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Survey of graduates in adult education at the University of British Columbia White, Judith M. 1974

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r l SURVEY OF GRADUATES IN ADULT EDUCATION AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA by JudHtf MSIWHite B.Sc. (Nursing), St. Francis Xavier University, May, 1962 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Faculty of Education (Adult Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1974 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date ^ / / / 4?j /9 7^ ABSTRACT The recent proliferation in the field of adult education and the scarcity of research about practising professional adult educators led to this follow-up study of the graduates of the Doctor of Education, Master of Arts, Master of Education, Master of Science (Agriculture) and Diploma programs in adult education at the University of British Columbia. The purposes of the study were to describe the graduates' demographic and occupational profile, to identify their career patterns and occupational changes since graduation, to describe their present work activities, to determine their perceptions of the adequacy of their training in adult education and to determine their learning needs and their continuing learning activities in adult education. Seventy-five per cent of the graduates participated in the study. The respondents were predominantly married males, aged thirty-nine, who had returned to graduate study after five years of work in the field of adult education. They held a variety of occupational titles, were employed by many different, mostly government-associated agencies,aaridtbhe majority worked in large cities. Their work week averaged forty-three hours, twenty-five of which were spent in activities related to adult education. Respondents exhibited some definite trends in their career patterns over three time periods (before training, immediately after training and at present), specifically with regard to the type of employer and the extent i i i of their work in adult education. The application of t-tests to grouped occupational prestige scores revealed that respondents did not perceive their present occupation to have greater prestige than the one they held immediately after training. The best single predictor of occupational mobility of the adult educators in this study as determined by multiple regression analysis was the number of years since graduation. A work activities l i s t of fourteen items was used to identify respondents' occupational activities, the adequacy of their preparation for those activities and their learning needs. Work activities to which the total respondent group devoted the most amount of time were instructing adults, counselling adults, establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships, planning and developing adult education programs and cons tinuing their own education. Activities to which they devoted the least amount of time were determining community needs and producing mass media programs. The M.Ed, respondent groups' work activities differed signir ficantly from those of the M.A., M.Sc. and Diploma respondent groups. The respondents felt adequately prepared for ten of the fourteen listed work activities but reported that they needed to learn a moderate amount f>Sr eleven of the fourteen work activities. A positive relationship existed between their perceptions of their learning needs and the adequacy of their preparation for adult education activities. The two activities for which they felt most adequately prepared and for which they felt the strongest learning needs were continuing their own education, and planning and developing adult education programs. No relationship existed between the work activities respondents performed and their perceptions of the adequacy of their preparation for i i i i i those activities, and there was no relationship between the work activities respondents performed and their perceptions of their learning needs for those activities. Respondents spent an average of 9.1 hours per week in continuing learning activities, approximately half of which were in activities directly related to adult education content. It appears that the professional training in adult education received by these graduate respondents adequately prepared them to perform a wide variety of occupational roles and work activities and to be continuing learners ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my gratitude to the Department of Adult Education at the University of British Columbia for assistance in typing and mailing the questionnaire, to Dr. Gary Dickinson for his constructive guidance during a l l phases of this study, and to Dr. Jim Thornton for his constant encouragement and guidance. The generous and willing assistance of my many departmental colleagues in the design and statistical analyses of the study was greatly appreciated. Finally, to some special friends whose support and encourage-ment during critical times meant so much to me, I extend my sincere and heartfelt thanks. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT 1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv LIST OF TABLES . . ix Chapter I. INTRODUCTION . . 1 Purpose and Hypotheses 2 Definition of Terms ,. 3 Procedure . . . . 4 Limitations . . . 1 Plan of the Study . . 8 II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 9 Characteristics and Career Patterns of Adult Educators . H Occupational Functions and Behaviors of Adult Educators. 13 Learning Needs 16 Extent and Type of Participation in Continuing Learning Activities 17 Summary 19 III. PROFILE OF THE GRADUATES 20 Personal Characteristics . . . 20 Sex and Marital Status . . . . . . . 21 Age on Graduation . . 22 Number of Dependents on Entry 23 Residence 24 v v i Page Chapter Experience in Adult Education 24 Years Since Graduation 27 Educational Characteristics 28 Previous Schooling 28 Adult Education Courses Completed 29 Current Occupational Characteristics 30 Work in Adult Education . . 31 Hours Worked per Week 31 Current Position in Adult Education 34 Place of Employment 34 Current Employers 36 O Q Income . . . . J O Occupational Mobility , 39 Summary . .... . 40 IV. PATTERNS OF OCCUPATIONAL CHANGE AND PERCEPTIONS OF OCCUPATIONS . . . . . 41 Occupational Background 41 Position Title 41 Employing Agency 42 Place of Employment 45 Work in Adult Education 46 Areas of Work Responsibility 47 Income 48 Perceptions of Prestige in Adult Education . . . . . . Occupations 49 Occupations . , . . . . . . . . . . . v i i Pre Page Chapter Predictors of Mobility in Occupations 52 Summary . . 55 V. OCCUPATIONAL ACTIVITIES 57 The Work Activities L i s t 58 Work Activities of a l l Respondents . 58 Work Activities of Respondents of Different Programs • 61 The Master of A\r.t-:s CGroup . 61 The Master of Education Group 61 The Master of Science (Agriculture) Group 62 The Diploma Group 62 Comparions of the Work Activities of the Four Groups 63 Summary . . . . . 65 VI. ADEQUACY OF PREPARATION; LEARNING NEEDS^ AND PARTICIPATION IN CONTINUING LEARNING ACTIVITIES . . . . 67 Adequacy of Training and Relationship to Work Activities . . . . 67 Adequacy of Training 67 Relationship of Adequacy Scores to Work Act i v i t i e s . 70 Learning Needs and Relationship to Work Activities . . ?3 Leari>i-w; Needs Learning Needs 73 Relationship of ~nin^ — ^-ls t o v<>?:::. A c t i v i t i e s . Relationship of Learning Needs to Work Rej.atiAci^ iY.itijes;Ween» Adequacy, and • •.earsiag* Need . . . . 75 Relationship Between Adequacy and Learning Need 77 SuRank-ings . ., . . % ,t ., .,.,.,>,. ._, ., . 77 P'ar.ticipa$:io.n'. in Cjo/ntinuimg; learning^ Activities; ., ., 78 Summary 80 v i i i Page Chapter VII. SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS 82 Summary and conclusions 82 Implications . . 89 REFERENCES . .• 92 Appendix A. AKER'S BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES OF ADULT EDUCATORS 95 B. QUESTIONNAIRE 98 C. COVERING LETTERS 107 LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1. Distribution of the Number of Questionnaires Mailed and the Number Returned by Program 6 2. Distribution of Respondents' Sex by Program . . . 21 3. Distribution of Respondents'' Marital Status by Program . . 22 4. Distribution of Respondents' Age on Graduation by Program 23 5. Distribution of Respondents' Number of Dependents on Entry by Program 24 6. Distribution of Respondents' Residence Prior to Entry by Program 25 7. Distribution of Respondents' Current Resident by Program . 26 8. Distribution of Respondents' Years of Experience in Adult Education Prior to Entry by Program 27 9. Distribution of Respondents' Years since Graduation by Program 28 10. Distribution of Respondents' Educational Achievement Prior to Entry by Program 29 11. Distribution of Respondents' Number of Units of Adult Education Courses Completed by Program 30 12. Distribution of Respondents' Extent of Work in Adult Education by Program . 31 13. Distribution of Respondents' Total Number of Hours Worked per Week by Programs 32 14. Distribution of Respondents' Number of Hours Worked per Week that ARE Related to Adult Education by Program . . 33 15. Distribution of Respondents' Number of Hours Worked per Week that ARE NOT Related to Adult Education by Program 3^ 1 I'• stribution of r^>s?< ndents.! ^Pos:' l i o n Title by Program . . X Page Table 16. Distribution of Respondents' Position Title by Program 35 17. Distribution of Respondents' Place of Employment by Program 36 18. Distribution of Respondents' Employers by Program 37 19. Distribution of Respondents' Annual Income by Program . . . 38 20. Distribution of Respondents' Occupational Mobility by Program 39 21. Distribution of Respondents' Position Titles Over Three Time Periods 43 22. Distribution of Respondents' Employers Over Three Time Periods 44 23. Distribution of Respondents' Place of Employment Over Three Time Periods 45 24. Distribution of Respondents' Extent of Work in Adult Education Over Three Time Periods . 46 25. Respondents' Mean Number Supervised at Work and Mean Amount of Budget Controlled - Three Time Periods 47 26. Respondents' Mean Prestige Ratings of Position Titles Over Four Time Periods 50 27. Respondents' Mean Percentage of Time in Adult Education Activities Over Four Time Periods 51 22-8. Respondents' Occupational Prestige Score Means and Grouped t-Values - Four Time Periods 52 29. Percentage of Variation in Occupational Mobility and Factors Accounting for the Variation . . . . . . 54 30. Distribution of Mean Number of Hours in Work Activities per Week and Mean Ranks for a l l Respondents by Program . . . 60 31. Spearman's Rank Correlation Matrix of Work Activities for Four Respondent Groups 64 32. Distribution of Scores, Means and Mean Ranks of Adequacy of Preparation for A l l Respondents 69 xi Page Table 33. Jaspen's Coefficients of Multiserial Correlation for Work Activities and Adequacy of Preparation 71 34. Spearman's Rank Correlation Matrix of Work Activities, Adequacy of Preparation and Learning Needs 35. Distribution of Scores, Means and Mean Ranks of Learning Needs (for All Respondents 74 36. Jaspen's Coefficients of Multiserial Correlation for Work Activities and Learning Needs 76 37. Distribution of Mean Number of Hours per Week Spent in Continuing Learning Activities for A l l Respondents . . . 79 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Programs in adult education have always been largely deter-mined by the needs and conditions of the society in which they appear (34). Of the many issues confronting adult educators in contemporary society, the one of greatest concern is that of assisting individuals to adapt to alterations in their life-styles brought about by rapid and complex societal changes. The impact of these changes upon the development of adult education has been three-fold: adults are in-creasing their participation in organized learning activities as they become more cognizant of the need to continue their education to respond to new modes of living; the scope of the field of adult education, which provides most of these learning activities, has greatly expanded and is now characterized by a wide variety of forms and new functional areas; and consequently the demand for professionally prepared adult educators has grown. In order to provide adult educators who will function competently in both the discipline and the field, educational institutions conducting training programs must be prepared to provide programs which reflect the various developments occurring in a l l facets of the field. One way that an institution can begin to identify the diver-sity of developments in the field is to determine what its own graduates 1 2 are doing as practising adult educators. Feedback about their acti-vities and their perceptions of their experiences should y&eOid infor-mation with which an institution can begin to ascertain the relevance of its program and with which it can develop criteria for future course and program planning. The only follow-up study that has been carried out on graduates of a professional adult education training program was conducted at North Carolina State University in 1972 (22) . This study investigated the relevance of the program objectives to doctoral graduates who were performing various professional roles. Follow-up research identifying occupational activities or learning needs of pro-fessionally prepared adult education graduates has not been conducted to date. PURPOSE AND HYPOTHESES The primary purpose of this study was to obtain information from the graduates of adult education programs at the University of British Columbia to: - describe their demographic and occupational profile - identify their career patterns and occupational changes since training - determine their present occupational activities - determine their perceptions of the adequacy of their preparation in adult education - determine th£ir perceptions of their learning needs in adult education 3 - describe the amount and type of their participation in continuing learning activities. Several hypotheses were tested in this study: 1. There are statistically significant differences in the graduates' perceptions of prestige of their occupations during four time periods: before training, after training, at the present time and for future career aspirations. 2. Educational variables are greater predictors of occupational mobility of adult educators than socio-economic or occupational variables. 3. Graduates of the five departmental programs (Ed.D., M.A., M.Ed., M.Sc.(Agriculture), Diploma) will perform significantly different occu-pational activities. 4. There will be a positive relationship between the occupational activities performed by the graduates and their perceptions of the adequacy of their preparation for those activities. 5. There will be a negative relationship between the occupational activities performed by the graduates and their perceptions of their learning needs in those activities. 6. There will be a negative relationship between the graduates' perceptions of their learning needs and their perceptions of the ade-quacy of their preparation in adult education activities. DEFINITION OF TERMS The terms which denote a specific or restricted meaning, and which will be used extensively in this study are defined below. 4 A graduate i s any person who has completed the requirements of one of the following programs in adult education at the University of British Columbia: Doctor of Education; Master of Arts; Master of Education; Master of Science (Agriculture); and Diploma i n Adult Edu-cation. Occupational mobility is any change from one job position to another within the same agency or a change of employer. An occupational prestige score i s the self-assigned prestige rating of a respondent's occupation weighted by the extent of time spent in adult education activities in that occupation. PROCEDURE Departmental records, telephone interviews and a mailed ques-tionnaire were used to gather data from the graduates of adult edu-cation programs at the University of British Columbia. A l l graduates of record prior to June, 1973, comprised the population for the survey. The following sections describe the development and administration of the questionnaire, and the analysis of data. Development of the Questionnaire The questionnaire (Appendix B) was prepared to gather data about individual respondents in order to achieve the aims of this study. One major problem encountered was the selection of a l i s t of occupational activities which would represent areas of content in the study of adult 5 education so that relationships between occupational activities, learning needs, and adequacy of preparation could be investigated. A l i s t was finally developed from a review of the literature on competencies and functions of adult educators and from discussions with adult educators and colleagues. Administration of the Questionnaire The questionnaire was mailed in mid-June to 131 graduates of the five different programs in adult education offered at the Univer-sity of British Columbia: the Doctor of Education, the Master of Arts, the Master of Education, the Master of Science (Agriculture), and the Diploma in Adult Education. Current mailing addresses were unknown for 4 graduates and one was deceased. Ninety-nine returns were received by July 31, 1973, the final cut off date identified in the covering letter (Appendix C). The distri-bution of the returns by program studied is illustrated in Table 1. The ninety-nine respondents constituted 75% of the total number of graduates, and was considered to be representative of the graduate population. Analysis of the Data An occupational prestige score was calculated by multiplying respondents' self-assigned prestige scores for their position (on a ten point scale) by the percentage of time reportedly spent in adult education related activities in that position (see Questionnaire, Part II, Page 3). 