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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Psychological foundations of motive for participation in adult education Haag, Ulrich F. E. 1976

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PSYCHOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF MOTIVE FOR PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION by ULRICH F.E. HAAG B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e FACULTY OF EDUCATION We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1976 0 Ulrich F.E. Haag In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced deg ree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I ag r ee t h a t t he L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r ag ree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y pu r po se s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Depar tment o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Depar tment o f A^^jL)f €<*Lu^JLjflJt-** The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co l umb i a 2075 wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date i ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h m o t i v a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n f l u e n c e an a d u l t ' s d e c i s i o n t o engage i n an e d u c a t i o n program. The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was to d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f i c a c y o f a g r o w t h - d e f i c i e n c y model o f m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s , and t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y o f t h e E d u c a t i o n  P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e as a measure o f growth o r d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . Few t h e o r e t i c a l models have been d e v e l o p e d t o e x p l a i n why p e o p l e p a r t i c i p a t e i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s . Combining a d u l t l i f e c y c l e c o n c e p t s , Maslow's m o t i v a t i o n a l c o n c e p t s , and r e s e a r c h by B o s h i e r , a g r o w t h - d e f i c i e n c y model o f m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n was d e s c r i b e d . Growth o r d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n was h y p o t h e s i z e d as b e i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o n t i n u o u s o r s p o r a d i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . I t was a l s o h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e age o r s t a g e o f t h e l i f e c y c l e and t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h growth o r d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . The model was t e s t e d w i t h 240 Richmond a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s . S u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e d a s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e Eysenck P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y , ( E . P . I . ) t h e S e i f - A c t u a l i z i n g V a l u e s (S.A.V.) s u b s c a l e o f t h e P e r s o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n  I n v e n t o r y , (P.O.I.) and t h e r e v i s e d E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e , ( E . P . S . ) . E.P.S. d a t a was s u b j e c t t o f a c t o r a n a l y s i s and o r t h o g o n a l r o t a t i o n w i t h s i x f a c t o r s b e i n g p r o d u c e d . E . P . I . N e u r o t i c i s m s c o r e s , S.A.V. s c o r e s , and E.P.S. f a c t o r s c o r e s were r e l a t e d t h r o u g h c o r r e l a t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e t o v a r i a b l e s s u c h as age, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e x , e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t , o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , p e r s o n a l and f a m i l y income, c o u r s e c o n t e n t , m a r i t a l s t a t u s and s e x . i i The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t c o n t i n u o u s l e a r n e r s t e n d e d t o be growth m o t i v a t e d w h i l e s p o r a d i c l e a r n e r s t e n ded t o be d e f i c i e n c y m o t i -v a t e d . O l d e r p a r t i c i p a n t s , i n c o m p a r i s o n t o yo u n g e r p a r t i c i p a n t s , were growth m o t i v a t e d w h i l e y o u n g e r p a r t i c i p a n t s were d e f i c i e n c y m o t i -v a t e d . H igh s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s p a r t i c i p a n t s t e n d e d t o be growth m o t i v a t e d w h i l e low s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s p a r t i c i p a n t s t e n d e d t o be d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d . The f i n d i n g s g e n e r a l l y c o n f i r m t h e growth/ d e f i c i e n c y m o d e l , but f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d t o c l a r i f y t h e m o t i -v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s o f a d u l t s , 55 y e a r s o f age and o l d e r , as an i n -s u f f i c i e n t number o f o l d e r a d u l t s were r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e sample. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS .Page L I S T OF TABLES v i LI S T OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i C h a p t e r 1. INTRODUCTION 1 Nat u r e o f Problem . . . . . . . 1 Purpose o f St u d y . . . 3 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f S t u d y . 3 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 4 L i m i t a t i o n s o f S t u d y . . . . . . . . . 4 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f S t u d y 5 2. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND HYPOTHESES . . . . . . . . 6 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK . 6 M o t i v a t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n s . 6 * H o m e o s t a t i c Model o f M o t i v a t i o n 7 Growth T h e o r i e s o f M o t i v a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . 8 A d u l t L i f e C y c l e 10 COMBINING MODEL 13 EMPIRICAL STUDIES . 14 Age . . . . 16 Sex 16 So c i o - E c o n o m i c S t a t u s 17 P s y c h o l o g i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 17 HYPOTHESES 18 SUMMARY 19 i v Page C h a p t e r 3. METHOD . . . . . • 21 D e s i g n 21 S u b j e c t s . 21 Pr o c e d u r e 21 I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n 22 Data A n a l y s i s 26 4. RESULTS 28 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESPONDENTS 28 FACTOR ANALYSIS OF THE E.P..S. . . . 30 F a c t o r S t r u c t u r e o f E.P.S. . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 F a c t o r C o n t e n t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 F a c t o r S c o r e s . 35 TESTING THE HYPOTHESES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Hypot h e s e s One and Two 37 Hypothe s e s T h r e e and Four . . . . . 40 Hypothe s e s F i v e and S i x . . 40 Hypotheses Seven and E i g h t 48 OTHER FINDINGS . . . . . . . 50 Sex 50 Co u r s e C o n t e n t .. - 51 DISCUSSION 51 Age 51 P a r t i c i p a t i o n 53 So c i o - E c o n o m i c S t a t u s 53 E.P.S. F a c t o r s . . . . . . . . . . 54 V Page Sex 55 Cour s e C o n t e n t . . . . . . . . 55 Ch a p t e r 5. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND SIGNIFICANCE . . 57 SUMMARY . . . . 57 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 S u b j e c t s 57 D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Sample 57 E.P.S. F a c t o r A n a l y s i s . . . 58 The H y p o t h e s e s . . . . . . . . . 58 Hypothe s e s One and Two 59 Hypothe s e s T h r e e and Four . . . . . . 59 Hypothe s e s F i v e and S i x . . 59 Hypothe s e s Seven and E i g h t . . . . . . . 60 Other. F i n d i n g s . . 60 Sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Co u r s e C o n t e n t 60 CONCLUSIONS 60 SIGNIFICANCE . 62 Ar e a s F o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h 63 REFERENCES •. . . . . 65 APPENDICES . . . 69 A. L e t t e r o f T r a n s m i t t a l . 70 B. L e t t e r To N i g h t S c h o o l I n s t r u c t o r s 71 C. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n I n s t r u c t i o n 72 D. S o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 73 LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page 1. P a r t i c i p a n t s by C o u r s e and U s a b l e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s by C o u r s e . . 23 2. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s by M a r i t a l S t a t u s 28 3. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s by E d u c a t i o n a l Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ... 29 4. The E.P.S. F a c t o r s , t h e Items i n Each F a c t o r , and t h e V a r i a n c e A c c o u n t e d F o r 31 5. C o r r e l a t i o n Between N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s , Demographic and S o c i a l Data 38 6. Mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s by M a r i t a l S t a t u s 39 .7. Mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., E.P.S, F a c t o r S c o r e s f o r High and Low Age Groups 41 8. Mean P a r t i c i p a t i o n , N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s f o r H i g h and Low S c o r e r s on t h e P a r t i c i p a t i o n Index 42 9. Mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s By E d u c a t i o n a l Q u a l i f i c a t i o n 44 10. Mean E d u c a t i o n a l A t t a i n m e n t , N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s f o r High and Low Number o f Y e a r s o f S c h o o l group 45 11. Mean O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s , N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s f o r H i g h and Low O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s Groups 46 12. Mean P e r s o n a l Income, N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V. and E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s f o r H i g h and Low P e r s o n a l Income Groups 47 13. Mean F a m i l y Income N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V. and E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s f o r High and Low F a m i l y Income Groups 48 14. C o r r e l a t i o n Between E.P.S. F a c t o r s , N e u r o t i c i s m and S.A.V. S c o r e s . 49 15. Mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V.,E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s by Sex . . . . 50 16. Mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s by C o u r s e C o n t e n t . 5 2 v i i L I ST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1 Maslow H i e r a r c h y o f Needs 9 2 Model o f M o t i v e s f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Programs 15 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS S i n c e r e t hanks go t o my r e s e a r c h a d v i s e r , Dr. Roger B o s h i e r ; h i s encouragement, e n t h u s i a s m , and a s s i s t a n c e a r e v e r y g e n u i n e l y a p p r e c i a t e d . A d e b t o f t h a n k s i s e x p r e s s e d t o t h e o t h e r members o f my r e s e a r c h committee, Dr. D a l e R u s n e l l and Dr. James T h o r n t o n , and t o a l l f a c u l t y members who have p r o v i d e d a s s i s t a n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e g r a d u a t e program. S p e c i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n and t h a n k s t o D i a n e , f o r her e n c o u r a g e -ment and u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e p a s t f i v e y e a r s . S p e c i a l t h a n k s t o George Meehan f o r t h e ge n e r o u s c o n t r i b u t i o n o f h i s t e c h n i c a l and e v a l u a t i v e s k i l l s . A d e b t o f t h a n k s i s e x p r e s s e d t o Mr. A l C o u l s o n , C o - o r d i n a t o r , C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , Richmond S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e . 1 CHAPTER 1' INTRODUCTION N a t u r e o f t h e Problem A d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s e a r c h has, w i t h n o t a b l e e x c e p -t i o n s , f o c u s e d on d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s o u t l i n i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs as compared to n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . A r e a s o n a b l y " t y p i c a l " a d u l t l e a r n e r has emerged from t h e s e s t u d i e s . J o h n s t o n e and R i v e r a w r i t e : The p a r t i c i p a n t i s j u s t as o f t e n a woman as a man, i s t y p i c a l l y u n d er f o r t y , has c o m p l e t e d h i g h s c h o o l o r b e t t e r , e n j o y s an above a v e r a g e income, works f u l l t i m e and most o f t e n i n a w h i t e c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n , i s t y p i c a l l y w h i t e and p r o t e s t a n t , i s m a r r i e d and a p a r e n t , l i v e s i n an u r b a n i z e d a r e a (more l i k e l y i n t h e s u b u r b s t h a n i n a l a r g e c i t y ) and i s found i n a l l p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y , but more f r e q u e n t l y on t h e West C o a s t t h a n would be e x p e c t e d by chance (1965, p . 7 8 ) . However u s e f u l t h e s e k i n d s o f d e s c r i p t i v e e n q u i r i e s have been, t h e y do n o t c o n s i d e r t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h m o t i v a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n f l u e n c e an a d u l t ' s d e c i s i o n t o engage i n an e d u c a t i o n program. V e r n e r and Newberry (1958) p o i n t o u t t h a t by i d e n t i f y i n g t h e v a r i a b l e s t h a t a f f e c t t h e t y p i c a l p a r t i c i p a n t , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and i n s t r u c t o r s m i g h t be a b l e t o a l t e r l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s t o meet t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f non-p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h u s a t t r a c t them t o t h e program. In o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a n t ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l n e e d s , i t i s e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o i d e n t i f y p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s . A d u l t e d u c a t o r s , whether t h e y a r e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , r e s e a r c h e r s , program p l a n n e r s , o r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , have asked a t one t i m e o r a n o t h e r s u c h q u e s t i o n s a s : Why do some a d u l t s p a r t i c i p a t e i n l e a r n i n g programs and o t h e r s n o t ? What t e a c h i n g methods and t e c h n i q u e s a r e most 2 e f f e c t i v e w i t h a d u l t s ? What a c c o u n t s f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n e n e r g y and i n t e r e s t t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s d i s p l a y d u r i n g l e a r n i n g programs? How a r e m o t i v a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s r e l a t e d t o t h e amount o f l e a r n i n g ? T h e s e t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n s a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y .important n o t o n l y t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r , but a l s o t o t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r . With a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d -i n g o f t h e m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r s w hich i n f l u e n c e a d u l t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , programmers c o u l d p l a n e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s t h a t would be more r e l e v a n t t o the m o t i v a t i o n a l needs o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . A n o t h e r example r e l a t e s t o t h e methods and t e c h n i q u e s u t i l i z e d by a d u l t t e a c h e r s . With an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e m o t i v a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t i n f l u e n c e an a d u l t d u r i n g a l e a r n i n g program t h e e d u c a t o r c o u l d be more e f f e c t i v e i n d e s i g n i n g e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e r e a r e few answers t o t h e above q u e s t i o n s t o g u i d e p r a c t i t i o n e r o r r e s e a r c h e r , as few t h e o r e t i c a l models have been d e v e l o p e d t o e x p l a i n t h e m o t i v a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h e m o t i v a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f why a d u l t s p a r t i c i p a t e have been s p o r a d i c and hampered by a l a c k o f v e r i f i a b l e t h e o r y . Knox and S j o g r e n i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n o f m o t i v a t i o n t o p a r t i c i -p a t e i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p o i n t o u t : L i t t l e i s r e a l l y known about t h e m o t i v a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s . L a c k o f knowledge about t h i s a r e a i s not u n i q u e t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , however t h e l a r g e number o f t h e o r i e s o f m o t i v a t i o n t h a t have been d e v e l o p e d and t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s e t h e o r i e s i l l u s t r a t e t h e vagueness a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m o t i v a t i o n as a c o n c e p t . The d e s c r i p t i o n s i n c l u d e t h e o r i e s t h a t speak o f one a l l -i n c l u s i v e m o t i v e such as t h e m a i n t e n a n c e and enhancement o f t h e p e r c e i v e d s e l f , t h o s e t h a t d e s c r i b e m o t i v a t i o n i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l scheme w i t h some s o u r c e s subsumed w i t h i n o t h e r more b a s i c s o u r c e s , o t h e r s t h a t a t tempt t o c l a s s i f y a l l o f t h e needs t h a t may c a u s e c e r t a i n b e h a v i o u r s , and some t h a t s t r e s s u n c o n s c i o u s m o t i v a t i o n (1962, p.238). Purpose o f Study W r i t e r s i n t h e f i e l d o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n have u t i l i z e d s e v e r a l m o t i v a t i o n a l models i n t h e i r a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n the "why's" o f p a r t i c i -p a t i o n . One o f t h e most w i d e l y used models i s t h e b a s i c need s a t i s f a c t i o n m odel. A n o t h e r model i s H o u l e ' s (1961) c o n c e p t o f l e a r n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n s . Maslow (1954) has s u g g e s t e d a h i e r a r c h y o f needs and d e s c r i b e d a growth-d e f i c i e n c y model o f m o t i v e s . The p r i m a r y f o c u s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was w i t h t h e l a t t e r model and s o u g h t to r e l a t e t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s o f a g r o w t h - d e f i c i e n c y model o f m o t i v e s to v a r i a b l e s u s u a l l y examined i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t u d i e s s u c h a s a g e , e d u c a t i o n , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , sex and c o u r s e c o n t e n t . One o f t h e major d i f f i c u l t i e s en-c o u n t e r e d i n a t t e m p t i n g t o d e t e r m i n e t h e m o t i v a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a d u l t s i s t h e l a c k o f a v a l i d and r e l i a b l e i n s t r u m e n t t o measure m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . B o s h i e r (1971) d e v e l o p e d t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n  S c a l e i n a New Z e a l a n d s e t t i n g t o measure m o t i v e s f o r a t t e n d a n c e and i n f e r r e d t h a t E.P.S. f a c t o r s i n d i c a t e d d e f i c i e n c y o r growth m o t i v a t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s t u d y were: 1 . To i n v e s t i g a t e a s p e c t s o f a g r o w t h - d e f i c i e n c y model o f m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs. 2 . To d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y o f t h e E d u c a t i o n a l  P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e as a measure o f growth and d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . S i g n i f i c a n c e o f S t u d y T h i s s t u d y was u s e f u l b e c a u s e : 1. I t would add t o t h e t h e o r e t i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f m o t i v a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a d u l t l e a r n e r s . 