it never happened. I went we went to Minnesota; to Kellogg; but I think we were three years too late. (Curtis, Personal Communication, 1992) The  University  regular students,  continued,  to  build  residence  halls  for  but little if any regard was given to the  needs of Extension students and programs.  Selman,  however,  in writing about the struggle to get such a centre wrote: The Extension Department had for years been seeking the construction of a residential adult education facility on the campus. A new opportunity presented itself in 1963 when the University established a committee to adopt a project to be presented the Provincial to Government as a possible centennial project. The University committee adopted the residential centre as its project. It was subsequently presented to Victoria but was not in the end funded by the senior governments. (Selman, 1975:16)  190 The  for  need  work  educational arts  in  large  attended  of  the  was  evidenced  by  the  growing  function  in  the  liberal  Extension  for  number  of  11,094  by  conferences  1962/63  responsibility,  citizenship  continuing professional  year  program  Centre  a  training  and  increase the  such  people,  a  education programs  being  Extension  the  arranged.  organized strong  102  and  In  the  conferences  indication  that  a  conference facility was merited.  Again  UBC’s Ex-President MacKenzie,  retirement,  continued to extend his  three years after his support,  this  time  for  such a centre: As the work of the university and of the extension department developed I would consider and support the establishment centre for of a special extension and continuing education which might include lecture rooms, an auditorium, studios, too, and film libraries, record libraries, .1 might in due course even include residential accommodation which, facilitate the .would holding of conferences and seminars throughout the year... (Kidd and Selman, 1978:146/147) ..  .  It wasn’t quarters  until in huts  .  after Friesen’s departure  that  Extension’s  on the East Mall were moved to a wing of  the newly acquired residence halls of St. Mark’s College on the  northeast  1970).  corner  It would seem,  of  the  campus  however,  (UBC  Reports/Oct.  that Extension was not the  sole victim of a moratorium on new buildings. of  Point  research  Grey: into  Larry MacKenzie the  private  1,  papers  of U.BC., of  Waite’s Lord which  Geoffrey  claimed  Andrew  and  191 reporting  MacKenzie,  on  the  absence  of  many  new  building  initiatives under President Macdonald and commented: In 1966, when John Barfoot Macdonald announced he would retire from U.B.C. the next year, Larry asserted privately that there wasn’t a building under construction in 1966 (except the Institute of Higher Education) that had not been planned, approved, and financed before he [MacKenzie] left in 1962. (Waite, 1987:222)  RECOGNITION IN INTERNATIONAL ADULT EDUCATION  H.  From  the  Friesen  1953, His  of  outset  network  had of  In  widening. delegation  his  remained  as  the  to  UNESCO  Director  active  international  addition  to  term  his  Extension  international  in  was  contacts  in  work.  progressively the  Canadian  Conference  on Adult  membership  Second World  of  in  Education held in Montreal August 1960, he was also a member of  the  General  official Biennial  headquarters cipated  delegation  in  matters.  in many One  to  Conference,  the  held  November-December, international of  the  twelfth at  session  UNESCO  UNESCO’s  Paris  Friesen  parti  1962.  on  conferences  practical  outcomes  educational  of  Friesen’s  peripatetic existence was that he came to rely more and more on his deputy, Through  the  recognition development  Selman,  work as  of an  to oversee day-to-day administration.  several important  programs.  In  campus  units,  contributor consequence,  UBC was  to  gaining  Third  Friesen  World became  involved in considerable travel related to advisory work on  192 international  adult  education,  within  Canada  in  and  other  countries.  Reporting  on  the  Department’s  increasing  involvement  in  international matters, he declared: In all developing countries adult education is seen to be an urgent need in resource development and democratic citizenship. Extension (UBC, 1961/62:4) In 1962,  he was abroad for half  January,  Friesen  undertook  the year.  of  four  a  month  Starting  leave-of-absence  from UBC and,  as a member of a U.S./Canada team  the  Foundation  Carnegie  with African Friesen “Mutual  educators.  participated Appreciation  New  In as of  February a  worked  York),  Fellow  Eastern  (funded by intensively  through April, in  UNESCO’s  and  Western  1962,  project Cultural  On this study-tour he also observed and discussed  Values.” continuing  education  Asia and Japan. official  of  in  Canada  with  educators  in  India,  South-east  In November to December he was a member of delegation  to  the  UNESCO  General  Biennial  Conference in Paris.  