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Characteristics of participants in a new inner-city night school Zack, Irma 1976

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CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPANTS IN A NEW INNER-CITY NIGHT SCHOOL by IRMA ZACK B.Sc, Stanford University, 1949 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF.ARTS in the Department of Adult Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July, 1976 (e) Irma Zack, 1976 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the .Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Adult Education The University of British Columbia 20 75 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date -Tilly 7,1976 ABSTRACT This study was designed to investigate whether a public school adult education centre opened in a low socio-economic, urban neighbour hood attracted those for whom it was intended; that is, people who lived in the area under investigation, and had the low socio-economic characteristics typical of the residents in this target area. The implications of the results are relevant to future adulteducation efforts directed towards reaching people presently unreachable. Data describing the socio-economic and motivational character istics of 127 participants were collected using a Survey Questionnaire and the Education Participation Scale. These participants were divided according to area of residence with approximately one half residing within the target area and the balance outside. The data were compared, where relevant, with census -tract data, and statistically tested using Pearson's chi square, Analysis of Variance and Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficients. The study showed that the socio-economic characteristics of the participants living in the target area were different from those of the general population of the area, and were similar to the characteristics of participants coming to the new centre from all other parts of the city. Of the characteristics studied, level of education and prestige of occupation, shown in previous research reports to have the greatest influence on whether a person will participate or not, were higher for the participants living in the target area than for the general population of the area. The.motivational characteris tics of all the participants were similar. From this it was concluded that the new centre, though situated in the midst of a low socio economic neighbourhood, was not attracting people living in the area who had the socio-economic characteristics indigenous to the general population of the area. The area participants exhibited elitist characteristics usually associated with adult learners. Suggestions were made for attracting the majority target population. Motivational characteristics of all the participants were studied by sex, age, place of birth, education level and course enroll ment. Statistically significant differences were noted for sex, age, education level and course enrollment. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT ii LIST OF TABLES xi i i LIST OF FIGURES . x ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .............. xi CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION 1 PROBLEM AND PURPOSE 2 HYPOTHESES .............. 4 METHOD .... 8 SampleInstruments 9 Data Collection 10 Data Analysis 1 Definitions 13 SETTING • 14 Target Area and Population ............ 14 Night School Programme 18 PLAN OF REPORT 19 CHAPTER TWO - REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 21 CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPANTS ............ 22 Level of Education 2Occupation 4 v Page Age .... 25 Sex .Marital Status . . . 25 Length of Occupancy  26 Place of Birth 2Participation in Other Activities . 26 Other Considerations . 27 ATTENDANCE AND DROPOUT PATTERNS 23 Socio-Economic Characteristics 8 MOTIVATION 30 CHAPTER THREE - RESULTS ..... 33 SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF TARGET AREA PARTICIPANTS AND POPULATION 33 Level of Education 4 Place of Birth 36 Language Spoken at Home 37 Working Full-Time for Salary 8 Length of Occupancy 3Pattern of Occupation . . . 39 SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPANTS BY AREA OF RESIDENCE 42 Level of EducationPlace of Birth 44 Language Spoken at Home 45 Full Time Employment for Salary 46 vi Page Length of Occupancy 47 Occupation . 9 Previous Night School Participation 52 Previous Adult Education Participation in Other Institutions 53 Number of Meetings and Club Activities . 54 Age 5Sex 6 Marital Status 57 ATTENDANCE PATTERNS AND DROPOUT RATES OF PARTICI PANTS BY AREA OF RESIDENCE . 59 MOTIVATION FOR ATTENDING NIGHT CLASSES BY PARTICI PANTS' AREA OF RESIDENCE 61 MOTIVATION OF PARTICIPANTS BY SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS . . 65 Age 6Sex 6 Place of Birth 6Level of Education 70 Courses EnrolledCHAPTER FOUR - -SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS 73 SUMMARY 7Rationale of Study 73 Procedure 4 Findings . 7DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS 82 vii Page CONCLUSIONS 88 BIBLIOGRAPHY 91 APPENDIX A - METHODS OF ADVERTISING 98 APPENDIX B - SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE - ADULT EDUCATION STUDY .... 101 APPENDIX C - EDUCATION PARTICIPATION SCALE 104 APPENDIX D - FACTOR I-ESCAPE/STIMULATION .... 122 FACTOR II-PROFESSIONAL ADVANCEMENT 123 FACTOR III-SOCIAL WELFARE ..... 124 FACTOR IV-EXTERNAL EXPECTATIONS .... 125 FACTOR V-COGNITIVE INTEREST 12APPENDIX E - SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE-CODING SCHEDULE ADULT EDUCATION STUDY 127 APPENDIX F - CATEGORIES OF OCCUPATIONS AND DESIGNATION OF PARTICIPANTS 136 vi i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Crime Rates Reported by Police Districts .17 2. Years of School Completed by Target Population and Target Participants 35 3. Level of Education of Target Population and Target Participants4. Birthplace of Target Population and Target Participants ..... 36 5. Language Spoken at Home by Target Population and Target Participants . 37 6. Length of Occupancy of Target Population and Target Participants 39 7. Pattern of Occupation of Target Population and Target Participants 41 8. Years of School Completed by Target and Outside Participants 4 9. Birthplace of Target and Outside Participants 45 10. Language Spoken at Home by Target and Outside Participants . 46 11. Employment for Salary by Target and Outside Participants 7 12. Length of Occupancy by Target and Outside Participants 48 13. Pattern of Occupation of Target and Outside Participants 50 14. Prestige of Occupation of Target and Outside Participants 1 15. Previous Night School Participation by Target and Outside Participants . , 52 IX Table Page 16. Previous Adult Education Participation in Other Institutions by Target and Outside Participants 53 17. Participation in Other Activities by Target and Outside Participants . 55 18. Age of Target and Outside Participants ......... 56 19. Sex of Target and Outside Participants 57 20. Marital Status of Target and Outside Participants .... 58 21. Attendance Pattern and Dropout Rates of Partici pants by Course and Area of Residence 60 22. Normalized Mean E.P.S. Factor Scores by Area of Residence 63 23. Correlation Between Age and E.P.S. Factor Scores 66 24. Normalized Mean E.P.S. Factor Scores by Sex, Place of Birth, Course 67 25. Correlation Between Level of Education and E.P.S. Factor Scores 71 26. Summary of Findings for Hypotheses 1, 2, 3 77 27. Comparison of Findings Concerning Relationship Between Age and E.P.S. Factor Scores 81 28. Comparison of Findings Concerning Relationship Between Sex and E.P.S. Factor Scores 2 X LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. Schematic Presentation of Samples . 3 2. Target Area Boundaries 16 3. Geographic Distribution of Participants 43 4. E.P.S. Factor Scores by Area of Residence 64 5. E.P.S. Factor Scores by Sex 68 6. E.P.S. Factor Scores by Place of Birth 70 7. E.P.S. Factor Scores by Course 72 8. Schematic Presentation of Samples 75 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to express deep appreciation to three people who made this study possible. Mr. Jack Cooper, Head, Community Education Services, Vancouver School Board, gave me the opportunity to open the new night school centre, the site of this investigation, and serve as its principal. Mr. Cooper permitted me full responsibility, and supported the effort with enthusiasm and wisdom. Dr. Roger Boshier and Dr. Gary Dickinson, Department of Adult Education, University of British Columbia, guided the scientific investigation of the centre described herein-CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Studies investigating the characteristics of clientele enrol led in voluntary adult education classes are almost unanimous in reporting that it is those in the higher social, economic and educated strata of society who are participating. In other words, institutional adult education is further educating the educated elite, and largely failing to involve the less-educated majority who, presumably, are most in need. « When the concept of life long learning becomes a reality, most of the population will be equipped to deal with the ever-quickening pace of change in so many facets of life. Until then, adult educators must concern themselves with finding ways to reach the less educated. For this reason, the Vancouver School Board opened a public night school centre in a low socio-economic area with the intent of reaching a segment of the Vancouver population not usually reached by adult educators. This study examined the socio-economic and motivational characteristics, and attendance and dropout patterns of participants in the new centre to enquire into the extent to which the School Board realized its goal. 1 2 PROBLEM AND PURPOSE . Studies on initial enrollment and maintenance of attendance, two aspects of participation in adult education, have focused on clientele characteristics. They indicate that the amount of formal schooling is a prime factor in distinguishing participants from non-participants; a positive correlation exists between number of years of formal schooling and participation in adult education. In other words, adult education is presently failing to attract people with a lower level of formal education who could derive, most likely, the greatest benefit. How to attract these people to adult education endeavours is a problem presently confronting adult educators; and it is the problem to which this study is directed. This present investigation examines the level of education factor along with other socio-economic characteristics of the target area population^ for the purpose of finding out if the participants living in the target area reflected the lower education and socio economic levels of the general population of the area. An assumption was made that if the target participants did not resemble the target population then they would be similar to participants coming to the new centre from all other parts of the city, as regards the character istics studied. Schematically, the groups compared can be shown as indicated in Figure 1. ^See Definitions, p. 13. Outside Target Area Participants' \ ^\\\\\B\\WV V\\Target Population\\ A Target Participants ,\\\\\\W\ NN \\\ • * « O • • Figure 1 Schematic Presentation of Samples A represents participants living in the target area, that is, within the secondary school boundaries in which the new centre was located. B_ represents the total population of the target area. C represents the participants living in all other parts of Vancouver, exclusive of the target area, who attended the new centre. Specifically, the purpose of this investigation was to find out if an adult education centre located in the midst of a low socio economic area, offering a non-vocational and non-credit general A interest programme, would attract and maintain the interest of typical residents of the area (B). Adults voluntarily seek education, hence, a concern of adult educators is the question of motivation. This study will also enquire into why the participants under investigation voluntarily attended general interest evening classes. HYPOTHESES In response to the problem presented and to enquire into whether the new night school centre was attracting typical residents of the target area the following hypotheses were stated: 1. There are differences in the socio-economic characteristics of night school participants living within the target area (A) and the general population of the area (B) as revealed in the 1971 Census Tract data. (a) The education level of the target area participants (A) is higher than that of the target area popula tion (B). (b) The percentage of target area participants (A) born inside Canada is higher than that of the target area population (B). 2 The socio-economic characteristics of the target area population are described on p. 14-18. (c) The percentage of target area participants (A) speaking English at home is higher than that of the target area population (B). (d) The length of occupancy by target area partici pants (A) is greater than that of the target area population (B). (e) The pattern of occupation for the target area 3 participants (A) is more prestigious than that of the target area population (B). 2. There are no statistically significant differences in specified socio-economic characteristics between night school participants living within the target area (A) and participants living out side the target area (C). (a) The education level of the participants living . 4 within the target area (A) is similar to that of the participants living outside the area (C). (b) The percentage of participants living within the target area (A) who were born in Canada is similar to that for the participants living outside the area (C). (c) The percentage of participants living within the target area (A) who speak English at home is similar to that for the participants living out side the area (C). 3 See Definitions, p. 13. ^'Similar' is used in the subhypotheses to mean 'no statistically significant difference.' 6 (d) The percentage of participants living within the target area (A) who work full time for a salary is similar to that for the participants living outside the area (C). (e) The length of occupancy for participants living within the target area (A) is similar to that for the participants living outside the area (C). (f) The pattern of occupation for participants living within the target area (A) is similar to that of the participants living outside the area (C). (g) The pattern of previous adult education partici-5 pation for participants living within the target area (A) is similar to that for participants living outside the area(C). (h) The number of meetings and club activities atten ded per month by participants living within the target area (A) is similar to that for participants living outside the area (C). (i) The pattern of age, sex and marital status for participants living within the target area (A) is similar to that for participants living outside the area (C). See Definitions, p. 13. 7 3. There is no statistically significant difference in the percentage of droupoutsb between, the night school partici pants living within the target area (A) and those living outside the area (C). 4. There is no statistically significant difference in moti vation to attend night classes between the participants living within the target area (A) and those living outside the area (C). 5. There are statistically significant differences in motivation to attend night classes related to specified characteristics. (a) Participants in different age categories have different reasons for attending night classes. (b) Male participants attend night classes for reasons that are different from those of female participants. (c) Participants born in Canada attend night classes for reasons that are different from those of participants born outside Canada. (d) Participants with a higher level of education attend night classes for reasons that are different from those of participants with a lower level of education. See Definitions p. 13. 