4 2. I t would a s s i s t a d u l t e d u c a t o r s i n p r o v i d i n g a l e a r n i n g -e n v i r o n m e n t c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a n t ' s m o t i v a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 3. I t would f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e as a measure o f m o t i -v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s . D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms The f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s were used i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y : 1. V e r n e r ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was a d o p t e d - namely: The a c t i o n o f an e x t e r n a l e d u c a t i o n a l a g e n t i n p u r p o s e f u l l y o r d e r i n g b e h a v i o u r i n t o p l a n n e d s y s t e m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t can r e s u l t i n l e a r n i n g f o r t h o s e f o r whom such a c t i v i t y i s s u p p l e -mental t o t h e i r p r i m a r y r o l e i n s o c i e t y and which i n v o l v e s some c o n t i n u i t y i n an exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e a g e n t and t h e l e a r n e r so t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s i s under c o n s t a n t s u p e r v i s i o n and d i r e c t i o n (1964, pp.29). 2. G i d e o n ' s d e f i n i t i o n was u t i l i z e d f o r a d u l t l e a r n e r - namely: An a d u l t who i s e n r o l l e d and t a k e s an a c t i v e p a r t i n any c o u r s e o f s t u d y , whether s p e c i a l o r r e g u l a r , t o d e v e l o p new s k i l l s o r Qua l i f i c a t i on s , o r t o improve e x i s t i n g s k i l l s o r qua l i f i c a t i on s (1971, p . 4 8 ) . 3. G i d e o n ' s d e f i n i t i o n was a l s o used f o r c o u r s e - namely: A p l a n n e d sequence o f e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s l e a d i n g t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a s k i l l , a body o f knowledge, o r t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f a t t i t u d e s (1971, p . 5 4 ) . 4. A d u l t E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n A c t i v i t y An a d u l t who a t t e n d s an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e / p r o g r a m w i t h a d u r a t i o n o f f o u r s e p a r a t e s e s s i o n s o r l o n g e r . L i m i t a t i o n s o f S t u d y Any i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y s h o u l d i n c l u d e an awareness o f t h e f o l l o w i n g l i m i t a t i o n s : 1. The sample f o r t h i s s t u d y was s e l e c t e d from one i n s t i t u t i o n , t h e Richmond School Board N i g h t S c h o o l System. J o h n s t o n e •' and R i v e r a (1965) i n d i c a t e t h a t d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i -t u t i o n s a t t r a c t d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h e r e f o r e , e f f o r t s a t g e n e r a l i z i n g must make a l l o w a n c e s f o r t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s a r e drawn from a s i n g l e s p o n s o r i n g i n s t i -t u t i o n . 2. The sample was n o t ran d o m l y c h o s e n and r e l i e d on a s t r a t i f i e d sample s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f c o u r s e c o n t e n t . 3. Measurement e r r o r must be assumed a s b e i n g p r e s e n t i n t h e i n s t r u m e n t s . 4. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d by f o u r d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n s t h e r e f o r e , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r i n f l u e n c e e x i s t s . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e Stu d y T h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r has i n c l u d e d : a s t a t e m e n t c o n c e r n i n g t h e p r o b l e m s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y ; t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s t u d y ; t h e s t u d y ' s s i g n i f i c a n c e , a d e f i n i t i o n o f t e r m s , and the l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y . C h a p t e r two p r e s e n t s a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e , b o t h t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l , and i n t r o d u c e s t h e h y p o t h e s e s . C h a p t e r t h r e e e x p l a i n s t h e m e t h o d o l o g y , t h e s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d , t h e p r o c e d u r e , t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , and d a t a a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e . C h a p t e r f o u r c o n t a i n s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s and a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s . C h a p t e r f i v e c o n t a i n s a summary, c o n c l u s i o n s , s i g n i f i c a n c e and some recommendations f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . 6 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND HYPOTHESES T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s a t h e o r e t i c a l framework, a s e l e c t e d r e v i e w o f t h e r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t t o t h i s s t u d y , and t h e h y p o t h e s e s d e r i v e d from t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . , 1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Few t h e o r e t i c a l models have been d e v e l o p e d by a d u l t e d u c a t o r s t o e x p l a i n why p e o p l e p a r t i c i p a t e i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l c o n c e p t s , however, have been u t i l i z e d by a d u l t e d u c a t i o n r e s e a r c h e r s : H o u l e ' s l e a r n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n model; H o m e o s t a t i c model o f m o t i v e s ; Growth t h e o r i e s o f m o t i v a t i o n , and t h e a d u l t l i f e - c y c l e c o n c e p t . T hese models a r e complementary t o one a n o t h e r and w i l l be employed t o d e s c r i b e a c o m b i n i n g model o f m o t i v e s f o r a d u l t p a r t i c i p a t i o n . L e a r n i n g / M o t i v a t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n The c o n c e p t o f m o t i v a t i o n a l * o r i e n t a t i o n s was f o r m u l a t e d by Houle (1961) i n an a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n r e a s o n s f o r a d u l t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n ed u c a -t i o n a l p r ograms. Houle i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s t o p a r t i -c i p a t i o n based on i n - d e p t h i n t e r v i e w s w i t h 22 a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i -p a n t s . He c l a s s i f i e d a d u l t l e a r n e r s i n t o what he termed: 1. t h e g o a l o r i e n t e d who u t i l i z e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs t o a c h i e v e f a i r l y c l e a r - c u t g o a l s such as v o c a t i o n a l advancement; 2 . t h e a c t i v i t y o r i e n t e d who employ e d u c a t i o n programs as a means f o r s a t i s f y i n g s o c i a l needs; and, 3. t h e l e a r n i n g o r i e n t e d who seek knowledge f o r i t s own sake . ^ H e n c e f o r t h t h e term M o t i v a t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n w i l l be used t o d e s c r i b e H o u l e ' s l e a r n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n . 7 Hou l e ' s t y p o l o g y has been e x t e n s i v e l y u t i l i z e d by B o s h i e r ( 1 9 7 1 ) , S h e f f i e l d ( 1 9 6 4 ) , B u r g e s s ( 1 9 7 1 ) , S o v i e ( 1 9 7 2 ) , but as B o s h i e r ( 1 9 7 6 ( a ) ) p o i n t s o u t , most r e s e a r c h e r s a r r i v e a t seven o r e i g h t o r i e n t a t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n t h e t h r e e f o r m u l a t e d i n the t y p o l o g y . W h i l e t h e t h r e e f a c t o r t y p o l o g y may be an o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , i t has s t i m u l a t e d r e s e a r c h and l e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e development o f i n s t r u -m ents t o d e t e r m i n e r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . F o r example, S h e f f i e l d 0 964) d e v e l o p e d t h e C o n t i n u i n g L e a r n i n g O r i e n t a t i o n Index. Burgess (1971) f o r m u l a t e d t h e Reasons f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e and B o s h i e r (1971) c o n s t r u c t e d t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e . A l l t h r e e were based on t h e t y p o l o g y . H o m e o s t a t i c Model o f M o t i v a t i o n Knox and S j o g r e n (1962) s u g g e s t e d a b a s i c need s a t i s f a c t i o n o r h o m e o s t a t i c model o f m o t i v a t i o n f o r i n i t i a l a t t e n d a n c e i n an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n program. They d e s c r i b e d a model where many f o r c e s a c t upon th e i n d i v i d u a l , some o f which i n f l u e n c e him t o seek o u t a l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y . A d i s e q u i l i b r i u m e x i s t s w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a u s i n g him t o i n i t i a t e some a c t i o n - t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y - t h a t w i l l r e s t o r e h i s need s t a t e t o e q u i l i b r i u m . B o s h i e r (1971) diagrammed t h e p r o c e s s a s f o l l o w s : D e p r i v a t i o n ( t e n s i o n i n c r e a s e ) ' A c t i o n ( p a r t i c i p a t i o n ) > S a t i s f a c t i o n ( t e n s i o n d e c r e a s e ) As B o s h i e r p o i n t s o u t : The b a s i c i d e a i s t h a t a p e r s o n m o b i l i z e s h i s d e f e n s e s t o ward o f f d i s r u p t i v e f o r c e s , which c a u s e t e n s i o n o r t h r e a t - i n t h e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t , b o r e d o m , . s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n , an unhappy i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p - and i n so d o i n g b r i n g s i n t o p l a y a c t i o n w h i c h w i l l r e s t o r e b a l a n c e (1971, p . 2 0 ) . 8 The t h e o r y o f h o m e o s t a t i c human m o t i v a t i o n , as C o f e r and A p p l e y n o t e , "has been c h a l l e n g e d on t h e grounds t h a t t h e r i c h n e s s o f e x p e r i e n c e and t h e complex s t r u c t u r e o f p a r t i c u l a r l y human s t r i v i n g s c a n n o t be so s i m p l y e x p l a i n e d a s a v o i d a n c e o f d i s e q u i l i b r a t i n g s t i m u l a t i o n " (1965, p.366). T h r e e major c r i t i c i s m s have been d i s c u s s e d . The t h e o r y i s seen as e s s e n t i a l l y n e g a t i v e i n n a t u r e . Nowhere does i t appear t o a l l o w f o r s p o n t a n e o u s a c t i o n ; i n s t e a d , man i s seen as e s s e n t i a l l y r e a c t i n g t o e x t e r n a l d i s t u r b a n c e s . S e c o n d l y , t h e c o n c e p t o f e q u i l i b r i u m does n o t a c c o u n t f o r p e o p l e who d e l i b e r a t e l y seek to d i s r u p t t h e i r e q u i l i b r i u m , e . g . , t h e a d u l t who a t t e n d s a d u l t programs t o break o u t o f a " r u t " . T h i r d l y , i t does n o t t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e c r e a t i v e and a l t r u i s t i c b e h a v i o u r s o f p e o p l e . Growth T h e o r i e s o f M o t i v a t i o n I t was a r e a c t i o n t o t h i s e s s e n t i a l l y n e g a t i v e v i e w o f human m o t i v a t i o n t h a t l e d p s y c h o l o g i s t s s u c h as A l l p o r t ( 1 9 5 5 ) , Fromm ( 1 9 5 5 ) , Maslow ( 1 9 5 4 ) , and Rogers (1961) t o a d v o c a t e growth t h e o r i e s o f m o t i v a -t i o n . Maslow e x p r e s s e d h i s growth t h e o r y as a h i e r a r c h y o f needs. A t t h e base o f t h e h i e r a r c h y a r e t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l n e e d s , s u c h as hunger and t h i r s t , w h i c h a r e p r e - p o t e n t and, i f u n s a t i s f i e d , w i l l p r e v a i l o v e r o t h e r s . Next a r e t h e s a f e t y needs. N o r m a l l y i n w e s t e r n c u l t u r e , a d u l t s a r e not d o m i n a t e d by t h e s a f e t y needs e x c e p t d u r i n g wars, n a t u r a l c a t a s t r o p h i e s and s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s . B e l o n g i n g n e s s and l o v e heeds a r i s e when p h y s i o -l o g i c a l and s a f e t y needs have been s a t i s f i e d . Love needs a r e s a t i s f i e d t h r o u g h i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a w i f e , c h i l d r e n and f r i e n d s . Next t o ap p e a r i n t h e h i e r a r c h y a r e esteem needs which r e p r e s e n t a d e s i r e f o r s e l f r e s p e c t , o r s e l f esteem, and f o r t h e esteem o f o t h e r s . G r a t i f i c a t i o n o f 9 t h e s e needs l e a d s t o a p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t and f e e l i n g s o f worth and competence. A t the peak o f t h e h i e r a r c h y i s s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n , t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e r e a l s e l f , i t s e x p r e s s i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t . F i g u r e 1-i l l u s t r a t e s t h e h i e r a r c h y . F i g u r e 1 Maslow H i e r a r c h y o f Needs Maslow 0 9 7 0 ) c a t e g o r i z e d t h e f i r s t t h r e e needs as i n s t i g a t o r s o f d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d b e h a v i o u r and a s s o c i a t e d esteem and s e l f - a c t u a l i z -i n g needs w i t h growth m o t i v a t e d b e h a v i o u r . The f a i l u r e t o s a t i s f y b a s i c needs l e a d s t o c o n d i t i o n s c o m p a r a b l e t o a v i t a m i n d e f i c i e n c y . G r a t i f i c a -t i o n o f t h e s e needs i s e s s e n t i a l f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h . Growth m o t i -v a t i o n i s d e f i n e d a s " t h e v a r i o u s p r o c e s s e s which b r i n g t h e p e r s o n t oward u l t i m a t e s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n " (1955, p . 9 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o Maslow: Growth i s seen t h e n n o t o n l y as p r o g r e s s i v e g r a t i f i c a t i o n o f b a s i c needs t o t h e p o i n t where t h e y d i s a p p e a r , but a l s o i n the form o f s p e c i f i c growth m o t i v a t i o n s o v e r and above t h e s e .basic n e e d s , e.g., t a l e n t s , c a p a b i l i t i e s , c r e a t i v e t e n d e n c i e s , c o n -s t i t u t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l i t i e s (1955, p . 9 ) . Maslow i d e n t i f i e d t h e f o l l o w i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between d e f i c i e n c y and growth m o t i v a t e d p e o p l e . G e n e r a l l y , d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d p e o p l e f i n d 10 d e s i r e o r i m p u l s e t o be a n u i s a n c e o r a t h r e a t and t h u s behave i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e h o m e o s t a t i c model. Growth m o t i v a t e d p e r s o n s welcome and d e s i r e m o t i v a t i o n a l i m p u l s e s . T hese a r e seen as e n j o y a b l e , and g r a t i f i c a t i o n l e a d s t o f u r t h e r i m p u l s e s . As Maslow n o t e s , " t h e c r e a t o r welcomes h i s c r e a t i v e i m p u l s e s , t h e t a l e n t e d p e r s o n e n j o y s u s i n g and e x p a n d i n g h i s t a l e n t s " (1955, p . 1 2 ) . In o t h e r words, a p p e t i t e s f o r growth a r e i n t e n -s i f i e d and l e a d t o f u r t h e r g r o w t h , whereas t h e d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d p e r s o n ' s need g r a t i f i c a t i o n t e n d s t o be s p o r a d i c and c l i m a c t i c . A d u l t L i f e C y c l e The c o n c e p t o f t h e l i f e c y c l e as a u n i t o f s o c i a l t i m e has been u t i l i z e d e x t e n s i v e l y by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s t o d e s c r i b e c u l t u r e s . A n t h r o -p o l o g i s t s mark t h e l i f e c y c l e i n t o age s t a g e s , each d e f i n e d by t h e c u l t u r e as t o i t s f u n c t i o n s , r o l e s , r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r age s t a g e s , d u r a t i o n , and p o i n t s o f e n t r y and t e r m i n a t i o n . B u h l e r (1968) has d e s c r i b e d f i v e phases o f human dev e l o p m e n t i n r e l a t i o n t o l i f e g o a l s . She s a y s l i f e i s a m e a n i n g f u l p r o j e c t i n v o l v i n g t h e p u r s u i t o f c e r t a i n g o a l s , w i t h v a r i o u s p e r i o d s o f e v a l u a t i o n a l o n g t h e way, and e n d i n g i n f u l f i l l m e n t o r f a i l u r e . The s t a g e s were seen a s : 1. b e f o r e s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f l i f e g o a l s phase ( t o a b o u t age 15); 2. a t e n t a t i v e and p r e p a r a t o r y s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f l i f e g o a l s phase (from age 15 t o a b o u t age 2 5 ) ; 3. t h e s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f l i f e g o a l s phase becomes more s p e c i f i e d and d e f i n i t i v e ( f rom age 25 t o a b o u t age 45 o r 5 0 ) ; 4. t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e f o r e g o i n g l i f e and t h e a t t a i n e d o r f a i l e d f u l f i l l m e n t o f g o a l s (from age 45 o r 50 t o age 60 o r 6 5 ) ; a n d , n 5. a phase i n which e i t h e r more o r l e s s c o m p l e t e f u l f i l l m e n t i s a cknowledged, and a p o s t - s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n l i f e s e t s i n w i t h r e s t and memories. Sometimes i l l n e s s and d e c l i n e o r p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t and p a r t i a l f a i l u r e m o t i v a t e t h e i n -d i v i d u a l t o r e t u r n to p r e v i o u s forms o f s t r i v i n g . The f e e l i n g o f more o r l e s s c o m p l e t e f a i l u r e ends i n d e p r e s s i o n o r d e s p a i r . The a d u l t l i f e c y c l e has been a d o p t e d by a d u l t e d u c a t o r s who have become i n t e r e s t e d i n how t h e v a r i o u s age s t a g e s i n f l u e n c e p e r s o n s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n l e a r n i n g programs. H a v i g h u r s t (1964) u t i l i z e d t h e n o t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s t o e x p l a i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . He s e e s t h e a d u l t p o r t i o n o f t h e l i f e c y c l e a s c o n s i s t i n g o f a s e t o f p h a s e s o r d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s r e l e -v a n t t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs. H a v i g h u r s t d e f i n e s a d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k as one "which must be a c h i e v e d a t o r about a c e r t a i n phase i n l i f e , i f a p e r s o n i s t o be j u d g e d and t o j u d g e h i m s e l f as a competent p e r s o n " (1964, p . 