6 Table 1 Distribution of Number of Questionnaires Mailed and Number Returned by Program Program Number Mailed Number Returned Ed.D. 4 2 M.A. 35 32 M.Ed. 34 26 M.Sc. 11 9 Diploma 47 30 Total 131 * 99 * Includes 4 returned with no responses. Occupational mobility was assessed by the number of changes made in job position or employer prior to training, immediately after training, and at the present time. A maximum of four moves was possible, and the levels of mobility were defined as: 0 moves = non-mobile 1-2 moves = mobile 3-4 moves = highly mobile The completed questionnaires were then coded and keypunched for analysis at the University of British Columbia Computing Centre. Bivariate tabulations were conducted to examine the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the graduates by different programs. Multiple regression analysis (24) of 24 socio-economic, edu-cational and occupational variables was conducted at the .10 level 7 of significance to determine which variables were associated with occu-pational mobility in adult education. One-way analysis of variance and t-tests (8)(9) were conducted to identify differences in the graduates' average occupational prestige scores for positions held prior to training, after training, at the present time and for the positions to which they aspire. The significance of the relationships between occupational acti-vities , learning needs, and adequacy of preparation in adult education was tested by Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient, r g , (28) at the .01 and .05 levels of significance. LIMITATIONS As this study is restricted to graduates of the department of adult education at the University of British Columbia any conclusions derived from i t apply only to the graduates of this institution and should not be generalized to graduates of other programs or institutions. The inevitable disadvantages of mailed questionnaires, such as fatigue factors, incomplete responses, misinterpretation of questions are acknowledged (10)(16)(25). The graduates involved in this study had a variety of work and educational experience prior to their entrance into a program of studies at this institution.. They also entered the program at many different age levels and at different periods of their lives as adults. Such factors undoubtedly influence graduate student attitudes and the kind 8 of learning they experience, hence, their responses must be considered in the light of this limitation. PLAN OF THE STUDY This study is reported in seven chapters. Chapter II contains a review of the literature. Analysis of the data begins in Chapter III with a descriptive profile of the graduates, followed by analysis of their career patterns and occupational patterns since training in Chapter IV. The graduates' occupational activities are discussed in Chapter V, and Chapter VI describes graduates' perceptions of the ade-quacy of their preparation and learning needs and their participation in continuing learning activities. The final chapter contains a summary of the results of the study and the implications of the findings for programs in the professional preparation of adult educators. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Although the volume of research studies about adult educators has increased substantially during recent years (2) (7)(35), studies of recipients of professional degrees in adult education have been very limited. Houle's investigations of doctoral recipients in America (12)(13)(14) have been the only systematic descriptions of the profes-sionally trained adult educator and two institutions providing profes-sional training in adult education have conducted follow-up studies on their graduates. Solway and Draper (31) carried out a longitudinal study of the adult education certificate program graduates at the Ontario Insti-tute for Studies in Education in 1970 in order to obtain socio-economic information and to make comparisons of the academic achievements of certificate and graduate degree students. The findings, as reported in the Canadian Inventory of Degree and Non-Degree Research (2), are extremely general and inconclusive: the academic achievements of students enrolled in the Certificate, M.Ed., M.A. and Ph.D. programs were compar-able. This also was true in cases where the certifi-cate student had only completed a secondary school formal education. Approximately the same number of women and men were enrolled in the program, and achieving the certificate assisted a number of persons to obtain employment in adult education. Others who were employed sometimes received salary increases, thus indicating the 9 10 employer's acceptance of the Certificate. However, people entering the program essentially indicated that they were primarily interested in improving their skills and under-standing about working with adults. (31) Noel and Parsons (22) reported a follow-up study of eighty-four doctoral graduates of the Department of Adult and Community College Education at North Carolina State University conducted in 1972. The purpose of the study was to determine i f these doctoral graduates who perform different professional roles have different perceptions of the relevance of the Department's educational objectives. Of the eighty-four respondents, 45 held the professional role of administrator, 25 were program development specialists and 14 were in teaching/research. The main conclusion of the study was that professional responsibility was associated with graduates' evaluation of relevance of the Department's objectives: graduates employed as teachers and researchers rated the research objective as more relevant; graduates employed as program development specialists and administrators rated the understanding of adult education as a process of social change and the objectives stressing professional skills needed by the practitioner as more relevant. The search of the literature failed to reveal any further follow-up studies on professional adult educators. Consequently, this review will summarize related research under four categories, beginning with the literature on characteristics and career patterns of adult educators. The second category will deal with occupational functions and behaviors of adult educators, followed by a section on learning needs. The final category outlines studies on the amount and type of participation in continuing learning activities by professionals generally since studies about professional adult educators as continuing learners were not available. 11 CHARACTERISTICS AND CAREER PATTERNS OF ADULT EDUCATORS Verner et. al. (35), reporting the findings of Adams 1969 analy-tical sociological study of those who held doctoral degrees, describe this group to be Protestant, married, 46-50 years of age, middle class, liberal in politics, and employed mostlyninnuniyersity positions in-adult education for an average of 16 to 20 years. They acquired the masters or first professional degree between the ages of 20 and 30 but acquired the doctorate in adult education between 36 and 40 years of age. Houle (13) also investigated the recipients of doctoral degrees, and his findings revealed that 84% were men and 16% were women, and that the respondents'average age was 47 years. Geographically, most of his 480 respondents were distributed over 46 states or territories of the United States, with 71 in other countries, including 13 in Canada, and 10 in India. The dominant employing organization for this group was the university or college with 333; public schools employed 40, government departments 36, and voluntary associations 20. Other studies have described the demographic characteristics of adult educators in specific occupational roles. Damon (5) surveyed 178 adult education administrators in California, and found that they usually had a public school background which included some prior training or experience in adult education. Of the 178, 129 were employed f u l l time in adult education, 28 had other school district administrative duties and 21 were part-time day school teachers. Seventy-two percent had taken some college or university work in adult education; 65% had 12 had some previous experience in adult education as teacher, counselor, or administrator; and 85% had advanced to their present position from within the same school district. Sharpies' study of the characteristics of the principal adminis-trators of adult education in Canadian public school systems in 1969 (29) contained similar findings. His sample differed from Damon's in that the administrators in his sample generally had no formal preparation in adult education, while almost 3/4 of the California administrators had taken some college or university work. Leathers (17) described 41 conference coordinators in W. K. Kellogg Foundation supported centers for Continuing Education. He found that the average coordinator was about 35, married, in his present position less than three years, held a Bachelors degree only, had pre-vious general experience in education, but had neither experience nor training in adult education. Only two studies provided data on career patterns of adult educators, each of which was done on adult education administrators in California over ten years ago. Damon (5) reported that 12 of the 32 administrators who changed positions over a two year period moved to other adult education positions, while 20 moved out of the field of adult education entirely. London (18) suggested that most public school adult education administrators in California considered their positions as merely a stage in career progression to other adminis-trative positions of wider scope. No studies were found which dealt specifically with career mobility or the factors which account for i t within adult education occupations. 13 OCCUPATIONAL FUNCTIONS AND BEHAVIORS OF ADULT EDUCATORS The studies about the activities of adult educators f a l l into two distinct types: those dealing»:>with actual occupational performance and those describing desirable attributes and competencies. Regarding actual occupational performance, Houle and Buskey (14) asked 480 recipients of the doctoral degree in adult education to describe their dominant function, and tabulated the following results: Regulation (government o f f i c i a l s ) 9 General administration of a unit or organization of which adult education is a subordinate part 64 Specific administration of an adult educational unit or program within a unit 170 Administration of other units 41 Teaching of adult education as a f i e l d of study 55 Teaching in content fields other than adult education 52 Research into the principles or practices of adult education 10 Research in other fields of study 9 Advisors, or consultants on, or stimulators of adult education 38 Advisors, or consultants on, or stimu-lators of, areas of study other than adult education 11 Not gainfully employed 10 Other 11 (14) 14 Sharpies (29) reported that the 205 Canadian adult education directors he studied perceived their primary responsibilities to be the facilitation and improvement of programs and the provision of an adequate organization and structure within the school program. They perceived their primary task as the selection and assignment of teaching and administrative personnel, while their least important tasks were perceived to be community services and public relations. Damon's summary of the duties of adult education administrators in California (5) approxi-mates those outlined by Sharpies but lacks the "importance" weighting of the former study. In Leathers study on real versus ideal role conceptions (17), 24 conference coordinators ranked the responsibilities of administrator first, facilitator second, and educator third for their real role con-ceptions, but reversed these rankings for their ideal role conceptions. Morehouse (20) studied agricultural agents and found that they spend most of their time in administrative, and training functions, while the agricultural agents in Job's study (15) identified their three most important activities as consultant, source of information and ideas, and student. Finally, Madry (19) had directors of public school adult edu-cation rate a li s t of 77 statements of functions, as essential, highly desirable, acceptable, unacceptable or unapplicable. He found that the functions the directors selected as acceptable, highly desirable or essential concerned organization and structure, program purposes, program planning and development, instructional services and materials, 15 student personnel services, staff personnel, facilities and equipment, finance and business management, school community relations and pro-motion, community services, and program evaluation and research. Turning to the desirable attributes of adult educators, studies by Aker (1), Chamberlain (4), and Robinson (26) have produced lists of desirable behaviors of adult educators in attempts to establish criteria or identify behavioral objectives which would serve as a basis for program planning and evaluation. Aker's l i s t of 23 behavioral objectives is more specific than the other two and, as a result, is a more useful description of com-petencies for evaluating professional training programs in adult edu-cation (Appendix A). Graduate students and recipients of the doctorate in adult education were asked to assess the importance of these 23 objec-tives. The respondents considered evaluation (#16) and research analysis (#23) as most important. Six items were considered as quite important -selection of method (#3), continuing study (#8), understanding of the role of the adult educator (#9), helping adults set their own goals (#11), arranging learning experiences to integrate theory and practice (#14), and creative programming (#17). The respondents also felt that the two objectives judged most important were those that the present programs failed to achieve (1). The preceding review of literature on functions and behaviors illustrates that adult educators in general seem to have similar expec-tations of themselves regardless of their type of association with adult education. 16 LEARNING NEEDS Research about learning needs of professionally prepared adult educators, as a distinct group, has not been studied extensively. Most studies regarding learning needs of adult educators pertain to special-ized aspects of the field, notably agricultural extension and adult basic education. In their review of literature about learning needs, Verner et al. found adult basic education teachers1 learning needs to be related to the principles of adult learning and instruction, or specifically related to the type of client or content they were teaching. Learning needs of extension agents were described as being associated with the occu-pational role they perceived for themselves, which for the most part was a service role rather than an educational one (35). White (36) identified the professional improvement interests of 100 adult education leaders from a variety of agencies. They in-cluded; 1) gaining a better understanding of the basic needs which cause adults to participate in educational programs, 2) gaining a clearer insight into the changing interests of adults in a l l aspects of their lives, 3) increasing their ability to apply psychological principles to the selection of objectives, 4) acquiring techniques for relating programs more closely to the needs and interests of adults, 5) acquiring techniques for relating programs more closely to the general needs of the community, 6) becoming more ski l l f u l in recognizing the community needs and resources that are important to adult education programs, 7) developing a better understanding of the kinds of educational methods most suitable for mature people, 8) developing a better understanding of the kinds of educational materials most s u i t a b l e f or mature people, 9) becoming f a m i l i a r with procedures for "keeping up" with new developments and materials for adult education programs. EXTENT AND TYPE OF PARTICIPATION IN CONTINUING LEARNING ACTIVITIES The factors to be considered i n the present study, namely, the extent and type of p a r t i c i p a t i o n by adult educators i n continuing learning a c t i v i t i e s have not been s u f f i c i e n t l y investigated to provide a useful data base. Hence, a b r i e f review of the l i t e r a t u r e exploring p a r t i c i p a t i o n by other professionals i n continuing learning a c t i v i t i e s i s reported here. Rossman (27) mailed questionnaires to a l l the graduates of the 1943, 1948, 1953 and 1958 classes of the Yale D i v i n i t y School and reported that almost a l l (94%) of "the clergymen had been pursuing some kind of continuing education a c t i v i t i e s weekly, l a r g e l y i n seminary-sponsored c r e d i t courses, i n s t i t u t e s or other workshop type a c t i v i t i e s . H o l l i s t e r (11) analyzed p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n continuing education by Protes-tant ministers serving the urban centers of Santa Clara County i n C a l i -f o r n i a . The ministers a l l o c a t e d about 25 hours per week to a l l continuing education a c t i v i t i e s , of which 17 were devoted to p r i v a t e study. Davis (6) surveyed the members of the Allegheny County Pennsyl-vania Bar Association to explore t h e i r continuing l e g a l education pre-ferences and found that they preferred to attend programs sponsored by the legal professional associations using seminar and panel techniques. He also noted that only half of the lawyers he studied participated in continuing education programs and that the extent of their p a r t i c i -pation was limited to one program each year. Taylor's study (32) of 670 members of the Nebraska Bar Association was in general agreement with Davis', concluding also that there was a positive relationship between participation and the length of time in the professional career. Nakamoto (21) in a review of the literature of continuing edu-cation in the health professions described the research on participation by these professionals as tenuous. She concluded that between 10% and 25% of the practicing physicians were disposed to engage in continuing education for less than 20% of their work week and that they preferred activities such as short formal courses and independent study. Of the dentists sampled, approximately 12% participated in continuing dental education an average of 5 hours per month, most of which consisted of