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Mature women students : a survey Frederickson, Margaret C. 1975

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MATURE WOMEN STUDENTS. A SURVEY by MARGARET C. FREDERICKSON B.A., UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO, 1945 i A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS (ADULT EDUCATION) IN THE FACULTY OF EDUCATION WE ACCEPT THIS THESIS AS CONFORMING TO THE REQUIRED STANDARD: THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JUNE, 1975 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th i s thes i s for f i nanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permission. Margaret c. Frederickson Department of Adult Education The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e August 14, 1975. ABSTRACT The purpose of th i s study was to contr ibute to an understanding of the experience of mature women students who succeeded in completing degrees and diplomas at The University of B r i t i s h Columbia in 1968. i Special attent ion was directed to academic and professional choices, timing of interrupt ions in formal education, and con f l i c t s experienced by the women as they resumed t he i r studies. Responses to a mail questionnaire were received from 228 women who were 25 years of age or over in 1968 when they completed t he i r degrees or diplomas. The most typ ica l respondent came from r e l a t i v e l y favourable socio-economic circumstances, had previous un ivers i ty experience, and returned to formal studies a f te r b r i e f i n te r rupt ion . A small number had returned to studies under d i f f i c u l t condit ions, usually with a view to gaining secur i ty for themselves and t he i r f ami l i e s . The academic and professional choices of the mature women were more conventionally "feminine" than those of younger women graduates in 1968. Almost ha l f the women had returned to studies for c lear -cut economic reasons, and 75.4% of the graduates were working f u l l - or part-time in t he i r s pec i a l t i e s . Almost 80.0% of working graduates were employed in teaching or health f i e l d s and, except for nurses, were highly s a t i s f i e d with t he i r jobs. Early interrupt ion in education ( for example, at the end of high school) tended to lower horizons for l a t e r education, as well as i i i i i decrease chances of pursuing interests in science and the prestige professions. Maturity and l i f e experience were, however, considered valuable assets in continuing formal studies. Many respondents considered themselves "pioneers" in continuing the i r studies in an atmosphere which was non-supportive to mature women students. The c o n f l i c t between stereotyped feminine roles and higher education for women was c l ea r l y f e l t by one-third of the women, even in th i s population which made large ly conventional academic choices. The survey presents a p icture of wel l -adjusted, purposeful women who achieved t he i r academic goals without the help of a community col lege system since establ i shed, and the somewhat increased f i nanc ia l and part-time study opportunities which l a t e r became ava i lab le . The conclusion i s that only those who enjoyed some advantages or who were w i l l i n g to undergo heavy stress - or both - were able to succeed in the mid-1960's. TABLE OF CONTENTS Pacje ABSTRACT . . . • i i LIST OF TABLES vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . i x CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1 A. Statement of the Problem 1 B. Procedure 2 C. Limitations of the Study 4 D. Def in i t ion of Terms 7 E. Plan of the Study 8 II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 9 A. Academic Choices and the Professions 9 B. Timing of Education 12 C. Conf l i c t 13 D. Summary 14 I I I. SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS 16 A. Personal and Family Character ist ics 16 B. Educational Character ist ics 20 C. Occupational Character ist ics 34 D. Summary 45 iv V CHAPTER Page IV. MOTIVATION AND SATISFACTION 48 A. Motivation 48 B. Sat i s fact ion . . . 55 C. Summary 60 V. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS . 62 A. Discussion 62 B. Conclusions 71 BIBLIOGRAPHY 73 APPENDIX A . . . . . . • 76 B 85 C 90 D 92 E 94 F 97 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Percentage Dist r ibut ion of Survey Population and Respon-dent Population by Category of Degree or Diploma . . . . 5 2 Percentage D i s t r ibut ion of Survey Population and Respon-dent Population by Age 6 3 Percentage D i s t r ibut ion of B i r th Order by Category of Degree or Diploma . . . 17 4 Marital Status of Respondents 18 5 Percentage Dist r ibut ion of Occupation Prestige of Respondents' Husbands and Fathers 19 6 Percentage Dist r ibut ion of Degrees and Diplomas Com-pleted in 1968 at The University of B r i t i s h Columbia by Sex 21 7 Percentage D i s t r ibut ion of Degrees and Diplomas Com-pleted by Respondents in 1968 22 8 Percentage Dist r ibut ion of Early and Later Interruptors by Number of Years Out of Education 24 9 Percentage D i s t r ibut ion of Early and Later Interruptors by Category of Degree or Diploma 25 10 Percentage Dist r ibut ion of Respondents by Length of Interruption in Formal Education, Marital Status and Number of Children 26 11 Percentage Dist r ibut ion of Respondents by Marital Status, Number of Chi ldren, and Category of Degree or Diploma 28 12 Respondents' Problems Scores 27 13 Percentage Dist r ibut ion of Problem Scores by Age . . . . 30 14 Percentage Dist r ibut ion of Problem Scores for Three Groups of Respondents 31 15 Importance of Respondents' Problems in Returning to Formal Education 32 vi v i i Table Page 16 Percentage Dist r ibut ion by Faculty of Degrees or Diplomas Earned Since 1968 33 17 Employment Status of Respondents 34 18 Percentage Dist r ibut ion of Respondents Working F u l l -time or Part-time by Professional and Other Fields . . . 35 19 Percentage Dist r ibut ion of Employment Status by Category of Degree or Diploma . . . 37 20 Percentage D i s t r ibut ion of Employment Status by Age in 1968 38 21 Percentage Dist r ibut ion of Salar ies of Respondents Working Ful l - t ime by Category of Degree or Diploma . . . 39 22 Percentage D i s t r ibut ion of Salar ies of Respondents Working Part-time by Category of Degree or Diploma . . . 40 23 Scores on Job Sat i s fact ion Scale 41 24 Percentage D i s t r ibut ion of Job Sat i s fact ion Scores by Salary Range . 43 25 Percentage Dist r ibut ion of Job Sat i s fact ion Scores by Category of Degree or Diploma 44 26 Percentage Dist r ibut ion of Respondents Who Felt Further Education Had Not Led to Better Job Oppor-tun i t i e s by Category of Degree or Diploma 45 27 Percentage D i s t r ibut ion of Respondents' Reasons for Returning to Studies 49 28 Percentage D i s t r ibut ion of Reasons for Returning to Studies by Category of Degree or Diploma 50 29 Percentage D i s t r ibut ion of Reasons for Returning to Studies by Age 51 30 Percentage D i s t r ibut ion of Reasons for Return to Studies Given by Single and Married Respondents . . . . 52 31 Percentage Distr ibut ion of Husband's Opposition by Respondent's Reason for Return to Studies 53 32 Percentage Dist r ibut ion of Reasons for Return to Formal Studies by Salary Range 54 v i i i Table Page 33 Percentage Dist r ibut ion of Reasons for Return to Formal Studies by Job Sat i s fact ion Scores 55 34 Degree of Sat i s fact ion in Having Returned to Formal Studies '. . 56 35 Percentage Dist r ibut ion of Sat i s fact ion in Having Returned to Formal Studies by Category of Degree or Diploma 57 36 Percentage D i s t r ibut ion of Respondents' Sat i s fact ion in Having Returned to Formal Studies by Age at Com-plet ion of Degree or Diploma 58 3f7 Percentage D i s t r ibut ion of Degrees and Diplomas Awarded in 1968 by The University of B r i t i s h Columbia by Sex, with Special Reference to Women Aged 25 or Over. 86 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My thanks to Dean Emerita Helen McCrae and President Walter H. Gage for the opportunity to carry out th i s survey, to Dr. Coolie Verner for his guidance, and to the 1968 women graduates whose cheer-fu l and generous responses made the study possible. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1975 i x INTRODUCTION A. Statement of the Problem The expectations of those who fought for and achieved the r ight of women to higher education and professional status have not yet been achieved. Few women have taken advantage of the f u l l range of options which are now - in theory at least - open to women. A problem exists in the loss of a s i gn i f i can t portion of women's i n te l l e c tua l po tent i a l , a loss which affects both society and women themselves. Experience and research have shown that, whatever the i n t e l -lectual differences between men and women, women are able to do advanced academic and professional work. I f capable women have not chosen to develop the i r i n t e l l e c tua l capac i t ies , i t i s to cu l tura l influences we must look for an explanation. Women, l i k e men, make academic choices in keeping with the interests arid occupations considered appropriate to the i r sex. Their range, however, is much narrower, and the i r commitment to careers often tentat ive as long as the question of marriage and family i s unresolved. A question arises as to whether the i r l im i ted choices represent the i r real interests and whether mature women, having come to some accommo-dation with soc iety ' s expectations of them, make other choices. A c lose ly related factor i s the timing of women's education. While the l i f e patterns of men have been adapted to long and 1 2 uninterrupted preparation for careers, those of women with professional ambitions have almost inev i tably involved choosing between marriage and academic commitment. In the choice, marriage has usually won out. But while family l i f e may bring personal f u l f i lment , i t i s usually cost ly to the woman with scholar ly and professional in terest s . She resumes her career from a lower base, having l o s t time and s k i l l s . In highly competitive f i e l d s , there is a question as to whether the time out can ever be made up. The th i rd and most subtle factor i s the c o n f l i c t between femini -n i ty and i n t e l l e c tua l achievement. Young women learn early in the i r i n t e l l e c t ua l and soc ia l development that success in one area can mean f a i l u r e in the other. The resu l t ing i nh ib i t i on affects the i r academic performance and commitment. In an attempt to understand how these three factors - re s t r i c ted academic choices, interruptions in formal studies, and c o n f l i c t with social stereotypes - a f fect the academic experience of older women, this study was made about mature women students who received degrees or diplomas from The University of B r i t i s h Columbia in 1968. B. Procedure The survey was carr ied on by means of a mailed questionnaire (Appendix A). University records were used to obtain names and addresses of women graduates who were 25 years of age or over in 1968 when they received degrees or diplomas from The University of B r i t i s h Columbia. 3 A questionnaire was mailed to these graduates to gather data about education, work, and evaluation of experience in having resumed formal education. Choice of academic f i e l d was an important factor in this study of women's par t i c ipat ion in higher education. Accordingly, degrees and diplomas were sorted into f i ve categories on the basis of the Faculties of fer ing the programmes. 1. Faculty of Arts , including Home Economics, Library Science, Music, Social Work 2. Faculty of Education 3. Faculty of Graduate Studies 4. Faculty of Science, Agr icu l ture, Commerce, Law, Medicine, Applied Science (Nursing) 5. Diplomas D i f f i c u l t y in resuming formal studies was assessed on the basis of responses to a 14-item l i s t of problems most frequently presented in the la te 1960's by mature women students consulting the Off ice of the Dean of Women. Two standard scales were used. Socio-economic status of respon-dents' husbands and fathers was assessed by means of the Blishen Scale, and respondents' job sa t i s f ac t i on by means of the Brayf ie ld Scale. Motivation in resuming formal education was c l a s s i f i e d as (a) Economiceor Professional Reasons, (b) Personal Development, or (c) Love of Learning. Statements of sa t i s fac t ion in having returned to formal studies were assessed as (a) Enthus iast ic, (b) Pos i t i ve , (c) Negative. Addi-t ional negative comments were c l a s s i f i e d as (a) Mild or (b) Strong. 