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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Women’s Resources Centre - 1974 James, Alice 1975

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The Women's Resources Centre - 1974 by A l i c e James B.Com., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1948 A T h e s i s Submitted In P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of The Requirements F o r the Degree of Master of A r t s i n the F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n (Adult Education) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard. The U n i v e r s i t y Of B r i t i s h Columbia September, 1975. In presenting th i s thesis in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary shal l make it f ree ly ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes is for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of E d u c a t i o n The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date SeptemhPT> ?Q. 1Q7S i i . A b s t r a c t The Women's Resources Centre of the Centre f o r Con-t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia provides programs and s e r v i c e s to a s s i s t women i n l i f e p l a n n i n g . T h i s study I n v e s t i g a t e d these programs and s e r v i c e s i n order to g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o the process of adopting a l i f e s t y l e more bro a d l y based i n the community. A f i f t y per cent random sample of the women who came to t h i s c e n t r e f o r s h o r t courses from February to A p r i l 1974 and a f i f t y per cent random sample of women who came f o r i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g i n January 197^  were s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s study. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n used the open-ended probing i n t e r v i e w t o g a i n g r e a t e r under-sta n d i n g of the t o t a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n of these women. The study found c o n s i d e r a b l e evidence t h a t women under f o r t y f e l t pressure to adopt two d i f f e r e n t l i f e s t y l e s under c o n d i t i o n s where these l i f e s t y l e s were mutually e x c l u s i v e . T h i s was r e f l e c t e d i n the prevalence of r e p o r t i n g of a n x i e t y , f r u s t r a t i o n , muscular t e n s i o n and i l l n e s s e s such as myasthenia g r a v i s . The hig h e s t i n c i d e n c e of i l l n e s s was amongst women who had no c h i l d r e n . There was a heavy i n c i d e n c e of both c h i l d b e a r i n g and marriage breakup between the ages of t h i r t y and t h i r t y - f o u r . Housewives over the age of f o r t y a l s o f e l t pressure to change to a ca r e e r o r i e n t e d l i f e s t y l e but were without the knowledge, means or opp o r t u n i t y to do t h i s s u c c e s s f u l l y . F o r these women l i f e p l a n n i n g became a process of i d e n t i f y i n g a s e r i e s of c o n f l i c t i n g pressures and making a d e c i s i o n as t o whether to break a p a i r e d r o l e r e l a t i o n s h i p or to use pe r s u a s i o n to reduce t h i s c o n f l i c t . D e c i s i o n s were made on the b a s i s of t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n of the i n t e r a c t i o n of s e v e r a l f a c t o r s : the n e c e s s i t y to ma i n t a i n a r o l e which provided the n e c e s s i t i e s of l i f e , e.g. housewife, employed worker, self-employed worker or welfare r e c i p i e n t ; the degree of urgency i n v o l v e d i n d e a l i n g with the e r o s i o n of p h y s i c a l and mental h e a l t h ; the r e c o g n i t i o n of the time f a c t o r i n the changing of a t t i t u d e s ; t h e i r s k i l l i n e f f e c t i n g a t t i t u d e change; and t h e i r a b i l i t y to move i n t o more v a r i e d forms of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y to slow down the e r o s i o n of p h y s i c a l and mental h e a l t h . The study concluded t h a t communication beyond the immediate f a m i l y i s an important f a c t o r i n making good d e c i s i o n s and t h a t making changes i n l i f e s t y l e i s a s t r e s s -f u l and time consuming process. T h i s study a l s o made recommendations to a d u l t educators d i r e c t e d towards making the process of ad o p t i o n of a d i f f e r e n t l i f e s t y l e l e s s s t r e s s f u l . i v . Table of Contents Chapter Page 1 The Problem 1 H i s t o r i c a l Background 1 Grounded Theory 3 The Women's Resources Centre 5 O r g a n i z a t i o n of the Study 6 2 Review of the L i t e r a t u r e 8 Women's Roles 8 ,The Mind Body Image i4 Le a r n i n g Tasks and S t r a t e g i e s 24 3 Procedure 39 4 The F i n d i n g s 44 Overview 44 P e r s o n a l Data 44 Housework - 1973 46 Employment - 1973 47 C h i l d Care - 1973 51 Edu c a t i o n - 1973 52 Vo l u n t e e r Community Work - 1973 53 E x e r c i s e - 1973 53 C r e a t i v e A c t i v i t y - 1973 53 Non Routine Events - 1973 54 The Women's Resources Centre - 197^ 55 C o u n s e l l i n g 57 Career Planning 59 Speak Up 60 Managing Tensions Through Body Awareness 6 l Developing P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l 62 E n c o u n t e r i n g Y o u r s e l f 63 Future D i r e c t i o n s 64 Summary 66 5 Summary and Conclusions 68 Summary 68 Methodology 73 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r A d u l t Educators 75 B i b l i o g r a p h y 79 Appendix A 84 L i s t of Tables Table I Random S e l e c t i o n and Replacement of P a r t i c i p a n t s Interviewed I I S e l e c t e d Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Of Women Interviewed I I I Hours Per Week Spent On Housework By-Age Group IV Women's Enjoyment Gf Housework By Age Group V Type of Employment By S e l e c t e d Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s VI Hours Per Week Which Women Spent In C h i l d Care By Age Of The Youngest C h i l d VII Women's Enjoyment Of C h i l d Care By Age Of Youngest C h i l d V I I I Women's Enjoyment Of E d u c a t i o n By Age Of Youngest C h i l d IX Response To Method Of A d v e r t i s i n g By Women Ac c o r d i n g To Years Of Formal E d u c a t i o n v i . L i s t of F i g u r e s F i g u r e Page 1 The J o h a r i Window 32 2 The A c t i o n s Of the D i v i d e d S e l f 69 3 The Awareness Wheel 69 1. Chapter 1 The Problem H i s t o r i c a l Background Human beings have s u r v i v e d as a s p e c i e s because they have, i n the past, been ab l e to adapt both to r e c u r r i n g changes i n t h e i r environment and to new environmental c o n d i -t i o n s . The way i n which people meet the r e c u r r i n g changes i n t h e i r environment i s r e f e r r e d to as t h e i r c u l t u r e . The way i n which people respond to new environmental c o n d i t i o n s i s c a l l e d a d a p t a t i o n of the c u l t u r e . Thus human beings must l e a r n not only t h e i r c u l t u r e but a l s o how to adapt t h e i r c u l t u r e . When a new problem a r i s e s i t g e n e r a l l y p e r s i s t s and o f t e n e s c a l a t e s because there are no p a t t e r n s of behavior or i n v e n t i o n s i n the c u l t u r e to d e a l w i t h the problem. The process of adapting the c u l t u r e begins when some i n d i v i d u a l has an i n n o v a t i v e i d e a , t h a t i s when he or she v i s u a l i z e s a new p a t t e r n of behavior or i n v e n t i o n t h a t could s o l v e the problem. The process of t r a n s l a t i n g such an image i n t o a c t i o n or use has been a l a r g e p a r t of the work of a d u l t educators. T h i s process has been c a l l e d by a d u l t educators the d i f f u s i o n of i n n o v a t i o n s or, more simply, a d o p t i o n . A d u l t e d u c a t i o n takes on d i f f e r i n g - f o r m s as d i f f e r i n g needs emerge. E a r l y immigrants to N o r t h America found t h a t 2. t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l farming p r a c t i c e s o f t e n d i d not s u i t the North American environment. Land Grant C o l l e g e s and A g r i -c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s provided new s k i l l s and knowledge to meet t h i s need. The i n v e n t i o n s of the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n brought s o c i a l d i s o r i e n t a t i o n and r e a c t i o n s a g a i n s t i n v e n t i o n s which were t h e o r e t i c a l l y b e n e f i c i a l to the l a r g e r community. Mechanics I n s t i t u t e s were formed t o explore and communicate the b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s and to a l l e v i a t e the s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n . More r e c e n t l y p r o f e s s i o n a l s have turned to a d u l t educa-t i o n f o r h e l p i n keeping up wit h t h e i r r a p i d l y changing f i e l d s of work. P r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and a d u l t educators are working together on t h i s . Now women are seeking a s s i s t a n c e i n p l a n n i n g and assuming new l i f e s t y l e s . T e c h n o l o g i c a l changes r e s u l t i n g i n b e t t e r h e a l t h care have meant t h a t women now spend a much s m a l l e r percentage of t h e i r l i f e s p a n c a r i n g f o r c h i l d r e n . At the t u r n of the century the average woman i n Canada d i e d when her youngest c h i l d was fo u r t e e n ; now she can expect t o l i v e t h i r t y or f o r t y years beyond her youngest c h i l d ' s f o u r t e e n t h b i r t h d a y . Women a l s o spend l e s s time i n t r a d i t i o n a l homemaking a c t i v i t i e s . However they are e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t y i n assuming new r o l e s . T r a d i -t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n has not adequately f a c i l i t a t e d t h i s p r o c e s s . Suniewick (1971*12) has analyzed three hundred and f i f t y - t w o r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s on women's ed u c a t i o n and c a r e e r s . She f i n d s t h a t these r e s e a r c h e r s , each u s i n g s c i e n t i f i c methods, a r r i v e a t c o n t r a d i c t o r y f i n d i n g s . She concludes t h a t new r e s e a r c h t o o l s are needed to f a c i l i t a t e women's educa t i o n and c a r e e r develop-ment . 3. Grounded Theory Grounded theory, named by G l a s e r and S t r a u s s (1967*45) i s the process of g a t h e r i n g new i n f o r m a t i o n when the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e on the s u b j e c t i s not p r o v i d i n g adequate hypotheses and concepts f o r r e s e a r c h . I t f e a t u r e s ^ d e v e l o p i n g new concepts and ideas by g a t h e r i n g a maximum amount of d a t a from a " r e a l -l i f e " s i t u a t i o n . I t encourages the r e s e a r c h e r to f o l l o w leads which might be p r o d u c t i v e of new ideas r a t h e r than adhering s t r i c t l y to a predetermined r e s e a r c h d e s i g n . T h i s i s the " t o o l " t h a t w i l l be used i n t h i s study to attempt to generate new ideas and concepts to f a c i l i t a t e the process of women assuming new, s a t i s f y i n g , economic and s o c i a l r o l e s . I n the United S t a t e s the A d u l t B a s i c E d u c a t i o n p r o j e c t a t Columbia U n i v e r s i t y u t i l i z e d "grounded theory" when i t undertook an a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of A.B.E. experience i n the i n n e r c i t y of s i x m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . The p r o j e c t ' s d i r e c t o r Mezirow (197011-4) saw i n t h i s technique p o t e n t i a l i -t i e s f o r the g e n e r a t i o n of new ideas and r e s e a r c h a b l e hypotheses. He used the i n t e r v i e w and p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n techniques to produce the beginnings of an i n d u c t i v e theory of p r a c t i c e f o r urban A.B.E. i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s . Mezirow (1970sVII-2) emerged w i t h twenty-three proposals f o r r e s e a r c h and demonstra-t i o n , a n a l y s i s and d e c i s i o n making. I n Canada a s i m i l a r p r o j e c t was undertaken by the f e d e r a l government f o l l o w i n g government commitment to e l i m i n a t e 4. d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t women. T h i s p r o j e c t was the Royal Commission on the St a t u s of Women i n Canada. I n 1967 i t I n v i t e d b r i e f s and l e t t e r s on women's experience of d i s c r i m i n a -t i o n throughout Canada. I n 1968 i t h e l d s p e c i a l hearings throughout Canada and i n i t i a t e d f o r t y s p e c i a l s t u d i e s . The o v e r a l l a n a l y s i s and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s contained i n the Report of the Royal Commission on the Sta t u s of Women i n Canada. T h i s r e p o r t p u b l i s h e d f o u r p r i n c i p l e s (1970:xli) "Women should be f r e e t o choose whether or not to take employment o u t s i d e t h e i r homes .... The care of c h i l d r e n i s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o be shared by the mother, the f a t h e r and s o c i e t y .... S o c i e t y has a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r women because o f pregnancy and c h i l d b i r t h , and s p e c i a l treatment r e l a t e d t o maternity w i l l always be necessary .... In c e r t a i n areas women w i l l f o r an i n t e r i m p e r i o d r e q u i r e s p e c i a l treatment t o overcome the adverse e f f e c t s of d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s , " I t a l s o o u t l i n e d one hundred and s i x t y - s e v e n recommendations to improve the s t a t u s of women i n Canada, Recommendation 83 was d i r e c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y to a d u l t educators. I t s t a t e s (1970s406) "We recommend t h a t the provinc e s and t e r r i t o r i e s and a l l post-secondary e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s d evelop programmes to meet the s p e c i a l needs f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n of women w i t h f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , " I n response to the needs expressed by women a t t e n d i n g 1970 and 1971 programs sponsored by the Centre f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and i n accordance w i t h 5. the above pri n c i p l e s and recommendation, the Women's Resources Centre was established. The Women's Resources Centre This new centre was i n i t i a t e d by the di r e c t o r of Day-time Programs, Continuing Education, U.B.C. She envisaged a centre where women could go for information, f o r counselling, for short courses and workshops that individuals could take i n modular patterns. The need f o r f l e x i b i l i t y was evident from the variety of requests made by women attending two e a r l i e r courses e n t i t l e d "Authentic Woman" and "Options f o r Women"; from a conference held on the subject of the Report of the Royal Commission on the Status of Women i n Canada and espec i a l l y from evaluations of the "Options for Women" course. The objectives of the course were "To examine some of the options i n l i f e s t y l e s , the ways these may be achieved, the advantages and costs of alternative courses of action. To have an opportunity f o r expression and c l a r i f i c a -t i o n of personal goals and ideas. To develop awareness of oneself as a person, alongside one's roles as wife, mother, daughter, etc. To develop awareness of talents, s k i l l s , purpose ... upon which to bu i l d i n seeking a l i f e s t y l e more broadly based i n the community," In the evaluations the women were asked to comment on how well the course met these objectives. They were also asked to state any addit i o n a l personal goals they had f o r the course 6 . and steps they may have taken to meet any of these g o a l s . D e s c r i p t i o n s of other programs t h a t would he h e l p f u l t o them were a l s o requested. By 1973 the Centre was i n o p e r a t i o n i n both the downtown Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y and i n Duke H a l l a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The s p r i n g 1974 c a l e n d a r f o r the Centre f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n (1974:31) d e s c r i b e d the Women's Resources Centre as "A l i f e p l a n n i n g centre which o f f e r s b a s i c s e r v i c e s and programs f o r women who want to continue t h e i r s e l f development." The courses f e a t u r e d awareness e x e r c i s e s , r e l a x a t i o n exer-c i s e s and many types of communication s k i l l development. T h i s study explores why these e x e r c i s e s and s k i l l s are important i n l i f e p l a n n i n g f o r women and how these might be e f f e c t i v e l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o new or e x i s t i n g forms of r e t r a i n i n g . O r g a n i z a t i o n of the study A review of r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e i s o u t l i n e d i n chapter two, which i s d i v i d e d i n t o three p a r t s . I t begins with a b r i e f review of the r e s e a r c h on women's r o l e s and the problems which some women have experienced i n adopting these r o l e s . I n p a r t two of the chapter, the t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r behavior i n images and purposes i s d e s c r i b e d . The f i n a l p a r t d e s c r i b e s s k i l l s and s t r a t e g i e s t h a t have been used to reduce r o l e con-f l i c t . The t h i r d chapter d e s c r i b e s the procedure used i n con-d u c t i n g t h i s study. I t o u t l i n e s how the probing i n t e r v i e w was used and what changes were made i n procedure. The f o u r t h chapter analyzes the most u s e f u l of these r e s u l t s i n f o u r main c a t e g o r i e s : p e r s o n a l data, p r o f i l e of a c t i v i t y i n 1 9 7 3 , course and s e r v i c e e v a l u a t i o n s and f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s . The f i n a l chapter summarizes these f i n d i n g s and suggests ideas f o r i n t e g r a t i o n of l i f e p l anning s k i l l s i n t o r e t r a i n i n g programs as w e l l as ideas f o r f u r t h e r e x perimentation and r e s e a r c h . Chapter 2 Review of the L i t e r a t u r e Women's Roles In N o r t h America there are many images of women but few e x p l i c i t d e s c r i p t i o n s of how women can meet t h e i r own needs and the needs of t h e i r f a m i l i e s . The p o r t r a y a l of women i n f i l m s i n the l a s t decade i s d e s c r i b e d by H a s k e l l (1973:328) "In every case, we got not only l e s s than we might have expected and hoped f o r , but l e s s than ever before t women who were l e s s i n t e l l i -gent, l e s s s e n s u a l , l e s s humorous, and a l t o -gether l e s s e x t r a o r d i n a r y than women i n the twenties, the t h i r t i e s , the f o r t i e s or even the poor, p a l l i d , u p t i g h t f i f t i e s . There were no working women on the sc r e e n , no sassy or smart t a l k i n g women, no mature women, and no goddesses e i t h e r . There were, i n s t e a d , amoral pinup g i r l s , molls t a k i n g g u f f from t h e i r gangsters t h a t would have made t h e i r predecessors gag, and t h i r t y year o l d s reduced to p l a y i n g under-graduates ... D i r e c t o r s scanned the l a d i e s magazines f o r models they c o u l d mold, g i r l s whose brows - and psyches - wouldn't be l i n e d w i t h anything more than the concern to appear b e a u t i f u l . " Hobbs (1970:89) f i n d s t h a t i n t e l e v i s i o n and magazines the woman over t h i r t y i s non e x i s t a n t except f o r the o c c a s i o n a l one e x c l a i m i n g over the whiteness of her wash or the s t i c k i n g power of her dentures. The pi c t u r e - s t a t e m e n t leans h e a v i l y on the p i c t u r e and the p i c t u r e says l i t t l e . There i s l i t t l e thought g i v e n t o the f a c t t h a t there are few e x p l i c i t b e h avior norms, l i t t l e e d u c a t i o n and minimal rewards assi g n e d to r o l e s of women. 