In  consultation  External  Aid  Office,  year aid project The  with  Indian Friesen  and  authorities helped  to  the  Canadian  establish a multi  for the University of Rajasthan in India.  UBC/Rajasthan  Universities’  project  was  designed  to  assist that institution in initiating much of its university  193  extension work.  In October,  1964  -  July,  1965,  Friesen was  Director of this Project in Continuing Education between UBC and University  of  Rajasthan,  India  and became  Friesen inaugurated the project,  Jaipur.  resident  in  and headed up the  team made up of himself and James Draper, which was based in Jaipur  for  the year  1966-67.  The project  organized  three  adult education conferences for Vice Chancellors and faculty The Canadian team were nationally influential  members. India,  augmenting  the  leadership  provided  in  Rajasthan’s  by  Vice-Chancellor, Mohan Mehta.  One of several goals of the Rajasthan project was to be the of  building  a  Centre  Extension efforts achieving Columbia It was laying  in  India,  Continuing  somewhat  was  ironic  “corner  Education.  While  on the Rajasthan Project,  success in many directions, Extension  a  for  battling  to  UBC were  back home in British  maintain  its  position.  that Canada’s High Commissioner was  stone”  for  a  Centre  for  Continuing  Education in an Indian University at the same time as urgent requests for such a facility fell on deaf ears at UBC.  I.  TURBULENT TIMES:  On  December  confidential  31,  PRESIDENT MACDONALD  1959,  memorandum  N.A.M. to  (Larry)  UBC’s  MacKenzie  Chancellor,  Dal  sent  a  Grauer,  indicating he had finally settled on a date for retirement:  194 To avoid misunderstanding and uncertainty and to prevent the circulation of rumours, I feel it useful to state that I proposed to announce formal retirement.. .on the 1st of July 1963, to take effect one year from that date, i.e. 1st of July, (Waite, 1987:185) 1964. were  These  dates  Board,  who decided to expedite matters.  members  the  of  MacKenzie  not  Board  his  on  acceptable  was  to  formed  retirement.  to The  some  members  UBC  Chancellor  Governors, Nathan Nemetz,  and  the  A committee of six find  successor  a  Presidential  Committee had in mind John Barfoot Macdonald Former  of  Chairman  of  Search  (Waite,  1987).  Board  the  to  of  recently confirmed in conversation  with the researcher that he was one of the board members who sought out Macdonald in Boston,  where he was a professor of  dentistry in charge of a large research institute at Harvard (Nemetz, Macdonald  Personal met  had  Communication, Senate  members  May, earlier  consultant at UBC in Dental Education. Senate Meeting of December 14th, Minutes,  as  28,  1992).  a  visiting  The minutes of the  1955 confirms this  (Senate  1955:2241)  Waite  (1987),  1962,  two years  describing President MacKenzie’s retirement in earlier  than he wished,  and  commenting  these difficult times, wrote: He [MacKenzie] always thought it was a conspiracy of Phyllis Ross and G.T. Cunningham, both of whom continued to go from strength to strength. On July 27, [1962] the Board agreed that in view of Grauer’s illness, Cunningham, the chairman of the presidential search committee, would be acting chancellor. Grauer died the next day. His dethronement of Larry [Gordon] and [MacKenzie]  on  195 Shrum on June 29 was his U.B.C. (Waite, 1987:190) After the appointment President of UBC,  held broad been  his  by  “community-based”  universities.  for  He was  Macdonald  did  not  support  the  type of Extension program which had  UBC  at  Macdonald proved to have very  the Extension function than had been  about  up  act  John Friesen and the Extension Department  predecessor.  built  official  of John Barfoot Macdonald as  in 1962  encountered difficult times. different views  last  and  at  other  Western  “East”,  from-the  provincial  where the Extension  tradition was based more on part-time degree completion and continuing professional education. expand graduate UBC  and  Extension  budget  Interview,  1992)  The  trend  academic  study and other academic priority areas at  framed  he  his  in  which  the  was  of  areas  not  accordingly.  twenty-five  percent  initiated  had  moving  fast  He  towards  enough  to  cut  the  (Selman,  higher satisfy  Certainly there was room for expansion  prepared to support, continuing  by  Friesen  standards  two  budgets  1964  President Macdonald. in  Macdonald was anxious to  Extension  work  which  Macdonald  was  part-time studies towards a degree and  professional  education.  Macdonald  had  in mind  that UBC should concentrate on achieving a high reputation for its degree granting and professional education functions (Macdonald,  1962).  