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Education limited : framing possibilities and constraints of online teaching in a university course Qayyum, Adnan Ahmer 2002

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EDUCATION LIMITED: FRAMING POSSIBILITIES AND CONSTRAINTS OF ONLINE TEACHING A UNIVERSITY COURSE  by  B.A.  ADNAN AHMER QAYYUM ( H o n o u r s ) Queen's U n i v e r s i t y ,  1991  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s (Adult Education) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o jthe r e q u i r e q L - s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY  OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  November 18,  2002  ©Adnan Ahmer Qayyum, 2002  THE  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  by  his  or  her  representatives.  an advanced  Library shall make  it  agree that permission for extensive  this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted or  for  It  is  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  ABSTRACT  How much i n f l u e n c e and c o n t r o l do i n s t r u c t o r s have when t h e y teach online? encounter?  How c r e a t i v e can t h e y be and what l i m i t s do t h e y  Teaching v i a t h e i n t e r n e t can be a c r e a t i v e and  engaging p r o c e s s t h a t a l l o w s f o r i n n o v a t i v e approaches t o l e a r n i n g f o r s t u d e n t s from a l l o v e r t h e w o r l d .  I t c a n a l s o be a  c h a l l e n g i n g s e t t i n g f o r i n s t r u c t o r s and s t u d e n t s t o t e a c h and learn.  T h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e d how i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s i n  an i n t e r n e t - b a s e d course were shaped by f a c t o r s beyond t h e instructor's control?  Frame f a c t o r t h e o r y was used as t h e c o n c e p t u a l framework t o i d e n t i f y and a n a l y z e f a c t o r s t h a t shape i n s t r u c t i o n .  The unique  c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o examine an o n l i n e s e t t i n g . Thus, most o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s about how i n s t i t u t i o n a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l frames shape t e a c h i n g .  Documents were a n a l y z e d from an o n l i n e graduate c o u r s e t o i d e n t i f y and a n a l y z e frame f a c t o r s .  P o l i c y documents of a  d i s t a n c e t e a c h i n g u n i t , course d e s i g n documents and t h e a r c h i v e d course d i s c u s s i o n forum were examined.  The r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t c l a s s s i z e , i n s t r u c t o r r o l e and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , t h e assessment c r i t e r i a , course c o n t e n t and methods of t e a c h i n g o n l i n e were a l l f a c t o r s d e c i d e d by t h e h o s t o r g a n i z a t i o n b e f o r e an i n s t r u c t o r began t e a c h i n g . T e c h n o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s a l s o shaped i n s t r u c t i o n beyond an i n s t r u c t o r s  control,  i n c l u d i n g : the technology r e q u i r e d t o access the course, p l a c e independent  access t o t h e c o u r s e , t h e n a t u r e o f asynchronous  communication and t h e n a t u r e o f t e x t - b a s e d communication.  Text-  based asynchronous communication h i g h l i g h t e d s t u d e n t s w r i t i n g s t y l e s , a l l o w e d f o r t h e use o f quotes and r e f e r e n c e s , a l l o w e d f o r t h o u g h t f u l , r e f l e c t i v e communication but a l s o c r e a t e d concerns about l u r k e r s and workload.  These f i n d i n g s from t h e r e s e a r c h were used t o c r e a t e an a n a l y t i c a l framework, a t e t r a d , c o n c e i v e d as a s e r i e s o f questions.  The q u e s t i o n s a r e meant t o g u i d e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g by  i n s t r u c t o r s and p l a n n e r s o f i n t e r n e t - b a s e d c o u r s e s .  The f o u r  questions are: 1)  What t e a c h i n g d e c i s i o n s does t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n make b e f o r e you, t h e i n s t r u c t o r , b e g i n t h e c l a s s ?  2)  How w i l l t h e t e c h n o l o g y a f f e c t p e o p l e ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e v e l and t h e i r q u a l i t y o f i n t e r a c t i o n ?  3)  How much a c c o u n t a b i l i t y i s ' b u i l t - i n ' t o t h e communication?  4)  How l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e  i s t h e medium?  The t e t r a d has been c o n c e i v e d so i t may be a p p l i c a b l e  to a l l  i n t e r n e t - b a s e d t e a c h i n g , even as t h e medium c o n t i n u e s t o change.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEMS OF INTERNET-BASED TEACHING  S t r u c t u r e o f Study  i l iv v i i viii ix 1 1  7  CHAPTER 2 . 9 LITERATURE REVIEW: ORGANIZING DISTANCE EDUCATION FOR ADULTS .... 9  D i s t a n c e E d u c a t i o n I n s t r u c t i o n , L e a r n e r s and O r g a n i z a t i o n s . . 10 D e s i g n i n g Courses and S u p p o r t i n g Students 13 Course D e s i g n 14 Student Support . 15 Learners: L o c a t i n g D i s t a n c e E d u c a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n ... 18 Distance Education i n Higher Education 26 R e l a t i o n s h i p o f an O r g a n i z a t i o n t o a Course 30 F a c t o r s t h a t I n t e r a c t i n a Course 31 Context o f P l a n n i n g E d u c a t i o n a l Programs 33 P l a n n i n g Courses a t a U n i v e r s i t y 35 Technology i n D i s t a n c e E d u c a t i o n 37 Summary o f L i t e r a t u r e Review 41 Purpose 43 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY  Frame F a c t o r Theory Research Q u e s t i o n Research Design W r i t i n g the A n a l y s i s L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study  45 45  47 54 54 60 61  CHAPTER 4 INSTITUTIONAL FRAME FACTORS  C r e a t i n g an o n l i n e c o u r s e Organizational Factors Class Size I n s t r u c t o r R o l e s and A c c o u n t a b i l i t y C u r r i c u l a r Factors Assessment Set Content Teaching Online Study S k i l l s Summary  64 64  64 68 68 69 75 75 77 79 82 83  CHAPTER 5 TECHNOLOGICAL FRAME FACTORS  84 84  T e c h n i c a l Requirements Place-independent Access Asynchronous Communication T e x t - b a s e d Communication Writing Styles Lurkers Quotes and R e f e r e n c e s T h o u g h t f u l Communication Workload Summary  84 85 87 93 94 95 97 100 103 104  CHAPTER 6 ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK AND CONCLUSION  S t u d e n t s and I n s t r u c t o r s E x p e r i e n c e and Worldviews A n a l y t i c a l Framework Conclusion REFERENCES  107 107  107 110 114 115  LIST OF TABLES  T a b l e 1: Student support needs o f d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n students at s p e c i f i c e d u c a t i o n a l stages  16  T a b l e 2: Schroeder's Typology o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Agencies  20  Table 3 : R e l a t i o n s h i p of O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e t o O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Goals  28  T a b l e 4: ACTIONS Model- Summary o f S t r e n g t h s & Weaknesses of T e c h n o l o g i e s f o r D i s t a n c e E d u c a t i o n 39 T a b l e 5: Example o f How Data Was O r g a n i z e d i n t o Themes  58  T a b l e 6: Monthly P o s t i n g s by I n s t r u c t o r s i n D i s c u s s i o n Forums 81 Table 7: Day o f P o s t i n g s  88  T a b l e 8: Time o f P o s t i n g s  90  LIST OF FIGURES  F i g u r e 1: L i t t l e ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f a d u l t l e a r n i n g s e t t i n g s and agent r o l e s  23  F i g u r e 2: K o w a l s k i ' s model o f f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n anyeducational organization  31  F i g u r e 3: Frame f a c t o r s i n t h e o n l i n e t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s ...51 F i g u r e 4: T o t a l p o s t i n g s by i n s t r u c t o r s and s t u d e n t s , by month 81 F i g u r e 5: Day o f p o s t i n g t o d i s c u s s i o n forum F i g u r e 6 : Time of p o s t i n g s  „  88 91  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  T h i s work i s t h e outcome o f many f a l s e s t a r t s . Throughout i t a l l Roger has been b o t h p a t i e n t and p r o d d i n g , and I appreciate both a t t r i b u t e s . Many c o l l e a g u e s have come and gone i n t h e meantime, most o f whom I have t r e a s u r e d and a few who deserve s p e c i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n : Mary, R a l f , Sarah, G l e n , Sandy, Rebecca and Andy, i t i s my honour t o have met you i n t h i s p r o c e s s . Work c o l l e a g u e s a t UBC's D i s t a n c e E d u c a t i o n u n i t have been and a r e a source o f much s u s t e n a n c e . The s t a f f a t D i s t a n c e T e a c h i n g U n i t and Dual Mode I n s t i t u t e was v e r y h e l p f u l i n my work and d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and Wayne i n p a r t i c u l a r must t o be thanked. Many p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s and f a m i l y have s u p p o r t e d me ( H a n i f , Rahat, A l i r e z a , V i c t o r , P e t e r ) and Jan's k i n d n e s s e s p e c i a l l y needs t o be n o t e d . And R a c h e l , you a r e always w i t h me. F i n a l l y , I came t o A d u l t E d u c a t i o n because o f a book by a B r a z i l i a n a u t h o r I p i c k e d up over t e n y e a r s ago a t Broadway Books i n Saskatoon. When I began t h i s program P a u l o F r e i r e was s t i l l a l i v e . He has s i n c e p a s s e d away, and I hope t h a t a f t e r f i n i s h i n g I can remember t h e s p i r i t and c o n t e n t o f h i s work as I c o n t i n u e .  CHAPTER 1  THE PROBLEMS OF INTERNET-BASED TEACHING  But the key question for people is not about their own authorship ; I can only answer the question "What am I to do?" if I can answer the p r i o r question, "Of what story or stories do I find myself a part?" Alisdair Maclntyre After Virtue  Adult educators i n circumstances  p l a n and i n s t r u c t e d u c a t i o n a l programs b u t n o t of t h e i r choosing.  There a r e many d i f f e r e n t  ways t o o r g a n i z e a d u l t l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n a l programs i n f o r m a l and non-formal s e t t i n g s . D i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l can make immense d i f f e r e n c e s i n how a d u l t s l e a r n . r a d i c a l a d u l t educators  contexts  Even many  o r l e a r n e r s f i n d t h e i r methods  c o n s t r a i n e d when t h e y work i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . As an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n (UBC)  student  a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  I have f e l t a t e n s i o n about s t u d y i n g a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  higher education  institution.  Adult education  in a  i s o f t e n espoused  as an open, l e a r n e r - d i r e c t e d a c t i v i t y d i f f e r e n t from t h e r i g i d progression of schooling. When a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  T h i s i s an appeal o f a d u l t  education.  i s p l a n n e d o r taught w i t h i n any  i n s t i t u t i o n , i n c l u d i n g one o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , demands a r e u s u a l l y p u t upon p l a n n e r s ,  i n s t r u c t o r s and l e a r n e r s from t h e  institution.  These demands have an impact on the  independence of a d u l t l e a r n e r s o r e d u c a t o r s .  reputed  This tension  can  e x i s t i n d i f f e r e n t ways i n a l l f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l programs f o r planners,  i n s t r u c t o r s , learners, administrators or  I t u n d e r p i n s my d e s i r e t o a n a l y z e how education  programs  The World Wide Web  affects  was  dynamics  the setting  in these  c r e a t e d i n 1990  researchers. of  adult  programs.  and the f i r s t  fully  o n l i n e c o u r s e s u s i n g t h i s medium were o f f e r e d i n 1995. the e a r l y y e a r s of the Web,  o n l i n e d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n was  trumpeted as a panacea t o a l l e d u c a t i o n a l problems. d e l i v e r y v i a the I n t e r n e t has then.  During often  Course  increased s u b s t a n t i a l l y since  F e d e r a l l y funded T e l e E d u c a t i o n  i n New  an e x t e n s i v e l i s t i n g of f u l l y o n l i n e c o u r s e s .  Brunswick provides I n 2002, 52,000  c o u r s e s were a v a i l a b l e i n E n g l i s h and F r e n c h w o r l d w i d e , i n c l u d i n g 1,400  i n New  Brunswick a l o n e .  T h i s does not  include  c o u r s e s , which combine c l a s s r o o m - b a s e d and o n l i n e l e a r n i n g settings.  I n r e c e n t y e a r s I n t e r n e t use has expanded beyond the  distance education f i e l d .  Widespread I n t e r n e t use has c r e a t e d a  n e o l o g i s m , d i s t r i b u t e d l e a r n i n g , which r e f e r s t o t e a c h i n g t h a t  o c c u r s i n v a r i o u s d i s t r i b u t e d l o c a t i o n s on and o f f s i t e o f t h e campus, community c e n t r e o r c l a s s r o o m .  There a r e many reasons f o r u s i n g t h e I n t e r n e t f o r t e a c h i n g . F i r s t , n e a r l y 48% o f Canadians used t h e I n t e r n e t a t home i n 2000, up from 43% i n 1999 and t h e h i g h e s t home use i n t h e western world  (PriceWaterhouseCooper, 2000).  Growth o f I n t e r n e t  use has l e d t o c l a i m s i t can widen access t o e d u c a t i o n a l programs.  This i s appealing f o r adult educators.  However, a  d i g i t a l d i v i d e e x i s t s w i t h i n Canada and has become a p o l i c y f o c u s o f t h e f e d e r a l government (Cuneo e t a l , 2000). the O f f i c e o f L e a r n i n g T e c h n o l o g i e s ,  This  year  a b r a n c h o f Human Resources  Development Canada (HRDC), has i d e n t i f i e d t h e d i g i t a l d i v i d e between have and have-not e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s as a f u n d i n g priority. still  Even w h i l e I n t e r n e t use i s i n c r e a s i n g many p e o p l e  cannot a c c e s s o n l i n e  courses.  Second, many have c l a i m e d t h e I n t e r n e t c a n improve t h e q u a l i t y of l e a r n i n g , w i t h l i t t l e s u b s t a n t i a l e v i d e n c e (Harasim e t a l . 1995,  G o l d b e r g 2000).  R e c e n t l y c r e d i b l e s t u d i e s have emerged  about t h e e d u c a t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f u s i n g t h e I n t e r n e t f o r  teaching  (Dzubian & M o s k a l , 2001).  the I n t e r n e t can improve s t u d e n t  These i n d i c a t e t e a c h i n g v i a  r e t e n t i o n , grades and  s a t i s f a c t i o n , and f a c u l t y s a t i s f a c t i o n . a course  i s designed.  There a r e good and bad c o u r s e s  I n t e r n e t , j u s t as i n c l a s s r o o m s , correspondence  But i t depends upon how using the  c h u r c h basements o r  courses.  Third, there i s pressure  from b u s i n e s s ,  to use more i n f o r m a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y  i n d u s t r y and governments  (IT) i n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s .  E d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e b e i n g asked by governments t o serve t h e same number o f l e a r n e r s w i t h fewer r e s o u r c e s , o r more l e a r n e r s w i t h t h e same r e s o u r c e s .  Some c l a i m (e.g. Twigg, 1999)  t e a c h i n g v i a a d i s t r i b u t e d l e a r n i n g format can be c o s t - e f f e c t i v e i n t h e m i d d l e and long-term although  f o r educational organizations,  l i t t l e c r e d i b l e r e s e a r c h e x i s t s t o support  or refute  t h i s . A l s o , human r e s o u r c e groups a r e l o b b y i n g t h a t f u t u r e l a b o u r e r s w i l l need s k i l l s p r o v i d e d i n IT-based c o u r s e s .  As a  r e s u l t t h e f e d e r a l government funds I n d u s t r y Canada and HRDC t o encourage IT use i n e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g .  U s i n g the I n t e r n e t f o r t e a c h i n g i s a l s o b i g b u s i n e s s , j u s t p u b l i s h i n g academic books and j o u r n a l s have been.  as  Even w i t h the  ^dot-bomb' f a i l u r e s , c o r p o r a t e e n t h u s i a s m f o r ' e - l e a r n i n g ' p e r s i s t s and i n many cases has i n c r e a s e d .  I n the s o b r i e t y of  the p a s t y e a r , i t i s e v i d e n t the promise of c h a n g i n g  B2B  ( b u s i n e s s - t o - b u s i n e s s ) dynamics has not been as r e v o l u t i o n a r y as was  hyped by the IT i n d u s t r y . So t h e y have s h i f t e d m a r k e t i n g  l o b b y i n g e f f o r t s t o the f i e l d of  x  e-learning'.  and  I t i s seen as a  l u c r a t i v e , p o t e n t i a l market f o r I n t e r n e t use, and s e r v i c e s and p r o d u c t s of the IT i n d u s t r y .  Even b e f o r e the dot-com bubble  b u r s t , I n t e r n e t use f o r e d u c a t i o n had spread so r a p i d l y el e a r n i n g had s t a r t e d t o a t t r a c t l a r g e b u s i n e s s e s . was  c r e a t e d a t UBC  I n 1994 WebCT  as a course a u t h o r i n g t o o l and by 2001  was  used i n over 22 00 i n s t i t u t i o n s i n 77 c o u n t r i e s around the w o r l d i n c l u d i n g 216  i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada (WebCT, 2001).  1  I t has  f i n a n c i a l b a c k i n g from JP Morgan and Thomson C o r p o r a t i o n , s e c u r e d $125  m i l l i o n e q u i t y f i n a n c i n g s i n c e 1997.  and  Thomson  L e a r n i n g i s a l s o a major p a r t n e r f o r the U n i v e r s i t a s 21 i n i t i a t i v e t o develop  a "Global e - U n i v e r s i t y " .  UBC  and M c G i l l  I t should be noted that WebCT has a l o o s e d e f i n i t i o n of the term ' i n s t i t u t i o n s ' . For example, they i n c l u d e the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia as an i n s t i t u t i o n , and a l s o i n c l u d e UBC s F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n as an i n s t i t u t i o n . 1  a r e member u n i v e r s i t i e s o f t h i s E u r o - E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g initiative.  world  P a r t l y because o f WebCT's s u c c e s s , i t s main  c o m p e t i t o r , B l a c k b o a r d , formed an a l l i a n c e w i t h M i c r o s o f t i n A p r i l 2001. Co-funded by AOL Time-Warner and D e l l Computer C o r p o r a t i o n , B l a c k b o a r d i s supposed t o a l l o w i n s t r u c t o r s t o " s e a m l e s s l y connect  l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s developed  i nMicrosoft  O f f i c e XP-based a p p l i c a t i o n s i n t o Blackboard-powered course environments"  ( B l a c k b o a r d , 2001).  WebCT and B l a c k b o a r d a r e a l s o  w o r k i n g w i t h v a r i o u s p u b l i s h e r s such as McGraw H i l l and P r e n t i c e H a l l t o develop  f u l l y c u s t o m i z a b l e o n l i n e course m a t e r i a l s .  O n l i n e e d u c a t i o n i s n o t j u s t about a c c e s s , e d u c a t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s and pedagogy. I t i s a l s o about c a p i t a l i s m .  The e d u c a t i o n a l t e r r a i n i s s t i l l new w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e uses and i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e I n t e r n e t f o r e d u c a t i o n and many  dimensions  of t h i s way o f t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g a r e n o t understood. a l l t h e above reasons educational questions. i t work?"  2  But  f o r I n t e r n e t - b a s e d t e a c h i n g beg i m p o r t a n t Foremost i s a r e c u r r i n g q u e s t i o n - "does  A r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n i s "how does i t work?"  The i n c r e a s e d use of the I n t e r n e t i n e d u c a t i o n has had the happy r e s u l t of f o r c i n g the i s s u e of q u a l i t y (of t e a c h i n g , of c u r r i c u l u m , of l e a r n i n g ) t o the f o r e g r o u n d . 2  T h i s s t u d y addresses  aspects of the l a t t e r question.  Any f o r m a l  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n program i s a c o n f l u e n c e o f s e v e r a l p e o p l e ' s approaches, i n t e r e s t s and g o a l s .  To each moment o f l e a r n i n g ,  i n s t r u c t o r s and l e a r n e r s b r i n g t h e i r p e r s o n a l h i s t o r i e s and knowledge.  When l e a r n i n g o c c u r s i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e y  a l s o b r i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e i r r o l e w i t h i n i t . educational process i n v o l v e s technology,  When t h e  t h i s t o o i s an  i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e c o n t e x t . T h i s s t u d y examined how o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s shaped t e a c h i n g an o n l i n e f o r - c r e d i t d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n course f o r a d u l t s .  S t r u c t u r e of Study  S e v e r a l dimensions  o f t h i s s t u d y need u n p a c k i n g  i n order t o  refine the research question; distance education  (DE), f o r m a l  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and t h e r o l e of technology i n teaching.  Chapter Two b e g i n s w i t h a  r e v i e w o f key f e a t u r e s o f d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n . distance education i s located i n adult education.  Then  The course  T e c h n o p h i l e s l i k e t o p o i n t out that most e d u c a t o r s r a r e l y d i s c u s s e d i s s u e s of q u a l i t y , i s s u e s taken up o n l y by s p e c i a l i z e d academics of e d u c a t i o n . T h i s l e d t o immense complacency about t e a c h i n g and c u r r i c u l u m by many p r a c t i t i o n e r s . Concerns about q u a l i t y , c r e a t e d by the use of the I n t e r n e t f o r t e a c h i n g , has produced t h i s needed "blowback".  researched  i n t h i s study i s l o c a t e d at a d i s t a n c e teaching u n i t  of a u n i v e r s i t y t h a t o f f e r s p r e d o m i n a n t l y  face-to-face teaching.  So t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f DE t o h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i s a l s o examined. T h i s s t u d y f o c u s e s on how c o n t e x t shapes t e a c h i n g .  There e x i s t s  l i t e r a t u r e w i t h i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n about t h e impact o f s e t t i n g on the p l a n n i n g and t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s . draw out s a l i e n t i n s i g h t s .  This i s reviewed  i n order t o  F i n a l l y , two f a c e t s of d i s t a n c e  education l i t e r a t u r e are reviewed  -the impact of t e c h n o l o g y i n  d e s i g n i n g and d e l i v e r i n g d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n , and o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f f e r i n g distance education. the purpose o f t h i s  T h i s background i s used t o c l a r i f y  study.  I n C h a p t e r Three, t h e r e s e a r c h methodology, t h e o r e t i c a l framework and l i m i t s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e d i s c u s s e d . Frame F a c t o r t h e o r y  (1981, 1983) was used t o h e l p  Lundgren's identify  dynamics and v a l u e s t h a t e x i s t i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f f e r i n g a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . I n Chapters Four, F i v e and S i x an o n l i n e course i n a c t i o n i s reviewed  through t h e l e n s o f frame f a c t o r t h e o r y .  Chapter S i x a l s o i n c l u d e s t h e a n a l y t i c a l framework, t h e output of t h i s  study.  CHAPTER 2  LITERATURE REVIEW: ORGANIZING DISTANCE EDUCATION FOR ADULTS  To examine how the s e t t i n g o f an o n l i n e course shapes instruction,  t h r e e component p a r t s o f t h i s p r o c e s s need t o be  c l a r i f i e d : what counts as the s e t t i n g ; what counts as i n s t r u c t i o n ; what i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  between these two?  