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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Psychological foundations of motive for participation in adult education Haag, Ulrich F. E. 1976

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PSYCHOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF MOTIVE FOR PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION by  ULRICH F . E . HAAG B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the FACULTY OF EDUCATION  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1976 0  Ulrich F.E. Haag  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t the L i b r a r y I further for  agree  scholarly  by h i s of  shall  this  written  make  it  freely  that permission  for  financial  of  of  Columbia,  British  available  for  for extensive  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d It  fulfilment  The U n i v e r s i t y  copying of  shall  that  not  copying or  2075 w e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Columbia  I agree and this  for  that  study. thesis or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  A^^jL)f €<*Lu^JLjflJt-** of B r i t i s h  requirements  by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  is understood gain  the  reference  permission.  Department of  Date  the U n i v e r s i t y  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  i ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e x t e n t to w h i c h m o t i v a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n f l u e n c e an a d u l t ' s d e c i s i o n t o engage i n an e d u c a t i o n program.  The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was to d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f i c a c y o f a  g r o w t h - d e f i c i e n c y model o f m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s , and t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y o f t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e as a measure o f g r o w t h o r d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . Few t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l s have been d e v e l o p e d t o e x p l a i n why people p a r t i c i p a t e in adult education courses.  Combining a d u l t l i f e  c y c l e c o n c e p t s , Maslow's m o t i v a t i o n a l c o n c e p t s , and r e s e a r c h by B o s h i e r , a g r o w t h - d e f i c i e n c y model o f m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n was d e s c r i b e d . G r o w t h o r d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n was h y p o t h e s i z e d as b e i n g a s s o c i a t e d with continuous or sporadic p a r t i c i p a t i o n in adult education.  I t was  a l s o h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e age o r s t a g e o f t h e l i f e c y c l e and t h e socio-economic s t a t u s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s are a s s o c i a t e d with growth or deficiency motivation.  The model was t e s t e d w i t h 240 Richmond a d u l t  education p a r t i c i p a n t s . Subjects completed a  socio-demographic  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the Eysenck P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory, (E.P.I.) the S e i f A c t u a l i z i n g V a l u e s (S.A.V.) s u b s c a l e o f t h e P e r s o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n I n v e n t o r y , (P.O.I.) and t h e r e v i s e d E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e , (E.P.S.). E.P.S. d a t a was s u b j e c t t o f a c t o r a n a l y s i s and o r t h o g o n a l r o t a t i o n with s i x f a c t o r s being produced.  E.P.I. Neuroticism s c o r e s ,  S.A.V. s c o r e s , and E.P.S. f a c t o r s c o r e s were r e l a t e d t h r o u g h c o r r e l a t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e t o v a r i a b l e s such as age, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e x , e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t , o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , p e r s o n a l and f a m i l y i n c o m e , c o u r s e c o n t e n t , m a r i t a l s t a t u s and sex.  ii  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t c o n t i n u o u s l e a r n e r s t e n d e d t o be g r o w t h m o t i v a t e d w h i l e s p o r a d i c l e a r n e r s t e n d e d t o be d e f i c i e n c y m o t i vated.  Older p a r t i c i p a n t s , i n comparison t o younger p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  were growth m o t i v a t e d w h i l e y o u n g e r p a r t i c i p a n t s were d e f i c i e n c y m o t i vated.  H i g h s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s p a r t i c i p a n t s t e n d e d t o be growth  m o t i v a t e d w h i l e low s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s p a r t i c i p a n t s t e n d e d t o be deficiency motivated.  The f i n d i n g s g e n e r a l l y confirm t h e growth/  d e f i c i e n c y model, but f u r t h e r research i s required to c l a r i f y the motiv a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s o f a d u l t s , 55 y e a r s o f age and o l d e r , a s an i n s u f f i c i e n t number o f o l d e r a d u l t s were r e p r e s e n t e d  i n t h e sample.  iii TABLE OF CONTENTS  .Page  L I S T OF TABLES  vi  L I S T OF FIGURES  .................... vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  viii  Chapter 1.  INTRODUCTION  1  N a t u r e o f Problem  .......  Purpose o f Study . . .  3  S i g n i f i c a n c e o f Study  .  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms .........  O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Study  4 5  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND HYPOTHESES THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK  3 4  L i m i t a t i o n s o f Study  2.  1  ........  .  Motivational Orientations  6 6  .  6 *  H o m e o s t a t i c Model o f M o t i v a t i o n Growth T h e o r i e s o f M o t i v a t i o n  7 ...........  10  Adult L i f e Cycle COMBINING MODEL  13  EMPIRICAL STUDIES Age  8  . ....  14 16  Sex  16  Socio-Economic Status  17  Psychological Characteristics  17  HYPOTHESES  18  SUMMARY  19  iv Page Chapter 3.  4.  METHOD . . .  ..•  21  Design  21  Subjects .  21  Procedure  21  Instrumentation  22  Data A n a l y s i s  26  RESULTS  28  CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESPONDENTS FACTOR ANALYSIS OF THE E.P..S.  28  ..  F a c t o r S t r u c t u r e o f E.P.S.  . 30  ............  30  Factor Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32  Factor Scores  35  .  TESTING THE HYPOTHESES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H y p o t h e s e s One and Two H y p o t h e s e s T h r e e and Four  36 37  .....  40  H y p o t h e s e s F i v e and S i x . .  40  H y p o t h e s e s Seven and E i g h t  48  OTHER FINDINGS  .......  Sex Course Content  50 50  .. -  DISCUSSION  51 51  Age  51  Participation  53  Socio-Economic Status  53  E.P.S. F a c t o r s  ..........  54  V  Page Sex  55  Course Content  ........  55  Chapter 5.  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND SIGNIFICANCE  . . 57  SUMMARY . . .  . 57  Purpose . . . . . . . .  . . . . 57  Subjects  57  D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Sample  57  E.P.S. F a c t o r A n a l y s i s . . .  58  The Hypotheses  . . . . . . . . . 58  H y p o t h e s e s One and Two  59  H y p o t h e s e s T h r e e and Four . . . . . .  59  H y p o t h e s e s F i v e and S i x  . . 59  H y p o t h e s e s Seven a n d E i g h t Other. F i n d i n g s  . . . . . . . 60  ..  60  Sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Course Content  60  CONCLUSIONS SIGNIFICANCE  . 60  60 .  62  Areas For Future Research  63  REFERENCES APPENDICES A. L e t t e r o f T r a n s m i t t a l  •. ..  . . . . 65 . 69 . 70  B.  L e t t e r To Night School I n s t r u c t o r s  71  C.  Questionnaire Administration Instruction  72  D.  Socio-demographic Questionnaire  73  LIST OF TABLES Table  Page  1.  P a r t i c i p a n t s by C o u r s e and U s a b l e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s by C o u r s e . . 23  2. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s by M a r i t a l S t a t u s  28  3.  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s by E d u c a t i o n a l Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  ...  4.  The E.P.S. F a c t o r s , t h e Items i n Each F a c t o r , and t h e Variance Accounted For  31  5.  C o r r e l a t i o n Between N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s , D e m o g r a p h i c and S o c i a l Data  38  6.  Mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s by M a r i t a l Status  39  .7.  Mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., E.P.S, F a c t o r S c o r e s f o r High and Low Age Groups  41  8.  Mean P a r t i c i p a t i o n , N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s f o r H i g h and Low S c o r e r s on t h e P a r t i c i p a t i o n Index 42  9. Mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s By Educational Qualification  29  44  10.  Mean E d u c a t i o n a l A t t a i n m e n t , N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s f o r High and Low Number o f Y e a r s o f S c h o o l g r o u p 45  11.  Mean O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s , N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s f o r H i g h and Low O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s G r o u p s  46  12.  Mean P e r s o n a l Income, N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V. and E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s f o r H i g h and Low P e r s o n a l Income Groups  47  13.  Mean F a m i l y Income N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V. and E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s f o r High and Low F a m i l y Income Groups  48  14.  C o r r e l a t i o n Between E.P.S. F a c t o r s , N e u r o t i c i s m and S.A.V. Scores  15.  Mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V.,E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s by Sex  16.  Mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s by C o u r s e Content  ....  . 49 50 .52  vii L I S T OF FIGURES Figure  Page  1  Maslow H i e r a r c h y o f Needs  2  Model o f M o t i v e s f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Programs  9 15  viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS S i n c e r e t h a n k s go t o my r e s e a r c h a d v i s e r , D r . Roger B o s h i e r ; h i s encouragement,  e n t h u s i a s m , and a s s i s t a n c e a r e v e r y g e n u i n e l y  appreciated. A d e b t o f t h a n k s i s e x p r e s s e d t o t h e o t h e r members o f my r e s e a r c h committee, D r . D a l e R u s n e l l and D r . James T h o r n t o n , and t o a l l f a c u l t y members who have p r o v i d e d a s s i s t a n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e g r a d u a t e program. S p e c i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n and t h a n k s t o D i a n e , f o r h e r e n c o u r a g e ment a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e p a s t f i v e y e a r s . S p e c i a l t h a n k s t o George Meehan f o r t h e g e n e r o u s c o n t r i b u t i o n o f h i s t e c h n i c a l and e v a l u a t i v e s k i l l s . A d e b t o f t h a n k s i s e x p r e s s e d t o Mr. A l C o u l s o n , C o - o r d i n a t o r , C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , Richmond S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e .  1  CHAPTER 1' INTRODUCTION N a t u r e o f t h e Problem A d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s e a r c h has, w i t h n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s , f o c u s e d on d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s o u t l i n i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs as compared to n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . A r e a s o n a b l y " t y p i c a l " a d u l t l e a r n e r has emerged from t h e s e s t u d i e s . J o h n s t o n e and R i v e r a w r i t e : The p a r t i c i p a n t i s j u s t as o f t e n a woman as a man, i s t y p i c a l l y u n d e r f o r t y , has c o m p l e t e d h i g h s c h o o l o r b e t t e r , e n j o y s an above a v e r a g e income, works f u l l time and most o f t e n i n a w h i t e c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n , i s t y p i c a l l y w h i t e and p r o t e s t a n t , i s m a r r i e d and a p a r e n t , l i v e s i n an u r b a n i z e d a r e a (more l i k e l y i n t h e s u b u r b s than i n a l a r g e c i t y ) and i s found i n a l l p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y , but more f r e q u e n t l y on the West C o a s t t h a n would be e x p e c t e d by c h a n c e (1965, p.78). However u s e f u l t h e s e k i n d s o f d e s c r i p t i v e e n q u i r i e s have been, t h e y do not c o n s i d e r t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h m o t i v a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n f l u e n c e an a d u l t ' s d e c i s i o n t o engage i n an e d u c a t i o n program.  Verner  and Newberry (1958) p o i n t o u t t h a t by i d e n t i f y i n g t h e v a r i a b l e s t h a t a f f e c t t h e t y p i c a l p a r t i c i p a n t , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and i n s t r u c t o r s m i g h t be a b l e t o a l t e r l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s t o meet t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h u s a t t r a c t them t o t h e program. a l e a r n i n g environment congruent  of  non-  In o r d e r t o p r o v i d e  with the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l  needs, i t i s e q u a l l y important t o i d e n t i f y p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of adult education p a r t i c i p a n t s . A d u l t e d u c a t o r s , whether t h e y a r e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ,  researchers,  program p l a n n e r s , o r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s , have asked a t one time o r a n o t h e r such q u e s t i o n s a s : programs and o t h e r s n o t ?  Why do some a d u l t s p a r t i c i p a t e i n l e a r n i n g What t e a c h i n g methods and t e c h n i q u e s a r e most  2 e f f e c t i v e with adults?  What a c c o u n t s f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n e n e r g y and  i n t e r e s t t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s d i s p l a y d u r i n g l e a r n i n g programs?  How  are  m o t i v a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s r e l a t e d t o t h e amount o f l e a r n i n g ? T h e s e t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n s a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y .important n o t o n l y t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r , but a l s o t o the p r a c t i t i o n e r . With a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d ing o f the motivating f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e a d u l t s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , programmers c o u l d p l a n e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s t h a t would be more r e l e v a n t t o the m o t i v a t i o n a l needs o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . A n o t h e r example r e l a t e s to t h e methods and t e c h n i q u e s u t i l i z e d by a d u l t teachers.  With an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f the m o t i v a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  t h a t i n f l u e n c e an a d u l t d u r i n g a l e a r n i n g program t h e e d u c a t o r c o u l d more e f f e c t i v e i n d e s i g n i n g e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s  be  for participants.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e r e a r e few answers t o t h e above q u e s t i o n s  to  g u i d e p r a c t i t i o n e r o r r e s e a r c h e r , as few t h e o r e t i c a l models have been developed to e x p l a i n the motivational c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a d u l t participants.  I n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h e m o t i v a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f why  education adults  p a r t i c i p a t e have been s p o r a d i c and hampered by a l a c k o f v e r i f i a b l e theory.  Knox and S j o g r e n i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n o f m o t i v a t i o n t o p a r t i c i -  pate i n adult education point out: L i t t l e i s r e a l l y known a b o u t t h e m o t i v a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s . L a c k o f knowledge a b o u t t h i s a r e a i s not u n i q u e t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , however t h e l a r g e number o f t h e o r i e s o f m o t i v a t i o n t h a t have been d e v e l o p e d and t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s e t h e o r i e s i l l u s t r a t e t h e v a g u e n e s s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m o t i v a t i o n as a c o n c e p t . The d e s c r i p t i o n s i n c l u d e t h e o r i e s t h a t speak o f one a l l i n c l u s i v e m o t i v e such as the m a i n t e n a n c e and enhancement o f t h e perceived s e l f , those that d e s c r i b e motivation i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l scheme w i t h some s o u r c e s subsumed w i t h i n o t h e r more b a s i c s o u r c e s , o t h e r s t h a t a t t e m p t t o c l a s s i f y a l l o f t h e needs t h a t may c a u s e c e r t a i n b e h a v i o u r s , and some t h a t s t r e s s u n c o n s c i o u s m o t i v a t i o n (1962, p . 2 3 8 ) .  Purpose o f Study W r i t e r s i n t h e f i e l d o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n have u t i l i z e d s e v e r a l m o t i v a t i o n a l models i n t h e i r a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n the "why's" o f p a r t i c i pation.  One o f t h e most w i d e l y used models i s t h e b a s i c need s a t i s f a c t i o n  model.  A n o t h e r model i s H o u l e ' s (1961) c o n c e p t o f l e a r n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n s .  Maslow (1954) has s u g g e s t e d d e f i c i e n c y model o f m o t i v e s .  a h i e r a r c h y o f needs and d e s c r i b e d a g r o w t h The p r i m a r y f o c u s o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y  w i t h t h e l a t t e r model and s o u g h t to r e l a t e t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l i s t i c s of a growth-deficiency  s t a t u s , sex and c o u r s e c o n t e n t . i n attempting  character-  model o f m o t i v e s to v a r i a b l e s u s u a l l y  examined i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t u d i e s s u c h as age, e d u c a t i o n ,  countered  was  socio-economic  One o f t h e m a j o r d i f f i c u l t i e s en-  to determine the motivational c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  a d u l t s i s t h e l a c k o f a v a l i d and r e l i a b l e i n s t r u m e n t  t o measure m o t i v e s  f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . B o s h i e r (1971) d e v e l o p e d t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e i n a New Z e a l a n d  s e t t i n g t o measure m o t i v e s f o r a t t e n d a n c e and  i n f e r r e d t h a t E.P.S. f a c t o r s  indicated  d e f i c i e n c y o r growth  motivation.  S p e c i f i c a l l y the o b j e c t i v e s o f the study were: 1.  2.  To i n v e s t i g a t e a s p e c t s o f a g r o w t h - d e f i c i e n c y  model o f  motives f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in adult education  programs.  To d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y o f t h e  Educational  P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e as a measure o f growth and d e f i c i e n c y motivation. S i g n i f i c a n c e o f Study T h i s s t u d y was u s e f u l b e c a u s e : 1.  