1 9 ) . He d i v i d e s e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s d e s i g n e d t o a c h i e v e d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s i n t o i n s t r u m e n t a l o r e x p r e s s i v e a c t i v i t i e s . I n s t r u -mental a c t i v i t i e s a r e f o r a g o a l which l i e s o u t s i d e and beyond t h e a c t o f e d u c a t i o n . E x p r e s s i v e a c t i v i t i e s a r e f o r a g o a l which l i e s w i t h i n t h e a c t o f l e a r n i n g , o r l e a r n i n g f o r t h e sake o f l e a r n i n g . Examples o f i n s t r u -mental e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s t o meet s p e c i f i c d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s would be: p r e p a r i n g f o r an o c c u p a t i o n , r e a r i n g c h i l d r e n , o r becoming an i n f o r m e d and r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n . H a v i g h u r s t c h a r a c t e r i z e s e x p r e s s i v e e d u c a t i o n as b e i n g p r i m a r i l y u t i l i z e d i n the p u r s u i t o f l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s such as d a n c i n g , c r a f t s , b r i d g e p l a y i n g . In a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t r e s u l t i n d e v e l o p m e n t a l 12 changes i n m o t i v a t i o n d u r i n g the a d u l t l i f e c y c l e , Kuhlen (1963) has s u g g e s t e d two broad m o t i v a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e a d u l t : one o f growth e x p a n s i o n ; t h e o t h e r , a n x i e t y and t h r e a t . Kuhlen subsumes t h e c o n c e p t o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n i n a growth and e x p a n s i o n m o t i v e . In c o n t r a s t t o Maslow, he s u g g e s t s t h a t growth e x p a n s i o n m o t i v e s seem t o dominate t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e a d u l t l i f e c y c l e w i t h a n x i e t y and t h r e a t m o t i v e s p r e v a i l i n g i n t h e l a t e r y e a r s . Maslow (1955) c o n s i d e r e d s e l f -a c t u a l i z a t i o n t o be an u l t i m a t e s t a t e and s u g g e s t e d t h a t growth m o t i v a -t i o n would t e n d t o be more p r e v a l e n t i n o l d e r a d u l t s t h a n i n young a d u l t s who p r i m a r i l y would be s t r i v i n g t o s a t i s f y d e f i c i e n c y needs. Kuhlen ( 1 9 6 3 ) , s u g g e s t s growth m o t i v a t i o n may r e a c h a peak i n m i d d l e age and t h e n he r e p l a c e d by a n x i e t y and t h r e a t . He s a y s t h i s change i n m o t i v a -t i o n t a k e s p l a c e b e c a u s e o f age r e l a t e d f a c t o r s s u c h as a d e c l i n e i n s o c i a l s t a t u s , c i r c u m s t a n t i a l p r e s s u r e s , and p h y s i c a l c h a n g e s . In the w e s t e r n c u l t u r e , y o u t h i s i d e a l i z e d and t h e s t a t u s a c c o r d e d o l d e r p e o p l e d e c l i n e s r a p i d l y a f t e r m i d d l e age. C i r c u m s t a n t i a l p r e s s u r e s r e s u l t when a d u l t s a r e " l o c k e d " i n t o f r u s t r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n s t h a t a r e a s o u r c e o f u n h a p p i n e s s . As p e r s o n s m a r r y , have c h i l d r e n , a c c u m u l a t e s e n i o r i t y i n a j o b , t h e y may f i n d t h e m s e l v e s u n a b l e t o a l t e r t h e d i s t u r b i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Younger, l e s s committed i n d i v i d u a l s c a n more e a s i l y e x t r i c a t e t h e m s e l v e s from t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s . The t h i r d f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g m o t i v a t i o n a t d i f f e r e n t ages i s p h y s i o l o g i c a l change and d e c l i n e . P h y s i o l o g i c a l p r e s s u r e s and t e n s i o n s may become i m p o r t a n t m o t i v a t o r s a g a i n w i t h a d u l t s , e s p e c i a l l y i f a marked d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n p h y s i c a l h e a l t h o c c u r s . A l t h o u g h t h e m o t i v a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s o f g r o w t h , e x p a n s i o n , a n x i e t y and t h r e a t a r e i m p o r t a n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e l i f e c y c l e , t h e r e a r e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , s e l f - c o n c e p t , and 13 a t t i t u d e s toward t he o l d , p r o d u c e s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n s i n m o t i v a t i o n . F o r example, Kuhle n (1963) a r g u e s t h a t i n t h e u p p e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p v e r y l i t t l e change o c c u r s i n m o t i v a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s w i t h a d v a n c i n g age. A l s o i n c u l t u r e s where o l d e r a d u l t s a r e r e s p e c t e d , m o t i v a t i o n i s l e s s l i k e l y t o change t h a n i n c u l t u r e s where o l d age i s d e n i g r a t e d . Neugarten and H a v i g h u r s t (1969) have r e p o r t e d t h a t where s o c i a l r o l e s have been m a i n t a i n e d and s u p p o r t e d a f t e r r e t i r e m e n t , r a t i n g s on f r i e n d s h i p a c t i v -i t i e s were h i g h e r t h a n f o r i n d i v i d u a l s who d i d not r e c e i v e such s u p p o r t . B u h l e r (1968) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f - a s s e s s m e n t a s t o whether he d i d o r d i d n o t r e a c h f u l f i l l m e n t i n a t t a i n i n g h i s l i f e g o a l s i s more i m p o r t a n t i n o l d age t h a n f u n c t i o n a l d e c l i n e and i n s e c u r i t y . COMBINING MODEL G i v e n t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t b o t h Maslow's t h e o r y and t h e a d u l t l i f e c y c l e c o n c e p t a r e a p p r o p r i a t e , a c o m b i n i n g model o f m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs can be f o r m u l a t e d . The f o l l o w i n g m odel, p r o p o s e d by B o s h i e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) , has been a l t e r e d s l i g h t l y t o d e p i c t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e a d u l t l i f e c y c l e . B o s h i e r s t a t e s t h a t " a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s e n r o l f o r r e a s o n s which a r e b a s i c a l l y l i f e -c h a n c e ( d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n ) o r l i f e - s p a c e (growth m o t i v a t i o n ) o r i e n t e d " (1976, p.3). -D e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e s e e k i n g t o s a t i s f y t h e i r b a s i c needs by a c q u i r i n g u t i l i t a r i a n knowledge, a t t i t u d e s , s k i l l s o r s o c i a l c o n t a c t s . In many c a s e s " t h e s e needs have n e u r o t i c o r i g i n s w h i c h stem f r o m p r e v i o u s s o c i a l o r p h y s i c a l d e p r i v a t i o n . F o r l i f e - c h a n c e p a r t i -c i p a n t s , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s a means t o an end o r a r e s p o n s e t o c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . G r a t i f i c a t i o n w i l l r e s t o r e h o m e o s t a s i s f o r t h e l i f e - c h a n c e 14 p a r t i c i p a n t and m o t i v a t i o n f o r f u r t h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n may c e a s e " (1976, p . 3 ) . In c o n t r a s t , growth m o t i v a t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s have l a r g e l y s a t i s f i e d t h e b a s i c needs and a r e p r i m a r i l y d i r e c t e d by s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g m o t i v e s . As s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g has been d e s c r i b e d by Maslow (1955) as a " p r o c e s s o f b e i n g r a t h e r t h a n becoming", t h e growth m o t i v a t e d p a r t i c i p a n t " i s t h e a r c h e t y p a l c o n t i n u i n g l e a r n e r - i n n e r d i r e c t e d , autonomous, open t o new e x p e r i e n c e , f r e e f r o m d e t e r m i n i s t i c a t t i t u d e s , t o l e r a n t o f i n c o n g r u e n c e , s t i m u l u s s e e k i n g , r i s k - t a k i n g and u n f o r t u n a t e l y a m i n o r i t y i n t h e pop-u l a t i o n " (1976, p . 3 ) . The i n f l u e n c e o f s t a g e s i n t h e a d u l t l i f e c y c l e can-be combined w i t h t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t . Knox and V i d e b e c k s u g g e s t t h a t " t h e demands and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s p l a c e d upon (an i n d i v i d u a l ) by h i s v a r i o u s l i f e r o l e s and s o c i a l s t a t u s e s c o n s t i t u t e a d d i t i o n a l s t r i c -t u r e s and e x p a n s i o n s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t o r y a l t e r n a t i v e s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e t o him" (1962, p.106). I t i s p r o b a b l e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e amount o f m o t i v a t i o n h a v i n g growth o r d e f i c i e n c y o r i g i n s changes as the p a r t i c i p a n t p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e v a r i o u s ' d e v e l o p m e n t s t a g e s o f t h e l i f e c y c l e . F i g u r e 2 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e model. EMPIRICAL STUDIES An e x t e n s i v e r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l e d few s t u d i e s r e l a t -i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , age, sex and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . D ouglah (1 9 6 8 ) , a t t e m p t e d t o measure t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . He u t i l i z e d a model s i m i l a r t o t h e d e f i c i e n c y - g r o w t h m o t i v a t i o n model by s u g g e s t i n g t h e 15 e x i s t e n c e o f two broad m o t i v a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i -p a t i o n : one, an economic o r i e n t a t i o n , t h e o t h e r , a s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g o r i e n t a t i o n . D ouglah i n t e r v i e w e d 611 a d u l t s t o o b t a i n demographic d a t a . On c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v i e w , r e s p o n d e n t s c o m p l e t e d f o u r s u b - s c a l e s o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y . F i g u r e 2 Model, o f M o t i v e s f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Programs Age 61 + C o m p l e t e f u l f i l l m e n t acknowledged o r p a r -t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t and f a i l u r e S o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s Age 46 - 60 QJ o A s s e s s m e n t o f g o a l s , o whether f u l f i l l e d o r <u not t S o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s ~* Age 2 5 - 4 5 D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f l i f e g o a l s S o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s Age 15 - 25 MOTIVATION D e f i c i e n c y Growth J o h n s t o n e and R i v e r a (1965) s u r v e y e d 13 ,000 h o u s e h o l d s and i n t e r -v i e w e d 2 ,845 r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d p e r s o n s t o a s c e r t a i n , among o t h e r t h i n g s , why t h e y had e n r o l l e d i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs. P a r t i c i p a n t s r e s -ponded t o e i g h t s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t how c o u r s e s c o u l d be h e l p f u l . B o s h i e r (1976) a d m i n i s t e r e d a demographic q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i - c i p a t i o n S c a l e t o a sub-sample o f 76 a d u l t s drawn from 242 p e o p l e e n r o l l e d 16 i n n i g h t s c h o o l programs. The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n terms o f t h e f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : age, s e x , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Age ' ' • A l l t h r e e s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t e d t h e a d u l t l i f e c y c l e c o n c e p t and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a t t e n d a n c e . J o h n s t o n e and R i v e r a (1965) f o u n d t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n peaked a t age f i f t y , d r o p p i n g d r a m a t i c -a l l y t h e r e a f t e r . T hey found t h a t 57 p e r c e n t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s were under t h e age o f 40 y e a r s and 79 per c e n t under t h e age o f 50 y e a r s . J o h n s t o n e and R i v e r a s u g g e s t t h a t : I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t v o c a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p r o p e l y o u n g e r a d u l t s i n t o e d u c a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n t h e y do o l d e r a d u l t s , and a l s o t h a t v o c a t i o n a l m o t i v e s f o r l e a r n i n g change o v e r t i m e f r o m c o n c e r n s a b o u t e n t e r i n g o c c u p a -t i o n s t o c o n c e r n s a b o u t advancement w i t h i n j o b s a l r e a d y h e l d . By c o m p a r i s o n , o l d e r p e o p l e , more o f t e n t h a n y o u n g e r , have as g o a l s g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n , s o c i a l c o n t a c t s , and s p a r e t i m e enjoyment (1965, p.157). Douglah (1968) f o u n d a s i g n i f i c a n t c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between age and p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h t h e 35 - 45 age b r a c k e t h a v i n g t h e h i g h e s t p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e and e n r o l l e d p r i m a r i l y f o r v o c a t i o n a l r e a s o n s . B o s h i e r (1976) a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t y o u n g e r a d u l t s were more i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d because o f j o b r e l a t e d f a c t o r s . Sex D i f f e r e n c e s between t h e m o t i v e s f o r a t t e n d a n c e o f men and women seem t o r e f l e c t t h e i r d i f f e r e n t l i f e c y c l e r o l e s . J o h n s t o n e and R i v e r a (1965) r e p o r t e d t h a t v o c a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e o f more i m p o r t a n c e t o men t h a n women, l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s a r e more i m p o r t a n t t o women t h a n men, and women u t i l i z e d c o u r s e s more th a n men t o meet "new p e o p l e " and g e t away from t h e " d a i l y r o u t i n e . " S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s were r e p o r t e d by 17 B o s h i e r (1976) who s a i d women were s l i g h t l y more " E s c a p e " m o t i v a t e d t h a n men and men more m o t i v a t e d by " P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement" t h a n women. S o c i o - E c o n o m i c S t a t u s Data f r o m t h e s e s t u d i e s s u g g e s t t h a t p e r s o n s s i t u a t e d a t d i f f e r e n t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l s u t i l i z e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs f o r q u i t e d i s t i n c -t i v e r e a s o n s . D o u g l a h (1968) c o n t e n d e d t h a t low s o c i o - e c o n o m i c groups a r e p r i m a r i l y m o t i v a t e d by an economic o r i e n t a t i o n t o a l l e v i a t e d e f i c i e n t e d u c a t i o n , income, and employment s t a t u s c o n d i t i o n s . J o h n s t o n e and R i v e r s w r i t e : A t l o w e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l s a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s used p r i m a r i l y t o l e a r n t h e s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y f o r c o p i n g w i t h e v e r y d a y l i f e As one moves up i n t h e s o c i a l c l a s s , v o c a t i o n a l c o n c e r n s n o t o n l y become l e s s p r e v a l e n t , t h e y s h i f t from f i n d i n g employment to g e t t i n g ahead i n a l i n e o f work a l r e a d y e n t e r e d . In g e n e r a l , however, t h e r e i s an o v e r a l l s h i f t away from l e a r n i n g f o r p u r p o s e s o f b a s i c l i f e a d j u s t m e n t , and an accompanying i n c r e -ment o f c o n c e r n w i t h l e s s p r e s s i n g c o n t i n g e n c i e s , such as t h e e n r i c h m e n t o f s p a r e t i m e (1965, p.159). B o s h i e r (1976) f o u n d t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h t h e l o w e s t f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n c l i n e d t o be en-r o l l e d f o r j o b r e l a t e d r e a s o n s t h a n w e l l e d u c a t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s . A l s o , p a r t i c i p a n t s o f low o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s were p r i m a r i l y e n r o l l e d f o r v o c a -t i o n a l r e a s o n s . T h e s e f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t lower c l a s s p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e p r i m a r i l y d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d w h i l e u p p e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c groups a r e m a i n l y growth m o t i v a t e d . P s y c h o l o g i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s D o u g l a h (1968) used f o u r s u b - s c a l e s o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f  P e r s o n a l i t y t o measure S e l f - R e l i a n c e , W i t h d r a w i n g T e n d e n c i e s , S o c i a l S k i l l s , and O c c u p a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s . The r e s u l t s a r e somewhat i n c o n c l u -s i v e as o n l y a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between W i t h d r a w i n g T e n d e n c i e s and 18 l o w - s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between S o c i a l S k i l l s and h i g h s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s were r e p o r t e d o r s i g n i f i c a n t . J o h n s t o n e and R i v e r a ( 1 9 6 5 ) , D o u g l a h ( 1 9 6 8 ) , and B o s h i e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) , have u t i l i z e d t h e d e f i c i e n c y - g r o w t h n o t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h a t e n t a t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o f i l e o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s . An e x t e n s i v e r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e , however, has f a i l e d t o l o c a t e r e s e a r c h which d i r e c t l y r e l a t e s measures o f growth o r d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n t o t h e s o c i o -demographic v a r i a b l e s u s u a l l y s t u d i e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n s u r v e y s . The d e f i c i e n c y - g r o w t h model o f m o t i v e s t h u s f a r has o n l y been i n f e r r e d and r e q u i r e s d i r e c t measurement u s i n g i n s t r u m e n t s m e a s u r i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h , on a - p r i o r i and e m p i r i c a l g r o u n d s , a r e r e g a r d e d as d i r e c t measures o f d e f i c i e n c y and growth m o t i v a t i o n . THE HYPOTHESES Data were g a t h e r e d t o t e s t t h e f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s e s : 1. T h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s aged 45 - 65 y e a r s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more growth m o t i v a t e d t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s aged 18 - 44 y e a r s . 2. T h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s aged 1 8 - 4 4 y e a r s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s aged 45 - 65 y e a r s . 3. T h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h a h i s t o r y o f " c o n t i n u o u s " p a r t i c i p a -t i o n a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more growth m o t i v a t e d t h a n " s p o r a d i c " p a r t i c i p a n t s . 4. T h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h a h i s t o r y o f " s p o r a d i c " p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d t h a n " c o n t i n u o u s " p a r t i c i p a n t s . 5. T h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s " h i g h " i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s a r e s i g -n i f i c a n t l y more growth m o t i v a t e d t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s "low" i n 19 s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . 6. T h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s "low" i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s a r e s i g n i -f i c a n t l y more d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s " h i g h " i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . Hypotheses one and two a r e r e l a t e d ; Hypotheses t h r e e and f o u r a r e a l s o r e l a t e d as a r e Hypotheses f i v e and s i x . B o s h i e r (1971) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e f a c t o r s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h growth and d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n and has i d e n -t i f i e d i t e m s which i n d i c a t e growth o r d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . Hypotheses seven and e i g h t were t e s t e d t o examine t h e c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y o f t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e . T h e r e w i l l be: 7. A p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c o r e s on a measure o f s e l f -a c t u a l i z a t i o n and s c o r e s on E.P.S. growth m o t i v a t i o n f a c t o r s . 