T h i s c h a p t e r b e g i n s by i d e n t i f y i n g components o f a d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n course i n c l u d i n g :  teaching i n distance education, the  l o c a t i o n o f d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n i n a d u l t and h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , the r o l e o f t e c h n o l o g y i n DE, and t h e importance o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . These components p r o v i d e c o n t e x t f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g the l i m i t s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f d e l i v e r i n g e d u c a t i o n v i a the I n t e r n e t .  and t e a c h i n g d i s t a n c e  Then l i t e r a t u r e i s r e v i e w e d on how  the f e a t u r e s and dynamics o f an e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n c a n a f f e c t a d u l t e d u c a t i o n g e n e r a l l y and d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n programs s p e c i f i c a l l y . F i n a l l y , t h e c e n t r a l purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i s f o r m u l a t e d i n the c o n t e x t o f t h i s e x t a n t l i t e r a t u r e .  D i s t a n c e Education  I n s t r u c t i o n , Learners  and O r g a n i z a t i o n s  Most f u l l y o n l i n e c o u r s e s a r e d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n Distance  education  courses.  always i n v o l v e s a t l e a s t t h r e e f e a t u r e s : an  o r g a n i z a t i o n , which c r e a t e s e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s and p r o v i d e s an i n s t r u c t o r t o g u i d e t h e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e ,  l e a r n e r s , and a  mechanism t o connect t h e two.  An o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p , which f a c i l i t a t e s p a r t i c u l a r activities.  A f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t has some d i v i s i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f l a b o u r , and s t r u c t u r e o f a u t h o r i t y . These a r e n o t always f o r m a l l y defined.  An e d u c a t i o n a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n o s t e n s i b l y e x i s t s t o host  o r f a c i l i t a t e t h e t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e a r n e r s and i n s t r u c t o r ( s ) .  I n many e d u c a t i o n a l  s e t t i n g s , t h e i n f l u e n c e o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n  on t h e i n s t r u c t i o n p r o c e s s can o f t e n seem i n v i s i b l e .  I t ' s an  i n v i s i b l e s t a g i n g a r e a upon which i n d i v i d u a l a c t o r s p e r f o r m f u n c t i o n s t o a c h i e v e p a r t i c u l a r aims.  This i s e s p e c i a l l y the  case i n an e f f i c i e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n o r one c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e  norms of a s o c i e t y .  These o r g a n i z a t i o n s can o f t e n b l e n d  into  the backdrop.  DE i s a case o f r e n d e r i n g t h e s t r a n g e f a m i l i a r and f a m i l i a r strange.  I n d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n t h e r o l e and importance o f  o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s o f t e n h i g h l i g h t e d , and r a r e l y seen as a n e u t r a l backdrop.  The n a t u r e o f d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n demands i t .  I n DE  t h e r e i s a p h y s i c a l and a t times t e m p o r a l s e p a r a t i o n of l e a r n e r s and i n s t r u c t o r ( s ) .  T h i s c r e a t e s what has been c a l l e d  " t r a n s a c t i o n a l d i s t a n c e " - t h e e f f e c t t h a t d i s t a n c e has on "the forms o f communication and i n t e r a c t i o n  [among l e a r n e r s and  i n s t r u c t o r s ] , t h e c u r r i c u l u m , and t h e management o f t h e program" (Moore & K e a r s l e y , 1996, p.200).  A l l education  i s a type o f  communication and some t r a n s a c t i o n a l d i s t a n c e e x i s t s i n any e d u c a t i o n a l event b u t i n d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f i n s t r u c t o r and l e a r n e r a f f e c t s t h e i r b e h a v i o u r (Rumble, 1989).  The g o a l o f d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n  i n major ways i s t o address  the s p e c i f i c c h a l l e n g e s o f g e o g r a p h i c s e p a r a t i o n and p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n a l l y e f f e c t i v e communication.  I n DE t h e t r a n s a c t i o n a l  d i s t a n c e must be "overcome by i n s t r u c t o r s , l e a r n e r s , and educational  organizations  i f e f f e c t i v e , d e l i b e r a t e , planned  l e a r n i n g i s t o occur"  (Moore & K e a r s l e y ,  1996, p.200; emphasis  added).  The  organization, or the distance teaching u n i t w i t h i n i t ,  does  the work t h a t c o u l d o t h e r w i s e be h a n d l e d by t h e p r o x i m i t y o f l e a r n e r s t o t h e i n s t r u c t o r and p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g .  I n DE, much o f  the f o c u s by l e a r n e r s and i n s t r u c t o r s i s on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and p e o p l e who make i t up: p l a n n e r s ,  designers,  s t u d e n t support s t a f f and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . organization. educational  course  authors,  DE always i n v o l v e s an  Keegan (1980) contends t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e  o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t h e second most i m p o r t a n t d e f i n i n g  feature of distance education l e a r n e r from i n s t r u c t o r .  - f o l l o w i n g the separation of  W i t h DE, t h e s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s and  i n t e r n a l f u n c t i o n i n g o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e v i s i b l e t o a l l i n v o l v e d p a r t l y because i t i s u n f a m i l i a r t o many p e o p l e s ' approach t o t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g .  Internet-based  f o r many p e o p l e and t h e e d u c a t i o n a l  approaches i n v o l v e d a r e n o t  the norm.  DE i s n o v e l  So t h e r e i s g r e a t e r awareness o f t h e r o l e o f t h e  organization that provides  Internet-based  DE.  D e s i g n i n g Courses and  Interaction  Supporting Students  between the i n s t r u c t o r and l e a r n e r i s not the only-  f e a t u r e of i n s t r u c t i o n i n DE.  The  p a r t of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s .  o r g a n i z a t i o n i s an The  active  d i s t a n c e between l e a r n e r  and i n s t r u c t o r c r e a t e s a d e l a y i n communication f l o w . d i s c u s s i o n of DE interaction.  i n v o l v e s q u e s t i o n s about communication  Three types of i n t e r a c t i o n are i m p o r t a n t  i n s t r u c t i o n a l process learner-instructor The  Thus any  i n DE:  learner-content  and t o the  interaction,  i n t e r a c t i o n and l e a r n e r - l e a r n e r i n t e r a c t i o n .  key t o o f f e r i n g e d u c a t i o n a l programs a t a d i s t a n c e i s t o  d i s t a n c e as a p e d a g o g i c a l  phenomenon, and p e d a g o g i c a l  see  approaches  of program p l a n n i n g , c u r r i c u l u m development, course d e l i v e r y  and  i n s t r u c t i o n are used t o address the s e p a r a t i o n of l e a r n e r from instructor.  T e a c h i n g i n d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s v a r i e s but  t h e r e i s u s u a l l y an o v e r t awareness of the development of c u r r i c u l u m and s u p p o r t i n g s t u d e n t s . i n overcoming the p e d a g o g i c a l instructors-  Two  the  components are i n v o l v e d  d i s t a n c e between l e a r n e r s  i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n and student  support.  and  Course  Design  I n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n i s t h e matching o f a p p r o p r i a t e methods, t e c h n i q u e s and d e v i c e s t o l e a r n e r s ' needs. I t i n v o l v e s understanding  t h e needs o f t h e l e a r n e r , d e s i r e d l e a r n i n g g o a l s ,  and how t e c h n o l o g y might f a c i l i t a t e these g o a l s 1992).  (Gagne e t a l . ,  There a r e two important p a r t s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n ;  s t r u c t u r i n g t h e c o n t e n t and i n s t r u c t i o n a l method.  Structuring  the c o n t e n t i n v o l v e s d e c i d i n g how i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be provided.  What i s t h e b e s t way t o o r d e r t h e m a t e r i a l ?  be p r e s e n t e d l i n e a r l y o r have m u l t i p l e p o i n t s o f e n t r y ? w i l l g r a p h i c s be a p p r o p r i a t e ?  Will i t When  The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c o n t e n t i s  supposed t o p r o v i d e s t r u c t u r e t o t h e l e a r n i n g .  I t c a n encourage  p e r s i s t e n c e and m o t i v a t i o n , b o t h o f which a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r l e a r n i n g , e s p e c i a l l y f o r independent a d u l t l e a r n e r s .  I n s t r u c t i o n involves c r e a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s that help l e a r n t h e d e s i r e d knowledge and s k i l l s .  students  When s h o u l d l e a r n e r s do  problem-solving exercises o r decision-making exercises?  When  s h o u l d t h e y i n t e r a c t w i t h an i n s t r u c t o r o r o t h e r l e a r n e r s o r t h e i r community?  When s h o u l d they do r e s e a r c h , community  activism or simulations?  Such a c t i v i t i e s c r e a t e t h e f o u n d a t i o n s  for  subsequent l e v e l s of l e a r n i n g .  I n s t r u c t i o n a l s o i n c l u d e s an  a c t i v e r o l e f o r i n s t r u c t o r s as s u p p o r t , f a c i l i t a t o r s o r l e c t u r e r s to students.  In d i s t a n c e education,  instructional  methods can b o t h i n c l u d e the i n s t r u c t o r , and be embedded w i t h i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n m a t e r i a l s (e.g. a v i d e o t a p e of an i n t e r v i e w w i t h P a u l o F r e i r e f o r Aded 412 a t  UBC).  The d e l i v e r y of the e d u c a t i o n a l program i n v o l v e s more than p r o d u c t i o n and p h y s i c a l d e l i v e r y of i n f o r m a t i o n . Formal education r e q u i r e s educators take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r follow-up with learners, otherwise i t i s j u s t information p r o v i s i o n . E d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e s o f f e r i n g guidance  and s t r u c t u r e t o the  learning experience, supporting learners with d i f f i c u l t i e s may  be h a v i n g and,  they  i n formal education, e v a l u a t i n g learners,  and  a s s e s s i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the t e c h n o l o g y .  Student  Support  Student support r e f e r s t o forms of a s s i s t a n c e i n t e n d e d t o remove barriers  (e.g. g e t t i n g books from the b o o k s t o r e t o a s t u d e n t i n  F o r t S t . John o r a d d r e s s i n g communication problems between the s t u d e n t and i n s t r u c t o r ) and promote academic success of s t u d e n t s  ( P o t t e r , 1998).  Student  support i n d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n i n c l u d e s  a v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s and s e r v i c e s (see T a b l e 1 ) .  Table 1: Student support needs of distance specific educational stages  Starting courses/program  Moving t h r o u g h program  students  at  Support needed  Stage Pre-enrollment  education  • • •  I n f o r m a t i o n about s p e c i f i c programs A d v i c e about c o u r s e s e l e c t i o n I n f o r m a t i o n about a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f s p e c i f i c d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n formats • I n f o r m a t i o n about g e t t i n g books and learning materials • Help w i t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s o f d i s t a n c e s t u d y on s e l f • O r i e n t a t i o n t o media/course d e l i v e r y format • Communication w i t h course i n s t r u c t o r • O r i e n t a t i o n t o media/course d e l i v e r y format • Orientation to library/learning resources • I n f o r m a t i o n about g e t t i n g books and learning materials • Communication w i t h o t h e r d i s t a n c e learners • Help w i t h l e a r n i n g s k i l l s • T u t o r i n g a s s i s t a n c e w i t h course content • Communication w i t h course i n s t r u c t o r • T u t o r i n g a s s i s t a n c e w i t h course content • Communication w i t h o t h e r d i s t a n c e learners • Help w i t h w r i t i n g p r o c e s s Abridged  from Potter,  (1998)  Some s t u d e n t s u p p o r t s a r e t h e same as those p r o v i d e d t o l e a r n e r s i n a d u l t o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , such as ' i n f o r m a t i o n about s p e c i f i c programs'.  But i n DE, t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o v i d e s  many f u n c t i o n s an i n s t r u c t o r would f u l f i l l course.  i n a classroom  T h i s i n c l u d e s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n about g e t t i n g  c o u r s e m a t e r i a l s , f a c i l i t a t i n g communication l e a r n e r s , and e v a l u a t i o n .  with other  The o r g a n i z a t i o n i s an a c t i v e p a r t o f  what i s o t h e r w i s e f a m i l i a r i n c l a s s r o o m  instruction.  I n t e r a c t i o n among i n s t r u c t o r s and l e a r n e r s i s c r u c i a l i n DE and t h i s depends on how t h e c o u r s e i s d e s i g n e d and t e c h n o l o g y used. I f t h e c o u r s e i s d e s i g n e d t o be 'independent i n s t r u c t o r guidance,  study' w i t h m i n i m a l  i t i s p o s s i b l e a s t u d e n t may communicate  w i t h t h e i n s t r u c t o r o n l y a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c o u r s e by phone and handing i n assignments.  Most s t u d e n t communication  c o u r s e w i l l be w i t h support s t a f f .  f o r the  Other c o u r s e s can r e q u i r e  s t u d e n t s t o i n t e r a c t a c t i v e l y and r e g u l a r l y w i t h t h e i n s t r u c t o r and o t h e r l e a r n e r s . or guest i n s t r u c t o r s .  Some o n l i n e c o u r s e s have team i n s t r u c t i o n And o f t e n t h e i n s t r u c t o r i s n o t t h e  course author o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l designer. i n s t r u c t s t h e s t u d e n t s c a n v a r y immensely.  Who i n t e r a c t s w i t h and  Communication i n DE i s mediated by t e c h n o l o g y and t h i s g r e a t l y e f f e c t s the i n t e r a c t i o n .  In face-to-face i n s t r u c t i o n ,  immediacy i n c l u d e s n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r s  teacher  t h a t reduce p h y s i c a l  and/or p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c e between t e a c h e r s and l e a r n e r s . Each t e c h n o l o g y has b e n e f i t s and l i m i t a t i o n s . C e r t a i n media encourage a more p a s s i v e r o l e f o r s t u d e n t s than o t h e r s (e.g. p r i n t v e r s u s t e l e p h o n e ) , and a l l o w f o r w r i t t e n , v i s u a l , o r o r a l communication.  T h i s e f f e c t s o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o ask q u e s t i o n s o r  c o n s t r u c t knowledge. The e f f e c t i v e n e s s and volume o f communication depends on how i n s t r u c t o r s and l e a r n e r s use t e c h n o l o g y . An i n s t r u c t o r ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h l e a r n e r s i s framed p a r t l y by c o u r s e d e s i g n and t e c h n o l o g y .  Learners:  Locating Distance Education i n Adult Education  Most d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n programs a r e o f f e r e d a t c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , where t h e l e a r n e r s a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y f o c u s i s on t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f knowledge.  y o u t h and t h e  Such a s e t t i n g can  seem a t odds w i t h a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , w i t h i t s emancipatory  ideals.  However, t h e r e a r e a v a r i e t y o f g o a l s f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and p l a c e s where i t o c c u r s .  Many d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s  o f f e r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs.  Programs may be sponsored  by o r  l o c a t e d i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t i s l a r g e , s t a b l e and r i g i d , as a p r i s o n , h o s p i t a l , o r u n i v e r s i t y .  such  Or an o r g a n i z a t i o n may  be  s m a l l , p r e c a r i o u s , and f l e x i b l e , such as Roots of R e s i s t a n c e , RAIN (Real A l t e r n a t i v e I n f o r m a t i o n Network) and o t h e r a n t i g l o b a l i z a t i o n and a n t i - r a c i s t community-based groups i n Vancouver.  O r g a n i z a t i o n s o f f e r i n g a d u l t e d u c a t i o n pervade  s o c i e t y and o f t e n have p e r i p h e r a l s t a t u s (Bruner & V e r n e r , Selman, 1988). purposes,  1968;  T h i s makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y p a t t e r n s i n  p h i l o s o p h i e s , composition, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e  and c u l t u r e (Courtney 1989;  Rachal,  1989).  D i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n i s a type of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . DE can be e a s i l y l o c a t e d w i t h i n Schroeder's  For example,  (1972) commonly used  t y p o l o g y of o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f f e r i n g a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  Schroeder  i d e n t i f i e s f o u r t y p e s of a g e n c i e s where f o r m a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n occurs  (see Table 2 ) .  These a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d a c c o r d i n g t o  how  i m p o r t a n t e d u c a t i o n i s t o an i n s t i t u t i o n o f f e r i n g a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs.  Schroeder's  t y p o l o g y h i g h l i g h t s the immense v a r i e t y of p l a c e s  where f o r m a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n o c c u r s .  I t a l s o shows the o f t e n  p e r i p h e r a l s t a t u s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n .  Table  2: Schroeder's  (1972) Typology  FUNCTION 1.  2.  function  i sto  e d u c a t i o n as a  secondary Allied  adult  Frontier  function function i s  education  Night ESL  Museums,  4. is  Subordinate adult  Community Private  libraries,  welfare agencies,  function  education  Justice  Extension  hospital's Churches,  Institute,  Colleges,  Colleges, programs  health  and  St Paul's  cancer g r i e v i n g labour unions,  associations,  Agencies  Agency  schools,  programs,  University  Education  VANCOUVER  College,  Open L e a r n i n g  adults  Youth i n s t i t u t i o n with  adult  3.  EXAMPLES IN  Primary  serve  of Adult  government  program  voluntary agencies,  Greenpeace  D i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n programs c o u l d t a k e p l a c e i n any o f t h e s e t y p e s o f a g e n c i e s , b u t DE f o r - c r e d i t  tends t o be o f f e r e d i n one  of t h e f i r s t two t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  I f distance education  i s t h e p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e c l i e n t e l e t o be m a i n l y a d u l t l e a r n e r s .  I n DE l i t e r a t u r e ,  tend  such  o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e c a l l e d single-mode i n s t i t u t i o n s .  Athabasca  U n i v e r s i t y i n A l b e r t a and t h e Open L e a r n i n g Agency i n Burnaby are  two examples o f single-mode i n s t i t u t i o n s .  Often distance  education i s a p e r i p h e r a l feature of a predominantly youth-  focused higher education o r g a n i z a t i o n .  These a r e c a l l e d d u a l -  mode i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t f o c u s on f a c e - t o - f a c e e d u c a t i o n w h i l e a l s o o f f e r i n g distance courses.  Many u n i v e r s i t i e s (UBC,  U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a ) and fewer c o l l e g e s o f f e r d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n programs.  These can be l o c a t e d w i t h i n a c o l l e g e ,  u n i v e r s i t y , s c h o o l o r t r a i n i n g department; o r they can be l o c a t e d o f t e n as a branch o f e x t e n s i o n o r c o n t i n u i n g s t u d i e s divisions.  D i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n i s a l s o used f o r v a r i o u s t y p e s o f  t r a i n i n g programs o r can be i n i t i a t e d by a c o n s o r t i u m o f agencies.  T h i s paper f o c u s e s on d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n t h a t o c c u r s  i n e i t h e r s i n g l e o r d u a l mode i n s t i t u t i o n s . w i t h Schroeder's  These  correspond  f i r s t two t y p e s o f a g e n c i e s .  Much d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n then i s formal  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , as i t  tends t o take p l a c e o n l y i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g s w i t h i n an i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d system.  The term f o r m a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  i n c l u d e s any p u r p o s e f u l , s y s t e m a t i c and s u s t a i n e d l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y t h a t i s sponsored,  p l a n n e d o r d i r e c t e d by an  o r g a n i z a t i o n even i f i t does n o t have e d u c a t i o n as a p r i m a r y focus  (Darkenwald & Merriam, 1982, p.152).  This includes  e d u c a t i o n a l programs i n i t i a t e d o r h o s t e d by n i g h t s c h o o l s ,  government, v o l u n t a r y organizations.  a s s o c i a t i o n s , u n i o n s and  other  This i s i n contrast to informal adult  w h i c h i s not sponsored, p l a n n e d o r d i r e c t e d by an  education,  organization.  I t can i n c l u d e p r i v a t e i n s t r u c t i o n , l e a r n i n g exchanges, groups independent of o r g a n i z a t i o n s  ( l i k e reading  and  clubs).  L i t t l e l o c a t e s s e t t i n g s where a l l a d u l t l e a r n i n g o c c u r s .  As  he  s t a t e s , " w h i l e l e a r n i n g o c c u r s w i t h i n the c e n t r a l nervous system of an i n d i v i d u a l , education... i s a c o n d i t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d f a c i l i t a t e learning"  (Little,  1980,  p.9).  Learning occurs  everywhere i n n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g s and not j u s t i n schooling  settings  (see F i g u r e  d i r e c t e d o r d i r e c t e d by o t h e r s .  1).  to  formal  A d u l t e d u c a t i o n can be  Of the l a t t e r ,  self-  educational  programs can be i n s t i t u t i o n a l o r n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l .  Non-  i n s t i t u t i o n a l programs i n c l u d e , f o r example, a workshop on drumming o r c i v i l d i s o b e d i e n c e at a music f e s t i v a l . I n s t i t u t i o n a l education takes place i n agencies i d e n t i f i e d i n S c h r o e d e r ' s taxonomy.  DE would be l o c a t e d as a program of  i n s t r u c t i o n , i n an i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d system, d i r e c t e d by l o c a t e d i n a formal  instructional setting.  others,  Figure 1: Little's settings and agent  (1980) classification roles.  of adult  learning  LEARNING  Non-institutional  Institutionalized System  Program  Curriculum  External Instruction  External Instruction  Program  s: Extemalslnstruction»  Independence Dependence Independence Dependence Independence  Dependence  D i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n because DE serves mainly a d u l t s . courses.  T h i s i s common f o r most DE programs and  Even i n dual-mode i n s t i t u t i o n s , which f o c u s more on  youth, d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n programs t e n d t o h a v e . o l d e r  students.  At UBC f o r example, t h e average age o f s t u d e n t s t a k i n g d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s i s 28 y e a r s  (X=28.1, S.D.