reading, attending meetings, conventions, study clubs, or engaging in informal contacts with colleagues. Of the literature available about nurses, less than 30% participated in activities such as reading, short courses, meetings and in-service education programs. In the pharmacy profession, only a small percentage engaged i n continuing education and the activity most frequently preferred was short courses. Lastly, Shorey (30) surveyed the public teachers employed by the Windsor Board of Education in Ontario to determine the factors affecting participation in specific types of learning a c t i v i t i e s . Research, reading, self-directed learning and membership in the professional association were the activities most frequently engaged in, and the factors affecting these were personal satisfaction, mental stimulation, self-fulfillment, and professional and self-development respectively. SUMMARY Follow-up studies of graduates of professional training programs in adult education and studies about the practicing professional adult educator have been limited. What research that has been done concen-trates on descriptive surveys of the adult educators' demographic characteristics, on occupational activities of the public school adult education directors, or on specialized adult educators such as agri-cultural extension agents. A review of these studies suggests that a professionally pre-pared adult educator might be expected to be a middle-aged married male who is employed by a university and who obtained his training in adult education at an older age than recipients of other advanced degrees. He may perform a variety of work activities but w i l l likely spend most of his work time in administrative activities followed by program planning and development and teaching ac t i v i t i e s . Community services are expected to be his least frequent work activity. Finally, in keeping with the philosophy that professionally prepared adult edu-cators should be continuing learners, he might be expected to be an active participant in continuing learning ac t i v i t i e s . CHAPTER III PROFILE OF THE GRADUATES This chapter focuses on a demographic and occupational profile of the graduates. The profile is developed in three sections which describe the personal characteristics of the respondents, their edu-cational background, and their present occupational characteristics. A summary of the main demographic and occupational findings concludes the chapter. Data reported in this chapter were acquired from three sources: the mailed questionnaire, departmental records, and telephone inter-views with several graduates in the Vancouver area whose departmental records were incomplete. PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS The personal characteristics that w i l l be discussed are: sex, marital status, age on graduation, number of dependents, area of re s i -dence, number of years of experience in adult education, and number of years since completion of the program. 20 21 Sex and Marital Status Almost two-thirds of the respondents (approximately 63%) were male and thirty-six were female, with a similar distribution in every program except the M.Sc. program, where a l l of the graduates have been male (Table 2). The majority of the respondents were married (Table 3). Table 2 Distribution of Respondents' Sex by Program Program Male Female Total Ed.D. 1 1 2 M.A. 17 15 32 M.Ed. 17 9 26 M.Sc. 9 - 9 Diploma J i L . i I . i 2 . Total 63 36 99 22 Table 3 Distribution of Respondents' Marital Status by Program Program Married Single Other Not Known Total Ed.D. 1 - - - 2 M.A. 19 8 2 3 32 M.Ed. 14 3 2 7 26 M.Sc. 5 2 - 2 9 Diploma 17 _9 _1 _3 30 Total 56 22 6 15 99 Age on Graduation The respondents' ages on graduation ranged from the mid-twenties to the late fifties (Table 4). The mean age of a l l the respondents was 39 years. This high average age occurred because the majority of graduate students in adult education began their graduate studies later in l i f e after having gained employment experience. In addition, the part-time study option available in the M.Ed, and Diploma programs enabled students to complete their programs over an extended period of time. The youngest respondents were from the M.Sc. program, with a mean age of 29.6 years, while the oldest respondents were from the M.Ed, program with a mean of 45.1 years. The mean age of the Ed.D., M.A. and Diploma respondents was 37.0, 36.5, and 41.0 years respectively. 23 Table 4 Distribution of Respondents1 Age on Graduation by Program Program 20-29 Years 30-39 Years 40-49 Years 50 Years or older Not Known Total Ed.D. 1 - 1 - - 2 M.A. 5 8 6 3 10 32 M.Ed. - 4 6 6 10 26 M.Sc. 3 2 - - 4 9 Diploma _6 _5 _8 _6 _5 30 Total 15 19 21 15 29 99 Number of Dependents on Entry Seventy-one respondents provided information regarding their dependents prior to entry. Thirty-four of these had no dependents, and the other thirty-seven had between 1 and 7 dependents (Table 5). The mean number of dependents per respondent was 1.4. The group reporting the largest number of dependents was the Ed.D. group with a mean of 3.0 dependents. Next came the M.Ed, group with a mean of 2.0 dependents, the M.A. group with a mean of 1.6 depen-dents, and the Diploma group with a mean of 1.0 dependents. The M.Sc. group reported a mean of only .2 dependents. 24 Table 5 Distribution of Respondents' Number of Dependents on Entry by Program Program None One Two Three Four or More Not Known Total Ed.D. - - - - 1 - 2 M.A. 10 2 5 7 2 6 32 M.Ed. 5 2 5 3 3 8 26 M.Sc. 4 1 - - - 4 9 Diploma 15 _1 _2 1 1 10 30 Total 34 6 13 11 7 28 99 Residence Prior to Entry and Currently Tables 6 and 7 show that the geographic distributions of the respondents prior to entry and currently have remained relatively the same, with seventy-four living in British Columbia during both time periods. Years of Experience in Adult Education Approximately two-thirds of the respondents had some experience in adult education prior to entering their program of studies (Table 8). The range of years was distributed between one and twenty-two, with the mean number of years of experience for a l l respondents being 5.2 years. The M.Ed, respondents had the most experience in adult education with a mean of 6.0 years, followed by the Diploma respondents with 5.9 years. Ed.D., M.A., and M.Sc. respondents had means of between 2 and 3.9 years. Table 6 Distribution of Respondents' Residence Prior to Entry by Program Program B.C. Alta. Sask. Man. Ont. N.B. N.S. N.W.T. Foreign Countries Not Known Total Ed.D. 2 - - - - - - - - - 2 M.A. 22 2 1 2 3 - 1 - - 1 32 M.Ed. 23 - - - - 1 - - - 2 26 M.Sc. 2 2 - - - - 1 - 4 - 9 Diploma 25 - - - - - - - 1 4 30 Total 74 4 1 2 3 1 2 - 5 7 99 NO Table 7 Distribution of Respondents' Current Residence by Program Foreign Program B.C. Alta. Sask. Man. Ont. Que. N.S. N.W.T. Countries Total Ed.D. 1 - - 2 M.A. 25 2 1 - 4 - - - - 32 M.Ed. 23 3 _ _ _ _ _ - - 26 M.Sc. 2 2 - - 1 - 1 - 3 9 Diploma _2 _ _ _ Z . _ _ L _ _ . _ _ . _ _ l _ _ . _1 ___ Total 74 7 1 1 8 1 2 1 4 99 ON 27 Table 8 Distribution of Respondents1 Years of Experience in Adult Education Prior to Entry by Program Program No Exp. 1-2 Years 3-4 Years 5-10 Years 11 Years or more No Response Total Ed.D. - 1 - - - 1 2 M.A. 13 6 5 3 4 1 32 M.Ed. 6 4 3 6 6 1 26 M.Sc. 2 2 2 2 1 - 9 Diploma _7 _3 _6 _6 _5 30 Total 28 16 16 17 16 6 99 Years Since Graduation The number of years since graduation of the respondents ranged from 0 to 12 years, with approximately sixty-four percent of the respon-dents having graduated during the past four years (Table 9). The first graduate in the department was in 1960. Those in the Diploma group were the most recent graduates, the mean number of years since graduation being 1.9. This mean is low be-cause ten (one-third) of the Diploma group were 1973 graduates. A l l other groups reported means between 3.8 and 5.0 years. 28 Table 9 Distribution of Respondents' Years Since Graduation by Program Program o * Years 1-2 Years 3-4 Years 5-6 Years 7-8 Years 9 Years or More Total Ed.D. - - 1 1 - - 2 M.A. - 9 9 7 4 3 32 M.Ed. 2 6 6 5 2 5 26 M.Sc. - 2 2 2 3 - 9 Diploma 10 10 8 2 - - 30 Total 12 27 26 17 9 8 99 A 1973 graduates EDUCATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS Data on previous schooling and units of course work in adult education were available for eighty-eight of the respondents. In cases where a respondent completed more than one program in the department, the highest educational program achieved by that respondent was used to compute the data. Previous Schooling As can be seen from Table 10, the majority of the respondents held a Bachelors' degree on entry into the department. The five respon-dents with senior matriculation or 1 to 3 years of university on entry were enrolled in the Diploma program. 29 Table 10 Distribution of Respondents' Educational Achievement Prior to Entry by Program Program Grade 12, 13 or 1-3 yrs. univ. Bachelors 1Degree Masters' degree Doctoral degree Not Known Total Ed.D. - - 2 - - 2 M.A. - 29 - - 3 32 M.Ed. - 21 1 - 4 26 M.Sc. - 8 1 - - 9 Diploma _5 19 _1 _1 _4 30 Total 5 77 5 1 11 99 Units of Adult Education Courses Completed Four of the five programs in the department of adult education at the University of British Columbia require the completion of a mini-mum of four 3 unit credit courses. The M.Sc. degree often combines courses in both adult education and agriculture, thus, the number of units of adult education course work completed by the respondents ranged widely from 6 to 27 (Table 11), while the mean number of units completed was fifteen. 30 Table 11 Distribution of Respondents1 Number of Units of Adult Education Courses Completed by Program Program 6-9 units 12-15 units 18-24 units 27 or more units Not Known Total Ed.D. - - 1 1 - 2 M.A. 1 11 12 3 5 32 M.Ed. 2 14 7 2 1 26 M.Sc. 6 2 1 - - 9 Diploma _1 24 _5 30 ' Total 10 51 21 6 11 99 CURRENT OCCUPATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS Occupational characteristics of the respondents were analyzed according to the extent of their work in adult education, the number of hours worked per week, the number of hours worked per week that are specifically related to adult education activities, the number of hours worked per week that are not related to adult education activities, the current ti t l e of their position, their current place of work, the name of their employer, their annual income, and the extent to which they have been occupationally mobile. 31 Extent of Work in Adult Education Sixty-one respondents reported working in adult education at the present time, thirty-nine of whom were working full-time (Table 12). Table 12 Distribution of Respondents' Extent of Work in Adult Education by Program Working in Adult Ed. Not Cur-Full- Part- Not Working rently No Program time time .Student in Adult Ed. Working Response Total Ed.D. 1 - 1 - 2 M.A. 14 6 2 6 2 2 32 M.Ed. 10 6 5 3 2 26 M.Sc. 3 5 1 - - 9 Diploma 11 _5 _- _5 _2 _7 30 Total 39 22 3 17 7 11 99 Number of Hours Worked Per Week Eighty-two of the ninety-nine respondents reported the total number of hours they work'.reach. week. Of a l l respondents, 55 work over forty hours a week, and half of these work fifty or more hours a week (Table 13). However, the mean number of hours worked per week for a l l respondents is 42.9. 32 Table 13 Distribution of Respondents' Total Number of Hours Worked Per Week by Program 1-29 30-39 40-49 50 or more No Program Hours Hours Hours Hours Response Total Ed.D. - - 2 - - 2 M.A. 3 10 7 7 5 32 M.Ed. 2 3 7 9 5 26 M.Sc. 1 2 3 3 - 9 Diploma _1 _5_ _8 _9 _7 30 Total 7 20 27 28 17 99 The respondents were asked to designate how many of their working hours are spent in activities related to adult education and in activities not related to adult education (henceforth: related and non-related activities respectively). The distributions for these hours are found in Tables 14 and 15. They reported spending an average of 25 hours per week in related activities and 18 hours per week in non-related activities. Of the 50 respondents who spend over 20 hours a week in related activities, 25 indicated they spent 40 hours per week or more; however, of the 38 respon-dents who spend over 20 hours in non-related activities, only 7 spent 40 or more hours in these activities. 33 Table 14 Distribution of Respondents' Number of Work Hours Per Week that ARE Related to Adult Education 1-19 20 or More No Program None Hours Hours Response Total Ed.D. - - 1 1 2 M.A. 7 6 16 3 32 M.Ed. 4 6 13 3 26 M.Sc. - 3 6 - 9 Diploma _6 _8 14 _2 30 Total 17 23 50 9 99 Table 15 Distribution of Respondents' Number of Work Hours Per Week t-hat^ AREj-NOT Related /toaAdu'l$u|:duca.xtion 1-19 20 or More No Program None Hours Hours Response Total Ed.D. 1 - - 1 2 M.A. 12 9 8 3 32 M.Ed. 5 5 13 3 26 M.Sc. 3 2 4 - 9 Diploma _ _ _ _ _ 13 _2 30 Total 30 22 38 9 99 34 Title of Current Position in Adult Education An analysis of the(Occupational titles held by the 67 respon-dents who provided this information shows that seven are Professors/ Lecturers or students, and the remaining sixty are p r a c t i c i n g in the field. Of that sixty, the l a r g e s t number (approximately 29%) reported occupations of Teacher/Trainer or Program Director/Assistant Program Director. The other thirty-one reported job titles classified between eight ti t l e categories, each having between 3 and 7 respondents (Table 16). Of the 13 employed as Program Directors/Assistant Program Direc-tors, twice as many are working f u l l time rather than part time, and the Teacher/Trainers are almost evenly split between fu l l time and part time employment. In the title categories of Counsellor/Consultant and Un-classified, more respondents reported working part time than f u l l time, and four of the five Directors of Adult Education reported working f u l l time. Further analysis of Table 16 reveals a wide distribution in occupational categories by program studied. More titles of Program Director/ Assistant Program Director are reported by the M.A. group; the M.Ed, and Diploma group account for 11 of the 16 Teacher/Trainers; and as would be expected, the four Agriculturists are M.Sc. respondents. Place of Employment The majority of the respondents work in large cities with a population of 100,000 or more (Table 17). 35 Table 16 Distribution of Respondents' Position Title by Program Title Ed.D. M.A. M.Ed. M.Sc. Diploma Total Dept. Head or Principal 1 3 - - 4 Director of Adult Education - 1 2 - 2 5 Professor or Lecturer 1 2 - - 1 4 Program Director or Assistant - 5 3 1 4 13 Program Planner or Coordinator - 3 2 - 1 6 Agriculturist - 4 - 4 Teacher or Trainer - 2 6 3 5 16 Counsellor or Con-sultant - 2 2 - 1 5 Unclassified - 4 1 - 2 7 Student - 2 - 1 - 3 Not Applicable 1 8 6 - 7 22 No Response - 2 1 - 7 10 Total 2 32 26 9 30 99 Includes such position titles as Pastor, Industrial Hygienist, Librarian, Liaison Officer. 36 Table 17 Distribution of Respondents' Place of Employment by Program Small Town Program Large City (100,000 or more) Small City (10,000-99,000) or Rural Area (under 10,000) No Response Total Ed.D. 2 - - - 2 M.A. 21 4 - 7 32 M.Ed. 16 5 2 3 26 M.Sc. 4 1 2 2 9 Diploma 15 _6 _3 _6 30 Total 58 16 7 18 99 Current Employers The most common employers are universities with 14, regional or community colleges with 12, and government departments with 10, while public schools employ 15 respondents. This latter figure may be mis-leading since i t includes 5 high school teachers; so the corrected figure for adult practitioners in public schools is ten (Table 18). 37 Table 18 Distribution of Respondents' Employers by Program Agency Ed.D. M.A. M.Ed. M.Sc. Diploma Total Not associated or employed by adult education agency Public School Vocational-Technical School Regional or Community College University Health Agency Voluntary Agency Extension Service Government Dept. Mis cellaneous Student No Response Total 3 2 3 8 2 3 2 1 2 _5 32 1 11 4 1 4 3 1 _1 26 4 1 6 2 5 2 1 1 3 4 _4 30 10 15 12 14 7 4 4 10 6 3 10 99 Includes such agencies as Correctional Institution, Library, Museum, Mass Media/Communication. 38 Income The annual income of the respondents ranged from $2,500 for students to $25,000 for a full', time adult educator. Approximately 47% of the respondents reported earning between $10,000 and $19,999 a year (Table 19). The mean income of a l l the respondents was $13,575. The calculated mean income excluding that of the eight respondents who indicated part time or student salaries under $5,000 was $14,347. Table 19 Distribution of Respondents' Annual Income by Program . Under $5,000- $10,000- $15,000- $20,000 No Program $4,999 9,999 14,999 19,999 or more Response Total Ed.D. _ 2 - 2 M.A. 1 - 7 8 6 10 32 M.Ed. 1 1 7 8 3 6 26 M.Sc. 2 1 4 - 2 9 Diploma A _J. -L 6 10 30 Total 8 5 25 22 11 28 99 The mean salary - f-o r t the _Ed?D. t rrespondents „was $$.21,750, ^for the M.A. respondents was $16,427, for the M.Ed, respondents was $14,993, for the M.Sc. respondents was $8,670, and for the Diploma respondents was $10,568. 39 Occupational Mobility Two c r i t e r i a were used to determine respondents' occupational mobility. These were changes in job t i t l e and changes in employer during three time periods: prior to training, immediately after training and at the present time. Table 20 illustrates the resulting mobility levels. Approximately 37% of the respondents have made at least one or two occu-pational changes since their training (low mobility) and approximately one-third (32%) have made three or four changes (high mobility). These figures, coupled with the fact that almost 55% of the respondents graduated during the past four years, reveal that the respondents are an occupa-tionally mobile group under the present definition. The imosfc mobile group by program studied was the M.A. group, while the leasfcTmo:bilea group was the Diploma group. Table 20 Distribution of Respondents' Occupational Mobility by Program Dow High No Program Non-mobile Mobility Mobility Response Total Ed.D. - 1 1 - . 2 M.A. 7 13 12 - 32 M.Ed. 6 10 8 2 26 M.Sc. . 