8. A p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c o r e s on a measure o f d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n and s c o r e s on E.P.S. d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n f a c t o r s . SUMMARY T h i s c h a p t e r has p r e s e n t e d f o u r major m o t i v a t i o n t h e o r i e s u t i l i z e d by a d u l t e d u c a t o r s t o e x p l a i n why a d u l t s p a r t i c i p a t e i n e d u c a -t i o n programs. The t h e o r i e s were Ho u l e ' s m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s ; H o m e o s t a t i c t h e o r y o f m o t i v a t i o n ; Growth t h e o r y o f m o t i v a t i o n and t h e a d u l t l i f e c y c l e c o n c e p t . Combining a d u l t l i f e c y c l e c o n c e p t s w i t h Maslow's growth t h e o r y , a d e f i c i e n c y - g r o w t h model o f m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i -c i p a t i o n was d e s c r i b e d . A f t e r a r e v i e w o f t h e . l i t e r a t u r e , i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e c o n c e p t o f a d e f i c i e n c y - g r o w t h 20 model o f m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs. However, f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h u t i l i z i n g d i r e c t measures o f d e f i c i e n c y and growth m o t i v a t i o n t o t e s t t h e model was r e q u i r e d . 21 CHAPTER 3 METHOD D e s i g n A d i r e c t t e s t o f t h e h y p o t h e s e s was p r o v i d e d by a c o r r e l a t i o n a l d e s i g n . S u b j e c t s The s u b j e c t s f o r t h e s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f 274 a d u l t s a t t e n d i n g a d u l t n i g h t s c h o o l c o u r s e s s p o n s o r e d by S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #38, Richmond, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Canada. C o u r s e s commenced i n t h e weeks o f September 15 and September 29, 1975. The sample s e l e c t e d was based on c o u r s e c o n t e n t and i n c l u d e d f i v e a c a d e m i c , s i x v o c a t i o n a l and f i v e hobby/ l e i s u r e c o u r s e s . P a r t i c i p a n t s were e n r o l l e d i n t h e c o u r s e s as shown i n T a b l e 1. P r o c e d u r e The Richmond n i g h t s c h o o l c o - o r d i n a t o r was c o n t a c t e d and p e r m i s -s i o n t o c o n d u c t t h e s t u d y was s o u g h t and o b t a i n e d (Appendix A ) . A s c h e d u l e o f c l a s s e s t o be s u r v e y e d was f o r m u l a t e d and s u b m i t t e d t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . One week p r i o r t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a l l c l a s s e s and i n s t r u c t o r s were n o t i f i e d t h a t a s u r v e y would be t a k i n g p l a c ( A p p e n d i x B ) . The r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s were b r i e f e d and s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s i s s u e d b e f o r e each q u e s t i o n n a i r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (Appendix C A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f e a c h c l a s s t h e r e s e a r c h e r o r one o f t h e a s s i s t a n t s i n t r o d u c e d h i m s e l f and s t a t e d he was c o n d u c t i n g a s u r v e y t o d e t e r m i n e some o f t h e r e a s o n s why a d u l t s p a r t i c i p a t e i n n i g h t s c h o o l programs. P a r t i c i p a n t s were i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f the s t u d y would be a v a i l -a b l e - t o t h e n i g h t s c h o o l c o - o r d i n a t o r t o improve program p l a n n i n g . As 22 r e s p o n s e s were t o be anonymous, r e s p o n d e n t s were urg e d t o be f r a n k i n t h e i r r e p l i e s . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were t h e n d i s t r i b u t e d t o a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . A b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n was p r o v i d e d f o r each s e c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e and p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked t o c o m p l e t e t h e f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u m e n t s : 1. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e e l i c i t i n g S o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a and d e g r e e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n (Appendix D ). 2. Eysenck P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y (Form 1-A). 3. E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e (2nd e d i t i o n ) . 4. S e l f - A c t u a l i z a t i o n V a l u e s S c a l e , P e r s o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n  I n v e n t o r y . A l l i n s t r u m e n t s were s t a p l e d t o g e t h e r i n t h e above o r d e r and c o m p l e t i o n s u p e r v i s e d by e i t h e r t h e r e s e a r c h e r o r a s s i s t a n t s . S t a n d a r d -i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r c o m p l e t i o n were p r i n t e d on each i n s t r u m e n t . C l a s s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t i m e ranged from t h i r t y t o f o r t y m i n u t e s . The 240 u s a b l e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t h a t were c o l l e c t e d , r e p r e s e n t e d an 88 p e r c e n t r e s p o n s e r a t e . T h i r t y - f o u r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d e l e t e d from t h e sample: e i g h t were n o t i n c l u d e d a s t h e f a l s i f i c a t i o n s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on t h e E.P.I, e xceeded t h e c u t t i n g s c o r e o f f i v e ; f o u r were n o t r e t u r n e d ; s i x were d e l e t e d as t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were f u l l t i m e d ay s t u d e n t s ; t h e r e m a i n i n g s i x t e e n were i n c o m p l e t e . T a b l e 1 d e p i c t s t h e number o f u s a b l e q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s , by c o u r s e . I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n One measure o f g r o w t h / d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n used was t h e Eysenck  P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y (1968). The E.P.I, c o n s i s t s o f 57 i t e m s and y i e l d s measures on t h e two p e r s o n a l i t y c o n s t r u c t s o f n e u r o t i c i s m and e x t r a -v e r s i o n . A f a l s i f i c a t i o n s c a l e i s a l s o i n c l u d e d . Knapp (1965) showed 23 TABLE 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f P a r t i c i p a n t s by C o u r s e and U s a b l e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s by C o u r s e . Name o f C o u r s e P a r t i c i p a n t s U s a b l e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s C o n v e r s a t i o n a l S p a n i s h 21 18 P o t t e r y 17 15 A u t o m o t i v e Know How 21 19 W r i t e r s ' Work Shop 14 13 Yoga 21 • 17 Macrame 6 5 Sub T o t a l 100 87 P u b l i c S p e a k i n g 14 12 How t o S t a r t a B u s i n e s s 8 8 ' House C o n s t r u c t i o n 16 12 I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Data P r o c e s s i n g 8 7 Bookkeeping 23 20 T y p i n g 17 15 Sub T o t a l 86 74 S o c i a l S t u d i e s I I 17 15 E n g l i s h 12 24 22 Math. 12 19 15 H i s t o r y 12 17 17 A c c o u n t i n g 12 11 10 Sub T o t a l 88 79 Grand T o t a l 274 240 24 t h a t n e u r o t i c i s m and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n a r e n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d , and d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d p e r s o n s , t h e r e f o r e , would tend t o s c o r e h i g h e r on th e n e u r o t i c i s m s c a l e t h a n growth m o t i v a t e d p e r s o n s . The r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e E.P.I, i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s s h o r t and s i m p l e , (Buros 1972, p.159). A n o t h e r measure o f g r o w t h / d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n used was Shostrom's (1965) S e l f - A c t u a l i z i n g V a l u e S u b s c a l e (S.A.V.) o f t h e P e r s o n a l i t y O r i e n t a t i o n I n v e n t o r y ( P . O . I . ) . The S.A.V. c o n s i s t s o f 26 p a i r s o f f o r c e d c h o i c e s t a t e m e n t s d e s i g n e d t o measure s e l f - a c t u a l i z a -t i o n as d e s c r i b e d by Maslow (1954). W r i g h t and Wyant ( 1 9 7 4 ) , i n a f a c t o r a n a l y t i c s t u d y o f t h e S.A.V. found t h a t o f t h e n i n e f a c t o r s d e r i v e d , f i v e c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e d f i v e components o f M a s l o w 1 s f i f t e e n component c o n c e p t u a l scheme o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . One o f Maslow's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a c c o u n t e d f o r two s e p a r a t e f a c t o r s , and two o f the r e m a i n i n g components d i f f u s e d t h e m s e l v e s t h r o u g h o u t s e v e r a l f a c t o r s . F i v e o f Maslow's c o n c e p t u a l components were n o t r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e S.A.V. s c a l e and t h e r e f o r e c o u l d n o t be s u p p o r t e d . V a l i d i t y s t u d i e s have been r e p o r t e d by Shostrom ( 1 9 6 6 ) , Fox ( 1 9 6 8 ) , Shostrom and Knapp ( 1 9 6 6 ) , and M c C l a i n ( 1 9 7 0 ) . I l a r d i and May (1968) r e p o r t e d a 50 week t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f .60 ( p < .005) f o r t h e S.A.V. s u b s c a l e . The s u b s c a l e was a l t e r e d s l i g h t l y f o r t h i s s t u d y t o r e f l e c t t h e f a c t t h a t t h r e e o f t h e t w e n t y - s i x i t e m s d i d not l o a d s i g n i f i c a n t l y on any f a c t o r i n t h e W r i g h t and Wyant s t u d y . T h e r e f o r e a 23 i t e m s c a l e was u s e d . B o s h i e r (1971) d e v e l o p e d t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e (E.P.S.) i n New Z e a l a n d t o i n v e s t i g a t e H o u l e ' s (1961) c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s o f a d u l t l e a r n e r s . The s c a l e had 48 it e m s c a s t on a n i n e p o i n t s c a l e t o measure t h e e x t e n t t o wh i c h r e a s o n s 25 i n f l u e n c e d p e o p l e t o e n r o l l i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs. S u b j e c t s f o r t h e New Z e a l a n d s t u d y were 233 randomly s e l e c t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t educa-t i o n c o u r s e s i n W e l l i n g t o n , New Z e a l a n d . A s i x week t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a -b i l i t y s t u d y , u t i l i z i n g a d i f f e r e n t sample, was c o n d u c t e d and a l l i t e m s were s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l . The E.P.S. has been r e v i s e d by B o s h i e r ( 1 9 7 6 ( a ) ) from 48 i t e m s t o 40 items t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t r e c e n t f a c t o r a n a l y s i s s t u d i e s . The i t e m s c a l e was a l s o changed from a n i n e p o i n t s c a l e t o a f o u r p o i n t s c a l e f o r r e a s o n s d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l by B o s h i e r ( 1 9 7 6 ( a ) ) . P r i o r t o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a one week t e s t / r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y s t u d y f o r a l l 40 i t e m s o f t h e E.P.S. was c o n d u c t e d w i t h 42 a d u l t s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n n i g h t s c h o o l b u s i n e s s programs a t t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h -n o l o g y i n Burnaby, B.C. The mean t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r a l l i t e m s on t h e E.P.S. was .60, s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .005 l e v e l . The r e v i s e d E.P.S. i s t h e r e f o r e r e l i a b l e . S o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a and d e g r e e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n were g a t h e r e d w i t h a t w e l v e i t e m q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix D ) . The s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d : a ge, s e x , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t l e v e l , y e a r s o f f o r m a l f u l l t i m e e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , and income l e v e l . In a d d i t i o n , t h e s u b j e c t s were asked t o i n d i c a t e (by y e a r ) how many a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s t h e y had e n r o l l e d i n d u r i n g t h e p r e c e d i n g t e n y e a r s . I n f o r m a t i o n as t o t h e number o f y e a r s s i n c e s u b j e c t s had a t t e n d e d a f o r m a l s c h o o l s e t t i n g f u l l t i m e was a l s o o b t a i n e d . The a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n d e x was a r r i v e d a t by co m b i n i n g t h e number o f y e a r s i n which s u b j e c t s had p a r t i c i p a t e d , t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and t h e number o f c o u r s e s t a k e n . C o n t i n u i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n was c a l c u l a t e d a s f o l l o w s : 26 0 b r e a k i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e c o r d = 5 p o i n t s 1 b r e a k " " " =• 4 p o i n t s 2 b r e a k s " " = 3 p o i n t s 3 b r e a k s " " = 2 p o i n t s 4 b r e a k s " . . . . = 1 p o i n t The t o t a l number o f y e a r s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a c t i v -i t i e s and t h e number o f c o u r s e s e n r o l l e d i n were summed and t h e n m u l t i -p l i e d by t h e number o f p o i n t s a s s i g n e d f o r c o n t i n u i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . F o r example, a p a r t i c i p a n t c o m p l e t e s t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e as f o l l o w s : Year No. o f C o u r s e s Year No. o f C o u r s e s 1975 2 1970 1974 1 1969 3 . 1973 1968 1972 1 1967 1 1971 1 1966 1 S i n c e no c o u r s e s were t a k e n i n 1973, 1970, and 1968, t h r e e b r e a k s o c c u r i n t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e c o r d and a s c o r e o f two i s a s s i g n e d f o r con-t i n u i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The number o f y e a r s p a r t i c i p a t e d , s e v e n , i s added t o t h e number o f c o u r s e s t a k e n , t e n . The t o t a l , s e v e n t e e n , i s m u l t i p l i e d by, two, t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c o r e , t o a r r i v e a t t h e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e x s c o r e o f 34. D a t a A n a l y s i s Two hundred a n d f o r t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were used i n t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s . An i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number was p l a c e d a t the upper r i g h t hand c o r n e r o f t h e f i r s t page o f each q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The ds-ta from each q u e s t i o n n a i r e were coded and t r a n s p o s e d t o an IBM c o d i n g form f o r key p u n c h i n g . A b l a n k - w a s l e f t t o r e p r e s e n t any i n c o m p l e t e d o r u n i n t e l l i g i b l e 27 i t e m . Computer c a r d s were punched, v e r i f i e d , and t h e d a t a a n a l y z e d u s i n g U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Computing C e n t r e f a c i l i t i e s . Nominal d a t a , s u c h as s e x , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , c o u r s e c o n t e n t , and e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , was a n a l y z e d u t i l i z i n g t h e U.B.C. Computing C e n t r e M u l t i v a r i a t e C o n t i n g e n c y T a b u l a t i o n s (MVTAB). O r d i n a l d a t a , s u c h as age, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e x , S.A.V., N e u r o t i -c i s m , and S o c i o - E c o n o m i c s t a t u s , w h i c h met t h e a s s u m p t i o n s f o r c o r r e l a t i o n , was a n a l y z e d u t i l i z i n g t h e U.B.C. Computing C e n t r e T r i a n g u l a r R e g r e s s i o n Package ( T R I P ) . The INMSDC s u b - r o u t i n e o f TRIP was used t o p r o d u c e means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s and a c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x . The T-TEST s u b - r o u t i n e o f TRIP was used t o e x t r a c t s u b s e t s o f d a t a and t o a n a l y z e d i f f e r e n c e s between means. The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e s u b - r o u t i n e o f t h e S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (SPSS) was used t o a n a l y z e nominal d a t a i n t h e f i r s t d i m e n s i o n s u c h as s e x , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , c o u r s e c o n t e n t , and e d u c a -t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , w i t h o r d i n a l d a t a i n t h e secon d d i m e n s i o n such as mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V. and E.P.S. f a c t o r s c o r e s . The U.B.C. Computing C e n t r e F a c t o r A n a l y s i s (FAN) program was used t o r e d u c e t h e f o r t y E.P.S. it e m s t o s i x " m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s " , w h i c h , f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s c o r i n g , were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a g e , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e x , N e u r o t i c i s m , and S.A.V. s c o r e s . 28 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s , f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e E.P.S., t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e t e s t i n g o f each hypo-t h e s i s , and a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s . CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESPONDENTS Of t h e 240 s u b j e c t s , 36.2 per c e n t were e n r o l l e d i n h o b b y / l e i s u r e c o u r s e s , 32.9 p e r c e n t i n academic programs, and 30.8 p e r c e n t i n j o b / v o c a t i o n a l programs. T a b l e 1 shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n by c l a s s . T h e r e were 97 men (40.4 p e r c e n t ) and 143 women (59.6 p e r c e n t ) i n t h e sample. The a v e r a g e age o f t h e s u b j e c t s was 30.35 y e a r s (S.D.= 10.94 y e a r s ) . More th a n h a l f o f t h e s u b j e c t s were m a r r i e d , 38 per c e n t had never m a r r i e d , and 7.5 p e r c e n t were widows, widowers, s e p a r a t e d o r d i v o r c e d ( T a b l e 2 ) . TABLE 2 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s by M a r i t a l S t a t u s S t a t u s n Per c e n t M a r r i e d 129 53.7 Widow/Widower 4 1.7 Separated/D i v o r c e d 14 5.8 Never M a r r i e d 93 38.7 T o t a l 240 100.0 29 More t h a n t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s had c o m p l e t e d Grade 12 o r more, 32 p e r c e n t had o b t a i n e d Grade 11 o r l e s s . T a b l e 3 shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s u b j e c t s by e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The mean number o f y e a r s o f f u l l t i me s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e was 12.17 y e a r s (S.D.=2.01 y e a r s ) . R espondents had, on a v e r a g e , n o t a t t e n d e d s c h o o l on a f u l l t i m e b a s i s f o r 11.86 y e a r s (S.D.=11.11 y e a r s ) . TABLE 3 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s by E d u c a t i o n a l Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s E d u c a t i o n a l Q u a l i f i c a t i o n n Per C e n t No f o r m a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n 0 0 Completed e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l 7 2.9 Completed Grade 10 o r 11 70 29.2 Grade 12 g r a d u a t i o n o r o v e r s e a s e q u i v a l e n t 82 34.2 V o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l d i p l o m a , B u s i n e s s S c h o o l d i p l o m a o r Journeyman's q u a l i f i c a t i o n s 30 12.5 P a r t o f a u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e 14 5.8 U n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e o r c o l l e g e / t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l d i p l o m a 22 9.2 U n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e o r d i p l o m a and some o t h e r f i n a l q u a l i f i c a -t i o n s 15 6.3 T o t a l 240 100.0 30 The mean s c o r e o b t a i n e d by s u b j e c t s on the " a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e x " was 27.38 (S.D.