8. 9. The main and most valued b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s f o r women have not always been obscure. The a c t i v i t i e s of the v i r t u o u s woman are d e s c r i b e d i n Proverbs 31*13-27 "She seeketh wool and f l a x , and worketh w i l l i n g l y w i t h her hands. She i s l i k e the merchant's s h i p s , she b r i n g e t h her food from a f a r .•. She c o n s i d e r e t h a f i e l d , and buyeth i t j w i t h the f r u i t of her hands she p l a n t e t h a v i n e y a r d ... She l a y e t h her hands to the s p i n d l e and her hands to the d i s t a f f . She s t r e t c h e t h out her hands t o the poor; yea, she reac h e t h f o r t h her hands to the needy ... She maketh f i n e l i n e n and s e l l e t h i t ; and d e l i v e r e t h g i r d l e s unto the merchant ... She l o o k e t h w e l l t o the ways of her household, and e a t e t h not the bread of i d l e n e s s . " These e x p l i c i t norms gave women p o s i t i v e guidance i n t h e i r s e a r c h f o r s o c i a l l y rewarded and s a t i s f y i n g a c t i v i t y . There have been many accounts of the t r a n s f e r r i n g of economic a c t i v i t y from the home and farm to the f a c t o r y and st o r e d u r i n g the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n . Few of these have focused on women or on how t h i s a f f e c t e d women, however the United S t a t e s Senate Report on the H i s t o r y of Women as quoted i n S c h n i e r (1972;258) s t a t e s "Under t h i s pressure ... women have been pressed i n t o other i n d u s t r i e s , almost i n v a r i a b l y i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e i n t o the l e a s t s k i l l e d and most p o o r l y p a i d o c c u p a t i o n s . T h i s has gone on u n t i l there i s now s c a r c e l y an i n d u s t r y which does not employ women. Thus women's sphere has expanded, and i t s former boundaries can now be determined only by ob s e r v i n g the degree of popular condemna-t i o n which f o l l o w s t h e i r employment i n a p a r t i c u l a r i n d u s t r y . " In the present century the boundary between men's work and women's work has been manipulated a c c o r d i n g t o the wishes 10. of those In c o n t r o l of the economy. At the beg i n n i n g of World War I I the a t t i t u d e of the U.S. Department of Labour was a c c o r d i n g to B i r d (1968:40) t h a t h a r d l y any o c c u p a t i o n i s a b s o l u t e l y u n s u i t a b l e f o r the employment of women. However, by 19^ 5» d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t two out of three women war workers wanted permanent jobs, B i r d ( 1 9 6 8 142) s t a t e s 'I the p a t r i o t i c r e p o r t e r s who had l u r e d Rosie i n t o r i v e t i n g f o r v i c t o r y now p i c t u r e d her yea r n i n g f o r a cosy c o t t a g e , a k i t c h e n apron, and a baby." As a r e s u l t of her r e s e a r c h on the media, F r i e d a n (1963:11) found t h a t f o r over f i f t e e n years i n the post war p e r i o d there was no word about or e x p r e s s i o n of the dreams and a s p i r a t i o n s of women i n the m i l l i o n words w r i t t e n about women, i n a l l the columns, books and a r t i c l e s by e x p e r t s . The a c t i o n s which r e s u l t e d from the romantic v i s i o n of "women's place i s i n the home" had d e v a s t a t i n g e f f e c t s f o r some women. C h e s l e r (1972:33) notes t h a t i n 1964, as the c h i l d r e n who were born i n the "baby boom" of the l a t e 1940's and e a r l y 1950's grew to adolescence the number of a d u l t women being p s y c h i a t r i c a l l y t r e a t e d began suddenly t o i n -c r e a s e . She a t t r i b u t e s t h i s to there being l e s s use f o r these women i n the f a m i l y . On the other hand, Janeway (1971:173) e x p l a i n s "For women a t home, then, the l o s s of a d i r e c t t i e to the outer world means a l o s s of c o g n i t i v e knowledge of how t h i n g s work and of r e a l standards to t e s t o n e s e l f a g a i n s t . P s y c h o l o g i c a l l y t h i s l a c k of know-how makes f o r h e s i t a n c y and s h r i n k i n g back w i t h i n o n e s e l f from r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and c o n n e c t i o n . Of course i t i s n ' t meant to do so, but to g i v e women who are s h e l t e r e d from the need to work a chance to c e l e b r a t e other v a l u e s - warmth, a f f e c t i o n , the c u l t i v a t i o n of f e e l i n g s , g a i e t y and p l e a s u r e . The t r o u b l e i s t h a t i t ' s d i f f i c u l t to provide and enjoy these t h i n g s i n a vacuum. When the o u t e r world i s t o t a l l y excluded i t becomes imp o s s i b l e to imagine i t . I f t h i s i s the case, the s h e l t e r e d being may develop q u i t e i n a p p r o p r i a t e , even f a n t a s t i c r e a c t i o n s to any g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . Some n i t w i t s , In s h o r t are born; but others are produced by l a c k of c o n t a c t w i t h anything r e a l . " Janeway (1971:26) a l s o e x p l a i n s t h a t the mythology of "women's place i s i n the home" i s a r e s u l t of "I want t h i s " becoming "I have a r i g h t to t h i s " and thereby forming a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a c t i n g a g a i n s t those who might deny t h i s d e s i r e . She concludes t h a t myth opposes b e l i e f to f a c t s i n order to change the f a c t s or a t l e a s t to obscure them. Myrdal and K l e i n (1956:6) s t a t e "There i s no use denying t h a t , even today, the t w i n i d e a l s of the hardworking housewife and of the l e i s u r e d lady e x i s t i n an unholy (and as a r u l e unrecognized) a l l i a n c e , j o i n t l y c i r c u m s c r i b i n g woman's r o l e as one to be a c t e d out within the home. The worst of t h i s i d e o l o g y i s not t h a t i t i s i r r a t i o n a l and out of harmony w i t h the f a c t s of contemporary l i f e , but t h a t i t presents our young g i r l s w i t h a thoroughly f a l s e p i c t u r e of the p r a c t i c a l c h o i c e they have to make f o r t h e i r l i v e s , " F r a n c i s (1973t227) notes t h a t when c o u n s e l l o r s t o l d teen-aged g i r l s t h a t nine out of ten of them would work t w e n t y - f i v e years of t h e i r l i v e s , each g i r l accepted the s t a t i s t i c s but s a i d t h a t she would be the t e n t h one and t h a t she would stay a t home and be supported by a husband. 12. Komarovsky (19^6:189) s t a t e s "while h i s t o r i c a l l y the modern r o l e i s the most re c e n t one, o n t o g e n e t i c a l l y i t i s the one emphasized e a r l i e r s o c i e t y c o n f r o n t s the g i r l w i t h powerful c h a l l e n g e s and s t r o n g pressures to e x c e l i n c e r t a i n techniques of a d a p t a t i o n very s i m i l a r t o those expected of her b r o t h e r . But then, q u i t e suddenly as i t appears to these g i r l s the very success i n meeting these c h a l l e n g e s begins to cause a n x i e t y . I t i s p r e c i s e l y those most s u c c e s s f u l i n the e a r l i e r r o l e who are now p e n a l i z e d . " Hoffman (1972:129) suggests t h a t because g i r l s engage i n l e s s independent e x p l o r a t i o n of t h e i r environment, they develop n e i t h e r adequate s k i l l s , nor confi d e n c e and the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of g i r l s i s co n t i n g e n t on e l i c i t i n g the h e l p of o t h e r s . Thus, i f achievement threatens a f f i l i a t i o n , performance may be s a c r i f i c e d or a n x i e t y w i l l r e s u l t . Horner (1972:157) f i n d s t h a t q u a l i t i e s necessary f o r achievement are i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h f e m i n i n i t y though p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to m a s c u l i n i t y and mental h e a l t h . Extreme a n x i e t y concerning the t a k i n g of e i t h e r a modern r o l e or a t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e i s ev i d e n t i n the case s t u d i e s of young women w i t h s c h i z o p h r e n i a . L a i n g and E s t e r s o n (1970:264) d e s c r i b e the l i f e s i t u a t i o n of Agnes, one of these young women. "In the absense of d i s c e r n a b l e gross e x t e r n a l traumata, and i n the absence of s o - c a l l e d i n t e r n a l psychogenic f a c t o r s , Agnes and the other p a t i e n t s we have s t u d i e d have a l l come to be regarded as s u f f e r i n g from some meaningless p a t h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s . By b u i l d i n g a p i c t u r e , however, of the a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n i n !which Agnes has been l i v i n g f o r y e a r s , we b e g i n to see t h a t she i s s t r u g g l i n g to make sense of a se n s e l e s s s i t u a t i o n - s e n s e l e s s a t any r a t e from her p o s i t i o n i n i t . By se e i n g Agnes's s i t u a t i o n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y from our own 13. p o i n t of view and hers, we can now b e g i n to make sense of what p s y c h i a t r i s t s s t i l l by and l a r g e r e gard as nonsense." Research on r o l e f a i l u r e has r e c e n t l y u n d e r l i n e d the importance of f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n . Rapoport and Roscow (1966:232) found t h a t the p a t i e n t ' s own r o l e , s o c i a l norms and p e r s o n a l i t y d i d not adequately account f o r r o l e f a i l u r e , or f o r the f a c t o r s t h a t p r e c i p i t a t e d breakdown, or f o r the response to treatment. Experience i n d i c a t e d t h a t p a t i e n t s w i t h e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r emotional problems but w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f a m i l y environments seemed to a d j u s t d i f f e r e n t l y a f t e r treatment. A c c o r d i n g to E r l c k s o n and Hogan (1972:1) d u r i n g the e a r l y 1950*s the aim of therapy turned from i n d i v i d u a l change w i t h i n a treatment r e l a t i o n s h i p t o f a m i l y change, w i t h i n d i v i d u a l change a by-product. Bowlby (1972:22) f i n d s t h a t t e n s i o n and f r i c t i o n i n i n d u s t r y l e a d to i r r i t a t e d workers t a k i n g i t out on t h e i r wives and c h i l d r e n , while happy and contented workers t r e a t t h e i r wives and c h i l d r e n k i n d l y . B l o c h (1957*595) f i n d s t h a t f a m i l y r o l e s which do not meet the changing needs of i n d i v i d u a l members of the f a m i l y are not only supported by s t r o n g customary s a n c t i o n but i n modern s t a t e s , are a l s o s t r o n g l y f o r t i f i e d by the l e g a l code which tends to g i v e them permanence, r i g i d i t y and f i x i t y . More and more women are e x p e r i e n c i n g i n c r e a s i n g d i f f i c u l t y i n meeting t h e i r own needs and those of t h e i r 14. f a m i l y w i t h i n t h e i r homes. I n order to meet these needs many women are seeking both ways of a l t e r i n g t h e i r r o l e w i t h i n the f a m i l y to permit a c t i v i t y o u t s i d e of the home, and a l s o of c r e a t i n g and assuming s o c i a l l y rewarded a c t i v i t y o u t s i d e the home. The Mind Body Image. Research i n d i c a t e s t h a t the l i m i t s of a person's behavior are s e t not onl y by h i s o r her own body image but a l s o by h i s or her image of how both l i f e and s o c i e t y operate. I n order to change l i f e s t y l e the person must be able to v i s u a l i z e themselves doing some t h i n g s t h a t they have not p r e v i o u s l y done. T h i s i s e a s i e r i f others l i k e themselves are a l r e a d y d o i n g t h i s . Most changes i n l i f e s t y l e are, a t l e a s t i n par t , a s s i s t e d by f o l l o w i n g a r o l e model. I f , on the oth e r hand, the new behaviors have not p r e v i o u s l y been c a r r i e d out by people l i k e themselves i t becomes necessary to have a very c l e a r image of how l i f e and s o c i e t y do operate and to be abl e t o v i s u a l i z e changes i n t h i s image. Much of the change which women seek f a l l s i n t o the l a t e r category. I t thus becomes necessary to l e a r n more about the r e v i s i o n of images. Gorman (1969:7) concludes t h a t the body image Is formed by a l l of the body's senses, those which r e c e i v e s t i m u l i from o u t s i d e of the body, from i t s s u r f a c e s and from i t s i n t e r i o r . The organism then i n t e g r a t e s these 15. messages i n t o the concept of the "body. B o u l d i n g (1956:6) f i n d s t h a t the image of how both l i f e and s o c i e t y operate i s a r e s u l t of a l l the past experience of the possessor of t h a t image. U n t i l r e c e n t l y these images were c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y because the mind and the body were c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y . The wisdom of t h i s s e p a r a t i o n was questioned by Broad (1961:287) " I t i s , of course, p e r f e c t l y t rue t h a t an organism and the mind which animates i t do not form a p h y s i c a l whole, and t h a t they do not form a mental whole: and these no doubt are the two kinds of s u b s t a n t i a l whole w i t h which we are most f a m i l i a r . But i t does not f o l l o w t h a t a mind and i t s organism do not form a s u b s t a n t i a l whole of some k i n d . " When Macivor (1964:308-312) advanced the simple theory t h a t the f u n c t i o n s of t h i n k i n g and w i l l i n g belong to the l i v i n g human being t h i s theory was not accepted. Macivor a t t r i b u t e s t h i s to the s t r o n g b e l i e f of Descartes and h i s f o l l o w e r s t h a t a l l b e h a v i o r of extended t h i n g s c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d m e c h a n i c a l l y , thus thought c o u l d not be a s c r i b e d to the extended t h i n g , i n t h i s case the body, because thought i s o b v i o u s l y not a mechanical process. Macivor, on the oth e r hand, r e c o g n i z e d t h a t human beings, i f they have i n f o r m a t i o n , are d i f f e r e n t from t h i n g s i n that they can t h i n k and p r e d i c t the r e s u l t s of behavior w i t h a c e r t a i n degree of accuracy. He thought t h a t the mind and the body were u n i t e d by a common purpose and the beh a v i o r of n e i t h e r the mind nor the body c o u l d be ex p l a i n e d except by r e f e r e n c e to t h a t purpose. The v a l i d i t y of t h i s i d e a and the importance of a sense of purpose are supported by the w r i t i n g s of F r a n k l (1963:117) i n which he d e s c r i b e s how the assignment of meaning t o h i s l i f e enabled him to r i s e above the p h y s i c a l s u f f e r i n g he experienced i n Nazi c o n c e n t r a t i o n camps. He a l s o d e s c r i b e s how other p r i s o n e r s d i e d suddenly when they were not f r e e d from the c o n c e n t r a t i o n camp by an expected d a t e . B l a c k (1969:46) s t a t e s t h a t l i f e i s f e d on both energy and i n f o r m a t i o n . He d e f i n e s l i f e as "a q u a l i t y of matter which a r i s e s from the i n f o r m a t i o n a l content i n h e r e n t i n the i m p r o b a b i l i t y of form." In s i m p l e r words, some matter has an i n f o r m a t i o n content which when combined w i t h energy w i l l produce an:'ordered sequence of development of th a t matter u n t i l the i n f o r m a t i o n content i s used up. Animals can move about to r e p l e n i s h both t h e i r energy and i n f o r m a t i o n i n t a k e and human beings can, i n a d d i t i o n to moving about, r e p l e n i s h t h e i r supply of i n f o r m a t i o n and energy by s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . Olsen (1968:6) s t a t e s t h a t s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l l i f e emerge from organic and p s y c h o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s i n an ordered sequence, t h a t i s "a. p e r s o n a l i t i e s develop o n l y i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h organic l i f e , and cannot s u r v i v e i f the organism d i e s b. s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s occur only when two or more p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n t e r a c t , and cease to e x i s t when a l l of t h e i r members withdraw e i t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y or p h y s i c a l l y ; and c # c u l t u r e s are outgrowths of s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , and become mere r e l i c s when the s o c i a l e n t i t i e s t h a t c r e a t e d them o r the i n d i v i d u a l s who c a r r y them disappear;" 1 7 . O l s en (1968t6) a l s o f i n d s t h a t i s i s impossible to e x p l a i n any g i v e n l e v e l i n terms of those below i t and t h a t each s u c c e e d i n g l y h i g h e r l e v e l by v i r t u e of i t s p a r t i a l independence can and f r e q u e n t l y does i n f l u e n c e the lower l e v e l s from which i t emerges. T h e r e f o r e , when a c u l t u r e or s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n begins to i n h i b i t the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the energy and informa-t i o n heeds of the i n d i v i d u a l , t h a t i n d i v i d u a l then needs to f i n d ways t o adapt the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and/or c u l t u r e to r e - e s t a b l i s h an ordered and p r e d i c t a b l e way of s u r v i v i n g . T h i s r e q u i r e s the c r e a t i o n of new images of how l i f e and s o c i e t y c o u l d operate. I t a l s o r e q u i r e s t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l c r e a t e new images of how he or she c o u l d a c t i n order to implement a b e t t e r s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l l i f e . I t f u r t h e r r e q u i r e s t h a t a d e c i s i o n be made on changed be h a v i o r t a k i n g i n t o account the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of assuming a d i f f e r e n t type of beh a v i o r . Wheelis (1973s36) d e s c r i b e s the process of a r r i v i n g a t t h i s type of a moral judgement i n terms of freedom to adapt "Freedom d e r i v e s from c h o i c e and c h o i c e i n t u r n from awareness - from a s t e a d i l y growing c o n s c i o u s -ness of the world which, r e a c h i n g a c e r t a i n extent and i n t e n s i t y , turns back upon i t s e l f to i n c l u d e the knower w i t h the known, and i n t h a t awareness c r e a t e s the p o s s i b i l i t y of a c t i n g t h i s way or t h a t . F o r the e x i s t e n c e of opt i o n s of which we have no awareness c o n f e r s no freedom. I t i s only i n having the c h o i c e , i n knowing t h a t we can do t h i s or t h a t , t h a t we b e g i n to ask which i s b e t t e r , which i s good, which i s e v i l ? " The process of g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about a l t e r n a t i v e s r e q u i r e s , i n a d d i t i o n to moving about w i t h i n v a r y i n g s o c i a l 1 8 . s e t t i n g s , an a n a l y s i s of how i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e c e i v e d and i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the image. A c c o r d i n g to B o u l d i n g (1956s7) some messages are simply added i n t o the e x i s t i n g image making i t c l e a r e r , some messages c o n f l i c t w i t h the images and are e i t h e r r e j e c t e d or cause a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the image, but the v a s t m a j o r i t y of messages are i g n o r e d . To understand the r e j e c t i o n and the i g n o r i n g of messages i t i s necessary to understand the h a b i t u a l behavior of the i n d i -v i d u a l , the h a b i t u a l i n t e r a c t i o n s between the i n d i v i d u a l and t h a t person's s o c i a l groups and the h a b i t u a l i n t e r a c t i o n between the i n d i v i d u a l and i n s t i t u t i o n s . Berne (1972:25) f i n d s t h a t each person has a preconscious l i f e p l a n , or s c r i p t , by which t h a t person s t r u c t u r e s h i s or her l i f e t i m e w i t h r i t u a l a c t i v i t i e s , pastimes and games. These s c r i p t s are u s u a l l y based on c h i l d l i k e i l l u s i o n s which may p e r s i s t throughout a whole l i f e t i m e but i n more sensitive,': p e r c e p t i v e and i n t e l l i g e n t people these i l l u s i o n s d i s s o l v e one by one l e a d i n g to v a r i o u s l i f e t u r n i n g p o i n t s . T h i s suggests that those who m a i ntain c h i l d l i k e i l l u s i o n s have such a s t r o n g image t h a t there i s no need to r e c e i v e messages. However r e c e i v i n g a message and r e j e c t i n g i t because i t c o n f l i c t s w i t h the c u r r e n t image may be the f i r s t s t e p to forming an a l t e r n a t i v e v i s i o n and e v e n t u a l l y adopting a r e v i s e d image. Bo u l d i n g (1956:8) s t a t e s "The sudden and dramatic nature of these r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s perhaps a r e s u l t of the f a c t t h a t our image i s i n i t s e l f r e s i s t a n t to change. 