UBC would become  more  Under  President  elitist  Macdonald’s  than before and  concept,  confine  its  196 activities to fields that could not effectively be served by other  educational  institutions.  The  and  President  the  Extension Director differed as much on program content as in John Friesen had always firmly believed that issues  style. were  settled  best  by  discussion,  not  and  by mandate  that  education for public responsibility was an important part of the process.  In his words:  all to pieces, regret”  “Jack Macdonald  without asking,  (Friesen,  Interview,  cut our budget  for which later he expressed 1992).  Jack Blaney confirmed this: That evening of Friesen’s farewell, John Barfoot Macdonald came to it and said to me and two other people, I can’t remember who they were, that, “I made a mistake about Extension. You really do very, very good work. I really appreciate the of quality what are doing.” you (Blaney, Interview, 1992)  Following on his report on Higher Education, the  provincial  B.C.  government,  Government  Macdonald  commissioned by  recommended  establish a number of  two-year colleges  several regions of the Province.  In addition,  to  the  develop  four-year  colleges  the Okanagan and Victoria. education,  Macdonald  senior educational his  ambitious  the  non-degree,  UBC  institution for  unimportant to Macdonald,  Lower  the in  he wanted it  Fraser Valley,  Within the hierarchy of higher  wanted  program  in  that  to  be  recognized  (Macdonald,  expansion,  as  the  1962).  Against  Extension  appeared  who wanted to sweep away much of  citizenship  education  and  cultural  197 development work.  From the actions he took,  that on joining UBC,  it was apparent  Macdonald was not much concerned with,  impressed by or in favor of,  what  the Extension Department  was doing in communities throughout the Province. just did not accept work  of  a  had  these endeavours as being properly the  university,  required academic increasing  Macdonald  nor  in  his  standards.  opinion  Perhaps,  reservations  about  also  did  they  meet  the university involved  becoming  in  controversial social issues.  Reflecting on Extension’s budget “The Decade  of  Transition”  towards higher standards  in his  cuts  Selman pointed  1975 paper on  out  that  a move  in degree credit work already was  underway in the department.  He commented:  The 1960’s would have been a period of change and reassessment for the Extension Department even without the crisis produced by the budget cuts. Dr. Friesen had made this clear by his actions before and during the early Sixties that he was attempting generally to upgrade the intellectual level of the Extension program and to create closer links between the Extension work and the academic community. (Selman, 1975:31)  As described earlier Friesen had clearly recognized emerging trends  and  sought  to  accelerate  the  development  of  credit  degree and continuing professional education programs during the second half of his term, but held to his conviction that the  University  also  citizenship education.  had  a.  broad  responsibility  Selman said of this:  in  198 John saw what was going on very quickly, he was meeting with the President [Macdonald] and sending him reports and information to try to inform him and to win him over to a point of view sympathetic to a broadly based Extension function for the But it probably was a lost cause from university. John knew that, but he had to try. day one. Macdonald in the end said ‘I am going to chop you It was a miserable process all around. guys.’ (Selman, Interview, 1992)  On  October  9,  1963,  Macdonald wrote  to  Friesen making his  position absolutely clear and setting out on  which  he  believed  the  Extension  three principles  Department  should  working:  *  The University should accept financial responsibility for credit courses offered through the Department of Extension.  *  The University should not commit funds to support non-credit courses.  *  The University should not accept responsibility for courses in continuing professional education offered to groups who are in the position to pay the full cost. (J.B. Macdonald Letter to Friesen,  Oct.  9,  ‘63)  Speaking of the implications of Macdonald’s directives concerning the scope and nature of Extension Programs, Selman said: The principles outlined in this letter were to become the basis for policy in the next few years and signaled a sharp change in- the University’s approach to adult education. The only part of the Extension program which Dr. Macdonald and the Board of Governors (which accepted his view) were willing to support financially was degree credit work... (Selman, 1975:19)  be  199 In explaining his motive  for withdrawing  financial  for the Extension Department’s non-credit courses,  support  President  Macdonald wrote to Friesen: The reason for this is that in general noncredit courses are offered as a service to the community, fringe benefit a the to community in having university. It can be a expected that such courses will not be offered at level of an academic the usual discipline [bold mine] 15: J.B. (See Appendix No. Macdonald Letter to Dr. J.K. Friesen, October 9, 1963 :1) •  It  .  .  appears  the  new  President  University should be  considered  that  “having”  reward enough for the community,  a  i.e.  the people of the province. Selman commented: In his famous letter [Macdonald wrote] to the Extension Department in 1963, that [October 9] work Extension fringe is the benefit a to community for the fact that there is a university. If they were going to enjoy that fringe benefit, then they [the community] were going to have to John Macdonald was playing the same pay for it. game as the Senate. (Selman, Interview, 1992)  By  refusing  to  fund  Macdonald cut much of Department’s  work;  non-degree  Extension’s the  the  “substance” cut  was  work  university. of  the  promote  was  limited  by  the Extension  particularly  bearing in mind that the department’s related  out of  mandate to do  existing  regulations  Macdonald’s directive also cut the  department, education  by  foreclosing  for public  activities,  plans  it  responsibility,  damaging degree of  the  “heart”  out  might  have  to  community and  200 cultural  development  In one devastating move,  off-campus.  Macdonald struck at the very essence of the work being done, even  though  at  the  time  the  UBC  Extension  Department  was  highly regarded throughout North America and internationally for the work that was being cut.  During the last years of Friesen’s term, sought  abandon  to  provision  of  community. was  on  a  a  campus.  broadly  Although it course,  new  convictions interests  UBC’s  and  of  ongoing based  retained  citizens  commitment  educational  soon became  Friesen  did  not  living  outside  his  the  the  personal  commitment  to  the  limits  of  the  the  Although an overall shortage of funds may have been  a factor in the administration’s shift in policy, that  to  the  the university  change  of  towards  service  evident  sense  his  the administration  in  cut  Extension  necessarily desired,  funding  was  not  it appears  forced,  by the government of the day.  nor  Selman,  on the basis of working in the President’s office explained: The university didn’t take a line-by-line budget to government; it by and large just got a big pot of money. Then, the battle over who got the money and how much Extension got was fought out within the university. In the end the administration decided, not only were they not going to put more money in, but would take money out. (Selman, Interview, 1992)  In  his  commented  1963/4 on  the  policy changes:  report  to  the  consequences  administration,  which  resulted  Friesen  from  these  201 In the year under review in this Report the Extension Department’s programme has been strongly influenced by two major policy changes in the University. The creation of new universities in the province and the increased emphasis at the University of British Columbia on graduate work and professional training have accelerated the trend within the Extension programme to focus to a greater extent on professional liberal and education courses for the university graduate. In addition, the decision by the Board of Governors that the Extension programme must become substantially more self-supporting has made necessary both a revision of the Department’s fee structure and the elimination of curtailment of some important aspects of the programme. (UBC, Extension, 1963-64:2) Even  Extension’s  were  under  1964,  the  Extra-Sessional  fire. Senate  In  the  Credit  Senate  Executive  Course  Minutes  Committee  on  offerings  September  8,  reprimanded Extension  for listing credit courses without prior discussion with the Departments  concerned, and  prerequisites  particularly  timetables.  Friedman  (Faculty of Medicine)  carried)  that  UBC  away  the  from  list  the  of  Justice  respect  Nemetz  presented a motion  credit  campus,  with  courses  or available  to be in  and  to S.  (which was offered by  extra-sessional  classes must be submitted to Senate for approval through the respective Faculties.  In  1965,  the  1965/66:30) Extension  department illustrating  programs  Correspondence Credit  provided  Courses.  was  courses These  that in and  a  75  of  non-credit only  percentages  the redirection of priorities  graph  14  (UBC,  all  Extension,  attendance  at  l1  in  courses, in  Extra-Sessional  demonstrate  how  deeply  for Extension would cut  into  202 the and  of  substance to  a  the  department’s work,  considerable  extent,  in  both province-wide  the  evening  classes  concerning the humanities.  