2 5 2 - 9 Diploma _6 _8 _9 __7 30 Total 21 37 32 9 99 40 SUMMARY The typical graduate in adult education from the University of British Columbia is more likely to be a male than a female, is mar-ried, is thirty-nine years of age, lives in British Columbia, and has one or two children. He practiced for five years in the field of adult education before returning to graduate work at the university. On entering graduate study, he had a Bachelor's degree, and during his program of studies completed fifteen units of adult education course work. He is a recent graduate, having completed his program some-time during the past four years. Holding the title of Program Director/Assistant Program Director or Teacher/Trainer, he is more likely to work fu l l time than part time for a university or a regional or community college located in a large city. On the average, his work week usually consists of about forty-three hours, twenty-five of which are spent in activities that are re-lated to adult education, and eighteen of which are in non-related adult education activities. And finally, he has likely made two occupational changes either in position or in employer in the four years since he has graduated, and earns an annual income of approximately $14,000 a year. CHAPTER IV PATTERNS OF OCCUPATIONAL CHANGE AND PERCEPTIONS OF OCCUPATIONS The f i r s t section of t h i s chapter reviews the occupational back-grounds of the respondents i n an attempt to discover whether any d e f i n i t e career patterns emerge. In the second sec t i o n , the respondents' percep-tions of the prestige of occupations i n adult education are discussed, and i n the f i n a l section, the findings of the analysis of predictors of mobility i n adult education occupations are summarized. OCCUPATIONAL BACKGROUND In order to determine respondents' occupational change patterns since graduation, a comparison was made of several occupational charac-t e r i s t i c s i n three d i f f e r e n t time periods. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s used were job t i t l e , employing agency, place of work, extent of work i n adult education, number of people supervised at work, amount of budget of adult education programs over which they had c o n t r o l , and personal annual income. Information was requested on a l l of the above c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r the time periods before t r a i n i n g , immediately a f t e r t r a i n i n g , and at the present time (July, 1973). 41 42 Position T i t l e Analysis of Table 21 shows that the t i t l e s of Program Director/ Assistant Program Director with 12 before, 13 after and 13 now; and Agriculturist with 4 before, 3 after and 4 now remained relatively consis-tent, although the graduates involved were not necessarily the same individuals. Some noticeable decreases over the three time periods are reported for the t i t l e s of Teacher/Trainer from 20 to 19 to 16, and Director of Adult Education from 9 to 4 to 5. Two t i t l e s showing an increase are those of Department Head/Principal from 1 before and after to 4 now; and of professor/lecturer from 2 before to 4 now. Program Planner/Coordinator was a t i t l e not identified by any respondents before training but has maintained 6 respondents in the two time periods since. Though i t is d i f f i c u l t to see any definite pattern emerging, there appears to be a trend away from t i t l e s of adult education director and teacher to that of department head, principal, program planner or coordinator. Employing Agency The graduates display a definite preference towards government-associated employing agencies. Three of those agencies show a steady inflow of 7 to 8 respondents during the three time periods, the largest being the universities with figures of 6 before, 11 after and 14 at the present time. These findings are perhaps not necessarily preferences of the respondents, but merely an indication of what agencies currently are employing adult educators. 43 Table 21 Distribution of Respondents' Position Titles Over Three Time Periods Title Before Training Immediately After Training Now Department Head/Principal 1 1 4 Director of Adult Education 9 4 5 Professor/Lecturer 2 6 4 Program Director/Assistant Program Director 12 13 13 Program Planner/Coordinator - 6 6 Agriculturist 4 3 4 Teacher/Trainer 20 19 16 Counsellor/Consultant 3 4 5 * Unclassified 10 11 7 Student 1 1 3 Not Applicable 17 15 22 No Response 20 16, 10 Total 99 99 99 Includes such position titles as Pastor, Industrial Hygienist, Librarian, Liaison Officer. 44 Table 22 Distribution of Respondents' Employers Over Three Time Periods Before • Immediately Agency Training After Training Now Not associated/ employed by Adult Education agency 14 5 Public School 27 18 15 Vocational-Technical School 6 6 4 Regional or Community College 5 11 12 University 6 11 14 Health Agency 10 . 8 7 Voluntary Agency 7 4 4 Extension Service 4 4 4 Government Department 3 9 10 * Mis cellaneous 11 6 6 Student 1 4 3 No Response _5 13 10 Total 99 99 99 Includes such employing agencies as Correctional Institution, Library, Museum, Mass Media/Communication Agency 45 On the other hand, those agencies which seem to attract fewer respondents are the public schools and health and voluntary agencies decreasing steadily by 3 or more during each time period. The number of respondents who are not associated or employed by an adult education agency has increased from 5 immediately after training to 11 at the present time, suggesting that training in adult education may conceivably be useful preparation for other employment fields (Table 22). Place of Employment There seems to be l i t t l e difference with regard to patterns of work location over the three time periods although there is a small movement out of small towns or rural areas (16 before to 7 now) and into large cities (51 before to 58 now) (Table 23). Table 23 Distribution of Respondents' Place of Employment Over Three Time Periods Before Immediately Place Training After Training Now Large City 51 52 58 Small City 16 17 - 16 Small town/rural area 16 13 7 No Response _16^  17_ 3-8 Total 99 99 99 46 Extent of Work in Adult Education Analysis of Table 24 shows a definite pattern of greater work involvement by the respondents in adult education immediately after training than before training or at the present time. The percentage of respondents not working in adult education decreased from approxi-mately 20 before to 11 after but increased at the present time to seventeen. Table 24 Distribution of Respondents' Extent of Work in Adult Education Over Three"'Time Periods Extent of Work Before Training Immediately After Training Present Fu l l time 35 40 39 Part time 25 26 22 Student - 1 3 Not working in Adult Education 20 11 17 Not Working 8 8 7 No Response 11 13 11 Total 99 99 99 Both f u l l time and part time work in adult education increased from 35% and 25% respectively to 40% and 26% immediately after training but both have decreased again at the present time to 39% and 22%. Possible explanations for this present trend of lesser involvement in adult edu-cation are that some respondents studied adult education as an adjunct 47 to their expertise in some other f i e l d and had never intended to work in adult education; or secondly, that once working in the f i e l d of adult education they became disenchanted with i t and moved out for a time; or thirdly, that no jobs were available to them in the f i e l d . However, such explanations are speculative in that the respondents who accounted for these moves were not always the same individuals. Areas of Work Responsibility Approximately 40% of the respondents supplied information about the number of people they supervised at work for the three time periods, and approximately 43% replied to the question asking the budget of the adult education programs over which they had control. A comparison of the average number of employees supervised for the three time periods .indicates that the 40 respondents have less super-visory responsibility at the present time (Table 25). It would appear that the time devoted to increasing one's professional competence i s associated with a pattern of less supervisory responsibility following this training. Table 25 Respondents Mean Number Supervised at Work and Mean Amount of Budget Controlled -Three Time Periods Before After Now Mean Number supervised at work 27.5 22.4 30.9 Mean Amount of budget of adult education programs controlled $66,577 $260,287 $322,653 48 While only 43% of the respondents have budgetary responsibili-ties, there is a substantial increase in the size of the budget they control over the three time periods. It is d i f f i c u l t to deduce conclu-sions regarding the amounts reported since they may represent estimates rather than actual amounts known to the respondents. Income The annual incomes of the seventy respondents who provided this data rose steadily over the three time periods. Average incomes increased by approximately $1,350 from $8,170 before training to $9,539 immediately after training and then by $4,100 to $13,575 at the present time. It is d i f f i c u l t to determine whether this pattern of increasing annual incomes is due to general economic inflationary trends, or to incremental salary adjustments for increased educational preparation, or to a combination of both these factors. In summary, the respondents in this study show f a i r l y definite patterns of change in the occupational characteristics of: type of employing agency, extent of work in adult education, areas of respon-s i b i l i t y (number supervised and amount of budget controlled), and income. Less definite patterns of change occur in t i t l e of job position and place of employment. The career changes as reported by the respondents of this study cannot be compared with the findings of Damon (5) and London (18) and demonstrate the need for more thorough investigations of career changes of professionally prepared adult educators. 49 PERCEPTIONS OF PRESTIGE IN ADULT EDUCATION OCCUPATIONS As well as gaining a perspective about the graduates' career changes over time, i t was considered equally important to identify the graduates' opinions about the prestige of occupations in adult education. This section tests the hypothesis that there are s t a t i s t i c a l l y signi-ficant differences in the graduates' perceptions of prestige of their occupations during the four time periods of: before training, imme-diately after training, at the present time, and future career aspirations. The f i r s t step in the procedure was to compute for every respon-dent four occupational prestige scores, one for each of the time periods outlined above. The scores were calculated by asking the graduates a) to identify the t i t l e of the position he held in each of the four time periods, _i) to assign to each position a prestige rating on a scale from one to ten, and c) to state the percentage of time he spent i n activities related to adult education in each position. The figures thus obtained were then multiplied to give one prestige score per time period for each respondent for a possible score ranging from 1 to 1,000. Data were provided by approximately the same numbers of respondents who indicated that they were working in adult education in the f i r s t three time periods, and the number decreased by two for career aspirations. Table 26 depicts the respondents ratings of the prestige of their occupations. Ratings were consistently higher as time progressed from 5.8 before training to 8.2 for their career aspirations. The amount of variance in the ratings, reported by the s;tand;arjdv\dey.ia'it;ioins-,.ur.emained 50 constant at 2.3 in the first three time periods, but decreased to 1.8 for career aspirations. This suggests that the respondents agree more about the prestige ratings for career aspiration positions than they do about the positions they occupied during the first three time periods. Table 26 Respondents' Mean Prestige Ratings of Position Over Four Time Periods Time Period N Mean Rating Standard Deviation Before Training 63 5.8 2.3 Immediately After Training 62 6.6 2.3 Present 60 7.0 2.3 Future Aspirations 60 8.2 1.8 The percentage of time reported spent in activities related to adult education increased over the first two time periods from 63.9 to 72.5, then decreased to 67.1 at the present time, then increased con-siderably for career aspirations to 84.9 (Table 27). Once again the lowest standard deviation occurred for the career aspirations time period, implying that the respondents had greater agreement about the percentage of time in adult education activities for their future job positions than any other time period. The hypothesis, to determine,if any statistically significant differences exist in graduates' perceptions of the prestige of their 51 occupations during four time periods, was tested using one way analysis of variance (9) and t-test (8) procedures. Results of the analysis of variance test produced an F ratio of 8.22, which was not significant at the .05 level, and the hypothesis was not accepted using this pro-cedure. Table 27 Respondents1 Mean Percentage of Time in Adult Education Activities Over Four Time Periods Time Period N Mean % Standard Deviation Before Training 63 63.9 36.6 Immediately After Training 62 72.5 31.9 Present 60 67.1 33.2 Future Aspirations 60 84.9 22.7 Analysis was continued by placing the prestige scores into three groups: before vs after; after vs present and present vs future and subjecting these groupings to separate t-tests. Table 28 shows the values of t that were obtained, two of the three being significant at the .01 level. These findings disclose that respondents perceived the occupation they held immediately after training to be significantly more prestigous than the one they held before training; and the occupation to which they aspire to have significantly more prestige than the one they presently hold. On the other hand, the respondents do not perceive 52 the occupation they presently hold as having more prestige than the one they held immediately after training. Therefore, the hypothesis is accepted for the before vs after and present vs future occupations and rejected for the after vs present occupations. Table 28 Respondents' Occupational Prestige Score Means and Grouped t-values Over Four Time Periods Time Period N Standard Score Means Deviation t-test values Before Training 63 404.6 Immediately After Training 62 518.9 Present 60 502.2 Future Aspirations 60. 666.8 2.14 0.31 3.08 PREDICTORS OF MOBILITY IN OCCUPATIONS Twenty-four independent variables were analyzed in a stepwise regressions program (3) to test the hypothesis that educational vari-ables are greater predictors of occupational mobility of adult educators than socio-economic or occupational variables. There were five educa-tional, six socio-economic, and thirteen occupational variables. Educational 1. No. of years of previous schooling. 2. No. of units of adult education course work completed. 3. No. of hours per week in a l l continuing learning activities. 53 Socio-economic Occupational 4. Percentage of hours in continuing learning activities that is specifically related to adult education. 5. No. hours per week in continuing adult edu-cation learning a c t i v i t i e s . 6. .No. of years since graduation. 7. Age on graduation. 8. No. of dependents 9. Annual income prior to training. 10. Annual income after training. 11. Annual income at the present time. 12. No. years experience in adult education prior to training. 13. No. supervised at work prior to training. 14. No. supervised at work after training. 15. No. supervised at work at the present time. 16. Amount of budget controlled prior to training. 17. Amount of budget controlled after training. 18. Amount of budget controlled at the present time. 19. Prestige score of occupation before training. 20. Prestige score of occupation after training. 21. Prestige score of occupation at the present time. 22. Total no. of hours worked per week. 23. No. of hours of work per week that are not related to adult education ac t i v i t i e s . 24. No. of hours of work per week that are related to adult education. Calculation of a stepwise regression u t i l i z i n g a five percent level of significance determined that the following variables were signi-ficant predictors in this order: - number of hours of work not related to adult education activities (variable #23) - amount of budget controlled immediately after training -(variable #17) - the number of years since graduation (variable #6) These three variables accounted for 24.78 percent of the variation in the dependent variable mobility leaving 75.22 percent attributable to factors other than these three. 