=9, N=1671, D i s t a n c e  E d u c a t i o n & Technology, 2000) w h i l e t h e average age o f t h e o v e r a l l s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n a t UBC i s 24.9 (UBC, 2001).  The  o l d e r age o f UBC DE s t u d e n t s i s noteworthy g i v e n t h e s m a l l e r p e r c e n t a g e o f g r a d u a t e c o u r s e s o f f e r e d by D i s t a n c e E d u c a t i o n & Technology  t h a n a t UBC as a whole.  The average age o f l e a r n e r s a t single-mode t o be even h i g h e r .  DE i n s t i t u t i o n s t e n d  A t Athabasca U n i v e r s i t y 60% o f  undergraduate  s t u d e n t s a r e 25 y e a r s o f age o r o l d e r , w h i l e 40% a r e under 25 (Athabasca, 2001).  The number o f . a d u l t l e a r n e r s i s h i g h e r f o r  graduate c o u r s e s and programs.  Only 3.5% a r e under 25 y e a r s  o l d , 32.4% a r e between 25 and 34 y e a r s o l d and over 64% a r e 35 y e a r s o f age o r o l d e r .  T h i s t r e n d i s a l s o found i n i n s t i t u t i o n s  o f f e r i n g DE i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s (Curran, 1992). DE s t u d e n t s a r e o l d e r and more l i k e l y t o be p a r e n t s and employed t h a n nondistance education students are (Distance Education & Technology,  2000).  D i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n e x i s t s p a r t i a l l y t o overcome b a r r i e r s t o l e a r n i n g , an e t h i c s h a r e d w i t h a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . r a i s o n d'être f o r d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n . one component o f DE.  Access i s t h e  P h y s i c a l access i s o n l y  I t i s a l s o supposed t o be a c c e s s i b l e f o r  l e a r n e r s who a r e , f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s , m a r g i n a l i z e d by  conventional formal education.  D i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n programs  include several i n i t i a t i v e s that p a r a l l e l adult education. F i r s t , many DE programs a r e second chance e d u c a t i o n " f o r those who missed out t h e f i r s t time around"  (Curran, 1992,p.56). Of  these c o u r s e s many i n c l u d e 'top-up' programs t h a t l e t s t u d e n t s complete h i g h e r l e v e l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s so they c a n move, f o r example, from a d i p l o m a t o a degree. Secondly,  DE i s used f o r  p r i m a r y a c c e s s t o e d u c a t i o n , as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o c o n v e n t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . To t h i s end, many d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n programs a r e s t i l l  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e term  'open l e a r n i n g ' , as i n open t o any l e a r n e r s r e g a r d l e s s o f p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l background.  Even i n B.C. l e a r n e r s who may  have l i t t l e f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e o r s u c c e s s can f i n d p o i n t s o f e n t r y i n t o f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n , v i a programs l i k e  Prior  L e a r n i n g Assessment a t t h e Open L e a r n i n g Agency.  T h i r d l y , many DE programs s e r v e as r e c u r r e n t e d u c a t i o n , programs t h a t a l l o w l e a r n e r s t o upgrade and do p r o f e s s i o n a l development. E s p e c i a l l y s i n c e t h e advent o f t h e I n t e r n e t t h e r e has been immense enthusiasm  f o r u s i n g DE t o s e r v e l i f e l o n g l e a r n e r s  involved with recurrent education.  These l e a r n e r s who have been  sentenced  to l i f e  ( F a l k , 1999)  a r e , by d e f i n i t i o n , a d u l t  learners.  D i s t a n c e E d u c a t i o n i n Higher E d u c a t i o n  While d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n i s used f o r t r a i n i n g , much DE o c c u r s i n a formal higher education context.  These programs and  courses  n e c e s s a r i l y i n c o r p o r a t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n organizations.  DE f o r - c r e d i t c o u r s e s a r e p a r t of the f o r m a l  e d u c a t i o n system . T h i s e f f e c t s what o c c u r s i n a program o r 3  course.  Teaching  i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i s p a r t of an  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l network t h a t p r o v i d e s space t o d i s s e m i n a t e reproduce  and  knowledge, v a l u e s and s k i l l s t o o t h e r members of  s o c i e t y . Higher education  (and o f t e n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ) p l a y ( s ) an  i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n human r e s o u r c e development. H i g h e r  education  i n Canada d u r i n g the 1960s i s s t r o n g l y t i e d t o the economic f u n c t i o n of e d u c a t i o n . knowledge and s k i l l s was production"  I n 1961,  comparable t o o b t a i n i n g a "means of  ( S c h u l t z , 1961,  form of c a p i t a l .  S c h u l t z argued t h a t a c q u i r i n g  p.11).  Knowledge, he c l a i m e d , i s a  Knowledge i s an investment  i n a worker's  I use Coombs' d e f i n i t i o n of formal e d u c a t i o n as the "hierarchically s t r u c t u r e d , c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y graded 'education system' running from primary school through the u n i v e r s i t y " (Coombs i n Rubenson, 1982, p. 3) .  3  c a p a b i l i t i e s that could lead t o higher  e a r n i n g s f o r t h e worker  and h i g h e r p r o d u c t i v i t y f o r t h e economy. c a p i t a l - t h e sum o f e d u c a t i o n ,  He c a l l e d t h i s human  n a t u r a l t a l e n t , t r a i n i n g , and  e x p e r i e n c e t h a t comprise t h e w e l l s p r i n g o f f u t u r e e a r n i n g s  flows  ( B e r n s t e i n , 1996, p.110). Formal e d u c a t i o n i s seen t o have a c e n t r a l r o l e i n h e l p i n g t o d e v e l o p human c a p i t a l . on t h i s r a t i o n a l e , governments i n c r e a s e d universities  Based p a r t l y  t h e number o f  d u r i n g t h e 1960s and i n i t i a t e d community c o l l e g e s .  T r a i n i n g i s an i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l f u n c t i o n o f h i g h e r  education.  I n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n language, t h i s would be c o n s i d e r e d t h a t s e r v e s t o i n t e g r a t e p e o p l e i n t o t h e economy.  education  Higher  e d u c a t i o n does p l a y o t h e r i m p o r t a n t r o l e s i n s o c i e t y ;  creating  new knowledge, a p p l y i n g knowledge t o s o l v e s o c i a l problems, p r o v i d i n g a means o f s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , c o o l i n g o f f p e o p l e ' s a s p i r a t i o n s , s o c i a l i z a t i o n , and a l l o w i n g f o r s o c i a l  critique.  T h i s f e a t u r e o f e d u c a t i o n has been c a l l e d t h e e q u i l i b r i u m c o n f l i c t d i m e n s i o n o f s o c i a l change, i . e . i s t h e purpose o f an educational  program t o c r e a t e e q u i l i b r i u m o r f o s t e r s o c i a l  change ( P a u l s t o n ,  1977; E l i a s & Merriam, 1980; L a b e l l e , 1986;  Rubenson, 1982, 1989).  Most h i g h e r  education teaching  f o s t e r s o c i a l e q u i l i b r i u m although c e r t a i n s i t e s ,  exists to  within  c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s ,  i n t h e i n t e r s t i c e s , d e v e l o p and  s u s t a i n r e s i s t a n c e and c o u n t e r c u l t u r e a c t i v i t i e s  ( M i l l a r , 1984,  p.298).  These s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s o f c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s i n t o s p e c i f i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s and g o a l s .  translate Any  o r g a n i z a t i o n can have t i g h t o r l o o s e g o a l s and t i g h t o r l o o s e p r o c e s s e s and p r a c t i c e s t o a c h i e v e these g o a l s  Table 3: Relationship Organizational Goals  of Organizational  Structure  (see T a b l e 3 ) .  to  ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE  TIGHT GOALS  LOOSE GOALS  Tight Processes  E.g. m i l i t a r y , some educational organizations  E.g. P r i s o n s  Loose P r o c e s s e s  E.g. D e c e n t r a l i z e d formal education  E.g. Non-formal education  (Adapted from Peters & Waterman, 1982).  H i g h e r e d u c a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s can have t i g h t g o a l s w i t h t i g h t p r o c e s s e s o r t i g h t g o a l s w i t h l o o s e p r o c e s s e s . The m i s s i o n o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l v a r y as w i l l t h e i r  curricula  emphasis.  But each c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y has some  educational  p r a c t i c e s unto t h e m s e l v e s .  The  and l e g a l s t r u c t u r e o f h i g h e r  funding  standardized  e d u c a t i o n makes t h e s e  i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada a c c o u n t a b l e p r i m a r i l y , though n o t e x c l u s i v e l y , t o the s t a t e .  The s t a t e o f t e n p l a y s a l a r g e r o l e  i n d e f i n i n g t h e s o c i a l f u n c t i o n and o f f i c i a l g o a l s o f h i g h e r education.  T h i s means t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f h i g h e r  e d u c a t i o n tends t o be more r i g i d t h a n many a g e n c i e s o f f e r i n g adult education, educational  as c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y must produce c e r t a i n  'outputs'.  An example would be a c e r t a i n number o f  s t u d e n t s each y e a r t h a t have completed diplomas o r degrees. Even a d e c e n t r a l i z e d o r l o o s e l y s t r u c t u r e d c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y f u l f i l s i t s s o c i a l f u n c t i o n by h a v i n g a p r i v i l e g e d , s t a t e sanctioned  role i n certifying learning.  measure l e a r n i n g  Grades a r e used t o  (or a t l e a s t l e a r n e r performance) and connect  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n s t r u c t o r s and l e a r n e r s t o l a r g e r s o c i a l and economic f u n c t i o n s o f e d u c a t i o n .  E v a l u a t i o n of  learners a r t i c u l a t e s the process of higher  education t o the  f u n c t i o n of education i . e . reproduction  of s o c i e t y .  Distance  education  i s c o n s t r a i n e d by t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t , imposed upon a l l  f o r - c r e d i t higher education  R e l a t i o n s h i p of  an  programs and  courses.  O r g a n i z a t i o n to a Course  What an o r g a n i z a t i o n i s supposed t o do and what t a k e s p l a c e i n a g i v e n c o u r s e do not n e c e s s a r i l y c o r r e s p o n d . Any  organization  has  o f f i c i a l g o a l s and o p e r a t i v e g o a l s , what i s p o l i c y and what i s p r o c e d u r e (Nnazor, 1998,  p.34). A c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y has  an  i n t e r f a c e w i t h the o u t s i d e environment of the s t a t e , economy and surrounding  community.  I t a l s o has  v a r i o u s u n i t s , departments and,  an i n t e r n a l i n t e r f a c e w i t h  in universities,  Attempts have been made i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n o r program t o an o r g a n i z a t i o n . o f f e r i n g adult education  d i s c u s s how  about  organizations  are u s u a l l y found i n program  planning  where a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  In t h i s l i t e r a t u r e s e v e r a l authors  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t  can shape the a d u l t e d u c a t o r ' s a c t i o n s . discusses  t o connect a c o u r s e  Discussions  l i t e r a t u r e , the b r a n c h of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s s u e s are a d d r e s s e d .  faculties.  of a course o r program T h i s next s e c t i o n  f a c t o r s t h a t i n t e r a c t i n a c o u r s e ; the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  c o n t e x t and n e g o t i a t i o n i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g a course i n h i g h e r education.  Factors  that  Interact  in a Course  I n DE i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n , K o w a l s k i ' s work i s o f t e n used t o d i s c u s s t h e p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n p r o c e s s .  He a n a l y z e s a d u l t  e d u c a t i o n p l a n n i n g and p r o v i d e s a model o f d i f f e r e n t  factors  t h a t i n t e r a c t when a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s o f f e r e d by an o r g a n i z a t i o n (see F i g u r e 2 ) .  Figure 2: Kowalski's model of factors educational organization General Environment Parent Organization  Program  involved  in any-  Each c i r c l e r e p r e s e n t s the g e n e r a l The  a l e v e l of a c t i v i t y .  environment w i t h i n which an o r g a n i z a t i o n  second c i r c l e , moving inwards, i s a p a r e n t  itself  such as a c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y , t h e way  programs a r e a d m i n i s t e r e d , organizational culture. realm.  exists.  organization educational  t h e s t r u c t u r e o f a u t h o r i t y and Program p l a n n e r s t e n d t o work i n t h i s  T h i r d i s t h e program i t s e l f ,  i n s t r u c t o r s and c u r r i c u l u m . The  The o u t e r c i r c l e i s  including instruction,  The most i n n e r c i r c l e has l e a r n e r s .  l a t t e r two c i r c l e s t e n d t o be seen as t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,  predominantly, of i n s t r u c t o r s .  T h i s model i s h e l p f u l because i t names components o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n o f f e r i n g distance education. them i n g r e a t d e t a i l o r how t h e y i n t e r a c t .  I t does n o t e x p l a i n F o r example, we know  an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s environment (laws, community, t h e s t a t e ) can v a r y g r e a t l y depending on t h e type o f o r g a n i z a t i o n i t i s , i t s purpose and i n t e r n a l f u n c t i o n i n g .  A l l higher  education  o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f f e r i n g DE a r e r e q u i r e d t o have a r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o t h e r a g e n c i e s o r t h e s t a t e because government p o l i c y o r economic p r e s s u r e s  require i t .  Some h i g h e r  education  o r g a n i z a t i o n s choose t o r e a c t t o changes i n t h e e x t e r n a l  environment.  An example i s i n d u s t r y - b a s e d  adult  education  ( i n c l u d i n g d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n ) programs o f f e r e d by d i v i s i o n s at c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s .  And  extension  any o r g a n i z a t i o n i s  a f f e c t e d by the c u l t u r e of the e x t e r n a l environment.  An  o r g a n i z a t i o n r e l a t e s t o i t s e x t e r n a l environment because of s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s such as the l i n k of DE t o the economy and state.  Through h i s model, K o w a l s k i  identifies  components w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n and why different.  But he does not d i s c u s s how  several  organizations  can  these f e a t u r e s  be  may  a f f e c t an o r g a n i z a t i o n dynamics.  Context  of Planning  Educational  Programs  C e r v e r o and W i l s o n (1994) examine the c o n t e x t l o o k i n g at p l a n n e r s '  of p l a n n i n g  by  everyday p r a c t i c e i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  s e t t i n g . They s t u d i e d t h r e e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s t o e v i n c e how planners'  an o r g a n i z a t i o n can e f f e c t program  p r a c t i c e , even p l a n n e r s who  innovative adult education  programs.  do not n e c e s s a r i l y t r y They found t h a t  an  i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e of what program p l a n n e r s do everyday i s t o negotiate personal  and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s .  An  adult  e d u c a t o r (or a l e a r n e r ) i s not an autonomous i n d i v i d u a l ,  self-  d i r e c t e d i n h i s o r h e r own approach learning.  to teaching, planning or  A d u l t e d u c a t o r s a r e embedded i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  s t r u c t u r e o f power.  "Power r e l a t i o n s h i p s s t r u c t u r e t h e t e r r a i n  on which programs a r e always p l a n n e d "  ( I b i d . , p.12).  Various  s t a f f members i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n embody i n s t i t u t i o n a l power, d e f i n e d by t h e i r r o l e s , m a n i f e s t i n t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n .  An  o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s power becomes v i s i b l e i n everyday n e g o t i a t i o n s among a c t o r s and i n how a u t h o r i t y i s s t r u c t u r e d . These n e g o t i a t i o n s are e s p e c i a l l y important i n d i s t a n c e education where p l a n n i n g u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s a team o f p e o p l e .  The team can  i n c l u d e i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n e r s , c o n t e n t e x p e r t s and t e c h n i c a l production s t a f f .  C e r v e r o and W i l s o n argue p l a n n e r s need t o  " a n t i c i p a t e t h e s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of power", i n o r d e r t o be aware a d u l t e d u c a t o r s .  T h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e i d e n t i f i e s power as  a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of f o r m a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  However, they have  a r e l a t i v e l y u n c r i t i c a l d e f i n i t i o n o f power i n t h e i r work.  They  s t i l l m a i n t a i n a s t r o n g b e l i e f t h a t "the e d u c a t o r can do what t h e y want t o " ( S t . C l a i r , 2000, p.22).  Planning  Courses  at a  University  A d u l t e d u c a t o r s e n c o u n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s when planning a course . 4  or novel courses.  These are o f t e n more v i s i b l e w i t h  innovative  O r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s can be imposed on  e d u c a t o r s not j u s t from the o r g a n i z a t i o n , the s t a t e , o r p e e r s but from what s t u d e n t s  expect of a c o u r s e . A u s e f u l example i s a  l e a r n e r - c e n t r e d c u r r i c u l u m f o r a t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n program at a South A f r i c a n u n i v e r s i t y i n i t i a t e d d u r i n g a p a r t h e i d by a group of i n n o v a t i v e a d u l t e d u c a t o r s ( M i l l a r 1986,  1989). I n s t e a d  of  u s i n g a r e g u l a r approach t o t e a c h i n g , t h e s e e d u c a t o r s wanted t o 'democratize the c u r r i c u l u m ' by h a v i n g they learned.  The  They were i n i t i a l l y u n c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h  approach t o program p l a n n i n g , as i t was  d i f f e r e n t from p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s . student-teachers,  n e g o t i a t e what  i n i t i a t i v e f a i l e d because of r e s i s t a n c e  p r i m a r i l y from l e a r n e r s . the new  students  And  significantly  once l e a r n e r s , as  were i n the w o r k p l a c e , t h e y f e l t  the  c u r r i c u l u m d i d not p r e p a r e them t o meet work demands.  This  I d e f i n e " c o n s t r a i n t s ' as Giddens does: " l i m i t s upon the range of o p t i o n s open to an a c t o r , or p l u r a l i t y of a c t o r s " (Giddens, 1984, p.177). He i d e n t i f i e s t h r e e types. M a t e r i a l c o n s t r a i n t s d e r i v e from the q u a l i t i e s of the m a t e r i a l world and the human body. Negative, power-based c o n s t r a i n t s ( i . e . s a n c t i o n s ) are p u n i t i v e responses by o t h e r s because of one's a c t i o n s . S t r u c t u r a l c o n s t r a i n t s , d e r i v e from the c o n t e x t of a c t i o n , i . e . from the s t r u c t u r a l p r o p e r t y of a s i t u a t i o n . A l l t h r e e types e x i s t i n the context of t e a c h i n g o n l i n e . 4  attempt t o i n t r o d u c e a new  s t y l e of p l a n n i n g f o r s t u d e n t -  t e a c h e r s f a i l e d because i t stepped o u t s i d e the t a c i t  contract  t h a t e x i s t s between a c t o r s i n an e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g . l e a r n e r s , educators  and p l a n n e r s  are i n v o l v e d i n an  educational  program, they t a c i t l y agree t o n o r m a t i v e "terms of p r a c t i c e " . T h i s t a c i t c o n t r a c t i n c l u d e s : norms of  When  educational behaviour,  " p r e d e t e r m i n e d c a t e g o r i e s of knowledge", accustomed r o l e s , an u n s t a t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of where a u t h o r i t y l i e s .  and  As l o n g  as  these terms are adhered t o , an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s r o l e and norms of e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e remain i n v i s i b l e . T h i s t a c i t c o n t r a c t i s v i o l a t e d when someone a t t e m p t s t o i n i t i a t e c u r r i c u l u m o r i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t breaches e x p e c t e d p r a c t i c e s .  When  educators  i n i t i a t e such programs, t h e y e n c o u n t e r b a r r i e r s t h a t make the educational context v i s i b l e .  The  s t a g i n g a r e a of e d u c a t i o n i s  no l o n g e r t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d o r n e u t r a l . educators  What l e a r n e r s  and  expect of an e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a component  of any e d u c a t i o n a l  context.  P l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n a l programs must account f o r a program's institutional  c h a r a c t e r , i n c l u d i n g n o r m a t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s of  o r g a n i z a t i o n . The  e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t can c r e a t e t e n s i o n s f o r  the  e d u c a t o r s who  want t o p l a n o r i n s t r u c t i n a l e s s  conventional  approach t h a n an i n s t i t u t i o n i s w i l l i n g t o a l l o w .  The  South  A f r i c a n example u n d e r s c o r e s t h a t an e d u c a t o r , p l a n n e r , designer,  o r l e a r n e r has  freedom t o a c t but  i t i s a "sponsored  freedom" where the o r g a n i z a t i o n i s the g u a r a n t o r . The e n c o u n t e r e d makes c o n t e x t  course  barriers  apparent.  T h i s i s not uncommon e x p e r i e n c e f o r a d u l t e d u c a t o r s who u n d e r t a k e n new adult educators,  educational  i n i t i a t i v e s i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n .  way.  i s i n t e r e s t i n g because the t e a c h i n g and  not t a c i t .  I t i s usually stated up-front.  dynamic i n DE,  Many-  i n c l u d i n g m y s e l f , have l e a r n e d about these  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l norms, the h a r d  DE  have  learning contract i s And  t h i s contract i s  p a r t l y because of c o n t i n u o u s changes t o  t e c h n o l o g i c a l s e t t i n g s of DE.  the  I w i l l return to t h i s point i n  Chapter 5.  Technology i n D i s t a n c e E d u c a t i o n  Distance  education  technology.  DE  i s made p o s s i b l e by changes i n communication  i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o media. B a t e s '  ACTIONS model p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l summary of t e c h n o l o g i e s used i n teaching distance education, weaknesses  along with t h e i r strengths  and  (see T a b l e 4 ) .  The f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n of media was p r i n t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o s t a l mail  (Bourdeau & B a t e s ,  textbooks,  1996) .  P r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s such as  study packages, and l e t t e r s were used as  communications media f o r correspondence study s i n c e the l a t e 1800s.  The second g e n e r a t i o n of media was a u d i o , v i a r a d i o and telephone.  