8 (e) Participants enrolled in the various courses have different reasons for attending night classes. METHOD Sample The subjects for this study were 127 night school participants in an urban public night school centre. This represented 77% of the total enrollment of 165. These subjects were all the participants present at the third or fourth sessions who satisfactorily completed the Survey Questionnaire and Education Participation Scale. The third session was chosen to conduct the testing because it afforded the highest attendance rate; enrollment would have been completed and absenteeism and dropout would be at a minimum due to initial interest. Those who were absent at the third session, but present at the fourth session, completed the instruments at that time. The 127 subjects were classified according to area of resi dence into two groups; 60 participants lived within the target area and 67 participants lived outside the target area. Data concerning the socio-economic characteristics of the target area population were taken from the Census Tract Bulletin, 1971, Series B. 9 Instruments Survey Questionnaire. A questionnaire (Appendix B) was de vised to elicit a description of characteristics relevant to adult education participation as indicated in previous studies as well as information relevant to the purpose of this study. The questionnaire did not ask for the participant's name. It did ask for address so target area participants could be identified and all participants classified according to area of residence. Questions numbers 6, 7 and 8 were used to find out if having children attend the regular school programme was related to night school attendance. Question number 20 concerned the effectiveness of the advertising for the new centre. Questions 21 and 22 enquired into a possible relationship between living close to the centre and attending. Questions numbers 10, 11, 12, 14 and 15 enquired into the participant's degree of acculturation in an effort to find out if the diverse ethnic nature of the target population was reflected in the composition of the target participants. Questions numbers 2, 3, 4 and 5 enquired into a possible relationship between the time and nature of previous adult education participation and present participation. Questions numbers 16 through 19 and 23, 24, 25, sought information relevant to adult education participation as described in previous studies. The coding for the computerized analysis of the questionnaire data (Appendix E) was designed to conform with census tract data, where relevant, specifically columns 24, 34, 35, 36, 37, 41 and 49, so that a basis could be established for comparison of the target 10 population with the target participants. The rationale for coding the remaining columns followed that described for designing the questions, thus providing an operational definition for the characteristics investigated. Education Participation Scale. The E.P.S. (Appendix C), de veloped by Boshier (1971), was used for measuring motive for participation. This instrument has 48 items which cluster into five factors accounting for 50% of the variance (Boshier, 1976). Factors and loadings for the sample in this study are described in Appendix D. Data Collection Permission to conduct the study and approval of the instruments were obtained from the Community Education Services of the Vancouver School Board. Permission to administer the instruments at the third session was sought from each teacher as he/she signed in for the second session. An explanation of the purpose and nature of the study was discussed, and a convenient time established with each teacher for the class to complete the tests. During the third session, at the prearranged time, the researcher visited each class. She described herself as a graduate student at the University of British Columbia doing a field placement in adult education. She declared her excitement over the enthusiastic response to the new night class centre, and said her reason for conducting the study was to ask for help in making future plans to expand and 11 improve the programming for the centre. She emphasized the anonymity of the study, gave instructions for completing the two instruments, and answered questions while handing out the instruments. This intro duction took about five minutes. The researcher left the classroom while the participants completed the questionnaires. The teachers collected the questionnaires and took them to the office after class. The teachers reported that it had taken about 30 minutes for the test ing. The researcher expressed her appreciation to the teachers for their cooperation. At the fourth session, with the permission of the teacher, the researcher visited each class and asked if those participants who were absent at the previous session would remain after class to help with her study by completing the instruments in a designated room. All but two such people remained after class. The data for computing the attendance and dropout rates were taken from the teachers' attendance record books at the conclusion of the ten week session. Data Analysis For the purpose of finding out if the school was attracting the population for whom it was intended, comparisons were made between characteristics of the target participants and target population, and between characteristics of target participants and outside partici pants, in order to establish the extent of differences. 12 To test Hypothesis I, observations were made based on the calculated differences in percentages between the characteristics of the target area participants and the target area population. A discrepancy of 10% or more was set as a difference worthy of note. To test Hypothesis II, differences between the characteristics of participants living within and outside the target area were examined using Pearson's chi square, with the level of probability set at ,05 for statistical significance. To test Hypothesis III, the attendance and dropout rates of the participants living within and outside the target area were compared. A strike by the maintenance staff of the school forced the last two sessions in this study to be delayed four weeks. Hence, the possible presence of factors such as loss of interest, ignorance about the resumption of classes, or previous commitments for the effected nights invalidated testing for statistically significant differences. How ever, observations about attendance and dropout rates were noted. To test Hypotheses IV and V, the Education, Participation Scale was factor analysed and factor scores generated for each re spondent. Mean factor scores for each relevant group were calculated and compared using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient or Analysis of Variance, depending on the ordinal or nominal nature of the data. 13 Definitions Target Area Population was the total population, fifteen years of age and over, living within census tracts 19, 30, 31, 32, 33, 37 and 38, as reported in the Census Tract Bulletin, 1971, Series B. These tracts were chosen after comparing census tract boundaries for the target school. These tracts most closely approximate the secondary school district in which the new night centre is located. Target Area Participants were the total number of night school participants living within census tracts 19, 30, 31, 32, 33, 37 and 38 who satisfactorily responded to the testing instruments. Outside Target Area Participants were the total number of night school participants living in all parts of metropolitan Vancouver exclusive of census tracts, 19, 30, 31, 32, 33, 27 and 38 who satis factorily responded to the testing instruments. Dropout was a participant who failed to attend the last two sessions. This definition was taken from Dickinson (1966). Previous participation was involvement in any kind of adult education offered by any agency at any time since leaving formal schooling. This was represented by a 'yes' answer to numbers two or four on the Survey Questionnaire. (See coding schedule columns eight through fifteen, Appendix E). Prestigious Occupations were those in the top three categories of Blishen's (1961) socio-economic classification, i.e. in the 14 categories of engineering, teaching or health related occupations. Blishen derived ranks through inter-correlation of data concerning education and income. Regression weights were assigned to education level and income, and on the basis of these, occupational prestige levels established. For example, the socio-economic index score for "teacher" was 70.14, for "truck driver" it was 29.31. Blishen's classification cannot be used directly in this study because of the generality of the census tract occupation categories. However, the ordering of the census tract categories was based on the closest possible approximation to Blishen's classification. The occupation categories and the designation of participants' jobs is described in Appendix F. Elitism generally refers to people with higher levels of education, occupation and related socio-economic characteristics. SETTING Target Area and Population The new night centre is in a secondary school located in a 7 dimly lit hollow three blocks from a transportation line. The See Appendix A for methods used to bring new centre to attention of target population. target area is inhabited by a diverse ethnic population of low socio economic status. Sixty-three percent of the target area population was born in Canada, compared with 73% of the metropolitan Vancouver o population. The mean income in 1971 for males living in the target area was $5,722 compared with $7,287 for males in metropolitan Vancouver; this represents a 22% lower income. The mean income for women living in the target area was $2,461 compared with $3,072 for women in metro politan Vancouver; this represents a 20% lower income. Of people fifteen years of age and older living in the target area, 26% graduated from high school and 3% hold university degrees compared with 30% and 6%»respec-tively, for the metropolitan Vancouver population fifteen years of age and older. The target area has the highest crime rate in metropolitan 9 Vancouver. A map showing the target area boundary and Vancouver Police District boundaries^ is shown in Figure 2. Police District number 22, which included most of the target area, had 2,650 reported charges of armed robbery, theft and breaking and entering in 1974.^ This accounts for 8% of all such reported offences in metropolitan Vancouver. Police District number 27, which adjoins number 22 and includes part of the target area, had the second highest crime rate for 1974 with 2,434 reported offences. This accounts for 7% of all o Census Tract Bulletin, 1971, Series B. 9Ibid. ^From personal communications with Department Research,Vancouver Police. 111bid. Location of night school centre Boundary of TARGET AREA (Census Tracts # 19,30,31,32,33,37,38)-Boundary around #22 VPD District • e> *>. * * •» Boundary around #27 VPD District ~w E. Broadway Figure 2 Target Area Boundaries 17 such reported offences. Together, these two districts reported 15% of all armed robbery, thefts and breaking and entering charges in metropolitan Vancouver during 1974. All of the other 32 districts reported charges ranging in number from 1,313 (4%) down to 217 (1%). District number 22, with the exception of adjoining district number 27, reported twice as many charges as did the district with the next highest rate (Table I). TABLE 1 CRIME RATES REPORTED BY POLICE DISTRICTS Districe Rank Number of % Total Number Order Charges Charges 22 1 2,650 8% 27 2 2,434 7% 9 3 1,313 "4% 16 15 1,016 3% 31 24 669 2% 2 34 217 1% The Vancouver School Board had anticipated that the high crime rate of the target area might discourage initial enrollment to the point of having to close the centre. When the initial enrollment proved to be viable, the School Board further speculated that the 18 attendance and dropout rates might be excessively high because partici pants might fear the area. For these reasons, the crime rate of the target area was inctuded'in the description of the setting for this study. Night School Programme The decision to create the new centre was made two months prior to its opening. There was no time to conduct a needs assessment or interest survey before planning the programme. The Vancouver School Board's night school programmes comprise mostly noncredit, nonvocational general interest courses. From these, the specific courses for the new centre were chosen to cover a wide spectrum of interests which, it was hoped, would be relevant to the interests of the people living in the area. It was decided to offer a limited number of courses (ten) on only one evening a week (Wednesday, 7:00 - 9:00) to test the feasi bility of establishing a permanent night school centre in the area. The courses chosen were Auto Mechanics, Child Development, Cooking Nutritious Meals on a Budget, French Conversation, Guitar, Income Tax Planning and Reporting, Spanish Conversation, Stitchery, Woodwork and Yoga. There was sufficient enrollment to carry on in all classes except Cooking. Teachers were selected from the school's day time staff (Auto Mechanics, Cooking and Woodwork), the Vancouver School Board's roster of night school teachers (French, Guitar, Income Tax and Yoga), U.B.C. graduate students (Spanish and Stitchery) and the B.C. Adlerian Association (Child Development). In an attempt to make participants feel welcome, decorative posters, giving directions to classrooms, and daytime student guides, offering a cheerful hello and more detailed directions, greeted them in the front hall. The posters also appeared on the doors of the designated classrooms confirming the correct location. The classrooms used were the school's Auto Mechanics and Wood work Shops, the music room for Guitar, open area for Yoga, science room for Stitchery and regular classrooms with desks for the balance of courses. The teaching techniques were those conventionally used for the particular kind of subject in a school situation. Audio visual equipment, though available, was never requested. The two hour sessions contained a fifteen minute break when coffee and donuts were sold by the daytime students in the main hall. This was another attempt to foster a friendly feeling among teenage students, evening adult participants, teachers and staff. PLAN OF REPORT This report began with an introduction describing the reason for this investigation, followed by a statement of the problem, the specific purpose of this study and the hypotheses to be tested. Chapter One continued with a description of the method for the investi gation, including a description of the sample, the instruments, the 20 data collection and analysis, and a definition of terms used in this report. Chapter One concluded with a description of the setting (the geographic area and its population) for this study and the adult education programme introduced into it. Chapter Two deals with a review of relevant literature. Chapter Three describes the results of the data analysis. Chapter Four summarizes the findings described in Chapter Three, discusses their implications and offers suggestions for future studies. The Appendix includes a description of the advertising effort for the new night school, a copy of the Survey Questionnaire and the Education Participation Scale, factor loadings for the E.P.S., the coding schedule for the Survey Questionnaire and a description of the occupation categories for the people in this study. CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE People voluntarily participate in adult education for many reasons related to their quest for self-fulfillment (Jensen, 1970; Knowles, 1970; Boshier, 1973). The manner in which adults pursue this quest is influenced by the extent to which they have satisfied Maslow's (1954) hierarchy of needs. For example, the person whose most pressing need is to provide food and clothing for his family, will differ in his manner of fulfilling this need from the man whose physical comforts are assured but feels a need for mental stimulation. One's level of needs satisfaction emerges from a total life experience. Since the life experience of each person is unique, the needs of people are diverse. This recognition of the multiplicity of reasons for participation in adult education has brought the univariate approach to the study of adult learners into disrepute. Adult educators, to be effective, must be aware of the particular characteristics and needs of the clientele they endeavour 12 to serve. This study is limited to a concern with elitism. Hence, it is restricted to a consideration of the indices of this socio economic phenomenon. Research literature has shown that adult learners have certain distinguishing features. Level of education and occupation See Definitions, p. 14. 