19. When i t r e c e i v e s messages which c o n f l i c t with i t , i t s f i r s t impulse i s to r e j e c t them as i n some sense untrue ,,, As we continue to r e c e i v e messages which c o n t r a d i c t our image, however, we b e g i n to have doubts, and then one day we r e c e i v e a message which overthrows our previous image and we r e v i s e i t completely." T o f f l e r (1970:l6o) says t h a t to maintain our a d a p t i v e balance, t h a t i s to keep the gap between r e a l i t y and the image of r e a l i t y w i t h i n manageable p r o p o r t i o n s , we s t r u g g l e to r e f r e s h our imagery and to keep i t up to date. L a s s w e l l (1966:164) e x p l a i n s t h a t r e l e a r n i n g takes tremendous amounts of energy to unbind past l e a r n i n g so that newer more up-to-date r o u t i n e s may be formed. Se l y e (1956:33) f i n d s t h a t a l l forms of b i o l o g i c s t r e s s produce a s i n g l e " g e n e r a l a d a p t a t i o n syndrome". He notes t h a t a reasonable amount of b i o l o g i c s t r e s s i s necessary to m a i n t a i n i n g a d a p t i v e behavior and does l i t t l e i r r e v e r s i b l e damage but t h a t too much b i o l o g i c s t r e s s whether caused by impure foods, or overwork, or prolonged periods of t e n s i o n , produces damage to the a d r e n a l s , the thymicolymphatic system and the duodenum p o r t i o n of the i n t e s t i n e s . S e l y e (1956:277) sees no way to e l i m i n a t e s t r e s s but suggests t h a t behavior can be m o d i f i e d so t h a t the human body wears evenly and t h a t the changes necessary can be made a t such a r a t e as to minimize permanent damage. P a i n and s t r e s s i s a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i n d i -v i d u a l ' s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h s o c i a l groups and i n s t i t u t i o n s . 1 20. Boulding (1956:6) f i n d s t h a t image i s a r e s u l t of a l l the past experience of the possessor of t h a t image. S i n c e a l l l i v i n g human beings have d i f f e r e n t past experiences i t f o l l o w s t h a t c o n f l i c t w i l l r e s u l t u n l e s s these past experiences are shared, u n l e s s agreement i s reached as t o what behaviors a re a p p r o p r i a t e to new r o l e s and unless t h i s agreement i s i n c o r -porated i n t o the r e v i s e d image h e l d by those i n r e c i p r o c a l r o l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s and, t o a l e s s e r extent, other r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The s h a r i n g of past and even present experience i s hampered by our c u l t u r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of messages i n t o " o b j e c t i v e " and " s u b j e c t i v e " . Woodman (1973:6l) e x p l a i n s " I f s e v e r a l people can p e r c e i v e something s i m u l -t a n e o u s l y b e f o r e making con c e p t u a l leaps t o e x p l a i n i t , then the t h i n g they are s t u d y i n g i s • o b j e c t i v e ' i t l i e s 'out t h e r e ' i n the world of shared p e r c e p t i o n f o r everyone to see. But i f only a s i n g l e person can p e r c e i v e the t h i n g a t a time, i f ( l i k e the experience of p a i n or lo v e ) i t i s so t i e d i n w i t h our i n n e r world t h a t i t cannot be shared but can be l a b e l l e d (with v a r y i n g degrees of accuracy) by the person e x p e r i e n c i n g i t , then the phenomenon can be c l a s s i f i e d as s u b j e c t i v e . " There tends to be l i t t l e i n t e r a c t i o n between the two as o b j e c t i v e messages^are seen as r e l a t i n g t o the mind and can be v e r i f i e d by other minds, y e t s u b j e c t i v e messages are seen as r e l a t i n g t o the body and are o f t e n p e r c e i v e d as in h e r e n t and even s t a t i c w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l and can thus be ignored by ot h e r s . I n most s o c i a l groups the i n d i v i d u a l can choose whether to stay i n the s o c i a l group because i t s a t i s f i e s b a s i c needs or whether to leave the s o c i a l group "because i t does not s a t i s f y b a s i c needs. The f a m i l y presents a s p e c i a l problem because of the d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e a v i n g i t , Seidenberg (1973s1-23) d e s c r i b e s the l a r g e number of l e t t e r s and the great p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n h i s a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Dear Mr. Success: Consider Your Wife" p u b l i s h e d i n the Wall S t r e e t J o u r n a l of February 7, 1972. I n t h i s a r t i c l e he d e s c r i b e s how a woman moved from s u c c e s s f u l nurse to a happy young mother t o a s u c c e s s f u l r o l e i n the community but when she t r i e d t o express her own needs on the s u b j e c t of a move to another community her husband, f a m i l y and f r i e n d s i n t e r p r e t e d her r e a c t i o n as d i s l o y a l t y to the husband. The employer who arranged f o r the t r a n s f e r as w e l l as the husband, f a m i l y and f r i e n d s were t o t a l l y unaware of t h e i r p a r t i n the subsequent e r o s i o n of her person-a l i t y . She attempted s u i c i d e a t the age of t h i r t y - e i g h t . Seidenberg (1973«33) d e s c r i b e s another case where a housewife's memory had to be b o l s t e r e d by w r i t t e n notes - "Th i s from an i n t e l l i g e n t woman w i t h advanced c o l l e g e degrees who has l o s t c o n t r o l of her own d e s t i n y and w i t h i t her sense of time and pl a c e . " and he concludes " I t i s so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of these s o u l -damaged women not t o connect t h e i r anomie to what has been done to them but i n s t e a d blame themselves f o r not being able to be p e r f e c t wives and mothers." Whyte (1956:337) i n st u d y i n g h i g h l y mobile American f a m i l i t i e s observed t h a t f r i e n d s h i p p a t t e r n s were not based on p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as r e l i g i o n , e ducation, i n t e r e s t s or socio-economic s t a t u s but on the 22. p a r t i c u l a r p h y s i c a l p o s i t i o n of the f a m i l y ' s house i n the community. He found t h a t f r i e n d s h i p p a t t e r n s between houses were much the same f o u r years l a t e r even though most of the r e s i d e n t s had moved. I n t h i s same community, environment shaped patt e r n s even changed new i n d i v i d u a l s . Whyte (1956:348) observed "The f a m i l y t h a t doesn't mix w i t h the others or i s d i s l i k e d by them f r e q u e n t l y f u r n i s h e s a l i n e of s o c i a l demarkation t h a t the l a y o u t and geography do not supply. So f u n c t i o n a l Is the b a r r i e r f a m i l y In t h i s r e s p e c t that even i f they move out, t h e i r successors are l i k e l y to i n h e r i t the f u n c t i o n . The new people may be q u i t e normal enough themselves, but unless they are u n u s u a l l y e x t r o v e r t e d the l i n e i s apt to remain i n the same p l a c e . T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r i g i d i t y i s repeated i n i n s t i t u t i o n s , Drucker (1973six) notes t h a t "our s o c i e t y has become, w i t h i n an i n c r e d i b l y s h o r t f i f t y years, a s o c i e t y of i n s t i t u t i o n s . I t has become a p l u r a l i s t s o c i e t y i n which every major s o c i a l task has been e n t r u s t e d to l a r g e o r g a n i z a -t i o n s - from producing economic goods and s e r v i c e s to h e a l t h care, from s o c i a l s e c u r i t y and we l f a r e to education, from the se a r c h f o r new knowledge to the p r o t e c t i o n of the environment," Bo u l d i n g (1956:62) notes t h a t "because of h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e , there may be some i n d i v i d u a l s whose images are of p e c u l i a r importance t o an o r g a n i z a t i o n . " Barnard (1964:121) s t a t e s i t i s undeniable t h a t major exe c u t i v e s and even e n t i r e e x e c u t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s are o f t e n completely unaware of widespread i n f l u e n c e s , a t t i t u d e s and a g i t a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . " 23. B o u l d i n g (1956s100) e x p l a i n s "The weakness of the a u t h o r i t a r i a n s t r u c t u r e l i e s i n the inadequate amount of feedback to the hi g h e r r o l e s because the t y r a n t c o n t r o l s h i s sources of i n f o r m a t i o n . These sources become i n c r e a s i n g l y u n r e l i a b l e . He tends t o surround h i m s e l f w i t h *yes men' and hence h i s image of the world becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y d i v o r c e d from the image of the lower r o l e s . T h i s leads to i n c r e a s i n g s t r a i n and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n u n t i l , f i n a l l y , there i s a r e v o l u t i o n and the t y r a n t i s dethroned ... There i s a st r o n g tendency f o r a u t h o r i t a r i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o use v i o l e n c e or the t h r e a t of v i o l e n c e i n support of the r o l e s t r u c t u r e ... Fo r a time t h i s may be s u c c e s s f u l i n m a i n t a i n i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t i s u s u a l l y , however, s e l f d e f e a t i n g because of the c o r r u p t i o n of the communica-t i o n system which i t e n t a i l s . " B o u l d i n g (1956:79) a l s o comments t h a t i t i s o f t e n the most s u c c e s s f u l images t h a t become the most dangerous. The image becomes i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n the ceremonial and c o e r c i v e i n s t i -t u t i o n s of s o c i e t y . I t a c q u i r e s thereby a spurious s t a b i l i t y . As the world moves on the image does not. Ginzberg (1968:201-202) f i n d s t h a t one of the c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s of every s o c i e t y i s the f a i l u r e of i n s t i t u t i o n s to a d j u s t to the new circumstances and c o n d i t i o n s t h a t a r e v o l u t i o n b r i n g s i n i t s wake. He suggests t h a t the fsocus of r e s e a r c h on women's ed u c a t i o n and ca r e e r s should be widened to i n c l u d e both e d u c a t i o n a l and work i n s t i t u t i o n s . " E d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s continue to ignore the f a c t t h a t many women w i l l have t o i n t e r r u p t t h e i r e d u c a t i o n i n t h e i r e a r l y twenties, but w i l l seek to complete i t l a t e r ... Almost no i m a g i n a t i o n has been shown wit h regard to m a i n t a i n i n g the s k i l l and i n t e r e s t of the many c a r e e r women who have t o i n t e r r u p t t h e i r e d u c a t i o n or t h e i r c a r e e r s , . . . only the most a l e r t c o r p o r a t i o n has re c o g n i z e d the 24. advantage of a part time t r a i n i n g program as a way of a t t r a c t i n g able women back i n t o employ-ment. Most employers are d i s i n c l i n e d to make t h e i r i n - s e r v i c e and e x t r a mural e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e to women f o r f e a r t h e i r investment w i l l be l o s t because so many women withdraw from the labour f o r c e . T h i s r e a s o n i n g ignores the f a c t many women might w e l l r e t u r n s h o r t l y , as w e l l as the f a c t t h a t a l a r g e number of men a l s o quit.*" Perrow ( 1 9 7 0 s v i i ) has found i n working w i t h a v a r i e t y of o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t m a n i p u l a t i n g the s t r u c t u r e , a n a l y z i n g the goa l s and g r a s p i n g the nature of the^environment are more p r a c t i c a l and e f f i c i e n t ways of d e a l i n g w i t h o r g a n i z a t i o n a l problems than t r y i n g t o change human behavior d i r e c t l y . Ginzberg (1968:202) comments t h a t i t i s a d m i t t e d l y e a s i e r to run a l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o a s i n g l e s e t of r u l e s . But women are not men and one s e t of r u l e s i s seldom adequate f o r a l l men and never f o r both men and women. Lea r n i n g Tasks and S t r a t e g i e s Hobbs (1970:159) f i n d s t h a t the task of women i n the coming decades i s to de s t r o y r u t h l e s s l y the economic and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t dominate women's l i v e s and th a t r e l a t e n e g a t i v e l y to the r e a l i t y of these l i v e s . She sees the i n i t i a l s t e p as the disengagement of women from the h i s t o r i c male and female r o l e s which tend t o r e s t r i c t women t o c h i l d b e a r i n g and c h i l d r e a r i n g even when l a r g e numbers of c h i l d r e n are not wanted. Much the same thought i s expressed by Reisman (1956:28) "A whole wayrs6f l i f e - an outlook on chance, on c h i l d r e n , on the place of women, on s e x u a l i t y , 25. on the very meaning of e x i s t e n c e l i e s between the s o c i e t i e s i n which human f e r t i l i t y i s allowed to take i t s course and t o l l and those which p r e f e r to pay other kinds of t o l l to cut down f e r t i l i t y . " These statements I n d i c a t e t h a t our c u l t u r e i s i n a s t a t e of massive t r a n s i t i o n but they do not c l a r i f y e x a c t l y what the changes are or why there should be any problem i n making them. However, they do i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s women who are r e q u i r e d to c r e a t e most of the changed c o n d i t i o n s i n the c u l t u r e . Cohen (1968:1) s t a t e s t h a t as f a r as we know man i s the only animal capable of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s w i t h r e s p e c t t o h i s c u l t u r e s - the only animal a b l e to t h i n k of hi m s e l f as a c u l t u r e b earer In t h i r d person terms. The f a c t t h a t people are capable of t h i n k i n g about t h e i r c u l t u r e does not mean th a t many do so. Li d n b e r g e r (i960:90) f i n d s t h a t "behavior i s o f t e n so d i s t i n c t l y modelled i n accord w i t h a c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n t h a t a c t i o n without thought and d e l i b e r a t i o n i s l i t e r a l l y p o s s i b l e . " However, Cohen (1968:2) s t a t e s t h a t s o c i a l groups must adapt t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s to t h e i r modes of a c q u i r i n g a l i v e l i h o o d i f there i s to be the order, the r e g u l a r i t y and the p r e d i c t a b i l i t y t o enable groups to s u r v i v e as v i a b l e u n i t s . The problem t h a t women face i s t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y which were t i e d to the c h i l d b e a r i n g and c h i l d care r o l e s are d i s -appearing a l o n g w i t h and sometimes before these r o l e s . The 26. development of a l t e r n a t e ways f o r women to a c q u i r e a l i v e l i -hood i s hampered by the t r a d i t i o n a l norms of marriage and c h i l d c a r e even when there are no c h i l d r e n . Menzel and Katz (1956*338) s t a t e "an i n d i v i d u a l i s o r d i n a r i l y r e l u c t a n t to depart from the norms of h i s p a r t i c u l a r group unless the d eparture i t s e l f r e c e i v e s some form of group support, and a communication aimed a t i n f l u e n c i n g h i s thoughts or a c t i o n s may t h e r e f o r e f a i l . When changes occur, i t i s u s u a l l y only when the i n d i -v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s t h a t h i s group approves, or t h a t support comes from a d i s s i d e n t sub group, or from a n r o u t s i d e group toward which the i n d i v i d u a l sees hi m s e l f moving or whose presumed standards he acc e p t s , " The r a p i d r i s e of women's groups i s f u r t h e r e x p l a i n e d by Rogers and Shoemaker (1971*14) "more e f f e c t i v e communication occurs when source and r e c e i v e r are homophilous. When they share common meanings, a mutual s u b c u l t u r a l language, and are a l i k e i n p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s the communication of ideas i s l i k e l y to have g r e a t e r e f f e c t s i n terms of knowledge g a i n , a t t i t u d e f o r m a t i o n and change, and o v e r t b e h a v i o r change." S c h i l l a n c e (1973*3-6) notes t h a t there seems to be an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between meaningful problems and the amount of r i g o r w i t h which the problem c o u l d be s t u d i e d . He suggests t h a t i n n o v a t i v e problem s o l v i n g r e q u i r e s c o g n i t i v e i n c u b a t i o n d u r i n g which the problem s o l v e r withdraws conscious e f f o r t to a l l o w spontaneous processes to work on the problem. K o e s t l e r (1964*45) f i n d s t h a t there are two ways of escaping our more or l e s s automated r o u t i n e s of t h i n k -ing and behaving; by plunging i n t o a dream-like s t a t e or by a spontaneous f l a s h of i n s i g h t . E i t h e r of these a l t e r n a t i v e s 27. can produce a b i s o c i a t i v e a c t which connects previously-unconnected m a t r i c l e s of experience or t r a i n s of thought. Reusch (1957:13-1^ ) f i n d s t h a t spontaneous t h i n k i n g i s e i t h e r a r e a c t i o n to organismic demands or a delayed response to e a r l i e r i n p u t . The f i r s t aspect i s conceived as the emo-t i o n a l s t a t e of the i n d i v i d u a l . An e x p r e s s i o n of t h i s might be "I'm mi s e r a b l e " . I t i s the t o t a l e v a l u a t i o n of a l l of the events which occur i n s i d e the organism a t one time. The second aspect i s conceived as the i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n . An example of the organism's response to e a r l i e r i nput might be "My eye!., h u r t s | I probably have d i r t i n i t again." Schutz (1967:27-35) notes t h a t psychosomatic medicine has made a s t r o n g case f o r the f a c t t h a t emotional s t a t e s a f f e c t the body. More r e c e n t l y , the opposite view has a l s o been de-veloped - that body o r g a n i z a t i o n and physi o l o g y a f f e c t the f e e l i n g s - a view c a l l e d somatopsychic. He reviews s e v e r a l methods of e s t a b l i s h i n g movement i n every j o i n t i n the body to r e s t o r e n a t u r a l l e n g t h and f l e x i b i l i t y of muscles and to e f f e c t the permanent change of p e r s o n a l i t y , p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l . He notes that having the body s t r u c t u r e a l i g n e d so t h a t i t i s f u l l y f u n c t i o n a l i s not s u f f i c i e n t f o r i t to f u n c t i o n . I f there are p s y c h o l o g i c a l b l o c k s to more adequate f u n c t i o n i n g the a v a i l a b l e body s t r u c t u r e w i l l remain dormant and perhaps g r a d u a l l y r e t u r n t o a d y s f u n c t i o n a l s t a t e . I n t e g r a t i o n of the emotions with the p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e i s r e q u i r e d f o r a more l a s t i n g change. The l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g y here i s to assume v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s and to r e l a t e these to the f e e l i n g response. 