54 Table 29 Percentage of Variation in Occupational Mobility and Factors Accounting for the Variation Regression Inclusion Final Cumulative Variable Step No. Step Step Percent of Variation No. hours of work in a c t i -vities not related to adult education 1 Amount of budget controlled in position held immediately after training 2 No. of years since graduation 3 No. people supervised in posi-tion held immediately after training 4 No. units of adult education courses completed 5 No. people supervised in position held at present 5 No. dependents 7 Amount of budget controlled in present position 7 No. hours of work in activities that are related to adult education 7 .0085 .0247 .0428 .0565 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0056 11.47 .0000 19.03 .0000 24.78 .0000 29.61 .0000 .0000. .0000 .0000 .0000 J} 52.46 96.52 55 The analysis was repeated with an F probability of .10. At this level, the stepwise regression program selected the following va r i -ables in the order li s t e d : - the number of people supervised in the position held immediately after training (#14), - the number of adult education units completed (#2), - the number of people supervised in the position held at the present time (#15), - the number of dependents (#8), - the amount of budget controlled in the position held at the present time (#18), - the number of hours of work that are related to adult education activities (#24), (Table 29). In step six of the program, the variable of the number of years since graduation was rejected, which at that stage in the analysis had an F probability of .7935. This means that the best predictor of mobility in occupations is the number of years since graduation and that together the other eight variables accounted for only the remaining 17.17 percent of the total variance which was 96.52. The hypothesis that educational variables are greater predictors of occupational mobility than socio-economic or occupational variables was rejected on the basis of the predictive power of these nine stated variables at the .10 level of significance. SUMMARY The findings of the f i r s t section of this chapter suggest that a f a i r l y definite pattern of occupational change appears to be developing with regard to employing agencies, extent of work in adult education, 56 numbers supervised at work, amount of budget controlled at work, and income. Less definite patterns were displayed in position t i t l e and place of employment. Respondents perceived the occupations they held immediately after training to have significantly more prestige than the one they held before training and the occupation to which they aspire to have significantly more prestige than the one they presently hold. They do not, however, perceive their present occupation to have more prestige than the one they held immediately after training. Of five educational, six socio-economic, and thirteen occupational variables studied by multiple regression analysis to determine predictors of occupational mobility, one educational, one socio-economic, and seven occupational variables were selected as predictors. The greatest single predictor was the socio-economic variable of number of years since graduation. CHAPTER V OCCUPATIONAL ACTIVITIES During the last decade, a great deal of research has been con-ducted to investigate desirable attributes and competencies of the adult educator (1)(4)(14)(19)(26)(29). These research studies, with few excep-tions (14)(26), have delineated adult educators' perceptions of what their work activities ought to be rather than what their specific work activities actually are. Since research has been noticeably deficient in this area of work performance, the third purpose identified for the present study was to describe the adult education work activities cur-rently being performed by practicing adult educators. The data will be reported in two sections: the first section analyzes the work activities of a l l the respondents, while the final section analyzes work activities according to graduate program completed. Sifety-f^e-cQs&tt^SsixtyxOjaesre^nondejitSjc^ho^a-reswo.rLkinge v?" < in adult education supplied information about their work activities. Three of the respondents indicated that the distributions of weekly working hours they reported were only estimates, because the nature of their work varied from one week to another and did not lend itself to such detailed analysis. 57 58 THE WORK ACTIVITIES LIST When designing the questionnaire, i t was decided to develop a l i s t of work activities to record the responses rather than have each respondent describe his work activities and have those interpreted by the researcher. It was thought that fewer omissions and greater data r e l i a b i l i t y would result from this procedure. This samellistoofrTWdrk activities was also ut i l i z e d to identify adequacy of preparation and learning needs and to investigate relationships between these and time spent in work activities in a later part of the study. The work activities l i s t was developed i n i t i a l l y by reviewing previous studies of competencies, functions and behaviors of adult edu-cators for common behavioral items. The fi n a l l i s t of activities was prepared after consultation with several adult educators and colleagues. The resulting l i s t satisfied two main c r i t e r i a : i t was broad in scope and i t was relevant to the occupations in which the responding graduates were l i k e l y to be involved. WORK ACTIVITIES OF ALL RESPONDENTS The respondents were asked to state the number of hours they spent each week in activities directly related to adult education; then they were asked to distribute these working hours among the fourteen work activities on the l i s t . The mean number of hours per week in each See questionnaire (Appendix B, page 103). 59 of the fourteen activities was computed, and the means were then rank-ordered. A summary of the findings is shown in Table 30. The work activity which the respondents reported devoting most time to was that of instructing groups of adults, with a mean of 7 hours a week. Providing counselling for adults with a mean of 6.8 hours per week was second. Next in the order of frequency were establishing and main-taining interpersonal relationships (x = 4.9 hours), planning and de-veloping adult education programs (x = 4.6 hours), and continuing their own education (x = 3.4 hours). The respondents devoted the least time (x = 1.7 hours) to pro-ducing mass media programs for adults and to determining community needs for adult education programs (x = 1.2 hours per week). The remaining activities had means of between 2.2 to 2.9 working hours per week. These findings are quite different from the work activities that might be expected i f Chamberlains' (4) and Aker's (1) l i s t s of desirable behaviors and competencies areetakennassaaguidec.. Sirice^the-respondents were not requested to place priorities on the l i s t of a c t i -vities using c r i t e r i a other than time, a useful exercise in the future might be to compare respondents real time distributions with their ideal time distributions on the work activities l i s t . Table 30 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Mean Number of Hours i n Work A c t i v i t i e s Per Week and Mean Rank For a l l Respondents by Program A l l Respondents M.A. M.Ed. M.Sc. Diploma Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean no. hrs. Rank no. hrs. Rank no. hrs. Rank no. hrs. Rank no. hrs. Rank A c t i v i t y ( N - 5 5 ) (N = 17) (N = 15) (N •= 7) (N = 16) Planning and developing adult education programs 4.6 4 7.5 1 3.6 7 1.6 8 3.5 4 Developing i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials Evaluating adult education programs 2.6 9 2.5 9 2.8 8 3.3 4 2.3 10 2.2 12 2.2 11 2.0 12 1.1 13 2.8 7 Determining community needs for adult education programs 2.0 13 2.3 10 1.1 13 1.6 9 3.0 6 Establishing and maintaining interpersonal r e l a t i o n s h i p s 4.9 3 2.5 ' 8 5.4 3 1.7 6 8.6 2 Instructing groups of adults 7.0 1 5.7 2 6.9 1 7.7 .1 8.0 3 Producing mass media programs for adults 1.7 14 .3 14 5.8 2 .3 14 .2 14 Providing counselling for adults 6.8 2 5 . 1 - 3 5.1 4 5.9 2 12.7 P u b l i c i z i n g and promoting adult education programs 2.3 11 1.9 12 3.7 6 1.3 12 1.6 12 Recruiting and super-v i s i n g i n s t r u c t o r s 2.6 10 3.3 7 2.5 11 1.7 6 1.8 11 Supervising c l e r i c a l and . s e c r e t a r i a l s t a f f 2.9 7 3.9 4 2.6 10. 1.5 11 2.7 Preparing and presenting administrative reports 3.0 6 1.9 12 2.7 9 5.9 2 2.8 Planning and conducting research studies 2.6 8 3.9 5 .7 14 3.0 5 1.5 13 Continuing your own education 3.4 5 3.8 6 4.2 5 1.5 10 3.4 5 61 WORK ACTIVITIES OF RESPONDENTS OF DIFFERENT PROGRAMS The respondents were classified into the four programs from which they graduated for further analysis of the work activity data. (The data of the one respondent from the doctoral program were included with that of the M.A. group.) Using the same procedures for analysis, the work activities of each group w i l l be described and then compared, to determine whether there were differences in the respondents' work a c t i -v i t i e s by program of graduation (Table 30). The Master of Arts Group Planning and developing adult education programs (x-= 7.5 hours per week) was the activity to which most time was devoted, while i n -structing (x = 5.7 hours) and counselling (x = 5.1 hours) ranked second and third respectively. Supervising c l e r i c a l and secretarial staff (x = 3.9 hours) ranked fourth, planning and conducting research (x = 3.9) f i f t h , and continuing education (x = 3.8) sixth for the M.A. respondents. The activity to which the M.A. group devoted least time was the production of mass media programs with a mean of only .3 hours per week. Publicizing and promoting a c t i v i t i e s , and preparing and presenting admin-istrative reports were devoted the next least time at work by the M.A. group each with means. The Master of Education Group Four work acti v i t i e s were ranked high in terms of hours per week devoted to adult education activities by the M.Ed, group. Instructing was ranked f i r s t with a mean of 6.9 hours per week, producing mass media 62 programs ranked second (x = 5.8 hours), establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships ranked third (x = 5.4 hours), and providing counselling fourth (x = 5.1 hours). Continuing education activities ranked f i f t h for the M.Ed, group and they reported spending a mean of 4.2 hours a week in this work activity. Together these five activities account for a mean of 26.5 of the M.Ed, groups' reported hours in adult education activities and the remaining hours are spread evenly over a variety of six other lis t e d a c t i v i t i e s . The two activities which this group reported spending least time on were planning and conducting research (x = .7 hours) and determining community needs (x = 1.1 hours). (Table 30). Instructing groups of adults ranked highest as the activity to which the M.Sc. respondents devoted most time (x = 7.7 hours per week). Providing counselling and preparing and presenting administrative reports were both ranked second with a mean of 5.9 hours per week devoted to each. The act i v i t i e s which M.Sc. respondents devoted the least amount of time to were producing mass media programs (x = .3 hours) and evalu-ating adult education programs (x = 1.1 hours). With the exception of developing instructional materials (x = 3.3 hours), and planning and con-ducting research (x = 3.0 hours), approximately 1.5 hours was the average time spent in the remaining six work activities l i s t e d . (Table 30). The Diploma Group The activity in which the diploma group spent most of their time 63 time (x = 12.7 hours) was providing counselling for adults. NextLhighest in the ranking were the work activities of establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships (x = 8.6 hours) and instructing adults (x = 8.0 hours). A l l the other activities received less than 3.5 hours per week. The lowest ranked activitieslweise produe-irigcmassmmediaedia programs (x = .2 hours) and planning and conducting research (x = 1.5 hours). (Table 30) . Comparisons of the Work Activities of the Four Groups Table 30 also shows the rankings of the mean number of hours spent in each activity for a l l respondents. v No single work activity was ranked the same by a l l four respondent groups, although there was some general indication by a l l groups that instructing and counselling were those to which they devoted most of their time. Three of the groups spent the least amount of time producing mass media programs for adults while this activity was allotted the second largest amount of time by the M.Ed, group. This i s partly explained by the fact that one M.Ed, respondent spent a l l his work time in this activity. Again, the M.Ed, group ranked publicizing and promoting programs sixth but the other groups ranked this activity twelfth. Preparing and presenting administrative reports was ranked second by the M.Sc. group, but eighth or above by the other three respondent groups. A Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient procedure (28) was applied to the rankings of work activities by the four respondent groups to test the hypothesis that graduates of different programs w i l l perform 64 different occupational activities. The levels of significance used were .01 and .05. Table 31 reports the tabulated correlation matrix. Table 31 Spearman's Rank Correlation Matrix of Work Activities for Four Respondent Groups M.A. M.Ed. M.Sc. Diploma M.A. 1.0 M.Ed. .13 1.0 M.Sc. ,45 .15 1.0 Diploma .55 .38 .40 1.0 Underlined coefficients are significant at the .05 level. Coefficients of .45 between the M.Sc. group and the M.A. group, of .40 between the M.Sc. group and the Diploma group, and of .55 between the M.A. and the Diploma group were statistically significant at the .05 level. These findings indicate that the M.Sc, M.A. , and Diploma respondent groups' perform related occupational activities and do not significantly differ with one another. The analysis resulted in non-significant correlation coefficients between the M.Ed, and M.A. groups, between the M.Ed, and M.Sc. groups and between the M.Ed, and Diploma groups. As a result, the M.Ed, respon-dent group performed different occupational activities from the three other groups. Therefore, the hypothesis that graduates of different 6 5 programs w i l l perform different occupational activities is rejected for a l l but the graduates of the M.Ed, program. SUMMARY The total respondent group reported devoting the most time to work activities of instructing adults, counselling adults, establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships, planning and developing adult education programs and continuing their own education in that order. Work activities to which they devoted least time were producing mass media programs and determining community needs #h_^h<rankedirl3L/and 14 respectively. The M.A. respondent group reported devoting most of their time to activities of planning and developing adult education programs, i n -structing adults and counselling adults. This group spent the least amount of time in work activities of producing mass media programs, (ranked 14), publicizing and promoting programs, and preparing and presenting administrative reports (each ranked 13). The M.Ed, respondent group devoted most of their time to work activities of instructing adults, producing mass media programs, estab-lishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships, and counselling adults. They devoted least amount of time to work activities of planning and conducting research and determining community needs. For the M.Sc. respondents most time was devoted to work activities of instructing adults, counselling adults and preparing and presenting administrative reports (each ranked 2), and least amount of time to producing mass media programs and evaluating adult education programs. 66 The Diploma respondent group reported devoting most of their time to work activities of counselling adults, establishing and main-taining interpersonal relationships, and instructing adults in that order. They devoted least time to producing mass media programs and planning and conducting research. Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient was used to determine whether the occupational activities of the graduates of the four pro-grams differ. Findings revealed that the respondents in the M.A., M.Sc, and Diploma groups perform significantly related a c t i v i t i e s . Activities performed by the respondents in the M.Ed, group are not significantly related to those performed by the other three groups and therefore are significantly different. CHAPTER VI ADEQUACY OF PREPARATION, LEARNING NEEDS, AND PARTICIPATION IN CONTINUING LEARNING ACTIVITIES The respondents1 opinions about the adequacy of their preparation for adult education activities, and the relationship between these and the activities performed at work are discussed in this chapter. Then the perceived learning needs of the respondents and the relationship between learning needs and activities performed at work are identified. The next section discusses the relationship between respondents' opinions about the adequacy of their preparation and their perceived learning needs for adult education activities, while the final section contains a description of the respondents participation in continuing learning activities. ADEQUACY OF TRAINING AND RELATIONSHIP TO WORK ACTIVITIES Adequacy of Training Using the l i s t of fourteen work activities the graduates were asked to indicate whether they felt their preparation for each activity had been Highly Adequate, Adequate, Inadequate or Highly Inadequate. 67, 68 These descriptions were then rated 4,3,2 and 1 respectively. From these ratings means could be determined for each item, and subsequently a rank ordering of the 14 adequacy means could be tabulated. Of the 87 respondents who supplied data regarding adequacy of preparation, the number of those who responded to each item varied. This is perhaps due to the fact that the l i s t contained items concerning activities for which the department does not give courses, as for example, supervision of c l e r i c a l and secretarial staff. Some respondents also reported that they elected not to study certain courses offered by the department, and this accounted for some inconsistencies in the number of responses to those act i v i t i e s . Since the amount of variance of response between adequacy and inadequacy was restricted to a range of numerical values between 3 and 2, -the value of 2.5 was chosen as the decisive point. Means of 2.5 or above indicated activities for which the graduates f e l t adequately pre-pared, while those below 2.5 were those for which they f e l t inadequately prepared. Table 32 reports the distribution of respondents' scores, the computed means and the rank-order for the a c t i v i t i e s . Ten of the fourteen activities received means of 2.5 or above, indicating that the respondents f e l t that their training had been adequate for these act i v i t i e s . Of these ten, the activity for which the respon-dents f e l t they were best prepared was continuing their own education with a mean of 3.46; consequently, the training the respondents received appears to have prepared them to be continuous learners. The respondents also f e l t more than adequately prepared to plan and develop adult education programs and to instruct groups of adults, the mean for each being 3.04. Table 32 Distribution of Scores, Means and Mean Ranks of Adequacy of Preparation for a l l Respondents Item Highly Adequate (4) Adequate (3) Inadequate (2) Highly Inadequate (1) Mean Score Rank Planning and developing adult edu-cation programs 24 45 11 6 3.04 2 Developing instructional materials 6 . 