I t would add t o t h e t h e o r e t i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of adult learners.  of motivational  4 2.  I t would a s s i s t a d u l t e d u c a t o r s  in providing a learning-  e n v i r o n m e n t c o n g r u e n t w i t h the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s m o t i v a t i o n a l characteristics. 3.  I t would f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e as a measure o f m o t i vational o r i e n t a t i o n s of adult education p a r t i c i p a n t s .  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms The f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s were u s e d i n the p r e s e n t 1.  study:  V e r n e r ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was a d o p t e d - namely:  The a c t i o n o f an e x t e r n a l e d u c a t i o n a l a g e n t i n p u r p o s e f u l l y o r d e r i n g b e h a v i o u r i n t o planned s y s t e m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t can r e s u l t i n l e a r n i n g f o r t h o s e f o r whom such a c t i v i t y i s s u p p l e mental t o t h e i r p r i m a r y r o l e i n s o c i e t y and w h i c h i n v o l v e s some c o n t i n u i t y i n an exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e a g e n t and t h e l e a r n e r so t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s i s u n d e r c o n s t a n t s u p e r v i s i o n and d i r e c t i o n (1964, p p . 2 9 ) . 2.  G i d e o n ' s d e f i n i t i o n was u t i l i z e d f o r a d u l t l e a r n e r - namely:  An a d u l t who i s e n r o l l e d and t a k e s an a c t i v e p a r t i n any c o u r s e o f s t u d y , w h e t h e r s p e c i a l o r r e g u l a r , t o d e v e l o p new s k i l l s or Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , o r t o improve e x i s t i n g s k i l l s o r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s (1971, p . 4 8 ) . 3.  G i d e o n ' s d e f i n i t i o n was a l s o used f o r c o u r s e - namely:  A planned sequence o f educational a c t i v i t i e s l e a d i n g to the a c q u i s i t i o n o f a s k i l l , a body o f knowledge, o r t h e d e v e l o p ment o f a t t i t u d e s (1971, p . 5 4 ) . 4.  Adult Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n A c t i v i t y  An a d u l t who a t t e n d s an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e / p r o g r a m w i t h a duration of four separate sessions or longer. L i m i t a t i o n s o f Study Any i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y s h o u l d  include  an a w a r e n e s s o f the f o l l o w i n g l i m i t a t i o n s : 1.  The sample f o r t h i s s t u d y was s e l e c t e d from one i n s t i t u t i o n ,  t h e Richmond School Board N i g h t S c h o o l System.  Johnstone  •' and R i v e r a (1965) i n d i c a t e t h a t d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l tutions a t t r a c t d i f f e r e n t types o f p a r t i c i p a n t s .  insti-  Therefore,  e f f o r t s a t g e n e r a l i z i n g must make a l l o w a n c e s f o r t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s a r e drawn from a s i n g l e s p o n s o r i n g  insti-  tution. 2.  The sample was n o t r a n d o m l y chosen and r e l i e d on a s t r a t i f i e d s a m p l e s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f c o u r s e c o n t e n t .  3.  Measurement e r r o r must be assumed a s b e i n g p r e s e n t i n t h e instruments.  4.  T h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d by f o u r d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n s therefore, the p o s s i b i l i t y of administrator influence exists.  O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e Study T h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r has i n c l u d e d :  a statement  concerning  t h e problem s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y ; t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s t u d y ; t h e s t u d y ' s s i g n i f i c a n c e , a d e f i n i t i o n o f t e r m s , and t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y . C h a p t e r two p r e s e n t s a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e , both t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l , and i n t r o d u c e s t h e h y p o t h e s e s . Chapter three explains the methodology, the subjects studied, t h e p r o c e d u r e , t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , and d a t a a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e . C h a p t e r f o u r c o n t a i n s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s and a discussion of the results. C h a p t e r f i v e c o n t a i n s a summary, c o n c l u s i o n s , s i g n i f i c a n c e and some r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h .  6  CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND HYPOTHESES T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s a t h e o r e t i c a l framework, a s e l e c t e d  review  o f t h e r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t t o t h i s s t u d y , and t h e h y p o t h e s e s d e r i v e d from t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  ,  1  THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Few t h e o r e t i c a l m o d e l s have been d e v e l o p e d by a d u l t e d u c a t o r s t o e x p l a i n why p e o p l e p a r t i c i p a t e i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . concepts,  The f o l l o w i n g  however, have been u t i l i z e d by a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  general  researchers:  H o u l e ' s l e a r n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n m o d e l ; H o m e o s t a t i c model o f m o t i v e s ; Growth theories o f motivation  , and t h e a d u l t l i f e - c y c l e c o n c e p t .  These models  a r e c o m p l e m e n t a r y t o one a n o t h e r and w i l l be employed t o d e s c r i b e a c o m b i n i n g model o f m o t i v e s f o r a d u l t p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Learning/Motivational  Orientation  The c o n c e p t o f m o t i v a t i o n a l * o r i e n t a t i o n s was f o r m u l a t e d (1961)  i n an a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n r e a s o n s f o r a d u l t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e d u c a -  t i o n a l programs.  Houle i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n s t o p a r t i -  c i p a t i o n based on i n - d e p t h i n t e r v i e w s w i t h 22 a d u l t e d u c a t i o n pants. 1.  by Houle  partici-  He c l a s s i f i e d a d u l t l e a r n e r s i n t o what he t e r m e d :  t h e g o a l o r i e n t e d who u t i l i z e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs t o a c h i e v e  f a i r l y c l e a r - c u t g o a l s such as v o c a t i o n a l advancement; 2.  t h e a c t i v i t y o r i e n t e d who employ e d u c a t i o n programs as a means f o r  s a t i s f y i n g s o c i a l needs; and, 3.  t h e l e a r n i n g o r i e n t e d who seek knowledge f o r i t s own s a k e .  ^ H e n c e f o r t h t h e term M o t i v a t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n w i l l be used t o d e s c r i b e Houle's l e a r n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n .  7 H o u l e ' s t y p o l o g y has been e x t e n s i v e l y u t i l i z e d by B o s h i e r S h e f f i e l d (1964), Burgess (1971), Sovie (1972), but as Boshier  (1971),  (1976(a))  p o i n t s o u t , most r e s e a r c h e r s a r r i v e a t seven o r e i g h t o r i e n t a t i o n s r a t h e r than t h e t h r e e f o r m u l a t e d  i n the typology.  W h i l e t h e t h r e e f a c t o r t y p o l o g y may be an o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , i t has s t i m u l a t e d r e s e a r c h and l e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n s t r u m e n t s t o d e t e r m i n e r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . F o r example, S h e f f i e l d 0 964) d e v e l o p e d t h e C o n t i n u i n g L e a r n i n g O r i e n t a t i o n Index. (1971) f o r m u l a t e d  t h e Reasons f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e and B o s h i e r  constructed the Education the  Burgess  Participation Scale.  (1971)  A l l t h r e e were based on  typology.  H o m e o s t a t i c Model o f M o t i v a t i o n Knox and S j o g r e n homeostatic  (1962) s u g g e s t e d  a b a s i c need s a t i s f a c t i o n o r  model o f m o t i v a t i o n f o r i n i t i a l a t t e n d a n c e i n an a d u l t  e d u c a t i o n program.  T h e y d e s c r i b e d a model where many f o r c e s a c t upon  the i n d i v i d u a l , some o f w h i c h i n f l u e n c e him t o seek o u t a l e a r n i n g activity.  A d i s e q u i l i b r i u m e x i s t s w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a u s i n g him t o  i n i t i a t e some a c t i o n - t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y - t h a t w i l l r e s t o r e h i s need s t a t e t o e q u i l i b r i u m .  B o s h i e r (1971) diagrammed t h e p r o c e s s a s  follows: Deprivation  (tension increase)  'Action (participation)  > S a t i s f a c t i o n (tension decrease) As B o s h i e r p o i n t s o u t : The b a s i c i d e a i s t h a t a p e r s o n m o b i l i z e s h i s d e f e n s e s t o ward o f f d i s r u p t i v e f o r c e s , which cause t e n s i o n o r t h r e a t - i n t h e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t , b o r e d o m , . s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n , an unhappy i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p - and i n so d o i n g b r i n g s i n t o p l a y a c t i o n w h i c h w i l l r e s t o r e b a l a n c e (1971, p . 2 0 ) .  8  The t h e o r y o f h o m e o s t a t i c human m o t i v a t i o n , a s C o f e r and A p p l e y n o t e , "has been c h a l l e n g e d on t h e grounds t h a t t h e r i c h n e s s o f e x p e r i e n c e and t h e complex s t r u c t u r e o f p a r t i c u l a r l y human s t r i v i n g s c a n n o t be so s i m p l y e x p l a i n e d a s a v o i d a n c e o f d i s e q u i l i b r a t i n g s t i m u l a t i o n " (1965, p.366).  T h r e e m a j o r c r i t i c i s m s have been d i s c u s s e d .  The t h e o r y i s seen  a s e s s e n t i a l l y n e g a t i v e i n n a t u r e . Nowhere does i t a p p e a r t o a l l o w f o r s p o n t a n e o u s a c t i o n ; i n s t e a d , man i s seen a s e s s e n t i a l l y r e a c t i n g t o external disturbances.  S e c o n d l y , t h e c o n c e p t o f e q u i l i b r i u m does n o t  a c c o u n t f o r p e o p l e who d e l i b e r a t e l y seek t o d i s r u p t t h e i r e q u i l i b r i u m , e . g . , t h e a d u l t who a t t e n d s a d u l t programs t o break o u t o f a " r u t " . T h i r d l y , i t does n o t t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e c r e a t i v e and a l t r u i s t i c behaviours o f people. Growth T h e o r i e s o f M o t i v a t i o n I t was a r e a c t i o n t o t h i s e s s e n t i a l l y n e g a t i v e v i e w o f human m o t i v a t i o n t h a t l e d p s y c h o l o g i s t s s u c h as A l l p o r t ( 1 9 5 5 ) , Fromm ( 1 9 5 5 ) , Maslow ( 1 9 5 4 ) , a n d R o g e r s (1961) t o a d v o c a t e growth t h e o r i e s o f m o t i v a tion.  Maslow e x p r e s s e d h i s growth t h e o r y a s a h i e r a r c h y o f n e e d s . A t  t h e base o f t h e h i e r a r c h y a r e t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l n e e d s , s u c h a s hunger and t h i r s t , which a r e pre-potent and, i f u n s a t i s f i e d , w i l l prevail over others. Next a r e t h e s a f e t y needs.  Normally i n western c u l t u r e , adults are not  d o m i n a t e d by t h e s a f e t y needs e x c e p t d u r i n g w a r s , n a t u r a l c a t a s t r o p h i e s and s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s .  B e l o n g i n g n e s s and l o v e heeds a r i s e when p h y s i o -  l o g i c a l and s a f e t y needs have been s a t i s f i e d .  Love needs a r e s a t i s f i e d  t h r o u g h i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a w i f e , c h i l d r e n and f r i e n d s .  Next t o a p p e a r  i n t h e h i e r a r c h y a r e esteem needs w h i c h r e p r e s e n t a d e s i r e f o r s e l f r e s p e c t , o r s e l f e s t e e m , and f o r t h e esteem o f o t h e r s .  Gratification of  9 t h e s e needs l e a d s t o a p o s i t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t and f e e l i n g s o f w o r t h and competence.  A t t h e peak o f t h e h i e r a r c h y i s s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n , t h e  d i s c o v e r y o f t h e r e a l s e l f , i t s e x p r e s s i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t .  F i g u r e 1-  i l l u s t r a t e s the hierarchy. Figure 1 Maslow H i e r a r c h y o f Needs  Maslow 0 9 7 0 ) c a t e g o r i z e d t h e f i r s t t h r e e needs a s i n s t i g a t o r s of d e f i c i e n c y motivated  b e h a v i o u r and a s s o c i a t e d esteem and s e l f - a c t u a l i z -  i n g needs w i t h g r o w t h m o t i v a t e d  behaviour.  The f a i l u r e t o s a t i s f y b a s i c  needs l e a d s t o c o n d i t i o n s c o m p a r a b l e t o a v i t a m i n d e f i c i e n c y . G r a t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s e needs i s e s s e n t i a l f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h .  Growth m o t i -  v a t i o n i s d e f i n e d as "the v a r i o u s processes which bring the person t o w a r d u l t i m a t e s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n " (1955, p . 9 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o Maslow: Growth i s s e e n t h e n n o t o n l y as p r o g r e s s i v e g r a t i f i c a t i o n o f b a s i c needs t o t h e p o i n t where t h e y d i s a p p e a r , but a l s o i n t h e form o f s p e c i f i c growth m o t i v a t i o n s o v e r and above t h e s e .basic needs, e.g., t a l e n t s , c a p a b i l i t i e s , c r e a t i v e tendencies, cons t i t u t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l i t i e s (1955, p . 9 ) . Maslow i d e n t i f i e d t h e f o l l o w i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between d e f i c i e n c y and growth m o t i v a t e d  people.  Generally, d e f i c i e n c y motivated  people f i n d  10 d e s i r e o r i m p u l s e t o be a n u i s a n c e o r a t h r e a t and t h u s behave i n a c c o r d with the homeostatic  model.  motivational impulses.  Growth m o t i v a t e d  p e r s o n s welcome and d e s i r e  T h e s e a r e seen as e n j o y a b l e , and  leads to f u r t h e r impulses.  gratification  As Maslow n o t e s , "the c r e a t o r welcomes h i s  c r e a t i v e i m p u l s e s , t h e t a l e n t e d p e r s o n e n j o y s u s i n g and e x p a n d i n g h i s t a l e n t s " (1955, p.12).  In o t h e r w o r d s , a p p e t i t e s f o r growth a r e i n t e n -  s i f i e d and l e a d t o f u r t h e r g r o w t h , whereas t h e d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d p e r s o n ' s need g r a t i f i c a t i o n t e n d s t o be s p o r a d i c and c l i m a c t i c . Adult L i f e Cycle The c o n c e p t o f t h e l i f e c y c l e as a u n i t o f s o c i a l t i m e has been u t i l i z e d e x t e n s i v e l y by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s t o d e s c r i b e c u l t u r e s .  Anthro-  p o l o g i s t s mark t h e l i f e c y c l e i n t o age s t a g e s , e a c h d e f i n e d by t h e c u l t u r e as t o i t s f u n c t i o n s , r o l e s , r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r age s t a g e s , d u r a t i o n , and p o i n t s o f e n t r y and  termination.  B u h l e r (1968) has d e s c r i b e d f i v e p h a s e s o f human d e v e l o p m e n t i n r e l a t i o n to l i f e goals.  She says l i f e i s a m e a n i n g f u l  project involving  the p u r s u i t of c e r t a i n goals, with various periods of evaluation along t h e way,  and e n d i n g i n f u l f i l l m e n t o r f a i l u r e . 1.  The s t a g e s were seen a s :  b e f o r e s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f l i f e g o a l s phase ( t o a b o u t age 15);  2.  a t e n t a t i v e and p r e p a r a t o r y s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f l i f e g o a l s p h a s e (from age 15 t o a b o u t age  3.  25);  t h e s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f l i f e g o a l s phase becomes more s p e c i f i e d and d e f i n i t i v e (from age 25 t o a b o u t age 45 o r 5 0 ) ;  4.  t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e f o r e g o i n g l i f e and t h e a t t a i n e d o r f a i l e d f u l f i l l m e n t o f g o a l s (from age 45 o r 50 t o age 60 o r 65);  and,  n 5.  a phase i n w h i c h e i t h e r more o r l e s s c o m p l e t e  fulfillment  i s a c k n o w l e d g e d , and a p o s t - s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n l i f e s e t s i n w i t h r e s t and memories.  Sometimes i l l n e s s and d e c l i n e o r  p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t and p a r t i a l f a i l u r e m o t i v a t e t h e i n d i v i d u a l to r e t u r n to p r e v i o u s f o r m s o f s t r i v i n g .  The  f e e l i n g o f more o r l e s s c o m p l e t e f a i l u r e ends i n d e p r e s s i o n or despair. The a d u l t l i f e c y c l e has been adopted by a d u l t e d u c a t o r s  who  have become i n t e r e s t e d i n how t h e v a r i o u s age s t a g e s i n f l u e n c e p e r s o n s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n l e a r n i n g p r o g r a m s . H a v i g h u r s t (1964) u t i l i z e d t h e n o t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l  tasks to  e x p l a i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . He sees t h e a d u l t p o r t i o n o f t h e l i f e c y c l e as c o n s i s t i n g o f a set o f phases or developmental vant t o a d u l t education programs.  Havighurst defines a  tasks r e l e -  developmental  t a s k as one "which must be a c h i e v e d a t o r about a c e r t a i n phase i n l i f e , i f a p e r s o n i s t o be j u d g e d and t o j u d g e h i m s e l f as a competent p e r s o n " (1964, p . 1 9 ) . developmental mental  He d i v i d e s e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s d e s i g n e d t o a c h i e v e tasks into instrumental or expressive a c t i v i t i e s .  a c t i v i t i e s a r e f o r a g o a l w h i c h l i e s o u t s i d e and beyond the a c t o f  education.  E x p r e s s i v e a c t i v i t i e s a r e f o r a g o a l w h i c h l i e s w i t h i n the  a c t o f l e a r n i n g , o r l e a r n i n g f o r t h e sake o f l e a r n i n g .  Examples o f i n s t r u -  mental e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s t o meet s p e c i f i c d e v e l o p m e n t a l be:  Instru-  t a s k s would  p r e p a r i n g f o r an o c c u p a t i o n , r e a r i n g c h i l d r e n , o r becoming an  and r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n .  Havighurst characterizes expressive  informed  education  as b e i n g p r i m a r i l y u t i l i z e d i n the p u r s u i t o f l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s such as dancing, c r a f t s , bridge playing. In a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t r e s u l t i n  developmental  changes i n m o t i v a t i o n d u r i n g the a d u l t l i f e c y c l e , Kuhlen (1963) has  12  s u g g e s t e d two broad m o t i v a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e a d u l t : one o f growth e x p a n s i o n ; t h e o t h e r , a n x i e t y and t h r e a t . Kuhlen subsumes t h e c o n c e p t o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n i n a growth and e x p a n s i o n m o t i v e .  