Although  President  influenced  a  Department,  more  expression  of  Macdonald  reversal  a  appears  of  fortune  correctly his much  in  person  the  for  action  shift  deeper  as  the  who  Extension  can be viewed as power  and  an  direction  taking place within the University of British Columbia.  At  UBC one outcome of the increased emphasis on academic degree  related  studies  had  been  shift  a  in  power  from  the  President’s Office and the Board of Governors to the Senate. The  academic  discretion  Deans  as  to  have  which  become more programs  discussing this shift in power,  are  powerful  and  acceptable.  exercise Selman,  commented:  The leadership in the University shifted over the years from the President’s Office and the Board of Governors, who used to be the powers within the University, to the faculties, the academic community as symbolized by the Senate. When that kind of shift is going on then if you have built your strength on the support from the President’s Office and have done a lot of things that the academic community, academic departments weren’t enthusiastic about then in the long run they are going to come and get you. so they cut Extension to strengthen graduate work. The Deans are more inclined to do that if what is going on in Extension is not seen by the Faculty as truly an extension of the University. (Selman, Interview, 1992) .  Selman, December,  who  worked  in  .  President  1965 until 1967,  Macdonald’s  observed:  Office  from  203 Macdonald was a very intelligent administrator. But he was of the same view, by and large, as the Senate and the Faculties. He wanted to pull back from Extension and other things as well, in order to get as much money together as he could so as to get on with graduate studies. (Selman, Interview, 1992) The shift towards a strictly academic agenda was not simply a manifestation of a change within the University or in the Province.  Rather  it  money  was  educational  economic development.  was  part  of  becoming  a  phenomenon  increasingly  The government  in  which  focussed  on  in Victoria had been  telling the University for some time to put more emphasis on such  things  Similarly, was  much  commerce,  as  concerned  independence but  steered  and  professions.  the  pressures came from the Federal government which with  vocational studies.  it,  engineering  manpower  since  purse strings.  the  technical  and  The University has rightly defended its  in deciding how  clearly  training,  University two  to  spend  policy  governments  the monies  was  subject  control  the  given to being  to  educational  As Selman put it:  Government money is going very into heavily vocational/technical training. The humanities and the liberal arts are getting squeezed out, except where they fit the into academic approach. Interview, (Selman, 1992)  Despite  all  encouragement  Friesen’s to  the  personal  team  which  efforts  had  function with such care and commitment, demoralized.  Friesen  reported  with  built  to the  provide Extension  they became somewhat regret  that  a  few  204 senior colleagues had resigned to take other positions or to resume their studies  (UBC,  Extension,  1963/4).  The termination of the Living Room Learning project which by had  1964  serving  groups The  grown  47  of  ending  have  to  nearly  communities  the  worthwhile  1600  was  participants in  discussed  and  in  Chapter Living  successful  131 5.  Room  Learning program was symbolic of UBC’s abrupt departure from the field of education for public responsibility, development and studies in liberal education. good  deal  of  curtailment  of  public its  concern  community  There was a  expressed  development  community  UBC’s  about work  and  the  researcher has provided copies of several newspaper articles of  the  changes  time  criticizing  regarding  Criticizes UBC).  the  Extension  University (See  for  Figures  its  policy  36-40,  Media  As a consequence of 1964 budget cuts,  the  number of non-degree programs offered to the public declined steadily  from  250  in  1962/63  to  195  in  registration in courses around the Province to 2707  In  (Selman,  November  department  1965/6  fell  and  from 5753  1975)  1964,  the  Board  of  Governors  instructed  to cease offering the Summer School  of  the  the Arts  program in Opera and Theatre and ordered that further staff positions in the fine arts should be eliminated. be  justified  in part by the  Faculty of Arts  This could  expanding  the  205 Music and Theatre departments. “So  only  not  receiving  was  the  specific  1964/5,  Friesen  University’s proper as  he  tried  importance  to of  (Selman,  out  role within to  as  1975).  