28. Heusch (1957:31) f i n d s t h a t the human mind has to t r e a t s u c c e s s i v e l y , t h a t which happens i n nature s i m u l t a n -eously, t h e r e f o r e the e x p r e s s i o n of p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t a t e must be c o d i f i e d i n a n a l o g i c a l terms t o convey the here and now o v e r a l l e f f e c t . The o v e r a l l a n a l o g i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of body f e e l i n g , f o l l o w e d by an a n a l y s i s of the separate behaviors which c o n t r i b u t e d to i t , i s u s e f u l i n becoming aware of behaviors which do and do not c o n t r i b u t e to p h y s i o l o g i c a l w e l l b e i n g . Repeating t h i s process over and over a g a i n i s u s e f u l i n becoming aware of sequences of behavior t h a t con-t r i b u t e to w e l l b e i n g . Samuels and Bennett (1973:124) f i n d t h a t i n working out r e s t - work c y c l e s i n your l i f e you are i n c o n t r o l of your energy l e v e l s ; you can d i r e c t where your energy goes. F o r t h i s reason the w r i t i n g of a j o u r n a l and the v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n and a n a l y s i s of f e e l i n g s i s encouraged i n c l a s s e s a t the Women's Resources Centre. J o u r a r d (1964:143) notes t h a t i n our c u l t u r e we are t r a i n e d from an e a r l y age not to pay too much a t t e n t i o n to our i n n e r s e l v e s , to our own f e e l i n g s , wishes and needs. Thus when our body sends an " a l l i s not w e l l " s i g n a l , we tend to c a r r y on as u s u a l . Luce (1971:3-^) f i n d s t h a t "Body time i s r a r e l y mentioned by d o c t o r s and even more r a r e l y c o n s i d e r e d by l e a d e r s of business and government who s e t the schedules by which we work and l i v e ... Our c u l t u r e has bathed our minds w i t h i t s own s p e c i a l views of time. We may not want t o d i s c o v e r t h a t our c u l t u r e and our nature are i n c o n f l i c t . Even the f i r s t fumbling d i s -c o v e r i e s about "body time" are j o l t i n g , c a s t i n g doubt 2 9 . on our comfortably i n g r a i n e d d a i l y h a b i t s , the way we perform r e s e a r c h , or more important, the way we t r e a t people who are s i c k ... Perhaps as knowledge i n c r e a s e s , i t w i l l b e g i n to g i v e us back to o u r s e l v e s . At present, most of us have become l i v i n g anomalies, v i c t i m s of a profound dissonance between our c u l t u r e and our n a t u r a l r h y t h m i c i t y . " Reusch (1957:23-24) s t a t e s t h a t "concern w i t h the now has paved the way f o r a method of understanding which i s devoid of value judgement or s c i e n t i f i c d i s s e c t i o n . T h i s k i n d of understanding i s a f u n c t i o n of a n a l o g i c t h i n k i n g which, f o r the a p p r a i s a l of non v e r b a l behavior, i s f a r s u p e r i o r to d i g i t a l - v e r b a l t h i n k i n g ... t h i s puts the observer back i n t o the network and makes him a s u b j e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t . The s u b j e c t i v i t y which f o r m e r l y was regarded as an u n d e s i r a b l e by product i s now p r o d u c t i v e l y u t i l i z e d . " The u t i l i z a t i o n of a new form of t h i n k i n g t o c r e a t e awareness w i l l c r e a t e s t r e s s f o r those who have l e a r n e d to place a high value on o b j e c t i v i t y and s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i p l i n e . However Reusch (1957:23) f i n d s t h a t much i n f o r m a t i o n which bears upon the q u a l i t a t i v e and unique aspects of i d e n t i f i e d i n d i v i d u a l s i s l o s t through s c i e n t i f i c procedure; a t bes t s c i e n t i f i c procedure y i e l d s a one s i d e d p i c t u r e of human behavior. Awareness of unique i n d i v i d u a l c a p a b i l i t i e s can be f a c i l i t a t e d by adding a n a l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g through the e x p r e s s i o n of emotion or f e e l i n g to s c i e n t i f i c d i g i t a l - v e r b a l t h i n k i n g . The concept of emotional s e l f defense and techniques f o r a p p l y i n g t h i s s e l f defense have been d e v i s e d 30. to cope with those who place exclusive trust i n o b j e c t i v i t y and s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i p l i n e . Cherniak (1974:2) finds that "Women's emotional 'talents' are constantly exploited and abused. The concept of 'emotional s e l f defense' implies increasing one's awareness of and resistance to emotional manipulation and blackmail. This does not mean giving up the very valuable aspects of the t r a d i t i o n a l female r o l e . On the contrary, when women are the recipien t s of the warmth, understanding and support they have given others they come to value these functions more f u l l y . In addition, when they begin to contrast the appreciation they are accorded when they give support to other women, with the lack of response frequently experienced from the men with whom they have been involved, there i s an almost overwhelming recognition of th e i r i n t e r -personal oppression. The r e s u l t i s a more sele c t i v e use of t h e i r psychological resources." Many of the problems that women experience are the by products of being "other-directed" rather than " s e l f - d i r e c t e d " . Since society encourages s e l f s a c r i f i c e i n women, many women experience this as virtuous rather than oppressive, but others i n d i f f e r e n t l i f e situations f i n d they can be manipulated by language. Cherniak (197^«2) explains that behavior can be. described neutrally, negatively or p o s i t i v e l y . She finds that behaviors that are important for i n d i v i d u a l growth but which are inconvenient f o r family and friends can be discouraged by renaming s e l f confidence as arrogance, assertiveness as aggressiveness, persistence as stubbornness, autonomy as selfishness, independence as indifference and so on. Harre (1970:8,12) states that the t r a d i t i o n a l philosophy of s c i e n t i f i c thinking assumed that language was the only vehicle f o r thought; that the only words which were to be used i n s c i e n t i f i c t h i n k i n g had e i t h e r to be d e f i n e d o s t e n s i v e l y , by p o i n t i n g t o samples or had to be p a r t i c l e s of l o g i c a l syntax l i k e "and" and " i f " . T h i s philosophy gave r i s e to dedu c t i v e systems of thought t h a t were i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t and co u l d only be t e s t e d through c o n f r o n t a t i o n . He goes on to say t h a t the importance of l i n g u i s t i c v e h i c l e s of thought must not be allowed to co n c e a l the e x i s t e n c e of other v e h i c l e s f o r thought, f o r example p i c t u r e s , models and diagrams. He concludes t h a t we cannot f u l l y understand the way sentences f u n c t i o n i n statement making i f they are consi d e r e d i n i s o l a t i o n from the st a t e m e n t - p i c t u r e complex to which they belong. The Women's Resources Centre t h e r e f o r e uses awareness e x e r c i s e s which u t i l i z e such d i v e r s e forms of messages as body movement, drawing p i c t u r e s and diagrams and making c o l l a g e s t o express f e e l i n g s or t o t a l emotional s t a t e s . I n c r e a s i n g awareness of what d i r e c t i o n s and behaviors w i l l c o n t r i b u t e both to the w e l l - b e i n g of the i n d i v i d u a l and to the w e l l b e i n g of s o c i e t y r e q u i r e s more i n f o r m a t i o n about how s o c i e t y operates. T h i s i s encouraged i n the Women's Resources Centre by the use of r e a d i n g l i s t s , by guest speakers and by i n t e r p e r s o n a l exchange. Assuming new behaviors can a l s o be f a c i l i t a t e d by u s i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l exchange to e x p l a i n these changes to persons i n r e c i p r o c a l r o l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The J o h a r i Window (Fi g u r e 1) e x e r c i s e i n P f e i f f e r and Jones (1972:66) enables a h e l p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p 32. F i g u r e 1 The J o h a r i Window Known to s e l f Not known to s e l f Known to I . Area of f r e e I I . B l i n d a r e a others a c t i v i t y ("bad b r e a t h " ( p u b l i c s e l f ) area) I I I . Avoided or IV. Area o f unknown Not known hidden a r e a to others a c t i v i t y ( p r i v a t e s e l f ) to form, a r e l a t i o n s h i p i n which each helps the oth e r to As b l i n d spots and avoided or hidden areas are shared and as they are found to be h e l p f u l , a t r u s t develops t h a t allows e x p l o r a t i o n and d i s c o v e r y of new a b i l i t i e s i n areas of hidden p o t e n t i a l . One of the most Important ways t h i s happens i s through the g i v i n g and r e c e i v i n g of feedback. There are b a r r i e r s i n people and i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t make i t hard f o r feedback t o take p l a c e , and there are a l s o t h i n g s i n us, i n the other, and i n the way our o r g a n i z a t i o n s operate t h a t f a c i l i t a t e c o n s t r u c t i v e exchanges of feedback. Bugenthal (1965J263) c a l l s the j g o a l of the c o n s t r u c t i v e i n t e r p e r s o n a l exchange process " a c t u a l i z a t i o n " . He d e f i n e s a c t u a l i z a t i o n both p o s i t i v e l y and n e g a t i v e l y . 1, A way of being i n one's l i f e i n which there i s g r e a t e r r e a l i z a t i o n upon the p o t e n t i a l s of human e x i s t a n c e than 33. i s u s u a l , a t l e a s t i n our c u l t u r e . 2. A way of being i n the world i n which the needless con-s t r a i n t s of the p e r s o n a l r e s i s t a n c e s and c u l t u r a l i n a u t h e n t i c i t i e s are e l i m i n a t e d or markedly reduced i n t h e i r l i m i t i n g e f f e c t s . S p e c i f i c s k i l l s which have been found e f f e c t i v e i n pro-moting a c t u a l i z a t i o n by i n t e r p e r s o n a l exchange are d e s c r i b e d by Gordon. (1970:39-215) They i n c l u d e communicating accep-tance of the other person, u s i n g a c t i v e l i s t e n i n g , u s i n g I messages, and r e f r a i n i n g from making d e c i s i o n s f o r the other person. F a s t (1971:167) d e s c r i b e s the use of these s k i l l s f o r promoting a c t u a l i z a t i o n by an i n t e r a c t i o n of body language and speech. Rapoport (1959:122) r e p o r t s t h a t i t has become i n c r e a s i n g l y evidentftthat p e r c e p t i o n and r e g i s t r a t i o n are a c t i v e processes <3f the mind, and t h a t the incoming s t i m u l a t i o n i s organized not only under the i n f l u e n c e s of the past experiences but a l s o under the s t r i v i n g s of the organism. Maslow (195^:211) f i n d s t h a t s e l f a c t u a l i z i n g people c u s t o m a r i l y have some task to f u l f i l l , some problem o u t s i d e themselves which e n l i s t s much of t h e i r e n e r g i e s . The f o c u s i n g of a t t e n t i o n on the purposes and s t r i v i n g s of the i n d i v i d u a l helps t h a t i n d i v i d u a l i n o r g a n i z i n g the pe r c e p t i o n s and i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o a c t i v i t i e s to f u l f i l l these s t r i v i n g s . Cherniak (197^*5) f i n d s t h a t the extent to which women are preoccupied with t h e i r appearance, 34. whether i t i s shame about some aspect of i t or w i t h expending energy to improve i t , they are d i s t r a c t e d from l e a r n i n g the s k i l l s necessary f o r e f f e c t i v e independent f u n c t i o n i n g . The f o c u s i n g of a t t e n t i o n on the purposes or s t r i v i n g s of v a r i o u s s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s helps i n o r g a n i z i n g percep-t i o n s and i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o a c t i v i t i e s which forward these ends. Goode (1964:2-3) f i n d s t h a t the s t r a t e g i c s i g n i f i c a n c e of the f a m i l y i s t o be found i n i t s mediating f u n c t i o n i n the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . Both the needs of s o c i e t y and the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l s i n the f a m i l y must be met, a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y , i n the f a m i l y i f i t i s to s u r v i v e . I n North American s o c i e t y not much a t t e n t i o n i s pa i d to d e f i n i n g c l e a r l y the purposes of the f a m i l y . Other s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s are aware of the value of s t a t i n g purposes or s t r i v i n g s c l e a r l y . S c h a l l e r (1971:96-9?) f i n d s t h a t members of a church need to d e f i n e and communicate to one another t h e i r sense of purpose as a congregation, then the statement of purpose must be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o g o a l s , o b j e c t i v e s and schedules. Drucker (1973:9^) f i n d s t h a t " D e f i n i n g the purpose and m i s s i o n of the busi n e s s i s d i f f i c u l t , p a i n f u l and r i s k y . But i t alone enables a business to s e t o b j e c t i v e s , to develop s t r a t e g i e s , to conc e n t r a t e i t s resources and to go to work." He a l s o s t a t e s t h a t p l a n n i n g does not s t a r t out w i t h the q u e s t i o n "What new th i n g s should we get i n t o ? I t s t a r t s out wit h what e x i s t i n g product l i n e s and businesses should we abandon?" and "Which ones should we 35. cut back and deemphasize?" S i m i l a r l y f o r many women a t the Women's Resources Centre awareness o f behaviors which cause a poor mind body s t a t e l e a d them to abandon or deemphasize those b e h a v i o r s , to prepare r e l e v a n t others f o r t h i s change and to i s o l a t e themselves from persons d i s a g r e e i n g w i t h t h i s change. T h i s r e l e a s e s energy which can then be used produc-t i v e l y . S i n c e many who come t o the Women's Resources Centre are married women e x p l o r i n g the p o s s i b i l i t i e s and means of e n t e r i n g employment the r e s e a r c h of Rapoport and Rapoport (1969:3-30) on couples who were most s u c c e s s f u l i n adopting t h i s l i f e s t y l e i s of i n t e r e s t . The s t r a i n s which t h i s r e s e a r c h i d e n t i f i e d were 1. Overload dilemmas - these were handled by d e l i b e r a t e l y working a t l e i s u r e , t h a t i s by en s u r i n g t h a t a. h o l i d a y s were taken r e g u l a r l y . b. h e a l t h and energy were conserved. c. as much as p o s s i b l e of domestic chores and c h i l d care were d e l e g a t e d . d. work involvements were modified to be compatible w i t h the p a r t n e r s , t o op t i m i z e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of both p a r t n e r s i n work and f a m i l y spheres, 2. P e r s o n a l norm dilemmas -.these were handled by the husband r e c o g n i z i n g h i s w i f e ' s needs f o r having f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y , f o r being c r e a t i v e i n ways t h a t 36. are d i f f i c u l t i n the home, f o r being an e f f e c t i v e i n d i v i d u a l w i t h the human d e s i r e f o r autonomy and interdependence w i t h her husband. He a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h a t these needs were i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the s o c i o -c u l t u r a l d e f i n i t i o n of feminine. As a r e s u l t of t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n the husband i n f a c t supported, sponsored, encouraged and f a c i l i t a t e d h i s wi f e ' s c a r e e r . 3 . I d e n t i t y dilemmas - these were handled by the wif e r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t t h e i r l i f e s t y l e was i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l d e f i n i t i o n of masculine. Wives developed two s t y l e s of behavior, one f o r work and another f o r home. R e l a t i v e income of the wife was kept lower and wives d i d not take any p o s i t i o n s of a u t h o r i t y where the husband was working. 4. S o c i a l network dilemmas - these arose i n r e c i p r o c a t i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s w i t h r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s . There was a tendency to form f r i e n d s h i p s on a "couples b a s i s " w i t h the wife having the deter m i n i n g r o l e i n s e l e c t i o n of f r i e n d s h i p s i n order to a v o i d c r i t i c i s m and l a c k of shared i n t e r e s t s . 5. Role c y c l i n g dilemmas - these were c r i t i c a l to the wif e c a r r y i n g on her c a r e e r . The most important s t r a t e g i e s were the t i m i n g of c h i l d r e n o n l y when job r e - e n t r y was p o s s i b l e and r e f u s a l of b e t t e r jobs elsewhere because there were no o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the spouse. 