21 22 have been cited as being the most reliable indices of participation. These characteristics, along with others highlighted in previous participation studies, are included in this review. Participation research indicates that each agency offering adult education programmes attracts a distinct clientele (Brunner, 1959). For this reason, the literature cited herein will be limited to studies investigating participation in urban public night school centres offering non-credit and non-vocational general interest courses. CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPANTS Level of Education In reviewing the literature on adult education participation Brunner et al. (1959), Douglah (1970), London (1970) and Verner and Newberry (1958) noted that the more formal schooling a person had, the more likely he/she would continue to pursue educational activities. Brunner noted that "Amount of formal schooling appears to be the most signifi cant determinant of participation in all forms of adult education" (1959, p. 96). Johnstone and Rivera reported adult education partici pation rates in a sample of 24,000 people in the United States to be from 4% among persons with no schooling to 47% among persons with university education; 53% of participants in non-credit courses had 23 completed high school and 37% had some university education. They stated "By far the most persistent finding in our investigation was that formal education attainment plays a highly crucial role in determining whether or not one enters the ranks of adult students" (1965, p. 87). London, et al. (1963) found in their Oakland study that formal education was statistically the most important factor influencing the likelihood of participation. Manna's (1965) British study and Boshier's (1971) New Zealand study revealed similar findings to Johnstone's (1965) and London et al.'s (1963) American studies. Dickinson's (1966) study of 2,000 participants in the Surrey, British Columbia area revealed that 9% had less than grade nine, 55% had completed grades nine to twelve and 12% had some or completed university education. In another study examining educational background, Dickinson (1971) found that the participant's personal formal education experience was the only factor influencing his/her participation in adult education. McClosky (1968) theorized that because formal schooling helps to develop one's sense of confidence and responsibility, it has the greatest correlation with social participation. Others have reported a relationship between social participation and adult education(Brunner, et al., 1959; Verner & Newberry, 1958; London, 1963). In this vein, London stated "The lack of past achievement and limited opportunities tend to create a system of values and beliefs which negate efforts to improve one's social and economic position" (1970, p. 147). 24 Occupation Brunner et al. (1959) suggested that Occupation, formal education and adult education participation are inter-correlated. Blishen (1961) similarly characterized occupation as having variance in common with education and income. Verner and Newberry (1958) reported that professional white collar workers and housewives participated in adult education in a larger proportion than their representation in the general population. Mizruchi and Vanaria (1960) found in their study of 618 New York subjects that 82% worked full time for a salary and 50% could be classified as middle to upper social class. Dickinson (1966) reported that housewives constituted 57% and those in managerial, professional or technical occupations constituted 11% of all partici pants registered in general interest courses; the remaining 32% was made up of people in seven successively lower status occupations. Johnstone and Rivera (1965) reported that 62% of participants in their study worked full time for a salary, and of the 28% not working, 25% were housewives. Among those working, 25% were engaged in managerial, professional or technical occupations which was an overrepresentation in the sample studied by a ratio of two to one. This is the same proportion of upper status occupations reported by Hoi den, as cited by Brunner (1959). Boshier (1971) also reported a significantly higher proportion of participants had professional or managerial occupations compared with the general population. 25 Age Verner and Newberry (1958) stated that participants in public night school adult education were most likely to be between the ages of 25 and 45. Dickinson (1966) reported 68% of the participants enrolled in general interest courses were under 45 years. Mizruchi and Vanaria (1960) found 45% were under 40 years. Johnstone and Rivera (1965) reported 57% of the participants in their study were under 40 years with a median age of 36 years, compared with a median age of 43 years for the total sample. Booth (1961) and Boshier (1971) noted that old people are prominent among non-participants. Sex The studies of both Mizruchi and Vanaria (1960) and Johnstone and Rivera (1965) found that 65% of the participants in general interest courses were women and 35% were men. Dickinson (1966) and Boshier (1973) reported that 75% of the participants in general interest courses were women. Marital Status Johnstone and Rivera (1965) found 85% of the participants in their American study were married while Dickinson (1966) reported 83% of the participants in his British Columbia study were married. 26 Length of Occupancy A longer period of occupancy seems to be related to adult education participation. This trend was noted by Houle (1961) and' Verner and Newberry (1958). Place of Birth Verner and Newberry (1958) noted that foreign born and first generation residents participated in adult education to a lesser extent than longer established residents of a country. This contrasts to Boshier's (1973) Wellington finding which showed a significantly higher proportion of foreign born, compared to New Zealand born people participated in adult education; 15% of the New Zealand population compared with 30% of the participants were foreign born. Participation in Other Activities Brunner (1959) assumed that formal social participation (i.e. a relationship wherein the role of the participant is structured and implies a purposive effort) is related to adult education participation, and therefore, studies on social participation are significant for adult educators. Verner and Newberry (1958) and London (1963) noted that participation in adult education was more likely among those who had participated in other activities. Mizruchi and Vanaria (1960) found 43% of participants in their study spent five to eight evenings per month attending meetings or other club activities. Douglah (1970) 27 stated that a strong positive relationship existed between participation in adult education and in community life. London (1964) cited Gallup Poll data showing that individuals participating in the largest number of specified leisure activities had the highest rate of participation in adult education. McClosky (1968) noted that involvement in organiz ations helps people develop the skills of participation, thus bolstering their confidence for further participation. Other Considerations Jones (1962), enquiring into the validity of using census tract data as a basis for predicting adult education clientele, found that participants exhibited a significantly higher level of social and edu cational status than that reported for the general population of their census tract. Jones suggested that it was the socio-economic elite of a given census tract population who participated in adult education, and therefore census tract data could not be used to predetermine the nature of clientele. Lindenberger and Verner (1960) studied participation in Univer sity extension courses and suggested that socio-economic factors have a greater influence on rates of participation than distance travelled. McKinnon (1966) . studied distances travelled to urban night school centres and found no evidence that participants of high socio economic status attend centres in high socio-economic areas, nor that participants of lower socio-economic status attend centres located 28 in lower socio-economic areas. In other words, in McKinnon's study people who want to participate in a particular adult education activity seemed to seek it out regardless of its location. ATTENDANCE AND DROPOUT PATTERNS Attendance and dropout patterns are related to the participant's socio-economic characteristics, attitudes, interests and needs as well as to situational and non institutional factors related to the education setting. Since this study focuses on the participant, this review will not include studies about the situational and non-institutional aspects of adult education. These environmental aspects are adminis tratively controlled, ideally, they are designed in response to an understanding of the kind of clientele an agency is serving. In other words, studies such as this present one can suggest direction to administrators; the results of manipulating the environmental factors are the subject for another area of participation research. The manipulation of environmental factors in accordance with clientele characteristics is the basis for the multivariate approach to a con gruent delivery of adult education. Socio-Economic Characteristics Verner and Davis (1964) reviewed 30 studies on completion and dropout and found that socio-economic factors related to partici-2.9 pation are also related to persistence. They also noted that characteris tics related to non-participation were related to dropout behaviour. Dickinson (1966) and Dickinson and Verner (1967) reported that a significantly higher rate of dropout occurred among young (15-24 years) single people working in blue collar occupations. Housewives, in their study, had the lowest dropout rate. Those with previous adult education experience were less likely to drop out than those with none. However, they found no relationship between level of formal education and drop out rate. Zahn (1964) found no relationship between low academic ability and dropout from non-credit courses. Sainty (1971) attempted to develop a method for predicting dropout by relating it to a 'non-success syndrome'. This syndrome was characterized by 17 variables including lower level of education, poorer verbal and reading skills and lower occupation class. Lam and Wong (1974) compared the influence of certain socio economic and motivation (based on Boshier's 1971 studies) variables on attendance rates and reported that the greatest influence on attendance rate was the degree to which the course met the personal needs of the participant. Lam and Wong's data generally confirm Boshier's model. Boshier (1973) theorized that participation or dropout is related to the degree of congruence between the participant's internal psycho logical environment (needs) and the external educational environment. 30 MOTIVATION Much of the current research into participation and discontinu ance is concerned with the study of motivation; this was a direction called for by, among others, Brunner (1959) and Verner and Davis (1964). Brunner said "It is clear that an attempt to understand the intimate connections between motivation and education is crucial to the achieve-ment of adult education goals" (1959, p. 46). Many have recognized the usefulness to adult educators of the work of sociologists and psychologists, particularly Lewin's (1935) field theory, Maslow's (1954) hierarchy of needs, Murray's (1936) need press model and Roger's (1961) self concept theory (Boshier, 1973; Jensen, 1964; Knowles, 1970; London, 1964; McClosky, 1964). However, until recently, lack of research technology has blocked empirical investigation into motivation. For example, Johnstone and Rivera (1965) used a checklist approach when asking participants for their reasons for taking adult education courses; their findings are related to socio-economic, rather than psychological considerations. Further more, the Johnstone and Rivera motivation data did not flow from any theoretical formulation. Houle (1961) said adult education participants could be cate gorized as goal, activity, and learning-oriented. Several writers (Boshier, 1971; Burgess, 1971; Sheffield, 1964) operationalized the Houle typology by constructing Likert-type measures of 'motive'(s) for participation. The motivational orientation literature has lengthened in recent years (Dickinson and Clark, 1975). But of the studies published so far, only Boshier conducted higher-order factor analyses in pursuit of the three-factor Houle typology. The Education Participation Scale is a reliable 48 item measure of motive(s) for attendance. It was originally used to examine the motivational orientations of 233 adult education participants in Wellington, New Zealand. The measure originally clustered into fourteen oblique factors, but has subsequently been subject to ortho gonal rotation which produced the five reasonably 'pure' and independent factors described by Boshier (1971, 1976). These factors are remarkably similar to those produced with orthogonal rotation by Morstain and Smart (1974) with a large sample of U.S. adult education participants. Morstain and Smart produced factor scores for each respondent by summing item scores in each factor and then dividing by the number of items to produce a 'mean factor' score. They then produced mean factor scores for separate age and sex groups and found a noticeable variation in the mean scores of the groups studied. "For example, mean scores on the Social Relationships factor tended to decline with increasing age. Compared with other groups, the desire for meeting new people, engaging in group activities, etc., seemed relatively more important to men and women in the youngest age group" (1974, p. 91). The E.P.S. is providing a tool required for empirical motivation studies. A review of the characteristics of participants in public school non-credit, non-vocational, general interest adult education programmes pro duces a picture of a person who has a higher than average level of formal 32 education; he/she most likely has attained high school graduation, and likely, some university education. The participant probably works in a managerial, professional or technical occupation. She (the majority are women) is most likely between the ages of 25 and 40 and married.She/he is most apt to have been born in Canada and to have lived a longer than average length of time at his/her present address. The participant probably is active in community organizations and clubs. She/he most likely has been a continual adult learner, maintaining a good attendance pattern. CHAPTER THREE RESULTS This chapter will describe and compare the characteristics of the target area participants with the target area population, followed by a comparison of the characteristics of the target area participants with the outside area participants. This will be done in accordance with the hypotheses presented earlier (Ch. 1, pp. 4-7). SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF TARGET AREA PARTICIPANTS AND POPULATION In view of the huge discrepancy in numbers between the target population and target sample, and because of the nature of the samples, (that is, neither randomly selected, nor independent)testing for statistically significant differences between the two groups is invalid. Therefore, where percents are compared, 10% or greater was established to represent a difference. The choice of socio-economic characteristics compared in Hypothesis I was made on the basis of characteristics described in census tract data. 33 34 Level of Education The level of education of the target participants (A) (Figure 1, p. 3) was considerably higher than that of the target population (B); only 12% of the target participants had less than high school graduation compared with 64% of the target population. The census tract data reports 40% of the target population had grade nine or less. None of the target participants were in this category; 24% of the target population had completed grades ten or eleven, compared with 23% of the target area participants; 18% of the target population had completed grades twelve or thirteen and 8% had additional vocational training compared with 33% of the target participants who had completed grades twelve or thirteen and 24% who had additional vocational training. Seven percent of the target population had some university education and 3% held university degrees compared with 10% of the participants who reported some university education and 10% a university degree (Table 2). The large discrepancy in level of education attained by target area population and participants becomes even more evident when con sidered in the categories of less than grade twelve (64% compared with 12%) high school graduation (26% compared with 56%), some univer sity (7% compared with 10%) and university degree (3% compared with 10%) described in Table 3. These observations support Hypothesis l.a which stated the level of education of target participants would be higher than that 35 TABLE 2 YEARS OF SCHOOL COMPLETED BY TARGET POPULATION AND TARGET PARTICIPANTS Years of School Completed Target Population Target Participants No. % No. % Grade 9 or less 13,018 40% 0 0 Grades 10, 11 7,872 24% 13 23% Grades 12, 13 5,775 18% 19 33% Grades 12, 13 with Additional Training 2,815 8% 13 24% Some University 2,305 7% 5 10% University Degree 1,025 3% 6 10% Total 32,815 100% 57* 100% TABLE 3 LEVEL OF EDUCATION OF TARGET POPULATION AND TARGET PARTICIPANTS Level of Education Target Population Target Participants No. % No. % Less than grade 12 20,895 64% 13 23% High School Graduation 8,590 26% 32 57% Some University 2,305 7% 6 10% University Degree 1,025 3% 6 10% Total 32,815 100% 57* 100% Three participants did not respond to questions about education. 