4 C. Limitations of the Study A personal interview with respondents would doubtless have been a more e f fect i ve means of obtaining data for this survey. The mail technique was used, however, because i t was the most pract ica l method of reaching the large number of women graduates. Maximum response was encouraged by ind icat ing in the accom-panying l e t t e r that opinions and comments would help the University meet the needs of students more e f f e c t i v e l y . Candid responses were i nv i t ed , and anonymity was assured. In many cases, strong negative c r i t i c i s m bore the signatures of respondents who were c l ea r l y prepared to stand by the i r statements. Two factors which may have inh ib i ted responses were the length of the questionnaire (7 pages) and a national postal s t r i k e . A further problem was the lack of recent addresses, pa r t i cu l a r l y for younger members of the survey population. A tota l of 112 graduates could not be reached. Of the remaining 406 graduates, 228 responded, a rate of 56.1%. Whatever the influences of these diverse factors , the responses were r e l a t i v e l y evenly d i s t r ibuted throughout degree and diploma cate-gories and age ranges. The Chi square tests conducted revealed that no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i gn i f i c an t differences existed between the survey population and the respondent population (Tables 1 and 2) 5 j TABLE 1. Percentage Dist r ibut ion of Survey Population and Respondent Population by Category of Degree or Diploma. Survey Population Respondent Population Category of Degree or Diploma Number % Number % Category I - Faculty of Arts including Social Work, L i b - ' rar ianship, Home Ec. 149 28.8 62 27.2 Category II - Faculty of Education 191 36.9 81 35.5 Category III - Faculty of Graduate Studies 80, 15.4 42 18.4 Category IV - Faculty of Science, Ag r i cu l -ture, Commerce, Law, Medicine, Applied S c i . (Nursing) 43 8.3 24 10.5 Category V - Diplomas 55 10.6 19 8.4 Total 518 100.0 228 100.0 x 2 = 0.8512, d.f. = 4, not s i gn i f i c an t 6 TABLE 2. Percentage Dist r ibut ion of Survey Population and Respondent Population by Age. Age Survey Number Population % Respondent Population Number % 25 to 29 226 43.6 85 37.3 30 to 34 66 12.7 26 11.4 35 to 39 62 12.0 34 14.9 40 to 44 64 12.5 26 11.4 45 to 49 42 7.9 30 13.2 50 to 54 37 7.2 19 8.3 55 to 59 17 3.3 7 3.1 60 ordover 4 .8 1 .4 Total 518 100.0 228 100.0 x 2 = 2.4728, d.f. = 7, not s i gn i f i can t 7 D. Def in i t ion of Terms Mature Women Students - Women aged 25 or over returning to studies after an interrupt ion of at least one year. Formal Education - Studies leading to degree or diplomas. Degree - Acknowledgement by the Senate of the University that a course of study prescribed by the Faculty concerned has been success-f u l l y completed. Diploma - A special ly-designed sequence of courses planned in co-operation with appropriate Faculties and Schools. Diplomas in Public. Health Nursing, Administration of Hospital Nursing Units, and Psychiatr ic Nursing, required for admission a completed Grade Twelve standing, graduation from a recognized school of nursing and a period of s a t i s -factory graduate-nurse experience. (University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968-78, p. E16.) Major Programme - Spec ia l i zat ion in a s ingle f i e l d or combination of f i e l d s . ( (University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975-76, p. 181.) Honours Programme - Intense spec ia l i za t ion in a s ingle f i e l d or a combination of f i e l d s . This programme, the normal road to graduate study, requires maintenance of high academic standing and may involve preparation of a graduating thes is . (University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975-76, p. 181.) Professional Facult ies - For the purposes of th is study, profes-sional f acu l t ie s are Agr icu l ture, Applied Science, Commerce, Dentistry, Forestry, Law, Medicine, Pharmacy. The Faculty of Education is treated as a separate category. Social Work and Librarianship degress are con-ferred by the Faculty of Arts. 8 E. Plan of the Study In the succeeding chapters of th is study, relevant l i t e r a t u r e on higher education for women i s reviewed, data on the socio-economic character i s t i c s of respondents set f o r t h , respondents' assessments of the i r experiences examined. In a f i n a l chapter, the data are discussed in re la t ion to the three factors chosen for special consideration -women's r e s t r i c ted academic choices, the timing of interruptions in formal education, and c o n f l i c t with soc ia l stereotypes - and some con-clusions reached. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The l i t e r a t u r e on higher education for women is extensive, much of i t emotional, judgemental, or based on outmoded ideas about women's l i v e s . These qua l i t i e s are not evident in the items chosen for review in th is study, most of which were based on research and published in the 1960's when the women in the survey were returning to formal studies and completing t he i r degrees and diplomas. A. Academic Choices and the Professions Few people would now, ser iously question the r ight of women to higher education, espec ia l ly in arts and humanities and in some spec ia l i zed f i e l d s such as soc ia l work, home economics and l i b r a r i a n -ship. The.academic climate has not, however, encouraged women to p a r t i -cipate f u l l y . In El izabeth Cless ' descr ipt ion of the American s i t ua t i on , The masculine att itudes that govern the procedures and structures of American higher education are not consciously v ic ious , merely unexamined, discriminatory by inheritance, (p. 618) The test of f u l l acceptance for women l i e s in the c l a s s i c pro-fess ions, for example, univers i ty teaching, law, and medicine, and in these areas, Cless ' evaluation is too mi ld. In the past, double bar-r ie r s of admission to t ra in ing and acceptance by the professions 9 10 themselves have excluded many able women (MacLellan). Such r e s t r i c t i v e practices do not, however, wholly explain women's l imited academic and professional choices. The consistency of women's choices was shown by studies pub-l ished in Canada, the United States and B r i t a i n in 1966, a l l of which showed roughly eighty percent of working graduates engaged in teaching and health f i e l d s . A l l three studies stressed the strong work o r ien-tat ion of graduates, but pointed out the r e l a t i v e l y low status and income of women's t rad i t i ona l professions. The differences in the three studies ' populations were related mainly to those in non-professional occupations. In the Canadian Federation of University Women survey (Cockburn) of 4,846 members and 1,724 non-members, ten percent had c l e r i c a l jobs, a re f l ec t i on of l im i ted job opportunities faced in the past by th i s somewhat older population. The United States Department of Labor survey, a longitudinal study of 6,000 women seven years a f te r graduation, showed that c l e r i c a l occupations had dropped in the seven-? year period from 8.1% to 5.5%, the resu l t of further education, new f i e ld s of employment, and changes in graduates' att itudes toward the kind of work they wanted to do. The B r i t i s h Federation of University Women study (Arregger) of 1,529 graduates, s l i g h t l y slanted toward professional women, showed only 2.0% in c l e r i c a l jobs. Not only have women not made much impression on the "prest ige professions," they have not matched in other professions the i r dramatic increase in labour force pa r t i c i pa t i on . In Canada, for example, the i r share of the professional work force in 1961 was "lower than at any period in th i s century except 1901" (Ostry, p. 28). 11 Explanations for this l imited achievement, advanced by edu-cators in a var iety of d i s c i p l i n e s , cover a wide range, from the theory that most " successfu l " women have made i t to the top by means in keeping with the feminine role (e.g., by choosing feminine spec ia l t ie s within professional f i e l d s , by being "token women") (B i rd ) ; to recognition of the hazards to marriage and family l i f e faced by professional women but, at the same time, the value oftlthe family as a v i t a l means of personal development and sa t i s fac t ion (Rossi, 1965); to the view that most of the highly-educated women capable of succeeding are involved by choice rather than by economic necessity and are therefore less l i k e l y to be competitive (Knudsen); to the need, each time con f l i c t s a r i se , for repeated review of the or ig ina l decision to enter profes-sional l i f e (Epstein); and the recognition that withdrawal from' "un-feminine" ca l l ings w i l l be rewarded (Bernard). Whatever the merits of these explanations, the fact i s that women have lo s t ground not only in professions but also in terms of the i r t r a d i t i o n a l l y higher level of education. Canadian figures show that s h i f t s in the labour force, and the emphasis on advanced education for men, have reduced the very marked educational lead of the average female worker over her male counterpart - 1 1/2 years or about 20 percent in 1951 - to 1 year or ju s t over 11 percent by 1961. (Ostry, p. 39) The implications for women's occupational s i tuat ion are not encouraging. 12 B. Timing of Education Theories on the timing of women's education have in common the necessity for women to adapt themselves to patterns which have evolved to meet the needs of men. Competing clariims of family l i f e and academic interests can be resolved by recognizing that for many women the ch i ld-bear ing, c h i l d -rearing years may not be the most i n t e l l e c t u a l l y productive period (Cless, p. 625), or by changing the system to enable women to continue the i r studies on a reduced basis (Rossi, 1964). Cless suggests that, a return to academic work a f te r establ i sh ing a family is often prefer-able in terms of commitment, motivation, and a level of career choice more in keeping with true a b i l i t i e s . Rossi emphasizes the need for sustained academic a c t i v i t y , especia l ly in the more demanding profes-sions where much creat ive work i s done in the age 24 to 44 range. Arguing for f l e x i b l e systems to meet indiv idual needs without loss of qua l i ty in education, Cless and Rossi question the acceptab i l i t y for men of the continuous, lock-step educational process, suggesting that many men have adapted to the system through necessity rather than choice. Research has suggested several patterns which may a f fect the timing of women's education: a tendency among alumnae previously i n -terested in "masculine occupations" to switch to "feminine occupations" a f te r bringing up famil ies (Okun); a greater tolerance by women of the i r aggressive, egocentric impulses in the i r fo r t i e s and l a te r (Neugarten); and high degrees of sa t i s f ac t i on expressed by mature women students in returning to education, as well as c learer goals and stronger motivation (Ferguson, S tu r tz ) . 13 Whatever the developmental stages for women and the best times to indulge in i n t e l l e c tua l a c t i v i t i e s , young women w i l l continue to marry and have ch i ld ren, and w i l l expect to be educated and to work, as Cross affirmed in her review of four longitudinal studies involving thousands of high school and college students (Cross). Despite the optimism expressed about the a b i l i t y of h ighly-educated women to combine professional work and family l i f e (Ginzberg) and the new range of options open to women who can "phase" t he i r l i ves to take advantage of them (Lewis), the outlook i s at present not en-couraging. Lyon, in describing the dilemma of a woman who wants both family l i f e and professional status, says I t requires tremendous physical and mental stamina and an unusual amount of s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e to do a good job at more than one thing . . . In a sense she is driven by demons i f she does decide to continue her education under current conditions. (p. 254) C. Conf l i c t In reviewing the l i t e r a tu re of the 1960's on higher education for women, the Merideths, while making important exceptions such as Rossi and Ginzberg, stated cor rect ly that Everything professional we have read i s severely l imited by a lack of imagination about job, marriage, family, and educational options for women. Not one a r t i c l e or study assumes that reject ing completely the housewife-mother ro le is anything other than deviant. (p. 113) At the same time, however, Maccoby's "pr ice in anxiety" paid by suc-cessful women, and Horner's "motive to avoid success" indicated the 14 stress experienced by women who step out of conventional soc ia l roles and the tendency of most women to escape from the stress by withdrawing from competitive s i tuat ions . This branch of inquiry has been pursued by other researchers - mainly women - who assume that i t i s normal for women to want to develop the i r i n t e l l e c tua l and emotional capacit ies . Anderson, in a study of character i s t ic s shared by some successful pro-fessional women, concluded that the most important factor was emotional autonomy which enabled the women to "cope emotionally with being reacted to as (a) deviant" (Anderson, p. 200). A further expression, at odds with stereotyped standards, is Zetze l ' s statement that The most mature woman . . . does not rely en t i re l y on (people) as the source of g r a t i f i c a t i o n and pleasure. She has also achieved personal areas of act ive g r a t i -f i c a t i on and mastery. The healthy woman should be able to Gombine successful marriage and motherhood with some sort of personal career, (p. 285) The implications of th is research are important s ince, i f women are to pursue higher education and professional careers, they must feel that i t i s natural and normal for them to do so. D. Summary This survey of the l i t e r a tu re has emphasized the vocational aspects of higher education for women, since i t i s the "use" to which women put t he i r education that arouses controversy. In th i s context, the surveys selected show not only that women's academic and professional choices are conventional and consistent, but also that they perpetuate women's pos it ion in the lower ranges of the occupational scale. The 15 s t a t i s t i c a l projections of the 19601s suggest a continuation of the s i tuat ion or even a decrease in women's r e l a t i ve par t i c ipat ion in the professional labour force. In meeting the s i t ua t i on , a good case can be made, on the basis of the l i t e r a t u r e c i ted in this review, for a phased pattern of education enabling women to take time out to marry and have chi ldren. CI ess ' argument for th is option i s persuasive. Neugarten's f indings suggest that women's aggressive and c r i t i c a l qua l i t i e s tend to be more accept-able a f te r the peak of the reproductive period. Ferguson and Sturtz have indicated that mature women tend to be more s a t i s f i ed than younger students with the i r educational experiences. The drawback i s , however, that success in demanding professional f i e ld s usually depends on long and continuous preparation, sustained a c t i v i t y on entering the profes-s ion, and largely undivided commitment to the f i e l d . As Rossi i n d i -cates, a "drop- in, drop-out" pattern for women w i l l ensure a continuation of the i r secondary role in the professions. The dilemma i s not l i k e l y to be resolved soon. In the meantime, the growing respectab i l i t y of research on topics related to women, espec ia l ly in e l i t e f ie lds-such as psychiatry where Anderson and Zetzel have done the i r work, may provide valuable insights and changes of a t t i tude. CHAPTER III SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS This chapter of the survey contains data on respondents' family background, education and employment, and a summary of the shared charac-t e r i s t i c s of these mature women who succeeded in obtaining degrees and diplomas at UBC in 1968. A. Personal and Family Character ist ics Age and Birthplace Over one-third of the respondents were 25 to 29 years of age when they completed the i r degrees orldiplomas in 1968 (Table 2), and a l l but 44 (19.2%) were born in Canada. B i r th Order Data on b i r th order were inconclusive except for a tendency of Faculty of Science and professional graduates to be eldest ch i ld ren , graduate degree recipients to be only ch i ld ren, and Education graduates to be youngest chi ldren (Table 3). 