=29.63). O c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s was coded by u s i n g B l i s h e n ' s (1967) a n a l y s i s o f C a n a d i a n c e n s u s d a t a w h e r e i n o c c u p a t i o n s were ranked i n a c c o r d w i t h s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . B l i s h e n d e r i v e d t h e r a n k s by an i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n o f d a t a c o n c e r n i n g income and e d u c a t i o n . The mean s c o r e o b t a i n e d by r e s -pondents was 40.57 (S.D.=12.38). The 240 s u b j e c t s had a mean p e r s o n a l income o f $10,000 (S.D.= $5,000.). The a v e r a g e f a m i l y income, p e r s o n a l income p l u s s p o u s e ' s income, was $14,000 (S.D.=$6,000.). The mean s c o r e on t h e E.P . I . - N e u r o t i c i s m s c a l e was 10.25 (S.D.=5.25). The mean P.O.I. - S.A.V. s c o r e was 17.15 (S.D.=2.86). FACTOR ANALYSIS OF THE E.P.S. F a c t o r S t r u c t u r e o f E.P.S. E.P.S. d a t a f r o m 240 r e s p o n d e n t s were s u b j e c t t o a p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s and o r t h o g o n a l r o t a t i o n ( v a r i m a x ) . An o r t h o g o n a l r o t a t i o n was chose n because o f t h e d e s i r e t o produce u n c o r r e l a t e d f a c t o r s . The f i r s t f a c t o r i n g p r o d u c e d t e n f a c t o r s w i t h e i g e n v a l u e s g r e a t e r t h a n 1.00. C a t t e l l ' s s c r e e t e s t (1966) w h i c h examines e i g e n v a l u e s , i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e c l e a r e s t s t r u c t u r e f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y would be a c h i e v e d by r o t a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t s i x f a c t o r s . S i x f a c t o r s were o r t h o g o n a l l y r o t a t e d t o a c h i e v e a s t r u c t u r e s i m i l a r t o t h a t o b t a i n e d by M o r s t a i n and Smart (1974) and by B o s h i e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) . Items l o a d i n g .40 o r more a f t e r r o t a t i o n were i n c l u d e d i n each f a c t o r . The names g i v e n t o t h e s i x i d e n t i f i e d f a c t o r s were: J o b 31 Competence; S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n ; S o c i a l C o n t a c t ; C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t ; and E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s . The v a r i a b l e s o r r e a s o n s w hich were i n c l u d e d i n e a c h f a c t o r a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 4 by number as t h e y a p p e a r i n t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n  S c a l e . The t a b l e i n c l u d e s t h e v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r by each o f t h e s i x i n t e r p r e t a b l e f a c t o r s , t h e v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r by t h e f o u r r e m a i n i n g f a c t o r s , and t h e t o t a l v a r i a n c e o f t h e t e n f a c t o r s . TABLE 4 The E.P.S. F a c t o r s , The Items i n Each F a c t o r , and The V a r i a n c e A c c o u n t e d For F a c t o r s (*) Items i n Each F a c t o r V a r i a n c e F a c t o r I J o b Competence (+) 10,20,3,18,32,11 ,13,15 and 30 17.66% F a c t o r II S o c i a l W e l f a r e (-) 33,9,31 ,23,29,4,22,19, and 39 16.22% F a c t o r I I I E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n (+) 8,5,12,28,34,27, and 21 5.89% F a c t o r IV S o c i a l C o n t a c t (+) 31 ,28,26,38,17,14, and 24 5.07% F a c t o r V C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t (-) 7,37,25 and 1 ' 4.00% F a c t o r VI E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n (+) 36,6,40, and 2 3.70% S i x f a c t o r t o t a l 52.57% The v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r by r e m a i n i n g f o u r f a c t o r s 11.49% Ten f a c t o r t o t a l 64.06% * D i r e c t i o n o f f a c t o r l o a d i n g i s i n d i c a t e d by + o r -32 F a c t o r C o n t e n t The s i x f a c t o r s c o n t a i n e d 38 o f t h e 40 E.P.S. i t e m s . The it e m s i n F a c t o r I were "pure" i n t h a t none l o a d e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y on any o t h e r f a c t o r . In F a c t o r I I , o f t h e n i n e i t e m s , o n l y "To improve my s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s " had a l o a d i n g g r e a t e r than .40 on any o t h e r f a c t o r . In F a c t o r I I I o n l y "To g e t a break i n the r o u t i n e o f home and work" had a l o a d i n g g r e a t e r t h a n .40 on a n o t h e r f a c t o r . None o f t h e i t e m s w h i c h composed F a c t o r IV, V, and VI had l o a d i n g s g r e a t e r t h a n .40 on any o t h e r f a c t o r . The i t e m s c o m p r i s i n g e a c h f a c t o r a r e l i s t e d f o r each o f t h e s i x f a c t o r s . Each i t e m i s p r e c e d e d by the. i t e m number and f o l l o w e d by t h e f a c t o r l o a d i n g s . F a c t o r I - Job/Competence 10 To g i v e me h i g h e r s t a t u s i n my j o b .75 20 To h e l p me e a r n a d e g r e e , d i p l o m a o r c e r t i f i c a t e .73 3 To s e c u r e p r o f e s s i o n a l advancement .70 18 To i n c r e a s e my j o b competence .70 32 To meet f o r m a l r e q u i r e m e n t s .68 11 To supplement a narrow p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n .65 13 To a c q u i r e knowledge t o h e l p w i t h o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s .61 15 To keep up w i t h t h e c o m p e t i t i o n .56 30 To keep up w i t h o t h e r s .41 T h e common theme i n F a c t o r I i s t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e e n r o l l e d i n o r d e r t o a c q u i r e b a s i c knowledge, a t t i t u d e s , o r s k i l l s t h a t w i l l h e l p them o b t a i n o r h o l d j o b s and has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s an a s p e c t o f d e f -i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . 33 F a c t o r I I c o n t a i n s n i n e i t e m s and i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h p a r t i c i p a n t s e n r o l l e d i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e h u m a n i t a r i a n community o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s f a c t o r a p p e a r s t o measure an a s p e c t o f growth m o t i v a t i o n ; however, t h e p r e s e n c e o f i t e m 31 "To improve my s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s " and i t e m n i n e "To be a c c e p t e d by o t h e r s " s u g g e s t s t h a t w i t h t h i s sample t h e f a c t o r may a l s o be i d e n t i f y i n g some d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d p e r s o n s . F a c t o r II - S o c i a l W e l f a r e 39 To improve my a b i l i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n community work - .72 19 To g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o my p e r s o n a l problems - .67 22 To p r e p a r e f o r community s e r v i c e - .62 4 To become more e f f e c t i v e as a c i t i z e n - .60 29 To improve my a b i l i t y t o s e r v e mankind - .59 23 To g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o human r e l a t i o n s - .53 31 To improve my s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s - .53 9 To be a c c e p t e d by o t h e r s - .51 33 To m a i n t a i n o r improve my s o c i a l p o s i t i o n - .44 F a c t o r I I I c o n t a i n s seven i t e m s which r e f l e c t a need f o r s t i m u l a -t i o n o r e s c a p e from what m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d a b o r i n g e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s f a c t o r measures an a s p e c t o f d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . F a c t o r I I I - E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n *' 8 To overcome t h e f r u s t r a t i o n o f day t o day l i v i n g .74 5 To g e t r e l i e f from boredom .68 12 To s t o p m y s e l f becoming a v e g e t a b l e .65 28 To g e t a b r e a k i n the r o u t i n e o f home o r work .63 34 1 To e s c a p e an unhappy r e l a t i o n s h i p .56 34 27 To p r o v i d e a c o n t r a s t t o t h e r e s t o f my l i f e .55 27 To e s c a p e t e l e v i s i o n .50 * Item 16 "To e s c a p e t he i n t e l l e c t u a l narrowness o f my o c c u p a t i o n " and Item 35 "To p r o v i d e a c o n t r a s t t o my p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n " l o a d e d .38 and .36 r e s p e c t i v e l y on t h i s f a c t o r . The f o u r t h f a c t o r c o n t a i n s seven i t e m s which a r e p r i m a r i l y c o n -c e r n e d w i t h s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I n d i v i d u a l s who a r e en-r o l l e d f o r t h e s e r e a s o n s s t a t e a need f o r group a f f i l i a t i o n and making new f r i e n d s . T h i s f a c t o r a l s o measures an a s p e c t o f d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . F a c t o r IV - S o c i a l C o n t a c t -26 To become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h c o n g e n i a l p e o p l e .75 38 To make new f r i e n d s .75 17 To p a r t i c i p a t e i n group a c t i v i t y .66 14 To f u l f i l l a need f o r p e r s o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and f r i e n d s h i p s .56 31 To improve my s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .52 24 To have a few h o u r s away f r o m r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .44 28 To g e t a br e a k i n the r o u t i n e o f home o r work .40 F a c t o r V i t e m s r e f l e c t H o u l e ' s l e a r n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n a nd, t h e r e f o r e , measures an a s p e c t o f growth m o t i v a t i o n . F a c t o r V - C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t 1 To seek knowledge f o r i t s own sake - .75 25 To l e a r n j u s t f o r t h e j o y o f l e a r n i n g - .74 37 To l e a r n j u s t f o r t h e sake o f l e a r n i n g - .72 7 To s a t i s f y an i n q u i r i n g mind - .69 F a c t o r VI i t e m s r e f l e c t t h e m o t i v a t i o n t o p u r s u e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n as a r e s u l t o f r e q u i r e m e n t s o r i n s t r u c t i o n s from i n d i v i d u a l s o r a g e n c i e s 35 w i t h w h i c h t h e p a r t i c i p a n t i s a s s o c i a t e d . I n d i v i d u a l s who a t t e n d f o r t h e s e r e a s o n s a r e s e e k i n g t o f u l f i l l t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f o t h e r s and the f a c t o r i s c o n s i d e r e d t o measure d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . F a c t o r VI - E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s 36 To comply w i t h t h e s u g g e s t i o n s o f some one e l s e .77 6 To c a r r y o u t t h e recommendation o f some a u t h o r i t y .69 40 To comply w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s from someone e l s e .66 2 To s h a r e a common i n t e r e s t w i t h my spouse o r f r i e n d .40 , F a c t o r two and f i v e a r e t h e r e f o r e growth f a c t o r s and f a c t o r s one, t h r e e , f o u r , and s i x a r e d e f i c i e n c y f a c t o r s . T h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o b t a i n e d by B o s h i e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) . F a c t o r S c o r e s The above f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e p r o d u c e d s i x " o r i e n t a t i o n s " . A l t h o u g h a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e s t u d y , t h e s e o r i e n t a t i o n s do n o t i n d i -c a t e t h e e x t e n t t o which p a r t i c i p a n t s were e n r o l l e d f o r each o f t h e c l u s t e r s i d e n t i f i e d . T h u s , f a c t o r s c o r e s were p r o d u c e d ; t h e s e show t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h each p a r t i c i p a n t was e n r o l l e d f o r t h e r e a s o n s shown i n each f a c t o r . S i x f a c t o r s c o r e s were pro d u c e d f o r each r e s p o n d e n t . F a c t o r s c o r e s f o r t h e 240 s u b j e c t s were n o r m a l i z e d so t h e mean was z e r o , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f p l u s o r minus one. F a c t o r s c o r e s were p r o d u c e d by b u i l d i n g r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s u s i n g each f a c t o r as t h e dependent v a r i a b l e . T h e s e r e g r e s s i o n w e i g h t s were us e d w h i l e t h e o r i g i n a l d a t a was r e a d i n . The r e s u l t a n t f a c t o r s c o r e s t h u s have r e g a r d t o t h e magnitude o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n made by e a c h i t e m t o t h e f a c t o r . In m a t r i x n o t a t i o n t h e e q u a t i o n f o r f a c t o r s c o r e s was: . -1 F = ZR AB 36 Where F i s t h e m a t r i x o f f a c t o r s c o r e s , B t h e m a t r i x o f p r i m a r y f a c t o r c o r r e l a t i o n s , A i s t h e f a c t o r l o a d i n g m a t r i x , R"1 t h e i n v e r s e o f t h e m a t r i x o f o b s e r v e d c o r r e l a t i o n s , and Z t h e m a t r i x o f s t a n d a r d i z e d d a t a v a l u e s . S i x f a c t o r s c o r e s were produced f o r each s u b j e c t . TESTING THE HYPOTHESES N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. f a c t o r s c o r e s f o r each p a r t i c i -pant were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e i r s o c i a l and demographic v a r i a b l e s ( T a b l e 5) t o t e s t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h m o t i v e s f o r a t t e n d a n c e . S u b s e t s o f d a t a were e x t r a c t e d f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : age, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e x , number o f y e a r s a t t e n d e d s c h o o l on a f u l l t i m e b a s i s , o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , and p e r s o n a l and f a m i l y income. Mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V. and E.P.S. f a c t o r s c o r e s f o r each o f t h e s u b s e t s o f d a t a were a n a l y z e d u t i l i z i n g t - t e s t s ( T a b l e s 7,8,10,11,12,13). Nominal v a r i a b l e s w h i c h f a i l e d t o meet a s s u m p t i o n s f o r P e a r s o n i a n c o r r e l a t i o n were r e l a t e d t o t h e N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. f a c t o r s c o r e s by one way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . R e s u l t s a r e shown i n T a b l e s 6,9,15,16. The c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y o f t h e E.P.S. a s an i n d i c a t o r o f growth and d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n was t e s t e d by c o r r e l a t i n g E.P.S. f a c t o r s c o r e s w i t h N e u r o t i c i s m and S.A.V. s c o r e s ( T a b l e 1 4 ) . When r e a d i n g t h e T a b l e s , c a r e i s needed when c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s i g n i n f r o n t o f t h e E.P.S. f a c t o r . The d i r e c t i o n o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o -e f f i c i e n t i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e s i g n i n t h e f a c t o r l o a d i n g . F o r example: F a c t o r I , J o b Competence, has a p o s i t i v e l o a d i n g a s shown i n T a b l e 5. The Age and J o b Competence c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s -.13. The d i r e c t i o n o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t would be n e g a t i v e o r i n v e r s e s i n c e a minus t i m e s a p o s i t i v e i s a minus. 37 Hypo t h e s e s One and Two P a r t i c i p a n t s aged 45 - 65 a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more growth m o t i v a t e d t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s aged 18 - 44 y e a r s and t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s aged 18 - 44 y e a r s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s aged 45 - 65 y e a r s . Age c o r r e l a t e d ( T a b l e 5) s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g measures: N e u r o t i c i s m , ( r = -.18; p < .005), S.A.V., ( r = .18; p < . 0 0 5 ) , E.P.S. f a c t o r C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t , ( r = -.20; p < . 0 0 5 ) , and E.P.S. f a c t o r E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s , Cr = -.16; p < .005). T h i s d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n o f age i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f the age r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s "Number o f y e a r s s i n c e a t t e n d e d s c h o o l on a f u l l t i m e b a s i s . " S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were o b t a i n e d w i t h S.A.V., lr = .18; p<.005), and E.P.S. f a c t o r s C o g n i -t i v e I n t e r e s t , ( r = -.13; p < . 0 2 5 ) , E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s , ( r = -.16; p < . 0 0 5 ) , and E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n , ( r = -.11; p < . 0 5 ) . In a d d i t i o n T a b l e 6 s u g g e s t s t h a t m a r r i e d (and t h u s o l d e r ) p a r t i c i p a n t s o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( p < . 0 2 5 ) l o w e r mean n e u r o t i c i s m s c o r e s t h a n u n m a r r i e d and you n g e r p a r t i -c i p a n t s . S e p a r a t e d / d i v o r c e d (and t h u s o l d e r ) p a r t i c i p a n t s were a l s o more i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r E.P.S. f a c t o r C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t ( p < .05) and l e s s i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s ( p < .025) r e a s o n s t h a n t h e y o u n g e r never m a r r i e d g r o u p . The d a t a , t h e r e f o r e , g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t growth and d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h age. Hypot h e s e s one and two were f u r t h e r t e s t e d by a n a l y z i n g mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V. and E.P.S. f a c t o r s c o r e s f o r h i g h and low age g r o u p s . The mean age f o r t h e two gr o u p s was 53.15 and 27.71 y e a r s r e s p e c t i v e l y . T a b l e 7 shows t h e mean, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , and t - v a l u e f o r each measure. P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e o l d e r age group o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( p < .025) T a b l e 5 C o r r e l a t i o n Between N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s and Demographic and S o c i a l Data N e u r o t i -c i s m S.A.V. F a c t o r I + F a c t o r II F a c t o r I I I + F a c t o r IV + ' F a c t o r V F a c t o r VI + D e f i c i e n c y Growth Job Competence D e f i c i e n c y S o c i a l W e l f a r e Growth Esca p e / S t i m u l a t i o n D e f i c i e n c y S o c i a l C o n t a c t D e f i c i e n c y C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t Growth E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a -t i o n s D e f i c i e n c y Age -.18**** 13**** -.13** -.09 -.10 .12* -.20**** -.16**** P a r t i c i p a t i o n Index -.13** .14** -.07 .04 .03 .03 -.15*** -.03 Number o f Y e a r s Formal E d u c a t i o n .01 -.03 -.30**** .01 -.02 .10 -.01 .09 Number o f Y e a r s S i n c e A t t e n d e d S c h o o l on F u l l Time B a s i s -.02 • j g * * * * -.09 -.08 -.11* .09 -.13** -.16**** O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s -.08 .04 -.26**** -.02 -.03 .07 _ ^ ] g * * * * -.03 P e r s o n a l Income -.26**** .13** _ "j g**** -.11* -.08 -.03 .00 -.03 F a m i l y Income -. 19**** .11* _ ^  24**** _ >17**** -!03 -.03 -.05 -.10 * = p<. .05 ** = p < .025 *** = p < .01 **** = p £ .005 (one t a i l e d t e s t ) co T a b l e 6 Mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s By M a r i t a l S t a t u s Mean S c o r e s Mean Squares M a r r i e d n=129 Widow/er n=4 S e p a r a t e d / D i v o r c e d n=14 Never M a r r i e d n=93 Between W i t h i n 3 236 F R a t i o N e u r o t i c i s m S.A.V. F a c t o r I Job Competence (+) F a c t o r II S o c i a l W e l f a r e (-) F a c t o r I I I E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n (+) F a c t o r IV S o c i a l A f f i l i a t i o n (+.) F a c t o r V C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t (-) F a c t o r VI E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s (+) 9.46 17.22 -.14 -.14 .02 .03 -.08 -.08 11.75 19.00 -.14 .36 -.31 .15 .10 .36 9.46 11.54 93.46 26.68 3.503 p < . 0 2 5 17.64 16.89 8.00 8.11 .986 n . s . .31 .07 -.40 -.19 -.59 -.58 ,14 ,16 ,04 ,02 ,18 ,19 1.95 1.81 .98 .97 2.010 .98 1.850 .99 .25 1.00 ,980 ,252 n.s. n . s . n.s. n.s. 2.88 .98 3.010 p< .05 3.07 .96 3.185 p < . 