36 for the target population. This finding concurs with the results of studies by Brunner (1959), Verner and Newberry (1958), London, et al. (1963), Johnstone and Rivera (1965), Hanna (1965), Dickinson (1966) and Boshier (1971) all reporting a positive relationship between formal schooling and adult education participation. Place of Birth The census tract data reported 63% of the target area population (B) was born in Canada compared with 75% of the target area participants (A) who were native born (Table 4). This finding supports Hypothesis l.b which stated that a higher proportion of target participants compared with the target population would have been born in Canada. This result is similar to that reported by Verner and Newberry (1958), but in con trast to Boshier1s (1971) finding. TABLE 4 BIRTHPLACE OF TARGET POPULATION AND TARGET PARTICIPANTS Place of Birth Target Population Target Participants No. % No. % Inside Canada 20,786 63% 45 75% Outside Canada 12,034 37%. 15 25% Total 32,820 100% 60 100% 37 Language Spoken at Home The census tract data reported 80% of the target area population (B) spoke English most often at home, while 90% of the target partici pants (A) were in this category (Table 5). This supports Hypothesis l.c which stated that a larger percentage of target participants compared TABLE 5 LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT HOME BY TARGET POPULATION AND TARGET PARTICIPANTS • •11  Language Most Often Target Population Target Participants Spoken at Home No. % No. % English 26,106 80% 54 90% Other 6,709 20% 6 10% Total 32,815 100% 60 100% with target population would speak English at home. The larger percen tage of target participants compared with target population who were born in Canada and spoke English at home suggests that the more accultur-ated segment of the target population were attending the new night class centre. 38 Working Full-Time for Salary The census tract data reported 54% of the target area population (B) worked full time for salary, which closely parallels the 55% of the target area participants (A) in this category. This does not support Hypothesis l.d which stated that there would be a higher pro portion of target participants compared with target population working full time for salary. This finding contrasts with results of American Studies reported by Mizruchi and Vanaria (1960) and Johnstone and Rivera (1965). Length of Occupancy The census tract data reported 17% of the target population (B) (See Figure 1, p. 3) had lived at their present address for less than one year compared with 27% of the target participants (A); 16% of the target population had one to two years occupancy compared with 18% of the target participants; 17% of the target population had three to five years occupancy compared with 12% of the target participants; 15% of the target population had six to ten years occupancy compared with 10% of the target participants and 35% of the target population had lived at their present address for ten years or more compared with 33% of the target participants (Table 6). Hypothesis l.e, which stated that the length of occupancy of target participants would be greater than that of target population, is rejected, inasmuch as 67% of the target population compared with 55% of the target participants had 39 TABLE 6 LENGTH OF OCCUPANCY OF TARGET POPULATION AND TARGET PARTICIPANTS Length of Occupancy Target Population Target Participants No. % No. % Less than 1 year 2,240 17% 16 27% 1-2 years 2,160 16% .11 18% 3-5 years 2,250 17% 7 12% 6-10 years 2,085 15% 6 10%. Over 10 years 4,630 35% 19 33% Total 13,365* 100% 59** 100% This represents heads of households. The assumption was made that since the participants were adults, they represented heads of households. One participant did not respond to the question about occupancy. lived at their present address for three years or longer. These find ings contrast with those reported by Verner and Newberry (1958), Dickinson (1966) and Boshier (1971) relating longer length of occupancy to adult education participation. Pattern of Occupation This analysis was done by observing differences in the percen tages between target area participants and target population in each of sic categories described in census tract data and ordered to approximate 40 Blishen's classification. See Appendix F for a description of occupa tion categories and designation of participants' jobs. The percentages are based on the number in the labour force, described in the Census  Tract Bulletin as the number of people working or looking for work. It excludes housewives. The author assumed that all the participants, excluding the ten who said they were a housewife or student, were in the labour force, that is, working or looking for work. A larger percentage of target participants compared with target population had occupations in the three most prestigious fields (see Definitions, p. 13). Seven percent of the target participants compared with 4% of the target population were engaged in engineering, 7% of the target participants compared with 2% of the target population were engaged in teaching and 7% of the target participants compared with 4% of the target population were engaged in health related occupations. A larger proportion of target participants compared with target population worked in two of the three least prestigious fields. Forty-four percent of the participants compared with 31% of the population worked in clerical or sales jobs, and 26% of the participants compared with 21% of the population worked in service related jobs. The greatest difference was in the strictly blue collar category, product fabrication, in which 9% of the participants compared with 38% of the population was engaged (Table 7), This discrepancy, along with the greater than 10% difference between the 21% target participants and 10% population employed in the prestigious fields, support Hypothesis l.f which stated that the 41 pattern of occupation for the target participants would be more presti gious than that of the target population. This finding concurs with results reported by Brunner (1959), Verner and Newberry (1958), Johnstone and Rivera (1965), Dickinson (1966) and Boshier (1971) relating higher status occupations with adult education participation. TABLE 7 PATTERN OF OCCUPATION OF TARGET POPULATION AND TARGET PARTICIPANTS Occupation Target Population Target Participants No. % No. % Engineering 680 4% 3 7% Teaching 265 2% 3 7% Health Related 680 4% 3 7% Clerk - Sales 5,355 31% 20 44% Service 3,590 21% 12 26% Product Fabrication 6,460 38% 4 9% Total 17,455 100% 45 100% 42 SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPANTS BY AREA OF RESIDENCE The geographic distribution of the participants throughout metropolitan Vancouver is shown in Figure 3. This section will compare certain characteristics of the participants who lived inside the target area with those of the participants who lived outside the area. Level of Education Nine percent of the target and 5% of the outside participants had completed only grades nine or ten, 14% of the target and 7% of'the outside participants had completed grade 11, 34% of the target and 31% of the outside participants graduated from high school; 23% of the target compared with 20% of the outside participants had additional vocational training. Ten percent of both the target and outside participants had some university education. However, 10% of the target and 27% of the outside participants held at least one university degree (Table 8). A nonsignificant chi square value was obtained for the analysis of participants by area of residence and years of school ing completed. This confirms Hypothesis 2.a which stated that the education level of participants living within and outside the target area would be similar. Figure 3 Geographic Distribution of Participants ^ TABLE 8 YEARS OF SCHOOL COMPLETED BY TARGET AND OUTSIDE PARTICIPANTS Years of School Completed Target Participants Outside Participants No. % No. . % Grades 9, 10* 5 9% 3 5% Grade 11 8 14% 4 7% Grade 12 19 34% 18 31% Grade 12 with training 13 23% 12 20% Some University 6 10% 6 10% University degree 6 10% 16 27% Total** 57 100% 59 100% x = 6.41, df = 5, ns * No target participant had less than grade 9, compared with two outside participants. In order to establish a valid x2 it was necessary to eliminate this category. ** Three target and six outside participants did not respond to the questions about education. Place of Birth Seventy-five percent of the target compared with 61% of the out side participants were born in Canada. Conversely, 25% of the target and 39% of the outside participants were born outside Canada (Table 9). A non-significant chi square value was obtained for the analysis of participants by area of residence and place of birth. Hypothesis 2.b, 45 which stated that the percentage of participants born in Canada who lived within and outside the target area would be similar, was accepted. TABLE 9 BIRTHPLACE OF TARGET AND OUTSIDE PARTICIPANTS Place of Birth Target Participants Outside Participants No. % No. % Inside Canada 45 75% 41 61% Outside Canada 15 25% 26 39% Total 60 100% 67 100% xfc = 2.61, df = 1, ns Language Spoken at Home Ninety percent of the target compared with 83% of the outside participants spoke English at home. Conversely, 10% of the target and 17% of the outside participants spoke a language other than English at home (Table 10). A nonsignificant chi square value was obtained for the analysis of participants by area of residence and language spoken at home. This confirms Hypothesis 2.c which stated that the proportion of target and outside participants speaking English at home would be similar. 46 TABLE. 10 LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT HOME BY TARGET AND OUTSIDE PARTICIPANTS Language Spoken Target Participants Outside Participants ..at Home No. 01 ,'o No. % English 54 90% 55 83% Other . 6 10% 11 17% Total 60 100% 66* 100% x2 = .69, df = 1, ns One outside participant did not respond to the question about language spoken at home. Full Time Employment for Salary Fifty-seven percent of the target area participants compared with 70% of the outside participants worked full time for a salary, 18% of the target area and 6% of the outside participants worked part-time, and 21% of the target area compared with 19% of the outside participants did not work (Table 11). A nonsignificant chi square value was obtained for the analysis of participants by area of residence and degree of employment for salary. Hypothesis 2.d, which stated that the percentage of participants living within and outside the target area who worked full time for salary would be similar, was confirmed. 47 Fewer target participants worked full time and more worked part time compared with outside participants. This may be a reflection of the greater proportion of housewives attending from the target area. The proportion of those not working is similar for both groups. TABLE 11 EMPLOYMENT FOR SALARY BY TARGET AND OUTSIDE PARTICIPANTS Employment for Salary Target Participants Outside Participants No. % No. % Ful1 Time 34 57% 47 70% Part Time 11 18% 4 6% Don't Work 13 21% 13 19% No Response* 2 4% 3 5% Total 60 100% 67 100% xc = 5.07, df = 2, ns * 2 Deleted from x analysis. Length of Occupancy A significantly larger percentage of target participants (32%) compared with outside participants (7%) had lived at their present 48 address for more than ten years. Twenty-seven percent of the target compared with 20% of the outside participants had lived at their present address for less than one year, 18% of the target and 43% of the outside participants had one to two years occupancy, 12% cf the target compared with 21% of the outside participants had three to five years occupancy, 10% of the target compared with 9% cf the outside participants had six to ten years occupancy (Table 12). TABLE 12 LENGTH OF OCCUPANCY BY TARGET AND OUTSIDE PARTICIPANTS Length of Occupancy Target Participants Outside Participants No. % No. ol lo Less than 1 year 16 27% 13 20% 1 - 2 years 11 18% 29 43% 3-5 years 7 12% 14 21%. 6-10 years 6 10% 6 9% Over 10 years 19 32% 5 7% No Response* 1 1% 0 Total 60 100% 67 100% yf = 18.48, df = 4, p < .001 * 2 Deleted from x analysis. 49 A significant chi square value of 18.48 was obtained for the analysis of participants by area of residence and length of occupancy. Hence, Hypothesis 2.e, which stated that the length of occupancy for participants living within and outside the target area would be similar, is rejected. The significantly larger percentage of target participants who had more than ten years occupancy complements the trend for more target participants to have been born in Canada and to have spoken English at home. Occupation A smaller proportion of target participants (15%) compared with outside participants (29%) was engaged in occupations of highest pres tige. (See Definitions, p. 13). Five percent of the target compared with 8% of the outside participants were engaged in engineering, 5% of the target compared with 8% of the outside participants were engaged in teaching and 5% of the target compared with 13% of the outside participants were engaged in health related occupations. Similar proportions of 34% of the target and 30% of the outside participants were working in clerk or sales occupations. A larger proportion of target participants (27%) compared with outside partici pants (15%) were engaged in the least prestigious fields. Twenty-one percent of the target compared with 4% of the outside participants were engaged in service related jobs, and 6% of the target compared with 11% of the outside participants were working in product fabrication jobs. A larger proportion of target (17%) compared with outside participants (11%) were housewives or students (Tables 13 & 14). An invalid chi square value was obtained for the analysis of participants by area of residence and seven occupation categories. However, when the three fields of highest prestige were considered to gether and the three fields of lowest prestige considered together,along wi a category for housewives and students,(Table 14),a nonsignificant chi square value was obtained for the analysis of participants by area of residence and prestige of occupation. This confirms Hypothesis 2.f, TABLE 13 PATTERN OF OCCUPATION OF TARGET AND OUTSIDE PARTICIPANTS Occupation Target Participants Outside Participants No. % No. % Engineering 3 5% 5 8% Teaching 3 5% 5 8% Health 3 5% 8 13% Clerk - Sales 20 34% 19 30% Service 12 21% 3 4% Product Fabrication 4 6% 7 11% Housewives, Students 10 17% 7 11% No Response* 4 7% 10 15% ** Total 59 100% 64 100% Invalid x , df = 6 * 2 Deleted from x analysis. kit One target and three outside participants did not respond to the question about occupation. 51 which stated that the occupation, pattern of participants living inside and outside the target area would be similar. The similar occupational patterns complement the finding about similar level of education for target and outside participants, inasmuch as occupation has been related to education. In other words, the night school attracted people living in the target area who were similar to participants coming from all other areas of the city with regard to key characteristics associated with adult education participation such as years of formal schooling and occupation. This elitist finding concurs with those reported by Brunner (1959), Johnstone and Rivera (1965), London (1963), Hanna (1963), Dickinson (1966), Douglah (1970) and Boshier (1971). TABLE 14 PRESTIGE OF OCCUPATION OF TARGET AND OUTSIDE PARTICIPANTS Occupation Target Participants Outside Participants No. % No. % Engineering, Teaching Health 9 15% 18 29% Clerk-Sales, Service Product Fabrication 36 61% 29 45% Housewife, Student 10 17% 7 11% No Response* 4 7% 10 15% Total 59 100% 64 100% x2 = 4.27, df = 2, ns * 2 Deleted from x analysis. 