37. I n summary, s u c c e s s f u l couples s t r u c k a s e r i e s of r o l e b a rgains t o reduce the s t r a i n s and new "behavior p a t t e r n s evolved as a r e s u l t . The e n t r y of women i n t o e d u c a t i o n a l courses w i t h v o c a t i o n -a l or c a r e e r o b j e c t i v e s other than the narrow range of occupa-tions;! c u l t u r a l l y a c c e p t a b l e f o r women presents a problem. The Lindsay Hopkins V o c a t i o n a l S c h o o l r e s e a r c h study (1956:11) found t h a t the main reason f o r women to atte n d t h i s s c h o o l was to improve t h e i r present e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s but the main reason f o r men to attend t h i s s c h o o l was to improve t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l s t a t u s . These women cou l d not admit t h a t they were going t o a v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . Montrose (1959«4) found t h a t many women placed themselves i n c l a s s e s designed to produce monetary rewards but d i d not go i n t o courses l a b e l l e d v o c a t i o n a l o r r o c c u p a t i o n a l . Pike (1970:19) f i n d s t h a t women are the major group i n Canada who are abl e to b e n e f i t from a u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n but who i n f a c t do not go to u n i v e r s i t y i n the numbers expected. Hewer and Neubeck (1964:587-592) f i n d t h a t women are most educable a f t e r the e a r l y years of marriage but Hiestand (1971:62,57) i n a study of students aged t h i r t y f i v e years and over e n t e r i n g pro-f e s s i o n a l or graduate s c h o o l found a r e c u r r i n g theme t h a t ..deny-i n g o r d i s c o u r a g i n g the o l d e r a p p l i c a n t was i n h i s b e s t i n t e r e s t . He found t h a t many people are u s u a l l y i n v o l v e d i n the admissions process and t h a t a p p l i c a n t s had to s a t i s f y 3 8 . everyone. Thus i f anyone i n the admission process has a b i a s of any s o r t a g a i n s t o l d e r persons, whether he i s conscious of i t or not, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t the o l d e r person w i l l be r e j e c t e d . The s t r a t e g y used t o combat t h i s type of problem i s the development of p e r s i s t e n c e and a s s e r t i v e n e s s through group support f o r these q u a l i t i e s . Women experience s i m i l a r problems i n e n t e r i n g employment. B i r d (1968s29) f i n d s t h a t the c l o s e r women approach paying work, the more they are slowed by the unspoken assumption t h a t a woman r e a l l y c o u l d not be s e r i o u s about a v o c a t i o n but must be working to mark time, earn a l i t t l e money or, i f she was o b v i o u s l y g i f t e d " j u s t f o r the f u n " . She goes on to d e t a i l the b a r r i e r s to promotion once the entry i n t o the world of work has been made and the d i s c o u r a g i n g e f f e c t t h i s has on women a t a l l steps of the process of adopting a c a r e e r o r i e n t e d l i f e s t y l e . T h i s chapter has g i v e n a b r i e f and v e r y incomplete review of the complexity of f a c t o r s t h a t are f r e q u e n t l y i n v o l v e d i n changing a s o c i e t y to accommodate a reduced r a t e of r e p r o d u c t i o n . 39. Chapter 3 Procedure The a c t i v i t i e s s e l e c t e d f o r study were f i v e courses g i v e n by the Women's Resources Centre from February to A p r i l of 1974 and the c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e g i v e n by t h i s c e n t r e i n January 197^ . A f i f t y per cent random sample of the p a r t i c i -pants i n each of these s i x groups was s e l e c t e d and r e p l a c e -ments were drawn when any of those o r i g i n a l l y s e l e c t e d from each group c o u l d not be i n t e r v i e w e d (Table I) Table I RANDOM SELECTION AND REPLACEMENT OF PARTICIPANTS INTERVIEWED Source T o t a l T o t a l I n t e r -viewed Replace-ments Reaso Repla Moved n f o r cement Refused Managing Te n s i o n Through Body Awareness 11 6 0 0 0 Developing P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l 22 11 0 0 0 E n c o u n t e r i n g Y o u r s e l f 17 9 0 0 0 Speak Up 13 6 3 2 1 Career P l a n n i n g 19 10 3 2 1 C o u n s e l l i n g 16 8 5 1 98 50 11 8 3 The probing i n t e r v i e w was s e l e c t e d as the method best s u i t e d to the d i s c o v e r y of new and unsuspected i n f o r m a t i o n . The probing i n t e r v i e w can y i e l d an unmanageable mass of da t a . *K). To prevent unmanageability open ended questions were devised i n cooperation w i t h the d i r e c t o r of the Daytime Program, Centre f o r Continuing Education at U.B.C. and recorded i n an Interview Guide (Appendix A ) . The questions on the guide were t e s t e d , w i t h probing questions i n interviews w i t h three women i n d i f f e r e n t l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . These women had va r y i n g experience w i t h the Women's Resources Centre but at times and i n courses other than those s e l e c t e d f o r the main p o r t i o n of t h i s study. These p i l o t i n t e r v i e w s were s a t i s f a c t o r y and the only change made i n the guide was the s u b s t i t u t i o n of the words " c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y " f o r " c r e a t i v e hobby" to help i n maintaining a n e u t r a l tone to the guide. F o l l o w i n g the idea of seeking the maximum amount of in f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t to the s i t u a t i o n s e l e c t e d f o r study, the comments from these i n t e r v i e w s w i l l be used i n the a n a l y s i s of response but s t a t i s t i c a l data w i l l not be included w i t h the s t a t i s t i c a l responses of the main group interviewed. The i n t e r v i e w e r attended one of the l a s t c l a s s e s i n each course and explained the p r o j e c t . This was fol l o w e d by a telephone c a l l to ask f o r an i n t e r v i e w and arrange a s u i t a b l e time and place. Most of those who came to the Women's Resources Centre f o r c o u n s e l l i n g r a t h e r than short courses had no previous knowledge of the p r o j e c t before the telephone c a l l which both explained the purpose of the p r o j e c t and asked f o r the i n t e r v i e w . 41. The Interviews ranged i n l e n g t h from t w e n t y - f i v e minutes to over three hours, w i t h an average of s l i g h t l y over one hour. Those f o l l o w i n g the s i n g l e c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n were s h o r t e r and tended to focus on one s u b j e c t r a t h e r than wi t h many s u b j e c t s . At the beginning of many of the i n t e r -views the women showed evidence of nervousness, t e n s i o n and even, i n two cases, h o s t i l i t y , d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t almost a l l of these s e s s i o n s took place i n t h e i r own homes. These f e e l i n g s were re c o g n i z e d and probed. The c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the value of " u s e l e s s i n f o r m a t i o n " , f o r example, how they spent t h e i r time the year b e f o r e , and the use to which t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n would be put, r e s o l v e d these problems. A high l e v e l of i n t e r e s t and c o o p e r a t i o n was reached i n n e a r l y every case. At the end of the i n t e r v i e w a l l wanted to know about the outcomes and many wanted to t a l k f u r t h e r about the use of the study. The i n t e r v i e w s took place from June t o September, 1 9 7 4 . These i n t e r v i e w s proceeded i n a very open manner. The main o b j e c t i v e of the i n t e r v i e w e r was to produce a comfortable s i t u a t i o n i n which i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d flow f r e e l y and n a t u r a l l y . Although the guide provided much the same s t r u c t u r e f o r each of the i n t e r v i e w s , questions and d i v e r s i o n s were encouraged. Questions were answered i n a d i r e c t manner. D i v e r s i o n s f r e q u e n t l y produced r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t might otherwise have been l o s t . When d i v e r s i o n s occurred they f o l l o w e d t h e i r 42. n a t u r a l course and a t the end the person being i n t e r v i e w e d was g e n e r a l l y asked to summarize what she had j u s t s a i d . I n some cases the i n t e r v i e w e r d i d the summarizing, read out the summary and asked i f t h a t was the meaning intended. I n a few cases the i n t e r v i e w e r ' s summary was accepted but more f r e q u e n t l y the r e s u l t was a process of r e v i s i o n i n which a search was c a r r i e d out to f i n d the b e s t words to con-vey the exact shade of meaning d e s i r e d . The-Interviewer developed a new awareness of the impor-tance of both i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication and i n t r a p e r s o n a l communication. T h i s suggested a f u r t h e r search of the l i t e r a t u r e to i n c l u d e more work i n these a r e a s . The review of the l i t e r a t u r e was.-^-rewritten and the data was analyzed i n the l i g h t of t h i s r e v i s i o n . The i n f o r m a t i o n from the i n t e r v i e w s was d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r areas and s u b d i v i s i o n s . A. P e r s o n a l Data B. A P r o f i l e of A c t i v i t y i n 1973 1. Housework 2. Employment 3. C h i l d Care 4. V o l u n t e e r Work 5. E d u c a t i o n 6. E x e r c i s e 7. C r e a t i v e A c t i v i t y 43. 8. Non Routine Events C. The Women's Resources Centre - 1974 1. C o u n s e l l i n g 2. Career P l a n n i n g 3. Speak Up 4. Managing T e n s i o n Through Body Awareness 5. Developing P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l 6. E n c o u n t e r i n g Y o u r s e l f D. Future D i r e c t i o n s The d a t a was r e c l a s s i f i e d and run through the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Computer on the M.V.T.A.B. program. The most s i g n i f i c a n t of these d a t a w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the next chapter under each of the a r e a headings and sub-d i v i s i o n s . 4 4 . Chapter 4 The F i n d i n g s Overview Du r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s s e v e r a l p i e c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n kept r e c u r r i n g . These were - Yoga was a p r e f e r r e d form of e x e r c i s e , a l t h o u g h there were some who d i d not c l a s s i f y i t as e x e r c i s e . The term mind-body was used and emphasized not only by those i n the course which d e a l t w i t h t h i s but by those i n u n r e l a t e d c o u r s e s . There was an unexpectedly high i n c i d e n c e of i l l n e s s , e s p e c i a l l y amongst women w i t h no c h i l d r e n . The meaning of words was c o l o u r e d by the experiences a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them and caused problems i n communication. P e r s o n a l Data The f i r s t p a r t of the i n t e r v i e w was concerned w i t h s e l e c t e d demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Table I I ) . The age range was from n i n e t e e n to s i x t y t h r e e . The g r e a t e s t number were i n the forty, to f o r t y - f o u r year range. T h i s may i n d i c a t e t h a t women who were a d o l e s c e n t s d u r i n g the post World War I I " r e t u r n t o the home" o r i e n t a t i o n , as documented by F r i e d e n . f e e l g r e a t e r need of t h i s type of program. I t 45. TABLE I I SELECTED DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF WOMEN INTERVIEWED C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Number Percentage Age Under 25 4 8 25-29 8 16 30-34 7 14 35-39 7 14 40-44 11 22 45-49 4 8 50-54 6 12 55 and over _3 6 50 100% E d u c a t i o n (years) 12 or l e s s 6 12 13-14 18 36 15-16 14 28 17 or more 12 24 50 100% C h i l d r e n None 19 38 1 5 10 2 17 34 3 5 10 4 or more 4 8 50 100% Age category of youngest c h i l d 38 No c h i l d 19 Under 7 9 18 7-13 14 28 14-20 8 16 50 100% a l s o c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h the p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e i n the f o r t y - f i v e to f o r t y - n i n e age group. T h i s low p a r t i c i p a t i o n 46. may be i n par t a t t r i b u t a b l e to the World War I I ad o l e s c e n t s o c i a l i z a t i o n when women were encouraged to do many t h i n g s . The e d u c a t i o n l e v e l of these women i s higher than the n a t i o n a l average. T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n f a m i l y postponement and c h i l d r e n younger than average,erelative to the age of the mother. T h i r t y e i g h t per cent of the women i n t e r v i e w e d had no c h i l d r e n . The remainder g e n e r a l l y had s m a l l f a m i l i e s , t h i r t y - f o u r per cent had two c h i l d r e n . Housework - 1973 Housework i s the only a c t i v i t y t h a t was common t o a l l of the women (Table I I I ) . TABLE I I I HOURS PER WEEK WOMEN SPENT ON HOUSEWORK BY AGE GROUP Age group Under 15 hours 15-19 hours 20-24 hours Over 25 hours T o t a l Under 30 6 5 1 0 12 30-39 3 3 5 3 14 40-44 0 1 3 7 11 45 and over 3 2 3 5 13 12 11 12 15 50 Women i n the f o r t y to f o r t y - f o u r age rangeaspent more time on housework. The s t a t i s t i c s show no s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e or decrease i n time spent on housework by women with d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of ed u c a t i o n and very l i t t l e i n c r e a s e i n time spent i n housework f o r those w i t h l a r g e r f a m i l i e s but there was some 7^. i n c r e a s e i n time spent on housework when the youngest c h i l d reached s c h o o l age. T h i s may r e f l e c t l e s s time spent on c h i l d care, more a c t u a l work to be done or an ado l e s c e n t s o c i a l i z a -t i o n which focused h e a v i l y on the home. Comments on housework were minimal. The s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of t h e i r enjoyment of housework showed t h a t most women d i d not l i k e housework (Table I V ) . TABLE IV WOMEN'S ENJOYMENT OF HOUSEWORK BY AGE GROUP Age group No response Not enjoyable Moderately enjoyable Very enjoyable T o t a l Under 30 1 9 2 0 12 30-39 1 12 1 0 14 40-44 0 7 4 0 11 45 and over 1 9 2 1 13 3 37 9 1 50 Younger women were sometimes i n v o l v e d i n persuading t h e i r p a r t n e r to share i n the work of the home. Those who r a t e d housework i n the middle of the enjoyment s c a l e s a i d t h a t they d i d not mind housework too much, they found s a t i s f a c t i o n i n i t s completion and they l i k e d cooking. The woman who l i k e d house-work most was one who had j u s t l e f t f u l l time employment and found her h e a l t h improving. Employment - 1973 T h i r t y - f o u r of the women i n t e r v i e w e d had some form of employment i n 1973 (Table V) yet only s i x were employed f u l l 48. time f o r the f u l l year. A l e v e l of ed u c a t i o n which i n d i c a t e s a year or two of v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n beyond h i g h s c h o o l and absence of c h i l d r e n are f a c t o r s i n s u s t a i n i n g f u l l time, f u l l year employment but do not adequately e x p l a i n the com-p l e t e absence of s u s t a i n e d f u l l time employment between the ages of t h i r t y and f i f t y . Other e x p l a n a t i o n s might be that those i n t h i s age group who have s u s t a i n e d f u l l time employment do not need l i f e p lanning s k i l l s or t h a t they do not have time to p a r t i c i p a t e i n non c r e d i t courses, TABLE V TYPE OF EMPLOYMENT BY SELECTED DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS F u l l time F u l l time p a r t year P a r t time S e l f empL T o t a l employed T o t a l Age Under 30 5 4 2 1 12 12 30-39 0 4 2 1 7 14 40-44 0 0 3 1 :,-4 11 45 & over 1 5 4 1 11 23 6 13 11 4 34 50 E d u c a t i o n (years) 12 or l e s s 0 2 1 1 4 6 13-14 4 3 4 1 12 18 15-16 1 4 3 2 10 14 17 or more 1 4 3 0 8 12 6 13 11 4 34* 50 Age of younges t c h i l d No c h i l d 4 8 3 4 19 19 Under 7 1 2 3 0 6 9 7-13 0 1 4 0 5 14 14-20 1 2 1 0 4 8 6 13 11 4 34 50 4 9 . During the i n t e r v i e w s the women had three d i f f e r e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s to express t h e i r comments on employment. F i r s t , when asked about the time spent on employment the previous year and how they l i k e d t h e i r work, then, second, when asked what e f f e c t s the course had on t h e i r employment and t h i r d when asked about f u t u r e plans f o r employment. In g e n e r a l the past, present and f u t u r e of t h e i r employment were d i s c u s s e d together and a t l e n g t h but the bulk of the comments came d u r i n g the f i r s t two o p p o r t u n i t i e s . These comments f a l l i n t o f i v e d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s . S e l f Employment "We are s e l f employed, my husband and I run our business together. I t i s very s a t i s f a c t o r y . " "I f i n d working f o r myself much b e t t e r , more money f o r l e s s time." " L a s t year we had a f a m i l y b u s i n e s s . I l i k e d the work except f o r the time f a c t o r . I t r e q u i r e d t o t a l commitment and t h i s a f f e c t e d our enjoyment of i t . As a business i t was not p r o f i t a b l e . " M a r g i n a l jobs "I work f o r seven weeks r o u t i n e l y each y e a r but I would l i k e permanent part time work to d e a l w i t h my i n s e c u r i t y , " "My employment was broken, s h o r t t y p i n g jobs f o r Manpower or another agency, t e a c h i n g a r t to c h i l d r e n or doing f r e e l a n c e a r t . " "I had two jobs l a s t year, the f i r s t c a s u a l part time f o r the p u b l i c l i b r a r y , the second h a l f time f o r the s c h o o l board. C a t a l o g u i n g i s tedious but the people are t e r r i f i c . " 50. "I have two jobs. Nine to f i v e f o r o f f i c e a s s i s t a n c e and i n a s t o r e Thursday and F r i d a y evenings and a l l day Saturday and Sunday. I can't do t h i s f o r e v e r . One good paying job would pay as much as the two." "There was d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n my employment. A l s o i t was deadly d u l l , not e x c i t i n g , no h i g h l i g h t s . " Role C y c l i n g Problems "I stopped working i n 1 9 7 3 but s i n c e my husband r e t i r e d I have decided I w i l l have to go back to work. I t w i l l h e l p with expenses at home. I'm not sure but I t h i n k my husband should con-s i d e r p a r t time work." "I enjoyed my work but l e f t because of pregnancy." "I had to stop t e a c h i n g because we moved here from O n t a r i o when my husband changed jobs." "I q u i t my t e a c h i n g job l a s t February when I got married. I found out t h a t I am the type of person who needs to be working." Health Problems "My h e a l t h improved a f t e r I q u i t t e a c h i n g . " " I l l n e s s l e d to d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n employment." "I am now q u e s t i o n i n g my p r o f e s s i o n . A major i l l n e s s and three moves l a s t year have l e d to a new f u l l time job and a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s . " "A p r i v a t e s c h o o l i s not a good place to teach. I was not s i c k when I was t e a c h i n g i n the main system but have been s i c k ever s i n c e . " Management Problems "My place of employment i s s t u l t i f y i n g - a branch p l a n t of Toronto, but I am s t a y i n g there because I make a decent s a l a r y . " "In my job I am not out f o r advancement because the employer does not condone i n n o v a t i o n s . I c r e a t e my own s i t u a t i o n by t a k i n g l a t e r a l s r a t h e r than advancement." 51. "I enjoyed the work but d i d n ' t l i k e the boss so I q u i t . " "I l i k e the work i t s e l f , but not the c o n d i t i o n s of employment." "I q u i t my job a t the end of May. I had taken about as much k i c k i n g around as I c o u l d stand. The management d i d n ' t g i v e a damn. There was no c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n to workers and working con-d i t i o n s . " "The management l i s t e n s , to employees, i t arranged e x e r c i s e s and swimming f o r us. I now r a t e my chances f o r advancement as very good." C h i l d Care - 1 9 7 3 I n t e r a c t i o n w i t h c h i l d r e n c l e a r l y takes l e s s time as the youngest c h i l d grows o l d e r , (Table V I ) . I t i s a l s o a source of s a t i s f a c t i o n which i n c r e a s e s as the c h i l d r e n grow. TABLE VI HOURS PER WEEK WHICH WOMEN SPENT IN CHILD CARE BY AGE OP THE YOUNGEST CHILD Age of youngest Under 15-29 Over 30 T o t a l c h i l d 15 h r s . h r s . h r s . Under 7 1 3 5 9 7-13 3 11 0 14 14-20 5 2 1 8 9 16 6 31 o l d e r (Table V I I ) . S e v e r a l o l d e r women looked forward to spending time with g r a n d c h i l d r e n , but expressed r e s i s t a n c e to the i d e a of being baby s i t t e r s . 