0 2 5 40 h i g h e r s c o r e s on t h e S.A.V. th a n y o u n g e r p a r t i c i p a n t s . O l d e r p a r t i c i p a n t s were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p< .05) l e s s i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r E s c a p e r e a s o n s t h a n y o u n g e r p a r t i c i p a n t s . O l d e r p a r t i c i p a n t s , however, were s i g -n i f i c a n t l y ( p < . 0 0 5 ) more i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r S o c i a l C o n t a c t r e a s o n s t h a n younger p a r t i c i p a n t s . On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e r e s u l t s , h y p o t h e s e s one and two were a c c e p t e d . Hypotheses T h r e e and Four P a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h a h i s t o r y o f " c o n t i n u o u s " p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e s i g -n i f i c a n t l y more growth m o t i v a t e d t h a n " s p o r a d i c " p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h a h i s t o r y o f " s p o r a d i c " p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d t h a n " c o n t i n u o u s " p a r t i c i p a n t s . A d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e x s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d ( T a b l e 5) s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h : N e u r o t i c i s m , ( r = -.13; p< .025), S.A.V., ( r = .14; p < . 0 2 5 ) , and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t , ( r = -.15; p < .01). T h e s e r e s u l t s g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t c o n t i n u o u s a d u l t l e a r n e r s a r e growth m o t i v a t e d and t h a t t e r m i n a l o r s p o r a d i c a d u l t l e a r n e r s a r e d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d . Hypotheses t h r e e and f o u r were f u r t h e r t e s t e d by a n a l y z i n g mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. f a c t o r s c o r e s f o r h i g h and low s c o r e s on t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e x ( T a b l e 8 ) . S p o r a d i c a d u l t l e a r n e r s o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( p < . 0 0 1 ) h i g h e r N e u r o t i c i s m s c o r e s t h a n c o n t i n u o u s a d u l t l e a r n e r s . C o n t i n u o u s a d u l t l e a r n e r s were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( p < . 0 1 ) more i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t r e a s o n s t h a n s p o r a d i c p a r t i c i p a n t s . H y p o t h e s e s t h r e e and f o u r were t h e r e f o r e a c c e p t e d . H y p o t h e s e s F i v e and S i x P a r t i c i p a n t s " h i g h " i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more growth m o t i v a t e d t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s "low" i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s 41 and t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s "low" i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s " h i g h " i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . T a b l e 7 Mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s F o r High and Low Age Groups Age 18-45n=206 Age 46-70n=25 X S.D. X S.D. t V a l u e t Prob. Age 27.71 7.47 53.15 5.11 N e u r o t i c i s m 10.25 5.16 9.33 5.79 .86 n.s. S.A.V. 17.03 2.89 18.30 2.40 2.17 p < . 0 2 5 Job Competence (+) .02 1.00 -.14 .95 .78 n.s. S o c i a l W e l f a r e (-) .02 .98 -.19 1.09 1.07 n.s. E scape (+) .04 1.01 -.34 .84 1.92 p < .05 S o c i a l C o n t a c t (+) -.05 1.00 .55 .79 3.04 p < .005 C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t ( - ) -.00 .98 -.23 .96 1.12 n.s. E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s (+) -.01 1.00 -.17 .89 .90 n.s. The f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s (Tab! e 5) were u t i l i z e d as i n d i c a t o r s o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s : Number o f y e a r s o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n ; E d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ( T a b l e 9 ) ; O c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s ; and P e r s o n a l and F a m i l y income. Number o f y e a r s o f s c h o o l c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y o n l y w i t h J o b Competency, ( r = -.30; p < . 0 0 5 ) . P a r t i c i p a n t s who had a t t a i n e d e l e m e n t a r y , Grade 10 o r 11, o r V o c a t i o n a l S c h o o l e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were s i g n i -f i c a n t l y ( p < . 0 0 1 ) more i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r J o b Competence r e a s o n s t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s who had o b t a i n e d Grade 12 p l u s e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . 42 T a b l e 8 Mean P a r t i c i p a t i o n , N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s For High and Low S c o r e r s on t h e P a r t i c i p a t i o n Index P a r t i c i p a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n Low n=168 High n=68 T S.D. T S.D. t V a l u e t Prob P a r t i c i p a t i o n 14.82 5.44 57.89 40.45 N e u r o t i c i s m 10.95 5.11 8.56 5.22 3.28 p«t .001 S.A.V. 16.98 2.90 17.57 2.69 1.48 n.s. J o b Competence (+) .05 1.01 -.16 .91 1.60 n.s. S o c i a l W e l f a r e (-) -.00 .94 -.00 1.13 .01 n. s. Es c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n (+) -.00 1.00 .00 1.00 .06 n.s. S o c i a l C o n t a c t (+) -.03 1.00 .09 .98 .94 n.s. C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t ( - ) .08 1.02 -.23 .88 2.33 P4. .01 E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s (+) .03 1.00 -.06 1.00 .70 n.s . O c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h J o b Competence, ( r = -.26; p < .005), and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t , ( r = -.19; p < . 0 0 5 ) . P e r s o n a l income c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h N e u r o t i c i s m , ( r = -.26; p< .005), S.A.V., ( r = .13; p < . 0 2 5 ) , J o b Competence, ( r = -.19; p < . 0 0 5 ) , and S o c i a l W e l f a r e , ( r = -.11; p < . 0 5 ) . F a m i l y income c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h N e u r o t i c i s m , ( r = -.19; p < .005), S.A.V., ( r = .11; p < . 0 5 ) , J o b Competence, ( r = -.24; p « . 0 0 5 ) , and S o c i a l W e l f a r e , ( r = -.17; p< .005). These r e s u l t s g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t g r o w t h / d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . 43 H ypotheses f i v e and s i x were f u r t h e r " t e s t e d by a n a l y z i n g mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. f a c t o r s c o r e s f o r h i g h and low'Numbers o f Y e a r s o f School", O c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , and Income g r o u p s . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e h i g h "Number o f Y e a r s o f S c h o o l i n g " group ( T a b l e 10) were s i g n i f i c a n t l y Cp<.001) l e s s i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r J o b Competence r e a s o n s t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e low "Number o f Y e a r s o f S c h o o l i n g . " P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e h i g h O c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s group o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( p < . 0 5 ) l o w e r N e u r o t i c i s m s c o r e s t h a n t h e low O c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s group ( T a b l e 1 1 ) . H i g h O c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s groups were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( p < . 0 0 1 ) l e s s i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r J o b Competence r e a s o n s , more i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r S o c i a l C o n t a c t (p< .025), and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t ( p < . 0 0 5 ) r e a s o n s , and l e s s i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s ( p < .05) r e a s o n s t h a n t h e low O c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s group. P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e h i g h p e r s o n a l income group o b t a i n e d l o w e r Neuro-t i c i s m s c o r e s ( p < . 0 0 5 ) and h i g h e r S.A.V. s c o r e s ( p ^ .025) t h a n the low p e r s o n a l income group ( T a b l e 1 2 ) . In a d d i t i o n , p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e h i g h p e r s o n a l income group were l e s s i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r J o b Competence r e a s o n s ( p < .001) and more i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r S o c i a l W e l f a r e r e a s o n s ( p < . 0 1 ) t h a n low p e r s o n a l income p a r t i c i p a n t s . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e h i g h f a m i l y income group o b t a i n e d l o w e r Neuro-t i c i s m s c o r e s ( p < . 0 5 ) th a n p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the low f a m i l y income group ( T a b l e 1 3 ) . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e h i g h f a m i l y income group were l e s s i n ^ c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r J o b Competence ( p < . 0 0 5 ) and more i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r S o c i a l W e l f a r e ( p < .005) r e a s o n s t h a n low f a m i l y income p a r t i c i p a n t s . H ypotheses f i v e and s i x were t h e r e f o r e a c c e p t e d . o-Table 9 Mean Neuroticism, S.A.V., E.P.S. Factor Scores By Educational Qual i f icat ion Mean Scores Mean Squares Neurotocism S.A.V. Factor I Job Competence (+) Factor II Social Welfare (-) Factor III Escape/ Stimulation (+) Factor IV Social Contact (+) Factor V Cognitive Interest(-) Factor VI External Expectations Grade Vocational Part Elementary 10 or 11 Grade 12 School University University University + Between Within F Ratio F Prob. n = 7 n = 70 n = 82 n = 30 n = 14 n = 22 n = 15 n = 7 n= 232 (+) 11.29 15.86 .52 -.36 -.05 -.02 .09 -.37 10.46 17.19 .49 .08 .10 -.20 .14 .13 11.13 16.87 -.26 -.03 -.06 .10 .01 -.09 7.57 18.00 .27 -.03 -.33 -.00 -.17 -.20 10.71 17.07 -.70 .16 .16 -.32 .05 -.22 9.86 17.50 -.46 -.28 -.26 .32 -.09 .27 9.53 17.00 -.46 .18 .14 .28 .41 .32 43.52 27.04 1.609 n.s. 6.18 8.17 .756 n.s. 5.86 .84 6.998 p<.001 .59 1.00 .590 n.s. .90 1.00 .903 n.s. 1.24 .98 1.266 n.s. .70 .99 .711 n.s. 1.11 .99 1.128 n.s. 45 T a b l e 10 Mean E d u c a t i o n a l A t t a i n m e n t , N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s F or H i g h And Low Number o f Y e a r s School Groups G r . l l n = 7 9 Gr.l2n=154 X S.D. X S.D. t V a l u e t Prob. E d u c a t i o n a l A t t a i n (No. o f y e a r s ) • 10.26 .98 13.17 1.66 N e u r o t i c i s m 10.19 5.21 10.44 5.24 .35 n.s. S.A.V. 17.37 2.99 17.00 2.75 .94 n.s. J o b Competence (+) .33 .99 -.17 .95 3.79 p < .001 S o c i a l W e l f a r e (-) .01 1.00 -.01 1.00 .22 n.s. E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n (+) .00 .90 .00 1.05 .02 n.s. S o c i a l C o n t a c t (+). -.08 .93 .03 1.02 .89 n.s. C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t ( - ) -.07 1.00 .02 .97 .80 n . s . E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s (+) -.02 .92 .04 1.03 .45 n.s. 46 T a b l e 11 Mean O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s , N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V. and E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s F o r Hi g h and Low O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s Groups Low S t a t u s n=57 High S t a t u s n=68 X S.D. X S.D. t V a l u e t P r o b . O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s 29.17 1.88 53.26 6.70 N e u r o t i c i s m 10.84 4.69 9.17 5.27 1.88 p< .05 S.A.V. 16.98 2.60 17.33 3.18 .66 n.s. J o b Competence (+) .39 .85 -.39 .87 5.18 p < .001 S o c i a l W e l f a r e (-) -.01 .89 -.09 1.15 .42 n.s. E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n (+) -.06 1.02 -.07 1.05 .08 n.s. S o c i a l C o n t a c t (+) -.25 .88 •11 .98 2.18 p * .025 C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t ( - ) .36 .98 -.12 1.02 2.69 PZ..005 E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s (+) .22 1.08 -.11 .88 1.92 p * .05 47 T a b l e 12 Mean P e r s o n a l Income, N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s F or High and Low P e r s o n a l Income Groups n=155 n=76 Low P e r s o n a l High P e r s o n a l Income Income X S.D. X S.D. t V a l u e t Prob. P e r s o n a l Income $6,000 $2,000 $16,000 $3,000 N e u r o t i c i s m 10.99 5.01 8.93 5.37 2.88 p < .005 S.A.V. 16.87 2.70 17.65 3.03 2.00 p < .025 J o b Competence (+) .15 1.02 -.29 .86 2.28 p < .001 S o c i a l W e l f a r e (-) .11 .91 -.19 1.04 2.29 p < .01 E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n (+) -.00 • 97 .02 1.09 .19 n.s. S o c i a l C o n t a c t (+) -.01 1.01 -.04 .94 .22 n.s. , C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t •(-) -.05 .99 .03 .95 .67 n.s. E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s (+) .04 1.05 -.04 .89 .61 n.s. 48 T a b l e 13 Mean F a m i l y Income, N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s For High and Low F a m i l y Income Groups Low F a m i l y High F a m i l y Income Income n=106 n=125 X S.D. X S.D. t V a l u e t P r o b . F a m i l y Income $8,000 $3,000 $19,000 $3,000 N e u r o t i c i s m 10.90 5.22 9.76 5.18 1.66 p < .05 S.A.V. 16.94 2.61 17.29 3.01 .94 n.s. J o b Competence (+) .20 1.01 -.18 .94 2.97 p<£ .005 S o c i a l W e l f a r e (-) .21 .79 -.16 1.06 3.03 p< .005 E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n (+) -.07 .88 .06 •1.10 1.13 n.s. S o c i a l C o n t a c t (+) -.06 .97 .01 1.00 .63 . n.s. C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t (-) .03 1.06 -.07 .90 .86 n.s. E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s (+) .12 1.04" -.08 .95 1.62 n.s. H y p o t h e s e s Seven and E i g h t T h e r e w i l l be a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c o r e s on a measure o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n and s c o r e s on E.P.S. growth m o t i v a t i o n f a c t o r s and a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c o r e s on a measure o f d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n and s c o r e s on E.P.S. d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n f a c t o r s . The s i x E.P.S. f a c t o r s c o r e s were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h N e u r o t i c i s m and S.A.V. s c o r e s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y o f t h e E.P.S. ( T a b l e 1 4 ) . 49 T a b l e 14 C o r r e l a t i o n Between E.P.S. F a c t o r s , N e u r o t i c i s m , and S.A.V. S c o r e s E.P.S. F a c t o r s N e u r o t i c i s m S.A.V. F a c t o r I Job Competence (+) .02 -.08 F a c t o r I I S o c i a l W e l f a r e (-) -.14* .20** F a c t o r I I I E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n (+) .33** -.19** F a c t o r IV S o c i a l C o n t a c t (+) .01 -.01 F a c t o r V C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t (-) .01 -.24** F a c t o r VI E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s (+) .14* -.03 * =p<.025 ** =p<s,.005 No s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were o b t a i n e d between J o b Competence and N e u r o t i c i s m and S.A.V. s c o r e s . E.P.S. f a c t o r S o c i a l W e l f a r e c o r -r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h N e u r o t i c i s m , ( r = -.14; p< .025), and S.A.V., ( r = .20; p<..005). E.P.S. f a c t o r E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i -f i c a n t l y w i t h N e u r o t i c i s m , ( r = -.33; p4..005), and S.A.V., ( r = -.19; p < .005). No s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n was o b t a i n e d between S o c i a l C o n t a c t , N e u r o t i c i s m , and S.A.V. s c o r e s . E.P.S. f a c t o r C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h S.A.V., ( r = -.24: p< .005). T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n between C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t and N e u r o t i c i s m . E.P.S. f a c t o r E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a -t i o n s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h N e u r o t i c i s m , ( r = .14; p4..025). No 50 .. T a b l e 15 Mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s By Sex Mean S c o r e s Mean Squares F F M a l e s Females Between W i t h i n R a t i o Prob. n=97 n=143 1 238 N e u r o t i c i s m S.A.V. F a c t o r I Jo b Competence F a c t o r II S o c i a l W e l f a r e (+) (-) F a c t o r I I I E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n (+) F a c t o r IV S o c i a l C o n t a c t (+) F a c t o r V C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t C-) F a c t o r VI E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s ( + ) 9.19 10.98 185.89 26.86 6.922 p< .01 17.10 17.18 .38 8.14 .046 n.s. .11 -.08 2.10 .98 2.145 n.s. -.14 .09 3.00 .98 3.060 n.s. -.09 .06 1.28 .99 1.292 n.s. -.08 .06 1.09 .99 1.09 n.s. -.16 .22 8.45 .95 8.898 p < .005 .07 -.04 .59 .99 .590 n.s. s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n e x i s t e d between E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s a n d S.A.V. On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e r e s u l t s , H ypotheses seven and e i g h t were a c c e p t e d . OTHER FINDINGS Sex T a b l e 15 shows mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V. and E.P.S. f a c t o r s c o r e s by se x . Men o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( p < . 0 0 5 ) lower mean N e u r o t i c i s m s c o r e s t h a n women. Men a l s o were more i n c l i n e d ( p < . 0 0 5 ) t o be e n r o l l e d f o r Cog-n i t i v e I n t e r e s t r e a s o n s t h a n women. No o t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s were s i g n i f i c a n t . 51 C o u r s e C o n t e n t T a b l e 16 shows t h e mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. f a c t o r s c o r e s by c o u r s e c o n t e n t . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n H o b b y / L e i s u r e , A c a d e mic, and V o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s were o b t a i n e d on J o b Competence (p 4 . 0 0 1 ) , S o c i a l W e l f a r e ( p < . 0 0 5 ) , E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n ( p ^ . 0 0 5 ) , S o c i a l C o n t a c t ( p < . 0 0 1 ) , and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t ( p < . 0 0 1 ) . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E x t e r n a l / E x p e c t a t i o n mean s c o r e s . DISCUSSION The p r o b l e m posed a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s s t u d y c o n c e r n e d t h e e x t e n t t o wh i c h m o t i v a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n f l u e n c e p a r t i c i p a n t s d e c i s i o n s t o engage i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . A g r o w t h / d e f i c i e n c y model o f m o t i v e s c o m b i n i n g Maslow's m o t i v a t i o n a l t h e o r y and a d u l t l i f e c y c l e c o n -c e p t s was p r o p o s e d . Growth o r d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n was s u g g e s t e d as b e i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n p a t t e r n o f a d u l t s . I t was a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e age o r s t a g e o f t h e l i f e c y c l e and t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h growth o r d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . Age S p e c i f i c a l l y i t was f o u n d t h a t g r o w t h / d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n v a r i e d as a f u n c t i o n o f age. The t r a n s i t i o n from d e f i c i e n c y t o growth m o t i v a t i o n d u r i n g t h e l i f e c y c l e , however, a p p e a r s t o t a k e p l a c e i n a d i f f e r e n t time sequence t h a n s u g g e s t e d by Maslow (1955). The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t young a d u l t s i n t h i s sample a r e d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d u n t i l a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e i r l a t e t w e n t i e s . The t h i r t i e s marks t h e t r a n s i t i o n f r o m d e f i c i e n c y t o grow t h m o t i v a t i o n . The f o r t i e s and e a r l y f i f t i e s a p pear t o be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a p e r i o d o f growth m o t i v a t i o n as t h e o r i z e d by Kuhlen (1963). Whether T a b l e 16 Mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s By C o u r s e C o n t e n t Mean S c o r e s Mean Squares Hobby/ L e i s u r e Academic V o c a t i o n a l Between W i t h i n F R a t i o n=87 n=79 n=74 2 237 N e u r o t i c i s m 10.76 S.A.V. 17.01 F a c t o r I Job Competence (+) -.80 F a c t o r I I S o c i a l W e l f a r e (-) .14 F a c t o r I I I E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n (+) .18 F a c t o r IV S o c i a l C o n t a c t (+) .35 F a c t o r V C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t (-) -.32 F a c t o r VI E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s (+) -.10 10.14 16.81 .70 .13 .10 -.32 .32 .12 9.78 16.86 .18 -.31 -.32 .07 .02 -.01 19.78 27.59 .717 20.78 8.00 2.596 48.53 5.15 5.56 9.79 8.56 .98 .58 83.258 .95 .96 ,92 .99 5.411 5.809 .92 10.687 9.334 .985 n.s. n.s. p< .001 P4 .005 p<. .005 p< .001 p< .001 n.s. 53 a p e r i o d o f d e c l i n e f o l l o w s , and d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v e s become p r e v a l e n t i n t h e l a t e 50's and 60's c o u l d not be d e t e r m i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The mean age o f t h e o l d e r group was 53 y e a r s (n=25). O l d e r p a r t i c i p a n t s , 55 y e a r s p l u s , were t h u s p r a c t i c a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t i n t h i s sample. The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e o b t a i n e d between t h e o l d e r age group and S.A.V. s c o r e s c o u l d t h e r e f o r e r e f l e c t t h e peak growth m o t i v a t i o n p e r i o d o f m i d d l e age and d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n c o u l d become p r e v a l e n t w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age and d e c l i n e . The a c c e p t a n c e o f H y p o t h e s i s two, t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t o l d e r p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e growth m o t i v a t e d , t h e r e f o r e , r e m a i n s somewhat tenuous and a w a i t s f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . P a r t i c i p a t i o n The d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t c o n t i n u o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s i n programs a r e growth m o t i v a t e d and u t i l i z e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs f o r c o n t i n u o u s p e r s o n a l g rowth. T e r m i n a l o r s p o r a d i c p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e d e f i c i e n c y m o t i -v a t e d and once g r a t i f i c a t i o n has o c c u r r e d , e q u i l i b r i u m i s r e s t o r e d , and f u r t h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n c e a s e s . S o c i o - E c o n o m i c S t a t u s The d a t a c l e a r l y s u p p o r t s t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h growth o r d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . P a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h low e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were p r i m a r i l y e n r o l l e d f o r J o b Competence r e a s o n s and were a t t e m p t i n g t o remedy e d u c a t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c i e s . Low o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s p a r t i c i p a n t s were p r i m a r i l y e n r o l l e d f o r J o b Competence r e a s o n s , whereas h i g h o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s p a r t i c i p a n t s were p r i m a r i l y e n r o l l e d f o r C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t r e a s o n s . High income p a r t i c i p a n t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s n e u r o t i c and more growth m o t i v a t e d t h a n low income p a r t i c i p a n t s . H igh income p a r t i c i p a n t s were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s i n -c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r J o b Competence r e a s o n s and more i n c l i n e d t o be - 54 e n r o l l e d f o r S o c i a l W e l f a r e r e a s o n s t h a n low income p a r t i c i p a n t s . Once t h e b a s i c s a f e t y o r s e c u r i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s o f j o b and income have been s a t -i s f i e d , p a r t i c i p a n t s become more growth m o t i v a t e d . E.P.S. F a c t o r s The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h r e e o f t h e s i x E.P.S. f a c t o r s c o u l d be u t i l i z e d as i n d i c a t o r s o f growth o r d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . The s t r o n g -e s t a s s o c i a t i o n o c c u r r e d w i t h E.P.S. d e f i c i e n c y f a c t o r E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n , N e u r o t i c i s m , and S.A.V. T h i s f a c t o r then i s a r e a s o n a b l y v a l i d i n d i c a t o r o f d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . E.P.S. growth f a c t o r C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t c o r -r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h S.A.V. and i s a r e a s o n a b l y v a l i d i n d i c a t o r o f grow t h m o t i v a t i o n . E.P.S. d e f i c i e n c y f a c t o r E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s c o r -r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h N e u r o t i c i s m and i s a r e a s o n a b l y v a l i d i n d i c a t o r o f d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . A s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n was o b t a i n e d between E.P.S. growth f a c t o r S o c i a l W e l f a r e , N e u r o t i c i s m , and S.A.V. The d i r e c t i o n o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n , however, i s o p p o s i t e t o t h e one a n t i c i p a t e d . T h e s e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t p e r s o n s e n r o l l i n g f o r S o c i a l Wei f a r e . r e a s o n s would g e n e r a l l y be d e f i c i e n c y r a t h e r t h a n growth m o t i v a t e d . In t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e S o c i a l W e l f a r e f a c t o r c o n t e n t i t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f i t e m s n i n e "To be a c c e p t e d by o t h e r s " and 31 "To improve my s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s " i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s f a c t o r was a l s o i d e n t i f y i n g d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d p e r s o n s . I t a p p e a r s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h i s f a c t o r i s somewhat a m b i v a l e n t i n i d e n t i f y i n g d e f i c i e n c y o r growth m o t i v a t i o n . The E.P.S. J o b Competence f a c t o r f a i l e d t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e w i t h e i t h e r N e u r o t i c i s m o r S.A.V. The a s s o c i a -t i o n w i t h S.A.V. w h i l e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t i s , however, i n t h e a n t i c i p a t e d d i r e c t i o n . 55 Sex The r e s u l t s show t h a t women were more n e u r o t i c t h a n men and l e s s l i k e l y t o be e n r o l l e d f o r C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t r e a s o n s t h a n men. W h i l e t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean f a c t o r s c o r e s o f women and men i n t h e r e m a i n i n g E.P.S. f a c t o r s , women were s l i g h t l y more Escape and S o c i a l C o n t a c t m o t i v a t e d t h a n men. Men were more j o b Competence, S o c i a l W e l f a r e , and E x t e r n a l l y m o t i v a t e d t h a n women. These f i n d i n g s t h e n g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t t h e "suburban house w i f e " and " b r e a d w i n n e r " l i f e c y c l e r o l e s o f women and men i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n suburban s o c i e t y . C o u r s e C o n t e n t M o t i v e s f o r a t t e n d a n c e a r e sometimes i n f e r r e d s o l e l y on t h e b a s i s o f t h e c o u r s e c o n t e n t which a p a r t i c i p a n t s e l e c t s . A p e r s o n e n r o l l e d i n house c o n s t r u c t i o n i s assumed t o want t o l e a r n how t o b u i l d a house. Such i n f e r e n c e s a r e open t o q u e s t i o n s i n c e p e o p l e c h o o s e t o e n r o l l f o r r e a s o n s u n r e l a t e d t o t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r . The most J o b Competence o r i e n t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s were t h o s e e n r o l l e d i n Academic c o u r s e s , t h e l e a s t were e n r o l l e d i n H o b b y / L e i s u r e c o u r s e s w i t h V o c a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e m i d d l e . The l e a s t S o c i a l W e l f a r e m o t i v a t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s were e n r o l l e d i n H o b b y / L e i s u r e and Academic c o u r s e s . The most S o c i a l W e l f a r e o r i e n t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s were e n r o l l e d i n V o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s . The l e a s t Escape m o t i v a t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s were e n r o l l e d i n V o c a -t i o n a l programs. The most Escape m o t i v a t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s were e n r o l l e d i n H o b b y / L e i s u r e and Academic programs. The most S o c i a l C o n t a c t o r i e n t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s were e n r o l l e d i n H o b b y / L e i s u r e c o u r s e s , t h e l e a s t i n Academic c o u r s e s w i t h V o c a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e m i d d l e . The most C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t o r i e n t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s were e n r o l l e d i n H o b b y / L e i s u r e c o u r s e s , t h e l e a s t i n Academic c o u r s e s w i t h V o c a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e m i d d l e . . 56 T h e r e f o r e t h e r e s u l t s s u g g e s t t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s e n r o l l f o r r e a s o n s t h a t seem t o be r e l a t e d as much t o t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n a l needs as t o t h e a c t u a l c o u r s e c o n t e n t . 57 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND SIGNIFICANCE SUMMARY Purpose The problem posed a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s s t u d y c o n c e r n e d t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s o f m o t i v e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . A g r o w t h / d e f i c i e n c y model o f m o t i v e s c o m b i n i n g Maslow's m o t i v a t i o n a l t h e o r y and t h e a d u l t l i f e c y c l e c o n c e p t was p r o p o s e d . The model s u g g e s t e d t h a t g r o w t h / d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n i s a s s o c -i a t e d w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n h i s t o r y o f a d u l t s . I t a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e age o r s t a g e o f t h e l i f e c y c l e and t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h growth and d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . B o s h i e r (1971) has d e v e l o p e d t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e t o measure m o t i v e s f o r a t t e n d a n c e and has i n f e r r e d t h a t E.P.S. f a c t o r s a r e i n d i c a t o r s o f g r o w t h / d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s s t u d y were: 1) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f i c a c y o f a g r o w t h / d e f i c i e n c y model o f m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs; and 2) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n -c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y o f t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e as a measure o f growth and d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . S u b j e c t s The s u b j e c t s f o r t h e s t u d y were e n r o l l e d i n a d u l t n i g h t s c h o o l c o u r s e s s p o n s o r e d by Sc h o o l D i s t r i c t No. 38, Richmond, B.C. The sample s e l e c t e d was based on c o u r s e c o n t e n t . D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Sample Two hundred and f o r t y u s a b l e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e c e i v e d , c o n s t i -t u t i n g an 88 p e r c e n t r e s p o n s e r a t e . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s u b j e c t s 58 can be summarized as f o l l o w s : 1. T h i r t y - s i x per c e n t were e n r o l l e d i n h o b b y / l e i s u r e c o u r s e s ; 33 p e r c e n t were e n r o l l e d i n academic and 31 p e r c e n t were e n r o l l e d i n v o c a t i o n a l programs. 2. The sample c o n s i s t e d o f 40 per c e n t men and 60 p e r c e n t women. 3. The a v e r a g e age o f t h e s u b j e c t s was 30 y e a r s . 4. More t h a n 50 p e r c e n t were u n m a r r i e d , w i t h 38 p e r c e n t un-m a r r i e d . 5. More th a n 66 per c e n t o f the s u b j e c t s had comp l e t e d Grade 12 o r more. 6. S u b j e c t s had, on a v e r a g e , n o t a t t e n d e d s c h o o l on a f u l l t i m e b a s i s f o r 12 y e a r s . 7. The a v e r a g e annual p e r s o n a l income was $10,000.00 and t h e a v e r a g e f a m i l y income was $14,000.00. E.P.S. F a c t o r A n a l y s i s E.P.S. d a t a from 240 r e s p o n d e n t s were s u b j e c t t o a p r i n c i p a l com-ponents a n a l y s i s and o r t h o g o n a l r o t a t i o n . S i x f a c t o r s were pro d u c e d and were l a b e l l e d J o b Competence; S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n ; S o c i a l C o n t a c t ; C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t ; and E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s . The S o c i a l W e l f a r e and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t f a c t o r s were seen as growth f a c t o r s . J o b Competence, E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n , S o c i a l C o n t a c t and E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s were c l a s s i -f i e d a s d e f i c i e n c y f a c t o r s . The Hypotheses N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. f a c t o r s s c o r e s f o r each p a r t i c i -p a n t were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e i r s o c i a l and demographic v a r i a b l e s t o t e s t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between m o t i v e s f o r a t t e n d a n c e . 59 Hypotheses One and Two. T h e s e two h y p o t h e s e s t e s t e d the r e l a t i o n -s h i p between g r o w t h - d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n and age. Age and age r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. f a c t o r s E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s and E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n . O l d e r p a r t i c i p a n t s o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r s c o r e s on the S.A.V. and were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r Escape r e a s o n s t h a n y o u n g e r p a r t i c i p a n t s . O l d e r p a r t i c i p a n t s , however, were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n c l i n e d t o be en-r o l l e d f o r S o c i a l C o n t a c t r e a s o n s than y o u n g e r p a r t i c i p a n t s . H ypotheses T h r e e and Four. T h e s e h y p o t h e s e s t e s t e d t he r e l a t i o n -s h i p between g r o w t h - d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n and c o n t i n u i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n Index s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. f a c t o r C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t . S p o r a d i c a d u l t l e a r n e r s o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r N e u r o t i c i s m s c o r e s than c o n -t i n u o u s l e a r n e r s . C o n t i n u o u s l e a r n e r s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t r e a s o n s t h a n s p o r a d i c p a r t i c i p a n t s . H ypotheses F i v e and S i x . These h y p o t h e s e s t e s t e d t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p between g r o w t h - d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . The f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s were u t i l i z e d as i n d i c a t o r s o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s : Number o f y e a r s o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n ; E d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ; O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s ; and Income. Number o f y e a r s a t t e n d e d s c h o o l c o r -r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h E.P.S. f a c t o r J o b Competence. P a r t i c i p a n t s who had a t t a i n e d Grade 11 o r l e s s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r J o b Competence r e a s o n s t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s who had o b t a i n e d Grade 12 p l u s e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . O c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h J o b Competence and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t f a c t o r s . Income, f a m i l y and p e r s o n a l , c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. f a c t o r s J o b Competence and S o c i a l W e l f a r e . 5 60 P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e h i g h number o f y e a r s o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r J o b Competence r e a s o n s t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e low c a t e g o r y . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n h i g h O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s , P e r s o n a l , and F a m i l y Income g r o u p s o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r N e u r o t i c i s m s c o r e s t h a n low O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s , P e r s o n a l and F a m i l y I n -come g r o u p s . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e h i g h Income, P e r s o n a l and F a m i l y , group were l e s s i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r J o b Competence r e a s o n s and more i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r S o c i a l W e l f a r e r e a s o n s t h a n low income p a r t i -c i p a n t s . H y potheses Seven and E i g h t . T h e s e h y p o t h e s e s t e s t e d t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p between measures o f g r o w t h - d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n and E.P.S. f a c t o r s . S.A.V. s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h S o c i a l W e l f a r e , E s c a p e / S t i m -u l a t i o n , and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t . N e u r o t i c i s m s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i -c a n t l y w i t h S o c i a l W e l f a r e , E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n and E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s . O t h e r F i n d i n g s Sex. Men o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r N e u r o t i c i s m s c o r e s t h a n women and were a l s o more i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r E.P.S. f a c t o r C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t r e a s o n s t h a n women. C o u r s e C o n t e n t . S i g n i f i c a n t mean d i f f e r e n c e s i n H o b b y / L e i s u r e , A c a d e m i c , and V o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s were o b t a i n e d i n E.P.S. f a c t o r s J o b Competence, S o c i a l W e l f a r e , E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n , S o c i a l C o n t a c t , and Cog-n i t i v e I n t e r e s t . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between N e u r o t i c i s m and S.A.V. mean s c o r e s . CONCLUSIONS The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t a d u l t s a r e i n c l i n e d t o e n r o l l i n a d u l t n i g h t s c h o o l programs f o r d e f i c i e n c y o r growth m o t i v e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y t h e 61 amount and c o n t i n u i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t . .Growth m o t i v a t e d s u b j e c t s were c o n t i n u o u s l e a r n e r s , w h i l e d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d s u b j e c t s were s p o r a d i c l e a r n e r s . The r e s u l t s a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t l i f e c y c l e s t a g e s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s o f the a d u l t p a r t i c i p a n t . O l d e r , i n c o m p a r i s o n t o y o u n g e r p a r t i c i p a n t s were growth m o t i v a t e d w h i l e y o u n g e r p a r t i c i p a n t s were d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d . In a d d i t i o n , t h e f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . H i gh s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s p a r t i c i p a n t s t e n d e d t o be growth m o t i v a t e d w h i l e low s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s p a r t i c i p a n t s t e n ded to be d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d . T h r e e o f t h e s i x E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e f a c t o r s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h d i r e c t measures o f growth and d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . One o t h e r f a c t o r c o r r e l a t e d , but t h e d i r e c t i o n o f the a s s o c i a t i o n was some-what a m b i v a l e n t . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t t h e r e s p e c t i v e l i f e c y c l e r o l e s o f men as " b r e a d w i n n e r s " and women as "housewives." The f i n d i n g s a l s o s u g g e s t t h a t m o t i v e s f o r a t t e n d a n c e and c o u r s e c o n t e n t a r e r e l a t e d , but t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s e n r o l l f o r mixed m o t i v e s , some o f which a r e u n r e l a t e d t o t h e c o u r s e c o n t e n t . The s t u d y g e n e r a l l y c o n f i r m s and expands on p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h c o n -c e r n i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I t would seem t h a t m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s a r e more t h a n t h e " b a s i c p r i n c i p l e " w hich e x p l a i n s p a r t i c i p a t i o n as s u g g e s t e d by S h e f f i e l d ( 1 9 6 4 ) ; t h e y a p p e a r t o have deep r o o t e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n c o m i t a n t s . The v a r i a b l e s o f growth and d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n , as h y p o t h e s i z e d i n t h i s s t u d y , have c l e a r l y emerged as a v i a b l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l model t o e x p l a i n m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . 62 SIGNIFICANCE t T h i s s t u d y has c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e f i e l d o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g ways. I t has: 1. P r o v i d e d knowledge c o n c e r n i n g t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t i n f l u e n c e a d u l t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n e d u c a t i o n a l programs. A d u l t e d u c a t o r s have u t i l i z e d t h e d e f i c i e n c y - g r o w t h n o t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h a t e n t a t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o f i l e o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s . However e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e model has been l a c k i n g , and t h e d e f i c i e n c y - g r o w t h model t h u s f a r has o n l y been i n f e r r e d . T h i s s t u d y , u t i l i z i n g d i r e c t measures, r e l a t e d d e f i c i e n c y / g r o w t h m o t i v a t i o n t o t h e s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s u s u a l l y s t u d i e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n s u r v e y s . 2. P r o v i d e d a m o t i v a t i o n a l model t o a s s i s t a d u l t e d u c a t o r s i n p r o v i d i n g a l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e p a r t i c i -p a n t s m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . Maslow wrote t h a t : The d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d man must be more a f r a i d o f t h e en-v i r o n m e n t , s i n c e t h e r e i s a l w a y s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i t may f a i l o r d i s a p p o i n t him. We now know t h a t t h i s k i n d o f a n x i o u s dependence b r e e d s h o s t i l i t y as w e l l . . . . In c o n t r a s t t h e s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g i n d i v i d u a l , by d e f i n i t i o n g r a t i f i e d i n h i s b a s i c needs, i s f a r l e s s d e p e n d e n t , f a r l e s s b e h o l d e n , f a r more autonomous and s e l f - d i r e c t e d (1955, p . 1 8 ) . Programmers, f o r example, by b e i n g aware o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s m o t i v a t i o n a l n e e d s , can p l a n e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s t h a t a r e c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h o s e needs. C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s aware o f the m o t i v a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t i n f l u e n c e an a d u l t can be more e f f e c t i v e i n d e s i g n i n g l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s f o r a d u l t p a r t i c i p a n t s . 63 3. F u r t h e r e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e as a measure o f m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . P r i o r t o t h i s s t u d y , B o s h i e r (1971) had o n l y i n f e r r e d f r o m e x a m i n a t i o n o f f a c t o r c o n t e n t t h a t E.P.S. f a c t o r s were i n d i c a t i v e o f growth o r d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . T h i s s t u d y has r e v e a l e d a t l e a s t some o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e r e l a t e d t o m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s as m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e m e a n i n g f u l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l measures employed i n t h i s s t u d y . The E.P.S., t h e r e f o r e , can be used by a d u l t e d u c a t o r s as an i n d i c a t o r o f t h e m o t i v a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . A r e a s F o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s w hich s h o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n o r d e r t o ex t e n d t h e f i e l d o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . 1. What a r e t h e m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s o f o l d e r a d u l t s - 55 y e a r s o f age and o v e r ? I s growth m o t i v a t i o n an e v e r expand-i n g need and t h e r e f o r e u s u a l l y found i n o l d e r a d u l t s , o r do e s growth m o t i v a t i o n d e c l i n e w i t h t h e advance o f age? 2. Does an i n d i v i d u a l ' s m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n change d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f an e d u c a t i o n a l program? Do d e f i c i e n c y m o t i -v a t e d p e o p l e become growth m o t i v a t e d d u r i n g an e d u c a t i o n a l program and, t h e r e f o r e , do methods and t e c h n i q u e s u t i l i z e d have t o be a l t e r e d ? 3. What methods and t e c h n i q u e s a r e most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r growth m o t i v a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s ? 4. What methods and t e c h n i q u e s a r e most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r d e f i c -i e n c y m o t i v a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s ? -64 A t what s t a g e o f t h e l i f e c y c l e ' d o v o c a t i o n a l c o n c e r n s s h i f t f rom f i n d i n g and h o l d i n g employment to growing w i t h a c h o s e n o c c u p a t i o n ? A g r e a t number o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e e n r o l l e d f o r j o b r e l a t e d r e a s o n s , y e t l i t t l e i s known whether t h e s e r e a s o n s o r i g i n a t e i n growth o r d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v e s . 65 REFERENCES A l l p o r t , G.W. Be com ing : B a s i c C o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r a P s y c h o l o g y o f  P e r s o n a l i t y , Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Haven , 1955 . B e v i s , M . E . "The C o n t i n u i n g L e a r n i n g A c t i v i t i e s o f Neophy te N u r s e s , " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 2 5 , 1 9 7 5 , p p . 1 6 9 - 1 9 1 . B l i s h e n , B .R. "A S o c i o - e c o n o m i c Index f o r O c c u p a t i o n s i n C a n a d a , " -The C anad i a n Rev i ew o f S o c i o l o g y and A n t h r o p o l o g y , 4 , 1 967 , p p 4 1 _ 5 3 -B o s h i e r , Roge r " M o t i v a t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n s o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a n t s : A F a c t o r A n a l y t i c E x p l o r a t i o n o f H o u l e ' s T y p o l o g y , " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 2 1 , 1 9 7 1 , p p . 3 - 2 6 . B o s h i e r , R. " E d u c a t i o n a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n and D r o p o u t : A T h e o r e t i c a l M o d e l , " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 2 3 , 1 9 7 3 , p p . 2 5 5 - 2 8 2 . B o s h i e r , R. " M o t i v a t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n s R e v i s i t e d : L i f e Space M o t i v e s and t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e , " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n ( 1 976 , i n p r e s s ) . B o s h i e r , R. " F a c t o r A n a l y s t s a t L a r g e : A C r i t i c a l Rev i ew o f t h e M o t i -v a t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n L i t e r a t u r e , " Pape r p r e s e n t e d to t h e A . E . R . C . , T o r o n t o , 1 9 7 6 ( a ) . B u h l e r , C . "The Cou r s e o f Human L i f e as a P s y c h o l o g i c a l P r o b l e m , " Human D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 1 , 1 9 6 8 , p p . 1 8 4 - 2 0 0 . B u r g e s s , P a u l D. "Reasons f o r A d u l t P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Group E d u c a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s , " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 2 2 , 1 9 7 1 , p p . 3 - 2 9 . B u r o s , O .K . The S e v en t h M e n t a l Measu remen t s Y e a r b o o k , G r yphon P r e s s , H i g h l a n d P a r k , New J e r s e y , 1972 . C a t t e l l , R . B . "The S c r e e T e s t f o r t h e Number o f F a c t o r s , " M u l t i v a r i a t e  B e h a v i o r a l R e s e a r c h , I No. 2 , 1 966 , p p . 2 4 5 - 2 7 6 . C o f e r , C . N . and A p p l e y , M.H. 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" D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms," i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n : O u t l i n e s o f  an Emerging F i e l d o f U n i v e r s i t y S t u d y , A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e U.S.A., 1964, pp.27-39. V e r n e r , C o o l i e , and Newberry, John S., J r . "The Nat u r e o f A d u l t P a r t i c i p a t i o n , " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 8, 1958, pp.208-222. W r i g h t , L. and Wyant, K. " F a c t o r S t r u c t u r e o f S e l f - A c t u a l i z a t i o n a s Measured from Shos'trom's S.A.V. S c a l e , " E d u c a t i o n a l and Ps y c h o -l o g i c a l Measurement, 34, 1974, pp.871-875. Youmans, E.G. "Some P e r s p e c t i v e s on Disengagement T h e o r y , " The  G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 9, 1969, pp.254-258. 69 APPENDICES 70 APPENDIX A L e t t e r o f T r a n s m i t t a l 16 September, 1975 Mr. A. C o u i s o n C o - o r d i n a t o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n S c h o o l D i s t r i c t No. 38 (Richmond) 689 #3 Road Richmond, B.C. Dear Mr. C o u i s o n : Thank you f o r m e e t i n g w i t h me on such s h o r t n o t i c e on September 5 t h t o d i s c u s s my r e s e a r c h p r o p o s a l . To r e c a p b r i e f l y t he p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y i s t o c o n t i n u e r e s e a r c h on t h e "why" o f a d u l t p a r t i c i p a t i o n and a d u l t l e a r n i n g programs. The r e s e a r c h w i l l be c o n d u c t e d u nder t h e a u s p i c e s o f t h e A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Department, F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e q u i r i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - h a l f hour t o c o m p l e t e w i l l be a d m i n i s t e r e d t o p a r t i c i p a n t s e n r o l l e d i n v a r i o u s Richmond c l a s s e s . A t t a c h e d you w i l l f i n d a l i s t o f t h e c l a s s e s I would l i k e t o s u r v e y . P a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l be a b l e t o c o m p l e t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s anonymously, as names a r e n o t r e q u i r e d . The weeks o f O c t o b e r 2 0 t h and 27th f o r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e most s a t i s f a c t o r y . The r e s u l t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h w i l l be a v a i l -a b l e t o you on c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t . I f you have any q u e s t i o n s , p l e a s e do n o t h e s i t a t e t o c o n t a c t me. Y ours t r u l y , U. Haag Gr a d u a t e S t u d e n t G r a d u a t e S t u d i e s U.B.C. E n d . 71 APPENDIX B L e t t e r To N i g h t School I n s t r u c t o r s G O V E R N M E N T O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A M E M O R A N D U M F R O M .Q. <A....C.QulsQa , . .C.D .n.t inuin9..Education D i O c t o b e r . . 1 0 19....?5 O U R F I L E Y O U R F I L E D u r i n g t h e w e e k o f O c t o b e r 2 0 t h a n d 2 7 t h a s u r v e y w i l l b e m a d e o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v a r i o u s n i g h t s c h o o l c l a s s e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e R i c h m o n d S c h o o l D i s t r i c t . Y o u r c l a s s h a s b e e n s e l e c t e d a s o n e t h a t c a n p r o v i d e s o m e u s e f u l b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h e s t u d y . A n a n o n y m o u s q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l b e p r o v i d e d f o r e a c h s t u d e n t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c l a s s s e s s i o n . P l e a s e e n c o u r a g e y o u r s t u d e n t s t o p a r t i c i -p a t e a n d e n s u r e t h e m t h a t i t i s c o m p l e t e l y a n o n y m o u s . T h e s e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a n d r e s e a r c h s u r v e y s p r o v i d e r e s u l t s o n t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f a d u l t e v e n i n g p r o g r a m m e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e P r o v i n c e . Y o u r c o o p e r a t i o n i s m u c h a p p r e c i a t e d . G A C / e s c c » A s s t . N i g h t S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s ( w i t h s c h e d u l e a t t a c h e d ) 72 APPENDIX C Q u e s t i o n n a i r e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n I n s t r u c t i o n s Good e v e n i n g , my name i s < . I'm a s s i s t i n g i n a s t u d y by t h e U.B.C. A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Department t o d e t e r m i n e some o f t h e r e a s o n s why a d u l t s t a k e n i g h t s c h o o l c o u r s e s . We r e q u i r e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n so t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s can keep p r o v i d i n g t h e c o u r s e s you want. The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l be p r o v i d e d t o t h e C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n Department o f Richmond S c h o o l D i s t r i c t . Your c o - o p e r a t i o n i n c o m p l e t i n g a q u e s t i o n n a i r e would be g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . A l l r e p l i e s a r e C o n f i d e n t i a l and No Names a r e R e q u i r e d . I would l i k e t o b r i e f l y e x p l a i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . HAND OUT QUESTIONNAIRE AT THIS POINT. REMEMBER TO COUNT HOW MANY QUESTIONNAIRES ARE DISTRIBUTED. The f i r s t two pages d e a l w i t h t h i n g s l i k e y o u r a g e , y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n , number o f n i g h t s c h o o l c o u r s e s t a k e n , o c c u p a t i o n and so on. The second two pages d e a l w i t h t h e p e o p l e , how t h e y a c t and behave. The t h i r d f o u r pages d e a l w i t h r e a s o n s why p e o p l e a t t e n d n i g h t s c h o o l c o u r s e s . The l a s t two pages d e a l w i t h the way p e o p l e f e e l a b o u t v a r i o u s -s i t u a t i o n s . Remember, No Names a r e n e c e s s a r y and a l l i n d i v i d u a l r e p l i e s a r e C o n f i d e n t i a l . P l e a s e s t a r t . I f you have any q u e s t i o n s , p l e a s e p ut up y o u r hand and I ' l l come and t a l k w i t h y o u . THANK CLASS FOR THEIR CO-OPERATION WHEN YOU LEAVE APPENDIX D S o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Tills research concerning the characteristics of adult education participants is being carried out by U. Haag of Adult Education Department, University of British Columbia. Your responses are confidential. No names are required. 74 1. Are you a! (check) Man • Woman j j 3. What is your marital status? a) Married | | • • d) Never Married | | 2. What is your age? yean 5. b) Widowed c) Separated/Divorced or living apart Is this the only night school course or adult education program in which you are enrolled at the present time? Yes No • • How many courses are you enrolled in? Thinking back over the time since you l e f t a fu l l time school situation please check the years you participated in adult education courses and indicate how man}' courses you enrolled in each year. Please include only those courses that lasted four sessions or longer. Examples of courses are: night school programs, correspondence courses, formal job training courses -i f in doubt please ask. Year No. of Courses Year No. of Courses 1975 • • 1970 • • 1974 • • 1969 • • 1973 • • 1968 • • 1972 • • 1967 • • 1971 • • 1966 • • 6. What is the highest educational qualification you hold? (check only one box) No formal qualification. Completed elementary school Completed Grade 10 or 11 (but not 12). Grade 12 graduation or overseas equivalent. Vocational School diploma, Business School diploma, or Journeyman's qualifications. Part of a university degree or diploma. University degree or college/technical school diploma. University degree or diploma and some other final qualifications. 7. In what year did you last attend a public/private school on a f u l l time basis? 75 8, Check below the total number of years of formal f u l l time education you have completed. 8 years or less 9. 9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years • • • 13 years | | 14 years J^J 15 years | j 16 years 1 1 17 years or more | | If you are working for salary or wages exactly what kind of work do you do? (Please be very specific as to your work and status in the organization, e.g. managing director of a trucking firm employing 13 men; sales assistant in a small hardware store; deputy principal of a college attended by 500 children etc). If you are retired, involved in household duties, or are not working please write 'N.A.' here and go to the next question. 10. If you are not currently working for salary or wages please note here the kind of work you did prior to your marriage, retirement, etc. (Plese be very specific as to your work and status in the organization) 11. In the box below write the letter which represents your gross (personal) income category. Do not count your spouse's income or income earned by other members of your family. Check your personal income. A. under $5,000 F. $13,001 - $15,000 B. $5,001 - $7,000 G. $15,001 - $17,000 C $7,001 - $9,000 H. $17,001 - $19,000 D. $9,001 - $11,000 I. $19,001 - $21,000 E. $11,001 - $13,000 J. over $21,001 CATEGORY 12. In the box below write the letter which represents your gross family income (i.e. your income and your spouse's income) If you are the only person in your family working for wages or salary your answer to this question will be the same as your answer to the previous question. A. under $5,000 F. $13,001 - $15,000 B. $5,001 - $7,000 G. $15,001 - $17,000 c. $7,001 - $9,000 H. $17,001 - $19,000 D. $9,001 - $11,000 I. $19,001 - $21,000 E. $11,001 - $13,000 J. over $21,001 CATEGORY 

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