52 Previous Night School Participation The pattern of previous night school participation (see Definition, p. 13) is almost identical for both groups. Sixty-eight percent of target compared with 63% of outside participants had attended night classes before. Conversely, 32% of the target compared with 37% of the outside participants had no previous night school experience (Table 15). A nonsignificant chi square value was obtained for the analysis of participants by area of residence and previous night school attendance. This confirms Hypothesis 2.g, which stated that the pattern of previous adult education participation would be similar for both groups. TABLE 15 PREVIOUS NIGHT SCHOOL PARTICIPATION BY TARGET AND OUTSIDE PARTICIPANTS Previous Participation Target Participants Outside Participants No. % No. % Attended Before 41 68% 42 63% Did Not Attend Before 19 32% 25 37% Total 60 100% 67 100% x = .23, df = 1, ns . Previous Adult Education Participation in Other Institutions The identical proportion of 35% of both target and outside participants had previously attended adult education classes in other institutions. (These include University Extension, 'Y', church, community centre, private and vocation related). Conversely, 65% of both groups had never attended adult classes in another institution (Table 16). A nonsignificant chi square value was obtained for the analysis of participants by area of residence and previous adult education participation in other institutions. This confirms Hypothes is 2.g, which stated that the pattern of previous adult education participation would be the same for both groups. TABLE 16 PREVIOUS ADULT EDUCATION PARTICIPATION IN OTHER INSTITUTIONS BY TARGET AND OUTSIDE PARTICIPANTS Previous Target Participants Outside Participants Participation No. % No. % Attended Before 21 35% 24 35% Did Not Attend Before 39 65% 43 65% Total 60 100% 67 100% xc = .01, df = 1, ns 54 Twice as many subjects had previously participated in adult education classes at public night schools than at other institutions. Number of Meetings and Club Activities Most of the participants were not involved with meetings or club activities. This finding contrasts with studies reported by Brunner (1959), Verner and Newberry (1958) and London (1963). Sixty-five percent of the target participants compared with 57% of the outside participants did not attend meetings or club activities, 8% of the target and 7% of the outside participants attended one meeting per month, 8% of the target and 13% of outside participants attended two meetings per month, 19% of the target and 23% of the outside partici pants attended three to nine meetings per month. (It was necessary to create this last category in order to obtain a valid chi square value). (Table 17) A nonsignificant chi square value was obtained for the analysis of participants by area of residence and number of meetings attended. This confirms Hypothesis 2.h, which stated that the number of meetings and club activities attended by participants living inside and outside the target area would be similar. ban Most (74% of target and 66% of outside) participants were under the age of forty years. This agrees with findings reported by Verner and Newberry (1958), Booth (1961), Johnstone and Rivera (1965), Dickinson (1966), London (1963), Hanna (1963) and Boshier (1971). 55 TABLE 17 PARTICIPATION IN OTHER ACTIVITIES BY TARGET AND OUTSIDE PARTICIPANTS Number of Target Participants Outside Participants Activities No. % No. % None 39 65% 38 57% One 5 8% 5 7% Two 5 8% 9 13% Three - Nine 11 19% 15 23% Total 60 100% 67 100% xc = 1.4, df = 3, ns Fifty-two percent of the target and 47% of the outside partici pants were in the age category of 20 - 29 years, 22% of the target and 19% of the outside participants were in the age category of 30 - 39 years, 16% of the target and 14% of the outside participants were in the age category of 40 - 49 years, 5% of the target and 14% of the participants were 50 years or over (Table 18). A nonsignificant chi square value was obtained for the analysis of participants by area of residence and age. This supports Hypothesis 2.k, which stated that the ages of both groups would be similar. It may be noted that the proximity of a night class centre did not seem to attract the older people in the target neighbourhood; more older people travelled to the centre from other parts of the city. In other words, this suggests that travelling a distance did not discourage older people. TABLE 18 AGE OF TARGET AND OUTSIDE PARTICIPANTS Age Target Participants Outside Participants No. % No. % 20-29 years 31 52% 30 47% 30 - 39 years 13 22% 12 19% 40 - 49 years 9 16% 9 14% 50 years and over 3 5% 9 14% No Response* 3 5% 4 6% Total** 59 100% 64 100% x2 = 2.9, df = 3, ns Deleted from analysis. ** One Target and three outside participants did not respond to the question about occupation. Sex Most participants were women; 75% of the target and 60% of the outside participants were female (Table 19). This finding agrees with 57 Mizruchi and Vanario (1960), Johnstone and Rivera (1965), Dickinson (1966) and Boshier (1971) who all reported a larger proportion of women than men participants in their studies. A nonsignificant chi square value was obtained for the analysis of participants by area of residence and sex. This confirms Hypothesis 2.i, which stated there would be no difference in the proportion of men and women in both groups. TABLE 19 SEX OF TARGET AND OUTSIDE PARTICIPANTS Sex Target Participants Outside Participants No. % No. % Men 15 25% 27 40% Women 45 75% 40 60% Total 60 100% 67 100% x = 2.7, df = 1, ns Marital Status Fifty-seven percent of the target participants compared with 42% of the outside participants were married. Conversely, 43% of the target and 58% of the outside participants were single (Table 20). A nonsignificant chi square value was obtained for the analysis of partici pants by area of residence and marital status. This confirms Hypoth esis 2.i, which stated that there would be similar proportions of married and single people in both groups. The trend for more married women from the target than outside area to have attended night classes is consistent with the finding that more housewives living in the target area attended. The overall pro portion of married participants in this study is substantially lower than that reported by Johnstone and Rivera (1965) and Dickinson (1966), possibly another indication that the night centre was particularly attractive to housewives living in the area. TABLE 20 MARITAL STATUS OF TARGET AND OUTSIDE PARTICIPANTS Marital Status Target Participants Outside Participants No. % No. % Married 34 57% 28 42% Single 26 43% 39 58% Total 60 100% 67 100% x2 = 2.2, df = 1, ns 59 ATTENDANCE PATTERNS AND DROPOUT RATES OF PARTICIPANTS BY AREA OF RESIDENCE Research concerned with attendance and dropout rates in adult education classes has suggested that these are related to the socio economic characteristics of the participants, particularly the level of formal education. Therefore, it was the intention of this study to compare the attendance pattern and dropout rates of participants living in the target area of lower socio-economic status and participants attending from all other parts of the city. This could not be tested statistically in accord with the original criterion (Definition, p. 13) due to the postponement of the last two classes. A comparison was made based on the first eight weeks of the ten week term. Cf the 67 target participants, five (7.5%) failed to attend the seventh and eighth sessions compared to seven (7.9%) of the outside participants. The average nightly attendance rate for the target participants was 88% compared with 82% for the outside participants (Table 21). The similarity in attendance and dropout rates between groups is consistent with the findings about the similarities in socio economic characteristics of the participants living inside and outside the target area. The very high attendance rate and low dropout rate (compared with Dickinson's (1966) study) may cast doubt on the reliability of the teachers' attendance records. However, the author visited each class nightly and observed the continually high attendance, which TABLE 21 ATTENDANCE PATTERN AND DROPOUT RATES OF PARTICIPANTS BY COURSE AND AREA OF RESIDENCE Course Number Enrolled Dropouts Possible Aggregate Attendance Actual Aggregate Attendance Target Outside Target Outside Target Outside Target Outside No. % No. % No. % No. % Auto Mechanics 11 13 0 0 0 0 88 104 80 91% 90 86% French 5. 20 0 0 o 0 40 160 37 92% 145 . 91% Guitar 14 11 3 21% 1 7% 112 88 96 86% 69 78% Income Tax 4 8 0 0 0 0 32 64 26 81% 56. . 87% Spanish 7 9 2 28% T 11% 56. 72 44 78% 54 75% Stitchery 3 2 0 0 1 50% 24 16 24 100% 7 44% Woodwork 7 9 0 0 0 0 56 72 55 98% 69 96% Yoga* 16 16 0 0 4 25% 112 112 95 85% 76 68% Total** 67 88 5 7.5% 7 7.9% 520 688 457 . 88% 566 82% The data for this table was taken from teachers' Attendance Records. * Based on 7 sessions -- no attendance record was kept for the first session. ** No attendance records were kept for a discussion group about children in which 10 women participated. CTl O 61 presumably indicated a high degree of participant satisfaction. The high attendance and low dropout rate in a centre situated in a low socio-economic neighbourhood, along with the findings (Hypothesis 1 and 2) indicating that the participants represent the elite stratum of the target population, supports the conclusions drawn in more recent studies. Boshier (1973) related dropout rate to the degree of congruence between the participant's internal psychological environment and the external educational environment. Lam and Wong (1974) found the greatest influence on attendance rates was the extent of the participant's personal needs satisfaction. The high attendance and low dropout rates may also indicate that the high incidence of crime in the target area was not a deterrant to the centre's operation. MOTIVATION FOR ATTENDING NIGHT CLASSES BY PARTICIPANTS' AREA OF RESIDENCE The E.P.S. data for the study were among the 242 respondents described by Boshier (1976). The data were subject to a principal components analysis and orthogonal rotation (varimax). An ortho gonal rotation was chosen because of the desire to produce uncorrelated and thus independent factors for association with some of the variables described in the previous section. The first factoring produced thirteen factors with eigenvalues greater than one, but Cattell's (1966) scree test revealed that the clearest structure for the purpose of this study could be obtained by rotation of the first five factors. The first five factors were thus rotated. Their structure, loadings and meaning are described by Boshier (1976) and thus need not be repeated here. In brief, Escape/ Stimulation accounted for 17.0% of the variance, Professional Advance ment accounted for 11.57%, Social Welfare for 4.84%, External Expecta tions for 4.13% and Cognitive Interest for 3.98%. The five factors accounted for 42.14% of the variance; items and loading for each factor are shown in Appendix D. Factor scores were produced for the parent population of 242 by building regression equations for each factor as the dependent variable. These regression weights were used while the original data were read in. The resultant factor scores thus have regard to the magnitude of the contribution made by each item to the factor. Five factor scores were produced for each respondent. Factor scores were normalized so the mean for each score (for the parent population) was zero and the standard deviation one. The intercorrelation between each of the orthogonal factors was zero. The *FAN factor analysis programme then punched cards containing the five factor scores for each respondent who was identified by the appropriate serial number. The 118 cards for this study were then extracted from the parent population of 242. Factor scores for respondents in this study were then correlated with social and demographic variables which met the assumptions for correlation. 63 There were no statistically significant differences between motivational orientations of target area participants and participants who lived to the east, south or west of the target area. (One partici pant who lived in the north was included with those in the west for the purposes of this analysis). (Table 22, Figure 4, p. 64) TABLE 22 NORMALIZED'MEAN E.P.S. FACTOR SCORES BY AREA OF RESIDENCE E.P.S. Factor Grand Target West East South F Ratio Escape/Stimulation(-) -.237 -.372 -.028 -.331 -.127 .903 Professional Advancement^) -.490 -.516 -.411 -.809 -.282 1.347 Social Welfare(-) -.011 .063 -.162 -.162 .487 1.380 External Expectations(+) .114 .239 -.012 .143 -.150 .810 Cognitive Interest(-) .020 .029 .103 .075 -.355 .655 (-) (+) Direction of factor loading. Readers should have regard to the sign of the factor loading. For example, target participants were more Escape/Stimulation motivated than participants in any other group. Target participants seemed to have scored highest on the Escape/ Stimulation and External Expectation factors compared with the other E 1.0 .8 4-.6 .4 .2 -.0 -.2 -.4 -.6 -.8 -1.0 t / I I £ £ > I — / I £ f £ ' / — / r 0 £ / 1 h=r> V / i I t it & £ 9 £ i £ II ^> Target Area East of Target Area /// // South of Target Area West of Target Area H7: / V l £ E7 / / / i I i £ £ tt i \£ £ / / / / / Escape Professional Social External Stimulation* Advancement Welfare* Expectations Interest* F Ratio .903 1.347 1.380 .810 *Plots are reversed due to direction of factor loading. Cognitive^ erest" .655 Figure 4 E.P.S. Factor Scores by Area of Residence groups. This suggests that the target participants, 75% cf whom were women, had a need for a break from the monotony of their routine, and that possibly someone (mate, friend, physician) recommended attending night classes for this purpose. It is worth noting that the target and east participants scored most similarly on these two factors, inas much as the socio-economic characteristics of people living to the east are most likely to be similar to those of people living in the target area. AIT the participants scored lowest on the Professional Advancement factor, probably because of the general interest rather than vocational or academic nature of the courses offered. MOTIVATION OF PARTICIPANTS BY SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS Age Older people scored significantly higher on the Cognitive Interest factor than younger people (r = -.19), indicating greater in terest in participation for gaining knowledge for its own sake, or in order to satisfy an enquiring mind. (The direction of the correlation coefficient is a function of the (+) or (-) sign in factor loadings. For example, older people had the highest negative scores on the Cognitive Interest factor, compared with other groups, indicating the highest motivation to participate for Cognitive Interest reasons). 66 Older people scored lower on Escape/Stimulation and Social Welfare factors; these two factors provided greater motivation for younger people to participate. (Table 23). TABLE 23 CORRELATION BETWEEN AGE AND E.P.S. FACTOR SCORES Escape/(-) Professional(+) Social(-) External(+) Cognitive(-) Stimulation Advancement Wei fare Expectations Interest .108 .000 .094 .020 -.186* *r > .154, df = 117, p < .05 Sex Women were significantly more motivated than men to attend night classes for reasons associated with Escape/Stimulation (F = 9.916, p < .002), (Table 24 , Figure 5). Women were slightly more motivated than men (nonsignificant F = .559) by External Expectations. On all other factors, men and women scored similarly. Place of Birth Participants born inside and outside Canidav had similar reasons for attending night classes. At the .05 level off probability, there G7 TABLE 24 NORMALIZED MEAN E.P.S. FACTOR SCORES Escape/ Stimulation Professional Advancement Social Wei fare External Expectation Cogni ti ve Interest .•(-) (+) (-) (+) (-) Sex Male .177 -.528 .045 .040 -.017 Female -.425 -.471 -.003 .182 .038 F ratio 9.916** .188 .064 .559 .088 Place of Birth In Can -.281 -.487 .128 .048 -.010 Out Can -.094 -.496 -.230 .314 .083 F ratio .860 .005 3.498 1.928 .247 Course Auto Mech -.423 -.537 .281 -.202 .164 Discussion Group -.134 .121 -1.260 .706 .027 French .017 -.435 -.093 .315 -.057 Guitar -.361 -.651 -.069 .078 .108 Income Tax .711 -.664 .218 -.143 .575 Spanish .332 -.853 -.332 -.123 -.008 Stitchery -.463 -.446 .073 -.057 -.293 Woodwork " -.059 -.281 .771 -.062 -.508 Yoga -1.072 -.258 -.151 .768 .145 F ratio 3.689*** 1.629 2.605* 1.846 .990 Male Female .4 .2 .. 0 '.. -.2 --.4 -.6 1 Escape * Professional Social * External Stimulation Advancement Welfare Expectations Cognitive Interest F Ratio 9.916** .188 .064 ,559 .088 Figure 5 E.P.S. Factor Scores by Sex * Plots are reversed due to direction of factor loading. Significant at .01 level of probability. The height of the bars on the graph compare male and female participants relative degrees of motivation for each motivational factor described. 69 were no statistically significant differences in any of the factor scores between the two groups (Table 24, Figure 6). Participants born in Canada scored slightly higher on the Escape/Stimulation factor than participants born outside Canada. Participants born outside Canada scored slightly higher on the Social Welfare and External Expectation factors. These findings are in agreement with the results of Boshier's (1976) study. Level of Education Participants with lower levels of education scored significantly higher on the Escape/Stimulation (r=.24), Social Welfare (r=.18) and External Expectations (r=-.25) factors (Table 25, p. 71). This signifi cant negative association indicates that participants with least formal education were responding to suggestions from others, to a need to change monotonous routines and to meet and be with people. Courses Enrolled The most Escape oriented participants were in the Yoga class; the least Escape oriented were in the Income Tax course (F=3.689, p < .001), (Table 24, Figure 7). This result supports the finding that women were significantly more motivated than men to participate for reasons associated with Escape/Stimulation, since the yoga class was comprised mostly of women and the Income Tax class was comprised mostly of men. 70 J J Born Inside Canada Escape * Professional Social External Cognitive Stimulation Advancement Welfare Expectations Interest* F Ratio .860 .005 3.498 1.928 .247 Figure 6 E.P.S. Factor Scores by Place of Birth Plots are reversed due to direction of factor loading. The height of the bars on the graph compare the relative degrees of motivation of participants born inside and outside Canada for each motivational factor described. 