In  c o n t r a s t t o Maslow, he s u g g e s t s t h a t growth e x p a n s i o n m o t i v e s seem t o dominate t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e a d u l t l i f e c y c l e w i t h a n x i e t y and t h r e a t motives p r e v a i l i n g i n the l a t e r years.  Maslow (1955) c o n s i d e r e d s e l f -  a c t u a l i z a t i o n t o be an u l t i m a t e s t a t e and s u g g e s t e d t h a t growth m o t i v a t i o n would t e n d t o be more p r e v a l e n t i n o l d e r a d u l t s t h a n i n young a d u l t s who p r i m a r i l y would be s t r i v i n g t o s a t i s f y d e f i c i e n c y needs.  Kuhlen  ( 1 9 6 3 ) , s u g g e s t s growth m o t i v a t i o n may r e a c h a peak i n m i d d l e age and t h e n he r e p l a c e d by a n x i e t y and t h r e a t . He s a y s t h i s change i n m o t i v a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e b e c a u s e o f age r e l a t e d f a c t o r s s u c h as a d e c l i n e i n s o c i a l s t a t u s , c i r c u m s t a n t i a l p r e s s u r e s , and p h y s i c a l c h a n g e s .  In the w e s t e r n  c u l t u r e , y o u t h i s i d e a l i z e d and t h e s t a t u s a c c o r d e d o l d e r p e o p l e d e c l i n e s r a p i d l y a f t e r m i d d l e age.  C i r c u m s t a n t i a l p r e s s u r e s r e s u l t when a d u l t s a r e  "locked" into f r u s t r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n s t h a t are a source o f unhappiness.  As  p e r s o n s m a r r y , have c h i l d r e n , a c c u m u l a t e s e n i o r i t y i n a j o b , t h e y may f i n d themselves unable to a l t e r the d i s t u r b i n g circumstances. l e s s committed situations.  Younger,  i n d i v i d u a l s c a n more e a s i l y e x t r i c a t e t h e m s e l v e s from t h e s e The t h i r d f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g m o t i v a t i o n a t d i f f e r e n t ages i s  p h y s i o l o g i c a l change and d e c l i n e . P h y s i o l o g i c a l p r e s s u r e s and t e n s i o n s may become i m p o r t a n t m o t i v a t o r s a g a i n w i t h a d u l t s , e s p e c i a l l y i f a marked deterioration in physical health occurs. Although the m o t i v a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s of growth, expansion, a n x i e t y and t h r e a t a r e i m p o r t a n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e l i f e c y c l e , t h e r e a r e i n d i v i d u a l differences.  D i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , s e l f - c o n c e p t , and  13 a t t i t u d e s toward t h e o l d , p r o d u c e s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n s i n m o t i v a t i o n . F o r example, K u h l e n (1963) a r g u e s t h a t i n t h e u p p e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p v e r y l i t t l e change o c c u r s i n m o t i v a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s w i t h a d v a n c i n g a g e . A l s o i n c u l t u r e s where o l d e r a d u l t s a r e r e s p e c t e d , m o t i v a t i o n i s l e s s l i k e l y t o c h a n g e t h a n i n c u l t u r e s where o l d a g e i s d e n i g r a t e d . and H a v i g h u r s t maintained  Neugarten  (1969) have r e p o r t e d t h a t where s o c i a l r o l e s have been  and s u p p o r t e d  a f t e r r e t i r e m e n t , r a t i n g s on f r i e n d s h i p a c t i v -  i t i e s were h i g h e r than f o r i n d i v i d u a l s who d i d n o t r e c e i v e such B u h l e r (1968) s u g g e s t s  that the i n d i v i d u a l ' s self-assessment  support.  as t o  w h e t h e r he d i d o r d i d n o t r e a c h f u l f i l l m e n t i n a t t a i n i n g h i s l i f e g o a l s i s more i m p o r t a n t  i n o l d age than f u n c t i o n a l d e c l i n e and i n s e c u r i t y . COMBINING MODEL  G i v e n t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t b o t h Maslow's t h e o r y and t h e a d u l t l i f e c y c l e c o n c e p t a r e a p p r o p r i a t e , a c o m b i n i n g model o f m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs c a n be f o r m u l a t e d .  The  f o l l o w i n g m o d e l , p r o p o s e d by B o s h i e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) , has been a l t e r e d s l i g h t l y to d e p i c t the influence o f the adult l i f e c y c l e .  Boshier states that  " a d u l t education p a r t i c i p a n t s enrol f o r reasons which a r e b a s i c a l l y l i f e c h a n c e ( d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n ) o r l i f e - s p a c e (growth m o t i v a t i o n ) (1976, p.3).  oriented"  -  Deficiency motivated  p a r t i c i p a n t s are seeking to s a t i s f y t h e i r  b a s i c needs by a c q u i r i n g u t i l i t a r i a n knowledge, a t t i t u d e s , s k i l l s o r social contacts.  In many c a s e s " t h e s e needs have n e u r o t i c o r i g i n s w h i c h  stem f r o m p r e v i o u s s o c i a l o r p h y s i c a l d e p r i v a t i o n . c i p a n t s , adult education expectations.  For life-chance p a r t i -  i s a means t o an end o r a r e s p o n s e t o c u l t u r a l  G r a t i f i c a t i o n w i l l r e s t o r e homeostasis f o r t h e l i f e - c h a n c e  14 p a r t i c i p a n t and m o t i v a t i o n  f o r f u r t h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n may c e a s e " (1976, p . 3 ) .  In c o n t r a s t , growth m o t i v a t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s have l a r g e l y s a t i s f i e d the b a s i c needs and a r e p r i m a r i l y d i r e c t e d by s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g m o t i v e s . As s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g has been d e s c r i b e d  by Maslow (1955) as a " p r o c e s s  of  b e i n g r a t h e r t h a n becoming", the growth m o t i v a t e d p a r t i c i p a n t " i s the archetypal  c o n t i n u i n g l e a r n e r - i n n e r d i r e c t e d , autonomous, open t o  experience,  new  f r e e from d e t e r m i n i s t i c a t t i t u d e s , t o l e r a n t of incongruence,  s t i m u l u s s e e k i n g , r i s k - t a k i n g and u n f o r t u n a t e l y a m i n o r i t y i n the popu l a t i o n " (1976, p . 3 ) . The i n f l u e n c e o f s t a g e s i n t h e a d u l t l i f e c y c l e c a n - b e combined w i t h the p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f the p a r t i c i p a n t .  Knox and V i d e b e c k  s u g g e s t t h a t "the demands and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s p l a c e d upon (an i n d i v i d u a l ) by h i s v a r i o u s l i f e r o l e s and s o c i a l s t a t u s e s c o n s t i t u t e a d d i t i o n a l  stric-  t u r e s and e x p a n s i o n s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t o r y a l t e r n a t i v e s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e to him"  (1962, p . 1 0 6 ) . It i s probable,  t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the amount o f m o t i v a t i o n  having  g r o w t h o r d e f i c i e n c y o r i g i n s changes as the p a r t i c i p a n t p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e v a r i o u s ' d e v e l o p m e n t s t a g e s o f the l i f e c y c l e .  Figure 2 i l l u s t r a t e s  the model. EMPIRICAL STUDIES An e x t e n s i v e r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l e d few s t u d i e s r e l a t ing psychological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to p a r t i c i p a t i o n in adult  education,  age, sex and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . D o u g l a h ( 1 9 6 8 ) , a t t e m p t e d to measure t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between psychological  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  s i m i l a r to t h e d e f i c i e n c y - g r o w t h  He u t i l i z e d a model  m o t i v a t i o n model by s u g g e s t i n g  the  15  e x i s t e n c e o f two broad m o t i v a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n pation:  partici-  o n e , an economic o r i e n t a t i o n , t h e o t h e r , a s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g  orientation.  D o u g l a h i n t e r v i e w e d 611 a d u l t s t o o b t a i n d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a .  On c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e i n t e r v i e w , r e s p o n d e n t s  completed four  sub-scales  of the C a l i f o r n i a Test of Personality. Figure 2 Model, o f M o t i v e s f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Age  Programs  61 +  Complete f u l f i l l m e n t acknowledged o r part i a l f u l f i l l m e n t and failure Socio-economic status Age  46 - 60  Assessment o f goals, whether f u l f i l l e d o r not Socio-economic status Age  QJ o  o <u t ~*  25-45  Determination o f l i f e goals Socio-economic status Age  1 5 - 25  Deficiency J o h n s t o n e and R i v e r a viewed  2,845  (1965)  surveyed  MOTIVATION 13,000  h o u s e h o l d s and i n t e r -  r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d p e r s o n s t o a s c e r t a i n , among o t h e r t h i n g s ,  why t h e y had e n r o l l e d i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs. ponded t o e i g h t s t a t e m e n t s (1976)  Growth  Participants res-  a b o u t how c o u r s e s c o u l d be h e l p f u l .  Boshier  a d m i n i s t e r e d a d e m o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i -  c i p a t i o n S c a l e t o a sub-sample o f 76 a d u l t s drawn from 242 p e o p l e e n r o l l e d  16 i n n i g h t school programs.  The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  i n terms o f t h e f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s :  a g e , s e x , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and  psychological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Age  '  '  •  A l l three studies reviewed g e n e r a l l y supported c y c l e concept  and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a t t e n d a n c e .  the adult l i f e  J o h n s t o n e and R i v e r a  (1965) f o u n d t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n peaked a t age f i f t y , d r o p p i n g ally thereafter.  dramatic-  T h e y f o u n d t h a t 57 p e r c e n t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s were  u n d e r t h e a g e o f 40 y e a r s and 79 p e r c e n t under t h e age o f 50 y e a r s . J o h n s t o n e and R i v e r a s u g g e s t  that:  It i s evident that vocational considerations propel younger a d u l t s i n t o e d u c a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n more f r e q u e n t l y than t h e y do o l d e r a d u l t s , and a l s o t h a t v o c a t i o n a l m o t i v e s f o r l e a r n i n g change over t i m e f r o m c o n c e r n s a b o u t e n t e r i n g o c c u p a t i o n s t o c o n c e r n s a b o u t advancement w i t h i n j o b s a l r e a d y h e l d . By c o m p a r i s o n , o l d e r p e o p l e , more o f t e n than y o u n g e r , have a s g o a l s g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n , s o c i a l c o n t a c t s , and s p a r e t i m e enjoyment (1965, p.157). D o u g l a h (1968) f o u n d a s i g n i f i c a n t c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between age and p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h t h e 35 - 45 age b r a c k e t h a v i n g t h e h i g h e s t p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e and e n r o l l e d p r i m a r i l y f o r v o c a t i o n a l  reasons.  B o s h i e r (1976) a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t y o u n g e r a d u l t s were more i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d b e c a u s e o f j o b r e l a t e d f a c t o r s . Sex D i f f e r e n c e s between t h e m o t i v e s f o r a t t e n d a n c e o f men and women seem t o r e f l e c t t h e i r d i f f e r e n t l i f e c y c l e r o l e s .  J o h n s t o n e and R i v e r a  (1965) r e p o r t e d t h a t v o c a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e o f more i m p o r t a n c e t o men than women, l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s a r e more i m p o r t a n t men,  t o women than  and women u t i l i z e d c o u r s e s more than men t o meet "new p e o p l e " and  g e t away f r o m t h e " d a i l y r o u t i n e . "  S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s were r e p o r t e d by  17 B o s h i e r (1976) who s a i d women were s l i g h t l y more " E s c a p e " m o t i v a t e d t h a n men and men more m o t i v a t e d by " P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement" t h a n women. Socio-Economic Status Data f r o m t h e s e s t u d i e s s u g g e s t t h a t p e r s o n s s i t u a t e d a t d i f f e r e n t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l s u t i l i z e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs f o r q u i t e d i s t i n c t i v e reasons. are  D o u g l a h (1968) c o n t e n d e d t h a t l o w s o c i o - e c o n o m i c groups  p r i m a r i l y m o t i v a t e d by an economic o r i e n t a t i o n t o a l l e v i a t e d e f i c i e n t  e d u c a t i o n , income, and employment s t a t u s c o n d i t i o n s . J o h n s t o n e and Rivers write: At l o w e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l s a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s used p r i m a r i l y to l e a r n t h e s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y f o r c o p i n g w i t h e v e r y d a y l i f e As o n e moves up i n t h e s o c i a l c l a s s , v o c a t i o n a l c o n c e r n s n o t o n l y become l e s s p r e v a l e n t , t h e y s h i f t from f i n d i n g employment to g e t t i n g ahead i n a l i n e o f work a l r e a d y e n t e r e d . In g e n e r a l , however, t h e r e i s an o v e r a l l s h i f t away from l e a r n i n g f o r p u r p o s e s o f b a s i c l i f e a d j u s t m e n t , and an accompanying i n c r e ment o f c o n c e r n w i t h l e s s p r e s s i n g c o n t i n g e n c i e s , such a s t h e e n r i c h m e n t o f s p a r e t i m e (1965, p . 1 5 9 ) . B o s h i e r (1976) f o u n d t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h t h e l o w e s t f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r j o b r e l a t e d reasons than well educated p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Also,  p a r t i c i p a n t s o f l o w o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s were p r i m a r i l y e n r o l l e d f o r v o c a tional reasons.  These f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t lower c l a s s p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e  p r i m a r i l y d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d w h i l e u p p e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c groups a r e m a i n l y growth m o t i v a t e d . Psychological Characteristics D o u g l a h (1968) used f o u r s u b - s c a l e s o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f P e r s o n a l i t y t o measure S e l f - R e l i a n c e , Withdrawing Tendencies, S o c i a l S k i l l s , and O c c u p a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s . T h e r e s u l t s a r e somewhat i n c o n c l u s i v e a s o n l y a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between W i t h d r a w i n g T e n d e n c i e s and  18 low-socio-economic  s t a t u s and a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between S o c i a l S k i l l s  and h i g h s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s were r e p o r t e d o r s i g n i f i c a n t . J o h n s t o n e and R i v e r a (1965), D o u g l a h ( 1 9 6 8 ) , and B o s h i e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) , have u t i l i z e d t h e d e f i c i e n c y - g r o w t h n o t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h a t e n t a t i v e psychological p r o f i l e of adult education participants.  An e x t e n s i v e  r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e , however, has f a i l e d t o l o c a t e r e s e a r c h which d i r e c t l y r e l a t e s m e a s u r e s o f growth o r d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n t o t h e s o c i o demographic  v a r i a b l e s u s u a l l y studied i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n surveys.  The  d e f i c i e n c y - g r o w t h model o f m o t i v e s t h u s f a r has o n l y been i n f e r r e d and r e q u i r e s d i r e c t measurement u s i n g i n s t r u m e n t s m e a s u r i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h , on a - p r i o r i and e m p i r i c a l g r o u n d s , a r e r e g a r d e d as d i r e c t measures o f d e f i c i e n c y and growth m o t i v a t i o n . THE HYPOTHESES Data were g a t h e r e d t o t e s t t h e f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s e s : 1.  T h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s aged 45 - 65 y e a r s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more growth m o t i v a t e d t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s aged 18 - 44 y e a r s .  2.  T h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s aged 1 8 - 4 4  y e a r s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s aged 45 - 65 y e a r s . 3.  That p a r t i c i p a n t s with a h i s t o r y of "continuous" p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more growth m o t i v a t e d t h a n " s p o r a d i c " participants.  4.  That p a r t i c i p a n t s with a h i s t o r y o f "sporadic" p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d t h a n " c o n t i n u o u s " participants.  5.  That p a r t i c i p a n t s "high" i n socio-economic status are s i g n i f i c a n t l y more growth m o t i v a t e d t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s "low" i n  19 socio-economic s t a t u s . 6.  T h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s "low" i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  status are s i g n i -  f i c a n t l y more d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s " h i g h " in socio-economic s t a t u s . Hypotheses one and two a r e r e l a t e d ; Hypotheses a l s o r e l a t e d as a r e Hypotheses  t h r e e and f o u r a r e  f i v e and s i x .  B o s h i e r (1971) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e f a c t o r s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h growth and d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n and has i d e n t i f i e d i t e m s which i n d i c a t e growth o r d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n .  Hypotheses  seven and e i g h t were t e s t e d t o examine t h e c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y o f t h e Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale. There w i l l 7.  be:  A p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c o r e s on a measure o f s e l f a c t u a l i z a t i o n and s c o r e s on E.P.S. g r o w t h m o t i v a t i o n f a c t o r s .  8.  A p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c o r e s on a measure o f d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n and s c o r e s on E.P.S. d e f i c i e n c y motivation factors. SUMMARY  T h i s c h a p t e r has p r e s e n t e d f o u r m a j o r m o t i v a t i o n t h e o r i e s u t i l i z e d by a d u l t e d u c a t o r s t o e x p l a i n why a d u l t s p a r t i c i p a t e i n educat i o n programs.  The t h e o r i e s were Houle's m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s ;  H o m e o s t a t i c t h e o r y o f m o t i v a t i o n ; Growth t h e o r y o f m o t i v a t i o n and t h e adult l i f e c y c l e concept.  Combining  adult l i f e c y c l e concepts with  Maslow's growth t h e o r y , a d e f i c i e n c y - g r o w t h model o f m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n was d e s c r i b e d .  A f t e r a r e v i e w o f t h e . l i t e r a t u r e , i t was  found  t h a t t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e c o n c e p t o f a d e f i c i e n c y - g r o w t h  20 model o f m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s .  