The i n t e r a c t i v e a b i l i t y of r a d i o i s l i m i t e d , as i t  i s a one-way medium.  Telephone a l l o w s f o r i n d i v i d u a l two-way  t u t o r i n g and i s commonly used i n DE.  I n the 1950's, t e l e v i s i o n and l a t e r s a t e l l i t e s were a v a i l a b l e and c o u l d be used t o v i s u a l l y enhance l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s .  But  t h e y t o o a r e g e n e r a l l y one-way media t h a t a r e good f o r d e l i v e r y of i n f o r m a t i o n but not f o r i n t e r a c t i o n . of media r e l i e s on telephone  This t h i r d  generation  and p o s t a l m a i l f o r i n t e r a c t i o n  between i n s t r u c t o r and l e a r n e r and among l e a r n e r s .  Table 4: ACTIONS Model- Summary of Strengths Education Media  Access  Costs  Number Large One-way  & Weaknesses of Technologies  Teaching  Interactivity  of Learners Small  Presentation  Skills  Learning Materials  Social  for  Organiz ational Issues  Novelty  Distance  Speed (required t o change course content)  media  1.  Print  Good  Good  Average  Average  Average  Average  Poor  Poor  Poor  Poor  2.  Radio  Good  Good  Poor  Poor  Poor  Poor  Poor  Average  Poor  Good  2. Audiocassette  Good  Good  Average  Average  Good  Good  Poor  Good  Poor  Average  3. Educational b r o a d c a s t TV  Good  Poor  Poor  Good  Average  Poor  Poor  Poor  Average  Poor  3. Pre-recorded I TV  Good  Good  Poor  Average  Average  Average  Average  Average  Average  Poor  3. Videocassettes  Good  Average  Poor  Good  Good  Good  Poor  Average  Average  Poor  4. Computerbased L e a r n i n g  Average  Poor  Poor  Average  Average  Good  Poor  Poor  Average  Poor  4.  Average  Poor  Poor  Good  Good  Good  Poor  Poor  Average  Poor  2. Audio conferencing  Average  Poor  Good  Poor  Average  Poor  Good  Good  Average  Good  3. Live i n t e r a c t i v e TV  Poor  Poor  Poor  Poor  Poor  Poor  Average  Average  Average  Good  3. Video conferencing  Poor  Poor  Average  Poor  Average  Average  Average  Average  Good  Good  5.  Average  Average  Good  Average  Good  Average  Average  Good  Good  Good  Multimedia  Two-way  media  Internet  ITV= i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n Number b e s i d e media i n d i c a t e s g e n e r a t i o n of media.  (adapted from Bates, 1995, p. 17)  The f o u r t h g e n e r a t i o n i n v o l v e d computer and i n f o r m a t i o n t e c h n o l o g i e s as s t a n d - a l o n e ways o f d e l i v e r i n g l e a r n i n g materials.  The f i f t h g e n e r a t i o n i n c l u d e s d i g i t a l t e c h n o l o g i e s , which s i n c e advent of t h e Worldwide Web has meant p r e d o m i n a n t l y t h e Internet.  While t h e Web was c r e a t e d i n 1990, t h e I n t e r n e t has  been around s i n c e t h e l a t e 1960s, and e m a i l has been commonly used s i n c e 1985. A r i c h and growing body o f l i t e r a t u r e e x i s t s i n DE about t h e p r e v i o u s f o u r g e n e r a t i o n s o f media.  The f i f t h  g e n e r a t i o n i s r e c e n t and r e s e a r c h about i t s use i s n a s c e n t .  T h i s s t u d y f o c u s e s on I n t e r n e t - b a s e d DE b u t e a r l i e r  generations  are i m p o r t a n t t o know about and some p r e v i o u s l i t e r a t u r e i s o f use and w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n t h e c h a p t e r on r e s e a r c h methodology.  As McLuhan s a i d , t h e r e a r e no c o m p l e t e l y new  t e c h n o l o g i e s , j u s t e x t e n s i o n s of o l d t e c h n o l o g i e s 1964)".  (McLuhan,  Summary of L i t e r a t u r e  Review  To summarize, l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n i s o r g a n i z e d t e a c h i n g where s t u d e n t s and t h e i n s t r u c t o r a r e p h y s i c a l l y s e p a r a t e . T h i s r e q u i r e s t h a t an o r g a n i z a t i o n p l a y an a c t i v e r o l e t o b r i d g e t h e communication gap between l e a r n e r s and instructors.  Thus, t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s more v i s i b l e i n DE than  other types of education.  I n s t r u c t i o n i n DE i n v o l v e s t h e  i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n p r o c e s s and s t u d e n t s e r v i c e s , as w e l l as the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n s t r u c t o r s and s t u d e n t s .  Most  distance education that takes place i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s that p r i m a r i l y s e r v e a d u l t s , o r y o u t h i n s t i t u t i o n s where a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s a secondary  f u n c t i o n . DE s t u d e n t s t e n d t o be  a d u l t s , o l d e r t h a n most h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s .  The  f u n c t i o n o f most DE c o u r s e s i s t h e same as o t h e r h i g h e r  e d u c a t i o n programs: t o reproduce human c a p i t a l .  knowledge and d e v e l o p l e a r n e r ' s  Most d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n i s o r i e n t e d towards  c r e a t i n g e q u i l i b r i u m r a t h e r t h a n f o s t e r i n g s o c i a l change. means t h a t e v a l u a t i o n , u s u a l l y m a n i f e s t as grades, important f e a t u r e of courses. c o u r s e s and connect  i s an  Grades a r e used t o measure  what t a k e s p l a c e i n s i d e a course t o t h e  This  l a r g e r s o c i a l and economic f u n c t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n . DE i s i n v o l v e d i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t t e n d t o have l o o s e p r o c e s s e s and t i g h t g o a l s .  A g r e a t v a r i e t y o f s t u d i e s e x i s t on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs o r c o u r s e s . While some s t u d i e s address g e n e r a l f a c t o r s t h a t i n t e r a c t i n a c o u r s e , t h e r e i s l i t t l e d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e impact o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t on t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g .  Importantly, the l i t e r a t u r e  i n d i c a t e s a d u l t e d u c a t o r s r a r e l y a c t a l o n e and, i n f o r m a l programs, t h e i r freedom t o a c t i s a "sponsored the o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t h e g u a r a n t o r .  freedom" where  I n DE, t h e importance  of the  sponsoring o r g a n i z a t i o n i s overt.  F i n a l l y , DE i s made p o s s i b l e by t e c h n o l o g y and t h e r e i s e x t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e b e n e f i t s and l i m i t a t i o n s o f most t y p e s of t e c h n o l o g y f o r t e a c h i n g . As t h e I n t e r n e t i s r e c e n t , t h e r e i s much l e s s l i t e r a t u r e about how i t shapes t e a c h i n g .  Purpose  The  l i t e r a t u r e i s h e l p f u l about t h e r o l e and importance o f  distance education gaps.  s e t t i n g b u t i s p a t c h y and t h e r e a r e many  In p a r t i c u l a r there i s l i t t l e  research  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t e a c h i n g , t e c h n o l o g y  analyzing  and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n .  There i s l i t t l e which e x p l a i n s , f o r example, how an a d u l t e d u c a t o r w i t h a humanist o r r a d i c a l t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e teaches w i t h i n a b e h a v i o r i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n ?  Y e t many a d u l t  educators face t h i s tension.  I t i s a maxim o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n only i n classrooms. i n classrooms,  Yet education  does n o t o c c u r  f o r a d u l t s o f t e n takes  place  t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s , c h u r c h basements, a t p r o t e s t  r a l l i e s and o n l i n e . these contexts?  that education  How do we u n d e r s t a n d t h e importance o f  Even ad hoc a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs a r e  p r e m i s e d on some c o o r d i n a t i o n o f l a b o u r and f a c i l i t a t i o n o f power.  I f a l l formal adult education  education,  i sorganizational  e d u c a t o r s need t o be a b l e t o a n a l y z e  t h e i r p r a c t i c e . F o r DE, an important  the s e t t i n g of  way t o do t h i s i s t o  examine t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , t e c h n o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l context of p r a c t i c e .  Some engagement w i t h p e r s p e c t i v e s on  o r g a n i z a t i o n s from s o c i o l o g y and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t h e o r y i s beneficial. education  As G r i f f i n  (1991) s t a t e d , "the study o f a d u l t  as b u r e a u c r a t i z e d p r o f e s s i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y  underdeveloped."  The i n t e r e s t i n t h i s study was t o l o o k a t  d i s t a n c e t e a c h i n g as a b u r e a u c r a t i z e d and t e c h n o l o g i c a l form o f instruction.  What does i t mean t o t e a c h a d u l t e d u c a t i o n v i a t h e  Internet i n formal o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s ?  Therefore,  having  r e g a r d t o t h e f o r e g o i n g , t h e purpose o f t h i s  study was: •  t o analyze  t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s on  a d u l t e d u c a t o r s t e a c h i n g programs v i a t h e I n t e r n e t i n a f o r m a l educational •  setting  t o c r e a t e an a n a l y t i c a l framework t h a t a l l o w s a d u l t e d u c a t o r s to assess  c o n s t r a i n t s t h e y f a c e when t e a c h i n g v i a t h e I n t e r n e t  The method used t o a c h i e v e chapter.  t h e s e aims i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e next  CHAPTER 3  METHODOLOGY  The  t h e o r e t i c a l framework and methodology f o r the s t u d y  discussed i n t h i s chapter.  are  A f t e r a summary of frame f a c t o r  t h e o r y and i t s use, the s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n and  design  are d e s c r i b e d , a l o n g w i t h c r i t e r i a f o r a s s e s s i n g the soundness of the  study.  E x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h has been done on the dynamics t h a t  occur  w i t h i n o n l i n e d i s c u s s i o n s , even p r i o r t o the advent o f Web-based education  ( H e n r i , 1992;  Mowrer, 1996).  Communication v i a  computer-mediated c o n f e r e n c i n g , and l a t e r e m a i l , has been a n a l y z e d f o r over a decade. Most o f the f o c u s has been on c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s o f o n l i n e d i s c u s s i o n such as: what types o f p o s t i n g s have l e a r n e r s and i n s t r u c t o r s made; are t h e y i m p r e s s i o n s o r do they r e f l e c t deeper l e v e l t h i n k i n g .  personal Other  s t u d i e s have l o o k e d at p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r a c t i o n such as how o f t e n s t u d e n t s communicated w i t h each o t h e r and w i t h i n s t r u c t o r s a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n the l i f e o f a course G a r r i s o n e t a l , 2001,  Hara e t a l . ,  2000).  (Fahy e t a l , 2001; I l o o k a t some o f  t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n the course s t u d i e d f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h .  This  l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s an emerging s e t o f norms about how t o t e a c h online.  These norms are becoming a s o r t o f s o c i a l  beyond an i n s t r u c t o r ' s c o n t r o l .  I n s t r u c t i o n i s determined  p a r t l y by an i n s t r u c t o r ' s a c t i o n s interactions.  includes  and l e a r n e r - t o - l e a r n e r  However, many d e c i s i o n s  o r s t u d e n t s t h a t are not  constraint,  are made by i n s t r u c t o r s  of t h e i r choosing.  Instruction  the c o n n e c t i o n between what o c c u r s ' i n t e r n a l l y ' i n t h e  c o u r s e and the  'external'  s e t t i n g . The g o a l o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o  connect l o c a l e x p e r i e n c e s o b s e r v a b l e i n the s e t t i n g with larger forces  that constrain  instructional  educational  activities.  In o r d e r t o make t h i s s e t t i n g o b s e r v a b l e , I needed a t h e o r e t i c a l framework t h a t connects the s t u d e n t s w i t h the  i n t e r a c t i o n among l e a r n e r s and  s o c i a l c o n t e x t . Frame f a c t o r t h e o r y i s an 5  a n a l y t i c a l t o o l t h a t makes t h e s e c o n n e c t i o n s .  I t provides a  u s e f u l t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r c o n n e c t i n g a c t i o n s o f i n s t r u c t o r s and s t u d e n t s w i t h e x t e r n a l  factors.  I look a t the c o n t e x t p a r t l y because I am d i s s a t i s f i e d by P r a t t ' s (1998) o t h e r w i s e v e r y u s e f u l model of t e a c h i n g . He i d e n t i f i e s f i v e d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s on the i n t e r a c t i o n of i n s t r u c t o r s , l e a r n e r s , content and i d e o l o g y . He mentions the c o n t e x t o f t e a c h i n g i n each o f these f i v e p e r s p e c t i v e s but i t i s not d i s c u s s e d i n much d e t a i l even though i t can make a s u b s t a n t i a l impact on the i n t e r a c t i o n among i n s t r u c t o r s , content, and l e a r n e r s . 5  Frame F a c t o r Theory  'Frame f a c t o r s ' r e f e r s t o "the c i r c u m s t a n c e s [teaching] a c t i v i t i e s "  (Hoghielm,  1985,  governing  p.216).  A tangible  d e f i n i t i o n of frame f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e s them as " d e c i s i o n s o u t s i d e the t e a c h e r ' s and s t u d e n t ' s c o n t r o l " which shape t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g added).  ( D a h l o f f i n Lundgren, 1981, p.24,  I n the l a t e 1960s and e a r l y 1970s t h e r e was  i n t e r e s t and awareness of how  emphasis  increasing  p e o p l e ' s a c t i o n s were shaped by  s o c i a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l f o r c e s .  As a p a r t of t h i s t r e n d ,  i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s were a n a l y z e d i n the c o n t e x t of structures.  social  I n Sweden t h i s was m a n i f e s t w i t h t h e "Model  A n a l y s i s of P e d a g o g i c a l P r o c e s s e s " o r MAP-project.  It consisted  of s e v e r a l s t u d i e s about "the s t r u c t u r e of  [the] t e a c h i n g  p r o c e s s as an e x p r e s s i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  constraints"  (Lundgren,  1981, p . 3 ) .  The g o a l was  t o o v e r t l y l i n k t h e o r i e s of  c o n s t r a i n t s w i t h t h e o r i e s of e d u c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l and t e a c h i n g in particular.  Such an approach  was  a d e p a r t u r e from  t e a c h i n g was u s u a l l y viewed and a n a l y z e d .  The  focus i s u s u a l l y  on i n s t r u c t o r s , l e a r n e r s and i n t e r a c t i o n between them 1970;  B r o o k f i e l d , 1986;  P r a t t , 1998).  "The  how  (Knowles,  c o n t e x t of e d u c a t i o n  i s l a r g e l y i g n o r e d i n much a d u l t e d u c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e so t h a t  education,  a s o c i a l phenomenon, i s reduced t o a p s y c h o l o g i c a l  phenomenon, l e a r n i n g " ( R u b e n s o n , 1989,  p.59).  There has  been  l i t t l e f o c u s on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s and t h e i r impact teaching,  The  e s p e c i a l l y i n adult education  on  contexts.  MAP-project sought t o make t e a c h i n g s t r u c t u r e s v i s i b l e  and  connect changes at the m i c r o - l e v e l of t e a c h i n g w i t h changes at the m a c r o - l e v e l Dahloff  of economy and  and Lundgren (1970) and  (1975) as a way  society.  'Frames' was  l a t e r m o d i f i e d by  used by  Bernstein  of c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g the c o n n e c t i o n s between macro  and m i c r o l e v e l s .  Frames are most r e a d i l y e v i d e n t education K12  i n p r i m a r y and  secondary  where c o n s t r a i n t s on e d u c a t o r s are q u i t e s t a r k .  education,  frames have been c a l l e d 'the grammar of  s c h o o l i n g ' - " s t r u c t u r e s and instruction"  In  r u l e s that organize  (Tyack & T o b i n , 1993,  secondary e d u c a t i o n ,  p.454).  In primary  and  c l a s s e s are r i g i d l y d i v i d e d , r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  i n t o grades t h a t are s e l f - c o n t a i n e d and u n i t s ' according  the work of  to subject areas.  50 minute  These are  'Carnegie  historical  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r u l e s t h a t shape i n s t r u c t i o n but are not  decided  by i n s t r u c t o r s .  I n K12, t h e way knowledge i s d i v i d e d i n t o  s u b j e c t s i s a frame, as i s h a v i n g s t a n d a r d i z e d c l a s s s i z e s , more o r l e s s same-sized time.  rooms, and h a v i n g c l a s s e s t h e same l e n g t h o f  These o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f e a t u r e s o f t e a c h i n g c r e a t e t h e  c o n d i t i o n s of i n s t r u c t i o n .  The 'grammar o f s c h o o l i n g ' h e l p s  i d e n t i f y grammar (or frames) t h a t connect o r g a n i z a t i o n a l structure to instructional  Teaching  practice.  i n h i g h e r and e s p e c i a l l y a d u l t e d u c a t i o n tends t o be  more d i v e r s e than p r i m a r y and secondary  e d u c a t i o n . The d i f f e r e n t  types of t e a c h i n g i n higher education i n c l u d e : l e c t u r e s , l e c t u r e s p l u s t u t o r i a l s , seminars,  wet l a b s , d r y l a b s (e.g. f i l m  p r o d u c t i o n ) , co-op c o u r s e s , d i r e c t e d s t u d y c o u r s e s and f i e l d courses.  F a c t o r s frame i n s t r u c t i o n f o r a l l t y p e s o f t e a c h i n g ,  and a l l s e t t i n g s , even non-formal  adult education.  F o r example,  a d e f i n i n g f e a t u r e o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s time l i m i t s on t h e learning process. [T]he fundamental d i f f e r e n c e between l e a r n i n g i n t h e n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g and e d u c a t i o n i s t h a t o f s y s t e m a t i c i n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s s y s t e m a t i c aspect i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a time dimension... [E] f f e c t i v e a n a l y s i s and p l a n n i n g o f e d u c a t i o n i s a i d e d by t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a time l i m i t which s e t s b o u n d a r i e s t o what i s e i t h e r sought o r observed ( L i t t l e , 1980, p.9) .  I n a l l e d u c a t i o n a l programs e d u c a t o r s c r e a t e time parameters t o bound and h o p e f u l l y f o c u s the t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g relationship.  A time l i m i t a f f e c t s t e a c h i n g and t e a c h e r s and i s  u s u a l l y beyond the c o n t r o l of the  instructor.  A u s e f u l model e x i s t s f o r v i e w i n g c o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t the t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o v i d e s a l e n s t o observe  ( N e s b i t , 1995).  i n s t r u c t i o n i n c o n t e x t o f : the  i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework, s t u d e n t s ' and i n s t r u c t o r s ' t h e i r general worldview structures  experience,  about the s u b j e c t m a t t e r , and  ( i b i d . , p.63).  It  social  I have adapted t h i s model t o i n c l u d e  t e c h n o l o g y as an i m p o r t a n t frame f o r t e a c h i n g a d u l t s v i a distance education  (see F i g u r e 3 ) . The model a l l o w s me  to apply  frame f a c t o r t h e o r y , and p r o v i d e s a l e n s t o see and unpack the c o n d i t i o n s of i n s t r u c t i o n i n one o n l i n e c o u r s e .  Teaching p r o c e s s i n t h i s s t u d y r e f e r s t o what t a k e s p l a c e i n the communications among s t u d e n t s and i n s t r u c t o r s . a d e p a r t u r e from how  T h i s i s a b i t of  people t h i n k of t e a c h i n g i n d i s t a n c e  education,  where i t a l s o i n c l u d e s t h e m a t e r i a l s c r e a t e d  i n the  i n s t r u c t i o n a l design process.  Figure  3: Frame factors  in the online  teaching  process  S o c i a l Structures  S o c i a l Structures  Social structure refers to c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or properties  that  make i t p o s s i b l e f o r " d i s c e r n i b l y s i m i l a r s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s t o e x i s t a c r o s s v a r y i n g spans o f time and space and l e n d them 'systemic'  form"  (Giddens, 1984, p.17).  r e c u r r e n t l y throughout l o n g p e r i o d s or across c u l t u r e s are considered  P r a c t i c e s done  o f time i n a g i v e n  institutions.  culture  E d u c a t i o n i s an  i n s t i t u t i o n , which r e i n f o r c e s r u l e s and r e s o u r c e s i n s o c i e t y , and  i s a l s o shaped by e x i s t i n g r u l e s and r e s o u r c e s from o t h e r  institutions i n society.  S e v e r a l r u l e s and r e s o u r c e s  - e s p e c i a l l y from governments,  i n t e r e s t groups, s o c i a l norms-  shape e d u c a t i o n a l programs, though not always d i r e c t l y .  The  work c o n t e x t and t h i n k i n g of i n s t r u c t o r s ' and l e a r n e r ' s a r e shaped and l i m i t e d by s o c i a l  " I n s t i t u t i o n a l framework"  structures.  i n c l u d e s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and  curricular  f a c t o r s t h a t a l l o w f o r e d u c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s t o be p r o v i d e d and s p e c i f y how and what s h o u l d be t a u g h t .  These i n c l u d e : p h y s i c a l  r e s o u r c e s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s e s of an o r g a n i z a t i o n , s e t p r o c e d u r e s f o r t e a c h i n g , r u l e s around what books and m a t e r i a l s can be used and how t h e y a r e chosen.  Technology i s an i m p o r t a n t frame i f one a c c e p t s McLuhan's s l o g a n "the medium i s the message" . 6  Technology mediates  communication  and each p r e s e n t a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n i s a f f e c t e d by the s t r u c t u r e of a medium.  Each t e c h n o l o g y has advantages and  d i s a d v a n t a g e s and t h i s shapes and l i m i t s what type of t e a c h i n g can t a k e p l a c e .  A modern day v e r s i o n of t h i s i s "Kranzberg's F i r s t Law: Technology i s n e i t h e r good nor bad, nor i s i t n e u t r a l " ( C a s t e l l s , 1996, p.65). The quote i s f a r l e s s nuanced and 6  Experience  o f s t u d e n t s and i n s t r u c t o r s r e f e r s t o t h e a t t i t u d e s  and e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t people b r i n g t o a course o r program.  As  i n d i c a t e d by t h e example o f t h e South A f r i c a n u n i v e r s i t y , t o each moment o f l e a r n i n g , i n s t r u c t o r s and l e a r n e r s b r i n g t h e i r p e r s o n a l h i s t o r i e s and they a n t i c i p a t e what t h e e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e w i l l be l i k e .  These g e n e r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s a c t as  norms, o u t s i d e an i n s t r u c t o r s ' c o n t r o l , t h a t shape t e a c h i n g .  "Worldview about t h e s u b j e c t matter" i n s t r u c t o r s ' p r i o r knowledge. to  r e f e r s t o l e a r n e r s ' and  J u s t as people b r i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s  a l e a r n i n g s e t t i n g , they a l s o b r i n g some knowledge about t h e  course c o n t e n t , however b a s i c o r complex.  This worldview i s  p a r t l y based on l e a r n e r s ' p e r s o n a l knowledge and p a r t l y on s o c i e t y ' s conception of the subject area.  Each knowledge a r e a  i s c o d i f i e d and made o f f i c i a l , w i t h r u l e s g o v e r n i n g how i t i s articulated.  T h i s t o o i s beyond t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r  and shapes how she o r he can t e a c h .  