71 People enrolled in the discussion group about children scored significantly higher on the Social Welfare factor (F=2.605, p < .012) than any other group (Table 24 , Figure 6). Items loading on this factor have to do with gaining insights into personal problems and improving social relationships; these are the issues dealt with in this course. People enrolled in Woodwork scored lowest on the Social Welfare factor. People in Yoga, who scored highest on the Escape/Stimulation factor, and people in the discussion group, who scored highest on the TABLE 25 CORRELATION BETWEEN LEVEL-OF-EDUCATION AND E.P.S. FACTOR SCORES Escape/(-) Professional (+) Social(-) External(+) Cognitive(-) Stimulation Advancement Welfare Expectation Interest .239* -.103 .179* -.247* -.021 *r > .154, df = 117, p < .05 Social Welfare factor, scored highest on the External Expectation factor as well. In other words, these two groups were motivated by mixed factors; people in Yoga, needing a change from daily routine, and people in the discussion group, wanting improved social relationships, were partici pating in compliance with the recommendations of others. •1.0 1 - Auto Mechanics 2 - Discussion Group 3 - French 4 - Guitar . 5 - Income Tax 6 - Spanish 7 - Stitchery 8 - Woodwork 9 - Yoga i Escape Professional Social External Cognitive Stimulation* Advancement Welfare* Expectations Interest* F Ratio 3.69** 1.63 2.61** 1.85 .99 * Plots are reversed due to direction of factor loadinq. Significant at .01 level of probability. Figure 7 E.P.S. Factor Scores by Course CHAPTER FOUR SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS This chapter summarizes the results of the study, discusses the practical implications of the findings, suggests directions for future studies and draws conclusions. SUMMARY Rationale of Study Research literature on participation in general interest public adult education classes indicates that people in the higher socio-economic stratum of society participate to the greatest extent. Those in the lower socio-economic stratum, who could possibly benefit most from participating, are not usually reached. After successfully opening a public night school centre offering general interest courses, in a low socio-economic neighbourhood, this study was designed to find out whether the participants were residents of the area, and if so, to enquire into the extent to which they resembled the general population of the area. Specifically, the problem investigated was whether the new centre was reaching people living in the target area whose socio economic characteristics were similar to those reported in the Census 73 74 Tract Bulletin, 1971, Series B. These characteristics are in contrast to those usually associated with adult education participants. The centre was opened with the hope that most participants would live in the neighbourhood, would have been born outside Canada, would have less than h school graduation,and would have work in the least prestigious jobs on the Blishen Scale. The results of this investigation could have implications for future attempts to reach the majority of the population who do not participate in any form of adult education. Procedure Data describing the socio-economic and motivational characteris tics of 127 of the 165 participants in the new centre were collected using a Survey Questionnaire and Boshier's (1971) Education Participation Scale. The sample was divided into two groups according to area of residence; sixty target participants comprised those living within the secondary school district boundaries in which the centre was located; sixty-seven outside participants comprised those living in all other parts of the city (Figures). Data describing target participants were compared with census tract data describing the general population of the school district and with data describing the outside participants. Findings (a) Socio-Economic Characteristics The centre was opened with the hope that it would attract a majority of participants who lived in the target area and had socio-75 economic characteristics similar to the general population of the neighbourhood. However, based on previous studies of the socio economic characteristics of adult education participants, reported previously in Chapter Two, it was necessary to hypothesize in this study that the characteristics of the participants living in the target area would be different from the characteristics of the general population of the area, and similar to participants coming C. Outside Participants Participants who travelled to the new night centre from all parts of metro politan Vancouver exclusive of the target area. B. Target Population Everyone living within the secondary school boundaries in which the new night centre was located. A. Target Participants Participants who lived within the secondary school boundaries in which the new night centre was located. Figure 8 Schematic Presentation of Samples 76 from all other parts of the city. Based on a review of the literature, it was expected that the participants coming.from the target area would not reflect the low socio-economic characteristics indigenous to the target population, but, in common with outside participants, manifest elitist characteristics associated with most adult learners. The results of this part of the study are summarized in Table 26, p. 77. (i) Formal Education, Occupation. The most marked socio-economic difference between the target participants and population concerned years of formal education. Only 36% of the target population had reached high school graduation compared with 77% of the target partici pants and 88% of the outside participants. Only 3% of the target population held a university degree compared with 10% of the target participants and 27% of the outside participants. This was reflected in the occupation patterns of the groups. Only 10% of the target popula tion, compared with 21% of the target participants and 29% of the outside participants, worked in occupations classified in the three highest categories on the Blishen Scale. A similar proportion of target popu lation (54%) and target participants (56%) worked full time for salary, compared with 70% outside participants. This must be considered in the light of the greater percentage of housewives living in the target area who attended. There were no statistically significant differences at the .05 level of probability between the percentages of target and outside participants by level of education, prestige of occupation and working full time for salary. 77 TABLE 26 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS FOR HYPOTHESES 1, 2, 3 Hypothesis Number Characteristics Target Population Target Participants Outside Participants la, 2a Level of Education— Grade 12 & higher University Degree 36% 3% 77% 10% 88% 27% lb, 2b Born in Canada 63% 75% 61% lc, 2c Speak English at home 80% 90% 83% Id, 2d Work full time for salary 54% 56% 70% le, 2e Length of Occupancy 2 years or less Over 10 years 33% 35% 45% 32%* 62% 7%* If, 2f High prestige occupa tion 10% 21% 29% 2g Previous Adult Ed. Public Night School Other Institutions 68% 35% 63% 35% 2h Meetings and Club Participation 35% 43% 2i Sex: Male Female 25% 75% 40% 60% Age: Under 40 years 74% 66% Marital Status: Married Single 57% 43% 42% 58% 3 Average Class Attendance Rate 88% 82% 3 Dropout Rate 7.5% 7.9% * Indicates statistically significant chi square, p < .001. This was the only statistically significant difference found past .05 level of significance. 78 (ii) Length of Occupancy. A similar proportion of the target population (35%) and target participants (32%) had lived at their pre sent address for.ten years or longer. There was a statistically significant difference at the .01 level of probability on a chi square test between the 33% of target participants and 7% of outside partici pants who had ten years or longer occupancy at their present address (Hypothesis 2.e). (iii) Place of Birth, Language Spoken at Home. A nonsignificantly larger proportion of target participants were born in Canada and said they spoke English at home, compared with the target population and outside participants. (Table 26, p. 77 ). Along with the finding about length of occupancy, this gives further indication that the socio economic characteristics of the target participants were more similar to the elitist characteristics associated with adult learners than with the characteristics indigenous to the people living in the target area. -(iv) Age, Marital Status, Sex. A larger proportion of young, married women attended from the target area compared with outside the area. These differences were not statistically significant (Table 26). These findings identify relationships the same as those discussed in the literature review, Chapter Two,p. 25. (v) Previous Participation in Adult Education and Other Activities. A similar proportion of target (68%) and outside (63%) participants had previous adult education experience. In both groups, twice as many 79 had attended public school adult classes than any other institution. A slightly smaller proportion of target participants (35%) compared with outside participants (43%) attended meetings or other interest group activities. The extent of involvement in meetings or outside activities was smaller for both groups than that for adult education participants reported in the Literature Reveiw, Chapter Two, p. 26 of this study. (b) Dropout and Attendance Rates The 88% average class attendance rate for target participants was slightly higher than the 82% for outside participants. The 7.5% dropout rate for target participants was similar to the 7.9% for out side participants. The attendance rates were considerably higher and the dropout rates markedly lower than those reported in the Review of the Literature (p. 29) for this study. The high attendance and low dropout rates could be interpreted as an indication of satisfaction with the centre on the part of both target and outside participants. The high crime rate in the target area did not appear to effect dropout rates. (c) Motivation (i) Area of Residence: Motivation for attending night classes was similar for all the participants grouped according to area of residence. There were no satistically significant differences in any 80 of the E.P.S. factor scores between the participants living in the target area, in the east, south or west of the area. It is interesting to note that of all the groups' scores on the Escape/Stimulation factor, the target participants scored highest. This could indicate their interest in leisure activity, which is usually associated with the middle to upper classes of society. (ii) Level of Education. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between level of education and the Escape/Stimulation, Social Welfare and External Expectations factor scores. In other words, people with the least formal education were motivated to participate because someone else recommended to them that the night school classes might satisfy their need for a break in their routine and/or for improved social relationships. This confirms Boshier's (1976) contention that participants from the lower socio-economic groups are "life-chance" motivated. (iii) Place of Birth. Participants born in Canada scored higher on the Escape/Stimulation factor than those born outside Canada. Par ticipants born outside Canada scored higher on the Social Welfare and External Expectations factors than those born in Canada. (iv) Age, Sex. Age correlated positively with Cognitive Interest, indicating that older participants were more interested in knowledge for its own sake than were younger participants. Women scored higher than men on the Escape/Stimulation factor. These findings are compared with 81 those of Morstain and Smart (1974) and Boshier (1976) in their examin ations of group differences in expressed reasons for adult education participation by age and sex in Tables 27 and 28. TABLE 27 COMPARISON OF FINDINGS CONCERNING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE AND E.P.S . FACTOR SCORES Morstain & Smart Boshier This Study Younger People Younger People Younger People Escape/ Stimulation tended to score higher than older people no relationship scored signifi cantly higher than older people Social Welfare scored signifi cantly higher than older people no relationship tended to score higher than older people Cognitive Interest tended to score higher than older people tended to score lower than older people scored signifi cantly lower than older people (v) Course Enrollment. Participants in the Yoga class scored highest on the Escape/Stimulation factor and participants in the discussion group scored highest on the Social Welfare factor. This finding suggests that a relationship exists between course content and motive for attending, since the Yoga class content was escape 82 TABLE 28 COMPARISON OF FINDINGS CONCERNING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SEX AND E.P.S. FACTOR SCORES Morstain & Smart Boshier This Study Women Women Women Escape/ Stimulation scored the same as men tended to score higher than men scored signifi cantly higher than men Cognitive Interest tended to score higher than men tended to score higher than men scored the same as men oriented and the discussion group dealt with social relationships. However, Boshier's (1976) study of E.P.S. factor scores by subject en rolled showed many reasons for enrollment unrelated to the course content, prompting Boshier to conclude that inferring motives on the basis of course content is a dubious undertaking. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS Even though a new night centre was opened in the midst of a low socio-economic neighbourhood, and efforts were made to create a friendly image, it failed to attract significant numbers of participants who had the low socio-economic characteristics indigenous to those of the target .83 population. The new centre failed to attract the clientele toward whom it was directed. The summary of results of this study indicates that the centre attracted only an elite stratum of the target popu lation. The centre attracted people living in the neighbourhood who most likely had more formal education, were engaged in a prestigious job, had been born in Canada and spoke English at home. As has been shown in previous studies, of all the socio-economic variables, amount of formal schooling holds the greatest influence on whether a person will participate in adult education. Therefore, the dramatic disparity in level of education achieved by the target area participants compared with the target area population is particularly worthy of note. While 64% of the target area population failed to complete high school, only 23% of the target participants were in this category. Congruent with this finding (for reasons discussed earlier) is the disparity between the proportion of target participants (21%) and target population (10%) engaged in prestigious occupations. In Canada, high school graduation is a prerequisite for most academic and vocational advancement. People who graduate from high school are better equipped to make choices about their life's plans, while those who do not, are more likely to be subject to chance or the whim of opportun ity. The ability to make choices and to feel in control of one's self and environment is related to self concept, which, many suggest, mediates attitudes and actions (Boshier, 1973, 1976; Farmer, 1972; James and Jongeward, 1971; Patterson, 1973; Rogers, 1961 , 1969). Assumptions concerning self concept are most prominent in Knowles' (1974) descrip-84 tion of andragogy, a term meaning education for adults. Andragogy is predicated upon the fact that an adult learner's self concept is rooted in his/her past experiences (Knowles, 1974). Assumptions underlying andragogy have enabled adult educators to plan programmes designed to meet needs of "life-space motivated partici pants " (Boshier, 1976, p. 2) whose positive self concept, derived from years of gratifying experiences, motivates him/her to seek further fulfilment. These people represent a small percentage of society. Adult educators have not dealt with the needs of the great majority whose negative self concept is circumscribed "by his own definition of his situation" (London, 1963, p.4 ). This situation, likely to have developed out of an unhappy school experience, includes a negative attitude towards class rooms and schools, (though not necessarily to wards education), poor verbal skills, concern about coping with life's demands and a need for peer conformity. Boshier has suggested this 'distance' between lower socio economic participants and typical adult education institutions can be operationalized using the notion of 'congruence'. Relevant to present purposes is the notion "Persons manifesting self/institution congruence are significantly more inclined to participate in adult education than persons manifesting self/institution incongruence" (Boshier, 1973, P- 18). It is unlikely that the typical non-participant could feel self/institution congruence sitting in a class room, without support of friends, being talked at by a teacher having good verbal facility, about a subject of general interest. 