52. TABLE V I I WOMEN'S ENJOYMENT OF CHILD CARE BY AGE OF YOUNGEST CHILD Age of youngest c h i l d No response Not enjoyable Moderately enjoyable Very enjoyable T o t a l Under 7 0 0 6 3 9 7-13 1 0 5 8 14 14-20 0 0 3 5 8 1 0 14 16 31 Education - 1973 Education was a major a c t i v i t y i n 1973 f o r two of the younger women interviewed. Nine of the nineteen women who had no c h i l d r e n took c r e d i t courses i n 1973. S i x t e e n of the twenty-two women who had school age c h i l d r e n took non c r e d i t courses but none of the women i n t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n took c r e d i t courses. Education was a h i g h l y enjoyable a c t i v i t y (Table V I I I ) , regardless of whether there were c h i l d r e n or whether the courses were c r e d i t , non c r e d i t or reading f o r i n f o r m a t i o n . TABLE V I I I WOMEN'S ENJOYMENT OF EDUCATION BY AGE OF YOUNGEST CHILD Age of youngest c h i l d ": No response Not enjoyable Moderately enjoyable Very enjoyable T o t a l Under 7 1 1 3 4 9 7-13 2 0 5 7 14 14-20 1 1 2 4 8 No c h i l d 1"! 2 _6 10 12 5 4 16 25 50 53. V o l u n t e e r Community Work - 1973 Women whose youngest c h i l d was between seven and t h i r t e e n years of age were more l i k e l y t o be i n v o l v e d i n community work. T h i s was most o f t e n s e r v i c e work r e l a t e d t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n , f o r example h e l p i n g with Cubs and Brownies. A few younger women and a few o l d e r women found other types of v o l u n t e e r work and found these jobs more s a t i s f y i n g than the s e r v i c e type jobs. T h i r t y of the f i f t y women had no i n v o l v e -ment i n community v o l u n t e e r a c t i v i t y i n 1973. E x e r c i s e - 1973 E x e r c i s e was not a time consuming a c t i v i t y f o r any of the women i n 1973. Yoga was the favoured a c t i v i t y of seventeen of the f i f t y women. I t was u s u a l l y p r a c t i c e d f o r h a l f an hour every day. Some admitted to p r a c t i c i n g s p o r a d i c a l l y and others expressed t h e i r need to d i s c i p l i n e themselves. They decided to do t h i s because they f e l t so much b e t t e r a f t e r w a r d s . Seven women went r e g u l a r l y to keep f i t c l a s s e s and other forms of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y were r e g u l a r l y persued by even fewer women. In g e n e r a l a l l forms of a c t i v i t y were co n s i d e r e d moderately enjoyable and were o f t e n r e f e r r e d to i n terms of a means t o improved p h y s i c a l and fv,mental h e a l t h . C r e a t i v e A c t i v i t y - 1973 Younger women p r e f e r r e d sewing as a form of c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y w h i l e o l d e r women p r e f e r r e d more v a r i e d kinds of c r a f t s . S e v e r a l of the women expressed f r u s t r a t i o n . 54. "I don't have a good place t o do c r e a t i v e t h i n g s . I need t o be w i t h people." "I l i k e to do s t i t c h e r y and b a t i k . I t i s more i n s p i r i n g to do t h i s together." "My c r e a t i v e work i s s o l i t a r y but i n 1 9 7 3 I had a g i r l f r i e n d w i t h whom I used to share my a r t i s t i c concerns. She moved away and I have missed i t . " "I no l o n g e r share my c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y w i t h my female f r i e n d . I s t i l l have the f r i e n d but I do i t myself. I am f i n d i n g I need a d e a d l i n e f o r accomplishment. I cannot go on w i t h i t i f there i s no use f o r i t . " D e s p i t e these f e e l i n g s those who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y found i t h i g h l y e n j o y a b l e . Non Routine Events - 1 9 7 3 Non r o u t i n e events ranged from the c a r e f u l l y planned and plea s a n t experience of an unusual h o l i d a y t o the c r i s i s of unexpected severe i l l n e s s and death. Other changes in f a m i l y s i z e , whether they were the b i r t h s of c h i l d r e n , grown c h i l d r e n l e a v i n g home or the s e p a r a t i o n of husband and wife c o u l d be w e l l planned or c h a o t i c , pleasant or unpleasant but i n n e a r l y a l l cases r e q u i r e d a major r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s f o r the women i n v o l v e d . Any change i n the employment s i t u a -t i o n of any f a m i l y members a l s o r e q u i r e d r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the women's a c t i v i t i e s . Moving households was o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h other non r o u t i n e events and g e n e r a l l y c r e a t e d even more s t r e s s . 55. The most common non r o u t i n e event f o r those women whose youngest c h i l d was under f o u r t e e n years of age was a change i n f a m i l y s i z e . T h i s was g r e a t e s t between the ages of t h i r t y and t h i r t y - f o u r and was most f r e q u e n t l y marriage break up. The most common non r o u t i n e event f o r women whose youngest c h i l d was over f o u r t e e n was l e a v i n g employment. F o r those women with no c h i l d r e n both i l l n e s s and d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n employment were f r e q u e n t e v e n t s . These events w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the courses taken. The Women's Resources Centre - 1 9 7 4 From the previous year which, f o r most of these women f e a t u r e d an u n s a t i s f y i n g or i n s e c u r e homemaker r o l e and o f t e n an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y work r o l e too, the concept of b e t t e r l i f e p l a n n i n g o f f e r e d some hope of a more s a t i s f y i n g l i f e . The women most f r e q u e n t l y found t h e i r way to the Women's Resources Centre e a r l y i n 1 9 7 4 by r e a d i n g the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Continuing E d u c a t i o n Calendar (Table I X ) . However, t h i s was not an e f f e c t i v e way to reach those w i t h TABLE IX RESPONSE TO METHOD OF ADVERTISING BY WOMEN ACCORDING TO YEARS OF FORMAL EDUCATION E d u c a t i o n Newspaper Calendar F r i e n d s Other T o t a l (years) 12 or l e s s 2 0 1 3 6 13-14 3 8 3 4 18 15-16 5 3 3 3 14 17 and over 2 6 _3 1 12 12 27 10 11 50 56. Grade 12 or l e s s e d u c a t i o n . Newspaper a r t i c l e s about s p e c i f i c courses were v e r y e f f e c t i v e , as were;,.personal recommendations. Other ways of f i n d i n g the Women's Resources Centre were n o t i c e boards, p o s t e r s , f l y e r s and r e f e r r a l s from f a m i l y d o c t o r s , p s y c h i a t r i s t s and s o c i a l a g e n c i e s . Most of the women in t e r v i e w e d d i s c u s s e d t h e i r course with o t h e r women and almost a l l of these o t h e r women showed e i t h e r mild or more p o s i t i v e i n t e r e s t . Husbands more f r e q u e n t l y showed mixed r e a c t i o n s and one woman withdrew from a s i x week course a f t e r the f o u r t h week because of the u n a l t e r a b l e o p p o s i t i o n of her husband. The courses enabled n e a r l y h a l f of the women to make changes i n t h e i r f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n and i n r e s p e c t to t h e i r own s a t i s f a c t i o n by the time the i n t e r v i e w s took p l a c e . Only three s t i l l planned to make changes w i t h i n t h e i r f a m i l i e s / b u t seventeen had f u r t h e r plans f o r i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r own s a t i s f a c t i o n . Such plans i n c l u d e d going someplace they had not been b e f o r e , spending money on themselves i n s t e a d of always p u t t i n g other members of the f a m i l y f i r s t or doing something to change t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p p a t t e r n s . Most of the women had l i t t l e community involvement and n e a r l y h a l f had no plans to change i t . Plans i n t h i s area f e a t u r e d l e s s involvement i n c h i l d c e n t r e d a c t i v i t i e s and moving i n t o community p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . 57. Four f i f t h s of the women i n t e r v i e w e d had e i t h e r made or were planning changes i n t h e i r e d u c a t i o n . These women were a l s o planning or had taken a c t i o n on employment. Almost a l l of those who were not planni n g to take f u r t h e r a c t i o n i n educat i o n and employment were a l r e a d y i n v o l v e d i n f u l l time employment. E i g h t of the women f e l t they had taken r i s k s i n t h e i r economic r e l a t i o n s h i p s , seven, i n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and three i n f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Twelve of these s i t u a t i o n s had a p o s i t i v e outcome and s i x had a n e u t r a l outcome. In no case was a negative r e s u l t r e p o r t e d . C o u n s e l l i n g Seven of the e i g h t women had employment i n 1973, F i v e of the e i g h t had c h i l d r e n and f o u r of them had taken c r e d i t courses i n 1973. Three had experienced a change i n f a m i l y s i z e , one had moved, one had a severe i l l n e s s and two had d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n t h e i r employment i n 1973. Money was the most urgent of t h e i r m u l t i p l e problems. One woman came f o r s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n on job opportu-n i t i e s and edu c a t i o n f o r those jobs. She found nothing s a t i s f a c t o r y t h a t would f i t w i t h her f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s * Anotherwoman s a i d the i n t e r v i e w had made no d i f f e r e n c e t o her l i f e except that she was encouraged to request i n f o r m a t i o n about advancement where she was working and i s now s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h i s i s p o s s i b l e . She expected more i n f o r m a t i o n about c a r e e r s , more concrete f a c t s and f i g u r e s about where the need 5 8 . was f o r employment and a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of avenues to be fo l l o w e d to f i l l those needs. She would now go to Manpower f o r t h a t type of c o u n s e l l i n g . A t h i r d woman who was d i s s a t i s f i e d with her job was motivated to apply f o r a t r a n s f e r i n the same o r g a n i z a t i o n . W i t h i n a week she was t r a n s f e r r e d to a job where she could work independently, where she had "no incompetent boss", A f o u r t h woman became r e c o n c i l e d t o her job f o r now, but i s pre p a r i n g to work on a f r e e l a n c e b a s i s . The f i f t h woman decided she was s e a r c h i n g f o r a job i n the wrongcway. She changed her approach and found a s a t i s f a c t o r y job. The s i x t h woman has made s e v e r a l changes i n her f a m i l y , has r e t a i n e d her employment but i s making p r e p a r a t i o n s to e s t a b l i s h her own b u s i n e s s . The seventh was, a t the time of the in t e r v i e w , s t i l l d e b a t i n g making changes i n her own business or t a k i n g t r a i n i n g t h a t would f i t her f o r an employment s i t u a t i o n t h a t was compatible w i t h f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . There was no c l e a r way of p r e d i c t i n g which would be b e t t e r . The l a s t woman d i d not f i n d the c o u n s e l l i n g h e l p f u l , except as encouragement t o f o l l o w the e d u c a t i o n a l l i n e t h a t she had al r e a d y i n v e s t i g a t e d . E x p e c t a t i o n s of women coming f o r c o u n s e l l i n g were high. They f e l t f r u s t r a t e d when they were not t o l d what to do or even o f f e r e d c l e a r and s a t i s f a c t o r y c h o i c e s . One commented "I have been used to being t o l d what I want -when have I had time to be i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i n g s o u t s i d e the home I " 59. Career P l a n n i n g Nine of the t e n women i n t e r v i e w e d from t h i s course had been i n v o l v e d i n e i t h e r p a r t time employment, f u l l time but part year employment or an u n p r o f i t a b l e form of s e l f employment. None had held a r e g u l a r f u l l time job f o r a l l of 1973. A l l except one p a r t i c i p a t e d r e g u l a r l y i n yoga, te n n i s or keep f i t c l a s s e s . One had moved, one had experienced a change i n f a m i l y s i z e and three had taken unusual h o l i d a y s i n 1973. As a r e s u l t of t a k i n g the c a r e e r p l a n n i n g course f o u r p a r t i c i p a n t s had made changes i n t h e i r employment s i t u a t i o n , three more had made plans to change t h e i r employment and the other three had no plans i n t h i s area when the i n t e r v i e w s took p l a c e . One had taken steps to implement an e d u c a t i o n a l program and s i x more had plans i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . Four had made changes i n t h e i r community involvement and f o u r i n t h e i r family r e l a t i o n s h i p s as a r e s u l t of the course. S e v e r a l women mentioned t h a t the " A r t of Emotional S e l f Defense" paper was the h i g h l i g h t of the course. T h i s o u t l i n e s a form of a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g which enables women to handle "put-downs" f i r m l y . An e x e r c i s e l i s t i n g types of work, s k i l l s needed and n a t u r a l a b i l i t y was h e l p f u l t o one woman i n i d e n t i f y i n g her t r a i n i n g needs. Most of these women were d i s a p p o i n t e d t h a t the course d i d not c o n s i s t of an enumeration of the jobs a v a i l a b l e and the routes to o b t a i n -i n g these jobs, A l e c t u r e g i v e n a t the Women's Resources 60. Centre by a Manpower o f f i c i a l a t t h i s time was so negative i n t h i s regard that c r e a t i v e job s e a r c h techniques and job c r e a t i o n ideas were pursued and many of the women began to look a t c a r e e r p l a n n i n g i n very long term ways. "My husband was very negative to my t a k i n g the course, but I needed to be someone other than wife and mother, I needed to f i n d out where I am going, so I took the f u l l c o u rse. The course made me aware of many t h i n g s , but d i d not show me any way to cope w i t h these t h i n g s . My husband now e v e n t u a l l y wants me to go back to work. I have decided to enjoy the c h i l d r e n now, and to b r i n g them up to be as independent as p o s s i b l e i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r going back to work. Meantime I would l i k e to do v o l u n t e e r work w i t h the women's c e n t r e . " The d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s course i n the C o n t i n u i n g Educa-t i o n Calendar s a i d t h a t i t was "Designed f o r women who want to p l a n a c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n . T h i s course w i l l a i d p a r t i c i p a n t s i n examining t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s to i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c marketable s k i l l s . Then to t r a n s l a t e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o concrete o b j e c t i v e s w i t h s t r a t e g i e s to o b t a i n them. Resumes, a p p l i c a t i o n s , i n t e r v i e w s and ways of improving s e l f image w i l l be demonstrated and p r a c t i c e d . " The d e s c r i p t i o n promised so much t h a t e x p e c t a t i o n s were un-r e a l i s t i c a l l y h i g h . However n e a r l y a l l the p a r t i c i p a n t s had something p o s i t i v e t o say about some aspect of the course. Speak Up The s i x women in t e r v i e w e d from t h i s course were e i t h e r s e l f employed or not employed i n 1973. Three had changes i n f a m i l y s i z e , one had a severe i l l n e s s and another had a severe i l l n e s s i n the f a m i l y i n 1973. Most were able to make some 61. change i n a l l areas of t h e i r l i f e and three even took s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l r i s k s w i t h p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s . The course d e s c r i p t i o n i n the Co n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n Calendar s t a t e d " T a l k i n g i s c o r r e l a t e d with i n f l u e n c e . Are you able t o p r o j e c t y o u r s e l f e f f e c t i v e l y ? T h i s program w i l l h e l p women to - become more e f f e c t i v e speakers - hold t h e i r own i n d i s c u s s i o n s and meetings - have more impact c o n v e r s a t i o n a l l y . The emphasis w i l l be on improving v o c a l image through e x e r c i s e s i n v o i c e p r o j e c t i o n and a r t i c u l a t i o n . Techniques used w i l l i n c l u d e b r e a t h i n g e x e r c i s e s , i m p r o v i s a t i o n s and use of the tape r e c o r d e r . " One of the women found she had much more s e l f confidence than the r e s t of the group and t r a n s f e r r e d to the Developing P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l c l a s s . The other f i v e were very s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r i n c r e a s e d c a p a c i t y to express themselves. One f e l t s t r o n g l y t h a t the opening l e c t u r e was "too women's l i b " . T h i s course a t t r a c t e d women who spoke very s o f t l y . A f i r m e r stance, deeper b r e a t h i n g , group involvement i n comments and extemporaneous speeches and encouragement d i d a gre a t d e a l to promote i n c r e a s e d s e l f c o n f i d e n c e . Managing Tensions Through Body Awareness The women who came to t h i s course spent e i t h e r a very s m a l l or a very l a r g e amount of time on housework. A l l had taken e d u c a t i o n a l courses the year b e f o r e . Two h e l d f u l l time jobs the year b e f o r e , two spent a gre a t d e a l of time w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n , two had moved the year b e f o r e and two 6 2 . had had major i l l n e s s e s . The beha v i o r d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s was e i t h e r calm and serene or q u i t e a g i t a t e d . The c o n t r a s t s w i t h i n t h i s s m a l l group were very n o t i c e a b l e . The course d e s c r i p t i o n e x p l a i n e d "There i s a new awareness of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between mental and p h y s i c a l w e l l b e i n g . Many new methods aimed a t improving the i n t e g r a t i o n of mind and body are now a v a i l a b l e . T h i s s e r i e s w i l l i n t r o d u c e some of these methods, t o in c r e a s e understanding of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between body tensions and f e e l i n g s t a t e and w i l l demonstrate the causes and e f f e c t s of t e n s i o n . " The comments on the course v a r i e d from very good to s u p e r l a -t i v e . The f i r s t of two l o c a t i o n s where the course was h e l d was c r i t i c i z e d . I t was c o l d , uncomfortable and next t o a men's convention. Developing P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l T h i s course had p r e v i o u s l y been g i v e n i n the daytime and was h e l d i n the evening to see i f i t would a t t r a