c a t c h y than McLuhan's but i t p o i n t s out an i r r i t a t i n g f e a t u r e of l i t e r a t u r e I n t e r n e t ; the b e l i e f t h a t somehow t h i s a l l c o m p l e t e l y new.  about the  These f a c t o r s are used t o a n a l y z e what frames the c o n d i t i o n s of i n s t r u c t i o n i n an I n t e r n e t - b a s e d c o u r s e .  Any course i s a  c o n f l u e n c e of frames and c h o i c e s by p a r t i c i p a n t s .  The a c t i o n s  of s t u d e n t s and i n s t r u c t o r s are i m p o r t a n t , but so a r e not of t h e i r c h o o s i n g .  factors  T h i s model i s the s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r  a n a l y z i n g c o n s t r a i n t s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of t e a c h i n g o n l i n e .  Research Question  T h i s s t u d y has a s i n g l e o v e r a r c h i n g problem: how i n s t r u c t i o n a l processes  are  i n an I n t e r n e t - b a s e d course shaped by  f a c t o r s beyond the i n s t r u c t o r ' s c o n t r o l ?  Practical  e x i s t s on frame f a c t o r s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  The  research  unique  c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h i s study i s t o examine f a c t o r s which frame t e a c h i n g i n an o n l i n e s e t t i n g .  Thus, most of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s  about t e c h n o l o g i c a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l frames,  though the o t h e r  two frames are a l s o c o n s i d e r e d b r i e f l y .  Research Design  To g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n about how v a r i o u s frames a f f e c t o n l i n e i n s t r u c t i o n I examined an o n l i n e c o u r s e . course o f f e r e d a t Dual-Mode I n s t i t u t i o n  Edu 555 i s a  graduate  (DMI). A l l s t u d e n t s i n  the course were a d u l t s ( r a n g i n g from 28 t o 53 y e a r s o l d ) . The course was on t e c h n o l o g y use i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  DMI  offers  predominantly  c l a s s r o o m - b a s e d c o u r s e s but has a s m a l l d i s t a n c e  teaching unit  (DTU) which a d m i n i s t e r e d and d e l i v e r e d t h i s  course.  I t i s i n n o v a t i v e i n o n l i n e e d u c a t i o n and has s e r v e d as  a model f o r o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s wanting d e l i v e r e d u c a t i o n a l programs. this  t o use t h e I n t e r n e t t o  T h i s i s one reason f o r c h o o s i n g  site.  The course was o f f e r e d d u r i n g a four-month p e r i o d i n 2000 and the s i t e was a r c h i v e d . c o l l e c t e d from t h r e e  Data about Edu 555 and i t s s e t t i n g were  sources.  F i r s t , p o l i c y documents were r e v i e w e d which d e s c r i b e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f DTU w i t h DMI i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y what i n s t i t u t i o n a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s were p l a c e d upon d e v e l o p i n g and d e s i g n i n g of Edu 555.  Second, I p e r u s e d p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n documents and l i t e r a t u r e of o n l i n e c o u r s e s a t DMI.  D e c i s i o n s about what t o t e a c h and how  to teach are o f t e n separated i n analyses of adult education  into  the c a t e g o r i e s of program and c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g ,  and  instruction, respectively.  education  By n e c e s s i t y , d i s t a n c e  r e q u i r e s t h i s s e p a r a t i o n be b l u r r e d i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l  design.  I n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n e r s make d e c i s i o n s w h i l e c r e a t i n g c o u r s e s , d e c i s i o n s t h a t e s t a b l i s h parameters and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of what can o c c u r w h i l e t e a c h i n g o n l i n e . course d e s i g n i s an i m p o r t a n t  Distance educators  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l frame of  Most of the i n f o r m a t i o n comes from the course, of d a t a .  recognize teaching.  the t h i r d  O n l i n e e d u c a t i o n , more t h a n most k i n d s of DE  source  or  c l a s s r o o m - b a s e d i n s t r u c t i o n , p r o v i d e s t h a t r a r e goldmine f o r r e s e a r c h e r s ; a snapshot of a l a r g e s e c t i o n of a course occurred.  as i t  Most i n t e r a c t i o n among l e a r n e r s , i n s t r u c t o r s and  m a t e r i a l s are t e x t u a l and documented.  The  archived  site  p r o v i d e s an e x t e n s i v e p o r t r a i t of most group communication d u r i n g the c o u r s e .  I t i n c l u d e s course  announcements, a l i s t  assignments, the course b l o c k s , d i s c u s s i o n forums, r e s o u r c e s tools.  S t u d e n t s a l s o communicated t o t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r and  o t h e r o u t s i d e of the d i s c u s s i o n forums v i a d i r e c t e m a i l .  of and  each These  were not examined, as t h i s would have r e q u i r e d a p p r o a c h i n g each s t u d e n t and p e r u s i n g t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l e m a i l a c c o u n t s i n s e a r c h  of correspondences w i t h t u t o r s and f e l l o w s t u d e n t s .  Another  r i c h d a t a source would have been t o i n t e r v i e w i n s t r u c t o r s and students.  I chose n o t t o do t h i s because I wanted t o see i f and  how frame f a c t o r s m a n i f e s t e d  i n t h e practice  of the course.  Data A n a l y s i s The b i g g e s t dilemma f o r a n a l y z i n g d a t a was how t o o r g a n i z e and examine t h e immense volume o f i n f o r m a t i o n . a l o n e had o v e r 1000 p o s t i n g s .  The d i s c u s s i o n forum  Some o r d e r and meaning needed t o  be brought t o t h i s d a t a , so o r g a n i z i n g and a n a l y z i n g t h e d a t a took p l a c e i n s e v e r a l phases.  I n t h e f i r s t phase, t h e purpose  was t o ' l e t t h e d a t a speak' about t h e frames. I wanted t o g e n e r a t e themes and c a t e g o r i e s from t h e d a t a i n o r d e r t o d e r i v e i n d u c t i v e l y m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f frame f a c t o r s . q u a l i t a t i v e software  NUD*IST  was used t o c r e a t e a h i e r a r c h i c a l database  of a l l Edu 555 documents and d i s c u s s i o n s which were e l e c t r o n i c a l l y archived.  This required tedious,  time-consuming  c u t t i n g and p a s t i n g o f n e a r l y 1000 messages from t h e WebCT d i s c u s s i o n forum t o NUD*IST document e x p l o r e r . d a t a was p r i n t e d o u t .  Once i n NUD*IST,  The volume o f d a t a - t h e d i s c u s s i o n forum  a l o n e was n e a r l y 700 pages, i n t e n p o i n t f o n t - s u g g e s t e d t h a t  s a m p l i n g the d a t a would be a u s e f u l i n i t i a l emic c a t e g o r i e s .  step f o r developing  Two s a m p l i n g approaches were used: random  s a m p l i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l p o s t i n g s by s t u d e n t s and i n s t r u c t o r s ; and s t r a t i f i e d random s a m p l i n g o f d i s c u s s i o n s about one s u b j e c t . For random s a m p l i n g , a c o l l e a g u e drove a n a i l t h r o u g h two p a r t s of the d i s c u s s i o n forum p r i n t - o u t s . U s i n g a t a b l e o f random numbers 50 pages from n e a r l y 700 were chosen. page, f i v e l i n e s below and above the n a i l  On any chosen  (or more a c c u r a t e l y  the h o l e l e f t by the n a i l ) c o n s t i t u t e d a d a t a sample.  Each  sample was p e r u s e d t o see i f i t e x e m p l i f i e d a p a r t i c u l a r m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f frame f a c t o r s .  Those samples t h a t d i d so were  c l u s t e r e d i n t o themes, as e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e t a b l e 5.  Table  5: Example of how data was organized  Page Number -Posting 20  -355  Person  into  themes  Theme  Number Scott  I  -International  student  discusses h i s  location 35  -1114  Cynthia  No n o t a b l e  53  -1917  Huang  T -A l u r k e r : someone who l o g g e d on f o r a  19 d a y s b u t d i d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n  the  discussion.  Culturally to t h i s 84  -1093  Ron  theme  ( C h i n e s e ) who was n o t u s e d  kind  of p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  T -Quotes a n o t h e r p o s t i n g comment u p o n . i t ,  point  v e r b a t i m and  by p o i n t .  A l l the samples were then r e o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o themes.  For  example, a l l p o s t i n g s where s t u d e n t s l i k e S c o t t d i s c u s s e d t h e i r i n t e r n a t i o n a l l o c a t i o n o r p e r s p e c t i v e on a g i v e n t o p i c , were l i s t e d under the theme c a t e g o r y international location".  "students i n d i c a t i n g  their  I t took a s u b s t a n t i a l number of  p o s t i n g s w i t h i n a c a t e g o r y b e f o r e i t c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a trend.  Each theme was  then a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c a t e g o r i e s from the  frame f a c t o r model ( i n F i g u r e 3 ) , i n d i c a t e d i n Table 5 by a l e t t e r , such as "T"  f o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l frame.  These themes were  a l s o compared t o e x i s t i n g s t u d i e s (Hara e t a l , 2000; H e n r i , 1992).  I t became e v i d e n t from t h i s comparison, t h a t the c a t e g o r i e s t h a t emerged from random s a m p l i n g d i d not always c o g e n t l y p a r t i c u l a r frames. stratified p o s t i n g was  So a second sampling  random s a m p l i n g .  approach was  used,  I n the d i s c u s s i o n forum, each  o r g a n i z e d i n t o a s t r i n g by  ' s u b j e c t heading'.  p r i n t e d out a l i s t of a l l the ' s u b j e c t headings' the forum.  exemplify  I  discussed i n  U s i n g a t a b l e of random numbers, I s e l e c t e d one  subject s t r i n g .  T h i s b l o c k of p o s t i n g s was  p a r t i c u l a r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of frame f a c t o r s .  a l s o analyzed f o r These  m a n i f e s t a t i o n s were c l u s t e r e d i n t o themes.  T h i s second  sampling  gave more c o n t i n u i t y and c o n t e x t t o t h e d a t a b e i n g a n a l y z e d than the f i r s t sampling method.  A f t e r t h i s second l a y e r o f sampling,  I a g a i n t e s t e d t h e emerging themes and concepts a g a i n s t t h e e n t i r e d a t a o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n forum and t h e o t h e r two document sources.  W r i t i n g the A n a l y s i s  The r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s a r e o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o these themes. These f i n d i n g s were then compared t o e x i s t i n g s t u d i e s t h a t have used frame f a c t o r t h e o r y i n classroom-based c o u r s e s . From t h i s comparison,  adult education  a s e r i e s of g u i d e l i n e questions  were c r e a t e d t o s e r v e as a t o o l t h a t a l l o w s a d u l t e d u c a t o r s teaching v i a the I n t e r n e t t o assess t h e i r c o n s t r a i n t s .  Textual  d a t a from course documents and t h e d i s c u s s i o n forum ( i . e . t h e words o f t h e c o u r s e p a r t i c i p a n t s ) and i t s q u a n t i f i e d v e r s i o n r u n through NUD*IST a r e n o t p r e s e n t e d i n t h e i r raw form.  Data i s  used s e l e c t i v e l y t o e x p l a i n and e x t r a p o l a t e t h e themes.  Anonymi ty  In o r d e r t o ensure anonymity, the r e s e a r c h c o u r s e have been g i v e n pseudonyms. c o u n t r i e s , p e o p l e and e d u c a t i o n a l disguised.  The  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and  The  site, location  names of  and  cities,  programs have a l s o been funding  s t r u c t u r e of  the  s e t t i n g f o r the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e has been i d e n t i f i e d a c c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e . S i n c e the i n s t i t u t i o n and  educational  program are d i s g u i s e d , t h i s s t u d y would be c o n s i d e r e d document a n a l y s i s / group o b s e r v a t i o n .  anonymous  A l l quotes are from the  d i s c u s s i o n forum and have been checked t o f i l t e r out i d e n t i f y i n g or personal  as  any  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the commentator,  o t h e r l e a r n e r s , i n s t r u c t o r s , o r p e o p l e w i t h i n the  organization.  S c r e e n c a p t u r e s c o u l d not be used as t h i s would i d e n t i f y the research  site.  L i m i t a t i o n s of  the  Study  T h i s s t u d y i s a document a n a l y s i s . I d e a l l y , i t would have been u s e f u l t o conduct a case s t u d y i n which i n s t r u c t o r s and were i n t e r v i e w e d  students  d u r i n g o r a f t e r the c o u r s e t o get a complete  p i c t u r e of the c o n s t r a i n t s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h a t e x i s t e d f o r Edu  555.  The  course was  completed sometime ago  and  i t proved  logistically  difficult  to interview p a r t i c i p a n t s .  A l s o , the  above t h r e e s o u r c e s of d a t a p r o v i d e d immense i n f o r m a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y the t h i r d s o u r c e , the a r c h i v e d c o u r s e .  Qualitative  r e s e a r c h always has the dilemma of how much d a t a i s enough. T h i s s t u d y i s not as comprehensive as i t c o u l d be but i t does have e x t e n s i v e d a t a about what o c c u r r e d i n the course Much of the s t u d y was  f o c u s e d on how  s t u d e n t s and  itself.  instructors  communicated i n the o n l i n e c o u r s e .  O n l i n e c o u r s e s can be d e s i g n e d i n a v a r i e t y of ways so i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o g e n e r a l i z e from one  i n s t a n c e t o another.  Instead,  the m e r i t of t h i s s t u d y was not i n i t s g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y but i t s relatability;  the e x t e n t t o which an e d u c a t o r r e a d i n g i t can  r e l a t e i t t o her o r h i s s e t t i n g  (Bassey, 1981, p.73).  of g u i d e l i n e q u e s t i o n s were the output of t h i s s t u d y .  A series In a  d i v e r s e and complex f i e l d l i k e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n an a n a l y t i c a l framework can be an e f f e c t i v e t o o l f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  practice  and guide d e c i s i o n making about t e a c h i n g on the I n t e r n e t .  Of the f o u r frames,  the i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework -the p h y s i c a l  and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e t t i n g of the c o u r s e - i s d i s c u s s e d f i r s t as  i t provides context  (Ch. 4 ) .  The unique c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h i s  s t u d y i s the s e t t i n g of t e a c h i n g a d u l t e d u c a t i o n o n l i n e v i a the Internet.  The t e c h n o l o g i c a l frame i s d e s c r i b e d i n some d e t a i l  i n c h a p t e r f i v e , w i t h a f o c u s on p o s s i b i l i t i e s and  limitations  i t c r e a t e s f o r i n s t r u c t o r s and s t u d e n t s . I n c h a p t e r S i x I d i s c u s s the o t h e r two frames b r i e f l y : the e x p e r i e n c e of s t u d e n t s and i n s t r u c t o r s , and the g e n e r a l w o r l d v i e w about the s u b j e c t m a t t e r as m a n i f e s t e d i n the c o u r s e .  CHAPTER 4  INSTITUTIONAL FRAME FACTORS  T h i s c h a p t e r b e g i n s an a n a l y s i s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l frame f a c t o r s e v i d e n t when an o n l i n e c o u r s e i s viewed t h r o u g h t h e l e n s o f frame f a c t o r t h e o r y . Both c o n c e p t u a l and p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s l i m i t the t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s and a r e d e t e r m i n e d o u t s i d e t h e c o n t r o l o f the t e a c h e r .  Examining t h e c o u r s e i n a c t i o n shows how frame  f a c t o r s m a n i f e s t themselves.  C r e a t i n g an o n l i n e course  In 2000, DTU o f f e r e d an o n l i n e graduate c o u r s e , Edu 555, on t h e P e d a g o g i c a l and S o c i a l I m p l i c a t i o n s o f E - l e a r n i n g .  According t o  Edu 555 c o u r s e d e s i g n documents, t h e c o u r s e was c r e a t e d by DTU w i t h i n DMI i n p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h a L a t i n American (LAU). DTU's m i s s i o n i s t o d e v e l o p and d e l i v e r  University cost-effective,  q u a l i t y programs, c o u r s e s and l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s i n f l e x i b l e formats p r i m a r i l y f o r academic departments  a t DMI. Edu 555 was  one o f s e v e r a l o n l i n e c o u r s e s t h a t c o u l d count as c o u r s e work toward a graduate degree a t DMI f o r s t u d e n t s a l r e a d y e n r o l l e d there.  A c a d e m i c a l l y , DTU i s l o c a t e d i n DMI's e x t e n s i o n  division.  T h i s a l l o w s DTU t o o f f e r c o u r s e s f o r s t u d e n t s n o t  e n r o l l e d a t DMI.  As a way o f a t t r a c t i n g s t u d e n t s from t h e  g e n e r a l populace, DTU o f f e r e d Edu 555 as p a r t o f a c e r t i f i c a t e i n E-Learning.  T h i s c o u r s e c o u l d be p a r t o f a g r a d u a t e degree  f o r DMI graduate s t u d e n t s , a s t a n d - a l o n e c e r t i f i c a t e i n El e a r n i n g f o r the general populace, o r j u s t taken f o r general i n t e r e s t by anyone.  A l l DTU c o u r s e s a r e f o r - c r e d i t w i t h over 90% b e i n g courses.  undergraduate  Most DTU c o u r s e s a r e i n i t i a t e d by deans, department  heads o r f a c u l t y members o f a g i v e n s u b j e c t . They submit a f u l l p r o p o s a l t o DTU f o r c r e a t i n g a d i s t a n c e c o u r s e . DMI's A d v i s o r y Committee on D i s t a n c e Teaching r e v i e w s t h e p r o p o s a l s and d e c i d e s which ones w i l l r e c e i v e DTU f u n d i n g and support t o become a distance education course.  The Academic V i c e - P r e s i d e n t o f DMI  must approve a l l c o u r s e s s e l e c t e d by t h e committee. approved  F o r each  c o u r s e DTU r e q u i r e s a l e t t e r o f agreement w i t h t h e  academic department.  The l e t t e r i n c l u d e s a budget,  timeline f o r  c o u r s e development, i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o p e r t y agreement, and d e t a i l s about t h e l e n g t h o f t h e agreement.  Most r e l e v a n t f o r t h i s  study, t h e l e t t e r i n c l u d e s an academic r e v i e w p r o c e s s and c l a r i f i e s t h e r o l e s o f t h e academic u n i t and DTU f o r i n s t r u c t i o n  and s t u d e n t s u p p o r t .  The c o u r s e s a r e t h e ' p r o p e r t y ' o f t h e  academic u n i t and t h e f a c u l t i e s . They a r e a c c o u n t a b l e f o r c o u r s e q u a l i t y even though these a r e o f f e r e d by DTU.  These c o u r s e s  u s u a l l y count toward a degree and o n l y a F a c u l t y can g r a n t a degree, n o t DTU.  The F a c u l t y has t o approve c o u r s e m a t e r i a l s ,  c u r r i c u l u m and assessment,  p r o v i d e o r agree t o t h e i n s t r u c t o r s ,  and r e v i e w academic c o n t e n t o f t h e c o u r s e a t agreed during i t s s h e l f - l i f e .  intervals  Edu 555 i s t h e academic r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  of t h e F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n .  F o r a course t o count towards a  c e r t i f i c a t e , DTU must n e g o t i a t e t h e c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l f a c u l t i e s and g e t a p p r o v a l from t h e Academic V i c e - P r e s i d e n t and Head o f DMI's E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s .  G i v e n t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s , Edu 555 i n v o l v e d an e x t e n s i v e d e s i g n p r o c e s s . Twenty-one p e o p l e were i n v o l v e d i n d e s i g n i n g and d e l i v e r i n g t h e c o u r s e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c o u r s e d e s i g n documents.  These p e o p l e were p a r t o f v a r i o u s teams  r e q u i r e d f o r t h e c o u r s e , such a s : • •  t e n members o f t h e Edu 555 c o u r s e d e s i g n team seven members o f t h e a s s o c i a t e d c o u r s e team ( i n c l u d i n g members from LAU) • s i x members o f t h e m a r k e t i n g and r e g i s t r a t i o n team • f i v e members o f t h e T u t o r i n g / I n s t r u c t i o n Team  •  a f i v e member A d v i s o r y Committee f o r t h e c o u r s e s and certificates • a f o u r member Academic Review Committee from DMI's F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n (FOE) Many o f these members o v e r l a p p e d t h e i r involvement committees.  i n various  T h i s meant people r e p r e s e n t i n g d i f f e r e n t  i n s t i t u t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s d e f i n e d t h e s t r u c t u r e and c o n t e n t o f t h e c o u r s e .  The  course d e s i g n team i n c l u d e d course a u t h o r s from FOE and  i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n e r s , g r a p h i c d e s i g n e r s , and web p r o d u c t i o n and maintenance s t a f f from DTU. The FOE s u b j e c t m a t t e r  expert  produced t h e course m a t e r i a l s f o r Edu 555 i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h DTU.  The l a t t e r agreed t o p r o v i d e m a t e r i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n and  d e l i v e r y t o s t u d e n t s , e m a i l s u p p o r t , w e b - s i t e maintenance, supports f o r i n s t r u c t o r s  ( i n c l u d i n g payment), s t u d e n t  support  ( i n c l u d i n g r e s o l v i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems, and t r a c k i n g s t u d e n t p r o g r e s s ) and r e p o r t i n g o f grades t o DMI.  The a s s o c i a t e d course team c o n s i s t e d o f members from t h e institutions course.  (DMI and LAU) who had a v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e  The a d v i s o r y committee i n c l u d e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from  the course d e s i g n team, DMI's E x t e n s i o n s S e r v i c e s and DMI's A d v i s o r y Committee on D i s t a n c e Teaching.  The course a d v i s o r y  committee combined Edu 555 and a s e r i e s o f o t h e r c o u r s e s i n t o a s t a n d - a l o n e c e r t i f i c a t e a t DMI.  The Academic Review Committee  r e v i e w e d Edu 555 f o r FOE, a r e v i e w p r o c e s s common t o a l l f o r c r e d i t u n i v e r s i t y courses.  These i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s and arrangements c r e a t e d two k i n d s o f frame f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t e d t h e t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s : o r g a n i z a t i o n a l frames such as c l a s s s i z e , s p e c i f i c r o l e s f o r i n s t r u c t o r s and t h e i r a c c o u n t a b i l i t y ; and c u r r i c u l a r frames sue as t h e course c o n t e n t , assessment, and s p e c i f i c  Organizational  Class  assignments.  Factors  Size  The d e s i g n team d e c i d e d t h a t Edu 555 would be l i m i t e d t o 40 s t u d e n t s w i t h two i n s t r u c t o r s .  T h i s was an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l ,  f i n a n c i a l , and p e d a g o g i c a l d e c i s i o n by t h e d e s i g n team and Academic Review Committee.  P r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e and r e s e a r c h  w i t h o n l i n e t e a c h i n g i n d i c a t e d i t c o u l d become a l o t o f work f o instructors.  A r a t i o o f twenty s t u d e n t s t o one i n s t r u c t o r was  seen as an a p p r o p r i a t e c l a s s s i z e i n o r d e r t o keep t h e w o r k l o a d manageable f o r i n s t r u c t o r s .  