85 Johnstone and Rivera (1965) concluded in their study that the lower third of the population in socio-economic status have a negative attitude towards education. They turn to adult education to learn skills required to cope with necessities of everyday living. As people ascend the socio-economic ladder, they become more interested in education for the use of leisure time. Many adult educators have suggested that people in the lower socio-economic groups do not participate in adult education because it is 1incongruent' and poses a threat by loosening group security and inducing a fear of failure. Therefore, they propose the development of nonthreatening strategies by using established patterns of interaction to reach these people (Boggs, 1974; Douglah, 1970; Havighurst, 1964; Kuhlen, 1963; London, 1970; Miller and Riessman, 1961; Pollard, 1974; Stanley, 1972). Incongruence between the manner of advertising the new centre and the life style of the typical target resident may have reduced the effectiveness of the public relations attempt. Most likely the typical target resident did not read the newspaper advertisements, nor the flyer, did not hear about the new centre from nonparticipant friends and co-workers and did not frequent places where posters appeared. Adult educators now generally recognise they must employ methods, techniques and programme planning principles congruent with the needs and expectations of their target clientele. For examples, Knowles (1974, p. 371) describes planning a university graduate curriculum based on the notion that, as people develop, their self concept shifts 86 from dependent to self directing, their accumulated personal experiences and readiness to learn becomes increasingly influenced by developmental tasks. Similarly, Freire (1972),who has devoted efforts to teaching illiterates, grounded his approach in the assumption that people have the capacity to recreate their self image by using critical intelli gence to think through and cope with problems (Fanner, 1972; London, 1972; Stanley, 1972; Griffith, 1972). Knowles (1974, p. 155) recommends Community Development as the vehicle for obtaining educational objectives through personal and community problem solving. Freire used Community Development in a process he labeled 'Conscientization', to move students from illiteracy and oppression to literacy and freedom through total involvement in their own situation. Freire considers that the oppressed class of people is not limited to the disadvantaged, but includes every one who feels they have lost meaning in life and control of their own destiny. Thus, the unemployed aerospace engineer requiring updated technical skills, the homebound housewife, the retired pensioner and the high school dropout could qualify as 'oppressed' within Freire's definition. Ideally, children would develop a need for learning at home and at school during their first developmental period, in which case, they would devote much time throughout their lives to satisfying this need through life long learning. Since this rarely happens, it is necessary for adult educators to 'hook' people at what Kuhlen (1963) terms their "critical period of motivational change", or Havighurst (1964) calls their "decade of dominant concern". Adult educators today 87 seem to be unanimous in supporting some kind of developmental approach to design and delivery of adult education. It seems that at present, experimental projects to test these assumptions are required. For example, advertising an adult education programme aimed at people in the low socio-economic class might be more effective if visible on posters, beer cans, and match folders in neighbourhood pubs, or on spot commercials of football and hockey telecasts, than in newspapers or flyers which people with poor reading skills ignore. Holding an adult education activity in the neighbourhood bingo hall (and following the 'class' with free bingo), the neighbourhood pub (and serving one or two free beer) or the home of a relative or close friend (and following the 'class' with a party), might be congruent to those for whom adult education looms as a threat. These settings, besides being less threatening than a school building, may satisfy two of the three needs expressed in this study by participants with the least formal education, that is, the need for Escape/Stimulation, a break from the monotony of daily routine, and the need for Social Welfare, improved social relationships. Because people in the lower strata of society usually have poor language and reading skills, a negative attitude towards school, and experience feelings of threat, it would appear that the format and content of adult education programmes should be based on developmental task and experiential learning concepts. Teaching new immigrants English can be accomplished in participants' kitchens where they share cooking skills. In an area of young families, courses dealing with 88 the changing parent-child, school-child, peer-child relationships can be fun using role playing and games. , Where employable skills need upgrading, the neighbourhood garage or factory can be the site for demonstrations and practice. CONCLUSIONS This study attempted to evaluate the effectiveness of a new night school centre opened in the midst of a low socio-economic, neigh bourhood for the purpose of involving residents of the area in adult education. The centre was located in a secondary school, and offered noncredit courses of general interest. In advance of its opening, attempts were made to publicize the new centre to all living within the secondary school district; during and following the opening, attempts were made to create a friendly atmosphere in the school. Fifty percent of the participants enrolled in the new centre did live in the neighbourhood. However, the results of this study show that they represented the socio-economic elite. An examination of their socio economic and motivational characteristics indicated that these resem bled more closely characteristics of the participants coming to the centre from all other parts of the city than the characteristics of the general neighbourhood population. 89 The failure of the centre to attract the clientele for whom it was intended may have been due in some measure to lack of time in preparation. Without benefit of any kind of survey, except census tract data, it was impossible to know about the felt needs and concerns of people living in the area, nor about their attitudinal or language limitations. Adult educators attempting to reach the presently un reachable most likely hold basic assumptions about the nature of people which include an ability to change and solve problems. In order to act on this assumption it is necessary for the adult educator to find out what the prospective participant would like to change. In the case, of the centre studied, it would have been helpful to know if, in the community, there was a need for courses leading to high school graduation, upgrading of particular employable skills, English instruction, ethnic activities, recreational activities, or a forum for confronting community problems. With knowledge of the prospective clientele's interests and attitudes, together with an understanding of perceptions common to most low social stratum people, the adult educator can more effectively plan a situation most conducive to involving the participant in his own learning process. This involves boundless creativity. Knowles (1974, pp. 129-132) describes the design of adult education programmes as being an art form, with the adult educator the artist. Hopefully, this view holds more truth than London's accusation that "adult educators have a trained incapacity to serve the disadvantaged groups in society" (1972, p. 27). Extensive testing of current adult education theories, using innovative modes, which respond to knowledgeable assessment of a clientele's situation, might bring the benefits of adult education to the majority of the people in our society who are presently classified as unreachable. BIBLIOGRAPHY Axford, R. "Curriculum and Content." In Smith, T., Aker, G., and Kidd, J. (Ed.) Handbook of Adult Education, New York: MacMi11 an Publishing Company, 1970, 401. Blishen, B. Canadian Society, Sociological Perspectives. New York: MacMillan Publishing Company, 1961, 481-484; 1968, 735-755. Boggs, D. "An Interpretive Review of Social Science Research on Behaving - Valuing Patterns of Low Status People." Adult  Education, 1974, 24, 4, 293-312. Booth, A. "A Demographic Consideration of Non-Participation." Adult Education, 1961, 11, 3, 223-229. Boshier, R. "Motivational Orientation of Adult Education Partici pants: A Factor Analytic Exploration of Houle's Typoloay." Adult Education , 1971 , 21 , 2, 3-26. Boshier, R. "The Participants: A Clientele Analysis of Three New Zealand Adult Education Institutions (Part 2)." Australian  Journal of Adult Education, 1971, 11, 1, 20-44. Boshier, R. "A Psychological Study of Adult Education Participation and Dropout." Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Victoria University of Wellington, 1973. Boshier, R. "Educational Participation and Dropout: A Theoretical Model." Adult Education, 1973, 23, 4, 255-282. Boshier, R. "Motivational Orientations Re-visited: Life-Space Motives and the Education Participation Scale." Adult Education, 1976 (in press). Brunner, E., Wilder, D., Kirchner, C, Newberry, J. Jr. An Overview of  Adult Education Research. Chicago: Adult Education Association, T959~: 91 92 Burgess, P. "Reasons for Adult Participation in Group Educational Activities." Adult Education, 1971, 22, 1, 2-29. Cattell, R.B. "The Scree Test for the Number of Factors." Multivari- ate Behaviour Research, 1966, 1, 2, 245-276. Dickinson, J.G. "Patterns of Participation in a Public School Adult, Night School Programme." Unpublished M.A. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1966. Dickinson, J.G. "Educational Variables and Participation in Adult Education." Paper presented to Adult Education Research Conference, New York, February, 1971. Dickinson, J.G. and Verner, C. "Attendance Patterns and Dropouts in Adult Night School Classes." Adult Education, 1967, 18, 1, 24-33. Dickinson, J.G., and Clark, H. "Learning Orientations and Participation in Self Education and Continuing Education." Adult Education, 1975, 26, 1, 3-15. ~ Douglah, M. "Some Perspectives on the Phenomenon of Participation." Adult Education, 1970, 20, 2, 88-98. Farmer, J.E. "Adult Education for Transiting." In Grabowski, S.M. (Ed.) Paulo Freire: A Revolutionary Dilemma for the Adult Educator, Syracuse, N.Y.: C.S.L.E.A., 1972. Freire, P. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Herder and Herder, 1972. Griffith, Wm. "Utopian Perspective on Literacy: Education for Revolution." In Grabowski, S.M. (Ed.) Paulo Freire: A Revolutionary Dilemma  for the Adult Educator, Syracuse, N.Y.: C.S.L.E.A., 1972. Hanna, I. "Adult Education Students." Rewley House Papers, Oxford  Delegacy for Extra-mural Studies, 1965-1966, 14-43. Havighurst, R.J. "Changing Status and Roles During the Adult Life-Cycle: Significance for Adult Education." In Burns, H.W. (Ed.) Sociological Backgrounds of Adult Education, Chicago: C.S.L.E.A., 1964. Houle, C. The Inquiring Mind. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1961. James, M. and Jongeward, D. Born to Win. Menlo Park: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1971. Jensen, G. "Education for Self Fulfillment." In Smith, R., Aker, G., and Kidd. J. (Ed.) Handbook of Adult Education, New  York: MacMi11 an Publishing Company, 1970, Ch. 31. Jensen, G. "Philosophical Considerations." In Smith, R., Aker, G., and Kidd, J. (Ed.) Handbook of Adult Education, New York: MacMillan Publishing Company, 1970, Ch. 8. Johnstone, J. and Rivera, R. Volunteers for Learning. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, 1965. Jones, H. "A Test of Validity of Place of Residence as an Indicator of Socio-Economic Characteristics of Participants in Univer sity Non-Credit Evening Classes." Unpublished M.A. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1962. Knowles, M. The Modern Practice of Adult Education. New York: Association Press, 1974. Kuhlen, R.G. "Motivational Changes During the Adult Years." In Kuhlen, R.G. (Ed.) Psychological Backgrounds of Adult  Education, Chicago: 1963. Lam, Y. and Wong, A. "Attendance Regularity of Adult Learners." Adult Education. 1974, 24, 3, 130-142. Lewin, K. A Dynamic Theory of Personality. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1935. 94 Lindenberger, A. and Verner, C. "A Technique for Analyzing Extension Course Participants." Adult Education, 1960, 11, 1, 29. London, J., Wenkert, R. and Hagstrbm, W. Adult Education and Social  Class. Berkeley: Survey Research Centre, The University of California, 1963. London, J. "Attitudes Toward Adult Education by Social Class." Adult  Education, 1963, 13, 4, 226-232. London, J. "The Relevance of the Study of Sociology to Adult Education Practice." In Jensen, G., Liveright, A., and Hallenbeck, W. (Ed.) Adult Education, Outlines of an Emerging Field of Univer sity Study, Chicago: Adult Education Association, 1964, Ch. 7. London, J. "The Influence of Social Class Behaviour Upon Adult Education Participation." Adult Education, 1970, 20, 3, 140-153. London, J. "Reflection Upon the Relevance of Paulo Freire for American Adult Education." In Grabowski, S.M.- (Ed.) Paulo Freire: A Revolutionary Dilemma for the Adult Educator, Syracuse, N.Y.: C.S.L.E.A., 1972. Maslow, A. Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper, 1954. McClosky, H. "Political Participation." In Sills, D. (Ed.) Encyclopedia  of the Social Sciences, New York: MacMillan, 1968, 253-265. McClusky, H. "The Relevance of Psychology for Adult Education." In Jensen, G., Liveright, A., Hallenbeck, W. (Ed.) Adult  Education Outlines of an Emerging Field of University Study, Chicago: Adult Education Association, 1964, Ch. 9. McKinnon, D. "A Comparison of Distances Travelled to Urban Night School Centres." Unpublished M.Ed. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1966. Miller, H. Teaching and Learning in Adult Education. New York: MacMillan Publishing Company, 1964. Miller, S.M. and Riessman, F. "Working Class Subculture: A New View." Social Problems, 1961, 9, 86-97. Mizruchi, E. and Vanaria, L. "Who Participates in Adult Education?" Adult Education, 1960, 10, 2, 141-143. Morstain, B. and Smart, J*. "Reasons for Participation in Adult Education Courses: A Multivariate Analysis of Group Differences." Adult  Education, 1974, 24, 2, 83-98. Murray, H. "Basic Concepts for a Psychology of Personality." Journal  of General Psychology, 1936, 15, 241-268. Patterson, C. Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy. Mew York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1973, Ch. 13. Pollard, W. "Implications of the Rank Concession Syndrome for Adult Education Programmes: An Exploration in Social Roles and Programme Effectiveness." Adult Education, 1974, 24, 4, 255-269. Rogers, C. On Becoming a Person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1961. Rogers, C. Freedom to Learn. Columbus: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company, 1969. Sainty, G. "Predicting Dropouts in Adult Education Courses." Adult  Education, 1971, 21, 4, 223-230. Sheffield, S.B. "The Orientation of Adult Continuing Learners." In Solomon, D. (Ed.) The Continuing Learner, Chicago. C.S.L.E.A., 1964. Stanley, M. "Literacy: Crisis of Conventional Wisdom." In Grabowski, S.M. (Ed.) Paulo Freire: A Revolutionary Dilemma for the  Adult Educator, Syracuse, N.Y.: C.S.L.E.A., 1972. Verner, C. and Davis, G. "Completions and Dropouts: A Review of Research." Adult Education, 1964, 14, 2, 157-176. Verner, C. and Newberry, J. "The Nature of Adult Education Partic pation." Adult Education , 1958, 8, 4, 208-220. Zahn, J. "Dropout and Academic Ability in University Extension Courses." Adult Education, 1964, 15, 1 , 35-46. 