16 17 TABLE 3. Percentage Dist r ibut ion of B i r th Order by Category of Degree or Diploma. Total Category of Degree Only Eldest Second Youngest Popula-or Diploma Child Chi ld Child Child Other t ion (N=21) (N=84) (N=61) (N=20) (N=34) (N=220) Faculty of Arts 28.6 28.6 28.6 27.8 21.4- 27.2 Fac. of Education 28.6 36.9 28.6 50.0 40.5 35.5 Fac. of Grad. St. 28.6 13.1 25.4 16.7 14.3 18.4 Fac. of Science & Profess. Facs. 9.5 13.1 7.9 5.5 11.9 10.5 Diplomas 4.7 -8.3 9.5 - 11.9 8.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 18 Marital Status and Children More than three-quarters of the respondents had been married (Table 4), and of these, only 4 (2.2%!) had married before the age of 20. TABLE 4. Marital Status of Respondents. Marital Status No. of Respondents Percentage Married 141 61.9 Divorce or Separated 24 10.5 Wi dowed 12 5.2 Single 48 21.1 No Information 3 1.3 Total 228 100.0 Ninety (39.5%) of the respondents were e i ther s ing le or married with no ch i ldren. The remaining respondents had famil ies of from 1 to 8 ch i ld ren, and the tota l number of respondents' chi ldren was 322, an average of 2.3 chi ldren per respondent. Ocru Occupations of Husbands and Fathers Data on the occupations of respondents' husbands and fathers were ranked according to the Blishen Scale which re f lec t s income and education factors for occupations that are charac te r i s t i c of males in the Canadian labour force. Scores on the Blishen Scale ranged from 19 26.71 to 76.69. In this sca le, only occupations character i s t i c of males in the labour force were included, "on the assumption that the fami ly ' s soc ia l status i s dependent upon the occupation of the husband rather than the wife when both are working" (Bl i shen, p. 42). The pattern of husbands' occupations, when compared with that of the Canadian or of the B r i t i s h Columbia labour force, shows a s t r i k i n g degree of concentration in the highest socio-economic range (Table 5). Ranking of fathers ' occupations produced a s im i l a r pattern but with less concentration in the highest range. TABLE 5. Percentage Dist r ibut ion of Occupational Prestige of Respondents' Husbands and Fathers % D is t r ibut ion % Dist r ibut ion Socio-Economic Husbands Fathers Canadian Labour B.C. Labour Index (% (N=164) % (N=216) Force Force 70. 52.4 14.4 4.0 4.0 60. to 69. 7.9 6.0 4.0 4.0 50. to 59. 11.0 9.7 9.0 9.0 40.tto 49. 20.7 25.5 20.0 19.0 30. to 39. 5.5 34.7 32.0 31.0 Below 30. 2.5 9.7 31.0 33.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0, 100.0 20 Mothers' Occupations Only 22.4% of respondents reported that the i r mothers had worked in paid employment outside the home. Not surpr i s ing ly in view of women's increased par t i c ipat ion in the labour force, respondents whose mothers had worked during the respondents' childhood tended to be in the younger age ranges. Education graduates were most l i k e l y to have had mothers who worked outside the home. The difference in wording of questions about occupations of other family members (Appendix A) implied an assumption that men have "occupations" while women have "paid employment," a less impressive term. Only 9 respondents, 2 in the Faculty of Graduate Studies and 7 in the Faculty of Science and the professional f a c u l t i e s , objected to the wording of the question. The exercise suggests that the overwhelming majority of respondents, while they themselves had departed somewhat from the customary patterns for women by returning to formal studies, held t rad i t i ona l views about the roles of women. Awareness of implied differences between men's jobs and women's jobs occurred among women who had entered f i e l d s where they had defined themselves as competitors with men. . B. Educational Character ist ics Academic Choices The "sex-typing" of academic choices referred to in the l i t e r a -ture is s t r i k i n g l y i l l u s t r a t e d by degrees and diplomas completed in 1968 at The University of B r i t i s h Columbia. 21 Within the tota l group of men and women graduates in that year, women's chief par t i c ipat ion was at the undergraduate level in Education and Arts , and in diploma work in Nursing s pec i a l i t i e s (Table 6). Men constituted the overwhelming majority in the Faculty of Graduate Studies and in the Faculty of Science and the professional Facult ies. TABLE 6. Percentage Dist r ibut ion of Degrees and Diplomas Completed in 1968 at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, by Sex. Men Women' Population Category of Degree or Diploma Number % Number % Number % Faculty of Arts 566 49.8 570 50 .2 1,136 100 .0 Faculty of Education 326 43.4 425 56 .6 751 100 .0 Fac. of Grad. Studies 385 81.0 90 19 .0 475 100 .0 Fac. of Science and Professional Facs. 999 84.7 180 15 .3 1,179 100 .0 Diplomas 3 4.0 72 96 .0 75 100 .0 Total 2,279 63.1 1,337 36 .9 3,616 100 .0 Among the 1968 women graduates of a l l ages , those aged 25 or over were well represented in Elementary Education and Nursing, as well as in Social Work, L ibrar ianship, and graduate degrees requir ing pre-l iminary Bachelor degrees (see Appendix B). They were t o t a l l y absent among those completing Honours degrees in Science, and only 3 completed Honours degrees in Arts. 22 Accordingly, respondents' choices were even more re s t r i c ted than those of younger women. Even in the Faculty of Science and pro-fessional degree category where non-tradit ional choices might have occurred, the 24 respondents included 8 Bachelor of Science and 12 Nursing graduates (Table 7). Of the 42 graduate degrees earned, almost a l l were Master of Arts or Master of Education degrees, the log ica l outcome of l imi ted choices made at the undergraduate l e v e l . TABLE 7. Percentage Dist r ibut ion of Degrees and Diplomas Completed by Respondents in 1968. Category of Degree or Diploma Number of Respondents Percentage Faculty of Ar t s , including Social Work, L ibrar ianship, Home Economics, Music 62 27.2 Faculty of Education 81 35.5 Faculty of Graduate Studies 42 18.4 Faculty of Science, Agr icu l ture, Commerce, Law, Medicine, Applied Science (Nursing) 24 10.5 Diplomas 19 8.4 Total 228 100.0 Interruptions in Formal Education Interruptions tended to be b r i e f , 40.4% of respondents having been away from formal education for less than 5 years. F ifteen respon-dents considered that the i r studies had been continuous, 8 having 23 proceeded d i r e c t l y from undergraduate to graduate or professional de-grees, and 7 (of whom 5 were teachers) having completed the i r degrees by taking courses while working f u l l - t i m e . Even more important than the length of the interrupt ions, however, was the post secondary level at which they occurred. Since in B r i t i s h Columbia in the mid-1960's the community colleges were only beginning to be establ ished, opportunities for adults to continue the i r education were l im i ted . I t i s not surpr i s ing therefore that 17,2 respondents (75.4%) had completed some post secondary education before interrupt ing the i r studies, thereby ensuring admission to further univers ity studies. Of the Early Interruptors (56 respondents who l e f t school by age 18 or at the end of high school), only 26.7% returned to further education within 1 to 4 years as compared with 48.7% of the Later Inter-ruptors (Table 8). They were most l i k e l y to be among Bachelor of Arts and Nursing diploma rec ip ient s , and least l i k e l y among graduate, Science and professional degree recipients.(Table 9). Length of interrupt ion was c lea r l y dependent on the extent of involvement in family l i f e , and a second factor , a c ce s s i b i l i t y of degree work on a part-time basis. Married women with no ch i ld ren, one c h i l d , or two chi ldren showed s i g n i f i c an t l y above-average rate of return within 1 to 4 years, while women with three or more chi ldren were l i a b l e to be out for at least 10 to 14 years (Table 10). By contrast, s ingle women were more l i k e l y to be out for 5 to 9 years before returning for spec ia l i zed t ra in ing probably with a view to l i f e l ong careers. 24 TABLE 8. Percentage D i s t r ibut ion of Early and Later Interruptors by Number of Years out of Education Number of Years Out Early Interruptors Later Interruptors Total N=56 N=172 N=228 1 to 4 26.8 48.7 42.9 5 to 9 21.4 12.4 14.8 10 to 14 12.5 13.6 13.3 15 to 19 14.3 11.0 11.9 20 to 24 12.5 7.8 9.0 25 to 29 7.1 5.2 5.7 30 or over 5.4 1.3 2.4 Total 100.0 • 100.0 100.0 25 TABLE 9. Percentage Dist r ibut ion of Early and Later Interruptors by Category of Degree or Diploma Category of Degree or Diploma Early Interruptors Later Interruptors Total (N=56) (N=172) (N=228) Faculty of Arts 30.4 26.1 27.2 Faculty of Education 35.7 35.5 35.5 Faculty of Graduate Studies 12.5 20.4 18.4 Faculty of Science, Agr icu l ture, Commerce, Law, Medicine, Applied Science (Nursing) 8.9 11.0 10.5 Diplomas 12.5 7.0 8.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 TABLE 10. Percentage Distr ibut ion of Respondents by Length of Interruption in Formal Education, Marital Status and Number of Children. Number of Years Out of Formal Education Single No Children Marri ed No Children One Child Two Children Three Children Four or More Children Respondent Population (N=44) (N=46) (N=36) (N=57) (N=23) (N=22) (N=228) 1 to 4 31.8 56.5 44.4 45.6 30.4 12.5 40.4 5 to 9 27.3 6.5 11.2 15.8 8.7 - 14.0 10 to 14 9.1 17.4 13.9 5.3 13.0 18.8 11.9 15 to 19 13.7 6.5 11.2 1.7 21.7 31.2 11.4 20 to 24 4.5 6.5 5.5 15.8 17.4 12.5 8.3 25 to 29 - 2.2 2.8 10.5 4.4 18.8 4.8 30 or over - 2.2 - 5.3 4.4 - 2.6 No Interruption 9.1 2.2 5.5 - - 6.2 6.6 No Information 4.5 _ 5.5 - - - -Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 27 Degree programmes requir ing f u l l - t ime commitment, such as Social Work and L ibrar ianship, diplomas, Science and professional courses, tended to a t t rac t s ingle women or married women with no chi ldren (Table 11). The Faculty of Science and the professional f a cu l t i e s , in p a r t i -cu lar , where opportunities for part-time study were scarce or non-ex i s tent, showed s ingle women earning 25.0% o f ' t he degrees as compared with 10.5% for the population as a whole. Married women with four or more chi ldren who received 12.5%,of the degrees in that category were nurses. Problems in Resuming Formal Education The r e l a t i v e l y favourable circumstances of respondents were ref lected in the i r low scores on the 14-item l i s t of potential problems in resuming formal education (see Appendix C for deta i l s of scale and scoring);, 61.8% had scores in the F i r s t or lowest Quart i le (Table 12). TABLE 12. Respondents' Problem Scores Quarti le Number of Respondents Percentage F i r s t (1 to 7 pts.) 141 61.8 Second (8 to 14 pts.) 57 25.0 Third (15 to 21 pts.) 9 3.9 Fourth (22 to 28 pts.) 0 -No Interruption 15 6.6 No Information 6 2.7 Total 228 100.0 TABLE 11. Percentage Distr ibut ion of Respondents by Marital Status, Number of Children, and Category of Degree or Diploma Category of Degree or Diploma Single No Children Married No Children One Child Two Children Three Children Four or More Children Respondent Population (N=44) (N=46) (N=36) (N=57) (N=23) (N=22) (N=228) Faculty of Arts 34.1 23.9 30.6 22.8 30.4 18.7 27.2 Faculty of Education 15.9 41.3 44.4 49.1 34.8 18.7 35.5 Faculty of Graduate Studies 15.9 17.4 13.8 17.6 21.7 37.6 18.4 Faculty of Science, etc. 25.0 6.5 5.6 3.5 4.4 12.5 10.5 Diplomas 9.1 10.9 5.6 7.0 8.7 12.5 8.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 CO 29 Among those in the Third Quart i le who experienced the greatest d i f f i c u l t y in resuming education, scores increased s tead i ly with age (Table 13). Second Quart i le scores, however, suggest a two-phase pattern of increase to age 40 probably associated with the heaviest involvement in family l i f e , and a second cycle a f ter age 40 associated with changing l i f e patterns and adjustment to^student l i f e . Problem Scores were s i g n i f i c an t l y higher for three groups: those with ch i ld ren , those who had interrupted the i r education ear ly , and those born outside Canada (Table 14). Respondents without chi ldren whose scores were in the Second and Third Quarti les were, without excep-t i on , responsible for care of older family members. Financial need was the most important problem for respondents during the i r univers i ty attendance (Table 15). I t i s s i g n i f i c an t , however, that in a group of 228 graduates, many of whom attended the University for a number of years, 44.1% did not f ind finances a problem. These respondents met costs through earnings, savings, and help from husbands and fami l ie s . The 124 respondents (55.9%) for whom finances were a problem received 95 repayable grants, i . e . , scholarships or bursar ies, at some point during the i r attendance. E ighty-f ive respondents incurred loans in amounts ranging from $150 to $8,000. Of these loans, amounting to $139,145, 19 were s t i l l being repaid s i x years l a te r at the time of the survey. Overtiredness affected over hal f the respondents, and was c losely related to the problems of combining studies and family l i f e . Only 22 respondents (12.4%) were aware of opposition on the part of the i r husbands. TABLE 13. Percentage Distr ibut ion of Problem Scores by Age 25 to 30 to 35 to 40 to 45 to 50 to 55 to 60 or Quart i le 29 34 39 444 49 54 59 over Total F i r s t 74.1 61.5 44.1 61.5 50.0 47.4 85.7 100.0 61.8 Second 15.3 23.1 44.1 23.1 33.4 36.8 3b. t - 25.0 Third 1.2 3.9 5.8 7.7 10.0 - - - 3.9 Fourth - - - - - - - - -Incomplete 3.5 - 3.0 - 3.3 5.3 - - 2.7 No Inter-ruption 5.9 11.5 3.0 7.7 3.3 10.5 14.3 - 6.