pointed  convey a  cut,  instructions  adjust to the cuts” in  budget  As Selman has pointed out, but to  the how,  department in  part,  Nonetheless, that  society  his  was to  reporting  view  of  the  remained unchanged  the UBC Administration the vital  commitment  to  citizenship  education  and  community service: In our day another dimension has been added to teaching and research, namely that of directly sharing the fruits of learning not only with the students on campus but with the community at large. National and international growth are contingent upon an adequate supply of educated citizenry and trained without manpower; it progress in developing and developed societies would come to a halt and rapidly decline. What are the concerns of adults for further education? We submit that they are threefold: to make a living, to enrich experience and purpose in life, and to participate actively in citizen affairs. University Extension interprets these areas as civic, liberal and professional education. (UBC, Extension, 1964/65:5) Despite  the  activities,  restrictions  put  on  Extension’s  the department was working hard to renew itself.  In adapting to new policies Extension sought it could of  its  to retain all  commitment to community service.  6325 adults enrolled in its Humanities programs. demand  non-degree  indicated  a  continuing  desire  for  In 1965, This high  Liberal  Education by the general populace of British Columbia.  Arts  206  -  In steering the Extension function away from an involvement in non-degree, community  education for public responsibility and other  oriented  work,  the  administration  satisfied  was  that it was in tune with the wishes of those faculty members who were suspicious that Extension’s work was too far out in left field or not at a sufficiently standard intellectually. Also, the  the administration assumed that any vacuum caused by University’s  would be  departure  filled.  picked up by  the  J.  (Selman,  community  education  work  It may have expected the work would be new community  other institutions. the case  from  colleges,  School  boards  or  As it turned out, this proved not to be  Interview,  1992 and Selman,  1991).  LIFELONG LEARNING  When the annual report of 1964-65 of the Department had been circulated to Senate,  Friesen made a further attempt to gain  attention from the Senate for the three guideposts according to  which  he  believed  continuing  education  should  proceed.  His report was received for information only. *  An endeavour to create a climate and purpose for lifelong learning.  *  A commitment to higher education.  *  Developing a broad base for leadership. (Senate Minutes, December 20, 1965:20)  The year 1966 was Friesen’s last as Director of Extension at UBC.  He had made the changes in priorities required by the  207 administration, Department’s  but  continued  determination  to  to  emphasize  provide  the  Extension  whatever  community  service  it  budget.  He described the department’s work by stating:  could  manage,  despite  limitations  put  on  its  Continuing education at the University of British Colunbia is a response to community and regional needs. Higher education should not be all things to all men; instead, it endeavours to serve generally the more advanced levels of professional, social and cultural leadership. Continuing education seeks to create a climate and a purpose for lifelong learning. In all its efforts the goals of University Extension is [sic] to stir the imagination and increase the capacity for self-renewal through individual growth, and for community and national development. (UBC, Extension, 1966:8)  Under the new budgeting terms, had  to  be  offered were the  funded  by  increasingly  ability to pay.  tended  to  instruction,  fees  focus rather  Extension non-credit programs from  directed  students. to  In consequence,  on  very  than  those  courses  students  many of  practical  intellectual  Also,  matters  its  with  courses  involving  exploration.  Friesen  reflected on the changes which took place: On returning to Vancouver [from India in 1965], I met up with several formidable problems. UBC President John B. Macdonald, who succeeded Extension enthusiast Larry MacKenzie, had earlier announced [October, a reduction in the 1963] Extension grant. He also co-opted my stalwart associate, Gordon Selman, his Executive as Assistant. Gordon later returned to succeed me as Director. We admittedly lost some ground, but with the timely, competent efforts of colleagues Blaney, Matthews, Buttedahl et al, on the safe prediction [made to the administration] that the proposed programs would yield satisfactory a  208 return, the Department, on the advice of the faculties and professional bodies concerned, managed to appoint three more supervisors, for legal education, the sciences and engineering. A second challenge was the defeat in Senate, mainly by a vote of one faculty, Commerce and Business Administration, of well-researched a policy and plan for future, thoroughly a integrated, faculties/Extension facility. Personal (Friesen, Communication, 1992) The  administration’s  degree  and  Friesen’s  professional own  intellectual work  drive  off-campus,  in  the  to  But  social  opportunity to  and  Friesen  was  have  helping  critical  consideration of  that  work  standards.  