However,  f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h u t i l i z i n g d i r e c t measures o f d e f i c i e n c y and g r o w t h m o t i v a t i o n t o t e s t t h e model was  required.  21 CHAPTER 3 METHOD Design A d i r e c t t e s t o f t h e hypotheses  was p r o v i d e d by a c o r r e l a t i o n a l  design. Subjects The s u b j e c t s f o r t h e s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f 274 a d u l t s a t t e n d i n g a d u l t n i g h t s c h o o l c o u r s e s s p o n s o r e d by School D i s t r i c t #38, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Canada. 15 and September 29, 1975.  Richmond,  C o u r s e s commenced i n t h e weeks o f September The sample s e l e c t e d was based on c o u r s e  c o n t e n t and i n c l u d e d f i v e a c a d e m i c , s i x v o c a t i o n a l and f i v e hobby/ l e i s u r e courses.  P a r t i c i p a n t s were e n r o l l e d i n t h e c o u r s e s as shown i n  T a b l e 1. Procedure The Richmond n i g h t s c h o o l c o - o r d i n a t o r was c o n t a c t e d and s i o n t o c o n d u c t t h e s t u d y was sought and o b t a i n e d (Appendix A ) .  permisA  s c h e d u l e o f c l a s s e s t o be s u r v e y e d was f o r m u l a t e d and s u b m i t t e d t o the administration.  One week p r i o r t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a l l  c l a s s e s and i n s t r u c t o r s were n o t i f i e d t h a t a s u r v e y would be t a k i n g p l a c (Appendix  B).  The r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s were b r i e f e d and  standardized  i n s t r u c t i o n s i s s u e d b e f o r e each q u e s t i o n n a i r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (Appendix  C  A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f e a c h c l a s s t h e r e s e a r c h e r o r one o f t h e a s s i s t a n t s i n t r o d u c e d h i m s e l f and s t a t e d he was c o n d u c t i n g a s u r v e y t o  determine  some o f t h e r e a s o n s why a d u l t s p a r t i c i p a t e i n n i g h t s c h o o l programs. P a r t i c i p a n t s were i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f the s t u d y would be a v a i l a b l e - t o t h e n i g h t s c h o o l c o - o r d i n a t o r t o improve program p l a n n i n g .  As  22 r e s p o n s e s were t o be anonymous, r e s p o n d e n t s were urged t o be f r a n k i n their replies.  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were t h e n d i s t r i b u t e d t o a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s .  A b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n was p r o v i d e d f o r each s e c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e and p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked t o c o m p l e t e t h e f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u m e n t s : 1.  Questionnaire e l i c i t i n g Socio-demographic  d a t a and d e g r e e  o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n (Appendix D ) . 2.  Eysenck P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y (Form 1 - A ) .  3.  E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e (2nd e d i t i o n ) .  4.  S e l f - A c t u a l i z a t i o n Values Scale, Personal O r i e n t a t i o n Inventory.  A l l i n s t r u m e n t s were s t a p l e d t o g e t h e r i n t h e above o r d e r and c o m p l e t i o n s u p e r v i s e d by e i t h e r t h e r e s e a r c h e r o r a s s i s t a n t s .  Standard-  i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r c o m p l e t i o n were p r i n t e d on each i n s t r u m e n t . a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t i m e ranged from t h i r t y t o f o r t y m i n u t e s .  Class  The 240 u s a b l e  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t h a t were c o l l e c t e d , r e p r e s e n t e d an 88 p e r c e n t r e s p o n s e rate.  T h i r t y - f o u r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d e l e t e d from t h e sample:  eight  were n o t i n c l u d e d a s t h e f a l s i f i c a t i o n s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on t h e E.P.I, e x c e e d e d t h e c u t t i n g s c o r e o f f i v e ; f o u r were n o t r e t u r n e d ; s i x were d e l e t e d as t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were f u l l t i m e d a y s t u d e n t s ; t h e r e m a i n i n g s i x t e e n were i n c o m p l e t e .  T a b l e 1 d e p i c t s t h e number o f u s a b l e q u e s t i o n -  n a i r e s , by c o u r s e . Instrumentation One measure o f g r o w t h / d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n used was t h e E y s e n c k P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y (1968).  The E.P.I, c o n s i s t s o f 57 i t e m s and y i e l d s  m e a s u r e s on t h e two p e r s o n a l i t y c o n s t r u c t s o f n e u r o t i c i s m and e x t r a version.  A f a l s i f i c a t i o n scale i s also included.  Knapp (1965) showed  23 TABLE 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f P a r t i c i p a n t s by C o u r s e and U s a b l e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  by C o u r s e  Participants  Usable Questionnaires  21  18  Pottery  17  15  A u t o m o t i v e Know How  21  19  W r i t e r s ' Work Shop  14  13  Yoga  21  • 17  6  5  Sub T o t a l  100  87  Public Speaking  14  12  8  8  16  12  8  7  Bookkeeping  23  20  Typing  17  15  86  74  Social Studies II  17  15  E n g l i s h 12  24  22  Math. 12  19  15  H i s t o r y 12  17  17  A c c o u n t i n g 12  11  10  88  79  274  240  .  Name o f C o u r s e  Conversational  Spanish  Macrame  How t o S t a r t a B u s i n e s s House  Construction  I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Data  Sub T o t a l  Sub T o t a l Grand T o t a l  Processing  '  24 t h a t n e u r o t i c i s m a n d s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n a r e n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d , and d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d p e r s o n s , t h e r e f o r e , would tend t o s c o r e h i g h e r on t h e n e u r o t i c i s m s c a l e t h a n growth m o t i v a t e d p e r s o n s .  The r e l i a b i l i t y  and v a l i d i t y o f t h e E.P.I, i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s s h o r t and s i m p l e , (Buros  1972, p.159).  A n o t h e r measure o f g r o w t h / d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n used was Shostrom's  (1965) S e l f - A c t u a l i z i n g V a l u e S u b s c a l e (S.A.V.) o f t h e  P e r s o n a l i t y O r i e n t a t i o n Inventory (P.O.I.).  The S.A.V. c o n s i s t s o f 26  p a i r s o f f o r c e d c h o i c e s t a t e m e n t s d e s i g n e d t o measure s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n a s d e s c r i b e d by Maslow (1954).  W r i g h t and Wyant ( 1 9 7 4 ) , i n a  f a c t o r a n a l y t i c s t u d y o f t h e S.A.V. found t h a t o f t h e n i n e f a c t o r s d e r i v e d , f i v e c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e d f i v e components o f M a s l o w s f i f t e e n 1  component c o n c e p t u a l scheme o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n .  One o f Maslow's  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a c c o u n t e d f o r two s e p a r a t e f a c t o r s , and two o f t h e r e m a i n i n g components d i f f u s e d t h e m s e l v e s t h r o u g h o u t s e v e r a l f a c t o r s . F i v e o f Maslow's c o n c e p t u a l components were n o t r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e S.A.V. s c a l e and t h e r e f o r e c o u l d n o t be s u p p o r t e d . r e p o r t e d by Shostrom M c C l a i n (1970).  V a l i d i t y s t u d i e s have been  ( 1 9 6 6 ) , Fox ( 1 9 6 8 ) , Shostrom and Knapp ( 1 9 6 6 ) , and  I l a r d i and May (1968) r e p o r t e d a 50 week t e s t - r e t e s t  r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f .60 ( p < .005) f o r t h e S.A.V. s u b s c a l e .  The  s u b s c a l e was a l t e r e d s l i g h t l y f o r t h i s s t u d y t o r e f l e c t t h e f a c t t h a t t h r e e o f t h e t w e n t y - s i x i t e m s d i d n o t l o a d s i g n i f i c a n t l y on a n y f a c t o r i n t h e W r i g h t and Wyant s t u d y .  T h e r e f o r e a 23 i t e m s c a l e was u s e d .  B o s h i e r (1971) d e v e l o p e d t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e (E.P.S.) i n New Z e a l a n d t o i n v e s t i g a t e H o u l e ' s (1961) c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s o f a d u l t l e a r n e r s . The s c a l e had 48 i t e m s c a s t on a n i n e p o i n t s c a l e t o measure t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h r e a s o n s  25 i n f l u e n c e d p e o p l e t o e n r o l l i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs.  Subjects f o r the  New Z e a l a n d s t u d y were 233 r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s i n W e l l i n g t o n , New Z e a l a n d .  A s i x week t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a -  b i l i t y s t u d y , u t i l i z i n g a d i f f e r e n t sample, was c o n d u c t e d and a l l i t e m s were s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l .  The E.P.S. has been r e v i s e d by B o s h i e r  ( 1 9 7 6 ( a ) ) from 48 i t e m s t o 40 items t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t r e c e n t f a c t o r a n a l y s i s s t u d i e s . The i t e m s c a l e was a l s o changed from a n i n e p o i n t s c a l e t o a f o u r p o i n t s c a l e f o r r e a s o n s d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l by B o s h i e r ( 1 9 7 6 ( a ) ) . P r i o r t o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a one week t e s t / r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y s t u d y f o r a l l 40 i t e m s o f t h e E.P.S. was c o n d u c t e d w i t h 42 a d u l t s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n n i g h t s c h o o l b u s i n e s s programs a t t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y i n Burnaby, B.C.  The mean t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r  a l l i t e m s on t h e E.P.S. was .60, s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .005 l e v e l .  The  r e v i s e d E.P.S. i s t h e r e f o r e r e l i a b l e . Socio-demographic  d a t a and d e g r e e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n were g a t h e r e d  w i t h a t w e l v e i t e m q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix D ) . The  socio-demographic  v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d : age, sex, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , educational attainment l e v e l , y e a r s o f f o r m a l f u l l t i m e e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n , and income l e v e l . In a d d i t i o n , t h e s u b j e c t s were asked t o i n d i c a t e (by y e a r ) how many a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s t h e y had e n r o l l e d i n d u r i n g t h e p r e c e d i n g t e n y e a r s . I n f o r m a t i o n as t o t h e number o f y e a r s s i n c e s u b j e c t s had a t t e n d e d a f o r m a l s c h o o l s e t t i n g f u l l t i m e was a l s o o b t a i n e d .  The a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i -  p a t i o n i n d e x was a r r i v e d a t by c o m b i n i n g t h e number o f y e a r s i n w h i c h s u b j e c t s had p a r t i c i p a t e d , t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and t h e number o f c o u r s e s t a k e n . follows:  C o n t i n u i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n was c a l c u l a t e d a s  26  0 break i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e c o r d = 5 p o i n t s 1 break  "  "  "  =• 4 p o i n t s  2 breaks "  "  = 3 points  3 breaks "  "  = 2 points  4 breaks "  . . . .  =  1  p o i n t  The t o t a l number o f y e a r s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and t h e number o f c o u r s e s e n r o l l e d i n were summed and t h e n m u l t i p l i e d by t h e number o f p o i n t s a s s i g n e d f o r c o n t i n u i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . For example, a p a r t i c i p a n t c o m p l e t e s t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e as f o l l o w s : Year  No. o f C o u r s e s  Year  1975  2  1970  1974  1  1969  1973  No. o f C o u r s e s  3 .  1968  1972  1  1967  1  1971  1  1966  1  S i n c e no c o u r s e s were t a k e n i n 1973, 1970, and 1968, t h r e e b r e a k s o c c u r i n t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e c o r d and a s c o r e o f two i s a s s i g n e d f o r c o n tinuity of participation.  The number o f y e a r s p a r t i c i p a t e d , s e v e n , i s  added t o t h e number o f c o u r s e s t a k e n , t e n . T h e t o t a l , s e v e n t e e n , i s m u l t i p l i e d by, two, t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c o r e , t o a r r i v e a t the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e x s c o r e o f 34. Data A n a l y s i s Two hundred a n d f o r t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were used i n t h e d a t a analysis.  An i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number was p l a c e d a t t h e upper r i g h t hand  c o r n e r o f t h e f i r s t page o f each q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  The ds-ta from e a c h  q u e s t i o n n a i r e were coded and t r a n s p o s e d t o an IBM c o d i n g form f o r key punching.  A b l a n k w a s l e f t t o r e p r e s e n t any i n c o m p l e t e d o r u n i n t e l l i g i b l e -  item.  27 Computer c a r d s were p u n c h e d , v e r i f i e d , and t h e d a t a a n a l y z e d u s i n g  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Computing C e n t r e f a c i l i t i e s . Nominal d a t a , such as s e x , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , c o u r s e c o n t e n t , and e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , was a n a l y z e d u t i l i z i n g t h e U.B.C. Computing C e n t r e M u l t i v a r i a t e C o n t i n g e n c y T a b u l a t i o n s (MVTAB). O r d i n a l d a t a , such a s a g e , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e x , S.A.V., N e u r o t i c i s m , and S o c i o - E c o n o m i c  s t a t u s , which met t h e a s s u m p t i o n s  for correlation,  was a n a l y z e d u t i l i z i n g t h e U.B.C. Computing C e n t r e T r i a n g u l a r R e g r e s s i o n Package ( T R I P ) .  T h e INMSDC s u b - r o u t i n e o f TRIP was used t o p r o d u c e means,  s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s and a c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x .  The T-TEST s u b - r o u t i n e o f  TRIP was used t o e x t r a c t s u b s e t s o f d a t a and t o a n a l y z e d i f f e r e n c e s between means. The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e s u b - r o u t i n e o f t h e S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (SPSS) was used t o a n a l y z e nominal d a t a i n t h e f i r s t d i m e n s i o n such a s s e x , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , c o u r s e c o n t e n t , and e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , w i t h o r d i n a l d a t a i n t h e second d i m e n s i o n such a s mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V. and E.P.S. f a c t o r s c o r e s . The U.B.C. Computing C e n t r e F a c t o r A n a l y s i s (FAN) program was used t o r e d u c e t h e f o r t y E.P.S. items t o s i x " m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s " , w h i c h , f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s c o r i n g , were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a g e , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e x , N e u r o t i c i s m , and S.A.V. s c o r e s .  28 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS This chapter presents the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the respondents, f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e E.P.S., t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e t e s t i n g o f each hypot h e s i s , and a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s . CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESPONDENTS Of t h e 240 s u b j e c t s , 36.2 p e r c e n t were e n r o l l e d i n h o b b y / l e i s u r e c o u r s e s , 32.9 p e r c e n t i n academic p r o g r a m s , and 30.8 p e r c e n t i n j o b / v o c a t i o n a l programs.  T a b l e 1 shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n by c l a s s .  T h e r e were 97 men (40.4 p e r c e n t ) and 143 women (59.6 p e r c e n t ) i n t h e sample.  The a v e r a g e age o f t h e s u b j e c t s was 30.35 y e a r s (S.D.=  10.94 y e a r s ) . More than h a l f o f t h e s u b j e c t s were m a r r i e d , 38 p e r c e n t had never m a r r i e d , and 7.5 p e r c e n t were widows, w i d o w e r s , s e p a r a t e d o r divorced (Table 2 ) . TABLE 2 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s by M a r i t a l S t a t u s  n  Per c e n t  129  53.7  4  1.7  Separated/D i v o r c e d  14  5.8  Never M a r r i e d  93  38.7  240  100.0  Status Married Widow/Widower  Total  29 More t h a n t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s  had completed  Grade 12  o r more, 32 p e r c e n t had o b t a i n e d Grade 11 o r l e s s . T a b l e 3 shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s u b j e c t s by e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s .  The mean number  o f y e a r s o f f u l l time s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e was 12.17 y e a r s (S.D.=2.01 y e a r s ) . R e s p o n d e n t s had, on a v e r a g e , n o t a t t e n d e d s c h o o l on a f u l l time b a s i s f o r 11.86 y e a r s (S.D.=11.11 y e a r s ) . TABLE 3 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S u b j e c t s by E d u c a t i o n a l Qualifications  n  Per C e n t  No f o r m a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n  0  0  Completed elementary  7  2.9  C o m p l e t e d Grade 10 o r 11  70  29.2  G r a d e 12 g r a d u a t i o n o r overseas equivalent  82  34.2  Vocational school diploma, B u s i n e s s School d i p l o m a o r Journeyman's q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  30  12.5  Part o f a u n i v e r s i t y degree  14  5.8  U n i v e r s i t y degree o r c o l l e g e / technical school diploma  22  9.2  U n i v e r s i t y degree o r diploma and some o t h e r f i n a l q u a l i f i c a tions  15  6.3  240  100.0  Educational Q u a l i f i c a t i o n  Total  school  30 The mean s c o r e o b t a i n e d by s u b j e c t s on t h e " a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e x " was 27.38 (S.D.=29.63). O c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s was coded by u s i n g B l i s h e n ' s (1967) a n a l y s i s o f C a n a d i a n c e n s u s d a t a w h e r e i n o c c u p a t i o n s were ranked i n a c c o r d w i t h socio-economic  status.  B l i s h e n d e r i v e d t h e r a n k s by an i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n  o f d a t a c o n c e r n i n g income a n d e d u c a t i o n .  The mean s c o r e o b t a i n e d by r e s -  pondents was 40.57 (S.D.=12.38). The 240 s u b j e c t s had a mean p e r s o n a l income o f $10,000 (S.D.= $5,000.).  The a v e r a g e f a m i l y income, p e r s o n a l income p l u s  spouse's  income, was $14,000 (S.D.=$6,000.). The mean s c o r e on t h e E.P.I. - N e u r o t i c i s m s c a l e was 10.25 (S.D.=5.25).  The mean P.O.I. - S.A.V. s c o r e was 17.15 (S.D.=2.86). FACTOR ANALYSIS OF THE E.P.S.  F a c t o r S t r u c t u r e o f E.P.S. E.P.S. d a t a from 240 r e s p o n d e n t s were s u b j e c t t o a p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s and o r t h o g o n a l r o t a t i o n ( v a r i m a x ) .  