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 TABLE 14. Percentage Distr ibut ion of Problem Scores for Three Groups of Respondents. Quart i le With Children Without Children Early Inter-ruption Later Inter-ruption Born Outside Canada Born in Canada Total F i r s t 55.1 88.7 56.0 72.0 56.4 70.8 68.1 Second 39.4 8.8 32.0 26.1 35.9 25.6 27.5 Third 5.5 2.5 12.0 1.9 7.7 3.6 4.4 Fourth _ _ _ _ - - -Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0. 100.0 100.0 TABLE 15. Importance of Respondents' Problems in Returning to Formal Education Very Not Important Important Important Total Item No. % No. % No. % No. % Financial Need 76 34.3 48 21.6 98 44.1 222 100.0 Housing 29 13.1 18 8.1 175 78.8 222 100.0 Adjustment to Academic L i fe 69 31.1 33 14.9 120 54.0 222 100.0 Combining Studies and Family . Li fe 56 25.2 54 24.3 112 50.5 222 100.0 Combining Studies and Job 70 31.5 10 4.5 142 64.0 222 100.0 Combining Studies, Job, and Family L i fe 13 5.8 65 29.3 144 64.9 222 100.0 Housework 59 26.6 12 5.4 151 68.0 222 100.0 Small Children 20 11.3 34 19.2 123 69.5 177 100.0 Care of Older Members of the Family 28 12.6 15 6.8 179 80.6 222 100.0 Husband's Opposition 15 8.5 7 3.9 155 87.6 177 100.0 Overti redness 82 36.9 35 15.8 105 47.3 222 100.0 Depression 49 22.1 15 6.7 158 71.2 222 100.0 Job P o s s i b i l i t i e s 40 18.0 3 1.4 179 80.6 222 100.0 Health Problems 37 16.7 3 1.3 182 82.0 222 100.0 33 Despite the fact that some serious problems ex i s ted, only a few respondents had sought counsel l ing. Ninety-eight respondents had had only b r i e f , hurried consultation about course requirements during hectic reg i s t ra t ion periods, 27 had obtained career counsel l ing, 12 sought information about f inanc ia l resources, and 17 consulted coun-se l lo r s about personal matters. Only 15 women stated that they needed day care service. Degrees Earned Since 1968 Thirty respondents (13.1%) had completed addit ional academic work, and many more were working toward further degrees or diplomas (Table 16). TABLE 16. Percentage D i s t r ibut ion by Faculty of Degrees or Diplomas Earned Since 1968 Category of Degree Earned in 1968 Degrees Earned Since 1968 No. % Respondent Population No. % Faculty of Arts 10 40.0 62 27.2 Faculty of Education 7 23.3 81 35.5 Faculty of Graduate Studies 6 20.0 42 18.4 Faculty of Science, etc. 3 10.0 24 10.5 Diplomas _2 6.7 19. 8.4 Total 30 100.0 228 100.0 34 C. Occupational Character ist ics Given the tendency for educated women to want to work, i t i s not surpr is ing that the majority of respondents were employed at the time of the survey. Higher education as a preparation for careers i s well i l l u s t r a t e d by the 63.1% of respondents working f u l l - t ime and 12.3% part-time in the occupations related to the i r academic choices (Table 17). TABLE 17. Employment Status of Respondents No. of Employment Status Respondents % Employed Working Full-Time 144 (63.1%) Part-Time 28 (12.3%) 172 75.4 Not Employed Not Wanting Employment 25 11.0 Wanting Part-Time Job 16 7.0 Wanting Full-Time Job 9 3.9 Retired 2 .9 On Leave of Absence 1 .4 No Information _3_ 1.4 Total 228 100.0 35 Of the employed respondents, 80.2% were employed in education or health f i e l d s (Table 18). Only 3.5% were working in business-related jobs, and 3 of these 6 graduates were doing so in businesses owned by themselves or the i r fami l ie s . TABLE 18. Percentage Dist r ibut ion of Respondents Working Ful l - t ime or Part-time by Pro-fessional and Other F ie lds. Profession ail or Other F ie ld Respondents Working Full-Time No. % Respondents Working Part-Time No. % Respondent Population No. % Education - Teachers, College and University Lecturers and Professors, Educational Spec ia l i s t s 92 63.9 13 46.4 105 61.0 Health Care Services -Doctors, Nurses, Therapists, Lab. Technicians, Hospital D i e t i t i an and other hospital spec ia l t ie s 30 20.8 3 10.7 33 19.2 Other Professional A c t i v i t i e s - Law, Social Work, L ib -rarianship 20 13.9 8 28.6 28 16.3 Other, business-related and other services _2 1.4 _4 14.3 6 3.5 Total 144 100.0 28 100.0 172 100.0 36 Diploma recip ients and Science and professional graduates who tended to be e i ther young and s ingle or considerably older with grown-up fami l i e s , were most l i k e l y to work f u l l - t i m e , with rates of 78.9% and 75.0% respectively as compared with 64.0% for the population (Table 19). Arts graduates, with less spec ia l ized degrees and greater family ' involvement, tended less (59.7%) to work f u l l - t ime but more to hold and to want part-time jobs. Education graduates appeared to be most heavily involved in looking a f ter f ami l i e s , 18.5% not wanting jobs at the time of the survey. Factors other than family involvement appear to be operating in the s i tuat ion of respondents with graduate degrees who worked part-time at a rate of 21.4% as compared with 12.3% for the population. Respondents under age 35 were s t i l l committed to meeting family needs. They tended less to be employed f u l l - t ime and more to prefer part-time work or not to want jobs (Table 20). Those aged 35 or over were much more l i k e l y to be working f u l l - t i m e , and high levels of f u l l -time employment persisted unt i l retirement age. Salar ies Graduate degree recipients had the highest earning power, with 38.5% in the salary range of $15,000 or over as compared with t he i r ra t io of 16.4% of the respondents (Table 21). Salar ies of Science and professional graduates were lower, largely because of the lower sa lar ies of nurses. Diploma nurses were concen-trated at the lower salary ranges, 38.9% earning between $9,000 and $10,999 per annum. TABLE 19. Percentage Distr ibut ion of Employment Status by Category of Degree or Diploma Employment Status Faculty of Faculty of of Arts Education Faculty of Graduate Studies Faculty of Science, etc. Di piomas Respondent Population (N=62) (N=81) (N=42) (N=24) (N=19) (N=228) Working Full-Time 59.7 64.2 57.1 75.0 78.9 64.0 Working Part-Time 16.1 8.6 21.4 8.3 - 12.3 Not Wanting Job 9.6 18.5 7.1 - 5.3 11.0 Wanting Part-Time 14.6 2.5 4.8 8.3 5.3 7.0 Wanting Full-Time - 2.5 4.8 4.2 5.3 2.6 Reti red - 2.5 - - - .9 Leave of Absence 5.3 .4 Incomplete Info. - 1.2 4.8 4.2 - 1.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 co •iliABLE 20. Percentage Distr ibut ion of Employment Status by Age in 1968 Age 60 or Employment Status 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 over Total (N=85) (N=26) (N=34) (N=26) (N=30) (N=19) (N=7) (N=l) (N=228) Employed Full-Time 47.1 57.6 85.3 77.0 70.0 84.2 71.4 - 64.0 Employed Part-Time 17.6 19.2 8.9 3.8 6.7 5.2 14.3 - 12.3 Not Wanting Job 22.4 11.6 2.9 7.7 - - - - 11.0 Wanting Full-Time 1.2 - - 7.7 6.7 5.3 - - 7.0 Wanting Part-Time 9.4 11.6 2.9 - 6.7 5.3 - 100.0 2.6 Reti red - - - - 3.3 - 14.3 - .9 Leave of Absence - - - 3.8 - - - - -.4 Incomplete Info. 2.3 - - - 6.6 - - - 1.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 co oo TABLE 21. Percentage Distr ibut ion of Salaries of Respondents Working Full-Time by Category of Degree or Diploma Category of Degree or Diploma $7,000 to 8,999 $9,000 to 10,999 $11,000 to 12,999 $13,000 to 14,999 $15,000 or Over Total (N=5) (N=18) (N=33) (N=37) (N=51) (N=144) Faculty of Arts 40.0 27.8 27.3 26.3 21.2 25.4 Faculty of Education 20.0 11.1 36.4 50.0 34.6 35.6 Faculty of Graduate Studies - - 3.0 7.9 38.5 16.4 Faculty of Science, etc. 20.0 22.2 18.2 13.2 3.8 12.3 Di piomas 20.0 38.9 15.1 2.6 1.9 10.3 Total 100.00 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 TABLE 22. Percentage Distr ibut ion of Salaries of Respondents Working Part-Time by Category of Degree or Diploma Faculty of Faculty of Annual Faculty Faculty of Graduate Science, Salary of Arts Education Studies etc. Diplomas Total (N=10l (N=7) TN=9] ~W2) WO) (N=28) Under $3,000 60.0 28.6 66.0 50.0 - 53.6 $3,000 to $4,999 10.0 28.6 22.2 50.0 - 21.4 $5,000 to $6,999 10.0 28.6 11.1 - - 14.3 $7,000 to $8,999 2JL0 14.2 - - - 10.7 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 - 100.0 41 The point at which sa lar ies of f u l l - t ime and part-time workers overlapped was the $7,000 to $8,999 range. Arts and Graduate Studies degree recipients appeared to be most l i k e l y to work part-time in the lowest salary ranges (Table 22). Of the 28 respondents working only part-t ime, 19 were doing so because of family needs, and 9 because of lack of opportunities in f u l l - t ime employment. The former group were under 35 years of age, and the l a t t e r over 35. Job Sat i s fact ion Job s a t i s f a c t i on , measured on the Brayf ie ld Scale (see Appendix D), was high, with 97.1% of the scores in the Third and Fourth Quarti les (Table 23). TABLE 23. Scores on Job Sat i s fact ion Scale Quart i le Number of Respondents Percentage F i r s t (0 to 4 points) 0 Second (5 to 8 points) 5 2.9 Third (9 to 12 points) 59 34.3 Fourth (13 to 16 points) 108 62.8 Total 172 100.0 42 Greatest job sa t i s fac t ion was expressed by those earning most and those working part-t ime, as indicated by over-representation in the Fourth Quart i le of those earning $13,000 or more and those earning less than $5,000 (Table 24). Given the pos i t i ve re lat ionship between job sa t i s fac t i on and sa lary , i t i s not surpr is ing that the highest earners, recipients of graduate degrees and Faculty of Education graduates, had Fourth Quart i le scores well above the group average of 62.8% (Table 25). Faculty of Science and professional faculty graduates were much less l i k e l y to have scores in the Fourth Quart i le , mainly as a resu l t of lower scores of graduates in Nursing and the Bachelor of Science programme. Arts graduates were somewhat below the average of the group, largely because of less job sa t i s fac t i on among Librarianship and Social Work graduates. Diploma recipients in Nursing were lowest in job sa t i s fac t ion of a l l the categories. Job sa t i s fac t i on was evenly d i s t r ibuted throughout age ranges except for a tendency of the youngest respondents to be less s a t i s f i e d . Their scores in the Fourth Quart i le were 48.1% for age 25 to 29, as compared with 59.2% for the population. Respondents in the age 45 to 49 range were also less s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r jobs, with 54.2% of t he i r scores in the Fourth Quart i le . These graduates were nurses. While 139 of the working respondents (79.9%) f e l t that a return to education had enhanced the i r job opportunit ies, 32 (18.4%) f e l t other-wise, and 3 (1.7%) did not reply. TABLE 24. Percentage Distr ibut ion of Job Sat i s fact ion Scores by Salary Range $3,000 $5,000 $7,000 $9,000 $11,000 $13,000 $15,000 Under to to to to to to or No Quart i le $3,000 4,999 6,999 8,999 10,999 12,999 14,999 over Info. Total WW) CN=6l JJFZ) [JF8] (N=T8) (TF33) UF37) (TFBTJ [N=3] (N=172) F i r s t - - - - - - - - -Second - - - 12.5 5.6 6.1 - 1.9 - 2.9 Third 21.4 16.6 50.0 37.5 38.8 48.5 40.5 21.6 66.7 34.3 Fourth . 78.6 83.4 50.0 50.0 55.6 45.4 59.5 76.5 33.3 62.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 TABLE 25. Percentage Distr ibut ion of Job Sat i s fact ion Scores by Category of Degree or Diploma Quart i le Faculty o f Arts Faculty of Education Faculty of Graduate Studies Faculty of Science, etc. (N=45) 4.4 40.0 55.6 (N=34) 2.9 17.7 79.4 Diplomas N=17) 5.8 47.1 47.1 Total (N=172) 2.9 34.3 62.8 F i r s t Second Third Fourth N=56) 1.8 30.4 67.8 (N=20) 50.0 50.