independent  was  demand  reasonably  Extension  gone to  equip  other  emphasis in  line  achieve  the  was  citizens  community  follow Friesen’s  on  with  higher  opportunity to  thinking  objective  and  put  to  bring  to  their  issues.  Gone  deep commitment  to  cultural development and community service.  K.  REORGANIZATION OF CONTINUING EDUCATION  The mid-to-late  sixties  was  a period  of  great  uncertainly  for the Extension Department as it moved within the narrowed mandate which had been imposed upon it. India  in  the  Summer of  1965,  Friesen  On returning from  tried  to  resolve  the  matters of Organization and of University Policy concerning Extension. submitted  On March 1, to  Organization British  the of  1966  (Revised on April 25,  Administration and  the  Continuing Education  at  Columbia”  (Senate  Records)  Senate the  proposing  1966)  he  “A Revised  University  once  again  of  a  209 policy  of  centralized  Education. some  of  mendations  administration  There was however considerable the  professional  had  been  for  Programs.  comment  President  faculties.  forward  put  discussed with the Senate, faculties  for  and  by  Continuing  opposition from the  After  Extension,  recom  they  were  which then referred them to the the  to  Macdonald,  Senate  in  a  1966 to the chair of this committee,  Committee  letter  of  on New  March  15,  commented:  Adoption of such a policy might very well be wise, although I feel that it would need to exclude Continuing Medical Education because of the very specialized problems which exist in this area and of the because success of that operation as presently organized. (Senate Records) It  became  clear,  policy was  not  however,  acceptable  that to  the  several  suggested deans,  Extension  especially  to  the Faculty of Commerce which was in the position to benefit from a large share of education  programs  the  for  income generated from continuing  the  business  community.  Blaney  comments:  John always wanted to do programs in business and Phil White [Dean of Commerce] wouldn’t let him do them. Phil White fought very hard against the Centre becoming a School for Continuing Studies. We tried to establish it prior to John leaving and after John left. (Blaney, Interview, 1992) It appears the opposition was led by the Dean of the Faculty of  Commerce  and  Business  Administration.  Commenting  on  Friesen’s decision to press this whole policy question to a clear conclusion,  Selman commented:  210 He [Frieseni may have felt that forcing the issue in this way was not likely to produce what he wanted--and he has been criticized for doing it --but he also may have felt that the Extension Department’s future (and his own commitment to it) depended on his being able to bring about some clearer definition of University policy in this area. (Selman, 1975:25) Friesen was in the eyes of Selman, but not a hard nosed negotiator” Evidently, involved What  it  in  was  a  not  power  mattered most  public  would  finally lay”  be  revived, Gordon  (Selman,  Friesen’s over  struggle  to him was,  1992,  “. .  Interview,  1992).  to  become  character  departmental .the  the  Interview).  languished with  the  territory.  knowledge  wherever  well-served  (Friesen,  reorganization  in  “an inspirational leader,  that  the  responsibility  The proposal for  faculties  it  until  was  two years after Friesen had left, by his successor, Selman  on  January  23,  1968  in  new  a  document  Recommendation to the Senate Concerning the Organization of Continuing Education  (Senate Records).  unsettled until 1970  (Selman, and Kulich,  L.  The  This issue remained Interviews,  1992).  from  UBC’s  FRIESEN’S REACTION  administration’s  commitment  to  decision  community  to’  development,  depart  leadership  endeavours  and Liberal Arts Education ran directly counter to Friesen’s personal  convictions  however,  quite  administration  about  emphatic policy  the in  was  University’s  stating not  a  that  role. the  consideration  He  is,  change  in  when  he  211 decided to leave the University.  Nevertheless,  Friesen did  leave with considerable regret; of this he said: Resigning from my position at UBC after many rewarding years was a difficult decision. Perhaps it was time for a change and there was the assurance of a first-rate staff to carry on. The collection of tapes and letters of appreciation from near and far and, the farewell parties by a staff I loved--these mementos and events have remained an enduring treasure. (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992) Friesen  was  deeply  committed,  service and more particularly “population only  to  explained invitation  time  the  threat  that to  bomb”  was of  in  the  join  the  a a  then,  by  to  international  to the proposition that threat  to world peace  nuclear  Summer  of  Population  holocaust. 