I t was a l s o d e c i d e d t h a t g r e a t e r  t h a n two i n s t r u c t o r s and 4 0 s t u d e n t s would r e q u i r e more s t u d e n t s e r v i c e s and web support than DTU c o u l d a f f o r d t o p r o v i d e w i t h i t s c u r r e n t s t a f f and t h e i r w o r k l o a d s u p p o r t i n g o t h e r c o u r s e s . O f f e r i n g Edu 555 t o a g r e a t e r number o f s t u d e n t s would have r e q u i r e d DTU t o i n v e s t more r e s o u r c e s f o r support s t a f f , an investment deemed n o t f e a s i b l e .  Instructor Several  Roles  and  Accountability-  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f e a t u r e s o f Edu 555 framed how  i n s t r u c t o r s taught.  These i n c l u d e d : t h e course d e s i g n method  and i n s t r u c t o r s involvement  in it;  the r e l a t i o n s h i p of  i n s t r u c t o r s w i t h t h e course c o n t e n t ; and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y s t r u c t u r e of the course.  Edu 555 i n v o l v e d t h e i n s t r u c t o r l a t e i n course p l a n n i n g , d e s i g n and d e l i v e r y .  I n s t r u c t o r s d i d n o t have i n p u t i n t h e course  c o n t e n t , which was c r e a t e d b e f o r e t h e y a r e brought  on-board.  T h i s i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n method a t DTU, which i s d i f f e r e n t from how a course i s p l a n n e d and o r g a n i z e d i n  face-to-face considered  i n s t r u c t i o n . DE c o u r s e m a t e r i a l s are  manufactured, the way  or F o r d i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n  often  a p r o d u c t i s i n an  ( P e t e r s , 1983).  Many of  industrial  the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a F o r d i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n a p p l y t o the way 555  was  d e s i g n e d and d e l i v e r e d .  A Fordist organization  has:  •  a s p e c i f i c d i v i s i o n of  •  economies of s c a l e i n which s t a r t u p f i x e d c o s t s are but c o s t s d e c r e a s e w i t h each e x t r a o r v a r i a b l e u n i t produced h i e r a r c h i c a l management p r o d u c t i o n of u n i f o r m p r o d u c t s s t a n d a r d i z e d p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s  • • •  A s e t d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r was  labour  used t o produce Edu  555,  l i s t of p e o p l e i n v o l v e d  d i v i d e d f o r Edu  555.  DTU  (above) shows the way  labour  was  f o s t e r t h i s p r i n c i p l e by  c o u r s e s t h a t a l l o w f o r independent s t u d y .  p a r t of d i s t a n c e t e a c h i n g ' s with f l e x i b i l i t y  end.  i s aware t h a t a d u l t s are s e l f - d i r e c t e d  l e a r n e r s , and t h e y seek t o support and designing  high  w i t h most  of the p e o p l e i n v o l v e d , and c o s t i n c u r r e d , at the f r o n t The  Edu  This i s  raison d'etre; to provide  for learning.  Flexibility  learners  i s maximized when  c o u r s e s t u d y i s independent of time, p l a c e and s o c i a l t i e s , as r e q u i r i n g the c o n t i n u a l guidance of an i n s t r u c t o r . be p o s s i b l e f o r a s t u d e n t t o t a k e DE c o u r s e s and have  It  such should  little  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the i n s t r u c t o r o r o t h e r s t u d e n t s , depending on how  the course i s d e s i g n e d .  So, o f t e n a course package o r  w e b s i t e i n c l u d e s d i r e c t i o n s and i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t might o t h e r w i s e be p r o v i d e d by an i n s t r u c t o r t o g u i d e s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h a c o u r s e .  The  i n s t r u c t o r i s i n v o l v e d l a t e r d u r i n g the d e l i v e r y ( i . e .  teaching) stage.  Even though the course package and w e b s i t e f o r  Edu 555 can be used o r e x p e r i e n c e d q u i t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y by l e a r n e r s , some agent needs t o p r o v i d e guidance the l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . Otherwise  and s t r u c t u r e t o  i t i s just "informal  e d u c a t i o n " , where r e a d i n g a course package o r w e b s i t e becomes j u s t a p a r t of the everyday  l e a r n i n g t h a t happens i n c i d e n t a l l y  everywhere (e.g. w a t c h i n g drama on TV o r c o n v e r s a t i o n s ) and i s p a r t of l i v i n g  (Coombs, i n Rubenson, 1982) . To r e f l e c t  p r i n c i p l e many DE u n i t s are c a l l e d Guided  this  Independent Study. I t  i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of F o r d i s t d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r t h a t c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l produce a course and o t h e r s w i l l t e a c h i t .  T h i s r e s u l t s i n p e d a g o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the way DMI's F a c u l t i e s and DTU,  t h i n k of t e a c h i n g .  i s e v i n c e d i n t h e nomenclature.  People who  The  discrepancy  t e a c h c o u r s e s i n the  f a c u l t i e s are c a l l e d i n s t r u c t o r s o r , i f they are tenured or tenure-track, professors.  F o r Edu 555 t h e y were c a l l e d  tutors  and a r e seen more as a s u p p o r t p e r s o n . DTU c o u r s e s a r e u n i f o r m p r o d u c t s . T h i s a l l o w s DTU managers and t h e F a c u l t i e s t o r e p l a c e an i n s t r u c t o r , o r b r i n g on an e x t r a one, q u i t e e a s i l y w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o change Edu 555 t o do so. makes i t l o g i s t i c a l l y  The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l model  and f i n a n c i a l l y e a s i e r f o r t h e  o r g a n i z a t i o n t o adapt t o changing c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  But when t h e  o r g a n i z a t i o n o r department has more f l e x i b i l i t y t h e i n s t r u c t o r has l e s s .  The c o u r s e c o n t e n t i s a f i x e d p r o d u c t and an  i n s t r u c t o r has l e s s a f f e c t on i t s c o m p o s i t i o n .  In Edu 555 t h e i n s t r u c t o r was a p p o i n t e d by FOE i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e c o u r s e d e s i g n team.  T e c h n i c a l l y , the i n s t r u c t o r i s  a c a d e m i c a l l y a c c o u n t a b l e t o t h e F a c u l t y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y a c c o u n t a b l e t o DTU.  T h i s was n o t t h e case i n p r a c t i c e ,  partly  because i n s t r u c t o r s have more c o n t a c t w i t h DTU than w i t h t h e F a c u l t y . I n s t r u c t o r s f e l t a c c o u n t a b l e t o DTU because o f t h e course e v a l u a t i o n , feedback p r o c e s s , and payment s t r u c t u r e f o r instructors.  F o r example, t h e o n l y e v a l u a t i o n o f Edu 555 was  undertaken by DTU.  FOE d i d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n c r e a t i n g t h e  e v a l u a t i o n form due t o a l a c k o f time and perhaps a g e n e r a l l a c k of i n t e r e s t .  Only DTU had s t u d e n t feedback  i n s t r u c t o r s were t e a c h i n g .  about how  T h i s c o u l d be s h a r e d w i t h o t h e r s b u t  the q u e s t i o n s on t h e e v a l u a t i o n r e f l e c t e d DTU i s s u e s and priorities.  DTU was a l s o aware of i n s t r u c t o r performance from  t h e i r s t u d e n t support s t a f f .  T h i s was whom s t u d e n t s t u r n e d t o  when they had concerns about a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and, a t t i m e s , academic i s s u e s d u r i n g t h e course of t h e c o u r s e .  DTU a c t e d as a  l i a i s o n between s t u d e n t s and i n s t r u c t o r s where a p p r o p r i a t e , s i m i l a r t o t h e p r o c e s s i n d i c a t e d by P o t t e r (see p.16  above).  E v a l u a t i o n and s t u d e n t feedback v i a DTU s t a f f made i n s t r u c t o r s f e e l more a c a d e m i c a l l y a c c o u n t a b l e t o DTU than FOE.  Edu 555 i n s t r u c t o r s were a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y a c c o u n t a b l e t o DTU, who p a i d them.  I n s t r u c t o r s were p a i d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e number o f  s t u d e n t s i n t h e course and those who completed.  There a r e  d i f f e r e n t c o n t r a c t arrangements a t DTU and f o r Edu 555, i n s t r u c t o r s were g i v e n 40% of t h e i r payment a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the c o u r s e .  The payment i s based on t h e s t u d e n t e n r o l l m e n t  numbers and a p r o j e c t e d f o r e c a s t o f those who would  complete.  The r e s t o f t h e payment, 6 0%, completed  and f i n a l grades  was g i v e n when t h e course was  submitted.  So Edu 555 i n s t r u c t o r s were i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y a c c o u n t a b l e t o b o t h the F a c u l t y and DTU. I n s t r u c t o r s had more c o n t a c t and demands put on them by DTU than FOE. about t h e s e parameters affect teaching.  I n s t r u c t o r s knew b e f o r e t h e course  but n o t n e c e s s a r i l y how these might  F o r example, f o r most u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e s t h e r e  i s u s u a l l y l i t t l e c o n n e c t i o n between s t u d e n t performance and i n s t r u c t o r pay.  But w i t h Edu 555, i t was i n t h e f i n a n c i a l  i n t e r e s t o f i n s t r u c t o r s t o have as many s t u d e n t s as p o s s i b l e complete  t h e c o u r s e . The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  method o f c r e a t i n g and  d e l i v e r i n g c o u r s e s encouraged i n s t r u c t o r s t o a c t i n c e r t a i n ways.  I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o know though,  how t h i s payment  s t r u c t u r e e f f e c t e d t h e b e h a v i o u r and t e a c h i n g o f Edu 555 instructors  (or o t h e r DE i n s t r u c t o r s a t DMI).  t h a t i n s t r u c t o r s c o u l d o r would speak t o t h i s  It i s unlikely controversial  topic.  C l a s s s i z e and i n s t r u c t o r a c c o u n t a b i l i t y were d e c i d e d b e f o r e Edu 555 opened and were c o n d i t i o n s  o f t e a c h i n g o n l i n e a t DTU.  Curricular  Factors  C u r r i c u l a r f a c t o r s d e f i n e what i s t o be t a u g h t ,  topics,  i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s and books ( N e s b i t , 1995).  Designing  course c o n t e n t b e f o r e i n s t r u c t o r s a r e i n v o l v e d c r e a t e s f a c t o r s t h a t frame t e a c h i n g : assessment, s e t course c o n t e n t , and recommended ways of t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g o n l i n e .  Assessment DTU o f f e r s n o n - c r e d i t and c r e d i t c o u r s e s . institutional  But DMI's  r a t i o n a l e f o r o f f e r i n g Edu 555 was t o a c c r e d i t  s t u d e n t s w i t h a diploma o r degree i n t h e emerging of f i e l d elearning.  As Edu 555 i s a c r e d i t c o u r s e , DMI r e q u i r e s a l l  s t u d e n t s be a s s e s s e d . DMI has no s e t p o l i c y about how assessment s h o u l d take p l a c e , but t h e r e a r e g u i d e l i n e s and c o n v e n t i o n s w i t h i n the f a c u l t i e s .  There i s a f a i r amount of independence i n  most a d u l t and h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n s e t t i n g s about which can be used t o a s s e s s s t u d e n t s .  activities  F o r Edu 555 t h e course d e s i g n  team d e c i d e d s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be a s s e s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: • •  5%  -participating i n online discussion  35% -making a p r e s e n t a t i o n o n l i n e and moderating a discussion • 25% - w r i t i n g an a r t i c l e r e v i e w u s i n g t h e o r i e s from t h e course  •  35% - w r i t i n g a paper on a major i s s u e i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e course  Assessment i s i m p o r t a n t as i t can p l a y s e v e r a l f u n c t i o n s i n education.  O s t e n s i b l y i t i s used t o measure l e a r n e r ' s  of a s u b j e c t  (or perhaps more a c c u r a t e l y , l e a r n e r performance  based on t h a t knowledge).  Assessment a l s o p r o v i d e s  t o l e a r n as i t makes e d u c a t i o n a l accountable.  motivation  a c t i v i t i e s p u r p o s i v e and  F o r example, a s t u d y by W i l s o n (1998) found i t was  not adequate t o j u s t p r o v i d e space.  knowledge  online students with a d i s c u s s i o n  They needed t o be g i v e n a purpose f o r u s i n g t h i s space.  T h i s c o u l d i n c l u d e r e q u i r e d o n l i n e p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r marks o r group assignments r e q u i r i n g o n l i n e communication.  Assessment  motivates a c t i v i t y .  Assessment i s a c r u c i a l mechanism o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l accountability.  Assessment i s a s t r u c t u r a l p r o p e r t y (and  constraint) of higher education  as i t a r t i c u l a t e s an i n d i v i d u a l  c o u r s e t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n and l a r g e r s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s . Assessment, i n t h e form o f a grade, i s n e c e s s a r y t o make a c o u r s e " f o r c r e d i t " , and p a r t o f a l a r g e r program, degree and, i n t h e case o f Edu 555, c e r t i f i c a t e . Assessment i s t h e  measurable  output o f e d u c a t i o n .  assessment  (Postman,  Many e d u c a t o r s t e a c h t o t h e  1995), and s t u d e n t s o f t e n come t o expect t o  l e a r n f o r what t h e y w i l l be a s s e s s e d on ( M i l l a r ,  1989).  Assessment surrounds t e a c h i n g and i t i s a n o n - n e g o t i a b l e requirement f o r i n s t r u c t o r s w o r k i n g w i t h i n a f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g l i k e DMI. Assessment c r e a t e s an i m p o r t a n t frame f o r any t e a c h i n g as o f t e n , i t connects a s p e c i f i c c o u r s e and i t s c o n t e n t w i t h t h e l a r g e r f u n c t i o n and p r o c e s s o f e d u c a t i o n .  The  i n s t i t u t i o n r e q u i r e s t h i s frame but DTU d e f i n e s i t . c o u r s e d e s i g n team makes assessment are  involved.  The Edu 555  choices before i n s t r u c t o r s  An i n s t r u c t o r may know s p e c i f i c e x e r c i s e s o r  a c t i v i t i e s t h a t c o u l d a l l o w s t u d e n t s t o l e a r n a s u b j e c t i n more depth, b u t t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s cannot be used f o r assessment  or at  all.  Set  Content  Each i n s t r u c t o r i s g i v e n a copy o f t h e books and c o u r s e package for  Edu 555.  These were n o n - n e g o t i a b l e .  The p e d a g o g i c a l  premise o f t h e c o u r s e i s t h a t u s i n g e - l e a r n i n g r a i s e s b a s i c q u e s t i o n s about e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s and p r o c e s s e s . encouraged  S t u d e n t s were  t o c r i t i c a l l y examine t h e s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and  economic impact o f e - l e a r n i n g i n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s .  At the  o u t s e t , s t u d e n t s and i n s t r u c t o r s a r e t o l d t h e o b j e c t i v e s , what t h e y s h o u l d g e t from t h e course by t h e time i t i s completed.  In  p a r t i c u l a r , s t u d e n t s were e x p e c t e d have a deeper u n d e r s t a n d i n g of key s o c i a l i s s u e s about e - l e a r n i n g , i n c l u d i n g : i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g ; a c c e s s t o t e c h n o l o g y ; c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n ; t h e uses and abuses o f t e c h n o l o g y ; i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o gender and t e c h n o l o g y .  To a c h i e v e  t h e s e g o a l s , t h e course was s t r u c t u r e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: Week 1: Course i n t r o d u c t i o n Week 2-3: T h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s Week 4-5: S e l e c t i n g from and b r a i n s t o r m i n g on v a r i o u s s o c i a l issues Weeks 6-12: A n a l y z i n g t h r e e s o c i a l i s s u e s Week 13 : Summary and S y n t h e s i s  A f t e r an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e t o p i c o f e - l e a r n i n g , s t u d e n t s were exposed t o t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s by which t o a n a l y z e t e c h n o l o g y use g e n e r a l l y , and i n e d u c a t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y .  Next  s t u d e n t s began i n i t i a l r e s e a r c h on e - l e a r n i n g i s s u e s , p a r t l y by . b r a i n s t o r m i n g g i v e n t o p i c s and r e a d i n g key a r t i c l e s .  Then  d u r i n g t h e b u l k o f t h e c o u r s e , s t u d e n t s r e a d about and d i s c u s s e d each key s o c i a l  issue.  The course had s p e c i f i c g o a l s , r e a d i n g s t i m e l i n e f o r completing  and assignments and a  d i f f e r e n t t o p i c s and r e a d i n g s .  There  was l i m i t e d f l e x i b i l i t y about what c o u l d be t a u g h t as r e q u i r e d readings  Teaching  and assignments were p r e - s e l e c t e d .  Online  T e a c h i n g o n l i n e i s new f o r most p e o p l e , so DTU p r o v i d e s  a "Tutor  Handbook" t o h e l p i n s t r u c t o r s t e a c h i n t h i s u n f a m i l i a r approach. Courses a r e d e s i g n e d so i n s t r u c t o r s had s e v e r a l options.  teaching  There a r e recommended ways of t e a c h i n g o n l i n e t h a t a r e  approved by t h e d e s i g n team.  The handbook s u g g e s t s t h a t an  o n l i n e i n s t r u c t o r can a c t as 1) m o n i t o r s ,  2) f a c i l i t a t o r s o r 3)  a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the course d i s c u s s i o n s .  As m o n i t o r s ,  i n s t r u c t o r s r a r e l y made comments, and o f t e n seem t o  be i n v i s i b l e t o s t u d e n t s ,  as s t u d e n t s g e n e r a l l y r e g u l a t e and  f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r own d i s c u s s i o n .  As f a c i l i t a t o r s ,  i n s t r u c t o r s would comment a t l e a s t once d u r i n g  each v i s i t t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n forum.  They would p l a y a more  a c t i v e r o l e i n acknowledging p o s t i n g s and s t u d e n t s , and  encourage those who  comments from  p o s t e d l e s s , by  addressing  t h e i r postings d i r e c t l y .  As a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s , regularly, often the  i n s t r u c t o r s were hands on,  i n i t i a t i n g each d i s c u s s i o n  topic, especially i f  s t u d e n t s were h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the m a t e r i a l  c o n f i d e n c e about the o n l i n e  For Edu  555,  DTU  the case.  The  encouraged i n s t r u c t o r s t o be  c o u r s e was nearly  t h i s was  not  l a s t week of August  f i r s t week of December.  were p o s t e d i n September and  lacking  facilitators.  forums i n d i c a t e s  course began d u r i n g the  f i n i s h e d d u r i n g the  or  c o u r s e format.  However, a p e r u s a l of d i s c u s s i o n  16%  posting  Most messages,  October (see F i g u r e 4 ) .  underway, by mid-September, the  and 79%,  Once the  i n s t r u c t o r s became  i n v i s i b l e p o s t i n g o n l y f o u r messages i n t h r e e months, o r  of a l l t h e i r p o s t i n g s .  Table 6 i n d i c a t e s  i n s t r u c t o r s posted  s i x messages i n August (12.7% of the months p o s t i n g s ) and messages i n September (3.2% the course and discussion.  of p o s t i n g s ) as a way  of  encouraging students to p a r t i c i p a t e i n  15  introducing the  Figure  4: Total  postings  by instructors  December 0% \  Table  6: Monthly Month  August September October November December TOTAL  Postings  by month  August  by Instructors  Instructors ' Postings  6 15 2 1 1 25  and students  in Discussion  Total P o s t i n g s by Instructors and S t u d e n t s 47 462 597 228 2 1326  Forums  Instructors P o s t i n g s as Percentage of T o t a l Postings 12 . 7 3.2 0.3 0.4 50 1.9  T h i s was p a r t l y a f u n c t i o n of the course d e s i g n .  Students were  asked t o mediate d i s c u s s i o n t o p i c s i n the c o u r s e .  The  i n s t r u c t o r d e c i d e d t o fade t o the background d u r i n g these d i s c u s s i o n s , which began i n mid-September.  D i s c u s s i o n forums were o n l y one space f o r i n s t r u c t o r involvement.  There were dozens of p e r s o n a l e m a i l s and phone  c a l l s among the i n s t r u c t o r s and s t u d e n t s .  But the forums were  the o n l y space where the i n s t r u c t o r monitored,  facilitated  or  a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e d w i t h a l l s t u d e n t s . Course d a t a i n d i c a t e s i n s t r u c t o r s a c t e d as f a c i l i t a t o r s at the b e g i n n i n g of the and m o n i t o r s  Study  course  afterwards.  Skills  Edu 555 s t u d e n t s were g i v e n a document t o h e l p them l e a r n e f f e c t i v e l y i n the c o u r s e : Student Learning. how  Study Guide for  Distance  I t p r o v i d e d d e t a i l e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n (e.g.  t o change c o u r s e s , how  t o use the l i b r a r y ) ,  an i n t r o d u c t i o n  t o b a s i c concepts about the I n t e r n e t , and recommended study skills.  Students were i n f o r m e d t h a t the c o u r s e would i n v o l v e a  l o t of r e a d i n g of a r t i c l e s  and book c h a p t e r s .  They were  encouraged t o skim and develop b e f o r e r e a d i n g more c a r e f u l l y .  a rough mind-map o f an a r t i c l e These and o t h e r s t u d y  skills  were u s e f u l but were d i f f i c u l t t o t r a n s f e r t o r e a d i n g p o s t i n g s on t h e m o n i t o r .  F o r example, t h e s t u d y guide  encouraged  s t u d e n t s t o make n o t e s i n t h e margins of r e a d i n g s .  I t was not  p o s s i b l e t o make notes from d i s c u s s i o n forum p o s t i n g s i n t h e m a r g i n s ; notes t h a t might have h e l p e d s t u d e n t s o r g a n i z e the immense i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e p o s t i n g s .  Summary  B e f o r e an i n s t r u c t o r b e g i n s t e a c h i n g an o n l i n e course a t DMI the f o l l o w i n g d e c i s i o n s have a l r e a d y been made: t h e c l a s s s i z e , assignments,  course r e a d i n g s and a c t i v i t i e s .  i n s t r u c t o r i s g i v e n recommended s t u d e n t s a r e g i v e n recommended I n s t r u c t o r s are accountable  Furthermore, the  approaches t o t e a c h i n g and approaches t o s t u d y i n g .  t o b o t h t h e F a c u l t y and DTU and a r e  p a i d p a r t l y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e number o f s t u d e n t s who complete the course.  The i n s t i t u t i o n c r e a t e s many frames t h a t c o n s t r a i n how  an i n s t r u c t o r can t e a c h .  CHAPTER 5  TECHNOLOGICAL FRAME FACTORS  The most i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g s from the d a t a were about f a c t o r s t h a t are p a r t o f the t e c h n o l o g i c a l frame. Some t e c h n o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s are e v i d e n t b e f o r e the course b e g i n s . m a n i f e s t i n the ' p r a c t i c e ' o f t h e c o u r s e . place-independent  Others a r e  These i n c l u d e d :  a c c e s s ; asynchronous communication; group  v i e w i n g ; t e x t - b a s e d communication; and the amount o f time r e q u i r e d t o communicate.  T e c h n i c a l Requirements  Edu 555 was d e s i g n e d and d e l i v e r e d on a WebCT p l a t f o r m . Any s t u d e n t who took the course had t o have a c c e s s t o a computer w i t h a 28.8 kpbs modem and c o u l d run a t l e a s t Netscape N a v i g a t o r 3.1.  I n t e r n e t E x p l o r e r c o u l d not be used t o a c c e s s t h e c o u r s e .  Students were r e q u i r e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n o n l i n e d i s c u s s i o n s , make a p r e s e n t a t i o n o n l i n e and do groupassignments. account  T h i s meant e v e r y s t u d e n t had t o have an e m a i l  ( f r e e accounts were f i n e ) i n o r d e r t o take t h i s  course.  Place-independent Access  I f s t u d e n t s c o u l d a c c e s s the t e c h n o l o g y t h e y c o u l d be anywhere i n the w o r l d . h a v i n g Edu  555  T h i s was  an advantage and r e a s o n f o r  o n l i n e v i a the I n t e r n e t , i n s t e a d of o n l i n e v i a  computer-conferencing.  