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 45 Nine respondents not employed at the time of the survey also stated that t he i r job prospects had not improved as a resu l t of higher educational qua l i f i c a t i on s . This group, together with the 32 employed respondents who shared the i r negative view, tended to be Education and Graduate Studies degree rec ip ient s , and to have completed the i r degrees when they were 35 years of age or over (Table 26). TABLE 26. Percentage Dist r ibut ion of Respondents Who Felt Further Education Had Not Led to Better Job Opportunities by Category of Degree or Diploma Category of Degree or Diploma Number of Respondents Percentage Respondent Population Faculty of Arts TO 24.4 27.2 Faculty of Education 17 41.5 35.5 Faculty of Graduate Studies 10 24.4 18.4 Faculty of Science, etc. 3 7.3 10.5 Diplomas J _ }2A 8.4 Total 41 100.0 100.0 D. Summary As a group, respondents shared several character i s t ic s which inc l i ned them toward resuming formal studies and favoured the i r chances of success. They came from comfortable circumstances and had previous 46 univers i ty experience. The interruptions in t he i r studies had been b r i e f . They were free of some anxiety as a resu l t of the i r conventional academic and professional choices. The majority were born in Canada and therefore moving within a system r e l a t i v e l y f ami l i a r to them. Within the group, however, were women - mainly heads of house-holds - who enjoyed fewer advantages and who were pursuing the i r objec-t ives under considerable stress. Few respondents had l e f t school or married at an early age. Those who did so tended to be away from studies for longer periods of time than the res t , and to return e i ther for diploma work or un-spec ia l i zed academic programmes. Single women tended to return to studies a f te r gaining work experience, entering spec ia l ized courses with a view to l i f e l ong careers. For married women with ch i ld ren , the age of the youngest ch i l d was a determining factor in the length of interrupt ion in formal edu-cat ion. A v a i l a b i l i t y of part-time studies was also a factor . Oppo-s i t i o n of husbands was a problem for very few. Although some respondents had serious problems, and many were troubled by f inanc ia l need, few consulted the various counsell ing agencies on the univers i ty campus. In f a c t , as aggroup, these graduates do not appear to have sought - or expected - any help with problems. The level of employment among graduates was high (75.4%), and most of those not employed were busy looking a f te r fami l ie s . Job s a t i s -fact ion was also high, with the notable exception of the nurses. Most of the graduates who were employed f e l t that t he i r increased educational 47 qua l i f i ca t i on s had helped them to get the jobs they wanted. Those who d idnotshare these feel ings were women aged 35 or over, mainly in Education and Graduate Studies, who tended to have trouble f inding jobs in the i r f i e l d s . The picture presented is one of purposeful, vigorous people who chose to return to formal studies and who followed through by working in the f i e l d s fo r which they prepared themselves. While some members of the group had overcome serious problems in achieving t he i r object ives, most had enjoyed advantages which ensured the i r success. CHAPTER IV MOTIVATION AND SATISFACTION While the previous chapter contains factual information about respondents, th i s chapter deals with the i r feel ings about returning to formal studies and about the i r subsequent experience. A. Motivation Economic of professional reasons for returning to studies were stated by 44.7% of respondents (see Appendix E for method of c l a s s i -fying responses), and in two-thirds of these cases as the only reason (Table 27). Personal development (37.3%) and love of learning (12.3%) were much more l i k e l y to be given as the f i r s t of several reasons. Respondents in spec ia l ized courses such as Diploma work, and Librarianship and Social Work in the Faculty of Arts, tended to give economic or professional reasons for having resumed studies. Education graduates were l i k e l y to stress personal development, and graduate degree recipients love of learning (Table 28). The pattern, when related to age, suggested an emphasis on personal development among those under 30 years of age, a growing i n -terest in economic and professional development from age 30 to 45, and an increase in love of learning a f te r age 40 (Table 29). 48 49 TABLE 27. Percentage Distr ibut ion of Respondents' Reasons for Returning to Studies Stated as Stated as Total Only Reason F i r s t Reason Reason Stated Number % Number % Number % Economic or Professional 68 65.4 34 30.6 102 44.7 Personal Development 25 24.0 60 54.1 85 37.3 Love of Learning 11 10.6 17 15.3 28 12.3 Combined Reasons No P r i o r i t y _ _ _ _ U 5.7 Total 104 100.0 111 100.0 228 100.0 Single women, most of whom had worked for several years, were more l i k e l y than married women to return to studies for economic or professional reasons (Table 30). Faced with the prospect of earning a l i v i n g for the rest of the i r l i v e s , they committed themselves to careers as they had not done while marriage was s t i l l a real poss i -b i l i t y . TABLE 28. Percentage Distr ibut ion of Reasons for Returning to Studies by Category of Degree or Diploma Faculty of Faculty of Faculty Faculty of Graduate Science, Stated Reason of Arts Education Studies etc. Diplomas Total [F62] ( F F 8 T J [P42) UF2A) (TFT9~) (N=228) Economic or „ . , . , „ , • - , Professional 53.2 35.8 38.1 41.7 73.7 44.7 Personal ^ „ „ _ Development 35.5 48.2 23.8 37.5 26.3 37.3 Love of „ Learning 6.5 11.1 26.2 16.7 - 12.3 Combined No P r i o r i t y 4.8 4.9 11.9 4.1 _z 5.7 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 TABLE 29. Percentage Distr ibut ion of Reasons for Returning to Studies by Age Age 25 to 30 to 35 to 40 to 45 to 50 to 55 to 60 or Stated Reason 29 34 39 44 49 54 59 . over Total [F26] [F34] WW} [N=19] [N=7] WTT. (N=228) Economic or Professional 44.7 50.0 52.9 50.0 43.3 36.8 - - 44.7 Personal Development 42.4 26.9 32.4 34.7 36.7 36.8 42.8 100.0 37.3 Love of Learning 7.0 15.4 8.8 15.3 16.7 21.1 28.6 - 12.3 Combined No P r i o r i t y 5.9 7.7 5.9 _^ 3.3 5.3 28.6 _z 5.7 Total 100  100 0 100.0 100 0 100 0 100.0 100 0 100.0 100 052 TABLE 30. Percentage Dist r ibut ion of Reasons for Return to Studies Given by Single and Married Respondents Reason Stated Single Respondents Number % Ever Married Respondents Number % Total Number % Economic or Professional Personal Development Love of Learning Combined No P r i o r i t y Total 29 11 6 _2 48 60.4 22.9 12.5 4.2 100.0 73 74 22 11 180 40.6 41.1 12.2 6.1 100.0 102 85 28 11 228 44.7 37.3 12.3 5.7 100.0 Cooperation of husbands, considered an important factor in return to studies, was most evident among respondents who returned for economic or professional reasons (Table 31). Not su rp r i s i ng l y , respondents who had returned to studies for economic or professional reasons tended to earn more and were less l i k e l y to be out of the labour force (Table 32). The exception to th i s pattern was the group earning $15,000 or more who stated reasons related to love of learning. These l a t t e r respondents were mainly recipients of graduate degrees whose earning power as a group exceeded that of other groups. Among the graduates who had returned fo r economic or professional reasons, the peak of 66.6% in the $9,000 to $10,999 range re f lec t s the presence of diploma nurses. 53 TABLE 31. Percentage Dist r ibut ion of Husband's Opposition by Respondent's Reason for Return to Studies Reason Stated Respondents' Husbands Not Opposed Respondents' Husbands Opposed Total Ever Marri ed Respondents (N=158) (N=22) (N=228) Economic or Professional 42.4 27.3 40.6 Personal Development 39.9 50.0 41.1 Love of Learning 10.7 22.7 12.2 Combined No P r i o r i t y 7.0 - 6.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Those who had returned to education for economic or professional reasons appeared to be least s a t i s f i e d with t he i r jobs of a l l the groups. Their r a t i o in the Fourth Quart i le of highest job sa t i s fac t i on was 58.8%, below the average of 62.8% for the population (Table 33), mainly as a resu l t of the lower job sa t i s fac t i on of nurses, and to a lesser extent of soc ia l workers and l i b r a r i an s . The majority of respondents in the high earnings - high job sa t i s fac t i on category were recipients of Education and graduate degrees, two groups which tended to express reasons of personal development and love of learning for t he i r return to studies. TABLE 32. Percentage Distr ibut ion of Reasons for Return to Formal Studies by Salary Range $3,000 t $5,000 $7,000 $9,000 $11,000 $13,000 $15,000 Under tt-b to to to to to or Not Reason Stated $3,000 4,999 6,999 8,999 10,999 12,999 14,999 oover Working Total ( M 5 ) W6) [ F 4 ] (N=8) WT8) JJFWj [P37] [N=BTJ (F56 ) (P228) Economic or Professional 40.0 33.3 50.0 66.6 51.6 52.6 46.1 30.9 44.7 Personal Development. 26.7 33.3 66.6 37.5 . 11.1 42.4 36.9 34.6 47.3 37.3 Love of Learning .3.:- 13.3 33.4 33.4 12.5 22.3 3.0 10.5 13.5 10.9 12.3 Combined Reasons 20.0 3.0 5.8 10.9 5.7 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 55 TABLE 33. Percentage Distr ibut ion of Reasons for Return to Formal Studies by Job Sat i s fact ion Scores Quart i le Economic or Professional Personal Development Love of Learning Combined Reasons Total (N=85) (N=57) (N=22) (N=8) (N=172. F i r s t - - - - -Second 3.5 3.5 - - 2.9 Third 37.7 28.1 40.9 25.0 34.3 Fourth 58.8 68.4 59.1 75.0 62.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 B. Sat i s fact ion Respondents expressed a high degree of sa t i s fac t ion in having returned to formal studies. A l l but 13 graduates (5.7%) stated that they woufld do i t again (Table 34), some in terms that could only be described as "Enthus iast ic . " (See Appendix F for method of c l a s s i f y i ng responses.) Faculty of Arts graduates, ch ie f l y those in the Bachelor of Arts programme, expressed the greatest degree of enthusiasm (Table 35). Graduates of the Bachelor of Science programme, as well as Nursing degree and diploma rec ip ient s , while expressing pos i t ive fee l ings , were less s a t i s f i e d . A greater tendency to negative c r i t i c i s m was shown by those who received graduate degrees 56 TABLE 34. Degree of Sat i s fact ion in Having Returned to Formal Studies Degree of Sat i s fact ion Number of Respondents Percentage Enthusiastic 67 29.4 Pos i t ive 148 64.9 Negative 13 5.7 Totalm 228 100.0 When related to age on completion of degrees or diplomas, en-thus ia s t i c responses were somewhat above average in the age 25 to 29 group and more so in the age 45 to 49 group which included some of the Bachelor of Arts graduates (Table.36). Negative comments by respon-dents in the age 35 to 39 group were mainly associated with the prob-lems of returning to studies, while those made by graduates in the age 50 to 54 group involved job problems. Although the graduates expressed sat i s fact ion, and even enthu-siasm, about having continued the i r education, they had some regrets. ." .:Academi!cpand-Professioha1 "Ghoices Over ha l f the graduates regretted the i r academic choices, wishing that they had set higher goals (51 respondents), had not " se t t led fo r " t r ad i t i ona l women's f i e l d s (53 respondents), had had better information when making the i r choices (26 respondents). Forty-four respondents TABLE 35. Percentage Distr ibut ion of Sat i s fact ion in Having Returned to Formal Studies by Category of Degree or Diploma Faculty of Faculty of Degree of , Faculty c Faculty of Graduate Science, Sat i s fact ion of Arts Education Studies etc. Diplomas Total JJF62) [ P 8 T ) PF42] W2A) ' JJFWj (N=228) Enthusiastic 43.5 27.1 28.6 16.7 10.6 29.8 Pos i t ive 53.3 70.4 57.1 75.0 84.2 64.5 Negative 3.2 2.5 14.3 8.3 5.2 5.7 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 TABLE 36. Percentage Distr ibut ion of Respondents' Sa t i s fact ion in Havrimg Returned to Formal Studies by Age at Completion of Degree or Diploma Age Degree of 25 to 30 to 35 to 40 to 45 to 50 to 55 to 60 or Sat i s fact ion 29 34 39 44 49 54 59 over Total " (N=85) (N=26) JJFWj JJF26) [ F30 ] WW) W D (TFT) (N=228) Enthusiastic 31.7 23.1 23.6 30.7 36.7 26.3 28.6 - 29.4 Pos it ive 61.2 76.9 67.6 65.5 63.3 63.2 71.4 - 64.9 Negative 7.1 - 8.8 3.8 - 10.5 - 100.0 5.7 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 OO 59 stated s p e c i f i c a l l y that the i r choices had led to work which gave them great sa t i s f ac t i on in helping others. Some of the graduates who were most enthusiast ic about t he i r educational experience were only moderately happy with t he i r jobs. These were graduates who had completed B.A.'s without spec ia l i zed f i e l d s , Education graduates who f e l t "trapped" in Elementary teaching, and Master's degree rec ip ients who were teaching part-time in col leges. Of the few who had entered college teaching and school or l i b ra r y ad-min i s t ra t ion , almost a l l commented on discr imination against women, and pa r t i cu l a r l y against older women. Timing of Education The range of views about timing of education was wide. Some graduates regretted having interrupted the i r formal education (58 respon-dents), some f e l t a break between high school and univers i ty would have been most desirable even though they themselves had l e f t studies at f i r s t or second year levels (12 respondents). The largest s ingle group (92 respondents) f e l t , however, that maturity and l i f e experience had added immeasurably to the sa t i s fac t i on of returningtto formal edu-cat ion. Conf1i ct One-third of the graduates commented on factors related to women's status in education and the professions, referr ing to r i d i c u l e and sarcasm directed at mature women students by male professors, 60 espec ia l ly in science courses (27 respondents), lack of a supportive climate in t he i r homes while they were students (29 respondents), aware-ness off dtfis crimination against women in t he i r respective professional f i e l d s (10 respondents), and regret that they had allowed themselves to be persuaded against applying for admission to Law and Medicine (10 respondents). Counselling The need for counsell ing was a recurrent theme even though few respondents had made any attempt to consult counsell ing agencies on the campus. C. Summary Clear p r i o r i t y was given by almost hal f the respondents to economic secur i ty or professional status as reasons for having returned to studies. These motives applied most often to s ingle women preparing themselves for l i f e t ime careers or to married women who had established fami l ie s . Younger women were more l i k e l y to see the i r return to edu-cation as a means of atta in ing a certain l i f e - s t y l e . Women over 40, many of whom had completed bachelor 's degrees before leaving education, tended to stress i n t e l l e c t ua l i n teres t . The graduates were well s a t i s f i e d with the i r education and the i r jobs, with the notable exception of the Nurses. Problems in getting jobs were most evident among women over 35, many apparently 61 underqualif ied for teaching in community col leges, but overqual i f ied or lacking teaching c e r t i f i c a t e s fo r the school system. The most t y p i -cal regret was of not having aimed at higher levels of education, or at male-dominated professions. There was a l so, however, considerable sa t i s f ac t i on with conventional women's professions. A wide range of opinions was expressed by respondents about the timing of interruptions in formal education. Maturity and l i f e experience were, however, considered to have been valuable assets in resuming formal studies. A generally non-supportive atmosphere for mature women students in the University affected the academic performance of many respondents, pa r t i cu l a r l y those already coping with heavy personal r e spon s i b i l i t i e s . The need for.counsel l i n g was stressed even though few respon-dents had themselves consulted counsell ing services. CHAPTER V DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS A. Discussion The purpose of th i s study about mature women students was to learn more about what kinds of people they were, what choices they made, and how they f e l t about the i r education and the i r jobs. The cheerful and constructive reactions to the questionnaire i t s e l f gave some ind icat ion of the nature of the survey group. Re-sponses ranged from b r i e f factual answers to long careful ly-formulated evaluations. Thirty-n ine of the 228 respondents were glad of a sign of in teres t in t he i r achievements, more than one referr ing to herself as a "pioneer." Another 19 were glad to be prodded into a review of t he i r experiences. Two women f e l t the questionnaire was too long, and 6 concluded that the purpose of the study was to downgrade t r a d i -t iona l feminine pursuits. Most responses came from the Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia, possibly because of the postal s t r i ke which occurred short ly a f te r questionnaires were mailed. The 1968 graduates in the survey appear to have used the i r educational opportunities to good advantage in terms of employment and personal development, and were anxious to share the i r experiences. 