30 37 8 2.58 10 Evaluating adult education programs 17 44 18 5 2.68 7 Determining community needs for adult education programs 14 43 27 2 2.76 6 Establishing and maintaining inter-personal relationships 14 39 27 8 2.59 9 Instructing groups of adults 31 39 11 • 6 3.04 2 Producing mass media programs for :..dults 8 33 33 7 3.00 4 Providing counselling for adults 8 19 35 24 2.32 11 Publicizing and promoting adult education programs 6 40 28 9 2.64 8 Recruiting and supervising instructors. 3 18 39 20 2.13 13 Supervising clerical and secre-tar ia l staff 3 8 38 28 1. 74 14 Preparing and presenting adminis-trative reports 4 28 33 16 2.21 12 Planning and conducting research studies 24 45 12 6 2.84 5 Continuing your own education 40 44 1 2 3.46 fr 1 70 The four activities for which the respondents f e l t inadequately prepared were supervising c l e r i c a l and secretarial staff (x = 1.74), recruiting and supervising instructors (x = 2.13), preparing and presen-ting administrative reports (x = 2.21), and providing counselling for adults (x = 2.32). The f i r s t three activities are s t r i c t l y adminis-trative activities for which no formal educational preparation is offered by the department. Relationship of Adequacy Scores to Work Activities A correlation matrix of the number of hours graduates spent in work activities and their adequacy scores was computed, using Jaspen's Coefficient of Multiserial Correlation, M (8), to determine the relation-ship between the work activities the graduates perform and the adequacy of their preparation for those act i v i t i e s . The level of significance used was .01, since the number of observations for each activity was limited to a range of 38 to 45. The results show that there were five significant negative correlations between work activities and adequacy of preparation (Table 33). Respondents who spent more work time counselling adults f e l t less adequately prepared to instruct, to do administrative reporting and to continue their own education. The more work time respondents spent determining community needs the less adequately prepared they f e l t to evaluate adult education programs. Lastly, the more work time they spent continuing their own education the less adequately prepared they f e l t to instruct adults. An equally probable interpretation of these findings is the converse; that i s , for the last reported significant 71 relationship, the more adequately instructing adults, the less work education. prepared the respondents f e l t in time they spent continuing their own Table 33 Jaspen's Coefficients of Multiserial Correlation for Work Activities and Adequacy^of Preparation - A l l Respondents Determining-community needs for adult edu-cation programs Providing counselling for adults Continuing your own education Evaluating adult edu-cation programs -.4260 Instructing groups of adults -.5193 -.4312 Preparing and presen-ting adminis-trative reports -.5171 Continu-ing your own edu-cation -.4103 N ranged between 38 to 45. A l l coefficients significant at the .01 level. One observation that can be noted about these results i s the absence of any significant positive relationships. Referring to the previous chapter where the respondents reported devoting the most time to the activity of instructing and to the adequacy ranking, where i n -structing was ranked second, i t would be reasonable to expect a positive correlation between the two. The fact that this did not occur suggests that those respondents who ranked the adequacy of preparation for instructing highly may not have been those who spend their work time engaged in this activity. Secondly, a negative correlation was expected to occur between the ranking of adequacy of preparation for counselling (eleventh) and the work activity of counselling, reported as having the second largest amount of work time devoted to i t . This indicates that those who ranked the adequacy of preparation for counselling as inadequate were probably not those who spend work time in that activity. A Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient r g (28), using the .01 level of significance was used to test the hypothesis that there w i l l be a positive relationship between the occupational activities performed by the graduates and their perceptions of the adequacy of their preparation for those activities. The analysis resulted in a coefficient of .07 which was not significant and, therefore, the hypo-thesis was rejected (Table 34). Table 34 Spearman s Rank Correlation Matrix of Work Activities, Adequacy of Preparation and Learning Needs ~":Wbrk Adequacy of Learning activities preparation Needs Work activities 1.0 Adequacy of preparation .07 1.0 Learning needs -.11 1-0 Underlined coefficient significant at .01 level. LEARNING NEEDS AND RELATIONSHIP TO WORK ACTIVITIES 73 Learning Needs Once again, using the work activities l i s t , the graduates were asked whether the extent of their learning need was considerable, moderate, very l i t t l e or none for each of the 14 items. These four descriptors were then assigned ratings of 4,3,2 and 1 respectively so that means could be determined for each item and a rank-ordering of the 14 learning need scores could be obtained. Means of 2.5 or above indicated activities for which learning needs were stronger, and means below 2.5 indicated activities for which l i t t l e or no learning needs were reported. Table 35 reports the frequency distribution for each of the fourteen learning needs of the 84 respondents. Eleven of the 14 a c t i -vities had a mean of 2.50 and over, suggesting that the respondents f e l t that they s t i l l needed to learn at least a moderate amount about the majority of their work act i v i t i e s . The strongest learning need identi-fied by the respondents was continuing their own education, with a mean of 3.17. The two activities respondents reported as their next strongest learning needs were planning and developing adult education programs and determining community needs for adult education programs each with means of 3.04. Only three activities were reported for which l i t t l e learning needs were f e l t . These were evaluating programs (x = 2.30), recruiting and supervising instructors (x = 2.30), and supervising c l e r i c a l and secretarial staff (x = 2.08). Table 35 Distribution of Scores, Means, and Ranks for A l l Respondents Learning Needs -Item Considerable (4) Moderate (3) Very Litt le (2) None (1) Mean Score Rank Planning and developing adult edu-cation programs 18 36 23 6 3.04 2 Developing instructional materials 20 34 24 6 2.96 4 Evaluating adult education programs 22 29 27 6 2.30 12 Determining community needs for adult education programs • 22 32 22 8 3.04 2 Establishing and maintaining inter-personal relationships 15 31 31 8 2.50 11 Instructing groups of adults 13 31 26 14 2.80 8 Producing mass media programs for adults 23 25 19 15 2.91 5 Providing counselling for adults 23 . 21 29 10 2.65 9 Publicizing and promoting adult education programs 14 30 26 13 2.87 7 Recruiting and supervising instructors 6 28 32 17 2.30 12 Supervising clerical and secre-taria l staff 8 20 33 23 2.08 14 Preparing and presenting adminis-trative reports 12 28 30 14 2.52 10 Planning and conducting research studies 16 34 27 7 2.91 5 Continuing your own education 26 32 15 11 3.17 1 75 Relationship of Learning Needs to Work Activities A correlation matrix of the number of hours the respondents spent in work activities and their learning need scores was computed, using Jaspen's Coefficient of Multiserial Correlation, M (8), to deter-mine the relationship between the work activities performed by the respondents and their learning needs for those ac t i v i t i e s . The .02 level of significance was used because the number of observations was limited to between tih-irty-four to fifty-four. The results show five significant correlations between work activities and learning needs, three of which were positive correlations and two of which were negative (Table 36). Two of the activities were positively correlated with each other. These two were developing i n -structional materials and providing counselling for adults, indicating that the more time the respondents spent in these activities the more they fel t they needed to learn about those particular a c t i v i t i e s . The other positive correlation was between planning programs and evaluating adult education programs, which suggests that those who spend time planning adult education programs f e l t they needed to learn more about evaluative aspects of program planning. There was a negative correlation between the adequacy of planning and conducting research, and the learning need for planning and conduc-ting research. Therefore, the more time the respondents' spent in research activities at work the less they f e l t they needed to learn about i t , or the reverse, the more f e l t they needed to learn about research activities the less time they devote to research activities 76 at work. A negative correlation also existed between planning adult education programs and providing counselling for adults, suggesting that program planners do not feel much need to learn about counselling. Table 36 Jaspen's Coefficients of Multiserial Correlation for Work Activities and Learning Needs -A l l Respondents* Developing instructional Work Activities materials Evaluating adult edu-cation programs Providing counsel-ling for adults Planning and con-ducting research studies Planning and developing adult education programs .3463 -.3258 Developing instructional materials .3996 Providing counselling for adults .3663 Planning and conducting research studies -.4242 N ranged from 34 to 54. A l l coefficients significant at the .02 level. Finally, Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient, r , (28) using the .01 l e v e l o f significance was used to test the hypothesis that there w i l l be a negative relationship between the occupational activities performed.by the graduates and their perceptions of their learning needs for those act i v i t i e s . The resulting coefficient of -.11 was not significant and therefore this hypothesis was rejected (Table 34). I RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ADEQUACY AND LEARNING NEED RANKINGS 77 Respondents ranked four activities the same for their opinions of the adequacy of preparation and their perceived learning needs. Continuing their own education was ranked f i r s t as the activity for which they f e l t most adequately prepared and for which they perceived their strongest learning need. Supervising c l e r i c a l and secretarial staff ranked last as the activity for which respondents f e l t least adequately prepared and for which they perceived l i t t l e learning need (Tables 32 and 35). Three other activities obtained close adequacy and learning need rankings: producing mass media programs (A-4, LN-5), publicizing and promoting programs (A-8, LN-7), and recruiting and supervising instructors (A-13, LN-12). A l l other activities differed by 2 to 6 rankings. In order to test the hypothesis that there w i l l be a negative relationship between the graduates' perceptions of their adequacy of preparation and their perceptions of their learning needs, a Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient, r , was computed using the .01 level of s significance (Table 34). The resulting coefficient of .63 was signi-ficant, and therefore this particular hypothesis was rejected. For this respondent group there is a positive relationship between their perceptions of the adequacy of their preparation and their perceptions of their learning needs. PARTICIPATION IN CONTINUING LEARNING ACTIVITIES Graduates were asked to indicate the number of hours per week they spent in a l l continuing learning a c t i v i t i e s , and the percentage of these hours which was directly related to the content of adult edu-cation. Eighty-seven of the ninefeypninlejnr.espojndenlgsj sjipplfied-athis data. The data reveal that respondents spend a mean of 9.1 hours per week in a l l continuing learning a c t i v i t i e s . Approximately 45% of this figure or 4.2 hours is spent in activities that are directly related to adult education (Table 37). The respondents were then asked to distribute their hours in continuing learning activities that are directly related to adult edu-cation over seven activities (Table 37). Analysis of this data shows respondents reporting a total number of hours that exceeds the total numbers reported in the previous question. Results of the findings of this section w i l l be reported but must be considered questionable in view of this inconsistency. The continuing learning activity allotted the most time per week is independent study projects with a mean of 4.3 hours per week. Respondents devote the next most time to research activities (x = 3.1 hours), credit courses (x = 2.3 hours), reading adult or continuing education journals (x = 2.2 hours), and reading other professional journals (x = 2.1 hours). Activities of participating in workshops or short courses (x = 1.4 hours) and participating in programs sponsored by professional adult education associations (x = .7 hours) have the least amount of time devoted to them. Table 37 Distribution of Mean Number Hours Per Week Spent in Continuing Learning Activities -A l l Respondents* No. hrs./week in a l l continuing learning activities 9.4 hrs % of continuing learning activities specifically related to adult education 45.5% No. hrs./week in continuing learning activities specifically related to adult education 4.2 hrs - Reading adult or continuing education journals 2.2 hrs - Attending short courses, workshops related to adult education 1.4 hrs - Attending programs sponsored by professional adult education associations .7 hrs - Credit courses in adult education 2.3 hrs - Independent study projects 4.3 hrs - Other: - research activities 3.1 hrs - reading other professional journals 2.1 hrs 80 SUMMARY Respondents generally f e l t adequately prepared to perform 10 of the 14 listed work act i v i t i e s . They f e l t most adequately prepared to continue their own education and to plan and develop adult education programs; while they f e l t least adequately prepared to supervise c l e r i c a l and secretarial staff and recruit and supervise instructors. There was no relationship between the occupational activities performed by the respondents and their perceptions of the adequacy of their preparation for those ac t i v i t i e s . The respondents f e l t they needed to learn at least a moderate amount for 11 of the 14 l i s t e d work ac t i v i t i e s . Strongest learning needs were identified for continuing their own education, planning and developing adult education programs, and determining community needs for adult education programs. Respondents reported feeling l i t t l e learning need for activities of supervising c l e r i c a l and secretarial staff, recruiting and supervising instructors and evaluating adult education programs. There was no relationship between the occupational activities performed by the respondents and their perceptions of their learning needs for those a c t i v i t i e s . Activities ranked f i r s t and second as most adequate in preparation also ranked f i r s t and second as strongest learning needs, and the activity ranked least adequate in preparation ranked as the least learning need. There was a positive relationship between the respondents perceptions of the adequacy of their preparation and their perceptions of their learning needs in adult education ac t i v i t i e s . 81 . Respondents reported spending a mean of 9.1 hours per week in a l l continuing learning a c t i v i t i e s , approximately half of which was in activ i t i e s which were directly related to adult education content. Findings of this section are doubtful however, because of inconsistencies in responses by the respondents. CHAPTER VII SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Procedure During the months of June, July, and August 1973, data were collected by means of a mailed questionnaire, telephone interviews, and departmental records from graduates of adult education programs at the University of British Columbia. Ninety-nine questionnaires, a response of 75%, were returned. Socio-economic data were obtained under the broad categories of personal, educational, and current occupational characteristics to dfteyjil'oip a demographic and occupational profile of the graduates. Bivariate tables were produced comparing the graduates of five different programs (Doctor of Education, Master of Arts, Master of Education, Master of Science Agriculture, and Diploma in Adult Education) by seyenspersonaledtwotedueational7 andusevennoecupa.tibmal.variables. Occupational data were obtained for three time periods : before training, immediately after training, and at present to determine graduates' patterns of occupational change. Respondents' perceptions of prestige in adult education occupa-tions were described. Analysis of variance and t-test procedures (8)(9) 82 83 were employed to determine whether there were any significant d i f f e r -ences in graduates' perceptions of prestige in their occupations during four time periods: before training, immediately after training, at present, and future career aspirations. Twenty-four independent variables were analyzed in a step-wise regression analysis program (3) to ascertain the predictors of occupational mobility of adult educators. A work acti v i t i e s l i s t was developed to describe the graduates' present occupational a c t i v i t i e s , to determine their perceptions of the adequacy of their preparation in adult education for those a c t i v i t i e s , and to identify their perceived learning needs in those a c t i v i t i e s . Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficients (28) were used to compare the relationships between occupational activities performed by graduates of different programs; between occupational activities and adequacy of pre-paration; between occupational activities and learning needs; and between adequacy of preparation and learning needs. Finally, the nature and extent of graduates' participation in continuing learning activities was described. Profile of the Respondents The profile displayed by the respondents of adult education programs at the University of British Columbia was predominantly that of a married male, with one or two children, whose average age was thrity-nine, who lived in British Columbia, and who returned to graduate studies after having worked for five years in the f i e l d of adult education. The respondent held 84 a Bachelor's degree on f i r s t entry into the program, completed an average of fifteen units of adult education course work, and graduated during the past four years. Occupationally, the typical respondent made one or two changes since graduation, either i n position held or in employing agency, cur-rently holds the t i t l e of Program Director or Teacher, spends twenty-five working hours per week in activities that are related to adult education, and eighteen working hours per week in non-related adult education a c t i v i t i e s . He i s employed by a university or community college located in a large city, and earns an annual income of approximately $14,000 a year. Patterns of Occupational Change and Perceptions of Occupations Some definite trends emerged from data reported about occupational characteristics over three time periods. Respondents exhibited a movement toward universities and community colleges, and away from public schools and health and voluntary agencies. Over the three time periods, consist-ently increasing numbers of respondents reported not being associated or employed by an adult education agency, while f u l l and part time work in adult education increased immediately after training, but decreased again at the present time. These findings suggest that certain segments of the graduates have, for the present, moved out of the f i e l d of adult education entirely. Only small groups within the respondent population reported having supervisory responsibility for others in their work and for budgetary control of adult education programs. The amount of the budget they * Two respondents completed two programs: one the M.A. and Ed.D.; and one the Diploma and M.A. 85 controlled rose steadily, as did their annual income. Lastly, there was a less definite trend away from the position t i t l e s of Director of Adult Education and Teacher to Department Head/Principal and Program Planner/Coordinator. The f i r s t hypothesis tested in this study was that there are st a t i s t i c a l l y significant differences in the graduates' perceptions of prestige of their occupations during the four time periods: before training, after training, at the present time, and future career aspir-ations. Only two-thirds of the respondents provided data for this analysis. These respondents perceived the occupation they held immediately after training to have significantly more prestige than the one they held before training, and the occupation to which they aspire to have significantly more prestige than the one they presently hold. However, they do not perceive the occupation they presently hold as having more prestige than the one they held immediately after training. The factor which appears to have had the most influence in this analysis was the percentage of work time that respondents spent in adult education a c t i v i t i e s , which rose from 63.9 before training to 72.5 after training, dropped to 67.1 at present, and rose again to 84.9 for their career aspirations. No explanation could be found to account for these findings and further investigation of the reasons why such a drop occurred would seem to be merited. The second hypothesis tested was that educational variables are greater predictors of occupational mobility of adult educators than socio-economic or occupational variables. It was found that one educational variable (the number of units of adult education courses completed), two socio-economic variables (the number of dependents, and the number of years 86 since graduation), and six occupational variables (the number of hours of work not related to adult education a c t i v i t i e s , the amount of budget controlled immediately after training, the number of people supervised in the position held immediately after training, the number of people supervised in the present position, the amount of budget controlled in the present position, and the number of hours of work that are related to adult education activities) were predictors of occupational mobility. The greatest of these predictors was the socio-economic variable of the number of years since graduation. Therefore, educational variables were not greater predictors of mobility for the adult educators who reported data for this analysis. Other findings in the study.fail to explain these results, and the only conclusion that can be drawn is that the occupational mobility of some adult educators might be predictable on the basis of knowledge of the number of years since graduation, and knowledge of the other eight significant predictors for that individual. Occupational Activities The work activities to which the total respondent group reported devoting the most time in order are: instructing adults, counselling adults, establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships, planning and developing adult education programs, and continuing their own education. The total group devoted least time to determining community needs and pro-ducing mass media programs. The third hypothesis tested was that graduates of different programs w i l l perform different occupational a c t i v i t i e s . Respondents in the M.A., M.Sc, and Diploma groups performed activities that were related to one 87 another, but the activities reported by the M.Ed, group were significantly different from a l l other three respondent groups. Review of the profile of the M.Ed, group discloses that they were the oldest on graduation, that they had the most experience in adult education prior to beginning their studies, that they averaged the most number of years since graduation, and that one-third of the group are teachers employed by public schools. Whether or not these factors are significant determinants of occupational activities remains an area for futher research. Moreover, the fact that the M.A., M.Sc, and Diploma groups perform activities that are not signi-ficantly different from one another poses some serious implications for the planners of professional training programs in adult education. Adequacy of Preparation and Learning Needs The respondents f e l t adequately prepared for ten of the fourteen listed work ac t i v i t i e s . Activities for which they f e l t most adequately prepared were continuing their own education, and planning and developing adult education programs. They f e l t least adequately prepared to supervise c l e r i c a l and secretarial staff, and to recruit and supervise instructors. The fourth hypothesis tested was that there w i l l be a positive relationship between the occupational act i v i t i e s performed by the graduates and their perceptions of the adequacy of their preparation for those a c t i v i -t i e s . It was found that there is no relationship between the two, indicatin that those who have studied adult education do not necessarily perform only those work activities for which they feel well-prepared academically. These findings, however, were influenced by the fact that the work acti v i t i e s l i s t that was used to gather this data included some items for which no formal academic preparation was offered by the department. Different result 88 may have been obtained had these items not been included on the l i s t . Respondents reported that they needed to learn a moderate amount for eleven of the fourteen lis t e d work a c t i v i t i e s . Activities for which their learning needs were considerable were continuing their own education, planning and developing adult education programs, and determining community needs for adult education programs. L i t t l e or no learning needs were f e l t for activities of supervising c l e r i c a l and secretarial staff, recruiting and supervising instructors, and evaluating adult education programs. The f i f t h hypothesis tested was that there w i l l be a negative relationship between the occupational activities performed by the graduates and their perceptions of their learning needs for those a c t i v i t i e s . Although a negative relationship was found to exist, the coefficient of -.11 was not significant, and the hypothesis was rejected. The f i n a l hypothesis tested i n this study was that there w i l l be a negative relationship between the graduates' perceptions of their learning needs and their perceptions of the adequacy of their preparation in adult education a c t i v i t i e s . For these respondents, the opposite was found to be true. That i s , a positive relationship between adequacy of preparation and learning needs was found. The more adequately prepared they f e l t , the more they f e l t they needed to learn which i s a strong indication that this group sees i t s e l f as continuing learners. Participation i n Continuing Learning Activities Inconsistencies appeared in the reporting of this data, and the findings therefore must be considered doubtful. The respondents indicated that they spend a mean of 9.1 hours per 89 week i n a l l continuing learning a c t i v i t i e s , and a mean of 4.2 hours per week i n continuing learning a c t i v i t i e s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to adult education. Of the l a t t e r , - t h e most time was reported devoted to independent study p r o j e c t s , research a c t i v i t i e s , c r e d i t courses, and reading adult or con-tinuing education journals. IMPLICATIONS Implications for Further Research The f i n d i n g s of a study describing a previously uninvestigated area i n e v i t a b l y warrant further research. R e p l i c a t i o n of the present study using better research instruments ^M-gh^ddMe-irmiftiBewbSBt^lfecrttfeepjfesfinfet findings might be generalized to p r o f e s s i o n a l l y prepared adult educators of other educational i n s t i t u t i o n s . Routine follow-up studies, conducted over equal time periods would provide more consistent and r e l i a b l e data about the graduates than the si n g l e undertaking reported here. I t i s p o s s i b l e that graduates who have had p o s i t i v e experiences i n both t h e i r educational and occupational endeavours are more l i k e l y to respond to follow-up studies than those whose experiences have been negative. A more concerted e f f o r t to follow-up those who did not reply would eliminate any s t a t i s t i c a l bias that might r e s u l t from such a s i t u a t i o n . Further i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the occupational a c t i v i t i e s of profess-i o n a l l y prepared adult educators, using c r i t e r i a other than the time d i s t r i -butions obtained i n the present study appear to be necessary. Assessment of the perception of importance or value of each occupational a c t i v i t y , or 90 comparisons of real time distributions with ideal time distributions would provide more extensive data about the nature of professional adult educators' occupations. The classification of position t i t l e s in this study has been s t r i c t l y arbritrary. Development of a descriptive classification scheme, incorporating the different categories of t i t l e s or roles, and duties performed by adult educators in the various facets of the f i e l d of adult education could overcome the skepticism and confusion surrounding such arbitrary classifications. Additional studies of the perceptions of adequacy of preparation for adult education activities and learning needs of professionally pre-pared adult educators should be carried out, u t i l i z i n g scales which permit a wider range of variance in responses than was used in this present study. Lastly, the factors that influence participation by professionally prepared adult educators in continuing learning ac t i v i t i e s require investi^ gation. The results of such studies, coupled with the identification of learning needs would build a valuable data base upon which continuing educa-tion programs could be developed. Implications for Program Planning The findings of the present study and the resulting implications for program planning outlined in this section are directly related to the department of adult education at the University of British Columbia, and thus may not be applicable to programs in any other institutions. At the time this study was undertaken, the department lacked a statement of goals and objectives upon which the study could be based. 91 This fact, combined with the finding that the graduates of a l l the pro-grams, with the exception of the graduates of the M.Ed, program, are performing similar work acti v i t i e s suggests that no clear delineation of the expectations held by the department for the graduates of i t s ' five different programs can be made. Immediate consideration should be given to Mie development of a written statement of the overall purposes, goals and objectives of the department, expressing and differentiating the expectations held for graduates of each of the programs. Such a definitive statement of goals and objectives would serve not only as guides to effect tive program planning, but as c r i t e r i a for ongoing evaluation. The respondents were found to be performing a wide variety of functional roles in the f i e l d of adult education. They therefore represent a valuable source of information regarding current practises and develop-ments in the f i e l d , which, ought to be shared with program planners and graduate students on a continuing basis. Input of this kind from a selected group of graduates, perhaps through an Advisory Committee, as advocated by Veri (33) , could assist the department in planning programs of study that would be responsive to the changing needs in the f i e l d . Addition of specific content areas to the present program of studies i s suggested from the findings. The respondents reported devoting consid-erable amounts of work time to activities of : counselling (ranked second), and establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships (ranked third). Provision should be made to offer formal course content in these areas to a l l students in the department. Other work acti v i t i e s to which respondents reported devoting considerable amounts of time, but in which they f e l t least adequately prepared were administrative activities of recruiting and super-92 vising instructors, and supervising staff. Since some administrative responsibilities seem to be inherent in a l l adult education positions in which graduates w i l l be working, some content related to administration ought to be incorporated into the program of studies. Lastly, a c t i v i t i e s for which respondents f e l t both a strong learning need and insufficient preparation were determining community needs and developing instructional materials. These two act i v i t i e s are an integral part of the planning process, and should receive more emphasis than they are presently accorded in the program content. In summary, program planners in the department of adult education at the University of British Columbia should give priority to developing a statement expressing the goals and objectives of the department, and i t s ' expectations for graduates of the five different programs i t offers. Also, consideration should be given to involving the departments' graduates in the overall program planning, and to establishing new or alternative course content. REFERENCES 1. Aker, George F. Criteria for Evaluating Graduate Study in Adult Education. Chicago: Center for Continuing Education, University of Chicago, 1963. 2. An Inventory of Degree and Non-Degree Research in Adult Education in Canada 1970. Institute Canadien D'Education Des Adults / Canadian Association (for Adult Education / Universite' De Montreal, Faculte Des Sciences De L'Education / The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Department of Adult Education, August, 1970. 3. Bjerring, James,HH, and Paul Seagraves. U.B.C. T.R.I.P. Triangular Regression Package. Vancouver: The University of British Columbia Computing Center, 1972. 4. Chamberlain, Martin N. "The Competencies of Adult Educators", Adult Education, XI (Winter, 1961), 78-83. 5. Damon, Thomas F. "Careers in Adult Education", Adult Education, XII (Autumn, 1961), 3-7. 6. Davis, Benjamin George. "A Study of Continuing Legal Education of Allegheny County Bar Association Members." Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Syracuse University, 1968. 7. Decrow, Roger, and Stanley M. Grabowski (eds.). Research and Investigation in Adult Education. Eric Clearinghouse on Adult Education, 1970, 1971, 1972. 8. Freeman, Linton C. Elementary Applied Statistics. New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc., 1965. 9. Glass, Gene U. and Julian C. Stanley. Statistical Methods in Education and Psychology. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1970. 10. Good, Carter U. and Douglas E. Scates. Methods of Research: Education, Psychological, Sociological. New York: Appleton— Century Crofts, Inc., 1954, 11. Hollister, James E l l i o t t . "The Ministers Time, Leisure, and Continuing Education : A Study of Time Use, Participation in Leisure Activities and Continuing Education." Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of California: Berkeley, 1968. 92 a 93 12. Houle, Cyr i l 0. "Doctorates in Adult Education Awarded in 1966", Adult Education, XVII (Spring, 1967), 132-133. 13. Houle, C y r i l 0. "The Doctorate in Adult Education", Convergence, I (March, 1968), 13-26. 14. Houle, Cyr i l 0. and John H. Buskey. "The Doctorate in Adult Education 1935-1965", Adult Education, XVI (Spring, 1966), 131-168. 15. JobJ Claude H. "A Study of the Roles of Selected Agricultural Extension Agents in British Columbia1,', Unpublished M.Sc. -hesis, University of British Columbia, 1965. 16. Kerlinger, Fred N. Foundationsoof- Behavioral Research. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1964. 