F i v e p o s t i n g s , of 50 randomly sampled  d i s c u s s i o n forum messages, were from s t u d e n t s who t h e i r c u l t u r a l or geographical  perspective  Edu  555  enrollment  t a l k e d about  on a g i v e n  These s t u d e n t s were from Hong Kong, C h i l e , USA, Mongolia.  located  issue.  Britain  documents i n d i c a t e t h a t  and  students  t a k i n g the c o u r s e were l o c a t e d i n t e n d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s , the m a j o r i t y b e i n g  from Canada and C h i l e . The  I n t e r n e t made  p o s s i b l e the c o l l a b o r a t i v e development and d e l i v e r y of c o u r s e by DMI d e f i n e d who was  and a L a t i n American U n i v e r s i t y .  with  The  the  technology  c o u l d be a p o t e n t i a l s t u d e n t much more b r o a d l y  than  p o s s i b l e by any o t h e r two-way media used f o r d i s t a n c e  education.  The  Internet allowed  f o r more c u l t u r a l l y d i v e r s e s t u d e n t s ,  and  t h i s broadened the p e r s p e c t i v e s brought t o the d i s c u s s i o n . At the s t a r t , d u r i n g t h e i r i n t r o d u c t i o n s , a l l s t u d e n t s made a p o i n t i d e n t i f y i n g where t h e y were l o c a t e d .  S e v e r a l s t u d e n t s commented  on how t h e i r p h y s i c a l l o c a t i o n and c u l t u r a l background a f f e c t e d their participation,  e s p e c i a l l y those from o u t s i d e t h e Euro-  E n g l i s h speaking world.  F o r example, B a l d w i n  introduced  himself  stating : H i Everybody, My name i s B a l d w i n Chan and I'm from Hong Kong. T h i s i s my t h i r d course w i t h DMI o n l i n e and l o o k f o r w a r d w o r k i n g w i t h you a l l through t h e c o u r s e . As f o r m y s e l f , I run my s m a l l company back i n Hong Kong p r o v i d i n g s o l u t i o n s t o a s s i s t both t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s and c o r p o r a t i o n s t o put t h e i r coursewares o n l i n e . W e l l . . . h e r e I'm and ready t o t a k e on t h e c h a l l e n g e w i t h a l l o f you. ( P o s t i n g No. 355 ) 7  For o t h e r s t u d e n t s , t h e i r p l a c e - i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y meant some course  i s s u e s and t o p i c s were u n i n t e l l i g i b l e o r even  One course  t o p i c was c o r p o r a t e  irrelevant.  i n v o l v e m e n t i n e d u c a t i o n v i a e-  l e a r n i n g , t o which C r i s t i n a i n Warsaw responded: In Poland, p a r t n e r s h i p s o f c o r p o r a t i o n s and e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e s t i l l almost n o n - e x i s t i n g and so not c o n s i d e r e d a problem. Thanks t o tough economic s i t u a t i o n , most o f l o c a l i n d u s t r i e s a r e concerned m a i n l y by c u r r e n t problems o f t h e i r own s u r v i v a l and g e n e r a l l y they a r e not t r y i n g t o i n v e s t i n t o , or t r y i n g t o s t a r t business w i t h i n e - l e a r n i n g ( P o s t i n g No. 4017, s i c ) .  Note that p o s t i n g numbers d i d not correspond with the number of p o s t i n g s i n the course. 7  B e i n g a b l e t o access t h e I n t e r n e t from any p l a c e i s one o f i t s most a p p e a l i n g a t t r i b u t e s . Communicating from anywhere a l l o w e d for  a broad range o f s t u d e n t s i n Edu 555.  presented challenges t o the i n s t r u c t o r s .  However, t h i s Students n o t o n l y  brought d i v e r s e knowledge, which i s common i n many c o u r s e s . They a l s o brought c u l t u r a l l y d i v e r s e communication s t y l e s .  This  has become a common i s s u e w i t h I n t e r n e t - b a s e d c o u r s e s and r e c e n t r e s e a r c h i s emerging about how t o t e a c h and moderate i n a g l o b a l o n l i n e classroom  Asynchronous  (see Mason, i n p r e s s ) .  Communication  Many t e c h n o l o g i e s used t o d e l i v e r DE can g i v e s t u d e n t s f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h e i r time and l o c a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g .  The  advantage o f o n l i n e l e a r n i n g i s t h a t t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f when s t u d e n t s were i n v o l v e d i n , a t l e a s t p a r t o f , t h e c o u r s e ; when t h e y logged on t h e course w e b s i t e and p o s t e d t o d i s c u s s i o n forums.  Other a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n t a k i n g t h e c o u r s e a r e n o t  documented, such as when s t u d e n t s a r e r e a d i n g course m a t e r i a l s , w r i t i n g t h e i r assignments,  o r e m a i l i n g each o t h e r p r i v a t e l y .  These a r e n o t done m a i n l y on t h e course w e b s i t e . F i g u r e 5 shows  the days when s t u d e n t s p o s t e d messages t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n forum. I t i n d i c a t e s messages were p o s t e d throughout Figure  5: Day of posting  to discussion  Saturday 8%  I t i s noteworthy  t h e week.  forum  Sunday 10%  j u s t how many s t u d e n t s s u b m i t t e d p o s t i n g s on  the weekend. 18 p e r c e n t , o r n e a r l y 250 messages were p o s t e d on S a t u r d a y and Sunday (see T a b l e 7 ) . Table  7: Day of  Postings  DAY Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday TOTAL  NUMBER OF POSTINGS 135 213 320 201 216 147 109 1341  PERCENTAGE 10 16 24 15 16 11 8 100  I t i s u n c l e a r why days.  s t u d e n t s p o s t e d more on Tuesday t h a n o t h e r  A p e r u s a l of course assignments  i n d i c a t e s t h e y were due  on v a r i o u s days of the week, and not e s p e c i a l l y on Tuesday o r Wednesday.  T h i s was a l s o the case w i t h c o u r s e b r a i n s t o r m i n g  assignments and an assignment  t o p r e s e n t and moderate an o n l i n e  d i s c u s s i o n , b o t h of which r e q u i r e d p o s t i n g messages.  The course l a s t e d a . t o t a l of 14 weeks.  T h i s meant t h e r e were  about 96 p o s t i n g s p e r week t o the d i s c u s s i o n forum o r j u s t under 14 p o s t i n g s p e r day. G i v e n t h a t t h i s d i s c u s s i o n forum had  20  s t u d e n t s , the average p o s t i n g p e r s t u d e n t was 4.8 messages p e r week.  The b u l k of t h e s e were p o s t e d i n September and  October,  from Monday t o Thursday.  The I n t e r n e t a l l o w s p o s t i n g anytime, any day.  An a g g r e g a t i o n of  what time s t u d e n t s p o s t e d i s i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 8.  I t s h o u l d be  n o t e d t h a t p o s t i n g s were r e c o r d e d a t P a c i f i c S t a n d a r d Time a c c o r d i n g t o when the s e r v e r a t DMI  r e c e i v e d the message.  However, not a l l of the s t u d e n t s were l i v i n g i n t h a t time  zone.  S t u d e n t s p o s t e d comments a t a l l t i m e s of the day w i t h the b u l k d u r i n g midday t o e a r l y e v e n i n g .  By 7:00am, s t u d e n t s s t a r t e d  Table  8: Time of  Postings  TIME OF DAY 00 : 00-01: 00 01: 00-02 : 00 02 : 00-03 : 00 03 : 00-04 : 00 04 : 00-05 : 00 05 : 00-06 : 00 06 : 00-07 : 00 07 : 00-08 : 00 08 : 00-09 : 00 09 : 00-10 : 00 10 : 00-11 : 00 11: 00-12 : 00 12 : 00-13 : 00 13 : 00-14 : 00 14 : 00-15 : 00 15 : 00-16 : 00 16 : 00-17 : 00 17 : 00-18 : 00 18 : 00-19 : 00 19 : 00-20 : 00 20 : 00-21: 00 21: 00-22 : 00 22 : 00-23 : 00 23 : 00-00 : 00 TOTAL  NUMBER OF POSTINGS 23 16 10 8 17 27 31 56 71 86 68 95 83 76 79 85 87 80 84 67 32 76 47 35 1341  PERCENTAGE 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 .4 5 6 5 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 2 6 4 3 99  p o s t i n g i n g r e a t e r numbers (see F i g u r e 6 ) , and d i d n o t r e a l l y slow down u n t i l a f t e r m i d n i g h t .  The e x c e p t i o n was a d i p i n  p o s t i n g s from 8:00pm t o 9:00pm.  N e a r l y h a l f t h e s t u d e n t s (48%)  p o s t e d messages d u r i n g t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l workday o f 9:00am t o 5:00pm ( P a c i f i c Time).  T h i s may i n d i c a t e t h a t many s t u d e n t s ,  Figure  6: Time of  Postings  01:00-02:00 03:00-04:00 05:00-06:00 07:00-08:00 >, 09:00-10:00  ZZI  as  Q  «w 11:00-12:00 O V  6 13:00-14:00 15:00-16:00 17:00-18:00 19:00-20:00 21:00-22:00 23:00-00:00 10  20  30  40 50 60 Number o f P o s t i n g s  70  80  90  100  a l l o f whom were a d u l t l e a r n e r s , p o s t e d messages d u r i n g t h e workday, perhaps from t h e o f f i c e . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , b u s i e s t time was between 11:00am and noon.  T h i s i s t h e same hour most  b u s i n e s s e s s t a t e i s t h e i r b u s i e s t time f o r o r d e r s , phone c a l l s , and i n q u i r i e s .  I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t over h a l f t h e  s t u d e n t s d i d not p o s t d u r i n g t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l workday.  And many  p o s t i n g s , over 10% took p l a c e a f t e r 10:00pm, b e f o r e many p e o p l e would go t o s l e e p .  But i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine t h e  r e l e v a n c e o f t h i s f i n d i n g as s e v e r a l s t u d e n t s were p o s t i n g from o t h e r time zones.  An a c c u r a t e assessment  would  require  r e o r g a n i z i n g d a t a t o t h e l o c a l t i m e s from which s t u d e n t s sent postings.  An i n s t i t u t i o n a l requirement o f DTU i s t o p r o v i d e c o u r s e s i n a f l e x i b l e format.  Edu 555 as a whole d i d have s e t s t a r t and end  times, p a r t i c u l a r  ' B l o c k s ' and assignments.  Still,  w i t h i n these  frame f a c t o r s , t h e r e was a l o t o f f l e x i b i l i t y f o r s t u d e n t s and i n s t r u c t o r s t o communicate w i t h each o t h e r . p o s s i b l e by t h e asynchronous  T h i s was made  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Internet.  The c h o i c e o f t e c h n o l o g y was beyond t h e c o n t r o l o f i n s t r u c t o r s , but i t framed t h e i n s t r u c t i o n by removing a l e v e l o f time  c o n s t r a i n t s . I n s t r u c t o r s and s t u d e n t s had more f l e x i b i l i t y , i n a classroom-based  than  course a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y , about when they  are i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e c o u r s e . They c l e a r l y took advantage o f this.  Text-based  Communication  I t i s s t r i k i n g how i m p o r t a n t w r i t t e n t e x t was t o course i n s t r u c t i o n and communication. I n s t r u c t o r s and s t u d e n t s  spent  n e a r l y a l l t h e i r c o u r s e time e i t h e r r e a d i n g a r t i c l e s o r r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g i n f r o n t o f a m o n i t o r .  I n Edu 555, t h e w r i t t e n word  was t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f I n t e r n e t - b a s e d t e a c h i n g .  This logos  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f I n t e r n e t - u s e shaped how t h e course was e x p e r i e n c e d and p e o p l e communicated.  Random and s t r a t i f i e d  samplings brought out s e v e r a l themes r e l a t e d t o t e x t - b a s e d communication.  These i n c l u d e : t h e importance  of w r i t i n g  style,  grammar and v o c a b u l a r y ; l u r k i n g ; s t u d e n t s i n c o r p o r a t i n g i n t h e i r messages quotes from p r e v i o u s p o s t i n g s by o t h e r s t u d e n t s , w e b l i n k s , and o t h e r r e f e r e n c e s ; and t h e t h o u g h t f u l , r e f l e c t i v e q u a l i t y of p o s t i n g s . individually.  Each o f these w i l l be addressed  Writing Reading  Styles through the messages, i n s t r u c t o r s and s t u d e n t p o s t i n g s  were conspicuous  f o r how much t h e i r w r i t i n g s k i l l s  varied.  W r i t i n g s t y l e s were s t a r k i n p a r t , due t o the presence s t u d e n t s who  of  had e x p e r i e n c e w i t h E n g l i s h , e s p e c i a l l y not n a t i v e  E n g l i s h language s p e a k e r s .  For example, i n r e s p o n d i n g t o a  p o s t i n g by Bruno, J o s e f i n a from C h i l e s t a t e d : My e x p e r i e n c e s i s c o n c e r n i n g w i t h the b u i l d i n g of so e x o t i c v i r t u a l c l a s s r o o m at some m i l i t a r y s c h o o l s , expending hundred of thousand of d o l l a r s and no one know what t o do w i t h them! I mean i n terms of t e a c h i n g , d e s i g n and g e t t i n g the maximun of them t o b e n e f i t s t u d e n t s ' l e a r n i n g . As Bruno says "human s t r a t e g y " t o show power and p o s s i b i l t y to a d q u i r e f a n c y r e s o u r c e s . But, what can we t e a c h e r s do, i f those e x p e n s i v e equipment are not a c c e s a b l e f o r us? We are more d i s a b l e than those mentionet by Maddalena L a t t u c a , I t h i n k t h i s happens because t h i s " i n f r a e s t r u c t u r e " belongs to the government (read armed f o r c e s ) and they b e l i e v e t h i s i s not b u b l i c p r o p e r t y . P r o b a b l y t h i s aswers a l i t t l e M a r i a ' s q u e s t i o n t r y i n g t o i d d e n t i f y who the government body i s . An t h i s w o r r i e s too much me s p e c i a l l y when t h i s k i n d of government i s becoming so s t r o n g l i t t l e by l i t t l e . ( P o s t i n g No. 5113 s i c )  All  s t u d e n t s and i n s t r u c t o r s made s p e l l i n g , g r a m m a t i c a l  and a t  times v o c a b u l a r y m i s t a k e s i n t h e i r p o s t i n g s . However, these e r r o r s were more f r e q u e n t and pronounced from some ESL  speakers.  The p o i n t i s not t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t ESL s t u d e n t s .  I t i s to  i n d i c a t e t h a t grammar and v o c a b u l a r y were more n o t a b l e because  t h e r e were no v i s u a l o r a u d i o o p t i o n s f o r s t u d e n t s t o communicate t o t h e c l a s s , o n l y t h e w r i t t e n word.  Edu 555 was a  p r i n t - b a s e d I n t e r n e t c o u r s e , so r e a d i n g p o s t i n g s made one v e r y aware o f s t u d e n t s ' w r i t i n g s t y l e s .  W r i t i n g has more r u l e s and  i s a more s t r u c t u r e d and d i f f i c u l t form o f communication t h a n o r a l speech.  W r i t i n g a l s o c r e a t e s an e n d u r i n g r e c o r d which o r a l  communication, u s u a l l y ephemeral, does n o t . W r i t i n g has more a c c o u n t a b i l i t y b u i l t - i n t o t h e medium than o r a l speech because the communication s t a n d a r d s review.  Students  a r e g r e a t e r and i t i s e a s i e r t o  can p a s s i v e l y l i s t e n t o an i n s t r u c t o r o r o t h e r  students i n a classroom,  b u t r e a d i n g messages r e q u i r e d more  c o n c e n t r a t i o n f o r everyone.  G e n e r a l l y , then, w r i t i n g s t y l e s a r e  n o t i c e a b l e because t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e h i g h e r and messages can be and a r e r e - r e a d by s t u d e n t s , i n s t r u c t o r s  (and myself  as a  researcher).  Lurkers S e v e r a l s t u d e n t s t a l k e d about l u r k e r s , s t u d e n t s who may be r e a d i n g p o s t i n g s , b u t n o t s e n d i n g messages and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n d i s c u s s i o n s . Some had concerns about i t , b u t those who l u r k e d  defended t h e i r p r a c t i c e o f ' a c t i v e l i s t e n i n g ' .  One s t u d e n t  s t a t e d she would r e a d messages b u t n o t p o s t any because she d i d not t h i n k she had much t o c o n t r i b u t e on t h e t o p i c .  She  i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s s h o u l d n o t be t a k e n as a l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n the t o p i c .  Huang s t a t e d :  I f someone has a c c e s s e d a course some 50 t i m e s but has made no p o s t s ( i s t h i s t h e same as l u r k i n g ? ) does t h i s n e c e s s a r i l y mean they a r e n ' t i n t e r e s t e d ? Perhaps t h e r e i s a deeper problem. I had t h i s k i n d o f e x p e r i e n c e m y s e l f when I s t a r t e d t o l e a r n o n l i n e . For 19 days, I logged on a l o t of t i m e s , but d i d not say a word. There was a "deeper problem". I a n a l y s e d m y s e l f . F i r s t i s t h e c u l t u r e shock. I am from C h i n a , s t u d e n t s here [ i n Edu 555] a r e used t o such k i n d o f d i s c u s s i o n s , f o r me i t i s a new e x p e r i e n c e . ( P o s t i n g No. 1917) .  L u r k i n g i s about p r i v a c y and a c c e s s and an a t t r i b u t e o f t h e I n t e r n e t . The course s i t e was password p r o t e c t e d so o n l y s t u d e n t s , i n s t r u c t o r s and t h e DTU web team had a c c e s s .  Among  t h i s c o h o r t , i t was n o t p o s s i b l e f o r s t u d e n t s t o know who was o n l i n e v i s i t i n g t h e course a t a g i v e n time, o r who had r e a d p o s t i n g s . Some programs f o r t h e I n t e r n e t (e.g. ICQ, MSN Messenger, Yahoo Messenger) a l l o w u s e r s t o know who w i t h i n a group i s o n l i n e a t a g i v e n t i m e , p o t e n t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e a l time i n t e r a c t i o n .  T h i s was n o t p o s s i b l e w i t h WebCT v e r s i o n 1.3  used f o r Edu 555. DTU web programmers and, w i t h some e f f o r t ,  i n s t r u c t o r s c o u l d f i n d o u t when s t u d e n t s a c c e s s e d t h e c o u r s e ' s WebCT s i t e and d i s c u s s i o n forums, b u t s t u d e n t s c o u l d n o t .  L u r k i n g i n Edu 555 was a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e t e c h n o l o g y ; t h e I n t e r n e t i s b o t h a p u b l i c and p r i v a t e medium. L i s t e n i n g and speaking i n a classroom are both p u b l i c a c t i v i t i e s ; others i n the room can know who i s , a t l e a s t p h y s i c a l l y , p r e s e n t and thus a p o s s i b l e r e c i p i e n t of i n f o r m a t i o n .  I n Edu 555 i n s t r u c t o r s and  s t u d e n t s spent most o f t h e i r c o u r s e time p h y s i c a l l y a l o n e .  At  the same time t h e y had a common d i g i t a l space t o r e a d and w r i t e messages, a c c e s s e d v i s u a l l y on m o n i t o r s . done p r i v a t e l y and p o s t e d p u b l i c l y .  O n l i n e w r i t i n g was  Reading, however, was  p r i v a t e and d i d n o t have any p u b l i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n t h a t o t h e r s t u d e n t s c o u l d see. The t e c h n o l o g y a l l o w s people t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n group space v i a w r i t i n g , o r a l o n e v i a r e a d i n g .  Quotes and  References  S t u d e n t s r e g u l a r l y c i t e d each o t h e r o r t h e i n s t r u c t o r i n group discussions.  C o n s i d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g response by C h e r y l t o  Susan's p o s t i n g about t h e t o p i c " e d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l i z a t i o n " :  > F i r s t , how a r e we d e f i n i n g t h e term s o c i a l i z a t i o n , > s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h i s forum? I t o o q u e s t i o n what t h i s means i n terms o f t h e forum. I w i l l assume t h a t i t approximates what i s o u t l i n e d i n t h e a r t i c l e by Wegerif - "understood as s o c i a l l y s i t u a t e d , l e a r n i n g can be d e s c r i b e d , f o l l o w i n g Lave and Wenger as a p r o c e s s o f becoming p a r t o f a community o f p r a c t i c e " ... Wegerif c l a i m s t h a t forming a sense o f community, where people f e e l they a r e t r e a t e d s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y i s a necessary f i r s t step f o r c o l l a b o r a t i v e l e a r n i n g . >Doesn't i t depend on t h e l e a r n e r s ? T h e i r ages, i f they >are s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n e r s , how educated and e x p e r i e n c e d >they a r e , e t c . > P e r s o n a l l y , I don't f e e l a t t h i s p o i n t i n my l i f e and >taking t h e type o f t r a i n i n g I'm t a k i n g , t h a t anyone e l s e >should be r e s p o n x i b l e f o r my s o c i a l i z a t i o n (very >UnADEDish). I tend t o agree ... l a r g e l y due t o t h e way e a r l y s o c i a l i z a t i o n has shaped me ... however, I'm open t o possibilities. ( P o s t i n g No. 4194, s i c )  Susan's o r i g i n a l p o s t i n g i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e symbol >, now p r e v a l e n t i n most e m a i l s .  I t was common f o r s t u d e n t s t o respond  point-by-point t o a previous p o s t i n g i n the course.  T h i s was  f o s t e r e d by t h e course assessment s t r u c t u r e , which r e q u i r e d group p a r t i c i p a t i o n . important  However, i t was made p o s s i b l e by an  a t t r i b u t e o f t h e I n t e r n e t , and more g e n e r a l l y o f  computers; r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y o f t e x t .  WebCT, l i k e e m a i l ,  allows  s t u d e n t s t o respond w i t h quoted t e x t e a s i l y i n t h e i r messages. T h i s meant s t u d e n t s c o u l d and o f t e n would respond p o i n t - b y - p o i n t  to a previous posting.  The  interaction could p o t e n t i a l l y  allow  f o r deeper l e v e l communication because the  t e c h n o l o g y made i t  easier  b a s e d on  text,  to stay and  'on  topic'.  The  c o u r s e was  t h i s "allows for s u b s t a n t i a l l y greater f l e x i b i l i t y  f e e d b a c k s , i n t e r a c t i o n and a l t e r i n g the  reconfiguration  p r o c e s s of communication"  make r e f e r e n c e  websites.  At  perspectives.  times  ( C a s t e l l s , 1996,  t o books or i n c l u d e l i n k s t o  these  (as  p. 31,  Cheryl  other  were u s e d t o s h a r e i n f o r m a t i o n  At other times  references  buttress or c l a r i f y a students'  of  of text... t h u s  Students would o f t e n i n c l u d e quotes from readings does),  electronic  and  and  l i n k s were u s e d  p o s i t i o n on a g i v e n t o p i c ,  to  as  G e o f f d i d t o Mary: M a r y : F i r s t , my comment was b a s e d on a r e c o l l e c t i o n o f " s o m e t h i n g i n t h e p a p e r " b u t you d i d p r o m p t me t o e x a m i n e my c a s e a l i t t l e more t h o r o u g h l y . W h j a t I t h i n k . i s g o i n g on i s t h a t w h i l e e n r o l m e n t may be t h e same o r i n c r e a s i n g , i t i s n o t i n c r e a s i n g a t t h e same r a t e as o t h e r f a c u l t i e s . The p r e s i d e n t of C a r l e t o n U here i n Ottawa s t a t e s i n http://www.carleton.ca/cu/aboutus/president/gfb2000/ "Figure 2 [ i n the P r e s i d e n t s r e p o r t ] (undergraduate e n r o l m e n t by p r o g r a m s ) d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e r a p i d g r o w t h o f e n g i n e e r i n g and h i g h t e c h n o l o g y s t u d e n t s as a p r o p o r t i o n o u r s t u d e n t body..." ( P o s t i n g No. 3854. s i c )  of  I t was q u i t e common t o embed such l i n k s and r e f e r e n c e s i n messages. 108 l i n k s t o w e b s i t e s were i n c l u d e d throughout t h e 1346  messages i n d i s c u s s i o n forum.  Even though many p o s t i n g s  would have more than one l i n k w i t h i n i t , a c o n s e r v a t i v e calculation link.  i s that over f i v e percent of a l l postings i n c l u d e d a  I n c l u d i n g l i n k s allows students t o r e i n f o r c e t h e i r  p e r s p e c t i v e and a l s o broaden t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n . T h i s was p o s s i b l e because t h e I n t e r n e t e a s i l y l i n k s from one s i t e t o another. I n t e r n e t has been c a l l e d  "spineless text",  i s unbounded, and can go on t o i n f i n i t y . instructors  8  The  meaning t h e c o n t e n t S t u d e n t s and  used t h i s f e a t u r e o f t h e t e c h n o l o g y  regularly  as a  p a r t o f t h e i r communication.  Thoughtful  Communication  Some s t u d e n t s c o u l d be q u i t e c a s u a l i n t h e i r communication, b u t f o r t h e most p a r t i t appears they spent a f a i r amount o f time c r a f t i n g t h e i r messages. general subject-matter  Most p o s t i n g s were on t o p i c w i t h t h e  o f a g i v e n b l o c k and p r e v i o u s  postings.  