1966,  Council  respected international research body,  he of  second Friesen  received New  the  York,  an a  as a resident adviser  based in Turkey: During several weeks of vacation I visited that country. My knowledgeable guide there and later valuable colleague was Dr. Lewis Anderson, former Medical Officer Health for North Vancouver. Turkey, it was to be! We enrolled the children in the Cambridge School of Weston (near Boston) and took off for Ankara. My new challenge and purpose were never in question. After all, disturbing evidence of the world’s population explosion I had already observed many times in India and Africa (Friesen, Personal Communication, 1992) So in September 1966,  Friesen departed from UBC and joined  the staff of the Population Council in Turkey. was to tackle was and is of vital  The issue he  importance to the world;  212 Friesen felt he could not refuse such a challenge,  however  modest the contribution of the any single person could be. M.  FAREWELL  Friesen  was  to  be  very  much  and  missed,  at  his  farewell  dinner there were moving expressions of respect,  admiration  and  colleagues  personal  including There deep  President  could trust  could have and  loyalty  no  be he  had  doubt  inspired  in  listener about  any  his  Tapes). the  person  experienced a greater outpouring of  fun,  warmth  leave UBC.  from  his  Also,  co-workers.  (too numerous people  who  John  Friesen  to acknowledge  in this  were  sorry  to  see  him  A few of these letters are included in Appendix 1966  -  Personal  (Friesen, with  his  No  from prominent  16  left  of  many  associates.  friendship  thesis)  by  Macdonald  received many letters  No.  given  Farewell  Letters.  Selman  expressed  his  personal sense of loss when Friesen left: His policies on how we should apply our energies in university Extension were an expression of the man, his priorities and values. his Those policies I found wholly admirable. That is one reason why that work was compelling for so me. something I missed very badly when I left University Extension and went into the President’s [Macdonald] Office [as Executive Assistant to the President] .the job didn’t grab me the way my work in Extension grabbed me. But I didn’t know that until I left and got into a situation where that emotional, philosophical dimension wasn’t there. (Selman, 1992, Interview) .  .  .  Friesen  was  .  to  carry  philosophical dimensions,  these  values,  emotional  into his international work.  and  213 Since the Friesen era, have  increasingly  function  he  the tides of change at the university  flowed  believed  to  against be  the  important  kind to  of  the  future  being of an incredibly resource-rich-society. a  concentration  other  on  academic,  non-controversial  professional,  matters;  not  Friesen’s ultimate shining goal.  well  There is now vocational  on--”a  striving for the abundant life for the many.”  Extension  and  persistent  That was John  214  Figure 31: John K. Friesen Family,  (1 to r:  1960 Melanie, Robert, Marta, John)  One—time Extension Directors attend Department’s 25th Anniversary on November 23, 1961. (left to right: Dr. Robert England (1936-37); Dr. Gordon Shrum (1937-53); Dr. John K. Friesen (1953-66)] Figure 32:  JNCVIRSC?t Cf  C*LAHLNA CIXCR.H rCA CCATCWCJDLG UCAT1CA  N1  A HJILk HHSPiNSCRILCTT  •RH.R .CH—Z,  H  THHCNCISCTY C CAVIL CA  QLEHW L.,ATT. WI’1. AR:D H. XH3, 5YLVANLH StATh 3EV. AMS H. LtL’, NE c1 UIPSItY :A H. ?(LJ, SVRACJS). J !jES AMJ ‘4ACHk)(ZH., JHfl:. I?1SH CLJLH HS, •JHidi?Y H. &t:, s;THWLsrHHX4, !Wi.S . s.r&SEsThRN, *K1S  .  PAuL H. SKHAT. .1EV. ..t CALEiU1A LL.X.AHDHI VUARCuRs, SRAJSL Jh. A. H. LpJH3Et11, L:H. .UC. AHT,.n. AlG RlW, u. :. L. A. HAAI1, HHA SVATh. 1H. .u3H1 H. ?RHA, 313!V. Cf HR:r1sHL)H,:A L. L. 1I4, JE. AK1Ii i:m. I _AKJ4A .1. zZ.LrVA, KNHTH IHLL:AN, 1 VI/IL SHlYiC1.  Figure 33: The University Council on Education 1 f or Public Responsibility. October 28-29, 1962.  tk1& 3VARCCA LAA1. (HkAAL 1 CUT • H. 1. HAT I. LjC . H. H H3 H. FJNL I1 HAUL? Ai 1h ‘CAHTIH A,H3.HLAW, JAIi. C) WA.’lA.?’b CAHL t.UiAHSH3l, HW.H tJ1H 1CU. AH3A3T AHIHJIHJH.. UAVI1CH3T 41 iN H., I. C’J CS GiH, .jJ. f H H. IH.k.HJIAN, CHH C ‘LHJHC CAR.. HCH4Ph ‘ThI.  I-.’ 31  216  John & Marta meet Prime Minister Nehru Nehru expressed enthusiasm for in India, 1962. Project in Adult Education. Rajasthan/UBC of University Figure 34:  Figure 35: Mohan S. Mehta visits UBC, Sept. UBC/University of Rajasthan Project (1 to r: Knute Buttedahi, Mohan Mehta, John Friesen, John Macdonald, Roby Kidd  1966  . tiJysseY  V  ension hópá cut  217  He said extension depart the only ment activities contact many p