97 APPENDIX A 97 98 METHODS OF ADVERTISING The usual method for announcing Community Education Services night classes in Vancouver is through a multi page advertisement in the daily newspapers. The advertisement lists the night school centres with the courses offered at each. Since this centre was new, and located in an area where the surrounding population was not likely to be adult education oriented, the author was sceptical about the chances of people in the target area consulting or even noticing the newspaper advertisement. Hence, the author sought ways for creating in the community awareness of, and hopefully, enthusiasm for the new night centre through: 1. circulating, using postal walks, an illustrated descriptive flyer to the 1500 residents living closest to the centre; 2. submitting copy for a feature article to the community bimonthly newspapers; 3. submitting copy for the daytime school's newsletter to parents; 4. meeting with the chairpersons of the daytime school's Community Assistance Club, an extra curricular activ ity for the students. The students responded enthusias tically to learning of the night school centre and initiated plans to advertise the centre on their local 99 radio time, through their bulletins and on posters in the community. They further volunteered to serve as guides for the first few nights and to organize a coffee and do-nut sale at each session; 5. meeting casually with the school's daytime staff to talk about the night centre; and 6. contacting daytime teacher coordinators to advise them of courses relevant to their teachers and/or parents of students. APPENDIX B TOO 101 SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE - ADULT EDUCATION STUDY This questionnaire will help us in making our future plans at Tupper. We are not asking for your name. The honest information you give us will be the most helpful. 1. What course are you taking at Tupper? 2. Have you ever attended Night School classes before? Yes No 3. If so, at what school? in what year? name of course 4. Have you ever taken adult courses sponsored by other institutions? (Example - Church, Community Centre, 'Y1, etc.) Yes No 5. If so, at what place? in what year? name of course? 6. Do you have children attending Tupper now? Yes No 7. Do you have children who attended Tupper before? Yes No 8. Do you have children who will attend Tupper in the future? Yes . No 9. What is your address? 10. How many years have you lived at this address? 11. How many years have you lived in Vancouver? 12. How many years have you lived in Canada? '  13. What is your age? 14. In what country were you born? • 15. What language do you most often speak at home? 16. Are you a female? or a male? . " 17. Are you married? Yes - No 102 18. Do you work for a salary full time? part time? don't work? 19. What is your occupation, that is, what kind of work do you do? 20. How did you first learn about your course at Tupper? In the advertisement in the SUN or PROVINCE paper? In THE MOUNT PLEASANT MOUTHPIECE? . The yellow leaflet received through the mail? The leaflet brought home from school by your child? On the radio? . Through a friend? Other ways? 21. How many minutes does it take you to travel to this class? 22. How do you travel to class? car bus walk other 23. What was the last grade you completed in school? 24. Have you attended other kinds of schools? (Example - secretarial, mechanical) School Year attended Course 25. How many meetings or club activities do you usually attend in a month? APPENDIX C 103 104 EDUCATION PARTICIPATION SCALE We're excited by our new Community Education Centre at Tupper. We want to make it even better. You can help us do this by answering this questionnaire. We're not asking for your name so that you can feel free to answer truthfully. There are no right or wrong answers. Only your Honest response can help us. Like everyone else here, you have a reason for coming, maybe several reasons. We'd like to know what these influences are. This will help us to make future plans for Tupper night classes. Read each statement carefully and then circle one of the numbers, -9 if the statement describes 'very much influence' on the reason for your being here, 7 - much influence, 5 - moderate influence, 3 - little influence and 1 - very little influence. Each time you turn a page, look at the top. The 'very much influence' is sometimes on the left, sometimes on the right. If the amount of influence on your reason falls between two numbers, you may circle the * between them. There are reasons described on the front and back of each page. Please begin. We do appreciate your taking the time to help us. 105 Very much Much Moderate Little Very little influence influence influence influence influence 1. To seek knowledge for its own sake 9* 7 * 5*3 * 1 2. To share a common interest with my spouse or a friend 9 * 7 * 5 * • 3 * 1 3. To secure professional advancement 9* 7 * 5*3 * 1 106 4. To become more effective as a citizen of this city Very little Little Moderate Much Very much influence influence influence influence influence 5. To get relief from boredom 1 * 3 * 5*7 * 9 6. To carry out the recommen dation of some authority 1* 3* 5*7 *g 107 Very much Mcuh Moderate Little Very little influence influence influence influence influence 7. To respond to the fact that I am surrounded by people who con tinue to learn 9* 7* 5*3*1 8. To satisfy an enquiring mind 9* 7* 5*3 * 1 9. To overcome the frustration of day to day living 9*7* 5*3 *1 1.08 Very little Little Moderate Much Very much influence influence influence influence influence 10. To be accepted by others 1 * 3 * 5*7 * 9 11. To give me higher status in my job 1 * 3 * 5*7 * 9 12. To supplement a narrow previous education 1* 3* 5*7 *9 109 Very much Much Moderate Little Very little influence influence influence influence influence 13. To stop myself becoming a "cabbage" 14. To acquire knowledge that will help me with other educational courses 9*7* 5*3 * 1 15. To fulfil a need for person al associations and friendships 9* 7*5*3 * 1 no Very little Little Moderate Much Very much influence influence influence influence influence 16. To keep up with competition 1*3*5*7 *9 17. To meet members of the opposite sex 1*3*5*7*9 18. To escape the intellectual narrowness of my occupation 1* 3* 5*7 *9 Ill Very much Much Moderate Little Very little influence influence influence influence influence 19. To participate in group activity 29. To increase my competence in my job 9*7*5*3 21. To gain insight into myself and my personal problems 9*7*5*3*1 112 Very little Little Moderate Much Very much influence influence influence influence influence To help me earn a degree, diploma or certificate 1* 3* 5*7*9 To escape television 1*3*5*7*9 To prepare for service to the community 1* 3* 5*7 *9 113 Very much Much Moderate Little Very little influence influence influence influence influence 2b. To gain insight into human relations 9 * 7 * 5 * 3 * 1 26. To have a few hours away from responsibilities g* 7* 5*3*1 27. To clarify what I want to be doing 5 years from now 9* 7* 5*3 * 1 U4 Very little Little Moderate Much Very much influence influence influence influence influence 28. To become acquainted with con genial people 1 * 3 * 5 * 7 * 9 29. To provide a contrast to the rest of my life 30. To obtain some immediate practical benefit 1*3* 5*7 *9 115 Very much Much Moderate Little Very little influence influence influence influence influence 31. To get a break in the routine of home or work 9* 7* 5*3 * 1 32. To improve my ability to serve mankind g* 7* 5*3*1 33. To comply with my employer's policy 9* 7* 5*3 * 1 116 Very little Little Moderate Much Very much influence influence influence influence influence 34. To keep up with others 35. To improve my social relation ships 1*3*5*7*9 36. To carry out the expectations of someone with formal authority 1 * 3 * 5* 7 * 9 117 Very much Much Moderate Little Very little influence influence influence influence influence 37. To take part in an activity which is customary in the circles in which I move 9 * 7* 5 * 3 • * . 1 38. To meet some formal require ments 9*7 * 5*3 * 1 39. To maintain or improve my social position 9*7* 5*3 *1 118 Very little Little Moderate Much Very much influence influence influence influence influence 40. To escape an unhappy relationship 1 * 3 * 5*7 41. To provide a contrast to my previous education 1 * 3 * 5 * 7 * 9 42. To comply with the suggestions of someone else 1 * 3 * 5*7 * 9 r 119 43. To learn just for the sake of learning 44. To make new friends Very much Much Moderate Little Very little influence influence influence influence influence 45. To improve my ability to participate in community work 9*7* 5*3 *1 120 Very little Little Moderate Much Very much influence influence influence influence influence 46. To comply with the fact that people with status and prestige attend adult education classes 1*3*5*7 47. To comply with instructions from someone else 1*3*5*7*9 48. To assist me when I go overseas 1* 3* 5*7 *g APPENDIX D 121 122 FACTOR I ESCAPE/STIMULATION Individuals scoring high on this factor have a need to break away from the tedium of their everyday activities and responsibilities. E.P.S. Contribution Item fo Factor 18 To escape the intellectual narrowness of my -42 occupation 15 To fulfill a need for personal associations -42 and friendships 23 To escape television -49 29 To provide a contrast to the rest of my life -55 44 To make new friends -57 1 13 To stop myself becoming a cabbage -58 5 To get relief from boredom -60 28 To become acquainted with congenial people -63 19 To participate in group activity -68 26 To have a few hours away from responsibilities -68 9 To overcome the frustration of day to day living -74 31 To get a break in the routine of home and work -80 123 FACTOR II PROFESSIONAL ADVANCEMENT Individuals scoring high on this factor are seeking greater professional or vocational competence with a veiw to occupational advancement. E.P.S. Contribution Item to factor 3 To secure professional advancement 74 20 To increase my competence in my job 71 11 To give me higher status in my job 70 27 To clarify what I want to be doing five years from now 65 22 To help me earn a degree, diploma or certi fi cate 64 38 To meet some formal requirements 57 14 To acquire knowledge that will help me with other courses 55 16 To keep up with competition 53 33 To comply with my employer's policy 49 12 To supplement a narrow previous education 48 34 To keep up with others 40 124 FACTOR III SOCIAL WELFARE Individuals scoring high on this factor indicate a need for improving their social relationships, gaining insights into personal problems and participating in communal affairs. E.P.S. Contribution Item to factor 24 To prepare for service to the community -50 21 To gain insight into myself and my personal problems -51 4 To become more effective as a citizen of this city -55 35 To improve my social relationships -57 25 To gain insight into human relationships -64 45 To improve my ability to participate in community work -632 To improve my ability to serve mankind -66 125 FACTOR IV EXTERNAL EXPECTATIONS Individuals scoring high on this factor indicate a need to fulfill the expectations of others. E.P.S. Contribution Item to factor 47 To comply with instructions from someone else 65 6 To carry out the recommendation of some authority 59 36 To carry out the expectations of someone with formal authority 59 42 To comply with the suggestion of someone else 56 40 To escape an unhappy relationship 48 46 To comply with the fact that people with status and prestige attend adult education classes 46 39 To maintain or improve my social position 0 FACTOR V COGNITIVE INTEREST Individuals scoring high on this factor are seeking to satisfy an inquiring mind. 8 To satisfy an inquiring mind -53 1 To seek knowledge for its own sake -57 43 To learn just for the sake of learning -57 APPENDIX E 126 127 SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE - CODING SCHEDULE ADULT EDUCATION STUDY Col umn Questioft Code 1,2,3 I.D. 7 1 Course in which enrolled: Auto Mechanics 1 Children-Challenge 2 French 3 Guitar 4 Income Tax 5 SpanishStitchery 7 Woodwork 8 Yoga 9 8 2 Attended night school before: yes 1 no 2 9 3 When attended night school for first time: never 0 Sept. '74 1 '73-'74 2 '72-'73 3 ,71-,72 4 '70-'71 5 •69-'70 6 '68-'69 7 '67-'68 8 Before '67 9 10 3 When attended night school most recently: never 0 Sept. '74 1 '73-'74 2 '72-'73 3 128 Column Question Code '71-'72 4 '70-'71 5 '69-'70 6 '68-'69 7 •67-'68 8 before '67 9 11 4 Attended other institutions before: yes 1 no 2 12 5 Which institutions: no response 0 none 1 church 2 T 3 vocation related 4 private -interested related 5 community centre 6 13 5 When attended for first time: never 0 Sept.'74 1 '73-'74 2 '72-'73 3 •71-'72 4 '70-'71 5 '69-'70 6 '68-'69 7 '67-'68 8 before '67 9 14 5 When attended most recently: never 0 Sept. '74 1 '73-'74 2 '73-'74Column Question 129 Code '72-'73 3 '71-'72 4 '70-'71 5 '69-'70 .6 '68-'59 7 •67-'68 8 before '67 9 15 3 & 5 Total number of courses taken: as listed 0-8 9 and more 9 16 6 Children attending Tupper now: yes 1 no 2 17 7 Children attended Tupper before: yes 1 no 2 18 8 Children will be attending Tupper: yes 1 no 2 19 9 Address - Living in Tupper area - no response 0 Census Tracts 19,30,32,33, 37,38 Tupper area 1 West of T. area 2 East of T. area 3 South of T. area 4 North of T. area 5 20 9 Number of blocks from Tupper school: no response 00 21 01-98 99 and over 99 22 10 Length of occupancy in present home: no response 00 (01 includes up to 1 year) 01-99 130 Column Question Code 24 10 Length of occupancy in present home: no response 00 less than 1 year 1 1-2 years 2 3-5 years 3 6-10 years 4 over 10 years 5 25 11 Years living in Vancouver: no response 00 26 01-99 27 11 Years living in Vancouver: no response 0 less than 1 year 1 1-2 years 2 3-5 years 3 6-10 years 4 over 10 years 5 28 12 Years in Canada: no response 00 29 01-99 30 12 Years in Canada: no response 0 less than 1 year 1 1-2 years 2 3-5 years 3 6-10 years 4 over 10 years 5 31 13 Age: no response 00 32 years 01-99 33 13 Age: no response 0 20-29 years 1 30-39 years 2 40-49 years 3 50 year & over 4 131 Column Question Code 34 14 Where born: no response 0 inside Canada 1 outside Canada 2 35 14 Immigration: no response 0 didn't immigr. 1 immigr. before '45 2 immigr. after '45 3 36 14 Place of birth: no response 0 Canada 1 Br.Isles,U.S., N.Z. 2 Netherlands (2) 3 Switzerland (1) Germany (1) Italy (1) Czech. (1) 4 Hungary (1) Yugoslavia (1) China (6) 5 Hong Kong (4) India (2) 6 Uganda (1) 7 Phillipines (2) 8 Other-Korea Venezuela (1) 9 37 15 Language spoken at home: no response 0 English 1 Other 2 38 16 Sex: no response 0 male 2 female132 Column Question 39 17 Marital status: 40 18 Work for salary: 41 19 Occupation: (as per census tract categories) 42 19 Occupational status: 43 20 How learn about Tupper night school: Code no response 0 married 1 single 2 no response 0 work full time 1 work part time 2 don't work 3 no response 0 managerial 1 teaching 2 medicine & health 3 engineering & math 4 (includes social sc., religion, arts & recreation) product fabri cation 5 service 6 s housewives 7 clerical & sales 8 student 9 no response 0 prof., tech. 1 managerial 2 clerical, sales 3 unskilled 4 skilled 5 housewife,student, retired 6 others 7 Sun or Province 1 Mt. Pleasant Mouthpiece 2 Column Question 133 Code yellow flyer 3 TCAP flyer 4 inquiry to school board 5 friend 6 44 21 Travelling time in minutes: no response 0 45 01-98 99 & over 99 46 21 Travelling time: no response 0 1-9 minutes 1 10-19 minutes 2 20-29 minutes 3 30-39 minutes 4 40 minutes & over 5 47 22 Mode of travel no response 0 car 1 bus 2 walk 3 48 23 Last grade completed no response 0 (Since question asked about school, information grade 7 1 about university is ambiguous, hence use grade 8 2 grade 12 as cut off) grade 9 3 grade 10 4 grade 11 5 grade 12 6 Column Question 134 Code 49 23 24 50 25 Level of education *Due to small number completing grades 9,10, without or with additional training, these categories were put together, as were grade 11 and grade 11 with training **(training includes courses taken at licensed secretarial or vocational schools) Number of meetings and club activities no response 0 less than gr.9 1 *grades 9,10. grades 9,10 with training** 2 grade 11 grade 11 with training 4 grades 12, 13 6 grades 12,13 with training 7 some univer. 8 univ. degree 9 none 0 one 1 two 2 three-six 3 seven & over 4 APPENDIX F 135 136 CATEGORIES OF OCCUPATIONS1 AND DESIGNATION OF PARTICIPANTS ENGINEERING - includes occupations in Natural Sciences, Mathematics, Religion, as well as artistic and literary related occupations. TEACHING HEALTH CLERK, SALES Architect Clergyman Draftsman Engineer Elementary School Professor Teacher Commercial Artist Graphic Artist Research Analyst Structural Designer reacher Dental Assistant Dental Receptionist Dietician Laboratory Technician Accounting Bank Teller Bank Clerk Department Manager Data Processing Food Checker Immigration Enforcement Legal Secretary Library Clerk Office Worker Medical:Receptionist Physiotherapist Practical Nurse Registered Nurse Manpower Partsman Purchasing Assistant Salesman Secretary Stenographer Statistics Store Clerk" Switchboard Operator Typist PRODUCT FABRICATION SERVICE 1 Classified Blis hen's includes occupations related to Farming, Fishing, Hunting, Forestry, Logging, Mining, Oil and Gas Field Work, Processing, Machining, Repairing, Construction Trades. Appliance Repair Auto Body Work Photography Processing Cannery includes Transportation, Bus Driver Cook Cook's Helper Day Care Worker Hair Stylist Cable Splicer Construction Electrical Technician Technician Hospital Worker Housekeeper Janitor Restaurant Truck Driver Waitress according Scale. to Census Tract Data, and ranked in accordance with 

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