Amusingly there a r e now s e v e r a l s i t e s c a l l e d "The End of the I n t e r n e t " . They p r e t e n d to be l a s t page of the I n t e r n e t , and b a s i c a l l y t r y t o bound t h i s i n f i n i t e medium. One f e e l s a sense of r e l i e f upon s e e i n g such a website. See f o r example <www.shibumi.org/eoti.htm>  8  F o r e x a m p l e , on t h e t o p i c o f a c c e s s t o e - l e a r n i n g , S t e p h e n wrote : L y d i a i n t r o d u c e s us t o CRIMP; a l i s t o f r e a s o n s why s o c i a l a c c e s s i s u n e v e n and i s t h u s an o b s t a c l e t o p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e m o c r a c y ; i n d e e d ! A l t h o u g h A n c i e n t A t h e n s d e m o c r a c y was open o n l y t o m a l e c i t i z e n s , we hope t o do b e t t e r . John i s r i g h t : s o c i a l a c c e s s and p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e m o c r a c y a r e linked. I f o u n d o u t t h a t i n F l o r i d a , 1/3 o f b l a c k m a l e s a r e n o t a l l o w e d t o v o t e (because t h e y have a c r i m i n a l r e c o r d , a r e n o t r e g i s t e r e d o r w h a t e v e r ) , p o o r l y e d u c a t e d v o t e r s had a h a r d t i m e f i g u r i n g o u t some o f t h e b a l l o t s , and when t h e y knew t h e y had made a m i s t a k e , many d i d n o t h a v e s u f f i c i e n t s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e t o b r i n g t h a t up r i g h t away w i t h t h e a u t h o r i t i e s b u t w a i t e d u n t i l a movement was formed. ( P o s t i n g No. 5216) He p o s t s a c o n s i d e r e d message, r e s p o n d i n g t o a n o t h e r  students  comment o n t h e t o p i c ,  including  historical  The  and  and b r o a d e n s t h e d i s c u s s i o n b y  contemporary  f o l l o w i n g comment was  book, Real World of  references.  p o s t e d by Greg about U r s u l a F r a n k l i n ' s  Technology:  I t h o u g h t F r a n k l i n ' s b o o k was e s s e n t i a l l y a commentary c o n t e m p o r a r y p o l i t i c a l economy, and t e c h n o l o g y was t h e p a r t i c u l a r s p e c t r e or purview f o r her a n a l y s i s .  on  I l i k e h e r d e f i n i t i o n o f t e c h n o l o g y as p r a c t i c e . To me i t keeps t h e c o n c e p t o f t e c h n o l o g y c l o s e l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e humans who c r e a t e i t . I t h i n k , h o w e v e r , t h a t she t e n d s t o g r a d u a l l y s e p a r a t e t h e two as she becomes more and more d i s p l e a s e d w i t h t h e s t a t e o f human a f f a i r s . . . t o t h e p o i n t where she i s b l a m i n g t e c h n o l o g y i n s t e a d o f p e o p l e . A m e d i e v a l m e r c e n a r y c o u l d be s e e n as a f a i r l y h o l i s t i c t e c h n o l o g y . Maybe t h e y make t h e i r own s w o r d s and a c t u a l l y  do a l l the k i l l i n g , but they can s t i l l be employed t o do bad t h i n g s . . . l i k e a l l o w someone t o monopolize r e s o u r c e s . ( P o s t i n g No. 1319)  T h i s was  a t h o u g h t f u l r e v i e w of a course r e a d i n g . These examples  were two of s e v e r a l such messages from randomly sampled p o s t i n g s . An i n - d e p t h a n a l y s i s of a l l p o s t i n g s f o r the  course  i n d i c a t e d such r e f l e c t i v e messages were q u i t e common. S t r u c t u r a l reasons made such r i c h communication p o s s i b l e . F i r s t , the asynchronous c h a r a c t e r of WebCT a l l o w s i n s t r u c t o r s  and  s t u d e n t s w a i t - t i m e t o r e f l e c t on and compose t h e i r p o s t i n g s . Immediate responses were not expected. 555 was  G e n e r a l p r o t o c o l f o r Edu  t h a t the i n s t r u c t o r would respond w i t h i n 4 8 hours of a  q u e s t i o n o r r e q u e s t d u r i n g the weekdays.  There were no s e t  norms about when s t u d e n t s s h o u l d respond.  The w r i t t e n word has more a c c o u n t a b i l i t y than communication. Students may of t h i s .  oral  People r e f e r r e d back t o p r e c i s e l y what was  have been more c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e i r p o s t i n g s because  They may  a l s o have been h e s i t a n t t o get i n v o l v e d i n  d i s c u s s i o n s because many p o s t i n g s were t h o u g h t f u l and crafted.  said.  well-  Workload  Some s t u d e n t s commented about how much time t h e c o u r s e took. S t u d e n t s were t o l d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f Edu 555 t h a t t h e y would need about 15 hours a week f o r c o u r s e r e a d i n g s , d i s c u s s i o n s and assignments.  Y e t s e v e r a l . o f them e x p r e s s e d , i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n  forum, t h a t t h e y ended up spending more time on t h e c o u r s e t h a n they expected.  A l a i n stated,  I f e e l a p r e s s u r e t o l o g on every n i g h t . I f I don't keep up w i t h t h e p o s t i n g s , I f e e l t h e d i s c u s s i o n g e t s ahead o f me. I t t a k e s a l o t o f time t o r e a d a l l o f t h e p o s t i n g s . ( P o s t i n g No. I l l ) Ron c a p t u r e d t h e sentiment o f s e v e r a l s t u d e n t s who  felt  overwhelmed by t h e volume o f p o s t i n g s when he s a i d :  I ' l l j o i n i n t h e "overwhelming" echo... I'm t a k i n g two o n l i n e c o u r s e s t h i s term as w e l l . I thought my e m a i l a t work was d a u n t i n g ! ( P o s t i n g No. 121) I t was not p o s s i b l e t o a c c e s s l o g - i n d a t a t o examine t h e amount o r d u r a t i o n o f time s t u d e n t s spent o n l i n e .  Quantitatively,  s t u d e n t s may have spent t h e same o r s l i g h t l y more time as t h e y would i n a f a c e - t o - f a c e c o u r s e . O n l i n e r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g i s however, q u a l i t a t i v e l y demanding.  I t can t a k e more work t o  w r i t e t h a n speak, and even more work i f one i s i n c l u d i n g r e f e r e n c e s and l i n k s .  The b i g g e r i s s u e w i t h w o r k l o a d was  reading;  i t appears t h a t s t u d e n t s and i n s t r u c t o r s spent a l o t o f  time r e a d i n g  a l l o r even many p o s t i n g s .  The sense o f i n c r e a s e d  workload i s p a r t l y a f u n c t i o n of course design but a l s o technology.  Reading i s g e n e r a l l y t i m e - i n t e n s i v e  l i s t e n i n g , but more so on a m o n i t o r . decades o f d e s i g n i n g  compared t o  H i s t o r i c a l l y , i t took  t e x t and g r a p h i c s  t o recognize  margins were  i m p o r t a n t i n w r i t t e n p u b l i c a t i o n s ; t h e human eye p r e f e r s t o have space t o r e s t b e f o r e and a f t e r each l i n e . The m o n i t o r f a c i l i t a t e s a d i f f e r e n t reading  p r o c e s s because i t makes  d i f f e r e n t demands on p e o p l e s ' eyes.  Reading on a m o n i t o r can be  t a x i n g f a i r l y q u i c k l y because o f i t s a t t r i b u t e s l i k e : t h e l i g h t b e h i n d t h e m o n i t o r g l a s s ; t h e need t o s c r o l l ; t h e v a r i e d of p o s t i n g s .  layout  The l a y o u t and d e s i g n o f t e x t i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n  forums i s r e l a t i v e l y p r i m i t i v e .  It still  r e q u i r e s a l o t o f time  t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s v i s u a l space.  Summary  B e f o r e Edu 555 s t a r t e d , many t e c h n o l o g i c a l frame f a c t o r s e x i s t e d t h a t l a t e r became c o n s t r a i n t s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s d u r i n g t h e course.  These f a c t o r s i n c l u d e d : b e i n g a b l e t o a c c e s s t h e  I n t e r n e t anywhere and anytime; b a s i n g t h e c o u r s e on e l e c t r o n i c ,  w r i t t e n t e x t ; u s i n g asynchronous communication; and t h e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e q u a l i t y o f t h e I n t e r n e t .  The  Internet  a l l o w e d f o r anywhere, anytime a c c e s s t o c o u r s e  c o n t e n t and d i s c u s s i o n s ,  f o r those who c o u l d a f f o r d  (access t o )  the t e c h n o l o g y . T h i s made i t p o s s i b l e f o r s t u d e n t s from t e n countries  t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e course and f o r DMI t o  c o l l a b o r a t e w i t h a L a t i n American U n i v e r s i t y i n d e s i g n i n g and d e l i v e r i n g the course.  S t u d e n t s p o s t e d messages t h r o u g h o u t t h e  week, i n c l u d i n g a s u b s t a n t i a l number on weekends. I t a l s o made i t p o s s i b l e f o r i n s t r u c t o r s and s t u d e n t s t o be i n v o l v e d group d i s c u s s i o n s  anytime.  throughout t h e day, midnight.  with  They p a r t i c i p a t e d i n c l a s s  p o s t i n g messages m a i n l y from 7:00am t o  I t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o gauge when s t u d e n t s r e a d  messages.  The  WebCT d i s c u s s i o n  forum was based on t h e w r i t t e n word. T h i s  meant p e o p l e ' s communication s t y l e , i . e . t h e i r w r i t i n g was  noticeable.  skills,  T h i s was p a r t l y a t r a i t o f w r i t i n g , which has  b u i l t - i n t o i t more r u l e s f o r communicating t h a n does spoken work and produces an e n d u r i n g r e c o r d .  The c o u r s e was n o t j u s t  t e x t - b a s e d communication b u t e l e c t r o n i c , which meant t e x t c o u l d be e a s i l y reproduced.  T h i s a l l o w e d f o r p o i n t - b y - p o i n t , on-  t o p i c , i n t e r a c t i o n as s t u d e n t s reproduced their postings.  each o t h e r ' s t e x t i n  Reproduction of t e x t a l s o allowed students t o  p o s t quotes from r e a d i n g s and l i n k s t o o t h e r w e b s i t e s .  But t h e  course was a l s o q u a l i t a t i v e l y more work p a r t l y because i t was based on e l e c t r o n i c , w r i t t e n t e x t ; r e a d i n g on a m o n i t o r g e n e r a l l y t a k e s more e f f o r t t h a n r e a d i n g on paper o r l i s t e n i n g do.  F i n a l l y , communication was asynchronous and t h i s a l l o w e d f o r more w a i t - t i m e t o r e f l e c t and p o s t t h o u g h t f u l messages. A s y n c h r o n c i t y a l s o makes t h e I n t e r n e t b o t h a p r i v a t e and p u b l i c medium. People can r e a d and compose a l o n e , but a l s o 'show themselves'  t o t h e group by p o s t i n g messages.  These t r a i t s o f t h e t e c h n o l o g y f o s t e r e d t h o u g h t f u l i n t e r a c t i o n . These were a l l t e c h n o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s t h a t framed t h e c o u r s e .  CHAPTER 6  ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK AND CONCLUSION  In t h i s f i n a l c h a p t e r I b r i e f l y c o n s i d e r the o t h e r two frames: the e x p e r i e n c e o f s t u d e n t s and i n s t r u c t o r s ; and w o r l d v i e w s education.  about  Then I d i s c u s s the a n a l y t i c a l framework t h a t emerges  from a frame f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , and end w i t h the c o n c l u s i o n .  Students and I n s t r u c t o r s Experience and Worldviews  Both i n s t r u c t o r s were s p e c i a l i s t s i n the f i e l d o f e - l e a r n i n g and had taught I n t e r n e t - b a s e d c o u r s e s b e f o r e .  They f e l t  t e a c h i n g i n t h i s medium, and chose t o take a f a i r l y approach.  As the d a t a i n d i c a t e s , t h e i r presence  comfortable hands-off  i n the  d i s c u s s i o n forum was modest. They l e t the c o u r s e m a t e r i a l s and s t u d e n t s do most o f the t e a c h i n g .  They saw themselves as  playing a supportive role f o r e s s e n t i a l l y  self-directed  l e a r n e r s . For the most p a r t , t h e y communicated w i t h s t u d e n t s one-on-one, v i a e m a i l s , phone c o n v e r s a t i o n s and i n comments and marks about  assignments.  A l l s t u d e n t s i n the course had a t l e a s t an undergraduate as t h i s was a p r e r e q u i s i t e .  T h e i r knowledge l e v e l about  degree,  e d u c a t i o n v a r i e d immensely.  F o r some i t was t h e i r  first  e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e , and a t t h e o t h e r end o f t h e spectrum two s t u d e n t s had a d o c t o r a t e i n e d u c a t i o n .  Most s t u d e n t s were  e i t h e r d o i n g t h e i r Masters o f E d u c a t i o n a t DMI o r l o o k i n g f o r a c e r t i f i c a t e t o h e l p them e n t e r t h e f i e l d o f e - l e a r n i n g . Some people who took t h e course were i n t e r e s t e d n o t p r i m a r i l y i n education but technology.  Many s t u d e n t s who d i d n o t have  e x p e r i e n c e l e a r n i n g o n l i n e e x p r e s s e d concern and b u t a l s o e x c i t e m e n t about u s i n g t h e t e c h n o l o g y .  C h e r y l i n i t i a t e d one  c o n v e r s a t i o n on t h e t o p i c , i n s t i g a t i n g a d i s c u s s i o n about learning online: I am a graduate s t u d e n t i n t h e School o f N u r s i n g a t UofA . With t h e s h o r t a g e o f nurses a t t h i s time, i t i s veryd i f f i c u l t f o r s t u d e n t s t o g e t time from work t o a t t e n d c l a s s e s . I am e x c i t e d about t h i s c o u r s e , though a. b i t apprehensive. ( P o s t i n g No. 109)  I agree w i t h C h e r y l . . . t h e overwhelming f e e l i n g s o f t h e medium can be t o o much t o handle a t f i r s t . . . . i t i s s t i l l new. ( P o s t i n g No. 114)  The w o r l d v i e w about e d u c a t i o n a l s o framed t h e c o u r s e .  Education  i s a f i e l d where everyone has an o p i n i o n . And t h e i n s t r u c t o r s never p r e s e n t e d themselves  as e x p e r t s .  T h i s was p a r t l y because  of t h e i r t e a c h i n g  s t y l e and because t h e f i e l d o f e - l e a r n i n g i s  a d e q u a t e l y n o v e l t h a t few c o u l d c l a i m any l o n g - t e r m e x p e r t i s e . So even though c o u r s e c o n t e n t was f i x e d , t h e r e was no sense throughout t h e course t h a t o n l y one p e r s p e c t i v e was r i g h t f o r l e a r n i n g about e d u c a t i o n The  g e n e r a l l y and e - l e a r n i n g  specifically.  s u b j e c t m a t t e r does n o t e a s i l y l e n d i t s e l f t o such an  o b j e c t i v i s t approach t o knowledge. p o s t i n g s were q u i t e a n e c d o t a l ,  And i n d e e d many o f t h e  if still  t h o u g h t f u l . On t h e t o p i c  of gender and t e c h n o l o g y , S c o t t t o l d t h i s s t o r y : H e l l o There. I have some c o m m e n t s / o b s e r v a t i o n s on g e n d e r a n d t e c h n o l o g y . B e i n g i n v o l v e d i n t e a c h i n g c o m p u t e r apps t o j u n i o r a n d s e n i o r s t u d e n t s i n m i d W a t e r t o n I s l a n d h a s c a u s e d me t o r e f l e c t on t h e s e i s s u e s . I h a v e f o u n d t h a t y o u n g women engage a n d r u n w i t h g r a f i c s b a s e d s o f t w a r e a n d a c t i v i t i e s l i k e Adobe Pagemaker e c t . B u t a r e h e s i t a n t t o engage web composes a n d p r o g r a m s l i k e Dreamweaver a n d c o m m u n i c a t o r . W h i l e t h e young men seem t o do w e l l w i t h a u t o - c a d d a n d d r i f t toward c r e a t i n g g r a p h i c s i n t h e Web-browsers, t h e y as a group s h y away f r o m i n t u i t i v e software. ( P o s t i n g No. 3659. s i c )  On t h e same t o p i c , L i n d a shared t h i s anecdote: I l i v e i n a l a r g e apartment complex i n K i n g s t o n Ont. where t h e r e a r e many s e n i o r s . I am f i n d i n g t h a t i t i s t h e o l d e r women r a t h e r than t h e o l d e r men who a r e a c t i v e w i t h e m a i l and a r e l e a r n i n g computer t e c h n o l o g y because t h e y e n j o y t h e a b i l i t y t o s t r e n g t h e n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h f r i e n d s and f a m i l y through t h i s medium. The r e t i r e d men on t h e o t h e r hand a r e l a r g e l y " i n d e n i a l " r e g a r d i n g computers and seem not t o want t o r i s k b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d incompetent w i t h t h i s t e c h n o l o g y and perhaps l o s e f a c e , so, many o f them do n o t b o t h e r t o l e a r n about computers.  I t t a k e s time t o t h i n k w i t h i n t h e new t e c h n o l o g y and i t a l s o r e q u i r e s knowing t h e language o f computer speak. As f o r m y s e l f - I can now make d e c i s i o n s on equipment, ask f o r h e l p by p i n - p o i n t i n g t o a s p e c i f i c problem and no l o n g e r b l a b b e r i n c o h e r e n t l y when I have a t e c h n i c a l problem. I t r e a l l y took a f a i r amount o f d e d i c a t i o n t o l e a r n t o speak the t e c h n i c a l language as w e l l . Some i n s i g h t on computers and gender - from K-town.. ( P o s t i n g No. 3383)  I t was seen as a p p r o p r i a t e , personal  e n r i c h i n g and normal t o share  s t o r i e s t o d i s c u s s i o n s about most e d u c a t i o n a l  topics.  I t i s n o r m a t i v e t o t h e w o r l d v i e w t h a t views e d u c a t i o n as a s u b j e c t i v e f i e l d of study.  Analytical  Several  Framework  c o n s t r a i n t s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n one o n l i n e c o u r s e have  been i d e n t i f i e d .  As much as p o s s i b l e , I have t r i e d t o f o c u s on  f a c t o r s t h a t r e l a t e t o t h e frames o f t h e c o u r s e and n o t t o d e c i s i o n s made by i n s t r u c t o r s and s t u d e n t s . on s t r u c t u r e , n o t agency.  The f o c u s has been  I n s t r u c t o r s can t e a c h c r e a t i v e l y and  e f f e c t i v e l y i n Internet-based  c o u r s e s but t h e y do so i n  conditions not of t h e i r choosing.  A s t u d y o f Edu 555 i n d i c a t e s  many frame f a c t o r s d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y l i m i t what k i n d o f teaching  was p o s s i b l e .  Useful research  e x i s t s on how f a c t o r s  frame a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g s .  The new f e a t u r e o f  t h i s s t u d y was  t o l o o k at frames f o r I n t e r n e t - b a s e d t e a c h i n g .  The b i g g e s t d i f f e r e n c e s from c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g s and I n t e r n e t based s e t t i n g s are how  the i n s t i t u t i o n o r g a n i z e s and  c o u r s e s , and the impact of t e c h n o l o g y on t e a c h i n g .  supports These were  the f o c u s of t h i s study and i t s o u t p u t , an a n a l y t i c a l framework.  Many u s e f u l themes emerging from t h i s r e s e a r c h may  be  to o t h e r I n t e r n e t - b a s e d t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s , and  not  s p e c i f i c a l l y t o a graduate  The  a dynamic medium.  course i n e d u c a t i o n .  will  In t h i s c o n t e x t the f o l l o w i n g  a n a l y t i c a l framework i s a t o o l t o g u i d e d e c i s i o n s by The  Internet i s  A d u l t e d u c a t i o n on the I n t e r n e t i s and  be a complex and e v o l v i n g f i e l d .  and p l a n n e r s .  relatable  instructors  framework c o n s i s t s of f o u r q u e s t i o n s , a  t e t r a d , about f a c t o r s t h a t frame t e a c h i n g b e f o r e i n s t r u c t o r s o r s t u d e n t s b e g i n an o n l i n e c o u r s e .  1.  What t e a c h i n g d e c i s i o n s does the o r g a n i z a t i o n make b e f o r e  you b e g i n the c l a s s ?  I n most o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s s u e s l i k e  s i z e and the need f o r assessment are made b e f o r e an is involved.  With I n t e r n e t - b a s e d DE,  about what w i l l be taught  class  instructor  this includes decisions  ( i . e . the c u r r i c u l u m ) , s p e c i f i c  assignments  t o be a s s e s s e d , c h o i c e of t e c h n o l o g y , and  recommended approaches  to teaching.  How might t h i s shape your  teaching?  The r e s t of t h e a n a l y t i c a l framework addresses how t h e c h o i c e of t e c h n o l o g y can e f f e c t how i n s t r u c t o r s and s t u d e n t s communicate.  2.  How w i l l t h e t e c h n o l o g y a f f e c t p e o p l e ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e v e l  and t h e i r q u a l i t y of i n t e r a c t i o n ?  I s the t e c h n o l o g y a p u b l i c  medium, p r i v a t e medium o r a c o m b i n a t i o n of p u b l i c and  private?  Most one-way media (see p. 39 above) a r e p r i v a t e , meaning a u s e r can o r does e x p e r i e n c e i t a l o n e . synchronous  Most two-way media a r e  and p u b l i c , meaning one i s aware o f who i s  p a r t i c i p a t i n g and t h e r e i s no w a i t - t i m e between The I n t e r n e t  communications.  i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e two. I n t e r n e t  use i n o t h e r  c o u r s e s may v a r y from t h i s one, where t h e WebCT p l a t f o r m was asynchronous.  The s o f t w a r e used can a f f e c t  people's  p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e v e l and t h e i r q u a l i t y o f i n t e r a c t i o n . communication i t immediate?  Does t h e  s o f t w a r e have w a i t - t i m e between i n t e r a c t i o n o r i s How much time do you and s t u d e n t s have t o  respond?  T h i s a f f e c t s when and where you and s t u d e n t s can  communicate.  How might t h i s e f f e c t group  3. How much a c c o u n t a b i l i t y I s t h e communication media a r e ephemeral  dynamics?  i s ' b u i l t - i n ' t o t h e communication?  p r e d o m i n a n t l y ephemeral  o r enduring?  Many  w h i l e o t h e r s l e a v e an e n d u r i n g r e c o r d .  Furthermore, d i g i t a l media a l l o w f o r easy and commonly used r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y of t e x t s p e c i a l equipment). t o a l l communication.  (and now a u d i o and v i d e o f i l e s w i t h  T h i s can c r e a t e a c c o u n t a b i l i t y  'built-in'  How w i l l p e o p l e i n t h e c o u r s e r e c e i v e  i n f o r m a t i o n ( l i s t e n i n g , r e a d i n g o r both) and send i n f o r m a t i o n (i.e.  4.  t a l k i n g , w r i t i n g or both)?  How l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e i s t h e medium?  more time t h a n o t h e r s .  Some t e c h n o l o g i e s t a k e  Media t h a t r e q u i r e w r i t i n g w i l l  take  more c o n c e n t r a t i o n ( a l s o c a l l e d t i m e - o n - t a s k i n DE l i t e r a t u r e ) . What w i l l i t mean f o r i n s t r u c t o r s ' and s t u d e n t s ' w o r k l o a d t o communicate i n t h i s medium?  Conclusion  Good t e c h n o l o g y l i k e good o r g a n i z a t i o n i s i n v i s i b l e . e f f e c t i v e l y , we do not n o t i c e i t .  I f working  I f , however, e m a i l goes down  o r pay cheques do not appear a t d e s i g n a t e d t i m e s , we are aware of the e x i s t e n c e of IT support and the f i n a n c e o f f i c e respectively.  Internet-based teaching i s adequately novel that  f o r t u n a t e l y we do n o t i c e b o t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n and  technology;  we are aware of s t r u c t u r e as w e l l as agency. I t appears as i f t h i s approach t o t e a c h i n g w i l l c o n t i n u e t o grow, a t l e a s t i n the middle-term  and c e r t a i n l y  i n distance education.  So i t w i l l  s t i l l be i m p o r t a n t f o r a d u l t e d u c a t o r s , e s p e c i a l l y those who r a d i c a l p o t e n t i a l s f o r the I n t e r n e t , t o u n d e r s t a n d c o n t e x t frames t h e i r t e a c h i n g d e c i s i o n s .  how  this  see  REFERENCES Athabasca U n i v e r s i t y (2001). Athabasca U n i v e r s i t y Annual Report 2000-2001. http://www.athabascau.ca/report20 0l/access.htm#demo R e t r i e v e d November 4, 2 001. Bassey, M. (1981). Pedagogic Research: on the r e l a t i v e m e r i t s of s e a r c h f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n and the s t u d y of s i n g l e e v e n t s . Oxford Review of Education, 7 ( 1 ) , 73-93. B a t e s , A.W. (1995). Technology, Education. London: Routledge B e r n s t e i n , B. (1975). Class, Schocken Books.  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