An o r t h o g o n a l  r o t a t i o n was chosen because o f t h e d e s i r e t o produce u n c o r r e l a t e d f a c t o r s . The f i r s t f a c t o r i n g p r o d u c e d t e n f a c t o r s w i t h e i g e n v a l u e s g r e a t e r t h a n 1.00. C a t t e l l ' s s c r e e t e s t (1966) which examines e i g e n v a l u e s , i n d i c a t e d t h a t the c l e a r e s t s t r u c t u r e f o r t h e purpose o f t h i s study would be a c h i e v e d by r o t a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t s i x f a c t o r s . S i x f a c t o r s were o r t h o g o n a l l y r o t a t e d t o a c h i e v e a s t r u c t u r e s i m i l a r t o t h a t o b t a i n e d by M o r s t a i n and Smart (1974) and by B o s h i e r (1976).  Items l o a d i n g .40 o r more a f t e r r o t a t i o n were i n c l u d e d i n each  factor.  The names g i v e n t o t h e s i x i d e n t i f i e d f a c t o r s were: J o b  31  Competence; S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n ; I n t e r e s t ; and E x t e r n a l  Social Contact;  Cognitive  Expectations.  The v a r i a b l e s o r r e a s o n s w h i c h were i n c l u d e d i n e a c h f a c t o r a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 4 by number as t h e y a p p e a r i n t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale.  The t a b l e i n c l u d e s t h e v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d  i n t e r p r e t a b l e f a c t o r s , the variance accounted  f o r by each o f t h e s i x  f o r by t h e f o u r  remaining  f a c t o r s , and t h e t o t a l v a r i a n c e o f t h e t e n f a c t o r s . TABLE 4 The E.P.S. F a c t o r s , The Items i n Each F a c t o r , and The V a r i a n c e A c c o u n t e d F o r  Items i n Each F a c t o r  Variance  Factor I Job Competence (+)  10,20,3,18,32,11 ,13,15 and 30  17.66%  Factor II S o c i a l Welfare  33,9,31 ,23,29,4,22,19, and 39  16.22%  Factors  (*)  (-)  Factor III Escape/Stimulation  8,5,12,28,34,27, and 21 (+)  5.89%  31 ,28,26,38,17,14, and 24  5.07%  Factor V C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t (-)  7,37,25 and 1 '  4.00%  F a c t o r VI External Expectation  36,6,40, and 2  3.70%  F a c t o r IV Social Contact  (+)  (+) Six factor total  52.57%  The v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r by r e m a i n i n g f o u r factors  11.49%  Ten f a c t o r t o t a l  64.06%  * D i r e c t i o n o f f a c t o r l o a d i n g i s i n d i c a t e d by + o r -  32 Factor Content The s i x f a c t o r s c o n t a i n e d 38 o f t h e 40 E.P.S. i t e m s .  The items  i n F a c t o r I were "pure" i n t h a t none l o a d e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y o n any o t h e r factor.  In F a c t o r I I , o f t h e n i n e i t e m s , o n l y "To improve my s o c i a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p s " had a l o a d i n g g r e a t e r than .40 on any o t h e r f a c t o r . In F a c t o r I I I o n l y "To g e t a b r e a k i n t h e r o u t i n e o f home and work" had a l o a d i n g g r e a t e r t h a n .40 on a n o t h e r f a c t o r . None o f t h e i t e m s w h i c h composed F a c t o r IV, V, and VI had l o a d i n g s g r e a t e r t h a n .40 on any other factor. The i t e m s c o m p r i s i n g e a c h f a c t o r a r e l i s t e d f o r e a c h o f t h e s i x factors.  Each i t e m i s p r e c e d e d by the. i t e m number and f o l l o w e d by t h e  factor loadings. F a c t o r I - Job/Competence 10  To g i v e me h i g h e r s t a t u s i n my j o b  .75  20  To h e l p me e a r n a d e g r e e , d i p l o m a o r c e r t i f i c a t e  .73  T o s e c u r e p r o f e s s i o n a l advancement  .70  18  To i n c r e a s e my j o b competence  .70  32  To meet f o r m a l r e q u i r e m e n t s  .68  11  To s u p p l e m e n t a narrow p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n  .65  13  To a c q u i r e knowledge t o h e l p w i t h o t h e r  3  educational courses  .61  15  T o keep up w i t h t h e c o m p e t i t i o n  .56  30  T o keep up w i t h o t h e r s  .41  T h e common theme i n F a c t o r I i s t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e e n r o l l e d i n o r d e r t o a c q u i r e b a s i c knowledge, a t t i t u d e s , o r s k i l l s t h a t w i l l h e l p them o b t a i n o r h o l d j o b s and has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s an a s p e c t o f d e f iciency motivation.  F a c t o r I I c o n t a i n s n i n e items and i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h  33 participants  e n r o l l e d i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e h u m a n i t a r i a n community o b j e c t i v e s .  This  f a c t o r a p p e a r s t o measure an a s p e c t o f growth m o t i v a t i o n ; however, t h e p r e s e n c e o f i t e m 31 "To improve my s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s " and i t e m n i n e "To be a c c e p t e d by o t h e r s " s u g g e s t s t h a t w i t h t h i s sample t h e f a c t o r a l s o be i d e n t i f y i n g some d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d F a c t o r II - S o c i a l 39  may  persons.  Welfare  To improve my a b i l i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n community work  - .72  19  To g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o my p e r s o n a l problems  - .67  22  To p r e p a r e f o r community s e r v i c e  - .62  4  To become more e f f e c t i v e as a c i t i z e n  - .60  29  To improve my a b i l i t y t o s e r v e mankind  - .59  23  To g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o human r e l a t i o n s  - .53  31  To improve my s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s  - .53  To be a c c e p t e d by o t h e r s  - .51  To m a i n t a i n o r improve my s o c i a l p o s i t i o n  - .44  9 33  F a c t o r I I I c o n t a i n s seven i t e m s which r e f l e c t a need f o r s t i m u l a t i o n o r e s c a p e from what m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d a b o r i n g e n v i r o n m e n t . f a c t o r m e a s u r e s an a s p e c t o f d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . F a c t o r I I I - E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n *' 8  To overcome t h e f r u s t r a t i o n o f day t o day l i v i n g  .74  5  To g e t r e l i e f from boredom  .68  12  To s t o p m y s e l f becoming a v e g e t a b l e  .65  28  To g e t a break i n the r o u t i n e o f home o r work  .63  34 To e s c a p e an unhappy r e l a t i o n s h i p 1  .56  This  27  To p r o v i d e a c o n t r a s t t o t h e r e s t o f my l i f e  .55  27  To e s c a p e t e l e v i s i o n  .50  34  * Item 16 "To e s c a p e t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l n a r r o w n e s s o f my o c c u p a t i o n " and Item 35 "To p r o v i d e a c o n t r a s t t o my p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n " l o a d e d .38 and .36 r e s p e c t i v e l y on t h i s f a c t o r . The f o u r t h f a c t o r c o n t a i n s seven i t e m s w h i c h a r e p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l  relationships.  I n d i v i d u a l s who a r e e n -  r o l l e d f o r t h e s e r e a s o n s s t a t e a need f o r group a f f i l i a t i o n and making new f r i e n d s .  T h i s f a c t o r a l s o measures an a s p e c t o f d e f i c i e n c y F a c t o r IV - S o c i a l C o n t a c t  26 To become a c q u a i n t e d 38  with congenial  people  To make new f r i e n d s  31  To f u l f i l l a need f o r p e r s o n a l  .75 .75  17 To p a r t i c i p a t e i n group a c t i v i t y 14  motivation.  .66  a s s o c i a t i o n s and  friendships  .56  To i m p r o v e my s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s  .52  24 T o have a few h o u r s away f r o m r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  .44  28 To g e t a b r e a k i n t h e r o u t i n e o f home o r work  .40  Factor V items r e f l e c t Houle's l e a r n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n and, t h e r e f o r e , measures an a s p e c t o f growth  motivation.  Factor V - Cognitive 1  To s e e k knowledge f o r i t s own sake  25 To l e a r n 37 7  Interest - .75  j u s t f o r the j o y o f learning  - .74  To l e a r n j u s t f o r t h e sake o f l e a r n i n g  - .72  To s a t i s f y an i n q u i r i n g mind  - .69  F a c t o r VI i t e m s r e f l e c t t h e m o t i v a t i o n  t o pursue a d u l t  education  as a r e s u l t o f r e q u i r e m e n t s o r i n s t r u c t i o n s from i n d i v i d u a l s o r a g e n c i e s  35 w i t h which t h e p a r t i c i p a n t i s a s s o c i a t e d .  I n d i v i d u a l s who a t t e n d f o r  t h e s e r e a s o n s a r e s e e k i n g t o f u l f i l l t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f o t h e r s and the f a c t o r i s c o n s i d e r e d t o measure d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . F a c t o r VI - E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s 36 6 40 2  To comply w i t h t h e s u g g e s t i o n s o f some one e l s e  .77  To c a r r y o u t t h e recommendation o f some a u t h o r i t y  .69  To comply w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s from someone e l s e  .66  To s h a r e a common i n t e r e s t w i t h my spouse o r f r i e n d  .40  , F a c t o r two and f i v e a r e t h e r e f o r e growth f a c t o r s and f a c t o r s one, t h r e e , f o u r , and s i x a r e d e f i c i e n c y f a c t o r s . T h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o b t a i n e d by B o s h i e r  (1976).  Factor Scores The above f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e p r o d u c e d s i x " o r i e n t a t i o n s " . A l t h o u g h a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e s t u d y , t h e s e o r i e n t a t i o n s do n o t i n d i c a t e t h e e x t e n t t o which p a r t i c i p a n t s were e n r o l l e d f o r each o f t h e clusters identified.  T h u s , f a c t o r s c o r e s were p r o d u c e d ; t h e s e show t h e  e x t e n t t o which each p a r t i c i p a n t was e n r o l l e d f o r t h e r e a s o n s shown i n each f a c t o r . S i x f a c t o r s c o r e s were produced f o r each r e s p o n d e n t .  Factor  s c o r e s f o r t h e 240 s u b j e c t s were n o r m a l i z e d so t h e mean was z e r o , w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f p l u s o r minus one.  F a c t o r s c o r e s were p r o d u c e d  by  b u i l d i n g r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s u s i n g each f a c t o r as t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . T h e s e r e g r e s s i o n w e i g h t s were used w h i l e t h e o r i g i n a l d a t a was r e a d i n . The r e s u l t a n t f a c t o r s c o r e s t h u s have r e g a r d t o t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n made by e a c h i t e m t o t h e f a c t o r . In m a t r i x n o t a t i o n t h e e q u a t i o n f o r f a c t o r s c o r e s was: .  F = ZR  -1  AB  36 Where F i s t h e m a t r i x o f f a c t o r s c o r e s , B t h e m a t r i x o f p r i m a r y f a c t o r c o r r e l a t i o n s , A i s t h e f a c t o r l o a d i n g m a t r i x , R"  the inverse o f  1  the m a t r i x o f o b s e r v e d c o r r e l a t i o n s , and Z t h e m a t r i x o f data values.  S i x f a c t o r s c o r e s were p r o d u c e d f o r each  standardized  subject.  TESTING THE HYPOTHESES N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. f a c t o r s c o r e s f o r each p a r t i c i pant were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e i r s o c i a l and d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s ( T a b l e 5) to t e s t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s  with  motives f o r attendance.  S u b s e t s o f d a t a were e x t r a c t e d  f o r the following variables:  age,  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e x , number o f y e a r s a t t e n d e d s c h o o l on a f u l l t i m e b a s i s , occupational  s t a t u s , and p e r s o n a l  a n d f a m i l y income.  Mean N e u r o t i c i s m ,  S.A.V. and E.P.S. f a c t o r s c o r e s f o r each o f t h e s u b s e t s o f d a t a were a n a l y z e d u t i l i z i n g t - t e s t s ( T a b l e s 7,8,10,11,12,13).  Nominal  variables  w h i c h f a i l e d t o meet a s s u m p t i o n s f o r P e a r s o n i a n c o r r e l a t i o n were r e l a t e d t o t h e N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. f a c t o r s c o r e s by one way a n a l y s i s of variance.  R e s u l t s a r e shown i n T a b l e s 6,9,15,16.  The c o n c u r r e n t  v a l i d i t y o f t h e E.P.S. a s a n i n d i c a t o r o f growth and d e f i c i e n c y  motivation  was t e s t e d by c o r r e l a t i n g E.P.S. f a c t o r s c o r e s w i t h N e u r o t i c i s m  and S.A.V.  scores  (Table 14). When r e a d i n g t h e T a b l e s , c a r e i s needed when c o n s i d e r i n g  i n f r o n t o f t h e E.P.S. f a c t o r .  the sign  The d i r e c t i o n o f the c o r r e l a t i o n c o -  e f f i c i e n t i s a function o f the positive or negative sign i n the factor loading.  F o r example:  F a c t o r I , J o b Competence, has a p o s i t i v e  loading  as shown i n T a b l e 5. T h e Age and J o b Competence c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s -.13. The d i r e c t i o n o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t would be n e g a t i v e o r i n v e r s e s i n c e a minus t i m e s a p o s i t i v e i s a m i n u s .  37 H y p o t h e s e s One and Two P a r t i c i p a n t s aged 45 - 65 a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more g r o w t h m o t i v a t e d t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s aged 18 - 44 y e a r s and t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s aged 18 - 44 y e a r s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s aged 45 - 65 y e a r s . Age c o r r e l a t e d ( T a b l e 5) s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g m e a s u r e s : Neuroticism,  ( r = -.18; p < .005), S.A.V., ( r = .18; p < . 0 0 5 ) , E.P.S.  f a c t o r C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t , ( r = -.20; p < . 0 0 5 ) , and E.P.S. f a c t o r E x t e r n a l Expectations,  Cr = -.16; p < .005).  T h i s d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n o f age i s  s u p p o r t e d by t h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e a g e r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s "Number o f y e a r s s i n c e attended  s c h o o l on a f u l l t i m e b a s i s . "  Significant correlations  were o b t a i n e d w i t h S.A.V., lr = .18; p<.005), and E.P.S. f a c t o r s C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t , ( r = -.13; p < . 0 2 5 ) , External Expectations, p < . 0 0 5 ) , and E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n , suggests that married  In a d d i t i o n T a b l e 6  (and t h u s o l d e r ) p a r t i c i p a n t s o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y  ( p < . 0 2 5 ) l o w e r mean n e u r o t i c i s m cipants.  ( r = -.11; p < . 0 5 ) .  ( r = -.16;  Separated/divorced  s c o r e s t h a n u n m a r r i e d and y o u n g e r p a r t i -  (and t h u s o l d e r ) p a r t i c i p a n t s were a l s o more  i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r E.P.S. f a c t o r C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t ( p < .05) and l e s s i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s ( p < than t h e younger never married group. support the contention  .025) r e a s o n s  The d a t a , t h e r e f o r e ,  generally  t h a t g r o w t h and d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n  i s associated  with age. H y p o t h e s e s one and two were f u r t h e r t e s t e d by a n a l y z i n g mean Neuroticism,  S.A.V. and E.P.S. f a c t o r s c o r e s f o r h i g h and low age g r o u p s .  The mean age f o r t h e two g r o u p s was 53.15 and 27.71 y e a r s  respectively.  T a b l e 7 shows t h e mean, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , and t - v a l u e f o r each measure. P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e o l d e r age g r o u p o b t a i n e d  s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( p < .025)  Table 5 C o r r e l a t i o n Between N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s and Demographic and S o c i a l Data  Neuroticism  Deficiency Age  -.18****  P a r t i c i p a t i o n Index  -.13**  Number o f Y e a r s Formal E d u c a t i o n  .01  S.A.V.  Growth 13**** .14** -.03  Factor I +  Factor II  Factor III +  F a c t o r IV +'  Factor V  Job Competence Deficiency  Social Welfare Growth  Escape/ Stimulation Deficiency  Social Contact Deficiency  Cognitive Interest Growth  Factor VI + External Expectations Deficiency  -.09  -.10  .12*  -.20****  -.16****  -.07  .04  .03  .03  -.15***  -.03  -.30****  .01  -.02  .10  -.01  -.09  -.08  -.11*  .09  -.13**  -.16****  _^]g****  -.03  -.13**  .09  Number o f Y e a r s S i n c e A t t e n d e d School on F u l l Time B a s i s  -.02  Occupational  -.08  .04  -.26****  -.02  -.03  .07  P e r s o n a l Income  -.26****  .13**  _ "j g****  -.11*  -.08  -.03  .00  -.03  F a m i l y Income  -. 19****  .11*  _ ^ 24****  _ 17****  -!03  -.03  -.05  -.10  * = p<. .05  ** *** **** (one  Status  = p < .025 = p < .01 = p £ .005 tailed test)  •jg****  >  co  Table 6 Mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s By M a r i t a l S t a t u s  Mean S c o r e s Married n=129 Neuroticism  9.46  S.A.V. Factor  17.22 I  Job Competence Factor  (+)  II  Social Welfare  (-)  Factor I I I Escape/Stimulation Factor  IV  Social A f f i l i a t i o n Factor  (+)  (+.)  V  Cognitive Interest  (-)  Factor VI E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s (+)  Widow/er n=4 11.75 19.00  Mean S q u a r e s  Separated/ Divorced n=14  Never Married n=93  Between 3  Within 236  F Ratio  11.54  93.46  26.68  3.503  p<.025  17.64  16.89  8.00  8.11  .986  n.s.  9.46  -.14  -.14  .31  ,14  1.95  .97  2.010  n.s.  -.14  .36  .07  ,16  1.81  .98  1.850  n.s.  .02  -.31  -.40  ,04  .98  .99  ,980  n.s.  .03  .15  -.19  ,02  .25  1.00  ,252  n.s.  -.08  .10  -.59  ,18  2.88  .98  3.010  p < .05  -.08  .36  -.58  ,19  3.07  .96  3.185  p<.025  40 h i g h e r s c o r e s on t h e S.A.V. t h a n y o u n g e r p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Older p a r t i c i p a n t s  were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( p < .05) l e s s i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r E s c a p e reasons than younger p a r t i c i p a n t s .  O l d e r p a r t i c i p a n t s , however, were s i g -  n i f i c a n t l y ( p < . 0 0 5 ) more i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r S o c i a l C o n t a c t r e a s o n s than younger p a r t i c i p a n t s .  On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e r e s u l t s , h y p o t h e s e s one  and two were a c c e p t e d . H y p o t h e s e s T h r e e and Four Participants with a h i s t o r y o f "continuous" p a r t i c i p a t i o n are s i g n i f i c a n t l y more growth m o t i v a t e d t h a n " s p o r a d i c " p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h a t participants with a h i s t o r y o f "sporadic" p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d t h a n " c o n t i n u o u s " p a r t i c i p a n t s . A d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e x s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d ( T a b l e 5) s i g n i f i c a n t l y with:  N e u r o t i c i s m , ( r = -.13; p < .025), S.A.V., ( r = .14;  p < . 0 2 5 ) , a n d C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t , ( r = -.15; p < .01).  These r e s u l t s  g e n e r a l l y support t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t continuous a d u l t l e a r n e r s a r e growth m o t i v a t e d and t h a t t e r m i n a l o r s p o r a d i c a d u l t l e a r n e r s a r e d e f i c i e n c y motivated.  