c t working women. One of the e l e v e n women in t e r v i e w e d worked f u l l time f o r a l l of the previous year, three more had worked f u l l time f o r p a r t of the previous year, three more had worked p a r t time and f o u r were not employed i n 1973. S i x had taken c r e d i t courses and two had taken n o n - c r e d i t courses. The women who came to t h i s course most f r e q u e n t l y r a t e d t h e i r enjoyment of t h e i r employment s i t u a t i o n and t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s h i g h l y but there were very d e f i n i t e i d e n t i f i a b l e i n t e r p e r s o n a l problems. Three had changes i n t h e i r f a m i l y s i z e i n 1973 and 63. two had had severe i l l n e s s e s . Many of these women made changes i n t h e i r f a m i l y and community s i t u a t i o n s . Most were pla n n i n g changes i n t h e i r e d u c a t i o n and employment. The d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s course i n the C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n Calendar s a i d "A workshop f o r women who are seeking a c l e a r e r sense of s e l f h o o d and more energy f o r c r e a t i v e and experimental ventures whether i n human r e l a t i o n s or i n work. Through s m a l l group work and s e l e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l have the o p p o r t u n i t y to explore new and more rewarding ways of e x p e r i e n c i n g themselves to g a i n the confidence f o r s e l f d i r e c t e d change. The focus i s on g e t t i n g i n touch w i t h o n e s e l f toward a g r e a t e r a l i v e n e s s and f u l f i l l m e n t of p o t e n t i a l i n the d i r e c t i o n of s e l f chosen g o a l s . " A t y p i c a l comment was "The communication s k i l l s were e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l to me. I found I was a poor l i s t e n e r and d i d not g i v e feedback. I look a t f r i e n d s h i p s i n a whole new l i g h t . I now know what p a r t of the f a u l t f o r poor communication belongs to me and what p a r t to the o t h e r person. I was g l a d I was pressured i n t o the a c t i v i t i e s to f i n d out where we were going. I d i d not l i k e doing i t . " T h i s course was f o l l o w e d by a second course l a t e r i n the year which f e a t u r e d l o n g e r s e s s i o n s , f o u r s e s s i o n s of f i v e hours each. En c o u n t e r i n g Y o u r s e l f T h i s i s a t h i r d course i n the Developing P e r s o n a l P o t e n t i a l s e r i e s . E i g h t of the nine women i n t e r v i e w e d had been to the previous daytime courses. F i v e had e i t h e r f u l l time-p a r t year employment or part time employment i n 1 9 7 3 . They r a t e d t h e i r enjoyment of t h i s employment from very high to 64. very low. T h e i r previous non c r e d i t courses were rated as h i g h l y enjoyable. The non r o u t i n e events r e p o r t e d by t h i s group were g e n e r a l l y enjoyable, f o u r unusual h o l i d a y s , the a r r i v a l of a baby, the marriage of a daughter and only one marriage breakup. E i t h e r the previous courses helped to produce b e t t e r h e a l t h and g r e a t e r s t a b i l i t y or only those who were more s t a b l e or healthy managed t o come to a l l three courses. These women were s t i l l most e f f e c t i v e i n making changes w i t h i n t h e i r f a m i l y . They d i s p l a y e d e i t h e r g r e a t e r need or g r e a t e r w i l l i n g n e s s to take r i s k s i n the f a m i l y but changes i n e d u c a t i o n and employment were s t i l l l a r g e l y i n the planning stage. The d e s c r i p t i o n of the course s t a t e s "Both c o g n i t i v e and e x p e r i e n t a l l e a r n i n g w i l l be d i r e c t e d toward i n c r e a s i n g the a b i l i t y to d e a l w i t h ' d i f f i c u l t ' s i t u a t i o n s . Whereas e a r l i e r workshops have d e a l t w i t h g e t t i n g i n touch w i t h one's s e l f , t h i s workshop w i l l move toward awareness of the emotional sources from which responses a r i s e . The g o a l i s understanding and acceptance of one's s e l f and others through commitment to what Jung has r e f e r r e d to as the Journey Toward the S e l f . " Comments on the course i n c l u d e d "The more p o s i t i v e s e l f image i s a b l e s s e d r e l i e f , " "I now f e e l more p o s i t i v e about having a c h i l d . " "I am no l o n g e r t r y i n g to be supermom." "I f e e l I have more independence and a s s e r t i v e n e s s , more d e s i r e to t a l k and to l i s t e n , more honesty and openness." Future D i r e c t i o n s Of these f i f t y women,seventeen requested more courses d i r e c t e d to improving i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s , twenty one 65. requested more courses d i r e c t e d towards p r o v i d i n g more informa-t i o n , s i x requested more courses d i r e c t e d towards improving p h y s i c a l s k i l l s and f i v e requested support s e r v i c e s such as c h i l d care, more i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g , and more p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t i n g . These requests were mainly d i r e c t e d towards improving the employment s i t u a t i o n and i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r own s e l f s a t i s -f a c t i o n . Two t h i r d s of the women b e l i e v e d t h a t the next twenty years would b r i n g g r e a t e r r o l e s h a r i n g . "More and more women w i l l be able to do jobs t h a t j u s t men do now. They w i l l a l s o be l i s t e n e d t o . " One t h i r d expressed mixed or ne g a t i v e r e a c t i o n s . "There w i l l be j u s t d r i b s and drabs of change. Unless something unusual happens there w i l l be no r e a l change. There are a l o t of economic changes to come and women's r i g h t s w i l l be f i r s t to go. When women's centres are a t t a c k e d and burned then we w i l l get somewhere. As long as i t i s a laug h i n g matter t h e r e i s no r e a l change," Two t h i r d s of the women expressed a s t r o n g d e s i r e f o r pe r s o n a l growth while one t h i r d expressed the d e s i r e to a v o i d c o n f l i c t . The a s p i r a t i o n s which these women had f o r themselves d i d not u n i f o r m l y c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e i r views of f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s i n g e n e r a l . One comment was "There i s so much p u b l i c i t y on women's employment and consciousness r a i s i n g t h a t it-.can't be anything but more openness and cho i c e s of r o l e s . I want to enjoy my c h i l d r e n and decorate our new home. When my youngest c h i l d i s i n Grade 1 I may open a boutique or teach." The i d e a of choice to f i t with the changing needs of t h e i r c h i l d r e n i s important to these women. 66. Summary The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study i n d i c a t e t h a t these women by being more a s s e r t i v e , by comparing experiences, by l i s t e n i n g c a r e f u l l y , by as k i n g f o r feedback and by se a r c h i n g f o r common meanings can r e s t o r e a g r e a t e r measure of p r e d i c t a -b i l i t y to t h e i r l i v e s . They can more a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e problem areas. The r e s u l t of t h i s i s a r e l e a s e from a n x i e t y , more energy to s t a r t the problem s o l v i n g process and, as a r e s u l t , a b e t t e r s e l f image. The s e l f image of some of these women was so poor and the a n x i e t y was so grea t t h a t t h i s was o b v i o u s l y r e l a t e d to major h e a l t h problems. R e l a x a t i o n e x e r c i s e s and i n c r e a s e d p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y produced marked improvements i n s e l f image and c a p a c i t y t o d i r e c t t h e i r l i v e s i n more s a t i s f a c t o r y d i r e c t i o n s . One woman even commented t h a t she took the course f o r d i s c i p l i n e and was very s a t i s f i e d with the o p p o s i t e . There were i n d i c a t i o n s of the u s e f u l n e s s of r e l a x a t i o n e x e r c i s e s even amongst the most s e l f assured women i n the group and although not everyone f o l l o w e d i t up there, was c o n s i d e r a b l e awareness t h a t more p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y would r e s u l t i n b e t t e r h e a l t h . The f i n d i n g s a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t between the ages of t h i r t y and t h i r t y - f o u r women are under the maximum pressure to adopt two r o l e s , c h i l d b e a r i n g and c h i l d c a r e , and an economic c a r e e r r o l e , under circumstances t h a t g e n e r a l l y make 67. the two mutually e x c l u s i v e . The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t between the ages of f o r t y and f o r t y - f o u r women are under maximum pressure to adopt a c a r e e r l i f e s tyle, b e f o r e i t i s too l a t e , but are without the knowledge or means of doing t h i s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . 68. Chapter 5 Summary and Conclusions Summary T h i s study suggests t h a t women, by coming to g e t h e r i n su p p o r t i v e groups to express and analyze t h e i r f e e l i n g s , can i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c b ehaviors t h a t cause p a i n and e r o s i o n of t h e i r h e a l t h . The experience of t h i s d i s c o v e r y produces excitement and energy. I f the e x p r e s s i o n of these causes or the a d o p t i o n of new behaviors i s met wit h negative s a n c t i o n s from those i n e x i s t i n g p a i r e d r o l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s (e.g. husband-wi f e , employer-employee, mo t h e r - c h i l d , f r i e n d - f r i e n d , c h a i r p e r s o n -member) i t leads t o f r u s t r a t i o n . The person i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s r e c e i v i n g a double or a m u l t i p l e message. I f there are no c o n f l i c t i n g messages the person can u t i l i z e the excitement and energy to adopt changes t h a t are b e n e f i c i a l to h e a l t h . The women i n t h i s study have f i r s t experienced a process analogous to medical d i a g n o s i s but f o c u s i n g on those symptoms which, a c c o r d i n g to Sel y e (1956:14-15), do c t o r s are t r a i n e d to ignore because they are a common p r e c o n d i t i o n of many forms of i l l n e s s r a t h e r than an i n d i c a t i o n of a s p e c i f i c i l l n e s s . Secondly these women have had to make a s e r i e s of s h o r t term d e c i s i o n s as to t h e i r method of adopting a h e a l t h i e r l i f e s t y l e . The importance t h a t the women i n t h i s study a t t a c h e d to i n t e g r a t i n g mind and body suggests a c u l t u r e which produces 69. people c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i v i d e d s e l v e s . T h i s might be i l l u s t r a t e d as an a c t i o n or body s e t and a t h i n k i n g or mind set (P.igure 2) which r e s u l t s i n a divergence of "I say" from "I do" F i g u r e 2 The A c t i o n s of the D i v i d e d S e l f The Body Set "I feel', "I doV The Mind Set "I t h i n k " I want" "I p e r c e i v e " "I say" T h i s divergence r e s u l t s i n double messages and consequent a n x i e t y r e s u l t i n g from l a c k of p r e d i c t a b i l i t y . The process of s a y i n g what i s f e l t j o i n s up these two c y c l e s and produces awareness of t h i s d i v e r g e n c e . A diagram of the j o i n e d c y c l e s would look very much l i k e the "awareness wheel" ( F i g u r e 3) p i c t u r e d by O ' N e i l l and O ' N e i l l (1974:151) F i g u r e 3 The Awareness Wheel E x p r e s s i n g "I say" Sensing "I see" I n t e r p r e t a t i o n "I t h i n k " Intending "I want" F e e l i n g "I f e e l " 70. When the women i n t h i s study became comfortable w i t h the experience of t h i s process they l e a r n e d f i r s t about t h e i r own needs. A few independent women adopted h e a l t h i e r l i f e s t y l e s immediately. However, f o r the gre a t m a j o r i t y of the women i n t h i s study to adopt a changed l i f e s t y l e r e q u i r e d e i t h e r v a l i d a t i o n of changes i n beha v i o r from those i n p a i r e d r o l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o r a br e a k i n g of those r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The ways i n which the women i n t h i s study r e s o l v e d the many problems i n t h e i r v a r i o u s r e c i p r o c a l r o l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s was governed by the p e r c e i v e d i n t e r a c t i o n of s e v e r a l f a c t o r s , 1. The need t o r e t a i n a r o l e which provides f o r the n e c e s s i t i e s of l i f e ; e.g. housewife, employed worker, self-employed worker or welfar e r e c i p i e n t . 2. The degree of urgency i n v o l v e d i n d e a l i n g w i t h the e r o s i o n of p h y s i c a l and mental h e a l t h . 3. The r e c o g n i t i o n of the time f a c t o r i n v o l v e d i n the changing of a t t i t u d e s . 4. T h e i r s k i l l i n e f f e c t i n g a t t i t u d e change. 5. T h e i r a b i l i t y to move i n t o more v a r i e d forms of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y to slow down the e r o s i o n of p h y s i c a l and mental h e a l t h . T h i s study i n d i c a t e s t h a t women must d e a l w i t h s e v e r a l r e c i p r o c a l r o l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . The data i n d i c a t e t h a t i t was e a s i e s t t o make changes i n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . F a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s and employment r e l a t i o n -s h i p s were more d i f f i c u l t to change. The most d i f f i c u l t 71. changes were i n p o l i t i c a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l r u l e s and p r a c t i c e s , A few i l l u s t r a t i o n s w i l l c l a r i f y the process: A: One woman was s e l f employed i n p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h her husband. They had no c h i l d r e n . She f i n d s t h i s very s a t i s f a c t o r y . She had j u s t l e f t a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n hut planned to r e t u r n to the o r g a n i z a t i o n on a very d i f f e r e n t b a s i s i n a few y e a r s . I n one of the c l a s s e s she was asked to draw a p i c t u r e of f r u s t r a t i o n . She drew a p i c t u r e of two of her husband's r e l a t i v e s . As a r e s u l t she found two new f r i e n d s . Both she and her husband enjoy the new f r i e n d s but her husband does not understand why they no lon g e r see h i s r e l a t i v e s . B: Another woman without c h i l d r e n had j u s t d i v o r c e d her husband. She would remarry him i f he d i d not r e q u i r e her to be s u b s e r v i e n t . I n her work s i t u a t i o n she seeks the most independent jobs a v a i l a b l e r a t h e r than those w i t h higher pay. She maintains a vigorous e x e r c i s e program which, u n l i k e a l l the other women, she s t a r t e d i n her pre-teen y e a r s . She moves from f r i e n d s h i p t o f r i e n d s h i p , always i n s i s t i n g on r e s p e c t f o r her-s e l f and p o s i t i v e r einforcement f o r o t h e r women. She has d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y t r a i n i n g courses. She has not decided as to whether she w i l l have c h i l d r e n but has decided t h a t the d e f i n i t i o n of happiness changes from time to time. G: A young s i n g l e woman found t h a t whenever she t r i e d t o p r a c t i c e her r e c e n t l y achieved p r o f e s s i o n she became i l l . Changing to a d i f f e r e n t f u l l time job, changing the f a m i l y she l i v e s w i t h and engaging i n a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s has s o l v e d her h e a l t h problem. D: Being robbed a t k n i f e p o i n t by a woman i n a crowded e a s t e r n c i t y p r e c i p i t a t e d many changes i n l i f e s t y l e f o r one young mother. She moved to Vancouver and separated from her husband, although he a l s o came to Vancouver. She found t h a t f o r each meaningful t h i n g she d i d she was r e j e c t e d by her husband. She a l s o found t h i s w i t h employers but could get around i t with employers by reason-i n g without d i s a s t r o u s consequences. She found 72. a somewhat l e s s than s a t i s f a c t o r y job which r e q u i r e d her to be away from time to time but took i t because she could not bear to be f i n a n c i a l l y dependent on her husband. She found a s a t i s f a c t o r y housekeeper and f e e l s she has arranged a b e t t e r l i f e f o r her daughters. She was, a t the time of the i n t e r v i e w , t a k i n g steps t o e s t a b l i s h her own s e l f employment but t h i s had been delayed by two unfortunate a c c i d e n t s . She a l s o planned to j o i n a jazz dancing or square dancing group. E. Another mother of three p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n had separated from her husband and l i v e s on we l f a r e supplemented by Vancouver O p p o r t u n i t i e s Program work. Her comment i n re g a r d to her husband was t h a t he thought women's l i b e r a t i o n -meant being w i l l i n g t o accept abuse. She had moved f i v e times i n the preceding year and had f i n a l l y found housing w i t h adequate play a r e a f o r her c h i l d r e n . She f e e l s she has to work through a l o t of other t h i n g s before moving on. She plans t o j o i n a women's h e a l t h group, to be i n v o l v e d much more wit h s e l f e x p r e s s i o n through dance, drama, a r t and j o u r n a l w r i t i n g . She c o n s i d e r s e d u c a t i o n a l systems u n u s e f u l and i r r e l e v a n t now. F. One w e l l educated, h a p p i l y married woman whose youngest c h i l d i s f o u r t e e n has decided not to make any changes i n her f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n o r to move i n t o an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y work r o l e . She continues t o look f o r a s a t i s f a c t o r y upgrading f o r her degree i n economics. At l a s t c o n t a c t she had found such a course but was e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t y i n be i n g admitted t o the course d e s p i t e having a l l the s t a t e d p r e r e q u i s i t e s . She maintains an a c t i v e e x e r c i s e program and i s i n v o l v e d i n a s s i s t i n g women i n the community. She would l i k e to get i n v o l v e d i n the next e l e c t i o n . -These and other t o t a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t women, i n order to mai n t a i n t h e i r h e a l t h as they seek a l i f e s t y l e more b r o a d l y based i n the community r e q u i r e a high degree of awareness of e x i s t i n g s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s and i n s t i t u t i o n a l r u l e s , a h i g h degree of awareness of the needs of t h e i r bodies, v i g o r o u s p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y t o cope w i t h the i n e v i t a b l e c o n f l i c t s , 73. h i g h l y developed communication and p e r s u a s i o n s k i l l s as w e l l as enormous amounts of time and money to c a r r y on t h i s process. Methodology The use of grounded theory enabled t h i s study t o i d e n t i f y and explore a broader spectrum of the f a c t o r s which a f f e c t women as they change l i f e s t y l e s . I t provided a methodology which d i d not a u t o m a t i c a l l y exclude