62 63 Academic and Professional Choices The emphasis of th i s survey i s on the vocational aspects of higher education for women. In th i s respect, the experience of the 1968 women graduates could be considered a success both on i t s own merits and on the basis of comparison with the women in Canadian, American, and B r i t i s h studies. The UBC women's rate of 75.4% employment in the i r respective f i e l d s (63.1% f u l l - t ime and 12.3% part-time) i s comparable with 73.0% for the B r i t i s h women (58.0% f u l l - t ime and 15.0% pa r t ) , the group most l i k e them in terms of professional and spec ia l i zed degrees. B r i t i s h graduates appear to have had more opportunities for part-time work in professions, for example 31.0% of B r i t i s h women doctors and dentists were working part-time (Arregger, p. 13). Only 49.0% of the American graduates, a younger group who had fewer professional degrees and were less l i k e l y to have resumed education a f te r in ter rupt ion, were employed at the time of the 1966 survey (39.0% f u l l - t ime and 10.0% part-t ime). Data on English-speaking Canadian graduates in the Canadian Federation of University Women survey indicate that 40.0% of the members were employed and 50.0% of the non-members, the l a t t e r group more represen-tat i ve of the general population. The corresponding figures for the French-speaking Canadian graduates were 61.0% for Federation members and 67.0% for non-members. Data on f u l l - t ime and part-time work for th i s group are not comparable here. About 80.0% of the employed graduates in a l l studies were working in education or health f i e l d s , with the exception of the French-speaking 64 Canadian graduates whose par t i c ipat ion in those f i e l d s appears to be about 62.0%, while about 21.0% were employed in Federal, Provincia l or loca l government administrative jobs. About half the graduates in both the American and Canadian studies who resumed studies had done so for c lear-cut economic or pro-fessional reasons, as compared with 44.7% in the UBC survey. Th i r ty -s i x per cent in the Canadian study, as compared with 37.3% in the UBC survey, gave reasons related to personal development. In keeping with Ferguson and S tur tz 1 f indings that mature students express high degrees of s a t i s f a c t i on , the assessments of the women in the Canadian study were 86.0% Sat i s factory , 10.0% Unsatisfactory; in the UBC study, 94.3% Pos i t ive or Enthus iast ic, 5.7% Negative. Despite the numerous differences in populations and standards, a l l surveys showed the pos i t ive re lat ionsh ip between education and work, the s i m i l a r i t y of women's occupational choices, the lesser l i k e l i -hood of professional women to interrupt employment for family reasons, and the high level of s a t i s f ac t i on expressed by women who had successful ly completed a second phase of education. Okun's f indings that women who have been interested in masculine f i e l d s tend to switch to feminine f i e l d s a f te r they have brought up fami l ies cannot be tested by data from the UBC survey since so few graduates had at any time been interested in anything other than t r a d i -t ional women's f i e l d s . I t seems c lear that pract ica l matters of employ-ment opportunities and l im i ta t ions imposed by previous univers i ty work has a good deal to do with respondents' academic choices. Many who 65 regretted t he i r choices understood that they based the i r regrets on information they could not have had when they made those choices. Some attr ibuted t he i r decisions to discr imination against women in advanced levels of study or professional work, for example Wanted to do law but was advised against i t as being a pro-fession&which discriminates pretty heavily against women. I would not enter the Faculty of Education. I r ea l l y wanted Commerce, but allowed myself to be talked out of i t because women were reportedly unwelcome there. Others persisted despite the resistance shown by administration and facu l ty to t he i r admission to graduate programmes. I was repeatedly asked i f I rea l i zed how d i f f i c u l t an M.A. would be (despite a record of F i r s t Class Average a l l along!) and was generally discouraged from attempting the programme . . . I think I would have abandoned the whole project and gone home i f i t hadn't been so far to go! Professors were a l l great, espec ia l ly when they found I was academically capable. ( I f I were returning to studies) I would not feel l i k e a ' f r e a k ' , advised by the Department that I ought to be a nurse or get married when I entered grad. school. Always f e l t inadequate and somewhat gu i l t y . At the time of my graduate work, I did not rea l i ze what was happening to me was less me and more status of a woman. The most typ ica l regret about academic choices was that of not having aimed at more intensive work at higher leve l s . To what extent t he se . c r i t i c a l comments stem from the effects of age and interim experience i s open to question. What does seem c lear i s that many of the women seemed to have no idea of the i r own capab i l i t i e s when they decided to return to studies, and that they now perceive a lack of support and encouragement to explore t he i r own a b i l i t i e s and the range of options within the Univers ity. 66 I had no conception of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s fo r advancement open to women. Had no conception of my own a b i l i t i e s . I t would have been so helpful i f someone who knew both my interests and a b i l i t i e s and also the professional p o s s i b i l i t i e s had given some personal assessment and advice. Female undergraduate students pa r t i cu l a r l y need encouragement and guidance in forming goals and options for l i f e s t y l e s . * Only a few graduates - school and l i b ra r y administrators and college teachers - could be considered as having stepped outside the customary f i e l d s for women. The survey group as a whole support B i rd ' s assertions that success for women l i e s in choosing t r a d i t i o n a l l y femi-nine ro les. The women's obvious concern for the i r fami l ies and the fact that women with more than two chi ldren were away from studies for at least 10 years, suggest that in the balance between marriage and career discussed by Rossi, they opted for marriage, at least while chi ldren were very young. Knudsen's contention that many women in demanding jobs are working by choice rather than by necessity i s borne out by some of the married women in the UBC group, espec ia l ly those working part-time as col lege lecturers and those hoping for such r. employment. Many are free to enter or leave the working force depending on other commitments, in the kind of continual balancing suggested by Epstein. In the absence of economic need to work, women's profes-sional interests are l i a b l e to take second place, in the view of others * Such service was avai lable for students through the various counsell ing agencies on the univers i ty campus. Among these serv ices, the Dean of Women's Off ice attempted to provide the means for personal assessment and, in consultation with Faculties and Departments, i n f o r -mation about the options ava i lab le . 67 and possibly of themselves. I have given up teaching f u l l - t ime at univers i ty and a f te r taking some courses I am working hard on entering the f i e l d of l i t e r a r y t rans lator on a freelance basis. I hope you can help the women who want to go back to work. I t i s awfully hard espec ia l ly as, i f they are married and ' don ' t need t o ' (work), employers consider them d i l e t tan te s . Timing of Education In terms of the timing of education for women, no one pattern i s appropriate for a l l needs. The survey respondents expressed the widest possible range of opinions about the respective benefits of early and l a t e r i n t e r -ruptions in education and no interruptions at a l l . As Cless suggests, timing is a central problem in the education of women. Many of the UBC graduates would have welcomed Cless ' more f l e x i b l e system. They might also have agreed with her that women f r e -quently lose t he i r feminine qua l i t i e s as they proceed through the mas-cul ine system of education, which is to say that they become more aggres-s i ve, c r i t i c a l and independent. These q u a l i t i e s , so necessary to scholarship and research, are as Neugarten suggests more acceptable to women themselves as they grow older. In the words of some respon-dents , I f I get a second chance I sha l l be much less t imid. I was t e r r i b l y accepting and agreeable. Now I'm older and don ' t care so much, would look a f te r my own interests now. As I 've aged, I 've learned to say 'no ' and avoid exp lo i t a -t i on. 68 The experience of the UBC graduates suggests however that the developmental approach of Maccoby i s more appropriate in that . . . the educated woman does not behave as an i n t e l l e c tua l during her col lege years, nor 'go underground1 during the period of her l i f e when she is ra i s ing young chi ldren and then emerge again as an i n t e l l e c t ua l when her chi ldren are grown and no longer require so much of her time. Rather i t appears that some of the rest ra ints upon her i n t e l l e c -t u a l i t y make themselves f e l t long before marriage and con-tinue to be present. (p. 25) Maturity and l i f e experience proved to be benefits for the UBC graduates. Their experience suggests, however, that interrupt ion i s best made at a post-secondary level rather than at the end of high school because of greater ease of return to studies and better know-ledge of univers i ty l i f e and expectations. Any interrupt ion is un-des i rable, however, in highly competitive f i e l d s where continuous, sequential learning i s important, as the almost complete absence of science and professional degree holders in the survey population appears to confirm. Conf l i c t While a return to formal studies i s , and probably should be, accompanied by some s t res s , the degree of stress suffered by some of the graduates was c l ea r l y unacceptable. The fact that these women succeeded in completing t he i r courses confirms Lyon's descr ipt ion of some mature women being "driven by demons" (p. 254) in pursuing t he i r aims. I t i s th i s qua l i ty of "driven-ness" which frequently gives r i se to the charge of i n s t a b i l i t y or deviance attached to women continuing the i r education. The UBC graduates, who appear to be remarkably balanced and wel l -adjusted, were themselves aware that others reacted to them as abnormal. As things are now, a successful professional woman i s regarded as an oddity and a departure from a norm which was set by men and reinforced by women who have been conditioned a l l t he i r l i ves to believe they are not being feminine i f they develop the i r a b i l i t i e s and remain independent. The whole thing could have been made easier fo r me i f I had asked for some concessions so that I could be a mother and a student at the same time, with less pressure. I used up a l l my energy jus t t ry ing to hold on, but d i dn ' t want to confirm the feel ings of others that I should be " sens ib le " and give up. Now I have a profes-s ion, and since my husband's serious i l l n e s s have been supporting my family. Husbands' att itudes were v i t a l l y important to the success of the married women in the survey. Cooperation and encouragement were much more l i k e l y when wives had " p r a c t i c a l " reasons for returning to studies and when chi ldren were grown. Summary The constructive qua l i t i e s of respondents' statements far out weigh the strong negative statements even when the two are mixed. Th respondents could say I found UBC a very a l ienat ing and personally destructive experience, lonely and anxiety-producing. However, many of the professors were helpful and eventually i t became a source of enrichment and deep s a t i s f a c t i on . Personally I found a deep sa t i s f ac t i on with myself, and that counts more than anything. I stuck with the course for three" years even though I was more unhappy than I had ever been in my