17. Leathers, Chester W. "Background, Professional Experience, Role Conceptions and Career Aspirations of Conference Coordinators in W.K. Kellogg Foundation Supported Centers for Continuing Education." Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Chicago, 1964. 18. London, Jack. "The Career of the Public School Adult Administrator", Adult Education, X (Autumn, 1959), 5-11. 19. Madry, Arthur G. "The Functions and Training Needs of Adult Education Directors in Public School Systems." Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Ohio State University, 1963. 20. Morehouse, Ralph E. "A Study of Role Perception and Performances Among Agricultural Extension Personnel in Nova Scotia." Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, University of British Columbia, 1968. 21. Nakamoto, June. "Continuing Education in the Health Sciences." Unpublished M.A. thesis. University of British Columbia, 1972. 22. Noel, James L. and Jerry Parsons. "Doctoral Graduates Evaluate the the Relevance of Departmental Learning Objectives to their Professional Responsibility", Adult Education, XXIV (January, 1973), 43-54. 23. Non-Degree Research in Adult Education i n Canada 1968; 1969. Canadian Association for Adult Education. The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Department of Adult Education, Institut Canadien d'Education des Adultes, July 1969, July 1970. 24. Palumbo, Dennis James,. Statistics in P o l i t i c a l and Behavioral Science. New York: Appleton-Century Crofts, Inc., 1969. 25. Parten, Mildred. Surveys, Polls, and Samples : Practical Procedures. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1950. 94 26. Robinson, G.O. "Criteria for the Education of Adult Educators", Adult Education, XII (Summer, 1962), 243-245. 27. Rossman, Parker. The Clergyman's Need for Continuing Education. Yale University Divinity School, New Haven, Conneticut, 1964. 28. Seigel, Sidney. Nonparametric Statistics. New York: McGraw H i l l Book Company, Inc., 1956. 29. Sharpies, Brian. "A Survey of the Functions and Responsibilities of the Director of Adult Education in the Public School System." Unpublished M.Ed, thesis, University of Calgary, 1969. 30. Shorey, Leonard L. "Some Factors Affecting the Personal and Professional Growth of Teachers." Paper presented at the Adult Education Research Conference, February 27-28, 1970, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 31. Solway, Joan H. and Draper, James A. A Longitud-inalilStudy of the 0T.I.S.E. Certificate Program in Adult Education. Department of Adult Education, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 1970. 32. Taylor, Edward Bunker. "Relationship between the Career Changes of Lawyers and their Participation i n Continuing Legal Education." Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Undiv.earsity of Nebraska, 1967. 33. Veri, Clive C. "Building a Model Doctoral Degree Program in Adult Education." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Professional Development Section of the Adult Education Association of the U.S.A. October, 1970, Atlanta, Georgia. 34. Verner, Coolie and Alan Booth. Adult Education. New York: The Center for Applied Research in Education, Inc., 1964. 35. Verner, Coolie and others. The Preparation of Adult Educators. ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Education and Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1970. 36. White, Thurman. "Some Common Interests of Adult Education Leaders!,1, Adult Education, VII (Spring, 1956), 155-162. APPENDIX A Aker's Behavioral Objectives of Adult Educators 95 I APPENDIX A Aker's Behavioral Objectives of Adult Educators"*" The Adult Educator: 1. Helps people control and adjust to change rather than maintain the status quo. 2. Intelligently observes and listens to what is being said or done and uses this information in guiding his response. 3. Selects and uses teaching methods, materials, and resources that are appropriate in terms of the needs and a b i l i t i e s of the individual learners. 4. Helps his clientele acquire the a b i l i t y for c r i t i c a l thinking. 5. Provides an atmosphere where adults are free to search through trial-and-error without fear of institutional or inter-personal threat. 6. Identifies potential leaders and helps them to develop their potentials and capacities. 7. Makes use of existing values, beliefs, customs, and attitudes as a starting point for educational a c t i v i t i e s . 8. Is actively involved in continuing study that w i l l increase his professional competence. 9. Understands the role of adult education in society and i s aware of the factors and forces that give rise to this function. 10. Actively shares, participates, and learns with the learners i n the learning experiences. 11., Helps adults to actively set their own goals, and provides a v "*"George F. Aker. Criteria for Evaluating Graduate Study in Adult  Education. Chicago: Center for Continuing Education, University of Chicago, 1963. 95A 96 11. Helps adults to actively set their own goals, and provides a variety of means and opportunities for intensive self-evaluation. 12. Identifies and interprets trends that have implications for adult education. 13. Has clearly defined his unique role as an adult educator and under-stands his responsibility in performing i t . 14. Arranges learning experiences so that the learners can integrate theory and practice. 15. Is effective in building a teaching team among lay leaders and group members. 16. Uses the process of appraisal to evaluate programs and to help c l a r i f y and change objectives. 17. Is creative and imaginative in developing new programs, and believes that innovation and experimenfctaEeeneeessary for the expansion of adult education. 18. Makes use of the contributions of a l l group members through the u t i l i z a t i o n of individual talents and a b i l i t i e s . 19. Works with schools, teachers, parents, and pre-adults to assist them in developing the motivation, attitudes, understanding, and s k i l l s necessary for life-long learning. 20. Objectively presents contrasting points of view. 21. Assumes the i n i t i a t i v e in developing a strong national perception of the importance and essentiality of continuing education. 22. Recognizes when the communication process i s not functioning adequately or when i t breaks down. Identifies, c r i t i c a l l y evaluates, and discusses shcolarly work by investigators in adult education and related f i e l d s . APPENDIX B Questionnaire 98 SURVEY OF GRADUATES IN ADULT EDUCATION AT U.B.C. Completion of this questionnaire w i l l take a short period of your time. In most cases, a check ( / ) or short write-in answer is a l l that i s required. The phrase "training in adult education" appears in many questions throughout the questionnaire. This refers to your studies in the Department of Adult Education at the University of Br i t i s h Columbia. PART I - Background Data. 1. In what year did you graduate? 2. How many years of experience in adult education did you have prior to your training in adult education? years. 3. From the following l i s t , would you check, in the appropriate column the type of agency with which you were/are employed:-Before - Immediately BEFORE your training After - Immediately AFTER your training Now - Currently BEFORE AFTER NOW a. Not associated or employed by adult education agency b. Public School c. Vocational-Technical School d. Regional or Community College e. University f. Library/Museum g. Correctional Institution h. Health Agency i . Voluntary Agency j . Extension Service k. Business and Industry 1. Armed Services m. Government Department n. Mass Media/Communication Agency o. Other (please specify) 98a 99 Would you consider each of the items lis t e d below as i t applies to: - Your last position BEFORE training in adult education - Your f i r s t position AFTER training in adult education - - Your CURRENT position and place your responses in the columns provided. If any of the items do not apply, please write N.A. (not applicable) in the appropriate column. i I First position AFTER CURRENT training position a. Work in adult education: f u l l time (F.T.) part time (P.T.) or none (N.) Last position BEFORE training Number of people you supervise at work c. Amount of budget ($) of adult education programs over which you have control d. Personal gross annual income from employment e. Place where employed: large city (100,000 or more) small city (10,000-99,999) small town or rural area 100 PART II This section deals with your perceptions about the occupational prestige of positions in adult education. There are four sub-sections relating to: A - Your last position PRIOR to training in adult education B - Your f i r s t position AFTER training in adult education C - Your current position in adult education D - Your career aspirations in adult education Positions in the f i e l d of adult education are the main concern. If you have never been employed in the f i e l d of adult education, and have no career expectations in the f i e l d , please proceed to question 17. If you have held, presently hold, or aspire to hold positions in adult education, please respond to the sub-sections which refer to these positions. • . A- LAST POSITION PRIOR TO TRAINING IN ADULT EDUCATION 5 . What was the t i t l e of this position?. Let the ladder below represent a prestige scale for occupations in adult education, where ten (10) represents the highest prestige and one (1) the least prestige. 6. Where on the ladder would you place the position you identified above? Please place the number i n the space to the right 7. What percentage of work time in a typical week did you spend in ac t i v i t i e s related to adult education in that position? 101 B- FIRST POSITION AFTER TRAINING IN ADULT EDUCATION 8. What was the t i t l e of this position? Again, let the ladder represent a prestige scale for occupations in adult education, where ten (10) is the highest prestige and one (1) i s the least prestige. 9 . Where on the ladder would you place the position you identified above? Please place the number in the space to the right. 10. What percentage of work in a typical week did you spend in ac t i v i t i e s related to adult education in that position C- CURRENT POSITION IN ADULT EDUCATION 11. What i s the t i t l e of your current position? 12. ao> Again, letting the ladder represent the prestige scale for occupations in adult education as described in sub-section A, where would you place this position? Please place the number in the space to the right. 13. What percentage of work time in a typical week do you spend in ac t i v i t i e s related to adult education in this position? % 102 D~ CAREER ASPIRATIONS IN ADULT EDUCATION 14. What i s the t i t l e of the position that i s most descriptive of your career aspirations in adult education? 15. Letting the ladder represent the prestige scale for occupations as described in sub-section A, where would you place this position? Please place the number in the space to the right. 16. What percentage of work time in a typical week do you estimate that you would spend in ac t i v i t i e s related to adult education in that position? PART III The purpose of this section i s to determine the amount of time that you spend in job ac t i v i t i e s of various types that are related to adult education. 17. F i r s t , would you please estimate the total number of hours that you work each week. hours Of those working hours, how many are spent in job a c t i v i t i e s that ARE NOT related to adult education? hours How many are spent in job ac t i v i t i e s that ARE related to adult education? hours If your answer to "b" above was zero hours, please proceed to question 19. 103 18. If you did spend some working time in a c t i v i t i e s related to adult education, please attempt to distribute those hours over the a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d below. Think about what would occur in a "typical" work week and include the appropriate number of hours that w i l l equal the "b" total in question 17. Activity Hours per week a. Planning and developing adult education programs a. b. Developing instructional materials b. c. Evaluating adult education programs c. d. vDetermining community needs for adult education programs d. e. Establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships e. f. ' Instructing groups of adults or individuals f. g. Producing mass media programs for adults g. h. Providing counselling for adults h. i . Publicizing and promoting adult education programs i . j . Recruiting and supervising instructors j . k. Supervising v- c l e r i c a l and secretarial staff k. I. Preparing and presenting administrative reports £. m. Planning and conducting research studies m. n. Continuing your own education n. 104 PART IV 1 9 . Approximately how many hours per week do you spend in a l l continuous learning activities? (i.e. continuing your own education.) hours 20. Of the total time per week that you spend in a l l continuous learning a c t i v i t i e s what percentage i s specifically related to the subject of adult education? If your answer to the above question was zero, please proceed to question 22. 21. If you do spend time in continuous learning a c t i v i t i e s related to adult education please estimate how many hours i n a typical week you spend in each of the following a c t i v i t i e s : i ' Hrs. per week a. Reading professional journals related to adult education (such as Adult  Leadership, Adult Education, Journal of Continuing Nursing Education etc. b. Participating in short courses, workshops etc., related to adult education (such as "group leadership with adults" etc.). c. Participating in programs offered by professional adult education organizations (such as A.C.E., C.A.A.E.) d. . Credit courses in adult education e. Independent study projects related to adult education f. Other learning a c t i v i t i e s directly related to adult education (please specify). 105 PART V. In this section, you are asked to evaluate the adequacy of your preparation in adult education at U.B.C. for the ac t i v i t i e s l i s t e d below. Please indicate by c i r c l i n g the appropriate letter(s) whether i t was Highly Adequate (H.A.) Adequate (A) Inadequate (I) or Highly Inadequate (H.I.) 22. Activity a. Planning and developing adult education programs a. HA A I HI b. Developing instructional materials b. HA A I HI c. Evaluating adult education programs c. HA A I HI d. Determining community needs for adult education programs d. HA A I HI e. Establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships e. HA A I HI f. Instructing groups of adults f. HA A I HI g. Producing mass media programs for adults g- HA A I HI h. Providing counselling for adults h. HA A I HI i . Publicizing and promoting adult education programs i . HA A I HI j • Recruiting and supervising instructors j - HA A I HI k. Supervising c l e r i c a l and secretarial staff k. HA A I HI a. Preparing and presenting administrative reports 1. HA A I HI m. Planning and conducting research studies m. HA A I HI n . Continuing your own education n . HA -.A I HI 106 PART VI This section i s intended to identify your learning needs in adult education. For each item, would you please indicate the extent of your learning need by c i r c l i n g C (considerable) M (moderate) V (very l i t t l e ) or N (none). 23. Activity a. Planning and developing adult education programs a. C M V N b. Developing instructional materials b. C M V N c. Evaluating adult education programs c. C M V N d. Determining community needs for adult education programs d. C M V N e. Establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships e. C M V N f. Instructing groups of adults f. C M V N g- Producing mass media programs for adults g. C M V N h. Providing counselling for adults h. C M V N i . Publicizing and promoting adult education programs i . C M V N j • Recruiting and supervising instructors j • C M V N k. Supervising c l e r i c a l and secretarial staff k. C M V N 1. Preparing and presenting administrative reports 1. C M V .N m. Planning and conducting research studies m. C M V N n. Continuing your own education n. C M V •N THANK YOU FOR TAKING THE TIME TO COMPLETE THIS QUESTIONNAIRE! APPENDIX C Covering Letters 107 T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A V A N C O U V E R 8, C A N A D A FACULTY OF EDUCATION June 21st 1973. Dear I am conducting a follow-up survey of the graduates in adult education at the University of British Columbia. My purposes for the study are to identify your job a c t i v i t i e s , learning needs and educational a c t i v i t i e s , and to obtain your opinions about your training in adult education at U.B.C. I would appreciate your taking a few minutes from your busy schedule to complete the enclosed questionnaire. The information that you provide w i l l be used i n i t i a l l y for my thesis investigation, and when written, the thesis w i l l be useful in planning future programs in adult education. Your responses w i l l be treated with s t r i c t confidence. . A return addressed envelope has been included for your convenience. Return of the questionnaire by July 31, 1973 would be most helpful. Thank you for your cooperation and assistance in my study. Sincerely, Judy White, Adult Education Research Center. JW/pj encs. 107a THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA V A N C O U V E R 8, C A N A D A FACULTY OF EDUCATION July 12, 1973. Dear The response to my request for information from the graduates i n adult education at U.B.C. has been gratifying. Over 40% of the questionnaires have been returned to date. While this rate of response has been encouraging, I am nonetheless desirous of having a l l the graduates respond so that the information obtained w i l l be as complete as possible. If you happen to be one of those who has not yet responded, I would appreciate your taking some time now to do so. A second question-naire and return addressed envelope has been included for your convenience. Thank you once again for your cooperation and assistance. Sincerely, Judy White, Adult Education Research Center. JW/pj enc. 108 

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