a l l d a t a except t h a t which the r e s e a r c h e r needed to c o n f i r m a previous assumption. The use of the open-ended probing i n t e r v i e w allows an ambivalent approach to the s e l e c t i o n of data and i s thus l e s s l i k e l y t o exclude and d i s t o r t . I t a l s o enables the r e s e a r c h e r to i d e n t i f y previous r e s e a r c h which i s r e l e v a n t t o s p e c i f i c r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s and to put t h i s t o g e t h e r l a t e r i n a c r e a t i v e way. F o l l o w i n g one case through t h i s process i l l u s t r a t e s how t h i s method works. In a t y p i c a l r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t would be extremely unusual to ask i f a p a r t i c i p a n t i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n had been i n a p s y c h i a t r i c h o s p i t a l r e c e n t l y . I n a r e l a x e d c o n v e r s a t i o n a l type i n t e r v i e w i n t h i s study one woman wit h a hearing problem d e s c r i b e d the two weeks she had spent i n a p s y c h i a t r i c ward near the end of 1973. There i t was suggested t h a t she become more independent and not spend so much time with her f a m i l y , t h a t she t r y v o l u n t e e r work or c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s and t h a t she should not 74. always put h e r s e l f l a s t . She chose coming to c l a s s e s a t the Women's Resources Centre. L e a r n i n g more about communication enabled her to compensate f o r her hea r i n g l o s s . The d i s -c ussions w i t h other women gave her a g r e a t e r sense of the value of her own c o n s i d e r a b l e t a l e n t s and she no lon g e r f e l t threatened by her husband's o b v i o u s l y b e t t e r a t h l e t i c a b i l i t i e s and h i s g r e a t e r knowledge i n some f i e l d s . She stopped church work, scouts and guides as not s u i t a b l e to her needs. She was very e n t h u s i a s t i c over her d i s c o v e r y of yoga and was p r a c t i c i n g t h i s r e g u l a r l y . She was even t a k i n g archery and t e n n i s l e s s o n s , areas she avoided b e f o r e because she would be unfavourably compared to her husband. She now a l s o shares a herb gardening p r o j e c t w i t h her husband. She s t i l l f e e l s her he a r i n g handicap precludes paid employment. She would l i k e t o take a l e t t e r i n g course and other non c r e d i t courses a f t e r t h a t . She no lo n g e r reads f i c t i o n and she i s now c o n s i d e r i n g community p o l i t i c s . The boundaries of t h i s woman's a c t i v i t i e s are beingcexpanded as she communicates and explores beyond the boundaries of her house and church. The r e s u l t i s t h a t she i s now able to l i v e i n g r e a t e r harmony wi t h h e r s e l f and her f a m i l y . The above case h i s t o r y reminded the r e s e a r c h e r of a study of couples i n an upper middle c l a s s p a r i s h i n Vancouver i n which Hodgkinson (1973:61) found t h a t on a t e s t of moral judgement there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between men 75. and women but t h a t women who worked o u t s i d e the home scored higher than f u l l - t i m e housewives. P u t t i n g t o g e t h e r the two sets of i n f o r m a t i o n suggested to the r e s e a r c h e r t h a t communication beyond the f a m i l y i s an important f a c t o r i n dev e l o p i n g good d e c i s i o n making c a p a b i l i t i e s . Repeating the open ended probing i n t e r v i e w f i f t y times suggests t h a t making l i f e p l a n n i n g p o s s i b l e has become the temporary g o a l f o r many of the women i n t e r v i e w e d . I t a l s o suggests t h a t many of these women had s o l v e d f a m i l y and h e a l t h problems and f e l t t h a t the next step i n v o l v e d p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to ma i n t a i n i n g t h e i r newly achieved f a m i l y p a t t e r n s and to a c h i e v i n g new patte r n s i n edu c a t i o n and employment. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r A d u l t Educators I f women are t o devote a g r e a t e r p a r t of t h e i r l i v e s to a community o r i e n t e d l i f e s t y l e and i f a d u l t educators are to be of a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s process, then a d u l t educators need to take an a c t i v e p a r t i n extending and adapting the s e r v i c e s and the types of programs o f f e r e d by the Women's Resources Centre to other parts of the community and to other communities where there are no comparable s e r v i c e s and programs. I f women are to move on to assuming c a r e e r o r i e n t e d l i f e s t y l e s and i f a d u l t educators are to be of a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s process then a d u l t educators need to take an a c t i v e 76. part i n i n t e g r a t i n g l i f e p l a n n i n g programs i n t o v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n such a manner t h a t the t o t a l e d u c a t i o n a l package does not undermine p r e v i o u s l y achieved adjustments i n h e a l t h and f a m i l y areas and continues to achieve a smooth adjustment i n the t o t a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n . Suggestions f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h and implementation are 1. To encourage h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s to do f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h t o d i s c o v e r p a t t e r n s of work, r e c r e a t i o n and r e l a x a t i o n which c o n t r i b u t e most to p h y s i c a l and mental h e a l t h f o r the i n d i v i d u a l and the f a m i l y and to u t i l i z e these f i n d i n g s i n d e v e l o p i n g programs. 2. To encourage a d u l t educators to do r e s e a r c h on the optimum ways of i n t e g r a t i n g awareness and communica-t i o n programs w i t h v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . Questions asked c o u l d i n c l u d e whether i t i s b e t t e r to have the awareness and communication programs a l l b e f o r e the v o c a t i o n a l programs or can some be u s e f u l l y i n c l u d e d i n v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g ? Is i t more u s e f u l to have a l l awareness and communication programs i n "women only" groups or i s there a time i n the develop-ment of these programs where i t i s u s e f u l to i n c l u d e both sexes? 3. To encourage a d u l t educators to do f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on the time r e q u i r e d f o r a t t i t u d e change. I f r e t r a i n i n g 77. schemes which r e q u i r e a change i n l i f e s t y l e are r e s t r i c t e d to a s h o r t e r time than the minimum f o r a t t i t u d e change they may have a b u i l t - i n f a i l u r e r a t e . There i s some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t Manpower r e t r a i n i n g schemes f o r women, as p r e s e n t l y s t r u c t u r e d , may f a l l i n t o t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . To r e s t r u c t u r e t r a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n s f o r women to a h a l f time f o r twice as long schedule. T h i s would allow women time to u t i l i z e newly a c q u i r e d awareness and communication s k i l l s to r e s t r u c t u r e t h e i r t o t a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n and to i n v o l v e themselves i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y to h e l p cope with the i n e v i t a b l e s t r e s s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s r e s t r u c t u r i n g . The p r o v i n c i a l Department of Labour may have overlooked or r e j e c t e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of u s i n g t h i s s t r u c t u r e i n v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g courses because they have assumed an i n f l e x i b i l i t y i n Manpower funding f o r these courses which may not, i n f a c t , e x i s t . To arrange a p p r o p r i a t e f a c i l i t i e s and schedules f o r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y f o r women. E d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and businesses f r e q u e n t l y have done t h i s f o r men but have seldom co n s i d e r e d i t f o r women. To communicate with government on problems r e l a t e d to t r a i n i n g courses t h a t they may not be aware o f . F o r example, i f women on we l f a r e are to be encouraged to take v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , there needs to be awareness 78. t h a t women w i l l not be l i k e l y to move from welf a r e where h e a l t h insurance i s provided t o Manpower t r a i n i n g allowances where there i s no h e a l t h insurance and r i s k not being a b l e to get necessary s e r v i c e s . A d u l t educators have been l a r g e l y i n d i f f e r e n t to the needs of a d u l t women who wish t o , or need t o , change l i f e s t y l e s . There i s no doubt t h a t t h i s i s the r e s u l t of comfortably i n g r a i n e d h a b i t s and a l a c k of awareness of the many ways i n which women areaexcluded from the mainstream of s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g . G r e a t e r g o o d w i l l on the p a r t of a d u l t educators toward women who j o i n t h e i r ranks and toward the changes they make would do much t o s o l v e the problems. 79. BIBLIOGRAPHY Barnard, Chester I,P The F u n c t i o n s of the E x e c u t i v e . Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964, Berne, E r i c . What Do You Say A f t e r You Have S a i d H e l l o y New York: Grove Press Inc., 1972. B i r d , C a r o l i n e . Born Female. New York: David McKay Company Inc., 1968. . Women I n Business; The I n v i s i b l e Bar. P e r s o n n e l , New York: American Management Assn. Inc., May/June 1968 v o l . 45 no. 3. Black, Stephen. Mind and Body. London: W i l l i a m Kimber, 1969. Bloch, Herbert A. D i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , P e r s o n a l and S o c i a l . New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1957. Boulding, Kenneth. The Image. Ann Arbour: The U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan P r e s s , 1956. Bowlby, John. 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The Discovery of Grounded  Theory. Chicago: A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1967. Goode, W i l l i a m J . , The Family. P r e n t i c e H a l l Inc., Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey, 1964. Gorman, Warren. Body Image and Image of the B r a i n . S t . L o u i s : Warren H. Green Inc., 1969. Gordon, Thomas. Parent E f f e c t i v e n e s s T r a i n i n g . New York: Peter H. Wyden, 1970. Harre, R., The P r i n c i p l e s of S c i e n t i f i c T h i n k i n g . London: MacMillan and Co., 1970. H a s k e l l , M o l l y . From Reverence to Rape. New York: H o l t , Rinehart and Winston, 1973. Newer, V i v i a n H. and Gerhard Neubeck. A t t i t u d e of College Students Toward Employment Among Married Women, Personnel  and Guidance J o u r n a l , V o l . 42, No. 6, February 1964. Hiestand, Dale L. Changing Careers A f t e r T h i r t y F i v e . New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971. Hobbs, L i s a . Love and L i b e r a t i o n . New York: McGraw H i l l Book Co., 1970. Hodgkinson, A r t h u r Douglas. A Study of the Stages of Moral  Development of Married Couples i n an A n g l i c a n P a r i s h . Master's Thesis, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973. 81. Hoffman, L o i s Wladis. E a r l y Childhood Experiences and Women's Achievement Motives, J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Issues. Ann Arbour, Michigan, V o l . 28, No. 2, 1972. Horner, Matina, Toward An Understanding of Achievement Related C o n f l i c t s i n Women. Jo u r n a l of S o c i a l Issues. Ann Arbour, Michigan, V o l . 28, No. 2, 1972. Janeway, E l i z a b e t h . Man's World, Women's Pl a c e . New York: W i l l i a m Morrow and Co. Inc., 1971. Jourard, Sidney M. The Transparent S e l f . P r i n c e t o n , N.J.s D. Van Nostrand Co. Inc., 1964. K o e s t l e r , A r t h u r . The Act of C r e a t i o n . The MacMillan Co., New York, 1965. Komarovsky, M i r r a . C u l t u r a l C o n t r a d i c t i o n s and Sex Roles. American J o u r n a l of Soci o l o g y , November 1946. Laing, R.D. and A. Esterson. S a n i t y , Madness and the Family, Great B r i t a i n i Tavistock I n s t i t u t e of Human R e l a t i o n s , and P e l i c a n Books, 1970. L a s s w e l l , Harold D., The Changing Nature of Human Nature. American J o u r n a l of Psychoanalysis. V o l . 26, No. 2, 1966. Lindsay Hopkins V o c a t i o n a l School. The Magic C i t y Teaches  I t s A d u l t s . Miami, F l o r i d a , 1955-56. Lionberger, Herbert. Adoption of New Ideas and P r a c t i c e s , Ames, Iowa U n i v e r s i t y Press, i960. Luce, Gay Gaer, Body Time., New York*. Pantheon Books Inc., 1971. Maciver, A.M. Is There Mind Body I n t e r a c t i o n , Body and Mind, ed. G.N.A. Vesey, London, George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1 9 6 4 . Maslow, Abraham. M o t i v a t i o n and P e r s o n a l i t y . New York: Harper and Broth e r s , 1954. Menzel, Herbert and E l i h u K a t z . S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s and Innovation  i n the Medical P r o f e s s i o n : The Epidemiology of a New Drug. New York: Bureau of A p p l i e d S o c i a l Research! Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 195°. Mezirow, Jack D., A n a l y s i s and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of A.B.E. Experience i n the Inner C i t y : Toward a Theory of P r a c t i c e i n the P u b l i c Schools, Centre f o r Adult Education, Teachers Colle g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , New York, 1970. 82. Montrose, Harold W. Adult S p e c i a l Classes Students. The U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin, E d i t o r i a l and Communications S e r v i c e s , 1959. Myrdal, A l v a and V i o l a K l e i n , Women's Two Roles, Home and Work. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul L t d . , 1956, Olsen, Marvin. The Process of S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n . New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston, 1968. O ' N e i l l , Nena and George O ' N e i l l . S h i f t i n g Gears, New York: Avon Books, 1974. Perrow, Charles. O r g a n i z a t i o n a l A n a l y s i s ; A S o c i o l o g i c a l View. Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g Company Inc., 1970. P f e i f f e r , J . W i l l i a m and John E. Jones. A Handbook of St r u c t u r e d Experiences f o r Human R e l a t i o n s T r a i n i n g . Iowa C i t y : U n i v e r s i t y A s s ociates Press, 1972. P i k e , Robert N. Who Doesn't Get to U n i v e r s i t y and Why, A  Study of A c c e s s i b i l i t y to Higher Education i n Canada, Ottawa; 7?The Runge Press L t d . , 1970. Proverbs 3 1 : 1 3 - 2 7 . Rapoport, David. Emotions and Memory. New York: I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t i e s Press Inc., 1959. Rapoport, Rhona and I r v i n g Rosow. An Approach to Family R e l a t i o n s h i p s and Role Performance, Role Theory, ed. Bruce J . B i d d l e and Edwin J . Thomas, New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc., 1966. and R.N. Rapoport. A n a l y s i s and S t r a i n s Between the Dual Career Family and the Present S o c i a l Context, Human  R e l a t i o n s . V o l . 22, No. 1, Feb. 1969. Reusch, Jurgen. Disturbed Communication. W.W. Norton and Co., New York, 1957. Riesman, David, Nathan G l a z e r and Reuel Denney. The Lonely Crowd. New York: Doubleday and Co. Inc., 195"^  Samuels, Mike and Hal Bennett. The Well Body Book. Toronto: Random House of Canada L t d . , 1973. S c h a l l e r , L y l e E. P a r i s h P l a n n i n g. New York, Abingdon Press, 1971. 83. S c h i l l a n c e , Ralph. Theory and Research i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . Paper presented a t the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Research Conference, Montreal, C anada, A p r i l 4, 1973. Sch n e i r , Miriam (ed.) The United S t a t e s Senate Report on the H i s t o r y of Women, Feminism, The E s s e n t i a l H i s t o r i c a l  W r i t i n g s . New York: Random House, 1972. Schutz, W i l l i a m C. Joy. New York: Grove Press Inc., 1967. Seidenberg, Robert. Corporate Wives - Corporate C a s u a l t i e s . New York: Amacom, 1973. Sel y e , Hans. The S t r e s s of L i f e . New York: McGraw H i l l Book Co. Inc., 1956. Suniewick, Nancy. Beyond the F i n d i n g s : Some I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s f o r the Fut u r e , Women, A B i b l i o g r a p h y on t h e i r E d u c a t i o n  and Careers, ed. A s t i n , Helen S., Nancy Suniewick, Susan Dweck, Washington D.C.: Human S e r v i c e P r e s s , 1971. T o f f l e r , A l v i n . Future Shock. Random House, New York, 1970. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n Calendar, March 1974. Wheelis, Allen,, The M o r a l i s t . New York: B a s i c Books Inc., 1973. Whyte, W i l l i a m H., The O r g a n i z a t i o n Man. Simon and Schuster, 1956. Woodman, L o r i n g . P e r s p e c t i v e s i n S e l f Awareness. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. M e r r i l l P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1973. APPENDIX A Interview Guide Interviex* Code Age Years of e d u c a t i o n completed Number of c h i l d r e n a t home Ages of c h i l d r e n a t home In an average week i n 1973 approximately what percentage of your time d i d you spend on Housework Paid employment E d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y S p o r t s and e x e r c i s e C r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y V o l u n t e e r community work T a l k i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n Other 100^  1. Which of these a c t i v i t i e s do you enjoy most? l e a s t ? 2. With whom do you share these a c t i v i t i e s ? 3. Has t h i s changed i n the l a s t year? 4. What non r o u t i n e events occurred i n 1973? e.g. change i n f a m i l y s i z e , moving household, h o l i d a y s , severe i l l n e s s , d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n e d u c a t i o n or employment. 5. D i d any of these events s i g n i f i c a n t l y change the time you spent subsequently i n the above a c t i v i t i e s . 6. How d i d you hear about the Women's Resources Centre? 7. Have you t a l k e d about the Women's Resources Centre w i t h f r i e n d s ? 8. What d i d you t a l k about? 9. What r e a c t i o n d i d you get? 10. Since your c o n t a c t with the Women's Resources Centre have you taken or are you t a k i n g or planning any immediate changes a) i n r e l a t i o n s h i p with your f a m i l y ? 84. 85. b) i n r e s p e c t to your p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n ? c) i n r e l a t i o n s h i p with your community? d) i n your education? e) i n your employment? 11. Have you done anything you would not have done be f o r e coming to the Women's Resources Centre? 12. What were the r e s u l t s ? 13. Was the program u s e f u l t o you? In what way? 14. What other s e r v i c e s or programs i n t e r e s t you? 15. In what way would they be u s e f u l ? 16. What changes do you see coming i n women's l i v e s i n the next twenty years i n r e s p e c t to a) new o p p o r t u n i t i e s ? " b) new r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ? c) new r o l e s ? 17. In the f u t u r e I hope to 18. Would you l i k e i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the outcomes of t h i s study? 

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