H y p o t h e s e s t h r e e and f o u r were f u r t h e r t e s t e d by a n a l y z i n g  mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. f a c t o r s c o r e s f o r h i g h and l o w s c o r e s on t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e x ( T a b l e 8 ) . Sporadic a d u l t learners obtained s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p<.001) higher Neuroticism scores than continuous a d u l t l e a r n e r s . Continuous a d u l t l e a r n e r s were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( p < . 0 1 ) more i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t reasons than sporadic p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Hypotheses  t h r e e and f o u r were t h e r e f o r e a c c e p t e d . H y p o t h e s e s F i v e and S i x P a r t i c i p a n t s "high" i n socio-economic status a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more g r o w t h m o t i v a t e d t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s "low" i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s  41 and t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s "low" i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  status are s i g n i f i c a n t l y  more d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s " h i g h " i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c status. Table 7 Mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s F o r High and Low Age Groups  Age 18-45n=206 Age 46-70n=25 X  S.D.  X  S.D.  Age  27.71  7.47  53.15  5.11  Neuroticism  10.25  5.16  9.33  5.79  .86  S.A.V.  17.03  2.89  18.30  2.40  2.17  t Value  t Prob.  n.s. p<.025  Job Competence  (+)  .02  1.00  -.14  .95  .78  n.s.  Social Welfare  (-)  .02  .98  -.19  1.09  1.07  n.s.  Escape  (+)  .04  1.01  -.34  .84  1.92  p < .05  Social Contact  (+)  -.05  1.00  .55  .79  3.04  p < .005  Cognitive Interest(-)  -.00  .98  -.23  .96  1.12  n.s.  External Expectations  -.01  1.00  -.17  .89  .90  n.s.  (+)  The f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s (Tab! e 5) were u t i l i z e d as i n d i c a t o r s o f socio-economic  status:  Number o f y e a r s o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n ; E d u c a t i o n a l  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ( T a b l e 9 ) ; O c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s ; and P e r s o n a l and F a m i l y income.  Number o f y e a r s o f s c h o o l c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y o n l y w i t h J o b  Competency, ( r = -.30; p < . 0 0 5 ) .  P a r t i c i p a n t s who had a t t a i n e d  elementary,  G r a d e 10 o r 1 1 , o r V o c a t i o n a l School e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( p < . 0 0 1 ) more i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r J o b Competence r e a s o n s t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s who had o b t a i n e d G r a d e 12 p l u s e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s .  42 Table 8 Mean P a r t i c i p a t i o n , N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s For High a n d Low S c o r e r s on t h e P a r t i c i p a t i o n Index  Participation Participation Low n=168 High n=68 T  S.D.  Participation  14.82  5.44  57.89  40.45  Neuroticism  10.95  5.11  8.56  5.22  3.28  p«t .001  S.A.V.  16.98  2.90  17.57  2.69  1.48  n.s.  S.D.  T  t Value  t Prob  J o b Competence  (+)  .05  1.01  -.16  .91  1.60  n.s.  Social Welfare  (-)  -.00  .94  -.00  1.13  .01  n. s .  Escape/ Stimulation  (+)  -.00  1.00  .00  1.00  .06  n.s.  Social Contact  (+)  -.03  1.00  .09  .98  .94  n.s.  Cognitive Interest(-)  .08  1.02  -.23  .88  2.33  P4. .01  External Expectations  .03  1.00  -.06  1.00  .70  n.s.  (+)  O c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h J o b Competence, ( r = -.26; p < . 0 0 5 ) , and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t , ( r = -.19; p < . 0 0 5 ) .  Personal  income c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h N e u r o t i c i s m , ( r = -.26; p < . 0 0 5 ) , S.A.V., ( r = .13; p < . 0 2 5 ) , J o b Competence, ( r = -.19; p < . 0 0 5 ) , and S o c i a l Welfare, ( r = -.11; p < . 0 5 ) .  F a m i l y income c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h  N e u r o t i c i s m , ( r = -.19; p < .005), S.A.V., ( r = .11; p < . 0 5 ) , J o b Competence, ( r = -.24; p « . 0 0 5 ) , and S o c i a l W e l f a r e , ( r = -.17; p < . 0 0 5 ) . T h e s e r e s u l t s generally support the contention that growth/deficiency motivation i s associated with socio-economic s t a t u s .  43 H y p o t h e s e s f i v e and s i x were f u r t h e r " t e s t e d by a n a l y z i n g mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. f a c t o r s c o r e s f o r h i g h and low'Numbers o f Y e a r s o f School", O c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , and Income g r o u p s .  Participants in  t h e h i g h "Number o f Y e a r s o f S c h o o l i n g " group ( T a b l e 10) were s i g n i f i c a n t l y Cp<.001) l e s s i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r Job Competence r e a s o n s p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e low "Number o f Y e a r s o f S c h o o l i n g . "  than  Participants in  t h e h i g h O c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s group o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( p < . 0 5 ) l o w e r N e u r o t i c i s m s c o r e s t h a n t h e low O c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s group ( T a b l e 1 1 ) . H i g h O c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s groups were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( p < . 0 0 1 ) l e s s i n c l i n e d to be e n r o l l e d f o r Job Competence r e a s o n s , more i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r S o c i a l C o n t a c t (p< .025), and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t ( p < . 0 0 5 ) r e a s o n s , and l e s s i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s ( p <  .05)  r e a s o n s t h a n t h e low O c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s group. P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e h i g h p e r s o n a l income group o b t a i n e d l o w e r Neurot i c i s m s c o r e s ( p < . 0 0 5 ) and h i g h e r S.A.V. s c o r e s ( p ^ .025) t h a n the low p e r s o n a l income group ( T a b l e 1 2 ) .  In a d d i t i o n , p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e h i g h  p e r s o n a l income group were l e s s i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r J o b Competence r e a s o n s ( p < .001) and more i n c l i n e d to be e n r o l l e d f o r S o c i a l W e l f a r e r e a s o n s ( p < . 0 1 ) t h a n low p e r s o n a l income p a r t i c i p a n t s . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e h i g h f a m i l y income group o b t a i n e d l o w e r Neurot i c i s m s c o r e s ( p < . 0 5 ) t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the low f a m i l y income group (Table 13).  P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e h i g h f a m i l y income group were l e s s i n ^  c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r J o b Competence ( p < . 0 0 5 ) and more i n c l i n e d to be e n r o l l e d f o r S o c i a l W e l f a r e ( p < .005) r e a s o n s t h a n low f a m i l y income participants.  H y p o t h e s e s f i v e and s i x were t h e r e f o r e a c c e p t e d .  o-  Table 9 Mean Neuroticism, S.A.V., E.P.S. Factor Scores By Educational Qualification  Mean Squares  Mean Scores Elementary n=7  Grade 10 or 11 n = 70  Grade 12 n = 82  Vocational School n = 30  Part University n = 14  University n = 22  Neurotocism  11.29  10.46  11.13  7.57  10.71  9.86  9.53  S.A.V.  15.86  17.19  16.87  18.00  17.07  17.50  .52  .49  -.26  .27  -.70  -.36  .08  -.03  -.03  -.05  .10  -.06  -.02  -.20  (+)  .09  Factor V Factor VI Cognitive External Interest(-) Expectations (+)  -.37  Factor  I  Job Competence  (-)  Stimulation  (+)  IV  Social Contact  Within n= 232  F Ratio  F Prob.  43.52  27.04  1.609  n.s.  17.00  6.18  8.17  .756  n.s.  -.46  -.46  5.86  .84  6.998  .16  -.28  .18  .59  1.00  .590  n.s.  -.33  .16  -.26  .14  .90  1.00  .903  n.s.  .10  -.00  -.32  .32  .28  1.24  .98  1.266  n.s.  .14  .01  -.17  .05  -.09  .41  .70  .99  .711  n.s.  .13  -.09  -.20  -.22  .27  .32  1.11  .99  1.128  n.s.  p<.001  (+)  Factor II Social Welfare Factor III Escape/  Factor  University + Between n = 15 n=7  45 T a b l e 10 Mean E d u c a t i o n a l A t t a i n m e n t , N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s F o r H i g h And Low Number o f Y e a r s School Groups  Gr.lln=79  Gr.l2n=154 t Value  t Prob.  X  S.D.  X  S.D.  Educational Attain • (No. o f y e a r s )  10.26  .98  13.17  1.66  Neuroticism  10.19  5.21  10.44  5.24  .35  n.s.  S.A.V.  17.37  2.99  17.00  2.75  .94  n.s.  J o b Competence  (+)  .33  .99  -.17  .95  3.79  Social Welfare  (-)  .01  1.00  -.01  1.00  .22  n.s.  Escape/ Stimulation  (+)  .00  .90  .00  1.05  .02  n.s.  Social Contact  (+).  -.08  .93  .03  1.02  .89  n.s.  Cognitive Interest(-)  -.07  1.00  .02  .97  .80  n.s.  External Expectations  -.02  .92  .04  1.03  .45  n.s.  (+)  p < .001  46 T a b l e 11 Mean O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s , N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V. and E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s F o r H i g h and Low O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s G r o u p s  Low S t a t u s n=57  High S t a t u s n=68  X  S.D.  X  S.D.  Occupational Status  29.17  1.88  53.26  6.70  Neuroticism  10.84  4.69  9.17  5.27  1.88  p< .05  S.A.V.  16.98  2.60  17.33  3.18  .66  n.s.  t V a l u e t Prob.  J o b Competence  (+)  .39  .85  -.39  .87  5.18  Social  (-)  -.01  .89  -.09  1.15  .42  n.s.  Escape/ Stimulation  (+)  -.06  1.02  -.07  1.05  .08  n.s.  Social Contact  (+)  -.25  .88  •11  .98  2.18  p * .025  Cognitive Interest(-)  .36  .98  -.12  1.02  2.69  PZ..005  External Expectations  .22  1.08  -.11  .88  1.92  p * .05  Welfare  (+)  p < .001  47  T a b l e 12 Mean P e r s o n a l Income, N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s F o r High and Low P e r s o n a l Income Groups  n=155 Low P e r s o n a l Income X  S.D.  n=76 High P e r s o n a l Income X  S.D.  t Value  t Prob.  $6,000 $2,000 $16,000 $3,000  P e r s o n a l Income Neuroticism  10.99  5.01  8.93  5.37  2.88  p < .005  S.A.V.  16.87  2.70  17.65  3.03  2.00  p < .025  J o b Competence  (+)  .15  1.02  -.29  .86  2.28  p < .001  Social  (-)  .11  .91  -.19  1.04  2.29  p < .01  Escape/ Stimulation  (+)  -.00  • 97  .02  1.09  .19  n.s.  Social  (+)  -.01  1.01  -.04  .94  .22  n.s. ,  C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t•(-)  -.05  .99  .03  .95  .67  n.s.  .04  1.05  -.04  .89  .61  n.s.  Welfare  Contact  External Expectations  (+)  48 Table  13  Mean F a m i l y Income, N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s F o r High and Low F a m i l y Income G r o u p s  Low F a m i l y Income n=106  High F a m i l y Income n=125  X  S.D.  X  $8,000  $3,000  $19,000  $3,000  Neuroticism  10.90  5.22  9.76  5.18  1.66  p < .05  S.A.V.  16.94  2.61  17.29  3.01  .94  n.s.  F a m i l y Income  S.D.  t Value t Prob.  J o b Competence  (+)  .20  1.01  -.18  .94  2.97  p<£ .005  Social  (-)  .21  .79  -.16  1.06  3.03  p < .005  Escape/ Stimulation  (+)  -.07  .88  .06  •1.10  1.13  Social Contact  (+)  -.06  .97  .01  1.00  C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t (-)  .03  1.06  -.07  External Expectations  .12  1.04"  -.08  Welfare  (+)  n.s.  .63 .  n.s.  .90  .86  n.s.  .95  1.62  n.s.  H y p o t h e s e s Seven and E i g h t T h e r e w i l l be a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c o r e s on a measure o f self-actualization  a n d s c o r e s on E.P.S. g r o w t h m o t i v a t i o n f a c t o r s and a  p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c o r e s on a measure o f d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n and s c o r e s on E.P.S. d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n f a c t o r s . The s i x E.P.S. f a c t o r s c o r e s were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h N e u r o t i c i s m and S.A.V. s c o r e s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y o f t h e E.P.S. (Table 14).  49 T a b l e 14 C o r r e l a t i o n Between E.P.S. F a c t o r s , N e u r o t i c i s m , and S.A.V. S c o r e s  Neuroticism  E.P.S. F a c t o r s  S.A.V.  Factor I Job Competence  (+)  .02  Factor II Social Welfare  (-)  -.14*  Factor I I I Escape/Stimulation  (+)  .33**  -.19**  F a c t o r IV Social Contact  (+)  .01  -.01  Factor V Cognitive Interest  (-)  .01  -.24**  .14*  -.03  F a c t o r VI E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s (+)  -.08 .20**  * =p<.025 ** =p<s,.005 No s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were o b t a i n e d between J o b Competence and N e u r o t i c i s m and S.A.V. s c o r e s .  E.P.S. f a c t o r S o c i a l W e l f a r e c o r -  r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h N e u r o t i c i s m , ( r = -.14; p< . 0 2 5 ) , and S.A.V., ( r = .20; p<..005).  E.P.S. f a c t o r E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i -  f i c a n t l y w i t h N e u r o t i c i s m , ( r = -.33; p 4 . . 0 0 5 ) , and S.A.V., ( r = -.19; p < . 0 0 5 ) . No s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n was o b t a i n e d between S o c i a l C o n t a c t , N e u r o t i c i s m , and S.A.V. s c o r e s . E.P.S. f a c t o r C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h S.A.V., ( r = -.24: p < . 0 0 5 ) . T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n between C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t and N e u r o t i c i s m .  E.P.S. f a c t o r E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a -  t i o n s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h N e u r o t i c i s m , ( r = .14; p 4 . . 0 2 5 ) . No  50 .. T a b l e 15 Mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s By Sex  Mean S c o r e s  Neuroticism S.A.V.  Mean Squares  F Ratio  F Prob.  26.86  6.922  p < .01  .38  8.14  .046  n.s.  Males n=97  Females n=143  Between 1  Within 238  9.19  10.98  185.89  17.10  17.18  Factor I J o b Competence  (+)  .11  -.08  2.10  .98  2.145  n.s.  Factor II Social Welfare  (-)  -.14  .09  3.00  .98  3.060  n.s.  -.09  .06  1.28  .99  1.292  n.s.  -.08  .06  1.09  .99  1.09  n.s.  -.16  .22  8.45  .95  8.898  p < .005  .07  -.04  .59  .99  Factor I I I Escape/Stimulation Factor  IV  Social Contact Factor  (+)  (+)  V  Cognitive Interest  C-)  .590  n.s.  Factor VI External Expectations(+) s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n e x i s t e d between E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s a n d S.A.V. On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e r e s u l t s , H y p o t h e s e s seven and e i g h t were a c c e p t e d . OTHER FINDINGS Sex T a b l e 15 shows mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V. and E.P.S. f a c t o r s c o r e s by sex.  Men o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( p < . 0 0 5 ) lower mean N e u r o t i c i s m s c o r e s  t h a n women. Men a l s o were more i n c l i n e d ( p < . 0 0 5 ) t o be e n r o l l e d f o r Cogn i t i v e I n t e r e s t r e a s o n s than women.  No o t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s were s i g n i f i c a n t .  51 Course  Content T a b l e 16 shows t h e mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. f a c t o r  s c o r e s by c o u r s e c o n t e n t .  S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n Hobby/Leisure,  A c a d e m i c , and V o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s were o b t a i n e d on J o b Competence (p 4 . 0 0 1 ) , Social Welfare (p<.005), Escape/Stimulation (p^.005), Social Contact ( p < . 0 0 1 ) , and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t ( p < . 0 0 1 ) .  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  e x i s t e d between N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E x t e r n a l / E x p e c t a t i o n mean s c o r e s . DISCUSSION The problem posed a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s s t u d y c o n c e r n e d t h e e x t e n t t o which m o t i v a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n f l u e n c e p a r t i c i p a n t s d e c i s i o n s t o engage i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  A g r o w t h / d e f i c i e n c y model o f  m o t i v e s c o m b i n i n g Maslow's m o t i v a t i o n a l t h e o r y and a d u l t l i f e c y c l e c o n c e p t s was p r o p o s e d .  Growth o r d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n was s u g g e s t e d as  being associated with the p a r t i c i p a t i o n pattern o f adults.  I t was a l s o  s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e age o r s t a g e o f t h e l i f e c y c l e and t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h growth o r d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . Age  S p e c i f i c a l l y i t was f o u n d t h a t g r o w t h / d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n v a r i e d as a f u n c t i o n o f a g e . The t r a n s i t i o n from d e f i c i e n c y t o growth m o t i v a t i o n d u r i n g t h e l i f e c y c l e , however, a p p e a r s t o t a k e p l a c e i n a d i f f e r e n t time sequence t h a n s u g g e s t e d by Maslow (1955).  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t young  a d u l t s i n t h i s sample a r e d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d u n t i l a p p r o x i m a t e l y late twenties.  their  The t h i r t i e s marks t h e t r a n s i t i o n from d e f i c i e n c y t o  growth m o t i v a t i o n .  The f o r t i e s and e a r l y f i f t i e s appear t o be c h a r a c t e r i z e d  as a p e r i o d o f g r o w t h m o t i v a t i o n a s t h e o r i z e d by Kuhlen (1963).  Whether  T a b l e 16 Mean N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., E.P.S. F a c t o r S c o r e s By C o u r s e  Content  Mean S q u a r e s  Mean S c o r e s Hobby/ Leisure n=87  Academic n=79  Vocational n=74  Between 2  Within 237  F Ratio  Neuroticism  10.76  10.14  9.78  19.78  27.59  .717  n.s.  S.A.V.  17.01  16.81  16.86  20.78  8.00  2.596  n.s.  .70  .18  48.53  .58  83.258  .13  -.31  5.15  .95  5.411  P4 .005  .10  -.32  5.56  .96  5.809  p<.  .005  -.32  .07  9.79  .92  10.687  p<  .001  .32  .02  8.56  ,92  9.334  p<  .001  .12  -.01  .98  .99  .985  Factor  I  Job Competence Factor  (+)  -.80  II  Social Welfare  (-)  .14  (+)  .18  Factor III Escape/Stimulation Factor  IV  Social Contact Factor  (+)  .35  V  Cognitive Interest  (-)  -.32  F a c t o r VI E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s (+)  -.10  p<  .001  n.s.  53 a p e r i o d o f d e c l i n e f o l l o w s , and d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v e s become p r e v a l e n t the l a t e 50's and 60's c o u l d not be d e t e r m i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y . age o f the o l d e r g r o u p was 53 y e a r s (n=25). p l u s , were t h u s p r a c t i c a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t d i f f e r e n c e obtained  deficiency motivation  could  p e r i o d o f m i d d l e age  c o u l d become p r e v a l e n t w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age  The a c c e p t a n c e o f H y p o t h e s i s two, the c o n t e n t i o n  years  The s i g n i f i c a n t  between the o l d e r age group and S.A.V. s c o r e s  t h e r e f o r e r e f l e c t the peak growth m o t i v a t i o n  decline.  The mean  O l d e r p a r t i c i p a n t s , 55  i n t h i s sample.  in  and and  that older  p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e g r o w t h m o t i v a t e d , t h e r e f o r e , r e m a i n s somewhat t e n u o u s and a w a i t s f u r t h e r  research.  Participation The d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t c o n t i n u o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s i n programs a r e g r o w t h m o t i v a t e d and u t i l i z e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n personal  growth.  