l i f e . For me to have continued and reached as hard as I did for that degree at UBC, though I was depressed and anxious, has given me confidence in the person I am. 70 The cons istent ly lower sa t i s f ac t i on of the nurses i s worthy of special mention. Reasons for d i s sa t i s f ac t i on with the profession i t s e l f were not within the scope of th i s survey although r e l a t i v e l y lower sa lar ies which appeared in the data were undoubtedly a factor . Many of the diploma nurses regretted not having aimed at nursing degrees, nurses who had e a r l i e r in t he i r l i ves completed R.N. qua l i f i ca t i ons regretted not having entered the University degree programme i n i t i a l l y , and both diploma and degree nurses f e l t inadequately rewarded in pro-fessional terms for t he i r addit ional qua l i f i c a t i on s . The uncomfortable climate for nursing students in Science courses was a major complaint, as well as a fee l ing on the part of R.N.'s that they were "second-class c i t i z e n s " in the School of Nursing. Those in diploma programmes, without previous univers i ty experience, were apt to f ind the adjustment d i f f i c u l t . Another group with special problems were those who were s ingle heads of households. The most typical comment on t he i r s i tuat ion was . . . I 'd lobby for and/or confront government re the i r indi f ference to s ing le parents (men or women, but espe=-c i a l l y the l a t t e r ) as shown by (1) few or no day care f a c i l i t i e s (2) l i t t l e or no f inanc ia l assistance in up-grading myself so I could keep my family and s e l f o f f welfare. No encouragement for acquiring professional status - itTs OK i f I 'd be a p ract i ca l nurse, e.g., but sa lar ies are impossibly low. For the res t , the benefits of maturity and l i f e experience were summed up in the words of a respondent, My years at UBC a f te r many years of marriage and mother-hood were much more rewarding than my teen-age years. Years of travel and various experiences made assignments eas ier , budgeting of time better , fr iendships ea s i l y made, relaxed re lat ionship with professors. I t r ea l l y was better the second time around! 71 B. Conclusions Without f i nanc ia l means and previous univers i ty experience, mature women students were un l ike ly to resume the i r formal education at The University of B r i t i s h Columbia in the mid-1960's. Those who attempted to do so without these advantages were subject to unreason-ably heavy s t ress . This s i tuat ion i s not likely.oto..recur to the same serious degree because of the establishment in the intervening decade of community col leges, the increase in f i nanc ia l aid for mature s tu -dents, the spel l ing-out of mature student admission p o l i c i e s , and a more tolerant att i tude toward mature students. There is no reason to suppose that the academic choices of the survey population, which were more re s t r i c ted than those of younger women graduates in 1968, did not represent the i r true in teres t s . No real test i s possible since t he i r decisions were l imited by previous academic work and based on r e a l i s t i c job opportunit ies. While they valued the "feminine professions," many respondents regretted not having chosen more demanding, by which they meant male-dominated, professions. Their regrets suggest strongly that women, l i k e men, are interested in the prestige and income to be gained in the e l i t e professions. In the climate of the mid-1960's, admission to such t ra in ing was almost impossible for mature women, The question of timing of education for women has no s ingle or simple so lut ion. What i s c lear i s that early interrupt ion of studies tends to set expectations at a lower level and makes a return more d i f f i c u l t . Interruptions at any time are almost f a ta l to aspirations 72 in science and the professions. Employment in professional f i e l d s i s l i k e l y to be a problem for women over 35. The avalanche of l i t e r a t u r e on higher education for women has cont inual ly stressed the importance of counsell ing and of part-time opportunities for study. Neither of these a c t i v i t i e s ranks high in the p r i o r i t i e s of a hard-pressed univers i ty system. Commitment by the un ivers i t ies to e i ther of these f i e l d s may be outrun by the accomplishments of women themselves who may be los ing out in the pro-fessions in terms re la t i ve to men, but whose absolute numbers are i n -creasing. The models they present to g i r l s and young women promise to be more e f fec t i ve than patchwork attempts at counsell ing and part-time study. Economic pressure for women to work w i l l probably also force women into new and more rewarding occupations. Because human potential i s largely what we believe i t i s , only conspicuous success w i l l change att itudes and lessen the i nh ib i t i n g influences b u i l t into the system. The achievement of the 1968 mature women students should not be underestimated. They were,.however, a favoured group. How many other women without these advantages t r i e d , and fa i led? BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, Jane V. "Psychological Determinants." In Women & Success. The Anatomy of Achievement, pp. 200-7. New York: Will iam Morrow & Company, Inc., 1974. p. 200. Arregger, Constance E., M.Sc, F.Inst.P., ed. Graduate Women at Work A Study by a Working Party oftthe B r i t i s h Federation of University Women. London: Oriel Press L td . , 1966. Bernard, Jess ie. Academic Women. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1964. B i rd , Caroline. Born Female. New York: David McKay Company, 1968. B l i shen, Bernard R. "A Socio-Economic Index fo r Occupations in Canada." Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 4 (February 1967): 41-53. B ray f ie ld , Arthur H. and Rothe, Harold F. "An Index of Job Sa t i s f ac t i on , " Journal of Applied Psychology 35 (October 1951): 307-11. Cless, El izabeth L. "A Modest Proposal for the Educating of Women." The American Scholar 38 (Autumn 1969): 6jl»8-27. Cockburn, P a t r i c i a , B.Com., ed. Women University Graduates in Con- t inuing Education and Employment. An Exploratory Study I n i t i a ted by the Canadian Federation of University Women. Toronto, 1966. Cross, K. P a t r i c i a . "College Women: A Research Descr ipt ion." Journal  of the National Association of Women Deans and Counselors 32 (Fa l l 1968): 12-21. " Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs. Woman's Place, Options andlLimits in Profes- s ional Careers. Berkeley: University of Ca l i fo rn ia Press, 1970. Ferguson, Marie A. "Adult Students in an Undergraduate Univers i ty, " Journal of College Student Personnel 7 (November 1966): 345-8. Ginzberg, E l i and Associates. L i fe Styles of Educated Women. New York: Columbia Univers ity Press, 1966. Horner, Matina S. "Feminity and Successful Achievement: A Basic Incon-s i s tency. " In Feminine Personality and Con f l i c t , pp. 45-74. Edited by Judith M. Bardwick. Belmont, Ca l i f o rn i a : Brooks-Cole Publishing Co., 1970. 73 74 Knudsen, Dean D. "The Declining Status of Women: Popular Myths and the Fai lure of Funct ional i st Thought." Social Forces 48 (December 1969): 183-93. Lewis, Edwin C. Developing Women's Potent ia l . Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1968. Lyon, Rhee. "Married Women and the Academic Tradi t ion. A Very Per-sonal Analys i s . " Journal of Higher Education XXXV (May 1964): 254. Maccoby, Eleanor E. "Women's I n t e l l e c t . " In The Potential of Woman, pp. 24-39. Edited by Seymour M. Farber and Roger H. L. Wilson. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1963. MacLellan, Margaret E. "History of Women's Rights in Canada." In Cultural Tradit ion and P o l i t i c a l History of Women in Canada. Studies of the Royal Commission on the Status of Women in Canada. Number 8. Ottawa: Information Canada, 1971. pp. 6=12. Merideth, El izabeth and Merideth, Robert. "Adult Women's Education: A Radical C r i t i que . " Journal of the National Association of Women  Deans and Counselors 34 (Spring 1971): 113. Neugarten, Bernice L. "Women's Changing Roles Through the L i fe Cycle." Journal of the National Association of Women Deans and Counselors 24 (Summer 1968): 163-70. Okun, Barbara F. "Later Careers of Women College Graduates." Journal  of the National Association of Women Deans and Counselors 35 (Winter 1972): 83-9. ' Ostry, Sy lv ia . The Occupational Composition of the Canadian Labour  Force. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Ottawa, 1967. Rossi, A l i ce S. "Barr iers to the Career Choice of Engineering, Medicine, or Science among American Women." In Women and the S c i e n t i f i c  Professions, pp. 51-127. Edited by Jacquelyn A. Mattfeld and Carol G. Van Aken. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1965. . "Equal ity Between the Sexes: An Immodest Proposal." DAEDALUS, Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 93 (Spring 1964): 607-52. : S tur tz , Sue Ann. "Age Differences in College Student Sa t i s f ac t i on . " Journal of College Student Personnel 12 (May 1971): 220-2. U.S. Department of Labor. College Women Seven Years After Graduation. Women's Bureau Bu l l e t i n 292. Washington, D.C.: Government Pr int ing Of f i ce , 1966. 75 University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Calendar 1967-68, El6. . Calendar 1975-76. 181. Zetze l , El izabeth R. The Capacity for Emotional Growth. New York: International University Press, Inc., 1970. p. 285. APPENDIX A 76 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA VANCOUVER, CANADA Off ice of the Dean of Women Apr i l 30, 1974 Dear Graduate, Your name i s l i s t e d in The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Congregation Programmes among;those who completed degrees and d ip -lomas in the Spring or Fal l of 1968. Among the women who completed those degrees and diplomas are many who chose to return to studies a f te r "time out" for marriage and family r e spon s i b i l i t i e s and other important careers. I t i s th i s group of some 500 women whom I hope to reach for information and comment about the i r experiences in continuing the i r education. I believe that you and your colleagues of 1968 can, with a perspective gained during the intervening s i x years, contribute opinions and information of great value to the University and to those who have special concern for meeting the needs of students. Wi l l you help in th i s survey by completing the enclosed ques-t ionnaire and returning i t as soon as possible? You need not sign the questionnaire or i dent i f y yoursel f unless you wish to do so. An addressed return envelope i s enclosed for your convenience. No pos-tage i s required i f your reply i s mailed in Canada. I hope very much that you w i l l complete this questionnaire and return i t . With a l l good wishes, Yours f a i t h f u l l y , Margaret Frederickson Assistant Dean of Women 77 QUESTIONNAIRE TO SOME WOMEN GRADUATES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1. In which of the fol lowing categories i s the degree or diploma you completed in 1968? Faculty of Arts ( including Social Work, L ibrar ianship, Home Economics, Music) Faculty of Education Faculty of Graduate Studies Faculty of Science, Agr icu l ture, Commerce, Law, Medicine, Nursing, Science Diploma 2. How old were you when you completed your degree or diploma-in 1968? 25 to 29 years old ( ) 30 to 34 ( ) 35 to 39 ( ) 40 to 44 ( ) 45 to 49 ( ) 50 to 54 ( ) 55 to 59 ( ) 60 or over ( ) 3. Before you embarked on the studies which culminated in your de-gree or diploma in 1968 from U.B.C., had you experienced an in ter -ruption of one year or more in your formal education? Yes ( ) No ( ) 4. How old were you when you f i r s t interrupted your education? Age At what educational level did th i s interrupt ion occur? a) During secondary or high school ( ) b) At the end of secondary or high school ( ) c) During post-secondary education ( ) 78 79 6. I f you have been married, at what age did you marry? ( ) 7. Before you completed your degree or diploma at U.B.C., what was the longest period during which you had been away from fu l l - t ime or part-time cred i t courses? 1 to 4 years ( ) 5 to 9 years ( ) 10 to 14 years ( ) 15 to 19 years ( ) 20 to 24 years ( ) 25 to 29 years ( ) 30 years or more ( ) For what reason did you f i r s t interrupt your formal education? a) to take a job e) f i nanc ia l reasons b) to marry f ) not interested in school c) to travel g) no special reason d) to f u l f i l family or h) other, please specify domestic duties Since completing your degree or diploma in 1968, have you received addit ional degrees or diplomas at U.B.C. or elsewhere? Yes ( ) No ( ) IF YOU ARE PRESENTLY WORKING 10. What i s your occupation? 11. I f you are presently working f u l l - t i m e or part-t ime, what i s the range of your annual salary? Less than $3,000 ( ) $3,000 to $4,999 ( ) $5,000 to $6,999 ( ) $7,000 to $8,999 ( ) $ 9,000 to $10,999 ( ) $11 ,000 to $12,999 ( ) $13,000 to $14,999 ( ) $15,000 or over ( ) 80 12. How do you feel about your job? Wi l l you please cross out the phrase below each statement which best describes how you feel about your present work. There are no r ight or wrong answers. What i s asked for i s your honest opinion on each one of the statements. Work out Item (0) as a sample. (1) I f i nd real enjoyment in my work. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE (2) I am s a t i s f i e d with my job for the time being. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE (3) Most of the time I have to force myself to go to work. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE (4) I am often bored with my job. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE UNDECIDED DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE 13. Do you feel that the educational qua l i f i ca t i ons you achieved with your degree or diploma in 1968 have led to your getting a better job than you would otherwise have had? Yes ( ) No ( ) 14. IF YOU ARE NOW WORKING PART-TIME, what factors led you to choose part-time work? (Part-time work i s here defined as less than 30 hours' work per week.) Please t i c k appropriate reason or reasons. a) Needs of husband or family ( ) b) Lack of openings in f u l l - t ime jobs ( ) c c) No special fee l ing of commitment to a job outside home ( ) d) No desire for a career ( ) e) Health reasons ( ) f) Negative att i tude of husband toward f u l l - t ime employment ( ) 81 g) No f inanc ia l need to work f u l l - t ime ( ) h) Other, please specify 15. IF YOU ARE NOT NOW WORKING, would you l i k e a job? Yes ( ) Ful l time ( ) Part-time ( ) No ( ) SOME PERSONAL DATA 16. Where were you born? In Canada ( ) Elsewhere ( ) 17. What i s your present marital status? Single ( ) Married ( ) Divorced or Separated ( ) Widowed ( ) 18. I f you are married or have been married, husband's occupation. 19. What was or i s your fa ther ' s occupation? 20. Did your mother work in paid employment while you were a ch i ld? Yes ( ) No ( ) 21. Do you have brothers and s i s te r s ? Yes ( ) No ( ) 22. Do you have children? Yes ( ) No ( ) I f so, how many? Born before 1968? YOUR EXPERIENCE WHILE A STUDENT - "WAYS AND MEANS" 23. How did you meet the costs of continuing your education? a) Part-time work while a student ( ) 82 b) Ful l - t ime work while a student c) Personal savings d) Help from husband e) Help from parents f) Help from others g) Non-repayable awards, e.g., scholarships; fe l lowships, bursaries h) Loans 24. If\you took loans to meet your expenses, what was the tota l amount of your indebtedness? $ Have you been able to repay your loans? Yes ( ) No ( ) S t i l l repaying ( ) 25. While you were a student, did you need day-care f a c i l i t i e s for your children? Yes ( ) No ( ) Were these f a c i l i t i e s avai lable? Yes ( ) No ( ) 26. While you were a student, did you get any counsell ing or advising on a) Academic matters Yes ( ) No ( ) b) Financial matters Yes ( ) No ( ) c) Career or job matters Yes ( ) No ( ) d) Personal matters Yes ( ) No ( ) 27. L isted below are a number of factors which may have made i t d i f f i • c u l t for you to continue your education. Please assess the im-portance of each factor in your case as you resumed your studies. a) Meeting f inanc ia l needs Not Important ( ) Important ( ) Very Important ( ) Finding housing Not Important ( ) Important ( ) Very Important ( Adjusting to the academic demands of being a student Not Important ( ) Important ( Combining studies and family l i f e Not Important ( ) Important ( Combining studies and outside job Not Important ( ) Important ( Combining studies, family l i f e , and ) Very Important ( ) Very Important ( ) Very Important ( outside job Not Important ( ) Important ( Getting housework done Not Important ( ) Important ( Looking a f te r small chi ldren Not Important ( ) Important ( Looking a f te r older family members Not important ( ) Important ( Being aware of husband's opposition ) Very Important ( ) Very Important ( ) Very Important ( ) Very Important ( to wife being a student Not Important ( ) Important ( ) Feeling overt i red Not Important ( ) Important ( ) Feeling depressed Not Important ( ) Important ( ) Very Important ( Very Important ( Very Important ( Feeling uncertain about job p o s s i b i l i t i e s a f te r completion  of degree or diploma Not Important, ( ) Important ( ) Very Important ( Having health problems Not Important ( ) Important ( ) Very Important ( 28. IN RETROSPECT As you look back, can you discern a f a i r l y c lear reason why you decided to carry on with your formal education? (For example, did you want to sa t i s f y a personal ambition, to get into a professional f i e l d , to learn for ;the sake of learning, to increase your earning power, etc?) 28. Knowing what you now know, would you do i t again? I f so, would you do anything d i f fe rent l y ? Additional comments w i l l be welcome. THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR REPLYING TO THIS QUESTIONNAIRE. A p r i l , 1974. APPENDIX B 85 86 TABLE 37. Percentage Dist r ibut ion of Degrees and Diplomas Awarded in 1968 by The University of B r i t i s h Columbia by Sex, with Special Reference to Women Aged 25 or Over Women Aged Total Con- 25 or Over Men Women ferred in % of Total 1968 Men & Women Degree or Diploma No. % No. % No. % No. % Faculty of Arts B.A. Honours 38 52.8 34 47.2 72 100.0 3 4.1 Majors 463 56.1 361 43.9 824 100.0 75 9.1 501 55.9 395 44.1 896 100.0 78 8.7 Master of Social Work 36 43.9 46 56.1 82 100.0 26 31.7 Bachelor of Library Science 18 21.4 66 78.6 84 100.0 40 47.6 Bachelor of Home Economics 0 - 51 100.0 51 100.0 3 5.8 Bachelor of Music J l 47.8 11 51.2 23 100.0 _2 8.6 Total 566 49.8 570 50.2 1136 100.0 149 13.1 Faculty of Education Bachelor of Education Secondary 168 71.2 68 28.8 236 100.0 31 1.3 Elementary 109 24.5 335 75.5 444 100.0 156 35.1 277 40.8 403 59.2 680 100.0 187 27.5 Bachelor of Physical Education 49 69.0 22 31.0 71 100.0 4 5.6 Total 326 43.4 425 56.6 751 100.0 191 25.4 . . . continued 87 Table 37 - continued Women Aged Total Con- 25 or Over Men Women ferred in % of Total 1968 Men & Women Degree or Diploma No. % No. % No. % No. % Faculty of Graduate Studies Ph.D. 90 93.8 6 6.2 96 100.0 6 6.2 D.Ed. M 3 60.0 2 40.0 5 100.0 2 40.0 r l . M.A. 81 64.8 44 35.2 125 100.0 35 28.0 M.Ed. 70 72.1 27 27.9 97 100.0 27 27.8 M.Sc. 45 86.5 7 13.5 52 100.0 6 11.5 M.B.A. 38 97.4 1 2.6 39 100.0 1 2.5 M.Music 3 75.0 1 25.0 4 100.0 1 25.0 M.Sc.Pharm. 1 • 50.0 1 50.0 2 100.0 1 50.0 M.Phys.Ed. 5 83.4 1 16.6 6 100.0 1 16.6 M.Forestry 1 100.0 - - 1 100.0 - -M.Laws 1 10000 - - 1 100.0 - -M.Ap.Sc. 37 100.0 - - 37 100.0 - -M.Arch. 4 100.0 - - 4 100.0 - -M.Sc.Agric. _6 100.0 - - _6 100.0 - -Total 385 81.0 90 19.0 475 100.0 80 16.8 . . . continued 88 Table 37 - continued Total Con Men Women ferred in 1968 Degree or Diploma No. % No. % No. % Faculty of Science  & Profess iona l ly -Oriented Faculties B.Sc. Honours 70 78.6 19 21.3 89 100.0 - '-Majors 259 76.6 79 23.3 338.? 100.0 12 3.5 329 77.7 98 22.9 427 100.0 12 2.8 B.Sc.Nursing - - 44 100.0 44 100.0 24 54.5 B.Com. 205 94.9 11 5.1 216 100.0 1 .4 B. Laws 97 98.0 2 2.0 99. 100.0 1 1.0 B.Sc.Ag. 38 80.9 9 19.1 47 100.0 1 2.1 B.Sc.Rehab.Med. - - 3 100.0 3 100.0 1 33.3 M.D. 51 94.4 3 5.6 54 100.0 3 5.5 D.Dental Med. 6 100.0 - - 6 100.0 - -B.Sc.Pharm. 27 73.0 10 27.0 37 100.0 - -B.Sc.For. 33 100.0 - - 33 100.0 - -B.Arch. 16 100.0 - - 16 100.0 - -B.Ap.Sc. 197 100.0 - - 197 100.0 - -Total 999 84.7 180 15.3 1179 100.0 43 3.6 Women Aged 25 or Over % of Total Men & Women No. % continued 89 Table 37 - continued Women Aged Total Con- 25 or Over Men Women ferred in % of Total 1968 Men & Women Degree or Diploma No. % No. % No. % No. % Diplomas Adult Education 2 66.7 1 33.3 3 100.0 1 33.3 Admin, of Hospital Nursing Units 1 4.4 22 95.6 23 100.0 22 95.6 Psychiatr ic Nursing - - 7 100.0 7 100.0 3 42.8 Publ ic Health Nurs. - 42 100.0 42 100.0 29 69.0 _3 4.0 72 96.0 75 100.0 55 73.3 TOTALS 2279 63.1 1337 36.9 3616 100.0 518 14.3 APPENDIX C 90 RESPONDENTS' PROBLEMS SCORES The extent of respondents' problems was assessed by means of a l i s t of 14 items which, in the counsell ing experience of the Dean of Women's Of f i ce , U.BCC, often made i t d i f f i c u l t for women to continue the i r formal education. Three degrees of importance for each of the 14 items were provided, with a point value for each: Not Important 0 points Important 1 point Very Important 2 points For the 14 items, the "Problem Scores" were within a range of 0 to 28. 91 APPENDIX D 92 RESPONDENTS' JOB SATISFACTION The Brayf ie ld Scale of Job Sat i s fact ion was used to test respondents' att itudes toward the i r jobs. Four of B ray f i e ld ' s 18 items describing att itudes about jobs were selected, two ind icat ing sa t i s fac t ion and two ind icat ing d i s s a t i s f ac t i on . Scoring was arranged so that higher degrees of job sa t i s fac t i on resulted in fiigher tota l points. The possible range of tota l scores for the four items was 0 to 16, with the undecided or neutral point at 8. * Arthur H. Brayf ie ld and Harold F. Rothe, "An Index of Job Sa t i s f ac t i on , " in Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 35, No. 5, October 1951. 93 APPENDIX E 94 RESPONDENTS' MOTIVATION FOR RETURN TO STUDIES C l a s s i f i c a t i on of Responses 1. Economic or Professional Reasons Mainly to increase my earning power. In teaching i t i s not equal pay for for equal work but equal pay for equal c e r t i f i c a t i o n . I ail.ways wanted to continue education to a master's or Ph.D. level and s t i l l do. Took course I did as a bread and butter th ing, to qua l i fy me in a short time for a better-paying job than just a B.A. English and no s k i l l s can readi ly f i nd . I was divorced from my husband and had a family to support. At f i r s t I took courses merely to s a t i s f y the ex i s t ing regulations . . . However, because of experiences of motherhood, teaching in another province, and the st imulation of meeting other women students, I found the work easy and decided to keep on. Each time I reached a l e v e l , the next level seemed not too fa r d i s tant. 2. Personal Development I continued my formal education fo r a number of reasons, which in hindsight seem to blend into one larger category, that of growth and development as a human being . . . The contr ibuting factors were boredom with the humdrum o f f i ce l i f e and lack of s t imulat ion. I had always intended to (continue my education). Coming back to school was l i k e being re-born. . . The main dr iv ing force was probably f u l f i l l i n g my own need in terms of goals and ambitions. The second was the fact that I found that in addition to being a housewife, I always had to work part-time to supplement husband's income. In order to prepare for soon-to-arriv.e years of non-active mother-hood, I sought a new occupation. I had kept myself mentally a l e r t by taking non-credit courses, so i t was not d i f f i c u l t to switch to c red i t courses . . . I re-entered as a t h i r d year education student majoring in l i b ra r i an sh ip . I love reading and I love ch i ld ren, so my job i s an extension of these. 95 96 3. Love of Learning I have always enjoyed discuss ion, lectures , and the challenge of having to define values and being aware of what r ea l l y i s happening. I f my personal family l i f e and money would permit me to do what I wanted, I would ser iously consider becoming a student at various un ivers i t ies jus t for the fun of i t . My main object in l i f e i s to raise happy and interested ch i ldren. I returned to University to learn fo r the sake of learning. I r ea l i ze how fortunate I am to thus indulge myself with f u l l sup-port from my husband and family . . . Of course I rea l i ze many women do not have th i s choice. There were d i f fe rent reasons at d i f fe rent times. I f i r s t attended univers i ty a f te r two years ' teaching because I did not enjoy teaching much and didn!#seem much good at i t . I have always en-joyed a sense of accomplishment from doing well academically and I l i k e learning new things. I took education courses to improve earning power, but I think my main reason for attending the univers i ty has always been se l f - indu lgent : I l i k e studying. 4. Combined Reasons There were probably numerous factors contr ibuting to my decision but no one factor stands out over the others. Wanted to f i n i s h what I had s ta r ted, i . e . , a degree in Education, both for the sake of my parents who had invested in the f i r s t four years of my univers i ty t ra in ing and for my own s a t i s f a c t i on , learning, and career potent ia l . A desire to learn and to acquire a career, both of equal importance. APPENDIX F 97 SATISFACTION IN HAVING RESUMED FORMAL EDUCATION CLASSIFICATION OF RESPONSES ENTHUSIASTIC No Negative Comment Yes!! (I would do i t again.) I f e l t so mentally stagnant! Opportunity for sabbatical leave came, so I cashed in an insurance pol icy ($5,000). I t was great!! . . . Like f inding myself again! But I couldn ' t have done i t without on-campus married grad housing. Professors were a l l great, espec ia l ly when they found I was academically capable. Mild Negative Comment. Most d e f i n i t e l y . (I would do i t again.) I would try to take an honours degree rather than jus t a major as th i s makes entry to graduate programmes very d i f f i c u l t . Strong Negative Comment Yes!!! (I would do i t again.) I love to study. Motivations of mature students should be ascertained before those students are unquestioningly lumped in with others who have no real idea of what they are searching for in t he i r studies. Time is so important. I f a person i s lucky enough to know where he i s going, he should be able to get his credits for going there, when academically v a l i d , even though i t doesn't f i t the pattern. POSITIVE No Negative Comment Yes. (I would do i t again.) Nothing d r a s t i c a l l y d i f fe rent . 98 99 Mild Negative Comment Yes. (I would do i t again.) I would take time of f from teaching to complete my degree without struggl ing with summer and night courses. Strong Negative Comment Yes. (I would do i t again.) Only i f constraints of the conditions were d i f f e ren t , and i f I were independently wealthy so that I d i dn ' t have to spend hal f my time bat t l i ng red tape and d iscr iminat ion. NEGATIVE Mild Negative Comment Not sure (whether I would do i t again). Might try a d i f fe rent f i e l d with less personal hardship. Strong Negative Comment No! (I would not do i t again.) I would t ry another univers i ty . . . I would not feel so cowed, I hope, by the s ize of UBC, i t s impersonality, and the apparent c o n f i -dence of younger students, by neglect by professors. I worked very hard, perhaps too anxious to please, but I never f e l t UBC cared a hoot for me. Your questionnaire i s contradict ing th i s impression! 

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