Terminal  programs f o r c o n t i n u o u s  or sporadic p a r t i c i p a n t s are d e f i c i e n c y m o t i -  v a t e d and once g r a t i f i c a t i o n has o c c u r r e d , e q u i l i b r i u m i s r e s t o r e d , further participation Socio-Economic  ceases.  Status  The d a t a c l e a r l y s u p p o r t s t h e c o n t e n t i o n  that socio-economic status  i s a s s o c i a t e d with growth or d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . educational  and  P a r t i c i p a n t s with  low  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were p r i m a r i l y e n r o l l e d f o r Job Competence  r e a s o n s and were a t t e m p t i n g occupational  to remedy e d u c a t i o n a l  deficiencies.  Low  s t a t u s p a r t i c i p a n t s were p r i m a r i l y e n r o l l e d f o r Job Competence  r e a s o n s , whereas h i g h o c c u p a t i o n a l  s t a t u s p a r t i c i p a n t s were p r i m a r i l y  enrolled for Cognitive Interest reasons.  High income p a r t i c i p a n t s were  s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s n e u r o t i c and more growth m o t i v a t e d t h a n low income participants.  H i g h income p a r t i c i p a n t s were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s i n -  c l i n e d to be e n r o l l e d f o r J o b Competence r e a s o n s and more i n c l i n e d t o be  -  54  e n r o l l e d f o r S o c i a l W e l f a r e r e a s o n s t h a n l o w income p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Once  t h e b a s i c s a f e t y o r s e c u r i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s o f j o b and income have been s a t i s f i e d , p a r t i c i p a n t s become more g r o w t h m o t i v a t e d . E.P.S.  Factors The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h r e e o f t h e s i x E.P.S. f a c t o r s c o u l d  be u t i l i z e d a s i n d i c a t o r s o f g r o w t h o r d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . e s t a s s o c i a t i o n o c c u r r e d w i t h E.P.S. d e f i c i e n c y f a c t o r Neuroticism,  and S.A.V.  valid indicator of  E.P.S. d e f i c i e n c y f a c t o r E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s  r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with Neuroticism of deficiency  valid indicator  E.P.S. g r o w t h f a c t o r C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t c o r -  r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h S.A.V. and i s a r e a s o n a b l y growth motivation.  Escape/Stimulation,  T h i s f a c t o r then i s a r e a s o n a b l y  of deficiency motivation.  The s t r o n g -  and i s a r e a s o n a b l y  cor-  valid indicator  motivation.  A s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n was o b t a i n e d Social Welfare, Neuroticism,  and S.A.V.  between E.P.S. g r o w t h f a c t o r  The d i r e c t i o n o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n ,  however, i s o p p o s i t e t o t h e one a n t i c i p a t e d .  These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that  p e r s o n s e n r o l l i n g f o r S o c i a l Wei f a r e . r e a s o n s  would g e n e r a l l y be d e f i c i e n c y  r a t h e r than growth motivated. f a c t o r content accepted  In t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e S o c i a l W e l f a r e  i t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f i t e m s n i n e "To be  by o t h e r s " and 31 "To i m p r o v e my s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s " i n d i c a t e d  t h a t t h i s f a c t o r was a l s o i d e n t i f y i n g d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d p e r s o n s . I t a p p e a r s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h i s f a c t o r i s somewhat a m b i v a l e n t i n i d e n t i f y i n g d e f i c i e n c y o r growth motivation.  T h e E.P.S. J o b Competence f a c t o r f a i l e d  to s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e with e i t h e r Neuroticism  o r S.A.V.  The a s s o c i a -  t i o n w i t h S.A.V. w h i l e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t i s , however, i n t h e a n t i c i p a t e d direction.  55  Sex The r e s u l t s show t h a t women were more n e u r o t i c t h a n men a n d l e s s l i k e l y t o be e n r o l l e d f o r C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t r e a s o n s t h a n men.  While  t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e mean f a c t o r s c o r e s o f women and men i n t h e r e m a i n i n g E.P.S. f a c t o r s , women were s l i g h t l y more Escape and S o c i a l  Contact  m o t i v a t e d t h a n men. Men were more j o b  Competence, S o c i a l W e l f a r e , a n d E x t e r n a l l y m o t i v a t e d t h a n women.  These  f i n d i n g s t h e n g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t t h e "suburban house w i f e " and " b r e a d w i n n e r " l i f e c y c l e r o l e s o f women and men i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n suburban  society.  Course Content M o t i v e s f o r a t t e n d a n c e a r e sometimes  i n f e r r e d s o l e l y on t h e b a s i s  o f t h e c o u r s e c o n t e n t which a p a r t i c i p a n t s e l e c t s .  A person e n r o l l e d i n  house c o n s t r u c t i o n i s assumed t o want t o l e a r n how t o b u i l d a house.  Such  i n f e r e n c e s a r e open t o q u e s t i o n s i n c e p e o p l e c h o o s e t o e n r o l l f o r r e a s o n s unrelated to the subject matter. The most J o b Competence o r i e n t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s were t h o s e e n r o l l e d i n Academic c o u r s e s , t h e l e a s t were e n r o l l e d i n H o b b y / L e i s u r e c o u r s e s w i t h Vocational  participants i n the middle.  The l e a s t S o c i a l W e l f a r e m o t i v a t e d  p a r t i c i p a n t s were e n r o l l e d i n H o b b y / L e i s u r e and Academic c o u r s e s . T h e most S o c i a l W e l f a r e o r i e n t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s were e n r o l l e d i n V o c a t i o n a l courses.  The l e a s t Escape m o t i v a t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s were e n r o l l e d i n V o c a -  t i o n a l programs.  T h e most Escape m o t i v a t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s were e n r o l l e d i n  H o b b y / L e i s u r e and Academic programs.  The most S o c i a l  Contact  oriented  p a r t i c i p a n t s were e n r o l l e d i n H o b b y / L e i s u r e c o u r s e s , t h e l e a s t i n Academic courses with Vocational  participants i n the middle.  T h e most C o g n i t i v e  I n t e r e s t o r i e n t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s were e n r o l l e d i n H o b b y / L e i s u r e c o u r s e s , t h e l e a s t i n Academic c o u r s e s w i t h V o c a t i o n a l  participants i n the middle.  56  .  T h e r e f o r e the r e s u l t s s u g g e s t t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s e n r o l l f o r r e a s o n s t h a t seem t o be r e l a t e d as much t o t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n a l actual course  content.  needs as t o the  57 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND SIGNIFICANCE SUMMARY Purpose The problem posed a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s s t u d y c o n c e r n e d t h e psychological foundations o f motive f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education. A g r o w t h / d e f i c i e n c y model o f m o t i v e s combining Maslow's m o t i v a t i o n a l t h e o r y and t h e a d u l t l i f e c y c l e c o n c e p t was p r o p o s e d . The model s u g g e s t e d t h a t g r o w t h / d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n i s a s s o c iated with the p a r t i c i p a t i o n h i s t o r y o f a d u l t s .  I t a l s o suggested t h a t  t h e age o r s t a g e o f t h e l i f e c y c l e a n d t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h growth and d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . B o s h i e r (1971) has d e v e l o p e d t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e t o measure m o t i v e s f o r a t t e n d a n c e a n d has i n f e r r e d t h a t E.P.S. f a c t o r s a r e i n d i c a t o r s of g r o w t h / d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n .  T h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s s t u d y were:  1) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f i c a c y o f a g r o w t h / d e f i c i e n c y model o f m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s ; and 2) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y o f t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e a s a measure o f g r o w t h and d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . Subjects The s u b j e c t s f o r t h e s t u d y were e n r o l l e d i n a d u l t n i g h t s c h o o l c o u r s e s s p o n s o r e d by S c h o o l D i s t r i c t No. 3 8 , Richmond, B.C. T h e sample s e l e c t e d was based on c o u r s e c o n t e n t . D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Sample Two hundred a n d f o r t y u s a b l e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e c e i v e d , c o n s t i t u t i n g an 88 p e r c e n t r e s p o n s e r a t e .  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s u b j e c t s  58 can be summarized a s f o l l o w s : 1.  T h i r t y - s i x p e r c e n t were e n r o l l e d i n h o b b y / l e i s u r e c o u r s e s ; 33 p e r c e n t were e n r o l l e d i n academic and 31 p e r c e n t were e n r o l l e d i n v o c a t i o n a l programs.  2.  The sample c o n s i s t e d o f 40 p e r c e n t men and 60 p e r c e n t women.  3.  The a v e r a g e age o f t h e s u b j e c t s was 30 y e a r s .  4.  More t h a n 50 p e r c e n t were u n m a r r i e d , w i t h 38 p e r c e n t u n married.  5.  More than 66 p e r c e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t s had completed  Grade 12  o r more. 6.  S u b j e c t s h a d , on a v e r a g e , n o t a t t e n d e d s c h o o l on a f u l l  time  b a s i s f o r 12 y e a r s . 7. The a v e r a g e annual p e r s o n a l income was $10,000.00 and t h e a v e r a g e f a m i l y income was $14,000.00. E.P.S. F a c t o r A n a l y s i s E.P.S. d a t a from 240 r e s p o n d e n t s were s u b j e c t t o a p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s and o r t h o g o n a l r o t a t i o n . S i x f a c t o r s were produced and were l a b e l l e d J o b Competence; S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n ; S o c i a l C o n t a c t ; C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t ; and E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s .  The S o c i a l W e l f a r e  and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t f a c t o r s were seen a s g r o w t h f a c t o r s . J o b Competence, E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n , S o c i a l C o n t a c t and E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s were c l a s s i fied as d e f i c i e n c y f a c t o r s . The  Hypotheses N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. f a c t o r s s c o r e s f o r each p a r t i c i -  pant were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e i r s o c i a l and d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s t o t e s t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between m o t i v e s f o r a t t e n d a n c e .  59  H y p o t h e s e s One and Two.  T h e s e two h y p o t h e s e s t e s t e d t h e r e l a t i o n -  s h i p between g r o w t h - d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n and a g e . Age and age r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. f a c t o r s E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s and E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n .  Older participants  o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r s c o r e s on t h e S.A.V. and were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r E s c a p e r e a s o n s t h a n y o u n g e r p a r t i c i p a n t s . O l d e r p a r t i c i p a n t s , however, were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r S o c i a l C o n t a c t r e a s o n s than y o u n g e r p a r t i c i p a n t s . H y p o t h e s e s T h r e e and Four.  These hypotheses tested the r e l a t i o n -  s h i p between g r o w t h - d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n and c o n t i n u i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n Index s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. f a c t o r C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t .  Sporadic  a d u l t l e a r n e r s o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r N e u r o t i c i s m s c o r e s than c o n t i n u o u s l e a r n e r s . C o n t i n u o u s l e a r n e r s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t r e a s o n s t h a n s p o r a d i c p a r t i c i p a n t s . H y p o t h e s e s F i v e and S i x .  These hypotheses t e s t e d the r e l a t i o n -  s h i p between g r o w t h - d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  status.  The f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s were u t i l i z e d as i n d i c a t o r s o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c status:  Number o f y e a r s o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n ; E d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ;  O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s ; and Income.  Number o f y e a r s a t t e n d e d s c h o o l c o r -  r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h E.P.S. f a c t o r J o b Competence. P a r t i c i p a n t s who had a t t a i n e d Grade 11 o r l e s s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r J o b Competence r e a s o n s than p a r t i c i p a n t s who had o b t a i n e d Grade 12 p l u s e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s .  Occupational status correlated  s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h J o b Competence and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t f a c t o r s .  Income,  f a m i l y and p e r s o n a l , c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h N e u r o t i c i s m , S.A.V., and E.P.S. f a c t o r s J o b Competence and S o c i a l W e l f a r e .  5  60  P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e h i g h number o f y e a r s o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r J o b Competence r e a s o n s than p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e low category.  P a r t i c i p a n t s i n high Occupational  S t a t u s , P e r s o n a l , and F a m i l y Income g r o u p s o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r N e u r o t i c i s m s c o r e s t h a n low O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s , P e r s o n a l and F a m i l y I n come g r o u p s .  P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e h i g h Income, P e r s o n a l and F a m i l y , g r o u p  were l e s s i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r J o b Competence r e a s o n s and more i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r S o c i a l W e l f a r e r e a s o n s than low income p a r t i cipants. H y p o t h e s e s Seven and E i g h t .  These hypotheses t e s t e d the r e l a t i o n -  s h i p between m e a s u r e s o f g r o w t h - d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n and E.P.S. f a c t o r s . S.A.V. s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h S o c i a l W e l f a r e ,  Escape/Stim-  u l a t i o n , and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t . N e u r o t i c i s m s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h S o c i a l W e l f a r e , E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n and E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s . Other Findings Sex.  Men o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r N e u r o t i c i s m s c o r e s than women  and were a l s o more i n c l i n e d t o be e n r o l l e d f o r E.P.S. f a c t o r C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t r e a s o n s than women. Course Content.  S i g n i f i c a n t mean d i f f e r e n c e s i n H o b b y / L e i s u r e ,  A c a d e m i c , and V o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s were o b t a i n e d i n E.P.S. f a c t o r s J o b Competence, S o c i a l W e l f a r e , E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n , S o c i a l C o n t a c t , and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between N e u r o t i c i s m and S.A.V. mean s c o r e s . CONCLUSIONS The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t a d u l t s a r e i n c l i n e d t o e n r o l l i n a d u l t n i g h t s c h o o l programs f o r d e f i c i e n c y o r g r o w t h m o t i v e s .  Specifically the  amount and c o n t i n u i t y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the o r i e n t a t i o n s o f the p a r t i c i p a n t . .Growth m o t i v a t e d l e a r n e r s , while d e f i c i e n c y motivated  61 motivational  s u b j e c t s were  s u b j e c t s were s p o r a d i c  continuous  learners.  The r e s u l t s a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t l i f e c y c l e s t a g e s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s o f the a d u l t p a r t i c i p a n t . c o m p a r i s o n t o y o u n g e r p a r t i c i p a n t s were growth m o t i v a t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s were d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d .  Older, in  while younger  In a d d i t i o n , the f i n d i n g s  that socio-economic status i s associated with motivational H i g h s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s p a r t i c i p a n t s t e n d e d t o be growth  suggest  orientations. motivated  w h i l e low s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s p a r t i c i p a n t s t e n d e d to be d e f i c i e n c y motivated. Three o f the s i x Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale f a c t o r s c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h d i r e c t measures o f growth and d e f i c i e n c y  motivation.  One o t h e r f a c t o r c o r r e l a t e d , but t h e d i r e c t i o n o f the a s s o c i a t i o n was what a m b i v a l e n t .  some-  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n m o t i v a t i o n a l  o r i e n t a t i o n g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t t h e r e s p e c t i v e l i f e c y c l e r o l e s o f men  as  " b r e a d w i n n e r s " and women as " h o u s e w i v e s . " The f i n d i n g s a l s o s u g g e s t  that  m o t i v e s f o r a t t e n d a n c e and c o u r s e c o n t e n t a r e r e l a t e d , but t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s e n r o l l f o r mixed m o t i v e s , some o f w h i c h a r e u n r e l a t e d t o t h e c o u r s e  content.  The s t u d y g e n e r a l l y c o n f i r m s and expands on p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I t would seem t h a t m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s a r e more t h a n t h e " b a s i c p r i n c i p l e " w h i c h e x p l a i n s p a r t i c i p a t i o n as s u g g e s t e d  by S h e f f i e l d ( 1 9 6 4 ) ; t h e y a p p e a r t o  have deep r o o t e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n c o m i t a n t s . d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n , as h y p o t h e s i z e d  The v a r i a b l e s o f growth and  i n t h i s s t u d y , have c l e a r l y emerged  as a v i a b l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l model t o e x p l a i n m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult  education.  62  SIGNIFICANCE t  T h i s s t u d y has c o n t r i b u t e d to the f i e l d o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g ways. 1.  I t has:  P r o v i d e d knowledge c o n c e r n i n g t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t i n f l u e n c e a d u l t s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n e d u c a t i o n a l  programs.  A d u l t e d u c a t o r s have u t i l i z e d t h e d e f i c i e n c y - g r o w t h  notion  to e s t a b l i s h a t e n t a t i v e psychological p r o f i l e of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s . However e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e t o t h e model has been l a c k i n g , and t h e d e f i c i e n c y - g r o w t h t h u s f a r has o n l y been i n f e r r e d . T h i s s t u d y ,  support model  utilizing  d i r e c t m e a s u r e s , r e l a t e d d e f i c i e n c y / g r o w t h m o t i v a t i o n t o the socio-demographic  variables usually studied in p a r t i c i p a t i o n  surveys. 2.  P r o v i d e d a m o t i v a t i o n a l model t o a s s i s t a d u l t e d u c a t o r s  in  p r o v i d i n g a l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t c o n g r u e n t w i t h the p a r t i c i p a n t s m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . Maslow w r o t e t h a t : The d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t e d man must be more a f r a i d o f the env i r o n m e n t , s i n c e t h e r e i s a l w a y s the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i t may f a i l o r d i s a p p o i n t him. We now know t h a t t h i s k i n d o f a n x i o u s dependence b r e e d s h o s t i l i t y as w e l l . . . . In c o n t r a s t t h e s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g i n d i v i d u a l , by d e f i n i t i o n g r a t i f i e d i n h i s basic needs, i s f a r l e s s dependent, f a r l e s s beholden, f a r more autonomous and s e l f - d i r e c t e d (1955, p . 1 8 ) . Programmers, f o r example, by b e i n g aware o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s m o t i v a t i o n a l n e e d s , can p l a n e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s t h a t a r e c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h o s e needs.  Classroom  t e a c h e r s aware o f the  m o t i v a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t i n f l u e n c e an a d u l t can be more e f f e c t i v e i n d e s i g n i n g l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s f o r a d u l t participants.  63 3.  F u r t h e r e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e a s a measure o f m o t i v a t i o n a l orientations.  P r i o r t o t h i s s t u d y , B o s h i e r (1971) had o n l y  i n f e r r e d from e x a m i n a t i o n  o f f a c t o r c o n t e n t t h a t E.P.S.  f a c t o r s were i n d i c a t i v e o f growth o r d e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n . T h i s s t u d y has r e v e a l e d a t l e a s t some o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e r e l a t e d t o motivational o r i e n t a t i o n s as motives f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n are meaningfully associated with t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l measures employed i n t h i s s t u d y .  The E.P.S.,  t h e r e f o r e , c a n be used by a d u l t e d u c a t o r s a s an i n d i c a t o r o f the motivational c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . Areas For Future  Research  The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s w h i c h s h o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n o r d e r t o extend t h e f i e l d o f a d u l t 1.  education.  What a r e t h e m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s o f o l d e r a d u l t s - 55 y e a r s o f age and o v e r ?  I s g r o w t h m o t i v a t i o n an e v e r expand-  i n g need and t h e r e f o r e u s u a l l y found i n o l d e r a d u l t s , o r d o e s growth m o t i v a t i o n d e c l i n e w i t h t h e advance o f age? 2. Does an i n d i v i d u a l ' s m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n change d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f an e d u c a t i o n a l program? v a t e d p e o p l e become growth m o t i v a t e d  Do d e f i c i e n c y m o t i d u r i n g an e d u c a t i o n a l  program a n d , t h e r e f o r e , do methods and t e c h n i q u e s  utilized  have t o be a l t e r e d ? 3.  What methods and t e c h n i q u e s a r e most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r growth motivated  4.  individuals?  What methods and t e c h n i q u e s a r e most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r d e f i c iency motivated  individuals?  -64  A t what s t a g e o f t h e l i f e c y c l e ' d o v o c a t i o n a l c o n c e r n s s h i f t from f i n d i n g and h o l d i n g employment to growing w i t h a c h o s e n occupation?  A g r e a t number o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s  a r e e n r o l l e d f o r j o b r e l a t e d r e a s o n s , y e t l i t t l e i s known whether t h e s e r e a s o n s o r i g i n a t e i n growth o r d e f i c i e n c y motives.  65 REFERENCES A l l p o r t , G.W. Becoming: Basic C o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r a Psychology P e r s o n a l i t y , Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New H a v e n , 1 9 5 5 . B e v i s , M.E. "The C o n t i n u i n g L e a r n i n g A c t i v i t i e s A d u l t Education, 25, 1975, pp.169-191.  of  Neophyte  of  Nurses,"  B l i s h e n , B.R. 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H a v i g h u r s t , R.J. and N e u g a r t e n , B. "Disengagement r e c o n s i d e r e d i n a c r o s s n a t i o n a l c o n t e x t . " In K o n e n k l j k e , V. A d j u s t m e n t t o R e t i r e ment. Gorcum and Co., The N e t h e r l a n d s , 1969, pp.138-146. H o u l e , C y r i l 0. The I n q u i r i n g M i n d , U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n M a d i s o n , 1961.  Press,  I l a r d i , R.R. and May, W.T. "A R e l i a b i l i t y Study o f S h o s t r o m ' s P e r s o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n I n v e n t o r y , " J o u r n a l o f H u m a n i s t i c P s y c h o l o g y , 1968, pp.68-72. J o h n s t o n e , J.W.C., and R i v e r a , R.J. V o l u n t e e r s f o r L e a r n i n g , A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g Co., C h i c a g o , 1965. Keahey, S.P. and Seamon, D.F. " S e l f - A c t u a l i z a t i o n and A d j u s t m e n t i n Retirement: I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Program D e v e l o p m e n t , " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 24, 1974, pp.220-226. Knapp, R. " R e l a t i o n s h i p o f a M e a s u r e o f S e l f - A c t u a l i z a t i o n t o Neurot i c i s m and E x t r a v e r s i o n , " J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 29, 1965, pp.168-172. Knox, A.B. and S j o g r e n , D. " M o t i v a t i o n t o P a r t i c i p a t e and L e a r n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 12, 1962, pp.238-242. Knox, A.B. and V i d e b e c k , R. " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and t h e A d u l t L i f e C y c l e , " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 13, 1963, pp.102-121. K u h l e n , A.B. and V i d e b e c k , R. " M o t i v a t i o n a l Changes D u r i n g t h e A d u l t Y e a r s , " In R.G. K u h l e n , ed. P s y c h o l o g i c a l b a c k g r o u n d s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . C e n t e r f o r t h e Study o f L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n f o r A d u l t s , C h i c a g o , 1963. "  67 L o n d o n , J . , W e n k e r t , R. and Hagstrom, W. A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and S o c i a l C l a s s . Survey Research Centre, U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, T363T  L o n d o n e r , C.A. " S o u r c e s o f E d u c a t i o n a l Funds a s M o t i v a t o r s f o r P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n A d u l t Secondary E d u c a t i o n , " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 25, 1974, pp.47-63. Maslow, A.H. 1954.  M o t i v a t i o n and P e r s o n a l i t y , Harper and B r o t h e r s , New  York,  Maslow, A.H. " D e f i c i e n c y m o t i v a t i o n and growth m o t i v a t i o n , " In M.R. J o n e s ( E d . ) , Nebraska Symposium on M o t i v a t i o n . . U n i v e r s i t y o f N e b r a s k a P r e s s , L i n c o l n , 1955, pp.1-30. Maslow, A.H.  M o t i v a t i o n and P e r s o n a l i t y , H a r p e r , New Y o r k , 2nd Ed.1970.  M c C l a i n , E.W. Further v a l i d a t i o n o f the Personal O r i e n t a t i o n Inventory. J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 35, 1970, pp.21-22. M o r s t a i n , B a r r y , R., and Smart, John C. "Reasons f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n C o u r s e s : A M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s o f Group D i f f e r e n c e s , " A d u J j t _ J d j i c a t J o r , 24, 1974, pp.83-98. i  N e u g a r t e n , B., e d . , M i d d l e Age and A g i n g , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o C h i c a g o , 1968. R o g e r s , C a r l R.  Press,  On Becoming A P e r s o n , H o u g h t o n - M i f f l i n , B o s t o n ,  1961.  Rogers, C R . "The C o n c e p t o f t h e F u l l y F u n c t i o n i n g P e r s o n , " Psychot h e r a p y : T h e o r y , R e s e a r c h , and P r a c t i c e , I , No. I , 1963, pp.17-26. S h e f f i e l d , Sherman B. "The O r i e n t a t i o n s o f A d u l t C o n t i n u i n g L e a r n e r s , " i n The C o n t i n u i n g L e a r n e r . C e n t e r f o r t h e Study o f L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n f o r A d u l t s , C h i c a g o , 1964, pp.1-22. S h o s t r o m , E.L., and Knapp, R.R. The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f a measure o f s e l f a c t u a l i z a t i o n (POI) t o a measure o f pathology .(MMPI) and to t h e r a p e u t i c g r o w t h . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o t h e r a p y , 20, 1966, pp.193-202. r  S h o s t r o m , E.L. Manual f o r t h e P e r s o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n I n v e n t o r y . E d u c a t i o n a l and I n d u s t r i a l T e s t i n g S e r v i c e , San D i e g o , 1966. S h o s t r o m , E.L. A t e s t f o r the measurement o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement, 1965, 24, pp.207-218. S o v i e , M a r g a r e t D. "The R e l a t i o n s h i p s o f L e a r n i n g O r i e n t a t i o n s , N u r s i n g A c t i v i t y and C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n . " U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y , 1972.  68 S t a u f f e r , Robert Harry. "Learning O r i e n t a t i o n P r i o r i t i e s o f Co-operative Extension C l i e n t e l e i n Selected Pennsylvania Counties." U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1966. V e r n e r , C o o l i e . " D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms," i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n : O u t l i n e s o f an Emerging F i e l d o f U n i v e r s i t y S t u d y , A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e U.S.A., 1964, pp.27-39. V e r n e r , C o o l i e , a n d Newberry, John S., J r . "The Nature o f A d u l t P a r t i c i p a t i o n , " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 8, 1958, pp.208-222. W r i g h t , L. and Wyant, K. " F a c t o r S t r u c t u r e o f S e l f - A c t u a l i z a t i o n a s Measured from Shos'trom's S.A.V. S c a l e , " E d u c a t i o n a l and Psychol o g i c a l Measurement, 34, 1974, pp.871-875. Youmans, E.G. "Some P e r s p e c t i v e s o n D i s e n g a g e m e n t T h e o r y , " G e r o n t o l o g i s t , 9, 1969, pp.254-258.  The  69  APPENDICES  70 APPENDIX  A  Letter of Transmittal 16 September,  1975  Mr. A. C o u i s o n Co-ordinator Continuing Education School D i s t r i c t No. 38 (Richmond) 689 #3 Road Richmond, B.C. Dear Mr.  Couison:  Thank you f o r m e e t i n g w i t h me on such s h o r t n o t i c e on September 5 t h to d i s c u s s my r e s e a r c h p r o p o s a l . To r e c a p b r i e f l y the p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y i s t o c o n t i n u e r e s e a r c h on the "why" o f a d u l t p a r t i c i p a t i o n and a d u l t l e a r n i n g programs. The r e s e a r c h w i l l be c o n d u c t e d u n d e r the a u s p i c e s o f t h e A d u l t Education Department, F a c u l t y o f Education, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e q u i r i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - h a l f hour t o c o m p l e t e w i l l be a d m i n i s t e r e d t o p a r t i c i p a n t s e n r o l l e d i n v a r i o u s Richmond c l a s s e s . A t t a c h e d you w i l l f i n d a l i s t o f t h e c l a s s e s I would l i k e t o s u r v e y . P a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l be a b l e t o complete t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s anonymously, as names a r e n o t r e q u i r e d . The weeks o f O c t o b e r 20th and 27th f o r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a r e most s a t i s f a c t o r y . The r e s u l t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h w i l l be a v a i l a b l e to you on c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t . I f you have any q u e s t i o n s , p l e a s e do n o t h e s i t a t e t o c o n t a c t Yours t r u l y ,  U. Haag Graduate Student Graduate Studies U.B.C. End.  me.  71  APPENDIX B L e t t e r To N i g h t School  G O V E R N M E N T O F BRITISH  Instructors  COLUMBIA  MEMORANDUM FROM  .Q. A....C.QulsQa,..C.D.n.tinuin9..Education <  October. .10  OUR  FILE  YOUR  During made  the  of  the  week  of  October  p a r t i c i p a n t s  throughout  the  Richmond  Your  has  been  class  u s e f u l w i l l  be  c l a s s pate  and ensure  Your  f o r  each  Please them  operations  of  School  the  and  as  one  study. student i t  i s  survey school  t h a t  w i l l  be  c l a s s e s  can provide  An  anonymous  at  the  your  evening  surveys  some  questionnaire  beginning  students  completely  and research adult  a  night  D i s t r i c t .  encourage  that  27th  various  selected  f o r  questionnaires  the  the  provided  s e s s i o n .  These on  background  20th  i n  FILE  t o  of  the  p a r t i c i -  anonymous. provide  programmes  r e s u l t s  throughout  Province. cooperation  i s  much  appreciated.  GAC/es cc»  A s s t .  Night  School  P r i n c i p a l s  (with  schedule  attached)  Di  19....?5  72 APPENDIX  C  Questionnaire Administration Instructions Good e v e n i n g , my name i s  <  .  I'm a s s i s t i n g  i n a s t u d y by t h e U.B.C. A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Department t o d e t e r m i n e some o f t h e r e a s o n s why a d u l t s t a k e n i g h t s c h o o l c o u r s e s .  We r e q u i r e t h i s  i n f o r m a t i o n so t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s can keep p r o v i d i n g t h e c o u r s e s you want.  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l be p r o v i d e d t o t h e C o n t i n u i n g  E d u c a t i o n Department o f Richmond S c h o o l D i s t r i c t .  Your c o - o p e r a t i o n i n  c o m p l e t i n g a q u e s t i o n n a i r e would be g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . A l l r e p l i e s a r e C o n f i d e n t i a l and No Names a r e R e q u i r e d . I would l i k e t o b r i e f l y e x p l a i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . HAND OUT QUESTIONNAIRE AT THIS POINT. COUNT HOW MANY QUESTIONNAIRES ARE  REMEMBER TO  DISTRIBUTED.  The f i r s t two pages d e a l w i t h t h i n g s l i k e y o u r a g e , y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n , number o f n i g h t s c h o o l c o u r s e s t a k e n , o c c u p a t i o n and so on. The second two pages d e a l w i t h t h e p e o p l e , how t h e y a c t and behave. The t h i r d f o u r pages d e a l w i t h r e a s o n s why p e o p l e a t t e n d n i g h t school courses. The l a s t two pages d e a l w i t h the way p e o p l e f e e l a b o u t v a r i o u s situations. Remember, No Names a r e n e c e s s a r y and a l l i n d i v i d u a l r e p l i e s a r e Confidential.  Please start.  I f you have any q u e s t i o n s , p l e a s e p u t up  y o u r hand and I ' l l come and t a l k w i t h y o u . THANK CLASS FOR THEIR CO-OPERATION WHEN YOU LEAVE  APPENDIX  D  Socio-demographic Questionnaire  Tills research concerning the characteristics of adult education participants i s being carried out by U. Haag of Adult Education Department, University of British Columbia. Your responses are confidential. No names are required. 1.  Are you a! Man  5.  j  yean  j Is this the only night school course or adult education program in which you are enrolled at the present time?  What i s your marital status? a)  Married  b)  Widowed  c)  Separated/Divorced or living apart  d)  Never Married  | |  • •  Yes No  | |  • •  How many courses are you enrolled in?  Thinking back over the time since you l e f t a f u l l time school situation please check the years you participated in adult education courses and indicate how man}' courses you enrolled in each year. Please include only those courses that lasted four sessions or longer. Examples of courses are: night school programs, correspondence courses, formal job training courses i f in doubt please ask. No. of Courses  Year 1975 1974 1973 1972 1971 6.  What i s your age?  •  Woman 3.  2.  (check)  74  • • • • •  • • • • •  No. of  Year 1970 1969 1968 1967 1966  • • • • •  Courses  • • • • •  What i s the highest educational qualification you hold?  (check only one box)  No formal qualification. Completed elementary school Completed Grade 10 or 11 (but not 12). Grade 12 graduation or overseas equivalent. Vocational School diploma, Business School diploma, or Journeyman's qualifications. Part of a university degree or diploma. University degree or college/technical school diploma. University degree or diploma and some other final qualifications. 7.  In what year did you last attend a public/private school on a f u l l time basis?  75 8,  Check below the total number of years of formal f u l l time education you have completed. 13 years | | 8 years or less 14 years  9 years 10 years 11 years 12 years 9.  • • •  J^J  15 years  |  j  16 years  1 1  17 years or more  | |  If you are working for salary or wages exactly what kind of work do you do? (Please be very specific as to your work and status in the organization, e.g. managing director of a trucking firm employing 13 men; sales assistant i n a small hardware store; deputy principal of a college attended by 500 children etc). I f you are retired, involved i n household duties, or are not working please write 'N.A.' here and go to the next question.  10.  If you are not currently working for salary or wages please note here the kind of work you did prior to your marriage, retirement, etc. (Plese be very specific as to your work and status in the organization)  11.  In the box below write the letter which represents your gross (personal) income category. Do not count your spouse's income or income earned by other members of your family. Check your personal income.  12.  A.  under $5,000  F.  $13,001 - $15,000  B.  $5,001 - $7,000  G.  $15,001 - $17,000  C  $7,001 - $9,000  H.  $17,001 - $19,000  D.  $9,001 - $11,000  I.  $19,001 - $21,000  E.  $11,001 - $13,000  J.  over $21,001  CATEGORY  In the box below write the letter which represents your gross family income (i.e. your income and your spouse's income) If you are the only person in your family working for wages or salary your answer to this question w i l l be the same as your answer to the previous question. A.  under $5,000  F.  $13,001 - $15,000  B.  $5,001 - $7,000  G.  $15,001 - $17,000  c.  $7,001 - $9,000  H.  $17,001 - $19,000  D.  $9,001 - $11,000  I.  $19,001 - $21,000  E.  $11,001 - $13,000  J.  over $21,001  CATEGORY  

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